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ALLEN COUNTY P. u .§ L 1 lc 11 Uft,W||'|i 

3 1833 00827 9041 

5 JO-"* 

A Standard History 



An Authentic Narrative of the Past, with an Extended 

Survey of Modern Developments in the 

Progress of Town and 


Under the Supervision of 





■ "»—■■■*- '■■-■■ " i 

---■ • ■ 


This History of White County is presented to the public without 
apology or excuse. More than four score years have passed since the 
organization of the county, and on the eve of the celebration of our State's 
Centennial, the writer was convinced that the proper time had arrived to 
place, in permanent form, a history of our early settlers, their labors, 
struggles and achievements. These early settlers of White County were 
very largely composed of industrious, earnest, God-fearing people, of 
whom we, their descendants, should justly feel proud. England's great 
Gladstone truthfully says, "That the man who does not worthily estimate 
his own dead forefathers will himself do very little to add credit or honor 
to his country. ' ' Pride of ancestry is an attribute peculiar to the human 
race, but in our pursuit of wealth, honor or position, we often lose sight 
of those who have preceded us, and when this happens we fail to profit 
by their example. This is to be deplored. Our best lessons are learned 
by a study of the lives of those who have left to us a record of self- 
denial, industry and success. 

As a further reason for placing this work before the public, our schools 
are being made the medium through which local history is taught, and 
without some work on the subject, the teacher would be obliged to rely 
largely on tradition whiclTis often fallacious, misleading and erroneous. 

No person now living can, from personal knowledge, give an account 
of the organization and early settlement of our county, and such items 
as were not found in the records of the White County Historical Society, 
the files of the local newspapers, or in the records of the various county 
offices, have been written after a careful search for the truth among 
those whose accounts often differed, and in such cases the writer has been 
compelled to accept the version which seemed to him the most credible — 
of course in such cases it is not claimed that errors have not occurred. 

An earnest effort has been made to give a succinct account of the 
Indian grants, the early settlers, the organization of the various town- 
ships and towns within the county, all of which being supplemented with 
brief sketches of our earliest inhabitants, who have long since passed 
away, will doubtless prove of interest to the general reader. These brief 
biographies are often fragmentary and incomplete, but they include all 
that could be gleaned without recourse to tradition. The compilation of 
these biographical sketches was accomplished with the expenditure of 
many days of earnest, unremitting toil, for which the writer neither 
expects nor asks any compensation. These first settlers have gone their 
way. To them we owe much of what we enjoy today, and ere their 



memories are forgotten, we cheerfully inscribe in our local history a 
tribute to their virtues. 

The illustrations in these volumes will be of interest to future genera- 
tions, as all of them were made from recent photographs and are authentic 
in every particular. They convey much more information than can be 
gleaned from the printed page. 

The writer is under obligations to all who have in any way assisted 
him in his labors. He is under especial obligations to Mr. Jay B. Van 
Buskirk and Mr. James P. Simons, the former for nearly thirty years 
editor of the Monticello ITerald, the latter for twenty years occupying 
the same relation to the White County Democrat. To both these gentle- 
men he extends his heartfelt gratitude. Their assistance, freely given, 
is fully appreciated. 

Finally, as before stated, this history is presented without apology 
or excuse, nor is any charity or indulgence asked of the reader; but it is 
earnestly hoped it may be the means of awakening a deeper interest in 
our local history, and a fuller appreciation of our blessings and comforts 
vouchsafed to us by the labors and privations of White County's pioneers. 


Monticello, Indiana, 

December, Nineteen Hundred and Fifteen. 




Mound Builders Clung to the Water Courses — Chain op Prehistoric 
Forts — War and Domestic Implements — Nature op Habits 
Inferred from Relics — Somewhat Commercial — No Hieroglyph- 
ics 'or Effigies — Conclusion: "We Know Nothing" — Probably 
a Race of Slaves — Perhaps the Most Ancient of Peoples — Were 
They Fathers of the Toltecs? — A Staggering Cycle — Per- 
chance, the Greatest Wonder of the World 1 



Cartographic Evidences — First Record of the Tippecanoe — Ver- 
sailles the Colonial Seat of Government — Indiana as a Part of 
New France — Great Chain of French Forts — Indiana Trading. 
Posts — Governed from Vincennes— Indiana Under British Rule 
— Semi-Civil Government at Fort Chartres — Uncertain French 
Titles to Lands — As a Part of Canada — An Extension of Vir- 
ginia — In the County of Illinois — The Northwest Becomes 
National Territory — Populak Assembly for the Northwest 
Territory — Indiana Territory Created — First Territorial Leg- 
islature — Governor Harrison, Father of Indiana — Indian Com- 
plaints Not Groundless — Tecumseh and the Prophet Implacable 
— The Battle of Tippecanoe — Sketches of Col. Isaac White — 
Indian Stragglers Settle in White County — Changes in Gov- 
ernors and Capitals — State Constitution Adopted at Corvdon — . 
Indianapolis Fixed as Permanent Capital 8 



Pottawattaiiies, the Home Tribe — Their Chief Village in the 
County — How the Lands Passed to the United States — The Four 
Basic Cessions — First Migration of the Pottawattamies — The 
Final Removal En Masse — The Tribe Gathers at Plymouth — The 
March Westward — Pokagon's Prophecies — Another Picture of 
the Migration 29 

*■■-■- ■■- - ■ 




Industries Founded on Nature— Natural and Artificial Drainage— 
In a State of Nature— Effect of Praihie Fires— Useful Trees- 
Soil as Varied as Timber— Early Prejudice Against Prairie 
Lands— The Prairie's Blue- Joint Grass— Nature as Molded by 
(Man— Disagreeable Animals and Reptiles Disappear — Most- 
Edible Birds Gone— Birds that Are Left— Nature Changed for 
the Better * ; -c * 



Plan of Government Surveys— Basis of Common School Fund- 
White County Lands Classified — Mexican Land Warrants Make 
Trouble— Canal and Swamp Lands— Last of the State Lands— 
x Regulations for Township Surveys— Natural Features to be 
Noted — Subdivisions of the Townships— Early Surveys Within 
the Present County — Surveying Before Land Drainage — Swamp 
Lands Drained— Early Water Travel— Pioneer Roads— State 
and National Highways — Country Roads Surrendered' to the 
Townships — Modern Road Building — Canal and Railroad Com- 
petition—Pioneer Railways— First White County Railroad— 
The Benefits It Brought— Headed for Monticello— Logansport, 
Peoria and Burlington Gets There — White County's Railroad 

■\y AR Road Opens with Bloodshed — Grand Prairie — Railway 

Stations on the New Line— The Air-Line Division of the Monon 
—Opening of the Indianapolis, Delphi & Chicago Railroad— The 
Ties which Bind the County 42 



While a Part of Carroll, — Norway Carved from Prairie Township — 
Name Changed to Big Creek Township— Pioneers Ante-Dating. 
County Organization — Act Creating White County — Changes 
in Territory— First County Officers — First County Board 
Mkkting— Seat of Justtoe Located — The County Seat Title — 
Public Sale op Lots— The Old Court House Grant— First Judi- 

" cial Session— First Full Court Kept Busy— Tin: Little Frame 
Court House— The Jail and Its First Prisoner— The County's 
Ups and Downs— The Clerk's Office Built— The Brick Court- 
nousE— Cholera Interferes with Its Completion-— Description 
of Dear Old Building— County Offices Affected by Legislation 


— New Jails Erected — Combined Jail and Sheriff's Residence — 
Corner Stone of Present Courthouse Laid — The Poor Farm — 
— County's Growth by Decades — Deductions from Census Fig- 
ures — White County's Population, 1890-1910 — Property Valua- 
tion in 1905 and 1910 — Taxable Valuation in 1915 — Receipts and 
Disbursements : 59 



The Courts Born of- American Rule — First Territorial Court — 
Judge Parke Refuses to Hold Court — The Courts Under the 
First 'State Constitution — Under the Second Constitution — 
Courts of Common Pleas — Creatures of the Legislature — Pro- 
bate Courts — Court of Common Pleas Defined — The New Circuit 
Court — First Circuit Judge — First Active Grand Jurors — Pio- 
neer Lawyers of the Circuit — Albert S. White — Turpie's 
Sketches of Judge White — Young Turpie Hears First Stump 
Speech — Boys Abashed at White's Greatness — Meeting of 
Alpha and Omega — Meet in Early Maturity and Old Age: — 
Together They Call on President Lincoln — Thompson, First 
Local Lawyer — Daniel D. Pratt — His Kind Helpfulness to 
Young Men — Judges and Attorneys, 1838-43— Horace P. Biddle — 
Biddle vs. Pratt — Characteristics of David Turpie — Brief Facts 
of His Life — Describes His Coming to Monticello — Author of 
the Cattle-Lien Law — Good Squire Harbolt — Traits of Early 
Judges and Lawyers — "The Choctaw Line" — Played "When 
School Was Out" — Not Dollar-Slaves— Robert II. Milroy — 
John U. Pettit — John M.. Wallace — Other Circuit Judges, 1855- 
1915 — The "Wherefore" for So Many Judges — Reynolds, First 
White County Judge — Forgot He Was Judge — Truman F. 
Palmer — James P. Wason — The Probate Judges — Robert Newell 
— William M. Kenton — Zebulon Sheetz and Aaron Hicks — Court 
of Common Pleas Again — Samuel A. Huff — Common Pleas 
Judges, 1854-73 — Captain and Judge Alfred F. Reed — The 
Lawyers of 1834-51 — The Sjlls — Lawyers of 185G-1900 — Joseph H. 
Matlock — Orlando McConahy — Lawyers in Active Practice. .84 



Territorial Legislation — Public Education Under the First Con- 
stitution — Trustees of ScnooL Lands — Township Trustees — 
The Old-Time Comfortable Scuooliiouse — Early Conditions in 
White County — The Three-Days Scuooliiouse — Pioneer Edu- 
cational Matters — First Scuooliiouse in the County — A Semi- 

viii ' CONTENTS 

nary Which Was Never Born— The County Library More For- 

Township — Jonathan Sluyter's Good Work — Spread op the. 
Spirit into Monon — West Point School and Town Hall — George 
Bowman, as Man and Teacher— The Palestine and Nordyke 
. Schools — Sproutinqs in Cass Township — The State Brings 
Better Order — School Examiners — Building Schoolhouse Under 
the New Order — The Teachers — Forerunners op the High 
Schools — The FarmingtoN Seminary - — Prop. William Irelan — 
The Brookston Academy — Corn-Crib and Regular Schools — 
First Round Grove Schoolhouse — Present County Board of 
Education — Teachers' Association and Institutes — Rules and 
Regulations — Present Status op the County System — Dr. 
William S. Haymond — Charles S. Hartman — Dr. William E. v 
Biederwolf 119 



County Agricultural Society — Pioneer Live Stock Men — Local 
Agricultural Societies — Initial Meeting in Big Creek Township 
— Fair op the Tri-County Farmers' Association — White County 
Society Organized — First and Best County Fair — The Second 
Fair — Division Over County Seat Removal — Attempts at Revival 
— The Old Settlers' Association — First Meeting at John Burns' 
Grove; — First Known Officers — President George A. Spencer — 
First Well-ordered Association — Pioneers of 1829-67, — White 
County Historical Society — White County Medical Society — Dr. 
John W. Medaris— Dr. Madison T. Didlake. 141 



The Dawn of Nkwspaperdom — The Prairie Chieftain — Preserving 
Newspaper Files — End of the Chieftain— The White County 
Register — Three Obscure Newspapers — White County Jackson- 
ian — White County Democrat — Monticello Democrat— Demo- 
CRAT-Journal-Observer Company — Monticello Spectator — Monti- 
cello Herald — The National — Monticello Times — Monticello 
Weekly Press — The Daily Journal — White County Republican 
— White County Citizen — Other Monticello Publications — 
Early Newspaper Field at Reynolds — The White County Ban- 
ner — The Brookston Reporter — Other Brookston Items — The 
Reynolds Broom and Sun — The Reynolds Journal — Tdaville Ob- 
server — The Monon Dispatch — Monon Times — Monon News — W. 


J. Huff — The Wolcott Enterprise — Chalmers Despatch — Bur- 

nettsville enterprise} burnettsville dlspatch burnettsville 

News — General Progress 157 



A Soldier of 1814-15 — The Mexican "War Trio — Messrs. Ford, Steele 
and McCormick — Prompt Responses to Uphold the Union — The 
Three-Months' Recruits — Fikst War Sacrifice — White County's 
Larger Contingents — The Monticello Rifles — Company E, 
Forty-sixth Regiment — Capt. R. W. Sill's Company — Represen- 
tations in the Sixty-third Regiment— tCapt. George Bowman's 
Company — Company F, Ninety-ninth Regiment — The Threat- 
ened Draft of 1862 — Escape from the 1863 Draft — TnE Six 
Months' Company — Capt. James G. Staley — The Heavy Calls' of 
1864 — The Drafts of 1864 and 1865 — Summary of Numiieb of 
Troops Raised — Bounty and Relief Voted — Tue Spanish-Ameri- 
can War 176 



General Features — Soil and Products — Settled Before the Town- 
ship Was Organized — Mr. and Mrs. Peter Price — "Heap Big 
Scare" of 1832 — Land Entries in 1831-34 — Entry of Monticello 's 
Site — Bounds of Original Plat — Site Controlled Mainly by 
Residents — Hiorth and Mount Walleston — Leases to William 
Sill — Martin Cherrie's Woolen Mill— The Flour Mill in Motion 
— Hiorth Very Exclusive — Mount Walleston Platted — Hiorth 
Interests Pass to the Kendalls — Boom at Mount Walleston — 
The Kendalls Withdraw— Rowland Hughes of Monticello — 
Infant Industries at the County Seat — First Township Officers 
— Jeremiah Bisher — The Old Kenton Grave Yard — Entered 
Government Lands in^ 1835 — The Busy Land Year, 1836 — Hard 
Times Check Land Entries — Excluded Sections — Entries in 
1841-54 — Land, the Basis of Solid Prosperity — Construction of 
Good Roads 191 



Cornelius Sutton, First Settler — Early Settlers, Voters and Offi- 
cials — Land Entries Before 1840— Swamp Lands Purchased — 
Good Roads — Limestone Deposits — Tin. Timbered Tracts — Bui and 


Little Monon Qawo-Enw Mills Built-West Bedford-The 
L-Oopee Mill-Last Gasp ok West Bedford-New Bradford and 
Monon-I-ikst Events in the Township-Simon Kenton's Dai/oh- 
ters and Grandchildren-Early Postoffices-Oakdale, or 
• 203 


AS Ttpn WniTF ; T C ° UNTY To ™SHIp-Natubal Features-Drainage 
Through Moots and Spring Creeks-Products of the Soil- 
Eastern Timber Lands First Settled-Generous Bill of Fare- 
I he Pioneer Landlords of 1829-34-IIard Times Retard Entries- 
^ ^^ 5" Pkrmanent Settler-Samuel Alkire- 
Tiiomas Kennedy-First Voters and Officials-Educational and 
Religious Beginnings-^. C. Moore, Prosperous Farmer and 
Inventor-Other Early Landholders-Loren and Ralph A. Cut 
pL25 SAWMILL f Br00KSTOn > Industrial and Commercial 
tiovT T* Z ° F SpRintoboeo-Impbovement in Rural Condi- 
tions— Leading Good Roads Township 211 



S ° V tVvZ ^^t^-P'oneer Settlers and Land Owners- 
The Hannas-Entered Land Before Township Organization- 
ioneer of 183,-38-First Recorded Election-Daniel DaIe, 
Leading Politician-Hanna Rejects Democracy-The Wheel of 
Life P I0NEER gfc Matters-Burnett's Creek Postoffice- 

High Standard of Morality-Smith's Distilleby of 1840-50- 
Violent Deaths-The Mormon Branch of 1842-45-Farmington 
Male and Female Seminaby-Bubnettsyille Founded-Shvron 


and Good Roads ' 





^TnoMPsor p GRICri ; T,;,iA '' Featubes-Pibst Settler, Joseph II. 

rrvL r^ E ° ,{,ir: VT ""> BfewAM ™ Rhynolds-Spekcee. 
Riano,.ds Colony-Tub Histobio Spencer House-Benjamin 

mrs"? A ™- Cakeeb -^°™ Bubns-Mb. and Mrs. William 
{urns-Land Owners and Settlers of 1S30-33-Cihlls and 
•ever F.kst Township Oe.ceks-F.rst School in the County- 
Land ,n 1835-36-Election in 1836-The Great Hunt of 


1840 — Those Who Bought Land in 18:57-5 1 — IS. Wilson Smith's 
Picture op 1846 — Increase of Real Settlers — Fiust Frame School 
House — Mudge's Station and Chalmers — First Iron Bridge — 
Swamp Lands Reclaimed — Smithson or Wheeler — Leader in 
Good Roads Movement 232 



Draining and Road Building — Honey Creek — Joshua Rinker and 
Wife — The Bunnell Families — Smith, IIiort.ii's Old Partner-^- 
Settlers and Land Buyers of 1835 — Entered Lands in 1839-53 — 
Two-thirds Owned by Non-Residents — Founding of Revnolds — 
Guernsey — Township Created — Schoolhouse and Town Hall — 
Pioneer Citizen Voters — Public-Spirited Township 244 



Joseph Stewart, Mighty Hunter — The Palestine Settlement — The 
Godfather of the Township — Thomas Gillpatuick — Black Oak 
Settlement — Township Created and Named — State and Town- 
ship Elections — The Nordyke Settlement— The Schoolhouse 
Competition — Land Entries, 1842-47 — Saddled with Land Specu- 
lators—Fever and Ague, or Chills and Fever — Is It Any Won- 
der? — Reclaimed Lands and Good Roads — Pioneer Settlement 
Determined by Natural Conditions — Cattle Raising and Herding 
— Light Ahead — Wolcott and Its Founder — Sea field 252 



Timber Lands and Lowlands — The Indian Village — Crystal D. W. 
Scott — Coming of Jonathan Sluyter and Moses Karr — The 
Township Created — First Election and Officials — Change of 
Boundaries— Divided into Road Districts— Settlers Previous to 
1 S40— Unusual Progress in 1840-50— Pioneers ' Sell Improved 
Lands — Non-Resident Purchasers — Kean's Creek Swamp Lands 
—The Sluyter Sciiooliiouses — Religion at the Scott Settle- 
ment — First Marriage and First Death — Buffalo Postoffioe 
Established — John C. Karr and the Town — Thomas B. Moore — 
Kahr's Addition to Buffalo — The Tron Bridge — Sitka — The 
Hughes and VanVoorst Families 202 




Inaccurate Government Surveys-Christopher Vandeventer First 
Settler— Land Entries in 1838-48— Political Township op Ca^.s 
-Pioneer Schools-Nucleus op IIeadlee-Land Entries in 
1849-02— Mrs. John E. Timmons and Jacob D. Timmons-Non 
Residents Held Two-Thirds op Township— Early Dearth op 
Markets— The Trips to Logansport— Norway to the Rescue- 
Improvements— Headlee 9?1 



Natural Features of the Township-Neighboring Market Towns- 
Road Building— First Settlers and Land Owners— Is iac S Vin- 
son and Wife— First Land Entry-Sickness Drove Away the 
Prices— Land Entries op 1835— Would Rather Hunt Than Eat— 
The Van Voorsts and Their Frame Houses— Doctor Halstead 
Buys Land— WilLiam Jordan Locates— Other Entries in 1836-45 
-Township Voters-The Van Voorst Frame Sciiooliiouses- 
Churciies op the Township— Anderson Irion and David Dellinger 
-Land Entries, 1847-51— Parmelek's Meadow Lake Farm. . . .278 



Slim Timber and Round Grove-First Settler, Truman Rollins— 
Early Land Entries— The Stockton Purchases— Became L\nd 
Owners in 1850-53— Carved Out of Old Prairie Township— Elec- 
tions and Voters— Various PiOneer Matters— Former Postoffices 
— Progress in the ^Township. ..'.• <> 8 4 



Entries Covering Original Town— First Buildings an.. Pioneer 
Merchant-- Circuit Rider on the Raw Ground— Carrying the 
Gosfbl Under Difficulties— Baptists and Methodists Organize— 
The Boot Fear, 1836-Young Town Considerable Soaked- 
Buhness Dibectorv for 1836-Febry Established-Smith, [Iiorth 


and the Kendalls — Establishment of the Local Press — First 
Water Power and Mills — Wool Center and Woolen Manufac- 
tures — The Tippecanoe Hydraulic Company — N. B. Lojjghry and 
Sons — Becomes a Railroad Town — Monticello in 1852 — Village 
Government Abandoned — Walker, Jenner and Reynolds' Addi- 
tion — Barr's Addition — Boom Not in Evidence — Third Addition 
— Civil War Overshadows All — Fourth and Fifth Additions — 
George W. Ewing a Site Owner — Second and More Stable Cor- 
poration . . . .' ; 289 



Town Backs a New School — The Old HiGn School — Pioneers op 
.the Public School System — Legal Complications — How the 
Snarl Was Untangled — Superintendent J. W. Hamilton — 
Better Town Schools — Present High School Building — Sta- 
tistics of the Present — Superintendents and Teachers — The 
Grades Buildings — System as a Whole — Monticello Public 
Lkrary — Good Water and a Good System — The Telephone Ex- 
change — Riverview Park — The Reynolds Additions — Turner's 
Addition — Cleveland Street Created — Hughes' Addition — 
Cochell's and Fraser's Addition — McCuaig's Addition — Dreifus 
and Haugh's Addition — McLean and Brearley's Addition — Later 
Additions to the Townsite — Citizens' Addition — Additions to the 
City — City Hall — Improvements of Water Power — Present-Day 
Industries — Four Banks — State Bank of Monticello — Monti- 
cello National Bank — White County Loan, Trust and Savings 
. Company — Farmers ' State Bank 305 



John Rothrock, Pi»neer Dunkard — The Presbyterian Church — The 
Old and the New Schools — Second, or New School Church — 
Public Hall as Well as Church — Union of Churches — Building 
of the Present Church — The Methodist Church Founded — 
Houses of Worship— -Methodist Pastors — The Dunkards — How 
They Supported the Union — The New Dunkards— The Christian 
Church — Founded in Monticello— Church Reorganized— Pastors 
of the Christian Church — Destructive Fire and the New 
Church — The Orphans' Home — Societies — Tin: Odd Fellows — 
The .Masons — Knights of Pythias — Grand Army Post — OTiieb 
Societies— Women's Clubs 330 




Incorporation of the Town — Additions to Original Site — Henry M. 
Baughman — Industrial and Commercial Advantages — Clay and 
Stone Industries — The Monon Bank — State Bank op Monon — 
The Town Commissioned High School — Monon 's Public Library 
— Presbyterian Church— First Methodist Episcopal Church — 
The Baptist Church — Societies. . 343 



Municipal Waterworks — Founding ok the Town — Coming of Anson 
Wolcott — Town Platted — Competitors — The Wolcott Interests 
— First Addition — Death of the Founder — Eben H. Wolcott — 
The Dibell Family — Various Additions — The Town Commissioned 
High School — State Bank of Wolcott — Citizens State Bank — 
Churches and Societies — The Methodist Church — Christian 
Church — Baptist Church — The Masons — I. 0. 0. F. Bodies — 
Other Lodges 349 



The Town Platted — Extension of the Site — First Stores and In- 
dustries — Momentous Years, 1866-67 — Incorporation of Town — 
Marked Steps in Progress— Industries of the Present — Bank of 
Brookston — Town Commissioned High School, — Prairie Tele- 
phone Company — The Methodist Church — The Baptist Church 
—The Presbyterian Church — Secret and Benevolent Societies 
— Probably the Oldest Mason in the United States 356 



Chalmers, Originally Mu doe's Station — Tacoii Rvub, Founder of 
Chalmers — J. & VV. W. Raub — Additions to the Town — Growth 
Since Incorporation — The Bank ok Chalmers — The Churches 
and Societies- Education il Facilities — Idaville— First Mer- 
chant and Postmaster- Andrew (Ianna— John 15. Townsley — 
Capt. Joseph Henderson— Capt. Patrick Hays — Progress Despite 
Fire — Bank ok [daville — Township Commissioned High School — 


The Church op God (New Dunkards)— George Patton— Uriah 


— United Presbyterian Church — The M. E. Church — So- 
cieties 363 



Burnettsville Platted — Before the Town Was Laid Out — Frank- 
lin J. Herman — : Sharon Absorbed — Elevator and Poultry 
Packing House — Town Commissioned High School — The 
Christian Church — The Methodists — The Baptist Church — 
The Old DunkarDs— Town op Reynolds Platted — Pioneer 
Hotel and Sawmill— The Sill Enterprises — Early Progress — 
First Religious Organizations — Michael Vogel — Adopts Town 
Government — The Town op Today — Bank op Reynolds — The 
Township School — St. Joseph's Catholic Church — The Meth- 
odist Church — -Lutherans and Christians 371 



Fight Covered Period op Seventy Years-^-Saloons Finally Ban- 
ished 380 

' ' Moving Pictures " 395 

Biographical Record 431 


Academy student, 172 

Ackerman, J. L., 328 

Acre, Robert, 273 

Adams, Elijah, 201 

Adams, James E., 255 

Adams, Sarah, 283 

Adams, Silas, 239 

Adams, Warren, 221 

Adamson, John, 61 

Adell, J. B., 374 

After Reynolds Fire, August 21, 1907 

(view), 377 
Agricultural societies, local, 142 
Agricultural Society, 141 
A Group of White County Churches 

(views), 329 
Aker, Michael, 205 
Algonquin tribes, 9 
Alkier, Jackson, 219 
Alkire, Delilah G., 965 
Alkire, H., 219 
Alkire, Jason, 219 
Alkire, John, 239 - 
Alkire, J. G., 60 
Alkire, Robert, 963 
Alkire, Samuel, 60, 214, 215, 217, 236 
Alkire, William T., 357 
Allen, Asa, 47, 207, 290, 293, 331 
Allen, Hiram, 97 
Allen, Mary A., 331 
Ambler, L. H., 250 
Anderson, Calvin, 209 
Anderson, Harrison P., 199, 307, 321, 

340, 428 
Anderson, H. P., 154, 178, 307 
Anderson, J. C, 337 
Angel, Charles, 221 
Anheir, Anthony A., 189 
Anhcier, J. A., 328 • 
Animals, in the early times, %0 
An Old-Time Mail Coach (view), 45 
Apes, John, 286 

A Pleasant River Scone (view), 301 
Appraisement for 1915, 425 
Armontrout, Charles J., 333 
Armcntront, C. J., 394 
Anniger, 169 
Armstrong, A. F., 337 
Armstrong, Ella, 336 
Armstrong, James, 428 • 
Armstrong, Lanty T., 202 
Armstrong, I,. T., 374 
Armstrong, Richard, 201 
Arrick, John, 429 
An irk, John Sr„ 429 

Ashley, Georgo W., 429 
Associate judges, 64 
Atkinson, A. M., 336 
Attorneys, 1838-43, 98 
Ault, John, 215 
Ault, Michael, 60 
Ausman, Noah W., 273 
Ayers, Samuel, 386 
Ayres, W. S., 296 

Backemeyer, Fred W., 333 

Bacon, Albert, 128, 273 

Bacon, Ira, 60, 61, 64, 176, 201, 204, 

Badger, 419 
Baer, Benjamin F., 429 
Baer, Jasper A., 571 
Bailey, Alexander, 273 
Bailey, I. W., 354, 361, 366, 375 
Railey, Mary E., 696 
Bailey, Samuel W., 694 
Baird, Joseph, 86 
Baird, Zehulon, 92 
Baker, Ann G., 910 
Baker, Burdell B., 328, 911 
Baker, Charles F., 909 
Baker, David, 430 
Baker, Ceorgo P., 907 
Baker, John, 128, 273 
Baker, John II., 691 
Baker, Jonathan, 266 
Baker, Roger, 286 
Baker, Stephen E., 286 
Baker, William, 274 
Baldwin, Joseph, 131 
Ball & House, 358 
Ball, Benjamin, 205, 3 43 
Ball, C. R., 374 
Ball, IT. B., 347 
Ball, J. P.., 374 
Ball, William II., 154, 216 
Ball inty ne, Samuel, 28G 
Ballon, A. B., '"'4 
Bank of Brook' ion, 359 
Bank of Chalmers, 365 
Bank of Tdavillo, 368 
Bank of Reynolds, 377, 763 
Banks, 327 
Banks, Motion, 345 
Banks, Wolcott, 352 
Baptists ami .Methodists organize, 291 
Baptist ('lunch, Brookston, 360 
Baptist Church, r.urnrttsville, 374 
Baptist Chinch of Chalmers, 366 
Unptiel Church of Wolcott, 354 


BarCUS, Henry, 237 

Barcus, S., 374 

Han', Benjamin, 273 

Barker, Isaac, 250 

Barnard, Obed, 3.17 

Barnes, Allen, 61, 225, 220, -130 

Barnes, Alexander, 227 

Barnes, Amos, 225 

Barnes, C. A., 154 

Barnes, D. F., 297 

Barnes, James, 60, 64, 09, 91, 98, 238, 

247, 417, 430 
Barnes, John T., 366, 946 
Barnes, J. J., 148 
Barnes, Samuel, 339 
Barnes, Samuel D., 286 
Barnes, Thomas M., 430 
Barnes, William A., 530 
Barr, James, 218, 862 
Barr, John, 61, 195, 218, 289 
Barr, John, Jr., 218, 238 
Barr, John, Sr., 65 
Barr, Moses S., 399 

Barr, Robert, 69, 91, 214, 218, 219, 220 
Barr, Robert A., 60 
Barr, Robert W., 133 
Barry, Cyrus, 61, 219, 221 
Bartholomew, John C, 431 
Bartholomew, Robert, 239 
Bartley, Catherine, 431 
Bartley, George, 60, 289 
Bartley, George R., 61, 193, 195, 300, 

382, 414 
Bartley, G. R., 293 
Basye, Samuel, 46 
Batchelder, Samuel, 219 
Bates, John, 250 
Bates, Valentine, 417 
Batson, John A., 586 
Battle of Tippecanoe, 18, 26 
Baughman, Henry M., 344 
Baum, Daniel, 201, 236, 265, 266 
Baum, George, 266 
Baum, George I., 263 
Baum, Harriet, interview with, 401 
Baum, Henry, 60, 92, 193, 195 
Baum, James, 265, 266 
Baxter, George, 340 
Bayard, Perry A., 266 
Beak, William, 286 
Beard, M. B., 117 
Beard, Thomas, 225, 430 
Beasey, Isaac, 247, 255 
Bensley, Allen D., 334 
Beauchamp, Andrew, 263, 266 
Beauchamp, James,»2l9 
Beauchamp, John, _19 
Beauchamp, Moses, 219 
Beauchamp, Risden, 219 
Beaver, John, 238 
Beaver, John S., 275 
Beck, Jacob, 293 ■ 
Beckner, W., 374 
Bee, The, 169 
Beecher, John, 214 
Becehlim, Andrew, 265 
Beers, Joseph D., 225 
Beever, Samuel, 427 
Beezy, Isaac, 237, L'HO, 282 
Boles, Joseph, 224 

Belforfl, James B., 178, 431 
Bell, John, 263, 266 

Bell, Nathaniel, 263 
Bonbridgo, Thomas T., 263 
Bcnham, J. R., 254 
Benjamin, Marion, 752 

Benjamin, May, 336 

Benjamin, P. M., 336 

Benjamin, Rolla, 133 

Bennett, ftsau, 432 

Bennett, Henry P., 322, 1003 

Bennett, Taylor, 340 

Benson, Samuel, 263, 266 

Bentlcv, Salome, 125 

Berg, J., 378 

Berkey, David, 61, 91, 204, 205, 207, 

Berkey, Frank P., 318, 432 

Berkey, John M., 181 

Berkey, Michael, 125 

Berkey, Michael A., 74, 75 

Berkey, M. A., 384 

Berry, Jabez B., 263, 266 

Berry, John W., 263 

Beshoar, Daniel, 631 

Beshoar, Hiram, 601 

Beshoar, H., 373 

Beshoar, William, 594 

Best, Adam, 219 

Best, Samuel, 219 

Bcswick, P. J., 374 

Betlike, J. II., 379 

Bevington, C. L., 362 

Beyer, A., 378 

Bice, Isaiah, 286 

Biddlc, Horace P., 74, 99 

Biederwolf, George, 327, 650 

Biodorwolf, George M., 328 

Biederwolf, Michael, 619 

Biederwolf, William E., 138 

Biederwolf, W. K., 189 

Big Greek Township, originally named 
Norway, 60; divided, 60; schoolhouse, 
124; Agricultural Society originated 
in, 111'; physical and agricultural fea- 
tures, 232; first settler, 233 ; first town- 
ship officers, 237; schools, 237; election 
of 1836, 238; land entries in 1833-36, 
238; increase of real settlers, 239; 
land entries in 1837-5], 239; landown- 
ers and settlers of 1830 33, 236; first 
frame schoolhouse, 242 ; first iron 
bridge, 243; swamp lands reclaimed, 
213; loader in good roads movement, 
243; appraisement of tor 1915, 425 

Big Monon Creek, 206 

Biltingeley, John, 226 

Billingftlcy, John A., 225 

Birch, Christopher, 225 

Birch, John, 254 

Birch, Jonathan, 219 

Birds, 41 

Bisher, Jeremiah, 60, 103, 200, 236, 427 

Bisher, Isaiah, 3 10 

Bishop, David, 61 

Bishop, Martin, 285, 2S6 

Bishop, IVter, 399 

Bishop, Peter P., 006 

Bishop, William J., 417 

Bissonnetto, George, 839 

Black, Edwin, 332 

Blaek Oak Settlement, 251 

Black, R, S., 156 

Bliiekwcll, John A., 154, 133 



Blackwell, J. A. 182 

Blair, John, 218 

Blake, Isaac W., 204,. 205 

Blake, James, 352, 783 

Blake, James, Sr., 433 

Blake, J. C, 296 

Bliekenstaff, Augustus J., 156 

Bliekenstaff, William, 550 

Bliss, Henry G., 179, 186 

Blizzard, R. P., 363 

Blue-Joint Grass, 39 

Blue Ribbon movement, 386 

Blum, J., 378 

Board of County Commissioners, 62 

Board of Health, 49 

Boeye, Charles, 1001 

Boicourt, Absalom, 433 

Boicourt, Enoch G., 399 

Boicourt, Jephtha, 374 

Boles, John, 250 

Bolinger, David, 266 

Bolinger, John W., 371 

Bond, G. A., 347 

Boone, Thomas, 339 

Bordner, Augustus S., 434 

Bordner, Ira, 360 

Bostick, John, 236 

Bostick, Joseph, 61, 218, 219, 399 

Bostick, Thomas S., 778 

Bott, Harry T., 167 

Bott, William M., 434 

Bowen, A. M., 374 

Bowles, Elisha, 92, 218 

Bowman, George, 126, 179, 182, 305, 434 

Bowman, Mary, 127 

Boyd, John L., 334 

Bovd, J. L., 347' 

Boyd, W. I., 374 

Brackney, CharleifW., 931 

Braden, William, 296 

Brady, Ann, 133 

Brady, John, 238, 293, 

Bragg, James II., 250 

Brannan, John W., 941 

Brasket, J. W., 250 

Brawlcy, Daniel, 285 

Breamea, Fred, 277 

Brearley, Jones, 323, 327 

Brearley, R., 178, 382 

Brearly, Randolph, 143, 202, 295, 436 

Breekenridge, Charles, 77 

Breekenridge, Robert R, -431? 'Ol 

Breconnt, Gideon, 282 

Brcngle, J. G., 375 

Bretzinger, John', 339 % 

Brick courthouse, cholera interferes with 

its completion, 72 ; description of, 73 
Bridges at Tioga, Xear Monticello (view), 

Briggs, Alexander, 399 
Hriggs, A. T. 334 
Bringham, Leander, 437 
Brink, Robert N., 286 
Bii-tor, J. If., 337 
Brit ton, Mrs. Frank, 338 
Rritton, Henry, 283 
Button, John, 205 
Rritton, Thomas T., 608 
Brock, Georgo A., 2()1 
Brock, William, 293 
Brofkway, H. T„ 117 
Broderick, Isaiah, 201, 272 

Brooke, Charles A., 334 

Brooks, Jacob W., 215 

Brooks, James, 247, 356 

Brookston — Industrial and commercial 
center, 220; platted, 356; extension of 
the site, 356; momentous years, 1866- 
67, 357; first stoics and industries, 
357; industries of tho present, 35S ; 
incorporation of, 358; marked steps In 
progress, 358; banks, 359; town com- 
missioned high school, 359; secret and 
benevolent societies, 362; appraisement' 
of for 1915,425 

Biookston Academy (view), 132 

Brookston Academy, 131, 155, 357, 359 

Biookston Baptist Church, 360 

Brookston Canning Factory, 359 

Biookston Gazette, 172 

Brookston in 18S0 (view), 358 

Brookston Magnet, 172 

Brookston Methodist Church, 360 

Brookston Presbyterian Church, 361 

Biookston Reporter, The, 171 

Broom, The, 167 

Broomfield, W. H., 347 

Brown, Ambrose T., 1014 

Brown, Andrew, 281 

Brown, Brasier H., 1023 

Brown, Cole, 347 

Brown, Daniel, 215, 217, 218 

Brown, Edward H., 357 

Brown, Ezekiel W., 217 

Brown, E. A., 132 

Brown, E. R., 313, 315 

Brown, Mrs. E. R., 313 

Brown, George, 72, 217 

Brown, John, 178 

Brown, John C, 339, 437 

Brown, James, 254 

Brown, James D., 373, .389 

Brown, James F., 340 

Brown, James G., 265, 266 

Brown, James J., 208 

Brown, John C, ISO 

Brown, John G., 1012 

Brown, J. C, 179 

Brown, J. M., 334, 353 

Brown, Mercer, 263 

Brown, Richard, 178, 304, 307 

Brown, Thomas B., 92 

Brown, Thomas II., 281 

Brown, Watt, 386 

Brnwusfield, Thomas, 216 

Bruce, John II., 334 

Brucker, John, 437 

Brucker, William P., 610 

Brucker, W. P., 352 

Brummer murder at Reynolds, 410 

Bryan, William II., 370 

Bryant, William P., 69, 92 

Buchanan. Armstrong, 60, 91, 237 

Buffalo, 269 

Buffalo, Kan 's addition, 209 

Budd, Joseph, 347 

Bndd. J. S., 374 

Bulger, James W., 199, 339, 138 

Bulger, .1. \Y\, 250 

Bulletin, The, 109 

Bundy, M. U, 308 

Bungcr, Edna, .".70 

Bunnell, Barzilla, 438 
Bunnell, Barzilla W., 238 


Bunnell, Charles, '366 Bushncll, Bnmnel R., .139 

Bunnell, 0. J., 348, 361, 375 Bushnell, B. P., 307 

Bunnell, Pli/.a A., 240 Bushncll, Thomas, 178, 184, 221, 307, 

Bunnell, Eliza N., 238 320, 339, 340. 548 

Bunnell Families, 24(i Bushnell, Webster P., 319 

Bunnell, .Tolin, 238, 239 Buslinoll, Will S., 153, 394 

Bunnell, John B., 143, 340, 354, 438, 850 Bushnell, Willinm S., 340 

Bunnell, John N., 052 Bushnell, Willie S., 548 

Bunnell, John W., 237, 238, 246 Bushnell, W. S., 116, 307, 315, 389 

Bunnell, Joshua, 377, 399 Busing, George K., 375 

Bunnell, J. B., 250, 353 Buskirk, B. C, 285 

Bunnell, J. N., 250, 379 Buskirk, Michael, 286 

Bunnell, Martha B., 053 Buskirk, Michael T., 280 

Bunnell, Nathaniel, 133, 240, 247, 250, Buskirk, Samuel H., 280 

376, 43S Buss, William M., 746 

Bunnell, Nathaniel, Jr., 237, 238 P.yrnm, Mrs. 341 
Bunnell, Nathaniel, Br., 237, 238 

Bunnell, N., 247 Cadillac, Lnmotte, 10 

Bunnell, N. W., 25p Cahill, James B., 200 

Bunnell, Stephen, 237, 438 Cahill, William, 124 

Bunnell, Thomas, 178. 238, 246. 396 Cain, Bushrod W., 239 

Bunnell, William, 254 Cain, Daniel, 201, 202 

Bunnell, William P., 394 Cain, John, 253, 254 

Bunnell, W. P., 341 Cain, .Ionian, 247 

Bunton, John, 247 Cain, Thomas, 250 

Bureli, Christopher, 61, 255 Callahan Family, 415 

Burch, John, 255 Callaway, S. 1,1, 117 

Burdge, J. E., 133 Oallis, John. 250 

Burget, Hannah M., 946 Calvert, P. II., 297, 334, 347, 374 

Burgett, Fred, 417 Camp Pire Cirls, 317 

Burgner, Conrad S., 334 Campbell, S. N., 334 

Burial places, 2 Campbell, W., 347 

Burket, Solomon, 225 Canal and railroad competition, 52 

Burkitt, Solomon, 61 Canal and swamp lands, 44 

Burnett's Creek, 228, 371 Canal script, 71 
Burnettsville, 57, 61, 220, 371; founded, Candent. John, 250 

230; and' Sharon consolidated, 230; he- Cantwell Pavtou murder trial, 398 
fore the town was laid out, 371; ap- Cantwrll, Isaac M., 250, 283 

praisement of, for 1915, 425 Capt. George Bowman, Pounder of Monti- 
Burnettsville Baptist Church, 374 cello's First High School (portrait), 

Burnettsville Christian Church, 374 435 

Burnettsville Dispatch, 174 Carey, L. P., 117, 389 

Burnettsville Elevator Company, 373 Carey, William, 206 
Burnettsville Elevator and Poultry Pack- Carlson, Charles O., 1028 

ing House, 373 Carothers, John, 100 

Burnettsville Enterprise, 174 Carr, Penjamin P.. 116, 324, 533 

Burnettsville Methodist Church, 374 Carr, Kdward P., 987 

Burnettsville News, 175 Carr, .lames P., 156 

Burnettsville Old Punkards, 375 Carr, John 11., 117 

Burnettsville State Bank, 373 Carr, John P.. 219, 441 
Burnettsville Town Commissioned nigh Carr, Mary, 106 

School, 374 Parr, Solomon, 219 

Bums, Elizabeth, 332 Can-, William, 238 

Burns, Francis M., 439 Carrol, .lames, 286 

Burns, James, 339*439 Carroll, John, 285 

Bums, Jane, 440 Carroll, Miehnel, 286 
Burns, John, 60, 61, 123, 230, 238, 299, Carson, James, 285 

440 Carson, James P., 903 

Burns, John H., 340, 341 Carson, John A., 687 

Burns, J. W., 334 Carson, I.ydia A., Ill 

Bums, Liberty M., 247, 424, 439 Carson, Si icl A., 327. 340 

Burns murder, 409 Carson. S. A., 013 

Bums, Bamuel P., 202 <'ary, William, 205 
Burns, Bamuel M., 870 Casad, Mary A., 330 

Burns, S. M., 172 Pass, Lewis, 273 

Burns, Washington, 250.410 Cnss Township, firs! school, 128; Oovorn- 
Bums, William, 225, 238, 440 nt surveys inaccurate, 271; first rot- 

Burns, Mrs. William, 230 tier, 272; land entries ill 1838 48, 272; 

Unison, Samuel, 272 organized, 273; pioi r bcIiooIb, 273; 

Burton, B. W., 374 land entries in 184952, "71; swnmp, 

Push, Prnnn A., 986 'anal and military warrants hinds. 

Push, E. A., 379 275; non residents hold two thirds oi 



township, 275; markets, early dearth 
of, 276; improvements, 27.7; appraise- 
ment of, for 1915, 425 

Caasell, Christian, 249, 375 

Caatleton, 419 

Catheart, 209 

Gatt, George, 86 

Catt, Philip, 86 

Cattle raising and herding, 258 

Caughell, John H., 994 

Cauldwell, J. M., 354 

Cement Tile Works, 327 

Chaffee, J. E., 156 

Chaffee, Sidney L., 847 

Chalmers, 242; originally Mudge's Sta- 
tion, 363; additions to, 365; growth 
since incorporation, 365; bank of, 365; 
industries, 365; churches and societies, 
365; founder of, 365; educational fa- 
cilities, 366; appraisement of, for 1915, 

Chalmers Dispatch, 174 

Chalmers Ledger, 174 

Chamberlain, Aaron, 247 / 

Chamberlain, D. C, 205 fyJ ' 

Chamberlain, Ephraim, 225 / 

Chamberlain, George W., 444, 892 

Chamberlain, I., 205 

Chamberlain, John W., 895 

Chamberlain, Joseph L., 179 

Chamberlain, Joseph W., 880 

Chamberlain, Lewis, 208 

Chamberlain, Margaret A., 348 

Chamberlain, Melissa, 881 

Chamberlin, Henry, 857 

Chandler, Cordelia A., 336 

Chapman, W. B., 186 

Chase, Isaac, 254 

Chautauqua Home Study Club, 341 

Cheever, William M., 332 

Cheiioweth, Frank S., 816 

Chenoweth, Ira, 239, 417 

Chenoweth, Thomas, 239 

Chicago, [ndianapolis & Louisville Kail- 
road, 57 

Chilcott, Charles, 174 

Chilton, James, 760 

Chilton, James S., 285 

Chilton, Thomas, 219 

Chivington, E. O., 360, 365 

( fooctaw Line, The, 104 

Christian Church, founded in Monticello, 
335; reorganized, 336; destructive (ire 
and new church, 337; pastors of, 337 

Christian Church, Burnettsville, 374 

Christian Church, Wolcott, «53 

Christians, Reynolds, 379 

Christy, John W., 321 

Churches, 330; union of, 332; West Point 
Township, 282 

Church of God, Idaville, 370 

Circuit Court, 62, 75, 90; first session of, 

Circuit judges, 1855-1915, 106 

Circuit Rider, 290 

Cissol, John H., 334 

Citizens State Hank, 352 

City flail, Monticello (view), 325 

Civil war, the three months' recruits, 
178; companies furnished by White 
County, 179; the threatened draft of 
1862, 183; escape from the 1863 draft, 

184; summary of number of troops 
raised, 188: overshadows all questions, 

Clark, A. L., 347 

Clark, Benjamin, 250 * 

Clark, Cornelius, 60, 64 

Clark, Daniel Z., 1031 

Clark, Enoch J., 985 

Clark, General, 85 

Clark, I. N., 375 

Clark, James, 60 

Clark, Mary E., 622 

Clark, Robert J., 307, 622 

Clark, R. J., 159 

Clark, Thomas C, 1033 

Clark, William, 85 

Clark, W. II., 156 

Clarke, A. B., 164 

Clarke, Fred A., 168 

Clary, James, 441 

Clary, Joseph II., 850 

Clay and stone industries, Monon, 344 

Clayton, Georgo R., 156, 1008 

Clearwaters, J. A., 334 

Clerk's office, 72 

Clermont, 350, 419 

Clevenger, Bazil, 214 

Coble, Daniel, 250 

Coble, James, 250 

Coble, Joseph, 247 

Cobler, John, 263 

Cochell, Abnor, 322 

Cochell, John, 322 

Cochran, Andrew, 179, 183, 889 

Cochran, Samuel M., 225 

Cochran, Sherman, 889 

Coen, George V., 441 

Coffey, William L., 767 

CoUiu, Guy R., 156, 569 

Colclazer, Jacob, 334 

Cole, A. A., 143 

Cole, James, 250 

Cole, John, 250 

Cole, Joseph, 248, 250 

Coles, James, 246 

Coles, Joseph, 246 

Coles, Moses, 246 

Colfax, Schuyler, 421 

Collins, Gus, 134 

Colvin, S. P., 334 

Common Pleas judges, 1854-69, 113 

Compagnotte, Fr., 86 

Company 1), Twelfth Regiment, 179 

Company K, Twentieth Regiment, 17!) 

Company E, forty sixth Regiment, 179 

Company G, Forty sixth Regiment, 179 

Company G, Sixty third Regiment, 179 

Company V\ Ninety-ninth Regiment, 179, 

Company K, One Hundred and Sixteenth 
Regiment, 179 

Company !•', One Hundred and Twenty- 
eighth Regiment, 179 

Company G, One Hundred and Fifty 
first Rcgi rit, 179 

Company I, One Hundred and Sixty-lira! 
Volunteers, 189 

Compton, John I)., 17 

Conn, Thomas 13., 775 

Conner, Patrick, 286 

Conner, B. P., 166 

Conwell. J. din, 711 

XX u 



!il Of, 

!; de- 

Conwell, William, 200 
Cook, Charles, 172 
Cook, .Tern, 132 
Coon, William, 255 
Coonroil, Morton, 512 
Cooper, Amos, 203, 207, 399 
Cooper, J. J., 334 
Cooper, Lycnrgos, 203 
Cooper Mill, 207 
Cooper, William P., 812 
Coptner, W. J., 374 
Cordcr, William, 368 
Cornell, G. W., 132 
Cornell, James W., 442 
Cornell, Richard, 417 
Cornell, Jacob, 263, 266 
Cornell, William, 238 
Corydou, 27 
Coterie Club, 341 
Cosad, Eva, 341 

County Agricultural Society dissolved, 145 
County Board of Education, 133 
County commissioners, 04 
County Fair, first and J>ost, 143 
County library, 62, 123 
County roads surrendered to the town- 
. ships, 52 
County recorder, 381 
County seat located, 65; title, 66; 

sion over removal of, 145; rcmov; 

County surveyor, first, 47 
Coureurs de bois, 10 
Court of Common Pleas, 75, 112 

fined, 00 
Courthouse (view), 76 
Courthouse corner stone laid, 77 
Courtney, Hugh, 226 
Courtney, James, 225, 226 
Cowan, Beershcba, 200, :s.'il 
Cowan, Harriet, 331 
Cowan, John B., 247 
Cowan, Rhoda, 331 
Cowdin, Joseph D., 179, 181, 33!) 
Cowger, Clarence R., 117 
Cowger, Eli, 201 
Cowger, Eli W., 992 
Cowger, Jacob, 442 
Uowger, John, 203, 205 
Cowger, John R., 990 
Cowger, John W., 9*3 
Cowger, Kate V., 336 
Cowger, Rebecca, 333 
Cowger, Ruth, 333 
Cowger, Samuel P., 993 
Cowger, Sarah A.', 333 
Cowger, Silas, 203, 204, 333 
Cowger, Silas R., 1002 
Cowger, Mrs. S. P., 158 
Cowger, T. S., 133 
Cowger, William II., 112 
Cox, Aaron, 60 
Cox, Anna K., 3 IS 
Cox, John, 
Cox, John W., 348 
Cox, !•'., 371 
Cozail, Jacob, 334 
Craft, Morgan, 077 
Craig, It. I'.., 348 
Craig, B. <'., 301 
Cramer, Stanley, 355 
Cress, David, 206 

Crissinger, George, 732 

Crisainger, James. 733 

Criswell, Robert K., 368 

Croin, I,. M., 174 

Cromer, John, 273 

Crooks, Jacob, 91 

Crose, James, 263, 266 

Crose, Tacy J., 442 

Crose, Thomas, 201 

Crose, Thompson, 178, 293 

Crose, William, 410 

Croso & McElhoe, 297 

Cross, E. B., 337 

Crouch, Cornelia (Hughes), 443 

Crouch, Henry C, 318, 322, 443 

Crouch, Joptha, 322, 406 

Crow bounty, 411 

Crow, Thomas D., 178 

Crow, T. D., 180 

Cullen, Clara (Simons), 443 

Cnllen, George H., 340, 444 

Cullen, George, Sr., 444 

Curtis, C. G, 361 

Curtis, W. W., 265 

Cutler, Doren, 202, 219, 399 

Cutler, Ralph A., 219 

Cutler, Sardis, 202 

Hague, William IT.. 166 

Dahlenburg, William, 748 

I tabling, Fred, 377, 763 

Daily, Barney, 221 

Daily Journal, The, 168 

Dale, Daniel, 61, 64, 69, 91, 224, 226, 

Dale, Daniel, Sr., 417 
Dale, Daniel D., 178, 180, 444 
Dale, D. 1)„ 305 
Dale, Isaac, 334 
Dale, James, 250 
Dale, John E., 374 
Dale, Joseph, 61. 92, 251 
Dale, Lewis J., 226 
Dale, Devi S., 3S2 
Dale, I,. S., 382 
Dale, Margaret, 374 
Dale, Oliver S., 445 
Dale, (). ,S., 250 
Dale, Prudence, 371, 374 
Dale, William R., 61, 224, 226 
Dame, C. P., 348 
Darnell, Nathan, 97 
Darrow, Isaac X., 830 
Dasher, Christian, 293 
Daughcrty, Amanda .1., 772 
Danghcrty, Jacob VV., 771 
Daugherty, William II., 809 
Daviess, Jo, IS 
Daviess, Joseph If., 21 
1 ).-i\ is, Barney, 2 19 
Davis, Catherine, 374 
Davis, Catherine 13., 239 
I lav is, Charles W.. 324, 553 
Davis Daniels, 283 
Davis, Elijah ('., 170, 1ST, 
Davis, George K., 989 
Davis, isaae, 238, 399 
Davis, Mrs. Isaac, :>,:;s 
Davi., Isaac M„ 340, 722 
Davis, .lames, 22 t 
Davis, John, :'ls, ■.'111 
Davis John W\, 370 



Davis, .Toseiih W., 185, 219 
Davis, Judah A., 723 
Davis, Maria, 374 
Davis, Matthias, 123 
Davis, Noah, 275 
Davis, Phillip, 60, 91, 218 
Davis, Theodore J., 221,. 445 
Davis, William, 307, 374 
Davis, William S., 340, 371 
Davis, W. E., 339. 
Davis, W. S., 307 
Davison, William, 265, .266 
Davisson, Amasiah, 445 
Davisson, C. S., 354 . • 

Davisson, Mary, 338 
Davisson, Sim, 810 
Dawson, 1^'wis, 290, 331 
Dawson, T. B., 293 
Day, John, 247 
Day, Joseph, 248 . 
Decker, Abraham, 86 
Decker, Luke, 86 
Deen, Benjamin, 225 
Dellinger, David, 282, 446 
Dellinger, Thomas W., 836 
DeLong, A. H., 334 
De Long, Joseph, 251 
Delzell, Robert M., 377, 446 
Delzell, E. M., 156 
Delzell, William, 447 
Democrat, 164 ♦ 

• Democrat- Journal-'Obscrver Company, 164 
DeMotte, John B., 334 
Demso, John, 286 
Derba, Sarah, 446 
Dern, 287, 419 
Dern, A. Jackson, 287 
DeVault, E. B., 348 
Dcvelin, Levi C, 447 
Dewey, Jacob, 195 
Dexter, Jacob W„ 190 
Dexter, Milton, 273 
Dibell, Edwin J., 794 
Dibell, Elihu B., 352, 355, 447, 795 
Dibell, Elihu L., 793 
Dibell, E. J., 133 
Dibell Family, 351 
Dibra, Jacob, 205 
Dickev, George, 761 
Dickey, N. S., 362 
Dickey, Sol C, 333 
Dickey, S. C, 169, 361 
Dickinson, Ansel M., 340 
Dickinson, A. M., 250 % 

Dickson, B. H., 345 . 
Didlake, Madison T., 156, 340, 532 
Didlake, M. T., 336, 353 
Didlake, Mrs. M. T., 313 
Diemer, Jacob, 785 
Dillc, John, 225 
Dilts, Daniel, 275 
Distillery in White County, 409 
Dittmann, Henry, 563 
Dixon, Benjamin, 246 
Dixon, George, 273 
Dixon, Harrison, 273 
Dixon, Noah, 238 
I loan, Milton, 426 \ 

Dobbins, Moses G., 852 
Did, I, ins, Robert P., 833 
Dobbins, Schuyler O., 528 
Dubbins, William, 371 

Dodd, J. II., 337 

Dodge, Catherine, 374 

Donaldson, Scott, 540 

Donavan, Thomas, 238 

Donnelly, Thomas E., 448 

Dooley, A. II., 375 

Dougherty, M. C, 92 

Dowcll, Francis M., 988 

Downey, Catherine, 332 

Downey, Daisy M., 366, 915 

Downey Family, 524 

Downey, .fames, 527 

Downey, John C, 133, 306, 912 

Downey, Mary J., 527 

Downey, Thomas, 2U5, 332, 347 

Downey, Thomas P., 527 

Downey, William H., 661 

Downing, Charles, 172 

Downing, Thomas, 201 

Downs, Frank, 172 

Downs, John, 274 

Downs, William H., 636 

Drainage, natural and artificial, 35; pres- 
ent system of, 49 

Draining companies, 48 

Droke, David 8., 448 

Duffey, John C, 133, 597 

Duffcy, J. C, 174 

Duffy, F. A., 373 

Duffy, J. C, 373 

Duncan, James F., 606 

Duncan, John, 205 

Duncan, Robert E., 777 

Duncan, Samuel, 205 

Dunham, D., 374 

Dunham, Jeremiah, 225, 448 

Dunham, John, 375 

Dunham, W. N., 347 

Dunkard Church, 330 

Dunkards, how they supported the Union, 

Dunlap, Rider J. II., 318 

Dunlap, J. II., 348 

Dunlap, Margaret, 348 

Dunlavy, A. A., 347 

Dunlop, John, 417 

Durn, Benjamin, 225 

Button, B. E., 277 

Button, J. E., 277 

Duvall, Theresa, 3(7 

Dye, Edward I!., 638 

Dve, George D., 355, 819 

Dye, Maude, 355 

Dyer, Geo'-e W., I IS 

Dyer, Mortimer, 251, 255 

Dyer, Oscar, 279, 280 

Dyer, Zebulon, 123, 238 

Eagle Canning Works, 359 

Early judges and lawyers, traits of, 103 

Early settler, grave of the oldest, 116 

Earthworks, 2 

Eddy, Harry <'.. 7 is 

Eddy, Ecuben, 7 17 

Edmonson, Samuel 1'., 283 

Edwards, Jcsee, 332 

Edwards, John, ::::i 

Ejrnow, L. <>., 354 

Eldiidge, Elijah, 230 

ElBton, Lewis, 200 

Electric Plnat ami Dam (view), 319 

Elliott, James, 113 



Elliott, Tames B., 2110 

Elliott, W. M., 327 

Emerson, Thomas, 00 

Emery, George, 250 

Emery, Ira, 282 

Ensminger, ITeiiry, 201, 295 

Equal Franchise League, 341 * 

Erickson, John P., 928 

Esra, Elias, 254 

Evangelical Lutheran St. James' Church, 

Evans, James, 449 
Evans, Julius, 355 
Evening Journal, 164 
Ewing, Frank A., 551 
Ewing, George W., 303 

Failing, Mary, 449 

Failing, Peter R., 322, 340, 449 

Failing, P. P.., 178 

Fairfield, Hobart, 651 

Farmers Bank, 359 

Farmers' Elevator, 327 

Farmers State Bank, 328 

Farmington Male and Female Seminary, 

Farmington Seminary, 130 
Farr, C. W, 374 
Father Meurin, 12 
Fawcett, D. A., 163 
Fayette, 419 
Fennimore, Matthew, 334 
Fenters, Samuel, 340 
Ferguson, Andrew, 60 
Ferguson, Edgar M., 133, 956 
Ferguson, John, 61, 69, 91 
Ferry established, 293 
Ferryfold, A. A., 250 ■ 
Field, Charles W., 618 
Fincer, William, 202 
Finch, Aaron, 92 
Finch Grove Road, 221 
Findley, J. W., 362" 
First active jurors, 91 
First Circuit judge, 91 
First county oflicers, 64 
First judicial tribunal, 85 
First marriage in county, 414 
First permanent settler, 215 
First prisoner, 70 
First schoolhouse in county, 122 
First state constitution, public education 

under the, 120 
First territorial court, 85 
Fishburn, P. M., 1<>9, 337 
Fisher, Charles P., 179 
Fisher, David, 238, 334, 940 
Fisher, David L., 449 
Fisher, Jasel, 399 
Fisher, William, 263, 268 
Fisher, William M., 704 
Fisk, Cassius, 320 
Filch, Aaron, 69 
Plceger, Robinson, 156 
Fli'tiimiiig, William, 263, 266 
Flour Mill, 197 
Flowcrville, 209, 119 
Fobes, Eliab, 224, 226 
Foltz, Jainea I'., 796 
Foram, M., 256 
Forbis, William N"., 450 
Ford, Eldon, 355 

Ford, John T., 340 

Ford, William F., 176, 450 

Forgotten towns, 418 

Forney, 279, 319 

Fort Chartres, 85; semi-civil government 

at, 13 
Fort 1'outchartrain, 10 
Fort Wayne, 11 
Fosher, J. 1!., 362 
Foster, Charles L., 164, 172, 664 
Foster, C. J. L., 182 
Foster, Joshua D., 164 
Foundry, Michael, 250 
Fowler, James R., 273 
Fox, Peter, 451 
Fox, W. E., 352 
Fraley, Henry, 347 
Fraley, Henry C, 378 
Fraley, H. C, 374 
Frame courthouse, 70 
Francis, Fred, 133, 369 
Franklin, Jacob, 293 
Eraser, Lincoln M., 322, 730 
Eraser, Mahlon, 238, 322, 451, 730 
Eraser, Mahlon, Sr., 193 
Eraser, Maximilla, 451 
Eraser, William, 322, 730 
Free school system, 129 
French, C. C, 361 
French, Charles J., 886 
French, Chester C, 171 
French, David, 361 
French, David S., 171, 361 
French, D. S., 348 
French forts, 10 
French fur traders, 10 
French-Indian Amalgamation, 10 
French, James E., 359, SS6 
French, Joseph, 361 
French military forts, 12 
French, Ruth, 866 

French titles to lands, uncertain, 13 
French, William, 359, 866 
Eretz, Harney, 169 
Friday, George W., 451 
Friend, John, 239 
From Courthouse, Looking North (view), 

From Courthouse Tower Looking South 

(view), 288 
Floss, Jacob M., 764 
Pry, John, 277, 689 
Pry, Samuel, 272 
Fuller, Harriett, 174 
Funk, Jacob, 266 
Punk, Samuel, 266 
Fur trade, 11 

Galey, I. 

. P., 348 


, William, 682 


Charles, 78 

Card •, 

Mrs. Charles, 338 
Edward B., 552 


F. C, 339 


Irvine, 171 



James M., 567 
John 1'., 567 


J. W., 379 


Nora, 315, 3 11 


William .1., 281 


iuso, Cyrus B., 225, 



uuse, George H., 225 



Garvin, Frank G., 352, 354 

Gates, George, 60 

Gates, Perry, 368, 369. 

Gaven, Frank B., 78 

Oaves, Henry H., 186 

Gay, George, 954 

Gay, George M., 452 

Gay, Illila, 218 

Gay, James, 61, 214, 217, 218, 221 

Gay, John, 61, 218, 221 

Gay, William, 214, 217, 218 

Gay, William, Jr., 214, 2J.7 

Gazeway, Sarah, 348 

Geier, Frank B., 769 

General Assembly of the Old Dominion, 

General Scene (view), 88 
Gerberich, William H., 355 
Germherlinger, Daniel, 128, 273 
Gibson, John, 15, 27, 226 
Gibson, George, 224. 226 
Gibson, Nathan C, 675 
Gibson, Robert, 225 
Gibson, Robert P., 226-452 
Gibson, William, 61, 226 
Gibson, William II., 347 
Gilbert, Charles, 355 
Gilbert, George W., 340 • 
Gildersleeve, Flora N., 36-1 
Gildersleeve, J. H., 361 
Gill, Thomas, ,254 
Gillam, Thomas, 46 
fiillpatrick, Benjamin, 254 
Gillpatriek, Thomas, 253, 254 
Ginn, Robert, 224, 225, 452 
Ginn, Robert N., 453 
Ginn, Thomas B., 685 
Girard, Charles E., 671 • 
Gitt, Silas, 226 
Givens, James, 124 
Gladden, Albert P., 555 
Glasgow, Joseph S., 860 
Glasgow, Samuel P., 861 
Glassford, Henry, 201 
Glassford, Homer, 250 
Glassford, Thomas, 250 
. Glassock, James W., 221 
Glazcbrook, Nannie, 133 
Gleaner, The, 169 
Gobin, H. A., 347 
Gochenour, Jeremiah, 644 
Goddard, J. S., 250 
Godlove, Albert, 370, 713 
Godlove, Perry, 711 
Godwin, J. S., 379 
Coff, Nathan, 238 
Gonzales, Benjamin, 356 
Good, Al, 172 
Coodacre, I., 335 
Goodman, Max, 556 
Goodrich, Lewis A., 453 
Hood roads, Prairie Township, 222 
flood Templars, 383 
Goodwin, Grant, 156 
Gow, Mary C, 336 
Graham, Henry, 1020 
Graham, John, 214 
Graham, Joseph H, 236 
Graham, Robert, 219 
Graham, Walker, 399 
Grand Army, Tippecanoe Post No. 51, 


Grandy, Ira B., 362 

Grant, Benjamin, 265, 266, 418 

Grant, P. A., 156 

Graves, I). M., 185, 186 

Graves Family, 453 

Graves, Jacob', 399 

Graves, James T„ 117 

Graves, John, 1005 

Graves, J. T., 389 

Gray, Erastus, 71 

Gray, Julia R., 849 

Gray, Malaehai, 47 

Gray, Mclohi, 61, 193, 195, 200, 204 

Gray, Samuel, 60, 61, 69, 91, 193, 194. 

195, 204, 236 
Gray, Samuel, Sr., 200 
Gray, William B., 339 
Gray, William H., 848 
Creathonse, William, 263, 266 
Great hunt of 1840, 238 
Great murder trial, 397 
Great railroad disaster, July 17, 1878, 

Greer, Irvin, 340, 368 
Green, J. T., 348 
Green, N. L., 334 
Greenfield, Benjamin, 454 
Gregory, Robert, 305, 399 
Grcwell, Robison, 266 
Gress, James C, 221 
Gridley, Jack, 416 
Gridley, W. J., 116, 307 
Griffith, Benjamin T , 334 
Griffith, Daniel, 205 
Griffith, James, 219 
Griffin, John, 85 
Grisso, M. V., 337 
Grooms, Jesse, 238, 246 
Gross, I. M., 307 
Gruell, Samuel, 128, 273 
Grugcl, William P., 806 
Guernsey, 58, 249 
Guild, George, 347 
Guthrie, William, 116, 189 
Gwin, James F., 1009 
Gwlnn, George H, 179 
C.winn, George W., 183 
Gypsy King, death of, 415 

Haff, Asa, 219, 221 

Hagerty, Clara E., 361 

Hagerty, Henry I' 1 ., 361 

Hagerty, Sarah !•!., 361 

Hall, Alvin, 273 

Hall, George, 26S 

Hall, James W., 2(13, 265, 266, 268 

Hall, S. W., 265 

Hall, Whitfield, 347 

Hall, W., 374 

Halstead, Arthur, 311 

Halstead, Bartlctt, 'Jsi 

Halstead, John, 281, 288 

Halstead, Mary. 281 

Halstead, Sarah .1., L'S.'I 

HaJsted Brothers, &58 

Hamelle, Rohert A., 454 

Hamelle, Willinm II., 153, 340 

Hamelle, W. [1., 116, 313 

Hamill, James, 225 

1 1 . < i r i i 1 1 . John, 225 

Hamilton, Charles 1'.., 22.1 

Hamilton, I). 1,., 250 

xxvi [NDBX 

Hamilton, Jerry, 250 Harvey, Buf us L., 339, 458 

Hamilton, .1. W., 309, 313 llarvoy, William R., 340 

Hamilton, Marion, 250 Haskell, Oliver 0., 344 

Hamilton, Thomas, 266, 260 Hatfield, J., :i74 

Hamlin, M. (J., 2U1 llatton, Israol, 379 

Hammond, Oliver, 70, 92, 218 Hay, B. Anna, 301 

Hammon, Oliver, 293 Hay, Elizabeth, 3G1 

Hanawalt, A., 178, 304, 307, 3S4 Hay, James, 458 

Han await, Abrnm, 454 Hay, Margaret, 3G1 

Hanawalt, Henry, 266 Hayden, Sarah M., 19 

Hanawalt, John, 201, 293 Hayes, C, 143 

Hanawalt, Joseph, 455 Hayes, p. S., 358 

Hanawalt, Mary, 455 Hayes, Rachel, 132 

Hanawalt, William, 375 . Hayes, Samuel M., 334 

Hnnnway, Jacob, 77, 239 Hayes, Solomon, 357 

Hancock, Jerry, 455 Hayes, Thomas S., 941 

Hancock, W., 374 Haymond, Mrs. Dr., 127 

Hand, C. J., 225 Haymond, William S., 9, 136, 154, 307 

Handley, Serena, 132 320 

Uanna, Andrew, (il, 224. 225, 226, 230, Haymond, W. S., 178, 305 

3GG, 367 ' Haynes, J. A., 348, 354 

flnnna, Andrew J., 226 Hays, Patrick, 3G7, 587 

Hanna Family, G03 Hnzleton, Royal, GO, Gl, 69, 91, 215, 218 

Hanna, Guy, 174 Head, Trnxton, 458 

Uanna, John, Sis, 224, 22G Headen, William, 250 

Hanna, Robert, 61 Headlee, 274, 277 

Hanna, Thomas J., 117, G05 Headlee, Charles, 459 

Haiineis, Robert, G9, 91, 224, 220 Headlee, Harvey, 274, -277 

liannnm, Relic, 456 Headlee, Margaret, 274 • 

I ranway, Thaddens, 456 Headlee, Silas, 274, 459 

Hanwav, 'i'had 13., 318 Healey, George II., 172, 174 

Harhert, W. 1., 167, 171 "Heap Bitr Scare" of 1832, 194 
Harbolt, Jonathan, 70, 102, 17,S, 290, 293, Heastur, Jacob, 250 

331, 330, 382, 456 Hebner, Susan, 347 

Harbolt & Tilton, 79 Ile-kendorn, Samuel, 290, 305, 307, 459 

Hareoiirt, John, 156 Heimlich, Ed, 171 

Hareonrt, R. A., 154 Heiny, Jonathan, 537 

Hardy, Christopher, 221, 419 Heiny, Lanrinda, 539 

Hardy, Thomas A., 457 Heiny, William H., 172 

Harlan, Rlihu, 263 Hclar, G., 250 

Harless, Thomas, 61, 224, 225 Helfrich, William J., 757 

Harlow, W. D., 173 Helm, Frederick, 250 

Harmon, J. N., 347 Hemphill, Edward, S01 

Harold, C. C, 374 Hemphill, John B., 354, 459 

Harper, Samuel, 250 Henderson, Annie, 307 

Harper, Thomas, 250 ■ Henderson, James H., 570 

Harper, William, 250 Henderson, John M., 600 

Harris, II. .)., 97 Henderson, Joseph, 3G7, 599 

Harris, Joseph, 286 Henderson, J. H., 324 

Harris, Rowland, 91 Henderson, Lillian, 571 

Harrison, Alfred, 255 Henderson, Matthew, 460 

Harrison, Andrew A„ 693 Henderson, M., 178, 184 

Harrison, Henjamin, 255 llenke, Mary, 337 

Harrison, fiances M., 693 Henry, Patrick, 250 

Harrison, Governor, 86 Herman, Eli R., ISO 

Harrison, James, 201 Herman, Franklin J., 230, ,171, 373 

Harrison, R., 60 Herman, John, 374 • 

Harrison, William II., 15 Herman, Larkin, 374 

llarritt. A. II., 165 Helper, P., 250 

llano, John, 272 llenon, John, 283 

Hart, Professor, 132 Horron, Richard M., murder of, 110 

Hart, Spencer, 302, 157 Hershe, Abraham, 205 

Hartman, A. IL, MM [Toss, James, 170, 400 

Hnrtman, Oarrie, 315, 457 II inner, Jacob II., 341 

llarliiinn, Charles S., 137 Hickman, ( '. II., :!7l 

Hartman, John, 021 Hickman, James, 266 

Hartmnn, I'., 251 Hickman, William, 266, 739 

Hartman, Walters., 164 Hicks, Aaron, 01, 64, 09, 01, 112, 22-1, 

llartmann, Levi, 272 g"5, 226, 230 

Harvey, James, 070 Mirks, Jnmcs, 225 

Harvey, R, I,., 3R7 Hicks, William. .'.7 1 

[Iarvey, Robert, 21 1 u\g\i School, 130 


High School after Fire of August 25, 
1905 (view), 300 

High School, North and South Views 
(view), 310 

Highways, State and National, 51 

Higson, Maiquia, 283 

Hiidcbrand, Elizabeth A., 348 

Hildehrand, .Terusha, "348 ' 

Hildebrand, Theodore, 348 

Hilderbrand, E. J. C, 178 

llimes, James, 250 

Hinehman, Louis, 352, 799 

Hinchrnan, William, 460 

Hinckle, William H., 343 

Hinshaw, Richard, 339, 569 

Hintzman, Fred, 770 

lliorth, Hans E., 61, 65, 193, 194, 246, 
289, 293 

Hiorth's mill, 196 

Historic Spencer House, 234 

Hitchins, Jolin C, 219 

Hoagland ditch, 258 

Hodshire, Frank L., 340 

Hogland, Mercia, 313 

Hokxm, F. N., 250 

Iloldridge, Maude, 355 

Holdridge, Truman, 797 

Holdstock, Enoch, 334 > 

Holladay, Charles A., 323, 628 

Holladay Family, 626 

Holladay, John, 626 " 

Holladay, Phillip A., 027 

Holladay, Sarah J., 323 

Hollawav, Thomas, 201 

Holley, R. T., 355 

Ilolliday, James, 255 

Holliday, John, 239 

Hollodyke, John, 179 

Holloway, John, 181 

Holmes, Bartholomew, 575 

Holmes, David, 334 

Holmes' ford, 29 

Holmes, Hannah B., 577 

Holmes, William B., 573 

Holtom, Jesse, 250 

Holtzman, Emma, 1000 

Holtzman, Morris J., 999 

Holtzman, R., 345 

Holtzman, W., 156 

Honey Creek, 245 

Honey Creek, .first schoolhouse, 133 

Honey Creek Township, draining and 
road building, 244 ; settlers and land 
buyers of 1835, 246; lands entered in 
1839-53, 247; two thirds owned by non- 
residents in 1S55, 247; military war- 
rant lands, 247; swamp land, 247; ere 
ated, 249 ; schoolhouse and town hall, 
219; pioneer citizen voters, 250; public 
spirited, 251 ; appraisement of for 
1915, 425 

Honey Creek Township School, Reynolds, 

Hoover, Robert B., 460 

Hoover, R. B., 153 

Hoover, Will B., 163, 461 

Hopkins, Walter. 273 
Hopper, Matthew, 19:',, 201, 266 
Huron, Christian, 971 
IToren, John, 250 

Horeil, Samuel, 250 
Horn, Patrick, 250, 251 

Hornbaek, Adam, 399 

Hornbaek, Alexander, 226 

Hornbaek, George, 225 

Hornbaek, Nelson, 219 

Hornbeck, George, 61, 226 

Hornbeck, Nelson, 461 

Hornbeck, Simon, 218 

Horner, Cornelius M., 998 

Horstmann, George, 378 

Houghton, James, 362 

Houses of worship, 333 

Howard, James 10., 34U 

Howard, Michael, 318 

Huber, Harry, 354 

Hudson, Shelby, 279, 280 

Hudson, Sibley, 60 

Huff, Asa, 399 

Huff, Samuel A., 98, 112, 174, 234 

Huff, William J., 864 

Huff, W. J., 166, 168, 173 

Huffman, Elizabeth, 657 

Huffman, George, 657 • 

Hugh, Rowland, 124 

Hughes, Elizabeth B., 621 

Hughes Family, 534 

Hughes, George K., 536 

Hughes, James, 266, 620 

Hughes, John, 535 

Hughes, John C, 143, 270, 340, 399, 417, 

461, 535 
Hughes, John S., 266 
Hughes, I. nebula, drowning of, til 
Hughes, M. Allison, 270 
Hughes, Marion A., 369 
Hughes, Nancy, 461 
Hughes, Rowland, 199, 270, 293, 297, 340, 

Hughes, R., 178 
Hull, Nathaniel, 207 
Hull, Reuben, 201 
Hummer, Michael, 331 
Humphreys, Andrew, 133, 841 
Humphreys, John, 134 
Hunt, Isaac W., 272 
Hunter, D. Eekley, 131 
Hurtt, J. S., 307 
Hussey, Emma A., 982 
Hussey, Uriah S., 980 
Huston, 1). .1., 348 
Hutchinson, James C, 229 
Hntt, Jonathan, 201 
Button, Maria, 127 

lames, George, 202 

Ico Gorge, 403 

Idaville, 61, 363; first called Ilanna, 230, 
366; founded, 230; first merchant and 
postmaster, 366; progress dcs|^to fire, 
368; name of, -115; Rank of, 368; 
township commissioned high school, 
:(iis; first. Church of God, 369; 
Church of God, 370; Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, 370; Seventh-Day Ad- 
ventist-. 379; societies, 370; United 
Presbyterian Church, 370 

Idaville" II li School (view), 368 

Idaville crver, 161, 172 

Men, T. P., 178 , 

Illinois Tei i itory, 25 
lines, Richard, 2 17, 102 
lines, \\ illiam, 323 
liulcr, Cassias |l., 133 730 



Imler, David, 733 

Imler, Reuben, 462, 7.'! I 

Independent, 172 

Indian lands, 17 

Indian claims, lifting of, 29 

Indian land treaties, 30 

Indian village, Liberty Township, 202 

Indiana as a part of New France, 9 

Indiana trading posts, 11 

Indiana under British ride, 12 

Indiana complaints, 16 

Indiana, first Legislature of, 27 

Indiana corn (view), 192 

Indianapolis, 27 

Indianapolis, Delphi & Chicago Railroad, 

57; first passenger train, 58 
Indiana Territory created, 15; changes in 

governors and capitals, 27; first judge, 

Industries, 325 

Industries founded on nature, 34 
Ingraham, Andrew, 09 
Ingraham, Ira, 234 
Ingram, Andrew, 92 
Ingrain, M. II., 171 
Ingram, William, 201 
Inskeep, George T., 522 
Irelan, Claude, 341 
Irelan, Jonathan,.309 
Irelan, Seth, 225 
Irelan William, 131, 305, 353 
Ireland, Thaddeus 10., 518 
Irion, Anderson, .282, 462 
Irion, Robert P., 820 
Irons, Anderson, 143 
Iroquois, 10 
Trvin, Abram, 251 
Trvin, Abraham, 250 
Irvin, Hugh, 250 
Irvine, Eliza .!., 103 
Irwin, Edward W., 792 
Irwin, E. W., 355 
Irwin, Gideon, 273 
Irwin, Roliert, 332 
(sham, I,. S., 341 
Ishcrwood, R. M., 172 
Itskin, Christopher, 399 
[vers, William, 01, 219 

.lackman, A. W., 337 
Jnckman, C. 1'., 312 
Jackson, Isaac II., 185 
Jackson, John W., 221 
Jackson, J. W., 374 

Jackson Township schools, 124 J south 
halt first settled, 223- pioneer settlers 

and land owners, 223; land entered be- 
fore township organization, 224; pio- 
neers of 1835-38, 225; first recorded 
election, 220; pioneer Bcliool matters, 
227; high standard of molality, 228; 
drainage and good roads, 231; up 

prnisemont of for 1915, 425 

Jail, 70, 75, 77 

Jail find sheriff's residence, 75 

Jail breaker With church going tenden- 
cies, 424 

James, Henry, 202 

James, Homer M., ,H28 

James, II. I)., 325 

James, James, 22 1 

James, Joseph, '.12, 1115, 22 1, 220, 227, 200 

James, Joseph, Sr., 09, 91 

James, T. .)., 224 

James, William, 01, 224, 226 

Jameson, J. 10., 379 

Jell'coots, John, 250 

Jefferson, John R., 239, 247 

Jefferson, Thomas, 65 

Jonners, William M., 09, 92, 299, 320 

Jenning, Carl, 561 

Jesse, O. II., 347 

Jesuit missionaries, lo 

Jewett, Anson, 253, 254, 255 

Jewett, L. H., 250 

Jewett, Leander IT., 250, 254 

Jewett, Robert A., 787 

John Burns' Grove, 146 

Johnson, Addison, 240, 250 

Johnson, Anderson, 250 

Johnson, Catherine, 331, 332 

Johnson, Ellis H., 238, 239, 247, 332, 3S2, 

Johnson, Emily J., 463 
Johnson, Frank, 240 
Johnson, Harry C, 710 
Johnson, H. C, 133 
Johnson, James, 00, 0], 09, 91, 195, 200, 

205, 334 
Johnson, James O., 354 
Johnson, Jesse, 00, 214 
Johnson, John F., 327 
Johnson, John H., 953 
Johnson, John W., 239 
Johnson, Jonathan, 239 
Johnson, Levi, 238 
Johnson, Marshall, 250 
Johnson, Marshall H., 248 
Johnson, Micajah P., 248 
Johnson, Moses, 246 
Johnson, M. T., 250 
Johnson, Okey S., 239, 247, 290, 331, 332, 

Johnson, Rebecca, 331, 332 
Johnson, Robert C, 255 
Johnson, R. C, 254, 335 
Johnsonbaugh, Ira, 065 
Johnsonbaiigh, Sanford, 318, 048 
Johnston, Anna, 336 
Johnston, Clark, 303 
Juliet's large map of 1074, 9 
Jones, Amos, 332 
Jones, A. B., 150 
Jones, James ('., 353, 554 
Jones, Pearl, 341 
Jones, Robert, 98 
Jones, Thomas I)., 404 
Jones, T. 8., 179 
Jonos, William I''., 347 
Jordan, William, 27S, 2.S1, 282, 404 
Joshua (I rim's .bike, 423 
Josserand, A. 10., 37!) 
.lost. Ida, 341 
Just, John M., 10| 
.lost, John \V, 4(14 
Journalism in White County, 408 
Judges, 1838-42, 98 

Kahler, llenrv, 202 

Kane, John A., 221 

Karp, August, 105 

Kan, John C, 269, 105 

Kair, Joseph, 239 

Knrr, Moses, 239, 263. 200, 209 


Kassabaum, George W., 117, 3S9, 5-16 
Kay, A. II., 366 
Kean 's Creek sramii lands, 267 
Kean, L. M., 174 

Kcefcr, Daniel, 630 

Keefer, William B., 465, 630 

Kecfcr, W. B., 336 

Kcevcr, John, 340 

Keever, Robert, 466 

Kefsis, F., 250 

Keifhaber, P. H., 386 

Kcllenburger, Ernest .C.^ 951 

Kellenburger, Joseph P., 952 

Keller, Charles, 250 

Keller, Ira, 250 

K'ellcv, Donald M., 950 

Kelley, D. M., 359 

Kelley, .Tnmes, 124 

Kelley, Thomas, 92 

Kclls, Ira, 250 

Kemp, George, 60 

Kendall Brothers, 293 ' 

Kendall, Charles W., 293, 307, 339, 399, 

Kendall, C. W., 178, 199, 307 
Kendall, F. G., 198 
Kendall, Francis G., 339, 466 ' 
Kendall, George S., 74 
Kendall, J. M., 348, 361 
Kendall, Mary E., 466 
Kendall, Robert &, 339 
Kendall, R. C, 198 
Kennedy, Peter B., 2S3 
Kennedy, Thomas, 216 
Kennedy, William, 214 
Kenney, William, 337 
Kenrioh, J. EL, 374 
Kent, James, 91, 218 
Kent, Jennie, 361 
Kent, Lawrie T., 133 
Kent, Phineas M., 285, 758 
Kent, William C., 185 
Kent, W. C, 186 
Kenton, James, 250 
Kenton, Llewellyn G., 466 
Kenton, Simon, 178, 208 
Kenton, William M., 70, 110, 123, 200, 

238, 247, 249, 375, 376, 467 
Kontwell, Isaac, 250 
Keplinger, Jacob, 92 
Kepperling, George, 190 
Kcpperling, John, 203 
Kepperling, Sarah, 332 
Kerr, Artemns P., 163, 166, 467 
Kerr, James, 64, 236, 237 
Kerr, J. G., 375 
Kerr, M. A., 307, 375 
Kerr, William, 69, 91 
Keyes, Jasper H., 163 
Knickerbocker, Hugh, 131 
Kiefhaber, F. n., 384 
Kilgore, John C, 237 
Killgore, John, 62 
Kindig, IT. L., 334 
King, A., 378 
King, Esther M., 348 
King, John B., 02 
King, Thomas, 195, 205 
King, W. II., 113 
Kingsbury, Clement R., 46S 
Kingsbury, Ira, 307 
Kingsbury, Ira S., 468 

Kingsbury, Mary, 168 

King's Schoolhotise, 273 

Kious, Adams, 359 

Kiotis, John, 47, 219, 419 

Kious, Joseph H., 359, 922 

Kious, Milam A., 219 

Kiousville, 419 

Kirk, Henry C, 162 

Kirk, R. C, 339 

Kitchen, Elizabeth, 619 

Kitchen, William, 619 

Kitt, A. J., 163 

Kleckner, W. A., 366 

Kleist, Charles H., 353, 854 

Klepinger, Hiram J., 916 

Klepinger, Jacob, 219 

Kneale, John H., 360 

Knepp, Arthur F., 174 

Knights of Pythias, Monticcllo Lodge 

No. 73, 340 
Knox, George L., 333 
Koch, F. J., 378 
Koontz, James A., 379 
Korn, Samuel, 205 
Koutz, William P., ISO, 340, 468 
Kouts, W. P., 332 
Krapff, William, 826 
Krnger, Lewis, 250 
Kubacki, John, 378 
Kuns, Clarence D., 190 
Kuntz, Washington, 340 
Kuonen, Eticnne, 379 

Lafayette and Michigan City State Road, 

Laing, Ed, 396 
Lambert, David, 418 
Lambert, Z., 374 
Lamon, C. E., 154 
Land ollices, 16 
Land, R., 336 
Lane, Abram C, 469 
Lane, Daniel, 238 
Lane, nenry S-, 421 
Lane, James, 234 
Languedoc, Charles, 86 
Languedoc, Fr., 86 
Lansing, Thomas, 265, 266 
Large, John, 340, 417 
Large, Sarah, 469 
Larrabee, John, 286 
La Salle, 8 
Layman, John, 272 
Layton, R. A., 341 
Lawrence, William, 361 
Lawrie, James, 838 
Lawrie, John, 248 
Lawrie, Susan A., 838 
Lawson, Charles A., 470 
Lawyers of 1834-51, 114 
Lawyers of 1856-00, 115 
Leach, John, 297, 334, 340 
Lealy, John, 250 
Lear, Hiram l'\, 255, 470 
Lear, John, 254 
Lear, John If., 310 
Lear, Joseph, 254 
Lear, Thomas A., 834 
be, 58, 509 
Leech, George, 20 
LeITel, James, 312 


Leffel, Jnmea m., 529 

Lepras, J. M. !'., 85 

Leister, Nimrod, 28G 

Leslie, Daniel, 'J29 

Lester, P. E., 150 

Lewis, George F.., 345 

Lewis, John, 2.'!S 

Lewis, Josephj 60 

Liberty Township, first school, 12">; 
timber lands and lowlands, 202; In- 
ilian village, 262; created, 201; first 
election and officials, 205; change of 
boundaries, 20."; settlers previous to 
18-10, 200; onusual progress in 1840-50, 
200; pioneers sell improved lands, 266; 
non-resident purchasers, 207; good 
roads, 267; schools, 208; first marriage 
and first death, -68; the iron bridge, 
270; appraisement of for 1915, 425 

Liekory, E., 250 

Lielfor, John C, 254 

Limestone, 34 

Lincoln, President, 95 

Linda, Henry, 239 

Lindhorst, J. H., 379, 710 

Lindsay, Joshua, 47, '200, 293, 382, 398 

Line, Aliel, 418 

Line, Dennis, 205 

Line, Elian, 204 

Line, Sarah, 470 

Link, William TL, 182 

Linton, Maurice, 362 

Linvillc, Benjamin A., 209, 343 

Lister, Garrison Q., 274 

Lister, Joanna, 274 

Livery stable burned, 411 

Live stock men, 141 

Lisk, William'; 470 

Little, Henry T:, 007 

Utile, Mary E., 008 

Little Monon Creek, 200, 258 

Livingstone., G. W., 354 

Lockwood, Rufus, 234 

Lockwond, Kufns A., 92 

Logan, Cornelia, 338 

Logan, Hugh B., 17s 

Logan, IL B., 384 

Logan, William A., 202 

Log Cabins, 419 

Louglirv, Albert W., 340, 565 

Loughry ,*Cloyd, 340, 373, 564 

Loughry, Joseph I"., 564 

Loiighry Mills, 327 

Loughry, Nelson B., 296, |71 

Loughry. William V„ 340 

Louisville, New Albany & Chieago line, 
208, 249 

Louther, Elias, 91 

Lovejoy, tlalsey, 15S 

Lovejoy, John K., 15S 

Lovejoy, J. R., 339 

Lowe, Charles S., 205, 207 

Lowe, Enos, 62 

Lowe, GiiRtavus, 327 

Lowe, John U„ 2 17 

Low.-. Larkin, 171, 605 

Lowe Mill, The, -J07 

I OWO, Samuel. L'"8 

I. ewe, Scclnirn, 606 

Lowe, William, 339 

Loivery, John. 220 

Lowther, Abraham, l!>.!. 199, 266 

l.owther, Klias, 60, 01, 200, 204, 205 

Lowther, J. II., L99 

l.owther, Watson, 199 

Lucas, Benjamin, ISO 

Luce, John, 238, HI 

Lucy, George W„ 172 

Lukens, Abraham, 239 

Lutherans, Reynolds, 379 

Lux, Augustus V., 779 

Lyman, Horace C, 343 

Lynch, James, 386 

Mace. Daniel, 97 

Mackin, Thomas, 200 

Macklcn, Thomas, 203 

Macklin, Thomas, 263 

Magee, Anne, 313 

Magee Family, The, 471 

Mahin, Augustus E., 937 

Mahin, John, 219 

Mahureu, Caleb, 374 

Mahuren, Isaac, 374 

Mahurin, Isaac, 130, 230 

Map of Indian Cessions, Including \Vhit< 

County (map), 28 
Marbet, A. J., 302 
Margaue, Francois, Sieur de Vincenues 

Markle and Cowdin, 296 
Markle, Jacob, 472 
Marnev, Jonathan, 86 
Marshal, Antoine, 86 
Marshall, David, 247 
Marshall. John, 20 
Marshall, Lewis C, 247 
Marshall, W. C, 186 
Marshall, William P., 472 
Marshall, Woodson S., 179 
Martin, Alva J., 323 
Martin, A. L., 337 
Martin, Charles, 133 
Martin Cherric's Woolen Mill, 197 
Martin. James, 286 
Martin, Lewis .11., S96 
Martin, Peter, 201, 293 
Martin. William IL, 286 
Martindale, Thomas, 224 
Marvin, Delancy, 225 
Marvin, George, 392 
Manin, George E., 389 
Marvin. George P.. 1 17. 340 
Mason, K. P., 358 
Mason, P., :7( 
Mason, Joseph, 61 
Mason, Thomas. 334 
Masons, Lihamis Lodge, 339 
Masons, Montit'cllo Chapter, 3-10; Moi 

ticello Council No. 70, R. and S. M 
: l"; Order of the Eastern star, 340 
Mastaw, Anthony, 761 
Mathew, Levi A., 825 
Matlock, Joseph II. . 1 15 
Matthews, Kxekicl, 239 
Matthews, rsaac V, 905 
Matthews, John. 219, 239, 117 
Mattix. Hciijamin, 273 
May, William C, 339 
McAllister, C. A., 17: 
M. Vllister, J. \V., 156 
M.l'.eth, Anna, 128, 273 
Mcltotli, Jumes M.. 307, GOO 
Mi-Beth, Joseph, 151, 706 


McBeth, Walter, 156, 1500 

McBeth, William, 872, 273 

McBride, IT. C, 148, 332 

McCabe, John, 958 

McCain, James, 225 

McCall, Byron, 172 

McCall, Byron E., 656 

McCall, Daniel, 055 

McCall, Joseph S., 681 

McCann, Dr., 392 

McCann, Joseph D., 340, 547 

McCann, J. D., 313, 317 

McCarty, Ed, 60 

McClintic, S. K., 336 

MeCloud, Edward, 272, 472 

MoCIoud, Hannibal, 277 

MeCloudParcels, Maritta, 473 

McClnre, James M., 843 

McColloch, Solomon, 214, 217, 218, 250, 

McColloch, V., 246 
McColloch, William W., 473 
McCollum, James H., 861 
McCollnm, J. H., 307, 406 
McCollum, Thomas, 474 
MeComb, Elizabeth, 966 
McComb. James, 965 
McCombs, David, 64 
McConahay, David, 125, 266, 268, 474 
McConahay, Orlando, 115, 340 
McConahay, O., 178 

McConahay, Ransom,' 74, 266, 399, 474 
McConahay, R., 183 
McConnell, John, 662 . • 

. McCorkle, William, 629 
McCormick, Benjamin, 182 
McCormick, Beveridge, 176 " . 
McCormick, Thomas, 61, 98, 224, 225 
McCoy, Jasper I., 347 
McCreary, Lewis, 348 
McCuaig, Dan, 568 
McCuaig, Daniel, SO, 339 
McCnaig, David, 305, 323, 339, 475 
McCuaicr, D. D., 32S 
McCulley, H. E., 172 
McCulloch, Solomon, 61, 64, 218 
McCiilloch, Van, 382 
McCulloch, W. H., 60' 
McCnllum, Mrs. James H., 341 
McCrilly, John, 230, 366 
McCully, J. G., drowning*of, 415 
McCully, Samuel A., 368 
McCullv, Solomon, 74, 225, 226 
McCully, S. D., 366 
McDonald, John, 265, 266, 975 
McDonald, William B., 975 
McDonald, William L., 974 
McDowell, John, 61, 225, 265, 266 
McDuflie, J. W., 354 
MoRlhoe, Amor S., 421, 475 
MeEntyre, James W., 966 
McEwen, James W., 163, 178 
Mr Finland, Joel B., 356 _ 
McParland, Walter, 2S3 ^ 
McFeor, Samuel, 2«3 

McOaughey, George, 281 
Mclntire, Samuel, 182 
McTntyre, .Tamos W., 263 
McKonn, Thomas, 97 
McKee, Mary E., 202 
MeKillip, Edwin E., 786 
MeKillip, James, 255 

McKinley, James, 293 

MeKinsey,, W. 1'., 334 

McLaughlin, Thomas, 225, 226 

McLean, William E., 323 

McMahon, John, 378 

McMillan, Thomas, 272 

McMullen, J. W. T., 182 

McNary, John, 203, 204, 265, 266 

McNutt, John, 205 

McPherson, Stephen, 374 

Mel'herson, William A., Kill 

McQueen, Robert, 286 

MeWilliams, Robert, 476 

Medaris, Alta M., 361 

Medaris, Elizal eth, 361 

Medaris, John, 131, 132, 154, 361 

Medaris, John W., 155, 476 

Medicinal plants, many extinct, 40 

Medorse, Frederick, 250 

Meeker, Curtis D., 1004 

Meeker, C. D., 341 

Meier, D., 378 

Mellender, George, 347 

Men's Bible League, 317 

Merkle, Orwig & Co., 426 

Merriam and Company, 293 

Merriam, C. L., 354, 366 

Merriam, John C, 295 

Mershan, J. B., 374 

Mertz, Charles M., 715 

Messmann, A., 378 

Metcalf, John E., 218, 219 

Methodist Church, Brookston, 360 

Methodist Church founded, 333 

Methodist Church Pastors, 334 

Methodist Church, Reynolds, 378 

Methodist Church, Wolcott, 353 

Methodist Episcopal Church, Tdaville, 

Methodist Quarterly, 169 
Metts, John, 219 
Mexican land warrants, 43 
Mexican war, 176, 409 
Meyer, Jacob, 201, 208, 263 
Meyers, B. T., 250 
Meyers, Eli, 283 
Meyers, Jacob, 293 
Miami Confederation of Indians, 9 
Middelstadt, Carl C, 133, 991 
Middleton, H. 11., 347 
Mikesell, John, 206 
Miller, Alexander, 399 
Miller, A. L., 374 
Miller, Ephraini, 225 
Miller, G. I)., 332 
Miller, George P., 297 
Miller, George P., 250 
Miller, James S., 250 
Miller, John, 225, 236 
Miller, John P., 324 
Miller, John \V., 3 IS 
Miller, Josephine A., 348 
.Miller, Julia, 348 

Miller, Leonard FT., 161 

Miller, l.cwi- M., 840 
Miller, Oldie lv. 375 
Miller, Rodney M., 266 
Miller, Stephen, 246, 250 
Miller, S. A.. 250 
Million, Ephraini, 226, 272 
Million, r'rancis \l., 177 
Million, Jaeoh l\, 591 


Million, Martha, :S74 

Million, Randolph J., IT I, 177 

Million, Robert F., 309 

Million, Robert M., 177 

Million, R. ,]., 389 

Mills, Kilbourn J., .101, 802 

Milroy, Robert II., 105, 178 

Mineh, Joseph S., 877' 

Minniek, 11. R., 156 

Missionary stations, 11 

Mitchell, Ceorgo: IT., 151, 227, -177 

Mitchell, James T., 22G 

Mitchell, .Tohn E., 719 

Mitchell Powder Explosion, 103 

Mitchell, iSallie, 132 

Mitchell, William W., 61, 225, 220, .".00 

Mock, Charles B., 334 

Monon, 208; additions to original site, 
343; incorporation of, 343; industrial 
and commercial advantages, .'141; clay 
and stone industries, 344; banks, 345; 
town commissioned high school, 345; 
societies, 348; appraisement of for 
1915, 425 

Monon Air Line, division of, 57 

Monon Bank, 345 

Monon Baptist Church, 348 

Monon First Methodist Episcopal Church, 

Monon Leader, 172 

Monon News, 107, 173 * 

Mono'n Dispatch, The, 172 

Monon Presbyterian church, 346 

Monon Public. Library (view), 34G 

Motion's Public Library, 346 

Monon Town Commissioned High School 
(view), 344 

Monon Township, 01; first school, 125; 
first settler, 203*; laud entries before 
1840, 201'; early sett Ins, voters, and 
officials, 203; swamp lands, 205; good 
*roads, 205; limestone deposits, 200; 
timbered tracts, 200; first mills built, 
206; first events, 208; lirst religious 
organization, 209; first schoolhouse, 
209; early postoffices, 200; appraise- 
ment of for 1915,425 

Montgomery, 418 

Montgomery, James 10., 417 

Montgomery, Wm. P., (17 

Monticello^ 54, 05; old courthouse grant, 
07; public, sales of lots, 07; entry of 
site, 195; infant industries, 199; 
founding of, 289; entries covering 
original town, 289; first building and 
pioneer merchant, 290; churcl ■ ■, 290; 
1830 busy year, 291; young town con 
siderably soaked, 201; business di- 
rectory for 1830, 201; establishment 
of the local press, 20.1; lirst water 
power and mills, 205; wool center and 
woolen manufacturers, 205; becomes 
a railroad town, 296; in 1852, 297; 
village government abandoned, 299; 
Walker's, .Tenners' and Reynolds' ad 
ilition, 200; Parr's Addition, 300; 
third town addition, .'102; fourth and 
fifth additions, 303; Becond ami mora 

stable corporation, .'111 1 ; educational 
system, 3115; the old high school, 307; 
better town schools, 309; first big 
school in a teed stable, 309; prOSOIlt 

high school building, 3 I I ; schools of 

the present, 312; schools, superintend- 
ents ami teachers, 312; grades build- 
ings, 312; public schools, system as a 
whole, 313; water works system, 317; 
the Reynolds' Additions, 320; Turn- 
er's Addition, 321; Cleveland street 
created, 322; Hughes' Addition, 322; 
Codicil's and Fraer's Additions, 322; 
McCuaig's Addition, 323; Dreifus and 
Haugh's Addition, .".23; McLean and 
Brearley's Addition, 323; Later addi- 
tions to the townsite, 323; Citizens' 
Addition, 323; city hall, 324; water 
power, improvements of, 324; pres- 
ent-day industries, 325; societies, 338; 
without a saloon, 300; early bands, 
402; enlargement of Public Square, 
406; southwest corner Main and 
Marion streets (view), 412; first meat 
market, 424; appraisement of for 
1915, 425 

Monticello Banks, 327 

Monticello Dam at Flood Tide (view), 88 

Monticello Democrat, 163 

Monticello Herald, 157, 165 

Monticello Hydraulic Company, 295 

Monticello Lumbering and Barrel Head- 
ing Manufacturing Company, 296 

Monticello National Bank, 327 

Monticello Public Library, 313, 395 . 

Monticello Republican, 161 

Monticello Rifles, 179 

Monticello School, 124 

Monticello Spectator, 164, 165 

Monticello Telephone Exchange, 320 

Monticello Times, 107 

Monticello Tribune, 101 

Monticello Union, 101 

Monticello Weekly Press, 107 

Montplaisenr, Andr., 86 

Moody, John W., 902 

Moody, Lida, 359 

Moore, A. V., 154 

Moore, Emily L., 961 

Moore, Isaac B., 477 

Moore, Jacob D., 967 

Moore, .lames C, 218, 357 

Moore, J. ('.., 21 S, 360 
Moore, .lames II., 961 
Moore, James P., Sr., 247 
Moore, John D., 347 
Moore, John II., 811 
Moore, Joseph D., 239 
Moor.', Thomas, 010 
Moure, Thomas B., 269, 478 
Moore's ford, 209 
Moorhoue, Hiram A., 609 
Moorhous, Hiram A. B., 340 
Moorhous, U. A. B., 327 
Moorhous, Sarah, 610 
Moorman, John L., 172 
Motts Creek, 212 
Moron, John, 254 
Mordy, .1. T., 302 
Mores, David II., 2 17 

Mores, Lorono, 217 
Morgan, I. 1'.., ".is 
Morgan, T. .1., 301 
Morgan, W. It., 317 
Morman, Andrew, 251 
Merman, El ins, 251 


Morman, John C, 254 

Mormon Society, 229 

Morris, Benedict, 62 

Monis, Cornelius, 285 

Morris, Ivy, 133 

.Morris, John, 226, 265 

Morris, William E., 359 

Morse, David II., 247 

Hosier, A. T., 379 

Mote, William, 154 

Mound Builders, 1; war an*d domestic 
implements of, 2; habits, 3; no hiero- 
glyphics or effigies of, 3; race of 
slaves, 4; perhaps l)he most ancient 
of peoples, 4; origin, 5 

Mounds, burial, 2; habitation, 2; 
temple, 2; forts, 2 

Mount Walleston, 196; platted, 198; 
boom at, 198 

Mower, Joseph, 631 

Movvrer, James, 654 

Mowrer, Joseph, 336 

Mowrer, Rachael, 336 

Mowrer, Sarah A., 336 

Mudge, Ambrose, 239 

Mudge, Gardner, 242, 363 

Mudge 's Station, 242 

Mullendore, F. M., 307 

Murphy, Harrietts M., 930 

Murphy, J. D., 362 

Murphy, Jeremiah, 929 

Murphy, Thom'as, 61, 205 

Murray, Daniel, 205, 208* 

Murray, Mary E., 1008 

Murray, Henry L., 1006 

Murray, Marshal, 340 

Myers," Charles F., 900 • 

Myers, Frederick, S98 • 

Mvers, Squire W., 752 

Mvers, William E., 726 

Myers, W. E., 36S . 

Myrtle, Jacob, 254 

Nadell, B. F., 374 
Nagel, Amelia K., 624 
Xagel, Stephen, 623 
Jfagle, John J., 359-1001 
Nance, Wallace' W., 980 
Narrow Gauge Railroad Celebration, 415 
Nas-wau-gee, 31 
National, The, 167 
Naylor, Isaac, 98, 399' 
Neal, B. 'F., 332 
Neal.^Henry C, 334 
Nebeker, Lucas, 334 
Nebeker, L., 297 ' 
Neel, John W., 579 
Neel, Samuel G., 674 
Neel, W. F., 359 
Nelson, John R., 845 
Nelson, John W., 339 
Nethercutt, John W., 478 
Now Bedford, 208 
New county infirmary, 80 
New Dunkards, 335 
New Dunkards, Idaville, 3G9 
Now Hartford, 418 
Now Lancaster, 418 
.New School Church, 331 
Newall, Robert, 64 
Newell, Benjamin, 218 

Newell, Robert, Oil, 91, 109, 123, 236, 238, 

Newhonse, John E., 384, 347 

Newspapcrdoui, dawn of, 157 

Newton, Charles ]•:., 168 

Newton, Ed p., 168. 171 

Nickel Plate Club, 341 

Niles, John P,., 263 

Niles, Nathaniel, 96 

Noah, John, 250 

Noble, Noah, 60 

Noland, Wesley, 272 

Nordyke, Adiii", 247, 251, 251, 255, 340 

Nordyke, Albert S., 307 

Nordyke, Israel, 247, 254, 255, 340, 1027 

Nordyke, Noble, 353, 478 

Nordyke, Robert, 254 

Nordyke, schools, 128 

Nordyke, settlement, 254 

North, Layton M., 737 

Northrop, A. 0., 347 

Northwest becomes National Territory, 
14 " 

Northwest Territory, 47; Popular As- 
sembly for, 15; uniler common law of 
England, 85 ; government of, 86. 

Norway township, carved from Prairie 
township, 60 

Norway, Old Tannery at, 414 

Norway, death of Gypsy King, 415 

Nutt, Stephen, 225, 226 

Nyce, Daniel, 254 

Nyce, Jacob, 281 

Nyce, John, 283 

Oakdale, 209 

Oakes, Lida, 132 

Oats, Jonathan, 399 

Obenchain, Frederick C., 996 

Obenchain, Baeburn, 996 

Oberman, I. C, 375 

O'Brien, Thomas, 202 

Oekiltree, John, 86 

O'Connell, William K., 328 

O'Connor, Perry P., S67 

O'Connor, Thomas W., 323, 324, 327, 863 

Odd Fellows, 339 

Odell, P., 375 

O'Donnell, G. It., 348 

Oilar, Finis, 133 

Old Monticello Flouring Mill (view), 88 

Old-Fashioned Fire-Place (view). 204 

Old Dunkards, Burnottavillc, 375 

Old Kenton Crave Yard, 200 

Old George A. Spencer Home (view), 398 

Old Settlers' Association, 146 

Old Sill Homestead, 110 North Bluff 

Street (view), 421 
Olds, Comfort, 255 

Omelvena, James, 362 

Only War Mother In White County, 406 

Order of the Eastern Star, 340. 

Ordinance of 1787, 12, 85 

Original surveys, government stakes 

burned, 47 
Orion Lodge. 355 
"Organ, Newton, 250, -j.,1 
Orphans' Home, 337 
Orr. John, 193 
Hit, William, 193, 179 

Orth, Godlove s.. 98 

Orion, A. It., 117. 17S, 331 



Orton, Alfred R., 304, 400, 479 

Orwig, Henry, 290 

Owens, Harry P., 164 

Owens, Henry P., 340 

Owens, John T., 976 

Owens, J. R., 307 

Page, A., 250 
' Page, Alexander, 282 
Palestine schools, :L28 
Palestine settlement, 253 
Palmer, Fayette, 340 
Palmer, Truman F., 108 
Palmer, T. F., 116, 315, 340 
Palmer, Mrs. T. F., 313 
Palmer, William S., 98 
Palmer & Carr, 116 
Parcels, James, 340 
Parcels, Maritta McCloud, 473 
Parcels, W. H.', 304 
Pardee, E. A., 337 
Parish & Godman, 358 
Parke, S. H., 156 
Parker, Ashford, 60, 91, 427 
Parker, David, 239 
Parker, David W., 239 
Paiker, Henry C, 219 
Parker, Isaac, 382 
Parker, Isaac N., 238 
Parker, J. A., 337 
Parkev, James, 69, 91, 201, 293 
Parker, John, 203, 263, 265, 266 
Parker, Joseph, 219 
Parker, Mary A., 331 " 
Parker, Richard T., 160 
Parker, Robert, 327, 352 
Parmelee, Frank, 283 
Parmelee's Meadow Lake Farm, 283 
Parr, John, 225 
Parrish, Edward L., 542 
Parrish, John, 219 
Parrisk, Marion, 340, 541 
Parry, William A., 340 
Parson, Samuel H., 85 
Parsons, Isaac, 167, 173 
Pasehen, William, 133 
Paschen, William H., 6S4 
Pattee, -C. M., 354 
Patton, Georee, 335, 369 
Pattern, Hezekiah, 369 
Patton, Perry, 368 
Patton, Uriah; 335, 369, 417, 939 
Taugh, George, 201 
# Paul, Julius W., 340, 479 
Paul, Mary, 479 
Peet, John H., 340 
Pcetz, Mrs. J. L., 173 
Penham, Peter, 255 

Pennsylvania Railroad Bridge at Monti- 
cello (view), 56 
People's Advocate, 167 
Pepper, Abel C., 31, 32 
Perry, ('., 250 
Terry, Edwin, 273 
Perry, Joshua, 250 
IVrsonott, Marshall S., 721 
Tcter, W. S., 361, 362 
Peterson, Ayros, 205 
Peterson, Samuel, 205 
Petit, Antoine, 80 
Pettit, Benjamin D., 480 
Pettit, David J., 353, 7S9 
Pettit, James, 250 

Pettit, John U., 91, 106, 234 

Pettit, Nathan C., 480 

Pettit, Reuben R., 480, 788 

Pettit, It. 11., 250 

Poster, Jacob, 377 

1'herly, Willis, 218 

I'll ill ips, Frank R., 310 

Phillips, John, 123, 238 

Phillips, Joseph, 238, 399, 427 

Phillips, William, 60, 91, 214, 217, 218 

Piankeshaw, 12 

Pierce, Ashley, 202 

Pierce, Ashley L., 295 

Pierce, Ferris, 334 

Pierce, J. H., 375 

Pierce, J. W., 374 

Pierce, Lewis, 202 

Pierce, Lucius, 143, 148, 184, 307 

Pierce, Mary L., 202 

Pierce, Matilda, 480 

Pierce, T. F., 375 

Pierce, VV. S., 315 

Pilling, Mell F., 172 

Pioneer Duukard, 330 

Pioneers Ante-Dating County organiza- 
tions, 61 

Pioneer home (view), 149 

Pioneer educational matters, 122 

Pioneer lawyers of the circuit, 92 

Pioneer Letter, 404 

Pioneer Live Stock Men, 141 

Pioneers of 1S29-07, 149 

Pioneer Roads, 51 

Piper, Isaac S., 201 

Piper, John L., 201 

Pitts, J. L., 354 

Pittsburgh, Chicago & St. Louis Rail- 
road, 261 

Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis Railroad, 57 

Pitzer, Jacob, 201 

Pixler, John, 205, George A., 702 

Plummer, Albert, 821 

Plummer, Noblo A., 822 

Poating, Patrick, 251 

Pogue, Joseph, 481 

Pokagon, 26 

Pokagon, Simon, 380 

Pokagou 'a Prophecies, 32, William, 273, 274 

Poor Farm, 79 

Porter, John, 255 

Porter, John I!., 69, 91 

Porter, Joseph, 361 

Posey, Thomas, 27 

Pottawattamie treaty, 30 

Pottawattamie village, 203 

Pottawattamies, 26,, 29, 279; first mi- 
gration of, 31; migration of the, 33; 
final removal of, 32; tribe gathers 
at Plymouth, 32 

Potter, 'George W., 9 is 

Potter, James, 273 

Poller, William, 300 

Poultry Packing [louse, Burnottsvillo, 

373 " 
Powell, J. Z., 31 
Powell, 8. II., :uil 

Powell, Mrs. S. II., 361 

Prairie Chieftain, 157, 158, 160, 293 

Prairie Ores, '■'•'> 


Prairie lands, early prejudice against, 

Prairie Telephone Company, 360 

Prairie Township, 64; attached to Car- 
roll County, 211; as a White County 
Township, 211; natural features, 212; 
drainage, 212; products of the soil, 
213; eastern timber lauds first set- 
tled, 213; pioneer landlords, 214; first 
permanent settler, 215; first voters 
aud officials, 217; early land holders, 
218; educational aud religious begin- 
nings, 218; first sawmills, 220; im- 
provement in rural conditions, 221; 
leading good roads township,, 222; 
appraisement of for 1915, 425 

Pratt, Daniel D., 92, 97 

Pratt & Reyburn, 399 

Prehistoric forts, 2 

Presbyterian Church, Old 'and New 
Schools, 331 

Presbyterian Church, building of the 
present church, 333 

Presbyterian Church, Brookston, 361 

Presbyterian Church, Chalmers, 366 

Preserving newspaper files, 159 

Press, John, 201 

Press, Monticello, 293 

Press, The, 157 

Preston, Charles S., 582 

Price, Aaron, 369 

Trice, Asenath, 382 

Price, Benjamin, 195 

Price, Benjamin P., 182, 386, 520 

Price, B. P., 179, 328, 424 

Price, John, 92, 219, 386, 481 

Price, Joseph, 481 

Price, Peter, 60, 61, 143, 193, 200, 2S9, 
295, 417, 520 

Price, Mrs. Peter, 193 

Price, Thomas, 281 

Price, William, 201, 226 

Princeton Township, pioneer settlement 
and civil organization almost coinci- 
dent, 252; as the Palestine settlement, 
253; godfather of the township, 253; 
created and named, 254; state and 
township elections, 254; saddled with 
land speculators, 255; schoolhouse 
competition, 255; land entries, 1842- 
47, 255; lack of water in early days, 
257; reclaimed lands and good roads, 
257; appraisement of for 1915, 425 

Pringer, Dennis, 226 

Probate Courts, 90 

Probate Judges, 109 

Proce, John, 218 

Profit, George, 31 

Property valuation, 82 

Prough, Peter, 273 

Public education under the First State 
Constitution, 120 

Public Library, Monticello (view), 314 

Public Schools, 119; present system, 

Public School System, pioneers of, 3u7; 
legal complications, 307 

Puckrtt, \V. K., 354 
Pugh, Elizabeth, 255 
Pugh, Henry, 253, 25-1 
Pugh, Richard C, 789 
L'ugh, Richard Br., 351 

Pulliam, William G., 379 
Pui-ccll, Josiah, 310, 341 
Purcupile, John J., 322 
Pythian Sisters, 340 

Rader, John T., 849 

Rader, Mrs. Solomon, 354 

Rader, Solomon, 35 1 

Rader, William H. II., 354 

Rail fence, 40 

Railroad, first in White County, 53 

Railroad war, 54 

Railways, pioneer, 53 

Rainier, George A., S.s7 

Ramey, John, 219 

Ramey, Manly, 219 

Ramey, Samuel, 132, 219 

Ramey, William L., 481 

Randolph, Thomas, 25 

Rankin, 419 

Rankin, A. T., 332 

Rariden, Stewart, 286 

Rathfon, David, 481 

Raub, J. & W. W., 364 

Raub, Edward B., 1033 

Raub, Jacob, 364, 873 

Raub, Miller O., 934 

Raub, William W., 482 

Rawlins, Archie K., 773 

Rawls, Elisha, 195 

Rayhill, Harvey, 201 

Rayhouse, M~. C. A., 163 

Rayhouser, Cyrus A. (1., 340, 482 

Read, A. L., 370 

Read, J. A., 270 

Reagan, R. M., 156 

Ream, Andrew T., 201 

Ream, David K., 3 10, 376 

Ream, D. k\, 304 

Ream, John, 178, 293, 310, 390 

Reames, A. J., 355 

Reames, Fred, 658 

Reames, Jane, 274 

Reames, John 10., 660 

Reames, William J., 614 

Reams, Jonathan, 27:: 

Reams, Tavner, 272, 273 

Redding, Alexander, 219 

Redding, Jeremiah, 959 

Redding, Thomas W.. 399 

Reder, T. J., 353, 378 

"lied Star" movement, 387 

Reed. Abram V., 157 

Reed, Alfred, lis. 158, 179, 180, 339, 

Reed, Alfred P., 113, 482 
Reed, A. V.. L62 
Reed, Charles, 273 
Reed, H. J., 341 
Reed, J. II., 156 
lieed, J. T., 172 
Reed, Lodio, 307 
Reed, Marion, 205 
Rceder, .1. T„ 317 
Rcedcr, William, 37 1 
Rees, Bliiauctu, 33] 
Rees, John, 331 
Rees, Margaret, 331 
Rees, Hurtlui, 33 1 
Rees, William, 178 
Reese, John, 61), 2911 

Reese, tt illiuin, 305 


Reeves, -Madison, 226 
Reid, Henry J., 133 
Reiff, Elmer G., 673 
Reiff, Joseph T., 724 

Reiff, Mdton K., 37.!, .724 
ReUey, Joseph J., 203 
Reingurdt, Henry, 070 
Renner, John, 205 
Renwick, Alfred U., 756 
Renwick, Andrew, 225 
Renwick Family, 754 
Reporter, Brookston, 172 
Reprogle, Abram, 109 
Reprogle, Peter, 199 
Revolutionary war, 12 
Reynolds, early newspaper field, 170; 
' founding of, 249; Sill enterprises, 375-; 
pioneer hotel and sawmill, 375; town 
platted, 375; first religious organiza- 
tion, 376; early progress, 376; town 
of today, 377; adopts town govern- 
ment, 377; township school, 378 j 
churches, 378; Lutherans and Chris- 
tians, 379; appraisement of for 1915, 
Reynolds, Albert, 296 
Reynolds, Alfred W., 90, 1025 
Reynolds, Ashbel P., 168 
Reynolds, A. \V„ 305, 307, 339 
Reynolds Bank, 377 

Reynolds, Benjamin, 60, 61, 91, 123, 133, 
142, 233, 237, 238, 248, 249, 299, 375, 
Reynolds Broom, 170 
Reynolds, Calvin, 339 
Reynolds, Gary it., 167 
Reynolds, "Cub," 297 
Reynolds, D. A., 168 
Reynolds, Georgians, 420 
Reynolds, Isaac, 17s, 201, 235, 295, 297, 

331, 339, 356, 483 
Reynolds, I., 382 
Reynolds, James C, 79, 421, 484 
Reynolds, J. C, 75, 178, 181 
Reynolds, J. S., 250 
Reynolds, John 0., 484 
Reynolds Journal, 164, 171 
Reynolds, Judge, 107 
Reynolds, Levi, 133, 178, 202, 240, 484, 

Reynolds, Lydia J., 485 
Reynolds, Mary 332, 382 
Reynolds, Mary J., 332 
Reynolds, Matthew, 202 
Reynolds, Miranda .1., 421, 185; remi- 
niscences, 399 
Reynolds Sun, 171 
Reynolds, T. IT., 325 
Rice, C A., 348 
Hice, II. (!., 313, 315, 333 
Rj e, \I. I,., 347 
RicO, Martin 1,., 1021 
Richey, Uboira, 338 
Richey, James, 3 10 
Ki.hev, .1. \|., 324 
Riehey, J. 'I'., 339 
Rider, Charley, 79 
Riddilo, II. li., 151 
Rifoilberrick, Samuel, 195, :•.! 

Riloy, Levi, 221 

Riley, 'I'll,, mas, 371 

Rinker, Joshua, 238, 245, 247, 250, 251, 

R inker, William II., 245, 973 
Ripley, William, 361 
Ripley, Mrs. William, 361 
Rishling, George R., 1017 
Rishling, Jennie R., 1018 
Ritchey, Alvira, 1024 
Ritchoy, Boyd P., 485 
Ritchey, Jonathan I'., 297 
River Scene near Monticello (view), 36 
River scenes (view), 88 
Riverside Jlill ami .Monticello Residences 

(view), 294 
Riverview Park, 320 
River Views from McKain Farm (view), 

Rizer, Benton, 174 
Ri/.er, Sylvester \V., 174 
Roach, Bernard K., 486 
Roach, David C, 486 
Roach, James B., 486 

Roach, John T., 340, 487 
Road building, modern, 52 
Roads, 46 
Roberts, Frank, 340 

Roberts, John, 60, 69, 91, 148, 236, 322 
Roberts, Martha, 4S7 

Roberts, Robert D., 487 

Roberts, Thomas, 488 

Robinson, A. L., 92 

Robinson, James E., 158, 162 

Robinson, Jesso W., 219 

Robinson, J. W., 357 

Robison, P. B., 324 

Robison, Thomas A., 488 

Rodeers, Alexander, 229, 366 

Rodgers, O. A., 347 

Rodgers, J. M., 374 

Rogers, Nathaniel, 253, 254 

Rohm, Jacob, 374 

Roller, Peter, 275 

Rollins, John, 286 

Rollins, Thomas, 2S6 

Rollins, Truman, 284, 285 

Rooks, Joseph It., 182 

Rose, George S., 249, 375 

Ro 9, Caroline, 796 
. Rose, Charles E., 795 

Ross, i>. [•:., 300 

ROSS, John, 201 

boss, Mary Y„ IS9 

Ross, Mis. 11. IV. 338 

Ross, Susanna, 301 

RruiH, William, 263, 266 

Roth, Charles. 324, 489 

Roth, Francis W., 489 

Kothroek, Catherine, 332 

Rothrock, Blisso lb, 489 

Rothrock, Elizabeth A., 3.36 

Rothrock, Rlizaboth J., 190 

Rothrock, Jneob, 190 

Rothrock, John, 60, Ql, or., 193, 195, 

289, 330 
Rothrock, John A.. 164, R23 

Rothrock, J |li. 60, 178, loo, 100 

Rothrock, J., 3M 

Rothrock, Martha. .".:!- 

Rothrock, Orvillo A., 824 

Rothrock, Robert, on. 60, 193, 105, 201, 

202, 289, 290, 490 
l: tlirock, William, 491 


Rotluock, Zachnriah, 491 

Kothrock, Zaehous, l'OI 

Roiiiul Grove, 281, 287 

Round Grove Township schoolhouse, 133 

Round Grove Township, first settlements, 
284; first settlor, 2S4; early land 
entries, 28:1; elections and voters, 286; 
carved out of old Prairie Township, 
286; various pioneer matters, 287; 
former postofliees, 287; progress in, 
287; appraisement of for 1915, 425 

Rountene, Thomas, 286 

Rowland, John, 285 

Rover, J. G., 307 

Royer, Samuel, 870 

Ruemler, August, 807 

Kufing, James C, 491 

L'nger, Isaac, 250 

Russell, Arthur, 197, 199 

Russell, Kmeline M., 357 

Russell, John, 219 

Russell, John W., 984 

Russell, William, 339 

RusseU, Zadock, Jr., 219 

Rutter, J. B., 334 

St. Ange, Louis, 12 - 

St. Barious, John, 86 

St. Clair, Arthur, 15 ^ 

St, Clair, Governor, 85 ^ 

St. Joseph's Catholic Church, Reynolds, 

378 ' 

Salt works, 20, 24 
Sampson, James, 2li3, 266 
Sampson, William H., 492 
Sanderson, Bert, 172 
Sanderson, Harry, 172 
Sargent, Mrs. Will, 338 
Saunders, John, 77, 304, 305, 492 
.Saunderson, William E., 221, 492 
Sayre, Joseph, 91, 218 
Scarf!', Joshua II., 239, 281 
Scenes at Reynolds (views), 372 
Schaefer, F., 378 
Sehlesselmann, II., 379 
School examiners. 129 
School fund, basis of, 43 
Schoolhouse, the old-time comfortable, 


Sehoolhouses, building under the new 

order, 129 
School lands, 120 
Schools, first in the county, 237 
Schools in Jackson township, 124, 227 
Schramm, George, 378 
Schroeder, 'Herman, 879 
Schroeder, ■ J. B., 378 
Sehweiule, William. 377 
Scott, Alexander, 374 
Scott, Caleb, 493 
Scott, Crystal D. W., 26:!, 265, 266, 26S, 

Scott, K. S., 361 
Scott, Greenup, 61, 26.1, 266, 268 
Scott, John, (54, 224, 26S 
Scott, John 11., 162 
Scott, John [,., 1)7 
Si "it. Joseph, 331 
Scott, Robert, 266 
Scotl settlement, religion at, 268 

Scott, Thomas 'I'., 161 
Scott, Tir/a, 337 



Scott, William and Company, 344 

Scroggs, David, 201 

Seroggs, David A., 133, 

Scroggs, Klam, 726 

Sea, Sidney W.,- 183 

Sealield, 261, 350 

Seawright, S. R., 332 

Second Constitution, 89 

Seimet/., J. A., 378 

Sell, William, 97 

Sellers, E. B., 116, 315, \ 

Sellers, Emory B., 77, 340, 856 

Sellers, Harvey, 203, 205 

Seventeen- Year Locusts, 402 

Seventh Day Adventists, Idaville, 370 

Severe, Louis, 86 

Sexton, Jacob II., 493 

Sexton, Lewis W., 791 

Shackelford, 347 

Shackelford, Susan M., 948 ' 

Shafer, Alexander R., 493 

Shafer, Henry, 996 

Shafer, James, 193, 201, 238 

Shafer, John M., 229, 493 

Shafer, John P., 663 

Shafer, Joseph, 340 

Shafer, Samuel, 340 

Shatter, James, 123 

Shall, Lewis, 250 

Shanahan, Samuel, 427 

Shank, Linas H., 494 

Shannahan, Samuel, 201 

Sharon absorbed by Burnettsvillo, 373 

Shaw, Eli, 374 

Shaw, Harris, 419 

Shaw, Harvey S., 334 

Shaw, H. S., 383 

Shaw, James, 247 

Shaw, John, 374 

Shaw, Mary, 374 

Shaw, William, 374 

Shaw, William S., 363 
Sheets, James K., 969 
Sheets, Zebulon, 112, 193, 195, 289, 290, 

291, 295, 331, 382, 399 
Sheetz, Ann B., 331, 416 
Sheetz, Austin C, 331' 
Sheetz, Margaret, 331 
Sheetz, M. R., 339 
Sheetz, William, 293 
Shelev, William G., 418 
Shell, Ivan, 339 
Shenk, Samuel, 494 
Shepard, I., 275 
Sheridan, Andrew J., 334 
Sheriff's life, hardships of in the musk- 
rat days, 425 
Sherwood, Salmon, 883 
Sherwood, Solomon, 70 
Shields, C. V., 268 
Shiglev, Charles II., 884 
Shigley, George, 219 
Shoemaker, Leonard, 272 
si,,,,,,,, Henry C, 617 
Shoop, Mary <;., 018 
Short, Cyrus, 109 
Short, John, 19!) 
Shullj Genealogy of Family of J. Wesley 

and Hnrvoy <;., 613 
shuil, Harvey <:., 615 
siuill, .1. Wesley, 613 
Shall, John W., 361) 


Shull, Jonathan, 225, 220 
Mluil I, Lewis, 225, 220 
Sidenbender, John, 205 

Signer, James, 00 

Sill, "Bob," 297 

Sill, Elizabeth, 421, 194 

Sill enterprises, Bumettsville, 375 

Sill family, 114 

Sill, George W., 201 

Sill, M. M., 158, 250, 307, 375, 384 

Sill, Milton M., 20, 48, 09, 159, 162, 

165, 10S, 271, 304, 380, i'l\,Wid4£ 
Sill, Robert W., 102, 179, 250, 339, 421, 
Sill, R. W., 143, 158, 181, 376 
Sill, William, 04, 09, 91, 196, 217, 290, 

293, 421, 403H-l£ 
Sills, A. K., 117, 172, 328 
Sills, A. K., Jr., 117 
Sills & Sills, 116 
Simmons, Samuel, 263, 200 
Simons, J. P., 317 
Simons, James P., 153, 340, 496 
Simonson, W. Scott, 379 
Simpson, Patrick, 86 
Sites, Christina, 718 
Sites, James E., 718 
Sitka, 269 

Six-Months' Company, 185 
Sixty-thkd Regiment, 181 
Skcvtingwn, Joseph, 250 
Skidmore,, Joseph, 201, 293 
Skidmore, J. R., 154 
Skinner, Daniel I., 225 
Skinner, Harrison, 201, 246 
Slater, Jacob, 263 
Slater, J. I., 354 
Slaughter, W. W., 362 
Slavery in the Northwest Territory, 21 
Sleeth, Thomas, 399 
Sleeth, Thomas W., 592 
Sleeth, William II., '594 
Slim Timber, 284 
Slut/., W. B., 169, 334 
Sluyter, Abraham, 263 
Sluyter, Albert C, 976 
Sluyter, niram, 203, 497 
Sluyter, Jonathan, 125, 265, 206, 209 
Sluyter, Jonathan W., 263, 268 
Sluyter Schoolhouses, 268 
Small, Gilbert, 172, 497 
Small, James C, 705 
Small, Sarah, 706 
Smeathen, Abram, 265 
Smelcer, Henry, 92, 217 
Smelcer, Samuel, 60, 61, 74, 217, 218, 
• 219, 851 
Smelcer, William, 218 
Smith, Abel T., 239, 210, 298 
Smith, Abraham, 247 
Smith, Bernard G., 153, 646 
Smith, n. Wilson, 23, 210, 255, 334 
Smith, C. I-., 374 
Smith, Y\ O., 386 
Smith, Francis M., 174 
Smith, Frederick, 214 
Smith, Jacob <!., 100, 197 

Smith, James, 219 

Smith, John, 220, 272 
Smith, J. 1!., 307, 333, 347 
Smith, John II., 872 

Smith, Joseph, 203, 265, 266, 272, 418 

Smith, J. II. O., 336 

Smith, Lester, 268 

Smith, Mahlon P., 498 

Smith, Mary A., 498 

Smith, Peter B., 193, 201, 202, 246, 247, 

Smith, Samuel, 225, 226 
Smith, Simeon, 218 
Smith, Thomas C„ 217 
Smith's Distillery of 1840-50, 228 
Smithson, 243 
Smock, C. O., 374 
Smoker, Rolandus L., 543 
Sueathen, Abram, 266, 268, 274 
Sneathen, Elijah, 265, 200, 268 
Snowberger, John, 334 
Snyder, Abram, 199, 202, 293, 414, 417 
Snyder, George, 266 

Snyder, Henry, 179, ISO, 199, 340, 498 
Snyder, John, 499 
Snyder, Margaret P., 171 
Snyder, Philip, 499 
Snyder, William P., 379, 750 
Soapmaw Journal, 169 
Societies, Monon, 348 
Societies, Monticello, 338 
Soil, 37 

Soldiers' Monument, 413 
Solomon Hays, 219 
Some White County School Buildings 

(view), 118 
Sons and Daughters of Temperance, 

Spanish-American War, 189 
Sparrow, Mary E., 348 
Spears, Daniel P., 499 
Spears, D. T., 339 
Specimen Cattle and Hogs of White 

County (view), 140 
•'Spectator" Items, 1859-61, 405 
Spencer, Barney, 282 
Spencer, Ben jamin,. 165 
Spencer, Benjamin N., 60, 01, 195, 237 
Spencer, Mrs. B. O., 337 
Spencer, Calvin C, 234, 518 
Spencer. Charles C. 117, 315, 31S, 392, 

Spencer, George A., GO, 01, 02, 04, 69, 

91, 123, 142, 143, lis, 233, 238, 382, 

Spencer's, George A., Docket as J. P., 

Spencer, [Tninelle & Cowger, 116 
Spencer, James, tit, 158, 165, 193, 194, 


Spencer, .Tamos S., 500 

Spencer, Mi? an B., 420 

Siioneer, Mrs. Miran, 341 

Spencer, Perry, 741 

S|, nicer It. vnohis Colony, 233 

Spencer, Robert, '-'9;: 

Spi ii' ci, Robert A., 70, 92 

Spencer, Thomas, 1 is, 238, 2 17, 2.",n 

Spencer, William, 151, 179, ISO, 339, 

340, 341, 590 
Spencer, William V., 813 
Spilkey, Frederick, 205 
Spinn, John I,.. 7 15 
Spiritnnlism, 407 

S|. , Thomas, ::.",9 

Sprny, T. i;., 337 


Springboro, 220 
Spring Creek, -12 
Springer, Dennis, -25 
SprouJe, Andrew, 293 
Stafford, G. W., 374 
Stafford, J. T., 347 
Stafford, James T., 379 
Staley, James, 386 

Staley, James Gf., 105, 179, ISO, 501 
Stanly, Jeremiah, 285, 286 
Stanton, A. T., 225 
Stark, W. P., 251 
State Bank of Burnettsville, 596 
State Bank of Motion, 345 
state Bank of Monticello, 327 
State Bank of Woleott, 352, 354 
State Constitution, iirst, courts under, 87 
State Constitution of 1851, 74 
State lands, last of, 44 
State road, 46 
Staughton, James, 195 
Steel, J. E., 374 
Steele,- Samuel, 275, 331, 332 
Steele, U. H., 176 
Steely, Edward, 286 
Stephan, George, 501 
Stephan, Joseph, 378 
Stephens, C. B., 366 
Stephens, David, 371 
StflLhenson, J. Y., 336 
Ste%nson, George T., 325 
Stevenson, John S.', 501 
Stewart, Enos H., 226 
Stewart, James II., 62 
Stewait, John, 255 
' Stewart, Joseph, 252, 254 
f Stewart, Newton, 255 
Stewait, Russell, 132 
Stewart, Sarah, 374 
Stewart, William, 301, 374 
Stewait, Mrs. William, 301 
Stiening, L. O., 348 
Stillwell, William E., 133 
Stine, Harrison S., 502 
Stitt, William. 270 
Stivers, Wallace D., 190 
Stober, Kate, 370 
Stacker, John, 331 
Stockton, Charles L., 2S5 
Stockton, John, 236 
Stockton, L. B., 286 
Stockton, Newberry, 285 
Stokes & Martin, 172 
Stout, Hannah, 502 
Stout, Reuben, 193 
■ strait, Robert M., 296 
Street, James, 254 
Street, John, 226 

Street Views at Monon (views), 342 
Streeter, R. M., 173 
Stroud, James, 283 
Stiykcr, Cornelius, 253, 251, 340 
stnait. Prank, 174 
Kturges, Solomon, 205 
Sullivan, Jeremiah, 225 
Supreme Court, SO. 90 
Surveying before land drainage, 47 
Sutton, Cornelius, 09, 91, 203, 201 
Sutton, J. E., 174 
Sutton, Joseph K., 204 
Sutton, 'I'h. .mas, 218 
Swamp lands, granted to the Stato of 

Indiana, IS; drained, 48; increased 
value of, Hi; purchased, 205. 

Swartzell, Marion J., 773 

Svvearingeu, Andrew, 219 

Swisher, Perry E., 705 

Symes, John C, 85 

Talbutt, Benjamin W., 024 

Tain, George B., 0GS 

Tarn, Joshua, 374 

Tarn, Mitchell, 374 

Tarn, Silas, 229 

Tatman, Joseph, 92 

Taylor, Joseph, 760 

Taylor, W. R., 117 

Taylor, Wesley, 172, 392 

Teachers, 130 

Teachers' Association and Institutes, 133 

Teenmseh and the Prophet implacable, 17 

Todford, David C, 502 

Tedford, H. H., 127 

Tedford, Ira, 375 

Tedford, J. G., 361 

Tedford, John, 61, 195, 224 

Tedford, Newton, 399 

Tedford, "Robert N., 502 

Teeter, Dennis P., 558 

Telfer, Alexander L., 925 ■ 

Temperance agitation in 1906, 388 

Temperance Struggle in White County, 

Temperance wave receded, 387 
Temple of Honor, 383 
Temple, S. R., 336 
Temple, Mrs. S. E., 338 
Territorial legislation, 120 
Territory of Indiana, first legislature of, 

Terwillager, Matthew, 91 
Test, Charles IT., 148 
Tevebaugh, Jacob, 86 
Tevis, Charles, 557 
Thacker, Edward N., 174 
The Junior, 166 
The National, 166 
Thiehart, John, 219 
Thomas, E. B., 373 
Thomas, Evan, 265, 266 
Thomas, Isaac, 215 
Thomas, Jacob, 293 
Thomas, James, 355 
Thomas, James II., 770 
Thomas, J. E., 374 
Thomas, J. II., 154, 250 
Thomas, W. C, 373 
Thompson, Benton, 504 
Thompson, Henry C, 117, 133, 972 
Thompson, Joseph, 09, 91, 230 
Thompson, Joseph IT., 61, 215, 233, 23S, 

Thompson, J. N., 374 
Thompson, Mary, 238 
Thompson, Samuel \V„ 809 
Thompson, Sarah, 338 
Thompson. Sarah R., 870 
Thompson,, 424 
Thompson, Thomas ,\l., 00 
Thompson, 'I'. M., 382, 384 
Thorne, R. Vv\. 354, 366 
Thornton. Matthias M., 209 
Til.lrn. lienjainin P., 100 
Tilton, Daniel, 297 



Tilton, Daniel J., 503 

Tilton, Dnniol M., 199, 'J01, 240, 293, 503 

Tilton, 1>. M., 382 

Tilton, Rebecca J., 255 

Tilton, Richard, 202 

Tilton, Richard J., 247, 255 

Timber, 34 

Times, 173 

Timmonils, William, "74 

Timmons, Charles, 700 

Timmons, Jacob 1)., 274, 328 

Timmons, J. 1)., 327 

Timmons, .lolm E., 698 

Timmons, Mrs. John E., 274 

Timmons, John (!., 945 

Timmons, Milton, 790 

Timmons, Rebecca J., 309 

Timmons, William F., 309 

Tinuison, Jesse, 2S2 

Tioga Dam (view), 88 

Tippecanoe, battle of, 20 

Tippecanoe Electric and Power Com- 
pany, 324 

Tippecanoe, first record of, 9 

Tippecanoe Hydraulic Company, 296 

Tippecanoe River, 35, 49, 04 

Tippecanoe River, East of the Public 
Library (view), 301 

Tippecanoe Street, North from Public 
Library (view), 301 

Tippecanoe Thread Mills, 325 

Tipton, John, 22 

Todd, John, 85 

Tolen, Thomas, 882 

Torpy, James, 250 

Town commissioned high schools, 131; 
Monou, 3-15; Wolcott, 352; Brookston, 
359; Idaville,. 368; Burnettsville, 374 

Townships, subdivisions of, 45 

Township surveys, 44 

Township trustees, 121 

Towusley, George T., 729 

Townslcy, James M., 3tiS 

Townsley, John B., -230, 366, 368, 369 

Townsley, Thomas, 272, 275 

Tracev, William, 150 

Trail Creek, 46 

Trees, willows, .37; red cedar, 37 

Tribal title to lands, last, 31 

Tri-County Farmers' Association Fair, 

Troutle, Lucas, 221 

Trook, Andrew, 102 

Trowbridge, W. V., 156 

Troxell, John A., 221 

Tmesdale, 1). C, 302 

Tucker, Leven, 247, 890 

Tucker, William, 891 

Turner, J. M., 339 

Turner, John M., 321, 328 

Turner, Joseph P., 190 

Turner, William, 247, 399, 50 1 

Turnipseed, William, 1004 

Turpie, !>., 17.S 

Turkic, David, 92, 99, 297, 340, 117 

Turpie, Emma J , 343 

Turpie, James, 251 

Turpie, J. II., 172 
rurpio, Judge, 178 

Turpiu, Francois, 86 

Typical Pioneer Farm (view), 150 

I ' lil, George, 221 

lib I, .Stewart C, 803 

LI hi, William P., Lil, 051 

Union Township, 01; general features, 
191; soil and products, 192; settled 
before the township was organized, 
193; land entries ill 1831-34, 194; 
first township officers, 200; settlers in 
1835, 201; land entries, 201; busy 
land year, 1830, 201; construction of 
good roads, 202; appraisement of for 
1915, 425 

United Presbyterian Church of Idaville, 

I'niversalist Church, 3G2 

University Extension Club, 317, 341 

Fnthauk, A. J., 348, 360 

Up the Kiver from the Monou Bridge, 
Tioga (view), 320 

Vadney, Alexander, 80 

Van Alstfne, George W., 328, 544 

Vanaman, Daniel, 273 

Vanaman, Elias, 273 

Vanatta, John C, 359, 377, 917 

Van Blarieum, David,- 272 

Van Buskirk, Jay B., 583 

Van Buskirk, J. B., 153, 157, 1G0, 173 

Van Buskirk, Z., 304 

Van Buskirk, Zachariah, 72, 230, 295 

Van Cleave, \V. IL, 348, 354 

Vanderburgh, Henry, 85 

Vandervolgen, Cornelius, 253, 254 

Vandeventer, Christopher, 128, 205, 200 

Van Landingham, J. A., 307 

Van Pelt, Nicholas, 283 

Van Scoy, Thomas, 172 

Vanscoy, William, 239, 298 

Van Voorst, Abram, 250, 281, 377, 505 

Van Voorst, Bert, 327 

Van Voorst, Charles, 875 

Van Voorst, Delia, 940 

Van Voorst, Ellen, 338 

Van Voorst, Henry, 327, 391, 041 

Van Voorst, James S., 843 

Van Voorst, John, 281 

V;iii Voorst, Sarah, 121 

Van Voorst, Sylvanus, 270, 281, 282, 

Van Voorst frame schoolhouses, 282 
Van Winkle, W. I'., 330 
Vaiuiiin, James M., 85 
Versailles, 9 

VcslOIig, lleiiiv, 250 

Vessels, W. G., 334 

ViditO, Jasper, 285 

View from the Mouticollo Stand Pipe, 

View of the Tip] anoc, with Tioga 

Bridges in the Distance, 292 
Views in and nboul Mouticollo, 301 

Views of Old Court] ses, 68 

Vi-us, C-irler L., 179 

Vi ones, 12, 15 

Vincennes and Kaskaskia, (Mark's rap 

lure of, 1 I 

Vincennes became possession of the 

United States, I I 
Vincennes or the old Post i ntnblislied 

in 1727, 12 
Vincnnucs, Siear ile, 12 
Vinnngc, John !>., 226, 227 



Vinnedge, John, 221 

Vinson, Isaac H., 201, 250, 27!), 2S2, 283, 

382, 500 
Vinson, James V., 340, 341 
Vinson, Jesse T., 281 
Vinson, Samuel It., 399 
Vinton, David P., 417 
Vinyard, Charles W., 908 
Virden, A. H., 347 
Virden, Louisa, 940 
Virden, Samuel, 005 
Virden, Silas M., 505 
Vodyce, William, 282 
Vog'el, Bernard A., 323 
Vogel, Joseph M., 803 
Vogel, Michael, 370, 378, 50G 
Voider, Nathaniel B., 254 
Vreedenburg, Hachaliah, 333, 334 

Wabash and Brie Canal, 44, 220 
Wagner, Nicholas, 865 
Wagner,- William D., 3.77 
Wagner, William T., 359, 901 
Walker, Everett A., 174 
Walker, G. S., 183 
Walker, Jacob, 299, 320 
Wallace, David, 32 
Wallace, James, 178, 184, 304, 301 
Wallace, John H., 340 
Wallace, John M., 100 
filter, William, 91, 217 
Walts,- Wilbur, 174 
Walts, Wilbur A., 174 
Wampler, John, 297 
Wampler, J. M., 332 
War of 1812, 176 
'Ward, Alfred, 132 
Ward, Austin, 285, 286 
Ward, Charles G., 1031 
Ward, Granville, 280, 406 
Ward, Granville B., 506 • 
Ward, Jewell F., 635 
Ward, John R., 189 
Ward, Philip J., 507 
Ward, Samuel M., 507, 1030 
Ward, Thomas B., 225 
Ward, W. A., 117 
"Warden. Bncklin, 007 
Warden, Elisha, 425, 983 • 
Warden, Elisha, Sr., 420 
Warden, Nimrod, 238, 263 
Warden, William, 238, 263 
Warfel, Abram, 508 
Warner, G. W., 374 
Washburn, E. P., 156 
Washburn, George P., 508 
Washburn, George W., 322 
Washington Street Bridge (view), 88 
Wason, Junes P., 109 
Water Courses, 1 
Water Power and Mills, 295' 
Water Travel, 49 

Water Works, Monticello (view), 318 
Watkins, Benjamin, 117 
Watson, Charles M., 219 
Watson, Jesse L., 00, 00, 01, 214, 219, 

508, 917 
Watson, Lewis, 01, 219 
Watson, Oscar, 11)10 
Watson, William, 217 
Watson, William II., 781 
Wattles, \V. I)., 107 

Weaver, Jacob, 280 

Weaver, Milton W., 280, 800 

Weaver, Patrick, J I ., 285 
Weaver, William G., 190 
Webb, Thomas E., 334 
Webster, li., 374 
Wednesday beading Club, 341 
Weeks, William, 199 

Weise, A., 200 

Weise, William, 1024 

Welch, John, 508 

Welling, P., 378 

Wells, C. E., 374 

Wells, II. H.; 301 

Werner, Rudolph, 808 

West Bedford, 207 

Westfall, William P., 942 

Westphal, August U\, 701 

West Point School and Town Hall, 120 

West Point Township, natural features, 
278; neighboring market towns, 279; 
road building, 279; first settlers and 
land owners, 279; first land entry, 280; 
land entries of 1835, 280; entries in 
1S30-40, 2s 1; churches. 2S2; voters, 
282; Ian. I entries 1847-51, 283; ap- 
praisement of for 1915, 420 

Wheeler, 243 

Wheeler, Clyde C, 702 

Wheeler, Lewis E., 340 

White, Albeit 8., 02, 113, 23 1; Turpie's 
sketches of, 93 

White, Charles, 280 

White County— Lands classified, I".; early 
surveys, 40; government, 0:1; while a 
part of Carroll, 00; first officers, OH; 
act creating county, 01; changes in 
territory, 03; first county officers, tit; 
first county board meeting, 04; di- 
vided into townships, 0-1 ; population in 
1850, 71; population, 1890-1910, 81; 
growth by decades, SO; finances, 83; 
organization, 00; early conditions in, 
121; first SChoolllOUSe in, 122; school 
system, present status of, 135; news- 
papers, 107; newspapers, general 
progress of, 170; county in military 
matters, 170; sheep country, 290; first 
temperance society, 381; voted dry in 
October, 1910, 393; Circuit Court, first 
judgment of, 105; county in 1847-48, 
412; first marriage in. 111; first ditch 
case tried in. 110; County's Early lllli- 
ciary, a lady's recollections of, 420; 
appraisement of for 1915, 120 

White County Asylum (view), 70 

White County Banner, The. 170 

White County Board of Education, rules 
and regulations, 13 t 

White County Citizen, 100 

White Count > Demoi rat, 103 

White Countj Historical Society, 317; 
charter members, 103 

White c,„,nty Ju.-ksonian, 102 

White < "unt.v l.n:,n, Trust and Savings 
Company, ■ 

Y\ lute County Medical Society, 10 1 

White Counlv Register, 100 

White Count} Republican, Ids 

White c.univ Temimrauco Society, 382 

White, Frank J., 582 

White, I'. J., 328 



White, George P., 19 
White, George W. I,., 22 
White, Isauc, L8, 111, 02 
White. John, 2M5 
White, Jonathan, 255 
White, Nathaniel, 247, 250, 293 
White, William, 250. 
Whitman, 8. T„ 339 
Wickershnm, Eliza, 508 
Wickeraham, Job, 309, 340 
Wickersham, K. B., 340 
Wickcrahum, Thomas, 340 
Wiekham, Thomas, 399 
Wieklow, Peter, 201 
Wiese, Kmil Q., 767 
Wigmore, James S., 509 

Wiley, A s, 201, 263 

Wiley, K/.ekiel H., 226 

Wiley, John, 274 

Wiley, Mary, 274 

Wiley, Thomas, 230, 260, 274, 371 

Wiley, William, -2-:r, 

Wilkens, I. M.. 378 

Wilkinson, B. 0., 186 

Williams, A. ('.. 749 

Williams, B., 374 

Williams, George, 250 

Williams, James, 225 

Williams, John W., 272 

Williams, Thornton, 250, 509 

Williamson, Alexander, 290, 331", 3-4(5 

Wilmer, William, 332 

Wilson, Isaac, 221 

Wilson, James K., 61, 74, 208, 343, 510, 

Wilson, John, 61, 69, I95j 246, 331, 339, 

Wilson, Joseph, 61, 205 
Wilson, Joseph ('., 308 
Wilson, Maria, 331 

Wilson, -Mary E., 1020 

Wilson, Itcubcn, 374 

Wilson, Samuel, 892 

Wilson, Samuel C, 02 

Wilson, Thomas, (il, (il, 69, 01, OS, 195, 
204, 205 

Wilson, William, HI, 200, 205, 263, 3 17 

Wilson, William I)., oil) 

Wimor, John W„ .".10 

Winegarner, Joseph, 220 

Winklev, John M., 17:; 

Winona Club, :;I7 

Winter, J. A., 378 

Wirt, Alvin 11., oil) 

Wirt, Will l»., oil 

Witenburg, Frederick, 377 

Witherow, James, 247 

Wit/, Alvin, .121 

Wit/, Marl in, oil 

Woleott, founder of, 261; waterworks, 
349; founding of the town, 349; town 
platted, 350; coming of Anson Wol- 
eott, 350; Ih -t addition, 351 ; .tenth 
of the founder, 351; iuterests, 351; 
various additions, 352; town commis- 
sioned high school, 352; Churches and 
Societies, 353; Masons, 354; I. <>. 
O. P. Bodies, 355; Daughters of Re- 
bekah, 355; Other Lodges, 355; 
Modern Woodmen of America, 355; 
Knights of Pythias, 355; appraise- 
ment of for 101.1, 12") 

Woleott, Anson, 261, 350 

\\', lit, Anson (portrait), 200 

Woleott Bauk, 352 

Woleott Baptist Church, ;'■■". I 

Woleott Chapter, No. 171, O. E. S., 355 

Woleott Christian Church, 353 

Woleott, E. G., 201 

Woleott, Ebon II., 351, 936 

Woleott Enterprise, The, 174 

Woleott Lodge, No. 180, F. & A. M., 

Woleott Methodist Church, 353 
Woleott Town Commissioned High 

School (view), 353 
Wolever, John E., 302 
Wolf, Daniel, 60 
Wolfe, Samuel, 511, L. W., 286 
Woltz, George B., 199 
Woltz, Thomas J., 340 
Wolvorton, George, 978 
Wolverton, Phillip, 295 
Women's Clubs, 341 
Wood, Aaron, 250 
Wood, Anson, 254 
Wood, Drury, 283 
Wood, Enoch, 334 
Wood, G. G., 336 
Wood, James E., 512 
Wood, John A., 154 
Wood, J. A., 307 
Wood, Lula, 330 

Wood, William, 61, 64, 69, 91, 217 
Wood, W. H., 374 
Wooden, Russell, 133 
Woods, James K., 219, 399 
Woods, William, 21S, 997 
Worden, Nathan S., 334 , 
Work, A. (>., 302 
Worthington, John, 512 
Worthington, John E., 512 
Worthington, Mary, 333 
Worthington, Richard, 193, 195, 201, 

Wright, Charles, 61, 214, 217, 266 
Wright, David, 255 
Wright, Edney, 60 
Wright, John B., 633 
Wright, John W., 92, 98 
Wright, Joseph A., 96 
Wright, Reuben II., 340 
Wright, If. B., 34S 
Wright, Williamson, 92 
Wyuekoop, Lewis II., 831 
Wynekoop, William, 512 
Wynkoop, Grant, 283 
Wynkoop, James, 283 
Wynkoop, William W., 255 
Wyoming, 418 . 

Ynniicv, Jacob, 274 
York, Jephtha, 226 
York, Jol ii, 226 
York, Noble J., 209 
V'ork, William, 225, 230 
York, William II., 678 
Jfoung, P. K., 133 
Young, Jacob, 271 
\ oung, John, 215, 218 
Young, L. A., 341 
Young, Samuel, .121 
young, Samuel A., SI) 

INDEX xliii 

Younger, Joseph V, 902 Zarse, Minnie H., 885 

younkman, David, 274 Zarse, William, »8o 

Jount, Alexander, 339 Zeeker, J., 396 

Yom.t, Daniel, 128, 272, 273 Zumbnelto, M., 378 

Youiit, Elain, 274 

History of White County 



Mound Builders Clung to the Water Courses — Chain op Prehistoric 
Forts — War and Domestic Implements — Nature op Habits 
Inferred prom Relics — Somewhat Commerclvl — No Hieroglyph- 
ics or Effigies — Conclusion: "We Know Nothing" — Probably 
a Race of Slaves — Perhaps the Most Ancient of Peoples — Were 
They Fathers op the Toltecs? — A Staggering Cycle — Per- 
«iance, the Greatest Wonder of the World. 

The instinct of the normal mind, is to be active, whether the results 
of its exertions are of practical value or not. Man is proud of his 
mental nimbleness and especially delights in speculating as to his o\vu 
origin and evolution. There is no subject which lias given him such 
unfailing pleasure and which lias been the source of a greater charm 
to young and old than the consideration of dead types of civilization 
which have left their faint finger-prints in architectural ruins, vast sepul- 
chres, fortresses of war, domestic utensils and skeletons of man and 

In the impressive remains of the prehistoric peoples of the central 
Americas the speculator reads the fact that in the very dim past the 
most advanced civilization of the western hemisphere was near or in the 
tropical zone, which, during that period, might have carried with it the 
present invigorating elements of the temperate clime. Whether that 
nncicnt American civilization originated in wanderers from the orieut 
of tin' Old World, or was itself the father of what has been thus desig- 
nated with questionable authority, is a subject which has been turned 
through the mill of ai-gument and logic in all its bearings since men 
commenced to use their eyes and minds in the New (?) World. 

Mound Builders Clung to the Water Courses 

in dim- United States of North America, the prehistoric races were 
i v\>\t ntly of a lower order than those of Mexico, Centra] and Northern 
Routli America. They left no great architectural ruins pointing to a 

"i..| advancq in art, mechanics, and even astronomical science, but 

> i i i 



rather rude earthworks and burial places, as of seinieivilized people, who 
were warring among themselves, living a.s nomads and hunting and fish- 
ing along the valleys of the great waterways. The most striking, as 
well as the most general tact which applies to the Mound Builders of the 
United States, whose most favored haunts were the valleys of the Missis- 
sippi and the Ohio, was that they never wandered far from the Great 
Lakes or the Great Kivers. Therefore, in Indiana, their earthworks are 
more numerous in the southern part of the state than in the central 
or northern. In White County itself many of the smaller mounds have 
been found on the hanks of the Monon, in its northern sections, espe- 
cially near the confluence of the Little and Big Monon. 

Chain of Pkehistoric Forts 

As stated by Smith, in his History of Indiana, the mounds in the 
Iloosier State have been divided into three classes, designated as burial, 
temple and habitation mounds. It is evident that all the mounds were 
built by the same race, although in some of them the remains of a later 
race have been found buried. The mounds designated as" forts have 
been traced from the southern part of New York diagonally across the 
country to the Wabash River, and another chain from the Ohio River, 
in Clark County, northward into Madison County; thence eastward to 
Central Ohio, and thence southward through Kentucky to Tennessee. It 
will thus bo seen that the valley of the Wabash was a most important 
link in the chain of fortifications, which, as a whole, appear to 
have been erected in an effort to hold the great rivet valleys against 
some powerful enemy; in historic times, the French fortified the same 
routes against the English. Who were the warring nations in the times 
of the Mound Builders is beyond conjecture, but their undeveloped civ- 
ilization had disappeared long before the traditions of the red man 
commenced to filter into the racial literature of the western world. 

War and Domestic: Implements 

In some of the Indiana mounds ashes and charred remains of animals] 
and human bones have been found ; in others, the graves contained human 
skeletons encased in stone sarcophagi, with various utensils and imple- 
ments of war and domestic use. The mortars were usually made ot 
bowlders cut into bowl shape for grinding corn and seeds. There wen 
stone axis of various shapes, and scrapers, peelers or fleshcrs. Arrowi 
and spear beads, drills made of hard stone, knives of flint, flint saws 
[>ip< - artistically carved, crude hoes and spades and ornaments of colored 
stone abounded. The material used in the manufacture of pottery wai 
u clay mixed with powdered shells, which thus formed a kind of cement 
of greal tenacity and fire-resisting qualities. The specimens of pottorJ 
found in the mounds throughout Indiana are rude when compared Willi 
the work of civilized people in a similar line, and when you have named 


cooking utensils, water vessels, cups and vases yon have about completed 
the scope of their efforts. 

Nature of Habits Inferred from Relics 

A stud} - of such relics as these, in connection with the earthworks 
whose indistinct outlines could be traced until advancing industries and 
modern activities of air kinds leveled them, has led to various conclusions 
which arc of ingenious, and of speculative interest. Their methods of 
tilling the soil must necessarily have been of the most primitive char- 
acter, for their implements were very rude, usually chipped out of 
quartz. No bones of domestic animals have been found, and all the 
tillage of the soil must have been done by hand. But the mounds have 
yielded many implements of the chase and others evidently designed for 
the treatment of furs and skins, while the immense shell heaps that have 
been unearthed in some places point to the abundance of fish food in 
the lakes and rivers. As they were compelled to rely upon the chase, 
fishing and the limited cultivation of the soil for subsistence, they did 
not gather in large bodies or centers of population. One of the strongest 
evictences of their migratory character is that they had no general burial 

Nearly all the burial mounds discovered show that they were the 
resting places of a very limited number of individuals. The few excep- 
tions only prove that occasionally a considerable number found such 
permanent abiding places that they could enjoy the historic satisfaction 
of burying their dead in companies. 

It is evident from the discovered specimens of cloth that the Mound 
Builders of Indiana and the Ohio Valley were clad in what resembled 
hemp garments, spun with a uniform thread and woven with a warp 
and woof. A shuttle has even been found. While this cloth was of 
coarse texture, it was often highly ornamented. 

Somewhat Commercial 

Archaeologists have concluded that the comparatively large number 
of copper implements present in the mounds of the Ohio Valley can 
lie accounted for only upon the supposition that the Builders were in 
direct touch with the Lake Superior region. They were to some extent 
a commercial people, not only trading for Lake Superior copper, but 
for Georgia mica. 

No Hieroglyphics or Effigies 

As noted, they were somewhat advanced in the manufacture and 
adornment of vessels for domestic use, but on none o£ them has been 
found a letter or symbol that would give a clew as to the language 01* 
origin of the Mound Builders. It has been the theme of much com 
inenl on the part of those who dispute the theory that the earthworks, 


known as Effigy mounds, were constructed in the form of animals; that 
such forms (corresponding to the Indian totems) wore never repre- 
sented either as ornaments or structural designs in the various bowls, 
vases, water jugs, pitchers, drinking cups and sepulchral urns which 
have been unearthed in such numbers. 

Conclusion: "We Know Nothing" 

A fair example of the way in which American archaeologists have 
thrashed out the problem. of the Mound Builders, with the final conclu- 
sion that they really know nothing more than when they commenced, is 
given in Smith's "History of Indiana" iu the following words : "Noth- 
ing can be gathered of their burial customs. It is true that quite a 
number of skeletons have been found, but their positions or conditions 
give no clew to any settled or definite custom of disposing of the dead. 
The theory has been advanced that they were cremationists, and urns 
have been found which enthusiasts at once classed as burial urns. There 
is little or no foundation for the cremation theory. In some of the 
mounds flat stones covered with charcoal have been found. Beneath 
the stones, in a sort of vault, was a black mold which has been taken 
.as the dust of the dead remaining after cremation. There is no stone 
in Indiana that would bear heat enough, applied in that way, to consume 
a body beneath it. The presence of the mold can be accounted for in 
a dozen ways that are far more reasonable. 

"It has been held that in religion they were worshipers of the 
sun, and that they offered human sacrifices. The fact that all the 
mounds look to the east is about the only thing upon which the theory 
of sun worship is hinged, and that proves very little. Practically there 
are no evidences that they offered human sacrifices. 

Probably a Race op Slaves 

"Were they a warlike race.' That is a question hard to determine. 
The remains of their fortifications, except in a few instances, are of low 
earthworks, not over four or five feet high. It is evident that they 
were a race of slaves, and such a race is seldom warlike. The burial 
mounds seldom contain more than two or three skeletons, and the posi- 
tions in which they are placed give evidence that one was the superior 
and the others the inferiors. The crania prove the same fact. With 
many of the ancient races it. was the custom to bury one or more slaves 
with the dead ruler, or master, and this was likely the case with the 
Mound Builders. 

Perhaps the Mo t Ancient ok Peoples 

"To what age of the world are they to be assigned? TIow many 
centuries have rolled away since they disappeared! These are perplex- 
ing questions. It is a strange thought that away back in the dim past, 


perhaps as far back as the days of the Pharaohs, there existed in what 
we delight to call the New World, a people numbering millions, who 
have died and left no trace of their history. Even the Moabites have 
left their stones covered over with strange symbols, but the Mound 
Builders have left nothing of the kind. On some of the mounds trees 
of more than a thousand years growth are standing. The most ancient 
remains of man found on the earth are distinguished by the flattening 
of the tibia, and this peculiarity is found in an exaggerated degree in 
those of the Mound Builders. A distinguished writer on this subject 
says: 'From the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon we have bones at least 
two thousand five hundred years old ; from the pyramids and catacombs 
of Egypt, both mummied and unmummied crania have been taken of 
still higher antiquity, in perfect preservation ; nevertheless, the skele- 
tons deposited in our mounds from the Lakes to the Gulf are crumbling 
into dust through age alone. The peculiar anatomical construction of 
the few remaining crania not only prove the Mound Builders to have 
been very ancient, but that they were wholly unlike any other race 
known to have existed. A critical examination of the remains of this 
ancient race of America, and a comparison with those of all the other 
racesraf the world, tend to throw a doubt over the theory that all man- 
kind descended^ from one common father. 

' ' Of other races we know something of their origin. We can account 
for the origin of all the races of Europe, Asia and Africa, but no one 
has yet been able to tell whence sprang the American Mound Builders, 
nor to present even a plausible theory on that much disputed point. We 
examine .the relics they have left behind; we study their rude carvings; 
we measure the crania of their dead, and then we put this and that 
together and build up a theory as to their origin and proper place in 
history; but all we can do is to theorize. 

Were They Fathers of the Toltkcs? 

"That the Mound Builders antedated by many years, perhaps cen- 
turies, the Toltecs of Mexico, can hardly be doubted, and the history of 
the Toltecs can be traced back nine centuries before the Christian era. 
The ancient records of the Toltecs repeatedly speak of a great empire 
to the northwest of them, and these same records declare that the Toltecs 
migrated from that empire to Mexico, and it is supposed that this migra- 
tion took place a thousand years before Christ. Whether the Toltecs 
were descendants of the Mound Builders and became civilized alter their 
migration to Mexico is yet an unsettled question. If the great empire 
referred to by the Toltecs was that of the Mound Builders, it becomes 
evident that the origin of the Mound Builders anil their first occupa- 
tion of American soil must have been thousands of years ago. It is 
beyond all question that they disappeared more than a thousand years 
ago. Were they driven out by the Indians? If so, what a vast amount 
of sympathy we have wasted on the Red Men, for the Whiles have only 
token from them what they themselves had taken by violence before! 


Had the Mound Builders come into America by way of Behring Straits, 
as has been claimed, or in any other way, it is apparent that some of 
the remains of the race from whence they sprung would have been found 
in some of the old countries. 

A Staggering Cycle 

"The countless years they must have lived upon this soil fairly 
staggers us. When their mounds were piled up and their fortifications 
erected Babylon was yet in the womb of time. They were hoary with 
tlie frost of centuries before Romulus and Remus traced the foundations 
of the Eternal City. Their builders had been moldering in the dust 
fur half a thousand years when Alexander swam the Hellespont. The 
more one studies the works of this ancient people the more he is lost 
in wonder that a race so numerous and powerful could so completely 
have passed away that even the period of its existence is the merest eon- 
jecture. Il is as if they had existed before the flood and that the mighty 
storm which Noall and his family alone were able to safely outride, had 
swept them suddenly from the fare of the earth in- the midst of their 
power and glory. It is hard to believe that they were utterly annihilated 
by another race. If so, whence came that other raee, in numbers and 
power great enough to work such mighty devastation.' What a vast 
period of time separates us from the Mound Builders! What great 
strides the world has taken since they disappeared! From the stone 
age to the age of steel, what wonders have intervened! Truly, the Old 
World has passed away and all things have become new. There is a 
chasm of time, of history, between the two that man has not been able 
to bridge. The period of their existence is a blank leaf in the history of 
the world that has not been written over. They were a race without a 
written language of any kind. 

''Modern civilization, with all its knowledge and wisdom, stands at 
the edge of the abyss of time which separates the present from the 
past, when this buried race lived and flourished, and can only speculate 
as to its origin, its life, its history and fate. We stand upon the mounds 
erected by them ami wander around the fortifications; we gaze upon the 
implements of warfare left behind them, dropped perhaps by the warrior 
stricken by death and never touched by man again until picked up by 
the curious seeker after relics in these happy times of ours; we look 
at the skeletons as they are unearthed, speculate and theorize, and are 
forced to admit that of their time, manners, customs, origin and fate — 
thi' mystery is still impenetrable." 

Perch Wei:, the Greatest Wonder of the World 

Tli.- picture is certainly confused when the scattered and diseon- 
lii'i'li'il fragments of the mysterious race point to a people <>f slaves 
al lie- same time, to a nation of warriors; to a semi-civilized race of 
if. I hunters and fishermen, yel who have builded an empire which 


the Toltecs remember by tradition; to a seething, unformed conglomera- 
tion of tribes and families, spreading over the valleys and prairies of 
interior America, and yet completely obliterated either by ages of attri- 
tion, or racial displacement, of which not even tradition has left the 
faintest clew. The entire unsolved problem is perhaps the greatest 
wonder which the Creator has left to the solution of mankind, and is 
the weird background for the writing of any history which would picture 
the authentic development of the splendid country which was once held 
by the Mound Builders of Ancient America. 



Cartographic Evidences — First Record op the Tippecanoe — Ver- 
sailles tiie Colonial Skat of Government — Indiana as a Part op 
New France — Great Chain op French Forts — Indiana Trading 
Posts — Governed from Vincennes — Indiana Under British Rule 
— Semi-Civil Government at Fort Chartres — Uncertain French 
Titles to Lands — As a Part op Canada — An Extension op Vir- 
ginia — In the County op Illinois — TnE Northwest Becomes 
National Territory — Popular Assembly for the Northwest 
Territory — Indiana Territory Created — First Territorial Leg- 
islature — Governor Harrison, Father op Indiana — Indian Com- 
plaints Not Groundless — Tecumseh and the Prophet Implacable 
— The Battle op Tippecanoe — Sketches op Col. Isaac White — 
Indian Stragglers Settle in White County — Changes in Gov- 
ernors and Capitals — State Constitution Adopted at Corydon — • 
Indianapolis Fixed as Permanent Capital. 

As we approach the pages of history, another background is to be 
painted in which, although it is not concerned with speculation entirely, 
has little practical bearing on the founding and growth of White County. 
But it will enable the reader to get a perspective — which is always of 
advantage — and to obtain a clear idea of the relations of his home country 
to the various governments which claimed sovereignty over the terri- 
tory which is now the soil of the United States, Indiana and White 
County. Such information has therefore a cei'tain domestic value, aside 
from being the means of conveying to the reader a definite idea of who 
were the original masters of the soil before the Indians relinquished 
it to the whites, and the historical processes by which the way was cleared 
for the establishment of the civil security of the present. 

Cartographic Evidences 

At the very outset of the incursion of the first Frenchmen to the 
Indian country of what is now Indiana, there is uncertainty as to the 
date of their coming. At the lust it ran only he said that La Salle 
and his men were engaged in their explorations ami discoveries down 
and up tin- Mississippi and Ohio rivers, ami their tributaries, for about 
twenty years previous to the assassination of the preat leader in 1687, 
and that the most positive evidence as l<- their actual journeyings in 



Northwestern Indiana is found in the maps which were issued by the 
Government during that period. Joliet's large map of 1674 delineates 
La Salle's route along the main valley of the Ohio, but indicates no 
French settlements in what is now Indiana. An earlier and a smaller 
map shows the course of the Ohio as the result of La Salle's explorations 
which commenced in 1669. Still following the cartographical evidence, 
it is probable that none of La Salle's parties explored the branches of 
the Ohio in the present State of Indiana until during the later period of 
his career. 

First Record of the Titpecanoe 

Franquelin's map of 1684 and D 'Anville 's map of "La Salle's 
explorations from 1679 to 1683," are the first to give the courses of the 
Wabash, the Tippecanoe, the Eel, and lesser tributaries of the Ohio 
system. But all indication of French settlements is absent from even 
these later maps, although La Salle's explorations and the cartographic 
records of them issued by the French government constituted the basis 
of its territorial claims in North America. But for twenty-iive years 
at'terlLa Salle's death, before the Miami Confederation of Indians, who 
had abandoned .their homes at the instigation of La Salle and joined the 
western alliance against their Iroquois enemies, returned to Indiana 
soil under the protectorate of New France. Until the early part of 
the eighteenth century the Ohio country claimed by France was not 
safe from the incursions of the Five Nations, consequently no French 
settlements showed on the maps of that period — as there were none. 

Versailles, the Colonial Seat of Government 

From La Salle's time until the treaty of Paris placed New Franco 
formally in the hands of Great Britain, what is now Indiana was governed 
from Versailles, old France, which was the seat of the colonial office, 
orders from which were dispatched to the governor general in the New 

Indiana as a Part of New 7 France 

A panoramic view of the French control of Indiana is well presented 
by Ur. William S. Raymond, for twenty years one of the most scholarly 
and prominent citizens of Monticello and afterward an honored resident 
of Indianapolis and a national figure in Congress. As shown in his 
" History of Indiana," published six years before his death, it is unfolded 
in this wise: "In 1670, and for many years previous, the fertile region 
of country now included within the boundaries of the State of Indiana, 
was inhabited by the Miami Confederation of Indians. This league con- 
sisted of several Algonquin tribes, notably the Twightwees, Weas, Pianke- 
shaws and Shoekeys, and was formed at an early period— probably in 
the early part of the seventeenth century— for the purpose of repelling 


the invasions of the [roqiiois, or Five Nations, at whose hands they had 
suffered many severe defeats. By the frequent and unsuccessful vv. rs 
in which they were compelled to engage in self-defense their numbers 
had been greatly reduced until, at the date mentioned, they could not 
muster more than fifteen hundred or two thousand warriors. They 
dwelt in small villages on the hanks of the various rivers in Indiana and 
extended their dominion as far east as the Scioto, north to the Great 
Lakes and west to the country of the Illinois. Their principal settle- 
ments were scattered along the headwaters of' the Great Miami, the 
banks of the Maumec, the St. Joseph of Lake .Michigan, the Wabash and 
its tributaries. Although once important among the nations of the Lake 
Region they had become greatly demoralized by repeated defeats in war, 
and when first visited by the French their villages presented a very 
untidy appearance. They were living in constant terror of the Five 
Nations, practicing only sufficient industry to prevent starvation and 
indulging all their vicious passions to a vulgar extreme. 

Great Chain op French Forts 

"Almost immediately following the discovery and exploration of 
the Mississippi by La Salle in 1682, and a few years later by James 
Marquette, the government of Prance began to encourage the policy of 
connecting its possessions in North America by a chain of fortifications 
and trading posts and missionary stations, extending from New Orleans 
on the southwest to Quebec on the northeast. This undertaking was 
inaugurated by Lamottc Cadillac, who established Fort Pontchartrain 
on the Detroit River in 1701. 

French-Indian Amalgamation 

"At this period the zealous Jesuit missionaries, the adventurous 
French fur traders, with their coarse blue and red cloths, tine scarlet, 
guns, powder, balls, knives, ribbons, beads, vermilion, tobacco and rum; 
the careless rangers, or couivurs des bois, whose chief vocation was eon- 
ducting the canoes of the traders among tin' lakes and rivers, made their 
appearance among the Indians of Indiana. The pious Jesuits held up 
the cross of Christ ami unfolded the mysteries of the Catholic religion 
in broken Indian to those astonished savages, while the speculating 
trader offered them lire water and other articles of merchandise in 
exchange for their peltries, and the rangers, shaking loose every tie of 
blood and kindred, identified themselves with the savages ami sank into 
utter barbarism." 

The Jesuit missionaries were always cordially received bj the .Miami 
tribes. These Indians would listen patiently to tile strange theory of 
the Savior and salvation, manifest a willing belief in all they heard, and 
then, as if to entertain their visitors in return, would tell them Hie story 
of their own simple faith in the ManitOUS, and stalk oil' with a groan 'if 
dissatisfaction because the missionaries would no! m-ecpl (heir theorj 


with equal courtesy. Missionary .stations wwc established at an early 
day in all of the principal villages and the work of instructing and eon- 
verting the savages was begun in earnest. The order of religions exer- 
cises established at the missions among the Miamis was nearly the same 
as that among the other Indians. Early in the morning the missionaries 
would assemble the Indians at the church, or the hut used for that pur- 
pose, and after prayers the savages were taught concerning the Catholic 
religion. These exercises were always followed by singing, at the eon- 
clusii of which the congregation was dismissed, the Christians only 
renuu ling to take part at mass. This service was generally followed 
hy prayers. During the forenoon the priests were generally engaged 
in visiting the sick and consoling those who were laboring under any 
affliction. After noon another service was held in the church, at which 
all the Indians were permitted to appear in their finery and where each, 
without. regard to rank or age, answered the questions put hy the mis- 
sionary. This exercise was concluded by singing hymns, the words of 
which had been set to airs familiar to the savage ear. In the evening 
all assembled again at the church for instruction, to hear prayers and 
to sing their favorite hymns. The Miamis were always highly pleased 

with tie latter exercise. 

^ ... 

Aside from, the character of the religious services which constituted 

a. chief attraction in the Miami villages of Indiana while the early 
French missionaries were among them, the traveler's attention would 
first be engaged with the peculiarities of the fur trade, which during 
the first quarter of the seventeenth century was monopolized by the 
French. This traffic was not, however, confined to those whose wealth 
enabled them to engage vessels, canoes and carriers, for there were hun- 
dreds scattered through the various Indi in villages of Indiana at almost 
any time during the first half of the eighteenth century, who carried 
their packs of merchandise and furs by means of leather straps sus- 
pended from their shoulders, or with the straps resting against their 

Rum and brandy were freely introduced hy the traders, and always 
found a ready sale among .the Miami Indians. A Frenchman, writing 
of the evils which resulted from the introduction of spirituous liquors 
among these savages, remarked: "The distribution of it is made in the 
usual way; that is to say, a certain number of persons have delivered 
to each of them a quantity sufficient to get drunk with, so that the 
whole have been drunk over eight days. They begin to drink in the 
villages as soon as the sun is down, and every nighl the fields echo with 
the most hideous howling." 

Indiana Trading: Posts 

hi those early days the Miami villages of tin- Mauinee, those of the 
Wens abdui Ouiatenon, on the Wabash, and those of the Piankeshaws 

around Vinccnucs, were the central points of the fur trade in Indiana. 
Trading posts were establi lied at these places and at foil Wayne in 


17J'.), although for twenty years previous the French traders and mis- 
sionaries had frequently visited them. A permanent church or mission 
was established at the Piankeshaw village near Vincennes, in 1749, by 
Father Meurin, and the following: year a small fort was erected there 
by order of the French government. It was in that year that a small 
fort was erected near the mouth of the "Wabash River. These posts soon 
drew a large number of French traders around them and in 1756 they 
had become quite important settlements, with a mixed population of 
French and Indian. 

At this date the English became competitors for the trade with the 
Indians in Indiana and the surrounding country, and at the close of the 
old French war, in 1763, when Canada and its dependencies fell into 
the hands of the British, this monopoly passed over to the victors. 
Notwithstanding this change in the government of the country, the 
French who had settled around the principal trading posts in Indiana, 
with a few exceptions, swore allegiance to the British government and 
were permitted to occupy their lands in peace and enjoy the slight 
improvements they had wrought. 

i Governed from Vincennes 

The Post, or (lie Old Post — later known as Vincennes — was estab- 
lished in 17127 and until after the Revolutionary war was the only white 
settlement in Indiana, although French military forts were established 
both at the head of the Maumee and at Ouiatenon — the latter on the 
Wabash, about eighteen miles below the mouth of the Tippecanoe. The 
post at Ouiatenon is claimed to be the first of its kind in Indiana and 
dated from 1720. From its settlement until it was finally transferred to 
Great Britain, Vincennes was under the jurisdiction of New Orleans, 
although its trade was largely with Canada. It was iu command of a 
governor, Francois Margane, Sieur de Vincennes holding that office 
from the founding of the post until his death in 1736. During that 
period, therefore, Indiana was under the direct jurisdiction of Governor 
Vincennes, and indirectly of New Orleans and Versailles. 

Indiana under British Rule 

Vincennes was slain in battle with the Indians at the mouth of the 
Ohio, in 1736, and Louis St. Ange commanded Old Vincennes until 
1764, or a short time before it was finally surrendered to the British. 
In May of that year, about six mouths previous to the proclamation of 
General Gage, the British commander-in-chief in North America, 
announcing the cession of the country of the Illinois to His Britannic 
.Majesty, St. Ange appointed his successor to the command of the Old 
Post ami started for i'ort Chart res to relieve the commandant at that 
post, who was on his way to New Orleans. For nearly thirty years 
he had led and governed the people of Old Vincennes. 


Semi-Civil Government at Fort Chartres 

On the 10th of October, 1765, St. Ange made a formal delivery of 
Fort Chartres to Captain Sterling, representing the British govern- 
ment. That military center of the Illinois country became the first semi- 
civil seat of government established northwest of the Ohio and includ- 
ing the present territory constituting the State of Indiana. Captain 
Sterling in turn received his orders from General Gage, whoso head- 
quarters were at New York, the British seat of colonial government in 
North America. 

Fort Chartres was a very unhealthful place and Captain Sterling, its 
first British commandant, lived only three months after taking posses- 
sion. In September, 1768, Lieutenant Colonel Reed, in command, set 
up a sort of civil government for the Illinois country. Its main feature 
consisted of the seven judges, who constituted the first court west of 
the Alleghanies and retained authority until 1774, when the British 
Farliam ;nt restored civil law in full force. 

Uncertain French Titles to Lands 

The^teps leading to the formal assumption of the civil administra- 
tion of \lie territory embracing Indiana by the Canadian authorities, 
with Quebec as Hhe seat of the dominion government, are thus epito- 
mized: "The arbitrary act of General Gage, in 1772, in ordering all 
the whites to immediately vacate the Indian country, aroused the set- 
tlers and they at once vigorously protested. They declared they held 
the title to their lands from officers of the French government, who 
had a right to convey such titles, and that when the French govern- 
ment transferred the territory to the English their rights were duly 
protected by the treaty of cession. Gage was autocratic and determined, 
and on the receipt of this remonstrance he ordered that all written titles 
to the possession of the lands should be forwarded to him at New York 
for examination. The inhabitants were a careless set and mainly igno- 
rant, and had failed to properly care for the written evidence of the 
grants made to them, and many of them had been left in the hands of 
the notary who had drawn them. They never dreamed of any ques- 
tion ever being raised as to their right to the lands they were occupying 
and had been occupying for nearly half a century. So it was that this 
last order of Gage fell like a thunderbolt upon the poor inhabitants. 
Some deeds were found, but many more could not be found. An appeal 
was made to St. Ange at St. Louis. lie responded by reciting that he 
had held command of the post (Vincennes) from 1736 to 1764, and that 
during that time, by order of the governors, he had conceded many 
parcels of lands to various inhabitants by written concessions, and had 
verbally permitted others to settle and cultivate lands, of which they 
Tiad been in possession for many years. Oiler officers certified that 
many deeds had been carried away, others removed to the record office 
of tin- Illinois (at Fort Chartres) and still others bad been lost or 

destroyed by pats. But the British government bad already beard the 


mutterings of discontent in the eastern colonies and did not want to 
add to the embarrassments at other points, and in 1774 the whole terri- 
tory northwest of the Ohio was pat under the dominion of Canada." 

As a Part ow Canada 

When tin- Illinois country, or the territory northwest of the Ohio, 
was transferred from Prance to Great Britain about a decade before, 
the entire population did not exceed 600 families, or perhaps 4,000 
people, and when it came under the government of Canada it was con- 
siderably Jess, as many Of the inhabitants had gone to St. Louis, New 
Orleans, and other points in Louisiana. 

The British took possession of Vinccnnes in May, 1777, but it was 
captured by the Americans in August of the following year, who relin- 
quished it for three months to the English, when it was recaptured by 
Cen. George Rogers Clark and became forever a possession of the United 

An Extension of Virginia 

fe During the Revolutionary war no British or American settlements 
wprc made within the limits of Indiana, although while Genei'al Clark 
was in authority at Vincennes a number of Americans were added to 
the post settlement, and the Indiaus ceded to the commandant himself 
150,000 acres of land around the falls of the Ohio River, which grant 
was afterward confirmed by Virginia and the National Congress. As 
an energetic Keiituckian, an able, brave man, of military genius, and 
backed by the Old Dominion and the statesmanship of Patrick Henry, 
then governor, General Clark was admirably fitted to be the conqueror 
of the Northwest, whether fighting against the British or the Indians. 

In the County of Ilunois 

In 1778, when the neus of Clark's capture of Vincennes and Kas- 
kaskia reached Virginia, its assembly passed a law organizing all the 
territory northwest of the Ohio into the County of Illinois and placing 
Col. John Todd in control as county lieutenant. As Kaskaskia was the 
scat of government, Indiana again came under a new administration 
centering ultimately at Uichmond, Virginia. Todd arrived at his cap- 
ital in .May, 177D, and at onec commenced his administration as county 
lieutenant, leaving Clark Tree to pursue his military enterprises; but 
he himself was killed at the battle of Blue Licks in 1782. Although by 
statute the organization of the County of Illinois had expired in 1781, 
its civil officers continued to exercise power and grant land concessions 
until the pn wage of tl dinai of 1787. 

'I'm. Northwest Becomes National Territory 

We now approach the period of stable American government, when 
the United States a; a nation extended its jurisdiction to the Cotmtv 


of Illinois and the territory northwest of the Ohio River. That immense 
domain was claimed by Virigina by right of conquest, hut in January, 
178:5, the General Assembly of the Old Dominion, in the interests of the 
United States, ceded to the National Congress all its rights, title and 
claims to that great land. The Virginia deed of cession was accepted 
hy Congress in the spring of 1784, and in July, 1788, Gen. Arthur St. 
Clair, who had been elected by Congress governor of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory under the famous ordinance of the previous year, arrived at 
Marietta, Ohio, to take over the civil administration of the national 
domain now included within the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michi- 
gan and Wisconsin. At that time, therefore, the future tloosier State 
was governed indirectly from Philadelphia and directly from Marietta, 
the territorial capital. 

Popular Assembly for the Northwest Territorv 

Until Indiana was organized as a territory in 1800 there were few- 
settlements within the limits of the present state. In 1798, under the 
provisions of the ordinance creating the Northwest Territory, and pro- 
viding that when its population should number 5,000 free inhabitants, 
a popular assembly was elected to represent the Northwest, and in Jan- 
uary, 1799, convened at Cincinnati, whither the seat of government had 
been moved from Marietta. Ten members of the upper house, of coun- 
cil, were then appointed by President Adams, upon recommendation of 
the elected assembly, and when the two bodies met at the new terri- 
torial capital in September, 1799, a near approach to popular govern- 
ment had been effected in the territory northwest of the Ohio River. 

Indiana Territory Created 

The Legislature selected as the terril 'rial delegate to Congress, Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison, who was filling Ike position of secretary of the 
Northwest Territory. The new government was hardly under way 
before the tremendous domain over which it had jurisdiction under- 
went its first carving, under authority of the Ordinance of 1787. By 
act of Congress, approved May 7, 1800, it was declared that "from and 
after the fourth of July next, all that part of the territory of the 
United States northwest of the Ohio river which lies to the westward 
of a line beginning at the Ohio opposite the inoulli of the Kentucky 
river and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north until il 
shall intersect the territorial line between the United States and Canada, 
shall, for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a separate 
territory to be called the Indiana Territory." The Seal of government 
was fixed at Vincennes and William Henry Harrison was appointed 
governor. He reached Vincennes in January, 1801, the gubernatorial 

duties having been performed since the pr 'ding July by John Gibson, 

secretary of the territory. 


First Territorial Legislature 

The judges ami juries were soon in action and in July, 1805, the first 
Legislature of the Territory of Indiana met at Vineennes. At that 
time Indiana had been shorn of Michigan for about six months, aud 
in 180!) Illinois was carved away, leaving its territory as at present. 

Governor Harrison, Father of Indiana 

Governor and General Harrison is acknowledged to be the father of 
a settled and secure Indiana. Within five years from the time he 
assumed control of affairs, both civil and military, he had perfected 
treaties with the Indians securing cessions to 46,000 square miles of 
territory, Eluding all the lands lying on the borders of the Ohio River, 
between the mouth of the Wabash River and the western boundary of 
the .State of Ohio. At the same time, in co-operation with the Legisla- 
ture, be guided the revision and improvement of the territorial statutes, 
and at bis recommendation Congress established several land offices. 
In 1801 three were opened — at Detroit, Vineennes and Kaskaskia, re- 
spectively — and in 1807, a fourth at Jeffersonville, Clark County. 

Indian- Complaints Not Groundless 

Hut despite treaties and the protection of the National Government, 
personified by such a rugged character as Harrison, the original lords 
of the soil continued to show just causes for uneasiness and indignation. 
Even the governor, in his 1806 message to the Legislature, remarked 
that they were already making complaints, some of them far from 
groundless. While the laws of the territory provided for the same pun- 
ishment for offenses committed against Indians as against white men, 
unhappily there was always a wide difference in the execution of those 
laws. Tin- Indian was, in all cases, the sufferer. That partiality did 
mil escape their observation. On the contrary it afforded them an 
opportunity of making strong comparisons between their own ol servai ce 
of treaties ami that of their boasted superiors. 

During the period from 1805 to 1810, especially, the Indians com- 
plained bitterly against the encroachments of the whites upon the lands 
which they had not ceded. Xot only the invasion of their favorite 
hunting grounds, but the unjustifiable killing of many of their people, 
were frequent charges which they brought to the attention of Harri- 
son, An old chief, iu laying the troubles of his people before the gover- 
nor, said earnestly : "Von call us your children ; why do you not make us 
as happy a-; our lathers, the French, did : They never I ok from us our 
lands; indeed, they were iu common between us. They planted where 
they pleased] and they cut wood where they pleased; and so did v.e. 
Bui now, if a poor Indian attempts to take a little bark from a tree to 
cover him from tin' rain, up comea a white man and threatens to 
him, claiming the tree as his own." 


Tecuaiseii and the Prophet Implacable 

All such complaints found voice in Tecumseh and his brother, the 
Prophet, the one playing upon the superstitions and passions of the 
Indians and the other organizing them into a strong confederacy, which 
was to control the disposition of lands instead of allowing thein to be 
ceded by separate and disunited tribes. Both in 1808 and 1809 the 
Prophet visited Hai'rison at Vincennes to assure him of hLs friendliness 
and to protest against the charge that he and Tecumseh were in league 
with the British. In the later part of the year 1809 it was estimated that 
the total quantity of land ceded to the United States under treaties 
which had been effected by the governor exceeded 30,000,000 acres; and 
all of these concessions were accomplished in direct opposition to the 
influence of Tecunisrf^ and the Prophet; but the break between these 
powerful leaders of the white and the red races was near at hand. 

In July, 1810, Governor Harrison made an attempt to gain the 
friendship of the Prophet by sending him a letter offering to treat with 
him personally in the matter of his grievances, or to furnish means to 
send him, with three of his principal chiefs, to the President at Wash- 
ington. The bearer of this letter was coldly received both by Tecumseh 
and the Prophet^ and the only answer he received was that Tecumseh, 
in a few days, would visit Vincennes and interview the governor; this 
he did, with seventy of his principal warriors, in the following month. 
For over a week conferences were carried on with the haughty Shawnee 
chief, who on the 20th of August delivered an ultimatum to Harrison, 
to the effect that he should return their lands or fight. 

While the governor was replying to Tecumseh 's speech, the Indian 
chief interrupted him to declare angrily that the United States govern- 
ment, through General Harrison, had "cheated and imposed on the In- 
dians." Whereupon a number of the Indian warriors present sprung 
to their feet and brandished their clubs, tomahawks and spears. The 
governor's guards, which stood a short distance off, marched quickly up, 
and the red men quieted down, Tecumseh b< ing ordered to his camp. 

On the following day Tecumseh apologized and requested another 
interview. The council was thereupon reopened, but while the Shawnee 
leader addressed Harrison in a respectful manner, he did not recede from 
Ins former demand as to the restoration of the Indian lands. 

The governor then requested Tecumseh to state plainly whether or 
not the lands purchased at the Treaty of Fort Wayne in ISO!) could In; 
Burveyed without molestation by the Indians, and whether or not the 
Kickapoos would receive their annuities in payment for ouch cession. 
The proposed grant was partly in Illinois, p Teeumseli replied : " Brother^ 
when yon speak of annuities to me, I look at the land and pity the women 
ami children. I am authorized to say that they will not receive them. 
Brother, we want to save that piece of land. We do not wish yon to take 
it. It is small enough for our purpose. If you do take it, you must 
blame yourself as the cause of the trouble between us and the tribes who 
.-.old it to you. I want the prcscm" boundary line to continue. Should 


you cross it, I assure you it will be productive of bad consequences.'* 
This talk terminated the council. 

On the following day Governor Harrison, attended only by his in- 
terpreter, visited Tecumseh's camp and told him that the United States 
would not acknowledge his claims. "Well," replied the Indian, "as 
the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great Spirit will 
put sense enough into his head to induce him to direct you to give up 
this land. It is true, he is so far off he will not be injured by the war. 
He may sit still in his town and drink his wine, while you and I will 
have to fight it out." ) 

Tecumseh's last visit to the governor previous to the battle of 
Tippecanoe, which crushed the red man's power in Indiana and the 
Northwest, was on July 27, 1811. He brought with him^a considerable 
force of Indians, but that showing was offset by the 750 well-armed 
militia which Governor "Harrison reviewed with some ostentation. The 
interview was conciliatory on the part of Tecumseh, who, however, re- 
peated that he hoped no attempts would be made to settle on the lands 
sold to the United States at the Fort Wayne Treaty, as the Indians wished 
to keep them for hunting grounds. He then departed for the express 
purpose of inducing the southern Indians to join his confederacy. 

The Battle op Tippecanoe 

While Tecumseh was absent on that mission the battle of Tippe- 
canoe was fought under the leadership of the Prophet, and Indiana be- 
came white man 's land forever. After Governor Harrison had exhausted 
every means to maintain peace with the Indian leader he resorted to 
decisive military measures. His army moved from Vincennes in Sep- 
tember, 1811 ; he built a new fort on the Wabash in the following month, 
resumed his march, and on the 6th of November, after an unsatisfactory 
conference with a representative of the Prophet, about half a mile from 
the town, encamped on the battleground, six miles north of the present 
City of Lafayette. The selection of that location is said to have been at 
the suggestion of the Indians, who pronounced it a good place for a 
camp ; the Prophet may therefore to be said to have selected the ground 
on which his people met with such signal defeat. 

General Harrison's force consisted of about 250 regular troops, 600 
Indiana militia and 150 volunteers from Kentucky. Just before day- 
break of the 7th of November the Indians made a sudden attack on that 
part of the camp guarded by the militia. They broke at the first on- 
slaught, but soon reformed, and the entire body of Americans presented 
a determined front to the wily foe, but did not attempt an offensive 
until it was light, when several gallant charges were made by the troops 
and the Indians totally defeated. The Indians being familiar with the 
ground had been able to inflict severe losses on the Americans. Among 
the killed were Maj. Jo Daviess, the gifted and brave Kentuckian and 
Col. Isaac White, the gallant Virginian, who fell side by side while lead- 
ing a charge of dragoons. 


Sketch of Cor,. Isaac White 
By George F, White 

It is gratifying to know that the county \v;is named in honor ol' so 
brave a gentleman as Col. Isaac White, an interesting sketch of whom 
lias been written by his grandson, George P. White. As stated by the 
author, "much of the information was gained orally from his father, 
some from his cousins in Virginia and some from old letters." 

The article follows: "Isaac White was born in Prince William County, 
Virginia, shortly after the beginning of the Revolutionary war. The 
exact year is not known, but from the record of his initiation in 1811, 
as member of Vincennes Lodge No. 1, F. & A. 51., in which he states bis 
age was then thirty-live years and from certain interesting family notes 
written by Mrs. Sarah M. Hayden, it is likely he was bora in 177b. His 
father was probably of English origin and was a man of education, 
refinement and good standing for before he settled in Virginia, he held 
a captain's commission in the British Merchant Marine Service. Sur- 
rendering this office he purchased a large tract of land in Prince William 
County, and devoted himself to farming until the Revolution began when 
he took up arms with the colonies and lost his life, near the close of the 
conflict, nobly battling for his country. 

"The eld house where he lived, a substantial stone structure, indicat- 
ing a home of refinement and luxury, is still standing in an excellent, 
state of preservation, near Brentsville, Virginia, the county seat el' 
Prince William County. In this home Isaac White was horn as was also 
! i i ^ elder brother, Thomas, and one younger sister, Katie, and here lie 
continued to live with his mother, assisting her as he grew in age and 
experience until he was past twenty-three years old, when an unhappy 
event iii his mother's life impelled him and his brother Thomas to seek a 
more adventurous career in the great Northwest Territory. 

"It seems that one day when the two sons and all the male tenants 
of the plantation were absent, a strange man called at the house and 
asked for something to eat, and in accordance with the hospitality of 
[hose days, his request was at once granted but, not satisfied with such 
kindly treatment, be demanded of her the keys to the drawers where the 
family treasures were kept. She refused and he tried to get them from 
her by force. Her screams attracted the- attention of a neighbor who, 
hs the account states, was 'a bachelor gentleman,' on a hunting expedition, 
"ho lushed in and brained the would-be robber at mice. For this 
chivalrous act he was arrested, tried, acquitted and wholly exonerated 
from all blame. As stated, he was 'a bachelor gentleman.' she a widow. 
His was a heart innocent, confiding and susceptible, while she. like must 
widows, was conversant with all the wiles and snares which so beset the 
pathway of bachelors, lie was weak. She was strong, lie surrendered : 
they were married and 'lived happily ever after. 1 

"Of course her two sons, Thomas and Isaac, objected to this union. 

hi io no nvail. However, they remained willi theii mother until their 

Bister Katie was married, and then with only a small amount id' money 


loft home and went to Vincennes, which was soon to become the Capitol 
of tho Northwest Territory. This was in the early part of the year 
1800. His appearance at Vincennes created some excitement, as he 
was full of spirit, well bred, dashing and a general favorite with all, 
but especially with the young ladies. Mrs. Hayden's notes are full of 
references to the family of Judge George Leech, then living at Vincennes, 
and .•specially of his oldest daughter, Sallie, who soon succeeded in 
capturing the heart and affections of our hero. 

"Such, in brief, is the account coming to us from Mrs. Ilayden, 
whose mother was formerly Miss Amy Leech, a sister to Sallie, who 
became the wife of the subject of this article. This Amy Leech subse- 
quently Became the wife of the Hon. John Marshall, for many years 
President of the Bank of Illinois, at Shawneetown, Illinois. 

"Isaac White was somewhat aristocratic, his wife seems to have been 
an honest well-meaning backward girl of her period, but their marriage 
was a most happy one. Jt is thought Judge Decker officiated at the 
wedding which was some event as the wedding dinner is said to have 
been quite an elaborate affair. 

"This gentleman, -Judge George Leech, into whose family Isaac White 
married, had emigrated from Louisville, Kentucky, to Vincennes, in 1784, 
and the members of his family had each selected homesteads in Knox 
County, bul after three years of hardships among the Indians, all except 
Francis Leech, who had died, moved back to Louisville, but nine years 
later, in J7t)(>, Judge Leech moved back again ti Vincennes, but the 
Governor of the Northwest Territory refused to allow him to re-occupy 
his old home, though it was vacant, and he was compelled to occupy the 
land which had been hi.s brother's. After William Henry Harrison was 
appointed Governor of the Northwest Territory, Judge Leech was granted 
one hundred acres more land which he gave as a mariage present to his 
daughter, and to this day it is known as the 'White-Hall' farm in Knox 
County, Indiana, and this was the nucleus of a very considerable estate 
which Isaac White acquired subsequent to his marriage. 

"They were encompassed with the many hardships incident to pio- 
neer life, but they were surrounded by good neighbors and when their 
home was destroyed by fire, se good friends rebuilt for them a substan- 
tial log residence in which their only child, George Washington Leech 
White, was bom. That the family of Isaac White was refined and 
highly respectable is proven by the fact that a strong friendship was 
cemented between it and the family of Governor Harrison which has 
been transmitted to their successors. 

"On April 30, 1805, Governor Harrison appointed Isaac White 
Agent for tie- United States at the Salt works at Saline Creek, Illinois, 
IUXIS to the village of Kquality in Gallatin County, Illinois. Here 
Isaae employed John Marshall, a man of sterling character, who aft to- 
ward became a banker an. I acquired a. splendid reputation in Indiana and 
Illinois. The following year Mr. Marshall married the younger i ter 
of Mrs. White, Miss Amy Leech. This wedding occurred October 21, 
1mm;, and the day following both White and Marshall, accompanied by 


their wives, departed for the .Salt works. On September 8, 1806, Gov. 
Harrison appointed Isaac White Captain of the Kno.\ County Militia 

ml on September lUth, of the same year, his oath of office was taken 
before 'William II. Harrison.' 

''The Salt works did not long survive. The Act of Congress of March 
I, 1S03, authorized the leasing of the springs belonging to the govern- 
ment and White, in 1807, had acquired an interest in the Salt works 
which he held until just before his death, when he disposed of it to 
Wilkes, Taylor & Co., and returned to Vincennes. 

"While living at the Salt works he had two daughters born to him, 
Harriet Grandison, June 12, 1808, and Juliet Greenville, on July 30, 
1.810. While he was employed at the springs, White was commissioned 
a Colonel, probably iu the Illinois Militia, which organization was per- 
fected under the Act of Congress of February 3, 1801). This commission 
is now lost but there is little doubt of its having been issued to him. 
Shortly after he was commissioned Colonel, occurred one of the most 
important incidents connected with his life. Duelling was at that time, 
pot uncommon, especially in military circles, but Col. White had a great 
antipathy to that method of settling differences that arose between 
men. On May 23, 1811, he wrote a tender and pathetic letter to his wife 
saying that on the ne^xt day he would fight a duel with one Captain 
Butler, who had offended him, and when his offense had been resented 
had challenged him and he had accepted. He tells his wife in this letter 
to sell 'Sukey and the children' and from the proceeds buy a slave in 
the Territory and then having written his will, bids his wife a tender 

"Their meeting took place on time at a place now called Union 
Springs, Kentucky, opposite Shawneetown, Illinois, but the result was 
somewhat different from what might have been expected. By the rules 

overning the code the challenged party could choose the weapons and 
the distance; availing himself of this privilege, Col. White chose horse 
pistols at a distance of six feet. Captain Butler protested, saying that 
it meant certain death to both, but W T hite insisted that he had the right 
to name the weapons and fix the distance whereupon Butler Left the field 
and the little affair of honor was ended. In view of the Ordinance of 
1787, which prohibited Slavery in the Northwest Territory, il may seem 
grange that he would advise his wife to 'sell Sukey and the children' 
pid invest the proceeds in a slave in the Territory, but it is a fact that 
Slavery existed for many years in the Territory and in that part which 
is now comprised within the limits of our own slate. 

"The records of Vincennes Lodge No. 1, F. <!o A. M, disclose the fact 
thai on September 18, 181 1, Isaac White was raised to the sublime degri e 
bf a Master .Mason in said lodge, by Joseph Hamilton Daviess, Grand 
Uii hi- of Kentucky. Daviess was a Major from Kentucky, who had come 
t» Vincennes to offer his services to Gov. Harrison, in hi projected 
wiinpaign against the Indians, in the Wubusli Valley- Willi llio consent 
"f his friend, .Major Daviess, White joined the eNpcililion iu the capac- 
ity of a private soldier, which accounts [or his name being on the south 


iiMri of ilu- l',.:tilr Ground Monument, among the 37 privates killed in 
thin battle. J I is is the last name but one on this tablet. They left 
\ iin, inns on Sept. ■inliiT 2G, LS11, and on their departure, Daviess and 
White, notwithstanding one was a Major, and the other a private, ex- 
changed swords, and when they were afterwards found on the battle- 
field, each had the other's sword. Lieut. George Leech, brother-in-law 
of White, .says both were buried in one grave under an oak still stand- 
ing ikiI Jar from the grave iii which the other dead were placed and some 
logs we iv hastily rolled over the grave aud burned that the Indians 
might not be able to discover and loot the grave, but all to no avail, for 
as soon as the soldiers left, their bodies were exhumed by the Indians 
and left to wither aud rot on the ground. Isaac White was thirty-six 
years of age when he met his death, yet he left, what for that period, 
was a considerable fortune, for notwithstanding his well known liber- 
ality, he died seized of several thousand acres of land in addition to a 
fair amount of personal property. He was a man of chivalrous man- 
ner, kindly and generous disposition and well beloved by his associates. 
In 1816, Lis widow married for her second husband, Samuel Marshall, 
brother of John Marshall, with whom she lived until her death in 1819. 

"Isaac White left three children, one of which, George Washington 
Leech » White, afterward became a prominent citizen of Indiana and 
served his country in the Black Hawk War; 

"Harriet Grandison White, who married Albert Gallatin Sloo, at 
'White-Hall' farm in Knox County, and Juliet Greenville White, who 
married James Huffman. From Isaac White's son, who marriage Miss 
Eli/oi (Jrilliu Fauntleroy, of Kentucky, have descended many quite prom- 
inent people. 

"ll\ his Will, written with his own hand the day before his duel was 
to have been fought with Captain Cutler, he ordered the pa,\ menl of all 
his debts: to his wife he gave all his household and kitchen furniture and 
two hundred acres of land, in the same item charging her with the proper 
rearing of his children, and expresses the hope that his son, George, be 
given a classical education and especially that he be taught fencing: as 
to the two girls, they were to lie given 'a good English education.' He 
ciws to his neighbi rs, Charles White and John Justice Jfi-l acres aud 
seventy poles of land, one moiety to each, with certain restrictions, and 
also 'To my niece, Betsey White, one mare, saddle and bridle,' to be worth 
in cash $100. Let us indulge the hope that Betsey fully enjoyed her 
equine gift. 

"The will then gives to his son George all the residue of his estate out 
of which he is to pay to his sister Harriet, at her majority or marriage, 
■r 1 ,500 and In bis sister Juliet on the same contingency he is to pay $J ,000, 
This Will is dated -Jay 23, 1811, and is duly witnessed b.\ G C. Harll 
and I'Ya'u i , I ell." 

Several counties in I his state are named in honor of those wl i were 
vagnf. i d in the battle of Tippecanoe, and when White County was organ- 
ized in 183-1, it look its uame from Isaac White, the subject of this article. 
On November 7, [83(5, the twenty-fifth anniversary of this battle, John 


Tipton, who then owned the Tippecanoe Battle Ground, and who was also 
present in the engagement, conveyed the grounds to the Stale of Indiana, 
and the constitution oi' our state makes it obligatory on the Legislature 
to forever maintain it in memory of who participated in the battle. 
For many years efforts were put forth by various organizations to induce 
the state and Federal governments to erect a monument over the graves 
of those who were buried there; but not until November 7, lttUS, were 
their efforts crowned with success. On the last named date, being the 
ninety-seventh anniversary of the battle, was unveiled the Splendid 
obelisk which now towers over the graves where in solitude and silence 
for more than a century, have lain tbe bodies of those, who f. 11 in this 
action. It was, judged from the men engaged, a mere skirmish, but in 
its results, it was one of tbe most important battles ever fought on this 

May we ever hold in loving memory the hero after whom our goodly 
county is named! 

Biography by B. Wilson Smith 

The author is pleased to add to the foregoing the main portions of 
the very interesting biography of Colonel White written by B. Wilson 
Smith and published in the historical edition of the Monticello Herald, 
December 8. 1910; the omissions are those portions of the sketch which 
would be but repetitions of the story prepared by Colonel White's grand- 
son, and even as given there are necessarily several overlappings of [acts 
in the two papers. 

"Thirteen counties of Indiana,'' says the Smith biography, "were 
named for heroes who fought at Tippecanoe — practically one-seventh. 
That battle is usually measured by the number engaged rather l ban the 
mighty issues involved. It is too easily forgotten that the last ami great- 
est Indian confederacy on this continent, headed by the greatest of the 
great Indian warriors of our history, was overthrown just on the eve of 
its completion by the clear comprehension of General Harrison in crush- 
ing this gigantic combination of so many tribes before its consummation. 

" For more than fifty years I have been a gatherer of scraps of infor- 
mation here and there of events of our State building, which unfortu- 
nately had no great chronicler embodied in one well equipped riter. 

"Among the notable men and heroes who fought and fell at Tippe- 
canoe was Col. Isaac White, for whom our county is named. I think our 
School children ought to be taught thoroughly 'he early history of their 
State, county and towns — should know these by heart. These things 
should be taught at the fireside, in the schools and by the press. We 
forget that children learn history with avidity before they ran grasp the 
problem of arithmetic. .Memory antedates the reasoning faculties. 

"Col. Isaac White was born in Prince William county, Virginia, 
shortly after the commencement of the Revolutionary war. The exact 
date of his birth is not now exactly known, but from tin- records of his 
initiation in lsil ;1 s a member of Masonic Lodge, \o. I. of Viuccnnes, 


Indiana, in which his age is stated to be 35 years, il is altogether likely 
that he was bom in the year 1776. His father was au Englishman by 
birth ami held a commission as captain of British Marines, lie. resigned 
his commission and came to Virginia, bought a largo estate, and on the 
breaking out of the war of Independence, east his lot with the oppressed 
colonies, and fought through the war till near its close, when he lost his 
lift in dcf( use of his adopted country. He left three children, Isaac, 
Thomas and daughter Katie. The Brst lost his life at Tippecanoe and 
the second wus shot through the body in that battle. It was he of whom 
it is told that the surgeons several times drew a silk handkerchief through 
the wound to cleanse it. Though supposed to be mortally wounded, he 

"On account of the unsatisfactory second marriage of their mother 
these two brothers wire impelled to seek a new and more adventurous 
career in the Northwest Territory. They made their way to Vincennes, 
soon to become the capital of Indiana Territory, in the year 1800. They 
were not. heavily cumbered with property but had a wealth of determina- 
tion and energy. Isaac White, the subject of this sketch, soon after 
his arrival met the lovely and accomplished daughter Sallie of Judge 
George Leech, v. ho came to Vincennes from Louisville, Kentucky, as early 
as 1784, hut after many hardships, ending with the burning of his home 
over his heart by the Indians, returned to Kentucky and did not again 
take up his residence at Vincennes till 1796. * * * Soon after the 
organization of Indiana Territory, and the coming of Governor Harrison 
to Vincennes. the Harrisons and Whites became very iutimate friends. 
A striking evidence of this is shown by the appointment of .Mr. AVhite 
as agent of the United States at the Salt Works on Saline Creek, in Gal- 
latin county, Illinois. The following is a copy of this appointment: 

" ' Indiana Territory : 

" 'William Henry Harrison, Governor and Commander in Chief of the 
Indiane Territory. 

[s*KAI..] To ail who .shall see these presents, greetings: 

"Know yv, llial in pursuance of instruction from the President of 

the United Stales, | | m \v constituted and appointed, and do by these 

nl i i-oiiHtitiitc ami appbinl Isaac While of Knox county to be agent 

for the I nitid Htiiti i, to n idc at the Salt Works on Saline Creek, for 

the pufiwwo of n-i : : It, and to perform such other 

'" il of the United States may think proper 

■■ liin with. This c to continue during pleasure. 

" 'Oivi u under my hand and lln a] of Hie Tcrritoi 

■ Vpril, 180 Independence of the United 

StUti H iii. Twi'Uty ninth. 

William Henby IT mm, 

" 'H\ I In Oiivi i nor. 



"During the year 1806 Governor Harrison appointed Mr. White 
a captain in a regiment of Knox county, commission dated Sept. loth, 
1801J. (The commission by copy is now before me). After a short serv- 
ice as agent for the Government at (he Saline, he on the change of the 
Government as -gent, became a lessee with partners and during this 
relation acquired considerable property. This interest he sold during 
the summer of 1811 and removed with his family to Viueeunes. 

"It is claimed by some that he was app ted colonel of Illinois 
.Militia during his sojourn at the Saline. (Illinois was organized as a 
Territory Feb. 3rd, 1809.) But I am quite sure this is ;i mistake. He 
never was colonel of an Illinois regiment, and never brought an Illinois 
company with him to the Battle of Tippecanoe, but he was colonel of the 
3rd Regiment of Indiana Militia and tendered this regiment to Governor 
Harrison for the expedition to the Prophets' town. 

"A very important incident occurred in Col. White's life just before 
leaving the Saline in Illinois during the year 1811. He was challenged 
to tight a duel by one Mr. Butler. Though, unlike most Virginians of 
that day, he was morally opposed to dueling, yet he thought there were 
cases where it could not be avoided. Particularly a military man when 
challenged could not decline. Col. White accepted, chose horse pistols as 
the weapons, and six paces as the distance. The meeting place was Union 
Springs, Kentucky, opposite Shawneetown, Illinois. All parties wire on 
time at the meeting, but when the terms became known, the challenger and 
his friends objected to the conditions as not offering any chain 1 .' for the 
escape of either challenger or challenged. Col. White and his friends 
stood firmly by the terms, and the challenger and his friends abruptly 
and precipitately withdrew. The want of space forbids the insertion of 
Col. White's letter to his wife on the eve of this occurrence. 

"Soon after Col. White's sale of his interest in the Illinois Salt 
Works and his return to Vincennes, he was entered and passed as au 
apprentice and fellowcraft Mason in the Masonic Lodge at Vincennes then 
under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, and on the L8th 
of September, 1811, he was raised to the sublime degree of a Master 
Mason by his friend the celebrated Colonel Joseph 11. Daviess, Grand 
Master of Kentucky, who had come to Vincennes to offer his services 
i" Governor Harrison in an expected campaign against the confederated 
Indians at the Prophet's town. 

"Col. White earnestly solicited Governor rarrison to have his regi- 
ment (the 3rd Indiana Militia), or at least a part of it, included in the 
forces of the expedition but was told that the United States troops then 
on the way — the 4th Regiment from Pittsburgh and the other forces 
■ dreads organized, would be sufficient for the expedition. I'mt he was 
not to be deterred, and with Thomas Randolph, late Attorney G ncral 
of the Territory, he enrolleS himself in the company of dragoons com- 
manded b.v Captain Parke, which company and two others were place, I, 

1 rjuadron of dragoons, uudcr command of Ins friend Col. 
An incident of lids early soldier association is worthy of mention. Col. 


Daviess and Col. Wliit (changed swords, and on the fatal November 

morning, November Till, the sword of Col. Wliite was found buckled to the 
belt of Col. Daviess, and the sword of Col. Daviess was found held in the 
iron grip of Iris friend Col, White; The} had fallen side by side in that 
fatal charge. While was stark and cold in death, and Daviess, though 
living, was pierced by three balls in the breast, either of which would 
have been fatal. The Hash ot bis pistol had exposed him to the deadly 
aim of three savages. 

"At daylight the Battle of Tippecanoe was won — but at what a fear- 
ful price! Of the nine hundred men, one hundred and eighty-three 
killed and wounded, of whom thirty-Seven were killed in action and 
twenty-live died of their wounds. 

"And now, side In side, these Iwo noble patriot friends sleep their 
last sleep, and with them in the same grave, their common friend, Col. 
Dwen, an aid to Genera] Harrison, who fell early in the action at the side 
of his commander. On the battlefield markers tell where Daviess and 
Owen fell, but by inexcusable ignorance no marker tells where Col. White 
fell, nor is his nam.' on the monument among the officers, but in the list 
of privates. Will Wliite county permit this neglect of the gallant soldier 
whose name she bears .' " 

Inolw Stragglers Settle in White County 

Milton M. Sill, in his unpublished "History of White County," has 
this to say about one aftermath of the battle which specifically relates 
to home matters: "Al'ler the decisive battle of Tippecanoe with the Pot- 
tawattamie Indians, and their defeat and the destruction of their prin- 
cipal town at the mouth of the Tippecanoe river, the remnant of that 
tribe, fleeing north, settled at various points on the river (two within 
the limits of Whiti county) and built villages. One of their villages was 
located on the west bank of the river half a mile above llouticello, and 
the other five miles further north on the east bank near what was after- 
ward known as Holmes' ford. At both the villages a small patch of 
ground was cultivated in corn, all the labor being performed by the 
squaws, the men deeming it. beneath their dignity to perform menial 
labor until they became too old for war or the chase; and even then 
the}' avoided any manual labor by being installed members of what they 
culled the Council. 

"The I'ottawaltamies were divided into two distinct and separate 
bands or tribes, each having a head man or chief, and having little, if 
any, communication. By far the larger section of the tribe inhabited 
southern Michigan ami a part of northern Indiana. They were under 
the guidance of a chief called Pokagon, who lived to a great age, ami was 
distinguished for his firm ami unswerving friendship for the while 
settlers and his unflinching integrity, us well as his scholarly attain 
incuts which were by no means limited." As uv know, the other tnb" 
was controlled by the unfortunate Prophet, 


HISTORY ()!•' \V 1 1 111; < oi X'l'Y 27 

Changes in Governors vnd Capitals 

Goycrnpr Harrison's prolonged absences from t lie seal ol' government 
cm military duties made it necessary to place the civil administration in 
other bands, in 1812 and the tirsl four tuonths of LiS 1 3 these respon 
liilities de vol veil on John Gibson, secretary of I he territory. I u February 
of the latter year President .Madison nominated Thomas Posey, United 
States senator from Louisiana, for governor of Indiana, as General Har- 
rison had been made command* . in-chief of the American forces in the 
West. Governor Posey arrived at Yineenues in .May, 1813, and in 
D ■■• tuber of that year the Legislature met al the new eapital— Corydon, 
Harrison County. The State House at that place had been partially 
erected in 3811, but was not entirely completed until 1815. 

State Constitution Adopted v.t Corvdon 

In December of the latter year, the Territory of Indiana applied to 
Congress for admission into the Union as a state, since more than G0,00(J 
free white inhabitants then resided within its limits — to be exact, 63,Sl)7. 
Congress passed the enabling act in May, 1816, and the delegates elected 
to frame a state constitution held a convention at Corydon, lasting from 
the 10th to'the 29th of June, of that year, instead of deliberating in the 
stuffy little State House they held most of their meetings under a huge 
elm tree on the hanks of Big Indian (.'reek, several hundred , 
west of the capitol. The grand old tree still stands, fifty feet in height 
with a spread of branches nearly 125 feet across. The first session of the 
Legislature of the State of Indiana opened at the Cor; don State House 
on November 4, 1S16. 

Indianapolis Fixed as Permanent Capital 

Corydon remained the stale capital until 1825, although the site of 
Indianapolis had been selected by the commissioners appointed for that 
purpose by the Legislature in 1820. In 1819 Congress had donated to 
the state four sections of land to be selected from any tract of I 
domain then unsold, and in May of the following year the locating com- 
missioners fixed upon a tract on the west fork of White Liver near the 
geographical center of the state and platted the new capital as India- 
napolis. The seat of government of the commonweidth was moved thither 
in 1825, as stated, and the first state bouse completed in 1836. A 
uated in the congressional grant, [ndianapolls was fixed as the perma- 
nent capital of Indiana, and all its counties have sine,- looked to that 
city as the seat, of their governmental authority. The | .;"TTiat 

> n!er from Corydon was effi :|V Whit,' Counly was 




County — How the Lands Passed to the United States— The Folk 
Basic. Cessions — First Migration of the Pottawattamie — The 
Final Removal En Masse — The Tribe Gathers at Plymouth — The 
March Westward — Pokagon's Prophecies — Another Picture' op 
the Migration. 

Historians concede that the Miamis preceded the Pottawattamies in 
the occupation of the soil included within the present limits of Indiana. 
When the French first came into the country they were both being 1 
crowded south by the Sacs, Foxes and other northwestern tribes, and 
at the beginning of the nineteenth century the Pottawattamies had been 
circumscribed to the country around the southern shores of Lake Michi- 
gan and extending over northwestern Indiana to the Wabash River. 
They were inferior in every way to the Miamis and acknowledged their 
dependence upon them by insisting in every cession which they made of 
the lands they were occupying that the Miamis should sanction such 

Pottawattamies, the Home Tribe 

At the beginning of the War of 1812 the Pottawattamies occupied 
Northwestern Indiana from the north bank of the Wabash and had sev- 
eral prosperous villages along the Tippecanoe and its branches. As we 
have seen, after the battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, at least two villages of 
considerable size were founded in White county, the larger being on the 
east bank of the Tippecanoe River, at what afterward became known as 
Holmes' ford in Liberty Township, seven miles north of Monticello. 

Their Chief Village in the County 

When the whites first came into the county in the early ".10s this 
Indian village consisted of nearly 100 wigwams and some 301) ['Ottawa! 
(amies. They had three or four acres adjoining tin? vill h they 

cultivated to corn, pumpkins, squashes and potatoes with which to vary 
their meat diet of possum, venison and other wild game. Th, \ were 
hospitable, dirty beggars, and neither their cooking nor thoir p 
habits appealed to the settlers, who were glad to see the Insl of them, 



1 11 1 > 1 1 i-i i in 1 and romantic as was thi'ir departure Eor their western reserva- 
tion a decade later. 


Without going into the intricacies of the general, or blanket treaties, 
by which Great Britain ami the United States secured their color of 
title From the Indians, ii is sufficient to know that the specific treaties by 
which the primitive owners transferred the White County lands to the 
general Government were made in 1818, 1826 and 1832. 

> The Pour Basic Cessions 

On October 2 and 3, 1818, the Pottawattamies, Weas and Delawares 
— all closely related in tribal affairs — ceded their lands in Indiana west of 
the Tippecanoe River, the last two relinquishing all claims to real estate 
within the limits of the young commonwealth. The Pottawattamie treaty 
of October 2d, which is the most important from a White County stand- 
point, was concluded at St. .Mary's, Ohio, between Gov. Jonathan Jeu- 
uings, Lewis Cass and Benjamin Parke, United States commissioners, and 
the principal chief and warriors of the Pottawattamie nation. The fol- 
lowing trad was thus ceded to the general Government: Beginning at 
the mouth of the Tippecanoe River and running up the same to a point 
twenty-five miles in a direct line Erom the Wabash River, thence on a line 
as nearly parallel to the general course of the Wabash River, thence down 
the Vermillion River to its mouth, and thence up the Wabash River to 
the place of beginning. 

Within the Following eighl years the Miamis, the Pottawattamies 
and the Weas ceded various tracts in central and western Indiana, which 
did not affect any territory within the present "White Comity. 

Both the Pottawattamies and the Miamis ceded all their lands east 
of the Tippecanoe by the treaty of October 23, 1S2(>, the tract being thus 
formally described: Beginning on the Tippecanoe River where the north- 
ern boundary of the tract ceded by the Pottawattamies to the United 
State at the treaty of St. Mary's in the year 1818 intersects the same, 
thence in a direct line to a point on Eel River, half way between the 
mouth of said river and 1'arrish's village, thence up Eel River to Seeks 
village (now in Whitley County) near the head thereof, thence in a direct 
lino to the mouth of a creek emptying into the St. Joseph's of the 
.Miami (Maumee) near .Meiea's village, thence up the St. Joseph's to 
the boundary line between the Ohio and Indiana, thence south to lie 
Miami t Maumee >, thence up the same to the reservation at Port Wayne. 
thence with the lines of the said ivsei- , boundary established 

by the treaty with the .Miamis in |S|s, thence with the .said line to the 
Wabash River, thence with the same river, to the mouth of the Tippc 
canoe River, and thence with the Tippecanoe River to the place of 

By the treaty with the Pottawattamies of October 2(1, I8U2, . 


of land in the northwestern portion of tlio statu was obtained by the 
Government, which overlapped the Kickapoo cession in Illinois. It em- 
braced a portion of White County to the north and northwest. On the 
following day the Pottawattamies of Indiana and Michigan also relin- 
quished all claims to any remaining lands in those states, as well as in 
Illinois, south of Grand River, thus perfecting the Government title to 
a northern strip of what is now Liberty Township. 

13y tlie. four treaties mentioned, the settlers of White County, the 
pioneers of whom commenced to come into the county at t lie time of these 
Pottawattamie cessions, were enabled to read their titles clear to their 
homesteads and mansions on earth. 

On the 11th of February, 1836, the Government concluded the agree- 
ment with the Pottawattamies by which all former treaties were rati- 
fied and a stipulation made that they would migrate, within two years, 
to their reservation beyond the Missouri River, the United States to pa\ 
the expenses of such removal and furnish them one year's subsistence. 

On April 2'A, 1836, there was introdi d in the Twenty-fourth Con- 
gress a memorial from the Indiana Legislature asking Congress to extin- 
guish the title of the Pottawattamie and Miami Indians to all lauds in said 
state This memorial recites that said matter is one of the inter- 
est and importance and asks that their titles be extinguished and tin- 
Indians removed from said state. This was referred to the Committee 
on Indian Affairs anil ordered to be printed. Two years later the Indians 
were removed beyond the Mississippi River. 

The last tribal title to lands iu Indiana was not extinguished until 
1S72, when Congress partitioned the ten-mile reserve originally granted 
in 1838 to the Metosinia hand of Miamis (in Wabash County) to sixty- 
three of the descendants of the original chief. 

First Migration op the Pottawattamies 

Dr. J. Z. Powell, in his "History of Cass County," published by the 
company which issues this work, gives an authentic and condensed ac- 
count of the various steps by which the Pottawattamies and Miamis were 
transferred to their reservations in the far West ; the bands from White 
County were tributary streams to the main bodies which moved down 
the valley of the Wabash toward Illinois and the Mississippi River. 

"The first emigration of the Pottawattamies," says Doctor Powell, 
" took place in July, 1837, under the direction of Abel C. Pepper, United 
States commissioner, and George Profit conducted them to their western 
home. There were about one hundred taken in this baud and Nas-wau-gce 
was their chief. Their village was located on the north bank of Lake 
Muck-sen-cuck-ee, where Culver Military Academy (Mar ball county 
now stands. The old chief, Nas-wau-gee, was a mild-mannered n and 

on the morning of their march to theit wi t< rn I le, as he stood on the 

hanks of the lake and took a last, long view u( bis obi home to which he 
was never to return, lie was visibly affected and tears were seen In Mow 
from his eyes. 


Tue Final Removal En Masse 

"Tlie last arid final removal of the Pottawattamies was made in the 
fall of 1838. They were unwilling to go and Colonel Abel C. Pepper, then 
United States Indian agent stationed at Logansport, made a requisition 
011 Governor David Wallace (father of General Lew Wallace, author of 
Ben ITur) for a company of militia, and General John Tipton, of Logan- 
sport, was directed to enlist a company of one hundred men, which he 
speedily did. The recruits were mostly from Cass county. The names 
Of the men composing t' ' . company of militia are not obtainable, but the 
writer's father, Jacob Powell, and Isaac Newton Clary, pioneers of Beth- 
lehem and Harrison townships, were among the number. 

The Tribe Gathers at Plymouth 

"Sixty wagons were provided to haul the women, children and those 
unable to march. There were eight hundred and fifty-nine Indians en- 
rolled under the Leadership of Chief Menominee. Their principal village 
was situated on Twin lake, about seven miles southwest of Plymouth, in 
Marshall county, where the entire tribe assembled and bid farewell to 
their old homes. The village consisted of one hundred and twenty wig- 
wams and caliins; also a chapel in which many of them were converted 
to Christianity by Father Petit, a missionary in Indiana at that time. 
Many affecting scenes occurred as these red men of the forest for the last 
time viewed their cabin homes and the graves of their loved ones who 
slept in a graveyard near their little log chapel. 

The Mabch Westward 

"On September •!, 1838, (hey began their sad and solemn inarch to 
the West. Their line of march was south on the Michigan road to Logans- 
port, where they encamped jusl south of Honey Creek on the east side of 
Michigan avenue, on the night of the 7th of September, 1838; and that 
night two of the Indians died and were buried just north of Honey 
creek where the Vandalia Railroad crosses the stream and on the east 
side of Michigan avenue; and their bones lie there to this day. 

General Tipton conducted these Indians along the Wabash river 
through Lafayette, and on to Danville, Illinois, where he turned them 
over to Judge William Polke, who took them to their reservation west 
of the Missouri river. Many of the whites had a great sympathy for 
this band of Indians and thought they were wrongfully treated in their 
forcible removal, although, by tin ir chiefs, they bad agreed to move West. 

Pok igon v Prophecies 

"A few of the Pottawattamies ved to northern. Michigan and some 

remnants of this once powerful tribe have lived there to recent limes. 
Among their number was Simon Pol on ivlio died January 27, 180!). 


Just prior to his death lie wrote an article fur an eastern magazine in 
which he said : 'As to the future of our r ee, ins to uii almost certain 

to lose its identity by amalgamation with the dominant race.' When 
Pokagon was asked if he thought that the white man and Indian were 
originally one blood, he said: '1 do not know, hut from the present out- 
Look they will be.' 

••There were hands of Pottawattamie and .Miami Indians in ('ass and 
adjoining counties that moved to the West at different times; sometimes 
they went voluntarily, at other times they were escorted. The last of the 
Miamis were conducted to their reservation west of the IMissisippi by 
Alex. Coquillard in 1847, and again in 1851." 

Another Picture of the Migration 

liy the fall of 1838 there were few Pottawattamies Left in their old 
encampments anywhere along the Tippecanoe. Another eye-witness to 
their greatest march toward the setting sun, that of September in the 
year named, and toward which the Pottawattamies of White County 
contributed a considerable contingent, thus describes the enforced migra- 
tion: ''The regular migration of the Pottawattamies took place under 
Colonel Abel C. Pepper and General Tipton in the summer of LS38. 
I!-. i ling that this strange emigration, which consisted of about one tliou 
sand of all ages and sexes, would pass within eight or teu miles west of 
Lafayette, a few of us procured horses and rode over to see the- retiring 
band as they reluctantly wended their way toward the- setting sun. !i 
was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of the fori t 
slowly retiring from 'he homes of their childhood. As tiny cast mournful 
-lances backward toward the loved seems that were fading in the 
distance, tears fell from the cheeks of the downcasl warriors, old im ti 
trembled, matrons wept, the swarthy maiden's check turned pale, and 
sighs and half suppressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as they 
p ' ised along, some on foot, some on horseback and others in wagons id 
as a funeral procession. I saw several of the aged 

s toward the sky, as if they were imploring aid from the spirits of 

their departed heroes who were looking down upon them tr the clouds, 

or from the Great Spirit who would ultimately redress the wroi 
the red man, whose broken bow had fallen Prom his hand and 
I earl was bleeding within him. 

" Ever ami anon one of the party would start out into the brush and 
break back to his old encampments on the Tipp n anoe, dei larii he would 
rather die than be banished from hi country. Thus scores of di 
tented emigrants returned from differ, it points on their journey ami il 
was several years before they could be iudu 1 to join Mieir conn!] 
wesl of tb. rpi." 



Jm>i sthies Founded hn Nature — Natural and Artificial Drainage — 
In a State op Nature— Effect of Prairie Fires — Useful Trees- 
Soil as Varied as Timber — Early Prejudice Against Prairie 
Lands — Tin: Prairie's Blue-Joint Grass — Nature as Molded by 
Man — Disagreeable Animals and Reptiles Disappear — Most 
Edible Birds Gone — Birds that Are Left — Nature Changed for 
the Better. 

Speaking in terms oi' Nature, White County lies in a gently undulat- 
ing bed of limestone, within the arms of the great prairie of Illinois 
which stntch. ■> awuj toward the West and the Northwest. Geologically, 
it is embraced by the Niagara limestones of the Upper Silurian period, 
overlaid with drift deposits contributed by glacial action, or hy the 
slower accumulations added by the waters of prehistoric as well as his- 
toric times. The result is a superabundance of loam, clay and sand, 
often thoroughly intermixed, and the formation of a soil which has 
brought rich returns to the agriculturist, the horticulturist and the live 
stock man. 

[ndustries F iunded on Nature 

A! least half of the area of the county is easily farmed and the remain- 
der has li.'eii made wonderfully productive hy a thoroughly conceived 
a;,. I well evculcd system of drainage. In this latter feature it is one 
willi much of Northwestern Indiana. Both naturally and artificially, j 
White County is I i i n I \ adapted to the raising of wheat, corn, oats, root 
crops and fruit, ll is u good apple country and becoming better even 

year. Its deposit ■ of li -tone and fire clays are being utilized commer 

dally, in the manufacture f tiling, building and paving blocks, and the 

''. in s ■ localities, is crushed into fertilizing products. 

of rich and beautiful prairie are found in various portions of 

the count.) 1 there is scarcely a square fool of land which cannot 

r be cult i vat. d or turned over with profil to cattle, 1 or i ■ ices and 
poultry. I hie heav\ limber is still found on the Tippecanoe 

Itivi r and li i 1 1 ibularics, and ! 
occur on the sandier tracts i.w away from the larger water courses. Tin 

high ' the river varj the natural beauties of 1 1 intiy. 



these charms of scenery add to the insurance of permanent homes and 
contented residents. 

Natural and Artificial Di .vinage 

The, beautiful and historic Tippecanoe River enters the enmity .six 
miles west of its northeast corner in Liberty Township and Hows in a 
southerly direction about half way through its area, and a short distance 
southeast, of Monticello commences to form the Carroll County division, 
continuing along that boundary for some six miles, after which it winds 
into Carroll County on its southerly course to the Wabash. Although it 
receives such tributaries as 'the Big and Little Monon from the north- 
western sections and Honey and Big creeks from the central portions, 
the actual drainage of the county has long ago been delegated to the 
"ditches" which network the land everywhere. These ditches serve both 
to drain and to fertilize, relying primarily for their usefulness on the 
natural water courses. 

Thus Nature, as always, has given to man in White County all the 
main elements of his prosperity and general development. 

In a State of Nature 1506.S54 

. The surface of White County is comparatively level ; the hills never 
exceed 150 feet in height and the valleys are therefore shallow ami bul 
a few acres in extent. Originally the county was quite heavily timbered, 

ipeeially that portion east of the Tippecanoe River. The timber land 

on the west side was entirely free from undergrowth and often appeared 

i in the shape of groves of oak, hickory, black walnut, ash, sugar maple 

and sycamore, the last named confined to the immediate neighborhood 

of the river and its tributaries. 

Effect ok Prairie Firf.s 

Tin.' absence of undergrowth on the west side of the Tippecanoe is 
thus explained by a pioneer and local writer: "The rank growth of 
!-;rass in Hie prairie land in the western part of the county, often attain- 
ing a height of six feet or more during the summer, would he killed 
!>} the frosts of autumn and when thoroughly dried furnished fuel for 
the devastating prairie fires that yearly swept over the country from 
west to east, burning every living thing in its course but the hardv oak, 
li had gained a footing on the higher land while yel the lower 
prairie was covered with water. The river formed a barrier which these 
lid not pass, and hence, while there was little, if any, under 

'< the west, side, on the east side was found an almost impeiic- 

Iriibli- mass of ha/el, sassafras, soft maple, paw paw, white hickory and 

'•, with young oaks and other young limbic in great variety. How 

prairie fires were started was a matter of conjecture, but it was 

•d that the Indians in pursuit of game ivere the authors, as then 


were few whites west of the Tippecanoe in the times of the heavy prairie 
fires. The Indians always denied their responsibility in that matter. 
It was 'bad chemokeman' (white man) who had done the evil deed; 
'nishnobby' (Indian) 'always good'." :• 

Useful Tbees 

Red cedar grew in limited quantities on the rocky bluffs of the river 
and was much used for fence posts; the black locust also was found 
occasionally and was also used for that purpose. Willows nourished 
to the great annoyance of the pioneer farmers, in the low grounds and 
on the banks of the streams. It was next to impossible to wholly eradi- 
cate them when once they started to grow, as a simple slip placed in 
the ground would soon become a tree with sprouts running in all direc- 
tions. The twigs were extensively used for baskets, but the supply was 
always more than equal to the demand. 

Soil as Varied as Timber 

The soil of White County was of as great variety as the timber ; the 
past tense is used even in dealing with this topic, since, with the removal 
of so much of the timber, the almost universal drainage of the lands 
and the adoption of such modern agricultural methods as crop rotation 
and artificial fertilization^ the soil itself has undergone marked changes 
as compared with its composition in the times of nie pioneer farmers. 
In the prairie tracts it was originally a uniform heavy loam with a 
subsoil of clay, sand or gravel, and underneath all a solid bed of lime- 
stone, varying in thickness from two to three feet in the northern part 
of the county to fifty or sixty feet further south. In the timbered por- 
tions the soil was lighter, alternating between ridges of sand and low, 
level land, little higher than the Water in the ponds and sloughs, but all 
of such fertility that roots, fruits, vegetables, melons, and all kinds of 
grain could often be grown on a farm of 160 acres. More specifically, 
however, the prairie was best adapted to the raising of corn, oats and 
grasses and the timber land to wheat, fruits, melons, vegetables (includ- 
ing potatoes), and all garden products. 

Early Prejudice Acjainst Prairie Lands 

The first settlers located in the timbered districts, as they were gen- 
erally from the East and South and were unfamiliar with the prairies, 
so bleak and forbidding during many months of the year. It was also 
a hide-bound and ancient saying, whose complete eradication required 
the experiences of several generations, that the soil of the timbered lands 
was necessarily the "strongest" and the most fertile. A few of the 
pioneer skeptics located in the groves and points of timber reaching out 
into the prairies, where they could experiment with the comparative 
qualities of prairie and timber soils, but for years the principal settle- 

■-. - . ' - 

1 ■■■' " " ' m—**mm**~* ■ - m 


incut was confined to the heavily timbered lands near the Tippecanoe. 
"Those who ventured out to the prairie's edge," says one who passed 
through the change of opinion among the White County farmers, "'were 
well rewarded at the opening of spring when Nature put forth her 
mantle of green and the prairie became a great flower garden. With 
Ihe stately golden rod, the wild rose, the gay and variegated cow-slip 
,-iimI the more humble, not less beautiful violet and wild strawberry plant, 
besides others of lesser note, in full bloom, it presented i picture worthy 
of tli<' greatest of painters to depict." 

v The Phaieie's Blue-Joint Grass 

The prairie country of White County, before it was settled to any 
extent, has not been better described than in Turpie's "Sketches of My 
Own Times,*" from which we cpiote: "It was during- the campaign of 
1852 that I became really acquainted with the prairie and its people. The 
country was very sparsely settled; there were few roads and the trav- 
eler might ride for hours without meeting or seeing anyone; he directed 
his course by the sun, or, if it was a cloudy day, by the distant groves, 
which looked like islands in this vast expanse of grassy plain. Some 
times he traveled in solitude a tract where he could not see limber at, 
all. like the sailor out of sight of land; the landscape in every direction 
was hounded by a horizon wherein nothing appeared but the green below 
and the blue above. The surface was generally level, broken only by 
slight undulations, and had the monotony of an oceau view with the 
-.inn' pleasing variety — whenever the wind blew, the tall grass rippled, 
fell and rose again in marvelous similitude to the sea. When the sun 
was not to be seen, and the weather was so hazy that the groves were 
not visible, the stranger had better retrace his steps; to be losl on the 
prairie was by no means pleasant experience. 

"The most notable pi. tut in these great natural meadows was the 
blue-joint grass, so called mn the color of its stalks and leaves, which 
was dark given with a blv tint near the ground. It was indigenous 
to the prairie, not found i i the woodlands. The blue-stem ordinarily 
ijrew to the height of a man's shoulder, sometimes so tall as to conceal 
;i man on horseback. Cattle, sheep and horses were all fond of it ; during 
the whole growing season and until late in the fall it was lender, juicy 
and succulent; cut and cured as hay, it was by many though) to be as 

i as the bes) varieties of cultivated grasses. Ii was no) at all like 

Ihe swamp or marsh grass, being found on rich and romp I. dry 

Ii ml. The acreage of this wild meadow growth was coexti nsive w uh Ihe 

"Although the range was pastured In numerous and large Ii t'ds, 

luanj miles of blue-stem 1 lial ; iriin d ih-vi v Id have been 

; I'd upon save by the deer. When the deer. Irniptcd by curiosity 

than by hunger, made a vi ii Lo Ileitis and dealings i the 

r, u i Ii followed. As long a Hie pnrsuil nas fin ined lo tin 

In inighl hi overtaken or In on :U\ lo baj ; but when 


.1 ihr open f; he jumpi d, lie Leaj 

or thii ; bou il ; the hounds entangled in the long thiol 

■ :li -■.lit and sight, and the game escaped. The prairie was 

i game, butti gre: all, but it was hard to draw 


"The blue-stem was a free-born native of the soil. It would endure 

id thrived lustily after its cremation, but it could not bear 

captivity. Ii scorned enclosure, n uted b ing too often trodden under 

fool, ;>n<\ brooked not cultivation in any form. Thus when fields ami 

fcnei s , .in,. t) vogu il Don disappeared and ha: I i eome almost 


Nature is Molded by Man 

As stated by i Ii observer and thinker of this section ou the 

Wabasli Valley: The changed conditions have driven out many plants 

that v.. re found here by the pioneer. The forests have been cut down 

ami lanj . itat is in the shade cannot survive and have 

become extinct. The drainage of wet places has driven out many other 

varieties which depended upon constant dampness for their existence. 

d-titi i il fence ftirni une for many species to which the 

modern wire feu.e gives no protection. The changes due' to advancing 

lion have for new plants, broughl in by rail- 

ucies. The writer well remembered fiftj five years 

medicinal plants such as spignet, yellow root, ginseng. 

nifty-apple ! root; wild grapes, plums, paw-paw, cherries and 

and red haws, and walnuts, butternuts, hickory nuts, hazel nuts 

licsc have become extinct and i ' ! ers a rarity. 

A tMALS and Reptiles Disappear 

" I mini ;ii the earlj times, only an occasional skunk 

be found in the woodlands along the river or 
ii i . appear squirrels, rabl 

■.,'.. tier. pan- 

tl lynx have disi rom Mies,' juris 

■ r. 

' els. black, water and lazi I 
cr, garter snake, hard and soft shelled turtle. 
bull ; ahnnaudei ' were numerous in all 

"'r> in the "good old times id* yore.'' but llii clearing 
the pen, Is and careful cultivation of I ! 

u the hoarse k of the 1 

i>f Hi, county wild turkeys, - i 

cs anil 
llilllldant, all of V.liieh have vil hl.llly (lis 

: : I ■>. I i,l,l. 


Most Edible Birds Gone 

"The edible birds and animals were quite a sunn,: of food Cor the 
ratl.v settlers; in fact, these were the only meats they had until the laud 
could be cleared and corn raised to fatten hogs and cattle. Quite a 
number of .small birds, with crows, hawks and buzzards, are still uumer 
mis, but no edible birds arc lefl except a few quail. The boo of the 
prairie hen and the rumble of the pheasant, the gobble of the wild 
turkey, the cry of the eagle, the thunder of the thunder-pumper, Ihe 
mournful sound of the whip-poor-will and the the hooting of the owl are 
seldom now' heard. 

"Removing the timber and breaking the ground and draining the 
swamps began to show their effects upon the springs ami watCT courses. 
Many became dry during the warm season. All life, he it salamander, 
fishes, mollusks, insects or plants that found therein a home, died. The 
birds that lived among the reeds and Hags, mingling their voices with 
the frogs, disappeared, and the land reclaimed tells, in its luxuriant, 
growth of corn, no story to the casual passerby of the inhabitants which 
i !\ occupied it. 

Birds that Are Left 

"The following list of birds may still be found, but not in such 
numbers as formerly: Robin, meadow-lark, blue-jay, blackbird, blue- 
bird, woodpecker, dove, peewee, chipbird, catbird, thrush, kingl 
hawk, crow, owl, swallow and English sparrow. The hist named, i 
diced some years ago is very liar and prolific and is becoming a, 
nuisance rather than otherwise. It lias great endurance, its lighting 
ies ami audacity are unheard of. and if is driving out such birds 
as the martin, bluebird, peewee and barn swallow, with which it i 
so intimately In contact." 

Nature Changed for the Bettek 

Altogether, however, the evolution of the local fauna ami (lora, forced 
hy the agencies of modern advancement and clearly traced in the life 
span of old men and women, is for the !- ttermenl of humankind. I'ros 
porous villages have replaced the forest-haunts of wild beasts; pit 
ami teeming fields appear instead of swamps and bogs alive with no 
and dangerous reptiles, and the wild tangle of plants and hitter fruits 
has disappeared before the cultivated grasses and fruil Ihe pastures 
I with hardy livestock, and the orchards of lie contented home- 
loaded h iih apples, peach ;, and ot her prod f cat 


TllUS WC believe we have laid tllC 1 I paini. d ill lie ■ 

rounds necessarj to continue Ihe narrative showing llu 

nt of While County in Ihe details which the reader will naturally 




I'lan op Government Surveys— Basis of Common School Fund — 
White County Lands Classified — Mexican Land Warrants Make 
Trouble— Canal ind Swamp Lands — Last of the State Lands — 
Regulations por Township Surveys — Natural Features to be 
Noted— Subdivisions op the Towns hips — Early Surveys Within 
the Present Count\ -Surveying Before Land Drainage — Swamp 
Lands Drained— Early Water Travel — Pioneer Roads— State 
and National Highways — Country Roads Surrendered to the 
Townships— Modern Road Building — Canal and Railroad Com- 
petition — Pioneer Railways — First Winn: County Railroad- — 
'I'm: Benefits It Brought — Headed for Monticello — Loga: sport, 
Peoria and Burlington Gets There — White County's Railroad 
War— Road Opens with Bloodshed — Grand Prairie — Railway 
Stations on tiii New Line — The Air-Line Division ok the Monon 
— Opening op the Fndianapolis, Delphi & Chicago Railroad- The 
Th a v\ men Bind the < Iounty. 

No subject can be named of more practical moment in connection 

with the ha ic develop lit of n country or county than that 

relates to the security and aceo sibility of its land holdings. The subject 
touches both the stable founding of homes and communication with 
!il.- markets mid communities, with attendant prosperity, social 
gratification ami the e pan ion of individuality. More precisely, the 
steps by which this development in a raw country arc- successively taken 
include reliable land survey s, the building of land roads and the imp 
luenl ni' waterways as tin am required by individuals and settlements. 
the regulation of lilies by which those who desire to use the land shall 
have priority over spi - i Intern, mid the devising and operation of mens 
hits of such public utility as extended drainage or water distribution. 
of benefit I" large tracts of country which could not be brought into 
i I. t to indii idual iuit iat ive. 

i ,.■...■ i n real 

e. terri Invest (i Ohio River, Congress was 

ih. besl methods of di' lands of the national domain. On May 

18, 1784, an act was tin nlm-ed to divid. them iul , eaeli 


leu miles square; in April of the following year, another measure was 
brought before the Congress proposing thai iwnship should be 

seven miles square, and on the 20th of the following mouth that acl 
was amended, making the congressional township six miles square, as 
at present. 

After the appointment of surveyors and geographers the south lino 
of the State of Pennsylvania extended west was fixed as the base line. 
The north and south meridian was also established. The surveyors were 
ordered to note "the variations of the magnetic needle at the time the 
lines were run,"' and when seven ranges, or forty-two miles, had been 
surveyed, one-seventh of the .same was to be sel nparl "for the use of 
the late Continental army." 

Basis op Common School Fund 

Then the section numbered 16 in each congressional district was se1 
apart for the use of the public schools, the proceeds derived from the sale 
of the lands therein forming the basis ever thereafter of the American 
common school fund. 

It may be said with pride that the lauds in White County have never 
been involved in extensive litigation, owing to the fact thai all ques 
tiouable claims by the Indians or others were settled long before the 
advent of the white man, and there is not a single Indian reservation in 
the county. Jn this, "White County has been more fortunate Hem her 
.sisters to the south and east. 

White County Lands Classified 

Of course, the title to all our lands is derived from the United states. 
but at various times the Federal Government has granted to the state 
over 3,500,000 acres, of which nearly 1,500,000 acres was applied to the 
completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal, and some 1,250.000 acres 
comprised the swamp lands. The canal and swamp lands, together with 
those conveyed by the Government direct to the purchaser and known 
as government land, include nearly all the area of White Count; 
square miles. 

Mexican Land Warrants Mark Troi i k 

After the war with Mexico n land warrant was i: mod to each Amer- 
ican w ho served and was honorably discharged, entitling him to a quarter 
section of land auywhere in tin United Stales where ll 
incut land subject to entry. Thousands of these warrants 
upon the market, most of the soldiers i to Hie land. 

warrants passed into the hand 
at prices ranging I to $100 each, and many valuable ti 

land in While Count} were thus held a» lied to 

ill j settle. 



Tlie t ime may be said even more forcibly of the canal and the swamp 
1. mils, the former of which were thrown on the market at a period pre- 
vious td the iIikkI of Mexican land warrants and the swamp lauds at 
a later date. They were all largely purchased by non-resident specu- 
lators, who advanced the Government price of $1.25 per acre to double 
and even quadruple t hose figures. 

In many ol In i waj s the history of the Wabash and Erie Canal reflects 
no credit on its promoters. Winn partly finished it was turned over 

to the creditors for c pleti n, who also failed to finish it, but made 

many attempts to get the Legislature to make an appropriation for 
the purpose. Finally, in 1873 an amendmenl to the state constitution 
was adopted forever prohibiting the payment of any part ol' the claims. 

As to the swamp lands, they should have been sold and the proceeds 
placed tn the credit of the school fund, but the deadly politician came 
into action and most of this gift. — to use the mildest expression — was 
dissipated. The loss of the state in these transactions has been vari- 
esthnated at from $1,000,000 to +2,000,000, of which White County 
lost her full share. 

Last of the State Lands 

The lasl lands l" he entered, or purchased from the state, was about 

400 aens ki >wn as University lands, and which were sold al I L890 

under an act of the Legislature "f 1889. Since then neither the state 
j i or the Federal Government has held any title to lands in White County. 

Although thecal \;< set Hi rs of White County had their share of I rouble 
over thi ir land tenures, they were much more fortunate than the coun- 
ties which were along the direct route of the canal, wen more pi pulous 
and ambitious, and were an intimate par! of the "boom" of the '30s, 
d bj the building of the state roads and the Wabash and Krie 
Canal from the Great Lakes to the Ohio River. In the on Lion of 
the largest of the enterprises connected with Indiana's ambition sj stem 
of internal improvement, While County was somewhat awaj from the 
main routes, which generally included the valley of the Wabash, but, 
as has been intimated, ideut had its ad^ 

thai its territory escaped in some measure the invasion and manipulation 
-." w ho so worked to the disadvantage of the 
founders and bu ildi rs of homes. 

Reoui on T mr ' rvi ys 

\i\ tl i'T, - ini nl i ■' ', 1785, il ■ 

■ appoint in. coirraji 

"The lir.-l line running north and south iid, shall ln-»iii on the 

river Ohio, nl n point thai shall In- found to be due north 
i in us o I a line i> li ii-li I 


of the state of Pennsylvania ; and I Liiiu running east and 

'. ill ! . -in a1 the same point, and shall extend tlirou I I terri- 

tory; provided that nothing herein shall bo construed as fixiii] 

western boundary of the state of Pi msylvania. Tin 

aate the townships or fractional townships by number 
sivcly, from south to north — always beginning uacb range with No. 1; 
and the ranges shall be distinguished by their progressive numbers to 
the westward, the first range extending from the Ohio to l^akc Erie 
being marked No. 1. The geographer shall personally attend to the 
running of the first east and west line and shall take the latitu 
v t In- extremes of the first north and south line and of the mouths of 
the principal rivers. 

An Old-Time 11 vil Coach 
Natural Features to be Noted 

"The lines shall be measured with a chain; shall be plain! 
by chaps pu the ti ixaetly described on a pi wliei on hall be 

noted by the surveyor al their pi 
salt licks and mill seats thai shall come to Ins km 11 

courses, mountains and other remarkable and pun icul things over 

or near which such lines shall pass, and also the ipialit} of the lands. 

I in. Tow N III 

"The plats of the townships, respectively, mall be marked by sub- 
divisions into lots of our mile square, or six hundred and foi 

line directioi ml 1 

l Idi'ty-Mx— always beginning the stieci I 
number n with wliii ding one concluded. 

mentioned, mil} u i' 1 actional pari i 
hip shall he 



same number as if tin; township had buen entire. And the surveyors 
in running the external lines of the townslup .shall, at the interval of 
every mile, mark corners For the lots which are adjacent, always d 
nating the same in a different manner from of the township." 

Early Surveys Within the Present County 


Chapter 80, Acts of Indiana Legislature 1831, approved February 
10, 1831 : page 129, section 6, enacts as follows: '"That Samuel Basye 
of Tippecanoe county, he appointed a commissioner to locate a road 
from Lafayette in Tippecanoe county to the month of Trail creek on 
Lake Michigan." 

By the same act commissioners were appointed on other roads and 
all were ordered to iuee1 on the first -Monday of May, 1831, "or .some 
subsequent day," take an oath, proceed with a .surveyor to locate and 
mark out said roads in the nearest and best directions, ''having due 
regard to the quality and situation of the ground; a plat of which loca- 
tion they shall file in the clerk's office of each county through which the 
same shall pass, so far as it shall run through said county." Their pay 
was fixed at $] per day for each day the} - were engaged at said work. 
This was prior to the organization of "White County and the plat of the 
road through its boundary was filed in the clerk's office of Carroll County, 
of which county at that time we formed a part. 

Trail ('reel, empties into Lake Michigan at Michigan City, and from 
this fact the road, a part of which is Main Street in Monticello, has been 
known as the Lafayette and Michigan City .State Koad. The direct 
route betwei n these points was almost wholly a series of swamps, which 

rendered it in ssary to depart from the shortest line. Over a large 

part of this road an old-fashioned stage line operated a daily service 
between Lafayette and .Monticello for many years. 

Section 7 of the above named act of 1831 directed Thomas Gillam, 
present commissioner on the state road leading from Praukford (as 
Frankfort was then known) in Clinton county to Delphi in Carrol] 
enmity to make such changes in its location as he might thin! 
"and aNo to extend the locution of such road in or near the same direc- 
tion to where the same shall intersect the road leading from Lafayette 
to the month of Trail creek <>n Lake Michigan." 

Thus we see that ncarlj four yeai's prior to the organization of 
White County, we were united by these roads with Frankfort, Delphi, 
Lafayette and l.aki- Michigan, but we must, not forget that these roads 

•c little more than trails. 

By an act of the Indiana Legislature, approved January 18, 1X3:5, 
(see \cts 1833, page 16-1), John Armstrong, of Carroll County, was 
appointed to view, marl; and h if •: road, "conimeticiiif: al I lie 

public square in the town of Lafayette in I ty of Tippecanoe, run- 

ning from thence nortl ing the Wabash river al 

calhd Davis' ferry, thence Iv near to ' ford, .Mo. a-' creek, 

thence the nearest and hesl way lo section sixteen in townsbi] 


twenty-six, north of range three west, where tin >auie will inter eel a 
state road leading From Delphi in Carroll eountj to Lake Michigan.' 
Tins section 16 in less than two miles .south of Monliccllo, and from this 
it will he seen that at least three roads were opened through our county 
prior to its organization in 1834. 

[Jut the Northwest Territory was quite a trael of land, and even 
when White County was organized in 1834 many of its congressional 
townships had not been divided into sections, and thus.' which had been 
were so lately done that the section and quarter-section corners were 
still plainly marked with stakes, witness trees or mounds of earth; th- 
irties couid he easily traced without the aid of compass or chain. Then 
was therefore little work- for a surveyor in White County For a number 
of years after its creation and one was not elected by the settlers until 

Before then, about the only time that, the services of a surveyor 
were desired was when some enterprising and hopeful settler concluded 
that he had located at the point of a future town or city. Several men 
located in the early '30s, who brought their compasses, chains and rods 
with them, and were equal to the platting of any town on earth: among 
the best known surveyors of those times were Malachai Gray, -I" luui 
Lindsay, Asa Allen, John Kious and John D. Compton. 

But after a few years the Government stakes and trees which marked 
the original surveys were burned by prairie tires, or leveled by hunters 
and settlers, without knowledge of their significance, and the mounds oF 
earth thrown up in places where timber was scarce disappeared before 
the plough of the husbandman and the hoofs of the cattle. Then the 
settlers saw the necessity of having an authorized official to restore the 
obliterated lines and corner markings, as well as complete the subdivi 
sions required by the incoming land buyers. Asa Allen was then Fore 
elected the first county surveyor and served for a (period of four 
during which much of this pioneer work was accomplished. 

Surveying Before Land Drainagk 

For several years the surveyor's office was far from desirable, 
"ii account of its meager fees and the trials and expense incident to held 
work. During fully three mouths of the year much of the land was 
partially covered with water and often the lines had '" he run through 
anas submerged from two to four Eeel and from 80 to IGO rods in width. 

Iirvcyor must either wade through the sloughs in the wake of his 
chninincn, or await the coining of winter and fix his "corners" on the 

The latter method was preferable to wading, considered from Ma 

probability of correct measurements, bui the frequent ui i -were 

by m> means pleasant to meet; so that there were decided di 

itiotl of survey ing operations at all sea: ms ol the year. Tin 

lillg of the lands lightened and facilitated lie work of Hie sill 

and was an encouragement to tin land buyer in di\ ■ ways, aboul 

ii« be described. 


Sw imp Lands Drained 

It was many years, however, before these benefits, either to the sur- 
veyor or the Earmcr, were to be realized in White County; for at least 
a quarter of a century its residents were to bo the prey of the unscru- 
pulous politician and speculator, who filled their pockets with thousands 
of dollars which legitimately belonged to the tillers and toilers of the soil. 

\w the congressional act of September 28, 1850, the United States 
granted to the State of Indiana all the overflowed laud remaining unsold 
therein-; it is estimated that the swamp lands iu "White County covered 
an area of at least 100,000 aeres, or nearly a third of its total territory. 
It is fortunate for the authoritative discussion of the subject in hand 
that we have an account written by the late Milton M. Sill, county 
surveyor in L859-61, and afterward editor and proprietor of the Mon- 
tieello Herald, draft commissioner, sheriff and provost marshal during 
the Civil war, and later a respected practitioner at the bar. 

Mr. Sill's words, clearly and earnestly written as one having author- 
ity, are as follows: "Much benefit was expected to inure to the settlers 
in White county by this action of Congress and doubtless their expecta- 
tions would have been fully realized had the act been carried out in good 
faith; but it was hot— it was a gigantic steal from start to finish. Com- 
missioners wen' appointed 1>.\ the legislature to select and plat the swamp 
lands, who, in express violation of the act of Congress granting the land, 
selected and designated large tracts of the very best of our high rolling 
prairie as swamp laud ; and it was so taken and accepted, and sold 
as swamp land at one dollar and twenty-live cents, the law prohibiting 
a less price. 

"Nearly all the land passed into the hands of non-resident specu- 
lators, who held it I'm- an advance from the purchase price, expecting 

the money they had paid in would be applied to the drainage of the 
land. In this they were sorely disappointed; not one-tenth of the money 
paid into the treasury by tin m was applied to the drainage of the laud. 
It is true thai under the acl of the Legislature of May 20, 1852, some 
ditching was done in this county, but no practical benefit was derived 
therefrom excepi to the men engaged in the work, who were paid si lighl 
advance above ordinary wag The ditches in many places wen- never 
completed, and in otlu rs wi ro found to be wholly insufficient in capacity. 

In short, the mone\ v.,; Upiandd'cd and went into the poekets ol men 

who handled it for their own personal benefit; the water was still on 
the land and IllUSl he got o(T befoi'q the farmers could lmpr lo gi I a fail- 
return for their labor. 

'•It is truly said "Where there's a will there's a wa\ :' ami it was 
found ,ii last, though twenty ycai ! before the waj was found. 

On the Huh of March, IS73, an aH of the State Lcgi lature wi i approved 
authorising the formation of draining companies, ami giving them p 
to asses-: benefits against all lands benefited by the work-. Tlii 
though somewhat complicated, wi < uni ig, and as improved by 


subsequent acts was the means of finally clearing the county of its seas 
oL' water and rendering a vast area of land productive and fruitful. 

"Better still is the showing as to health. The last report of the 
State Board of Health places White county at. the top of the list, with 
the smallest mortality iu proportion to its population of any county in 
the state. The visitor who returns now after an absence of twenty years 
may well express his astonishment at the marvelous change. Where 
once he saw only stagnant pools and seas of water, now gently wave 
vast fields of golden grain. Neatly painted farm houses and barns have 
replaced the log cabin and stable of the early settler. Where once he 
could travel for miles through the open prairie without road or path 
and with no fence to bar his progress, he must now follow roads on 
established lines through lanes of hedge or wire on either side, and 
cattle, horses, sheep and other stock grazing in the fields to right and 
left. Would he know the price of land which could have been purchased 
twenty years before for five, ten, fifteen or twenty dollars per acre, he 
will be informed that now it is worth from thirty to two hundred and fifty 
dollars per acre, if for sale at all. Much of this rapid advance in tin; 
price of real estate is due to this splendid system of drainage ; hut nature 
should be given a share of the credit also. The Tippecanoe river, flow- 
ing from north to south through the county its entire length, with an 
average fall of five feet to the mile and an average depth below t he 
surface level of sixty feet, with branches on either side reaching to and 
beyond the county's eastern and western limits, affords opportunity for 
successful drainage at comparatively small cost." 

Within ten years after the passage of the decisive legislative act of 
1873 the different ditch companies probably spent $o00,0()0 in the county, 
of which about two-thirds was for open ditches and the remainder for 
tiling and closed drainage. Most of this work, which laid tin- hasis 
of the fine system of drainage which now prevails, was accomplished in 
the later part of that period. The improvements iu this regard have 
been so continuous and thorough that it would take far more space than 
the editor has at his command to enter into details as to tin' Location 
and courses of even the open ditches; but any good map of the county 
will indicate them as a fine network spread over tho entire comity, per- 
haps the closest woven in the townships of Honey Creek, Monon, Cass, 
West Point and Prairie. 

Early Water Travel 

Although the Tippecanoe River was Ei ly used by the early sctth ra 

of Whit.- County, it could not become such a well traveled water way 
as the broader, deeper and geographically important Wabash, The 
traders, voyageurs and hunters naturally made less frequent ti n of its 
waters than those of the parent stream, and the hoats which followed 
its ionise were smaller and more fragile than those which plied the 
Wabash. Put before the lands were drained to any considerable extcnl 
the Tippecanoe ami it-; tributary streams were almost nceessities of exist- 

' )/' 


ence to the farmer, hunter and woodsman, who must seek such markets 
as Logansport and Lafayette for the sale of their produce and the replen- 
ishing of their households and individual establishments. Flat boats 
would often be built in the summer and loaded with corn, wheat and 
other pi'oduets, and then the proprietors would wait for a heavy rain 
or a freshet to carry them out into the Tippecanoe and thence to the 

As the settlers ventured away from the valley of the Wabash into 
both the eastern and western tributaries, they cut pathways through 
the woods, winding in and out and following the courses which had the 
fewest hogs and other drawbacks, such as inequalities of surface and 
tenacious clay. 


With the increase of population and the opening of new farms on 
the upland prairies and other fairly dry lands, it became necessary to 
straighten the roads before laid out along the lines, or rather curves 
and loops, of least resistance, and to place them on section and quarter 
section lines. This could not be accomplished for any great distance 
without encountering a slough too wide to bridge and too miry to ford. 
In such cases the logs, rails, brush and sand of the neighborhood were 
called into requisition in the construction of the old-time corduroy road; 
the sand, loam or muck covering, as the case might be, was about a 
foot thick, but soon sifted between the crevices, and it called for good 
nerves and solid flesh to withstand much travel over these crude high- 
ways. But they shortened the distance between points, which was an 
advantage over the old windings, and although they were frequently of 
insufficient width to allow the passage of teams and caused delay when 
travelers in opposite directions met on a long road, and one or the other 
had to give way and retrace his course — still, even that experience was 
better than to become lost, mired or completely exhausted by travel 
over the old excuses for roads. 

State and National Highways 

White County did not receive the direct benefit from the building 
of any of the general highways surveyed and put through the state by 
the Legislature and the general Government, such as the Michigan, the 
Cumberland and the National roads. On January 21, 1828, Hie State 
Legislature passed an act directing the survey of the Michigan Road. 
This was done and a lane put through the fores) 100 feet wide. In 
1832 the work had reached Logansport from the "bio River, and within 
the following two years, Or about the time White County was created, 
it bad been extender! northward to Rochester and lin all\ to Lake Midi 
igan. The Michigan, although a crude, ungraded road, w it h many 
slumps left standing in its course and furnishing illustrations of somt; 
of the most trying examples of corduroys in Hie S'oi'thwest, was, never 
'helcss, n passageway through the State of Indiana, connecting with the 


' Cumberland and its extension, the National, at Indianapolis. Emigrants 
from the East came down the Ohio River, then took the Michigan Road 
to all points in Indiana and the Northwest. Others, traveling in wagons, 
drawn by oxm as a rule, came over the National Road to Indianapolis, 
and thence north over the Michigan Road to Logansport and other 
northern points. The early roads built in White County, before the 
drainage of its lands commenced iu earnest and it became possible to 
construct the modern turnpikes, were mostly designed to be feeders 
to the Michigan Road which passed along the valley of the Wabash. 

County Roads Surrendered to the Townships 

Up to 1852, when the new constitution was adopted, the roads were 
looked after almost entirely by the county. At that time the control 
of the roads was practically surrendered to the townships, together with 
the care of the poor and the schools. In 1859 the Legislature abolished 
the board of three township trustees and gave the one trustee much more 

Modern Road Building 

Rut the greatest impetus to road building in county and state was 
the enactment of the Free Turnpike Law of 1877, passed four years 
after the measure went into effect creating the drainage system under 
which a third of the county has been redeemed from the swamps and 
finely developed as a country of good roads. White County was not 
slow to take advantage of the law. Though much opposition was encoun- 
tered at first from the large land owners along the lines of road first 
subject to improvement, after a few miles had been completed the assess- 
ments were, as a rule, paid without undue solicitation. The result of 
this road building up to date is that the county has within its Hunts 
175 miles of gravel and 170 miles of stone and macadam road. 

Canal and Railroad Competition 

We now come to the period of the Wabash and Erie Canal and the 
competition of the first railroads in the state. The decade previous to 
1856 witnessed the keenest rivalry, that year marking the decline of the 
canal trade. Briefly, the northern sections of the canal were completed 
to Logansport in 1810, ami farmers as far north as Plymouth and much 
farther west than Monticello, brought, their produce to Logansport to 
be shipped east over the canal. It was completed to Lafayette the fol- 
lowing year and to Evansville, on the Ohio River, several years there- 
after. Both Logansport and Lafayette received their full share of the 
canal boom during the following period of fifteen years, while Monti- 
cello and White County were benefited, albeit not stimulated, in that 
they were placed in more intimate connection than ever before with the 
markets to which they were tributary, 


Pioneer Railways 

The Madison & Indianapolis Railroad, the first railway in the state, 
was completed from the Ohio River to the capital in the fall, of 1847, hut 
the first definite approach of a railroad toward White County was to be 
from Cincinnati by way of Logansport. In 1848 the citizens of Cass 
County began the agitation of a line to their town from the Ohio metrop- 
olis, and the result was the incorporation of the Lake Michigan, Logans- 
port & Ohio River Railroad Company, designed to build a line (from 
Cincinnati to Chicago via Logansport. A few years later the enter- 
prise was revived in the New Castle & Richmond Railroad, now the 
Richmond and Logansport Division of the Panhandle or Pennsylvania 

First "White County Railroad 

About this time the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railroad was 
projected from New Albany, on the Ohio, to Michigan City at the foot 
of Lake Michigan, and it was completed through the state in 1853-54. 
Its construction through the very center of White County was immedi- 
ately felt in the stimulus both of town creation and rural expansion. 
Monon, under the name of New Bradford, Chalmers, as Mudge's Sta- 
tion, Brookston and Reynolds, as now known, were all products of that 
period and originally mere stations of the Louisville, New Albany & 
Chicago Railroad. They were soon centers of trade and supplies for 
a large portion of the settlers. 

The Benefits It Brought 

The road "was of great benefit to the farmers of White county, 
passing, as it did, through the county near the center for a distance of 
twenty-four miles, and affording a market for their grain and stock at 
home which they had not before enjoyed. They were not the only 
beneficiaries, however; the merchants, shippers of stock and travelers 
Were all benefited. The merchant, instead of mounting his horse and 
riding to Cincinnati, a distance of two hundred miles, or going by stage 
'"•nil with the money with which to purchase his goods in a leather 
bell strapped around his waist, or carried in his saddle bag or valise, 
could get aboard the train and in a tenth part of the time, and with less 
than one-half of the expense required by the old way, 'Jet to his des- 
tination, purchase his goods and return home, without hi-; absence being 
discovered by his friends and neighbors. 

"Another benefit was the facility of communication by letters between 
distant points. It was possible to transmit affairs of business, or send 
missives of friendship, to distant points and receive answers in ret urn 
in 11 few hours, where before it had required days and even weeks to 
accomplish that feat. It was also possible to get the news of daily 
• vents transpiring in the outside world, which had only been learned 



before by tile perusal of the weekly newspaper, a week or two after the 

Headed for Monticello 

Monticello was still without a railroad; but hers was coming and 
would arrive ill live or six years from the Logansport way, through the 
forerunner of the east and west line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. It 
is said that the Lake Michigan, Logansport & Ohio River Railroad Coin- 
pan}- expected to build its line west and south along the Wabash and 
did much grading, but never completed the road, and the Logansport 
& Crawfordsville Railroad later acquired its rights. The section from 
Logansport to Kokoiuo was first constructed because of the canal con- 
veniences for the shipping of material. In 1855 the first engine was 
received at Logansport through the canal, and the trial trip over the 
railroad was made on July 4th of that year, the success of the event 
being celebrated by a picnic and speeches near Taber's prairie, two 
miles cast of that town. 

Logansport, Peoria & Burlington Gets There 

But although the iron horse was thus headed for Monticello, he did 
not actually snort into its limits until five years later. The Logansport, 
Peoria & Burlington Railroad was completed in December, 185!), as a 
feeder of the Toledo, Wabash & "Western line, running from Toledo to 
St. Louis. The first cars over the Wabash line run into Logansport 
in March, 1S5G, and what is now the State Line Division of the Pan- 
handle or Pennsylvania System, extending from Logansport to Peoria, 
was begun soon afterward. 

White County's Railroad War 

For some time there had been trouble between the laborers and con- 
tractors in Cass County and the quarrel spread into White County to 
such an extent that it has gone into local history as the Railroad War. 
The disputes culminated in direct conflict between the railroad man- 
agement, contractors and the sheriff on one side, and the railroad hands 
on the other, and a riot occurred when the celebrating excursionists 
reached a point on their trip toward Peoria, a few miles west of Monti- 
cello. Two of the rioters were wounded — one rather badly — and a 
number badly battered on both sides with clubs and axes. 

Road Opens with Bloodshed 

The account of the exciting celebration of tin; opening of White 
County's first railroad, in so far as the events relate to home territory, 
is thus told by the Logansport Journal of December 31, 185!): "The 
long looked-for connection with the Peoria and Oquaka road was made 
on Monday last, the 2Gth. The first passenger ear, with a party of excur- 



sionists, started from Bridge street, on Monday morning, made the trip 
through to Peoria, and returned on Wednesday evening, the 28th. As 
the opening of this road (the Logansport, Peoria and Burlington) is 
justly regarded as of much importance to our people, we are induced 
to give a space to a notice of the occasion commensurate with the great 
interest in the enterprise felt here and elsewhere. 

"The party, composed of some twenty citizens, two or three con- 
tractors, Mr*. Oilman of New York, one of the directors, and Mr. Crugar, 
the superintendent of the Oquaka road, after a very short notice, assem- 
bled near the Wabash bridge at 11 o'clock. The train started at 11 :30. 

v"The run to Monticello, twenty-one miles, was made in about an 
hour. The track, though just put down, was in very good condition. 
At Monticello too short a stay was made to enable several to join the 
company, who intended to -have done so. 

"At Reynolds Station we found a large car used for boarding-house 
purposes, fifty-five feet long and eighteen wide, two stories, on the track. 
The rails had been removed from the road, both before and behind the 
car, and it seemed immovable. This arrangement was in pursuance of 
a plan, ostensibly, to obtain pay for the hands who had been laying 
the track, but really was intended to obstruct the road so that the cars 
could not pass over before the first of January. Upon this condition, 
subscription notes for over $120,000 became payable, and it is rather 
probable that the demonstration was instigated by some- such interest 
as this. 

"The company had paid off the track-laying contractors on Satur- 
day' and owed nothing on that score. The contractors were paying off 
their men at Logansport at that moment and designed paying those at 
the Station on the next day (which was actually done). The con- 
tractors were at the Station and gave assurances as to the true state 
of the case, but without effect. 

"Strychnine whiskey and bad counsel possessed too much influence. 
The insurgents had no complaint whatever against the company; and 
the obstruction was a high-handed outrage against right and the law. 
Extensive preparation had evidently been made for a fight, for some 
forty men were garrisoned in the car, each bearing a freshly made club. 
The effective force upon the train was small, so, after a parley of two 
hours and a counsel of war, the train was run back to Monticello. Here 
warrants were obtained for the arrest of three of the more active 

"On the return of the train with the sheriff, nearly half of the car 
force left, and another parley took place with the rioters, but it was 
bootless except to one of the force, who was kicked from the platform. 
Propositions to telegraph to Governors Wise and Willard and President 
Buchanan were overruled. After an hour spent in unavailing quarrel- 
ing, it was concluded to take the car by storm, which was handsomely 
ilon.> by a detachment of the excursionists headed by the sheriff (time, 
six minutes). For a few minutes a bloody Bcuffle took place for pos- 
session of the iron rails which were in the cur. Clubs, axes, spikes, iron 



chairs and pistols were uncomfortably thick and active. One of the 
ear party rushed upon ohe of the assailants with au axe and received 
a pistol ball in his breast. This ended the conflict, for the light instantly 
turned into a rout, and the front door was filled by the retreating party, 
who took no care upon which end they landed so they got upon the 
ground somewhere. 

"The rails were replaced in a few minutes and in a short time the 
train, with the captured fort, was on its way again to Monticello, where 
a switch received the obnoxious edifice. The train then returned to 
Reynolds, took up the excursionists and at 7 o'clock recommenced the 
trip to Peoria. 9 

Grand Prairie 

"The scenery through which the road passes was new to most of 
the excursionists. The Grand Prairie was entered just beyond Reynolds 
Station, but nothing could be seen until daylight. At that time the eye 
fell upon a country unbroken by timber and only occasionally diversi- 
fied by houses. In many places the eye seeks in vain for single object 
' other than the sky and earth, not a tree, house, fence or animal appear- 
ing for miles. The soil of the prairie appears of an excellent quality, 
and the cultivated places give abundant proof of fertility, in the great 
heaps of corn stacked up for sale or use." 

Railway Stations on the New Line 

Old Burnettsville had been platted several years before the coming 
of the railroad and was somewhat off its line, but during the month 
following the lively celebration of its opening, Sharon, adjoining Bur- 
nettsville, was platted and the two were soon consolidated under the 
origiual name. Idaville, three miles west, was platted and made a 
railroad station in July, 1S60, and Wolcott, in the western part of the 
county, came into line during the following year. 

The Air-Line Division of the Monon 

By the building of what is now the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago 
& St. Louis (Pennsylvania) line through White County, which bisected 
the present Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville Railroad (.Monon) at 
Reynolds, the settlers were provided, to a fair degree, with railway accom- 
modations. The third step in securing such conveniences, and a great 
addition to them, was taken in the building of the Indianapolis, Delphi 
& Chicago Railroad in the late '70s. The opening of the road from the 
western Indiana line to Monticello was celebrated in that place on August 
14, 1878. Large delegations were present from Rensselaer, Lowell, Brad- 
ford, Delphi and other localities along the line of the new road. The 
Monticello and Delphi bands furnished the music and the crowd of 
visitors was escorted to the courthouse, where the celebration centered. 
John II. Wallace, chairman of the committee of arrangements; II. V. 

fc*. , 


Owens, a bright Kentuckian;. John Lee, president of the road; A. W. 
Reynolds, L. 13. Sims of Delphi, ex-president of the road, and others 
connected with the enterprise and with the building of narrow-gauge 
lines, were among the speakers who instructed and amused. It was a 
very successful celebration and boomed the Chicago Air Line immensely. 

Opening of the Indianapolis, Delphi & Chicago Railroad 

•The opening of passenger traffic on the Indianapolis, Delphi & Chi- 
cago (now Monon Route) was announced for May 21, 1883, but on 
account of, difficulty in securing entrance facilities at Indianapolis the 
date was postponed. The first passenger train began regular service 
June 17, 1883, running only from Monon to Indianapolis. Another 
train was scheduled from Chicago to Frankfort in the same time-card. 
The first through service between Chicago and Indianapolis was sched- 
uled the third week in October, 1883. . 

The completion of the Indianapolis, Delphi & Chicago Railroad not 
only vastly increased the facilities of Monticello and Monon in the way 
of getting into more direct communication with the larger markets of 
the country between the Ohio River and Lake Michigan, but was of 
much local advantage to the agriculturists and the small rural com- 
munities in the northwestern part of the county. Through trains com- 
menced to run about 1881. 

The building of what is now a second or air-line division of the 
Monon system did not result in the founding of any important towns 
in White County; in fact, only Guernsey, in Honey Creek Township, and 
Lee, in Monon Township, were founded as stations. 

The Ties which Bind the County 

Thus has White County been transformed into a country well adapted 
to the founding of pleasant and contented homes and prosperous com- 
munities — all bound together and brought into intimate touch with 
related towns, cities and states, through its improved lands, its good 
roads of gravel and macadam, and its well conducted railroads. Trans- 
portation and communication by water has become a negligible quantity 
in the calculation of its general progress. 



While a Part of Carroll — Norway Carved from Prairie Township — 
Name Changed to Big Creek Township — Pioneers Ante-Dating 
County Organization — Act Creating White County — Changes 
m Territory — First County Officers — First County Board 
Meeting — Seat of Justice Located — The County Seat Title — 
Public Sale of Lots — The Old Court House Grant — First Judi- 
cial Session — First Full Court Kept Busy — The Little Frame 
Court House — The Jail and Its First Prisoner — The County's 
,Ups and Downs — The Clerk's Office Built — The Brick Court- 
house — Cholera Interferes with Its Completion — Description 
of Dear Old Building — County Offices Affected by Legislation 
— New Jails Erected — Combined Jail and Sheriff's Residence — 
Corner Stone of Present Courthouse Laid — The Poor Farm — 
— County's Growth by Decades — Deductions from Census Fig- 
ures — White County's Population, 1890-1910 — Property Valua- 
tion in 1905 and 1910 — Taxable Valuation in 1915 — Receipts and 

The pioneer settlers of what is now White County were for about five 
years under the jurisdiction of Carroll County. As early as 1829 they 
commenced to locate west of the Tippecanoe River in what are Prairie 
and Big Creek townships; in 1831, the territory included in the present 
Union and Jackson townships received its first instalment of sturdy set- 
tlers, and Liberty, Monon and Honey Creek were first occupied by the 
whites in 18:34, the year of the county's creation. 

While a Part of Carroll 

The territory included within the presents limits of White County 
had a political existence before it was organized as a separate civil body. 
Its area, besides much more country north and west, was attached to 
the County of Carroll by legislative enactment, at the time the latter was 
erected in 1828. On the 11th of May, 1831, the commissioners of that 
county ordered that all the territory attached to the county, or a part of 
the county, west of the Tippecanoe River should thereafter be Prairie 
Township; and an election was ordered held on the first Monday of the 
following August for the election of one justice of the peace, the vote to 
be polled at the house of Jesse L. Watson, who was appointed inspector. 



At this election the following men voted: J. h. Watson, Jesse Johnson, 
Samuel Smelcer, Michael. Ault, Jeremiah liisher, W. II. McCulloch, 
Aaron Cox, Royal Hazleton, Ed McCarty, Charles Wright, William Phil- 
lips, R. Harrison, Robert A. Barr, William Woods, Ashford Parker- 
total, fifteen. The entire vote was cast for Noah Noble for governor. 
For justice of the peace, Royal Hazleton received nine votes, and Jesse 
Johnson four. In May, 1832, the elections were changed to the house of 
Samuel. Alkire and Jesse L. Watson continued inspector. At the April 
election in 1832, only six votes were polled, as follows: J. L. Watson, 
v Jesse Johnson, William Phillips, Charles Wright, Edney Wright, J. G. 
Alkire. Charles "Wright was elected constable ; Jesse Johnson and Robert 
Newell, road supervisors; William Phillips and William Woods, overseers 
of the poor; Samuel Smeleer and Samuel Alkire, fence viewers. These 
were undoubtedly the first officers of the kind elected in White County. 
In September, 1832, all of White County, east of the Tippecanoe River 
was formally attached to Adams Township, Carroll County. 

. Norway Carved from Prairie Township 

^ \ 

At the March session of the court of commissioners of Carroll County, 
all of Prairie Township (which then included all of the present White 
County west of the Tippecanoe River) north of the line dividing town- 
ships 25 and 26 north was constituted Norway Township, and the elec- 
tions were ordered held at the Norway mill. A justice of the peace was 
ordered elected the first Monday in March, 1833, Henry Baum, inspector. 
This election was not held until April, 1833. The voters were John 
Rothrock, Benj. Reynolds, Joseph Lewis, Jesse Johnson, Sibley Hudson, 
John Burns, Henry Baum, Daniel Wolf, Jeremiah Bisher, James Barnes, 
George Bartley, Robert Rothrock, George Kemp, Ashford Parker, Ira 
Bacon, George A. Spencer and Thomas Emerson. The vote was: For 
justice of the peace — G. A. Spencer, 11; Robert Newell, 3; Melchi Gray, 
1. Constable — James Barnes, 12; Benj. Reynolds, 5. Overseers of the 
poor — Armstrong Buchanan, 14; John Reese, 9. Fence viewers — B. N. 
Spencer, 11; Jeremiah Bisher, 5; Andrew Ferguson, 9; John Burns, 3. 
Road supervisors — John Roberts, 14. 

Name Changed to Bio Creek Township 

In May the name Norway was discarded and Big Creek was adopted, 
and the August election was ordered held at the house of Benj. N. Spen- 
cer. On this occasion twenty-six votes were polled as follows: Peter 
Price, James Signer, Samuel Gray, George Bartley, Cornelius Clark, 
George Gates, John Roberts, Phillip Davis, Eliaa Lowther, B. N. Spencer, 
Benj. Reynolds, John Rothrock, Melchi Gray, Joseph Rothrock, G. A. 
Spencer, James Johnson, Robert Newell, Henry Baum, Royal Hazleton, 
Jeremiah Bisher, James Barnes, Ira Bacon, James Clark, John Reese, 
George Kemp and Andrew Ferguson. 

In September, 1833, Big Creek was divided as follows: All of White 


County west of Tippecanoe River and north of the line dividing town- 
ships 26 and 27 north was constituted Union Township, and elections were 
ordered held at the house of Melchi Gray. About this time John Barr 
was made agent to expend the 3 per cent fund belonging to White County. 
No other changes were made in the county until the organization in 1834. 

Pioneers Ante-Dating County Organization 

It is generally claimed that Joseph H. Thompson was the first white 
man to make settlement within the present boundaries of the county. 
Ufi located in what is now Big Creek Township in the spring of 1829, 
while yet the surveyors were subdividing the townships into sections, they 
having begun the work in the fall of 1828. Mr. Thompson was soon 
followed by George A. Spencer, Benjamin Reynolds, John Burns, John 
Ferguson and others who became settlers of the same township, while 
Prairie Township of today was first inhabited about the same time by 
Royal Hazleton, John Barr, Cyrus Barr, William Woods, John and 
James Gay, Joseph Bostick, John Adamson, Charles Wright, Samuel 
Smelcer, Jesse L. Watson, Lewis Watson, William Ivers and Solomon Mc- 
Culloeh. Previous to 1834 there also came to Union Township, James 
Johnson, John Wilson, Peter Price, George R. Bartley, John Rothrock, 
Hans Erasmus Hiorth (pronounced Yert), Benjamin N. Spencer, Thomas 
Wilson, Samuel Gray and Melchi Gray. Jackson Township received a 
colony near what is now the Town of Idaville, composed of Christopher 
Burch, George Hornbeek, Allen Barnes, Thomas Harless, John McDow- 
ell,* Solomon Burkitt, Thomas McCormick, William W. Mitchell, Robert 
and Andrew Hanna, William James, Joseph Mason, Joseph Dale, David 
Bishop, William Gibson, John Tedford and Aaron Hicks. Further east, 
in the vicinity of the present site of Burnettsville, Daniel Dale, William 
R. Dale, Greenup Scott and others made their homes, and at a later 
date the following settled in Monon Township : Joseph Wilson, James K. 
Wilson, William Wilson, David Berkey, Thomas Murphy, Elias Lowther 
and Ira Bacon. 

These pioneers, who came before the county was organized, usually 
located in family groups, largely determined by their home states. There 
were little settlements composed respectively of Kentuckians, Tenues- 
seans, Virginians, Ohioans and Pennsylvanians, the last two states largely 
predominating in the number of people who first came to White County. 
After the county was organized, its boundaries defined and the county 
seat located, the flow of immigration increased with great rapidity. 

Act Creating White County 

In 1833 many located in the county — so many, in fact, that the repre- 
sentatives in the Legislature were asked to have a new county created 
and organized. Accordingly, during the session of 1834, the following 
enactment was passed and approved: 

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, that 


from and after the first of April next, all that tract of country, included 
in the following- boundary lines .shall form and constitute a new county 
to he known and designated by the name of the county of White (in honor 
of Major Isaac White, who fell at the battle of Tippecanoe) to-wit, be- 
ginning at the northwest corner of Tippecanoe County, thence running 
east with the north line of Tippecanoe County to the southwest corner 
of Carroll County, thence north with the west line of Carroll County 
to the northwest corner of the same, thence east with the north line of 
Carroll County to the west line of Cass County, thence north with the west 
line of Cass County to the northwest corner of the same, thence west to-, 
the center section line of range six west, thence south to the northwest 
corner of Tippecanoe County to the place of beginning. 

"Sec. 2. That the new county of White shall, from and after the 
first day of April next, enjoy and possess all the rights, privileges, bene- 
fits and jurisdictions which to separate and independent counties do or 
may properly belong or appertain. 

"Sec. 3. That James II. Stewart, of Carroll County, Benedict Mor- 
ris, of Fountain County, John Killgore, of Tippecanoe County, Enos 
Lowe, of Parke County, and John B. King, be, and they are hereby ap- 
pointed Commissioners, agreeable to an act entitled 'An act fixing the 
seats of justice in all new counties hereafter to be laid off.' The Com- 
missioners aforesaid shall meet on the first Monday in September next 
at the house of George A. Spencer, in the said county of White, and shall 
proceed immediately to perform the duties required of them by law; 
and it shall be the duty of the sheriff of Tippecanoe County to notify 
said commissioners, either in person or by writing, of their appointment, 
on or before the first day of August next, and for such service he shall 
receive such compensation as the Board doing county business in said 
county of White may, when organized, deem just and reasonable, to be 
allowed and paid as other county claims. 

"Sec. 4. The Circuit Court and the Board of County Commission- 
ers, when elected under the writ of election from the executive depart- 
ment shall hold their sessions as near the center of the county as a con- 
venient place can be had, until the public buildings shall be erected. 

"Sec. 5. The agent who shall be appointed to superintend the sale 
of lots of the county seat of said county of White shall reserve ten per 
cent out of the proceeds thereof, and pay the same over to such person 
or persons as may be appointed by law to receive the same for the use of 
a county library. 

"Sec. 6. The County of White shall be attached to the first judicial 
circuit of this State for judicial, and to the county of Carroll for repre- 
sentative purposes. 

"Sec. 7. That all the territory lying west of the county of White 
to the State Line, be and the same is, hereby attached to the county of 
White for civil and judicial purposes. 

"Sec. 8. That the Circuit Courts shall be held in the county of 
White on the Tuesdays succeeding the week of the Tippecanoe Circuit 
Court, and sit three days each term, should the business require it. 


"Sec. 9. The board doing county business may, as soon as elected 
and qualified, hold special sessions not exceeding three, during the first 
year after the organization of said county, and shall make all necessary 
appointments, and do or perform all other business which may or 
might have been necessary to be performed at any other regular session, 
and take all necessary steps to collect the State and County revenue, any 
law or usage to the contrary notwithstanding. This act to be in force 
from and after its passage. 

• "Approved February 1, 1834." 

. . Changes in Territory 

A little later the following was enacted: "That all the territory lying 
north of the county of Cass to the line dividing Townships 32 and 33 
north, be, and the same is hereby, attached to said county for judicial and 
representative purposes, and that all the territory lying north of the 
county of White and of the territory attached thereto to the aforesaid 
line be, and the same is hereby, attached to the county of White for the 
same purpose. This act to be in force from and after its publication in 
the Indiana Journal, printed at Indianapolis. 

"Approved December 24, 1834." 

So far as can be learned no changes were made in the boundaries of 
White County until the following law was passed: "That the following 
described territory be, and the same is hereby, taken from the county of 
Carroll and incorporated and made a part of White : all north of Section 
33 and west of the Tippecanoe River in Township 2G north, Range 3 
west. This act to take effect and-be in force from and after its passage. ' 

"Approved February 4, 1837." 

Again a little later the following became law: "That hereafter the 
Tippecanoe river shall be the western boundary of Carroll County, whence 
the north line of said county strikes the river, until said river strikes the 
section line dividing 33 and 28, in Township 26, and all the territory 
west of said river and north of said line in Township 26, and Range 3 
west, is hereby attached to the county of White, as intended by the act, 
entitled 'An act to alter the boundary line between Carroll and White,' 
approved February 4, 1837. This act to be in force from and after its 

"Approved February 14, 1839."- 

The large section of country north and west now constituting the 

; counties of Jasper, Newton and portions of Benton and Pulaski, which 

' was attached to White County for political and judicial purposes, re- 

KLnuuned as portions of its civil body until its was organized into separate 

counties— Jasper in 1837, Pulaski and Newton in 1839, and Benton in 

1840. These acts completed the paring down of White County to its 

present body, the area of which (504 square miles) makes it the fifth in 

size of the ninety-two counties in the state. 


First County Officers 

Under the provisions of the Organic Act creating the county, the first, 
step taken in its civil organization was the selection by the voters of a 
local judiciary, a board of commissioners and the principal county offi- 
cers. The election for that purpose was held on the first Monday in 
August, 1834, and resulted in the choice of James Barnes and Thomas 
Wilson for associate judges; David McCombs, Ira Bacon and Robert 
Newall, county commissioners; William Sill, clerk, auditor and recorder; 
Aaron Hicks, sheriff, and George A. Spencer, treasurer. 

It appears, however, from the records that John Wilson, who had 
been appointed sheriff the month before the election, served in that 
capacity until April, 1836, except for a short period after the election ; 
nor is it officially evident that Mr. Hicks was ever present at any session 
of the county board or Circuit Court. 

The only discovered records bearing on the matter noted an allowance 
of $6.00 made by the board of commissioners to Mr. Hicks, "in full for 
services as sheriff for the year 1834;" this item was a part of the proceed- 
ings of that body at the May term of 1835. At the same term John 
Wilson was allowed $7.50 "in full for his services as sheriff up to date." 
These allowances were probably made for extra services, such as notify- 
ing road viewers of their appointment, summoning jurors, etc. 

First County Board Meeting • 

The commissioners held their first meeting at the house of George 
A. Spencer on the 19th of July, 1834. They first proceeded to create the 
commissioners' districts, as follows: 

District No. 1 — To comprise all the county's territory south of the 
line passing east and west between sections 16 and 21, township 26 north, 
range 3 west 

District No. 2 — All county territory north of such line and west of 
Tippecanoe River. 

District No. 3 — All county territory east of Tippecanoe River. 

At the same time the county and all territory attached thereto were 
divided into the following townships: Township 25 north, in White 
County, and all the territory attached thereto to be Prairie Township. 
Township 26 north, in White County, and all the territory attached 
thereto to be Big Creek Township. Township 27 north, and all of town- 
ship 28 west to Tippecanoe River, the same being in White County, and 
all the territory attached thereto, to be Union Township. Elections for 
Prairie Township ordered held at the house of William Wood, with 
Solomon McCulloch, inspector. Those of Big Creek at the house of 
George A. Spencer, with James Kerr, inspector. Those of Union Town- 
ship at the house of Melchi Gray, with James Spencer, inspector. Those 
of Jackson Township at the house of Daniel Dale, with John Scott, 

Cornelius Clark was appointed county assessor, and George A. Spen- 

■ ■i ■ ■ 


cer, county treasurer. Clark was also appointed collector of state and 
county revenue. At this time William Sill served as county clerk and 
John Wilson as sheriff. 

Seat op Justice Located 

At the September meeting of the county board the report of three of 
the five commissioners appointed to locate the county seat was accepted, 
they were paid $60 for their services and discharged. The report follows : 

' ' To the Honorable the Commissioners of the County of White : The 
undersigned, commissioners appointed by the Legislature of the State 
of Indiana to locate the county seat of said county beg leave to report 
that they, agreeable to the provisions of the act for the formation of said 
county, met on the first Monday of September, 1834, and after being 
qualified according to law, they proceeded immediately to the perform- 
ance of the duties assigned them. They took considerable pains to become 
acquainted with the situation of your county, and with that view made a 
personal examination of the greater portion of said county. The com- 
missioners have had considerable difficulty in making up their minds as 
to the best location to fix the seat of justice, and at last came to the con- 
clusion to locate the seat of justice on the center line dividing- the fol- 
lowing described fractions, viz. : The southwest fraction of the northeast 
quarter and the northwest fraction of the southeast quarter of Section 33, 
Townships 27 north, Range 3 west, on a bluff of Tippecanoe River. 
Eighty acres of the above described fractions have been donated for the 
use* of the county of White by Messrs. John Barr, Sr., II. E. Hiorth and 
John Rothrock, to be taken off the east side of said fraction by north and 
south line. A bond for the conveyance of the same is herewith sub- 
mitted. The name we have selected for the said county seat is Monti- 
cello, after the home of the great disciple of human liberty, Thomas 

"In conclusion, gentlemen, permit us to indulge the hope that all 
local dissensions will vanish amongst you, and that the citizens of White 
will go together as one man for the improvement of your county and 
county seat. We are gentlemen, very respectfully, your obedient servants, 

. "John Kilgoke, 

"John B. Kino, 
"James H. Stewart, 
"Locating Commissioners. 
"September 5, 1834." 

The locating commissioners had first met on Monday, September 1st, 
and, after viewing several ambitious locations, one of which was in Big 
Creek Township, completed their labors on Friday, the 5th of September, 
the day of the report. At that time the land upon which the county seat 
was located had not yet been entered, or in other words was yet the prop- 
erty of the United States. The land was selected because it seemed the 
most eligible site near the center of the county, and for the further reason 

Vol. !-» 



that whereas other points wishing the location were somewhat exacting 
regarding the donations to be made, it became clear to the locating com- 
missioners, from an offer they received from John Barr, Sr., Hans E. 
Hiorth and John Rothroek, that the new county would be far better off 
financially, if the county seat was fixed at Monticello; of course there was 
not a house then standing on the present site of the town. The offer made 
by Barr, Hiorth and John Rot brock to the locating commissioners was that 
if the latter would agree to locate the county seat at Monticello, on land 
which yet belonged to the Government, the former would proceed to 
Laporte and enter the land and donate the entire eighty acres, upou which 
the town was. located, with reservation, to the county. This offer was ac- 
cepted by«the commissioners. But the land instead of being entered 
by these three men was really entered by Robert Rothrock. The follow- 
ing bond explains the situation: 

"Know all men by these presents, that I, Robert Rothroek, acknowl- 
edge myself to owe aud to be indebted to John Barr, H. E. Hiorth and 
John Rothroek in the sum of $1,000 gold and lawful money of the United 
States, to the payment of which I bind myself, my heirs, administrators 
and executors firmly by these presents, signed and sealed this 10th day 
of September, A. D. 1834. 

"The condition of the above obligation is such, that, the aforesaid 
John Barr, II. E. Hiorth and John Rothroek having placed in the hands 
of the said Robert Rothroek the sum of $137.77^ for the purpose of 
entering at the Laporte Land Office the following fractional lots, to-wit : 
the south half of the northeast quarter and the north half of the south- 
east quarter of Section 33, Township 27 north, Range 3 west, containing 
in all 110 22-100 acres, which lots were purchased for the purpose ofa - 
county seat in White County. Now, if the said Robert Rothroek shall 
make to the said John Barr, H. E. Hiorth and John Rothroek good and 
sufficient title in fee simple, then the above obligation to be null and 
void; otherwise to remain in full force and virtue; the above deeds or 
titles to be made as soon as the patent can be obtained from the 
Government. Robert Rothrock [seal]. 


"Joshua Lindsey, 
"Peter B. Smith." 

The County Seat Title 

Tradition says that Robert Rothrock coveted the distinctiou of having 
entered the land where the county seat was located, and to humor this 
ambition the three men furnished him the money, taking his bond as 
alwve. The county seat was located, then, by the 5th of September, and 
on the 6th, as shown by the tract book, Robert Rothrock entered the land 
at Laporte; but the above bond was signed and sealed on the 10th of 
September, four days after the land had been entered. In other words, 
Robert Rothrock entered the land four days before his boud was signed, 


and was therefore entrusted with the money before he had obligated him- 
self to transfer the laud to the proper owners, Barr, Hiorth and John 
Rothrock. The title actually passed from Robert Rothroek to these three 
men, or rather directly to the county agent, the three men quit-claiming 
their title. 

Public Sales of Lots 

As stated above, Monticello was laid out on the 3d of November, 1834, 
and on the .7th, in pursuance of an order of the county commissioner, a 
public sale of the lots took place, Melehi Gray officiated as auctioneer 
or crier and Joshua L.indsey serving as clerk of the sale. The terms were of the purchase price in ninety days from date, the remainder 
in two equal annual payments, the buyer to "give good security for pay- 
ments deferred." 

As no report of the sale of these lots is of record until March 8, 1836, 
it is fair to presume that Mr. Barr received no cash at the first sale. At 
the date named he filed his report as follows : ■ 

Gross receipts of sales from November 7, 1834, to March 8, 

1836 $1,870,371/2 

Amount donated by sundry individuals 110.00 

Total receipts $l,980.37y 2 

Paid Jonathan Harbolt on courthouse $124.68% 

Paid Oliver Hammond on courthouse 70.00 

Total expenditures ...... 194.68% 

Balance $1,785.68% 

Cash received on sales $ 566.06*4 ' 

Paper ; .\ l,414.31Vi 

The various fractions of cents in the foregoing report will puzzle' 
many readers until they are reminded of the great scarcity of American 
currency at that time. On the other hand, Spanish silver coins of 6V4, 
1214 and 25 cents, as well as French five-francs pieces, valued at 93% 
cents, were in circulation during the period of these first land sales and 
for several years thereafter.. Hence the fractions noted in Mr. Barr'* 

The Old Courthouse Grant 

The old courthouse grant was bounded on the north by Marion 
Street, east by Tippecanoe, south by Jefferson and west by Illinois. On 
the 6th of March, 1837, the title to the land not having yet passed from 
Kohert Rothrock to Barr, niorth and John Rothrock, the former con- 
veyed the following tract of land to John Barr, county agent, and his 
Riicccssor8 in office : Beginning at a point where the west line of Illinois 
Street in the said Town of Monticello running north as the town plat of 




the said town is laid out would intersect the north line of the southwest 
fraction of the northeast quarter of section 33, township 27 north, range 
3 west, thence east with the north line of said fraction a^the Tippe- 
canoe River, thence with the inuauderings of the said river to the south 
line of the northwest fraction of the southeast quarter of section 33, 
township 27 north, range 3 west, thence with the south line of said last 
mentioned fraction west to a point where the west line of said Illinois 
Street aforesaid extended south would intersect said last mentioned line, 

Views op Old Courthouses 

thence north with the west line of said Illinois Street, extended as afore 
said to the place of beginning. The conveyance was made upon the ex 
press condition that the county seat should forever remain located upo' 
the land. Appended to this document was a quit claim of all the righu 
titles and interests of Burr, Iliorth and John Rothrock in the land, cor 
ditioned that the land should forever remain the site of the county sea 
In view of these conditional transfers, and the lapse of time and th 
growth of public institutions and interests, the difficulty of rcmovin 
the county scat to some other point iu White County becomes at one 


First Judicial Session 

The first session of the Circuit Court for White County was held at 
the house of George A. Spencer, six miles southwest of Monticello near the 
center of the southeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 12, 
township 27 north, range 4 west. On the 17th of October, 1834, the pre- 
siding judge, John R. Porter, was absent; which fact threw the respon- 
sibility of the proceedings on the associates, James Barnes and Thomas 
Wilson. William Sill, father of Milton M. Sill, of Monticello, served as 
clerk, and John Wilson as sheriff. The grand jury consisted of Royal 
H&zelton (foreman),* William Woods, James Johnson, Samuel Gray, 
Robert Barr, Aaron Hicks, Daniel Dale, Robert Hanna, John Roberts, 
John Ferguson, James Parker, Joseph James, Sr., Cornelius Sutton, 
William Kerr and Joseph Thompson. 

XA case of "malicious mischief" was the only matter brought to the 
ttention of. the court. It seems that Jere Bisher had tied something 
j to the tail of one of his neighbor's fractious horses, and the court bound 
the offender over to the next term with security of $50 for his appear- 
ance. Then William P. Bryant, Andrew Ingraham, Aaron Fitch and 
William M. Jenners were sworn in as attorneys qualified to practice in 
the county, and the session was adjourned. 

First Full Court Kept Busy 

«At the second term of court, beginning April 17, 1835, also in Mr. 
Spencer's house, all the judges were present and a number of cases were 
brought before them. Mr. Spencer himself acted as bailiff, William Sill, 
clerk, and John Wilson, sheriff. Bisher's case of malicious mischief was 
at once taken up and the defendant was fined $5, and sentenced to the. 
custody of the sheriff for the space of one minute, ''the fine to go to 
the funds of the county seminary." 

The grand jury returned the following indictments: Against Jacob 
Gates for retailing liquor without a license; against Joseph Gates for 
firing the prairie; against Royal Hazelton for marking hogs; against 
Jeremiah Bisher for trespass to land (Bisher instead of Gates seems to 
have been the real firebrand of the county) ; against William Keen for 
selling liquor to the Indians; against. John Beaver and Luke Beaver for 
fighting and against William Farmer, D. Runion and S. Pharris for 
selling clocks without a license. The indictment against Mr. Gates was 
quashed; the jury found Mr. Hazelton and the Beavers not guilty; Mr. 
Bisher was fined $1.12y 2 cents; and Messrs. Keen and Fanner pleaded 
guilty, the former being fined $5 and costs and the latter, $2 and costs. 

Such court matters are adduced as much to throw rays of light upon 
the affairs of the young county and its people, as because they represent 
the legal business transacted at the first "full court" held within its 

The house of Mr. Spencer, where the sittings were held, was in Big 
Creek Township, and the Circuit Court continued its sessions there until 


the autumn of 1836, when it adjourned permanently to the county seat, 
a courthouse then being in process of erection at Monticello. 

The Little Frame Courthouse 


The steps by which the site for the county buildings was acquired have 
been noted, and at its May session the board of commissioners had or- 
dered that lot 20, original plat of Monticello on the east side of Main 
Street, second lot south of Harrison Street, be set apart for the erection 
of a frame courthouse two stories in height, 20 by 22 feet in dimensions. 
Two partitions above were to divide the rooms equally and one below 
to separate two rooms, 20 by 20 feet and 12 by 20, respectively. Robert 
A. Spencer, afterward a prominent physician and surgeon,- Solomon 
Sherwood, Jonathan Ilarbolt and Oliver Hammond were 'employed to 
erect the structure, the contract price being $800, The courthouse was 
nearly completed, when it was leveled to the ground by a violent wind; 
but it was promptly rebuilt and finally completed in the summer of 
1837. This unforeseen accident somewhat interfered with the original 
architect's plans, and the final courthouse was not exactly as intended. 

The Jail and Its First Prisoner 

The jail, which had been projected about the same time, was erected 
by William M. Kentonon the east side of Illinois Street near Marion, and 
was completed in the fall of 1838. Mr. Sill's description of that fear- 
some edifice and his account of the first desperado incarcerated therein 
leaves nothing to be desired for completeness and picturesqueness and are 
therefore reproduced : "The jail was built of hewn logs, one story in 
height, twenty by forty feet, divided by a partition near the center into 
two rooms; the front room designed for delinquent debtors, for a man 
could then be imprisoned for debt; and it is the opinion of many now 
that the act ought never to have been repealed, but instead amended so as 
to apply to those who could pay their honest debts and will not. and also 
for milder offenses against the law. 

"The rear room was designated the dungeon, and was intended for 
the incarceration of prisoners charged with the perpetration of higher 
crimes. The front door was constructed of inch plank running diago- 
nally from one corner across to the corner on the opposite side, and four 
inches thick, bolted together with iron bolts passing through the planks 
and riveted on the opposite side. There were two doors to the dungeon, 
the first similar to the front door and the second of iron bars riveted 
together in such manner as to form an opening between of three inches 
square. A short chain was riveted on the side of this door about half- 
way up from the floor, and a staple driven in the door frame over which 
it passed, a common padlock passing through the staple to secure it. 
The wooden doors were also provided with locks of huge size made es- 
pecially for them, with a key for each lock half as long as a mau_'s_axm — ^ 
and weighty enough to worry a small boy to carry. The object in having 


the two doors to the dungeon was, in the event of the imprisonment of a 
desperate eriminal, to protect the jailor, who could open the first door 
and take a view of the inside through the grated iron door before he 
entered with food and water for the prisoners. 

"Singular as it may appear, the first person to occupy the new jail was 
a school teacher, who was guilty of unduly chastising one of his pupils, 
Erastus Gray, for an infringement of his rules. He whipped the boy 
with a rawhide until the blood streamed down his body and stood in pools 
on the floor of the school room. Without any doubt Erastus deserved 
sonre punishment; for he was not a model of good behavior and the par- 
ents universally believed in the use of the rod ; but the majority of them' 
thought the boy had a little too much, and so the teacher was arrested, 
tried, convicted and sentenced to one hour imprisonment in the county 
jail. He was not without friends, however, who justified his action, and 
one of them went with him and kept him company during his incarcera- 
tion. His school was broken up shortly after this, and the talk of tar and 
leathers, and a free ride astride a rail, became a subject of every-day 
gossip until he finally abandoned his charge and left for parts unknown." 

The County 's Ups and Downs 

The old courthouse and jail were not replaced by better buildings 
until fourteen and seventeen years had respectively passed; and that 
period was one of many ups and downs for both the county and country. 
The first three years of the county's life fell within the prosperous era 
and its population probably increased from a 100 to over a 1,000. While 
the first settlers were men of limited means, nearly all of them brought 
money enough to enter tracts of land varying from forty to 160 acres, 
with sufficient cash retained to provide for the necessities of self or family 
until their crops should mature. As a rule they brought their families, 
which accounts for the rapid increase in population. During this period 
the county's financial operations were not impressive, both receipts and 
expenditures averaging from $200 to $300, much of its income being the 
result of the sale of the lands at Monticello, the proceeds of which were 
to be donated for public purposes. 

When the hard times approached in 1837, money had become very 
scarce and for some time canal script was almost the sole circulating 
medium of exchange, with even more crude substitutes, such as furs, 
pelts and hides. From 1837 to 1842 the general and local distress con- 
tinued and emigration to White County was slow; yet, by 1840, its popu- 
lation had increased to 1,832, and after 1842 the increase and all-around 
improvement were very marked. By 1850, the population had reached 

It was during the later portion of the prosperous decade, 1840-50, 
that the public enterprises of the county took an upward turn, although 
they did not materialize into any definite improvements until a little later. 


The Clerk's Office Built 

The board of commissioners commenced to agitate the necessity of im- 
proved public buildings in the early part of 1845, but it was not until 
June, 1846, that any decisive step was taken. At that time the county 
agent was ordered to arrange for the erection of a frame building, 16 by 
20 feet, on lot 29. It was also ordered that the agent collect a sufficient 
amount of the outstanding donation fund to cover the expenses of con- 
struction. Zachariah Van Buskirk was given the contract, and the struc- 
ture, known as the clerk's office, was completed in September, 1846, at a 
cost of $500. 

Tue Brick Courthouse 

In 1848 the work of building a new and much larger courthouse was 
begun, -George Brown, of Lafayette, taking the contract. No definite 
time was set for the completion of the house, as the funds of the county 
were very low, and the means of obtaining suitable additions to carry on 
the necessary expense were largely beyond the reach of the commission- 
ers. County orders which had been issued to the amount of several thou- 
sand dollars were selling at about 5 per cent discount, and new ones gave 
no promise of selling for a better figure — just the reverse. 

Regardless of this discouraging condition of affairs the commissioners 
borrowed $2,000, and ordered the work to commence. But the progress 
of construction hung fire, and the building was not ready for occupancy 
until 1851. The total cost, including the furnishings, was nearly $8,000. 
- In September, 1850, the "Clerk's Office" was ordered sold, the pro- 
ceeds to be applied on the new courthouse. On the 4th of December, 
1851, more than three years after the house had been commenced, the 
board ordered the offices of clerk, auditor, recorder and treasurer removed 
to the new house. 

Cuolera Interferes with Its Completion 

• The old brick courthouse, with its long corridors, heavy windows and 
its front porch supported by two massive pillars, had a hard time being 
born, and this was not the fault of its father, George Brown; the chief 
delay was caused by a prolonged cholera scare. The contractor had 
worked on the courthouse only a few days when one of his children was 
stricken with what resembled the prevailing cholera. A few deaths had 
already occurred at Lafayette, which had probably hastened Mr. Brown's 
removal to Monticello. As soon as the child's sickness became known 
panic spread through the town. Those in the neighborhood of Mr. Brown's 
residence on South Main Street hastily loaded their household goods into 
wagons and fled to the country. On the morning after the little girl's 
death a boy coming to town on horseback with a pail of butter for a 
relative met the procession a mile north of town, rapidly moving from the 
plague-stricken place. The occupants of the front wagon stopped the boy 
and tried to persuade him to turn back, even offering to buy his butter 


if he would return home ; but no, the butter was not for sale, he was 
charged with its delivery and he "would do it, cholera or no cholera." 
The county records were moved to the Presbyterian Church, as far 
away from the infected district as possible ; merchants locked their stores 
and, with their families, went to the country; business was entirely 
suspended, and for two months Monticello was almost deserted. Work 
on the courthouse was suspended, the laborers fleeing to the country and 
positively refusing to return, in consequence of which its construction 
was at a virtual standstill until the following spring. Mr. Brown refused 
to re-employ the workmen who had deserted him the previous year, and 
masons and brick-layers being scarce, the work progressed but slowly - 
up to its completion in December, 1851. 

Description of Dear Old Building 

The writer turns again to Sill's unpublished history for a detailed 
description of the old brick courthouse, which, for forty-four years, was 
the center of the official, judicial and legal activities of White County 
and the scene of many occasions connected with patriotic meetings and 
public celebrations. "A description from memory," says the author, 
"while not infallible will be better than none. Beginning at the founda- 
tion, a trench three feet in depth, and similar trenches made at the sides 
of about eighty-five feet in length, were filled with stone of the genus 
known as 'nigger heads,' with which the county is amply supplied. On 
the top of these, blocks of cut stone were placed, projecting about three 
feet and presenting a level surface on which to lay the brick. The build- 
ing was two stories in height and divided into four rooms below, provid- 
ing offices for the auditor, treasurer, clerk and recorder. A hall eight 
feet wide passed through the length of the building between the offices 
with doors at each end. Each of the offices was provided with a brick 
vault with an iron door, and supposed by some to be fire proof, for the 
preservation of the records. There was a recess in front, twenty-five or 
thirty feet north and south by ten feet in width. On the southeastern 
corner of the building was another room ten feet square, which was occu- 
pied by the sheriff and presumably intended for him. If that was the 
case, a good joke on that official was perpetrated, as the room was scarcely 
large enough for a respectable chicken-coop. 

"In the recess two fluted columns were built of the Tuscan order of 
architecture to a height of fifty feet, on the top of which rested a wooden 
dome or belfry, and high above all a huge wooden arrow for nearly fifty 
years faithfully indicated the course of summer breeze and winter blast. 

"The second story, with the exception of a small jury room in the 
southeastern corner, was the court room. It was furnished witli wooden 
benches with high backs, placed in two rows across the room, with an 
aisle between of sufficient width for two persons to walk abreast. The 
judge's seat was in the west end of the room on a high wooden platform 
with three steps at each end to enable him to ascend to his place with due 
judicial dignity and decorum. There wus room on tlte platform for ten 


or twelve persons uud in time of political excitement, when a publie 
speaker of some notoriety was announced, it was always occupied. The 
seats were gradually elevated from front to rear to enable those behind to 
see over the heads of those in the front, and about five hundred people 
could he comfortably seated on the benches and inside the bar, which had 
a wooden railing extending across the same about fifteen feet in front of 
the judge's seat. 

"Access to the court room was gained by a broad staircase in front on 
the north side of the recess. The late Hon. Horace P. Biddle, of Logans- 
port, was the .first judge to open and hold court in the new Court House 
at the March term, 1832. The court officers were Ransom McConahay, 
clerk, and Michael A. Berkey, sheriff. The members constituting the 
Board of Commissioners who made the order for the building and re- 
ceived it when completed, were James K. Wilson, of Monon township, 
Solomon McCully, of Jackson, and Samuel Smelcer, of Prairie." 

George S. Kendall, now living in Irvington, Indiana, relates a peculiar 
circumstance which occurred when the second courthouse was being built. 
This story was told by his grandparents and stated that in the spring- 
time of a certain year a small body of Indians passing through the town 
stopped for a brief rest in the courthouse yard and while there a squaw 
gave birth to a papoose, which she carefully wrapped in a blanket, 
mounted her horse and pursued her journey. 

County Offices Affected by Legislation 

The new state constitution of 1851 made several noteworthy changes 
in the tenure of several county offices. The terms of the clerk and re- 
corder were shortened from seven to four years, and the terms of the 
remaining officials, except those of the commissioners and auditor, were 
fixed at two years; the hitter's term of four years was unchanged. As 
the constitution also changed the time for holding the general election 
from the first Monday in August to the second Monday in October, there 
were other complications. By this change the clerk and recorder, 
although elected in October, went into office on the 7th of July following, 
and the treasurer in September following his election. 

Acts of the Legislature of subsequent date to the new state constitu- 
tion made frequent changes in the election days of various county and 
township offices, as well as created numerous new positions. One of the 
most important of the new offices was that of county assessor, which came 
into being by legislative act of March 6, 1891. The original term was 
four years ami the first county assessor was chosen at the general election 
in 1802. 

.Many changes were made in the judicial systems which had jurisdic- 
tion in the county. The Circuit Court, with its presiding judge and two 
local associates, was the legislative product of the period when Indiana 
was passing from a territorial to a state form of government, hut was 
incorporated in the body politic of the commonwealth by the constitution 
of 1816. The Probate Court came in with the county, in 18)54, and in 185:1 


its functions were transferred to the new Court of Common Pleas, which, 
in turn, was merged into the Circuit Court in 1873. Consequently the 
Circuit Court, of- all the institutions identified with the administration 
of county affairs, is the oldest. 

It was reserved for the Legislature of a comparatively late period to 
set the record in the creation of new offices, in the distribution of which 
generosity "White County received its full quota. By the act approved 
March -4, 1899, a county council was created to consist of three (at large) 
members elected by all the voters of a county, and four members chosen 
by the commissioners' districts into which each county was to be divided 
preceding the election of 1900. Six hundred and forty-four new county 
offices were thereby created throughout the state. By an act approved 
during the previous month an advisory board of the county council was 
also authorized, comprising three members elected from each township ; 
as White County had eleven townships, that act added thirty-three new 
offices to the seven created by the measure of March, 1899. Although the 
advisory board was created a few days before the main body came into 
existence, it was simply a little accident in the orderly and perhaps legal 
progress of constructive legislation which created no comment. 

New Jails Erected 

But, despite all changes and complications, the county continued to 
push its campaign for better public buildings. 

. In June, 1854, the board gave the contract for a new jail to Michael 
A. Berkey and J. C. Reynolds, the work to be begun immediately, and 
the building to be finished by the 1st of June, 1855. The site of the struc- 
ture was fixed on the west end of the Courthouse Square. The contractors 
faithfully performed their part of the agreement, though the building 
was not formally accepted by the board until September, 1855. The cost 
was $1,640. 

The new jail was not built on the original Courthouse Square, but 
on the tract purchased by the commissioners about 1865. The old brick 
i-ourthouse was built in the center of the public square dedicated for 
that purpose when the town was platted by Mr. Barr, the county agent. 
Its dimensions were 180 feet north and south on the west side of Main 
Street, and 165 feet east and west on the north side of Main-Cross 
Street The alley running north and south between Main and Illinois was 
widened to twenty-five feet, but although the western boundary of the 
"Id Courthouse Square, remained an unnamed street. A short thorough- 
fare on the north, now called Court Street, completed its boundaries. 

Combined Jail and Sheriff's Residence 

In 1864 the board of commissioners decided that the time had come 
tar the construction of a new jail and sheriff's residence which should be 
fairly creditable to the taxpayers as well as to the public. They there- 
fore purchased three lots west of the original square and fronting on 

Couiicy of C. I,. Koiler 

■' i i 


Illinois Street, vacated the narrow nameless street and extended Court 
Street through to Illinois, thus more than doubling the area of the 
public square and providing a generous site for the proposed building. 
The contract was finally awarded to Jacob Ilanaway and Charles Breck- 
enridge, the price being $6,800. At that time the county was not em- 
barrassed to provide funds, notwithstanding the drafts made upon its 
treasury for soldiers' bounty, relief of soldiers' widows and orphans, 
and road and bridge expenses. The building was completed and accepted 
by the board in December, 1865, its site being lot 83, the location of the 
present jail and sheriff's residence. The three strong iron cells of the 
jail were certainly great improvements over the old arrangements, 

Another and Better Jail 

But in 1875 it was decided to build another and even a better jail 
and plans presented by Randall and Millard, of Chicago, were accepted. 
The contract was let to Ralph Dixon, of Logausport, Indiana, at $7,700. 
John Saunders wa< appointed to superintend the construction. The 
building was immediately commenced, and was carried to rapid comple- 
tion, and in December the finished jail was turned over to the county 
board, and formally accepted by them. This building is yet in use, 
although the second courthouse was replaced with the handsome structure 
now occupied, in the fall of 1895. 

Corner Stone op Present Courthouse Laid 

After several years of preliminaries, movements both on the part of 
the board of commissioners and enterprising citizens, the cornerstone 
of the new courthouse was finally laid, amid impressive ceremonies, on 
the 16th of August, 1894. Special trains unloaded visitors from Ijogans- 
port, Monon, Brookston, Rensselaer, Idaville and other towns which had 
for years been on terms of special intimacy with Mouticello, and various 
organizations from these places participated in the celebration. 

The music for the procession and the crowd was furnished by the 
Logansport baud and two local bands. The ceremonies were in official 
charge of Libanus Lodge No. 154, P. & A M., of Mouticello, which had 
the post of honor in the rear. Then came the members of the other ma- 
sonic lodges — Orient, of Logansport; Goodland, Buck Creek, Monon, 
Brookston and Francesville (Indiana) lodges; St. John Commandery, 
No. 24, K. T., Logansport. The Masons were escorted by I. 0. O. P. 
lodges from Mouticello, Brookston, Rensselaer, Idaville and Logansport; 
Daughter of Rebekah, of Mouticello; 0. E. S., of Rensselaer; Uniformed 
Ranks Knights of Pythias, of Montieello, Monon and Rensselaer; Tip- 
I>ecanoe Post, No. 51, G. A. R., of Mouticello, and the members of the 
Mouticello schools. 

After the crowd had assembled at the Courthouse Square to witness 
the ceremonies in connection with the placing of the cornerstone, Emery 
B. Sellers read a brief history of the county, including the effort to 


secure a new courthouse, and named the list of articles in the box to be 
placed in the stone. They were as follows: The Monticello Herald of 
August 16, 1-894; the White County Democrat of August 10, 1894; the 
Monticello Press, August 11, 1894; the Woleott Enterprise, August 10, 
1894; the Chalmers Ledger, August 11, 1894; the Idaville Observer, Au- 
gust 15, 1894; manual of Monticello Public Schools; roster of Libanus 
Lodge, No. 154, P. & A. M. ; roster of Tippecanoe Post, No. 151, G. A. R. ; 
copy of the charter of said post ; roster of Monticello Lodge, No. 73, 
K. of P. ; a knight 's jewel ; rosters of Monticello Independent Battery, 
Stewart Encampment, No. 159, I. 0. 0. F., Monticello Lodge, No. 107, 
I. 0. 0. F., Eudora Lodge, No. 201, Daughters of Rebecca, and by-laws 
of Monticello Chapter, No. 103, R. A. M. ; constitution and by-laws of 
Journeymen Stone Cutters Association of North America ; a history of 
stone cutters' strike; roster of Monticello Fire Company; photos of old 
courthouse while in process of demolition; zinc etchings of the first 
courthouse, of the second and of the new one ; a Grand Army badge and 
boutonnier; the invitations issued by the board of commissioners, by 
Libanus Lodge and Tippecanoe Post; "White County in the War of the 
Rebellion," written by James M. McBeth; a ticket to the Columbian 
exposition; one cent — a day's wages; one horseshoe, made by John H. 
Day ; one silver three-cent coin ; copy of charter Stanley Camp Sons of 
Veterans ; copy of Order of Exercises of these ceremonies ; the fourth part 
of a dollar; a twenty-five cent "shinplaster"; a picture of John Roth- 
rock, born 1779, first settler of the land on which this courthouse stands; 
a record of the organization of White County and of the location of the 
county seat ; a certified copy of the deed from Robert Rothrock to John 
Barr, Sr., agent of White County for the land on which the original plat 
of Monticello is located; a copy of the first order of the board of com- 
missioners for the erection of this building; one cannery check issued to 
William Harbolt; the Chicago Herald of this date; the Chicago Inter- 
Ocean of this date; the Holy Bible; roster and by-laws of Brookston 
Lodge, No. 66, F. & A. M. ; history of the Forty-sixth Regiment Indiana 
Volunteers ; this record of these ceremonies prepared by order of Libanus 
Lodge, No. 154, Free and Accepted Masons. 

Charles Gardner then sealed the box and the ceremony of placing it in 
position was performed by Frank E. Gaven, the Grand Master of Masons 
of the State of Indiana, and a judge of the State Appellate Court. After 
the laying of the cornerstone, the crowd dispersed until 2 o'clock P. M., 
when Lieutenant-Governor Nye delivered the address of the day. 

Within a year from the date of this enthusiastic and appropriate cele- 
bration, the courthouse, virtually as it stands today, was ready for occu- 
pancy. The architects were LaBelle and French, of Marion, Indiana, 
and over $70,000 was put into the building, exclusive of furnishings, the 
entire cost being nearly $100,000. It could not be constructed for con- 
siderably more than that sum at the present time, as it is a massive, 
beautiful building of Bedford stone, two stories and a lofty basement in 
height, witli a handsome tower in its southeast corner and ornate projec- 
tions on all sides. The present. courthouse stands 88 by 108 feet on the 

-— ■*■ 



ground, nearer the eenter of the square than any of its predecessors, 
and its court and office conveniences, as well as heating, lighting and 
sanitary arrangements, are up-to-date. Among the other accommoda- 
tions of the times, 'which has heeome a matter of course, is its provision 
for a comfortahle rest-room for women, girls and children; this has 
come to be considered in the light of consideration for the sex and as 
justice to the taxpayers and their families who are obliged to come from 
a distance, often in their own vehicles, to transact business at the county 

The Poor Farm 


During the early years of our history the needy poor were cared for by 
being placed in reliable families, the expenses of their board and clothes 

White County Asylum 

being paid by the county. This varied from $39 for the year ending May 
1, 1839, to $817.36 for the year ending June 1, 1856. Hut this system 
proved unsatisfactory and on March 2, 1857, the county purchased from 
James C. Reynolds 200 acres of land, five miles northwest of Monticcllo, 
being the southeast quarter of section 13 and the northeast quarter of 
the northeast quarter of section 17, both in township 27 north, range 4 
west, paying therefor $3,250. On the first described tract stood a house 
and into this house the poor were collected and early in 1858 Uncle 
Charley Rider was employed and took charge as first keeper of the 
poorhouse. This old building, with its various additions, was always a 
reproach to the good people of White County and in 1K75 the commis- 
sioners let to Harbolt & Tilton, of Monticcllo, a contract to erect a new 
frame building at a cost of $3,000, which was completed and occupied in 
December, 1875. But this became unsanitary and in .March, 1907, the 
commissioners and county council met in joint session to consider a site 


for a new county infirmary. After viewing and studying carefully both 
sites owned by the county and several others, it was decided to purchase 
of Daniel McCuaig the farm known as the old Breckeuridge farm on 
the gravel road north of Monticello. The farm is three miles from the 
public square in Monticello and contains 150 acres. Eighty acres lie west 
of the north and south road and south of the road running west. Seventy 
acres lie east of the road and north of the road leading east to Norway. 
The Tippecanoe River forms the east boundary line. The purchase price 
was $16,500. The county council appropriated $31,000 for building pur- 
poses. The site selected for the new building is on a bluff overlooking the 
river, which, in addition to its picturesqueness, affords perfect drainage. 
Plans for the new building were furnished by the state board of charities. 
These were adapted to the needs of White County and the building 
planned by Samuel A. Young, a local architect. Work on the new build- 
ing was begun promptly and carried to completion under his superin- 
tendence. On June 16, 1908, the building was formally accepted by the 
count}- board of commissioners from the contractors. The total cost was 
$33,364.91. Built after many years of urging by grand juries, press and 
public and only after the old buildings had become almost scandalous in 
their unfitness, the new asylum places White County in the front rank 
for her humane provision for her poor. The natural advantage of 
drainage, afforded by the Tippecanoe River, is supplemented by the 
plumber's art which exemplifies throughout the building the most mod- 
ern ideas of sanitation. Water is supplied to all parts of the building 
by a Kewanee water system. There are bath and toilet rooms on both 
upper and lower floors. The basement is cemented throughout and well 
furnished with bell traps for carrying off water used in cleaning. The 
building is lighted by electric incandescent lamps, power for which is 
supplied on the premises by means of an 8-H. P. gasoline engine, the 
same power also operating the water system. A steam heating plant 
furnishes heat. The sexes are segregated. The women occupy the east 
wing of the building and have their own dining room. The men occupy 
the west wing. The superintendent and family occupy the central front. 
A driven well, 131 feet deep, provides water for cooking and drinking. 
Two 150-barrel cisterns with filters provide soft water. The water is 
forced to all parts of the building by compressed air which is contained 
in two big tanks in the basement. Ventilation is provided by means of 
four big stacks or chimneys in which are separate air flues for each floor 
and section of floor. Each room has its own ventilating shaft and all 
foul air is discharged out of doors. 

As the building now stands, it will house forty-eight inmates and this 
capacity can be more than doubled at but little expense. 

County's Growth by Decades 

When the preceding courthouse was completed, White County had 
a population of about 5,000, which, in 1895, had increased to some 


17,000, while the expansion in the value of taxable property was even 
more marked, being ten-fold from 18G0 to 1880. In 1860 the population 
was 8,258; 1870, 10,554, and 1880, 13,447. The 1880 census exhibits 
the townships as follows: Union, 2,213; Round Grove and White Post, 
1,635 ; Jackson, 1,724; Cass and Liberty, 1,785; Monou, 1,172; Honey 
Creek, 902; Big Creek, 776; Prairie, 2,144; Princeton, 1,396. 

Deductions from the Census Figures 

vUthough the figures for 1890 and 1900, respectively, indicate a fair 
increase in population, since the latter year there has been a readjustment 
of. general conditions, the record for 1910 showing a decrease. "Within 
more recent years another upward tendency has been evident; but "bet- 
ter times" have been manifest perhaps more in the increase in property 
valuation than in numbers of residents. The temptation for the younger 
generation to desert old and well settled districts for the newer and 
cheaper lands of the West is still strong and practically effective; but 
those who are in a condition to remain on the improved homesteads, or 
connected with growing industries, find no section better than White 
County for comfort and the satisfaction of moderate ambitions. These 
general remarks will be supported by the statistics contained in the 
following tables. 

White County's Population, 1890-1910 

Townships and Towns 1910 1900 1890 

Big Creek Township, including Chalmers town.. 1,080 1,292 955 

Chalmers town 513 462 

Cass Township 946 1,215 893 

Honey Creek Township, including Reynolds town 1,165 1,170 1,018 

Reynolds town 377 393 348 

Jackson Township, including Burnettsville town 1,812 1,990 1,958 

Burnettsville town 489 497 479 

Ljberty Township 1,011 1,266 1,221 

Monon Township, including Monon town 2,363 2,441 1,960 

Monon town 1,184 1,160 1,064 

Trairie Township, including Brookston town. .. . 2,181 2,325 1,885 

Brookston town 907 946 447 

Princetown Township, including Wolcott town.. 2,158 2,282 1,465 

Wolcott town 873 825 246 

Round Grove Township 628 890 779 

Union Township, including Monticello town 3,330 3,307 2,632 

Monticello town 2,168 2,107 1,518 

Wert Point Township 922 960 905 

Totals 17.G02 19,138 15,671 

till I- 


Property Valuation in 1905 and 1910 

A more conclusive proof of the betterment of property conditions 
during the past decade is found in the figures of the assessors for 1905, 
1910 and 1915. The comparative showing for 1905 and 1910 is as follows : 

Townships and Towns 1905 1910 

Prairie $ 1,586,840 $ 1,913,930 

Big Creek 764,240 1,006,500 

Union 957,260 1,347,610 

Monon 876,930 1,184,540 

Liberty 640,137 616,640 

Jackson 747,430 854,370 ' 

Princeton 1,277,270 1,332,490 

West Point 1,097,220 1,195,730 

Cass 501,420 499,910 

'Honey Creek 562,280 852,950 

Round Grove 709,300 826,480 

Monticello 1,040,810 1,040,870 

Brookston 367,080 366,650 

Reynolds 109,150 153,120 

Burnettsville 142,780 172,690 

Monon 302,350 360,500 

Wolcott 397,020 326,930 

■ Chalmers 180,140 206,930 

Totals $12,259,757 $14,258,800 

Taxable Valuation in 1914 

The following table shows the valuation of real and personal property 
(including that of corporations), with mortgage exemptions deducted, 
and the net value of all properties in the county subject to taxation in 

Townships and Towns Real Estate Personal Net Value 

Prairie $ 1,424,200 $ 370,050 $ 1,949,870 

Big Creek 715,130 172,410 1,010,060 

Union 795,340 274,580 1,272,580 

Monon 813,460 318,610 1,478,390 

Liberty 475,660 198,810 676,530 

Jackson 571,820 283,980 936,300 

Princeton 1,040,040 184,700 1,349,720 

West Point 1,019,800 266,930 1,288,320 

Cass 395,770 134,670 531,560 

Honey Creek 502,960 146,040 955,290 

Round Grove 709,390 165,240 876,300 

Monticello 740,120 518,060 1,319,640 


Townships and Towns Real Estate Personal Net Value 

Brookston 219,710 152,000 388,740 

Reynolds .- 70,080 64,420 168,800 

Burnettsville 81,960 85,180 185,360 

Monon 233,090 172,070 440,300 

Wolcott 216,030 145,020 373,810 

Chalmers 114,490 165,130 299,990 

Total $10,139,050 $3,817,900 $15,501,560 

Receipts and Expenditures 

From the last report of the county auditor for the year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1914, a few interesting facts are gleaned illustrative of the finances 
of the county. At the first of the year there was a balance' in the treasury 
of $208,928.09 and the receipts from all funds amounted to $641,660.34; 
so that the county had total resources to draw upon of $850,588.43. The 
total disbursements were $761,846.04. The receipts of the year from 
the county fund reached $64,769.36 and the disbursements $66,022.44. 
Only two larger funds were shown in the budget — those designated mac- 
adam roads and the five-mile ditches. The former indicated a balance of 
$70,489, and the latter of $42,457.53. The receipts derived from the 
macadam roads of the county amounted to $160,428.17, and as there was 
a balance the first of the year of $158,398.16, the available fund readied 
a total of $318,826.33; the total disbursements were $257,875.05. The 
receipts from the five mile ditches, including the balance brought over 
from the previous year, amounted to $135,470.18, and the disbursements 
$117,185.05. The other large items related to the special school, tuition, 
road, turnpike and common school taxes. The grand result, or the net 
balance in the county treasury (after deducting the amount collected 
since the November settlement), proved to be $95,492.39. 



Tiie Courts Boun op American Rule — First Territorial Court — 
Judge Parke Refuses to Hold Court — The Courts Under the 
First State Constitution — Under the Second Constitution — 
Courts of Common Pleas — Creatures of the Legislature — Pro- 
bate Courts — Court of Common Pleas Defined — The New Circuit 
Court — First Circuit Judge — First Active Grand Jurors — Pio- 
neer Lawyers of the Circuit — Albert S. White — Turpie's 
Sketches of Judge White — Young Turpie Hears First Stump 
Speech — Boys Abashed at White's Greatness — Meeting of 
Alpha and Omega — Meet in Early Maturity and Old Age — 
Together They Call on President Lincoln — Thompson, First 
Local Lawyer — Daniel D. Pratt — His Kind Helpfulness to 
Young Men — Judges and Attorneys, 1838-43 — Horace P. Biddle — 
Biddle vs. Pratt — Characteristics of David Turpie — Brief Facts 
of His Like — Describes His Coming to Monticello— Author of 
the Cattle-Lien Law — Good Squire Harbolt — Traits of Early 
Judges and Lawyers — "The Choctaw Line" — Played "When 
School Was Out" — Not Dollar-Slaves — Robert H. Milroy — 
John U. Pettit — John M. Wallace — Other Circuit Judges, 1855- 
1015 — The '•Wherefore" for So Many Judges — Reynolds, First 
White County Judge — Forgot He Was Judge — Truman F. 
Palmer — James P. Wason — The Probate Judges — Robert Newell 
— William M. Kenton — Zebulon Sheetz and Aaron Hicks — Court 
of Common Pleas Again — Samuel A. Huff — Common Pleas 
Judges, 1854-73 — Captain and Judge Alfred F. Reed — The 
Lawyers of 1834-51 — The Sills — Lawyers of 1856-1900 — Joseph H. 
Matlock — Orlando McConauy — Lawyers in Active Practice. 

Until about the middle period of the Revolutionary war, after General 
Clark had conquered the territory northwest of the Ohio for the patriot 
army, no earnest attempt was made by either France or Great Britain 
to establish civil or judicial administration over any part of the country 
west of the Alleghany mountains; and then it was too late for cither 
mother country to do anythng in that line. In other words, neither 
France nor Great Britain ever attempted to establish other than a mili- 
tary rule over the Northwest. Under French rule the commandants of 
the posts decided most points at issue between the civilians and the 
Indians, or which c*me up between the whites themselves; when the 



cases seemed particularly involved or important, some of the most influ- 
ential characters of the special locality which was disturbed would bo 
called into consultation. But few cases of lawsuits could arise, as few 
of the settlements in Indiana consisted of more than fifty families; they 
were happy-go-lucky people who did not worry about definite titles to 
their land so long as their neighbors did not object, and much of the 
land in the settlements was communal, each man usually cultivating 
only so much as would furnish him or his family with the necessities 
of life. 

^Vhen the common law of England was extended over the territory, 
no attempt was made to establish courts, as the new owners discouraged 
settlement west of the mountains. They did not think it worth their 
efforts to even take possession of Vineeunes until 1777, the only real 
center of civilization in the Northwest. 

The Courts Born op American Rule 

But when General Clark conquered the territory for Virginia and 
the Americans, and John Todd was appointed lieutenant for the County 
of Illinois, the authority of the courts commenced to be established. His 
headquarters were at Fort Chartres, but he sought also to establish a 
court of civil and criminal jurisdiction at Vincennes, of which the com- 
mari*dant of that post, Col. J. M. P. Legras, was president. A historian 
of those times says that "no record of an action by this court remains, 
except its assumption of the right to make grants of land, and it exer- 
cised that authority with royal liberality, most of the grants being made 
to the members of the court." That was the first judicial tribunal which 
legally and theoretically exercised jurisdiction over what arc now Indiana 
and White County, although fifty years were to elapse before any white 
men came to that section of the state to look for civil or judicial pro- 

Under the ordinance of 1787 Samuel H. Parsons, James M. Varnum 
and John C. Symes were appointed judges of the Northwest Territory, 
who, with Governor St. Clair, were authorized to enforce such laws of 
the original states as might be applicable to the new territory. It 
appears that the judges who held their first session at Marietta exceeded 
their authority and tried to incorporate some original — very original — 
laws, which were repudiated by the Congress of the United States. In 
1795 the governor and judges met at Cincinnati and enacted a number 
of laws which conformed to the authority of the organic ordinance; the 
validity of the laws promulgated at Marietta was questioned until L799, 
when, to avoid complications, they were readopted, as a whole, by the 
Territorial Legislature. 

First Territorial, Court 

In January, 1801, William Clark, Henry Vanderburgh and John 
Griffin, who had been appointed the first judges of Indiana Territory, 


met Governor Harrison at Vincennes, the capital, for the purpose of 
passing a code of laws to supersede that enacted at Cincinnati for the 
government of the Northwest Territory. Among those passed as a part 
of the uew code was one establishing courts of general quarter sessions 
of the peace in the counties of Knox, Randolph and St. Clair. 

The first session of the General Court was opeued at Vincennes on the 
3d of March, 1801, all the judges present. The graud jury called, as 
will he seen by an examination of the names of its members, was largely 
of French extraction, consisting of Luke Decker, Autoine Marshal, 
Joseph Baird, Patrick Simpson, Antoine Petit, Andr. Montplaiseur, John 
Ockiltree, Jonathan Marney, Jacob Tevebaugh, Alexander Vadney, 
Francois Turpin, Fr. Compagnoitte, Charles Languedoe, Louis Severe, 
Fr. Languedoe, George Catt, John St. Barios, Abraham Decker and 
Philip Catt. With a court of general sessions and a grand jury in 
operation, the judiciary of Indiana may be said to have been fully 

Judge Pakke Refuses to Hold Court 

In February, 1805, the first popular assembly of the territory met 
at Vincennes and split oil* Michigan from Indiana Territory, and four 
years later Illinois was carved out of it. In 1814, what is now Indiana 
was divided into five districts, each of which was to elect a member of 
the Territorial Council ; this action originated in Congress. In the same 
year the General Assembly divided the territory into three judicial dis- 
tricts, but Judge Parke refused to act, on the grounds stated in the 
following letter to Governor Posey: "By an act entitled 'An act reor- 
ganizing courts of justice,' passed at the late session of the Legislature, 
the Territory is divided into three districts, in each of which a circuit 
court is established — the court to consist of one of the judges appointed 
by the government of the United States for the territory, as president, 
and three associates commissioned under the authority of the territory, 
and to have jurisdiction in all cases at law and in equity. The first 
circuit, comprising the counties of Knox, Gibson and Warrick, is assigned 
to me. The Legislature is empowered to make laws in all cases for the 
good government of the territory not repugnant to the laws of the 
United States. In the delegation of power that which is not expressly 
given is reserved. Implications cannot be admitted further than to 
carry into effect the power given. The laws of the United States being 
paramount to the laws of the territory, if they are found in conflict, the 
latter must yield to the former. Congress has defined the jurisdiction 
of the judges appointed by the General Government and made one judge, 
in the absence of the others, competent to hold a court. The judges are 
coordinate and their jurisdiction extends over the whole Territory. They 
are judges in and over, and not of a part of the Territory. As the judges 
derive their jurisdiction and power from the government of the United 
States, they cannot be controlled, in the exercise of their functions, by 
persons deriving their authority from the government of the Territory. 


The judges appointed for the Territory are limited, by the laws of the 
United States, to the exercise of a common-law jurisdiction. The act, 
therefore, as it regards the organization and jurisdiction of the circuit 
courts, is repugnant to the laws of the United States, and neither confers 
any powers, nor imposes any duty, on the judges appointed for the Ter- 
ritory by the "United States. The General Government has appointed 
for the territory three judges with common-law jurisdiction; but when, 
where or in what manner they are to hold a court, or rather exercise the 
jurisdiction with which they are invested, Congress has not provided. 
I consider it the duty of the legislature to do it. To you, sir, it belongs 
to watch over the affairs of the territory and to see that the laws are 
faithfully executed, and, on account of the relation in which I stand 
to the Territorial Government, I have thought it my duty to make this 
representation to you. The peculiarity of the case leaves me no other 
mode of stating my objections and the cause of my not conforming to 
the law. The legislature has organized certain courts and assigned me ' 
to perform certain duties; but the law constituting the one, and direct- 
ing the other, is unconstitutional, and as I can derive no authority from 
it, it imposes no obligation. I shall, therefore, not hold the courts for 
the circuit." 

This refusal of Judge Parke, with various appeals to the General 
Assembly to establish courts which should modify the one-man power 
of the Superior Court (one judge being competent to hold court) has- 
tened the establishment of the Circuit Court which was alive when White 
County was created. At the legislative session which convened at 
•Corydon in August, 1S14, the territory was divided into three judicial 
districts, each of which was to be presided over by a judge appointed 
by the governor. In selecting the presiding judges, the chief executive 
was required to choose men "learned and experienced in the law," who 
were citizens of the United States and who had "regularly practiced 
in some of the courts of the United States, or in this territory, three 
years." The two associate judges of each county were to be residents 
of good standing, but not necessarily lawyers. Two judges were to 
constitute a quorum. 

The Courts Under the First State Constitution 

The entire judicial system, which prevailed in Carroll and White 
counties from the years of their organization in 1828 and 18IJ4, respect- 
ively, until the Common Pleas Court was established in 1852, was fixed 
and consolidated under the state constitution of 1810. Under its pro- 
visions the judicial bodies were to consist of a State Supreme Court, 
Circuit courts, and such inferior courts as the General Assembly might 
establish. The highest body was to consist of three judges to be ap- 
pointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate, their term of 
office to be seven years. The Supreme Court was given jurisdiction in 
capital or chancery cases where the president of the Circuit Court might 
be interested or prejudiced. 

River Scenes: (a) Washington Street Bridge; (d) At Tioo.y Dam; 
(c) General Scene; (d) Monticello Dam at Flood Tide; (e) Old 



The Circuit courts were to consist of a presiding judge and two asso- 
ciates. The president alone, or with one of the associates, or the two 
associates together, could hold court, although capital and chancery cases 
could not be_tried in the absence of the presiding judge. The presi- 
dents of the Circuit, courts were elected by the General Assembly in 
joint session and the associate judges were chosen by popular vote. 

The state constitution also provided that the clerk of the Supreme 
Court was to be appointed by the court and that the clerks of the Circuit 
courts were to be elected by the people, but no clerk could qualify who 
had not obtained a certificate of competency from a judge either of the 
Supreme or Circuit Court. The constitution also provided for justices 
of the peace. 

Under the Second Constitution 

The constitution of 1851 made the supreme judgeship elective instead 
of appointive and reduced the term of service from seven to six years. 
The choice of a clerk for the Supreme Court was also given to the people, 
and the associate judges of the Circuit courts were abolished. Further, 
the new constitution provided that no one elected to any judicial office 
should be eligible to any other office during the term of his service, other 
than a judicial one. 

Courts of Common Pleas 

"In creating inferior courts," says W. H. Smith, in his "History of 
Indiana," "the Legislature established what were known as Courts of 
Common Pleas. These courts were given exclusive jurisdiction in pro- 
bate matters and concurrent jurisdiction with the Circuit Courts in 
some other matters. This created great confusion. All the courts 
assumed to pass upon the constitutionality of laws enacted by the Gen- 
eral Assembly and the state witnessed the anomaly of having laws 
enforced in one county and declared unconstitutional in another. When 
the Legislature enacted the prohibitory liquor law in 1855, some of the 
Circuit judges declared it constitutional and enforced it, while others 
declared it void. This lasted until the Supreme Court finally overthrew 
the law. The confusion grew worse after the Common Pleas Court was 
established, for then some counties were operating under two different 
laws at the same time, according as the opinions of the judges differed. 
This confusion could not last, and finally the General Assembly abol- 
ished the Courts of Common Pleas, and in counties where the business 
was too great to be transacted by the Circuit Courts, Superior and Crim- 
inal Courts have been established, with well defined jurisdiction." 

To condense judicial matters in so far as they relate to White 
County: From the organization of the county in 18;!4 to the adoption 
of the second state constitution in 1851 its immediate judicial affairs 
Were under the jurisdiction of the Circuit and Probate courts, with 
right of appeal to the State Supreme Court; in 1852 all probate matters 


were transferred to the Common Pleas Court, created by the Legisla- 
ture; the Circuit Court continued its jurisdiction, with the abolish- 
ment of the two associate judgeships, and in 1873 absorbed the Court 
of Common Pleas; so that as far as White County is concerned, the 
Circuit Court has had a monopoly of judicial power for considerably 
over forty years. 

At the time of the organization of the county in 183-4 there were, 
besides the Circuit and Probate courts, one or more justices of the peace 
for each of the townships and the Court of Commissioners, comprising 
three members, the latter having charge of the location and improvement 
of highways, building of bridges, levying of taxes, allowance of claims 
against the county and general supervision of county affairs. Although 
judicial to a certain extent, its functions were so largely administrative 
that the commissioners' standing as a court has been largely obscured. 

The state was divided into districts or circuits, and the presiding 
judge was required to reside in one of the counties embraced in his 
circuit, all civil and criminal cases coming before the body over which 
he presided. White County was attached to the Seventh Circuit, and 
it was not until 1888, when Alfred W. Reynolds ascended the bench, 
that the county was represented in that judiciary. 

Creatures of the Legislature 

The first law passed after the adoption of the constitution of 1816 
was for the creation of a Supreme Court; the second, defined the powers 
of the Circuit Court; the third was in relation to suits at law and 
chancery, and the fourth regulated the jurisdiction of justices of the 

Probate Courts 

Probate courts were established by an act of the General Assembly 
passed January 23, 1829, to consist of one judge, who was not required 
to possess a legal education. Exclusive jurisdiction was given in the 
probating of wills, granting letters testamentary, and in affairs relating 
to guardianship and the settling of estates. The judicial term was four 

Court op Common Pleas Defined 

By the provisions of an act approved May 14, 1852, the Court of 
Common Pleas was established and its powers defined. Its jurisdiction 
was similar to the old Probate Court which it superseded; it also had 
jurisdiction over criminal eases which were not felonious. An appeal 
lay to the Circuit or Superior Court direct, at the option of the appel- 
lant. The judges could practice law in all courts except their own. 
The clerk of the Circuit Court and the sheriff of the county served also 
the Probate and Common Pleas Court. 


The New (Jikcuit Coukt 

The constitutional convention of 1851, of which Judge Biddle was 
a leading member and in which he took a prominent part, provided that 
the Circuit Court should consist of but one judge instead of three, and 
by act of the Legislature of 1852 it was provided that there should be 
ten districts in the state. White was then assigned to the Eighth Cir- 
cuit, with Cass, Miami, Howard, Wabash, Fulton, Pulaski, Jasper and 
Carroll. The term of the circuit judge was fixed at six years and John 
U. Pettit was the first judge to serve after the triple judgeship was 

First Circuit Judge 

Little is known of John R. Porter, the presiding judge of the 1835 
session. About all that can be stated in the way of facts is that he 
formerly presided over the Eighth Judicial Circuit, which embraced 
territory to the east and northeast of White County — the counties of 
Carroll, Cass, Miami, Wabash, Huntington, Allen, Lagrange, Elkhart, 
St. Joseph and Laporte. Like so many other of the early judges, he 
was rather "practical than technical," and the "records show a lack 
of method and a non-observance of strict rules of procedure and 

♦As has been noted, the first session of the Circuit Court at the house 
of George A. Spencer, in Big Creek Township, was held by the two 
associates, James Barnes and Thomas W r ilson. The grand jury con- 
sisted of Royal Ilazleton (foreman), William Woods, James Johnson, 
Samuel Gray, Robert Barr, Aaron Hicks, Daniel Dale, Robert Hanners, 
John Roberts, John Ferguson, James Parker, Joseph James, Sr., Cor- 
nelius Sutton, William Kerr and Joseph Thompson. In all probability 
Judge Porter had ascertained that only one little case of "malicious mis- 
chief" was on the docket and concluded that it could wait; but at the 
second session, held at the same place, April 17, 1835, all the judges 
were present and both bench and docket were full. 

First Active Jurors 

The grand jurors who returned the indictments consisted of Ben- 
jamin Reynolds (foreman), Ashford Parker, David Berkey, Elias 
Louther, Jonathan Harbolt, William Walters, Rowland Harris, William 
Phillips, Matthew Terwillager, James Kent, Phillip Davis, Armstrong 
Buchanan and Robert Newell. William Sill acted as clerk, John Wilson 
as sheriff, and George A. Spencer, in whose house court was held, as 

As this was the first session of court in White County where cases 
were actually adjudicated, the matters brought before Messrs. Porter, 
Barnes and Wilson have been noted as an important incident in the 
general history of the county. The petit or special jury which tried 
(lie eases legally allotted to it consisted of Joseph Sayre, Jacob Crooks, 


John Price, Henry Smelcer, Oliver Hammond, Jacob Keplinger, Thomas 
Kelley, Henry Baum, Robert A. Spencer, Joseph James, Joseph Dale 
aud Elisha- Bowles. 

' Pioneer Lawyers of the Circuit 

For four years the practitioners at the White County Bar were 
drawn from outside localities. At the October session of 1834 William 
P. Bryan, Andrew Ingram, Aaron Finch aud William M. Jenners were 
licensed to practice. At the close of that very uueventful sitting these 
gentlemen, with the judges aud the new county officers, visited the 
county seat at Monticello, and seriously inspected the lone cabin in 
which the clerk held forth, at the same time enthusiastically praising 
the good judgment of the commissioners in selecting the site. 

At the April term of 1835 so mauy cases came before the court that 
it became necessary to have a prosecuting attorney to represent the 
state. William P. Bryan was appointed to that office, and Thomas B. 
Brown and John W. Wright were sworn in as f members of the White 
County Bar. At the April term of 1837 Albert S. White, Rufus A. 
Lockwood and M. C. Dougherty were admitted to practice, and at the 
October session Zebulon Baird, A. L. Robinson, Samuel C. Wilson, 
Williamson Wright and Joseph Tatman were licensed, as attorneys. 
None of the lawyers mentioned resided in White County, but followed 
the judge in his circuit and attended to what legal business they could 

Albert S. White 

The best known of these early lawyers, who became a character of 
national distinction, was Hon. Albert S. White. He was learned in 
his profession, literary in his tastes, graceful in his diction, popular in 
his intercourse with his fellows, and of unimpeachable morality. During 
most of his mature life his residence was Lafayette, but while he actively 
practiced his profession there were few lawyers in Northwestern Indiana 
who were abler or more widely known, and it was no surprise to his 
numerous admirers when he graduated to Congress, the United States 
Senate and United States District Court. His death occurred at Stock- 
well, Indiana, September 4, .1804, and his funeral was the occasion of 
an impressive demonstration of deep and widespread grief, observed by 
public officials, railroad employes, and those of all classes included in 
those democratic words — the people. 

Judge White is described as a small, wiry, wide-awake, nervous man, 
near-sighted, with aquiline nose aud thin face. He shared with Hon. Dan- 
iel I). Pratt, of Logausport, the highest honors of the profession and of 
public life among the early practitioners of Northwestern Indiana. 
Both were elder friends of Hon. David Turpie,- whose fine record as a 
lawyer, jurist and public man is more intimately identified with the 
history of White County than the careers of the elder statesmen. 


Turpie's Sketches op Judge White 

It was the pleasure of the late Judge Turpi, to meet Judge White 
at different periods of his life, from boyhood to middle age — in his 
school days at Lafayette, in his practice as a young lawyer, aud in the 
halls of Congress after he had acquired a high standing as practitioner 
and judge. Turpie's delightful book, "Sketches of My Own Times," 
has this first picture of Mr. White, which is illustrative of both char- 
acters: "In the outskirts of the town (Lafayette) where we lived was 
an inn — so called — so kept. It stood upon a street corner, which we 
passed every day in going to school. Here Mr. Albert S. White had his 
rooms and lodging; he was one of the United States senators from 
Indiana; he was at this time a bachelor, had an office down town, but 
dwelt at the inn — no doubt from choice, as it was a quiet, pleasant house, 
and convenient for those who called to see him. He was a man of very 
affable manners, always spoke to the school boys whom he met, touched 
his hat when we doffed ours, and occasionally stopped to talk with us. 
We saw and noticed him day after day, and often made our small 
reflections about the high place which he held and his manner of life 
in Washington. 

Young Turpie Hears First Stump Speech 

"After we had been going to school for a year or two, one day the 
town was billed with notices of a Whig meeting to be addressed by 
Senator White; the time was fixed for Saturday at one o'clock in the 
afternoon. As Saturday was always a holiday with us, we made up a 
party to attend the meeting, chiefly to hear him. The meeting was held 
out of doors and the attendance was large, mostly of people from the 
country. When we arrived Mr. White had already commenced his 
address, which was delivered from a wagon standing under the shade 
of an old beech, ne held in his hand a document from which he read, 
commenting upon it' as he proceeded. This document was the cele- 
brated Ogle report. The Whigs charged at that time that there had 
>been a very lavish and unnecessary expenditure of public money in fur- 
nishing the White House, its gardens and grounds, and that the Demo- 
cratic president, Mr. Van Buren. was responsible for this expenditure. 
The first words of the address which I heard related to the purchase of 
golden spoons for the use of the president's table. Mr. White said this 
was a mere waste of the national revenue, and he sharply contrasted 
these costly spoons with those of horn and wood still not out of use 
among the people. 

"In the course of reading the report, he came to an item for the 
purchase of a large number of young trees of the Morus Multicaulis, 
Baying that his Latin was a little rusty, but that lie understood these 
words to mean, the many-leaved mulberry, whose foliage was fed upou 
by the silk worm; that the president had gone into the mulberry trade 
in order to procure, as he supposed, silk napkins, table cloth and towels, 

■ ■ ■ ________ 


to match the golden spoons. He added that there was another kind 

of tree which would haw been 'far more appropriate to adorn the lawn 
and gardens of the executive mansion than the Morns Multieaulis; that 
tree was the I'linus Lubrica — in English, the slippery elm. When he 
spoke of the slippery elm, he was interrupted by prolonged shouts and 

"Mr. Van Buren was already well known to the public as the Kinder- 
hook Wizard and the Little Magician, and although Mr. White had 
applied none of these epithets to the president, the audience readily 
made the application. In the latter part of his address Mr. White became 
more grave and serious, describing the Whig national convention held 
a few months before, which had nominated General Harrison for the 
presidency. He related the account of Harrison's government of this 
territory; his faithful and long continued safeguarding of white settlers 
on the frontier, his treaties with the Indian tribes, his defeat of the 
Prophet at Tippecanoe, the subsequent overthrow and death of Tecumseh 
at the Thames, closing with an appeal, full of force and feeling, to the 
old soldiers and settlers of Indiana to stand by their former friend and 
commander as one who had worthily deserved the highest honors of 
the republic. 

Boys Abashed at White's Greatness 

"The speech was well received, applause was manifested by the wav- 
ing of hats and clapping of hands, and many of the audience walked to 
the speaker's stand and tendered their congratulations. None of our 
group of school -boys went forward; our old acquaintance, Mr. White, 
had suddenly become in some way a stranger to us; he seemed upon the 
stand before a public assembly to be so much greater, higher, than upon 
the street — we felt too much abashed to approach him. This address, 
made now more than sixty years ago, was the first stump speech I ever 
heard. It was, judging from the effect following it, an excellent speci- 
men. It gave life and movement to the Whig campaign, which from 
that day prospered without ceasing until it ended in the election of 
General Harrison to the presidency." 

Meeting of Alpha and Omega 

In 1850, soon after bis admission to the bar and at the commence- 
ment of his practice, Mr. Turpie again met his elder practitioner at Mon- 
ticello. Let him tell the story: "Mr. Albert S. White appeared only 
once in the White Circuit Court— it was at the second term after my 
admission. He came to present an argument upon a demurrer pending 
in an important cause which bad been brought to our county on change 
of venue. He spoke more than an hour. There was a large audience 
and a full bench, though upon mere questions of law the two associate 
judges seldom acted. Every one liked to hear Mr. White. He had a 
very copious and accurate command of legal terms and phraseology. 


The ease involved the construction of a will, and when lie spoke of real 
estate he used the word devise; when of personalty, the word bequeath; 
and he never confused them. His own position was always defined in 
language measured, precise and deliberate, with courteous deference 1 to 
the court, implied, even more than expressed in his tone and manner. 
In criticizing the position of opposing counsel, he was trenchant and 
severe, but classic and ornate. He had an elegant way of transposing 
maxims and cases cited by the adverse party to his own advantage, which 
had all the effect of surprise or accident. 

"At the close of his argument he was complimented in high terms 
from N the bench and by the attorneys in attendance. I went forward, 
among others, and offered my hand, giving him my name. lie recog- 
nized me, in the friendliest manner, as the school-boy of his former 
acquaintance. 'Why,' said he, 'here is a meeting of Alpha and Omega; 
you are commencing your professional course, and I am just closing 
mine.' lie told that he had become president of a railroad company 
recently organized in his city, which required all his time and attention; 
that he had given up the practice of the law, and did not think that he 
should ever appear in another case. I was invited to call on him at 
his room, and I called in the evening. He inquired about my previous 
occupation and said he was glad I had been engaged in teaching in the 
country. The business men about a town who know and become ac- 
quainted with a young man as a schoolmaster seem to entertain a kind 
of misgiving as to his ability for any other pursuit. If he becomes a 
lawyer they avoid him; they are unwilling to consult him in their 
affairs; they think there is a sort of dust of incapacity that settles upon 
a school-teacher, not to be brushed off; but a teacher in the country is 
not so much subject to this disparagement. Kindly directing the con- 
versation to those things most interesting to myself, lie gave me an account 
of his early experience in the law practice at Rushville and Paoli, Orange 
county, where, as a young man, he had labored in the profession." 

Meet in Early Maturity and Old Age 

When Mr. Turpie went to Washington, in the winter of 18GI3, to 
serve out the unexpired term of Jesse D. Bright as United States 
senator, he again met Mr. White, who was serving his second term in 
the house of representatives; "nor did I meet any one in Washington," 
he says, "with more pleasure than my friend Albert S. White. lie had 
previously served in the House and the Senate as a Whig; now, in his 
old age, he had been elected to the House as a Republican. Hut these 
political changes had not affected in any way the goodly and gracious 
personality of the man. 

Together They Call on President Lincoln 

"We had lived in the same section of our state and, though the tide 
of events had separated us, yet we had at home many personal friends 


and acquaintances common to both. One of them had taken office at 
the beginning of the new administration and in the course of his service 
had fallen into some embarrassment that required executive action for 
his relief. We called upon Mr. Lincoln together concerning this affair. 
The president informed us that the papers in the case had reached his 
desk, that he had not overlooked them, neither had he as yet looked 
them over very'closely. Mr. White made a full statement of the facta; 
I followed with some remarks about the law of the case. Mr. White 
resumed, speaking of his long acquaintance with the man, his honesty 
and good faith; among other things, of an instance in which a large 
sum of money had come into his hands for which he was not bound 
by any note or bond, yet he had fully accounted for it, principal and 
interest, without suit. Mr. Lincoln, as I noticed, 'paid very close atten- 
tion to this, shifted his legs upon his knees (a bodily habit of his) and 
seemed to be much moved by parts of his recital. When Mr. White had 
finished, the president said: 'Gentlemen, I shall carry this case, as we 
say in Illinois, over to the chancery side. We all know what statutes 
are made for — it is to see that the right thing is done; it is my duty to 
take care that no innocent man is wronged by them; by that rule I shall 
be guided.' We went away feeling hopeful as to our mission and were 
not disappointed in the result. 

"Mr. White did not desire to be a candidate for re-election to the 
House. At the expiration of Ins term he was appointed by the president 
and confirmed by the Senate as a member of an Indian commission. 
Talking of this some time afterward, Mr. Lane (Henry S. Lane, Mr. 
Turpie's colleague in the Senate) said to me that he supposed it would 
be the last we should hear of our old friend. It happened that in a few 
months a vacancy occurred in the United States District Judgeship for 
the district of Indiana, and he was immediately nominated and con- 
firmed for that office, but died a short time thereafter. All Air. White's 
preferments were due to the personal favor of the president. Mr. 
Lincoln was not at all careless; he was very cautious in the bestowal 
of his friendship and confidence, but when they were once given they 
were given wholly, without reserve. It may be said there might have 
been an unworthy recipient ; lie never chose an unworthy recipient when 
he acted upon his own personal judgment and observation. 

"I have since deeply regretted that Mr. White did not live some 
years to preside in the federal courts of our state. He would have 
brought to the duties of the bench great store of legal learning and 
acumen, the most patient diligence in all his work, accompanied by an 
inborn courtesy, an urbane suavity of manner which much becomes those 
who sit in these high tribunals." 

Thompson, First Local Lawyer 

In April, 18:18, the year after Albert S. White became a member of 
the White County Bar, Thomas M. Thompson and Nathaniel Nilcs were 
admitted, and in December of the same year Joseph A. Wright, after- 


ward governor of Indiana, Hiram Allen and Nathan Darnell were 
licensed. In the name Thomas M. Thompson we at last recognize a 
resident oi' White County. His full name was Thomas MeKean Thomp- 
son and his father, after whom he was named, was a nephew of Thomas 
MeKean, formerly a governor of Pennsylvania and one of the signers 
of the Declaration of Independence. In 1817 the family moved from 
Steubenville, Ohio, where the son had heen born seven years previously, 
and located in Branville, that state, where the future lawyer reached 
manhood. After receiving a collegiate training at Kenyon College and 
Miami University, he pursued his legal studies in the office of Colonel 
Marthiat, of Newark,.. Ohio, and soon after his admission to the har in 
1834 began practice at Indianapolis. About four years afterward he 
settled at Moiiticello, as its first local attorney, engaging in other occu- 
pations to tide over the small years. 

Soon after his admission to practice before the White County courts 
he became deputy county clerk, recorder and auditor under William Sill, 
and when his superior died in January, 1816, was appointed to the head 
of the consolidated offices, continuing to discharge their duties until the 
succeeding general electi6n of August. The constitution of 1851 sep- 
arated these offices, and in August, 1852, he was elected auditor for a 
term of four years. Mr. Thompson was a whig and, naturally, a repub- 
lican at the organization of the party. He appears to have been an 
industrious, reputable lawyer and official, never attaining prominence 
in either capacity; but, what is more to his credit, he has left a name 
which is bright in kindly ways and liberal deeds, and his deatli in August, 
1881, was sincerely mourned. Ha married Mary Ann Sheetz, member 
of another stanch pioneer family, and both were buried in the old 
Sheetz burial ground a short distance above Moiiticello, on the east bank 
of the Tippecanoe. The wife preceded the husband many years. They 
were the parents of seven children and in their descendants are there- 
fore personified much that stands for the early bench and bar of White 
County; that fact will be more evident when it is considered that Zebulon 
Sheetz, the founder of the family, was one of the pioneer probate judges 
who held sway before their functions were absorbed by the Court of 
Common Pleas. 

Daniel D. Pratt 

At the November term of the Circuit Court, in 183'J, the members of 
the White County Bar— that is, those allowed to practice in itscourts— 
were increased by the admission of Daniel D. Pratt and Daniel Mace, 
and in April, 1840, II. J. Harris and John L. Scott were entered on the 
roll of attorneys. 

Mr. Pratt earned a fine standing at the bar and as a public man. 
During the forty years of his most pronounced successes he resided in 
Logansport, although he quite frequently appeared in the courts of 
White County, and was everywhere recognized as one of the most elo- 
quent, adroit and successful pleaders before a jury. As he was also 



very careful in the preparations of his cases and based his eloquence 
upon the facts, his standing as a lawyer was very substantial, resting 
as it did upon practical results, suits actually won. 

His Kind IIkli-kulness to Young Mkn 

Mr. Pratt studied law in Indianapolis during his younger years, and 
located at Logansport in 1836. He served one term in the State Leg- 
islature, was in the United States Senate from 1869 to 1875, and died 
in his adopted city, and which had adopted him as perhaps her fore- 
most citizen, in June, 1877. The veteran and beloved lawyer became 
the preceptor of many young men who were ambitious to succeed in 
the profession, and who, in after years, freely acknowledged their indebt- 
edness to his generous and fatherly instruction. Among the number 
was David Turpie, who speaks of him thus, and by his words closely 
connects the personality of Mr. Pratt with the young lawyer who was 
first to give the bar of White County a high standing abroad: "A few 
days after the close of my first school I went to Logansport, taking with 
me several letters of commendation addressed to Mr. Daniel D. Pratt, 
an eminent attorney of that city, in whose office I was desirous of pur- 
suing my law studies. Mr. Pratt read the letters and received me very 
kindly, said I was quite welcome to a place as student in the office, and 
that he would take pleasure in directing the course of my reading. 
Mr. Pratt was then, as a member of the bar, in the meridian of his fame. 
He had, and deserved, the highest professional reputation and in fullest 
measure the confidence of the people. It was a privilege to make my 
studies under the guidance of such a preceptor. This gentleman was 
considerate in his treatment of young men and conscientious in the 
discharge of his duty toward them. Unless actually engaged in court, 
he spent some hours every Saturday with his students, questioned them 
closely on the subject upon which they were reading, answered himself 
questions upon the same, and sometimes advised that a particular section 
or chapter should be read over, saying, by way of encouragement, that 
he had, when a student, taken the same course. He accepted no com- 
pensation for his services; the work which a student did in the office 
was perhaps of some assistance to him, but more to the student." 

Judges and Attorneys, 1838-43 

At the December term of the Circuit Court in 1838 Isaac Naylor 
succeeded John R. Porter as its presiding judge, and in April, 1842, 
John W. Wright became the third incumbent. James Barnes continued 
as an associate, while Thomas Wilson was replaced by Thomas McCor- 
mick; they were the last of the associate judges of the Circuit Court. 
At the October term of that year Oodlovc S. Orth, afterward a con- 
gressman, William S. Palmer and John Ilanna were admitted to the 
bar, and in October, 1843, Samuel A. Huff, subsequently judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, and Robert Jones were added to the list. 


Horace P. Biddle 

At the April term, 1847, Horace P. Biddle ascended the circuit bench 
as the successor of John W. Wright. Judge Wright was known as 
"ready," although not profound, in his decisions. After he left the 
bench he was mayor of Logansport, became influential in railroad mat- 
ters, and spent the last years of his life at Washington, District of 

If ever there was an able, versatile and eccentric character on the 
bench of the old Circuit Court it was Judge Biddle. lie was a little, 
fiery man, but although he had not a few personal encounters when he 
was an advocate at the Logansport Bar, as a judge he seemed to retain 
a calm equipoise and made a fine record both as a member of the con- 
stitutional convention of 1851 and as an occupant of the Circuit and 
State Supreme courts. 

Biddle vs. Pratt 

Daniel D. Pratt was as large physically as Horace P. Biddle was small, 
and at the Logansport Bar they were sometimes pitted against each other 
with exciting clashes. Upon on occasion, while they were fighting out a 
case before Judge John U. Pettit not long after Biddle 's term had 
expired as circuit judge, Mr. Pratt turned fiercely upon his diminutive 
but sturdy antagonist and shouted, "Why, I could swallow you!" 

Biddle returned like a flash, ' ' If you did, you would have more law 
in your belly than you ever had in your head." 

On another occasion Biddle was incensed at Pratt's abuse and next 
day carried a sword into court with him. Pratt again referred to Biddle 
in very uncomplimentary language and Biddle slapped him iu the face 
with the flat of his sword. The two men clinched, but Pratt's powerful 
form soon stood over the frail Biddle, when the latter was about to 
unsheath his sword and thrust it into Pratt's ponderous abdomen, but 
the sheriff separated the combatants. Judge Pettit fined Biddle $1,000 
for contempt of court, but the fine was never collected. As stated, 
Judge Biddle was one of the most influential members of the second 
constitutional convention, served for many years as judge of the higher 
courts, became widely known for his strong and polished pen, and died 
in 1900 at his home in Logansport. 

Characteristics of David Tubpie 

In 1849, or about midway in Judge Biddies term, the local bar, 
heretofore represented by Mr. Thompson, was re-enforccd by a young 
man of twenty-one, who was to make history for himself, the county and 
the state— David Turpie, lawyer, judge, statesman, classical scholar and 
literatteur, and in many respects the most remarkable character with 
which this history deals.' The activities of his broad career and the 
charms of his large and strong personality (notwithstanding its weak- 


nesses) embrace, as their fields, Moiiticello, Logansport and the capitals 

of both the Statu of I in liana and the United States of America. He was 
a brilliant lawyer, lacking somewhat the patience to be a profound 
judge; a constructive statesman; a cultured companion who did not need 
the printed page cither to expound the gospels or present the beauties 
of the classics; a writer of the Goldsmith and Irving grace of diction, 
and a friend and citizen who, on the whole, inspired both by spirit and 
action. As a test of his standing in authorship, when applied to home 
and domestic history, the best critics place his "Sketches of My Own 
Times" in a class by itself; in other words, pronounce it an Indiana 

Like other men of genius, Mr. Turpie was so wrapped in his own 
thoughts that self -consciousness was quite foreign to his nature, with 
the result — which is also not unusual — that his most intimate friends 
were never sure of what treatment to expect from him ; whether the 
geniality of unaffected comradeship or a complete ignoring of bodily 
presence. "While such breaches of the common standards of courtesy 
seemed to the careless observer as little more than freaks of an unbal- 
anced nature, those who were capable of appreciating Senator Turpie 
knew that his nature was so absorbed that he had no thoughts for appear- 
ances. But such peculiarities brought him many enemies and unfitted 
him to be a successful politician, although his great force of character 
carried him repeatedly into public office, despite what in one of less 
strength would have been insurmountable obstacles to advancement. 

Brief Facts op His Life 

David Turpie was an Ohio man, born in Hamilton County, July 8, 
1829. He graduated from Kenyon College in 184S ; studied law with 
lion. Daniel D. Pratt, of Logansport, who twenty years afterward com- 
menced service in the United States senate, and soon after being admitted 
to the bar in that place moved to Moiiticello for the practice of his pro- 
fession. In 1SG8 he returned to Logansport, where he continued actively 
engaged in the law until 1872, after which Indianapolis was his home. 
Ills death occurred in the capital city April 21, 190!), when he had 
nearly reached his eightieth year. 

Mr. Turpie 's public career included a seat in the lower house of the 
State Legislature as a stalwart democrat, from 1853 to 1858; a -term as 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 1854; the completion of the 
unexpired term of Jesse D. Bright as United States senator from Janu- 
ary to March, 1863 ; representative in the State Assembly again, 
1874-75, during which In- served as speaker; a leading participation in 
the revision of the state laws, as one of the three members constituting 
the board of commissioners appointed for that purpose whose labors cov- 
ered L878-81; able professional service as United States district attor- 
ney in 18SG-87; delegate at large to the democratic national convention 
of 1888 and, as a deserved conclusion, dignified, useful and brilliant 


performance of the duties attaching to the United States senatorsbip, 
from 1887 to 1899. 

Mr. Turpie served as United States senator until the expiration of 
his second term, March 3, 1899, and made a line record as chairman of 
the Committee on Census and member of the Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee. He was long recognized by his fellow senators as a rich source 
of information and a valued counselor in the general deliberations of 
the upper house. Quotations, facts, literary and practical information 
of all kinds were promptly available as the result of a personal inter- 
view; so that when in doubt about any knotty point or authority, the 
instinctive advice would be given — "Ask Turpie." 

Describes His Coming to Moxticello 

Senator Turpie died at his home in Indianapolis, the later years of 
his life being largely devoted to the preparation of his "Sketches," or 
reminiscences, published in 1903. He himself tells of his advent into 
the community which he was so long to honor. "Having completed my 
third term as schoolmaster," he says, "I went to Logansport a few days 
afterward, made a review of my law reading and applied for admission 
to the bar. The examination lasted three hours. The report thereof 
being favorable, my name was entered upon the roll of attorneys and a 
certificate of admission was given me which bears date April 14, 1849. 
I was yet in my twenty-second year. Before this some conference had 
occurred between Mr. Pratt and myself concerning a suitable location 
to commence the practice. He had told me of a large county lying 
directly west of the one in which he resided, where there was no resident 
attorney. It was, as he stated, a county of rich laud and, although 
very sparsely settled, would become at no distant day wealthy and popu- 
lous; he thought it was an eligible place for a beginner. Soon after my 
admission, I took a livery conveyance and was driven to the capital of 
White County. On the day after my arrival, an entire stranger, I 
called upon and delivered to three gentlemen residing there my letters 
of introduction, thus commencing an acquaintance not yet ended and 
a residence of many years." 

Author op tiie Cattle-Lien Law 

When Mr. Turpie commenced his practice at Monticello, and for sev- 
eral years thereafter, the farmers of White County and neighboring 
country were in the habit of grazing cattle driven in from Eastern Indi- 
ana, Ohio and AVestern Pennsylvania, for that purpose. Disputes often 
arose between the herders, or agistors, and the eastern owners as to the 
charges due for such pasturage and services; as the country where the 
herds were grazed was mostly free range, such charges were really more 
for herding than for feed: One of these prairie herdsmen having hail, 
at the close of the season, a dispute with the owners of certain cattle 
about the amount of his bill, which they refused to pay, impounded the 


whole herd, declined to deliver it and forcibly prevented the sheriff 
from serving a writ of replevin, which they had issued to recover, 

At, this juncture mutual friends of the parties intervened, the 
herder's bill was settled and paid upon compromise and the cattle were 
delivered to their owners. Some months after this, however, the grand 
jury returned an indictment against the herder and a number of his 
tenants and friends who had aided him in resisting the process of the 
sheriff. They applied to Mr. Turpie to assume their defense, who advised 
them to plead guilty, as they had no remedy under the existing laws; 
but they insisted and the ease went against them, the judge instructing 
the jury that the herders had no lien upon the cattle at common law 
and were therefore trespassers. The defendants were therefore all con- 
victed and lined. But in the spring of 1852 a number of farmers in the 
herding business urged that Mr. Turpie become a candidate for the Leg- 
islature ui)on the platform of a new cattle-lien law. This he did and, 
despite opposition from .Mr. Pratt and other prominent men, the measure 
was passed and incorporated into the state statutes. No one service 
which he accomplished during bis career in the Legislature was more 
generally appreciated by the farming element than that mentioned, 
which is credited to the General Assembly of 1853. 

Good Squire IIarbolt 

One of the first justices of the peace appointed to serve "White 
County was Jonathan IIarbolt, of Montieello, and no one served longer 
or more conscientiously in that office. The "Sketches" thus picture 
him: "The principal character in our village was the Squire. Of 
course the county officers lived there, but they were not so well known, 
nor nearly so often spoken of as the old Squire. He had been a justice 
of the peace for a long time — in his case,, it proved to be a life office. 
He was n man of fifty years, a native of Culpeper County, Virginia, 
who had crossed the mountains on horseback when a youth just out of 
his apprenticeship, and after traveling through the West for some time 
settled down in our village. By trade he was a joiner and cabinet- 
maker, and his office and court were held in the carpenter-shop, a roomy 
apartment, where I often appeared for parties litigant. His books and 
papers were kept neatly in place, the docket entries were clear and 
legible, especially the signature; indeed, the Squire may have been a 
little vain of his handwriting — it was the only vanity he cherished. 

"The margin of the docket page was reserved for costs; here, as 
thi> case proceeded, his fees were entered with precision to the cent or 
half-cent; but if lie was strict in taxation he was liberal in collection; 
be would at any time throw oil' half his costs — all his costs — if he could 
only induce the parties to settle without further action. Great stress 
was laid upon the last word of bis official title; peace, he said, was better 
than pennies; peace was better than to train a lawsuit or to lose it; it 
was his duty to make peace, as well as to keep it. In religion be was 


a. Presbyterian of the old school, a resolute stickler for t lie Five Points 
of Calvin, though no proselyter; but when attacked, if lie did not con- 
vince his assailant, he often reduced him to silence by a battery of well- 
chosen texts, aided by his imperturbable good humor and his unfeigned 
sincerity. If there were in his creed any lack of charity, it abounded in 
his life and conversation. Whenever he entered a final judgment for 
principal, interest and costs, he closed it with the formula: 'And the 
defendant in mercy,' the form used at that time in such cases in the 
Circuit Court. I have frequently heard him repeating this clause over 
and over after he had written it, the words seeming to charm his ear. 
He observed closely; knew more of men than he said or than 'they 
thought, and, although he was willing to overlook the follies of mankind 
and much commiserated their sins and shortcomings, yet he treated 
offenses against the statute in such case made and provided, with some- 
what more of rigor.. His probity has passed into a proverb: 'As honest 
as the old Squire.' In his prolonged service he had become well versed 
in the law of his jurisdiction, and was so thoroughly impartial in judg- 
ment that appeals from his court were seldom taken. In politics the 
Squire was always a Democrat, and as such he was elected by the people 
of a district composed of three counties, a delegate to the constitutional 
convention of 1851. He went to Indianapolis, served through the ses- 
sion of that body, was held in the highest esteem by his distinguished 
members, and when he returned from the capital resumed the duties of 
a magistrate, which he continued to discharge until his death. 

"The praises justly due to the excellencies of such a character may 
in some degree be reflected upon the people and the constituency which 
he served, who, if they did not all possess these qualities, yet appre- 
ciated them, and upon this consideration honored their fellow towns- 
man with a lifelong trust and confidence." Good Squire Ilarbolt passed 
to his future reward on the 12th of August, 1872, in his sixty-seventh 
year and no one has ever died in Monticello who carried to the unknown 
more kindly thoughts and remembrances. 

Traits op Early Judges and Lawyers 

No writer has drawn with clearer or more graceful outlines the 
relations of the pioneer bench and bar than Mr. Turpie, if any excuse 
were needed to reproduce those pictures of the times in which his young 
manhood was cast: "The members of the bar fifty years ago were a 
convivial fraternity. They made a free use of stimulants; they drank, 
not to any gross excess, but the habit was general. In like manner, with 
few exceptions, they played cards and frequently for money; but the 
slakes were small and no one was ever enriched or impoverished by the 
result. Our circuit judge (Biddle), though he was an inveterate player, 
would never admit that be gambled. He had a handsome euphemism 
for the occasion. Approaching an attorney with whom he was well 
acquainted, he would say that he had a little money in his pocket about 
which he was uncertain whether it belonged to himself or to the person 



lie addressed, and would invite him to his room in the evening so that 
they might have a trial of the right of property to determine its owner- 
ship. The trial of course took place at chambers. Any member of the 
bar who called might interplead and take part in the action. Outsiders 
were not admitted; to that extent the game was exclusive. 

"The Choctaw Line" 

"When a regular symposium was held, usually at the close of the 
term, these games were accompanied by music, the songs of the circuit. 
The ballads sung were jovial, but not beyond the line of becoming 
decorum. 'In the Season of the Year,' 'Gabriel's Wedding,' 'Life Let 
Us Cherish' and the 'Arkansas Gentleman,' .were specimens. The 'Ar- 
kansas Gentleman' was a general favorite. It was a sort of poetical 
centipede, having rhymed terminals, though the feet in the lines were 
irregular and almost innumerable. 

" 'This fine Arkansas gentleman went strong for Pierce and King, 
And when the election was over he went down to Washington to get 

an office or some other comfortable thing; 
But when he got there the boys told him that the trumps were all played 

and the game was up, yet they treated him so fine 
That he came back to his plantation and lived happier than ever just on 

the Choctaw line.' 

"The counterpart of this pilgrim to Washington might doubtless be 
found in many places today ; no poet has celebrated his journey, and 
even if some of our bards had done so it is hardly to be supposed that any 
member of the bar would now sing or even deign to listen to such a 

"The Choctaw Line became a proverbial expression in our circuit 
for a life of good cheer and hospitality. A witness called in a certain 
ease to a question of character, after answering the usual inquiries, 
summed up his statement with the remark that the gentleman asked 
about was an honest man, a good neighbor and citizen, and had lived for 
many years as near to the Choctaw Line as any person he had ever 
known. This evidence was perfectly understood both by the judge and 
jury engaged in hearing the cause. 

Played "When School was Out" 

"These convivialities of the bar were limited to the members of their 
own brotherhood and occurred when those who participated in them were 
off duty. These same gentlemen, when engaged in the courtroom in the 
trial of a case pending, were models of the gravest propriety. When the 
active business of the term was over the revels commenced ; all waited for 
the final adjournment, and no one ever thought of leaving the judge to 
make the journey alone to the next appointment. It must not he for- 


gotten that these veterans of the bench and bar were living at the close 
of what might be called on old dispensation, the distinctive feature, of 
winch was the circuit practice. Much of their time was spent away from 
home. On their travels, mostly made on horseback, they encountered 
bad roads and often worse weather; their professional work was per- 
formed with great skill and fidelity, frequently under circumstances of 
much discomfort. When the labors of the term were ended, or, to use 
their own expression, when school was out, they felt as if they had a right 
to some amusement. They took not the least pains to disguise or con- 
ceal the character of their recreations, as these were not, in their view, 
the subject of any reasonable reproach or discredit. 

Not Dollar-Slaves 

"Members of the old bar were not at all inferior to those of the new 
in capacity or integrity, in dignity, courtesy or learning. These patri- 
archs made no sort of claim to virtues, or so-called virtues, which they 
did not possess, or to habits which they did not practice. They did not 
write elaborate essays for the magazines upon the subject of professional 
ethics, but they thoroughly understood and rigidly enforced the rules 
of that species of morality. The attorney who indulged in sharp prac- 
tice against his fellow member of the bar might be once or twice for- 
given, but he who resorted to such means in dealing with a client or a 
layman instantly lost caste, and that beyond respite or remedy. 

"The fee was regarded as a proper accompaniment for legal service, 
but it was not the chief object in professional life. The lawyers of 
those days were untouched by the commercial spirit, untainted by the 
slightest trace of reverence for wealth as such. They felt in their faces 
the breath of the coming age; overheard in the distance the gigantic steps 
of approaching material progress, and somewhat adapted their methods 
to its action, but always within the elemental lines of rectitude and jus- 
tice. Sometimes seated around a blazing log fire in a wayside country 
tavern, they discussed with keen zest and much philosophic foresight the 
probable legal questions of the coming time. Having done tins, they left 
these subjects, not without deep concern, but with unfaltering trust and 
confidence, to the wise and pure arbitrament of the tribunals of the 

Robert H. Milroy 

Robert II. Milroy, who succeeded Judge Biddle in November, 1852, 

was a resident of Delphi, Carroll County. The Ninth Circuit, of which 
he was the presiding judge, was then composed of White. Carroll, Lake. 
Laporte, Porter, St. Joseph, Marshall, Starke, Fulton, Cass, Pulaski, 
lloward and Miami. Judge Milroy left a good record as a lawyer, a 
Judge and a soldier, serving as a captain in the Mexican war and a col- 
onel in (I,,. War of the Rebellion. 



John U. Pettit 

.John U. Pettit, who became presiding judge in May, 1853, served 
about a year, and then resigned for congressional honors, finally becom- 
ing speaker of the House of Representatives. He was also one of D. D. 
Pratt's boys; was admitted to the Logansport bar in 1841, but loeated 
in tlie following year at Wabash, where he resided until his death in 1881. 

» John M. Wallace 

John .M. Wallace, who was Judge Pettit 's successor, ascended the 
bench in November, 1854, and also ranked high in his" profession. Before 
he became judge lie had served with credit in the Mexican war and was 
afterward a colonel in the Civil war and a paymaster in the regular army. 

Other Circuit Judges, 1855-1915 

John Pettit, of Lafayette, who afterward served as one of the judges 
of the State Supreme Court, presided over the Circuit Court of White 
County from March, 1855, to March, 1856, and the following occupied the 
bench from that date until 1888, when Alfred W. Reynolds, already 
designated as the first member of the profession from White County to 
be thus honored, assumed his judicial duties: Andrew Ingham, com- 
menced his term in March, 1856; John Pettit, September, 1857; Charles 
II. Test, .March, 1858; David P. Vinton, 1870; Bernard B. Daily, who 
was the tirst judge of the new circuit composed of AVhite, Carroll and 
Pulaski counties, May, 1875; aud John II. Gould, who refused a third 
term, October, 1876 to 1888; Alfred W. Reynolds, 1888-94; Truman F. 
Palmer, L894-1906; and James P. Wason, of Delphi, the present incum- 
bent, since 1906. 

The "Wherefore" op So Many Judges 

Sill's unpublished "History of White County" thus condenses a 
number of salient facts connected with the White County Circuit Court: 
"Tin' remarkable increase in population in northwestern Indiana, and 
.specially in White county, which had more than doubled hi the decade 
between 1840 and 1850, created a necessity for a frequent; change of 
circuits and the creation of new ones. The legislature could not legislate 
a Circuit judge out of office as it could the judge of a court created by 
statute, for the Circuit Court was provided for in the constitution of 
the .stale and could not he legally abolished ; but where a circuit embraced 
(WO or more counties a new circuit could be created out of the counties 
detached from the old one, and the governor would appoint a judge who 
resided in the new circuit to net until his successor was elected and quali- 
lied. This will account I'or the great number of judges holding the cir- 
cuit in White county. No resident judge bad been elected from the 
organization of the county in 1834 until the election of Judge Reynolds 



in 1888. In the interim our judges had been provided for us, either by 
election, or appointment, from the counties of Warren, Tippecanoe, 
Carroll, Cass, Miami and Jasper. At one time our circuit extended from 
tile eastern line of Miami county to the state line on the west, and north 
to the north line of Pulaski county. Now there are four circuits, and part 
of a fifth, covering the same territory." 

Reynolds, First White County Judge 

Judge Reynolds was in his twentieth year when Monticcllo and White 
County first knew him as an earnest law student whose course was di- 
rected by David Turpie. He was a native of Somerset, Ohio, liorn Sep- 
tember 16, 1839, coming to Monticcllo in 1856. He attended Wabash 
and Monmouth colleges two years as a preparation for his legal studies, 
and after his admission to the bar practiced for a short time at Winamac, 
but soon returned to Monticcllo, where within a few years he had secured 
a high-class and lucrative clientele. 

As warmly sketched by a long-time friend at the time of his death 
in his seventy-fifth year, after he had secured so firm a hold upon the 
respect, admiration and affection of all: ''Judge Reynolds had many 
traits of character which drew and held friends and contributed to his 
success at the bar. He was in love with his profession and seemed to 
enjoy the work which it entailed. He not only mastered every detail of 
his cases, but he made his client's cause his own, and was ready to fight 
for him if need be. At the same time he was not exorbitant in the matter 
of fees and was kindly discriminating in favor of the poor. Faults he 
had, but ingratitude was not one of them. He never forgot a friend, 
nor was he prone to cherish malice against an enemy. For his fearless- 
ness, his determination and his singleness of purpose in the pursuit of 
one of the highest callings that engage the human intellect, he will he 
remembered by his profession far and near." 

Forgot He Was Judge 

.Mr. Reynolds was judge of the White County Circuit Court from 
1888 to 1804 and discharged his duties well; but. he was primarily an 
advocate and at least one instance is related, which occurred during the 
first year of his judgeship, illustrating that fact, The case of Dickey vs. 
Garrigan, by change of venue from Pulaski County, was before him in 
December, 188S. The judge was uneasily watching the maneuvers by 
which counsel for the defendant were endeavoring to indirectly 
ii piece of incompetent testimony thai the courl had once ruled out. 
When at last the main question, which was clearly irrelevant, was put, 
B words were hardly out of the lawyer "s mouth before Judge Rev- 
Ids, tarried away by the instincts of the veteran advocate, lost bis 
judicial consciousness and shouted from the bench "We objectl" A 
blind of laughter from jury, bar and witnesses at once recalled the judge 



to. a realization of his position, who added, almost ill the same breath, 
"And the Court sustains the objection." 

At the conclusion of his six years on the Cireuit bench, Mr. Rey- 
nolds resumed his beloved practice, in which he continued to be actively 
engaged until stricken by his last illness a few months before his death 
at his home in Mouticello, on the 27th of April, 1913. 

Teuman 1''. Palmer 

Truman P. Palmer succeeded Judge Reynolds in 1894 and continued 
on the Circuit Bench until 1906. lie is a son of Rev. Truman F. Palmer, 
A. M., and Plumea (Perry) Palmer, M. E. L. The father was a graduate 
of Allegheny College (about) 1847, and the parents were married at 
Meadville,. Pennsylvania, the same year. They came to Indiana ajid 
the father was attached, as a minister, to the Indiana conference, as a 
member of which body he preached at Fort Wayne and other places until 
January 17, 1851, when he died, while in charge of the church at Orland, 
Indiana, aged about twenty-six years. The mother lived until May 23, 
1900, and passed away at Burnettsville, in White County, where she 
had lived most of the time since her husband's death. There were t\yo 
children: Emma, a widow, who resides with her brother, Truman F., in 
Mouticello. She was for many years a teacher in the Monticello schools. 
The mother was well educated and had excellent literary taste. She 
was a writer of considerable note in her younger days, but gave up her 
ambitions in order that she might rear and educate her children. She 
was a teacher of English for many years in the old Thorntown Academy, 
which was one of the prominent schools of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church during, and. for a long time after the Civil war. Of her it is 
said by resolution of her church, which is inscribed on a memorial window 
of the church building at Burnettsville, as follows: "She has woven her 
noble influence for good into the lives anil characters of more people 
in this community than any other person who ever lived in it." 

Truman F. Palmer (2nd) was born at Orland, Steuben County, 
Indiana, on the 7th day of January, 1851, and three years thereafter came 
with his mother to White County, where (his boyhood at Burnettsville) 
his home has been mast of the time since. lie was educated, in a very 
irregular way, at Battle Ground Institute, Thorntown Academy, Farmer's 
Institute, at Clinton, Indiana, and Indiana University, and his profes- 
sional preparation was at the last named institution. After graduating 
in the law, he was for four years deputy el, rk of the Circuit Court of 
White County, and thereafter (July •">, 1879) he opened a law office at 
Mouticello. Since that time he has been engaged in the practice except 
for an interval of twelve years, from 1H!M to November, 1906, during 
which time he served, by two successive elections, as judge of the Thirty- 
ninth Judicial Circuit. He was president of the Indiana State Bar 
Association in 1904-05, and was a delegate from the American Bar Asso- 
ciation to the International Bar Association in 1904. 

He is a thirty third degree Mason, crowned at Boston in September, 




1904, and is at present one of two members from Indiana of the very im- 
portant Committee on Charitable Foundation of the Supreme Council. 
lie has been since November, 1906, a member of the legal firm of rainier 
& Carr, composed of himself and Mayor Benjamin P. Carr. Politics, 

James P. Wason 

James P. Wason was born September 26, 1867, in Toledo, Ohio. He 
was the son of Robert A. and Gertrude L. Wason (nee Preleigh) and 
came to Delphi, Indiana, September 24, 1881, with his parents; attended 
the common schools at Toledo, including the eighth grade and graduated 
from the Delphi High School in May, 1885; studied law for a short time 
with the firm of Applegate & Pollard and then entered the store of Bolles 
& Wason in Delphi in 1887, where he was employed until the fall of 
1S94, when he went to Ann Arbor and entered the law department of 
the University of Michigan, graduating from there with the degree of 
LL. B. in June, 1896; while at Ann Arbor was assistant law librarian for 
the purpose of partially defraying his expenses; formed a partnership 
with John II. Cartwright in 1896, under the firm name of Cartwright 
& Wason, which lasted until his elevation to the bench. Was attorney 
.for the board of commissioners of Carroll County in 190:5-1904. Was 
elected judge of the Thirty-ninth Judicial Circuit, composed of Carroll 
and White counties, in November, 1906, by a majority of forty-one and 
was re-elected in 1912, by a majority of 1,315; is a member of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church and also a member of Mt. Olive Lodge, 
P. & A. M, No. 48 ; Delphi Chapter, R, A. M., No. 21 ; Moiiticello Council, 
No. 70, R. & S. M. ; Delphi Commandery, K. T., No. 40; Delphi Lodge, 
K. Of P., No. 80; Delphi Company U. R. K. of P., No. 86, and Tippecanoe 
Tribe, I. O. R. M., No. 505. In politics is a democrat. 

The Probate Judges 

Like the old-time associates of the circuit judges and the justices 
of the peace, the probate judges of White County were "homey" men, 
often citizens of simple common-sense without legal knowledge or many 
other intellectual qualifications. Yet they were generally classed as 
"hmiorubles" and invariably claimed the title of judge. 

Rodeht Newell 

Roljerl Newell, the first probate judge, who was appointed by (lover- 
"•>r \olilo in 1835, was an honest, popular Big Creek farmer, and served 
"mil the general election in August, when lie resigned from the Ikmh-Ii 
10 acept a nomination for state representative. Judge Newell is do- 
wrihetl as a jolly, unassuming man, and quite regardless of personal 
fippenrnnees. Tie would often come into court barefoot and COfltletW, 
Willi the merest excuse for a hat. and if the docket showed no business 


would adjourn court, and join the boys in a game of quoits, or in jump- 
ing, wrestling and any other sport at hand. If any business turned up 
he would enter into its disposal with the same zest as marked his partici- 
pation in the sports of the villagers. 

William M. Kenton 

Mr. Newell was succeeded by William M. Kenton, son of the famous 
frontiersman and Indian lighter of Kentucky and himself one of the 
largest landowners and most prosperous cattlemen in the state. In his 
youth he had been well educated at West Point, married early and soon 
afterward brought his wife and child from Logan County, Ohio, to what 
was then Big Creek Township, Carroll County. That was in the fall of 
18.T2, and Mr. Kenton selected for his homestead a tract of land three 
miles west of the present site of Monticello. In 1851 he moved to Honey 
Creek Township, where he died, April 30, 1869, his widow following him 
on the 3d of July, 1881. They were the parents of ten children and 
many of their descendants of the third and fourth generations are still 
living in the county. 

Mr. Kenton was a man of far more education and dignity than his 
predecessor in the probate judgeship, although most of his life since 
his youth had been spent amid outdoor scenes of primitive life in what 
was then the western frontier. But he tired of his judicial dignities in 
about a yar and returned to his farm a few miles west of the Tippecanoe 
River. It was while living there that Mr. Turpie met him, not long 
after locating at Monticello in 1849. "The best known citizen of the 
county at that time," he says, "was William Miller Kenton, a son of 
Simon Kenton, the far-famed Indian fighter and hunter of Kentucky. 
His early youth had been spent on the farm and in attending his father 
in his numerous excursions in search of lands and game. The Indians 
where they lived then gave little trouble. After the age of sixteen the 
friends of his father, who were quite influential, including all the elder 
congressmen and senators from his state, procured for young Kenton a 
commission in the navy. Disliking this employment, after a brief service 
as midshipman witli the home squadron in the gulf, he resigned. The 
same friends obtained for him an appointment to the military academy 
at Point, then a very primitive institution. Young Kenton here 
excelled in the drill and manual of arms and in all athletic sports and 
exercises; but with books he failed, not from any lack of mental ability, 
but from his innate aversion to regular study and application. After a 
certain time spent at the academy, he was honorably relieved from fur- 
ther attendance, went home, married and, witli considerable means 
derived from his parental estate and other sources, removed to what was 
then Carroll, later White county, bought large tracts of government 
land, ami was among the first settlers of the Grand Prairie. 

"When I firs! knew him Kenton lived on a farm of a thousand acres 
on what was called the Range Line, in the open prairie about four miles 
west from the Tippecanoe River, ami owned another plantation of two 


thousand acres not far away. His house was a large one, a frame of two 
stories. Here he dispensed a profuse hospitality ; no one was ever turned 
away from his door. Whites and Indians were equally welcome. His 
Indian visitors were frequent, for he had settled in the county some time 
before their removal by the government to their new home in the West. 
Some of these guests had seen and known las father; they loved the sou 
for the father's sake, yet their attachment may have been partly due to 
the well stored pantry and kitchen which ministered to their wants. 

"Besides farming, Kenton was largely engaged in rearing cattle and 
live stock for the market, and among other things lie gave much of his 
time and attention to the prosecution of certain land claims located in 
Kentucky, which he had inherited from his father's estate. 

"The younger Kenton was a man of considerable reading and infor- 
mation, fond of the chase, a notable wrestler, runner and boxer, surpass- 
ing most of his contemporaries in these exercises; but he was a person 
of exceeding equable temper, and resorted not to force or violence save 
under extreme provocation. lie, like his father, had lived in his youth 
so much among the Indians as to have contracted somewhat of their 
habits. He was of a firm step, with a decided military bearing, yet 
inclined to the Indian gait. His eyes were large and brilliant, constantly 
in the attitude of expectancy, as if watching or awaiting some one. He 
was in politics a zealous Whig, a personal friend and a steadfast adherent 
of Henry Clay," who had also known and befriended bis father in days 
of yore. 

"As the representative of a district composed of a group of our 
northern counties, of which White was one, he had served, wit 1 much 
acceptance to his constituents for several sessions in the general assem- 
bly; he was a close friend and ally of Albert S. White, and in the Whig 
caucus, it is said, had placed that gentleman's name in nomination for 
United States senator when he was chosen to that position. Kenton's 
conversation was very interesting, especially when it related to the Hie 
and adventures of his father. 

"Mr. Kenton was a very careful herdsman and feeder, a better 
judge of live stock than of the market. He often made unfortunate 
sales, and as his transactions were on a large scale, tin- 1 with serious 
losses. Toward the close of his life, in his old age, lie fell into some 
pecuniary embarrassment. His creditors came in a cloud, all at once, 
to summon him with writs of indebtedness. The old pioneer made a 
gallant fight, Some of them he paid, with others he settled, many at 
them he defeated, and two or three of the most insolent claimantB he 
literally whipped into terms of submission. He saved a large portion 
of his real estate and, though he did not long survive his campaign in 
the courts, spent his last days in comfortable competency and died in 

peace with all the world. His memory is yet highly respite 

ed, ('Veil 

fondly cherished, by the descendants of the friends and neigh! 

tors with 

whom he formerly associated, and whom he had often aide 

1 in the 

struggles of their early life on the frontier." 

With most of his family he was buried in the old Kenton <a 




about five miles southwest of Monticello, but about thirty years ago their 
remains were disinterred and deposited in the old cemetery at Monticello. 
The old-fashioned tombstones were left in the original burial ground, 
where they may still be seen. 


When .Mr. Kenton resigned after his year's service as probate judge, 
Zebulon Sheetz was elected to succeed him. He was also one of the 
pioneers of the county, as were usually the occupants of the probate 
bench, and was a mild, dignified Virginian, who firmly suppressed any 
levity in court, either on the part of attorneys or laymen. He and Judge 
Newell were as different as honest dirt and pure snow. 

Mr. Sheetz was succeeded, after a creditable service of four years by 
Aaron Hicks, who had come into the Wabash country as one of a colony 
of Ohio emigrants as early as 1825, first settling near the mouth of Rock 
Creek, in what is now Grant County. He had lived there for several 
years among the. .Miami Indians and a sprinkling of white people, until 
he migrated still westward beyond the Wabash into White County. He 
was also an advocate of decorum, and bears the reputation of a man who 
was rather timid in the maintenance of bis own opinion, or, better still, 
of one who was anxious to correct an opinion when the evidence showed 
that he was in the wrong. Judge Hicks served for six years, or until the 
office was legislated out of existence. 

Altogether the probate judges of the county, although selected from 
the unprofessional, were men of integrity and fair practical ability. 

Court of Common Pleas Again 

When the Court of Common Pleas became an established fact, under 
the legislative act of May, 1852, a legal and a higher order of talents was 
demanded. Ky that act the state was divided into thirty-eight judicial 
districts, in each of which a judge was chosen at the succeeding election 
to hold the office for four years. As stated, it absorbed the Probate 
Court and relieved the Circuit Court of its minor business concerning 
both civil and criminal actions. 

Samuel A. Huff 

Samuel A. Hull', the first of the common pleas judges, entered office 
at the January term of 1853, his district comprising Tippecanoe and 
White counties. Then, and for many years afterward, he was a resident 
of Lafayette, although he spent the last of his life in Monticello with his 
son, William .1. Hull', of the Monticello Herald. In his early manhood, 
Judge Huff himself had been connected with several Indiana newspapers. 
Born at Greenville, South Carolina, on the 11th of October, 1811, he 
settled at Indianapolis in his nineteenth year and entered the counting 
room of the Indiana Agriculturist j in 1832 he became a printer in the 



office of the Indiana Democrat, and in the following year joined the busi- 
ness department of the Lafayette Free Press. 

After three years of such experimenting, Mr. Muff decided to study 
law, and commenced his course in the libraries of John l'ettit, afterward 
his brother-in-law, anil Kufus A. Lockwood. He was admitted to the bar 
in lS>37, and practiced alone and in partnership with Judge Pettit, Zebu- 
Ion Baird and Byron W. Langdon. When he was elected to the common 
pleas bench he had acquired a substantial standing as a lawyer and had 
become widely known as an ardent Free Soiler. He resigned the judge- 
ship after eighteen months of service, and later vigorously championed 
the cause of the new republican party, being one of the presidential 
electors from Indiana who cast his vote for Lincoln in 1860. 

Several years before his death Judge Huff moved from Lafayette to 
Indianapolis, but the years were telling upon his vitality and he soon 
joined his son in Monticello. There his death occurred ii\ January, 1886. 
His remains were taken to his old home for burial, where the courts and 
members of the bar, as well as numerous friends outside the pale of his 
profession, testified to tke great ability and generous impulses of the 

Common Pleas Judges, 185-1-6!) 

David Turpie succeeded Judge Huff, but occupied the bench only 
for the July term of 1854, and Governor Wright appointed Gustavus A. 
Wood as his successor. Judge Wood occupied the common pleas bench 
but one term — that of October, 1854 — and then came, in succession, .Mark 
Jones, who served until 1856; Judge Wood, again, from December, 1856, 
to May, 1S61 (with the exception of the March term of I860, at which 
Godlove 0. Belnn presided); Judge Godlove, the May term of 1861; 
David P. Vinton, 1861-67; Alfred Reed, 1867; B. F. Schermerhorn, one 
term, 186°, and Alfred Reed, from October, 1869, until the court was 
abolished in 1873. 

Captain and Judge Alfred F. Reed 

In 1867 a new common pleas district was formed, comprising the 
counties of Carroll and White. Up to that time the district had con- 
sisted of Tippecanoe and White counties, and all the judges, save Mr. 
Turpie, had been residents of the former county. With the new dis- 
tricting, White County felt that she was entitled to representation upon 
the lunch, and her wishes were gratified by the nomination and election 
of ('apt. Alfred F. Reed, who had practiced for a number of years before 
the Civil war, served gallantly as captain and lieutenant, resigning his 
scat in the state senate to return to the arduous duties of a soldier, and 
after the conflict at arms was over, quietly and earnestly resinned the 
practice of his profession. He was elected and commissioned judge id' 
the Common Pleas Court, October 1, 1869, and again on October 28, 
1872. When the court was abolished by act of March (!, 18711, he resumed 


the practice and speedily regained his former standing and professional 
business, his judicial record adding to botli as time progressed. Mon- 
ticello and White County have reason to be proud of his character and 
his acts. 

Captain Reed was born in Clark County, Ohio, February 3, 1824. 
.Although his parents first came to Indiana in his childhood, the family 
did not permanently locate in White County until in November, 1852. 
After that date Monticello was their home. In the meantime Alfred F. 
had married and been admitted to the bar. He practiced his profession 
until the outbreak of the Civil war, and on August 1, 1861, was com- 
missioned captain of Company K, Twentieth Regiment of Indiana Vol- 
unteers. As such he .served until the fall of 1862, when he resigned to 
assume his seat in the state senate; but, after one session at Indianapolis, 
he felt that his duties called him to the front; he then resigned the 
senatorship and in March, 1864, was commissioned lieutenant colonel of 
the Twelfth Indiana Cavalry, continuing as such until the close of the 
war. lie was many times wounded and the stress of army life undoubt- 
edly hastened his end, as his death at Monticello occurred October 23, 
1873, in his fiftieth year. 

The Lawyers op 1834-51 

Before the coming of Mr. Reed, in 1852, to engage in the practice, 
the following were the members of the bar who had professional business 
at the county seat, only two of whom — Messrs. Thompson and Turpie — 
were residents: William M. Jenners, William P. Bryant, Andrew lngra- 
liani, Aaron Pinch, Rufus A. Lockvvood and John Pettit, who first ap- 
peared in 1834 j John W. Wright, 1835; Zebulon Baird, 1836; William 
Wright, 1837; Thomas M. Thompson and Hiram Allen, 1838; Daniel D. 
Pratt. 183!); 1). Mace and W. Z. Stewart, 1840; L. S. Oale, 1841; G. S. 
Orth, is 12; Robert Jones, Jr., 1843; Samuel A. Huff, David M. Dunn 
and 3. F. Dodds, 1843; William Potter and A. M. Crane, 1847; J. C. 
Applegate, Elijah Odell and A. L. Pierce, 1848; David Turpie, Robert 
II. Milroy ami T. 0. Reyburn, 1849; Hiram W. Chase, 1850, and Abra- 
ham Timmons, 1851. 

Not long after Captain Reed located at Monticello as a practicing 
attorney, (lie roll of resident lawyers was augmented by the admission 
of W. II. Khiueliart, Benjamin F. Tilden, James Wallace and Robert 
W. Sill, so I hat White County was no longer so dependent upon the 
profession drawn from Logansport, Lafayette and Delphi. 

The Sills 

The last named was the widely known Sill family, being a son of the 
founder in the Slate of Indiana, viz.: William Sill, the first clerk of 
While County, uho came witli his wife to Washington County in 1828. 
two yours later moved to Tippecanoe County, and in the fall of 18.30 
settled in what is now Prairie Township, White County. There lie 


farmed and taught school for a time, and in 18:54 located in what is now 
Monticello, erecting the first house in town on lot 1, at southwest corner 
of Bluff and Marion streets. He served seven years as county clerk, and 
was in the fifth year of his second term when he died, January 7, 1846. 

Robert W., the oldest of the eight Sill children, studied law; was 
sheriff of the county from 1848 to 1852, and not long afterward com- 
menced active practice at Monticello. At a later day another son, Milton 
M., made a substantial record as both a newspaper man and a lawyer. 
As the author, also, of a history of White County, which he had not 
completed at the time of his death, he has rendered a good service to 
the editor of this work. 

Lawyers op 1856-90 

In his article on the "Bench and Bar," Milton M. Sill had this to 
say of his fellow-practitioners: "Between 1856 and 1890 many mem- 
bers were added to the local bar. Johnson Gregory, who had located 
at Reynolds; William J. Gridley, Ellis Hughes, Judge Joseph IT. Mat- 
lock, Joseph W. Davis, Judge A. W. Reynolds, W. E. TJhl, Thomas 
Bushnell; Robert Gregory, a son of Johnson Gregory; E. B. Sellers, 
•O. McConahay, Hugh B. Logan, Daniel D. Dale, W. S. Bushnell, William 
Guthrie, Judge T. P. Palmer, John H. Wallace, W. S. Hartraan, Isaac 
Parsons, George P. Marvin, A. K. Sills, W. II. Ilamelle and Charles C. 
Spencer, all joined and became members of the White county bar between 
these dates, presenting quite an array of legal talent in our eon its. 

Joseph H. Matlock 

"Judge Matlock removed here from Pern with his family and built 
a neat and commodious office on the present site of the Herald building. 
Ills first partner was Joseph W. Davis, a bright and promising young 
lawyer who had moved from our neighboring county of Carroll, but 
lie dying in the early spring of 1872, Judge Matlock formed a second 
partnership with Henry P. Owens, a young lawyer from Kentucky, and 
■they together enjoyed a large and increasing practice until the death 

of Judge Matlock in . [Editor: December 29, 1878.] After the 

death of Judge Matlock a partnership was formed by Owens with 
William E. Uhl, which was continued until the declining health of Mr. 
Owens compelled him to retire from the practice altogether." 

Orlando McConahay 

Undoubtedly there have been not a few greater lawyers than Orlando 
McConahay, there have been none more popular or charged with more 
vim, either professional or personal. His friends were legion, especially 
in Monticello and Monon, his home towns daring most of his life and 
Ihi' chief scenes of his practice, his official activities and his personal con- 
flicts and complications of all kinds. lie came of Scotch Irish ancestry, 


his father, Rauson, being a native of Bourbon County, Kentucky. Three 
years after his marriage the father moyed to Tippecanoe County, where 
Orlando was horn in 1832. The family home afterward became what 
is now Liberty Township, and in January, 1846, the elder McConahay 
commenced to serve out the unexpired term of William Sill, the first 
county clerk. This he completed, was re-elected to the office, and' com- 
pleted his official life in L858, and his career on earth a decade later. 

The son, Orlando, assumed the clerkship which the father relin- 
quished and performed its duties for eight years.' In the meantime 
he had been admitted to the bar and located at Monticello for practice 
at the expiration of his official term in 1867, forming a partnership 
with Ellis Hughes in 1871. 

Mr. McConahay 'b success r in the office of county clerk was his 
IVllow attorney and former assistant, Daniel D. Dale, and there are a 
few of the profession yet in the county who remember the acrimonious 
triangular contest between Messrs. Dale, McConahay and Robert Greg- 
ory, which raged with such fury in LS73. Without going into the merits 
of the charges and counter-charges, it will probably be admitted from 
the perspective of the present that Mr. Dale, who was generally pounced 
upon by both Messrs. McConahay and Gregory, came out of the fray 
with his feathers considerably ruffled and his comb pretty well picked 
to pieces. McConahay was drawn into the fight at its last stage, and 
most of his friends were sorry he mixed in; they felt, as was expressed 
by a poetic contributor to the press, who signed himself "A German 
Fellow Citizen," ami starts out with this hitch: 

"Veil, McConahay, now how you feel, 
Mixed up mil Dale and Gregory into dem ugly steal? 
You plays dcr dickens mit yourself ust now 
In uiixen into dose unhealthy row." 

Mr. McConahay built up a fair practice in Monticello, notwithstand- 
ing his rather fiery temperament and somewhat indiscreet conduct, and 
afterward moved to Lafayette, where he remained about two years. 
While in I hat city he served as justice of the peace. In 1S85 he located 
at Monon, where he lived the remainder of his life, holding such offices 
as town attorney and notary public. 

Lawyers in Active Practice 

The members of the bar of White County who have been enrolled 

si ' I 890 "re as follows, those engaged in the practice being indicated 

by a •: 

Law in ins: Spencer, Danielle & Cowger, Monticello; Palmer & Carr, 
Montieillo; Sills & Sills, Monticello. 

Resident attorneys : "K. B. Sellers, Monticello; *T. F. Palmer, Mon- 
ti''! 1 ". |! "'J •'' Carr, Monticello; *\V. S. Dusllncll, Mont icello ; 'Will. 
Guthrie, Monticello; "W. D. Danielle, Monticello; *W. J. Gridley, Monti- 


cello; *A. K. Sills, Monticello; "Charles C. Spencer, Monticello; *George 
P. Marvin, -Monticello ;-L. D. Carey, Monticello j M. B, Beard, Woleott; 
James T. Graves, Monticello; George W. Kasscbaum, .Monticello; Thomas 
J. Ilanna, Monticello; *A. R. Orton, Monticello; Clarence R. Cowger, 
Monticello; W. R. Taylor, Monticello; A. K. Sills, Jr., Monticello; II. T. 
Brockway, Monticello; S. L. Callaway, Monticello; Henry C. Thomp- 
son, Monon; W. A. Ward, Reynolds. 

Some White County School Buildings 



Territorial, Legislation — Public Education Undkr the First Con- 
stitution — Trustees of School Lands — Township Trustees — 
The Old-Time Comfortable Schooliiouse — Early Conditions in 
White County— The Three-Days Schooliiouse — Pioneer Edu- 
cational Matters — First Schooliiouse in the County — A Semi- 
nary Which Was Never Born — The County Library More For- 
tunate — A Monticello School with Class — Schools in Jackson 
Township — Jonathan Sluyter's Good Work — Spread op the 
Spirit into Monon — West Point School and Town Hall — George 
Bowman, as Man and Teacher — The Palestine and Nordyke 
Schools — Sproutings in Cass Township — The State Brings 

' ' Better Order — School Examiners — Building Schooliiouse Under 
the New Order — The Teachers — Forerunners of the High 
Schools — The Farmington Seminary — Prof. William — 
The Brookston Academy — Corn-Crib and Regular Schools — 
First Round Grove Schoolhouse — Present County Hoard of 
Education — Teachers' Association and Institutes — Rules and 
Regulations — Present Status of the County System — Dr. 
William S. IIaymond — Charles S. IIartman — Dr. William E. 


Nothing was ever done by either the French or British governments 
to establish or encourage the founding of public schools among their 
scattered subjects in the western wilds, but with the first, extension of 
American paper rule over the Northwest the cause was brought for- 
ward as one of the fundamentals of popular sovereignty. As has been 
stated, a congressional ordinance of 1785 provided for the donation of 
section 16 in every congressional township for the maintenance of 
public schools, and the more comprehensive and famous measure of 
1787 declared that "religion, morality and knowledge being necessary 
to the government and happiness of mankind, schools ami means of 
education shall forever be encouraged." In this matter Hie fathers of 
the Northwest sustained the character of the founders of the United 
States, and its greatest supporters ever since, of being both idealists and 
practical men. They first provided the basis of a fund for the popular 
schools; then pledged the future American generations forever to encour- 
age them. Forever is a large word, but America has always (halt in 
futures, and when 128 years have passed after that pledge was given, 



the generations of the present are encouraging the cause of public educa- 
tion with greater zeal ami immeasurably greater resources than their 
sponsors oL' 1 787 ever dreamed of. 

Territorial Legislation 

• Indiana Territory had the Indians to tight, as well as the wilderness 
to break, but her public men brought up the subject repeatedly, Gov- 
ernor Harrison in one of his messages suggesting that military educa- 
tion be grafted into the public system. In 1807, after a sweeping pre- 
amble re-dedicating the people to the principle of popular education, 
the Legislature incorporated the Vincennes University "for the instruc- 
tion of youth in the .Latin, Greek, French and English languages, mathe- 
matics, natural philosophy, ancient and modern history, moral philos- 
ophy, logic, rhetoric and the laws of nature and nations." In the 
following year the Territorial Legislature authorized the judges of the 
Courts of Common Pleas to lease the school lands, and in 1810 they were 
authorized to appoint trustees for that purpose; these agents, however, 
were forbidden to lease more than 160 acres to any one person and the 
destruction of timber on the leased lands was forbidden. These acts 
concluded the actual performances in behalf of the cause, but, consid- 
ering how many other measures came before the territorial authorities 
and legislators in the nature of self-defense and self-preservation, it is 
remarkable thai so much was accomplished. 

Public Education Under the First State Constitution 

The first state constitution, adopted in 1816, provided that none of 
the school lands should be sold by the authority of the state previous 
to 1820, and that it should he the duty of the General Assembly, as soon 
as possible, "to provide by law for a general system of education, 
ascending in a regular gradation from township schools to a State Uni- 
versity, wherein tuition shall be gratis and equally open to all. And 
for the promotion of such salutary end, the money which shall be paid 
as an equivalent by persons exempt from military duty, except in times 
of war, shall be exclusively, ami in equal proportion, applied to the 
support of county seminaries; and all fines assessed for any breach of 
the penal laws shall be applied to said seminaries in the counties wherein 
they shall be assessed." 

Trustees of School Lands 

The General Assembly of 1816 took up the work and made provi- 
sion for the appointment of superintendents of school sections, with 
pouvr to base the school hi mis for any term not to exceed seven years, 
and each lessee was required to set out annually on such lands twenty- 
live apple ami twenty-five peach trees until 100 of each had been planted. 
Between 181G and 1820 several academies, seminaries and literary socie- 
ties were incorporated in the older and more j pulous counties. 



The first measure which provided for any comprehensive system of 
public education was passed in 1824, the bill being the result of the 
labors of a special commission appointed by the Legislature several years 
before; the act, which became law, was "to incorporate congressional 
townships and provide for public schools therein." 

Township Trustees 

After providing for the election of three school trustees in each town- 
ship, who should control section 16 and all other matters of public edu- 
cation, the law made provision for the erection of sehoolhouses, as fol- 
lows: "Every able-bodied male person of the age of twenty-one years 
and upwards, residing within the bounds of such school district, shall 
be liable to work one day in each week until such building may be com- 
pleted, or pay the sum of thirty-seven and one-half cents for every day 
he may fail to work." The trustees might also receive lumber, nails, 
glass or other necessary building material, in lieu either of work or 
the daily wages. 

The Old-Time Comfortable Schooliiocse 

'The schoolhouse, according to the law of 1824, provided: "In all 
cases such school house shall be eight feet between the floors, and at 
least one foot from the surface of the ground to the first floor, and 
bo furnished in a manner calculated to render comfortable the teacher 
and pupils." 

As no funds were provided for the pay of teachers or the erection 
of buildings, the schools were kept open as long as the subscriptions held 
out, and the comfort of the teacher and pupils depended mi the char- 
acter of the householders who supported the institution. Neither could 
the school trustees levy a tax except by special permission of the district, 
and even then the expenditure was limited to $50. 

In 1832 the Legislature ordered the sale of all county seminaries, 
the net proceeds to be added to the permanent school fund. Its action 
did not affect "White County, as its citizens did not commence to collect 
funds for that purpose until 1831, when they were organized under a 
separate government. In 1837 the county received its quota of the sur- 
plus disbursed from the United States treasury to the various states dur- 
ing the preceding year. Indiana's share was $800,000, and of that 
sum the State Legislature set aside $573,000 for the permanent use of 
the common schools of the commonwealth; but only the interest of the 
fund could be used by the counties. 

Early Conditions in White County 

When "White County commenced its political existence there were 
no public schools, in the accepted sense, within her lioi'd rrs, and nearly 
twenty years were to pass before anything like the prevailing system 
of popular education was to be in force. The conditions then prevailing 
were these: "The man or woman who had a desire to become an in- 


stnietor would get up ;i written agreement called a subscription paper, 
and pass'i! around among the people of a certain neighborhood for sig- 
natures. Tlu: agreement usually railed for a certain number of pupils 
at a certain price per pupil, and when the required number was obtained 
the school would begin. The ruling price for a term of three months 
was two dollars per pupil, and the number of pupils to be taught was 
to be not less than twenty. The board and lodging for the teacher would 
be provided by the patrons of the school, each one, in turn, furnishing 
a share during the term, or if the teacher preferred, which was nearly 
always the case, he or she might choose a boarding place and remain 
there during the term for a small compensation to the patron of the 

- school whose home was selected. The board and lodging of the school 
teacher was regarded as a small matter by the early settlers, and one 

.dollar per week was taken as ample compensation for the trouble 
imposed by this arrangement. The first plan was designated as 'board- 
ing among the scholars' and the second as 'boarding himself or 'board- 
ing herself. ' 

Tin; Tiikee-Days Schoolhouse 

"The first matter of importance, however, before the beginning of 
the school, was to provide a building for the accommodation of the 
teacher and pupils; but this was, also, an easy matter for the pioneers. 
The settlers of a neighborhood would get together on a specified day, 
Bay a Thursday, and begin the erection of a school house at some point 
as nearly central in the neighborhood as a site could be procured; which 
was always easy to obtain, as land was worth one dollar and twenty-five 
cents per aire, and a suitable site could be found where the owner of 
the land, if he had children of school age, was only too willing to donate 
an acre or half an acre of his land for the purpose. Beginning the 
building on Thursday, they would finish their work on or before Sat- 
urday night, so that it would be ready for occupancy on Monday 

Pionkhi; Educational Matters 

The mellow memories clinging to the old log schoolhouse have so 
often been spread upon the printed page that we leave the familiar 
ground for more personal matters directly concerning the pioneer schools 
and teachers in the White County field before the commencement of the 
modern era in 1852. 

First Schoolhouse in the County 

The first schoolhouse built, within the limits of White County was 
located on the banks of Big Creek, in what was known as the Robert 
Wwell neighborhood' SO named after that old settler, afterward pro- 
bate judge, who has already appeared several times in the course of 
(his history. It stood on the land of George A. Spencer, whose home 
was also White County's first courthouse. The schoolhouse, which was 


constructed of round log.s and was 12 by 14 Peet in size, had been 
built for a family residence. After a short occupancy for domestic pur- 
poses it had beeri abandoned, and some time in 1N34 was opened as a 
school, Mr. Spencer having kindly placed scats in it and otherwise trans- 
formed the room into a temple of learning. .Mr. Spencer had children, 
and the other resident families who supported the enterprise were headed 
by Benjamin Reynolds, John Burns, Robert Newell, William M. Kenton, 
7ebulon Dyer, James Shafer, John Phillips, and perhaps a few others. 

From a description which has come down to us from one of the old 
settlers it is learned that a log had been left out of the south side of the 
hut to admit the light, and that two puncheons, fastened together with 
wooden pins and hung on wooden hinges, formed the door, which was 
securely closed with a wooden latch in a wooden catch. A string passed 
through the door above the latch and served to raise it from the outside 
at all times, unless the pupils caught the master out, when it would be 
drawn in and, by barricading the window with benches, they often suc- 
ceeded in delaying the routine of study, but such an act was certain to 
bring upon the daring culprits the dire vengeance of the master, whose 
authority was thus set at naught. 

The first teacher in this first school was Matthias Davis, father of 
Mrs. Daniel McCuaig, of Montieello, a man of rare mental qualifications 
for tbat period and a kindly and conscientious teacher, who delighted in 
his work and was beloved by his pupils. He could be severe, however, 
when he "was locked out," or his authority otherwise flouted. 

A SeiMinary Which Was Never Born 

Soon after the organizatiou of the county the citizens commenced to 
agitate the founding of a comity seminary, authorized by the state 
constitution of 1816. The movement materialized in the legislative 
enactment providing that certain fines and penalties, assessed against 
those who swore, broke the Sabbath, or engaged in rioting, should be 
thus applied. The law provided that when $400 had been collected, 
the board of trustees might proceed to erect a seminary building. In 
May, 1835, Jonathan Ilarbolt was appointed seminary trustee to serve 
for one year. The fund went on so slowly collecting under .Mr. Ilarbolt 
and his successors that it had reached only $403 in June, 1863, and $781 
in 1857; by that time the new school law established under the con- 
stitution of 1852 had gone fully into operation, and as there was no 
place in that system for a county seminary, its fund was turned over 
to the common schools. 

The County Library More Fortunate 

The old county library met with a similar fate, funds for its estab- 
lishment being secured much in the same way as for the seminary. 
Although quite unsteady, the library actually got upon its feet. A few 
books were purchased as early as 1838 and small additions were made 
to the, original collection, so tbat by 1845 several hundred volumes were 


scattered over the county in the homes of the early settlers. In that 
year the' board of commissioners organized themselves as trustees of 
the county library, Allen Barnes becoming president and Charles W. 
Kendall librarian and clerk. The clerk was directed to collect by public 
notice all the hooks in circulation, prepare a catalogue, and purchase, 
such additional hooks as the library funds would allow; also to prepare, 
a constitution and by-laws for the consideration of the trustees. It docs 
not appear that .Mr. Kendall ever served — in fact, he refused to serve, 
and J. M. Rit'enberriek was appointed in his place; so that Mr. Rifen- 
berrick must have accomplished this preliminary work. John R. Willey 
became librarian in LSI!), hut the county institution had no excuse for 
existence under the new educational dispensation inaugurated in 1852, 
which included, among other features, the operation of township libra-, 
ries. The counts- library was therefore abandoned by the state and its 
books melted away; but they undoubtedly accomplished some good in 
the way of lightening the long hours of lonely pioneer life, and supply- 
ing mental food to a limited circle, at a time when it was so scarce and 
therefore so highly valued. 

A Monticello School with Class 

In 1835, the year after opening the Big Creek schoolhouse, Mathias 
Davis, of Carroll County, was called to Monticello to take charge of a 
more finished establishment, A frame building had been erected, 20 
by 30 feet, with iron latches and hinges for the door and sash and glass 
lights for the windows. The latter were placed near the roof to protect 
them from the hoys; for, at that time, the breaking of a window pane, 
whether by accident or malice aforethought, was an expensive disaster 
which the school authorities could not afford. Mr. Davis remained at 
the head of the Monticello school until 1838, and was followed, at differ- 
ent periods, by William Cahill, Mr. Montgomery, James Kelley and 
•Tames Givcns. Perhaps the most remarkable characteristic of ihese 
pioneer teachers of Monticello was that none of them seemed to be able 
to combine mentality and muscularity in the proportion which should 
meet the requirements of the situation. They ranged all the way from 
the clever but too mild Cahill to the tierce and conclusive Montgomery, 
who was sent, to jail for so eowhiding one of the boys that pools of blood 
were drawn upon the schoolroom floor. 

Schools in Jackson Township 

In the early 'SOs a small settlement sprung up about half a mile north 
of the old town of I'.urnel I sville, Jackson Township, and in 1830 a post- 
office was established there called Burnett's Creek. About the same time 
the settlers got together ami built a little log schoolhouse near by, and 
William R, Dale, the postmaster, also became the schoolteacher. 

Some time before- just how lung it is not of record — a small class 
had been taughl in a vacant hut owned by I'lphraim Chamberlain; it 
was situated in the southeast quarter of section 33 and was tnught by 


James Renwiek. This, which was really the pioneer school in the town- 
ship and one^of the first in the county, was located near the Carroll 
County line. 

Jonathan Sluyter 's Goon Work 

In the early autumn of 1837 Liberty Township joined the little group 
of educators in White County, through such of her early settlers as 
Messrs. Funks, Conwells, Hall, Loudens and Sluyter. Mr. Sluyter (Jona- 
than W.) was especially enthusiastic over the erection of a log school- 
house for the dozen or fifteen children who were ready to attend; he had 
been in the township, on his land along the Tippecanoe, tor several 
months, and being a blacksmith, as well as considerable of a mechanic, 
the work of erecting the schoolhouse was largely intrusted to him. As 
completed, it was of round logs, fifteen feet square, had a large fireplace, 
was supplied with backless puncheon seats and had one window. David 
MeConahay was the first teacher in that school, and he was followed 
within the coming three years by George Hall, John C. V. Shields and 
Lester Smith. 

Then, in 1840, Mr. Sluyter again came to the rescue and built a sec- 
ond schoolhouse on the site of the first; the new was an improvement on 
the old, because it was larger, built of hewn logs, had more windows ami 
the seats were more finished and comfortable. All of which was to the 
special credit of Jonathan W. Sluyter, the head of I he family. 

Spread of the Spirit into Monon 

At that time the only school which may be said to have been estab- 
lished was the one at Monticeflo, which went into a partial decline and 
disgrace. But the educational spirit bad spread westward /with the 
incursion of new settlers with their children, so that in 1840 a school 
house was built near the Town of West Bedford. Salmne Renttey is 
said to have been the first teacher and Michael Berkey, the second, with 
David Hall, Peter Scott, Power Moore and Mary Lindsay, trailing along 
in about that order. This was one of the first schools to be established 
away from the Tippecanoe River. 

West Point School and Town II all 

In 1844 a schoolhouse was erected in West Point Township, near the 
site of the house now in use. It was used for both political and educa- 
tional purposes; was a town hall as well as a schoolhouse, the first elec- 
tions in the township being held therein. The structure was of the round- 
log variety, 18 by 24 feet in size. 

George Bowman, as Max and Teacher 

It was reserved for Monticello to mnke the first real advance in offer- 
ing superior educational advantages to the students of White County, 



through the personal labors of (leorge Bowman and his graded school. 
Even in the, period of modern improvements in this field, as of others, it 
is doubtful if his superior as :i thorough and inspiring educator can be 
named among the teachers of White County. 

Professor Bowman was bom near Martinsburg, Virginia, in 1818, 
and was left an orphan when only six years of age. With several broth- 
ers and sisters, lie was brought up by relatives on a typical Virginia plan- 
tation, his education being obtained both in a country school and a rural 
store in the neighborhood. From a very early age books were bis inspira- 
tion and solace, and when hi' had about reached his majority be joined 
his brothers who had settled at Delphi, Carroll County. There he con- 
tinued his Virginia life by dividing his time between study, teaching 
and clerking, his business connection at Delphi being in the large store 
kept by Enoeh Iioweii. Alter several years of that varied experience, 
he was induced by several elderly friends to enter Wabash College, 
Crawfordsville. His studies there were interlarded with various occupa- 
tions incident to "working through college," such as clerking in a coun- 
try store and peddling a religious publication in White and Carroll 

In September, 18 IS, he left college within a year of graduation, and 
married Miss K'nlli Ailgell, taking bis young wife to Monticello, and as- 
suming charge of the town school. Two years thereafter bis wife died, 
leaving him an infant daughter. That misfortune changed bis plans. 
Returning to Wabash College he graduated therefrom in lSf>2 and soon 
afterward was placed in charge of the Delphi schools. A few months 
after his second marriage to Miss Mary D. Piper, in 1858, be returned to 


Just a decade from the time of his first coming to Montiecllo, in Sep- 
tember, L858, Professor Bowman opened the academy, or grade school, 
as it was called, which became such a noteworthy institution in the devel- 
opment of the educational system of the county. He introduced the 
studies of natural philosophy, astronomy, algebra and Latin, and young 
men and women for the first time in the educational history of White 
County had an opportunity of acquiring something more than the funda- 
mentals of an English education. Composition and declamation were 
cultivated and pupils were required to give reasons and illustrations in 
support of any theory or principle advanced. 

Tlic return of Mr, Bowman to Delphi, in the fall of 18o0, had been 
discouraging to the cause of higher education, since no instructor could 
be found to take his place. The subsequent history of the movement, 
especially the professor 's pari in it, is thus presented: It is probable 
about this time that an effort was made to erect a brick school building 
at. Montiecllo. Whether the Rchoolhouse was to be built with the county 
seminary funds, or as an institution wholly for the District of Montiecllo. 
is not certain, but it is known that it was completed a short distance 
above the foundation, then abandoned and the material removed. For 
some years thereafter several attempts were made, through private 
Schools, to meet the demand of parents both for instruction in the com- 



inon branches and (among a more limited number) for training in the 
classics and the advanced studios. Among the really excellent schools 
taught during that period of earnest endeavor was one in the Democrat 
Building, its teachers numbering Maria Hut ton and Mrs. Dr. Haymond. 

The return of the professor to Monticello in 1K.">S, after lie had ably 
served as" the principal of the Delphi schools for six years, was heralded 
as* a saving event, and arrangements were made to furnish better facili- 
ties tRan he formerly commanded. An old warehouse was remodeled 
for school purposes, a bell was placed on the roof and the principal then 
engaged two assistants to get the situation well in hand. Within the 
following three years the Monticello Graded School, as it was called, 
became an educational force whose influence even spread beyond the 
bounds of White County. It was divided into three departments, cor- 
responding to the high, grammar and primary divisions of the public 
system, graduates from the high school being prepared for college. 

Professor Bowman's assistants in 18G0 were Miss Mary Bowman and 
II. II. Tedford. He continued as head of this private graded school until 
August, 1862, when he was mustered into the Union service as captain 
of Company D, Twelfth Indiana Volunteers, the members of which were 
enlisted largely through his exertions. lie was captured at Richmond, 
and wounded both at Jackson and Missionary Ridge— al the latter en- 
gagement so badly that he was discharged from the service as incapaci- 
tated. He was honorably discharged in March. 18(i4. ami in the fol- 
lowing year returned to Delphi, where he remained until 1870 as prin- 
cipal of its schools and engaged in farming. lie had bought a farm on 
the banks of the Tippecanoe, about six miles south of Monticello in White 
County, and thither retired with his wife and six children. 

But Mr. Bowman did not succeed as a farmer, and as his widow w rote 
pathetically and affectionately years afterward: "We named our home 
Hopeful Bluff and lived on hope for eight years. .Mr. Bowman was a 
born teacher, but knew nothing about farming, consequently he failed 
at every point. Those were trying days, though filled with love and many 
happy hours. We had good neighbors and many kind friends. .Mi'. 
Bowman was later elected county superintendent of schools, which gave 
us the opportunity of meeting the best of people. lie was a kind, loving 
husband and father, always looking on the bright side of life. He was 
truly an optimist." 

Professor Bowman served as county superintendent from 187:> to 
1881, and under his administration the schools obtained aij impetus in 
the right direction which has never been lost. The family had returned 
to Monticello in 1878, and at the conclusion of his term as county super- 
intendent of schools, Mr. Bowman devoted himself to his beloved hooks 
(taking up the study of Hebrew after he was seventy) ; also spent con- 
siderable time in teaching private pupils, and in 1890 he was induced. 
partly by friends and partly urged by his strong instincts as a natural 
teacher, to assume regular duties in connection with the county schools 
of White and Carroll counties. But he counted too confidently on his 
old time vitality for one in his seventy-third year. In the fall of thai 


year lie was unable to rally before the attack of a severe illness, and 
passed away on November -'■> (Thanksgiving), 1890. The deceased was 
an earnest Presbyterian of many years standing and a Christian by 
faith and i\rvA. 

TJno Palestine and Nordyke Schools 

The first schools of Princeton Township, in the western border of 
'White County, did not come to the surface until the late '40s, being 
mostly established in its central sections. The Palestine settlement, the 
first in the township, claims to have started the pioneer school, as does the 
so-called Nordyke Set I lenient. .Neither as to time nor stateliness is there 
much to choose between them. They were both opened in 1849; they 
were both tfi by 18 feet in dimensions. While the Nordyke affair may 
have had the edge on the Palestine sehoolhouse, in that it was built of 
hewn instead of round logs, on the other hand the Palestine structure 
had two windows instead of the usual one opening, and they occupied 
its two sides lengthwise; thus, matters of superiority were balanced. 
The Palestine School stood on Mortimer M. Dyer's land and its first 
teacher was Kdwin Bond, while B. Wilson Smith taught the children at 
the Nordyke settlement. But Nordyke finally triumphed decisively over 
the Palestine settlement, by building the first frame sehoolhouse in the 
township, about half a mile north of the old log structure, in 1854. 

Sproutings in Cass Township 

Cass Township commenced its school building in 1S50, although sev- 
eral classes had been taught in private houses for two years previously. 
In the winter o\' 1*18-41) Samuel Oruell taught a few children in a 
round-log cabin on the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of 
.section (i, in the extreme northwest corner of the township about a mile 
east of the Tippecanoe. Mrs. Anna McBeth, mother of James M. McBeth, 
assumed the work' in 1849. The pupils who thus started the educational 
ball rolling numbered twenty-four, distributed by families as follows: 
Christopher Vnndeventer family, live; Horim's, four; Daniel Germber- 
linger, two; .John Baker (Pulaski County), two; Daniel Yount, two; 
Albert Bacon, three. In the winter of 1849-50, Mrs. McBeth opened 
a school in the family home, a round-log hut on the southeast quarter of 
the northeast quarter of section 6. She was a lady of great intelligence, 
coming of a well educated Ohio family, and her twenty pupils prospered 
under her instruction. Her husband died a few years afterward, but 
the widow lived to be an aged honored mother and grandmother of the 
county. One of their sons Joseph was a good soldier of the Civil war 
and prominent in the public affairs of the township, and several of the 
later generation still reside in the county. 

Tin; State Brings Better Order 

The foregoing are but illustrations which might be deduced from every 
sparseB settled county in the state, of the struggles which were common 
among the pioneers to educate their children as best they might. But all 


such facilities were the result of individual exertion and determination, 
unsystematized and virtually unsupported by the state. With the in- 
auguration of the new constitution of 1851, much of tins confusion and 
working at cross purposes cleared away and a working plan was evolved. 
By legislative aet "to provide for a general uniform system of Common 
Schools and School Libraries, and matters properly connected there- 
with," approved June 14, 1852, the way was made clear for the estab- 
lishment of the public educational system which is still expanding and 
developing in its details. 

The free school system of Indiana became practically operative on 
the tirst Monday in April, 1853, when the township trustees for school 
purposes were elected. The new law gave them the management of the 
school affaire of the township, subject to the action of the voters. But 
it was a number of years before White County was able to derive much 
practical benefit from the system, as the quota of the common school 
fund derived from the state was small and increased slowly, as it was 
based upon the number of children of school age residing in the various 
districts. In the meantime most of the actual management of school 
matters was vested in the old-time school examiner. 


School Examiners 

The school examiners for White County, whose services extended 
into the formative period of the present common school system, includ- 
ing the supplementary law of 1855-56, were as follows: James Kerr, 
1836; N. Bunnell, 1838; Jonathan Ilarbolt, 1839; Charles W. Kendall, 
1S45; James Kerr, 1846; Charles Dodge, 1848; Jonathan Ilarbolt, 1849; 
George G. Miller and Robert Irwin, 1856. 

Building Sciioolhouses Under the New Order 

In 1859 the board of three township trustees was abolished and school 
matters were placed in the keeping of one trustee, who was enabled to 
work to greater advantage with tlie examiner than under the old sys- 
tem, but it was not until nearly twenty years later that the trustee 
assumed greater control of the schools within his township. As the inter- 
est of the common school fund was only available, under the constitution, 
it usually became necessary for the citizens of a district in pressing need 
of a schoolhouse to contribute a part of the expense incurred both in its 
erection, furnishing and maintenance. The law required the trustee to 
own the land upon which every public schoolhouse was erected ami a 
perfect title from the owner of the land to the trustee and his successors 
in office must be procured before the building could !><• comnn 'need. A 
word from the trustee expressing the necessity Cor a new schoolhouse 
usually brought half a dozen offers from property owners offering sites 
of from half an acre to a whole one. provided the township would pay 
the expenses of executing the deed and recording it. Land was much 
cheaper than money in those days; but the early BCttlcrs contributed 
of both, as well as of honest labor and necessary materials, Cor the erec- 



tion. of the building which was to house their children as pupils. Not 
infrequently the trustee erected a neat frame building beside the old log 
schoolhouse, that the eutire township might compare the two with pride 
over the improvement manifest in the new. 


The Teachers 

Having procured their certificates of qualification from the county 
examiner, the applicants for (lie position of teacher laid their cases 
before (lie trustee; ami i.lie primary selection rested with him, his choice 
being ratified by the patrons of the school. Sometimes when there was a 
decided division of neighborhood sentiment as to the merits of several 

Month i.i.eo's First Graded School 
This building is now used as a stable, and the shed is an addition of later years. 

candidates, a meeting was held and the decision left to a majority vote. 
Good conduct determined the length of service, and the question of salary 
was left to the patrons of the school; the average salary for the male 
teacher of the earlier years was .+20 a month and board, the female in- 
structor drawing about half that amount. The farm hand was paid 
about the Name wages, and the fairly-educated laborer was quite apt to 
prefer a cozy district schoolroom to outdoor work, especially in winter. 
So there was seldom any dearth of district school teachers. As the stand- 
ard of qualification was raised, the supply of male teachers decreased, 
which heralded a brighter day for the prospects of the school ma'am. 

Forerunners of the High School 

A number of years passed, while the public school system in White 
County was gathering strength and getting into shape, be fori; high schools 

were established as an important department of the curriculum. Their 
place in the scheme was taken, for the time being, by such private insti- 
tutions as Professor Bowman's Graded School, the Farmington Male 



and 'Female Seminary at what is now Burnettsville aud the Brookston 
Academy. Professor Bowman's school lias already been sketched. 

/ The Farmington Seminars 

The Farmington Seminary was founded about 1852 b) Isaac Mahuriu. 
The building was erected by a joint-stock association, its certificates of 
stock being redeemable in tuition. After about two years, Mr Mahurin 
was succeeded by Hugh Nickerbocker, who taught three years, when he 
was succeeded by Joseph Baldwin. Professor Baldwin's administration 
of three years gave the Seminary a fine reputation and its pupils came 
from such places as Logansport, Lafayette, Peru, Delphi and Winaniac. 
Other teachers followed who added to its standing and it finally became 
the headquarters of those splendidly conducted normal institutes con- 
ducted by such men as Rev. William Irelan and Prof. D. Eckley Hunter. 

Prof. William Irelan 

The Burnettsville academy reached the height of its fame as a nor- 
mal training school in 1876, when Professor Irelan was county superin- 
tendent of schools. There were few men in the county more popular 
or honored. He had served with bravery iu the Union ranks until shot 
through the eye at Missionary Ridge, when he was obliged to return to 
his home in Montieello. He served as county examiner from 1865 to 
1868, and in 1875, after the change in the law, was elected county super- 
intendent, his only predecessor in that office being Prof. George Bow- 
man, who also succeeded him. For many years the honors and popular- 
ity as educators in White County were about equally divided between 
these two fine men and citizens. It is believed, however, that Professor 
Irelan is best known for the work which he accomplished in the training 
of teachers, during the '70s, as head of the Burnettsville institution. 

While a resident of Burnettsville, Professor Irelan was the pastor and 
moving spirit in the Christian Church at that place, but about 1886 
moved with his family to Topeka, Kansas, and several years later joined 
his daughter, Miss Elma Irelan, at Monterey, Mexico, where she was 
stationed as a missionary of that denomination. Dining bis absence 
fro ii Burnettsville, the church there of which he had been pastor had 
been discontinued, but during a visit to Iris former parishioners, made 
in 1909, he revived the church anil then rejoined his daughter in Mexico, 
ll was under these circumstances that he died on the Dt h of < letobcr, 1911, 
• it n ripe age and with abundant fruitage to his credit. 

The Brookston Agademx 

The Brookston Academy has had a continuous history up lo (be pres- 
1 ill lime, being now represented by the Town Commissioned High School 
<>l' thai place. Dr. John Medaris, suggested to the county superintend 
••lit, during the later part of the Civil war, the desirability of establishing 
■ in institution of highci learning which should be partially supported by 
thi' county, although a township enterprise. Meetings were held to inter- 
pal Hie citizens in the movement, and the response was so gratifying that 




during the winter of 1865-66 $7,000 was subscribed toward the erection 
of a suitable building at Brookston. By the fall of 1866 the building was 
inclosed and the association was about $6,000 in debt. Tbat sum was 
eventually raised by the sale of new stock. The board of commissioners 
also subscribed to. the amount of $5,000, under the following conditions: 
"It is ordered by the Hoard that $5,000 worth of stock of the Brookstou 
Academy be taken by the county, upon the condition that the Board 
of Trustees of said Brookston Academy shall, from henceforth forever, 
educate all orphan children, and all children of widows who are not 
owners of real estate of the value of $500, and shall be bona fide residents 
of the county of White, free from tuition of all kinds, until said children 
shall attain their majority." 

With the $11,000 thus realized and an additional $4,000 of borrowed" 
money, the academy building was completed and opened in the fall of 

Brookston Academy 

1S67. As it. stood in a beautiful grove just south of the corporation, it 
was, for those times, an imposing structure of brick, with castellated 
towers in front at either corner, and the main entrance between. It was 
80 by 60 feet, in size, two stories in height. When the building was com- 
pleted a debt of $8,000 bung over it which the trustees were unable to 
lift, so that in 1873 it was sold to the trustee of the township, who, in 
turn, leased it for ninety-nine years to the corporation of Brookstou; 
that arrangement is therefore in force until 1972. 

When Hie Brookston Academy opened in 1867 Professor Hart, a grad- 
uate of Yale College ami formerly principal of the public schools .-it 
Danville, Kentucky, was at the head of its faculty ; Miss Serena Ilandlcy, 
principal of the grammar department; Miss Sallie Mitchell, of the inter- 
mediate; .Miss Jeru Cook-, of Hi,, primary; .Miss Rachel Hayes, assistant, 
and .Miss I.ida, Oakes, teacher of music. The first trustees were John 
Medaris, Russell Stewart, Samuel Ramoy, E. A. Drown, Alfred Ward and 



G. W.' Cornell. Doctor Medaris was for many years president of the 
board of trustees and by far the most influential member connected with 
the management of the academy. 

Corn-crib and Regular Schools 

Honey Creek and Round Grove townships did not join the class of 
educators until the second state constitution had partially licked into 
shape things educational. The first schoolhouse built in the former was 
erected in the original plat of Reynolds in 1855. It was a subscription 
affair, Benjamin Reynold donating the ground and Nathanial Bunnell 
giving $25 toward the building. Miss Nannie Glazebrook is said to have 
been the first teacher to hold forth in this first regular school in Honey 
Creek Township, albeit Miss Ann Braday may, as tlie story goes, have 
taught in a big corn-crib in the summer of 185-1. The crib, which was 
12 by 30 feet, is said to have made a very fair summer schoolhouse and 
furnished accommodations for twenty pupils during the three warm 

First Round Grove Sciioolhouse 

In 1857 the Stanley Schoolhouse, a frame structure, was erecteu near 
the center of Round Grove Township. It w;is 10' by 18 feet and Elizabeth 
Ballintyne had the honor of opening it. 

Present County Board of Education 

As now organized and systematized the public srliools are under 
the control of the county board of education, consisting of one trustee 
from each of the eleven townships, the presidents <>f the town and city 
school boards and the county superintendent, who is made president of 
the entire board. The present county superintendent is Henry -I. Reid, 
and the township trustees who went into office January 1, 11)15, as fol- 
lows: Big Creek, Robert W. Barr, Chalmers; Cass, William E. Stillwell, 
R. 19, Idaville; Liberty, Cassius D. Imler, Montieello; Jackson, David A. 
Seroggs, Idaville; Monon, Henry C Thompson, Mononj Honey Creek, 
Levi Reynolds, Reynolds; Union, William Pasehcn, Montieello; Round 
Grove, J. E. Burdge, Brookston ; West Point, Andrew Humphreys, Wol- 
cott; Prairie, Edgar M. Ferguson, Brookston; Princeton, B. -1. Dibell, 

II. C. Johnson is president of the eity school board of Montieello-, 
and the following are presidents of the town hoards: Brookston, Laurie 
T. Kent; Burnetts Creek, John C. Duffey; Monon, Carl C. Middlestadt; 
Wolcott, Charles Martin. 

Teachers' Association and Institutes 

Tlie teaching force oF the county is in close combination through the 
Teachers' Association and the township institutes. The president of 
the association is T. S. Cowger, of Monon, and the principals of Hie 

township institutes are: Big Creek-, J. C. Downey; Cass, [vy Morris; 

Honey Creek, F. E. Young; Jackson, Fred Francis ; Liberty. Roll a B< n 


jamin; Monon, T. .S. Cowger; Prairie, Finis Oilar; Princeton, Russell 
Wooden; Round Grove, Gus (Jollins; Union, each teacher in turn, prin- 
cipal; West Point, John Humphreys. 

The County Teachers' Institute is held annually the last week in 
August anil the following dates are reserved i'or the township institutes: 
First Saturday, Big Crcok, Honey Creek, Prairie and Round Grove; 
second Saturday, Jackson, Princeton, Union and West Point; third Sat- 
urday, Cass, Liberty and Monon. 

Rules and Regulations 

The While County Board of Education has promulgated a set of 
►rules and regulations lor the government of the public schools which 
are worthy of slinly. They bear with insistence on the necessity for the 
observance of orderly and moral conduct, the restrictions as to the use 
of tobacco and cigarettes being especially strict, as witness: 

"Tobacco shall not be brought to school, and using tobacco on the 
way to or from school shall be considered conclusive evidence that tobacco 
was brought to school. 

"Pupils, teachers, superintendents, principals, janitors and hack 
drivers shall not use tobacco while at school work. The carrying of 
pipes to school is prohibited. Pupils with the odor of tobacco on their 
person or clothing shall be dismissed from any session of school and a 
persistent violation of this rule shall be a just cause for expulsion. 

"As to cigarettes, below is Section 1, Chapter 223, page 643, of Law 
of 1913: 'Section 1 — Be it enacted by the general assembly of the State 
of Indiana, That it shall be unlawful for any person under the full age 
of twenty-one years, by himself or through any other person or by any 
means, directly or indirectly to buy, receive or acept for his own use or 
the use of any other person whatsoever, or to keep or own or to have in 
his possession, to sell either as principal or agent, or to use any cigarette, 
cigarette paper, cigarette wrapper or any paper or wrapper containing 
morphine, nicotine, oil of hemp, or any deleterious or poisonous ingredi- 
ents or substance, or intended, suited, made or prepared for the purpose 
of being Idled with tobacco for smoking, or any substitute for such ciga- 
rette paper, cigarette wrapper or other such paper.' " 

The truant laws are strictly enforced, hygienic measures are formu- 
lated and the modern movement of encouraging the transformation of 
schools into social centers is given full support. Domestic science and 
home sewing are strongly urged, and the suggestions as to getting the 
most practical good out of the agricultural course are as follows: "In 
the one room schools, only the boys of the 8th grade will be required to 
do the work in Agriculture. 

"The boys in the 7th-grade and girls in the 8th grade may do the 
work if the teacher thinks it advisable. 

"Do the work as outlined in the State Course and in the Tentative 
Course of Study in Agriculture. If the teacher does not have a Tenta- 
tive Course of Study in Agriculture, he may get one of the county 

"Special emphasis is to be placed OH soils and cl'Ops. Use 'I'loduc 


live Farming' by Davis as a text, but only such parts as are needed to 
follow the course. 

"Perforin as many experiments as possible." 

Young peoples' reading circles are warmly encouraged and tins sen- 
sible warning is sent out: "Teachers should see that children have clean 
games and sport, both indoors and out. Every teacher ought to know 
enough good games and sports to be able to start one or more when the 
children do not seem to play some good game of their own. The best way 
to get rid of bail games or unsatisfactory play is to suggest a good game 
or Sport and teach them how to play it. 

"Ball, beau-bags, jumping-rope, horse-shoe, dare-base, blind-man's 
buff, L'ondon Bridge, black-man, tag, see-saw, tap-ring, drop the hand- 
kerchief, guessing games, ciphering." 

The last session of the Indiana Legislature gave the stale the most 
advanced law on industrial and vocational education of any of the states. 
It made the age limit for compulsory attendance at school sixteen years 
instead of fourteen unless the child obtains work papers. It gave the 
state uniform text books for the high school. It created another class of 
teachers under the minimum wage law and several other laws were en- 
acted of great importance to the public schools of the slate. In all of 
which progressive legislation White County is receiving its due benefit 
as a stable unit of the great state system of public instruction. 

Phesent Status of the County System 

The last figures compiled by County Superintendent Keid Eor 1915 
indicate that the total value of property in White County now amounts 
to $15,246,560, the enrollment of those of school age to 4,330, number of 
teachers, 124, and number of sehoolhouses, 91). The details follow: 

Townships and Value of 
Corporations Enrollment Teachers Houses Property 

Big Creek 270 7 5 +1 ,280,900 

Cass 277 9 9 538,870 

Honey Creek 268 7 8 1 , 1 1)9,380 

Jackson 276 8 5 931,330 

Liberty 276 10 9 648,410 

Monon 253 9 10 1,395,810 

Prairie 211 8 10 1,906,830 

Princeton 213 9 in 1,329,850 

Round Grove 110 6 H 864,380 

Union 202 9 Id 1,279,440 

West Point 212 9 9 1 ,250,080 

Hrookston 269 •". 1 375,280 

liurnettsville 239 I I 185,760 

Monon 384 8 I 428,730 

Wolcott 29.") 6 1 374,470 

Monticello 575 10 2 1,:! 17.0 10 

Totals 4,330 121 99 $15,246,560 


IJk. William S. EIaymond 

No more learned or versatile character lias ever cast his lot with the 
progress of While County than Dr. William S. Ilaymond, successful phy- 
sician and sure, (in, mathematician, linguist, railroad president, congress- 
man, orator and author, Two decades of his remarkable career were spent 
in Almitieello; in that city was laid the foundation of his later and broader 
fame, which was honestly and fairly earned as a resident of Indianapolis, 
but toward whatever place he railed his home, the affection and admira- 
tion of his old friends in White County were earnestly directed. His 
death at the state capital occurred December 23, 1885, in bis sixty-third 

From the many obituaries and eulogies which appeared in the news- 
papers of the state, the following from the Indianapolis Journal of Decem- 
ber 26, L885j is selected as both concise and complete : "The funeral of Dr. 
William S. Ilaymond will take place from his late residence, No. 399 
College avenue, this afternoon at 1 :30. He was born in Harrison county, 
near Clarksburg, Virginia, February 20, 1823. At the age of twenty, 
though only possessed of a common school education, he was regarded 
as one of the most accomplished mathematicians in the State. At twenty- 
three, be began the study of medicine, and after qualifying himself for 
his profession moved West and located at Monticello, where, in 1852, 
he began the practice of medicine and surgery, soon after which he grad- 
uated at r.ellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. He soon came 
to rank with the foremost men of his profession in the northwestern part 
of the state, and at different times contributed valuable papers to the 
medical journals. While busily engaged in his practice, he daily devoted 
himself to the study of languages, his course embracing Latin, Greek, 
French, German, Spanish and Italian. He also made it a regular habit 
from year to year to iv\ iew geometry and other branches of mathematics. 
In the fall of 186J he was appointed assistant surgeon in the Forty-sixth 
Indiana Regiment, lie remained in the army until 1863, when, by reason 
of ill health, he was compelled to return home. In 1866 he received the 
unanimous nomination by the Democrats and Liberals as their candidate 
for the State Senate, but was defeated for election. 

"In 1 S7l2 \h-. Haymoud was elected president of the Indianapolis. 
Delphi and Chicago Railroad Company, and held that office until his 
election to Congress two years later. He was the first person who saw 
clearly the importance of opening a through railroad line which would 
give the Western Slates direct trade, by way of Port Royal, with South 
America, the West Indies ami Europe. On this subject he addressed, by 
special invitation, n joint railroad convention at Augusta, Georgia, in 
.May, 1873. The project having attracted widespread attention, a com- 
pany was formed of which Dr. FTnymond was made president. At a 
large railroad convention held in Chicago in October, 1873, the proposed 
road was strongly favored. Bankers of large capital and credit had 
pledged substantial aid to the enterprise, when the panic inaugurated 
by the failure of Jay Cooke so unsettled financial matters that operations 

Were suspended. 


"Jn 1871 Dr. Haymond received, without solicitation, the unanimous 
nomination to Congress from the Truth (Schuyler Colfax's) district, and 
was triumphantly elected — the lirst Democratic victory in twenty-two 
years. He retired at the close of the terra March 1, 1877. His eulogy on 
the death of the speaker, Hon Michael C. Kerr, was pronounced by com- 
petent judges the finest literary effort made on the occasion. He was 
renominated for Congress in 187G, but met with a serious accident about 
the last of August of that year which came near terminating his life, 
confining him to his bed for several months. Tie was defeated, the dis- 
trict 'being largely Republican and because he was unable to give his 
personal effort and presence to the campaign. 

"The' Doctor was endowed with a rare executive ability and as an 
organizer had few superiors. In deportment he was modest, suave and 
rather reticent; but his social qualities were pleasant and lasting to 
those who made his acquaintance. About ten years ago, desiring to 
occupy a new field of labor and lessen the physical drudgery under 
which he was tiring through professional labors, be removed to this city. 
He took an active and leading part in the organization of the Central 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, of this city, with which, in various 
positions, he was connected until his death." 

■ .To the foregoing, the editor may add that while in Congress Doctor 
Haymond had the reputation of being one of the mosl widely informed 
men in that body. He was a member of the Commit tee on Banking and 
Currency, which, at that time especially, was dealing with matters vital 
to the stability of the country. It is stated, on good authority, that upon 
one occasion when a certain congressman went to Speaker Cox to consult 
him about some financial matter, he gave this advice: "You go and sec 
Haymond; he knows more about finance than any man on the commit- 
tee." The doctor's friends, who know of his characteristic thoroughness, 
may well believe the story. 

In Doctor Haymond 's list of accomplishments mention should also 
be made of the "History of Indiana," of which he is the author, which 
was published in 1879. It contains much valuable matter, well arranged, 
but largely deals with civil and political matters marshaled under the 
different gubernatorial administrations. 

Looking at the subject from all sides, no man who has ever resided in 
White County and gone forth to participate in movements high and 
broad in their scope, has earned a more enduring reputation than that 
of Dr. W. S. Haymond. 

CnARLES S. Hartman 

Hon. Charles R. Hartman, a native of Monticello, where be was born 
March 7, 18(11, gained prominence in the West. He was edncnterl in the 
public schools of bis native town and his marriage to .Miss flora B. 
lines, of Monticello, as well as bis admission to the bar, fell in 1884. As 
be also moved to I'.ozcman to enter practice in thai year, it certainly 
made a distinct division in his life. 


Mr. Hartman, although so young, came into rapid notice, and the very 
year of thus becoming a resident of Gallatin County, Montana, was 
elected to the probate judgeship. After serving a term of two years on 
that bench, he resumed practice as a lawyer and in 1888 was a candi- 
date for the Territorial Legislature. Although defeated, he was chosen 
a member of the Constitutional Convention of the following year, under 
which Montana Vas admitted to the Union of states. Mr. Hartman served 
through the Fifty-third and the Uil'ty-lith sessions of Congress, his terms 
commencing in 1893 and 1899, respectively. He then returned to his 
large law practice in Bozeman and in 1913 President Wilson appointed 
him minister to represent the United States in Ecuador where he now 

Rev: William E. Biedebwolf 

The editor also presents with pardonable pride a human product of 
White County, whose enthusiasm and inspiration for the higher forces 
of life are spreading his ( Ihristianizing influence over the land; reference 
is made to Rev. William 10. Biederwolf, whose home is still in Monticello, 
but the headquarters of his evangelical work, Chicago. Thence he sends 
out his individual literature through the Glad Tidings Publishing Com- 
pany, of which he is the head, and formulates his plans for bis cam- 
paigns against the common enemy ; his weapons are an all-absorbing per- 
sonal conviction that he is lighting for God and truth, with a thorough 
intellectual and theological training and a natural eloquence behind his 
faith; an accomplished patient, helpful and earnest wife as a sympathetic 
and tactful partner in all his work; and his Christian assistants who are 
specially assigned to evangelical work at different points in bis itinerary, 
which embraces every section of the United States. Previous to the out- 
break of the world -war be was under an engagement to engage in evan- 
gelical work in London, hut that dire event made all European plans 

Mr. Biederwolf is of German blood, as his name implies, and was 
born at Monticello, September 21), 1867. He graduated from Wabash 
College in 1890, from Princeton College in 1894 aud from Princeton 
Theological Seminary in 1S9. r >. lie rounded out his mental and theologi- 
cal training with post-graduate studies in various German universities 
covering two years. The funds which enabled him to enjoy this scholas- 
tic privilege were derived from the New Testament Fellowship which he 
had won at the Princeton School of Theology. In 1897, the year follow- 
ing his marriage to Miss Ida Casad, of Monticello, he entered the Presby- 
terian ministry and was culled to the Broadway Church, at Logans- 
port. At. the second call for volunteers during the Spanish-American 
war he offered his services as chaplain of the Cue Hundred and Sixty- 
lirsl Indiana Regiment. In thai capacity he served six months in the 
United Stales and a like period in Cuba, after which he returned to the 
Logansport Church and continued his pastorate there until 1900. 

In the year named Mr. Biederwolf resigned from the pulpit to 
give himself to the cause of evangelization, in which he is one of the 


foremost figures in America. He is president of the Interdenominational 
Association of Evangelists; general secretary of the. Family Altar 
League; general secretary of the Evangelistic Commission of the Federal 
Council of Churches of Christ in America; and a director of the Winona 
(Ind.) Assembly and Bible Conference and the Industrial Evangelical 
Foundation. He is a prohibitionist in the full sense of the word. 

The books which Mr. Biederwolf has written and publishes through 
the Glad Tidings Publishing Company are: A Help to the Study of the 
Holy Spirit; How Can God Answer Prayer?; The Growing Christian; 
The Christian and Amusements; The White Life; The Square Man; Un- 
varnished Facts About Christian Science; Russell ism Unveiled and Spir- 
itualism. He also issues the Family Altar Magazine, a monthly publica- 
tion and the official organ of the Family Altar League. 




ft. . 

«^yg^Jfel ^ ^ft 

k 1 I 





Specimen Cattle and Hues op White County 



County Agricultural Society — Pioneer Live Stock Men — Local 
Agricultural Societies — Initial Meeting in Big Cheek Township 
— Fair of the Tri-County Farmers' Association — White County 
Society Organized — First and Best County Fair — The Second 
Fair — Division Over County Seat Removal — Attempts at Revival 
— The Old Settlers' Association — First Meeting at John Burns' 
Grove — First Known Officers — President George A. Spencer — 
First Well-ordered Association — Pioneers of 1829-67 — White 
County Historical Society — White County Medical Society — Dr. 
John W. Medaris — Dr. Madison T. Didl ake. 

There are several societies of county-wide interest and influence, the 

efforts and aets of which are both worthy of record. Some of their aims, 
laudable though they he, have failed of accomplishment from lack of 
membership and financial means; but the future may still bring realiza- 
tion to such efforts, which have been directed through co-operative chan- 
nels toward the education and improvement of the citizens of the county, 
either in specialties or in general. 

County Agricultural Society 

No organization of that character was founded earlier or more per- 
sistently supported by a chosen few than the Agricultural Society and 
its practical manifestation, the county fair. Now it seemed alive; then 
dead; perhaps the next step was a revival, and the following a decline; 
so that for many years neither the farmers nor the townsmen knew what 
to expect. The society is now supposed to be sleeping, albeit the general 
sentiment is growing that it should be awake and doing. 

Pioneer Live Stock Men 

County agricultural societies were authorized by enactment of the 
Slate Legislature in 1838. The farmers and live stock men, especially of 

Honey Creek. Big Creek and Union townships, held a number of t- 

ings, but were not strong enough in numbers to organize at thai early 
time. Besides raising barely enough grain for their family consumption, 
tlie agricultural activities of White County for some twuiity years after 
its organization consisted largely in raising horses, cattle and hogs for 



the markets ill Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, Philadelplua ami New York. 
Sometimes the live stock was fattened for eastern parties; sometimes 
raise! by the home farmers and driven to the East. One of the first 
men to make tile venture of driving Stock to the eastern markets was 
Sylvamis VauVooret, of Reynolds, Id the fall of 1849, he started a 
mixed drove of cattle and horses East, with no definite market in view, 
and eontinued Ids journey as far as New York City before lie was able 
to sell at satisfactory prices. 

Hut these ventures, as a rule, proved to be unprofitable, and the farm- 
ers who grazed the herds of eastern owners on the free range got into all 
kinds of wrangles as to compensation; the consequence was that along 
in the '50s they commenced to improve their home stock and own the 
herds and droves for which they eared. These pioneer live stock men 
most favored the Morgan, Lexington and Copper Bottom horses; Short 
Horn, Durham and Hereford eattle, and the Berkshire and Cheshire 
hogs. The first men to give their serious attention to the improvement of 
stock in the county were Samuel Alkire and John Barr, of Prairie 
Township, cattlemen; John Burns, Philip Wolverton, Jonathan High 
and Benjamin Reynolds, Big Creek, who bred cattle, horses, hogs and 
sheep; Isaac Leahy, Wist Point Township, horses; Peter Price and John 
Roberts, Dnioa Township, and Isaac Adams, horses, cattle and hogs; 
James EC. and William Wilson, Monon, the same; and Christian Vande- 
venter and Robert and Crystal Scott, Liberty anil Cass townships, hogs 
and cattle. 

Local Agricultural Societies 

The result was that before long eastern buyers came regularly to 
White County, instead of vice versa, and the home farmers and live stock 
men commenced again to talk about organizing a County Agricultural 
Society. The townsmen, many of whom had agricultural interests, also 
joined in the movement. The people of Monticello and Reynolds were 
particular enthusiastic, the People's Agricultural Society being organ- 
ized in the former place in the late Tills for the purpose of promoting agri- 
culture, horticulture and stock bleeding in the county. 

Initial Meeting in P.iu Creek Township 

But the movement which led directly to the organization of a county 
society originated in Big Creek Township, the home of George A. Spencer 
and Benjamin Reynolds. At a meeting held on the 13th of October, 1857, 
of m liich Albert S. While was chairman and B. D. Smith, secretary, it. was 
resolved "that Ibis meeting deem it expedient that an effort be made to 
organize an Agricultural Society Cor White county, and that the citizens 
of l he county be requested to assemble at Monticello, on Saturday, Novem- 
ber 14th, a1 noon, to consult upon the subject, and, if deemed advisable. 
to take the proper steps for the organization of such society. A general 
attendance from each township is requested." 


Fair of tije Tim-County Farmers' Association 

In the meantime the Farmers' Association, which had been organized 
in the preceding February, met at Burnettsville with a membership ol 
about forty, and ou November 7th had an exhibition or fair at thai 
place. Tins appears to be the lirst event t' the kind in White Count} 
and, notwithstanding rather inclement weather, a fair attendance of 
spectators and exhibitors was reported from Cass, White and Jasper 
counties, which constituted the territory covered by the association. The 
exhibits embraced horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, vegetables and grain and 
specimens of domestic work. 

White County Society Organized 

But the people of White County felt that they were strong enough 
to have a society and a fair of their own; hence the Monticello meeting 
of November 14th. It was held at the courthouse. Judge David Turpit: 
presided and addressed the meeting on the necessity of organizing u 
County Agricultural Society. Committees on articles of association and 
membership were appointed, after which an adjournment was taken 
until December 7th. On that day the society was formed for the " Pro- 
motion of the interests of agriculture, manufactures and the arts in 
this county." A constitution was adopted in accordance with the regu- 
lations prescribed by the State Board of Agriculture, and the following 
officers elected for the ensuing year: President, Albert S. White; vice 
president, Lucius Pierce ; treasurer, Randolph Brearly; directors — li. \V. 
Sill, Honey Creek; Anderson Irons, West Point; John B. Bunnell, 
Princeton; C. Hayes, Prairie; John C. Hughes, Liberty; W. II. King, 
Cass; James Elliott, Jackson; Peter Price, Union; A. A. Cole, Motion, 
and George A. Spencer, Big Creek. 

First and Best County Fair 

At various meetings held within the following four months ('1111111111 
tecs were appointed to prepare a premium list for the county fair to be 
held in the coming autumn and to procure grounds and erect the neci 
sary buildings for the exhibition of live stock, products of the farm and 
garden and the display of domestic manufactures. In the spring ol 
1858 the directors received the reports of the committees, from which 
the cheerful prospect evolved that, after building a portion of the pens 
and sheds and thereby draining the treasury, it would be necessary t" 
raise $4,000 to meet the premiums which had been offered. The strain 
was eased somewhat by substituting diplomas for cash premium 
many articles, the change being generally accepted with good },''""'' 

prize ribbons could be kept for future display and glory, while u-\ 

could not. 

The Committee on Grounds and Buildings reported thai IVtci l'i 
had generously donated ;| forty-acre trad of laud aboul half a mil. 


of town on the north side of the" highway, and that buildings were so far 
advanced that they would be ready for occupancy by the 1st of Septem- 
ber, The time fixed for holding the fair was the last week in that month, 
when it was assumed that the --rains and vegetables of the county would 
be sufficiently matured to be placed on exhibition to the best advantage. 

This first fair was a grand success, despite the fact that the country 
bad not yet recovered from the monetary panic of 1857, for the general 
election was at hand and various candidates for state and county offices 
were in attendance. That feature of itself drew many to the fair. The 
exhibition was a novelty and was really creditable. Furthermore, the 
funds which the people brought with them purposely to spend were 
enhanced by generous contributions from office-seekers. No fair was 
therefore more of a success than the first. 

One iu attendance wrote of the exhibition, years afterward, in this 
strain: "The exhibits of grain, vegetables and farm products were ex- 
tensive. Wagon loads of sweet and Irish potatoes, cabbages, pumpkins, 
squash, corn, oats, wheal and rye were brought in by the farmers and 
entered for premiums. The breeders of fine stock — cattle, horses, hogs 
and sheep — were well represented. There were many men living in the 
county wlio bad for a long time made a specialty in the breeding of the 
best slock obtainable, and to them we are indebted for the high repute of 
White County in the production of the best horses, cattle, sheep and 
swine of any of her sister counties in this part of the State. 

"But horses, cattle, hogs and sheep were not the only stock on exhi- 
bition at our Fair. Chickens, turkeys, geese and Guinea fowls were also 
brought and entered in their classes for premiums. The woman depart- 
ment was no) neglected either. Premiums were offered for home-made 
laces, embroideries, quilts, bedspreads, woolen socks and other wearing 
apparel; also for the best live pounds of butter, the best loaf of bread, 
the best, cake, the best home-made cheese and many other articles involv- 
ing the culinary art." 

The unexpected success of the County Agricultural Society in its 
first venture at holding a fair made the managers quite sanguine of the 
future, and bi arch was immediately instituted for permanent grounds. 

Tjue Second Fair 

The second fair held at the Montieello grounds in 1859 was less 
encouraging for several reasons. Times had become really hard; the 
country was Hooded with worthless money; Wild-Cat banks were wind- 
ing up their unbusinesslike affairs everywhere, and stores and manu- 
factories wore either failing or reefing their sails in an endeavor to 
weather the .storm, (ioo.l money was at such a discount that the few 
banks which had conducted their business within reason were grimly 
holding oil to it, although constantly beseiged by business men who 
were stdl solvent, but could hardly keep afloat without a medium of 
exchange of .some kind. 


Division Over County Seat Removal 

Then there was the prevailing agitation over the transfer of the 
county seat from Montieello to Reynolds, which divided the member- 
ship of the County Agricultural Society and threatened to disrupt it. 
But these differences were finally compromised, although the move- 
ment had its retarding effect. Neither did the second fair present a 
drawing card in the presence of public speakers whom the people of the 
county were eager to hear, as no election of importance was pending. 

Despite these drawbacks the exhibits were most creditable, those in 
the lines of agricultural products, machinery, manufacturers and stock 
being superior to those of the first fair. About this time the first thresh- 
ing machines were appearing in the grain fields of White County farm- 
ers. They were operated by horses. It is hard to realize, in this con- 
nection, that it was twenty years after the county was organized that 
threshing machines commenced to be manufactured in the United State's. 
Reverting to the county fair of 1859, the truth is that its exhibits were 
good, but the attendance was very poor, and the society received a blow 
which seemed to benumb its activities. 

The prevailing sentiment of the committee on grounds and the society 
generally was that the site of the county fair should be near the county 
seat, and, as Reynolds and Montieello were still contending for that 
honor, the choice of grounds was greatly complicated; in fact, a decision 
was never made. The citizens favoring Reynolds had offered the society 
forty acres of land near that place, where a fair was afterward held, and 
further agreed to aid in its improvement, provided the society would 
make it a permanent location for the county fair to be held in the future. 
A majority of the committee, however, was opposed to Reynolds, either 
as a location for the county seat or the county fair, and voted to post- 
pone the purchase of fair grounds until the state of the treasury should 

Attempts at Revival 

That time never came and, although fairs were held for several years 
afterward, the County Agricultural Society was finally dissolved. An 
efforl was made to revive it in 1874, at a time when the people were 
just recovering from the panic of 1873. Several citizens of Montieello 
leased a tract of land from William Rothrock, a mile south of town, 
prepared the grounds, advertised the enterprise ex ■■nsively, offered 
liberal premiums to exhibitors and held the fair. Although it was a 
success and resulted in leaving several hundred dollars in the treasury, 
the farmers and stockmen of the county did not follow up the move- 
ment, and no attempt has since been made to hold a county agricul- 
tural fair. Various local fairs are held at such points as Brookston, 
Motion, Woleott and Montieello, the monthly sale of horses at the county 
■•••it being perhaps the most prosperous of these enterprises. The advis- 
ability of again organizing a society which shall combine all these inter- 
•' s| - 'Hid, in other ways, stimulate agricultural, horticultural and live 


stock matters throughout the county, is periodically discussed and may 
result in another and a stronger County Agricultural Society. 

Tjit; Old Settlers' Association 

The old settlers of White County have been organized since 1838, 
their annual meetings having always been occasions of warm sociability 
and great, interest. Since the fall of 1911 the contributions to the his- 
tory of the county contained in the speeches and papers prepared by 
the old settlers have been preserved through the efforts of the White 
County Historical Society, which was organized in that year. That 
organization has been a credit to its name, and among its other good 
works is its practical support given to this history of White County. 

First Meeting at John Burns' Grove 

All the ace anils of the Old Settlers' Association state that its "first 
organized meeting" took plain; at the grove of George Spencer, Big 
Creek Township, in September, 1858, but make no mention of a gather- 
ing held in the previous month at the grove of John Burns, on the 
Grand Prairie. -Mi'. Burns, a genial Ohio man, then in his fiftieth year, 
had settled in what afterward became Big Creek Township as early as 
1830. Be had I lieu barely passed his majority, although he had been 
married four years. Upon bis 80-acre tract he erected a little log cabin, 
with dirt floors, but at the time of the old settlers' gathering in. his 
grove he had a large, finely improved farm, and eventually became the 
most extensive land owner and live-stock breeder in Big Creek Township. 

The first meeting of old settlers, whether it could be called organized 
or not, was held in the Burns grove about the middle of August, 1858, 
as staled in a communication published in the White County Jackson- 
ian, August 18th of that month. The account of this initial meeting is 
written so unaffectedly as to be refreshing, despite the formality of some 
of the expressions. It is therefore reproduced: "On Friday last a most 
agreeable entertainment came off at the grove of Air. John Burns on 
the Grand Prairie, Information had spread abroad that there would 
be an 'old settlers' festival' at the time and place above mentioned, and 
early in the forenoon the settlers, old and young, came flocking in from 
all directions until at 10 o'clock, when the organization took place, quite 
a mass of citizens, male ,md female, had collected on the grounds. 

"Judge Test was chosen President of the day, who, in a succinct 
and felicitous manner, staled the object of the meeting and in turn the 
old settlers <>f White county told the tales of their early adversities, the 
successes thai attended their perseverance and industry, their many 
privations and discomforts; how glad they were to see the face of a 
friend, or that of a stranger, if he had even come from the same State 
they had left; the difficulties of obtaining supplies for necessary wants. 

the places whence Ihey came, etc., etc. 

"I assure you, .Mr. fMitor, of the many entertainments in which I 


have participated I never partook of more enjoyment than upon this 
occasion. Each old settler, in a style of unvarnished frankness and 
truth, gave his experience; and to me what they said was more refresh- 
ing than if they had clothed their language with flowers of faultless 
beauty and formed their sentences with the precision of a well-arranged' 
garland. And it was pleasant to look upon the form, the honest brow, 
the well-deve"loped man-, now numbered among the patriarchs of the 
county and who can look back with so much enjoyment upon a life well 
spent in the service of Ins country and for his posterity. In these exor- 
cises the clergy also added their experience, and opened and closed the 
ceremonies with an invocation of all good and all peace to those present, 
and all mankind. 

"The ladies — God bless them! — were out in large numbers, giving 
a zest and affording a brightness to e\ try surrounding scene ; for without 
these angels of beauty what would be the life of man? 

"The vocal music was good, and the ladies and gentlemen who did 
the singing acquitted themselves handsomely. 

"The presiding officer. Judge Test, who had said so many good 
things, closed the proceedings before dinner with many happy remarks 
well adapted to the occasion, including his own backwoods experience, all 
of which was well received and rapturously applauded by the audience. 

"In accordance with the arrangements prescribed by the committer, 
the company repaired to the well-arranged dinner table, one hundred 
yards long, covered with the substantial and luxuries of the surround- 
ing country, and furnished by the ladies, whose hearts always overflow 
with kindness and liberality, and by the bounty of the hospitable pro- 
prietor of the grove, Mr. Burns. The provisions were discussed with 
much relish, and many thanks were littered to the old settlers for tin- 
comforts and plenty which their industry and hardships had been the 
means of bestowing. 

"After the festivities at the table, the party returned to the stand 
where appropriate seutiments were given and received with much good 
cheer; and when the ceremonies of the day were pronounced closed the 
young and gay, with light and buoyant hearts, repaired to an eligible 
part of the grove and 'tripped the light, fantastic toe' so merrily as t<> 
make them forget, until the sun sat in the prairies, the toils and priva- 
tions of their progenitors. But if these amusements of the young wen- 
lively and gay, they were perfectly innocent ami harmless, with which 
no sensible person should find the slightest fault. 

"And shall I speak of this lovely grove — this delightful spot .' lien- 
is the residence of our hospitable friend, Mr. Burns, which he sought 
it long while ago when there were few to dispute his wise selection of ;r 
home— and he, too,- is an old settler. Tlis farm is one of the largest and 
prettiest in the county, and his liberality toward the old settlers and 
his neighbors shows that he lias a heart To enjoy it. And, indeed all 
around his chosen residence appear green fields, well cultivated Farms. 
lovely groves, cattle on a thousand hills, presenting an amphitheatre 


of enchantment. Travel where you will, at this season of the year you 
cannot look upon a more lovely landscape. 

"What is more rational, what more entertaining, what more inter- 
esting than similar gatherings to this, when the harvest is over and the 
husbandman is at his ease?" 

First Known Officers 

If may he that a regular organization of the Old Settlers' Assoeia- 
tion was effected at tin- meetings said to have been held at the grove of 
George A. Spencer, one of the first three pioneers of Big Creek Town- 
ship — the gatherings of September, 1858, and September, 1859. 
Although several hundred people are reported to have been present at 
the latter gathei-ing, there is no record of its proceedings. The first 
officers known to have been elected were those chosen on September 8, 
1860; also at Spencer's grove. At that time Mr. Spencer was himself 
chosen president of the association; Thomas Spencer, John Roberts and 
William M. Kenton, vice presidents; Lucius Pierce, marshal; J. J. 
Barnes, secretary. At this meeting addresses were delivered by Charles 
II. Test, Alfred Reed and Rev. IT. C. McBride. 

President George A. Spencer 

George A. Spencer, whose name has already appeared so often, was 
for nearly forty years one of the most prominent men in the county. 
He was a native of Pennsylvania, but in his youth became a resident 
of Perry County, Ohio. There he was afterward married and served 
in the War of 1812. In 1829 he walked from his Ohio home to a locality 
about, three'. miles west of the Tippecanoe, where he decided to settle 
with his family. In the following year he bought 320 acres at the land 
sale in Crawfordsville, bringing his family on from Ohio soon after- 
ward. This land he improved, increased his holdings to fully 1,000 
acres, and resided on the original homestead until his death in January, 
18G7. As stated, the first courts of White County were held in Mr. 
Spencer's house', and as its first treasurer he also made his early home 
doubly official. Afterward he served as justice of the peace for about 
twenty-five years. By trade he was both a tanner and carpenter, which 
fact, in connection with his standing as a farmer and a citizen, made 
him one of the most useful and widely known men in White County. 
Mr. Spencer was too old to be a soldier in the Civil war, but several 
of his sons acquitted themselves well in that regard, and the Spencer 
familj in While County has always stood for honor and stability. 

f'utsr Wi:i.i.-Oi;ni',i;i;i) ASSOCIATION 

The old Settlers' Association, of which Mr. Spencer was perhaps Hie 
liist president, virtually left no records until the early '70s, the anxie- 
ties, horrors and responsibilities of the ('ivil war overshadowing much 



of that uncertain period. I>ut the 16th of August, 1873, was its red 
letter day, as the old settlers then assembled at the courthouse in Mou- 
ticello, eleeted permanent officers and arranged to keep a record of all 
subsequent meetings of the association. The officers thus chosen were as 

follows: Alfred Reed, president; diaries \V. Kendall, secretary; Israel 
Nordyke, treasurer; Peter Price, William Burns (son of old John Burns 
and the first or second child horn in the county), Robert Rothrock, 
Solomon McCidly, Noah Davis, Thomas Downey, Samuel Smelcer, 
Nathaniel Rogers, John Burns, Joseph McBeth, Joseph II. Thompson, 
William Jordan and Austin Ward, vice presidents. All persons who 
had resided in the county for twenty-one years were made eligible to 
membership and the secretary was directed to enter the names of all 

£ '■ 



Pioneek Home 

applicants, with the dates of their first residence in the county. At 
each annual meeting he was also to record deaths or removals from the 
county. Thus was the Old Settlers' Association put upon a business- 
like basis, which has since endured and brought so much pleasure and 
profit to its members. The annual meeting is fixed as the la., I Saturday 
in August. The citizens of Montieello have been especially enthusiastic 
and liberal in support of the entertainments, which are so thoroughly 
appreciated by the thousands who now throng to the gatherings of the 
old settlers, their relatives and friends, wherever found, hut mostly col- 
lected from within the limits of White County. 

Pioneers ok lM-!)-<>7 

As entered in the record hook of the assoeiation the following are the 
best. -known of the old settlers who have joined that organization, with 
the years of their coming: 

1829 —Joseph 11. Thompson, Robert Rothrock, Mary Thompson, 
Calvin ('. Spencer, Matilda Peircc, Eliza M. Kendall, Louisa Virden. 

,i, ^1 

1 ' - A \ 

i hi 












L830 — John Herron, Jacob Buchanan, Geoi'ge D. Washburn. 

1831 — -John Burns, Samuel Alkire, Catherine Hartley, John Roberts, 
Win. Burns, Catherine Orr, Peter Priee, Qeorge W. Spencer, Joseph 
Rothrock, Samuel Smeleer, Jeremiah Bishcr, Robert Neal, G. W. Red- 
ding; Martha Roberts. 

1832 — John Gates, John Gray, Solomon McCully, Thos. Spencer, 
Margaret Remvick. 

1833 — John Worthington, Andrew llauna, J. M, Smeleer, Orlando 
McConahay, Abram N. Bunnell, David McConahay, Elizabeth Sill, 
Miranda Reynolds, Nancy Bunnell, Samuel Virden, T. W. Berkey, Ann 
Smith, Lucy Jane Grose, Mary A. Kenton, Isaac Davis, .Mary Davis, 
Susie Redding, Adam Gibson, Harriet E. Rinker, Silas M. Virden, Oliver 
S. Dale. 

1834 — Allen Barnes, John Hannah, Nathaniel White, Nathaniel Bun- 
nell, Stephen Bunnell, Sophia Bunnell, Elizabeth S. Cowger, Samuel 
Shafer, Susanna Shafer, Milton M. Sill, Elizabeth Neal, Isaac S. Vinson, 
Sarah Line, Peter Bishop, Sarah A. Cowger, Abraham Bunnell, Rachel 
Redding, George W. Redding. 

1835 — G. II. Gibson, Alexander Barnes, William Brier, William 
York, John York, Matilda Dodge, William Spencer, William M. Ruth, 
Rowland Hughes, Jane Cullen, Ellis II. Johnson, Abram Snyder, L. T. 
Korn, William Duncan, Rachel Cornell, Richard 11. Cornell, Benjamin 
Greenfield, George II. Mitchell, George B. Smith. 

1836 — Hiram Sluyter, Zachariah Rothrock, Morgan H. Dyer, Aaron 
Price, Esther M. Hall, Randolph Brearley, John 1). Scroggs, Davis C. 
Scroggs, Gideon E. Scroggs, Eliza C. Rothrock, Daniel M. Tilton, Elisha 
Warden, James Downey, Elizabeth Sluyter, \V. 11. Rinker, Henry 
Chamberlain, Richard Imes, Sr., Margaret Nutt, Nelson Hornbeek, Eliz- 
abeth Reese, Hannah C. Franklin. 

1837 — Jonathan Oats, Hugh Lowe, James C. Reynolds, Georgianna 
M. Reynolds, Mary C. Patterson, .Mary J. Reynolds, George Snyder, 
Henry Snyder, Sarah Rothrock, Eli Cowger, Liberty M. Burns, Martha 
Greenfield, Walter Billingsley, Mary Simonds. 

1838— Elizabeth Shriner, 'Mary Sill, James W. Mason. Dan id J. 
Tilton, Perry Spencer, Esther Rinker, George Elston, J. W. Watkins, 
Hlmira Woltz, Samuel Heckendorn, William Kinney, Ann ,\1. Ford. 
t'lark S. Little, Mary Hull', Phebe Hornback, Henrj T. Little. 

1839— Abraham Neal, Hugh B. Logan, H. C. Neal, .John C. Kan-. 
Hannah Stout. Reuben Stout, J. W. Welch, 0. 0. Slceth, John Harvey, 
Charles W. Kendall, Samuel E. Logan, David < '. Ted ford, Wi 
Dowell, J. Lytle, Maria Eraser, John D. Ranker, Louisa L.-ar, Mary 
Failing, Elizabeth Wiley, Mary E. Tovvnsley. 

IS 10 William I). Edson, Elisha ET. Davis, Letelia Davis, J. C, 
Grewcll, Philip Benjamin, William S. Davis, George IVrrigOj I' 
Gates, Susan Patton, J. E. Dunham, Sarah McConahay, Hour) Murray, 
Asa Bailey, Jonas Monbeck, John Hornbeek, Mar) Grace Wirt. 

1841 — John P. Shafer. Noali Davis, Israel haws. Theodore J, D vi 


Owen C. Davis, William \V. Davis, Philip Benjamin, Elizabeth Sluyter, 
Sarah Bunnell, Thomas [tinker, William Boze, Jane M. Sleeth. 

1842 — Isaac Price, Bushrod W. Cain, Mary Wright, Lorin Cutler, 
James McKinney, Catharine McKinney, Alexander Yount, W. W. Me- 
Culloch, Rebecca Little, John Eldridge. 

184.'J — Thomas Barnes, J. S. Spencer, Lucius Peirce, Mary A. Barns, 
William II. Gray, Samuel G. Neal, 

1841 -Theodore M. Davis, T. A. Rohison, N. J. Robison, Wm. II. 
Brannan, Adin Nordyke, Israel Nordyke, Samuel Fleming, William Orr, 
John Matthews, Katherinc J. Chamberlain, S. P. Cowger. 

1845 — Isaac B. .Moore, John ('. Hughes, James W. Bulger, Minerva 
Bulger, Simon Bailey, Louisa Bailey, E. II. Johnson, Albert Bacon, 
William Haas, Emily Yount, John Short, John Wright, Jane Wickham, 
Lucy 1''. Miller, W. T. Dobbins, James R. Moore, George B. Woltz. 

1847 — Elizabeth Hughes, Lydia Worthington, John Snyder, Nathan 
C. Pettit, Sarah Monheck. 

1848 — fohn Wilburn, Catherine A. Logan, Ainer S. McElhoes, iMary 
McElhoes, Joseph 1-. Hall, Nancy Hall, Eliza Perrigo, Sarah Bailey, 
•John P. Carr, Samuel Cromer, James Spencer, Emeline Hughes, -John 
Shell, Catherine Hughes. 

184!) — Calvin Cooley, David Droke, David S. Drokc, Edward Rey- 
nolds, Joseph DeLong, Joseph Paugh, Catherine DeLong, Robert Ginn, 
Ellen R. (linn, A. II. Wingard, Sarah Cromer, John II. Switzer. 

1850 - Charles Reid, Eliza J. Wickham, Nicholas Myers, Mary Roach, 
Samuel Snyder, Philip M. Benjamin. 

1851 — Daniel Morse, Thomas E. Barnes, Jr., James M. Thornton, 
l.i/./ie Clark, Levi Mowrer, M. J. Anderson, Alexander Reed. 

1852 — Thomas K. Moore, W. P. Edwards, Louisa A. Moore, William 
B. Keel'er, .Matilda J. Mowrer, John W. Brown, George Cullen, Ira 
Keller, E. McDonald, Hamilton Templeton, Philip Wolverton, W. S. 

1853 — Elisa Dickey, S. E. Brannan, Elizabeth Hughes, Peter Carna- 
han, Susan Carnahan, John X. Harbert, Job J. Holmes, Frank Carna- 
han, Robert L. Cox. 

1854 — Elmira J. Thomas, Mrs. McBeth, John Horen, Ferdinand 
Hays, Jane Bishop, Solomon Del/ell. 

1855— Shelton Rutlicrford, Verlina Rutherford, Permelia Bacon, 
James Coble, Wm. II. .McKinney, Peter Loftus, Margaret Loftus, Miranda 
Dickey, Richard Cornell. 

1856— Solomon Crose, James A. Barr, E. J. Berkey, W. J. Gridley, 
Samuel Town, ley, Thomas Cooper, Cornelia Crouch. 

1857— Robert Gregory. 

1858— Amaziali Davisson, Sarah A. Davisson. 

1859 George I'ld. 

1860 John Moriarty, Hiirriel Moriarty. 
1861— Nathaniel Sweet, John Morrell. 

186.'}— Charles J. Ilntton, Nancy A. Hutton, John L. Pitts. 

1866 - Samuel B. Wright. 

1867 -Amlrcw Goble. 


White County Historical Society 

At the White County Old Settlers' meeting, held at Monticello, 
August 26, 1911, the importance of a county historical society was 
presented and urged by William H. Hamelle, and accordingly a com- 
mittee was appointed to organize such a society for White County. The 
committee, consisting of J. B. VanBuskirk, William II. Hamelle, Bernard 
G. Smith, James P. Simons and Will S. Bushnell, met at the office of 
Spencer & Hamelle on the evening of September 1, 1911, and effected an 
organization to be known as "The White County Historical Society," 
with the following officers: President, William II. tlamelle; vice presi- 
dent, Will S. Bushnell; secretary, Jay B. VanBuskirk ; treasurer, 
Bernard G. Smith. The president was authorized to purchase the neces- 
sary records and books for the society, and the meeting adjourned. 

The charter members of the society are as follows: 

Monticello— B. G. Smith, Will S. Bushnell, Wm. K. O'Connell, Mrs. 
P. V. Mikesell, R. D. Roberts, Wm. P. Bunnell, B V. Price, Sr., George 
G. Breese, C. D. Meeker, J. D. Timmons, T. \V. O'Connor, Miss Anna 
Magee, T. J. Woltz, Wm. P. Cooper, J. B. Roach, George Biederwolf, 
A. B. Clark, George P. Marvin, Wm. II. Hamelle, J. B. VanBuskirk, 
H. D. Shenk, Charles C. Spencer, Perry Spencer, John M. Turner, 
Sanford Johnsonbaugh, George K. Hughes, Prank It. Phillips, I'.. P>. 
Baker, Wm. M. Reynolds, John McConnell, S. A. Carson, [I. C. Johnson, 
M. T. Didlake, J. P. Simons, Felix R. Roth, Wm. Guthrie, and J. C. 

Chalmers — S. M. Burns and James YanYoorst. 

Monon — John W. Brannan, Thomas S. Cowger, Eli \V. Covvger and 
John C. Lowe. 

Reynolds— C. C. Wheeler. 

Brookston — Robert II. Little, John C. Vanatta, .fames E. Carson, 
Alex. L. Telfer, Guy G. Jennings, Joseph H. Kious, August S. Bordner, 
and A. P. Gosma. 

The objects of the society, as stated in its constitution, •"shall be 
the collection and preservation of all material calculated to shed light 
on the natural, civil and political history of White county; the publica- 
tion and circulation of historical documents; the promotion of useful 
knowledge; and the friendly and profitable intercourse of such citizens 
as are disposed to promote these ends." 

Annual public meetings were inaugurated, the first one being held 
in Library Hall, Monticello, April 19, 1912. At this meeting a paper 
on the early history of Indiana, by W. II. Ilainelle, was read by the 
secretary, and .lames M. McBeth read a history of the McBoth family, 
which he had prepared by request. Short talk, giving cordial endorse- 
ment of the work and purpose of the society were made by .lames M. 
McBeth, Judge T. P. Palmer, IT. C. Johnson, Rev, A. P. .Martin and .1. P. 
Loughry. .Music was furnished by the high school orchestra and a ladies 
quartette composed of Miss Marjorie McBeth, Miss (Irflcc Clapper, Miss 
Ruth Vogel and Miss Julia McCuaig. 


Records were procured and the work of gathering historical material 
and col lectins and indexing il by the must approved system was begun. 
.Mailer pertaining to the early history of the county, and especially 
biographical sketches, both of pioneers and later residents, were espe- 
cially solieited, all such contributions to be sent to the secretary. 

The present officers of the society are-. President, William II. Hamelle; 
vice president, Will S. Bushnell; secretary, Jay B. VanBuskirk; treas- 
urer, Bernard G. Smith. 

Executive Committee — William II. Hamelle, Jay B. VanBuskirk, 
Bernard ti. Smith, -lames P, Simons and Will S. Bushnell, all of 

Advisory Board -Cass Township, Joseph McBeth, Idaville; Jackson, 
•Geo. II. Mitchell, Idaville; Liberty, James Spencer, Buffalo; Union, 
• las. M. McBeth, Montiecllo; Monon, Eli Cowger, Monon; Honey Creek, 
Mrs. Sarah Gardner, Reynolds; Big Creek, S. M. Burns, Chalmers; 
Princeton, Albert Plummer, Wolcott; West Point, Walter Carr, Reyn- 
olds; Round Grove, A. L. Telfer, Brookston; and Prairie, Thos. W. 
Sleeth, Brookston. 

White County Medical Society 

The physicians of White County have always stanchly upheld the 
ethics of their profession, and they justly point with pride to the founder 
of their medical society, Dr. William S. Hayinond, long of Montiecllo 
and afterward a resident of Indianapolis and a figure of national fame. It 
was shortly alter his return from army service as a surgeon, in broken 
health, that lie called a meeting of his fellow practitioners in White 
County for the purpose of organizing a society. Eight physicians met 
at his office in Monticello. Dr. II. P. Anderson was made chairman and 
alter the adoption of a constitution, which had been previously prepared, 
these permanent officers were elected: Doctor Haymond, president; Dr. 
John Medaris, vice president; Dr. John A. Blackwell, secretary. 

The time of meeting was fixed for the second Tuesday in each month, 
various committees were appointed, and Doctor Anderson was selected 
to read a paper upon any topic he should choose at the next meeting. 
The socidy then adjourned to meet at Reynolds on the second Tuesday 
of the following May. None but physicians of the regular school were 
admitted to membership; practitioners in other counties were admitted 
to honorary membership, and three active members constituted a quorum 
for the transaction of business. 

P.esides those already mentioned, some of the prominent early niem 
'" ,|,s were < '. A. Barnes, W. II. Ball, J. R. Skidrnore, John A. Wood, 
William Spencer. J. II. Thomas, William Mote. A. V. Moore, II. D. Rid 
dili-, C K. Laiuoii, R, A. tlarcourl and A. |i. Ballou. 

Meetings of the society were held quite regularly until 1869, after 
which there was a break for about six years. In October, 1875, they 
were resumed, at which time some chances in the laws were made. 
• Mi. Mitchell did iibout mil ami his si ess,,, hits not boon named. 


'Doctor Raymond shared with Dr. John W. Medaris, of Brookstou, 
the honors of prominence ami ability in the membership of the County 
Medical Society. The former, however, while a citizen of more extended 
fame, withdrew from the historical Held of White County in the early 
'70s, when hi' moved to Indianapolis and entered upon the broader plane 
of his life. 

Or. John W. Medaris 

Doctor Medaris, although a physician of middle age when he became 
a resident of Brooksfon in 1859, continued to make that place his home 
and the center of his faithful practice, his Masonic activities and his 
splendid educational work — all tending to the progress of White County 
— for a period of more than half a century. At the time of his death on 
September 21, 1911, he' was in his ninety -seventh year; the oldest per- 
son in "White County, probably the oldest Mason in the state (having 
joined the order in 1846) and the veteran of the White County .Medical 
Society, having survived Doctor Ilaymond for over a quarter of a 

Doctor Medaris was born in Clearmont, Ohio, October 22, 1814, was 
educated in his native state, and received his medical training in the 
Miami School of Medicine at Cincinnati and the Sterling School of 
Medicine, Columbus. After his graduation he began practice at Hart- 
ford, Ohio, and in 1859 located at Brookstou. The town was then very 
young and the doctor's circuit of practice was often many miles out in 
the country, over terrible roads and through storms and mud. lint, 
like others of his fellows, he accepted such hardships with good cheer 
as matters-of-course in the career of the country doctor. No member of 
the profession was more widely known or beloved than Doctor Medaris. 

In 1867, three years after the founding of the county medical so- 
ciety, Doctor Medaris realized another of his ambitions, which was par- 
ticularly his triumph, in the building of the Brookstou Academy, one of 
the prominent educational institutions of Northern Indiana. During 
the Civil war he had served as a member of the Indiana Sanitary Com- 
mission, having been detailed by Governor Morton to give medical aid 
and assistance to the Union soldiers of White County detained in the 
.Memphis hospitals. Hut he was best known throughout the slate for 
his enthusiasm and steadfastness in Masonry, which endured for sixty- 
live years — from the time he joined the order until his death. Through- 
out its official life lie was one of the stanchest and dearest friends of the 
Old Settlers Association, and at its meeting of August, lull, held the 
month before his death, appeared to be in his usual health. A few days 
before he was called away to the Future which knows no centuries, lie 
received a. dispatch announcing the death of his daughter, nl her home 
in Danville. The attendant shock, with a decline in his physical strength 
which had been noted a short time previously, undoubtedly hastened his 
end. A strong personality, which was evinced in practical accomplish- 
ments, honesty and sincerity, with a. generosity which often went far 
beyond tin- bounds of self protection, and an abiding affection for those 


nearest him, as well as a broad charity for all, were the marked traits 
in this revered patriarch. 

Among the members of the profession who joined the White County 
Medical Society at a later date than those mentioned were Doctors A. B. 
Jones, P. A. Grant, R. M. Del/ell, R. S. Black, William Tracey, W: V. 
Trowbridge, John Harcourt, .Madison T. Didlake, AV. Holtzman, Robert 
J. Clarke, S. II. Parke, J. II. Reed, R. M. Reagan, J. W. McAllister, F. E. 
Lester, II. R. Minnick, ■). E. Chaffee, James L. Carr, George R. Clayton, 

W. II. Clark, E. 1'. Washburn and Walter McBeth. 


I)u. Madison T. Didlake 

One of the oldest and best known of what may be called the second 
generation of physicians, who are still in practice, is Dr. Madison T. 
Didlake, of Montieello. He is a Kentuckian who passed the earlier 
stages of his development as a resident of Bloomington, Illinois. There 
he finished his literary education witli two years of study at the Wes- 
leyan University, and at the age of twenty began his professional train- 
ing under Dr. C. R. Parke, of Chicago. In the winter of 186G-67 he 
graduated from the Chicago Medical College, and for several years there- 
after practiced at Augusta, Arkansas, and Stanford, Illinois. In 1871 
he commenced his professional career in White County by locating at 
Wolcott, but since 1881 lias been a practitioner at Montieello. Besides 
enjoying a large practice, Doctor Didlake has served in several public 
capacities, being county treasurer in 1880-8-4 (two terms). 

The White County Medical Society of today has a membership of 
twelve, with the following officers: Guy R. Coffin, president; Madison 
T. Didlake, vice president; Grant Goodwin, secretary, all of Montieello; 
and Augustus J. Blickenstalf, of Wolcott, treasurer. 



The Dawn of Newspapekdom — The Prairie Chieftain — Preserving 
Newspaper Files — End of the Chieftain — The White County 
Register — Three Obscure Newspapers — White County Jackson- 
ian — White County Democrat — Monticello Democrat — Demo- 
crat-Journal-Observer Company — Monticello Spectator — Monti- 
cello Herald — The National — Monticello Times — Monticello 
Weekly Press — The Daily Journal — White County Republican 
— White County Citizen — Other Monticello Publications — 
Early Newspaper Field at Reynolds — The White County Ban- 
ner — The Brookston Reporter — Other Brookston Items — The 
Reynolds Broom and Sun — The Reynolds Journal — Idaville Ob- 
server — The Monon Dispatch — Monon Times — Monon News — W. 
J. Huff — The Wolcott Enterprise — Chalmers Despatch — Bur- 

nettsville enterprise burnettsville dlspatch bltrnettsvllle 

News — General Progress. 

By J. B. VanBuskirk 

Formerly editor of the Monticello Herald 

The early newspaper history of White County is largely traditional. 
No files of the early newspapers were preserved, and it would be hard 
to establish the the existence of some of them but for an occasional men- 
tion of their names in the court records. Up to the year 1850 the pub- 
licity required by law in certain legal proceedings was secured either by 
posting notices in public places or by publication in newspapers of ad- 
joining counties. In this way the names of the LaKayette Journal, the 
LaFayette Courier, the Logansport Journal, the Delphi Times, the Car- 
roll Express and other papers outside of White County are enshrined in 
the old records of the clerk's office as recognized "newspapers of general 
circulation" in those early days before White County had a newspaper. 

The Dawn of Newspaperdom 

That era of darkness came to an end in 1850, sixteen years after 
White County was born. The harbingers of the dawn were two men who 
came from other states and combining their money, their credit and 
tluir muscle, dispersed the gloom by founding the Prairie Chieftain. 
These men were Abram V. Reed, a brother of the late Judge Alfred 


. -.. . „ j 


Reed, and John K. Lovejoy. The former came from Urbana, Ohio, where 
he had -been publishing a democratic paper under such disadvantages 
that it had finally suspended, lie was postmaster at Monticello under 
President Pierce's administration and died here during his term of office 
in June,' 1856. His brother, Col. Alfred Reed, was the administrator 
of his estato, and it required almost nine years to get it out of court, the 
record showing the administrator was not discharged until May 11, 1865. 
The printing office of the decedent was inventoried at $500 and was sold 
to James E. Kobison, who gave his note with M. M. Sill and R. W. Sill 
as sureties. There is no evidence that Mr. Robison ever became an editor, 
but on the settlement of the Reed estate two judgments against him were 
listed as assets. John K. Lovejoy, who came from Illinois, was a brother 
of Ilalsey Lovejoy, a merchant here who was one of Monticello 's bulwarks 
of integrity and sobriety. Lovejoy, the printer, was of a different tem- 
perament and less inclined to take life seriously. He soon retired from 
the Chieftain and moved West. He afterward engaged in the newspaper 
business at Downieville, Nevada, and died in that state in 1877. During 
his residence in Nevada, he won some newspaper notoriety by betting a 
coffin with a neighbor that he would live a year. He won the bet and on 
receiving the coffin remarked, "It was a good bet. I shall want the 
wooden overcoat before long, and it will be handy to have around." 

The Prairie Chieftain 

It is common tradition that the Chieftain was published in the old 
courthouse, a frame building which stood on the present site of Mrs. S. 
P. Cowger's residence, 209 South Main Street, and so it was, at least 
during a part of its existence, but it probably first saw the light else- 
where, for at the time of its birth the old courthouse was still occupied as 
a county building, its successor not being completed until 1851. Its 
crowded condition, which occasioned the building of a new courthouse, 
would hardly have permitted the use of any part of it for a printing office 
before that time. Just where the squeak and rumble of the Chieftain's 
old handnrcss first broke upon Monticello's expectant ear is now un- 
known and will likely remain so forever.* But it was migratory, and 
according to a statement from Mr. James Spencer of Buffalo, who was 
once the "devil" of the office, the last days of the Chieftain were spent 
in a building on the northwest corner of Illinois and Washington 
st reets. 

In former sketches of White County's newspaper history the date 
of the Prairie Chieftain's first issue has been assigned to 1849, but from 
the court records and from the serial number of the paper as shown 
in a facsimile copy still extant, it appears that the publication must have 
begun in July, 1850. 

"An InipnctUm of tlio court records since the above was written shows that for 
several month, prior to the advent of the Chieftain the sessions of the Circuit Court 
were held In the New School 1'rcsliyterian Church. It is possible, therefore., that the 
ambition of White County for a newspapei led the fathers to vacate the courtroom 
to give it an abiding place. 


The Prairie Chieftain and its early successors wore not bad-looking 
specimens of the printer's art. They were printed on "all-rag" paper, 
which cost 25 cents per pound. It was before the era of straw and wood 
pulp, which has so cheapened the production of paper that publishers 
now think the times are out of joint if they have to pay more than two or 
three cents per pound. It was also before the days of stereotype plate 
matter and ready-print sheets, so that the early country newspaper was 
an exclusively home production. It was limited to four pages, and an 
advertisement once set remained the same yesterday, today and forever. 
Though all the matter was home-set, there was a sad dearth of home news 
in the columns of these old newspapers. Practically all the reading mat- 
ter was select misijellany from current magazines, speeches from the Con- 
gressional Globe, and news clippings from far-away weekly newspapers. 
The metropolitan daily was of no use to the Mouticello editor in those 
days, when mails arrived only once a week, and even the weeklies were 
several days old before reaching here. Under such circumstances, it 
seems strange that the local newspaper did not resort more largely to 
local news, but it must be remembered that local happenings were lew 
in such a sparse population, and that the editor from necessity was also 
foreman, compositor, pressman and sometimes "devil." having him little 
time for news gathering or editorial writing. Yet it must be recorded 
that the first murder trial in White County received a treatment in the 
Prairie Chieftain which would do credit to some of its present-day suc- 
cessors. Its issue of November 4, 1850, contained a nine-column report 
of the trial of Cantwell and Dayton for the murder of David Jones, in- 
cluding all the testimony, the judge's charge to the jury, the names of 
.the jurors, their verdict, the overruling of the motion for a new trial, 
and the sentencing for life. It was a piece of newspaper enterprise which 
caused that issue of the Chieftain to be in great demand, and copies of 
it were preserved for many years even in adjoining counties. Yet at the 
present writing not even a single copy of this historic; issue can be found, 
though the late Milton M. Sill, in his unpublished and uncompleted "His- 
tory of White County," mentions a copy which belonged to the late 
Dr. R. J. Clark, who had secured it from a Mr. Harvey, a relative in 
Tippecanoe County. 

All hail to the man who never throws anything away, be its current 
value much or little! He is as rare as copies of the Prairie Chieftain 
itself. A veteran printer of this city might now be the owner of untold 
literary wealth if he had not hung James Whitcoinh Riley's autograph 
poems on the dead hook like common copy, as he set them day after day 
in a country print shop many years ago. 

Preserving Newspaper Files 

The idea of preserving files of local newspapers had not taken root 
with our county fathers at that early day, though as early as 18p3 the 
Indiana Legislature enacted a law authorizing county commissioners to 
subscribe for local newspapers and keep them on file in the county re- 


corder's office at their option. This procedure appears to have been 
adopted in White County as early as 1857 or 1858, but not very faith- 
fully executed. The papers were carried off or mutilated, and up to 1883 
the files kept in the recorder's office were very scattering, and no attempt 
had been made to preserve them in bound form. During the term of Mr. 
James P. Simons as recorder he suggested to the board the advisability 
of binding their newspaper files, and upon the order of the board he 
gathered up and arranged the accumulations of past years and had them 
decently bound. Since that time this precedent has been followed > at 
intervals of one or two years, and now a more or less complete file of the 
county scat papers may be found in the recorder's office, extending back 
as far as 1858, though very fragmentary as to the earlier years of this 

After the. departure of John K. Lovejoy for the West his partner, 
Mr. Reed, continued the publication of the Chieftain alone until the 
summer of 1854, when he was joined by Mr. John Carothers, who also 
came from Urbana, Ohio. Mr. Carothers severed his connection with 
the paper in the fall of the same year, but continued his journalistic 
career elsewhere. During the Civil war he was publisher of the Cham- 
paign County Union at Urbana, Illinois. Later he returned to Urbana, 
Ohio, and was living there in 1896, at which time he wrote a letter to 
the Herald recalling his newspaper days in Monticello. He was moved 
to write the letter by receiving a copy of the Herald containing a fac- 
simile of the first page of the Prairie Chieftain as it appeared during his 
connect ion with the paper. 

End op the Chieftain 

The existence of the Prairie Chieftain came to an end some time in 
1854 or 1855, but the manner of its taking off is veiled in obscurity. 
There is reason to believe that it "struck the rocks" on account of hard 
times, its death being hastened, perhaps, by the appearance of another 
paper in a field barely large enough for the support of one. The Chieftain 
was a democratic paper, and the county was democratic, but the issues 
which led up to the Civil war a few years later were already coming to 
the front, and even in White County the discussion of these issues was 
waxing hot. Though the impression has prevailed that only one paper 
at a time existed in White County up to 1859, it is certain that the 
Chieftain had a contemporary in its last days, for in its issue of August 
17, 1854, appears an account of a meeting held in Prairie Township at 
which a series of resolutions condemning the Nebraska Bill was adopted 
and ordered published "in the two papers of the county." 

Tin: White County Register 

The other paper is said to have been the White County Register, a 
paper bearing the name of Richard T. Parker as publisher and Benjamin 
V, Tildeu as editor, the latter being an attorney from Starke County, 


Ohio. Mr. Tilden diet! in the fall of 1854, and the Register apparently 
died with him. Its press and materials were sold by Rowland Hughes, 
Ins executor, upon an order of the Common Pleas Court, and Mr. Tilden 's 
estate was settled as insolvent after long litigation. Richard T. Parker 
and Leonard II. Miller, two printers who had been connected with the 
office, each claimed a one-third interest in the equipment, and objected 
to the order of sale. Their objection was overruled, and they prayed an 
appeal to the Circuit Court, but their appeal was denied and the sale 
was made. The press was sold for $225 to James P. Luse, of LaFayette, 
who had previously held a lien of $167 on it, probably for purchase 


Three Obscure Newspapers 

In the meantime there appeared and disappeared three other papers, 
whose origin and history it is impossible to trace accurately. Nobody 
now living remembers them by name, and their existence seems like "the 
baseless fabric of a vision." Yet the court records show that in 1855 aud 
1856 the Monticello Tribune, the Monticello Republican and the Monti- 
cello Union were legally recognized as newspapers of general circula- 
tion. Whether they represented three separate efforts of three venture- 
some men to fill a long-felt want or were only the afterglow of some van- 
ished luminary which had preceded them, can only be surmised. The 
Tribune appeared early in 1855, but no copy of it survives, and even 
the name of its editor is unknown. A little later in the same year the 
Monticello Republican is mentioned frequently in the records as the 
vehicle for legal notices, and early in 1856 the Union comes upon the 
field in the same capacity. 

Whether these three papers were contemporaneous or successive, what 
party, element or interest they represented, how much "velvet" was 
accumulated by them or hard earnings sunk in them, what was their 
ancestry or what their progeny, are questions akin to "Who were the 
mound builders?" or "What became of the lost tribes of Israel?" The 
voice of history is silent, and to all our inquiries we hear only the raven 
echo, "Nevermore!" As if to tantalize the historian and make it im- 
possible to dismiss" these three old papers as a myth, one solitary copy 
of the Monticello Republican is now on file at the public library. It is 
dated "Sept. 22, 1855. Volume 1, number 21." It bears the name of 
Thomas T. Scott as editor and the motto, "Liberty and union, now and 
forever, one and inseparable!" Its name hints that the political party 
which afterward became such an important factor in history was then 
struggling into existence in White County, but its editorial columns give 
no hint of its political bias. They only convey a hint of the paper's 
approaching dissolution. The editor says: 

"Two of our hands went fishing a few days since and on their return 
stated that they could bang their hats on the ague fumes they saw while 
absent. Today the 'ague fumes' have hung them on their beds and set 

Vol.1 -I| 


them to shaking teeth for a livelihood. * * * It will be impossible 
for us to publish a paper on our next publication day. Ague, the fiustrat- 
ing 'yaller teller, ' has got us down, clear down." 

This was probably the swan song of the Monticello Republican. Its 
editor is said to have died here, but he left no estate, and his name does 
not appear on the public records. His paper contained a number of 
Craw t'ordsville advertisements, from which it is inferred that he came 
from that city. 

After the Republican had passed away the Union seems to have run 
a similar brief course. In a proof of publication dated September 2, 
18,")G, Henry ('. Kirk makes affidavit that "the publisher has departed 
this life ynd no copy of his paper containing said notice is within reach 
of the affiant." The publisher's name is not stated, but it appears 
from an action brought by the administrator of A. V. Reed's estate to 
collect a note that it was none other than A. V. Reed himself, the 
former editor of the Prairie Chieftain. The defendants in the suit 
were James E. Robison, Robert W. Sill and Milton M. Sill, who, it 
was alleged in the complaint, were partners in the publication of a 
paper called the Political Frame at the time the note was given, July 
24, 1856, and- that they had purchased therewith the press and other 
material of the Union to be used in the publication of their oddly named 
paper. For more than a year the Frame was apparently the sole occu- 
pant of the newspaper field in White County. For the first few months 
it was under the management of Robert W. Sill, but in March, 1857, 
the name of II. C. Kirk, then sheriff of the county, appeared at the 
masthead. Though the name of the paper smacked strongly of politics, 
it had no avowed political allegiance, so far as can be discovered. Mr. 
Kirk, its last editor, said in his salutatory: "Politically, the Frame shall 
remain as heretofore, 'independent in all things, neutral in nothing.' 
It shall be devoted to the best interests of the people upon all local 
and national questions." Whether the Political Frame died or was 
translated or passed by transmigration into the Jacksonian, is not cer- 
tain, but it ceased to appear in the year 1857. Both its editors closed 
their newspaper career in good health and lived for many years 

White County Jacksonian - 

Early in November, 1S57, John H. Seott, of Logansport, came here 
and issued the first number of the White County Jacksonian, having 
purchased the press and material of the Political Frame. The word 
"Democratic" appeared in large type just below the heading on the 
first page and there was no question about its politics. Mr. Scott was 
regarded as a good newspaper man, and his paper gave promise of 
great success, but consumption claimed him and he died about one year 
after launching his enterprise here. His widow became the wife of the 
late Andrew Trook, whose perseverance and devotion as a fisherman 
are still remembered by many of the older generation. 


Having now reached the end of what may be called the antebellum 
period we may treat with less detail the remaining newspaper history of 
Monticello, as the newspapers of the later era have been more gen- 
erally preserved and are accessible to the public to speak for themselves. 

"VViiite County Democrat 

In the spring of 1859 James W. MeEweu came here from Pennsyl- 
vania and bought the plant of the Jacksonian. .Mr. Scott before his 
death had changed the name of his paper to the White County Demo- 
crat, and Mr. McEwen continued it under the same name. For a time 
his office was located upstairs in the north end of the Commercial Block, 
but in later years it occupied the old Presbyterian church on Court 
Street, which gave him the advantage of a ground floor office and 
plenty of room. In 1866 he was joined by Mr. N. C. A. Rayhouser, and 
under this partnership the name of the paper was changed to the Con- 
stitutionalist. Mr 4 Rayhouser retired from the firm after a few months, 
and in 1870 Artemus P. Kerr bought an interest, which he retained 
until August, 1873. .On his retirement Mr. McEwen continued to 
publish the Constitutionalist until January, 1877, when he sold his 
plant here to A. J. Kitt and D. A. Fawcett and moved to Rensselaer. 

Monticello Democrat 

The new firm took possession January 26, 1877, and moved the 
office to rooms in the Reynolds block upstairs. They changed the name 
of the paper to the Monticello Democrat and its first issue appeared 
February 3, 1877. In the following April Mr. Kitt bought Mr. Faw- 
cett 's interest and changed the form of the paper to a five-column 
quarto. Fawcett went to Delphi and started a paper called the News. 
After six months as sole proprietor, during which time the Democrat 
showed the same ability and spiciness that have always marked Mr. 
Kitt's newspaper ventures, he sold the office to Will B. Hoover, a young: 
man who had been doing reportorial work for the Logansport Journal, 
and whose father, Dr. R. B. Hoover, was engaged in medical practice at 
Purnettsville. He took possession October 30, 1877. He was ambi- 
tious and enthusiastic in his work, but his health failed and he died at 
the home of his father in Purnettsville, September 21, 187«T lie was 
succeeded in the newspaper business by Jasper If. Keyes, who took 
charge of the Democrat September 26, 1879. On March 20, 1881, his 
office was wrecked by a fire, and for several months White County was 
without a democratic paper. 

In the following July a man named Cleveland J. Reynolds, of un- 
known antecedents, appeared on the scene and started a democratic 
paper called the Times. He proved to be a brazen pretender and early 
in January, 1882, he absconded after borrowing various amounts ranging 
from $25 to $150 from prominent supporters of his paper. He was; 


never seen here again, and following his departure there was another 
interval of darkness for the democratic party of White County r 

But on June 16, 1882, appeared the first issue of the^Vhite County 
Democrat, which has continued without a suspension or change, of 
name to this day. It was published by Harry P. Owens and Wm. E. 
Uld, both of whom were lawyers and members of the White County 
bar. The subsequent history of the Democrat is thus related by Mr. 
James P. Simons, who for nearly twenty years graced the editorial 
tripod of that paper and by his long tenure and able editorial man- 
agement gave to the Democrat a statewide influence: "In January, 
188IJ, Mr. Uld sold his interest to his partner, who a few months later 
sold a half interest to Mr. A. B. Clarke, of Remington, who was a 
practical printer, and who has continued with the paper almost con- 
tinuously since that time, even down to the present day. In the fall 
of 1883 Mr. Owens sold his remaining interest to another young lawyer, 
Mr. Walter S. Ilartman, who later, in 1884, sold his interest to his 
brother, Mr. A. D. Ilartman, the firm name continuing Clarke & Hart- 
man until 1886, when the Ilartman interest was sold to John A. Roth- 
rock. In 1889 Mr. Clarke removed to Colorado and Mr. A. B. Crampton, 
of Delphi, bought his interest and the publishers were Crampton & 
Rothrock, continuing thus until Mr. Rothrock purchased the Cramp- 
ton interest, continuing the publication alone until December, 1894, 
when he sold the entire plant to Messrs. J. P. Simons and A. B. Clarke, 
the latter having returned from Colorado some time previously. These 
gentlemen assumed charge under the firm name of Clarke & Simons. 
The senior member, being a practical printer, took charge of the me- 
chanical end of the work while Mr. Simons assumed charge of the news 
and editorial departments, and this arrangement continued for almost 
twenty years— until May, 1914, when Mr. Simons sold his interest to 
Mr. Charles L. Foster of Idaville." 

Dio.uocrat-Journal-Observer Company 

Mr. Foster's connection with the paper began in December, 1912, 
at which time the Democrat, the Idaville Observer, the Reynolds Jour- 
nal and the Evening Journal (Monticello's only daily paper) were 
incorporated under one management known as the Democrat-Journal- 
Observer Company. The Reynolds Journal was. soon afterward dis- 
continued, but the other publications have continued up to the present 
time under the same corporate management, from which, however, Mr. 
Simons has withdrawn. The present officers are A. B. Clarke, president; 
Joshua I). Foster (father of Chas. L. Foster), vice president, and 
('has. \j. Poster, secretary-treasurer. 


• By 1859 tlie republican party had grown strong enough to create a 
Held for a republican newspaper in White County, and the want was 


supplied by the brothers James and Benjamin Spencer, who started the 
Monticello Spectator, a sprightly six-column folio. Its first issue 
'appeared May 12, 1859. The pre'ss and type were brought from 
Rensselaer, where they had been used in the publication of the Gazette, 
a paper on which one or both the brothers had formerly been employed 
as printers. Some of the cases and stands thus imported are still in use 
in the present office of the Montieello Herald, which is a lineal descendant 
of the Spectator. 

The Spectator was a typographical beauty and reflected great credit 
on the printers who produced it. It was all home print ami showed 
more than ordinary editorial ability. It was not long in getting 
embroiled with its neighbor the Democrat on political issues, and from 
first to last it was engaged in a sturdy game of "give and take" on the 
questions of state rights, abolition of slavery, "nigger supremacy," free 
soil and other issues which divided the political parties of that day. 
The Spencer brothers had not reached the days of voting contests, and 
they were opposed to betting, but in the summer of 1S60 they offered to 
send the Spectator "to all responsible Douglasites of White, Pulaski 
and Benton counties, payable when Lincoln carries Indiana." It is not 
recorded that they swelled their subscription list perceptibly by the 
offer or lined their coffers with Douglas gold, though Lincoln did carry 
Indiana at the November election. Early in September of I860 Benja- 
min Spencer retired from the firm on account of failing health, and his 
brother James conducted the paper alone until it was transferred to 
Milton M. Sill early in 1862, after which he donned the blue and went. 
to the front. 

Monticello Herald 

Mr. Sill changed the name of the paper to the Monticello Herald, 
which it still bears. Its first issue under the new name was February 14, 
1862. Of this venture Mr. Sill himself says in bis uncompleted history 
of White County: "The proprietor within a month learned that he 
had purchased one of the very largest and sleekest white elephants. 
The expense of publication so far exceeded the income that at the end 
of the first year he found his balance sheet showed a deficit of more 
than twelve hundred dollars. He still continued the publication; how- 
ever, watching for an opportunity to let go, until in the fall of 186:5 
he accepted a position in the War Office at Washington and placed the 
paper in charge of James G. Staley, who continued its publication until 
January, 1864, sold the plant to A. II. Harritt, raised a company of 
volunteers for the 128th reginfent, went to the front and was killed in 
the battle of Franklin, Tennessee. What became of the proceeds of the 
sale of the Herald office the owner never learned and did not care to 
inquire. He found on his return in the summer of 1S(M seventy-five 
dollars in the hands of the Auditor for the publication of the delinquent 
list in his absence, which he promptly accepted in full of all claims 
and was heartily grateful to the purchaser, .Mr. Harritt, for stepping 
in as editor and proprietor of the Herald in his stead." 



Mr. Harritt bad been principal of the schools here and he took two of 
his pupils into the office with him as "printer's devils." Under his 
kindly tolerance they were permitted to issue a little paper of their 
own which they called The Junior, and which cannot be omitted in a 
veracious history of the newspapers of the county. It was about 9 by 12 
inches in size and bore the names of A. P. Kerr and J. B. VanBuskirk 
as editors and publishers. It lasted until it began to consume more 
time than even the most indulgent of employers could afford to grant, 
and then the Juuior's wind was gently shut off. Both of these juvenile 
publishers afterward drifted into the real thing — one as a publisher of 
the Constitutionalist and the other of the Herald. 

Mr. Harritt was a vigorous and aggressive editor and the Herald 
under his management was an important factor in the republican 
vietory of 1864 in White County. In February, 1865, he sold a half 
interest to Win. II. Dague of Logansport, and six months later Mr. 
Dague became sole owner. He continued to publish the Herald until 
1869, when he sold the plant to Mr. S. P. Conner and entered the 
practice of law here. In 1870 Mr. Conner sold a half interest to W. J. 
Huff, son of Judge Samuel A. Huff of LaFayette. After the election 
in the fall of 1870 Mr. Conner became dissatisfied with the political 
outlook and sold his interest to Mr. Huff, who remained sole proprietor 
until November, 1874, when he sold a half interest to J. B. VanBuskirk. 
In the meantime the fashion of country journalism had changed. A 
man named Kellogg had devised the plan of furnishing country pub- 
lishers their papers ready printed on one side at only a trifle more 
than the cost of blank paper. The Herald had adopted the ready-print 
plan, had enlarged to an eight-column folio and was devoting more 
space than formerly to local news. In 1877 the office was moved from a 
tumble-down shack a few doors south of the court house on Main Street 
to the Kendall Building on the present site of the O'Connor block. In 
1879 it exchanged its old hand press for a Potter' cylinder and soon 
afterward added a steam engine. No firm of country printers .ever 
worked harder or more harmoniously to build up a business than the 
firm of Huff & VanBuskirk. In 1884 they built the present Herald 
building on Broadway and moved into it on the Fourth of July. In 
1885 the paper was changed to the six-column quarto form which it still 
retains. Mr. Huff on account of eye trouble decided early in 1888 to 
move to California and sold his interest to his partner, who continued 
the business alone. During a period of four years ( 1900-190:]) the 
Herald was published by Mr. Ed F. Newton, under lease. In January, 
1904, the management was resumed by the owner, who continued as 
editor and publisher until January, 1915, when he sold the office entire 
to the Monticcllo Herald Company, headed by Mr. Charles S. Preston, 
I'li'rk of the Circuit Court, under whose management it still continues. 

The National 

The National, a weekly paper, was established here in 1878 by 
.Jaeol) Clay Smith as the organ of the greenback party, which wnx then 



causing quite a political stir in White County. The party soon died, 
buj, except for an interval of about four years, the National continued 
to be published until 1905, when it was compelled to suspend by the 
sickness and death of its owner. He died August 4th of that year. In 
1 892 it passed for a time into the hands of W. I. Ilarbert, who continued 
its publication a few months under the name of the People's Advocate, 
representing the interests of the populist movement. The first issue of 
the Advocate appeared July 9, 1892, but in the fall of that year 
Ilarbert moved the plant to Reynolds and in partnership with W. D. 
Wattles launched the Broom, a short-lived publication similar to the 
Advocate. Mr. Smith, who in the meantime had been employed as a 
printer in the Democrat office, revived the National in 1896, and though 
in its later years it had no local organization to represent, he kept it 
alive until his health failed nine years later. The plant was sold piece- 
meal by his widow, the press being bought by the Democrat and used as 
a proof press. 

Monticeli.o Times 

During the stirring local discussion in 1892 which preceded the 
building of the present courthouse, Isaac Parsons, then editor of the 
Monon News, established a paper here called the Montieello Times. Its 
plant was located in an old building on the present site of the Baker-Uhl 
Building, and its first issue appeared September 16th. The editor said 
in his salutatory: "The Times will he thoroughly Democratic and free 
from all local dissensions. Its aim and purpose will be to harmonize 
and solidify the party." Notwithstanding this programme of peace, 
harmony and solidarity, the real purpose of the new paper was to 
provide a vehicle for certain legal advertising which the acerbities of 
the courthouse campaign had loosened from its accustomed moorings. 
Having reaped its harvest, and the animosities of the courthouse war 
having abated to some extent, the Times withdrew from the field early 
in the following year. 

For about a year the Herald and Democrat again occupied the field 
alone, "scrapping" continuously, as had been their custom for several 
years — a custom which prevailed almost up to the closing of the grave 
upon one of the contending editors. It was a barbaric mode of journal- 
ism, apparently necessitated by force of circumstances in those days. 
It was afterward moderated to a more civilized plane of warfare, and 
for many years the journalism of the county seat of White County has 
been a model to the newspaper world. 

Monticello Weekly Press 

The Montieello Weekly Press was the name of a paper launched by 
Cary M. Reynolds and Harry T. Bott in April, 1891. It was a five- 
column quarto and independent in politics. Its plant was located in an 
upstairs room on North Main Street. Mr. Pott soon retired from the 
firm, and about February 1, 189"), Mr. Reynolds sold the entire outfit |o 


W. J. Hull', who was then in tbe grocery business here. Mr. Huff moved 
the plant to the Woltz Building on Washington Street, enlarged the 

paper to a six-column quarto and in August, 1895, added a daily edition. 
Later he abandoned the independent held and made the Press a repub- 
lican paper, hut in spite of his long experience and the excellent 
Character of his paper it proved a losing venture, and in September, 
1SD7, the Press, both weekly and daily, suspended, and the unexpired 
subscriptions of the weekly were completed by the Herald and Democrat. 

The Daily Journal 

In the meantime another daily paper called the Daily Journal had 
been launched by the original founders of the Press, Messrs. Reynolds 
and Pott, and though it had a struggle for existence it weathered every 
storm, and after a checkered career of nearly twenty years seems now 
to be a permanent fixture among the newspapers of the city. It made 
its first appearance .March 7, 1896, as a morning paper but was soon 
changed to an evening edition and has so remained to this day. Mr. 
Pott was succeeded in the firm by Fred A. Clarke, who ultimately 
became sole proprietor, his partner going to Indianapolis, where he is 
now employed as a linotype operator on the News. In the fall of 1903, 
.Mr. Clarke sold the plant to Ed F. and Chas. E. Newton and migrated 
to New York City, where he has taken high rank as a job printer, 
and is now a proofreader for the Kellogg Publishing Company. The 
Journal office was at that time located opposite the Forbis Hotel on 
Main St net, on the ground floor of what is still known as the Journal 
Building. Its publication was continued by Newton Bros, until Decem- 
ber, 1912, when it was merged with the Democrat, the Idaville Observer 
and the Reynolds Journal, and is still published by the Democrat- 
Observer-Journal Company. Both the Newton brothers followed the 
Journal into its new environment. Until the spring of 1915 Charles E. 
Newton was retained as its editor, while his brother Ed for a time was in 
charge of the Idaville Observer, later being assigned to the Reynolds 
Journal and performing various other functions for the company. Since 
April, 1915, .Mr. Ed X. Thacker has been editor of the Journal. 

White County Republican 

In December, 1899, a paper called the White County Republican was 
started in Monticello by Ashbel P. Reynolds, who installed a second-hand 
printing plant at his residence on Water Street, whence the paper was 
issued, with D. A. Reynolds as publisher and Milton M. Sill as editor. 
It ivpiesniled the views of a limited element who were opposed to the 
Herald's attitude on certain questions of that day, and for a lime waged 
an animated campaign against what it regarded as factionism in the 
republican party. Not finding sufficient support, it suspended publi- 
cation within a year, and the plant was again on the market. It passed 
into the hands of Messrs. Ilanna & Chilcott, and was used in the publi- 


cation of a paper called the Independent, and later for a paper called 
the Socialist. Both of these ventures were short-lived, and the plant was 
finally dismembered, part of it being removed to P.uruettsville and part 
to Brookston. 

White County Citizen 

In the spring of 191-1 a weekly paper called the White County 
Citizen was launched at Monticello as the organ of the progressive party 
by Mr. W. L. Murlin, who came here from Grant County, bringing a 
printing plant with him. His office was at first located in the south end 
of the Porbis Hotel Building on the ground floor. The first issue of 
the Citizen appeared May 29th as a six-column quarto. After the 
November election it was reduced to a seven-column folio and changed 
to a semi-weekly. Later Mr. Murlin tried the experiment of a daily 
edition, but the response was not encouraging, and the daily was limited 
to three issues, which appeared December 17th, 18th ami 19th. The 
semi-weekly continued until the first day of January, when it too 
suspended. At the time of the Citizen's demise its office was located in 
a room on North Main Street. 

Other Monticello Publications 

In addition to the publications above mentioned there have been 
several church and school periodicals which have found a field of use- 
fulness and run a more or less successful course in Monticello. The 
Gleaner was the name of a bright church quarterly published here 
during the pastorate of Rev. S. C. Dickey of the Presbyterian Church 
during the latter '80s. A similar periodical called the .Methodist 
Quarterly was published by Rev. W. B. Slutz during his two years 
pastorate of the M. E. Church, from the fall of 1887 to the fall of 1889. 
These quarterlies were in magazine form and represented the activities 
of their respective churches at one of the happiest periods of their 
history. A publication called the Bulletin, on a somewhat different 
plan, was issued in 1892-93 by Elder P. M. Fishbuni, pastor of the 
Christian Church. 

At one time the high school maintained a periodical called the Bee, 
and of late years the Armiger has become a household word as the 
annual publication of the senior class. It is a work of art rivaling many 
college annuals. 

Mention must be made of one more periodical which was issued for a 
short time from the Journal press about 1907. Tt was the Soapmaw 
Journal, a freak conceived by a printer named Harney Fret/.. He was 
an erratic genius witli an artistic temperament which shone forth 
occasionally in music, poetry and the drama. At one time during his 
stay here hi' engaged in a public debate at the opera house with an 
alleged clergyman imported for the occasion, on the subject of the 
personality of the devil. Barney took the orthodox side of the question 


uiul vanquished the dominie, but the gate receipts hardly paid the hall 
rent. The name of his publication was composed of the initials indicat- 
ing the name of his cult, viz: "'Society of America's Progressive Men 
and Women." Unfortunately it was mistaken abroad for an organ of 
the soap industry, and mail continued to arrive here for it from makers 
of soap and other toilet articles long after the Soapmaw Journal had 
ceased to exist. 

Early Newspaper Field at Reynolds 

Outside of Monticello, Reynolds was, in years past, considered the 
best newspaper point in White County. It is nearer the center than 
any other large town, and until it definitely abandoned its aspirations 
for the county seat, a possible future of large growth beckoned not a 
few to the place. Monticello held the newspaper field for more than 
twenty-one years, during which period, as we have seen, the Prairie 
Chieftain, the Tribune, the Republican, the Union, the Register, the 
Political Frame, the White County Jacksonian, the White County 
Democrat, the Spectator, the Herald, and the Constitutionalist, all suc- 
cessively or contemporaneously held the stage at the county seat, from 
1850 to 1871, before Reynolds ventured into newspaperdom. 

The White County Banner 

On February 24, 1871, appeared at Reynolds the first issue of the 
White County Banner, witb the Reynolds Publishing Company as pub- 
lishers and Kleist & Wood as editors, according to the heading on the 
first, page. On the second page the name of Rudolph Kleist appeared as 
editor. It was a five-column folio, 20 by 26 inches in size, and its name 
is said to have been suggested by Abram VanVoorst, an old settler of the 
locality and father of Henry VanVoorst, afterward county auditor. In 
1872 J. I]. Dunham, a young lawyer and ex-superintendent of the Rey- 
nolds schools, purchased the paper and managed it for a year. He 
changed its name to the Central Clarion, which in 1876 became the White 
County Register. Under that name it suspended in 1878 — in after years 
.Mr. Dunham explained why: "The cause of its suspension was a change 
in the law governing the publication of sheriff's sales. The original law 
directed Hint they be published in the newspaper nearest the land to be 
sold, which law was changed to permit them to be published in any paper 
in I he county of general circulation. When this patronage was withheld 
from the paper it could fight the battle no longer." Evidently, the 
Rainier should not have depended upon one solitary source of supply to 
keep it floating on the breeze. 

'I'm; Reynolds Broom and Sun 

Another eccentric Reynolds newspaper enterprise was represented 
in the Broom, which had its origin in the National established at Mon- 
ticello by the greenback party in the spring of 1878. 


The plant was bought by W. I. Harbert in 1892 and moved to 
Reynolds, where the Broom was started in the interests of the people's 
party. Assoeiated with Harbert in its publication was W. D. Wattles, 
a man of considerable ability, who afterward gained some distinction as 
a socialistic writer. The Broom barely outlived the campaign which 
called it into existence. 

The Reynolds Sun, established by L. II. Crom in 1899, had a similar 
brief career. 

The Reynolds Journal 

Reynolds' last newspaper was the Journal, which issued its last 
number October 24, 1913, after having been in operation about three 
years. It was issued under the same management as the Idaville 
Observer and was taken over with that paper by the new corporation 
formed at Monticello in 1912 and known as the Democrat-Journal- 
Observer Company, a full account of which is given in the history cf 
the press at the county seat. Irvine Gardner, Margaret P. Snyder and 
Ed Heimlich were at different times resident editors of the Journal, but 
toward the close of its .career it was edited by Ed P. Newton, who visited 
the town once or twice a week from the county scat. 

The Brookston Reporter 

The second newspaper to be established outside the county seat was 
the Brookston Reporter, and it is still in the swim. It was founded 
April 3, 1873, by M. H. Ingram, and in August of the following year 
Mas purchased .by David S. and Chester C. French, father and son. 
Originally, the Reporter was a six-column folio, but was later doubled 
in size. It has always been independent in politics. 

David S. French and Chester C. Fuench 

The elder French was an Ohio man, who entered the ministry of the 
Baptist Church arid held several charges in Illinois, as well as public 
office, before he moved his family to Brookston in 1868. In 1874 when, 
in partnership with his son, he purchased the Reporter, the younger 
man, Chester C, had secured a liberal education ill Chicago and made 
some progress in medicine under Dr. John Medaris. father and sou 
continued in partnership until 1880, when the latter (('. ('. French) 
became sole proprietor of the Reporter, Rev. David S. French having 
i lied on November 6th of the year named. 

Besides his connection with the Brookston Reporter for about thirty 
years, Chester C. French attained prominence ill the county as a public 
speaker and held such offices as census enumerator and town clerk. In 
July, 1905, lie sold the newspaper to John A. Metzgcr, an experienced 
newspaper man, who still conducts it. 


Other Brookston' Items 

The Reporter was leased to J). A. Faweett for about six months in 
1878, and to George II. Healey for a year or more in 1897-9S. Ilealey 
afterward started a paper called the Brookston Gazette, which was 
afterwards published by Wesley Taylor and finally absorbed by the 

A paper called the Brookston Magnet was started in that town by 
S. M. Burns in November, 1SS7, but the plant was sold and moved to 
Sheldon, Illinois, in September, 18S8. 

The Academy Student was the name of a school journal published 
at Brookston in 1872 by Prof. Thomas VanSeoy, principal of the Brook- 
ston Academy. 

* Idaville Observer 

Tdaville made her first venture in journalism in the early '80s 
through George \V. Lucy and Mell P. Pilling, who started the Inde- 
pendent. Within the following two years Mr. Pilling assumed the 
ownership and, in the spring of 18S6, passed the plant along to Al. Good. 
Next the Independent was bought by Rev. Gilbert Small, who purchased 
a new press and printing outfit. lie enlisted his sons Bert and Will in 
the enterprise and in June, 1886, appeared the first number of the 
Idaville Observer, under the auspices of Small Brothers. 

It was the beginning of a typographical career for both these brothers, 
Bert being now connected with the American Press Association, and 
Will a successful traveling salesman for the Barnhart Bros. Type 
Foundry. The Observer has since passed through many hands. Among 
its owners and editors in after years were Wm. II. Heiny, Frank 
Downs, John L. Moorman, Byron McCall, Sanderson brothers (Harry 
and Bert), II. E. MeCulley, R. M. Isherwood and Charles L. Foster. 
Mr. Foster took charge in 1!)04, and under his management it is said 
to have become an actual money-maker as well as an ideal country 
newspaper. In 1912 it became a part of the Democrat-Journal-Observer 
syndicate of Monticello, but still retains its local identity by means of 
a resident manager. 

The Monon Dispatch 

Motion's first paper was the Dispatch, which made its first appearance 
in September, 1884, with Stokes & Martin as publishers. A. K. Sills, 
J. II. Turpie and Charles Downing were early financial backers of the 
enterprise, and Downing afterward became the sole owner. Later it 
drifted into the hands of a man named Faweett, and ultimately was 
succeeded by the Monou Leader, which made its first appearance early in 
January, 1887, with Charles Cook as "editor and proprietor" and Dr. 
•J. T. Reed as associate editor. After various vicissitudes the plant was 
sold and removed to Ladoga in January, 1889. 


The Monon News 

John M. Winkley, who had lately been postmaster of Monon, then 
established a paper called the Times, which after about two years was 
succeeded by the Monon News. The latter, which has survived to this 
day, was published by Isaac Parsons, formerly a lawyer at LaFayctte. 
He had two or three sons who were associated with him in the business. 
During the Parsons regime another paper, called the Review, was started 
at Monon by a man named Moore, but it withdrew from the field after a 
few months, and its subscription list was transferred to the Monticello 
Press. In November, 1897, Parsons sold the plant to W. D. Harlow, a 
hotel manager at Monticello, who had formerly been connected with the 
Crawfordsville Star. He found the newspaper path at Monon not a 
smooth one, and after a year or two he disposed of it to It. M. Streeter, 
of Winamac. Later it fell into the hands of a Mr. Jones, who sooii 
afterward took French leave. He was succeeded by a man named Weeks, 
who died in 1905, leaving the plant to his sister, Mrs. J. L. Peetz. Mr. 
C. A. McAllister, still a resident of Monon, was also publisher of the 
News for a time. 

The News gained a state-wide celebrity under the management of 
Mrs. Peetz by its enthusiastic support of her husband for state statisti- 
cian, to whom she always referred editorially as "our husband." Mr. 
Peetz was elected, and in December, 1908, the paper was sold to W. J. 
Huff, a veteran printer and journalist, who, with his sons, Edgar J. and 
Walter S., have since conducted the business. 

W. J. Huff 

The senior proprietor learned the printer's trade in his native town 
of LaFayette. There Mr. Huff published the Liliputian for about a 
year and a half and in 1870 moved to Monticello, where he became part 
owner of the Herald; six months later he was sole proprietor and in 
1874 went into partnership with J. B. VanBuskirk. In 1871 he was 
also appointed postmaster and held that office until October, 188"). 

Mr. Huff has been handicapped in his career by an affliction of 
the eyes, and in 1888 he gave up the newspaper business on that account 
and removed to California. He soon returned, however, and re-entered 
the newspaper mid. Prior to locating at Monon lie was engaged in 
journalism at Valparaiso, Monticello, Greenwood, Spencer, Kirklin and 
New Richmond. Though he is now practically blind, (he News has 
developed wonderfully under his management and is now equipped 
with a linotype and other modern machinery, placing it in the trout 
rank of White Count}- newspapers. 

Mr. Huff is the son of the will known Judge Samuel A. Hull', who 
was a printer at Indianapolis in his earlier years and spent the hulk of 
his manhood as a citizen of LaFayette, engaged in legal practice, and 
in judicial and political activities. 


The Wowjott Enterprise 

The Woleott Enterprise was founded by Everett A. Walker on the 
1st of April, 1892. Mft Walker continued to edit and publish it until 
September, 1907, when the paper was sold to Edward N. Thacker, and 
in -May, 1908, Mr. Thacker was succeeded by the present editor and 
proprietor, L. M. Kean. The Enterprise was the first paper in White 
County to install a typesetting machine. 

Chalmers Ledger 

The first paper published at Chalmers was the Ledger. It made its 
appearance in November, 1893, with a Mr. Patterson as editor and pub- 
lisher, though a man named Clark from Battle Ground had done the 
preliminary prospecting and installed the plant. "Wilbur Walts was its 
publisher at two different periods in its career, the last in 1899, under 
lease from L. M. Crom, who had become its owner. In the spring of 
1900 the Ledger was sold to George H. Healey, who published it for 
several months in connection with his other paper, the Brookston 

Chalmers Despatch 

The Chalmers Despatch was founded in April, 1900, by Wilbur A. 
Walts. Mr. Walts was succeeded as publisher of the Despatch by Grant 
Mullendore about 1902, and he in turn by Francis M. Smith about a 
year later. Since May 3, 1909, Arthur F. Knepp has been owner, editor 
and publisher. During the campaign of 1912 a paper called the Pro- 
gressive was issued from the Despatch office, but it suspended soon after 
the election. 

Bl'rkettsville Enterprise 

Burnettsville's first' paper was the Enterprise, established in 1888 
by J. E. Sutton, who printed it at Logansport in connection with the 
Logansport Reporter. Benton Pizer was the local manager. He was 
succeeded about 1891 by Randolph J. Million, who continued in charge 
for some time after he had moved to Monticello to practice law, but in 
1894 it suspended for lack of a local manager. 


The Bumettsville Dispatch was founded about 1900 by Sylvester W. 
Rizer, being financed largely by .1. ('. Duffey. After a few months Mr. 
Pizer was succeeded by Guy Ilaima and Charles Chilcott, who later 
turned it over to Frank Stuart, who assumed the financial obligations 
of the paper. He sold it after a year or so to Harriett Fuller, anil 
shoitlv afterward it ceased to exist. 



The Bufnettsville News, the first paper actually printed in Burnetts- 
ville, was established by J. Rolland Doan, November 21, 1007. He was 
a practical printer and also a successful manager. When he married a 
Delphi girl soon after his debut as a publisher he raised the subscription 
price of his paper accordingly and averted a deficit. He sold the 
News February 23, 1915, to A. 0. Townsley and Frank Beshoar, who 
.have since continued its publication under the firm name of Frank 
Beshoar & Co. 

General Progress 

It is safe to say that no county in Indiana has more newspapers in 
proportion to its population than White County. At the time the 
present writer entered the newspaper business here in 1874 there was 
only one paper outside of the county seat — the Brookston Reporter, lit 
the early days the old Washington hand press was the stock in trade of 
the country newspaper. An expert, with a faithful roller boy to ink 
the forms, could work off a "token," or 240 papers, in an hour with it. 
The first cylinder press in the county was a second-hand Campbell, 
introduced by James W. McEwen when he moved the Democrat office to 
the old Presbyterian Church. In 1879 the Herald exchanged its hand 
press for a new Potter cylinder, and of late years the old hand press 
has disappeared even from the humblest printing office in the county. 
The old process of setting type by hand is also becoming obsolete, and 
now four of the printing offices in the county are equipped with linotypes 
— the Herald and Democrat at Monticello, the News at Monon, and the 
Enterprise at Wolcott. 



A Soldier of 1814-15 — The Mexican War Trio— Messrs. Ford, Steele 

and mccormick — prompt responses to uphold tiie union the 

Three-Months' Recruits — First War Sacrifice — White County's 
Larger Contingents — The Monticello Rifles — Company E, 
Forty-sixth Regiment — Capt. R. W. Sill's Company — Represen- 
tations in the Sixty-third Regiment — Capt. George Bowman's 
Company — Company F, Ninety-ninth Regiment — The Threat- 
ened Draft of 1862 — Escape from the 1863 Draft — The Six 
Months' Company — Capt. James G. Staley— TnE Heavy Calls of 
1864 — The Drafts of 1864 and 1865 — Summary of Number of 
Troops Raised — Bounty and Relief Voted — The Spanish-Ameri- 
can War. 

The broad participation of White County in military matters did not 
commence until the opening of the Civil war, although both the War of 
1812 and the Mexican war appear to have drawn into their meshes 
several of the citizens of that section. 

A Soldier of 1814-15 

The only direct interest which the local historian can take in the 
former war lies in the fact that Ira Bacon, a member of the first board 
of county commissioners, came in at the tag end of hostilities, as is 
proven by his honorable discharge to the following effect: "Ira Bacon, 
a. private in Captain Van Meter's company of Ohio Militia in the. service 
of the United States, has faithfully performed a six months' tour of 
duty, ami is hereby honorably discharged from the service at Fort Meigs, 
this 22d day of February, 1815." The paper is signed by John Russell, 
major commanding Port Meigs, and Jacob Linn, sergeant. 

The Mexican War Trio 

White County's connection with the Mexican war is more intimate. 
Two of her boys lost their lives in that conflict, and one of the three to 
enlist relumed to his Jackson Township home without his right foot and 
carrying with him Severn] severe wounds. The trio who thus first 
broughl war home to (lie people of the county were William F. Ford, U. 
II. Steele and Keveridge AleCormiek, ami they all were residents of 



that township. At that time there were about 3,000 people in the entire 

The contingent from Jackson Township, White County, joined Cap- 
tain Tipton's Company E, of the United States .Mounted Rifles, which 
rendezvoused at Logansport. The hoys had enlisted on the 6th of June, 
1846, for' a term of five years. The regiment was mounted and fully 
equipped at St. Louis 'and in the winter of 1846 embarked from New 
Orleans for Vera Cruz. It is not necessary to write a history of the 
Mexican war jjs an excuse for the presence of these three brave soldiers 
from "White County. It is enough to know that they met the hardships 
of the war with American grit, and that two of them were shattered at 
Ccrro Gordo. 

Messrs. Fohd, Steele and McCormick 

In the first day's tight Ford received a bad saber cut on the left thigh 
just above the knee, but he came back pluckily for the second day's 
engagement. At this trial with fate he was not so fortunate, as a shell 
shot away his right foot just above the ankle, one wrist was pierced by a 
lance and another by a bullet, and a bayonet made a jagged wound 
through the lower jaw. While lying helpless on the battlefield he was 
sufficiently conscious to tear an epaidette from the uniform of the 
wooden-legged Santa Anna, the Mexican commander, who had left it 
behind with other personal effects. When lie became convalescent he 
retained this memento as a priceless relic of his war experience, and, 
on the whole, considered it of more value than the monthly pension which 
he drew from the Government 

Ford's two comrades were not so tenacious of life. McCormick also 
was badly wounded at Cerro Gordo by a ball which ranged across his 
breast and shattered the left arm near the shoulder. The al tending 
surgeon found it necessary to remove the humerus from the socket, but 
the operation proved too great a shock to McCormick, who soon died. 
Steel gave up his life near Chapultepec as the result of some bowel 

Prompt Responses to Uphold the Union 

White County was one with every other section of Indiana in its 
prompt response to the presidential call for troops to suppress the rebel- 
lion. Its population was about 9,000 at the outbreak of the Civil war and 
at times during the height of the conflict fully a fourth of its citizens of 
military age were absent at the front. Seven full companies were raised 
and many more soldiers formed part of other commands. The linancial 
resources of the county were also strained to the limit, more than $101,000 
being raised officially in bounties and measures of relief, to say nothing of 
the thousands of dollars represented by the private donations in clothing, 
provisions and hospital and field supplies (or the sick, wounded and dead. 

Port Sumter surrendered to General Beauregard, the Confederate 


commander, on Saturday, the l:ith of April, 1861, the following day 
President Lincoln issued his call for 75,000 troops, and within an hour 
from its publication, Robert II. Milroy, a Mexican war veteran, of Jasper 
County, began to recruit a company at Rensselaer. By the 16th the gov- 
ernor and adjutant-general, as well as citizens generally, were issuing 
proclamations and calls for public meetings to give expression to Union 
sentiment and raise recruits. Colonel Milroy, in his bills, announced that 
"the volunteer wants two shirts and two days' provisions in his sack" 
and that he woftld be on hand at the points specified in his call to "re- 
ceive all who may wish to join Ins two hundred men from Jasper." 

The call for a Union meeting issued on the 16th, inviting the citizens 
of Montieello and vicinity to gather at the courthouse "to give expression- 
of sentiment in support of the Government in its present peril and of 
the Caw here and elsewhere," was to be addressed by Judge Turpie and 
others, and was signed by Isaac Reynolds, A. R. Orton, J. C. Reynolds, 
R. Brearley, <>. MeConahay, M. Henderson, Hugh I?. Logan, Daniel D. 
Dale, Thomas l'.ushnell, Thomas D. Crow, W. S. Haymond, James B. 
Belford, Joseph Rothrock, Richard Brown, William Rees, P. R. Faling, 
0. W. Kendall, 1). Turpie, Major Levi Reynolds, A. Ilanawalt, R. Hughes, 
T. 1'. [den, Thomas Bunnell, Thompson Crose, E. J. C. Hilderbrand, J. 
Harbolt, James Wallace, James W. McBwen, IT. II. P. Anderson and 
John Ream. 

The Three-Months' Recruits 

Not only at Montieello, but in every township in the county, were 
held enthusiast ie Union meetings, attended by both sexes, and by the 19th 
the Montieello Spectator announced the following: "About one hundred 
men, residents of the county, have enlisted in their country's defense, 
some of whom joined Colonel R. II. Milroy 's company from Rensselaer. 
Of these J. J. Staley, Watson Brown, Martin Cochell, Francis Sweet, 
-Lewis Murray, Edward Neff, James Stevenson and brother, went from 
this place. Twenty-live were from Bradford and twenty from Reynolds." 
These men all joined Colonel Milroy 's Ninth Regimen' of Indiana Volun- 
teers, and a number of other men from "White County went direct to 
Indianapolis and were received into Company K, of the Tenth. This first 
contribution of men, it will be remembered, were three-months' recruits. 

First War Sacrifice 

One of the first to enlist was a young man named John Brown, a 
grandson of Gen. Simon Kenton, the famous Kentucky frontiersman. 
While tin! regiment was en route to Indianapolis, somewhat more than a 
week after the fall of Sumter, young Brown was killed by the ears at 
Clark's Hill the first war sacrifice by the people of White County. The 
corpse was brought hack and buried near Miller Kenton's residence, three 
miles southwest of Montieello. 

About the middle of August, the White County boss who had left for 


the three months' service returned to their homes, several of them 
wounded. The most serious engagement in which the Ninth and Tenth 
Indiana regiments had participated was that at Rich Mountain, where 
Colonel Milroy acquitted himself so gallantly. The reception accorded 
the home-comers was enthusiastic and affectionate, neither of which mani- 
festations were to warfe, through the coming years of trial and bitter 
experience. A month before!, Capt. Alfred Reed's company of three- 
years' men had marched to the front and the returning short-term 
soldiers were received at his residence by his good wife and the other 
ladies of the town. Other houses at Monticello were thrown open to 
them; but they did not long linger in the smiles of peace, but com- 
menced at- once to recruit and enlist for the companies which were being 
so rapidly organized for "three years or the war." 

White County's Larger Contingents 

White County furnished the following companies for the Union serv- 
ice in the Civil war: Company K, Twentieth Regiment, Capts. Alfred 
Reed and J. C. Brown; Company E, Forty-sixth Regiment, Capts. Wil- 
liam Spencer, Henry Snyder and Charles P. Fisher; Company (!, same 
regiment, Capts. Robert W. Sill, Joseph D. Cowdin, Woodson S. Mar- 
shall, James Hess and Joseph L. Chamberlain; Company (I, Sixty-third 
Regiment, Capts. John Hollodyke and T. S. Jones; Company 1), Twelfth 
Regiment, Capts. George Bowman and B. F. Price; Company P, Ninety- 
ninth Regiment, Capts. George H. Gwinn and Andrew Cochran ; Company 
K, One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment (six months), Capt. Elijah C. 
Davis; Company F, One Hundred and Twenty-eight h, Capts. James G. 
Staley and Henry G. Bliss; Company G, One. Hundred and Fifty-first 
Regiment (White and Pulaski counties), Capt. Carter L. Vigus. 

The Monticello Rifles 

Some time in April the Monticello Rifles was formed, offered its serv- 
ices to the state and entered into a vigorous course of drilling so as to 
be in readiness for whatever might come. On the 9th of .May the enthu- 
siastic young soldiers learned from Governor Morton that their services- 
would not be required, with an order to immediately forward the guns, 
in their possession. The Rifles were considerably chagrined, but meta- 
phorically stood by their guns though they actually sent them to Indi- 
anapolis, with the following protesting resolutions: 

"Resolved, That White county feels that her interest in the preserva- 
tion of the Union and the honor of the Stars and Stripes is etjiial to that of 
any other county in the state or the United States and she should have 
the opportunity of manifesting it on the field of battle. 

"Resolved, That we shall maintain our organization and keep alive 
the tender of our services to the State at any time they may he required." 

Whatever the cause, the chief executive of the slate notified the Moil 

tieello Rifles about the' middle of May that their services had been 


accepted and that they should proceed to Camp Tippecanoe, Lafayette, 
on the' 5th of July. This information created not only much enthusiam 

but profound satisfaction, the public sentiment being well expressed by 
the Spectator of July 12th in the following paragraph : . ■ 

"Departure of Captain Reed's Company! White County Re- 
deemed \— The most interesting scene since the opening of the war, so 
far as relates to our town and county, occurred in this place on the first 
of the present week. ( )n Tuesday the glad news came that Captain Reed's 
company, \?hich was being organized in our midst, had been accepted and 
would march next day to Camp Tippecanoe, taking position in Colonel 
Brown's regiment. It was immediately announced that there would be a 
farewell meeting at the court house in the evening. The parents and 
friends of the volunteers flocked out until the house was crowded. Pro- 
ceedings were opened with prayer and music. After the company had 
formed in line and everybody had shaken hands with the brave boys and 
bid them good-bye, the meeting adjourned to assemble next morning at 
the railroad, where a nice flag was presented the company, Rev. Mr. Smith 
making the speech, and more farewells were said." 

The Monticello Rifles, under Captain Reed, journeyed to Indianapolis 
to join the other units of the Twentieth Regiment, which was there 
organized on July 22d. The Monticello boys elected Alfred Reed as cap- 
tain; John T. Richardson, first lieutenant; Daniel D. Dale, second lieu- 
tenant; and John C. Brown, first sergeant. The company was mustered 
into the service as K, of the Twentieth Indiana, and, as an organization, 
passed through four years of trying warfare. It became first actively 
engaged with the enemy at Ilatteras Inlet, North Carolina; participated 
in the engagement between the Merrimac, Cumberland and Congress, the 
capture of Norfolk, Virginia; in the Peninsula campaign of the Army of 
the Potomac, and the battles of Fair Oaks, Manassas Plains and Fred- 
ericksburg, in 1862; thi' hat lies of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, in 
1863, and the Campaign of the Wilderness, the sieges of Petersburg and 
Richmond and the final opera) ions against the Confederate Army of Vir- 
ginia, which, with minor events, covered the last two years of its service. 
The regiment, with Company K, was mustered out at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, on July 12, 1865. 

Company E, Forty-sixth Regiment 

The second complete organization to enter the service from White 
County was Company 10, Forty-sixth Regiment, with Dr. William Spen- 
cer, captain; Eli R. Herman. Brst Lieutenant; and Henry Snyder, second 
lieutenant. These men had pushed the enlistment during the latter part 
of September and the earlier portion of October, and on the loth of 
the latter month the company departed for Logansport to be organized 
and incorporated into the Forty-sixth Regiment under Graham N. Fitch. 
Before starting the hoys listened to a farewell address from the court- 
house steps delivered by T. I>. Crow, to which Captain Spencer replied. 

The regimen! saw its Brut active service in Missouri as a part of 


General Pope's army, afterward campaigning in Arkansas, in operations 
against Arkansas Post, Duvall's Bluff, etc. It also participated in the 
Yazoo River Expedition, tlie Siege of Vicksburg and the Battle of Cham- 
pion Hills, before it was incorporated into the Army of the Department' 
of the Gulf unek'r Hanks. It suffered in the misfortunes of the Red River 
Expedition, and was finally mustered out of the service in September, 
1865. • 

Capt. R, W. Sill's Company 


Company G, which was composed entirely of White County men, also 
faithfully followed the fortunes of the Forty-sixth Regiment. Much of 
the company was enlisted while Spencer's was being organized, the most 
active figure in the work being R. "W. Sill, and that he was to be captain 
of it was a foregone conclusion. There was evidently some rivalry be- 
tween the two organizations, although perhaps not bitter enough to call 
forth the following from the Spectator, after the departure of Captain 
Spencer's command for the camp at Logansport : "Now for Captain 
R. W. Sill's company. Let it be filled up immediately, and cursed be the 
craven-hearted cur that offers opposition to it. It is a double duty we 
owe to Mr. Sill and our bleeding country to help the matter on. Let's 
do it like men." 

Joseph D. Cowdin and John M. Berkey, who were Mr. Sills' most 
active assistants, were elected first and second lieutenants, respectively, 
when the company formally organized at Logansport. 

Company G finally departed from Monticello on the 21st of Novem- 
ber, the event being celebrated by a dinner given by the ladies of the 
town at the house of J. C. Reynolds and ceremonies at the court house, 
which included speeches by Colonel Fitch of the Forty-sixth, Judge Tur- 
pie and others, a sword presentation to Captain Sill and a flag presenta- 
tion to the company. On the 11th of December the company, fully 
organized and equipped, was sworn into the service of the United States 
with other units of the regiment. 

A few men from White County also entered Companies A, C, II and 
I of the Forty-sixth. , 

Representations in the Sixty-tiiiiui Reqiw ent 

The Sixty-third Regiment had a large representation from White 
County. During the early months of 18G2, Capt. M. I''. Johnson, Lieuc. 
Joseph W. Davis and others enlisted about two thirds of a company 
which afterward became D, of the Sixty-third. In August ('apt. John 
Ilollaway of Norway, Lieut. George W. Jewett of Reynolds, Lieut. Aden 
Nordyke of SeahVId, and others, enlisted a full company, 'I. of thai regi- 
ment. From January to August of 1862 more than 200 men lcfl the 
county, about 150 joining the Sixty-third. Company (i was organized 
with John Ilolloway as captain. 

Company D formed part of a battalion which participated in Second 
Bull Run, but G. which was one of six companies raised under the call 


of.Jialy, 1862, remained at Indianapolis until December, engaged in guard 
duty, and until April, 1864; was chiefly employed in guarding the Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee railroads. At that time as part of the Twenty-third 
Army Corps it became a part of .Sherman's army, then about to enter the 
Atlanta campaign. The Sixty-third gave a good account of itself at 
Resaca, Lost Mountain and the engagements around Atlanta, the Battle 
of Franklin and the pursuit of Hood. The portion of the regiment com- 
prising Company G was mustered out in June, 1865; that containing 
Compaifcv I), in the month previous. As a regiment it had a public recep- 
tion in the capital grounds, Indianapolis, before its final discharge from 
the service. 

Capt. George Bowman's Company 

The enlistments in White County during the summer and fall of 1862 
were especially active. Even by June of that year more than one-fourth 
of the voting population of the county was in the field. Two full com- 
panies were raised under the presidential call of July. George Bow- 
man's company (I), of the Twelfth Regiment) was the first to get in 
marching order — the fifth full organization to enter the service from 
"White County for three years or during the war. 

During July war meetings were held throughout the county as an 
impetus to enlistment. Au especially enthusiastic meeting was held at 
Idaville, on the 26th of July, upon which occasion Belford, Callahan and 
Wallace, loyal democrats all, vigorously delivered patriotic addresses, and 
urged all men, without regard to party, to stand by the Union. A rous- 
ing meeting was also held at Monticello. 

On the same day of the meeting at Idaville, two meetings were held 
in Liberty Township, where eight volunteers joined Captain Bowman's 
company. Early in August the company received marching orders. On 
the 5th of August the boys were given a picnic dinner at Norway, on 
which occasion C. J. L. Foster and others spoke to the large crowd that 
had assembled to hid the boys good-bye. Essays were read by Miss Arnold 
and others; and patriotic toasts were responded to amid the enthusiastic 
cheers of the populace and the shrill rattle of fife and drum. 

The following officers had been chosen on the 1st of August: George 
Bowman, captain; .1. A. Blackwell, first lieutenant; Benjamin F. Price, 
second lieutenant. On the same day a large meeting was held, Rev. J. W. 
T. McMullen delivering the oration. One hundred dollars was raised in 
a few minutes fur the families of the boys who were on the eve of 
departure for the uncertainties of the field of war. On the 5th, at the 
conclusion of the picnic at Norway, the company started for Indianapolis, 
followed by the sorrowing farewells of friends. In less than two weeks 
the company, with its regiment, the Twelfth, marched out in battle array 
on the field of Richmond, Kentucky, fought gallantly, was captured, 
paroled and scattered. Several* of its boys were killed, among them Ben- 
jamin McCormiek and Samuel Mclntire, and Joseph II. Rooks died of 
bis wounds. Col. William II. Link, who commanded the regiment, also 


died of his wounds. Captain Bowman received a slight wound. After 
the exchange of prisoners the regiment joined General Grant's army and 
participated in the Vieksburg campaign. It was with Sherman from 
Memphis to Chattanooga and at Mission Ridge, in November, 186:?, again 
suffered serious losses. At that engagement Captain Bowman was so 
badly wounded that he was sent home and was never able afterward to 
join the service. It afterward engaged in the pursuit of Bragg, the relief 
of BurnsKle at Knoxville, all the engagements of the Atlanta campaign 
and the, movements through the Carolinas northward. The company and 
regiment were mustered out at Washington, D. O, on the 8th of June, 

Company F, Ninety-ninth Regiment 

By August, 1862, a full company had been raised at Brookston and 
vicinity, which was incorporated into the Ninety-ninth Regiment, with 
George W. Gwinn as captain, Andrew Cochran, first lieutenant, and G. S. 
Walker, second lieutenant. About the same time Capt." Sidney W. Sea 
and others enlisted one-half of Company K, Nineteenth Regiment (Fifth 
Cavalry), the recruits coming mostly from the western part of the 

Captain Gwin's Company F, of the Ninety-ninth Regiment, was 
ordered to South Bend and was mustered into the service in October, 
1862. It did not get into action until the following May, during the 
Vieksburg campaign. At Jackson, Mission Ridge, Chattanooga, Resaca, 
Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Savannah and Fort McAllister, it 
became thoroughly fireproof during two years of battling and cam- 

TnE Threatened Draft of 1862 

After the departure of Captain Bowman's company, it was found that 
the county was not wholly free from the approaching draft of Septem- 
ber 15th, and measures were immediately instituted to till the required 
quota. Lieut. J. W. Berkey opened a recruiting office, as did also others. 
One of the largest war meetings held during the rebellion, assembled at 
the courthouse on the 11th of August to raise volunteers. It was adver- 
tised that Colfax and Colonel Hathaway would be present, and tins 
brought out a vast crowd; but these distinguished men were unable to 
attend, and home talent was called upon. The following statement of 
vounty affairs was made out about the 1st of September: 


Townships Militia teers 

Prairie 275 137 

I'.ig Creek 106 41 

Union 216 139 

Mouon 127 64 

Liberty 120 52 





teers in 





to Draft 
















Townships Militia 

Jackson 175 

Princeton "95 

West Point 60 

Honey Creek 74 

Cass ' . . 65 

Pound Grove .... 27 

- t 

Total 1,337 






teers in. 






to Draft 

































It was to be nearly two years after Captain Gwin's command went to 
the front before another complete company was to go forth from White 
County pledged to stand by the colors for three years or longer — if the 
war should endure so long. The recruits in the meantime went into such 
commands as the Ninth, Twentieth, Forty-sixth, Seventy-second, Seventy- 
third and the Eighty-sixth and Eighty-seventh; and. still Moloch called 
for more. Volunteers did not satisfy him, but military necessity in the 
shape of the draft threatened; bounties were also offered and paid by 
the county, above the regular wages pledged by Uncle Sam, and by pulling 
every string and straining every nerve, White County escaped what was 
considered a partial reflection on patriotism until the fall of 1864. But 
that was certainly a period of stress and trial. 

Escape from the 1863 Draft 

As the shadow of tin.' draft of 1863 approached, the press, the pulpit 
ami public leaders everywhere in the county renewed their efforts to keep 
White Counts- in I lie rapidly diminishing column of sections which had 
never been subject to tin 1 draft. The efforts of that year were also suc- 
cessful, although over 100 more men had to be raised in townships where 
there wire not enough males to do the work of peace which normally fell 
to them. Rul war was war even in those days. 

In November, 1863, a committee was appointed at a Monticello war 
meeting, consisting of It. MuConahay, James Wallace, M. Henderson, 
Lucius Pierce and Thomas Uushnell to push enlistments and forestall the 
draft. Their manifesto, published in the .Monticello Herald of November 
inili, was as follows: "The quota of this county under the draft about to 
be made is LOG men, and is apportioned among the several townships as 
follows: Union, 16; Honey Creek, 5; Liberty, 10; Cass, 4; Monon, 10; 
Princeton, 8; Weal Point, 6; Round Grove, 2; Big Creek, 8; Jackson, 14: 
Prairie, 23. 

"If lliis number is raised by voluntary enlistment our county will not, 
be subject to the draft, hut if it is not raised the draft will certainly fall 
upon us. 1 1 it hciio, we, as a county, have occupied n proud position 
an ;,' the enmities of a slate of whose record ill this war Indianians may 


well be proud. We have been among the few counties that waited not 
for the compulsions of a draft. 

"Shall we maintain our position, or shall we falter in this, the last, we 
hope, and the trying hour of the war? We believe the people of White 
County with one voice will exclaim: No! we will not falter in our efforts, 
nor fail in our undertakings, but will ever stand true to the maintenance 
of the Union and the crushing out of this wicked rebellion. 

"We, therefore, for the purpose of facilitating the work of enlistment 
in the several townships, would appoint the following township com- 
mittees : 

"Prairie — Thomas B. Davis, Dr. John Medaris and E. P. Mason. 

"Big Creek — John R. Jefferson, Clinton Crose and George R. Spencer. 

"Monon — J. L. Watson, Dr. John T. Richardson and William G. 

"Liberty — Thomas W T ickersham, H. G. Bliss and George Cullen. 

"Jackson — Eli R. Herman, Andrew Hanna and D. McConahay. 

"Princeton — John B. Bunnell, David Wright and R. C. Johnson. 

' ' West Point— C. II. Test, 0. P. Murphy and David Deffinger. 

"Cass — Edward P. Potter, W. 0. Hopkinson and Hannibal McCloud. 

"Honey Creek — Frank Howard, I. S. Vinson and Nick Young. 

"Round Grove — A. Ward, Stewart Rariden and Patrick Carroll. 

"We recommend that each of said several committees should appoint 
a township meeting for as early a day as possible ami advise this com- 
mittee of the time and place of meeting, aud speakers will be furnished." 

The general and the township committeemen worked diligently aud 
enthusiastically — at least, the draft did not fall upon White county in 

The Six-Months' Company 

In the meantime, under the call of June 15th for 100,000 six-months' 
men, Capt Elijah C. Davis and Lieuts. Joseph W. Davis and Isaac H. 
Jackson enlisted a full company, which was mustered in as K, of the One 
Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment, on the 17th of August, L863. The 
camp of rendezvous was at Lafayette and the first two months of service 
was occupied in guarding the United States arsenal near Detroit, .Michi- 
gan, and in routine duties in Kentucky. In October it participated in 
engagements at Blue Springs and Walker's Ford, but the remainder of 
its six-months' term was largely passed in guard and fatigue duty. It 
was mustered out, with other commands of the One Hundred and Six- 
teenth, at Lafayette. 

Under the call of October 17, 1863, which asked for 300.000 soldiers 

for three years, the work of recruiting the L06 men d Bndcd of White 

County progressed with vigor, as heretofore noted. Capt. D. M. Craves, 
of Newton County, appeared at various points in the eounty, and called 
for recruits for the Twelfth Cavalry. He had rousing meetings at Monti- 
cello, I'.rookston aud elsewhere. 

Lieutenant William C. Kent opened an enlistment office for the One 
Hundred and Twenty-eighth Regiment. The papers at that lime pub- 


lishcd very flattering offers of bounty to both veterans and new recruits — ■ 
to the former $410, and to the latter $380, per annum. The- extensive 
and enthusiastic efforts soon freed the county. Many entered the old 
regiments. Ahonl half the company i of the One Hundred and Twenty- 
sixth was from White County, as was also about one-third of Company F 
of the One Hundred and Twenty-seventh (Twelfth Cavalry), and one-half 
of Company K of the same. Among the recruiting officers during the 
months of November and December, 1SG3, and January, 1864, were D. M. 
Craves, Henry II. Caves, B. 0. Wilkinson and W. C. Marshall. In De- 
cember, 1K63, a large war meeting at IJrookston was presided over by 
Benjamin Lucas, president, and W. B. Chapman, secretary. Judge Tur- 
pie delivered the oration. 

C.u'T. James G. Staley 

Through the winter months and on into the spring of 1864, the enlist- 
ment for Company F of the One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Regiment 
continued. This company was enlisted mostly by Capt. James G. Staley, 
Lieuts. W. C. Kent and Henry G. Bliss. The regiment rendezvoused at 
Michigan City. Captain Staley 's company was full about the middle of 
March, 1864. While yet at Camp Anderson, Michigan City, the members 
of this company purchased a fine sword which was formally presented to 
Captain Staley by the regimental chaplain, Rev. William P. Koutz, of 

Company V was the seventh and the last full company to be enlisted in 
White County for the three-years' service. Its regiment was mustered 
into the service March 18, 1864, and first took the field at Nashville, Ten- 
nessee. In tlie .Atlanta campaign it fought at Resaca, Dallas, New Hope 
Church, Lost .Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta and Jonesboro. As 
part of Thomas's army it joined in the pursuit of Hood, and at the hard- 
fought Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864, its brave captain, James 
(i. Staley, was killed. 

One of Captain Staley's comrades writes of his death and career as 
follows: "In I he beginning of the war he responded to the call of our 
country and served faithfully as a member of the Ninth Indiana for more 
than two years, lie was commissioned captain of Company P, 128th 
Indiana, iu January, 18G4, and in .March left the place of rendezvous 
with his regimenl to take part in the memorable campaign of Atlanta. 
During that toilsome service of marching, digging, guarding, watching 
and lighting, lasting four months, without the soldiers being beyond the 
sound of musketry or artillery, lie nobly, patiently, heroically performed 
his pari. On the lib of October we loft Decatur, Georgia, to begin the fall 
campaign, and after much skirmishing and marching several hundred 
miles in Ceorgia and Alabama, we reached Franklin, Tennessee, closely 
pressed by the enemy in superior force. It is not my purpose to give a 
description of the engagement, mil I will state that the l2Sth Indiana 

occupied breastworks near the extre left of our line; that the onemj 

charged right up to and planted (heir colors on our works, and that their 


dead and dying which filled the ditches, sufficiently proved how bloody 
aud disastrous was their repulse. 

"When tlie assault was made, Captain Staley was standing up watch- 
ing the enemy and directing the fire and the us.' of the bayonets of his 
men. Just then Captain Bissell, of the same regiment, was shot through 
the head and fell against Lieutenant Lliss, who. with the assistance of 
Captain Staley, laid him upon the ground and planed a blanket under 
his head. This had' scarcely been done when some one called out 'They 
are coming; again,' and all prepared to receive the enemy. As Captain 
Staley turned to the works, a minie hall struck him in the forehead, and 
he, too, fell into the arms of Lieutenant Bliss and died almost instantly. 
There was no time then to listen to parting words. A desperate hand-to- 
hand conflict was straining every nerve for the possession of the works. 
The deadly musket shot, the clash of arms as bayonet came to bayonet 
and sword to sword, the hurried breathing of the men through their shut 
teeth, their words of encouragement and mutterings of vengeance, with 
the thunders of the two pieces of artillery that flanked the company, com- 
bined to bring into heroic exercise every muscle of the body and every 
power of the mind. 

"Darkness came on and still the fighting continued. Every man was 
needed to repulse the desperate assaults of the enemy. The body of Cap- 
tain Staley was carried to the rear by the stretcher corps and buried in 
the same grave with that of Captain Bissell, near the large brick dwelling 
house on the hill south of Franklin. This statement was made by Lieuten- 
ant Bliss. The grave where the heroes slept was left unmarked, but to 
have done otherwise was impossible. Though we hail repulsed the rebel 
army, it was determined to withdraw under cover of darkness, and at mid- 
night we retreated a'cross Harpetb river and abandoned the battlefield and 
Franklin to the enemy." 

Captain Staley's remains were recovered and brought home, through 
the efforts of the Christian Commission, arriving at Monticello on Febru- 
ary 7, 1865, and on the 12th were rcinterred with appropriate ceremonies. 

This last of the long-term companies to be raised, as a whole, in White 
County, saw service after Captain Staley's death at Nashville, in the 
later pursuit of Hood, at Newbern and Wise's Fork, North Carolina, and 
at other points marking the closing operations of the war. The regiment 
was not .mustered out of the service until early in 1866. 

The Heavy Calls op 1864 

The heavy calls of February and March, 1864, and finally the call of 
July 18th of 500,000 men for one, two and three yearn, somewhat dag- 
gered the county; but the citizens began to make earnes! efforts to meet 
the demand. A most hopeful feeling prevailed at this time, as it was 
already apparent that the rebellion was wavering before the final fall. 

About half of Company B of (he One Hundred and Forty-second 

went from Idaville during the month of September, 1864, ('apt. .lames 
Thomas and Limits. [{.. 11. Cary and K. \V. Clary enlisting the men. 


About twenty-five men from the county utered Company II of the 
same regiment. About fifteen recruits entered Company C of the 
Forty-second in October. Some fifty recruits joined Company G of the 
Sixty-third during the summer months of 1864. Late in 1S64 and 
early in 1865 about fifty recruits joined Company F of the One Hun- 
dred and Twerity-eigliih. Among the recruiting officers in the 'county 
dwriog the latter part of 1864 was M. P, Smith. 

The Drafts of 1864 and 1865 

• Until the fall of L864, the county had warded oft' the draft by her 
tenders of money, the appeals of her orators and the influence of her 
women, but the calls of February, .March, April and July, of that year, 
placed a burden on her which could not be sustained through voluntary 
enlistment. The county quota of February, 1864, with some deficiency, 
was 210; of .March, 84; and of July, 237; or a total of 531. The draft 
took place in October, at .Michigan City, under Provost Marshal K. G. 
Shryod-, but the required number did not report and a supplementary 
draft took place. One of the reasons why it was difficult at that time 
to fill the ranks at home was that higher bounties were offered in large 
cities south and east than those in White County, and many left accord- 
ingly. Such men were credited, of course, to the localities paying the 
bounty, and were thus lost to White County. 

The call of December, 1864, stimulated anew the enlistment. Dur- 
ing the winter months of 18G4-G5 war meetings were held everywhere 
to clear the county, but the work was slow. Another draft came off at 
Michigan City in the early part of April, 1865, by which 163 men were 
raised in White County, most of whom were one-year men. 

Summary of Number of Troops Raised 

The lasl report made by the military authorities on April 14, 1S65, 
when all efforts to raise troops had been suspended, showed that White 
County had furnished thirty-five more men than were required by all 
the calls of the war. 

A recapitidat ion of the numBer of soldiers raised in the county dur- 
ing the entire period of the Civil war would stand thus: From the out- 
break of the war until September 1, 1862, 751 volunteers had joined 
tin- Union army. The calls of .July and August, of that year, brought 
out 220 men; about 90 joined the six-months' service, under the call 
of October, 1863; 106 were furnished under the call of October, 1863; 
L70 under the February and .March calls, in 1864; 237 under the call 
of July, same year; and 163 under the last call of the war in December, 
1864. It is (.slim. tied that full.v 1(10 men left the county to enlist; and 
to all these items must be added the 35 surplus above all calls. Thus 
the volunteers, recruits, conscripts and veterans from White County, 
some of whom enlisted more than once for short periods, numbered 


Bounty and Relief Voted 

Albeit a labor of love, it would be an impossibility to give an ade- 
quate picture of the relief work performed by the men and women of 
White County to alleviate the sufferings both of those at the front and 
those left at home. The great bulk of it can never be measured by 
dollars' and cents; so that we can only say that an important feature 
of that work was included in the various sums raised by t lie county,' 
in its official capacity, which is divided into the bounty and relief 

The first action taken by the county commissioners in the direction 
of relief to soldiers' families was in August, 1862, when township trus- 
tees were authorized to provide for the reasonable wants of the families 
of soldiers in the field, keeping proper vouchers, upon the presentation . 
of which they would be reimbursed from the county treasury. It was 
not until the 26th of November, 1863, that the commissioners authorized 
the payment of $100 bounty to volunteers under the call of October, 
but after that, and even long after the war had ended, large amounts 
were paid out. Xo proper record seems to have been kept of these 
important disbursements. The following imperfect, exhibit, taken from 
the adjutant-general's report, is the best that can be given of the county 
bounty and relief funds: 

Bounty Relief 

White County $60,500 $ 48.80 

Prairie 25,000 1,776.86 

Big Creek 450 34.92 

Union 675 812.83 

Monon 50 262.95 

Liberty 100 68.89 

Jackson 150 544.35 

Princeton 3,300 

West Point 1 ,228 48.30 

Cass :?:?;* 1,370.37 

Honey Creek 392.58 

Round Grove 4,100 6.30 

Total $95,886 $5*364.15 

Grand total $101,250.1.") 

The Spanish-American War 

In the Spanish-American war, White County was rondy for anything 
which came her way and furnished one company nearly complete, known 
as I, One Hundred and Sixty-first Indiana Volunteers. William Guthrie 
went out as captain; Anthony A. Anheir, as first lieutenant; and John 
R. Ward, as second lieutenant. Dr. W. E. Rioderwolf, of Montieello, 
chaplain of the regiment, was also the historian of Company I. From 


his account il is learned that the first meeting looking toward the rais- 
ing of a company tot- White County was called by Tippecanoe Post Xo. 
51, <;. A. K., t<> li.' held at the courthouse, April 21, 1898. A company 
was organized then and there, and the governor was notified that it was 
ready to serve at a moment's warning. He replied that the company 
would be needed and that the boys should get into military shape. In 
fact, events moved so rapidly that on June 30th Captain Guthrie received 
gubernatorial orders to report with his eompany at Indianapolis on the 
following Monday. Hut the boys were allowed to spend the Fourth at 
home on the Monticello Fair Grounds. 

The White County contingent was mustered into the service at Indi- 
anapolis on .Inly 13, 1898, as Company I, and on August 7th was ordered 
to Jacksonville, Florida, to be incorporated into the Seventh Army Corps 
under Gen'. Fife Hugh Lee. It reached that city August 14th and during 
its two months' stay there lost six of its men by disease — Clarence 1>. 
Kuns, Wallace I). Stivers, George Kepperling, William G. Weaver, 
Joseph F. Turner and Jacob W. Dexter. 

The regiment spent the period from October 24th to December 12th 
at Savannah, and arrived at Havana, Cuba, on the 14th of the latter 
month, going into camp near Quemados about ten miles southwest of the 
city. There the command remained in that vicinity during the remainder 
of the winter, drilling and doing guard duty at various points. On 
March 2!>th the home-coming commenced — the regiment landing at 
Savannah March fllst and being mustered out on April 30th. It arrived 
a1 Indianapolis on the morning of May 3d, and reached Monticello at 
noon. The boys were welcomed at the state house by Governor Mount 
and, what was nearer to their hearts, by their mothers and fathers, 
brot tiers and sisters, wives and sweethearts, at Monticello. The home 
welcome extended over a period which is unknown to the writer, the 
public receptions covering several days. 

ho addition to furnishing Company I to put down the war, White 
County sent sixteen men into the Eleventh United States Infantry, who 
participated in the Porto Rico expedition; furnished twelve to the 160th 
Indiana Volunteers; three to the Second U. S. Infantry, of whom Gustavo 
]'>. Stahlraan was killed in the Santiago expedition; three to the Twenty- 
third U. S. Infantry which took part in the fourth expedition to the 
Philippines; three to the Sixth Illinois Volunteers, who went to Porto 
Rico; three to the 157th Indiana Volunteers, and smaller numbers to 
Troop L, U. S. Cavalry, Third U. S. Artillery and 16th U. S. Infantry. 



General Features — Soil and Products — Settled Before the Town- 
ship Was Organized — Mr. and Mrs. Peter Price— "Heap Bid 
Scare" of 1832 — Land Entries in 18.31-34 — Entry of Monticello 's 
Site — Bounds of Original Plat — Site Controlled Mainly by 
Residents — Hiortii and Mount Walleston — Leases to William 
Sill — Martin Ciierrie's Woolen Mill — Tin: Flour Mill in Motion 
— IIiortii Very Exclusive — Mount Walleston Platted — Hiortii 
Interests Pass to the Kendalls — Boom at Mount Walleston — 
The Kendalls Withdraw — Rowland Hughes of Monticello — 
Infant Industries at the County Seat — First Township Officers 
— Jeremiah Bisher — The Old Kenton Grave Yard — Entered 
Government Lands in 1835 — The Busy Land Year, 1836 — Hard 
Times Check Land Entries — Excluded Sections — Entries in 
1841-54 — Land, the Basis of Solid Prosperity -Construction ok 
Good Roads. 

Union Township was one of the four divisions of White County at 
its organization in 183-4, and included all of the present territory west of 
the Tippecanoe River and north of the line dividing Townships 25 am! 26 
north, together with the attached territory of what now constitutes the 
counties of Newton and Jasper and the western portion of Pulaski. The 
political steps by which it was reduced to its present body include I he 
creation of Monon Township in 1836, of Liberty in 1837, and Honey 
Creek in 1856. 

General Features 

Thus Union Township was reduced to about thirty-seven and a half 
square miles. It is bounded on the north, chiefly by Liberty, with its 
northwestern section lying against Monon Township; Oil the east by 
Liberty and Jackson townships and the Tippecanoe River, which partly 
separates it from Carroll County, on the south by Big Creek Township 
ami Carroll County, and on the west by Big Creek and Money Creek 

The township has more high hills ami low valleys than any other 
political division in the county, although the valleys are limited to a 
small area and the hills to the timber bind lying along tin- river. Smith 
of Monticello the lands become a portion of the Grain! Prairie. The 





northern port inn of the township, west of the Tippecanoe, is a succession, 
of sand ridges, and flat timber land, with such .stretches of prairie inter- 
vening as the valley of Money Creek. That part of the township lying 
east of the river was much more heavily timbered than the sections west 
of it. as it was protected from the prairie fires which swept over the 
country from that direction. Only a thin fringe of timber marked the 
western hanks of the Tippecanoe, with here and there a tree in the open 
plain, hut in) thickets of hazel, plum, sassafras, oak, hickory, cedar, 
sumaTh, mulberry, elder or honey Locust ever survived the annual fires, 
from which the eastern banks were exempt, until those tracts were settled 
and protected. 

Soil and Pkoducts 

The soil of l'n ion Township in the timbered portions east of the river 
is a heavy loam with a subsoil of clay, sand and gravel, and well adapted 


Indiana Corn 

to grain, grass, roots, fruit and vegetables. In the higher timbered part 
it is a lighl loam, with a deep subsoil of sand and gravid intermixed 
with (day. The northwestern portions of the township may be described 
.as clay ridges traversing a rather low prairie. So-called "ridge farms," 
lying quite high and dry. with their easily cultivated soil, have come into 
considerable favor, as they are nicely adapted to live stock and fruit 
raising. The main brandies of (he Tippecanoe River in Union Town- 
ship are Pike Creek, flowing in from the east, and Uoney Creek, ils 
western tributary. By nature, this portion of the county is well drained, 
and no township is heller provided with ditches. 

The chief products of the township are wheat, corn, oats and rye, in 
the grains; sweet and Irish potatoes, cabbages, parsnips, carrots, beets 
anil tomatoes, in vegetables ; melons and berries of all kinds. 


Settled Before the Township Was Organized 

Quite a number of settlers, most of them with their families, located 
in what is how Union Township before the county was organized, the 
most pro incut of these being John Rothrock and his son, Roberl ; Peter 
Price, John Roberts, Reuben .Stout, James Shafer, Jeremiah Bisher, Hans 
Erasmus Iliorth, Peter B. Smith, Melchi dray, Matthew [Topper, Zebulon 
Sheetz, Samuel Gray, James Spencer, William Orr, John Orr, Mahlon 
Praser, Sr., Abraham Lowther, John Wilson, Richard Worthington, 
Henry Baum and George R. Bartley. 

The first entry of land from the' United States Governmcni in what is 
now Union Township was made by John Rothrock, who, on November 30, 
1830, purchased a large tract in section 3, township 26 north, range 3 
west, and some time afterward erected a log house thereon. He was 
soon followed by Peter Price, his brother-in-law, who bought 160 acres 
in sections 32 and 33, on Jane 13, 1831; on thai day also George R. 
Bartley purchased land in the same section. 

. Mb. and Mrs. Peter Price 

While there is no dispute over the claim that Mr. Rothrock entered 
the first land in what is now Union Township, Air. Price is generally 
credited with being the first permanent settler. In all likelihood, he has 
that honor because he brought with him his wife and child, lluis founding 
the first family and homestead in the new country. Born in Berks 
County, Pennsylvania, February 11, 17!)!*, lie lived for several years 
before coming West in Lancaster and Mifflin counties, that stale. While 
a resident of the latter he met and married Asenath Rothrock, a native 
of Mifflin County and about three years his junior. They were married 
in 1S21 and in the spring of 1831 started for the valley of the Tippecanoe 
with their infant son, Joseph, John Rothrock and his sons, William and 

The Prices and Rothrocks traveled by wagon and reached a locality 
a short distance west of the Tippecanoe River and just beyond the present 
limits of Monticello in the early part of June, 1831. He entered his 
''eighty" on the 18th of the month, as stated, and (here he lived a useful 
life until it was ended in the peace of well-spent years, July 1!', 1K77. 

At their coming to White County, Mr. and .Mrs. Trice had been bereft 
of two little ones, bringing the third to their western home. Si\ children 
Were added lo their Hock on the banks of the Tippecanoe, three of their 
'-ons living to serve in the Union army from Whit.' County. 

Mrs. Price was a woman of rare worth, and after the dentil of her 
husband continued to reside at. the old homestead with her son. ('apt. 
Benjamin I' 1 . Price, until her death January 18, I8i)2, in her ninetieth 
year. As age crept steadily on, her visits to Monticello became rare, but 
to her many friends who called upon her she was ever a cheerful, com- 
panionable lady of (he pioneer generation. One of her favorite tales was 
the "heap hi;;' scare" of June, 1832. 



"Heap Big Scare" op 1S32 

In this, the year of the Blac.k Hawk war, there were probably twenty 
Families in what is now White County. Throughout the spring of 18152 
tales of massacres and murders so worked upon the fears of the scattered 
settlers that some of them packed their goods into wagons and tied to 
the south side of the Wahash, driving their live stock before them. Every 
prairie lire was a possible sign of Indian devastation, but not a lew 
families bravely clung to their barricaded houses and guarded farms. 
To assure both the brave and the timid that no hostile Indians had pene- 
trated to that distant point, a company of about twenty men was formed 
at Delphi under Capt. Andrew Wood, and, well armed and provisioned, 
marched out on the (I rand Prairie and thence up the Tippecanoe as far 
as the house of Melchi Gray near the mouth of the Monon. No Indians 
were found, except some timid Pottawattamies who were as frightened 
over the prospect of a raid by Black Hawk's warriors as were the most 
fearful of the whites who had deserted their homes. 

Mrs. Peter Price, who had then been about a year in her new home, 
relates thai her family had remained unconscious of any danger until 
early one . I une morning, when George A. Spencer rode rapidly up to 
their cabin door on his horse and shouted "Halloo, Peter, get up! The 
d — d In j ins are coming and are killing everybody." In about a minute 
everybody's clothes were on and the messenger surrounded and bom- 
barded with rapid-lire questions. It was decided to leave immediately, 
and hurried preparations were made to take the most valuable articles 
and leave the remainder to the torch of the savages. Mrs. Price and 
her children were taken to the house of a friend below Delphi, while Mr. 
Price returned to near the mouth of Spring Creek, Prairie Township, 
when; some twelve or fifteen families bad collected and made rather 
formidable preparations to receive the enemy. Every man and boy was 
on guard and every gun was loaded and in place. It is also stated that 
a sort of blockhouse was erected. Some thought the danger was to come 
from the I'ollawattauiies, while others feared the Sacs and Foxes from 
the Mississippi River region. As a matter of fact, it may be repeated 
the 1'ottawattamics as much frightened as any of the whites, and all 
wenl to the Indian agcnl for advice and protection. They thought the 
\ whiles were going to attack them for .some reason not apparent. It was 
a period of "creeps and horrors" all 'round. 

Land Entries in 18:11-31 

In .Inly. 1831, Samuel Cray entered land in section 7, ami Pavirl 
Miller in section 6, during August, ami in November of that year Mahlon 
Fraxer, Sr., boughl a trad south of Mr. Rothroek's in section 3. 

Hans K. [iiortli her. une a laud owner in section 2] during duly, 1832, 
iii section 20 during August, and in section 8, in September; during 
( Ictober of that year .lames Spencer entered land in sections 17 and 18, 


Benjamin N. Spencer in section 17, Klisha Rawls in section 6, and Thomas 
King in .sect ion 5. 

The year 1833 brought purchasers of land as follows: llcnrj Baum, 
section 5, and James Johnson, seefion 31, in March; Thomas Wilson, 
section 17, and Samuel Gray, section 18, in April; Jacob Dewey, section 1, 
in May; Benjamin Price, section .'!, in June; Mi-lchi Gray, in October, 
and Richard Worthington, in November, botli in section 7. 

Jn 1884, at dates previous to the organization of the county, John 
Wilson entered land in section 17, on the 21sl of April; Joseph .lames, 
in section 13, Jjtmc 4th ; John Tcdford, in mm- I ion 36, on the LOth of thai 
month; George R. Bartley, in section 33, on the 1-th, and James Staugh- 
ton, in section 6, July 5th, two weeks before the meeting of the first 
hoard of commissioners. Afterward, but in the year of the county's 
birth, the following appeared in the list of land-holders: Roberl Rothrock, 
section 33, September 6th; Samuel Rifenberrick, section 33, November 
22d; Zebulon Sheetz, same section, November 1st, as well as in section 27, 
on the same date. 

» Entry op Monticelix)'s Site 

The main portion of Monticello was platted on section 33, the first pub- 
lic sale of lots occurring on the 7th of November, 1834. It is a matter of 
record that Robert Rothrock entered the land at LaPorte, in behalf of 
John Rothrock, his father, II. B. Hoirth and John Barr (county agenl , 
for the purpose of which they placed $137.77'/. in his hands. He signed 
a $1,000 bond to transfer to them "the south half of the northeast quarter 
and the north half of the southeast quarter of Section 33, Township 27 
north, Range 3 west, containing in all 1 1 < » 22-100 acres, which lots were 
purchased for the purpose of a county seat in White county." This he 
finally did. 

Bounds of Origin vl Plat 

The old plat of Monticello was bounded on the north by Marion 
Street, east by Tippecanoe or Bluff Street, smith by Jefferson and west by 
Illinois. Legally, with the express condition that the county scat should 
forever remain at .Monticello, the site, as conveyed by Robert Rothrock 
to County Agent Barr, with a quit claim to all titles of Messrs. Barr, 
I Noil h and John Rothrock in the same, the description of the boundaries 
of the original site is as follows: Beginning at a point where the west, 
line of Illinois Street in the said Town of Monticello running north as the 
town plat of the said town is laid out would intersi i i the north line <>l' 
the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of wet ion 33, tow nship 27 
north, range 3 west, thence east with the north line ol s lid l'i iction In the 
Tippecanoe River, thence with the ilieauderings of the aid fiver to the 
south line of the northwest fraction of the southeast quarter of sect iou 33, 
township 27 north, range :i west, thence with (lie south line of said last 
mentioned fraction west to a point where the west line nf said Illinois 
Street aforesaid extended south won!, I inti rsecl <aid last mentioned line, 


thence ninth with the vvesl line o£ said Illinois Street extended as afore- 
said to the place of beginning. That tract was laid out on the 3d of 
November, 1834, under the supervision of Mr. Barr, assisted by Asa 
Allen, Melchi Gray and Joshua Lindsey, surveyors. 

Site Contkolled Mainly By Residents 

Little opportunity was given to non-resident land speculators to obtain 
laud in the immediate viciuitj of Monticello, as it was all taken by resi- 
dents soon alter the eounty seat was located. There was one notable 
exception.* Jacob Walker and William M. Jenners, of Lafayette, and 
Benjamin Reynolds, of Big Creek Township, succeeded in purchasing a 
considerable trad of Ceorge R. Bartley adjoining the original plat of 
the town, on the south and west, and laid out Monticello 's first addition 
in October, 1836. Barr's addition followed in April, 1837. Notwith- 
standing that residents, as a rule, controlled the site, they did not become 
wealthy from their investments, as the value of real estate at the eounty 
seat never rose rapidly ; it never experienced a boom, as the growth of the 
eounty seat was substantial rather than spectacular. 

Hiorth ini) Mount Walleston 

The lumber for the first buildings erected at Monticello, as well as 
for other structures, like little frame schoolhouses and churches put up 
in the central and northern portions of the eounty, came largely from 
the sawmill which Mr. Hiorth had commenced to operate in 1833. It 
is said that he was a venturesome Norwegian sailor, who, with a com- 
panion, known as Peter B. Smith, had tired of his rovings and, having 
saved a neat sum of money, invested in about 1,000 acres of land about 
two miles ninth of what was to become the county seat; of that coming 
event, he was naturally in ignorance. 

Mr. Iliorth's large trad was located in the vicinity of a pronounced 
hill, afterward known as Mount Walleston, and about 1833 he constructed 
a dam across the Tippecanoe River on his land in section 21 and there 
creeled ;l sawmill, as stated. In that enterprise his old sailor friend, 
Smith, was a partner. As Iliorth's mill was the pioneer industry of the 
county ami the water power on his land was the means of establishing 
other mills at thai point, which, in turn, proved the foundation for the 
once flourishing Village of Norway, the writer pauses a moment here to 
enter into local details. 

Leases tci William Sill 

In April. 1843, after he had operated his sawmill for about ten years, 
Hiorth leased all the water power of the dam, except sufficient to run his 
industry. In William Sill, (> r Montieello. The lease also covered adjacenl 
land not to exceed three acres, and stipulated that Hiorth was to keep 
Hie dam in repair. The arrangement was for ten years, at $150 per 


annum, and whatever improvements Sill made, such as graveling or 
erecting buildings, were to be taken over by Hiorth at a fair valuation 
when the lease expired. A few months alter the lease was made, Sill 
was also given power to sublet portions of the water power, provided lliat 
lie did not allow anyone the pidvilege of erecting a sawmill; Hiorth con- 
sidered that industry his monopoly. 

Martin Cherrie's Woolen Mill 

In September, 1843, Hiorth leased his sawmill, with the neces vy 
water-power, to Martin Cherrie for a period of nine years; the lease also 
included land for a log yard ami a dwelling. The new proprietor agreed 
to build a better mill, using so much of the old machinery as was possible. 
At the same time Sill subleased to Cherrie, for nine years, sufficient 
water power to operate a carding and fulling mill and a small piece of 
ground for a dyeing yard, the consideration for all these privileges being 
$75 per year. 

'-, The Flour Mill in Motion 

In 1S44 William Sill began the erection of bis merchant grist mill, 
setting it in motion during the following year, for years il was the 
finest establishment of the kind for miles around and brought both busi- 
ness and permanent settlers to the locality. 

Mr. Cherrie entered into a contract with Arthur Russell, in January, 
1845, calling for the erection and equipment of a wool-carding ami cloth 
dressing mill, 32 by 25 feet, to be completed by October 1st of that year. 
Russell was then to superintend the mill for the nine years stipulated by 
the lease, was to employ all help and to receive annually, out of the 
profits of business, $280. The contract was canceled In December, 1S45, 
but not before the carding mill had been set in operation. 

HinKTii, Vert Exclusive 

In the meantime Mr. Hiorth had fallen a victim to consumption. 
Although enterprising, he had not encouraged the coming of new settlers. 
When he built the dam he had in mind not only the erection of a sawmill, 
but of a silk factory, and, in view of tin- latter enterprise, he planted 
on his land quite a grove of white mulberry trees. Thai enterprise, like 
others, came to naught because of his failing health, but when the other 
proposed mills commenced to assume shape and a number of people 
settle, I in the locality he refused to sell his land to encourage immigration, 
and to the platting of a town he was [irmly opposed. 1 1 is entries of 
Governmenl laud had made him by far the largest resident land owner 
in the township. Ilis holdings in sections 20 ami 21 embraced all of the 
Norway prairie and the land on both sides of the Tippecanoe IJiver, 
giving him a monopoly of the water power as well as tic In si farming 
I, m, I of Hie prairie. We have seen what land and privileges he con 
di icciulcd to lease, and he permitted the building of (me house mi hi" 


immense trael Cor the accommodation of the miller and his family; but 
beyond thai ami his own residence, no building of homes was permitted. 
Al his death his widow, who was made his solo legatee, inaugurated a 
more friendly and generous policy. 

' Mount Walleston Platted 

In March, 1845, soon after her husband's death, the widow, Bergetta 
[Tiortli, employed John Armstrong to lay out ninety-six lots on the 
northwest fraction of section 21, township 27 north, range 3 vest, and 
named the village .Mount Walleston. The plat shows Hiorth, Washington 
and franklin streets as running east and west, and Francis, Broadway, 
Norway and Hill, north and south thoroughfares^ Soon after Sill's 
grist mill and Cherrie's woolen mill were in operation, prospectors were 
attracted fo Mount Walleston, lots in the town plat were sold and the 
erection id' houses and stores became brisk. Hill operatives, blacksmiths, 
carpenters and merchants soon formed quite a settlement. Lumber was 
for sale, large quantities of flour were manufactured for county eon- 
sumption and shipment, and farmers came for miles around to have their 
wool carded ami fulled. A ferry was also started, so that passengers and 
teams were broughl to Mount Walleston from the eastern sections, a 
postofiicc was established and Monticello hail a real rival. 

[Iiobtii Interests Pass to the Kendalls 

The infusion of in iv ami strong blood into the community had caused 
the progress noted. Perhaps the most important event tending to 
stimulate the locality was the throwing upon the market of the Hiorth 
property, which included the cream of the township. In February, 1848, 
*/ all the lands iii White Count), formerly owned by Hans F. Hiorth and 
then held by his widow, were sold to C. W., F. G., and 11. C. Kendall 
of Monticello for $6,100. Two years before, Mrs. Hiorth had married 
Clans L. Clausm, a Norwegian clergyman, and after thus disposing of 
the property . v. hich was somev hat encumbered, she left with her husband 
for Wisconsin ami later removed to New Orleans, Louisiana. 

IJoOM it Mount Walleston 

-s^ The Kendalls located at Mount Walleston ami until Us56 conducted a 
general store ami the sawmill ami flouring mill. Their coming was the 
signal I'm- various improvements both of their own properties and the 
woolen factory, operated by the lessees. (I. 15. Woltz and Arthur Russell. 
The Kendalls furnished the latter additional water power to provide 
for a considerable increase in machinery and a thin! set of buhrs was 

added to the two sets which had I n in use. Their general store carried 

a large stock and the town became the center of trade for a radius of 
country which extended iul ighhnring counties. Town lots were 


readily sold and buildings were erected on them by the purchasers. All 
the trades and some of the professions were represented. 

Among the first settlers of the town were James W. Bulger, the 
miller; Arthur Russell and his partner in the woolen mill, George B. 
Woltz; Rev. Abram Snyder, father of Capt. Henry Snyder, who owned 
and operated a large tannery; Abram and Watson Lowther, blacksmiths 
and gunsmiths; Cyrus Short, father of John Short, the hotel keeper; 
Dr. Harrison P. Anderson and Dr. J. II. Lower, physicians; William 
Weeks, carpenter and millwright, and Abram and Peter Reprogle. 

The Kendalls Withdraw 

By 1856 it became reasonably apparent that Norway, or Mount 
Wallestou, had seen its best days, and that Monticello had not; con- 
sequently, the Kendalls withdrew. R. C. Kendall sold his interests to 
his two brothers, who, in turn, disposed of the properties to Emanuel 
Shoup, the father-iudaw of Francis G. ; R. C. and F. G. Kendall moved 
to Burlington, Iowa, and Charles W. returned to Monticello. He resumed 
his place at the county seat as one of its leading business men and citizens ; 
became its first republican postmaster and died at Monticello in 1875. 

Rowland Hughes, of Monticello 

In the meantime Monticello had made more substantial progress. 
New comers were welcomed and two years after the town was platted its 
future was so assured that Rowland Hughes opened a tavern. He was 
one of those sturdy Pennsylvanians, who did so much for the town, the 
township and the county, in the early days. He had been married to a 
Green County (Ohio) girl, Nancy lines, in 1833, two years later he 
moved to Lafayette, Indiana, and in December, 1835, entered land in 
section 27, just northeast of Monticello. In 1836 he opened his tavern 
at the county seat, established his dry goods store in 1839 and until his 
death in May, 1883, was one of the most prominent, popular and respected 
men in the county. In its early history he served as a member of the 
Legislature, always taking an outspoken and active interest in public 
affairs. Mr. Hughes was also strong in his attachment to home and 
family, and left a wife and four of their seven children. 

Infant Industries at the County Skat 

As early as 1838 Joseph Rothroek had built a "brush dam" across 
the Tippecanoe River just below Monticello. He erected a small sawmill 
and two years later Daniel M. Tilton established a tiny canting mill, 
both affairs being as extensive as the weak wnter power could keep in 
motion. A short time after its erection the carding mill burned to the 
ground, despite the exertions of the bucket, brigade from Monticello; 
but the sawmill, though standing close beside it, was saved. 

But little progress was made in the industrial life of the county seat 


until 1848, when the Monticello Hydraulic Company was incorporated 
to develop the water-power at that place. Both the old and the new 
hydraulic companies were strong forces in the early development of 
Monticello and the township, hut the details of their operations belong 
to the chapter devoted especially to the history of.the county seat. 

First Township Officers 

On the day of the creation of Union Township (July 19, 1834) the 
county commissioners appointed the following officers for the new town- 
ship: Peter Price and Klias Lowther, overseers of the poor; Samuel 
Cray, Sr., and James Johnson, fence viewers; William Wilson, road 
supervisor. At the same time an election for a justice of the peace was 
ordered to be held on the first Monday of the following August, Joshua 
Lindsey being the choice of the voters. In May, 1835, Melchi Gray 
became inspector of elections for Union Township. The foregoing are 
the first political items obtainable, and mention various individuals who 
have been introduced in foregoing pages. 

Jeremiah Bisher 

Among the old-timers who settled previous to the organization of 
the township, and whose name has already appeai'ed, was Jeremiah 
Bisher, liven in his younger manhood he appears to have been rather 
an eccentric character; it will be remembered that he was brought before 
the Circuit Court, at its first session, charged with malicious mischief 
in tying the tail of one of bis neighbor's fractious horses, thereby 
causing the animal to injure itself. But he survived that ordeal as well 
as many trials of a more serious nature incident to a resident of some 
forty-four .wars in Union Township. His death occurred ou his large 
and comfortable homestead, four miles southwest of Monticello, in May, 
1S7. r ), and his remains were buried in the old Kenton grave yard about a 
mile from his residence. 

The Old Kenton Crave Yard 

In some ways that is quite a historical spot, as the grounds doubtless 
contain the grave of the first white person buried within the limits of 
While County. The epitaph reads: "John W. E. Rogers, son of 
Nathaniel and Riichel Rogers. Died May 18, 1833, aged 18 years, 11 
11108, and 7 days." 

In this Hiuue deserted country grave yard were also buried William 
M, Kenton, sou of Simon Kenton, the famous Kentucky frontiersman, 
and four of his children. About thirty years a«o his son removed their 
remains to the cemetery north of Monticello, but left the tombstones 
Standing. William M. Kenton died April 30, 18(5!), in his sixty-third 


Entered Government Lands in 1835 

Those who entered land in Union Township in 1835, most of whom 
settled thereon at the time or soon after, were as follows: George A. 
Brock, in sections 14 and 23, January 15th; .lames Parker, section 32, 
March 4th, and Richard Armstrong, section 83, March 11th; George! W. 
Sill, in section 27, April 24th; Robert Rothrock, section 4, June 17th; 
David Seroggs, section 36, July 13th; Peter Martin; section 33, August 
24th; Samuel Shannahan, section 31, September 22(3; Jonathan Ilutt, 
section 15, November 16th, and in section 23, December nth; William 
Price, section 21, November 7th; John llanawalt, section 21, November 
10th, and section 28, same date; James Harrison, section 14, Novemher 
16th; Isaac S. Vinson, section 31, November 12th; Amos Wiley, section 8, 
December 28th; Thomas Crose, section 8, December Kith; James Shafer, 
section 27, Deeemher 22d ; Henry Glassford, sections 25, 26 and 36, 
Deceniher 12th and Andrew T. Ream, section 28, December 30th. 

The Busy Land Year, 1836 

One of the busiest years in the matter of land entries in Union 
Township was 1836, as witness the following: Henry Knsminger entered 
land in section 36, on January 20th; in section 36, February 15th; 
section 23, March 18th; sections 24 and 25, same date ; sections 26 and 27, 
February 5th. Daniel Cain entered land in section 10, on January ISth, 
and in February, Peter Martin filed claims in sections 21 and 35; Ira 
Bacon, in section 8; and Jacob Pitzer, in section 17. In March, 1836, the 
following entered: Harvey Rayhill, in section 17; Eli Cowger, section 
22; Daniel Baum, section 15; Joseph Skidmore, sections 14 and 23; 
Matthew Hopper, section 28, and John Ross, section 32. Richard Worth- 
ington entered lands in section 32, in April, and in section 2!), during 
May. In May Isaac Reynolds filed his claim in section 18; William 
Ingram, in section 2Q; and John L. Piper, in sections 17 and 20. The 
month of June, 1836, brought the following as land claimants: Thomas 
Downing, in section 32; Harrison Skinner, in sections 20 and 28; Isaac S. 
Piper, in section 17; and Reuben Hull, in section 28. In -Inly came 
Jacob Meyer to section 2'J, and in August, George Paugh, to section 24. 
The November claimants were Peter B. Smith (Iliorth's partner), in 
section 18, and Daniel M. Tilton, section 31. Mr. Tilton also filed a claim 
in section 2!) during December, and in the same month the following 
entered land: Zacheus Rothrock, in section 14; Andrew T. Ream, in 
section 28, and John Press, in section 29. 

Hard Times Check Land Entries 

The hard times of 1837-38 frightened purchasers of hind and during 
that year only four made claims in Union Township, viz. : Elijah Adams 
in section 7; Isaiah Broderick, in section 13; Peter Wieklow, in section 
14, and William Ingram, in section 17. The only one to enter land in 
1838 was Thomas Ilollaway, in section 14; the year 183!) is also saved 


from being "blanked" by a solitary claimant, Richard Tilton, who 
entered land in section 19. 

w Excluded Sections 

After 1840, there were few tracts in the township subject to entry 
and purchase from the Government at the regular price of $1.25 per acre. 
Of course, sectiou 1C, being school laud, was not available for entry, 
wbile section 30 and a portion of section 29 were canal lands and also 
excluded from private ownership at Government prices. 

Entries in 1841-54 

In the '40s, the years 1847 and 1848 showed the greatest improvement 
in land purchases. In 1841 Samuel E. Burns entered a claim in section 
18, and in 1844, Peter B. Smith filed on a tract in section 4. The 
following entries were made in the late '40s: In 1845, Samuel E. Burns 
and William A. Logan, section 18; in 1846, Henry James and Mary E. 
McKee, section 13; in 1847, Levi Reynolds, Matthew Reynolds and 
George Tames, section 6 ; Loren Cutler, section 13 ; Abram Snyder, 
section 14, and Randolph Brearley, section 18; in 1848, Thomas O'Brien, 
section 18, Daniel Cain, sectiou 19, and William Fincer, Sardis Cutler 
and Robert Rothroek, section 24. Three entries are recorded for 1850 — 
Ashley Pierce, Mary L. Pierce and Lewis Pierce, all in section 19. In 
April, 1854, Henry Kahler and Lanty T. Armstrong entered land in the 
island lying in the Tippecanoe River, section 34, east of Monticello, 
which dosed the record for lands purchased of the Government in Union 

Land the Basis of Solid Prosperity 

We have gone somewhat extensively into the subject of laud entries, 
as they formed the basis of so much permanent prosperity throughout 
the township, especially among the old families who have been engaged 
in farming operations for several generations. In fact, with the exception 
of Monticello, the activities of that portion of the county are almost 
entirely rural, as Norway, which once aspired to something metropolitan, 
is now but n pretty hamlet, with a fertile outlying country. 

Construction of Good Roads 

Union Township has given much of its time and substance to the 
improvement of highways within its borders, and has already incurred a 
bonded indebtedness of $47,G97 in the construction of gravel roads. The 
expenditure has been divided among the different roads as follows: 
Ballard road, $2,400; Spencer, $5,200; Dobbins, $400; Eepp, $4,250; 
Shook, $3,000; Mills, $G,0G7; Christy, $3,430; Miller, $4,950; Roberts, 
$12,000; Scroggs, $0,000. This is in addition to the Brechfiel pike lead- 
ing to Buffalo ami several miles of stone and gravel roads not shown in 
the above statemont. 



Cornelius Sutton, First Settler — Early Settlers, Voters and Offi- 
cials — Land Entries Before 1840 — Swamp Lands Purchased — 
Good Roads — Limestone Deposits — Tiie Timdered Tracts— Bia and 
Little Monon Creeks — First Mills Built — West Bedford — The 
Cooper Mill — Last Gasp of West Bedford — New Bradford and 
Monon — First Events in the Township — Simon Kenton's Daugh- 
ters and Grandchildren — Early Postoffices — Oakdale, or Lee. 

In response to a petition signed by eleven citizens, the board of 
commissioners for White County created Monon Township on the 5th of 
January, 1836. It then embraced all of the county north of the line 
dividing sections 16 and 21, township 27 north, range 3 west and west 
of the line dividing ranges 2 and 3, and it did not assume its present 
area and form until Liberty Township was erected in 1837, Princeton in 
1844 and Honey Creek in 1855. The first change in its boundaries was 
in September, 1836, when it was only about nine months old, at which 
time its south line was moved one mile to the north. 

Cornelius Sutton, First Settler 

The first settler in Monon Township of whom there is any account — 
and that is rather unsatisfactory — was Cornelius Sutton, a wandering 
trapper, who, about 1835, located his shack and himself near the con- 
fluence of the Big and Little Monon creeks. He was chosen one of the 
two overseers of the poor at the first election in the following year; but 
that is not necessarily placing him in the list of really prominent men, 
as in order to fill the offices nearly all the residents of the township had 
to serve in some capacity. 

Early Settlers, Voters and Officials 

During the year of the township's organization, 1836, the following 
became residents within its limits: John Cowger, Amos Cooper, Silas 
Cowger, Thomas Macklen, John McNary, Joseph J. Keiley, John Parker, 
Harvey Sellers, Lycurgus Cooper and John Kepperling; and there were 
about as many more who bad already located when the township was 
created. That is a safe statement, since at the first election held at the 
house of Mr. Sutton, on the first Monday (the 4th) of April, 1836, tho 




following voted: Samuel Gray, David Berkey, Elihu Line, Thomas 
Wilson, Ira Bacon, James K. Wilson, Cornelius Sutton, John McNary, 
Elias Lowther, William Wilson, James II. Sutton, Melchi Gray, Silas 
Cowger and Isaac W. Blake. Melchi Gray and Messrs. Line and Baker 
acted as judges, and Samuel Cray and Mr. Berkey, as clerks. The 
officers elected were Silas Cowger for justice of the peace; Isaac W, 
Black, constable; Elias Lowther, supervisor; Cornelius Sutton and James 
K. Wilson, overseers of the poor, and Elihu Line, inspector of election. 
Samuel Gray and Joseph K. Sutton each received seven votes for fence 

Old-Fashioned FireJ?lace 

viewer — a very important office in the early times — and the record does 
not bring down to us the ultimate choice. 
, The second election, in 18:17, was held at the house of Silas Cowger, 
on the Monon, and the third, at the cabin of John Cowger. The Cowger 
family became both prominent and permanent, and its members arc still 
factors in the progress of the township. 

Land Entries Before 1840 

Among those mentioned, as well as others who came to the township 
previous to 1840, the following entered land in Monon Township, the 


earliest tracts taken up being in sections which include the present site 
of the Village of Motion and adjacent tracts to the east and southeast: 
In 1832 William Wilson entered claims in section 11; Thomas Wilson, 
Sr., in section 22; David Berkey, in sections 24 and 25; Ira Bacon, in 
sections 26 and 27 ; Thomas Murphy, in sections 25 and 36. 

1833 — Joseph Wilson, section 11; William Wilson, section 22; Elias 
Lowther, section 25. 

1834— Joseph Wilson, section 22 ; Daniel Griffith, sections 22 and 28 ; 
Frederick Spilkey, section 26. 

1835 — John Britton, sections 18 and 30; John Sidcnbender, section 31; 
John Pixler, same section ; John Covvger, sections 1 and 18 ; Thomas 
W T ilson, section 14; Thomas King, section 15. 

1836 — John Renner, section 17; Daniel Murray, section 18; Isaac W. 
Blake, section 19; Benjamin Ball, sections 21 and 22; Thomas Downey, 
section 25; Dennis Line, section 1. 

1837 — Michael Aker, section 8 ; Samuel Korn, section 17 ; Jacob Dibra, 
section 29 ; Harvey Sellers, section 30 ; Charles S. Lowe, section 1 ; 
Benjamin Ball, section 20. 

1838— Ayres Peterson, section 19. 

1839 — John McNutt, section 18; Abraham Hershe, section 29; Samuel 
Peterson, section 29. 

Swamp Lands Purchased 

Although most of the land entered was eventually settled by residents, 
at a later day much of the so-called "swamp land" was purchased by 
non-residents. Some was really overflowed ; other tracts were on the 
sand ridges, high and dry. 

Three hundred and sixty acres in section 19 was purchased by I. and 
D. C. Chamberlain, Samuel Duncan and Marion Reed, residents, and 
Solomon Sturges, non-resident. Two hundred acres in section 30 became 
the property of John Duncan and James Johnson, residents, and of Mr. 
Sturges. The greater portions of sections 1, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 22, 23, 
24, 25, 26, and 27 were entered as swamp lands, with smaller tracts in 
sections 2, 3, 33, 34, and 36. In other words, a large portion of Western 
Monon Township was entered as swamp lands. These entries, with 
scattering tracts, legally placed more than a quarter of Monon Township 
under water ; that portion is far from the facts, although considerable of 
its area was lowJand. 

When the first settlers came to the township, before any effort had 
been made at drainage, a large area of the township was covered by water 
the greater ,part of the year. It was a favorite breeding place for aquatic 
wild fowl and fur-bearing animals and drew thither many hunters and 
trappers. Thus the settlement of the country by substantial farmers was 

Good RoXds 

Monon Township has not only spent largely of her means in the 
matter of reclaiming her swamp lands and bringing them under culti- 


Vation, but is among the foremost of the townships (third in the list) in 
furthering the good roads movement, through which the farming com- 
munities are brought into close touch with the markets, even though miles 
from the railroad. In the construction of gravel, or macadam roads, 
which has been pushed with such good results for the past twenty years, 
Monon Township has cheerfully incurred a bonded indebtedness of 
$58,280, divided among the different roads as follows: McDonald, 
$19,080; Jacks, $4,200; Graham, $4,800; Kentnick, $11,200; Porter, 
$8,000; Hughes, $5,000; Noland, $6,000. 

Limestone Deposits 

A solid bed of limestone underlies much of the fertile soil of Monon 
Township, its most prominent outcroppings being in the vicinity of the 
Big and Little Monon creeks. The quarrying of this stone, the deposits 
of which vary in thickness from one to seven feet, and the operation of 
kilns for the manufacture of lime, were carried on to a considerable 
extent in the pioneer times; but the limestone has been utilized, for some 
years past, in the building of highways, not only in many sections of 
White County, but in neighboring territory. Perhaps the largest crush- 
ing plant and lime manufactory in the county is now in operation about 
a mile south of Monon. 

The Timbered Tracts 

Originally, the southern half of the township was heavily timbered, 
and consequently, ns in the case of the other townships, was first settled. 
There were also considerable tracts of timber land in the eastern portion, 
on both sides of Big Monon Creek, extending as far north as the second 
tier of sections from the northern line of the township. Most of the 
first growth has, of course, been removed, although these portions of the 
township are still the best wooded. 

Bio and Little Monon Creeks 

Monon Township is one of the largest in the county, being nearly 
equal in area to two congressional townships. The spelling of the 
name of the creeks, from which it is designated, was formerly Monong; 
the Indians even went further and called the Big Monon, the Metamonong 
— Mcta being "big." These streams are the most beautiful tributaries 
of the Tippecanoe in White County, and have been a blessing to the 
township in every way. 

First Mills Built ** 

As early as 18:15 Elias Lowther commenced to build a grist mill on 
Little Monon Creek, near its mouth, and finished it during the following 
yenr. Whether Mr. Lowther made the buhrs himself or Dr. Samuel 


Korn, who was then a resident of Tippecanoe County, is not material; 
the main point is that they were well made and hung true and did the 
work required of them to the satisfaction of the settlers until 1840. In 
that year the mill shut down and the huhrs were purchased by Charles S. 
Lowe, a Miami County farmer and merchant whose homestead had been 
in section 24, about three miles east of the present Village of Monon, for 
several years. 

Mr. Lowe erected a new mill on Big Monon Creek, near his homestead, 
using the buhrs of the first mill in his own enterprise ; the same stones 
are said to have done good service afterward in Jasper County, and the 
old grist mill was subsequently transformed into a sawmill, which was 
operated by Larkin and Gustavus Lowe, sons of the founder. The Lowe 
Mill was one of the most widely known landmarks in Monon Township 
and the Lowe farm and residence were favorite centers of social life. 

West Bedford 

This brings us to the story of the founding of West Bedford, in the 
immediate vicinity of the old Lowther mill. The town was platted by 
David Berkey on the 21st day of April, 1837, on the north side of Little 
Monon Creek and the west side of the Big Monon, near the confluence of 
those streams with the Tippecanoe River. The survey was made by Asa 
Allen, county surveyor. The plat comprised 100 lots and the village 
flourished for fifteen years, or until it became evident that the Louisville, 
New Albany & Chicago Railroad was going some three miles west of its 

The Cooper Mill 

In 1845 Amos Cooper and Nathaniel Hull threw a dam across the 
Big Monon three miles north of West Bedford and erected a large frame 
grist mill, at a cost of between $5,000 and $G,000. They also bought a 
large stock of general merchandise and opened a store. This combined 
enterprise was beneficial to the township, but rather detracted from the 
importance of West Bedford and drew business from such merchants 
of that town as Martin Judah and "Jack" llcaton. In the early time 
there were several saloons in the village, and, as the sale of liquors 
required no license then, the general stores sold whiskey, gin and other 
strong drinks. In fact, for a number of years West Bedford had, and 
firmly maintained, a bad reputation for sobriety. 

Last Gasp op West Bedford 

The last revival of business at West Bedford was its death gasp, for 
while the railroad was in process of construction to the westward in-1853 
its employees were obliged to depend for some time upon the board, pro- 
visions and lodgings, as well as the wet goods, which could be supplied 
of the merchants, hotel keepers and resident families of the village. But 
on the 18th of March, 1853, James Brooks, president of the Louisville, 


New Albany & Chicago Railroad, platted the Town of New Bradford, 
and the exodus from West Bedford commenced in earnest. Within a 
few months, the old town had been virtually deserted for the new. 

New Bradford and Monon 

It is certain that President Brooks, of the railroad, meant that his 
town should be launched with eclat. The original plat contained 410 
lots on either side of the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago line, and 
he at once commenced the construction of a large roundhouse. Resi- 
dences and stores were rapidly built, and within a few months an addition 
of more than sixty lots was made to the original town. 

It was more than forty years before the name New Bradford was 
legally replaced by that of Monon — designating the village as well as the 
postoffice. The name Monon was given to the first postoffice established 
in the township, about 1838, at the house of David Berkey on the farm 
afterward owned by Samuel Lowe. Mr. Berkey was also postmaster and 
continued as such until the office was moved to the house of James K. 
Wilson, just east of the present Village of Monon. The postoffice 
remained as Monon both under Mr. Wilson's administration and that of 
his successor, Lewis Chamberlain, who assumed its duties in 1854 as the 
postmaster at New Bradford. It was not until 1879 that New Bradford 
was incorporated under the name of Monon, thus making the name of the 
postoffice and the village uniform. The ambitions of its founder have 
been fairly realized, as it is the second center of population in the county 
and an attractive, brisk and substantial town. 

First Events in the Township 

The first white child born in the township was John Wilson, son of 
James K. and Nancy Wilson (nee Clayton), whose birthday was June 1, 
1834. During the year 1835 the following were born in the township : 
Laviuia Lowther, Margaret Bacon, Dennis Blake, Elizabeth Wilson and 
Clarissa Barkey. 

The first death was that of Mrs. Thomas Wilson, in the fall of 1834. 

James Harrison and Elizabeth Ivers were the first to be married in 
Monon Township, about the year 1838. In the following year, Amos 
Cooper and Mary Edwards were wed, and about the same time, Benjamin 
Ball and Martha Kenton. 

Simon Kenton's Daughters and Grandchildren 

The last named was a granddaughter of Simon Kenton, the famed 
Indian fighter and frontiersman. Three of his daughters were also early 
settlers of the township. They married Daniel Murray, Jacob Meyer 
and James J. Brown, and all died within the limits of the township. 
Mrs. Murray and Mrs. Meyer were interred in the cemetery at Monon 
Methodist Episcopal Chapel, about three miles northeast of the village. 

- — ' 


Jacob Meyer died at an early date and his widow married Matthias M. 
Thornton, dying herself without issue. 

Mrs. Murray had a large family, and five of her sons served in the 
Civil war, their records being such as were a credit to the family name. 
Lewis Murray rose to the rank of lieutenant in the regular army and 
died in the service at Indianapolis. 

The first religious organization in Monon Township was probably 
the Presbyterian Society established at West Bedford in 1839. Reverend 
Williamson was its first pastor and the early members were Thomas 
Downey and wife, William Wilson and wife, and Mrs. Kepperling. 

West Bedford also had the first schoolhouse in the township, built in 
1840. »Salome Bentley was the teacher of this pioneer school and was 
succeeded by Michael Berkey. The second schoolhouse in the township 
was erected, about 1852, at Cooper's Mill. 

Early Postoffices 

Outside of Monon, a number of postoffices have been established in 
the township, some of which have been discontinued because of a shifting 
of population, others moved into other townships and still others absorbed 
by the rural free delivery. 

Cathcart postoffice was established about 1846, in the western part of 
the township, with Robert B. Overton as postmaster. It was situated on 
the farm afterward occupied by Thomas Jacks and was discontinued in 

Flowerville' postoffice was established in 1867, with A. A. Cole as 
postmaster. It was situated in the eastern part of the township on a 
tract of land owned by William Lowe and the heirs of John Berkey. 
In 1869 it was moved into Liberty Township on the east side of the 
Tippecanoe and later was discontinued but a store is still located there. 

Oakdale, or Lee 

The only existing postoffice in Monon Township outside the village is 
Lee, in the northwest corner, about a mile from the Jasper County line 
.on the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago (Monon) Railroad. It became 
a postoffice, in 1882, with Calvin Anderson as postmaster, and although 
it was platted in 1886 as Oakdale it is generally known as Lee in honor 
of Uncle Sam 's sponsorship. 

In August of the latter year it was platted by Benjamin A. Linville 
and Noble J. York, who laid, out 120 lots on fractions of sections 3, 10 
and 11, township 28 north, range 5 west. It is about five miles northwest 
of Monon and is the center of a rich district of drained lands, admirably 
adapted to live stock. Eventually, it will also be surrounded by a pro- 
ductive grain district, numerous large farms having been opened of late 
years. Aside from artificial ditches, with which the adjacent country is 
well supplied, the land is drained by Pinkamink Creek, a branch of the 
Iroquois River flowing wcstwardly through the neighboring County of 

Vol. ' 3-14 


Jasper. Oakdale, or Lee, is an important shipping point for hay. 
Hundreds of tons are baled at the station every year and shipped abroad, 
and, with the improvement of the surrounding farming lands, it has 
become an equally good point for the marketing and shipping of grain. 






As a White County Township — Natural Features — Drainage 
Through Moots and Spring Creeks — Products op the Soil — 
Eastern Timber Lands First Settled — Generous Bill op Fare — 
The Pioneer Landlords of 1829-34 — Hard Times Retard Entries — 
Royal Hazelton, First Permanent Settler — Samuel Alkire — 
Thomas Kennedy — First Voters and Officials — Educational and 
Religious Beginnings — J. C. Moore, Prosperous Farmer and 
Inventor — Other Early Landholders — Loren anp Ralph A. Cut- 
ler^ — First Sawmills — Brookston, Industrial and Commercial 
Center — Village of Springboro — Improvement in Rural Condi- 
tions — Leading Good Roads Township. 

Prairie Township comprises sixty-six square miles in the southern- 
most portion of White County, with Carroll County to the east and 
Tippecanoe to the south. It is in the shape of parallelogram, eleven 
miles east and west and six, north and south. 

The present township is the remnant of one of the largest civil 
divisions in the State of Indiana. When attached to Carroll County, 
before the organization of White, Prairie Township had an area of 2,000 
square miles, or more than five times the area of the county to which it 
was attached for judicial and political purposes. Its territory comprised 
all of White County west of the Tippecanoe River, Jasper and Newton 
counties as a whole, and a part of Benton and Pulaski counties. That 
was the very cream of the prairie country in Northwestern Indiana; 
hence the name which is still attached to the reduced township. 

As a White County Township 

At the first meeting of the Board of Commissioners of White County 
on July 19, 1834, an order was issued creating Congressional Township 
No. 25, to be known as Prairie. The new division contained 102 square 
miles, and was bounded on the north by Big Creek Township, on the 
east and south by Carroll and Tippecanoe counties, respectively, and on 
the west by Benton County. Thus the boundaries remained until 1854, 
when West Point Township was taken from Big Creek and constituted 
the northern boundary of nine out of the seventeen sections then form- 
ing its northern tier. In 1858 Round Grove Township was carved from 
the western portion of Prairie Township, thus reducing its area by 
thirty-six square miles and forming it as at present. 



Natural Features 

From the very first, Prairie Township was considered an agricultural 
star of the first magnitude. The prime reasons for its superiority were ' 
that it had not only richness of soil, both in its western prairie sections 
aud its eastern areas of timbered lands, but a splendid natural drainage 
and a gently undulating land surface, which made it unnecessary to resort 
to artificial means to realize handsomely from the first fruits of, the land. 

Probably three-fifths of the entire township is prairie land, its eastern 
half being comparatively level, with gentle undulations here and there 
and timber areas and stretches lying adjacent to the streams. The 
western part is almost barren of timber, save the Round Grove and a 
stretch of timber reaching into the township by that name; this is called 
by the settlers Slim Timber, and is one of several similar wooded fingers 
which protrude into the Grand Prairie from West Point and Princeton 
townships. The soil of the prairie portions of the township is a rich 
black loam, with a subsoil of sand and gravel; in the timbered tracts 
the loam has a clay subsoil. There are no high ridges of sand any- 
where, such as are found in the northern townships of the county. Yet, 
after all has been said as to the appropriateness of the township's name, 
it must be admitted that it was more to the point before Round Grove 
was lopped of?. 

Drainage through Moots and Spring Creeks 

The eastern portion of Prairie Township is timbered chiefly with 
white oak, though there are other varieties of wood found near the bor- 
ders of the Tippecanoe and along Moots and Spring creeks, its tribu- 
taries which are the natural channels for the drainage of the township. 
Moots Creek has its source in the extreme northwestern sections, wind- 
ing in a general southeasterly direction to the southern boundary of the 
township, about a mile from its eastern line, and thence passing into 
Tippecanoe County on its way to join the Tippecanoe. Spring Creek 
rises in the northern part of the township. It also flows southeast and 
empties into the Tippecanoe River at Springboro, the oldest town in the 
township, where the first postoffice was established on the stage line from 
Lafayette to Michigan City. It was five miles east of Brookston, one 
of those several "paper towns" in AVhite County, crumpled up by the 
lack of a railroad. Its site, where the creek joins the river, with a 
series of bluffs rising from the smaller to the larger stream, was pic- 
turesque, and still is; but natural beauty could not make Springboro 
grow. ' ' 

Spring Creek itself is not as long as Moots, but, by reason of the- 
living springs which feed it so abundantly and unvaryingly along its 
entire course, its volume of water is probably much greater. Both 
streams have made the township ideal for stockmen, and in the early 
times many large tracts of land on their banks were fenced off for the 
pasturage and raising of cattle. 



Products of the Soil 

The native grasses have almost disappeared from the township, the 
area of prairie land having been broken up aud cultivated to corn, oats 
and other grain. Timothy is largely cultivated, yielding two or three 
tons to the. acre, and after the crop is removetl the meadow land is 
utilized for pasture until the stock is housed for the cold months. Red 
clover is also cultivated to some extent. Corn is the principal grain 
product of the township, and it can be grown both on prairie and timber 
soil. The yield from the open lands, however, averages sixty bushels to 
the acre, while that of the timber tracts is not quite as much. Oats, rye 
and buckwheat are other cereals which do well, while grapes and other 
fruits are raised with profit on the hills, which lie chiefly in the south- 
eastern part of the township where the creeks empty into the Tippecanoe. 

Eastern Timber Lands First Settled 

In view of the natural features of Prairie Township, it is easy to 
understand why its eastern sections were quite well settled before the 
fertile prairies of the west were scarcely scratched. The explanation is 
so well put by one who wrote from observation that we quote : ' ' The first 
settlers of Prairie township were mainly from Virginia, Kentucky and 
Pennsylvania, and it is not a matter for wonder that they preferred the 
wooded section for a dwelling place. Grubbing and clearing the land of 
timber was a familiar pastime with them in the states whence they had 
moved, but ditching and breaking the tough sod of the prairie was work 
to which they were comparative strangers. They knew how to cut down 
a tree and make rails from the body to enclose their land, and cord wood 
from the top for fires in the winter, and to cook their meals at all seasons, 
but ditching and breaking prairie sod were altogether out of their line 
of work, and, besides, after the ditches were completed and the land 
ploughed, the fencing of the fields remained. Why not clear out this 
timber land at once and leave the prairie for a later but more unfortu- 
nate emigrant to subdue? The choice was between labor with which 
they were familiar and that to which they were unaccustomed, and was 
quickly and easily decided in favor of the timber section. 

Generous Bill-of-Fare 

' ' It was of small moment to them what part of their real estate was 
cultivated, whether timber or prairie. Either would produce more than 
was sufficient for their wants, and there was no market for the surplus 
grain and vegetables at home, and the price offered in the distant markets 
would not repay them for the time, labor and expense required for trans- 
portation. The yield from a very small field was sufficient to supply the 
necessary food for the family and stock, with which latter every farmer 
was provided. The hogs required little attention, as they roamed at will 
in the woods, and grew and fattened on the mast, principally white oak 

i ■' 


ti.trititrt ih 


acorns, of which nature afforded an ample supply. The cattle, in sum- 
mer, fattened on the rich grass of the prairies and required in winter 
only the same grass made into hay. Horses, too, gained a rich living in 
summer on the grass of the prairie, and in winter the prairie hay, with 
oats and corn added, kept them in good condition for the next season's 

"Not much attention was given by the first settlers to the raising of" 
wheat for bread. It was a long distance to a mill which would make 
flour, and when procured it was far inferior in quality to that made in 
the roller mills of today. Corn meal and hominy was an excellent sub- 
stitute. Hog and hominy was the main food of the family throughout 
the winter, though a great variety was easily obtained at the will of the 
settler. Game was abundant ; deer, squirrels, wild turkeys, geese, ducks, 
quail and prairie chickens, were found without hunting, and the settler 
need not go beyond the limit of his clearing to procure a supply. Wild 
honey was found in the woods and fish in the stream. The sugar maple 
furnished the settlers with molasses and sugar for the household, though 
there were not many children old enough to enjoy the delights of a sugar 
camp. In the summer, the wild strawberries, blackberries, raspberries 
and whortleberries, plums, grapes and other small fruits, were added 
to the larder ; and melons of all kinds, pumpkins, squashes, citrons, Irish 
and sweet potatoes, came in their season — the berries and fruits to be 
had for the gathering and the vegetables for the planting of the seed, 
with little attention afterward. 

"With this array of luxuries, there was small danger of the settlers 
suffering anxiety from the distress of any probable famine overtaking 
them in their new homes." 

The Pioneer Landlords of 1829-34 

The first lands entered in Prairie Township, generally with the inten- 
tion of establishing homes upon them, were in sections 3, 5, 17, 20, 22, 
26, 29, 31, 33 and 34. With the exception of the tract entered in section 
33, all of the lands filed upon previous to the organization of the town- 
ship in 1834 were not located west of the present site of Brookston. The 
following are the names of these pioneer landlords, most of whom became 
settlers: In 1829— -Jesse L. Watson, 80 acres in section 3 ; William Phillips 
and Jesse Johnson, each 80 acres in section 26; William Kennedy, 80 
acres in section 34; and Robert Barr, 80 acres in section 36. 

1830— Bazil Clevenger, 80 acres in section 33; Charles Wright, 80 
acres in section 22 ; Frederick Smith, 146 acres in section 31 ; Christian 
Church, 80 acres in section 32; John Graham, 80 acres in section 5; 
Samuel Alkire, 80 acres in same section. 

1831 — Robert Harvey, 80 acres in section 31. 

1832— Solomon McCollach, 78 acres in section 29; William Gay, 160 
acres in section 29; Jiunes Gay, 40 acres in section 32; William Gay, 40 
acres in section 31 ; William Gay, Jr., 40 acres in section 31. 

1833 — John Bcecher, 40 acres in section 31. 



1834 — John Young, 80 acres in section 17 ; Daniel Brown, 50 acres 
in section 18; Jacob W. Brooks, 80 acres in section 20; Isaac Thomas, 80 
acres in section 29. 

Hard Times Retard Entries 

Land entries and settlements did not commence in the western, or 
prairie, part of the township, until the late '40s, and little real estate 
was purchased anywhere from 1837 to 1842, which may be termed the 
period of hard times and readjustment of values. As payment for Gov- 
ernment lands were made in gold and silver during the first period of the 
township's settlement, and "hard money" was very scarce, the entries 
languished during the reaction from wild cat methods of finance. 

Royal Hazelton, First Permanent Settler 

The first settlers in what is now Prairie Township do not appear in 
its list of land owners. Royal Hazleton is credited with being the leader 
of the procession of permanent residents in that section, and some claim 
that Joseph H. Thompson, of Big Creek Township, must yield the honor 
to him as the pioneer of the entire county. Mr. Hazelton settled upon 
the southeast quarter of section 22, about a mile southeast of the present 
site of Brookston, in the early part in 1829, and there erected a round- 
log shanty, with a roof of clapboards and a floor of puncheons, 16 by 14 
feet in dimensions. He was elected a justice of the peace before White 
County was organized, the returns for which are still on file at Delphi, 
the county seat of Carroll County. Mr. Hazelton 's name appears in- the 
list of voters who east their ballots at the second election held after 
White County was organized, in August, 1835 ; also as the second school- 
teacher in the township. Which is all that is of record regarding the 
first housekeeper and permanent settler in Prairie Township. 

It is said that about the time of Hazelton 's coming, one John Ault 
built a pole cabin in the northern part of the township, lived with his 
family therein for about three months, and moved thence to Big Creek 

Samuel Alkire 

In the list of those who entered land in 1830 has been noted the name 
of Samuel Alkire, who took up eighty acres in section 5, the extreme 
northeastern corner of the township adjoining Big Creek Township. He 
was an Ohio man and brought his family to that locality, where they 
remained for about a year and then moved to Illinois. But evidently 
the Prairie State did not satisfy them as well as Prairie Township, for 
they were all back within twelve months and the father was prospecting 
near his former entry. He finally entered 600 acres, the line between 
Prairie and Big Creek townships cutting his domain ; but he erected his 
cabin on the Big Creek portion, so thereafter was a non-resident of Prai- 

11 . 


rie Township. His worthy descendants are still in that part of the 
county, his son John being six years of age when the family settled in 
section 5, Prairie Township. . 

Thomas Kennedy 

Although it is recorded that William Kennedy entered eighty acres 
of land in section 34, on the 13th of Noyember, 1829, his location being 
about three miles southeast of the present site of Brookston, he did not 
settle on his tract until about two years afterward. The parents brought 
with them an infant son, Thomas, who is now in his eighty -fifth year and . 
a resident of Brookston. As no one living in the township has a better 
claim to being a connecting link between the old and the present, the 
editor takes pleasure in presenting the following sketch : 

One of the last surviving members of the group of earliest settlers in 
White County is Thomas Kennedy, now living retired in Brookston. He 
. is past fourscore years of age, and more than eighty years of his life- 
time have been spent within the limits of White County. His earliest 
associations and memories are with conditions and people which have 
long since passed away. He is now living quietly at Brookston, enjoying 
the fruits of the labors of earlier years and a freedom from the more 
active cares of life. No family has lived for a longer time with more 
usefulness and honor in Prairie Township than the Kennedys. 

Thomas Kennedy was born near Circleville, Pickaway County, Ohio, 
November 22, 1831. Iii 1833 his parents, William and Marie (Mont- , 
gomery) Kennedy, with their only son, Thomas, moved by wagon over 
corduroy roads and trails to Indiana, finally locating about 3V& miles 
southeast of Brookston in Prairie Township. There William Kennedy 
bought for himself and his brother, Graham Kennedy, 400 acres at public 
sale. What he paid for this land is unknown, but $1.25 an acre was the 
minimum price and it was not more than $2.00 an acre. He later entered 
eighty acres from the Government. For temporary purposes he lived in 
a round-log cabin owned by Robert Barr, and on his own land subse- 
quently built a hewed log cabin with stick and mud chimney, puncheon 
flooring laid (not nailed) down and an open fireplace. A part of the 
land he secured was wooded and part prairie. There William Kennedy 
began to farm, raising wheat and enough corn to feed hogs. On one 
occasion, in the fall of 1845, he drove his hogs to Lafayette, where he 
had them slaughtered for the by-product, and then sold the dressed 
meat at $2.25 net per hundred weight. On another occasion he sold a 
bunch of cows for $8.00 per head. 

William Kennedy and wife had two daughters born to them after 
coming to White County. One died when about eight years of age, and 
the other married Dr. William H. Ball, by whom she had a family of 
children, some of whom are still living in this section of Indiana, though 
she is herself deceased. William Kennedy was born in 1794 and died 
in 1848, at the age of fifty-four. He was about thirty-nine years of age 
when he came to White County. He was a man five feet ten inches high, 

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square built, weighed about 170 pounds and was alert, herd-working and 
progressive. Both he and his wife were of Irish ancestry. In politics 
he was a whig, and his death occurred before the dissolution of that 
party and the rise of the republican organization. 

Thomas Kennedy, the only direct issue of his father's marriage now 
living, is eighty-four years of age and with the exception of two years has • 
spent his entire life in Prairie Township. He grew up at home and 
helped in the -work of the farm and has spent many weary days in the 
arduous toil of wood and field. He attended his first school in 1839. 
There was no schoolhouse, and a room at the home of Robert Barr was 
utilized for that purpose, a Miss Rothrock being the teacher. Later a 
cabin schoolhouse was built. In 1852 Mr. Kennedy taught a term of 
school in Tippecanoe County, and in 1857-58 taught in Prairie Township. 
His examination for a certificate was wholly oral, and covered the sub- 
jects of orthography, reading, writing and arithmetic. Thus at an early 
age he began bearing his part of the responsibilities of community life. 

After his father 's death he took charge of the home farm. His mother 
died in 1862. Prior to this time, on November 11, 1858, he married 
Catherine Bushong. Their six children now living are : John C, a resi- 
dent of Brookston and owns 240 acres of land in Prairie Township. He 
married Elizabeth E. Wolever and has no children. They are members 
of the Presbyterian Church and Mr. Kennedy belongs to the Knights of 
Pythias and politically is a democrat. Jacob B., who is an active agri- 
culturist, married Nellie Wolever and has two children, Thomas W. and 
John T. He and his wife are members of the Presbyterian Church and 
in politics he is a democrat. William S., an agriculturist and stock 
raiser, is a resident of Kirby, Arkansas. He married a Miss McCauley. 
Thomas J. is a resident of Oklahoma and a farmer. Mary E., who has 
resided in Chicago ten years, is a professional nurse, having taken her 
course of instruction at the Passavant Hospital. She is a member of the 
Methodist Church and fraternally an Eastern Star. Martha J, is also 
a professional nurse, having received her training in the Home Hospital 
at Lafayette, Indiana. 

In the spring of 1861, having sold the old homestead, Mr. Kennedy 
moved to a place about two miles northwest of Brookston, where his 
wife died in the fall of 1881. November 22, 1891, he married Elizabeth 
Hay. In January, 1896, Mr. Kennedy moved to Brookston, where he has 
since lived retired. He still owns 240 acres, which is operated by his son, 
Jacob B. Mr. Kennedy is a democrat in politics and served as assessor 
of Prairie Township from 1886 to 1895, inclusive. In 1855 he joined 
the* Masonic fraternity, and has always kept up his membership, being 
now one of the oldest Masons in this part of Indiana. 

First Voters and Officials 

At the first meeting of the Board of County Commissioners, held July 
19, 1834, the civil organization of Prairie Township was furthered by 
their order that all elections during the first year should be held at the 


house of William Woods. Solomon McColloch was at the same time 
appointed inspector of elections; Samuel Smelcer, supervisor of roads; 
William Walter, overseer of the poor; and Samuel Alkire and William 
Phillips, fence viewers. 

The first election, as provided for by the board, was held at Mr. 
Woods' house on the 6th of April, 1835, under the direction of Mr. Me- 
Colloch. The following men voted and it is safe to say that the list 
comprised most of the landholders and citizens in the township : Charles 
Wright and Thomas C. Smith (judges), John Barr and William Gay 
(clerks), Solomon McColloch, George Brown, William Gay, Jr., Daniel 
Brown, Ezekiel W. Brown, William Woods, William Watson, William 
Sill, James Gay and Henry Smelcer. Mr. Woods was elected justice of 
the peace; Daniel Brown, constable; William Gay, inspector of elections; 
Solomon McColloch and John Barr received fourteen votes each for super- 
visor of roads ; William Gay and William Phillips, fourteen votes each for 
overseers of the poor ; and William Smelcer and John E. Metcalf, thirteen 
votes each for fence viewers. 

The following cast their ballots at the house of William Woods in 
August, 1835 : Royal Hazelton, John Barr, John Young, John Barr, Jr., 
Simon Hornbeck, Oliver Hammond, James Barr, Robert Barr, William 
Woods, Benjamin Newell, John Blair, Elisha Bowles, Joseph Bostick, 
Solomon McColloch, Willis Pherly, James Gay, John Price, William Gay, 
James Kent, John Gay, James C. Moore, Simeon Smith, John E. Metcalf, 
Joseph Sayre, Thomas Sutton and Samuel Smelcer. 

Educational and Religious Beginnings 

The first schools and religious organizations were established in the 
several log cabins which were built just southeast of what is now Brooks- 
ton, in the early '30s. One Harrison taught the pioneer school in that 
locality, and he was closely followed by Royal Hazelton, who had erected 
the first house on the southeast quarter of section 22. 

The religious pioneers of Prairie Township were the Methodists, who 
held services in the house of J. C. Moore, then a young carpenter and 
mechanic who had accompanied his parents from Wayne County, Indiana, 
in 1832. Near the same place, in a hewn-log schoolhouse, also built by 
him, the first class of Methodists was organized; its members included 
Philip Davis, John Davis and wife, and Joseph Bostick, wife and son. In 
1844 the Methodists also erected a frame church about two miles south- 
west of Brookston's future site. 

J. C. Moore, Prosperous Farmer and Inventor 

J. C. Moore, who thus came into early notice, became widely known 
in the county as a builder, farmer and inventor. He assisted in erecting 
the second building in Monticello and in constructing the first court- 
house, and in his earlier manhood his services as a carpenter and me- 
chanic were in constant demand. Residents for miles around would come 


to his home farm and plough, or do other work for him, while he did 
their repairing or made new implements. He thus followed farming 
and mechanics for fifteen years ; then gave most of his time to his inven- 
tions, which included a hay and straw stacker, a machine for loading and 
unloading cars and vessels, and a steam ditcher and grader. He became 
prominent and well-to-do, owning 460 acres of land in White County 
and more than 500 in Missouri. 
* • - *'~ 

Other Early Land Holders 

Besides those already mentioned, the following are recorded in the 
tract book in the county recorder's office as having entered various 
parcels of land in Prairie Township : Lewis Watson, in 1829 ; William 
Ivers, Robert Graham and Barney Davis, in 1830 ; Joseph Parker, James 
K. Woods, Robert Barr, Jacob Klepinger and Jesse L. Watson, in 1831 ; 
John E. Metealf and Joseph Bostick, 1832; Adam Best, Samuel Best, 
Samuel Smelcer and Thomas C. Smith, 1833 ; R. P. Wilson and George P. 
McCulloch, 1834 j John Davis, James H. Moore, James Kent and Aaron 
Yarnell, 1835; Benjamin Creamer, Thomas Hazelton, Van McCullough,. 
William H. Watson, Charles M. Watson, John Metts, John Beauchamp, 
Moses Beauchamp, Risden Beauchamp, James Beauchamp,' Cyrus Barr, 
Ranson McConahay and Alexander Redding, 1836; Jonathan Birch, 
1837; Samuel Ramey, Manly Ramey and H. Alkire, 1841; Jesse W. 
Robinson," Nelson Hornback, Asa Haff, John Matthews, George Shigley, 
Jackson Alkire, John Parrish, John Russell, John Ramey, John Thichart 
and Zadock Russell, Jr., 1846; Jason Alkire, John Price, John Kious, 
Milam A. Kious, John Davis, John Mahin, Solomon Hays, Samuel Batch- 
elder, John C. Hutchins, Richard Eastman, Thomas Chilton and Jason 
Alkire, 1847 ; John Ramey, James Smith, James Griffith and Henry C. 
Parker, 1848 ; Joseph W. Davis, 1849 ; John P. Carr and Solomon Carr, 
1850; Andrew Swearingen, 1851. 

Loren and Ralph A. Cutler 

Ralph A. Cutler, who is now a resident of Brookston in his eighty- 
sixth year, is the oldest member of a family which has been identified 
with the progress of various townships in the eastern part of the county 
for a period of sixty-three years. When a lad of twelve years he was 
brought by his parents from his native county of Pickaway, Ohio. Loren 
Cutler, his father, had loaded his family, consisting of wife and five chil- 
dren, into a strong emigrants' wagon, which, in due time, landed the 
household and all its effects on what was known as the Cochran place, a 
short distance from Idaville, Jackson Township. After living there for 
two years as a renter, Mr. Cutler bought eighty acres on Pike Creek, 
Union Township, paying $300 for the tract. There he lived until his 
death in 1882, his family having in the meantime increased by the addi- 
tion of five children. Although over six feet in height, the deceased was 
of frail health. Five of his sons are yet living in White County, of 


whom the eldest is Ralph A., who has been a resident of Prairie Township 
since 1852. 

Mr. Cutler has spent the greater part of his life as a farmer, his only 
real venture into side channels being when he hauled all the timber which 
went into the construction of the Monticello dam. When he located in 
Prairie Township in 1852 he bought 160 acres of land, which he subse- 
quently sold and purchased 100 acres in Liberty Township. He well 
remembers when he was a boy of marketing corn which had been raised 
by himself and brother, at Monticello, for 16 cents per busheL In 1862, 
when in his prime as a farmer, he raised 6,000 bushels of corn, for which 
he received 11, 17 and 22 cents per bushel, in three lots of 2,000 bushels 
each. . • 

Mr. Cutler is the father of five children (his wife dying in 1912), of 
whom a son and a married daughter are living. 

First Sawmills 

Moots Creek furnished water power for the two early sawmills which 
supplied the settlers in the eastern part of the township with lumber for 
their houses and farm buildings. The first industry in that line was 
established by Robert Barr in 1838. He dammed the creek about a quar- 
ter of a mile above where the mill was located, in section 31, and con- 
structed a race which worked well when the water was high enough, 
usually in the spring months. The saw was one of those up-and-down 
arrangements and was kept quite busy — when there was power — for 
about a decade. For many years some of the old timbers remained to 
mark the spot where the first sawmill of the township was erected. 

The second and last sawmill was erected in the Gay settlement, in the 
southeastern corner of the township, about 1862. It was built by P. M. 
Kent, who also attached machinery for grinding wheat and corn. The 
grist mill was discontinued after about a year of well-meant efforts, and 
the sawmill struggled along for five years, when the entire enterprise 
was abandoned. 

Brookston, Industrial and Commercial Center 

Since that time the industries of the township have centered at 
Brookston, now a village of 1,000 people, situated on, the main line of 
the Monon route and surrounded by a beautiful and productive country 
of fruits, grains and live stock. It is to the southwestern part of the 
county what Monon is to the northwestern — the chief trading and bank- 
ing center for a prosperous country covering a radius of 'several miles. 

Brookston was platted in April, 1853, when the Louisville, New 
Albany & Chicago Railroad was put through that section of the county, 
and was named in honor of James Brooks, who was then president of the 
railwny company. It has grown steadily, which fact largely accounts for 
the increase in population of the township as a whole. In 1890 there 
were 1,885 people in Prairie Township and in 1910, 2,181. 


Village of Spkingboro 

Some time during the prosperous days of the Wabash and Erie Canal, 
probably just a few years prior to the Civil war, while Pittsburg, over 
on the Wabash, was an important trading point, there sprung up in the 
little valley at the mouth of Spring Creek, in the eastern part of Prairie 
Township, a little village called Springboro. The first house was prob- 
ably built by a German from the wine producing countries of Southern 
Europe, who planted an extensive vineyard on the southern slope of the 
hill on the north side of the valley and engaged extensively in the pro- 
duction of wine. He also kept a general store which was used as a - 
distributing point for the neighborhood mail sent out there from the 
regular postoffice at Pittsburg. This, with a blacksmith shop, a cooper 
shop and two or three dwellings, constituted the village in its most 
prosperous days. 

Springboro was located on what was known as the Finch Grove Road, 
leading from Pittsburg to Brookston, only, a short distance from where 
that road crossed the Tippecanoe River, and first became generally known 
over the county in December, 1869, when Asa Haff and others filed a 
petition asking that a bridge be built at that point. As the river here 
forms the boundary line between the counties of Carroll and White, a 
joint meeting of the boards of commissioners of the two counties was 
held "at the house of Lucas Trontle" February 9, 1870, at which it was 
ordered that a bridge "be, built of wood, covered, weatherboarded and 
painted." On March 8th this order was set aside and another joint 
meeting called for March 30, 1870, also "at the house of Lucas Trontle." 
This meeting was held under considerable difficulties. The roads were 
almost impassable and the White County officials were compelled to go 
to Brookston by railroad and thence to Springboro in a wagon drawn 
by six horses, arriving there late in the evening. There were present 
from Carroll County James W. Glasscock, John A. Troxell and Warren 
Adams, commissioners ; John A. Kane, auditor; John W. Jackson, sheriff; 
Barney Daily, county attorney; and several other interested parties 
from Pittsburg and Delphi. From White County there were Christopher 
Hardy and James C. Gress, commissioners — Theodore J. Davis, the other 
White County commissioner, not being able to reach the meeting — George 
Uhl, county auditor; William E. Saunderson, deputy sheriff; and Thomas 
Bushnell, county attorney. It was then ordered that an iron bridge be 
built, Carroll County to pay in round numbers seven-elevenths and White 
County to pay four-elevenths of the cost. A contract was later let and 
the bridge built at a total cost of $22,540.98 ; and Charles Angel, Lucas 
Trontle, Isaac Wilson, Levi Riley, James Gny, John W. Jackson, John 
Gay and Cyrus Barr bound themselves to pay the first year's interest 
on this amount. 

This old history is of special interest at this time, as the bridge here 
mentioned has been condemned after forty-five years of service and a 
petition for a new structure is now pending, again requiring the joint 
action of the two counties. 

■*"'*'■- - ■ "- ■ -»■'■ --- 


Improvement in Rural. Conditions 

While there has been little, if any, increase in the population of the 
rural districts in the township, those who have remained to improve their 
homesteads and raise their grain and live stock have reached a high 
grade of comfort and contentment; for to the natural fertility of the soil 
they have added such artificial developers as fertilizers, crop rotations 
and scientific drainage. What is as much to the point, in the way of 
bringing comfort and contentment to the farmers of Prairie Township — 
they can now get their produce to market, even if they are raised miles 
from the railroad. 

Leading Good Roads Township 

In the -early days before the inauguration of the Good Roads Move- 
ment, it was almost impossible for the farmers to market their products in 
the western or prairie districts — in the very sections of the bumper crops. 
The fall, winter and spring rains, which rarely failed, made passage over 
the dfrt roads with loaded wagons almost an impossibility. It made little 
difference how much work was done in the way of grading and ditching. 
As one. who has floundered through those muds remarked in disgust, "the 
higher the grade the deeper the mud. ' ' Until the surface of the prairies 
was frozen over in winter or dried by the summer suns, the farmers were 
forced to allow their grain to lie in the cribs and bins, awaiting a favor- 
able time to deliver it to market. 

The last thirty, especially the past twenty, years have brought a rad- 
ical change for the better in the construction of roads which enable the 
farmers to readily get everything they raise to the desired market. 
Among the townships of the county, Prairie leads in the progress of the 
Good Roads Movement within her bounds. The bonded indebtedness in- 
curred in the construction of fine macadam or gravel roads which thus 
accommodate her farmers and residents as a whole, amounts to $85,570, 
divided among the different roads as follows : Schneider, $2,400 ; Kelley, 
$6,400; Dobbins, $3,600; Carson, $4,000; Sleeth, $2,750; Nagle, $2,850; 
Vanderbilt, $5,000; Redding, $3,780; Holwerda, $2,650; Anderson, 
$4,500; Younger, $4,500; Brackney, $13,600; Gay, $17,640; Krapff, 
$5,400; Fewell, $6,500. 

nhi ■! i nm m»m 


South Half First Settled — Pioneer Settlers and Land Owners — 
The Hannas — Entered Land Before Township Organization — 
Pioneer of* 1835-38 — First Recorded Election — Daniel Dale, 
Leading Politician — Hanna Rejects Democracy — The Wheel of 
Life— -Pioneer School Matters — Burnett's Creek Postoffice — 

, High 1 Standard of Morality — Smith's Distillery of 1840-50 — 
Violent Deaths — The Mormon Branch of 1842-45 — Farmington 
Male and Female Seminary — Burnettsville Founded — Sharon 
and Burnettsville Consolidated — Idaville Founded — Drainage 
and Good»Road3., 

Jackson was one of the four townships created when White County 
was set off into civil divisions at the first meeting of the board of com- 
missioners in July, 1834, and included all of its territory east of the 
Tippecanoe River. It assumed its present area of thirty-six square miles 
through the creation of Cass and Liberty townships, in 1837. and 
the subsequent demarkation of the eastern boundary of Union Township. 

South Half First Settled 

The south half of the township was first settled, as it was com- 
paratively level, well timbered and not subject to overflow, as were the 
lands in the northern sections. The rich loam, with subsoil of clay, was 
found to be adapted to the raising of wheat especially, with corn, oats, 
rye, roots, fruits and vegetables following closely as second choice. As 
most of the first settlers were thrifty farmers from Pennsylvania, Ohio 
and New York, with quite a number from Virginia, Kentucky and 
Tennessee, who usually came stocked with horses, cows and poultry, and 
provided with farm implements and enough cash to "pull them through 
until they got on their feet, ' ' they naturally selected the southern portion 
of the township in preference to the dreary-looking swamp lands, inter- 
spersed with high ridges, which stretched away to the north. They 
could not await the time when that waste would be reclaimed and 
brought into the market as even more productive' than the tracts favored 
by nature. 

Pioneer Settlers and Land Owners 

The dispute as to priority of settlement in Jackson Township is even 
more lively than in the majority of such discussions, since several located 


-■- - - ■--■■■ - ........ ..,..■'.■ 


in the vicinity of the present Town of Burnettsville, about 1831 — Eliab 
Fobes, John Scott, Joseph James, Thomas Harless and Aaron Hicks. 
From the records showing the entries of Government lands it seems that 
Fobes filed a claim on land in section 25, at or very near the present site 
. of Burnettsville, and that the Hicks tract, about an equal distance from 
that place and Idaville, was not entered until June 18, 1834. Mr. 
James, also mentioned as one of the pioneers, selected a tract earlier in 
the month in section 18, on the western border of the present township. 

Robert Qinn entered lands in section 10 (the only early landsman to 
venture into the wet tracts of the north) in May, 1830, and in May, 
1836, he filed a claim in section 22. And he later became well known in 
local affairs. 

The Hannas 

Robert. Hanna appears to have been the prime mover in the list of 
those who purchased Government lands in the township and afterward 
resided therein — they and their children. On June 21, 1831, he entered 
land in section 35,. just north of the Carroll County line. Several of 
his grandsons, now well along in years, are farmers in that locality. 
Two of his sons, Andrew and John Hanna, became prominent residents 
of the township. 

Andrew came with" his father from Ohio in 1833 ; was present at the 
first town meeting and cast the only whig vote. He prospered as a 
farmer to such an extent that he became the owner of 900 acres of land, 
served as county commissioner, was an influential churchman, and 
founded Idaville. - 

John Hanna, the elder brother, located in Jackson Township in 1834, 
the year after his father's arrival, and after farming for many years 
became prominent in the mercantile affairs of both Burnettsville and 
Idaville. ne also was present at the first township election, and was 
one of the first petit jurors of the county. He assisted in building the 
first schoolhouse and was considered one of the founders of Burnettsville. 

Entered Land Before Township Organization 

The tract book of the county giving the entries of Government land 
in Jackson Township indicates that the following also had become land 
owners previous to the first election for township officers held in Novem- 
ber, 1834: Thomas McCormick, in section 33, November 23, 1831; John 
Scott and Thomas Martindale, in section 24, on February 8 and July 30, 
1832, and William James, in section 35, on October 5th of the same year; 
Joseph Belen, in sectipn 24, March 6, 1833; T. J. James, in the same 
section, on August 15th, of that year; Daniel Dale in section 25, August 
22, 1833 ; James James, in section 36, January 26, 1833, and in section 
11, June 4, 1834, as well as in section 18, on the same date ; James Davis, 
in section 23, July 14, 1834; George Gibson, in section 25, September 22, 
1834, and John Vinnedge, in the same section, November 17th of that 
year; William R. Dale, in section 26, June 18, 1834; John Tedford, on 

... .... -.._.^». — , . 


: ' '•" . 

the same date, in section 31; Christopher Birch, in section 34, May 9, 
1834 ; George Hornhack, same section, May 19th, and the following, also 
in the same section, with dates of 1834 as given : Amos Barnes, May 
29th ; Allen Barnes, May 29th ; Thomas Harless, October 6th ; and John 
McDowell and Solomon Burket, same date; Thomas McLaughlin, in- 
section 36, July 23, 1834. 

Pioneees of 1835-38 

The years from 1835 to 1838, inclusive, brought many of the resi- 
dents of the township who joined in her progress of many subsequent 
years. Those who entered lands during that period fairly cover the list 
of these pioneers. The tract book gives them as follows: 1835 — Jona- 
than Shull, in section 23, September 25th ; Ephraim Miller, in section 24, 
'September 4th;-.Delancy Marvin, in section 26, October 2d; Andrew 
Renwick, September 9th; Daniel I. Skinner, October 2d; Joseph D. 
Beers, December 2d, and Jeremiah Sullivan, December 2d also — all in 
section 28 ; James McCain, in section 31, November 12th ; Samuel Smith, 
April 30th, and John Dille, September 1st, both in section 32 ; Solomon 
McCully, June 15th; Ephraim Chamberlain, November 7th, and James 
Hamill, also November 7th — all in section 33; Charles B. Hamilton, 
January 16th, in section 35 ; and James Williams, in section 36. ■ 

1836— Thomas B. Ward, July 12th, in section 13; Stephen Nutt, 
September 30th, in section 14; Robert Ginn, May 28th, and Thomas 
McCormick, October 4th, in section 15; Robert Ginn, May 28th, in 
section 22 ; Dennis Springer, November 14th, in section 23 ; C. J. Hand, 
January 26th, in section 24; Ezekiah S. Wiley, January 8th, Dennis 
Springer, November 14th, and William Wiley, December 5th, all in 
section 26; Setfi Irelan, January 13th, and Thomas Beard, April 30th, 
in section 27; John Parr, July 15th, in sections 30 and 31; James 
Courtney, January 18th, John Hamill, January 19th, Andrew Hanna, 
February 4th, and Aaron Hicks, March 30th, in section 33. 

1837 — John Miller, May 31st, in section 10 ; James Hicks, September 
27th, and A. T. Stanton, September 14th, in section 13; Lewis Shull, 
January 6th, John York, August 15th, and Robert Gibson, December 
19th, in section 14; John Miller, May 31st, in section 15; Samuel M. 
Cochran, February 15th, in section 21; George B. Garlinghouse, Sep- 
tember 29th, in section 22; John A. Billingsley, April 26th, and Andrew 
Hanna, January 13th, in section 26; William Burns, April 26th, 
William W. Mitchell, May 22d, Benjamin Durn, June 24th, and Cyrus 
B. Garlinghouse, September 2d, in section 27; Samuel M. Cochran* 
February 15th, and Benjamin Deen, April 26th, in section 28. 

1838 — Jeremiah Dunham, October 15th, in section 13, aud William 
York, February 3d, in section 23. 

Quite a number of those who entered lands during this formative 
period of the township became well known both in township and county 
affairs. Solomon McCully, who settled in section 33 during 1835, became 
one of the commissioners, and Thomas McCormick, who came in 1836 



and located in section 15, nearly in the center of the township, was 
appointed an associate judge of the Circuit Court. Aaron Hicks, who 
took up land in that year in section 33, in the southern part, served as 
the first sheriff of the county and was its probate judge for some time. 
Andrew Hanna, who first became interested in lands in section 26, just 
west of the present site of Burnettsville, afterward became one of the 
founders of Idaville. Lewis Shull and John York took up tracts further 
north in section 14, and their families became well known both at 
Burnettsville and in the farming communities of section 10. The names 
of others who settled in Jackson Township in the decade previous to 
1840 will be drawn into the current of this history as the story progresses. 

First Recorded Election 

The first recorded election in Jackson Township was held at the 
house of Daniel Dale, on the present site of Burnettsville, November 7, 
1834, and the following cast presidential ballots: Jonathan Shull, 
Ephraim Million, Lewis Shull, James Courtney, Robert Hanna, Ezekiel 
S. Wiley, Joseph James, Eliab Fobes, George Gibson, Hugh Courtney, 
John Gibson, Joseph James, John Morris, Joseph Winegarner, Allen 
Barnes, George Hornbeck, William Wiley, Aaron Hicks, John Hanna, 
John Smith, John Lowery, William Gibson, Stephen Nutt, Robert P. 
Gibson, William Price, John D. Vinnage, William R. Dale and William 
James. Of these twenty-eight votes, twenty-six were cast for the Van 
Buren, or democratic electors, and two for the Harrison, or whig ticket. 
At the time of this election, which is the first recorded as having been 
held in the township, voters were legally entitled to cast their ballots 
anywhere in the county of their residence, so that the foregoing list is 
not a true index of settlers in Jackson Township, although many names 
are recognized as actual residents. 

Daniel Dale, Leading Politician 

Aaron Hicks was the first justice of the peace elected after the 
organization of the county and the township, and to Daniel Dale was 
accorded the privilege of naming it. As he was a staunch Jacksonian 
democrat, he named it accordingly. It was Mr. Dale's house which was 
the political center of the township for a number of years and, as per 
the order of the county commissioners, most of the early elections were 
held there. In 1837 and 1838 the poll lists show the* following new 
names: Dennis Pringer, Enos H. Stewart, William W. Mitchell, 
Solomon McCully, Madison Reeves, Lewis J. Dale, Jephtha York, Thomas 
McLaughlan, Andrew J. Hanna, Silas Gitt, Alexander Hornback, John 
A. Billingsley, Samuel Smith, John Street and James T. Mitchell. 

Hanna Rejects Democracy 

The township continued to be overwhelmingly democratic, and at ono 
of the early elections the whigs were able to marshal only Andrew Hanna 


as a supporter of their ticket in Jackson Township. Dale and the other 
good democrats tried to induce Hanna to make their vote unanimous,' 
but the lone whig was firm and cast his ballot as his conscience dictated, 
and he enjoyed his brief triumph in 1840, when Harrison was elected 
President, but died in office after only a few months of service. Old 
settlers used to smile at the sanctity of the ballot box, as gauged by the 
accommodations furnished by Brother Dale, which consisted of an old 
weather-beaten hat over which was spread a handkerchief — sometimes 
gay, but never any too clean. The Dale house in which these early 
elections were held stood for many years unmoved and almost unchanged. 

The Wheel of Life 

' Joseph James, whose homestead was in section 18, in the western part 
of the township, 'first appeared on the records as a land owner in 1831, 
which is given as the year of his actual settlement. He had a large 
iamily, several of them small children, when several other pioneers took 
up claims previous to 1834. The inference is that some one of his babies 
was the first child born in Jackson Township, although the first record 
of a birth is that of Alexander Barnes, in February, 1835, and George H. 
Mitchell, deceased, of Idaville always claimed this honor. Two of Mr. 
James' children also appear to have died previous to December 2, 1835, 
when Amos Barnes, the father of Alexander, passed away. His was the 
first death. The family had lived in the township about a year. 

In the spring of 1836, John D. Vinnage and Rachel Gibson were 
married, the first couple to be united in the township. Tims the wheel 
commenced to revolve of marriages, births and deaths. • 

Pioneer School Matters 

In other respects, the year 1836 was an uneventful one. In that 
year the first schoolhouse in the township was built near what is now 
the southeast corner of Burnettsville — a log cabin, like all of its kind in 
those days — and William Dale was selected to teach the children of the 
neighborhood. It is said that even before this first regular schoolhouse 
was thrown open, a vacant house in the southeast quarter of section 33, 
near the Carroll County line, had been occupied with a small class 
under the instruction of James Renwick. But that arrangement lacked 
the permanency attached to the schoolhouse of 1836. 

The second schoolhouse in the township was built about 1842, and 
stood on the farm afterward owned by Thomas Barnes. Among the early 
teachers in that house were William Barnes, Melinda Noah and Hender- 
son Steele. 

The third schoolhouse was built about 1847 on Solomon McCully's 
land, in the same neighborhood, and George Hall was the first teacher, 
followed by Joseph Thompson, George Barnes, John Bright, Ashbury 
Shultz, William P. Montgomery and Josephus Tam. 


Burnett's Creek Postoffice 

In the eventful year of 1836 a postoffice was established to accom- 
modate the settlers of the township, who had largely concentrated in its 
southeastern sections in the neighborhood of what is now Burnettsville. 
It was called Burnett's Creek (named after the stream which waters 
the eastern half of the township), and William R. Dale was appointed 
postmaster, thus continuing the importance of the family name. The 
postoffice was located at Farmington, now Burnett's Creek, and it is 
still thus designated, although the village is incorporated as Burnettsville. 

High Standard of Morality 

From very early times the type of the communities in Jackson 
Township was fixed as one of morality and religious conformity. The 
pioneer settlers largely belonged to the Seceders' Church and strictly 
enforced morality among their members and children. The first meet- 
ings of the sect, known as the Christian Church, were held at the house 
of Alexander Scott near Farmington, or Burnettsville. The Methodists 
commenced to organize classes about 1837 and, at a somewhat later day, 
the Baptists. In the early '40s, members of the Associate Reformed and 
kindred churches formed societies at what is now Idaville; so that at a 
very early date, Jackson Township was noted as a section of the county 
which was especially moral and religious, if not austere in its type. 
Drunkenness, carousing, swearing and fighting, which were so prevalent 
in some other sections, were uncommon in Jackson Township, and the 
few saloons opened were not supported, and never have been to any 
extent. In fact, the high standard of conduct fixed so early has been, 
on the whole, well maintained. 

Smith's Distillery of 1840-50 

In the early '40s two events occurred to especially stir the moral 
sense of the communities of Southern Jackson Township; the first was 
the establishment of a distillery and the second, the planting of a branch 
of the Mormon Church. About the year 1840 Samuel Smith set up a 
small still on his land, about a mile southwest of where Idaville now 
stands and near enough the Carroll County line to draw custom from 
its people. He bought or bartered small quantities of corn which he 
made into whiskey, his orders from the Jackson Township people con- 
sisting in great bulk, of stock for vinegar and liniment, bitters to ward 
off the ague, and the straight liquor for snake bites and general emerg- 
encies. Notwithstanding the scandal it produced among the strict 
disciplinarians of the township, the distillery was operated by Smith 
until his death in 1850. 

Violent Deaths 

A number of violent deaths have occurred in Jackson Township 

which have caused much excitement and justly so, as some of them were 

— .>.,,-.. -.,. — i ..:- ..... ,- .,_ ..■■ , .. _ 


in the nature of horrors. In the spring of 1860, Albert Burns, a man 
somewhat past middle age, who had resided on his farm two miles north 
of Burnettsville, for several years, shot his wife, from whom he had 
once been divorced; attempted to kill her youngest child whom he 
disowned, and then, after having placed two chairs between his wife 
and the fireplace that his victim might not get into the fire in her death 
struggles, turned the weapon upon himself. His death was probably 
instantaneous. The wife and mother lived until the following morning. 

In 1877, a bartender at Idaville named Richard M. Herron, was 
found dead, his face and clothes covered with blood, about two miles 
east of Monticello. John Kelly, proprietor of the saloon at which he 
was employed and John Toothman, whom he had displaced as bar- 
tender, were arrested on the charges of having murdered Mr. Herron. 
The victim, after he received his injuries, stopped at the house of 
John M. Shafer, three miles east of Monticello. At the time he was 
■ cGVered with blood, but proceeded on his way. That was the last seen 
of him until his body was discovered about two days afterward. A 
nolle pros was entered as to Toothman, and he became a witness for 
the state against -Kelly, who was convicted of manslaughter, and 
sentenced to the penitentiary for six years. He obtained a new trial, 
which resulted in a sentence of eighteen years. Mr. Herron was an old 
soldier and some of his relatives yet live in White County. 

About 1855 William Crose shot himself about a mile southwest of 
Idaville. It is believed he eommitteed suicide while in a state of religious 

In 1854 Silas Tarn was killed by lightning just outside of Burnetts- 
ville. About 1861 a conductor named Anthony had his leg terribly 
crushed by a freight train, in consequence of having his foot caught 
in a frog, and died at the house of Alexander Rodgers, Idaville. In the 
following year three men were severely injured by the derailing of a 
"train east of that place, one of whom died within a day. 

About the summer of 1870, Daniel Leslie was killed by lightning, 
which struck the postoffice. The bolt also tore the boots from the feet of 
James C. Hutchinson, so that he had to wear felt slippers for several 
wee^s because of the soreness of his feet. 

The Mormon Branch of 1842-45 

The Mormon Society, or branch, ' continued to proselyte from 1842 
to 1845, when its members scattered, several of them joining the migra- 
tion to Nauvoo, Illinois. " Their bishop, Alva L. Tibbetts, organized his- 
converts at a private house about three miles north of where Burnetts- 
ville is situated, and within the following three years gathered a mem- 
bership of sixty-five, of whom about two-thirds resided in Jackson 
Township. Three families whose homes were within its limits joined 
the migration to Nauvoo; one of them returned to the home neighbor- 
hood in Jackson Township, after an experience of two weeks which 
tended to sober, if not subdue ; another crossed the Mississippi into Iowa, 


when the Mormons were expelled from Nauvoo in 1846, and the third 
followed the general exodus to Salt Lake City. During the existence 
of the branch near Burnettsville, the Mormons established a cemetery 
two miles north of Idaville in which several interments were made. 

Farmington Male and Female Seminary 

In 1852, two years before Burnettsville was platted, and while the* 
locality was known as Farmington, the famous Male and Female Semi- 
nary was founded by Isaac Mahurin. Aaron Hicks and William York, 
Joseph Thompson and Elijah Eldridge were its first trustees. The 
Farmington Male and Female Seminary, as it was called, became quite 
noted as an educational institution, as has been more fully described in 
the chapter devoted to such matters. 

Burnettsville Founded 

In March, 1854, Franklin J. Herman, a settler of 1839, laid out the 
Town of Burnettsville on his land, in the northwest quarter of section 
25. The original plat comprised thirty-eight lots, and in 1855, Prudence 
Dale, widow of William Dale, made the first addition to it, a tract of 
sixteen lota. 

Mr. Herman, the founder of Burnettsville, served as justice of the 
peace for twenty-five years and died in 1861, one of the most respected 
citizens of the township. He was the father of eleven children and 
several of his descendants have been identified with Burnettsville and 
its progress. One of the sons, F. A. Herman, was its postmaster for a 
numuer of years. 

Sn.\RON and Burnettsville Consolidated 

In 1860 Thomas Wiley and James B. Eliott laid out the Town of 
Sharon near the northern limits of Burnettsville. As it was a station 
on the new railroad known as the Logansport, Peoria and Burlington 
(now the Panhandle of the Pennsylvania Company), the new town grew 
rapidly, the business interests of Burnettsville being soon transferred to 
it bodily. In 1864 the postoffice of Burnett's Creek was moved from 
Burnettsville to Sharon, and later the two villages were consolidated 
under the name of the old town. As stated, it is still Burnettsville town 
and Burnett's Creek postoffice, but Uncle Sam, through his postal 
Jepartment, may in time correct the incongruity. 

Idaville Founded 

In July, 1860, Andrew Hanna, John B. Townsley and John McCully, 
nil pioneers of the township, also laid out another town on the Panhandle 
line three miles west of Sharon, or Burnettsville. At first it was called 
Ilanua, but the name was soon clianged to Idaville. The original plat 


was on the northwest quarter of the southeast quarter and the northeast 
quarter of the southwest quarter of section 28 and comprised twenty -two 
lots ; the first additions to it were made by Mr. Townsley in 1865. Ida- 
ville has never been incorporated as a town. It has suffered, both by 
storm and fire, the conflagration of 1902 destroying the business portion 
of the village. 

Burnettsville and Idaville are pretty towns, and, as centers of trade 
and banking, are supported by a prosperous country both to the nolth 
and south. Burnettsville has a slight advantage in population and 
business, and both are pleasant, homelike places. 

Drainage and Good Roads 

. Jackson Township is practically an agricultural section of the 
county, and contains about one-ninth of its entire population. Its 
northern sections have been artificially drained through several large 
systems of ditches which are carried through Liberty and Union town- 
ships to the Tippecanoe River; so that at least half of the township, 
which was originally considered waste land, has been reclaimed and 
brought under productive cultivation.. Its only natural waterway is 
Burnett's Creek, which drains its central, eastern and southeastern 
portions into the Wabash River. 

In the matter of good roads, although Jackson Township is not fore- 
most, in the movement, much progress has been made in the construction 
of highways of macadam or gravel, so that few farmers are now incon- 
venienced when they desire to market their produce. The township is 
bonded for nearly $35,000 on this account, the indebtedness being 
apportioned as follows: Personett Road, $1,920; Brown, $4,000; Reiff, 
$3,800 ; Mertz, $4,800 ; Bryan, $11,550 ; Bishop, $4,140 ; Harvey, $4,700. 



Physical and Agricultural Features — First Settler,, Joseph H. 
Thompson — George A. Spencer and Benjamin Reynolds — Spencer- 
Reynolds Colony — The Historic Spencer House — Benjamin 
Reynolds' After-Career — John Burns — Mr. and Mrs. William 
Burns — Land Owners and Settlers op 1830-33 — Chills and 
Fever — First Township Officers — First School in the County — 
Land Entries in 1835-36 — Election in 1836 — The Great Hunt of 
1840 — Those Who Bought Land in 1837-51 — B. Wilson Smith's 
Picture of 1846 — Increase of Real Settlers — First Frame School 
House — Mudge's Station and Chalmers— First Iron Bridge — . 
Swamp Lands Reclaimed — Smithson or Wheeler — Leader in 
Good Roads Movement. 

Big Creek was one of the four original townships created by the 
county board of commissioners at its first meeting July 19, 1834. It 
was designated as Congressional Township No. 26, "with all the terri- 
tory attached thereto," contained ninety-seven and a half square miles, 
or 62,200 acres, and comprised substantially a strip of territory six 
sections from north to south, extending through the county north of 
Prairie Township. In 1845 fifty-four square miles of its original area 
was carved away to form West Point Township, and at still later dates 
both Honey Creek and Union townships abstracted enough sections from 
its remaining body to reduce it to thirty-two and seven-eighths square 

Physical and Agricultural Features 

The township derives its name from the stream which rises in the 
southwestern part of West Point Township, about two miles from the 
western county line, thence flows northeasterly to a point just south of 
Smithson, or Wheeler, and thence, after a course due. east for about a 
mile, turns abruptly to the south and southeast. Big Creek crosses the 
line into Prairie Township, cuts off the northeast corner of that town- 
ship and discharges into the Tippecanoe River a mile south of Oakdale 
Mills, in Carroll County. 

The surface of the township is varied — in the northern part, broad 
and level stretches of prairie bordered by timber, in the western sections 
more generally prairie, and in the eastern portions, the heaviest wooded 



lands. The best timbered tracts are confined to Big Creek and its 

Although both the timber and prairie portions are somewhat broken 
and rolling, this natural condition has never interfered with the culti- 
vation of the rich, deep loamy soil which predominates throughout the 
township. The subsoil is chiefly sand and gravel, though clay is found 
in the lowlands of the northern sections. Grain, grass, vegetables and 
fruits flourish, especially since the swampy lands have been ditched 
and drained. It has always been considered one of the best live stock 
regions in the county, and not a few of the early settlers gave much 
attention to the breeding, purchase and sale of cattle, horses and hogs. 
Prominent among these may be mentioned George A. Spencer, Benjamin 
Reynolds, John Burns, Thomas Bunnell, Thomas Spencer, John Rob- 
erts, Jeremiah Bisher and Philip Wolverton — names that stand for much 
that was best in the early progress of the township. 

First Settler, Joseph H. Thompson 

Big Creek Township was the first portion of the county to be perma- 
nently settled, and the agreement is quite general that Joseph H. Thomp- 
son led them all. He followed close on the heels of the Government 
surveyors, who had been running their section lines for several months 
in the northwestern part of the state. Although he came early in 1829 
and brought his family with him to occupy the rough cabin he had 
erected in section 25, Thompson did not enter his land until Decem- 
ber 19th. 

George A. Spencer and Benjamin Reynolds 

In the meantime George A. Spencer and Benjamin Reynolds, two 
young men from Perry County, Ohio, had arrived on foot and pitched 
their camp, consisting of a carpet-bag and a blanket, at a spot which 
might now be described as the borderland between Big Creek and Union 
townships. The time was in the autumn of 1829. Selecting a site on 
a hillside in what was then section 13, Big Creek Township, they de- 
cided to build a round-log cabin twelve feet square, so as to secure 
their claim. They commenced at once to cut logs, but after a few had 
been laid, it was agreed that Spencer should return to Ohio for the 
families about to migrate west, while Reynolds was to have the cabin 
ready when needed. Winter was already well advanced before Spencer 
started for Perry County, and it was the middle of the season before 
he reached home. 

Spencer-Reynolds Colony 

On the first of the following June, George A. Spencer and James 
Spencer, with their families and supplies, as well as the Reynolds house- 
hold, were loaded into three two-horse wagons and commenced to move 



toward the farther West. Alter a journey of twenty days they arrived 
in sight of the Hoosier home, which had been prepared by Mr. Reynolds, 
and resided therein until late in November. By that time Mr. Reynolds 
had erected a cabin in section 13 and the two Spencers had completed 
their houses in section 12. The first shack was then discarded by the 
fifteen Spencer and Reynolds colonists, being easily thrown to the 
ground, and the three families divided into separate households. 

The Historic Spencer House 

George A. Spencer's house was the first of the three to be completed. 
It was built of hewn logs, 16 by 20 feet in size, and in the middle '80s 
is thus described, with all the old-time associations clinging to it: "This 
house is still standing and most of the logs, though placed in position 
fifty-three years ago, are as sound as if it were but yesterday that 
they were taken from the forest. In 1831 there were two additions 
attached to the original building, and a few years later the same part 
was wea,ther-boarded, and this is the reason, no doubt, that it is in such 
a good state of preservation. Mr. Spencer set out the first orchard in 
Big Creek township. The first lot of trees was planted in the' spring 
of 1834, two of the trees remaining, either of which is thirty inches in 
diameter. A ten minutes' ride on horseback from the present residence 
of Calvin C. Spencer (son of George A.) will bring you to the site of 
the old historic Spencer house. 

. "This structure of the long-ago was, in early times, a welcome 
mansion to many a lone and weary Tippecanoe Indian, a home to all 
new-comers, and a place of rest and refreshment to all those of what- 
ever color or tongue that needed rest. Though this house was the second 
in the township, though it was one of freedom and much welcome to 
whomsoever could ask admittance to its threshold, it has a more extended 
history, for here it was that the first Circuit Court in White county 
was held. In this cabin the White Circuit Court was held for two 
years. The first term of court was commenced on the 13th day of 
October, 1834. At this bar a number of the most prominent lawyers 
of those times practiced, and on this bench some of the best jurists of 
that day sat. Among those who dealt out justice at this bar may be 
mentioned the names of Rufus Lockwood, John U. Pettit, Albert S. 
White, Samuel Huff, Ira Ingraham and James Lane. The lawyers all 
boarded in the cabin Court House, and Mrs. Spencer did the cooking for 
the 'loosc-tongued' gentlemen, while Mr. S. cared for the lawyers' 
horses and spent the remainder of his time in keeping the 'boys' 

"Mr. Spencer was a strict temperance man, and always clung to the 
fittest of things of life;. as a natural consequence, he would not allow 
swearing in his house. A large oak tree stood about ten rods distant 
from the house, and it is said that Mr. S. would not allow any swearing 
between that tree and the cabin. Some time elapsed before the lawyers 
could prevail upon Mr. Spencer to get them their kind of liquid re- 


freshments, but finally the old gentleman brought home a keg of the 
most approved brand of Kentucky whiskey, and that night the cabin of 
justice lost all its dignity. Conviviality reigned until far into the 
night and did not end there, as after the lawyers went to bed they 
indulged in hilarious pillow-fights, kicked and pulled each other around, 
and in various other ways spoiled their case with the sober landlord, who 
never again allowed them to ' whiskey-up ' in his house. But Mrs. Spencer, 
or Aunt Sally, held them to the Spencer House, notwithstanding this 
check, and what time the lawyers were not engaged in the court room, 
or playing ball, they were bragging about Aunt Sally and her cooking." 
In the general history of the county we have given the main facts 
of Mr. Spencer's life, including its official, agricultural and social 
identification with this section for nearly forty years. He was the father 
of eight children, several of whom, like Calvin C, were also leading 
citizens. A number of his sons served in the Union army, 

Benjamin Reynolds' After-Career 

When Mr. Reynolds came to Big Creek Township he had suffered 
reverses which made him almost penniless; he was, however, pluckily 
"starting over again." He had enjoyed little education in schools, but 
was practical, honest and hard-working. He had operated a stage 
line from Vincennes to Toledo for a number of years previous to 1828, 
when a distemper carried away so many of his horses as to ruin him 
financially. Mr. Reynolds had made little headway toward recovery 
when he ventured beyond the Tippecanoe with his friend, George A. 
Spencer. His stage line had followed the valleys of the Wabash and 
Maumee rivers and he had become well acquainted with Northwestern 
Indiana before he located in Big Creek Township. Being a man of 
more active temperament, both of mind and body, than his good friend 
Spencer, he soon became the agent for various eastern parties in the loca- 
tion of lands on commission, which enabled him to become the owner of 
some 15,000 acres in Indiana and Illinois. At a later day he obtained 
the contract for excavating many miles of the State Ditch, portions of 
which he sublet. He was largely influential in building the, Louisville, 
New Albany & Chicago Railroad, as well as the Pan Handle Line, in 
both of which he became a large stockholder. Ho was also interested in 
the Junction Railroad and had the misfortune, about 1855, of losing 
$100,000 through his investments therein. The year before, he had 
founded the Town of Reynolds. During the Civil war Mr. Reynolds 
met with his third serious financial reverse, aa he was obliged to pay 
fully $40,000 in bail debts. But he was vigorous and elastic and had 
nearly recovered his former standing before his death in his home town- 
ship, on June 6, 1869. His son, Isaac Reynolds, born in 1831, was the 
first native white child of the township. Two of his sons (Levi Reynolds 
and a younger brother) cultivated the home farm after the father's 
death until the estate was sold under administrator's sale, when it was 
bought by the widow and divided. Levi Reynolds moved to Monticello 


in 1878, but after three years' residence there returned to the old home- 
stead and became quite well known in local affairs, both official and 
agricultural. Large tracts of land in sections 6, 7 and 13, of what is 
now Union Township, are still held by the Spencer family. 

John Buens 

On November 2, 1830, John Burns entered land in section 30, south- 
eastern part of the township, and in the following year settled upon his 
"eighty," with his young wife. Although then only in his twenty-third 
year, he had been married since 1826. The young people commenced 
their married life in White County in a rude log cabin with a dirt floor, 
but .they prospered in amassing both property and a large family. Be- 
fore Mr. Burns' death he had become the owner of 1,200 acres of land 
and was probably the largest land owner in the township. He was 
widely known as a breeder of cattle, hogs and horses. 

Mr. and Mrs. William Burns 

William Burns, the eldest of the six children of John Burns, was 
born in Big Creek Township April 23, 1831, soon after the family came 
from Ohio, and is claimed to have been either the first or second white 
child born in the county. Until be was twenty-three years of age he 
was employed on his father's farm, by which time he had saved $700, 
with which he bought a partially improved farm of 120 acres near the 
family homestead. In October, 1860, he married Miss Etna Mclntyre, 
an Ohio lady, who for ten years had been housekeeper for her twin 
brother on the old Burns Farm. As man and wife they lived a peaceful 
and useful life for more than fifty-two years, not far from where they 
commenced housekeeping. Like his father, William Burns became well 
known as a live stock farmer. His wife died March 19, 1913, and he 
followed her three days later. They were buried side by side in River- 
view Cemetery, Monticello, and left a son and a daughter — Samuel M. 
Burns, of Chalmers, and Mary Etta Brown, of Urbana, Ohio. 

Land Owners and Settlers of 1830-33 

On the same day that John Burns entered his land, November 2, 
1830, James Kerr bought 80 acres in section 24; John Miller, in section 
19; Mnhlon Frazer, in section 9; on the following day Daniel Baum 
entered 80 acres in section 8 and Robert Newell 80 acres in section 18 ; 
John Bostick, 80 acres in section 12, on the 12th of October, same year; 
Joseph II. Graham, 80 acres in section 8, November 15, 1830; John 
Stockton, 80 acres in section 7, on November 20th, and Jeremiah Bisiier 
filed his claim on December 20th, also of the year 1830. 

About the time that John Burns located, in 1831, Samuel Gray and 
John Roberts became residents of the township, the latter having entered 
lund late in the preceding fall. Samuel Alkire entered a tract within 


the township August 18, 1832, and the following became land owners 
in 1833: Stephen Bunnell, John Wesley Bunnell, Nathaniel Bunnell, 
Sr., and Nathaniel Bunnell, Jr., December 10th ; Benjamin Reynolds, 
Christmas Day ; John, C. Kilgore, June 4th ; John Barr, Jr., June 10th ; 
William M. Kenton, November 26th. 

The Beazy family also arrived in 1833 — Isaac Beazy, wife and six 
children — but evidently were in no condition to iuvest in land. They 
came all the way from Perry County, Ohio, and the different members 
of the family rode two horses, in shifts. They were old friends of 
George A. Spencer, who made room for them in his own house until he 
and Mr. Beazy could erect a separate cabin for the newcomers. Mr. 
Beazy was employed by Mr. Spencer, and his family lived on the Spencer 
farm for' a number of years. 

Chills and Fever 

Big Creek Township, in common with other sections of the county 
which had any considerable portion of lowlands, was scourged with 
ague, or chills and fever. The trouble would generally commence in 
July and continue until midwinter; and the shakes of 1833 were long 
remembered as the most severe and prevalent of any recorded in the 
history of the township. It is said that only two residents escaped their 
onslaught — Calvin C. Spencer and a small, tough negro boy. Although 
boneset and other tried remedies were freely used, chills and fever 
continued to grip the township for at least a decade, or until the 
settlers became convinced that stagnant water and their drinking supply 
were largely the cause of the scourge, and acted accordingly. 

First Township Officers 

At the first meeting of the board of county commissioners, in July, 
1834, when Big Creek Township was created, the house of George A. 
Spencer was designated as the place for holding elections the first year, 
and James Kerr was appointed inspector. Benjamin N. Spencer was 
also named as supervisor of roads, George A. Spencer and Armstrong 
Buchanan, overseers of the poor, and Benjamin Reynolds and Henry 
Ba^cus, fence viewers. As the Spencer home was the headquarters of 
the county government for several years while the official quarters 
were being prepared at Monticello, Big Creek Township was, if any- 
thing, overburdened with circumspection ; it had more government than 
it could well bear. 

First School in the County 

The creation of the county was the signal for the inauguration of its 
educational forces. In 1834 its first school was taught by Clinton Mun- 
son in a cabin which stood on George A. Spencer's land— a round-log 
affair, 12 by 15 feet; as several log houses had been built on his land, it 


is impossible to say what one was thus 'honored. It is stated that the 
expense of its erection was borne by the resident families of George A. 
Spencer, Benjamin Reynolds, John Burns, Robert Newell, William M. 
Kenton, Zebulon Dyer, James Shafer, John Phillips and perhaps a few 
others. It was the first schoolhouse built within the limits of White 
County. A log had been omitted from the south wall to admit the light ; 
two puncheons, fastened together with wooden pins and bung on wooden 
hinges, formed the door, which was securely closed with a wooden latch 
in a wooden catch ; a string passed through the door above the latch 
and served to raise it from the outside on ordinary occasions — the ex- 
ceptions being when the bad boys arrived before the schoolmaster, when 
it would be drawn in, the window barricaded with benches and other- 
wise placed in a state to withstand a siege. The first teacher of this 
particular school was Matthias Davis. 

Land Entries in 1835-36 

The following entered lands during 1835: Barzilla W. Bunnell, 
January 9th; James Barnes, December 10th; John Lewis, September 
9th; Benjamin Reynolds, December 8th; John Brady, November 23d; 
William Cornell, October 20th ; John Beaver, December 19th ; Levi John- 
son, November 16th. 

In 1836: Thomas Spencer, January 1st; Mahlon Fraser, May 9th; 
Isaac N. Parker, January 4th ; David Fisher, May 9th ; William Warden, 
May 24th; Ninirod Warden, May 24th; Noah Dixon, November 28th; 
James Barnes, January 21st; Joshua Rinker, January 13th; Mary 
Thompson, June 15th; Nathan Goff, December 13th; John Brady, same 
date; and Eliza N. Bunnell, February 23d. 

Election op 1836 

At the fall election of 1836, held at the house of George A. Spencer, 
on the first Monday in November, the following voted, most of the 
names being already familiar: Nathaniel Bunnell, Sr., Joseph H. 
Thompson, Thomas Donavan, John Luce, Jesse Grooms, William Carr, 
Benjamin Reynolds, Thomas Bunnell, James Shafer, Joseph Phillips, 
George A. Spencer, Isaac Davis, Ellis H. Johnson, John W. Bunnell, 
Daniel Lane, Nathaniel Bunnell, Jr., B. Bunnell and Armstrong Bu- 
chanan. Nathaniel Bunnell, Isaac Davis and John Bunnell acted as 
judges. • 

The Great Hunt op 1840 • 

But although the township was organized and its citizens were exer- 
cising their full American rights, it was still a frontier country, and 
continued to be so considered for years. A good illustration of that fact 
is the Great Hunt of 1840. The district in which the chase occurred 
was bounded north by Monon Creek, east by the Tippecanoe River, south 
by the Wabash River and west by the line between White and Benton 

..i- * , 


counties. Men and boys were stationed along these boundaries a quarter 
of a mile apart, and at 8 o'clock on the morning of the "drive" com- 
menced to "close in" at a rate of advance which would bring them to 
what is now known as Reynolds' Grove at 2 o'clock P. M. In that grove 
three scaffolds had been erected on which the marksmen of the day were 
stationed. No other members of the party were allowed to carry guns. 
It is said that men attended this chase from a territory twenty-five miles 
distant, and the spoils of the chase comprised fifty deer and. many more 
wolves. The reward of the marksmen was, as usual, a specially large 
portion of the whiskey and provisions which had been hauled to head- 
quarters for the consumption of all the participants in the hunt. 

Those Who Bought Land in 1837-51 

The entries of land in Big Creek Township continued until the early 
'50s, although they were quite rare during the hard times of the late 
'30s and the early '40s. This period, 1837-51, records the following as 
new land owners, with dates of entry : Jonathan Johnson, February 1, 
1837, and Henry Linda, October 20th, of the same year ; Joshua II. Scarff 
and Jacob Hanaway, October 5 and January 25, 1839, respectively ; Okey 
S. Johnson and Catherine E. Davis, both on June 2, 1842 ; Moses Karr 
•and Joseph Karr, January 24 and May 23, 1843 ; John Ilolliday and 
John R. Jefferson, January 31 and May 28, 1844 ; Robert Bartholomew, 
September 20, 1845; Ellis H. Johnson, May 28th of that year; John 
Burget, July 29th, also 1845 ; in 1846— Abel T. Smith, May 26th ; David 
W. Parker, August 19th; John W. Johnson, June 29th; John Matthews, 
April 25th; John Bunnell, July 18th; and Silas Adams, April 13th; in 
1847 — Bushrod W. Cain, December 18th; John Friend, September llth-j 
Abraham Lukens, June 21st ; Ambrose Mudge, December 14th ; John 
Alkire, March 5th; Ezekiel Matthews, June 26th; Thomas Chenovveth, 
August 17th; in 1848 — William Vanscoy, January 26th; John R. Jeffer- 
son, October 5th; Ellis H. Johnson, January 26th; and Abel T. Smith, 
same date; Joseph D. Moore, June 19, 1849; Ira M. Chcnoweth, August 
20, 1850; and David Parker, July 28, 1851. 

Increase of Real Settlers 

All of the foregoing entries (and the statement applies to those which 
have preceded the immediate list) were made by White County settlers, 
but not all of them were by residents of Big Creek Township. A few 
of them relinquished their interests and migrated to other parts, but 
the majority improved their properties, founded homesteads and added 
to their holdings, either by the purchase of adjoining Government lands 
or of tracts which had been thrown upon the market by non-residents. 
Especially was this the ease with those who bad early begun the raising 
of live stock. Others became the owners of larger farms than they 
could profitably cultivate, and were forced to lease portions of their land 

■ • ---■■ 


to tenants, who would pay them in rental or in a stipulated proportion 
of the crops. 

B. "Wilson Smith's Picture of 1846 

Although Ahel T. Smith entered his first lands, a short distance 
southwest of Smithsou, or Wheeler, in the spring of 1846, he did not 
start with his family from their old Virginia home until the fall of the 
year. More than sixty years afterward, one of his sons, B. Wilson Smith 
(then four-score years of age), was writing as follows: 

"We left our home near Bridgeport, Harrison county, Virginia (now 
West Virginia), October 17, 1846. There my father, mother and six 
children — the oldest (Mrs. Haymond) nearly 18 years, and youngest a 
babe less than two months. I write this on the 64th anniversary of 
our departure. We came overland all the way — saw but one railroad 
track in all the way — at Springfield, Ohio. We had a three-horse wagon 
and carriage. I was past 16 years of age. I drove the wagon all the 

"We reached the county of White in the morning of November 24th. 
Had stayed at Battle Ground the night before, then called Harrisonville. 
We passed from Tippecanoe county into White county at a point a 
little north of Forgy Kious' home and went north, crossing Moots' Creek 
a little west of the home of Mr. Smelser, then county commissioner. 
Then on north, along the county road, past John Kious', over Hickory 
Ridge, and northwest to Kent's Point. Mr. Kent lived there then. My 
father had known him and bought cattle of him when he lived on Darby 
Plains, west of Columbus, Ohio. He lived in a cabin near the old grave- 
yard. John Price, his son-in-law, lived a little northeast of him. Our 
course was then straight on north to the home of John Brady on Big 
Creek, one-fourth mile west of Tucker schoolhouse, built in 1861. There 
was no house then where Chalmers is now, nor until we reached Brady's, 
except the home of Joseph H. Thompson away to the right on the hill, 
nnd the Jack Burgett cabin, one-fourth mile to the west. We passed close 
by their cabin on the cast side. We reached Mr. Brady's at nightfall. 
He and his wife were Virginians — he from the south branch of the 
Potomac, and she from Clarksburgh. She was a Britton, a very promi- 
nent family. She and my mother had been schoolmates. Her sister had 
married Nathan GolT, a man of money and influence — the Goff whose 
name so often occurs as former owner of lands in Big Creek and West 
Point townships. 

"We brought in our wagon a large box of clothing and valuables 
from Mrs. Goff to her sister, Mrs. Brady, and the family. At that time 
the Mexican War was on, and Mrs. Brady's brother, Major Forbes 
Britton, was a very prominent officer in General Taylor's family. 

"Mr. Brady's house was built of hewed logs and was about 16x18 
feet square. His family was seven or eight, ours eight, and the man who 
came with us from LaFayette, hauling a load of furniture and pro- 
visions; and yet we all stayed in that not large house of one room and 


ate and slept there. I mention this as a graphic picture of pioneer times 
in White county. This county had been organized but twelve years at 
that time. 

"The 24th of November had been a pleasant day, a little cool and 
raw, but gave no indication of - a marked change of weather. But before 
the morning dawned a fierce northwester was in full swing, and snow 
was falling and ice freezing fast. We had to go two miles west to our 
cabin, which stood about ninety rods southwest of Smithson station. We 
had to cut the ice to get across Little Creek and unload our furniture 
and provisions in the storm, and leave it till the occupant of the cabin 
could get his family and household effects out, which he kindly did. 
Father had bought the cabin and squatter right of him the spring pre- 
vious. The cabin was 14x16 feet, outside measurement, of split logs, 
making the inside measurement 13x15, one window, one door, no loft to 
speak of, and yet a family of eight stored themselves, furniture and pro- 
visions, in this small cabin for the entire winter and spring, till a new 
addition and hall and porch could be added. Yea, more, they lived 
happily — toiled hard, never complained, and saw the fruits of their toil 
in 120 acres fenced, a good corn and oats crop, and 70 acres of prairie 
broken and sowed in wheat. 

"At the time of our coming to White county there was not a town on 
the line of the Monon railroad from the Battle Ground to Michigan City. 
West Bedford, three miles east of Monon, was a small town with a post- 
office, and New Durham was 2y 2 miles east of the present town of West- 
ville. Of course there was no railroad, nor till seven years later. Monti- 
cello was a small town with no mills or water power. The two princely 
houses were those of Chas. Kendall and William Sill, who died about 
that time. Monticello had a postoffice, so also Burnett's Creek and West 
Bedford. These were all, and they only had weekly mail, carried on 
horseback from Logansport to White Post. The only mills of any special 
import were those at Norway. They had French burr stones and made 
good flour. They also carded wool. The Van Rensselaer had been de- 
stroyed, i. e., the dam, by the great floods of 1844. The only church 
building of any pretension was the New School Presbyterian at Monti- 
cello, of which the afterward celebrated Mr. Cheever had charge. I 
knew him twenty years later when in the full prime of his great career. 
The Methodists had no church in the county. The charges were not 
even a circuit, but Monon Mission. The only schoolhouse in Monticello 
then was the frame building that stood on the lot where Mrs. Israel 
Nordyke lately lived. No schoolhouse in Big Creek township except an 
old abandoned one near old Father Nathaniel Bunnell's, built of round 
logs, with mortar and stick chimney, but in the last month of the year 
the neighbors joined together and built a hewed log schoolhouse about 
one-fourth of a mile east of the present Tucker schoolhouse, which was 
built 15 years later. In this log schoolhouse the first Methodist quarterly 
meeting that I ever attended was held in March, 1847. Rev. S. C. Cooper, 
Oreencastle, was presiding elder, and Rev. Burns preacher in charge. 

"My sister Margaret, afterward Mrs. Dr. Ilaymond, taught the first 

Vol. i— u 

■■ "■ ■ ■ — ' 


school. Living as we did 90 rods southwest of Sraithson station, our 
nearest neighbors were Mrs. Abigail Johnson and her family, nearly one- 
fourth mile east, Henry Lindsey one-fourth mile west, then David Parker 
ft fourth mile further on, and then, a half mile further west, the widow 
Biddle,.and one-fourth mile further, John R. Jefferson. There were no 
neighbors south nor north nor east nearer than two miles, and. west 
(Isaac Beesy) three miles. The country was new, and the people did 
not crowd each other much. There was no newspaper then or before 
published in White county. Not much of politics or political excitement. 
I remember the presidential election of 1848. My father and I left homa 
at the same time, going in opposite directions — he east, I west. When we 
met again lie had voted for Taylor and Pilmore at the voting place of the 
township, the old seat of county government, Geo. A. Spencer's, and 
I had secured a school in Princeton township — the Nordyke neighbor- 
hood. It was my first school, and the first taught in the township. The 
13th day of November just passed was the sixty-second'anniversary of its 
opening. May I say that all of our family (children) were school 
teachers, and all taught in White county except the youngest — Henry 

"Do you wonder that I have a great love for White county? I never 
had any enemies there. I have touched shoulders with many of your early 
citizens in the life struggle. Your noble building, the schoolhouse at 
Monticello — I laid the cornerstone and delivered the oration in 186!). 
Every foot of your 504 square miles is destined to be valuable. Your 
noble river, the classic Tippecanoe, is destined to continue the most 
beautiful stream in the State, and every hamlet, village and town to 
grow in wealth and importance through the coming years. The fondest 
dreams of the early days will more than come true, and the civilized 
and cultured Anglo-Saxon continue to hold and cultivate lands wbere 
once the proud hostile Miami held savage sway." 

First Frame Schoolhouse 

As the population increased, especially in the northeastern part of' 
the township toward Monticello, the settlers prepared to give their chil- 
dren better educational conveniences. The county was divided into 
school districts, No. 1 being embraced in that territory. In 1850 the first 
frame schoolhouse in the township was erected in section 12, not far 
from the original log cabin, used for that purpose, on the Spencer farm. 

Mudge's Station and Chalmers 

The settlers felt greatly encouraged when the Louisville, New Albany 
& Chicago Railroad was completed through the township in 1853, and 
Gardner Mudge contributed land in section 34 to be used as the site of 
a station. The locality was known for years as Mudge's Station, but 
it did not bud into the Town of Chalmers until 1873, when it was first 

■■ ■ ■ - — ■ - - ■-■ - - 


First Iron Bridge 

In the early '70s several important improvements were m'ade in 
the township, among others being the building of its first iron bridge 
across Big Creek, just north of the residence of John Burns. It was 
completed in 1872 and was 100 feet long; quite a structure for those 
days and that locality. It has since been replaced by a more substantial 

Swamp Lands Reclaimed 

In the '80s the settlers commenced to take up the work of draining 
the northern swamp lands in earnest, and the result was to reclaim large 
tracts which had been held unimproved, some of the owners being non- 
residents. As these lands came into the market as fertile and valuable 
farm properties, they were purchased by actual settlers and divided into 
smaller tracts. Thus the northern part of the township received a 
noticeable accession of population. 

Smithson or Wheeler 

One of the results of this movement was the platting of the Town of 
Wheeler in section 9. It was laid out on the farm of Hiram M. Wheeler, 
on the main line of the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railroad. 
The postoffice at that point was named Smithson, in honor of Lieut. 
Bernard G. Smith, a veteran of the Civil war and a son of Abel T. Smith, 
who came to the neighborhood in 1846 and was for years prominent in 
township affairs. He died in 1875. Although the town was platted as 
Wheeler, the railroad station is usually known by the name of the 
postoffice, Smithson. 

Leader in Good Roads Movement 

Besides being early in the movement of artificial drainage, the 
farmers of Big Creek Township, with the solid support of the townsmen 
of Chalmers, took the initiative in the improvement of the highways of 
the county, and, in proportion to their population and wealth, are still 
in the front ranks of the good roads reform. In that regard the bonded 
indebtedness of the township is the fifth largest among the eleven town- 
ships of the county. Its total of $46,977 is divided among the several 
roads as follows: Dobbins, $800; Redding, $470; Anderson, $4,500; 
Younger, $4,500; J. H. Moore, $9,334; Friday, $4,800; Mills, $1,733; 
Morrison, $8,000 ; Lane, $12,840. 

I .ll-r ii 



Draining and Road Building — Honey Creek — Joshua Rinker and 
WiFE-pTiiE Bunnell Families — Smith, Hiorth's Old Partner — 
Settlers and Land Buyers of 1835 — Entered Lands in 1839-53 — 
Two-thirds Owned by Non-Residents — Founding of Reynolds — 
Guernsey — Township Created — Schoolhouse and Town Hall, — 
Pioneer Citizen Voters — Public-Spirited Township. 

As a civil body, Honey 1 Creek Township dates from 1855. Its terri- 
tory was a part of the original Union Township, created in 1834 as one 
of the four divisions of the vast "White County of that day. Monon Town- 
ship was lopped off from the parent body in 1836 and Princeton in 1844 ; 
then, in 1855, another thirty-six square miles was taken from the west- 
ern portion of Union to form Honey Creek Township, which also, about 
1905, was presented with five square miles from Big Creek Township to 
the south. Although it would be difficult to find forty-one square miles 
of better land in the county than lie within the limits of Honey Creek 
Township, their fertility and productiveness have been fairly earned, 
as no section has given more freely of its time and means to reclaim them 
from their primal disadvantages. 

Draining and Road Building 

Even for a number of years after the civil organization of the town- 
ship, its soil was largely water-soaked and most of the land was consid- 
ered unmarketable, but about 1880 the settlers took up the matter of 
ditching in an earnest and practical way. By 1882 they had some twenty 
miles of good public ditches, besides many constructed at private ex- 
pense, and with the rapid reclaiming of the lands the farmers also did 
their full share in constructing good gravel and stone roads; so that with 
the increased yield of their lands they provided the means of getting 
the produce to market in the most advantageous way. At the present 
time, there is very little land in Honey Creek Township which is not 
under a fair state of cultivation and which is not easily accessible to either 
a substantial macadam road or a line of railroad. 

In the construction of its system of macadam or gravel roads, Honey 
Creek Township lias incurred a bonded indebtedness of $38,886, divided 
as follows: Weaver Road, $8,400; Ballard, $2,400; J. II. Moore, $1,866; 
Wheeler, $4,060; Ward, $4,050; Miller, $4,950; byroads, $12,000; Lane, 



Honey Creek 

Ditching and road building have been made especially necessary in 
Honey Creek Township because of the sluggish and widespread waters 
of the stream which gives it its name. Honey Creek rises in the adjoin- 
ing townships of West Point and flows in a northeasterly direction 
through the township and empties into the Tippecanoe River three miles 
north of Monticello, in Union Township. Speaking of this stream, one 
of the oldest residents of the county says: "It might with greater pro- 
priety be termed a lake, for it had no well-defined channel from its 
entrance into the township to its passage out, but was one vast sheet of 
water without perceptible outlet, varying in width from a few hundred 
feet to a mile or more, until within two miles of its outlet it became a 
rapid stream, with well-defined channel, flowing through heavily wooded, 
rugged bluff lands, from thence to the river. It was only after the ex- 
penditure of much money and a vast amount of labor that a channel of 
any kind was made through the township, and by deepening and widen- 
ing it from year to year the water has been removed to such an extent 
as to render the larger part of the land susceptible to cultivation. There 
is not another township in the whole county where so much has been done 
to improve natural conditions, nor is there one which has equaled Honey 
Creek in its advance in material wealth and prosperity." 

Previous to the building of the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago 
Railroad through the township in 1853-54, and the platting of Reynolds 
in the latter year, few settlers had ventured into what generally was put 
down as a water-logged part of the county. Conditions were better in, 
the southern half of the township than in the northern, and the con- 
sequence was that, with very few exceptions, the pioneers who located 
before the railroad came along settled in sections 22, 26, 27, 28, 34 and 35. 
By reference to any fair map it will be seen that these sections cover the 
present site of Reynolds and certain portions of the township within two 
miles of it. 

Joshua Rinkeb and Wipe 

The first settlers of Honey Creek Township were Joshua Rinker and 
wife — the former of German blood and the latter (Louisa Recce) of 
Scotch ancestry — both Virginians, who in 1834 located in what was then 
the newly organized County of White and Union Township. Mr. Rinker 
threw up a little log cabin somewhere in section 34 and there the sturdy 
couple established themselves as the first residents in what is now Honey 
Creek Township. Long afterward it was stated by William II. Rinker, 
who was the third of their eight children and was born in that locality 
in May, 1836, that for the first two years of his residence there, Joshua 
Rinker farmed on shares, and that in 1836 he entered 130 acres of land 
in Big Creek and Honey Creek townships. At first he erected the rude 
log cabin noted, but afterward built the first brick house of the township. 
His wife died in April, 1864, and he followed her in December, I860. 


The son, William H. Rinker, married into the old Bunnel family, and 
lived for years on his farm not far from the old homestead in sectipn 34. 

The Bunnell Families 

Nathaniel Bunnell, the founder of the family, various members of 
which have become so well known in Honey Creek Township, was reared 
and married in Kentucky. When a young man he was engaged in 
■ the Ohio River trade and was one of a crew who brought the first load 
of merchandise from Marysville, Kentucky, to Chillicothe, Ohio. Soon 
afterward he moved into Ohio, and, after making several changes of 
location and serving in the War of 1812 within' the following thirty 
years, settled with a large family in what is now Honey Creek Township. 
The Tract Book shows that he entered his first tract of land in section 
34 on the 9th of December, 1833, and he probably did not settle upon 
it until the following spring or summer, following closely upon the 
arrival of the Rinkers. The families naturally became neighbors, and, 
quite as naturally, the young people commenced to intermarry. 

In April, 1834, both Nathaniel and Thomas Bunnell entered lands 
in section 27, and various members of the family, representing several 
generations, have resided at Reynolds and in neighboring territory. 
Nathaniel Bunnell died on his farm in section 34 in the year 1850. 

Smith, Hiobth's Old Partneb 

It is said that Peter B. Smith, the partner of Hans E. Hiorth in 
the sawmill established in the Norwegian settlement two miles north of 
Montieello, settled in section 1, northeast corner of what is now Honey 
Creek Township, as early as 1834. If he did so there is no record of 
any purchase of lands by him at that time; he may have been simply 
scouting for timber lands. His first entry in that section was not made 
until 1846. 

Settlers and Land Buyers ok 1835 

In 1835 the settlers included the Coles — Joseph, James and Moses — 
and about the same time Jesse Grooms and the Johnsons — Frank, Moses 
and Addison. Within the following two years also came Stephen Miller 
to section 26, V. McColloeh to section 27 and John Wilson to section 22. 

Early settlers also report that a bachelor by the name of Day came 
into the township in the same year and began settlement in section 35. 

In 1835 the only people to enter lands, according to the records, were 
also Bunnels — John Wesley Bunnell, in section 26, and Eliza Ann 
Bunnell, in section 33, both oil December 16th. 

In 1836 the Tract Book gives the following: Daniel M. Tilton, in 
section 1 (the only recorded land owner of the early times to invest in the 
northern sections of the township), December 12th; Levi Reynolds, May 
25th ; Benjamin II. Dixon, February 4th, and Harrison Skinner, June 
2d— all in section 28 ; and Thomas Brownfield, in section 34, May 3d. 

ii ■ ■ i i i , ■ - 



Entered Lands in 1839-53 

The Tract Book, which is the only reliable authority by which to' 
determine the entries of lands in the township, records the following 
as having bought real estate of the Government after 1836, until the 
township was organized in 1855: Joshua Rinker (as stated) in section 
i34, August 1, 1839; William M. Kenton, in section 25, November 20, 
1843, and in section 24, October 9, 1848; in 1844— Richard Imes, in 
section 1, April 20th; William Turner, in section 13, November 9th; 
Ellis -H. Johnson, in section 29, February 16th ; John R. Jefferson, in 
section 31, May 2d, and Richard J. Tilton, in section 36, November 9th ; 
James P. Moore, Sr., and James P. Moore, Jr., in section 6, November 

25, 1845; in' 1846— Peter B. Smith, in section 1, October 17th; Joseph 
Coble, in section 11, September 6th; William Turner, in section 17, 
September 28th ; Adin and Israel Nordyke (residents of Princeton 
Township), in section 19, October 5th; David H. Morse, in section 21, 
July 14th; Thomas Spencer, in section 24, September 26th, and in 
section 25, October 14th; Nathaniel White, in section 26, September 
29th ; Isaac Beasy, January 19th ; Okey S. Johnson, May 13th, and John 
B. Lowe, May 21st, all in section 29; and James Shaw, in section 34, 
February 25th ■ in 1847 — Liberty M. Burns, in section 15, February 7th ; 
David Marshall, in section 22, October 19th; Lewis C. Marshall, in 
section 23, October 19th ; James Witherow, in section 25, June 22d, and 
James Barnes, in same section, July 6th; David H. Morse, in section 

26, August 9th; Aaron Chamberlain, in section 30, April 15th; Isaac 
Beasey, in same section, May 18th; in 1848 — William M. Kenton, in 
section 24, October 9th; David Marshall, in section 26, same date; 
Nathaniel Bunnell, in section 34, December 9th, and Jordan Cain, in 
section 36, March 13th; in 1850 — Abraham Smith (a resident of Prince- 
ton Township), in section 19, April 12th; John Lawrie (a citizen of 
West Point Township), in section 29, December 16th, and John Day, in 
section 34, September 24th; Loreno Morse, James Shaw, James Brooks, 
John B. Cowan and K. T. and N. Bunnell, section 35, October 8, 1851; 
John Bunton, in section 31, March 5, 1852, and Levin Tucker, in section 
29, October 24, 1853. 

Two-Thirds Owned by Non-Residents 

At the organization of the township in 1855, it is estimated that fully 
two-thirds of its area was in the hands of non-residents. The swamp and 
military warrant lands taken up were as follows : 

Swamp Lands Military Lands 
Sections (acres) (acres) 

1 80 

2 440 

3 600 40 



Swamp Lands 

Military Lands 

Sections (acres) 


4 360 

80 • 


5 400 

6 120 

7 320 

8 480 

9 180 

10 280 


11 .' 400 

12 280 


14 480 

15 480 

17 220 

18 640 


19 280 


20 600 


21 600 

22 400 

23 ... . 440 


• . 





26 160 

27 160 

29 280 

30 : 480 


31 240 


32 '. . , 560 



33 160 

34 80 




To the foregoing grand total 12,460 acres of swamp and military 

lands taken up, with few exceptions by land speculators residing outside 

the county, are to be added various tracts of canal lands 

in sections 27, 

29 and 34, which were held 'out of the Government lands 

subject to free 

entry at $1.25 per acre. Two hundred acres of these lands in section 

27 were purchased by Joseph Cole, Marshall II. Johnson and Micajah 

F, Johnson ; John Lawrie, of West Point Township, bought forty acres 

in section 29, and Joseph Day and Benjamin Reynolds entered 200 acres 

in section 34. Other scattering tracts bought up by speculators, non- 

resident in Honey Creek Township, would bring the total of "foreign" 

holdings up to the 14,640 acres, as estimated. 



Founding op Reynolds 

This condition undoubtedly interfered with the early settlement of 
the country, which failed to show much progress until the building of 
the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railroad. While the line was 
in process of construction through the township the Town of Reynolds 
was laid out by Benjamin Reynolds, George S. Rose, Christian Cassell, 
William M. Kenton and Joseph H. Thompson. The original plat was 
recorded August 22, 1853, and shows 155 lots in the northeast quarter 
of 33. The village was named after Benjamin Reynolds, its acknowl- 
edged founder, who erected the first building on its site, the hotel which 
held its own in the central part of the county for many years thereafter. 
Thomas' Bunnell and William M. Kenton made the first addition to 
Reynolds in 1855. The town had many energetic and able men who 
pushed it along, notwithstanding its early setback during the inflated 
and uncertain times of 1857-58. The Pittsburgh, Chicago and St. Louis 
Railroad (Pennsylvania) was completed through the township in 1859 
and gave another boom to Reynolds, which, during the following decade, 
especially, was acknowledged to be a rival to Monticello "away off on 
the eastern borders of the county." Being the junction of the two lines, 
although it had prosperous and substantial business houses, it was 
known for many miles around as "a tough railroad town," with all that 
expression implies. But, although all of its ambitions were not realized, 
it being incorporated in 1875, it has long been an orderly place, and has 
progressed steadily as one of the best interior centers in the county. 
Reynolds is the banking and the trade center of quite a district, espe- 
cially to the north, and its dealings in grain and live stock are con- 


The only other center in the township, which is, however, of com- 
parative unimportance, is Guernsey, a station on the Monon route in 
section 12, northeastern part of the township. The place has never 
been platted; is only a small hamlet and derives its name from the 
postoffice established there. 

Township Created 

Very soon after the Town of Reynolds was platted, Benjamin Rey- 
nolds, Leander H. Jewett, Abram Van Voorst and others signed a petition 
and presented it to the court of county commissioners, praying that 
congressional township 27 north, range 4 west, should be constituted 
Honey Creek Township. At its June term, 1855, that body so ordered. 


Not long after the township was created and before any i f its officials 
had been elected the proprietors of the new town of Reynolds mado 


arrangements to build a schoolhouse on its site. It was one of the first 
buildings to be erected. Nathaniel Bunnell gave $25 for the purpose, 
Benjamin Reynolds donated the ground and other settlers in the neigh- 
borhood contributed enough by subscription to complete the building, 
which was to serve both as a schoolhouse and a town hall. 

Pioneer Citizen Voters ' • 

The first election in Honey Creek Township was held at the Reynolds 
schoolhouse on the 7th of April, 1856, and the forty-three who cast their 
ballots at that time were Abram Van Voorst, D. L. Hamilton, Newton 
Organ, M. M. Sill, 0. S. Dale, J. S. Goddard, Ira Keller, James Cole, 
Aaron Wood, Joseph Cole, Thomas Glassford, Nathaniel Bunnell, Thorn- 
ton Williams, Samuel Iloren, Washington Burns, Robert W. Sill, Fred- 
erick Medorse, Jesse Holtom, Marshall Johnson, Addison Johnson, Joshua 
Rinker, George Williams, Thomas Cain, John Reffcoots, S. A. Miller, 
Abraham Irvin, Daniel Coble, A. M. Dickinson, Patrick Horn, R. R. 
Pettit, John Horcn, L. H. Jewett, Isaac Barker, Isaac S. Vinson, John 
Bates, Lewis Kruger, J. W. Bulger, J. N. Bunnell, Nathaniel White, 
James Torpy, Isaac M. Cantwell, John Callis and Frederick Helm. The 
result was to elect Samuel Horen as township trustee, for a term of three 
years; Abram Van Voorst, for a two years term, and A. M. Dickinson, 
for one year; Leander H. Jewett and M. M. Sill, justices of the peace 
for two years; R. R. Pettit and Homer Glassford, constables for one 
year; Nathaniel Bunnell, township treasurer, one year, and Joshua 
Rinker, Newton Organ and James Coble, road supervisors, one year. 
At this election thirty-five votes were received for a road tax. Ira 
Kclls and Aaron Wood acted as judges, and 0. S. Dale and M. M. Sill 
as clerks. 

There was even a more complete turn-out at the election on the 
Second Tuesday in October of that year; this was the first state election 
held in the township and nearly every voter in it reported at the Rey- 
nolds schoolhouse. The names follow: James Himes, William White, 
Aaron Wood, A. M. Dickinson, J. B. Bunnell, Abram Van Voorst, J. II. 
Thomas, Stephen Miller, L. H. Ambler, Thornton Williams, Marion 
Hamilton, Samuel Harper, Isaac Ruger, J. S. Reynolds, Samuel Iloren, 
J. W. Brasket, William Harper, R. R. Pettit, Thomas Harper, John 
N'oali, William ITeaden, Michael Foundry, F. Herper, L. H. Jewett, F. N. 
Uolam, Lewis Shall, F. Kefsis, James S. Miller, George F. Miller, Jacob 
H.'iiHtiir, .lames Dale, M. M. Sill, James Kenton, A. Page, J. S. Goddard, 
M Poram, John Candent, E. Lickory, John Boles, Charles Keller, Henry 
Waking, M. T. Johnson, John Cole, Anderson Johnson, George Williams, 
James Cole, Benjamin Clark, Hugh Irvin, Ira Keller, John Lealy, 
I 'at rick Henry, I). L. Hamilton, N. W. Bunnell, G. Helar, A. A. Ferry- 
fold, Isaac Kentwell, Joseph Skevtington, John Cox, John Jeffcoots, B. T, 
Meyers, A. Weisc, George Emery, Nathaniel White, C. Perry, Joshua 
Perry, James Pettit, Jerry Hamilton, Thomas Spencer, Solomon Me- 
Colloch, James M. Bragg, John Horn, Nathaniel Bunnell, Adam Morgan, 



Joshua Rinker, Atlin Nordyke, Patrick Horn, Patrick Poating, James 
Turpie, Joseph Dale, P. Hartman, W. P. Stark, Joseph DcLong, Abram 
Irvin and Newton Organ. ' 

Public-Spirited Township 

After the founding of Reynolds, most of the pioneer institutions and 
movements of the township originated in that town ; consequently, many 
of the details connected with such early matters are reserved for the 
special sketch of the village. Even in the encouragement of such enter- 
prises as the construction of roads and ditches, which affect the township 
at large^ the people of Reynolds have always been helpful to the extent 
of their means. In fact, as a whole, it is a township which enjoys a 
marked public spirit. 



Joseph Stewart, Mighty Hunter — The Palestine Settlement — The 
Godfather of the Township — Thomas Gillpatrick — Black Oak 
Settlement — Township Created and Named — State and Town- 
ship Elections — The Nordyke Settlement — The ScuooLnousE 
Competition — Land Entries, 1842-47 — Saddled with Land Specu- 
lators — Fever and Ague, or Chills and Fever — Is It Any Won- 
der? — Reclaimed Lands and Good Roads — Pioneer Settlement 
Determined by Natural Conditions — Cattle Raising and Herding 
— Light Ahead — Wolcott and Its Founder — Seafield. 

Princeton Township is one of the few portions of White County in 
which pioneer settlement and civil organization were almost coincidents. 
As created in 1855 by the board of county commissioners, it comprised 
seventy-eight square miles — not only its present area, but the fifteen 
westernmost sections of Monon Township. Legally and specifically, its 
bounds were thus described : Commencing at the northeast corner of 
section 1, township 28 north, range 5 west, and running south on said 
section line to the north line of Big Creek Township ; thence west along 
said line to the west line of White County; thence north along this line to 
the corner of White County; thence east along said county line six 
miles; thence north on said county line five miles; thence east three miles 
to the place of beginning. Monon Township afterward regained its 
three western tiers of five sections each, thus reducing Princeton to its 
present area of sixty-three square miles — nine miles from east to west, 
and seven from north to south. 

Joseph Stewart, Mighty Hunter 

Joseph Stewart, a young hunter and trapper without family, was the 
first white man to settle within the limits of Princeton Township. He 
entered forty acres in section 2, in the northwest corner of the township, 
on the 10th of December, 1841, but probably in the early spring of that 
year had built his shack on a sand ridge which ran through his tract. 
Unincumbered as he was, the young sportsman had little use for a 
dwelling except as a storehouse for his guns, traps and skins. At that 
time there was no habitation within ten miles of his hut. A winding 
patli through the brush led to the front from the west, and shortly after 
his arrival Stewart fenced and cultivated a few acres of land in his back- 
yard. For several years his cabin was a favorite resort of hunters and 



travelers in that region. Stewart could narrate marvelous tales of his 
narrow escape from the horns of wounded hucks, from packs of wolves 
and individual catamounts, panthers and lynx. The sides of his cahin, 
well covered with the skins of deer and wolf, bore some evidence as to a 
portion of these blood-curdling tales, but signs-manual as to his prowess 
against the wild cats of the forest were lacking. 

The Palestine Settlement 

After Stewart, the mighty hunter, came such modest tillers of the 
soil as Henry Pugh, Nathaniel Rogers and John Cain, all of whom 
located in 1842 on sections 5 and 8 and commenced what was long known 
as the Palestine settlement. Of this colony the family of Henry Pugh 
is said to have Been the first to arrive, moving from Union Township in 
January, 1843, and installing themselves in the hewn-log cabin erected 
by the father and husband during the previous fall in section 8. Pugh 
was one of the most noted woodsmen in the township and cut the logs 
for not only his own house but for the cabins erected by his two neigh- 
bors, and his services in that line were often called into requisition as 
other settlers came into the northern part of the township, ne was what 
you might call a handy man to have 'round in those days. 

In the spring of 1843 Messrs. Rogers and Cain became residents of 
the Palestine settlement, building their cabins in section 5, to the north 
of Pugh 's house. The cabins erected by Pugh and Cain were 16 by 20 
feet each, while the one built by Nathaniel Rogers was 1G by 22 feet. 

The Tract Book shows that John Cain entered land in section 32, 
north of section* 5, in January, 1842, and that Nathaniel S. Rogers pur- 
chased a tract in the same section during the following month. 

In June, 1842, Daniel and John Nyce entered lands in section 2 and 
settled on their tracts soon after Rogers and Cain had completed their 

The Godfather op the Township. 

In 1843 Cornelius Vandervolgen came over from England in the 
good ship "Princeton" and located in section 1, thus becoming a resident 
of Palestine. As will be seen, the township received its name at his sug- 
gestion. Anson Jewett, in section 7, Cornelius Stryker in section 10, 
and others, also settled in that part of the township, investing quite 
largely in canal lands. 

Thomas Gillpatrick 

In February, 1844, Thomas Gillpatrick entered lands in section 22, 
southeast of the central part of the township, in what afterward became 
the Nordyke settlement. He probably located in the following spring, as 
he was on band to vote at the fall election of 1845. 


'Black Oak Settlement 

About this time a settlement to the northwest of Palestine was formed 
' in Princeton Township. James Brown, an Ohio man, was the first to 
arrive in that locality. His cabin was even smaller than those first erected 
by the founders of Palestine, being only 14 by 18 feet. He was soon 
followed by Jacob Myrtle and Messrs. Gooddale and Hemphill, who called 
their little cluster of cabins Black Oak settlement. 

Township Created and Named 

. By the spring of 1844 there were enough settlers in the western part 
of Union Township to warrant a separate government, and in March 
they presented to the Court of County Commissioners a petition looking 
to that end. At the same time Mr. Vandervolgen suggested that it be 
called Princeton, in honor of the grand old vessel in which he "came 
over." As now known, that body accepted the name and announced the 
boundaries of the new township. 

State and Township Elections 

The first election held in Princeton Township was for state officers, 
the following voters discharging their duties at the house of Daniel 
Nyee, in section 2, on the 4th of August, 1845: Nathaniel Rogers, Cor- 
nelius Vandervolgen, William Bunnell, John C. Lielfor, Nathaniel B. 
Volger, Daniel Nyce, John Cain, Mortimer Dyer, Henry Pugh, R. C. 
Johnson, Joseph Stewart, Isaac Chase, Elias Esra, Adin Nordyke, John 
C. Morman," Israel Nordyke, Thomas Gillpatrick and Anson Jewett. 

At the first election for township officers, held on the first Monday 
of April (6th), 1846, the following cast their votes: Elias Morman, 
Israel Nordyke, John Cain, John Birch, John Moran, John Lear, Thomas 
Gill, Joseph Lear, Anson "Wood, Henry Pugh, Daniel Nyee, J. R. Ben- 
ham, Andrew Morman, Mortimer Dyer, James Street, Adin Nordyke, 
Benjamin Gillpatrick, Elias Esra, Cornelius Stryker, Anson Jewett, 
Nathaniel Rogers and Leandcr II. Jewett. Elias Esra was chosen super- 
visor of roads, twenty votes being cast for him ; Robert Nordyke, inspector 
of elections, by the same vote; Elias Morman and Anson "Wood were tied 
for the office of fence viewer, two votes being cast for each ; James Street, 
constable, with twenty votes to his credit. 

The Nordyke Settlement 

Although the first recorded entry of lands by Adin and Israel Nor- 
dyke is given as October 13, 1846, in section 21, it is evident from the 
foregoing list of voters that various members of the family had already 
effected a lodgement in the central portion of the township. "Within the 
succeeding few years the well known Nordyke settlement sprung up i" 
that neighborhood, and vied for superiority with the Palestine people, 
several miles to the northwest. 


The Schoolhouse Competition 

• Perhaps the most earnest contest was over the matter of schoolhouses. 
The Nordyke institution was opened ahout 1848, with B. Wilson Smith 
in charge; was built of hewn logs, and was 16 by 18 feet on the ground. 
But it had only one window! 

The Palestine schoolhouse that stood on Mortimer Dyer's land was 
of the same dimensions as those of its rival, but had two windows— one 
on each side— extending the entire length of the building. To modify 
this advantage over the Nordyke schoolhouse it was only a round-log 
structure; so that the most unprejudiced judges said that honors 
were even. 

This state of affairs existed until 1854, when the Nordyke settlement 
erected the first frame schoolhouse in the township, about half a mile 
north of the first log building, which lost the day to the Palestine settle- 
ment. , 

. Land Entries, 1842-1847 

Among those who entered lands in Princeton Township previous to 
1848, not already mentioned, were John Porter, in section 36, north- 
western part of the township, August 26, 1842; Comfort Olds, January 
11, and William Coon, May 29, 1843, both in section 2, just southeast 
of the Porter claim; Elizabeth Pugh, in section 8, September 5, 1845; 
Mortimer Dyer, in section 9, August 10, and in section 36 (range 6), 
August 18, 1845; Robert C. Johnson, in section 15 (range 5), and Hiram 
F. Lear, in section 33 (township 28, range 5). 

In 1846 settlements in the township became more numerous. The 
following entered lands in township 27, range 5: Peter Penham, in 
section 1; Jonathan White, section 15; Adin and Israel Nordyke, in 
section 21, and Alfred Harrison and Benjamin Harrison, in section 28. 

In 1847 Hiram F. Lear purchased land in section 4 ; Richard J. Tilton 
in section 7; Anson Jewett in section 8; James McKillip and James 
Holliday in section 10; John Burch in section 15 j Richard J. Tilton 
and Rebecca J. Tilton in section 17; William W. Wynkoop in section 
25; Christopher Burch in section 32; James E. Adams ami John Stewart, 
in section 33; David Wright in section 34, and Isaac Beascy in section 36. 
In section 35, township 28, range 6, Newton Stewart entered lands on 
October 25, 1847. 

There was a period of several years after 1847 when few settlers 
came into the township, but the influx commenced again in the early 
'50s, by the latter portion of that decade was quite brisk, and between 
1856 and 1860 the population nearly doubled. 

Saddled with Land Speculators 

Princeton Township shared the fate of Honey Creek and most of 
the other northern townships, in the matter of having its lands monop- 
olized by non-resident speculators in the early period of its development. 


First they bought up large tracts of swamp land and canal lands, and 
later added to their holdings by purchasing all the land warrants they 
could lay their hands on, and paying ex-Mexiean soldiers a song in cash 
for good Government titles. These large areas they held at prices far 
in excess of the regular Government price, and as settlers were able to 
avail themselves of the cheaper rates in neighboring townships or coun- 
ties, Princeton and all the other speculator-ridden sections were care- 
fully avoided by those who really sought land upon which to found 
homes. It was not, in fact, until the Government lands, at $1.25 per 
acre, had been exhausted in adjacent territory, and there had arisen a 
general economic and sanitary demand for the drainage of the swamp 
lands, with a consequent increase of taxes upon the properties, that the 
speculators were routed in favor of the homeseekers. 

When the non-resident landlords found that they could not hold these 
tracts for a rise without paying something in return for their increase in 
value, they attempted to unload them on residents. Even as late as 
1855 the land held under the military land warrants was offered at less 
than the Government price. But no purchasers were found, as residents 
had all the land they wanted, and many of them were deeply in debt for 
the tracts they had purchased from the trustees of the Wabash & Erie 
canal. Much of this land had been sold on time, with a small advance 
payment, the certificate of purchase stipulating that in case of non- 
payment of the balance, when due, the first payment would be forfeited 
and tlie land resold. Thousands of acres of canal lands were thus sold 
in Princeton and other townships of the county at $2 per acre, the first 
payment being sometimes forfeited two or three times on the same tract 
of land. 

Fever and Ague, or Chills and Fever 

But perhaps the chief drawback to the settlement of families in 
Princeton Township — and until he had a family with him no man was 
considered a fixed asset of the community — was the unhealthfulness of 
the region, so much of which was covered by water a large portion of 
the year. Had it been flowing water, the situation would not have been 
so bad ; but most of it was stagnant, a breeder of disease in the specialty 
of fever and ague, or chills and fever; it matters little which is named 
first or last — the combination is equally hideous. 

For thirty-five or forty years Princeton Township was known as one 
of the bad ague districts of the county, and for a number of years after 
its organization the plague regularly appeared with the cessation of 
the rainy season and the commencement of summer heat. The worst 
season of all was that of 1844-45, as it continued to rage for eight or nine 
monlhs. Copious rains lasted from May 10 to July 4, 1844, and all but 
the highest ground in the township was virtually under water. One of 
the pioneers says that it rained so hard and long that for two days and 
a night the water stood six inches deep on his cabin floor, and he was 
obliged to get under the dining table to protect himself from the down- 
pour. All the ground under cultivation had been prepared for corn, but 


planting was impossible. The rain slackened a little about the 1st of 
July, and by the 4th the hot season commenced. The entire country 
then commenced to be wrapped in heavy, oppressive vapor, and the 
people, soaked and weakened for the preceding two months, now began 
to be racked with alternate waves of chills and fever. July and August 
saw the epidemic at its height, and there were not enough well persons 
in the township to care for those who were seized with it. The trouble 
was not considered under control until the midwinter of 1S44-45. Dur- 
ing this period of suffering and discouragement, as well as during the 
successive ague seasons, the house of John IT. Lear, in section 4, northern 
part of the township, was known as the quinine depot for the north- 
western part of the county. Mr. Lear would purchase the drug in 
wholesale quantities, and haul it by ox-team to any stricken settlement 
or locality, and then the neighbors would come and get enough to meet 
their cases, subject to the approval of the purchaser. He was not a 
regular practitioner, but was known for miles around as the "ague 
comforter;" and there is nothing in the records to show that he ever 
collected for his specific unless the recipient was well able to pay. 

Is rr Any "Wonder? 

It is asserted by those who came to the township at an early day 
that for ten years after its first settlement there was absolutely no pure 
water within its limits ; and in that regard it was no exception to other 
swamp districts in the northern part of White County. The wells of 
the pioneer settlers were holes in the ground at the foot of the ridge on 
which their residences and outhouses were usually built. These sources 
of the family drinking supply were sometimes walled with oak plank 
and covered, but more often unwalled and uncovered. A downpour of 
rain would fill these holes with surface water and filthy washings to the 
very top, which abomination was drawn upon for drinking, cooking and 
all other domestic purposes. Is it any wonder that ague, malarial fevers 
and all other forms of filth diseases victimized these unfortunates, and 
that most of them for years were completely unfitted for labor during 
six months of the twelve ? 

Reclaimed Lands and Good Roads 

Better conditions commenced to prevail with the drainage of the 
swamp lands, and, with the gradual extension of that work and the 
building of good roads so as to minimize the dangers to health from k- 
posure in the open, the settlers of Princeton Township enjoy all the bene- 
fits of modern sanitary precautions. Within the past twenty-five or 
thirty years Princeton Township has been among the foremost sections 
of the county in the reclamation of its lowlands and their improvement 
in respect both to agriculture and residence uses. 

In this connection high credit should be given her citizens for their 
faithful work in the construction of good roads throughout their terri- 

Yol. 1.— 17 


tory. In this movement, which lias come to be regarded as a test of 
public spirit in ull country districts, Princeton stands second among 
the townships of the county, being only surpassed by Prairie. The 
bonded indebtedness incurred by the different roads (macadam or 
gravel) is as follows: Princeton Township, $14,680.25; Lear, $5,250; 
Diemer, $5,200; Swyginan, $4,100; Dawson, $12,800; M. G. Dobbins, 
$9,900; Pugh, $5,400; Chenoweth, $4,400; Mooy, $3,800. Total, 

Pioneer Settlement Determined by Natural -Conditions 

The first settlements in the township were made chiefly in the northern 
and eastern sections, or the timber regions. The western and southern 
portions were generally prairie lands, almost treeless and decidedly mo- 
notonous. The pioneer settlement, or Palestine, was made on the border 
between the timber and prairie country, and nearly all of those who 
located in that part of the township bought and improved the prairie 
land immediately adjoining their wooded farms. 

A branch of the Little Monon Creek is the only running stream of 
water in the township and was a large determining factor in early set- 
tlement. It rises in Benton County, flows northeasternly across the 
northwest corner of West Point Township, enters Princeton near the 
center of its southern line, and continues in the same general direction 
diagonally through its southern, central and northeastern sections, into 
Monon Township, and forms a part of what is now the Hoagland ditch 
which drains most of this section of the county. 

This stream was the only natural outlet for the vast body of water 
which accumulated on the lowlands of the southern, central and north- 
eastern portions of the township, but as much of this low land area was 
below the bed of the creek the natural drainage was a very slow process 
and was to a large extent replaced by evaporation. A few who resided 
close to the stream resorted to artificial drainage, but most land owners 
preferred to cultivate their sand ridge land, which although less pro- 
ductive, required less care. They even favored the dreary prairie 
stretches of the southwest and west. In a word this branch of the Little 
Monon was a determining factor in the early settlement of Princeton 
Township, in that most of the newcomers avoided it and its overflowing 

Cattle Raising and Herding 

Rut the prairie lands, especially those which were high and un- 
dulating, increased in favor. They afforded fine pasturage for cattle, of 
which fact the settlers of the '50s and '60s were not slow to take prac- 
tical advantage. In the palmy days of the business, when the farmers 
were not only raising cattle of their own, but herding large numbers for 
eastern dealers, the country was not unlike the Far West of a later day, 
ulbeit on a minor scale. 

I 'm in n T i mn i ■ ! ...■■. i i i i . ■ ■ ii ii ■ ■■ ■ i — . . . ■ ■ 


This interesting and important feature of the early times in Princeton 
Township, when all its progress seemed to depend on the development 
of its agricultural wealth, is thus drawn by one who witnessed most of 
it himself: "The business of herding cattle on the prairie became quite 
an industry to the settlers, and there were few of them who failed to 
prepare pounds by fencing from one to ten acres of their land with 
rails, and stake and double-rider the lot, preparatory to receiving a 
herd in the pasturing season. The number of cattle taken by the settler 
depended upon his ability to care for a greater or a less number, ranging 
from 250 to 500 head; but it was found that not more than 300 head 
could be advantageously kept in one herd to obtain the best results. 

"The price paid by the owners for herding was twelve and a half 
cents per month for each animal cared for, until competition among the 
settlers to secure a herd reduced it to ten cents per head. For this sum 
the settler must furnish the herder, -and salt for the cattle at stated 
periods," and at the end of the season account for every animal short of 
the number counted in to him in the spring. If one died, the production 
of the hide and horns, with the owner's brand tbcreon, was satisfactory; 
otherwise, the value of the animal was deducted from the amount paid 
for the herding. 

"The furnishing a herder was a matter of small moment to the set- 
tler, as all members of the family, boys and girls alike, were trained from 
infancy to be expert riders, and it was not unusual to see a whole family 
out on the herding ground, rounding up and guarding three or four 
hundred head of cattle, until they should become accustomed to their 
surroundings and learn the route from the pound to the herding ground 
in the morning and the return route in the evening; after which the 
herd caused little trouble during the remainder of tlie season, unless a 
hailstorm or something unusual should frighten them and cause a stam- 
pede, in which case it required good generalship and plenty of nerve 
on the part of the herder to save the animals from partial, if not total 

"A herd of cattle properly cared for during the season would take 
on from two hundred to two hundred and fifty pounds of Hesh per head, 
and as much as three hundred pounds have been added to the weight of 
thirty three-year-old cattle in the six months of pasturage. This latter, 
however, was in exceptional cases and under most favorable conditions, 
largely dependent on the care and attention of the herder. 

"Another fruitful source of revenue to the settlers was the feeding 
of the herd during the winter, if the owner desired it. In those early 
days a steer was not considered marketable until after he had passed 
the fourth year, and as food was plentiful, and practically no market 
available for it, the owners would often contract with the settlers to keep 
the herd during the winter at varying prices per month per head, de- 
pendent upon the manner and material to be used in the wintering. Tf 
the diet was prairie hay and corn fodder, with an occasional change to 
wheat or oats straw, a very moderate price would be charged, but if 
the cattle were to be fed grain, in addition to the hay and fodder, addi- 



tional Compensation was received. The feed lot was located on the high- 
est ground obtainable, usually a sand ridge covered with brush and young 
timber, through which narrow roadways would be made for the passage 
of wagons containing the feed for the cattle; and the feed, whether hay, 

I'uivtny of WolcuU Euterprti* 

Hon. Anson Wolcott 

fodder or shock corn, would be unloaded along the roadways so as to 
give every nniinal in the lot a chance to get a portion of it. For water, 
a pond would be enclosed in the lot, and it was no difficult matter to 
find one sufficient to supply a large herd during the winter mouths; the 
only difficulty was to keep it open in freezing weather." 

'■-• -■- ■ 



Ligiit Ahead 

Until the completion of the Pittsburgh, Chicago & St. Louis Rail- 
road through the township on the last day of November, 1859, the 
farmers were unable to market either their live stock or their produce 
in any way which 'could encourage them to expand their operations. In 
that event and year they saw light ahead. 


The comfort, prosperity and health of all the residents of the town- 
ship were advanced by the advent of what is now the Pennsylvania road, 
and by the platting of Wolcott, a conveniently situated center for the 
purchase of supplies and general trading, in May, 1861. It was laid 
out in the eastern part of section 25 and the western portion of section 
30, by E. G. Wolcott and Anson Wolcott, his brother and attorney in 
fact, an able New York lawyer, then in his fortieth year, who had been 
a resident of the township for three years. In 1847 he had been ad- 
mitted to practice in the Supreme Court at Buffalo, New York, and 
in 1852 in the Supreme Court of the United States. After the platting 
of this town, Mr. Wolcott devoted himself to its improvement, practiced 
his profession and became interested in questions of state and politics. 
In 1868 he had so far attained leadership in the republican party as 
to be elected to the State Senate, and served in the sessions of 1869 and 
1871. For many years he was adjudged one of the most able and thor- 
oughly educated men in the county, and was mentioned several times 
as a candidate for Congress. He died at his home in Wolcott on Janu- 
ary 11, 1907. A more detailed biography will be found in connection 
with the history of the Town of Wolcott. 

The Town of Wolcott, notwithstanding its setback occasioned by the 
fires of recent years, is one of the progressive centers of trade and civic 
activities in the county. 


Three miles east, on the Pennsylvania Railroad, is the Town of Sea- 
field, platted by M. C. Hamlin, in June, 1863. It is the center of a pro- 
ductive farming district, but as Wolcott is only three miles to the west, 
and Reynolds six miles to the east, there is little chance for its ex- 
pansion as a village. 



Timber Lands and Lowlands — The Indian Village: — Crystal D. W. 
Scott — Coming of Jonathan Sluyter and Moses Karr — The 
Township Created — First Election and Officials — Change of 
Boundaries — Divided into Road Districts — Settlers Previous to 
1840— Unusual Progress in 1840-50 — Pioneers Sell Improved 
Lands — Non-Resident Purchasers — Kean's Creek Swamp Lands 
— The Sluyter Schooliiouses — Religion at the Scott Settle- 
ment — First Marriage and First Death — Buffalo Postoffice 
Established — John C. Karr and the Town— Thomas B. Moore — 
Karr's Addition to Buffalo — The Iron Bridge— Sitka— The 
Hughes and VanVoorst Families. 

The form taken by the thirty-four and a half sections of land com- 
prising Liberty Township, in the northeastern part of White County, 
is largely determined by the meanderings of the Tippecanoe River, 
which shapes about two-thirds of its western boundary, the continua- 
tion of that line northward being from a point where the southern line 
of section 16 crosses the stream; the northern, southern and eastern 
boundaries were purely land lines. The Tippecanoe passes diagonally 
througli the three upper tiers of sections, the river, as a whole, forming 
the highway along which were scattered the first settlements of both 
red men and white. 

Timber Lands and Lowlands 

Along the river valley, and for some distance inland, in the western 
and southwestern portions of the township, were forests of white oak, 
sugar maple, poplar, ash, hickory and walnut, with a thick undergrowth 
of hazel, plum, haw, mulberry and sassafras, but the eastern sections 
were largely marsh land, interspersed with low ridges of sand. The 
latter tracts were sprinkled with undergrowths, but showed nothing in 
the way of large timber. The lowlands were naturally last to come into 
the market, and were not taken up to any extent until after the passage 
of the state law, in the early 70s, by which ditching companies were 
formed and the benefited lands assessed for the drainage improvements. 
Then the speculators commenced to sell and subdivide their large idle 

The Indian Village 

When the first settlers came into the county in 1829-30 they found 
two Indian villages within its present limits; the smaller one was about 



half a mile north of the locality now occupied by Monticello, and the 
larger Pottawattamie village was on the eastern banks of the Tippecanoe 
five miles above, near what was afterward known as Holmes' ford, some 
three miles west of the present hamlet of Sitka. The village embraced' 
nearly 100 wigwams and about 400 Indians, and adjoining it were three 
or four acres of communal land cultivated to corn, pumpkins, squashes 
and Irish and sweet potatoes. As the river furnished fish, and the woods 
opossum, deer and other game, their diet did not lack in variety, although 
their cooking and seasoning were not to the white man's taste. The 
Pottawattamies were dirty, hospitable beggars and thieves, and the few 
settlers of Liberty Township who located in the valley while these red 
men infested it were pleased indeed when they finally abandoned their 
village, in 1838, and started for their Kansas reservation. 

Crystal D. W. Scott 

Crystal D. W. Scott is claimed to have been the first .white settler in 
what is now Liberty Township. The date of his coming is placed as 
early as 1835, although he does not appear to have entered lands in 
sections 1 and 11 (township 28, range 3) until August 13, 1836. On the 
24th of that month Greenup Scott purchased a tract in section 11; All 
these lots were along the river in the northeast corner of the township. 

The following entered lands at even earlier dates than the Scotts: 
Thomas Macklin, in section 3, township 27, range 3, April 15, 1834; Amos 
Wiley, in same section, December 28th of that year; James Crose, Decem- 
ber 16, 1835, in section 33, township 28, range 3; James Sampson, in 
section 9, November 16, 1835 ; John Parker, in section 21, township 28, 
range 3, July 21, 1836 ; John Cobler, in section 28, February 1st of that 
year; James W. Hall and Jacob Meyer, in same section, July 21st and 
July 25th, respectively ; Thomas T. Benbridge, in section 33, April 12th 
of that year; John Bell, in section 34, July 14th, and the following in 
township 27, range 3, in the year 1836 : Nimrod Warden, William 
Warden and Jacob Slater, in section 4; William Flomming, in section 
5; Samuel Benson and Jacob Cornell, in section 9. 

The following entered land in township 28, range 3, after Crystal 
D. W. Scott, in 1836; William Fisher, Samuel Simmons, Joseph Smith, 
Andrew Beauchamp, William Ross and James W. Mclntyre, in section 
1 ; Elihu Harlan, in section 11 ; Nathaniel Bell, in section 12 ; William 
Wilson, in section 13; John W. Berry, in section 14; George I. Baum, 
Jabez B. Berry, Mercer -Brown and John B. Niles, in section 15, and 
William Greathouse, in section 23, and George Snyder, in section 34. 

Jonathan W. Si-uyter and Moses Karr 

In 1836 Jonathan W. Sluyter left the State of New York and, with his 
wife and Hiram and Abraham Sluyter, Ins sons, began settlement on a 
tract of land which embraced the present site of Buffalo. The account of 
their trip has come down to us through his living descendants. Obviously 


of Dutch ancestry, his immediate ancestors settled in the Empire State 
while it was yet a portion of England's colonial possessions. His branch 
of the family took root in Sullivan County, where Mr. Sluyter himself 
married Elizabeth J. Hall, of English parentage. In the spring of 1836 
he started with his family overland for the western prairies of Illinois. 
They went by way of Philadelphia, and as night overtook them in the 
city they camped around their wagon in one of its streets. The trip 
lasted all summer, through roadless forests and swamps, under chilling 
rains and hot suns, until the weary pilgrims finally reached Logansport, 
and, several weeks later, the Tippecanoe River. 

On account of the high water, the travelers were unable to cross the 
stream, and, as the season was already well advanced, Mr. Sluyter de- 
cided to camp temporarily on the spot. The family moved into a deserted 
log cabin, and, after spending the winter therein, concluded to locate 
permanently. The deciding factor in the situation had grown out of 
the fact that Mr. Sluyter had built a forge and worked up quite a trade 
with the Pottawattamies of the village below, his specialty being the 
fabrication of steel arrowheads at one cent each. He had learned to talk 
their language and established a nice business with his red friends both 
in barter and cash. 

Mr. Sluyter sold his original place to a Mr. Bowen, and then entered 
240 acres of unimproved land in and about section 28. In that locality 
he continued to work at blaeksmithing ; also cleared and cultivated his 
land. Later he purchased land in section 15, and when a postoffice was 
established on his farm in 1857 he had it named Buffalo and was ap- 
pointed its postmaster. It was at that locality that he passed his last 
years. His three sons were all born in New York State before he came 
west ; one of them died when he was fourteen years of age, but the other 
two passed the remainder of their lives in White County, and their de- 
scendants are yet living in the localities where Jonathan W. Sluyter 
first invested in lands. 

The year 1836 also brought into Liberty Township such men as 
'Squire James W. Hall, William Fisher and George J. Baum, whose 
land entries have been noted. Mr. Baum cleared ten acres of his land 
in section 15 and built a cabin, but soon left the township. 

Among those who settled in the township shortly before or about the 
time of its organization were Lewis Elston, in 1836, and Rev. Abram 
Sneathcn, James Hughes, John Parker and Moses Karr, in 1837. Mr. 
Karr returned to his home in Butler County, Ohio, after entering his 
land, but brought his family with him in 1839 "and became a permanent 

The Township Created 

At the September term of the Board of County Commissioners it was 
ordered that all that portion of White County lying cast of the Tippe- 
canoe River and north of the north line of section 16, township 28 north, 
range 3 west, constitute a new civil township to be designated Liberty; 
and it was farther ordered that all that portion of Pulaski County lying 


immediately north of the new township be attached thereto. Until 1848, 
what is now known as Cass Township was within the jurisdiction of 
Liberty Township; consequently Christopher Vandeventer and other 
pioneers who are claimed hy Cass Township, appear among the lists of 
voters applicable to the period, 1838-48. 

First Election and Officials 

The first election held in Liberty Township, at the house of Crystal 
D. W. Scott, on the first Monday of April, 1838, brought out the follow- 
ing voters: Christopher Vandeventer, Joseph Smith, John McDowell, 
Greenup Scott, Benjamin Grant, Andrew Beechum, Jonathan "W. Sluy- 
ter, Crystal D. W. Scott, James W. Hall, Thomas Hamilton, John 
Parker and James Baum. These gentlemen unanimously cast their bal- 
lots for Mr. Hall for justice of the peace; Crystal D. W. Scott, inspector 
of elections ; Mr. Sluyter, constable ; Messrs. Smith and Hamilton, over- 
seers of the poor ; Mr. Parker, supervisor, and Mr. Beechum and Greenup 
Scott, fence viewers. 

Change of Boundaries 

At the May term of the Commissioners' Court, in 1838, a petition 
was presented signed by Jonathan Sluyter and other citizens of Liberty 
and Monon townships, asking for a change of boundaries, in accordance 
with which the board ordered that the east side of Monon Township, 
with the following bounds, be attached to Liberty: Leaving the Tippe- 
canoe River at the point where the south line of section 16 crosses the 
river, thence west parallel with the section line to the southwest corner 
of section 16, township 28, range 3, and thence north parallel witli the 
section line to the north boundary of White County. 

In the following August (1838) the following voted: Abram 
Sneathen, Andrew Beechum, Evan Thomas, Christopher Vandeventer, 
John Parker, Crystal D. "W. Scott, William Davison, James W. Hall, 
Thomas Hamilton, Elijah Sneathen, Benjamin Grant, V. Sluyter, James 
G. Brown, Joseph Smith, William Cary and W. W. Curtis. 

Divided into Road Districts 

In the early part of 1839 the township was divided into two road 
districts; all of the territory lying north of section 16 constituted district 
No. 1, and all south, district No. 2. At the April election for that year 
John McNary was chosen constable; Crystal 1). \V. Scott, inspector of 
elections; John McDonald, supervisor for (he First district, and Andrew 
Beechum, for the Second district; John Morris and Greenup Scott, fence 
viewers; and Daniel Baum and Elijah Sneathen, overseers of the poor. 
C. D. W. Scott, Thomas Lansing and John McNary were judges, and 
S. W. Hall and Christopher Vandeventer, clerks. 


Settlers Previous to 1840 

The following is a list of actual settlers who located in Liberty Town- 
ship previous to 1840, many of the names having already appeared: 
Crystal D. W. Scott, Greenup Scott, Jonathan Sluyter, Thomas Maekin, 
Lewis Elston, Abraham -Lowther, Abram Sneathen, James Hughes, John 
Parker, Moses Karr, William Comvell, Christopher Vandeventer, Joseph 
Smith, John McDowell, Benjamin Grant, Andrew Beauchamp, James W. 
Hall, Thomas Hamilton, James Baum, Evan Thomas, William Davison, 
Elijah Sneathen, James G. Brown, William Carey, John MeNary, John 
McDonald, John Morris, Thomas Lansing, William Fisher, Jacob Funk, 
Joseph James, George Baum, Robison Grewell, Henry Hanawalt, David 
Cress, Robert Scott, William Greathouse, John S. Hughes, Thomas 
Wiley, John Cobler, Samuel Simmons, William Ross, James W. Mc- 
Entyre, Daniel Baum, Perry A. Bayard, William Fleming, James B. 
Cahill, James Sampson, Samuel Benson, Jacob Cornell, Jonathan Baker, 
James Crose, Samuel Funk, John Mikesell, David Bolinger, John Bell, 
George Snyder, Rodney M. Miller, Jabez B. Berry, Charles Wright, 
Matthew Hopper, David and Ransom McConnahay and William and 
James Hickman. 

Unusual Progress in 1840-50 

With the Pottawattamiea fairly out of the country and the lifting 
of the financial clouds which for a number of years had obscured the 
fair prospects of the Middle West, immigration to Liberty Township 
took a decided forward move, in common with most of the other sec- 
tions of the county. In 1840 the population of the county was 1,832 ; in 
1850, 4,771 — a larger percentage of increase than has ever occurred 
during one decade. 

Pioneers Sell Improved Lands 

Many of those who arrived during that progressive period pur- 
chased land which had been partially improved by the pioneers, and as 
a rule they bought to advantage. With much Government land still 
accessible at $1.25 an acre, it was difficult for the pioneer farmers to 
refuse $6 or $8 per acre. True, it had cost them several years of labor 
in fencing, clearing and building, but with the money received from the 
later comers they figured that they could still purchase Government 
lands and have a neat sum in bank. On the other hand, the second 
generation, or incursion of farmers, were generally family men, with 
boys and girls of mature and helpful ages, some of them ready to assume 
their posts in the community as founders of households. In such cases 
it seemed the wiser part to obtain holdings which were already more or 
less productive. 


Non-Resident Purchasers 

. When those who sold their farms at the advanced price attempted 
to purchase, at the Government figures they often found that most of 
the choicest pieces remaining were owned by non-residents, who were 
'holding them for a ris6. Thus it was that not a few of the earlier set- 
tlers suffered eventually because they chose the immediate profits.. But 
although a considerable body of the Government land passed into the 
hands of foreigners,' as a rule Liberty Township suffered less from the 
manipulations of speculators than some of the other districts of the 
county. As much of the land held by non-residents was unfenced, also, 
the home farmers used it as pasturage for their live stock, and, in view 
of that fact, 'an advantage accrued to the actual settlers. 

In the '70s, when the drainage of the swamp lands commenced in 
earnest, the situation was reversed and the stockmen, and even owners 
of timber farms, often objected that the construction of certain ditches, 
for which they were assessed, was more to the benefit of the speculators 
than the resident farmers. The contentions over the building of the 
Kean's Creek ditch, in the southern part of the township, were of the 
most acrimonious nature, and caused much fruitless litigation and hard 
feeling. It happened, too, that nearly all the members of the drainage 
company had lands along the line of the proposed ditch, which were 
assessed accordingly. 

Kean's Creek Swamp Lands 

The headwaters of Kean's Creek were in a pond half a mile in width 
and from four to six feet deep just beyond the east line of the township 
and within Cass. Thence the stream flowed westward, in an irregular 
course, and emptied into the Tippecanoe River in section 9. The work 
of the Kean's Creek Draining Company, organized under the state act, 
consisted in widening, deepening and straightening the channel of the 
creek for a distance of two miles, and thereby a large tract of land was 
reclaimed. Thus, in the face of much opposition, was inaugurated a 
movement which has brought into the market for the benefit of resident 
farmers many valuable tracts of land. 

The Building of Good Roads 

Liberty Township is not among the wealthiest districts in the county, 
but in consideration of its means it has accomplished much both in 
the! matters of draining its swamp lands and constructing gravel roads 
within its limits. In the prosecution of the latter work it has incurred 
a bonded indebtedness of nearly .+1(3.000, divided as follows: Bible 
road, $3,300; Koch, $3,600; J. T. Moore, $2,400; Holmes, $2,210; Cran- 
mer, $-1,440. Total, $15,950. 


The Sluytek Sciioolhouses 

In the old rough days, when Liberty Township included so much of 
northeastern White County, the people were just as busy in proportion 
to their numbers as they are today, in the very human occupations of 
teaching and learning, preaching and listening, marrying and giving in 
marriage, being born and dying. In the summer of, 1837 Jonathan W. 
- Sluyter, one of the expert axmen of the township, got out the logs for 
the first schoolhouse built in the township. It stood in the east half of 
section 15, on his land about three-quarters of a mile south of the Tippe- 
canoe. He did not stop to hew the timber, as half a dozen children were 
impatiently ( 7) awaiting its opening. The cabin was 15 feet square, and 
David McConnahay is said to have thrown it open to the neighborhood, 
and in came the Funks, Conwells, Halls, Sluyters, Louders, and perhaps 
some other children whose names have not come down in history. 

When George Hall succeeded McConnahay, a little later, the attend- 
ance had reached fifteen pupils. In 1838 John C. V. Shields taught a 
term in the log schoolhouse, and Lester Smith succeeded him. 

In 1840 Mr. Sluyter built a second schoolhouse near the first, hewing 
the logs and otherwise improving upon his former work, and about five 
years afterward a still better building was erected further south in 
section 22. 

Religion at the Scott Settlement 

The means for religious instruction came hand-in-hand with those 
provided for the training of the mind. The first denomination to or- 
ganize a class in the township was the New Light, which commenced 
its meetings in the cabin of Crystal D. W. Scott in 1837. Rev. John 
Scott, a circuit rider, held services there and elsewhere for two years. 
In 1839 a church was built in the new Scott settlement, northeastern 
part of the township ; it was constructed of round black oak logs and was 
25 feet square. Rev. Abram Sneathen, founder of the church, min- 
istered to it spiritually, and the following were among its first members : 
Crystal D. W. Scott and wife, Greenup Scott and wife, Jonathan 
W. Sluyter and wife, and Mrs. Gruell and daughter, Sarah. The 
church was maintained, for a time with increasing attendance, during 
a period of about ten years. 

First Marriage and First Death 

Marriageable girls and women did not have long to wait in those 
days, the demand far exceeding the supply. The marriage of Mrs. 
Gruell's daughter, Sarah, to Elijah Sneathen, in the spring of 1839, 
caused therefore no surprise in the Scott settlement. This was the 
first wedding in the township. It is not known who performed the cere- 
mony, as James W. Hall, who had been elected justice of the peace the 
year before, died shortly before the wedding. He would have been the 


logical candidate for the honor and the fee. Instead, 'Squire Hall's 
death was the first in the township, and his remains were buried iu what 
was afterward known as Hughes' burying ground. 

Buffalo Postoffice Established 

In 1857 the first postoffice in the township was established at the 
farmhouse of Jonathan Sluyter, with that gentleman as postmaster. As 
Postmaster Sluyter had a great admiration for Buffalo, in his native 
state, he had induced the Government authorities to name the postoffice 
in honor of the New York city. After several years the postoffice was 
discontinued at that point, and in 1867 one was established across the 
river, called Flowerville. The latter was maintained until the Town of 
Buffalo was platted in in 1886, when the postoffice by that name was 

John C. Kark and the Town 

Buffalo, as a town, was laid out on July 24, 1886, by John C. Karr, 
an Ohio man, who had come with his father (Moses Karr) and settled 
with other members of the family about two miles west of the present 
site. In 1849 he had married and located on the farm lying along the 
east shores of the river, a portion of which was platted as the Town of 
Buffalo. He died in August, 1899, the father of eleven children. Both 
the Karr and the Sluyter families still hold valuable farming lands south 
of Buffalo, in sections 15 and 22. 

Thomas B. Moore 

Across the river from Buffalo are also large holdings of land repre- 
senting the wisely-directed industry and ability of another early settler 
in this part of the township, Thomas B. Moore. He was a native of the 
Buckeye State and at the age of twenty-eight, in 1852, commenced to 
buy property in section 10 and elsewhere adjacent to the western borders 
of the Tippecanoe. "What was long known as Moore 's ford, on his farm, 
was one of the best crossings in the township, but lias long ago given 
place to a fine iron bridge at that locality. Mr. Moore became the heaviest 
land owner resident in the township, dealt largely in live stock, served 
for many years as justice of the peace, was a leader in Methodism, and 
altogether one of the leading citizens of northern White County. His 
successors do him and the family honor. 

Karr's Addition to Buffalo 

Although Buffalo obtained no railroad connections, it was backed 
by a good country and in 1896 Mr. Karr made an addition to the original 
plat of thirty-four lots, by which lie nearly doubled its site. Until his 
death he took a deep interest in the locality and passed the las) years 


of his life there. His wife also died at Buffalo in 1896, her husband 
joining her three years later. 

The Ikon Bridge 

Soon after the bridge at Moore's ford was completed, a county pub- 
lication had the following description of it: "The new iron bridge 
across the Tippecanoe river at what is widely known as Moore's ford 
is one of the best in the county. The bridge is in two parts — one 165 
feet, long, and the other, 135 feet. It has stone abutments and was 
erected in 1882 at a cost of about $14,000. The Columbia Bridge Com- 
pany at Dayton, Ohio, has the honor of putting up this creditable 


The hamlet of Sitka, in the southern part of the township and north- 
east corner of section 3, originated in the early settlement of the Hughes, 
VanVoorst and other families in that part of the township, with the 
usual demand for postal accommodations. In April, 1880, a postoffice 
was finally established at the point named, with M. Allison Hughes as 
postmaster. In connection with the office he conducted a small general 

The Hughes and VanVoorst Families 

John C. Hughes owned the land on the east side of the highway and 
donated ground for a Baptist Church and the congregation known as the 
Church of God. Both of these societies erected large frame church 
buildings; a house built nearby for the postoffice, and stores and resi- 
dences were put up on the west side of the road, on the land of Mrs. 
Mary VanVoorst, widow of Sylvanus. William Stitt, an old resident of 
the township, started a blacksmith shop, and J. A. Read purchased the 
Hughes business. The residences of Mrs. VanVoorst and Rowland 
Hughes, son of John C. Hughes and father of M. Allison Hughes, the 
postmaster, were situated south of the village. 

Sitka is six miles northeast of Monticello, and four south of Buffalo. 
It has no railroad connections, is considerably off the line of travel and 
is only of sectional importance as being a convenient trading center for 
a limited territory. Since the expansion of the rural free delivery 
system even the postoffice at Sitka has been abolished. 



Inaccurate Government Surveys — Christopher Vandeventer, First 
Settler— Land Entries in 1838-48— Political Township of Cass 
— Pioneer Schools — Nucleus op Headlee — Land Entries in 
1849-52— Mrs. John E. Timmons and Jacob D. Timmons— Non- 
residents Held Two-Thirds op Township—Early Dearth of 
Markets — The Trips to Logansport — Norway to the Rescue — 
Improvements — Headlee. 

Cass is one of the three townships in White County which conforms 
to the congressional dimensions of thirty-six square miles, or six miles 
square; Jackson, to the south, and Round Grove, in the southwest corner, 
are the others. It is all of congressional Township 28 north, Range 2 west, 
and is bounded on the west by Liberty, on the south by Jackson, on the 
east by Cass County and on the north by Pulaski County. In the north- 
eastern corner of the county, well out of the valley of the Tippecanoe and 
away from both canal and railroad communications, it was for years 
known as the "lone township." To add to the drawbacks which re- 
tarded its progress, two'-thirds of its area, small though it was, was 
taken up by land speculators who lived outside the township. The first 
Government surveys were so imperfect as to throw not a few of the early 
buyers and actual residents into great confusion ami frighten others 
who were inclined to locate. 

Inaccikate Government Surveys 

Milton M. Sill, county surveyor in 1850, thus explains the matter 
which has created such disturbance in the early land transactions within 
the township : "On the west boundary line the section corner for Sections 
1 and 12, Congressional Township 28, Range 3, was placed twenty-four 
rods west of the true line, and there was no evidence that the line had 
been extended from that corner north to the northern boundary of the 
township. Two or three years afterward the errors were discovered 
and a resurvey of the township made, but this only created confusion 
in the minds of the settlers, and the notes of the first survey having been 
forwarded to the county and duly recorded, county surveyors were pre- 
sented with a problem difficult of solution, finding two government 
corners plainly marked at nearly every section and quarter section 
corner in the township. It was not solved for nearly twenty years after 
the first survey was made. 



"In 1859 the county surveyor was called on- to make a survey in the 
township, and finding, as others had before him, a large surplus of gov- 
ernment corners not down in his notes, called on the commissioner of 
the General Land Office in- Washington for explanation, and in reply 
the notes of the resurvey were forwarded with directions to follow 
them as the true notes. The change in the western boundary line of the 
township by the substitution of the field notes of the resurvey had the 
effect of reducing the population of the township by one family, that 
of Edward McCloud, who had built his residence near the western 
boundary line as indicated in the notes of the first survey, and had been 
exercising his rights as a citizen of Cass township for more than twenty 
years, when in reality he was a resident of Liberty township." 

The first settlements in what is now Cass Township were made in 
the late '30s, more than a decade before it was set off from the eastern 
portion of Liberty. They were in its extreme northern sections — 3, 4, 5, 

6, 7 and 10. 

Christopher Vandeventer, First Settler 

By common consent, Christopher Vandeventer, of an old Dutch 
family from New York, is accorded the post of honor as the township's 
first permanent settler. In the spring of 1837 he threw up a cabin of 
unhewn logs, 20 by 2G feet in size, in section 7, on the south branch of 
Indian Creek, and his followers of the succeeding two years in the north 
tier of sections also chose the heavily timbered lands and the high and 
dry prairie tracts. White oak prevailed and nothing could be better for 
substantial building purposes. 

Land Entries in 1838-48 

It is claimed that Daniel Yount located in section 12 in 1837, and 
that Edwin Perry settled on section 27 (in the southern part of the 
township) in 1838, but the Tract Book indicates only the following 
entries of land previous to 1840: Christopher Vandeventer, in section 

7, December 1, 1838; Samuel Burson, in section 6, on the 3rd of the 
month, and Joseph Smith, in the same section, on the 17th; Leonard 
Shoemaker, in section 3, July 30, 1839, and Thomas McMillan, in sec- 
tion 4, on June 21st of that year. 

From 1840 to 1848, inclusive — the latter being the year when the 
township was formed — the following entered lands: In 1840, John 
Layman, in sections 5 and 6 ; John Smith, in section 7, and Edward Mc- 
Cloud, in section 10; Daniel Yount, in section 8, September 24, 1842; 
David VtiiiBlaricum, in section 1, and John W. Williams, in section 24, 
both in August, 1843. In 1844, Levi Hartmann, in section 2; William 
McBeth, in section G; Samuel Fry, in section 24, and Thomas Tovvnsley, 
in sections 33 and 34. In 1845, Tavner Reams, in section 5; Isaiah Brod- 
erick, in section 27, and Ephraim Million, in section 28. In 184G, Wesley 
Noland, in sections 1 and 2; Isaac AV. Hunt and John Ilarro, in section 


11; Albert Bacon, in section 18, and Edwin Perry, in section 28. In 
1847, Benjamin Mattix, in section 7 j John Cromer and James R. Fowler, 
in section 32; Benjamin Bare, in section 34, and Robert Acre, in section 
35. In 1848, Gideon Irwin and Alexander Bailey, in section 3; Jonathan 
Reams, in section 5; Gideon Irwin, in section 10; William Poole, in sec- 
tion 22; George Dixon, in section 26; Harrison Dixon and Charles Reed, 
in section 27 ; Noah W. Ausman, in section 2 ( J ; Elias Vanaman, in sec- 
tion 35, and Daniel Vanaman, in section 36. 

Political Township op Cass 

On the 7th of June, 1848, it was ordered by the Board of County 
Commissioners that all that portion of Liberty Township contained in 
congressional township 28 north, range 2 west, be declared a political 
township and receive the name of Cass. It is supposed to have been thus 
designated in honor of Lewis Cass, who is one of the most prolific god- 
fathers of political bodies identified with American history and geog- 
raphy. It was further ordered by the board that the place of holding 
elections be at the house of Daniel Yount; and Albert Bacon was ap- 
pointed inspector of elections for the year 1848. 

Pioneer Schools 

Soon after the civil organization of the township preparations were 
made to open a school in a log cabin which stood on the northeast quarter 
of the northwest quarter of section 6, near the Pulaski County line. Its 
first term was taught by Samuel Gruell in the winter of 1848-49, and 
Mrs. Anna McBeth taught the summer term of 1849. To that school 
Christopher Vandeventer sent five pupils; Daniel Germberlinger, two; 
Tavner Reams, two; William McBeth, two; Peter Prough, two; John 
Baker, of Pulaski County, two; Daniel Yount, two; Albert Bacon, three, 
and a man by the name of Horim, four. 

The second school was taught by Mrs. McBeth in the log house that 
stood on the land of William McBeth, on the southeast quarter of the 
northeast quarter of section 6. The term, covering the winter of 1849-50, 
was attended by about twenty pupils. 

As a number of settlers were locating their claims toward the south 
a schoolhouse was built in 1850 on the northeast quarter of the northwest 
quarter of section 8. It was constructed of hewn logs, 22 by 2G feet, and 
was a marked improvement over all that had gone before. Among the 
teachers who held forth therein were William McBeth, Alvin Hall, Milton 
Dexter, Walter Hopkins and James Potter, Whal was long known as 
King's Schoolhouse, on section (5, was built about 1853, and four years 
later two frame schoolhouses were erected— one on the northeast quarter 
of the northwest quarter of section 7 and the other near the center .J 
section 9. * 

Vol. 1-18 


Nucleus of Headlee 

" The first settlers of Cass Township had scarcely got the roofs of 
their log cabins over their heads before Rev. Abram Sneathen, the pioneer 
circuit rider of Northern White County and Southern Pulaski, began his 
spiritual visits, but the first regular class was organized at the house of 
Ilatvey Ileadlee in 1851. A sabbath school, the first in the township, 
was organized about the same time. The first members of the class were 
Harvey Headlee, Margaret Ileadlee, Garrison Q. Lister, Joanna Lister, 
John Wiley, Mary Wiley, Silas Ileadlee, Jane Reames and John Downs. 
These religious organizations resulted from quite a settlement in the 
northern portions of sections 8 and 9, which, over thirty years afterward, 
found further expression in the platting of the Town of Ileadlee. A 
postoffice by that name was established as early as 1870. 

Land Entries in 1849-52. 

In 1849 the following entries of land are recorded for Cass Township : 
Elam Yount, in section 9 ; Jacob Young, in section 7 ; William Poole, in 
section 23; William Baker, in section 25; David Younkman, in section 
27; William Timmons, in section 33, and Jacob Yanney, in section 36. 

Mrs. John E. Timmons and Jacob D. Timmons 

In the fall of the year named (1S49) the widow of John E. Timmons, 
with a large family of children, moved to Cass Township to join some of 
her relatives who had already settled there. Her son, Jacob D. Timmons, 
was then two years of age, his father having died when he was but eight 
months old. The family came from Pickaway County, Ohio, and upon 
her arrival in the southern part of the township Mrs. Timmons sold her 
horse, to which she added $50 in cash, for eighty acres of unimproved 
land in the east half of the southeast quarter of section 32. There the 
neighbors erected for her a round log cabin, and she set pluckily to 
work to rear and educate her children. As time passed and they in- 
creased in years and capabilities, they assisted in the work, but the heavy 
burden fell on her willing shoulders. She spun the cloth and made their 
garments, lived economically and worked incessantly and lovingly until 
her task of years was done. In 1856 the round log cabin gave way to 
one of hewn timber, to which was added a frame lean-to for a kitchen. 
This good pioneer mother died in 1889, a member of the Dunkard Church. 
The son, Jacob D., became the well known banker of Monticello, who 
located there in 1898 and was afterward president of the State Bank and 
the Farmers State Bank. Mr. Timmons is yet the owner of about 1,000 
acres of White County land, and his holdings include the eighty acres 
first purchased by his mother, where he was reared and educated as a 
boy and passed the greater part of his life. 

In the year 1850, following that which marked the coming of the 
Tiiinnoiis family, the following entries were made: Thomas Wiley, in 


section 5; Samuel L. Steele, in section 8; John S. Beaver, in section 9, 
and .Daniel Dilts, in section 15. In 1851 I. Shepard entered land in 
section 15, and in 1852, Thomas Townsley, in section 21; Noah. Uavis, 
in section 29, and Peter Roller in section 35. 

Non-Residents Hold Two-Thirds op Township 

Altogether 15,280 acres of swamp, canal and military warrants lands 
were taken up by purchasers, or only eighty acres short of two-thirds 
of the entire township, and of that amount a very small portion passed 
into the hands of actual settlers until many years had elapsed. Now 
nearly the entire township is occupied by its owners. 

The sections most largely covered by such claims were as follows: 
Section 3 — Four hundred and eighty acres taken by military land war- 
rants, forty for swamp and eighty for canal, the last purchased by 
Frederick Ott, March 11, 1850. 

Section 4 — Four hundred and eighty acres taken by military land 

Section 5 — Four hundred acres covered by military land warrants. 

Section 8 — Two hundred and forty military and 330 acres swamp 

Section 9 — Four hundred and eighty acres taken by military land 
warrants and eighty acres swamp, purchased by Casper Orb, John Wiley, 
Daniel Dilts, Joseph Fry and William Shepard. 

Section 12 — Four hundred acres taken by military land warrants and 
240 acres swamp. 

Section 13 — Four hundred and eighty acres military and 1G0 acres 
swamp lands. 

Section 14 — Two hundred and forty acres military and 400 swamp 

Section 15 — Four hundred and eighty acres military lands. 

Section 17 — All military lands. 

Section 18 — Four hundred acres taken for swamp lands. 

Section 19 — Three hundred and twenty acres military and 1C0 swamp 

Section 20 — Two hundred acres swamp, eighty acres canal and 360 
acres military lands. 

Section 21— Three hundred and twenty acres military and 200 acres 
swamp lands. 

Section 22 — Two hundred acres canal, 200 acres swamp and 120 acres 
military lands. 

Section 23 — Four hundred acres swamp and L60 aires canal lands. 

Section 24— Four hundred and eighty acres military lands. 

Section 26— Three hundred and twenty acres military and 210 acres 
swamp lands. 

Section 30— Four hundred and eighty acres military lands and 160 
acres swamp. 

Section 32 — Three hundred and twenty acres military lands, 120 


acres canal and forty acres swamp — the last purchased by Sothey K. 
Tinjmons, of Jackson Township. 
■ Section -3G — Three hundred and sixty acres military lands. 

Early Dearth op Markets 

Those who settled in Cass Township in the late '30s and the '40s 
were virtually confined to the northern and western sections and had no 
good market town nearer than Logansport, twenty-five miles distant on 
the Wabash and Erie Canal. Even that was not so perfect but that 
some of them went to Michigan City or even Chicago to trade to better 
advantage. The township was a great huckleberry district and Monti- 
cello and nearer points were often supplied, while grain and the less 
perishable products were reserved for better and more distant markets. 

/ The Trips to Logansport 

The early trips to Logansport were often taken over almost impassable 
roads, through unbridged streams and roadless bogs, but the slow but 
patient ox team usually managed to accomplish them in two or three 
days. Then the produce was sold or traded for groceries and clothes, 
sometimes in sufficient quantities to cover a year's consumption. 

Usually five or six settlers went in company, camping wherever night 
overtook them, as there were few houses along the route. Every man 
would clean up bis rifle, mould his bullets and fill his powder horn, pre- 
pared for the deer, turkeys and other wild game met along the way, 
and as all of them were expert hunters by both instinct and practice, 
they seldom reached Logansport without having added several saddles of 
venison to their loads of produce for sale in the market. Then, again, 
in case one of the teams got mired, or anything else went wrong, some 
one was on hand to "help out." 

Norway to the Rescue 

These periodical trips to Logansport were continued until the com- 
pletion of the merchant and custom mill at Norway, eight or ten miles 
southwest, in Union Township. When it passed from the widow of Hans 
E. Iliorth to the Montieello Kendalls, in 1848, the new proprietors opened 
a large and quite complete general store, and the settlers of Cass Town- 
ship were greatly benefited by both enterprises. They could then go 
to Norway, return the same day and have their grain ground, or dispose 
of it in the raw state for as good an assortment of supplies as they could 
gel in Logansport. The roads, too, were in better condition, being for the 
great part over the high bluffs of the Tippecanoe River instead of 
through the marshes and over the sand ridges toward the east and 
Logansport. The burden; of the early farmers of the township were 
even further lightened when (in 1857) the bridge over the Tippecanoe 
was built at Norway. 



Of course, within the past thirty years, transportation conditions 
have greatly improved, botli through the drainage of the lowlands and 
the construction of better roads through the township. The work of 
ditching commenced in the early '80s, the first ditches constructed being 
the Read, Davis, Leazenby, Huffman, Ileadlee, Riggle and Robins. By 
1884 there were over sixty miles of public drainage in the township and 
the good work has been continued so at the present time there are com- 
paratively few tracts of waste land within its bounds. 

The township is still without a railroad, but the settlers have a daily 
mail to and from Monticello, by way of Sitka and Buffalo, and north 
from Headlee (the only village in the township) to Winamac, which, 
with the extension of the telephone system over that part of the county, 
affords convenient communication with the outside world. 


Headlee is a pleasant little hamlet in the northern part of the town- 
ship. It has never been incorporated, although it was platted in Novem- 
ber, 1888. Its proprietors were Harvey Ileadlee, Hannibal McCloud, 
Fred Reames, B. E. Dutton, J. E. Dutton and John Fry. 


Natural Features of the Township — Neighboring Market Towns — 
Road Building — First Settlers and Land Owners — Isaac S. Vin- 

" son and Wife — First Land Entry — Sickness Drove Away the 
Prices — Land Entries of 1835 — Would Rather Hunt Than Eat—. 
The Van Voorsts and Their Frame Houses — Doctor Halstead 
Buys Land — William Jordan Locates — Other Entries in 1836-45 
— Township Voters — The Van Voorst Frame Schoolhouses — 
Churches of the Township— Anderson Irion and David Dellinger 
— Land Entries, 1847-51_ — Parmelee's Meadow Lake Farm. 

The political township of West Point is one of the largest of the civil 
divisions of White County, comprising a congressional township and a 
half, or fifty-four square miles. It is in the southwestern part of the 
county and is bounded north by Princeton (of equal length), east by 
the southwest section of Honey Creek Township and Big Creek Town- 
ship, south by the three westernmost sections in the north tier of Prairie 
and the entire boundary of Round Grove Township, and west by Benton 
County. Nearly the entire northeast quarter of the township was 
covered with timber, the remainder being included in the Grand Prairie. 
A distinct point of wooded land extends westward into the prairie country 
some distance beyond the general timber line, and that physical feature 
decided the early settlers to name the township West Point, when it was 
organized in 1845. 

Natural Features of the Township 

The wooded lands generally occur massed in the northeastern sections. 
There are two exceptions to the rule in Long Grove, a small wooded tract 
in the southern part of the township, and in Jordan's Grove, a larger 
timbered area in the southwest, which derives its name from William 
.Jordan, who, with other members of the family, entered much land in 
that locality at an early day. 

The natural drainage of West Point, Township is chiefly due to B\<x 
Creek and the Little Motion; the former rises in the township, and both 
water its northwestern sections. The timbered, or northeastern portion, 
was a succession of low sand-ridges, with intervening swamp lands 
sprinkled with ponds. Now, all of it is drained and in a high state of 
cultivation. The prairie lands of the south are broken by undulations 



and small hills, those of the north and west being generally level. The 
prevailing soil is a black loam, with subsoil of sand, gravel and clay. 

Neighboring Market Towns 

Although West Point Township has neither railroad nor postoffice, 
it Is more advantageously situated than some distriets which have these 
facilities.- Since its rather useless array of non-resident land owners has 
•been largely replaced by settlers prone to make improvements, the wet. 
lands have been reclaimed, and good roads constructed so as to bring the 
farmers within easy access to such neighboring markets as Wolcott and 
Reynolds to the north and Chalmers and Brookston to the southeast. 
Wes*t Point Township has had one postoffice — Forney, established in 1881 
on the old Lafayette and Wolcott mail route, in the southwestern part 
,of the township — but that was absorbed by the rural free delivery which 
is of so much general utility. 

Road Building 

In the building of the macadam or gravel roads which are of such 
widespread benefit to the people, the township has incurred a debt of 
nearly $30,000. Of that amount the J. II. Moore road is credited with 
$11,200; Hewitt, $2,380; Krapff, $10,800; Pugli, $5,400. 

First Settlers and Land Owners 

The first settlements in the township were made in 1835 by Shelby 
Hudson and Oscar Dyer, who entered lands on Christmas day of 1834 
in section 15, northeast of the central part of the township. They did 
not settle until the following spring, when each built a hewn-log cabin 
half a mile apart, 16 by 18 feet in size. Eacli had its clapboard roof, 
an opening for one window made by the omission of a log section, ami 
the big, invariable fire-place. 

Isaac S. Vinson and Wife 

How long the bachelors Hudson and Dyer remained on the ground 
is not divulged by any accessible records, but it is known that Isaac S. 
Vinson, who had brought his wife and two children to Union Township 
from Ohio, about the time that they built their cabins on the banks of 
Big Creek, appeared in that locality in the spring of 1838 and bought 
the Hudson land, with improvement— if the shack could be thus dignified. 
But it was a family shelter and a protection against wild beasts. Tin' 
Pottawatamies had an encampment just across Big Creek, hut they wen- 
friendly and, at times, of actual use. 

From all the accounts which filter down, Mrs. Vinson's bartering 
with the dusky brothers w^s largely in her favor, such exchanges as the 
saddles, or hindquarters of a deer, for two cold corn cakes, or a number 


of saddles for a loaf of broad, being nothing out of the ordinary. In 
those days deer and game birds were especially plentiful, and one winter 
the lady of the house made a trap and caught 101 prairie chickens. 

The Vinsons remained on their homestead on Big Creek for a number 
of years, during which Mr. Vinson bought land in section 12, and in 
1855 moved to the new town of Reynolds in Honey Creek Township, 
where "the man of the house established himself in business and as a 
hotel keeper.- Mr. and Mrs. Vinson raised a large family. The father 
died in August, 1883, at the Indiana Hospital for the Insane, Indian- 
apolis, where he had passed a number of years laboring under religious 
mania. His remains were brought to Monticello and buried from the 
residence of one of his sons. 

First Land Entry 

The first entry of land in the township was made by John T. Bunnell, 
June 18, 1834, his tract being in section 15, as were the lots of Hudson 
and Dyer. But there is no evidence that Bunnell ever made any im- 
provements on his land, or participated in township affairs. 

Sickness Drove Away the Prices 

Soon after the arrival of the Vinson family, however, John Price 
and his wife came into the township, but the latter was taken ill and 
the couple returned to their Ohio home. Mr. Price appeared on his 
claim soon afterward alone, but was stricken with inflammatory rheu- 
matism, and for three months lay in almost a helpless condition at the 
Vinson house. During the following spring he sold his property and 
left the township permanently. < 

Land Entries op 1835 

From the Tract Book it appears that in 1835 the following made 
land entries in West Point Township: Andrew Brown, in section 11; 
John Lewis, in section 12, and Armstrong Buchanan, in section 14. 

"Would Rather Hunt Than Eat 

The next person to settle in the township after Shelby Hudson 
and Oscar Dyer was Isaac Beezy, a noted hunter, who came in 1837. 
But he was of the uneasy, erratic kind, and his stay was short. It is 
said that his desire for hunting was so keen that he would go for days 
without eating; as many as twenty unskinned deer are known to have 
been in his smoke-house, frozen stiff, and the gaunt Beezy still hunting 
more. The hunter never made much improvement on his land, soon left 
the township and settled in Pulaski County, where he was killed by an 


The Van Voorsts and Tiikik Frame Houses 

In 1841, John and Sylvanus Van Voorst came from Ohio and pur- 
chased large tracts of canal lands in sections 14 and 22, probably 300 
acres. John also bought 160 acres in section 10. They brought their 
houses with them, procuring the frames in Toledo, which they shipped, 
with" other necessary material, by way of the Wabash and Erie Canal, to 
Delphi and thence by wagon, twenty-five miles, to West Point Township. 
The house of John Van Voorst was a large two-story frame and was 
placed on a high knoll in the prairie near the point of timber which gave 
the township its name. Its site, as well as its size, made it by far the 
most imposing house in the township. 

Abram Van Voorst, who died at the Monticello home of his son, 
Henry, in 1899, did not locate in section 12 on the border of Big Creek. 
Township, until 1849. Most of his life in White County was spent as a 
resident of Reynolds. 

Doctor Halstead Buys Land 

In 1841 and 1845 Dr. John Halstead, the first physician in the town- 
ship, entered considerable canal land in sections 2 and 4, in the north- 
eastern part, and is said to have actually located for practice and 
speculation in 1844. He came with his brother, Bartlett Halstead. 

William Jordan Locates 

About the same time William Jordan, a resident of Tippecanoe 
County, moved into the township, settling on his entry in section 35, 
southwestern portion, which lie had taken up in 1842. Hi; afterward 
purchased the bulk of the 480 acres of canal lands in section 36, but 
fixed his homestead on the tract in section 35, which comprised the large 
and beautiful grove bearing his name. Within the eighteen square miles 
comprising the east half of congressional township 26, range 6, and the 
west third of West Point Township, the Jordan family represented, for 
many years, its sole residents. 

Other Entries in 1836-45 

Besides those already mentioned, the following entered land in the 
sections designated, previous to and including the year of the formation 
of the political township in 1815: In 1836— Thomas 11. Brown, in sec- 
tion 1, township 26 north, range 5 west, and in section 12 of the same; 
Andrew Brown, in sections 12 and 13, and Thomas Price, in section 15; 
in 1839— Joshua II. Scarff, in section 1, and George McGaughcy, in sec- 
tion 11; in 1841 — Jesse T. Vinson and Jacob Nyce, in section 1; John 
Halstead, in section 21, and William .1. Galford, in section 13; Mary 
Halstead, in 1844, and John Halstead, in 1845, both in section 4. 


Township Voters 

At the June term of the Commissioners' Court, in 1845, it was ordered 
by that body that all of congressional township 26 north, range 5 west, 
. and all west of that to the county line, should comprise the political 
township of West Point. In the preceding year a log schoolhouse had 
been built, L8 by 24 feet, and this was designated as the place for holding 
elections. At the first election, held in the following August, the fourteen 
citizens of the township who turned out to exercise their rights of the 
elective franchise were Ira Emery, Sylvanus Van Voorst, Alexander 
Page, Jesse Tinnison, William Vodyce, Isaac Beezy, William Jordan, 
John Ilalsfead, Barney Spencer, Gideon Breeount and Isaac S. Vinson, 
several of whom will be recognized as acquaintances. 


The Van Voorst Frame Schoolhouses 

Several years after the building of the old West Point schoolhouse, 
Abram Van Voorst erected two frame buildings for educational purposes, 
one on section 7 and the other on section 15. As there were no sawmills 
in the township, he hauled the material for their construction from 
Delphi. Each of these frame schoolhouses was 20 by 24 feet, cost $500 
and was considered quite a demonstration of township enterprise. All 
the Van Voorsts were promoters of frame buildings, and induced quite 
a number of the early settlers to enter the ranks of progress in that 

Churciies of the Township 

The religious needs of the pioneers were met almost immediately by 
such old and faithful circuit riders as Rev. Mr. Lee, of the Methodist 
Church, who preached quite often at the old Vinson house and other 
cabins before the organization of a regular class in 1844. In that year 
a little log church was erected on section 2, range 5. Later the United 
Brethren held services in Schoolhouse No. 2, and the Presbyterians and 
other denominations have organized societies with varying success. 

Anderson Irion and Dawd Dellingeb 

In 1858 ('apt. Anderson Irion and David Dellinger became settlers 
of the township. The former, who had received his title because he had 
organized a company for the Mexican war while residing in Fayette 
county, Ohio, located in West Point Township about seven miles south- 
east of Wolcott, and became quite prominent in county affairs, serving 
as commissioner and in other public capacities. Several of Captain 
Irion's sons also became prosperous farmers and leading citizens. 

David Dellinger also came from Ohio and bought a large farm in the 
northern part of the township, seven miles southwest of Reynolds. l5otli 
he and Captain Irion made a specialty of raising live stock. 


Land Entries, 1847-51 

Probably at the time (1853) these two well known residents settled 
in West Point Township its entire fifty-four square miles could not 
show twenty-five families. Many of those who can! ■ during the period 
previous to the early '50s were single young men, some of them speculat- 
ing and others prospecting for future homes. Those who entered lands 
from 1845 to 1852 were as follows: In 1847 — John Nyce, Sarah Adams, 
Samuel P. Edmonson, Sarah J. Halstcad and Walter McFarland, in 
section 4, and Isaac S. Vinson, in section 12; in 1848 — Isaac M. Cantwell, 
in section 9, and Nicholas Van Pelt and Samuel McFeer, in section 10 ; 
in 1849— John Herron, in section 2; Drury Wood, in section 5; Grant 
Wynkoop and. James Wynkoop, in sections G and 7; Peter B. Kennedy, 
in section 7 ; Henry Britton, in section 12, and Marquia Iligson, in section 
22; Eli Meyers, in section 12, in 1850; in 1851 — James Stroud, in section 
6, and Daniel Davis, in section 23. 

Parmelee's Meadow Lake Farm ' 

It is estimated that of the fifty-four square miles comprising the area 
of the township fully forty were purchased by non-residents, mostly as 
military, canal and swamp lands. That fact usually was a great draw- 
back to actual settlement and improvements, although there was one 
noteworthy exception to the rule. As late as 1879 Frank Parmelce, the 
widely known 'bus man and storage-house proprietor of Chicago, pur- 
chased what was known as the Meadow Lake Farm, a fine stretch of 
1,700 acres in the northern part of the township, 3 1 /- miles south of 
Wolcott. Within the following two years he erected a handsome resi- 
dence and magnificent farm buildings, and founded one of the finest 
live stock farms in the state. His specialty was Hereford cattle. But 
the Parmelee case was, as stated, a grand exception. 

With the drainage of the swamp lands, the fair assessment of the 
benefited properties, the subdivisions of large tracts held for purely 
speculative purposes and the construction of adequate highways, the 
residents of West Point Township have long been comfortable and con- 
tented citizens. 




Slim Timber and Round Grove — First Settler, Truman Rollins — 
Early Land Entries — The Stockton Purchases — Became Land 
Owners in 1850-53 — Carved Out of Old Prairie Township — Elec- 
tions and Voters — Various Pioneer Matters — Former Postofpices 
— Progress in the Township. 

Round Grove Township comprises the thirty-six square miles in the 
southwest corner of White County, and is described by the surveyors 
as the west half of congressional township 25 north, range 5 west, and 
the east half of congressional township 25 north, range 6 west. 

Slim Timber and Round Grove 

Round Grove was the western part of the original Prairie Township, 
created in 1834, and remained attached to it until it assumed a separate 
political body in 1858. It is in the eastern borders of the Great Prairie 
and has only two pronounced tracts of timber within its limits; the 
narrow strip near the north line is appropriately called Slim Timber, 
and the considerable wooded area known as Round Grove (from winch 
the township is named) lies in the southeastern portion, mostly in 
section 29. 

The first settlements were made in the northwestern and the south- 
eastern sections of the township, and most of the logs for the pioneer 
cabins in those localities came from Round Grove, which covered an area 
of some fifty acres. Although it is a matter of record that Charles L. 
Stockton entered the land in section 29, which virtually embraces the 
famous grove, in 183<*i, lie did not take up his residence in the township 
until years afterward. 

First Settler, Truman Rollins 

Truman Rollins, pronounced to be the first who came to reside perma- 
nently, was a farmer of Tippecanoe County and did not arrive on the 
wild prairie of section 11, in what is now the northwestern portion of 
the township, until the spring of 1850. It did not take Rollins long to 
cut enough logs from Round Grove for his cabin of 10 by 18 feet. As it 
stood in the open prairie, it was the only building in what is now Round 
drove Township, and there was none other for miles around. Besides 
the tract upon which he built, Mr. Rollins had entered lands in section 



10, during 1846, and in section 15, 1848, and lie subsequently bought 
various pieces of swamp land in section 14. He was, therefore, the 
leading land owner in the northwestern sections. 

Jeremiah Stanly, a son-in-law of Rollins, also ventured into the town- 
ship, in the spring of 1850, and for a short time shared the solitary 
cabin. A little later lie erected a house of his own, within calling 
distance of his father-in-law. Before the end of the year Thomas Rollins 
also appeared on the scene and shared the pioneer cabin with its builder. 

Early Land Entries 

The first entry recorded for what is the present Round Grove Town- 
ship is that of John White, who filed his claim on certain lands in section 
22, township 25, range 6, near the western county line, in February, 
1835. The second is that already briefly noted, of Charles L. Stockton, 
in section 29, township 25, range 5. Then, in April, 1846, comes the 
Rollins entry in section 10. In 1847 the following entered lands in 
township 25, range 5 : John Rowland, in section 19 ; Newberry Stock- 
ton, in section 20; James S. Chilton, in section 29. 

The following purchases of Government land were made in township 
25, range 6: In 1848 — Patrick H. Weaver, in sections 10 and 11; Tru- 
man Rollins, in section 15, and E. C. Buskirk, in section 22; in 1849 — 
James Carson, in section 10, and Martin Bishop, in sections 10 and 11. 
These tracts were in the western and northwestern sections of the 

The Stockton Purchases 

In 1850, about the time that Truman Rollins was actually making 
settlement and taking up lands in the northwestern portion of the town- 
ship, both Charles L. and Newberry Stockton were about lo enter exten- 
sive tracts of land in sections 30, 31 and 32, south and west of Round 
Grove. In section 30 alone they purchased 160 acres of canal lands. 
Their descendants still own large farming tracts in that portion of the 

Became Land Owners in 1850-53 

Other entries in 1850 were by Cornelius Morris, in section 19, town- 
ship 25, range 5, and Patrick II. Weaver, in section 14 ; Jacob Weaver, in 
section 15, and Daniel Brawley, in section 22, township 25, range 6. 

The following entered lands in 1851, in township 25, range 5: John 
Carroll, in section 7; Charles White, in section S, and Jasper Vidito, in 
section 1!). In township 25, range 6, these entries were made: Truman 
Rollins, in section 11; John Carroll, in section 12, and Austin Ward, 
in section 13. 

In 1S52 the following entered lands in township 25, range 5: All 
of section 4 purchased by Phineas M, Kent, and certain lots by Newberry 


Stockton in section 10. Martin Bishop purchased lands in section 14, 
and Michael Carroll, in section 12, township 25, range 6 — also in 1852. 

In 1853 Stewart Rariden and Samuel II. Buskirk became owners of 
land in section 18, township 25* range 5, and Austin Ward in section 
13, township 25, range 6. 

Carved Out op Old Prairie Township 

The board of county commissioners received a petition from a majority 
of the voters in the territory of White County west of the middle of 
range 5, congressional township 25, praying that they erect a new political 
township therefrom, and the prayer was granted soon after it was offered, 
in December, 1858. Austin Ward suggested that it be called Round 
Grove Township,' and it was thus carved out of old Prairie Township ; 
thereafter the voters in that part of the county were not obliged to go to 
Brookston when they wished to exercise their rights. 

Elections and Voters 

The final touches to the new township were made on the 31st of 
December, when the board ordered that an election should be held at 
the Round Grove, or Stanly schoolhouse, which had been built near the 
center of the township during the previous year. It was a frame build- 
ing, 1G by 18 feet, and well worthy of such an honor. Austin Ward, 
the godfather of the township, was appointed inspector of elections, and 
he was on hand at the schoolhouse to see fair play at the appointed time 
— the first .Monday in April, 1859. 

At this first election in Round Grove Township, Stewart Rariden and 
John Rollins acted as judges of election and Samuel Ballintyne as clerk, 
and the following fifteen cast their ballots: John Larrabee, Robert 
McQueen, Roger Baker, John Apes, Stephen E. Baker, James Carrol, 
Thomas Rountene, Michael T. Buskirk, Granville Ward, Jeremiah Stanly, 
Stewart Rariden, John Rollins, Austin Ward, Samuel Ballintyne and 
Milton W. Weaver. The township officers elected were : Samuel Ballin- 
tyne, justice of the peace; Stewart Rariden, constable; Milton Weaver, 
trustee, and Joseph Harris, supervisor. 

At the state election, held at the Round Grove schoolhouse on the 
second Tuesday in October, 1860, the number of voters was increased 
by ten, as will be proven by the list: William Beck, Thomas Rollins, 
Granville Ward, Isaiah Bice, Samuel Ballintyne, Stephen E. Baker, 
James Carrol, John Apes, Edward Steely, Robert N. Brink, James Mar- 
tin, L, !'.. Stork!,, n, William II. Martin, Patrick Conner, Stewart Rariden, 
Jeremiah Stanly, John Demso, Nimrod Leister, M. W. Weaver, Robert 
McQueen, Austin Ward, Michael Buskirk, Samuel D. Barnes and L. W. 


Various Pioneeu Matters 

The first white child born in the township is supposed to have been 
Samuel Rariden, son of Stewart and Mary Jane Rarideii; Nancy Buskirk 
was born at about the same time. 

The first person who died in Round Grove Township was Truman 
Rollins, whose remains were interred in a private burial ground in 
Tippecanoe County. It will be remembered that he was also the first 

The first persons married were Francis M. Mullendore and Jane 
Ward, who afterward became residents of Monticello. 

Elizabeth Ballintyne was the first teacher, and she taught in the 
Stanly schoolhouse, or District School No. 1. 

A Methodist class was organized about 1 870, and among its members 
were Isaac' Smith, Robert Smith, Joh;i Russell, George Mitchner and 
Thomas Guntrip, with their wives. 

Former Postoffices 

There has been two postoffices in Round Grove Township — one at 
Round Grove, established in 1879, and the other at Dern, established in 
1881. The first postmaster at the latter was Dr. A. Jackson Dern, the 
only physician of the township for some time. 

Progress in the Township 

These postoffices have been absorbed for some years by the rural free " 
delivery, which is such a convenience, not to call it a blessing to such 
farming communities as compose the population and assure the prosperity 
of Round Grove Township. It has now little undrained land, and as 
the soil is rich and well cultivated the district stands well as a constant 
producer of good crops of corn, oats and hay. Its citizens have also 
been faithful, to the extent of their means, in the construction of sub- 
stantial gravel roads. In the prosecution of that work the various 
highways have incurred the following debts: Hewitt, $2,380; Parks, 
$7,200 ; Demerle, $5,920 ; Eller, $6,560 ; Krapff, $5,400. Total, $27,460. 

i :;.-. ■ Woiillcelln Herald 

From Courthouse Tower Looking South 

: S Ilu II. r, 1.1 

From Courthouse Looking North 



Entries Covering Original Town — First Buildings and Pioneer 
Merchant — Circuit Rider on the Raw Ground — Carrying the 
Gospel Under Difficulties — Baptists and Methodists Organize — 
The Busy Year, 1836 — Young Town Considerably Soaked— 
Business Directory for 1836 — Ferry Established — Smith, IIiorth 
and the Kendalls — Establishment of the Local Press — First 
Water Power and Mills — Wool Center and Woolen Manufac- 
tures — The Tippecanoe Hydraulic Company — N. B. Loughry and 
Sons — Becomes a Railroad Town — Monticello in 1852 — Village 
Government Abandoned — Walker, Jenner and Reynolds' Addi- 
tion — Barr's Addition — Boom Not in Evidence— Third Addition 
— Civil War Overshadows All, — Fourth and Fifth Additions — 
George W. Ewing a Site Owner — Second and More Stable Cor- 

A general picture of the founding of Monticello must have hcen 
formed in the reader's mind if he has perused the chapters devoted to 
the county government and the history of Union Township. The purpose 
of the chapters which follow is to develop the details in connection with 
the establishment and progress of the urban centers of population 
throughout the county, which are led by its substantial and beautiful 
official seat and metropolis, Monticello. 

Entries Covering Original Town 

When the county seat was laid out by John Barr, county agent, on 
the third of November, 1834, its site embraced the following entries of 
land at Crawfordsville and LaPorte: Eighty acres by Peter Price, 
being the west half of the southwest quarter, seel ion 33, township 27 
north, range 3 west, on the 13th of June ; George Hartley, same date, east 
half of the southwest quarter, and on June 7, 1833, 78,68 acres, the 
south fraction of the southeast quarter; Roberl Rothrock (in behalf of 
John Barr, Hans E. IIiorth and John Rothrock), •">!). 17 acres, being the 
south half of the northeast quarter, and 51.05 acres, being the north 
half of the southeast quarter, on September 6, L834, and Zcbuion Sheetz, 
36.36 acres, being the east fraction of the section (33) east of the river, 
on the 1st of November, 1834. 
coi. i— it 



First Buildings and Pioneer Merchant 

In the following spring tlio county office was erected on the courthouse 
square. It was a little wooden building for the clerk, auditor and 
recorder, all combined in the personof William Sill. About the same 
time Henry Orwig, late of Delphi, who had bought a lot at the sale of 
the preceding November, completed his house and store under one small 
roof at the southwest corner of Broadway and Bluff streets, and in May, 
1835, commenced to sell from his $500 stock of miscellanies. Public and 
private business started simultaneously. Orwig might have been ar- 
rested, as he had no to sell, but the people winked at the legal 
irregularity, as they were only too glad to be accommodated even to the 
extent of his small ability. After several months of experiment, however, 
Monticello's first merchant made up his mind to stay and he therefore 
obtained his license in the fall of 1835. Samuel Heckendorn opened the 
first furniture shop in Monticello. Jonathan Harbolt was the first under- 
taker. He would be called a funeral director. 

Circuit Rider on the Raw Ground 

Robert Rothrock was authority for the statement that the first sermon 
preached in Monticello was about the time the town was laid out, in the 
fall of 1834, and that a circuit rider named Stalker was the worthy man 
who thus inaugurated religious training at the county seat. Thereafter, 
he appeared at the settlement monthly until February, 1S36, when a 
small class was formally organized. Its members were Zebulon Sheetz, 
wife, mother and son; John Reese, wife, mother and two sisters; Okey 
S. Johnson, wife and sister; Lewis Dawson; Bethsheba Cowan and her 
three daughters; Jonathan Harbolt and wife, and Asa Allen and wife. 
The class met quite regularly at the cabin of John Wilson just west of 
town, that gentleman having joined soon after its formation. 

Soon afterward, the church-goers commenced to split up iuto denom- 
inational societies, the completion of the schoolhouse furnishing them 
with a regular meeting. place. 

Carrying the Gospel Under Difficulties 

Milton M. Sill claims that the first resident minister of an organized 
church in White County was Alexander Williamson, of the Presbyterian 
faith. He located in Monticello and delivered sermons in all parts of 
the county, at the homesteads of members of his flock who lived too far 
away from town to attend the regular morning services and would per- 
haps be compelled to deny themselves this comfort unless the preacher 
should go to their homes. Thus it happened that the minister, after 
delivering his morning discourse at Monticello, would travel ten or 
fifteen miles in tin? afternoon and deliver a second one at night. In 
pleasant weather this was not, a severe; hardship, but with the coming 
of storms and almost impassable roads, the preacher was placed in the 


same class as the country doctor. But Mr. Williamson was very diligent 
and faithful in his work, and never disappointed his country parishioners 
if it was possible t< carry the gospel to them. His outside meetings were 
generally held at the house of Zebulon Sheetz, on the east side of the 
river, until the completion of the sehoolhousc at Monticello in 1830'. 

Baptists and Methodists Organize 

Elders Reese, Miner and Corbin organized the Baptist society soon 
after the Presbyterians formed a society. Elder Miner, of Lafayette, 
had charge of the society, but in his absence Elder Reese officiated, the 
Monticello meetings usually being held at the house of the latter. 

In the winter of 1836-37 a protracted meeting was held in the school- 
house, which resulted in the formation of a Methodist class and the calling 
of Ilachaliah Vreedenburg to the mission. The combined school and 
meeting-house was a frame building, 20 by 30 feet, with iron latches and 
hinges, as well as real glass for the windows. It was far above the 
average of such structures and remained both a temple of learning and 
a temple of worship for a full decade. 

The Busy Year, 1836 

In the meantime the material interests of Monticello were also grow- 
ing apace. The year 1836 was especially busy. Carpenters, blacksmiths, 
doctors, merchants, ministers, lawyers, speculators and mechanics of every 
descriptions began to appear, and the building of houses and shops was 
rapidly lining out the principal streets of the town. 

Young Town Considekaui.y Soaked 

In May, 1836, Rowland Hughes opened his tavern, having paid $5 
for the license, and about the same time Parcel and Nicholson, and Ford, 
Walker and Company, were licensed as general storekeepers, each firm 
paying $10 for the privilege of -selling their goods. Landlord Hughes 
bought the privilege of selling liquor at his hotel, and Patrick Sullivan 
opened a regular saloon soon afterward. Such attractions were not 
resisted by the Indians just above Monticello and several miles further 
north in what is now Liberty Township. The squaws came from tin- 
villages with their bead work and other fancy articles and the braves 
brought skins or venison, which were as often exchanged for bud whiskey 
as for good food. Sullivan was indicted several times for selling whiskey 
to the Pottawattamies, but Hughes was more careful to confine his 
traffic in strong drink to the white villagers. For a number id' years, 
especially while the Indians lingered, Monticello had rather a bad name 
as a whiskey-soaked town. 

Business Directory, fob 1S3G 

In this busy year of 1836 William Sill also opened a general store, as 
did Reynolds and Cassel. Aside from those mentioned, the following 



were factors in the Montieello expansion: Peter Martin, merchant; 
James Parker, sheriff; Dr. Samuel Rifenberrick, general merchandise; 
Mr. Perces, grocer; Jonathan Harbolt, James McKinley, T. R. Dawson, 
Christian Dasher, Robert Spencer, Salmon Sherwood and John Ilana- 
walt, carpenters; G. R. Bartley, Nathaniel White and John Ream, 
farmers; Joseph Skidmore and Thompson Crose, blacksmiths; Rev. 
Joshua E*indsey, minister, justice of the peace and postmaster; Jacob 
Meyer's, tailor; Daniel M. Tilton, tailor and deputy postmaster; Jacob 
Thomas, shoemaker; Asa Allen, surveyor; Widows Bott and Reese; 
Jacob Franklin, cabinet maker; William Brock, plasterer and cabinet 
maker; Oliver . Hammon, small store, and Abraham Snyder, tanner. 

At that time the town had the frame schoolhouse and the little frame 
courthouse. Not long after the courthouse was blown down by a heavy 
wind ; Robert Spencer, its builder, was placed under a cloud as to his 
efficiency, and Jonathan Harbolt had the satisfaction of re-erecting it. 
Montieello had then a population of about 100 men, women and children. 

Perry Established 

In May, 1837, Peter Martin was licensed to conduct a ferry across the 
river at Montieello, and was required to keep a boat large enough to 
carry teams and a smaller boat for persons. 

Smith, Hiorth and the Kendalls 

In the following spring Peter B. Smith, who had been associated with 
Hans E. Hidrth in the Norway water power and mills, opened a general 
store at Montieello, whither he appears to have transferred most of his 
interests. Hiorth afterward purchased a share in the business, which 
he probably held until his death in 1844. The Kendall brothers were 
the next important business men to enter the Montieello field with large 
stocks of general merchandise, and were leading merchants during the 
decade previous to 1848, when they took over the Hiorth properties at 
Norway, but two of them afterward returned to the county seat and 
re-entered business. 

Jacob Beck and John Brady came as rivals of Rowland Hughes in 
the hotel line, about 1840, and Merriam and Company opened another 
store in 1844. In 1846 Messrs. Reynolds and Merriam became partners, 
besides whom there were engaged in mercantile affairs, William Sill, 
Rowland Hughes, Charles W. Kendall, Rifenberrick and Brcarley, 
Andrew Sproule and William Sheetz and Company. 

Establishment of the Local Pre 

The late '40s were rather full of events which had a bearing on 
the progress of Montieello; the leading ones were the establishment oT 
the Prairie Chieftain, the first newspaper of the county, and the prac- 
tical development of the water power tinder the management of the 


Monticello Hydraulic Company. The Chieftain met with a fair patron- 
age during the five years of its existence, and various newspapers have 
since succeeded one another, with more or less close connection, up to 
the present; the Chief tain, .which issued its first number July 3, 18-19, 
demonstrated that Monticello and the county would support a good, 
earnest newspaper, "and its founding was therefore an important event 
for both. 

Fiest Water Power and Mills 

The Monticello Hydraulic Company inaugurated a long line of indus- 
tries which accomplished much toward the early growth of the place. 
The act by .which it was constituted was passed by the Legislature iu 
February, 1848, and named as its incorporators Phillip Wolverton, John 
Burns, Ashley L. Pierce, Henry Ensmiger, Randolph Brearley, John C. 
Merriam, Zachariah VauBuskhk, Isaac Reynolds and Zebulon Sheetz. 
In 1849 the company bought small tracts of land from Mr. Sheetz and 
Rowland Hughes and a dam was thrown across the river. A site was 
then leased to Messrs. Reynolds and Brearley, who erected a large frame 
grist mill'for merchant work, and Iloagland and Conklin built a woolen 
factory at about the same time. Mr. Sheetz next built a sawmill and a 
second establishment of that kind was established by Iloagland and 
Conklin, the latter being subsequently transformed into a furniture 
factory. Reynolds and Brearley added to their interests by erecting a 
large frame warehouse, which Professor Bowman leased for his school 
in 1859. 

Wool Center and Woolen Manufactures 

The leases of the water power at Monticello controlled by the old 
Hydraulic Company were for ten years and carried with them small 
pieces of land adjacent to the dam. For many years the grist, saw and 
woolen mills were in profitable operation and were the means of drawing 
and holding many useful citizens to the town. As a wool center it became 
well known. 

In the early years Northwestern Indiana was noted as a productive 
sheep country, and White County shared in ils good name in that regard. 
Probably Peter Price became the largest, if not the first of the wool 
dealers at Monticello, and for a number of years before the factory was 
built collected large quantities of the raw material and hauled it in 
wagons to Delphi, LaFayette and other places on the Wabash and Erie 
Canal, and even as far as Michigan City, lie also kept at his house wesl 
of town woolen cloths, which were either sold for cash or traded for 


During the Civil war the manufacture of woolen goods was a brisk 
industry everywhere that it could lie conducted. At Monticello the 
prospects were so good that Kingsbury and Lynch renewed the lease of 
the water power necessary to run their factory for another ten years. 


The other establishments on the dam did the same, and all through the 
war that locality hummed with business. In IStib Markle and Cowdin 
erected the woolen factory on. the east side of the river. The Dales, 
Kcefer and Roberts and perhaps others were afterward identified with 
it, but about 1880 the building was outfitted as a merchant grist mill 
and later was destroyed by fire. 

Tug Tippecanoe Hydraulic Company 

In April, 1872, the Tippecanoe Hydraulic Company had been organ- 
ized as an indirect successor to the old Monticello Company. Its object 
was the development of the water power at or near the county seat, and 
its first trustees were Albert Reynolds, W. S. Ayres, Robert M. Strait, 
J. C. Blake and William Braden. The Monticello Lumbering and Barrel 
Heading .Manufacturing Company was formed at about the same time, 
its projectors being mostly members of the Hydraulic Company. 

Nelson B. Lougiiry and Sons 

Among the first to take advantage of the improved conditions brought 
about by the reorganization of local hydraulic and manufacturing inter- 
ests was Nelson B. Loughry, a Pennsylvanian by birth, who had migrated 
to Lafayette with his family when forty years of age. At the time of 
his departure for the West he had become somewhat prominent both 
as a merchant and a public man. In 1858 he moved with his wife and 
family to Monon Township, where for about fourteen years he was 
engaged in milling and agriculture, in which pursuits his three sons 
received a thorough training. It was in 1872, the year of the organiza- 
tion of the Tippecanoe Hydraulic Company, that Mr. Loughry purchased 
the mill which had been erected in 1850 and promptly set to work to 
improve it. Both in this work and in the subsequent operation of the 
plant Mr. Loughry had the efficient assistance of his sons, Joseph E., 
Albert W. and Cloyd. Joseph E. had had active charge of the milling 
interests since 1869 and in 1872 the firm of Loughry Brothers was 
formed. The father died in 181)0. It is needless to say, except for the 
benefit of strangers in that part of the state, that under the management 
of the three Lougiiry brothers it has become one of the best equipped 
mills in Northern Indiana. In the early period of their industrial and 
business career, the Loughrys also operated a furniture factory opposite 
their mill. They also promoted other lines of manufacture, became 
interested in the financial matters of Monticello and for a number of 
years were considered perhaps the leading men of affairs in White 
County, and, after all these years, they are still leaders. 

Becomes a Railroad Town 

The early '50s were charged with great expectations and resulted in 
not a few actualities. Although the people were disappointed over the 


fact that the New Albany and Salem Railway did not materialize in 
Monticello, the Logansport, Peoria & Burlington was actually completed 
and Monticello made a station. -The village was also incorporated in 
1853, the streets were drained-and graded and sidewalks built and im- 
proved. The county seat was made a little uneasy by the founding of 
Reynolds in 1854, and its rise for a number of years, but considered that 
its advantages over its ambitious sister to the west were made permanently 
superior when what is now known as the Pittsburgh, Chicago and St. 
Louis Railroad was completed through the township in 1859, thus giving 
the village a western outlet. Trains did not commence to pass over the 
Tippecanoe River to the eastward until 'January, 1860, which marked 
the completion of the Logansport, Peoria and Burlington line. 

Monticello in 1852 

During the period of the early '50s the churches of Monticello had 
obtained a foothold and no class of its citizens had a better opportunity 
to observe people and conditions than the ministers. One of the Metho- 
dist clergy, Rev. L. Nebeker, thus draws his picture: "My personal 
recollections of this place began in the fall of 1852, when appointed by 
Bishop Baker at the first session of the Northwest Indiana Conference, 
held at Terre Haute that year. On my arrival I was directed to Dr. 
Rifenberrick's for a temporary home. We were cordially received by 
the Doctor and his good wife, the latter still living in Greencastle as the 
widow of the late Rev. Daniel De Mott. 

"The church was new, having been built and dedicated under the 
administration of the Rev. John Leach, one year intervening between 
his and my term, filled by Rev. R. H. Calvert. This was a year of turmoil. 
Mr. Calvert got into difficulty with a local preacher by the name of 
John Kistler and produced partisan feeling throughout the entire circuit, 
which reached as far west as Palestine, fifteen miles. One half of the 
year passed before a reconciliation could be effected. 

"There were at that time in the medical profession in Monticello, 
Drs. Rifenberrick, Spencer (father of Dr. William Spencer), Gray, 
Haymond and Brearley, the last not practicing. 

"In the law my recollection takes in only 'Bob' Sill and David 
Turpie, now of Indianapolis. Rowland Hughes, Jonathan P. Ritehey, 
Daniel Tilton and 'Cub' Reynolds were the merchants, all selling gro- 
ceries, boots, shoes and notions. Isaac Reynolds and Dr. Brearley owned 
and managed the mill at the west end of the dam. Crose & McElhoe 
were partners running a blacksmith shop. A .Mi'. Kiefhaber also ran 
one. There were two Presbyterian churches, Old and New schools, pre- 
sided over respectively by Rev. John Wmnpler and Rev, George I). Miller. 
These, with the Methodist, constituted the religious organizations of the 
place at that time. 

"Here I found D. P. Barnes, now of the Michigan conference, an 
honored member, having a number of times been sent by that body and 
now leads the delegation in the next general conference. The family 


were in moderate circumstances and in some way connected with the 
woolen mill here. Young Barnes, then in his teens, had attended the 
winter school and at the close.took part in the closing literary exercises. 
Noticing the lad was gifted with a fine oratorical voice and exhibited good 
taste and modest demeanor, I suggested the propriety of attending 

"Daniel Dale was a character in those days. Though he lived at 
'Git-away' (Purnettsville) he was frequently in Monticcllo. I have 
a very vivid recollection of my first interview with the old gentleman. 
lie was a loud talker, rather dogmatic in manner, and spoke. with a 
great deal of positivencss. The question of securing a railroad to this 
place was the topic. An east and west road going out from Logansport 
was under contemplation. 

" 'How much will it require to secure the road through Monticello V I 
inquired. He named the amount. I said it would be hard to raise so 
large an amount of money, would it not? 

" 'Oli, no,' said he, 'if you can get the people together and pump an 
acre and a half of thunder and lightning into them, the money can be 
raised easily.' 

"There was another son of the old gentleman, Levi, living then at 
Delphi, long since dead. He was an attorney and frequently visited 
Monticello; a kind of Lincoln style physique, and somewhat in his fond- 
ness for repartee — quite a plain man. On one occasion, meeting him 
here, I was surprised to see a reckless display of jewelry. Among other 
things a very large metal watch chain hung about his neck and down 
to his watch in the vest pocket. 

"I said, 'Brother Dale, you seem to be coming out.' 

" 'Yes, I have determined to lie rich if it costs me all I am worth.' 

"Since then I have seen a great many who seemed to have come to the 
same determination. 

"There were, some eight or ten miles west, in the neighborhood of 
Ashbury Chapel, some Virginians who had entered land and were mak- 
ing farms. If they were not the titled F. F. V.'s they certainly were 
worthy of it. Abel T. Smith and "William Vanscoy, with their families, 
will be remembered and honored by those who knew them, and their 
impress on society will be felt for generations by those who did not 
know them. * * * 

"I shall never forget my first visit to Palestine, the western extremity 
of the circuit. After leaving Brother Thompson's, a little southeast of 
where Reynolds now stands, there was a wild stretch of six or seven 
miles without a human habitation. Having passed this and found a 
man building fence, I inquired of him for Palestine. 

" 'Do you see that sehoolhouse up on the ridge yonder?' pointing 
lo a round-log building with clapboard roof weighted down with heavy 
poles, about a quarter of a mile away, but in plain view on an oak ridge. 

" 'Yes.' 1 said. 

" 'Well, that is Palestine.' 


"I hardly need say my dreams of a land of milk and honey with 
grapes of Eschol vanished quicker than it takes to tell you." 

During the pastorate "of Brother Leach he made an appointment 
to preach at the Monoifschoolhouse on a week night. It was the fall of 
the year, the evenings were getting long, and at the time of which we 
speak the air was crisp and cool, when the preacher, accompanied by 
Brother Will Bott, and, by the way, incidents and anecdotes will be in- 
complete without Brother Bott's name, together witli many 'others fig- 
uring in it. The preacher and Will, late in the afternoon, took up their 
journey for the evening appointment, giving themselves just time to 
reach the place by the time the people were there. Arriving, they found 
the people on hand, and had kindled a fire in the box stove that occupied 
the middle of the floor, and from the opening at the hearth proceeded 
all the light they had. On the arrival of the preacher and his traveling 
companion, all conversation ceased, which up to that time had embraced 
all the range of crops, coon hunts, corn huskings and general neighbor- 
hood gossip, and everything was quiet, subdued and dark. 

"As Brother Leach sat warming himself and musing on the situation, 
the spirit of song took possession of him, and, though I can't afford to 
give you much music in this lecture, at the price I get for it, I will give 
you this as sung by the preacher that night while wanning by the stove: 

" 'Plunged in a gulf of dark despair, 
We wretched sinners lay, 
Without one cheering beam of hope 
Or spark of glimmering day.' 

"While the hymn was being sung some parties slipped out to the 
nearest neighbors and returned with candles to light up the house." 

Village Government Abandoned 

The incorporation of the Village of Monticello was soon Hollowed 
by the election of the following officers: Jacob Ilanaway, Ferdinand 
Kcifhaber, William S. Itaymond, A. V. Reed and John Wilson, tins 
tees; John R. Willey, marshal, clerk, treasurer and assessor. The vil- 
lage form of government, as inaugurated in 1853, only endured for a 
year, and was then abandoned by mutual consent. 

Walker's, Jenners' and Reynolds' Addition 

Up to this time two additions had been made to the original plat, 
both of them within three years after the town was laid out. The par- 
ticulars of these accessions to its area are thus presented by the late 
Milton M. Sill: "Little opportunity was given to non-resident bind 
speculators to obtain land in the immediate vicinity of the county seat, 
as it was all taken by the resident settlers very soon after the county 
scat was located. Messrs, Jacob Walker and William M. Jennets, of 
Lafayette, and Benjamin Reynolds, of Big Creek township, succeeded, 


however, in purchasing land of George R. Bartley adjoining the original 
plal of the town on the south and west, and laid out the first- addition to 
the town on the twenty-seventh day of October, 1836. It was named 
Walker's, .Jenners' and Reynolds' addition to Monticello, and still re- 
tains the name. It consisted of one hundred and thirty-four lots, with 
streets and alleys, the streets varying in width from Railroad street one 
hundred |eet to Water street thirty feet, and the streets and alleys in 
the original were extended through their addition of the same width as 
in the original plat. The venture did not prove to be a financial success, 
as town lots were not ready sale at the prices asked by the proprietors, 
and -Mr. Reynolds parted witli his interest in the addition soon after it 
was laid out. 

Barb's Addition 

"The Board of County Commissioners directed the county agent (Mr. 
Barr) by an order, entered of record, to lay out and plat the remaining 
land donated for the county seat, and accordingly, on the 27th day of 
April, 18.37, one hundred and five lots were added to the original plat, 
and called Barr's addition, to designate it from the town first platted. 
Two additional streets were platted in Mr. Barr's addition, one on the 
north marking the northern limit of the land donated, and named North 
street, running east and west parellel with the streets in the original 
plat and sixty-six feet in width, and one on the river bank, one hundred 
feet in width, connecting Main Cross street on the south with North 
street and used by the traveling public to gain access to the ferry landing 
located about midway between Washington street and Main Cross street: 
but after the removal of the ferry landing to the foot of Marion street, 
the southern part of River street was abandoned, and that portion of it 
south of Washington street was never afterward used as a public thor- 

""With the addition of .Mr. Barr's and Walker's, Jenners' and Rey- 
nolds* to the original plat, Monticello assumed the proportions of a 
town on paper, but was in fact only a respectable village. A few lots in 
the new addition were sold, mainly those on the east side of Tippecanoe 
street, between Main Cross and Marion streets, they being much larger 
than those in the original plat, and more than twice the size of the 
largest lot in the Walker addition, but the sales were made chiefly to 
residents who already owned vacant and unimproved lots in the original 
plat, and if improvement was made on their new purchase it was only a 
stable or fence enclosing their lot for the purpose of utilizing it for a calf 

"The supply of lots far exceeded the demand, and though the prices 
asked were ridiculously low. but few were disposed of for several years 
after the Barr addition was made to the town. 

Boom Not in Kvidknce 

"Those who had purchased town lots at the first sab', expecting a 
boom in prices by reason of the selection of Monticello as the county 


seat were grievously disappointed. No boom was realized. Crass grew 
in the streets and dog fennel and other noxious'weeds covered the vacant 
lots on the west and south of the original plat, and cattle, horses, sheep 
and hogs roamed at will through the town. Invidious remarks were 
made that the town was finished and only needed fencing to make a 
suitable pasture field for the stoek. Some wicked boys and young men, 
acting on this suggestion, one summer night, whilst their parents were 
peacefully slumbering in bed and perhaps dreaming of the future profits 
to be realized from the sale of their vacant lots, actually did build a rail 
fence across' the two principal streets (Main and Main Cross), taking 
the rails from the neighboring fields adjoining the town. The fence was 
well constructed and duly staked and double ridered, and completely 
spanned the two streets on the south and east of the court house square. 
The perpetrators of Ibis indignity were never discovered, and 'but little 
effort was made to find them. The fence was removed in the morning 
by the owners of the rails, who were the only parties whose equanimity 
was seriously disturbed by the boys' foolish prank. 

"After thi' organization of the Hydraulic Company and the improve- 
ment of the water power, the town improved somewhat and lots increased 
in value, eligible sites for business houses and residences on the principal 
streets selling for one hundred dollars, and in a few instances more. 
This was a great advance over former prices, and property owners began 
to assume a more cheerful demeanor. 

Third Town Addition 

"The third addition to the town was made by James C. Reynolds 
on Hie 16th day of December, 1851:. It consisted of fourteen lots on the 
west side ami fronting Illinois street, between Washington and North 

"There was no crying demand for additional town lots at that time. 
There were vacant, unimproved lots fronting on every street of the 
town to the number of one hundred or more, in the aggregate, awaiting 
purchasers at prices ranging all the way from ten to one hundred and 
fifty dollars, so that the supply already far exceeded the demand, but 
he sueeeeded in disposing of a few lots between Washington and Marion 
streets, and frame buildings were built on them by the purchasers. 

Civil War Overshadows All 

"The Logansport, Peoria ami Burlington Railroad, now a part of 
the Pennsylvania system known as the Panhandle, after a long delay 
from its beginning, was completed in I860, the first train passing 
through Monlieello on the first day of January of that year. With a 
railroad the hope that the county seat question was finally settled was 
entertained by the real estate property owners of Montieello, and their 
hope was realized to a greater or less extent, probably more on account 
of the War of the Rebellion, beginning early in the year 1861, than the 


possession of railway facilities. The war question was the vital one 
overtopping all, others in which the citizens, not alone in Monticello 
and Reynolds, but the whole country, were deeply interested, and until 
it was finally determined, county scat and other minor questions were 
relegated to the rear and almost, if not entirely, forgotten for the time 

Fourth and Fifth Additions 

"The fourth addition to Monticello was made April 13, 1860, when 
George Snyder, one of the first settlers, who owned a farm adjoining the 
town on the north, made his addition of eight lots on the north side of 
the railroad 'and fronting on the right of way. 

"The fifth addition was made by Sylvanus Van Voorst and called by 
him the Vest addition. It consisted of two tiers of lots lying between 
the extension of Main Cross street on the south and North street on the 
north. There were thirty-six lots in this addition, with street sixty feet 
in width between, running the entire length of the addition. This street 
was named Julia Ann street at the suggestion of Professor George Bow- 
man, who had before purchased a small tract of ground fronting on 
Main Cross street and on the west side of the new street, where he lived 
when the addition was made. The name has since been changed to Dewey 
street, in honor of Admiral Dewey, the hero of Manila." 

George "W. Ewing a Site Owner 

Among the land owners of what has become a portion of the site 
of Monticello and which was acquired before the first incorporation of 
the town in 1853, none was so widely known as George W. Ewing, of 
Fort "Wayne. He laid the foundation of a large fortune in trade with 
the Indians of the Northwest, and, in the course of his negotiations and 
travels, invested his profits in real estate at St. Louis, Chicago (when 
it was a frontier town), Fort Wayne and many other sections in Indiana. 
Mr. Ewing acquired title to large tracts in White County, embracing 
land covering what is now known as the Dreifus and Haugh addition. 
He was a man of courtly carriage and conveyed the impression, which 
was fully borne out by acquaintance, of great breadth and strength of 
character. He had the sagacity, energy and patience not only to estab- 
lish an immense and widely extended trade with the Indians in their 
native homes, but to follow them to the reservations allotted by the Gov- 
ernment, and, with the perfected business machinery and tried person- 
ality of his establishments, continue the dealings with them commenced 
in a former generation. This policy made it necessary for him to spend 
much of his time in Washington, giving personal attention to his claims 
and treaty interests. Another portion of the year he spent in journeys 
of inspection among his western trading posts, anil the third, in visits to 
his old friends at Fort Wayne ami in other portions of Indiana, includ- 
ing Monticello. lie was an especial friend of David Ttirpic, who largely 
looked after his real estate interests at the county seat. Mr. Ewing had 


much public influence and in his earlier years was somewhat active in 
slate politics. Hut his mental and physical energy was too great to he 
confined even to Indiana. 

Second and More Stable Corporation 

Notwithstanding the drains of the Civil war, Montieello continued 
to increase' in population and business, the "boom period" of stimulated 
industries and inflated prices affecting it, as elsewhere in the country 
secure from the actual ravages of the armed conflict. In 1862 the town 
incorporation was effected under which the local government was con- 
ducted for over half a century. That important step was taken mainly 
through the persistent efforts of Alfred R. Orton, son of a prominent 
lawyer and public man of Perry County, Ohio, and himself a prominent 
merchant of Montieello at the time it became an incorporated town. He 
afterward became county surveyor. He is yet an honored resident of 

In response to a petition numerously signed and presented to the 
Board of County Commissioners, that body ordered an election to be 
held at the courthouse, in April, 1862, for the first town officials, and 
it resulted as follows: A. Ilanawalt, Z. VauBuskirk, James Wallace, 
John Saunders and 1). K. Ream, trustees; W. II. Parcels, treasurer and 
marshal, and .Milton M. Sill, clerk and assessor. Richard Brown was 
the first school trustee. 

The subsequent history of Montieello, after its more permanent in- 
corporation as a town, is given in the chapter which follows, which also 
embraces sketches of religious, social and benevolent organizations the 
record <>t' which, in some cases, antedates the life of the 1862 town by 
mam- years. 



Town Backs a New School — The Old High School— Pioneers op 
the Public School System — Legal Complications — How the 
Snarl Was Untangled — Superintendent J. W. Hamilton — 
Better Town Schools — Present High School Building — Sta- 
tistics of the Present — Superintendents and Teachers — The 
Grades Buildings — System as a Whole — Monticello Public 
Library — Good Water and a Good System — The Telephone Ex- 
change — Riverview Park — The Reynolds Additions — Turner's 
Addition — Cleveland Street Created — Hughes' Addition — 
Cochell's and Praser's Addition — McCuaig's Addition — Dreifus 
and Haugii's Addition — McLean and Brearley's Addition — Later 
Additions to the Townsite — Citizens' Addition — Additions to the 
City — City Hall — Improvements of Water Power — Pkesent-Day 
Industries — Four Banks — State Bank of Monticello — Monti- 
cello National Bank — White County Loan, Trust and Savings 
Company — Farmers' State Bank. 

For several years after the permanent incorporation of the Town of 
Monticello its population increased quite rapidly, and there was prog- 
ress all along the line. Such members of the Board of Trustees as 
Samuel Heckendorn, David McCuaig,. W. S. Ilaymond and John Saun- 
ders; William Reese, the treasurer and marshal; I). D. Dal A. W. 
Reynolds and Robert Gregory, clerks, and other town officials, did what 
they could to regulate the health and morals of the new town, and in 
March, 1869, the Town Board approved articles of association which 
brought into being the Monticello Hook and Ladder Company. Tin; 
fire fighters were, of course, all volunteers and relied upon buckets and 
the Tippecanoe River, with such wells as private citizens had at their 
disposal. But it was a start in the direction of protection againsl fire— 
the department, and the ordinances in force of a precautionary nature. 

Town Backs a New School 

Tin- educational system of the town had been mainly advaueed 
through the private labors of such citizens as Prof. George Bowman 
and Rev. William Irelan, but in the .war ISC,:) the school trustees be- 
stirred themselves as an official body and presented a petition to lie' 
Town Board praying that a specified amount of corporate bonds should 
be issued to defray the expense of constructing a new school building; 

Vol. 1 -811 



whereupon, on motion of \V. S. Raymond, the following ordinance was 

passed : 

"Section 1 — Bt it ordained by the Trustees of the Incorporated Town 
of Mdritieello, White County, Indiana, That for the purpose of advancing 
educational interests in the town and county aforesaid, the Hoard of 
Trustees hereby order issued to the School Trustees of Monticello twenty 
thousand dollars worth of coupon bonds of the denomination of one hun- 
dred dollars each, with interest at the rate of ten per cent per annum 
from date; and the interest on said bonds is to be paid by the Treasurer 
of said corporation, at his office in said town; and said bonds are made 
redeemable at the pleasure of said corporation after two years and within 
ten years after the issue thereof. 

"Section 2 — It is declared that an emergency exists for the imme- 
diate taking effect of this ordinance; therefore it shall lie in force from 
and after its passage." 

The Old High School 

The bonds were issued and sold and with the proceeds the old high 
school building on West Broadway was erected. At thai time it was one 
of tlie finest brick schoolhouses in Northwestern Indiana. The first term 
in the new building began in September, 1870, the school trustees then 
being Harrison P. Anderson, William S. Ilaymond and Charles W. 
Kendall. I. M. Gross was principal, and his assistants were Albert S. 
Nordyke, James M. McBeth, Annie Henderson and Lodie Heed. 

Pioneers of the Puhi.ic Systeji 

During the first twenty years of corporate existence, the school trus- 
tees of the town included Richard Brown, II. 1'. Anderson, -I. A. Wood, 
A. Ilanawalt, Ira Kingsbury, W. S. Davis, Lucius Tierce, M. A. Kerr, 
W. J. Gridlcy, William Davis, 0. W. Kendall, A. W. Reynolds, .1. S. 
Hurtt, Thomas Bushnell, P. M. Mullcndore, Robert .1. Clark, U. M. Sill, 
S. P.. Bushncll, J. II. McCollum, Samuel Ileckcudorn. W. S. Bushnell 
and .1. B. Smith. Besides I. M. Cross, the principals of the school dur- 
ing that period were J. A. VanLandingham, .1. R. Owens ami .1. G. Royer, 
who, with the school trustees named, placed the public school system of 
education on a fair basis. 

Legal ' Iomi'Lications 

The efforts of the school authorities were considerably retarded, even 
disorganized, by the financial complication growing nut of the $20,00(1 
bond issue through which Hie handsome new building was completed. 
Under the ordinance authorizing their issue the interest was fixed at In 
per cent, and the time limit at ten years. As the limitation approached, 
the citizens became less and less inclined 1 <> pay that high rate of in 


tcrcst, and in 1878 measures were taken to refund the bonds at 7 
per cent. New paper to the amount of #21,000 was issued and placed in 
the hands of Joseph C. Wilson, a leading director of the First National 
Bank of Monticello. He sold the bouds, but the non-appearance of the 
funds caused the citizens to voice their uneasiness through the columns 
of the local press. Through the united efforts of people and press Mr. 
Wilson was placed under bonds, a precaution which had not before been 
taken. Notwithstanding which, the First National closed its doors, Mr. 
Wilson departed for Canada, and the Town of Monticello was left with 
a bonded school debt of about $-40,000, of which $21,000 was drawing 
7 per cent interest and the balance 10 per cent. 

Then ensued a tangle of legal complications. Suit was first instituted 
against Wilson's bondsmen and then against M. L. Bundy, receiver of 
the First National Bank, to recover $10,000 alleged to have been de- 
posited by Wilson as a portion of the proceeds realized from the bond 
sales. About $7,000 was recovered by the latter suit, but nothing from 
the former. 

How the Snarl Was Untangled 

The town next decided to resist the payment of both interest and 
principal of the refunded bonds, and suit was therefore brought against 
the corporation by A. L. Merrill, representing the bond holders, to col- 
lect the full amount guaranteed on the face of those securities. The 
court decided that the new refunded bonds were invalid, upon the fol- 
lowing ground: ".Municipal corporations have no power to issue or 
make commercial paper. That power must come from the Legislature. 
•The town had no authority at the time to refund its debt." 

This was the decision of the United States Supreme Court in an 
action on the bonds, and not in an action for money had and received, 
regardless of the validity of the bonds. The court held that there being 
no express statutory authorization of the bond issue they were void as 
being issued ultra vires. Merrill vs. Monticello, 138 U. S. 673. This is 
known as a ruling ease on this proposition of law decided in 1891. After 
this decision holding these bonds void Merrill, for himself and other bond 
holders, on November -J, 1892, commenced a new suit in the United 
States District Court at 1 ndianapolis, seeking to recover the amount of 
the bonds in another form of action, known as a bill in equity, to require 
the Town of Monticello to pay over the proceeds of the bonds, to charge 
the town, as trustee, with the sum of $0,988.43 recovered by it, and 
also to compel the town to assign the bond given by Wilson to account 
for the money realized by him from the sale of bonds. 

The town defended (in this grounds, to-wit : Want of equity, six- 
year statute of limitations, and general laches, which defense was sus- 
tained, and Merrill appealed to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals 
fur the Seventh District at Chicago, when in 1896 this decision of the 
United States District Court was sustained. 


Superintendent J. \V. Hamilton 

Thus, after years of litigation, matters were finally adjusted in the 
courts, and the schools progressed through it all. To no one person 
were the improvements more indebted than to John VV. Hamilton, who 
became superintendent in 1889 and continued as such for more than 
twenty" years. Under his administration the high school courses were 
expanded to modern breadth, and the South Side School was erected on 
South Main Street. To meet the demands of the growing town the old 
high school building had been doubled in capacity, and, with its destruc- 
tion by fire on August 25, 1905, had been replaced by the massive strue- 
still occupied. 

First Big School in a Feed Stable 

In its historical edition of December 8, 1910, the Herald has the fol- 
lowing interesting paper on the Montieello schools : 

"In nothing does Montieello show a greater contrast between past and 
present than in her schools. It is within the memory of citizens still 
living when the 'select school' was our only dependence — when a sub- 
scription paper was circulated to hire a teacher, and if there were not 
enough signers there was no school. Up to 1859 schools were held wher- 
ever a temporary room could be found. One of the first, if riot the first, 
was held in a building on the bluff long since torn down. It was on the 
site of the present Nordyke property, and its existence is now almost 
a tradition. Other schools were taught in the 'old court house' (now 
Cowger's feed store), in upper rooms of the Commercial Block, in the 
old Kendall building on the site now occupied by the Baker-Uhl build- 
ing, and at private residences. 

"About 1859 the township trustees, then three in number, leased the 
old building still standing in the rear of the Hotel Forbis and occupied 
by Job Wickersham as a feed stable. Previous to that time it had been 
used as a warehouse for the storage of grain. When plastered and par- 
titioned off, with two rooms below and one above, and equipped with 
home-made desks and a bell, which surmounted the comb of the roof 
without belfry or other protection, it was regarded as a palatial institute 
of learning and served its purpose well for about ten years. Here George 
Bowman conducted the first graded school in Montieello, and here many 
of the present residents of Montieello, now from 50 to 70 years old, got 
most of their education. 

Better Town Schools 

"In 18t;9 a more pretentious building was erected mi the site of Hie 
present high school building. Years later it was enlarged by an addi 
tion on the east to meet the demands of the growing school population. 
In 1891 an additional building was erected on South .Main street, which 
still accommodates the lower grades of thai part of the city. 


Present High School Building 

"In August, 1905, fire destroyed the high school building, and it was 
restored by the erection of the present imposing structure. The iirst 
(loor of tliis building is set apart for the lower grades. It contains seven 
commodious and well lighted grade rooms — three on the south side of 
the corridor, two on the north side, and two in the east end of the build- 
ing, each with a cloak room adjoining and each equipped with a cabinet 
for supplies. 

"On the second floor at the east end of the building is an assembly 
room with a floor dimension of 55 by GO feet, and a rostrum on the west 
side. Adjojuing this room on the west and occupying the place of the 
old office is a library room. Next is a suite of three office rooms ap- 
proached through one vestibule. The superintendent's room is 16 by 25 
feet in size. Perhaps the most striking feature of I he whole building is 
the reception room on this floor, which takes the place of the old dark 
corridor. Here is a hall 1C by GO feet in size, well lighted from above 
and flanked on the south side by a cloak room extending its full length 
and separated from the main room only by a low wall, from which col- 
umns rise at intervals to the ceiling. South of this are two large reci- 
tation rooms and one grade room. The latter is in the southwest corner 
of the building and is used by the eight li grade. On the north side are 
three recitation rooms. 

"On the third floor are the physical, chemical and biological labora- 
tories, three large rooms with the necessary laboratory equipment, plumb 
ing, etc. These rooms connect with a lecture room on the same floor, 
which is lighted with a skylight and furnished with raised scats, making 
a delightful little amphitheater. 

"All the rooms in the building are well lighted and well arranged, 
and nobody can view the work of the architects without realizing that 
they understood all the modern requirements in school architecture 
Every sanitary precaution has been observed, and even the blackboards 
are provided with closed troughs which i five the chalk dust and pre- 
vent it from circulating in the rooms. Toilet rooms are on every floor 
and also in the basement. Each floor is also supplied with sanitary 
drinking fountains. 

"The basement contains the heating plant. The air is heated by 
steam coils and forced to every part of the building by a ten-foot revolv- 
ing fan. This is supplemented by steam radiators in different parts 
of the building. Every room is supplied with an automatic heat regu- 
lator, by which the temperature may be kept at any degree desired by 
simply 'turning a button. The whole building is lighted with electric 

"In the basement, besides the space used for the heating plant and 
toilet rooms, there arc several large rooms that are utilized for play 

rooms in bad weather and for luncheon ro s. One room in the northwest 

corner is especially well lighted and will be used hereafter for work in 
the manual training department." 


Statistics of the Present 

The schools of Montiecllo are now under the superintendent}' of 
James M. Leffel, who succeeded Mr. C. F. Jackman in 1914. The system 
is maintained at the high standard required by the educator of today, 
and the following figures indicate its present status: Enrollment, 600 ; 
'average attendance, 498; number of pupils in the high school, 170; num- 
ber in the fifth to eighth grammar grades, inclusive, 189; number in the 
first to fourth primary grades, inclusive, 241. The average attendance 
at the high school building on West Broadway is: High school, 151: 
grades, 271; and at the South Side School, 76. 

Superintendents and Teachers 

Superintendents since 1883: J. G. Royer, Sinclair, B. F. Moore, 

J. W. Hamilton (1S90-1912), C. F. Jackman, and James M. Leffel. 

Present high school faculty: J. M. Leffel, superintendent, physics; 
II. 1']. Elder, principal and teacher of science; Miss Grace Lowe, domestic 
science; J. [I. Bachtcnkircher, penmanship; Miss Louise Miller, music 
and art, and Perry Patmore, manual training and agriculture, also super- 
visors for grades and high school; A. R. Staggs, history and physiology; 
Miss Ethel Roberts, Latin and English; G. W. Gray, public speaking; 
Miss Emma Shealy, English, and C. T. Steward, mathematics. 

West building teachers: Grade 1, Miss Ora Orton, 38 pupils; grade 
2, Miss Blanche Cullem, 40 pupils; grade 3, Miss Margaret Roach; 
grade I. .Miss Lida Wigmore; grade 5, Miss Mary Laurie; grade 6, Miss 
Flossie Thompson; grade 7, Miss Isabel O'Dowd; grade 8, J. F. Duncan. 

South building teachers: Grade 1, Miss Jennie Burns; grade 2, Miss 
Marllia Walls. 

Possibly the must important departure of the school policy is the 
establishment of vocational training as a part of the high school curric- 
ulum. In September, 1915, a course in vocational agriculture was offered 
to all students who care to prepare themselves for scientific farming. 
Students will be allowed to enter this department who do not care to 
take work in any oilier branches offered in the high school. Students 
taking (lie regular high school course will be allowed to take work in the 
agricultural department. Mr. 0. E. Ackerson, who is employt 1 for the 
cah mlar year, will spend his time on the farms or truck gardens in tin- 
city, working with the agricultural students during the summer months 
while school is not in session. School authorities are very anxious th it 
great hcnclil may come to the whole county from this new project. 

The Grades Buildings 

The west building was originally erected in July, 1869. It was 
burned in August, 1905, and immediately rebuilt at an approximate cost 
of $50,000. 

The south building was completed in February, 1S!)2, at a cost ol 



System as a Whole 

The Monticello public schools are equipped with commodious build- 
ings; which comply with nil the requirements of the state laws regarding 
school structures. The school lias thorough equipment throughout the 
grades and high school. 

- Since 1914 the school has been a member of the North Central Asso- 
ciation of Colleges and Secondary Schools. The association maintains 
high standards of scholarship for instructors, requires thorough equip- 
ment of laboratories, limits sizes of classes, requires a broad curriculum 
and a wholesome school spirit in all schools belonging to the association. 
All graduates of high schools in the association are admitted to colleges 
in the West and many in the East without entrance examinations. 

The Monticello Public Library 

In the early part of the year of 1903 some little agitation was started 
with reference to a public library. J. \V. Hamilton, superintendent of 
the public schools, contributed occasional articles to the newspapers, 
setting forth its need and urging that some action be taken in the matter. 
Assisted by the ministers of the churches, particularly the Rev. H. G. 
Rice, of the Presbyterian Church, Mr. Hamilton succeeded in interesting 
the business men. As a result, a subscription paper was started, and 
fifty-two men, each subscribing $8.00, made the +410 required by law 
for the organizing of a public library. 

Under the law of March 4, 1904, the following persons were ap- 
pointed to serve as a board of trustees: W. II. Hamelle and Mrs. T. P. 
Palmer, appointed by the town council; J. W. Hamilton and Mrs. M. T. 
Didlake, by the school board, and Dr. J. I). McCann, Mrs. E. R. Brown 
aud Miss Anne Magee by the .judge of the Circuit Court. 

These persons met in the county clerk's office and were duly qualified 
on the evening of April 6, 1903. An organization was formed by elect- 
ing W. H. Hamelle, president; Mrs. .M. T. Didlake, vice president ; Mrs. 
T. P. Palmer, secretary, and Miss Anne Magee, treasurer. Miss Magee 
was appointed to collect the subscription, and she proved a successful 

The county commissioners, represented by Messrs. Inskecp and Ball, 
tendered the use of the two northwest rooms on the ground floor of the 
courthouse for the library until permanent quarters were obtained. One 
of the first steps taken by the board was to have tlu-se rooms put in proper- 
condition for library purposes. MissMereia Ilogland, who was then state 
organizer of the Public Library Commission, made some suggestions in 
regard to the furnishing. 

The floors of both rooms were covered with plain brown linoleum, 
and the first room to be used as a slack and circulating room was papered 
in a soft shade of tan. Shelves were placed on three side walls, and a 
kitchen table was bought of Iv R. BrOWIl to serve for a elmrgillK desk. 
The record room, to lie used for a reading room, was papered in plain 



dark green. Thr furniture consisted of a magazine case made I)}' George 
Coen, a leather top library table, and a half dozen chairs. 

On April 28, 1006, Miss [Iogland was invited to meet with and advise 
the board as to the proper course to pursue. She advised the adoption 
of the Dewey decimal system of classification, named the qualifications 
to be considered in electing a librarian, and discussed the question of 
bo&ks. W. II. Hamelle presented a list of seventy books, from which 
fifty were to be selected by the board as a gift from his private library. 

It was decided to canvass the town for like donations, and a circular 
letter, which read as follows, was sent to each citizen: "The members 
of the library board wish to assure you that no effort is being spared 
to put the Monticello Public Library upon a substantial and permanent 
footing. The people are manifesting a lively interest in the enterprise, 

Public Library, Monticello 

and they arc exceedingly anxious to see the library opened to the public 
at the earliest possible day. 

"Under the operation of the law the public funds will not be avail- 
able for a year or more. The money subscribed will suffice only for the 
equipment of the rooms and the partial remuneration of a librarian. 
and the purchase of a limited number of books. In view of these facts, 
the library board has decided to have a 'book shower' Saturday, June G, 
1906. They have also decided to make a personal appeal to the citizens 
of Monticello to contribute to the library as many books as they feel 
able to give. 

"Only standard books will he accepted. Paper-back books are not 
wanted. Every book donated will he labeled showing the donor's name. 
The library rooms will be open Tuesday and Thursday of next week 
from 1 to S ]). m., at which time books will be received. The great 
'shower' will oeetir Saturday, dune (I. 


"In closing, may we not ask you to assist in starting this library at 
once by contributing such books as yon can give and such as you think 
desirable* Very respectfully, 

"Tut: Public Library. " 

Over 800 books "were received as a result of the canvass. The greatest 
number of books received from any one person was received from E. B. 
Sellers, the number being 173. .Many of the books given by .Mr. Sellers 
were recent books of fiction, and they were of great service in creating 
an interest in reading. 

Judge T. F. Palmer gave the American Cyclopedia, which proved 
to be one. of the most useful gifts to the library. 

Among others who gave many good books were \V. S. Bushnell, 
Charles C. Spencer, W. S. Pierce, B. R. Brown, Mrs. Carrie Ilartman. 
and Mr. and Mrs. II. G. Rice. 

A letter was sent to Mrs. Bowman, then residing in Canada with her 
daughter, asking for a donation from the library of her husband, ('apt. 
George Bowman. She responded to the request the following winter by 
having her daughter, Mrs. Anna Hoffman, of Bloomington, Indiana, 
make a selection from the books stored in the Bowman home on South 
Main Street. Many of the books are in line print, some in Greek, Latin 
and middle English, but they are valuable as representing the library 
of a man whose name stands for education in the history of White County. 

Mr. Hamelle made the first purchase of books for the library. The 
board authorized him to expend $35 for such bonks as deemed necessary. 

Miss Anne Magee, Mrs. E. R Brown and J. \V. Hamilton were ap- 
pointed as a committee to pass upon all books received. ,). \V. Hamilton, 
Mrs. M. T. Didlake and Mrs. E. R. Brown were appointed a committee 
oTi constitution and by-laws. 
I It was through the suggestion of Reverend and .Mrs. Dodd, of the 
] Christian Church, that Nora Gardner was elected librarian. They were 
s 1 ' personal friends of Miss Gardner's, and knowing her appreciation of 
\. books, suggested her name to Mrs. Didlake and prevailed upon her to 
apply for the position. She was elected and has done line anil faithful 
/ service. Miss Gardner spent a few weeks in a library studying catalog- 
f ing, and Miss Katharine Fisher, of the Attica Public Library, spent 
three weeks in Monticello instructing Miss Gardner and helping her 
catalog the books which had been presented and purchased. 

The two had many interesting experiences in going over the books 
which bad been given. One day. after looking over a basketful that had 
been brought in, Miss Fisher remarked: "Arc the people of this town 
as religious as their books? 1 never saw so many 200's." 

On the afternoon of September 1. I'm::, tie Monticello Public Library 
was opened to the public. That morning IF' women of the hoard met 
in the library rooms, mopped the floors, washed the windows, dusted the 
furniture and added to the attractiveness of the rooms bj placing a few 
potted plants in the windows. With 1,02:1 newly labeled books, it seemed 
like a hopeful enterprise. 


Among the books which had been given, or purchased there was no 
Bible. Someone suggested that they could not open a public library 
without the King James translation, so Doctor McCann and Mr. Hamelle 
went to the McConnell drug store and purchased a handsome Bible, 
- which they gave to the library. A number of persons visited the library 
that day, and twenty-one books were lent. The undertaking was a 
greater one than either the library board or the librarian dreamed of 
on that sunny afternoon. Bat Atlas could never have carried the world 
if he had known the size of it. 

At the end of the first year there were 1,455 volumes in the library, 
452 reader's cards had been issued, and the circulation had been 6,667. 
The second year there was a decrease in the circulation of 161 volumes, 
although the inlere*st seemed as good. The librarian frequently had a 
<r story hour" for the children. The stories were usually taken from 
the classics; sometimes they were told, but more often they were read. 

During the three years that the home of the library was in the court- 
bouse the hours were from 1 to 5 every afternoon of the week, with the 
additional hour's of from 9 to 12 on Saturday morning. 

The Winona (Tub and the University Club held their meetings in 
the library rooms. 

In April, 1905, J. \V. Hamilton was elected president of the board 
to succeed .Mr. liaiuclle, and Dr. J. D. McCann, vice president, to succeed 
Mrs. Didlake. 

The question of a donation from Andrew Carnegie began to be agi- 
tated, and on December 12, 1905, the president of the board was in- 
structed to write to Mr. Carnegie and ascertain' what steps should be 
taken. On January 20, 1906, an offer of $10,000 for a building was 
■ made by Mr. Carnegie, provided the board would ensure a building site 
and $1,000 yearly for its support. After the town council had passed 
on the appropriation of $1,000 yearly for library purposes, the question 
of a site for a building aroused much interest. 

Larlrin Lowe offered a lot north of his residence on North Main 
Street; A. A. Anlieir and 1. Dreifus one on West Broadway. The lot 
north of the Presbyterian Church was considered, but the price seemed 

beyond reach. Th isl favored lot, I hat at the end of East Broadway, 

because of its central and attractive location, was purchased in 1906 of 
Adam Bennett, a resident of hong Beach, California. 

Mr. Carnegie's gift for a building was then accepted. Charles E. 
Kendrick, of Fori Wayne, Indiana, was employed as architect, ami the 
contract for building was let to Mr. hevindouski, of Lafayette. J. W. 
Hamilton, Dr. .1. D. McCann and W. II. Hamelle constituted the building 

While the building was in progress, the librarian succeeded in organ- 
izing all of the chilis of the town into a Local Union for the purpose of 
furnishing the new library. The story of how this organization made 
over $."i()0 is both interesting and amusing. To mention "A Fate of 
Pleasure" to any of its members brings forth a smile, hut the women 
who carried out I he enterprise deserve the highest praise, ami they have 


left a monument of their work which will last for years to come. They 
presented the library with three reading tables, twenty-eight chairs, a 
charging desk, a newspaper rack, a magazine ease, an umbrella rack, a 
grate for the fireplace, three dozen mission folding chairs for the lecture 
room, and $11 for a book fund. Later the Nickel Plate Club presented 
the handsome clock, and the University Extension Club the picture "The 
Capture of Andromache." When the building was completed the Uni- 
versity Extension Club was given the use of it for a three clays' art 

In August the library was moved from the courthouse to its new 
home. Thefe was no formal opening, but when all was in order the 
doors were thrown open to the public, and thus began the real lib- of 
the Monticello Public Dibrary. 

In 1908 Mr. Hamelle was succeeded on the board by J. P. Simons. 
Tn 1909 Mr. Simons was elected president of the board; Dr. J. D. Mc- 
Gann, vice president, and Mrs. Didlake, secretary. 

In 1910 the library board offered to open the public library to Union 
Township, if it cared to take advantage of township extension. A peti- 
tion to that effect from the township to the advisory board failed to pass. 
It was repeated in 1913 with the same result. Persons living outside of 
the city limits have always been granted the privileges of the library 
for a small sum. 

Mrs. Blown and Mr. Hamilton were always interested in the library. 
There were very few days that Mr. Hamilton did not visit the library 
to see how tjie work was progressing. He endeavored to make his teachers 
realize what it might do for them. In 1913 Doctor McCann was elected 
president of the board, and Mr. Simons, vice president, the librarian 
•to act as secretary. 

The lecture room has been used for many interesting occasions. 
Among them was an exhibit of the paintings and drawings of Pansy 
Hartman, of Toledo, Ohio. The organizations holding regular meetings 
there are the Winona Club, Men's Bible League, University Extension 
Club, Camp Fire Girls, White County Historical Society, and a Lutheran 
service held ouce a month. 

There are now 3,369 books catalogued and in use. ll!> I, omul vol- 
umes of magazines, over 1,100 unbound magazines and pamphlets, and 
three daily newspapers, one weekly paper and twenty-one current maga- 
zines. The circulation for 1913 was 8,789 books and 619 magazines. 

The library hours have been from 1 to 'J 1'. .M . on week days, and 
from 10 A. M. to 9 P. M. on Saturday, and during the winter months 
from 2 to 5 P. M. on Saturday. 

There have been both sunny days ami cloudy days in the building up 
of the library. The moving-picture show, the automobile, ami (he 
revival of hand-made embroidery ami lace have to some extent thwarted 
tin 1 influence of hooks. 

The firs! decade of the Monticello Public Library has passed, -lust 
what the influence has been cannot be estimated. Approaching the com- 
ing decade, we see a readjustment and a building up along new lines. 



for a library is not only a storehouse of the records of the past but one 
of new ideas for immediate and future use. 

Good Water and a Good System 


Monticcllo lias been very fortunate in the construction of her water- 
works and the building of the entire system, which have brought to the 

doors of the most modest citizen an unfailing supply of pure water. 
The town has been not only fortunate in the discovery of such- a supply, 
but in obtaining the services of competent and careful engineers and 
business men from the very first. The builders, the town management 
and the water itself have all contributed to the health, comfort and 
good name of Montieello. 

The system was installed in 1895 under the direction of the town 

I i^H I 

Water Works, Monticelu: 

board, which was then composed of Sanford Jolmsonbaugh, Frank I\ 
Berkey, Henry ('. Crouch, Thad E. Hanway and Michael Howard, with 
Charles C. Spencer as attorney. At the foot of the river bluff on the north 
side of Washington Street they struck a gushing spring, the supply of 
which still seems inexhaustible. At least it flows as vigorously as when 
first tapped, and the analysis of the state chemist, who labels it "This is 
good water," shows the following composition: Albuminoid ammonia, 
.0(11 per cent; free n 1 1 1 1 1 1 « > 1 1 i ;i . .027; iron, .18; chlorine, .7; total solids, 
L.2; lixed solids, 32.2. There are no traces of nitrates, lead or colon 
bacilli, the last-named announcement by the state chemist being evidence 
that the water contains nothing which could cause disorders of digestion 
or fevers which originate in infection through the digestive tract. 

Complete, the total eosl of the plant as $28,000, and the town never 
made a better investment. Later expenses made necessary a bond issue 



of $35,000 to meet the indebtedness. The plans were furnished by Con- 
suiting Engineer W. S. Shields, of Chicago, and the system installed 
by Webster P. Biishnell, local engineer. The original plan provided for 
about four miles of ,»nains, but it lias been much expanded to meet tin- 
wants of a growing community. 

The brick well, or reservoir, which encloses the spring, is 12 feet in 
diameter, and the town consumes an average of 225,000 gallons daily, 
although the capacity of the works is much more. The pumping station, 
at the foot of fhe bluff on Washington Street, is a neat brick- building 
with a 70-foot smoke stack, and is equipped with two Woi'thington 

Pressure is supplied by a standpipe 110 feel high and of 126,000 

:sy of Munliccllu Herald 

Electric Plant an*i> Dam 

gallons capacity, located at the highest point on the bluff. Direct pres- 
sure is added in case of fire, and on a test a stream has been thrown 
over the courthouse tower, about 140 feet in height. 

In the summer of 1915 eleven 3-inch wells were driven from 10 t" 
20 feet in depth in the bottom of the well, and these were connected 
with the pumps, when it was found they would .supply an inexhaustible 
supply of pure water which at the well had a temperature of about 
42° Fahr. 

Thus the water service is not only tin' strongest protection the eil;\ 
has against fire, hut is its chief conservator id' the public health - mean 
in<r the health of the men, wo u and children of Monticello. 


The Telephone Exchange 

There arc other agencies under private control, and promotion which 
have so large an influence on the well-being of the people that they 
justly come under the classification of public institutions. Among them 
none are more worthy of commendation than the telephone system, 
which is already a power for efficiency, convenience and comfort, and 
acknowledged by all progressive communities to almost fall under the 
head of necessities. In 1911 the Monticello telephone exchange erected 
a handsome two-story stone building on the north side of the' public 
srpuara for the accommodation of its operatives and the public. Its 
cable system comprised 25,000 feet of underground and aerial wires, and 
■ was installed by the Dean Electric Company, of Elyria, Ohio. The 
switchboard lias an ultimate capacity of 2,000 local lines. 

Riverview Park 

What is known as Riverview Park, and for many earlier years as 
Edgewater, is managed by an association of citizens. It has a club- 
house and lias been more or less improved. It is naturally a beautiful 
stretch of ground, opposite the center of the city on the eastern shores 
of the Tippecanoe, and must eventually become recreation grounds of 
such general resort as lo reach the plaue of a "public institution." The 
park is located in what is known as East Monticello, which was laid 
out in 1867 by Sheldon Whitman, one of the early settlers of the county, 
who is now a respected citizen of Monticello. 

The Revxolds' Additions 

In tlie early part of the same year that East Monticello was platted 
(January, 1867) James C. Reynolds made his second addition of twenty- 
eight lots to (lie town. This addition was immediately west of and ad- 
joining his first addition and tilling the space between his first addition 
and the west addition. 'I'lie street on the north was named Fo^'er Street 
in honor of William Foster, superintendent of the Logansport, Peoria & 
Burlington Railroad, and was a continuation of North Street from 
Illinois Street west through the first and second additions, as well as 
the west addition to its western line. Railroad Street was also extended 
north through the addition to Foster Street. 

Prior to the laying OUl and platting of this second addition, Messrs. 
Zachariah V&nBnskirk, Dr. William S. Haymond, Thomas Bushnell and 
Cassius M Fisk, all residents of the town, purchased the interests of 
William .M. Jetiners and the heirs of Jacob Walker, in all the lots 

remaining unsold in Walker. Jeimers and Reynolds' addition, and 
offered them for sab' at an advance over former prices. 

On the 24th of March, 1874, Mr. Reynolds made his third addition, 
comprising all but two acres, before donated by him to the school trustees 
of the town and on which the school building was erected, of a forty- 



acre tract of land adjoining the town on the west, anil south of .Main 
Cross Street. Mr. Reynolds had purchased a block of lots in Walker, 
Jenners and Reynolds' addition north of the railroad and secured their 
vacation, which he renumbered and included the lots so numbered in his 
third addition. 

On the 24th day of October, 187-1, he made a fourth addition to the 
to\vi>, beginning on the north line of the corporation and running south 
on the center of the highway intersecting .Main Street, to Hie north line 
of section 33, thence east to the river, thence north with the meanderings 
of the river to the corporation line, and thence west to the place of begin- 
ning, containing 100 acres, and being much larger than any addition 
ever made to the town. 

View from the Monticello Stand Pice 

On the 6th day of October, 1883, John W. Christy, administrator of 
his father's estate, made an addition of sixty lots to Die town on the 
east side of Main Street and adjoining the addition of Walker, Jenners 
and Reynolds on the north. 

Turner's Addition 

On the 5th day of May, 1886, John M. Turner, a son of William 
Turner, one of the first settlers, who is now a resident of the township 
and an active and prosperous farmer though more than eighty years of 
age, and Anna E. Turner, his wife, a daughter of Dr. Harrison 1'. 
Anderson, also an old settler, but now decenBod, made an addition of ten 
lots to the town on land lying between the highway intersecting Main 
Street and the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railroad (.Mom,,;, 
Route), and west of ;m,l opposite the northern part of .hones ( '. Rey- 
nolds' fourth addition. 

Vol. I -'I 


Cleveland Street Created 

On the 2nd day 'of Juue, 1887, Henry P. Bennett, an old settler, 
long a resident of the town, made an addition of eighty lots in the 
extreme southern part of the town east of the extension of Main Street 
to the corporation line on the south, which is the southern boundary 
of the addition. Two additional streets were opened through the addi- 
tion, from east to west, intersecting Main Street. The street south, and 
near the center of the addition, was named Cleveland Street, in honor of 
Mr. Cleveland, who was then President of the United States, and the 
other, on the north line of the addition, was named North Street. Tippe- 
canoe and Water streets were extended south through the addition to 
the corporation line. 

Hughes' Addition 

The addition succeeding the Bennett addition was made, on the 27th 
day of August, 188!), by the heirs and legatees of Rowland Hughes, 
deceased: Mary Failing and husband, Peter R. Failing, Sarah C. Crouch 
and husband, Jeptha Crouch, Clara A. Purcupile and husband, John J. 
Pureupile, and Cornelia Crouch and husband, Henry C. Crouch. It. 
consisted of forty-eight lots on the west side of Main Street and east of 
the Louisville, New Albany & Chicago Railway, and immediately north 
of a part of Walker, Jcnners and Reynolds' addition, and a part of 
James C. Reynolds' third addition. 


On the 18th day of November, 1889, Abner Cochell, a son of John 
Cochell, one id' the first settlers, made an addition of sixteen lots to the 
town. Mi'. Codicil's addition is located between Mr. Bennett's addition 
on the south and .Mr. Christy's addition on the north, and extends from 
.Main Street on the west to Water Street on the east. Tippecanoe Street 
is extended smith through the addition of the same width as in the 
original plat. 

On the 28th day of May, L8!)l, Lincoln M. Fraser, a son of Willia.m 
Fraser, and grandson of Mali Ion Fraser and John Roberts, who were 
among the very first settlers in the township, made an addition of nine 
lots to the town. Mr. Eraser's addition consists of three tiers id' lots on 
the west side of Main Street immediately opposite the south end of that 
pari of Christy's addition fronting west on .Main Street. 

On the Ith day of dune, 188f), Rev. George W. Washburn, Ion;- a 
resident of the town, and pastor of the Baptist congregation at Monti 
cello, made ,111 addition of five lots to the town. His addition is located 
immediately north of and adjoining the east part of Christy's addition 
fronting north on Ohio Street, which is extended through his addition 
lo its easl line, ils west line being Water Street extended north to the 
intersection of Ohio Street. 


McCuaig's Addition 

On the 1st day of November, L890, David McCuaig, an old and higldy 
respected resident of the town, lately deceased, made an addition of 
twenty lots. Mr. McCuaig's addition is immediately south of the Largest 
part of James C. Reynolds' third addition, adjoining the Walker, 
Jenners and Reynolds addition on the east, and extends west to the 
corporation line. 

Dkkifus and Haugh's Addition 

On the 13th day of September, 1894, Messrs. Dreifus and ITaugh, 
two citizens of Delphi, made an addition of L20 lots to the town. This 
addition is located on the north side of Main Cross Street and west of 
and adjoining the west addition, running thence to the corporation line. 

McLean and Brearley's Addition 

On the 27th day of October, ISO.l, William K. McLean and Jones 
Brcarley, trustees for the Tippecanoe Canning Company, made an addi- 
tion of- ten lots to the town. This addition is located on the west side 
of Main Street, opposite the north end of Bennett's addition, and extends 
west to the east line of Illinois Street if extended south. A street GO 
feet wide, named by the trustees South Street, is opened to the public 
on the north side of the addition, and an alley running north and south 
passes midway between the lots. 

Later Additions to the Townsite 

Aha J. Martin's addition was made August 1."), ISO!). Tt comprises 
lots 1 to 9, inclusive, in the north end of the town between Railroad and 
Illinois streets. 

Martin's second addition, on the east side of Illinois Street, lets 1 
to 7, was made September 12, 11)02. 

On December 16, 1912, was made William I s' addition to the south 

end of the town, embracing lots 1 to 21. 

Thomas W. O'Connor's addition to the southeast end of the site, 
which covered lots 1 to 36, and A, l> and C lots, was made on the 17th 
of March, 1903. 

Two additions to the south end, lots I to 11 and 12 to 30, were made 
November 21, 1905, by Charles A. and Sarah .1. Ilolladay, and in the 
same locality Mary Failing added twelve lots to the town. 

( 'iri/.i:.\s' Addition 

On June V.l, 1907, a Large addition, known as the Citizens', was made 
north of the Pennsylvania and west of the MoilOt) tracks. I Vniard A. 
Vogel was trustee of the association which platted it, and the tract en\ 
ercd lots 1 to 152. 


Additions to the City 

The Industrial addition to the northwestern part of the city was 
made August 17, 1909, ami consisted of lots 1 to 97. 

On the 15th, of February, 1910, was made the Citizens' second addi- 
tion to northwest Montieello, with Charles W. Davis, trustee, which 
comprised lots 153 to 164. 

J. M. Ridley's addition in the south end was platted May 24, 1910, 
and ('(insists of lots 1 to 7. 

The original site of Montieello and the additions thereto cover an 
area of 1,000 acres, or over one and a half square miles. 

City Hall 

The city is well paved, well built, and clean, and, as we have seen, is 
supplied with pure water through a modern system of distribution. It 
has also a carefully conducted health department. 

.Montieello has had two good mayors — Thomas W. O'Connor and 
Benjamin P. Carr. 

The city hall, which stands on the north side of Washington Street 
and half a block west of Main, is a handsome and convenient brick 
structure erected in 1904, at a cost of about $12,000. It is the handi- 
work, both as to plans and construction, of Samuel Young, a local 
architect, and, as its corner-stone testifies, was erected while John H. 
.Miller, Alvin Witz, Charles Roth, P. B. Robison and the late J. H. Hen- 
derson were members of the board of trustees. The marshal's office and 
jail, as well as quarters for the fire apparatus, are on the ground floor, 
the second story being given up to the council chamber and offices for the 
local departments. 

Improvements op Water Power 

In 1906 a new corporation, the Tippecanoe Electric and Power Com- 
pany, began to improve the dam and the water power at the county scat. 
At the east end of I In- new and improved dam three flood gates were 
constructed to regulate the supply of water. Their foundation was 
gradually undermined by the strong current, and on the night of 
August 11, 1910, they were washed away. Instead of replacing the 
flood gates, the dam was extended the full width of the river, another 
fifty feet. The pari of the dam thus extended was three feet lower than 
the other portion, and the How of water was regulated by flashboards 
set on the crest of the dam. These, with the old race on the east side, 
which was lie n utilized ,is a spillway, assured k iter control of the water 
supply Until \\i\i\rr the old plan of Hood gates. The apron of the entire 
dam was coveivil with concrete at that time, and the channel of the river 
deepened on the wcsl side. The lntter improvement had the effect of 
carrying the water away from the wheels and increasing the water head. 



Present-Day [ndustbies 

All these improvements, with the continuous upkeep of the enter- 
prise, have constituted an unfailing assurance of electrical power and 
light for not only the present, but the future of many years. Among 
the chief manufactories which have taken advantage of such extended 
facilities for supplying industrial power are the Tippecanoe Thread 

rtesy of MoutlcellQ Herald 

City 1Iau„ MoNTrcEixo 

Mills, owned by the Marshall Field estate, of Chicago, ami managed by 
George T. Stevenson. T. II. Reynolds is president, and II. I>. James, 
vice president of the Thread Mills Company, which owns the plant. The 
industry, which was established in February. 1910, consists of the manu- 
facture o\' sewing and embroidery threads. An addition to the original 
plant was made in 1911, an. I the mills now employ 1U55 hands and put out 
$200,000 worth of threads annually. 


Besides the Thread Works and the L.oughr> Mills, the other indus- 
tries of most importance at Mohtieello are, perhaps, the Cement Tile 
Works, the ice cream manufactory, and the Farmers' Elevator, the lat- 
ter being operated by a co-operative company. The largest and oldest 
lumber and coal yard is owned and operated by George Biederwolf. 

Four Banks 

The- finances of the business and industrial establishments of the city 
are maintained through four strong institutions, given in the order of 
their establishment, viz.: The State Bank of Monticello, the Monticello 
National Rank, the White County Loan, Trust and Savings Company, 
and the Farmers' State' Bank. 

■ State Bank or Monticeu.0 

In 1890 the Bank of Monticello was organized as a private institu- 
tion, with a capital of $5,000 paid in. Robert Parker was first presi- 
dent, Henry Van Voorst, vice president, and Bert Van Voorst, cashier. 
On October 30, 1895, was organized the Slate Bank of Monticello, which 
took over the business of the Bank of Monticello. Tin 1 capital was 
increased to $25,000, and first officers were: Gustavus Lowe, president; 
John F. Johnson, vice president; Henry Van Voorst, cashier, and Bert 
Van Voorst, assistant cashier, lu November, 1896, Mr. Lowe disposed 
of his interest in the bank and was succeeded as president by John P. 
Johnson, and W. M. Elliott, vice president. In 1897 the State Bank 
purchased the Citizens' Bank, a private hanking concern of Monticello, 
and at that time moved to their present quarters, which was the old Citi- 
zens' Bank home, and they have ever sine.' continued there. In 1897 
John F. Johnson, the president, who was also at the head of a hank 
in Logansport, disposed of his holdings in the local hank to a number 
of citizens and he was succeeded as president by II. A. B. Moorhous. 
hi 1H04 .Mr. Moorhous was .succeeded by J. I>. Timmous. In October, 
1905, the capital was increased to $50,000, the officers remaining the 
same until January, 1910, when Samuel A. Carson succeeded Mr. 
Timraons as president and has continued as such ever since. In May, 
1910, Bert Van Voorst became cashier, succeeding his lather. Henry 
Van Voorst, who had died in the previous month. In January, 1911, 
the hoard of directors was increased t<> sewn, and with one exception 
(in 1012, when Mr. Timmons was succeeded by Mr. Joms Brearh-j 
the directorate has remained unchanged. The financial statement of 
the bank on March 4. 1915, shows resources of $:199,9(>5.2:1. Bs liabili 
ties include: Capital stock, $50,000 surplus, $25,000; discount and 
exchange, $11,993.52; deposits, $:il2,971.71. 

M<>NTiri:u.'i N ITION u. B INK 

The Monticello National Bank (the only institution of the kind in 
White County) was organized April 2. 1902, with Thomas W. O'Connor 


(afterward the city's first mayor) as president and William K. 'Cou- 
ncil as vice president and cashier. With the exception that II. D. 
Shenk lias been succeeded by I). D. McCuaig as assistant cashier, there 
lias been no change in management or executive offices. The capital is 
still $50,000, and tlie surplus and profits have increased from $20,000 
•to $30,000; the deposits haw reached $200,000. 

White County Loan, Trust and Savings Company 

The White County Loan, Trust and Savings Company was organized 
August. 26, 1905. It lost its first home by fire in February, 1908, and 
in the following year completed the stone building now occupied opposite 
the Courthouse Square on Main Street. The company has increased 
its capital from $25,000 to $50,000, and its deposits now average $200,- 
000; surplus, $15,000. Present officers: President, George W. Van 
Alstiue; vice president, George M. Biederwolf; secretary-treasurer, John 
M. Turner. The original officers were as follows: Capt. B. F. Price, 
president; John M. Turner, secretary-treasurer; A. K. Sills, first vice 
president, and J. L. Aekerman, second vice president. 

Farmers State Bank 

Farmers Stale Bank, No. 360, of Monticello, was organized February 
2, 1911, and began business April 1, 1911, with $25,000 capital, on West 
Broadway. The management bought the present location of Senator 
Turpie's heir, built thereon a two-story stone building which has been 
occupied since September 1, 1914. The first and present officers are: 
President, Jacob 1). Timmons; vice president, F. J. White; cashier, B. B. 
Baker, and assistant cashier, J. A. Anheier. 


A Gkotii' im W'iiii'i. Count* Churchks 



John Rothrock, Pioneer Dunkard — The Presbyterian Church — The 
Old and the New Schools — Second, or New School Church — 
Pubijc IIm.i, as Well as Church — Union of Churches — Building 
of the Present Church — The Methodist Church Pounded — 
Houses of Worship— Methodist Pastors — The Dunkards — How 
They Supported the Union — The New Dunkards — The Christian 
Church— Founded i\ Monticello — Church Reorganized — Pastors 


Church — Tin-: Orphans' Home — Societies — The Odd Fellows — 
Tin. Masons Knights of Pythias — Grand Army Post — Other 
Societies — Women 's ( Ilubs. 

II' In lias Followed the course of this history, the reader lias noted that 
the pioneer settlers on the site of the present City of Monticello com- 
menced to arrange For their religious needs before all their physical 
necessities had been met. II spealcs well for the human nature of those 
times, also. lh,. such longings were relieved by unselfish souls as soon as 
manifested; two or three had only to gather in His name and some faith- 
ful eireuil rider, or local elder, would be promptly on hand to expound 
the gospel to the hesi of his ability. The field was small, it is true, but 
the workers wen: Full of zeal, and Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, 
Dunkards, Christians, Ww Lights and other denominations soughl 
earnestly and patiently for their little hands of worshipers. First they 
met iii private houses, then in schoolhonses — often occupying the same 
building at different Sundays, or week days, or different hours of the 
same day and, us their enterprises prospered or dragged, they would 
erect separate church buildings, or withdraw from the Held awaiting 
more propitious seasons of harvest. 

John Rothrock, Pioneer Dunkard 

Jtihn Hot Finn ! . mi. of the donors of the land on which the city stands, 
was a leader and a minister in l h<- Dutch Reform, or Dunkard Church, 
and was \ei\ active in its affairs until his death in 1860. Although his 
Followers made m. special effort to increase the formal membership of 
the society, its annual meetings, or out-of-door revivals, were largely 
attended, even l>\ many Dunkards from a distance. As Mr. Rothrock 
was com paru lively Wealth} and the local members of the church were 



industrious and fore-handed, the society maintained for some years a 
strong and good influence on the community. 

The Baptists and Presbyterians organized classes not long after the 
Dunkards-took the field under Rider Rothrock, and in 1836, as has already 
been noted, the Methodists founded a society. The Presbyterians and 
the Methodists have maintained their organizations to the present time. 

t The Presbyterian Church 

The Presbyterian Church was the first of the religious bodies to 
obtain such a firm standing as warranted the calling of a resident pastor, 
Rev. Alexander Williamson, but an even more important event in the 
history of local Presbyterianism was the coming to town of the eloquent 
evangelist, Rev. Samuel N. Steele. As an advocate of Mew School Pres- 
byterianism he inaugurated a series of revivals in January, 1843, and 
within two months had gathered a society of nearlj a hundred members 
from all the other societies which had formed classes— Baptists, Old 
School Presbyterians and Dunkards. 

Tite Old and the New Schools 

The Old and the New School Presbyterians commenced building 
churches about the same time in 1843; but the history of the periods of 
disunion and subsequent union lias been so well written by A. R. Orton 
that the writer is pleased to condense from one of his ail ides. 

In the spring of 1836 the Presbytery of Logansport was petitioned by 
a number of members of the Presbyterian Church residing in White 
County that a church be organized in Monticello. The names of the 
petitioners were Zebulon Sheetz, Margaret Shed/. Ann B. Shed/. Austin 
('. Sheetz, Margaret Rees, Elizabeth Rees, Beershcba Cowan, Rhoda 
Cowan, Beersheba E. Cowan, Okey S. Johnson, Rebecca Johnson, llarrid 
Cowan, John Rees, Maria Wilson. Catherine Johnson, Martha Rees, Mary 
Ann Parker, Mary Ann Allen, Asa Allen and Lewis Dawson. 

On May 7, 1836, at the house of John Wilson, who lived ah. mi 
a mile west of Monticello in a log cabin on the farm now known as llio 
Moore Farm, the Presbyterian Church of Monticello was organized by 
the Rev. John Stoeker, then of Delphi, Indiana, assisted by Ri v. Michael 
Hummer, of Lafayette; Zebulon Sheetz, a ruling elder in Bloomcrv 
Church, Winchester Presbytery, Virginia, was chosen elder. On Ha da.\ 
of the organization, John Wilson ami Jonathan Ilarboll were received 
as members upon profession of faith, and were elected and ordain, d ruling 
elders, and on the same day Isaac Reynolds ami Joseph Scott, who had 
been dders in their cast. an churches, were chosen to serve in lie nine, 
capacity in the Monticello organization. 

Si,co\n, oi; \'i w Sc imoi. Church 

On January 21, 1843, thirteen members from the Pirsl, or Old S.-I ] 

Presbyterian Church, organized the S. id. or Vw School i linreli <'■<•■<• < 


Rev. Samuel N. Steele, as noted. These original members were Thomas 
Downey, Catherine Downey, John Wilson, Maria Wilson, Okey S. John- 
son, Rebecca Johnson, Ellis II. Johnson, Catherine Rotlirock, Mrs. Mary 
Reynolds, Mary Jane Reynolds, .Miss Catherine Johnson, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Burns ami Sarah Kepperling. Froin January until October Mr. Steele 
so added to the membership of the church that he had about a hundred, 
and although the old School Church started a house of worship about the 
same time that the Second Church got one underway, the latter was 
the first to be completed — the pioneer structure of the kind in White 

Public Hall as Well as Church 

The old house of worship stood on the site of the church now occupied, 
and served its special, as well as not a few general purposes, until January 
,18, 1874. At the time it was built, and for some time after, it was con- 
sidered not only a great convenience for worshipers, but for public 
meetings of many kinds; it was sometimes used as a court room, and 
in that day was considered a valuable public improvement. 

The First Church did not complete its building until 18-10. It stood 
upon the site of what was afterward occupied by McCuiag's livery 
stable. Alter the union of the First and Second churches in 18(37, it was 
sold to the Baptists, who moved the building to the east side of Bluff 
streel south ol' Jell'crson Street, but some years ago it was torn down. 

Following Rev. John Stocker, who organized the original church, 
came Rev. A. T. Rankin and Rev. Alexander Williamson — the latter, in 
1839, as the firsl resident pastor. Mr. Williamson occupied the pulpit 
when the division occurred, and was succeeded in the Old School Church 
by such pastors as Rev. Jesse Edwards, son-in-law of Zebulon Sheetz, 
Rev. J. M. Wampler. Rev. Robert Irwin, Rev. W. P. Kouts and Rev. 
S. R. Seawrighl. 

Rev. William AT. CI ver came to the Second Church as its first 

regular | istor in the fall of 1843, following the Steele revivals, and his 
successor, Rev. U. IX Miller, held the pastorate for nine years. Rev. 
B. F. Neal served about a .war, and Rev. IT. C. McBride a full decade 
Rev. Edwin Black, Rev. William Wjhner, Rev. Amos Jones were in 
charge before the union. 

Union op Churches 

Rev. S. R. Seawrighl look charge of the Old School Church in May, 
1SC7. and a few months afterward the pulpit of the New School, or 
Second Church, having become vacant, il was proposed that the two 
bodies heroine one in fail as they had in spirit. Although they began 
In worship together in tic New School church building, no organic union 
was effected until April, 1870; at that time [he Second Church received 
permission from the New School Presbyter} to he transferred I" the 
(lid School. The transfer was made a few mouths ill advance ol' the 
HOmplolcd union of the two General Assemblies at Pittsburgh, and in 


May, 1870, Mr. Seawright was installed as pastor of the united loeal 
church, since which time six pastors have had charge of the work, and 
in the following order, Revs. John I'.. Smith, Sol ('. Dickey, George L. 
Knox, II. G. Rice, Charles J. Armentrout and Fred W: Backerneyer. 

Building op the Present Church 

In the meantime another church building had been commenced. Its 
construction was begun at the northwest corner of West Broadway and 
Illinois, in the spring of 1873, under the supervision of the building 
committee, Rev. S. R. Seawright, J. ( '. Reynolds and George Uhl. It 
t was occupied for regular services in January, 1874, but the tower and 
entire exterior was not completed until 1878, and the auditorium was not 
considered fully prepared for dedication until December, 1886. T! ■• 
church, a large and handsome bride edifice of Gothic design, cost about 
'$17,000, and its dedication also marked the semi-centennial of the found- 
ing of the original society. 

Since then, or for nearly thirty years, the Presbyterian Church of 
Monticello has steadily progressed. It has a membership of 300 and is 
now under the pastorate of Rev. Fred \V. 1' ickemeyer, who succeeded 
Rev. C. J. Armentrout in December, 1913. 

The Methodist Church Founded 

The origin of Methodism in Monticello dabs back to the year 1836, 
when a class of seven was formed at the store and tavern of a Mr. Orwig, 
on the site now occupied by Thomas W. O'Connor's residence, opposite 
the Public Library on Bluff Street. The members of this first Methodist 
society were Richard Worthington and wife Mary, Silas Cowger and 
;, _wife | Buth, Rebecca and Sarah A. Cowger, and Rev. [lae.haliah Vreedcn- 
burg held services for them. Mr. Worthington was the class lender. At 
that time Monticelh was a Methodist mission and was thus supplied 
until 1850; then as a circuit appointment until about I860, when it 
became a station of the Northwest Indiana Conference. As a mission 
it was in the Crawfordsville, Logansport and Lafayette districts; as a 
circuit in the Lafayette and Delphi districts, ami as a station has been 
at different times in the Lafayette, Battle Ground, Monticello, Valparaiso 
and South Bend districts. It is at present in the Lafayette District of 
the Northwest Indiana Conference. 

Houses op Wob jihp 

Religious services were at firsl held n1 private houses in Monticello. 
but after several years the attendance and membership becami too \wx\ v 
to be thus accommodated, and the school house was then made the |>l:n 

of assembling, in common with other reli| ion d< i tinatious of the 

village. In 1850 the socieh secured a church I by the erection of 

., iVa'ne building on the norlhwesl corner of Main and Marion tivels 



just north of the Reynolds Block. It was sold to the Christian Church 
in 1887, and the edifice now occupied at the southwest corner of Alain 
and Harrison streets was dedicated on August iMith of that year. 

'Methodist Pastors 

Prom 183(3 until 1850, inclusive, or while the" Monticello society was 
a mission, it was seiwed by Ilachaliah Vreedenburg, John II. Bruce, 
Enoch Wood, J. J. Cooper, Jacob Colelazer, Benjamin T. Griffith, John 
Edwards, Allen I). Beasley, Nathan S. Worden, J. W. Burns, S. N. 
Campbell, .Matthew Penniinore and John Leach; while as a circuit, 1851- 
5!), by K. II. Calvert, Lucas Nebeker, Jacob Cozad, N. L. Green, Harvey 
S. Shaw,, Thomas K. Webb and Andrew J. Sheridan; and since it became 
a station, in I860, by IS. Wilson Smith, Charles B. Mock, Ferris Pierce, 
Samuel M. Hayes, John IT. Cissel, John L. Boyd, Enoch Holdstock, John 
1?. DoMotte, John K. Wwhouse, David Holmes (D. D.), J. A. Clearwaters, 
Henry C. Ncal, Oliver C. Haskell, W. G. Vessels. Conrad S. Burgner, 
Thomas Mason, James Johnson, W. P. McKinsey, W. B. Slutz, Charles 
A. Brooke (D. D.), Isaac Dale, A. T. Briggs, A. If. DeLong, S. P. Colvin 
(I). 1).), J. M. Brown, J. 1'.. Butter and II. L. Kindig (I). D.). Doctor 
Kindig has been pastor of the church since 11)11. It has a membership 
of about Hit) and is a strong and broad influence for good. 

The Dunkakds 

The Dvmkards have now no regular church organization in A Tout ice Ho. 
At the dentil of Rider Rothrock, in 1860, Rev. David Fisher and Rev. 
John Snow liergcr assumed charge of the congregation. .Mr. Fisher pur- 
chased a farm 'in I'ike ('reek, erected a large building near his residence 
as a meeting place for members of the church and founded quite a strong 

I low They Supported the Union 

The Civil war had an especially retarding influence on the progress 
of the Dunkards as religionists, for, although they were very patriotic 
ami abhorred slavery, like the Quakers, the tenets of their religion for- 
bade them to resort to force of arms. "The only way they could help 
the Union cause," says a local historian, "was by the contribution of 

mi y, of which nearly all of them were well supplied, and thus it came 

about that an assessment was made upon them and the amount fixed at 
three hundred dollars per man for each and every man selected from the 
congregation, liable for military duty, to he determined by hit. A great 
many persons now living will remember the Dunkard draft which 
occurred in 18(12. The mode of procedure may not he remembered so 
well except by those immediately interested, if any of them are yet 
living, and is worthy of reeonl here. 

"The enrolling officer of each count\ in the State was directed to 
enroll all the men in his eounl\ between eighteen and forty-five years of 
age, and note opposite the name of all those who were oppi C(\ to niilitill'; 


service, on account of religious belief, thai fact. After completing the 
enrollment a list of those who were conscientiously opposed to military 

service was made out and apportionment made of the enrollment of aide- 
bodied militia enrolled, and it was found that nine men would be required 
to pay commutation money, three hundred dollars each, to exempt them 
from .service iu the army. These were selected by lot under the super- 
vision of a commissioner appointed by the Governor. On a day appointed 
by the Commissioner the names of all those of proper age and not exempt 
by reason of bodily disabilities, were written on slips of paper and placed 
in a box and the first nine names drawn therefrom by the Commissioner 
were to be subjected to the payment of three hundred dollars each in lieu 
of military service. The draft took place in public at the Court House 
in Monticello, and the men drafted were all members of Elder Fisher's 
congregation. Mr. Fisher attended the drafl meeting in person and paid 
the whole amount, twenty-seven hundred dollars, to the party authorized 
to receive it, and thus relieved his congregation from military service." 

The New Dunkards 

In 1S57 George Patton organized a elass of what have been popularly 
called New Dunkards; the original body iu White County was placed iu 
charge of Rev. Uriah Patton. Elder Patton, its founder, built a meeting- 
house for the fast-increasing congregation near Ids residence in Jackson 
Township, and another was erected at Sitka, Liberty Township. These 
two societies were the predecessors of the flourishing Church of Cod at 
Idaville, which was founded in the early 70s. 

The Christian Church 

Unlike the Dunkards, the members of the Christian Church first 
obtained a foothold outside of the county scat before founding an organi- 
zation at Monticello. In 1849-50 Rev. R. C. Johnson organized a Chris- 
tian Church at the Palestine Settlement. Princeton Township, which SV as 

the first religious body in that pari of Hi unty, nnd Rev. .lames Thomas 

founded a society in West Point Township, to the south. The ministers 
named were the owners of large farms, were not dependent upon their 
parishioners for their livelihood, and spent all their spare lime, uighl and 

day, in the work of mustering converts to their faith. The Hvs dings 

of the new societies were well attended and several Christian ministers 
were present from abroad, a united and enthusiastic revival continuing 
for a month or more; and Reverends Johnson and Thomas did not confine 
their efforts to their boom congregations, hut traveled into adjoining 
counties and preached to the end of their lives. I.Yv. i. Goodaere is the 
present minister of the Palesliuc Christian Church. 

[<\>i Ma n in MoN'i M i i i ii 

In the spring ^u\ summer of LH5-1 Rev. Dr. Roberts, one of these 
Christian missionaries, who bad become so well known in the outlying 

;m history op white county 

districts, held a series of ctings at Monticello, and, although a large 

number joined the church, a house of worship was not then provided. 
A -Christian Church' had been organized near what afterward became 
Sitka ami a building erected aboul a mile northwest of that locality, in 
the neighborhood of the old Cullen and Conwell Settlement. Nut a few 
faithful members from Monticello and vicinity attended the services in 
i h;it ^locality for years. 


In March, 1887, the trustees of the Methodist Church in Monticello 
i ffcred for sale their property mi the corner of North Main and Marion 
stir. 'is; this consisted of a lot, a frame church building and a parsonage, 
and the few members of the faith who were then living at and near the 
county scat gladly availed themselves of the opportunity of providing a 
hqmc for the revived organization at a reasonable cost. Dr. M. T. Didlake 
thereupon wen I to Indianapolis and presented the facts to the state hoard 
of the ImliniKi Christian .Missionary Association, at its meeting April f), 
1887. The hoard promised him that if the property were secured the 
slide Christian missionary evangelist, J. II. 0. Smith, should come to 
Monticello hold a meeting and organize a Christian church. A. M. 
Atkinson, of Wabash, Indiana, a member of the Indiana Christian Mis- 
sionary Association, afterward examined the property and agreed to 
advance one thin! of the purchase money for one year without interest. 
At the expiration of thai time, if a Christian Church should be estab- 
lished and tr tecs elected, he should he reimbursed and the property 
transferred to I he trustees. On April 19th the property was purchased 
and deeded to A. M. Atkinson, M. T. Didlake and W. B. Keefer. All 
the terms of payment having been complied with, formal possession was 
given to Doctor Didlake, in behalf of the church, October 1, 1887. 

Rev. -I. II. 0. Smith then began a series of meetings which resulted 
on November - _'d, in n partial organization of twenty-six members, or 
disciples of Christ. These original members of the church were Dr. 
M. T. Didlake and wife, R. Land, Sarah A. Mowrer, S. K. MeClintic and 
wife, I'. M. Benjamin and wife, Cordelia A. Chandler, Mrs. Elizabeth 
A. Rothroek, Mrs. Kate V. Cowger, Mrs. Ella Armstrong. .Mrs. Mary 
C. Gow, W. lb Keefer and wife, W. 1". Van Winkle, G. G. Wood and 
wife, .), V. Stephenson, Mrs. Mary A. Casad, Lula Wood, May Benjamin, 
Joseph Mowrer and wife, Rachacl Mowrer, Mrs. S. R. Temple and Miss 
Anna Johnston, 

The initial meetings continued until December 18, 1887, and resulted 
in a total members! p of 134. The day before they closed the membership 
assembled In the church and effected a permanent organization by eleel 
ing M. T. Didlake, If. Land, l\ M. Benjamin and S. K. MeClintic. elders; 
J. Y. Stcpenson, John Cowger, I!. P. Rothroek and C. E. Bailey, deacons ; 
Mrs. M. T. Didlake, clerk; Mrs. S. R. Temple; organist, and J. Y. Stephen- 
son, treasurer. In the following mouth If. band, W. lb Kocfer, II. !'. 


Rothrock, John R. Cowger and M. T. Didlake wore elected trustees, and 
the organization was thus completed. 

Pastors op the Christian Church 

Rev. E. B. Cross, of Valparaiso, preached during January and Feb- 
ruary, but as he t co'uld not secure release from previous engagements 
Rev. A. F. Armstrong succeeded him, still temporarily. Rev. E. A. 
Pardee was chosen at the conclusion of a series of meetings which 
materially added to the membership of the church, and continued as 
pastor until January, 1890. In the meantime a Ladies' Aid Society 
and other church auxiliaries were organized, an organ purchased and 
other improvements made. 

Rev. J. H. Bristol- succeeded Mr. Pardee, resigning on account of 
ill health, in April, 1892. The succeeding pastors of the church have 
been Revs. P. M. Fishburn, William Kenney, J. ( '. Anderson, M. V. 
Grisso, J. H. Dodd, A. W. Jackman, J. A. Parker, A. L. Martin and 
T. R. Spray. 

Destructive Fire and New Chi [ten 

On May 5, 1901, during Mr. Dodd's pastorate, the note and mortgage 
held against the church property were publicly burned at the close of 
the morning services, indicating the release of the debt ; but the rejoicing 
of the church members was of short duration, for on the 27th of the 
following August the house of worship and the parsonage were burned 
to the ground. 

While a new church was rebuilding on the river hank at northeast 
eomer of Bluff and Broadway, services were held in the Opera House 
and the Circuit Court room. The beautiful brick structure which has 
since been the home of the Christian Church was completed and dedicated 
March 17, 1903, and, together with its site, cost about $1f>,000. In 
February, 1904, occurred the death of R. Land, si nior elder of the church, 
and one of its most active workers. Rev. T. R. Spray, the present pastor, 
has been in charge since September, 1013. The church has reached a 
membership of about 250. 

The Orph ins' 1 Iome 

By Mary Ucnh 

There are probably a great many people in the city who do not know 

that at one time an orphans' home was instituted here by a number of 

women interested in charitable work and was conducted under their 

direction for about thirty years. 

Mrs. Tirza Scott, of Royal Center, who lias been visiting friends here 
for several weeks, was the firs) matron of the home. Al thai time .Mrs. 

B. <). Spencer, who came here from I ;am port, where she was interested 

in the eaiv of children of tin 1 poor, found an cagi r audience in Ihe women 

* of tins city, and it was not Ion- hi Con a homo was established here for 

the rare of children who were berefl of their parents or were in need of 


help. The firsl children to be entered were the four children of Andrew 
Arrick, whose mother, when dying, had asked Mrs. Scott to care for them. 
Consequently, when the home was founded, they were placed under the 
motherly care of the matron. At that time it was not necessary for the 
parents to surrender complete possession of their children when they were 
placed in the home. Often little ones whose mothers died were placed 
there that they might be cared for properly, and whenever it was desired 
to remove them there was no restraint to such action; Poor or orphaned 
children were also given homes there. The home was established in the 
property belonj ing to Mrs. Cornelia Logan on the corner of South Bluff 
and Market streets, which is now occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Mack Spoon 
and by .Miss Lora Allen. After Mrs. Scott had successfully Idled her 
dutiefPas matron for several years she was succeeded by Mrs. S. K. Temple 
of Monticello, who was also a member of the society that established the 

Among the women who have been interested in the home at various 
times and who are members of the Orphans' Home Association, are 
Mrs. Frank Britton, who is now president, Mrs. Benjamin, Mrs. Elmira 
Richey, Mrs. Ellen Van Voorst, Mrs. S. R. Temple, Mrs. Engle, Mrs. 
Charles Gardner, Mrs. Isaac Davis, Mrs. Sarah Thompson, Mrs. Mary 
Davis'son, Mrs. 15. P. Ross, Mrs. Martha Rothrock, Mrs. Will Sargent 
and Mrs. McCollum. Only a few of these women were members of the 
association when the home was established, but they have all shown an 
intense interest in the work and have given a great deal of time and 
money towards the aid of needy children. 

For a number of years after the institution was established, there wne 
no funds in the county treasury and the women of the organization them- 
selves paid for the tuition and yearly support of the children, who some 
times readied as high as fifteen in number. They were entitled to the 
building but il was a number of years before outside help was received. 

The death blow was given the institution about ten or fifteen years 
ago when a law was passed governing the care for charity children. By 
this act parents were required to relinquish all claim to the children 
placed in a charitable institution of this kind. As few of the parents 
would consent to such a sacrifice, the home here did not have enough 
occupants to warrant its continuance and from that time children needine 
homes were sent, to Indianapolis or some other city. Tin' women regard 
the law gOVl rniiig children in ch I'ity homes as cruel to both parents ami 
children and consider the manner in which the home was conducted here 
as much more humane and .just. 

While the society now is not an active organization, it still continues 
ils interest in poor and needy children and does a great many acts of 
charity. A fund whirl] is in Ihe hands of the treasurer, Mrs. Van Voorst. 
is used for that purpo . 


Monticello is well provided with societies — benevolent, social ami 
literary- and limy largely aecounl for ils reputation as a desirable 


residence for all classes of intelligent people who realize the necessity of 
mingling with their fellows— all combining in a proper spirit of recreation 
and Uplift. 

The Odd FelIjOWS 

The oldest secret, and benevolent society was organized by Hie Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows on the 30th of January, L852. A dispen- 
sation for their lodge was granted on the 23d of the month upon the 
petition of M. R. Sheetz, J. T. Richer, \V. R. Davis, J. R. have joy, Samuel 
Barnes, R. C. Kirk and D. T. Spears. At the organization, a week later, 
the following officers were elected : William Davis, N. (J.; D. T. Spears, 
V. G. ; J. R. Lovejoy, Secretary, and J. T. Richey, Treasurer. Among 
^lie prominent men who early became members of the order were Jonathan 
Harbolt, Isaac Reynolds, Calvin Reynolds, the late Dr. William Spencer, 
David and Daniel McCuaig, Rnfus L. Harvey, \)r. Samuel B. Bushnell, 
_■ Judge Alfred Reed, Capt, John 0. Brown, Judge A. W. Reynolds, Robert 
C. Kendall, Thomas Bushnell, Joseph I). Cowden, John Wilson and 
James Burns. The last survivor of the charter members was Daniel P. 
Spears, a resident of Morrison, Illinois. At the time of his death Capt. 
John C. Brown was the oldest Odd Fellow in the county, having united 
with the order at Hagerstown, Maryland, many years before the lodge 
at Monticello was institutued. 

The order has prospered both in the increase of membership and 
financially in Monticello, and in 1902 erected a building at the southeast 
corner of Main and Washington streets, setting aside convenient quarters 
for the different bodies. The lodge itself (Monticello No. 107) has a 
present membership of 250, with the following officers: Thomas Spoon, 
N. 6..; Richard Hinshaw, V. 6.; John \V. Nelson, Secretary, and J. M. 
Turner, Treasurer. 

The Rebekah degree (Eudora No. 201) was organized in December, 
1879, and Stewart Encampment, No. 159, in December, 1882. The 
present encampment has a membership of nearly 120, with officers as 
follows: William Lowe, C. P.; F. C. Gardner, II. P.; Ivan Shell, J. W. ; 
John Bretzinger, S. W.; John W. Nelson, Secretary, and S. T. Whitman, 

The Masons 

The first Masonic body to organize in .Monticello was Libanus Lodge 
No. 154, which was granted a dispensation by the Stair Grand Lodge on 
petition of Francis G. Kendall, James W. Ihilger, William Russell, Wil- 
liam B. Gray, Alexander Vomit, Robert W. sill, Charles W. K. ndall and 
"William ('. .May. The (fraud Master appointed Francis (J. Kendall, 
Worshipful Master; James W. Uulgi i", Senior Warden, ami William K'u ; 
sell, Junior Warden. Upon receipt of the dispensation, w hie}] was granted 
April 1, 1853, a meeting of I lie lodge was called by the Worshipful Master 
and the following minor officials elected: C. W. Kendall, Scerctarj ; 
Alexander Youut, Treasurer; William l: Gray. Senior Deacon; Robert 
W. Sill, Junior Deacon, and Willi. .m < '. Mil\ , T;. Ice. ( Uher early mi 


to join the lodge were John Ream, David K. Ream, Rowland Hughes, 
David Turpie, John II. Liar, John B. Bunnell, Thomas Bunnell, Joseph 
Shafer, Samuel ShalVr, Adin Nordyke, Cornelius Stryker, Thomas Beard, 
Thomas Wickeisham, Job Wickersham, R. B. Wiekersham, Israel Nor- 
dyke, John Large, James Itiehey, Orlando McConahay, Marshal Murray, 
Harrison W. Anderson, Peter R. Failing, William S. Davis, John Keever, 
Isaac M. Davis. James Parcels, William A. Parry, John Leach, William 
P. Kdiitz, Ansel M. Dickinson, Thomas Bushnell and Alfred Reed. At 
the present the lodge has a membership of 105. George P. Marvin is 
Worthy Master'; George W. Gilbert, Senior Warden, and Prank L. Hod- 
shire, Junior Wai'den. 

Monticcllo Chapter No. 103, R. A. M., was organized under dispensa- 
OTm granted October 28, 1887, and by appointment of Madison T. Did- 
lake, High Priest; .Marion Parrish, King, and Cloyd Loughry, Scribe. 
The ehapter worked under dispensation until November 22, 18S8, when 
it was constituted a regular body, with Madison T. Didlake as first High 
Priest; Cyrus A. G. Rayhouser, first King, and Reuben M. Wright, first 
Scribe. The ehapter has now a membership of 100, with the following 
officers: William X. Loughry, H. P.; Prank R. Phillips, E. K., and 
.Joseph D. Mc( 'aim, E. S. 

Monticcllo Council No. 70, R. and S. M., was organized under dis- 
pensation on April 2ti, 1898, on petition of Madison T. Didlake, Joseph 
D. McCaun, George II. Cullen, Julius W. Paul, William S. Bushnell, 
James 1'. Simons, James P. Brown, Hiram A. B. Moorhous and William 
II. Hamelle. It worked under dispensation until October 18th of that 
year, when it was organized under charter and present name, with Madi- 
son T. Didlake as Ulustrious .Master; James P. Simons, Deputy; Joseph 
D. Ml 'aim, I'. ('. W.; Lewis B. Wheeler, C. G. ; Hiram A. B. Moorhous, 
Treasurer; Samuel A. Carson, Recorder, and William S. Bushnell, Senti- 
nel. At present there are 100 members identified with the council, with 
the following officers: William II. Hamelle, T. I. M. ; Samuel A. Carson, 
I. D. M., ami Joseph D. McCann, P. C. W. 

There is also a chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star-, which was 
organized under dispensation on January 15, 1895, and under charter, as 
Crystal Chapter No. IC5 on May 22d of that year. 

Knights of Pythias 

Both the Knights of Pythias and the Pythian Sisters have organiza- 
lions. The former, known as Monticello Lodge No. 73, was organized 
October •„'!), lsTV, iis charter members being John II. Wallace, Emory 
B. Sellers, Henry I". < >wcns, James V. Vinson, Irvin Greer, Henry Se dcr, 
John ('. Hughes, I uiali Bishcr, Taylot Bennett, John T. Loach, Wash- 
ington Kmvtz, George Baxter, Crank Roberts, Thomas J. Woltz, William 
K. Harvey, William Kpcneer, James E. Howard, Josiah Purcell, John 
T. Cord, John II. I'eei. Albcrl W. Loughry, John H. Burns, T. Payette 
Palmer and Samuel I'Ynlcrs. The liisl officers were as follows: T. V. 
Palmer, I'. C. (still adive) ; J. II. Wallace, C, ('.; J. T. Pord, V. CI.; 



John II. Burns, M. A. ; Prelate, Josiah Purcell ; M. of E., William Spencer, 
and M. of P., James V. Vinson (active). The membership of the lodge 
is over 150, and its present officers arc as follows: Arthur Ilalstead, 
C. C.; L. A. Young, V. C.j R. A. Layton, Prelate; Jacob II. Ilibner, 
M. of W.; II. J. Reed, K. of R. and S. ; Cla