Skip to main content

Full text of "The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States and Canada for ornament, for fancy, for fruit and for vegetables; with keys to the natural families and genera, descriptions of the horticultural capabilities of the states and provinces and dependent islands, and sketches of eminent horticulturists"

See other formats




of the pumpkins and squashes, see De Candolle, Origin 
of Cultivated Plants; Gray and Trumbull, Amer. Journ. 
Sci. 25:372; Sturtevant, Amer. Nat. 1890:727; Witt- 
mack, Ber. der Deutschen Bot. Gesell. 6:378 (1888). 

1136. Stem of Cucurbita moschata. 
Large Cheese pumpkin 

1134. Cucurbita Pepo var. ovifera. 

Var. condensa, Bailey. BUSH 
compact, little or not at all run- 
ning. Of horticultural origin. 
Var. ovifera, Bailey (C. ovifera, Linn.). GOURD. Fig. 
1134. Plant slender, running: Ivs. smaller than in C. 
Pepo, usually very prominently lobed: fr. small, hard 
and inedible, egg-shaped, globular, pear-shaped, oblate, 
often striped. R.H. 1894:429. Sold in many vars. by 
seedsmen, under the names of C. Pepo vars. pyrifor- 
mis, depressa, annulata, etc. See Gourd. 

moschata, Duchesne (C. melowe- 
formis, Carr.). GUSH AW. CHINA, 
1135-37. Annual: 
long-running, less 
prickly and some- 
times soft-hairy: 
Ivs. more rounded 

than those of C. ^Z^'-A 113S - Cucurbita 
Pepo, but lobed, * afWfii < moschata. 

often grayish: fl. 
with a widening 
tube, and large, erect lobes; calyx-lobes large, often 
If .-like; peduncle becoming deeply ridged and much 
enlarged next the fr. Possibly of E. Asian origin. 

BB. Lvs. not lobed (except sometimes on young shoots): 

stalks of frs. not prominently ridged. 
maxima, Duchesne. SQUASH. Figs. 1138-41. Annual: 
long-running, the sts. nearly cylindrical, little prickly 
and often hairy: Ivs. orbicular or kidney-shaped, com- 
monly not lobed, the basal sinus wide or narrow, 
the margin shallqwly apiculate-sinuate : corolla-tube 
nearly the same diam. at top and bottom (Figs. 1139, 
1140), the corolla-lobes large and soft, and wide-spread- 
ing or drooping : peduncle at maturity soft and spongy, 
not ridged nor prominently enlarged next the fr. : fr. very 
various, but not light yellow nor warty nor crookneck- 
shaped, usually late-ripening, the flesh orange and 
not stringy. Nativity undetermined. Var. sylvestris, 
Naudin. A form found wild in the Himalayan region, 
with fr. as large as a man's head. 

AA. Plant with perennial root. 

foetidissima, Kunth (C. perennis, Gray. Ciicumis 
perennis, James). CALABAZILLA. Fig. 1142. Perennial: 
long-running, scarcely prickly: Ivs. large, cordate- 

triangular, grayish pubescent, the margin shallowly 

apiculate-crenate : fl. nearly as large as in C. Pepo and 

similar in shape, the pistillate on a peduncle 2-3 in. 

long: fr. size and shape of an orange, smooth, green and 

yellow splashed, not edible. Sandy arid wastes, Neb. 

and Colo, to Texas and Mex. and westward to Calif. 

R.H. 1855:61; 1857, p. 54. In its native haunts, the 

root is tuberous, 4-7 in. diam. and penetrating the 

earth 4-6 ft. Roots 

at the joints. The (J) 

plant has a fetid ,'/// 

odor. Sold by 

seedsmen as a 

gourd, but the fr. 

does not often ripen 

in the northern 

states. Useful on 

arbors and small 

trees, when coarse 

vines are wanted. 

ficifolia, Bouche 
(C. melanosperma, 
A. Br.). St. very 
long, stout, becoming somewhat woody: Ivs. pale 
green, often marbled, in outline ovate or suborbicular, 
cordate at base, roundly 5-lobed and the sinus rounded : 
calyx-tube short and campanulate: fr. large (often 1 
ft. long), fleshy, round-ovoid, white-striped, the flesh 
white; seeds ovate, black. E. Asia, but widely cult. 
in warm countries for its ornamental watermelon-like 
frs. A var. mexicana, Hort. (C. mexicana, Spreng.), 
is mentioned, with seeds twice the size of those of the 
type, and said to grow wild in the neighborhood of 
Mazatlan, Mex. 

C. Andreana, Naudin. Allied to C. moschata: sts. long and root- 
ing at the nodes: Ivs. large, marbled with white: fls. of the form of 
those of C. maxima but much smaller: fr. obovoid, 8 in. long, 
marked with white and yellow. Uruguay. R.H. 1896, pp. 542-3. 

C. californica, Torr. 
Canes cent: Ivs. 
thick, 2 in. across, 
5-lobed, the lobes 
triangular and mu- 
cronate: ten drila 
parted to the base: 
fls. 1 in. or more 
long on pedicels 
J-i-1 in. long. Calif.; 

imperfectly known. C. digitata, Gray. Perennial, the root fleshy: 
sts. slender and long, usually rooting: tendrils short and weak, 
3-5-cleft: Ivs. scabrous, 3-5-palmately narrow-lobed: fls. 2-3 in. 
long on slender pedicels 1-4 in. long: fr. subglobose, yellow, 2-4 
in. diam. Calif, to New Mex. C. palmata, Wats. MOCK ORANGE. 
Canescent: Ivs. cordate, thick, 2 or 3 in. across, palmately 5-cleft 
to middle with narrow toothed lobes: fls. 3 in. long on stout 
peduncles: fr. globose, 3 in. diam. S. Calif. L H B 

CUDRANIA (derivation unknown) . Moracese. Woody 

subjects cultivated for their foliage and as hedge plants. 

Deciduous trees or shrubs, often thorny, with alter- 

1137. Fruit of Cucurbita moschata Tonasu, a Japanese variety. 




nate, petioled and stipulate Ivs.: fls. dioecious, in axil- 
lary globular heads; staminate with 4 sepals and 4 
stamens and 2-4 bracts at the base; pistillate with 4 
sepals inclosing the 1-ovuled ovary, growing into a 
fleshy subglobose fr. with a crustaceous rind. About 
3 species, in S. and E. Asia and Trop. Austral., of which 
only one is sometimes cult. It re- 
quires protection in the N. and is 
usually prop, by greenwood cuttings 
in summer under glass. 

tricuspidata, Bureau (Madura tri- 
cuspiddta, Carr. C. triloba, Hance). 
Shrub, or small tree, to 20, rarely to 
60 ft., with slender, thorny branches: 
Ivs. elliptic-ovate, acuminate, entire, 
sometimes 3-lobed at the apex and 
on young plants even tricuspidate, 
nearly glabrous, 1^-3 in. long: fl.- 
heads axillary, solitary or in 2's, on short peduncles: fr. 
globose, about 1 in. across. China. R.H. 1864, p. 390: 
1872, p. 56; 1905, p. 363 (habit). H.I. 18:1792. 
Recently recommended as an excellent hedge-plant for 
the S. In China the Ivs. are used as a substitute for 
mulberry Ivs. and it is called silkworm thorn; the fr. is 
edible. Between this species and Madura pomifera, a 
hybrid has been raised, described as Madudrania 
hybrida, Andre". R.H. 1905:362. ALFRED REHDER. 

CULINARY HERBS are those herbs used for 
flavoring in cookery, but the term has a wide applica- 
tion, including species used for garnishing and some- 
times as potherbs. The culinary herbs are of very minor 
importance in American gardens, and yet a few of them, 
as anise, caraway and coriander, are well and favorably 
known. The species are mostly aromatic. They are 
largely of the Umbellifera3 and Labiatae. No special 

Basil (Ocymum basilicum). Labiatx. Annual. Uses: As flavor in 

highly seasoned dishes; oil as perfumery. Propagated by seeds. 

Borage (Borago officinalis). Boraginacex. Annual. Uses: Herbage 

as potherb and salad; garniah; flavor in beverages. Propagated 

by seeds in spring. 

Caraway (Carum Carvi). UmbeUiferse. Biennial or annual. Uses- 
Herbage eaten cooked or as salad; roots as vegetable; seeds for 

flavoring; oil in manufac- 
ture of perfumery and 
soaps. Propagated by seeds 
in May or early June. 

1139. Staminate flower of 1140. Pistillate flower of 

Cucurbita maxima Hubbard Cucurbita maxima Hubbard 
squash. (XJi) squash. (X 1 A) 

difficulty attaches to their cultivation, and little more 
may be said here than to present an alphabetical list 
with statements as to uses, duration of plant, and means 
of propagation. They all thrive in mellow fertile 
garden land. Usually they are grown at the side of 
the main garden plantation, and they may add a 
certain charm to the garden as well as to supply an 
agreeable aroma to the kitchen products. See the little 
book on "Culinary Herbs" by M. G. Kains, 1912. 

Angelica (A rchangelica officinalis). Umbelliferx. Biennial or peren- 
nial. Uses: Stems and leaf-stalks as salad, or roasted like pota- 
toes; garnish; as "candied angelica;" stems blanched and used 
as vegetable; leaves as spinach; seeds for flavoring; oil of angelica 
obtained from seeds for flavoring. Propagated by seeds in 
late summer or early autumn. 

Anise (Pimpinella Anisum). Umbelliferx. Annual. Uses: Leaves 
as garnish, flavoring, and potherb; seeds and oil for flavoring 
and perfumery. Propagated by seeds in early spring. 

Balm (Melissa officinalis). Labiatx. Perennial. Uses: Foliage for 
flavoring and salad; oil for perfumery and flavoring beverages. 
Propagated by divisions, layers, cuttings and seeds. 

1138. Cucurbita maxima. 

Catnip or catmint (Nepeta Calaria). Labiatx. Perennial. Uses: 
As bee forage; leaves as condiment; formerly a medicinal 
remedy. Propagated by seeds in autumn or spring. 

Chervil (AnthriscusCerefolium). Umbelliferx. Annual. Uses: Leaves 
for seasoning and for mixed salads. Propagated by seeds. 

Chives (Allium Schcenoprasum). Liliacex. Perennial. Uses: 
Leaves for flavoring. Propagated by individual bulbs or division 
of clumps in early spring. 

Clary (Sahia Sclarea). Labiatx. Perennial. Uses: Leaves in cook- 
ery; wine made from plant when in flower. Propagated by seeds 
in spring. 

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum). Umbelliferx. Annual. Uses: 
Seed in confectionary and as ingredient in condiments; flavor 
in beverages. Propagated by seeds in spring or autumn. 

Cumin (Cuminum odorum). Umbelliferx. Annual. Uses: Seeds 
as ingredient in curry powder; for flavoring pickles, pastry and 
soupa. Propagated by seeds in spring. 

Dill (Anethum graveolens). Umbelliferx. Annual. Uses: Seed as 
seasoning, extensively for commercial pickles; oil for perfuming 
soap; young leaves as seasoning and salads; dill vinegar as condi- 
ment. Propagated by seeds in spring. 

Fennel (Faeniculum vulgare). Umbelliferx. Biennial or perennial. 
Uses: Herbage as garnishes and flavors; as salads; seeds for 
flavoring beverages, and for confectionary; oil as perfumery. 
Propagated by seeds, and grown as an annual. 

Finocchio or Florence fennel (Faeniculum dulce). Umbelliferx. 
Annual. Uses: As a vegetable. Propagated by seeds. 

Fennel Flower (Nigetta saliva). Ranunculacex. Annual. Uses: 
Whole plant or seed used in cookery. Propagated by seeds in 

Hoarhound, or horehound (Marrubium vulgare). Labiatx. Peren- 
nial. Uses: Formerly in cookery and medicine; now for candy 
only. Propagated by seeds in spring. 

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis). Labiatx. Perennial. Uses: Herbage 
in salads ; oil in preparation of soaps, etc. Propagated by divisions, 
cuttings and seeds in spring. 

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia, L. 
Spica). Labiatx. Perennial. Uses: 
Flowers and oil in perfumery; some- 
times as condiment and in salads. 
Propagated by divisions or cuttings, 
or rarely seeds. 

Lovage (Levisticum officinale). Umbelli- 
ferx. Perennial." Uses: Young stems 
in confectionary. Propagated by 
division or seeds in late summer. 

Marigold (Calendula officinalis). Com- 
positx. Annual. Uses: Flower- 
neads as seasoning; fresh flowers to 
color butter. Propagated by seeds 
in spring. 

Marjoram (Origanum vulgare and O. 
Marjoram). Labiatx. Perennial (O. 
Marjoram treated as annual). Uses: 
Herbage for seasoning; oil in per- 
fuming soaps, etc. Propagated by 
cuttings, division or layers and seeds in spring. 

Mint (Mentha spicata). Labiatx. Perennial. Uses: Herbage as 
seasoning; leaves in jelly. Propagated by cuttings, offsets and 
divisions in spring. 

Parsley (Petroselinum hortense). Umbelliferx. Biennial. Uses: 
Roots as vegetable; top as potherb; leaves for seasoning and 
garnish. Propagated by seeds in spring. 

Pennyroyal (Mentha Pulegium). Labiatx. Perennial. Uses: Leaves 
as seasoning; pennyroyal oil. Propagated by division, or rarely 

Peppermint (Mentha piperita). Labiatx. Perennial. Uses: Oil 
as flavoring; perfume in soaps, etc. Propagated by division or 
running rootstocks. 

1141. Stem of Cucur- 
bita tnmrima Hubbard 

Acr-M n, 








XXI. Cherry. Specimen fruits of one of the heart cherries 






Illustrated with Colored Plates, Four Thousand Engravings in the Text, 
and Ninety-six Full-page Cuts 



PAGES 603-1200. FIGS. 701-1470 




The rights of reproduction and of translation are strictly reserved 




Set Up and Electrotyped. Published July 22, 1914 
Heprinted May, 1917; March, 1919 

peasant Press 



Facing page 

XXI. Cherry. Specimen fruits of one of the heart cherries (in color) Frontispiece 

XXII. Carnations. Types of the American winter-flowering varieties . . . 630 

XXIII. Cattleya Lawrenceana . . . . . . . . . . 686 

XXIV. Codogyne cristata, one of the popular and easily grown orchids . . .710 

XXV. Celery .--The cultivation under field conditions, at the hilling-up or banking 

stage (in color) . ... . . . . . . 724 

XXVI. Sweet cherry in flower and fruit . . ., . . . .741 

XXVII. Coconut in flower and fruit. Southern Florida. (Fla. Photo. Concern) . 773 

XXVIII. Stowell Evergreen sweet corn 803 

XXIX. Cranberry -picking in a New Jersey bog. (Photo, by Elizabeth C. White) . 832 

XXX. Chrysanthemum. Two of the florist's types (in color) .... 861 

XXXI. The White Spine cucumber 901 

XXXII. The Fay currant, one of the leading red varieties ..... 917 

XXXIII. Cycas circinalis, the male plant. (Photograph by Henry Pittier) . . 931 

XXXIV. Dahlia. Jeanne Charmet, one of the most beautiful Decorative dahlias 

(in color) . . . . .953 

XXXV. Dendrobium superbum as grown in the American tropics .... 978 

XXXVI. A border of dianthus and digitalis . . ... 1009 

XXXVII. Draccena Goldieana, a "foliage plant" from tropical Africa .... 1069 

XXXVIII. The California poppy. Eschscholtzia calif ornica ..... 1120 

XXXIX. Eucalyptus viminalis in California ........ 1148 


/ i i ^ 

CABBAGE. The more or less compact leaf-formed 
head of Brassica oleracea; also applied, with designa- 
tions, to related forms of the same species, as Welsh 
cabbage, tree cabbage. Closely related plants are the 
kales (Fig. 706), collards, Brussels 
sprouts, cauliflower. See Brassica. 

The Chinese cabbage of this country 
is a wholly different species from the 
common cabbages. It does not form a 
compact and rounded head, but a more 
or less open and soft mass of leaves, 
after the manner of Cos lettuce. It is of 
easy culture, but must be grown in the 
cool season, for it runs quickly to seed 
in hot and dry weather. 

The culture of the cabbage antedates 
reliable historical record. Writers of 
Pliny's time or before refer to variations 
in growth and character which must 
have resulted from selections and culti- 
vation for many generations, under 
conditions very different from those 
which seem to be the natural 
habitat of the plant on the com- 
paratively barren chalk cliffs of 
England, and in similar locations 
in Europe. 

It is indeed hard to realize that 
the scrawny and somewhat starved- 
looking plant shown in Fig. 628 
(Vol. I) could be the ancestral 
origin of such corpulent, overfed 
individuals as are shown in Figs. 
701 to 704. Such a change in habit 
of growth can be accounted for 
only by the plant's possession of ex- 
ceptional capacity for using the 
more abundant food-supply fur- 
nished by cultivation for many 
generations, and the storing of it in 
a way that makes it available for 
man's use rather than for the mere 
perpetuation and multiplication of 
the parent plants. 

701, Conical form of cabbage 
Jersey Wakefield. 

702. Round-headed type of cabbage. 

Characteristics of the plant and req- 
uisites for best development. 

The cabbage is classed by bota- 
nists as a slow-growing bi-annual, 
and has three distinct periods of 
life: First, the more or less 
rapid growth of leaf and plant. 
Second, a more or less distinct 
resting period during which the 
formation of embryonic blos- 
soms is started. Third, the 
growth and development of the 
flower and seed. The culti- 
vated cabbages retain very per- 
sistently these distinct growing 
periods, but have added what 
might be classed as another, 
that of head-formation, which 
is in reality simply a distinct 
division of the first. This ad- 
ditional head-forming period, 
although essential to the plant's 
value as a cultivated vegetable, 


is not at all necessary for the growth and perpetuation 
of the plant, which, when it has been held in check by 
long-continued severe frost or drought, will often 
revert to the original order of growth and pass directly 
from the growing to the seeding stages 
with no attempt at head-formation. 

Cultivated cabbage thrives best in a 
moist and comparatively cool climate, 
and will not reach its best and rarely a 
satisfactory or profitable development in 
a hot dry one, nor where there are likely 
to be even occasional days of high tem- 
perature or hot dry winds. Even if 
there is abundant moisture in the soil, 
a few hot dry days, such as corn and 
tomato plants would delight in, will 
often not only check but permanently 
prevent any vigorous or profitable 
growth. This sensitiveness to over-heat 
is most pronounced during the second or 
unnatural period of growth, and the 
least so during the first. Young 
plants will often thrive in tempera- 
tures in which it would be quite 
impossible to induce older ones to 
form a solid head. Excessive heat 
is quite as injurious, and often more 
so, than freezing, but the latter is 
especially injurious to the younger 
plants, particularly if they are grow- 
ing rapidly, the older ones being 
little injured by frost which would 
kill rapid-growing seedlings. One 
notable effect of exposure of young 
plants to severe or long-continued 
low temperature is that it takes the 
place of the resting period, and thus 
cuts out the second or head-form- 
ing period, so that the plant, as 
soon as established in the field, be- 
gins to shoot to seed without form- 
ing any head. The degree to which 
the plant suffers from unfavorable 
temperature seems to vary not only 
with different varieties but in differ- 
ent locations. In the Puget Sound 
country, cabbage plants are often 
killed by exposure to low tempera- 
tures, which those of the same 
variety and age growing in similar 
soil and exposure on Long 
Island would endure with little 
apparent injury. In the United 
States, favorable climatic con- 
ditions are most likely to occur 
in succession during the winter, 
spring and fall months, as one 
moves northeast along the 
Gulf and Atlantic coasts, or in 
the West along the coast north 
from Portland, Oregon, and 
in isolated sections south of 
that point. Some of the finest 
cabbages ever produced in 
America have been grown at 
points on the Pacific coast as 
far south as Los Angeles, Cali- 
704. A modem cabbage plant in head Early Flat Dutch, f ornia. There are also locations, 




70S. Section of cabbage 
head, showing the thickened 
rachis and leaf-stalks, and the 
buds in the axils. 

especiallv' ip" JSTew York; OKic, Indiana, Michigan and 
Wisconsin, near the Greai takes, or where smaller but 
deep .inland, lakes, abound, in -tfhich cabbage does 
excerrtiou&Uj' weli, fcutrgenej-aljy , jn -common with most 
cruciferous' plants',' they 'dtf better hear the sea, in such 
locations as the Eastern 
Shore of Maryland, Long 
Island and Puget Sound 
regions, than in the interior 
or on the borders of even 
very large bodies of fresh 

As the plant is a native 
of the temperate zone, and 
thrives best in it, and cannot 
long endure high tempera- 
tures, one does not think 
of it as particularly sun- 
loving; but there are few 
garden plants to which abun- 
dant sunlight is more essen- 
tial and shade more detri- 
mental than the cabbage. 
In its native habitat, the 
plants are found growing alone or in small open groups 
where they are fully exposed to the sun. Similar condi- 
tions are essential to its best development under culti- 
vation so that it can rarely be profitably grown in the 
shade or in crowded groups or rows, and "shooting to 
seed" or other failure to form a head is often due to 
the crowding of the seedlings in the seed-row. 

The cabbage is one of the grossest and least fastidi- 
ous feeders of cultivated plants, and while an abun- 
dance of easily accessible food is essential for its profit- 
able culture, it is less particular than most plants 
as to its proportions and physical condition, if only it 
has an abundance. Large crops of the best quality 
are often produced by the use of fresh green and uncom- 
posted manures in almost Limitless quantities. Some 
growers object to the use of manure from hog-pens, 
yet some of the largest, healthiest and best crops ever 
seen have been grown by the liberal use of hog manure. 
Strange as it may seem, abundant fertilization hastens 
rather than retards the plant reaching marketable 

The plant is more particular as to its water-supply 
than its food-supply, and suffers even more quickly 
than most vegetables from a lack of sufficient moisture 
in the air or soil. On the other hand, it cannot long 
endure an excess, particularly in the soil, and soon 
succumbs to wet feet. A well-drained soil which at the 
same time is fairly retentive of moisture is essential 
to profitable cabbage-culture. 

Even more than with most garden vegetables, the 
physical condition of the soil is a most important factor 
in determining the development of the cabbage. Large 
and often very profitable crops may be grown on soils 
which would be classed as clay, loam, gravel, sand or 
muck, provided they are rich and friable, but seldom 
a large, or profitable crop can be grown on even a 
very fertile soil which after rains quickly hardens and 
bakes so as to be impervious to air. Permanent fria- 
bility rather than superior fertility makes some soils ex- 
ceedingly profitable for cabbage, while it is difficult and 
often impossible to grow a paying crop on others which 
are even richer and better watered, but which are liable 
o cake ^after every rain. This is especially true of 
some soils that are generally classed as a very rich 
clay or muck. Permanent friability is the most essen- 
tial quality for profitable cabbage-culture, and the want 
it the most common cause of failure to grow a 
profitable crop. 

Varieties of cabbage. Figs. 701-704, 707. 
Few vegetables show a wider range of variation, 
e are sorts that can be grown to edible maturity 

-on a square foot and in 90 to 120 days from the seed, 
while others can hardly be crowded into a square yard 
or reach prime edible maturity in less than 200 days; 
sorts so short-stemmed that the flat head seems to rest 
on the ground, others in which the globular head 
crowns a stalk 16 to 20 inches long; kinds in which the 
leaves are long, round, or broad, smooth, or savoyed, 
light yellowish green, dark green or so dark red as to 
seem black, with surfaces which are glazed, smooth, or 
covered with thick bloom. There are many early- 
maturing kinds, each having characteristics adapting 
them for different cultural conditions and uses, that 
will, in fertile soil and a temperature between 60 and 
80 by day, and never below 40 at night, form salable 
heads in 90 to 110 or 120 days from the germina- 
tion of the seed; others that mature in mid-season; 
still others that grow the entire season and increase 
in solidity even while stored for winter. 

American seedsmen offer cabbage seed under over 
500 more or less distinct varietal names, a large propor- 
tion of which stand for different stocks rather than 
for distinct varietal forms: here only the most dis- 
tinct types and the most commonly used names are 

Early York, Elampes, Large York, etc. Very compact, upright- 
growing smooth-leaved sorts which are comparatively tender to 
both heat and cold, and form vertically oval comparatively soft 
heads of excellent quality, but better suited to European than 
American climatic conditions and market requirements. 

Early Jersey, Large Wakefield, Winnigstadt, etc. Compact- 

f rowing, very sure-heading sorts which are very hardy to both 
eat and cold and form comparatively small, but closely wrapped 
hard sharply conical heads which are of attractive appearance, 
but not of the best quality. Well suited to the general soil and cli- 
matic conditions and very popular in America. 

Enkhuizen Glory, Early Summer, Fottler's Drumhead, etc. 
Second-early sorts, forming small compact to large spreading short- 
stemmed plants, and nearly round to distinctly flat heads which 
mature quickly, are of good quality but not well adapted for distant 
shipment or winter storage. 

Flat Dutch, Drumhead, Ballhead or Hollander, etc. Large 
spreading comparatively slow-growing plants, forming round to 
oval hard heads, having the leaves very closely wrapped and over- 
lapping in the center. They are generally good keepers, often 
improving not only in solidity but in quality during storage. 

Savoys. A class in which the leaves of both plant and head are 
crumpled or savoyed instead of smooth as in the preceding. There 
are varieties of all the forms of smooth-leaved sorts. The plants 
are hardy, butsare slow to form heads, which are likely to be small 

706. Curled kale. Brassica oleracea var. acephala. 

and more or less open or loose-centered, but they are of superior 
flavor, and this class is worthy of more general cultivation in the 
home-garden and for local market. 

Red cabbage. A class of which there are many varietal forms, 
and in which the plants and heads vary from purple shaded green 
to deep red. The heads are generally small, but very solid and 
are especially suited for use as "cold slaw." 

Portugal Sea-Kale, Tronchuda or Chinese cabbage. These 
are distinct classes and species of cabbage, intermediate in char- 
acter between the more common sorts and the more distant kales. 
They have never become generally popular in America, though 
they are rather largely grown and used by the Asiatics, particularly 
on the Pacific coast. The sea-kale cabbage is not to be confounded 
with sea-kale, which is a very different plant. 




These are but a few of the almost limitless, more or 
less distinct variations offered by seedsmen, yet each 
of them was thought by someone to be superior in 
some location, under some conditions, or for some 
purpose. The general recognition of the value of each 
variation, and the consequent popularity of the sorts 
in which the variation is best developed, are constantly 
changing, partly because of local conditions of climate, 
but more largely because of changes in transportation 
and market facilities and conditions. 

Cultural methods. 

Ideal climatic conditions are found only in very 
limited areas, and the common cultural practice in 
each locality is largely shaped by the degree to which 
local conditions approach them. In the country north 
of Washington in which a well-lighted and heated 
greenhouse and experienced help are available, the 
simplest method, and one by which the very best of 
early cabbage can be grown, is to plant the seed in flats 
some sixty to ninety days before danger of killing by 
frost is past, and as soon as the central bud or leaves 
appear (which should be in ten to fourteen days) to 
"prick out" the plants, setting them 2 to 4 inches 
apart in other flats, according to the relative impor- 
tance in that particular culture of earliness and cost 
of production. The house should be given abundant 
ventilation, and temperatures exceeding 70 or 85 by 
day and 50 or 60 at night carefully avoided. Often it 
will be found very advantageous, as soon as the plants 
are well established, to remove them to well-lighted 
coldframes. These should be carefully tended in order 
to give all the air possible, and to avoid over-heating by 
the sun or falling below 35 at night, and the plants 
transferred to the open ground as early as this can be 
done without danger from killing frosts. Some very 
successful growers plant seed in well-protected cold- 
frames so as to secure a thin, even stand, and by careful 
attention secure a slow but steady growth through the 
winter, and the seedlings are first transplanted to the 
open ground as soon as danger from killing frosts is 
over. A common practice from Philadelphia or Balti- 
more southward is to sow the seed in the fall in care- 
fully prepared beds in sheltered locations, and, as soon 
as the plants are large enough, to transplant them to 
flat-topped ridges about 30 to 36 inches from center to 
center and as high as can be formed by two or three 
back-furrows. These ridges usually are run east to 
west and the plants are set on the south, the north or the 
top, or sometimes in the furrow between them, depend- 
ing upon the judgment of the planter as to which loca- 
tion will give the best result on that particular farm 
and exposure and in that particular season, as some- 
times one and sometimes another location gives the best 
results. In some sections and often only on certain 
farms of a section this method gives large very early- 
maturing and profitable crops, while in different fields, 
even on the same farm, a large proportion of the 
plants so handled will be killed by frost or will shoot 
to seed without heading. In certain locations, notably 
in the vicinity of Charleston, South Carolina, cabbage- 
plant farms have been established, from which plants 
in prime condition for setting in the field can be 
secured by the million. The location and exposure, and 
the character of the soil of the most successful of these 
farms is such that the plants are rarely killed or seri- 
ously checked by frost, but make a constant but slow 
growth all winter and can be pulled at any time so as to 
retain abundant root and vigor and be safely shipped 
long distances. The seed is sown and the plant-beds 
treated much as one would treat a bed of onions for 
sets or pickles, except that in many cases the rows are 
as close as 3 inches and the bed receives little or no 
cultivation after the seed is planted. 

Objections that are sometimes well founded to 
plants from such farms are, that they are slow "taking 

hold" and a large proportion of them "shoot to seed" 
without heading, or the heads are small and of poor 
quality; but such failures often come from the use by 
the plant-raiser of cheap and inferior seed, or from the 
crowded rows and careless handling, or from the 
farmer sending for and setting the plants too early, or 
from holding them too long before setting. Some 
plant-raisers take pains to advertise that they do not 
guarantee plants shipped by them before December 
1 to give satisfactory results (though they often do), 
but that they are willing to guarantee that plants 
shipped by them from December 1 to April 1 will, 
in suitable soil and exposure and with good cultivation, 
produce full crops of marketable cabbage. Most 
farmers who use 20,000 to 30,000 plants could grow 
on their own farms as good plants or better than 
they could buy from even the best and most reliable 
growers, and often at materially less cost; but it is 

707. Cabbage shapes: Flat; round or ball; egg-shaped; 
oval; conical. 

questionable whether many of them would do so, and 
it is not surprising that the practice of buying plants, 
particularly when earliness in market maturity is 
desirable, is rapidly extending. 

The best distance between plants will depend not 
only upon the variety used but upon the character of 
the soil, kind of labor available and the condition and 
way in which the crop is to be marketed. Such small 
upright-growing sorts as Early York, Etampes, or true 
Jersey Wakefield, which are to be marketed when 
still quite soft, can be well grown set as close as 6 or 8 
by 18 to 24 inches, requiring 20,000 to 30,000 plants to 
the acre; but in America such close planting necessi- 
tates so much hand labor that it is seldom profitable, 
and 8 to 12 by 28 to 30 or 36 inches, requiring from 
8,000 to 15,000 or 20,000 plants to the acre, is usually 
found the more profitable distance. 

The best method of setting, whether by hand, hand- 
planters, or machine, will be determined by local con- 
ditions. The plants should "take hold" in two to 
four days and start into vigorous growth in ten 
days to three weeks, the time depending upon the con- 
dition of the plants, and the way they are handled, 
quite as much as upon the weather. After active growth 
has commenced, it should continue at a constantly 
accelerated rate until the head begins to harden, and 
although toward the last the plants may not seem to 
increase in size, the heads will gain in weight. The cab- 
bage suffers less than most vegetables from mutilation 
of the root, yet deep cultivation is undesirable because 
unnecessary. The essential thing is to prevent any- 
crusting over, and the keeping of the surface in such 
good tilth as to permit of the free aeration of the soil. 



One of the best crops of early cabbage on record 
was secured from what was regarded as naturally a 
rather unfavorable soil that was not very heavily 
fertilized, but received a shallow cultivation with a 
harrow tooth cultivator every day (except Sundays and 
on four days when the surface was so wet from rain 
that it would puddle) after the plants were set until 
the crop was in market condition. 

The time of planting for fall and winter cabbage and 
the general cultural methods most likely to give good 
results in any particular location are the same for both 
seasons, the time of maturity being determined more 
by the varietal character of the seed than by method 
of culture. The cultural practice usually followed by 
neighboring and equally successful growers is often 
radically different! One planter may always, on some 
fixed day in May or June, sow seed in flats and as soon 
as the seedlings are well started pick them out into 
other flats, and then again into a plant-bed and wait for 
a favorable day, if necessary until August, before putting 
them in the field. An equally successful neighboring 
grower may wait until as late as the last of June and 
sow thinly in well-prepared seed-beds and transplant 
from them to the field, while still another may wait 
for favorable weather even until the last of July and 
then plant seed in place as is the usual practice of some 
most successful growers. In New England, growers 
often drill the seed in place, and when the plants are 
well established chop out the superfluous ones. 

708. An outdoor method of storing cabbage. 

The weight or quantity of seed used for a given 
area varies greatly, as the size of the individual seeds 
vary, not only with different varieties but with different 
lots of the same sort. Some growers expect to get 
plants enough for an acre from less than an ounce, 
while others require two to five tunes as much, and 
those who sow in place often will use four to eight 
ounces to the acre. Superlative crops have been 
known to be grown by radically different methods, and 
very often successful growers have some peculiarity of 
practice which they deem essential to the best results, 
but which a neighboring and equally successful 
grower regards as a foolish waste of labor; but, how- 
ever the practice of successful growers may differ, there 
are some points in which they all agree. Among these 
are, the use of the best obtainable seed of some par- 
ticular variety which they have found by experience, 
or which they believe is best adapted to their condi- 
tions and is uniform in time of maturity, so that all 
the heads are in prime condition and may be gathered 
at the same time, which is an important factor in 
determining cost of production, while uniformity in 
shape, form and color are equally important in 
determining salability. The quality of the seed used, 
while not the only factor, is generally the most impor- 
tant one in determining the uniformity of product 
of any particular culture. Unchecked and constantly 
accelerated rate of growth are most important factors 
in securing the best possible development of any par- 
ticular culture. Every check, whether it come from 
overcrowding of the seedlings, careless transplanting, 
or the caking and want of friability in the surface soil, 
tends to divert the energy of the plant from the 
unnatural and excessive leaf-formation upon which 


its value as a cultivated vegetable depends to the 
more natural but less useful formation of blossoms 
and seed. Just how on any particular farm the 
most favorable conditions can be secured cannot be 
told in general cultural directions, but must be de- 
cided by the grower from his knowledge of the 
character and wants of the plant, the condition of the 
soil, and last, but by no means least, his facilities for 
controlling the conditions upon which the growth of 
the crop depends. 


This is the simplest and easiest part of cabbage- 
growing. With an easily acquired dexterity, each head 
in five or six rows can be cut, trimmed and tossed into 
a central windrow by a single well-directed stroke of a 
well-sharpened spade or heavy hoe. Occasionally, be- 
cause of some unnatural growth of the plant, or want 
of attention, a head will need retrimming, but by the 
exercise of a little care, practically all of them can be 
kept in marketable shape. From the windrows, the 
heads are gathered and loaded loose into cars, delivered 
to factories or placed in storage. Yields secured vary 
greatly, being influenced by the sort, the quality of 
the seed, the character of the soil, loss from insects and 
disease; they generally range from five to twenty tons 
to the acre. The crop is usually readily salable in the 
fall, delivered at factory or on board cars at prices 
ranging from $4, or even less, to $10 to $20 a ton. 


Cabbage greens. In 
some sections, notably 
southern Mississippi and 
Louisiana, considerable 
acreage is grown and 
marketed as cabbage 
greens. The seed is sown 
in place or the plants are 
set quite close in the row, 
and as soon as they have 
commenced active 

growth and long before they have formed a distinct 
head, they are cut and marketed much in the same 
manner as spinach or kale, but this method of culture 
and use is very limited. 

Early cabbage is generally considered marketable as 
soon as the leaves have closed into a head, even if this 
is still so soft and loose that it would be quite unmar- 
ketable later in the season. If cabbages are cut when 
soft and immature, they soon wilt and lose all crisp- 
ness and palatability; to avoid this, the earlier ship- 
ments are made in small open crates containing less 
than a score of heads, or sometimes in larger closed 
ones carrying ice, and often in refrigerator cars. Later 
in the season, as the heads become larger and harder, 
they are shipped in slat crates about 12 by 18 by 
38 inches, or in ventilated burlap-covered barrels 
holding about two and three-fourths bushels. 

Fall and winter cabbages are usually sold by the ton, 
of much more closely trimmed heads than are con- 
sidered marketable earlier in the season, and are com- 
monly shipped in open and well-ventilated cars without 
special container or packing, except as may be neces- 
sary to protect from hard freezing. Many acres are 
grown on contracts with shippers, packers of sauer- 
kraut, and the like, who contract for the delivery direct 
from the field to factory or on board cars, of the usable 
product of a certain acreage at an agreed price per ton. 
While this is sometimes a very satisfactory arrange- 
ment, many careless and incompetent growers are 
induced to contract, and their neglected crops become 
infected with disease and insects which spread to the 
fields of even the most careful growers, and the crop 
in the. vicinity of such factories and shipping-points 
soon becomes unprofitable. 





Formerly the most common practice was to let the 
plants stand until danger of hard freezing, then pulling, 
allowing the roots to retain what earth they would, 
but breaking off some of the most spreading leaves and 
crowding the plants together (with heads all up or all 

709. Cabbage in winter storage in cabbage-house. 

down and at a uniform height), with earth packed 
between them, in long shallow trenches that were 
gradually covered with sufficient coarse straw or litter 
to protect from severe freezing. A variation of this 
method is to pull, leaving what roots and earth adheres, 
and set as closely and level as possible in a shallow 
cellar not over 3 feet deep, which after filling is covered 
with a roof of boards, tarred paper and litter sufficient 
to keep out rain and frost, and high enough in the cen- 
ter to allow of handling the cabbage. It is essential to 
success with either trench or cellar that they be located 
where there is the least possible danger from standing 
water, rats and other vermin, and as well protected as 
possible from severe winds and cold. Advantages of 
this method are that heads quite too soft to be salable 
become hard and firm, and that cabbages so stored 
retain to a remarkable degree their crispness and 
flavor, and are thought by some to be even better 
than when fresh from the field; but when taken from 
the trench or cellar, they soon lose their crispness 
and will not stand shipment so well as heads which 
were trimmed before storing. A very common method 
is to cut and partially trim the heads and place in 
piles 4 to 6 feet high and broad, and of convenient 
length, built over a board-covered trench which is 
ventilated by open ends and tiles up through the cab- 
bage, the piles being gradually covered and the open- 
ings closed so as to prevent hard freezing (Fig. 708). 

In certain sections a large proportion of the cabbages 
grown for late winter and early spring market are 
trimmed and stored in bins or on shelves in frostproof 
storehouses (Fig. 709). 


Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicx). A soil parasite affecting 
cabbage and other cruciferous plants. It thrives best in acid soils 
and in some cases can be checked by a liberal use of lime, but its 
presence in any field in destructive abundance is seldom suspected 
until too late to save the crop. Planting cabbage or other crucif- 
erous crops on such a field should not be repeated for several 
years, during which it should have continued dressings of lime and 
ashes. Care should be taken to secure uncontaminated soil for 
seed-beds, and to destroy all affected plants before cattle have 
access to them, as the disease may be carried by such refuse in the 
manure from cattle who have eaten it. 

Wilt or Yellows, Black-rot, Stem-rot, Fusarium, Phoma. Infec- 
tious diseases which sometimes become so abundant in certain 
sections as to prevent the profitable culture of cabbage. They are 
all distributed by means of contaminated seed, by manure from 
cattle fed on diseased refuse, by soil carried on tools from affected 
fields; distribution in this way should be carefully avoided. All 
diseased plants should be destroyed by fire as soon as noticed. The 
soil used in the seed-beds should be sterilized by live steam or 

soaked in a weak solution of formaldehyde (one part to 260 of water). 
The seed should be soaked fifteen minutes in the weak solution of 
formaldehyde, then rinsed in clear water and immediately planted. 

Animal pests. 

Flea beetles. The securing of vigorous plants is sometimes pre- 
vented by the attacks of innumerable flea beetles, Phyllotreta, vit- 
tata. This may be prevented by surrounding the beds with frames 
made of 10- to 12-inch boards connected across the top with 2-inch 
strips and then covered with 20- to 40-thread to the inch cheese- 
cloth. This should be put on as soon as the seed is planted and 
be removed, in order to harden the plants, four to six days before 
they go to the field. 

Cut-worms. These are best guarded against by keeping the 
field perfectly clear of all vegetation for six to ten days before 
setting, then mix four quarts of bran meal or flour, one cup of molas- 
ses or sugar, and two tablespoonfuls of pans green, with water 
enough to make about the consistency of milk, and sprinkle on 
twenty to fifty times its bulk of fresh-cut grass and scatter over 
the field the night before setting the plants. 

Cabbage worm. Keep careful watch of the plants and if the 
green worms appear in abundance and seem to reach full size, 
sprinkle or spray the plants with kerosene and whale-oil soap emul- 
sion, or paris green and water in the proportion of four gallons of 
emulsion and one pound of paris green to fifty gallons of water. 
After the heads are two-thirds grown, powdered hellebore, one ounce 
to two gallons of water, should be substituted for the poisonous 
paris green mixture. 

Root-knot (Nematodes). Although seldom very destructive 
north of Philadelphia, this is often the unsuspected cause of failure 
in the South, particularly of fall crops in light lands. The only 
practical remedy is the avoidance of affected fields or sterilizing 
the soil by freezing or live steam. 

Seed-breeding and -growing. Figs. 710, 711. 

It is only through careful study of the practical value 
and correlation of varietal differences, the exercise of 
great care in selection and growing of the plants, and 
in the saving of the seed, that this or any vegetable can 
be improved or even its present good qualities main- 
tained. Under favorable conditions the plant is capable 
of producing abundant seed, a single plant having been 
known to yield thirty-five ounces, enough to plant 
25 to 40 acres, but such yields are very exceptional, 
and one-half to four ounces a plant is much more 
common. Although botanically the plant is self-fertile, 
when isolated it seldom yields much and often 
no viable seed. It transmits very persistently through 
many generations any distinct variation, but often 
without expression, although such hitherto unexpressed 
variations are apt to appear in the seed of self-fertilized 
plants, so that such seed is frequently less uniform than 
that from a field of plants of the same ancestry. At 
least one of our popular varieties is made up of the 
descendents of a single isolated plant, but it is a curious 
fact that in the second and subsequent generations 90 
per cent of the plants, although quite uniform, were 
very different in character from that of the selected 
individual from which they were descended. The 
originator of one of our best varieties maintains that it 
is essential to the production of the best seed of that 
sort that seed-plants of very different types should be 
set together, and by crossing they will produce seed 
giving plants of the desired type. In spite of these 
facts, it is thought that the practice which will give the 
best results with t ... 

other plants is \Aj/ / v i , \\/ / 

equally desir- 
able for the cab- 
bage, and that 
first a distinct 
and well-defined 
conception of 
the varietal form 
desired must be 
formed and the 
stock started 
from the plant 
or plants whose 
seed most uni- 
formly devel- 
oped into plants 710. Wild cabbage plant in seed. Chalk 
of the desired cliffs of England. 



character, rather than from those in which it was 
exceptionally well developed. Often even professional 
seed-growers have but a very vague and constantly 
changing conception of what a given variety should be. 
The greatest profit is not from the field that pro- 
duces even a good many of the most perfect speci- 
mens, but from that in which the largest proportion of 
the plants are most uniformly of the desired character. 
In order to produce seed which will give such results, 
one must first form a very clear conception of just 
what one wants in plant and head, and learn the rela- 
tion between easily noted but economically unimpor- 
tant qualities, and others not so easily seen but more 
important in determining value. Having selected a 
number of ideal plants, one should grow these either 
singly, or in groups of three or four that are nearest 
alike. Save and number the seed of each plant sepa- 
rately and plant a small sample of each number, care- 
fully noting the numbers in which the product was 
most uniformly of the desired character. From the 

reserved seed 
of the num- 
bers which 
most uni- 
formly devel- 
oped the de- 
sired form, 
one can start 
a stock for 
field plant- 
ing. It is not 
safe, how- 
ever, to rest 
there; one 
must start a 
new selection 
of the desired 
character so 
as to contin- 
ually renew 
one's stock. 
In raising 
seed, plant- 
ings should be made a little later than one would for fall 
market cabbage. As the plants develop, each lot should 
be repeatedly looked over and not only those which show 
no disposition to form a head, or one in which the 
inclosing leaves do not pass over the center, but also 
those which show any departure (even if it be of itself 
a desirable one) from the desired form, should be 
removed. The plants should be left in place until there 
is danger of the ground being closed by frost and should 
then be pulled, a few of the larger leaves removed and 
then packed into narrow trenches in sheltered and well- 
drained localities, taking pains to pack the earth closely 
about the roots and stems. Gradually, as necessary 
to prevent hard freezing, they should be covered with 
earth and with coarse litter, the aim being to keep 
them as cold as possible without actually freezing, 
and to prevent them starting into growth. As early 
in the spring as possible, they should be set for seed- 
ing, giving each plant about twice the space needed 
for market cabbage. In setting, the plants, should 
be more or less inclined, so that while the top of the 
head is but little above the surface, the roots are not 
buried in hard and cold subsoil. As they are set, the 
heads should be scarred across the top, not deep enough 
to injure the sprouting center, but so as to facilitate 
its pushing its way through the head. The seedstalks 
should not be cut until they begin to shed the seed, 
which turns black and seems ripe before it is fully mature. 
The entire plant should be cut and stored until quite 
dry, when the seed can be easily threshed, cleaned and 
spread not over ^ inch deep in full sunlight for a few 
days and then stored. 

Commercial seed-growing. Although one occasion- 

711. Cultivated cabbage in seed. 


ally sees heavily seeded plants in all parts of the United 
States, cabbage seed rarely proves a profitable crop, 
except in very limited areas along Long Island Sound, 
the eastern shores of New Jersey, Maryland and Vir- 
ginia, and in the Puget Sound region, where the yield 
commonly secured varies from 300 to 700 pounds to the 
acre, although exceptional crops sometimes reach 1,500 
to 2,000 pounds. The common method of growing does 
not vary materially from that described, except that 
very often too little care is exercised in securing stock 
seed, and it is sowed or the plants set so late that they 
fail to develop sufficiently to enable one to do very 
effective rogueing out of inferior stock. In Holland, 
seed is often raised from much better matured heads 
than are commonly used in America and which are cut 
from the root, but leaving more stem than for market 
use, and planted so that the top is level with or slightly 
below the surface. Treated in this way, they root like 
a great cutting and form loose, well-branched plants 
which are not so liable to injury from wind, and are 
said to yield more seed than would be produced if the 
entire plant was used. It is possible that this method 
might give good results in the Puget Sound region, but 
it would not in the East. w. W. TRACY. 

C ABO MB A (aboriginal name). Nymphasaceae. FAN- 
WORT. Submersed aquatics of the western hemisphere, 
used in ponds and aquaria. 

Flowers small; sepals and petals 3, persistent; sta- 
mens 3-6; carpels 3-18, separate: submerged Ivs. finely 
dissected, mostly opposite. Six species. 

carpliniana, Gray (C. aqudtica, DC., not Aubl. 
C.viridifdlia,Hort.). WASHINGTON PLANT. FISH-GRASS. 
Floating Ivs. green, oblong-linear: fls. axillary, J^in. 
broad, white, with 2 yellow spots at base of each petal; 
stamens 6. Ponds and slow streams, S. 111. to N. C., Fla. 
and Texas. A.G. 15: 157. Hardy as far north as Phila. 
if not frozen. The commonest plant for fish-globes and 
aquaria; roots easily in earth, grows well, is dense and 
bushy, and a good oxygenator; prefers water free from 
lime. Prop, by cuttings set in earth in 1-2 ft. of water 
at 55-70 F. Commonly sold for aquaria in bunches of 
6^12 shoots 8 in. long, wrapped with lead at base; 
without earth the bunch lasts 4-8 weeks, when it drops 
most of its Ivs. and must be replaced. Var. rossefdlia, 
Hort., is a form with reddish Ivs., less durable, and more 
difficult to prop. A. G. 15:157. Var. pulcherrima, 
Harper, has sts. reddish purple, Ivs. darker with nar- 
rower segms. and petals bright purple. Ga. The true 
C. aqudtica, Aubl., of Trop. Amer., with yellow fls. 
and nearly orbicular floating Ivs., is shown in B.M. 7090. 


CACALIA (ancient Greek name). Compdsitae. Peren- 
nial herbs of wide distribution, some of which are 
planted in the open for ornament. 

Flowers paniculate or corymbose, the florets all 
hermaphrodite, with white, flesh-colored, or orange, 
exclusively tubular corollas, each of the 5 lobes with a 
midnerve: achenes glabrous: Ivs. petioled, alternate. 
The genus is by some considered as a section of Senecio, 
differing in never having ray-fls. Species about 40, 
about one-fourth Asian and the remainder mostly 
American. They need protection in the North. 

l&tea, Mill. A slender rather attractive perennial, 
with alternate,, widely separated Ivs. half clasping the 
St.: fls. orange-yellow, in heads about J^in. diam., 
corymbose. St. Helena; perhaps hot a true cacalia. 

C. aiirea and C. liitea of .gardens may be Emilia. C. cocctnea, 


CACALIOPSIS (CacaUa-like). Composite. Peren- 
nial, for garden planting. 

Heads discoid, very many-fld. of perfect yellow 
florets; corolla rather deeply 5-cleft, the lobes lanceo- 
late: Ivs. palmate. One species, little known in cult. 




Nardosmia, Gray. Stout, 1-2 ft. high, loose, woolly, 
but becoming nearly glabrous: Ivs. nearly all radical, 
not unlike those of Petasites palmata, long-stalked, 
5-9-cleft or very rarely parted, the lobes dentate or 
cut: heads an inch high, in a loose cluster at the summit 
of the nearly naked st., fragrant. Pine woods, Calif, 
to Wash. Intro, by Gillett in 1881 as a border plant. 

CACAO, COCOA: Theobroma. 

CACTUS, CACTI. The plants correctly designated 
by this name constitute the family Cactacese. Scarcely 
any group in the whole vegetable kingdom is more 
remarkable for its strange and varied forms, the beauty 
of its flowers, and wonderful adaptation to desert life. 
It is not, however, confined to desert regions; for in the 
moist forests of the tropics of the New World it is 
represented by a number of interesting forms often 
epiphytal or scrambling in their 
habit of growth, with beautiful 
flowers and sometimes with 
delicious edible fruit. 

"Botanical Features of North American Deserts," 
publication No. 99 of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington, 1908. 

To the southward, the family extends to Chile and 
Argentina. Giant torch thistles and echinocacti are 
scattered over the pampas of Uruguay, and melon- 
shaped echinopses amid the snows of the lofty plateau 
of Bolivia. 

The genus Mamillaria, so well represented in the 
southwestern United States and Mexico, is almost 
absent from Central America, the representative genera 
of that region as well as of the warm Huasteca region 
of eastern Mexico being Cereus, Pereskia, Pereskiopsis, 
Nopalea, and Opuntia; while the "turk's-head" or 
"melon cacti" are chiefly West Indian. 

The peculiar structure of columnar, opuntioid, and 
melon-shaped cacti is undoubtedly the result of exces- 
sive dryness of the climates in which they occur, to 
protect themselves from which they have been obliged 
to store up water and to 
reduce their transpira- 

712. Tips of Rhipsalis 


713. Skeleton of 
Opuntia stem. 

714. Pereskia aculeata. 

715. Opuntia joint with leaves. 

The Cactacese are confined to America, the only 
apparent exception being the genus Rhipsalis, com- 
posed of plants with the habits of the mistletoe, grow- 
ing on the trunks and branches of trees, and bearing 
small pellucid glutinous berries (Fig. 712). This genus, 
endemic in tropical America, has found its way to 
Africa, the island of Mauritius and even to Ceylon; 
and several opuntias, or prickly pears, occur on the 
shores of the Mediterranean, in South Africa, and Aus- 
tralia, where they have made themselves so thoroughly 
at home as to be regarded by many writers as 
indigenous. The Cactaceae are not confined to trop- 
ical or even semi-tropical regions. At 
least two species of Opuntia extend 
northward into British Columbia, and 
species of Echinocereus, Echinocactus, 
and Mamillaria are found in the state 
of Colorado. The xerophytic forms 
flourish especially in the southwestern 
United States, the Mexican plateau, 
the peninsula of Lower California, where 
there are great cactus forests, and the 
vicinity of Tehuacan, in the southern 
part of the Mexican state of Puebla, a 
region celebrated for its remarkable and 
gigantic tree-like forms related to the 
genus Cereus. For an account of the 
vegetation of 'the deserts of the south- 
western states and of Mexico, the reader 
is referred to Frederick V. Coville's 
"Botany of the Death Valley Expedi- 
tion," published as Vol. IV of the 
"Contributions from the United States 
National Herbarium, 1893;" Coville 
and MacDougal's "Desert Botanical 
Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution 
1903"; and to D. T. MacDougal's 716. Cactus spines. 

tion as low as possible. They have a more or less pro- 
nounced woody axis surrounded by pulpy cellular tissue 
(parenchyma) in which the water-supply is stored. The 
stomata are usually situated in depressions or grooves 
in the leathery cuticle; and as an additional means for 
checking transpiration, the cell-sap is nearly always 
mucilaginous, while in some forms latex cells are present, 
filled with milky or gummy fluid which hardens on 
exposure to the air and effectively heals wounds in the 
soft fleshy plant. Certain species of Echinocactus (viz- 
nagas) are like great barrels studded with spines and 
filled with pulp of the consistency of watermelon rind, 
which is sometimes made into con- 
serves like citron (dulces de viznaga). 
Other forms, like species of Pereskia, 
Pereskiopsis, and arboreous opuntias 
have hard, woody stems and branches. 
The reticulated skeletons of certain 
species of opuntia (Fig. 713) are manu- 
factured into walking-sticks, legs of 
furniture, napkin rings, and even into 
veneering for woodwork. In Lower 
California and some parts of South 
America, where other vegetation is 
lacking, the stems of columnar cerei, 
or "cardones," are used for construct- 
ing habitations, inclosures, and for 
timbering mines. Columnar cacti are 
also planted for living fences, or hedges, 
especially the "organ cactus" (Myrtil- 
locactus geometrizans) of tropical Mex- 
ico. Leaves are present in nearly all 
cacti, but in some species they are 
mere vestiges and can scarcely be seen 
with the naked eye. In other species 
they are large and perfectly developed, 
either with distinct petiole and feather 




717. Opuntia leptocaulis, showing 
sheathed spines. 

veins, as in Pereskia acu- 
leata (Fig. 714), or sessile 
and fleshy with only the 
midrib and several paral- 
lel nerves apparent as in 
the genus Pereskiopsis. 
They are sometimes 
caducous, fleshy, cylindri- 
cal or awl-shaped, as in 
the genus Opuntia (Fig. 
715). In the axils of the 
leaves are peculiar cush- 
ion-like areoles (corres- 
ponding in all probability 
to aborted branches) 
clothed with down or felt- 
like wool, from which 
spines, and, in some gen- 
era, also flowers, issue. In 
the genera Opuntia and Pereskiopsis, the areoles also 
bear minute short barbed bristles called glochidia, 
which will penetrate the 
skin and become detached 
at the slightest contact and 
are the source of annoying 
irritation which often per- 
sists for many hours! 

The spines (Fig. 716) 
are not connected with 
the axis of the stem or 
branches, but emerge from 
the areoles. In some 
forms they are simple and 
straight, bristle-like, awl- 
shaped, or short and coni- 
cal. In others they are 
bent like fishhooks or are 
curved and horn-like, with 
transverse ribs. Some- 
times they are minutely 
downy or hairy and some- 
times even plumose or 
feathery. They may be 
either naked or enveloped 
in a membranous barbed 
sheath (Fig. 717). They 
may be grouped in star- 
like clusters, with straight 
or curved rays spreading 
from a common center, or 
in comb-like fascicles, with 
the radial spines arranged 
in two rows on each side 
of a longitudinal axis (pec- 
tinate) . In addition to the 

720. Leuchtenbergia principis, showing 
transformation from scales to petals. 

radial spines, there are 

usually erect central spines 

either straight and rigid, 

or more or less curved. One of the most striking forms 

is that of the organ cactus, Myrtillocactus geometrizans, 

in which the stout erect 
central spine resembles 
the blade of a dagger 
and the radials a guard 
for the hilt. In contrast 
with this may be men- 
tioned the spines of 
Pelecyphora aselliformis, 
which resemble minia- 
ture sow-bugs, or aselli 
(Fig. 718). 

The flowers in most 
cases issue from the 
upper portion of the 
areoles, but in certain 
mamillarias and allied 

718. Extreme condensation of the plant body. 
Pelecyphora aselliformis. (Nat. Size.) 

forms they come 

forth from between 

the tubercles or 

from their base at 

the end of a dorsal 

groove. Usually the 

flowers are solitary 

and sessile, but in 

the genus Pereskia 

(Fig. 714) they are 

ped uncled and often 

clustered. They 

may be tinted with 

rose-color, crimson, 

purple, yellow or 

orange, or rarely 

with copper-color or 

scarlet, but they are 

never blue. Often 

they are pure white 

at first, gradually becoming suffused with rose-color 
in age. In a few species 
they are inconspicuous, as 
in the epiphytal Rhipsalis 
(Fig. 712). Some are diur- 
nal, others nocturnal; some 
open at sunrise and close 
at night or when the sky 
becomes clouded; others 
open at a certain hour and 
close at another fixed hour 
of the day or night; some 
last for only a few hours, 
others for a day, and 
some persist for several 
days. Some, like the 
"night - blooming cereus" 
are delightfully fragrant, 
while others are ill-smell- 
ing or have no perceptible 

The perianth is not 
divided sharply into calyx 
and corolla, although the 
outer floral leaves are usu- 
ally sepal-like and the 
inner ones are true petals. 
In one great division of 
the family including Opun- 
tia, which has been named 
Rotatiflorse, the perianth 
is more or less wheel- 
shaped or widely spread- 
ing (Fig. 719) ; in the other 
division, Tubuliflorse, to 
which Cereus belongs, the 
floral leaves form a 
tube, often 

remarkably long and slender, and crowned 

with a spreading limb. The floral leaves 

are not arranged in definite series but 

somewhat like those of a water-lily, the 

scale-like lower or outer leaves gradually 

becoming broad and petaloid as they 

approach the center (Fig 720). In all 

cases the perianth crowns the ovary, 

and sometimes persists after withering 

on the apex of the fruit (Fig. 721). The 

stamens are very numerous and are 

inserted on the petals or perianth-tube 

(Fig. 722). The single style is longer 

and stouter than the slender filaments, 

and usually terminates into a radially 

divided stigma (Fig, 723). Sometimes 721 

the stigma is conspicuously colored and Cephalocereus 

issues star-like from the center of the fruit. 




722. Echinocactus flower, show- 
ing insertion of stamens. 

723. Opuntia flower, 
showing styles and 

mass of stamens, as in the genus Echinocereus, in 
which the emerald-green star contrasts prettily with 
the golden-yellow or orange-colored stamens, rising 
from a rosette of rose-purple petals (Fig. 724). The 
ovary (Fig. 723), although formed of several carpels, 
is 1-celled. The placenta? are parietal, bearing an in- 
definite number of ovules, the stalks of which (funiculi) 
become fleshy as the seeds develop and form a sugary 
pulp around the seeds. 

The fruits of the Cactacese are variable in form. That 
of the leafy Pereskia is apple-shaped and bears a num- 
ber of leaf-like bracts on the skin (Fig. 725), on which 
account the fruit of P. aculeata is 
called blad-appel, or leaf-apple, in 
the Dutch colonies, while in the 
British West Indies it is known as 
Barbados gooseberry and is made into 
tarts and sauces like real goose- 
berries. In some of the pereskiopses, 
the fruit is elongated and shaped like 
a prickly pear, with watery rind and 
seeds covered with cottony hairs. In 
Opuntia and Nopalea the fruit is 
commonly called prickly pear, or 
tuna (by the ancient Aztecs, nochtli) . 
These fruits bear small fleshy leaves 
at first, like the flattened pads of the 
plants, and when the leaves fall off 
the areoles persist armed with the 
irritating sharp-barbed glochidia de- 
scribed above (Figs. 717 and 726). Many species allied 
to the genus Cereus bear edible fruits, usually called pita- 
hayas. Those of the tall columnar cardones (Lemaireo- 
cereus) are covered with easily detachable tufts of wool 
and spines but never bear glochidia. Those of Cephalo- 
cereus (Fig. 721) are spineless. The triangular climbing 
forms which are often trained over garden walls in 
tropical countries, sometimes bear enormous juicy 
fruits of fine flavor (Fig. 727). Those of Echinocactus 
(Fig. 728) are more or less scaly. The fruits of certain 
species of Echinocereus, called alicoches by the Mexi- 
cans, are known to Americans as strawberry cacti, on 
account of the fine flavor of their juicy pulp. Those of 
Echinocactus longihamatus are known in northern 
Mexican markets as limas de viznaga, or cactus limes, 
on account of their acid 
taste; and the small 
smooth crimson fruits of 
many mamillarias are 
called chilitos, on account 
of their resemblance to 
small chili peppers. Very 
much like them are the 
fruits of melon cacti (Fig. 
729) which issue from the 
dense crown of bristles like 
scarlet radishes or fire- 
crackers tipped with a fuse. 
The seeds of the Cacta- 
725. Pereskia fruit. cese vary considerably in 

724. Echinocereus flower, showing 
radiate stigma. 

726. Opuntia fruit. 

the different groups, and are 
sometimes useful in making 
generic determinations. Thus the woolly seeds of 
Pereskiopsis are sharply distinct from the black glossy 
seeds of the genus Pereskia, with which the first-named 
genus was at one time confused. In Opuntia and Nopa- 
lea they are flat, hard and bony, somewhat ear-shaped 
in the flat-jointed opuntias (Figs. 730, 733,) and usually 
discoid and marginless in cylindrical opuntias (Figs. 730, 
735) . In Cereus they are glossy black, with the testa 
either quite smooth or minutely pitted (Figs. 730, 732); 
in Echinocereus they are covered with minute tubercles 
or granules (Figs. 730, 734). In Echinocactus, which is 
not a very homogeneous group, the 
seeds are pitted in some species and 
tuberculate in others In one section 
of Mamillaria (Eumamillaria) they 
are glossy and marked with sunken 
rounded pits (Figs. 730, 731), while in 
another section, which should prob- 
ably be made a distinct genus (Cory- 
phantha) they are frequently smooth. 
In the closely allied Ariocarpus they 
are relatively large and tuberculate. 
In the genus Pelecyphora, they are 
sometimes kidney-shaped, as in P. 
aselliformis, and sometimes of a pecu- 
liar boat-like form with a very large 
umbilicus, as in P. pectinata. In the 
epiphytal Rhipsalis cassytha they are 
kidney-shaped and finely granular. 
The seeds of many of the species of Pachycereus ("car- 
dones") are used by the Indians of Lower California and 
Mexico for food. In south- 
ern Puebla the fruit of 
Pachycereus columna- 
trajani, called tetezo figs 
(higos de tetetzo) are a reg- 
ular food staple, offered for 
sale in the markets of 
Tehuacan d u r i n-g the 
month of May. 

Other cactus fruits of 
great economic importance 
are those of the giant 
Cereus of our arid south- 
western region, Carnegiea 
gigantea, locally known as 
pitahayas de sahuara, first 
brought to notice in the 
year 1540 by the members 
of Coronado's expedition. 
They are not spiny like 
the fruits of Pachycereus 
and they burst open when 
quite ripe. The fruit of 
Lemaireocereus Thurberi, 
known as pitahaya dulce, 
although much sweeter, 
bears clusters of stout 
spines issuing from tufts 727. Fruit of Hylocereus. 




of wool. Closely allied to it is Lemaireocereus griseus of 
central and southern Mexico, which yields much nutri- 
tious fruit. The fruit of the organ cactus, Myrtillocactus 
geometrizans, sold in the markets as 
garambullas, either' fresh or dried, 
must also be mentioned as of economic 

Of medicinal importance is the 
narcotic peyote or "mezcal button" 

729. Melon cactus bearing fruits. 

(Lophophora Williamsii}, used as an intoxicant and 
febrifuge by certain tribes of Indians, and regarded by 
some of them with superstitious reverence. This little 
plant was regarded by some of the early Spanish writers 
as a fungus and was used by the Mexican Indians to 
produce marvelous visions. 

For an account of the methods of propagation and 
culture of cacti and their application to ornamental 

Sudening the reader is referred to a paper by Charles 
enry Thompson, on "Ornamental Cacti: Their Cul- 
ture and Decorative Value," issued by the United 
States Department of Agriculture as Bulletin No. 262 
of the Bureau of Plant Industry, December 17, 1912. 
See also Succulents, vol. VI. W. E. SAFFORD. 

CACTUS (shortened from.Melocactus by Linnaeus). 
Cactdcese. A single small species, sometimes grown in 
under-glass collections and in open succulent gardens 

Stems globose or ovoid, with vertical ribs, crowned 
at maturity with a "cephalium" a prolongation of the 
axis densely covered with small 
tubercles imbedded in wool and 
bearing in their axils small fls. and 
berries. The plant has the appear- 
ance of an Echinocactus, but the 
fls. and berries resemble those of 

Melocdctus, Linn. (Melocdctus 
communis, Link & Otto). Fig. 731. 
Ribs 10-20, acute; areoles nearly 1 
in. apart; radial spines 8-11, straight 
or curved, subulate; centrals 1-4; 
cephalium at first low, hemispheri- 
cal, becoming cylindrical in time, 
reaching a height of 8 in.; the dense 
wool of the cephalium is pierced by 
many red or brown bristles: fls. red, 
slender: fr. %in. long, crowned by 
the persistent remains of the fl., red. 
W. Indies; called there "Turk's 
head." B.M.3090. j. N . RosE . 

CADALVENA: Kaempferia. 

CADIA (Arabic name, Kadi}. Legumindsse, tribe 
bophorese Small evergeen shrubs of Arabia and Africa, 
remarkable for their regular mallow-like flowers. 
^ Leaves pinnate: fls. axillary, mostly solitary, droop- 
ing; stamens 10, free, shorter than the petals: pod 
linear, acuminate, flattened, leathery. Four species 

730. Seeds of Cacti. 
1. Mamillaria; 2. 
Cereus; 3. Flat- 
jointed opuntias; 
4. Echinocereus; 5. 
Cylindrical opun- 

Can be grown outdoors in Calif, or S. Fla.; in the N. 
in the temperate house. Prop, by seeds and cuttings. 

purpftrea, Forsk. (C. varia, L'Her.). A small shrub, 
the branches woody: Ifts. 20-40 pairs, very narrow, 
almost sessile: fls. bell-shaped, pedunculate, rose-red, 
the corolla about 1-1% in. long and very veiny, not 
spiny. Arabia. 

C. Ellisiana, Baker, has few large Ifts. and rose-colored fls. 
Madagascar. B.M. 6685. C. pubescens, Bojer. Lfts. 8-10 pairs, 
broad-oblong. Madagascar. ^r rp Y LOR t 

C^SALPtNIA (Andreas Cgesalpinus, 1519-1603, 
Italian botanist). Leguminosse. BRASILETTO. Includ- 
ing Guilandina, and Poinciana in part. Ornamental 
tropical or subtropical trees or shrubs chiefly grown for 
their showy flowers and also for their attractive finely 
divided foliage; some species yield tanning materials 
and dye-stuff. 

Calyx with short tube and 5 imbricated lobes, the 
lowest concave and larger; petals 5, clawed, usually 
orbicular or obovate and nearly equal; stamens 10, 
curved; ovary sessile with few ovules and a slender 
elongated style: pod ovate to lanceolate, usually com- 
pressed, often indehiscent. About 30 species in tropi- 
cal and semi-tropical regions. The genus belongs to 
the subfamily Caesalpinioidese, in which the fls. are not 
papilionaceous, and is allied to Gleditsia. 

Caesalpinias are armed or unarmed trees or shrubs, 
rarely climbers, with finely divided bipinnate leaves 
and conspicuous yellow or sometimes partly red flowers 
in racemes, often forming terminal panicles. Many 
species are very showy in flower and are favorities in 
tropical and subtropical countries; in this country they 
can be grown only in Florida and southern California 
except C. japonica, which is the hardiest species and 
will probably stand the winter in sheltered locations as 
far north as Washington, D. C. They are also grown 
sometimes in warm glasshouses. 

Propagation is readily effected by seeds, which should 
be well soaked in warm water for some hours before 
sowing. A sandy soil should be chosen for the seed- 
bed, and lightly shaded. After the plants show the 
first true leaf, they should be potted off into small pots 
of ordinary garden soil, not too rich, made light by the 
addition of sand, if of a clayey nature. The plants 
grow very rapidly, and must be shifted into larger pots 
as their size requires for greenhouse culture, but in tropi- 
cal climates may be transplanted into permanent posi- 
tions outdoors after they reach a fair size in pots. The 
dwarf species are elegant subjects for subtropical 
gardening during the summer months in temperate 
climates, provided a sunny location is given them, as 
they revel in rather dry very warm soil, and do not 
require artificial watering after being established. A 
rocky, sunny situation may be given C. pulcherrima 
and its variety flava, where they will bloom during 
many weeks of summer, until frost checks them, if 
strong plants about a foot high are selected in early 
summer. Care should be taken to harden off plants 
gradually in the house, so that they may not be chilled 
when transplanted outdoors. While they will do well 
in a poor soil, an application of manure or chemical 
fertilizer may be given them to advantage, causing 
them to make a more vigorous growth and give better 
and larger heads of flowers. In the tropics, and also in 
subtropical climates, these shrubs and trees are always 
admired and are commonly planted for ornament. 
The royal poinciana (C. regia, but properly Poinciana 
regia, which see), and also the dwarf poinciana, or 
flower-fence (C. pulcherrima}, will thrive in close 
proximity to the sea, and are valuable for planting in 
exposed coast situations. (E. N. Reasoner.) 

A. Stamens long-exserted: fls. very showy: trees, unarmed 

or nearly so. 

Gilliesii, Wall. Shrub or small tree, with very many 
small Ifts., scarcely J^in. long, oblong, obtuse, glabrous: 




fls. light yellow, with brilliant red stamens protruding 
3-5 in., in terminal racemes; sepals hairy-fringed. S. 
Amer. B. M. 4006 (as Poinciana Gilliesii, Hook.). F.S. 
1:61. R.H. 1893:400. G.C. III. 15:73. Gn. 76, p. 4. 
A very showy and worthy plant which bears in Calif, 
the popular name of "Bird of Paradise" like Strelitzia 
Reginse. It will stand a temperature as low as 20 F. 

pulcherrima, Swartz. BARBADOS PRIDE. BARBADOS 
scattered prickles, delicate, evergeen, mimosa-like Ivs. 
with 12-18 pinnae, each with 20-24 oblique-oblong 
Ifts. less than 1 in. long, and very gaudy red-and- 
yellow crisped fls. on the ends of the new growth: sta- 
mens and style red, and long-exserted. Generally dis- 
tributed in the tropics. B.M. 995. P.M. 3:3. Gn. 75, 
p. 594. One of the most popular shrubs in warm cli- 
mates, as S. Fla. There is a var. flava, with yellow fls. 

731. Cactus Melocactus. (XK) 

A A. Stamens not much exceeding the petals, or 


B. Lfts. very obtuse. 
c. Branches unarmed. 

pannosa, Brandeg. Medium-sized tree with slen- 
der branches spreading horizontally and clothed with 
white, deciduous bark: Ivs. decompound; pinnae 2-4, 
each with 4-6 oblong and retuse Ifts. : fls. yellow, showy: 
pod glandular, 1-2-seeded. Lower Calif. A rapid- 
growing species which can be used for fences and is 
therefore called "palo estaca" in Lower Calif. 

cc. Branches prickly. 
D. Pod smooth: shrubs. 

sepiaria, Roxbg. Scrambling pubescent shrub: Ivs. 
glaucous, slightly pubescent beneath; pinnae 12-20, 
each with 16-24 oblong Ifts., rounded at both ends, %- 
1 in. long: fls. yellow in simple stalked racemes. India. 
Furnishes dye-wood; also used as a hedge plant. 

japonica, Sieb. & Zucc. Loose, spreading shrub, 
armed with stout, recurved prickles: Ivs. with 6-16 
pinnae, each with 10-20 Ifts., oblong, very obtuse: fls. 
in large, panicle-like clusters, canary-yellow, the sta- 
mens bright red. Japan. B.M. 8207. G.C. III. 42:43. 
R.H. 1912:60. Gn. 40:588; 61, p. 81; 76, p. 411. J.H. 
III. 34:531; 51:181. Endures the winters in some 

parts of England. The hardiest species of the genus, 
probably hardy as far north as Washington, D. C. 

Ntlga, Ait. Vigorous climber: branches flexuose with 
copious hooked prickles: Ivs. glabrous; pinnae 4-6, 
each with 4-6 ovate -obtuse Ifts. l%-2 in. long: fls. 
bright yellow in large panicles; calyx glabrous: pods 
ovoid-oblong, 2 in. long, indehiscent, 1-seeded. Him- 
alayas and Philippine Isls. to N. Austral, and Poly- 
nesia. Blanco, Fl. Filip. 150. 

DD. Pod prickly: tree. 

echinata, Lam. Tree, with prickly rusty pubescent 
branches: Ivs. unarmed, glabrous; pinnae 5-9, each with 
15-20 rhombic-oblong obtuse Ifts. ^-Min. long: fls. 
yellow in axillary and terminal racemes; calyx pubes- 
cent; stamens snorter than petals: pod oblong, 3 in. 
long. Brazil. Fl. Brasil. 15, 2:22. Yields dye-wood. 

BB. Lfts. acute or mucronulate: pod prickly. 

minax, Hance. Diffuse shrub, thorny: pinnae 10, with 
12-20 ovate-lanceolate glabrous Ifts. 1-1 % in. long: 
racemes panicled, many-fld., with very large bracts: 
fls. white and purple: pods 7-seeded (seeds large and 
black), prickly. China. 

Bonduc, Rpxbg. Climbing shrub, with prickly, 
pubescent bipinnate Ivs., oblong-ovate mucronate Ifts. 
13^-3 in. long, yellow fls., and a few large yellow seeds 
in a short, prickly pod. Tropics; S. Fla. 

C. bijuga, Swartz (Acacia Bancroftiana, Bert.). Spiny shrub, 
with ultimate Ifts. in 2 pairs: fls. paniculate. Jamaica. C. kau- 
aiensis, Mann=Mezoneuron kauaiense. C. r&gia, Dietr.=Poin- 
ciana regia. C. vernalis, Champ. Tall climbing prickly shrub: 
fls. in racemes. China. B.M. 8132. 


CAHOUN: Attalea Cohune. 
CAILLIEA: Dichrostachys. 

C A JANUS (aboriginal name). Leguminbsse. A 
tropical shrub, grown for the nutritious peas. One 
variable species, probably originally from Africa. 

indicus, Spreng. (Cytisus Cajan, Linn.). GRANDTJL. 
Erect, 3-10 ft., villous or often tomentose: Ifts. elliptic- 
oblong, exstipellate, resinous-punctate beneath: fls. 
yellow and maroon, pea-like, continuing all through the 
year, in axillary racemes: pod pea-like, hairy, con- 
stricted between the many seeds. Much cult, in the 
tropics for the seeds or pulse, being treated usually as 
an annual. It varies greatly in stature and in charac- 
ter of seeds: C. flavus, DC., has yellow fls. and 2-3- 
seeded pods which are not spotted; C. bicolor, DC., a 
smaller plant, has red-striped fls., and 4-5-seeded pods 
which are spotted. See B.M. 6440 and R.H. 1874:190. 
The pigeon pea is much grown in the W. Indies, some 
varieties being preferred for human food and some for 
live-stock; run wild. L. H. B. 

CAJ6PHORA: Blumenbachia. 
CALABASH: Crescentia. 

CALADIUM (origin of name obscure). Aracex. 
Warmhouse large-leaved plants, grown for the foliage; 
also employed in summer bedding. 

Herbaceous perennials, arising from large rhizomes 
or tubers, acaulescent, with usually beautifully marked, 
long-petioled Ivs.; the secondary nerves oblique to the 
few spreading primary nerves: peduncles usually soli- 
tary; spathe with the tube convolute, constricted at the 
throat, the blade boat -shaped; spadix erect, a little 
shorter than the spathe, the lower part naked, stipe- 
like, the staminate part longer than the pistillate; fls. 
unisexual: fr. a berry, white. A dozen or less species 
in Trop. S. Amer. Two of the species are immensely 
variable, and many named horticultural varieties are 
in the trade. Engler in DC. M^nog. Phan. 2 :452 (1879) ; 
also F. S. 13. 




As soon as Caladium plants begin to lose their 
leaves in the fall, water should gradually be withheld 
until the leaves are all gone. The pots should then be 
removed to a position under a bench, and laid on their 
sides, or taken from the soil and placed in sand. Dur- 
ing the resting period they should not be subjected to a 
lower temperature than 60 F., and kept neither too 
wet nor too dry. About the beginning of March the 
tubers should be started for the earliest batch to be 
grown in pots. Arrange the tubers in their sizes, and 
keep each size by itself. The largest-sized tubers will 
start quickest, and it is desirable to begin with these 
for pot-plants. Start them in chopped moss in boxes. 
The tubers may be arranged rather close together in 
the box, and merely covered over with the moss to the 
depth of about an inch. The new roots are made from 
the top part of the tuber, so it is important that this 
part should be covered to encourage the roots. For 
starting, a heat varying between 70 and 85 will 
suffice. As soon as a healthy lot of roots makes its 
appearance, the plants should be potted, using as small- 
sized pots as possible. The soil for this potting should 
be principally leaf-mold, with a little sand. In a short 

kinds are not so well suited for outdoor work as those 
having green predominating in the foliage, but some of 
the kinds, such as Dr. Lindley and Rosini, do remark- 
ably well. Frequent watering with manure-water is 
absolutely necessary to the development of the foliage, 
both outdoors and in. (G. W. Oliver.) 

732. Caladium bicolor var. Chantinii. (No. 17). 

time they will need another shift; the soil .should on 
this occasion be a little stronger; give a position near the 
glass, and shade from strong sunshine. New forms are 
raised from seed, this operation being an exceedingly 
easy one with the caladium, as they cross-fertilize very 
readily. The flowers, unlike those of the Anthurium, 
are monoecious, the females ripening first. To pollinate 
them, part of the spathe must be cut away. Seedlings 
at first have the foliage green, and it is not until the 
fifth or sixth leaf has been developed that they show 
their gaudy colorings. Propagation of the kinds is 
effected by dividing the old tubers, the cut surfaces 
of which should be well dusted with powdered char- 
coal to prevent decay. As bedding plants, the fancy- 
leaved caladiums are gradually becoming more popu- 
lar. To have them at their best for this purpose, the 
ground should be worked for some tune previous to 
planting out, with a goodly quantity of bone meal 
incorporated with the soil. The tubers are best put out 
m a dormant state, as then they make very rapid prog- 
ress, and eventually make finer plants than when they 
are first started in the greenhouse, as by this system 
they are too likely to sustain a check in the hardening-off 
process, and lose their leaves. The fine, highly colored 

albinervium, 55. 

hastatum, 50. 

punctatissimum, 17. 

albomaculatum, 16. 

Hendersonii, 24. 

Purdieanum, 9. 

albostriatulum, 51. 

Houbyanum, 26. 

pusillum, 9. 

Alfred Bleu, 16. 

Houlletii, 18. 

regale, 31. 

amoenum, 17. 

Humboldtii, 57. 

Reichenbachianum, 41. 

Appunianum, 56. 

Ketteleri, 13. 

Rogierii, 15. 

aroyrites, 57. 

Kochii, 38. 

roseum, 14. 

argyroneuron, 5. 

Kramerianum, 20. 

rubellum, 41. 

argyroneurum, 5. 

Laucheanum, 43. 

rubicundum, 11. 

argyrospilum, 36. 

Lemaireanum, 55. 

rubronermum, 42. 

Baraquinii, 12. 

Leopoldii, 15. 

rubrovenium, 42. 

Belleymei, 49. 

Lindenii, 46. 

sagiUxfolium, 31. 

bicolor, 8, 11. 

macrophyllurn, 39. 

Schmitzii, 3. 

Brongniartii, 32. 

marginatum, 19. 

Schoelleri, 5. 

Chantinii, 17. 

marmoratum, 7. 

Schomburgkii, 1. 

Connxrtii, 17. 

marmoreum, 2. 

Sieboldii, 25. 

cordatum, 3. 

Marlersteigianum, 17. 

splendens, 14. 

cupreum, 53. 

mirabile, 33. 

Spruceanum, 9. 

Curwadlii, 37. 

Mooreanum, 18. 

Stangeanum, 21. 

Devosianum, 28. 

myriostigma, 58. 

subrotundum, 6. 

discolor, 29. 

Neumanii, 40. 

surinamense, 31. 

Duchartrei, 35. 

Osytnum, 52. 

thripedestum, 7. 

Eckhartii, 23. 

Ottonis, 28. 

transparens, 10. 

elegans, 54. 

pallidinermum, 30. 

Troubetskoyi, 56. 

Enkeanum, 45. 

pellucidum, 27, 29. 

Vellozianum, 9. 

erythrseum, 3. 

Perrierii, 22. 

Verschaffeltii, 47. 

firmulum, 9. 

pictum, 4, 34. 

viridissimum, 55. 

Gserdtii, 15. 

pictum turn, 48, 55. 

Wagneri, 31. 

griseo-argenteum, 39. 

pcecile, 30. 

Wallisi, 28. 

Haageanum, 17. 

porphyroneuron, 53. 

Wightii, 44. 

hsematostigmatum, 29. 

It will be seen that most of the cultivated caladiums 
are considered to be forms of C. bicolor and C. pictura- 
tum. Only five species are concerned in the following 
list: Schomburgkii, 1; marmoratum, 7; bicolor, 8; pic- 
turatum, 48; Humboldtii, 57. 

A. Blade not at all peltate, obliquely elliptical-ovate. 

1. Schomburgkii, Schott. Petiole slender, 4 times 
longer than the blade, sheathed one-third its length; 
blade obliquely elliptical-ovate; midrib and 4-5 acutely 
ascending primary nerves silvery, pale, or red; sparsely 
spotted above, paler beneath. French Guiana to Para. 
Runs into the following forms: 

(1) Veins red. 

2. Var. marmdreum, Engl. Blade dull green, with 
brownish red nerves, bordered with yellow. 

3. Var. erythraeum, Engl. (C. Schmitzii, Lem. C. 
cordatum, Hort.). Midribs and nerves red. I.H. 8:297. 

4. Var. pictum, Engl. With white or red spots 
between the red veins. S. Amer. 

(2) Veins silvery or green. 

5. Var. argyronefcrum, Engl. (C. argyroneuron, 
C. Koch. C. Schcelleri, Lem.). Midrib and veins silvery. 
I.H. 8:297. 

6. Var. subrotundum, Engl. (C. subrotundum, Lem.). 
Lf .-blade rounded at the base, or shortly cordate, with 
white or red spots. Brazil. 

AA. Blade distinctly peltate. 

B. Lf. sagittate-oblong-ovate; basal lobes united for two- 
thirds their length, or more. 

7. marmoratum, Mathieu (Alocdsia Roezlii, Bull. C. 
thripedestum, Lem.). Petiole cylindrical, 12-16 in. 
long, twice as long as the blade, variegated; blade 6-8 
in. long, 4-6 in. wide, dark green, with irregular gray, 
yellowish green and snow-white spots, glaucous-green 
beneath, sagittate-oblong-ovate, the upper lobe semi- 
ovate, slightly cuspidate, the basal ones unequal, one-- 
third or one-half as long as the upper, connate two-thirds 
to three-fourths their length : spathe-blade pale green, 
2-3 in. long. Ecuador. I.H. 5, p. 59, desc. 




BB. Lf. not as above; basal lobes united one-third their 

length or less. 
C. Shape of If. ovate-triangular, or ovate-sagittate (8-47). 

8. bicolor, Vent. (Arum bicolor, Ait.). Petiole 
smooth, 3-7 times as long as the blade, pruinose toward 
the apex; blade ovate-sagittate, or ovate-triangular, 
variegated above, glaucous beneath; upper lobe semi- 
ovate, narrowing gradually to a cuspidate point, the 
basal ones one-half to but little shorter than the upper, 
oblong-ovate, obtuse, connate one-fifth to one-third 
their length. S. Amer. Intro, into cult, in 1773. B.M. 
820. Very common in cult., furnishing many of the 
fancy-leaved caladiums. The marked varieties are 
as follows (9-47) : 

(1) Lf. -blade and veins of one color. 

9. Var. Vellozianum, Engl. (C. Vellozianum, Schott. 
C. Purdiednum, Schott. C. pusillum, C. Koch. C. 
Sprucednum, Schott. C. firmulum, Schott.). Lf.- 
blade dark green above; basal lobes connate past the 
middle. Brazil, Peru. R.B. 10:169. 

(2) Lf. -blade more or less variegated. 
(a) With a colored disk (Nos. 10-18). 

(b) Disk transparent. 

10. Var. transparens, Engl. (C. transparent, Hort.). 
Blade with a pale green, nearly transparent disk; mid- 
rib and primary veins red-purple. 

11. Var. rubicundum, Engl. (C. bicolor, Kunth). 
Petiole green, or variegated green and violet; blade 
green, with a red, transparent, central disk, and a very 
narrow red line between the disk and the margin. 

(bb) Disk opaque. 
(c) Purple disk. 

12. Var. Baraquinii, Engl. (C. Bardquinii. Hort.). 
Petiole violet; blade with a purple-red disk; beautiful 
green between the disk and margin; nerves and midrib 
red-violet. Para. I.H. 7:257. F.S. 13:1378. 

13. Var. Ketteleri, Engl. (C. Ketteleri, Hort.). Peti- 
ole crimson, variegated toward the base; blade with 
purple disk, midrib and primary veins, sparsely marked 
between the veins with many small, rosy spots. 

(cc) Red disk. 

14. Var. splendens, Engl. (C. roseum, Hort. C. 
splendens, Hort.). Petiole green below, red above; 
blade with a red disk at the middle; mid vein and 
primary veins red-purple; green between the nerves 
and along the margin. Lowe, 4. 

15. Var. Leopoldii, Engl. (C. Leopoldii, Hort. C. 
Gserdtii, C. Koch. C. Rogierii, Chant. & Lem.). Petiole 
violet beneath, red-purple above; blade with a broad, 
reddish disk; margin green, red-spotted; midrib and 
primary veins dark red-purple. Para, 1864. 

16. Var. albomaculatum, Engl. (C. Alfred Bleu). 
Petiole green; blade green, with red disk, midrib and 
primary veins, and marked clear to the margin with 
many large, white spots between the nerves. 

(ccc) Rose disk. 

17. Var. Chantinii, Engl. (C. Chdntinii, Lem. C. 
Connsertii, Hort. C. amoenum, Hort. C. Marter- 
steigidnum, Hort. C. punctatissimum, Hort. C. Haage- 
dnum, Hort.). Fig. 732. Petiole more or less violet; 
blade broadly red-purple along the midrib and primary 
nerves, rosy at the center, and with very numerous, 
unequal spots between the nerves clear to the marginal 
vein. Para, 1858. I.H. 5:185. F.S. 13:1350-51. B.M. 
5255. A.F.8:129. G. 12:375. 

(cccc) Light green disk. 

18. Var. Houlletii, Engl. (C. Houlletii, Lem. C. 
Mooreanum, Hort.). Petiole green, the sheath and a 
little of the base violet- variega ted ; basal lobes of the 

blade somewhat introrse, rounded, connate one-third; 
blade obscurely green toward the margin, the midrib 
and primary veins slightly reddish, and with a pale 
disk marked with many irregular white spots. 

(aa) Without a colored disk. 

(b) Margins colored throughout. 

(c) Red margin. 

19. Var. marginatum, Engl. (C. marginatum, C. 
Koch). Blade dark green, with a red line on the outer 

(cc) Yellow margin. 

20. Var. Kramerianum, Engl. (C. Krameridnum, 
Hort.). Veins purple; yellow margin. 

21. Var. Stangeanum, Engl. (C. Stangeanum, C. 
Koch). Blade reddish; green along the narrow mar- 
gin, yellowish toward the margin. 

(ccc) Solid white margin. 

22. Var. Perrierii, Engl. (C. Perrieri, Lem.). Petiole 
violet-black; blade dull green, with many red-purple 
spots, and white along the margin. Brazil, 1861. 

(cccc) Spotted margin. 

23. Var. Eckhartii, Engl. (C. Eckhartii, Hort.). 
Petiole violet-blotched at the base, green above the 
middle; blade green, with few rosy spots along the mar- 
gin, and small white ones in the middle. 

24. Var. Henderspnii, Engl. (C. Hendersonii, Hort.). 
Petiole variegated violet and green, reddish toward the 
apex; blade mostly green, reddish next the lower parts 
of the nerves; midrib and primary veins red-purple 
spotted; small red spots along the margin. 

25. Var. Sieboldii, Engl. (C. Sieboldii, Hort.). 
Petiole violet and green, reddish toward the apex; basal 
lobes of the If. somewhat introrse, connate one-third 
their length, dark green; midrib and primary veins 
beautifully red-purple spotted, and a very narrow white 
border, marked with small purple-red spots. A.F. 

(ccccc) Purple margin. 

26. Var. Houbyanum, Engl. (C. Houbyanum, Hort.). 
Petiole dirty green on the lower surface, bright red 
above; blade bright green, with large pale spots, and 
small red-purple ones between the midrib and primary 
veins; a red-purple spot above the insertion of the peti- 
ole, and a pale purple line around the margin. 

27. Var. pellftcidum, Engl. (C. pellucidum, DC.). 
Petiole reddish, variegated with violet; blade broadly 
reddish purple spotted along the midrib and primary 
veins, and more or less marked with transparent, red- 
dish purple spots between the primary veins; a con- 
tinuous purple line along the outer margin. 

(bb) Margin colored only on basal sinus. 

28. Var. Devosianum, Engl. (C. Devosianum, Lem. 
C. Wdllisii, Hort. C. Ottonis, Hort.). Petiole green; 
blade bright green, with small, irregular white spots 
between the midrib and primary veins, and a narrow 
crimson border at the sinus. Para. I.H. 9:322. 

29. Var. haematostigmatum, Engl. (C. hsematostig- 
matum, Kunth. C. pellucidum, DC. C. discolor, Hort.). 
Petiole violet; blade dark green, with a purple line on 
the basal sinus, and sparsely marked with blood-red 
spots. Para. 

30. Var. poecile, Engl. (C. pceclle, Schott. C. pallidi- 
nervium, Hort.). Petiole reddish brown, or closely 
streaked- variegated; blade dark green; midrib and 
primary veins paler, often whitish; a red-purple spot 
where the petiole joins the blade, narrowly purple-mar- 
gined in the sinus. Brazil. 

31. Var. regale, Engl. (C. regale, Lem. C. Wdgneri, 
Hort. C. surinamense, Miq. C. sagitteefolium, Sieb.). 
Blade bright green, purple-margined at the sinus, every- 




where marked with small, confluent white spots. W. 
Indies, 1710. I.H. 9:316. 

(bbb) Margin and disk without color. 
(c) Variegated green blade. 

32. Var. Brongniartii, Engl. (C. Brongnidrtii, Lena.). 
Very large; petiole variegated violet and green, red- 
dish toward the apex; blade green, except along the 
nerves below, where it is colored reddish, paler green 
between the primary nerves, deep green toward the 
margin; veins and nerves red-purple. Brazil, 1858. 
F.S. 13:1348-9. I.H. 5, p. 58, desc. 

33. Var. mir&bile, Engl. (C. mirdbile, Lem.). Petiole 
green; blade bright green, densely covered with large 
and small irregular pale green spots between the pri- 
mary nerves and mid vein. Para. I.H. 10:354. 

(cc) Blue-green blade. 

34. Var. pictum, Kunth (C. pictum, DC.). Petiole 
greenish, variegated beneath; basal lobes connate 
one-fifth their length; blade thin, blue-green, marked 
with large, irregular, usually confluent, pale yellowish 
semi-transparent spots. Lowe, 43. 

(ccc) Colorless blade. ^ 

35. Var. Duchartrei, Engl. (C. Duchartrei, Hort.). 
The long petiole green above, variegated below the 
middle with violet-black; blade colorless, except the 
midrib and all the veins, or here and there pale rosy 
or red-spotted, or even more or less dirty green. A.F. 

(cccc) Solid green blade. 
(d) Dark green. 

36. Var. argyrospilum, Engl. (C. argyrdspilum, 
Lem.). Petiole grayish red, sparsely and finely streaked; 
blade a most beautiful green, with a crimson spot at 
the middle, and with many small white spots between 
the primary veins. Para. F.S. 13 : 1346-7. 

733. Caladium picturatum var. Belleymeii. (No. 49.) 

37. Var. Curwadlii, Engl. (C. Curwddlii, Hort.). 
Petiole greenish, slightly violet-blotched toward the 
base; blade reddish purple along the midrib and pri- 
mary veins, marked between the veins with large white 
spots; otherwise dark green. 

38. Var. K&chii, Engl. (C. Kdchii, Hort.). Lf.- 
blade more rounded, dark green, with small white spots 
midway between the midrib and margin. Para, 1862. 

39. Var. macrophyllum, Engl. (C. macrophyllum, 
Lem. C. griseo-argenteum, Hort.). Petiole green- 
blade dark green, marked everywhere with many small 
S p elv Confluent white or slightly rosy spots. Para, 
1862. I.H. 9:316. 

40. Var. Neumannii, Engl. (C. Neumannii, Lem.). 
Petiole green; blade very beautiful dark green, with 
scarcely paler veins, marked between the primary veins 
with large and small white-margined, reddish purple 
spots. F.S. 13:1352-3. B.M. 5199. 

(dd) Light green. 
(e) Not spotted. 

41. Var. rubellum, Engl. (C. rubellum, Hort. C. 
Reichenbachidnum, Stange). Blade green, with reddish 
purple midrib and primary veins. 

42. Var. rubrovenium, Engl. (C. rubrovenium, Hort. 
C. rubronervium, Hort.). Petiole variegated green and 
violet; blade small, oblong-ovoid, the basal lobes some- 
what introrse, obtuse, connate almost to the middle, 
pale caulescent or red-green along the midrib and pri- 
mary veins; veins pale red or scarlet. Para, 1862. 

(ee) Spotted. 
(f) With white spots. 

43. Var. Laucheanum, Engl. (C. Laucheanum, C. 
Koch). Blade bright green, with white 'spots at the 

(ff) With purple and white spots. 

44. Var. Wightii, Engl. (C. Wlghtii, Hort.). Petiole 
pale green; blade very beautiful green, marked be- 
tween the primary veins with large, red-purple and 
small white spots. French Guiana. 

(fff) With red or crimson spots. 

45. Var. Enkeanum, Engl. (C. Enkednum, C. Koch). 
Blade bright green, marked with large and small red 

46. Var. Lindenii, Engl. (C. Lindenii, Hort.). Blade 
bright green, with confluent small red spots. 

47. Var. Verschaffeltii, Engl. (C. Verschaffeltii, 
Lem.). Petiole pale green; blade very beautiful green, 
with few irregular crimson spots. I.H. 5:1 85. B.M. 
5263. Lowe, 46. 

cc. Shape of blade lanceolate-sagittate. 

48. picturatum, C. Koch. Petioles usually green, 
variegated below, elongated; blade lanceolate-sagittate, 
cuspidate and submucronate at the apex, the upper lobe 
nearly triangular, oblong or ovate-lanceolate, basal 
lobes over half as long, lanceolate subacute, connate 
one-sixth to one-fourth their length, separated by a 
triangular sinus; primary lateral veins 4-7, erect- 
spreading or spreading. Brazil. Variable, furnishing 
many of the fancy-leaved caladiums. 

(1) Transparent white blade, 

49. Var. Belleymei, Engl. (C. Belleymii, Hort.). 
Fig. 733. Petiole greenish above, variegated violet 
beneath; blade slenderly hastate-sagittate, white, 
translucent except the green veins and nerves, with 
small green spots along the margin; basal lobes 1-5, or 
rarely one-fourth or one-third connate. Para. I.H. 
7:252. A.F. 8:127. G. 2:89. 

(2) Pale green blade. 
(a) With transparent blotches. 

50. Var. hastatum, Engl. (C. hastdtum, Lem.). Peti- 
ole long, stout, white, violet-spotted; blade hastate- 
sagittate, slightly contracted above the lobes; dull, 
pale green, very irregularly marked with transparent 
blotches; basal lobe one-fourth connate, crimson 
margined in the sinus. Para. 

(aa) Opaque. 

51. Var. albo stria tulum, Engl. Blade greenish white 
along the midrib and veins, white-striped and dotted 
between the nerves. 

52. Var. Osyanum, C. Koch. Blade white along the 
midrib and primary veins, with purple spots between 
the veins. 




53. Var. porphyroneftron, Engl. (C. porphyroneuron, 
C. Koch. C. ciipreum, Hort. Alocdsia porphyroneura, 
Lem.). Petiole pale reddish, variegated with dull vio- 
let; blade broadly hastate-sagittate, dull, pale green, 
slightly reddish on the veins, opaque basal lobes one- 
sixth to one-third connate. Peru and Brazil. I.H. 

(3) Dark green blade. 

54. Var. elegans, Engl. Petiole rosy, greenish 
below, variegated; blade narrowly hastate-sagittate, 
slightly contracted above the lobes, dark green above, 
broadly red or purple next the midrib and primary 
lateral veins; basal lobes one-fifth connate. 

55. Var. Lemaireanum, Engl. (C. Lemaireanum, 
Barr. C. picturdtum albinervium, C. Koch. C. picturd- 
tum viridissimum, C. Koch). Blade shaped like pre- 
ceding, dark green; midrib and primary veins pale 
green or white. S. Amer., 1861. I.H. 9:311. 

56. Var. Troubetskoyi, Engl. (C. Troubetskoyi, 
Chan tin. C. Appunidnum, Hort.). Petiole red, varie- 
gated; blade very narrowly hastate-sagittate, slightly 
contracted above the lobes, dark green above, broadly 
marked with pale red along the midrib and primary 
veins, and with scattered, transparent, small white or 
rose spots. F.S. 13:1379. 

ccc. Shape of blade oblong-ovate, or oblong: plant small. 

57. Humboldtii, Schott. (C. argyrites, Lem.). Fig. 
734. Petiole slender, variegated, 2 to 3 times longer 
than the blade; sheath slender, narrow; blade oblong- 
ovate, or oblong, green along the margin, midrib and 
primary veins, with many large and small transparent 
spots between; shortly and very acutely acuminate, 
the apical lobe oblong-ovate, twice as long as the 
oblong or ovate-triangular, obtuse basal ones; basal 
lobes one-third connate, separated by an obtuse tri- 
angular sinus, the 3-4 primary veins of the apical lobe 
uniting in a collective nerve remote from the margin. 
Brazil. I.H. 5:185. F.S. 13:1345. Gng. 3:279. A.F. 
10:197. Lowe, 22. C.L.A. 19:343. G. 14:501. 

58. Var. myriostigma, Engl. (C. myriostigma, C. 
Koch). Blade marked everywhere with small white 

The following names are in the trade, or occur in the 
lists of dealers and fanciers, but are not identified 
botanically: albanense, Barrattii, candidum, Endlich- 
erianum, Fenzlianum, Ortgiesii, Petschkanii, Rodeckii, 
speciosum, Thelemannii, venosum. 

C. esculentum=Co\oca.sia, antiquorum esoulenta. C. odoratum, 
Lodd.=Alocasia macrorrhiza. C. pubescens, N.E.Br. .A new 
species, distinct from those already in cult, by being pubescent. 
Peru. B.M. 8402. J ARED Q g MITH 


CALAMAGROSTIS (Greek, calamos, a reed, and 
agrostis, a grass). Syn. Deyeuxia. Gramineae. Usually 
tall or reed-like perennials bearing rootstocks. In- 
cluding nay grasses and a few more or less ornamental 

Spikelets 1-fld., the rachilla prolonged behind the 
palea as a usually hairy pedicel; lemma hairy on the 
callus, awned from the back. Species about 120, dis- 
tributed throughout the world in temperate and arctic 
regions, usually in damp or swampy soil. The species 
are often valuable native forage grasses. One species, 
C. canadensis, Beauv., is a source of an excellent 
quality of native hay in the northwestern states, where 
it is called blue-joint. Another species, C. stricta, 
Beauv., native of the northern states, is sometimes 
cult, in a variegated form as an ornamental. 

C. 6re{ptZt's=Calamovilfa brevipilis. ^ g HlTCHCOCK 


CALAMOVILFA (Greek, calamos, a reed, and vilfa, 
a kind of grass). Graminese. PURPLE BENT-GRASS. A 
group differing from Calamagrostis in having awnless 

spikelets and no prolongation of the rachilla. Species 
3, in S. E. U. S. C. brevipilis, Hack., is cult, as an orna- 
mental grass. This is a stout, tufted grass, 2-4 ft., 
with short, horizontal rootstocks, pyramidal purplish 
panicle 4-8 in. Sandy swamps in pine-barrens, N. J. 
to N. C. Dept. Agric., Div. Agros. 7:156; 20:84. 


734. Caladium Humboldtii. (No. 57.) 
CALAMPELIS: Eccremocarpus. 

CALAMUS (Greek for reed) . Palmacex, tribe Lepido- 
cdrpse. A group of interesting, usually climbing pinnate 
palms of the Old World tropics, not much known to the 
trade although over thirty species are in the European 

Stems very slender, always more or less prickly, usu- 
ally climbing and never bearing a terminal infl.: Ivs. 
alternate, pinnate, often ending in a terminal some- 
times elongated cirrus, by which they are attached to 
their support; Ifts. narrow, with 1-5 nerves; If .-sheaths 
at first completely inclosing the internodes, sometimes 
split and open: spadix laterally attached at the summit 
of the If.-sheaths, often elongate and slender and fre- 
quently ending in a tail-like appendage (flagellum) 
which is thorny; spathes long and narrow, hardly if at 
all split, differing from Daemonorops which has a read- 
ily opening spathe; fls. dioecious, paniculate or branched 
2 or 3 times; corolla coriaceous, longer than the calyx 
in male fls., as long as the calyx in the female: fr. glo- 
bose, ovoid or ellipsoid, topped by a short permanent 
style. There are more than 200 species, most of which 
inhabit India. See Beccari's excellent monograph Ann. 
Royal. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 11, 1908. 

Calamus is an easily grown group of palms, very 
ornamental, even in a young state. Some of the spe- 
cies have stems several hundred feet long, which enable 
them to unfold their leaves at the tops of the tallest 
trees. The leaves are peculiarly well adapted to assist 
the plant in climbing, having numerous hook-like pro- 
cesses arranged on a long continuation of the midrib of 
the leaf. When accommodations can be given, these 
plants should be selected, as their growth is rapid, and 
they are capable of furnishing a large conservatory 
quickly. Numerous suckers are produced, so that when 
the main stem ascends the lower part is clothed in foli- 
age. Calamus tennis (or C. Royleanus) and C. Rotang 
furnish the rattan canes. Malacca canes are furnished 
by C. Scipionum. Young plants thrive best in a root- 
ing medium containing a considerable quantity of leaf- 
mold. Older plants need soil of a more lasting nature; 
a quantity of ground bone and charcoal in the soil may 



be used to advantage. Old well-furnished plants need 
enormous quantities of water. All of them require stove 
temperature. (G. W. Oliver.) 

ciliaris, Blume. St. slender, climbing by means of 
long axillary leafless branches, covered with short 
hooked spines: Ivs. V/y-^A ft. long,. 6 in. wide; Ifts. 
40-50 on each side, hairy; petiole 2 in. long with few 
hooked spines: spadix of female and male fls. finely 
hairy-hispid on the spathes: fr. globose, about Km. 
diam. Java and Sumatra. F.R. 1:607. G.C. III. 
2i:86. Intro, into cult, in 1869. To be grown in 
tropical house. 

asperrimus, Blume. St. slender, climbing by the 
prickly cirrus of the Ivs. and the prickly branches: Ivs. 
without stalks, about 18 in. long, bearing not more 
than 8-10 thin, papery, irregularly placed Ifts. on each 
side of the rachis: spadix simply decompound, about 
7 ft. long, terminating in a slender prickly appendage. 
Mts. of Java. Can be grown in a cooler house than 
the preceding. 

C. Andreanum, Hort., Pill & Mitterb=(?). C. calicdrpus, Griff. 
=Dmonorops calicarpus, Mart. C. dealbatus. Hort,=Acantho- 
phoenix rubra, Wendl. C. Lewisi&nus, Griff.=Dsemonorop3 Lewis- 
ianus, Mart. JJ. TAYLOK. 

CALAMUS or SWEET FLAG: Acorus Calamus. 

CALANCHOE: Kalanchoe. 

CALANDRINIA (J. L. Calandrini, Genevan botanist, 
who wrote an important thesis in 1734). Portulacaceae. 
Fleshy, spreading or nearly trailing plants, sometimes 
cult, in borders and rockeries, or used for edgings in 
sunny places. 

Flowers red or pink or rose-color, of short duration; 
petals 3-7; sepals 2; stamens 5 (or 3) to 12; style with 
3 branches: Ivs. alternate, narrow. About 60 species, 
Brit. Col. to S. Amer. and in Austral. Annuals and per- 
ennials, but the latter mostly treated as annuals; not 
much grown in gardens. 

A. Fls. in a short umbel-like cluster. 
umbellata, DC. Perennial, 4-6 in.: Ivs. linear and 
hairy: fls. in a corymb, or umbel-like terminal cluster, 
bright crimson. Peru. R.H. 1853:5. The C. umbellata 
of gardens is hardy in many parts of the U. S.; in New 
York it should be planted in a well-sheltered position, 
or provided with ample protection in winter; sometimes 
it acts like the biennials, but, as seeds are produced 
very freely, young seedlings spring up constantly 
between the old plants, and one does not miss the few 
which may decay during the second year; the plant forms 
a very neat, slightly spreading tuft; fls. are produced in 
many-fld. umbels, terminal, numerous, and large, glow- 
ing crimson-magenta, saucer-shaped, very showy. June 
to Nov. Full exposure to sun, and light sandy soil, are 
needed to bring out the rare beauty of these plants. 
The fls. close up when evening comes, like the annual 
portulacas, but they reopen on the following day. In 
the sunny sloping part of a rockery, even when quite 
dry, or among other low plants in a bed or border, 
they are highly satisfactory. Although perennial, it 
may also be treated like the annuals, as it flowers the 
first summer as freely as afterwards. Can be prop, 
by cuttings. 

AA. Fls. in longer clusters, pedicels often more or less 

discolor, Schrad. (C. elegans, Hort.). Perennial, 
1-2 Yi ft.: Ivs. fleshy, spatulate to obovate, purple 
beneath, gray-green above, blunt: fls. bright light pur- 
ple, 2 in. across, with yellow stamens. Chile. B.M . 3357. 

Menziesii, Torr. & Gray (C. speciosa, Lindl.). 
RED MAIDS. Annual: 3-12 in. high, with green herbage, 
glabrous, or nearly so: Ivs. linear, or spatulate-oblanceo- 
late: fls. rose-red or purple, rather large and long- 
peduncled (petals Kin. long). Calif., N. B.R. 1598. 
Variable. There is a white-fld. variety advertised. 


grandiflora, Lindl. Perennial, 1-3 ft.: much like 
C. discolor, but Ivs. oval and pointed, narrowed to 
petiole, green, 4-8 in. long: fls. somewhat smaller, light 
purple. Chile. 

spectabilis, Otto. & Dietr. Perennial, 2 ft.: Ivs. 
lance-spatulate or rhomboid, IJ^ in- long, somewhat 
pointed: fls. bright purple, 2 in. across. Chile. Said 
to produce seed seldom; prop, by cuttings. 

Bftridgii, Hort. Annual, 1 ft.: Ivs. linear-lanceolate, 
smooth: fls. many, small, copper-rose or brick-red, 
in leafy clusters. S. Amer. 

chromantha, Griseb. One ft., loosely branched: Ivs. 
rather large: fls. and buds rose-colored: fr. orange- 
yellow, persisting. Argentina. 

C. oppositifdlia, Wats.=Lewisia oppositifolia. 

L. H. B. 

CALANTHE (Greek for beautiful flower). Orchida- 
cese. Sub-epiphytal or terrestrial hothouse orchids 
found in the eastern hemisphere, and sparingly in the 
western hemisphere. 

Scapes erect, many-fld.: Ivs. broad, plaited: fls. white 
or rose-colored, rarely yellow: pseudobulbs angulate, 
with grayish green sheaths in the Vestitse section, but 
absent in the Veratrifolise section. Forty to 50 species 
in tropics of both hemispheres. 

Most of the species and the numerous varieties 
grown are deciduous, losing the foliage about the time 
of flowering, and, at this season, water is given spa- 
ringly until the flowers are cut; then the bulbs are kept 
in a dry warm place until signs of growth in spring. 
All calanthes are terrestrial and should be potted each 
year in fibrous loam, with a small portion of old manure 
and sand mixed in. Use plenty of drainage as for other 
orchids, and about 2 inches of soil; secure the bulbs 
firmly by means of part of the old wiry roots; water 
very sparingly until active root-action takes place; but, 
when in full growth, weak manure-water may be given 
at each watering. The young foliage is very sensitive to 
sun, and must be shaded as soon as it develops; keep 
the plants near the glass and give all light possible, 
and the warmest treatment permitted in orchid cul- 
ture. They enjoy a little heat, even in summertime, 
from the pipes at night. The best place to grow calan- 
thes is a sunken, well-heated pit facing south, lowering 
the plant as the foliage nears the glass. Calanthe 
veratrifolia is an evergreen species and may be treated 
similarly to the Phaius. Calanthes are easily increased 
by separation of the bulbs at the time of repotting. 
Young bulbs are often produced from the apex of old 
ones; old ones will start again the second year and 
make increase. (E. O. Orpet.) 

vestita, Lindl. (C. oculata, Hort.). Lvs. broadly lan- 
ceolate, nearly 2 ft. long, from grayish green pseudo- 
bulbs: fls. nearly 3 in. across, numerous, in racemes; 
petals and sepals whitish, all more or less overlapping, 
the former oval-oblong, the latter pbovate-oblong; 
labellum flat, large, 3-lobed, the mid-lobe cleft; a 
yellow or crimson blotch in front of the short column; 
scapes from 2-3 ft. high, hairy. Blooms in winter. 
Malaya. B.M. 4671. F.E. 9:325. A.F. 6:655. F.S. 
8:816. A most popular orchid. There are many 
forms, of which the following are the most important: 
Var. gigantea, Hort. Larger in all parts: fls. white, 
with red eye. Var. nivalis, Hort. Fls. pure white. Var. 
Turneri, Hort. (C. Turneri, Reichb. f.). Fls. more 
numerous, labellum with a crimson blotch; blooms later 
in the season than the next. Var. rftbro-oculata, Hort. 
Labellum with a crimson-purple blotch. Oct.-Feb. 
G. 10:629. Var. l&teo-oculata, Hort. Yellow-blotched. 
Var. Regnieri, Hort. (C. Regnieri, Reichb. f . C. Stevensi- 
dna, Regnier). Pseudobulbs more elongated, with a 
depression above the middle: labellum rose-colored, 
with a purple blotch in front of column, less deeply 




lobed than in the type. A.F. 6:655. Var. Regnieri 
Wflliamsii, Hort. (C. Williamsii, Hort.). Sepals 
white, sometimes shaded pink; petals white, rose- 
bordored; lip deep rose. 

veratrifdlia, R. Br. Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, about 2 
ft. long, from a creeping rhizome: fls. white, in dense 
corymbose racemes; petals obovate-spatulate; sepals 
obovate-oblong; labellum 4-parted, the anterior lobes 
usually broader than the posterior or basal lobes. 
Blooms May-July. Malaya. B.M. 2615. 

Veitchii, Lindl. Fig. 735. A hybrid between C. rosea 
and C. vestita: fls. rose-colored; labellum with white 
spot near the base. Winter-flowering. There is also a 
white variety. This hybrid was raised by Veitch, in 
1856. B.M. 5375. Gng. 14:134. A.F. 25:1093. Forms 
of this are var. bella, Hort., with pink fls.; var. nigro- 
oculata gigantea, Hort., with stout sts., the fls. white 
with an eye of reddish crimson; var. Sandhurstiana, 
Hort., with crimson fls.; var. Sedenii, Hort., with deep 
rose fls.; var. superba, Hort., has richer color. 

Masftca, Lindl. Scape 2 ft. long, with large, many- 
ribbed, dark Ivs.: fls. 1 in. across, the segms. overlap- 
ping, deep violet, fading to lilac, the lip deep violet- 
purple. Summer and autumn. N. India. B.M. 4541. 
Var. grandifldra, Hort., is of greater size throughout. 

C. burmdnica, Rolfe. Fls. mauve-purple, with yellow creat. 
Burma. C. Clive, Hort. (C. Veitchii X?). C. Codfcsonii, Hort. 
(C. Veitchii XC. vestita luteo-oculata). Fls. pure white, except a 
blotch of yellow in the throat and a few lemon-yellow lines on lip. 
C. Cornelius Vanderbilt, Hort. (C. vestita rubro-oculata X C. 
Veitchii). C. discolor, Lindl. Sts. leafy: fls. with claret sepals and 
petals and a 3-lobed white lip flushed rose. Japan. G.C. III. 35: 
389. B.R. 26:55. C. Eyermannii, Hort. (C. vestita rubro- 
oculata x C. Veitchii). Racemes shorter than in C. Veitchii, 
with larger, more spreading white fls. with a reddish 
blotch at the base of the lip. G.F. 4:17. C. gigas, 
Hort. (C. grandiflora X C. Regnieri). Fls. nearly 3 in. 
across, borne on a st. over 5 ft. tall; sepals 
petals milk-white, the latter tinged rose at 
base and apex; lip 4 lobed, bright rose, 
striated with pale rose or white, a reddish 
crimson blotch at the base. C. Hennisii, 
Loher. Similar to C. vestita. Philippines. G.C. 
III. 46:34, desc. C. madagascariensis, Rolfe. 
Sepah and petals rosy mauve; lip dull ma- 
genta with white spot at base. G.C. III. 28: 

335, desc. C. McWilliamsii, Hort.=(?). C. Orpeti&na, Hort. C 
,ri, Rolfe. Sepals white; petals much 
11 purple, changing finally to orange. 


only by constant syringing and damping down amongst 
the plants; therefore the need for abundance of drain- 
age is apparent, whether they are grown in pots or 
planted out in a border. It is only by planting them out 
with a free root-run that calatheas may be had in their 
full beauty; and when so grown a collection of these 
plants forms one of the most beautiful examples of tropi- 
cal foliage. Particular attention should be given to 
protecting them from all strong sunshine, the thin text- 
ure of their leaves rendering them specially liable to 
damage from this cause. Most of the species are of 
easy culture providing the above conditions are fol- 
lowed. Many of them spread rapidly and make quick 
growth; therefore they require to be potted or over- 
hauled every spring, but when once well established, 
they may be fed with liquid manure once a week. 
Propagation is by dividing the crowns, or by cuttings 

summitenxe, Hort. C. Wdrj 
narrower, white; lobed lip 

CALATHEA (Greek for basket, the application not 
apparent). Marantdcese. Perennial foliage plants of 
warmhouses, with maranta-like leaves arising in a 
tuft from the crown. 

Sepals 3, free and equal; corolla tubular, with 3 
spreading lobes; stamens 3, petal-like, 2 sterile, and 1 
bearing an anther on its side (compare Canna). From 
Maranta the genus differs chiefly in technical charac- 
ters. In Maranta the fr. is 1-seeded, in Calathea 
usually 3-seeded; in the former the fl. -clusters are 
branched and few-fld., in Calathea usually capitate 
or cone-like. Of calatheas there are more than 100 
species, mostly of Trop. Amer., but a few of trop. Afr. 
The Ivs., for which the plant is grown, are variously 
marked with shades of green, red, brown, yellow, and 
white. They spring from the very base of the short 
st., just above the rhizome, the rhi/omes themselves 
more or less tuberiferous (Fig. 736). Monogr. by 
Schumann in Engler's Pflanzenreich, hft. 11 (1902). 

All the calatheas thrive in a moist tropical house 
in a temperature that does not go below 65 F., with 
a rise during the day to 90 or 95 F. For general pur- 
poses, the best compost in which to grow them is made 
of equal parts of good turfy loam, leaf -mold and sand. 
Some of the more delicate species are best grown in 
leaf -mold and sand only. Stagnation of the soil must 
be particularly avoided by abundance of drainage, as 
they require to be kept rather moister at the roots than 
most stove plants. The close moist atmospherical 
conditions that these plants require can be secured 


in those kinds that 
make secondary 
growths, these cut- 
tings being taken just 
below the nodes. In 
just before growth begins, is a 
good time for this work. Tubers 
may be used, if produced. 

In Florida, calat'heas grow 
exceedingly well in shady lath 
plant-houses. The soil should 
be leaf -mold and very old cow- 
manure added to the original 
natural soil. Commercial fer- 
tilizer should never be used. 
In very cold weather they 
should be covered with pine 
branches and leaves or pine- 
needles. All the kinds soon 
form very beautiful clumps. All of them need much 
water while they are growing, but not in the winter if 
they are planted out in beds. Each spring they must 
be replanted in fresh soil. Then the clumps may be 
divided, or if large specimen plants are desired, they 
may be left intact. (Nehrling.) 

The calatheas are a confusing group to the horti- 
culturist, because the differences that he knows lie 
mostly in characters of leaf and habit and these are 
variable. The size of leaf and plant depends much on 
the treatment, and in some species the juvenile leaves 
are different from the mature ones. The coloration 
of the foliage depends much on the age, and the way 
in which the plants are grown. However, we may 
roughly throw the species into two groups, the small- 



leaved and the large-leaved, although it is a question 
where to place such intermediate kinds as C.Veitchiana, 
C. insignis, C. leopardina, C. Sanderiana, C. nigricans, 
and some others; or we may arrange them in two 
groups by the red-marked kinds (of foliage), and by 
the green-, gray- and white-marked kinds, but this 
would not account for the juvenile and adult stages of 
C. leopardina, C. imperial, C. Chantrieri, C. ornata, 
and others. The botanical classification by floral 
characters would be .of little use to the general horti- 
culturist. Some plants known in collections as calatheas 
are likely to be marantas, phryniums, monotagmas, 
ctenanthe, or others. The radical tufted leaves and 
capitate inflorescence of Calathea, and the zigzag stems 
and branched inflorescence and small flowers of Maranta 
are general characters of separation between these two 
genera. In the present account, the attempt has been 
made to draw the characters as much as possible from 
cultivated specimens apparently authentically named. 

Albertii, 15. 
alho-lineata, 12, 35. 
Alluia, 32. 
angustifolia, 3. 
argyrophylla, 39. 
Bachemiana, 45. 
Binotii, 42. 
Chantrieri, 34. 
chimboracensis, 5. 
consptcua, 23. 
crocata, 18. 
crotalifera, 31. 
discolor, 3. 
eximia, 26. 
farinosa, 8. 
fasciata, 8. 
flavescens, 10. 
Foxii, 19. 
Gouletii, 22. 
gracilis, 25. 
grandiflora, 10. 
illustris, 20. 
imperialis, 36. 


insignis, 38. 
Legrelliana, 30. 
leopardina, 33. 
Lietzei, 23. 
Lindeniana, 28. 
Louisse, 21. 
Luciana, 9. 
majestica, 35. 
Makoyana, 16. 
Marcellii, 14. 
micans, 4. 
Neubertii, 23. 
nigricans, 40. 
nitens, 17. 
noctiflora, 25. 
olivaris, 16. 
ornata, 12, 35. 
ovali folia, 8. 
Pavonii, 2. 
picta, 24. 
princeps, 29. 
propinquum, 7, 
pulchella, 43. 

pumilum, 4. 
regalis, 35. 
roseo-lineata, 1. 
roseo-picta, 1. 
roseo-striata, 29. 
rotundifolia, 8. 
rufibarba, 27. 
Sagoreana, 11. 
Sanderiana, 37. 
Sophise, 41. 
tigrina, 43. 
trifasciata, 7. 
tubispatha, 2. 
Vandenheckei, 22. 
Veitchiana, 19. 
virginalis, 14. 
vittata, 12. 
Wagneri, 1. 
Wallisii, 13. . 
Warscewiczii, 44. 
Wiotiana, 6. 
zebrina, 42. 

A. Markings of If. (upper surface) in red or In-own, at 

least in part. 

1. rdseo-picta, Regel (C. roseo-lineata, Hort.? 
Mardnta rdseo-picta, Lind. M. Wagneri, Hort.). 
Dwarf: Ivs. nearly orbicular, purple beneath, the upper 
side dark green, the midrib red, and an irregular red 
zone (sometimes two zones) two-thirds of the distance 
from the midrib toward the margin. Amazon. F.S. 
16:1675-6. Gn. 2, p. 3. 

2. Pavdnii, Kcern. (C. tubispatha, Hook. f.). Two 
feet or less high: Ivs. obovate-elliptic, short-acuminate 
or cuspidate, thin, greenish beneath, lively green above, 
and marked midway between the rib and the margin 
with lighter green and squarish patches of brown. 
Peru. B.M. 5542. 

3. angustifdlia, Koern. (Mardnta discolor, Hort.). 
Habit loose, erect, only slightly spreading at apex: 
growths bearing 1-4 Ivs. from 1-5 ft. high; blade 
lanceolate, unequilateral, %-2 ft. long, rich light green 
with fine lines of purple-red above, rich shining red 
beneath; petiole erect, stout, 1-3 ft. high, rich dark 
red, heavily marked with light green tuberculate 
spots; sheath extending from one-third to one-half its 
length: in the juvenile form the whole of the plant is 
densely covered with reddish brown hairs, but in the 
adult plant, the blade is almost entirely glabrous. 
Cent. Amer. B.M. 8149. 

AA. Markings of If. mostly on the order of green or white 
(exceptions in juvenile stages of Nos. 35, 86, 37 
and others). 

B. Lf. -blades small or short, usually less than 12 in. long. 
c. Under side of Ivs. green, grayish, or yellowish (violet 

informs of No. 14). 

4. micans, Kcern. (Mardnta micans, Math. Phry- 
nium pumilum, Klotzsch). Very small: Ivs, 2-3 in. 

736. Tuber of calatljea. 



long, and 1 in. wide, oblong-lanceolate, somewhat 
acuminate, green and shining above, the rib in a feath- 
ered white stripe, paler beneath. Brazil. Probably 
the smallest cult. Calathea. 

5. chimboracensis, Lind. Dwarf: Ivs. oblong-ovate, 
8-12 in. long, acuminate, green above and below, with a 
very dark green white-margined band running length- 
wise the blade midway between the rib and each mar- 
gin. Neighborhood of Mt. Chimborazo. I.H. 17:6. 

6. Wiotiana, Makoy (Mardnta Widtii, Morr.). 
Habit dwarf, spreading: rhizomes branching freely: 
growths bearing only a single If. each; blade linear- 
lanceolate, slightly oblique, 4- 
12 in. long, undulate, acute, 
upper side silvery gray with a 
narrow band of light green 
around the margin ; midrib green, 
with a row arranged pinnately, 
along either side of the midrib, 
of dark olive-green blotches or 
stripes; under side dull grayish 
green finely striated all over 

between the principal veins with patches of light 
yellowish green; petiole 3-15 in. long, erect or spread- 
ing-, light green, terete sheath entirely absent. Prob- 
ably Brazil. A most beautiful species; thrives best in 
leaf-mold and sand. 

7. trifasciata, Kcern. (Phrynium propinquum, Poepp. 
& End!.). Habit dwarf, spreading, with short free- 
branching rhizomes: growths bearing 1 If. only; blade 
cordate-ovate, unequilateral, 3-12 in. long, apex acute, 
and half twisted around, upper side silvery gray shading 
to green at the margins and with a row on either side 
of the midrib of dark green stripes arranged pinnately, 
under side light green, prominently striated on both 
upper and lower sides with a network of fine veins 
connecting all the principal lateral veins; midrib pale 
yellowish brown on the under side and covered with 
dark brown hairs in the lower half and extending for 
an inch or more on the apex of the petiole; petiole 3-12 
in. long, light green, glabrous except in the upper inch 
or so; scale Ivs. reddish brown. Guiana. A companion 
plant to C. Wiotiana, to which it is closely allied, but 
differs in the broader and paler color of the Ivs. Of 
easy cult. 

8. fasciata, Regel & Kcern. Habit dwarf, compact: 
Ivs. 10-18 in. long, reflexed; growths bearing 1-3 Ivs.; 
blade broadly ovate or orbicular, acute or obtuse, 
glabrous 5-10 in. long, slightly undulate; upper side 
rich dark olive-green alternately marked by trans- 
verse bars of silvery white; under side dull grayish 
green; petiole 4-8 in. long, spreading, dull green, 
covered with short and minute brownish hairs; sheath 
extending up to one-half the length of the petiole, 
upper part terete. Brazil. Gn. 2, p. 3. Considered by 
some to be a variety of C. rotundifolia, Koern. C. 
farinosa and C. ovalifolia are probably stages in the 
development of this plant or perhaps slight varieties. 

9. Luciana, Hort. Habit medium to strong, compact, 
more or less tufted: growths with 2-5 Ivs., usually 
with 3, arching over at the tips and J^-3 ft. high; 
blade elliptic, oblique, glabrous, acute, slightly undulate, 
3-12 in. long, upper side light pea-green feathered 
along the midrib with pale greenish white and with a 
concentric zone of the same shade near the margin of 
the If., under side dull grayish green; petiole erect, 
slender, rigid, pale green, glabrous or nearly so; sheath 
extending from one-half to nearly the entire length of 
the petiole, upper part oval, slightly flattened on each 
side: infl. a short few-fld. spike; peduncle 1-3 in. long; 
bracts spreading or erect, ovate, light reddish brown, 
\}/2 in. long; fls. in pairs, yellow; sepals thin, linear, 
one-third the length of the tube; corolla yellow; petals 
elliptic, %in. long, spreading, acute; the 2 petaloid 
aborted stamens obovate, J^in. long, bright yellow, 




and striped or blotched with bright red; style curved, 
^in. long, yellow. Trop. Amer. 

10. flavescens, Lindl. Habit tufted, glabrous in all 
parts: growths with 3-5 Ivs., 1-2 ^ ft. high; blade 
elliptic, slightly oblique, 6-12 in. long, acute, light 
green above, soft grayish green below; petiole 12-18 
in. long, pale yellowish green finely spotted with darker 
green; sheath one-third to one-half the length of the 
petiole, upper part oval: infl. a dense globose short 
raceme; peduncle less than an inch; bracts large, 
elliptic, outer ones 2 in. long, bracteoles smaller, 
linear or lanceolate; fls. in pairs, sessile or nearly so, 
an inch diam.; sepal primrose, equal, lanceolate; petals 
large, bilobed, obovate, bright yellow. Brazil. B.R. 
932. Perhaps to be referred to C. grandiflora, Schum. 

11. Sagoreana, Hort. (Mardnta Sagoredna, Hort.). 
Habit dwarf and compact: growth bearing 2-4 Ivs., 
usually with 3, and from 6-18 in. high, erect at first, 
arching towards the apex; blade lanceolate, unequi- 
lateral, 4-9 in. long, pale yellowish green with a row 
on either side of the midrib of arrowhead-shaped 
blotches of dark green which give this plant a distinct 
and pretty appearance, the under side in plain yellow- 
ish green; petiole slender, erect, 6-12 in. long; sheath 
extending only to about a quarter of its length, upper 
part terete. 

12. vittata, Koern. (C. dlbo-linedta, Hort. C. or- 
ndta var. dlbo-linedta and Mardnta dlbo-linedta, Hort.). 
Habit dwarf, compact, 3^~2 ft. high: growths with 2-5 
Ivs.; blade elliptic-lanceolate, slightly oblique, 3-12 in. 
long, glabrous, acute, upper side light green, pinnately 
striped with white from apex to base, underside pale 
dull green shaded between the veins with slightly 
lighter yellowish green ; petiole slender, erect or spread- 
ing, 3-15 in. high, light green, glabrous; sheath extend- 
ing from one-third to one-half its length, upper part 
terete. Probably Colombia. 

13. Wallisii, Regel (Mardnta Wallisii, Lind.). Habit 
strong, but neat and graceful, branching and forming 
numerous growths: growths bearing from 2-7 Ivs., and 
1-4 ft. high; blade broadly ovate, acute or obtuse, 
6-12 in. long, rich h'ght velvety green along the margin 
and midrib and with a row on either side of the midrib 
of dark irregular blotches of olive-green, under side 
soft grayish green; petiole erect, slender; sheath, 
extending to half the length of the petiole, and covered 
with soft hairs, upper part terete: with the exception 
of the sheathing lower half of the If .-stalks, the whole 
plant is glabrous. Peru. One of the commonest 
species in cult, and of very easy culture. A useful and 
decorative pot-plant. 

14. virginalis, Lind. Lvs. soft-hairy below, broad- 
oval, rather blunt, 7-9 in. long, 4-6 in. broad, upper 
surface light green, and below, in the common form, 
whitish green and lighter zones shown, as on the upper 
surface, or in another form, which has been distribu- 
ted in gardens as C. (Maranta) Marcellii, under side 
shaded a light violet and without zones. Brazil. 
A.F. 7:611. Allied to C. Veitchiana, but has bracts 
with indurated tips rather than membranaceous. 

cc. Under side of Ivs. violet, purple, or suffiised with red. 

15. Albertii, Hort. (Mardnta Albertii, Pynaert & 
Van Geert). Habit dwarf, spreading, less than a foot 
high: growths bearing 2-5 Ivs., erect or spreading; 
blade oblique, elliptic, undulate, acute, 4-9 in. long, 
glabrous, upper side dark green feathered on either 
side of the midrib with a band of pale yellowish green, 
under side dull green suffused with light purple-red: 
infl. a few-fld. terminal spike; peduncle 3-4 in. long, 
pale green; floral bracts half reflexed outwards, orbicu- 
lar or broadly ovate, %in. long; bracteoles 4-6, white, 
scarious; fls. in pairs, pure white; sepals half the length 
of the tube; petals lanceolate, J^in. long, tube %in. 
long; 2 petaloid stamens slightly longer than the 

petals^ obovate, fertile stamen hooded and curved over 
the stigma; style and stigma short curved, white. 

16. Makoyana, Nichols. (Mardnta Makoydna, Morr. 
M. olivdris, Hort.). One to 4 ft.: Ivs. broad-oblong, 
obtuse or somewhat short-pointed, the stalks red, the 
If. olive-green or cream-colored above but marked 
against the midrib with outspreading, dark green 
blotches of oblong, oval or pyrifprm shape, the under 
surface similarly marked, but in red. Brazil. F.S. 
20:2048-9. G.C. 1872: 1589. Gn. 4, p. 87. 

17. nitens, Bull. Habit dwarf; blade elliptic, acute, 
glabrous, upper side bright green, with oblong acute 
bars of dark olive-green, alternate long and short, on 
either side of the midrib, under side dull green tinted 
with dull red. Brazil. Distinct and pretty. 

18. crocata, Morr. & Joris. Whole plant 12 in. 
high: Ivs. sub-distichous; petiole 2-3 in. long, sheath- 
ing most of its length; blade 4-5 in. long, erect, ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, somewhat undulate, dark green 
and veined above, rose-purple beneath: spike short, 
the bracts bright saffron-yellow. Brazil. B.M. 7820. 
G.C. III. 28:113. G.M. 53:265. J.H. III. 60:329. 
G. 32 :263. F.W. 1876 : 161. A free bloomer and showy 
when in flower. 

19. Veitchiana, Hook. f. Fig. 737. Habit strong, 
loose, and spreading, 1-4 ft. high: growths with 2-8 
Ivs., usually with 3; blade ovate or elliptic-ovate, 
oblique, acute, undulate, glabrous, 4-12 in. long, upper 
side rich dark glossy green, feathered along either side 
of the midrib with an irregular band of pale green and 
with an inner zone of dark olive-green blotches and an 
outer one of pale yellowish green (often shading to 
white) between the midrib and margin; under side 
similarly blotched, but in shades of purple -red and 
rosy red; petiole J^-3 ft. long, stout, green and gla- 
brous above, tinted with reddish brown and hairy in 
lower part; sheath extending from one- third to one- 
half the length of the petiole, upper part terete: infl. 

737. Calathea Veitchiana. 



on erect densely fld. spike on peduncle 4-6 in. long; 
spike 2-3 in. long, with a rosette 2 in. diam., of large 
green foliolose erect or capped spreading bracts; 
floral bracts erect, spreading at the tips, ovate, an inch 
long, outer ones covered in lower part with brown hairs ; 
fls. in pairs, primrose-white, tube %in. long, slender; 
sepals erect, J^in. long, lanceolate; petals elliptic 
Kin. long, reflexed; fertile stamen hooded, small, 2 
aborted petaloid ones longer than the petals, obovate, 
bilobed, with a bright violet blotch on the front; 
style and stigma small, curved. Peru. B.M. 5535. 
G.C. 1870:924. Gn. 2, p. 545. F.S. 16:1655-8. A 
dwarf var. F6xii, Raffill, has recently been intro. into 
cult, from Venezuela. It differs from the type in its 
dwarf habit, rarely exceeding 10-12 in. high: Ivs. 
broader, more reflexed, and with a bright rose or red 
midrib; the color of the markings of the If. are darker 
and of a slightly different shape, the dark inner zone 
of green being more broken in outline, and running into 
the midrib: infl. smaller, but the fls. in size and color 
are the same as in the type. 

20. illustris, Nichols. (Mardnta illtistris, Lindl.). 
Habit dwarf and compact, 6-9 in. high: Ivs. spreading, 
growths bearing 2-5 Ivs. 6-9 in. long; blade oblique, 
ovate, acute, undulate, 4-6 in. long, 2-5 in. broad, 
upper side rich dark shining olive-green, with a bluish 
metallic luster over the whole, the midrib being feath- 
ered on either side with dull silvery white and an irregu- 
lar zone of the same color running the complete circle 
of the blade, under side dull purplish red; petiole 2-3 
in. long, spreading, dull greenish brown; sheath extend- 
ing to one-half the length of the petiole, upper part 
terete; petioles, If .-scales and under side of the midrib 
covered with minute brown hairs: infl. an erect, capi- 
tate, few-fld. spike, on slender peduncle 4-6 in. long; 
bracts of two kinds, the upper 3 or 4 green, folio- 
lose ovate, spreading over the floral bracts, and curv- 
ing upward at the tips; lower bracts scarious, orbicu- 
lar, light brown and shading to bright red at the point 
of attachment to the rachis, bracteoles 2-4, lanceo- 
late, shorter than the bract: fls. in pairs; sepals white, 
two-thirds length of the tube, tube %in. long; petals 
lanceolate, white, spreading, Kin- long; 2 aborted 
petaloid stamens larger than the petals, obovate, 
lower one heavily blotched with purple; stamen hooded; 
style and stigma white, curved, J^in. long; ovary 
minute, white. Ecuador. F.S. 16:1691-2. By some 
regarded as derived from C. roseo-picta. 

21. Louisae, Chantrier (Mardnta Louisas' Hort.). 
Habit tufted, 2-3 ft. high: growths with 2-5 Ivs.; 
blade elliptic, only slightly oblique, glabrous, acute 
margins plain or slightly undulate, 6-12 in. long, upper 
side light pea-green, feathered along the midrib with 
white, changing with age to a soft greenish white; 
under side light green tinted with pale purple-red; 
petiole K-2K ft- long, slender, erect, green, covered 
with soft minute brown hairs; sheath extending from 
one-third to one-half the length of the petiole, upper 
part terete: infl. an erect spike, elliptic in outline, on 
a leafy peduncle 4-12 in. long; bracts creamy white, 
reniform, obtuse or acute, bracteoles numerous, white, 
scarious; fls. in pairs; sepals linear, cream, half the length 
of the tube, tube %in. long; petals lanceolate, reflexed; 
lip elliptic, with bright yellow disk reflexed with scarious 
margins; column white or cream, linear curved towards 
the lip. 

22. Vandenheckei, Regel (Mardnta and C. GouUtii, 
Hort.). Habit dense and tufted, 1-2K ft. high: growths 
with 1-3 Ivs., usually 2; blade oblique, elliptic or 
elliptic-ovate, 3-9 in. long, acute, upper side glabrous, 
rich dark green, marbled with silvery white along the 
midrib and an irregular undulating line of the same 
color running the complete circle of the blade, the 
intervening tissue in some cases will be also entirely 
composed of this silvery white colored tissue and the 


green part reduced to a marginal ring Kin. diam.; 
these two strikingly distinct forms of Ivs. will often be 
found on a single plant in adjoining growths; in this 
case it is not that either of them represent the adult 
stage, as both are of frequent occurrence on the 
same plant and both produce infls.; under side, dull 
purple-red; petiole erect or spreading, dull reddish 
brown; sheath reaching from one- third to one-half its 
length, upper part terete or oval: infl. an erect narrow 
spike, sometimes sessile but more commonly on a 
peduncle 3-15 in. high; bracts erect, ovate, green 
tinted with brown, closely adpressed and forming a 
narrow cone-like mass some 3-5 in. long, the upper pair 
of bracts always being enlarged and spreading outwards 
like 2 small elliptic Ivs.: fls. in pairs, white; sepals 
half the length of the tube; tube %in. long; petals 
elliptic spreading; column curved, white with brown 
stripe. A fine stove plant for large or small pots, and 
on account of its tufted habit is of great use for decora- 
tion. Of very easy cult. 

23. Lietzei, E. Morr. (Mardnta conspicua, Bull. M. 
Neiibertii, Hort.). Habit dwarf, spreading by means of 
runners: growths bearing from 1-7 Ivs. K~2 ft. high; 
blade obliquely elliptic, acute, undulate, glabrous, 
3-9 in. long, upper side soft velvety green, striped along 
the principal veins with dark olive-green and feathered 
between the veins with splashes of yellowish green, 
lower side dull purple-red, midrib brown; petiole 3-15 
in. long, softly tomentose in lower part; sheath extend- 
ing from one-half to nearly the entire length of the 
petiole: infl. borne upon long slender leafy sts., which 
later become swollen and root at the nodes and change 
to runners, thus forming an easy means of prop: few- 
fld., bracts green, ovate; fls. in pairs in axil of each 
bract, pure white, Kin. diam.; sepals linear; petals 
obovate. Brazil. B.H. 25:273. 

24. picta, Hook. f. (Mardnta picta, Hort.). Habit 
dense and compact, covered in all parts with soft 
velvety hairs: growths with 4-10 Ivs. and K~3 ft. 
high; blade elliptic, undulate, acute, 6-15 in. long, 
upper side rich velvety olive-green, feathered on either 
side of the midrib, pale yellowish green; under side rich 
purple-red; petiole 3-18 in. long, dull red; sheath extend- 
ing nearly the entire length of the petiole, the upper 
inch or two being terete, and rather brighter in color 
than the lower part: infl. a dense cone-like spike, 
borne on long slender terete sts. 1-3 ft. long and bear- 
ing 1 or more Ivs. which change into runners after 
the fls. are over, becoming fleshy and rooting at the 
nodes, forming a ready means of prop.; bracts 1-2 in. 
long, erect, elliptic or ovate, pale primrose tinted with 
rose or violet; fls. in pairs, 1 in. diam., primrose tinted 
with violet. Brazil. B.M. 7674. G.C. III. 22:293. 

25. noctifldra, Hort. (Mardnta noctiflora, Regel & 
Krern. M. grdcilis, Hort.). Habit loose and spreading, 
1-2 K ft- high: growths with 2 or 3 Ivs.; blade elliptic 
or elliptic-ovate, 6-12 in. long, pendulous or horizontal, 
upper side pale yellowish green, pinnately striped with 
rich dark green bars along the principal veins, lower 
side light green faintly suffused with dull red, the prin- 
cipal veins being more strongly marked with a deeper 
shade of red; petiole erect, rigid, 6-18 in. long; sheath, 
extending to half its length, upper part terete, green. 
Probably Brazil. Perhaps a true Maranta. 

26. eximia, Kcern. (Phrynium eximium, Koch). 
Habit loose and spreading: growths bearing 1-3 Ivs., 
usually 2, and from 1-3 ft. long; blade elliptic or ellip- 
tic-ovate, acute, 6-15 in. long, upper surface alter- 
nately striped with rich olive-green and light silver 
tissue, and arranged in the form of a feather, midrib 
channeled pale yellowish green, under side rich dark 
wine-red, glabrous above, softly tomentose with brown 
hairs beneath; petiole spreading, stout, 1-2 ft. long, 
lower part light green, reddish brown above, beneath 
extending from one-third to nearly the entire length of 




the petiole, upper part oval or terete. Cent. Amer. 
Gt. 686. One of the finest and most beautiful mem- 
bers of the genus. 

27. rufibarba, Fenzl. Habit erect, densely tufted: 
growths with 3-7 Ivs. 13^-4 ft. long; blades linear- 
lanceolate, 6-12 in. long, rich shining green, suffused 
with purplish red below, undulate, acute; petiole %- 
2 l /2 ft. long, terete above the sheath; sheath extending 
from 2-10 in. of the base of the If., dull red heavily 
spotted with green. Probably Brazil. B.M. 7560. 
Densely hairy in all its parts. 

28. Lindeniana, Wallis (C. lAndenii, Wallis & Andre). 
Lvs. elliptic-oblong, short-acuminate (12 in. or less 
long), deep green above with an olive-green zone either 
side of the midrib, and beyond which is a darker zone 
of green, the under side counterfeiting the upper side, 
but with purplish zones. Brazil. I.H. 18:82. By 
some considered to be a form of C. ruseo-picta. 

29.- princeps, Regel (Mardnta princeps, Lind.). 
Lf. elongated or elliptical-lanceolate, 7-10 in. long, 
3-3 y% in. broad, light green above, with broad black- 
green, flaming, broken band along the middle nerve, 
violet-purple below. Amazon. 

30. Legrelliana, Regel. Lf. 
elliptical, pointed, 5-6 in. long, 
2-33^ in. broad, above shining 
green, with broad, white, flam- 
ing, broken middle band along 
the middle nerve and numerous 
broken white linear small bands 
between the side nerves; lower 
surface whitish gre'en and 
marked with red and green. 
Colombia, Ecuador. A neat species. 

BB. Lf .-blades larger, mostly upwards of 

12 in. long. 
c. Under side of Ivs. green (red in juvenile 

states of Nos. 34 and others and in 

No. 37 and perhaps No. 45}. 

31. crotalifera, Wats. RATTLESNAKE 
PLANT. Lvs. oval, abruptly acute at 
each end, 1^-2 ft. long, and 10-12 in. 
broad, yellowish green, with a white- 
margined midrib, paler underneath; 
petiole 2-3 ft. long, curved, sheathing: 

peduncles 1 or 2, 8-10 in. high, bearing distichous 
yellow-fld. spikes. Guatemala. Offered in Fla. The 
spikes suggest the rattle of a rattlesnake (Crotalus) 
whence the specific name. 

32. Alluia, Lindl. Habit erect: growths bearing 4-10 
Ivs. 2-4 ft. long; blade 1-2 ft. long, elliptic, arching in 
upper half, light green above, pale silvery gray below, 
margins slightly undulate; petiole erect, often as much 
as 2 ft. long, green, striped with dull red on each side, 
the sheath extending up to within 2-3 in. of the apex, 
where it becomes terete. W. Indies. Alluia is a native 
Carib name. 

33. leopardina, Regel (Mardnta leopardina, Bull). 
Habit strong and vigorous, quickly forming a large and 
fine specimen: growths bearing 3-7 erect or spreading 
Ivs., often as much as 5 ft. high, and arching over at 
the tip; blade to 20 in. long, elliptic, slightly oblique, 
acute, slightly undulate, and glabrous in all parts, 
upper side rich green in the adult stage; in the juvenile 
stage the Ivs. are dark olive-green in the center, with 
an irregular outer band of paler green, forming a com- 
plete zone between the dark green center and margin; 
under side light green; petiole 1-4 ft. high, rigid, 
erect; sheath extending from one- third to one-half the 
length of the petiole, upper part terete, glabrous, 
shining light green. Brazil. A near ally of C. Chant- 
rieri, but not so brightly colored in the markings of 
the If. 

738. Calathea zebrina. 

34. Chantrleri, Hort. (Mardnta Chantrieri, Andr6). 
Habit strong and vigorous, erect, spreading and arch- 
ing above: growths bearing 3-4 Ivs. and reaching as 
much as 6 or 7 ft. high in the adult stage; blade elliptic, 
glabrous; in the juvenile stage the larger part of the 
upper side of the If. is a pale yellowish green with a 
dark green irregular band running around the margins 
and along the midrib, the under side is rich purplish 
red, in the adult stage the color on both sides of the 
If. is all lost and becomes a rich dark green, the inter- 
mediate stages of development are marked by a gradual 
loss of the light yellowish green on the upper side and 
purple-red of the lower and the gradual encroachment 
of the dark green color which predominates in the 
adult stage; petiole 13^-5 ft. long, downy when young, 
glabrous when old, spreading out- 
ward; sheath extending from one- 
half to three-fourths of its length, 
upper part terete. Brazil. A near 
ally, if not a variety of the older 
C. leopardina, Regel. 

cc. Under side of Ivs. in shades of 
purple or red (or perhaps 
green in No. 45). 

35. ornata, Koern. (Mardnta 
ornata, Lind. M. regdlis, 
Hort.) . Habit vigorous, erect, 
spreading with age: growths 
bearing 1^4 Ivs.; blade ellip- 
tic or elliptic-cordate, acute, 
1-3 ft. long, rich shining green above 
(in the adult stage), dull purple-red 
below, the Ivs. in the juvenile stage all 
beautifully striped between the prin- 
cipal veins with rose or pink, which in 
the intermediate stage changes to 
white and disappears entirely in the 
adult; petiole erect spreading with age, 
often as much as 4 ft. long and thick in pro- 
portion; sheath extending from one-third to 
one-half its length, upper part terete, slightly 
downy, especially in the lower part. Guiana 
to Ecuador. F.S. 4:413-14 The forms this 
plant assumes during the different stages of 
its development have been distinguished by 
some nurserymen who have distributed them 
under separate names, C. regalis, C. majestica, 
and C. roseo-striata all being stages of the one plant. 
To add to the confusion they are also known in the 
trade under the generic name of Maranta. The plant 
known as C. albo-lineata or Maranta albo-lineata, has 
been referred by some authors to this species, but it 
has no near affinity and is a different plant from 
C. ornata, C. imperialis or C. Sanderiana. 

36. imperialis, Hort. (Mardnta imperialis, Hort.). 
Habit vigorous,- erect, spreading in the adult stage: 
growths with 2-7 Ivs. 6 in. to 5 ft. long; blade as much 
as 2 ft. long when adult, elliptic-ovate, acute, entire, 
shiny green above, rich purple-red below; petiole 
stout, erect or spreading, dull green; sheath developed 
about half its length, upper part terete. One of the 
best species for decorative effect. This species presents 
a striking dissimilarity between the juvenile and adult 
stages of growth. The juvenile stage is much the better 
for horticultural purposes as the Ivs. are then striped 
with bright rose or pink between the principal lateral 
veins. This color gradually changes as the plant grows 
stronger and becomes vigorous, the stripes on the 
lower Ivs. first becoming white and gradually disappear- 
ing on the Ivs. that are developed after the plant 
reaches the adult stage, until a stage is reached when 
all the color and stripes on the upper side of the Ivs. 
are lost and the Ivs. are a rich shining green color. 
The high color is again developed as soon as the plant 
is disturbed at the roots either for prop, or by injury. 



37. Sanderiana, Hort. (Mardnta Sanderiana). A 
species closely allied to C. imperialis but differing in 
the broader and shorter If.-blades, darker color of the 
under sides of the Ivs , transverse striation between the 
veins, the hairy character of the petioles and under 
side of the Ivs. Habit erect, spreading with age : growths 
bearing 1-4 Ivs.; blades ovate, or elliptic-ovate, up to 
as much as 2 ft. long when adult, acute, green above (in 
the adult stage), rich plum-red below; Ivs. in the juvenile 
stage are striped with bright rose which become white 
in the intermediate stage and entirely disappear in 
the adult; petiole erect, stout; sheath extending from 
one- third to one-half its length, upper part terete; 
If.-scales, petioles and under sides of the Ivs. slightly 
pubescent. Brazil. C. ornata, C. imperialis and C. 
Sanderiana are probably all forms of one very variable 

38. insignis, Bull. Habit tufted, dwarf and compact: 
growths bearing 2-3 Ivs. and from J^-3 ft. high; blade 
linear-lanceolate, 3-18 in. long, undulate, acute, glabrous, 
upper side highly glabrous, pale yellowish green shad- 
ing to rich olive green at the edges, and with a row on 
either side of the midrib arranged pinnately of alter- 
nate long and short blotches of dark olive-green, 
giving the plant a most distinct and striking effect; 
under side a rich dark maroon-red; petiole 3-20 in. 
long, rigid, slender; sheath only developed near the 
base, upper part terete, green. Brazil. J.H. III. 
45:218. One of the most beautiful foliage plants in 
cult, and one which thrives well in a hot moist stove 
in a mixture of leaf-mold and sand. 

39. argyrophylla, Hort. A garden hybrid. Habit 
spreading: growths with 2-5 Ivs. 1-3H ft- long, 12-20 
in. long, elliptic, silvery white, feathered with pale 
green above and rich reddish brown below; petiole 12-20 
in. long, pale green, striped along the back with red; 
sheath extending up to within 4-8 in. of the If.-blade, 
upper part terete and slightly channeled on upper side, 
glabrous in all parts. 

40. nigricans, Gagnep. Habit loose, light and elegant, 
erect at first, spreading with age: growths bearing 2-3 
Ivs., 2-5 ft. high; blade elliptic, occasionally lanceolate, 
acute, undulate, 12-20 in. long, rich dark velvety green 
above, dull red below; petiole 1-4 ft. long, erect; sheath 
extending to one-third the length of the petiole, upper 
two- thirds terete, dull green in color: infl. arising from 
center of the growth of the Ivs., an erect globose spike 
with large fofiose; bracts: fls. 2-3 in the axil of each 
bract, 1 in. diam., primrose in color, petals shaded 
with purple; tube 1 in. long; bracts green, reflexed, 
upper ones forming an umbrella-like mass under which 
the fls. are developed in the axils of the lower bracts. 
Trop. Amer. R.H. 1904, p. 576. 

41. Spphiae, Hort. Habit medium to strong: growths 
with 3-7 Ivs. and 1-3 ft. high; blade elliptic, acute, undu- 
late, 12-18 in. long, rich bright velvety green with a 
bright yellowish green channeled midrib above, light 
red below; petiole erect, rigid, covered with soft tomen- 
tum; sheath extending from one-third to one-half the 
length of the petiole, upper part terete. Closely allied 
to C. nigricans. 

42. zebrina, Lindl. (Mardnta zebrina, Sims). ZEBRA 
PLANT. Fig. 738. Habit compact, 1-3 ft. high: growths 
bearing from 6-20 spreading Ivs. ; blade elliptic, obtuse 
or acute, slightly undulate, %-2 ft. long, upper side 
rich velvety green, with alternating bars of pale yel- 
lowish green and dark olive-green, under side light pur- 
ple-red in the adult stage, and pale grayish green in 
the young stage; petiole J^-2 ft. long, pale green; 
sheath large, canaliculate, and extending nearly the 
whole length of the petiole; scape short. Variable. 
Brazil. B.M. 1926. L.B.C. 5:494. R.H. 1865, p. 
90. S.H. 1:164. Lowe, 1. The commonest species, 
occurring in nearly all collections of warm greenhouse 


Var. Bindtii, Hort., is a stronger - growing variety 
with darker colored foliage, with Ivs. as much as 4J^j 
ft. long. One of the finest and best stove foliage plants 
in cult., of easy culture and one that should be in all 

43. pulchella, Koern. (Mardnta tignna, Bull). 
Weaker grower than C. zebrina, the Ivs. lighter colored, 
with two series (large and small) of broad green bars. 
Brazil. By some considered to be a form of C. zebrina. 

44. Warscewiczii, Koern. Rather large: Ivs. 2 ft. 
long, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, purple beneath, 
dark, velvety green above, but the midrib broadly 
feathered with yellow-green. Costa Rica. F.S. 9:939- 
40. Gn. 17:560. Lowe, 17. One of the best. 

45. Bachemiana, Morr. Lvs. unequilateral, cordate 
at the base, ovate-lanceolate or rarely oblong, attenuate- 
acuminate, smooth, silvery green above, finely striate, 
with parallel greenish or whitish markings along the 
primary nerves, purplish or greenish beneath. Brazil. 

C. argyrssa, Kcern. Lvs. very short, unequal, oblong-lanceo- 
late, short-acuminate, above deep green and ash-colored, beneath 
purple. Country unknown. C. arrecta, Lind. & Andre 1 . Tall: 
Ivs. oblong, red beneath, green above, with the nerves all prominent. 
Ecuador. I.H. 18:77. C. bambusdcea, Poepp. & Endl.=Ischnqsi- 
phon. C. Baraqulnii, Regel. Lvs. oval-lanceolate, green, with 
bands of white. Brazil. C. fascinator, Hort. Dwarf: Ivs broad- 
qvate-oblong, purplish beneath, green above and with blotches of 
lighter color and transverse narrow bars of red. Brazil. I.H. 
41:104 (as Maranta Fascinator). C. gigas, Gagnep. Eight ft.: 
If.-blade lanceolate, 2 ft. long, 8-10 in. broad, violet-purple when 
young but becoming green; petioles 5 ft. long: spike cylindric, 
about 4 in. long, bearing 8 pairs of yellow-and-white fls. Trop. 
Amer. C. hieroglyphica, Lind. & Andre 1 . Dwarf: Ivs. short- 
ovate, short-pointed, purplish beneath, green above and marked 
by many oblique bands or bars of silvery white. Colombia. I.H. 
20:122-3. C. Kerchoveana, Hort.=Maranta bicolor var. C. 
Lageriana, Hort. Lvs. large, dark red beneath, the prominent veins 
rich bronze. C. major, Hort.=Ischnosiphon. C. Massangeana, 
Hort.=Maranta bicolor var Massangeana. C. medio-plcta, 
Makqy (Maranta prasina, Bull). Lvs. oval-lanceolate and 
tapering to both ends, dark green, with the rib feathered with 
white from base to summit. Brazil. C. musaica, Hort. (Maranta 
musiaca, Bull). A dwarf-growing species with obliquely cordate 
ovate Ivs. 4-6 in. long, glabrous, acute, upper side pale shining 
green marked with numerous close set transverse veins of a lighter 
shade; petiole 3-6 in. long. Brazil. C. Oppenheimiana, Morr.= 
Ctenanthe. C. pardina, Planch. & Lind.=C. villosa. C. smarag- 
dlna, Lind. & Andr6=Monotagma. C. splendens and splendida, 
Hort.=Maranta splendida. C. villdsa, Lindl. Large: Ivs. 10:20 
in. long, oblong-ovate, pale green, with dark brown angular 
blotches: fls. yellow. S. Amer. F.S. 11 : 1101-2 (as C. pardina) ; also, 
Lowe, 32. L H g 


CALCEOLARIA (Latin calceolus, a slipper, alluding 
to the saccate flower; these plants are sometimes called 
lady-slippers, but the name is best used for Cypri- 
pedium). Scrophulariacese. Showy-flowered herbs and 
shrubs, grown both in the greenhouse and in the open. 

Leaves mostly opposite, usually hairy and rugose, 
entire or incised or pinnatifid: corolla 2-parted nearly 
to the base, the lower part or lip deflexed and inflated 
slipper-like, the upper lip smaller and ascending, but 
usually saccate; stamens 2 or rarely 3, and no rudi- 
ments (A, Fig. 739): fr. a many-seeded caps. About 
200 species, mostly from the Andes of Peru and Chile, 
but extending north to Mex.; also 2 in New Zealand. 
Monogr. by Kranzlin, Engler's Pflanzenreich, hft. 
28 (1907). 

Many species of Calceolaria have been cultivated at 
one time or another, but the number now grown is 
few, most of the garden kinds apparently being hybrids 
or marked variations from specific types. The genus 
falls into two horticultural sections, the herbaceous 
kinds, and the shrubby kinds. The former are the 
only ones generally known in this country, being 
treated more or less as annuals. The herbaceous 
garden forms Rodigas considers to be offshoots chiefly 
of C. arachnoidea and C. crenatiflora, and he has called 
this race C. arachnoideo-crenatiflora (see I.H. 31 : 528, 536 ; 
35 : 54) . In this work, however, the more inclusive terms 
C. herbeohybrida of Voss is employed (Fig. 739); and 
also the corresponding C. fruticoybrida for the shrubby 




derivatives. C. crenatiflora seems to have left its impress 
most distinctly on the greenhouse forms. The calceo- 
larias are grown for the variously colored and often 
spotted slipper-like flowers. The shrubby forms, grown 
much in England, do not thrive in the heat of the 
American summer. 

The cultivation of the herbaceous and the shrubby 
kinds of calceolarias is about the same, with the dif- 
ference that the herbaceous kinds are nearly always 
grown from seeds, while the shrubby varieties are 
oftener grown from cuttings. Seeds may be sown from 
the end of March until the first of September, according 
to the size of the plant required. Those sown early are 
more easily carried through the hot months than any 
that are propagated in the end of May or in the month 
of June. Sow the seeds in shallow pans with good 
drainage in a compost of equal parts of sand and of 

the day. For a first potting (which may be to 2- 
inch pots) the same mixture in which the seeds were 
sown is the best, and the seedlings should be big 
enough to be easily held between the finger and thumb ; 
and as the plants are moved along into larger pots, 
equal parts of fibrous loam, fern-root, leaf-mold, sand 
and dried cow-manure may be used, always having 
this compost in as lumpy a state as can be equally 
and conveniently packed around the plant. When the 
plants are well rooted in their flowering pots, they may 
be watered with manure water. An ordinary handful 
of green cow-manure to about three gallons of water 
may be used, and if any of the commonly used fertili- 
zers are to be employed for a change, the same amount 
of fertilizer to an equal amount of water is about right; 
but always water with clean water twice between these 
applications. If cuttings are to be used for the propa- 
gation of calceolarias, they should be rooted in a 
temperature of 45 to 50, kept shaded from the sun. 
Cuttings may be procured from the plants that are 
trimmed into shape during their growing period (in 
August or September) and should have two leaves 
attached and another joint to go in the sand. When 
rooted, treat them as described above for the seedlings. 
The varieties of the rugosa section are largely used for 
bedding plants in Europe. Calceolarias are very sub- 
ject to attacks of green- and white-fly; the best means 
of keeping these pests in check is by fumigation with 
hydrocyanic gas. In the evening is the best time to 
fumigate, and the foliage of the plants should be per- 
fectly dry; in fact, it is better if possible to use no water 
at all in the greenhouse the day they are to be treated. 
In the hot months of summer, a cool evening should 
be selected and one-quarter of an ounce of cyanide 
of potassium, one ounce of sulfuric acid and 
two ounces of water to every 1,000 cubic feet 
contained in the greenhouse may be used. (See 
Fumigation.) The house at this season of the year 
should be opened up in forty-five minutes after 
the cyanide has been dropped into the liquid. 
Repeat at intervals of about three weeks. In winter 
the quantity may be doubled to the same cubic feet of 
space, and the house may be kept closed until morn- 
ing. When opening the ventilators after fumigating 
in this manner, do not breathe in the greenhouse until 
the air has changed, say about half an hour after, as 
the gas is deadly to human beings. Fumigating with 
tobacco will kill the green-fly, but it has no effect on 
the white-fly. (Geo. F. Stewart.) 

739. Calceolaria herbeohybrida. 

the peat which is shaken out of fern-root that is to be 
used for potting orchids, adding about one-fourth of 
charcoal. All this should be sifted through a fine sieve. 
This material should be well mixed and placed an inch 
in depth in the receptacle that the seeds are to be 
sown in. The surface should be made as level as pos- 
sible, and the seeds, after being thinly scattered over 
the same, may be pressed gently into the compost, 
covering them very lightly with sphagnum moss sifted 
through a very fine sieve. Water by dipping the pan 
in a tank of water, allowing it to soak through the holes 
in the bottom of the pan. This mode of watering is 
not so liable to disturb the small seeds, as an overhead 
watering with a fine rose on the watering-pot. A tem- 
perature of 60 will cause calceolaria seeds to germi- 
nate, but the sun should not strike them until the cool 
of autumn comes. A greenhouse with a northern aspect 
is best for them until the end of September, giving all 
the air possible day and night. From the first of 
October until the end of March, the plants will stand 
the full sun, and should then be grown in a night 
temperature of 40, allowing 10 or 15 of rise during 

alba, 14. 

herbeohybrida, 10. 

plantaginea, 3. 

amplexicaulis, 13. 

Herbertiana, 6. 

purpurea, 6. 

arachnoidea, 7. 

heterophylla, 8. 

rugosa, 11. 

ascendens, 15. 

hybrida, 5, 10. 

salvise folia, 11. 

biflora, 3. 

integrifolia, 11, 15. 

seabiossefolia, 8. 

Burbidgei, 5. 

mirabilis, 1. 

suberecta, 3. 

corymbosa, 2. 

Morrisonii, 3- 

thrysiflora, 12. 

crenatiflora, 1. 

Pavonii, 4. 

viscosissima, 11. 

denlata, 15. 

pendula, 1. 

Wheeleri, 2. 

fruticobybrida, 15. 

pinnata, 8, 9. 

Youngii, 10. 

herbacea, 10. 

A. Herbaceous calceolarias, some of them parents of the 
florists' varieties of this country. 

B. Lvs. simple. 
c. F Is. essentially yellow. 

1. crenatifldra, Cav. (C. pendula, Sweet. C. mirab- 
ilis, Knowl. & Wesc.). One to 2 ft., the st. soft-hairy, 
terete: radical Ivs ovate and long-petioled (the petioles 
winged at top), undulate and dentate, sometimes 
obscurely lobed, rugose and pubescent, paler beneath, 
often purplish toward the tip; st.-lvs. shorter-petioled 
and becoming sessile above: fls. in a forking corymb, 
the slipper large, oblong or oblong-obovate, fur- 
rowed or crenate, hanging, yellow, with orange-brown 
dots. Chile. B.M. 3255. From this species we appear 
to have derived the spots of calceolaria fls. 




2. corymbdsa, Ruiz & Pav. (C. Wheeleri, Sweet). 
One to 3 ft. high, the st. 4-angled : radical Ivs. ovate and 
sometimes cordate, obtuse or nearly so, doubly crenate, 
rugose and hairy, whitish beneath; st.-lys. smaller and 
narrower, somewhat clasping, opposite: fls. small 
(about half as large as in C. crenatiflora) , in a broad, 
somewhat loose corymb, the slipper somewhat short- 
oblong, clear yellow outside and marked with red lines 
inside. Chile. B.M. 2418. 

3. biflora, Lam. (C. plantaginea, Smith. C. suberecta, 
Hort. C. Mdrrisonii, Don). Herbaceous, stemless: 

Ivs. . ovate-spatu- 
late, toothed at 
top: scapes many, 
few-fld.; fls. large, 
yellow, lower lip 
large and the 
upper one small 
and notched, the 
under side of the 
slipper dotted 
with red. Chile, 
Argentina. B.M. 
2805. L.B.C. 
15:1402. F.S.R. 

740. Calceolaria integrifolia var. 
viscosissima. ( X 1 A) 

4. P a v 6 n i i , 
Benth. An erect, 
strong- growing, 
herbaceous, or half 
shrubby species: 
st. terete, green, 
stout: Ivs. perfoli- 
ate, on short 
winged petioles, 
ovate or elliptic, 
coarsely serrate, 
5^9 in. long (in a 
vigorous plant), 
and a rich light 
green in color: 
sts. and lys. 
densely hairy; 
infl. paniculate, terminal, large and handsome; fls. rich 
golden-yellow and marked in throat with brown, and 
about 1 in. diam. Peru. B.M. 4525. G. 27:663. J.H. III. 
50:489. J.F. 1, pi. 32. One of the parents of several 
handsome hybrids. 

5. Burbidgei, Hort. (C. hybrida var. Burbidgei, 
Gumbl.). A garden hybrid raised at Trinity College, 
Dublin, by Burbidge between C. Pavonii on the one 
side and C. deflexa (C. fuchsisefolia) or possibly C. 
amplexicaulis on the other: plant erect: sts. hairy, 
terete: Ivs. light green, lanceolate, 5-9 in. long, serrate, 
winged along the petiole: infl. large, in terminal free- 
branching panicles; fls. 1 in. diam., rich golden yellow. 
G. 25:547. Gn. 47:306. One of the finest of cool 
greenhouse kinds and valuable also as a bedding plant 
as it grows into a fine large specimen as much as 6 
ft. high and branches freely from the base. .Readily 
prop, by cuttings. 

cc. Fls. purple. 

6. purp&rea, Graham (C. Herbertiana, Lindl.). Sts. 
erect, pubescent, 1-2 ft.: radical Ivs. spatulate and 
acutish, with a strong midrib, sparsely hairy, rugose, 
dentate; st.-lvs. broad-cordate and clasping, less 
toothed: fls. in loose corymbs, small, purplish or red- 
dish violet, the slipper somewhat furrowed. Chile. 
B.M. 2775. B.R. 1313. Supposed to have entered 
largely into purple-fid, varieties. 

7. arachnoidea, Graham. St. a foot or two high, 
terete, branchy, woolly, with appressed hairs: Ivs. 
oblong or Ungulate, narrowing into long - winged 
petioles, clasping, obscurely toothed, rugose, woolly 

on both sides: peduncles in pairs, forking: fls. small, 
dull purple, the slipper nearly globular and furrowed. 
Chile. B.M. 2874. L.B.C. 16: 1557. 

BB. Lvs. compound, or essentially so. 

8. scabiosaefolia, Sims (C. pinndta, Ruiz & Pav. 
C. heterophylla, Willd.). Often 2 ft., the st. terete, hairy, 
and leafy: Ivs. opposite, with clasping petioles, cut 
nearly or completely to the midrib; Ifts. varying from 
lanceolate to broad-oval, acuminate, ciliate, dentate: 
fls. very small, in small hairy corymbs, pale yellow, the 
slipper nearly orbicular in outline. Chile, Peru, Ecua- 
dor. B.M. 2405. This is sold by seedsmen as an annual 
bedding plant. 

9. pinnata, Linn. Often reaches 3 ft. or more: Ivs. 
pinnatifid or completely compound, the divisions short 
and nearly entire, obtuse or nearly so: fls. small, sul- 
fur-yellow. Chile, Peru, Bolivia. B.M. 41. The first 
known garden species, still sold as an annual. 

10. herbeohybrida, Voss (C. hybrida, C. herbacea, 
C. Yoimgii, Hort., and others). Derivatives of the 
herbaceous calceolarias: mostly dwarf or small (2 ft. or 
less), in many colors, usually with well-inflated slippers. 

AA. Shrubby calceolarias. 
B. Fls. yellow. 

11. integrifSlia, Murr. (C. rugosa, Ruiz & Pav. C. 
salviasfolia, Pers.). Two to 6 ft. high, branchy and bushy: 
Ivs. glabrous, oval-lanceolate, crisped and dentate, the 
short petioles winged: fls. in terminal clusters, small, 
yellow. Chile. L.B.C. 10:942. B.R. 744, 1083. Variable. 
Probably the chief source of shrubby calceolarias. 
Var. viscosissima, Hort. (Fig. 740), is a sticky-hairy 
form with sessile Ivs. and showy fls. 

12. thyrsifldra, Graham. More shrubby: Ivs. linear 
and clustered, toothed, sessile, not hairy: fls. small, 
yellow, in a close, terminal cluster. Chile. B.M. 2915. 

13. amplexicaftlis, HBK. A foot or two high: Ivs. 
cordate-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, 
pubescent, woolly beneath and deep-rugose above, 
clasping: fls. small, in an upright corymb, pale yellow 
and spotless, the slipper hoof-shaped. Ecuador, Peru. 

BB. Fls. white. 

14. .alba, Ruiz & Pav. Shrubby, erect, branched, the 
branches opposite: Ivs. linear, toothed above, with 
fascicles of fls. in axils: fls. small, white, of 2 very 
unequal lips, the upper one being very small, the throat 
closed. Chile. B.M. 4157. G.C.III.22:141. Gn. 51:60; 
75, p. 6. J.H. III. 61:419. A most beautiful species 
in England when planted out in a soil rich in humus, 
but should be shaded from hot sun. The plant dislikes 
pot culture. This species has recently been used by the 
hybridist in order to secure a race with white fls. 
The new hybrid C. Veitchii is likely to prove a great 
aquisition to gardens, and is partly derived from this 

15. fruticohybrida, Voss (C. ascendens, Hort., not 
Lindl. C. dentdta, and C. integrifolia, Hort., for the most 
part). Here may be grouped the shrubby garden 
calceolarias that are derivatives of most other species. 
They are marked by the prevailing under-color of yel- 
low, orange or orange-red; sometimes they are yellow- 
ish white or dull red. 

C. andina, Benth. (C. Herbertiana var. pallidiflora, Lindl.). 
Shrubby, glandular-pubescent: Ivs. orbicular-rovate, thick, rugose, 
hairy: fls. small, yellow, the slipper crenate. Chile. B.M. 7326. 
B.R. 1576. C. bicolor, Ruiz & Pav. Shrubby: Ivs. ovate, dentate: 
fls. small, the slipper sulfur-yellow above and white below. Peru. 
B.M. 3036. L.B.C. 18: 1783. C. cdna, Cav. Herbaceous, tufted, 
scapose, 1-1 Yi ft.: Ivs. radical, oblong-lanceolate, spatulate or 
obovate: fls. white with small purple or rose-colored lines and 
blotches. Chile. B.M. 8416. C. Clibranii. Hort.=C. profusa. 
F.E. 28:143. C. deflexa, Ruiz & Pav. (C. fuchsisefolia, Hemsl.). 
Shrubby: Ivs. lanceolate: fls. yellow, panicled, the upper lip very 
large. Peru. B.M. 6431. G.C. II. 15:269. Gn. 15:258. C, 
flexudsa, Ruiz & Pav sJnrubby at base: Ivs. large-ovate, coarsely 
crenate-dentate: fls. rather large, clear yellow, with very large 




green calicos. Peru. B.M. 5154. F.S. 22:2331. C. Forgetii, Skan. 
Undershrub, 1-1 ^ ft., slender: Ivs. ovate, obtuse or somewhat 
acute, serrate: fls. small, pale yellow with a large reddish brown 
blotch inside the lower lip. Peru. B.M. 8436. C. fuchsix folia, 
Hemsl.=C. deflexa. C. Henrici, Hook. f. Shrubby, evergreen: 
Ivs. willow-like, small-toothed: fls. panicled, clear yellow, the upper 
lip large. Peru. B.M. 5772. C. hyssopifdlia, HBK. Shrubby: Ivs. 
crowded, small, lanceolate and toothed, or at top of st. linear and 
entire, margins revolute: fls. rather large, in many-fld. corymbs, 
pale sulfur-yellow, the slipper oboyate-orbicular and crenate. 
Ecuador. C. Jeffreyi,H.vrt.,ia a hybrid group between herbaceous 
greenhouse kinds and C. integrifqlia, produced about 10 years ago 
in England: 2-6 ft., with branching panicles bearing fls. about 1 
in. across of few colors. C. kewensis, Hort. Cross of C. Jef- 
freyi with herbaceous varieties: more compact and larger-fld. 
than C. Jeffrey!; colors of wide range: plant 1-2}^ ft. high and 
about as broad when in good bloom. G.C. III. 39:390. C. lobdta, 
Cav. Herbaceous: Ivs. triangular-ovate, palmately 5-7-lobed, 
dentate: fls. in terminal clusters, clear, pale yellow, and spotted 
on the up-curved slipper. Peru, Bolivia. B.M. 4525, 6330. C. mex- 
icana, Benth., is a small-fld., pale yellow species hardy in England: 
annual: lower Ivs. 3-parted or -lobed, the upper ones pinnatisect. 
Mts., Mex., Costa Rica. C. petiolaris, Cav. (C. floribunda, Lindl.). 
Herbaceous: Ivs. ovate, the lower ones wing-petioled, toothed, 
rugose: fls. yellow in loose panicles, the lips connivent. Chile. 
C. pisacomensis, Meyen. Shrubby: Ivs. ovate-cordate, nearly or 
quite obtuse nearly sessile, irregularly crenate, margins reflexed: fls. 
large, orange varying to red, the slipper up-curved. Peru. B.M. 5677. 
-C. polyrrhiza, Cav. A dwarf and tufted species from Patagonia, 
with dark yellow purple-spotted fls.: herbaceous, cespitose: Ivs. 
crowded, lanceolate. S. Chile, Patagonia. For rockwork. C. 
profiisa, Hort. (C. Clibranii, Hort.). On the order of C. Burbidgei. 
A garden form of free-flowering habit. C. Sinclairii, Hook. Her- 
baceous, half-hardy: Ivs. oblong-ovate, stalked, crenate-dentate, 
hairy: fls. small, lilac or flesh-colored, spotted within, the 2 lips 
nearly equal, not saccate. New Zeal. B.M. 6597. Now referred to 
Jovellana (J. Sineclairii, Kranzl.) C. tenella, Poepp. & Endl. 
Herbaceous, half-hardy, 6 in. high: Ivs. ovate or orbicular, small 
(Jiin. long), nearly or quite sessile: fls. yellow, spotted within. Chile. 
B.M. 6231. C. Veitchii, Hort. Hybrid of C. alba and a garden 
variety: 3-5 ft., erect and branched: fls. many, rather small, pale 
lemon-yellow. G.C. III. 51, Suppl. June 1. Gn. 76, p. 271. (See No. 
14.) C. violacea, Cav. (Jovellana violacea, Don). Shrubby: Ivs.small, 
ovate-cordate, deep-toothed, stalked: fls. yellow-salmon, spotted 
within and without, the two lips not saccate. Chile. B.M. 4929. 
C. virgata, Ruiz & Pav. Bushy, 1-1% ft.: Ivs. ovate, short-stalked : fls. 
rather small, numerous, white. Peru, Bolivia. G.C. III. 51:50. 

L. H. B. 

CALENDULA (Latin, calendse or calends: throughout 
the months). Composite. Flower-garden plants. 

Small herbs , the common cult, species annual, others 
perennial, with alternate simple Ivs., mostly large heads 
with yellow or orange rays, glabrous incurved achenes, 
plane naked receptacle, pappus none, and involucre 
broad, with scales in one or two series, their margin 
usually scarious. Some 15 species from 
Canary Isls. to Persia. 

officinalis, Linn. POT MARIGOLD. Fig. 
741. Annual: 1-2 ft. high, more or less 
hairy: Ivs. oblong and more or less clasp- 
ing, entire, thickish: heads solitary, on 
stout stalks, large with flat spreading 
rays, showy, closing at night. S. Eu. B.M. 
3204. V. 5:44; 16:165. One of the most 
universal garden fls., running into many 
vars., distinguished by size, color, and 
degree of doubling. The color varies 
from white-yellow to deep orange. This is 
the marygold of Shakespeare's time. The 
fl. -heads are sometimes used in cookery, 
to flavor soups and stews. The calendula 
is of the easiest culture in any warm, 
loose soil. The seeds are usually sown 
where the plants are to stand, but they 
may be sown indoors or in a frame and 
the plants transplanted. The achenes are 
large and germinate quickly. The plant 
blooms the whole season, particularly if 
the fls. are picked. It is a hardy annual, 
and in the southern states will bloom 
most of the year. In the N. it blooms up 
to the first frosts, sometimes beyond. 
Sown in summer or autumn, it makes a 
good winter bloomer. Florets are used in 
medicine as a vulnerary and anti-emetic. 
The flowering plant was formerly used for 
removing warts. 

suffruticdsa, Vahl (C. Noedna, Boiss.). More dif- 
fuse, annual: Ivs. sessile, lanceolate, somewhat dentate: 
heads bright yellow, not doubled, very numerous, on 
long peduncles. W. Medit. region. Seeds are sold by 
American dealers. 

C. Pongei, Hort., and C. plurialis, Linn., will be found under 
Dimorphotheca. T -^ 

L/. M. r>. 


CALIFORNIA POPPY: Eschscholtzia. 

CALIFORNIA YELLOW BELLS: Emmenanthe penduliflora. 

CALIMERIS (Greek, beautiful arrangement). Com- 
pdsitse. Good daisy-like border plants. 

Calimeris comprises about 10 Asian herbs, now 
mostly united with Aster, but horticulturally dis- 
tinct, and differing from that genus in the hemis- 
pherical involucre of few nearly equal scarious-mar- 
gined bracts, and broad convex receptacle: achene 
flat and hairy. Hardy perennials of low growth, suited 
to the border in front of stronger plants. C. tatarica 
is described in the genus Heteropappus. 

incisa, DC. (C. incisaefdlia, Hort.? Aster indsus, 
Fisch.). One to 2 ft., erect, corymbose at the summit: 
Ivs. lanceolate, remotely incise-dentate; scales of 
involucre red-margined: fls. large, purple-rayed or 
almost white, and yellow-centered. Of easy cult, in 
any good soil, making a 
display throughout July and 
Aug. The commonest species 
in cult. 

altaica, Nees (Aster altd- 
icus, Willd.). Lower, pu- 
bescent or hispid: lys. linear- 
lanceolate and entire: scales 
of involucre pubescent and 
white -margined; rays nar- 
row, blue.. L. H. B. 

CALIPHRURIA: CaUiphruria. 

CALLA (ancient name, of 
obscure meaning). Ardceas. 
A monotypic genus, contain- 
ing a native bog-plant with 
a white spathe. 

Herb, with creeping rhi- 
zomes and 2-ranked Ivs. 
Differs from Orontium in the 
parallel secondary and ter- 
tiary veins of the If.-blade, 
as well as in having a prom- 
inent more or less fleshy 
persistent spathe envelop- 
ing the spadix, and in the 
absence of perianth; lower 
fls. perfect, upper stami- 
nate; fr. a red berry. See 
Zantedeschia for C. asthio- 
pica, C. albo-maculata, and 
others. The calla of florists, 
or calla lily, is Richardia of 
recent books, but is properly 
Zantedeschia, where it is de- 
scribed and the culture given 
in this work. 

paiuslris, Linn. WATER 
ARUM. Fig. 742. Rhizome 
bearing many distichous Ivs. 
one year, the next only 2 
Ivs. and the peduncle: 
petioles cylindrical, long- 
sheathed; blade cordate: 
spathe elliptical, or ovate- 
lanceolate, white. Eu., N. 

741. Calendula officinalis, double-flowered. 



Asia, and E. N. Amer. V. 2:197; 14:244. B.M. 1831. 
An interesting little perennial plant, useful for out- 
door ponds. JARED G. SMITH. 

CALLIANDRA (Greek, beautiful stamens}. Legu- 
minbsse. Evergreen shrubs and trees of greenhouse 

culture, planted in 
the open far south. 

Leaves bipinnate ; 
Ifts. numerous: fls. 
usually in globose 
heads or clusters; 
corolla small, ob- 
scured by the nu- 
merous, long, silky, 
purple or white 
stamen s. A bout 
120 species, widely 
distributed in trop- 
ics. Distinguished 
from Acacia by the 
presence of a thick- 
ened margin on the 

Propagation is by 
cuttings placed in 
sand over bottom 
heat. Keep in warm- 
house, with the ex- 
ception of those 
from Mexico. 

742. Calla paxustris. 

Lamb ertiana, 
D. Don.) Unarmed; 

Benth. (Acacia Lambertidna, 

branches terete: Ivs. puberulous-villous; pinnae 2-3- 
yoked; Ifts. 9-12-yoked, oval-oblong, obtuse at both 
ends; peduncles 3-5, racemose, heads roundish; stamens 
20-25, pink. Mex. B.R. 721. 

tetragona, Benth (Acacia tetragdna, Willd.). Un- 
armed; branches .tetragonal: pinnae 5-6-yoked: Ifts. 
16-29-yoked, linear, acute, the outer larger: heads 
pedunculate, axillary; fls. white. Trop. Amer. 

portoricensis, Benth. (Acacia portoricensis, Willd.). 
Unarmed shrub or small tree: pinnae 2-4-yoked; Ifts. 
15-25-yoked, linear, obtuse, closing at evening; branch- 
lets pubescent: heads globose, pedunculate, axillary, 
the white fls. opening as Ivs. close; calyx ciliate on the 
margin; stamens 20^25; filaments long, white: pod 
straight, linear, tapering at base. W. Indies. Endures 
temperatures as low as 24 F. in Calif. Var. major, a 
splendid form, is known abroad. B.M. 8129. 

Tweedyi, Benth. Unarmed shrub, lightly pubescent: 
pinnae 3-4-yoked; Ifts. 20-30-yoked, linear, obtuse, 
shining: peduncles axillary, 1-2 in. long, from large 
scaly buds; calyx and corolla silky, lobes erect; stamens 
long, numerous, purple. Brazil. B.M. 4188. 

C. caHfornica, Benth. A stiff, hairy, much-branched shrub cult, 
in Calif. It is native near Magdalena Bay and is the most north- 
erly known representative of the genus. C. caracasdna, Benth. 
(Mimosa caracasana, Jacq.) differs from C. portoricensis in having 

garple stamens, but is probably not distinct. C. grandifldra, 
enth. Not over .10 ft.: foliage glaucous: fls. scarlet. Intro, by 
*ranceschi.=Mimosa grandiflora, L'Her.(?). C. Samdn, Griseb., 
e =.ritnecolobiuin Saman. TT * -r-r 


CALLIANTHEMUM (Greek, beautiful flower). Ra- 
nunculacex. Two or 3 little herbs of the mountains 
of Eu. and Cent. Asia, allied to Anemone, some- 
times mentioned for outdoor planting. Lvs. radical 
(very small or none on the St.), decompound: fls. ter- 
minal, white or rose-color; sepals 5, deciduous; petals 
5-15, showy, with nectaries at the base. The species 
apparently intergrade. C. anemonoides, Endl. Three 
to 10 in. high, blooming in spring: Ivs. as broad as 
long, triangular in outline, bipinnatifid: fls. 1^ in. 
or less across; sepals broad; petals narrow: rhizome 
somewhat fleshy. Tyrol. Useful in rockwork. 


CALLICARPA (Greek, beauty and fruit). Verbend- 
ceae. Ornamental woody plants cultivated chiefly for 
their brightly colored berry-like fruit appearing late in 
autumn; also for the attractive flowers which appear 
in summer. 

Flowers perfect; calyx short-campanulate, truncate 
or slightly 4-toothed, rarely 4-parted; corolla with short 
tube, 4-lobed; stamens 4, of equal length; ovary 4- 
celled, cells 1-ovuled: fr. a subglobose berry-like drupe 
with 2-4 stones. More than 30 species in tropical 
and subtropical regions of Asia, Austral., N. and Cent. 

Callicarpas are shrubs or trees, often with stellate 
hairs, with opposite, usually serrate, deciduous leaves 
and small pink, bluish or whitish flowers in axillary 
clusters, followed in autumn by small berry-like lilac, 
violet or red, rarely white fruits. The hardiest are C. 
dichotoma, C. japonica and C. Giraldii, which may be 
grown even North in sheltered positions, if somewhat 
protected during the winter. If killed to the ground, 
young shoots spring up vigorously, and will produce 
flowers and fruit in the same season. If grown in the 
greenhouse, they require a sandy compost of loam and 
peat, and plenty of light and air. Propagation is readily 
effected by greenwood cuttings in spring or summer 
under glass; also by hardwood cuttings, layers and seeds. 

A. Lvs. tomentose beneath. 

americana, Linn. Shrub, 3-6 ft., with scurfy, downy 
tomentum: Ivs. cuneate, elliptic-ovate, acuminate, 
obtusely serrate, 3-6 in. long: cymes short-stalked; 
corolla bluish, glabrous: fr. violet. July, Aug. Woods and 
rich soil, Va. to Texas and W. Indies. One of the hand- 
somest in fr., but more tender than the Japanese spe- 
cies. Var. alba, Hort., has white fr.; very conspicuous 
in fall and early 

AA. Lvs. not or 
slightly pubes- 
cent below and 
glandular: co- 
rolla glandular 

B. Peduncles longer 
than petioles: 
Ivs. glabrous or 
nearly so below. 

japonica, Thunb. 

(C. Mimurazdki, 
Sieb.). Fig. 743. 
Shrub, 2-5 ft.: Ivs. 
cuneate, elliptic or 
serrulate, 23^-5 in. 
long : cymes pe- 
duncled, many-fld.; 
fls. pink or whitish: 
fr. violet. Aug. 
Japan. S.I.F. 1:70. 
G.C. 1871:173. P. 
F.G. 2, p. 165. H.F. 
1861:12. Var. leuco- 
carpa, Sieb. With 
white fr- 

dichotoma, Koch 
(C. grdcilis, Sieb. & 
Zucc. C. purpiirea, 
Juss.). Shrub, 1-4 
ft.: Ivs. cuneate, 
elliptic or obovate, 
crenately serrate 
above the middle, 
entire toward the 
base, 1 ^-3 in. long : 743. Callicarpa japonica. ( X H) 




cymes peduncled, few- or many-fld.; fls. pink: fr. lilac- 
violet. Aug. Japan, China. Gn. 23:540. Closely 
allied to the former, but smaller in every part. 

BB. Peduncles shorter than petio&s. 
Giraldii, Hesse. Shrub: Ivs. broadly elliptic or ellip- 
tic-ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, 2-4 in. long, dentate, 
glandular beneath, and sparingly stellate-pubescent; 
petioles slender, l /y-Yivn.. long: fls. pink in dense cymes 
on pubescent stalks shorter than the petioles: fr. violet. 
W. China. 

C. cdna, Linn. Shrub: Ivs. broadly elliptic, shining above and 
whitish-tomentose beneath: fr. deep purple. E. India, China, Phil- 
ippine Isls. B.M. 2107. C. longifolia, Lam. Shrub: Ivs. oblong- 
lanceolate or lanceolate, narrowed at both ends, 3-5 in. long, stellate 
pubescent and glandular beneath: cymes short-peduncled ; fls. pink 
or purple: fr. white. Himalayas, China. B. R. 10:864. H.E.. 
2: 133. -C. mdllis, Sieb. & Zucc. Shrub, to 4 ft.: Ivs. oblong-lanceo- 
late, rounded at the base, tomentose beneath: fls. and fr. pink. 
Japan. S.I.F. 1:70. C. pedunculdta, R.Br. (C. lanata, Schau., 
not Linn.) Shrub: Ivs. oblong-ovate, nearly sessile, and rounded at 
the base, green and slightly tomentose beneath: cymes slender- 
peduncled. E. Indies. Austral. Sieb. Flor. d. Jard. 4:97. C. 
rubella, Lindl. (C. dichotoma, Hort., not Juss.). Shrub or small tree, 
to 20 ft.: Ivs. cordate-oblong, tomentose beneath: fr. purple. 
Himalayas, China. B.R. 11:883. F.S. 13:1359. I.H. 6:202. G.C. 
1859:96. R.H. 1859, p. 106, 107. ^^ REHDER . 

CALLI6PSIS: Coreopsis. 

CALLIPHRURIA (Greek, beautiful prison; referring 
to the spathe inclosing the flowers) . Written also Cali- 
phuria. Amarylliddcese. Tender bulbs. 

Distinguished from Eucharis by the stamens, the 
filaments being petaloid, with 3 large linear teeth on 
top, the middle one bearing the anther. The fls. ap- 
pear with the Ivs.; perianth funnel-shaped, spreading 
upward; stamens inserted at the throat of the tube: 
caps, tardily splitting. Three species from Colombia. 

Calliphrurias are warmhouse plants and should be 
grown in a rich soil of loam, peat or leaf -mold and sand. 
Propagated by offsets. 

Hartwegiana, Herb. Bulb ovoid, 1 in. thick, stolon- 
iferous, with brown membranous tunics: Ivs. bright 
green, firmer and more closely veined than in Eucharis, 
with an oblong-acute blade 4-5 in. long, 2 in. broad, 
narrowed into a petiole, which is flat above and round 
beneath: scape slender, 1 ft. long; fls. 6-8, in an umbel, 
white; perianth 1 in. long and wide. Andes of Bogota. 
B.M. 6259. B.R. 30, p. 87, desc. Intro, in 1889 by 

C. subedentata, Baker=Eucharis subedentata. 

CALLIPR6RA: Brodisea. 


CALLIPStCHE (Greek, beautiful and butterfly}. 
Amaryllidaceas. Three bulbous plants from Ecuador 
and Peru, the Ivs. produced after the yellow or greenish 
yellow fls., probably not in the horticultural trade. 
Leaves thin, oblong and stalked: fls. many in an umbel 
on a hollow peduncle or scape; perianth funnelform 
with short tube, the segms. all equal and oblanceolate 
to oblong; stamens 6, much exserted, attached at the 
throat: fr. a deeply 3-lobed caps., with many seeds. 
They require the general treatment given amaryllis. 
C. mirabilis, Baker, has an oblong bulb 2 in. diam.: 
Ivs. 1 or 2, blade 5 or 6 in. broad: peduncle 2-3 ft.; 
fls. greenish yellow, about 30 in a dense umbel; stamens 
three times as long as perianth and widely spreading. 
July, Aug. C. aurantiaca, Baker, has an ovoid bulb 
1 in. diam.: Ivs. few: peduncle 1^-2 ft.; fls. bright 
yellow, 6-8 in the umbel; stamens green, twice the 
length of perianth. Autumn and winter. B.M. 6841. 

L. H. B. 

CALLIPTERIS (Greek, beautiful fern). Polypodiaceae. 
Ferns allied to Asplenium and Diplazium, with elongate 
sori formed on both sides of the veins, and the veins 
uniting to form meshes or areoles. Some 15 species are 
known from the warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

The following is the only one in cult. Culture the same 
as for tropical aspleniums. 

prolifera, Bory (Asplenium decussatum, Swartz). 
Lvs. 3-6 ft. long, the stalks 1-2 ft. long, the pinnae 
numerous, 6-12 in. long, 1-2 in. wide, with deeply 
crenate margins and frequently with bulblets in the 
axils; veins pinnate, with the branches of contiguous 
veins uniting. Polynesia and Malaya. 


CALLIRHOE (Greek mythological name). Written 
also Callirrhoe. Malvaceae. Hardy showy herbs, for out- 
door planting. 

Perennials or annuals: Ivs. alternate, with lobed or 
cleft blades or more finely dissected: fls. showy, axillary 
or sometimes in terminal racemes, the petals irregu- 
larly cut at the apex or truncate, differing in this from 
the notched petals of Malva; involucel of 1-3 bracts, or 
wanting. Nine species, native. 

The callirhoes are of the easiest culture, and deserv- 
ing of a much greater popularity. They are chiefly 
propagated by seeds, but the perennial species may 
also be propagated by cuttings. 

744. Callirhoe pedata. 

A. Annual: involucel absent. 

pedata, Gray. Fig. 744. Height 1-3 ft.: st. erect, 
leafy: radical and lower Ivs. round-cordate, palmately 
or pedately 5-^7-lobed or -parted, the lobes coarsely 
toothed or incised, upper 3-5-cleft or -parted, usually 
into narrow divisions: fls. red-purple, cherry-red, vary- 
ing to lilac. On plains and in sand, S. U. S., spring and 
summer. R.H. 1857, p. 430. 

AA. Perennial: involucel present. 

involucrata, Gray. Height 9-12 in., plant hirsute or 
even hispid: root large, napiform: sts. procumbent: 
Ivs. of rounded outline, palmately or pedately 5-7- 
parted or -cleft, the divisions mostly wedge-shaped, 
incised, the lobes oblong to lanceolate: fls. crimson- 
purple, cherry-red or paler. All summer. Minn, to 
Texas. R.H. 1862:171 (as C. verticillata) . 

Var. linearfloba, Gray (C. lineariloba, Gray). Less 
hirsute than the type: sts. ascending: Ivs. smaller, 
1-2 in. across, the upper or all dissected into linear 
lobes: fls. lilac or pinkish. Texas and adjacent Mex. 
An excellent trailer, especially for rockeries. Thrives 
even in very dry soils, the root penetrating to a great 
depth. A sunny position is preferable. 

C. Papdver, Gray. A perennial decumbent or ascending plant 
with 3-5-lobed or -parted Ivs. and involucrate purple-red fls. S.U.S. 
Useful for very dry sandy places. jj TAYLOR t 



CALLfSTA: Dendrobium. 

CALLISTEMON (Greek, kallos, beauty; stemon, a 
stamen; in most of the species the stamens are of a 
beautiful scarlet or crimson color). Myrtacese. BOTTLE- 
BRUSH. Ornamental shrubs, thriving without irriga- 
tion in California, where they are hardy and much 
used; also planted to some extent elsewhere in warm 
climates and occasionally seen under glass. Page 3566. 

Leaves alternate, entire, lanceolate or linear, mostly 
with oil- or resin-dots and fragrant when crushed : fls. in 
dense cylindric spikes, at first terminal but the axis 
growing out as a leafy shoot; calyx-teeth 5; petals 5, 
deciduous; stamens indefinite in number, not united; 
anthers versatile, 
the cells parallel 
and bursting longi- 
tudinally; ovary 
inferior, maturing 
into a caps, which 
persists for several 
years. About 25 
species, natives of 
Austral., where 
they inhabit arid 
districts. Distin- 
guished from Mela- 
leuca only by the 
stamens, which in 
that genus are 
united into bundles. 
Hall, Univ. Calif. 
Pub. Bot. 4:22. 

The showy 
flower-clusters, re- 
sembling bottle- 
brushes in shape, 
and so giving the 
common name to 
the genus, are 
highly colored and 
render these shrubs 
very ornamental. 
The quantity of 
bloom may be much 
increased by judi- 
cious autumn prun- 
ing. The various 
species are recom- 
mended for parks, 
school - yards, and 
also for smaller 
yards if kept well 
pruned. Hardy only 

in warm-temperate districts but endur- 
ing temperatures less than 20 F. 

Propagation from seeds is satisfactory: these are 
gathered during the summer months by allowing the 
capsules to open in boxes or on sheets of paper kept in a 
warm place; sow in early spring in finely sifted mixture 
of sand, leaf-mold, and loam, and cover very lightly; 
the ordinary cool greenhouse is warm enough. 'Some 
nurserymen state that plants from cuttings of ripened 
wood or of wood which is getting firm at the base will 
blossom earlier than seedlings; others find no advantage 
in this method. Although adapted to nearly every 
variety of soil, these plants make but slow growth in 
heavy clay. 

A. Stamens %-l in. long. 

lanceolatus, DC. (Metrosideros semper fibr ens, Lodd.). 
Fig. 745. Height 6-12 ft.: Ivs. lanceolate, 1^-2^ in. 
long, about ym.. wide, acute, reddish when young; 
midrib and lateral veins prominent: spikes 2-4 in. long, 
bright red, less dense than in the following species: fr. 
ovoid, contracted at summit. Jan.- June. B.M. 260 

745. Callistemon 
lanceolatus. (X?i) 


(as M. citrina). Maiden, Fl. PI. and Ferns of New S. 
Wales, 8. Attains 30 ft. in Austral, where the hard and 
heavy wood is used for wheelwrights' work and for 
mallets. Garden hybrids between this and other species 
have been developed, especially in Eu. 

speciosus, DC. Large shrub: Ivs. narrowly lanceo- 
late, obtuse or acute, 13/2-4 in. long, about 34 m - broad; 
midrib prominent but lateral veins obscure: spikes 2-6 
in. long, bright red, very dense: fr. nearly globose, the 
summit scarcely contracted. March- June. B.M. 1761. 
The most highly colored callistemon, the golden an- 
thers contrasting well with the dark red filaments. 
There are many garden forms varying in color, habit, 
and size. 

viminalis, Cheel. Tall slender tree of pendulous habit: 
Ivs. linear-oblong: stamens slightly shorter: rim of fr. 
thinner. A handsome, graceful tree, very showy when 
in full bloom. Grown at Santa Barbara, Calif. (For- 
merly referred to C. speciosus, of which this may be a 

rigidus, R. Br. (C. linearifolius, DC.). Lvs. narrowly 
linear, rigid, sharp-pointed, 2-5 in. long, about K m - 
wide; midrib and marginal ribs prominent; cross-nerves 
often hidden by oil-dots: spikes deep red, large, dense. 
March- July. B.R. 393. Stiffly branched shrub, the 
branches inclined to become rangy; best form and 
bloom secured by means of autumn pruning. In order 
to have fine specimen plants, cult, well and now and 
then give an application of commercial fertilizer. 

linearis, DC. Scarcely more than an extreme form 
of C. rigidus with very narrow Ivs. channeled above, 
the midvein quite obscure: fr. more globular and con- 
tracted at opening. 

AA. Stamens %in. or less long. 

salignus, DC. Tall shrub or small tree: Ivs. lanceo- 
late, acute, 13/2-3 in. long, M~/4in. wide 
(much narrower in one variety), very 
distinctly permi veined : spikes yellow or 
light pink, 1-2 in. long: fr. nearly 
globular, with rather large opening. 
Apr., May. B.M. 1821. Var. viridifldrus, 
F. y. M. Lvs. only 1-2 in. long, thicker, 
rigid; veins obscure: fls. greenish yellow. 
B.M. 2602. 

brachyandrus, Lindl. Slender shrub, 
young shoots soft-hairy or whole plant 
gray with a soft pubescence: Ivs. rigid, 
nearly terete, %-13/ in. long: spike 2-3 
in. long, the filaments dark red but 
nearly obscured by the golden yellow anthers. The 
slender habit, gray foliage, and golden bloom render 
this shrub very desirable for ornamental planting. 

CALLISTEPHUS (Greek words for beautiful 
crown, said to be in allusion to character of fruit) . Com- 
posite. CHINA ASTER. (See page 419, Vol. 1.) One 
species in China and Japan. The genus Callistemma, 
also erected by Cassini, is older than Callistephus, but 
the latter is one of the "nomina conservanda" of the 
Vienna code, retained because accepted and in general 
use for fifty years following its publication. Under 
both these generic names, Cassini described the China 
aster as C. hortensis. It was first named by Linnaeus, 
however, as Aster chinensis, and Nees subsequently 
transferred this name to Callistephus, so that the plant 
now would better bear the name Callistephus chinensis, 

Callistephus is closely allied to Aster, from which it 
differs, among other things, in its pappus, which is 
minute and forming a crown in the outer series, and 
of slender longer barbellate and caducous bristles in 
the inner series: annual, erect, hispid-hairy branching 
herbs, with showy terminal fl.-heads: Ivs. alternate, 

XXII. Carnations. Types of the American winter-flowering varieties. (Half size.) 


broadly ovate or triangular-ovate and deeply and 
irregularly toothed; blade decurrent into a petiole, 
those on the upper parts becoming spatulate or nar- 
rower: heads in wild plant heterogamqus and radiate, 
the ray-florets in 1-2 series and pistillate, the disk- 
florets perfect and fertile; involucre hemispherical, 
the bracts imbricated in many series and the outer 
ones large and green: fr. a compressed achene. The 
rays become much multiplied under cult., and they are 
also variable in size, shape and color. The colors are 
violet, purple, blue and white, the rays never being 
true yellow. Widely variable under cult., and one of 
the best of the garden annuals, growing from 6 in. to 
2 l /z ft. high. It is the Reine-marguerite of the French 
and the Sommeraster of the Germans. L, H. B. 

CALLITRIS (from the Greek for beautiful). Includ- 
ing Frenela and Widdringtonia. P.indcese. Evergreen 
trees or shrubs, not quite hardy in the open in England, 
but thriving well in the southernmost parts of the 
United States; allied to Thuja. 

Leaves scale-like or awl-like, in whorls of 3 or 4 on 
jointed branches, or sometimes alternate: monoecious; 
sterile catkins cylindrical or ovoid, the stamens in 
whorls of 3 or 4, the scales broad and sometimes pel- 
tate; fertile cones of 4-8 scales, and borne on short and 
thick peduncles, either solitary or clustered, usually 
ripening the second year and often persisting after the 
seeds have fallen. About 15 species in Austral., New 
Caledonia and Afr. Little known in cult. here. 

A. Cone 6-valved. 

robusta, R. Br. (Frenela robusta, Cunn.). CYPRESS 
PINE. Ranging from a shrub to a tree 90 ft. high: 
branchlets crowded, short and erect: sterile catkins 
J^in. or less long, solitary or in 3's: cones solitary or 
few-clustered, nearly globular, about 1 in. diam. ; seeds 
usually 2-winged. Austral. Trees about 30 years old 
are said to be growing at Santa Barbara. In S. Fla. it 
makes good specimens, in 5 years becoming 10-12 ft. 
high. The tree somewhat resembles red cedar, and is 
reported as useful for tall hedges and windbreaks. 
This is one of the "pines" of Austral., the wood being 
used in building and for the making of furniture. 

rhomboidea, R. Br. (Frenela rhomboidea, Endl.). 
Smaller, reaching 25-50 ft. : branches somewhat slender 
and often drooping, angled when young: cones usually 
only one-half the diam. of those of C. robusta, globular, 
the 6 valves alternately larger and smaller, the larger 
valves having a broadly rhomboidal apex with a pro- 
tuberance at the center. Austral, and Tasmania. 
Timber used for telegraph poles and in construction. 

AA. Cone 4-valved. 

quadrivalvis, Vent. (Thitja articuldta, Vahl). 
with fragrant hard durable wood: branches jointed 
and spreading: Ivs. very small, flattened, distichous, 
reduced to scales at the nodes: cone 4-sided, small, the 
valves oval and with a protuberance near the tip. 
N. Afr., in the mts. L.B.C. 9:844. Furnishes varnish 
resin (gum sandarach). 

Whytei, Engler (Widdringtonia Whyiei, M. Wood). 
The wood is dull reddish white, strongly aromatic, 
and locally used for furniture and for doors and win- 
dows. Tree attaining a maximum height of 140 ft., 
with a diam. of 5% ft. at a point 6 ft. above the ground, 
the trunk being clear for 90 ft. : Ivs. on ultimate branch- 
lets, deltoid and closely appressed opposite; on other 
branchlets usually linear-lanceolate, spreading at the tips, 
alternate: in seedling stage linear, spreading and about 
1 in. long: cones 4-6 together, about %in. long and 
%-l in. wide when open. S. E. Afr. It grows at an 
altitude of 5,000-7,000 ft. on Mt. Milanji in Nyassaland 
and is known as the Milanji cypress or cedar. Appar- 
ently hardy in parts of Cent. Calif. L H t 3 



CALLOPSIS (Calla-like). Ardcese. A single species 
from German E. Afr.: C. Volkensii, Engler. Spathe 
like that of a little calla, snow-white, 1J4 in. long by 
1 in. broad, the spadix partly united to it (and yellow) : 
Ivs. crowded, cordate-ovate, 5 in. long, shining, the 
petiole about 2 in. long; semi-epiphytic, with creeping 
rhizome. Probably cult, only in botanic gardens or 
other collections. 

CALLUNA (Greek, to sweep; the branches are some- 
times used for making brooms). Ericaceae. HEATHER. 
Low evergreen shrubs cultivated chiefly for their bright 
rosy pink, rarely white flowers appearing in great pro- 
fusion late in summer. 

Leaves scale-like, opposite, in 4 rows, the branchlets 
therefore quadrangular: fls. in terminal, 1-sided spikes; 
corolla campanulate, 4-parted, 
shorter than the 4-parted colored 
calyx; stamens 8, with 2 reflexed 
appendages: fr. a septicide, 4- 
celled, few-seeded caps. One 
species in W. and N. Eu., also 
in Asia Minor; in E. N. Amer. 
in some localities naturalized. 
The genus differs from the closely 
related Erica in its deeply 4- 
parted colored calyx, longer than 
the 4-parted co- 
rolla. For culture, 
see Erica. 

vulgaris, Salisb. 
(Erica vulgaris, 
Linn.). Fig. 746. 
From Yr-Z ft.: Ivs. 
oblong -linear, ob- 
tuse, sagittate at 
the base, glabrous 
or pubescent: fls. 
small, in long, erect, 
rather dense ra- 
cemes, rosy pink, 
sometimes white. 
Aug., Sept.-ySome 
of the most distinct 
of the numerous named varieties are the following: Var. 
alba, Don (and var. alba Hdmmondii), with white fls.; 
var. Alpdrtii, Kirchn., of more vigorous growth, with rosy 
carmine fls.; var. carnea, Hort., with flesh-colored fls.; 
var. plena, Regel, with double rose-colored fls.; var. 
hirsuta, Gray (var. tomentosa, Don), the branchlets 
and Ivs. with grayish tomentum; var. nana, Kirchn. 
(var. pygm&a, Hort.), forming low moss-like tufts; 
var. rubra, Kirchn., with deep rosy carmine fls.; var. 
pro strata, Kirchn., with the branches spreading and 
partly prostrate, fls. pink; var. Searlei, Hort. (var. 
alba Serlei, Hort..), fls. white, appearing late in autumn. 
The heather is a very handsome small shrub, well 
adapted for borders of evergreen shrubberies, or for 
dry slopes and sandy banks and preferring sunny posi- 
tions; it is also found growing well in swamps and in 
partly shaded situations. Cut branches keep their 
life-like appearance for many months. 


CALOCHORTUS (Greek for beautiful and grass). 
Lilidcex. Incl. Cyclobothra. MARIPOSA LILY. STAR 
TULIP. GLOBE TULIP. West American cormous plants, 
the occidental representatives of Tulipa, useful as border 
plants and to some extent for indoor culture. 

Stem usually branched, and from a coated conn, 
more or less leafy: perianth of unequal segms., the outer 
ones the smaller and more or less sepal-like, the 3 inner 
ones large and showy and bearing glands and hairs; 
stigmas 3, sessile and recurved; stamens 6; fls. showy, 
shallow-cupped on the inner segms., arching. From 
40-50 species, mostly on the Pacific side of the con- 

746. Calluna vulgaris. (Plant 




tinent from Wash, to Mex., and some of them in the 
interior country. Nearly all the species are in cult. 
Monogr. by J. G. Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. 14:302-10 
(1875); and by S. Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 
and Sci. 14:262-8 (1879). See also Colochorti in 
the Sierra Nevada, by George Hansen, Erythea, 
7:13-15; A. Davidson, Erythea, 
2:1-2,27-30; Mallett. Gn. 1901, 
60:412, vol. 61, pp. 185, 203, 220; 
Carl Purdy, Proc. Calif. Acad. 
Sci., 3d ser., vol. 2, No. 4 (1901). 
Calochprtuses extend into Brit- 
ish America, and a few, belonging 
to a peculiar group, are found in 
Mexico; the remainder are natives 
of the United States, from Ne- 
braska to the Pacific Ocean. 
While the generic characteristics 
are unmistakable, the species and 
even varieties 
have the most 
variable incli- 
nations as to 
soil, exposure 
and climate. 
The Colorado 
Desert and 
the summits 

of the Sierra Nevada, the heavy 
clay lands of Californian valleys, 
the volcanic soils of the foothills 
and the meadows of the North- 
west, each has its own representa- 
tives of this beautiful tribe. The 
character of the genus can be 
treated better under the various 
groups. Nearly every known spe- 
cies is in cultivation to some ex- 
tent. Some are readily grown, 
others present considerable cul- 
tural difficulties; but while there 
are some that probably will 
always be difficult to cultivate, 
there are many species and the number in- 
cludes the very best that can be grown suc- 
cessfully by anyone who is willing to give a little 
special care to them; and there are a few that 
possess such vigor and hardiness as to be 
adapted to extensive cultivation. 
All calochortuses are hardy in the sense of with- 
standing extreme cold, but they will not endure alter- 
nate thawing and freezing nearly so well; and thus there 
is the paradox of their going safely through severe 
eastern or European winters and suffering the loss of 
foliage in mild ones. They should be planted in the 
fall, and it is better to plant late, so that leaf-growth is 
delayed until spring. Diverse as are their natural 
habitats, one soil will answer the needs of all. A light 
loam, made lighter with sand or sawdust, powdered 
charcoal, or spent tan-bark, is best. Excellent results 
have been secured with a mixture of equal parts of a 
good light loam and spent tan-bark, with a little broken 
charcoal. Wallace, one of the most successful English 
growers, recommends making a bed sloping to the 
south, composed of leaf-mold and road grit in equal 
parts, with a smaller proportion of sharp sand. The idea 
is to have a light and porous, not [too stimulating soil, 
with perfect drainage. Wallace recommends covering 
the beds with reeds to throw off the heavy rains. The 
same end may be attained by such thorough drainage 
that the rains pass through quickly. In New York, 
they have been carried through the winter safely under 
a covering put on before the ground freezes hard. 
It is well to keep a few leaves about the shoots for a 
time and to have extra leaves at hand to be used when 
frost threatens. It is better to lift the bulbs as soon as 

they ripen, and replant in the fall. Water sparingly at 
all times. Under suitable conditions they are hardy 
and tenacious of life, but excessive moisture, either in 
air or ground, is not to their liking after the flowering 
season arrives. Theoretically, all calochortuses of Sec- 
tion A (star and globe tulips) should have shade, and 
all mariposas (AA) sunshine; but the light shade of a 
lath-house suits all alike, giving much finer bloom in 
the mariposas. The flowering season extends over three 
months, according to species. 

They take well to pot culture with similar soils and 
treatment. While not to be forced rapidly, they con- 
siderably anticipate their out-of-door season. The 
same treatment can be used in coldframe culture, but 
they must not be coddled too much. 

albus, 1. 

Howellii, 19. 

pictus, 27. 

amabilis, 3. 

Kennedy!, 21. 

Plummerse, 20. 

amoenus, 1. 

Leichtlinii, 33. 

pulchellus, 2. 

apioulatus, 12. 

lilacinus, 15. 

Purdyi, 13. 

alroviolaceus, 28. 

Lobbii, 9. 

purpurascens, 20, 27. 

aureus, 22. 

longebarbatus, 18. 

purpureus, 37. 

Bonplandianus, 37. 

luteus, 24, 25. 

robustua, 25. 

Benthamii, 6. 

Lyallii, 8. 

roseus, 5, 27. ; 

cseruleus, 7. 

Lyonii, 31. 

rubra, 5, 28. 

catalinse, 31. 

macrocarpus, 35. 

sanguineus, 27. 

citrinus, 25. 

major, 5, 28. 

splendens, 28. 

clavatus, 23. 

Maweanus, 5. 

sulphurous, 27. 

collinus, 10. 

montanus, 28. 

Tolmiei, 11. 

concolor, 24. 

nanus, 8. 

umbellatus, 10. 

Eldorado, 27. 

nitidus, 16. 

uniflorus, 15. 

elegans, 8, 9. 

nudus, 14. 

venustus, 25, 27. 

flavus, 36. 

Nuttallii, 32. 

Vesta, 26. 

flexuosus, 29. 

obispoensis, 20. 

vestus, 20. 

Goldyi, 4. 

oculatus, 25. 

Wallacei, 6. 

Greenei, 17. 

Palmeri, 30. 

Weedii, 20. 

Gunnisonii, 34. 

A. Blossoms or fr. more or less nodding (unless No. 4)-' 

inner perianth-segms. strongly arched: Ivs. long 
and glossy, not channeled. (Eucalochortus.) 

B. Fls. subglobose, nodding: st. usually tall and branch- 

ing. GLOBE TULIPS. These have a single long 
and narrow shining If. from the base, and slen- 
der, flexuous, leafy sts., the perfection of grace in 
outline. The fls. are exquisite in delicacy of 
tints. Woodland plants. 

1. albus, Douglas (Cyclobdthra dlba, Benth.). Fig. 
747. Strong, 1-2 ft. high, glaucous: fls. globular, 
pendent, 1 in. across, of a satiny texture, delicately 
fringed with hairs, very strongly inarched or practically 
closed. Calif. B.R. 1661. F.S. 11:1171. Chaste and 
delicate. The form from the Coast Range is the Pearl 
calochortus of gardens; the form from the Sierras with 
fls. less strongly inarched and at length opening slightly 
is the C. albus of horticulture. 

Var. amdenus, Hort. (C. amoenus, Greene). Like C. 
albus, but rose-colored, lower and more slender: fls. 
opening in full bloom. Fresno and Tulare Co., Calif. 

2. pulchellus, Douglas (Cyclobdthra pulchella, Benth.) . 
Stout, glaucous, 8-16 in., usually branching: fls. yel- 
low, strongly inarched but parts not overlapping; 
sepals shorter than petals, ovate-acuminate, yellow 
tinged with brown on the back; petals ovate, obtuse, 
1 in. or less long, canary-yellow, with long silky hairs 
above the gland. Cent. Calif. B.R. 1662. 

3. amabilis, Purdy. Habit like C. albus: sts. stout, 
usually branching in pairs: petals clear yellow, very 
strongly inarched so that the tips overlap each other 
much like a child's pin-wheel; gland lined with stiff 
hairs that cross each other; petals margined with a line 
of stiff hairs. Cent, and N. Calif. 

4. G61dyi, Watkins. Possibly C Benthamii x C. 
amabilis. Sts. several, freely branched, bearing 15-20 
fls.: Ivs. narrow-lanceolate: fls. erect, 1 in. across, straw- 
yellow, inner surfaces covered with long silky sulfur- 
tinted hairs and a few shorter crimson hairs deep down 
in the cup; petals rounded and 'very hooded. Appar- 
ently of garden origin. 




BE. Fls. bell-shaped, erect when open, mostly lined with 
hairs, the pedicels becoming recurved: st. mostly 
low, and fls. often more or less umbellate. STAR 
TULIPS proper. Like the globe tulip, but 
smaller as a rule, and the fls. dainty open cups. 
All of the species resemble each other, and were 
first included under the name C. elegans. 

5. Maweanus, Leichtl. Plant low (3-10 in.), very 
slender, usually branched: fls. white, purplish at the 
base, filled with silky hairs, the gland covered by a 
broad semi-circular scale: caps, long-elliptic. Calif., north. 
B.M. 5976 (as C. elegans). Variable. Var. major, 
Hort. Twice as large in all its parts: fls. lighter colored. 
Var. roseus, Hort. Fls. tinged rose. 

6. Benthamii, Baker. Sts. 7 in. high, very flexuose, 
dividing into pairs: Ivs. linear-lanceolate: fls. nearly 
erect, yellow, the segms. Hin. long and brown at the 
base. Sierra Nevadas, in Calif. B.M. 6475. J.H. III. 
30:549. Var. Wallace! (C. Wdllacei, Hort.). Claw of 
the petal dark red or nearly black. 

7. caerilleus, Wats. Similar to small plants of C. 
Maweanus, but lined and dotted with blue: low, 
2-5-fld., the pedicels very slender; perianth ciliate 
inside: caps, nearly or quite orbicular. Calif., in the 
Sierras. Not variable. 

8. elegans, Pursh. Similar to the last: petals green- 
ish white and purplish at base, bearded, little or not at 
all ciliate: gland covered by a deeply fringed scale. 
Ore., Idaho. 

Var. nanus, Wood (C. Lyallii, Baker). Subalpine, 
dwarf and very slender: petals delicate cream-color, 
narrow and usually more acute, more hairy and ciliate. 
Mts. Calif., N. 

9. L6bbii, Purdy (C. elegans yar. Ldbbii, Baker). 
St. 3-5 in. high: petals white tinged green, broadly 
rhombic-ovate, very deeply pitted and with the pit 
showing as a prominent knob on back of petal. Mt. 
Jefferson, Ore. 

10. umbellatus, Wood (C. collmus, Lemm.). Low 
and branching, 3-15 in., flexuose: fls. 5-10, white; 
petals broadly fan-shaped, nude excepting for many 
white hairs just above the scale. In open grassy places 
around San Francisco Bay. 

BBB. Fls. bell-shaped: like BB, but tall (1 ft. or more), 
and stoutly erect, with several fine, erect cups, 
similar to C. Maweanus. GIANT STAR TULIPS. 
In this splendid group the very dainty silky fls. 
and handsome glossy Ivs. of the star tulip are 
shown with a stout st. a foot or two high, and 
large fls. Unlike the others, they grow naturally 
in open places, and have a vigor and health which 
are a high recommendation. 

1 1 . Tolmiei, Hook . & Arn . Stout, a foot high, generally 
branched: petals often more than an inch long, tinged 
lilac, with purple and white hairs: gland without a 
scale: caps, broad-elliptic, acutish. Mt. Shasta, N. 
Remains a long time in bloom. 

12. apiculatus, Baker. Taller and stouter, 12-18 
in., with umbellate straw-colored fls. N. Idaho. 

13. Purdyi, East. Glabrous and glaucous, 8-16 in., 
rather stout, branching, 2- to many-fld. : fls. creamy white 
or purple-tinged, filled with blue hairs, gland absent. 
S. Ore. G.C. III. 23 : 395. Very handsome. 

BBBB. F Is. bell-shaped, the petals naked or hairy only 
at the base: low: If. solitary. MEADOW TULIPS. 
These calochortuses are natives of wet meadows. 
C. uniflorus and C. Vesta grow well in all soils so 
long as well drained, and, as garden plants, 
thrive everywhere. In habit they are low, 
flexuous and leafy. The cups are open, erect 
and numerous, an inch or so in diam. 

14. nftdus, Wats. Low, 2-4 in., delicate: If. solitary: 
fls. 1-6, umbellate, small, greenish white or pale lilac, 

nude except for a tuft of 2 or 3 short hairs at each 
extremity of scale, denticulate. Calif., in the Sierras. 

15. unifldrus, Hook. & Arn. (C. lilaclnus, Kell.). 
Handsome species, 4-8 in. high: fls. 4-10, on long 
pedicels, clear lilac, hairy only at base: caps, elliptic, 
obtuse. B.M. 5804. Grows naturally in wet meadows, 
and makes offsets very freely. Often seen in a depau- 
perate starved form, but responds at once to good 

AA. Blossoms on stout, erect pedicels, the sts. stout and 
strict: fls. open-bell-shaped. MARIPOSA TULIPS. 
Excepting in B, the mariposa or butterfly tulips 
have slender, grassy, radical Ivs., stiff, erect sts. 
bearing cup-shaped fls., and sparingly leafy and 
with an erect caps. Bulbs small. 

B. Caps, oblong, acute-angled or winged: fls. lilac or 

white. These are hardy species, growing in the 
meadows from Ore. to Mont., where they endure 
much cold. They form a connecting link be- 
tween the giant star tulips and the true mari- 
posas. Their Ivs. are like those of the star tulips 
long, broad and glossy. Like the star tulips, 
also, the seed-pod is handsome, 3-cornered and 
winged. The sts. are stiffly erect: the fls. cup- 
shaped, not so brilliant as the true mariposas, 
but very delicate: the plants are hardy, healthy 
and vigorous, and are to be highly recommended 
for cold climates. 

16. nitidus, Douglas. Scape erect, but not stiff: If. 
solitary, glossy, narrow: fls. 1-3, large and showy, lilac, 
yellowish, or white, with a deep indigo blotch in the 
center, lined with yellow hairs. Meadows, E. Ore. to 
Mont, and N. E. Nev. Specimens from Yellowstone 
Lake are yellow. Very beautiful and showy. 

17. Greenei, Wats. St. stout and branching, 1 ft., 
2-5-fld.: sepals with a yellowish hairy spot; petals 
lilac barred with yellow below, and somewhat purplish, 
loose-hairy, not ciliate: caps, beaked. Calif, and Ore. 

18. longebarbatus, Wats. Slender, about 1 ft. high, 
bulb-bearing near the base, with 1 or 2 narrow radical 
Ivs., 2-branched and usually 2-fld.: fls. erect or nearly 
so, lilac with yellow at base, scarcely hairy except the 
long-bearded gland. Wash. 

19. Howellii, Wats. St. erect, 1 ft. or more, 1-2-fld.: 
Ivs. very narrow: sepals ovate, short-acuminate; petals 
yellowish white, 1 in. long, denticulate, slightly ciliate 
near the base, brown-hairy inside, the gland yellow- 
hairy. Ore. 

BB. Caps, oblong, obtuse-angled. 

C. Color yellow or orange or orange-red, more or less 

marked with brown and purple (except in forms 
of C. luteus): in cult, forms running into other 

20. Weedii, Wood. Radical If. single, glossy, broad: 
st. tall, leafy, bearing large orange-colored fls. dotted 
with purple: petals triangular, square- topped : gland 
small, hairy: bulb heavily coated with fiber. S. Calif. 
B.M. 6200 (as C. citrinus). G.C. III. 16 : 183. Varies 
to white. 

Var. purpurascens, Wats. (C. Plummerx, Greene). 
Similar, but lilac or purple and very showy. Calif. 
G.C. III. 16:133. J.H. III. 29:289. Gn. 47: 80. A 
fine form with fl. of large size and full outline, lined 
with long, silky yellow hairs. 

Var. vestus, Purdy. Petals much more truncated 
and curiously fringed with brown hairs; reddish brown. 
Santa Barbara. 

Var. obispoensis, Purdy (C. obispoensis, Lemm.). Fig. 
748. Tall and slender, branching, very floriferous: 
petals yellow, verging to red at the tip and less than 
half the length of the orange-brown sepals. Calif. 
G.F. 2:161 (adapted in Fig. 748). Odd and bizarre. 




21. Kennedy!, Porter. Bulb small and ovoid: st. 
very low, 1-4 in. : Ivs. linear, tufted from the branching 
of the st.: fls. 2-4, in an umbel; sepals broad with a 
purple spot; petals red-orange to vermilion, not ciliate 
nor prominently hairy, purple-spotted at the center. 
Desert species of S. Calif. B.M. 7264. Gn. 43:108. 
Brilliant and desirable, but difficult to grow. 

22. avlreus, Wats. Low, 4-6 in., with a single 
carinate radical If.: petals yellow, not hairy, the hairy 
gland purple-bordered. S. Utah. 

748. Calochortus obispoensis. No. 20 var. ( X J^) 

23. clavatus, Wats. Petals yellow lined with brown, 
the lower part bearing club-shaped (clavate) hairs, 
the gland deep and circular; anthers purple. Calif. 
In this excellent sort we have the largest-fld. and stout- 
est-stemmed of all mariposas. The bulb is very large, 
the single bare If . 1 or 2 ft. long: the st. is heavy, stout 
and zigzag. The fls. are shaped like a broad-based 
bowl, sometimes 5 or 6 in. across. The color is a deep, 
rich yellow, and the lower half is covered thickly with 
stiff yellow hairs, each tipped with a round translucent 
knob, and in the light look like tiny icicles. There are 
various strains: Eldorado, the largest, not so deep 
yellow; Ventura, very stout, deep yellow; Obispo, Like 
the last, but the upper half of the back of each petal 
is olive-brown, which shows through the deep yellow 
of the inside, giving changeable shades. 

24. concolor, Purdy (C. luteus var. concolor, Baker). 
Bulb large reddish: Ivs. narrow, glaucous: st. 1-2 ft., 
umbellate, if more than 1-fld.; not zigzag; petals a 
rich deep yellow, tending toward orange, lower third 
densely hairy with long yellow hairs above an oblong 
gland. A desert species of S. Calif. Much like C. clava- 
tus in general aspect. 

25. Iftteus, Douglas. BUTTERFLY TULIP. St. 1-10- 
fld., bulb-bearing near the base: Ivs. very narrow: 
sepals narrow-lanceolate, with a brown spot; petals 
2 in. or less long, yellow or orange, brown-lined, slightly 
hairy below the middle, the gland densely hairy. Calif. 
B.R. 1567. Variable. Some of the forms are sold as 
C. venustus. 

Var. citrinus, Wats. (C. 
Baker). Petals lemon-yellow, 

Var. oculatus, Wats. (C. 
Hort.). Petals pale or white, 
dark spot. 

Var. robustus, Purdy (C. 
Hort.). A very bulbiferous 
luridly tinged in browns and 
and also one of the hardiest. 

venustus var. citrinus, 
with a central brown spot. 

venustus var. oculatus, 
lilac or yellowish, with a 

venustus var. robustus, 
form having white fls. 
purples. Very beautiful 

26. Vesta, Purdy. BUTTERFLY TULIP. Tall and large- 
fld. with petals more narrowly cuneate than in C. luteus 
var. oculatus, and the gland narrow and doubly lunate, 
color from white tinged through lilac to pink and lilac- 
purple; fl. often laciniately gashed, above the gland 
bearing rich maroon pencilings and markings. N. W. 
Calif, in adobe soil. One of the largest-fld., showiest 
and most easily grown of mariposa tulips. Named by 
its author in compliment to his wife. 

cc. Color prevailingly white or lilac, but sometimes run- 
ning into yellows. 

27. venftstus, Benth. BUTTERFLY TULIP. Stout, 6-36 
in.: petals white or pale lilac, with a reddish spot at 
top, a brown-yellow center, and brown base: gland 
large and oblong, usually densely hairy: caps. 1-2 3/ 
in. long. Calif. B.R. 1669. F.S. 2:104. Gn. 46, p. 
395. Very variable. The yellow forms (as var. sul- 
phureus, Hort.) are often treated as forms of C. luteus. 
To this group of calochortuses is properly applied the 
Spanish name mariposa (butterfly), for their brilliantly 
colored fls., with eye-like spots on each petal and 
sepal, and other delicate markings with dots, lines and 
hairs, which are strongly suggestive of the wings of a 
brilliantly colored butterfly. Botanists have variously 
divided this great group of allied forms between C. 
luteus and C. venustus. Botanically all may be consid- 
ered as either strains of one variable species or as a 
number of closely allied species. 

Var. Eldorado, Purdy. The finest strain of C. ven- 
ustus in cult. It occurs naturally in a wonderfully 
varied mixture, in color from pure white through pink, 
to deep glowing reds and through lilac to deep purples. 
In one locality a few may vary to light yellow. Some 
of these forms have been named var. pictus for the 
white form, var. sanguineus for the blood-red. The pur- 
ple forms are entirely distinct from C. venustus var. 
purpurascens. Sierran foothills from Eldorado County 
to the far South. Altogether these plants comprise the 
loveliest group of the mariposa tulips. 

Var. purpurascens, Wats. Petals deep lilac or pur- 
plish, darker at center, the fl. fully 3 in. across. Coast 
Range. Strong grower. Gn. 46:394. 

Var. rdseus, Hort. (C. rbseus, Hort.). Creamy white 
or lilac, with an eye midway and a rose-colored blotch 
at apex. Gn. 46:394. 

Var. sulphureus, Purdy. Taller than the type: 
petals light warm yellow with eye, and with a rose- 
colored blotch at top. Lower part of San Joaquin 
Valley, Calif. 

28. splendens, Douglas. Tall and slender, 1-2 ft. : fls. 
1-1^ in. across, deep purple with a dark spot on the 
claw and with or without a gland covered with matted 
hairs. San Diego Co., Calif . Known in horticulture as 
C. splendens var. atroviolaceus. 

Var. major, Purdy. Strong and tall, 1-2 ft.: fls. 2-3 
in. across; petals large, clear lilac, paler below, with a 




749. Calochortus 


darker claw and scattered long white hairs below the 
middle. Coast Ranges, Monterey Co., Calif. 

Var. montanus, Purdy. More slender than the type, 
often bulbiferous: lilac to salmon-pink, densely hairy 
with short yellow hairs about the 
gland. High mts., S. Calif. 

Var. rubra, Purdy. Large, with 
deep-seated reddish bulb, 1-3 ft.: 
fls. reddish lilac, pink or purple; 
petals quite hairy, with short hairs 
on the lower third. Lake Co., 

29. flexudsus, Wats. Related 
to C. splendens, but with sts. so 
weak as almost to be said to creep. 
The fls. are large and very bril- 
liant, a dazzling purple, with a 
darker purple eye, and yellow 
hairs below. S. Utah. Intro, by 
Purdy in 1897. 

30. Pdlmeri, Wats. St. 1-2 ft., very slender and 
flexuous, 1-7-fld., bulb-bearing near the base: sepals 
with long, narrow, recurved tips, spotted; petals 1 
in. or less long, white (or yellowish below), with a 
brownish claw and bearing scattered hairs about the 
gland: caps, very narrow. S. Calif. The C. Palmeri 
of dealers is sometimes C. splendens var. montanus. 

31. catalinae, Wats. (C. Lyonii, Wats.). Habit of C. 
splendens: st. 1-2 ft., branching: fls. white to lilac, or 
deep lilac, very large and handsome, a large round 
black spot at base of each petal. A lovely species 
between C. splendens and C. venustm. Remarkable for 
blooming with the star tulip section, fully a month 
before other mariposas. Native to Santa Catalina Isl., 
off S. Calif.; also to Calif, coast. 

32. Nuttallii, Torr. & Gray. SEGO LILY. St. erect 
and stiff, 1-2 ft., bulb-bearing at base, usually with only 
1 cauline If., 1-5-fld.: sepals ovate-lanceolate, often 
dark-spotted; petals 1-2 in. long, white tinged with 
greenish yellow or lilac, with a purplish spot or band 
above the yellow base and hairy about the gland; 
anthers obtuse. Dak. and Neb. to Calif, and New Mex., 
having the widest range of any calochortus. There 
are no more exquisitely beautiful fls. than these sego 
lilies (the Mormon name) of the Great Basin. Most of 
them are plants of the sage-brush deserts. The Ivs. 
are an ashy green, the foliage scant, but the great fls. 
are wonderful in tintings. There are shades in blue, 
pink, lilac, and yellowish; also white. The sego lily 
is the State flower of Utah. 

33. Leichtlinii, Hook. f. Slender alpine species 
(5-6 in. high), by some regarded as a form of C. Nuttal- 
lii: fls. smoky white, banded with green and marked 
with dark brown. Sierra Nevadas. B.M. 5862. F.S. 

34. Gunnisonii, Wats. Fig. 749. Much like C. 
Nuttallii: anthers acuminate: fls. light blue or almost 
white, delicate yellowish green below the middle, pur- 
ple-banded at the base, and bearing a band of green 
hairs across each petal. Rocky Mts., Wyo. to New 

35. macrocarpus, Douglas. GREEN-BANDED MARI- 
POSA LILY. St. stiff, the cauline Ivs. 3-5: fls. 1 or 2; 
sepals acuminate, sometimes spotted; petals 2 in. or 
less, acute, lilac with a greenish midvein, somewhat 
hairy. B.R. 1152. N. Calif, to Wash, and Idaho 
This fine species forms a group by itself. It has a very 
large bulb, a stout almost leafless st.; and a large fl. 
of an exquisite pale lavender, banded down the back 
with green. Petals long, narrow and pointed. 

BBB. Caps, linear, not winged or prominently angled. 

36. flavus, Schult. f. (Cyclobdthra flava, Lindl.). 
St. slender, 1-2 ft., forked: Ivs. 2 or 3 below the 


fork, linear, long-acuminate: fls. yellow, upright; 
petals and sepals acute, rhombic-oblong, with a darker 
somewhat hairy gland, the petals hairy and usually 
denticulate. Mex. 

37. Bonplandianus, Schult. f. (C. purpureus, Baker. 
Cyclobdthra purpiirea, Sweet). Rather stout, 3 ft.: 
st.-lvs. short, acuminate-lanceolate: fls. yellow and pur- 
ple: the sepals with a purple pit and the petals purple 
outside: gland naked. Mex. CARL PURDY 

L. H. B. 

CALODENDRUM (Greek, beautiful tree). Palladia, 
Houtt, which is the older name. Rutacex. One of the 
handsomest deciduous trees at the Cape of Good Hope; 
cultivated in northern greenhouses, and outdoors in 
southern California and southern Florida. 

The great panicles of white or flesh-colored fls. are 
sometimes 7 in. across and 6 in. deep. It is a symmetri- 
cal tree, with attractive evergreen foliage and many 
interesting features. Called "wild chestnut" in Afr. 
Prop, by cuttings of half-ripened wood under glass in 
heat. A monotypic genus. 

capensis, Thunb. CAPE CHESTNUT. Height in Afr. 
70 ft. : branches opposite, or in 3's: Ivs. simple, decussate, 
ovate, obtuse retuse or acute, parallel-nerved, 4-5 in. 
long, studded with oil-cysts, which look like translucent 
spots when held to the light: panicles terminal; peduncles 
usually trichotomous; calyx deciduous; petals 5, linear- 
oblong, 1 % in. long, 2 lines wide, sprinkled with purple 
glands; stamens 10, 5 alternate, sterile, and petaloid: 
seeds 2 in each cell, larger than a hazelnut, black and 
shining. G.C. II. 19:217. Also written Calodendron 

CALONYCTION (Greek, referring to the beauty 
of the flower, and the night-blooming habit). Con- 
volvulacese. MOONFLOWER. Twining perennial herbs 
with large night-blooming flowers. 

Flowers white or purple, fragrant, showy; sepals 5, 
the outer ones with horn-like tips; corolla salver- 
form, the limb more or less flat, the tube very long 
and not dilated at the throat; stamens 5, exserted; 
style capitate and obscurely 2-lobed; ovules 4: Ivs. 
broadj alternate. Three species in Trop. Amer., two 
of which are widely cult. By some, the genus is united 
with Ipomcea, but it is well distinguished by the salver- 
form rather than funnelform or bell-shaped corolla, by 
the exserted stamens and style, and by the night- 
blooming habit. 

aculeatum, House (C. specidsum, Choisy. Ipomaba 
Bdna-ndx, Linn.). Mo9NFLOWER. Fig. 750. St. 10-20 
ft. high, with milky juice: Ivs. 3-8 in. long, cordate to 
hastate, angular or 3-lobed, acute, glabrous: peduncles 
2-6 in. long, 1-7-fld., equaling the petioles; corolla 3-6 
in. long, 3-^3 in. wide, trumpet-shaped, white, some- 
times with greenish plaits; 
fls.fragrant,usually closing 
in the morning, sometimes 
remaining open till noon. 
Aug., Sept. B.M. 752. B.R. 
11:889, 917 (as Ipomcea 
latiflora). Gn. 21, p. 259; 
27, p. 473. V. 10:359. 
Known in gardens chiefly 
as Ipomcea Bona-nox var. 
grandiflora, Hort. (/. 
grandiflora, Roxbg. and 
Hort., not Lam.), which 
does not differ materially 
from the type. Most of 
the large-fld. and very 
fragrant forms in cult. 
may be referred here. 
Var. grandifldrum, Hort., 
is sold under the following 
names: Ipomoea Childsii, 

750. Moonflower Calonyctioa 




I. noctiphyton, I. noctiflora, I. mexicana grandiflora, I. 
mexicana grandiflora alba, I. mexicana grandiflora vera. 
These trade names represent strains of varying ex- 
cellence. (C. grandiflorum, Choisy, is Ipomcea Tuba.) A 
form with variegated Ivs. is offered. Var. heterophyllum, 
has Ivs. 3-5-lobed and subhastate. The moonflower 
is most popular as a garden plant, but it also does 
well trained along the roof of a low house or against 
a pillar. It is excellent for cut-fls. in the evening. 
Little grown in the open N. because it does not 
mature in the short seasons. It grows wild in swamps 
and thickets in peninsular Fla., and is probably 
indigenous there. Widespread in tropics of both 

muricatum, G. Don. (Convdlvulus muricatus, Linn. 
Ipomoea muricdta, Jacq. Calonyction speciosum var. 
muricatum, Choisy). Fls. purple, smaller than those of 
C. speciosum, the 
tube very slender 
and the expanded 
partof the tubenot 
over 3 in. broad. 
Tropical regions; 
extensively cult, 
in Japan and 
India, and often 
seen in American 

C. tastense. House 
(Ipomcea tastense, 
Brandeg.) , is the third 
speciesof Calonyction. 
It is native to Lower 
Calif., and not in 
cult. C. grandifldrum, 
C h o i s y. =1 p o m ce a 

Tuba - L. H. B. 


(Greek, kalos, 
beautiful, ana 
phaka, lentil). 
Leguminbsse. Or- 
namental plants 
cultivated chiefly 
for their bright 
yellow flowers ap- 
pearing in sum- 

shrubs or herbs, 
with alternate, 
odd-pinnate, pub- 
escent, and often 
glandular Ivs.: 
stipules scarious 
or herabceous, adnate to the petiole: fls. papili- 
onaceous, solitary or in racemes; calyx tubular with 5 
nearly equal teeth; standard upright; wings oblong, 
free, as long as keel; ovary sessile with many ovules: 
pod pubescent and glandular, cylindrical. About 10 
species from S. Russia to E. India. 

The two cultivated species are low, prostrate shrubs, 
with grayish green foliage, and rather large yellow 
flowers in erect axillary racemes, followed by decorative 
reddish pods. They prefer a well-drained soil and sunny 
position, and are well adapted for borders of shrubberies 
and sandy or rocky slopes. Propagated by seeds sown 
in spring; the young seedlings should have plenty of 
light and air, as they are very liable to damp-off if kept 
too moist and shady. Sometimes grafted high on Cara- 
gana or Laburnum, forming a very attractive small 
standard tree with pendulous branches. 

wolgarica, Fisch. Fig. 751. Two to 3 ft.: pubescent 
and glandular: Ifts. 11-17, roundish-ovate or oval, Yy- 
3^in. long: racemes long -ped uncled, with 4-7 fls.; 
corolla over %in. long. June, July. S. Russia, Turkes- 




tan. C. grandifldra, Regel, is similar, but Ifts. 17-25: 
racemes 10-16-fld.; corolla 1 in. long. S. Russia. Gt. 
35:1231. ALFRED REHDER. 

CALOPHYLLUM (Greek, beautiful-leaved). Guttif- 
eracese. Woody plants of the Old World and American 
tropics, with shining leathery leaves, sometimes planted 

Leaves parallel- veined at right angles to the midrib: 
fls. polygamous in many axillary or terminal clusters; 
sepals and petals 4-12, in 2-3 series; stamens very nu- 
merous: fr. a drupe with a single erect seed. Sixty 
species. Closely related to Garcinia, which, however, 
has only 4-8 sepals. 

In India, several species are of considerable economic 
importance, especially C. ionophyllum, which is the 
source of a gum, and the seeds of which contain the 
well-known domba oil used extensively for lighting 
purposes. They must be grown in a warmhouse and in 
a rich well-aerated soil. 

Calaba, Jacq. CALABA TREE. A tree, to 60 ft.: Ivs. 
variable, dark glossy green, 3-10 in long. : fls. in axillary 
racemes, white, rarely produced in cult., the petals 
about 3 lines long: fr. about 1 in. diam. W. Indies, 
perhaps intro. from the Old World. Timber and oil. 

inophyllum, Linn. A medium-sized tree, with gray 
smooth bark: Ivs. 4-8 in. long, 3-4 in. wide, shin- 
ing on both surfaces: racemes in the upper axils, 
the fls. about %in. diam. and pure white; inner 
sepals petal-like: fr. about 1 in. diam., yellow, 
smooth, almost fleshy. Trop. Asia. N. TAYLOR. 

CALOPOGON (Greek, beautiful beard, in allusion 
to the fringed or bearded lip). Orchidacese. A very 
attractive native orchid, sometimes planted in bog- 
gardens and rock-gardens. 

Flowers magenta-crimson, varying to white, in a loose 
raceme on a naked scape; sepals and petals all distinct 
and spreading, the lip narrow at base but broader and 
hairy above; column winged at summit, not attached 
to other parts; pollinia 2 in each anther cell. One 
species, in bogs and moist meadows, Newfoundland to 
Fla. and westward. Cathea is an older name, but, be- 
cause of its general acceptance, Caloppgon is retained 
in the "nomina conservanda" of the Vienna code. 

A moist and shaded position and very porous soil 
are most suitable for this pretty plant, although it may 
do admirably in a rock-garden only slightly shaded at 
midday if the plants are watered very freely every day 
during hot or dry weather. Propagated by offsets, 
separated from the old tubers, but the old established 
plants should not be disturbed very often. Collected 
clumps of many native orchids are offered at very 
reasonable figures, and these give immediate results, 
while the small offsets would not be strong enough to 
flower for several years, and require much attention 
during the first year, or perhaps longer (J. B. Keller). 

pulchellus, R. Br. (Limoddrum tuberbsum, Linn., in 
part). Height 12-18 in., from a solid bulb or corm, 
bearing a single grass-like If. at the base: scape 2-12- 
fld.; lip bearded with white, yellow, and purple club- 
shaped hairs; pretty. G.F. 10:505. J.H. III. 35:45. 
B.M. 116. L. H. B.f 

CALOSCORDUM: Nothoscordum. 

CALOTHAMNUS (Greek, beautiful bush). Myr- 
tacese. Australian shrubs (more than twenty species) 
somewhat similar to Callistemon but more graceful in 
habit; evergreen greenhouse subjects, and hardy out- 
of-doors in California. 

Leaves long, alternate: fls. showy, usually red, in 
lateral clusters; stamens united in bundles opposite 
the petals; anthers erect, attached by the base, oblong 
or linear; cells parallel, turned inwards, opening by 
longitudinal slits. For cult., see Callistemon. 




quadrifidus, R. Br. Height 2-4 ft. : Ivs. narrow, terete 
or slightly flattened, heath-like, glandular-dotted : fls. 
rich crimson, 4-merous; calyx 2-lobed in fr.; staminal 
bundles nearly equal, of 15-20 or more filaments. 
W. Austral. B.M. 1506. 

C. rupfstris, Schau. Evergreen shrub, the branches densely 
covered with needle-like small Ivs.: fls. in small clusters on previous 
year's growth; stamens with crimson filaments and yellow anthers. 

S.M. 7906. j BURTT DAVY. 

CALOTROPIS (from Greek words referring to the 
beauty of parts of the flower). Asclepiadacese. Milk- 
weed-like shrubs, or small trees, grown in the Ameri- 
can tropics and one species offered in southern Cali- 

Branching, glabrous or tomentpse-canescent: Ivs. 
opposite, subsessile, broad: fls. with 5-parted calyx 
glandular inside; corolla bell-shaped or somewhat 
rotate, 5-parted with broad lobes; crown of 5 narrow 
fleshy scales adnate to the staminal tube and free and 
recurved at the base; pollinia solitary in each cell, 
obovate-oblong and compressed, hanging from the 
apex: fr. short horned gibbous acuminate pods mostly 
in pairs; seeds with silky hairs. Three species in Trop. 
Asia and Afr., sometimes grown under glass in col- 
lections but in this country practically confined to the 
tropics. The bark of C. gigantea produces a strong 
fiber, and the acrid milky juice dries into a substance like 
gutta-percha. The silk on the seeds is used in fabrics 
by natives; that of C. procera is said to be exported 
from the Cape Verde Isls. as kapok (kapok is usually 
from the ceiba or silk-cotton tree). 

gigantea, R. Br. (Asclepias gigantea, Willd.). GIANT 
MILKWEED. Tree-like, 8-15 ft., with pale bark and 
woolly shoots: Ivs. obovate to broad wedge-shaped, 
entire, woolly beneath: fls. rose and purple, in simple 
or compound umbels with involucrate scales, the 
corolla-segms. bent downwards and twisted with age: 
fr. 3-4 in. long; seeds broadly ovate. B.R. 58. India, 
and planted or escaped in W. Indies. 

procera, Dry. (Asclepias procera, Ait.). Shrub or 
bush, to 15 ft. : Ivs. more oblong and acute than those of 
C. gigantea, grayish: fls. white and purple in long- 
peduncled cottony umbels; corolla-lobes erect: fr. 
4-5 in. long, recurved; seeds ovoid. B.R. 1792. India. 
Offered in S. Calif., and said to be known in Porto 
Rico as Algodon de seda. L. H. B. 

CALPURNIA (after Calpurnius, an imitator of Virgil, 
because these plants are allied to Virgilia). Legumi- 
nosse. Trees and shrubs from tropical and southern 
Africa, cultivated out-of-doors in southern California 
and other subtropical regions. 

Leaves odd-pinnate with numerous Ifts.: racemes 
long, axillary and terminal, the peduncles often panicu- 
late, giving rise to a splendid showy infl. ; fls. yellow, the 
calyx bell-shaped; petals pea-like: pods membranous- 
winged on one side, often flattish. Ten species. 

sylvdtica, Mey. Shrub, 6-10 ft. high: Ivs. 2-6 in. 
long; Ifts. in 3-10 pairs, membranous, obovate-ellip- 
tical, retuse or obtuse: fls. ^in. long; ovary glabrous. 
Caffraria. Also rarely cult. N. as a greenhouse shrub. 

lasiogyne, Mey. (C. aurea, Benth.). A taller shrub, 
very rarely tree-like, with larger evergreen lys., more 
coriaceous, more pubescent, and exactly elliptical or 
oblong Ifts: fls. racemose, much like Laburnum, appear- 
ing in winter, as do the fls. of most S. African plants. 
The silky ovary at once distinguishes it. Natal. 


CALTHA (Latin name of the marigold). Ranuncu- 
lacese. Beautiful hardy blooming marsh plants, the 
largest and best of which are used about water-gardens 
and moist parts of borders. 

Succulent perennial herbs, glabrous, with a fascicle 
of strong, fibrous roots: Ivs. simple, rather rounded- 
cordate at base: fls. yellow, white or pink; sepals large, 

deciduous, petal-like; petals none; stamens numerous: 
carpels sessile, becoming follicles, with 2 rows of seeds. 
About 10 species of temperate and frigid regions. 
Monogr. by G. Beck, in Kaiserlich-Konigliche Zool. 
Bot. GeseUschaft (Vienna, 1886), 36:347-363; E. Huth, 
Monogr. in Helios 9:69-74. 

Calthas flourish best in wet places near running 
water. Though naturally bog-plants, they succeed ad- 
mirably well in an ordinary border in rather rich soil. 
They should be introduced more liberally into the 
flower-garden, where they bloom very freely year after 
year, and usually mature a second quite abundant 
crop of bloom in the fall. The flowers last a long time 
in water, and sell readily in the cut-flower market. 

The propagation is naturally accomplished by roots 
and by seed. The roots divide easily and several of the 
species send out rootstalks. The divisions may be made 
best in late fall or mild winter weather. If seeds are 
used, they must be fresh and given a moist, cool place 
in partial shade. 

bifl6ra, DC. No true st.: scape slender, usually 2- 
fld. : Ivs. as in C. palustris: sepals 6-9, nearly white or 
sometimes bluish : follicles at maturity distinctly stalked . 
Spring. Calif, to Alaska. 

leptosgpala, DC. Stout scape, 8-12 in. : Ivs. all basal 
or barely 1 on st.; nerves at base nearly parallel, other- 
wise like those of C. biflora: sepals 7-10, oblong, becom- 
ing narrower, white: fls. solitary: follicles scarcely 
stalked. May, June. Alaska to Wash, and Colo. Gn. 

palustris, Linn. MARSH MARIGOLD. St. hollow, 1-2 
ft., branching, several-fld. : Ivs. cordate or reniform, den- 
tate, crenate or entire: fls. bright yellow, 1-2 in. broad; 
sepals 5 or 6, rarely 7: follicles compressed, J^in. long. 
Apr .-June. Wet ground. Carolinas to Canada and west- 
ward. Gt. 47, p. 630. Gn. 59, p. 166. Used before flow- 
ering in the spring as "cowslip greens." Var. monstrosa- 
pleno, Hort. (vaT.fldre-pleno, Hort.). An improvement 
on the above: fls. larger, of greater substance, and often 
much doubled. Very beautiful. Var. Tyermanii, Hort. 
A dwarf form with golden fls. G.M. 52:415. 

polypetala, Hochst. Two ft. high: Ivs. 10^12 in. 
across: fls. 3 in. across. Caucasus and Asia Minor. 
The plant spreads rapidly by stolons and may thus be 
easily prop. Gn. 69, p. 269. 

C. data, Duthie. Fls. smaller than in C. palustris, golden yellow 
with orange-colored filaments and black anthers. Himalaya. Gn. W. 
21:666,desc. K- DAVIS. 


CALVOA (apparently a personal name). Melas- 
tomdcese. A half-dozen or more herbs and shrubs in 
Trop. Afr., often succulent, with terete or 4-angled 
branches, enlarged nodes, long-petioled ovate 3-5- 
nerved Ivs., and red, rosy or violet fls. in scorpioid 
cymes. None of them is likely to be in commerce for 
cult., although C. orientalis, Taub., is known in botanic 
gardens. It is a small shrub with 4-angled sts. produc- 
ing aerial roots: Ivs. nearly ovate, shining green and 
veined red at the base, the petioles red: fls. red, becom- 
ing violet, less than %in. across. 

CALYCANTHUS (Kalyx and anthos, flower; the calyx 
is large and conspicuous). Syn. Butneria. Calycanthacese. 
mental shrubs, cultivated chiefly for their fragrant 

Winter-buds small, without bud-scales, hidden by the 
base of petiole before the Ivs. fall: Ivs. opposite, petioled, 
entire: fls. with numerous imbricate sepals and no dis- 
tinct petals; stamens many, short with innate anthers; 
Eistils many, inclosed in a hollow receptacle: fr. caps.- 
ke, formed like the rose-hip by the calyx-tube and 
containing numerous achenes. Four species in N. 




These are deciduous shrubs of aromatic fragrance, 
with opposite rather large leaves usually rough above 
and brown or brownish usually fragrant flowers, 
terminal on leafy branchlets followed by a large capsule- 
like dry fruit. Except C. occidentalis, the species are 
hardy or nearly hardy North. They grow in almost 

752. Calycanthus 

any well-drained and somewhat rich soil, and succeed 
as well in shady as in sunny positions. Propagated by 
seeds sown in spring; also increased by layers put down 
in summer, and by suckers or division of older plants. 

A. Lvs. densely pubescent beneath. 

floridus, Linn. Fig. 752. Three to 6 ft.: Ivs. oval or 
broad-ovate, acuminate, dark green above, pale or 
grayish green beneath, 1K~3 in. long: fls. dark reddish 
brown, fragrant, about 2 in. broad. Va. to Fla. B.M. 
503. Gn. 21, p. 184; 33, p. 392. This species is much 
cult, for its very fragrant fls. and is the hardiest 
of all. Var. ovatus, Lav. (C. ovdtus, Ait.). Lvs. ovate 
to ovate-oblong, rounded or subcordate at the base. 
L.I. 24. 

AA. Lvs. glabrous beneath or nearly so: fls. slightly or not 

fertilis, Walt. (C. ferax, Michx. C. Uevigdtus, Willd. 
C. nana, Loisel.). Three to 6 ft.: Ivs. usually elliptic or 
oblong, acute or acuminate, green beneath, 2-5^ in. 
long: fls. reddish brown, 13^ in. broad; anthers oblong: 
fr. ovoid, contracted at the mouth as in the preceding 
species. Alleghanies; from Ga. to N. C. and Ala. B.R. 
6:481. Roots, Ivs. and bark used for their antiperiodic 
properties. Fr. said to be poisonous to sheep. Var. 
glaucus, Schneid. (C. glaucus, Willd.). Fig. 753. Lvs. 
usually ovate or oblong-ovate, acuminate, glaucous 
beneath: fls. paler. B.R. 5:404. Var. oblongifolius, 
Nutt., with oblong-lanceolate Ivs. glaucous beneath. 

occidentalis, Hook. & Arn. (C. macrophyllus, Hort.). 
To 12 ft.: Ivs. usually rounded at the base, ovate or 
oblong-ovate, green beneath and sometimes slightly 
pubescent, 4-6 in. long: fls. light brown, 3 in. broad; 
anthers linear: fr. campanulate, not contracted at the 
mouth. Calif. B.M. 4808. F.S. 11:1113. R.H. 1854: 
341. Gn. 33, p. 392., 

C. Mdhrii, Small. -Shrub, 2-6 ft.: Iva. ovate to oblong-ovate at 
the base, rounded to subcordatfr or broadly euneate, densely pubes- 
cent beneath, 2-7 in. long: fls. purple, fragrant, more than 2 in. 
across. Tenn. and Ala. Little-known species, very similar to C. 
floridus var. ovatus, but the fr. campanulate and not contracted at 
the mouth. It has proved hardy at the Arnold Arboretum. C. 
priecox, Linn.=Meratia pracox. ALFRED REHDER. 

CALYCOCARPUM (Greek, cup-fruit, alluding to the 
stone). Menispermdcese. A tall-climbing vine: genus 
monotypic. C. Lyonii, Nutt., in rich woods, Ky. to 
Kans. and south: woody twiner: Ivs. large and broad, 
simple, deeply palmately 3-5-lobed, the lobes pointed: 
fls. small, greenish, in long racemose panicles, in May 
and June : fr. a globular drupe, the stone or pit hollowed 
out on one side, ripe in Aug. 

CALYCOTOME (Kalyx, and tome, a section or cut; 
calyx looks as if cut off). Leguminosse. Ornamental 
shrubs chiefly grown for their profusely produced 
yellow flowers; also used for low hedges. 

Leaves 3-foliolate, without stipules: fls. papiliona- 
ceous; calyx turbinate, truncate, colored; standard 
upright; keel obtuse, curved, shorter than standard; 
stamens 10 with the filaments connate; ovary sessile, 
many-ovuled: pod linear-oblong, along the upper 
suture winged or strongly thickened, 2-valved. Five 
species in the Medit. region. 

Calyco tomes are low spiny shrubs with small 3-folio- 
late deciduous leaves and fascicled or solitary yellow 
papilionaceous flowers. Hardy only in warmer tem- 
perate regions. They prefer a sunny position and well- 
drained soil. For propagation, see Cytisus. 

villosa, Link. Two to 4 ft. : branchlets grayish tomen- 
tose: Ifts. obovate to oblong-obovate, densely silky 
beneath, under Kin. long: fls. %in. long, 3 or more, 
fascicled: pod villous. May, June. It is excellent for 
dense low hedges. 

spindsa, Link. Closely allied, but somewhat larger 
in every part, and with glabrous branchlets and pods: 
fls. solitary or few. B.R. 32:55. ALFRED REHDER. 

CALYPSO (from the Greek goddess, whose name sig- 
nifies concealment; referring to its rarity and beauty). 
OrchidacesB. One of the rarest and most prized native 

A delicate bog-plant, 3-4 in. high, with a small bulb, 
1 roundish or ovate striated If., and 1 pink fl. with a 
spotted sac. For culture, see Calopogon; but more diffi- 
cult to grow than that plant. A monotypic genus. 

bulbosa, Oakes. Fig. 754. Lf. an inch wide and long: 
scape 3-4 in. high, with about 3 sheaths; sepals and 
petals similar, ascending, lanceolate, acuminate, pink; 
lip larger than the rest of the fl., with brown spots in 
lines and purple and yellow markings, woolly-hairy 

753. Calycanthus lertilis 
var. glaucus. ( X H) 




within; column petal-like, ovate, bearing the lid-like 
anther just below the apex. Maine to Minn, and N.; 
also Eu. Abundant in parts of Ore. and Wash. B.M. 
2763. G.C. II. 16:656. 

CALYPTROGYNE (from calyptra, hidden, and gyne, 
woman, in allusion to the half-hidden gynoecium). 
Palmacese, tribe Geonbmese. Short, almost completely 
stemless and unarmed palms with unequally pinnate 
terminal leaves. 

Stems frequently stoloniferous, when present, ringed 
below: Ivs. numerous, often with the pinnate segms. 
joined together, in extreme youth 4-parted instead of 
bi-partite as in most related genera; Ifts. somewhat 
irregularly disposed on the rachis, broadly or narrowly 
scythe-shaped, running at the tip to an abrupt point, 
at the base revolute; petiole very short or practically 
none: spadix simple or sometimes branched at the base, 
long-stalked; spathes 2; fls. a little unequal, with 3 
sepals, 3 petals and 6 stamens, the style half immersed 
in the spadix: fr. oblong or obovoid, 1-seeded. About 
4 species, all from Trop. N. Amer. From Geonoma, a 
near relative and horticulturally a much more impor- 
tant genus, Calyptrpgyne is distinguished only by the 
almost stemless habit, and the purely technical charac- 
ter of having prominently arrow-shaped anthers. In 
Geonoma the anthers are pendulous, but not 

Calyptrogynes are handsome palms, seldom seen out- 
side of large collections. Special care must be given to 
the soil so that it will be sweet and porous, especially 
after the plants leave the seed-pan. Well-drained pots 
and a little charcoal mixed with the soil, and the plants 
kept in a uniformly moist state, are conditions essential 
to the healthy growth of the plants. In this genus, C. 
Ghiesbreghtiana is the most widely known species, 
another garden name for which is Geonoma Verschaffeltii. 
These are shade-loving palms, having leaves of compara- 
tively thin texture, and consequently are subject to 
attacks of red spider unless properly cared for in regard 
to moisture. Calyptrogynes are most useful in a small 
state, old plants in general being rather leggy and poorly 
furnished. (G. W. Oliver and W. H. Taplin.) 

754. Calypso borealis. 

glatica, H. Wendl. (Gednoma glauca, Oerst.). Practi- 
cally stemless: Ivs. 4-5 ft. long, the sheathing petiole 
brownish, about 1 ft. long; Ifts. numerous, about 2-3 
in. apart, with 4 principal nerves, and scarcely any 
secondary ones: 
spadix simple, dif- 
fering from the 
following species 
in which the 
spadix is often 
branched, 2-3 ft. 
long, the pistillate 
fls. half hidden in 
tiny pits. Cent. 
Amer. G.C. III. 
30:179. Not a 
common species, 
but young plants 
are specially at- 

tiana, H. W T endl. 
(Gednoma Ghies- 
breghtiana, Lindl. 
& H. Wendl. G. 
magmfica and G. 
Hort.). St. short 
or almost none: 
petiole 5 ft. long: 
Ivs. elongate-oval; 
segms. in 6 pairs, 
unequal, almost 
opposite, rather 
remote, lanceo- 
late, very long- 
acuminate, fal- 
cate, the 2 upper- 
most on each side 
very wide: spadix 
often branched 
below, the fls. half hidden in tiny pits. Chiapas, Mex. 
B.M. 5782. 

C. starapigu&nsis, H. Wendl. St. short: Ivs. 6 ft. long. Costa Rica. 
G.C. III. 29:217, desc. C. spicigera, H. Wendl. St. evident: Ivs. 
irregularly pinnate, 3 ft. or less long, the stalks flat on upper side. 
Guatemala. C. Swdrtzii, Hort., is a Geonoma. j^ TAYLOR 

CALYPTROSTfGMA. Diervilla Middendorffiana. 
CALYSTEGIA: Conwlwlu*. 

CAMAROTIS (a vault, in reference to the cavity in the 
apex of the lip). Orchidacex. Epiphytic hothouse orchids. 

Stems elongated, with short Ivs., and many-fld. 
racemes: sepals and petals similar, spreading; lip 
spurred, 3-lobed; rostellum and anther beaked; poll in i a 
2, upon long thin sjtipes. Species 2, in E. India. 

rostrata, Reichb. (C. purpiirea, Lindl. Sarchochllus 
purpitreus, Benth.). Fig. 755. Sts. 2-3 ft. long, climb- 
ing: Ivs. oblong-linear, bifid at apex, 3-4 in. long: 
racemes longer than Ivs.; fls. crowded, about 1 in. 
diam., rose-purple, the lip somewhat darker. India. 
P.M. 7:25. A scarce plant, now offered in American 
lists. Free-growing plant with aerial roots similar to 
some epidendrums. The treatment accorded to the 
vandas and saccolabiums with similar roots will suit 
the camarotis. GEORGE V. NASH. 

CAMASSIA (Quamash or Camass is the Indian 
name). Sometimes written Quamasia. Liliacese. 
CAMASS. West American spring-flowering bulbs. 

Leaves all radical, long-lance-shaped, sheathing, 
from a true bulb that is pointed and with a rounded 
rather flattened base: sts. erect, 2-3 ft., bearing many 
bracted blossoms that open from the bottom of the 
raceme upward, in long succession: fls. blue, purple, 
white or cream, with 6 spreading 3-7-nerved segms., 

755. Camarotis rostrata. 




6 thread-like filaments, filiform style, and 3-angled, 
3-valved, several-seeded caps. Five or 6 species in 
the temperate regions of W. N. Amer. from Cent. 
Calif, to Brit. Col. and east to Texas and Ark. They 
have resemblances to Scilla, but are much handsomer. 
The bulbs produce no offsets unless wounded. All the 

756. Camassia Cusickii. (fls. 

species vary greatly in width of Ivs., size and number 
of fls., so that definite figures mean little. The large 
bulb and broad bluish lys. of C. Cusickii, the heavy 
St., regular fls., and twisted old segms. of C. Leicht- 
linii, the irregular fl. and drooping segms. of C. Quamash, 
and the time of flowering of C. Howellii, are good gen- 
eral characters to distinguish them. 

Camassias are natives of rich meadows, very wet in 
winter and spring but dry in summer. Water often 
stands on the surface at flowering time. While the very 
best success can perhaps be attained by giving them a 
rather heavy soil with abundant moisture in the early 
season, they are most amenable to cultivation and 
thrive in any loam (only avoiding too rank manures), 
and they are perfectly hardy. They have been thor- 
oughly tested throughout the region from Illinois east. 
Plant in early fall, from 3 to 4 inches apart and 3 to 6 
inches deep, and do not disturb thereafter. As cut- 
flowers, they are excellent as they open in long succes- 
sion. Seeds grow readily, but from three to four years 
are required to make flowering plants. 

Cfcsickii, Wats. Fig. 756. Bulbs very large (weigh- 
ing 4-8 ozs.) : Ivs. numerous, broad, glaucous, somewhat 
undulate (15 in. long by 1J^ in. wide): st. often 3 ft. 
high: fls. 30^-100, very pale delicately blue; segms. 
spreading, crinkled at base, faintly 3-5-nerved. Ore. 
G.F. 1:174 (adapted in Fig. 756). The very large 
bulb and broader and more numerous Ivs. easily dis- 
tinguish this species. Very easily grown. 

Quamash, Greene (C. esculenta, Lindl.). COMMON 
CAMASS. Fig. 757. This species varies greatly; some 
forms are low and slender, others 2-3 ft. high, stout and 
many-fld.; it can be distinguished by the irregular per- 
ianth in which 5 segms. are more or less on one side and 
1 on the other: Ivs. %in. broad or less: fls. 10-40, varying 
from almost white to intense ultramarine in the varieties; 
segms. 3-5-nerved and a little longer than the stamens, 
narrow and channeled at the base; pedicels not exceed- 
ing the fls.: caps, ovate-oblong, obtuse, transversely 
veined. Calif, to Utah and north to Brit. Col. B.R. 
1486. F.S. 3:275. Gn. 46:338 and p. 339. Bulb 
cooked and eaten by the Indians. The fls. vary to 
white. The large ultramarine form is the one in the 
trade. The withered segments fall down about the 
pedicel irregularly. 

Leichtlinii, Wats. Stout, often 3 ft. or even more in 
height: fls. white, cream-colored, blue or purple, nearly 
regular; stamens and style ascending; segms. broad and 
flattened at the base, usually 5-7-nerved: caps, oblong- 
ovate, emarginate, obliquely veined. The withered 
segms. of the perianth twist about the caps, like 
bonbons; this is an infallible distinctive mark of the 
species. C. Leitchlinii is not common, but is distributed 
from Mendocino Co., Calif., to Brit. Col. B.M. 6287 
(as C. esculenta var. Leichtlinii, Baker). In Men- 
docino Co., a clear blue form grows rarely in mountain 
meadows. In the Umpqua Valley, Ore., the type is 
clear cream approaching white. In the same region 
and farther north, a very large deep blue or purple 
form is found, while in Brit. Col., the cream-colored 
form again appears but is rare. At their best, the sts. 
are stiff and heavy, the fls. large and many, and the 
masses of bloom approach the Eremurus in beauty and 
are even finer in separate fls. C. Leichtlinii is the finest 
of all camassias. Several color forms are described, as 
var. atrovioldcea, deep purple, and others. 

HSwellii, Wats. Bulb rather small: Ivs. few, 1 ft. 
long and less than M m - wide: st. often 2 ft. high, many- 
fld., with spreading pedicels twice or more the length 
of the linear 
bracts: fls. pale 
purple, opening in 
the afternoon, the 
segms. J^in. long, 
3-5-nerved; pedi- 
cels longer than 
the fls.: caps, 
small, broadly 
ovate and very 
obtuse. S. Ore. 
Intro, by Pilking- 
ton & Co., 1892. 

esculenta, Rob- 
ins. (C. Fraseri, 
Torr.). Scape 12- 
18 in. high: Ivs. 
keeled : fls. light 
blue, smaller than 
in C. Quamash; 
segms. 3-nerved ; 
pedicels mostly 
longer than fls.Pa., 
west and south. 
B.M. 1574 (as 
Scilla esculenta) . 

Var. angusta 
(C. angusta, 
Hort.). Very slen- 
der, and Ivs. nar- 
rower ( J^in . wide) : 
fls. smaller, H or 
J^in. long. La. 
and Ark. to Texas. 




759. Camellia 



CAMELLIA (after George Joseph Kamel or Camellus, 
a Moravian Jesuit, who traveled in Asia in the seven- 
teenth century). Ternstrcemiaceae. CAMELLIA. Woody 
plants, chiefly grown for their showy white or red 
flowers and also for their handsome evergreen foliage. 
Evergreen trees or shrubs with alternate short-peti- 
oled serrate Ivs. and large terminal or axillary white or 

red fls. followed by 
subglobose woody 
caps.: fls. sessile, up- 
right; sepals many, 
imbricate, deciduous; 
petals 5 or more; 
stamens numerous, 
more or less connate; 
ovary 3-5-celled, 
with slender styles 
connate, at least be- 

758.- Camellia 

Abby Wilder. 

low: fr. a dehiscent caps., 
with few large subglobose 
seeds. About 10 species 
in tropical and subtropical 
Asia. Often united with 
Thea, which differs in its 
nodding and stalked fls. 
with a persistent calyx 
consisting of 5 nearly equal sepals. There is 
a monograph of this genus by Seemann in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. 22:337-352 (1859) and by 
Kochs in Engler Bot. Jahrb. 27:577-634 
(1900). Illustrated monographs of the horti- 
cultural varieties are: Curtis, Monogr. of the 
genus Camellia (1819); Baumann, Bollweiler 
Camelliensammlung (1828); Chandler, 
Camelliese (1831); Berlese, Monogr. du genre 
Camellia a (1839); Verschaffelt, Nouvelle 
Monographic du Camellia (1848-1860): the 
last with 576 and the previous one with 300 
colored plates. 

Camellias grow like natives on sandy lands 
and even on high pine land in central Florida, 
but they flower best in half-shady somewhat 
moist places. The half-double varieties of 
Camellia japonica do best, while the very 
double kinds often drop their buds entirely. The flow- 
ers suffer very much from the sun and cannot be grown 
much farther south than central Florida. Camellia 
Sasanqua, single, half-double and double kinds, grow 
much more satisfactorily than the varieties of C. ja- 
ponica. They begin to flower late in October and early 
November, and the double white C. Sasanqua is a 
mass of pure white usually at Christmas time. All 
the varieties of C. Sasanqua have somewhat fragrant 
flowers. C. reticulata does equally well in Florida. It is 
very distinct in foliage from the two former species 
which have glossy leaves, while the leaves of C. reticu- 
lata are dull green. All the camellias are extremely 
slow growers if not carefully cultivated and fertilized. 
A mulch of old cow-manure, now and then a little 
commercial fertilizer, and thorough watering during 
the dry season several times a week start the bushes 
into a vigorous and healthy growth. They are so ex- 
tremely beautiful when in flower that all the care given 
them is well repaid. (H. Nehrling.) 

A. Ovary and Ivs. perfectly glabrous. 
japonica, Linn. (Thea japonica, Nois.). Figs. 758- 
761. Shrub or tree, sometimes to 40 ft., glabrous: Ivs 

very shining and dark green above, ovate or elliptic, 
acuminate, sharply serrate, 2-4 in. long: fls. red in the 
type, 3-5 in. across; petals 5-7, roundish. China, 
Japan. B.M. 42. S.Z. 82. F.S. 20:2121. S.I.F. 1:73. 
Gn. 24, p. 411; 28, p. 203; 36, p. 241. Var. alba, Lodd. 
Fls. white. L.B.C. 7:636. Gn. 54, p. 243. J.H. III. 
54:227; 64:397. Var. alba-plena, Lodd. Fls. white, 
double. L.B.C. 3:269. Gn. 53, p. 244. Var. anemonifldra, 
Curtis. Fls. red, with 5 large petals, the stamens 
changed into numerous smaller and narrow petals; 
the whole fl. resembling that of a double anemone. 
L.B.C. 537. B.M. 1654. Gn. 44, p. 329. Var. magno- 
liaefldra, Hort. Fls. pale rose, semi-double, with 12-15 
petals rather narrow and half upright. Gn. 76, p. 31. 
Var. apucaeformis, Rehd. (C. apucseformis, Jacob- 
Mackoy). Lvs. bifid at the apex. For the numerous 
other garden forms, see the above-mentioned mono- 
graphs; also, Flore des Serres, L'lllustration Horticole, 
and other older horticultural publications contain a 
large number of varieties with illustrations. 

AA. Ovary and Ivs. on the midrib above pubescent. 
reticulata, Lindl. (Thea reticulata, Pierre). Large 
shrub, glabrous: Ivs. dull green, not shining above, 
reticulate, flat, elliptic-oblong, acuminate, serrate, 3-5 
in. long: fls. 5-7 in. across, purplish rose; petals 15-20, 
obovate, loosely arranged. China. B.R. 13:1078. B.M. 
2784. P.M. 3:101. G.M. 35: suppl. Apr. 2. F.W. 
1880:321. G. 25:59. Var. plena, Hort. Fls. with twice 
as many petals, and more regularly arranged. B.M. 

4976. F.S. 12: 

Thunb. (Thea 
Shrub of loose, 
straggling habit, 
and with the 
branches pubes- 
cent when 
young: Ivs. ellip- 
tic to oblong- 
ovate, bluntly 
pointed at the 
apex, crenate- 

760. Camellia 

H. A. Downing. 

761. Camellia 

President Clark. 

serrate, shining, 
dark green ana 
hairy on the midrib 
above, 1-2 in. long: 
fls. lJ^-2 in. across, 
white; petals 5 or 
more, obovate or 
oblong. China, Ja- 
pan. Gn. 54:142. 
S.Z. 83 (except the 
red vars.). S.I.F. 
2:52. J.H. III. 43: 
131. G.M. 36:51. 
Runs into many forms. Var. semi-plena, Hort. Fls. 
semi-double, white. B.R. 1:12; 13:1091. Var. anemo- 
niflora, Seem. Fls. large, double, outer petals white, 
inner ones much smaller, yellow. B.M. 5152. Var. 
oledsa, Rehd. (Thea Sasdnqua var. oleosa, Pierre. C. 
oleifera, Lindl.). Of more robust habit, with Ivs. and 
the single white fls. larger than in the type. B.R. 11: 
942. L.B.C. 11:1065. Var. Kissi, Rehd. (Thea Sasdn- 
quav&r. Kissi, Pierre. C. Kissi, Wall.). Lvs. oval-oblong 
to ovate, long-acuminate, to 3J^ in- long. Himalayas. 




C. axillaris, Roxbg.=Gordonia anomala. C. cuspidata, 
Hort.=Thea cuspidata. C. drupifera. Lour. Shrub, to 8 ft.: Ivs. 
elliptic, long-acuminate: fls. \ l /i in. wide, fragrant, white, petals 
obovate. Himalayas, India. L.B.C. 19:1815. C. euryoides, Lindl. 
=Thea euryoides. C. euryoides, Hort.=Thea maliflora. C. hong- 
kongensis. Seem. (Thea hongkongensis, Pierre). Tree with glabrous 
branches: Ivs. ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, indistinctly serrate, 
lustrous above, coriaceous, 31 in. long: fls. red, 2 in. across; petals 
slightly emarginate; ovary pubescent. Hongkong. Trans. Linn. 
Soc. 22:60. C. maliflora, Lindl.=Thea maliflora. C. rosifldra, 
Hook.=Thea maliflora. C. sinensis, Kuntze=Thea sinensis. C. 
spectabilis, Champ.=Tutcheria spectabilis. C. Thea, Link=Thea 

Binensis - ALFRED REHDER. 

CAMOENSIA (Louis Camoens, Portugese poet). 
Leguminosse. Two species of climbing shrubs from W. 
Trop. Afr., with digitately 3-foliolate Ivs., and large 
papilionaceous fls. Calyx top-shaped; petals with long 
claws, the standard orbicular or nearly so; stamens 
free; ovary stipitate, with many ovules, the stigma small 
and capitate: fr. a broad-linear flattened 2-valved pod. 
C. maxima, Welw., has recently been offered by an 
English firm. Described by Baker as "a magnificent 
species" and by Bull as "one of the most gorgeously 
beautiful of tropical climbers:" Ifts. pbovate-oblong, 
5-6 in. long, cuspidate: fls. milk-white tinged with 
gold and frilled on the edges of the petals, in short- 
stalked 6-8-fld. axillary racemes; standard projecting 
4 in. beyond the calyx, 3-4 in. broad; other petals 
shorter and not more than 1 in. broad: pod 6-8 in. 
long. Trans. Linn. Soc. 25:36. B.M. 7572. G.C. III. 
20:597. L. H. B. 

CAMPANULA (Latin, little bell, from the shape of 
the corolla in some species). Campanuldceae. BELL- 
attractively flowering herbs, containing some of the 
most popular garden plants, especially of hardy her- 
baceous perennials. 

Annual, biennial or perennial, mostly the last, often 
small and tufted: root-lvs. usually larger than the st.- 
lys., and often of different shape and more or less tran- 
sitory: fls. blue, violet or white, sometimes yellow; 
calyx 5-fid; corolla 5-lobed or 5-fid; stamens 5, free; 
filaments wide at the base, membranaceous; stigmas 3 
or 5, filiform: caps. 3-5-valved, dehiscing on the sides 
or (as in Fig. 762) at the base by 3-5 small valves; 
seeds ovate, complanate or ovoid. Probably 250 
species, nearly all in the northern hemisphere with the 
center of distribution in the Medit. region; about a 
dozen species are N. American. The species mostly 
inhabit swamps or moist ground, or alpine and boreal 
regions. Allied genera of garden 
value are Adenophora, Jasione, 
Lightfootia, Michauxia, Ostrowskia, 
Phyteuma, Platycodon, Specularia, 
Symphyandra, Trachelium, and 
Wahlenbergia, in which genera 
many species originally described 
as campanulas may be sought. Of 
these, perhaps the two best known 
cases are Platycodon grandiflorum, 
the "balloon flower," with its 
characteristic inflated buds, dark 
green, glossy, leathery Ivs.; and 
Specularia Speculum (C. Speculum), 
"Venus' looking-glass," a pretty 
annual, which grows in the grain fields of S. Eu., and 
is cult, for its violet fls. with a white eye. The calyx- 
tube of Specularia is relatively much longer than in 
any campanula. The most prominent campanulas now 
in cult, seem to be the forms of C. Medium, C. carpat- 
ica, C. persicifolia, C. pyramidalis, C. punctata, C. 
pusilla (csespitosa), C. rotundifolia. 

Botanically, campanulas fall into two important 
groups, based on the presence or absence of calyx 
appendages. The subgenus Medium has the appen- 
dages, and Eucodon lacks them. These appendages are 
often small and disguised. The genus may also be 

762. Capsule of 
Campanula with 
basal dehiscence. 

thrown into two broad groups based on the dehiscence, 
the subgenus Medium with capsule opening near 
the base, and Rapunculus with the openings near the 
top. For the horticulturist, the most serviceable classi- 
fication is based on the use that he makes of the plants, 
whether as a garden vegetable, as border plants, or as 
rock-garden or alpine subjects; and this is the division 
attempted here. In cultivation, campanulas tend to 
become taller and more robust, less hairy, more 
branched, and more floriferous. Blue is the prevailing 
color in the genus. A very few have white or yellowish 
flowers, with no blue or violet forms. Any blue or 
violet-flowered form is likely to have white varieties, 
and double and semi-double forms are common in 
three or four of the most popular species. All flowers 
tend to become larger and more numerous on a stem. 
In cultivation, the three-celled species are likely to 
have five stigmas instead of three, and five-celled cap- 
sules, often along with normally constructed flowers 
on the same plant. The height is the most variable 
feature of all, and in the scheme below C. carpatica, C. 
punctata and forms of C. glomerata especially will seem 
wrongly placed to many. But the characters used by 
botanists are well-nigh useless to the gardener, and 
nothing but a distinction of height can bring out 
the two important cultural groups of campanulas. 
For a recent garden monography of dwarf campanulas, 
see Correvon, "The Garden," 59 (1901) pp. 276, 450; 
60, pp. 51, 64, 111, 161, 218. 

Cultivation. The genus Campanula is extraordi- 
narily rich in flowering garden plants of merit. The 
alpine section is distinguished by a charming grace 
both in character of growth and size and bearing of 
flowers. The peach-leaved class (C. persicifolia) is 
characterized by the noble and beautiful form of single 
and semi-double blossoms carried by thin erect stems 
2-3 feet high. The luster and clearness of tints of the 
bushy biennial Medium and calycanthema type are 
remarkable, while the rambling habit and the marvelous 
floriferousness of the varieties C. isophylla and its 
descendant C. Mayii, indicate the wide range of orna- 
mental usefulness of bellflowers. Considering the good 
lasting qualities in a cut state and the great popularity 
of the flowers of long-stemmed sorts for indoor decora- 
tion, it is safe to say that campanulas will steadily gain 
in importance as material upon the florists' counter as 
well as for garden planting. The greatest curiosities 
are C. punctata, C. macrostyla, C. Zoysii and C. rotundi- 
folia var. soldanellse flora. For exhibition and for pot 
culture and also for large single specimens, C. pyram- 
idalis is most used. For edgings, C. carpatica is per- 
haps the favorite. Of all wild forms, the best known 
is certainly C. rotundifolia, the true harebell, or 
"blue bells of Scotland." It is native in North Amer- 
ica as well as in Europe, on rocky banks and shores. 
Wherever rock-gardens are planned, alpine cam- 
panulas have become indispensable. The greater part 
of typical mountain inhabitants chiefly available 
for this purpose being spring-flowering plants, the 
summer flowers of campanulas are especially welcome. 
One of the best bellflowers for rock-gardens is C. 
carpatica, blue and white, with its var. compacta also in 
blue and white, var. cselestina, sky blue, var. pelviformis, 
light blue, and var. Riverslea with large dark-blue bells; 
but there are a number of other very handsome species 
possessing commercial value that deserve the atten- 
tion of progressive growers. The demand is for a plant 
material easy to handle, resistant and free-flowering. 
As such may be recommended for rockeries, C. gargan- 
ica and C. garganica var. hirsuta, both 4 inches high, 
flowers light blue. C. pusilla, in white and blue, is 
regarded as the hardiest low-growing alpine bellflower. 
Excellent effect may be secured from a number of the 
garden hybrids, when rightly employed; plantations of 
C. Wilsonii, cross between C. pulla and C. turbinata, 
dark blue, 6 inches tall, and C. Fergusonii and C. Hen- 




dersonii, 12 to 18 inches, all blooming freely from 
late in June to early August, are good examples. Cam- 
panula glomerata var. acaulis, a clustered-flowering low- 
growing form, violet-blue, June and July, answers the 
same purpose, while C. glomerata var. dahurica, 12 to 
18 inches, dark violet-blue and white, very free-flower- 
ing, is valuable also as a border plant. Other good rock- 
ery kinds are C. fragilis (which needs protection, but 
makes a good pot-plant), C. pulla in sheltered position, 
C. Portenschlagiana, and C. rotundifolia. Many of the 
larger-growing kinds are also good for the rock-garden. 
The best two representatives of the biennial class, are 
C. Medium and C. calycanthema, both standard garden 
flowers. In the northern states, especially, they do 
exceedingly well. When used for mass effects, their full 
bloom becomes a prominent feature of June. The deli- 
cate shades of pink and pale lavender, the purity of the 
white, and the rich tints in purple and blue are a reve- 
lation. They transplant very easily, even in an ad- 
vanced state of growth, and readily respond to mild forc- 
ing under glass in spring. In a cut state, they show 
remarkably good lasting qualities and are of excellent 
value as material for filling vases. A few other good 
biennials are C. sibirica, C. primulsefolia, C. spicata, 
(p. 650), C. thyrsoides. The peach-leaved section com- 
prises the most perfect forms of the bellflower family, 
although C. persicifolia has been surpassed in popular 
favor by the more yigorou < C. grandiflora varieties in 
white and blue, which are really platycodons. C. iso- 
phylla, native of Italy, is not hardy in Maine and must 
be overwintered under glass. It is a very effective 
basket- and balcony-box plant, its long hanging vines 
being covered with large and attractive flowers in July 
and August. The color is a delicate light blue, while 
the bells of its garden descendant C. Mayii, have a 
deeper shade. For the South, both are valuable acqui- 
sitions for rockeries. Of the perennial species, according 
to Robert Cameron, the best border plants are the fol- 
lowing: C. carpatica and vars. alba and turbinata; C. 
glomerata, especially var. dahurica; C. lactiflora; C. lati- 
folia, especially its vars. eriocarpa and macrantha; C. 
nobilis (about 2 ft. in height); C. persicifolia and its 
numerous vars., especially the white kinds; C. punc- 
tata (about 1 % ft.) ; C. pyramidalis, a very showy plant 
when well grown, but not quite reliable in the eastern 
states as to hardiness, making a good pot-plant for the 
cool greenhouse; C. rapunculoides, which spreads rap- 
idly and must be so placed that it will not crowd out 
the other plants that are near it; C. rotundifolia; C. 
Trachelium; C. Van Houttei, a hybrid, and one of the 
best bellflowers. Campanulas are raised from seed 
and also by division or cuttings. Seeds should be 
started early under glass. Cover very shallow, and 
place the shallow seed-pans near the light in an aver- 
age temperature of 60. Shade at midday while in pro- 
cess of germinating; avoid over-watering and "sticky" 
atmosphere. Transplant seedlings into flats as soon as 
they can be handled. Harden young plants gradually 
and transfer them to the open ground in May. C. 
Medium, C. calycanthema, and all the C. persicifolia 
varieties, when grown for the cut-flower trade, should 
be placed on beds where they are intended to pe flow- 
ered and cropped the next season. They thrive best 
in a rather light well-manured garden soil. Some of 
the alpine species require a sandy humus with addi- 
tions of fine limestone material. When grown for floral 
garden effect, the open sunny position is preferable 
throughout the North, while for the South half-shade 
at midday is likely to prolong the flowering season. 
Seedlings of single varieties come true to color to 
a high percentage. Of the semi-double and double C. 
persicifolia sorts, propagation is usually by division 
in September. C. isophylla and C. Mayii are shy seeders 
and are propagated by cuttings in spring. For winter 
protection, a light covering of straw, leaves or ever- 
green boughs is sufficient south of New York. In more 

northern parts, hardy campanulas require a uniform 
layer of leaves 2 to 3 inches thick. The annuals can 
be raised in the border by seeds sown late in April or 
May, or raised in the greenhouse and then transferred 
to the border. The best of the annuals are C. ramosis- 
sima and var. alba, C. drabifolia, C. Erinus, C. macro- 
styla, and C. americana. (Richard Rothe.) 


acaulis, 12. 

grandis, 11. 

pusitta, 46. 

alaskana, 44. 

Grossekii, 7. 

pyramidalis, 16. 

alba, 11, 16, 19, 32, 

haylodgensis, 39. 

Rainerii, 37. 

39, 45, 46. 

Hendersonii, 39. 

ramosissima, 32. 

alba grandiflora, 10. 

hirsuta, 33, 34. 

rapunculoides, 21. 

alliariaefolia, 5. 

Hohenackeri, 30. 

Rapunculus, 1. 

Allionii, 26. 

Hostii, 44. 

rhomboidalis, 19. 

alpina, 29. 

imperialis, 4. 

riverslea, 39. 

americana, 9. 

isophylla, 40. 

rotundifolia, 44. 

arctica, 44. 

lactiflora, 13. 

ruthenica, 18. 

attica, 43. 

lamiifolia, 5. 

sarmatica, 6. 

Backhousei, 10. 

latifolia, 17. 

Scheuchzeri, 45. 

barbata, 27. 

latiloba, 11. 

Scouleri, 41. 

biserrata, 13. 

lini folia, 45. 

sibirica, 30. 

bononiensis, 18. 

longestyla, 3. 

soldanella, 44. 

csespitosa, 46. 

Lorei, 32. 

soldanellaeflora, 44. 

calycanthema, 4. 

macrantha, 10, 17. 

sparsiflora, 12. 

carpatica, 39. 

macrophytta, 5. 

speciosa, 12, 14. 

celtidifolia, 13. 

macrostyla, 2. 

Stansfieldii, 31, 39. 

ccelestina, 39. 

major, 36. 

stenocodon, 44. 

ccerulea, 13. 

marginata, 10. 

superba, 12. 

compacta, 16, 39. 

Mayii, 40. 

Tenorii, 38. 

coronata, 10. 

Medium, 4. 

Tommasiniana, 31. 

dahurica, 12. 

mirabilis, 8. 

thyrsoidea, 14. 

divaricata, 23. 

Moerheimei, 10. 

thyrsoides, 14. 

divergens, 30. 

mollis, 28. 

Trachelium, 20. 

drabifolia, 43. 

muralis, 36. 

turbinata, 39. 

Elatines, 35. 

nobilis, 24. 

urtici folia, 20. 

Erinus, 49. 

pallida, 25, 46. 

Van Houttei, 25. 

eriocarpa, 17. 

parviflora, 3. 

velutina, 44. 

excisa, 47. 

pelviformis, 39. 

versicolor, 22. 

eximia, 30. 

persicifolia, 10. 

verus, 1. 

Fergusonii, 16. 

Portenschlagiana, 36. 

Vidalii, 15. 

floribunda, 40. 

pulla, 42. 

Waldsteiniana, 31. 

fragilis, 33. 

pulloides, 42. 

Wiegandii, 4. 

garganica, 34. 

pumila, 46. 

Wilsonii, 39. 

glomerata, 12. 

punctata, 24. 

Zoysii, 48. 

C. primukefolia and C. spicata will be found in the 
supplementary list, p. 650. 

GROUP I. Kitchen-garden vegetable: roots radish-like: 
a salad plant. 

1. Rapunculus, Linn. (Rapunculus verus, Fourr.). 
RAMPION. Fig. 763. Biennial or perennial, 2-3 ft.: 
root spindle- or long-radish-shaped, %in. thick, white: 
st. erect sulcate: lower Ivs. obovate, short-petioled, 
somewhat crenate; st.-lvs. linear-lanceolate, entire: fls. 
calyx-tube obconical, lobes 
lilac, in a spike or raceme; 
glabrous or bristly, erect, 
awl-shaped, a half shorter 
than or nearly equal to 
the funnel-shaped corolla. 
Eu., Orient, N. Asia, N. 
Afr. The roots and Ivs. 
are eaten as a salad. The 
seeds, which are very 
small, are sown in the open 
ground in early May either 
broadcast or in drills. A 
little sand mixed with the 

gives an evener sow- 
ing. Press firmly, and 
water carefully. Thin out 
the seedlings if necessary. 
Water freely in hot 
weather. A fresh sowing 
may be made in June, as 
early - sown plants may 
run to seed. Roots are 
gathered in Oct. and may 
be stored in sand for win- 
ter use. "Rapunculus" 
means a little turnip. 

763. Root of rampion Cam- 
panula Rapunculus. 




GROUP II. Tall or border campanulas, characteristically 

afoot or 15 in. or more high. Nos. 2-23. 
A. Calyx with an appendage at the base of each sinus. 

B. Caps. 5-celled and stigmas 5 (variable in No. 8). 
c. Style excessively long, the stigma an inch or more long. 
2. macrostyla, Boiss. & Heldr. Annual, 1-2 ft., 
branched from the base, hispid with rigid spreading 
scattered bristles: branches stout: Ivs. scattered, small 
for the size of the plant, sessile, bristly on both sur- 
faces; lower ones ovate-oblong, acute; upper ovate- 
lanceolate, recurved, cordate, eared at the base: calyx- 
tube hidden by the bladdery appendages, small, broader 
than long; fls. solitary; on stout peduncles, 2-2 > in. 

broad; corolla 
very broad and 
open, pale pur- 
ple without, dull 
purple within, 
marked with 
violet, and hairy 
toward the bot- 
tom; lobes very 
broad, short 
and acute. Mt. 
Taurus in Ana- 
tolia. Gn. 15: 
356 and 12, p. 
209. B.M. 6394. 
The very long 
exserted style is 
brown and spin- 
dle - shaped be- 
fore spreading 
open. Self-sown 
seeds sometimes 
remain a year 
before sprout- 

cc. Style not ex- 
cessively long. 
3. longestyla, 
Fomine. Peren- 
nial, \y 2 -2 y 2 ft., 

more or less 
hairy: basal 
Ivs. lance -oval, 
lobed, the st.- 
Ivs. oblong and 
sessile: fls. blue- 
purple, droop- 
ing; calyx-lobes 
pointed, the 
appendages re- 
flexed on the 
almost urn-shaped, dilated below the middle; style 
exserted with 3, 4 or 5 stigmas: caps. 3-5-celled. Cau- 
casus. Gn. W. 23:671. Var. parvifldra, Bois. Fls. 
smaller. R.H. 1911:548; p. 549. 

4. Medium, Linn. (Medium grandiflorum, Spach). 
CANTERBURY BELLS. Fig. 764. Biennial, 1-4 ft.; 
plant pilose: st. erect: Ivs. sessile, ovate-lanceolate or 
lanceolate, crenate-dentate : raceme lax, many-fld.; fls. 
violet-blue, varying to several shades and to white, 2 in. 
long; calyx-lobes ovate-acuminate, the appendages half 
as long as the ample ovate obtuse lobes; corolla bell- 
shaped, inflated. S. Eu. Gn. M. 14:9. Two forms (aside 
from thesingle-fld.) occur: thedouble, Fig. 764a, with 1-3 
extra corollas, and the var. calycanthema, Hort., Fig. 
7646, with an enlarged spreading and petal-like outer 
part sometimes deeply divided and sometimes little 
lobed or nearly entire (varying on the same plant) . The 
var. calycanthema is the CUP-AND-SAUCER form (the 

764. Campanula Medium, the Canterbury 
Bell. Modified forms are shown. 

name hose-in-hose, sometimes applied in Campanula, 
would better be retained for Primula elatior); a fair 
percentage come true from seed; usually a stronger 
plant than the common C. Medium. G.C. III. 
24:65. R.H. 1896, p. 301; 1897, p. 238. Gng. 5:88. Gn. 
48, p. 295. F.S. 19, p. 152. G.W. 3, p. 291. G.Z. 17: 
113. Var. Wiegandii, Hort. Lv&. golden yellow: fls. 
blue. Var. imperialis, Hort., is a very floriferous form 
or possibly a hybrid. Canterbury bells are most 
commonly treated as hardy biennials, the seed being 
sown in the open border, but they do not flower the 
first year. They can also be treated as tender 
annuals, the seed being sown indoors in early spring 
and the plants set out May 1-15. They will then flower 
well the first season, but always better the second year. 
Sowings may also be made in April, May or later, in 
pots, boxes or beds, and plants then be transferred into 
some sheltered place where they can be slightly pro- 
tected during the winter, and then transplanted in 
spring to their permanent places into good rich soil, 
where they will make a great show if they have had the 
right treatment. Let them stand 18-24 in. apart. Seed- 
lings potted up in autumn may be brought into bloom 
readily indoors in spring; and even blooming plants, if 
not spent, may be potted direct from the garden and 
used in the house in autumn. 

BB. Caps. 3-celled: stigmas 3. 

5. alliariasfdlia, Willd. (C. lamiifolia, Bieb. C. ma- 
crophylla, Sims). Perennial, 1K~2 ft.: st. erect, striate, 
woolly, branched only at the top: root-lvs. large, heart- 
shaped, crenate, tomentose; st.-lvs. on petioles which 
gradually shorten upward, the highest being sessile: 
fls. white, nodding, on short stalks, borne singly in the 
axils of the floral Ivs. as in C. sarmatica, but the floral 
Ivs. larger and broader; calyx a third or a fourth shorter 
than the corolla, with margins rolled back, and appen- 
dages less minute than in C. sarmatica; corolla always 
white, 2 in. long, ciliated at the margin, and with char- 
acteristic tooth-like processes at the base of each sinus. 
Caucasus, Asia Minor. B.M. 912. Gn. M. 14:9. 

6. sarmatica, Ker-Gawl. Perennial, 1-2 ft.: st. 
simple, striate, pubescent: Ivs. remarkable for their 
gray color, harsh, leathery, wrinkled, tomentose, 
oblong-cordate, crenate, the lower long-petioled, the 
upper sessile: calyx with minute reflexed appendages, 
and a short, densely hairy tuft: fls. about 6 on a st., 
nodding; corolla about 1 in. long, and 1^ in. across, 
pale blue, marked with 5 hairy lines. Caucasus, in 
subalpine places. B.M. 2019. L.B.C. 6:581. 

7. Grdssekii, Heuff. Has the habit and infl. of C. 
Trachelium, but the calyx is appendaged; perennial, 
2^2 ft., branching from the base, angled, pilose: Ivs. 
hispid, the lower cordate, unequally petioled, doubly 
crenate-serrate, the uppermost ovate-acute, narrowed 
into a petiole: calyx setose-ciliate, lobes spreading, 
reflexed at the apex, appendages lanceolate, a third 
shorter than the lobes; corolla hispid, 2 or 3 times longer 
than the calyx-lobes: fls. large, bell-shaped, violet, in a 
long raceme. Hungary. Gt. 35, p. 477. G. 27:459. 

8. mirabilis, Alboff. Biennial or short-lived peren- 
nial, 1 ft. or more; whole plant forms a broad dense 
cone with such a profusion of bloom as almost to hide 
the foliage: lower Ivs. 4-6 in. long, obovate or spatu- 
late, obtuse, coarsely toothed, petiole winged: fls. pale 
lilac, erect, broadly campanulate, 2 in. across, the 
corolla hairy on margins and back. Caucasus. B.M. 
7714. G.C. III. 24:33; 42:144-5. Gt. 47, p. 192. Gn. 
54, p. 454; 60, p. 58. G.W. 12, p. 445. A very beauti- 
ful and remarkable plant. 

AA. Calyx without an appendage at the base of each sinus. 
B. Fls. rotate or wheel-shaped. 

9. americana, Linn. Annual and biennial, 3-6 ft.: 
st. erect, simple: Ivs. thin, serrate, somewhat pilose; 




root-lvs. ovate-acute, subcordate, petiolate; st.-lvs. 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate at both ends: calyx-tube 
long, obconical, the teeth linear-acuminate, almost 
entire, spreading, shorter than the 5-fid, wheel-shaped 
corolla; fls. light blue, 1 in. broad, in long spikes, soli- 
tary or in 3's; corolla shallow, lobes pilose outside and 
at the apex; style long, strongly declined and upwardly 
curved: caps, cylindrical, grooved. Shaded low ground 
Canada to Iowa, south to Fla. and Ark. Rarely 
cult. It is possible that Phyteuma canescens is still cult, 
as C. americana. 

BB. Fls. saucer-shaped or broadly bell-shaped, i. e., the 
tube shallower and the limbs more widely spread- 
ing than the bell-shaped. 

c. St.-lvs. linear-lanceolate, crenulate. 

10. persicifolia, Linn. Fig. 765. Perennial, 2-3 ft. : st. 
erect: Ivs. glabrous, rigid, crenulate; root-lvs. lanceolate- 
obovate; st.-lvs. linear-lanceolate or spatula te, of ten 3 in. 
long: calyx-lobes acuminate, wide at the base, entire, 
half as long as the broadly bell-shaped corolla: fls. blue 
or white, pedicelled, solitary, terminal and axillary, often 
1^ in. long, 2 in. broad: caps, ovoid, 3-grooved. Eu. 
B.M. 397. G.C. III. 43:384. Gn. 75, p. 30. G. 6:297. 
Gn. M. 14:9. G.W. 3, p. 292. C.L.A. 13:478; the 
white form in G. 13:71 and Gn. W. 23:Suppl. Jan. 27; 
the double white in G.C. 111.27:409 and G. 3:563. 
One of the best of all perennial campanulas. Var. 
macrantha is a large-fld. form with fls. all along the st. 
Gt. 44, p. 148. Gn. 48, p. 306. A.F. 6:383. S.H. 1:131. 
Var. alba grandifldra and var. Bdckhousei are among 
the popular white-fld. forms. There are double and 
semi-double forms in blue and white. The double 
white is useful for cutting. For portraits of var. grandi- 
flora, see G. 27:458; 28:553, 673; G.W. 12, p. 433. 
Var. coronata, Hort., is a semi-double white form. F.S. 
7:699. The pictures hi B.M. and F.S. show distinctly 
saucer-shaped fls. Var. Moerheimei, Hort. White-fld., 
double, 2-3 in. diam. : excellent. G.C. III. 27:414. G.M. 
49:535. G.W. 6, p. 545; 12, p. 434. A.G. 23:497. Var. 
marginata, Hort., has white fls. tinted blue on the bor- 
ders. R.B. 32, p. 252. This species occasionally runs 
wild, especially in England. The Ivs. are very charac- 
teristic, and, once seen, are never forgotten. 

cc. St.-lvs. wider and coarsely toothed. 

11. latfloba, DC. (C. grdndis, Fisch. & Mey.) Peren- 
nial, \-\ l A ft., glabrous: st. erect, simple, terete: st.- 
lvs. 3-5 in. long, 4-6 lines wide, lanceolate, narrowed at 
both ends, crenate-serrate: calyx-lobes ovate-acute, 
broad, entire, erect, one-half shorter than the broadly 
bell-shaped corolla: fls. blue, often 2 in. wide, sessile, 
solitary or somewhat clustered, sometimes equaling 
the ovate-acute, dentate bracts. Mt. Olympus. P.M. 
10:31. H.U. 3, p. 137. Gt. 7:202. Fls. like C. persi- 
cifolia. Quickly forms a dense carpet. Variable in 
color. Var. alba, Hort. White fls. G. 19:440. 

BBS. Fls. bell-shaped or tubular, not saucer-shaped. 
c. Infl. a dense roundish head. 

12. glomerata, Linn. One of the most variable: 
perennial, 1-2 ft., typically pubescent: st. erect, simple, 
terete: Ivs. serrulate, lower ones rough with very short, 
stiff hairs, 1^-3 in. long, 1-2 in. wide, with a cordate, 
ovate-oblong blade shorter than the petiole; upper ones 
sessile, ovate, acute: fls. violet-blue to white, in dense 
heads or glomes, 15-20 in the terminal heads, fewer in 
axillary ones. Eu., Armenia, Persia, Siberia; some- 
times escaped in this country. Gn.M. 14:9. B.M. 
2649 is var. specidsa, which has the largest fls. L.B.C. 
6 : 505 is var. sparsifldra, with much smaller clusters. 
This is one of the earliest flowering and easiest of 
cult. Fls. typically ^dark purple, running into lighter 
varieties. Var. dahurica, Hort., is probably the com- 
monest form: terminal clusters 3 in. or more thick, a 
very characteristic infl. The fl. has a longer tube than 

C. lactiflora and C. thyrsoides. G. 26:305. Var. acaulis, 
Hort., is an almost stemless form with very large fls.: 
sts. only 3-5 in. high. G.W. 9, p. 272. Var. superba, 
Hort., is a cross of the dwarf variety with var. dahurica: 
large heads of deep violet fls. 

cc. Infl. a spike or raceme, dense or loose. 

D. Color of fls. normally white or yellowish. 

E. Corolla small, short-tubed. 

13. lactifldra, Bieb. Perennial, 2J^-6 ft.: st. erect, 
branching: Ivs. sessile, ovate-lanceolate, acutely ser- 
rate: calyx-lobes very broad, acute, serrulate, one-half 
shorter than the broadly bell-shaped corolla: fls. in a 
loose or dense panicle, which may be 3^ in. long and 
thick; corolla white or pale blue, 1 in. long, nearly 1}^ 
in. broad: caps, ovoid, erect. Caucasus, Siberia. B.M. 
1973. G.C. III. 50:438. Gn. 61, p. 29; 63, p. 90; 71, 
p. 418; 75, p. 89. G.M. 46: 

168; 48:545. Gn. W. 23:623. 
The normally milk-white blue- 
tinged fls. are characteristic. 
Var. ccerulea, Hort., has light 
blue fls. C. celtidifolia, Boiss., 
referred to the above, may be 
a strongly marked variety. C. 
biserrdta, Koch, is also referred 

14. thyrsoides, Linn. Bien- 
nial, 1-13^ ft.; st. grooved: Ivs. 
all covered with long hairs at 
the margin; root-lvs. sessile, 
spatulate or obtusely lanceo- 
late, 2^2 in. long, %in. wide, 
in a dense rosette, lying on 
the ground; upper Ivs. more 
narrow and acute: fls. 40^-50, 
sulfur or creamy yellow, in a 
dense thyrse-like spike, which 
may be 6 in. long and 2H in- 
broad; style exserted. Alps 
and Jura, 3,000-6,000 ft. B.M. 
1290. L.B.C. 17:1644. Inter- 
mingled with the fls. in the 
spike are Ivs. which are longer 
than the fls., which is not true 
of C. lactiflora. Should not be 
confounded with C. thrysoidea, 
Lapeyr., which = C. speciosa, 
(see supplementary list). Ap- 
parently no blue or purple forms 
are known. The picture in B.M. 
shows a characteristic red- 
tipped calyx. Garden hybrids 

are reported with C. spicata (see Kew Bull. 1910, p. 322) . 

EE. Corolla large, long-tubed. 

15. Vidalii, H. C. Wats. Perennial, 1-2 ft.: st. 
branching from the base: some branches short, sterile, 
others tall, floriferous, all grooved, clammy, glossy: 
Ivs. 3-4 in. long, oblong-spatulate, coarsely serrate, 
thick, fleshy, firm, viscid, the upper ones gradually 
becoming bracts: fls. 2 in. long, nodding, about 9 in a 
loose terminal raceme; calyx-lobes triangular, thick, 
one-fourth shorter than the corolla; corolla tubular, 
swelled below, constricted above, white with a yellow 
base. Azores. B.M. 4748. F.S. 7:729. A.F. 3:116. 
G.C. III. 18:95; 34:330-1. Gn. 54, p. 299; 63, p. 297; 
74, p. 402; 75, p. 410. J.F. 3, pi. 274. Very distinct. 

DD. Color of fls. normally blue or purple (with white 

varieties) . 

E. Size of fls. large. 
F. Raceme pyramidal or long-conical, usually dense. 

16. pyramidalis, Linn. CHIMNEY CAMPANULA. Fig. 
766. Glabrous perennial, 4-5 ft.: Ivs. glandular-den- 

765. A narrow-flowered 
form of Campanula per- 




tate, lower petiolate, ovate-oblong, subcordate; st.- 
lvs. sessile, ovate-lanceolate: calyx-lobes acuminate, 
spreading, half as long as the broadly bell-shaped 
corolla: fls. numerous, in pyramidal racemes, pale blue 
varying to white and darker at the base. G.C. III. 

32:388. Gn. 45, p. 67; 
48, p. 306; 51, p. 221 
(a staked pot plant); 
47, p. 86 (with exten- 
sive cultural notes) ; 
53, p. 535; 62, p. 254; 
T. 64, p. 96; 68, p. 137; 
,| 69, p. 4; 74, p. 548. 
R.H. 1897, p. 238. 
G.M. 46:612; 53: 811. 
G.W. 1, p. 39; 7, p. 
7; 11, p. 137; 13, p. 571. 
Var. alba, Hort., has 
white fls. Gn. 74, p. 
645. J.H. III. 51:257. 
Var compacta, Hort. 
Dwarf er: fls. larger and 
of better substance. 
The compact variety is 
very floriferous and 
convenient for conser- 
vatory, but lacks the 
characteristic erect, 
pyramidal habit. Gn. 
73, p. 54. G. 18:64. 
S.H. 2:97. C. Fer- 
gusonii, Hort., is a hy- 
brid of C. pyramidalis 
and C. carpatica, re- 
sembling a dwarf form 
of the former in growth, 
18 in.: petals more 
pointed than those of 
the latter: fls. bright 
lilac. Gn. 66, p. 276. 
Hybrids between C: pyramidalis and C. versicolor are 

FF. Raceme not pyramidal, usually looser. 

17. latifolia, Linn. Perennial, 3-4 ft.: Ivs. large, 
doubly serrate; root-lvs. sometimes 6 in. long, petiolate, 
cordate, covered with soft hairs; st.-lvs. sessile, more 
acuminate: peduncle 1-fld.; calyx-lobes long-acumi- 
nate, one-third shorter than the corolla; fls. 6-15 in a 
loose spike or raceme about 8 in. long, erect, very large, 
2^2 in. long, purple or dark blue, hairy. Eu., Persia. 
G.W. 8, p. 445. Var. macrantha, Sims (C. macrantha, 
Fisch.) is commoner in cult, than the type, a little 
hairier, with a glabrous calyx and very large fls. B.M. 
2553, 3347. R.H. 1897, p. 239. J.H. III. 60:263. Var. 
eriocarpa, DC., has the st. and Ivs. pilose and more pallid, 
and a hispid calyx- tube. There is a white-fld. form. It 
is native to England, and is easily naturalized there in 
wild gardens. The st.-lvs. are probably the largest of 
any of the garden kinds, often 3^ in. long and 2 in. wide. 

EE. Size of fls. small, less than 1 in. long. 

18. bononiensis, Linn. Perennial, 2-2^ ft.; sca- 
brous: st. simple: Ivs. serrulate, ovate-acuminate, pallid 
beneath; root-lvs. cordate-petiolate; upper Ivs. clasp- 
ing: calyx-lobes acuminate, one-fourth shorter than the 
funnel-shaped corolla: fls. normally purplish, in a long, 
loose, pyramidal spike, which may be 2 ft. long, with 
60-100 small fls.; corolla %in. long and broad. E. Eu., 
W. Siberia, and Caucasus. Var. ruthenica (C. ruthen- 
ica, Bieb.), has Ivs. wider and tomentose beneath. 
Caucasus and Tauria. B.M. 2653. There is a white- 
fld. form. The fls. are much smaller than in C. latifolia, 
and the raceme is much larger. 

19. rhomboidalis, Linn. Perennial, 1 ft., sometimes 
2 ft.: st. simple, erect: Ivs. sessile, ovate-acute, serrate: 

766. Campanula pyramidalis. 

calyx-lobes awl-shaped, one-half shorter than the bell- 
shaped corolla; fls. 8-10 in an almost corymbose 
raceme, the lower pedicels of which may be 3 in. long, 
the uppermost 1 in. or less; corolla purplish blue, 1 in. 
long, and a little wider. Mts. of Eu. B.M. 551 (as 
C. azurea). J.H. III. 50:541. Var. alba, Hort., has 
white fls. G.W. 3, p. 14. It flowers in July and 
August, after which the sts. and Ivs. die down quickly. 

20. Trachelium, Linn. THROATWORT. Fig. 767. 
Perennial, 2-3 ft.: st. angular, somewhat bristly (as 
also the fls.) : Ivs. rough, acuminate, coarsely crenate- 
dentate; root-lvs. cordate, ovate, short-stalked: calyx- 
lobes erect, triangular-acuminate, one-third shorter 
than the bell-shaped blue or white corolla: peduncle 
1-3-fld.; fls. erect at first, at length tending to droop 
in a loose raceme, which may be 12-18 in. long: caps, 
nodding. Eu., Caucasus, Siberia, Japan, and run wild 
in parts of N. Amer. R.H. 1897, p. 239. There is a 
double-fld. form and variations in color. One of the 
commonest and hardiest of the border plants, often 
running out the other campanulas, and passing under 
many names, especially as C. urticifolia. 

21. rapunculoides, Linn. Fig. 768. Perennial, 2-4 
ft.: st. indistinctly pubescent or almost smooth: Ivs. 
rough, ovate-acuminate; root-lvs. petiolate, cordate, 
crenulate; st.-lvs. serrulate: calyx a little rougher than 
in C. Trachelium, the lobes linear-lanceolate, at length 
reflexed, one-fourth length of the oblong-campanu- 
late bright blue corolla; fls. soon declined or nodding, 
in long mostly 1-sided racemes or spikes, bright blue. 
Eu., Caucasus, Siberia, and common in patches on old 
roadsides and about yards. Summer. Gn. M. 14:9. 

22. versicolor, Sibth. & Smith. Perennial, 3-4 ft.; 
plant glabrous: st. ascending: Ivs. serrate; root-lvs. 
long-petioled, ovate-acute, subcordate; st.-lvs. short- 
petioled, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate: calyx-teeth 
acuminate, spreading, at length reflexed, one-half as 
long as the corolla: fls. in long, spicate racemes; style 

exserted: caps, spheroid. Greece. 

ccc. Infl. an open, compound panicle. 
23. divaricata, Michx. Glabrous peren- 
nial, 1-3 ft.: st. erect, slender, paniculate 
above: branches slender, divergent: Ivs. 
sparse, subsessile, ovate-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate at both ends, coarsely serrate: calyx- 
lobes awl-shaped, one- 
half shorter than the 
tubular, bell-shaped cor- 
olla; fls. small, nodding, 
pale blue, in a very open 
and compound panicle; 
style straight, exserted. 
Alleghanies, from Va. to 
( Ga. Rare in gardens. 

GROUP III. Low-growing 
or rock-garden cam- 
panulas, mostly less 
than a foot or 15 in. 
high. Nos. 24-49. 
A. Calyx with an append- 
age at the base of 
each sinus , often 
minute or disguised 
in form. 
B. Throat of corolla 

spotted violet. 
24. punctata,Lam. (C. 
nobilis, Lindl.). Named 
from the spotted whitish 
corolla, the purplish 
spots being inside and 
showing through faintly 
767. Campanula Trachelium. (x l A) in the fresh fl. but 




more plainly in the dried specimen: like C. alliar- 
isefolia. Perennial, 1 ft., with long and loose hairs: 
upper Ivs. nearly sessile, and more sharply toothed 
than the lower: calyx-lobes one-third as long as the 
corolla, longer, looser and hairier than in C. alliarise- 
folia, and the margins much more recurved: peduncle 
1-4-fld.; fls. nodding; corolla cylindrical, 2% in. long, 
white, spotted within, strongly ribbed. Siberia, Japan. 
G.C. III. 38, supp. Aug. 26; 42:96. Gn. 73, p. 423; 75, 
p. 458. G.M. 51 : 781. G. 29:595. C. nobilis has been 
considered distinct. In F.S. 3:247 the corolla is dark 
violet without, the limb hairy, while in B.M. 1723 
(C. punctata) the corolla is white outside and not 
bearded. In F. S. 6:563 (C. nobilis var. alba) the limb 
is not bearded and the st. is red, and not hairy. The 
three pictures show great differences in foliage, pubes- 
cence and appendages. This is one of the most inter- 
esting of all campanulas, and is, unfortunately, usually 
considered more quaint than beautiful. The spotted 
throat readily separates it from other campanulas. 

BB. Throat of corolla not spotted, 
c. Sts. commonly 1-fld. 

25. Van Hoilttei, Carr. Perennial, 2 ft. : root-lvs. 
long-petioled, roundish cordate, more or less lobed; 
st.-lvs. sessile, oval-lanceolate, irregularly bi-dentate, 
23^-4 in. long, more or less villous, strongly nerved: 
fls. usually solitary, nodding at the end of a small 
branchlet, 2 in. long, half as broad, indigo-blue, or 
violet; calyx-lobes linear, spreading, 1 in. long. A gar- 
den hybrid resembling C. punctata. Intro, into France 
1878 by Thibaut and Keteleer. Var. pallida, Hort., 
has pale lavender fls. 

26. AlliSnii, Vill. Perennial, 3-5 in.: rootstock 
slender, creeping underground, sending up sts. at inter- 
vals of %-l in. : Ivs. few, about 7 on a st., 1-2 in. long, 
linear-lanceolate, sessile, slightly hairy, entire, midrib 
distinct, lower ones in a whorl of about 5, upper ones 
similar but more erect: calyx-lobes lanceolate, half as 
long as the corolla, the appendages ovate, reflexed, one- 
third the length of the calyx-lobes; fls. purple, with a 
rare white variety, only one on a st., inclined or nodding, 
1 ^2 in- long) and as broad across the mouth, probably 
the largest for the size of the plant of any campanula. 
A very local species, found only in the western Alps. 
B.M. 6588. G.C. III. 52:52. Gn. 60, p. 51. 

cc. Sts. usually several-ftd. 
D. Margin of corolla bearded. 

27. barb&ta, Linn. Perennial, 6-9 in.: st. pilose: Ivs. 
villous, entire or nearly so; root-lvs. tufted, lanceolate; 
st.-lvs. few, ligulate (?): raceme loose, 3-4-fld.; fls. nod- 
ding, pale blue; calyx appendage ovate, obtuse, half as 
long as the lobes; corolla bell-shaped, shorter than in 
C. Allionii, and with a bearded mouth. Alps. L.B.C. 
8:788. G.C. III. 48: 388. Gn. 48, p. 297. G.W. 12, p. 447. 
There is a white-fld. form, but apparently no purple. 
Readily distinguished from C. Allionii by the differ- 
ent colored, bearded and smaller fls., which are rarely 
borne singly, and by the dense, soft hairs of the st. 
Alps, 2,400-6,000 ft., widely distributed; mts. of Nor- 
way, and the Carpathians. Becomes coarse when grown 
in rich ground. 

DD. Margin of corolla not bearded. 
E. Fls. erect. 

28. m611is, Linn. Perennial, velvety gray, 6-8 in.: 
sts. procumbent, about 2-fld.: root-lvs. tufted, obovate 
or spatulate; st.-lvs. ovate or rotund: fls. loosely pani- 
cled ; calyx-lobes lanceolate, erect, half shorter than the 
glabrous, bell-shaped corolla; appendages minute, 
shorter than the calyx-tube; corolla erect, dark pur- 

Klish blue or lavender, with a white throat, the tube 
>ng, segms. short, broad, spreading, acute. Spain, 
Crete. B.M. 404. Rock or border plant. 

EE. Fls. nodding. 

29. alpina, Jacq. Perennial, 3-8 in.: st. furrowed: 
Ivs. smaller than in C. barbata, more narrowly lanceo- 
late, entire, hairy: fls. typically deep blue, bell-shaped, 
with broader and shorter segms. than in C. barbata; 
calyx-lobes proportionately very long, surpassing the 
fl.-bud, and nearly as long as the flower, but widely 
spreading. Alps of Austria, Lombardy and Transylvania, 
6,000-7,000 ft. altitude. B.M. 957. J.H. III. 29:5. 
There is a white-fld. var. The plant has a characteristic 
shaggy appearance from the hairy Ivs. Easy of cult. 

768. Campanula rapunculoides. ( X H) 

30. sibirica, Linn. (C. Hbhenackeri, Fisch.). Bien- 
nial or perennial, setaceous-pilose: st. erect, simple, 
panicled above: Ivs. crenulate; root-lvs. petioled, 
obovate, obtuse; st.-lvs. lanceolate-acuminate: calyx 
hairy, the lobes long-acuminate, a third shorter than 
the corolla; calyx appendages like the lobes but half 
shorter and reflexed; fls. 25 or more, violet, with a 
longer and narrower tube than in C. alpina, and longer 
divisions of the limb. N. Asia, Caucasus, W. Eu. 
B.M. 659. R.H. 1861:431. The type is rare, but var. 
eximia, Hort., is somewhat commoner: it is dwarf er, 
much branched, with long, scabrous Ivs. and pale 
bluish to violet fls. Var. divergens, Willd., has larger 
fls. and broader Ivs. than the type. G.C. III. 16:597. 
C. sibirica usually does best when treated as a biennial. 

AA. Calyx without appendages. 
B. Fls. very wide-spreading, i.e., rotate, wheel-shaped, 

almost flat, 
c. Blossoms all erect. 

31. Waldsteiniana, Roem. & Schult. Perennial, 
4-6 in. : sts. rigid, glabrous : Ivs. fleshy, sessile, gray-green, 




lanceolate, slightly serrate-dentate, the lower obtuse, 
the upper long-acuminate: calyx-lobes awl-shaped, 
spreading or recurved, one-fourth shorter than the 
corolla: fls. 5-9 in a corymbose raceme 1% in. long, 
in. wide, pale purplish blue; corolla rotate, almost 
starlike, with a dark spot in the 
throat; pistil large, white, twice the 
length of the corolla, with a yellow 
stigma. S. Austria. Gn. 8, p. 173. 
G. 18:81. G.W. 12, pp.446, 710. C. 
Tommasinidna, Hort., is an allied 
plant, with very wiry growth and 
pendent pale blue fls. C. Stdnsfieldii, 
Hort., is a supposed hybrid, perhaps 
between C. Waldsteiniana and C. car- 

32. ramosissima, Sibth. & Smith 
(C. Lorei, Poll.). Annual, 1 ft. or less, 
branching: lower Ivs. obovate and 
crenate; upper Ivs. narrow, entire: 
fls. violet with white base and blue 
intermediate parts, erect on long 
simple pedicels. Eu. B.M.2581. 
Var. alba, Hort. Fls. white, 
cc. Blossoms not all erect. 
D. Habit trailing or pendulous. 
33. fragilis, Cyrill. Peren- 
nial, 46 in. : st. diffuse, trailing: 
root -Ivs. long-petioled, 
roundish - cordate, ob- 
tusely dentate, or cre- 
nately lobed; st. -Ivs. 
smaller, scattered, the 
uppermost ovate-lanceo- 
late: fls. pale purplish 
blue with a white center, 
m - wide, in loose 
corymbs ; calyx - lobes 
linear- lanceolate, 
acuminate, erect, 
almost equaling 
the corolla; style 
exserted: caps'. 
Italy. B.M. 6504. P.M. 
11:25. G.C. III. 43:378. Gn. 8, 
p. 174; 47, p. 278; 63, p. 53. G. 
18:120. G.W. 2, p. 381. Var. 
hirsuta, DC., is a hairier form. 
This is the best species for hang- 
ing-baskets, window- and veranda- 
boxes, and for covering large 
stones in the rockery. Prop, by 
cuttings in spring, the roots being too fragile to divide 
well. Not so hardy as C. garganica. 

34. garganica, Tenore. Perennial, 3-6 in.: st. diffuse, 
with pendent branches: lower Ivs. reniform-cordate, 
crenate-dentate; upper Ivs. ovate-acute, dentate: 
raceme lax; peduncles 1-2-fld.; calyx-tube spheroid, the 
lobes spreading, a third or fourth shorter than the 
glabrous blue rotate corolla. Mt. Gargano in Italy, 
and elsewhere. B.R. 1768. Gn. 48, p. 295; 43, p. 25. 
G.M. 54:664. G.W. 4, p. 255. Var. hirsilta, Hort., is a 
hairier form. Gn. 46, p. 253; 48, p. 297. Half-shaded 
position. Prop, by cuttings or by'division. 

DD. Habit not trailing or pendulous. 

35. Elatines, Linn. Perennial, more or less pubes- 
cent, 5-6 in.: Ivs. cordate, coarsely and acutely den- 
tate, lower rotund, others ovate-acute: raceme lax; 
calyx-tube spherical, the lobes spreading, linear-lanceo- 
late, somewhat unequal, a half shorter than the rotate 
purplish corolla; style exserted. Piedmont. Gn. 60, 
p. 64. Rare rock-plant for light, stony soil. 

36. Portenschlagiana, Roem. & Schult. (C. muralis, 
Port.). Perennial, 6-9 in.: sts. somewhat erect: Ivs. all 

769. Campanula 
carpatica. (XJi) 

alike petiolate, cordate, roundish, acutely angular-den- 
tate: calyx- tube spheroid, lobes erect, acuminate, a 
third shorter than the infundibuliform blue-purple 
corolla: fls. racemose. Dalmatia. Allied to C. gar- 
ganica, but the corolla not so deeply 5-cut. Gn. 61, p. 
225; 72, p. 469. Var. major, Hort. Fls. nearly twice 
larger than in the type, 13^ in. across, making a large 
mound of purple-blue. G.C. III. 48:58. Gn. 60, 
p. Ill; 63, p. 110. G.W. 3, p. 13. 

BB. Fls. broadly bell-shaped, less widely spreading than 
in B, wider than in BBB (except perhaps in No. 40). 

c. Height 2-3 in. 

37. Rainerii, Perpenti. Perennial, 2-3 in.: sts. 
suberect, branching: branches 1-3-fld.: Ivs. subsessile, 
ovate, distantly serrate, the lower smaller and obovate: 
calyx-tube obconical, the lobes long-acuminate, erect, 
half shorter than the broadly infundibuliform corolla: 
fls. large, solitary, erect, dark purplish blue; style 
short, not exserted: caps, obovate. Mts. N. Italy. 
F.S. 18:1908. Gn. 60, p. 163. One of the choicest 
rock-plants, but somewhat rare. Several forms of the 
hybrid C. Wilsonii are often cult, under this name, but 
their Ivs. are lighter green and less tomentose than C. 
Rainerii. Thrives in a well-drained, sunny position. 

cc. Height more than 2-3 in. 
D. Style not exserted. 

38. TenSrii, Moretti. Perennial, 8-12 in., glabrous: 
st. ascending or prostrate: Ivs. leathery; root-lvs. long- 
petioled, ovate, subcordate, irregularly serrate; st.- 
Ivs. petiolate, ovate-acute, coarsely serrate: calyx-lobes 
linear-lanceolate, spreading, half as long as the broadly 
bell-shaped corolla: fls. racemose, blue: caps, spherical. 
Apennines, near Naples. This is referred by botanists 
to the Grecian species C. versicolor, which is typically 
taller, but is kept distinct by Correvon and others. In 
the garden, C. Tenorii resembles C. pyramidalis in 
foliage and fl., but is shorter. 

39. carpatica, Jacq. Fig. 769. Perennial, 9-18 in., 
glabrous: st. branching: lower Ivs. thin, long-petioled, 
ovate-rotund, cordate, coarsely dentate, undulate; 
upper ones shorter petioled, ovate-acuminate: pedun- 
cles long, terminal and axillary, 1-fld.; fls. large, 
often 13^ in. wide, bright deep blue; calyx-tube obconi- 
cal, the lobes acute, wide at the base, subdentate- 
erect, a third or half as long as the broadly bell-shaped 
corolla; style not exserted: caps, ovoid-cylindrical. 
Carpathian Mts. of Austria. B.M. 117. G.C. III. 
46:412. G.W. 12, p. 436. Gn. 48, p. 297; 62, p. 326. 
Var. coelestina, Hort. Fls. sky-blue. Var. alba, 
Hort. Fls. white. G.M. 55:615. Var. turbinata, 
Hort. (C. turbinata, Schott), is dwarf er, more 
compact, with fls.' more bell- or top-shaped, and 
often 2 in. across, purplish blue. It also has larger Ivs. 
and more decumbent habit. Gn. 

45, p. 171; 68, p. 179; 75, p. 201. 
G.W. 12, p. 446. F.E.17:15. A form 

770. Campanula pulla. (Detail x|) 




with pallid fls. is rarer. Var. Wflsonii, Hort. (C. Wil- 
sonii, Hort.), is a hybrid of var. turbinata and C. pulla, 
with the large fls. of the former and the handsome dark 
foliage of the latter: it is compact, dwarf, and small, 
ovate, very hairy Ivs., with crenate-serrate margin. 
Gn. 60, p. 219. Var. haylodgensis, Hort. (C. hay- 
lodgensis, Hort.), is a garden hybrid, probably between 
C. carpatica and C. csespitosa. Raised by Anderson 
Henry, Hay Lodge, Edinburgh. Height 6-9 in.: root- 
Ivs. tufted, roundish cordate, slightly dentate; st.-lvs. 
light green, ovate-cordate, conspicuously toothed: fls. 
light blue, bell-shaped, few, at the ends of sts. Var. 
pelviformis, Hort., from Crete, has very large, pale 
lilac, almost saucer-shaped fls. R.H. 1882, p. 509. G.C. 
III. 44:64. Var. Hendersonii, Hort., is often referred 
to var. turbinata, but is more robust; there is doubt as 
to its origin, C. pyramidalis or C. alliarisefolia possibly 
having played some part in it: Ivs. ovate and ovate- 
cordate, \Yz in. long, Min. broad, slightly hairy on 
both sides, folded upwards, serrate; petioles 1-13^2 m - 
long: fls. dark blue, 1^-2 in. wide, in short, 6-9-fld. 
racemes. G.W. 8, p. 65; 14, p. 581. Var. riverslea, Hort. 
Fls. dark blue, 2-3 in. across: sts. 12-15 in. long but 
spreading; parts of corolla often 6 or 7. G.M. 43:627. 
Var. compacta, Hort., is a condensed dwarf form. C. 
Stdnsfieldii, Hort., is supposed to be a hybrid between C. 
carpatica and C. Waldsteiniana (No. 31). This species 
is very variable in height and in shape of fls. 

DD. Style exserted. 

40. isophylla, Moretti (C. floribunda, Viv.) . Perennial : 
st. suberect: Ivs. all of same form, petiolate, roundish 
cordate, crenate-dentate: calyx-lobes acuminate, half 
shorter than the broadly bell-shaped or saucer-shaped 
corolla; fls. pale blue, 1 in. or more wide, corymbose; 
style exserted: caps. ovoid. Italy. B.M.5745. Gn. 49, p. 
483; 48, p. 297. A desirable 
basket or rock plant in sun or 
half shade. The white form, Var. 
alba, is most excel- 
lent: free-flower- 
ing. C. Mayii, 
Hort., is supposed 
to be a derivative 
of this species: Ivs. 
soft and woolly. 

BBS. Fls. bell-shaped. 

c. Style exserted. 
41. Scoilleri, Hook. 
Perennial, 3-12 in.: st. 
simple or branched: 
Ivs. acutely serrate, 
somewhat hirsute; 
lower ones ovate-acute, 
petioled; middle ones 
ovate - lanceolate ; up- 
per linear - lanceolate, 
sessile; calyx-lobes awl- 
shaped, erect, one-third 
shorter than the co- 
rolla: fls. pale blue, 
racemose, or more or 
less panicled; style 
exserted: caps, ovoid. 
N. Calif, to Puget 
Sound. The capsular 
valves are a little 
above the middle, while 
in C. carpatica and C. persicifolia they are near the 

cc. Style not exserted. 
D. Color dark purple. 

42. pulla, Linn. Fig. 770. Perennial, 3-8 in., tufted 
or in clumps, showy: st. normally 1-fld.: Ivs. glabrous, 

772. Campanula 
rotundifolia var. sol- 

771. Campanula rotundifolia. (XI) 

crenulate-dentate; lower ones short-petioled, ovate- 
rotund; upper sessile, ovate-acute: calyx-lobes long- 
acuminate, erect, a half shorter than the bell-shaped, 
nodding corolla. Mts. of Austria, 4,000-6,000 ft. In 
B.M. 2492 the calyx-lobes are short-acuminate, a 
sixth as long as the corolla. L. 
B.C. 6:554. Gn. 63, p. 440. C. 
puttoldes, Hort., is a supposed 
hybrid between C. pulla and C. 
turbinata, with habit of former: 5 
in. : fls. glistening purple-blue. Gn. 
66, p. 203. 

DD. Color not dark purple, but violet 
or blue (varying to white.) 

43. drabifdlia, Sibth. & Smith 
(C. dttica, Boiss.). Annual, hispid, 
3-4 in. : lower Ivs. oblong or ellip- 
tic, dentate, tapering into a 
petiole: fls. large, blue and lighter 
on the tube, bell-shaped, on fork- 
ing sts. Greece. 

44. rotundif61ia, Linn. HARE- 
OF SCOTLAND. Fig. 771. Peren- 
nial, 6-12 in.: root-lvs. petiolate, 
orbicular or cordate, crenate-den- 
tate: st.-lvs. linear or lanceolate, 
usually entire: calyx-lobes awl- 
shaped, erect, a third shorter than 
the bell-shaped bright blue cor- 
olla; fl.-buds erect. Eu., Siberia, 
N. Amer. Gn. 53:42; 62, p. 59. 
Gn. M. 14:10. This is one of 
the most cosmopolitan of all 

campanulas, and the true harebell or bluebell of litera- 
ture. In the wild it is usually slenderer and taller than 
in the garden. In shady woods it often grows 2 ft. high. 
The type has a white-fld. variety which is much less 
popular, but G.C. 1861:698 shows an excellent pot- 
plant of it. Var. alaskana, .Gray. Dwarfer, leafy to the 
top: radical Ivs. cordate, lowest st.-lvs. ovate and the 
upper ones becoming lanceolate: calyx-lobes attenuate, 
becoming deflexed; corolla ^2-1^2 in. long. Alaska. 
Var. arctica, Lange. Rigid, 1- to few-fld.: corolla 1 in. 
long, the calyx-lobes very slender and soon spreading 
or deflexing. Canada north. Var. velutina, DC. Herbage 
whitish pubescent. Var. Hostii, Hort. (C. Hbstii, 
Baumg.), has larger fls. than the type and stouter sts. 
The lower st.-lvs. are lanceolate, remotely dentate, the 
upper linear entire: calyx-lobes longer than in the type, 
a half shorter than the corolla. The white-fld. form is 
not so vigorous. |G. 5:207. The most pronounced 
variant is var. soldanellaefldra, Hort. (C. soldanella, 
Hort.). Fig. 772. With semi-double blue fls. split to 
the base into about 25 divisions. F.S. 18:1880. Gn. 
60, p. 162. This curious variation is unique in the 
genus. The alpine soldanellas are famous among trav- 
elers for melting their way through the ice. They have 
fringed blue fls. The name C. rotundifolia seems singu- 
larly inappropriate until one finds the root-lvs. in 
early spring. C. stenocodon, Boiss. & Reut., by some 
referred to C. rotundifolia, is more slender and with nar- 
rower st.-lvs.: fls. long and narrow, tubular, rich lilac- 
purple. Alps. 

45. Scheftchzeri, Vill. (C. linifolia, Willd.). Peren- 
nial, 4-12 in.: st. 1-4-fld., usually 1-fld.: root-lvs. 
roundish, ovate, or cordate; st.-lvs. linear or narrowly 
lanceolate, sessile, denticulate, the lowest st.-lvs. 
spatulate : calyx-lobes slender, linear-awl-shaped, nearly 
as long as the bell-shaped dark blue corolla. Alpine 
and subarctic regions of Newfoundland, Labrador, 
Alaska, and Rocky Mts. to Colo., also in Eu. and 
N. Asia. F.S. 21:2205, not L.B.C. 5:485, which De- 
Candolle states is C. rotundifolia. Var. alba, Hort. 
Fls. white. Gn. 60, p. 164. The st.-lvs. of C. Scheuch- 




zeri are distinctly serrate, while in C. rotundifolia they 
are entire; the fl.-buds nod in the former, but are erect 
in the latter. The calyx-lobes are relatively longer in 
C. Scheuchzeri, and perhaps the bell is deeper. 

46. caespitdsa, Scop. (C. pumila, Curt. C. pusilla, 
Hsenk.). Perennial, 4-6 in.: root-lvs. tufted, short- 
petioled, ovate, glandular-dentate, shining: calyx- 
lobes linear, erect, a third shorter than the bell-shaped 
corolla: fls. nodding, blue; pollen violet-colored. B.M. 
512. Gn. 43:24; 48, p. 297; 60, p. 161. G. 25:307. 
R.H. 1908, p. 223. Dwarf er than C. rotundifolia, with 
root-lvs. never reniform, shorter-petioled, and lasting 
until after fls. have gone. Perennial, quickly forms a 
dense mat, and blooming from June till Oct. The 
European trade catalogues usually offer C. csespitosa 
and C. pusilla separately, and doubtless plants of dis- 
tinct horticultural value are passing under these names, 
but there seem to be no sufficient botanical characters 
to distinguish them. Correvon says that C. pusilla 
differs from C. csespitosa only by its less stoloniferous 
character. Var. alba, Hort., has white fls. G.C. Ill, 
48:96. Gn. 72, p. 143; 75, p. 368. G.M. 54:466. Var. 
pallida, Hort., has pale blue fls. G.M. 53 : 612. 

47. excisa, Schleich. Perennial, glabrous, height 4-5 
in.: sts. slender, 1-fld.: root-lvs. spatulate; upper Ivs. 
linear; calyx-lobes bristly, spreading, at length reflexed, 
a third shorter than the bell-shaped corolla: fls. pale 
blue, divided to about half their depth, with a round 
hole at the base of each sinus, which easily distinguishes 
it from C. pulla and all other campanulas. Rare in 
Alps. B.M. 7358. L.B.C. 6:561. Gn. 60, p. 64. A 
rare rock-plant. Likes cool, moist air, and not too full 
exposure to sun. 

BBBB. Fls. tubular, often long and narrow. 

48. Zoysii, Wulf. Perennial, 3-4 in.: plant tufted, 
glabrous: sts. few-fld. : root-lvs. entire, crowded, petio- 
late, ovate-obovate, obtuse; st.-lvs. obovate-lanceolate 
and linear: peduncles 1-fld., terminal, rarely axillary; 
fls. azure-blue, large for the plant, terminated by a 
stellar process before expansion; calyx-lobes linear, 
awl-shaped, spreading, a fourth shorter than the 
corolla; corolla long-cylindrical, constricted at the 
apex, wider at the base, sharply angled, pale blue. 
Austrian Alps, 6,000-8,000 ft. Gn. 8, p. 173. G.C. III. 
20:183; 38:228. -A rare and abnormal species. 

49. Erinus, Linn. Annual: plant hispid: height 
3-9 in.: Ivs. small, glossy, ^-%in. broad, cor- 
date, deeply cut, the pointed lobes conspicuous: fls. 
sessile, pale blue with a light center, tubular, %in. 
broad, with acute narrow lobes; style long, conspicuous, 
colored like corolla: racemes long, semi-prostrate, 
10-12-fld. Medit. Rare, short-lived rock-plant; also 
for edgings and pots. 

C. abietina, Griseb. Rare tufted rockery plant, with slender, 
wiry sts. 9-15 in. high: fls. light blue, in loose branching spikes. 
July, Aug. E. Eu. C. acut&ngula, Ler. & Lev. Dwarf, with trail- 
ing sts. from a rosette of ivy-like Ivs.: st.-lvs. small, rounded and 
toothed: fls. solitary on each St., rather large and star-like, purple- 
blue. N.Spain. G.C.III. 50:220. C. amdbilis, Leicht.=C. phycti- 
docalyx. C. Beaverdi&na, Fomine. Slender, to 2 ft., glabrous or 
finely hairy: lower Ivs. oblong-ovate to broadly ovate, obtuse, 
crenate-serrate: fls. few or solitary, slender-pedicelled, blue, IJi 
in. across. B.M. 8299. Caucasus. C. calycdnthema, Hort.=C. 
Medium var. calycanthema. C. cenlsia, Linn. A rare rock-plant 
from Mt. Cenis and other mts. of the Alps, with solitary deep blue 
fls. on sts. 2 in. high. Root-lvs. obovate, obtuse; st.-lvs. ovate- 
oblong; all Ivs. sessile-entire: calyx hirsute, the lobes linear-lanceo- 
late, a half shorter than the deeply 5-cut, spreading corolla. C. 
grandifldra, Jacq.=Platycodon. -C. hederacea, Linn.=Wahlen- 
bergia. C. imeretina, Rupr. Dwarf, branching, resembling C. 
sibirica: Ivs. small: fls. violet-blue. Caucasus. C. incurva, Aucher= 
C. Leutweinii. C. kolenatiana, Mey. Perennial, 9 in. or less: Ivs. 
mostly radical ovate, about 1 in. long: fls. in long-stalked raceme, 
bluish violet, 1 in. long, inside hairy. Caucasus. C. laciniata, 
Linn. Robust much-branched biennial, 2 ft., somewhat pubescent: 
lower Ivs. 8 in. long by 2J^ in. broad, deeply cut: fls. about 2 in. 
across, upwards of 1 in. long, pale blue; Greece. G.C. III. 40:165. 
C. Leutweinii, Heldr. (C. incurva, Aucher). Perennial, simple, 
1 ft. or more: Ivs. cordate, white-downy, crenate, rounded at apex: 
fls. pale blue, 1J^ in. long. Greece. -C. Mariesii, Hort.=Platy- 
codon. C. michauxoides, Boiss. Tall-growing: fls. bluish white, 

the segms. recurved. Asia Minor. C. Lamdrckii, D. Dietr.= 
Adenophpra Lamarckii. C. nitida, Ait.=C. planiflora. C. 
petrxa. Linn. Biennial, with ascending st., hairy, 6-12 in.: lower Ivs. 
lance-oblong, narrowed to the base, toothed; upper Ivs. 
ovate and sessile: fls. small, pale yellow, in dense terminal and 
axillary heads. N. Italy. C. phyctidocalyx, Boiss. & No6 (C. 
amabilis, Leicht.). Like C. Rapuneulus in habit, 2-2^ ft.: Ivs. 
lanceolate or cordate: fls. 10-12 in raceme, dark blue with black 
styles, resembling those of C. persicifolia. Armenia. C. plani- 
fldra, Lam. (C. nitida, Ait.). Glabrous: height 3-9 in.: st. simple: 
Ivs. sessile, leathery, shining; root-lvs. crowded in a dense rosette, 
ovate or obovate-obtuse, crenulate, \Yi in. long; st.-lvs. linear- 
lanceolate, acute, nearly entire: fls. blue or white, with double 
varieties, in spicate racemes; calyx-lobes ovate, acute, broad, erect, 
a third shorter than the broadly bell-shaped or saucer-shaped corolla. 
Not American, though commonly so stated. Habitat unknown. 
J.H. III. 33:283. Rock-plant, for sunny position. C. primu- 
Isefdlia, Brot. St. hairy, simple, 1-3 ft.: lowest Ivs., lanceolate, 
st.-lvs. oblong: fls. blue, downy at bottom, nearly rotate. Portugal. 
B.M. .4879. C. Raddeana, Trautv. Perennial, glabrous, 1 ft.: 
Ivs. cordate, long-stalked: fls. large, dark purple. Caucasus. C. 
specidsa, Pourr., is a rare species. Most of the plants passing under 
this name are likely to be C. glomerata. B.M. 2649 is C. glomerata 
var. speciosa. C. thyrsoidea, Lapeyr., is referred here. C. Specu- 
lum, Linn.=Specularia. C. spicdta, Linn. Biennial, 1-2 ft.: Ivs. 
very narrow, nearly or quite entire: fls. 1-3, sessile, in a long inter- 
rupted spike, blue. Eu. J.H. III. 47:267. C. sulphured, Boiss. 
Annual: fls. size of those of C. rotundifolia, pale straw-color out- 
side and sulfur-yellow inside. Palestine. C. urticifdlia. This name 
is now abandoned. Plants are likely to be C. Trachelium. 


L. H. B.f 

CAMPANUM^)A (variant of Campanula). Cam- 
panulaceae. Twining or loose-growing perennial herbs, 
with rhizomes or tubers, rarely grown in .greenhouses. 
Lvs. mostly opposite, simple and often cordate, 
petioled: fls. yellowish or greenish, broadly bell-shaped, 
. 4-^6-lobed: fr. a berry. Five species occur in the 
Himalayan and E. Asian region and the Malay Archi- 
pelago. C. javdnica, Blume, and C. inflata, Clarke, both 
with yellowish brown-veined fls. are mentioned in 
gardening literature: the fls. are about IJ^in.; in the 
former the calyx is nearly free from the berry, which is 
hemispherical; in the latter the calyx is adnate to the 
berry, which is ellipsoidal; both are twiners. C. grdcilis, 
Hort., is of the genus Leptocodon, and C. lanceolata, 
Sieb. & Zucc., is a Codonopsis. 

CAMPH6RA: Cinnamomum. 
CAMPION: Silene. 

CAMPSIDIUM (alluding to its similarity to Camp- 
sis}. Bignoniaceas. Ornamental vines grown for their 
bright orange flowers and also for their handsome 
evergreen finely pinnate foliage. 

Evergreen shrubs, high-climbing, without tendrils 
and without rootlets, with odd-pinnate, opposite Ivs. 
and tubular, orange, slender-pedicelled fls. in terminal, 
loose and short racemes: calyx turbinate, 5-toothed, 
glandless; corolla tubular, slightly ventricose, straight, 
with 5 short equal lobes; stamens, 4, the 2 longer with 
the anthers exserted; anther-sacs parallel^ disk cupular, 
flat: fr. a narrow caps, with many winged seeds. Two 
species in Chile and in the Fiji Isls. 

They are adapted only for subtropical regions and do 
not seem to bloom readily, but even without flowers they 
are worth planting for their foliage alone. In Old World 
gardens, they are sometimes cultivated as stove plants, 
but C. valdivianum, judging from its habitat, might do 
better in the cool greenhouse. Propagated by greenwood 
cuttings under glass. For further culture, see Campsis. 

Campsidium filidfolium, from the Fiji Islands, has 
never flowered in the writer's garden (in Florida) and 
is cut down by frost almost every winter, but it is a 
strong grower and worth planting for the foliage alone. 
C. valdivianum has proved to be a very poor grower 
and is very difficult to keep in health for any length of 
time. (H. Nehrling.) 

valdivianum, Seem. (C. chilense, Reissek & Seem. 
Tecoma valdiviana, Phil.). Climbing, to 50 ft. : branches 
angular, glabrous : Ivs. glabrous, 4-6 in. long; If ts. usually 
11-13, sessile, elliptic-oblong, %-lH in. long, serrate near 
the apex or almost entire: racemes pendulous, 6-10-fld.; 




fls. about l^z in. long, oretnge: caps. 3-4 in. long, nar- 
rowly elliptic-oblong. Chile. G.C. 1870:1182. B.M. 
6111. F.S. 20:2142. 

filicifolium, Van Geert (Tecoma filicifblia, Nichols.). 
Climbing evergreen shrub: Ivs. odd-pinnate, 5 in. long; 
Ifts. 19-25, ovate, with 2 or 3 lobes on each 
side, the larger lobes sometimes dentate. Fiji 
Isls. F. 1874:280. ALFRED REHDER. 

CAMPSIS (Greek kampsis, curve, refer- 
ring to the curved stamens). Bignoniacex. 
vines cultivated for their strik- 
ing scarlet or orange flowers. 

Deciduous woody plants, climb- 
ing by aerial rootlets, with oppo- 
site, odd -pinnate Ivs., large 
orange or scarlet fls. in terminal 
clusters or panicles, followed by 
large elongated 
caps. : calyx tubu- 
lar - campanulate, 

773. Trumpet-vine Campsis 
radicans. ( X K) 

leathery, un- 
equally 5- 
toothed; corolla 
f unnelf orm- 
campanulate, enlarged 
above the calyx, 5-lobed, 
with spreading lobes, 
slightly 2-lipped; stamens 
4, 2 longer and 2 shorter 
with diverging anthers; 
ovary 2-loculed, sur- 
rounded at the base by a 
large disk : f r. an elongated 
caps., loculicidally dehis- 
cent, with the 2 valves 
separating from the sep- 
tum to which the seeds 
are attached; seeds numerous, compressed, with 2 large 
translucent wings. One species in N. Amer. and one in 
China and Japan. By some botanists, Bignonia is con- 
sidered the correct name for this genus, because the 
original description was chiefly based on C. radicans, 
while Tecoma is the proper name for the genus known 
as Stenolobium. 

The hardiest species is C. radicans, which may be 
grown as far north as Massachusetts, at least in shel- 
tered positions, while C. chinensis is more tender; the 
hybrid is intermediate between the two in hardiness. 
C. chinensis and C. hybrida, as well as C. radicans var. 
speciosa, can be grown as bushy specimens and will 
bloom freely on the young shoots, even if cut back 
almost to the ground by frost. Such plants can be 
easily protected during the winter by laying them 
down and covering them with earth. C. radicans is 
particularly adapted for covering walls and rocks, as it 
climbs with aerial rootlets and clings firmly to its sup- 
port. The species of campsis prefer rich rather moist 
soil and sunny positions. Propagated by seeds, by 
greenwood cuttings under glass, or by hardwood and 
also by root-cuttings and layers. 

Trumpet -vines in the South. The trumpet- vines 
are very successfully cultivated in Florida, being well 
adapted to the soil and climate, but to do their best 
need to be planted from the start in rich soil; and in 
addition they should be well fertilized at least once a 
year. They prefer a fertilizer rich in nitrogen; and a 
heavy mulch will also prove very beneficial. They 
should be grown on posts and tall stumps, or they may 
be trained over small oaks, persimmon trees or catalpas. 
Other bignoniads of similar culture are Tecomaria 
capensis, a half-climbing species with scarlet flowers eff ec- 


tively used for decoration of the veranda, and Tecoma 
stans. That and Campsis chinensis are the two showiest 
bignoniads cultivated in Florida, the latter being a 
climber, flowering abundantly in May and June, while 
the first one is a large-growing bushy species opening 
its immense corymbs of vivid yellow flowers the latter 
part of November and early in December. The Chinese 
trumpet creeper, C. chinensis, is the most floriferous 
and gorgeous. In the writer's garden a large pine stump, 
about 16 feet high, in May and June is completely 
covered with masses of brilliant fiery orange-scarlet 
flowers which can be seen at a distance of half a mile. 
The flowers are much larger, more brilliant and much 
more abundantly produced than those of the native 
C. radicans. It is sometimes infested by a voracious 
caterpillar, which devours the leaves greedily. The 
lubber grasshoppers also attack the lower foliage. C. 
chinensis grows well in the poor sandy soil, perfecting 
luxuriant shoots 25 to 30 feet long in one season if well 
fertilized. The native trumpet creeper, C. radicans, is 
very common in the southern woodlands and fields. 
There is a great variety in the brilliancy of the blos- 
soms. This is an excellent plant for covering the bare 
trunks of palmettos. (H. Nehrling.) 

radicans. Seem. (Tecoma radicans, Juss. Bignonia 


Figs. 773, 774. High-climb- ^ 

ing shrub, clinging with 
rootlets: Ivs. odd-pinnate; 
Ifts. 9-11, oval to ovate- 
oblong, acuminate, serrate, 
dark green above, pale and 
pubescent beneath, at least - r 3 
along the midrib, l%-2% 
in. long: fls. in terminal 
racemes; corolla tubular- 
f unnelf orm, about 3 in. long, 
with 5 spreading lobes, usu- 
ally orange with scarlet 
limb, tube almost thrice as 
long as the short-toothed 
calyx: fr. cylindric-oblong, 
keeled along the sutures, '** 
stalked and with a beak at 
the apex, 3-5 in. long. July- 
Sept. Pa. and 111. to Fla. 
and Texas. B.M. 485. Gn. 
22, p. 339. F. 1873, p. 220. 
A. F. 12:34. Mn. 2:9. 
Var. atropurpurea, Voss 
(var. grandifldra atropur- 
purea, Hort.). With large, "' 
deep scarlet fls. Var. spe- 
cidsa, Voss. Scarcely climb- 
ing, usually forming a bush 
with long and slender 
branches: Ifts. small, oval, 
abruptly narrowed into a 
slender point often %in. 
long: fls. orange-red, with 
rather straight tube; limb 
about 134 in. across. Var. * 
prsfecox, Schneid. Large 
scarlet fls. in June. Var. 
aurea, Hort. Fls. yellow. 

chinensis, Voss (Tecoma 
grandifldra, Delaun. T. chi- 
nensis, C. Koch. Bignonia 
chinensis, Lam. C.adrepens, 
CREEPER. Fig. 775 (adapted % 
from Gardening). Climbing ?74. The Trumpet-creeper 
shrub, with few or no aerial climbs by means of aerial 
rootlets: Ivs. odd-pinnate; roots. Campsis radicans. 




775. Campsis chinensis on a 

Ifts. usually 7-9, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, serrate, 
glabrous beneath, l%-2% in. long: fls. in terminal 
racemes; corolla funnelform-campanulate, shorter and 
broader than that of the preceding species, scarlet, 
about 2 in. across; calyx 5-lobed to the middle, about 
as long as the tube of the 
corolla: fr. obtuse at the 
apex. Aug., Sept. China, 
Japan. B.M. 1398; 3011. 
F.S. 11:1124-5. Gn. 27, p. 
94; 33, p. 348; 47, p. 373. 
G.F. 3:393. F.R. 2:27. 
Gng. 4:195. Less high- 
growing and sometimes 
shrubby; blooms when quite 
small and can be grown as 
a pot-plant, also suited for 
forcing. Var. Thunbergii, 
Voss (Tecoma Thunbergii, 
Sieb.). Fls. bright scarlet, 
with very short tube and 
reflexed lobes. Often a var. 
of C. radicans is cult, under 
the name C. Thunbergii. 
Var. Princei, Voss (Tecoma 
grandiflbra var. Princei, 
Dipp.), probably belongs to 
the following hybrid. 

hybrida, Schneid. (Te- 
coma hybrida, Jouin. T. 
intermedia, Schelle. T. radicans grandiflbra atropur- 
purea, Hort. T. Princei grandiflbra, Hort. T. chinensis 
aurantwca, Hort.). Hybrid between the two preceding 
species: somewhat climbing, often forming a bush with 
straggling branches: Ifts. 7-11, ovate to elliptic-ovate, 
usually pubescent along the veins beneath: fls. in ter- 
minal loose panicles; calyx divided for about one-third 
into ovate long-acuminate lobes much shorter than the 
corolla-tube; corolla funnelform-campanulate with 
orange-yellow tube and scarlet limb, about 2 in. across 
and 3 in. long. July-Sept. Garden origin. S.T.S. 1:47. 
M.D.G. 1904:123. The fls. are almost as large and 
showy as those of C. chinensis and the plant is hardier. 


CAMPTOSORUS (Greek, bent sori, alluding to the 
irregular arrangement). Polypodidcese. Two species of 
hardy ferns, with simple pointed Ivs., which take root 
at the apex, and are hence known as "walking-leaf 
ferns." A single species is native 
mostly on lime^bearing rocks, and 
an allied species is known from 
Japan and N. Asia. 

rhizophyllus, Link. Fig. 776. 
Lvs. evergreen, simple, tapering 
from a heart-shaped base, 4-12 
in. long; veins forming meshes 
near the midrib; sori 
irregularly scattered, 
linear, straight or 
bent. Canada to Ala. 
Sometimes grown 
in rockeries and wild 





CANADA: British 
North America. 


CANANGIUM (Makassar, kananga; Malay . kenanga). 
Annonacese. Perfume-yielding tropical trees. 

Closely allied to Desmos but differing in having the 
apex of the connectives of the stamens prolonged into a 
point, instead of being broadened into a hood-like 
covering for the pollen-sacs: sepals 3; petals 6 in 2 
series, valvate, nearly equal, flat, linear ; stamens many, 
closely crowded on the convex torus, the connective 
produced into a long tapering point; carpels indefinite, 


776. Camptosorus rhizophyllus. 

777. Canangium odoratum. a, flowering branch ; b, stamens; 
c, longitudinal section of fruit; d, fruit cluster. 

clustered in the center of the mass of stamens; ovules in 
2 columns or apparently in a single column; style linear 
or linear-oblong, terminating in an obtuse swelling; 
ripe carpels (fr.) several, pedicelled, ovoid or oblong 
and more or less constricted between the seeds. The 
name Cananga, usually applied to this genus, was used 
by Aublet in 1775 for an entirely different genus, and 
cannot therefore be valid for the present one. Baillon 
recognized this fact, and proposed the name Canan- 

;ium, without, however, coupling it with specific names. 

t was taken up by Sir George King in his Annonacese 
of British India, 1893, and was applied by him to the 
celebrated ylangylang tree, Canangium odoratum. 

odoratum, King (Uvdria odordta, Lam. Unona 
odordta, Dunal. Candnga odorata, Hook. f. & Thorns.). 
MOTO-OI. Fig. 777. A tree bearing a profusion of 
greenish yellow fragrant fls. with long narrow petals, 
from which the celebrated ilangilang is made. The 
tree is found in S. India, Java, the Philippines, the 
Malay Archipelago, and many islands of the tropical 
Pacific. It occurs spontaneously as well as in cult., and 
its seeds are widely scattered by fruit-pigeons and other 
birds. In the Samoan Isls. it is much beloved by the 
natives, who make garlands of "moso'oi" with which 
to adorn themselves, and they celebrate its fragrance 
in their songs. The fls. yield a fragrant volatile oil 
known in commerce as the oil of ilangilang, usua'ly 
obtained by steam distillation. The natives use a much 
simpler process in securing oil for anointing their 
heads and bodies. Fls. are p'ut into coconut oil and, 
after remaining a short time, are replaced by fresh ones, 




the oil being subjected to a gentle heat. "Macassar 
oil" is prepared in this way, fls. of Michelia Champaca 
being often added to those of the ylangylang. 

Brandisanum, Safford (Unbna Brandisana, Pierre. 
Undna latifoiia, Hook. f. & Thorns., not Dunal). A 
tree endemic in the forests of lower Cochin China and 
Cambodia, with very fragrant fls. resembling those of 
C. odor alum but with the petals relatively broader, con- 
stricted at the base, and thicker, and the Ivs. usually 
cordate at the base and tomentose beneath, instead of 
rounded at the base and pubescent beneath: the fr. 
resembles that of the preceding species but with fewer 
seeds arranged almost in a single row, but on close 
inspection seen to be biseriate. The fls. yield a per- 
fume similar to that of the true ylangylang of com- 
merce. \V. E. SAFFORD. 

CANARINA (from the Canary Islands). Campanu- 
Idcese. Cool-house tuberous-rooted herb closely allied 
to Campanula, but with the tubes of the calyx and 
corolla grown together, and the floral parts in 6's. 
Three species. C. Campanula, Lam., is a tender per- 
ennial from the Canaries, about 6-8 ft. tall, with 
drooping, inflated buds and solitary, bell-shaped fls. 
more than 1 in. long and 1^ m - wide, dull yellow, 
flushed and veined with dull purplish brown: the lobes 
of the corolla strongly reflexed: Ivs. hastate, coarsely 
repand-dentate : fr. a fleshy berry. B.M. 444. Intro, 
by Franceschi in 1895. 

CANARY GRASS: Phalaris. 

CANAVALIA (an aboriginal name). Including 
Malocchia. Leguminosx. Bean-like plants, some of 
them producing edible seeds and some more or less 
grown for ornament. 

Prostrate trailing or twining herbs, with pinnately 
3-foliolate Ivs.: fls. in axillary racemes or fascicles, 
often large, violet, rose or white, with bell-shaped, 
2-lipped calyx, papilionaceous corolla, 9 stamens 
united and 1 free for all or part of its length: pods large 
and ribbed on edges. A dozen species, widely dis- 
tributed in warm countries. 

ensiformis, DC. (C. gladidta var. ensiformis, DC.). 
778. Glabrous or nearly so: Ifts. ovate-oblong or ovate, 
mucronate: upper lip of calyx longer than the tube, 
recurved and notched; keel blunt, curved: seeds white, 

with a dark raphe. 
Tropics of both 
hemispheres. B. 
M.4027. A.G. 14: 
84. Grown in the 
southern states for 
stock, but the pods 
make passable snap 
beans when not 
more than 4-6 in. 
long. In warm 
countries it is a 
bushy plant, with 
little tendency to 
climb. The pods 
reach a length of 10-14 in., the walls being very hard 
and dense when ripe; the halves of the pod, when split 
apart, roll up spirally often into an almost perfect 
cylinder. The large white turgid beans, bearing a 
very prominent brown seed-scar, are packed crosswise 
the pod, imbedded in a very thin white papery lining. 
The fls. are small and light purple, resembling those of 
the cowpea (but larger) and of various species of 
Dolichos. The Ifts. are large and broad (5-8 in. long 
and half or three-fifths as broad), strongly veined and 
dull, dark green, abruptly pointed and smooth. Beans 
said to be used as a coffee substitute. 

778. Seeds of Canavalia ensiformis. 

C. bonariensis, Lindl. Twining: Ifts. ovate, with the long apex 
obtuse: fls. purple in drooping racemes that exceed the Ivs., the 
standard large broad and notched. Uruguay and IS. Brazil. B.R. 1199. 
H.U. 4, p. 129. C. obtusifolia, DC. Prostrate or climbing: Ifts. nearly 
orbicular to oval or obovate, rounded or cuneate at base: fls. pink, 
m racemes exceeding the Ivs.: seed brown, oblong. Fla. and Texas 
south. Known as "mato de la playa" in Porto Rico. C. rusiosperma, 
Urban. Large and tall, ascending highest forest trees: seeds red. 
Known as "Mato Colorado." W. Indies. T tr r> 

Jj. 11. 1 >. 

CANDELILLO: Euphorbia antisyphilitica. 

CANDOLLEA (A. P. DeCandolle, 1778-1841, fa- 
mous botanist of Geneva, Switzerland). Candolledcex; 
formerly referred to Dillenidcex. Herbs or woody plants 
sometimes grown under glass or in the open far South 
for the mostly yellow flowers. 

Shrubs or undershrubs or herbs, mostly glabrous: 
Ivs. simple, mostly narrow, sometimes with margins 
revolute: fls. few or solitary at the ends of the branches; 
sepals and petals 5; stamens many, united into 5 
bundles or sets, each set bearing several anthers; 
carpels 2-3-5, with 1-3 ovules in each. As now under- 
stood, probably 80-90 species, mostly W. Australian, 
but 1 in Trop. Asia and S. China and 1 in the E. Indies. 
Little known in cult., but the following Australian 
species are now offered. 

tetrandra, Lindl. Shrub, with branches angular, 
pubescent: Ivs. narrow-oblong to oblong-ovate, obtuse 
or short-acuminate, 2% in. or less long, clasping, mar- 
gins not revolute: fls. much larger, paler yellow, the 
petals 1 in. long and the acute sepals %in. long: fr. 
with orange aril. B.R. 29:50. Offered as a green- 
house plant. 

cuneif6rmis, Labill. Erect shrub, 6 ft. and more, 
with short crowded branches that are somewhat hairy 
when young: Ivs. oblong-cuneate to obovate, truncate 
or few-toothed at apex, 1 in. long: fls. bright sulfur- 
yellow, sessile in the crowded floral Ivs.; sepals about 
^in., and the notched petals somewhat longer. B.M. 
2711. Offered in S. Calif., where it blooms March- 
June - L. H. B. 


CANE-BRAKE: Species of Arundinaria (treated under Bamboo). 

CANISTRUM (Greek, a basket). Bromelidcese. 
Epiphytic or terrestrial hothouse plants, requiring the 
treatment of billbergias. 

Leaves in a dense tuft, acute, spinulose on the margin : 
infl. compound, in a cup of Ivs., on a very short st. as 
in Nidularium, or on a longer exserted st. ; fls. usually 
green, rarely golden or blue. A genus of about 10 
species, natives of Brazil. They are sometimes referred 
to Nidularium. 

Lindenii, Mez (jEchmea eburnea, Baker. Guzmdnia 
frdgrans, Hort. Nidularium Lindenii, Regel). Lvs. 
about 20, in a dense rosette, tomentose, green-spotted, 
the bract-lvs. cream-white: fls. white or greenish. 

amazonicum, Mez (Karatas amazdnica, Baker. 
Nidularium amazonicum, Lind. & Andre". dEchmea 
amazdnica, Hort.). Lvs. 15-20, 10-20 in. long, and 
rather wide at the middle, greenish brown above and 
light brown beneath, not spotted or scurfy, the bract- 
lvs. greenish brown: fls. white, with a green tube, in a 
dense head. 

C. aurantiacum, E. Morr. (JSchmea aurantiaca, Baker). 
Plant vigorous: Ivs. expanded in the middle: fls. yellow, 2 in. 
long. S. Amer. B. H. 1873: 15. G EORGE V. NASH.f 

CANNA (name of oriental origin, of no application). 
Cannaceae. Popular tall ornamental plants, prized for 
their stately habit, strong foliage and showy flowers; 
much used for bedding. 

Stout, unbranched: fls. mostly red or yellow, in a 
terminal raceme or panicle, very irregular: caps. 3- 
loculed and several- to many-seeded (Fig. 779, p.] ; sepals 




779. The parts of the Canna flower. 

(s) 3 and small and usually green; petals (ccc) 3, 
mostly narrow and pointed, green or colored; style (e) 
single and long; the stamens are commonly petal-like, 
oblanceolate bodies or staminodia (aaab), 2 or 3 of 

which are usually 
much produced 
and broadened, 
and one is deflexed 
and narrower and 
forms the lip of 
the fl. (6); the 
pollen is borne in a 
single-ioculed an- 
ther (/), borne on 
the side of a nar- 
row and more or 
less coiled stam- 
inodium. In the 
latest monograph, 
1912 (Kranzlin, in 
Engler's Pflan- 
zenreich, hft. 56), 
51 species of 
Canna are de- 
scribed from sub- 
tropical and tropi- 
cal Amer. and 

A generation or two ago, cannas were grown for their 
foliage or mass-effect. They were tall and long-jointed, 
with small and* late flowers (Fig. 780). An old-time 
garden race of tall cannas was C. Anmei, raised by 
M. Anne"e, of France, from seeds of the true C. nepal- 
ensis, sown in 1848. The flowers from which the seeds 
were taken probably had been pollinated by some other 
species, most likely with C. glauca. In 1863, a new 
race appeared, as the result of the union of C. iridiflora 
with C. Warscewiczii. This hybrid was known as C. 
Ehemanni (and C. iridiflora hybrida). This was of inter- 
mediate stature, with showy foliage and better droop- 
ing flowers. Under this name plants are still sold, but 
they may not be identical with the original C. Ehe- 
manni. This race has been variously crossed with other 
species and forms, and from innumerable seedlings there 
have been selected the dwarf and large-flowered cannas 
(Figs. 781, 782), which have now practically driven out 
the old tall small -flowered 
forms. These dwarf cannas are 
often known as French cannas, 
from the country of their ori- 
gin; also, as Crozy cannas, 
from a renowned breeder of 
them. Within recent years, 
another race of cannas has 
arisen from the amalgamation 
of our native C. flacdda with 
the garden forms and with C. 
iridiflora. These have come 
mostly from Italy and are 
known as Italian cannas; also 
as orchid-flowered cannas. The 
flowers are characterized by 
soft and flowing iris-like out- 
lines, but they are short-lived. 
Of this class are the varieties 
Italia (Fig. 783), Austria, Ba- 
varia, Burgundia, America, 
Pandora, Burbank and others. 
For a sketch of the evolution of 
the garden cannas, see J. G. 
Baker, Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc., 
Jan., 1894; also, for the his- 
tory of the Italian race, Revue 
Horticole, 1895, 516, and Gar- 
deners' Chronicle, Dec. 14, 
780. Old-time canna. 1895; Kranzlin, cited above. 

The culture of cannas is simple and easy. They 
demand a warm, friable, rich and moist soil. They 
are injured by frost, and therefore should not be 
planted out until the weather is thoroughly settled. For 
dense mass effects, set the plants not more than 1 foot 
apart each way, but if it is desired to show individual 
plants and their flowers at the best, give three times 
that amount of room to a single plant. Pick the flowers 
as soon as they wilt, to prevent the formation of seeds 
(which causes the plant to lessen flowering), and keep 
the plants in tidy condition. Give the soil and treat- 
ment that produce the best results with Indian corn. 

New varieties are raised from seeds. The seeds 
usually germinate slowly, and sometimes not at all, 
unless the integument is cut or filed, or is softened by 
soaking in water; these precautions taken, they germi- 
nate quickly. Sow late in winter, in rather strong bottom 
heat, in flats or pots. Prick out, and give plenty of 
room. They should make blooming plants the first year. 

Commonly, cannas are propagated by dividing the 
rootstock. This rootstock is a branchy mass, with many 
large buds. If stock is not abundant, as many plants 
may be made from a rootstock 
as there are buds, although the 
weak buds produce weak plants. 
Leave as much tissue as possible 
with each bud. These one-bud 
parts usually give best results 
if started in pots, so that the 
plant is 6 to 12 inches high at 
planting time. The 
commercial canna 
plants are grown 
mostly in pots. If 
one has sufficient 
roots, however, it 
is better not to cut 
so close, but to 
leave several strong 
buds on each piece 
(as shown in Fig. 
784). These pieces 
may be planted 
directly in the 
ground, although 
more certain results 
are to be secured by 
starting them in the 
house in boxes or 
pots. If strong 
effects are desired, particuarly in shrub borders, it is 
well to plant the entire stool. In the fall, when the 
plants are killed by frost and the tops have dried a 
few days, dig the roots, and let them dry, retaining 
some of the earth on them. Then store them on 
shelves in a cellar that will keep Irish or round pota- 
toes well. Take care that the roots do not become too 
warm, particularly before cold weather sets in; nor 
too moist. Well-cured roots from matured plants 
usually keep without much difficulty. If they do not 
hold much earth, it is well to throw a thin covering of 
light soil over them, particularly if they are the highly 
improved kinds. 

Cannas are commonly used only in formal beds, but 
most excellent effects may be secured by scattering 
them singly or in very small clumps in the hardy 
border or amongst shrubbery. Against a heavy back- 
ground of green, the gaudy flowers show to their 
best, and the ragged effect of the dying flowers is not 
noticed. They also make excellent centerpieces for 
formal beds. The tall-growing cannas, with small and 
late flowers, have given way almost wholly to the 
modern race of Crozy or French dwarf cannas, which 
usually remain under 4 feet high, and give an abun- 
dance of large early flowers. The canna always must 
be used for bold planting effects, because the flowers 

781. Modern flowering canna. 




have not sufficient durability to be very useful as cut- 
flowers. As individual blooms, the flowers are not usually 
attractive, but they are showy and interesting in the 
mass and at a distance. The new race of Italian or 
Flaccida cannas has more attractive flowers, but even 
these are most useful when on the plant. 

It is impossible for the gardener to determine species 
of canna in the common garden forms. In fact, the 
species are little known except in herbaria and as wild 
plants growing in their original habitats. The mon- 
ographers do not agree as to the definitions of what 
have been described as original or wild species. The 
following account of species is included more for the 
purpose of showing the range within the genus and 
of making a catalogue of leading 
botanical names than to set specific 
limits or to indicate what species- 
forms are in cultivation. The Crozy 
experiments began with crossing C. 
Warscewiczii with a variety of C. 
nepalensis of gardens (C. flaccida?) 
having large yellow flowers and very 
long creeping tubers; and some of the 
progeny was crossed with C. aureo- 
picta (a garden form). The recent 
attractive orchid - flowered cannas spring 
largely from the C. flaccida forms. 

Achiras, 3. 
Altensteinii, 23. 
angustifolia, 13. 
Annxi, 16. 
aurantiaca, 7. 
aureo-cittata, 19. 
Buekii, 15. 
earned, 8. 
cearensis, 12. 
ehinensis, 10. 
cinnabarina, 9. 
coccinea, 17, 18. 
commutata, 7. 
compacts, 2. 
concinna, 6. 
crocea, 17. 
densifolia, 7. 
discolor, 6. 
edulis, 20. 
esculenta, 20. 
excelsa, 1. 
exigua, 9. 
eximia, 12. 
Fintelmannii, 14. 
flaccida, 13. 
flavescens, 11. 
floribunda, 7, 19. 
formosa, 18. 
fulgida, 9. 


gemella, 23. 
gigantea, 23. 
glauca, 13, 16. 
helicpniifolia, 23. 
humilis, 9. 
indica, 17. 
iridiflora, 24. 
beta, 19. 
lagunensis, 4. 
Lambertii, 22. 
lanceolata, 16. 
lanuginosa, 3. 
latifolia, 23. 
leptochila, 10. 
leucocarpa, 16. 
liliiflora, 25. 
limbata, 19. 
longifolia, 16. 
lutea, 7. 

macrophylla, 23. 
maculata, 7. 
mexicana, 16. 
Moritziana, 5. 
neglecta, 23. 
nepalensis, 10. 
orientalis, 11. 
pallida, 5. 
paniculata, 1. 
patens, 17, 19, 21. 

pedunculata, 15. 
Poeppigii, 22. 
polyclada, 12. 
polymorpha, 10. 
portoricensis, 19. 
recurvata, 19. 
reflexa, 15. 
Reevesii, 13. 
rotundifolia, 6. 
rubra, 18. 
rubricaulis, 20. 
rubro-lutea, 16. 
sanguinea, 10, 21. 
saturate-rubra, 10. 
Schlechtendaliana, 16 
Selloi, 21. 
speciosa, 10. 
spectabilis, 17. 
stolonifera, 16. 
sulphurea, 7. 
sylvestris, 19. 
tenuiflora, 17. 
Tinei, 7. 
variabilis, 8. 
variegata, 19. 
centricosa, 19. 
violacea, 16. 
Warscewiczii, 21. 
xalapensis, 23. 

A. Petal-like staminodia none. 

1. paniculata, Ruiz & Pav. (C. excelsa, Lodd.). St. 
very tall, slender, glabrous: Ivs. oblong or ovate and 
acute, green and glabrous above and pubescent beneath: 
racemes lax, disposed in a squarrose panicle, the fls. in 
2's; sepals lanceolate, fin. long, obtuse; petals lanceo- 
late, yellow-green, 2-3 in. long; lip rather longer than 
the petals, crimson. Subequatorial Andes. 

AA. Petal-like staminodia 2. 

B. Plant woolly-pubescent on the sheaths and sometimes 
on the If. -blades. 

2. compacta, Roscoe. St. tall, stout, and green: Ivs. 
many, oblong to ovate and acute: raceme simple and 
densely many-fld., the rachis 3-angled; sepals ovate, 
acute, Hin. long; petals unequal, narrowly lanceolate 
and long-acuminate, 1J^ in. long, red-yellow; stamino- 
dia oblanceolate, slightly emarginate, 1^-2 in. long, 
scarlet or deep orange-red ; lip broad-linear, emarginate, 
red-yellow. S. Amer. 

3. lanuginfisa, Roscoe (C. Achiras, Litt.). St. green, 
woolly, 4-6 ft., densely Ivd.: Ivs. ovate-oblong, acute, 
green: raceme long and contracted, many-fld., simple, 

the bracts obtuse, small and green; sepals ovate-lanceo- 
late, greenish red, l /2\n. or less long; petals long-lanceo- 
late, \Y<i in. long, tinged with red; staminodia entire, 
red or red-yellow; lip the same color, and revolute. 
Brazil, Peru. B.R. 1358. 

4. lagunensis, Lindl. Differs from C. lanuginosa in 
having long pale yellows fls., by some referred to 
C. lutea: plant of medium size, lightly lanate on the 
sheaths: If .-blades ovate-oblong, short-acute and apicu- 
late, pale-margined: petals linear-lan- 
ceolate and acuminate: lip strongly 
revolute, red -spotted. Mex., Cent. 
Amer. B.R. 1311, 1358. Aug.-Nov. 

5. pallida, Roscoe (C. 
Moritziana, Bouch6). Plant 
medium height: If .-blade 
elongate-elliptic, acuminate 
and filamentous at end, 
sometimes white-margined : 
raceme simple and narrow, 
the bracts broadly oblong- 
cuneate; sepals ovate and 
obtuse, green; petals lanceo- 
late and -acuminate, green- 
ish-sulfur-color; lip linear, 
2-tipped, revolute, pale yel- 
low, spotted. W. Indies and N. S. 

BB. Plant glabrous on sheaths and 
jX If .-blades. 

fcV> *'* c. Lvs. of 2 colors, 

6. discolor, Lindl. (C. rotundifolia, 
Andre). St. stout, 6-10 ft., purple and gla- 
brous: Ivs. very broad-oblong, acute, the 
lower ones sometimes 3 ft. long, dark green 
and purple-margined, red-purple beneath: 
fls. in a deeply forked panicle of lax racemes, 
the bracts small and oblong; sepals lanceo- 
late, obtuse, Hin. long, green, tinted with 
purple; petals lanceolate, acuminate, 1}^ in. 
long, pale green tinted with rose; staminodia 
entire, 2H> in. long, bright red, exterior 
yellow; lip lanceolate and emarginate, brick- 
red. Cent, and S. Amer. B.R. 1231. C. con- 
cinna, Bouche",is a related species with lance- 
olate Ivs. narrowed at both ends. S. Amer. 

cc. Lvs. unicolored, green. 
D. Fls. narrow, the parts connivent. 

7. lutea, Miller (C. commutata, C. flori- 
bunda and C. densifolia, Bouche". C. macu- 
lata, Link. C. sulphurea, Hort.). St. slender 
and green, 3-4 ft., distantly foliated: Ivs. 
oblong or broad-lanceolate, acute: raceme 
lax, simple or rarely forked, the small 
green bracts oblong and obtuse; sepals ob- 
long, Hin., green, white-margined; petals 
lanceolate, pale yellowish white, 1-1 % in. 
long; staminodia pale yellow, often emar- 
ginate, 1H~2 in. long; lip linear, pale yel- 
low, emarginate. Mex. to Brazil. B.M. 

Prince 2085. L.B.C. 7:646. C. Tinei, Tod., perhaps 
lohenlohe. a hybrid, apparently is to be associated with 
this species. 

Var. aurantiaca, Kranzl. Fls. orange; lip yellow. 

8. vari&bilis, Willd. (C. cdrnea, Roscoe). St. green, 
3-6 ft.: Ivs. broad-lanceolate or elliptic, acute, bright 
green: raceme simple and lax, the small bracts oblong 
and obtuse; sepals lanceolate, green, J^in. long; petals 
lanceolate, acuminate, concave, 1H in. long, pale 
flesh-color; staminodia 2, spatulate-linear, mostly entire, 
variable in color but mostly orange or rose; lip linear 
or ligulate and entire: caps, small, globose. S. Brazil, 
the particular place unknown. 




DD. Fls. ringent or gaping, or open-spreading. 
E. Infl. simple or only moderately branched. 

9. h&milis, Bouche (C. exigua, Bouche). Low, 3 
ft. or less, slender: Ivs. short-petioled, the blade oblong, 
acute or short-acuminate, glabrous above and below, 
10-16 in. long: raceme sub-simple (rarely paniculate), 
bearing fls. large for size of plant (about 3 in. long); 
sepals very unequal, ovate-oblong; petals long-lanceo- 
late, concave, connate at base into a tube, scarlet; 
staminodia spatulate, more or less 2-lobed at apex; lip 
rather narrow, about 2J4 m - long. Farther India, 
China, etc. C. cinnabarina, Bouche" (C. 

fulgida, Bouche"), is a related species but 
larger and with yellow and scarlet rather 
smaller fls. Mex., Cent. Amer., W. 

10. speciosa, Roscoe (C. leptochila and 
C. saturdte-rubra, Bouche. C. polymdr- 
pha, Loud. C. sanguinea, Hort.). Large: 
st. green, 5-6 ft.: Ivs. broad- 
oblong, acute: fls. in an elon- 
gated raceme or sometimes 
paniculate; sepals lanceolate, 

%in. long, pale purple; petals 
linear-lanceolate, l^in. long, 
erect, pale purple; staminodia 
3 in. long, emarginate, bright 
red; lip emarginate, yellow. 
Himalayas. B.M.2317. B.R. 
1276. C. chinensis, Willd. 
(C. nepalensis, Wall.), differs 
in having reflexed petals. 

11. orientalis, Roscoe (C. flavescens, Link). St. 
slender, glabrous, 3-4 ft. : Ivs. ovate-oblong, a foot 
or more long: raceme lax, simple or forked, the 
bracts oblong; sepals oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, 
J^in. or less long, pale green and rose-tinted; 
petals lanceolate, acuminate, 1^ in. long, pale 
roae; upper staminodia 23^ in. or less long, bright 
red, often emarginate; lip red-yellow: caps, globose 
and very small. Malaysian tropics. 

EE. Infl. much-branched; fls. purple. 

12. polyclada, Wawra (C. eximia, Bouche. C. 
cearensis, Huber). St. tall and very slender: Ivs. 
ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acute: fls. (often in 
pairs) in a long, much-branched panicle, the bracts 
nearly orbicular; sepals lanceolate, H m - long; 
petals long-lanceolate and unequal, acuminate, the 
longest about 2^ in., purple; staminodia acute, 
scarcely longer than the petals; lip oblanceolate, 
scarlet-spotted. Brazil. 

AAA. Petal-like staminodia 3 (exception in No. 18). 
B. Lvs. lanceolate: fls. mostly yellow or orange. 
c. Petals deflexed. 

13. flaccida, Salisb. (C. glauca and C. angusti- 
folia, Walt.). St. green and glabrous, 46 ft., 
very leafy below: Ivs. ovate-lanceolate to narrowly 
elliptic, acute, green: raceme simple, lax and few- 

lanceolate, acuminate, greenish yellow, lJ^-2 in.; 
staminodia obtuse and entire (or 2-lobed at apex), 2-3 
in., yellow; lip linear, strongly reflexed, yellow, mottled 
red: caps, large. Mex. and Cent. Amer. 

15. pedunculata, Sims (C. Buekii, Weinm. C. 
reflexa, Nees). St. tall, slender, green and glaucous, 
5-6 ft.: Ivs. oblong-lanceolate, green and glaucous, 
1-2 ft. long and 3-4 in. broad: fls. in a many-fid, long 
raceme, with a hairy rachis and long-spreading pedicels, 
the bracts small, oblong and obtuse; sepals oblong, 
small and green; petals linear-lanceolate, greenish 
yellow, reflexed, 2 in. long; staminodia 
emarginate, about 2 in. long, pale yel- 
low; lip oblanceolate, yellow: caps, 
globose, small. W. Indies, S. 
Amer. B.M. 2323. L.B.C. 

cc. Petals erect. 

16. glaftca, Linn. (C. 
Schlechtendaliana, Bouche. 
C. A nnsei, Andre. C. mexicana, 
and C. stolonifera, Bouche. 
C. lanceoldta, Lodd.). St. 
green and glaucous, 5-6 ft., 
from a long and stoloniferous 
rhizome: Ivs. green and glau- 
cous, oblong-lanceolate and 
very acute, tapering both 
ways (the middle of the blade 
4-6 in. wide), white-mar- 
gined: raceme lax, simple or 
forked; sepals ovate-obtuse, 
green, Min. long; petals 
linear - lanceolate, yellow- 
green, 13^-2 in.; staminodia 
entire, 2J^-3 in., yellow, not spotted; lip 
linear or obovate-oblong, emarginate, pale 
yellow: caps, oblong, lJ^-2 in. long. W. 
Indies, S. Amer. Var. rfibro-lfitea, Hort., 
has fls. deep yellow tinted red, or in some 
portraits represented as deep purple. B.M. 3437. 
C. longifolia, Bouche, from Mex. and Cent. 
Amer., has the petals all free, whereas they are 
united in a tube in C. glauca, and with curved 
sulfur-yellow fls. C. leucocarpa, Bouch6, S. 
Amer., has petals united into a short tube, the 
fls. small, pale orange with broad leafy style. 
C. violacea, Bouche, habitat unknown, has pet- 
als united in short tube, fls. violet, strongly 
gaping, plant deciduous-woolly above. 

BB. Lvs. broadly oblong or elliptic: rhizome 

c. Plant low or medium in height (mostly 
5 ft, or less) . 

D. Staminodia entire at apex. 

17. indica, Linn. (C. patens, Roscoe. C. crbcea, 
Hort. C. tenuiflora and C. spectdbilis, Bouch6. 
C. coccinea, Link). INDIAN SHOT. St. slender, 


fld., the bracts very small; sepals lanceolate or ob- Italia canna - glabrous, green, 3-5 ft.: Ivs. oblong and acute, 

long, acuminate, 1 in. long, green; petals broadly 
linear-lanceolate to obovate and reflexed, to 3 in. long 
(as is also the tube); staminodia obovate, sulfur-yel- 
low, 2-3 in. long by \ 1 /^ in. broad; lip large, yellow. 
Swamps S. C. to Fla., near the coast. L.B.C. 6:562. 
G.W. 12, p. 253. Useful for its good habit and iris- 
like fls. C. Reevesii, Lindl., of India and the Philip- 
pines, has the outside staminodia acute rather than all 
obtuse or emarginate as in C. flaccida, and fls. less than 
4 in. across rather than about 6 in. across. B.R. 2004. 
14. Fintelmannii, Bouche. St. green and glaucous, 
4-5 ft.: Ivs. oblong or ovate-elliptic and acute, bright 
green: raceme few-fld. and rather dense, the bracts 
green and oblong; sepals oblong, J^in., green; petals 

green, not glaucous, half as broad as long (1-1^ ft. 
long) : racemes simple or very nearly so and lax, some 
of the fls. in pairs, the bracts green and nearly or- 
bicular; fls. small; sepals oblong and green, J^in. long; 
petals lanceolate, pale green, about .1^ in. long; upper 
staminodia bright red, entire, 2 in. long but narrow; 
lip linear, red-yellow, minutely spotted with red : caps, 
globose, 1 in. diam. W. Indies, Cent, and S. Amer. 
Naturalized in parts of southern states. B.M. 454. 
B.R. 776. L.B.C. 17:1693. 

18. coccinea, Miller (C. rubra, Willd.). St. slender, 
green, 4-5 or sometimes 6 ft.: Ivs. oblong, or oblong- 
lanceolate, and acute: raceme simple and lax, with small 
green, orbicular bracts; sepals lanceolate, J^in. or less 




long, green tinged with red; petals lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, \ l /z in. long, pale scarlet; staminodia 2, long 
and narrow, mostly emarginate; lip yellow-spotted: 
caps, globose and small. W. Indies, Cent, and S. Amer. 
C. formosa, Bouche, Brazil, has 3 unlike staminodia. 

DD. Staminodia 2-lobed. 

19. sylvestris, Roscoe (C. portoricensis, Bouche 1 ). 
Plant stout, 4-5 or 6 ft.: Ivs. long-oblong or oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate, bright green, to 2^ ft. long and 
one-third as wide: raceme slender, usually squarrose, 
rarely simple; fls. narrow and elongated, red; sepals 
lanceolate and acute, J^in. long; petals much longer, 
lanceolate and very acuminate; staminodia sub-equal, 
narrow-spatulate; lip narrow, strongly revolute. W. 
Indies, Cent. Amer. C. limbata, Roscoe (C. patens, 
Hook. C. aureo-vittata, Lodd. C.floribunda,C.variegdta, 
C. recurvata, C. loeta and C. ventricbsa, Bouche), of S. 
Brazil, has unlike staminodia, the largest being 2-lobed, 
the medium one emarginate, the other entire, all red with 
yellow margins. B.R. 771. L.B.C. 449. 

cc. Plant tall, often up to 10ft. (No. 21 perhaps excepted). 

D. Staminodia of medium length (3 in. or less). 

E. The staminodia not united. 

20. edftlis, Ker (C. esculenta, Lodd. C. rubricaulis, 
Link). Rootstock thick and edible: st. stout, 8-12 ft., 
purple: Ivs. large, oblong, or ovate-oblong, green or 
bronze, 1-2 ft. long: raceme lax, forked or simple; fls. 
red or brick-red, usually in pairs, the bracts orbicular 
or oblong; sepals oblong-lanceolate, Min. long, tinged 
with red; petals oblong-lanceolate, 1^4 m -j staminodia 
entire or emarginate, 2^ in. long, bright red or orange; 
lip bright red or yellow-red: caps, large. W. Indies, S. 
Amer. B.M. 2498. B.R. 775. Starch is procured from 
the roots, and for this purpose the plant is widely cult, 
in the tropics. 

21. Warscewiczii, Dietr. (C. sanguinea, Warsc.). St. 
claret-purple and glaucous, 3-4 ft.: Ivs. oblong and 
acute, more or less claret- or bronze-tinged, Htt- long 
and nearly one-half as broad: raceme simple and 
rather dense, with ovate, brown, glaucous bracts; 
sepals lanceolate, Hin., glaucous purple; petals lanceo- 
late, acuminate, nearly 2 in. long, reddish and glaucous; 
staminodia oblanceolate, entire, 2J/2-3 in. long, bright 
scarlet; lip oblanceolate, emarginate, bright scarlet. 
Costa Rica, Brazil. B.M. 4854. C. Selldi, Hort. (C. 
patens, Baker), of S. Brazil, is tomentose: sepals ovate; 
petals oblong-lanceolate, united into a tube; staminodia 
strongly reflexed, one 2-parted. 

EE. The staminodia united into a tube, or at least connate 
at base. 

22. Lambertii, Lindl. (C. Pceppigii, Bouche 1 ). St. 
stout, very tall (to 10 or 11 ft.): green and glabrous, 
12-14 ft. : Ivs. oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, green, acute: 
raceme simple or forked, lax and few-fld., the bracts 
large and oblong, green; sepals lanceolate, pale purple 
or lilac, H m - long; petals lanceolate, acuminate, 1^ 
in. long, purple; staminodia unlike, obovate, entire, 
scarcely longer than the petals, connate at base, bright 
crimson; lip bright crimson-purple: caps, oblong, large. 
W. Indies, S. Amer. B.R. 470. 

23. latifdlia, Miller (C. gigantca, Desf. C. macro- 
phylla, Hort. C. neglecta, Weinm. C. gemella, Nees. 
C. Altenstemii, Bouch6). St. stout, very tall (10-16 ft.) 
pubescent: Ivs. ovate or ovate-oblong, acute, green, but 
purple-margined when young, the lower ones often 
3-4 ft. long: fls. in several racemes forming a panicle, 
the bracts oblong or the lower ones becoming several 
inches long; sepals oblong and green, Kin. long, very 
unequal, petals lanceolate, acuminate, 2 in. long, 
scarlet; staminodia united into a tube, entire at apex 
or one of them 2-lobed, somewhat twisted, brick- 
red; lip brick-red : caps, large. S. Amer. L.B.C. 7:634. 

C. heliconiifdlia, Bouche, Texas to Venezuela, has 
the staminodia more or less connivent: fls. orange- 
red: Ivs. long-petioled, more or less woolly, oblong- 
acuminate: plant 7-8 ft. Var. xalapensis, Kranzl 
(C. xalapensis, Bouch6), has narrower Ivs. and smaller 

DD. Staminodia large (5 in. or less long), united into 

a tube. 
E. F Is. pendulous, rose-colored. 

24. iridifldra, Ruiz & Pav. St. green, 6-12 ft.: Ivs. 
broad-oblong, bright green, slightly pubescent beneath: 
racemes paniculate, drooping; fls. large, beautiful rose- 
color; tube of corolla and staminodia as long as the 
blade; sepals lanceolate, 1 in. long; corolla-lobes lanceo- 
late, 2K in. long; 3 upper staminodia somewhat longer 
than the corolla-lobes, obovate, nearly or quite 1 in. 
broad, rose-crimson; lip narrow, deeply emarginate, 
rose-crimson. Andes of Peru. B.M. 1968. B.R. 609. 
L.B.C. 10:905. R.H. 1861:110. 

784. Stool of canna, showing how it may be divided. 

EE. Fls. erect-spreading, white and red. 
25. liliifldra, Warsc. St. robust, green, 8-10 ft.: 
Ivs. many, oblong, green, 3-4 ft. long, spreading from 
the st. at a right angle: fls. in a corymbose panicle; 
sepals linear, as long as the tube of the corolla; corolla- 
lobes lanceolate, 2-3 in. long, pale green, the tube of 
equal length; 3 upper staminodia white, united into a 
tube for half their length, the blade obovate and spread- 
ing; lip oblanceolate, as long as the staminodia. Colom- 
bia. R.H. 1884:132. F.S. 10:1055^. A fine species. 
The white fls. 'finally become tinged with brown; 
lonicera-scented. L. H. B. 

CANNABIS (the ancient Greek name). Moracese. 
HEMP. A widely cultivated fiber plant, and also used 
occasionally as an ornamental subject, being grown 
from seeds and treated as a half-hardy annual. 

Hemp is dioecious: staminate fls. in axillary panicles, 
with 5 sepals and 5 drooping stamens and no petals; 
pistillate fls. in short spikes, with 1 sepal folding about 
the ovary: Ivs. digitate, with 5-7 nearly linear, coarse- 
toothed Ifts. : fr. a hard and brittle achene. C. sativa, 
Linn., probably native in Cent. Asia, is now escaped in 
many parts of the world: tall, rough and strong- 
smelling, 8-12 ft.: Ifts. 5-11, linear-lanceolate, toothed, 
the upper Ivs. alternate and the others more or less 
opposite. Only one species, but various forms have 
received specific names. In gardens, the form known 
as C. gigantea is commonest; this reaches a height of 10 
ft. and more. The seeds are usually sown where the 




plants are to stand; but if quick effects are wanted, they 
may be started indoors in pots or boxes. Hemp makes 
excellent screens in remote places.. It thrives best in a 
rich rather moist soil. For field cult, for fiber (which 
is derived from the inner bark), see Cyclo. Amer. Agric., 
Vol. II, p. 377. L . H . B. 

CANTELOUPE: Muskmelon. 
CANTERBURY BELL: Campanula Medium. 

CANTUA (from Cantu, Peruvian name). Pole- 
moniacex. Showy flowering shrubs, with variable 
foliage, in greenhouses, and out-of-doors far South. 

785. Capparis spinosa. 

Flowers corymbose; calyx campanulate, of 5 (rarely 
3) sepals, which are much shorter than the long tubular 
corolla; stamens inserted at the base of the corolla, but 
exceeding it in length. -y-Six species in S. Amer. 
One kind is recommended in Eu. as a coolhouse shrub. 
No tenderer than fuchsias. Prop, by cuttings in sand 
under a bell-jar. 

buxif&lia, Juss. (C. dependens, Pers.). Much- 
branched shrub, about 4 ft. high; branches more or less 
downy: Ivs. very variable, generally oblong-obovate, 
acute, tapering at the base, entire or serrate, downy or 
glabrous: fls. 5-8, drooping vertically, in a kind of leafy, 
terminal corymb; calyx pale, membranous, green- 
streaked, 5-toothed, a fourth shorter than the corolla- 
tube; corolla long-funnel-shaped, the tube 2^ in. long, 
red, usually streaked; limb of fringed, obcordate, 
crimson lobes which are much shorter than the tube; 
stamens included. Peru. Apr., May. B.M. 4582. 
F.S. 7:650. R.H. 1858, p. 294. R.B. 27:181. One of 
the choicest of European greenhouse plants. Very 
liable to red spider. 

C. bicolor, Lem. Distinguished from the above by the entire Ivs. 
which are shorter, about 1 in. long, and the solitary fls. with a short, 
yellow tube, the limb not fringed. The fls. droop, but not vertically. 
Peru. B.M. 4729. F.S. 4:343. Probably less desirable than the 
above. C. pyrifdlia, Juss. Lvs. generally broader and more 
toothed than in C. bicolor: fls. as many as 17, in an erect, terminal, 
compound corymb; calyx red-tipped, nearly half as long as the 
yellow corolla-tube; corolla about \}4 in. long, with a white limb; 
stamens long, exserted. Peru. B.M. 4386. F.S. 4:383. 


CAOUTCHOUC TREE: Hura, Manihot, Ficus elastica, Castilloa, 
Hevea, Landolphia, and others, not treated here. 

CAPE BULBS. A name applied to bulbous and bulb- 
like plants native to South Africa. They are dry-region 
plants, and often bloom with us in summer and 
autumn. Some of the leading genera are Amaryllis, 
Brunsvigia, Nerine, Ixia, Tritonia, Watsonia. See Bulbs. 

CAPE'CHESTNUT: Calodendrum capensis. 

CAPER: Capparis. 
CAPE-SPURGE: Euphorbia Lathyrus. 

CAPPARIS (Greek, caper, said by some to have been 
derived from the Arabic name of the plant). Cappa- 
riddcese. CAPER- BUSH, or CAPER-TREE. Greenhouse 
plants North, and suited to the open in Florida and 

Trees and shrubs, with simple Ivs.: sepals 4, rarely 
5; petals usually 4; stamens usually many, inserted 
on the receptacle, the filaments thread-like and free; 
ovary long-stalked, 1-4-celled, with many ovules. 
More than 150 species distributed throughout the 
warm regions of the earth. Differing from Cleome and 
most other cult, genera of the family in having baccate, 
not capsular, fr. 

Capers are pickles made by preserving the flower- 
buds of C. spinosa, a straggling shrub which grows out 
of old walls, rocks, and rubbish in Mediterranean 
regions and India. Also rarely cultivated as a green- 
house flowering shrub. Propagation is by cuttings of 
ripe wood, under a bell-jar, in greenhouses, and by 
seeds South. 

spindsa, Linn. Fig. 785. Spiny shrub, 3 ft. high, 
often straggling and vine-like: Ivs. roundish or ovate, 
deciduous: fls. borne singly, alternately, and fading 
before noon; sepals 4; petals 4, oblong, clawed, wavy, 
white, \ l /i in. long; stamens 40-50; filaments purple 
above, perhaps the chief beauty of the plant. B.M. 291. 
What seems to be the long style with a short un- 
opened stigma, is really the elongated peduncle or 
torus topped by the pistil, which has no style and a 
minute stigma. Var. rupestris (C. rupestris, Sibth. & 
Smith) is a spineless form. 

Mitchellii, Lindl. A much-branched shrub, usually 
very spiny, and more or less densely tomentose: Ivs. 
ovate-oblong, 1-1^ in. long, narrowed into a short 
petiole: fls. few, axillary, white or yellowish, followed 
by a tomentose globular berry 2 in. diam. Sand plains 
of Austral. Suitable for dry places outdoors in S. 

C. acuminata, Lindl. St. shrubby, with flexuose, smooth 
branches: Ivs. petiolate ovate-lanceolate, acuminate: fls. large, soli- 
tary, white, the conspicuous stamens 3-4 times as long as the 
petals. China. B.R. 1320. WlLHELM MlLLER. 


CAPRIF6LIUM: Lonicera. 
CAPRI6LA: Cynodon. 

CAPSICUM (name of uncertain origin, perhaps from 
kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or 
pericarp ; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the 
form of fruit). Solanacese. RED PEPPER. CAYENNE 
PEPPER. Herbs or shrubs, originally from tropical 
America, but escaped from cultivation in Old World 
tropics, where it was once supposed to be indigenous. 

Stem branchy, 1-6 ft. high, glabrous or nearly so: 
Ivs. ovate or subelliptical, entire, acuminate: fls. white 
or greenish white, rarely 
violaceous, solitary or some- 
times in 2's or 3's; corolla 
rotate, usually 5-lobed; sta- 
mens 5, rarely 6 or 7, with 
bluish anthers dehiscing 
longitudinally; ovary origi- 
nally 2-3-loculed : fr. a juice- 
less berry or pod, extremely 
variable in form and size, 
many-seeded, and with more 
or less pungency about the 

seeds and pericarp. Fig. 736. Normal 2-loculed fruit of 
786. The fr. becomes many- Capsicum, in cross-section. 



loculed and monstrous in cult. -About 90 species have 
been named, most of which are now considered forms 
of one or two species. Monogr. by Irish, 9th Ann. 
Kept. Mo. Bot. Gard. For cult., see Pepper. 

A. Plant annual or biennial. 

annuum, Linn. Fig. 787. Herbaceous or suffrutes- 
cent, grown as annuals in temperate climates, but in 
warmer latitudes often treated as bien- 
nials. All of the leading commercial varie- 
ties in the U. S. readily find classification 
within the types or botanical varieties. 
The species has never been found wild. 
It is the pimento of Trop. Amer. 

B. Fr. oblong-linear. 
c. Calyx usually embracing base of fr. 

Var. conoides, Irish (C. conoides, Mill.). 
Suff rutescent : Ivs. numerous, rather small, 
2-3 in. long, %-2 in. wide: peduncles 
slender, straight, erect; fls. small; calyx 
pbconical or cup-shaped, usually embrac- 
ing base of fr. ; corolla greenish white, 
spreading, j^g-^-gin. : fr. erect, subconical 
or oblong-cylindrical, about 1% in. long 
or less, usually shorter than the peduncles 
and mostly borne above the Ivs., very acrid. 
Coral Gem, Tabasco. Gn. 66, p. 381. 

Var. fasciculatum, Irish (C. fasciculatum, Sturt.). 
RED CLUSTER PEPPER. Fig. 788. St. herbaceous, 
round or nearly so: branches few: Ivs. clustered or 
crowded in bunches about the summit, elliptical- 
lanceolate, pointed at both ends: fr. also clustered, erect, 
slender, about 3 in. long by M m - diam., very acrid. 

Var. acuminatum, Fingh. (C. chilcnse, Hort.). 
LONG CAYENNE. Heroaceous, very branchy, about 
2^2 ft. high, bearing a dense mass of foliage: fl. medium 
size, spread l /2~%m.'. fr. larger than the preceding, 
either erect or pendent. Chile. 

cc. Calyx not usually embracing base of fr. 

Var. 16ngum, Sendt. (C. dnnuum, Linn. C. Idngum, 
DC.). Plant herbaceous, about 2^ ft. high, with com- 
paratively few branches: Ivs. large, often 4 in. long by 

2^ in. wide: fl. 
large; corolla 
spreading, J^-l^ 
in., dingy white; 
calyx usually 
pateriform or fun- 
nelform, rarely 
embracing base of 
fr. : fr. often a foot 
long by 2 in. diam. 
at base ; flesh thick 
and in some varie- 
ties very mild. 
Garden varieties 
are: Black Nu- 
bian, County Fair, 
Ivory Tusk. 

787. A form of Capsicum annuum. 

BB. Fr. of various shapes, but not oblong-linear. 
Var. grdssum, Sendt. (C. grdssum, Linn.). Herba- 
ceous, about 2 ft. high, with few branches: Ivs. very 
large, often 3 by 5 in., sometimes coriaceous, lower 
ones usually pendent; petioles deeply channeled: pe- 
duncles stout, about 1 in. long; corolla large, spreading, 
%-l l /4: m - : fr. large, oblate, oblong, or truncated, 3-4- 
lobed, usually with basal depression, more or less sul- 
cate and rugose; flesh thick, firm, and of a mild flavor. 
Emperor, Monstrous, Bell, Sweet Mountain, Golden 
Dawn, Ruby King, Golden King, Brazilian Upright, 
Golden Upright, Squash, and others, are garden 

Var. abbreviatum, Fingh. (C. umbilicdtum, Veil. C. 
luteum, Lam.). Suffrutescent : Ivs. broadly ovate, 2-4 
in. long: peduncles slender, straight or curved, as long as 
or longer than the berry : fr. about 2 in. long or less, vary- 
ing much in the different horticultural varieties, in gen- 
eral ovate, quite rugose, ex- 
cept in one variety, some- 
times turbinate. While this 
variety is used to some ex- 
tent for pickling, it is noted 
more as an ornamental plant. 
Some garden forms are : Celes- 
tial, Etna, Kaleidoscope, Red. 
Wrinkled, Yellow Wrinkled. 

Var. cerasiforme, Irish (C. 
cerasiforme, Mill.). Suffrutes- 
cent: Ivs. medium size, ovate 
or oblong-acuminate, about 
lJi-3}^ in.: calyx seated on 
base of fr.; corolla large, 
spreading, Vy-M/i in.: fr. 
spherical, subcordate, oblate, 
or occasionally obscurely 
pointed or slightly elongated, 
smooth or rarely minutely 
rugose or sulcate; flesh firm, 
fa-y^m. thick, extremely 
pungent. Garden forms are: 
Cherry, Yellow Cherry, Oxheart. t 

AA. Plant perennial. 
frutescens, Linn. Fig. 789. Shrubby 
perennial, 3-6 ft. high, with prominently 
angled or somewhat channeled st. and 
branches: branches loosely spreading or 
trailing: Ivs. broadly ovate-acuminate, 
3-6 in. long, 2-3 J^ in. wide: peduncles 
slender, 1-2 in. long, often in pairs, usu- 
ally longer than the fr. ; calyx cup-shaped, 
embracing base of fr. ; corolla often with 
ocherous markings in the throat: fr. red, 
obtuse or oblong-acuminate, %-l)4 in- 
long, J^-^in. diam., very acrid. Cult, 
only S., as the seasons in temperate lati- 
tudes are not long enough to mature fr. 

Var. baccatum, Irish (C. baccatum, Linn.). Plants not 
so tall, but more erect than the species: branches slen- 
der, fastigiate, flexuose: corolla small, spreading, about 
J^in. : fr. ovate or sub-round, about %in. diam. 


CARAGANA (Caragan, its Mongolian name). Legu- 
minbsse. PEA TREE. Ornamental shrubs chiefly grown 
for their bright yellow flowers; 
some species are also used for 

Leaves abruptly pinnate, often 
with persistent spiny-pointed 
rachis; Ifts. small, entire; stipules 
deciduous or persistent and spiny: 
fls. papilionaceous; stand- 
ard upright, like the wings 
with long claws; keel obtuse 
and straight; stamens 10, 
9 connate, 1 free; ovary 
scarcely stipitate: pod 
linear, terete, straight, 2- 
valved, with several seeds. 
More than 50 species from 
S. Russia to China, most of 
them in Cent. Asia. Mono-: 
graph by Komarov in Act. 
Hort. Petrop. 29:179-388 
(1908), with 16 plates. 

The caraganas are decidu- 
ous unarmed or spiny shrubs 

788. Capsicum 
annuum var. 

789. Capsicum 




with yellow, rarely whitish or pinkish flowers axillary 
and solitary or fascicled, followed by linear pods. The 
cultivated species are quite hardy, except a few Hima- 
layan species. They grow in almost any soil, but best 
in a sandy soil and sunny position, and are well adapted 
for shrubberies. C. arborescens is the only one which 
grows into a small tree, and is of upright habit, like 
C. frutex, which is about half as high and more grace- 
ful; most of the other species are low shrubs, of usu- 
ally spreading habit. C. arborescens is one of the best 
hedge shrubs for the prairies of the Northwest. 

Propagation is by seeds sown in fall or in spring; if 
kept dry during the winter, soaking in tepid water for 
two or three days before sowing will be of advantage; 
also increased by root-cuttings and layers, or by graft- 
ing on seedling stock 
of C. arborescens in 

A. Lfts. 12-18, y^-y ? 

in. long: rachis 
microphylla, Lam. 
(C . Altagdna, Poir. C. 
arborescens var. aren- 
dna.Hort.). Fig. 790. 
From 4-6 ft.: Ifts. 
12-18, obovate, pu- 
bescent when young, 
grayish green, H m - 
long or shorter: fls. 
1 or 2, yellow, %in. 
long; pedicel about 
as long as the fl. 
Siberia, China. L.B. 
C. 11 : 1064. Under 
this name a dwarf 
form of C. arborescens 
is often cult. Var. 
megalantha, Schneid. 
Lfts. bright green, % 
or sometimes Kin. 
long: fls. \Y in. long. 

790. Caragana microphylla. ( X H) 

AA. Lfts. 8-14, 

in. long: rachis 
arborescens, Lam. 
Shrub or small tree, 
to 20 ft.: Lfts. 8-12, 
obovate or oblong, 
sparsely pubescent 
beneath or glabrous 
at length: fls. 1-A, 
pale or bright yellow, 
%in. long; pedicels usually longer than the fls.: pods 
about 2 in. long. May, June. Siberia, Manchuria. G.O. 
H. 67. Var. pendula, Dipp., with pendulous branches, is 
the most remarkable; it should be grafted high. M.D. 
G. 1897:425. Var. Lorbergii, Koehne. Lfts. linear to 
linear-oblanceolate, about 1 in. long. A very peculiar 
and striking form. 

fruticdsa, Bess. (C. Reddwskii, Fisch. C. arborescens 
var. arenaria, Sims). Shrub, to 6 ft., very similar to the 
preceding: Ifts. 10-14, oblong-elliptic to obovate, cu- 
neate at the base, rounded at the apex; stipules herba- 
ceous or somewhat spiny; pedicels and calyx puberu- 
lous, calyx-teeth very short: pods about 1 in. long; 
seeds brown. Amurland, Korea. B.M. 1886 (not good). 

AAA. Lfts. 2-4. 

B. Rachis of the Ivs. deciduous: pedicels as long as or 
longer than the fls. 

friltex, Koch (C. frutescens, DC.). Fig. 791. From 
6-10 ft. : Ifts. 4, approximate, nearly digitate, cuneate, 
obovate or oblong, rounded or emarginate at the apex, 

glabrous, ^-1 in. long: fls. solitary, %-l in. long, yel- 
low. May. S. Russia to China. Gt. 10:348. S.B.F.G. 
3:227. Var. grandifldra, Koehne. Fls. somewhat 
longer than 1 in.: Ifts. usually large and broad. Var. 
latifolia, Schneid. (var. obtusifolia, Hort.). Lfts. more 
than an inch long and about K in. broad: fls. as in 
the type. 

BB. Rachis persistent, spiny: pedicels shorter than the fls. 

Chamlagu, Lam. Shrub, 2-4 ft.: spines long: Ifts. 4, 
in 2 somewhat remote pairs, chartaceous, obovate, 
emarginate or rounded at the apex, glabrous, %-%in. 
long: fls. solitary, reddish yellow, 1% m - long. May. 
N.China. G.O.H. 30. 

pygmaea, DC. (C. grdcilis, Hort.). One to 3 ft.: 
spines short, J^in. : Ivs. nearly sessile; Ifts. 4, approxi- 
mate and almost digitate, cuneate, linear-elliptic or 
linear-lanceolate, glabrous, ^-^in. long: fls. solitary, 
%in. long, golden yellow. Caucasus to Siberia and 
Thibet. B.R. 12:1021. Grafted high on C. arbo- 
rescens, it forms a graceful standard 
tree, with pendulous branches. 

C. Altagana, Ppir.=C. microphylla. C. 
arborescens arenaria, Hort.=C. microphylla. 
C. arenaria, Dipp.=C. aurantiaca, Koehne. 
C. aurantiaca, Koehne. Allied to C. 
pygmsea. Fls. orange-yellow; calyx as long as 
broad; ovary glabrous. Siberia. C. Boisii, 
Schneid. (C. microphylla var. crasse-aculeata, 
Bois). Allied to C. arborescens. Shrub, to 6 
ft. : Ifts. 10-12, obovate or narrowly obovate, 
about yivo.. long, silky pubescent beneath at 
least when young, whitish beneath; stipules 
spiny: fls. solitary. W. China. V.F. 57. C. 
brevispina, Royle (C.triflora.Lindl.). 
Spines 2-3 in. long: Ifts. 12-16, 
pubescent: fls. 2-4, on a common 
peduncle. Himalayas. P.F.G. 2: 
184. C. decorticans, Hemsl. Allied 
to C. microphylla. Shrub or small 
tree, spiny: Ifts. 8-12, oval, less than 
J^in. long: fls. 1-2. Afghanistan. 
H.I. 18:1725. C. frutescens, DC. 
=C. frutex. C. Gerardiana, Royle. 
Spines 1 ^2-2 in. long: stipules large, 
scarious: Ifts. 8-12, densely pubes- 
cent: fls. 1-2, short - pedicelled. 
Himalayas. C. grdcilis, Hort.=C. 
pygmsea. C. grandifldra, DC. 
Allied to C. pygmsea. Lfts. cuneate- 
oblong, glabrous or pubescent: fls. 
1 % in. long; calyx gibbous at the 
base. Caucasus. The plant some- 
times cult, under this name is a 
variety of C. frutex. C. jubata, 
Pall. Sparingly branched shrub 
with very thick, spiny and villous 
branches: stipules large, scarious: Ifts. 8-14, linear-objong, villoua 
beneath: fls. whitish, 1 in. long, short-pedicelled. Siberia. F.S. 
19:2013. L. B. C. 6:522. Gt. 10:331. A very distinct and curious- 
looking species: hardy. C. sophorsefdlia, Bess. (C. arborescens X C. 
microphylla. C. cuneifolia, Dipp. ). Lfts. usually 12, oblong to elliptic, 
cuneate, acute: pods %in. long. Garden origin. C. spindsa, DC. 
Spines 1 in. long: Ifts. 4, rarely more, approximate, cuneate-lancec- 
late, glabrous: fls. solitary, short-pedicelled. Siberia. C. spinosis- 
sima, C. Koch=C. spinosa. C. tragacanthoides, Poir. Spiny: Ifts. 
4-8, cuneate, oblong, pubescent: fls. solitary, short-pedicelled; calyx 
villous-pubescent. Himalayas. C. trifldra, Lindl.=C. brevispina. 
C. vulgdris, Hort.=C. arborescens. ALFRED REHDER. 

CARAGUATA. By the latest monographer referred to Gut- 
mania, which see. 

CARALLUMA (aboriginal name). Asdepiadacese. 
Low succulents, sometimes seen in collections; about 
40 species, from S. Spain and Afr. to Arabia and 
India. They resemble stapelias, and require similar 
treatment. The sts. are leafless, somewhat branched, 
erect, 4-sided and the angles toothed : fls. near the sum- 
mit of the sts., more or less clustered, purple, brown and 
yellow, and other colors; corolla rotate and 5-parted: fr. 
long and slender follicles. The carallumas are probably 
not in the American trade. Some of the names that 
may be expected in collections are C. adscendens, R. 
Br.; C. affinis, Wildem.; C. campanulata, N. E. Br. 
(Boucerosia campanulata, Wight); C. commutata, 
Berger (sometimes grown as C. Sprengeri); C. fimbri- 
ata, Wall.; C. inversa, N. E. Br.; C. Luntii, N. E. Br.; 




C. Sprengeri, N. E. Br. ; C. Simonis, Berger (Boucerosia 
Simonis, Hort.); C. torta, N. E. Br. 

CARAMBOLA: Averrhoa. 

CARAWAY (Carum Carvi, Linn.). Umbelliferfe. 
A biennial or annual herb grown for its seeds, which 
are used in flavoring bread, cakes and cheese; also oc- 
casionally for the young shoots and leaves, which are 
eaten. It grows a foot or two high, has finely-cut, pin- 
nately compound foliage, and small white flowers, in 
umbels. It is of the easiest culture. The seed is usu- 
ally sown in spring and the crop of seed taken the fol- 
lowing year. It thrives in any garden soil. The plant 
occasionally runs wild. See Carum. 

loose corymbs surrounded by large sterile fls. : calyx- 
tube cupulate, adnate to the ovary; petals 5; stamens 
numerous with filiform filaments and suborbicular 
anthers; ovary inferior, incompletely 3-celled; styles 3, 
short; sterile fls. with 3 large sepals: caps, loculicidal. 
Three species in Japan and China. Tender plants, 
thriving in any good garden soil; best in a partly 
shaded and moist position. Prop, by greenwood cut- 
tings under glass. 

alternifdlia, Sieb. & Zucc. One to 3 ft.: Ivs. broadly 
elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, tapering into a very short 
petiole, coarsely serrate, sparsely pilose, membrana- 
ceous, 3-7 in. long: fls. pink, lilac or white. Summer. 
S.Z. 66, 67. Gt. 14:486. ALFRED REHDER . 

CARBENIA : An incorrect or doubtful name for Cnicus, which see. CARDINAL FLOWER: Lobelia cardinalis. 

CARDAMINE (Greek name of a cress). Cruciferas. 
Small mostly leafy-stemmed perennials (the annual 
species apparently not cultivated), 
growing in low rich land, blooming 
in spring or early summer. 

Flowers sometimes large for size 
of plant, white or purple; petals 
obovate or spatulate: pods linear 
and straight, more or less flat- 
tened, the wingless seeds in 1 row, 
valves usually separating elastic- 
ally from the base: Ivs. simple or 
pinnate or lyrate : root often tuber- 
ous or rhizomatous. About 50 
species, largely in boreal or alpine 
regions. Of easy cult. Only C. 
pratensis is much known among 

pratensis, Linn. CUCKOO 
FLOWER. Fig. 792. Plant slender 
and usually glabrous, 12-20 in., 
somewhat branched : Ivs. pinnately 
divided; Ifts. of root-lvs. small and 
rounded (^iin. or less across), those 
of the upper st.-lvs. oblong or even 
linear and entire or somewhat 
toothed: fls. l A\n. long, in a 
corymb, white or rose-color, pretty. 
Eu. and Amer., in the northern 
parts. In the gardens it is chiefly 
known in the double-fld. form, 
which probably has been derived 
from European rather than Ameri- 
can sources. There are other forms 
of it. It is an excellent little plant to grow in moist 
places, particularly along creeks and about springs. It 
is also useful in drier places, as in rockeries. 

trifdlia, Linn. Attractive spring bloomer, 6 in., creep- 
ing: Ivs. ternate, the toothed parts or segms. irregularly 
roundish: fls. snow-white, on a naked scape. S. Eu. 
B.M. 452. 

angulata, Hook. Erect, 1-2 ft. high: Ivs. 3-5-f olio- 
late, the Ifts. ovate or oblong, and the middle one 
usually coarsely toothed: fls. rather large, white, 
in short, few-fld. racemes. Mts. of Ore. and 
Wash. Intro. 1881 by Gillett. 

L. H. B. 

CARDAMON: Amomum and Elettaria. 

CARDIANDRA (Greek, heart, and 
man or stamen: alluding to the shape 
of the anthers). Saxifragacese. Orna- 
mental half-shrubby plants, rarely 
cultivated for their white, lilac or pink 

Suffruticose deciduous plants with 
alternate rather large Ivs. and small 
pink, lilac or white fls. in terminal 

792. Cardamine pra- 
tensis. Root-leaves not 


(Greek, heart-seed, from the 
white heart-shaped spot on 
the round black seed ; hence 
the plant was thought a 
cure for heart diseases). 
Sapinddcese. Tendril-climb- 
ing tropical herbs. 

Leaves alternate, biter- 
nate; Ifts. coarsely serrate: 
fls. small, white, polyga- 
mous or dioecious, in 
axillary racemes or 
corymbs; sepals 
and petals 4, in 
pairs; stamens 8; 
ovary 3-celled, fol- 
lowed by a mem- 
branous caps. 
A dozen 
species wide- 
ly d i s t r i b- 
uted. The 
most popular is 
the interesting 
balloon- vine, 
which is a rapid- 
growing, woody 
perennial, behav- 
ing as an annual, 
curious for its 
inflated seed-ves- 
sels. Fig. 793. 
Prop, by seeds. 

Linn. Fig. 794. 
Height 10 ft. : sfr. and branches grooved: Ivs. glabrous, 
oblong-acuminate, deeply dentate: balloons an inch or 
more thick. Trop. India, Afr., and Amer. B.M. 1049. 
A general favorite, especially with children. Grown 
as a garden annual. 

hirsutum, Willd. Creeping or ascending perennial 
vine with densely hairy grooved st. and Ivs. as in the 
preceding, but usually hairy on the under surface: fls. 
not showy: fr. pointed, hirsute; the globular choco- 
late-brown seed is borne on the detaching parachute- 
like dissepiment. Afr. A useful perennial in S. Calif, 
for covering arbors; evergreen and blooming continu- 
ously. N. TAYLOR.f 

CARDOON (Cynara Cardiincidiis, Linn.). A thistle- 
like plant of southern Europe, cultivated for the thick 
leaf -stalk and midrib. 

It is thought to be of the same species as the arti- 
choke, and to have been developed from it by long culti- 
vation and selection. See Cynara. The plant has been 

794. Ballooi>Vine Cardiospermum 




introduced into South America, and has run wild exten- 
sively on the pampas. Darwin writes that "no culti- 
vated plant has run wild on so enormous a scale as the 
cardoon." From the artichoke it differs in taller and 
more prickly growth and smaller heads. The cardoon 
is perennial, but it is not hardy, and is treated as an 
annual. Seeds are sown in spring, either in pots under 
glass or in the open where the plants are to stand. The 
later sowing is usually preferred. The plants are given 

795. Leaf of Canada thistle. Carduus arvensis or Cirsium arvense. 

rich soil and should have abundant moisture supply, 
for they must make continuous and strong growth. 
When the leaves are nearly full grown, they are tied 
together near the top, straw is piled around the head, 
and earth is banked against it. This is to blanch the 
plant, for it is inedible unless so treated. From two to 
four weeks is required for the blanching. The procedure is 
not very unlike that adopted for the blanching of celery 
or endive. If the plants are late, they may be dug just 
before frost and blanched in a storage pit. The plants 
are usually grown 2 to 3 feet apart, in rows which are 4 
feet apart. They are sometimes grown in trenches, after 
the old way of growing celery. Cardoon is very little 
known as a vegetable in America except among 
foreigners. L jj 3 

CARDUUS (the ancient Latin name of these plants). 
Composite. THISTLE. Spiny-leaved annual, biennial or 
perennial herbs, sometimes grown in borders and rock- 
gardens for the interesting habit and the heads of 
purple or white flowers. 

Carduus is sometimes united with Cirsium, but is here 
kept distinct, being separated chiefly by non-plumose 
or only indistinctly serrate pappus-bristles (see Cirsium) . 
The common weedy thistles are referred either to 
Carduus or Cirsium, depending on the definition of the 
genus. Fig. 795 shows the spiny leaf of one of these. 
Under the restricted use of the name, Carduus com- 
prises about 80 species, from the Canary Isls. to Japan. 
For C. benedictus, see Cnicus. 

acanthoides, Linn. A much-branched perennial 
about 18-24 in. high: Ivs. bright green, pinnately 
parted, the nerves very prominent beneath, spinose 
margined: the solitary heads long-peduncled, the fls. 
purple and showy. S. Eu. Scarcely known in Amer. 

C. Mari&nus, Hort., is a Silybum, and C. tauricum, Hort., is a 
Cirsium. Both are advertised in England, but are unknown in 


CAREX (name of obscure origin). Cyperdceas. 
SEDGE. Grass-like perennials of very 'many kinds, a 
few of which are grown in bogs or as border plants. 

Flowers unisexual, in spikes, the staminate naked 
and subtended by a bract or scale, the pistillate com- 
prising a single pistil inclosed in a thin sac or perigyn- 
ium; monoecious or rarely dioecious: sts. or culms solid, 
not jointed, mostly 3-angled: Ivs. grass-like but 3- 
ranked. One large group has 2 styles and a lenticular 
achene, and the spikes are commonly androgynous or 
contain both sexes (Fig. 796) ; another division has 3 styles 
and a triangular achene, and the spikes are commonly 
unisexual, the staminate being above (Figs. 797, 798). 

Carices are very abundant in cool temperate regions, 
both in species and in individual plants. There are 
more than 800 known species. Many of them grow 

on dry land, but the largest species grow in low grounds 
and swales, and often form much of the bulk of bog 
hay. Carices coyer great areas of marsh land in the 
upper Mississippi region and are employed in the manu- 
facture of "grass carpets" or Crex fabrics. The species 
are difficult to distinguish because they are very similar, 
and the study of them is usually left to specialists. Some 
of our broad-leaved native species make excellent bor- 
ders and interesting clumps in corners about build- 
ings and along walls. Of such are C. platyphylla, 
C. plantaginea, C. albursina. Many of the low- 
land species are excellent adjuncts to the pond 
of hardy aquatics. Others have very graceful 
forms, with drooping spikes and slender culms 
(Fig. 798). The following native species, and 
probably others, have been offered by collectors : 
C. aure'a, C. eburnea, C. flava, C. Grayi (one of 
the best), C. hystricina, C. lupulina and its var. 
pedunculata, C. lurida, C. paupercula, C. penn- 
sylvanica, C. plantaginea, C. Pseudo-Cyperus, 
^' reirorsa > C- Richardsonii, C. riparia, C. Tucker- 
manii, C. utriculata, C. vulpinoidea. The species 
present no difficulties in cultivation if the natural habitat 
is imitated. Propagated readily by seed sown in late 
fall (germinating in spring) .or by division of the clumps. 
M6rrpwi, Boott (C. japonica, Hort., not Thunb. 
C. tenuissima, Hort. C. acutifolia, Hort.). Fig. 799. 
Lvs. stiff and evergreen, long-pointed, in the common 
garden form with a white band near either margin: 
culm 1 ft. with a terminal staminate spike and 2 or 3 
slender pistillate spikes (1 in. long) from sheaths: 
perigynium small and firm, somewhat excurved, 2- 
toothed, glabrous. Japan. G.C. III. 13:173. .R.B. 20, 
p. 9. A very handsome plant, suited for pots or the 
border. The stiff clean white-edged foliage keeps in 
condition for months, making the plant useful for 
decorations in which pot-plants are used. It is per- 
fectly hardy in Cent. N. Y., 
holding its foliage all win- 
ter. A useful florists' plant. 

796. Carex (C. scoparia), 
with androgynous spikes and 
lenticular achenes. (XI). 
N. Amer. 

797. Carex (C. lurida), with 
Staminate terminal spikes and 
trigonous achenes. (XM)- N. 

intumescens, Rudge (C. tendria, Hort. C. tenera, 
Hort.). Slender, but stiff, to 30 in.: Ivs. narrow, rolling 
more or less when dry: staminate spikes long-stalked: 
pistillate spikes 1 or 2, short-stalked, short, with few 
large, turgid, tapering, shining perigynia and awl-like, 
rough-pointed scales. N. Amer. 




inans, Berger (C. Vilmorinii, Mott. 
C. V ilmoriniana, Hort.). Densely tufted, 
with many very narrow Ivs., and filiform 
culms \ l /2 ft. or less high: spikes 5-7, the 
terminal staminate, linear and short- 
stalked, the lateral pistillate (or perhaps 
staminate at base), oblong or cylindrical 
and dense-fld., about 1 in. long, and with 
aristate scales: perigynium 3-angled 
(stigmas 3), lance-ovate, attenuate at base 
and with a 2-toothed scabrous beak. New 
Zeal. A good hardy edging plant when a 
tufted grassy effect is desired. 

Buchananii, Berger (C. lucida, Boott, 
var. Buchdnanii, Kuek.). Allied to the 
preceding: densely tufted: Ivs. leathery, 
semi-terete ,very narrow, brown-red : spikes 
5-8, the terminal staminate and linear- 
cylindrical, long-stalked, the lateral pistil- 
late and cylindrical, \Yi in. long, densely- 
fld.: perigynium plano-convex (stigmas 2), 
produced into a long margined scabrous 
deeply bidentate beak. New Zeal. Grown 
for its reddish foliage. 

Gaudichaudiana, Kunth (C. vulgaris, 
Fries, var. Gaudichaudiana, Boott). Culms 
erect, 1-2 ft.: Ivs. long and grass-like: 
staminate fls. in terminal spikes: pistillate 
fls. in 2-3 cylindrical, sessile or subsessile 
spikes: perigynium lenticular, small, very 
short-beaked, obscurely 2-toothed, finely 
nerved, longer than the narrow scale. 
Japan, Austral. New Zeal. Useful for 
bog planting. 

Fraseri, Andr. (Cymophyllus 
Frdseri, Mack.) Lvs. 1 in. or 
more broad, stiff, but with no 
midnerve, flat and thick, ever- 
green: culm 16 in. or less high- 
bearing at its summit a single 
whitish spike which is staminate 
at top: perigynium ovoid, thin 
and inflated. Rich mountain 
woods, Va. B.M. 1391 (as C. 
Fraseriana). Rare, and a very 
remarkable plant. 

C. bdccans, Nees. Robust, with 
curving Ivs. to 2 ft. long and }^in. 
broad: fr. berry-like (whence the name), 
crimson or vermilion, in clustered spikes 
standing well above the Ivs. India. G. 
1:461. Useful for pots or for planting 
in a conservatory, for its ornamental 

fr., but probably not now in cult, commercially. C. gallica variegata 
is offered abroad as a "very elegant, showy and charming" carex.-^-C. 
ripdria, Curt., a rank-growing lowland species of wide distribution, 
is sometimes grown in a variegated-lvd. form. The name has no 
botanical standing. With the exten- 
sion of wild gardening, and particu- 
larly of bog- and water-gardening, 
many other species of Carex may be 
expected to appear in the trade lists. 

L. H. B. 

CARICA (a geographical 
name) . Papayacese. PAPAYA. 
Small, rapid - growing, un- 
fa ranched trees, commonly 
grown in greenhouses as foli- 
age plants and often bearing 
fruit under such conditions. 
Juice milky. 

Leaves large, soft, long- 
stalked, in clusters at the top 
of the trunk : usually dioecious, 
the male fls. on long axillary 
peduncles, funnel-shaped, with 
10 anthers in the throat, the 
pistillate fls. larger and with 5 
distinct petals and a single 799. Carex Morrowii. 

798. Carex (C. longirostris), with termi- 
nal staminate spikes and drooping pistil- 
late spikes. (XJi). N. Amer. 

pistil with 5-rayed stigma, sessile in the axils of the Ivs. 
-Perhaps 20 species, all native to the American tropics, 
but C. Papaya is cult, throughout the tropics for its 
delicious edible fruits. See Papaya. 

The soil most suited for caricas is a rich loam, having 
perfect drainage. As the stem is succulent and tender, 
great care is necessary to avoid bruising, hence pot- 
grown plants are much to be preferred to seedlings 
from the open ground. Seeds should be selected from 
the best and largest fruits and sown in a well-worked 
bed under a slight shade. If seeds are quite dry or old, 
they should be soaked in warm water before sowing. 
The seedling plants are delicate, and require close 
watching at first to avoid damping-off. As soon as 
plants are well up remove the shading, and after the 
third leaf appears they may be pricked out into a larger 
bed, or better, potted off in fairly rich soil. After plants 
are a few weeks old, and have been shifted once into 
larger pots, they may be set permanently outdoors in 
the tropics. Caricas seldom branch, but usually grow 
upright like a palm, hence cuttings are not often avail- 
able. Sqmetimes small branches form, and these may 
be cut off and as readily rooted as most tropical deco- 
rative plants, provided the cutting is not too young 
and tender. This method has been found in Florida 
to be too slow, and what is evidently a better method 
of propagation, by means of graftage, has been devised 
by Edward Simmonds, of the Plant In- 
troduction Field Station, Miami, Florida. 
Numerous shoots are formed by the buds 
at the leaf-scars when a papaya tree is 
topped, as many as fifty or more being 
produced. "One of these shoots is taken 
when a few inches long and about the 
diameter of a lead pencil, is sharpened 
to a wedge point, the leaf surface re- 
duced, and inserted in a cleft in a young 
seedling which has been decapitated 
when 5 to 10 inches high, and split with 
an unusually sharp, thin grafting-knife. 
At this age the trunk of the young seed- 
ling has not yet formed the hollow 
space in the center. Seeds planted in 
the greenhouse in February produce 
young seedlings large enough to graft 
some time in March; these grafted trees, 
which can be grown in pots, when set out 
in the open ground in May or the latter 
part of April, make an astonishing 
growth and come into bearing in Novem- 
ber or December; they continue bear- 
ing throughout the following spring and 
summer, and if it is advisable, can be left to bear 
fruit into the following autumn." Varieties of superior 
flavor and better size and shape for shipping, as well as 
hermaphrodite varieties, may 
now be successfully main- 
tained. For complete descrip- 
tion of this method see "The 
Grafted Papaya as an Annual 
Fruit Tree," by David Fair- 
child and Edward Simmonds, 
Circular No. 119, Bureau of 
Plant Industry, 1913. In tem- 

Eerate climates, caricas have 
een found to be good decora- 
tive plants for both conserva- 
tory and summer bedding, the 
deeply cut, palmate leaves 
forming a striking contrast to 
ordinary vegetation. In bed- 
ding out, select open, sunny 
exposure, with perfect drainage, 
and make the soil rich and 
friable. Constant cultivation 
with a light hoe will cause a 




luxuriant growth under these conditions, and the 
planter will be amply repaid for his trouble by beauti- 
ful showy specimens as tropical-appearing as palms. 

Papaya, Linn. (Papaya Cdrica, Gaertn.). PAPAYA. 
PAWPAW. The commonest species in cult., sometimes 
growing to a height of 20 ft., with large palmately 
7-lobed Ivs., sometimes 2 ft. across, and fr. shaped like 
a roughly angled melon up to 12 in. long and half as 
thick, hanging, especially from the lower axils of the pis- 
tillate plant. B.M. 2898-9. From the frs., which vary 
in size up to 15 Ibs. and in number to the tree from 20-50, 
is extracted the papaya juice, which furnishes the papain 
of commerce. This is obtained by slashing the fr., and 
collecting the milky juice in porcelain-lined receptacles, 
where it is allowed to evaporate. When evaporated to 
a granular condition, it is ready for the market and 
brings from $4-$6 a Ib. in the crude state. The papaya 
has of recent years become one of the commonest table 
frs. of the tropics. The flesh, which is usually of a 
salmon-pink or yellow color, is excellent when one 
becomes accustomed to its peculiar flavor, and resem- 
bles somewhat a most luscious muskmelon. From its 
large content of papain, it may be eaten without injury 
in considerable quantities and assists in the digestion 
of other foods. As the tree grows with great rapidity 
in tropical climates, it may be treated as an annual, the 
seeds being sown early in protected beds, well cared for 
and transplanted to their permanent places when well 
established. They will then bear fr. late in the suc- 
ceeding autumn. The method of graftage described on 
p. 663 is preferable, however. The frs. have a consider- 
able cavity, which, in the smaller rounded frs., is well 
filled with the small brownish or blackish seeds. The 
firm skin, the firmness of which may be increased by 
selection, will permit of shipping to a distance. The 
plant is sometimes polygamous, and from such plants 
in Hawaii there have been bred types which appear to 
have great promise as a shipping fr. The green frs. 
are frequently used as vegetables, and the Ivs., if cooked 
with tough meat, are said to make it tender, due to 
the digestive principle. 

candamarcensis, Hook. f. (C. cundinamarcensis, 
Lindl.). This is a more hardy ornamental species with 
numerous Ivs., dark green above and pale beneath, 
rounded-heart-shaped, \ l / ft. across, 5-lobed to the 
center with pinnatifid lobes: fls. green and pubescent: 
frs. small, pointed, 5-angled, golden yellow. B.M. 6198. 
Hardy in S. Calif., but the frs. of no value as such. 

quercifdlia, Benth. & Hook. (Vasconccllea querci- 
folia, St. Hil.). Lvs. shaped like those of the English 
oak, palmately 3-lobed, and containing a greater per- 
centage of papain than C. Papaya; frs. small. Hardy 
in S. Calif. 

gracilis, Solms. (Papaya grdcilis, Regel). Habit of 
C. Papaya; trunk simple, 4-6 ft. high, slender, very gla- 
brous: Ivs. 5-digitate, the lobes sinuate-lobed, the 
middle one 3-lobed, the whole blade suborbicular in 
outline, petioled. Brazil. Gt. 1879:986. 


CARISSA (aboriginal name). Apocynacese. Very 
branchy spinose shrubs of the tropics of the eastern 
hemisphere, cultivated for ornament or hedges, but 
here mainly for the edible berry-like fruits. 

Flowers white, solitary or in cymes; lobes of calyx 
and corolla 5, the 5 stamens free and included in the 
throat, the ovary 2-loculed: Ivs. opposite and thick, 
simple. About 30 species. Used abroad as greenhouse 
plants but grown in this country only in S. Fla., and 
Calif. Prop, by seeds and cuttings of ripe wood. 

Carandas, Linn. CARATJNDA. CHRIST'S-THORN. Ever- 
green shrub or small tree, with dark green ovate or elliptic 
mucronate entire Ivs., strong axillary spines (which are 
often forked) and fragrant white fls. in clusters of 2-3, 
the corolla twisted to the left in the bud : fr. the size of 

a cherry (1 in. diam.), reddish, pleasant-flavored. India. 
L.B.C. 7:663. Reaches 20 ft. Half-hardy in Cent. Fla. 
The frs. are eaten from the hand or made into a jelly 
much* like currants when ripe, and pickled when green. 

bispindsa, Desf. (C. ardulna, Lam.). AMATUNGULU. 
MAKITZGULA. Spines strong, often 2 in. long: Ivs. ovate 
and subcordate, mucronate, glabrous and entire: fls. 
white, the corolla twisted to the right in the bud. S. 
Afr. A choice evergreen shrub, rather hardy, with 
thick camellia-like very glossy Ivs. : fls. large, fragrant, 
white, and borne profusely and continuously: fr. dark 
red, size of a cherry, good. L.B.C. 4:387. Closely 
resembles C. grandiflora, but fls. slightly smaller and 
frs. in clusters; seeds lanceolate. 

grandifldra, DC. NATAL PLUM. Spiny shrub: Ivs. 
ovate-acute, tapering to the base: fls. large, white, 
fragrant, solitary and terminal, twisted to the right, 
heterogpnous: fr. red, 1-13/2 in. long, resembling cran- 
berries in flavor when cooked, and having a papery skin, 
milky juice and few small almost circular seeds. Sauce 
made from this fr. is almost indistinguishable in flavor 
from cranberry sauce, but the frs. ripen so irregularly, 
although almost continually, as to make the fr. suitable 
only for home-garden use unless handled on a large scale. 
Said to be the finest hedge plant in S. Afr. B.M. 6307. 

acuminata, DC. Spines weak: Ivs. smaller, ovate- 
acute, subcordate, mucronate; peduncles short, forked, 
axillary: fls. with lance-acuminate calyx-lobes, the 
corolla twisted to the right in the bud. S. Afr. Per- 
haps not different from C. bispinosa. 

C. edulis, Vahl. A straggling shrub with small purple edible fr. 
from Trop. Afr. Intro, from Abyssinia, but has not yet been 
thoroughly tested. The plant in the American trade under this 
name is described as much taller than C. Carandas and more vigor- 
ous: Ivs. persistent, ovate-acuminate: fls. 10-25 in axillary clusters, 
white and pink, jasmine-scented: berries oval, red but turning 
black at maturity, 1-seeded. C. ovdta, R. Br., from Austral., a 
more open shrub than any of the preceding, the small frs. of which 
are edible and used for jams, has been intro. by the Office of Foreign 
Seed and Plant Introduction as a possible stock for the more ten- 
der species, in the hope of extending the range of these frs. C. 
spinarum, DC., a small edible-fruited evergreen shrub from India 
is said to be an important element in reforestation since it persists 
on the poorest and rockiest soils in spite of being greedily eaten by 
sheep and goats. g> Q SxUNTZ.f 

CARLINA (said to have cured the army of Charle- 
magne [Caroh'nus] of the plague). Composite. Low 
rather coarse annuals, biennials or perennials, with 
thistle-like foliage, large white or purplish heads, a 
feathery pappus, and chaffy receptacle: outer involu- 
cral bracts coriaceous, usually spiny, the inner ones 
colored or shiny and petal-like: fr. a silky-hairy achene. 
Some 15 or 20 species in the Medit. region. 

An open sunny place and ordinary garden soil are 
all they require. They are capital for the sunny part of 
a rockery. Propagated by cuttings or seeds. 

acaulis, Linn. A very dwarf hardy perennial; height 
3-6 in.: Ivs. glossy, pinnatifid, divided, with spiny 
ends: fl. rising barely above the foliage, solitary, very 
interesting, the scales surrounding the fl.-head being 
long and narrow and ray- or petal-like, silky, shiny: 
head 6 in. across when expanded, white. June, July 
and late fall. G.C. II. 13:720-1. G.L. 19:178. 

acanthifclia, Linn. A white-tomentose thick-lvd. 
biennial, the Ivs. oblong, the upper pinnatifid and spiny: 
fl.-heads 4 in. wide, yellowish purple. S. Eu. July and 
later. G.C. III. 47:68. Little known in U. S. 


CARLUDOVICA (Charles IV, and his Queen Louisa, 
of Spain). Cyclanthacese. Palm-like, sometimes merely 
herbaceous plants, of tropical America. 

The plants are stemless, or sometimes with a lax 
creeping st., and usually have stalked, sometimes ses- 
sile, flabellate lys. : fls. mono3cious, the two sexes being 
on the same spadix, which is inclosed in a 4-lvd. 
spathe; staminate fls. with many stamens and many- 




lobed calyx, 4 of them surrounding a pistillate fl. the 
latter have a 4-sided ovary, 4 barren stamens, and 4- 
lobed calyx: fr. a 4-sided, many-seeded berry. The car- 
ludovicas are usually regarded and treated as stove 
palms by gardeners. They are useful for decoration. 
The family Cyclanthaceae is exclusively tropical Ameri- 
can, of about 45 species and 6 genera (Stelestylis, 
Carludovica, Sarcinanthus, Ludovia, Evodianthus, 
Cyclanthus); it is often united with the Pandanaceae 
or screw-pine family. 

The genus is an important economic one, as C. 
palmata, and perhaps other species, are the source of 
Panama hats. In making these, the leaves are cut 
young, the stiff veins removed, after which the leaves 
are slit into shreds, but not separated at the stalk end. 
It is said that hats of superior quality are plaited from 
a single leaf, without any joinings. U. S. Dept. Agric., 
Fiber Investigations. Kept. 9:112 (1897). 

800. Carludovica palmata. 

Carludovica palmata is the species most frequently 
met with under cultivation. Under favorable condi- 
tions it grows to a height of about 8 feet. All of the 
kinds need stove treatment during the winter months; 
in summer they may be used for subtropical bedding 
with good results. They have a certain palm-like ap- 
pearance, but the leaves are of a softer texture than any 
of the palms. They may be propagated by division, 
choosing the early spring for the operation. C. palmata 
seeds freely. The fruit, when ripe, has an ornamental 
appearance for a short time after bursting open. The 
seeds are very small, and should be carefully washed 
free from the pulp, and sown on the surface of a pan of 
finely chopped sphagnum moss. Germination takes 
place in two weeks from sowing if kept in a brisk, moist 
heat. The species are not particular as to soil but the 
drainage must be perfect, as the plants require an 
abundance of water when growing. (G. W. Oliver.) 

A. Lvs. S-5-lobed. 

palmata, Ruiz. & Pav. Fig. 800. No trunk: petioles 
3-6 ft. long, glabrous, terete and unarmed; blades 
4-lobed, the lobes again cut into narrow segms., dark 
green, gracefully spreading, and drooping at the mar- 
gin. Peru. R.H. 1861, p. 36. The common species, 
and a very useful plant. 

rotundifolia, Wendl. Much like the last, but more 
compact under cult., owing to the shorter petioles, but 
growing much larger: petiole distinctly pubescent; 
If.-blade large and orbicular, 3- or 4-lobed. Costa 
Rica. B.M. 7083. 

elegans, Williams. Blades with 4 or 5 lobes, which 
are very deeply cut into straight strap-like divisions. 
Probably of horticultural origin. 

AA. Lvs. 2-lobed. 

atrdvirens, Wendl. Blades very deeply 2-lobed and 
very deep, rich green (whence the name, dark green), 
glabrous. Colombia. 

humilis, Poepp. & Endl. Dwarf: blades angular, 
2-lobed at the summit, the segms. more or less jagged 
but not divided, a foot or less broad. Colombia. R.H. 
1869, p. 327. One of the best. 

Plftmerii, Kunth (C. palmsefolia, Sweet). Caudex 
erect: blades with 2 lanceolate and plicate divisions, 
bright green above and pale beneath: spadices pendu- 
lous. Martinique. 

imperialis, Lind. & Andre 1 . Caudex short and pros- 
trate: blades with 2 ovate-lanceolate entire segms., 
with very prominent veins, the lobes about 5 in. wide 
and shining green ; petiole purplish, canaliculate, tumid 
at the base. Ecuador. I.H. 21 : 166 (by error 165). 

The following species are in cult, in this country but not as yet 
known to the trade: C. funifera, Kunth. Stemless or sometimes 
creeping and with a round, sparsely branched St.: Ivs. alternate 
1-2 ft. S. Amer. C. incisa, Wendl. A much cut, low plant from 
Cent. Amer. C. macropoda, Klotzsch. St. scarcely 1 ft. long: Ivs. 
faintly 3-nerved, deeply 2-parted, 1 ty-2 ft. Colombia. C. micro- 
ctphala, Hook. f. St. a few inches high: Ivs. numerous, 10-18 in. 
long, split into 2 8-nerved segms. ; petiole slender, purplish at base. 
Costa Rica. B.M. 7263. C. plicala, Klotzsch. St. short: Ivs. di- 
vided into 2 1-nerved segms.; petioles channeled: spadix about 6 in. 
long: the thick woody caudex may not rise more than 1 ft. 
Colombia. C. scdndens, Cowell. St. creeping, often 25 ft. long: 
Ivs. several at the summit, about 18 in. long. St. Kitts. 


CARMICHJELIA (Capt. Dugald Carmichael, Scotch 
botanist, who wrote on the flora of the Cape and cer- 
tain islands). Leguminbsse. Shrubs, leafless or usually 
becoming so, either erect or depressed, with reddish or 
purplish small fls., rarely cult. There are about 20 
species in New Zeal., very difficult of delimitation. 
Lvs. 1- or 3-5-foliolate, wanting or deciduous after the 
bloom has passed: fls. in lateral racemes; calyx cup- 
shaped or bell-shaped, 5-toothed; corolla papiliona- 
ceous, the standard orbicular and usually reflexed, the 
wings oblong and obtuse and somewhat falcate, the 
keel oblong and "incurved and obtuse; upper stamen 
free : pod small, leathery, oblong to orbicular. C. grandi- 
fl6ra, Hook, f., is recently offered in S. Calif.: it is 
much-branched, to 6 ft. high, with compressed and 
grooved glabrous erect branches: Ivs. pinnately 3-5- 
foliolate, appearing in spring and early summer and 
then caducous, the Ifts. glabrous and obcordate-cuneate : 
fls. about %in. long, in drooping racemes of 5-12, white 
or lilac. C. odorata, Colenso, has pubescent drooping 
branches, and much smaller fls. in 10-20-fld. racemes: 
pod smaller (J^in. or less long) and longer-beaked. 

L. H. B. 

CARNATION (Didnthus Caryophyllus, Linn.). Cary- 
ophyllacese. Choice and popular flower-garden and 
greenhouse plants of the pink tribe; in North America 
grown mostly under glass as florists' flowers. PL XXII. 
The carnation is a half-hardy perennial, herbaceous, 
suffrutescent at base: height 2 ft.: st. branching, with 
tumid joints: Ivs. linear, glaucous, opposite: fls. termi- 




nal, mostly solitary; petals 5, flesh-colored, very broad, 
beardless, margins toothed; calyx cylindrical, with 
scaly bracts at base. June-Aug. S. Eu.; occasionally 
met in the wild state in England, where it was intro. 
through cult. A single-fld. and undeveloped carnation 
is shown in Fig. 801. A section of a single fl. is 
depicted in Fig. 802, showing the 2 styles and the 5 
stamens; also the bracts at the bottom, in 2 series, 
beneath the calyx. In Fig. 803 some of the beginnings 
of doubling are shown. 

General development. (By Geo. C. Butz.) 

Theophrastus, who lived about 300 years B.C., gave 
the name Dianthus (Greek dios, divine; anthos, flower) 
to the group, probably sug- 
gested by the delightful fra- 
grance. The specific name 
^aryophyllus (Greek, caryon, 
nut; and phyllon, leaf) has 
been applied to the 
clove-tree (Caryo- 
phyllus aromaticus) , 
and because of the 
clove-like fragrance 
of the carnation 
this name was ap- 
plied to it. The 
name carnation (Latin, carnatio, 
from caro, carnis, flesh) has ref- 
erence to the flesh-color of the 
flowers of the original type. This 
plant has been in cultivation 
more than 2,000 years, for 
Theophrastus (History of Plants, 
translation) says: "The Greeks 
cultivate roses, gillyflowers, vio- 
lets, narcissi, and iris," gilly- 
flower being the old English 
name for the carnation. It was 
not, however, until the beginning 
of the sixteenth century that the 
development of the carnation 
into numerous varieties made 
an impression upon its history. 
The original flesh-color of its 
flowers was already broken up 
into red and white. The garden- 
ers of Italy, France, Germany, 
Holland and England, with their 
respective ideals of beauty in 
this flower, contributed so many 
varieties that in 1597 Gerard 
wrote that "to describe each 
new variety of carnation were to 
roll Sisyphus' stone or number 
the sands." 

There have been many at- 
tempts at classification, but 
most of them, like the varieties they serve, have dis- 
appeared. Two of them are as follows: A French 
scheme arranges all varieties into three classes: 
Grenadins (Fig. 801), including those with strong per- 
fumes, flowers of medium size, either single or double, 
petals fringed, and of but one color; Flamands, includ- 
ing those with large flowers, round and double, rising in 
the center to form a convex surface, petals entire, either 
unicolored or striped with two or more colors; Fancies, 
including those with colors arranged in bands on light 
grounds, the petals toothed or not. The English classi- 
fication of these varieties makes four categories: Selfs, 
or those possessing only one color in the petals; Flakes, 
or those having a pure ground of white or yellow and 
flaked or striped with one color, as scarlet, purple or 
rose; Bizarres, or those having a pure ground marked 
as in the Flakes, but with two or three colors; and 
Picotees (Fig. 804), or those having a pure ground of 

801. A single-flow- 
ered Grenadin carna- 
tion. (XJi) 


Section of normal 
carnation flower. 

white or yellow, and each petal bordered with a band 
of color at the margin. This last class has been regarded 
with the distinction of a race. 

In the early part of the nineteenth century, English 
gardeners exercised very great care in the growing of 
carnations to ma- A^ v n\ .. . ^ * *. ~ 

ture only perfect (\[\' : 
flowers. Imperfect 
and superfluous 
petals were ex- 
tracted with for- 
ceps; petals appearing out of 
place were arranged in a perfect 
imbrication; the calyx-tube was 
cut partly down between the 
teeth, to prevent excessive split- 
ting at one side and to give 
more freedom to the expansion 
of the flower. These and many 
more tedious details seem to 
have wrought the depreciation of 
this flower about the middle of 
the nineteenth century. 

All the foregoing has reference 
to those types of carnations that 
are little known or grown in 
America at the present day; the 
varieties so common in Europe 
are usually kept in coldframes or coolhouses during 
the winter, and as spring approaches the plants are 
brought into their blooming quarters, for no flower is 
expected to appear until the month of July, when there 
is a great profusion of blossoms, but for a short season. 
Therefore, they can all be classed as a summer race. 
They are also grown permanently in the open. 

Development of the perpetual -flowering carnation 
(Remontant, Monthly, Forcing, or Tree). Figs. 

The perpetual-flowering race of carnation, which 
has been brought to its highest state of perfection by 
American growers, and which is generally regarded as 
the "American carnation," really originated in France, 
and was grown in that country from its origin in 1840 
until about the year 1856, before it was introduced to 
America. A French gardener, named M. Dalmais, 
obtained a constant-blooming carnation by crossing 
(Eillet de Mahon, which bloomed in November, with 
pollen from (Eillet Biohon, crossing again with the 
Flemish carnation, the first-named sort being dissemi- 
nated under the name "Atim." By the year 1846 varie- 
ties in all colors had been secured and the type per- 
manently fixed. These were taken up and improved 
upon in quality by 
other enthusiasts, 
among whom were M. 
Schmidt and M. Al- 
phonse Alegatiere, of 
Lyons, France. The 
latter succeeded in 
securing varieties with rigid 
stems which in 1866 were given 
the name "tree-carnation." M. 
Schmidt's most prominent varie- 
ties were Arc-en-ciel and Etoile 
Polaire, which were grown for 
several years. But the strong 
rigid-stemmed varieties obtained 
by Alegatiere, which were 
termed tree-carnations in 1866, 
proved of greater value com- 
mercially, and became more gen- 
erally cultivated. About the year 
1852, a native of France who 
had settled near New York City, are leafy, showing one 
imported plants of this strain, process in doubling. 

803. The anthers 




804. Carnation, Picotee. 

and cultivated several varieties for a number of years. 
About the year 1856 the firm of Dailledouze, Zeller & 
Card imported plants of La Purit6, a rose-colored 
variety, also Mont Blanc and Edwardsii, white, and 
Manteaux Royal, red-and-white variegated. These 

were used for crossing, 
and the first variety 
produced in America, 
about the year 1858, 
proved to be a great 
improvement on exist- 
ing varieties. It was 
named "Mrs.Degraw," 
and with another white 
variety named "Flat- 
bush," was dissemi- 
nated about the year 
1864. Other varieties 
followed, and the work 
was taken up by other 
growers, among whom 
were M. Donati, who 
raised Astoria, a yellow 
which is conceded to 
be the ancestor of all 
the yellow varieties 
grown today; Rudolph 
Heintz, who raised 
Heintz's White in 1876 ; 
Chas. T. Starr, whose 
most famous variety was Buttercup, introduced in 1884; 
Jos. Tailby, whose Grace Wilder became and remained 
the standard rose-pink variety until the introduction 
of Wm. Scott in 1893; John Thorpe and W. P. Sim- 
mons, who introduced Portia, Tidal Wave, Silver Spray 
and Daybreak in the eighties; Sewal Fisher, whose 
Mrs. Fisher appeared in 1890 and became one of the 
leading whites; E. G. Hill, whose most notable pro- 
ductions were Flora Hill, the leading white for several 
years, and America, a scarlet; R. Witterstaetter, who 
obtained Estelle, Aristocrat, Afterglow and Pres. J. A. 
Valentine; John Hartje, who raised the scarlet Jubilee; 
Peter Fisher, whose Mrs. Thos. W. Lawson, Beacon, 
and Enchantress with its several sports, became leaders 
in their respective colors; C. W. Ward, who dis- 
seminated Governor Roosevelt, Harry Fenn and Mrs. 
C. W. Ward. 

The late Frederick Dorner conducted the most sys- 
tematic work in developing the carnation, and succeeded 
in producing a strain which is recognized as the highest 
development of the American carnation. His records, 
which cover a period of 22 years, contain a complete 
list of the many thousands of crosses made during that 
time. This strain is distinguished for its easy-growing 
habit, its freedom and steadiness in producing blooms, 
the diversity of colors and its adaptability to commer- 
cial growing. His labors produced such varieties as 
Wm. Scott, Mme. Diaz Albertini, White Cloud, Mrs. 
Goo. M. Bradt, G. H. Crane, Lady Bountiful, White 
Perfection, Pink Delight, White Wonder and Gloriosa, 
all leaders in their respective colors. 

Through the rapid strides in its development, after 
being introduced in this country, the carnation estab- 
lished itself as one of the leading flowers for commercial 
growing and now stands second only to the rose in 
commercial importance. Not only does it share equally 
with the rose the bench space in most large growing 
establishments, but many large ranges are devoted 
entirely to the carnation. Growing methods have been 
perfected by the carnation specialists until the practices 
employed during its early history have been entirely 
superseded. Since its first arrival in America, over 
1,200 varieties have been introduced, and the quality 
has been improved until the highest developed varie- 
ties produce blooms measuring 4^ inches in diameter 
and are carried on rigid stems 3 feet long. 


In 1891 the American Carnation Society was organ- 
ized to promote the interests of the carnation. By hold- 
ing exhibitions annually it has assisted materially in 
popularizing the flower. A system of registering new 
varieties is in operation, which prevents confusion in 

From this country, the improved strain of the per- 
petual-flowering carnation has returned to European 
countries, being grown in increased quantities each 
year and displacing all the older types of carnation for 
commercial growing. 

Culture of outdoor or flower-garden carnations. Fig. 808. 

Americans are not sufficiently aware of the excel- 
lence of some of the forms of the flower-garden or bor- 
der carnation. While perennial, like the greenhouse 
carnation, many of them bloom profusely the first 
year from seed and are described as annuals. The 
Marguerite type is one of the jinost useful. These 
forms bloom by midsummer from early-sown seeds, and 
with some protection the plants will pass the winter 
in the open and bloom again the following spring. 
The Margaret strain, distinct from the Marguerite, 
bears double flowers, 
sulfur-yellow, and also 
blooms the first season 
from early-sown seed. 
The Chabaud strains 
behave similarly. The 
Grenadins (Fig. 801) 
bloom the first year 
from seed. They pro- 

805. The modern florists' 
carnation. High-centered 
dark-colored bloom. 

806. Modern florists' or 
forcing carnation. 




duce fine singles, of simple form and strong fragrance, 
although more than half of any sowing from improved 
seed may produce various degrees of double bloom. 
Riviera Market and others bloom in autumn from 
spring-sown seeds. The culture of the hardy or flower- 
f . garden carnations is 

- /I / 7 very simple. Their 
profusion of sum- 
mer bloom makes 
them desirable. 

ThePicotee class 
(Fig. 804) is little 
known in this coun- 
try. It is a hardy 
perennial in Eng- 
land, and the fine 
strains are often 

Eropagated by 
tyers (Fig. 809). 
They also do well 
from seeds, bloom- 
ing freely the 
second year. 

The Malmaison 
strain, which was 
the leading carna- 
tion in England 
before the advent 
of the Perpetual- 
flowering strain, 
has been found of 
little value in this 
country . On ac- 
count of its large 
size it was used to 
some extent for 
breeding purposes, 
but with unsatis- 
factory results. 

The border car- 
nation is a more 
condensed and 
bushy plant than 
the long-stemmed 
few-flowered plant 
seen in the Ameri- 
can greenhouses, 
although there are 
different families or 
groups of them as 
there are of phlox 
or snapdragons. 
Some forms are 
dwarf and some 

American methods of culture for indoor bloom. 

The modern method of propagating the carnation for 
commercial growing is by means of cuttings which are 
taken from either the blooming stock or from plants that 
are grown for cuttings alone. The old method of layer- 
ing (Fig. 809) would prove too slow in increasing stock 
for present-day needs. Millions of cuttings are rooted 
each season for planting the houses for blooming pur- 
poses. So much depends on the quality of the cuttings 
in keeping up the vitality in the stock that expert 
growers have learned to discriminate in their selection. 
The best cuttings, if taken from the blooming stock, 
are those from near the middle of the flower-stems 
(Fig. 810). These will not only show greater vitality 
than those taken higher up or lower, but they will 
prove more floriferpus The tip cuttings are likely to 
give a flower-bud immediately and, if this is pinched 
out, develop into a weak plant. Those taken from the 
base develop a large spreading growth known as 
"grassy." The cuttings are severed by an outward pull 

807. Carnation, 

Little Gem. 
A striped flower. 

and are afterward trimmed of all surplus foliage before 
being inserted in the propagating sand. Have a sharp 
knife with which to trim and a pail of fresh water into 
which to throw the cuttings as they are trimmed. 
Make a smooth cut at the base, near the joint, so that 
the lower pair of leaves will peel off readily, leaving a 
half-inch of clear stem to go into the sand. Shorten 
those leaves which turn outward, leaving those which 
stand fairly upright. The removal of part of the foliage 
is to avoid crowding in the bench and also to prevent 
flagging while the cutting is giving off more moisture 
through its leaves than it is taking up through the stem. 
The cuttings are inserted in the sand about %inch deep 
in rows across the bench, placing the cuttings about 
%inch apart in the row and the rows about 2}/z inches 
apart, according to the size of the cuttings. Use a putty 
knife for making the cut in the sand. The sand is kept 
constantly moist and the cuttings are protected from 
both the sun and drafts by means of muslin curtains. 
Frequent spraying should be avoided, though it must 
be resorted to at times to prevent flagging on warm 
windy days. The most favorable conditions for propa- 
gating are usually secured during the months of Decem- 
ber, January, February and early March. During that 
period, ventilation is limited and a fairly even bottom- 
heat is easily maintained. Keep a bottom temperature 
of about 60, while the overhead temperature should be 
about 52. Any bench that can be protected from sun 
and drafts will prove satisfactory. 

The bottom of the bench may be of wood or tile, the 
latter being preferred on account of more perfect drain- 
age and a greater retention of warmth. The sand should 
be 3 inches deep after being packed down by means of a 
tool made from a 2-inch plank about 6 inches wide and 

808. Flower-garden or outdoor carnation, showing the condensed 
bushy habit and short flower-stems. 

12 inches long with an inverted V-shaped handle. In 
about four weeks the cuttings should be ready for pot- 
ting (Fig. 811). Those that come out of the sand 
February 15 or earlier should be potted first into 2- 
inch pots and later on shifted into larger pots as needed. 
Those potted later may be placed directly into 2^-inch 




pots and left until planted out, the object being to keep 
the young plants growing steadily until they are planted 
in the field. Stunted, pot-bound plants will be slow in 
breaking and are likely to develop stem-rot in the field. 
Use a moderately light soil and only fairly rich. 

When the young plants begin to run up to flower, 
they should be topped back to about four joints above 
the pot (Fig. 812). A low-branched plant will stand up 
better and will give less trouble in supporting later on. 
A second topping may be necessary before planting- 
out time, on early-propagated stock. A slight harden- 
ing-off of the young plants before planting out is bene- 
ficial, though not essential. This is usually done by 
placing the plants in coldframes about two weeks 
prior to planting them in the field. Late April or early 
May is the time for planting in the field, according to 
latitude and climate. A rich loam, inclined to sandiness, 
produces the finest plants in the shortest time. In a 
heavy soil the growth will be heavier, but slower and 
less branching. Set the plants about 8 inches apart in 
the rows, and if hand-power is to be employed in cul- 
tivating, space the rows about 16 inches apart. Space 
farther if horse-power is to be used. 

When a large business is done in young plants or 
rooted cuttings, a part of the stock is grown espe- 
cially for cuttings alone. Thes.e plants are benched the 
game as those for blooming, but are not allowed to 

809. Layer of carnation. The parent 
stem was severed at s. This method is 
now employed only in special cases. 

bloom. As the shoots begin to run up to flower, they 
are broken off a few joints higher up than is done when 
topping in the field. The young shoots which result 
from these breaks are taken off for cuttings, the very 
finest cuttings being secured in this way. These are 
trimmed and handled the same as those taken from the 

When packing cuttings for shipping, moist sphagnum 
moss is used in which to pack the roots. Cut papers 
(newspapers are used mostly) into sheets about 10 by 
18 inches. Lay a strip of moss about 3 inches wide 
across the middle of the paper lengthwise. Then lay 
the cuttings side by side with only the roots on the 
moss. When twenty-five have been laid on, begin to 
roll from one end until all the cuttings have been taken 
up. Then turn in the lower part of the paper and con- 
tinue to roll until the end of the paper has been reached 
and tie around with any kind of cord. There is little 
difference in the returns from plants grown for cuttings 
and those grown for blooms, providing a fair market 
is found for each. 

In shipping plants from the field, the soil is all shaken 
from the roots. The plants are then set upright in the 
shipping-cases with moist moss between the roots, a 
layer of damp moss having first been placed on the 

Cultivate as soon as practicable after each rain, and 
in the absence of rain at least once each week. Shallow 
cultivating is recommended, just enough to maintain a 
loose mulch on the surface. 
Do not water carnations in 
the field under any con- 
sideration. Cultivation will 
preserve moisture in the 
soil without causing soft 
growth. Keep topping back 
the young shoots as fast as 
they begin to run up, thus 
building up a shapely 
bushy plant. 

// plants are to be placed 
inside during the summer, 
the benches should be re- 
filled and made ready for 
planting as soon after May 
1 as possible. It will be a 
great help to get the plants 
under way on the benches 
before hot weather sets in. 
Fill the benches the same 
as for field-grown plants 
and set the plants where 
they are to bloom. Indoor 
culture is practicable and 

Erofitable only when the 
enches can be spared by 
early May. If a good mar- 
ket can be found for the 
May and June cut, they 
will more than offset the 
slight advantage derived 
in the fall from indoor 

If the blooming plants 
have not made an exceed- 
ingly rank growth, they 
may be cut back sharp 
early in May, cleaned off, 
mulched with long manure 
and grown on for blooming the following year. This 
should not be attempted, however, unless the plants 
are free from disease or insects and in good condition 
to break freely from the lower part of the plant. 

Carnations are grown successfully on both raised and 
solid benches. Perfect drainage is essential, and must 
be provided for, if solid beds are to be used. There will 
be no difference in the quality or the quantity if both 
are properly handled. 

By the end of June 
the old blooming plants 
will become exhausted, 
and refilling the benches 
to receive the new plants 
from the field will be in 
order. Clean out the old 
soil, whitewash the in- 
side of the benches with 
hot lime and allow to 
dry before refilling with 
the new earth. Four 
inches of soil is enough, 
and should be of equal 
depth all over the bench, 
especially along the 
edges. The soil should 
be fairly moist, but not 
wet when the plants are 
set, so that the roots 
may draw moisture 
from the soil rather 
than have the soil draw 
the moisture from the 8ll. Strong cutting, well rooted. 

810. a. Desirable cuttings. 
b. Weak cutting, too high up 
on stem. c. Too low on stem. 




roots. On the other hand, soil for potting or planting 
should never be handled while in a wet condition. If 
too dry at the time of filling the beds, water, and let 
stand long enough to dry to the proper state before 

Apply a light shade of lime or whiting to the glass, 
to break the fierceness of the summer 
sun until the plants become estab- 
lished. This shade should not be too 
heavy, nor intended to darken the 
house, else a softening and weakening 
of the growth will result. Lift the 
plants carefully by means of a spade 
and leave a ball of soil about the size 
of the fist on the roots. This ball of 
soil will greatly assist the plant in re- 
establishing itself in its new quarters. 
However, no serious harm will be done 
should all the soil crumble from the 
roots without breaking the roots to 
any considerable extent. Set the plants 
just about as deep into the soil as they 
stood in the field and space them about 
9 by 12 inches, if plants are of ordinary 
size. Larger plants may need more, 
smaller plants less space. It should be 
borne in mind that the highest quality 
may be expected only when the plants 
are not crowded. 

After setting a few hundred plants, 
water each plant individually, satura- 
ting the soil thoroughly around each 
plant, but do not soak the whole bed 
until the roots become active and the 
surface of the soil has been worked over 
and leveled off, which will be about 
ten days after planting. Spray the 
plants overhead several times during 
each day to prevent wilting. Keeping 
the walks wet will also help to maintain 
a humid atmosphere until the roots 
are able to supply the plants with moisture. This 
transplanting is an ordeal during which the plants are 
unable to draw on the roots for support until they 
have taken a new hold on the soil, and wilting must 
be prevented by artificial means during this time. To 
allow severe wilting means loss of foliage and a loss 
of vitality, which results in inferior qualitv in at least 
the early part of the season. 

As soon as the soil has been leveled off, and most of 
the weeds gotten rid of, the supports should be put in 
place. Large growers use one of two styles of supports, 
or a combination of the two. Wires run lengthwise 
between the rows, with cotton strings crosswise, plac- 
ing two or three tiers one above the other to suit the 
height of the plants is extensively used. Another 
device is the carnation support, consisting of a wire 

stake with wire 
rings to surround 
each plant. 

Yield of bloom. 
Plants that were 
benched in the 
latter part of July, 
or early August, 
which is the time 
to plant for best re- 
sults, should begin 
to yield blooms 
early in September. 
If flowers are not 
desired so early, 
the stems may be 
broken off about 
the time the bud 
813. Undeveloped five-petaled carnation, appears, but no 

812. Showing where to top (a) or 
to head back. 

general topping should be done after the plants are 
housed, if a steady cut through the season is desired. 
Cut the blooms during the early part of the day. They 
are then fresh and retain their natural colors, much of 
which would be bleached out of the delicately colored 
sorts by the sun during a warm day. Place in water at 
once in a cool room as near 50 as 
possible. Sort the blooms in separate 
colors, making two or three grades of 
quality, tying them into bunches of 
twenty-five blooms. Cut the stems 
even at the bottom and replace in 
water. Avoid crowding the blooms 
while they are soaking up water, as 
they will increase 25 per cent in size 
during the first twenty-four hours in 

During a season, running from Sep- 
tember to the end of the following 
June, an average cut of twenty blooma 
per plant may be expected from most 
varieties. Varieties differ somewhat, 
according to the size of the blooms, the 
smaller-flowered sorts usually being the 
freer bloomers. 

The preparation of the soil for grow- 
ing carnations is of the greatest im- 
portance. Choose a piece of land which 
has not been tilled for some years, if 
possible. If covered with a heavy sod, 
all the better. The soil should be a 
loam of good substance, with an incli- 
nation toward sandiness. Break this 
sod in the fall and leave in a rough 
state during the winter. In the spring 
plow again and sow to cowpeas or 
some other leguminous crop. After 
plowing this under in the fall, manure 
heavily and leave until the follow- 
ing spring when it should be plowed 
again. This soil should be in first- 
class condition for use the following summer. In 
working or handling soil, always bear in mind that to 
handle it while it is wet is to ruin it for immediate use. 
Only freezing will restore it again. If it will crumble 
readily, it is safe to handle. Soil which has been pre- 
pared in this manner will be rich enough to carry the 
plants until after the first of the year, when light feeding 
may be given. Feeding should be done judiciously 
during the short 
days of winter, to 
avoid softening the 
growth and bloom. 
Pulverized sheep- 
manure, dried 
blood and wood- 
ashes are used 
mostly for this pur- 
pose. The manure 
and blood improve 
the size and quality 
of the bloom, and 
the ashes strengthen 
the stem. 

Ventilation and 
temperature. The 
carnation being a 
plant, abundant 
fresh air and ventil- 
ation should be pro- 
vided for. A steady 
temperature is 
essential to success 814- carnation flower showing the 
in growing carna- ca iyx w hich has split on account of 
tions. Splitting of poor shape. 




815. Carnation flower showing a 
well-shaped calyx that will seldom 

the calyx may usually be traced to either irregular tem- 
perature or to overdoses of feeding. Any point between 
48 and 52 will prove a satisfactory night temperature 
for most varieties, providing it is evenly maintained. 
The temperature should be 10 higher during the day. 
Care should also be exercised, when building, in plac- 
ing the ventilators, 
so that the atmos- 
phere in the house 
may be changed 
without causing cold 
drafts to strike the 
plants. By placing 
the ventilators alter- 
nately on both sides 
of the ridge, this may 
be accomplished. The 
side ventilators are 
used only during 
mild weather. 

The modern type of 
carnation house runs 
east and west, is of 
even span and is 30 
feet or more in width, 
having ventilators on 
both sides of the 
ridge and in the side 
walls, if houses are 
detached. Many 
ranges are connected 
by gutters 6 feet or 
more from the 
ground. When econ- 
omy in ground is necessary, this is a good plan, but 
such ranges always contain some benches inferior for 
growing stock on account of the shade cast by gutters. 
The single detached house is ideal. See Greenhouse. 


The leading varieties in cultivation in this country at this time 
are White: White Perfection, White Enchantress, White Won- 
der, Shasta, Matchless. Flesh-Pink: Enchantress, Pink Delight, 
Mayday, Pres. Valentine. Rose-Pink: Rose-Pink Enchantress, 
Dorothy Gordon, Gloriosa, Mrs. C. W. Ward, Philadelphia Pink. 
Dark Pink: Rosette, Washington, Peerless Pink, Northport. 
Scarlet: Beacon, Victory, St. Nicholas, Herald, Commodore. 
Crimson: Harry Fenn, Octoroon, Pocahontas. Yellow: Yellow 
Prince, Yellowstone. White Variegated: Benora, Mrs. B. P. 
Cheney. Any other color: Gorgeous, Rainbow. New varieties are 
being registered with the American Carnation Society at the rate 
of about twenty-five each year. Few varieties remain in cultivation 
longer than ten years, so that the list changes continually. 


Stemrot (Rhizoctonia) is the common wet stemrot which does 
perhaps more damage than all the other diseases combined, and it 
is also more difficult to control than 
any of the others. Its presence does not 
manifest itself until its damage is 
wrought, and the plant is seen to wilt 
and die. The cause of the disease is a 
fungus which exists in the soil, and 
which will lie dormant in the soil for 
several years if there are no plants to 
attack. Hence no carnations should be 
planted for several years in soil which 
is known to have this fungus present. 

Species of Fusarium cause a slow 
rot of the heart of the plant; the treat- 
ment is same as above. 

Carnation-rust ( Uromyces caryophyl- 
linus) is more common than stemrot, 
but not nearly so destructive. A slight 
swelling of the outer tissue of the leaf 
is the first sign of its presence. Later on 
this bursts open, releasing a brown- 
colored powdery substance, comprising 
the spores by which the fungus is pro- 
pagated. Keeping the foliage dry and 
the atmosphere buoyant and bracing 
will prevent the appearance of this dis- 
ease. Spraying with bordeaux mixture 
has been found effective in combating 
this disease after it has gained a foot- 

Fairy-ring (Heterosporium echinula- 
tum} is perhaps the most destructive of 

the spot diseases. It is brought on by a humid or foul atmos- 
phere, and must be fought with remedies which will produce the 
opposite in atmospheric condition. Bordeaux is the standard 
remedy for all spot diseases. 

Bench rot may be caused by any one of a number of organisms 
attacking the ends of the cuttings in the propagating-bench. It 
is frequently a very serious disease. The fungi most frequently 
causing the trouble are in the sand and under the ideal conditions 
of temperature and 
moisture of the propa- 
gating-bench spread 
very rapidly. The use 
of clean sand, free from 
all organic matter, and 
the securing of new 
sand for each lot of cut- 
tings and cleanliness in 
the propagating - house 
will help to control this 

Insect pests. 

A green plant-louse 
(Myzus persicss) is fre- 
quently troublesome on 
carnations. It also at- 
tacks a large number 
of greenhouse and gar- 
den plants as well as 
several fruit trees. Nic- 
otine applied in one of 
the many forms will 
destroy it. Spraying 
and vaporizing are both 

817. Carnation flower Pink Delight, 
showing nearly entire-edged petals. 

employed successfully as preventives of the attacks of aphids. 

Thrips (Heliothrips hasmorrhoidalis) are equally destructive and 
more difficult to control. The same treatment as for aphis is sug- 
gested. Sweetened paris green used as a spray is also effective 
(three gallons of water; two pounds of brown sugar; two table- 
spoonfuls paris green). 

The punctures made by thrips and plant-lice cause yellowish 
spots on the leaves, a diseased condition known as stigmanose. 

Red-spider (Tetranychus bimaculatus) is found mostly where 
plants grow near steam-pipes, where ventilation is poor, or in 
houses kept top dry. Persistent syringing with water will usually 
destroy them if the spray is applied to the under surface. Use 
much force and little water to avoid drenching the beds. Sulfur 
as a dust or in water will also destroy them. 

The carnation mite (Pediculopsis graminum) injures the buds by 
transmitting the spores of a fungus (Sporotrichum pose) which 
causes them to decay. The injured buds are easily recognized and 
should be promptly gathered and burned to prevent further spread 
of the trouble. 

Raising new varieties. 

It is a long way from the undeveloped five-petaled 
carnation (Fig. 813) of early days to the perfectly 
formed full bloom of today. This filling out of the 
bloom has evolved gradually, and has been assisted 
by cross-fertilization and selection by the carnation- 
breeders through the many years in which the flower 
has been cultivated. This crossing, which has been the 
means of perfecting the American strain of the perpet- 
ual-flowering carnation, has been prosecuted continu- 
ously ever since the arrival of the first plants in this 
country. Many men have found both pleasure and 
profit in the work, and those 
with scientific inclination will 
find no subject more inter- 
esting. Not only have the 
blooms become larger, but 
the color has varied widely, 
the "substance" has been 
much improved, the calyx 
has been developed for non- 
bursting (Figs. 814, 815), 
the keeping qualities of the 
flowers have been improved, 
and the stems have been 

The operation of pollinat- 
ing the bloom, or transferring 
the pollen from one flower to 
the stigma of another, is a 
simple matter, and is per- 
haps of less importance than 
other parts of the work of 
producing desirable new 

816. Cross-section of carnation flower showing 
reproductive organs. 




818. Carnation flower Radiance, showing 
deeply serrated petals. 

The Fig. 816 is a section of a flower showing the repro- 
ductive organs; a shows the pod which encases the ovules 
or forming seeds, b. From the tip of the pod rises the 
style which has usually two, but frequently three 
curved ends, or stigmas, c. When the stigma is in 
the proper stage to be fertilized, which is indicated by 
the fuzzy appearance of the upper part, the pollen, 
which is the powdery substance released by the anthers, 

d, is applied to 
the fuzzy parts. 
To prevent self- 
fertilization, these 
anthers should be 
removed from 
flowers intended 
to be pollinated, 
before the pollen is 
released. Within 
one to three days, 
if fertilization has 
taken place, the 
bloom will wilt, 
the ovary will 
begin to swell and 
within a week the 
seed-pod can be 
seen to increase in 
size. As soon as 
the bloom has 
wilted, the petals should be removed and the calyx slit 
down the sides to prevent water from standing inside 
the calyx and causing the pod to decay. In six to eight 
weeks the seeds will be ripe and should be sown at once. 
Each seed may prove to be the beginning of a variety 
which will be one of the milestones of progress in the 
improvement of the carnation. Not one should be 
discarded until it has bloomed. 

The seedlings should be potted as soon as the first 
pair of character-leaves appears. Later on they may be 
shifted into larger pots and bloomed, or they may be 
planted in the field and marked as they bloom and only 
the promising ones housed in the fall. The selecting 
of the plants for further trial is of the very greatest 
importance and requires a thorough knowledge of the 
subject. There are many points in the make-up of a 
first-class carnation, and a combination of as many of 
these as is possible to get in one plant is the object 
sought. No carnation has ever been found which was 
perfect in every way. The hybridist must be able to 
judge correctly as to the relative value or loss repre- 
sented in certain characteristics shown by a seedling 
plant. This discrimination between the desirable and 
undesirable calls for the clearest judgment, and a valu- 
able variety might be discarded through the failure of 
the grower to see its good points. 

Among the seedlings will probably appear variety 
of colors, shapes and sizes of bloom, different types of 
growth, perfect in some respects and faulty in others. 
From these the hybridist is to select those which most 
nearly represent his ideal of the perfect carnation. This 
ideal should be of a pleasing shade of color, pure in tone, 
so as to hold when the bloom ages. The form should be 
symmetrical, resembling as nearly as possible a half 
sphere with just enough petals to fill the bloom nicely 
without crowding. The petals may range from the 
smooth-edged, as seen in Fig. 817, to the deeply-ser- 
rated, as seen in Fig. 818. The texture of the petals 
should be such as will resist bruising. The odor should be 
strong clove. The size should be as near 4 inches across 
as possible under ordinary culture. The calyx should be 
strong and large enough to hold the petals firmly at all 
stages of development. The stem should be 30 to 36 
inches long, and strong enough to hold the bloom erect. 
The plant should have a free-growing habit, throwing 
blooming shoots freely after a shoot is topped or a 
bloom is cut. It should also be healthy and disease- 

resistant. The American Carnation Society uses the 
following scale of points for new varieties : 

Color 25 

Size 20 

Calyx 5 

Stem 20 

Substance 15 

Form 10 

Fragrance 5 


The most uniform results have been secured by con- 
fining the breeding to separate colors; as, for example, 
crossing white with white, red with red or crimson, 
pink with pink, and so on. This method has been 
proved to produce the largest percentage of self-colors, 
which are considered the most valuable commercially 
in this country. 

New varieties are frequently secured by sporting or 
mutation. A variety of a certain color may produce a 
bloom of another color, and by propagating the cuttings 
from the stem which carried the odd bloom a new 
variety is established. The securing of a new variety 
in this way is purely a matter of good fortune, as no 
method for causing the sporting is yet known. 

Leading books on the carnation are: "The American 
Carnation," by C. W. Ward; "Carnations, Picotees and 
Pinks," by T. W. Sanders; "Carnations and Pinks," 
by T. H. Cook, Jas. Douglas and J. F. McLeod; 
"Carnation Culture," by B. C. Ravenscroft. The last 
three are English. A. F. J. BAUR. 

CARNEGIEA (named for Andrew Carnegie, phil- 
anthropist) . Cactacese. The giant tree cactus of Arizona, 
California and Mexico. 

Large columnar plants, usually single, strongly 
ribbed, with numerous spines, those from flowering 
and sterile areoles quite different: fls. borne from the 
upper areoles, diurnal, funnelform; petals white: fr. 
an oblong edible berry; seeds black and shining. 

gigantea, Brit. & Rose (Cereus giganteus, Engelm.). 
STTWARRO. (Plate III, Fig. 819.) A tree 20-60 ft. high, 
usually single, but sometimes with one or more branches: 
ribs in mature plants 18-21 : fr. 2-3 in. long. B.M. 7222. 
A.G. 11 : 451, 528. In rocky valleys and on mountain- 
sides, S. Ariz, and Sonora, with 2 stations in Calif. 
[reported, but probably not to be found, in Lower Calif.]. 
This great cactus does not do well in cult., although 
large plants are often brought into greenhouses and 
grounds about railroad stations in the S. W. It is 
not suited for small collections. The fr. is gathered in 
great quantities by the Indians of Ariz, j N ROSE. 

CAROB: Ceratonia. 
CAROLlNEA: Pachird. 

CARPENTERIA (after Professor Carpenter, of 
Louisiana). Saxifragacese. Ornamental shrub culti- 
vated for its large fragrant white flowers. 

Evergreen: Ivs. opposite, petioled, usually entire: 
calyx 5-parted; petals 5; stamens numerous; ovary 
almost superior, 5-7-celled; styles 5-7, connate at the 
base, with linear-oblong stigmas: fr. a many-seeded 
dehiscent caps, with numerous oblong seeds. One 
species in Calif. 

This is a highly ornamental ever- 
green plant, with rather large oppo- 
site leaves and showy white and 
fragrant flowers in loose and terminal 
corymbs. Hardy only in warmer tem- 
perate regions. It requires a well- 
drained, light and sandy soil, and 
sunny, somewhat sheltered position; 
it especially dislikes moisture during 
the winter, and its perishing is more 
often due to an excess of moisture 
than to the cold. Propagated by 
greenwood cuttings under glass in 

819. Flower of 
Carnegiea gigan- 




summer, and by suckers, which it produces freely; also, 
by seeds sown in spring. 

californica, Torr. Shrub, 6-10 ft. : lys. elliptic-lanceo- 
late, entire or remotely denticulate, bright green above, 
whitish-tomentose beneath, 2-4 in. long: fls. pure white, 
2J/J-3 in. diam., fragrant; petals orbicular, concave. 
June, July. B.M. 6911. Gn. 31:100; 34, p. 75; 36, p. 26; 
54, p. 248; 76, p. 376. G.C. II. 26:113; III. 40:6, 7; 
44:112. R.H. 1884, p. 365. J.H. III. 29:251; 45:107; 
59:61. M.D.G. 1913:121. G.M. 31:25; 40:300. G. 
29:695. Gn.W. 4:569. ALFRED RKHDER. 


CARPINUS (ancient Latin name). Betulaceaz. 
HORNBEAM. Trees cultivated for their handsome 
foliage, assuming bright autumnal tints; also for the 
light green attractive fruit-clusters. 

Deciduous trees or rarely shrubs: winter-buds con- 
spicuous, acute with many imbricate scales: Ivs. alter- 
nate, petioled, serrate, with deciduous stipules: fls. 
monoecious; staminate catkins pendulous, each scale 
bearing 3-13 stamens, 2-forked at the apex; pistillate 
catkins terminal, slender, each scale bearing 2 ovaries, 
the bracts and bractlets of which develop into a large, 
leafy, more or less 3-lobed bract, embracing the small, 
nut-like fruit at their base. About 20 species, most of 
them in Cent, and E. Asia, 5 in Eu. and W. Asia and 1 
in N. and Cent. Amer. Monogr. by Winkler in Engler, 
Pflanzenreich, Betulacese, hft. 19, pp. 24-43, quoted 
below as W. B. 

The hornbeams are trees usually with dense round 
head, rarely shrubby, with medium-sized, bright green 
ovate to lanceolate leaves and rather insignificant 
flowers appearing with the leaves and followed by pen- 
dulous catkins consisting of large bracts bearing a small 
nutlet in their axils. The wood is very hard and close- 
grained, and much used in making tools and other small 
articles. The handsome foliage is rarely attacked by 
insects, and assumes a yellow or scarlet color in fall. 
The most beautiful are C. cordata, with large leaves, 
and C. japonica, of graceful habit and with elegant 
foliage. The European hornbeam bears severe pruning 
well, and is very valuable for high hedges; it was for- 
merly much used in the old formal gardens for this 
purpose; it makes, also, an excellent game cover, as 
it retains its withered foliage almost throughout the 

The species are of comparatively slow growth and 
thrive in almost any soil, and even in dry, rocky situa- 
tions; most of them are quite hardy North. Propagated 
by seeds, sown usually in fall, germinating very irregu- 
larly; if they do not appear the first spring, the seed- 
bed should be covered until the following spring with 
moss or leaf-mold, to keep the soil moist. If intended 
for hedges, the seedlings should be transplanted after 
the first year, and allowed sufficient space to prevent 
them from growing into slender tall plants, unfit for 
hedges. The varieties of rarer species are grafted in 
spring under glass, or in the open air on seedlings of one 
of the common species. 

A. Lvs. with 7-15 secondary veins: mature catkins with 
spreading narrow bracts. 

caroliniana, Walt. (C. americana, Michx. C. virgini- 
Fig. 820. Bushy tree, rarely 40 ft.: Ivs. ovate-oblong, 
usually rounded at the base, acuminate, sharply and 
doubly serrate, glabrous at length, except in the axils 
of the veins beneath, 2-4 in. long: fr.-clusters peduncled, 
2-4 in. long: bracts ovate or ovate-lanceolate, %-l in. 
long, with 2 broad and short unequal lateral lobes, and 
a much longer middle lobe, usually serrate only on one 
margin. E. N. Amer., west to Minn, and Texas; also, 
in Mex. and Cent. Amer. S.S. 9:447. Em. 1:199. Gn. 
24, p. 418. Bushy tree, with dense, but slender and 

often somewhat pendulous branches, and dark bluish 
green foliage, changing to scarlet or orange-yellow in 

Betulus, Linn. EUROPEAN HORNBEAM. Tree, to 60 
or 70 ft. : Ivs. similar to those of the former, cordate or 
rounded at the base, ovate or oblong-ovate, of somewhat 
thicker texture, and the veins more impressed above: 
fr.-clusters 3-5 in. long: bracts over \Y^ in. long, with 
ovate, lateral lobes, and much longer oblong-lanceolate 
middle lobe, the margins almost entire or remotely den- 
ticulate. Eu. to Persia. H.W. 2:17, pp. 31-33. W.B. 
29. F.S.R. 3, p. 153. Gn. 24, pp. 418, 419, 420. The 
most remarkable of the garden forms are the following: 
Var. incisa, Ait. (var. asplenlfdlia, Hort.). Lvs. incised 
or lobed, smaller. Gn. 24, p. 419. Var. pyramidalis, 
Dipp. (var. fastigidta, Hort.). Of upright growth. Var. 
purpilrea, Dipp. Lvs. purplish when young, green at 
length. It 
grows into a 
taller tree 
than the Am- 
erican species, 
although the 
former is of more vigor- 
ous growth when young; 
the foliage turns yellow 
in fall, and remains on 
the tree throughout the 

AA. Lvs. with 15-25 pairs 
of veins: mature cat- 
kins with loosely 
oppressed ovate and 
dentate bracts, of 
cone-like appearance. 
japonica, Blume (C. 
Carpinus, Sarg. Distego- 
cdrpus Carpinus, Sieb. & 
Zucc.). Tree, to 50 ft.: 
young branchlets pubes- 
cent: Ivs. reddish brown 

when unfolding, oblong- 8 20. Carpinus caroliniana. ( X Ji) 
ovate or oblong-lanceo- 
late, 2-4 in. long, acuminate, rounded or subcordate at 
the base, unequally serrate, with 20-24 pairs of veins 
deeply impressed above, bright green and glabrous 
above, beneath brownish pubescent on the veins at 
first, finally glabrous or nearly so : mature catkins ovoid- 
oblong, 2 in. long, slender-ped uncled; bracts inflexed 
at the base inclosing the nutlet. Japan. G.F. 6:365. 
R.H. 1895, p. 427. S.I.F. 1:24. A very graceful 
species and quite hardy; sometimes cult, under the 
name C. laxiflora, which is an entirely different species 
with the Ivs. having only 10-14 pairs of veins. 

cordata, Blume. Tree, to 40 ft.: young branchleta 
hairy at first, soon glabrous: Ivs. ovate or oblong-ovate, 
acuminate, distinctly cordate at the base, 3-^6 in. long, 
unequally serrate, with 15-20 pairs of veins deeply 
impressed above, pubescent on the veins beneath or 
glabrous: mature catkins 2-3 in. long, slender-ped un- 
cled; bracts not inflexed at t the base, but with an 
opposite bractlet about as long as the nutlet. Japan, 
Manchuria, Korea. G.F. 8:295. S.I.F. 1:24. A very 
handsome species and quite hardy. 

C. americAna, Michx. =C. caroliniana. C. duinfnsis, Scop.= 
C. orientalis. C. laxiflAra, Blume. To 50 ft. : Ivs. ovate or elliptic- 
ovate, long-acuminate, 2-3 in. long, with 10-14 pairs of veins. 
Japan. S.I.F. 1:25. Very attractive in fall, with its long and slen- 
der catkins. Var. macrostdchya, Winkl. Lvs. ovate-oblong: fruit- 
ing catkins 2^-S l A in. long. W. China. H.I. 20:1989. Recently 
intro. C. orientalis. Mill. Bushy tree, to 15 ft.: Ivs. ovate or 
oblong-ovate, 1 H~2 in. long, with about 10 pairs of veins. S.E. Eu. 
to Persia. Gn. 24, p. 418. C. Pdxii, Winkl. =C. Turczaninowii. 
C. polyneiira, Franch. (C. Turczaninowii var. polyneura, Winkl.). 
Small tree: young branchlets pubescent, soon glabrous: Iva. ovate- 
lanceolate, long-acuminate, usually rounded at the base, 1 K~2 Yi in. 
long, with 15-20 pairs of veins; fruiting bractlets ovate to lanceolate, 
serrate. W. China. W.B. 39. C. Turczaninowii, Hance (C. Paiii, 




Winkl. ) Shrubby tree: Ivs. ovate, acute, 1-2 in. long, with 10-12 pairs 
of veins. N. China. C. virginidna, Michx. f.=C. caroliniana. C. 
yedoensis, Maxim. Small tree: branchlets and Ivs. beneath pubes- 
cent: Ivs. ovate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, with about 12 pairs of 
veins. 2-3 in. long. Japan. S.I.F. 2:11. ALFRED REHDER. 

CARRIEREA (after E. A. Carriere, prominent 
French horticulturist and botanist, died 1896). Fla- 
courtidcese. Ornamental tree chiefly cultivated for its 
handsome bright green foliage. 

Deciduous: Ivs. alternate, long-petioled, serrate: 
fls. dioecious; sepals 5, broadly ovate, pubescent out- 
side; petals wanting; stamens numerous, shorter than 
the sepals; ovary 1 -celled with numerous ovules, rudi- 
mentary in the staminate fls.; styles 3-4, 3-lobed, short 
and spreading: fr. a dehiscent caps.; seeds winged. 
One species, or possibly two, in Cent. China. 

This is a medium-sized tree very much resembling 
Idesia in appearance, the apetalous flowers with large 
white sepals in terminal corymbs or short racemes, the 
staminate usually many-flowered, the pistillate few- 
flowered, rarely solitary, and with large capsular long- 
pointed fruits. It has proved fairly hardy at the Arnold 
Arboretum. Propagated by seeds; can probably also be 
propagated like Idesia by greenwood and root-cuttings. 

calycina, Franch. Tree, to 30 ft., with a wide-spread- 
ing flat head: Ivs. elliptic or ovate to oblong-obovate, 
3-6 in. long, short-acuminate, rounded at the base, 

821. Last year's umbel of wild carrot. 

lustrous on both surfaces, glabrous, crenately-serrate: 
sepals broadly cordate-ovate about %in. long and 
nearly as broad, white: caps. 2-2}^ in. long, pubescent. 
Cent. China. R.H. 1896, p. 498. ALFRED REHDER. 

CARROT (Daucus Cardta, Linn.). Umbelliferse. 
Garden vegetable, grown for its elongated subterranean 

The carrot is native of Europe and Asia, and one of 
the bad introduced weeds of eastern North America 
(Fig. 821). The improved succulent-rooted garden 
varieties are thought to be descended from the same 
stock, though this has been denied. It seems probable 
that the horticultural improvement of the species was 
begun in Holland, and it is said that the cultivated 
forms were introduced thence into the gardens of Eng- 
land during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The carrot 
is now very generally, though not extensively, cultiva- 
ted everywhere, both for culinary purposes and for 
stock-feeding. It is sometimes forced under glass, but 
to no great extent. Carrots are most useful in culinary 
practice for soups, stews, and salads, and as this class 
of cookery has never been reasonably popular in Amer- 
ica, this vegetable has not received the attention it 

The carrot is hardy and may be planted as soon as 
the ground is in fit condition to be properly prepared 
for seeding. When grown as a market-garden or truck 

crop, this early seeding is essential to maximum re- 
turns. The best soil for carrots is a medium to light 
loam, rich, friable and comparatively free from weeds. 
As the seed is slow to germinate, it is a good plan to 
sow some quick-germinating seed with the carrot seed 
so that the rows may be noticed in time to keep them 
ahead of weed growth. Lettuce serves well for this 
purpose. When the carrots are thinned, this lettuce is 
pulled out. The carrot seed is best sown in rows 12 to 
15 inches apart, using enough seed to produce a plant 
every inch or two along the row. When the carrots are 
3 to 5 inches high, they should be thinned to stand 3 
inches apart in the row. The only further culture 
necessary is frequent tillage to conserve soil-in ois- 
and to prevent weed growth. The early crop should 
be ready to pull and bunch for sale seventy-five 
days after sowing. Early carrots are an important 
crop on the market-garden and truck-farm. They are 
pulled as soon as they have attained sufficient size and 
tied into bunches of three, six or seven roots, according 
to the size of the roots and the market demands. The 
earlier the crop and the more active the demand, the 
smaller the roots which may be salable. A later sow- 
ing is made for the main or winter crop or for live- 
stock. This may be from four to six weeks after the 
first sowing. The crop is handled in the same manner 
as the early crop except that it is allowed to continue 
growth as long as the weather is suitable. It is then 
pulled, the tops cut from the roots and the roots placed 
in frost-proof storage for winter sale. 

The expense of production of carrots is consider- 
able, but the returns are usually satisfactory. The 
fall crop should yield 500 to 1,000 bushels to the 
acre. Truck-growers of the South ship many bunched 
carrots to the large northern markets in March, 
April and May, where they meet a ready demand 
at prices ranging from 35 cents to $1 per dozen 

There are several distinct market types of carrots, 
the variation being chiefly with respect to size and 
shape. The smaller varieties, as they mature more 
quickly, are used to some extent for the early bunching, 
while the larger kinds are always more popular in the 
general market. 

The varieties of carrots differ chiefly in respect to 
size and grain, with differences in earliness closely cor- 
related. The following are now favorite varieties: 

French Forcing (Earliest Short Horn). One of the 
smallest and earliest; root small, almost globular, 

Oxheart or Guerande. Small to medium in size; root 
2 to 4 inches long, growing to a blunt point, of good 
quality and popular in some sections for an early bunch 

Chantenay. Large to medium in size; root 3 to 5 
inches long, more tapering than Oxheart; of good 
quality and a better carrot for the bunched crop than 
the above. 

Danvers Half-Long. Six to 8 inches long, 2 to 3 inches 
in diameter, at top tapering to a blunt point; the most 
popular garden carrot grown. 

True Danvers. A long carrot, 8 to 12 inches; tapering 
to a slender point like a parsnip; grown more for 
live-stock or exhibition purposes. The Half-Long has 
largely displaced it as a market sort chiefly because 
of the greater ease with which the latter strain is 

Half-Long Scarlet. Top small, roots medium size, 
cylindrical, pointed; much used for bunching. 

Early Scarlet Horn. Top small, roots half-long, 
somewhat oval, smooth, fine grain and flavor; a 
favorite garden sort. 

Large White Belgian. Of much larger size than the 
above-named varieties, of less delicate flavor and 
coarser texture; a popular variety for live-stock. 




The variation in the different strains of carrot seed 
is marked and it is important to secure seed from care- 
fully selected roots true to shape and color. Carrot 
seed may be produced in any location in which the crop 
of roots is grown successfully. 

The carrot may be successfully forced under glass and 
is grown in this way to a limited extent. The small early 
varieties are used, such as French Forcing, Early Pari- 
sian, Early Scarlet Horn and Golden Ball. These will 
usually be grown as a catch-crop between tomatoes or 
cucumbers. When grown in this way, the carrot is one 
of the most delicious of all vegetables, and deserves 
much wider popularity. See Forcing. 

The field cultivation of carrots for live-stock differs 
little from the garden or horticultural treatment except 
that earliness is not desired, and the longer-rooted later- 
maturing kinds are mostly used ; and less intensive cul- 
tivation is employed. See Vol. II, Cyclo. Amer. Agric., 
P- 540. p. A. WAUGH and H. F. TOMPSON. 

CARTHAMUS (Arabic name, alluding to a color 
yielded by the flowers). Compdsitse. Hardy annuals. 

Plant 2-3 ft. high, with spiny Ivs.: involucre with 
spreading and leafy outer scales and the inner ones more 
or less spiny; receptacle chaffy; corolla 5-fid, nearly 

CARYA (Karya, Greek name for the walnut tree). 
Syn., Hicdria. Juglandaceae. HICKORY. Trees grown 
for their handsome foliage and strong habit, and some 
species for their edible nuts. 

Deciduous: branches with solid pith: Ivs. alter- 
nate, without stipules, with 3-17 serrate Ifts.: fls. 
monoecious, apetalous, appearing with the Ivs.; stami- 
nate fls. in axillary, slender, pendulous catkins, each 
fl. with 3-10 stamens, borne in the axil of a 3-lobed 
bract; pistillate fls. in a terminal, 2-10-fld. cluster or 
spike, consisting of a 1-celled ovary inclosed by a 4- 
lobed involucre: fr. globular to oblong, with a husk 
separating into 4 valves and a bony nut, incompletely 
2-4-celled. About 18 species of hickory, all in E. N. 
Amer. from Canada to Mex.; the Chinese species 
recently described by Dode from nuts only is probably 
not a Carya. See Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 7, pp. 28-42, pis. 
1-23, and Rep. of U. S. Dept. Agric., Div. Pomol., 
Nut-Culture (1896), cited below as U. S. N. C. (the 
first number referring to the plate, the second and third 
to the figure). By some, Hicoria is considered to have 
priority, but Carya is retained as one of the "nomina 

822. Garden carrots of the shorthorn type. 

regular, smooth, expanded above the tube: achenes 
glabrous, mostly 4-ribbed, the pappus none or scale-like. 
A genus of 20 species, from the Canary Isls. to Cent. 
Asia. Of easiest cult., from seed. 

tinctdrius, Linn. (Cdrduus tinctbrim, Falk.). SAP- 
FLOWER. FALSE SAFFRON. One to 3 ft. high, glabrous, 
branched: Ivs. ovate, spiny- toothed, almost as broad as 
long: fl.-heads with upward-tapering involucre, and a 
globular crown of orange florets. Asia. Florets used 
like saffron; they have diaphoretic properties and have 
also been used for dyeing, especially silks; and in making 
rouge. N. TAYLOR.! 

CARUELIA: Ornithogalum. 

CARUM (probably from Caria, in Asia Minor). 
Umbelliferse,. Glabrous annual or perennial herbs, some 
of which yield aromatic and edible garden products. 

Leaves pinnate: fls. white or pinkish, small, in com- 
pound umbels with involucres and involucels, the calyx- 
teeth small: fr. ovate or oblong, more or less ribbed, 
glabrous, or sometimes hispid : root usually tuberous or 
filiform. Twenty or more species, widely distributed 
in temperate regions. The genus is variously defined 
and understood. C. Petroselinum, the parsley, is here 
kept under the genus Petroselinum. 

Carvi, Linn. CARAWAY (which see). St. slender but 
erect, furrowed, 1-2 ft.: Ivs. pinnately decompound, 
with thread-like divisions. Old World. Sometimes 
runs wild. 

Gairdneri, Gray. St. solitary, 1-^4 ft. : Ivs. pinnate or 
the upper ones simple, with 3-7 linear Ifts., the upper 
Ifts. usually entire, but the lower ones often divided: 
fr. with long style. Dry hills, in Calif, and Nev. and 
to Brit. Col. Intro, in 1881, by Gillett, as an ornamental 
plant. Roots tuberous and fusiform. L t jj_ j} t 

CARtJMBIUM: Homalanthus. 

conservanda" of the Vienna code of nomenclature, 
because of its long-established usage. 

The hickories are hardy ornamental, usually tall 
trees with rather large, deciduous odd-pinnate leaves, 
small greenish flowers, the staminate ones in conspicu- 
ous pendulous racemes, and with rather large green 
dehiscent fruits inclosing a mostly edible nut. The 
hickories are among the most beautiful and most useful 
trees of the American forest, and are all very ornamental 
park trees, with a straight, sometimes high and slender 
trunk and a large, graceful, pyramidal or oblong head 
of usually light green foliage, turning from yellow to 
orange or orange-brown hi fall. They are hardy North 
except C. Pecan, C. aquatica and C. myristicssformis, but 
C. Pecan thrives Tardy in Massachusetts in sheltered 
positions. Most of the species have heavy hard strong 
and tough wood, much valued for many purposes, 
especially for handles of tools, manufacture of carriages 
and wagons, also for making baskets and for fuel. The 
nuts of some species, as C. Pecan and C. ovata, also C. 
laciniosa and some varieties of C. glabra and C. alba, are 
edible, and are sold in large quantities, mostly gathered 
from the woods, though in later years orchards of 
improved varieties have been planted. A large number 
of insects prey upon the hickory, attacking the wood, 
foliage and fruit, for which see the Fifth Ann. Rep. of 
the U. S. Entom. Com., pp. 285-329. There are also 
some fungi sometimes causing an early defoliation of 
the trees. 

The hickories generally thrive best in rich moist soil, 
but some, especially C. glabra, C. alba and C. ovata, 
grow equally well in drier localities. They are of rather 
slow growth, and difficult to transplant if taken from 
the woods; therefore the seeds are often planted where 




the trees are to stand, but if grown in the nursery and 
transplanted several times when young, trees 6-10 ft. 
high may be transplanted successfully. 

Propagation is usually by seeds stratified and sown in 
spring in rows about 3 inches deep; named varieties 
may be grafted in. spring in the greenhouse, on potted 
stock of C. cordiformis, which seems to be the best 
species for this purpose, veneer- or splice-grafting 
being usually employed; sometimes also increased by 
root-sprouts. For further horticultural advice, see 
Hickory-nut and Pecan. 

alba, 8, 10. 
amara, 4. 
aquatica, 3. 
borealis, 6. 
cordifprmis, 4. 
fraxinifolia, 10. 
glabra, 5. 
Halesii, 10. 


illinoensis, 1. 
laciniosa, 9. 
microcarpa, 6, 10. 
myristicaeformis, 2. 
Nuttallii, 10. 
obcordata, 6. 
obovalis, 6. 
odorata, 6. 

olivseformis, 1. 
ovalis, 6. 
ovata, 10. 
Pecan, 1. 
porcina, 5. 
sulcata, 9. 
tomentosa, 8. 
villosa, 7. 

A. Scales of buds valvate, 4-6'- fr. with winged sutures; 
nut usually thin-shelled: Ifts. 7-15, usually falcate. 

B. Nut mostly elongated, almost terete; husk thin, splitting 

to the base; kernel sweet; cotyledons entire or only 
notched at the apex. 

1. Pecan, Engler & Graebn. (Juglans Pecan, Marsh. 
Hicdria Pecdn, Brit. C. illinoensis, Koch. C. olivseformis, 

823. Foliage and pistillate 
flowers of Carya Pecan. 

Nutt.). PECAN. Fig. 823. To 170 ft., with branches 
pubescent when young: bark deeply furrowed, grayish 
brown: winter-buds yellow: Ifts. 11-17, short-stalked, 
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, serrate or doubly ser- 
rate, tomentose and glandular when young, usually 
glabrous at length, 4-7 in. long: staminate catkins 
almost sessile: fr. 3-10 in clusters or spikes, oblong, 
1K~3H in. long; nut ovoid or oblong, smooth, brown, 
irregularly marked with dark brown, 2-celled at the 
base; kernel sweet. From Iowa and Ind. south to Ala. 
and Texas; also in Mex. S.S. 7:338-9. A.G. 12:273- 
275. U.S.N.C.l, 8, 9. This species is the most im- 
portant as a fr. tree, and many named varieties are cult. 
in the southern states, but it is tender N. The wood 
is less valuable than that of the other species. Hybrids 
are known of this species with C. cordiformis, C. alba 
and C. laciniosa, for which see Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 7, 
pis. 20-23 and Gng. 2:226. See Pecan. 

2. myristicaeformis, Nutt. (Hicdria myristicaefdrmis, 
Brit.). NUTMEG HICKORY. Tree, to 100 ft., with dark 
brown bark, broken into appressed scales: winter-buds 
brown: Ifts. 5-11, short-stalked or almost sessile, ovate- 
lanceolate, the uppermost much larger and obovate, 
serrate, scurfy-pubescent beneath when young and with 
brown scales above, at length dark green above, silvery 
and lustrous beneath, 3-5 in. long: staminate catkins 
peduncled: fr. generally solitary, short-ovoid or obovate, 
about 1^2 in. long; nut ovoid, reddish brown marked 
with irregular spots and stripes, thick-shelled, 4-celled 
below; kernel sweet. From S. C. to Ark. and Mex. 
S.S. 7:342-3. A very decorative species on account of 
its handsome foliage, but not hardy N. 

BB. Nut usually so broad as long, compressed, with irregu- 
larly angled or reticulate surface, thin-shelled, 4~ 
celled below; kernel bitter; cotyledons deeply 2-lobed. 

3. aquatica, Nutt. (Hicdria aquatica, Brit.). WATER 
HICKORY. BITTER PECAN. Usually small tree, rarely to 
100 ft., with light brown bark separating into long, thin 
plates: winter-buds dark reddish brown: Ifts. 7-13, 
sessile or short-stalked, lanceolate, long-acuminate, 
finely serrate, yellowish tomentose when young, gla- 
brous at length: fr. 34, ovoid to broadly obovate, 

in. long; husk thin, splitting to the base; nut 
obovate, much compressed, irregularly angled and 
ridged, dull reddish brown; kernel very bitter. 
From Va. to 111., south to Fla. and Texas. 
S.S. 7:344-5. U.S.N.C. 12, 7-8. 

4. cordiformis, Koch (Hicdria minima, Brit. 
C. amara, Nutt.). BITTERNUT. SWAMP 
HICKORY. Tree, to 100 ft.: bark grayish 
brown, broken into thin scales: young 
branches and petioles glabrous : winter-buds 
bright yellow: Ifts. 5-9, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 
acuminate, densely serrate, pubescent when young and 
glandular, almost glabrous at length, 3-6 in. long: fr. 
2-3, broadly obovate or subglobose, winged from the 
apex to the middle, %-!% in- long; husk thin, splitting 
somewhat below the middle; nut slightly compressed, 
roundish, abruptly contracted into a short point, 
smooth, gray; kernel bitter. Que. to Minn., south to 
Fla. and Texas. S.S. 7:340-1. Em. 226. A valuable 
park tree, with handsome rather broad head, growing 
in cult, more rapidly than other hickories. 

AA. Scales of buds imbricate, more than 6: fr. not or 
slightly winged at the sutures; nut usually thick- 
shelled, 4-celled below: Ifts. 3-9, not falcate, the 
uppermost larger and generally obovate. 

B. Buds small? %-%in. long: husk thin; nut slightly or 

not angled. 

C. Lvs. glabrous or only slightly pubescent while young: 

nut not or only slightly angled, thin-shelled. 

5. glabra, Sweet (Hicbria glabra, Brit. C. porcina, 
Nutt.). PIGNUT. Figs. 824, 825. Tree, occasionally to 




120 ft., with usually dark gray fissured bark and slen- 
der, glabrous branchlets: Ifts. 3-7, almost sessile, 
oblong to oblong-lanceolate, long-acuminate, sharply 
serrate, almost glabrous, 3-6 in. long: fr. usually ovoid 
or obovate, the sutures usually slightly winged toward 
the apex and the husk splitting mostly only hah" way 

824. Characteristic growth of the pignut hickory, 
Carya glabra. 

to the base; nut usually brownish, not angled; kernel 
mostly astringent. Maine to Ont. and south to Fla., 
Ala. and Miss. S.T.S. 2:179. A.G. 11:386-7. U.S.N. 
C. 12, 5. A very handsome park tree, with rather nar- 
row-oblong head, and slender often pendulous branch- 
lets. A very variable tree. 

6. ovalis, Sarg. (Juglans ovdlis, Wang. Hicbria mic- 
rocdrpa, Brit. H. glabra var. microcdrpa, Trel.). SMALL 
PIGNUT. FALSE SHAGBARK. Figs. 826-829. Tree, similar 
to the preceding: bark close and furrowed on young 
trees, shaggy on old trunks: branches first hairy, soon 
glabrous: Ifts. 5-7, sessile, oval, oblong or ovate, 3-6 
in. long, acute or acuminate, rounded or narrowed and 
unequal at the base, coarsely and shallowly toothed, 
glabrous; terminal Ifts. cuneate at the base, short- 
stalked: fr. subglobose to short-oblong, %-l in. across, 
densely scaly and slightly winged, tardily splitting 
nearly to the base; nut slightly flattened, often broader 
than high and usually rounded at the apex, sometimes 
slightly angular, brownish, shell rather thin; kernel 
small and sweet. Mass, to Wis., south to Ga., Ala., and 
Miss. A.G. 11:381-388, 1, 2, 5, 8, 10. TT.S.N.C. 12,4, 6. 
Var. obcordata, Sarg. (J. obcorddta, Muhl. /. porclna 
var. obcorddta, Pursh. C. microcdrpa, Darl.). Fr. 
nearly globose or ovoid; nut 
angled, broader than high, 
sometimes obcordate. S.S. 7: 
354, figs. 5, 6, 7, 9. Var. odor- 
ata, Sarg. (Hicbria glabra var. 
odordta, Sarg.). Lfts. generally 
broader, ovate or oblong-ovate, 
glandular: fr. subglobose or 
higher than broad, with dis- 
tinctly winged sutures, split- 
ting freely to the base; nut 
gray, very slightly ridged, 

825. One form of pignut slightly higher than broad. 
C. glabra. (Natural size.) Conn, to Pa. and Mo. 8J3. 

7:354, fig. 8. Var. obovalis, Sarg. Fr. obovoid; nut 
much compressed, pointed or rounded at the apex, 
and rounded at the base. Mass, to Va. and Mo. Var. 
borealis, Sarg. (Hicbria boredlis, Ashe. C. boredlis, 
Schneid.). Bark scaly: Ifts. usually 5, lanceolate: fr. 
ovoid, flattened, about %in. long, very narrowly 
winged and often incompletely 
splitting; nut ovoid, ridged, 
whitish; kernel sweet. Mich., Ont. 
B.T. 236. 

cc. Lvs. hairy beneath: nut 

angled, thick-shelled. 
7. villdsa, Schneid. (Hicbria vil- 
ldsa, Ashe. H. glabra var. villdsa, 
Sarg. H. pdllida, Ashe). Tree, to 
20 or sometimes to 50 f t. : branch- 
lets slender, pubescent mixed with 
silvery scales, later glabrous: Ifts. 
5-9, usually 7, sessile or short- 826 ' Fruit of c - ovalis - 
stalked, oblong to oblanceolate, 
3-5 in. long, acuminate, narrowed 

the false shagbark. 

(Natural size). 

at the base, coarsely serrate, when unfolding glandular 
above, hairy below and with silvery scales; petioles 
pubescent and with tufts of brownish hairs, finally 
often glabrous: fr. subglobose to pear-shaped, %-!% 
in. long, winged; husk thin, splitting to below the 
middle or nearly to the base; nut slightly angled, 
somewhat compressed, thick-shelled, pale or light 
brown; kernel small and sweet. N. J. to Fla., Miss, 
and E. Texas. S.S. 7:355. G.F. 10:305. 

BB. Buds large, %-l in. long: nut angled; kernel sweet. 
c. Bark not shaggy: branches and petioles tomentose: 
outer bud-scales falling in autumn: husk not sepa- 
rating quite to the base. 

8. iilba, Koch (Hicbria alba, Brit. C. tomentbsa, 
Nutt. Not to be confounded with C. alba, Nutt., which 
is C. ovata). MOCKERNUT. BIG-BUD HICKORY. Tree, 
rarely attaining to 100 ft.: Ifts. 7-9, almost sessile, 
oblong-lanceolate, long-acuminate, usually finely ser- 
rate, glandular and tomentose beneath, very fragrant 
when crushed, 4-8 in. long: fr. globose to pear-shaped, 

827. Carya ovalis, the false shagbark. 




1^2-2 in. long; nut light brown, globular to oblong, 
slightly compressed, angled, narrowed toward the apex, 
thick-shelled; kernel small, sweet. Mass, to Ont. and 
Neb., south to Fla. and Texas. S.S. 7:350-1. U.S.N. 
C. 12, 1-3. Em. 222. 

cc. Bark shaggy, light gray: branches and 
petioles glabrous or pubescent: husk 
very thick, separating to the base: 
outer bud-scales persisting through the 

9. lacinidsa, Engler & Graebn. (Hicoria 
laciniosa, Sarg. H. acumindta, Dipp. C. 
sulcdla, Nutt.). BIG or BOTTOM SHELL- 
occasionally to 120 ft. : branchlets orange- 
red: Ifts. 7-9, oblong-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, serrate, pubescent when young, usu- 
ally glabrous at length, 4-8 in. long: fr. 
generally oblong, l%-2% in. long; nut 
yellowish white, oblong, but sometimes as 
broad as long, slightly compressed and 
obscurely 4-angled, pointed at both ends; 
kernel sweet. N. Y. to Iowa, south to 
Tenn. and Okla. S.S. 7:348-9. U.S. 
N.C. 11. 

828. Twig of 10- ovata, Koch (Hicoria ovata, Brit. C. 
C.ovalis. alba, Nutt.). SHAGB ARK HICKORY. Also 
the latter name by some is applied to the preceding. 
Figs. 830, 831. Tree, occasionally to 120 ft.: Ifts. gen- 
erally 5, sessile, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, serrate, densely fimbriate, pubescent and glan- 
dular when young, glabrous at length, 4-6 in. long: 
fr. subglobose, about 1>-2H in. long; nut white, 
oblong to broadly obovate, 4-angled; kernel sweet. 
From Que. to Minn., south to Fla. and Texas. S.S. 
7:346-7. Em. 217. U.S.N.C. 10. A.G. 11:386, 6, 9; 
387, 3; 388, 11. Gng.7:51. A.F. 14:339 Next to 
Pecan the best as a fruit tree, especially for northern 
states, where the 
pecan is not quite 
hardy. Several 
named varieties 
are in trade, of 
which probably 
var. Halesii, 
Hort., with large, 
thin-shelled nut, 
is the best known. 
An ornamental, 
often very pictur- 
esque tree; the 
stout branches 
forming a rather 
broad, usually 
somewhat open, 
head. Var. Nut- 
tallii, Sarg. (C. 
microcdrpa, Nutt. 
in part). Fr. 
smaller; nut 
rounded, usu- 
ally obcordate, 
much com- 
pressed and 
angled, about 
J^in. across. 
Mass, to Pa. 
and Mo. Nut- 
tall, Silv. N. 
Am. 1 : 13. Var. 

Sarg. Lfts. 829. Habit of the small-fruited pignut, 
lanceolate or Carya ovalis. 

nearly pblanceolate, the terminal one 5-6 in. long and 
l%-2 in. wide: fr. generally smaller, ovoid, pointed, 
13^ in. long; nut long-pointed. W. N. Y. 

C. arkansana, Sarg. Allied to C. glabra. Tree, to 70 ft.: bark 
dark gray, scaly: branchlets pubescent: Ifts. 5-7, lanceolate, densely 
pubescent when unfolding, glabrous at maturity, 4-7 in. long: fr. 
ovoid or obovoid; husk usually splitting to the middle; nut slightly 
obovoid; shell very thick and hard; kernel sweet, small. Ark. and 
Okla. S.T.S. 2:181. C. Buckleyi, Durand (C. texana, Buckl., not 
DC.). Allied to C. alba. Tree, to 50 ft., with dark, furrowed bark: 
Ifts. 7, lanceolate or oblanceolate, pubescent on the veins below, 3-6 
in. long: fr. subglobose or ovoid, 1 J^ in. across; husk thin, splitting 
to the base; nut reddish brown, veined; shell hard; kernel sweet. 
Texas to Okla. and Ark. S.T.S. 2:182. C. carolinx- 
septentriondlis, Engler & Graebn. (Hicoria carolina3-sep- 
tentrionalis, Ashe). Allied to C. ovata. Branchlets 
slender: Ifts. 3-5, lanceolate, glabrous: fr. smaller; nut 
thin-shelled. N. C. to Ga. S.S. 14:720. C.floridana, 
Sarg. Allied to C. cordiformis. Buds valvate, brown- 
ish yellow: Ifts. usually 5, elliptic-oblong to lanceolate, 
densely scaly beneath, 2-3 ^ in. long: fr. obovoid, about 
1 in. long, husk tardily splitting to the base; nut obovoid 
or subglobose. Fla. S.T.S. 2:177. C. megacdrpa, Sarg. 
Closely related to C. glabra. Bark close: buds larger: 

831. Fruit of Carya ovata, the shagbant hickory. 
830. Twig of The cross-section is to show structure, not to show 
Carya ovata. a good horticultural fruit. (Natural size.) 

Ifta. to 8 in. long: fr. broadly obovoid, to 1 Y-> in. long; husk thick, 
tardily dehiscent to the middle; nut obovoid; kernel small, sweet. 
N.Y. to Mo. and Fla. S.T.S. 2:180. C. mexicana, Engelm. Tree, 
with shaggy bark and tomentose-pubescent Ivs. : f r. depressed, with 
rather thick husk and broad, sharply 4-angled, white nut. Mex. The 
only species not native to the U. S. C. texana, DC. (Hicoria texana, 
Le Conte). Similar to C. Pecan, but Ifts. broader, less falcate, 
almost sessile: nut smaller, much darker, with somewhat rough 
surface; kernel bitter. Texas. S. S. 14:719. C. texana, Buckl.= 

C. Buckleyi. 


CARYOCAR (from the Greek word for nut). Caryo- 
cardcese; formerly included in Ternstroemidcese, and 
by some referred to Rhizoboldcege. Trees, or rarely 
shrubs, of about 10 species in Trop. Amer., one of 
which is well known for its large edible nuts. Lvs. 
opposite, digitately 3-5-f oliolat e, leathery, often serrate : 
fls. bractless, in terminal racemes; calyx deeply 5-6- 
parted, the lobes prbiculate and strongly imbricate; 
petals 5-6, imbricate; stamens many, somewhat 
joined at the base; ovary 4-6-celled: fr. drupaceous, 
with a hard stone or stones and very large seeds. C. 
nuciferum, Linn., produces the souari-nut or butternut 
of the American tropics. Although native of Guiana, 
it is cult, in some of the W. Indies isls. : tree, attaining 
100 ft. or more, producing durable timber used chiefly 
in ship-building: Ivs. trifoliolate, the Ifts. elliptic-lan- 
ceolate, glabrous: fls. large, purple, the stamens white 
and very numerous: fr. several inches in diam., nearly 
globular or becoming misshapen by abortion of the 
contents, containing 2-4 hard-shelled nuts the size of a 
hen's egg, and which are flat-kidney-shaped, warty and 
reddish brown; kernel or meat white, with a nutty or 
almond-like flavor, and yielding oil when subjected to 
pressure. B.M. 2727, 2728. The nuts now and then 
appear in northern markets. The closely allied C. vil- 
losum, Pers., of Guiana and Brazil, is reported as a 
notable timber tree; and the oily pulp surrounding 
the seed is eaten boiled and the kernel of the seed is 
eaten raw. L. H. B. 

CARYOPHYLLUS, the clove tree, is now referred to Eugenia. 


CARYOPTERIS (Greek for nut and wing). Ver- 
bendcex. Ornamental woody plants grown for their 
lavender-blue flowers profusely produced in autumn. 

Deciduous small shrubs: Ivs. opposite, short-petioled, 
serrate: fls. in axillary cymes; calyx campanulate, 
deeply 5-lobed with lanceolate teeth, spreading and 
somewhat enlarged in fr.; corolla 5-lobed, with short 
cylindric tube and spreading limb, 1 segm. larger and 
fringed; stamens 4, exserted, 2 of them longer; style 
slender, 2-parted at the apex: fr. separating into 4 
somewhat winged nutlets. About 6 species in E. Asia. 

These are glabrous, pubescent or tomentose shrubs 
with small blue or violet late flowers. Free-flowering 
and very valuable f9r their late blooming season; not 
hardy North; even if well protected they will be killed 
almost to the ground, but the young shoots, springing 
up freely, will flower profusely the same season. They 
require well-drained and sandy soil and sunny position; 
if grown in pots, a sandy compost of peat and leaf soil 
or loam will suit them, and they will flower in the 
greenhouse until midwinter. Propagated readily by 
cuttings of half-ripened wood in summer or fall under 
glass, and by seeds sown in spring. 

incana, Miq. (C. Mastacdnthus, Schauer. C. sinensis, 
Dipp.). Fig. 832. Suffruticose, 1-5 ft.: Ivs. petioled, 
ovate or oblong, coarsely serrate, pubescent above, 
grayish tomentose beneath, 2-3 in. long: cymes pedun- 
cled, dense-fld.; fls. small, violet-blue or lavender-blue. 
Aug.-Nov. China, Japan. B.R. 32:2. B.M. 6799. 
R.H. 1892:324. R.B. 19:273. G.C. II. 21:149; III. 
42:409. Mn. 5:5. S.H. 2, p. 89. G.W. 6, p. 197. Gn. 
24, p. 523; 76, p. 24. G.M. 43:7. Known in the nurs- 
ery trade as "blue spirea." Var. Candida, Schneid. 
has white fls. 



exhausted. Seeds are offered by most dealers. The 
young plants should be grown in a warm, moist atmos- 
phere, the soil consisting of loam with about one-third 
of its bulk leaf-mold and sand in equal parts. They 
sometimes lose their roots if kept too cool and wet in 
winter. Prop, is by seeds and suckers. (G. W. Oliver.) 

mitis, Lour. (C. soboiifera, Wall. C. furfuracea, 
Blume). Caudex 15-25 ft. high, 4-5 in. diam., sobo- 
liferous: petioles, If .-sheaths and spathes scurf y-villous: 
Ivs. 4-9 ft.; pinnae very obliquely cuneiform, irregularly 
dentate, upper margins acute; pinnules 4-7 in. long. 
Burma to Malaya. 

ftrens, Linn. WINE-PALM. TODDY-PALM. Caudex 
stout, even in cult, specimens 60-80 ft. high and 18 in. 
thick, much higher in the wild, not sobolif erous : Ivs. 
18-20 by 10-12 ft.; pinnae 5-6 ft., curved and drooping, 
very obliquely truncate, acutely serrate, the upper 

C. mongdlica, Bunge. Lvs. lanceolate, almost entire: cymes with 
fewer but larger fls. R.H. 1872:450. ALFRED REHDEE. 

CARYOTA (old Greek name). Palmacese, 
tribe Arecese. FISH-TAIL PALM. Spineless 
monocarpic palms, with tall stout ringed 
trunks, at length bearing suckers. 

Leaves disposed in an elongated terminal 
fringe, ample, twice pinnately divided; segms. 
dimidiate-flabelliform, or cuneate, entire, or 
split, irregularly dentate, plicate, folded back 
in the bud; rnidnerves and primary nerves 
flabellate; petiole terete below; sheath keeled on the 
back, fibrous along the margins: ligule short: spadices 
usually alternately male and female: peduncle short, 
thick: branches long, pendent: spathes 3-5, not entire, 
tubular; bractlets broad: fls. rather large, green or 
purple: fr. the size of a cherry, globular, purple. 
Species, 9. Malaya, New Guinea, Austral. G.C. II. 

These palms are remarkable for the delta-shaped or 
fish-tail-shaped leaflets, which make the graceful, 
spreading fronds very attractive. They are excellent 
warmhouse palms, very useful for decoration, particu- 
larly when young. They are frequently planted out in 
protected places for the summer. C. wens, the wine- 
palm of India, yields, when full grown, about twenty- 
four pints of wine in twenty-four hours. The beverage 
is very wholesome and a valuable article of commerce. 
There being so many different genera to choose from 
in selecting plants for moderate-sized conservatories, 
the members of this genus are not very popular for 
providing small specimens. In a high, roomy structure, 
however, they are among the most ornamental of the 
tribe. They are quick-growing, with large broad leaves, 
finely cut up, the small divisions resembling the tail of 
a fish; hence the name "fish-tail palm." After reaching 
maturity the plant begins flowering at the top, and 
continues downward until the vitality of the stem is 
exhausted. Suckers are freely produced by some spe- 
cies, but these, as a rule, do not become so robust as 
the parent stem, owing probably to the soil becoming 

832. Caryopteris I margm produced and cau- 
incana. date; pinnules 4_g j n . ; petiole 

very stout. India, Malaya. 
A.F. 12:295. Gng. 5:131. 
A.G. 21:533. 

Rumphiana, Mart. Lvs. 2-pinnate, several feet long, 
the pinnules thick, sessile, 6 in. long or nearly so, 
oblong. Malaya. Var. Albertii, Hort. (C. Albertii, 
Muell.), is in the trade. It is large and free-growing, 
the Ivs. being 16-18 ft. long and two-thirds as broad; 
If .-segms. fan-shaped and oblique, toothed. 

C. Blancdi, Hort., from the Philippines, has been listed in the 
American trade. It is probably a form of C. urens. 


CASAREEP: Blighia. 
CASHEW: Anacardium occidentals. 

CASIMIROA (named in honor of Cardinal Casimiro 
Gomez de Ortega, Spanish botanist of the eighteenth 
century). Rutacese. Evergreen trees, one of which is 
grown for the edible fruits. 

Leaves alternate, long-petioled, digitate, 3-7-folio- 
late; Ifts. petiolulate, lanceolate, entire or slightly ser- 
rate, smooth or pubescent beneath: fls. regular, poly- 




gamo-dioecious; calyx 5-parted, small; petals 5, oblong, 
valvate, apex incurved; disk inconspicuous, circular; 
stamens 5, free; filaments subulate; anthers cordate; 
ovary sessile, on disk, globose, 5- or occasionally 6-8- 
lobed, 5-celled; stigma sessile, 5-lobed; ovules solitary 
in the cells, axillary: fr. a drupe, large, depressed-glo- 
bose; pulp agreeable to taste, edible; seeds oblong, com- 
pressed, exalbuminose. Four species in Mex. and S. 

edulis, Llav. & Lex. WHITE SAPOTE. COCHIL SAPOTA. 
Large tree: trunk ashen gray, with warty excrescences: 
Ivs. dark green, glossy: fls. greenish yellow, small: fr. 
greenish yellow when ripe, with strong, thick epicarp, 
3^in. thick, about the size of an orange; seeds nearly 
1 in. long and hah" as wide. Mex. The fr. of this spe- 
cies has a delicious flavor, similar to that of a peach. 
It is used in Mex. as an aid in inducing sleep, and the 
Ivs. as a remedy for diarrhea. It grows on the coast of 
Mex. to an altitude of about 7,000 ft. See Sapote, 
White - H. J. WEBBER. 

CASSANDRA: Chamsedaphne. 
CASSAVA: Manihot. 

CASSEBEERA (from a German botanist). Polypo- 
diacese. Small Brazilian ferns allied to the maiden- 
hair, but rarely seen in cult. There are 3 species: 
sori terminal on the veins, oblong or nearly globular; 
indusium within the margin and distinct from it. They 
require hothouse conditions. C. pinndta, Kaulf., has 
fronds 6 in. long, pinnate, the pinnse linear-oblong and 
crenate. C. triphylla, Kaulf., has 3-5-parted fronds, the 
parts linear-oblong and crenate. C. gleichenioides, Gardn., 
has twice-pinnate fronds, the pinnules 4-cornered. 

CASSIA (ancient Greek name) . Leguminbsse. SENNA. 
Herbs, shrubs or trees, a few of which are in cultivation 
in America, as border plants and under glass. 

Leaves even-pinnate: fls. nearly regular (not papilio- 
naceous), with the nearly equal calyx-teeth mostly 
longer than the tube; corolla of 5 spreading, nearly 
equal clawed spreading petals; stamens 5-10, frequently 
unequal and some of the anthers abortive, the good 
anthers opening at the top: fr. a stalked pod which is 
either flat or terete, containing numerous seeds and 
often partitioned crosswise. Species nearly or quite 
400 in the warmer parts of the globe, some of them in 
cool temperate regions. See page 3566. 

The cassias delight in a sunny exposure. Most of 
those cultivated in the United States are herbs or herb- 
like shrubs, attractive for the finely cut foliage and the 
showy flowers. Some of them are cultivated only in the 
extreme South. C. corymbosa is probably the best gar- 
den subject. Cassias are summer bloomers, for the 
most part. Propagation is mostly by divisions and seeds, 
the annual species always by seeds. 

Senna leaves, used in medicine as a cathartic, are 
derived from various species, chiefly from C. acutifolia 
of Egypt, and C. anguslifolia of India and other Old 
World tropics. The "Cassia lignea" of pharmacopoeas 
is the product of a Cinnamomum. Cassia pods of com- 
merce, used in medicine, are the fruits of C. Fistula. 
Many of the species contribute to therapeutics. Some 
of them provide tanning materials. 

A. Hardy border plants: Ifts. 5 or more pairs. 

marylandica, Linn. WILD SENNA. Perennial, gla- 
brous or nearly so, sts. nearly simple: Ifts. 5-10 pairs, 
oblong or lance-oblong and entire, short-acuminate or 
nearly obtuse : fls. in axillary racemes near the tops of 
the sts. and often appearing as if panicled, bright yel- 
low, wide open: pods linear, flat. New England, west 
and south, mostly in wet soil. Grows 3-4 ft. high, and 
has attractive light green foliage. 

Chamaecrista, Linn. (Charmecrista nictitans, Moench). 
PARTRIDGE PEA. Annual, erect or spreading, 2 ft. or 

less high: Ifts. 10-15 pairs, small, narrow-oblong, 
mucronate, sensitive to the touch: fls. large, 2-5 to- 
gether in the axils, canary-yellow and 2 of the petals 
purple-spotted. Dry soil, Maine, south and west. 
Sometimes known as Magothy Bay bean and sensitive 
pea, and formerly recommended as a green-manuring 
plant. See Cyclo. Amer. Agric., Vol. II, p. 309, for 
account and picture. 

AA. Tender plants, grown far south, or under glass: 

Ifts. few or many. 

B. Tree, with woody indehiscent pods. 
SHOWER. Lvs. large, the Ifts. 4-8 pairs, and ovate- 
acuminate: fls. in long lax racemes, yellow, the pedicels 
without bracts: pods cylindrical, black, 3-furrowed, 
1-2 ft. long, containing 1-seeded compartments. India, 
but intro. in W. Indies and other tropical countries. 
Sparingly cult. S. Furnishes the cassia pods of com- 

grandis, Linn. PINK SHOWER. Lfts. 10-20, oblong, 
abrupt at either end, more or less pubescent beneath 
and above: fls. in long drooping axillary racemes, rosc- 
colored, without bracts subtending the pedicels: pod 
3 in. or less long, compressed-cylindrical, glabrous, 
transversely rugose. Trop. Amer.; offered in S. Calif., 
and grown in many tropical countries. 

BB. Shrubs or herbs, with more or less dehiscent pods. 

Sophera, Linn. (C. schinifblia. DC. C. Sophora, 
Auth.). Shrub, 6-10 ft.: Ifts. 6-10 pairs, lanceolate- 
acute: fls. yellow on many-fld. axillary and terminal 
peduncles, which are shorter than the Ivs.: pod thin, 
tardily dehiscent. Oriental tropics. Intro, in S. Calif. 

corymbdsa, Lam. (C. floribunda, Hort.). Shrub, 
half-hardy in middle states, 4-10 ft.: Ifts. 3 pairs, 
oblong-lanceolate and somewhat falcate, obtuse or 
nearly so: fls. yellow, in long-stalked, small axillary 
and terminal corymbs. Argentina. B.M. 633. G.C. 
III. 31:252. Gn. 50, p. 139. J.H. HI. 61:139. G. 
25:553. H.F. II. 3:252. G.W. 3, p. 421; 6, p. 391. 
The best-known -garden species, being an excellent con- 
servatory plant for spring, summer and autumn bloom. 
It is an old favorite, now coming again into prominence 
(as C. floribunda and var. A. Boehm, corrupted appar- 
ently into C. Boema) as a pot-plant, as a tub specimen 
for lawns, or for plunging in the border; winters readily 
in a dormant state in a cellar; very free-flowering. 

tomentdsa, Linn. Shrub, 10-12 ft.: Ifts. 6-8 pairs, 
oval-oblong and obtuse ; white-tomentose beneath: fls. 
deep yellow. Mex. Said to be a good winter bloomer 
in S. Calif ., and naturalized in some parts. 

artemisoides, Gaud. Bushy shrub, soft-canescent 
and gray all over: Ifts. 3-4 pairs, very narrow-linear: 
racemes axillary, 5-8-fld., the fls. sulfur-yellow: pods 
flat, shining brown. Austral. Intro, in S. Calif. With- 
stands drought. 

bifl6ra, Linn. Shrub, 4-8 ft. : Ifts. 6-10 pairs, broad- 
oblong or obovate-oblong, very obtuse but mucronu- 
late: fls. large, yellow, on 2-4-fld. peduncles, which 
are shorter than the Ivs: pod 3 in. or less long, oblong- 
linear or narrower, membranaceous. S. Amer. and W. 
Indies. B.M. 810. Sparingly cult, in greenhouses. 

C. Isevigata, Willd. Shrub, glabrous: Ifts. 3-4 pairs, ovate-oblong 
or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate: fls. yellow in terminal and axillary 
racemes: pod leathery, 2-3 in. long, nearly cylindrical. Tropics. 
C. occidentAlis, Linn. HEDIONDA. Annual or subshrubby, widely 
distributed in the tropics as a weed, the seeds used as a substitute 
for coffee; it is the "fedegosa" and "negro coffee" of Afr.: Ifts. 4-12 
pairs, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, acuminate, and a gland near 
the base of the petiole: racemes short and few-fld.: pod glabrous, 
oblong-linear compressed or nearly cylindrical; the small seeds pro- 
duced abundantly C. spUndida, Vogel. Shrub, 6-10 ft., much 
branched: fls. bright yellow, very large. S. Amer. Recently cata- 
logued in S. Calif. Others of the numerous species of Cassia are 
likely to appear in cult., particularly some of the native kinds; but 
as a whole, the genus is not rich in horticultural subjects. 

L. H. B. 




CASSINE (a name said to have been used by the 
Indians in Fla. ; see Ilex Cassine). Celaslracese. Some 
20 or less erect or climbing glabrous shrubs of the Cape 
region in Afr., apparently not known in cult, in this 
country. Lvs. opposite, thick, entire or serrate: fls. 
email, white, in axillary clusters; calyx 4 5-parted, 
minute; petals 4-5; stamens 4-5, on the disk, which 
encircles the ovary: fr. a 1-2-seeded drupe, with a hard 
pit or stone. C. Colpoon, Thunb. (or C. capensis var. 
Colpoori) is the ladlewood of the Cape, the wood being 
used in the making of small articles. C. Maurocenia, 
Linn, (now placed in a separate genus, Maurocenia 
capensis, Sond.) is the Hottentot cherry. H.I. 6:55 2. 

CASSIOPE (Greek mythological name). Ericaceae. 
Ornamental small shrubs sometimes cultivated for 
their handsome delicate flowers. 

Evergreen: Ivs. very small, usually scale-like and 
opposite, rarely alternate and linear: fls. solitary, axil- 
lary, or terminal; calyx small, 5-parted; corolla cam- 
panulate, 5-lobed or 5-cleft; stamens 10, the anthers 
with recurved appendages; style included: fr. a 5- 
valved caps, with numerous minute seeds. Ten spe- 
cies in arctic regions and high mountains of N. Amer., 
N. Eu., N. Asia and Himalayas. Formerly included 
under Andromeda. 

Cassiopes are graceful, delicate plants, adapted for 
rockeries, flowering in summer. They are of somewhat 
difficult culture, and require peaty and sandy moist 
but well-drained soil and partly shaded situation, 
though C. hypnoides grows best in full sun, creeping 
amongst growing moss. Drought, as well as dry and 
hot air, is fatal to them. Propagated readily by cut- 
tings from mature wood in August under glass; also by 
layers and by seeds treated like those of Erica. 

C. fastigiota, Don (Andromeda fastigiata, Wall.). Ascending: 
Ivs. imbricate, in 4 rows, with white-fringed margin: fls. axillary, 
white. Himalayas. B.M. 4796. G.C. III. 47:379 (habit). Gn. 43, 
p. 189. G. 15:709. C. hypnoides, Don. (Harrimanella hypnoides, 
Coville). Creeping: Ivs. linear, alternate, crowded: fls. terminal, 
deeply 5-cleft. Arctic regions. B.M. 2936. L.B.C. 20:1946. G.C. 
III. 39:226 (habit). C. Afertensiana, Don. Erect or ascending to 
1 ft. high: Ivs. imbricate in 4 rows, carinate on the back: fls. axil- 
lary, white or slightly tinged rosy. Sitka to Calif. C. tetragdna, Don 
(Andromeda tetragona, Linn.). Similar to the former, but lower, 
and the Ivs. with a deep furrow on the back. Arctic regions. B.M. 
3181. M.D.G. 1910: 125. 137 (habit). 

CASSIPOUREA (a native name in Guiana). Rhizo- 
phordceae. Perhaps a dozen or less species (if the African 
Dactylopetalum is included in the American Cassi- 
pourea) in Trop. Amer. and in Afr, one of which is 
now offered. Glabrous trees or shrubs: Ivs. opposite 
or whorled, stalked, somewhat leathery, oblong or 
lanceolate, entire or somewhat crenate: fls. small or 
medium in size, white, solitary or fascicled in the axils; 
calyx 4-5-lobed; petals 4-7, fimbriate, linear or spatu- 
late, inserted in the cup-like disk; stamens 10-30; 
ovary 2-4-celled: caps, ovoid, somewhat fleshy, tardily 
dehiscent, the cells 1-seeded. C. verticillata, N. E. Br., 
Natal, a handsome tree, with very shiny foliage: Ivs. 
about 4 in. long and half as broad, in 3's or 4's, lightly 
creno-serrate or almost entire; petals 5-7, exserted, 
very narrow; stamens 10-14. A rare mangrove-like 
tree, found at considerable elevations away from the 
coast. Offered in S. Calif. L jj g 

CASTALIA: Nymphsea. 

CASTANEA (ancient Latin name). Fagaceae. 
CHESTNUT. Fruit and ornamental trees, grown for 
their edible nuts and also for their handsome foliage 
and attractive flowers. 

Deciduous trees, rarely shrubs: Ivs. alternate, ser- 
rate, elliptic-oblong to lanceolate: fls. monoecious, the 
staminate ones with 6-parted calyx and 10^-20 stamens, 
in long, erect, cylindrical catkins; the pistillate ones 
on the lower part of the upper catkins, usually 3 to- 
gether in a prickly involucre; ovary 6-celled: fr. a large 

brown nut, 1-7 together in a prickly involucre or bur: 
winter-buds with 3-4 scales: branchlets without ter- 
minal bud. About ten species in the temperate regions 
of N. E. Amer., Eu., N. Afr. and Asia. 

The chestnuts are very attractive when in bloom. 
The handsome foliage is generally not injured by 
insects or fungi, but the whole tree is attacked by a 
serious disease known as the chestnut bark disease 
which has spread rapidly during the last years, chiefly 
in New York, Pennsylvania and the adjacent states. 
It was first discovered in 1904. It is caused by a fungus, 
Endothia parasitica, which 
penetrates the bark, develops 
its mycelium in bark and 
sapwood, finally girdles the 
branch or trunk and causes 
the death of the portion above 
the infected place. The pres- 
ence of reddish pustules on 
the infected area is a sure sign 
of the presence of this fungus. 
The cutting and destroying of 
the infected parts seems so far 
the only way of checking the 
spreading of the disease. This 
disease was without doubt im- 
ported with plants from eastern 
Asia, as the disease has been 
discovered recently in China 
on C. mollissima. The latter 
species and C. crenata seem 
much more resistant than the 
American and European varie- 
ties and there is much hope 
for a successful selection and 
breeding of resistant varieties 
and for keeping this disease 
under control, , as it is done 
successfully in China. 

C. dentata and C. saliva 
are large-sized trees, while C. 
pumila and C. crenata usually 
remain shrubby. The coarse- 
grained wood is much used for 
furniture, railway ties and 
fence-posts, as it is very dur- 
able in the soil. The chestnut 
is extensively cultivated in 
Europe and eastern Asia and 
also in this country for its 
edible fruit. It grows best in 
well -drained soil on sunny 
slopes, and even in rather dry 
and rocky situations, but dis- 
likes limestone soil . The Ameri- 
can species is perfectly hardy 
North, while the European 
species is somewhat. tenderer. 

Propagated by seeds, sown 
in fall where there is no danger 
of them being eaten by mice or 
squirrels; otherwise they should 
be stratified in boxes and 
buried 1 or 2 feet deep in a warm soil until early 
spring, when they are sown in rows about 3 inches 
deep. If growing well, they can be transplanted the 
following fall or spring 2 or 3 feet apart from each 
other, and planted after three or four years where 
they are to stand. They are also increased by layers 
in moist soil. Varieties are usually worked on seed- 
ling stock or on sprouts by whipgrafting above the 
ground when the stock is just beginning to push into 
leaf. Crown-grafting, root-grafting and budding are 
also sometimes practised, but no method gives wholly 
satisfactory results, and usually only one-half take 
well. See Chestnut. 

833. Castanea dentata. 




A. Nuts 2 or more in one involucre and more or less com- 

pressed, usually broader than high. 

B. Branchlets glabrous or at first with close white tomen- 

tum: Ivs. usually glabrous at maturity, often with 
close white tomentum while young. 
C. Lvs. glabrous or nearly glabrous even while young. 

dentata, Borkh. (C. americana, Raf.). Fig. 833. Tree, 
occasionally 100 ft.: Ivs. cuneate at the base, oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely serrate, nearly glabrous 
when young, 6-10 in. long and somewhat pendulous: 
fls. of heavy fragrance, in June or July: nuts about Hin. 
wide. S. Maine to Mich., south to Ala. and Miss. S.S. 
9:440-1. Em. 187. G.F. 10:373. F.E. 14, p, 30; 29, 
p. 895. The tallest, most vigorous -growing and hard- 
iest species. The nuts, though smaller, have a better 
flavor than the European varieties. Lvs. said to have 
sedative properties; used in whooping-cough; bark 
astringent, tonic, febrifuge. 

cc. Lvs. stellate-tomentose beneath while young. 
sativa, Mill. (C. vesca, Gaertn. C. Castdnea, Karst. 

C. vulgdris, Lam.). Fig. 834. Tree, 50-80 ft.: Ivs. 
oblong-lanceolate, often truncate or rounded at the 
base, coarsely serrate, slightly pubescent or tomentose 
beneath when young, nearly glabrous at length, 5-9 in. 
long, erect: nut over 1 in. wide. June. From S. Eu. and 
N. Afr. to China. Gn. 27, p. 292; 50, p. 389. Gng. 
3:209. G.W. 8, p. 350, 385. There are some garden 
forms with variegated Ivs., and others, of which var. 
asplenifolia, Lodd., with laciniately cut and divided Ivs. 
is the most remarkable. Of several varieties cult, for 
their fr., Paragon, a precocious kind, and Numbo, a 
variety with very large fr., are the most extensively 
planted in this country. See Chestnut. 

crenata, Sieb. & Zucc. (C. japonica, Blume. C. 
sativa var. pubinervis, Makino). Fig. 835. Shrub or 
tree, to 30 ft. : Ivs. elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, usually 
rounded at the base, acuminate, crenately serrate, or 
the teeth reduced to a long, bristle-like point, slightly 
pubescent when young, glabrous at length or only 
pubescent on the veins beneath, 3-7 in. long, erect: 
nut over 1 in. wide. Japan, China. S. I. F. 1 : 34. 
Shrubby and very precocious; it usually begins to 
fruit when about six years old. Hardy as far north 
as Mass. 

835. - 

Japanese Chestnut 
Castanea crenata. 

BB. Branchlets pubescent, with 
spreading hairs: Ivs. soft- 
pubescent beneath, at least 
those toward the end of the 

mollissima, Blume,. Tree, to 
40 ft.: Ivs. oval-oblong to ob- 
long-lanceolate, acuminate or 
short - acuminate, rounded or 
truncate at the base, 3^-6 in. 
long, coarsely serrate, glabrous 
above, white - tomentose or 
nearly green, but soft-pubescent 
beneath, at least on the veins; 
petioles pubescent, with spread- 
ing hairs: nut about 1 in. wide; 
spines of the husk pubescent. 
N. and W. China. Has proved 
perfectly hardy at the Arnold 
Arboretum and is to be recom- 
mended for its hardiness and 
large nuts. 

AA. Nuts solitary, round, higher 

than thick. 

p&mila, Mill. CHINQUAPIN. 
Shrub or small tree, rarely 50 
ft.: Ivs. cuneate, elliptic-oblong 
or oblong-obovate, acute, serrate, 
teeth often reduced to bristle- 
like points, white - tomentose 
beneath, 3-5 in. long: fr. ovate, 
small, about %in. wide and %~1 
in. long. May, June. From Pa. 
to N. Fla. and Texas. S.S. 9: 
442-3. Useful for planting on 
dry and rocky slopes; attractive 
when in fl., and again in fall 
with its abundant light green 

burs among the dark foliage. The closely allied C. 

alnifolia, Nutt., in the southern states, grows only a 

few feet high, and has larger Ivs. and fr. 

Vilmoriniana, Dode. Tree, to 80 ft. : branchlets gla- 
brous: Ivs. oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, long-acumi- 
nate, usually rounded at the base, the teeth mostly 
reduced to slender bristles, quite glabrous even while 
young, 4-7 in. long: fr. globose-ovate, about Y^m.. thick 
and slightly longer. Cent. China. A valuable timber 
tree. Recently intro. by the Arnold Arboretum. 


CASTANEA of commerce: The nuts of Bertholletia. 

CASTANOPSIS (Castanea and opsis, chestnut-like). 
Fagdcese. Ornamental trees or shrubs sometimes culti- 
vated for their handsome evergreen foliage. 

Closely allied to Castanea, but pistillate fls. usually 
on separate catkins, sometimes solitary; ovary 3-celled. 
fr. ripening the second year: involucre sometimes 
tuberculate; winter-buds with many scales; terminal 
bud present: Ivs. evergreen, entire or dentate. About 
25 species, chiefly in the tropical and subtropical 
mountains of Asia, and 1 in W. N. Amer., which is the 
hardiest, and is sometimes cult.; also several Chinese 
species have been recently intro. into cult., but their 
names have not yet been determined. For prop, see 

chrysophylla, DC. (Castanea chrysophylla, Hook.). 
Fig. 836 (adapted from Pacific R. R. Rep.). Tree, to 
150 ft., shrubby at high elevations: Ivs. ovate-oblong or 
oblong-lanceolate, narrowed at both ends, entire, dark 
green above, coated with minute golden yellow scales 
beneath, 2-6 in. long: nut about ^in. wide, usually 
solitary in the spiny involucre. Summer. Ore. to 
Calif. S.S. 9: 439. B.M.4953. G.C. III. 22: 411; 36:145. 
Gn. 76, p. 634. F.S. 12:1184. R.B. 7:240. A highly 

834. Castanea sativa. 




ornamental tree with beautiful foliage, hardy only in 
the warmer temperate regions, but the shrubby form is 
much hardier. ALFRED REHDER. 

CASTANOSPERMUM (chestnut seed, because of 
the taste of the seeds). Leguminosse. A genus of 2 
species, one of which is a tall Australian tree, with odd- 
pinnate Ivs., the Ifts. broad, thick, entire: fls. large, 
yellow-orange, in lateral or axillary loose racemes 
which are usually about 5 in. long; petals 4; stamens 
free; ovary long-stipitate, many-ovuled: pod 8-9 in. 
long with 4-5 seeds larger than Italian chestnuts, globu- 
lar. C. australe, Cunn., is the species known locally 

836. Castanopsis chrysophylla. ( X %) 

as "Moreton Bay chestnut." The seeds are roasted and 
eaten. Intro, in S. Calif., but not common. The other 
species is New Caledonian, and apparently not in cult. 

CASTDLLEJA (a Spanish botanist, D. Castillejo). 
Scrophulariaceas. PAINTED-CUP. Herbs with showy 
bracts in a terminal head or spike, sometimes cultivated. 

Flowers small, solitary, in terminal gaudy-bracted 
spikes; corolla tubular, sometimes flattened laterally, 
2-lipped; lower lip smaller, more or less 3-toothed; 
stamens 4: Ivs. alternate, entire or cut Upwards of 
30 species in U. S. and Mex., and 1 in N. Asia. Cas- 
tillejas are little known in gardens. They are more or 
less root-parasitic. 

cpccinea, Spreng. Biennial or annual, 1-2 ft., hairy: 
radical Ivs. clustered, ovate or oblong, mostly entire; 
st.-lvs. laciniate or cleft, and the middle lobe of the 
bright scarlet bracts dilated : corolla pale yellow, about 
the length of the calyx. Low grounds and grassy places, 
Canada, south. 

indivisa, Engelm. Annual, 1-2 ft.: Ivs. lance-linear 
and entire (or sometimes 2-3-lobed) : bracts not lacini- 
ate, bright red and showy. Texas. Blooms early in 

affinis, Hook & Arn. Perennial, 1-2 ft.: Ivs. narrow- 
lanceolate, entire or the upper ones toothed at apex: 
fl.-bracts becoming short and broad, red: spike lax 
below. Calif., in moist soils. Intro. 1891 by Orcutt. 


folioldsa, Hook. & Arn. White- woolly perennial, 
1-2 ft., the base woody: Ivs. small (1 in. or less long), 
narrow-linear, crowded or fascicled: bracts 3-parted; 
spike dense. Calif., in dry soils. Intro. 1891 by Orcutt. 

Integra, Gray. Perennial, 1 ft. or less, tomentose: Ivs. 
grayish, linear, 3 in. or less long, entire: bracts of the 
short spike linear-oblong or obovate-oblong, entire or 
sometimes incised, red or rose. Texas to Ariz, and Colo. 
Has been offered in Germany. L. H B 

CASTILLOA (for Castillejo, the Spanish botan- 
ist). Moracese. Laticiferous trees, of which C. elastica 
Cerv., is one of the important rubber-producing plants. 
There are 2 or 3 species, in Cuba and Cent. Amer. Lvs. 
alternate, short-petioled, often large, entire or toothed: 
plant monoecious, the sexes borne in the same cluster: 
sterile fl. with no perianth, stamens numerous ana 
crowded, with scales intermixed; fertile fls. with 4- 
lobed perianth, including the short-styled ovary: fr. a 
crustaceous pericarp containing a pendulous seed. 
The cult, of C. elastica for rubber is described in Cyclo. 
Amer. Agric., Vol. II, p. 557. 


CASUARINA (said to be derived from Cosuarius, the 
Cassowary, from resemblance of the branches to the 
feathers). Casuarinaceae. BEEFWOOD. SHE-OAK. Odd 
slender-branched leafless trees and shrubs grown in 
warm regions and rarely seen under glass. They are thin- 
topped trees of striking appearance. 

Casuarinas are usually classified near the walnut 
and hickory tribes, although very unlike them or 
other known plants in botanical characters. They are 
jointed and leafless plants, somewhat suggesting 
equisetums in gross appearance. Flowers are unisexual; 
staminate in cylindrical terminal spikes, each fl. con- 
sisting of a stamen inclosed in 4 scales, 2 of the scales 
being attached to the filament; pistillate fls. in dense 
heads borne in the axils, and ripening into globular or 
oblong cones, composed of 1-ovuled 
ovaries subtended by bracts: fr. a 
winged nutlet. About 25 species 
in Austral., New Caledonia and 
E. Indies. The species fall into 
2 groups, those having cylind- 
rical and verticillate branches, and 
those having 4-angled and only 
imperfectly verticillate branches. 
The species bear small toothed 
sheaths at the joints. 

Beefwood is planted in the ex- 
treme South for its very odd 
habit, and also to hold sands of 
the seacoast. The wood burns 
quickly, and is very hard and dur- 
able. The redness of the wood 
has given the popular name, beef- 
wood. The species are remark- 
able for rapid growth. They grow 
well in brackish and alkaline soils. 
Propagated by seeds and by 
cuttings of partly ripened wood. 

equisetif&lia, Linn. Fig. 837. 
Tree, becoming 150 ft. high in 
favorable climates, and a most 
rapid grower: branches drooping, 
pale green, simple, terete or nearly 
so, the internodes very short (less than M m -)> sheath- 
teeth 7 (6-8) lanceolate and appressed : staminate cone 
nearly terete; pistillate cone short-ped uncled, ellip- 
soidal, about H-in. diam. Widely distributed in the 
farther Old World tropics, and the best-known species in 
this country (in S. Fla. and Calif, and south). Gn. M. 
7:21. L.B.C. 7:607. The wood is valuable for many 
purposes. The casuarinas are known as "oak" in Austral. 

837. Casuarina 
equisetifolia. (XYz) 




Cunninghamiana, Miq. Tree with slender branches, 
much like C. equisetifolia, but cones smaller, about 
J^in. diam., globular and very irregular, with promi- 
nent valves. Austral. Described as a rapid-growing 
tree in Calif., with strong and dense growth and 
numerous fine branches with very short internodes. 

stricta, Dry. (C. quadrivdlvis, Labill.). Becoming 
20-30 ft. high: branches erect, simple, 6-7-angled, 
scarcely green, internodes short, as in the latter : sheath- 
teeth usually 7, ovate-lanceolate and appressed: stam- 
inate cone slender; pistillate cone nearly sessile, 
oblong (sometimes staminate above), about 14-sided, 
1 in. diam. Austral. Gn.M. 7:21. 

torulosa, Dry. (C. tenuissima, Sieber). Reaches 70 
or 80 ft.: branches erect, capillary, mostly terete, in- 
ternodes short: sheath-teeth 4, very short, triangular 
appressed: staminate cones filiform; pistillate cones 
ellipsoidal, 8-10-sided. Austral. 

sumatrana, Jungh. Shrub with dense very slender 
branches which are sharply angled, the internodes often 
very short, the sheath-teeth short : cone large, elliptical 
or globose, the valves thick and concave-truncate at 
apex. Sumatra. Offered in England, and the branches 
said to be useful for bouquets; very much branched. 

L. H. B. 

CATALPA (the Indian name of C. bignonioides). 
Bignoniaceae. Ornamental trees, often cultivated for 
their handsome flowers appearing in large and showy 
panicles in summer, and for their heavy foliage. 

Leaves usually deciduous, opposite, long-petioled, 
entire or coarsely lobed: fls. in terminal panicles; calyx 
splitting irregularly or 2-lipped; corolla campanula te, 
2-lipped, with 2 smaller upper and 3 larger lower lobes; 
fertile stamens 2, curved, with diverging anther-sacs, 
not exceeding the tube of the corolla; style 2-lobed at 
the apex, slightly longer than the stamens: fr. a very 
long cylindrical caps., separating into 2 valves, with 
numerous small oblong compressed seeds bearing a 
tuft of white hairs on each end. About 10 species in 
N. Amer., W. India and E. Asia, of which 6 are hardy 
in the northern temperate regions. 

Catalpas are deciduous or rarely evergreen trees with 
opposite or sometimes whorled, long-petioled, large 

838. Catalpa ovata in fruit. 

and simple leaves emitting in most species a disagree- 
able odor when bruised, and with white, pinkish or yel- 
lowish flowers in large and showy panicles followed by 
very long and narrow cylindric pods. 

The coarse-grained and soft wood is very durable in 
the ground, and, therefore, much valued for fence-psts 
and railway ties. Catalpa bignonioides and particularly 
C. speciosa are sometimes planted as avenue trees. For 
formal gardens, if low round-headed trees are desired, 
C. bignonioides var. nana is to be recommended. They 

839. Catalpa speciosa. ( Xf ) 

grow in almost any somewhat moist soil, and are hardy 
as far north as New England. Propagated by seeds 
sown in spring, in the North, best with slight bottom 
heat, or by cuttings from ripe wood, the varieties often 
by softwood cuttings in early summer or by grafting 
on seedlings or on roots under glass in spring; also 
increased sometimes by layers and root cuttings. 

A. Infl. paniculate: Ivs. 

usually pubescent, 
with simple hairs. 

B. Fls. yellow, striped 

inside orange and 

spotted dark violet, 

less than 1 in. long. 
ovata, Don 
( C. Kaempferi, 
Sieb.&Zucc. C. 
Henryi, Dode). 
Fig. 838. Tree, 
to 20 ft.: Ivs. 
broadly cordate- 
ovate, abruptly 
acuminate, often 
3-5-lobed, nearly 
glabrous at length, with reddish spots in the axils of 
the veins beneath, 5-8 in. long: panicles many-fld., 
4-7 in. long, fragrant. June. China, much cult, in 
Japan. B.M. 6611. I.H. 9:319. L.I. 10. S.I.F. 2:71. 
Hardier than the American species. 

BB. Fls. white, with 2 yellow stripes inside, and spotted 
purplish brown, l%-2 in. long. 

bignonioides, Walt. (C. Catdlpa, Karst. C. syringi- 
folia, Sims). CATALPA. INDIAN BEAN. Tree, 20-50 
ft.: Ivs. often whorled, cordate-ovate, abruptly acumi- 
nate, sometimes with 2 lateral lobes, pubescent beneath, 
5-8 in. long, of unpleasant odor: panicles many-fld.; 
iis. about 2 in. diam., thickly spotted inside: pod 6-20 
in. long, M~M m - thick. June, July. Southern states, 
north to Tenn., often naturalized elsewhere. B.M. 
1094. L.B.C. 13:1285. S.S. 6:288-9. Gng. 6:118-9. 
G.F. 3:537, 539. J. H. III. 32:121. G.C. III. 21:298; 
29:167; 44:10, 312. F.E. 23:479. G.W. 7, p. 88. G. 
23:481. G.M. 37:627. Gn. 22, p. 74; 26, p. 164-5; 33, 
p. 393; 36, p. 239; 66, p. 205. Usually low tree, with 
very wide-spreading branches. Not much used medici- 
nally, but pods and seeds said to possess antispasmodic, 
cardiac, and sedative properties: bark anthelmintic, 
alterative. There are some garden forms. Var. aurea, 
Lav. Lvs. yellow. G.M. 53:709. Var. nana, Bur. (C. 
Bungei, Hort., not C. A. Mey.). Forms a dense, round 
bush, of ten grafted high. Gng. 3: 195. M.D.G. 1903:616. 
F.E. 14, p. 31. 

specidsa, Warder. Figs. 839, 840. (C. cordifblia, 
Jaume, partly). WESTERN CATALPA. Tree, to 100 ft.: 
Ivs. cordate-ovate, long-acuminate, pubescent beneath, 
8-12 in. long: panicles comparatively few-fld.; fls. 
about 2^2 i n - diam., inconspicuously spotted inside: 
pod K-^in. thick. June. From S. 111. and Ind. to 
La. and Miss. S.S. 6:290-1. R.H. 1895:136. M.D.G. 
1903:229-30 (habit). A very desirable ornamental 
tree, closely allied to the former, but taller and hardier. 
Properties similar to C. bignonioides. Var. pulverulenta, 
Paul & Son. Lvs. freely dotted with white or cream 
color. G.M. 53:30. G. 30:289. F.E. 31:319. 

hybrida, Spaeth (C. Teasii, Penhall. C. Teasidna, 
Dode). HYBRID CATALPA. Hybrid between C. big- 
nonioides and C. ovata. Large tree, intermediate 
between the parents: the Ivs. resemble more those of 

C. ovata, and are purplish when unfolding, but much 
larger and slightly pubescent beneath, while the fls. 
are more like B. bignoniodes, but smaller and with 
the infl. often twice as long. Originated at J. C. 
Teas' nursery at Baysville, Ind. G.F. 2:305. Gt. 
47:1454. G.W. 3, p. 569. A very valuable tree, flow- 




ering profusely; of rapid growth and ha^dy. Seedlings 
usually resemble C. ovata. Var. japonica, Rehd. (C. 
jnpdnica, Dode). Lvs. broader and more abruptly 
acuminate, nearly glabrous beneath. Var. purptlrea, 
Rehd. (C. hybrida var. atropurpurea, Spaeth. C. big- 
nonioides var. purpurea, Hort.). Lvs. dark purple when 
young, green at length. 

AA. Infl. racemose; pedicels very slender, 1-1% in. long, 
occasionally the lower ones with 2 or 3 fls. 

B. Lvs. pubescent or tomentose beneath, with branched 

Fargesii, Bur. Tree, to 60 ft. : Ivs. ovate, acuminate, 
rounded at the base, entire, slightly pubescent above, 
densely beneath, 3-6 in. long: racemes pubescent, 7-10- 
fld.; fls. about 1]^, in. long, rosy pink with purplish 
brown dots in throat: pod to 2 ft. long, %-%in. thick. 
W. China. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris III. 6:3. 

BB. Lvs. quite glabrous. 

Ducloftxii, Dode (C. sutchuenensis, Dode). Tree, to 
80 ft.: Ivs. ovate, acuminate, usually rounded or sub- 
cordate at the base, with purple spots in the axils of the 
veins beneath, 5-8 in. long and often 4 or 5 in. broad: 
racemes 5-15-fld., the lower branches sometimes with 
2 or 3 fls. ; fls. rosy pink with orange markings in throat, 
1/^-1 % in- long: pod about 2 ft. long and %-}/&&. 
thick. Cent. China. 

Bungei, C. A. Mey. Small tree: Ivs. narrowly trian- 
gular-ovate, entire or with 1 or few pointed teeth near 
the base, long - acuminate, truncate or sometimes 
broadly cuneate at the base, with purple spots in the 
axils beneath, 3-6 in. long and not over 3 in. wide: 
racemes 3-12-fld.; fls. white with purple spot, \\ l /2 in. 
long: pod 12-15 in. long. N. China. Nouv. Arch. Mus. 
Paris 111.6:4. Has proved perfectly hardy at the 
Arnold Arboretum. Var. heterophylla, C. A. Mey. 
(C. heterophylla, Dode). Lvs. with several pointed 
teeth near the base: racemes 3-5-fld. 

C. longlssima, Sims. Tree to 50 ft.: Ivs. oblong-ovate, coriaceous: 
fls. small, white. W. Indies; often planted as shade tree in Cuba. 


CATANANCHE (Greek name, referring to ancient 
custom of using the plant in making love-philters). 
Composite. Annual or perennial garden herbs, grown 
for the bloom. 

Leaves crowded at the base of the St., and linear 
or lanceolate: head long-peduncled, blue or yellow: 
achene oblong, ribbed and usually villose or setose: 

Eappus of 5-7 lanceolate long-acuminate scales. A 
alf dozen species in the Medit. region. Of easiest 
cult, in any garden soil, particularly if light. Prop, by 
seeds and division. Useful for cutting. 

caerftlea, Linn. Perennial, 2 ft.: Ivs. tomentose, 
lanceolate and few-toothed, 3-nerved: fl.-heads 2 in. 
across, with wide flat-toothed blue rays, on long slen- 
der sts. Blooms in June, July and Aug. S. Eu. B.M. 
293. R.H. 1890, p. 523. G. 28:541. Gn. 42, p. 25; 55: 
368. Var. alba, Hort., has white fls. Gn. 55:368. Var. 
bicolor, Hort., has white margin and blue center. 
Often used as everlastings. L\ H. B. 

CATASETUM (Greek for downward or backward, 
and bristle). Orchiddcese. Epiphytic or terrestrial 
orchids, requiring hothouse conditions. 

Stems short fusiform: Ivs. plaited, membranaceous: 
scapes basal; fls. in racemes, globose or expanded; 
labellum fleshy; column erect, provided with sensi- 
tive appendages which, when touched, cause the pollen- 
masses to fly out; pollinia 2. The genus includes Mon- 
achanthus and Myanthus. There are about 50 or 60 
species in the American tropics. 

The flowers are in racemes or spikes, firm in texture, 
and white or in shades of green, yellow, brown or purple. 
Catasetums are not much cultivated, since most of 
the species are not showy, but they are interesting to 

the botanist and amateur because of the striking ejec- 
tion of the pollen-masses. Gardeners often have trouble 
with catasetums, but they are not difficult to grow if 
given good care. They need a high temperature, long 
period of rest, and free supply of water during the 
growing season. They are grown in both pots and bask- 
ets. Readily propagated by dividing the plants at the 
base; also from very ripe pseudobulbs cut in pieces and 
put in sand. For culture, see Orchids. 

A. Fls. white. 

Bungerdthii, N. E. Br. Sts. 8-9 in. tall: sepals larger 
than the petals, nearly 2 in. long; labellum tending 
toward concave, roundish; appendages thickish. Ecua- 
dor. B.M. 6998. G.C. III. 1:142. I.H. 37:117; 34:10. 
Gn. 33:388. A.F. 6:633. A striking plant. 

840. Catalpa speciosa in fruit. ( X H) 

AA. Fls. yellowish, more or less marked with brown 
or red. 

macrocarpum, Rich. (C. Cldveringi, Lindl. C. triden- 
tatum, Hook.). Fls. large, nearly 3K in- across; petals 
and sepals yellow, verging on green, spotted with red- 
dish brown; labellum yellow. Guiana. B.M. 2559, 
3329. I.H. 33:619. Var. rftbrum, Hort. Ared-fld. form. 

fimbriatum, Lindl. & Paxt. Pseudobulbs 2-3 in. 
long: raceme pendulous, 8- or more-fld.; fls. 2% in. 
across; sepals whitish or pale yellow, closely barred with 
red. Brazil. B.M. 7158. A.F. 6:609. Var. afcreum, 
Hort. Fls. pale green, slightly marked with rose, center 
of h'p deep golden yellow. 

longifdlium, Lindl. Pseudobulbs deflexed: Ivs. nar- 
row and glaucous, reaching 3 ft. : fls. on drooping, com- 
pact spikes; sepals and petals greenish yellow tipped 
with dull red; lip helmet-like, orange-yellow. Guiana. 

AAA. Fls. essentially red or brownish. 

decipiens, Reichb. f. Fls. 1J^ in. across; sepals and 
petals lanceolate; red-brown and spotted; lip saccate, 
yellowish outside and red-brown inside. Venezuela. 
A.F. 6:609. 

AAAA. Fls. many-colored, grotesque. 

Gndmus, Andre". Pseudobulb oblong-ovate and 
alternate, articulated: fls. in a long loose raceme on 
slender pedicels; sepals greenish and purple-barred; 2 
lateral petals spreading, concave, purple; h'p bluntly 
conical, olive-green spotted outside, ivory-white within, 
fringed above. S. Amer. I.H. 24:270. A.F. 12:293. 

C. barbatum, Lindl. Fls. green, blotched with purple. Guiana. 
C. callosum, Lindl. Odd: fls. with chocolate-brown, narrow- 
lanceolate sepals and petals; lip greenish, speckled with red. 
Venezuela. B.M. 4219, 6648. C. Christydnum, Reichb. f. Sepals 
and petals usually chocolate; lip greenish yellow, purple fringed. 
S. Amer.(?). G.C. III. 18:617. B.M. 8007. C. Claesidnum, Lmd. 
& Cogn. Fls. greenish yellow; lip fringed along sides. Brazil. G.C. 
Ill 44-211. C. Cllftonii, Hort. Probably a form of C. Bungero- 
thii. G.M. 54:593 (desc.). C. Cdlmanise, Hort. Fine yellow fl. 
with 3-lobed lip stained with deep crimson. C. discolor, Lmdl. Fls. 
purple. An old sort, now rarely seen. Brazil. C. eburneum, Rolfe. 




Fls. ivory-white; sac of lip deep yellow. Colombia C. Garnettia- 
num, Rolfe. Allied to C. barbatum. Fis. small; sepals and petals 
very narrow, green, with large bars of red-brown; lip white, 
fringed. Amazon. B.M. 7069. C. imperials, Lind. & Cogn. Sepals 
and petals ovate-acute, white, purple-spotted; lip orbicular-cor- 
date, purple in center and white-margined. G.C. III. 17:329. S.H. 
1, p. 369. J.H. III. 30:25. C. labiatum, Rodr. Scapes \Vi ft. 
long, the male 10-fld., female 2-fld. Organ Mts. C. Undeni, Cogn. 
Fls. large (as of C. Bungerothii); sepals and petals yellow, with 
purplish spots and bars; lip yellow, spotted at base. G.C. III. 17: 
329. S.H. 1, p. 369. C. maculatum, Kunth. Sepals acuminate, 
spotted with claret; petals broader, red-blotched; lip yellowish 
green outside, dark brown within. Colombia and Nicaragua. C. 
mirdbile, Cogn. Fls. very large, the sepals and petals oblong-lan- 
ceolate, and yellowish, with purple spots and bars; lip kidney- 
shaped, bright yellow with 2 purple spots, toothed. G.C. III. 17: 
329. S.H. 1, p. 369. C. monodon, Kranzl. Spike long with 6-8 
greenish fls.; lip flat, with fringes along border. Brazil. G.C. III. 
35:354 (desc.). C. pileatum, Reichb., var. aiireum, Hort. Fls. 
creamy white, shaded with greenish yellow. G.M. 47:829, 831. 
C. guddridens, Rolfe. Fls. with pair of short, acute teeth situated 
at lower angles of abortive stigma. C. Rhamphdstos, Hort. 
Raceme few-fld., up to 10 in. long; fls. pale green. Andes of Colom- 
bia. C. Scurra, Reichb. f. Compact: fls. fragrant, yellowish white, 
green-veined; lip 3-lobed. Guiana. G.C. II. 7:304-5. C. spind- 
sum, Lindl. (Myanthus spinosus, Hook.). Lip spreading, with 
succulent hairs, bearing on upper side at base an erect 3-partite 
spine and a much larger one below the acumen. Brazil. B.M. 3802. 
C. splendens, Cogn. Intermediate between C. Bungerothii and C. 
macrocarpum. Sepals greenish white with purplish center; petals 
white with many purple spots; lip cream-color, purple-marked. 
Runs into many forms: var. album, Lind. & Cogn., white or nearly 
so. Var. Alicix, Lind. & Cogn. Fls. large; sepals and petals purplish; 
lip white, toothed. Var. aureo-maculatum. Bossch. Yellow. I.H. 
43:54. Var. atropurpureum. Hort. Blackish purple. C. tenebrd- 
sum, Kranzl. Fls. almost black, very spreading. Peru. G.C. III. 
48:229 (desc.). A. Tracyanum, Hort. A provisional name for a 
distinct species with whitish green fls. C. viridi-flavum, Hook. 
Fls. green, the lip conic, yellow inside. Cent. Amer. B.M. 4017. 
C. Warscewlczii, Lindl. & Paxt. From Panama. Now rarely seen. 

L. H. B.f 
CATCHFLY: Silene. 

CATECHU: Acacia Catechu; Areca Catechu. 

CATERPILLARS. The worm-like pods of Scorpiurus 
vermiculdta, Linn., S. subvillosa, Linn., and others 
(Leguminosse), are sometimes used as surprises in 
salads and soups; and for that purpose they are culti- 
vated in parts of Europe, and seeds are sold in this 
country. They are sometimes catalogued as Worms. 
They are annuals of the easiest culture. The pods of 
Medicdgo scutelldta, Mill., and others are known as 
Snails. The pods are not edible. European plants. 
A.G. 13:681. L. H. B. 

CATESREA (Mark Catesby, 1679-1749, author of 
natural histories of parts of N. Amer.). Rubidcese. 
Spiny shrubs of the W. Indies and one (B. parviflora} 
reaching the coast of Fla., of 6 species, one of which 
is offered in the trade: Ivs. small, opposite or fasciculate, 
mostly ovate or oblong: fls. axillary and solitary, white, 
sometimes showy, 4-merous; corolla funnel-shaped, 
with short lobes; stamens 4, inserted deep in the tube: 
fr. a globular berry. C. spinosa, Linn., offered in Fla., 
is a slow-growing evergreen shrub from the W. Indies: 
Ivs. ovate to obovate, nearly as long as the straight 
spines: fls. yellow, large and conspicuous, the corolla- 
tube tapering down to the middle and then very nar- 
row or filiform, the segms. much shorter than the 
tube: berry ovoid, yellow, edible. Recommended for 
hedges. L. H. B. 

CATHA (Arabian name). Celastrdcese. One ever- 
green spineless shrub of Arabia and Afr., and cult, in 
warm countries for the lys., which are said to possess 
sustaining and recuperative properties and which are 
eaten by the Arabs or used in the preparation of a 
beverage. C. edulis, Forsk. (Celdstrus edulis, Vahl). 
KHAT. CAFTA. Glabrous, to 10 ft. : Ivs. opposite, or on 
the leafy shoots alternate, thick, narrowly elliptic or 
oval-oblanceolate, serrate, narrowed to the short petiole, 
4 in. or less long: fls. small, white, in short axillary 
clusters; calyx 5-lobed; petals 5; stamens 5, borne on 
a disk: fr. an oblong or clavate caps., 3-valved, 1-3- 

seeded, J^in. long. Recently offered in this country. 
The twigs and Ivs. are an object of commerce in Arabia. 


CATOPSIS (Greek compound, of obscure applica- 
tion). Bromelidcese. Fifteen or more species in Trop. 
Amer., with strap-shaped or lanceolate mostly rosulate 
lys. and spikes or racemes of white or yellow fls. termina- 
ting a scape, very little known in cult. : sepals and petals 
separate to base; stamens shorter than the calyx; 
stigma subsessile. They require the cultural conditions 
of the erect tillandsias. C. nitida, Griseb. (Tilldndsia 
nitida, Hook.), from W. Indies and S., is 6^-18 in. tall, 
with oblong-mucronate shining green Ivs. in rosettes, 
and white fls. in slender spikes. C. penduliflora, Wright, 
from Peru, is recently intro., with oblong-elliptic Ivs. 
(6 in. long) in a rosette and with thin denticulate mar- 
gins, and white pendulous short-stalked fls. on a race- 
mosely branched scape 1^ ft. high. 

CAT-TAIL: Typha. 

CATTLEYA (William Cattley, an early English 
horticulturist and naturalist). Orchiddcese. Epiphytic 
orchids, requiring intermediate temperatures. 

Pseudobulbs ovoid, clavate, fusiform or cylindric, 
short or elongated, smooth or furrowed, bearing 1-3 
Ivs.: Ivs. coriaceous: fls. single or in clusters, borne 
usually at the apex of the pseudobulb, rarely on a leafy 
st. arising from the base of the pseudobulb, showy; 
sepals and petals similar or the petals much broader, 
membranous or fleshy; lip usually 3-lobed; lateral lobes 
commonly forming a tube inclosing the column, rarely 
the lateral lobes small; column clavate, fleshy; pollinia 
4. A genus of about 40 species, natives of continental 
Trop. Amer., especially numerous in Brazil and in the 
Andean region. Innumerable hybrids and horticultural 
forms have been named, those of the labiata group 
alone running into hundreds. Showiest of all orchids, 
and of great commercial value. 

The growing of cattleyas. 

The cattleyas are indigenous to the western hemi- 
sphere only, Central and South America being the 
regions in which they abound, particularly in the latter, 
from the different countries of which large quantities 
are imported yearly. During the last few years the col- 
lecting and importing of cattleyas into the United 
States has assumed large proportions, owing to a con- 
tinually and steadily increased demand, not only by 
amateurs but also by the trade in general. There are 
two particular reasons for this increased demand : first, 
the exquisitely beautiful flowers, combined with size 
and marvelous colors adapted for decorations at all 
sorts of functions, are never out of place; second, their 
easy culture. Florists and amateurs alike are begin- 
ning to realize that, after all, orchids are plants, and if 
only treated in a common sense way they are by far 
easier to grow than a good many other plants, and 
especially so the cattleyas, provided some attention is 
paid to their requirements. 

Cattleyas, as a whole, delight in a genial atmosphere, 
with all the air possible when the outside temperature 
will permit. In summer, from May on to the end of 
October, air should be admitted day and night; thus 
there are no temperatures to be prescribed for these 
months. Later, when artificial heat has to be depended 
on, 50 to 55 at night is the best, bearing in mind that 
the earliest species to flower may be kept at the warmer 
end, and the later summer-blooming species, such as 
C. Mossise and C. gigas, may be wintered at the cooler 
end of the structure; thus beginning in autumn with 
C. labiata, C. Percivaliana, C. Trianse, C. Schrcederse, C. 
Mossise, C. Mendelii; and, last of all, C. gigas, in their 
regular order, of bloom, these may be treated according 
to their season of flowering. One cannot change the 

** m 




time of blooming of a cattleya, that is to say force it as 
other plants may be forced, without injury to the 
plants and a poor quality of bloom, but they are often 
retarded by systematic copier treatment. 

The best potting material is the soft brown osmun- 
dine, used alone with no sphagnum moss unless it is 
possible to make this moss live, and even then it is of 
no value to the plants except as an index to the pres- 
ence of moisture. Moss that is dead and inert is a 
detriment in the potting material of all orchids. The 
one imperative thing in the potting of cattleyas is that 
they be made perfectly firm in their receptacles; 
if loose potting is practised, the young roots are injured 
each time the plant is handled, and the material is 
like a sponge, holding too much moisture in suspension 
for the plants to do well, and, given a time when the 
roots do not dry out quickly, all will soon die. 

Newly imported cattleyas, as they arrive from South 
America, are usually much dried up, due to the treat- 
ment given before shipment to avoid loss by decay or 
fermentation on the way. If the plants are washed well 
with soap and water, placed in an airy shaded house for 
a few weeks and allowed to plump up again, roots will 
soon be seen starting. At this time, pot each piece in a 
receptacle suitable to the size of the plant (never let it 
be too large, but always err on the minimum when in 
doubt), fill the pots half full of drainage if common 
flower-pots are used, and fill up with osmundine to the 
top, pressing this material in with a blunt-pointed stick 
so that the plant will be firm. Moisture from this time 
on for weeks may be applied by spraying overhead 
during bright days. If the pieces are large, baskets 
are preferable to pots, as there is more aeration through 
the material and the plants may be suspended and 
space economized. Newly established plants often 
bloom the first year, and one may get an idea of the 
infinite variety found among the plants, as no two are 
alike. Some districts known to collectors produce bet- 
ter forms than others, in fact, in certain localties, the 
plants found produce flowers of very inferior quality. 
It is becoming more difficult to collect orchids, especially 
cattleyas from their native habitats, transportation 
not having improved and the distance to travel being 
greater each time. In consequence of this, hybridizers 
are now turning their attention to the reproduction of 
fine forms true to themselves, with considerable success, 
and should the supply of wild plants fail, there cannot 
now, in view of the well-understood and successful 
methods of raising cattleyas, be a time when the plants 
will be unobtainable. Considering the variation found 
among the wild plants, it is to be expected that home- 
raised seedlings will vary; but if the best-known forms 
are used, and these only are worth the trial, one may 
expect a large measure of success. 

In our climate there is no period when the cattleyas 
should be kept dry at the roots. The plants are either 
getting ready to bloom, in crop, or recuperating there- 
from, and these three periods cover the year. One does 
not have to resort to drying to attain ripening as do 
the European cultivators, and failure here is often 
traceable to foreign training or text-books. 

Established plants should be repotted at least every 
second year. This is as long as the osmundine will 
remain suitable for the roots to ramify in, and if the 
plants are grown in pots, immerse the same a day before 
if the roots are dry, or most of them will remain at- 
tached to the pots. Remove all decayed portions of 
material and roots, wash with clean water, and repot as 
with newly imported plants, remembering always that 
a size too large often proves fatal to success. Plants 
that have been newly potted must not be placed among 
others that have not received attention, but all should 
be put in a situation in which they can be treated to 
little water at the roots for several weeks until the 
weather is such that there is no danger of their becom- 
ing overwatered. Cattleyas should be attended to in 

this respect in the winter months, taking first C. labiata, 
as it is the first to start growing, then C. Trianx; the 
later kinds may be potted before flowering with less 
injury than afterwards, if done with care. 

In hot weather, cattleyas should always be watered in 
the evening or latter part of the day. A generous spray- 
ing overhead will supply the moisture at a time when 
the roots get most of it, as may be seen by an examina- 
tion in early morning. There is no danger of injury if an 
abundance of air is supplied. One has only to be care- 
ful during such times as the atmosphere outside is sur- 
charged with moisture, then it is wise not to use any 
moisture inside even for a week at a time. This is when 
the dreaded "black spot" disease is often seen. It 
usually begins at the union of leaf and bulb, and when 
first seen, amputation must be practised to a point 
below infection, and dry sulfur and powdered charcoal 
applied at once as an absorbent. A small can of this 
ought always to be ready to hand, for if the disease gets 
down to the rhizome, several bulbs will be affected at 
once, and it is often difficult to save the plant. The 
disease is also highly infectious and may easily be 
transmitted to a healthy plant by means of a knife 
used to cut off diseased parts of another. 

^8H mr* 

841. Cattleya Mendelii. 

Apart from seeds, the propagation of cattleyas is a 
slow process to be accomplished only by the cutting of 
the rhizome between the bulbs, leaving at least three of 
the leading ones and separating the older ones accord- 
ing to their strength or the dormant buds at the base 
that are visible. A clean cut or notch that almost 
severs the rhizome is the best, leaving the parts where 
they are until new growth and roots are made, then 
potting in small receptacles, wiring or staking the little 
pieces firmly. Apart from the three last-made bulbs 
on the rhizome, the older ones are a source of weak- 
ness to the plants and are better removed, and in 
the case of valuable forms utilized as above. This is 
the way all duplicates of the many albino varieties have 
been obtained. There are many white cattleyas bearing 
the same name, as C. Triame alba or C. Mossise Wagneri, 
for many have appeared among importations, but these 
differ in each individual and unless a plant is increased 
by division one cannot be sure of the same thing. 

Opinions are divided as to the "feeding" of orchids. 
It is certain that when rain-water is saved in cisterns 
for the plants, and these happen to be in the vicinity of 
cities where soot collects on the roofs of the houses, the 




plants show unusual vigor and in consequence of 
this, many have practised the use of fertilizers in ex- 
ceedingly dilute proportions in all the water used on 
the plants, and some have had surprising results. The 
temptation, however, is always present to feel that if a 
little is good, more would be better, and herein lies the 
danger. When plant-foods are used in solution, they 
should be considered only as sufficient to make the dif- 
ference between rain-water and that which comes out 
of a pipe. 

The best twelve varieties of cattleyas for commercial 
purposes, and, indeed, for amateurs also, are the fol- 
lowing: C. Trianse, fls. Jan.-March; C. Schroederse, 
fls. March, Apr.; C. Mossias, fls. April, May; C. Men- 
delii, fls. Apr., May; C. Warneri, fls. May, June; C. 
gigas, fls. June, July; C. aurea, fls. June, July; C. 
Gaskelliana, fls. Aug., Sept.; C. Harrisoniana, fls. Sept., 
Oct.; C. labiata, fls. Oct., Nov.; C. Bowringeana, fls. 
Oct., Nov.; C. Percivaliana, fls. Dec. 

With a number of plants of each of the above kinds, 
it will be seen that it is possible to have a succession of 
flowers from one end of the year to the other. 


The following American trade names belong to 
Laelia: C. crispa, C. lobala, C. marginata, C. pumila. See, 
also, the list of hybrids at the close of Cattleya. For C. 
aurantiaca, see Epidendrum. 

The cattleyas enter into various generic hybrids: 
consult, for example, _Brassocattlselia, Brassocattleya, 
Brasso-Lsdia-Cattleya, Epicattleya, Lsdiocattleya. 

Of several of the following species, there are named 
varieties in the American trade, varying in stature, 
habit and particularly in the color of the flowers. 


Aclandiae, 1, 31. 

gloriosa, 12. 

odoratissima, 25. 

alba, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 

Goodsonii, 13. 

ovata, 24. 

16, 17, 22 26, 27. 

Goosensiana, 9. 

pallida, 16. 

albescens, 12, 13. 

grandiflora, 15. 

Papeiansiana, 27. 

Alexandra, 9. 

granulosa, 29. 

Parthenia, 24. 

Amesiana, 14. 

grataxiana, 13. 

Peetersii, 9. 

amethystina, 24. 

guttata, 20, 28, 30. 

Percivaliana, 13. 

amethystoglossa, 20. 

hackbridgensis, 11. 

Perrinii, 14. 

Aquinii, 24. 

Harrisonias, 27. 

Pieties, 11. 

Arembergii, 26. 

Harrisoniana, 27. 

princeps, 33. 

atropurpurea, 12, 13. 

Harrisonii, 27. 

Prinzii, 20. 

aurea, 4. 

Hodgkinsonii, 16. 

punctatissima, 24. 

aureola; 9. 

Holfordii, 18. 

quadricolor, 13. 

autumnalis, 14, 21. 

Holmesii, 13. 

refulgens, 13. 

Backhousiana, 13. 

Holtzeii, 13. 

Regnellii, 31. 

Bassettii, 10. 

imperialis, 12. 

Reineckiana, 9. 

Bertii, 11. 

innocens, 26. 

Rex, 8. 

bicolor, 2. 

intermedia, 24, 26. 

rochellensis, 12. 

Bluntii, 11. 

jenseniana, 4. 

Roezlii, 10. 

boelensis, 9. 

Karwinskii, 19. 

Rollissoniana, 13. 

boetzelariensis, 13. 

Keteleerii, 20. 

rosita, 4. 

bogotensis, 13. 

labiata, 4,7, 9, 10,11, 

rouseleana, 9. 

Bowringiana, 21. 

12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17. 

Russelliana, 29. 

Brandneriana, 13. 

Lachneri, 11. 

Sanderse, 20. 

brunoyensis, 13. 

Lamheanana, 11. 

Sanderiana, 12. 

bulbosa, 33. 

Lawrenceana, 5. 

saturata, 12. 

caerulea, 9, 13, 16. 

Leeana, 13. 

Schilleriana, 31. 

Candida, 13, 27. 

Lemoinei, 14. 

Schofieldiana, 29. 

Carrieri, 9. 

Leopoldii, 28. 

Schomburgkii, 25. 

chocoensis, 13. 

leucoglossa, 11. 

Schroederae, 13. 

chrysotoxa, 4. 

lilacina, 13. 

Skinneri, 21, 22. 

oitrina, 19. 

Loddigesii, 24, 26, 27. 

speciossisima, 10. 

ccelestis, 9. 

Lowise, 11. 

splendens, 25, 26. 

Cooksoniae, 14. 

Luddemanniana, 10. 

Stanleyi, 10. 

coundoniensis, 9, 13. 

luteola, 18. 

summitensis, 15. 

crocata, 7. 

macroziana, 11. 

superba, 14, 25. 

Dawsonii, 10. 

maculata, 27. 

superbissima, 27. 

delicata, 13, 26. 

majestica, 11. 

tessellata, 13. 

Dixonae, 11. 

Malouana, 10. 

Triame, 13. 

dolosa, 3. 

Mariae, 13. 

trilabiata, 17. 

Dowiana, 4. 

maritima, 24. 

triumphans, 13, 21. 

DuBuysoniana, 29. 

Massangeana, 13. 

nera, 14. 

dulcis, 9. 

Maudeae, 11. 

vestalis, 32. 

elatior, 30. 

maxima, 6. 

Victoria-regina, 23. 

Eldorado, 7. 

Mendelii, 11. 

violacea, 25, 27. 

enfieldiensis, 13. 

Meta, 13. 

Wageneri, 9. 

flavida, 18. 

Meye r i, 18. 

Walkeriana, 3, 33, 34. 

Floryae, 9. 

modesta, 18. 

Wallisii, 7. 

Forbesii, 32. 

Mooreana, 13. 

Warneri, 17. 

fulgens, 9. 

Morganise, 11. 

Warorqueana, 14. 

Gardneriana, 33. 

Mossise, 9. 

Warscewiczii, 12. 

Gaskelliana, 16. 

Naldereana, 14. 

Wellesleyae, 13. 

gigantea, 11, 19, 27. 

nigrescens, 1. 

wisetonensis, 11. 

gigas, 12. 

nobilior, 34. 

A. Infl. terminal. 

B. Lateral lobes of lip small or wanting, 

the column exposed. 
C. Peduncles 1-2-fld., from a very 
short spathe or naked: pseudo- 
bulb fusiform, short 1. Aclandias 

CO. Peduncles many-fid., from a large 

spathe: pseudobulbs long 2. bicolor 

BB. Lateral lobes of lip large. 

c. Corners recurved, exposing column. 3. dolosa 
cc. Corners not recurved, concealing 


D. Pseudobulbs 1-lvd. 
E. Plants large: pseudobulbs fusi- 
form or clavate: fls. large. 
F. Sepals and petals yellow; lip 
ample, rich purple, beauti- 
fully veined and reticulated 

with gold 4. Dowiana 

FF. Sepals and petals not yellow. 
O. Petals about twice as broad 
as the sepals which are 
markedly undulate. 
H. Tube narrowly cylindric, 

the limb not striped o. Lawrenceana 

HH. Tube cylindric-funnelform, 
the limb bordered with 
white and streaked with 
darker color, with a 

median yellow line 6. maxima 

GO. Petals 8 times or more as 
broad as the sepals ivhich 
are not undulate or but 
slightly so. 

H. Lip with a large orange 
blotch in the center, sur- 
rounded by circles of 
white and purple in 

order 7. Eldorado 

HH. Lip with other color ar- 

I. The lip about as wide as 

or wider than the petals. 

3. Tube of lip yellow; 

sepals and petals 

white 8. Rex 

JJ. Tube white or colored 

other than yellow. 
K. Border of limb white, 
the center bright pur- 
ple variegated with 

violet 9. Mossiae 

KK. Limb without white 


L. Throat with a yellow 
or white eye on 

each side 10. Luddeman- 

LL. Throat without eye. [niana 

M. Color of tube white, 
or the same as 
petals; limb pur- 
ple-crimson .... 11. Mendelii 
MM. Color of tube and 
limb bright pur- 
ple; throat with 

2 yellow spots. . . 12. Warscewiczii 
n. The lip narrower than 


j. Limb much shorter than 
the tube, the margin 
relatively but little 

crisped 13. Trianas 

JJ. Limb about as long as 
the tube, the margin , 
much crisped. 
K. Throat with a golden 

eye on each side. . . . 14. labiata 
KK. Throat without eye. 
L. Margin of limb dif- 
ferent in color from 
the center. 

M. Petals longer than 
the sepals and 
lip; fls. 4^-5 in. 
across 15. Percivaliana 




KEY TO THE SPECIES, continued 

MM. Petals about as 
long as sepals 
and lip; fls. 6-7 

in. across 16. Gaskelliana 

LL. Limb not margined..l7 . Warneri 
EE. Plants small: pseudobulbs ovate 

or oblong: fls. small, yellow. ..18. luteola 
DD. Pseudobulbs 2-3-lvd. 

E. Peduncle pendent, bearing usu- 
ally a single yellow fl.; lip 

entire 19. citrina 

EE. Peduncle erect, bearing 2-10 
fls. or more; lip usually 3- 

F. Ground-color of sepals and 
petals not green nor brown. 
o. With large purple spots .... 20. amethysto- 
oo. Not spotted [glossa 

H. Fls. 5-10; sepals a;td 

petals not fleshy. 
I. Lip emarginate; blooms 

in fall 21. Bowringiana 

ii. Lip acute; blooms in 

spring 22. Skinneri 

HH. Fls. 2-5; sepals and petals 

I. Middle lobe of lip much 

broader than tube 23. Victoria- 

n. Middle lobe of lip not [regina 

broader than tube. 
j. Color of sepals and 
petals pale or white; 
petals the same width 

as dorsal sepal 24. intermedia 

JJ. Color of sepals and pet- 
als marked; petals 
broader than dorsal 
K. Lateral lobes of lip 

and petals acute. . . . 25. violacea 
KK. Lateral lobes of lip 

and petals obtuse. 
L. Lip distinctly 3- 
lobed, the nerves of 
the disk smooth.... 26. Loddigesii 
LL. Lip indistinctly 3- 
lobed, the nerves 
of the disk rugose- 
thickened 27. Harrisoniana 

FF. Ground -color of sepals and 

petals brown 28. Leopoldii 

FFF. Ground - color of sepals and 

petals green. 
Q. Lip warty or papillate. 

H. Claw long 29. granulosa 

HH. Claw short or wanting. . . .30. guttata 
GO. Lip not warty nor papillate. 
H. Middle lobe much broader 
than the tube; sepals and 

petals spotted 31. Schilleriana 

HH. Middle lobe not broader 
than the tube; sepals and 

petals not spotted 32. Forbesii 

AA. Infl. from the base of the pseudobulb. 
B. Pseudobulbs 1-lvd.: lateral lobes of 

lip separated, exposing column.. .33. Walkeriana 
BB. Pseudobulbs 2-lvd.: lateral lobes of 
lip forming a tube, concealing 
column 34. nobilior 

1. Aclandias, Lindl. Sts. 4-5 in. tall, bearing 2 or 3 
Ivs. 2-3 in. long: peduncle with 1 or 2 fls. 3-4 in. across; 
sepals and petals similar, obtuse, greenish yellow, 
marked with spots of black-brown; lip fleshy in the mid- 
dle, somewhat fiddle-shaped, the lateral lobes small, 
curved over the column, the middle lobe large, broadly 
reniform, undulate, rose-purple with darker veins. 
Brazil. B.M. 5039. C.O. 23. There is a var. nigrescens. 

2. bicolor, Lindl. Pseudobulbs cylindric, deeply stri- 
ate, 1-3 ft. tall, 2-lvd.: Ivs. 4-6 in. long, oblong-lanceo- 
late: peduncle with 2-6 fragrant fls. 3-4 in. across; 
sepals oblong, acute, usually olive or bronze-green, the 
lateral falcate; petals like the sepals but undulate; 

lip crimson-purple, sometimes white-margined, the 
lateral lobes wanting, the middle lobe recurved, oblong- 
cuneate, bilobed, channeled in the center. Brazil. 
B.M. 4909. C.O. 10. O.K. 10:305. 

3. doldsa, Reichb. (C. Walkeriana var. doldsa, 
Veitch). Pseudobulbs 4-6 in. long, usually 2-lvd., the 
Ivs. oblong: peduncle 1- or 2-fld.; sepals and petals 
acute, rose-purple to lilac, the sepals oblong-lanceolate, 
the petals cuneate-ovate; lip 3-lobed, the lateral lobes 
erect, the middle lobe reniform, emarginate, amethyst- 
purple. Brazil. G.C. II. 5:430-1. V.O. 2:49. A.G. 

4. Dowiana, Batem. (C. labiata var. Dowiana, 
Veitch). Pseudobulbs up to 1 ft. tall, furrowed, 1-lvd.: 
Ivs. up to 1 ft. long: peduncle 2-6-fld.; fls. 6-7 in. across; 
sepals and petals nankeen-yellow, the sepals lanceolate, 
acute, less than half as wide as the undulate petals; lip 
ample, about as long as the petals, the tube yellow, 
striped with purple, the limb crisped, velvety, dark 
purple, finely and beautifully veined with golden lines 
which radiate from the median lines. R.H. 1869:30. 
A.F. 25:593; 21:838; 30:1078. C.L.A. 11:45; 19:343. 
Costa Rica, where it was discovered by Warscewicz. 
It was rediscovered in 1864 by Mr. Arce, who sent 
plants to Eu., where they were purchased by Messrs. 
Veitch & Son, in whose establishment they flowered 
for the first time. Var. aftrea, Williams & Moore (var. 
chrysotdxa, Hort.), has the sepals and petals of a 
deeper yellow and the golden veins on the lip more 
copious and anastomosing. Colombia. A.F. 6:563; 12: 
10. F.R. 1:76. C.O. la. O.R. 19:17. Var. jenseniana, 
Hort. A large and handsome form. Var. rosita, Hort. 
Sepals creamy white, tinged with purple; petals rose- 
purple, tinged with yellow. 

5. Lawrenceana, Reichb. Pseudobulbs 12-15 in. 
tall, fusiform-clavate, compressed, furrowed, 1-lvd.: 
Ivs. oblong, 6-9 in. long: peduncle 5-8-fld.; fls. 4-5 in. 
across; sepals and petals pale rosy purple to almost 
white, the sepals linear-oblong, the petals elliptic- 
qblong, undulate, about twice as wide as the sepals; 
lip with a narrowly cylindric tube, colored externally 
like the sepals and petals, the limb purple with a maroon 
blotch. Brit. Guiana. B.M. 7133. R. 1:12. 

6. maxima, Lindl. Pseudobulbs about 1 ft. tall, 
claviform, furrowed, compressed, 1-lvd.: Ivs. oblong, 
5-10 in. long: peduncle 3-6-fld.; fls. 4-5 in. across; 
sepals and petals lilac or pale rose, acute, the sepals 
lanceolate-ligulate, the petals about twice as broad as 
the sepals, undulate or crisped; lip as long as petals, 
the limb crisped, pale rose or crimson-purple with a 
median yellow stripe, from which radiate darker lines, 
the border white. Ecuador and Peru. B.M. 4902. F.S. 
20:2136. F.R. 1:298. C.O. 13. 

7. Eldorado, Lind. (C. labiata var. Eldorado, Veitch) 
Pseudobulbs 6-8 in. tall, stout, 1-lvd.: Ivs. oblong, 
8-12 in. long: peduncle with 1-3 fragrant fls. 5-6 in. 
across; sepals and petals pale rosy lilac passing to white, 
the sepals lanceolate, acute, the petals oval-rhomboid, 
obtuse, undulate; lip longer than lateral sepals, exter- 
nally the same color as petals, the limb crisped, emargi- 
nate, a large central orange blotch surrounded by zones 
of white and purple. Brazil. F.S. 18:1826. C.O. 26. 
Var. crocata, Hort. Sepals and petals white or pale 
rose, the orange spot of lip extended in a broad line to 
the base. Var. Wallisii, Rand. (C. Wdllisii, Lind.). 
Fls. pure white except golden spot on lip. C.O. 26a. 

8. Rex, O'Brien. Pseudobulbs 8-14 in. tall, clavi- 
form or fusiform, furrowed, 1-lvd. : Ivs. up to 1 ft. long, 
oblong: peduncle with 3-6 fls. 6-7 in. across; sepals and 
petals cream-white, the sepals acutish, linear-oblong, 
the petals obtuse, as long as sepals but 3 times their 
width, oval-rhomboid, undulate; lip about as long as 
lateral sepals, the tube yellow, veined with purple, the 
limb crisped, the front part margined white surround- 



ing a crimson center veined with a lighter shade. Peru- 
vian Andes. B.M.8377. R.H. 1894:228. C.O. 22. 

9. Mossiae, Hook. (C. Carrieri, Houll. C. labiata 
var. Mdssise, Lindl. C. Peetersii, Andrd). Pseudobulbs 
fusiform, compressed, furrowed, 12-15 in. tall, 1-lvd.: 
Ivs. 6-8 in. long, oblong: peduncle with 3-5 fls. 6-7 in. 
across; sepals and petals rose, of equal length, the 
sepals lanceolate, the petals oval-elliptic, crisped, 
especially on upper margin; lip with the tube colored 
like petals, the limb ample, emarginate, strongly undu- 
late-crisped, the center purple, variegated with violet, 
the margin white, the throat yellow fined with purple- 
crimson. La Guayra. B.M. 3669. R.H. 1857, p. 322. 
S.H. 1:149. O.R. 18:241. C.O. 9. A.G. 14:70. A.F. 
6:563. Var. caerulea, Cogn., has the sepals and petals 
and spot on the limb a pale blue-violet. C.O. 9e. Var. 
Reineckiana, O'Brien (C. Reineckidna, Reichb.), 
has the sepals, petals and external of tube white, the 
limb a mauve-lilac, bordered white, the throat yellow, 
veined purple-violet. C.O. 96. Var. Wageneri, Veitch 
(C. Wdgeneri, Reichb.), has fls. white except the small 
yellow spot on lip. O.R. p. 24. Var. rouseleana, Hort., 
has rosy fls. Var. coundoniensis, Hort. Fls. large and 
richly colored. Var. dulcis, Hort. Fls. rose-tinted; lip 
orange in center, rich rose-crimson in front, finely 
crimped. Var. boelensis, Hort. Dark-colored form. 
Var. coelestis, Hort. Fls. lavender-tinted. Var. fulgens, 
Hort. Fine fls. in shape and color. Var. Alexandras, 
Hort. Fls. pure white with tinge of rose-pink on lip. 
Var. alba, Hort. Fls. white. Var. Goosensiana, Hort. 
Lip deep reddish violet, with white crimped margin; 
sepals and petals white. Var. auredla, Hort. Fls. large, 
white. Var. Fl&ryae, Hort. Fls. pure white. A vari- 
able group. 

10. Luddemanniana, Reichb. f. (C. labiata var. Lud- 
demanniana, Reichb. f. C. Ddwsonii, Warner. C. spe- 
dosissima, Hort. C. Roezlii, Reichb. f. C. Malouana, 
Lind. C. Bdssettii, Hort.). Pseudobulbs clavate, 8-12 
in. tall, 1-lvd.: Ivs. oblong, 6-10 in. long: peduncle 

2-5 fld.; fls. 5-6 in. across; sepals and petals 
rose-purple, suffused with white, the sepals 
oblong, acute, the petals elliptic, undulate; 
h'p with the tube of same color as 
petals, the front lobe crisped, emar- 
ginate, amethyst-purple, the throat 
with 2 yellow or white blotches, 
separated by lines of amethyst- 
purple. Venezuela. C.O. 21. Var. 

842. Cattleya Warscewiczii 
var. gigas 

alba, Hort. Fls. white. O.R. 16:201. Var. Stanley!, 
Hort. Fls. white, disk of lip yellow, front lobe lined 
with purple. 

11. Mendelii, Backh. (C. labiata var. Mendelii, 
Reichb. f. C. Morganiae, Williams). Fig. 841. Pseudo- 
bulbs 12-16 in. tall, compressed, furrowed, 1-lvd.: lys. 
oblong, 6-10 in. long: peduncle with 2 or 3 fls. 7-8 in. 
across; sepals and petals white, or often tinted pale 
rosy mauve, the sepals oblong-lanceolate, the petals 
obliquely oval, obtuse, crisped; lip with the tube white 
or colored like petals, the front lobe much crisped, rich 
crimson-purple abruptly passing into the yellow throat 
which is reddish streaked. Colombia. O.R. 1:273; 
10:233. S.H. 2:413. C.O. 19. Var. Bluntii, Hort., has 
the fls. white, except a small yellow spot on lip. Var. 
Maudeae, Hort. White with rose markings on the lip. 
Var. gigantea, Hort., has a very large lip. Var. hack- 
bridgensis, Hort. Petals blotched with crimson. Var. 
Bertii, Hort. Fls. white tinted with rose. Var. leuco- 
glpssa, Hort. Sepals bluish tinted. Var. L6wiae, Hort. 
Lip white, pale purple at apex. Var. wisetonensis, 
Hort. Lip rich rose-purple, delicately veined; throat yel- 
low veined with reddish purple. Var. macroziana, 
Hort.j Fls. very large. R.H. 1903, p. 253 (desc.). Var. 
Lachneri, Hort. Lip curiously colored, front lobe hav- 
ing a broad marginal band of dark purple sparingly 
blotched with white and an inner band of lighter pur- 
ple. Var. Pietiae, Hort. Fls. nearly white; lip marked 
with pink. Var. majestica, Hort. Fls. large, white. 
Var. Dixonae, Hort. Attractive blush-pink form. Var. 
Lambeanana, Hort. Fls. white. 

12. Warscewiczii, Reichb. f. (C. labiata var. Wars- 
cewiczii, Reichb. f. C. gloridsa, Carr. C. imperialis, 
Wallis). Pseudobulbs 1 ft. or more tall, stout, com- 
pressed, furrowed, 1-lvd.: lys. oblong, 8-10 in. long: 
peduncle with 2 or 3 fls. 7-9 in. across; sepals and petals 
rosy mauve, the sepals lanceolate, acute, the petals 
oval, obtuse, undulate; lip entirely bright purple except 
2 yellow spots and lines of the same color in the throat, 
crisped, the front lobe ample. Colombia. O.R. 12:241. 
G.C. III. 22:163; 42:312. Gn. 33, p. 18. C.O.I. Var. 
gigas, Hort. (var. Sanderiana, Hort. C. gigas, Lind. 
& Andre\ C. Sanderiana, Hort. C. labiata var. San- 
deriana, Hort.). Fig. 842. A noble form, the sepals and 
petals dark rose, with a deep purple-magenta lip, the 
fls. larger than those of any other form of the labiata 
group. Colombia. I.H. 21 : 178. Gn. 45, p. 445. G.F. 
1:437. A.G. 19: July 23, suppl. F.R. 1:77, 674. F.E. 
10:892. C.L.A. 11 :42, 44. The following forms of this 
variety occur: alba, fls. pure white, the rarest of all 

cattleyas (O.R. 18:232); var. albescens, se- 
pals and petals white, with faint blush, the 
lip rose-purple, fringed; var. atropurpurea, of 
deeper color; var. rochellensis, sepals and 
petals white, the lip with the faintest 
trace of color. Var. saturata, Hort. 
Fls. bright rose, with ruby-crimson lip. 
13. Trianae, Lind. & Reichb. f. (C. 
labiata var. Trianse, Duch. C. Leedna, 
Sander. C. Rollissoniana, Moore. C. 
quadricolor, Batem. C. Massangedna, 
Reichb. f. C. bogotensis, Lind.). Fig. 
843. Pseudobulbs about 1 ft. . tall, 
clavate, 1-lvd. : Ivs. oblong, 6-8 in. long: 
peduncle bearing 2 or 3 fls. about 6 in. across; 
sepals and petals a delicate rose to white, the 
sepals oblong - lanceolate, the petals much 
broader than sepals, obtuse, oval-rhomboid, 
crisped; lip narrower than in the other 
related forms, the tube rose, the front lobe 
purple, less crisped than in most of the related species, 
emarginate, the throat yellow, often streaked with 
deeper color. Colombia. O.R. 6:145. B.M. 5504. 
R.H. 1860, pp. 406-7. A.G. 17:177. Gng. 3:151. A.F. 
6:607; 13:715. F.E. 9:325. F.R. 1:672-3. C.O. 5. 




S.H. 1:11, 27; 2:403, 405. Var. alba, Hort. Fls. white, 
except yellow blotch in throat. C.O. 5a. Var. atropur- 
purea, Hort. Fls. crimson-purple. Var. Backhousiana, 
Hort. Sepals and petals rose-purple, the petals strongly 
marked with amethyst-purple at the apex, the tube 
of lip rose-purple, the front lobe purple -magenta. 
C.O. 5e. Var. chocoensis, Hort. Fls. very fragrant, 
not fully expanding, the sepals and 
petals white, sometimes flushed 
pale lilac. I.H. 20:120. A.F. 6: 
563. Var. delicata, Hort. Sepals 
and petals white, faintly flushed 
pale amethyst-purple, the deeper 
lip with a pale yellow spot. F.M. 
1:8. Var. Schrdederae, Hort. (C. 
Schrbederae, Reichb. f.). Fls. fra- 
grant, the sepals and petals a deli- 
cate blush, faintly suffused with 
white, the petals and broader lip 
much more crisped than in other 
forms of this species. G.C. III. 
20:73. A.G.15:211. O.R.11:177. 
C.L.A. 11:45. F.E. 9:331. The 
following forms of this variety 
occur: dlba, the fls. pure white; 
dlbescens, the fls. nearly white; 
c&riilea, the lip a bluish color; 
Meta, sepals and petals pink, the 
throat bright yellow ; lilacina, lilac; 
refulgens. Var. grataxiana, Hort. 
A large and richly colored form. 
Var. Candida, Hort. Fls. snow- 
white; lip with faint violet spot. 
Var. coundoniensis, Hort. Purple- 
rose sepals and petals. Var. Marias, 
Hort. Silvery white sepals and 
petals veined with pink; front of 
lip deep magenta-crimson, with 2 
yellow blotches on throat. Var. 
triumphans, Hort. Sepals and 
petals rose-colored; lip rich purple 
with an orange-yellow tube. Var. 
enfieldiensis, Hort. Fls. white ; tip 
of lip blush-pink. Var. boetzelae- 
riensis, Hort. Rose-colored form. 
Var. tessellata, Hort. Large rose- 
colored form curiously marked. 
Var. Brandneriana, Hort. Anterior part of lip dark 
purple- violet. Var. Hdltzeii, Hort. Lip dark. Var. 
Wellesleyae, Hort. A pretty white form. Var. Moore- 
ana, Hort. Sepals and petals light rosy lilac; lip ruby- 
claret color, orange at base. Var. Holmesii, Hort. 
Broad petals and rich rose-purple lip. Var. brunoyen- 
sis, Hort. Sepals and petals mauve. Var. Goodsonii, 
Hort. Richly colored; petals flushed with deep rose. 

14. labiata, Lindl. (C. LenuAnei, Lindl. C. Naldere- 
dna, Reichb. f. C. Perrinii, Endl. C. labiata vera, 
Veitch. C. labiata autumnalis, L. Lind. C. labiata var. 
Warocqueana, Rolfe. C. Warocqueana, L. Lind.). 
Pseudobulbs claviform, compressed, furrowed, 4-8 in. 
tall, 1-lvd.: Ivs. 5-7 in. long, ovate or oblong: peduncle, 
from a double spathe, bearing 3-5 fls. about 6 in. across; 
sepals and petals usually rose-lilac, the sepals lanceo- 
late, the petals undulate; lip with the tube colored 
usually like the petals, the front lobe deeply emarginate, 
undulate-crisped, commonly a violet-purple with deeper 
veins, the color running in streaks to the yellow throat 
which has an orange spot each side. The color-varia- 
tions of this species are numerous. Brazil. B.R. 32:35; 
1859. O.R. 16:281. B.M. 3998. Gt. 5:146. F.S. 
1893-4. P.M. 4:121. A.G..17:65; 19:811. G.C. III. 
19:13. A.F. 6:607. F.R. 1:8; 2:531. Intro, from the 
Organ Mts. in S. Brazil in 1818. Var. alba, Hort. Fls. 
white, except yellow throat. C.O. 3. Var. Amesiana, 
Hort. Sepals and petals white, the lip lilac. Gn. 62, p. 
401. Var. Cooksdniae, Hort. Fls. white, except the 

843. Cattleya Trianoe 

crimson-purple lip with a narrow white margin. Var. 
superba, Hort. Sepals and petals deep rose, with a 
deep crimson-purple lip. 

15. Percivaliana, O'Brien (C. labiata var. Percivali- 
dna, Reichb. f.). Pseudobulbs up to 1 ft. tall, clavate, 
strongly furrowed when old, 1-lvd.: Ivs. oblong: pedun- 
cle bearing 2 or 3 fls. 4-5 in. across; sepals and petals 
commonly rose-lilac, tinted purple- 
amethyst, the sepals linear-lanceo- 
late, the petals longer than the 
sepals, crisped; lip rather small, 
shorter than the petals, the tube 
of the same color as petals, tinged 
with yellow, the front lobe purple- 
crimson, shaded with maroon, the 
undulate border lilac, the throat 
yellow to orange, streaked with 
purple. Venezuela. C.O.7. F.R. 
1:297. J.H. III. 32:179. Var. 
grandifldra, Hort. Fls. larger, the 
sepals and petals bright rose, the 
petals strongly crisped above, the 
lip with the tube yellow-orange 
variegated with rose, the front 
lobe maroon-purple with a bright 
rose border, the throat orange- 
yellow. C.O. 7a. Var. summiten- 
sis, Hort. Sepals and petals a pale 
delicate pink. 

16. Gaskelliana, Reichb. f. (C. 
labiata var. pdllida, Williams. C. 
labiata var. Gaskel- 
^^ liana, Sander.). Pseu- 
dobulbs 8^12 in. tall, 
oblong -fusiform, com- 
pressed, furrowed, 1-lvd.: Ivs. 8-12 
in. long, oblong: peduncle bearing 
2 or 3 Ifts. 6-7 in. across; sepals 
and petals of equal length, com- 
monly purple-violet, suffused with 
white, the color sometimes deeper 
and more uniform, rarely marked 
with a median band of white, the 
sepals lanceolate, the petals oval, 
undulate; lip as long as the petals, 
the tube of same color as petals, 

the front lobe emarginate, undulate, purple-violet, with 
a pale border, the throat yellow streaked with darker 
yellow, bordered on each side with a zone of yellowish 
white. Brazil and Venezuela. I.H. 33: 613. A.F. 6: 185; 
30:662. Var. alba, Williams. Sepals and petals pure 
white, the lip cream-white, the throat a pale yellow 
streaked with darker yellow. C.O. 20a. Var. caerftlea, 
Hort. Fls. pure white with bluish spot on base of lip. 
Var. Hodgkinsonii, Hort. Sepals and petals white; 
front of lip crimson. 

17. Wfirneri, Moore (C. trilabidta, Rodr. C. labiata 
var. Wdrneri, Veitch). Pseudobulbs 4-8 in. tall, cylin- 
dric or fusiform, furrowed, 1-lvd.: Ivs. oblong, 6-7 in. 
long: peduncle with 3-5 fls. 6-8 in. across; sepals and 
petals rosy mauve, the sepals lanceolate, the petals 
oval; lip shorter than lateral sepals, the tube the color 
of the petals, the front lobe strongly crisped, emargi- 
nate, bright purple- violet, the throat yellow- orange, 
streaked with white or pale lilac. Brazil. C.O. 12. 
A.F. 6:563. Very like C. labiata,, but flowering in late 
spring and early summer. Var. dlba, Hort. Fls. white, 
except the pale yellow throat, streaked with orange- 
yellow. C.O. 12a. 

18. luteola, Lindl. (C. Hdlfordii, Hort. C. fldvida, 
Klotzsch. C. Meyeri, Regel. C. modesta, Mey.). 
Dwarf: pseudobulbs 2-3 in. long, ovoid, 1-lvd.: Ivs. 
3-4 in. long, elliptic-oblong: peduncles bearing 2-5 fls. 
about 2 in. across; sepals and petals similar, yellow, 
oblong-lanceolate; lip nearly orbicular when spread 




out, yellow, the middle lobe crisped, whitish on margin, 

the side lobes sometimes streaked purple inside. Brazil. 

B.M. 5032. F.S. 23:2479. 

19. citrina, Lindl. (C. Kanwnskii, Mart.). Fig. 844. 

Pseudobulbs 2-3 in. long, ovoid, 2-3-lvd. : Ivs. 4-7 in. 

long, ligulate, acute, glaucous: peduncle pendent, 
bearing usually a single fra- 
grant fl., rarely 2 or 3 fls., 
yellow except the white 
border of front lobe of Up; 
sepals oblong, acute, the 
petals cuneiform-oblong; lip 
longer than the petals. Mex. 
B.M. 3742. J.H. III. 30:399. 
Gn. 33, p. 535. C.O. 6. F.S. 
16:1689. Gt. 27:931. R.l:20. 
Var. gigantea, Hort. Fls. 
large and intensely colored. 

20. amethystoglossa, Lind. & Reichb. 
f. (C. guttata var. Prinzii, Reichb. C. 
Prinzii, Hort. C. guttata var. Keleleerii, 
Houl.). Pseudobulbs 1M~3 ft.,cylindric, 
2-lvd.: Ivs. 6-12 in. long, elliptic-oblong: 
peduncles 5-8-fld.; fls. 3^-4^ in. across; 
sepals and petals white, suffused with 
rose -purple, spotted amethyst -purple, 
especially on the upper half, the dorsal 
sepal linear-oblong, the lateral falcate, 
the petals obovate, rounded at apex; lip 
much shorter than petals, the lateral 
lobes erect, purple at apex, the middle 
lobe broader than long, emarginate or 2- 
lobed, violet-purple, the radiating ridges 
papillose. Brazil. B.M. 5683. R.H.1869: 
210. G.G. III. 38:105. Var. Sanderae, 
Hort. A creamy white form. 

21. Bowringiana Veitch (C. autumna- 
lis, Hort. C. Skinneri var. Bowringiana, 
Kranzl). Pseudobulbs 10-20 in. tall, 
stout, fusiform above, 2-lvd.: Ivs. 6-8 in. 
long, oblong: peduncle bearing 5-12 fls. 
2^2-3 in. across; sepals, petals, and tube 
of the lip rose-purple, the sepals acute, 

oblong, somewhat undulate, the petals oval-oblong, 
obtuse, undulate; lip shorter than the lateral sepals, 
the front lobe emarginale, the throat with a large 
white spot, surrounded by a zone of bright maroon and 
bordered with deep purple. Honduras. R.B. 21:37. 
R.H. 1890:300. G.C. III. 39:114. A.F. 19: 651; 34: 804. 
C.O. 24. O.R. 12 : 361 ; 16 : 337. Var. triumphans, Hort. 
Fls. rich purple. 

22. Skinned, Lindl. (Epidendrum Hugelidnum, 
Reichb.). FLOWER OF ST. SEBASTIAN. Pseudobulbs 
5-10 in. tall, 2-lvd.: Ivs. 6-8 in. long, oblong-oval: 
peduncle bearing 5-10 fls. 3^-5 in. across, rose-purple 
except the white throat of the lip, the sepals elliptic- 
lanceolate, acutish, the petals oval-oblong, broader 
than the sepals; lip with the front lobe acute. Guate- 
mala to Costa Rica. B.M. 4270. P.M. 11:193. R.B. 
22:201. G.C. III. 20:6. G.F. 3:201. C.O. 30. Var. 
alba, Hort. Fls. white. 

23. Vict6ria-regina, O'Brien. Pseudobulbs \-\ l A 
ft. tall, somewhat compressed and clavate, 1-2-1 vd.: 
Ivs. 3-6 in. long, oblong or elliptic-oblong: peduncle 
bearing 2-5 fls., rarely more, 5-6 in. across; sepals 
purple a little tinged with yellow, striated with darker 
purple, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, the petals purple 
tinged with violet, obliquely striated with darker pur- 
ple, elliptic-oblong, obtuse, undulate; lip distinctly 
3-lobed, the lateral lobes exteriorly white or flushed 
with rose, violet-purple at the obtuse apex and inside, 
the front lobe reniform, bright rose-violet, crisped, the 
disk yellow streaked purple. Pernambuco. G.C. III. 
11:808. O.R. 3:17; 8:361. R.2:85. C.O. 3. Said to 
grow wild in company with C. labiata and C. Leopoldii 

844. Cattleya 
citrina. (XM) 

var. pernambucensis, and considered by some a natural 
hybrid between the two. The variability of 1 or 2 Ivs. 
on a pseudobulb points in this direction. 

24. intermedia, Graham (C. amethystina, Morr. C. 
ovdta, Lindl. C. maritima, Lindl. C. Ldddigesii var. 
amethystina, Lem. C. Aquinii, Rodr.). Pseudobulbs 
up to IK ft. tall, cylindric, somewhat furrowed, 2-lvd.: 
Ivs. 5-6 in. long, oblong: peduncle bearing 3-5 fls. 4-5 
in. across; sepals and petals equal, pale rose or white, 
acute, oblong, the lateral deflected, the petals somewhat 
falcate; lip a little shorter than the lateral sepals, dis- 
tinctly 3-lobed, the tube the same color as the petals, 
the lateral lobes rounded, the front lobe bright rose- 
purple, orbicular, strongly crisped. S. Brazil. B.M. 
2851. O.R. 8:73; 15:156. P.M. 1:151. J.F. 4:379. 
C.O. 8. B.R. 1919. V.0. 2:39. Var. Parthenia, 
Reichb. f. Fls. pure white. C.O. 8a. Var. punctatis- 
sima, Sander. Sepals and petals spotted and dotted 
with deep rose. C.O. 86. 

25. violacea, Rolfe (C. superba, Schomb. C. Schom- 
burgkii, Lindl. C. odor all ssima, P. N. Don). Pseudo- 
bulbs 8-12 in. tall, clavate, somewhat compressed, 
2-lvd.: Ivs. 3-5 in. long, oval or oval-oblong: peduncle 
bearing 3-5 fragrant fls. 4-5 in. across; sepals and petals 
bright rose-purple, the sepals oblong-lanceolate, acute, 
the petals oblong-rhomboid, acutish, undulate, broader 
than sepals; lip fleshy, distinctly 3-lobed, deep purple- 
violet except the yellow disk streaked with purple, the 
lateral lobes triangular, acutish, the front lobe nearly 
orbicular, crisped. N. S. Amer. B.M. 4083. P.M. 
9:265. J.H. III. 31:321. A.F. 11:1351. C.O. 28. Var. 
splendens, Hort., has paler fls. 

26. Loddigesii, Lindl. (C. Arembergii, Scheidw. C. 
intermedia var. variegdta, Hook.). Pseudobulbs 8-12 in. 
tall, cylindric, 2-lvd.: Ivs. 45 in. long, oblong-elliptic: 
peduncle bearing 2-5 fls. 3-4)^ in. across; sepals and 
petals rose-lilac, oblong-elliptic, the lateral sepals 
somewhat falcate, the petals a little broader than the 
sepals, undulate; Up shorter than the lateral sepals, 
distinctly 3-lobed, the tube externally colored like 
petals, internally whitish, the lateral lobes rounded, 
undulate, the front lobe nearly orbicular, pale ame- 
thyst, strongly crisped, the disk whitish passing into 
yellow at the base. Brazil. C.O. 18. O.R. 15:145. 
There is a white form. Var. alba, Hort. Var. 
delicata, Hort. Fls. bluish white. Var. innocens, Hort. 
Fls. milky white. Var. splendens, Hort. Fls. with 
bright purplish rose sepals; lip white inside, pale lilac 
outside; disk and side lobes pale yellow. 

27. Harrisoniana, Batem. (C. Hdrrisonise, Paxt. 
C. Papeiansidna, Morr. C. Hdrrisonii, Beer. C. 
Loddigesii var. Hdrrisonise, Veitch. C. Loddigesii 
var. Harrisoniana, Rolfe). Pseudobulbs 8-16 in. tall, 
cylindric, 2-lvd.: Ivs. 4-6 in. long, oblong-lanceolate: 
peduncle bearing 2-5 fls. 4r-&% in. across; sepals and 
petals similar, oblong, bright rose-lilac, the lateral 
sepals falcate, the petals undulate, a little broader 
than sepals; lip shorter than lateral sepals, 3-lobed, the 
tube the same color as the petals, the front lobe 
crisped, rose-purple, the disk yellow-orange. Brazil. 
P.M. 4:247. C.O. 17. Gn. 48:380. Var. alba, Beer. 
Fls. white, or sometimes faintly tinged with rose or 
yellow. C.O. 17a. Var. Candida, Hort. Fls. white 
except yellow disk of lip. Var. gigantea, Hort. A 
large form. Var. maculata, Hort. Fls. purple-dotted. 
Var. superbissima, Hort. Fls. large, the sepals and 
petals dark rose, the lip creamy white. Var. violacea, 
Hort. Fls. deeper colored. 

28. Leopoldii, Versch. (C. guttata var. Leopoldii, 
Lind. & Reichb. f.). Pseudobulbs 15-30 in. tall, fusi- 
form, 2-3-lvd.: Ivs. 6-8 in. long, oblong-elliptic: pedun- 
cle bearing 10-25 fls. 3-4 in. across; sepals and petals 
brown, oblong-cuneate, purple-spotted, the lateral 
sepals somewhat falcate, the petals undulate and a 
little broader than the sepals; lip strongly 3-lobed, the 




lateral lobes acute, the front lobe broadly cuneate- 
obcordate, undulate, bright amethyst-purple, the tube 
paler, the disk covered with small tubercles and elevated 
papillate lines. S.Brazil. C.O. 15. F.S. 14:1471-2. 

29. granulSsa, Lindl. Pseudobulbs 1-2 ft. tall, rather 
stout, cylindric, 2-lvd.: Ivs. 5-6 in. long, lanceolate- 
oblong: peduncle bearing 5-9 fls. 3-4 in. across; sepals 
and petals obtuse, olive-green, red-spotted, the lateral 
sepals strongly falcate and deflected, the petals obo- 
vate-oblong, a little wider than sepals, undulate; lip 
deeply 3-lobed, the tube white externally, internally 
yellowish or rose, the lateral lobes acute, the terminal 
lobe white, crimson-papillate, undulate, round-reni- 
form, emarginate, the long claw yellow, marked with 
crimson. Guatemala. B.R. 28:1. Gn.M. 9:30. C.O. 14. 
Var. Du Buysoniana, Hort. (C. Dubuysonidna, Hort.). 
Sepals and petals yellow, often spotted with rose. Var. 
Russelliana, Lindl. Lvs. broader: fls. larger with 
broader sepals and petals, the lateral lobes of lip orange- 
yellow internally, the front lobe spotted with small 
crimson-purple papillae. Brazil. B.R. 31:59. B.M. 
5048. Var. Schofieldiana, Veitch. (C. Schofieldidna, 
Reichb. f.). Sepals and petals yellow-brown, densely 
spotted with crimson-purple, the lateral lobes of lip 
cream-white externally, yellow, purple-marked inter- 
nally, the front lobe with numerous purple-magenta 
papillae, and a broad white border. Brazil. C.O. 14a. 

30. guttata. Lindl. (C. elatior, Lindl.). Pseudobulbs 
18-30 in. tall, cylindric, 2-lvd.: Ivs. 5-9 in. long, oblong- 
elliptic: peduncle bearing 5-10 fls. 3-4 in. across; sepals 
and petals yellowish green, spotted deep purple, the 
sepals obtuse, the lateral somewhat falcate, the petals 
undulate, broader than sepals; lip 3-lobed, the lateral 
lobes white externally, acute, the front lobe amethyst- 
purple, obcordate, papillate. S. Brazil. B.R. 1406. 

31. Schilleriana, Reichb. f. (C. Regnellii, Warner. 
C. Acldndise var. Schilleriana, Jenn.). Pseudobulbs 
5-6 in. tall, clavate, furrowed, 2-lvd.: Ivs. 2^-6 in. 
long, oblong-elliptic: peduncle bearing 1-3 fls. 4-5 in. 
across; sepals and petals olive-green tinted with brown 
and spotted with black-purple, oblong-ligulate, undu- 
late, especially in the petals; lip a little shorter than 
the lateral sepals, deeply 3-lobed, the lateral lobes 
whitish outside, pale yellow marked with purple inside, 
the front lobe reniform, sessile, crimson, lined and 
margined with white, undulate, the disk yellow with 5 
sunken lines. Brazil. B.M. 5150. F.S. 22:2286. A.F. 
6:563. C.O. 16. 

32. Forbesii, Lindl. (C. vestdlis, Hoffm.). Pseudo- 
bulbs 8-12 in. tall, cylindric, 2-lvd.: Ivs. 4-5 in. long, 
oblong: peduncle bearing 2-5 fls. 3-4 in. across; sepals 
and petals a pale yellowish green, obtuse, undulate, 
sepals oblong-ligulate, the petals oblong-lanceolate; 
lip distinctly 3-lobed, the tube pale yellow outside, 
inside a bright yellow streaked with red, the terminal 
lobe small, sessile, orbicular, undulate, pale yellow, with 
a bright yellow center marked with purple. S. Brazil. 
B.M. 3265. C.O. 11. B.R. 953. 

33. Walkeriana, Gardner (C. bulbosa, Lindl. C. 
Gardneridna, Reichb. f. C. princeps, Rodr.). Pseudo- 
bulbs 2-5 in. tall, oval-fusiform, furrowed, 1-lvd.: Ivs. 
2-5 in. long, oblong-elliptic: fls. 1-3, very fragrant, 3-5 
in. across, on a scaly st. arising from the base of the 
pseudobulb; sepals and petals pale rose-lilac or a deep 
purple-rose, the sepals oblong-lanceolate, acute, the 
petals about twice as wide, oval-rhomboid, undulate; 
lip a little shorter than sepals, fleshy, 3-lobed, the 
lateral lobes rose, separated, exposing the column, the 
front lobe nearly orbicular, emarginate, crisped, violet- 
purple, the disk yellow, streaked with bright purple. 
Brazil. B.R. 33:42. 

34. nobilior, Reichb. f. (C. Walkeriana var. nobilior, 
Veitch). Pseudobulbs 3-5 in. tall, ovate-fusiform or 
nearly clavate, furrowed, 2-lvd.: Ivs. 2-4 in. long, 

elliptic-ovate: fls. 1 or 2, on a scaly st. arising from the 
base of the pseudobulb, very fragrant, 3-4}^ in. across; 
sepals and petals purple-lilac, acute, the sepals oblong, 
the petals ovate-rhomboid, about twice the width of 
the sepals; lip fleshy, about as long as lateral sepals, 
deeply 3-lobed, the tube the same color as the petals, 
the front lobe broadly reniform, emarginate, scarcely 
undulate, the disk yellow, many-costate. Brazil. G.C. 
II. 19:729. I.H. 30:485. 

The following are some of the many hybrid forms: C. Adula= 
C. bicoIorxC. Hardyana; C. Albertii=C. intermedia X C. violacea; 
C. ataldnta=C. Leopoldii xC. Warscewiczii gigas; C. Ballantidna= 
C. TriansexC. Warscewiczii; C. &fesmsis=Lselio-cattleya; C. 
Brabdntix=C. AclandisexC. Loddigesii; C. Brymeridna=s\ipposed 
natural hybrid between C. violacea X C. Eldorado (C. O. 1 ) ; C. Cas- 
s<fn.dra=Laelio-cattleya; C. Chamberlainidna=C. Leopoldii xC. 
Dowiana; C. Dietrichidna=C. Schilleriana XC. Trianse; C. Dorman- 
odna=Laelio-cattleya; C. Duchesnei=C. bicolorxC. Harrisoniana 
(R.B. 30:3); C. Dusseldorffii var. Undine=C. intermedia X C. Mos- 
sise alba (O.R. 18:369); C. exom'ensis=Lselio-cattleya; C. faiista 
Lselio-cattleya; C. F6wleri=C. Leopoldii xC. Hardyana (C. O. 5); 
C. germdnia=C. granulosaxC. Hardyana; C. Hardy ana=C. Dow- 
iana X C. Warscewiczii (C.O. 2). O. R. 4:241; 5:363; 8:248; 11:336, 
337); C. Hdrrisii=C. Leopoldii X C. Mendelii; C. Heldisix=C. 
Forbesii XC. Mossise; C. hybrida ptcta=C. guttata xC. Loddigesii; 
C. interglt>ssa=C. amethystoglossa X C. intermedia; C. Krameridna 
==C. Forbesii XC. intermedia; C, Lourydna=C. Forbesii XC. inter- 
media; C, Mdnglesii=C. Loddigesii X C. Luddemanniana; C. Mdn- 
tinii=C. BowringianaxC. Dowiana (C.O. 7. O.R. 10:337); C. 
Af<irdeHi'i= Lselio-cattleya; C. Mdrstersonise=C. labiataXC. Lod- 
digesii; C. Medsuresix=C. Luddemanniana X C. velutina; C. Min- 
ucia=G. Loddigesii X C. Warscewiczii gigas; C. m6llis=C. Gaskel- 
HanaxC. violacea; C. O' Brienidna=consideTed by some a natural 
hybrid between C. Loddigesii X C. dolosa (C.O. 8) ; C. Pittix=C. 
Dowiana XC. Harrisoniana; C. Pittidna=C. Dowiana X C. granu- 
losa (C.O. 28); C. P6rtia=C. BowringianaxC. labiata; C. Thay- 
eridna=G. intermedia X C. Schroederae (O.R. 12:49); C. weedon- 
iensis=C. granulosaxC. Mendelii; C. Whitei=C. Schilleriana X C. 
Warneri (B.M. 7727); C. Zeno6i'a=Lselio-cattleya. 

C. Abelidna, Hort. Fls. creamy yellow, speckled with purple 
on the lip. Peru. C. Forgetidna, Rolfe. Somewhat resembling C. 
Lawrenceana. Scape bearing 2 fls.; sepals and petals rose-purple. 
Brazil. -C. Grdssii, Hort., var. pdllida. A nearly white form; 
sepals slightly tinged with green; lip pale rose. C. Hardydna, 
Hort., var. aiirea. Lip deep yellow. C. Jenmanii, Rolfe. Allied 
to C. Gaskelliana, but Ivs. broader and fls. smaller. British Guiana. 
C. margindta, Paxt.=Llia pumila. C. velutina, Reichb. Sts. 
slender, the fragrant fls. with the sepals and petals orange, spotted 
purple, the lip orange and white, veined violet. Brazil. G.C. III. 
24:333. C.O. 29a. GEORGE V. NASH. 

CAULIFLOWER (Brdssica olerdcea, Linn., var. 
botrytis, DC.). A form of the common cabbage species, 
producing an edible head of malformed and condensed 
flowers and flower-stems (the word cauliflower means 
stem-flower) ; it will hybridize with the cabbage and 
form some very interesting freaks. See Forcing. 

A perfect "curd" or head of cauliflower is one in which 
the parts are so adjusted to one another that it looks 
almost homogeneous. This condition is most often 
found in the young or partly developed heads. As soon 
as segmentation begins to take place, the curd has 
reached full development and maturity from the mar- 
ket-gardeners' standpoint. The breaking-up of the 
curd is an indication of the formation of floral parts. 
The value of the curd depends upon its symmetry and 
form; and the length of time that it will hold without 
beginning to break up into distinct parts. 

Not all plants produce perfect curds. Growers 
recognize a peculiar form which is known as the "ricy" 
curd illustrated at a in Fig. 845.- Another form, which 
is equally undesirable is a segmented curd between the 
segments of which leaves appear, known as a "leafy" 
curd shown at b. A head in perfect condition is shown 
at c. Segments are apparent in c, but the develop- 
ment of the curd is almost ideal and the head as a whole 
is very nearly perfect. It is the aim of the seed-grower 
as well as of the gardener to produce plants which will 
return curds of the type shown at c. 

Cauliflower is the most fastidious and exacting mem- 
ber of the cabbage family. It is less tolerant of adverse 
soil and climatic conditions than any of its near rela- 
tives. This accounts, in a great measure, for its limited 
cultivation and the fact that it is grown only in certain 
localities. When well grown, however, it is one of the 
most profitable market-garden crops. Because of its 




intolerance to heat, it is grown in the open so as to take 
advantage of the cool seasons of early spring and 
autumn. It is one of those crops, therefore, which is 
less adaptable than those having a greater range of 
heat-endurance. If the season happens to be favorable 
the amateur may have good luck, but if the season 
proves severe the most expert grower may fail. 

A rich loamy soil, thoroughly charged with available 
plant-food is suited to this plant. Light thin sandy 
soils or those extremely heavy and retentive are, as a 
rule, not well suited for this crop. The soil should be 
one which does not dry out quickly but which will 
furnish the plants a constant supply of moisture. 
High-grade cauliflower is quite as dependent upon 
careful handling of the plants and a constantly avail- 
able supply of moisture as high-grade celery. Among 
the fertilizers, none is better than well-decomposed 
manure from the horse-stable, thoroughly incorporated 
with the soil at the time of preparing it for the crop. 

If commercial fertilizers are necessary, quick-acting 
ones are most desirable, except it is thought that sul- 
fate of potash is preferable to muriate. The nitrogen- 
content of the fertilizer, however, should be in the 
form of nitrate of soda or sulfate of ammonia rather 
than in a slow-acting form. If a fertilizer is to be used, 
a portion of it should be scattered over the field before 
the plants are set. An application of 500 pounds to 
the acre at this time, applied broadcast, and a side 
dressing about the time "buttons" begin to form, will 
prove an advantage. The side dressing may be at the 
rate of 500 pounds, making a total application of 1,000 
pounds to the acre. A good fertilizer is one carrying 3 
to 4 per cent of nitrogen, 6 to 8 per cent of phosphoric 
acid and about 10 per cent of potash. 

Cauliflower plants in northern latitudes are handled 
so as to prepare them either for an early or a late crop. 
The early crop should be started at the same tune as 
early cabbage, or a few days later. Cauliflower plants 
cannot, however, be started in the autumn and suc- 
cessfully wintered in coldframes, as can early cabbage 
plants. Plants so handled are less likely to give a desira- 
ble product. The best early-crop plants are produced 
from hotbed or greenhouse propagated stock started 
in a mild temperature and grown so as to produce a 
sturdy broad-leaved plant to be set in the field a few 

845. Types of cauliflower heads: a, ricy; b, leafy; c, perfect. 

days later than the early crop of cabbage. Young cauli- 
flower plants are less hardy than young cabbage plants 
and, for this reason, planting in the open must be some- 
what delayed. 

For the late cauliflower crop in the North, seed-beds 
are prepared on the shady side of a building or in a 
partially shaded situation and handled in same manner 
as seed-beds for late cabbage, the late crop in the Long 
Island region being placed in the open the last days of 
June or early in July. 

The early crop is usually grown on a smaller scale 
than the autumn crop. Plants grown in the hotbed are 
usually transplanted and the transplanted plants 
carried and set in the field by hand. The distance be- 
tween the rows should be sufficient to permit of culti- 
vation with horse-power implements, but the plants need ' 
not be set more than 18 inches apart in the row. 

The late crop, however, is frequently transplanted 
during the drier parts of the season and, largely on 
this account, growers prefer to use a transplanting 
machine so as to water the plants at the same time they 
are set. A convenient distance between the rows is 3 
feet, with the plants 20 to 24 inches apart in the row, 
depending upon the variety grown. 

The old adage that "cabbage should be hoed every 
day" applies with equal force to cauliflower. Cultiva- 
tion should be of such character as to prevent the 
formation of a crust and to discourage the development 
of weeds. The maintenance of a soil-mulch by shallow 
cultivation which shall not disturb or severely prune the 
roots of the plants is desirable. 

Cauliflower is subject to the same enemies and dis- 
eases as cabbage. Clubroot and mildew are two of the 
most annoying diseases. The aphis, root-maggot and 
both the green cabbage-worm and the cabbage- looper are 
annoying pests. The delicacy of the curd requires that 
the plants be kept perfectly free from insects which 
devour any portion of the plant. 

Cauliflower requires more careful field attention than 
that required by any other garden crop except those that 
are blanched either by tying or banking. The young 
curd of the cauliflower, as soon as it has reached the 
size of a hen's egg, should be carefully protected from 
the elements by adjusting the leaves in such a man- 
ner as to prevent discoloration by the action of sun or 
rain. The expert growers accomplish this and at the 
same time indicate the stage of maturity of the plants 
by different methods of folding the leaves together over 
the curd or by tying them with different tying materials, 
a different method being used each time the field is 
gone over. To illustrate: the earliest developed curds 
may be protected by tying the leaves together with rye 
straw, the next later size may be indicated by folding 
the leaves together over the plant, while the third may 
be indicated by tying the leaves with raffia. Usually 
three operations will be sufficient to care for the entire 
season's crop. As soon as the curds have reached the 
desired market size, which varies greatly with different 
producers and somewhat also with different varieties 
and is to a degree dependent upon the season and 
fertility of the land, the plants are harvested by cutting 
the heads with at least two or three whorls of leaves 

After the heads have been cut and a sufficient num- 
ber assembled in one place to justify packing, they are 
trimmed by using a large knife to sever the leaves just 
above the edge of the curd so as to form a border or 
"ruche" of leafstalks with a part of the blade attached 
about the curd. This border of stiff green leafstalks 
about the white curd gives it a very attractive appear- 

After the curds have been properly trimmed, which 
varies somewhat with different operators, they are pro- 
tected by the use of tea paper, either white or brown, 
placed over the head in such a manner as to protect it 
from dirt and contact with its neighbors. The curds 
are then packed in crates or barrels, the California and 
Florida product being largely packed in crates holding 
one dozen heads in a single layer. If the heads are to 
be packed in barrels, a layer of excelsior is first placed 
in the barrel and the wrapped heads, curd down, are 
carefully placed so as to form a layer resting upon the 
excelsior over the bottom of the barrel. The next row 
of curds is placed stem end down and curds up; on top 
is placed another cushion of excelsior and the operation 
repeated until the barrel is filled in such a manner as to 




leave the last row with the stem end upward, over which 
a cushion of excelsior and a burlap cover are placed. 
Ventilated barrels are ordinarily used for this purpose, 
but for long-distance shipment the smaller crates hold- 
ing a single layer of heads have proved most advan- 

During late years, the marketing of this crop has been 
very greatly facilitated and the returns to the growers 
considerably enhanced by a cooperative method of 
sale which has taken into consideration a more ex- 
tended distribution of the crop than formerly. In this 
the Long Island Cauliflower-Growers' Association and 
the California Vegetable-Growers' Union have both 
been very helpful. 

One of the handicaps in the cultivation of cauliflower 
has been the entire dependence of the American 
growers on foreign seed, little or no cauliflower seed 
having been produced in this country and that in the 
open only in the Puget Sound region. The seed has 
been expensive and not always to be depended upon. 
The greatest care should be given to securing a per- 
fectly reliable stock of seed. 


Broccoli, which is a long-season cauliflower, is in all 
respects like cauliflower except that its vegetative parts 
are somewhat coarser, the heads somewhat smaller, and 
it does not form an edible curd early in its life as does 

Broccoli is cultivated only in climates having a mild 
winter, when it can be planted the summer before and 
carried through the winter to form heads early the fol- 
lowing spring. It is a popular plant in all parts of 
France and particularly in England. It is undoubtedly 
the parent type of the cauliflower, the cultivated varie- 
ties of cauliflower being short-season forms. 

For best results, the seed should be sown at the same 
time as that of autumn cabbage and the plants trans- 
planted to the field about the same time, so that they 
will make their vegetative growth during the late sum- 
mer and autumn. Where winters are mild, the plants 
can be left in the open, but in more rigorous climates 
at the approach of cold weather, a small number of 
plants can be lifted with earth adhering to the roots, 
stored in a suitable root-cellar, and the following spring 
transferred to the open to form heads. 


CAULOPHYXLUM (Greek, stem-leaf). Berberi- 
ddcex. BLUE COHOSH. Two species of perennial herbs 
(sometimes combined with Leontice), one in E. Amer. 
and the other in Asia, the former sometimes removed 
from the woods to cult, grounds. Rhizomatous: sts. 
erect, very smooth: If. 1, large, triternately compound 
and sessile: fls. small, yellow-green, panicled; sepals 6, 
subtended by 3 or 4 bracts; petals 6, much smaller than 
the sepals and appearing like glands or scales; stamens 
6; ovary soon bursting, freeing the 2 ovules which 
develop into depressed-globular berry-like seeds (with- 
out pericarp). C. thalictrioides, Michx., Fig. 846, is 
the American species, a smooth or glaucous plant of 
rich woods from Canada south, 2-2^ ft. high. The 
plant is always attractive because of its trim growth 
and interesting habit; in Sept. and later, when the foli- 
age is dead, the drupe-like seeds stand erect on the dry 
stalks and afford one of the richest and best of deep 
blues - L. H. B. 

CAUTLEA (Sir P. Cautley, 1802-1871, British natu- 
ralist). Zingiberacex. About a half-dozen Himalayan 
species closely allied to Roscoea, differing in the 
spherical rather than narrow fr., and the spicate infl. 
Probably not in cult, in this country. C. liitea, Royle 
(Roscbea liitea, Royle. R. grdcilis, Smith). Erect or 
leafy perennial herb, \ l /% ft. or less: Ivs. narrow-lanceo- 
late, slender-tipped, reddish underneath: fls. 2 in. or 
less long; corolla yellow; calyx reddish purple, the linear 

segms. prominent, the lateral ones spreading or reflexed 
and the dorsal one erect and with an incurved erect 
staminode under it. Treatment of Alpinia and 

CAVAN: Acacia Cavenia, 
CAYRATIA JAPONICA: Cissus japonica. 

CEANOTHUS (ancient Greek name). Rhamnacex. 
Ornamental woody plants grown for their profusely 
produced white, blue or 
pink flower-clusters. 

Deciduous or evergreen 
shrubs or trees: Ivs. alter- 
nate or sometimes opposite, 
short-petioled, serrate or 
entire, usually 3 - nerved, 
with small stipules: fls. per- 
fect, small, 5-merous, in 
small umbels forming pani- 
cles or racemes; sepals often 
incurved, colored; petals 
clawed, spreading or re- 
curved; filaments slender; 
disk annular; ovary partly 
adnate to the calyx -tube, 
3-celled; style 3-cleft: fr. a 
3-celled drupe, dry at length 
and separating into 3 one- 
seeded dehiscent nutlets. 
Nearly 50 species in N. 
Amer., chiefly in the Pacific 
coast region. 

These are free-flowering 
shrubs, some especially 
valuable for their late 
flowering period. Many of 
them are hardy only in the 
warmer temperate regions, 
but C. americanus, C. ovatus, 
and C. Fendleri are hardy 
North, while the numerous 
hybrids of C. americanus 
are only half hardy, and 
even if protected they are 
killed to the ground in the 
North, but the young shoots 
will usually flower the same season. The safest way, 
however, to have good free-flowering plants of these 
beautiful hybrids will be, in the North, to dig them up 
in fall, store them away in a frost-proof pit or cellar, and 
plant them out again in spring. Pruning of the late- 
flowering species will be of advantage; about one-half 
of last year's growth may be taken away. They grow 
in almost any soil, but best in a light and well-drained 
one, and most of the Californian species prefer a sunny 
position. Propagated by seeds sown in spring and by 
cuttings of mature wood in autumn, inserted in a cold- 
frame or greenhouse; softwood cuttings also grow 
readily if taken in early spring from forced plants. 
Sometimes increased by layers, and the varieties and 
hybrids by grafting on roots of C. americanus under 
glass in early spring; the cions must be fresh and with 
leaves, taken from plants kept in the greenhouse 
during the winter. 

846. Seed -berries of blue 

cohosh, Caulophyllum thalictri- 
oides. (X 1 A) 

albo-plenus, 4. 
americanus, 1. 
arboreus, 7. 
Arnouldii, 4. 
atrocxruleus, 4. 
azureus, 8. 
bicolor, 8. 
cxruleus, 8. 
cuneatus, 14. 
divaricatus, 12. 


Fendleri, 10. 
hirsutus, 9. 
hybridus, 4. 
integerrimus, 11. 
intermedius, 1. 
Lobbianus, 5. 
Orcuttii, 9. 
oreganus, 3. 
oralis, 2. 

ovatus, 2. 
pallidus, 4. 
prostratus, 15. 
rosetts, 4. 
sanguineus, 3. 
spinosus, 13. 
thyrsiflorus, 5. 
Veitchianus, 5. 
velutinus, 6, 7. 




A. Lvs. alternate. (Nos. 1-13.) 

B. Margin of Ivs. serrate or crenate. 

c. Foliage glabrous beneath or slightly pubescent. 

D. Fls. white: Ivs. thin, deciduous. 
E. Peduncles slender, at the end of the new growth. 
1. americanus, Linn. Fig. 847. Low, erect shrub, to 
3 ft.: Ivs. ovate, usually acute, finely and irregularly 
serrate, bright green and dull above, paler and pubes- 
cent or nearly glabrous 
beneath, 1^-3 in. 
long: fls. in terminal 
and axillary panicles 
on slender peduncles, 
forming large, corym- 
bose panicles. July- 
Sept. From Canada 
to S. C. and Texas. 
B.M. 1479. Gt. 61, p. 
92. Gn. 56, p. 137. 
Common in dry woods 
and making a pro- 
fusion of bloom, which, 
however, is short-lived. 
* Many hybrids have 
been raised from this 
, species in Eu. (see C. 
' hybridus). Var. inter- 
medius, Trel. (C. in- 
termedius, Pursh), has 
smaller, ovate or 
ovate - lanceolate Ivs. 
and the fls. in small, 
very slender - pedun- 
cled, short racemes or 
panicles. Tenn. to S. C. 
2. ovatus, Desf. (C. 
ovdlis, Bigel.). Low 
shrub: Ivs. elliptic to 
elliptic-lanceolate, ob- 
tuse or acute, crenulate-serrate, nearly glabrous, glossy 
above, 1-2 in. long: infl. like the former, but usually 
smaller. New England to Colo, and Ala. 

EE. Peduncles usually stout, from lateral buds of the 
old wood. 

3. sanguineus, Pursh (C. oregdnus, Nutt.). Tall 
shrub, with purple or reddish glabrous branches: Ivs. 
orbicular to ovate or obovate, obtuse, serrate, nearly 
glabrous, 1-3 in. long: fls. in rather long, narrow pani- 
cles, on stout, leafless peduncles, axillary, from branches 
of the previous year. May, June. Brit. Col. to Calif. 
B.M. 5177. 

DD. Fls. blue or pink, rarely white: Ivs. usually 

4. hybridus, Hort. Hybrids of garden origin, chiefly 
between C. americanus and C. thyrsiflorus, between C. 
ovatus and C. thyrsiflorus and between C. americanus 
and C. azureus; the hybrids of the first group may be 
classed under C. roseus, Koehne, of the second under C. 
pallidus, Lindl., and those of the third group under C. 
Arnouldii, Hort. Some of the most distinct are: dlbo- 
plenus, with double white fls.; atrocaeruleus purpiireus, 
fl. blue, foliage purple when young; Arnouldii, fls. sky- 
blue, in large panicles; Gloire de Versailles, with 
bright blue, large panicles (M.D.G. 1903:485); Gloire 
de Plantieres, fls. dark blue, in large panicles; Victor 
Jouin, fls. deep blue, darker than in the preceding, one 
of the hardiest hybrids; Ciel de Provence, fls. deep blue, 
profusely produced (R.H. 1903:332); Marie Simon, 
fls. flesh-colored; roseus, fls. pink (R.H. 1875:30); 
pallidus, fls. pale blue, Ivs. green and pubescent below 
(B.R. 26:20). 

5. thyrsiflorus, -Each. Shrub or small tree: Ivs. ob- 
long, obtuse, crenate-serrate, nearly glabrous, 1-1 J^ 

847. Ceanothus americanus. ( X Ja) 

in. long: fls. blue, rarely white, in narrow panicles, 
about 3 in. long. May-July. Ore. to Calif. B.R. 
30:38. S.S. 2:64. G.C. III. 20:363; 37:179; 41:221. 
Gn. 74, p. 303. G.M. 50:430. A very fine, free-flower- 
ing species of beautiful blue color. Probably natural 
hybrids of this species are: C. Veitchidnus, Hook. (C. 
thyrsiflorus x C. rigidus), with deep blue fls. in dense 
panicled clusters (B.M. 5127; F.S. 13:1383), and C. 
Lobbianus, Hook. (C. thyrsiflorus x C. dentatus), with 
deep blue fls., in oval, peduncled, solitary clusters. B. 
M. 4810 (4811 by error). F.S. 10:1016. 

cc. Foliage tomentose or densely pubescent beneath: half- 
evergreen or evergreen (see also C. hybridus). 
D. Branchlets and the veins beneath nearly glabrous: Ivs. 
very obtuse: fls. white. 

6. velutinus, Douglas. Tall shrub: Ivs. persistent, 
broadly elliptic, mostly subcordate, obtuse, serrate, 
dark green and glabrous above, canescent beneath, but 
the veins glabrescent, 2-3 in. long: fls. in large, com- 
pound panicles at the ends of the branches. June, July. 
Brit. Col. to Colo, and Calif. B.M. 5165. 

DD. Branchlets and the veins tomentose or pubescent: Ivs. 

mostly acute: fls. usually blue. 

E. The Ivs. glabrous or puberulous above, whitish or 
tawny tomentose beneath. 

7. arbdreus, Greene (C. velutinus var. arbdreus, 
Sarg.). Small tree, with whitish bark: branchlets at 
first angled and pubescent, later glabrescent and glossy : 
Ivs. elliptic-ovate, obtusish or acutish, rounded or sub- 
cordate at the base, closely serrate, with close white 
tomentum beneath, 1^-3 in. long: fls. pale blue to white 
in panicles 2-3 in. long. Spring. Isls. off the Calif, 
coast. S.S. 2:65. 

8. azureus, Desf. (C. bicolor, HBK. C. cseriileus, 
Lag.). Tall shrub: branchlets terete, densely tomen- 
tose: Ivs. oblong-ovate or oblong, acute or obtuse, 
rounded at base, serrate, with villous tawny tomentum 
beneath, 1-3 in. long: fls. deep blue, in slender panicles 
2-4in. long. Spring. Mex. L.B.C. 2:110. B.R. 4:291. 
P.M. 2:74. Gn. 61, p. 223. Under this name, a hybrid 
species with C. americanus is often cult. 

EE. The Ivs. villous or hirsute on both sides, usually green 

9. hirsutus, Nutt. Shrub or small tree, with villous 
branches: Ivs. broadly elliptic or ovate, rounded or 
cordate at the base, obtuse or acute, with glandular 
teeth, 3^-2 in. long: fls. deep blue to purplish, in nar- 
row panicles 1-2 in. long. April, May. Calif. Called 
"wild lilac" in Calif. Var. Orcuttii, Trel. (C. Orcuttii, 
Torr.). Fls. blue, paler: fr. loosely villous. 

BB. Margin of Ivs. entire or nearly so (sometimes serrate 

on vigorous shoots). 
c. Shrub prostrate: fls. white. 

10. Fendleri, Gray. Low, prostrate and spiny shrub : 
Ivs. oval, rounded or nearly acute at both ends, entire, 
rarely finely serrulate, grayish green, minutely tomen- 
tose beneath, J^-l in. long: fls. white, in short racemes, 
terminal, on short, lateral branchlets. June, July. 
From S. D. to New Mex. and Ariz. R.H. 1901, p. 423. 
M.D.G. 1908:208; 1912:499. A very graceful and 
free-flowering shrub of almost creeping habit, well 
adapted for covering dry, sandy banks; half evergreen 
and hardy N. 

cc. Shrubs tall, upright. 
D. Branchlets terete or slightly angled, rarely spiny. 

11. integerrimus, Hook. & Arn. Tall, erect shrub, 
with glabrescent branches: Ivs. broadly elliptic or ovate, 
obtuse, sparingly hairy or glabrous; bright green be- 
neath, 1-3 in. long: fls. blue, sometimes white, fragrant, 
in 3-6 in. long, narrow panicles. April-June. Wash, to 
Calif, and S. E. Ariz. B.M. 7640. 




12. divaricatus, Nutt. Tall, erect shrub, with usually 
glaucous branches and often spiny: Ivs. ovate, obtuse or 
nearly acute, glaucous and glabrous or grayish tomen- 
to.> below, fcfr-1 in. long: fls. pale blue, sometimes 
whitish, in 2-3 in. long, narrow panicles. April-June. 
Calif. Gn. 74, p. 425 (habit). 

DD. Branchlets angled, spiny. 

13. spindsus, Nutt. Tall shrub, sometimes arbores- 
cent: branchlets glabrous: Ivs. elliptic to oblong, thinly 
coriaceous, rounded or broadly cuneate at the base, 
very obtuse or emarginate, scarcely 3-nerved, glabrous, 
]/y-\\^, in. long: fls. light blue to almost white in large 
terminal panicles 4-6 in. long. Spring. Cent, and S. 
Calif., Coast Range and down to sea-level. S.S. 13:621. 

AA. Lvs. opposite, persistent. 

14. cuneatus, Nutt. Tall, much-branched shrub: Ivs. 
epatulate or cuneate-obovate, mostly obtuse, entire, 
minutely tomentose beneath, J^-l in. long: fls. white, 
in small clusters along the branches. March-May. 
Ore. to Calif. B.H. 8:170. 

15. prostratus, Benth. Procumbent shrub: Ivs. cu- 
neate, obovate or spatulate, coarsely and pungently 
toothed, sometimes only 3-pointed at the apex, often 
minutely silky when young, y 2 -l in. long: fls. blue, in 
clusters, terminal on short branchlets. Spring. Wash, 
to Calif. 

C.africanus, Linn.=Noltea af ricana. C. dentatus, Torr. & Gray. 
Low shrub: Ivs. oblong, penninerved, dentate, glandular-papillate 
above, loosely hairy: fls. blue, in peduncled clusters. Calif. F.S. 
6:567, 2. B.H. 3:101. C. dentatus var. floribiindus, Trel. (C. 
floribundus, Hook.). Fl.-clusters numerous, nearly sessile: Ivs. 
smaller. B.M. 4806. F.S. 10:977. I. H. 7:238. B.H. 5:129. C. 
folidsus. Parry. Low shrub: Ivs. small, broadly elliptic, glandular- 
toothed, slightly hairy, pale or glaucous beneath: fls. deep blue, in 
numerous small clusters. Calif. C Isevigatus, Douglas. Tall shrub: 
Ivs. broadly elliptic, serrate, glabrous, glaucous beneath: fls. yellow- 
ish white, in large panicles. Calif. C. microphyllus, Michx. Low 
shrub: Ivs. very small, obovate or elliptic, nearly glabrous: fls. 
white, in small, short-peduncled clusters. C. papittdsus, Torr. & 
Gray. Low shrub: Ivs. narrow-oblong, dentate, glandular-papillate 
above, villous beneath: fls. deep blue, in peduncled, axillary oblong 
clusters. Calif. B.M. 4815. F.S. 6:567, 1. P.F.G. 1, p. 74 R.H. 
1850:321. C. Pdrryi, Trel. Large shrub: Ivs. elliptic or ovate, den- 
ticulate, cobwebby beneath: fls. deep blue, in peduncled, narrow 
panicles. Calif. C. rlgidus, Nutt. Rigid, much-branched shrub: 
Ivs. opposite, cuneate-obovate, denticulate, usually glabrous, small: 
fls. blue, in small, nearly sessile, axillary clusters. Calif. B.M. 4660 
(as C. verrucosus) and 4664. J.F. 3:316; 4:348. C. verruc6sus, 
Nutt. Low shrub: Ivs. mostly alternate, roundish obovate, emar- 
ginate, denticulate, nearly glabrous, small: fls. white, in small, 
axillary clusters along the branches. Calif. C. verrucdsus, Hook.= 

C. rigidus. ALFRED REHDER. 

CEBATHA: Cocculus. 

CECROPIA (from Greek word referring to use of 
the wood of some species in making wind instru- 
ments). Moracese. Milky-juiced trees, with peltate 
leaves, sometimes planted in grounds in tropics and 
warm countries. 

Leaves large, alternate, long-petioled, the blade cir- 
cular in outline; segms. or Ifts. 7-11: dioecious; fls. very 
email, sessile in cylindrical heads or receptacles, which 
are arranged in umbels; calyx tubular and petals 0; 
sterile fls. with 2 stamens; fertile fls. with free ovary 
and divided stigma: frs. small 1-seeded nuts combined 
into short spikes. Species about 40, from Mex. to 
Brazil. C. peltata, Linn., is the trumpet-tree of the 
W. Indies and S. It is a middle-sized tree with Ivs. 
1 ft. across; hollow branches used for the making of 
wind instruments. The juice of some species yields 
rubber. The hollow stems are often perforated by ants, 
which nest and rear their young in them. 

palmata, Willd. Fig. 848. A characteristic tree of 
the farther W. Indies (and planted somewhat in S. 
Fla.), with a single long weak thin trunk and at the top 
a few horizontal or deflexed awkward branches bear- 
ing at their ends large palmate Ivs. with divisions like 
thumbs, the trunk and branches partitioned at the 

nodes: Ivs. 7-11-lobed to the middle, white-tomentose 
beneath, the lobes oblong-obovate and blunt. The 
tree attains a height of 50 ft.: wood soft; branches 
more or less hollow; grows rapidly, like an herb; often 
covering areas that have recently been burned over. 

L. H. B. 

CEDAR: Cedrus, Juniperus. 

CEDAR, WHITE: Thuya, Chamxcyparis. 


CEDRELA (from Cedrus, the wood resembling that 
of Cedrus). Melidcese. Including Todna. Ornamental 
trees, grown for their handsome foliage; some are 
valuable timber trees. 

Trees with alternate, usually abruptly pinnate Ivs., 
without stipules: Ifts. petioled, entire or slightly serrate: 
fls. inconspicuous, whitish, usually perfect, 4-5-merous, 
in large, pendulous, terminal panicles; calyx short, 
4-5-parted, the petals forming a tube with spreading 
limb, below partly adnate to the disk; stamens shorter 
than petals; ovary 5-celled; style simple, with capitate 
stigma, somewhat longer than the stamens: fr. a caps., 
dehiscent, with 5 valves not splitting to the base, with 
many flat, winged seeds. Nine species in Trop. Amer. 
and 8, forming the subgenus Toona, in E. India and 
Austral. Toona is often considered a distinct genus, 
distinguished from Cedrela by the disk being much 
longer than the ovary and by the seeds being winged 
above or at both ends, while in Cedrela the disk is as 
long or shorter than the ovary and the seeds are winged 
below. The first 3 species below belong to the sub- 
genus Toona, the others are true cedrelas. 

Cedrelas are tall ornamental trees with large pinnate 
f oliage, well adapted for avenues : C. sinensis is hardy as 
far north as Massachusetts; the others are hardy only 
in southern California and in the Gulf states except C. 
odorata, which is tender even there. The wood of some 
species, particularly of C. odorata, is known as cedar 
wood, and much valued for making furniture and 
boxes. They thrive best in rich loam, and are propa- 
gated by seeds or by cuttings of mature wood, and, also, 
by root-cuttings, all with bottom heat. 

848. Cecropia 



849. Leaflets of Cedrela 
and Ailanthus. Cedrela on 
the right. 

A. Lfts. 10-25. 

B. Lvs. quite glabrous. 

c. Margin of Ivs. more or less serrate: panicles very long, 

pendulous: seeds winged above. 

sinensis, Juss. (Tobna sinensis, Roem. Aildnthus 
flavescens, Carr.). Tree to 50 ft.: Ivs. long - petioled, 
10-20 in. long; Ifts. 10-22, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate, slightly and re- 
motely serrate, light green 
beneath, 4-8 in. long: fls. 
white, in very long, pendulous 
panicles; ovary glabrous; 5 
subulate staminodes alter- 
nating with the stamens: fr. 
oblong or obovate, about 1 
in. long. June. China. R.H. 
1891, p. 574-5; 1875, p. 87. 
Gng.4:l. M.D.G. 1902: 495. 
F. 1876, p. 175. F.E. 13, p. 
1. Ornamental tree, with 
large feathery foliage; very 
valuable for avenues; similar 
to ailanthus, and nearly of the 
same hardiness, but of more 
regular and dense growth, 
and without the disagreeable 
odor when flowering. Ailan- 
thus can be easily distin- 
guished by the few coarse 
teeth near the base of the 
Ifts., each bearing a large 
gland beneath (Fig. 849). 

serrata, Royle (Tobna serrdta, Roem.). Tree, to 70 
ft.: Ivs. usually odd-pinnate, 15-20 in. long; Ifts. 15-25, 
ovate-lanceolate or ovate-acuminate, irregularly ser- 
rate, glaucous beneath: panicles longer than the Ivs., 
pendulous; fls. fragrant, often 6-merous; ovary glabrous. 
Himalayas, to 8,000 ft. altitude. Royle, 111. 25. Col- 
lett, Flor. Siml. 82. This is probably the hardiest of 
the tropical species. Sometimes united with C. Toona. 

cc. Margin of Ivs. entire: 

panicles shorter than 

the Ivs. 

Toona, Roxbg. (Toona 
ciliata, Roem.). Tree, to 
70 ft., nearly evergreen: 
Ivs. abruptly pinnate; 
Ifts. 10-20, usually op- 
posite, lanceolate or 
ovate-lanceolate, some- 
times undulate, 3-6 in. 
long: fls. white, honey- 
scented, 5-merous; ovary 
hairy; seeds winged at 
both ends. Himalayas. 
Wight., Icon. 161. Bran- 
dis, Forest Fl. 14. 

odorata, Linn. WEST 
100 ft.: Ivs. 10-20 in. 
long; Ifts. 12-20, ovate- 
lanceolate, acuminate, 
entire, bright green on 
both sides, 4-6 in. long: 
panicles shorter than the 
Ivs.: fr. oblong, 1^ in. 
long; seeds winged be- 
low. W. Indies. The 
cedar wood comes mostly 
from this species. Wood 
brown, fragrant, the 
source of the cigar-box 
wood of commerce. It 
is a very durable wood, 

850. Cedrus atlantica. 

and is much prized in the W. Indies in the manufacture 
of cabinets, furniture, canoes, and other articles. In the 
W. Indies known as "cedar." 

BB. Lvs. densely pubescent beneath. 

fissilis, Veil. Tree: Ivs. 10-15 in. long, abruptly pin- 
nate; Ifts. 18-24, opposite, nearly sessile, oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate: panicles pubescent, longer than 
the Ivs.; calyx pubescent outside; petals fulvous tomen- 
tose; ovary glabrous. Brazil, Paraguay. St. Hilaire, 
Fl. Brazil. 2: 101. According to Franceschi it does 
better at Santa Barbara than any other species of this 

AA. Lfts. 6-10, finely ciliate. 

Dugesii, Wats. Tree: Ivs. 10-15 in. long; Ifts. cuneate, 
ovate-lanceolate, long and slender acuminate, nearly 
entire, shining above, pale green and glabrous or nearly 
so beneath, 46 in. long: panicles rather compact, much 
shorter than the Ivs. Mex. ALFRED REHDER. 

CEDRONELLA (a little cedar, from the odor of C. 
triphylla, a species from the Canary Islands sometimes 
called "Balm of Gilead"). Labiatse. Herbs or shrubs, 
sometimes planted in borders in the middle and south- 
ern parts of the United States. 

Four species allied to Dracocephalum, to which the 
first 2 belong according to Bentham. Engler and Prantl 
consider the genus monotypic, containing only the third 
species below. The 2 native kinds described below are 
compact, free-flowering border perennials, with aromatic 
Ivs. and numerous showy purplish pink fls. with blue 
stamens, and borne in dense whorls on long racemes or 
spikes: calyx a trifle oblique, 5-toothed; corolla-tube 
exserted, the limb 2-lipped; stamens 4, the anthers 
2-celled. They are not quite hardy N., and should 
have a sheltered sunny position, or some winter pro- 
tection. The first 2 prop, by division of the root, the 
last by cuttings. 

cana, Hook. Height 2)^-3 ft.: sts. hard, square, 
subshrubby: branches numerous, especially at the base, 
opposite, hoary with a minute pubescence: upper Ivs. 

small, y<i-\y?. in. long, 
entire, hoary, numerous 
near the fls., ovate; lower 
Ivs. larger, cordate- 
ovate, dentate - serrate : 
spikes numerous; whorls 
dense, 15- or more-fld.; 
corolla r in. long, limb 
5-cleft, the lowest lobe 
largest, crenate, revo- 
lute. June-Oct. Mex. 
and New Mex. B.M. 

mexicana,Benth. (Gar- 
doquia betonicoldes, 
Lindl.). Height 1-3 ft.: 
root creeping: Ivs. \Y^~ 
1% m - long, ovate-lan- 
ceolate (the lower ones 
cordate) , crenate - den- 
tate, becoming purplish 
below, petioled: fls. very 
like the above, bright 
pink. Mex., Mts. S. 
Ariz. B.M. 3860. Rarer 
in cult, than above; Ivs. 
larger, longer and fewer. 
Intro, into cult, in 1839. 

triphylla, Moench 
(Dracocephalum canari- 
ense, Linn.). BALM OF 
GILEAD. Shrubby, 3 to 
4 ft.: Ifts. 3, oblong or 
lanceolate: fls. purple or 



white, in loose spicate whorls. Aromatic plant from 
Canary Isls. 

C. pdllida, Lindl. Similar to C. mexicana, but differing in having 
shorter, pale red fls. B.R. 1846:29. It is sometimes confused with 


CEDRUS (Kedros, ancient Greek name). Pindcese. 
CEDAR. Trees grown for their persisting foliage and 
striking habit; they are also valuable timber trees. 

Large evergreen trees, with quadrangular, stiff, 
fasciculate Ivs.: 
fls. monoecious, 
the staminate 
forming cylin- 
drical catkins: 
cones ovate or 
thick, 3-5 in. 
long, with 
broad, closely 
imbrica te, 
bracts, attain- 
ing maturity in 
2 or 3 years; 
seeds winged. 
Three closely 
allied species in 
N. Afr., Asia 
Minor and 

The cedars 
are large orna- 
mental coni- 
fers, with wide- 
spreading bran- 
ches, very dis- 
tinct in habit 
from most other 
conifers. They 
are usually con- 
sidered tender, 
but a hardy 
race of Cedrus 
Libani has been 
recently intro- 
duced by the 
Arnold Arbore- 
tum from the 
highest eleva- 
tion where the 
species occurs in 
Asia Minor; the 
plants have 
stood all the 
winters since 
1902 unpro- 
tected at the 
Arnold Arbore- 
tum and have 
pro v e d per- 
fectly hardy. It 
is very gratify- 

851. Cedars on Mt. Lebanon, Cedrus Libani. 

ing that one is now able to grow so far north the 
famous cedar of Lebanon which, aside from its beauty, 
is of peculiar interest for its historic and religious 
associations. The race of Cedrus Libani commonly 
cultivated is rather tender, more tender than C. atlan- 
tica which may be grown as far north as New York in 
sheltered positions, while C. Deodara can be grown 
safely only in California and southern states. The very 
durable and fragrant wood of all species is highly 

The cedars prefer well-drained, loamy soil, and will 
also grow in sandy clay, if there is no stagnant mois- 
ture. Propagated by seeds sown in spring; the varie- 
ties by veneer grafting, in late summer or in fall, on 
seedlings of C. atlantica; or, in warmer regions, on C. 


Deodara; they grow also from cuttings, if the small 
shoots are selected which spring occasionally from the 
old wood. Plants of this genus are the true cedars; 
but trees of other genera are often called cedar. See 
Chamsecyparis, Juniperus, and Thuya; also Cedrela. 

A. Branches stiff, not drooping: cones truncate, and often 

concave at the apex. 

atlantica, Manetti. Fig. 850. Large, pyramidal 

tree, to 120 ft., 
with upright 
leading shoots: 
Ivs. mostly less 
than 1 in. long, 
usually thicker 
than broad, 
rigid, glaucous 
green: cones 2- 
3 in. long, light 
brown. N. Afr. 
Gng. 2:163. G. 
F. 9:417. R.H. 
1890, p. 32. G. 
W. 6, p. 498. 
Gn. 37, p. 195. 
Gt. 61, p. 449. 
Var. glauca, 
Carr. Foliage 
glaucous, with 
silvery hue; a 
very desirable 
and vigorous 
form. Gng. 8: 
275. Var. fas- 
tigiata, Carr. 
Of upright col- 
umnar habit. 
R.H. 1890, p. 

Libani, Loud. 
Fig. 851. Large 
tree, with wide- 
spreading, hori- 
zontal bran- 
ches, forming a 
broad head 
when older, 
leading shoot 
nodding: Ivs. 1 
in. or longer, 
broader than 
thick, dark or 
bright green, 
sometimes blu- 
ish or silvery: 
cones 3-4 in. 
long, brown. 
Lebanon, Tau- 
rus, S. Anatolia 
and N. Afr. 
Gng. 5:65. 

Mn. 1:39. G.F. 8:335; 2:149 (adapted in Fig. 851). 

Gn. 48, p. 237; 66, pp. 124-5, 178. G.C. III. 34:265. 

F.S.R. 2, pp. 291-4. Var. brevifdlia, Hook. With shorter 

Ivs. and smaller, cones. Cyprus. Var. glauca, Carr. 

(var. argentea, Veitch). Foliage of blue or silvery hue. 

Var. nana, Loud. Dwarf form. 

AA. Branches and leading shoot pendulous: cones obtuse. 
Deodara, Loud. Tall tree, of pyramidal habit, to 150 
ft.: Ivs. 1-2 in. long, dark bluish green, rigid, as thick 
as broad: cones 3^-5 in. long, reddish brown. Hima- 
layas. Gng. 2:8. G.C. III. 25:139; 34:400. F. 1876, 
p. 103. Gn. 28, p. 223. V. 20:185. Var. robusta, Carr. 
Lvs. about 2 in. long, rigid. Var. pendula, Beissn. (var. 
recurvdta pendula, Hort.). With long pendulous branches 



or prostrate if not supported. G.W. 14, p. 413. Var. 
fastigiata, Carr. Of columnar habit. Var. verticillata, 
Rehd. (var. verticillata glaiica, Tutenberg). A com- 
pact form with the Ivs. whorled at the base of the 
shoots: foliage bluish white: the hardiest form of the 
species. G.W. 11, p. 89. Var. viridis, Knight. Lvs. 

852. Ceiba Casearia, the great silk-cotton tree at Nassau. 


oblong-obtuse, hairy outside: caps. 4-8 in. long, 5- 
valved, bearing many woolly seeds. Tropics of Asia, 
Afr., and Amer. B.M. 3360. One of the character- 
istic and well-known trees of tropical countries. The 
wings of some of the old trees run far in all directions, 
sometimes being prominent 30 ft. or more; note the 
picture (Fig. 852) of the 
well-known tree at Nassau 
on the island of New Provi- 
dence. The wood is used to 
some extent in interior con- 
struction, but is soft, white 
and brittle. The cotton-like 
material in the pods is used 
in beds and pillows and for 
stufnnglif e-buoys, butitcan- 
not be spun into threads; it 
is the "kapok." of commerce. 
Offered in S. Calif, and Fla., 
as a tree of rapid growth. 
grandiflSra, Rose. Tree, 
15-20 ft., 8-12 in. diam., 
the branches with short 
prickles: petioles 2-4 in. 
long; Ifts. 3-5, glabrous, 
oblong, cuneate at base, 
entire or slightly ser- 
rulate, 2-3 K in. long: petals 
white, silky, 4-5 in. long, 
strap-shaped ; stamens 5, 
the filaments 3^ in. long 
and each with 2 anthers: 
caps, oblong, 4^2 in. long. 
Trop. W. Mex The fls. 
are fleshy; they change to 
brown. Listed in S. Calif. 
L. H. B. 

bright green. Var. argentea, Carr. Foliage of silvery 
hue. Var. nivea, Annesley. Young growth white. 
G.C. III. 25:399. Var. albo-spica, Annesley (var. dlbo- 
spicata, Beissn.). Young growth green, becoming later 
white at the tips. G.W. 11, p. 89. Var. aftrea, Beissn. 
Foliage golden yellow. G.W. 11, p. 87. 


CEIBA (aboriginal name). Bombacacese. SILK- 
COTTON. KAPOK. CEIBA. Trees, one of which is 
widely known in the tropics for its great size as a 
shade tree, and for the "cotton" of its seed-pods. 
Eriodendron is a more recent name. 

Leaves digitate, with 5-7 entire Ifts.: fls. medium to 
large, rose or white, on 1-fld. peduncles, solitary or 
fascicled; calyx cup-shaped, truncate or irregularly 
3-5-lobed; petals oblong, pubescent or woolly; staminal 
tube divided at the apex into 5 or 10 parts, each part 
bearing a stamen; ovary 5-celled: fr. a coriaceous caps., 
pubescent within and bearing obovoid seeds embedded 
in a wool-like or cotton-like fiber. Allied to Bombax 
and Adansonia, from which it differs in having 5 parts 
in the staminal body or column, rather than a much 
more divided column bearing many stamens on each 
division. Ten or more species, mostly in Trop. Amer., 
extending to Asia and Afr. 

Casearia, Medic. (C . pentdndra, Gaertn. Bombax 
pentdndrum, Linn. B. guineense, Schum. & Thoun. 
Eriodendron anfractudsum, DC. E. occidentdle, Don. 
E. orientdle, Kostel. Xylon pentdndrum, O. Kunze.). 
Great tree, reaching 100 ft. and more, and having 
immense horizontal far-spreading branches and wide- 
flung thin buttresses or flanges: trunk spiny when 
young; branches verticillate: Ifts. 7, arising from a 
nearly circular plate or disk at the top of the petiole, 
lanceolate-acuminate, undulate, smooth, each 4-6 in. 
long: fls. white or rose, the corolla 2-3 in. long; petals 

CELASTRUS (Kelastros, ancient Greek name). Cel- 
astrdcese. Woody plants grown chiefly for their brightly 
colored fruit; some also for their handsome foliage. 

Shrubs, usually climbing, with alternate, petioled, 
usually deciduous and serrate glabrous Ivs. : fls. polyg- 
amous, 5-merous, inconspicuous, greenish white, in 
axillary or terminal panicles or racemes; calyx 5-parted; 
petals small, oblong-ovate; disk 'entire or crenate; sta- 
mens short; ovary superior; style short with 3-lobed 

853. Leaves and fruits of Ceiba Casearia, 
the silk-cotton tree. ( X H) 




stigma: fr. a caps, dehiscent into 3 valves, each con- 
taining 1 or 2 seeds, inclosed in a fleshy crimson aril. 
More than 30 species in S. and E. Asia, Austral, and 
Amer. The species with perfect fls. in axillary cymes 
and with evergreen Ivs., being rigid and often spiny 
shrubs, are now included under Gymnosporia, which 

These shrubs are hardy and ornamental, very effec- 
tive with their bright-colored fruit remaining usually 
throughout the winter; C. angulatus is also worth 
growing for its large handsome foliage. They are very 
valuable for covering trelliswork, trees or rocks and 
walls: they grow in almost any soil and situation, and 
as well in shaded as in sunny positions. Propagated by 
seeds, sown in fall or stratified, and by root-cuttings or 
layers; suckers are freely produced, and become some- 
times a nuisance in nurseries; they also can be increased 
by cuttings of mature and of soft wood. 

A. Under side of Ivs. green. 

B. Lvs. 2-4 in. long: branchlets terete. 

c. Fls. andfr. in axillary few-fid, cymes along the branches. 

orbiculatus, Thunb. (C. articuldtus, Thunb.). Fig. 
854. High-climbing shrub: Ivs. cuneate, suborbicular 
to oblong or obovate, acute or acuminate, crenate-ser- 
rate, 2-3 in. long: fr. globular, orange-yellow, with 
crimson seeds. Japan, China. B.M. 7599. G.F. 3:550 
(adapted in Fig. 854). A.F. 9:534. G.C. III. 23:29; 
43:242. Gng. 5:119. M.D.G. 1902:306. Var. punc- 
tatus, Rehd. (C. punctatus, Thunb.). A less vigorous 
grower, with smaller, elliptic Ivs. C. orbiculatus is of 
more vigorous growth than the following species, and 
fruits very profusely, but the frs. are hidden by the 
foliage, and are not very conspicuous until the Ivs. have 
fallen, while C. scandens bears its frs. above the Ivs. 

cc. Fls. and fr. in terminal panicles. 

Fig. 855. High, climbing to 20 ft. : Ivs. cuneate, ovate to 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, crenate-serrate, glabrous, 
2-4 in. long : fls. in terminal, many-fld. panicles or racemes 
2-4 in. long: fr. about ^in. diam., orange-yellow, with 
crimson seeds. Canada to S. D. and New Mex. Em. 545. 
A.G. 11:29, 31. G.F. 5:569 (adapted in Fig. 855). Gng. 
5:119. A.F. 9:534. V. 3:315. Gn. 33, p. 393 (habit). 

paniculatus, Willd. (C. dependens, Wall.). Branches 
brown with numerous small white lenticels, pendulous: 
Ivs. ovate-oblong or obovate, sometimes to 5 in. long: 
fls. in terminal pendulous panicles 4-8 in. long. Hima- 
layas. Not hardy N. 

854. Celastrus orbiculatus. (XH) 

855. Celastrus scandens. 


BB. Lvs. 4~6 in. long and 3-5 in. broad: 
branchlets angular. 

angulatus, Maxim. (C. latifolius, Hemsl.). Glabrous 
shrub, climbing to 20 ft.: branchlets angular, finely 
lenticellate: Ivs. broadly ovate or roundish, abruptly 
short-acuminate, crenately serrate: terminal panicles 
4-6 in. long: fr. subglobose, nearly ^i n - thick, on thick 
short stalks, yellow with orange seeds. N.W. and Cent. 
China. H.I. 23:2206. Even without fr. effective on 
account of its large foliage; has proved hardy at the 
Arnold Arboretum. 

AA. Under side of the Ivs. bluish white. 
hypoleucus, Warb. (C. hypoglaiica, Hemsl. Erythro- 
spermum hypoleucum, Oliver). Glabrous shrub with 
terete brown branches scarcely lenticellate: lys. elliptic 
or oblong-elliptic, 2-4 in. long, short-acuminate, re- 
motely serrulate: terminal panicles 2-5 in. long, loose: 
fr. about ^iin. thick on slender stalks, K~H m - long. 
Cent. China. H.I. 19:1899. 

C. flagellaris, Rupr. Allied to C. orbiculatus. Branches with 
persistent spiny stipules, sometimes rooting: Ivs. ovate or oval, 
small, finely serrulate, slender-petioled: fr. axillary, small. N. 
China, Korea, Japan. Quite hardy, but not so handsome as C. 
orbiculatus. C. niUans, Hort. Reasoner, not Roxbg.=Quisqualis 
indica. C. Orixa, Sieb. & Zucc.=Orixa japonica. 


CELERIAC (Apium graveolens, Linn., var. rapa- 
ceum, DC.). Umbelliferas. Fig. 856. An offshoot of the 
celery species, producing an edible root-part instead of 
edible leaves. 

Celeriac is very little grown in this country, and to 
Americans is almost unknown, but it is much prized in 
Europe. Here it is cultivated chiefly where there is a 
foreign population. Fifteen or twenty varieties are 
mentioned in the seed catalogues, but there is very 
little difference in the various sorts, some seedsmen 
even making no distinction between varieties, but 
cataloguing the plant simply as celeriac. 





In general, the culture is the same as for celery, ex- 
cept that no blanching is required, since it is the en- 
larged root that constitutes the edible part. Sow the 
seed during the spring in a well-prepared seed-bed, pref- 
erably in a more or less shaded location. A coldframe 
or a spent hotbed is a good place. The seed is slow 

to germinate, and must 
be kept well watered. 
When the plants are 2 
or 3 inches tall, they 
ought to be trans- 
planted; about 3 inches 
apart each way is a good 
distance to place them 
at this handling. Later, 
again transplant them 
to the open ground, in 
rows about 2 feet apart 
and 6 or 8 inches dis- 
tant in the row. The 
soil should be a rich 
light loam well supplied 
with moisture. (The 
seed may be 
sown where the 
plants are to 
remain, and 
thinned to the 
required dis- 
tance, but 
stronger, more 
stocky plants 
are secured by 
transplanting as 
directed.) Plants 
thus treated will 
be ready for faU 
and winter use. 
If they are de- 
sired for earlier use, the seeds may be sown in a mild 
hotbed and transplanted to the open. 

Aside from frequent tillage, celeriac requires but 
little attention during growth. It is a frequent prac- 
tice with growers to remove a little of the earth from 
about the plants after the root has become well enlarged, 
and to cut off the lateral roots. This tends to make the 
main root grow larger, smoother and more symmetri- 
cal in shape. For winter use, the plants may be pro- 
tected with earth and straw to keep out frost, or packed 
in moist sand and placed in a cool cellar. 

The principal use of celeriac is for the flavoring of 
soups and stews, but it is also served in several other 
ways. It may be boiled and eaten with a white sauce, 
like cauliflower; as a salad, either first being cooked 
as beets or turnips, or else cut up into small pieces and 
used raw; when boiled, sliced and served with oil and 
vinegar, it forms the dish known as "celery salad." An 
extract may be obtained from it which is said to have 
medicinal properties. 

Just how long celeriac, or turnip-rooted celery, 
has been in cultivation is unknown. Its history as a 
garden vegetable can be traced definitely as far back 
as the middle of the seventeenth century, although 
writers for a century or more previous to this time made 
references which would seem to relate to this vegetable, 
but the identity is obscure. Its origin was probably the 
same as that of the common garden celery, of which it 
is doubtless a state wherein the root has become en- 
larged and edible. This form is supposed to be the one 
most remotely removed from the wild state. 


CELERY (Apium graveolens, Linn.). Umbelliferse. 
A major garden vegetable, grown for its blanched leaf- 
stalks which are eaten raw and also used in cookery. 

Biennial, sometimes annual, plants: If .-stalks 6-15 

856. Celeriac trimmed for market 
(XH); also an untrimmed root, on a 
smaller scale. 

in. long, bearing 3 pairs and a terminal 1ft. coarsely 
serrated and ternately lobed or divided. The fl.-stalks 
are 2-3 ft. high, branched and leafy; fls. white, incon- 
spicuous and borne in compound umbels; seeds very 
small, flattened on the sides, broader than long. An 
acrid, pungent flavor characterizes the wild plants. 

The genus Apium is variously understood. As 
mostly accepted, it comprises some 15 or 20 species of 
annual or perennial glabrous herbs with pinnate or 
pinnately compound Ivs., and small greenish white fls. 
in compound umbels; calyx-teeth wanting; petals ovate 
or rounded. The species are distributed widely in 
temperate regions and in the mountains in the tropics. 
A. graveolens is the one important species to the horti- 
culturist. Var. rapaceum is celeriac, a form or race in 
which the crown of the plant is thickened and turnip- 
like (see Celeriac). The wild celery plant is not stout, 
nor are the If.-stalks thickened, as they are in the 
domesticated races. It grows 1-2 ft. high when in 
bloom, in marshy places near the sea, on the coasts of 
Eu., Afr., and Asia; and it has run wild from cult, in 
some parts of N. Amer. 

Celery probably was not cultivated until after the 
Middle Ages, and the varieties now grown so exten- 
sively have been developed within the past thirty-five 
years. It is not many years since this vegetable was 
regarded as a luxury and sold at prices that could be 
paid only by the wealthy, but today it is one of the 
standard vegetables and is produced in enormous 
quantities for the city markets. The industry is often 
highly profitable on muck areas, and thousands of 
acres of this land are used for celery-culture in Michi- 
gan, Ohio, New York, Florida and California. Intensive 
market-gardeners of the North regard it as one of their 
most profitable crops, and results are especially satis- 
factory if the land can be irrigated. When good markets 
are available, celery is an excellent crop to follow early 
garden crops, such as peas, beans, beets, bunch onions, 
radishes and other vegetables that mature in ample 
time to allow the after-planting of celery to mature. 
Soils that have been previously cropped the same season 
should be manured liberally before celery is planted. 

Types and varieties. 

The methods of cultivation and handling of celery 
depend so much on the variety that this part of the 
subject should be discussed at the outset. Celery may 
be classified into two general groups green varie- 
ties, and the so-called self- 
blanching varieties. For- 
merly, the green kinds were 
grown almost exclusively, 
but commercial growers 
soon discovered that the 
self -blanching varieties pos- 
sess certain cultural advan- 
tages that make them highly 
desirable from a business 
point of view. They are 
more easily blanched, and 
this is probably the most 
important consideration 
when the crop is to be 
grown for commercial pur- 
poses. This is particularly 
advantageous in the sum- 
mer crop, and equally ap- 
preciated by those who 
plant large areas for the late 
market. When boards are 
used for blanching, more 
than twice as many plants 
may be set on an acre as 
when green varieties are 
employed and the crop 
bleached with earth. It is 857. The Boston ideal. 




universally conceded, however, that the light-colored 
varieties are somewhat inferior in quality to the green 
sorts. For this reason it is a mistake to rely wholly 

tion of celery, the crop is grown with entire success on 
a great variety of soil types. In fact, the plants thrive 
in. any friable soil which is adequately provided with 

on self-blanching varieties in the home garden. Many moisture, plant-food and vegetable matter. Near all 

i ^^^o ~r* +u^ u^i,f_^i^^ Hr^ f. ,,_ ^e northern cities of the United States may be found 

plantations of limited area that return excellent profits. 
This is particularly true in sections devoted to the most 
intensive types of market-gardening, when stable 
manure and commercial fertilizers are used almost 

home gardeners plant the light-colored kinds for sum- 
mer use only, and green varieties for fall and winter 

In some regions, a plant with a much-branched base 
is desired as in Fig. 857; but in general a less spreading 

or a lighter plant is grown, as in Fig. 858. These differ- lavishly. With this system of soil-management, the 

xi A i r^i : u:~u 1 1 ^ ground soon changes its physical properties and in 

some cases approaches the muck soils in mechanical 
composition. It is not uncommon to find small areas 
on various types of soil, cultivated intensely, which 
make a gross return of $1,000 or more to the acre. 
These results indicate the great possibilities of the 
home garden for the production of celery. There is 
no reason why every gardener, whatever his type of 
soil, should not be fully successful in growing a boun- 
tiful supply of the choicest celery for the home table. 
The reclaiming of new muck lands is often an expen- 
sive undertaking. The land must be cleared of brush 
and sometimes timber. Drainage must be provided 

ences are mostly matters of the way in which the plants 
are grown, as to room in seed-bed and field. 

White Plume is one of the best known of the self-blanching 
varieties. It is vigorous in growth and attains a greater height 
than Golden Self-blanching and, for this reason, does not meet 
with as great favor among commercial growers. The quality is 
also inferior to Golden Self-blanching. 

Golden Self-blanching is by far the most popular of American 
varieties. It is a favorite with amateurs and constitutes probably 
90 per cent of all the cejery grown in the United States. The plants 
attain a height of 14 to 20 inches, and are compact and stocky. 
The stems are short, thick, easily blanched to a creamy white, and 
the foliage is abundant. 

Rose-ribbed Golden Self-blanching has a tinge of rose-color on 
the ribbing of the stems, which makes the variety attractive for 
the home garden. It is not grown largely for commercial purposes. 

Giant Pascal is an old green-stem variety 
that is not surpassed in quality. In rich 
moist soils the plants attain a height of 30 
inches or more. It is a favorite of home gar- 
deners who take pride in producing tall, tender 
stalks of the highest quality. 

Winter Queen is a more popular green 
variety among commercial growers than Giant 
Pascal. It does not attain such a great height 
and grows more compactly, so that less space 
is required between rows, and the crop is more 
convenient to store. 

French Success is a very stocky compact 
winter variety that possesses excellent keep- 
ing qualities. 

Boston Market is famous for its excellent 
quality. It is grown extensively about Bos- 
ton in the home gardens and for commercial 
purposes. It is low, compact, crisp, tender 
and of the best flavor. 

Many other varieties are planted to some 
extent, but the most important have been 


As previously stated, great com- 
mercial plantations are on muck soils, 
although the business is not confined 
to such lands. The mucks usually 
provide ideal conditions for the cul- 
ture of celery. The plant thrives in soils abounding in 
vegetable matter, and as mucks contain 60 per cent or 
more of organic matter this requirement is fully met. 
A Kalamazoo (Michigan) muck soil, used extensively 
for celery, analyzed as follows: 

Per cent 

Sand and silicates 19.16 

Alumina 1.40 

Oxide of iron 3.94 

Lime 6.09 

Magnesia 0.81 

Potash 0.34 

Soda 0.38 

Sulphuric acid 1.31 

Phosphoric acid 0.88 

Carbonic acid 1.95 

Organic matter (containing 2.53 per cent of 

nitrogen) 63.76 

Water 6.51 

Properly prepared mucks are loose and friable, and 
this is a great advantage in transplanting and in per- 
forming all tillage operations. The land is easily plowed, 
harrowed, leveled, marked and cultivated, and the 
work of ridging the plants is accomplished with the 
greatest ease. The depth of the water-table in muck 
lands varies greatly, but about 3 feet is considered 
most favorable; at this depth the plants never suffer 
from drought. 

While it is universally conceded that muck soils 
provide the best conditions for the extensive cultiva- 

858. A good celery plant in the general market. 

by means of tile or open ditches. The land is often 
acid, and lime should be employed to correct the 
acidity. For a year or two other crops than celery 
should be planted to get the land in the proper physical 
condition. The first plowing should be done in the 
fall so that the land will be exposed to frost during the 
winter. Corn is an excellent crop to plant the follow- 
ing spring. There should be repeated cultivation 
throughout the summer to destroy any other vegeta- 
tion that may start. 

Other types of soil should be prepared as in the 
usual way for the small garden crops. Fall plowing, 
after large quantities of manure have been added, is 
often desirable when an early crop is to be started the 
following spring. Smoothing harrows and plank drags 
should be used to make the soil fine and smooth pre- 
paratory to planting. All preparatory tillage opera- 
tions should be conducted with a view to conserving 
soil-moisture, which is exceedingly important to celery 
throughout the period of growth. 


As previously stated, it is important for land that 
is to be planted in celery to abound in vegetable matter. 
There must also be an abundance of available plant- 
food in order to secure a rapid and vigorous growth. 
When applying either manure or commercial fertilizer, 
the grower should bear in mind that this is a shallow- 




rooted plant and the materials should not be placed 
at great depths. 

All classes of growers, whether they are producing 
on a garden or field scale, and whatever their type of 
soil may be, recognize stable-manures as the best fer- 
tilizer that can be applied for this crop. Stable-manures 
are the most satisfactory because they furnish 
both organic matter and plant- food. It is often 
desirable to supplement stable-manures with 
commercial fertilizers, but the success of this crop 
will be far more certain if reliance is placed on 
barn-manures rather than chemical fertilizers. 

An effort should be made to have the manures 
near the surface of the ground, and this can be accom- 
plished by applying rotten or composted manure after 
plowing and working into the soil with a disc-harrow. If 
coarse fresh manure must be used and partially decayed 
manure is not available, it is preferable to apply it be- 
fore plowing. Market-gardeners often apply thirty to 
forty tons to the acre, although smaller quantities give 
excellent results, especially if fertilizers are used in 
addition to the manure. Ten tons of manure on muck 
land is a decided advantage over no manure, even 
when fertilizers are used in large quantities. 

Probably no commercial grower of celery should 
attempt to produce this crop without the use of at 
least some commercial fertilizer. When stable-manures 
are used lavishly, a little acid phosphate, nitrate of 
soda or potash will often give increased profits. 

When stable-manure is not used at all, or perhaps 
in very small amounts, commercial fertilizers should 
be used with freedom. Two tons of a high-grade fer- 
tilizer to the acre is not an unusual application, and 
some of the most intensive growers use larger amounts. 
In the smaller areas, from which a gross return of $800 
to $1,200 to the acre is expected, there should be no 
hesitancy in spending $100 to $125 an acre for manure 
and fertilizer. Celery requires much nitrogen and the 
mixed fertilizer applied before planting, or afterwards 
as a side-dressing, should contain not less that 4 per 
cent of this element. There should also be an abundance 
of potash and phosphoric acid. A fertilizer containing 
4 per cent of nitrogen, 8 per cent phosphoric acid and 
10 per cent potash should meet the requirements of 
this crop in all soils, when applied in sufficient quantity. 

Some growers have found it highly desirable to apply 
nitrate of soda or complete fertilizer as side-dressings 
after the crop is well started. These applications may 
vary from 100 to 200 pounds to the acre and should be 
made at intervals of about three weeks. 

Starting the plants. 

The greatest care should be exercised in procuring 
seed, for inferior seed may result in pithy or hollow 

859. Celery planted thick, and the patch edged with boards. 
The "new celery-culture." 

stalks, a poor stand of plants in the seed-bed, seedlings 
of low vitality, or a large percentage of seed shoots. 
Only the most reliable dealers, those who have a repu- 
tation for furnishing first-class seed of the varieties 
desired, should be patronized. To make certain of 
securing good seed, some careful growers import their 

seed directly from foreign producers, which, however, 
is unnecessary if the proper precautions are taken in 
the selection of a responsible seedsman. Practically 
all of the seed of the self -blanching varieties is grown 
in France, while most of the seed of green varieties is 
produced in California. As there is never absolute 

certainty of securing en- 
tirely satisfactory seed, 
some growers follow the 
excellent practice of buy- 
ing in large amounts, 
sufficient to last several 
years. Only a small 
quantity of the seed is planted 
the first year to determine its 
real merit, and if found satis- 
factory there is sufficient quan- 
tity on hand to last several years. 
If kept in sealed jars in a room 
where the temperature does not 
vary greatly, the germinating 
power will be retained at least 
six years. 

Celery seed is very small. An 
ounce contains about 70,000 
seeds, and with the very best 
conditions should produce at 
least half this number of plants. 
It is not safe, however, to count 
on a much greater number than 
10,000 plants to the ounce, be- 
cause many of the seeds usually 
fail to germinate and the plants 
at first are very small and easily 
perishable. The seeds are slow 
to germinate. They should be 
planted in fine soil which, if pos- 

860. Blanching celery by 
wrapping it with paper. 

sible, should be kept constantly moist but never wet. 

Seed for the early crop is seldom sown before the 
first of March. If checked in growth at any time, there 
is great danger of the plants producing seed shoots 
which renders them unsalable. Plants started the first 
of March will, with proper care, be ready for market 
in August. Earlier sowing is possible and sometimes 
desirable, but adequate facilities must be provided to 
avoid crowding the plants, which invariably results 
in checking the growth. Some gardeners have found it 
to be profitable to start the plants the latter part of 
February, finally transplanting into frames, where the 
crop is matured. 

Seed for the early crop may be sown in the beds of 
the artificially heated frame or greenhouse. Many 
growers use flats or shallow plant-boxes, which are 
placed in the hotbed or greenhouse. While broadcast- 
ing of the seed is often practised, it is better to sow in 
drills 2 inches apart. The furrows should be very 
shallow, as the seeds should not be covered with more 
than Y% inch of earth. Muck mixed with a small 
amount of sifted coal-ashes, sand and a little bone- 
meal, is most excellent for starting plants under glass. 
After sowing and lightly covering the seed, place a 
piece of burlap over the bed, and water it. Keep the 
bed covered with burlap or a piece of cloth until the 
plants begin to come up. Do not water more than 
necessary to keep the bed moist. When the plants 
appear they will need plenty of light, sunshine and 
fresh air. A temperature of 70 to 75 is most favora- 
ble to germination, but 10 lower should be maintained 
if possible after the plants are up. Higher tempera- 
tures, however, will do no harm if the proper attention 
is given to ventilation. 

When the rough leaves appear, the seedlings should 
be transplanted into beds or preferably flats, spacing 
the plants 1 Y^ inches apart each way. Stronger plants 
will be developed if they are set 2 inches apart. The 
flats may be about 2 inches deep and half filled with 




rotten manure, the remainder of the space being filled 
with good rich soil. The manure will furnish ideal 
conditions for the roots of the young seedlings and 
make it possible to transplant them to the open ground 
with blocks of earth and manure so that there will be 
practically no check in growth. If earliness is an 
important consideration, this method of treatment is 
highly important. Young celery plants require con- 
siderable nursing, and it will not do to take them from 
warm greenhouses or hotbeds to coldframes before 
the season is well advanced. They will suffer even 
more than tomato plants from low temperature. One 
of the most successful of our American growers invari- 
ably plants from the greenhouse to the open ground, 
beginning about May 10 . 

Spraying the seedlings several times with bordeaux 
mixture may be the means of avoiding loss from fungous 

Seed for the late crop should be sown in the open 
ground or in protected beds as soon in the spring as 
the soil can be prepared. Delay in starting the plants 
is often responsible for a failure of the late crop. It is 
not so easy to control moisture in the outdoor seed- 
beds. If overhead irrigation lines are available, there 
will be no difficulty in this matter. The beds are often 
shaded with brush or lath screen. Small beds may be 
kept covered with moist burlap. When starting on a 
large scale, the rows may be a foot or more 
apart. Thinning is often necessary to secure 
stocky plants. The plants may be set where 
they are to mature any time after they have 
attained a height of about 3 inches. Ordi- 
narily seedlings started out-of-doors are trans- 
planted directly to the permanent bed or 
field without an intermediate shift, although 
this is an advantage in developing stronger 
plants with better roots. If the plants attain 
a height of 5 inches or more before they are 
set in the field, the tops should be cut back 
before transplanting. 

Planting in the field. 

As previously indicated, plants for the early 
crop should not be set in the open ground 
until about May 10 in the latitude of Philadelphia and 
New York. There is danger of injury from hard frosts 
if transplanted before this time, and such injury may 
result in a large percentage of the plants producing seed 
shoots, thus rendering them unsalable. Seedlings for 
the late crop may be transplanted in permanent quar- 
ters any time after June 20. 

The time of planting in the field will depend largely 
on the varieties to be used. For example, Golden Self- 
blanching may be set out three or four weeks later 
than Giant Pascal and have time to mature fully 
before hard freezing weather is likely to occur. Many 
commercial growers do not transplant the late crop 
until nearly the first of August. In most parts of the 
North, it is better to transplant early in July. The 
date of transplanting, however, is not so important 
as to have the plants, as well as the ground, in proper 
condition before transplanting is started. Plants that 
are 3 to 5 inches high are much more likely to live and 
thrive than taller ones. The ground should be smooth, 
fine and moist. It is exceedingly important to have the 
rows perfectly straight and this can be accomplished 
by the use of a marker. A line may be used for this 
purpose, but transplanting may be accomplished much 
more rapidly by using a rope-arid-peg marker. 

There is the greatest variation in the planting dis- 
tances for celery. Some of the most intensive growers 
plant 7 or 8 inches apart each way. Others prefer to 
space the rows about a foot apart and have the plants 
stand 4 inches apart in the row. When such close 
planting is followed, it is known as "the new celery- 
culture" (Fig. 859)- The plants stand so close together 

when this method is used that they blanch themselves 
and it is unnecessary to use boards or other devices. 
"The new celery-culture" is better adapted to green- 
house and coldframe use, where the plants can be 
watered by sub-irrigation. When plants stand so 
close together, there is little circulation of air and heart- 
rot or other diseases are likely to occur in hot moist 
weather. The possibilities of a small area by use of 
this method are very large and the system appeals 
to growers who have only small tracts of land to 

A more common practice is to space the rows 18 
inches to 2 feet apart and to set the plants 4 or 5 inches 
apart in the row. This method is now almost univer- 
sally employed for Golden Self-blanching when boards 
are to be used for blanching the crop. When trans- 
planted 4 by 24 inches apart, about 60,000 plants are 
required to set an acre. If horse implements are to be 
used in planting, it is better to allow at least 28 inches 
between rows. 

Some growers prefer to plant Golden Self-blanching 
in double rows 6 inches apart, placing the plants 4 or 5 
inches apart in the row. This plan is not universally 
popular because it is not favorable to the full develop- 
ment of every plant. Boards are also used for blanch- 
ing when this system of planting is followed. 

When soil is to be used for blanching, more space 

861. The last earthing-up or banking of celery. 

must be allowed between rows. Formerly the almost 
universal practice was to allow 5 feet between rows. 
With tall-growing varieties, such as Giant Pascal, this 
is not too much space to provide sufficient soil for 
blanching. When lower-growing varieties, such as 
Winter Queen, are used, the rows need not be more 
than 4 or 4J/ feet apart to give sufficient space for 
blanching with earth. The larger varieties of the green 
type should not be planted quite so close together in 
the row as Golden Self -blanching; for the best develop- 
ment of the plants, it is better to space them 5 or 6 
inches apart in the row. 

Growers who plant both early and late varieties 
often alternate the rows. The early variety is removed 
first, of course, and then there is 4 feet or more of space 
between the rows of late varieties which are blanched 
with earth. Transplanting should proceed as rapidly 
as possible without undue exposure of the roots to the 
air. If the plant-beds are watered twenty-four hours 
in advance of transplanting, the plants may be removed 
with less injury. 

Subsequent tillage practice in the North. 

Celery is often inter-cropped with other vegetables. 
One of the most common plans is to plant five rows of 
onions about a foot apart as early in the spring as the 
ground can be prepared. The fifth rows are pulled for 
bunching, and celery is planted instead of the onions. 
This is a most excellent combination for muck soils 
where good markets can be found for both crops. 
Radishes are also excellent to precede celery. If 
desired, the small button-shaped varieties may be 




used, every fifth row to be planted in celery and later- 
maturing varieties of radishes in the four rows between. 
Frequent tillage is necessary for the best results 
with celery. As it is a shallow-rooted plant, tools that 
run at considerable depth should be avoided. For 
horse tillage, there is nothing superior to the spike- 
tooth cultivator in general use. If the plants are small, 
great care should be exercised to avoid throwing dirt 
on top of the hearts. If the ground contains many 

862. Water-holding celery crate. 

weeds, more or less hand work will be required between 
the plants in the rows. 

The mulching of soils with horse-manure has been 
a very popular and profitable practice in recent years. 
It has been shown in the laboratory as well as in field 
practice that a fine mulch of 3 or 4 inches of horse- 
manure conserves moisture more perfectly than the 
most thorough tillage. The mulching of celery in the 
field not only conserves moisture but it reduces the 
labor of tillage and also furnishes nourishment to the 
plants. The rains carry liquid food to the roots and a 
more rapid growth invariably follows. Considerable 
hand labor is required, of course, to place the manure 
between the rows, but this is probably no greater than 
the labor needed to till the crop when a mulch is not 
used. It is customary to use fresh horse-manure, 
which has been aerated in thin layers for a few days 
before making application. The ground is completely 
covered, although the manure is not allowed to touch 
the plants. The mulch may be applied immediately 
after planting or, as some prefer, the plants may be 
tilled for ten days or two weeks and the mulch then 
applied. Very few weeds will appear if 3 or 4 inches 
of horse-manure is used. 

Irrigation makes the crop more certain, and it is also 
a means of securing larger and more vigorous growth 
and consequently better quality. Most of the inten- 
sive growers of the East are prepared to irrigate. Va- 
rious methods are employed. Some who cultivate very 
small areas use the hose or other sprinkling device. 
The method that is now in most common use is the 
overhead system of irrigation, providing for parallel 
pipe lines about 50 feet apart (see Irrigation). These 
are turned at will by means of levers at the ends and 
the water is thrown out at any desired angle through 
small nipples placed about 4 feet apart on the lines. 
It is important to do the watering if possible in the 
evening or at night so that the foliage may be as dry 
as possible during the day. It is also important to 
make thorough applications, as it is not advisable to 
water more frequently than absolutely necessary. 


All American markets demand celery with creamy 
white stalks. This light color is secured by causing the 
plants to grow with the stalks in the dark, or nearly 
so, which prevents the development of chlorophyl. 
When boards, earth, paper, tile or other means are 
used, most of the leaves are not covered, and growth 
is not hindered in the least. 

Green varieties are blanched almost exclusively 
by the use of earth. There should be no ridging until 
the weather is cool and, therefore, this operation is 

not usually undertaken until early in September at 
the North. At first the ridging should be only a few 
inches high, but later should extend to the full height 
of the stems. Finally, the rows are ridged so that only 
the tops protrude above the ridges, as shown in Fig. 
861. Special tools are available for this operation and 
the work may be done very rapidly. 

The early crop is blanched mostly by means of boards, 
although paper (Fig. 860) and other devices are some- 
times used. Hemlock, pine and cypress lumber are 
used for this purpose in various parts of the country. 
The boards need not be more than 10 inches wide, 
although 12-inch boards are commonly used. They 
may be of any convenient length, say 14 to 16 feet long. 
To prevent warping and splitting, cleats about 3 
inches wide and J^inch thick should be nailed at each 
end and in the middle of the boards. The boards are 
placed on edge, one on each side of the row and brought 
as close together as convenient at the upper edge and 
secured by means of wire hooks. Sometimes stakes are 
driven at the sides, although wire hooks are more 
convenient. The hooks should be 6 or 7 inches long 
and may be made of heavy fence wire. From ten days 
to two weeks is required for proper blanching with 
boards. As the crop is sold, the boards are shifted from 
place to place so that they may be used several times 
during the season. When not in use, the boards should 
be stored under cover or stacked in piles with strips 
between them. With good care, boards that are sound 
when purchased will last fifteen years. 

Harvesting and marketing. 

The harvesting of the celery crop when grown in 
coldframes usually occurs in the month, of July. 
If the climate is not too severe, it is possible to have 
celery ready for market the latter part of June. The 
late crop, which is produced without the use of boards, 
is not usually ready for market until August. It is 
lifted with forks or perhaps cut with a sharp knife just 
beneath the surface and conveyed to the packing- 
house where it is prepared for market. In some sec- 
tions the roots are not trimmed at all, the plants being 
tied in bunches of a dozen and packed in a standard 
crate such as is shown in Fig. 862. These crates are 
24 by 24 inches at the base, and contain six to sixteen 
dozen plants, depending on the size of the celery. The 
height of the crate may be varied to suit the height of 
the celery. Another form of celery crate is shown in 
Fig. 863. In some regions, the roots are trimmed into 
tapering cubes as shown in 
Fig. 864. A very convenient 
method of bunching is to 
place three plants side by 
side, tapering the roots as 
indicated, tying the taper- ... 
ing roots tightly and then 
securing the tops. Formerly 
twine was used almost en- 
tirely for bunching, while 
in recent years many grow- 
ers have found it desirable 
to use either blue or red 
tape, which gives the celery 
a more attractive appear- 
ance on the market. Michi- 
gan growers and other pro- 
iucers of celery in the Great 

863. Celery crate. 

Lake district use small crates of very thin lumber. 
These vary in size and range about as follows: 6 by 12 
by 24 inches; 6 by 16 by 24 inches; 2 by 20 by 24 
inches; 6 by 26 by 24 inches and 6 by 30 by 24 
inches. The number of bunches in the crates depends 
on the size of the celery and of the crate, but varies 
from four to twenty-four dozen. For local markets, the 
plants may be tied in bunches of the most popular size 
and packed in any crate of convenient form and size. 





A large percentage of the late celery crop is placed 
in city cold-storage houses. It is packed with the 
roots on, and there is very little trimming. Golden 
Self-blanching keeps fairly well in cold storage, or at 
least the hearts are presentable when they come out 
of storage. This is the product that now meets the 
general demand of the large cities until celery begins 
to arrive from Florida. 

In the North, this crop is very commonly stored in 
trenches. The trenches are dug in well-drained ground 
and must be deep enough to accommodate the plants 
so that the tops will not extend more than about 2 
or 3 inches above the trenches. The celery will keep 
better if the trenches are not too wide. Ordinarily 
they are dug 10 to 14 inches wide. The plants are 
lifted and stood as close together in the trench as pos- 
sible. Some growers prefer to place a little earth over 
the roots, although this is not necessary. If the tops 
of the plants are 
dry when stored, 
and if the plants 
are not permit- 
ted to wilt by 
being in the 
sunshine, they 
should keep in 
perfect condi- 
tion in the 
trenches. Boards 
are nailed to- 
gether in the 
form of a trough 
and placed over 
the trenches as 
rapidly as they 
are filled. Early 
in the season, 
and especially if 
the weather is 
quite warm, it is 
an advantage to 
provide addi- 
tional ventila- 
tion by placing 
stones or blocks 
under the edges 
of the trough. 
As the season 
advances and 
the weather be- 
comes colder, 
these should be 

864. Celery plant trimmed for market. 

removed and when necessary, earth, or, better, manure, 
thrown over the boards to give additional protection. 
Four or 5 inches of manure will protect the crop 
thoroughly in most sections until Thanksgiving and 
perhaps Christmas, depending on the weather. Two 
kinds of trench storage are shown in Figs. 865, 866. 

The late crop is often stored in coldframes of suffi- 
cient depth to receive the plants. The frames are 
usually covered with boards lapped in roof fashion, and 
straw or marsh hay is placed over the boards when 
necessary to give additional protection. 

Ordinary house cellars, which are well ventilated 
and not too warm, may be used for storing a limited 
quantity of celery. Various types of houses have been 
built for keeping the croj.. Cement or brick structures 
are perhaps the most serviceable. It is important to 
provide ample ventilation in structures of this kind. In 
some regions, as around Boston, pits are constructed. 
The sides of these should be about 2 feet high and the 
roof may be constructed in an even-span form or sim- 
ply a shed roof against some other building. Boards 
are also used for the roofs and covered with straw or 
hay to give protection during cold weather. 


Celery does not have any serious insect enemies. 
Diseases are much more destructive and difficult to 
control. The most important diseases are the blights 
(Cercospora apii and Septoria petroselini var. apii), 
leaf -spot (Phylloslicta apii), and rust (Puccinia bul- 
lata). The application of bordeaux mixture in the seed- 
bed will help to control some of these diseases. Many 
growers also find it necessary to make frequent appli- 
cations of bordeaux mixture in the field in order to 
prevent serious losses. The complete control of dis- 
eases in the field may be the means of avoiding loss in 
storage. The earlier applications of bordeaux mix- 
ture are regarded as the most effective. Rotation is 
also desirable in preventing losses from disease. 


Celery-growing in the South. 

The method of raising celery seedlings is not the 
same in the South, and especially in Florida, as it is 
in the North. Sowing is done in July, August, and 
September, at a time of the year when there is con- 
tinued warm weather, and frequent beating rain. 

A place is chosen for the seed-bed near the celery 
field, usually a plot at the edge. The size of the field 
to be planted will determine the extent of the seed- 
bed. The width of the seed-bed varies from 18 to 36 
inches. Rows are sown across it, making it possible to 
weed and keep the earth worked from both sides. 
Immediately after sowing, pieces of heavy burlap 
(usually old fertilizer sacks) are placed over the beds 
to conserve the moisture, cool the soil, and to protect 
the seeds against the beating of heavy rains. The 
seed-beds are sprinkled as often as is necessary to 
keep the surface moist. 

After the seeds have germinated and the seed-leaves 
have pushed their way through the ground, the sack- 
ing is removed and a screening of cheese-cloth is 
placed over the bed. Some beds may be covered with 
cheese-cloth parallel to the surface of the soil. In other 
cases, a wire is run lengthways over the middle of the 
bed, and the cheese-cloth is placed over the wire and 
secured at the sides like a roof. The covering is about 
8 to 12 inches above the bed, which gives room for the 
circulation of air. The beds are kept moist by repeated 
watering, applied directly through the cheese-cloth. 

As soon as the plants are 2 or 3 inches high and are 
well greened, they will be strong enough to stand direct 
sunlight and will shade the ground sufficiently to keep 
it from drying out rapidly. 

The best variety. 

Formerly nearly all varieties of which seeds were 
offered by seedsmen were planted. In recent years, 
however, all have been nearly eliminated except the 
Golden Self-blanching. The seed of this variety is very 
high in price and, in years of scarcity, seed supplied 
under this name is often found to be more or less untrue 
to type. Seed of low-germinating quality is often found 
to contain many plants that will make unwelcome vege- 
tables, probably because the undesirable green and red 
strains that may occur in the Golden Self-blanching 
variety are more resistant to deterioration than the 
true type. 

Planting and blanching. 

Blanching is secured entirely by the boarding-up 
method. For this purpose, second- or third-grade 
cypress boards are used ; these low-grade boards usually 
have defective parts or are filled with worm-holes so as 
to be obtainable rather cheaply. The expense of the 
lumber, notwithstanding, is so great that it becomes 
necessary to plant the celery in double rows. Two rows 
are planted 8 or 10 inches apart, and tho plants set 6 or 
8 inches apart in the row. By alternating the settings in 
the two rows, additional space is secured for the plants. 




865. An old method 
of growing celery in 
trenches. It is yet 
sometimes stored for 
winter in such 

A space of 30 to 40 inches is allowed between the sets of 
double rows. As soon as the celery has reached the proper 
stage of growth, or the market has arrived at a condi- 
tion in which it is thought wise to ship the celery, 
the boards are placed alongside the plants and held in 
place by stakes driven into the ground. Further to 
exclude the air and light, a small quantity of soil is 
plowed against the bases of the boards, although this 
..-,_. is unnecessary when the soil is 
sufficiently mellow. The tops 
of the boards are placed firmly 
together so that only a part of 
the foliage extends above them. 
With the Golden Self-blanch- 
ing variety, it is only a few days 
until the celery is sufficiently 
blanched and crisp to make a good 


In the preparation of the field, 
large quantities of fertilizer are 
used. Stable manure is not a 
favorite, unless it can be applied 
to the land early enough to be- 
come thoroughly rotted before the 
plants are set out. The quantity 
obtainable, however, is usually so 
small and the price so high in the 
South that commercial fertilizers have largely replaced 
it. The quantity of fertilizer applied may range up 
to $80 or even $125 worth per acre (of the formula 
given on page 704.) 


In the most productive celery regions, sub-irrigation 
systems (as described under Irrigation) are established. 
The laterals are laid 15 to 25 feet apart, according to 
the contour of the land, and the notion of the grower. 
The irrigation system at the same time serves as a 
drainage system. This makes it especially convenient, 
since abundant artesian water is present in nearly all 
the celery-growing sections far south. The system 
has been found so convenient that a large amount of 
damage has been done by over-irrigation, not only in 
carrying off much soluble fertilizer, but also by water- 
logging the soil and thus driving the roots of the celery 
plants so near the surface as to be constantly liable to 
injury. In the hands of careful celery-growers, how- 
ever, the system is the best that has been invented. 


Celery-growing in California. 

There are two principal celery-growing districts in 
California, Orange County, which is situated in the 
swamp lands south of Los Angeles; and the northern 
district, which includes the peat or swamp lands along the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers between Sacramento 

and Stockton. 

Several varieties 
of celery have been 
tested in this state, 
but the Golden Self- 
!r. blanching is most 
popular and profit- 

866. A good form of trench storage. 


In California the 
seed is sown in the 
open ground, but, owing to its extremely small size, it 
is difficult to get a good stand unless the ground is well 
pulverized. It is commonly estimated that enough plants 
may be grown on 1 acre of seed-bed to plant 20 acres in 
the field. To produce healthy, vigorous plants, heavy 

watering is the rule at first, but as soon as the plants 
have begun to grow the quantity of water is reduced, 
and it should never be allowed to stand on the surface 
of the bed. In order to accomplish this the land must 
be well drained. The seed is usually sown in March, 
April or May. 

Irrigation and drainage. 

Although not nearly so much water is required for 
the plants in the field as in the seed-bed, celery plants 
cannot stand drought at any stage of their growth; 
a well-controlled irrigation system is imperative, except 
where the water-table is close to the surface. 

Good drainage is as important as irrigation, for, if 
water is allowed to stand in the field even for a short 
time, the plants will suffer seriously. As most of the 
California celery land is low and the ordinary drainage 
is poor, an extended system of tile drainage has been 
laid in nearly all celery fields, especially in Orange 
County, to prevent losses from standing water. 

Subsequent tillage. 

When the plants are large enough to be transplanted, 
they are pulled from the seed-beds, placed in tin pans 
and hauled to the field, where they are planted 6 
inches apart in the furrows 3H feet apart. The depth 
of the furrows in which the plants are set is some- 
what varied, depending on the soil-moisture, and 
the size of the plants. The average depth is from 3 
to 5 inches. 

After the plants have been set in the field for about 
three weeks or a month and have recovered from the 
transplanting, the field is "crowded." This operation 
consists in moving the earth away from the young 
plants so that they will have more air around them and 
to kill what weeds have grown so close to the plants 
that it is impossible to reach them with the cultivator. 

As the earth between the rows of plants is left in a 
ridge after the plants have been "crowded," a large 
wooden roller, which extends across several rows, is 
now used to flatten down these ridges and to pack the 
soil more firmly. The roller is used only when the 
plants are small, otherwise they would be injured by 
being crushed. If the plants have grown so large that 
there is danger of injury by this rolling of the middles, 
the ridges are smoothed down by the cultivator. 

When the plants are 12 to 15 inches tall, earth from 
between the rows is drawn up to them. This is termed 
"splitting." This should be done carefully, for, if the 
earth is put too close or too high up on the plants, they 
will become tender and weak, especially if the weather 
is hot. The object of "splitting" is gradually to encour- 
age the plants to grow tall and straight instead of 
spreading out. This operation is repeated twice in the 
season, the first time when the plants are 14 to 16 inches 
tall and the second time just before banking. This 
last "splitting" also aids blanching. 


Practically all the celery grown in California is 
banked with earth for blanching. Banking is done 
when the celery is reaching its maturity and is nearly 
ready for shipment. This is the last field operation 
before the crop is cut. When the celery is banked for 
the first time, the earth is not drawn very high on the 
plants, but each time the field is banked the soil is 
drawn higher so as firmly to hold the leaves together 
and in an upright position. If celery that has been 
banked for the last time is not harvested shortly, it 
will soon become "punky." The length of time that 
it can safely be left in the bank depends upon the 
character of the soil, the weather conditions, and upon 
the condition of the plants themselves. Celery on sandy 
soil will keep much longer in the bank than on heavy 
clay loam or. peat soil. If the celery has not matured 
or if the weather is hot or moist, its keeping quality 




will be injured. Holding too long in the bank will 
result in a wilted and "punky" product. 

Harvesting and shipping. 

When the celery is ready to harvest, a cutting 
machine is used which cuts off the plants just below 
the crown, leaving a few roots attached. The plants 
are then lifted and shaken from soil, trimmed and 
thrown in piles by laborers, who are usually Japanese. 
Another gang of men then place the plants in crates, 
marking on each crate the number of dozens it contains. 
More men follow, nail the crates securely, load them 
on wagons which transport them to the railroad siding, 
where they are ready for shipment and distribution to 
the various markets in the United States and Canada. 

The celery is packed in the fields in crates 22-by-24- 
inch base and 18 to 24 inches in height, according to 
the quality. One of these crates holds from five to ten 
dozen celery plants. An ordinary car holds from 160 
to 165 of these crates. The shipping of the crop starts 
in October and continues through March, but the bulk 
of the crop is harvested during November, December 
and January. The earlier shipments come into com- 
petition with celery from Michigan and other middle 
western states, and the later shipments come into com- 
petition with celery from Florida. A very efficient 
system of marketing has been developed by means of 
various associations of the growers which have repre- 
sentatives in the leading markets in the United States 
so that the celery is shipped to points of greatest 


The most important disease in California is the late 
blight (Septoria petroselini var. apii), which has done 
an immense amount of damage in the past but is now 
handled successfully by most of the growers. Spray 
with bordeaux mixture. For early blight (Cercospora 
apii) keep plants growing thriftily and spray with 
bordeaux. (For a detailed account of the diseases of 
celery in California see Bulletin No. 208, published by 
the University of California.) STANLEY S. ROGERS. 

CELMISIA (a name in mythology). Compdsitx. 
More than 40 New Zealand perennial herbs, and 1 
in Austral, and Tasmania, some of which may be 
expected in botanic gardens and collections. Lvs. 
radical and in rosettes, or densely imbricated if borne 
on the sts., usually tomentose: heads large and solitary 
on a long or short scape, with imbricate pubescent or 
glandular bracts in several or many series; rays in a 
single row, always white. The celmisias are charac- 
teristic plants of New Zeal., covering the mountain 
slopes and valleys, especially in the South Isl., with the 
showy daisy-like fls. Probably none is regularly in cult. 

L. H. B. 

CELOSIA (Greek, kelos, burned; referring to the 
burned look of the flowers in some species). Amaran- 
tacese. COCKSCOMB. Popular garden annuals, grown 
for the showy agglomerated flower-heads and sometimes 
for colored foliage. 

Alternate-leaved annual herbs, the Ivs. entire or 
sometimes lobed, mostly narrow: fls. in dense terminal 
and axillary spikes, the spikes in cult, forms becoming 
densely fascicled and often the sts. much fasciated; 
perianth very small, 5-parted, dry, the segms. oblong or 
lanceolate, erect in fr.; stamens 5, the filaments united 
at base: fr. a circumscissile utricle, with 2 to many 
seeds. About 35 species, all tropical, in Asia, Afr. and 

There are two main types of celosias, the crested 
form and the feathered or plumy ones. The crested 
cockscomb is very stiff, formal and curious, while the 
feathered sorts are less so, and are used to some extent 
in dried bouquets. The plumy sorts are grown abroad 
for winter decoration, especially under the name of C. 

pyramidalis, but to a small extent in America. The 
crested cockscomb is less used as a summer bedding 
plant than formerly, but it is still commonly exhibited 
in pots at small fairs, the object being to produce the 
largest possible crest on the smallest plant. 

For garden use, the seeds are sown indoors in early 
spring, and the plants set out May 1 to 15. If the roots 
dry out, the leaves are sure to drop off. The cockscomb 
is a moisture-loving plant, and may be syringed often, 
especially for the red-spider, which is its greatest enemy. 
A light, rich soil is needed. 

A. Spikes crested, monstrous. 

cristata, Linn. COCKSCOMB. Fig. 867. Height 9 in. 
or more: st. very glabrous: Ivs. petiolate, ovate or some- 
what cordate-ovate, acute, glabrous, 2-3 in. long, 1 in. 
wide: spikes crested, subsessile, often as wide as the 
plant is high: seeds small, black, shining, lens-shaped. 
Tropics. Gn. 13, p. 231. R.H. 1894, p. 58. There are 
8 or 9 well-marked colors in either tall or dwarf forms, 
the chief colors being red, purple, violet, crimson, 

867. Celosia cristata. 

amaranth and yellow. The forms with variegated Ivs. 
often have less dense crests. A. japdnica, Mart., little 
known to botanists, is said to be a distinct garden plant 
with branching, pyramidal habit, each branch bearing 
a ruffled comb. 

AA. Spikes plumy, feathery, or cylindrical. 

argentea, Linn. Taller than the above: Ivs. shorter- 
stalked, narrower, 2-2% in. long, 4-6 lines wide, linear- 
lanceolate, acute: spikes 1-4 in. long, erect or drooping, 
long-peduncled, pyramidal, or cylindrical. India. 
This species is considered by Voss (in Vilmorin's Blu- 
mengartnerei) to be the original one from which the 
crested forms are derived. He makes 9 botanical forms, 
to one of which he refers C. cristata. The range of 
color is even greater in the feathered type than in the 
crested type. The spikes are very various in form and 
habit. Various forms are shown in Gn. 6, p. 513; 9, p. 
149; 17, p. 331 (all as C. pyramidalis). R.H. 1857, p. 
78, and 1890, p. 522 (as C. pyramidalis). 

Huttoni, Mart. Height 1-2 ft. : habit bushy, pyram- 
idal: st. sulcate-striate: Ivs. reddish or crimson, 
lower ones lanceolate, subsessile: spikes red, cylindrical, 
oblong, obtuse, lj/6 in. long; perianth-segms. oblong 
(not lanceolate, as in C. argentea). Java. A foliage 
plant, and less common than the 2 species above. 

C. spicata, Hort.=(?). Not the C. spicata, Spreng. ; perhaps 
some form of C. cristata. C. Thdmpspnii magnified, Hort., is a trade 
name and apparently without botanical standing. 


CELSIA (Olaus Celsius, 1670-1756, a Swedish ori- 
entalist). Scrophulariacese. Herbs, with yellow fls. in 
terminal racemes or spikes, closely allied to Verbascum, 
but has only 4 stamens, and they are of 2 sorts. About 
40 Old World species, mostly from the Medit. region. 




Only C. erotica, Linn, f., is known in Amer., and that 
very sparingly. It is a hardy or half-hardy biennial, 
with alternate Ivs., of which the lower are slightly pin- 
nate and lanceolate, and the upper ovate-lanceolate, 
toothed and clasping: fls. large (nearly 2 in. across), 
and somewhat as in Antirrhinum, yellowish, with dark 
markings in the center and conspicuous deflexed sta- 
mens. Stout hairy plant, 3-6 ft. high, from Crete. 
B.M. 964. A very showy plant well worth much 
wider cult. See page 3566. 

C. pdntica, Hort. Has whitish Ivs. and pure white fls. 


CELTIS (ancient Latin name). Ulmdcese. NETTLE- 
TREE. Woody subjects grown chiefly as shade or lawn 

Trees or rarely shrubs, sometimes spiny: Ivs. alter- 
nate, petiolate, stipulate, deciduous or persistent, usu- 
ally oblique at the base and 3-nerved: fls. polygamous- 
monoecious, inconspicuous, apetalous, 4-5-merous, axil- 
lary, the staminate in small clusters on the lower part 
of the branchlets, the fertile solitary in the axils of the 

868. Celtis occidentalis ( X Yz). (Detail 

Ivs. on the upper part of the branchlets, with a 1- 
celled superior ovary crowned by a 2-parted style and 
with 4-5 short stamens: fr. a 1 -seeded, small drupe, 
edible in some species; embryo with broad cotyledons. 
Seventy species in the temperate and tropical regions of 
the northern hemisphere, of which a few hardy orna- 
mental species are cult. 

The nettle-trees are valuable as shade trees or as 
single specimens on the lawn, mostly with wide spread- 
ing head and light green foliage, which is rarely seri- 
ously injured by insects or fungi; they thrive in almost 
any soil and even in dry situations; they are of vigor- 
ous growth when young, and are easily transplanted. 
The straight-grained wood is light and elastic, easily 
divided, and much used for the manufacture of small 
articles and for furniture; that of C. australis is valued 
for carving. Propagated by seeds, sown after maturity; 
also by layers and cuttings of mature wood in fall; 
rarer kinds are sometimes grafted on C. occidentalis. 

A. Lvs. entire, or rarely with few teeth, thin, at 
length glabrous. 

mississippiensis, Bosc (C. Isevigdta, Willd. C. integri- 
fdlia, Nutt.). Tree, 60-80 ft. : Ivs. unequally rounded or 

cuneate at the base, oblong-lanceolate or ovate, acumi- 
nate, usually falcate, smooth above, 2-4 in. long: fr. 
orange-red, nearly globular, M m - thick, on slender 
pedicel, longer than the petiole; stone pitted. From 8, 
111. to Texas and Fla., west to Mo. S.S. 7:318. G.F. 
3:41, figs. 9-11. Mn. 7:225, 227. 

AA. Lvs. serrate, sometimes entire and pubescent. 

B. Ovary andfr. glabrous. 
c. Branchlets usually and Ivs. more or less pubescent, at 

least when young. 
D. Fr.-stalks slender, longer than petioles: Ivs. usually 

rough above: stone pitted. 
E. Under surface of Ivs. glabrous at maturity. 
occidentalis, Linn. Fig. 868. Large tree, occasionally 
120 ft.: branchlets glabrous or slightly pubescent: Ivs. 
oblique and rounded at the base, ovate-acuminate, 
pubescent when young, usually rough above, some- 
times smooth at maturity, usually entire toward the 
base, light green, 2-6 in. long: fr. orange-red, %-%in. 
long, on slender pedicel, longer than the petiole. S.S. 
7:317. G.F. 3:40 (adapted in Fig. 868) and 43. Em. 
304. Mn. 7:231, 233. A.G. 20:240, 531. Very vari- 
able species. Var. crassiffilia, Koch (C. crassifolia, 
Lam.), has firm, very rough and large Ivs., to 5 in. long, 
usually cordate at base and more strongly serrate. 
Michx. Hist. Arb. 3:228. 

EE. Under surface of Ivs. pubescent. 

australis, Linn. Tree, to 60 ft.: Ivs. oblique, broadly 
cuneate or rounded at the base, ovate-oblong, long- 
acuminate, pubescent beneath, 23^-5 in. long: fr. 
over 2/in. long, dark purple, sweet; pedicels 2-3 times 
longer than the petioles. Medit. region to Persia. 
H.W. 3:40, p. 11 Not hardy N. 

Helleri, Small. Tree, to 30 ft. : branchlets pubescent: 
Ivs. ovate or ovate-oblong, obtuse or acute, truncate 
to subcordate at the base, rough above, grayish and 

Eubescent or tomentose, and reticulate below, 2-3 in. 
>ng: fr. J^in. thick, light brown, on pubescent pedicels 
about J^in. long and rather stout. Texas. Sometimes 
planted as a street tree in Texas. 

DD. Fr.-stalks rather stout, as long or slightly longer than 

petioles: Ivs. grayish green beneath: stone smooth. 
sinensis, Pers. (C. japonica, Planch.). Tree, to 30 ft.: 
Ivs. usually rounded or cordate at the base, broadly 
ovate to oblong-ovate, acuminate, serrate-dentate, 
pubescent when young, pale or glaucescent and promi- 
nently reticulate beneath, 2-4 in. long: fr. dull orange- 
red; pedicels rather stout, not much longer than the 
petioles. China, Japan. S.I.F. 1:36. Has proved 
hardy at the Arnold Arboretum. 

cc. Branchlets and Ivs. quite glabrous: stone smooth. 
D. Foliage bluish or grayish green. 

Tournef6rtii, Lam. (C. orientdlis, Mill., not Linn.). 
Tree, to 20 ft., or shrub: Ivs. ovate, acute, usually 
rounded or subcordate at the base, 1^-3 in. long, of 
firm texture, not reticulate, sometimes pubescent: fr. 
reddish yellow, about M m - across, its stalk about as 
long as petiole, Min. l n S or somewhat less. Greece, 
Sicily and Asia Minor. Not quite hardy N.; attractive 
on account of its bluish green foliage. 

DD. Foliage bright green, lustrous. 
Bungeana, Blume. Tree: Ivs. usually rounded at the 
base, ovate, acuminate, crenate-serrate, nearly glabrous 
when young, green and shining on both sides, l%-2/4 
in.: fr. purplish black, small; pedicels longer than the 
petioles. N. China. Hardy, and a very distinct spe- 
cies, with dark green and glossy foliage. 

BB. Ovary andfr. pubescent; subtropical, tender tree. 
Kraussiana, Bernh. Tree: Ivs. oblong-ovate, usually 
rounded at the base, acuminate, crenate-serrate, pubes- 

XXIV. Coelogyne cristata, one of the popular and easily grown orchids. 




cent on the veins beneath, semi-persistent: ovary 
tomentose: fr. mostly pubescent, slender pedicelled. 
S. Afr. to Abyssinia. Sim, Forest Fl. Cape Colony, 134. 
Hardy only S. 

C. Bidndii, Pampanini. Lvs. broader than in C. Bungeana, 
grayish below: frs. dark blue, small. Cent. China. C. Caucasian, 
Willd. Allied to C. australis. Lvs. broadly rhombic-ovate, somewhat 
smaller: fr. smaller, reddish brown. Caucasus, N. Persia. C.David- 
iana, Carr. Allied to C. Bungeana. Small tree: Ivs. ovate-oblong or 
elliptic-oblong, often sparsely hairy on the veins below, 2-5 in. 
long. N. China. Incompletely known. C. georgiana, Small. Allied 
to C. occidentalis. Shrub or small tree: branchlets pubescent' Ivs. 
ovate, acute, entire or sharply serrate, 1-2 in. long: fr. Min. across, 
short-stalked. Md. to Fla., Ala. and Mo. C. orienMis, Linn.= 
Trema orientalis. C. orienMis, Mi!l.= C. Tournefortii. C. reticu- 
lata, Torr. (C. mississipiensis var. reticulata, Sarg.). Small tree, to 
50 ft.: branchlets pubescent. Ivs. ovate, usually cordate, entire or 
serrate, rough above, pubescent and reticulate below, 1 J^-3 in. long: 
fr. J^in. thick, orange-red. Colo, to Texas and Ariz. C. Smallii, 
Beadle. Allied to C. mississippiensis. Lvs. lanceolate or oblong- 
lanceolate, thin, sharply serrate, 2-4 in. long: fr. l /iva.. thick, slender- 
stalked. N. C. and Tenn. to Ga. and Ala. 


CEMETERY GARDENING. Treated under Landscape Gar- 

CENCHRUS (an ancient Greek name). Graminex. 
Mostly annual grasses with simple racemes of burs that 
become detached and adhere readily to clothing and 
animals. Spikelets as in Panicum, but 2-6 together in a 
epiny involucre or bur. C. carolinianus, Walt. (C. trib- 
uloides of American authors), SAND-BUR, is a common 
weed in sandy soil. Dept. Agric. Div. Agrost. 20:40. 


CENIA (Greek for empty, in allusion to the hollow 
receptacle). Compdsitse. Low herbs from S. Afr., with 
the aspect of mayweed. Head small and rayed, the 
ray-fls. pistillate, the disk-fls. compressed and 4-toothed, 
the receptacle gradually enlarged from the top of the 
peduncle, and hollow. About 8 species, none of which 
are of much horticultural value. C. turbinata, Pers. 
(C. pruinosa, DC.), is a common weed in Cape Colony, 
and it is occasionally seen in American gardens. It is 
annual, diffusely branched, and a foot or less high, with 
finely dissected, soft, almost moss-like foliage, and 
long-peduncled, small, yellow heads. Of easy cult. 
United with Cotula by Hoffmann in Engler & Prantl. 

L. H. B. 

CENTAUREA (a Centaur, famous for healing). Com- 

hardy and half-hardy perennials with alternate leaves, 
useful for bedding, vases, baskets and pots, and for 
borders and edgings; species many and various. 

Involucre ovoid or globose, stiff and hard, some- 
times prickly: receptacle bristly: marginal florets 
usually sterile and elongated, making the head look as 
if rayed. Differs from Cnicus in having the achenes 
obliquely attached by one side of the base or more 
laterally. Species about 500, much confused, mostly 
in Eu., Asia and N. Afr., 1 in. N. Amer., 3 or 4 in Chile. 
Several Old World species have become weeds in this 
country. J.H. 43:76. The species are of simple cult., 
coming readily from seeds. Many of the perennial 
species make excellent border plants, and their blue 
and purple heads are welcome additions to the horde 
of yellow-no wering composites. 


alba, 6, 14. 

dedinata, 13. 

nana, 5. 

Amberboii, 6. 

depressa, 2. 

nervosa, 16. 

americana, 10. 

ftore-pleno, 5. 

nigra, 12. 

argentea, 3. 

glastifolia, 7. 

odorata, 6. 

atropurpurea, 17. 

gymnocarpa, 3. 

plumosa, 3. 

babylonica, 18. 

imperialis, 6. 

rosea, 14. 

calocephala, 17. 

leucophylla, 13. 

rubra, 6. 

candidissima, 1. 

macrocephala, 11. 

ruthenica, 9. 

Cineraria, 1. 

Margaritacea, 8. 

splendens, 8. 

citrina, 14. 

Margaritse, 6. 

suaveolens, 6. 

Clementei, 4. 

Marix, 6. 

sulphured, 14. 

Cyanus, 5. 

montana, 14. 

variegata, 12. 

dealbata, 15. 

moschata, 6. 

A. DUSTY MILLER. White-tomentose low plants, used 
for bedding or for the sake of their foliage. 

1. Cineraria, Linn. (C. candidissima, Lam.). Fig. 869. 
Perennial: sts. erect, 3 ft., branched, the entire plant 
white-tomentose: Ivs. almost all bipinnate (except the 
earliest), the lower petioled, all the lobes linear-lanceo- 
late, obtuse: scales of the ovate involucre appressed, 
with a membranous black margin, long-ciliate, the api- 
cal bristle thicker than the others: fls. purple. S. Italy, 
Sicily, etc. Much used as a bedding plant, not being 
allowed to bloom. The first Ivs. of seedlings are nearly 
entire (as shown in Fig. 869), but the subsequent ones 
become more and more cut. Grown both from seeds 
and cuttings. Seedlings are very 

apt to damp off unless care is 
taken in watering. 

2. depressa, Bieb. A flat, 
almost prostrate perennial: st. 
floccose - tomentose and much 
branched: lower Ivs. scarcely 
denticulate, the upper oblong- 
linear, entire : bracts of the invo- 
lucre white- or black-margined: 
fls. showy, the blue rays about 
K m - long. Persia, Caucasus. 

3. gymno- 
carpa, Moris 
& DeNot (C. 
argentea, Hort. 
C. plumosa, 
Hort.). Fig. 
870. Perennial: 
entire plant 
covered with 
velvety white 
pubescence : 
sts. 1^-2 ft. 
high, erect: Ivs. 
segms. linear, 
entire, acute: 
fl. -heads small, 
in a close pani- 
cle, mostly 
hidden by the 
Ivs. ; fls. rose- 
violet or pur- 
ple. Caprea. 
V. 4:337. 
Very ornamen- 
tal on account of its velvety finely cut Ivs. Much 
used, like No. 1, for low foliage bedding: Ivs. more 
compound, and usually not so white. 

4. Clementei, Boiss. Perennial, the entire plant 
densely whi te- woolly : sts. erect, branching, with few 
Ivs.: root-lvs. petioled, pinnate, the lobes ovate-trian- 
gular, sharp-pointed; st.-lvs. sessile: fl. -heads terminal 
on the branches, globose; involucre scales with scarious, 
ciliate margins, scarcely spiny; fls. yellow. Spain. 

growing annual, with very narrow Ivs., grown for 
the showy fls. 

5. Cyanus, Linn. (Cyanus arvenis, Moench.) BLUE- 
PINK. Fig. 871. Annual, slender, branching, 1 7 2 ft. 
high, woolly-white when young: lys. linear, entire or 
the lower toothed, sometimes pinnatifid: fls. blue, 
purple, pink or white, the heads on long, naked sts. : 
involucral bracts rather narrow, fringed with short, 
scarious teeth. S. E. Eu. Gt. 38, p. 641; 39, p. 537. 
V. 5, p. 44; 13 : 361. One of the most popular of garden 
fls., variable. It is perfectly hardy, blooming until frost 

869. Lower leaf 
from a young plant 
of Centaurea Cin- 

870. Radical leaf of 

Centaurea gymnocarpa. 





and coming up in the spring from self-sown seed. The 
following are varieties of this: Pure White; Victoria, a 
dwarf, for pots and edgings (Gn. 40, p. 147) ; Emperor 
William, fine dark blue; fiore plena, with the outer disk- 
fls. converted into ray-fls.; nana compacta, dwarf. (Gt. 
44, p. 150.) Centaurea Cyanus is one of the "old-fash- 
ioned flowers," everywhere well known and popular. 
It often escapes from gardens. 

AAA. SWEET SULTANS. Straight-growing smooth an- 
nuals or perennials, with dentate Ivs., grown for 
the large fragrant heads. 

6. moschata, Linn. (C. suaveolens, Linn. C. odordta, 
Hort. C. Amberbdii, Mill. Amberboa moschata, Less.). 
SWEET SULTAN. Fig. 872. 

Annual : sts. 2 ft. high, branch- 
ing below, erect: whole plant 
smooth, bright green: Ivs. pin- 
natifid, the lobes dentate: fl.- 
heads long-peduncled; invo- 
lucre round or ovate, smooth, 
only the innermost of the 
involucral scales with scarious 
margins: fls. white, yellow or 
purple, fragrant. Orient. Mn. 
4, p. 149. Gn. 54 : 372. I.H. 
42, p. 106. Gng. 4:147. G. 5: 
289; 16: 267; 25: 71. 

Var. filba, Hort. (C. Mar- 
garitss, Hort.). Fls. white. Gn. 
19, p. 337; 54:372. A.G. 13: 
607. This form, known as C. 
Margaritas, is pure white and 
very fragrant. It was intro. 
by an Italian firm in 1891. 
Var. rubra, Hort. Fls. red. 
Gn. 54:372. A popular, old- 
time garden fl., with long- 
stalked heads; of easy cult. It 
does not bear transplanting 
well. C. imperidlis, Hort., is 
said to be the offspring of C. 
moschata and C. Margaritas, 
intro. into the American trade 
in 1899. Gn.M. 13:74. Plants 
are said to inherit the vigorous 
free growth of C. moschata, 
being of the same easy cult, and 
forming clumps 3-4 ft. high. 
The fls. resemble C. Margaritas. 
but are twice as large and 
abundantly borne on long sts. 
from July until frost. They 
range through white, rose, lilac 
and purple, are fragrant, and 
if cut when first open will keep 
10 days. C. Marias, Hort., intro. 
1899, resembles C. imperialis, 
but the fls. open sulfur-yellow, 
become lighter, and are tipped 
with rose. All sweet sultans do 
best if the bloom is secured before very hot weather. 

7. glastifolia, Linn. A strong-growing border peren- 
nial with a rough much-branched and winged st. : Ivs. ob- 
long, entire, decurrent, the basal Ivs. petiolate, sometimes 
divided : fls. yellow, the heads solitary, without bracts, 
and quite smooth. Cent. Eu. B.M. 62. June-Sept. 

AAAA. OTHER CENTAUREAS of various kinds, occasion- 
ally grown in hardy borders, for their fls. or im- 
posing stature. See page 3567. 

B. Foliage green on both sides. 
c. Lvs. pinnate or bipinnate. 

8. splendens, Linn. (C. Margaritdcea, Ten.). Peren- 
nial: sts. erect, branched: Ivs. smooth, the lowest bi- 

871. Centaurea Cyanus. 

pinnate, the upper pinnate, all with very narrow, linear, 
entire, acute lobes: fl.-heads subglobpse; scales of the 
involucre with a rounded almost entire rather lax tip; 
fls. purple. Spain, Italy. 

9. ruthenica, Lam. Hardy perennial about 3 ft.: 
st. erect, branching, smooth: Ivs. pinnatisect, the lobes 
linear-toothed, sharply narrowed at both ends, the 
base often somewhat decurrent: fl.-heads usually 
solitary, the pale-yellow rays about %in. long; pappus 
double: achenes glabrous. Cent. Eu. July. G. 26:630. 

cc. Lvs. entire or dentate, not pinnatisect. 

10. americana, Nutt. (Plectocephalus americdnus, 
Don). BASKET FLOWER. Fig. 873. Hardy annual, 

nearly smooth: sts. stout, 
simple or sometimes a little 
branched, 2-5 ft., thickened 
under the naked head: Ivs. 
mostly entire, oblong - lance- 
shaped, mucronate: involucre 
H-l/^ in. diam., its bracts all 
with fringed scarious appen- 
dages: fls. rose or flesh-colored, 
sometimes purplish; disk 1-3 
in. diam.; narrow lobes of the 
ray-fls. often 1 in. long. Mo. 
and Ark. to La. and Mex. F.S. 
4:327. S.H. |2:223. A.F. 16: 
1644 (alba). Gng. 9:341 (alba). 
Very attractive. 

11. macrocephala, Puschk. 
Perennial: sts. simple, erect, 
swollen below the fl.-head, 
leafy, 2>-3 ft. high: Ivs. ovate- 
lanceolate, slightly decurrent, 
scabrous, acute, somewhat ser- 
rate, gradually diminishing up- 
wards to the base of the single 
terminal head: head subglo- 
bose, larger than a hen's egg, 
often 3-4 in. diam.; involucre 
of 8-12 rows of appressed, scari- 
ous-margined, rusty, fringed 
scales; fls. yellow, the marginal 
and disk alike. Armenia. B.M. 
1248. J.H. III. 33:331; 52: 
547; 63 : 319. Often grown 
from seeds. 

12. nigra,Linn. KNAPWEED. 
HARDHEADS. Perennial, 1-2 
ft. high: sts. branching, rough 
pubescent: Ivs. lance-shaped 
and entire or lower sparingly 
toothed or lobed, but not pin- 
natifid: involucral bracts with 
pectinate-ciliate-fringed black 
appendages: fls. all alike, the 
disk and marginal ones of the 
same size. Eu. Var. variegata, 
Hort. Lvs. edged with creamy 
white, tufted. A very striking 

border plant; useful in dry or open places. 

BB. Foliage white or tomentose, at least beneath (often 

green above). 
c. Sts. low, weak, not strict. 

13. leucophylla, Bieb. (C. declindta, Bieb.). Peren- 
nial: sts. short, decumbent, with very few Ivs.: root- 
Ivs. petioled, tomentose-woolly on both sides, pinnate, 
the ovate lobes undulate, sparsely cut-lobed or sinuate- 
toothed: fl.-head with few bracts, solitary, terminal; 
scales of the ovate involucre lanceolate, acuminate, 
brown, long-ciliate; fls. purple. Caucasus. 

14. montana, Linn. MOUNTAIN BLUET. Perennial: 
sts. low, stoloniferous, unbranched, 12-16 or rarely 20 




in. high: Ivs. decurrent, the young ones silvery white, 
oval-lance-shaped: involucre of 4 or 5 rows of scales, 
black-ciliate along the margins: fls. blue, the marginal 
ones 1 in. long; disk-fls. very short, becoming purple. 
Eu. B.M.77. G.M. 47:243. Var. alba, Hort. Fls. white. 
G. 25: 71; 29: 109. G.M. 51:162. Var. r6sea, Hort. Fls. 
rose-colored. Var. citrina, DC. (var. sul- 
phurea, Hort.). Disk-fls. brown, rays yel- 
low. Armenia. B.M. 1175 (asC.ochroleuca). 

cc. Sts. erect, simple or branched. 

15. dealbata, Willd. Perennial: sts. 
sub-erect, 8-24 in. high: Ivs. white- villous 
beneath, glabrous above, the lower ones 
1-1 Yt ft. long, petioled, pinnate, the pbo- 
vate lobes coarsely cut-toothed or auricled 
at the base; st.-lvs. sessile, pinnate, with 
oblong-lance lobes: fl.-head solitary, just 
above the uppermost If.; fls. red, those of 
the disk rosy or white; outer scales of the 
involucre with lanceolate tips, the middle 
rounded, deeply fringed, ciliate. Asia 
Minor, Persia. J.H. III. 46:515. 

16. nervdsa, Willd. A 
stout perennial about 2- 
iy<i ft. tall with a simple 
unbranched rough st.: 
lower Ivs. glandular, usu- 
ally slightly toothed, the 
st.-lvs. clasping by the 
auriculate base; heads 
solitary, the rays deep 
purple. A branched and 
numerous -fld. form is 
known in the wild but not 
to the trade. Cent. Eu. 
July., Aug. 

17. atropurpftrea, 
Waldst. & Kit. (C. calo- 
cephala, Willd.). Peren- 
nial: sts. erect, branched, 
about 2-3 ft. high, the 
branches white-woolly at 
the summit : Ivs. bipinnate, 

lobes linear-lanceolate, acuminate; lowest Ivs. petioled, 
uppermost pinnatifid: fl. -heads without bracts; invol- 
ucral scales with fringed ciliate white lanceolate tips, 
the innermost ones rounded, scarious-margiaed; fls. 
black-purple. Hungary. 

18. babylonica, Linn. Silvery white perennial: sts. 
simple, stout, erect, 6-10 or 12 ft. high: Ivs. long, coria- 
ceous, strongly decurrent on the st., the radical lyrate, 
the lower st.-lvs. oval or oblong-acute, entire or undu- 
late, the upper lance-acute: fls. yellow, the globular 
heads almost sessile in the axils of narrow bract-like 
Ivs.; one^third to half of the st. fl. -bearing; involucre- 
scales with a short, recurved tip. Asia Minor, Syria. 
Gn. 2, p. 73; 8, p. 263. R.H. 1859, pp. 540-1. Tall, 
stout and striking plant. 

C. alpina, Linn. Lvs. downy beneath, prickly: fl.-heads yellow; 
scales of involucre ovate, obtuse: hardy herb, 3 ft., from Eu., 
sometimes seen in collections. C. eri6phora, Linn. A low plant 
with a spiny ^alyx and silvery Ivs., is cult, in England. Not known 
in Amer. C. pulcherrima, Willd. GEtheopappus pulcherrimus, 
Hort.). A stout hardy perennial about 2 1 A ft. with brilliant rose 
fls. is known in the trade. C. rigidifdlia, Hort. Stout perennial, 
2^2 ft., with crimson heads is apparently C. orientalis, Linn. Not 
much known in U. S. j^ TAYLOR t 

CENTAURfDIUM: Xanthisma. 
CENTAUR Y: Sabatia. 

CENTRADENIA (Greek for spurred gland, alluding 
to the anther glands). Melastomacese. Tropical herbs 
or sub-shrubs grown in warmhouses for their showy- 
colored leaves and pretty flowers. 

Branches angled or winged: Ivs. petiolate, opposite, 

872. Centaurea moschata. 

lanceolate or ovate, entire, ribbed: fls. with 4-lobed 
calyx, 4 petals, 8 stamens, and a 4-loculed ovary, pink 
or white, in axillary or terminal clusters. Species 4-6, 
in Mex. and Cent. Amer. They fall into 2 groups, 
those with very unequal stamens, and C, floribunda with 
nearly equal stamens. 

Centradenias are very showy and desirable plants. 
The stems are often colored. They like rich leaf -mold 
with sharp sand, and brisk heat. Give a light but 
shady position. Strong plants are much benefited by 
liquid manure, and such applications give better colors 
in both flowers and fruit. 

grandifdlia, Endl. Branches 4-winged: Ivs. ovate- 
lanceolate, strongly 3-nerved, brilliant red beneath, 
long-pointed and curving at the end: cymes many-fld., 
shorter than the Ivs., the fls. light rose, rotate, the petals 
very obtuse, the stamens unequal. Mex. B. M. 5228. 
The plant grows 2 ft. high, and blooms in winter. Very 
showy, and the species usually cult. The cut branches 
hold their color a long time, making the plant useful 
for decorations. 

inaequilateralis, Don (C. rosea, Lindl.). Lvs. ovate- 
lanceolate, unequal-sided, entire, ciliate, reddish be- 
neath: fls. pink, in terminal corymbose racemes: dwarf. 
Mex. B.R. 29:20. 

ovata, Klotzsch. Lvs. ovate-acute, smooth and shin- 
ing, pale beneath, 3-nerved: fls. pink in large terminal 
clusters. Cent. Amer. 

floribunda, Planch. Branches obscurely angled, pu- 
bescent, red: Ivs. narrow-lanceolate, tapering below, 3- 
nerved, red-nerved below: fls. pink, in terminal pani- 
cles. Mex. F.S. 5:453. L. jj. B.f 

CENTRANTHUS (Greek, spurred flower) . Valerian- 
acese. CENTRANTH. Annual and perennial herbs, one 
of which is frequent in old gardens. 

Leaves opposite, entire, dentate, or pinnatisect: fls. 
in dense clusters, small, red or white, terminating the 
branches; calyx cut into 5-15 narrow divisions, en- 
larging after flowering; corolla slender-tubed, 5-parted, 
spurred at the base; stamen 1; fls. with a pappus-like 
crest. About a dozen species in the Medit. region, 
some of them sometimes half shrubby. C. ruber, the 
common garden species, sometimes escapes and becomes 
more or less spontaneous. 

ennial, 1-3 ft., smooth and glaucous, forming a com- 
pact and floriferous bushy plant: Ivs. ovate to lanceo- 
late, some of them toothed at base but mostly entire: 
fls. numerous, deep crimson to pale red, fragrant. Eu., E. 
A very handsome old 
garden plant, too much 
neglected; blooms all 
summer; excellent for 
cutting. Increased by 
division; also by seeds. 
There is a white-fld. 
form (var. dlbus). 

angustifdlius, DC. 
Perennial, glaucous, to 
2 ft., simple or some- 
what branched : Ivs. 
linear -lanceolate or 
linear, very entire, 
nearly perfoliate: fls. 
clear rose, fragrant. S. 
Eu. There is a white- 
fld. form (var. albus). 

macrosiphon, Boiss. 
Annual, of easy cult, 
in any good soil: 1-2 
ft. : Ivs. ovate, glaucous, 
toothed : fls. larger 
than in the last, deep 873. Centaurea americana. 




rose. Spain. There are white-fid, (var. dlbus) and 
dwarf (var. nanus) forms. Excellent for rockeries and 
borders; also for lawn vases. L. jj_ g, 

CENTROPOGON (Greek kentron, spur, and pogon, 
beard, referring to the fringed stigma) . Campanulacese. 
Sub-shrubs or shrubs, often scandent, grown under 

Plants with alternate mostly dentate Ivs., and axil- 
lary, long, tubular fls. which are violet, purple, red, or 
orange, and usually borne singly on long peduncles: 
corolla 2-lipped, the tube incurved: bracteoles very 
small or wanting. More than 100 species in Trop. 
Amer. Warmhouse perennials useful for hanging- 
baskets, prop, by cuttings which it is better to put 
under a bell-jar. 

Lucy anus, Houll. Height 1-2 ft.: st. somewhat 
woody: Ivs. short-petioled, finely toothed: fls. rose, 
hemispherical, with lanceolate segms. recurved at the 
tips. R.H. 1868:290. Native country unknown. 
Described from a cult, specimen and said to be a 
hybrid of C. fastuosus and Siphocampylus betulseformis, 
but seems to show little influence of the latter, which 
has longer petioles and peduncles, more coarsely toothed 
Ivs., longer calyx-segms., and a yellow-tipped corolla. 

fastuosus, Scheidw. Lvs. peach-like, oblong, acute, 
bordered with glandular teeth, very glabrous, short- 
petioled: fls. rose-colored, winter; calyx hemispherical, 
with 5 lanceolate denticulate segms. Mex. R.H. 1853: 

CENTROSEMA (Greek, spurred-standard). Legu- 
minbsse. BUTTERFLY-PEA. Twining or trailing herbs, 
one of which is sometimes cultivated. 

Leaves pinnate, 3-7-f oliolate : fls. in the axils, showy, 
white or reddish, papilionaceous, the standard spurred 
on the back, the keel broad, and the style bearded at 
the apex: pod long and narrow, many-seeded, with 2 
thick-edged valves. Species about 30 in Trop. Amer. 
and 2 in U. S. Centrosema is a more recent name than 
Bradburya of Rafinesque, but it is thoroughly estab- 
lished in usage and is retained in the "nomina conser- 
vanda" of the Vienna Congress. 

virginianum, Benth. (Bradburya virginidna, Kuntze). 
Roughish, climbing, 2-^6 ft.: Ifts. ovate to linear, shi- 
ning, stipitate: fls. 1-4 in the axil, 1 in. long, violet and 
splashed, showy: pod straight and long-pointed, 4-5 
in. long. N. J. and S., in sandy lands. A.G. 13:649. 
Intro, to cult, many years ago, but again intro. in 1892 
(as C. grandiftorum), and much advertised. It is a 
hardy and desirable perennial vine, blooming the first 
season from seed; easily grown. There is a white-fid, 
form. L. H. B. 


CEPHAELIS (Greek-made compound, referring to the 
fls. being borne in heads). Rubidcese. Tropical shrubs, 
sub-shrubs or herbs, one of which yields ipecac; some 
of them sometimes rarely seen in growing collections. 
As the genus is commonly delimited, it comprises per- 
haps 75 species of both the eastern and western hemis- 
pheres. Engler & Prantl and others, howeyer, unite it 
with the Linnsean Uragoga. Lvs. opposite, usually 
ovate, oblong or obovate: fls. mostly small, white, col- 
lected in an involucrate head; calyx 4-7-toothed and 
persistent; corolla trumpet-shaped or salver-shaped, 
the short limb 4-5-lobed; stamens 4 or 5, inserted in the 
throat of the corolla: fr. a dry or fleshy 2-seeded drupe. 
C. Ipecacudnha, Willd. (Psychotria Ipecacudnha, 
Muell.-Arg. Uragoga Ipecacudnha, Baill.), from the root 
of which the commercial ipecac is produced, is a low 
creeping herb (4-8 in. high) with oblong-ovate entire 
Ivs. which are pubescent beneath: heads becoming 
pendulous: root slender, knotty; it is exported in large 
quantities from Brazil. L. H. B. 


CEPHALANTHERA (Greek for head and anther). 
Orchiddcese. About 10 species of small temperate- 
region terrestrial orchids, allied to Epipactis and 
Pogonia. Some of them are western N. American, and 
others are European. Sepals 3; petals small, ovate; 
lip saccate: Ivs. (sometimes wanting) lanceolate or 
oblong: fls. mostly small (sometimes showy), in an open 
spike. The species are scarcely known in cult., but 2 
Japanese species have been offered by importers. These 
are E. falcata Blume, yellow, and E. erecta, Blume, 

CEPHALANTHUS (Greek, head and flower; flowers 
in heads). Rubidcese. BUTTON-BUSH. Bush grown for 
its attractive white flower-heads appearing in summer. 

Shrubs with opposite or whorled entire stipulate 
Ivs.: fls. small, tubular, white or yellowish, 4-merous, 
with included stamens and long exserted style, in 
globular heads; ovary 2-celled: fr. dry, separating into 

2 nutlets. Five species in Amer. and Asia, of which only 
the one N. American species is cult: hardy ornamental 
shrub, with handsome glossy foliage and very attrac- 
tive with its fl.- 
balls appearing 
late in summer. 
It thrives in any 
good garden soil, 
best in a sandy, 
somewhat moist 
one; naturally it 
grows in swamps 
and on the bor- 
ders of streams 
and ponds, often 
with the sts. 
partly sub- 
merged. Prop, 
by seeds or by 
cuttings of 
ripened wood in 
fall, and also by 
greenwood cut- 
tings taken from 
forced plants 
early in spring. 

occidentals, Linn. Fig. 874. Shrub, 3-12 ft., some- 
times tree-like: Ivs. long-petioled, ovate or oval, acumi- 
nate, glossy above, glabrous or slightly pubescent below, 
3-6 in. long: heads about 1 in. diam., long-peduncled, 

3 or more at the end of the branches. July-Sept. From 
New Brunswick south, west to Ont. and Calif. Em. 
394. R.H. 1889, p. 280. S.S. 14:711. Var. angusti- 
folia, Andr6. Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, usually in 3's. 
R.H. 1889, p. 281. 

C. nataUnsis, Oliv. Branchlets hairy: Ivs. ovate, acuminate, 1 
in. long: fls. green, in solitary heads: fr. edible. S. Afr. B.M. 


CEPHALARIA (Greek for head, alluding to the capi- 
tate flower-clusters). Dipsdcese. Coarse annual or per- 
ennial herbs planted to some extent in herbaries. 

Much like Dipsacus, but the heads less spiny and 
mostly smaller: heads terminal, ovoid or globular, 
bearing many 4-parted yellowish, whitish or bluish 
florets; stamens 4, perfect; style filiform: fr. a 4^8- 
ribbed achene, the calyx-border often remaining on its 
summit. About 30 species in the Medit. region, N. and 
S. Afr. and W. Asia; also in Abyssinia. Lvs. entire, 
dentate, or lobed. They are not much planted in Amer., 
but they make striking subjects for summer bloom, 
and the long sts. make ihem useful for cut-fls. The 
bloom is something like that of scabiosa. Of simple 
cult.; grown readily from seeds. 

alpina, Schrad. Perennial: tall and widely branched, 
5 or 6 ft. : Ivs. pubescent and pinnatifid, the segms. cut 

874. Cephalanthus occidentalis. ( X H) 




and decurrent: fl.-heads sulfur-yellow; involucre with 
8 aristate teeth. S. Eu. A good coarse plant for sum- 
mer bloom. Hardy N. 

leucantha, Schrad. Perennial: Ivs. pinnate-parted, 
the lobes linear or oblong: fls. in subglobose heads, 
creamy white, in autumn. S. Eu. Variable. 

transylvanica, Schrad. Annual, slender, 2-3 ft. : lower 
Ivs. lyrate; the segms. serrate and the terminal one 
large; upper Ivs. pinnate-parted into linear-lanceolate 
divisions: fls. in globular heads on long peduncles, the 
ray-corollas bluish and disk-corollas whitish (fls. said 
to be yellow, in trade lists, to bloom June-Aug. and 
plant perennial). Greece and eastward. 

tatarica, Schrad. Perennial, 6 ft., rank, with striate 
sts., suited to the rear border, where strong effects are 
desired, with showy cream-white, flat heads in July 
and Aug.: Ivs. pinnate, the Ifts. broad-lanceolate and 
serrate. Russia, Asia Minor and E. Grows readily, 
and is increased by seed or dividing the clumps. 

L. H. B. 

CEPHALOCEREUS (referring to the crown of long 
hair). Syn. Pilocereus. Cactaceas. Mostly large columnar 
plants, single or branched, usually characterized by an 
abundance of wool or long white hair developing at the 
top or on one side near the top: fls. nocturnal, small, 
thick, fleshy, naked: fr. small, globular berry, naked: 
seeds black. Some 16 or more species are known. 

The culture of the species is similar to that of the 
arborescent species of Cereus. The species of Cepha- 
locereus are well suited only for large collections and 
are rarely seen elsewhere, except in the case of C. 
senilis, of which enormous quantities are shipped to 
Europe by commercial dealers. See Succulents. 

senilis, Pfeiff. (Pilocereus senllis,_ Lem.). OLD MAN 
CACTUS. Columnar, reaching a height of 35 ft. and a 
diam. of 1 ft., branching at the very base, the branches 
becoming parallel with the parent: ribs 20-30, very 
little elevated; areoles bearing 20-30 white, wavy 
bristles 2-5 in. long; later appear also, at first 1, then 
3-5 strong, yellowish spines: fls. very numerous in the 
cephalium, nearly 4 in. long, red outside, reddish white 
within: fr. violet, 2 in. long. Cent. Mex. R.H. 1889, p. 
568; 1890, p. 128. 

Sartorianus, Brit. & Rose (Pilocereus Houlletii, of 
authors, not of Lem.). Tree-like, attaining 40 ft. in 
height: branches divaricate: cult, plants usually 3-4 in. 
diam.: ribs 6^-8, rounded, glaucous: radial spines 7-9, 
spreading, ^ m - long, honey yellow; central twice as 
long and stronger: areoles of the sterile st. with more or 
less hairs, which in the fruiting area are very numerous, 
making a shaggy tract sometimes 1 ft. long: fls. 3 in. 
long, imbedded in the wool, turbinate, greenish-red 
outside, rose-red within: fr. dark red, depressed-glo- 
bose. Mex. R.H. 1862, pp. 427-30. 

Royenii, Brit. & Rose (Pilocereus Royenii, Riimpl. 
P. floccosus, Lem.). Columnar, branching, reaching 15 
ft. height, 2-3 in. diam. : ribs 9-10, obtuse, bluish, pruin- 
ose: spines 12-16, rigid, divaricate, bright amber-yel- 
low, the inner ones larger, nearly an inch long: on the 
sterile branches long hairs are found on areoles, on the 
fertile bract these are more numerous and aggregated: 
fls. and fr. as in the last species, but lighter in color. 
Isl. of St. Croix. 

Hoppenstedtii, Schum. (Pilocereus Hoppenstedtii, 
Web.). Columnar, simple, slender, reaching a height of 
30 ft.: ribs numerous, more than 16: radial spines 
14-18, very short; centrals 5-8, the lower longest one 
reaching 3 in.; all the spines at first yellowish, then 
white: cephalium of 1-2 in. long tufts of yellowish hairs, 
forming a narrow bract on the north side of the plant: 
fls. 3 in. long, bell-shaped, whitish, with rosy tips. 

polyldphus, Brit. & Rose (Pilocereus polylophus, 
Salm-Dyck. Cereus Nickelsii, Hort.). Columnar, 


attaining a height of 50 ft. and a diam. of 1^ ft., 
rarely branching: ribs 10-^22, sharp-angled, shallow, 
the old sts. perfectly cylindrical: spines small and 
bristle-like, less than J^in. long; radials 5-6; central 
usually 1; spines of the flowering area 2-3 in. long, 
crowded: fls. large, trumpet-shaped, dark red: fr. red, 
scaly. Mex. 

scoparius, Brit. & Rose (Pilocereus scoparius, 
Poselg.). Tree-like, richly branched, 25 ft. high, 1 ft. 
diam.: radial spines 12-15, very short; centrals 7-8, 
not much longer; in the flowering branches the spines 
change to longer stout bristles and the areoles are 
closer together, forming a bristly cephalium: fls. small, 
bell-shaped, reddish: fr. size of a hazelnut. Near Vera 
Cruz, Mex. 

exerens, Rose (Pilocereus exerens, Schum. P. 
virens, Lem.). Branching at base, 3-4 ft. high, 2-3 in. 
diam., tapering above: ribs 4-6, obtuse, the sterile 
shoots with short, sparse, woolly hairs at the top: spines 
commonly 7 : radials, very short, 1-3 : centrals 4 times as 
long; woolly hairs much more abundant on the bloom- 
ing plant: fls. about 3 in. long, trumpet-bell-shaped, 
without wool or spines. Brazil. Not common, if 
occurring at all, in cult, in U. S. 

The following species have been reported or may be expected in 
cult., but none is as yet at all common. C. chrysoc&nthus, Brit. & 
Rose; C. cometes, Brit. & Rose; C. lanugindsus, Brit. & Rose; C. 
Russellianus, Rose (Cereus Russellianus, Riimpl.). C. ndbliis, Brit. 

& Rose - J. N. ROSE. 

CEPHALOSTACHYUM (Greek, head and spike). 
Graminese. A few species of grasses of the bamboo tribe 
in E. Indies and Madagascar, one of which (C. per- 
gracile) has been offered in this country. Tall shrubs: 
spikelets in dense solitary heads at the ends of the 
branches or in scattered glomerules, the heads bristly 
with the subtending Ivs.; stamens 6; empty glumes 
1-2; style long, 2-3-cleft: fr. elongated and beaked. 
C. pergracile, Munro. Forty ft., sts. 2-3 in. thick: Ivs. 
14 in. or less long: an elegant species, growing in clumps. 
Burma. It is offered in S. Calif. In Fla., it loses most 
of its Ivs. in winter, but the new growth in spring and 
summer is very attractive; it is said not to do well there 
on high dry pine land, preferring moderately moist 
soil; it needs much water in summer, and responds 
readily to fertilizer. . L H. B. 

CEPHALOTAXUS (Greek, head; Taxus-like plant, 
with fls. in heads or clusters). Taxacese. Yew-like 
plants, grown for their handsome evergreen foliage. 

Trees or shrubs, with evergreen linear pointed Ivs. 
with 2 broad, glaucous lines beneath, arranged in 2 
rows: fls. dioecious, staminate in 1-8-fld., short-stalked 
clusters, pistillate consisting of a small cone with sev- 
eral bracts, each bearing 2 naked ovules: seed inclosed 
in a fleshy envelope, drupe-like, about 1 in. long, reddish 
or greenish brown. From allied genera it may be easily 
distinguished by th'e resin-canal in the center of the 
pith; and by the glaucous lines beneath from Taxus, 
which has the Ivs. yellowish green beneath; and from 
Torreya by the glaucous lines being broader than the 3 
green lines, while in Torreya the glaucous lines are 
narrower than the green ones. Six closely allied spe- 
cies from Himalayas to Japan. 

These are ornamental evergreen shrubs, in appear- 
ance very like a yew, but of more graceful habit. Not 
hardy North, or only in very sheltered positions. They 
thrive best in a somewhat moist but well-drained sandy 
loam, and in partly shaded situations. Propagated by 
seeds, stratified and sown in spring; imported seeds 
usually do not germinate until the second year; in- 
creased also by cuttings in August, under glass, and by 
veneer-grafting in summer, on one of the species or on 
Taxus baccata. For cions and cuttings, terminal shoots 
should be chosen, which form regular plants with 
whorled branches like seedlings, while cuttings from lat- 
eral branches grow into irregular, low, spreading shrubs. 




A. Lvs. 2-3 in.: branchlels yellowish green, pendulous. 
Fortunei, Hook. Lvs. tapering gradually into a sharp 
point, usually falcate, dark green and shining above: 
fr. greenish brown, obovate. N. China, Japan. B.M. 
4499. F.S. 6:555. R.H. 1878, p. 117. This is the 
most graceful species, with long and slender branches, 
attaining in its native country 50 ft. in height, in cult, 
usually remaining a shrub. 

AA. Lvs. 1-2 in. long. 
B. Base of Ivs. cuneate; Ivs. loosely %-ranked. 

HarringtSnia, Koch (C. pedunculata, Sieb. & Zucc. 
C. drupdcea var. Harringtonia, Pilger) . With spreading, 
often somewhat pendulous branches, dark green when 
young: Ivs. to 2 in. long, narrowed into a sharp point, 
shining and dark green above: staminate fls. distinctly 
peduncled: fr. ovoid, rounded at both ends, rarely 
globular. Japan, China. G.C. II. 21:113; III. 18:716; 
33:228. In Japan, tree to 25 ft., usually shrub in cult. 
A remarkable form is var. fastigiata, Silva Tarouca 
(C. pedunculata var. fastigiata, Carr. Podocdrpus 
koraiana, Sieb. & Zucc.), of columnar habit, with up- 
right branches and spirally arranged Ivs. G.C. II. 
21:112; III. 33:229. S.H. 2:450. Gng. 2:341. Var. 
sphaeralis, Rehd. (C. pedunculata var. sphseralis, 
Mast.), has globose fr.: Ivs. falcate, subacuminate, 
l^-2in. long. G.C. II. 21:117. 

drupacea, Sieb. & Zucc. Branches spreading, stiff, 
usually light green when young: Ivs. about 1 in. long, 
abruptly pointed, narrow and straight, often upturned: 
staminate fls. very short-stalked: fr. usually obovate, 
narrowed at the base. Japan. G.C. III. 18:717; 33: 
227. B.M. 8285. The dwarfest species. Var. sinensis, 
Rehd. & Wilson. Shrub, to 12 ft.: Ivs. linear-lanceolate, 
tapering to sharp point. Cent, and W. China. 

BB. Base of Ivs. truncate; Ivs. very closely set. 

Oliver!, Mast. Shrub or small tree: Ivs. strictly 
2-ranked, rigid, broadly linear, spiny-pointed, about 1 in. 
long, bright green with 2 broad white bands beneath, 
the midrib scarcely elevated: fr. ovoid or obovoid, 
shortly apiculate, about ^in. long. Cent. China. H.I. 
1933 (as C. Griffithii). G.C. III. 33:226. Differs from 
the other species in the very closely set rigid Ivs. 


875. Cephalotus follicularis. 

CEPHALOTUS (Greek, head-shaped, in reference to 
the knob-like swelling behind each anther). Ceph- 
alotacese, a monotypic family near Saxifragacese. The 
one species C. follicularis, Labill. (Fig. 875), is 
abundant at King George's Sound and Swan River in 
S. W. Austral. From there it has frequently been 
intro. into cult., and is now met with in American 
collections. The short creeping rhizomes form 2 sets 

of Ivs. each season: a set of 4-6 flat spatulate Ivs., and 
later as many dainty pitchered Ivs. that are richly 
colored green, crimson or purple, and white. The 
pitchers are J^-l^ in- long, are covered externally 
with minute alluring glands, and these with the color- 
ing attract insects. They slip from the smooth-ribbed 
rim into the cavity, and 
there are digested by fer- 
ment liquids poured out by 
special glands. The erect 
scape bears an interrupted 
spike of small white apeta- 
lous fls., each with a 6- 
parted calyx, 12 stamens, 
and 6 separate 1-seeded 
carpels. The plant grows 
best under a bell-jar, and 
in a pot amongst fine sandy 
loam that is covered by 
sphagnum moss. The lower 
part of the pot should stand 
in a vessel with about J^in. 
of water, and the whole 
should be placed in a cool 
greenhouse near the light, 
when the pitchers assume 
richest colorings. Prop, is 
easily effected by separation 
of small pieces of rhizome 
that bear 1 or 2 Ivs., also 
by seeds that mature not 
unfrequently under cult. R. 
B.23, p. 233. I.H. 27:391. 
F.S. 3:290. G. 23:340. G. 
W. 8:390. J.H. III. 35:260. 

CERASTIUM (Greek for 
horn, alluding to the shape 
of the pod). Caryophyl- 
WEED. Decumbent annuals or perennials, used in 
rockeries or for bedding and borders. 

Pubescent or hirsute herbs, rarely glaucous: Ivs. 
small, opposite, entire: fls. white, borne in terminal, 
dichotpmous cymes; sepals 5, rarely 4; petals as many, 
emarginate or 2-cleft; stamens 10, rarely fewer; styles 
5, rarely 4 or 3, opposite the sepals: caps, cylindric, 
often curved, dehiscing at the top by 10, rarely 8, 
teeth. About 100 species of world-wide distribution 
according to the largest delimitation of the genus; by 
some authorities reduced to 40 or 50 species. 

Cerastiums are of easy culture in ordinary garden 
soil. They are propagated by divisions or by cuttings 
taken after flowering and planted in a shady place. 
They are more or less used for edgings and in rockeries. 

A. Lvs. green, merely pubescent. 

arvense, Linn. (var. oblongifolium, Holl. & Brit.). 
STARRY GRASSWORT. Fig. 876. Perennial, low, much 
branched and matted: sts. 8-12 in. long: Ivs. oblong or 
lanceolate, pale green, pubescent, obtuse, Mj-lJ^ in. 
long, J^in. wide: fls. very numerous, appearing in Apr. 
and May; petals 5, deeply bifid: caps, twice as long as 
the calyx. A species of very wide range, growing 
mostly in dry rocky places from Labrador to Alaska 
and south to Ga. and Calif.; also in Asia and Eu. Gn. 
71, p. 504. Recommended as a bedding plant, for its 
mat-like habit, covered with white bloom. Var. com- 
pactum, Hort., is hardy in S. E. Canada. 

purpurascens, Adams. Perennial, hairy, pubescent, 
cespitose, about 4 in. high: lower Ivs. oblong, narrowed 
into the petiole; upper Ivs. linear-lanceolate: cymes 
dichotomous or often simply umbelliform; fls. white; 
petals twice as long as calyx, ovate-oblong: caps, 
cylindric, twice as long as calyx. Asia Minor. Hardy. 

876. Cerastium arvense. 




AA. Lvs. silvery or grayish. 
B. Caps, equaling the calyx. 

grandifldrum, Waldst. & Kit. (C. argenteum, Bieb.). 
Creeping perennial: Ivs. linear, acute, the margins 
reflexed: infl. dichotomous; fl.-sts. 6-8 in. high; petals 
oval, 2-parted, transparent white, twice as long as 
calyx. E. Eu. 

BB. Caps, much longer than the calyx. 

Biebersteinii, DC. Perennial: sts. 6 in., creeping, 
diffuse, branched: Ivs. ovate-lanceolate, tomentose- 
woolly: peduncles erect, dichotomous; fls. white: caps, 
ovate-cylindrical. Tauria. B.M. 2782. Gn. 59, p. 470. 
Like C. tomentosum, but with larger Ivs. Fine for 

Boissieri, Gren. Perennial, low: Ivs. silvery, ovate- 
lanceolate, acute, entire, sessile: pedimcles 4-12 in. 
high; infl. a dichotomous cyme; fls. large, white. Spain. 

tomentdsum, Linn. SNOW-IN-STJMMER. Perennial, 
low, creeping, branched : Ivs. oblong, spatulate, grayish 
woolly, upper Ivs. lanceolate: peduncles 6 in. high, 
erect, dichotomous; fls. white: caps, cylindrical. Eu. 
G. 29:555. Gn. 69, p. 143. Much used for edgings. 

E. Z. B.f 

C^RASUS (from Cerasunt or Cerasonte, a place in 
Asia Minor on the Black Sea, whence cherries are said 
to have been brought to Italy before Christ). CHERRY. 
Rosdcese. Tournefort in 1700 founded the genus Cera- 
sus, but by general usage it is now combined with 
Prunus inasmuch as no single important character 
holds clearly between the two groups. The name is 
sometimes kept distinct in trade lists, representing the 
cherries as distinct from the plums. Botanically, the 
group is distinguished from Prunus proper (the plum 
group) in having conduplicate vernation (young Ivs. 
with the halves folded together) rather than involute 
vernation, fls. more characteristically in umbels or 
racemes, fr. mostly lacking bloom and pubescence, and 
the stone not corrugated or pitted. See Prunus. 

L. H. B. 

CERATIOLA (Greek, a little horn, referring to the 
four-branched, serrate stigma). Empetracese. A heath- 
like evergreen, from the sand barrens of South Carolina 
to Florida and Alabama; rarely cultivated North, but 
not hardy. 

Branches often whorled as are the Ivs., which are 
narrow, strongly revolute and thus almost tubular: 
fls. dioecious, 2-3-whorled in the axils, sessile; sepals, 
petals and stamens, each 2. Only 1 species. 

ericoides, Michx. Height 2-8 ft. : branches subverti- 
cillate, marked with scars of numerous fallen Ivs., the 
younger and upper ones only retaining foliage: Ivs. 
crowded, M~/4i n - l9 n g> linear, rigid, shining, pale: fls. 
inconspicuous reddish, whorled in the axils: drupe 
round, orange-yellow, berry-like. B.M. 2758. 


CERATOLOBUS (Greek for horned pod). Palmdcex, 
tribe Caldmeas. Low or creeping pinnate palms allied 
to Calamus, and not as yet common in the American 

Stems and If .-stalks spiny but not the If .-blades: sts. 
frequently 30 ft. or more long and armed with stout 
spines an inch long: Ivs. pinnate, often as much as 7 ft. 
long, with numerous alternate or opposite Ifts., which 
are crenate-dentate towards the apex: fls. polygamous- 
monoecious, in a paniculately branched spadix: fr. 
drupe-like, 1 -seeded. There are only 3 wild species and 
2 species known in horticultural literature, the botani- 
cal status of which is doubtful. All the wild species 
come from Java or Sumatra. For cult., see Calamus to 
which Ceratolobus is closely related, differing in having 
rhomboid, not linear Ifts. G.C. II. 23:338. 

glaucescens, Blume. St. up to 30 ft. and about 
as thick as one's wrist: Ivs. 6-7 ft. long, of 14-18 sessile, 
erect or spreading Ifts. which are 8-10 in. long, 2^j- 
3^2 in. wide, opposite above, alternate below: spadix 
from the axils of the upper Ivs. : spathes 2-horned, 4- 
6 in. long. Java. 

C. cdncolor, Blume. Similar, with 10-14 Ifts., relatively broader 
than in C. glaucescens. Sumatra. C. Findley&nus, Hort. Lvs 21 
ft. long, clear pale shining green. Hab.(7). A.G. 15:169. C. 
Micholitziana, Hort. Very elegant palm, the st. and If.-rachis with 
scattered spines: Ivs. oblong, the Ifts. remote, linear-oblong, acute, 
pale on the under surface. Horticulturally the most attractive of 

thegroup - N.TAYLOR. 

CERATONIA (Greek for horn, in reference to the 
large pod). Leguminosse. CAROB. A handsome ever- 
green tree, bearing large pods that are used somewhat 
for human food but chiefly for forage. 

One of the Cassia tribe: calyx-tube disk-bearing, 
somewhat top-shaped, the segms. 5 and short; petals 
0; stamens 5: pod long (4-12 in.), compressed, thick and 
coriaceous, indehiscent, filled with a pulpy substance, 
bearing obovate transverse seeds. C. Siliqua, Linn. 
(Figs. 877, 878), the only species, is now widely dis- 
tributed in warm countries, being grown both for shade 
and for the edible pods. It reaches a height of 40-50 
ft.: Ivs. pinnate, shining, the 2-3 pairs of Ifts. oval 
and obtuse: fls. in small lateral red racemes, polygamo- 
dicecious, the 
trees said to be 
variable in sex- 
uality at differ- 
ent ages. It 
thrives well in S. 
Calif, and S.Fla. 
The dry pods 
are occasionally 
seen in the fruit 
stands in north- 
ern markets. 
There are many 
varieties, differ- 
ing in the size 
and shape of pod. 
The Ceratonia is 
known also as Algaroba, Karoub, Caroubier, and St. 
John's Bread. The last name records the notion that 
the seeds and sweet pulp are respectively the locusts 
and wild honey which St. John found in the wilder- 
ness. The dry valves or pods have been supposed to 
be the husks that provided the subsistence of the prod- 
igal son. See G.F. 3:318, 323. The seeds are said to 
have been the original carat weight of goldsmiths. 

L. H. B. 

The carob is of much importance as a farm crop 
throughout the Mediterranean basin and other hot 
and semi-arid regions. According to Alphonse de Can- 
dolle, its original home was about the eastern end of the 
Mediterranean, including the southern coast of Asia 
Minor and Syria and perhaps Tripoli. Its cultivation 
began in historic times, and was diffused by the Greeks 
in Italy and Greece and was carried by the Arabs west 
as far as Spain and Morocco. In all these countries 
the large pods, rich in protein and sugar, are a very 
important forage crop, being eaten with avidity by all 
kinds of stock, besides furnishing considerable susten- 
ance to the poor in times of scarcity, and are also used 
for the manufacture of syrups and different fermented 
drinks. Carob pods were the main sustenance of Well- 
ington's cavalry in the Peninsular campaign and at 
the present time are the chief food of the British army 
horses on the island of Malta and the horses of the 
tramways in the cities of southern Italy. They form 
one of the principal exports of Palestine, Syria and 
especially of the island of Cyprus. Thousands of tons 
are annually imported into England where they are 
ground for stock -feed. A. Aaronsohn, Chief of the 

877. Ceratonia Siliqua. 




Jewish Experiment Station in Palestine, says that an 
acre of carob trees on arid soil yields a much greater 
quantity of food matter than an equal area planted 
with the best alfalfa. He gives the sugar content at 
40 per cent and in some varieties even higher, and the 
protein content as 7 to 8 per cent. The French and 
Portuguese writers give somewhat lower percentages, 
but this seems to be much a matter of climate and 
varieties. The analysis published by Riviere and 
Lecoq points to a high digestive coefficient, and nutri- 
tive value a little higher than oats; it is estimated that 
147.5 kilos of carobs equals 100 kilos of wheat (a kilo 
is nearly 2J^ pounds). 

The first introduction of the tree into this country 
on a considerable scale was by the U. S. Patent Office 
from Alicante, Spain, in 1854 and from Palestine in 
1859. About 8,000 plants, grown from seed in Wash- 
ington, were distributed during the spring of 1860, 
mostly in the southern states. Some of these plants 
probably found their way to California, as a number of 
old trees are growing in various parts of that state from 
San Diego on the south to Napa and Butte counties on 
the north. The latest importation was in June, 1911, 
from Valencia, Spain, by the Office of Foreign Seed 
and Plant Introduction of the Department of Agricul- 
ture. This shipment consisted of cuttings of six of the 
leading varieties grown in that district which are now 
being propagated by budding at the Chico (California) 
Introduction Field Station and will soon be available 
for distribution. 

Centuries of cultivation have given rise to a large 
number of varieties, differing in quality of pods, vigor 
and productiveness and adaptability to various soils. 
The species is either dioecious or monoecious. All trees 
in California are of course seedlings and, as far as 

examined by the 
writer, monoeci- 
ous, although 
Aaronsohn states 
that the best kinds 
in Palestine are 
dioecious, and a 
sufficient number 
of staminate trees, 
therefore, must be 
planted with those 
varieties to polli- 
nate the female 
trees. In the pro- 
vince of Algarvia, 
Portugal, seven- 
teen named varie- 
ties are cultivated 
and about as 
many in France 
and Spain. The 
best of these 
should be intro- 
duced into this 

878. Pods of Ceratonia Siliqua. 

The carob tree thrives only in a warm climate, the 
range being about the same as that of the orange, but 
with a little protection for two or three winters, the 
range can be considerably extended. At the Govern- 
ment Field Station at Chico, several varieties have 
survived temperatures of 18 to 22, while others when 
young have been killed to the ground by the same 
degrees of frost. The old trees scattered about the Pacific 
Coast States show that a large area is adapted to it. 

In France, Spain and Portugal, the carob grows in 
most kinds of soil, except in stiff clay or wet ground, 
and even in gravel if fertile and permeable to the roots. 
The crop is sufficiently valuable to make it worthy of 
the best soil and treatment. 

The carob is usually grown from seed and afterwards 
budded to the best varieties. It can be raised from cut- 

tings, but requires bottom heat and careful treatment. 
At the Chico Field Station, where thousands of seed- 
lings are grown, the best success is had by planting under 
glass. Quicker germination is secured by soaking the 
seed in water for three or four days or until they begin 
to swell. The tree is difficult to transplant and usually 
fails unless moved with a ball of earth. The best results 
are had by growing the plants in pots or in "flats" in 
tenacious soil, as is the practice with eucalyptus, when 
the trees are cut apart and lifted with squares of earth 
attached. At Aleppo, in Syria, the growers make pots 
of a mixture of clay and cow-dung which, dried in the 
sun, are strong enough to hold the earth in which the 
seeds are planted. When ready to put into the orchard 
the pot is sunk where the tree is to stand. As soon as 
the pot becomes moist from contact with the earth, it 
is readily permeable by the roots. 

While the carob is a rather slow grower, it lives to a 
great age and should be planted not less than 35 to 40 
feet apart, with interplanting of peaches or other 
growths for income until the carobs begin to bear. In 
Algiers and Tunis, it is often planted as a border tree, 
for which its beauty and utility admirably fit it. When 
well established, the seedlings are budded with the 
best varieties. If buds are taken from bearing trees, 
fruit may be expected in three or four years. In Cali- 
fornia seedlings bear when six to eight years of age. 
While it is eminently a dry-climate tree, two or three 
summer irrigations will greatly aid the development, 
hasten fruiting and increase the yield. It will respond 
to the same good treatment that is given to a well- 
kept fruit orchard. 

The crop matures in September and October and, 
as with most other fruit trees, it is most abundant 
every second year. When ripe, the pods turn brown 
and begin to fall. Those that fail to drop are easily 
knocked down with bamboo or other poles. 

Aaronsohn gives the crop in Palestine in good years 
at an average of 450 pounds to the tree, and states that 
he has seen wild stocks fifteen to eighteen years after 
grafting give a yield of 900 to 1,000 pounds of pods. 
Du Breuil gives the yield in southern France at 220 
pounds and mentions single trees at Valencia, Spain, 
that produce as high as 1,380 kilos, or 3,040 pounds. 
Riviere and Lecoq report the yield of trees in Algiers 
at 100 to 300 kilos, or 220 to 660 pounds. Francis de 
Mello Lotte gives the crops of mature trees on deep 
fertile soil in Algarvia, Portugal, at 300 to 750 kilos, 
or 660 to 1,650 pounds each. As the pods are equal in 
nutrients to barley and superior to oats for feeding and 
fattening cattle, sheep, hogs and horses, and the yield 
is from three to four times the weight per acre of grain, 
it is evident that few crops will give the farmer an equal 
value. In the mild climate of the Gulf States, especially 
the coastal regions of Texas, the southern parts of New 
Mexico and Arizona and the greater part of California, 
this beautiful and valuable evergreen tree, when once 
appreciated, is bound to become a staple addition to 
farm crops for the nourishment of both man and beast. 


CERATOPETALUM (Greek, horned petal). Cunoni- 
acese; by some, Cunoniacex is included in Saxifragaceze. 
Greenhouse trees or shrubs. 

Glabrous and resinous trees and shrubs: Ivs. opposite, 
compound, with 1-3 digitate Ifts. : fls. small, white, rose 
or yellow, in terminal branching cymes or panicles; 
calyx-tube short, 5-lobed; petals 0, or, if present, 
laciniate; stamens 10, with connectives: fr. a small and 
hard achene-like body, with persistent calyx -lobes, 
1-seeded. Two or 3 species, in Austral. 

gummiferum, Smith. Tree, 30-40 ft. : Ifts. 3, lanceo- 
late, serrulate, narrowed at base, shining and strongly 
nerved: petals deeply 3-5-lobed, not exceeding the 
calyx. Said .to thrive in a peaty soil, and to prop, by 
cuttings of half-ripened wood under glass. L jj_ g 




CERATOPTERIS (Greek, horned fern). Ceratop- 
teridacese. Very succulent tropical ferns, forming also a 
distinct family. They are the only truly aquatic plants 
among true ferns and grow floating or rooted under 
water in the mud or sometimes only occasionally 
flooded. The Ivs. are borne in rosettes, the sterile 

879. Ceratopteris pteridoides. ( X JlD 

spreading, often floating, the fertile more erect, 2-4- 
pinnate, with very slender rolled-up pod-like segms.: 
sporangia very large, borne separately along the veins 
and covered by the revolute margins somewhat as in 
Pteris. Species very few. Best grown by planting in 
pots, slightly submerged. Reproduced by buds which 
arise from all parts of the Ivs. New plants must be 
developed each season. Useful in ponds and aquaria. 

pteridoides, Hook. Fig-. 879. Sterile Ivs. broadly 
deltoid, short-stalked, the margins irregularly lobed, 
floating; the fertile Ivs. taller, completely divided into 
long whip-like segms.: sporangia with a very small 
annulus, and containing 32 spores. Fla. to S. Amer. 

thalictroides, Brongn. Sterile Ivs. narrowly deltoid, 
long-stalked, 1-2 pinnatifid into deltoid segms. not 
floating; fertile Ivs. similar but with linear segms.: 
annulus well developed. Old World tropics. 


CERATO STIGMA (Greek, horned stigma). Plum- 
baginacese. Diffuse glabrous perennial herbs or sub- 
shrubs, one of which is in cultivation as a bedding and 
border plant. 

Ceratostigma differs from Plumbago in having no 
glands on the calyx, stamens adnate to the corolla- 
tube, fls. in dense clusters rather than spicate, and other 
technical characters: Ivs. alternate, lanceolate or 
obovate, more or less ciliate: fls. mostly in terminal 
heads, blue or rose; calyx tubular, deeply 5-parted, the 
lobes narrow; corolla salver-shaped, the tube long and 
slender, the limb spreading and with 5 obovate obtuse 
or retuse lobes; stamens 5, attached on the corolla- 
tube: fr. a 5-valved caps, inclosed in the calyx. Species 
4 or 5, in N. China, Himalayas, Abyssinia. 

plumbaginoides, Bunge (Plumbago Ldrpentae, Lindl. 
Valorddia plumbaginoides, Boiss.). Herb, 6-12 in., the 
st. red and branchy: Ivs. entire, strongly ciliate on 
the edges: fls. with a deep blue limb, the 5 lobes mi- 
nutely toothed, collected in dense heads or umbels. 
China. B.M. 4487. F.S. 4:307. A hardy bedding 
plant, producing profusely of its deep blue fls. late in 
fall; very valuable. Needs covering in winter in the N. 

subject. L jj g 

CERATOTHECA (Greek for horned capsule). Peda- 
lidcese. Tropical African glasshouse herbs. 

Leaves opposite, ovate: calyx 5-parted; corolla 2- 
lipped, the lower lip very long in proportion to the 
upper: fls. in pairs in the axils: caps. 2-horned. Five 
species. C. triloba, Mey., is occasionally grown in S. 

Fla., and it may be adapted to glasshouses. It is a tall 
herb (5 ft.), with the habit of foxglove, probably bien- 
nial, hairy and rather fleshy : lower Ivs. stalked, broadly 
ovate or almost round, the upper sometimes broadly 
angular and even 3-lobed, both kinds crenate-dentate: 
corolla 3 in. long, blue or violet-blue, pubescent, de- 
flexed, the lower lobe prolonged. Handsome. B.M. 
6974. Could be grown in temperate house N. in sandy 

loam - N. TAYLOR.f 

CERATOZAMIA (Greek, horned Zamia; referring to 
the horned scales of the cones, which distinguish this 
genus from Zamia). Cycaddceae. Handsome Mexican 
foliage plants, with cycas-like leaves, but less culti- 
vated in American palm-houses than Cycas. 

Trunk erect in age, crowned by a whorl of pinnate 
cycas-like Ivs. which are petiolate and unarmed: 
fls. in cones borne from among the Ivs., the 
cones often stalked: seeds rare and little known. 
Six species. Best raised from young imported 
plants, but rarely prop, by seeds, or by offsets 
from the slow-growing trunk. Burn out the cen- 
ter of the plant with a hot iron, and a number 
of offsets will spring from the trunk and the 
crown; these may be used for prop. 

mexicana, Brongn. Fig. 880. Trunk thick, short, 
covered with the remains of fallen If .-stalks: Ivs. rich, 
dark green, pinnate, on prickly petioles 5-6 in. long, 
which are shaggy when young; Ifts. very numerous, 6- 
12 in. long or more, lanceolate: cones produced annually 
on separate plants; female cones 9-12 in. long, 4-6 in. 
thick, the scales 2-horned ; male cones narrower, longer, 
on a hairy stalk, the scales with 2 small teeth. Mex. 
Gn. 9, pp. 308-9. An excellent decorative plant, best 
grown in sandy loam. Give freely of water and heat 
in spring and summer, but keep cooler and drier in 
winter. Somewhat tender although grown ia Cent. 

C. Miquelidna, Wendl. A plant with 2<>-30 pairs of Ifts. and a 
If. -stalk 18 in. long: fr. not known certainly. Cult, in botanic 
gardens and worthy of wider use. Mex. and W. Indies. 


CERCZDIPHYLLUM (Cercis and phyllon, leaf; the 
Ivs. resemble those of Cercis). Trochodendrdcese. Tree 
grown for its handsome foliage and habit. 

Leaves deciduous, usually opposite, petioled and 
palmately nerved: fls. dioecious, inconspicuous, apeta- 
lous, solitary; staminate nearly sessile, bearing numer- 
ous stamens with slender filaments; pistillate pedicelled, 

880. Ceratozamia mexicana. Young plant (fertile). 




consisting of 3-5-carpels, ending in long, purplish styles 
and developing into about %in. long, dehiscent pods, 
with many seeds. One species in Japan and W. China. 
Hardy, ornamental, shrubby tree of pyramidal and, 
when young, almost fastigiate habit, with handsome, 

light green foli- 
age, purplish when 
unfolding, turning 
bright yellow or 
partially scarlet in 
fall. It prefers 
rich and moist 
soil, and grows 
rapidly when 
young. Prop, by 
seeds, sown in 
spring, and by 
green wood -cut- 
tings, taken from 
forced plants in 
early spring, or 
by layers ; cuttings 
from half-ripened 
wood in summer, 
under glass, grow 
also, but not very 

881. Cercidiphyllum japonicum. 



& Zucc. Fig. 881. 

Bushy tree, com- 
monly with several trunks, usually 20-30 ft., but some- 
times rising to 100 ft., with slender, glabrous branches: 
Ivs. opposite, occasionally alternate, slender-petioled, 
cordate, orbicular or broadly ovate, obtuse, crenate- 
serrate, glabrous, glaucous beneath, 2-3 in. long. 
Japan. G.F. 7:106, 107, and 6:53. Mn. 3:74. Gng. 
5:135. F.E. 32:211 (habit). P.G. 2:105. S.I.F. 1:41. 
A very desirable tree, one of the best introductions 
from Japan. Var. sinense, Rehd. & Wilson. Tree, to 
120 ft., usually with a single trunk: petioles shorter, 
about %in. long, somewhat hairy on the veins beneath: 
caps, gradually narrowed at the apex, H m - long. W. 
China. This recently intro. variety is perhaps still 
more desirable than the type. It is the largest of all 
broad-lvd. trees known from China; the trunk is 
sometimes free of branches for nearly 50 ft. above the 
ground and attains to 25 ft. or exceptionally to 55 ft. 
in girth. ALFRED REHDER. 

CERCIS (Kerkis, ancient Greek name). Leguminbsse. 
JUDAS TREE. RED-BUD. Trees or shrubs grown for 
their pink flowers profusely produced early in spring 
before the leaves; very interesting, also, in mode of 
branching, as seen in mature trees. 

Leaves deciduous, alternate, petioled, palmately 
nerved, entire: fls. papilionaceous, pedicelled, pink or 
red, appearing before or with the Ivs., in clusters or 
racemes from the old wood; calyx 5- toothed, red; 
petals nearly equal, the uppermost somewhat smaller: 
pod compressed, narrow-oblong, narrow-winged on the 
ventral suture, many-seeded. -Seven species in N. 
Amer., and from S. Eu. to Japan. 

These trees and shrubs are very ornamental, with 
handsome distinct foliage and abundant showy flowers 
in spring, very effective by their deep pink color. They 
are well adapted for shrubberies or as single specimens 
on the lawn, and attain rarely more than 20 or 30 feet 
in height, forming a broad, irregular head when older. 
Only C. canadensis is hardy North, while C. chinensis 
can still be grown in sheltered positions near Boston, 
but is occasionally injured in severe winters; the others 
can not be grown successfully farther north than New 
York. They grow best in rich sandy and somewhat 
moist loam, and should be transplanted when young, 
as older plants can hardly be moved with success. 
Young plants, four or five years old, produce flowers 

freely and may be recommended for forcing, especially 
C. chinensis and C. racemosa, which are the most beau- 
tiful of all. Propagated by seeds, sown in spring, best 
with gentle bottom heat; sometimes increased by layers, 
or by greenwood cuttings from forced plants in early 
spring; C. chinensis grows also from greenwood cuttinga 
in summer under glass. 

A. Lvs. abruptly and short-acuminate. 
B. Fls. in clusters: Ivs. usually pubescent only beneath 

near the base. 

canadensis, Linn. Fig. 882. Tree, to 40 ft.: Ivs. 
roundish or broadly ovate, usually cordate, 3-5 in. long: 
fls. rosy pink, %in. long, 4-8 in clusters: pod 2)^-3 ^3 
in. long. From N. J. south, west to Mo. and Texas. 
S.S. 3:133-4. A.F. 13:1370. Gng. 6:290. F.E. 9:593. 
Mn. 2, p. 139. M.D.G. 1899:434-5 (habit). Gn. 25, 
p. 347. A very desirable ornamental tree for the 
northern states. Var. alba, Rehd. Fls. white. Var. 
plena, Schneid. Fls. double. Recently C. canadensis 
has been split by Greene into several new species (see 
Fedde, Rep. Spec. Nov. Veget. 11:110). 

chinensis, Bunge (C.japdnica, Sieb.). Fig. 883. Tree, 
to 50 ft., shrub in cult.: Ivs. deeply cordate, roundish, 
with a white, transparent line at the margin, subcoria- 
ceous, glabrous, shining above, 3-5 in. long: fls. 5-8, 
purplish pink, %in. long: pod 3-5 in. long, narrow. 
China, Japan. F.S. 8:849. Mn. 2:139. G.F. 6:476. 
A very beautiful species, with the fls. nearly as large as 
those of C. Siliquastrum and more abundant. 

BB. Fls. in pendulous racemes. 

racemdsa, Oliv. Tree, to 30 ft. : Ivs. broadly ovate, 
truncate or subcordate at the base, pubescent beneath, 

882. Cercis canadensis. 

2)^-4 in. long: fls. rosy pink, about ^in. long on slen- 
der pedicels of about equal length, in many-fld. racemes 
1H-3 in. long: pod 2>-4 in. long. Cent. China. H.I. 
1894. The handsomest of all. Young plants have not 
proved hardy at the Arnold Arboretum, but it is per- 
fectly hardy in S. England. 




AA. Lvs. rounded or emarginate at the apex, usually 
broader than long. 

occidentals, Torr. (C. calif ornica, Torr.). Shrub, to 
15 ft. : Ivs. cordate, roundish, glabrous, about 2 in. wide: 
fls. rose-colored, Hin. long: pod 2-2 > in. long. Calif. 
Torrey in U. S. Explor. Exped. 1838-1842, 17, pi. 3 A 
closely allied species is 
C. reniformis, Engelm. 
(C. texensis, Sarg.). 
Small tree: Ivs. sub- 
coriaceous, 3-5 in. wide, 
sometimes pubescent 
beneath: pod 2-4 in. 
long. Texas, New Mex. 
S.S. 3:135. 

Siliquastrum, Linn. 
Tree, to 40 ft.: Ivs. 
roundish, deeply cor- 
date, glabrous, 3-5 in. 
wide: fls. 3-6, purplish 
rose, %in. long: pod 3^4 
in. long. S.Eu., W.Asia. 
B.M. 1138. Gn. 25, pp. 
346, 347, 350; 33, p. 416; 
42:342, p. 343; 44, p. 
379; 52, p. 5. G.C. III. 
52: 6 (habit). G. 25:209. 
R.H. 1899:469 (abnor- 
mal form). Var. alba, 
Carr. (var. dlbida, 
Schneid.) with white fls. 


(Greek, tail and fruit; 
the fruit with a long, 
hairy tail). Rosacese. 
Small trees or shrubs 
but rarely grown for 
their attractive ever- 
green or half-evergreen 
foliage and the peculiar 
feathery tailed achenes. 

Leaves alternate, per- 
sistent, rather small: fls. 
inconspicuous, apetal- 
ous, whitish or reddish, 
in the axils of fascicled Ivs.; calyx-tube cylindric, elon- 
gated, abruptly expanded at the apex into a cup-shaped 
deciduous, 5-lobed limb bearing 15-30 stamens with 
short filaments; ovary 1-celled, inclosed in the calyx- 
tube, with a long exserted style.: fr. a 1 -seeded 
achene, surmounted by the persistent, long and hairy 
style. Small genus of about 10, mostly rather local 
species, in the Rocky Mts. from Mont, south to Mex. 
and in Calif. 

The cercocarpuses are not particularly ornamental, 
yet they are attractive with their small evergreen dark 
foliage and their feathery tailed fruits; they are adapted 
for planting on dry rocky or gravelly slopes in arid 
temperate regions, as they thrive under very unfavor- 
able conditions. The very heavy and close-grained 
wood is manufactured into small articles, and valued as 
fuel and for making charcoal. C. ledifolius and C. 
parvifolius are the hardiest and stand frost to zero, 
while C. Traskiae can be grown only in southern Cali- 
fornia. They may be cultivated in any well-drained 
soil in sunny positions, and propagated by seeds or by 
cuttings of half-ripened wood under glass. 

A. Margin of Ivs. toothed: fls. 2-5 in a cluster. 
B. Lvs. oval to suborbicular, usually rounded at the base. 
Traskiae, Eastw. Tree, to 25 ft. : Ivs. coarsely sinuate- 
dentate above the middle, lustrous above, tomentose 
below, 1-23^ in. long: achene with the style 2-2^ in. 
long. Santa Catalina Isl., Calif. S.S. 13:635. 

883. Cercis chinensis. 

(Natural size) 

BB. Lvs. usually cuneate-obovate, smaller. 

parvif 61ius, Nutt. Bushy tree, to 25 ft. : Ivs. dull green 
and pubescent above, pubescent or tomentose beneath, 
K-1K in- long, with 4-5 pairs of veins: style 2-4 in. 
long. From Neb. and Ore. to Low. Calif . and W. Texas. 
S.S. 4:166. H.I. 4:323. D. M. Andrews, of Colo., 
who handles this shrub, writes of it as follows: "Moun- 
tain mahogany, 6 feet. A nearly evergreen rosaceous 
shrub of peculiar and attractive habit of growth. Fls. 
white, early, followed by the long, plumose achenes, 
which are 3-5 in. long, strangely curled and twisted, 
arranged above and on each side of the slender branches, 
so that at a little distance they have an appearance sug- 
gestive of ostrich plumes. Easily transplanted, and 
thrives anywhere." 

betulaefdlius, Nutt. (C. parvifolius var. gldber, Wats. 
C. parvifolius var. betuloides, Sarg.). Small tree, to 30 
ft.: Ivs. thinner, bright green and glabrous above at 
maturity, pubescent or glabrescent beneath, J^-2 in. 
long, with 5-6 pairs of veins: style 2-4 in. long. Calif. 
W.G.Z. 4, pp. 554-5. H.I. 4:322. 

AA. Margin of Ivs. entire, revolute: fls. solitary or in pairs. 

ledifolius, Nutt. Tree, to 40 ft. : Ivs. lanceolate, cori- 
aceous, lustrous and glabrous above at maturity, 
pubescent below, resinous, 3/^-1 in. long, veins obscure: 
style 2-3 in. long. From Wyo. and Wash, to S. Calif, 
and New Mex. S.S. 4:165. H.I. 4:324. 


CEREALS (Ceres, goddess of agriculture). The 
agricultural grains, properly those of the grass family: 
maize or Indian corn, kafir, wheat, emmer, spelt, rice, 
oats, barley, rye, sorghum (for grain); popularly held 
to include buckwheat, but not accurately so. Consult 
Vol. II, Cyclo. Amer. Agric. 

CEREUS (from the Latin, but of uncertain applica- 
tion). Cactacese. Usually arborescent, columnar cacti 
with the surface covered with spiny ribs. 

Flowers large, borne singly along the sides of the st.; 
fl.-tube slender and, as it decays, cutting off from the 
ovary; petals numerous; stamens numerous; style single, 
thick: fr. a large, naked, fleshy berry; seeds small, 
black. The genus Cereus, as it has generally been 
treated, contained more than 100 species which differed 
greatly in habit, armament, fls. and fr., and was one of 
the most complex and difficult of the family. As now 
understood, it contains species of uniform habit, with 
similar fls. and frs., while a number of species of very 
different habit have been referred elsewhere. Even as 
here treated, more than half of the species are anomalous. 
Until the fls. and frs. have been studied, it seems best 
to leave them in Cereus. The species are all from S. 

Only a few species of true Cereus are grown in this 
country, and most of these are grown under glass. 
The flowers do not compare in size and attractiveness 
with those of the so-called night-blooming Cereus, 
which is described elsewhere under the genus Seleni- 
cereus. Several of the species have cristate and other 
abnormal forms which make them desirable to certain 
growers. C. lepidotus is a rather common cultivated 
species in certain of the West India Islands, where it 
grows to considerable height, and several of the species 
are grown in Europe along the Riviera, where they 
reach great size. With us, however, they do not grow 
very rapidly. They are easily propagated from seed 
or by cuttings. See Succulents. 

The species treatea in the first edition of this work 
that are not here given may be looked for under the 
following genera: Acanthocereus, Aporocactus, Ber- 
gerocactus, Carnegiea, Cleistocactus, Escontria, Har- 
risia, Heliocereus, Hylocereus, Lemaireocereus, Lopho- 
cereus, Myrtillocactus, Oreocereus, Pachycereus, 
Rathbunia, and Selenicereus. 




Alacriportanus, 11. 
atropurpureus, 22. 

formosus, 24. 
ffrandis, 24. 

Pasacana, 1. 
pernambucensis, 24. 

azureus, 19. 

Hankeanus, 9. 

peruvianus, 11. 

Bonplandii, 21. 

isogonus, 14. 

Pita jay a, 24, 

Bridgesii, 18. 

Jamacaru, 12. 

platygonus, 16. 

cserulescens, 17. 

lageniformis, 18. 

Roezlii, 7. 

caesius, 20. 

lamprochlorus, 3. 

Seidelii, 19. 

candicans, 2. 

Landbeckii, 17. 

Sepium, 7. 

Cavendishii, 15. 

macrogonus, 10. 

Spachianus, 4. 

chalybseus, 13. 

Martianus, 25. 

splendens, 15. 

chiloensis, 5. 

Martinii, 23. 

tetracanthus, 8. 

euphorbioides, 6. 
fernambucensis, 24. 

monacanthus, 23. 
monoclonos, 11 
Olfersii, 6. 

tortuosus, 22. 
validus, 12. 
variabilis, 24. 

A. Sts. erect, 2 in. or more diam. 
B. New growth green, not pruinose or covered with a 

c. Ribs of st. 10 or more. 

1. Pasacana, Web. A gigantic species, reaching a 
height of 20-30 ft., and sometimes even 50 ft., and a 
diam. of 12-16 in.; sparingly branching above; in new 
growth dark green, becoming gray or bluish: ribs 15- 
20, or in young plants only 9-10: areoles %-%in. apart, 
large, brown, becoming yellowish and finally gray: 
radial spines 10^13, about 1 in. long, the under one or 
lowest pair straight, subulate, the others curved; cen- 
trals mostly 4, the under and upper ones the longest, 
reaching 2 in. length, straight or curved; the young 
spines are clear brown, often with alternating rings of 
light and dark tissue, later gray, bulbose at the base: 
fls. from the lateral areoles about 6 in. long, white. 
Argentina. This is the giant cereus of the Argentine 
desert, as Carnegiea gigantea is of the certain N. 
American deserts. It is not a true Cereus. 

2. candicans, Gillies. Sts. upright, low, cylindri- 
cal, bright green, 23^-3 ft. high by 6-8 in. diam.; freely 
branching from the base: ribs 10, obtuse - angled : 
areoles %-%ip.. apart, large, depressed, white, becom- 
ing gray: radial spines 11-14, spreading, at first thin, 
needle-form, later stronger, stiff, straight, about %in. 
long; central solitary or later 3-4 additional ones ap- 
pearing above, stronger, reaching a length of 1J4 m -> 
sometimes somewhat curved; all the spines horn-col- 
ored, with tips and bases brown, later becoming gray: 
fls. long, funnelform, resembling those of Echinopsis, 
10 in. long by 6 in. diam.: fr. spherical to ellipsoidal, 
about 3 in. diam., red, somewhat spiny, flesh white. 
Argentina. Not a true Cereus. 

3. lamprochlorus, Lem. Related to C. candicans, of a 
taller growth, cylindrical, 3-6 3^ ft. high by about 3 in. 
diam., at first simple, but later branching at the base; 
in new growth bright green, later dirty green: ribs 
10-11 or occasionally 15; conspicuously crenate, later 
blunt and but little crenate: areoles medium size, about 
3^in. apart, yellowish white, becoming gray; above each 
areole 2 radiating grooves form a letter V: radial 
spines 11-14, spreading, straight, sharp-pointed, about 
^in. long, clear to dark amber-color; some are strong 
and rigid, while others are bristle-form; centrals mostly 
4, somewhat longer, stronger and deeper colored, with 
brown bases, becoming dark gray, about %in. long: 
fls. from the previous year's growth, about 8-10 in. 
long by 6 in. diam., white. Argentina. Not a true 
Cereus. \ 

4. Spachianus, Lem. Sts. upright, at first simple, 
later profusely branching at the base, branches ascend- 
ing parallel with the main St., 2-3 ft. high by 2-23^ 
in. diam., columnar: ribs 10-15, obtuse, rounded: 
areoles about H m - apart, large, covered with curly 
yellow wool, becoming white: radial spines 8-10, 
}4r% m - l n g> spreading, stiff, sharp, amber-yellow 
to brown; central solitary, stronger and longer; all the 
spines later becoming gray: fls. about 8 in. long by 
about 6 in. diam., white. Argentina. Not a true 


5. chiloensis, DC. (Cactus chiloensis, Colla). Sts. 
strong, upright, simple (so far as known), about 2% ft. 
high bySH-S in. diam., cylindrical to somewhat clavate, 
bright, clear green: ribs 10^12, obtuse: areoles about an 
inch apart, large: radial spines straight, sharp, rigid, at 
first 9, but later 4 others appear above these; centrals 
mostly 4, seldom but a single one, "bulbose at the base; 
the young spines are brown honey-yellow, becoming 
white, with dark tips, and finally gray: fls. from the 
upper lateral areoles about 6 in. long, white, resem- 
bling those of Echinopsis. Chile. This is not a true 

cc. Ribs of st. 7-9. 

6. euphorbioides, Haw. (C. Olfersii, Otto). Columnar, 
simple, 10-16 ft. high by about 43^ in. diam., in young 
growth pale green, 

changing with age 
to gray-green : ribs 
8-10, separated by 
sharp grooves, sharp- 
angled, becoming flat- 
tened in older growth : 
areoles about j^in. 
apart, small, white to 
gray: radial spines 
mostly 6, the under 
one the longest, 
reaching a length of 
over an inch, strong, 
yellowish brown to 
black, the upper ones 
shorter and bristle 
form ; central solitary, 
in young plants twice 
as long as the radials; 
all the spines finally 
become gray : fls. from 
near the crown, 3^ 
4 in. long, beautiful 
flesh -red, remaining 
open for 24 hours. 
Brazil. R.H. 1885, 
p. 279. This 
plant is insuffi- 
ciently under- 
stood; it may be 
a form of some 
species of Ceph- 

7. Sepium, DC. 

884. Cereus peru- 
vianus. A flower that 
is just closing; from 
a plant flowered in 
Washington, D. C., in 
1904- ( x H) 

Upright, colum- 
nar, about 3 in. 
diam.: ribs 9, sep- 
arated by sharp, somewhat serpentine grooves, ob- 
tuse, above the areoles, 2 radiating, slightly curved 
grooves form a letter V : areoles 3^-%in. apart, com- 
paratively large, slightly sunken, yellowish, later 
gray: radial spines 9-12, radiate, nearly ^in. long, 
straight, subulate, tolerably sharp, slightly thickened 
at the base, clear brown, with darker stripes; cen- 
tral solitary, reaching 13^ in. long, straight, porrect, 
later somewhat deflexed, clear brown; later all the spines 
become gray. Andes of Ecuador. Near Borzicactus; 
needs further critical study. 

8. tetracanthus, Labour. Upright, arborescent or 
bushy, freely branching, young branches leaf -green, later 
gray-green : ribs 8-9, low, arched : areoles medium-sized, 
slightly sunken, about 3^in. apart, white to gray: 
radials 5, later 7, radiate, about %in. long, straight, 
subulate, stout, white, with brown tips and bases, later 
ashy gray; centrals 1-3, under one largest and porrect, 
when young yellow and translucent, later gray: fls. re- 
semble those . of C. tortuosus. Bolivia. This species 
should doubtless be referred to Eriocereus. 




ccc. Ribs of st. 3-6. 

9. Hankeanus, Web. Upright, robust, not branch- 
ing (so far as known), young growth bright green, later 
dark green, about 2 in. diam.: ribs 4-5, compressed, 
about \}4: in. high) conspicuously crenate, with an S- 
form line passing from each areole toward the center of 
the st. : areoles, %-l m - apart, horizontally elliptical to 
heart-shaped, brown, becoming gray below and yellow 
above: radial spines 3, needle-like, stout, sharp-pointed, 
about %in. long, amber-colored when young, turning 
to brown; central solitary, straight, porrect, 5^in. long, 
stronger than the radials, horn-colored; later all the 
spines become gray: fls. 4-5 in. long, white. S. Amer. 

BB. New growth blue, white- or gray-pruinose. 

c. Ribs of st. comparatively broad and low: st. more or 

less triangular in cross-section. 

10. macrogdnus. Otto. Arborescent, sparsely branch- 
ing, reaching a height of 20 ft. (in cult., 6 ft. high by 
3-5 in. diam.), branches columnar: ribs mostly 7, sel- 
dom 8-9, thick, slightly undulate, obtuse and with 
convex faces, about 1 in. high, bluish green, frequently 
haying a depressed line near the areole: areoles about 
3^in. apart, large, gray: radial spines 6-9, radiate or 
spreading, strong, subulate, Min. long, horn-color, later 
black ; central spines 1-3, somewhat stronger and longer 
than the radials, more or less conspicuously porrect: 
fls. from the lateral areoles near the end of the branches, 
2^-3 in. long, tolerably fleshy, white: fr. depressed- 
globose, 2 in. diam. by little more than 1 in. long. 

cc. Ribs of st. strongly compressed laterally. 

11. peruvianus, Haw. (C. monoclonos, DC.). HEDGE 
CACTUS. Fig. 884. Tall, 30-50 ft., branching freely toward 
the base, columnar, 4-8 in. diam., new growth dark green 
and glaucous, becoming a dull green with age, and, in 
old sts. becoming corky: ribs 5-8, compressed: are- 
oles K-l in. apart, in new growth covered with con- 
spicuous, curly brown wool, becoming gray: radial 
spines about 6-7, about ^-^in. long; central solitary, 
reaching a length of 2% m -> the number of spines in- 
creases with age to as many as 20, all are rigid, brown: 
fls. abundant, from the lower part of the st., white, noc- 
turnal, 6-7 in. long by 5 in. diam. S. Amer. G.C. III. 
24 : 175 (var. monstrosus) . 

Var. Alacriportanus, K. Schum. (C. Alacriportanus, 
Mart.) . Of somewhat weaker growth, low, and less con- 
spicuously pruinose in the new growth, which is con- 
sequently nearly clear green. S. Brazil. 

12. Jamacaru, Salm-Dyck (C. vdlidus, Haw.). Sts. 
upright, robust, rigid, 12-16 ft. high by as much as 6 in. 
diam.; young growth azure-blue, turning dark green 
with age, glaucous: ribs 4-6, thin, compressed, crenate: 
radial spines 5-7, stiff, needle-like, clear yellow with 
brown points, or brown and finally black, about %-% 
in. long; centrals 2-4, somewhat stronger, porrect, 
%-3 in. long: fls. large, 10 in. long by 8 in. diam., white, 
nocturnal. Brazil, Venezuela. 

13. chalybabus, Otto. Sts. upright, branching above, 
arborescent, azure-blue and pruinose, later dark green, 
1K~4 in. diam.: ribs 6, in young growth very much 
compressed, later depressed till the st. is nearly cylin- 
drical: areoles about %in. apart, dark gray-brown: 
radial spines mostly 7, about l Am. long; centrals 3-4, 
similar but somewhat stronger and a little longer; all 
the spines are pointed, stiff, when young are black, 
later brown to gray with black tips, bulbose at the 
base: fls. very similar to those of C. cxndescens. 

AA. Sts. erect, less than 2 in. diam. 
B. Ribs of st. 10 or more. 

14. isogonus, K. Schum. St. upright, columnar, about 
1-1 J^ in. diam., in young growth light green to yellow- 
green, later darker: ribs 15-16: areoles approximate, 

white, turning gray: radial spines as many as 20, spread- 
ing, at first clear or dark yellow, becoming white, and 
finally gray, bristle form, flexible, about %in. long; 
centrals 6-8; two of these are somewhat stronger and 
stiff er, about %in. long, one directed upward and one 
downward, yellowish brown to dark honey-color; later 
gray, as in the radials. S. Amer. 

15. splendens, Salm-Dyck. Columnar, slender, 
short, rigid, more or less branching from the base, 
reaching a height of about 2 ft. and about 1-1 % in. 
diam., light to yellowish green: ribs about 10-12, 
rounded: areoles prominent, about J^in. apart, tawny, 
becoming white, tomentose: radial spines 8-12, radiat- 
ing, yellow and light brown, becoming gray; centrals 
1-3, scarcely larger than the radial, yellowish to white; 
all the spines slender, bristle form, about J4-%in. long. 
. Cavendishii has been referred to this species, but 
with some question. 

BB. Ribs of st. 3-10. 

16. platygdnus, Otto. At first upright, later some- 
what reclining, branching, at the base about 1 in. 
diam., tapering in the new growth: ribs 8, low, arched: 
areoles about M m - apart, very small, yellow, becoming 
gray, subtruded by a small 3-angled bract: radial 
spines 12-15, spreading, bristle form, little more than 
Kin. long; central solitary, slightly longer and stronger; 
all the spines at first yeflow-brown, changing to white 
or gray with age. 

17. caerulescens, Salm-Dyck (C. Ldndbeckii, Phil.). 
Arborescent or shrubby, 3-5 ft. high: sts. 1-1 K in. 
diam.: ribs usually 8, obtuse: areoles approximate, 
white bud soon becoming black: spines rigid; radials 
9-12, M-Min. long, black; centrals 4, %in. long, 
stronger, black or white: fls. from the side of the st., 
slightly curved, 6-8 in. long by 6 in. diam., tube bronze- 
green, corolla white or occasionally rose-pink: frs. 
ellipsoidal, pointed at both ends, about 3 in. long and 
half that in diam., bright red, with blue glaucous cover- 
ing. Argentina. B.M. 3922. 

18. Bridgesii, Salm-Dyck. Upright, tall, columnar, 
simple or later branching at the base, bright green when 
young, becoming blue to gray-green, 1^-2 in. diam.: 
ribs 5-^7, very broad and low: areoles ^>-%in. apart, 
yellowish to gray: spines 3-5, radiating, the under one, 
or seldom the upper one, the longest, IK in. long, stiff, 
sharp, straight, dark honey-yellow, with brown tips, 
becoming gray with age. Bolivia. 

Var. lageniformis, K. Schum. (C. lagenifdrmis, Forst.). 
Spines more numerous, somewhat longer. 

19. azftreus, Farm. (C. Seidelii, Lehm.). St. upright, 
tall, slender, columnar, branching from the base, in the 
young, fresh bluish green, later dark green with gray, 
glaucous covering, about 3-4 ft. high and about 1 in. 
diam.: ribs 5-7, rounded, enlarged at the areole: 
areoles about %-l ft. apart, elevated, large, abundantly 
woolly when young: spines 8-18, nearly alike, about 
J^-^in. long, stiff, slender, needle-form to bristle-like, 
black; the 2^4 central ones somewhat longer: fls. 8-12 
in. long, obliquely attached to the st., slightly curved, 
white. Brazil. 

20. csesius, Otto. Upright, columnar, branching at 
the base, somewhat tapering above; in new growth, 
beautiful light blue, pruinose; later, light green to 
slightly bluish, about 1^ in. diam.: ribs 5-6, separated 
by sharp grooves, about ^in. high, compressed, faintly 
crenate, becoming depressed in older growth: areoles 
about ^in. apart, small, yellow at first, later becoming 
white and finally gray: radial spines 8-10, sometimes 
more appear later; radiate, light amber-color, brown at 
the base, the lower pair the longest, mostly about ^in. 
long; centrals 4-7, like the radials but usually some- 
what stronger, longer and darker; all the spines thin, 
needle-form, flexible, sharp; later, light, horn-color,, 
finally gray. S. Amer.(?). 




AAA. Sts. weak, clambering over rocks or other plants, 
and without aerial roots. 

21. Bpnplandii, Farm. Sts. at first upright, later 
clambering over rocks and bushes, about 1-1% in. 
diam., branching and spreading, in new growth com- 
monly of a bluish or purplish green, later gray-green: 
ribs 4-6, sharp, compressed, crenate, separated by 
broad, concave faces; later the ribs become much de- 
pressed, so that the st. is sometimes nearly cylindrical; 
the ribs commonly run spirally around the axis of the 
St.: areoles %-l% m - apart, at first considerably de- 
pressed, later shallower, white, becoming gray: radial 
spines 4-6 (later 1-4 more appear), straight, spreading, 
the largest about %-l in., stout, subulate, pointed, the 
under one needle-form and shorter; central solitary, 
straight, stronger, Tin. long, deflexed or porrect; the 
stronger spines are white, with tips and bases brown, 
when young beautiful ruby-red, later all are gray, with 
black tips and bulbous bases: fls. from the lateral areoles 
about 10 in. long, white, nocturnal: fr. nearly spheri- 
cal, about 2 in. diam., mammate, dark carmine-red. 
Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina. 

22. tortudsus, Forbes (C. atropurpureus, Haage). 
Sts. slender, weak, at first upright, but later reflexed, 
reaching a length of 3-4 ft., and 1-1% in. diam.: ribs 
commonly 7, sometimes but 5, rounded, low, separated 
by regular serpentine grooves: areoles about 1 in. apart, 
large: radial spines 5-8, about %~1 in. long; centrals 
1-4, about %-lK in. long; all the spines slender, rigid, 
red-brown when young, becoming ashy with age: fls. 
from the previous year's growth, about 6 in. long, trum- 
pet-shaped, tube olive-green and spiny, in the axils of 
the reddish green scales; outer petals pale green, tinted 
with brown; inner petals clear white: fr. spherical, bril- 
liant red without and white within, mammate, bearing 
a few spines on the summits of the lower mammas. 

23. M&rtinii, Labour (C. monacdnthus, Hort.). At 
first upright, later requiring a support; freely branching 
from the base, branches long, reaching nearly 5 ft., 
%-l in. diam., slightly tapering, dark green: ribs 5-6, 
separated by serpentine grooves, contracted between 
the areoles; sometimes the ribs are not evident, when 
the st. is cylindrical: areoles about 1-1% in. apart, 
white: radial spines 5-7, reddish, short, bristle-form, 
with bulbous bases or short conical, usually about ^gin. 
long; central solitary, mostly deflexed, J^-l in. long 
(in young growth, frequently not longer than the 
radial), subulate, robust, light brown or white, with 
bases and tips black: fls. from the older growth sts., 
8-9 in. long, clear white, nocturnal: fr. spherical (very 

885. Cerinthe retorta. ( X 1 A) 

similar to C. tortuosus), pointed, dark carmine-red, 
about 2 in. diam., mammate, a few spines on the mam- 
mas, toward the base of the fr. Argentina. R.H. 1860, 
pp. 658-9. This species is commonly sold under the 
name of C. platygonus. 

24. Pitajaya, DC. (C. pernambucensis [fernambu- 
censis], Lem. C. formbsus, Salm-Dyck. C. varidbilis, 
Pfeiff.). By recent authorities referred to the genus 
Acanthocereus. St. at first simple, later branching, in 
young growth light green, turning grayish green with 
age, pointed, jMr-1/4 in. diam.: ribs 3-5, commonly 4: 
areoles about 1 in. apart, large, bearing a conspicuous 
amount of curly hair, about %in. long, in new growth: 
radial spines 5-7 and a solitary central one, uniform, 
about %-% in. long, amber color to brown and finally 
gray: fls. from the older growth, large, about 8 in. long, 
slightly curved, white, nocturnal. Uruguay, Brazil, 
Colombia. B.M. 4084. C. grdndis, Haw., according 
to Weber, is but a larger form of this species. 

AAAA. Sts. more or less climbing by means of 
aerial roots. 

25. Martianus, Zucc. Of bushy growth, branching, 
reaching a height of 3 ft. and more: branches slender, 
provided here and there with aerial roots, cylindrical, 
about Min. diam. : ribs commonly 8, straight, sepa- 
rated by sharp grooves, very low: areoles ^-^in. 
apart, small, white: radial spines 6-10, bristle-form, 
spreading, clear honey-yellow, at base brownish, later 
whitish and becoming gray, about J^in. long; centrals 
3-4, similar, only somewhat stouter and darker: fls. 
usually abundant, straight or slightly S-shaped, 4-5 in. 
long, scarlet-red: fr. spherical, reddish green, covered 
with bristles. S. Mex. B.M. 3768. 

C. ventimtglia, Vaupel (Borzicactus ventimiglia, Riccob.). St. 
slender, 8- or 9-ribbed: spines in clusters of 8-10, spreading: peri- 
anth-tube elongated, opening into a large throat; petals red-violet: 
fr. small, globular, bearing few bracts. This species apparently 
does not belong to the true Cereus, and is probably much nearer 
Cleistocactus, as suggested in the Kew Bulletin. It was described 
from plants flowering in the Botanical Garden at Palermo, Italy, 
and which are said to have come from Ecuador. Borzicactus is a 
recently described genus, not yet intro. into American collections. 

C. a/amoserms=Rathbunia alamosensis. C. Baiimannii= 
Cleistocactus Baumannii. C. Berlandieri = Echinocereus. C. 
csespitdsus = Echinocereus. C. candelabrum = Lemaireocereus 
Weberi. C. CTiotfa=Escontria Chiotilla. C. chlordnthus=Echi- 
nocereus. C. coccineMS=Echinocereus. C. Cdc/iai=Myrtillocactus 
Cochal. C. conoWews=Echinocereus. C. c<emrfes=Echinocer- 
eus. C. cylindricus=Opuntia,. C. dasyacdnthus = Echino- 
cereus. C. Donkelxri=Se\eniceTeus Donkelaerii. C. diibius= 
Echinocereus. C. Z)jiTOor/ien=Lemaireocereus Dumortieri. C. 
e6wrneus=Lemaireocereus griseus. C. ^mor2/i=Bergerocactus 
Emoryi. C. ngelmanii='EchmoccTcus. C. enneacdnthus = Ech- 
inocereus. C. eruca=Lemaireocereus eruca. C. extensus=Hylo- 
cereus extensus. C. Fendleri=Eclunocere\is. C. flagdlifdrmis 
Aporocactus flagelliformis. C. geometrizans = Myrtillocactus 
geometrizans. C. giganteus=Ca,Tnegiea, gigantea. C. gonacdnthus 
=Echinocereus. C. grandifldrus=Se\emcereus grandiflorus. 
C. Grep(/u=Peniocereus Greggii. C. 0wmmdsus=Lemaireocereus 
gummosus. C. hamatus=SeleniceTeus hamatus. C. inerm\a= 
Selenicereus inermis. C. longisetus=EchinoceTeu9. C. Mdl- 
lisonii is a hybrid. C. AfacZ)onaWia?=Selenicereus MacDonaldise. 
C. 7nar0i?io/us=Pachycereus marginatus. C. Mdynardii= 
Selenicereus. C. mexicdnus is probably a hybrid. C. mojavensis 
=Echinocereus.- C. 7iapoZedms=Hylocereus napoleonis. C. 
JVcfceJsu=Cephalocereus. C. nyctlcalus=SeleniceTeua nycticalus. 
C. paurfspmus=Echinoeereus. C. pech'nd/us=Echinocereus. 

C. phceniceus = Echinocereus. C. prtnceps = Acanthocereus 
pentagonus. C. procum6ens=Echinocereus. C. queretarensis 
=Pachycereus queretarensis. C. fle0eZu=Selenicereus hybrid. 
C. repdndus = Harrisia gracilis. C. .Reperi=Echinocereus. 

C. Scheeri = Echinocereus. C. stnilis = Cephalocereus. C. 
serpeninus=Nyctocereus serpentinus. C. specidss=HeIiocereus. 
speciosus. C. spt'rcwWsws=Selenieereus spinulosus. C. stellatus 
=Lemaireocereus stellatus. C. s/raTOieus=Echinocereus. C. 
Thiirberi = Lemaireocereus Thurberi. C. triangularis = Hylo- 
cereus tricostatus. C. tuberdsus = Wilcoxia. C. viridifldrus.= 
Echinocereus. j ^ RoSE.f 

CERINTHE (Greek, keros, wax; anthos, flower: the 
ancients thought that the bees visited the flowers for 
wax). Boragindceas. Annual or perennial herbs from 
Europe and Asia Minor, with alternate glaucous 
leaves and showy purple bracts. 

Calyx deeply divided, the tubular corolla with 5 very 
small reflexed lobes, usually differently colored from 

XXV. Celery. The cultivation under field conditions, at the hilling-up or banking stage. 




the tube. About 6 species. The best species is C. 
retorta, which has a unique appearance in the garden, 
and is strongly recommended for more general cult. 
It is a hardy annual of easy cult. 

retorta, Sibth. & Smith. MONEYWORT. Fig. 885. 
Height 1 l /2-2 ft. : Ivs. glaucous, often spotted white or 
red; lower Ivs. obovate-spatulate; upper Ivs. amplexi- 
caul, with 2 round ears, on the flowering branches gradu- 
ally becoming smaller and closer together until they 
pass into purple bracts, which form the chief attractive 
feature of the plant: fls. when full-blown protruded 
beyond the bracts; corolla tubular-club-shaped, yellow, 
tipped purple, with 5 small, spreading teeth: frs. smooth 
but not shining. Greece. B.M. 5264. Gn. 41:212. 
For a garden review of the other honeyworts, see 
Gn. 41, p. 212. 

C. major, Linn. A showy annual 6-15 in. high: Ivs. clasping the 
St., very rough and ciliate: fls. with showy bracts; the corolla yellow 
below, purplish at the top: fr. smooth, shining and brown-spotted. 
Medit. region. B.M. 333. WlLHELM MlLLER. 


CEROPEGIA (Greek, wax and fountain, the flowers 
having a waxy look). Asclepiadacese. Greenhouse 
vines of Africa and Asia. 

Stems fleshy, erect and twining among the other 
plants in nature, or pendulous: Ivs. opposite, sometimes 
in the S. African species wanting: fls. medium-sized, the 
corolla more or less inflated at the base, straight or 
curved; corona something as in our common milk- 
weeds, double. A genus of 100 species, a dozen of 
which are known in Old World collections but only the 
following in Amer. Many of them have tuberous roots, 
and need a season of rest and dryness. May be grown 
in a compost of loam, leaf-mold or peat, and sand. 
Temperate house is the best for the two following. 
Prop, by cuttings in spring over bottom heat. Odd and 

Wo6dii, Schlecht. With many slender prostrate or 
trailing sts.: Ivs. fleshy, about \% in. long, almost 
rotund: fls. in pairs, axillary on stalks, 3-7 in. long; 
corolla slightly curved, about %'m. long, pink or with 
dark lines below, the upper part sometimes purplish. 
Natal. G.C. III. 22:357; 37:244 (desc.). B.M. 7704. 

Sandersonii, Decne. St. twining, fleshy and thick: 
Ivs. about 1% in. long, ovate-lanceolate: fls. cymose, 3-4 
at a node, the greenish white corolla about lJ^-2 in. 
long, curved and with an obvious inflation at the base. 
Natal. B.M. 5792. G.C. 111.40:383. R.H. 1901, p. 

C. barbertonensis, N. E. Br. Lvs. somewhat variegated with pale 
green along the veins: fls. similar to C. Woodii. Transvaal. C. 
Brdwnii, Ledger. Corolla-tube pale green with dark blotches; lobes 
greenish witha'zoneof white and dark purple in the middle. Uganda. 
C. discreta, N. E. Br. Tuberous: tube whitish, dark-veined; lobes 
pale yellow at base, purple-green at apex. Madras. C. fusca,C. Bolle. 
Many succulent sts.: corolla dull reddish brown: coronna light yel- 
low. Canary Isls. B.M. 8066. C. gemmffera, K. Schum. A tall 
climbing species: fls. solitary. W. Trop. Afr. C. Lugdrdx, N.E.Br. 
Lvs. thin, 1-2 in. long: tube 1 in. long, abruptly curved immediately 
above inflated base, dilated at apex into funnel-shaped mouth. 
Bechuanaland. G.C. III. 30:302 (desc.). C. Rendallii, N.E. Br. A 
small species with fl. having an umbrella-like canopy surmounting 
the corolla: twining. Transvaal. C. slmilis, N.E. Br. In cult, as 
C. Thwaitesii. Corolla-lobes white or pale green at base, ciliate. 
G.C. III. 40:384. C. Thorncroftii, N. Br. Sts. twining: cymes 
axillary, many-fld.; corolla white, with purple blotches. Trans- 
vaal. B.M. 8458. N> TAYLOR> 

CEROPTERIS (Greek, wax fern). Polypodiacese. Hot- 
house ferns of rather small size, interesting for the 
powdery covering on the leaves. 

A rather small group somewhat related to Pteris, 
characterized most conspicuously by having the under 
surface of the Ivs. covered with a colored powder, often 
silver, white or bright yellow (so-called silver and 
gold ferns). The sporangia are borne in indefinite 
lines and are unprotected by any indusium. The spe- 
ies of Ceropteris have in the past been classified under 
the generic name Gymnogramma, but fern students 

are now generally agreed in separating it as a distinct 


argentea, 4. 
argyrophylla, 7. 
calomelanos, 6. 
chrysophylla, 2, 6. 
decomposita, 5. 

gigantea, 2. 
Laucheana, 2. 
magnified, 6. 
peruviana, 7. 
pulchella, 9. 

sulphurea, 3. 
tartarea, 8. 
triangularis, 1. 
viscosa, 1. 

Wettenhal liana, 

886. Ceropteris triangularis. 

A. Powder commonly yellow: Ivs. about as broad as long. 

1. triangularis, Underw. (Gymnogrdmma triangula- 
ris, Kaulf.). Fig. 886. Lf. -blades 2-5 in. wide and 
long, on stalks 6-12 in. long, 

dark green above, below deep 
golden yellow, or occasion- 
ally white; lower pinnae much 
larger than the others, del- 
toid; the upper lanceolate. 
Calif, to Brit. Col. Gn. 48, 
p. 444. A white - powdered 
variety with a viscous upper 
surface and coarser cuttings 
(var. viscdsa, D. C. Eaton) 
is found in S. Calif. 

AA. Powder yellow: Ivs. lanceo- 
late, several times as long 
as broad. 

B. Lvs. scarcely more than 

2. chrysophylla, Link 
(Gymnogrdmma chrysophylla, 
Kaulf.). Lvs. 12-18 in. long, 
with blackish stalks and 
rachises, the segms. slightly 

pinnatifid at the base: powder golden yellow. W. 
Indies to Brazil. R.H. 1856:201. G.C. III. 23:373 
Often considered a var. of C. calomelanos. Var. 
Laucheana (Gymnogrdmma Laucheana, Hort.), has tri- 
angular Ivs. except in its sub-variety gigantea. Gn. 48, 
p. 437. 

BB. Li's, tripinnatifid to quadripinnate. 

3. sulphurea, Fee (Gymnogrdmma sulphurea, Desv.). 
Lf.-blades 6-12 in. long on chestnut-brown stalks, the 
pinnae long, tapering, less than 1^ in. wide at base, the 
pinnules compact, with 3-7 divisions: powder sulfur- 
yellow. W. Indies. 

4. argentea, Kuhn (Gymnogrdmma aiirea, Desv.). 
Lvs. 6-12 in. long, 7-10 in. wide, deltoid; pinnae del- 
toid, 2-3 in. wide at base, the ultimate divisions cu- 
neate. Madagascar. By some this is referred to Gym- 
nogrdmma argentea, Mett., a similar fern with white 

5. decomposita, Baker (known only under the 
name Gymnogrdmma decompdsita, belongs in Cerop- 
teris). Lvs. l^ft. long, 1 ft. broad, deltoid, quadripin- 
nate or even 5-pinnate; pinnae close, lanceolate, with 
the ultimate divisions linear and 1 -nerved: powder 
rather scanty. Andes. F.R. 2:25. G.C. III. 11:365. 
F. 1874, p. 148. 

AAA. Powder white: Ivs. lanceolate. 
B. Segms. acute. 

6. calomelanos, Underw. (Gymnogrdmma calomela- 
nos, Kaulf.). Fig. 887. Stalks and rachises nearly 
black: Ivs. 1-3 ft. long, with lanceolate pinnae; segms. 
often with a large lobe-like auricle at the upper side of 
the base. W. Indies to Brazil. A.G. 14:303. The 
most variable species of the genus. C. magnifica, Hort., 
is probably one of the many garden varieties. Var. 
chrysophylla, is here considered a distinct species. (See 
No. 2.) 

BB. Segms. obtuse, rounded. 

7. peruviana, Link (Gymnogrdmma peruviana, 
Desv.). Lvs. 6-12 in. long, 3-5 in. wide, with dark 




887. Ceropteris calomelanos. 

chestnut-brown stalks; pinnae somewhat regularly 
pinnatifid on both sides below. Mex. to Peru. By 
some considered a var. of G. calomelanos. Var. argyro- 
phylla (G. argyrophylla, Hort.) is silvery on both sides. 

8. tartarea, 
Link (Gymno- 
grdmma tatarica, 
Desv. G. tatarica, 
Hort.). Lvs. 9-18 
in. long, 2-5 in. 
broad, with closely 
set pinnae, taper- 
ing gradually to 
a point; pinnules 
scarcely divided 
or cut, mostly 
merely crenate. 
Trop. Amer. from 
Mex. southward. 

BBB. Segms. fan- 
shaped or wedge- 

9. pulchella, 
Link (known 
only under the 
generic name, 
belongs in Cerop- 
teris). Lvs. 6-12 

in. long, 4 in. wide, the lower pinnae much the largest; 
pinnules imbricated; texture rather thin. Venezuela. 
Var. Wettenhalliana, Moore (G. Wettenhallidna, 
Hort.), is a garden variety, with pale sulfur-yellow 
powder. L. M. UNDERWOOD. 


CEROXYLON (Greek, wax and wood, i.e., wax-tree). 
Palmacese. WAX-PALM. Tall palms with ringed stems 
and pinnate leaves. 

Spineless, the trunk covered with wax: Ivs. clustered 
at the top, 15-20 ft. long when full grown, equally 
pinnate; pinnae long, rigid, sword-shaped, bases re- 
curved and tips pointed, dark green above and glau- 
cous beneath, the petiole very short and sheathed: fls. 
mostly unisexual, on spikes nearly or quite covered by 
the simple spathe; fl. -parts 3; stamens 9-15: seed as 
large as a hazel-nut, round, bony, inclosed in a soft or 
crumbling integument. Perhaps 4 or 5 species in the 
Andes of Colombia and Ecuador. 

andicolum, HBK. (Iridrtea andicola, Spreng. I. 
Klopstdckia, Hort. Klopstdckia cerifera, Karst. 
Beethovenia cerifera, Engl.). The celebrated wax-palm 
of the Andes, and a good greenhouse subject: said to 
reach nearly 200 ft. : trunk slender, swollen at the mid- 
dle: Ivs. 6-8 in., the crown, the under sides silvery- 
scurfy. The waxy covering of the trunk gives it a 
marble-like and columnar appearance. The wax, used 
as an ingredient in the making of candles, is an article 
of commerce. It is said that Diplothemium caudescens 
(Ceroxylon niveum, Hort.) is sometimes sold for the 
wax-palm by plant dealers. C. femigineum, Regel, is 
probably referable to Iriartea. It appears not to be 
in the trade. C. andicolum is a free grower under cult., 
and is a very ornamental subject. It thrives in a 
warm moist house, and the seeds also germinate well 
under similar conditions. L H B 

CESPEDESIA (named in honor of Juan Maria 
Cespedes, priest of Bogota). Ochnacese. Tall handsome 
glabrous trees, sometimes grown in the juvenile state 
in hothouses. 

Leaves alternate, large, coriaceous, mostly obovate 
to lanceolate and narrowed at base, entire, or crenate: 
fls. yellow, showy, in large terminal bractless panicles; 
sepals 5, small and deciduous; petals 5; stamens 10 to 

many: fr. a 5-valved caps.; seeds very small. Species 
probably 6-10, in S. Amer. and Panama. 

discolor, Bull. Lvs. large, lanceolate, drooping, hand- 
somely colored on young growths in bright brown or 
tan tinted with rose and veined with yellow. Gn. W. 
20:618. A comparatively recent intro. to cult, in 
England. L. H. B. 

CESTRUM (old Greek name). Incl., Habrothdmnus. 
Solanacese. Greenhouse shrubs (or low trees) some 
of them with a climbing habit, and grown in the open 
in southern California and elsewhere South. 

Leaves alternate and entire, usually rather narrow: 
fls. tubular, in axillary or terminal cymes, red, yellow, 
greenish or white, often very fragrant; corolla salver- 
shaped or somewhat trumpet-shaped, the long tube 
often enlarged at the throat, 5-lobed, exceeding the 
bell-shaped or tubular 5-toothed calyx; stamens mostly 
5, all perfect, attached in the tube: fr. a scarcely 
succulent mostly reddish or blackish berry, derived from 
a 2-celled stipitate ovary and seeds few or reduced to 
1. Probably 150 species, in Trop. and Subtrop. Amer. 
They are much grown in warm countries, where they 
bloom continuously. For a monograph of the West 
Indian species (about 20) see O. E. Schulz, in Urban, 
Symbols, Antillanae, vi, p. 249-279 (1909-1910). 

Cestrums are among the most useful of bright- 
flowering shrubby greenhouse plants, and they may 
be grown either as pot-plants, or planted against the 
back wall or supports of a greenhouse, where, if given 
a light position, they will produce an abundance of 
flowers from January to April. The Mexican species 
will do well in a winter temperature of 45 to 50, but 
the species from Central America require stove tem- 
perature. They are propagated by cuttings taken in 
February or early in March and inserted in sand in a 
warm temperature, keeping them somewhat close until 
rooted, when they should be potted in a light soil, after 
which they may be grown in pots, shifting on as often 
as required, or planted out in the open ground toward 
the end of May in a sunny position, where, if kept 
pinched back to induce a bushy growth and attention 
is paid to watering, they will make fine plants by the 
first of September. They should then be lifted and pot- 
ted in a light rich soil and kept close and shaded for a 
few days, and then transferred to their winter quarters. 
After flowering, the plants should be given a rest for 
a month or six weeks, gradually reducing the supply 
of water to induce the leaves and wood to ripen, after 
which they should be cut well back, the old soil shaken 

888. Cestrum elegans. ( X 1 A) 

off, and the roots trimmed back, and then either 
potted again or planted out for the summer. While 
in the greenhouse, oestrums are very subject to the 
attacks of insects, especially the mealy-bug. (E. J. 

A. Fls. red. 

elegans, Schlecht. (Habrothdmnus elegans, Brongn.). 
Fig. 888. Tall and slender, half-climbing, the branches 
pubescent: Ivs. ovate, lanceolate, long-acuminate, of 
medium size, pubescent beneath: fls. red-purple, swollen 




near the top of the tube, in loose clusters which nod at 
the ends of the branches, the lobes ciliate. Mex. F.S. 
2:82. One of the old-fashioned greenhouse shrubs, 
blooming almost continuously. There is a form with 
variegated Ivs. Var. Smithii (C. Smithii, Hort. Bull.) 
has beautiful blush-rose fls., profusely produced through 
summer and autumn. Gn. 62, p. 242, desc. 

fasciculatum, Miers. Spring bloomer, with larger fls. 
than those of C. elegans, and more compact, nearly 
globular fl.-clusters, the cluster subtended by small Ivs. 
as if an involucre: Ivs. ovate. Mex. B.M. 4183 (and 
probably the C. elegans, B.M. 5659.). 

Newelli, Nichols. (H. Newelli, Veitch). Fls. bright 
crimson, larger and more brilliant than those of C. ele- 
gans and C. fasciculatum. Gn. 34:106. A free-grow- 
ing plant, originating from seed by Mr. Newell, Down- 
ham Market, England. Evidently an offshoot of one 
of the preceding species. 

AA. Fls. orange or yellow. 

aurantiacum, Lindl. Of half-climbing habit: Ivs. 
oval to ovate, more or less undulate: fls. sessile in a 
panicle, orange-yellow. Guatemala. R.H. 1858, p. 

Pseudo-Quina, Mart. Glabrous: Ivs. membrana- 
ceous, ovate, obtusish or acute, narrowed at base: 
peduncles articulated at apex, axillary or in congested 
4-8-fld. terminal racemes; corolla slender with acute 
lobes, much longer than the toothed calyx. Brazil. 
Said to have marked medicinal qualities. Differs from 
C. Parqui in having glabrous filaments and pedicillate 

AAA. Fls. white, greenish, or cream-yellow. 

Parqui, L'Her. Shrub, half-hardy, nearly glabrous: 
Ivs. lanceolate to oblong, petioled, short, acuminate: 
fls. sessile, long, tubular, with a wide-spreading limb, 
in an open panicle, greenish yellow, very fragrant at 
night. Chile. B.M. 1770. Adventive in Fla. 

diurnum, Linn. Quick-growing evergreen shrub, 
minutely pubescent or glabrous: lys. oblong and short- 
acute, thickish and glabrous, shining above: fls. white, 
very sweet-scented by day, in axillary long-peduncled 
spikes; corolla-lobes roundish and reflexed: berry nearly 
globular; filaments erect and not denticulate. W. Indies. 

Shrub, 4-12 ft.: branches brownish, very slender or 
flexuose, glabrous or nearly so: Ivs. thinner, ovate or 
elliptic, prominently acuminate: fls. creamy-yellow, 
very fragrant by night; corolla-lobes ovate and blunt: 
berry ovoid-oblong; filamants denticulate. W. Indies. 

pubens, Griseb. Sts. and Ivs. woolly-pubescent: fls. 
greenish, much like those of C. nocturnum and also 
fragrant at night. Argentina. 

Iaurif61ium, L'Her. Glabrous shrub: Ivs. ovate to 
oblong, glossy, thick: fls. greenish yellow and changing 
color (sometimes described under cult as pure white), 
in erect heads, slightly fragrant; corolla-tube club- 
shaped, tapering gradually; corolla-lobes ovate-round- 
ish and blunt; filaments toothed: berry ovoid. W. Indies, 
S. Amer. Much planted in S. Calif. L jj g 

CIL35NACTIS (Greek, gaping ray: the marginal 
corollas often ray-like). Composite. West American 
low herbs or undershrubs sometimes planted in the 
open for ornament. 

Leaves alternate and mostly dissected: fls. yellow, 
white or flesh-colored on solitary peduncles or in loose 
cymes; florets of one kind, but the marginal ones with 
a more or less enlarged limb; involucre campanulate; 
receptacle flat and generally naked: pappus of toothed 
or entire scales (wanting in one species). About 20 
species, of which 3 have been intro. as border plants; 
but they are little known to gardeners. Of easy cult. 
Prop, by seeds or division. 

A. Pappus of entire or nearly entire persistent scales. 

tenuifolia, Nutt. Small, tufted annual, white-pubes- 
cent when young but becoming nearly or quite glabrous: 
1 ft.: Ivs. once or twice pinnately parted, the lobes 
linear or filiform: heads ^in. high, lemon-yellow. 
S. Calif. 

Doiiglasii, Hook. & Arn. Perennial, 3-15 in. high, 
usually white-woolly when young: Ivs. broad, bipin- 
nately parted into short and crowded, obtuse lobes: 
heads */-Mm. high, white or whitish, usually in 
crowded, cymose clusters. Mont, south and west. 
Variable. Var. achilleaefolia, A. Nelson, is often sold 
for the type. It has more finely divided Ivs. 

AA. Pappus of fimbriate and deciduous scales, or even 


artemisiaefdlia, Gray. Tufted annual, 1-2 ft., rusty 
pubescent and somewhat sticky on the under side of 
the Ivs., glandular hairy above: Ivs. twice or thrice 
pinnately parted into short-linear or oblong lobes: 
heads 3^in. high, the involucre viscid, the florets white 
or cream-color. S. Calif. jj > TAYLOR.! 

CH5SNOMELES (Greek chainein, to gape, to split, 
and melea, apple: the fruit was supposed by Thunberg 
to split into five valves). Rosdcex, subfamily Pomex. 
Woody plants, grown chiefly for their handsome 
brightly colored flowers appearing early in spring; 
formerly commonly included in Cydonia. 

Shrubs or small trees, sometimes spiny: Ivs. sub- 
persistent or deciduous, alternate, short-petioled, ser- 
rate: fls. solitary or fascicled, before or after the Ivs., 
sometimes partly staminate; calyx-lobes entire or ser- 
rate; petals 5; stamens numerous; styles 5, connate at 
the base: fr. 5-celled, each cell with many seeds. Four 
species in China and Japan. See page 3567. 

These are ornamental plants, nearly hardy North 
except C. sinensis, which can be grown only South. C. 
japonica and C. Maulei, with handsome glossy foliage 
and abundant flowers in early spring, varying in all 
shades from pure white to deep scarlet, are highly 
decorative, and especially adapted for borders of 
shrubberies and for low ornamental hedges. The fruit 
of all species can be made into conserves. They thrive 
in almost any soil, but require sunny position to bloom 
abundantly. Propagated by seeds, usually stratified 
and sown in spring; also readily increased by root- 
cuttings made in fall or early spring, and rarer kinds 
or less vigorous-growing varieties are grafted in the 
greenhouse in early spring, on stock of the Japanese 
or common quince; they grow also from cuttings of 
half-ripened or nearly mature wood, under glass, and 
from layers. 

A. Fls. solitary, with reflexed serrate calyx-lobes, with or 

after the Ivs.: stipules small. (Pseudocydonia.) 
sinensis, Koehne (Pyrus sinensis, Poir. Cydonia 
sinensis, Thouin. Pseudocyddnia sinensis, Schneid.). 
Shrub or small tree: Ivs. elliptic-ovate or elliptic-oblong, 
acute at both ends, sharply and finely serrate, villous 
beneath when young, 2-3 in. long: fls. light pink, about 
\]/z in. across: fr. dark yellow, oblong, 4-6 in. long. 
May. China. B.R. 11:905. R.H. 1889:228. A.G. 
12:16. B.M. 7988. The Ivs. assume a scarlet fall 
coloring. Not hardy north of Philadelphia, except in 
favored localities. See also Quince. 

AA. Fls. in leafless clusters, nearly sessile, before or with 
the Ivs.; calyx-lobes erect, entire: stipules large. 
(Chsenomeles proper.) 

B. Lvs. lanceolate or narrow-lanceolate, pubescent beneath 

while young. 

cathayensis, Schneid. (Pyrus cathayensis, Hemsl. 
Cydonia cathayensis, Hemsl.). Shrub, to 10 ft.: Ivs. 
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, finely and 
sharply serrate, 2^-4^ in. long and Yr-^A in- broad; 



petioles about J^in. long: fls. in clusters, red, \*A m. 
across; styles pubescent at the base; petals distinctly 
clawed' fr. oblong-ovoid, 6-7 in. long, with a cavity at 
each end. Cent. China. H.I. 27:2657, 2658. Closely 
related to the following species, but Ivs. much narrower; 
less hardy. 

BB. Lvs. elliptic-oblong to obovate, glabrous. 
jap6nica, Lindl. (Pyrus japdnica, Thunb. Cydbnia 
japdnica, Pers. Chsenomeles lagenaria, Koidzumi). 
JAPAN QUINCE. JAPONICA. Fig. 889. Shrub, 3-6 ft., 
with spreading, spiny branches: Ivs. ovate or oblong, 
acute, sharply serrate, glabrous, glossy above, 1K~3 in. 
long: fls. in 2-6-fld. clusters, scarlet-red in the type, 
\Yz-1 in. across: fr. globular or ovoid, 1^-2 in. high, 
yellowish green. March, April. China, Japan. R.B. 
1:260. L.B.C. 16:1594. Gn. 33, p. 491; 40:126; 50, 
p. 106 (frs.); 71, p. 262 (habit). G.C. III. 34:434. B.H. 
1:260 (frs.). R.H. 1876: 330 (fr.). G.M. 35,suppl. Nov. 
12. V. 4:38. Many garden forms in all shades from 
white to deep scarlet, and also with double fls. Some 
of the best are the following: Var. alba, Lodd. Fls. 
white, blushed. L.B.C. 6:541. Var. albo-cincta, 

889. Chaenomeles japonica, the Japan or flowering quince. 

Van Houtte. Fls. white with pink margin. F.S. 14 : 1403. 
Var. albo-rdsea, Spaeth. Fls. white, partly pink. 
G.W. 7:113. Var. atrosanguinea plena, Hort. Fls. 
deep scarlet, semi-double. Var. Baltzii, Spaeth. Fls. 
beautiful rosy pink, very floriferous. G.W. 7 : 113. Var. 
Candida, Hort. Fls. pure white. Var. cardinalis, Carr. 
Fls. large, deep scarlet. R.H. 1872:330, f. 1. Var. 
eburnea, Carr. Fls. pure white, rather small. R.H. 
1872:330, f. 4. Var. Gaujardii, Lem. Fls. salmon- 
orange. I.H. 7:260. Var. grandifldra, Rehd. (C. alba 
grandiflbra, Carr.). Fls. nearly white, large. R. H. 
1876:410. Gn. 13:144. Var. Mallardii, Carr. Fls. 
rose, bordered white. R.H. 1872:330, p. 2. I.H. 4:135. 
G.Z. 1:208. Var. Moerlodsei, Versch. Fls. white, 
striped pink. I.H. 3:107. F.S. 5:510. Var. Papeleui, 
Lem. Fls. yellow, bordered pink. I.H. 7:260. Var. 
pendula, Temple & Beard, with slender, pendulous 
branches. Var. rdsea plena, Hort. Fls. rose, semi- 
double. Var. rubra grandifldra, Hort. Fls. large, 
deep crimson. Var. sanguinea plena, Hort. Fls. 
scarlet, double. Var. ser6tina, Andre". Fls. in stalked 
leafy clusters in autumn. R.H. 1894, pp. 424, 425; 
1903, p. 20. Var. Simonii, Andre. Fls. dark crimson, 
semi-double: low and upright. G.W. 7:113. Var. 
sulphur ea, Hort. (var. sulphur ea perfccta, Van Houtte). 
Fls. yellowish. Var. umbilicata, Sieb. & De Vries. 
With rose-red fls., and large frs. umbilicate at the 
apex. F.S. 5:510. 


Maulei, Schneid. (Pyrus Maulei, Mast. Cydbnia 
Maulei, Moore. C. alpina, Koehne). Low shrub, 1-3 ft.: 
branches spiny, with short, rough tomentum when young: 
Ivs. roundish oval to obovate, obtuse or acute, coarsely 
crenate-serrate, glabrous, 1-2 in. long: fls. bright orange- 
scarlet, 1-1 Yi in. across: fr. yellow, nearly globular, 
about 1J^ in. across. March, April. Japan. B.M. 
6780. G.C. II. 1:757 and 2:741; 111.34:435. Gn. 
13:390; 33, p. 490; 50, p. 106; 55, p. 354. F. 1875:49. 
R.H. 1875:195. F.M. 1875:161. H.B. 26:241. A 
very desirable hardy shrub, with abundant fls. of a 
peculiar shade of red. Var. alpina, Schneid. (C. japonica 
var. alpina, Maxim. Cydbnia Sdrgenlii, Lemoine). 
Dwarf spiny shrub, with procumbent sts. and ascend- 
ing branches: lys. roundish oval, ^-1 in. long: flower- 
ing and fruiting profusely. R.H. 1911:204. Var. 
superba, Hort. Fls. deeper red. Var. tricolor Hort. 
Dwarf shrub, with pink and white variegated Ivs. 
By some botanists this species is considered to be the 
typical C. japonica, and the preceding species is called 
C. lagenaria. ALFRED REHDER. 

CHJENOSTOMA (gaping mouth, in allusion to the 
shape of the corolla). Scrophulariacex. African herbs 
or sub-shrubs sometimes planted in greenhouses, or in 
the open in mild climates. 

Leaves simple, mostly opposite: fls. axillary or ter- 
minal-racemose, showy; stamens attached to the throat 
of the corolla, more or less exserted; style filiform and 
club-shaped, and obtuse at the apex; corolla tubular, 
swollen in the throat, with a 5-lobed spreading limb: 
fr. a caps, with numerous seeds. Recent authorities 
combine this genus with Sutera, which, in the enlarged 
sense, comprises more than 190 species in Afr. and the 
Canary Isls. Chsenostoma, as separately limited, has 
25-30 S. African plants with white, yellow or reddish 
fls. axillary or in terminal racemes. Ivs. usually oppo- 
site, mostly dentate, 4 didynamous stamens which are 
exserted rather than included as in typical Sutera and 
the top of the style club-shaped and stigma obtuse 
rather than 2-lobed. 

hispidum, Benth. (Sutera brachidta, Roth). Small 
perennial, sometimes an under-shrub, with opposite, 
oval or oblong, toothed Ivs., and blush-white or rosy 
white star-like fls. Y^va.. across, in dense clusters. S. 
Afr. J. H. III. 33:636. An old and deserving green- 
house or pot-plant, but rarely seen at present. It 
blooms almost continuously, the fls. sometimes hiding 
the foliage. Prop, by seeds or cuttings, either in fall or 
spring. Begins to bloom when 4-6 in. high. To be 
recommended for windows, and for summer vases. It 
has been listed as Schcenostoma hispidum. In S. Calif., 
it is a half-hardy dwarf shrub (12 to 20 in. high and 
withstanding 4-6 degrees of frost), recommended for 
edgings. N. TAYLOR.f 

CHjEROPH^LLUM (Greek-made name, referring 
to the agreeably scented foliage). Umbelliferse. 
Scented herbs, annual, biennial or perennial, glabrous 
or hirsute, often tuberous-rooted, of 30-40 species in 
the northern hemisphere, one of which is cult. Lvs. 
pinnately or ternately decompound, the segms. also 
toothed or cut: fls. small, white, in a compound many- 
rayed umbel; calyx-teeth 0: carpels with 5 more or less 
apparent ribs, the beak or much shorter than the 
body. C. bulbdsum, Linn., of Cent. Eu. and the Cau- 
casus, biennial, is the turnip-rooted chervil. (See Cher- 
vil.) St. hairy, at least below, 3-5 ft. tall, branching, 
swollen below the joints, the root tuberous (and edi- 
ble) : Ivs. much compound, the ultimate divisions very 
narrow. L. H. B. 

CK/ETOSPERMUM (from Greek, hair and seed). 
Limonia Chastospermum., Roemer. Rutaceae, tribe 
Citrese. A small spiny tree, proposed as a stock for 
citrus fruits. 




Chsetospermum bears hard-shelled frs. : Ivs. persist- 
ent, trifoliate: fls. pentamerous with 10 free stamens; 
ovary 8-10-celled, with numerous ovules in each cell; 
cells filled with spongy vesicular tissue; seeds hairy, 
the cotyledons aerial in germination: first foliage Ivs. 
opposite. Only one species is known. 

glutindsa, Swingle (Limonia glutinosa, Blanco. 
jEgle decdndra, .Naves. ^Egle glutindsa, Merrill). TABOG. 
Fig. 890. Petioles margined; lateral Ifts. small, sessile, 
scarcely one-third as long as the terminal one; spines 
slender, straight, sharp, axillary usually in pairs in the 
axils of the Ivs.: fls. rather large, occurring singly, or 
in few-fld. clusters on long slender pedicels in the axils 
of the Ivs.: fr. oblong, 2-3 x l^j in. with a thick 
leathery rind longitudinally ribbed, 8-10-celled; it con- 
tains numerous flattened hairy seeds, % to Ain. im- 
mersed in a watery tissue. Native to the Isl. of Luzon, 
Philippine Archipelago. 111. Blanco., Fl. Filip. ed. Ill, 
pi. 124. Vidal y Soler, Sinop. de fam. Fil. pi. 25. Bull. 
Soc. Bot. Fr. 58, Mem. 8d. pi. 5. The tabog is a 
rapid-growing tree when young, and in a warm green- 
house shows a vigorous root-growth. This species is 
being tested as a stock for use in commercial citriculture. 
Experiments have shown that oranges, lemons, grape- 
fruits and kumquats grow well when budded or grafted 
.on young tabog plants. WALTER T. SWINGLE. 

CHALCAS (from Greek for copper, as the wood has 
a copper-colored grain). Murrsea of Koenig. Rutdcese. 
Small spineless trees or shrubs, suggested as a stock for 
citrus fruits. 

Leaves pinnate, alternate: fls. large, 4-5-merous, 
solitary or in terminal or axillary cymes; ovary 1-5- 
celled, with 1 to several ovules : seeds white, woolly or 
glabrous, cotyledons aerial in germination: first foliage 
Ivs. opposite. 

exotica, Millsp. (Murrsea exotica, Linn.). ORANGE 
JESSAMINE. A small tree with pale bark, twigs and 
petioles usually puberulous: Ivs. pinnate; Ifts. usually 
5-9, ovate, obtuse or obtusely acuminate, often 
emarginate, dark green above, paler below: fls. fra- 
grant, campanulate, 5-parted; petals white; stamens 
10, free; ovary 2-celled, style deciduous : fr. subglobpse, 
f-J^in. long, pointed, red. 111. Beddome, Outlines 
Bot., pi. vii., Wight, Ic., pi. Ind. I, pi. 96. The orange 
jessamine is commonly grown in greenhouses on ac- 
count of its abundant and very fragrant fls. These are 
often to be seen along with the mature red fr., which 
makes a striking contrast with the panicles of white fls. 
and delicate foliage. The root-growth of this species 
is remarkably vigorous under greenhouse conditions. 
Lemons can be budded on it and make a rapid growth. 
It is being tested as a stock for the common citrus 
fruits in situations in which a vigorous root-system 
is desired. WALTER T. SWINGLE. 

CHAMJEBATIA (Greek, dwarf, and bramble, allud- 
ing to its bramble-like flowers). Rosacese. A woody 
plant, grown for its handsome white flowers and for the 
finely divided aromatic foliage. 

Low shrub, clothed with glandular pubescence: Ivs. 
alternate, stipulate, tripinnatifid, persistent: fls. in 
terminal corymbs, white; calyx- tube broadly campanu- 
late; petals 5; stamens numerous; pistil solitary, with 
short style and decurrent stigma: fr. a small achene 
inclosed by the persistent calyx. One species in Calif. 
Ornamental shrub of agreeable aromatic odor, with 
graceful foliage and showy white fls. in June and 
July. It can be grown only in warmer temperate 
regions, and thrives best in sandy well-drained soil 
and sunny position. Prop, by seeds sown in spring and 
by greenwood cuttings under glass. 

folioldsa, Benth. Two to 3 ft.: Ivs. nearly sessile, 
oval or ovate-oblong, closely tripinnately dissected, 
1K-2H in. long: fls. white, %in. wide, in 4-8-fld. 

corymbs. B.M. 5171. G. 29:29. B.H. 10, p. 295, 
H.F. 1861:9. Gn. 3, p. 27. ALFRED REHDER. 

CHAM^BATIARIA (in allusion to the similarity 
of this plant to Chamsebatia) . Rosacese. Shrub grown 
for its handsome white flowers and the finely divided 
foliage; allied to the spireas. 

Deciduous, with glandular aromatic pubescence: 
Ivs. alternate, bipinnate, with numerous minute segms.; 
stipules lanceolate, entire: fls. in terminal panicles; 
calyx turbinate, with 5 erect lobes; petals 5, suborbicu- 
lar; stamens about 60: carpels 5, connate along the 
ventral suture, at maturity dehiscent into 2 valves: 
seeds few, terete, with a simple testa. One species in 
W. N. Amer. Very similar in general appearance to 
Chamaebatia, but easily distinguished by the bipin- 
nate Ivs. and the large dense panicles, and very differ- 
ent in its floral structure. An upright aromatic shrub 
with finely cut foliage and white fls. in large terminal 

890. Chaetospermum 
glutinosa. ( X Yd 

panicles; one of the first shrubs to burst into leaf. It is 
hardy as far north as Mass., but, like other plants from 
the same region, it dislikes an excess of moisture, 

Earticularly during the winter, and is likely to be killed 
y it. It prefers' a sunny position and a well-drained 
soil, and likes limestone, but grows nearly as well 
without; it is not a plant for dense shrubberies. 
Propagated by cuttings of half-ripened wood taken 
with a heel in August with slight bottom heat; usu- 
ally by seeds sown in spring, and treated like those of 

Millefdlium, Maxim. (Spiraea Millefdlium, Torr. 
Sorbaria Millefdlium, Focke). Shrub, to 3 ft., glandu- 
lar-pubescent: Ivs. bipinnate, short-stalked, ovate- 
oblong to linear-oblong in outline, 2-3 in. long, primary 
segms. linear, deeply pinnatifid, with closely set 
obtuse lobes about a line long: fls. white, ^T-%IO.. 
across, short-pedicelled, in terminal panicles 3-6 m. 
long: carpels hairy. Calif, to Wyo. and Ariz. B.M. 
7810. G.C. III. 22:237; 40:183. Gn. 75, p. 459. G.F. 
2:509. R.H. 1900, p. 515. M.D. 1905:198. M.D.G. 
1908:208. ALFRED REHDER. 





CHAM-^EC^PARIS (chamai, dwarf, and kuparissos, 
cypress; referring to its affinity). Pinacese. Trees or 
shrubs grown for their handsome evergreen foliage; 
also valuable timber trees; RETINOSPORAS, in part. 

Evergreen, with opposite scale-like Ivs. in 4 rows, 
densely clothing the compressed branchlets: fis. monoe- 
cious, small; pistillate inconspicuous, globose; stamina te 
yellow or red, oblong, often conspicuous by their 
abundance: cones small, globular, with 6-11 bracts, 
each bearing 2, or rarely 5, winged seeds, ripening the 
first season. Closely allied to Cupressus, which differs 
in its larger cones maturing the second year, the bracts 
containing 4 or more seeds, and in its quadrangular 
branches and minutely denticulate Ivs. -Six species 
in N. Amer. and E. Asia, all very valuable timber trees 
in their native countries. Highly ornamental ever- 
green trees of pyramidal habit, of which only C. 
thyoides is fully hardy N., while the Japanese species 

891. Chamsecyparis pisifera. 

are hardy in sheltered positions north to New Eng- 
land, and C. Lawsoniana only from Mass, south; the 
horticultural varieties are often shrubby. 

They grow best in somewhat moist but well-drained, 
sandy loam and in a partly shaded position, sheltered 
against dry winds. C. Lawsoniana and C. obtusa like 
more dry, the others more moist situations, and C. 
thyoides grows well even in swamps. Propagated by 
seeds sown in spring; increased also by cuttings from 
mature wood in fall, inserted in a sandy soil and kept 
in a coolframe or greenhouse during the winter; if 
in early spring gentle bottom heat can be given, it 
will hasten the development of roots considerably. All 
the so-called retinosporas and the dwarfer forms, and 
most of the varieties of C. Lawsoniana, are readily 
increased in this way, while the other forms of C. noot- 
katensis, C. obtusa and C. thyoides do not grow well 
from cuttings; therefore for most varieties veneer- 
grafting on seedling stock during the winter in green- 

house is preferred, but dwarf forms always should be 
grown from cuttings, as they often lose their dwarf 
habit if grafted. The so-called retinosporas of the gar- 
dens, with linear, spreading leaves, are juvenile forms, 
which have retained the foliage of the seedling state. 
There are similar forms in Thuja. For their distin- 
guishing characters, see Retinospora. For the numer- 
ous gardens forms, see Beissner, Handb. der Nadel- 
holzk., 2d ed., pp. 528-574, quoted below as Beissner. 

A. Lvs. green on both sides or paler beneath. 

thyoides, Brit. (C. sphasroidea, Spach. Cupressus 
thyoides, Linn.). WHITE CEDAR. Tree, to 70 or 80 
ft., with erect -spreading branches: branchlets irregu- 
larly arranged, spreading, not pendulous, very thin 
and slender, flattened: Ivs. closely imbricate, glaucous 
or light green, with a conspicuous gland on the back, 
fragrant: cones small, %in. diam., bluish purple, with 
glaucous bloom. From Maine to Fla.,.west to Miss. 
S.S. 10:529. M.D.G. 1896:301 (habit). Beissner 529 
(habit). Var. ericoides, Sudworth (C. ericoldes, Carr. 
Retinospora ericoides, Hort.). Compact shrub, of erect, 
dense habit: Ivs. linear-lanceolate, spreading, with 2 
glaucous lines beneath, coloring in winter usually red- 
dish brown. Beissner 532; see also Retinospora. Var. 
andelyensis, Silva-Tarouca (C. sphasroidea andelyensis, 
Carr. C. leptoclada, Hochst. Retinospora leptoclada, 
Hort., not Zucc.). Intermediate form between the 
former and the type; bluish green, and of erect growth, 
with loosely appressed, lanceolate Ivs.; often some 
branchlets with Ivs. of the type and some with Ivs. of 
the var. ericoides. R.H. 1869, p. 32, and 1880, p. 36. 
M.D.G. 1890:329. R.B. 2:155. Beissner 532; see also 
Retinospora. Var. glauca, Sudworth (C. sphasroidea 
glauca, Endl. Var. kewensis, Hort.). Of compact habit, 
very glaucous, with silvery hue. Var. variegata, Sud- 
worth (Cupressus thyoides variegata, Loud.). Branchlets 
partially colored golden yellow. 

nootkatensis, Sudworth (Cupressus nootkatensis, 
Lambert. C. nutkaensis, Spach. Thuyopsis boredlis, 
Hort.). YELLOW CEDAR. Tree, to 120 ft., with ascend- 
ing branches, pendulous at the extremities: branchlets 
distichously arranged, slightly flattened or nearly 
quadrangular, pendulous: Ivs. densely imbricate, 
usually dark green, acute, mostly without glands: 
cones subglobose, nearly ^in. diam., dark red-brown, 
with glaucous bloom. From Sitka to Ore. S.S. 10:530. 
R.H. 1869, p. 48. G. 19:345. F.E. 25:543. Gt. 53, 
p. 542. G.W. 8, p. 484; 10, pp. 41, 227. Beissner 555. 
Gn. 5:395. G.C. III. 40:167. Var. glauca, Regel 
(Thuyopsis boredlis var. glauca, Jaeger). With very 
glaucous foliage. Var. pendula, Beissn. Distinctly 
pendulous. Gt. 53, p. 542. G.W. 1, p. 300. G.C. III. 
40:166. Beissner 539. Var. lutea, Beissn. The young 
growth colored light yellow. J.H.S. 1902:427, fig. 113. 
Gn. 50, p. 68. Gn.W. 11:313. There are other forms 
with variegated Ivs. C. nootkatensis is about as hardy 
as the Japanese species. 

AA. Lvs. with glaucous or whitish marks beneath: branches 
with horizontally spreading ramifications. 

Lawsoniana, Parlatore (Cupressus Lawsoniana, Murr. 
C. Boursieri, Decne.). LAWSON'S CYPRESS. Tree, to 
200 ft., with horizontally spreading and usually pen- 
dulous branches: branchlets frond-like arranged, flat- 
tened: Ivs. closely appressed, obtuse or somewhat 
acute, usually bright green, with a gland on the back: 
staminate catkins bright red (yellow in all other 
species) : cone globose, about M m - across, red-brown 
and often glaucous. From Ore. to Calif. S.S. 10:531. 
Gng. 2:327. S.M. 2, p. 49. F.E. 23:309; 33:559. G.W. 
10, p. 42. Beissner 541. G. 1 : 121; 7: 129. This is one 
of the most beautiful conifers and very variable, about 
80 garden forms being cult, in European nurseries and 
collections. The following are some of the best: Var. 
albo-spica, Beissn. Tips of branchlets creamy white, of 


slender habit. Var. Alumii, Beissn. Of columnar habit, 
foliage very glaucous, with a bluish metallic hue. The 
best blue columnar form. Var. argentea, Beissn. 
(Cupressus Lawsoniana argentea, Gord.). Of slender 
habit, with very glaucous, almost silvery foliage. Var. 
erecta viridis, Beissn. Dense, columnar habit and 

bright green foli- 
age. One of the 
most beautiful va- 
rieties, but some- 
what tender. G.W. 
14, p. 601. M.D.G. 
1909:45. G.M.51: 
511. F. 1871, p. 92. 
Var. erecta glauca, 
Beissn. Similar in 
habit, but with 
glaucous foliage. 
Var. filiformis, 
Beissn. Branches 
elongated, some- 
what pendulous, 
with few lateral 
branchlets, of low, 
globular habit. 
Var. glauca, Beissn. 
Foliage of metallic 
glaucous tint. One 
of the hardier forms. 
G.M.53:832. Var. 
gracilis, Beissn. 
(var. gracilis pen- 
dula, Hort.). Ele- 
gant light green 
form, with graceful, 
pendulous branch- 
lets. Var. inter- 
texta, Beissn. Glau- 
cous form, of vigor- 
ous growth, with remote, pendulous branches and 
distant, thickish branchlets. Beissner 550. Var. lutea, 
Beissn. Of compact habit, young growth clear yellow. 
G.C. III. 20:721. J.H.S. 1902, p. 426, fig. 110. Var. 
nana, Beissn. (C. Boursieri nana, Carr.). Dwarf, 
globose habit (Beissner 553), with some variegated 
and glaucous forms. Var. pendula, Beissn. With pen- 
dulous branches. Mn. 1:43. F.E. 27:187. Gt. 1890, 
p. 449. Var. pyramidalis, P. Smith. Of columnar habit. 
Var. pyramidalis alba, Beissn. Of columnar habit with 
the young growth colored white. R.B. 4:281. Var. 
Weisseana, Hansen. Low dense form of umbrella-like 
habit with almost horizontally spreading branches 
and nodding tips. M.D.G. 1890:245. S.M. 1, p. 214. 
Var. Yo&ngii, Beissn. Upright form of vigorous 
growth with thickish dark green branchlets. G. C. III. 
1:176, 177. 

obtusa, Sieb. & Zucc. (Cupressus obtiisa, Koch. Ret- 
indspora obtusa, Sieb. & Zucc.). HINOKI CYPRESS. 
Tree, to 120 ft., with horizontal branches: branchlets 
frond-like arranged, flattened, pendulous: Ivs. bright 
green and shining above, with whitish lines beneath, 
thickish, obtuse, and very closely appressed, with a 
gland on the back: cones globose, nearly J^in. diam., 
brown. Japan. S.Z. 121. G.C. II. 5:236. R.H. 1869, 
p. 97. Gn. W. 20, suppl. April 25. Var. albo-spicata, 
Beissn. Tips of branchlets whitish. Var. aurea, 
Beissn. (Retindspora obtusa aurea, Gord.) Golden yellow. 
Gt. 25 : 19. Var. breviramea, Beissn. (C. breviramea, 
Maxim. Thuja obtusa var. breviramea, Mast.). Tree, of 
narrow pyramidal habit, with short branches: branch- 
lets crowded, glossy green on both sides. Var. compacta, 
Beissn. Of dwarf and dense subglobose habit. Gn. M. 
7:76. Var. ericoides, Boehmer (Retindspora Sdnderi, 
Sander. Juniperus Sdnderi, Hort.). Of low subglo- 
bose habit with bluish gray linear spreading blunt Ivs., 
marked with a green line above. G.C. III. 33:266; 




892. Chamaecyparis pisifera 
var. plumosa. 

36, suppl. April 25. M.D.G. 1900:589; 1903:291, 
R.H. 1903, p. 399. Beissner, 556. Var. filicoides. 
Beissn. Of slow growth with short and densely frond- 
like arranged branchlets. G.C. II. 5:235. Var. filiformis, 
Beissn. (C. pendula, Maxim. Thuja obtusa pendula, 
Mast., not C. obtusa pendula, Beissn.). Branches 
elongated, thick and thread-like, pendulous, with few 
distant branchlets. Var. gracilis aurea, Beissn. Grace- 
ful form, foliage bright yellow when young, changing 
later to greenish yellow. Var. lycopodioides, Carr. 
Low form, of somewhat irregular habit, with spread- 
ing, rigid branches and thick, nearly quadrangular, 
dark green branchlets. Var. nana, Carr. Low form, 
of slow growth, with short, deep green branchlets. 
R.H. 1882:102. Var. pygmsea, Carr. (C. obtusa bre- 
viramea, Hort., not Beissn.). Very dwarf form, with 
horizontal, almost creeping branches, densely frond- 
like branched. Exceedingly interesting form for rock- 
eries. R.H. 1889, p. 376. Var. formosana, Hayata. 
Differs in its smaller and finer foliage, and much smaller 
cones. Formosa. J.C.T. 25, 19, p. 209. 

pisifera, Sieb. & Zucc. (Cupressus pisifera, Koch. 
Retindspora pisifera, Sieb. & Zucc.). SAWARA CYPRESS. 
Fig. 891. Tree, to 100 ft., with horizontal branches: 
branchlets flattened, distichously arranged and some- 
what pendulous: lys. ovate-lanceolate, pointed, shi- 
ning above, with whitish lines beneath: cones globular, 
J^-Min. diam., brown. S.Z. 122. G.C. II. 5:237. 
C.L.A. 11:311. This is, next to C. thyoides the hard- 
iest species, and some varieties are much cult., while 
the type is less planted. Var. aurea, Carr. Yellow foli- 
age. G.W. 1, p. 303. Var. filifera, Beissn. (Retinds- 
pora filifera, Standish. C. obtusa filifera, Hort.). 
Branches elongated and slender, threadlike, gracefully 
pendulous, with distant branchlets and ivs. Very 
decorative form. G.C. II. 5:237. G.W. 1, p. 301; 

893. Chamsecyparis pisifera var. squarrosa. 

5, p. 17. Beissner 571, 572. Var. plumdsa, Beissn. 
(Retindspora plumdsa, Veitch). Fig. 892. Of dense, 
conical habit: branches almost erect, with slender 
branchlets of feathery appearance: Ivs. subulate, 
pointed and slightly spreading, bright green. Inter- 
mediate between the type and var. squarrosa. G.C. 
11.5:236. Gn. M.2:27. Beissner 569. Var. plumdsa 




argentea, Beissn. Tips of branchlets whitish. Var. 
plumosa aurea, Beissn. (Retindspora plumdsa aurea, 
Standish). Young growth of golden yellow color. A 
very showy form. Var. squarrdsa, Beissn. & Hochst. 
(Retindspora squarrosa, Sieb. & Zucc. R. leptocldda, 
Zucc.). Fig. 893. Densely branched, bushy tree or 
shrub, with spreading, feathery branchlets: Ivs. linear, 
spreading, glaucous above, silvery below. A very dis- 
tinct and beautiful variety. S.Z. 123. R.H. 1869, p. 
95, and 1880, p. 37. Beissner 567. M.D.G. 1909:44. 
R.B. 2:189. 

C. formosensis, Matsum. (Cupressus formosensis, Henry). Allied 
to C. pisifera. Tree, to nearly 200 ft. and 20 ft. diam. : branchlets 
dull green on both surfaces or slightly bloomy below: Ivs. acute, 
ovate: cones ovoid, J^in. across, with 10 or 11 scales. Formosa. 
G.C. III. 51:132, 133. Recently intro. into England, but prob- 
ably tender. ALFRED REHDER. 

CHAM-flJDAPHNE (chamai, dwarf, and daphne, the 
laurel in ancient Greek, alluding to its dwarf habit and 
evergreen leaves) . Syn., Cassandra. Ericacese. LEATHER- 
LEAF. Small plant, rarely cultivated for its early white 
flowers and evergreen foliage. 

Low shrub, with evergreen alternate small Ivs.: fls. 
nodding in terminal leafy racemes; calyx small, 5- 
lobed; corolla urceolate-oblong, 5-lobed, with 5 included 
stamens; anthers 2-pointed: fr. a depressed-globose, 
5-lobed caps, with numerous seeds. One species in the 
colder regions of the northern hemisphere. Low, hardy, 
ornamental shrub, valuable for the earliness of its 
pretty white fls. It thrives best in a peaty and sandy, 
moist soil. Prop, by seeds sown in sandy peat, only 
slightly or not covered, and kept moist and shady; also 
by layers and suckers and by cuttings from mature 
wood in late summer under glass. 

calyculata, Mcench (Cassdndra calyculata, Don. 
Lybnia calyculata, Reichb. Andrdmeda calyculata, 
Linn.). Fig. 894. Bush with spreading or horizontal 
branches, 1-3 ft.: Ivs. short-petioled, oblong, obtuse, 
slightly serrulate and revolute at the margins, dull 
green above and rusty-lepidote beneath: fls. short- 
peduncled, nodding; corolla white, oblong, about ^in- 
long. B.M. 1286. L.B.C. 6:530; 15:1464; 16:1582. 
Mn. N. 1:125. Em. 423. Var. angustifdlia, Rehd. 
(Andrdmeda calyculata var. angustifdlia, Ait. A. crispa, 
Poir.). Lvs. linear-lanceolate, undulate and crisped 

at the margin. 
Var. nana, Rehd. 
(Andrdmeda caly- 
culata var. nana, 
Lodd. A. vacci- 
nioides, Hort.). 
One foot or less 
high, with hori- 
zontal branches. 
L.B.C. 9:862. 
Handsome little 
shrub, well suited 
for borders of 
evergreen shrub- 
beries and for 

894. Chamaedaphne calyculata. 

CHAM^DOREA (Greek, dwarf and gift). Palmacese. 
Spineless, erect, procumbent or rarely climbing usually 
pinnatisect or pinnate palms. 

Trunks solitary or cespitose, slender or reed-like: Ivs. 
simple, bifid at the apex or variously equally-pinnati- 
sect; lobes broad or narrow, straight or oblique, acumi- 
nate, plicate-nerved, usually callous at the base, the 
basal margins folded back or recurved; petiole usually 
cylindrical; sheath tubular, oblique at the throat: 
spadices among or below the Ivs., simple or paniculately 
branched; spathes 3 or many, often appearing much 
below the Ivs., alternate, sheathing, elongated, split 
at the apex, membranous or coriaceous, usually per- 

sistent; pistillate fls. very small, solitary, in small pits 
in the spadix: fr. small, of 1-3 globose or oblong- 
obtuse carpels, coriaceous or fleshy. Species about 60. 
Mex. to Panama. G.C. II. 23:410, and Dammer's 
articles inG.C. III. 
38:42-44 (1905), 
and 36:202, 245 

Peat or leaf- 
mold, loam and 
sand in equal 
parts, with a little 
charcoal added, 
form the best soil. 
The species com- 
mon in cultiva- 
tion are quick- 
growing. They 
are well suited for 
planting out in 
greenhouse bor- 
ders. The sexes 
are on different 
plants; therefore 
several should be 
planted in a group 
if the handsomely 
colored fruit is 
desired. All of the kinds require warm temperature in 
winter. Increased from seeds. Of the many species, 
only a few appear in the American trade. (G. W. 

895. Chamaedorea glaucifolia. 

Arenbergiana, 8. 
desmoncoides, 2. 
elatior, 7. 
elegans, 5. 


Ernesti-Augusti, 1. 
glaucifolia, 3. 
Karwinskiana, 7. 
latifolia, 8. 

Pringlei, 9. 
Sartorii, 4. 

A. Lvs. simple. 

1. Ernesti- August!, Wendl. St. 3-4 ft., reedy, erect, 
radicant at base: blade obovate, cuneate at the base, 
deeply bifid, coarsely serrate along the margins; petiole 
shorter than blade; sheath amplexicaul: sterile spadix 
8-9 in., the simple branches 6-8 in., attentuate, slen- 
der; fertile spadix simple; fls. red. Mex. B.M. 4837. 
F.S. 13:1357. 

AA. Lvs. pinnate. 
B. Plant becoming of climbing habit. 

2. desmoncoides, Wendl. Lvs. 2-3 ft. long, with 
drooping, narrow Ifts. a foot long, and glaucous petiole: 
plant tending to climb after it becomes a few feet high. 

BB. Plant not climbing. 

c. St. or trunk evident. 

D. Lfts. 40-50, glaucous on both sides. 

3. glaucifolia, Wendl. Fig. 895. St. 20 ft.: Ivs. 
long, pinnate; Ifts. 40-50, narrowed, long and slender, 
dark green, glaucous: fls. on a tall spadix which often 
exceeds the Ivs. and comes out from between them. 
Guatemala. G.F. 8:507 (adapted in Fig. 895). Horti- 
culturally one of the best of all chamaedoreas. 

DD. Lfts. less than 40, bright green, at least above. 

B. Spadix appearing among or with the Ivs., not 

conspicuously cauline. 

4. Sartorii, Liebm. St. 8-14 ft., ringed, clothed above 
with If .-sheaths: Ivs. 3-33^ ft. long; petiole terete, sul- 
cate, dilated at the base; sheath, petiole and rachis 
white on the back; Ifts. 12 in. long, 1^-2 in. wide, 
alternate, falcate, acuminate, narrowed at the base, 
sometimes almost confluent: spadix among or just below 
the Ivs. Mex. 

5. elegans, Mart. St. strict, 6 ft. high, scarcely more 
than 1-1 ^ in. thick, closely ringed, often sending out 




roots from above the base: Ivs. 6-8 in a cluster, broadly 
lanceolate; Ifts. about 14, the upper pair sometimes 
confluent, acuminate, straight: fls. reddish orange: fr. 
globose. Mex. B.M. 4845. 

EE. Spadix appearing much below the Ivs., conspicu- 
ously cauline. 

6. Tepejildte, Liebm. St. 10 ft. high, closely ringed, 
about 1 1 A in. thick: Ivs. 4 ft.; Ifts. 20-30, 7-nerved, 
close alternate, falcate, acute, narrowly lanceolate, 
13-15 in. long, \}/<i in. wide; rachis convex on the back, 
canaliculate above: fls. yellow. Mex. B.M. 6030. 

7. elatior, Mart. (C. Karwinskidna, Wendl.). St. 
20-30 ft., bamboo-like: Ivs. 6 ft. long, the sheath 18 in. 
long; Ifts. 15 or 16, the lower very narrow, opposite 
or nearly so, the upper lanceolate, acuminate at each 
end; petioles 1^-3 ft. long: spadix simply branched, 
appearing at least 6 ft. below the Ivs.; fls. reddish 
orange: fr. globose, ovoid. Mex. Intro, by Fran- 
ceschi in 1898. 

8. Arenbergiana, Wendl. (C. latifolia, Hort.). St. 
slender, 5-6 ft., green: Ivs. usually only 5 or 6, erect- 
spreading; Ifts. 10-15 pairs, alternate and drooping, 
very long-pointed, plicate and many-ribbed: fls. yel- 
lowish white. Guatemala. B.M. 6838. 

cc. St. or trunk none. 

9. Pringlei, Wats. Acaulescent or nearly so: Ivs. 
usually rather stiff, erect, pinnate, 3 ft.; Ifts. 12-15 
on each side, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 6-^-8 in. 
long, ^-JHjin. wide; rachis triangular: spadix simple, 
8 in. long. San Louis Potosi, Mex. 

C. atrdvirens, Mart. St. bamboo-like, stiff and simple, about 9 
ft. high: Ivs. bright green, spreading, about 2J^ ft. long. Mex. 
Not common in the trade but grown in fanciers' collections. C. 
bambusoides, Hort.. Sts. tufted, thin, reed-like, with feathery 
light green Ivs. Honduras. C. fprmdsa, Hort. A showy pinnate- 
Ivd. palm of unknown botanical status. G.C. II. 5:724. C. 
geonomaefdrmis, Wendl. St. 4 ft.: Ivs. simple, deeply cut, about 9 
in. long: spadix from among the Ivs. long-pendulous. Guatemala. 
Gn. 24, p. 244; 30, p. 593. There are said to be a number of 
unidentified species scattered about Calif. 


CHAM^ELIRIUM (dwarf or ground lily, a Greek com- 
bination). Liliacese. Sometimes spelled Chamselirion. 
Rhizomatous whitish flowered hardy plant, sometimes 
planted in the herbary. 

Erect, tall unbranched herb 2-4 ft. high (or perhaps 
2 species), inhabiting low grounds from Mass, to 
Fla. and W.: rootstock tuberous: dioecious, the 
sterile plant less leafy than the other: Ivs. radical 
and cauline, the lowermost spatulate, the upper lanceo- 
late, narrowed at the base: fls. small (Min. across), 
in a slender terminal raceme; segms. of perianth 6, 
white, narrow, 1-nerved, withering and persistent; 
sterile fls. with 6 stamens, and fertile fls. with rudi- 
ments of stamens; ovary 3-celled and 3-styled: fr. a 
3-valved caps. 

Ititeum Gray (C. carolinidnum, Willd. Chamselirion 
carolinia, Hort.). BLAZING-STAR. DEVIL' s-Brr. Vari- 
able as to height (6 in. to 3 ft. or more), with most 
of the Ivs. at the base: raceme spike-like, 4-12 in. long; 
fls. yellowish white, in effect, fruiting pedicels H m - or 
less long. A good perennial, blooming May- July, 
thriving in moist shady places. C. obovdle, Small, by 
some considered not to be distinct, has larger fls. and 
fruiting pedicels J^in. or more long. ,, jj. B. 

CHAM-^MELUM (small apple, suggested by the 
odor of the fls.). Composite. Under this name one 
plant is offered. The genus is by many included in 
Anthemis, however, the sub-group being distinguished 
by very short or absent pappus, sometimes making a 
1-sided border, ray-fls. fertile, and other minor charac- 
ters. C. caucasicum, Boiss. (Pyrethrum caucdsicum, 
Bieb.), is listed, with white daisy-like fls. about the size 
of a marguerite, of trailing habit, very free-flowering, 

recommended for the rockery: perennial, 1-lM ft., 
smooth, not strong-scented: st. ascending from a 
rhizome or procumbent or sub-erect: Ivs. oblong, 
pinnatisect, the segms., cut into linear-subulate parts: 
fl. -heads large, terminal; involucre-scales oblong- 
obtuse, margined. High mts. in the Caucasus; variable. 

CHAM^PEUCE: Carduus. L. H. B. 

CHAM^RANTHEMUM (dwarf and flower, from the 
Greek). Acanthdcese. Three or 4 Brazilian small herbs, 
allied to Eranthemum, but readily distinguished by the 
4 (instead of 2) stamens. Lvs. large and membrana- 
ceous, entire, variously marked: fls. showy, white or 
yellow, in bracteate clusters. Grown chiefly for the 
beautiful foliage; greenhouse subjects. C. igneum, 
Regel (Erdnthemum igneum, Lind.), is in the American 
trade. It is a low spreading warmhouse plant (cult, 
of Eranthemum and Justicia), with dark green Ivs., 
with the veins and sometimes the margins richly 
banded with orange or yellow: fls. small. F.S. 17 : 1722. 


CHAM^ROPS (Greek for dwarf bush}. Palmaceae, 
tribe Sdbalese. Low fan-leaved palms. 

Caudices cespitose, branched from the base and 
clothed with the bases of the If .-sheaths: Ivs. terminal, 
rigid, semi-orbicular or cuneate-flabellate, deeply 

896. Chamserops humilis. 

laciniate, the lobes narrow, bifid, plicate; no rachis; 
ligule very short; petiole slender, bi-convex, the mar- 
gins smooth or rough; sheath split, reticulate, fibrous: 
spadices short, erect compressed; branches short, 
densely fld.: spathes 2-4, broad, thickly coriaceous, the 
lower ones split, the upper entire; bracts small, subu- 
late; bractlets none: primary spadix branches bracted: 
fls. small, yellow: fr. globose or ovoid, 3-sided toward the 
base, brown or yellow. Species 1 or perhaps 2. Medit. 
region. From Rhapidophyllum, an American relative, 
it may be distinguished by its bracted spadix. The 
common C. humilis is widely cult., and very variable. 
Many of specific-made names represent forms of this 
species. Of such cases are evidently the garden names 
C. arborescens, C. argentea, C. canariensis, C. elata, C. 
elegans, C. farinosa, C. gracilis, C. littoralis, C. nivea. 
G.C. II. 23:410. 

The best soil for these palms is fibrous loam two 
parts, leaf-mold and sand one part, with good drainage. 
Propagated by suckers and by seeds. These are among 
the hardiest of all palms, and are well suited to green- 
houses where a high temperature is not kept up. (G. 
W. Oliver.) 

htimilis, Linn. Fig. 896. This is the only palm 
native to Eu. St. 1-1 1 A ft. high: Ivs. ragged, fibrous; 
margins of the petioles armed with stout, straight or 
hooked spines; blade suborbicular, truncate or cuneate 
at the base, rigid, palmately multifid; segms. acumin- 
ate, bifid. Medit. B.M. 2152. R.H. 1892:84 (show- 
ing habit and a colored plate of the fr.). Reaches 20 
ft. in a rather arborescent variety. Var. dactylocarpa, 




Becc., is interesting for its elongated frs. shaped like a 
date. Offered by Montarioso Nursery in 1912. 

C. Biroo, Sieb.= Livistona rotundifolia. C. Byrrho, Hort.= 
Livistona rotundifolia. C. excelsa, Thunb.=Trachycarpusexcelsus. 
C. farinbsa, Hort.=C. humilis. Linn. C. Fortunei, Hook.= 
Trachycarpus. C. hitmilis X hystrix, Hort. Said to be a "choice 
garden hybrid of Florida origin." C. hystrix, Fraser.=Rhapido- 
phyllum hystrix. C. stauracdntha, Hort.=Acanthorhiza aculeata. 


CHAMOMILE: Anthemis. 

CHAPTALIA (J. A. C. Chaptal, 1756^1831, agricul- 
tural chemist). Compdsitse. Low perennial herbs, with 
white or purplish fls. on naked scapes, blooming in 
spring and summer: heads radiate, the ray-fls. pistillate, 
and the disk-fls. perfect, but some or all of them sterile; 
involucre campanulate or turbinate, of appressed and 
imbricated bracts; pappus of soft capillary bristles: 
achenes oblong or fusiform, narrowed above, 5-nerved. 
Twenty-five American species. The only species in 
the American trade is C. tomentdsa, Vent. (Thyrsdn- 
thema semiflosculare, Kuntze), of N. C. and south. Of 
this the scape is 1 ft. or less high, and the heads are 

purple-rayed: Ivs. ob- 
long or oblanceolate, 
more or less remotely 
denticulate, rather 
thick, white-tomentose 
beneath. Intro, as a 
border plant. B. M. 
2257. N. TAYLOB.f 

CHARD (ch pro- 
nounced as in charge). 
Swiss CHARD. SEA- 
KALE BEET. A form 
of the plant (Beta vul- 
garis) which has pro- 
duced the common 
beet; known as Beta 
Cido(p.496). See Beet 
and Beta. 

The beet plant has 
given rise to two gen- 
eral types of varieties: 
those varieties with 
thickened roots (the 
beet of America, the 
beet-root of European 
literature); and those 
with large and pulpy 
or thickened leaves 
(but whose roots are 
small and woody). The 
latter type is known 
under the general name 
of leaf-beets. These leaf-beets may be arranged into 
two sub-groups: (1) Common or normal leaf-beets, or 
spinach beets, in which the leaf-blade is large and 
pulpy, and is used as spinach; chard, in which the 
petiole and midrib are very broad and thick, is a form 
of this, although the name is sometimes used as 
synonymous with the general edible leaf-beet group. 
(Fig. 897); (2) ornamental beets, of which the foliage 
is variously colored. 

Chard is of the easiest culture. Seed is sown in spring, 
as for common beets. The broad petioles, or chards, 
may be gathered from midsummer until frost. These 
broad white stalks or ribs are used as a pot-herb; and, 
if desired, the leaf-blades may be cooked with them. 
The dish is usually more attractive, however, if only 
the chards are cooked. If cutting of the leaves is 
carefully performed, a succession may be had till 
cold weather. Chard is an attractive vegetable when 
well grown, but is little used in this country. 

L. H. B. 

897. Chard, or sea-kale beet. 

898. Charieis hetero- 
phylla. (XI) 

CHARIEIS (Greek, elegant, from the pleasing 
flowers). Composite. Attractive hardy flower-garden 

A small, branchy plant, 6-12 in. high, with blue or 
red aster-like fls., on long sts. : plant pubescent or hispid : 
Ivs. oblong-spatulate or oblong-lanceolate, entire or 
remotely denticulate : heads 
many-fld., radiate, the ray-fls. 
pistillate, the disk-fls. perfect: 
achene obovate and compressed, 
those of the disk with plumose 
pappus: involucre scales in 2 
rows. One species, in the W. 
Cape region. Known as Kaul- 
fussia in gardens. The genus 
Kaulfussia was founded by Nees 
in 1820; in 1817, however, the 
plant was described by Cassini 
as Charieis heterophylla. 

heterophylla, Cass. (C.Neesii, 
Hort. Kaulfussia amellmdes, 
Nees). Figs. 898, 899. Rays blue, disk yellow or blue. 
An excellent subject of easy cult, in any garden soil. 
Var. atroviolacea, Hort., has dark violet fls. Var. 
kermesina, Hort., has violet-red fls. Sow seeds where 
the plants are to grow; or they may be started indoors 
and the plants transplanted to the open. L, jj, g 

CHARLOCK: Brassica; also Raphanus. 
CHARLWO6DIA: Cordyline. 

CHAVICA, kept distinct in part by recent authors, is accounted 
for under Piper. 

CHEAT, or CHESS: Bromus. 

CHECKERBERRY: Gaultheria. 

CHEESES : Vernacular for M aha rotundifolia. 

CHEILANTHES (Greek, lip-flower, alluding to the 
indusium). Polypodiacese. Semi-hardy or hothouse 
ferns of small size. 

Plants often hairy or woolly, with the spri terminal 
on the veins and covered with a roundish indusium. 
Some 60 or 70 species are known, nearly a third of which 
are natives of the W. and S. W. United States, one species 
as far east as Conn. They are of easy cult., enjoying 
a position near the glass, and disliking strong, close 
heat and syringing or watering overhead. Most of the 

899. Charieis heterophylla. 

species grow naturally in dry rocky situations. They 
are among the few ferns to be found in dry regions. 
Commercially valuable only from the fern collector's 

calif ornica, 1. 
Clevelandii, 9. 
Cooperse, 7. 
elegans, 12. 
Ellisiana, 5. 

Fendleri, 11. 
gracillima, 8. 
hirta, 5. 
ianpsa, 6. 
meifolia, 2. 

microphylla, 3. 
myriophylla, 12. 
tomentosa, 10. 
vestita, 6. 
viscida, 4. 




900. Cheilanthes lanosa. 

A. Lvs. pentagonal-deltoid, the indusium confined to a 
single veinlet. 

1. californica, Mett. (Hypolepis californica, Hook.). 
Lvs. densely cespitose from a short creeping rootstock, 
2-4 in. each way, on stalks 
48 in. long, quadripinnatifid; 
ultimate segms. lanceolate, 
incised or serrate. Calif. 

2. meifolia, D. C. Eaton 
(Hypolepis meifolia, Baker). 
Lvs. cespitose, with slender 
brown stalks 5-7 in. long, the 
lamina 2-3 in. each way, 3-4- 
pinnatifid, with finely cut 
segms. -TO in. wide. Mex. 

AA. Lvs. lanceolate or ovate- 

B. Segms. flat: indusia extend- 
ing over the apices of 
several veinlets, but not 

c. Surface of Ivs. smooth, 

3. microphylla, Swartz. 
Lvs. 4-10 in. long, on stalks 
nearly as long, from a short, 
creeping rootstock, bi-tripin- 
nate: sts. glossy, rusty-pubes- 
cent on the upper side. Fla. 
and New Mex. southward. 

cc. Surface of Ivs. viscid- 

4. viscida, Davenport. Lvs. 
3-5 in. long, on stalks of the 

same length, tripinnatifid; segms. toothed, everywhere 
glandular. Calif. 

ccc. Surface of Ivs. hairy, not woolly. 

5. hirta, Swartz. Lvs. densely cespitose, with short, 
scaly stalks which are brownish, like the rachides; 
pinnae numerous, rather distant bipinnatifid, the segms. 
with much incurved margins. The Ivs. are usually 
6-15 in. long. Cape of Good Hope. Var. Ellisiana, 
is more commonly cult. 

6. lanSsa, .Wats. (C. vestita, Swartz). Fig. 900. Lvs. 
cespitose, with stalks 2-4 in. long, slightly hairy, as are 
the segms., tripinnatifid, 4-10 in. long, 1-2^ in. wide, 
the pinnae lanceolate-deltoid: indusia formed of the 
ends of roundish or oblong lobes. Conn, to Kans. and 
Ala. Hardy. 

7. Codperae, D. C. Eaton. Lvs. 3-8 in. long, bipin- 
nate, the stalks covered with nearly white hairs, each 
tipped with a gland; pinnules 

roundish ovate, crenate and in- 
cised. Calif, to Mex. 

BB. Segms. bead-like, minute: in- 
dusia usually continuous. 
c. Lvs. hairy or woolly beneath, 

but not scaly. 
D. Upper surface of segms. smooth. 

8. gracillima, D. C. Eaton. 
LACE FERN. Lvs. cespitose, 1-4 
in. long, borne on the nearly equal 
dark brown stalks, bipinnate; 
pinnae with about 9 pinnules, 

finally smooth above. Idaho to Calif. 

9. Clevelandii, D. C. Eaton. Lvs. 4-8 in. 
long, tripinnate, dark brown beneath, with 
closely imbricate, ciliate scales, which grow 
on both the segms. and the rachides; segms. 
nearly round, the terminal larger. Calif. 

DD. Upper surface of segms. pubescent. 

10. tomentdsa, Link. Lvs. 8-15 in. long, on stalks 
4-6 in. long, everywhere covered with brownish white 
hairs, tripinnate; terminal segms. twice as large as the 
lateral. Va. to Ariz. 

cc. Lvs. covered beneath with scales, but not woolly. 

11. Fendleri, Hook. Lvs. 3-6 in. long, borne on the 
chaffy stalks, rising from tangled, creeping roptstocks, 
tripinnate; rachis with broadly-ovate white-edged 
scales, which overlap the subglobose segms. Texas, 
and Colo, to Calif. 

ccc. Lvs. covered beneath with both scales and wool. 

12. myriophylla, Desv. (C. elegans, Desv.). Lvs. 
densely cespitose from short, erect, scaly rootstocks, 
3-9 in. long, borne on the chestnut-colored scaly stalks, 
triquadripinnatifid; ultimate segms. minute, innumer- 
able. Texas, Ariz, and Trop. Amer. 

A native species worthy of cult, is C. leucdpoda, Link, from 
Texas, with broadly deltoid-ovate Ivs C. unduldta, Hope & 
Wright. Dark green fronds, softly pubescent. China. G.C. III. 
34:397 (desc.) L M UNDERWOOD> 


CHEIRANTHUS (derivation in dispute, but proba- 
bly from Greek for hand and flower) . Crudferae. Flower- 
garden perennials, with large purple, brown, orange 
or yellow fragrant bloom. 

Leaves alternate, entire, on a 
strict or upright st. : lateral 
sepals sac-like at the base: valves 
of the pod with a strong mid- 
nerve. Much confounded with 
Matthiola, and the genera are 
not sufficiently distinct. In 
Cheiranthus, the Ivs. are acute, 
hairs 2-parted and appressed, 
stigma more spreading, pod more 
flattened and seeds not thin- 
edged; and the fls. are prevail- 
ingly orange or yellow Probably 
a score of species, in the Canary 
and Madeira Isls., Medit. region 
and E. and in N. Amer. The 
garden species are confused; a 
critical study may find that some 
of them belong to Erysimum or 
other genera. The genus hybrid- 
izes with Erysimum. 

Cheiri, Linn. WALLFLOWER. 
Fig. 901. Perennial, slightly 
pubescent, 1-2^ ft.: Ivs. lanceo- 
late and entire, 
acute: fls. large, 
mostly in shades of 
yellow, in long, ter- 
minal racemes, 
sweet - scented. S. 
Eu. An old gar- 
den favorite, bloom- 
ing in spring. Al- 
though a woody 
perennial, it is best 
to renew the plants 
from seed, for they 
begin to fail after 
having bloomed one 
or two years. Seed- 
lings should bloom 
the second year; 
in England, Christ- 
mas bloom is se- 
cured from seeds 
Cheiranthus Chain. sown in Feb. There 

are dwarf and dou- 
ble-fld. varieties, 




and innumerable forms in various shades of yellow, 
brownish, and even purple. Not prized so much in 
Amer. as in Eu. A common plant on walls in England. 

alpinus, Linn. St. strict and simple, 1 ft.: Ivs. 
lanceolate, somewhat dentate, stellate-pubescent: pods 
spreading on short pedicels: fls. lemon-yellow, spring. 
Norway, Lapland. 

mutabilis, L'Her. More or less woody, 2-3 ft.: Ivs. 
linear-lanceolate and pointed, obscurely serrate: fls. 
white, cream-colored or yellowish, becoming darker and 
striped. Madeira. B.M. 195. It is doubtful whether 
the plant known in cult, as C. mutabilis is this species. 

Mdrshallii, Hort. Perhaps a hybrid, 1-1 ^ ft.: Ivs. 
spatulate and crowded below, more scattered and 
narrower above: fls. orange. 

Allionii, Hort. Said to be a hybrid: 12 in. or less: 
fls. brilliant orange, profusely produced in spring and 
summer and sometimes so freely that the plant exhausts 
itself and becomes practically biennial. 

kewensis, Hort., is valuable as a winter-blooming 
greenhouse plant, prized for its fragrance and its dark- 
colored fls. In 1897 at Kew a cross was made between 
C. mutabilis of the Canary Isls. and a yellow wall- 
flower, the cross being known as C. hybridus; and this 
in turn was crossed with a red wallflower, producing 
the plant known as C. kewensis. It has the bushy char- 
acter of C. mutabilis; racemes upright; fls. about 1 in. 
across, brown in bud, or expanding brownish orange 
inside and reddish brown outside, all turning pale 
purple with age. Prop, by cuttings. G.C. III. 35:123. 
Gn. 65, p. 89. 

C. dnnuus, Hort.=Matthiola, but early-blooming forms of 
C. Cheiri seem to pass under this name. C. Menziesii, Benth. 
& Hook.=Parrya. L H B 

902. Chelone glabra. ( X l /i) 

CHELIDONIUM (Greek for the swallow: the fls. 
appear when the swallow comes). Papaveracese. CEL- 
ANDINE POPPY. One or two loose-growing herbs, some- 
times seen in old gardens. Plant with fl.-buds nodding, 
and small yellow fls. in small umbel-like clusters; 
sepals 2; petals 4; stamens 16-24; style very short, the 

stigma 2-lobed: pod slender, 2-valved, opening first 
at the bottom. C. majus, Linn., is a European plant, 
now run wild in waste places, and often seen in old 
gardens. It is biennial or perennial, with brittle hairy 
sts. and pinnately-parted Ivs., the lobes rounded and 
toothed (or, in var. laciniatum again dissected). The 
plant has bright orange juice which has been used for 
removing warts. Herb an old-time remedy, used for 
its cathartic and diuretic properties, for promoting 
perspiration, and as an expectorant. Lvs. fight glau- 
cous underneath. L H B 

CHELONE (Greek for tortoise or turtle: the corolla 
fancied to resemble a reptile's head). Scrophulariaceae. 
TURTLE -HEAD. Several North American perennial 
herbs, with showy flowers in short spikes or in panicles, 
some of which are now sold by dealers in native plants. 
Allied to Pentstemon. 

Upright smooth branching plants: corolla more or 
less 2-lipped or gaping, white or red, the upper lip 
arched and conspicuous and notched; anthers 4, woolly, 
and a rudiment of a fifth stamen: seeds winged: Ivs. 
opposite, serrate. Four species, in N. Amer. 

Half-shaded places are preferable for these easily 
cultivated plants. Very dry grounds should be avoided, 
from the fact that they are best in swampy places. In 
the ordinary border they should have a very liberal 
mulch of old manure in their growing season: 4-5 in. 
thick is none too much: the surface roots will feed in 
this compost, and the plants are not so liable to suffer 
from drought when thus protected. (J. B. Keller.) 

A. Fls. in terminal and axillary close spikes. 
B. Lvs. elliptic to broad-ovate, long-petioled. 
Lyonii, Pursh. Plant, 2-3 ft. high: Ivs. broad to 
nearly cordate at base, thin, evenly serrate: fl.-bracts 
minutely ciliate: fls. rose-purple. Mts., Va. and S. 

BB. Lvs. lanceolate or oblong, short-petioled. 

obliqua, Linn. Two ft. or less: Ivs. 2-8 in. long, 
broad-lanceolate or oblong, very veiny, sharp- or deep- 
serrate or cut: fl.-bracts ciliate: fls. deep rose. Damp 
grounds, 111., Va., S. 

glabra, Linn. (C. obliqua var. alba, Hort.). Fig. 902. 
One to 2 or more ft. high, more strict: Ivs. mostly nar- 
rower, acuminate, appressed-serrate, nearly sessile, not 
very veiny: fl.-bracts not ciliate: fls. white or rose- 
tinged. Wet grounds: common. 

AA. Fls. in a loose thyrse or panicle. 
nemordsa, Douglas (Pentstemon nemordsus, Trautv.). 
Two ft. or less high, of unpleasant odor: Ivs. ovate and 
acute, sharp-dentate, sessile or nearly so: fl.-bracts 
none; corolla 1 in. long, violet-purple. Calif, and N. 
B.R. 1211. 

C. barbata of gardens is Pentstemon barbatus. L H B 

CHENILLE PLANT. A proposed name for Acalypha 
hispida, better known as A. Sanderi. 

CHENOPODIUM (goosefoot, alluding to the shape of 
the leaves). Chenopodiacese. GOOSEFOOT. Widely dis- 
persed weedy herbs, with very inconspicuous greenish 
flowers, some of which occur in gardens as oddities or for 
ornament, and others are pot-herbs of very minor 
importance. Spinach, beet, and orach are allied plants. 

Plants of various habit, mostly erect: fls. perfect, 
bractless, sessile in small masses and these clusters 
arranged in spikes or panicles; calyx 4-5-parted, petals 
wanting; stamens usually 5; styles 2 or 3.: seed lentic- 
ular: Ivs. alternate. The calyx sometimes enlarges 
and becomes succulent and colored, inclosing the fr., 
and the glomerules may then look like berries. Per- 
haps 60 species in all parts of the globe, annuals and 
perennials, sometimes woody. Many of them are 
field and garden weeds. They are mostly mealy or 




glandular herbs, often with strong odor. Some of them 
are used as pot-herbs or "greens." 

A. Fls. in dense heads or glomerules which become berry- 
like and bright red in fr. 

capitatum, Aschers. (Blitumcapitatum, Linn.). STRAW- 
BERRY ELITE. Annual, erect and becoming diffuse or 
'spreading, branching, glabrous or nearly so: Ivs. soft, 
hastate-ovate, toothed, stalked: fr.-clusters large and 
becoming fleshy, in an interrupted spike, the upper 
part leafless. Eu. A frequent but not pernicious weed, 
and sometimes offered as a pot-herb. 

AA. Fls. not in dense separate heads, and the clusters not 
becoming prominently fleshy or colored. 

B. Plant shrubby, spinescent. 

nitrariaceum, F. Muell. Rigid, much-branched, often 
prostrate shrub or undershrub, mealy-white: lys. linear- 
oblong or linear-spatulate, obtuse, entire, 1 in. or less 
long, often clustered: fls. clustered in dense or more or 
less interrupted spikes and panicles, greenish. Aus- 
tral. Offered in Eu. 

BB. Plant herbaceous. 
c. Species perennial: a pot-herb. 

Bdnus-Henricus, Linn. (Blitum Bdnus-Henricus, 
Reichb.). GOOD KING HENRY. MERCURY (by cor- 
ruption, Markery). Stout and_ erect from a thick root- 
stock, to 2H ft., glabrous:' Ivs. broad, triangular- 
hastate or ovate, with very long wide-spreading basal 
points, entire or undulate: fls. in paniculate spikes. Eu. 
Escaped now and then; and sometimes cult, for 

cc. Species annual. 

purpurascens, Jacq. (C. Atriplicis, Linn. f.). Vigor- 
ous, erect, 3 ft., the young parts and Ivs. covered 
attractively with a rose-violet or violet-purple crystal- 
line pulverulence: Ivs. spatulate or rhomboid or oval, 
obtuse, long-petioled, the lower ones sinuate-dentate 
and the upper lanceolate and entire: fls. small and 
numerous, in dense pyramidal leafy reddish clusters. 
China. An old garden plant, seldom seen in this 
country; grown for its colored character in summer. 
There are different forms, one with variegated foliage. 

amaranticoior, Coste & Reyn. Very large, 8 ft., 
much like the preceding and perhaps derived from it: 
st. glabrous, striped white and red: Ivs. triangular to 
rhomboid, 4 in. or less long, red-pulverulent: fls. in a 
long red panicle. S. France. Differs from C. pur- 
purascens in its greater size and its black shining some- 
what sharp-edged seeds. The brilliant colors dis- 
appear as the plant matures. 

Quinda, Willd. QUINOA. Erect, stout, st. furrowed, 
4-5 ft.: Ivs. triangular-ovate, sinuate, long-petioled, 
angulate-pinnatifid, glaucous: fls. small and green, in 
dense axillary and terminal farinose clusters arranged 
in panicles: seeds very large. W. slope of the Andes. 
B.M. 3641. A very important plant in W. S. Amer., 
the seeds being used as food. There are white- and red- 
fruited forms. Sometimes cult, in this country as a 
curiosity. Allied to C. album, the common pigweed. 

OAK. Erect, glandular-pubescent and viscid, aromatic, 
1-3 ft. high, with pinnatifid long-petioled Ivs. and long, 
feather-like, enduring spikes, for which it is used in 
vases and baskets; pretty. Eu., and widely naturalized 
although not usually becoming abundant. 

Many weedy chenopods invade cult, grounds. C. Album, Linn., 
the common pigweed or lamb's quarters, is a favorite for "greens." 
This species runs into many forma. C. niride, of Eu. and Asia, has 
seeds that are said to be edible. C. Vulv&ria, Linn., sparingly 
intro. from Eu., has the smell of stale fish. C. ambrosioides. Linn., 
Mexican tea, and var. anthelminticum, Gray, wormseed, are fre- 
quent; they contain strong essential oils. The weedy species are 
variable, and puzzling to the systematist. L H B 

CHERIMOYA, CHERIMOYER (Quichua language 
of Peru, chirimuya, signifying cold seeds). (Annbna 
Cherimola, Mill.). Figs. 903-905. An important table 
fruit of warm countries. See p. 293, Vol. I, for botani- 
cal description. 

The cherimoya is considered by many to be the finest 
of the subtropical fruits, and that not only by the 
natives of the countries in which it grows, but also by 
Europeans. It is somewhat like the pomme-cannelle, 
or sweet-sop, but differs from it in having a pecuilar 
acidulous flavor most agreeable and grateful to the 
taste. For centuries the cherimoya has been cultivated 

903. Cherimoya smooth form. ( X M) 

and several distinct varieties have resulted. One of 
these has smooth fruit devoid of protuberances, which 
has been confused with the inferior fruits of both 
Annona glabra and A. reticulata. The last two species, 
however, are easily distinguished by their leaves and 
flowers; Annona glabra, commonly known as the alli- 
gator apple or mangrove annona, having glossy laurel- 
like leaves and globose flowers with 6 ovate petals, and 
A. reticulata having long narrow glabrate leaves devoid 
of the velvety lining which characterizes those of the 
cherimoya. Both of these species, moreover, are essen- 
tially tropical, while the cherimoya is subtropical, 
growing in tropical countries only at considerable ele- 
vations, where the climate is cool and the soil well 

The origin of the cherimoya has been much discussed. 
De Candolle, however, is in all probability correct in 
attributing it to the mountains of Ecuador and Peru. 
The common name which it bears, even in Mexico, 
is of Quichua origin, as explained above; and terra- 
cotta vases modeled from cherimoya fruits have been 
dug up repeatedly from prehistoric graves in Peru. 
It was introduced at a very early date into Central 
America and Mexico and into Jamaica in 1786 by 
Hinton East. It is now of spontaneous growth in 
limited areas both in Central America and the moun- 
tains of Jamaica. In Madeira, the cherimoya has 
taken the place of the grape-vine on many of the 
estates on the warm southern slopes of the island. 
Here the cultivation is systematic. The two-year-old 
seedlings are budded or grafted. The trees are fre- 
quently trained on walls or on trellises, so that the 
fruit may hang in the shade while ripening, and manure 
is regularly supplied (see Annona) . The result of careful 
selection is that there are varieties of fine flavor, com- 
paratively few seeds, and great size, weighing from 
twelve to sixteen pounds. According to W. Fawcett, 
ordinary fruits weighing from three to eight pounds, 
have been sold in the London market at $1.50; large 
ones at $2.50 and even $3. The cherimoya has been 




successfully introduced into southern California where 
it finds the most favorable conditions in the foot-hills 
near the coast. 

The cherimoya grows in the form of a small tree, 
usually about 15 or 20 feet high. The flowers are 
remarkably uniform, but vary somewhat in size. They 
are often solitary or in two's or three's, while those of 
the bullock's heart (Annona reticulata) and the sugar- 
apple (A. squamosa) are usually clustered. The leaves 
are always velvety on the lower surface. The follow- 
ing varieties, based upon the form of the fruit, are 
recognized : 

(1) Finger-printed cherimoya (forma impressa), 
known in Costa Rica as "anona de dedps pintados." 
This form was the first to be figured (Feuillee, PL med. 
Journ. Obs. 3: append. 24, pi. 17, 1725). The fruit, 
conoid or subglobose in shape, has a smooth surface 
covered with concave U-shaped areoles resembling 
finger-prints in soft wax or putty. It is one of the best 
varieties, with sweet juicy pulp of good flavor, and with 
relatively few seeds. 

(2) Smooth cherimoya (forma l&vis), called in South 
America "chirimoya lisa" and in the market of Mexico 
City, "anon." Fig. 903. It is this form which is so 
often mistaken for Annona glabra and A. reticulata on 
account of the general appearance of the fruit and 
the common name "anon," which is also applied to 
the fruit of the last-named species. This is one of the 
finest of all the cherimoyas. 

(3) Tuberculate cherimoya (forma tuberculata) . Fig. 
904. One of the commonest forms, in which the fruit 
is heart-shaped and bears small wart-like tubercles 
near the rounded apex of each areole. To this group 
belongs the "golden russet" cherimoya grown in the 
orchard of C. P. Taft at Orange, California. It is the 
form most frequently found in the Peruvian markets 
and is represented in prehistoric pottery from the 
graves of that country. 

(4) Mammillate cherimoya (forma mamillata'), 
called in South America, "chirimoya de tetillas." 

This is the form 
successfully estab- 
lished on the 
ranch of Charles 
F. O'Brien, in the 
mountains of 
Santa Monica, 
southern Califor- 
nia. It is also the 
common form of 
the Nilgiri Hills 
of India, and is 
one of the best 
forms grown on 
the Island of 

(5) Umbonate 
cherimoya (forma 
umbonata), called 
"chirimoya de 
puas" and "anona 
picuda" in Latin 
America. In this 
form the skin of 
the fruit is com- 
paratively thick, 
the pulp more 
acid than in other 
forms, and the 
seeds more nu- 
merous. It has 
the flavor of pine- 
apple and is one 
of the best for 
producing cooling 
drinks and sher- 

905. Flower of Cherimoya 
with two outer petals re- 
moved to show minute 
inner petals and essential 
parts; also an outer petal. 

904. Cherimoya, tuberculate form. 

bets. The fruit is oblong-conical in shape, with the 
base more or less umbilicate and the surface studded 
with protuberances, each of which corresponds to a 
component carpel. To this form should be referred the 
"Horton" cherimoya, grown 
in the vicinity of Pasadena, 

Very recently there has 
been received from Florida 
an interesting fruit borne by 
a hybrid, the result of polli- 
nating the stigmas of a cheri- 
moya with the pollen of An- 
nona squamosa. The leaves 
of this plant are very broad, 
resembling those of A. Cheri- 
mola in shape, but glabrous 
like those of A. squamosa. 
The fruit resembles that of 
A. Cherimola in form, but 
with the protuberences very 
distinct and covered with a 
glaucous bloom like that of 
A. squamosa. The seeds are 
distinct from both species, 
larger than those of A . squam- 
osa, and much darker 
colored than those of A. 
Cherimola; and the pulp is 
very juicy, with the fine 
slightly acidulous flavor of the cherimoya. 

For the propagation and culture of cherimoyas, see 
Annona. W> E- SAFFORD. 

CHERLERIA: Arenaria. 

CHERRY. Several kinds or types of small stone- 
fruits ripening in late spring and in summer, wide- 
spread and popular in domestic and commercial use. 
Figs. 906-910. Plate XXI. 

Sweet and sour cherries have been domesticated 
from two Old World species: cultivated sweet cherries 
having come from Prunus aviwn and the sour cherries 
from Prunus Cerasus. Varieties of these two species, 
and hybrids between them, now encircle the globe in 
the north temperate zone and are being rapidly dis- 
seminated throughout the temperate parts of the 
southern hemisphere. For centuries, probably from 
the beginnings of agriculture, cherries have been 
valuable fruit-producing trees in Europe and Asia, 
inhabitants of nearly every orchard and garden as 
well as common roadside trees in temperate climates 
of both continents. 

Coming from the Old World to the New, the cherry 
has played an important part in the orcharding in 
temperate regions of the western hemisphere. In North 
America, varieties of one or the other of the two culti- 
vated species are grown from Newfoundland to Van- 
couver Island on the north, southward to the Gulf of 
California, Texas and Florida, probably yielding crops 
in a greater diversity of soils and climates on this con- 
tinent than any other tree fruit. 

Sour cherries are suited to many environments, 
thriving in various soils and withstanding rather better 
than most orchard fruits heat, cold and atmospheric 
dryness, and though they respond to good care, yet 
they thrive under neglect better than most other tree 
fruits. Sour cherries also have fewer insect and fungous 
troubles than other tree fruits, being practically immune 
to the dreaded San Jos6 scale. Sweet cherries, however, 
are much less easily grown. Sweet varieties are all 
somewhat fastidious as to soils, are lacking in hardi- 
ness to both heat and cold, are prey to more insects 
than sour .cherries and subject to nearly all of the 
fungous ills to which stone-fruits are heir, suffering in 
America in particular from brown-rot and leaf-spot. 





Tall erect growth of 
sweet cherry. 

Sweet cherries can be grown with commercial success 
in but few and comparatively limited regions, although 
the localities adapted to sweet varieties are rather 
widely distributed. 

The cherry is probably the most popular of temper- 
ate climate fruits for the home yard, being planted 
more commonly than any other 
tree-fruit, in the many regions in 
which it is grown, in the dooryard, 
garden and along the roadside. The 
characters, other than those already 
named, that commend it for home 
plantations, are, early bearing after 
planting, early ripening in the sea- 
son, regularity in bearing, great 
fruitfulness and ease of culture. It 
is more than a home fruit, however, 
and is largely grown for the mar- 
kets, for canning and for preserving. 
In America, the consumption of 
cherries is being greatly increased 
by the fashion of adding them pre- 
served to many ices and drinks. The 
demand for canned cherries has also 
increased enormously in this coun- 
try during the last few years. In 
Europe, wine is made from cherries, 
"kirschwasser," a spirit, is distilled 
from the fermented fruit pulp, and 
in the Austrian province of Dalmatia 
a cordial called maraschino is made 
by a secret process of fermentation 
and distillation. This liquor is im- 
ported to America in considerable 
quantities to flavor preserved cherries which become 
the well-known "maraschino cherries" of confection and 
delicatessen shops. 

Other species. 

Several species of cherries other than the two named 
have more or less horticultural value. Prunus Padus 
and Prunus Mahaleb of the Old World furnish fruits 
sometimes used for culinary purposes but much more 
cultivated, in their various forms, as ornamentals; the 
latter furnishes a stock upon which orchard varieties 
are now most commonly budded. Prunus Besseyi, 
Prunus pumila and Prunus pennsylvanica are species 
from North America, the first two having varieties 
cultivated for their fruits and all three being used as 
ornamentals and for stocks. Prunus Pseudo-Cerasus 
and Prunus tomentosa 
from Asia are much grown 
in China and Japan as 
ornamentals, for their 
fruits and as stocks, and 
should find favor in Eu- 
rope and America for these 
purposes. In recent years 
many new species of cher- 
ries have been discovered 
in Asia. E. Koehne, one 
of the best authorities on 
the genus Prunus, places 
120 species, nearly all 
from Asia, in the sub- 
genus Cerasus to which 
belong the orchard cher- 
ries (Mitt. Deut. Dendrol. 
Gesell., 1912:168-183), A 
few of these have already 
been introduced in Am- 
erica by the United States 
Department of Agricul- 
ture, and from them one 
is sure to find valuable 
horticultural species to be 

used for their fruits, as ornamentals, as stocks, and 
for hybridization with species already domesticated. 


Both orchard and ornamental cherries are commonly 
propagated in Europe and America by budding on 
Mazzard or Mahaleb 
stocks and in Japan, where 
cherries are much grown, 
on Prunus Pseudo-Cera- 
sus. When exceptional 
hardiness is required, seed- 
lings of the Russian sour 
cherries may be used or 
those of Prunus Besseyi 
or Prunus pennsylvanica. 
Undoubtedly the Mazzard 
is the best stock for re- 
gions in which cherries can 
be grown commercially. 
Upon the Mazzard, varie- 
ties of either sweet or 
sour cherries make larger, 907. Low-headed and spreading 
thriftier, longer-lived and growth of sour cherry, 

more productive trees. 

The Mahaleb, on the other hand, is the best stock 
from the nurseryman's point of view. It is more easily 
budded, hardier, freer from insects and fungi as it 
stands in the nursery before budding, and the buds 
more quickly develop into salable trees. But the advan- 
tages of the Mazzard are so much greater for the fruit- 
grower that he should accept only trees on this stock 
unless hardiness be a prime requisite. Cherries are 
set in the orchard at two years from the bud. 

The cultivation and handling. 

Sweet cherries are most profitably grown on high, 
comparatively light, sandy, gravelly or even stony 
loams, while sour cherries do best on somewhat heavier 
soils. The former are set 22 to 24 feet apart; the latter 
16 to 20 feet. Both respond to care in cultivation which, 
in brief is: early spring plowing, frequent cultivation 
until the first of August with a cover-crop sown just 
before the last cultivation. Cover-crops are various 
a favorite one in New York and Michigan is a half 
bushel of oats or barley, and twelve pounds of clover 
or twenty pounds of winter vetch. In Delaware and 
New Jersey the cowpea is much liked as a cover-crop. 
Cherry trees are usually headed 2 or 3 feet from the 
ground with a tendency to head them lower half the 
above distances; in the 
lower-headed orchards 
there seems to be no in- 
convenience in tilling with 
modern implements. 
Nearly all commercial 
growers form the head 
with five to seven main 
branches about a central 
trunk, but some prefer to 
remove the central stem, 
especially in sweet varie- 
ties, leaving a vase-formed 
head. After the head is 
formed, the subsequent 
pruning is exceedingly 
simple, consisting of 
cutting out an oc- 
casional injured or 
crossed branch and 
now and then head- 
ing-in a long whip- 
like growth. 

In soils well 
adapted to cherry- 
growing, commer- 

908. Old sweet cherry tree, on the Chesapeake peninsula. 




cial fertilizers are little needed. Good cultivation, the 
yearly cover-crop and an occasional dressing of stable- 
manure furnish an abundance of food. If, with this 
treatment, the trees fail to make sufficient growth, and 
if the drainage be good, the grower should experiment 
with fertilizers containing potash, phosphoric acid or 
nitrogen to see which, if any, his trees may need. 

Cherries are picked with stems on, the sweet a few 
days before fully ripe, the sour when practically 

909. Napoleon cherry. Sweet. 

mature. Some growers guard against breaking the 
fruit-spurs for the next year by using picking scissors. 
Cherries are variously packed in boxes and baskets but 
the container is usually a small one and much art may 
be displayed in placing in layers, facing, and in making 
the package in all ways attractive. Fruit for canning 
must be carefully picked but is sent to the cannery in 
trays holding one or two pecks. 

The chief commercial plantations in eastern America 
are found in New York, New Jersey, Delaware, north- 
ern Ohio and western Michigan. Sweet-cherry grow- 
ing is precarious because of natural obstacles, and sour 
cherries are so easily grown that through very abun- 
dance their sale is often difficult. Yet with both success 
has been attained by many, the profits ranging as high 
as $300 to the acre. 

Special difficulties. 

The cherry is attacked by a dozen or more fungi. 
Of these, three are serious pests. The brown-rot, 
Sderotinia fructigena, attacks the flowers, leaves, twigs 
and most disastrously the fruits at ripening time. 
Leaf-blight, Cylindrosporium Padi, produces diseased 
spots on the leaves, which for the most 'part drop out, 
giving a shot-hole effect and eventually causing the 
fohage to drop prematurely. A common and striking 
disease of the cherry is black-knot, Plowrightia mor- 
oosa, characterized by wart-like excrescences on shoots 
and branches which at maturity are black; affected 
parts sooner or later die. 

The text-books give no less than forty insect enemies 
of cherries, of which the plum-curculio, Conotrachelus 
nenuphar, the peach-borer, Sanninoidea exitiosa, and 
the San Jos6 scale, Aspidiotus perniciosus, on sweet 

cherries, must be combated. All of the pests named, 
both fungi and insects, are more destructive to plums 
and peaches, and the reader is referred to these fruits 
for treatment which is much the same as for the 

Sweet cherries suffer severely in the South and the 
Mississippi Valley, and somewhat in the North, from 
sun-scald, either directly from the sun's rays or from 
alternate freezing and thawing in winter or spring. 
The injury is manifested by the bursting of the bark 
and the exudation of gum on the south and west sides 
of the tree. Some immunity from such injuries may be 
obtained by protecting the trunks with boards or other 
screens. "Gummosis," or a flow of gum from the wood, 
often follows injuries of various kinds and the 
work of insects and fungi in both sweet and sour 

Types and varieties. 

There are now about 600 varieties of cherries grown 
in America and Europe, and the names of as many more 
that have passed from cultivation remain. These are 
variously grouped, but the following simple classifica- 
tion takes in the common orchard sorts: 

A. Prunus avium 

(1) The Hearts. Large, heart-shaped, soft-fleshed, 
sweet cherries, light-colored as represented by Governor 
Wood and dark as in Black Tartarian. 

(2) The Bigarreaus. Large, sweet, heart-shaped 
and colored as in the previous group but with firm, 
crisp and crackling flesh. Well represented by Napoleon 
(Fig. 909) and Yellow Spanish as light-colored members 
of the group, and by Schmidt and Bing as dark sorts. 

(3) The Dukes. Somewhat smaller cherries than 
the Hearts and Bigarreaus, softer in flesh, light-colored 
and usually sour or nearly so. This group is placed 
under Prunus avium, but there can be no doubt but 
that the widely varying Dukes are hybrids between 
Prunus avium and Prunus Cerasus. May Duke and 
Reine Hortense serve as illustrations of the group. 

AA. Prunus Cerasus. 

(1) The Amarelles Rather small, light-colored, sour 
cherries with colorless or nearly colorless juice, pro- 
duced on upright trees, represented by Early Rich- 
mond and Montmorency (Fig. 910). 

(2) The Morellos. Also comparatively small and 
very sour but dark in color and with dark-colored juice 
and trees with a dropping habit, represented by Eng- 
lish Morello and Louis Philippe. 

In spite of the great number of varieties, the cherry, 
of all stone-fruits, seems most fixed in its characters. 
Thus, the difference between tree and fruit in the cher- 
ries of the several groups is comparatively slight and 
many of the varieties come nearly true to seed. So, 
too, cherries, although probably domesticated as long 
ago as any other of the tree-fruits, are now most of 
all like their wild progenitors. Notwithstanding this 
stability, there are probably rich rewards to be secured 
in breeding cherries by those who will put in practice 
the discoveries of recent years in plant-breeding, and 
will hybridize especially the various groups of the 
two species now cultivated and introduce wholly new 
blood from wild species. So little effort has been 
directed toward improving cherries, and the material 
seems so promising, that it would seem that with proper 
endeavor the coming generation may have a new and 
greatly improved cultivated cherry flora. 


The cherry in California. 

In commercial importance, the cherry is least of the 
fruits of the temperate zone grown in California on a 
commercial scale not considering the quince and 

XXVI. Sweet cherry in flower and fruit. 




nectarine, of which the product is almost insignificant. 
This is not because the finest cherries cannot be grown, 
but because the avenues for the disposition of the prod- 
uct are not so wide as for other leading fruits. 
Recently there are indications that these avenues will 
be widened, for, in the year 1912, 244 carloads were 
profitably shipped in a fresh state to eastern markets, 
and in 1911 a product equivalent to 243,010 cases (each 
containing two dozen 2J^-pound cans) of canned cher- 
ries were disposed of to advantage. In 1910, there was 
large shipment of barreled cherries in sulfur water to 
eastern bottlers who put up maraschino cherries in 
competition with importations, but this business seems 
to have transgressed the pure food laws and declined. 
Until it is demonstrated that such distant demands 
will increase, present plantations will not be largely 
extended. Cherries are costly in picking and packing, 
and the chance of low price in a local market, over-sup- 
plied whenever the trees do their full duty, the grower 
does not enjoy. Cherry-drying has never seemed war- 
ranted on a large scale, because of the large amount of 
labor required to the pound of product; and the 
grower has had no recourse when the canner and local 
consumer would pay only the cost of picking and box- 
ing. A good shipping demand seems, therefore, the 
measure of the extension of California's cherry inter- 
est, and the early ripening of the fruit, which permits 
its sale during the blooming season of eastern cherry 
trees, is the leading surety of such demand. On several 
occasions early varieties have been shipped from the 
Vacaville district overland, on March 31, but the usual 
opening date is about two 
weeks later, and thence onward 
later varieties, and from later 
regions, may be shipped until 
July, if found profitable. 

But, although there is plenty 
of good land upon which to 
multiply the present total of 
three-quarters of a million trees, 
the cherry regions of California 
are restricted. It is one of the 
most exacting of all trees, and 
is profitable only when its 
requirements are respected. 
About one-half of the present 
acreage lies in valleys opening 
upon the bay of San Francisco, 
where deep and moist, but 
well-drained alluvial soil fosters 
strong and sound root-growth, 
and modified atmospheric 
aridity favors leaf and fruit- 
ing. On similar deep and moist 
soils, however, the sweet cherry 
enters the hot interior valleys 
to certain limits, chiefly along 
the river bottoms. It abhors 
dry plains. In dry air it usu- 
ally refuses to fruit, although, 
if the soil be moist, it may 
make stalwart tree-growth. In 
foot-hill valleys it sometimes 
does admirably, both in growth 
and fruiting, and in mountain 
valleys, above an elevation 
of 2,000 feet, on good soil, 
and in the greater rainfall, and even with the snow 
flurries, which are experienced every year at proper 
elevations, the tree becomes very thrifty and profitable 
to the limits of local markets. The tree seems to have 
no geographical limitations in California; wherever 
suitable soil and weather conditions occur, it accepts 
the situation the Dukes and Morellos succeeding 
under conditions too trying for the Hearts and Bigar- 
reaus, but the latter, only, are of commercial account. 

910. Montmorency cherry. Sour. ( X 

Cherry trees are grown by budding upon Mazzard 
and Mahaleb seedlings both being largely imported. 
It is customary to plant out in orchards at the end of 
the first year's growth from the bud, though two-year- 
old cherry trees can be more successfully handled than 
other two-year-olds. The trees are headed at 1 or 2 
feet from the ground, cut back to promote low branch- 
ing for two years, and then allowed to make long 
branches, and not usually shortened-in, so long as 
thrifty and healthy. The tree, in a good environment, 
is, however, a very hardy tree, and will endure pruning 
to almost any degree. There are many trees which have 
made a very broad but not usually high growth, bear- 
ing 1,000 pounds of fruit to the tree, and a few others 
which have even doubled that figure, while others 
have been dwarfed and trained en espalier. The com- 
mercial orchards are, however, uniformly of low trees, 
approximately of vase form in exterior outline, and 
with branches curving outward without shortening. 

The cherry is very readily grafted over by the usual 
top-grafting methods, and large orchards have been 
thus transformed into varieties more acceptable for 
canning or shipping. Comparatively few varieties are 
grown. Early Purple Guigne, Chapman and Knights 
Early Black are grown in early-ripening localities. 
Black Tartarian, Lewelling and Bing are the mainstay 
for black cherries. The Napoleon Bigarreau (locally 
known as Royal Ann) is the ideal for a white cherry, 
and almost excludes all others, although the Rockport 
Bigarreau has some standing. Of all the varieties 
grown, the Black Tartarian and Napoleon (Fig. 909) 
constitute 70 per cent of the crop, and probably 90 
per cent of the amount marketed. 

California-grown cherries attain large size; the can- 
ner's requirement for fancy fruit is a diameter not less 
than J^ of an inch, and for No. 1 not less than % of an 
inch. Wholesale prices usually range from $40 to $60 
a ton for black and $80 to $120 for white, but occa- 
sionally canners have paid as 
high as $160 a ton for white 
cherries. The higher rates can 
be expected only in years of 
short crops. 


CHERVIL. A term applied 
to two umbelliferous plants 
that produce edible parts, 
neither of which is well known 
in America. The name is 
sometimes applied, also, to the 
sweet cicely. 

Salad chervil or leaf chervil is 
Anthriscus Cerefolium, Hoffm., 
a native of Caucasus, south- 
ern Russia and western Asia. 
It is annual, reaching 1^ to 2 
feet high. The neat and aro- 
matic leaves are used like pars- 
ley, which they much resemble. 
The leaves are decompound, 
with oval cut leaflets; and there 
are varieties with much cut 
and curled foliage. The culti- 
vation of salad chervil presents 
no difficulties. Leaves are 

ready to use in six to ten weeks 
from seed-sowing, and any good garden soil is con- 
genial. It thrives best in the cooler and moister part 
of the year. In hot weather, seeds would better be 
sown in a shaded place. 

Tuberous or turnip-rooted chervil is Chserophyllum 
bulbosum, Linn., of southern Europe. (See Chasrophyl- 
lum.) It is biennial or plur-annual, like the radish 
and carrot. The roots are like small carrots in shape 
(4 to 5 inches long), but are gray or blackish, and the 



flesh is yellowish white and of different flavor. The 
roots are eaten as carrots are, either boiled or in stews. 
The one difficulty in the growing of tuberous chervil 
is the fact that the seeds germinate very tardily, or 
even not at all, if kept dry over winter. It is cus- 
tomary, therefore, to sow them in the fall, although 
they do not germinate until spring. If they are to be 
reserved for spring-growing, they should be stratified 
(see Seedage) or kept in sand. In four or five months 
after germination, the roots are fit to use, although 
they improve in quality by being left in the ground. 
The roots keep well in winter. L. H. B. 

CHESS, or CHEAT: Bromus. 

CHESTNUT. Three species of tree or true chestnuts 
are cultivated in this country for their nuts, the 
European Castanea sativa, the American Castanea den- 
tata, the Japanese Castanea crenata. See Castanea. The 
horticultural characters that distinguish these three 
types are as follows: 

European chestnuts. Tree large, with a spreading 
but compact head, stocky, smooth-barked twigs and 
large glossy buds of a yellowish brown color; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate, abruptly pointed, with coarse some- 
times incurved serrations, thick and leathery, generally 
pubescent beneath when young, but green on both 
sides when mature. Burs very large, with long branch- 
ing spines, and a thick velvety lining. Nut larger than 
American chestnut, sometimes very large, shell dark 
mahogany-brown, pubescent at tip, thick, tough and 
leathery; kernel inclosed in a thin tough and astrin- 
gent skin: quality variable from insipid, astringent to 
moderately sweet. The leaves remain on the trees until 
late in autumn, but are more susceptible to the attacks 
of fungi than the American and Japanese species. At 
least one variegated and one cut-leaved variety are 
grown as ornamentals. This species is variously known 
as European, French, Spanish and Italian chestnut 
(Castanea sativa), and sweet chestnut of English writers. 
It is an inhabitant of mountain forests in the temper- 
ate regions of western Asia, Europe and north Africa, 
and is esteemed for its nuts in Spain, France and Italy, 
where they have constituted an important article of 
food since an early day. Introduced to the United 
States by Iren6e Dupont, at Wilmington, Delaware, in 
1803, although recorded by Jefferson, under the desig- 
nation "French chestnut," as grafted by him on native 
chestnut near Charlottesville (Monticello), Virginia, 
in 1773. 

American chestnut (Castanea dentatd). Fig. 911. A 
tall straight columnar tree, in forests reaching a height 
of 100 feet and a diameter of 3 to 4 feet; when grown 
in the open, forming a low round-topped head of 
slightly pendulous branches. Leaves thinner than in C. 
sativa, oblong-lanceolate, acute, long-pointed at the 
apex, coarsely serrate except toward the wedge-shaped 

base, green and 
glabrous on both 
surfaces, chang- 
ing to bright 
clear yellow 
later in autumn. 
The staminate 
flowers open in 
June or July 
after leaves have 
attained full 
size, and exhale 
a sweet, heavy 
odor, disagree- 
able to many 
persons, and 
sometimes caus- 
ing symptoms of 
911. Native wild chestnuts. (X%) hay-fever. The 


two- or three-flowered involucres of pistillate flow- 
ers are on short stout peduncles at the bases of 
androgynous aments which bear toward their tips 
scattered clusters of staminate flowers. Burs smaller 
and spines sharper than in C. sativa. The nuts, usually 
two or three, rarely five to seven, are usually broader 
than long, and much compressed by crowding, although 
sometimes nearly oblong and approaching cylindrical. 

912. Japanese chestnuts. ( X J^) 

They are of a bright brown color, covered at the apex 
with thick pale tomentum, which sometimes extends 
nearly to the base of the nut. The nuts are sweet and 
agreeable in flavor, the best among chestnuts, and are 
marketed in large quantities from the forests of the 
Appalachian region. Occurs in eastern North America, 
Maine to Georgia, westward to Michigan, Mississippi 
and Louisiana. Gradually receding from its southern 
areas from causes not yet understood. A few selected 
forms have been propagated by grafting. 

Japanese chestnut (C. crenata). Fig. 912. A dwarf- 
ish close-headed tree of slender growth, said to attain 
a height of 50 feet in Japan, with small buds: leaves 
smaller than other chestnuts, lanceolate-oblong, usually 
pointed, with a truncate or cordate base, finely ser- 
rated, with shallow sharp - pointed indentations, 
whitish tomentose beneath, pale green above, less sub- 
ject to injury by fungi than other species. Burs small, 
with a thin papery lining and short widely branching 
spines. Nuts large to very large, glossy, usually three, 
sometimes five or seven in a bur, usually inferior to 
the other chestnuts in quality, although good when 
cooked, and in a few varieties excellent in the fresh 
state. Many cultural varieties are recognized. Intro- 
duced to the United States in 1876 by S. B. Parsons, 
Flushing, New York. 

Aside from these three types, there are certain dwarf 
and small-fruited castaneas known as chinquapins. 
The two native chinquapins may be contrasted as 
follows (page 682) : 

Common or tree chinquapin (C. pumila). Fig. 
913. A shrub 4 or 5 feet tall, rarely a tree, attaining 
a height of 50 feet, with slender branchlets marked 
with numerous minute lenticels, and coated with a 
pale tomentum, which disappears during the first 
winter. Leaves oblong, acute and coarsely serrate at 
apex, bright yellowish green, changing to dull yellow 
before falling in autumn. Flowers strong-smelling, the 
catkins of staminate ones appearing with the unfolding 
leaves in May or June, the spicate androgynous 
aments later, with pistillate flowers in spiny involucres, 
producing solitary cylindrical nuts % to 1 inch in 
length and % inch in diameter, with sweet seeds. This 
species occurs in dry lands from southern Pennsyl- 
vania to Florida and Texas, and its nuts, which ripen 
earlier than the American chestnut, are esteemed for 




food and marketed in considerable quantities. The 
species is sparingly introduced to cultivation and in its 
native region is being somewhat grafted upon in place 
with the choicer varieties of chestnuts. It has some 
promise as a dwarfing stock but is subject to the trouble- 
some fault of suckering rather abundantly. Two named 
varieties, the Fuller and the Rush, have been pub- 
lished and somewhat propagated. (Upper part of Fig. 
913 illustrates common chinquapin bur, and nut in 
natural size.) Apparent intermediates between this 
species and the American chestnut, probably of hybrid 
origin, are found in various localities from Pennsyl- 
vania southward and westward to southern Arkansas 
and eastern Texas, in some localities attaining truly 
arborescent proportions. (Lower figure in Fig. 913 
illustrates bur of hybrid chinquapin.) 

Bush chinquapin (C. alnifolia). A shrub, rarely 
more than 3 feet in height, forming small thickets, 
by means of stolons, in sandy barrens. South Atlantic 
states, westward to Louisiana and Arkansas. Distin- 
guished from C. pumila by larger, oval-lanceolate, 
mostly obtuse leaves, which are but slightly tomentose 
beneath, and by its larger nuts, which ripen earlier. 

The cultural range of Castanea in America is not 
well defined, but extends from Florida and Texas to 
Massachusetts and Wisconsin, and on the Pacific 
slope. The three species cultivated in America thrive 
best on dry, rocky or gravelly ridges or silicious uplands, 
failing on heavy clays and on limestone soils unless 
deep, dry and rich. 

Propagation of chestnuts. 

Propagation of species is by seeds. Certain types 
reproduce their striking characteristics in their seed- 
lings, but varieties are perpetuated by grafting, occa- 
sionally by budding. Seeds for planting should be free 
from insect larvae, and should not be allowed to dry out 
before planting. They may be planted in drills in fall 
on deep and well-drained loam, or, to avoid damage by 
rodents, may be stratified in damp sand until spring. 
Nuts held in cold storage at 15 F. from October to 
April have germinated well at Washington, D. C. 
Young trees destined for removal to orchard should be 
transplanted in nursery at one year old, to promote 
symmetrical development of root system. Grafting 
may be done on any of the species of Castanea, and on 
some of the oaks, notably the chestnut oak, Quercus 
Prinos, though the durability of grafts on the oak is 
questionable. Where the chestnut is indigenous, bear- 
ing orchards of improved varieties are quickly secured 
by cutting down and removing the timber, and graft- 
ing the young sprouts which spring up in abundance 
about the chestnut stumps (Fig. 914). Recently the 
chinquapin has been similarly used with good success 
where chestnut does not occur. Grafting may be by 
splice method on one-year-old seedling roots; by splice 
or cleft at crown on two- or three-year trees in place; 
or by veneer, splice or cleft methods on one- to three- 
year-old sprouts or branches. Top-working of old trees 
is uncertain and practised only in special cases. Cipns 
should be dormant, and work may be done at any time 
after freezing ceases, but in trunk- and branch-grafting 
best results are secured by most grafters if work is 
done after leaves begin to unfold. Two- or three- 
bud scions are preferred. The fitting of cion to cleft or 
splice and the waxing should be carefully done. If 
strips of waxed muslin are wrapped about the stubs, 
the danger of loss by summer cracking of wax is les- 
sened. In cleft-grafting young sprouts or seedlings, the 
stub should be cut 2 or 3 inches above the departure 
of a branch, to prevent too deep splitting of cleft. Two 
or three weeks after growth begins the waxing should 
be inspected and repaired if cracked. If grafts make 
rank and brittle growth they should be checked by 
pinching, and if in exposed situations, tied to stakes to 
prevent breaking out of cions. Budding is sometimes 

practised, usually by use of dormant buds inserted in 
shoots of previous year, when the bark "slips" after 
growth has begun in spring. There is a growing con- 
viction in the minds of close observers that certain of 
the popular varieties, especially Paragon, under cer- 
tain conditions do not find the American chestnut a 
congenial stock. In several orchards, Paragon, when 
grafted on native sprouts, although apparently making 
a good union at the start, has within eight to ten years 
developed weakness at the point of union, followed by 
loss of vigor and death of the top without other appar- 
ent cause than lack of congeniality of cion to stock. 
For this variety, at least, the grafting upon seedling 
stocks grown from nuts of the variety appears advisable. 
The chestnut is admirably adapted to ornamental 
planting, either singly or in groups on suitable soils. 

913. Chinquapin. (Nut and bur natural size.) 

The native species is successfully used as a roadside 
tree in many sections outside of its natural range. It 
requires a space of at least 40 feet for development 
when thus used, the European species 30 feet, and the 
Japanese 20 feet. If in orchard, the last-mentioned may 
be planted as close as 20 feet, and thinned when the 
trees begin to crowd, thus securing several crops of 
nuts from land otherwise unoccupied. 

Care of chestnut orchards. 

Planted orchards are yet few in America, most of 
the extensive commercial efforts having consisted in the 
grafting of sprouts on rough lands where the American 
chestnut is indigenous. On such lands no cultivation 
is attempted, the brambles and undesired sprouts 
being held in check by occasional cutting in summer, ' 
or by pasturing with sheep. Much care is necessary 




to protect against damage of the sprouts by fire on such 
land. Clean cultivation, at least during the first few 
years, is probably best in planted orchards, although 
heavy mulching may be found a satisfactory substitute. 
The Japanese and some of the American varieties of 
the European species require thinning of the burs on 
young trees to avoid over-bearing, with its consequent 
injury to the vitality of the tree. 

Special difficulties. 

Leaf diseases are apparently subject to control by 
bordeaux mixture, but for the weevils, which damage 
the nuts previous to maturity, no satisfactory remedy 
has yet been discovered except the yarding of poultry 
in sufficient numbers to destroy the adult insects and 
their larvae when they reach the ground. 

The most serious difficulty confronting the present 
or prospective chestnut-grower in North America is 
the chestnut-bark disease which, during the last decade, 
has worked havoc in the native chestnut forests 
throughout a region of country extending from cen- 
tral Connecticut through southeastern New York, 
New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania into northern 
Delaware, northeastern Maryland and northern Vir- 
ginia. As this region contains most of the commercial 
plantings of improved chestnuts they have also suf- 
fered severely, especially since about 1908. The distri- 
bution of the native chestnut, together with the known 
distribution of the disease February 1, 1912, is shown 
on the accompanying map (Fig. 915), which was pre- 
pared by Metcalf to accompany a special report on the 
disease in response to a resolution of the United States 

This disease, caused by a parasitic fungus (Diaporthe 
or Endothia parasitica), attacks trees of all ages and 
kills by girdling at various points. It is known to 
attack all species of chestnut and chinquapin grown in 
this country, although some, at least, of the Japanese 
varieties, are practically resistant, so far as observed. 
A few cases of the disease have also been found on 
living trees of the chestnut oak in Pennsylvania, though 
with less evidence of destructive effect than on chestnut. 

The disease is spread by the spores of the fungus, 
which are sticky, and are carried by rain, insects, and 
man, and probably by birds and small mammals. It 
is known to have been carried on nursery stock for 
long distances and is easily transported on newly cut 

914. Chestnut sprouts two years grafted. The cion was 
inserted where branching begins. 

915. Distribution of the chestnut blight. 

timber and cordwood from which the bark has not 
been removed. Infection frequently occurs through 
wounds made by bark- borers. 

Although first attracting attention in New York 
City in 1904, it appears certain that it had secured 
a firm foothold in southeastern New York, including 
Long Island and adjacent portions of Connecticut 
and New Jersey, prior to that time, there being some 
indication that it was introduced from Japan, although 
satisfactory evidence of this is still lacking. The pres- 
ence of the disease in chestnut forests in China was 
discovered by Meyer in 1913, where, upon an unidenti- 
fied species of chestnut, it is reported to be less virulent 
than in American chestnut forests. 

For several years after publication of the cause of 
the disease by Murrill, in 1906, little effort was made in 
a systematic way to accomplish its control until 1911. 
when the legislature of Pennsylvania appropriated 
$275,000 for this purpose and inaugurated a state-wide, 
two-year campaign of eradication. The work is being 
done in cooperation with the Federal Department of 
Agriculture which, since 1907, has been investigating 
the disease with a view to developing effective methods 
of controlling it. Several other chestnut-producing 
states are also giving more or less attention to the prob- 
lem. Up to the present time, systematic cutting out 
of infected trees coupled with destruction of their bark 
by fire has proved the only practicable control method. 
This is being vigorously applied in Pennsylvania and 
those portions of Maryland, West Virginia, and Vir- 
ginia in which the disease has appeared. 

In forests, the disease is exceedingly difficult to 
eradicate after it has once gained a foothold, owing to 
the minute examination of the entire tree which is 
required to locate infections in their early stages. In 
any district in which there is a general infection of the 
forests, the only practicable course is to clear off the 
timber while it is sufficiently sound to be merchantable. 

The relative disease-resistance of the Japanese 
chestnuts, coupled with their precocity and produc- 
tiveness, renders them now the most promising sorts 
for the American chestnut-grower. Planted in sections 




outside of the native range of the American chestnut, 
they may reasonably be expected to remain practically 
free from the disease, especially if care is exercised to 
prevent its introduction from infested regions on 
nursery stock or cions. The poor flavor and eating 
quality of most of these varieties is their worst fault, 
but in view of their wide range of 
variation in this respect, the problem 
of producing resistant varieties of 

>od quality appears relatively simple, 
he few trees of Korean and Chinese 
chestnuts thus far grown in the east- 
ern United States are apparently 
quite resistant to the disease and 
therefore of much interest to the tree 
breeder as parents of possible resist- 
ant forms. Systematic work on the 
breeding of resistant varieties is being 
prosecuted in the Bureau of Plant 

Varieties of chestnuts. 

The varieties of the three species, 
although possessing many points in 
common, differ sufficiently in impor- 
tant characteristics to justify sepa- 
rate grouping for cultural discussion. 
As chestnut-culture is new in this 
country, it seems best to append 
descriptions of all the varieties which 
are in the American trade. For fuller 
discussion of cultivated chestnuts, see 
Nut Culture in the United States 
(Bull. Div. of Pomology, U. S. Dept. 
of Agric.), from which Fig. 913 is 
adapted; Nut Culturist, A. S. Fuller, 
1896; European and Japanese Chest- 
nuts in Eastern United States, G. 
Harold Powell (Bull. Del. Exp. Sta- 
tion), 1898; Nut Culture for Profit, 
Jno. R. Parry, 1897. 

AMERICAN GROUP. Although the wild 
nuts exhibit wide variations in size, form, 
quality, productiveness, and season of ripen- 
ing, but few varieties have been dignified by 
names and propagated. Solitary trees are 
frequently sterile, although producing both 
staminate and pistillate flowers, apparently 
requiring cross-fertilization to insure fruitful- 
ness. This is especially true of planted trees 
of this species on the Pacific slope, where 
productive trees are reported to be rare. The 
susceptibility of the species to injury by leaf 
diseases, as pointed out by Powell, and the 
injury to nuts by larvae of weevils, are draw- 
backs to its extensive culture. 

The following varieties are propagated to 
some extent: 

Dulaney. Bowling Green, Ky. Large, 
and of fine quality. Original tree productive, 
though isolated. 

Griffin. Griffin, Ga. A large, very downy 
nut, of good quality. 

Hathaway. Little Prairie Ronde, Mich. 
A large, light-colored, sweet nut, annually 
productive, frequently having five to seven 
nuts to the bur. 

Ketcham. Mountainville, N. Y. Above 
medium in size, oblong, tomentose, sweet. 
Tree productive and vigorous in heavy sod 
at fifty years of age. 

Murrell. Coleman's Falls, Va. A large, 
high-flavored nut, bearing three nuts to the 

Otto. Otto, Tenn. Large, oblong, very 
downy at tip, very sweet, and rich. 

Rochester. Rochester, N. Y. First fruited at Alton, 111. Nuts 
medium to large; somewhat rounded, usually three in a bur; of 
dull brown color, downy at tip; quality excellent. Tree a very 
rapid grower and a heavy bearer; ripens late. 

Watson. Fay, Pa. Medium to large, slightly downy, com- 
pressed, very good. 

EUROPEAN GROUP. It is a significant fact that, during the 
century that has elapsed since the introduction of this species, the 
imported named varieties of Europe have not found favor in eastern 
America. Seedling trees have been found productive and profitable 
at many points in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Mary- 

916. Successive stages in the rava- 
ges of the chestnut blight. 1909, 
1910, 1911. 

land, however, and these form the basis of the culture of the species 
east of the continental divide. West of the Rocky Mountains, 
several of the choice French "Marrons" are reported to succeed in 
California and Oregon. Among the more important varieties of the 
European group in America, are the following: 

Anderson. Flushing, N. J. Bur medium to small; nuts of 
medium size, bright reddish brown, pubescent at the tip and over 
half of the nut. Tree a strong grower, with medium to small 
leathery leaves. Very productive. 

Ba.TlTa.rn. Milltown, Pa. Bur medium to 
small; nut medium, thickly pubescent at tip, 
dark reddish mahogany color; three in a bur; 
unusually free from insect attack; quality 
good. Tree vigorous, spreading, with large 
leaves; productive. 

Combale (Marron Combale). France. A 
large and handsome, bright brown striped 
nut, with but little tomentum at tip; usually 
two, sometimes but one in a bur. Somewhat 
grown in California, where it was introduced 
from France about 1870. 

Chalon (syn., Marron Chalqn Early). 
France. Sparingly grown in California. Nut 
of medium size, early, productive, pre- 

Corson. Plymouth Meeting, Pa. Bur 
large, with thin husk; nuts large, usually 
three in a bur; dark brown, ridged, heavily 
pubescent at tip; quality very good. Tree 
vigorous, spreading, very productive. 

Dager. Camden, Del. Bur medium; nut 
medium to large, dark brown, thickly tomen- 
tose, usually three in a bur; quality good. 
Tree vigorous, spreading, productive; a seed- 
ling of Ridgely. 

Darlington. Wilmington, Del. Bur me- 
dium to small; nut medium to large, usu- 
ally three in a bur; dark, distinctly striped, 
thickly tomentose at tip; sweet, good. Tree 
vigorous. One of the earliest to ripen of this 

Lyon (Marron de Lyon). France. A large, 
round nut of fair quality, grown in a small 
way in California, but less productive than 
Combale, which it resembles. 

Marron. This term is used by the French 
to designate the larger cultivated chestnuts, 
most of which have relatively few nuts, often 
only one in a bur. 

Moncur. Dover, Del. A seedlingpf Ridgely. 
Bur medium; nuts medium, of light color, 
heavily tomentose. Tree vigorous, spreading, 
very productive. 

Nouzillard. France. A large, handsome 
variety from central France, and there con- 
sidered very productive and valuable. Has 
been tested in New Jersey, Pennsylvania and 
California without marked success in any 

Numbo. Morrisville, Pa. Bur medium 
conical; nut large, from two to three in a 
bur; bright brown striped, thinly tomentose, 
of good quality. Tree compact and droop- 
ing, rather uncertain in bearing. 

Paragon (syn., Great American; Sobers 
Paragon). Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Bur very large; nut large, usually three in a 
bur, broad, plump, thickly tomentose at the 
tip, and thinly over two-thirds of surface, 
color dull brown, quality very good. Tree 
hardy, spreading, vigorous, with narrow, 
coarsely serrate leaves having a narrow base; 
subject to leaf-blight, but very productive. 
The most widely planted and most uniformly 
successful variety of chestnut yet cultivated 
in the United States. Possibly a hybrid with 
C. dentata. 

Quercy (syn., Marron Quercy). France. 
A beautiful, medium-sized nut, commended in 
portions of California for precocity, earli- 
ness, productiveness and quality. 

Ridgely (syn., Du Pont). Dover, Del. 
Bur medium; nut medium to large, moder- 
ately tomentose, dark, of very good quality. 
Tree vigorous, with narrow leaves free from 
blight, spreading, very productive, hardy. 

Scott. Burlington, N. J. Bur medium; 
nut medium, slightly pointed, usually three 
in a bur; glossy, dark brown, slightly tomen- 
tose at the tip. Tree open, spreading, very 
productive; said to be comparatively free from attacks of weevil. 

Styer. Concordville, Pa. Bur medium; nut medium pointed, 
dark brown, striped, tomentose at tip, 1 to 3 in a bur. Tree very 
vigorous, upright, with large, dark green leaves; free from disease. 
JAPANESE GROUP. Though most of the imported Japanese 
chestnuts have been found of poor quality for eating in the fresh 
state, the product of many imported seedling trees, and of a num- 
ber of American-grown seedlings of this type, is equal to the Euro- 
pean nut in this respect. The Japanese varieties in general have 
the advantage, also, of greater precocity and productiveness, 
larger size and earlier maturity of nut, greater freedom from injury 




917. Boone chestnut. 

by leaf diseases and nut-eating insect larvae. As productiveness 
and earliness are the most important points in chestnut-culture at 
the present time, this type is the most important to commercial 
nut-growers. Because of the ease with which chestnuts hybridize, 
the disease-resistance of varieties that have originated from seed 
produced within the habitat of the American chestnut must be 
regarded as doubtful until thoroughly tested. Information as to 
the place of production of the seed from which the several varieties 

originated is there- 
fore of importance 
in selecting varie- 
ties for planting. 
The more important 
named varieties are 
as follows: 

Alpha . New 
Jersey. Bur me- 
dium; nuts medium 
to large, generally 
three in a bur, dark, 
of fair quality, ripe- 
ning very early. 
Tree upright, very 
vigorous and pro- 
ductive. Originated 
in New Jersey from 
seed of Parry. 

Beta, New Jer- 
sey. Bur small; nut 
medium, light 
brown, smooth, 
slightly tomentose 
at tip, good; ripe- 
ning just after 
Alpha. Seedling of 

Biddle. New 
Jersey. First fruited 
in Maryland. Bur 

medium; nut large, bright brown, broad, rather thickly tomentose, 
two to five in a bur; of medium season and fair quality. Tree 
regular, round-headed, vigorous. Grown from imported seed. 

Black (syn., Dr. Black). New Jersey. First fruited in Mary- 
land. Bur large; nut medium to large; three to seven in a bur, con- 
sequently irregular in shape; dark brown, slightly tomentose, very 
early and of good quality. Tree round, close-headed, vigorous, pro- 
ductive. Grown from imported seed. 

Boone. Villa Ridge, III. Fig. 917. A hybrid between Giant and 
a native chestnut. Bur of medium size; nuts large, usually three in 
a bur; of light brown color, rather heavily tomentose; quality very 
good. Tree vigorous, precocious and productive, nuts ripening 
early. Considered difficult to propagate. 

Coe. -California. A large, very sweet variety, but recently 
disseminated. Tree upright, somewhat spreading. Grown from 
imported seed. 

Felton. New Jersey. First fruited in Delaware. Bur small; 
nut medium, dark brown, slightly tomentose, rather early and of 
excellent quality. Tree round-headed and fairly productive. 
Grown from seed of an imported tree. 

Giant. Japan. A trade name, under which a number of varie- 
ties have been imported from Japan. See Parry. 

Hale (syn., Eighteen Months). California. A newly intro- 
duced variety, having a large, dark brown nut of excellent quality. 
Very precocious. Grown from imported seed. 

Kent (syn., Extra Early). New Jersey. First fruited in .Dela- 
ware. Bur small, nut medium to large, dark, usually three in a bur; 
very early, of good quality. Tree round-headed, precocious, pro- 
ductive. Grown from seed of an imported tree. 

Kerr. New Jersey. First fruited in Maryland. Bur small; 
nut medium to large, dark brown, broad, three in a bur, early, and 
of excellent quality. Tree vigorous, symmetrical, round-headed, 
very productive. Grown from imported seed. 

Kitten.' New Jersey. First fruited in Delaware. Bur very 
large; nut very large, broad, light brown, slightly ridged, of excel- 
lent quality, midseason. Tree upright, open, spreading, moder- 
ately vigorous, productive. The largest chestnut yet brought to 
notice. Grown from seed of an imported tree. 

Mammoth. A trade name for the imported Japanese nuts and 
trees, not restricted to any particular variety. 

Martin (syn., Col. Martin). New Jersey. First fruited in 
Maryland. Bur large; nut large to very large, broad, bright reddish 
brown, slightly tomentose, three to five nuts in a bur. Midseason; 
of good quality for cooking. Tree vigorous, open, spreading, pro- 
ductive. Grown from imported seed. 

McFarland. California. Bur very large; nut large, and of fine 
quality; early. Tree spreading, very productive. A newly dissem- 
inated variety of great promise. Grown from imported seed. 

Parry. Japan. Bur very large; nut very large, one to three in 
a bur, broad, with apex sometimes depressed; dark brown, ridged, 
of fair quality. Tree moderately vigorous, open, spreading, with 
large leaves. One of the largest and most beautiful of this group. 
Selected for propagation as the best of 1,000 imported grafted 
Japanese chestnuts. 

Prolific. Japan. Bur small; nut medium, rather long, striped, 
three in a bur; early. Tree vigorous, compact, with small narrow 

Reliance. New Jersey. Bur medium; nut medium to large, 
rather long, light brown, ridged; midseason, and of fair quality. 
Tree dwarfish, spreading, drooping, very precocious and produc- 
tive; inclined to overbear, and needs thinning. Seedling of Parry. 
Success. New Jersey. Bur very large; nut very large, usually 

three in a bur; midseason; of rather poor quality until cooked. 
Seedling of Parry. Tree upright, productive. 

Superb. New Jersey. Bur large; nut large, broad, brown, 
usually three in a bur, early, and of fair quality. Tree vigorous and 
very productive. Seedling of Parry. 


VALLIERIA. The species in the American trade are ^Echmeas. 

CHICK-PEA: Cicer. 

CHICKWEED: Cerastium and Stettaria. 

CHICORY, or SUCCORY (Cichvrium fntybus, 
Linn.). Composite Fig. 918. A native of Europe, 
naturalized in America and familiar to many as a weed, 
is a pot-herb, a salad, and the leading adulterant of 
coffee It came prominently before the public in the 
late nineties and the early years of this century as an 
American farm crop. Prior to that year, its cultiva- 
tion as an adulterant and substitute for coffee was 
largely prevented by the prejudice of the principal 
consumers, our foreign-born population, who insisted 
that American was inferior to European root, and also 
by the low tariff, which allowed the root to enter duty 
free, or with a very small impost. During 1898 and 
1899 advantage was taken of a protective duty, and 
several factories were erected, for which farmers grew 
the roots. For a few years our home market was sup- 
plied from American fields in part. But even the sub- 
stitution of horse-power for manual labor, improved 
plows and cultivating implements for crude ones, 
machine-digging of the roots for hand-digging, efficient 
slicing machines, and improved evaporating kilns did 
not make the business satisfactory. There was not 
enough money in it either to 
growers or to manufacturers, so it 
has been abandoned. 

Chicory will probably succeed 
wherever the sugar beet is grown 
in this country, the climatic re- 
quirements being similar. In gen- 
eral, it may be said to thrive upon 
all stone-free soils that will pro- 
duce paying staple crops, except 
clays, lightest sands and mucks. 
The first are too hard, the second 
too dry, the third too rich in 
nitrogen and too sour. The sur- 
face layer of soil should be deep, 
the subsoil open and well drained. 
If the water-supply be sufficient, 
high land is as good as low land 
of the same texture, though if too 
dry for profitable grain-growing, 
the former may yet be made to 
produce chicory; but if too wet for 
cereals, the latter will generally be 
found unsuitable for this root. 
The fertilizing of the land should 
be the same as for other root-crops, 
nitrogen being used sparingly, 
potash and phosphoric acid rather 
freely one and one-fourth to one 
and one-half times as much of the 
former and two and one-half times 
the latter as has been removed by 
the preceding crop. It is best to 
apply these fertilizers to preceding 
crops that do not make heavy 
demands upon them. In rotation, 
chicory is classed with root-crops, 
and should be preceded by a small 
grain, since this is harvested in 
time for fall plowing. Clover 
should not immediately precede, 
since it leaves too much nitrogen 

in the soil. The ground being 013. improved chicory 
warm, fairly moist, thoroughly root. ( x 1 A) 




prepared by deep plowing, harrowing and scarifying 
with a weeder, the seed, which must be fresh and clean, 
is sown rather thickly but covered thinly, in drills 18 
inches apart. 

There are but few well-defined varieties of this plant 
used for field culture, and even the garden sorts are 
not so stable as could be desired. Of the former group, 
Magdeburg, Brunswick and Schlesische are the prin- 
cipal; of the latter, Witloof (so-called), Red Italian, 
Broad-leaved, Improved Variegated and Curled-leaved 
are best known. Witloof and Barbe de Capucin can 
be produced from any variety, the difference being 
brought about by the method of growing. 

Chicory has no specific enemies in this country, and 
is troubled by only a few of the general-feeding insects, 
such as cut-worms and wire-worms. 

From six to ten tons is the general acre yield, although 
with good management fifteen tons may be produced. 
The cost of growing and the returns are about as fol- 
lows: Rent, wear of tools, etc., $5; preparation of 
land, $4.50; seed, 75 cents; cultivating and tending, 
$15; harvesting and delivering, $12; total, $37.25. 
Average price the ton, $7. 

From a purely horticultural standpoint, chicory is 
of interest as a root, a pot-herb, and a salad plant. 
The young tender roots are occasionally boiled and 
served with butter, pepper and salt, like young carrots, 
but they have never become widely popular in this 
form. As a pot-herb, the young leaves are equal to 
those of dandelion. They are cut when 6 to 8 inches 
long, boiled in two waters to remove the bitter flavor, 
and served like spinach. As a salad, chicory is famous 
in three forms: Common Blanched, Barbe de Capucin 
and Witloof. Barbe de Capucin is comprised of small 
blanched leaves. Witloof is a more solid head. The 
pink, red and curled varieties make a very pretty 
appearance, and, if well grown and served fresh, are 
delicious, there being only a slightly bitter flavor. 
The method of growing for salads is the same as for 

For Barbe and Witloof, well-grown roots are dug in 
October, trimmed of unnecessary roots and of all but 
an inch of top. For Barbe, the roots are laid hori- 
zontally in tiers in moist earth, the whole forming a 
sloping heap, the crowns of the roots protruding an 
inch or so. Since darkness is essential, a warm vege- 
table cellar is the usual place selected to grow this 
vegetable, which requires three or four weeks to pro- 
duce its fine white leaves. These are cut when about 
6 inches long, eaten as a salad, boiled like kale or cut 
up like slaw. If undisturbed, the roots will continue 
to produce for several weeks. The most rapid way to 
produce Witloof is to plunge the roots (shortened to 5 
inches) in spent tanbark, or such material, and cover 
with 2 feet or more of manure, the space under a green- 
house bench being used. In about two weeks, heads 
resembling cos lettuce may be dug up, boiled like brus- 
sels sprouts, or served as salad. If the roots be left in 
place, protected from the light, but uncovered, a crop 
of leaves resembling Barbe may be gathered. Sowing 
and other cultural management is the same as for other 
garden roots, as beets and carrots. It is a pity that 
these vegetables are so little known in this country. 
Witloof is a popular winter vegetable in the larger 
cities of the East. Much of it is imported from Europe. 

Chicory has run wild along roadsides and in dry fields 
in many parts of the country, and is considered to be a 
bad weed. However, the handsome sky-blue flowers 
(Fig. 962), which open only in sunshine, are very 
attractive. M a KAINS> 


CHILIANTHUS (a thousand flowers). Loganiacese. 
Four or 5 S. African trees or shrubs, very closely allied 
to Buddleia, from which it differs in having stamens 


exserted from the short tube: Ivs. opposite, entire or 
dentate, nearly always tomentose or scaly: fls. very 
numerous, in dense terminal cymes or panicles; calyx 
and corolla deeply 4-parted, the latter usually yellow- 
ish. Unknown to the American trade. The plants 
known as Buddleia salicifolia, Jacq., and B. saligna, 
Willd., are Chilianthus arboreus, Benth. (which is 
probably identical with C. oleaceus, Burch.). 

CHILOPSIS (Greek, lip-like). Bignoniacese. One 
deciduous shrub or low tree, often planted in southern 
California and other parts. 

Allied to Catalpa: differs in having 4 anther-bearing 
stamens and 1 rudiment, a more trumpet-shaped corolla 
and with jagged lobes, and Ivs. linear and often not 

linearis, DC (C. saligna, Don). Slender-branched, 
10-20 ft.: fls. handsome, bignonia-like, in a short 
terminal raceme; corolla 1-2 in. long, 5-lobed and 
crimped, the tube and throat lilac, and 2 yellow stripes 
inside. Dry districts from S. Texas 
to Calif., and in Mex. From its 
narrow-lanceolate or linear Ivs., it is 
known as desert willow; also called 
flowering willow and mimbres. 
There is a white-fld. form. 

L. H. B. 

CHIMAPHILA (Greek, winter- 
loving; green in winter). Eri- 
caceae. PIPSISSEWA. Perennial small 
plants, interesting for the white or 
pinkish flowers and the evergreen 
foliage, but little cultivated. 

Half shrubby or 
herbaceous, with 
creeping st. : Ivs. 
evergreen, serrate, 
in irregular whorls: 
fls. nodding, form- 
ing a terminal, few- 
fld. umbel, on a 
long naked pedun- 
cle; petals 5, spread- 
ing; stamens 10, the 
anthers opening 
with 2 pores at the 
apex, the filaments 
short, dilated ; style 
short, with a peltate 
stigma. : fr. a dehis- 
cent, deeply fur- 
rowed, 5-celled 
caps, with numer- 
ous minute seeds. 
Four species in N. 
Amer., Eu., and N. 
Asia to Japan; for- 
merly united with Pyrola. Low evergreen plants, with 
pretty white or reddish fls. in summer. They grow 
best in a light, sandy soil, mixed with peat or leaf- 
mold, and prefer a half-shady position. Prop, by divi- 
sion of the creeping rootstock. Useful in wild borders. 

A. Lvs. broadest above the middle. 

umbellata, Nutt. (C. corymbdsa, Pursh). Five to 12 
in.: Ivs. 3-6 in a whorl, short-petioled, cuneate-lanceo- 
late to oblpng-obovate, sharply serrate, dark green and 
shining above, 1-2 in. long: fls. 4-7, white or reddish, 
J^-^in. wide. N. Amer., from Canada to Mex., Eu., 
Japan. B.M. 778. L.B.C. 5:463. Mn. 7:161 Lvs. 
said to be employed in rheumatic and kidney affec- 

AA. Lvs. broadest below the middle. 

maculata, Pursh. Fig. 919. Lower and less branched 
than the foregoing: Ivs. usually in 3's, ovate or oblong- 




lanceolate, sparsely and sharply serrate, variegated 
with white along the nerves, 1-2 in. long: fls. 2-5, white, 
Min. wide. From Canada to Ga. and Miss. B.M. 897. 
Mn. 9:1. G.C. III. 32:318. 

Menziesii, Spreng. Slender plant, 3-8 in. high: 
Ivs. alternate or in 3's, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 
acute at both ends, %-!% in. long, sharply serrate, 
sometimes variegated: fls. 1-3, white, J^in. across; 
filaments with a round dilated portion in the middle. 
Brit. Col. to Calif. ALFRED REHDER. 




CHINA WOOD-OIL: Aleurites Fordii. 




CHINKAPIN, CHINQUAPIN: Chestnut and Castanea. 

CHIOCOCCA. Rubidcese. SNOWBERRY (which the 
name means in Greek). Shrubs, mostly climbing or 
trailing, of Trop. Amer. (a half-dozen or so species), 
and 3 in extreme S. Fla. Fls. in axillary panicles, the 
corolla funnelform and 5-parted; stamens 5, inserted 
on the base of the corolla, the filaments cohering at 
base; style filiform, the stigma club-shaped; ovary 2-3- 
loculed, becoming a small globular 2-seeded drupe. 
C. racemosa, Linn., of the Fla. Keys and S., is some- 
times cult, in hothouses for its panicles of yellowish 
white fls. and the white frs.: Ivs. ovate to lanceolate, 
thick and shining, entire: drupes J^in. diam.: twining, 
glabrous. C. anguifuga, Mart. (C. brachidta, Ruiz & 
Pav.), of S. Amer., the root affording a native snake- 
bite remedy, has appeared in cult, (under the name var. 
acutifdlia): woody, with erect branches: Ivs. ovate, 3 
in. or less long, sharp-acuminate: fls. M m - long with 
recurved lobes, in axillary panicles shorter than the 
Ivs. In S. Fla. or on the Keys, 2 other species occur, 
but they apparently are not in cult. : C. dlba, Hitchcock. 
Large, erect or reclining: Ivs. elliptic to ovate: fls. 
white, often becoming yellow. C. pinetorum, Brit. 
Small, trailing: Ivs. mostly elliptic to oblong: corolla 
always white. L_ jj. g. 

CHIO GENES (Greek, snow, offspring; referring to 
the snow-white berries). Ericaceae. SNOWBERRY. 
Creeping plant, rarely grown in rockeries for the car- 
peting effect of the evergreen foliage and for the attrac- 
tive white berries; with small alternate 2-ranked Ivs. and 
inconspicuous axillary fls.; corolla short-campanulate, 
4-cleft; stamens 8, included, with short filaments, 
anthers opening by a slit: berry white, many-seeded. 
Two species in the colder regions of N. Amer. and 
Japan. Slender trailing evergreens, in appearance 
much like the cranberry; rarely cult. Thriving best in 
moist and peaty soil, in a shaded position, creeping 
amongst growing moss. Prop, by seeds, by division or 
by cuttings in Aug. under glass. The American spe- 
cies, C. hispfdula, Torr. & Gray (C. serpyllifolia, Salisb.), 
has hirsute branches and ovate or oval, J/^-^jin.-l 
ciliate Ivs., greenish white fls. and white berries, 
across, usually hirsute. ALFRED REHDER. 

CHIONANTHUS (Greek for snow and flower; allud- 
ing to the abundance of snow-white fls.)'. Oledcex. 
FRINGE TREE. Woody plants grown for their pro- 
fusely produced white flowers. 

Shrubs or low trees, with deciduous, opposite and 
entire Ivs. : fls. in loose panicles from lateral buds at the 
end of last year's branches, white, dioecious or only 
functionally dioecious; calyx 4-cleft; corolla divided 
nearly to the base in 4 narrow petals; stamens 2, short; 

ovary superior, 2-celled; style very short with a 2- 
lobed stigma: fr. a 1 -seeded oval drupe. Two species 
in E. N. Amer. and China. Ornamental shrubs, with 
large, dark green foliage, and very showy white fls. 
in early summer. The American species is almost 
hardy N., but requires a somewhat sheltered position; 
the Chinese may be more tender, but has proved hardy 
at the Arnold Arboretum. They thrive best in a some- 
what moist and sandy loam, and in a sunny position. 
Prop, by seeds sown in fall or stratified; increased also 
by layers and by grafting under glass or budding in 
the open air on ash seedlings (in Europe, Fraxinus 
Ornus is preferred) ; sometimes by cuttings from forced 
plants in early spring. 

virginica, Linn. Fig. 920. Large shrub or slender 
tree, to 30 ft.: Ivs. oval or oblong, acuminate, pubes- 
cent beneath when young, mostly glabrous at length, 
4-8 in. long: panicles 4-6 
in. long, pendulous; fls. func- 
tionally dioecious; petals 1 
in. long: fr. dark blue, ovoid, 
%in. long. May, June. From 
Pa. to Fla. and Texas. L.B. 
C. 13 : 1264. Gt. 16 : 564. 
Mn. 2 : 154. G. F. 7 : 325. 
A.G. 22:362. F.E. 29:733. 
Gng. 16:306. G.M. 31:527. 
V. 10:227. G.W. 8, p. 293. 
M.D.G. 1899:412,413:1900: 
413; 1907:73, 337. Variable 
in shape and pubescence of 
the Ivs., and several varieties 
have been distinguished, but 
none of them sufficiently dis- 
tinct for horticultural pur- 
poses. The staminate plants 
are showier in flower on 
account of their larger pani- 
cles and broader petals, but 
lack the attractive pendulous blue frs. in autumn. 
Root-bark tonic, febrifuge, laxative; reputed narcotic, 
retusa, Lindl. (C. chinensis, Maxim.). Shrub, with 
spreading branches, or small tree, to 20 ft.: Ivs. obovate 
or oval to oval-oblong, acute or obtuse, sometimes 
emarginate, pubescent on the veins beneath, at least 
when young, and reticulate; petioles densely pubes- 
cent: fls. dioecious, fragrant, in panicles 2-4 in. long; 
petals about J^in. long; narrow oblong: drupe ovoid, 
dark blue, Kin. long, China. P.F.G. 3, p. 85. G.C. 
11.23:821; 111.47:328, 329. Gt. 35, p. 667. A.G. 
13:374; 20:107; 22:363. Mn. 2:157. G.F. 7:327. G. 
29:347; 33:521. Gn. W. 8:453. Young plants have 
the Ivs. serrulate. ALFRED REHDER. 

CHIONODOXA (Greek, snow and glory). Lilidcese. 
GLORY -OF -THE -SNow. Very early-blooming hardy 
bulbs, flowers and leaves appearing together. 

Closely allied to Scilla, but differs, among other 
characters, in having a short tube to the corolla: fls. 
blue (running into white and red forms), with recurved- 
spreading acute segms., dilated filaments, and small or 
capitate stigma. Four species, Crete to Asia Minor. 

These are among the best of early-flowering plants, 
blooming in February, March and April, according to 
the locality, with the early snowdrops and scillas. Since 
their introduction to cultivation by Maw in 1877, they 
have been widely cultivated under the popular name 
of "glory-of-the-snow," in allusion to their early- 
blooming habit. C. I/utilise is the most widely cultiva- 
ted species. This varies much in color, the type having 
flowers whose petals are more or less deeply tipped 
with blue, shading to white at their bases. C. Lucilise 
also occurs with pure white flowers, and in reddish and 
pink forms. C. sardensis has smaller flowers of a deeper 
tone of blue and without the white markings of the 
petals. There are two varieties of this, one with white 

920. Chionanthus virginica. 
( X Vi) 




and the other with black stamens. C. grandiflora is 
the largest-flowered of the group, the type being slaty 
blue with dark lines down the center of the segments; 
however, like others of the genus, there are pink and 
white forms sometimes found in collected bulbs, 
although somewhat rare. C. Tmolusii, one of the kinds 
sent out by Whittall of Smyrna some 3 T ears ago, is 
very like C. Lucilise in form but of a deeper blue and a 
distinctly later flowering habit. Chionodoxas hybridize 
with Scilla, and the hybrids are sometimes known as 
chionoscillas. Chionodoxas thrive in any fertile soil, 
well drained and not too heavy, and in any exposure, 
the main requisite for growth being that they have 
light and an adequate supply of moisture while grow- 
ing and until the foliage is ripened. The bulbs should 
be planted about 3 inches deep, and closely, say an inch 
or less apart. Lift and replant about the third year. 
They need no winter covering. They flower well in pots 
in winter in a coolhouse temperature. Must be forced 
only gently, and given abundance of air, light and 
moisture. They are increased by offsets and seeds, 
which they produce freely. Under favorable conditions 
they increase rapidly by self-sown seeds. Preferably, 
seeds should be sown in a frame, and may be expected 
to germinate the following .winter. Under ordinary 
conditions, self-sown seeds germinate early in the 
year, or late winter. (J. N. Gerard.) 

Luciliae, Boiss. Fig. 921. Bulb ovoid, brown-coated: 
Ivs. long and narrow, 2 or 3 with each st.: scape 3-6 
in. high, bearing a dozen or less bright blue, more or 
less hanging, white-centered fls. Asia Minor and 
Crete. B.M. 6433. Gn. 28, p. 179. Runs into many 
forms, one of which has white fls. C. gigantea, Hort., 

is a larger form of it, 
distinct in habit. C. 
grandifldra, Hort., is 
a large garden form, 
with fls. violet -blue 
and white in the 
throat. Var. F6rbesii, 
Hort., somewhat taller 
and bearing more fls. 
C. amabilis Leichtlinii, 
Hort., is a very hand- 
some form, 2 weeks 
later than the others: 
fls. 1% in. across, with 
broad full segms. of 
soft creamy white 
shaded rose-purple. 
C. Tmol&sii, Hort., is 
a late-blooming form, 
bright blue and white, 
apparently a variant 
of C. Lucilise. 

sardensis, Drude. 
Fls. 2-6, smaller, much 
darker blue with no 
white in the eye, the 
perianth -limb twice 
longer than the tube: 
Ivs. channeled. Sardis. 
Gn. 28:178. Probably 
a form of C. Lucilise. 

cretica, Boiss. & 
Held. Slender: fls. 
smaller and fewer (1-2 
on a scape) than C. 
Lucilise, white or very 
pale blue. Crete. Of 
little horticultural 

Allenii, Hort. (Chio- 
noscilla Allenii, Hort.). 
921. Chionodoxa Luciliae. (XH) Perianth segms. cut to 

the base: habit of C. Lucilise, but the white eye is 
indistinct. Supposed natural hybrid of Scilla bifolia and 
Chionodoxa Lucilise. G.C. III. 21 : 191. There is said to 
be another C. Allenii that is a direct selection probably 
from C. Lucilise, very like var. grandiflora. Chionoscilla 
Penryi is another Chionodoxax Scilla hybrid, the exact 
parentage not being stated. L H B 


Hybrids of Chionodoxa 
and Scilla; consult these 

DENDRON (Greek, 
signifying handflower- 
tree). Sterculiacese. 
Odd -flowered orna- 
mental tree of Mexico 
and to be expected 
in West Indies and 
elsewhere in cultiva- 

A mono ty pic 
genus, which together 
with the Californian 
forms the remarkable 
group Fremontieae. 
The fls. are devoid 
of a corolla, but in 
its place have a large 
deeply 5-parted cup- 
shaped calyx, con- 
cave at the base, in 
which there are 5 
glands which secrete 
an abundance of 
honey; stamens 
united together for 
about one-third their length, above which they separate 
into 5 rays bearing linear anthers which dehisce by a 
longitudinal groove; style issuing from the center of 
the stamens and terminating in a pointed stigma: fr. a 
woody caps, with 5 valvate dehiscent lobes: foliage 
linden-like and densely clothed with stellate hairs. 

platanoides, Baill. (Cheirostemon platanoides, 
Humb. & Bonpl.). The celebrated MACPALXOCHI- 
also called MANO DE Mico, MONKEY'S HAND, and 
DEVIL'S HAND. Fig. 922. The remarkable feature of 
the fl. is the form of the bright red stamens, which 
resemble the fingers of a human hand and are tipped 
with appendages like claws; from the base of the 
fingers issues the style which is more or less like a 
thumb. A single tree growing near the city of Toluca 
was known to the ancient Mexicans, who regarded it 
with superstitious- veneration. It was of great age and 
was supposed to be the only tree of its kind in the world. 
But an entire grove of the trees was discovered in 
Guatemala on the slope of the Volcano de Agua, near 
the town of Antigua, whence in pre-Columbian times 
the specimen had been brought. This established 
itself on the slope of the volcano of Toluca, where the 
conditions of soil and climate were similar to those of 
its original habitat. W> E SAFFORD. 

CHIRITA (Hindostani name). Gesneracese. Plants 
much like gloxinias and streptocarpuses. A genus of 100 
species, none of which is in the American trade. They 
are natives of E. Asia and are herbs or low undershrubs 
with opposite, often unequal Ivs. : fls. in shades of pur- 
ple and blue, tubular, in clusters on the tops of short 
scapes. For cult., see Gloxinia. 

C. barbata, Sprague. Perennial: fls. pedicellate; corolla funnel- 
shaped, bluish lilac, with yellow band in front. India. B.M. 
8200. C. rupestris, Ridl. Bushy, compact annual. Malay 
Peninsula. B.M. 8333. C. sinensis, Lindl., is the best known 

922. Chiranthodendron platanoides. 
The hand-flower. ( X 1 A) 




species and is Well worth cult. It has bright green Ivs. and scapose 
cymes of blue and white fls., the yellow anthers of which add 
attractiveness. B.R. 30: 59. A variegated form is known. 


CHIRONIA (classical mythological name). Gen- 
tianacese. A dozen or so soft perennial herbs or shrubs 
of Afr., rarely seen in collections of greenhouse mate- 
rial. Fls. in shades of red and purple, terminal, with a 
salver-form corolla and short tube: Ivs. opposite, ses- 
sile, on single or branching sts. Most of them are from 
the Cape region. 

CHIVE, or CHIVES (written also Give). Allium 
Schoendprasum, Linn., a perennial plant native to 
Europe and the northern borders of the United States 
and northward. See Allium. The leaves of chive 
are used green as seasoning in soups, salads and 
stews. Chive grows 6 to 8 inches high, making 
dense mats of narrow hollow leaves, and bloom- 
ing freely in violet- 
colored heads, which 
scarcely overtop the foli- 
age; bulbs small, oval. 
The plant makes an ex- 
cellent permanent edg- 
ing, and is worth growing 
for this purpose alone. 
It is easily propagated 
by dividing the clumps; 
but, like other tufted 
plants, it profits by hav- 
ing the stools broken up 
and replanted every few 
years. It rarely seeds. 
It thrives in any garden 
soil. The leaves may be 
cut freely, for they 
quickly grow again. 
L. H. B. 

icate flower, from the 
Greek) . A maryllidacese. 
Tropical American sum- 
mer - flowering bulbs. 
Allied to Zephyranthes. 

Flowers erect, yellow, 
fragrant, in a small 2- 
bracted umbel, termina- 
ting a solid scape, long- 
tubed, with wide-spread- 
ing segms.; stamens 6, 
inserted at the throat, 
the filaments unequal 
and dilated at base : fr. a 
3-valved caps. : Ivs. long 
and strap-shaped: bulb 
tunicate. Three or four species. Mex., and S. Amer. 

Chlidanthuses are increased by offsets or by seeds. 
The bulbs should be kept dry and cool during winter 
and in spring started in a moderately warm house. 
After flowering, care must be taken to have the bulbs 
make their annual growth. They may either be grown 
in pots plunged in ashes, or planted out where they 
can be watered occasionally during dry weather. Like 
other similar plants, they will benefit by a mulching 
of spent hops or rotted manure. (G. W. Oliver.) 

fragrans, Herb. (C. liiteiis, Voss). Bulb large and 
ovoid: Ivs. about 6, appearing in spring or early sum- 
mer with the fls., narrow, glaucous, obtuse: fls. 4 or 
less in each umbel, 3 in. or less long, nearly sessile, 
erect, on a 2-edged scape or peduncle 10 in. or less high. 
Andes. B.R. 640. F.S. 4:326. A good summer-bloom- 
ing plant. 

Ehrenbergii, Kunth. Somewhat taller: fls. yellow, 
nearly horizontal, distinctly stalked, the 3 outer segms. 

wider than the inner, 

Mex. Perhaps a form of the 
L. H. B. 

923. Chloris elegans. 

CHLORANTHUS (green flower). Chloranthdcex. 
Tropical herbs, shrubs or trees, one of which is some- 
times grown under glass in the North. 

Perennial aromatic herbs or evergreen shrubs, with 
jointed sts. opposite simple Ivs., and small, inconspic- 
uous fls., in slender terminal spikes: perianth repre- 
sented by a single scale, in the axil of which is the 
1-loculed ovary and mostly 3 united stamens (the side 
stamens sometimes obsolete). Some 10 species in the 
eastern tropics. Two other genera (Ascarina and 
Hedyosmum) comprise the family Chloranthaceae, of 

the pepper-like series 
of plants. 

Blume. Shrub used 
for pot-growing, reach- 
ing a height of 1-2 ft., 
bearing glossy foliage 
and small yellow ber- 
ries: stamen single in 
each fl.: Ivs. long- 
lanceolate, acuminate, 
serrate. Tropics and 
sub tropics, Ceylon 
eastward. There is a 
variegated- leaved 
form. L. H. B. 

CHLORIS (the god- 
dess of flowers). Gra- 
minese. FINGER-GRASS. 
Annual or usually per- 
ennial grasses, some- 
times grown for decoration. 

Plants with flat blades, compressed sheaths 
and digitate unilateral spikes: spikelets with 
1 perfect fl. and 1 or more rudimentary sterile 
lemmas on the prolonged rachilla. Species 
about 40, in the warmer regions of the world. 
A few are cult, for ornament on account of 
the attractive infl. Of simple treatment. 

elegans, HBK. Fig. 923. Annual, 1-3 ft.: 
uppermost sheaths usually inflated around 
the base of the infl.; spikes 6-12, pale or dark, 
1-3 in. long; lemma fusiform, 1 line long, 
short-pilose at base and along the lower half 
of the keel, long-pilose on the margins near 
the apex, the awn about 5 lines long; rudi- 
ment cuneate, twice as long as broad, the 
single awn somewhat shorter than the awn of 
the perfect floret. Mex. Dept. Agric., Div. 
Agrost., 7: 192; 20: 102. 

polydactyla, Swartz (C. barbata, Nash). Fig. 
924. Perennial, 1-3 ft.: spikes several; awns 2-3 lines; 
rudiment triangular-truncate, the 2 awns about as 
long as the awn of the perfect floret. Tropics of both 

verticillata, Nutt. WINDMILL -GRASS. Perennial, 
4-15 in.: spikes several, slender, in 1-3 whorls, 2-4 in. 
long; awns 2-3 lines; lemma 1 line long, nearly glabrous; 
rudiment oblong-truncate, 1-awned. Dept. Agric., 
Div. Agrost. 7:191. Kan. to Texas. 

radiata, Swartz. Perennial, 2-3 ft.: spikes several, 
about 3 in. long; spikelets slender; lemma slightly cili- 
ate on callus and near apex, the awn 6 lines long; 
rudiment narrow, acute, the single awn about half 
as long as the awn of the perfect floret. W. Indies. 

gayana, Kunth. RHODES-GRASS. Robust perennial, 
with abundant foliage and terminal umbels of 6-15 
spikes. An African species at present under experi- 
mentation in U. S. in dry regions. Cult, in Austral. 
(See Agr. Gaz. New S. Wales 19:19, 118, 389 [1908]). 

924. Chloris poly- 




truncata, R. Br. (C. barbdta vera, Host., not C. bar- 
bdta, Swartz or Nash). STAR-GHASS. A stoloniferous 
perennial, with erect culms 1-3 ft.: spikes 6-10, 3-6 
in., becoming horizontal orreflexed; spikelets \Y^. lines, 
dark at maturity, the awns 3-6 lines long. Austral. 
Turner, Austr. Grasses 1:17. Cult, for ornament. 

C. grdcilis, Dur.=Leptochloa virgata, Beauv. This has been 
recommended as an ornamental. C. petrxa, Swartz, and C. glauca, 
Vasey, both handsome species from Fla., have been recommended 
for cult, as ornamentals. A g HlTCHCOCK. 

CHLOROCODON (Greek for green and bell, allud- 
ing to the flowers). Asdepiadacese. Twiners, one of 
which is planted far South. 

Large plants with opposite cordate entire heavy Ivs., 
notched stipules and purplish or greenish fls. in axillary 
panicles: calyx 5-parted; corolla deeply 5-lobed; corona 
of 5 lobes coming from the base of the filaments, the 
lobes obcordate or broader, sometimes with an erect 
or incurved projection or horn on the back; pollen 
granular. Two species in Trop. and S. Afr. C. 
ecornutus, N. E. Br., is apparently not in cult. 

Whiteii, Hook. f. Strong woody twiner, with large 
opposite cordate-ovate thick Ivs. and axillary clus- 
ters of odd fls. %-l in. diam.; corolla rotate-bell- 
shaped, thick; segms. ovate and acute, purple and with 
margins and central stripe green, and bearing long- 
notched lobes; corona-lobes horned; anthers connivent 
over the capitate stigma. Guinea to Natal. B.M. 
5898. G.C. III. 18:243. It is now cult, in S. Fla. and 
S. Calif. The roots are used medicinally in Natal, 
under the name of mundi. The plant is an interesting 
greenhouse climber, but not handsome. ,. jj, g. 

CHLOROGALUM (green and milk, from the Greek, 
referring to the juice of the plant). Liliacese. Hardy 
West American bulbs, allied to Camassia. 

Tall plants w r ith a tunicated bulb: Ivs. at base of st. 
long-linear, wavy-margined, those on the st. very small: 
fls. white or pink, in a panicle terminating a nearly 
leafless st., on jointed pedicels; segms. of perianth 6, 
3-nerved, at length twisting over the ovary; stamens 6, 
not exceeding segms.; style long and deciduous. Plants 
of easy cult., to be treated like camassias or ornithog- 
alums. Three species, in Calif. 

A. Pedicels nearly as long as the fls.: segms. spreading 
from near the base. 

pomeridianum, Kunth (Anthericum californicum, 
Hort.). SOAP-PLANT. AMOLE. St. reaching 5 ft., many- 
branched, from a very large bulb: fls. small (1 in. or 
less long) and star-like, numerous, white with purple 
veins, on spreading pedicels, opening in the afternoon 
(hence the specific name : pomeridianus, post-meridian) . 
Bulb used by Indians and Mexicans for soap-mak- 
ing. Has been catalogued as Anthericum californicum. 
Bulb 4 in. long and half as thick, covered with coarse 
"brown fibers. 

AA. Pedicels very short: segms. spreading from above 
the base. 

parvifldrum, Wats. Bulb small (1 in. diam.): st. 
1-3 ft., slender-branched: Ivs. narrow and grass-like: 
fls. pinkish, J^in. long; ovary broad and acute. 

angustifdlium, Kellogg. Low, about 1J^ ft. Resem- 
bles the last, but fls. white and green-lined and some- 
what larger, the ovary acute above; perianth funnel- 
form campanulate, the segms. narrow-oblong. 

C. Leichtlinii, Baker=Camassia Leichtlinii. 

L. H. B. 

CHLOROPHORA (Greek, referring to the fact that 
the fustic-tree bears a green dye). Moracese. Two 
milky-juiced alternate-leaved trees, one in Trop. Afr. 
and one in Trop. Amer. Lvs. entire or toothed: 
dioecious; male fls. in cylindrical spikes, the females in 
nearly globular or oblong heads, these clusters solitary 
in the axils; perianth of male fls. 4-parted, the segms. 

broad and obtuse; stamens 4; ovary a minute rudiment 
in the males; perianth of female fls. 4-parted or -divided, 
the segms. concave-thickened at the apex; style lateral 
on the oblique-ovoid ovary: achene equaling the peri- 
anth or somewhat exserted, covering the receptacle. 
C. tinctoria, Gaud. (Madura tinctoria, Don) is the 
fustic of the W. Indies. It reaches a height of 50 ft., 
and a diam. of trunk of 2 ft.: usually not thorny: Ivs. 
nearly entire, oblong, acuminate. Variable. The hand- 
some yellow wood yields a yellow dye, which is used 
also in the making of browns and greens; it is also a 
strong and resistant timber. L. H B 

CHLOROPHYTUM (name means, in Greek, green 
plant). Liliacese. Rhizomatous herbaceous plants, one 
of which is familiar in greenhouses. 

Very like Anthericum, but differing in the thickened 
filaments of the stamens and the 3-angled or 3-winged 
caps.: infl. often denser: Ivs. broader, often oblanceo- 
late and petiolate: seed disk-like. Some 60 or more 
species, in warm parts of Asia, Afr., and Amer. Con- 
sult Anthericum and Paradisea. 

elatum, R. Br. (Anthericum variegdtum, A. vittdtum, 
A. picturdtum, A. Williamsii, Hort.). Root fleshy and 
white: Ivs. freely produced from the crown, often 1 in. 
wide, flattish and bright green, or in the garden varie- 
ties with white lines along the margins, and often (var. 
picturatum) also with a yellow band down the center: 
scape terete and glabrous, 2-3 ft. high, branched; fls. 
white, Yiv\. long, with revolute oblanceolate segms., 
which are obscurely 3-nerved on the back. S. Afr. 
F.S. 21:2240-1. A valuable and common plant for 
vases and pots, and sometimes used in summer borders. 

Three species that recently have been mentioned in horticul- 
tural literature are: C. amaniense, Engler, from German E. Afr.; 
10 in.: Ivs. lanceolate-acuminate, 10 in. long and 3J^ in. or less 
broad, somewhat fleshy, bronze, with white margin: fls. greenish 
white, in cluster 6 in. long. C. comdsum, Wood (Natal Plants, fig. 
279), from Lake Albert, Cent. Afr. ; proliferous: Ivs. radical, linear, 
deep green, 2 ft. long: fls. small, white, soon fading, usually in 4's, 
in a branched cluster 3 ft. long. C. Hiiyghei, DeWild, Congo; 
jvs. in a basal tuft, lanceolate, petioled, about 18-20 in. long, 2-2| 
in. broad: fls. greenish white, about Jiin. long, in a bracted raceme 
2-3 ft. long. L jj g 


CHLOROXYLON (green wood: Greek). Rutdcese. 
One species of moderate-sized tree of India, slightly 
intro. in this country, C. Swietenia, DC. (Swietenia 
Chloroxylon, Roxbg.). Young parts gray-puberulent: 
Ivs. abruptly pinnate, the Ifts. 20-40, oblique and obtuse 
and entire: fls. small, 5-merous in terminal and axillary 
pubescent panicles; calyx deeply lobed; petals clawed, 
spreading; stamens 10; disk a 10-lobed pubescent 
body, in which the stamens are inserted: fr. a coria- 
ceous 3-celled caps. Heartwood fragrant, with a 
beautiful satiny luster, whence the name "Indian 
Satin-wood." An interesting tree for trial on the south- 
ern borders of the U. S. j^ jj g_ 

CHOCOLATE: Theobroma. 

CHOISYA (J. D. Choisy, Swiss botanist, 1799-1859). 
Rutdcese. One Mexican shrub, C. ternata, HBK., grown 
in S. Calif, and S. Fla., and sometimes under glass. It 
grows 4-8 ft. high, making a compact free-blooming 
bush, with opposite ternate Ivs., the Ifts. lance-oboyate 
or oblong, thick and entire, with pellucid dots: fls. in a 
terminal, forking cluster, white, fragrant, orange-like 
(whence the vernacular name "Mexican orange"), 1 in. 
across, with pellucid dots. R.H. 1869:330. Gn. 50, p. 
203. J.H. III. 34:253. A handsome shrub, worthy of 
greater popularity. It will endure several degrees of 
frost, and should succeed in the open in many of the 
southern states. Blossoms in S. Calif, at different sea- 
sons; it can be made to bloom, it is said, every two 
months by withholding water and then watering liber- 
ally, as is done with roses in S. France. Kardy against 
a wall in parts of S. England. L, j[. B. 




CHOKE-CHERRY: Prunus demissa (West) and P. virginiana 

CHONDROBOLLEA (compounded from Chpndrorhyncha and 
BolleaJ. A genus established to contain hybrids between these 
genera. See also Bolleo-Chondrorhyncha. 

CHONDROPETALUM : hybrids of Chondrorhyncha and 
Zygopetalum; see those genera. 

CHONDRORHYNCHA (cartilage and beak) . Orchidd- 
cese. Three species of S. American epiphytal orchids, 
practically unknown in the American trade. Cult, 
as for Odontoglossum crispum. They are short-stemmed 
herbs without pseudobulbs, and oblong, plicate, peti- 
oled Ivs., the simple scape bearing a single large, odd, 
yellowish fl. C. Chestertonii, Reichb. f. (O.K. 11:305; 
16:57), C. fimbriata, Reichb. f., and C. rbsea, Lindl., 
are the species. Keep cool and moist. A garden hybrid 
is reported between C. Chestertonii and Zygopetalum 
Mackayi under the name of Chondropetalum Fletcheri. 
O.R. 1908, 56, f. 8. GEORGE V. NASH. 

CHORISIA (Ludwig Choris, born 1795, artist of 
Kotzebue's expedition). Bombacdcese. Spiny trees of 
S. Amer. (3 species), one of which is somewhat cult. 
Lvs. alternate, digitate, of 5-7 entire or serrate Ifts. : fls. 
large, with 5 linear or oblong petals, the peduncles 
axillary or racemose; staminal tube double, the outer 
one short and with sterile anthers; ovary 5-loculed 
and many-ovuled: fr. a pear-shaped caps, with many 
silky seeds. C. specidsa, St. Hil., of Brazil, the "floss 
silk tree," is cult, in S. Calif., and is adapted to warm 
glasshouses. It is a medium-sized tree, allied to Ceiba 
and Bombax. Lfts. lanceolate, acuminate, dentate: 
calyx irregular, shining outside, but silky inside; petals 
obtuse, yellowish and brown-striped at the base, 
pubescent on the back. The soft silk or cotton of the 
seed-pods is used for pillows and cushions. L. jj. g 

CHORIZEMA (fanciful Greek name). Sometimes 
spelled Chorozema. Leguminbsse. Evergreen coolhouse 
small shrubs grown for the showy pea-like yellow 
orange and red, usually racemose flowers; spring- and 

Woody plants of diffuse or half-climbing habit, with 
thick and shining simple often spiny-toothed Ivs. and 
pea-like red or yellow fls. : calyx-lobes 5, the 2 upper ones 
mostly broader; petals clawed, the standard very broad, 
keel short; stamens not united: pod short, not con- 
stricted. About 15 species, in Austral., 3 of which 

925. Chorizema ilicifolium. ( X Ji) 

appear to be chiefly concerned in the garden forms. 
Handsome plants for the cool greenhouse, less popular 
in this country than abroad. When not grown too soft, 
they will stand slight frost at times. Grown in the open 
in S. Calif, and S. Fla. They are grown in a rather 
peaty soil, after the manner of azaleas, and usually 
rested in the open in summer. They are excellent for 
training on pillars and rafters. 

Chorizemas are among the most attractive spring- 
flowering plants, and they are not difficult to grow. 
Cuttings should be secured in March from medium- 
ripened wood and may be either potted singly in small 
pots, or several placed together in larger pots. The 

former method has the advantage, because when 
cuttings are well rooted in the small pots, they may be 
shifted along without so much disturbance to the roots. 
The cuttings root readily in a mixture of two parts 
sharp sand and one of peat, sifted through a fine sieve. 
They should be placed in a tight case or covered with a 
bell-glass in a temperature of 58 to 60 by night. A 
rise of 10 in the day will be sufficient. The inclosure 
that protects them from drafts should be opened a 
few minutes now and then to change the air. For 
potting chorizemas in the early stages, equal parts of 
good peat and sharp sand is about right. When a 
5- or 6-inch pot is reached, much less sand should be 
used, just enough to give the earth a gritty feeling and 
the peat may be in a rather rough state, just small 
enough to be conveniently used in potting. The potting 
should be firm, as loose potting is bad for all kinds of 
hardwood plants. Keep the plants shaded from the sun 
during the hot months, and use the syringe freely. 
Also pinching must be attended to from their early 
stages to insure a good bushy plant. It is best not to 
stop the plants after August, as they will begin then 
to set buds. A plant in a 5- or 6-inch pot may be 
grown the first year if properly attended to. The 
plants should be wintered in a night temperature of 
40 with a rise of 10 or 15 during the day. The 
second summer, and from that on as long as the 
plants are kept, they do better if plunged in a bed 
of clean coal-ashes out-of-doors, provided there is no 
danger from frost; by so doing, a much shorter-jointed 
growth will be the result. Plants well established in 
their pots may be fed with liquid manure until they set 
buds. A 3-inch potful of cow- or horse-urine to two 
and one half or three gallons of water, will be sufficient, 
and for a change a handful of soft-coal soot to the same 
amount of water; but always water twice with clean 
water between applications. Brown scale sometimes 
gets a foothold on chorizemas and it may be eradicated 
by fumigation with cyanide of potassium. Red-spider 
may be kept down with the syringe. (George F. 

varium, Benth. (C. elegans, Hort.). The common 
cult, species, in several forms: erect, 4-6 ft., pubescent 
on under side of Ivs. and on branches: Ivs. cordate- 
ovate, undulate and prickly-toothed, 2 in. or less long: 
fls. in many pubescent racemes; standard light orange, 
wings and keel handsome purple-red. B.R. 25:49. 
Garden forms are C. Chdndleri, with yellow-red stand- 
ard, and blood-red wings, the fls. large and numerous; 
and such names as grandiflorum, macrophyllum, lati- 
folium, floribundum, multiflorum. C. Lowii, Hort., 
is a form of this species, with larger and brighter- 
colored fls. 

cordatum, Lindl. (C. superbum, Lem.). Tall slen- 
der glabrous shrub (7-10 ft.), with weak branches: Ivs. 
cordate-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 2 in. or less long, 
small-toothed and more or less prickly: fls. many; 
standard scarlet-red, wings and keel purple-red. B.R. 
24:10. I.H. :29. Var. rotundifolium, Hort., has 
roundish Ivs. Var. splendens, Hort., is offered. 

ilicifdlium, Labill. Fig. 925. Low and diffuse, weak, 
glabrous, the branches slender and erect or drooping: 
Ivs. ovate to lanceolate, 1 in. long, often cordate at 
base, thick, coarsely veined, strongly undulate and 
with prickly teeth or lobes: fls. in few-fld. loose racemes, 
orange-red in spring and summer. B.M. 1032 (as C. 
nanum). B.R. 1513 (as C. triangulare) . L H. B. 

CHRISTMAS FLOWER: Euphorbia pulcherrima. 
CHROSPERMA: Zygadenus. 

CHROZOPHORA (Greek, color-bearing, on account 
of their use). Euphorbiacese . Dye-yielding herbs. Lvs. 
alternate, stellate hairy: fls. monrecious; staminate 
calyx 5-parted, valvate; petals free; styles biparted; 




ovary 3-celled, 3-ovuled. Nine, species chiefly 
of Old World deserts. C. tinctdria, Juss. (Crbton 
tinctbrius, Linn.), TURNSOLE, a Medit. annual, for- 
merly used for its blue dye, is listed in some European 

CHRYSALIDOCARPUS (Greek for golden fruit}. 
Palmaceae, tribe Areceas. Spineless stoloniferous fan 
palms, with medium fasciculate ringed stems. 

Leaves pinnatisect, long-acuminate; segms. about 100, 
bifid at the apex, the lateral nerves remote from the 
midrib: fr. usually violet or almost black. Species 1, 
which is a popular florist's plant. Madagascar. Treated 

926. Chrysalidocarpus 

as a part of Hyophprbe by Engler and Prantl, but here 
kept distinct, as it is commonly known as Chrysa- 
lidocarpus by cultivators. 

lutescens, Wendl. (Hyophorbe indica, Gaertn. H. 
Commersonidna, Mart. Areca lutescens, Bory). Fig. 
926. St. 30 ft. high, 4-6 in. diam., cylindrical, smooth, 
thickened at the base: Ivs. very long; segms. almost 
opposite, lanceolate, 2 ft. long, 2*/6 in. wide, acute, 
with 3 prominent primary nerves, which are convex 
below and acutely 2-faced above. Bourbon. A.G. 13: 
141. A.F. 4:566. In growing Chrysalidocarpus (or 
Areca) lutescens in quantity, it will be found a good 
plan to sow the seeds either on a bench, in boxes or 
seed-pans, so prepared that the seedlings will remain 
in the soil in which they germinate until they have 
made 2 or more Ivs. The first If. made above the 
soil is small, and if plants are potted off at this stage 
they must be very carefully watered in order not to sour 
the soil. In the preparation of the receptacles for the seed, 
a little gravel in the bottom will be found good, as the 
roots work very freely through it, and when the time 
comes to separate the plants previous to potting, it is 
an easy matter to disentangle the roots without bruis- 
ing them. Probably the plan which works best is to 
wash the soil and gravel entirely from among the roots. 
Pot in soil not too dry, and for the next few days keep 
the house extra warm and humid, and the plants shaded 
from the sun without any moisture applied to the soil. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM (Greek, golden flower). In- 
cluding Pyrethrum. Compdsitx. Plate XXX. A diverse 
group of herbaceous and sub-shrubby plants, mostly 
hardy, and typically with white or yellow single 
flowers, but the more important kinds greatly modified 
in form and color, grown in the open or flowered under 
glass in fall. 

Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes partly woody, 
glabrous or loosely pubescent or rarely viscid, usually 
heavy-scented : Ivs. alternate, various, from nearly or 
quite entire to much dissected : heads many-fld., termi- 
nating long peduncles or disposed in corymbose clus- 
ters, radiate (rays sometimes wanting) ; disk-fls. perfect 
and mostly fertile; ray-fls. pistillate, mostly fertile, 
the ray white, yellow, rose-colored, toothed or entire; 
receptacle naked, flat or convex; involucre-scales 
imbricated and appressed, mostly in several series, the 
margins usually scarious: achene of disk- and ray-fls. 
similar, striate or angled or terete or more or less ribbed, 
those of the ray-fls. often 3-angled; pappus 0, or a 
scale-like cup or raised border. Probably nearly 150 
recognizable species, in temperate and boreal regions 
in many parts of the globe, but mostly in the Old 

The genus Chrysanthemum, as now accepted by 
botanists, includes many diverse species so far as gen- 
eral appearance is concerned, but nevertheless well 
agreeing within themselves in systematic marks and by 
these same marks being separated from related groups. 
The marks are in large part set forth in the preceding 
paragraph. Bentham and Hooker make twenty-two 
sub-groups (of which about six include the garden forms) , 
based chiefly on the way in which the seeds are ribbed, 
cornered, or winged, and the form of the pappus. The 
garden pyrethrums cannot be kept distinct from chrys- 
anthemums by garden characters. The garden con- 
ception of Pyrethrum is a group of hardy herbaceous 
plants with mostly single flowers, as opposed to the 
florists' or autumn chrysanthemums, which reach per- 
fection only under glass, and the familiar annual kinds 
which are commonly called summer chrysanthemums. 
When the gardener speaks of pyrethrums, he usually 
means P. roseum. Many of the species described below 
have been called pyrethrums at various times, but they 
all have the same specific name under the genus Chrys- 
anthemum, except the most important of all garden 
pyrethrums, viz., P. roseum, which is C. coccineum. 
The feverfew and golden feather are still sold as 
pyrethrums, and there are other garden species of 
less importance. The botanical conception of Pyre- 
thrum is variously defined; the presence of a rather 
marked pappus-border on the achene is one of the dis- 
tinctions; the pyrethrums are mostly plants with large 
and broad heads either solitary or in loose corymbose 
clusters, the rays usually conspicuous and commonly not 
yellow, and the fruits five- to ten-ribbed. Hoffmann, 
in Engler & Prantl "Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien," 
adopts eight sections, one of them being Tanacetum 
(tansy) which most botanists prefer to keep distinct. 

Although the genus is large and widespread, the 
number of plants of interest to the cultivator is rela- 
tively few. Of course the common garden chrysanthe- 
mum, derived apparently from two species, is the most 
useful. The insect powder known as "pyrethrum," is 
produced from the dried flowers of C. dnerarisefolium 
and C. coccineum. The former species grows wild in 
Dalmatia, a long narrow mountainous tract of the 
Austrian empire. "Dalmatian insect powder" is one 
of the commonest insecticides, especially for household 
pests. C. cinerarisefolium is largely cultivated in France. 
C. coccineum is cultivated in California, and the prod- 
uct is known as buhach. 

There are over one hundred books about the garden 
chrysanthemum, and its magazine literature is proba- 
bly exceeded in bulk only by that of the rose. It is the 
flower of the East, as the rose is the flower of the West. 




Aside from oriental literature, there were eighty-three 
books mentioned by C. Harman Payne, in the Cata- 
logue of the National Chrysanthemum Society for 
1896. Most of these are cheap cultural guides, circu- 
lated by the dealers. The botany of the two common 
species has been monographed by W. B. Hemsley in 
the Gardeners' Chronicle, series III, vol. 6, pp. 521, 
555, 585, 652, and in the Journal of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society, vol. 12, part I. The great repositories 
of information regarding the history of the chrysanthe- 
mum, from the garden point of view, are the scattered 
writings of C. Harman Payne, his "Short History of 
the Chrysanthemum," London, 1885, and the older 
books of F. W. Burbidge and John Salter. For informa- 
tion about varieties, see the Catalogues of the National 
Chrysanthemum Society (England) and the Liste De- 
scriptive, and supplements thereto, by O. Meulenaere, 

Ghent, Belgium. 
There are a 
number of rather 
expensive art 
works, among 
which one of the 
most delightful 
is the "Golden 
Flower: Chry- 
edited by F. 
Schuyler Math- 
ews, Prang, 
Boston, 1890. 
mum Culture 
for America," 
by James Mor- 
ton, Clarksville, 
Tenn., published 
in New York in 
1891, was the 
first authentic 
American work. 
Within the past 
few years have 
appeared "The 
mum," by 
Arthur Herring- 
ton, "Smith's 
mum Manual," by Elmer D. Smith, and recently 
"Chrysanthemums and How to Grow Them," by I. L. 

Aside from the florist's chrysanthemum (C. hor- 
torum), no particular skill is required in the growing of 
these plants, although great perfection is attained by 
some gardeners in the handling of individual plants 
of the marguerites (C. frutescens). The hardy border 
perennial Chrysanthemums may be either small- 
flowered rugged forms of C. hortorum, as the "hardy 
pompons" and also the "artemisias" of old gardens, 
or they may be other species. Some of these other 
species are the "pyrethrums" of gardens, and some (as 
the C. maximum and C. uliginosum class) are the 
"moon daisies" and "moonpenny daisies" of the 
hardy perennial plantation. Some of the very dwarf 
tufted kinds (as C. Tchihatchewii) make excellent 
edging plants. The moon daisies deserve to be better 
known for mass planting and bold lines when a great 
display of heavy white bloom is wanted. Most of 
them bloom the first season from early-sown seed. 
The Shasta daisy and its derivatives are of the moon 
daisy group. They all profit by a covering of coarse 
mulch in the fall. See Pyrethrum and Marguerite. 

The annual chrysanthemums are easily grown flower- 
garden subjects, suitable for a bold late display in 
places where delicate and soft effects are not desired. 

C. carinatum, C. coronarium and C. segetum are the 
common sources of these annuals. They are hardy and 
rugged; and they need much room. 

927. Chrysanthemum carinatum, the form 
sold as C. Burridgeanum. ( X , J 3) 


achillesefolium, 8. 

glaucum, 10. 

ornatum, 7. 

anethifolium, 13. 

gracile, 5. 

Parthenium, 10. 

annulatum, 1. 

grandiflorum, 3, 12. 

pinnatifidum, 20. 

arcticum, 22. 

hortorum, 6. 

prxaltum, 10. 

atrosanguineum, 14. 

hybridum, 14. 

pumilum, 3. 

aureum, 10. 

indicum, 6. 

Robinsonii, 18. 

Balsamita, 16. 

laciniatum, 10. 

roseum, 14. 

Burridgeanum, 1. 

lacustre, 17. 

segetum, 3. 

carinatum, 1. 

latifolium, 17. 

selaginoides, 10. 

cinerarisefolium, 15. 

Leucanthemum, 20. 

Shasta daisy, 18. 

coccineum, 14. 

marginatum, 7. 

sinense, 5. 

coronarium, 2. 

Marschallii, 14. 

tanacetoides, 16. 

corymbosum, 9. 

matricaroides, 1. 

Tchihatcheffii, 11. 

Davidsii, 18. 

maximum, 18. 

Tchihatchewii, 11. 

Dunnettii, 1. 

morifolium, 5. 

tricolor, 1. 

filiforme, 18. 

multicaule, 4. 

uliginosum, 19. 

fceniculaceum, 13. 

nipponicum. 21. 

venustum, 1. 

frutescens, 12. 

A. Plant annual (at least so treated in cult.): the 

"summer chrysanthemums." 

B. Rays typically white. 

1. carinatum, Schousb. (C. tricolor, Andr. C. matri- 
caroides, Hort.). Fig. 927. Glabrous annual, 2-3 ft. 
high: st. much branched: Ivs. rather fleshy, pinnatifid: 
fls. in solitary heads which are nearly 2 in. across, with 
typically white rays and a yellow ring at the base; 
involucral bracts carinate (keeled). Summer. The 
two colors, together with the dark purple disk, gave 
rise to the name "tricolor." The typical form, intro. 
into England from Morocco in 1798, was pictured in 
B.M. 508 (1799). By 1856 signs of doubling appeared 
(F.S. 11:1099). In 1858 shades of red in the rays 
appeared in a strain intro. by F. K. Burridge, of Col- 
chester, England, and known as C. Burridgeanum, Hort. 
(see B.M. 5095, which shows a ring of red on the rays, 
adding a fourth color to this remarkably brilliant and 
varied fl., and F.S. 13:1313, which also shows C. 
venustum, Hort., in which the rays are entirely red, 
except the original yellow circle at the base). G. 2:307. 
Gn.W. 24:675. C. annulatum, Hort., is a name for 
the kinds with circular bands of red, maroon, or purple. 
R.H. 1869:450. C. Dunnetti, Hort., is another seed- 
grower's strain. There are full double forms in yellow 
margined red, and white margined red, the fls. 3 in. 
across (see R.H. 1874:410), under many names. See, 
also, Gn. 26, p. 440; 10, p. 213; 21:22. R.H. 1874, 
p. 412. S.H. 2:477. G.W. 14, p. 99 The comnKmest 
and gaudiest of annual chrysanthemums, distinguished 
by the keeled or ridged scales of involucre and the dark 
purple disk. 

BB. Rays typically light yellow. 

2. coronirium, Linn. (Anthemis coronaria, Hort.), 
Annual, 3-4 ft.: Ivs. bipinnately parted, somewhat 
clasping or eared at the base, glabrous, the segms. 
closer together than in C. carinatum: involucral scales 
broad, scarious; rays lemon-colored or nearly white. 
July-Sept. Medit. Gn.26:440. G.C. II. 19:541. 
The full double forms, with rays reflexed and imbrica- 
ted, are more popular than the single forms. This and 
C. carinatum are the common "summer chrysanthe- 
mums." This is common in old gardens, and is also 
somewhat used for bedding and for pot culture. 

BBB. Rays typically golden yellow. 

3. segetum, Linn. CORN MARIGOLD. Annual, 1-1^6 
ft. : Ivs. sparse, clasping, oblong to oblanceolate, vari- 
able, the lower petioled and the upper clasping, incis- 
ions coarse or fine, deep or shallow, but usually only 
coarsely serrate, with few and distant teeth, the lower 
ones less cut: bracts of involucre broad, obtuse; rays 
obovate and emarginate, golden yellow. June-Aug. 
Eu., N. Afr., W. Asia. Escaped in waste places. Gn. 
18, p. 195. R.H. 1895, pp. 448, 449. Var. grandifldrum, 
Hort., is a larger-fld. form of this weed, which is com- 



mon in the English grain fields. Forms of the plant are 
cult.; the var. Cloth of Gold, J.H. III. 12:445, is one of 
the best. Var. pftmilum, Hort., very compact, 8 in. 
high. This species is much less popular than P. carina- 
tum and P. coronarium. It is forced to a slight extent 
for winter bloom. 

4. multicaMe, Desf . Glabrous and glaucous annual, 
6-12 in. high: sts. numerous, simple or branched, stout, 
terete: Ivs. fleshy, variable, usually linear-spatulate, 
1-3 in. long and H~%i n - broad, very coarsely toothed 
or lobed, sometimes shorter, with few narrow-linear, 
acute, entire segms. about 1 line broad: rays much 
shorter and rounder than in C. segetum, golden yellow. 
Algeria. B.M. 6930. Rarer in cult, than the last. Said 
to be useless as a cut-fl. 

AA. Plant perennial. 

B. The florist's chrysanthemum, and wild progenitors or 
near relatives, grown as pot or bench subjects 
because the seasons are not long enough, in the N., 
for full maturity in the open: rays of many forms 
and colors in cult.; heads often double: Ivs. usually 
lobed or strongly notched. 

5. morifSlium, Ram. (C. sinense, Sabine). Fig. 928. 
Perennial, one of the sources (with C. indicum) of the 
large florist's chrysanthemums: wild plant shrubby, 
erect and rigid, 2-3 ft., branching, few-lvd.: Ivs. thick 
and stiff, 2 in. long, densely white-tomentose beneath, 
variable in shape from ovate to lanceolate, cuneate at 
base, margin entire or coarsely toothed : outer bracts of 
involucre thick, linear, acute, white-tomentose; fl.- 
heads small, with yellow disk and white rays somewhat 
exceeding the disk. China. G.C. III. 31:302 (adapted 
in Fig. 928). Var. gracile, Hemsl. Lvs. thin or only 
moderately thick, palmately lobed or pinnately lobed, 
dentate, the teeth often mucronate: outer involucral 
bracts herbaceous, linear and acute, varying in pubes- 
cence; rays white, pink or lilac, equaling or exceeding 
the disk. China, Mongolia, Japan. 

6. indicum, Linn. Fig. 929. Much like the last, but 
Ivs. thin and flaccid, pinnately parted, with acute or 

928. Wild form of Chrysanthemum morifolium, 
as grown in England. 

929. Wild form of Chrysanthemum indicum, 
as grown in England. 

mucronate teeth: outer involucral bracts broad and 
scarious except the herbaceous midnerye; rays yellow, 
shorter than diam. of the disk. China and Japan. 
B.M. 7874. G.C. III. 8:565; 28:342; 31:303 (adapted 
in Fig. 929). This species is not native to India, and 
therefore Linnaeus' name is inappropriate. Abroad, 
C. indicum is often used in a wide sense, to include C. 
morifolium. In recent years, both C. morifolium and 

C. indicum have been grown in England from wild 
stock, and from such studies of them the present 
descriptions and figures are drawn. From these plants 
it is supposed, by endless variation and by hybridiza- 
tion, the highly developed glasshouse or florist's 
chrysanthemums have come, a group that may be 
distinguished. as C. hortdrum, Figs. 938-50. 

7. ornatum, Hemsl. (C. margindtum, Hort.). Allied 
to the above two species, and perhaps a form of C. 
morifolium: bushy plant, 3-4 ft. : Ivs. palmately lobed, 
ovate in outline, white-tomentose beneath and on the 
margin, 1^-2 in. long: fl.-heads loosely corymbose, 2 
in. or less across, the disk yellow and rays white and 
broad; bracts of involucre in about 3 series, all similar, 
white in center, purple-brown on margin : achenes small, 
oblique, glabrous. B.M. 7965. G.C. III. 35:51. Gn. 71, 
p. 53; 73, p. 90. A recent introduction; grows well in 
the open in England, but does not bloom unless taken 

BB. The garden pyrethrums and others; heads usually 

not highly doubled and modified. 
c. Lvs. cut to the midrib or nearly so. 

D. Heads borne in corymbs, i.e., flat-topped, dense clusters. 

E. Rays yellow. 

8. achilleaefdlium, DC. (Achillea aitrea, Lam.). Per- 
ennial, 2 ft.: st. usually unbranched, except along the 
creeping and rooting base: sts. and Ivs. covered with 
fine soft grayish white hairs, oblong in outline, about 
1 in. long, j^in. wide, finely cut: rays 7-8, short, a 
little longer than the involucre. Siberia, Caucasus. 
Rare in cult. Less popular than the achilleas, with 
larger fl.-clusters. 

EE. Rays white. 

9. corymbdsum, Linn. (Pyrethrum corymbbsum, 
Willd.). Robust perennial, 1-4 ft.: st. branched at the 
apex: Ivs. sometimes 6 in. long, 3 in. wide, widest at 
middle and tapering both ways, cut to the very midrib, 
the segms. alternating along the midrib. Eu., N. Afr., 
Caucasus. G.C. II. 20:201. Rare in cult. Segms. 
may be coarsely or finely cut, and Ivs. glabrous or vil- 
lous beneath. 




10. Parthenium, Pers. (Pyrethrum Parthenium, 
Smith. Parthenium Matricdria, Gueld.). FEVERFEW. 
Fig. 930. Glabrous strong-scented perennial, 1-3 ft., 
much branched in the taller forms : Ivs. ovate or oblong- 
ovate in outline, pinnatisect or bi-pinnatisect, smooth 
or lightly pubescent; segms. oblong or elliptic-oblong, 
pinnatifid or cut, the uppermost more or less confluent. : 
fl.-heads small, many, stalked, corymbose; disk yellow; 
rays white, oblong, equaling or exceeding the disk. 
Eu. to the Caucasus. Some authors regard this as one 
widely variable species; others make at least two spe- 
cies, one of them (C. prsealtum, Vent.) being the Cau- 
casian form, distinguished by more deeply cut Ivs., 
longer-peduncled heads, and rays longer than the disk 
rather than equaling it (as in C. Parthenium type). 
There are double-fld. and also discoid forms. Var. 
a&reum, Hort. (P. aureum, Hort.), is the GOLDEN 

930. Chrysanthemum 

Parthenium. Feverfew. 


FEATHER commonly used for carpet-bedding. It has 
yellow foliage, which becomes green later in the season, 
especially if fls. are allowed to form. It is used for 
edgings and cover. Var. afcreum crispum, Hort., is 
dwarf, compact, with foliage curled like parsley. Var. 
selaginoides, and var. laciniatum, Hort., are distinct 
horticultural forms. Var. glaftcum, Hort., has dusty 
white foliage, and does not bloom until the second year. 
Intro, by Damman & Co., 1895. All these varieties are 
prop, by seeds. The feverfew is common about old 
yards, and is much employed in home gardens as 
edging. In its undeveloped and prevailing forms, it is 
one of the "old-fashioned" plants. 

DD. Heads borne singly on the branches or sts. (or at 
least not definitely clustered). 

E. Height less than 1 ft. 

11. TchiMtchewii, Hort. (C. Tchihdtcheffii, Hort.). 
TURFING DAISY. Densely tufted perennial for carpet- 

ing dry, waste places; height 2-9 in. : sts. very numerous, 
rooting at the base: foliage handsome dark green, 
finely cut, the segms. linear, persisting into winter: 
fl.-heads solitary on axillary peduncles, borne profusely 
for several weeks; rays white, disk yellow. Asia 
Minor. R.H. 1869, p. 380, desc., and 1897, p. 470. Gn. 
26, p. 443. Prop, by division of roots or simply by 
cutting the rooted sts., but chiefly by seeds. Highly 
recommended abroad for spring and early summer 
bloom in edgings and low formal plantings. Said to 
thrive in dry places and under trees. 

EE. Height more than 1 ft. 

F. Group of greenhouse plants (at the N.), shrubby at the 
base: sts branched at the top: rays white or lemon. 

G. Foliage not glaucous. 

12. frutescens, Linn. MARGUERITE. PARIS DAISY. 
Figs. 931, 932. Usually glabrous, 3 ft. high, peren- 
nial: Ivs. fleshy, green: heads numerous, always 
single; rays typically white, with a lemon-colored 
(never pure yellow or golden) form. Canaries. 
G.C. II. 13:561; III. 35:216. Gn. 12, 
p. 255; 17, p. 5; 26, p. 445; 70, p. 310. 
Intro, into England. 1699. This is the 
popular florists' Marguerite, which can 

931. Chrysanthemum frutescens. 

The Marguerite or Paris daisy. 


be had in flower the year round, but is especially grown 
for winter bloom. Var. grandifldrum, Hort., is the 
large-fld. prevailing form. The lemon-colored form 
seems to have originated about 1880. Under this 
name an entirely distinct species has also been pass- 
ing, yet it has never been advertised separately in the 
American trade. See No. 13. 

GG. Foliage glaucous. 

13. anethifdlium, Brouss. (C. foeniculaceum, Steud. 
P. fceniculdceum var. bipinnatifidum, DC.). GLAU- 
COUS MARGUERITE. Fig. 932. Perennial: rarer in cult, 
than C. frutescens (which see), but distinguished by its 
glaucous hue, and by the way in which the Ivs. are cut. 
The segms. are narrower, more deeply cut, and more 
distant than in No. 12. The Ivs. are shorter petioled. 
Canaries. This species is doubtless cult, in American 
greenhouses as C. frutescens. A lemon-fld. form is 
shown in R.H. 1845:61 but called C. frutescens. 




FF. Group of hardy outdoor herbs: sts. usually un- 
branched: rays white or red, never yellow. 
G. Foliage not glaucous: fls. sometimes double. 
14. coccineum, Willd. (Pyrethrum roseum, Bieb., not 
Web. & Mohr. P. hybridum, Hort.). Fig. 933. Gla- 
brous perennial, 1-2 ft. high: st. usually unbranched, 

932. Leaves of Chrysanthemum frutescens (left) and 
C. anethifolium (right). (XI) 

rarely branched at the top: Ivs. thin, dark green, or in 
dried specimens dark brown: involucral scales with a 
brown margin; rays white or red in such shades as 
pink, carmine, rose, lilac, and crimson, and sometimes 
tipped yellow, but never wholly yellow. Caucasus, 
Persia. F.S. 9:917. Gn. 26, pp. 440, 443. Gng. 2:7; 
5:309. R.H. 1897, p. 521. Not B.M. 1080, 
which is C coronopifolium. The first picture of a full 
double form is R. H. 1864:71. This species is the most 
important and variable of all the hardy herbaceous 
kinds. There have been perhaps 700 named horti- 
cultural varieties. There is an anemone-fld. form with 
a high disk. The species is also cult, in Calif, and 
France for insect powder. C. atrosanguineum, Hort., is 
said to be a good horticultural variety with dark crim- 
son fls. The C. roseum of Weber & Mohr being a ten- 
able name, Hoffmann proposes Ascherson's name, C. 
Marschallii, for the P. roseum of Bieberstein; but 
Willdenow's C. coccineum is here retained. 

GG. Foliage glaucous: fls. never double. 

15. cinerariaef61ium, Vis. Glaucous perennial, slen- 
der, 12-15 in. high: sts. unbranched, with a few short, 
scattered hairs below the fl. : Ivs. long-petioled, silky 
beneath, with distant segms. : involucral scales scarious 
and whitish at the apex. Dalmatia. B.M. 6781. Said 
to be chief source of Dalmatian insect powder. Rarely 
cult, as border plant. Common in botanic gardens. 

cc. Lvs. not cut to the midrib, pinnatifid or coarsely 
toothed (except perhaps in No. 22}. 

D. Heads borne in dusters, mostly flat-topped 

16. Balsamita, Linn. (Tanacetum Balsdmita, Linn. 
Pyrethrum Balsdmita, Willd. Balsdmita vulgaris, 
Willd.). COSTMARY. MINT GERANIUM. Sometimes 
erroneously called "lavender," from its sweet agree- 
able odor. Tall and stout perennial: Ivs. sweet-scented, 
oval or oblong, obtuse, margined with blunt or sharp 
teeth, lower ones petioled, upper ones almost sessile, 
the largest Ivs. 5-11 in. long, 1^-2 in. wide: pappus 
a short crown. W. Asia. Typically with short white 
rays, but when they are absent the plant is var. tana- 
cetoides, Boiss. Fig. 934. Rayless. This has escaped 
in a few places from old gardens: it seems to be the 
prevailing garden form. 

DD. Heads borne singly on the branches or sts., or at 
least not in definite clusters; rays large, white. 

17. lacustre, Brot. (C. latifolium, DC.). Fig. 935. 
Perennial; endlessly confused with C. maximum in gar- 
dens, and the two species are very variable and diffi- 
cult to distinguish; the fls. can hardly be told apart. C. 
lacustre is a taller and more vigorous plant, and some- 
times it is branched at the top, bearing 3 heads, while 
C. maximum is always 1-headed, and the Ivs. in that 
species are much narrower. Height 3-6 ft. : st. sparsely 
branched: Ivs. partly clasping, ovate-lanceolate, with 
coarse, hard teeth: rays about 1 in. long; pappus of the 
ray 2-3-eared. Portugal, along rivers, swamps and 
lakes. R.H. 1857, p. 456. 

18. maximum, Ramond. Fig. 936. This perennial 
species has narrower Ivs. than C. lacustre, and they are 
narrowed at the base: height 1 ft.: st. more angled than 
the above, simple or branched at the very base, always 
1-headed and leafless for 3-4 in. below the head: lower 
Ivs. petioled, wedge-shaped at the base, or long- 
oblanceolate; the upper Ivs. becoming few, lanceolate 
but usually not very prominently pointed, the teeth 
not very large or striking: pappus none: involucral 
scales narrower and longer, whitish-transparent at the 
margin, while those of C. lacustre are broader, more 
rounded at the apex, and with a light brown scarious 
margin. Pyrenees. J.H. III. 5:251. Gn. 26, p. 437; 
73, p. 567. G. 5:445. G.M. 46:676. Var. R6bin- 
sonii, Hort., has finely cut or fringed rays, giving the 
bloom the appearance of a Japanese chrysanthemum. 

R. H. 1904:515. Var. 
Davidsii, Hort., has sts. 
of great length, suitable 
for cutting. Var. filif orme, 
Hort., has deeply serrate 
long and drooping rays. 
There are many other 
forms, differing in time of 
bloom as well as in habit 
and in form of fl. The 
Shasta daisy (said to be a 

933. Chrysanthemum coc- 
cineum. The Pyrethrum 
roseum of gardens. ( X 1 A) 

934. Chrysanthemum Bal- 
samita var. tanacetoides. 
Costmary or mint geranium. 




935. Chrysanthemum 
lacustre. A short-rayed 
form. (XJi) 

hybrid) is an early-flowering very floriferous race, 
with several strains of fls., mostly large and pure 
white, although in one form the buds are reported 
as lemon-yellow but opening white; various sub- 
varieties are now offered. 
It is a good summer and au- 
tumn bloomer, and usually 
hardy in the northeastern 

19. uliginosum, Pers. (Pyreth- 
rum uliginosum, Waldst.). GIANT 
DAISY. Stout, erect bushy leafy- 
stemmed perennial, 4-7 ft. high, 
with light green foliage: st. 
nearly glabrous, etriate, branch- 
ing above, 
Ivs. long- 
with large 
coarse sharp 
teeth: heads 
often sev- 
eral together and not long- 
stalked, 2-3 in. across, white, 
late. Hungary. B.M.2706. A.F. 
4:523; 8:813. Gng. 2:375; 5: 
183. A.G. 19:403. R.H. 1894, 
p. 82. Gt. 46, p. 103. G.C.II. 
10:493. Gn. 26, p. 442; 38, p. 
523; 62, p. 180. G.W.15, p. 316. 
G.M. 51:453. Gn. W. 23:415. 
It blooms the first year from 
seed or division, and has been 
forced for