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3 1833 00828 1633 





.Marqi'ettk. the Pkack .Makki 





An Authentic Narrative of the Past, with Particular 

Attention to the Modern Era in the Commercial, 

Industrial, Educational, Civic and Social 

Development. A Chronicle of the People, 

with Family Lineage and Memoirs. 


Supervisinii Editor 

Assisted by a Board of Advisory Editors 




THK lp:wis publishing company 



Kosuiiisko is one of the live coiinties of Nortlieni Itnliana, tlie 
progress and present prosperity of which are founded uiion a variety 
of physical qualities and a rare diversity of mental traits. The head 
waters of Tippecanoe River spi'ead over portions of its territory, 
and bring it within the beautiful and fertile domain of the Wabash 
Valley. Building stone and cement, grains, fi-uits and vegetables, 
sleek dairy herds, the ungainly but invaluable swine, and the noble 
steed, now being relegated to minor consideration, have all their 
parts in the jivogress. prosperity and historic |>ositioii of Kosciusko 

Progressive farmers and mercliants, alert and educated lawyers and 
.iudges, high-minded men and women giving their best to edueatioual 
and religious advancement, have also made this special section of the 
TToosier State a credit to the human type for which it stands, lutel- 
Icctual and religious natures from every section of the United States 
find solace and in.spiration in the world-famed Chautauqua Assembly 
at Winona Lake, and thousands who are tired meiitally and physically 
seek the beautiful lakes and well appointed summer resorts of Kosei- 
)isko County as surcease from their nni'esi and exhaustion. And never 
do they seek in vain. Nature seems here in her best and most invig- 
orating mood. ' 

Thus have large manufactui-es, finished farms, handsome summer 
homes, charming villages on the shores of sunny lakes, growing towns 
and cities, and a great advancing section of Indiana come into being 
within the memory of men and women now living. They, and theii' 
children and grandchildren, have proven their loyalty to the country 
of which they are proud to be a part, by dying for it in three wars: 
and it is with pleasure that the editors of this history ai-(> able to say 
that Kosciusko's participation in the most glorious, tinseltish eonfliet 
of them all, has been fittingly set forth in its pages. 

Of necessity the work is imperfect, but all identified with it have 
spared nothing to make the record as complete and authentic as pos- 
sible. To all our assistants hearty thanks are extended. 

L. W. RovsK. 




Faint Foot Prints of La Salle and Marquette^The Iroquois 
Crush the Illinois — Decisive Battle at Starved Rock — La 
Salle Heads Northwestern Indian League — At the Fort of 
St. Loins — Vincennes and Fort Chartres Founded — French 
Evacuation of the Country — The British Masters — The Brit- 
ish Northwest 1 



Clark as its Father — Conquered Territory Erected into Countv 
of Illinois — French Rebel at Liberty — Organization and Divi- 
sion OP Northwest Territory — The Country op the Illinois 


Town Founded — Harrison, Tecumseh and the Prophet "Fight 
IT Out" — Indiana and Harrison in The War of 1812 — Battle 
op the Thames River, Decisive American Victory — Peace Move- 
ments — The Public Land Survey — Cre.\tion op the State and 
Its Original Counties — Status of the Country in 1816 — 
Departure of the Reds — Progressive Organization of Coin- 
TIES 11 



Indiana Tribes Usually op the Algonquin Family — Miami Con- 
federation IN Indiana — The Pottawatomies — Great Western 


Nation op the Miamis — Jesuit ilissioxARiES Among the 
Indiana iliAjiis — FrR Tr.\ders Among the Miamis — ^Ilvmis 

ING — Greenville Treaty of Northwestern Tribes — Wayne 
Defines the Purposes of Indian Reservations — Replies 
of the Chiefs — The Final Adoption of the Treaty — In- 
DL\NS Divided by War of 1812 — Harrison,' Great Indian Treaty 
>Iaker — The Pottawatomies of Northern Indiana — First 


SCRIBES THE Pottawatomie Migration (1838) — L.vst of the Pot- 
tawatomies Lea%'e IX 1840 — Indian Villages in Kosciusko 
CoL^NTY — The !Mlvmi Chiefs, Flatbelly" and Wawwaesse — Pot- 
tawatomie Chiefs and Their Villages — Accounting for 
' ' BoN-E ■ ■ Prairie — iloNOQu^ET 's End and Successor — Benack .vnd 
His Hunt)Redth Tongue — Warner Oi^twitted by Checose — The 
Eel River In-dlvns in 1835 — Sample of Indian Fun — Graves 
Describes Noted Chiefs — Estimated Indian Population 2Si 



Indiana's Population by Decades. 1800-1910 — Independent In- 
diana's Political Record — Electoral and Popular Vote, 1816- 
1916 — Territorial Officers. 1787-1816 — United States Sen- 
ators AND State Officers, 1816-1919 — The Constitutional 


1850-51— Amendsients to the Constitution — The Counties and 
Their Names — Officl\l State Flower and Flag— Indiana State 
Song ^!» 



Elkh-uit County Organized — ^Kosciusko Attached to It — Divided 
into Townships — Turkey Creek Township Set Off — Plain- 
Township Considered a Prize— Rosseau and OSSem — Other 
Pioneers of the Prairies — Elijah Harlan — John B. Chapman 


— The Pioneer iliuLs — Early Township Surveys and Sur- 
veyors — Pioneers of Turkey Creek Township — John Powell, 
Fbrst Prairie Township Settler — Other Settlers of 1833 — 
Settlers of Van Buren Ante-Dating 1836 — Village op Milpord 
Platted — James Woodden. Pioneer of Harrison Township — 
The Rise op Leesburo — As County's Seat op Justice — Prom- 
inent Men of Plain Township — The Harlan Family — The 
Erwins — John Thompson — Abraham Cunningham Locates on 
Bone Prairie — Fifteen Days' Overland Trip in Indiana — The 
Old-Time Neighborly Welcome — Union Labor Without Union 
Hours — Henry Rippey — The First Schoolhouse and Teacher 
—William C. Graves — The Blaines of Leesburg — The Tippe- 
canoe L.vke Region — First Religious SER\acES and Preachers. 81 



John B. Chapman, Godfather of the County — Patron Patriot 
op Kosciusko County' — Kosciuzko, the First Abolitionist — 
The County's Name Really Kosciuzko — Area and Bounds — 
Tippecanoe Rh'Er, Pride of Northern Indiana — Other Lakes 
of the County — Topography of the County — Surface Geology 
— Depth op Lakes — Sunken Laki->; — Composition of the 
Drift HW 



First County Officers — Sheriff Isaac Kirkend.vll — Judicial. 
Financial and Legal — A Very Temporary Courthouse — The 
Old Jail — New County Buildings in 1848 — ^Warsaw's Critical 
Years — Territory Proposed to Be Clipped for Leesburg — Ups 
AND Downs of Warsaw — Oswego Pushed as County Seat Can- 
didate — -National Politics ENTERi< — Warsaw tihc Final Victor 
— Peter L. Runy'an, Sr. — Lieut. John Runyan — The Third 
CouRTHOi'SE — The Courthouse of the Present — The County 
Infikmary' — Kosciusko by Civil Divisions, 1890-1910 — Value of 
Farms — Value of Town and City Property — Totm, Wealth ok 
Kosch'sko County — Finances of tiik CorNiv Ill 




Circuit Court Has Staying QUiVLiTiES — The Ouj Eighth and 
Ninth Circuits — President Judges and Their Associates — Sam- 
uel C. Sample, First President Judge — First Associate Judges 
OP THE County — Early Circuit Court in Action — Young Beai- 
Brummel 'Squires — ^Went to the Bottom of the Case — Jltues 
— -Appeals to the Jury — Special Pleading, Early Nightmare — 
Flickering Torchlight of Justice — President Judges of the 
Ninth Circuit — The Circuit Courts op Today — Shifting op the 
County in the Circuits — Judges of the Tenth Circuit — James 
L. WoRDEN — Judges of the Fourteenth Circuit — Judges Elisha 
V. Long and "Walter Olds — Fifty-Fourth Circuit Judges^ — 
Judge James S. Frazer — Judge Lemuel L. Royse — Judge Francis 
E. Bowser — The Probate Court and Its Judges — The County' 's 
Probate Judges — The Common Pleas Court and Judges — Courts 
of Conciliation — Common Pleas Court Abolished — Common 
Pleas Districts — Common Pleas Judges for the County — The 
Prosecuting Attorneys — District Prosecuting Attorneys — 
Circuit and County Prosecuting Attorneys— The 'Squires of 
the County — Duties of Justices of the Peace — The Justices 
op Today — The Kosciusko County Bar — George W. Praseer — 
Andrew G. "Wood — Practitioners of Today 12!) 



Days of Individuality and Confusion — State Treasurer as 
Superintendent op Schools — State Board of Education — 
Towtstship Libraries Est^vblished — Early "Work of Superin- 
tendent and His Department — State Board of Education 
More Professional — -The Reconstruction op 1865 — The County 
Ex.\miners Brought Under Control— Commissioned High 
Schools Established — M.vking Text Books Fairly Uniform — 
County Board op Education Created — State Board in Con- 
trol op Text Books — County Slterintendents Added to the 
Board — Compulsory Education and Its Local Enporcemej^t — 
The Betterment of Rurai, Schools — Regulating Eppiciency 


AND Pay of Tkacheks — Teaching of Agriculture, Manual 
Training and Home Economics — System Now in 
Force — Object Lesson in This Chapter — Strictly Local — 
Superintendent Sarber's Sketch of County School System — 
Earliest SuBSCRimoN Schools — "Fbames" .vnd "Bricks" — 
Rural Consolidated St;nooLs — High Schools op County — First 
Schools in Northern Townships — Tippecanoe and Harrison. 
Too — Jefferson Township — Washington and Clay — Seward 
and Franklin Townships — Present Status of County Schools 
— Passing of the "Good" Old Days l'>;5 



The Pioneer White ^Jen's Traces — Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & 
Chicago (Pennsylvania) Railroad — Pierceton and Warsaw 
Secure Connections — Completed to Plymouth, Division Town 
— Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis (Big Four)— The 
Goshen, Warsaw & Wabash Railroad Project — Cincinnati, 
W.VBASH & Michigan Railroad — First Trains on the Present 
Big Four — New York, Chicago & St. Louis (Nickel Plate) — 
The Wabash and Baltimore & Ohio Roads — The Winona Intek- 


Roads Movement in the County — Miles op Roads, by Town- 
ships — Gravel Road Building — Auto Licenses as Promoters of 
Good Roads — The Buggy and the Gas Carriage 171 



Reclaimed Lands — Local Phases of Agriculture and Agricultur- 
ists — The Times op the Sickle and the Flail — The Reaping 
Hook and the Cradle — "Ground-Hog" Threshing Machine 
AND F.vnning Mill — Corn Husking Bees Repl.\ce Log Rollings 
— -Wool and Flax Worked Into "Home Spun" — Corn and the 
Hominy Mortar — Bringing the Wheat to Grist — Strong Points 
OF Today — Kosciusko CoirNTY Cattle — Dairy Products — Horses 
AND Colts — Sheep and Wool — Hogs — Poultry and Eggs^ 


Clover Hay and Seed Flourish — At the Front as Kve Pro- 
ducer — Good Onion and Only Fair Wheat Country — Farms 
AND Rural Population — Progressive Agriculture — The County 
Agent and His Work — Farm Demonstrations — -Home Project 
Work ^ State Fair Exhibits and 'County Agents' Confer- 
ences — Work Commenced in Kosciusko County — The First 
Year's Work — Fine Work of the Emergency Labor Bureau — 
Improvement of Wheat and Clover — Raising the Rye Grade — 
Cultivation of Hemp and Mint ISo 



The Civil War — The First Three Months' Regiment (the Ninth) 
— Reorganized for Three Years and as Veteban Regiment — The 
Elf;venth Infantry (Three Years) — The T\\t:lfth (One Year 
AND Three Years) — Gen. Reuben Williams — The Thirteenth 
Regiment (Three Years) — The Sixteenth Infantry (One 
Year)— The Seventeenth (Three Years) — The Twentieth 
(Three Years) Infantry — Tvv'enty-first Regiment (Three 
Years) — Twenty -second Infantry Regiment — Twenty-sixth 
Indiana Infantry — The Twenty-ninth Regiment — Thirtieth 
Regiment (Three Years) — Thirty-fifth Regiment (First 
Irish) Regiment — Thirty-ninth Infantry (Afterward Eight) i 
Cavalry) — Forty-first Infantry (Second Cavalry) — Forty- 
second Regiment of Infantry — Forty-fourth Infantry — 
Forty-sixth and P^orty-seventh Regiments — Forty-eightj r 
Regiment — The Fifty-eighth Regiment — Fifty-ninth and 
Sixty-eighth Regiments — The Seventy-fourth Regiment — 
Lieutenant Runyan at Kenesaw Mountain — Lieutenant 


Seventy-fourth — John N. Runyax — Seventy-seventh Regi- 
ment (Fourth Cavalry) — Eighty-third and Eighty-eighth 
Regiments — Ninetieth Regiment (Fifth (Lvvalry) — One Hun- 
dred and Eighteenth Regiment (Six Months) — One Hundred 
and Nineteenth (Seventh Cavalry) — One Hundred and 
Twenty-seventh Regiment (Twelfth Cavalry)— One Hundred 
and Twenty-ninth Regiment — The One Hundred and Thir- 
tieth — One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Regiment — One Hun- 
dred AND Fifty-first and One Hundred and Fifty-second — 


Light Aktillekv fkom Kosciusko Coi'nty — 8oldikrs of thk Civu. 
AND THE World's Wars — Grand Army Posts — The Soujiers' 
Memorul — In the Spanish-American War — Company H, One 
Hundred and Sixtieth Regiment — Kosciusko County in the 
World's War — Realizing that the War Existed — Volunteers 
Get the Start of the Draft — Officers and Organizations in 
August. 1917 — Bartol and Swihart Sail for France — First 
Examination of Registrants — First Liberty Loan and Red 
Cross Drives — Kosciusko County Men Off for Camp Benjamin- 
Harrison — Dr. ^Iilford H. Lyon Leaves fur France — Third 
Indiana Reorganized as Artillery — A Hoosier Opens the War 
FOR the Americans — County's Part in Second Liberty Loan- 
Drive — James R. F''razbr, County Food Administrator- 
County's First Gold Star — Home Guard Organized— Official 
State Military Band — I;ieut. J. F. Horick, World's Champion 
Pistol Shot — First Personal Battle News — Very Successful 
Third Liberty Loan Campaign — Sale of War Stamps — Lieuten- 
ant Bartol at Chateau Thierry — Three Thousand Men Regis- 
tered — High School Boys Enroli^ed — Fourth Liberty Ijoan — 
First Man of the New Draft — Winona Lake Training Cami- 
Opened — Boys of Battery D Arrive in France — The United 
War Work Fund—The Riot of Peace — Among thk Last Home 
Victims — Total Man Power of the County — At the (!lose of 
the War 2(W 


SHIP — .loHN B. Chapman, Warsaw's God-Father — Pioneers of 
THE Warsaw Neighborhood — The County Seat Platted — First 
Cabin and Store in Warsaw — Pioneer Local Industries — 
Buildings and Residents of 1837 — Potential Congressman Wil- 
liams — Hard Raising from the Ground — First Postoffice and 
Early Postmasters— Joseph A. Funk, Pioneer Teacher — In- 
corporated AS A Town — Birth of Local System of Public 
Instruction — Private Fire Department Organized — Famous 
Independent Protection Engine — Getting Fire Water Under 
Difficulties — Becomes Public Fire Department — Firemen as 
Union Soldiers — Fire of 1866 — Expansions of the Department 


— ^"Chiefly fok Sporting Purposes" — Fire Department ix 
1875-76 — Building of Schools in 1872-73 — Public Schools at 
Municipal Incorporation — The High School op 1904 — New 
Center Ward Schoolhouse — Public School System of Today — 
The Warsaw Public Library — Public Utilities and Necessities 
— ^Winona Electric Light and Water Company — The Warsaw 
Gas Company— Commercial Telephone Company 253 



First Warsaw Church, Tam^irack Cabin— M. E. Conference and 
Local Organization — Pay of Early M. E. Circuit Preachers- 
First Methodist Camp Meeting — First and Present S.\bbath 
Schools — Methodist Edifices — M. E. Home of Today — First 
Presbyterian Church — Christian Church op Warsaw — The 
Baptist Church — The Baptist Temple — United Brethren 
Church — The Brethren Church op Warsaw — Other Religious 
Bodies — Secret and Benevolent Societies — The Masonic Bodies 
— The Odd Fellows of Warsaw — Knights of Pythl\s and 
Pythian Sisters — Red Men and Modern Woodmen — The Elks, 
Eagles and Moose — Other Organizations 274 



The Local Newspapers — The Kosciusko Republican — Warsaw 
Democrat and Northern Indianian— Lake City Commercial — 
General Williams Resumes Control — Later Record of the 
Northern Indianian and Times — The Warsaw Union — The 
Local Banks — State Bank op Warsaw — Lake City Bank — 
Indiana Loan and Trust Company — Business and Industries — 
The Warsaw Commercial Club 28!) 



First Improvements for Sumsier Resorters — Beyer Brothers and 
Spring Fountain Park — Carnahan's Military Park — First 


SptuNG Fountain Park Assembly — Dr. Sol C. Dickky Appears 
—Assembly Site Purchased of Beyer Brothers— Wtnona 
Assembly and Its Founders — The Indl\n Mound — Physical 
Improvements— A Pen Picture op the Winona Assembly by 
Doctor Dickey — Cause of Financial Embarrassment— Winona 
Assembly Grounds— The Winona Bible Conference- Side 
Conferences — Conference Against Crime — The Prophetic 
Conference — Children's Musical Pageant — Red Cross Work 
— The I. A. B. — Schools and Colleges at Winona Lake — The 
Winona College — Winona College of Agriculture^ — Indiana 
University Biological Station — Thf Wtnona CirrRcii— The 
Town of Winona Lake '^'^i 



Centers of Beauty and Pioneer Settj.ement— Syracuse Foinded 
—The Churches of Syracuse — The Syracuse School— Town 
op Syracuse — The Journal — The Library and the Chautau- 
qua — Nine Mn,E Changed to Wawasee Lake — Wawasee Sta- 
tion — George W. Miles. Summer Resort Pioneer — The Old 
Pishing Days — First Improvements at Wawasee — Initial Work 
in Fish Propagation — Original Site of Wawasee State Hatch- 
ery — Extension of the State Hatchery — Death of George W. 
Miles — South Park — Lake View — Oakwood Park — Vawter 
Park — Crow's Xest ami Wavf.i.axd Hk.acii Sill 



Pioneer Settlers of Washington Township — Main Events of the 
Early Times — Uncle Johnny Makemson — Some Pioneer Mar- 
RLAGES — The Summervilles and John Dunham — The Rterson 
Cemetery — Pierceton Founded — The Town Incorporated — 
Churches and Societies — The. Pierceton of the Present — 
Financial and Indistriai :5-i4 




Settlers of 1833-35 — A Few J'irst Things — Early Viu^ge of 
MiLPORD — Incoepobated as Milford Junction — Watkr Works 
AND Fire Department — Electric Light anh Power — Industries 
AND Banks — The Milford M^ul — Milford's Public Library — 
The School — Local Churches and Lodges 34'J 



First Settlers of Harrison Township — P.vlestine Postofficb — 
Rise and Decline of Palestine — Atwood Rises — Town of Men- 
tone — Early Sm'Tlement of Lake Township — Old Village of 
Silveri/Akeville — Silver Lake of Today 349 



Pioneers of Etna Township — Village of Etna Green — Early 
Settlers and Events of Clay Township — First Permanent 
Resident — First Union School and Church — The Village of 
Claypoot :>.').') 



Ijeesburg, the Old County Seat — Incorporated as a Town — 
Railroad and Newspaper — Churches and Societies — Bank and 
Flourishing Mills — Village op Oswego — The Decline of Os- 
wego — Tippecanoe Lake Resorts — Tippecanoe Township, An- 
other Lake Region — Pioneer Settlements — Road and Mills 
Hi'iLT — Village of North Webster ^^'^9 




Seward Township Well Watered — E.utLv Settlers and Events — 
BuRKET — Jackson Township — Early Settlements and Set- 
tlers — Vu.laOtE op Sidney .36!t 



PRiURiE Township— Its Pioneer Whites — Indians Refuse to Be 
Made Farmers — Galveston Platted— Jefferson Township and 
Its Settlement — The Marshy Barrier — A Powerful Single 
Vote — Gravelton — Scott Township Settled — Millwood and 
Heckaman .S7'2 



Forest Land Along Indian Highway — Pioneers Drift in— First 
Birth and Marriage — School and Church Come to Stay — 
Beaver Dam Postoffice — • Primitivi: Industries — Village of 
Sevastopol — Monroe Township — The Pioneers — Mills — Town- 
ship Organization — First Aids to A^iekicax DKVEr.opMENT. .377 

History of Kosciusko County 



Faint Foot Prints op La Salle and Marquette — The Iroquois 
Crush the Illinois — Decisive Battle at Starved Rock — La 
Salle Heads Northwestern Indian League — At the Fort of 
St. Louis — Vincennes and Fort Chartres Founded — French 
Evacuation of the Country — The British ]\Iasters — The Brit- 
ish Northwest. 

The Hoosier State, especially Northern Indiana, has always been 
in the highway of travel and development, whether flowing from 
the north to the south, or from the east to the west. Grand and 
inevitable result : The commonwealth and its people have, from the 
earliest historic times, absorbed many diverse elements and given 
birth to a distinct type of manhood and womanhood, noted for its 
energy, initiative and versatility. As a section of the American 
Union, it illustrates the recognized family and racial principle, that 
human strength, elasticity and promise of balanced growth are fairly 
guaranteed by the flowing together of numerous streams of blood 
of intrinsic purity and vitality. If the parent body is not contiiiu- 
ously fed by these incoming springs, or streams, it becomes sluggish 
and vitiated, like the old royal houses of Europe, or the nations which 
bar out all other races than their own. Northern Indiana and 
Kosciusko County, in a marked degree, share with American com- 
munities, as a whole, this secret of continuous and cumulative progress. 
It is the purpose of this history to illustrate that fact in detail. 

The steps which approach the creation of Kosciusko County, pass- 
ing along wide sweeps of history, commence to fall nearly three 
centuries before its geographical limits were defined. In 1541 De 
Soto ascended the Mississippi from the south and penetrated the 
country to a point considerably above the mouth of the Arkansas, 


lajung the groundwork of French Louisiana, and during the first 
third of the seventeenth century the Catholic orders of France estab- 
lished missions among the Indians of the Upper Lake region. Later, 
the fur traders and the Jesuits co-operated, and Marquette loomed 
as the great figure of the Catholic Church in the Northwest. In 1675 
he died quietly and piously on the shores of Lake Michigan. 

Faint Foot Prints of La Salle and Marquette 

It was La Salle, however, who was to leave his footprints, faint 
though they be, upon the history of Northern Indiana. Both priest 
and cavalier were of the real nobility, and Rene Robert Cavalier 
Sieur de La Salle was to follow in the footsteps, perfect the dis- 
coveries of Father Jacques Marquette, and broaden the scope of New 
France. In 1669, six years before the death of Marquette, excited by 
the reports of the Indians in regard to a river which rose in the 
country of the Seneeas and flowed to the sea, he started with a party 
of twenty-four maintained at his own expense, on a tour of discovery. 
After overcoming the most vexatious difficulties, he reached the Ohio 
and descended it to the falls. 

Returning to his trading post of LaChine, and pondering his plan 
of discovering a new route to China and the East, La Salle was 
startled by the reports of IMarquette and Joliet. This seemed, to his 
eager mind, the first step toward the realization of his dream, and 
centering everything in the enterprise, he sold his property and 
hastened to France, where he secured loans of money, and prepared 
to carry out his plans upon a large scale. Constructing a large vessel 
— the Griffin — he set out with a party of thirty men and three monks, 
August 7, 1679, for the scene of Marquette's discoveries. He first 
conceived the idea of securing the country, thus discovered, by a 
series of forts, which should form a barrier to resist the encroach- 
ments of the English, who were gaining a strong hold on the Atlantic 
border. This received the encouragement and aid of Frontenac, who 
was then governor general of Canada, and, rebuilding Fort Frontenac 
as a base of operations, he set sail for Lake Michigan. Arriving 
at Green Bay, he loaded his vessel with furs and sent it, under the 
care of a pilot and fourteen sailors, on its return voyage. Waiting 
there for the Griffin's return until forced to give it up in despair, 
he set out with canoes to pursue his enterprise, and landed at St. 
Joseph. Following the river bearing the same name, he reached the 
Kankakee by a short portage, and passed down that river to the- 


Marquette's mission had been established near the present site 
of Utica, in La Salle County, Illinois. There, in December, 1669, La 
Salle found an Indian town of 460 lodges temporarily deserted, and, 
passing on to where the City of Peoria now is, found another village 
of about eighty lodges, where he landed, and soon established amicable 
and permanent relations. With the consent of the tribes, La Salle 
soon built the Fort of Crevecoeur, a half a league below, and then 
early in March of 1680, set out for Port Frontenae, in Western New 
York, and thence to Montreal to repair the loss of his vessel, the 

Iroquois Crush the Illinois 

In the meantime the Jesuit faction engaged in fierce competi- 
tion with him in securing the peltrj- trade of the Indians and, jealous 
of La Salle's success and the English of the Atlantic border, united in 
stirring up the Iroquois to assault La Salle's Illinois allies in his 
absence. "Suddenly," says Parkman, "the village was awakened 
from its lethargy as by ci'ash of a thunderbolt. A Shawnee, lately 
here on a visit, had left his Illinois friends to return home. He now 
reappeared, crossing the river in hot haste, with the announcement 
that he had met on his way an army of Iroquois approaching to attack 
them. All was in panic and confusion. The lodges disgorged their 
frightened inmates; women and children screamed; startled warriors 
snatched their weapons. There were less than five hundred of them, 
for the greater part of the young men had gone to war. ' ' 

Decisive Battle at Starved Rock 

There Tonti, La Salle's lieutenant, left in charge of the fort, found 
himself weakened by the early desertion of most of his foi'ce, and 
now, an object of suspicion to his allies, in an awkward and danger- 
ous predicament. Undaunted by the untoward circumstances, he joined 
the Illinois, and when the Iroquois came upon the scene, in the midst 
of the savage melee, faced the 580 warriors, declared that the Illinois 
were under the protection of the French king and the governor of 
Canada, and demanded that they should be left in peace, backing his" 
words with the statement that there were 1,200 of the Illinois and 
sixty Frenchmen across the river. These representations had the 
effect of checking the ardor of the attacking savages, and a temporary 
truce was effected. 

It was evident that the truce was but a ruse on the part of the 


Iroquois to gain an opportunity to test the truth of Tonti's state- 
ments, and no sooner had the Illinois retired to their village on the 
north side of the river than numbers of the invading tribes, on the 
pretext of seeking food, crossed the river and gathered in increasing 
numbers about the village. The Illinois knew the design of their foe 
too well, and, hastily embarking, they set fire to their lodges and 
retired down the river, when the whole band of Iroquois crossed over 
and finished their work of havoc at their leisure. 

The Illinois, in the meantime, lulled into a false security, divided 
into small bands in search of food. One of the tribes, the Tamaroas, 
"had the fatuity to remain near the mouth of the Illinois, where they 
were assailed by the whole force of the Iroquois. The men fled and 
very few of them were killed, but the women and children were cap- 
tured to the number, it is said, of seven hundred," many of whom 
were put to death with horrible tortures. Soon after the retreat of 
the Illinois, the Iroquois discovered the deception of the Frenchmen, 
and only the wholesome fear they had of the French governor's power 
restrained their venting rage upon Tonti and his two or three com- 
panions. As it was, the.y were dismissed and bidden to return to 

• La Salle Heads Northwestern Indian League 

It was in the wake of these events that La Salle returned in the win- 
ter of 1680 and found this once populous village devastated and de- 
serted, surrounded by the frightful evidences of savage carnage. Dis- 
heartened but not cast down, he at once set about repairing his for- 
tune. Discerning, at once, the means and object of his enemies, he 
set about building a bulwark to stay a second assault. Returning 
to Fort Jliami, on the St. Joseph by the borders of Lake Michigan, 
he sought to form a defensive league among the Indians whom he 
proposed to colonize on the site of the destroyed village of the Illinois. 
He found ready material at hand in remnants of tribes fresh from 
the fields of King Philip's war; he visited the Miamis and by his 
wonderful power won them over to his plans and then in the interval, 
before the tribes could arrange for their emigration, he launched out 
with a few followers and hurriedly explored the Mississippi to the 

Returning to Miehilimackinae in September, 1682, where he had 
found Tonti in May of the previous year. La Salle, after directing 
his trusty lieutenant to repair to the Illinois, prepared to return to 
France for further supplies for the proposed colony; but learning 


that the Iroquois were planning another incursion, he returned to the 
site of the destroyed village and with Tonti began, in December, 1682, 
to build the Fort of St. Louis on the eminence which is now known 
in history as Starved Rock. 

Thus the winter passed, and in the meantime La Salle found em- 
ploj^ment for his active mind in conducting the negotiations which 
should result in reconciling the Illinois and the Miamis and in cement- 
ing the various tribes into a harmonious colony. The spring crowned 
his efforts with complete success. 

At the Fort of St. Louis 

La Salle looked down from his rocks on a concourse of wild human 
life. Lodges of barks and rushes, or cabins, of logs were clustered on 
the open plain, or along the edges of the bordering forests. Squaws 
labored, warriors lounged in the sun, naked children whooped and 
gamboled on the grass. Beyond the river, a mile and a half on the 
left, the banks were studded once more with the lodges of the Illinois, 
who, to the number of 6,000, had returned since their defeat, to their 
favorite dwelling place. Scattered along the valley, among the ad- 
jacent hills or over the neighboring prairie, were the cantonments 
of half a score of other tribes and fragments of tribes, gathered under 
the protection of the French — Shawnees from Ohio, Abenakis from 
Maine, and Miamis from the sources of the Kankakee and the valleys 
of the St. Joseph and the Tippecanoe. 

The Deaths of La Salle and Tonti 

In the meantime a party was sent to Montreal to secure supplies 
and munitions to put the colony in a state of defense, which, to the 
disappointment and chagrin of the sorely beset leader, he learned had 
been detained by his enemies, who, by a change of governors, had 
come into official power. Devolving the command of the enterprise upon 
Tonti, La Salle set out in November, 1683, for Canada and France, 
where he hoped to thwart his enemies and snatch success from threat- 
ened defeat. Triumphant over his enemies, he returned to America in 
1685 and, after wandering ineffectually for two years in the wilderness 
of Texas, fell dead, pierced through the brain by the bullet of a 
traitor in his own band. 

It was not until late in 1688 that Tonti heard, with grief and in- 
dignation, of the death of La Salle. In 1690, the brave and loyal 
lieutenant of the great chevalier received from the French govern- 


ment the proprietorship of Fort St. Louis on the Illinois, of which 
he continued in command until 1702, when by royal order the fort was 
abandoned and Tonti transferred to the lower Louisiana. The Fort 
of St. Louis was afterward reoccupied for a short time in 1718 by a 
party of traders, when it was finally abandoned. 


The French early improved the opening thus made for them. From 
1688 to 1697, little progress was made in colonization, owing to the 
wars between France and Great Britain, but after the peace of Ryswick 
the project was taken up with renewed activity. In 1698 large num- 
bers of emigrants, under the lead of officers appointed by the crown, 
left France for the New World, and in the following year founded 
the settlement of Biloxi, on Mobile Bay. In 1700 the settlement of 
the French and Indians at old Kaskaskia was moved to the site where 
the village of that name now stands. A year later a permanent settle- 
ment was made at Detroit by Antoine de la Motte Cadillac, who, 
in July of that year, arrived from Montreal with a missionary and 
100 men, and in 1795 was authorized by the French government 
to grant land in small quantities to actual settlers in the vicinity 
of Detroit. 

In 1702 Sieur Jueherau and a missionary named Mermet estab- 
lished a post at Vincennes. Trouble with the Indians, and the wet, 
swampy condition of the surrounding country, delayed the develop- 
ment of the little settlement there but throughout the early history 
of the country this post continued to be of the fii'st importance. 

In 1718 Fort Chartres was erected on the Mississippi, sixteen miles 
above Kaskaskia. About the fort rapidly gathered a village, which 
was subsequently called New Chartres; five miles away the village 
of Prairie du Roeher became a growing settlement, while all along the 
river, between Kaskaskia and the fort, a .strong chain of settlements 
was formed, within a year after the latter was finished. The erection 
of Fort Chartres at this point was dictated by national considera- 
tions, rather than by fear of the Indians. 

The colonization of Louisiana consequent upon the exploration of 
the Mississippi and the influx of colonists who found homes at Cahokia 
and Kaskaskia, made this section the key to the French possessions 
in America, the connecting link between Canada and Louisiana. In 
that region the French settlers, little disturbed by the forages of the 
Sacs and Foxes, pushed their improvements to the Illinois, while 
lands were granted, though perhaps never occupied some distance up 


the stream. The military force found occupation in supporting the 
friendly Illinois tribes against the Iroquois and Sacs and Foxes, and in 
unsatisfactory or disastrous campaigns against the Chickasaws. In 
the meantime, from the Southwest the Spaniards were jealously watch- 
ing the French colonists, while the British, gradually pushing west- 
ward, were building forts near the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. 

French Evacuation op the Country 

The European war of 1741-46, in which France and England were 
opposed, was echoed in these western wilds, and it was found that 
Fort Chartres must be strenghtened or abandoned. The former course 
prevailed, and in 1750 the old fortress of wood was transformed into 
one of stone, and garrisoned by a full regiment of French grenadiers. 
It was from this point that an important contingent sallied for the 
capture of George Washington and his forces at Fort Necessity, on 
July 4, 1754, and thus furnished to George II one of the causes for 
a declaration of hostilities and the beginning of the old French war. 

During the ensuing year a detachment burned Fort Granville, sixty 
miles from Philadelphia; another party routed Major Grant near 
Fort Duquesne, but, compelled to abandon the fortress, fired it and 
floated down the river by the light of its flames ; again, a large detach- 
ment, with some friendly Indians, assisted in the attempt to raise 
the British siege of Niagara, leaving the flower of the garrison dead 
upon the field. 

The British Masters 

The fort was no longer in condition to maintain the offensive and, 
learning that the British were preparing to make a hostile descent 
from Pittsburgh, the commandant writes to the French governor 
general as follows: "I have made all arrangements, according to my 
strength, to receive the enemy." The victory of the British on the 
Plains of Abraham decided the contest, but the little backwoods citadel, 
knowing but little of the general nature of the struggle, dreamed 
that it might be the means of regaining, on more successful fields, the 
possessions thus lost to the Fi-ench. The news that Fort Chartres, 
with all territory east of the river, had been surrendered without so 
much as a sight of the enemy, came like a thunderclap upon the 
patriotic French colony. Many of the settlers, with Laclede, who had 
just arrived at the head of a new colony, expressed their disgust by 
going to the site of St. Louis, which they suppossed to be still French 


Though transferred by treaty to the English in 1763, the fort was 
the last place in North America to lower the white ensign of the 
Bourbon King, and it was not until the latter part of 1765 that the 
British formally accepted the surrender of Fort Chartres. Pontiac, 
the unwavering friend of the French, took upon himself, unaided 
by his former allies, to hold back the victorious English. Major 
Loftus, Captains Pitman and Morris, Lieutenant Frazer, and George 
Croghan, some with force, some in disguise, and others with diplo- 
macy, sought to reach the fort to accept its capitulation, but each one 
was foiled and turned back with his mission unaccomplished, glad to 
escape the fate of that Englishman for which Pontiac assured them he 
kept a "kettle boiling over a large fire." 

Wearied with the inactivity of the French, the Indians sought 
an audience with the commandant, and explained their attitude. 
"Father," said the chieftain, "I have long wished to see thee, to 
recall the battles which we fought together against the misguided 
Indians and the English dogs. I lov« the French and I have come 
here with my warriors to avenge their wrongs." 

But assured by St. Ange that such service could no longer be 
accepted, he gave up the struggle, and the flag of St. George rose 
in the place of the fair lilies of France. Thus another nationality 
was projected into this restricted arena, a situation which was imme- 
diately afterward still further complicated by the secret Franco- 
Spanish treaty, which made the west bank of the Mississippi the 
boundary of the Spanish possessions. "It is significant of the differ- 
ent races, and the varying sovereignties in this portion of our coun- 
try," says a writer, "that a French soldier from the Spanish City of 
St. Louis should be married to an Englishwoman by a French priest 
in the British colony of Illinois." 

At the first announcement 'of the treaty, the natural hostility of 
the people to the English induced large numbers of the colonists to 
prepare to follow the French flag, and a hegira followed which swept 
out of the colony fully one-third of its 3,000 inhabitants. There was 
still a large number left, forming the largest colony in the West ; but 
there were forces constantly at work which gi-adually depleted its 
numbers. Under the British rule, an abnormal activity among traders 
and land speculators was developed. The natives were constantly 
overreached in trade by unscrupulous persons protected by the domi- 
nant power, and representative of land purchasing organizations 
were acquiring vast tracts of country from ignorant savages, who had 
little comprehension of the meaning or consequences of these transac- 
tions. These schemes and practices, though happily brought to naught 


by the Revolution, rendered the Indians, for a time, savagely hostile, 
and left their blighting influence long after their removal. The lack of 
proper sympathy between the governing race and the governed, the 
hostility of the savages in which they were involved with the British, 
induced many of the French colonists to leave their homes as rapidly 
as they could make arrangements to do so. 

The British garrison had hitherto occupied the old French Fort 
Chartres, but one day in 1772, the river having overflowed its banks 
and swept away a bastion and the river wall, the occupants fled with 
precipitate haste to the high ground above Kaskaskia, where they erect- 
ed a palisade fort. This was the principal achievement of the British 
forces, up to the beginning of the war with the colonies. In this 
struggle removed from the scene of active operations, the commandant, 
resorting to the favorite means of the British during their entire early 
history on this continent, furnished supplies and munitions of war 
to the savages, and thus equipped, incited them to war upon the un- 
protected frontier settlements in Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Vir- 

The British Northwest 

During the decade 1764-74 the Indians who occupied the country 
northwest of the Ohio River remained at peace with the English, 
although in the meantime many English colonists, contrary to the 
proclamation of the king, the provisions of the treaty and the earnest 
remonstrance of the Indians, continued to make settlements on Indian 

When the British extended dominion over the territory of Indiana 
by placing garrisons at the various trading posts, in 1764-65, the total 
number of French families within its limits did not probably exceed 
eighty or ninety at Vincennes, about fourteen at Fort Ouiatenon on 
the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of St. Joseph and St. 
Mary's rivers, near the Twightwee Village. At Detroit and in the 
vicinity of that post, there were about 1,000 French residents — 
men, women and children. The remainder of the French population 
in the Northwest resided principally at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Prairie 
du Rocher, and in the vicinity of these villages ; and the whole French 
population northwest of the Ohio, at. the time, did not exceed 3,000 

Northwest Territory op 1787 



Clark as its Father — Conquered Territory Erected into County 
OF Illinois — French Rebel at Liberty — Organization and Divi- 
sion OP Northwest Territory — The Country of the Illinois 
and the Wabash — Indians Crowded by Whites — Prophet's 
Town Founded — Harrison, Tecumseh and the Prophet ' ' Fight 
it Out" — Indiana and Harrison in The War of 1812 — Battle 
op the Thames River, Decisive American Victory — Peace Move- 
ments — The Public Land Survey — Creation of the State and 
Its Original Counties — Status op the Country in 1816 — 
Departure op the Reds — Progressive Organization of Counties. 

The time came when the cultured people from the old Eastern, 
Middle and Southern states, as well as those who were instinctively 
adventuresome, not only filtered into the Northwest Territory along 
the borders of the Ohio, but commenced to sift down from the Ca- 
nadian north and the country of the former French Louisiana. The 
Americans, from long military experience with the French and British 
and backwoods warfare with the Indians, had at last obtained the 
upper hand in the control of the vast stretch of prairies, lakes, wood- 
lands and forests between the Ohio and the headwaters of the Missis- 
sippi, and were now to subdue the dusky occupants of that wonderful 
region, who still claimed it by virtue of the fact that, as far back 
as tradition went, they had hunted and fished over it, and wrestled 
back and forth over it in the course of their tribal quarrels and wars 
of extermination. 

The time was at hand when a higher civilization placed no light 
hand upon this glorious land of possibilities and, according to the 
ways of the world and the course of human history, the weaker were 
to be crowded out that a better period for America and the world 
might be introduced. No people were ever better trained, or more 
admirably adapted for the work in hand than the keen, hardy Amer- 
ican soldiers and pioneers of those days. Never in the world's history 
were such brave and intelligent leaders at hand, who combined .strong 
traits of statesmanship and conciliatory talents, with absolute fear- 
. 11 


lessness and rare military ability. Such men as Clark and Harrison 
were shrewder than the wiliest savages, in the ranks of their sol- 
diers were woodsmen who could outtraek and outscent the most 
skillful Indians of the Northwest : and their muscles were of iron 
and their nerves steel in the shock of physical combat. Sustained 
by more sanitary and generous physical conditions than were enjoyed 
by the Indians of the wilds, the whites of this period and country were 
even superior in physique to the reds. That fact, added to their 
mental advantages, made only one outcome possible when the iinal 
clash came. 

Following the subjugation of the Indians of the Northwest, espe- 
cially those who then roamed or tarried in what is now Northern 
Indiana, was the preparation of the land for the establishment of 
the homes and families of the whites. This included surveys of the 
unorganized territory, and afterward the political and civil creation 
of counties and other divisions indicative of American order, govern- 
ment and general development. 

The story of these phases of Indiana histoiy so closely linked with 
the birth of Kosciusko County is one of rare interest, and the main 
features of that narrative are set forth at this point. 

Clark, Father of American Northwest 

Had there been no George Rogei-s Clark, or someone with his 
military and diplomatic genius, it is doubtful whether there would 
ever have been an American Northwest. So disastrous in their con- 
sequences and distracting in their influence were the Indian attacks 
incited by the British during the earlier period of the Revolutionary 
war that to Colonel Clark was a.ssigned the delicate and arduous 
task of counteracting them, so as to render the frontiere of the North- 
west comparatively safe. 

Recognizing the British posts at Kaskaskia and Vincennes as the 
source of the Indians' supplies and inspiration. Colonel Clark directed 
his efforts toward the capture of these points and, enlisting the 
interests of Patrick Henry, governor of Virginia, and securing such 
help as he could give, Clark was able, on June 24, 1778, to start from 
the Falls of the Ohio with 153 men for lower Illinois. So skilfully 
did he manage his movements that he caught the garrison napping 
and captured, on the 5th of July, both force and fort, without shedding 
a drop of blood. Cahokia, in the like manner fell without a blow. 

Clark's original plan contemplated the attack of Vincennes as the 
first object of his campaign, but on reaching the Falls of the Ohio, 


his force being so much smaller than he had expected he found it 
necessary to change his plan of operations. In his journal, Clark 
gives his reasons for the change as follows: "As Post Vin- 
cennes, at that time, was a towTi of considerable force, consisting 
of nearly 400 militia, with an Indian town adjoining, and great 
numbers continually in the neighborhood, and, in the scale of Indian 
affairs of more importance than any other, I had thought of attacking 
it first; but now found that I could bj- no means venture near it. I 
resolved to begin my career in the Illinois, where there were more 
inhabitants, but scattered in different villages, and less danger of being 
immediately overpowered by the Indians ; in case of necessity, we 
could probably make our retreat to the Spanish side of the Missis- 
sippi ; but if successful, we might pave our way to possession of Post 
Vincennes. ' ' 

Conquered Territory Erected into Illinois County 

This shrewd forecast of the situation dealing with the conquered 
posts of Kaskaskia and Cahokia was re-enforced by the announce- 
ment of the treaty entered into between France and the colonies, 
and in August the delegation of French citizens, which had been 
sent from Kaskaskia to Vincennes, returned bearing the joyful 
news that the whole population had sworn public allegiance to the 
United States, and had displayed the American flag. On receipt of 
this intelligence from Clark, the Virginia Assembly in October erected 
the whole territorj'- thus conquered into the County of Illinois and 
provided for its government. This first attmpt to organize the county 
^ west of the Ohio was thwarted, however, by the descent of the British 
from Detroit in the following December. 

The French population had garrisoned the fort at the suggestion 
of Clark, who subsequently sent Captain Helm as a representative 
of the American government and an agent to the Indians. On the 
approach of the British Captain Helm and one private alone occupied 
the fort, who, by putting on a bold front, obtained from the besiegers 
the honors of war. This sudden change in the situation boded serious 
evil to the Kentucky frontier, and necessitated prompt action upon 
the part of Colonel Clark. Learning in December, 1779, that the 
English commandant, Henry Hamilton, had greatly weakened his 
force bj' sending detachments elsewhere, Clark determined to attack 
the enemy at once with what troops he could collect. After enduring 
almost incredible hardships and overcoming obstacles that would 
have been insurmountable to anv less determined officer, Clark found 


himself once more before the enemy. Here his skilful disposition 
and unparalleled audacity were again crowned with success, and on 
February 24th, he received the capitulation of the English garrison. 
The temporary success of the English did not long defer the plans 
of the Virginia commonwealth and the conquered territory was at 
once placed under control of civil authority, John Todd representing 
the sovereignty of Virginia as county lieutenant. This was the fore- 
runner of the Northwest Territory and the birth of civil government 
in the Northwest. Todd's instructions were broad enough to meet 
the whole case ; he was to conciliate the French and Indians ; to 
inculcate in the people the value of liberty, and to remove the griev- 
ances that obstruct the happiness, and increase the prosperity of 
that country. These certainly were the great ends to be achieved if 

French Rebel at Liberty 

The French population was easily conciliated, but the education 
of a lifetime, and the hereditary characteristics of the race rendered 
them incapable of appreciating the value of liberty. They had grown 
up under the enervating influence of the most arbitrary manifestations 
of monarchical government, and self-government involved too great a 
risk for this simple folk. The result was a lack of sympathy with the 
new order of things ; more decided, perhaps, than under British rule. 
To this was added a business competition, to which they were un- 
accustomed ; more frequent hostile incursions of the Indians in which 
the savages gradually forgot the old-time love for the French, and 
the repeated losses by the inundations of the river, made up a sum 
of discouragements which gradually depleted this country of the 
French inhabitants. This loss was but imperfectly repaired, notwith- 
standing the fertility of the soil had been widely published, and a 
considerable number had already found much better advantages there 
than the older colonies afforded; j-et the Indian depredation that 
followed the Revolutionary war deterred others from following until 
the general pacification at Greenville in 1795. 

Organization and Division of Northwest Territory 

On the 13th of July, 1787, Congress passed an ordinance for the 
government of the territory northwest of the Ohio River, which 
had been ceded to the United States by Virginia three years before, 


and iu October following Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair was elected 
by Congress as governor. In July, 1788, the goveraor arrived at 
Port Harmar (now Marietta, Ohio), where during that year, the 
temporary government of the territory was organized. During the 
first two j'ears of his administrations St. Clair was busily engaged with 
the details of government organization and negotiating with the 
Indian tribes, who found it difficult to understand the principles upon 
which the whites made war. On the 8th of January, 1790, the governor 
found leisure to proceed to Kaskaskia to organize the government 
in that quarter. In August, 1788, Congress had provided for the 
adjustment of land disputes among the settlers at Kaskaskia and 
Vincennes, and on the arrival of St. Clair early in 1790 this matter 
engrossed the larger part of his attention. Among the earliest acts 
of administration was the erection of the first county under the 
ordinance of 1787, including all the present State of Illinois ex- 
tending as far north as the mouth of Little Mackinaw Creek, and 
named St. Clair after the governor. 

The Country op the Illinois and Wabash (1790) 

The general situation is described by the governor in his report 
to the Secretary of War as follows : ' ' The Illinois country, as well as 
that upon the Wabash, has been involved in great distress ever 
since it fell under the American dominion. The people with great 
cheerfulness supplied the troops under George Rogers Clark and 
the Illinois regiment with everything they could spare, and often 
with much more than they could spare with any convenience to 
themselves. Most of the certificates for these supplies are still in their 
hands unliquidated, and in many instances, when application has been 
made to the State of Virginia, under whose authority the certificates 
were granted, payment has been refused. The Illinois regiment being 
disbanded, a set of men pretending to the authority of Virginia, 
embodied themselves, and a scene of general depredation ensued. To 
this succeeded three successive and extraordinary inudations of the 
Mississippi, which either swept away their crops or prevented their 
being planted ; the loss of the greater part of their trade with the 
Indians, as well as the hostile incursions of some of the tribes which 
had ever before been in friendship with them ; and to these was added 
the loss of the whole of their crops of corn by an untimely frost. 
Extreme misery could not fail to be the consequence of such accumu- 
lated misfortunes." 


Indiana Territopy Created and Ditided 

On the 7th of May, 1800, the President of the United States ap- 
proved an act of Congress, entitled "An Act to Divide the Territory 
Northwest of the Ohio into two Separate Governments." The one 
retaining the former name was composed of the present State of 
Ohio, a small part of Michigan, and a small part of Indiana, being 
that part in the southeast corner which had been ceded to the United 
States by the Indians, in the treaty of Greenville. The other district 

William Henry Harrison 

was denominated the Indiana Territory, and embraced all the region 
east of the Mississippi and between the lakes and the Ohio. The 
population of all this tract of country, by the census of 1800 was 
4,875, of which a small portion in Clark's grant was of English 
descent ; the remainder, mostly of French extraction, resided at or 
near Kaskaskia, Vineennes and Detroit. 

William Henrv- Harrison was appointed governor of Indiana 
Territory', and during his administration he discovered and thwarted 
the reckless speculation in public lands, which was greatly interfering 
with the prosperity of the new territory. Governor Harrison thus 
describes the situation in a letter from Vineennes to Mr. Madison: 


"The court established at this place, under the authority of the State 
of Virginia, in the year 1780, assumed to themselves the right of 
granting lands to every applicant. Having exercised this power for 
some time, without opposition, they began to conclude that their 
right over the land was supreme, and they could, with as much pro- 
priety, grant to themselves as to others. Accordingly an arrangement 
was made by which the whole country, to which the Indian title was 
supposed to be extinguished, was divided between the members of the 
court, and orders to that effect were entered on their journal, each 
member absenting himself from court on the day the order was to 
be made in his favor, so that it might appear to be the act of his 
fellows only. The authors of this ridiculous transaction soon found 
that no advantage could be derived from it, as they could find no 
purchasers, and the idea of holding any part of the land was by the 
greater part of them abandoned. A few years ago, however, the 
claim was discovered, and a pail of it purchased by some of those 
speculators who infest our country, and through these people a number 
of others, in different parts of the United States, have become con- 
cerned, some of whom are actually preparing to make settlements. 
The price at which the land is sold enables anybody to become a 
purchaser, one thousand acres being frequently given for an indiffer- 
ent horse or rifle gun." By the treaty of 1795, the whole of the 
Indian Territory was reserved to the Indians, and, during his admin- 
istration. Governor Harrison was engaged in negotiating with the 
natives for further cessions of their lands. 

Original Indiana Counties 

In 1805, Michigan was made a separate territory, and the same 
year the first Legislature for Indiana Territory was assembled at 
Vincennes. There were then five counties in the territory — Knox, 
Dearborn and Clark within the present bounds of Indiana, and St. 
Clair and Randolph within those of Illinois. At the session of 1808, 
the County of Harrison was formed, and an apportionment of the 
representatives to the Legislature was made, bj' which three mem- 
bers were to be elected from the County of Knox, one from Harrison, 
two from Clark and three from Dearborn — nine in all. The Territory 
of Indiana was divided in 1809, and the western part denominated 
Illinois. The boundary then, as now, was the Lower Wabash, and the 
line running north from Vincennes, where it last leaves the Wabash. 
In 1810, the counties of Gibson, Warwick, Washington, Perry, Swit- 
zerland and Posey were added, and in 1815 the law creating Jackson 


and Orange was passed. Governor Harrison having been appointed, 
in the fall of 1812, to command the Northwestern army, Thomas Posey 
was appointed governor of the territory, and in the following year 
the seat of government was moved from Vineennes to Corydon. 

Indians Crowded by Whites 

It will be observed that when the colonies had achieved their 
independence, and as a nation, through the cession of Virginia, became 
heir to the vast territory northwest of the Ohio, there existed a prior 
claim to that country, and one that was not likely to be easily 
extinguished. Notwithstanding the repeated attempts of the national 
Government to obtain a peaceable possession and its partial success 
in securing favorable treaties with the various tribes, it required the 
campaigns of Harmar, St. Clair and Wayne, before the Greenville 
treaty in 1795 gave to the whites the undisputed possession of what 
is now the State of Ohio. But the boundaries established by this 
treaty gave the Indian nations all the territory within the present 
State of Indiana, except the following tracts : 

1 — One tract six miles square, where the City of Fort Wayne is 
now situated. 

2 — One tract two miles square, on the Wabash River, at the end 
of the portage from the Maumee River, about eight miles westward 
from Fort Wayne. 

3 — One tract six miles square, at the old Wea towns on the Wabash. 

4 — The tract called the "Illinois Grant," made to Gen. George 
Rogers Clark, near the Falls of the Ohio, consisting of 150,000 acres. 

5 — The Town of Vineennes and adjacent lands, to which the Indian 
title had been extinguished, and all similar lands at other places in 
possession of the French and other settlers. 

6 — The strip of land east of the boundary line, running directly 
from the site of Fort Recovery, so as to intersect the Ohio River at 
a point opposite the mouth of the Kentucky. 

When General Harrison became Governor of Indiana Territory, 
he was invested with authority by the general government to make 
such further treaties as would best extinguish the claims on the 
Indians. Accordingly at Vineennes, September 17, 1802, a meeting 
of certain chiefs and head men of the Pottawatomie, Eel River, Kiek- 
apoo, Piankeshaw, Kaskaskia and Wea tribes, appointed the chiefs. 
Little Turtle and Richardville, to settle a treaty for the extinguish- 
ment of Indian claims to certain lands on the borders of the Wabash, 
in the vicinity of Vineennes. On June 7, 1803, at Fort Wayne, eer- 


tain chiefs and head men of the Delaware, Shawnee, Pottawatomie, 
Eel River, Kiekapoo, Piankeshaw and Kaskaskia ti-ibes ceded to the 
United States about 1,600,000 acres of land. Again at Vincennes. 
on the 18th day of August of the following year, the Delawares ceded 
their claims to the tract of land lying between the Wabash and the 
Ohio rivei-s, and south of the road which led from Vincennes to the 
Falls of the Ohio, the Piankeshaws relinquishing their claims to the 
same tract a few days later. By a treaty concluded near Vincennes, 
August 21, 1805, the governor secured from certain chiefs and war- 
riors of the Delaware, Pottawatomie, Miami, Eel River and Wea 
tribes the cession of their lands lying southeast of the line running 
northeasterly from a point about fifty-seven miles due east from 
Vincennes, so as to strike the general boundary line (running from 
a point opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River to Fort Recov- 
ery), at the distance of fifty miles from the commencement on the 
Ohio. On the 30th of December, this year, at Vincennes, the Pianke- 
shaw tribe ceded about 2,600,000 acres of land lying west of the 
Wabash, and at Fort Wayne, September 30, 1809, the chiefs of the 
Delaware, Eel River, Pottawatomie and Miami triWs- ceded about 
2,900,000 acres of land lying principally on the southeaatern side of 
the Wabash, below the mouth of Raccoon Creek. The chiefs of the 
Wea tribe in the following month met Governor Harrison at Vin- 
cennes, and acknowledged the validity of the treaty, which was also 
confirmed by the sachems and war chiefs of the Kickapoos December 
9, 1809, besides ceding a further tract of 113,000 acres of land. 

Prophet's Town Founded 

Thus far the Indians had maintained amicable relations with the 
whites, though it was becoming evident that there was a disturbing 
element among them brewing discontent. In 1805, Tecumseh and his 
brother La-le-was-i-kaw (Loud Voice) resided at one of the Dela- 
ware villages on the west fork of the White River, within the present 
limits of the County of Delaware. Some time during that year, Loud 
Voice took upon himself the character of prophet and reformer, and 
earnestly inveighed against the iise of whiskey, the practice of Indian 
women marrying white men, and the selling of lands, pointing out 
the deterioration of the natives by their contact with the whites and 
the tendency of the policy adopted. His crusade against these evils 
attracted quite a band of Shawnees about him, who about the end 
of 1805 moved to Greenville, Ohio. The increase of their numbers 
and the knowledge of their sentiments with reference to the whites 


aroused considerable alann among the settlers until the spring of 
1808, when the band moved to the Wabash near the mouth of Tippe- 
canoe Creek, where they establishd the famous Prophet 's Town. 

Harrison, Tecumseh and the Prophet 

These proceedings had not escaped the watchful eye of Governor 
Harrison, who sent repeated remonstrances and warnings to the band. 
The only result was to call forth from the Prophet a deprecatory 
reply and a profession of friendship for the whites. The matter pro- 
ceeded until in 1810 a rupture seemed likely to occur at any moment. 

In August, Tecumseh, accompanied by seventy-five warriors, came 
to Vineennes to have an interview with Governor Harrison. From the 
12th to the 22d there was a series of conferences which developed the 
grievances and determinations of the natives. 

Tecumseh said : ' ' Since the treaty of Greenville you have killed 
some Shawneesj Winnebagoes, Delawares and JMiamis, and you have 
taken our land from us ; and I do not see how we can remain at peace 
with you if you continue to do so. If the land is not restored to us, 
you will see, when we return to our homes, how it will be settled. We 
shall have a great council, at which all the tribes will be present, when 
we shall show to those who sold, that they had no right to the claim 
they set up ; and we shall see what will be done with those chiefs 
that did sell the land to you. I am not alone in this determination. 
It is the determination of all the warriors and red people that listen 
to me. ' ' 

At a subsequent talk Governor Harrison asked Tecumseh specific- 
ally if the Indians would forcibly resist an attempt to survey the 
lands ceded at Foi-t Wayne, and was answered in substance that they 
would resist. Said he: "We do not wish you to take the lands. "' 

Governor Harrison replied that his "claims and pretensions would 
not be recognized by the President of the United States. ' ' 

"Well," said Tecumseh, "as the great chief is to determine the 
matter, I hope the Great Spirit will put enough sense into his head 
to induce him to direct you to give up the land. It is true he is so 
far off that he will not be in.jured by the war. He may sit still in his 
town and drink his wine while you and I will have to fight it out." 

In the meantime the disaffection among the Indians was increased 
by the action of the British authorities in Canada, though no posi- 
tive hostilities occurred until the middle of 1811. During the sum- 
mer of that year depredations were committed by straggling parties 
upon the property of the settlers. Several surveying parties were 


driven away, and others killed. During this period Governor Harri- 
son was striving by peaceful means to break up the confederation of 
tribes, and preparing to erect a fort on the Wabash for the protec- 
tion of the settlers of that region. In the latter part of June, Harrison 
sent an address to Tecumseh and the Prophet, to which the chiefs 
made a long replj' and proposed again to visit the govei-nor in person. 
In pursuance of that project, Tecumseh came to Vincennes late, in 


July, with about 300 attendants; but, being met by a formidable 
array of troops, repeated his assurances of amicable intentions, and 
immediately left to draw the southern tribes into the confederation. 

"Fought It Out" at Prophet's Town 

During these negotiations, the governor suspected the designs of 
the Indians, and, though at one time partially convinced that the 


chiefs would allow matters to be adjusted without an appeal to arms, 
had finally become impressed with the necessity of suppressing the 
confederation centering at Prophet 's Town. To this end, acting under 
the authority of the general government, a force of some 900 men 
set out in September from Vincennes under command of Harrison. 
The little army moved up the Wabash and erected Fort Harrison 
on the east bank of the river, above where the City of Terre Haute 
now stands. Leaving a small garrison there, the remainder of the 
army moved in the direction of Prophet's Town, encamping on the 
2d of November two miles below the mouth of the Big Vermillion 
River, where a small block house was erected on the west bank of the 
Wabash. Leaving a sergeant with eight men to garrison it, with 
orders to protect the boats employed in transporting supplies to the 
army, the remainder of the force proceeded to the Indian village, 
arriving at that place on the 6th of November. 

As the Indians showed no disposition to give battle, the little 
army selected a camping site on the banks of Burnett Creek, seven 
miles northeast of the present City of Lafayette. The troops encamped 
in order of battle, with clothes and accoutrements on, firearms loaded 
and bayonets fixed. 

The Indians began the attack at a quarter past four in the morn- 
ing, immediately after the governor had risen to prepare for the busi- 
ness of the day. But a single gun was fired by the sentinels, or by 
the guard, in the direction of the attack, as the outpost retreated to 
the camp. Though the troops were asleep on their arms, they were 
soon at their stations, albeit the war-whoop and the attack so soon 
followed the first alarm that the lines were broken in several places, 
and one of the companies was driven from its position in the line 
toward the center of the camp. 

The want of concert among the Indians and their irregular mode 
of warfare, did not allow them to take full advantage of their suc- 
cess, or of the blunders of their opponents, so that as the resistance 
was very obstinate along the line, in the end they were obliged to 
retreat in great haste. The loss of General Harrison 's force amounted 
to 37 killed and 151 wounded, of which latter number 25 afterward 
died of their injuries. The Indians engaged in the battle of Tippe- 
canoe were probably between 600 and 700, and their loss was about 
equal to that of the whites. 

After burning the Indian village, which had been abandoned by 
the savages, the army returned to Vincennes on the 17th of Novem- 
ber. The result of the expedition was favorable to the peace of the 
frontiers. Immediately after their defeat, the surviving Indians, 


having lost faith in their leader, returned to their respective tribes, 
the Prophet taking up his residence among the small band of Wyan- 

Indiana and Harrison in the War of 1812 

The rupture of the peaceful relations between the United States 
and Great Britain by the American declaration of war in June, 1812, 
was foreshadowed for some time previous, and the Canadian authori- 
ties, taking advantage of the Indian disturbances of the preceding 
year, had found no difficulty in securing the support of the North- 
western tribes. Accordingly, the culmination of the international 
differences was preceded by various acts of hostility on the part of 
the defeated Indians. 

The American government had not been unmindful of the situa- 
tion, and, during the spring and summer of 1812, had caused the 
erection of block houses and picketed forts throughout the Indiana 
settlements which were exposed to Indian depredations. Notwith- 
standing these precautions, on the 11th of April preceding the declara- 
tion of war, an attack was made on a settlement on the west side 
of the Wabash about thirty-five miles above Vincennes. The wife of 
Mr. Hutson, his four childi'en and his hired man, were murdered 
in his absence, and on the 22d Mr. Harryman, with his wife and five 
children, was killed on the same side of the Wabash, at the mouth 
of Embarrass Creek, about five miles from Vincennes. 

About the middle of May following, a great council of the Indians 
was held at one of their villages on the Mississinewa River, at which 
nearly all the Northwestern tribes wei-e represented. The general 
expression at this council was in favor of maintaining peaceful rela- 
tions with the United States, though at the same time refusing to 
surrender those who were guilty of the murders mentioned. Tecumseh, 
dissatisfied with the action of the council, left with his following, and, 
with the assistance of the British, soon successfully attacked the 
northern forts at Jlackinaw and Chicago. 

On the 16th of August, General Hull surrendered Detroit, which 
so emboldened the Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos, that 
they sent out war parties to prey upon the frontier settlements. Two 
men were killed while making hay near Fort Harrison on the 3d of 
September. On the 4th, an attack was made upon the fort, during 
which one of the block houses was set on fire, the garrison, however, 
eventually repelling the attack. On the 3d occurred the Pigeon 
Roost massacre. Two men hunting bee trees were surprised and 


killed by a party of ten or twelve Shawnees, who that night attacked 
the Pigeon Roost settlement, situated within the present limits of 
Scott County, and in the space of an hour killed one man, five women 
and sixteen children. 

In August, 1812, Governor Harrison was appointed major gen- 
eral of the forces being raised in Kentucky, and in the middle of Sep- 
tember arrived with a force of 2,700 men at Fort WajTie, where a 
party of Indians had been besieging the place since the beginning of 
the war. They retreated on the approach of the relieving force, Gen- 
eral Harrison sending out several detachments in pursuit. The sol- 
diers failed to overtake the savages, but destroyed the important 
village of 0-nox-see on the Elkhart River, Little Turtle's town on 
the Eel River, and a Miami village near the forks of the Wabash. 

In September, General Harrison was invested with the command 
of the Northwestern army. Assigning the duty of operating against 
the Indians on the Wabash and Illinois rivers to a force of 2,000 
troops stationed at Vincennes, he began preparations for his campaign 
against Detroit. 

The force at Vincennes, under command of General Hopkins, set 
out early in November for the pui-pose of penetrating the Indian 
country as far as Prophet's Town, which had been rebuilt. That vil- 
lage and a large one in the vicinity belonging to the Kickapoos were 
destroyed, and a detachment sent out to destroj' one seven miles out, 
on Wild Cat Creek. Here the detachment met with a repulse. The 
whole force then prepared to attack the savages, but were delayed 
by stress of weather for a day or two, and when they reached their 
objective, though naturally easy of defense, the place was found to 
have been deserted by the Indians. Lack of clothing and the severity 
of the weather made further pursuit of the savages impracticable, and 
the expedition returned to Vincennes. 

In pursuance of his plans against Detroit, General Harrison had 
established a depot of supplies at the rapids of the Maumee, with 
the intention of moving thence a choice detachment of his armj', and, 
while making a demonstration against Detroit, to cross the straits on 
the ice and actually invest Maiden, the British stronghold in Canada. 
Before attempting this, however, it became necessary to break up 
the Miami villages on the Mississinewa River, and thus cripple anj' 
attack that might be attempted from that quarter. Although the 
Miamis professed to be neutral, their participation in the attacks on 
Forts Wayne and Harrison made it probable that a favorable oppor- 
tunity would render them susceptible to the influence of the hostile 
tribes. A detachment of 600 troops proceeded • from Dayton, Ohio, 


in the middle of December, and a few days later surprised an Indian 
town occupied by a number of the Delawares and Miamis, and, 
advancing down the river, destroyed three other villages, when the 
expedition returned and encamped on the site of the first village. On 
the following morning, about half an hour before daylight, while the 
officers were holding a council of war, the savages made a determined 
attack upon the camp. In this engagement, which lasted about an 
hour, the troops suffered a loss of eight killed and forty-two wounded. 
The Indians, who numbered about 300 and were in command of 
Little Thunder, a nephew of Little Turtle, suffered a much heavier 
loss and were forced to make a hasty retreat, leaving the whites in 
possession of the ground and of a large number of prisoners captured 
in the surprise of the first village. 

The want of provisions and forage, the severity of the cold, and 
the rumor that Tecumseh was at the principal village further down 
the Mississinewa River, deterred the troops from making any further 
advance, and a retreat toward Greenville was begun and accomplished 
without serious annoyance from the savages. In the following sum- 
mer Perry's victory on the lake paved the way for Harrison's victory 
over the Indians and British in the battle of the Thames River, on 
the 6th of October, which ended the hostilities in the Northwest. 

Pelvce Movements 

On the 22d of July, 1814, Harrison concluded a treaty at Green- 
ville, Ohio, by which the Indians buried the tomahawk, whether the 
war ceased with the British or not, but this proviso was put out of 
the question on the 24th of December, by the treaty of Ghent. With 
the return of peace, further treaties were negotiated with the various 
Indian tribes, and the survey of the lands thus made secure, was 
rapidly pushed forward. 

The Public Land Survey 

The public lands of the general government were al! surveyed 
upon the same general system, which has come down, in all its essen- 
tials, to the present. To this end, meridian lines running due north 
from the mouth of some river are first established. These are inter- 
sected at right angles by base lines, running east and west. The "first 
principal meridian" is a line running due north from the mouth of 
the Miami River, and is, in fact, the east line of the State of Indiana. 
The "second principal meridian" is a line running due north from 


the mouth of Little Blue River, eighty-nine miles west of the former. 
The only base line running through Indiana crosses it from east to 
west in latitude 38° 30', leaving the Ohio twenty-five miles above 
Louisville and striking the Wabash four miles above the mouth of 
the White River. 

From this base line the Congressional townships of six miles square 
are numbered north and south, and from the second principal meridian 
all the ranges of townships are numbei-ed east and west, except the 
counties of Switzerland and Dearborn, and part of Franklin, Union, 
Waj'ne, and Randolph. That portion of the state was surveyed in 
townships from a base line of fifteen miles north of the former, and 
in ranges west of the first principal meridian. The Clark grant, in 
Clark County, and the old French lands in Knox County, are also 
exceptions to the regularity of the general survey of the state. 

The townships are divided into thirty-six equal parts, or thirty- 
six square miles, containing 640 acres each, called sections. These 
sections are subdivided into halves of 320 acres, and quarters of 160 
acres each, which last are again subdivided into halves of eighty acres , 
and quarters of forty acres each. Fractions are parts of sections 
intersected by streams, or confirmed claims or reservations, and are of 
various sizes. The sections of a township are designated by numbers, 
beginning with the northeast corner and following in regular oi-der 
to the west side, the second tier of sections beginning on the west side 
of the township and proceeding east. That portion of the state in 
the southeast corner, which was included in the Ohio survey, was 
disposed of at the Cincinnati land office. The remainder of the public 
lands in the state were prineipallj' sold at offices established at 
Jetfersonville, Vincennes, Crawfordsville, Indianapolis, Fort Wayne 
and Winamac. 

Creation of the State and Its Counties 

The restoration of peace with Great Britain and pacification of 
the Indians in 1815, brought a great increase of population to the 
territory, so that in December of that year the General Assembly 
adopted a memorial to Congress asking the admission of Indiana into 
the Union as a state. Under an enabling act of Congress, a conven- 
tion to form a constitution was elected, and remained in session from 
the 10th to the 29th of June, 1816, and on the 11th of December fol- 
lowing, the state was formally admitted to the Union by a .joint resolu- 
tion of Congress. 

At that time, Corydon, the seat of government, had a good stone 


court house built by the speaker of the Territorial Legislature, who, 
it is said, was often called from the hammer and the trowel to the 
chair. The other buildings there, not exceeding 100 in number, were 
chiefly log cabins. The sites of New Albany and Madison presented 
here and there a few comfortable houses, and perhaps 100 cabins. 
Jeffersonville and Lawrenceburg had been longer settled, but with the 
exception of the handsome residence of Governor Posey at the former 
place, there was no good building in either, and Charleston, Salem, 
Vevay, Rising Sun and Brookville were then discussed as having 
magnificent prospects for the future. 

Status op the Country in 1816 

There were very few large farms in the state in 1816. The range 
of wild, the mast and roots were so abundant in the woods, that 
hogs, cattle and horses required but little other food, and that was, 
in general, corn. It is probable that a single corn field of from five 
to twenty acres constituted at least seven-eighths of the farms then 
cultivated in the state. 

Until the close of the territorial government, more than three- 
fourths of the state was in possession of the Indians, or had been so 
recently purchased as not to have been surveyed and exposed to 
sale. The maps of the state, even as late as 1818, represented the 
Indian boundary as starting from a point in the northern part of 
Jackson County and running northeast to the Ohio line near Fort 
Recovery, and thence northwest to the Wabash, a few miles above 
Terre Haute. Vincennes was then by far the most considerable town 
in the new state. The Indian trade was then large; there was gen- 
erally one or more companies of United States troops at Fort Knox, 
Vincennes ; the business at the land oifice and the bank, and the inclina- 
tion of the French to settle in a village rather than on a farm, brought 
together a population of nearly 2,000. 

Departure of the Reds 

In 1828 the general government purchased the "ten-mile strip" 
along the northern end of the state, and in 1832 extinguished the 
remaining claims of the Indians, save the numerous reservations in 
the northern part. In 1835 the bulk of the natives were moved west 
of the Mississippi, and by 1840 all save a few had emigrated from the 
special Indiana reservations. As the state was thus left free for set- 
tlement, the surveyor pioneered the advancing civilization, and coun- 


ties wei-e rapidly organized in response to the growing demand of 
the increasing population. The immigration, at fii-st, came princi- 
pally from the South, and later from the East, the organization of 
the counties giving a pretty clear indication of the nature of this 

Progressive Creation of Counties 

At the organization of the state government, fifteen counties had 
been formed, and others were organized, as follows: 1817, Daviess, 
Pike, Jennings, Sullivan ; 1818, Crawford, Dubois, Lawrence, Monroe, 
Randolph, Ripley, Spencer, Vanderburg, Vigo ; 1819, Fayette, Floj-d, 
Owen ; 1820, Scott, Martin ; 1821, Bartholomew, Greene, Henry, Parke, 
Union ; 1822, Decatur, Marion, Morgan, Putnam, Rush, Shelby ; 1823, 
Hamilton, Johnson, Madison, Montgomery; 1824, Allen, Hendricks, 
Vermilion ; 1825, Clay ; 1826, Delaware, Fountain, Tippecanoe ; 1828, 
Carroll, Hancock, Warren ; 1829, Cass ; 1830, Boone, Clinton, Elkhart, 
St. Joseph ; 1831, Grant ; 1832, LaGrange, LaPorte ; 1834, Huntington, 
White ; 1835, Miami, Wabash ; 1836, Adams, Brown, DeKalb, Fulton, 
Kosciusko. Marshall, Noble, Porter; 1837, Blackford, Lake,- Steuben, 
Wells, Jay; 1838, Jasper; 1840, Benton; 1842, Whitley; 1844, How- 
ard, Ohio, Tipton ; 1850, Newton. 



Indiana Tribes Usually op the Algonquin Family — Miami Con- 
federation IN Indiana — The Pottawatomies — Great Western 
Nation op the Miamis — Jesuit Missionaries Among the 
Indiana Miamis — Pur Traders Among the Miamis — Miamis 
AND Pottawatomies (1765) — Treaty Making and Campaign- 
ing — Greenville Treaty op Northwestern Tribes — Wayne 
Defines the Purposes op Indian Reservations — Replies 
OP THE Chiefs — The Pinal Adoption op the Treaty — In- 
dians Divided by War op 1812 — Harrison, Great Indian Treaty 
Maker — The Pottawatomies op Northern Indiana — First 
Migration op the Pottawatomies — Grand Council op August, 
1838 — Menominee's Eloquent Depi — Governor Wallace De- 
scribes THE Pottawatomie Migration (1838) — Last op the Pot- 
tawatomies Leave in 1840— Indian Villages in Kosciusko 
County—The Miami Chiefs, Platbelly and Wawwaesse — Pot- 
tawatomie Chiefs and Their Villages — Accounting for 
"Bone" Prairie — Monoquet's End and Successor — Benack and 
His Hundredth Tongue — Warner Outwitted by Checose — The 
Eel River Indians in 1885 — Sample op Indian Pun — Graves 
Describes Noted Chiefs — Estimated Indian Population. 

The story tracing the various steps by which the Indians of North- 
ern Indiana and Kosciusko County were dispossessed of their lands 
is one of general treatment, and embraces one wholesale departure 
and a gradual fading away to their western reservations. Although 
the names of the reservations allotted to the local Pottawatomies and 
Miamis are still retained in all the maps in current use, thus preserv- 
ing with special distinctness a record of the ante-white period, repeated 
inquiry fails to discover a single direct descendant of any of the noted 
chiefs or membei"S of the tribes, who resided in the region of what 
is now Kosciusko County when its first settlers came over the Elk- 
hart line into the wilds of Turkey Creek and the Tippecanoe River. 

Indiana Tribes Usually op the Algonquin Family 

At the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Algonquin family 
of Indians occupied a vast region in North America, from the Atlantic 


Ocean to the Mississippi River between 37° and 53' north latitude. 
Their territory was bounded on the northeast by the Esquimaux, on 
the northwest by the Athabascan tribes, on the west by the Dacotahs 
and on the south by the Cherokees and Natchez Indians. This family 
was composed of numerous tribes, resembling each other in manners, 
customs and dialects. Within the territory named dwelt other tribes, 
differing essentially from the Algonquins. The strongest of these 
were the Iroquois, their hereditary enemies. Nearly all the tribes 
found in Indiana were of the Algonquin family. 

Miami Confeder.vcy in Indiana 

When the first white men came to Indiana they found there sev- 
eral tribes, sometimes living at peace with each other, but more often 
at war. Indiana was then the seat of government of the great Miami 
Confederacy, which had been formed against the Iroquois, or Five 
Nations. When the Iroquois had reached the Atlantic, found that 
they could go no farther east, and felt the western tribes still push- 
ing them, they formed a confederacy of five of the largest tribes as a 
means of self-protection and invasion. Individual ti'ibes had sought 
to gain a foothold on the eastern side of the mountains, but had been 
invariably repulsed by the Iroquois Confederacy, and they, too, in 
turn, formed a union. 

Among the principal tribes which formed the Miami Confederacy 
in what is now Indiana were the Twightwees, Weas, Piankeshaws and 
Shockeyes. They had fought many and bloody battles with the Iro- 
quois, had been worsted in the contest, and had been greatly reduced 
in numbers by the time the white man first invaded their territory. 
They dwelt in small villages along the various water coui-ses, from the 
lakes to the Ohio River. The Piankeshaws occupied the territory east 
of the Wabash and north of the Ohio, as far east as Lawrence County 
and as far north as Vigo. The Wyandots had a little section compris- 
ing what is now Harrison, Crawford, Spencer, Perry, Dubois and 
Orange counties; the Shawnees occupied the land east of the Wyan- 
dots into the present State of Ohio, and as far north as Rush and 
Fayette counties; the Weas had their possessions along the Wabash, 
with their principal villages near the present site of Lafayette; the 
Twightwees were principally located along the St. Joseph and St. 
Mary's rivers; the Pottawatomics held the whole northern portion 
of the state, and the Delawares the central-eastern part. One branch 
of the Shawnees had villages in the country to the south and east 
of that occupied by the Weas. 


The Delawares, the Wyandots, the Shawnees and the Pottawat- 
omies were the strongest of these tribes. 

The Pottawatomies 

The Pottawatomies were at one time a very powerful and warlike 
tribe. When any of the tribes made war on the Americans, they were 
sure to be found among the fiercest of the warriors. They united 
with the French as against the British ; with other tribes to fight the 
British, and with the British as against the Americans. They were 
at Harmar's defeat, at the overthrow of St. Clair, and were among 
the fiercest of those who fought Mad Aiithony Wayne. Some of them 
took part in the defeat of Colonel Crawford, and danced around his 
burning body. They joined Pontiac in his conspiracy, and Black 
Hawk when he precipitated his war east of the Mississippi. They 
were always among the first to make peace with the whites, and also 
among the first to take the tomahawk. Some of them fought at Tip- 
pecanoe and others at the battle of the Thames. They claimed all 
Northern Indiana and Southern Michigan. A few of the tribe still 
linger in Michigan. 

Great Western Nation op the Miamis 

The Miamis were the most powerful nation or confederation, 
in the West. They had been gradually migrating toward the east, 
when they were forced into battle with the Iroquois, who were driven 
westward by the whites. The Miamis settled in what is now the State 
of Ohio, and as they thus occupied the natural highway to the Mis- 
sissippi valley from the East, the Iroquois made many determined 
efforts to drive them away. The wars between the two nations were 
frequent and bloody, and as the Iroquois were the first to receive 
firearms from the whites they usually were the victors. 

It is said that the name Pottawatomie is a compound of Put-a-wa, 
signifying a blowing out, or expansion of the cheeks, as in blowing 
a fire, and "me," a nation; which, being interpreted, means a nation 
of "fire-blowers." The application seems to have originated in the 
facility with which they produced flame, and set burning the ancient 
council fires of their forefathers. If that is the significance of the 
name, it seems to have been appropriate to the character of the tribe, 
or nation, which, throughout the history of the pioneer development 


of the Northwest, was a firebrand in the midst of all efforts to main- 
tain peace between the white and red races of that section of North 

The Miamis had a varied migratory experience. They were among 
the finest of all the race of Indians, and proudly called themselves 
Men. In fact, that is the significance of their name. They were a 
nation of great warriors and statesmen ; men above all other tribes. 
The Miamis were met everywhere in the West ; around Superior, the 
Upper Mississippi, and in Ohio and Indiana. They had long and 
sanguinary contests with the Sioux, and Sacs and Foxes, until they 
were greatly reduced in numbers and fighting strength. 

In 1669 they were mostly found around Green Bay, Wisconsin. 
Thence most of them soon moved to the Chicago country ; then to St. 
Joseph of the Lake and to the head of the Maumee, where their prin- 
cipal villages were located toward the last years of the seventeenth 
century. In 1680 the Iroquois declared war against the Illinois, who 
had been the friends and allies of the Miamis, and the wily eastern 
nation for a while disarmed the suspicions of their old-time enemies. 
Two years later war was again declared. By this time La Salle was 
the leading white spirit among the Indians of the first Northwest, and 
by his influence the Miamis, Shawnees, Weas, Illinois and Piankeshaws 
were gathered around his fort on the Illinois River. The Iroquois 
vainly endeavored to overthrow this formidable confederation, first 
led by a white man. By this effort of La Salle, all the Indians had 
been drawn from Indiana, and the ]\Iiamis did not return until 1712. 

Around the Maumee and the Wabash they thereafter lived, until 
finally they yielded their lands to the whites. A few of their descend- 
ants still remain in Indiana. The Miamis were not as lazy as most of 
the tribes, and raised corn, small fruits and vegetables. They 
also had one institution, custom, official, or whatever else one may 
designate it, which even more distinguished them from the other 
Indian tribes. Some civilized nations have had their public execu- 
tioners, whose duty it was to execute all criminals, and this office 
was a sort of hereditary one. So it was with the Miamis. They fre- 
quently condemned their captives to be eaten. This eating was done 
bj' one family, trained for that purpose, and the office remained in 
the same family generation after generation. The eating was always 
done in public, and was accompanied by certain religious rites. The 
last victim known to have been killed and eaten was a young Ken- 
tuckian, who was thus disposed of at the Miami village near the 
present site of Fort Wayne. 


Jesuit Missionaries Among the Indiana Miamis 

Almost immediately following the discovery and exploration of 
the Mississippi bj^ La Salle in 1682, and a few years later by Mar- 
quette, the government of France began to encourage the policy of 
connecting its possessions in North America by a chain of fortifica- 
tions, trading posts and missionary stations, extending from New 
Orleans on the southwest to Quebec on the northeast. This under- 
taking was inaugurated by La Motte Cadillac, who established Fort 
Pontchartrain, on the Detroit River in 1701. 

At this period, the zealous Jesuit missionaries; the adventurous 
French fur traders, with their coarse blue and red clothes, fine scarlet, 
guns, powder, balls, knives, ribbons, beads, vermillion, tobacco, and 
rum ; and the careless rangers, or coureurs des bois, whose chief voca- 
tion was conducting the canoes of the traders along the lakes and 
rivers, made their appearance among the Indians of Indiana. The 
pious Jesuits held up the cross of Christ and unfolded the mysteries 
of the Catholic religion in broken Indian dialect to the astonished 
savages, while the speculating traders offered them fire water and 
other articles of merchandise in exchange for their peltries, and the 
rangers, loosing every tie of blood and kindred, identified themselves 
with the savages and sunk into utter barbarism. 

The Jesuit missionaries were always cordially received by the 
Miami tribes. The Indians would listen patiently to their theory of 
the Savior and salvation, manifest a willing belief in all they heard, 
and then, as if to entertain their visitors, would tell them the story 
of their own simple faith in the Manatous, and stalk off with a groan 
of dissatisfaction because the missionaries would not accept their 
theory with equal courtesy. Missionary stations were established at 
an early da.y in all the principal villages, and the woi'k of instruct- 
ing and converting the savages was begun in earnest. 

The order of religious exercises established at the missions founded 
among the Miamis was nearly the same as that among other Indians. 
Early in the morning, the missionaries would assemble the Indians 
at the church, or the hut used for that purpose, and, after prayers, 
the savages were taught concerning the Catholic religion. These 
exercises were always followed by singing, at the conclusion of which 
the congregation was dismissed, the Christians only remaining to 
take part at Mass. This service was usually followed by prayers. 
During the forenoon the priests were generally engaged in visiting 
the sick, and consoling those who were laboring under any affliction. 
After noon another sei-vice was held in the church, at which all the 


Indians were permitted to appear in their finery, and wliere each, 
without regard to rank or age, answered the questions put by the 
missionary. This exercise was concluded by singing hymns, the words 
of which had been set to airs familiar to the savage ear. In the even- 
ing all assembled again at the church for instruction, to hear prayers, 
and to sing their favorite hymns. The Miamis were always highly 
pleased with the latter exercise. 

Fur Traders Among the Miamis 

Aside from the character of the religious services which consti- 
tuted a chief attraction in the Miami villages of Indiana while the 
early French missionaries were among them, the traveler's attention 
would first be engaged with the peculiarities of the fur trade, which, 
during the first quarter of the eighteenth century, was monopolized by 
the French. This trade was conducted by the rangers who were 
engaged to navigate the canoes, and transport the merchandise from 
Detroit to the principal Miami villages. The traders exchanged their 
wares for valuable furs, which were carried to the nearest trading 
post affording the best market. This traffic was not confined to those 
whose means enabled them to engage vessels, canoes and carriers ; for 
there were hundreds scattered through the various Indian villages of 
Indiana, at almost any time during the first half of the eighteenth 
century, who carried their packs of merchandise and furs by means 
of leather straps suspended from their shoulders, or drawn against 
their foreheads. 

Rum and brandy were freely introduced by these traders, and 
always found a ready sale among the Miamis. A Frenchman, writ- 
ing of the evils which resulted from the introduction of spirituous 
liquors among these savages, remarked: "The distribution of it is 
made in the usual way; this is to say, a certain number of persons 
have delivered to each of them a quantity sufficient to get drunk with, 
so that the whole have been drunk over eight days. They begin to 
drink in the village as soon as the sun is down, and every night the 
fields echo with the most hideous howling. ' ' 

In those early days the Miami villages of the Maumee, those of the 
Weas about Ouiatenon on the Wabash, and those of the Piankeshaws 
around Vincennes, were the centers of the fur trade in Indiana. 
Traders and missionaries had frequently visited them. A permanent 
mission, or church, was established near the Piankeshaw village, near 
Vincennes, in 1749, by Father Meurin, and in the following year a 
small fort was erected there by order of the French government. It 


was in that year that a small fort was erected near the mouth 
of the Wabash River. These posts soon drew a large number of 
French traders around them, and in 1756 they had become quite 
important settlements, with a mixed population of French and Indian. 
The siege of Detroit was conducted by Pontiac himself; but this 
post, as also Fort Pitt, withstood the storm of Indian vengeance until 
the forces of Colonel Bradstreet on the one hand, and Colonel Bouquet 
on the other hand, brought relief to the tired garrisons. The British 
army penetrated the Indian country, and forced the savages to a 
treaty of peace, and on the fifth of December, 1764, a cessation of 
hostilities was proclaimed. . QOAQQQ 


In 1765, just after the territory northwest of the Ohio River was 
ceded to the British by France, Col. George Croghan, an Indian agent 
of the Province of Pennsylvania, visited the various tribes and made 
the following statement as to their strength and habitat : 

Twightwees (Miamis), 250 fighting men; reside on the Miami 
(Maumee) River, near -Fort Miamis; hunting grounds where they 

Putawatimes, 150 fighting men ; Ottawas, 150 fighting men ; reside 
near St. Joseph's; hunting grounds thereabouts. 

Treaty Making and Campaigning 

When the Ordinance of 1787 was figui'atively extended over the 
Northwest Territory the Miamis claimed Northern Indiana by right 
of discovery and occupancy. They permitted the Pottawatomies, a 
tribe of the nation which had taken the name of the predominating 
band, to occupy the lands and hunting grounds north of the Wabash 
River and south of Lake Michigan, and at the commencement of the 
period of white sovereignty the latter were in firm possession. Then 
began the era of treaty making, emphasized and strongly punctuated 
by vigorous military campaigns against the redskins. 

Finally in 1792, the Six Nations of the East appeared upon the 
scene as peace makers in the councils of the Northwestern tribes. In 
striking contrast to their attitude of a century previous, when the 
fierce Iroquois headed all the invasions against the Illinois and other 
tribes of the Northwest, the representatives of the Six Nations now 
appeared at the Rapids of the Maumee, as delegates of the American 
secretary of war, to bring over to the ways of peace, the Miamis, 


Pottawatomies, Delawares, Shawnees, Cliippewas, Ottawas and Wyan- 
dots. But this grand council of the Northwestern tribes dissolved 
in October, 1792, united in their determination to make no treaty by 
which the Americans could claim the territory' conquered from the 

Greenville Treaty op Northwestern Tribes 

After three years of consideration and reconsideration, however, 
doubtless accompanied by persistent pressure from the Great Father 
at Washington, from Gen. Anthony Wayne and from other white 
chiefs whom the Indians learned to respect, the viewpoint of the 
Northwestern tribes underwent a radical change. The grand council 
of July and August, 1795, held at Greenville, Ohio, represented par- 
ticularly by the Ottawas, Chippewas and Pottawatomies, adopted a 
treaty which laid the basis for a permanent peace, and insured the 
Northwest to the American whites. 

In that historic conference, the outcome of which was so vital to 
the security of the great Noi'thwest, the center of the stage was held 
by the chiefs of the Miami nation (including the Pottawattomies) and 
Gen. Anthony Wayne, the commander-in-chief of the American array. 
Sharing the honors with the general was Little Turtle, the able and 
eloquent head of the Miamis. The speeches of these principles are so 
illustrative of the Indian temperament, and, with those of General 
Wayne, contain so much information germane to the subject and the 
period, that several of them are reproduced. 

On July 22, 1795, Little Turtle spoke as follows: "General 
Wayne — I hope you will pay attention to what l' now say to you. I 
wish to inform you that where your younger brothei-s, the Miamis, 
live, and also the Pottawatomies of St. Joseph's, together with the 
Wabash Indians, you have pointed out to us the boundary between 
us and the United States, but now I take the liberty to inform you 
that that line cuts off from the Indians a large portion of country 
which has been enjoyed by my forefathers, time immemorial, without 
molestation or dispute. The prints of my ancestors' house are every- 
where to be seen in this portion. I was a little astonished at hearing 
you and m.y brothers, who are now present, telling each other what 
business you had transacted together heretofore at Muskingum, con- 
cerning this country. It is well known by all my brothers present 
that my father kindled the first fire at Detroit; thence he extended 
his lines to the headwaters of the Scioto; thence to its mouth, and 


thence to Chicago, on Lake Michigan. At this place I first saw my 
elder brothers, the Shawnees. 

"I have now informed you of the boundaries of the Miami Nation, 
where the Great Spirit placed my forefather a long time ago, and 
charged him not to sell or pai-t with his lands, but preserve them 
for his posterity. This charge has been handed down to me. I was 

Major General Anthony Wayne 
The Indian Fighter and Pacificator (1792-1795) 

much surprised to find that my other brothers differed so much from 
me on this subject, for their conduct would lead me to suppose that 
the Great Spirit and their forefathers had not given them the same 
charge that was given to me, but on the contrary had directed 
them to sell their lands to any white man who wore a hat, as soon 
as he should ask it of them. Now, elder brother, your younger 
brothers, the Miamis, have pointed out to you their country, and 


also to other brothers present. When I hear your remarks and pro- 
posals on this subject, I will be ready to give you an answer. I 
came with an expectation of hearing you say good things; but I have 
not yet heard what I expected." 

General "Wayne's reply to this and other speeches was as follows: 
"Younger Brothers: — I will inform you who gave us these lands in 
the first instance. It was your fathers, the British, who did not dis- 
cover that care for your interest which you ought to have experi- 
enced. This is the treaty of peace made between the United States 
of America and Great Britain twelve years ago, at the end of a long 
and bloody war, when the French and Americans proved too powerful 
for the British. On these terms they obtained peace. (Here part of 
the treaty of 1783 was read.) Here you perceive that all the country 
south of the Great Lakes has been given up to the Americans; but 
the United States never intended to take that advantage of you which 
the British placed in their hands; they wish you to enjoy your just 
rights without interruption, and to promote your happiness. The 
British stipulated to surrender to us all the posts on their side 
of the boundary agreed upon. I told you some days ago that 
the treaties should ever be sacredly fulfilled by those who made 
them, but the British, on their part, did not find it convenient to 
relinquish those posts as soon as they should have done. However, 
they now find it so, and a precise period is therefore fixed for their 
delivery. I have now in my hand a copy of the treaty made eight 
months ago, between them and us, of which I will read you a little. 
(Here he read the first and second articles of Mr. Jay's treaty.) By 
this solemn agreement they agreed to retire from Michilimachinac, 
Fort St. Clair, Detroit, Niagara and all other places on this side 
of the lakes, in ten moons from this period, and leave the same to 
the full and quiet possession of the United States. 

"Brothers — all nations present — listen to me! Having now ex- 
plained these matters to you and informed you of all things I judgea 
necessary for your information, we have nothing to do but to bury 
the hatchet and draw a veil over past misfortunes. 

"As you have buried our dead with the concern of brothers, so 
now I collect the bones of your slain warriors, put them into a deep 
pit which I have dug, and cover them carefully over with this belt, 
there to remain undisturbed. I also dry the tears from your eyes 
and wipe the blood from your bodies with this soft, white linen. No 
bloody traces will ever lead to the grave of your departed heroes; 
with this I wipe all such entirely away. I deliver it to your uncle, 
the Wyandot, who will send it round among you. (A large belt with 


a white string attached.) I now take the hatchet out of your hands 
and with a strong arm throw it into the center of the ocean, where 
no mortal can ever find it; and now I deliver to you the wide and 
straight path to the fifteen fires, to be used by you and your posterity 

"So long as you continue to follow this road, so long j'ou will 
continue to be a happy people. You see it is straight and wide, and 
they will be blind indeed who deviate from it. I place it also in 
your uncle's hands that he may preserve it for you. (A large road 
belt.) I will, the day after tomorrow, show you the cessions you 
have made to the United States, and point out to you the lines which 
may, for the future, divide their lands from yours ; and, as you will 
have tomorrow to rest, I will order you a double allowance of drink, 
because you have now buried the hatchet and performed every neces- 
sary ceremony to render propitious our renovated friendship." 

"Wayne I>efines the Purposes of Indian Reservations 

In council with the Indians, on July 27, General Wayne read 
the several articles of the proposed treaty, and, in explanation of 
the third article spoke as follows: "Younger Brother: — I wish you 
to clearly understand the objects of these reservations. They are 
not intended to annoy or impose the smallest degree of restraint upon 
you in the quiet enjoyment and full possession of your lands, but 
to connect the settlements of the people of the United States by ren- 
dering a passage from the one to the other more practicable and con- 
venient, and to supply the necessary wants of those who shall reside 
at them. They are intended at the same time to prove convenient 
and advantageous to the different tribes of Indians residing and 
hunting in their vicinity, as trading posts will be established at them, 
to the end that you may be furnished with goods in exchange for your 
skins and furs at a reasonable rate. 

"You will consider that the principal part of the now proposed 
reservations were made and ceded by the Indians at an early period 
to the French. The French, by the treaty of peace of 1763, ceded 
them to the British, who, by the treaty of 1783, ceded all the posts 
and possessions they then held, or to which they had any claims, 
south of the Great Lakes, to the United States of America. The 
treaty of Muskingum embraced almost all these reservations, and has 
been recognized by the representatives of all the nations now present, 
during the course of last winter, as the basis upon which this treaty 
should be founded." 


Replies of the Chiefs 

On the 28th of July the Ottawas, Chippewas aud Pottawatoniies 
announced that they had agreed to accept the articles of the treaty 
proposed by General Wayne. The Sun, a Pottawatomie chief, said to 
the American commander-in-chief: "I shall now dispose of this belt 
(a war belt). I live too far from the lakes and my arm is not long 
enough to throw it into the center of any of them; neither have I 
strength sufficient to tear up a big tree and bury it beneath its roots ; 
but I will put it from me as effectually by surrendering it into your 
hands as by doing with it anji:hing else. You may burn it if you 
please, or transform it into a necklace for some handsome squaw, 
and thus change its original design . and appearance, and prevent 
forever its future recognition. It has caused us much misery, and I 
am happy in parting with it." 

At this meeting Little Turtle again spoke, and assured General 
Wayne that they were well pleased with his words, except that the 
line of their reservation cut off too much of their hunting grounds. 
He then told Wayne where he would prefer that the lines should 
run, and corrected the General as to the identity of a fort on the 
Great Miami, traces of which had been discovered by an American 
expedition and ascribed to the French. The great jMiami chief spoke 
on that point as follows: "It was not a French fort, brothers; it 
was a fort built by me. You perceived another at Leromies. It is 
true a Frenchman once lived there a year or two. The Miami vil- 
lages were occupied as you remarked, but it was unknown to your 
younger brothers until you told them that we had sold land there 
to the French or English. I was much surprised to hear you say 
that it was my forefathers who had set the example to the other 
Indians in selling their lands. I will inform you in what manner 
the French and English occupied those lands, elder brother. 

"These people were seen by our forefathers first at Detroit; 
afterward we saw them at the Miami village, that glorious gate which 
your younger brothers had the happiness to own, and through which 
all the good words of our chief had to pass from the north to the 
south and from the east to the west. Brothers, these people never 
told us they wished to purchase our lands from us. ' ' 

The Fin.\l Adoption of the Treaty 

Finally, General Wayne said: "Brothers, all you nations now 
present, listen! You now have had the proposed articles of treaty 


read and explained to you. It is now time for the negotiations to 
draw to a conclusion. I shall therefore ask each nation individually 
if they approve of, and are prepared to sign these articles in their 
present form, that they may immediately be engrossed for that pur- 
pose. I shall begin with the Chippewas, who, with the others who 
approbate the measure, will signify their assent. 

"You, Chippewas, do you approve these articles of treaty, and 

are you prepared to sign them?" (A unanimous answer, "Yes!") 

"You Ottawas, do you agree?" (A unanimous answer, "Yes!") 

You, Wyandots, do you agree ? " (A unanimous answer, ' ' Yes I " ) 

"You, Delawares?" (A unanimous answer, "Yes!") 

You, Pottawatomies ? " (A unanimous answer, ' ' Yes ! " ) 
"You, Shawnees?" (A unanimous answer, "Yes!") 
"You, Miamis — do you agree?" (A unanimous answer, "Yes!") 
"And you, Kickapoo-s — do you agree?" ("Yes!") 
The treaty shall be engrossed, and as it will require two or three 
days to do it properly on parchment, we will now part to meet on 
the second of August. In the interim, we will eat, drink and rejoice, 
and thank the Great Spirit for the happy stage this good work has 
arrived at. ' ' 

On the 3d of August, 1795, the treaty was signed by the sachems, 
band chiefs and principal men of the Indian nations who occupied 
the Northwest Territory. To each nation a copy of the treaty on 
parchment was delivered. A large quantity of goods and many small 
ornaments were then distributed among the Indians. 

On the 10th of August, in council, at the close of a short speech, 
General Wayne said, in farewell: "I now fervently pray to the 
Great Spirit that the peace now established may be permanent, and 
that it may hold us together in bonds of friendship until time shall 
be no more. I also pray that the Great Spirit may enlighten your 
minds and open your eyes to your true happiness ; that your children 
may learn to cultivate the earth, and enjoy the fruits of peace and 
industry. As it is probable, my children, that we shall not soon meet 
again in council, I take this opportunity of bidding you all an affec- 
tionate farewell, and of wishing you a safe and happy return to your 
respective homes and families. ' ' 

Indians Divided by War op 1812 

The War of 1812 again divided the Northwestern tribes between 
the British and Americans, despite the treaty of Greenville. Te- 
eumseh, the powerful Shawnee chief, joined the British : the Miamis, 


Pottawatomies and Delawares professed neutrality, if not friendsiiip, 
and in October, 1813, concluded an armistice with the United States. 
The Miamis, Wyandots, Ottawas and Chippewas were also included 
in the pact — in fact, all the tribes of the old Northwest Territory. 
The uneasy savages were held to peace for nearly two years by being 
relieved of their wants, often destitution, from the public stores, the 
chief distributing station for the Miamis and Pottawatomies being 
Fort Wayne. But the machinations of the British made it impossible 
for the Indian tribes of the Northwest to preserve neutrality, not- 
withstanding the best eiforts of General Harrison and Governor Cass. 

In July, 1814, the latter put the matter thus bluntly to a council 
of Miamis, Pottawatomies and others: "Your Great Father, the 
President of the United States, has found that you cannot remain 
neutral ; that you cannot, or will not, remain at peace, but must fight 
on one side or the other, and that if you are not for us, you would 
be against us." In the following month the tribes which had signed 
the Greenville treaty became formal allies of the Americans; not- 
withstanding which, proofs were not wanting that the Pottawatomies 
subsequently received considerable supplies of powder, lead, flints 
and other war material from the British, to be used in a foray on 
the frontier settlements of Indiana. To make security as neai-ly iron- 
clad as possible, most of the Northwestern tribes entered into another 
treaty with the United States (in September, 1815), agreeing to abide 
by all former stipulations. This last treaty specifically covered the 
State of Ohio and the Territories of Indiana and Michigan. 

In the meantime Tecumseh had been killed at the battle of the 
Thames (October, 1813). The Shawnee Prophet, who had attended 
some of the sessions of the councils of the Northwestern Indians before 
the signing of the September treaty, retired with a few followers 
across the Detroit River. Not long afterward the Shawnee band, 
headed by the Pi-ophet, returned to their Ohio settlement and thence 
removed to the Indian territory west of the Mississippi River. There 
the renowned leader died in 1834. 

Hakrison, Great Indian Treaty Maker 

When Gen. William Henry Harrison was appointed governor of 
the Northwest Territory he was invested with general powers to make 
treaties with the various Indian tribes, and to extinguish by such 
treaties the titles of the Indians to the lands within the territory. He 
was very active in this matter and negotiated several treaties, acquir- 
ing with each large tracts of land. In 1802 he got from the Miamis 


and Pottawatomies large tracts in the vicinity of Vincennes, on the 
Wabash. In the next year, at a treaty negotiated at Vincennes, he 
secured about 1,600,000 acres from the head men of the Delaware, 
Shawness, Pottawatomie, Eel River, Kickapoo, Piankeshaw and Kas- 
kaskia tribes. During the same year, he negotiated at Vincennes 
another treaty with the Kaskaskias by which the government secured 
about 8,600,000 acres lying on the borders of the Mississinewa and 
Illinois rivers and south of the road which led from Vincennes to the 
Falls of the Ohio. In 1805 the Delawares, Pottawatomies, Miarais, 
Eel Rivers and Weas ceded a large tract on the Ohio River, and in 
December of the same year the Piankeshaws ceded about 2,600,000 
acres lying west of the Wabash River. 

By these treaties the United States had acquired the title to all 
the Indian lands along the Ohio River from the mouth of the Wabash 
to the western line of the State of Ohio. In 1809 Governor Harrison 
obtained from several of the tribes, by a treaty concluded at Fort 
Wayne, about 3,000,000 acres, lying principally on the southeastern 
side of the Wabash River and below the mouth of Raccoon Creek, in 
what is now Parke County. 

By his several treaties. Governor Harrison had acquired for the 
general government about 29,710,000 acres of land, or an area ex- 
ceeding by 25 per cent the entire territory of the then present State 
of Indiana. 

Tecumseh and the Prophet rejected the treaty of Fort Wayne. 
The next important treaty concluded by the governor was that of 
1818, when the Delawares ceded all the lands claimed by them within 
the boundaries of Indiana as we now know it, but they reserved the 
right to occupy the land for three years after signing the treaty. 
Between that and the year 1840, when the Indian title to the last of 
the lands claimed by them in Indiana was extinguished, thirty-three 
separate treaties were negotiated. 

It will thus be seen that the process of extinguishing the Indian 
titles was a slow one, and that the Indians were not finally dispos- 
sessed until after Indiana had been a member of the Union for nearly 
a quarter of a centur.y. In most of these final treaties certain tracts 
were reserved by the Indians for favorite members of the tribes, and 
are yet known as "reservations," although nearly all the lands have 
passed to other persons than the descendants of the original beneficia- 
ries. A few descendants of the Miamis still live in Wabash and Miami 

In 1881 a joint resolution of the Legislature of Indiana, requesting 
an appropriation by Congress for the extinguishment of the Indian 


title to lands within the state was forwarded to that bod.y, and in 
compliance with the request the necessary provision was made. Three 
citizens were designated by the Secretary of War to constitute a com- 
mission to carry into effect tlie object of the appropriation. It was 
considered an object of great importance to extinguish the title of 
the Miamis to their lands, at that time surrounded on all sides by 
American settlers, situated almost in the heart of the state, and im- 
mediately on the line of the canal then under construction. The 
prompt and cheerful manner in which the chiefs of the tribe obeyed 
the summons to the treaty induced the belief that negotiations woiild 
be successful, but in their response to the propositions of the com- 
missioners they positively refused to go westward or sell the remains 
of their lands. 

The Pottawatomies of Northern Indiana 

The negotiations with the Pottawatomies were more successful, for, 
as stated, they sold about 6,000,000 acres of the lands they claimed 
in Indiana, Illinois and JMichigan, including their entire claims in 
the Hoosier state. 

In 1830 part of the Pottawatomie nation was in Canada, some in 
the upper peninsula near Marquette, others in the Miami Valley, a 
portion in Illinois near Peoria, and small bands in the valleys of the 
Tippecanoe and St. Joseph rivers. In Indiana the Pottawatomie 
headquarters was considered the St. Joseph Valley, particularly the 
Nottawa-seepe Reservation within the Elkhart County of the present. 
In the fall of 1833, Sau-au-quett and a few of his followei-s ceded 
their lands, in return for which they were to receive about $30,000 
of goods (calico, beads and other trinkets) and be allotted lands west 
of the Mississippi. 

A few weeks afterward (in December, 1833) the Pottawatomies of 
Elkhart and Kosciusko counties, and of Northern Indiana generally 
gathered on the banks of the old St. Joe near the reservation and for a 
week cast eager looks at the bright-colored calico, blankets and beads so 
temptingly displayed by the Government agent, but refusing to con- 
firm the treaty by receiving them. They had consulted among them- 
selves and had concluded that Sau-au-quett and his followers had no 
authority to cede their lands. 

Governor Porter had issued a proclamation that no liquor should 
be allowed on or near the reservation, but parties disobeyed the orders 
and provided the Indians with an abundance of fire-water. At length, 
his patience tried to the breaking point, Governor Porter ordered the 


heads of the barrels containing the whiskj^ to be removed. This was 
accordingly done, and the Indians in their desire for the liquor drank 
it from the ground and eagerly lapped the places where it had been 
spilled. Subsequently, Mr. Marantette, the Indian agent, was sued 
for the value of the liquor and forced to pay several hundred dollars, 
notwithstanding he was obeying the explicit orders of Governor Porter 
when he broke in the heads of the whisky barrels. The Indians finally 
accepted the provisions of the treaty and received their money at 
the earnest solicitation of Sau-au-quett, who said: "I did sell this 
land, and I would sell it again for two gallons of whisky. ' ' 

The bad blood thus engendered among the Indians was wiped out 
by the murder of Sau-au-quett at Coldwater in 1839, by one of his 
band who opposed the sale. 

First Migration op the Pottawatomies 

In 1835 the period expired, under the treaty of 1883, terminating 
the residence of the Pottawatomies in Northern Indiana and marking 
the commencement of their hegira to their western lands, but they 
refused to move, claiming that the whites had encroached upon their 
Indiana reservations and had not themselves observed the terms of the 
treaty. The time was extended by the Government, and in July, 1837, 
occurred the first Pottawatomie migration to their lands beyond the 
Mississippi. A few small bands, numbering altogether about one 
hundred Indians of the tribe, assembled at the village known as Ke- 
wan-na, Fulton County. They were under the general direction of 
Abel C. Pepper, United States commissioner, and the special charge 
of George ProfBt, the latter of whom conducted them to their reserva- 

Grand Council of August, 1838 

On the 6th of August, 1838, the time stipulated in the several 
treaties for the Indians to migrate having expired, and Menominee 
and his band declining to go, a council was held at Menominee village, 
just north of Twin Lakes, in Marshall County, five miles southwest 
from Plymouth. Col. Abel C. Pepper, Indian agent for the Govern- 
ment, was present, and most of the chiefs in that part of the county, 
also many of the white residents of the surrounding country. The 
treaty was read wherein it was shown that in ceding their lands the 
Indians had agreed to remove to the western reservation within the 
specified time, and that the date was then at hand when they must 


go. It was plain to those present who were familiar with the Indian 
character that there was great dissatisfaction among them, and a 
spirit of rebellion growing which if not soon suppressed would proba- 
bly lead to serious results. 

Menominee's Eloquent Depi 

The leader and principal spokesman for the Indians was Me-no-mi- 
nee. By the treaty of 1832 twenty-two sections of lands had been 
reserved to him and three other chiefs, viz., Pe-pin-a-waw, Na-ta-ka 
and Maek-a-taw-ma-ah. This reservation bordered on the west of 
Plymouth, north as far as the Catholic Cemetery and far enough 
south to take in Twin Lakes, about half way between Plymouth and 
Maxinkuckee Lake. The last three named chiefs entered into a treaty 
with Col. Abel C. Pepper on behalf of the Government August 5, 
1836, by which they ceded all their interest in the reservation above 
described, for which the Government agreed to pay them $14,080 in 
specie, being $1 an acre, there being in the reservation 14,080 acres 
of land; and thej^ agreed to remove to the country west of the Mis- 
souri River provided for them within two years. Chief jMenominee 
refused to sign this or any other treaty, and persistently declined to 
release to the Government his interest in the reservation. When 
Colonel Pepper had made his final appeal and all had had their say, 
Menominee rose to his feet, and, drawing his costly blanket around 
him, is reported by one who was present to have said in substance : 

"Members of the Council : The President does not know the truth. 
He, like me, has been imposed upon. He does not know that your 
treaty is a lie, and that I never signed it. He does not know that 
you made my young chiefs drunk and got their consent and pretended 
to get mine. He does not know that I have refused to sell my lands 
and still refuse. He would not by force drive me from my home, the 
graves of my tribe, and mj^ children who have gone to the Great 
Spirit, nor allow you to tell me your braves will take me, tied like a 
dog, if he knew the truth. My brother, the President is just, but he 
listens to the word of the young chiefs who have lied ; and when he 
knows the truth he will leave me to mj' own. I have not sold my 
lands. I will not sell them. I have not signed any treat}-, and will 
not sign any. I am not going to leave my lands, and I don't want 
to hear anything more about it." 

Describing the scene, one who was present said : ' ' Amid the 
applause of the chiefs he sat down. Spoken in the peculiar style of 
the Indian orator — although repeated by an interpreter — with an 


eloquence of which Logan would have been proud, his presence, the 
personification of dignity, it presented one of those rare occasions 
of which history gives few instances, and on the man of true appre- 
ciation would have made a most profound impression. 

In order that a clear understanding may be had of the cause that 
led up to the forcible removal of Menominee and his band, it may 
be briefly stated that a treaty held on the Tippecanoe River October 
26, 1832, negotiated by Jonathan Jennings, John W. Davis and Marks 
Crume on the part of the United States, from which a number of 
small reservations were given to certain chiefs and their bands named 
therein as follows : 

Article 2. From the session aforesaid, the following reservations 
are made, to- wit : For the band of Au-bee-nau-bee thirty-six sections, 
to include his village. 

For the bands of Me-no-mi-nee, No-taw-kah, Muck-kah-tah-mo-way, 
and Pee-pin-oh-waw, twenty-two sections (and to several others too 
numerous to mention). 

The object of copying the foregoing is to show how Me-no-mi-nee 
came into possession of his interest in the twenty-two sections of land 
in dispute. This record may be found in "A Compilation of all the 
Treaties between the United States and the Indian Tribes," published 
by the United States in 1873, at page 680. 

GovEBNOR Wallace Describes the Pottawatomie :Migration (1838) 

On this subject, in his message to the Indiana Legislature, in De- 
cember, 1838, Governor David Wallace says : 

"By the conditions of the late treaty with the Pottawatomie tribe 
of Indians in Indiana, the time stipulated for their departure to the 
west of the Mississippi expired on the sixth of August last. As this 
trying moment approached a strong disposition was manifested by 
many of the most influential among them to disregard the treaty 
entirely, and to cling to the homes and graves of their fathers at all 
hazards. In consequence of such a determination on their part, a 
collision of the most serious character was like to ensue between them 
and the surrounding settlers. Apprehensive of such a result, and 
with a view to prevent it, the citizens of Marshall county, early in 
the month of August, forwarded to the executive a petition praying 
that an armed force might be immediately sent to their protection. 
On receipt of this petition I repaired as speedily as circumstances 
would permit to the scene of difficulty, in order to satisfy myself by a 
personal examination whether their fears were justifiable or not. 


"On my return to Logansport a formal requisition awaited me 
from the Indian agent, Col. A. C. Pepper, for one hundred armed 
volunteers to be placed under the command of some competent citizen 
of the state whose duty it should be to preserve the peace and to arrest 
the growing spirit of hostility displayed by the Indians. The requisi- 
tion was instantly granted. I appointed the Hon. John Tipton to 
this command and gave him authority to raise the necessary number 
of volunteers. He promptly and patriotically accepted the appoint- 
ment, and although sickness and disease prevailed to an alarming 
extent throughout northern Indiana, yet such was the spirit and 
patriotism of the people there that in about forty-eight hours after 
the requisition was authorized the requisite force was not only mus- 
tered, but was transported into the midst of the Indians before they 
were aware of its approach, or before even they could possibly take 
steps to repel it. The rapidity of the movement, the known decision 
and energy of General Tipton, backed by his intimate acquaintance 
and popularity with the Indians whom it was his business to quiet, 
accomplished everything desired. The refractory became complacent ; 
opposition to removal ceased ; and the whole tribe, with a few excep- 
tions, amounting to between 800 and 900, voluntarily prepared to 
emigrate. General Tipton and the volunteers accompanied them as 
far as Danville, Illinois, administering to them on the way whatever 
comfort and relief humanity required. There they were delivered 
over to Judge Polke and the United States removing agents. Copies 
of all the communications and reports made to the executive by 
General Tipton while in the discharge of this duty I lay before you, 
from which I feel assured you will discover with myself that much 
credit and many thanks are due not only to him but to all who assisted 
him in bringing so delicate an affair to so happy and successful a 

Last of the Pottaw atomies Leave in 1840 

Although most of the Pottawatomies and Miamis of Northern In- 
diana had moved west of the Mississippi River by the late '30s, 
stragglers remained for a number of years afterward, not a few of 
the Monoquet and Musquawbucks bands residing in Kosciusko Coianty 
in the early '40s. The most of the Indians of the county who remained 
after the great migration of 1838, however, departed in 1840, when 
General Brady with a force of troops compelled them to vacate. 

The remnants of the once powerful Pottawatomies were taken to 
their Kansas lands at tliat time. All went by land on their horses, 


which were well packed foi- the journey. When they arrived at their 
crossing on the Mississippi, whence they were to cross to the borders 
of Kansas, the hearts of some of the chiefs drew eastward instead of 
westward and Mr. Marantette, who was specially superintending the 
conduct of the tribe, observed that some of the Pottawatomies were 
endeavoring to escape. He immediately sent Governor Porter a mes- 
sage to that effect, adding that the surest way to prevent the Indians 
from getting away would be to confiscate the horses of the leaders. 
That plan meeting with the approval of the chief executive, those in 
charge of the expedition crossed the Indians on barges over to the 
border of Kansas, and, after they had selected their lands, returned 
their horses. Finally, however, many of the Pottawatomie lands be- 
came so valuable that their owners sold them and removed to the 
Indian Territory. 

Indian Villages in Kosciusko County 

In the '30s, besides the Pottawatomies, there were within the 
present limits of Kosciusko County two or three tribes of the Miami 
nation, the western borders of whose territory extended to the Turkey 
Creek prairies. 

The villages of the Pottawatomies lay along the Tippecanoe River 
in the central part of the county, their best known chiefs in this 
locality being Mus-quaw-buck, Mo-no-quet, Che-cose and Mo-ta. 

Musquawbuck's village was located upon the south bank of the Tip- 
pecanoe, upon the site of the present Village of Oswego. Mono- 
quet's village, where the village by that name is located, was the 
largest Indian settlement of that period. Checose's village was on 
the river just below Warsaw, and Mota's village still further south 
toward Atwood. More than half the Indian population in 1835, not 
including the Miamis, were included in the villages of Monoquet and 

The Miami Chiefs, Flatbelly and Wav?--wa-esse 

The principal Miami chiefs were Flatbelly and Waw-wa-esse, often 
contracted into Wawbee. The name of the latter chief was afterward 
given to the old-time Nine Mile Lake and was transformed into the 
more euphonious Wawasee. Wawbee 's village, in the middle '30s, was 
situated near the southeast corner of the lake, about 2V2 miles south- 
east of Milford. Flatbelly 's village was northeast of Leesburg, just 
over the line in Noble County, but his reservation, as at present. 


extended well into Kosciusko County. Both of these chiefs were well 
known to the first settlers of the county. 

Flatbelly had thirty-six sections of land reserved to him in the 
counties of Kosciusko and Noble by the treaty of 1S26. Nineteen of 
these sections were in Turkey Creek and Tippecanoe townships, this 
county. At the treaty concluded at the forks of the Wabash, iu Octo- 
ber. 1834. the Miami Indians, of whom he was the head, ceded several 
large tracts of land to the Government lying along the Wabash. Eel 
and Salamonie rivers. This session included Flatbelly's thirty-six 
sections. Seventy-two chiefs signed the articles of agreement: and 
Flatbelly's name led aU the rest. Wabee was the fourth signatory 
and the seventy-second was John B. Richardson of the St. Mary's 

Pottawatomie Chiefs and Theie Villages 

In the treaty concluded with the Pottawatomies on the Tippecanoe 
River. October 26. 1832. the chiefs Musquawbuck. Monoquet, Macose, 
Benack and Mota were all signatories. Edward McCartney, a white, 
who afterward became a citizen of the county, was one of the inter- 

In a treaty between the Tnited States and the united nation of 
Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawatomies. concluded at Chicago, on 
October 1, 1834, whereby certain territory along the west shore of 
Lake Michigan was ceded to the United States, Chief Monoquet was 
one of the parties to the contract. 

But the most important treaty in its relation to the early settle- 
ment of Kosciusko County was that which was signed by the United 
States commissioners and the chiefs of the Pottawatomies of Indiana 
and Michigan, on the Tippecanoe River, October 27. 1832. and rati- 
fied by the president and the Senate of the United States in January, 
1833. The news of the ratification of the treaty which reached North- 
em Indiana about the last of the following February, was the signal 
for a large influx of white settlers to Kosciusko Cotmty. 

By that treaty was reserved four sections of land to Musquawbuck. 
which included his village and Bone Prairie. 

To Monoquet. four sections, including his village and extending 
south to Warsaw. 

To Mota. four sections on the river near Atwood. 

To Benack, eight sections in Kosciusko and Marshall c-ounties. 

To Mary Ann Benack, three sections in Big Prairie. 

To Checose. four sections just below Warsaw. 


Accounting for 'Bone" Prairie 

Bone Prairie, owned by ^lusquawbuek, was so called by the white 
settlers from the fact that when they first saw it the ground was 
literally covered with human bones. For many years afterward, 
they not only littered the surface, but were plowed up in large num- 
bers as the soil was turned by the pioneer husbandmen. According 
to the legend narrated to the early settlers by Granny Benaek, the 
eentennarian squaw, in the long-ago, when the Miamis and the Pot- 
tawatomies were the mighty peoples of the upper ^Mississippi valley 
and the northern lakes, a young Pottawatomie on a ^-isit to a Miami 
village killed a prominent member of the latter tribe. He escaped 
to his home in the \'icinity of what is now Bone Prairie, and soon 
afterward delegates from the outraged Miamis arrived there, demand- 
ing that the offender be punished according to their laws. The Potta- 
watomies went into council and rejected the demands, the result of 
which was an invasion of the eouutry in force by the iliamis. The 
hostile warriors met on Bone Prairie, and a fierce battle ensued in 
which the advantage is said to have rested with the Pottawatomies. 
notwithstanding that the legend was filtered through the personality 
of Granny Benaek, the ancient Miami. 

Another storj- is also told to account for the large bone supply 
of the prairie. It is said that when the ilusquawbuck tribe was quit« 
large smallpox broke out among its members, and soon became a 
sweeping and fatal epidemic. To add to its mortality, the -i-ictims 
frenzied by the intense fever which accompanied the malady, would 
plunge into Tippecanoe Lake and i-iver. The few who escaped the 
pestilence fled in horror, leaving the stricken to die and the dead 
to waste away to skeletons. 

Undoubtedly, there must have been some such unusual fatalities 
as these to account for the presence of Bone Prairie. 

Moxoqlt;t's End and Successor 

It is said that Monoquet died of lung fever as the result of a pro- 
longed debauch. At the time a handsome .voung squaw from some 
tribe in Michigan was on a visit to his village, and. on account of the 
sudden death of the chief the woman, to whom it is believed he had 
been attentive, was suspected by certain members of the tribe to have 
poisoned him. The rumor, reaching her eai-s. threw her into a panic 
of fear and she started on foot alone for her Michigan home. Her 
flight but confirmed the suspicions of the tribe and two young braves 


were sent in pursuit of the fugitive. One of the warriors overtook 
her at the crossroads south of Leesburg and brained her with his 
tomaliawk. Two early settlers who were coming down the road, 
Joseph Harper and Harrison Pool, witnessed the cowardly murder, 
and approached the two Indian braves. 

One of the Indians flourished his tomahawk and exclaimed exult- 
antly "Waugh! Big Indian me." 

Mr. Harper, the plain white man, replied: "Yes, big Indian you, 
to run down and brain a defenseless squaw!" Then raising his gun, 
he added: "For a fip I'd put a bullet through your cowardly heart." 

But the Indians sneaked off to seek a more appreciative audience. 

Says a local historian : ' ' After the performance of the usual 
ceremonies over the dead chief, his remains were taken half a mile 
south of the village and about forty rods southwest of the residence 
of Mr. John Hall, where the Indians built a pen of poles six feet 
long, four feet wide and four feet high. In one end of the pen 
they placed the dead chief in a sitting position, face toward the 
south, with his blanket thrown across his shoulders. Two poles were 
used to hold his body in position. One of them was placed under his 
chin to hold his head in place, and one lower down to keep his hands 
and body in the desired position, the ends of the poles being fastened 
between the poles of the pen on either side. For some time, succotash 
and other edibles were brought for the dead chief, upon which to 
subsist as he traveled to the happy hunting grounds. 

"But soon the dead chief was forgotten and his last resting place 
neglected, but for months afterward the ghastly form could be seen 
as it grinned at the person who might venture into its presence. After 
the funeral rites were over, his son, a young man of fine physical 
appearance, Jim Monoquet, was hailed as the new chief amid great 
rejoicing, the ceremonies lasting seven daj's." 

Benack and His Hundredth Tongue 

According to James W. Anustrong and his History of Plain Town- 
ship : ' ' The Benacks lived in a log house about forty rods west of the 
brick house on the T. G. Berst farm, now occupied by Arthur Stookey. 
Benack had a record as an Indian warrior and was possessed of an 
und3nng enmity for the whites. The story had b'^come current, at 
least with the juniors, that he had the tongues of ninety-nine whites, 
and that he had vowed to have an even hundred. 

"As a lad we were sometimes sent on errands to the home of 
Conrad Berst, Colyer and others on the prairie, following the old 


Indian trail from Monoquet, winding through the woods, past the 
huckleberry mai'sh and past the Benaek cabins; which we did very 
quietly, continually fearing that from behind some log or stump the 
ex-Indian warrior would seize us and, with a blood-curdling war 
whoop, wrench our tongue out by the roots. Bixt happily no such 
disaster ever befell us, and we are yet in possession of that unruly 

"In the early '50s Benaek died and his daughter, Mary Ann 
Benaek, came into possession of three or four sections on the south 
side of the big prairie. When quite young she was married to a 
trapper named JlcCarter. But they could not agree and she gave him 
a section of land to leave her, which he did. She afterward married 
an Indian who had been raised by her father, known by the name 
of Pe-ash-wa ; a fine, manly appearing fellow, as some who are now 
living in Leesburg can testify. 

"The Benaek lands were finally sold to T. G. Berst and others, and 
the Peashwas moved to a reservation they had near South Bend; 
and the last Indian bade farewell to Plain Township, leaving their 
white rivals in undisputed possession of the land." 

W.\ENER Outwitted by Checose 

From accounts which come down through the pioneers, Checose 
was a shrewd land dealer and got the better of at least one of the 
earl}^ white settlers upon his possessions. Peter Warner was the first 
white to wander south of the northeastern prairies of Kosciusko 
County in his search for a home, and unwittingly built his cabin on 
Checose 's reservation. Discovering his mistake and wishing to make 
his title clear, according to his ideas of legality, Warner paid the 
chief $600 for the quarter section upon which he had settled, although 
Checose had no right to deal with him except through the United 
States Government. Afterward, finding that the Indian's "deed of 
conveyance" was a worthless scrap of paper, Warner applied to Con- 
gress for relief, and that body gi-anted it to him through a special 
act, passed in 1840, by which he was enabled to enter his land at the 
homestead price of $1.25 per acre. 

The Eel Ritor Indi.vns in 1835 

Stedman Chaplin, a young New Yorker who had gone down into 
Tennessee to marry Sarah McQuigg, an old family acquaintance, and 
after a short residence in Whitlev Coiuitv had located on the Turkey 


Creek prairies, twenty miles northwest, ventured into Kosciusko 
County in 1835. His sister Nancy had married G. W. A. Royce and 
that young couple were also settled in the neighborhood. 

Before long Mr. Chaplin had erected a cabin on the land which 
he entered, and from him Mrs. Roxana Wince drew many interesting 
facts as to the habits and dispositions of the Indians living in that 
section of the county in 1835-36. "Just below Mr. Chaplin's cabin 
at the distance of a few rods," she writes, "there was a high bank 
on the river that had once been a camping ground with the Indians, 
and on this spot one of the red men still lived with his wife and 
child, a boy of ten or twelve years of age. His name was Pet-co-niah. 
Poor Pet-co-niah ! He lost his life some time afterward in one of 
the northeastern counties of Indiana, slain by a brutal white man 
who accused him of killing a hog that was running wild in the woods. 

"The Indians were not troublesome. One evening five or six 
braves came in and asked, by signs, to stay over night. They were 
permitted to do so and slept on the floor by the fire. Getting up 
in the morning they painted their faces in red and black colors until 
they looked horrid, and went away without a word. Why they did 
this, Mr. Chaplin could never tell. It was not the custom of the 
Indians to paint themselves unless they were about to take the 
warpath, and had these braves appeared unexpectedly at any set- 
tler's cabin the inmates would have had no other thought than that 
they had come bent on murder. 

"But the Indians of the Eel River Valley were friendly, and gar- 
dens and fields were safer from pilfering then than they are now. 
Game was plentiful, and both Indians and whites could have meat 
whenever they chose. The whites trapped the wild turkey and shot 
the deer for their tables. The Indians along the river had a singular 
way of hunting the latter. It was called 'fire hunting.' The deer 
to escape from the torturing bites of the mosquitoes would wade into 
the rivers as soon as it became dark and stand there for hours. The 
Indians would then fix a light at the bow of the canoe and seat 
himself there with his rifle. Another hunter would seat himself in the 
stern and paddle noiselessly down stream. The amazed deer would 
stand and gaze until shot down. 

' ' Pish were abundant and of the finest quality ; so the ' company 
dinners' were no mean affairs; and even the every-day fare was 
nothing to be despised. The great lack was fruit. There were only 
wild gooseberries and wild plums, with now and then a crab apple 
tree. The crabs were cooked, the cores punched out with a quill, 
and they were then preserved. 


' ' There were chickens ; and one night an owl, or perhaps a weasel, 
caught one of my grandmother's hens, and there was, of course, 
a desperate squalling. Grandmother was telling the incident the 
next morning in the presence of an Indian, and to emphasize the 
matter she said the hen 'squalled, and squalled, and squalled.' It 
tickled the Indian so that he laughed outright, and repeated the 
words after her in a most amusing manner, 'squalled, squalled, 
squalled. ' 

Sample op Indian Fun 

"The Indians liked fun as well as their white brothers. One day 
a white man and an Indian were hunting together, when the Indian 
asked his companion if he would like to see some fun. He said 
'Yes.' A ledge of rocks, the den of scores of rattlesnakes was just 
before them. On top, sunning himself, was a large rattler, quite 
dormant. The Indian cut a forked stick, sharpened the points and, 
slipping up silently, caught the snake in the fork just back of the 
neck. He then pressed the stick into the ground and bade the white 
man to hold it fast, while he proceeded to tie a small bag of powder 
to the snake's tail, and, after attaching a match to it, let it go. The 
frightened snake ran into the den and the powder exploded, and 
the poor denizens of the ledge, involved in flames, hurried out, 
scorched and blistered, making the most ridiculous contortions. The 
white man bent nearly double with laughter, but though the Indian 
looked on, well pleased at having taken so successfully the fort of 
his enemies, did not laugh so heartily. 

"Mr. Chaplin once came upon the last wigwam of a dead Indian. 
He had not been dead long, and was sitting bolt upright, with his 
hatchet, bow and arrow by his side. The wigwam was built in the 
form of a pen. Other Indians said, when questioned, that he was a 
bad Indian, and some of their number had killed him in self-defense. 
Sometimes the Indians buried their dead in shallow graves and 
sometimes in a cavity cut in some sound fallen tree. Stakes were 
driven on each side of the tree to hold up the pieces of timber that 
were then piled on the body. Often a slab was split out of the log, 
a hollow made, the corpse laid in and the slab put back. Mr. Chap- 
lin stepped over such a log grave just back of his cabin many a time 
without knowing it. The skeleton was found in the log after he 
had moved away. 

"Eel River valley was a paradise of beauty in those early times. 


Its flower beds contained thousands of acres, with blossoms of every 
hue blending as never man can blend them." 

Graves Describes Noted Chiefs 

William C. Graves, a young Virginian who settled at Leesburg, 
taught the first school there and in the county, and became promi- 
nent in after years, came to that locality in 1835, before the noted 
Indian chiefs of Kosciusko County had departed, and has left on 
record a description of them and their lands at that time. 

"All the Indian chiefs whom we have named as residents of this 
county," he writes, "were, in 1835, men well advanced in years, 
ranging from 55 to 70 years of age, and were undoubtedly more or 
less prominently connected with the stirring events in border war- 
fare before and during the War of 1812. The chief (Monoquet) 
informed Mr. Graves in January, 1835, that he was in the Tippe- 
canoe battleground engagements of 1811. Mr. Graves learned through 
others that Musquawbuck was also in that battle. It is known that 
all the Indian warriors of this region living at that day were under 
the general command of Tecumseh and the Prophet, and were en- 
camped at or near the Prophet's town at the time of that battle. 
As all the chiefs to whom we have alluded were in the prime of 
manhwd in ISAl, it is reasonable to believe that they were all either 
ur'TO 9r near \he Prophet's Town battlefield upon that eventful 
7t of Vov imbe. . 1811. 

''In 18'6i Chief Monoquet was about sixty years of age, a rather 
spare man above the medium height, of a dark color, high forehead, 
small bright eyes, aqualine nose and stern countenance, and looking 
as though he inherited all the antipathy of his i-ace to the whites. He 
died at his village in the spring of 1836 and, according to the Indian 
custom in the interment of chiefs, was buried in a sitting posture 
with his pony and implements of war, about half a mile from his 
village on the south side of the river. His grave, surrounded by 
poles, was to be seen for several years afterward. His son, a j'oung 
man of fine appearance, whose Indian name is not recollected, but 
was usually known as Jim Monoquet by the whites, was crowned 
by his warrioi-s as chief with great rejoicing, the ceremonies last- 
ing about seven days. 

"In spelling the nan ' of this chief, we have adhered to the 
universal custom adopted by the whites at that period. In the 
difi'erent treaties where he lias borne a part, the spellings have been 
given as Menucquett, Mencriet, MenrJjquet and JManoquett. as well 


as the generally adopted spelling, Monoquet. Of course, where a 
party never spells his own name, he is at the mercy of those who 
do. In the pronunciation of his name, the whites always accent 
the second syllable ; the Indians the third. 

"The old chief, Musquawbuck, was about sixty -five years of age. 
His name is variously spelt in the different treaties — sometimes 
Mus-squaw-buek, which we think best agrees with the Indian pro- 
nunciation ; at other times, Mes-qua-buck ; but we write it according 
to the general custom among the settlers. Musquawbuck died about 
the same date as Monoquet. His family was not of the dark copper 
color usual to the Indian tribes, but bore a greater resemblance to 
the light mulattoes of the South. Of all the Indians in the county, 
this old chief presented the finest specimen of physical manhood. 
Large, erect, square built, and in every respect well proportioned, 
his contour was almost perfect. His fine head, and high and majestic 
forehead, strongly reminded one of Daniel Webster. Nature had 
evidently bestowed upon him all the elements of greatness. Oppor- 
tunity and cultivation alone were lacking. His weight was about 
180 pounds. He had several sons, who, though resembling him in 
color and general bearing, were none of them his equal in the eyes of 
a stranger. Two of his sons — Maeose and Mazette — were twins. A 
third, called John, was killed in a quarrel. A fourth, called Bill 
by the whites, was the youngest and a decided pet withal. He was 
about twenty-five years old, extremely fond of white company, spoke 
fair English, was a great favorite and extremely popular among the 
whites. When the Indians were moved to the West, Bill left with 
great reluctance, having to part with white friends, in addition to 
the natural regret of leaving his native land and home. 

"Cheeose, Mota and the lesser Pottawatomie chiefs were less 
known among the whites, their bands having been greatly reduced 
in number, and having also remained here only a short time after 
the whites came. Mota is best recollected from the fact that he had 
been deprived of a portion of his nose. He was also an old man. 

"The Miami chiefs, Waw-wa-esse and Flatbelly, were believed to 
be brothers and were in the neighborhood of sixty years of age, 
dark copper colored, rather fleshy, and, in the case of Flatbelly 
(despite his name), rather inclined to corpulency. Wabee, as the 
first named was usually called, wore a silver ring at times, and at 
other times a fish bone through the cartilage of his nose. 

"Flatbelly was undoubtedly one of the most powerful chiefs of 
the Miami nation. In addition to his reserve of thirty-six sections 
of land, he alone, of all the Indian chiefs in the region, enjoyed the 


luxury of a brick house, a one-stoi-y building erected for him by the 
United States government. It was situated in the southeast corner 
of the village." 

Estimated Indian Population 

The Indian population of the county did not much, if any, exceed 
five hundred at the time of the arrival of the whites. Metcalfe 
Beck estimated it at that figure, proportioned among the tribes as 
follows: Wawbees, 75; Musquawbucks, 125; Monoquets, 150; Flat- 
bellys, 75; Checose, Motas and others, 75. ilr. Graves, while he 
thought the total amount about correct, believed that Monoquet's 
village contained nearly three hundred inhabitants in the summer 
of 1835. 

The Indians of the Monoquet and Musquawbuek tribes remained 
in Kosciusko County about ten years after the treaty of the year 
named, when they were moved to their allotted lands west of the 
Mississippi by Alexander Coquillard, of South Bend, who had secured 
a government contract for that purpose. 


STATISTICAL, POLITICAL AND OFFICIAL BACKGROUND's Population! by Decades, 1800-1910 — Independent In- 
diana's Political Record — Electoral and Popular Vote, 1816- 
1916 — Territorial Officers, 1787-1816 — United States Sen- 
ators and State Officers, 1816-1919 — The Constitutional 
Convention op 1816 — The Constitutional Convention of 
1850-51 — Amendments to the Constitution — The Counties and 
Their Names — Official State Flower and Flag — Indiana State 

It might be straining a point to illustrate the undoubted truth that 
the story of the development of the section of the world known as 
Kosciusko County is a part of universal history, and could not be 
omitted without destroying the symmetry of the whole. But there 
can be no contention over the statement that it has a distinct relation 
to the history of the State of Illinois, and that in order to give it 
substance and true proportion certain sections of Indiana back- 
ground should be introduced to the picture. Information is there- 
fore here presented, largely of an official and statistical nature, cover- 
ing a variety of subjects which embrace Kosciusko County as a unit or 
a factor. 

Nothing is uninteresting — not even figures — if it is considered 
with relation to its surrounding or dependent objects. As Kosciusko 
County cannot be isolated from Indiana, so the state cannot be ex- 
plained irrespective of the development of the Northwest and the 
West. For instance, we present the following table showing the in- 
crease of the state's population by decades, 1800-1910, inclusive, 
with an estimate of the Census Bureau for 1917 : 

Census Year Population 

1917 2,826,154 

1910 2,700,876 

1900 2,516,462 

1890 2,192,404 

Increase Over Preceding 

1 Number Per Cent 

Per Cent 

of Increase 

for Continental 

United States 














Per Cinit 

M-ease Over 


of Increase 


for Continental 


Per Cent 

United States 



























Census Year Population 

1880 1,978,301 

1870 1,680,637 

1860 1,350,428 

1850 988,416 

1840 685,866 

1830 343,031 

1820 147,178 

1810 24,520 

1800 5,641 

It is of interest to learn by examining the foregoing table that 
Indiana increased at a tremendous percentage from 1810 to 1830, 
but the interest is more than doubled by compiling figures for a 
parallel column, by which that increase may be compared with the 
increase of continental United States. It was not until 1860 and 
1870 that the average increase of all the states in population was 
nearly equal to that of Indiana, that statistical transformation being 
brought about by the wonderful expansion of the West and North- 
west, after the Civil war and largely as a result of the expansion 
of the great railroad systems over that section of the country. In- 
diana progressed, but had no longer a preponderance of advantages. 
As the decades passed, this fact became more and more evident. In 
1880 the average continental increase had decidedly overtaken that 
of the state, and the latest census figures uphold a similar compara- 
tive proportion or percentage. 

Independent Indiana's Political Record 

(Electoral and Popular Vote, 1816-1916.) 

Nothing so well illustrates the intelligent and independent char- 
acter of the average citizen of Indiana as his political record, laid 
down by the census enumerator. He could never be bound at all 
permanently to any political party or leader. So often was the 
Hoosier State doing something unexpected in politics that many elec- 
tions depended, in the final counting, upon its decision upon national 
issues. Indiana became the Pivotal State, and the reason for having 
retained that distinction is strikingly set forth by the following table 



showing the candidates, with their politics, for whom its electoral and 
popular presidential votes have been cast since it has been a common- 
wealth : 

Vtiref ElMtloii 

candidates ,.r Pr«,de„, 


Political Party 




Kuf us litDi!°^ 


1820 . .. . 












[j {■ 

WUllam H. Crawford 


Nat. Kep 



Nat. Bep 




William Henrj' Harrison 

Hugh L. While 

Ohio ^ ' 

North Carollua.. 


New York 



William P. Maneum 

WllUam Henry Harrison 

" r|^ 


95., 34(1 





106, 9S0 
16:!. 632 




Martin Van Buren 



New Jersey 

New Hampshire. 
Pennsylvania ... 


Free Soil 






New Jeriy '.'..... 


New York 


New York 

Pennsylvania . . . 




New York 


George B. McClellan 



Horatio Seymour 


D. & L 


Charles O'Conor 

James Black 

Thomas A. Hendricks 

Charles J. Jenkins! ..... 


J [" 


Samuel J. Tilden 

Rutherford B. Hayes 



New York 





James A. Garfield 



James B. Wearer 


Veal Dow 

New York'.'.'.'.'.'.! 



Groier Cleveland 

244 iWO 

■" a,n2's 



Tohn P. St. John 



New York 


New .Jersey 

iiiino's !!!!!!!! 

New York 

Benjamin F. Butler 



261 013 

' !1,«R1 
2 694 



r'llnton B. Fisk 

Alson J. Streeter 

J,; . ■ 

James L. Curtis 


for Wirt Is Included 


Ye»r of Election 

Candidates for President 


Political Party 



Grover Cleveland 



















Dem. and Peop. . 


New York 


N. Dem 

Soc. L 

Charles H. Matchett 



Pennsylvania . . . 



Dem. P 

M P 

Soc. D 

Soc. L 

I'. C 

Theodore Roosevelt 


New York 

New York 



New York 




Charles H. Corrlgan 

William H. Taft 

Soc. L 





Georgia '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


Fumne W clmfln 

Auinist GiilhaiL " 


1912 .. 



New York 



Theodore Roosevelt 

Soc. L 



Charles E. Hughes 

J Prank Hanly . 


Soc I. 

Territorial Officers, 1787-1816 

It would follow of necessitj'^ that those public oflfieials who have 
served Indiana must have been able, broad, energetic and far beyond 
the average caliber. If the student of American history, especially 
of state history, will carefully examine the official and political record 
of any of the commonwealths of the Union which have really been 
influential, he will find that each presents a more or less distinct type 
of public servant. A mere mention of !Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, 
Virginia, South Carolina, Kentucky, Iowa, Colorado and California, 
in this connection will be illustrative to the mind of the thoughtful 
historical reader; and Indiana's public men have almost stood forth 
in a class by themselves. 

The breadth, vigor and vitality of such men as Arthur St. Clair 
and William Henrj^ Harrison entered into the life of the young North- 
west and the expanding United States of America to a degree which 


is immeasurable. They, with Gen. "W. Johnston and others, were men 
who did many things thoroughly and wisely. They were called upon 
to be soldiers, diplomats, statesmen ; negotiators for peace both with 
the wily savage and the shrewd white man; to adapt themselves to a 
thousands new conditions and human temperaments. These builders 
of an empire in the wilderness were certainly men to whom the Hoosier 
of today, able and versatile as he is, must give the palm. 

Examine the list. Consult the biographical encyclopedias which 
are accessible, and spend a few profitable hours in becoming acquainted 
with the strong and remarkable men of the territorial period. The 
principal officials of those times are given, as follows : 

Arthur St. Clair, 1787-1800. 

John Gibson (acting), July 4, 1800-January 10, 1801. 

"William Henry Harrison, 1801-1812.1 

Thomas Posey, 1812-1816. 


Winthrop Sargent, 1787-1798. 
William Henry Harrison, 1798-1799. 
Charles W. Byrd, 1799—. 


John Gibson, 1800-1816. 


Peter Jones, commissioned September 5, 1805 ; resigned, 1810. 

William Prince, commissioned April 13, 1810 ; i-esigned, 1813. 

General W. Johnston, commissioned January 20, 1813 ; resigned, 

William Prince, commissioned February 8, 1813; resigned, 1813. 

Davis Floyd, commissioned June 15, 1813 ; served until admission 
of State into Union. 


William Mcintosh, commissioned Februarv 9, 1801 ; removed for 

1 Harrison was appointpil early in the year 1800, but was not sworn i 
office until .Tanuary 10, ISOl. .lolin Gibson, the Secretary of the Territc 
acted as Governor until Harrison's arrival. 


James Johnson, commissioned September 4, 1805 ; resigned, 1813. 
General W. Johnston, commissioned May 29, 1813 ; served until 
State was admitted to Union. 


John Rice Jones, commissioned January 29, 1801 ; resigned, 1804. 

Benjamin Parke, commissioned August 4, 1804; appointed terri- 
torial judge ; elected to first Legislature and then to Congress. 

Thomas Randolph, commissioned June 2, 1808 ; killed at Tippe- 
canoe in 1811. 


Daniel Lymmes, 1794-1804. 
Henry Hurst, 1804-1817. 


John Small, February 4, 1801. 
Daniel Sullivan, August 4, 1812. 
Charles Smith, October 21, 1812. 
Daniel Sullivan, January 14, 1813. 
General W. Johnston, September 10, 1813. 
Waller Taylor, Febniary 24, 1814. 
Allen D. Thom, September 7, 1814. 


Samuel Holden Parsons, October 16, 1787-1790. 

John Armstrong, October 16, 1787. (Declined appointment.) 

James Mitchell Varnum, October 16, 1787. (Died in office, Jan- 
uary 10, 1789.) 

John Cleves Symmes, February 19, 1788-1800. (Took place of 
Armstrong, January 16, 1788.) 


John Cleves Symmes (reappointed), August 20, 1789-1800. 

Samuel Holden Parsons (reappointed), August 20, 1789, to death 
in 1790. 

William Barton, January 10, 1789. (Declined appointment.) 

George Turner, September 12, 1789-Febmari' 1, 1796. (Resigned; 
succeeded William Barton, 1789.) 

Rufus Putnam, March 31, 1790-Deeember, 1796. (Resigned to be- 
come Surveyor-General; succeeded S. H. Pai-sons.) 


Joseph Oilman, December 22, 1796-1800. (Succeeded Rufus Put- 

Return Jonathan Meigs, February 12, 1798-1800. (Succeeded 
George Turner, 1796.) 


William Clarke, July 4, 1800, to death in 1802. 

Henry Vanderburgh, July 4, 1800, to 1816. 

John Griffin, July 4, 1800, to 1816. 

Thomas Terry Davis, 1802-1816. (Succeeded William Clarke.) 


William Henry Harrison, Delegate for Northwest Territory 1799- 

Indiana Territory, had no delegate from 1800-1805. 
Benjamin Parke, 1805-1808. 
Jesse B. Thomas, 1808-1809. 
Jonathan Jennings, 1809-1815. 


First General Assembly met at Cincinnati from September 16, 
1799, to December 19, 1799. 

Edward Tiffin, Speaker House of Representatives. 
Henry Vanderburgh, President of Council. 


First session, July 29, 1805-August 26, 1805. 


Jesse B. Thomas, Speaker. 

Jesse B. Thomas — Dearborn. 
Davis Floyd— Clark. 
Benjamin Parke — Knox. 
John Johnson — Knox. 
Dr. George Fischer — Randolph. 
Shadraek Bond— St. Clair. 
William Biggs— St. Clair. 


Benjamin Chambers, President. 


Benjamin Chambers — Dearborn. 
Samuel Gwathmey — Clark. 
John Rice Jones — Knox. 
Pierre Menard — Randolph. 
John Hay— St. Clair. 

U. S. Senators and State Officers, 1816-1919 

Neither Indiana nor any other state in the Union has invariably 
placed her strongest men in the gubernatorial chair, although insist- 
ence is still made on the claim that altogether her chief executives 
have been as nearly representative of the Hoosier type as was pos- 
sible. As the commonwealth developed, the character of its public men 
also underwent a change, but such great governors as Oliver P. Mor- 
ton and Thomas A. Hendricks, while cultured and rounded men, also 
retained many of the ragged traits of the territorial officials, so neces- 
sary to accomplish the work of their times. 

Later Governor Morton served Indiana in the United States Senate 
and Governor Hendricks had already been a member of the iipper 
house of Congi-ess. The unique Daniel "W. Voorhees followed the war 
governor in the Senate; and what state could have produced him 
but Indiana? And the brilliant Albert J. Beveridge, as well as the 
ubiquitous Tom Taggart, United States scnatoi-s from Indiana — no 
American could ever mistake them for anything but Hoosiers. So the 
official lists might be analyzed in detail ; but they are left here as a 
matter of valuable record. 


James Noble, from 1816 to 1831 (died). 
Waller Taylor, from 1816 to 1825. 
William Hendricks, from 1825 to 1837. 
Robert Hanna (appointed, vice Noble), 1831. 
John Tipton (appointed), from 1831 to 1833. 
John Tipton, from 1833 to 1839. 
Oliver H. Smith, from 1837 to 1843. 
Albert S. White, from 1839 to 1845. 
Edward A. Hainiegan, from 1843 to 1849. 
Jesse D. Bright, from 1846 to 1862.^ 

^Expollpcl Frbninrv 5, 1 S(i2. (Viu-anev mic vear, 1S4.').) 


James Whiteomb, from 1849 to 1852.3 

Charles W. Cathcart (appointed, vice Whiteomb), from 1852 to 

John Petit, from 1853 to 1855. 

Graham N. Pitch, from 1857 to 1861.^ 

Joseph A. Wright (appointed, vice Bright), from 1862 to 1863. 

Henry S. Lane, from 1861 to 1867. 

David Tm-pie, 1863. (Unexpired tenn of Bright.) 

Thomas A. Hendricks, from 1863 to 1869. 

Oliver P. Morton, from 1867 to 1877 (died). 

Daniel D. Pratt, from 1869 to 1875. 

Joseph E. McDonald, from 1875 to 1881. 

Daniel W. Voorhees (appointed, vice Morton), from 1877 to 1879. 

Daniel W. Voorhees, from 1879 to 1897. 

Benjamin Harrison, from 1881 to 1887. 

David Turpie, from 1887 to 1899. 

Charles W. Fairbanks, from 1897 to 1905.^ 

Albert J. Beveridge, from 1899 to 1911. 

James A. Hemeuway, from 1905 to 1909. 

Benjamin F. Shively, from 1909 to March 15, 1916." 

John W. Kei-n, from 1911 to 1917. 

Tom Taggart, from March 20, 1916, to 1917. 

Harry New, from 1917 to . 

James E. Watson, from 1917 to . 


Jonathan Jennings, from 1816 to 1822.^ 

Ratliff Boone, from September 12 to December 5, 1822. 

William Hendricks, from 1822 to 1825.* 

James B. Ray (acting), February 12 to December 11, 1825. 

3 Died, and was succeeded by .lohii I'otit. 

* The position remained vacant for two years, and was filled by election of 
Abraham N. Fitch, 1857. 

5 Charles W. Fairbanks resigned March 4, 1905, having been elected Vice- 
President; James A. Hemenway elected to succeed. 

8 Benjamin F. Shively died and Toiu Taggart appointed by Governor 

^ Jonathan Jennings, having been elected to Congress before the end of 
his second term, resigned the office of Governor September 12, 1822, and was 
succeeded by RatlifE Boone, who served until December 5th of the same year. 

8 Governor Hendricks having been elected a Senator of the United States, 
resigned his office on the 12th day of February, 1825, and was succeeded by 
James B. Eay, the President of the State Senate, who served as Governor 
during the remainder of the term. 


James B. Ray, from 1825 to 1831. 

Noah Noble, from 1831 to 1837. 

David Wallace, from 1837 to 1840. 

Samuel Bigger, from 1840 to 1843. 

James Whitcomb, from 1843 to 1848.9 

Paris C. Dunning (acting), from 1848 to 1849. 

Joseph A. Wright, from 1849 to 1857. 

Ashbel P. Willard, from 1857 to I86O.10 

Abram A. Hammond (acting), from 1860 to 1861. 

Henry S. Lane, from January 14 to January 16, 1861. ^^ 

Oliver P. Morton (acting), from 1861 to 1865. 

Oliver P. Morton, from 1865 to 1867.1^ 

Conrad Baker (acting), from 1867 to 1869. 

Conrad Baker, from 1869 to 1873. 

Thomas A. Hendricks, from 1873 to 1877. 

James D. Williams, from 1877 to 1880. ^s 

Isaac P. Gray (acting), from 1880 to 1881. 

Albert G. Porter, from 1881 to 1885. 

Isaac P. Gray, from 1885 to 1889. 

Alvin P. Hovey, from 1889 to 1891." 

Ira J. Chase (acting), from November 24, 1891, to January 9, 1893. 

Claude Matthews, from 1893 to 1897. 

James A. Mount, from 1897 to 1901. 

Winfield T. Durbin, from 1901 to 1905. 

J. Frank Hanly, from 1905 to 1909. 

Thomas R. Marshall, from 1909 to 1913. 

Samuel M. Ralston, from 1913 to 1917. 

James P. Goodrich, from 1917 to 1921. 

9 Governor Whitcomb was elected a Senator of the United States December 
27, 1848, and Paris C. Dunning, Lieutenant-Governor, served as Governor 
during the remainder of the term. 

10 Governor Willard died on the third day of October, 1860, and Abram A. 
Hammond, the Lieutenant-Governor, served as Governor during the remainder 
of the term. 

11 Governor Lane was elected a Senator of the United States January 16, 
1861, and Oliver P. Morton, the Lieutenant-Governor, served as Governor the 
remainder of the term. 

12 Governor Oliver P. Morton was elected Senator of the United States on 
the 23d day of January, 1867. On the day following he resigned his office, 
and Conrad Baker, the Lieutenant-Governor, served as Governor during the 
remainder of the term. 

13 Governor Williams died November 20, 1880, and Isaac P. Gray, Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, served as Governor the remainder of the term. 

n Governor Hovey died November 23, 1891, and Lieutenant-Governor Ira 
J. Chase served as Governor the remainder of the term. 



Christopher Hamson, from 1816 to 1819. 
Ratliff Boone, from 1819 to 1825. 
John H. Thompson, from 1825 to 1828. 
Milton Stapp, from 1828 to 1831. 
David Wallace, from 1831 to 1837. 
David Hillis, from 1837 to 1840. 
Samuel Hall, from 1840 to 1843. 
Jesse D. Bright, from 1843 to 1845.1!^ 
Godlove S. Orth (acting), 1845. 
James G. Reed (acting), 1846. 
Paris C. Dunning, from 1846 to 1848. 
James G. Reed (acting), 1849. 
James H. Line, from 1849 to 1853. 
Ashbel P. Willard, from 1853 to 1857. 
Abram A. Hammond, from 1857 to 1860. 
Oliver P. Morton, from January 14 to Januai-y 16, 1861. 
John R. Cravens (acting), from 1861 to 1863.»6 
Paris C. Dunning (acting), from 1863 to 1865. 
Conrad Baker, from 1865 to 1867. 
Will Cumback (acting), from 1867 to 1869. 
Will Cumback, from 1869 to 1872. 
George W. Friedley (acting), from 1872 to 1873. 
Leonida.s Sexton, from 1873 to 1877. 
Isaac P. Gray, from 1877 to 1880. 
Frederick W. Viehe (acting), 1881. 
Thomas Hanna, from 1881 to 1885. 
Mahlon D. Manson, from 1885 to 1887." 
Robert S. Robertson, from 1887 to 1889. 
Ira J. Chase, from 1889 to November 24, 1891.i« 
Francis M. Griffith, Pi-esident pro tem. of Senate (acting), Lieii- 
tenant-Governor from 1891 to 1893. 
Mortimer Nye, from 1893 to 1897. 
William S. Haggard, from 1897 to 1901. 

15 Jesse D. Bright was elected to the Senate of the United States March 6, 

16 Henry S. Lane resigned as Governor and was elected United States 
Senator. Oliver P. Morton succeeded Lane, and John R. Cravens, the Presi- 
dent of the Senate, acted as Lieutenant-Governor. 

17 Vacated office by qualifying as Revenue Collector. 

IS Lieutenant-Governor Chase assumed the duties of Ga\'ernor November 
24, 1891. 


Newton W. Gilbert, from 1901 to 1905. 
Hugh T. Miller, from 1905 to 1909. 
Frank J. Hall, from 1909 to 1913. 
William P. O'Neill, from 1913 to 1917. 
Edgar D. Bush, from 1917 to 1921. 


Robert A. New, from 1816 to 1825. 

"William W. Week, from 1825 to 1829. 

James Morrison, from 1829 to 1833. 

William Sheets, from 1833 to 1837. 

William J. Brown, from 1837 to 1841. 

William Sheets, from 1841 to 1845. 

John H. Thompson, 1845 to 1849. 

Charles H. Test, from 1849 to 1853. 

Nehemiah Hayden, from 1853 to 1855. 

Erasmus B. Collins, from 1855 to 1857. 

Daniel McClure, from 1857 to 1859 (resigned). 

Cyrus L. Dunham, from 1859 to 1861. 

William A. Peelle, from 1861 to 1863. 

James S. Athon, from 1863 to 1865. 

Nelson Trusler, from 1865 to 1869. 

Max F. A. Hoffman, from 1869 to 1871. 

Norman Eddy, from 1871 to 1872 (died). 

John H. Farquhar, from 1872 to 1873. 

William W. Curry, from 1873 to 1875. 

John E. Neff, from 1875 to 1879. 

John G. Shanklin, from 1879 to 1881. 

Emanuel R. Hawn, from 1881 to 1883. 

William R. Myers, from 1883 to 1887. 

Charles P. Griffin, from 1887 to 1891. 

Claude Matthews, from 1891 to January 9, 1893.i» 

Myron D. King, from January 9, 1893, to Januarj- 17, 1893. 

William R. Myers, from 1893 to 1895. 

William D. Owen, from 1895 to 1899. 

Union B. Hunt, from 1899 to 1903. 

Daniel E. Storms, from 1903 to April 1, 1906.20 

Fred A. Sims, from 1906 to 1910. 

19 Claude Matthews was inaugurated Governor January 9, 1893, and Myron 
D. King was appointed Secretary of State for the unexpired term. 

20 Daniel E. Storms resigned April 1, 1906, and Fred A. Sims was appointed 
for the unexpired term. 


L. G. Ellingham, from 1910 to 1914. 
Homer L. Cook, from 1914 to 1916. 
Ed Jackson, from 1916 to November 27, 1917. 
William A. Roach, from 1917 to .-^ 


William H. Lilley, from 1816 to 1828. 

Benjamin I. Blythe, from 1828 to 1829. 

Morris Morris, from 1829 to 1844. 

Horatio J. Harris, from 1844 to 1847. 

Douglas Maguire, from 1847 to 1850. 

Erastus W. H. Ellis, from 1850 to 1853. 

John P. Dunn, from 1853 to 1855. 

Hiram E. Talbott, from 1855 to 1857. 

John W. Dodd, from 1857 to 1861. 

Albert Lange, from 1861 to 1863. 

Joseph Ristine, from 1863 to 1865. 

Thomas P. McCarthy, from 1865 to 1869. 

John D. Evans, from 1869 to 1871. 

John C. Shoemaker, from 1871 to 1873. 

James A. Wildman, from 1873 to 1875. 

Ebenezer Henderson, from 1875 to 1879. 

Mahlon D. Manson, from 1879 to 1881. 

Edward H. Wolfe, from 1881 to 1883. 

James H. Rice, from 1883 to 1887. 

Bruce Carr, from 1887 to 1891. 

John 0. Henderson, from 1891 to 1895. 

Americus C. Daily, from 1895 to 1899. 

William H. Hart, from 1899 to 1903. 

David E. Sherrick, from 1903 to September 14, 1905.2= 

Warren Bigler, 1905 to 1906. 

John C. Billheimer, 1906 to 1910. 

William H. O'Brien, from 1910 to 1914. 

Dale J. Crittenberger, from 1914 to 1916. 

Otto Klauss, from 1916 to 1918. 


Daniel C. Lane, from 1816 to 1823. 
Samuel Merrill, from 1823 to 1835. 

21 Appointed December 21, 1917, to fill unexpired term of Ed Jackson, 
resigned to enter army. 

" I>avid E. Sherrick resigned and Warren Bigler was appointed for the 
unexpired term. 


Nathan B. Palmer, from 1835 to 1841. 
George H. Dunn, from 1841 to 1844. 
Royal Mayhew, from 1844 to 1847. 
Samuel Hannah, from 1847 to 1850. 
James P. Drake, from 1850 to 1853. 
Elijah Newland, from 1853 to 1855. 
William R. Nofsinger, from 1855 to 1857. 
Aquilla Jones, from 1857 to 1859. 
Nathaniel F. Cunningham, from 1859 to 1861. 
Jonathan S. Harvey, from 1861 to 1863. 
Matthew L. Brett, from 1863 to 1865. 
John I. Morrison, from 1865 to 1867. 
Nathan Kimball, from 1867 to 1871. 
James B. Ryan, from 1871 to 1873. 
John B. Glover, from 1873 to 1875. 
Benjamin C. Shaw, from 1875 to 1879. 
William Fleming, from 1879 to 1881. 
Roswell S. Hill, from 1881 to 1883. 
John J. Cooper, from 1883 to 1887. 
Julius A. Lemcke, from 1887 to 1891. 
Albert Gall, from 1891 to 1895. 
Frederick J. Seholz, from 1895 to 1899. 
Leopold Levy, from 1899 to 1903. 
Nathaniel U. Hill, from 1903 to 1907. 
Osear Hadley, from 1907 to 1910. 
William H. VoUmer, from 1910 to 1915. 
George A. Bittler, from 1915 to 1916. 
Uz McMurtrie, from 1916 to . 


James Morrison, from March 5, 1855. 

Joseph E. McDonald, from December 17, 1856. 

James G. Jones, from December 17, 1860 (died). 

John P. Usher (appointed), from November 10, 1861 (resigned). 

John F. Kibby (appointed), from March 19, 1862. 

Oscar B. Hord, from November 3, 1862. 

Delana E. Williamson, from November 3, 1864. 

Bayless W. Hanna, from November 3, 1870. 

James C. Denny, from November 6, 1872. 

Clarence A. Buskirk, from November 6, 1874. 

Thomas W. Woollen, from November 6, 1878. 

Daniel P. Baldwin, from November 6, 1880. 


Francis T. Hord, from 1882 to 1886. 

Louis T. Michener, from 1886 to 1890. 

Alonzo G. Smith, from 1890 to 1894. 

William A. Keteham, from 1894 to 1898. 

William L. Taylor, from 1898 to 1903. 

Charles W. Miller, from 1903 to 1907. 

James Bingham, from 1907 to 1911. 

Thomas M. Honan, from 1911 to 1915. 

Richard M. Milburn, from January 1, 1915, to November 9, 1915.2* 

Evan B. Stotsenburg, from November 11, 1915, to 1917. 

Ele Stansbury, from 1917 to . 


William C. Larrabee, from 1852 to 1855. 

Caleb Mills, from 1855 to 1857. 

William C. Larrabee, from 1857 to 1859. 

Samuel L. Rugg, from 1859 to 1861. 

Miles J. Fletcher, from 1861 to 1862. 

Samuel K. Hoshour (appointed), from 1862. 

Samuel L. Rugg, from 1865 to 1869. 

George W. Hoss, from 1865 to 1869. 

Barnabas C. Hobbs, from 1869 to 1871. 

Milton B. Hopkins, from 1871 to 1874 (died). 

Alexander C. Hopkins (appointed), from 1874 to 1875. 

James H. Smart, from 1875 to 1881. 

John M. Bloss, from 1881 to 1883. 

John W. Holcombe, from 1883 to 1887. 

Harvey M. LaFollette, from 1887 to 1891. 

Hervey D. Voris, from 1891 to 1895. 

David M. Geeting, from 1895 to 1899. 

Frank L. Jones, from 1899 to 1903. 

Fassett A. Cotton, from 1903 to 1909. 

Robert J. Aley, from 1909 to January 1, 1910 

Charles A. Greathouse, from 1910 to 1917. 

Horace Ellis, from 1917 to . 


David Dale Owen, from 1837 to 1838. 
Ryland T. Brown, from 1853 to 1859. 
David Dale Owen, 1859. 

2s Richard M. Milburn died and Evan B. Stotsenburg was appointed b» 
Governor Ralston. 


Richard Owen, from 1859 to 1861. 

Edward T. Cox, from 1869 to 1879. 

John Collett, from 1879 to 1881. 

John Collett, from 1881 to 1885. 

James Maurice Thompson, from 1885 to 1888. 

Sylvester S. Gorby, from 1888 to 1890. 

Sylvester S. Gorby, 1890 to 1894. 

Willis S. Blatehley, from 1894 to 1910. 

Edward Barrett, from 1910 to . 


Stephen Ranney, February 14, 1817. 

Henry P. Coburn, December 24, 1819. 

Stephen Ranney, December 5, 1822. ^ 

Thomas Posey, September 3, 1823. 

J. Landis. 

Douglas Magnire. 

David Reynolds, during Mexican war. 

David Reynolds, January 16, 1850. 

William A. Morrison, June 12, 1857. 

Lewis Wallace, April 15, 1861. 

John M. Wallace, April 26, 1861. 

Lazarus Noble, May 27, 1861. 

W. H. H. Terrell, November 12, 1864. 

James C. Veatch, May 20, 1869. 

John C. Greenawalt, 1870. 

William W. Conner, January, 1873. 

George W. Russ, January, 1877. 

James R. Canahan, 1881 to 1885. 

George W. Krontz, 1885 to 1889. 

Nicholas R. Ruckle, 1889 to 1893. 

Irvin Robbins, 1893 to 1897. 

James K. Gore, 1897 to 1901. 

John R. Ward, 1901 to 1905. 

Oran Perry, 1905 to 1910. 

George W. McCoy, 1910 to 1914. 

Franklin L. Bridges, 1914 to 1917. 

Harry B. Smith, 1917 to . 

The Constitutional Convention of 1816 

The entire development of Indiana as a state has been accomplished 
under two constitutions — those formulated in 1816 and 1850-51. Ad- 


mission had been asked of the Twelfth Congress (1811-12), and in 
order to ascertain if the territory had the required number of inhab- 
itants entitling it to statehood a census was taken in 1815. The result 
was to disclose the fact that not onlj- had the required 35.000 people 
became residents of Indiana, but that 63,897 had enrolled themselves 
as Hoosierites; so that the territory was entitled to statehood with a 

The successive steps by which that end was attained were : Adop- 
tion by Congress of the memorial asking the admission of Indiana into 
the Union, December 11, 1815 ; act enabling the people, through their 
accredited representatives, to adopt a state constitution and form of 
government, approved April 19, 1816 ; election of delegates to the con- 
vention to be organized for that purpose, May 13, 1816 ; adoption of 
the state constitution, June 29, 1816, and the formal admission of the 
state into the Union, on December 11th of that year. 

The convention which framed the constitution consisted of forty- 
three delegates, apportioned as follows: Wa}^le, 4; Franklin, 5; 
Dearborn, 3 ; Gibson, 4 ; Perry, 1 ; Switzerland, 1 ; Jefferson, 3 ; Clark, 
5 ; Posey, 1 ; Washington, 5 ; Harrison, 5 ; Knox, 5 ; Warrick, 1. Offi- 
cers of the convention: President, Jonathan Jennings; secretary, 
William Hendricks ; doorkeeper, Henry Batman. The delegates assem- 
bled at Corydon, Harrison County, June 10th, and adjourned on the 
29th of that month. The constitution was not submitted to the people 
for their ratification, but was approved by Congi'ess. The instrument 
was never amended, and remained in force until November 1, 1851. 

The Constitutional Convention of 1850-51 

The people of Indiana decided, at an election held on August 6, 

1849, that their old constitution was obsolete. They did not ask for 
amendments, but for an entirely new instrument — and in no uncer- 
tain voice. The Yea vote amounted to 81,500, and the Nay, to only 
57,418. The delegates to the convention were elected about a year 
afterward, on August 5, 1850. 

The convention, which met at Indianapolis, on the 7th of October, 

1850, consisted of 50 senatorial and 100 representative delegates, the 
apportionment of the delegates having been based on members returned 
to the various counties in the State Legislature. As to political com- 
plexion, ninety-five of the delegates were democrats and fifty-five were 
whigs. The officers of the convention were as follows: President. 
George W. Carr, Lawrence County; secretary, William H. English; 
assistant secretaries, Robert M. Evans, Hai-man G. Barkwell and 


George L. Sites ; sergeant-at-arms, Samuel MeKinzey ; doorkeeper, 
Samuel J. Johnston. Elias S. Murray was the senatorial delegate who 
represented Huntington, Kosciusko and Whitley counties, and James 
Garvin was sent from the lower house as the member from Kosciusko 
County. Murray was a whig and Garvin a democrat. 

After remaining in session for 127 days, the convention adjourned 
on February 10, 1851. When the constitution was completed, the 
enrolled copy was deposited with the secretary of state, and it was 
published in full in three separate issues of the Indiana State Sen- 
tinel, the Indiana State Journal and the Statesman. The convention 
also issued an address to the electors of the state in which was sum- 
marized the most important changes from the old constitution. The 
electors were permitted to vote on the ratification or rejection of the 
constitution as a whole and on the article relative to the exclusion, civil 
disabilities and colonization of negroes and mulattoes. 

The election was held on August 4, 1851, and resulted in a vote of 
113,230 being cast in favor of the new constitution and 27,638 against 
it ; the article regarding negroes and mulattoes was carried by 113,828 
to 21,873. Governor Joseph A. Wright therefore issued his proclama- 
tion, September 3, 1851, declaring the constitution in force on and 
after the first of the following November. 

Amendments to the Constitution 

Since the adoption of the constitution of 1851 many amendments 
to it have been proposed but only a few adopted. In 1873 Article X 
on Finance was amended by the addition of Section 7, by which the 
state refused to be held liable for any stock issued to pay for the 
completion of the Wabash & Erie Canal to Evanston. But 1881 was 
the star year for amendments, seven being passed during that period. 
They related chiefly to suffrage qualifications and election regulations ; 
enumeration of inhabitants and apportionment of members of the 
Assembly ; restricting the Assembly in the passage of special laws and 
forbidding that body to legislate on various specified subjects to which 
general laws could apply ; limiting the indebtedness of any political or 
municipal corporation within the state to two per cent of its taxable 
property, and excluding negroes and mulattoes from settlement in 
the state, as well as declaring void all contracts made with them, all 
fines imposed for a violation of the provisions of the last-named amend- 
ment being appropriated for the colonization of such persons. 

Two amendments to the constitution were proposed by the Gen- 
eral Assembly of 1917. One of them forbade the General Assembly to 



create any office with a longer term than four years, and made it un- 
constitutional to increase the term or salary of any official before the 
expiration of his period of service. The second conferred the right 
of suffrage on females at least twenty-one years of age, who should 
have resided specified lengths of time in state, township, ward or 

These amendments were referred to the General Assembly of 1919. 
If acted upon favorably they will be referred to the electors at the 
general election of 1920, or at a special election held prior thereto. 

There is a strong movement abroad for the calling of a convention 
to formulate a new constitution for the progressive state of Indiana, 
the impression prevailing among many of its ablest men and women 
that such a course would be preferable than the attempt to add to 
the existing instrument the- numerous amendments which have been 

The Counties and Their Names 

The reader of average intelligence need not be informed as to the 
origin of the names of many of the Indiana counties; on the other 
hand, the sources of many of them are known to but a comparative 
few, and it would be the rare exception to find any one person who 
could pass an examination on this subject with a perfect percentage. 
With other invaluable matter, the Indiana Year Book has collated this 
information, which, as contained in the following table, is self-ex- 
planatory : 



BUi-Jcford . . 

Clirk .. 
Clay ... 

Dekalb . 

of New York. 

Benton, U. 
Isaac Blackford. 
Daniel Boone 

Brown of War of 1812 

Charles Carroll of Maryland 

Gen. Lewis Cass. Gorernor of Michigan 

Gen. George Rogers Clark 

Henry Clay 

DeWitt Clinton, Goyernc 
Col. William Crawford 

Joseph Daiiess 

Henry Dearborn. Secretary of War. 

Commodore Stephen Decatur 

Dekalb .,', 

Delaware Indian Tribe 

Toussaint Dubois 

Elkhart Indian Tribe 

uis de LaFayette 

John Floyd of Virginia 

Major Fountain of Kentucky 

Benjamin Franklin 

Robert Fulton ' 

Date of 


County Seat 







Ft Wayne 







Hartford City 



























N-ew Albany 








became effertive 13 not 



Origin of Name 

Date of Organization 

County Seat 


John Gibson, Governor of Indiana Territory 

April 1, 




Captains Samuel and Moses Grant of Kentucky 

April 1. 



Gen. Nathaniel Greene 

Feb. 5, 



S^lion" '.'.'.'.'. 

Alexander Hamilton 

April 7, 




John Hancock 

March 1, 




Wm. Henry Harrison, Territorial GoTornor 

Dw. 1, 



Wm. Hendricks, Governor of Indiana 

April 1. 




Patrick Henry 

Juno 1, 




Gen. T. A. Howard 

Jan. 15, 




Samuel Huntington 

Dec. 2, 




Gen. Andrew Jackson 

Jan. 1, 



Sergeant Jasper of South Carolina 

March 15, 




John Jay, Governor of New York 

March I, 



Thomas Jefferson 

Feb. 1, 




lonathan Jennings. First Governor of Indiana 

Feb. 1. 


Judge John Johnson, Supremo Court of Indiana 

Mai- J. 




General Knoi, Secretary of War 

Juno 20. 




Kosciusko, Pohsh hero of American Revolution 

June 1, 



.Name of Lafayette's homo near Paris 

April 1, 



Derived from Lake Michigan 

French, meaning the "door" or "port" 

Crown Point 


April l! 



Capt. James La«Tence 

March 1, 




lames Madison 

July 1, 




General Francis Marion 

April 1, 




Chief JusUce John Marshall 

April 1, 




Major ,7ohn P. Martin of Kentucky 

Feb. I. 


.\Uami Indian Tribe 

March 1, 




James Monroe 

April 10. 



Montgomery ... 

General Richard Montgomery 

March 1. 




General Daniel Morgan 

Feb. 15, 



Sergeant John Newton 




James Noble. First U. S. Senator from Indiana.... 

M'arch l! 




Ohio River 

March 1. 


Rising Sun 


Orange County. North Carolina 

Feb. 1, 




Col. Abraham Owen, fell at Tippecanoe 

Jan. 1, 




Benjamin Parke, first territorial delegate to Congress 

April 2, 




Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry 

Nov. 1, 




General Zebulon M. Pike 

Feb. 1, 



Commodore David Porter, War of 1812 

Feb. 1, 



General Thomas Posey 

Nov. 1, 



count Casimer Ptilaski of tlie American Revolution.. 

Jlay B. 



General Israel Putnam 

April 1, 




Either Thomas Randolph or Randolph County, North 


Aug. 10. 



General E. W. Ripley, War of 1812 

April 10, 




Dr. Benjamin Hush 

April 1, 


General Charles Scott. Governor of Kentucky 

Isaac Shelby 

Feb. 1. 
April 1, 





Captain Spier Spencer 

Feb. 1. 




General Starke 

Jan. 1.5. 



St. Joseph 

St, Joseph River 

April 1. 


South Beiul 

Baron Steuben of the Revolutionary War 

May 1. 



General Daniel Sullivan 

Jan. 15, 




S»-itzerland. native land of first settlers 

Oct. 1. 



Tippecanoe River and Battleground 

March 1. 




General John Tipton 

May 1, 



Symbolical of Union of interests 

Feb. 1, 


Vanderburgh ".'. 

Henry Vanderburgli, a territorial judge 

Feb. 1, 



Vermillion .... 

Vermillion River 

Feb. 1. 




Colonel Francis Vigo 

Feb. 15, 


Ten-e Haute 


Wabash River 

March 1, 




General Joseph Warren of Revolution 

March 1, 




Captain Jacob Warrick 

April 1, 


Washington ... 

George Washington 

Jan. 17, 




General Anthony Wayne 

Feb. 1, 




Captain Wm. A. Wells 

May 1, 




Colonel Isaac White 

April 1, 




Colonel William Wiitley 

Jan. 29. 


Columbia Citv 

.\ct as date that 

Official St.vte Flower and Flag 

By legislative enactment, Indiana has both a State Flower and a 
State Flag. In 1913 a measure was passed thi-ongh the General As- 


sembly giving the floral honor to the carnation, brilliant and rich in 
color and exhaling the spicy fragrance, yet charged with a certain 
restfulness, suggestive of Riley, and Field, and others who have been 
pronounced true sons of Indiana. 

The Legislature of 1917 adopted a state flag, consisting of a blue 
field 5 feet 6 inches long by 4 feet and 4 inches wide, on which is a 
flaming torch in gold or buff with nineteen stars. Thirteen stars are 
arranged in an outer circle representative of the original states, and 
five stars in a half-circle below the torch and inside the outer circle 
of stars represent the states admitted to the Union prior to Indiana. 
The nineteenth star, appreciably larger than the others and placed 
above the flame of the torch, is symbolic of the Hoosier state. The 
word Indiana is placed in a half circle over and above the larger star 
I'epresenting the state, and midway between it and the star directly in 
the middle of the outer circle. Rajs are shown radiating from the 
torch to the three stars on each side of the star in the upper center 
of the circle. 

Indiana State Song 

"On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away," is the Hoosier State 
Song which, by general consent, has been adopted as expressive of the 
homely homey sentiment which is typical of the people of Indiana. 
Both the words and the music were written by Paul Dresser, and the 
former are incomplete and somewhat colorless without the accompany- 
ing melod}'. The words ran thus: 

'Round my Indiana homestead wave the cornfields, 
In the distance loom the woodlands clear and cool, 
Oftentimes my tho'ts revert to scenes of childhootl. 
Where I first received my lessons — nature's school. 
But one thing there is missing in the picture. 
Without her face it seems^so incomplete, 
I long to see my mother in the dooi*way. 
As she stood there years ago, her boy to greet. 


Oh, the moonlight's fair tonight along the Wabash, 
From the fields there comes the breath of new-mown hay, 
Through the sycamores the candle lights are gleaming. 
On the banks of the Wabasli, fai- away. 


Many years have passed since I strolled by the river, 

Arm in arm, with sweetheart Mary by my side, 

It was there I tried to tell her that I loved her, 

It was there I begged of her to be my bride. 

Long years have passed since I strolled thro ' the churchyard. 

She's sleeping there, my angel, Mary dear; 

I loved her but she thought I didn't mean it, 

Still I'd give my future were she only here. 



Elkhart County Organized — Kosciusko Attached to It — Divided 
INTO Townships — Turkey Creek Township Set Off — Plain 
Township Considered a Prize — Rosseau and Ossem — Other 
Pioneers of the Prairies — Elijah Harlan — John B. Chapman 
— The Pioneer Mills — Early Township Surveys and Sur- 
veyors — Pioneers op Turkey Creek Township — John Powell, 
First Prairie Township Settler — Other Settlers of 1833 — 
Settlers of Van Buren Ante-Dating 1836 — Village of Milford 
Platted — James Woodden, Pioneer of Harrison Township — 
The Rise of Leesburg — As County's Seat of Justice — Prom- 
inent Men of Plain Township — The Harl-\n Family — The 
Erwins — John Thompson — Abraham Cunningham Locates on 
Bone Prairie — Fifteen Days' Overland Trip in Indiana — The 
Old-Time Neighborly Welcome — Union Labor Without Union 
Hours — Henry Rippey- — The First Schoolhouse and Teacher 
— William C. Graves — The Blaines of Leesburg — The Tippe- 
canoe Lake Region — First Religious Services and Preachers 

As noted, the treaty of 1833 confined the Miamis and Pottawato- 
mies of Northern Indiana and Kosciusko County to specified areas, or 
reservations, and thereby threw the country open to the secure settle- 
ment of the whites. Flatbelly, Wawwaesse and Musquawbuck were 
prominent figures in the general negotiations, on the part of the In- 
dians, and Jonathan Jennings, president of the United States Com- 
mission and ex-governor of Indiana, and Gen. John Tipton, Indian 
agent, for the whites. The conclusion of the treaty made in the fall 
of 1832 and ratified in January, 1833, made it feasible to define the 
boundaries of the new county of Kosciusko, which was split off from 
Elkhart, and soon afterward to give it a distinct political organization. 

In the meantime, as a few people had located south of the defined 
boundaries of Elkhart County, and more were waiting for the Indian 
question to be settled before they ventured therein, it was necessary 
to provide at least a thin civil and legal blanket to protect the resi- 
dents of the unorganized country. 

Pioneer Firej'lace and HoisEiioEn Articles 


Elkhart County Organized 

Under the act of the Legislature organizing the County of Elk- 
hart, an election was held in the spring of 1830, at which was chosen 
its first officers and Board of Justices. In June of that year the gov- 
erning board of the county met in a cabin nearly opposite the mouth 
of the Elkhart River, within the limits of the present city of that 
name, that location having been designated as the seat of justice. 

Divided into Townships 

One of the first acts of the Board of Justice was the division of 
the county into Concord and Elkhart townships. The former com- 
prised six of the northernmost townships of today, with the exception 
of York and Middlebury, which were included in Elkhart. So that 
Elkhart Township, as organized in 1830, was much larger than Con- 
cord; and it not only included the bulk of Elkhart County, as now 
constituted, but for voting and other purposes were attached La- 
Grange, Noble and Steuben counties on the east and Kosciusko County 
on the south. 

Turkey Creek Township Set Off ' 

In May, 1833, the commissioners made the following order: "That 
all territoiy lying south of Elkhart County and attached thereto be 
designated and set apart and known by the name of Turkey Creek 
Township." Thus the old Elkhart Township was again limited, and 
in 1835 Turkey Creek Township became Kosciusko County, the limits 
of which were formally defined during that year. 

"While the treaty of 1832-33 was pending," says James W. Arm- 
strong in his history of Plain Township, many in Elkhai't and Wabash 
counties, and other of the earlier settlements, were waiting anxiously 
for the time to come when the newly acquired lands should be put on 
the market. Some of them had been on prospecting tours through 
Plain Township (Prairie Township at that time was a part of Plain), 
and were anxious to take up claims, and the consecpience was a perfect 
rush from these older settlements. 

Plain Townsiiii- Considered a Prize 

"The prairies of Plain Township were a prize in the eyes of the 
first settlers, from the fact that they wei-e all ready for the l)reaking 


plow. The first crop of corn was planted by dropping the seed in 
the furrow behind the plow, and this was covered by the upturned 
sod of the next round of the plow. No further attention was given 
it until fall, when a bountiful crop was gathered, so rich was the 
virgin soil of the prairies. 

"A gentleman who came to Plain Township from York state, in 
writing to his friends at home about the productiveness of our prairies, 
said the stalks from the first planting of corn grew to from eight to 
ten feet high, bearing ears from twelve to fifteen inches long and pro- 
portionally large in circumference, and if it were not for the clouds 
of mosquitoes which came from the low grounds, filling the air at 
night and making sleep almost impossible, it would be a veritable 
paradise. These natural advantages made claims in Plain Township 
a thing especially to be desired-" 


Kosciusko Country is no exception to the general rule that the set- 
tlement of the dispute as to who was its first settler hinges on the 
definition of the term. Rosseau, the old French trader, and Henry 
Ossem were undoubtedly the first to locate within its present limits, 
but they were considered more as mercantile adventurers, who had 
no intention of becoming permanent citizens and giving their energies 
to the upbuilding of any special community. 

Rosseau was one of the most noted of the French traders in North- 
ern Indiana, and was perhaps better known in Elkhart than in Kos- 
ciusko County. Of him it has been written by an author of the 
former: "The old French trader, Rosseau, was the connecting link 
between the old and the new dispensations, appearing on Elkhart 
Prairie to the southeast of what is now Goshen in 1815. The war with 
England had been concluded, France was no longer a power in the 
new world, and here was Rosseau, a friend to both whites and reds, 
a master of the art of barter and trade, the first of his race to make a 
home within the bounds of the county, and yet who lived therein long 
enough to see the end of the Pottawatomies in that region, and its 
permanent occupancy by the energetic and forehanded white pioneer 
of the East." 

It is said that Rosseau located in an Indian village situated in 
Plain Township. He subsequently married Miss Aggie Erwin, daugh- 
ter of Charles Erwin, and moved to Leesburg. Rosseau died in his 
home situated on the lot now occupied by the Methodist church, De- 
cember 5, 1845, at the age of forty-six. 


Henry Ossein made his headquarters at the Indian village located 
on the present site of Oswego and it is said accompanied the Indians 
to the West. 

As far as settlement south of the Elkhart River is concerned, 
Thomas Hall has been awarded the prize of priority, but he first 
located on Turkey Creek in Elkhart County and did not come within 
the limits of Kosciusko until after a number of families had settled 

Other Pioneers of the Prairies 

W. B. and I. R. Bain are credited with being the pioneer mer- 
chants in the northern part of Bone Prairie, which was in the fall 
of 1834. They came from Greenfield, Ohio, and subsequently moved 
from their first location to a lot leased of Levi Lee. This was the first 
store established for the convenience of white settlers and was the 
center of a settlement which developed into Leesburg. When the 
village was laid out by Mr. Lee in August, 1835, Rosseau moved 
thither the goods which he carried in his Indian, trading. 
. It is evident that most of the real pioneers of the county first 
settled in the Turkey Creek region of Plain Township. In Februarj', 
1832, three years before the town was platted, Elijah Harlan and 
John Rumley had built their two cabins on the creek prairie, and the 
Moores, friends of theirs, occupied the Rumley house in the absence 
of its owner. Harlan had remained as a neighbor. During 1833 
they were joined by Samuel Stookey, William Shelly, Charles Erwin, 
John B. Chapman, John Colyer, Jr., and Jacob and jgaac KirkendalL 

Elijah Harlan 

Mr. Harlan was of Quaker stock, although his father was a soldier 
m the War of 1812 and died in service, leaving a widow and nine small 
children. Elijah, who was of Ohio birth, was then but six years of 
age. When a youth he moved to Henry County, Indiana ; with his 
mother and other members of the family, afterward settled near 
Goshen, Elkhart County, and in the winter of 1832-33 was one of the 
prospectors in the Turkey Creek country. He concluded to preempt 
land on the Prairie, and accordingly built a squatter's cabin about a 
mile north of the present site of Leesburg, and moved into it on 
March 6, 1833. The hut is now owned bv his great-granddaughter 
Mrs. Mabelle Fried. In 1834 Mr. Harlan built a small log cabin on 
the farm owned, not many years ago, by his gi'andson, W. H. Stanley. 


He died at his home in Leesburg, in 1856, then an old and prosperous 
citizen of the county. 

John B. Chapman 

Hon. John B. Chapman, who was one of the first to move upon his 
claim on Little Turkey Creek Prairie, was, in many respects, the 
most prominent of the pioneers. He was a Virginian and iu his youth 
assisted his father in his milling operations. Afterwai'd he spent 
some time in the river countiy of Texas and the Southwest, when that 
country was virtually an unknown section of the United States. Re- 
turning to Virginia iu 1817, he studied medicine and practiced in his 
native state, as well as in Iowa. Mr. Chapman also studied law and 
practiced that profession in Virginia, Kentucky and Indiana. He 
moved to Crawfordsville iu 1827 and to Logansport, Indiana, in 1831, 
and during the following year moved onto his claim just noi'th and 
east of Leesburg. It is unnecessary to add for the benefit of those who 
have followed this record that Mr. Chapman, when he became a resi- 
dent of Kosciusko County, was a citizen of wide experience and an 
able man. He successfully practiced both law and medicine and was 
also a good farmer ; but, as he informed one of his friends, ' ' the only 
difficulty he had in gettiiig along was his persistent meddling with 
politics. ' ' 

In 1834 Mr. Chapman was appointed prosecuting attorney for the 
northern circuit of Indiana, when it embraced all of the state north 
of the Wabash, and during the same year was elected to the Legis- 
lature as a representative for Elkhart and La Grange counties. "While 
a member of that body he prepared the bill, and secured its passage, 
which set the bounds of Kosciusko County, and gave names both to 
the coimty and to Warsaw, the seat of justice. Before he commenced 
his service in the Legislature, and thus became the father of both the 
county and the county seat, he had been appointed by President Van 
Buren local agent of Indian reservations. It was therefore evident 
that at this period of his life he was a persistent meddler in demo- 
cratic politics. He was of the uneasy, vital temperament, which is 
uever satisfied except by continuous action and change, and was 
naturally of a quick temper and an all-around eccentric character. 
But withal, he was persistent, and usually accomplished his objects. 

An illustration of these traits is afforded by his experience in 
securing a substantial title to his land on Little Turkey Creek Prairie. 
After he had preempted it, he so incensed the agent at La Porte by 
his conduct and manner that the official named cancelled his claim and 


transferred it to two other men. Nothing daunted, Mr. Chapman car- 
ried his case to the higher powers at Washington, who confirmed him 
in his title. He then coolly returned to his property and took posses- 
sion not only of the original land, but of all the improvements which 
had been made upon it in the sha])(' of plowing, sowing, fencing and 
general cultivation. 

In the summer of 1835 Mr. Chapman bought two sections of land 
at the mouth of Deep River, Porter County, and laid out the Town of 
Liverpool on one of them. He procured the county seat for his new 
town, but the subsequent setting oif of Lake County from Porter 
killed its prospects, and its proprietor returned to Leesburg. ^Vhen 
the aspirations of the latter, along similar lines, were crushed, Mr. 
Chapman transferred his fealty to Warsaw, of which he was one of 
the founders. In 1836 he sold his interest in that town site for $1,000. 

Even these Indiana projects were not sufficient to absorb the time 
and energies of Mr. Chapman, but he must make flying trips to Cali- 
fornia, Washington, Oregon and Alaska, when to reach the Pacific 
Slope meant many discomforts and not a few actual hardships. His 
affairs or inclination also called him to the national capital not in- 
frequently, where he is known to have had access to the inner cham- 
bers of such as Presidents Jackson and Van Buren. In the early 
development of Kansas he- was instrumental, and served as president 
of the first railroad that ran from Leavenworth to Galveston, Texas. 
During the later years of his active life he held a clerkship in the 
Treasury Department. When his advanced age incapacitated him 
for the labors of that office, he returned to Warsaw, where he died on 
October 20, 1877, in his eightieth year. 

Tin: Pioneer .Mills 

As to the earliest mills l)uilt in the county, naturally they blos- 
somed out along Turkey Creek in Turkey Creek Township. Mrs. 
Wince has this to say: "Going back a little to 1832, I find two fear- 
less men at work building a dam across Turkey Creek not far from 
where it empties into Syracuse Lake. They mean to put up a mill 
here, just as soon as these lovely lands come into the market. It is a 
good place, they think, for in another year there will be settlers coming 
in by the score, and they will want flour and meal, and will be looking 
for a mill the first thing. Tlie men are Ephraim Davis and Samuel 

"They were not lonely. They were too busy for that; nor did 
they fear the Indians, who were camped not far away. After com- 

Old Indiana Mill 

I'luxEEU Watei; Wheel 


pleting the dam, thej' go home, to return early in 1833 and erect the 

"It was the first gi-ist mill erected in the count}'. A big freshet, 
in 1837, washed out the dam of this mill and two pair of mill stones. 
The stones sank to the bottom of the creek and were never recovered. 

"Another verj^ early grist mill was built on Clear Creek, where 
the Liberty Mills road crosses and just south of Eagle Lake. The 
builder was Charles Sleeper ; the building a log one, with nigger-head 
burrs made by John Inks of Milford. 

"The first saw mill in the county was built by Peter Warner near 
the west line of Section 36, on Tippecanoe River, in 1835. His com- 
bination saw and grist mill, run by reaction wheel and buckets, was 
put up two j'ears later, in 1837." Mr. Warner was the first white 
settler in Kosciusko County on the south side of the Tippecanoe River, 
and was the same who was outwitted by the old chief, Checase. 

Early Township Surveys and Surveyors 

The township surveys of Kosciusko County were made chiefly in 
1834-35, with the lifting of the Indian titles (so called) and the fixing 
of the county boundaries, but previous to its political organization. In 
all American communities it is necessary that men should be assured 
that their land holdings and their homesteads shall be secure before 
they will consent, in any numbers, to plant themselves in a strange 
country. Although the typical American pioneer is an adventurer, 
in a certain sense of the word, he ventures only upon a partial assur- 
ance of success ; and his best assurance is the security of his land title, 
the prime requisite of which is an accurate survey. 

The records show that in June, 1834, John Hendricks, R. Clarke 
and S. Sibley surveyed Township 32 north, Range 7 east (Washington 
Township), and that they found its area to be 22,454 acres. 

In the preceding April, the same surveyors had laid out Monroe 
Township, as 31 north. Range 7 east, and announced that it had an 
area of 22,943 acres. 

About two-thirds of Jackson Township, to the south (14,796 acres), 
was surveyed by them at the same time, the tract of 7,164 acres 
bounded on the west by Eel River, and comprising the remainder of 
the township, having been laid out by Basil Bentley, the district sur- 
veyor, as early as May, 1828. 

Van Buren Township, in the northern tier, was surveyed by 
Reuben J. Dawson, R. Clarke and S. Sibley, in June, 1834. It was 
known, officially, as Township 34 north. Range 6 east, and embraced 


22,678 acres. Turkey Creek meanders through its northern sections 
and Turkey Prairie covers its southern. 

In the same month and year that Van Bui'en Township was sur- 
veyed, Thomas Brown, Messrs. R. Clarke, Jr., and S. Sibley, were also 
running their chains over the irregular territory of what is now 
Franklin Township, in the southwestern comer of the county. Their 
records give its area as 22,506 acres. 

R. T. Dawson, E. Clarke and S. Sibley surveyed 14,388 of Tippe- 
canoe Township in June, 1834. 

Plain Township was surveyed by R. Clarke, S. Sibley and Jeremiah 
Smith in 1836-37, soon after the county was divided into townships. 

In April, 1834, Harrison Township, as it is defined today, was 
surveyed by R. T. Dawson, R. Clarke and S. Sibley, and its area was 
given as 23,413 acres. Half of Mota's Reserve of four sections is in 
the northeastern corner of this township. 

.John Hendricks and ^Messi-s. Clarke and Sibley surveyed 21,054 
acres of Wayne Township in June of that year, and the two last 
named, with E. T. Dawson, had already laid out 20,458 acres. All of 
Section 1 and portions of Sections 2, 6, 7, 11 and 12 had been taken 
from what would have been the northwest corner of the township, had 
its western and northern boundaries been extended. This territory, 
with small tracts adjoining Plain and Prairie townships, to the north, 
had been set aside as the Checase Indian reservation. 

R. T. Dawson and Messrs. Clarke and Siblej'^ were the surveyors 
of Etna, the narrow township in the western border of the county, 
and they finished their work in April, 1834. It had covered 23,262 

Scott Township, to the nortli, in the northwestern corner of the 
county, was surveyed by R. T. Dawson, in 1835 ; area, 23,626 acres. 

In June, 1834, John Hendricks, R. Clarke and S. Sibley surveyed 
Township 31 north. Range 6 east (Clay Township), and estimated 
its area at 22,453 acres. 

The same surveyors run the lines, in April, 1834, for 22.277 acres 
in Township 30 north. Range 6 east (Lake Township). 

In 1835 R. T. Dawson and Clarke & Sibley surveyed the 22,273 
acres included in Seward Townsliip, east of Franklin in the south- 
western part of the county. 

These surveyors also laid out tlie Jeft'erson Township of the present, 
during the same year; area, 23,358 acres. 

R. T. Dawson and R. Clarke & S. Sibley, in April, 1834, surveyed 
20,287 acres embraced in Prairie Township. The ]\lonoqnet Reserve 
extends into some of its southeastern sections, as well as the Checase 


Reservation, while Mota's Reserve takes away two of the southern 
sections. Turkej^ Prairie in the northeast is the marked physical fea- 
ture of the township. 

What was left of Turkey Creek Township (18,456 acres), after 
the Flat Belly Reservation was taken out, was surveyed by R. T. Daw- 
son, R. Clarke and S. Sibley, in August, 1834. 

Pioneers of Turkey Creek Township 

After the surveys were well under way those who had settled, or 
decided to locate in Kosciusko County, made haste to preempt their 
claims, and the year 1835 brought a "land-office" business to the 
agent at La Porte. The actual residents comprising these real pioneers 
already constituted a considerable colony. 

The heavily timbered country, with Syracuse and Nine Mile lakes 
and the good water powers of Turkey Creek, early attracted a good 
class of emigrants from Elkhart County. In 1832, while the Indian 
treaty was still in abeyance, Samuel Crawson and Henry Ward con- 
structed a dam across the creek near its outlet, with the view of erect- 
ing a grist mill at that point when the lands should come into the 
market. In the following year Mr. Crawson built a small log house 
near the site of the proposed mill ; and this was the first residence 
in Turkey Creek Township, as organized in 1838. In 1836 he erected 
a small frame building for a store, on the site of what afterward be- 
came the Lake House, Syracuse. William Kirkpatriek placed a small 
stock of goods therein, but subsequentlj' disposed of the business to 
Messrs. Crawson and Ward. They were also the owners of the land 
along the northwestern shores of Syracuse Lake, on which, in August. 
1837, they platted the village by that name. 

Samuel Crawson and Henry Ward were also the builders and pro- 
prietors of the first grist mill erected on Turkey Creek and already 
mentioned, as well as of the saw-mill on the creek completed in 1836. 
So, from every existing evidence, they were not only the first perma- 
nent settlers of Turkey Creek Township but its leading citizens during 
the first years of its development. 

Joii.v Powell. Fikst Praikie Towxshu' Settler 

Prairie Township, as now organized, had quite a numlicr of settlers 
who located two or three years before the county was set off from 
Elkhart County as a separate civil body. John Powell, the first o1' 
the colony to l)ecome a residiMit, came from Elkhart County in March. 


1833, aud, with his family, located on Section 21, about two miles 
north of Mota's Reserve and three miles west of the Monoquet Re- 
serve. In March, 1832, he had started from his Ohio home with his 
ox team to explore the wilds of Northern Indiana and had secured a 
tract of land on Elkhart Prairie, near what is now the City of Goshen. 
After making two or thi-ee exploring expeditions, however, he decided 
in favor of Turkey Creek Prairie further south, and returned to Ohio 
for his wife and family. 

In September, 1832, Mr. Powell started for his Indiana destination 
with his young wife and little ones, and when he had reached the 
eastern part of Whitley County broke his wagon. There was no other 
way but to start alone for Goshen, leaving his family in the wilderness 
and trusting to Providence for their protection until he could secure 
another vehicle and return to them. In March, 1833, he had the sat- 
isfaction of safely installing his family in a cabin on his land, about 
one mile north of Galveston (Clunette), where he afterward died. His 
family was the first to move on to Big Turkey Creek Prairie. Mr. 
Powell died in 1874. He had attended strictly to his estate and im- 
provements, and left a fine property and a substantial character. His 
wife survived him for a number of years. 

Other Settlers op 1833 

In the year of I\Ir. Powell's coming, three other settlers made their 
appearance in Prairie Township, selecting claims northeast, east and 
southeast of what was afterward the Village of Galveston. In April, 
1833, James H. Bishop located with his family on Section 1, erecting 
a small cabin and planting a field of corn. That tract remained the 
Bishop homestead for many years. 

During the same summer Jacob Smith built his family cabin on 
Section 13 and subsequently entered 160 acres on Section 14, which 
eventually became the homestead. 

Later in 1833 came James Gavin and settled on Section 25, where 
he long resided. 

Settlers of Van Buren Ante-Dating 1836 

The early settlement of Van Buren Township chiefly occurred in 
its southern sections, 21, 28 and 32. In March, 1833, Oliver Wright 
and his son, Moses, located on Section 28, and William Felkner on 
Section 21. Eli.jah Miller and Richard Gawthrop, from Sanduskj-, 
Ohio, settled on Section 32, as did Mrs. Sarah De Vault, with her five 


children— all in 1833. ]\Irs. De Vault pre-empted 160 acres. Samuel 
Street, in the same j-ear, located on Section 29, and early in the 
spring of 1834 Judge Aaron M. Ferine settled on the present site of 
Milford, which was not platted until two years afterward. 

In the fall of 1835 the first schoolhouse in Van Buren Township 
was erected on Section 29. John G. Woods was the first teacher. 

But at least two important events had occurred previous to that 
year — the birth of the first white child in the township — Rachel, 
daughter of William and Mary Ann Pelkner, on May 15, 1833 ; and 
the marriage of Fred Summy to Miss Adeline Trimble, in October, 

Village op Milpord Platted 

Judge Ferine platted the Village of Milford on Section 8, April 
10, 1836. He opened the first hotel therein and was admirably adapted 
to the project of fathering a young town. 

James Woodden Fioneer of Harrison Township 

Harrison Township, in the west of the county, was originally 
settled by James Woodden and Andrew Sell in the spring of 1834. 
They came from Freble County, Ohio, and, locating respectively on 
Sections 18 and 19, entered at once upon the labor of clearing the 
ground and erecting cabins for the shelter of their families. The first 
postoifice was established at Mr. Woodden 's house and he was 
appointed postmaster in 1836. 

About this time, the Underbills, Isham Summy, William Blue and 
others came into the township. Mr. Summy soon succeeded Mr. 
Woodden as postmaster, and when he platted Falestine in 1837 the 
office was moved thither. In the preceding year (1836) Daniel 
Underbill had opened a general store in Section 33, on the future 
site of the village with the great aspirations and the small perform- 

The Rise op Leesburg 

Leesl)urg had really more substantial grounds for expecting a 
future growth. The land of Levi Lee, upon which it was platted in 
the fall of 1835, was clothed with timber and lay, beautifully located, 
between Big Turkey Creek and Little Turkey Creek prairies. Thus 
situated, with building timber at hand and surrounded bv pro- 


duetive prairies, the site seemed ideal to the early settlers of the 
northern part of the county. 

Mr. Lee's cabin was the first residence erected on the village 
site. As laid out by him, the plat commenced in the west end of 
town at Hickory Street, which runs north and southeast of the 
Stanley residence; thence east to Pearl Street at Kohler's corner; 
thence south to the north side of what is now Prairie Street, and 
north to Plum Street. It comprised forty-eight lots. Subsequently 
Messrs. Beck, Blaine, Comstock and Mason made additions. 

The first sale of lots at the new village of Leesburg occurred 
during the August that it was platted. Only one lot was sold; but 
the purchaser, Dr. Sellick, of La Gro, Indiana, did not comply with 
the conditions of the sale, so that even that solitary transaction 
failed to stand. Metcalfe Beck subsequently took over the lot, erect- 
ing upon it a store and residence, where he continued to live and 
work for a number of years. 

For a time, it looked as though these who had projected Lees- 
burg would realize their ambitions. The local merchants prospered, 
as the neighboring farmere looked to it for their supplies and fur- 
nishings, and most of the travelers who passed through that part of 
the county were attracted to it as a convenient and pleasant stop- 
ping place. In fact, the eventual choice of the village as the county 
seat was by no means the height of Leesburg 's ambition. A plank 
road was projected, to pass through Oswego and Fort Wayne and 
having as its termini, Leesburg and Cincinnati. Leesburg was the 
nucleus from which sprung other settlements in the county and 
many who afterward became prominent in the development of War- 
saw had their initial experience at the older town which was founded 
about the same time as Chicago. 

As County's Seat op Justice 

The first session of the Commissionei-s' Court of Kosciusko County 
was opened in the forenoon of June 29, 1836, at Mr. Lee's cabin, 
but no business was transacted until in the afternoon, at the meeting 
adjourned to the log schoolhouse. The fii'st Circuit Court of the 
county was also held at Mr. Lee's home. It assembled on the follow- 
ing October 31st, and also adjourned to the schoolhouse for the 
afternoon session. When the court finally adjourned it was to meet 
in Warsaw during November, 1837; the coming event casting a 
shadow upon the bright prospects of Leesburg. 


Prominent ^Ien of Plain Township 

During this period, which preceded the complete organizatiou ol' 
Kosciusko Count.y as a civil and independent body, most of the 
prominent men resided in the northern townships, Plain especially 
having a monopoly in this regard ; and the sections around Leesburg 
were particularly favored. To illustrate this statement, it is only 
necessary to give the names of those who had entered claims during 
1835, in sections 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9. The list includes John Rumley, 
Isaac Moore and J. B. Chapman, in section 4; Elijah and Jacoli 
Harlan, George Harlan and Josiah Shoemaker, in section 5 ; Aaron 
Powell, Samuel Stickney, Samuel Stookey, John Adney, James Hill 
and Elisha Carr, in section 6; John, Henry and Levi Lee, James 
Mason and John Colyer, in section 8. and Thomas Harper, William 
Shellj-, Thomas Harlan, Jr., Aaron Harlan, William N. Switzer and 
Samuel Snodgi-ass, in section 9. 

Joseph Rippey, Abraham Buckley, William Switzer, William B. 
Wade and John Thompson pre-empted claims in section 10; Andrew 
Garvin made a selection in section 18, and John Reese, in section 20 ; 
John Ervin and Henry Lee pre-empted tracts in section 21 ; Benja- 
min Bennett, William B. Chapman and William Ervin, in section 
22; John Ervin, in section 25, and Hiram Elliott, in section 32. 

The Harlan Family 

Of those mentioned in the foregoing list, the Harlan, Ervin and 
Rippey families became widely known in the northern districts ol' 
the county. Five or six members of the Harlan family pre-empted 
lands. They were Quakers and five of the brothers, who were to 
be founders of the American stock, started from England with 
William Penu to establish his colony. Three of them, however, died 
at sea and a fourth passed away soon after his arrival in Pennsyl- 
vania, leaving only one of the brothers to continue the family name 
in America. The survivor, in turn, became the father of five sons, 
and from them have been traced the descendants who have variously 
spelled their names. 

It is claimed for Elijah Harlan that he was the first white man 
to build a cabin in Plain TownshijD witii a view of making it liis 
permanent home, and the story of his coming, settlement and subse- 
quent career has already been told. 


The Erwixs 

The Ervins, Erwins, or Irvines, are of an ancient Scotch family, 
and claim Washington Irving as a member of one of its clans. The 
early emigrants settled both in the southern and old middle states, 
and during the Civil war the allegiance of the families was naturally 

The Kosciusko County Erwins were descended from Charles, who 
emigrated from Dublin, Ireland, in 1814, and settled in Springfield, 
Ohio. In 1825 he moved from the Buckeye state to Indiana, locat- 
ing near Goshen. Elkhart County. In 1835 he became a resident of 
Kosciusko County, entering the land known later as the Holderman 
farm. Mr. Erwin spent the last years of his life at Leesburg. and left 
a large family of sons and daughters, several of whom have become 
quite prominent. 

JoHx Thompson 

John Thompson, who pre-empted land in section 10, was the son 
of Abraham, who fotmded the family homestead, about a mile north- 
east, in 1833. In December of that year the father pre-empted a 
quarter section of heavily timbered land in that locality and built 
a log cabin on the north side of the road. There, in section 2, he 
cleared two acres and set out an orchard, and, as most of the trees 
upon his land were sugar maples, his homestead was soon considered 
as among the most desirable in the county, ilr. Thompson also 
rented fifteen acres of prairie land from Levi Lee, on the east side 
of the timber strip which afterward became the site of Leesburg, 
planting it to com and preparing it for a crop, until such time as 
he could clear a tract on hi? own land. In 1835, he bought his claim 
of the Government, and. with his family, lived thereon until his 
death in 1846. Two of the sons, James and John, left the family 
homestead two years after their father s death and moved into Cham- 
paign County, Illinois, Jesse and Charles remaining home. From 
them have descended the Thompsons now residing in the county. 

Abraham Cuxxisgham Locates ox Boxe Pr.ueie 

Abraham Cunningham came from Ohio to Plain Town.ship in the 
spring of 1S35 and entered a quarter section lying between Tippe- 
canoe Lake and what is known as Stanton Lake. He then returned 
to Ohio and in the following autumn brought his two single daugh- 


ters, and his married son and son-in-law, with their wives and chil- 
dren, to Bone Prairie; and there three cabins were built and the 
farms selected cultivated. 

At that time Oswego was an Indian village, and there were no 
roads east of the place, with the exception of an Indian trail, or 
bridle path. The savages were all around, and night after night the 
Cunninghams were aroused by the howling of drunken Indians as 
they passed through the woods. 

Abraham Cunningham lived but a few years after he settled in 
Plain Township, but his son, Thomas B., continued to reside upon 
the old homestead and improve it for nearly half a eenturj-. The 
latter died there in 1884. 

One of the three log cabins built in the winter of 1835-36 is still 
standing, and forms the kitchen to the Joseph Lippincott home, 
located on the north side of Stanton Lake. The building is in good 
repair and has been occupied all these years by the children and 
the grandchildren of Abraham Cunningham. 

The Rippey family owes its planting in the eoiuity to the fact 
that Joseph displeased his Scotch father in selecting his own religion, 
and left the old home in West Virginia, first for Ohio, and afterward 
for Indiana. He was a blacksmith by trade, and accumulated both 
money and property, but lost much of his means by being security 
for those who abused his confidence in them. 

David Rippey, the son of Joseph, was attracted to the prairies of 
Northern Indiana, and in 1834 visited his brother, ilatthew, who had 
pre-empted land on Elkhart Prairie. While there, he examined 
Turkey Creek Prairie, and bought two quarter sections south of what 
was soon to become Leesburg, fixing his homestead upon the land 
which he had purchased of Henry Lee. His brother, Joseph, who 
had come out with Matthew Rippey to Elkhart Prairie, took charge 
of the land until David could return to Henry County. Indiana, and 
make arrangements to move. 

Fifteen" D.vys Overl.vxd Trip ix 1xdi.\xa 

The journey of the David Rippey family from Henry County, 
east of the central part of the state, to Northern Indiana, is so 
typical of the migrations of the pioneer Hoosiers of the '30s that the 
interesting account of it written by James M. Armstrong, the old 
soldier and editor of Leesburg, is in point. It is as follows: "On 
April 12, 1835. ilr. Rippey started for their new home in Northern 
Indiana in a big covered wagon known in those pioneer days as 


'prairie schooners,' drawn by four yoke of oxen. The family at that 
time consisted of Mr. and Mrs. David Rippey, Henry C, May June 
and William, the last named being a baby just beginning to walk. 
His sister, Mary Rippey, Samuel Pennimore, William Catey and 
Milton Jeffries accompanied them. Their stock consisted of two 
horses, some sheep, two cows and calves. On account of the bad roads 
they made slow progress. While passing through what was known as 
Killbuck swamps, just north of iluncie, then but a small village, 
they met what, under the circumstances, was quite a serious accident, 
in the breaking of the hind axle of the wagon. This caused a delay 
of one or two days. 

The Pioneer Cabin Completed 

"After passing through Muncie they found the country very 
thinly settled. They passed through Marion and Lagro, then but 
small villages. From Lagro to North Manchester, there were but 
very few houses, and the roads only such in name. On account of 
the wolves, the stock had to be corraled every night in a pen built 
of poles and brush, and fires, fed with logs and brvish, as a protec- 
tion. One night, notwithstanding this vigilance, the wolves caught 
a calf, but the men, with the assistance of a dog, drove them away 
before the calf was seriously hurt. 

"They crossed Eel River at Manchester, which at that time con- 
sisted of but two or three log cabins. They were among the first, if 
not the first emigrants, to ford the river at tliat point. On the last 


day of their journey, April 25th, they camped near the cabin of 
Peter Warner on the Tippecanoe River. The next day, April 26, 
1836, about noon, they arrived at their home in Plain Township, 
just south of Leesburg. 

"The home was a small hewed log cabin with but one room, cov- 
ered with clapboards held to their places with poles. The floor was 
made of puncheons, split from a big linn tree. The fireplace was 
built of flat stone and the chimney of sticks and mud. A big fire 
was soon burning in the fireplace, the goods unloaded and prepara- 
tions made for dinner in the new home which they were glad to reach 
after a tiresome journey of fifteen days; which today can be com- 
fortably made in less than that many hours. 

The Old-Time Neighborly Welcome 

"The old-time neighborly interest in all new-comers was then in 
vogue and the neighbors made haste as soon as thej' heard of the 
arrival of the Rippeys to drop in and welcome them, and to offer any 
assistance they might need ; which was a pleasure and an encourage- 
ment to the new arrivals. It was early springtime, the trees and 
shrubs had begun to array themselves in their beautiful foliage of 
green, and the broad prairie spread out to the north and west of 
the Rippey home like an emerald sea of waving grass. It was truly 
an inspiring sight, one calculated to encourage and inspire them with 
a love for their new home. 

"At that time there were but few settlers in this part of the 
county; among them were the Summys, the Plumraers, Guj-s and the 
Bishops on the north side of the prairie. On the east was the cabin 
of Thomas Harper, on the southwest the cabin of John Colyer (built 
on the north side of the Clunette road just west of the gravel pit). 
Here Mr. Colyer set out an orchard, some of which remained until 
quite a recent date. On the northwest and just west of Leesburg 
was the cabin of James Mason, and to the north on Little Turkey 
Creek Prairie were the Chapmans, the Harlans and the Rumleys. 

"Leesburg had just been laid out by Mr. Lee, and John R. and 
William Blaine were erecting a store building on the comer now 
occupied by the Kohler & Company store room. 

Union Labor Without Union Hours 

"Mr. Rippey was soon busy fixing up the place, breaking up 
the virgin soil and planting corn. The breaking was done with four 


3i«fce «? «saK iBiteini «• a Imrv- fcte m^itiBg pkpv. Oae- mui diVK e iIk' 
«Hn ami nmtihn- ImM 1^ pt»v. »d^at ereiy tMid rand lbs. 
Bi«9Q^ »a ker sisSer irilM«l ad dnppei a iw «f e«L bi this 
m;^!- a>ffr iilMiiiii figty aews •£ en. ^Aieh ggwr Mrety ■itliT a»r 

'^b 1teer fianar ds^s. M was itrntrr iiiin>«,..iML «• ixxp Ikt 


Ag iiiiiiii II mil iir ae Ac wd mau' 

BeSmrm tai5a^ iexwc <g the Ltnfcgg i iQil Imil, it ««rid be 

Es. "HkP mmi ««t a^ &«B Ifa-. Le«i Lee awl Ms 
"t«" «w «• ke vsMBcd ftrtiiM pvpHC ^ Ae 
Ae- ■«■ a^ ;««k af Ac ■ wUkw ^ iJiJAm- 

ne 1 nllim^ ^^hee.~ Ae Fn^n^ ^ «i«^ vh Rs^bted 1?^ Ae 


oxen. moTed slowly to lot 41 on Prairie Street. The ••comer" build- 
ers were selected, skids were prepared, and all the other prepara- 
tions made to erect the little 1(^ cabin, which was to serre the cause 
of education. In log cabin times it was considered a neat job to 
mn np a nice-looking comer, and almost every eommnnity had its 
experts in that line. There was often qnite a rivalry as to who c-onM 
ran up his comer the quickest and neatest. It is said the con- 
test was remarkably brisk in the building of the first sehoolhoase 
at Leesbui^. but nothing has come down to us to indicate who proved 
to be the star performer. That cabin schoolhonse. with its big open 
fireplace and its little windows, its puncheon floor and ron^ benches, 
did servic-e for several years, when a small frame building at the east 
end of town replaced it. 

WnxiAM C. Gbaves 

With a brand-new schoolhonse on their hands, the villagers looked 
around for a teacher. Fortunately, they found a good «ie at hand — 
Wflliam C. Graves, a youth of eighteen with a superior education for 
those days, who had recently arrived from his West Virginia home. 
He gladly accepted the situation offered him, and taught the school 
for nine months. Mr. Graves then spent over a year in Elkhart and 
St. Joseph counties, engaged in mercantile pursuits, as the county 
clerk's deputy in Elkhart County and in the study of law at South 
Bend. At the conclusion of this valuable experience, he returned 
to Kosciusko County, and commenced practice at Leesburg as one of 
its first lawyers. 

For half a century ilr. Graves continued his activities in Kosciusko 
County, and into every work which he underto<*, whether official, 
legislative, business or financial, instilled a rare faithfulnes. integ- 
rity and abilitj-. No citizen "•wore" so welL or earned a more 
deserved popularity. From 1S40 to 1S48 he served as clerk of the 
Cireuit Court. In the meantime he had engaged in business at War- 
saw, which soon required all his attention, and in 1S6^-^1 was identi- 
fied with the First National Bank and the State Bank of Warsaw. 
He was prominent in the organization of both, was cashier of the 
First National for about eighteen years, and president of the State 
Bank during its first year. At the time of his death in December, 
1884. he was engaged in the dry goods business. 

The Blais-es of Leesbubg 

The Blaines of Leesburg are qualified to enter the list of noted 
families of Kosciusko County. Old Jimmy Blaine. •'King Jimmy." 


the head of the family, is said to have been an uncle of the famous 
James G. Blaine, the Maine statesman and ex-secretary of state. If 
this is so, then John R. Blaine and William Blaine, who opened the 
first dry goods store in the northern part of the county, on Bone 
Prairie, were first cousins to the more famous Yankee. When Lees- 
burg was platted, in 1835, the business was moved to the new vil- 
lage, and John R. Blaine opened the first store there. 

John R. Blaine, the last of the family, came, like the other mem- 
bers, from Highland County, Ohio, and continued in business at 
Leesburg for twenty years. In 1861 President Lincoln appointed 
him registrar of lands for the southern district of Missouri, and five 
j'ears later he moved to Decatur, Illinois. In December, 1890, he 
died while visiting a son at Ottawa, Kansas, and a few days after- 
ward his remains were brought to Leesburg by one of his sous and 
deposited in the family lot of his home town. 

The Tippecanoe Lake Region 

Tippecanoe Lake was always an attraction for those seeking loca- 
tions in Northern Indiana. It was beautiful in itself, the surround- 
ing lands were fertile, and it possessed an added interest in that it 
was the source of the charming stream which also beai-s its name. 
Along the northern shores of the lake lay the farms which were 
claimed by the first settlers of what is now Tippecanoe Township, 
originally a portion of Plain. 

Shortly before the first settlers came to this section of the state 
the pioneer road was surveyed through the township. It was a por- 
tion of the highway projected from White Pigeon, Southern Mich- 
igan, through Goshen, Elkhart County, and the eastern townships of 
Kosciusko County to Huntington, in the southeast. 

In the winter of 1834-35 Ephraim Muirheid built a log cabin near 
the outlet of Tippecanoe Lake, in section 9. In the spring he went 
to Virginia and when he returned soon afterward found that Ben- 
jamin Johnson, a kinsman, had also erected a house in the neighbor- 
hood. In the following fall, Mr. Johnson regularly entered the 160 
acres, which he claimed through "squatter" rights and which 
remained his homestead for many years. 

Mr. Muirheid built both a saw mill and a grist mill near the 
outlet of Boydston's Lake and they were long in successful opera- 
tion. In the summer of 1835 William Divinney came from Ohio and 
settled near Mr. Johnson's place. 

In 1836, Henry Warner, from Hamilton County, Ohio, settled 


on the southeast quarter of section 9, Tippecanoe Township, and in 
the same year Thomas K. Warner, a former resident of Cincinnati, 
located on the present site of North Webster, west of Webster Lake 
in section 10. Andrew Woodruff, of Huron County, Ohio, settled on 
section 6, in the extreme northwest corner during the same year. 

First Religious Services and Preachers 

The majority of the religious organizations of Kosciusko County 
were founded after the county came into being as a civil and political 
body. In fact, although there may have been services of a sacred 
nature conducted previous to 1834, there is no record of them either 
in print or in the traditions of those who have been in touch with 
the pioneers of the period covered by this chapter. In the year named 
Rev. R. R. Robinson, a local Methodist preacher, conducted a relig- 
ious meeting in the log cabin of Charles Erwin, not far from Lees- 
burg. Mr. Robinson was a resident of Goshen. Aaron Wood followed 
him in 1835, when Leesburg was platted and the activities of the 
society were transferred to the new town, although the First Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church was not formally organized until two years 



John B. Chapman, Godfather op the County — Patron Patriot 
OF Kosciusko County — Kosciuzko, the First Abolitionist — 
The County's Name Really Kosciuzko — Area and Bounds — 
Tippecanoe River, Pride of Northern Indiana — Other Lakes 
OP THE County — Topography of the County — Surface Geology 
— Depth op Lakes — Sunken Lakes — Composition of the Drift. 

The bulk of the territory included within the limits of Kosciusko, 
County is embraced by the headwaters of the Tippecanoe River and 
its valley, and, even more generally speaking, is a part of the great 
system of the Wabash, the widely extended waterway which, after 
favoring both Illinois and Indiana as a common boundary for about 
half their southern stretches, veers to the east and northeast and 
becomes the beautiful and much beloved stream of Northern Hoosier- 
dom. The county has always taken a pride and a pleasure that 
Nature deigned to fix the sources of the most charming child of the 
Wabash within its bounds. 

John B. Chapman, Godfather of the County 

The people of Kosciusko County have also, more than once, 
tendered John B. Chapman a vote of thanks that he was the means 
of inducing the Indiana Legislature to stamp upon that territory 
the name of one of the great patriots of the world, as well as the 
memory of a city rich in history. At this particular crisis in the 
world's history, when Poland seems about to realize some of her 
ancient and modern aspirations, so brilliantly personated in Kosciusko, 
and when even Warsaw is about to be redeemed to higher things 
than perhaps she has ever known, the section of Indiana of which 
we write stands forth somewhat by reflected prominence. 

Patron Patriot of Kosciusko County 

Thaddeus Kosciuzko, the rich young Polish nobleman, with a 
French military education and polish, who, like Lafayette, threw his 
all into the uncertainty and storm of the American Revolution, under 


the wise, yet energetic direction of Washington, was naturally attract- 
ive to the restless, ardent and independent temperament of Mr. 
Chapman. The unfortunate love affair of the European emigrant, 
the liberation of his ancestral serfs previous to his departure for 
America — in a word, his complete severance of all old-world ties for 
those of the struggling American colonies, is an appeal to action 
which cannot be lost to any pioneer or even a citizen of today. As 
Washington's aid-de-camp, he fought and suffered with him and his 
little army, and after the United States of America was an assur- 
ance he returned to Poland, as head of its fiery troops, and, with 
the defeat of his compatriots, was thrown into prison. 


Kosciusko was finally released from prison by Emperor Paul, of 
Russia, probably upon pressure from America, and two years after- 
ward visited this country to renew his associations with his friends 
of revolutionary days. In 1798 he visited Thomas Jefferson, his old- 
time friend, and made a will in which he disposed of the property 
which he possessed in the United States and thereby subscribed him- 
self and perhaps the first of the Abolitionists, by purchase. That 
remarkable document, written in his clear and bold script, reads thus : 

"I, Thaddeus Koseiuzko, being just in mj' departure from Amer- 
ica, do hereby declare and direct that, should I make no other testa- 
mentary disposition of my property in the United States, I hereby 
authorize my friend, Thomas Jefferson, to employ the whole thereof 
in purchasing negroes from among his own, or any others, and giving 
them their liberty in my name ; in giving them an education in trades 
or otherwise ; and in having them instructed for their new condition 
in the duties of morality, which may make them good neighbors, 
good fathers or mothers; and, in their duties as citizens, teaching 
them to be defenders of their libertj^ and country, and of the good 
order of society, and in whatsoever may make them happy and 
useful. And I make the said Thomas Jefferson my executor of this. 

"5th day of May, 1798. T. KoscirzKO." 

Late in life, Koseiuzko retired to Switzerland, where he died 
October 16, 1817, aged sixty-one years. The will disposing of his 
American property for the emancipation and improvement of slaves 
was not recorded by Jefferson until two years after the death of his 
Polish friend, as the following inscription indicates: 

At a Circuit Court held for Albemarle County, the 12th day of 
May, 1819: ''This instrument, purporting to be the hist will and 


testament of Thaddeus Kosciuzko, deceased, was produced in open 
court, and satisfactory proof being produced of its being written in 
the hand-writing of the said Kosciuzko, the same was ordered to be 
recorded, and thereupon, Thomas Jefferson, the executor therein 
named, refused to take upon himself the burden of the execution of 
the said will. 

"Teste: John Care, C. C." 

There is probably a good explanation of this refusal of Jeffer- 
son's to carry out the provisions of Kosciuzko 's will, the most reason- 
able being that, at his advanced age (he was then seventy-six), he 
did not care to "burden" himself with the labors, and probable 
perplexities incident to the practical working out of the problem of 
the education and development of the black slave. Possibly, also he 
was not in entire sympathy with the experiment. It is evident that 
Kosciuzko looked far ahead. 

The County's Name Really Kosciuzko 

The reader has undoubtedly noted the spelling of the family name 
of the Polish patriot, and, historically, it should be attached to the 
county in that form, the only excuse for adopting Kosciusko being 
a slight advantage of euphony. 

Area and Bounds 

The county has an area of 558 square miles, included within the 
following boundaries, defined by act of the Legislature passed at the 
session of 1834-35 : Beginning at the northeast corner of section 3, 
township 34 north, range 4 east, thence east with the line dividing 
townships 34 and 35, distance twenty-one miles; theuce south eight- 
een miles to the correcting parallel ; thence west with said parallel 
one and three-fourths miles to the northeast corner of township 31, 
range 7 east; thence south on the east line of townships 31 and 30, 
range 7 east, nine miles to the southeast comer of section 13, town- 
,ship 30, range 7 east; thence west through the center of range 30 
eighteen miles ; thence north three miles ; thence west between town- 
ships 30 and 31, three miles ; thence north six miles to the correcting 
parallel at the northwest corner of section 3, township 31, range 4 
east ; thence east, with said correcting parallel, one and one-fourth 
miles, to the southwest corner of section 34, township 32, range 4 
east; thence through the center of townships 32, 33 and 34, range 4 
east, eighteen miles to the place of beginning. The bounds were 
verified by Ellis Kiser, civil engineer for the surveying company. 


Tippecanoe River, Pride op Northern Indiana 

Most of the territory of Kosciusko County falls within the north- 
ern watershed of the Wabash system, the valley of the Tippecanoe 
representing its chief physical feature. The only exception is the 
southeastern corner, which is drained by the Eel River, a virtual 
continuation of the main course of the Wabash River; the Tippe- 
canoe is its boldest northern offshoot. 

The pride of Northern Indiana rises in Boyston Lake, Tippe- 
canoe Township, and its headwaters also embrace Tippecanoe and 

Tippecanoe River View 

Webster lakes — beautiful sheets of water, and the centers of a country 
which offers every possible phase of out-of-doors sports and refresh- 

Other Lakes of the County 

Further north, in the northeastern corner of the county, Turkey 
Creek rises in Wawasee Lake (old Nine Mile Lake), flowing west 
through its extremity, or Syracuse Lake, and meandering through the 
northern sections of Van Buren Township, cuts out a small corner 
of Jefferson Township, and finally leaves the county at the north. 

The Tippecanoe River continues its general southwesterly course, 
throwing out creeks and expanding into little lakes, both north and 
south. In the northern central sections of Wayne Townsliip, there 


is an especially attractive group, wonderfully improved within the 
last decade even beyond the beauties of Nature, and dedicated not 
only to those seeking pleasure, recreation and rest, but the inspiration 
of the higher life. Winona (formerly Eagle) Lake, the greater gem, 
is connected with the smaller of the gi'oup. Center and Pike lakes, 
by Walnut Creek and other tributaries of the Tippecanoe. Little 
Eagle, or Chapman's Lake, in the southeastern part of Plain Town- 
ship is connected with the group mentioned by what was formerly 
Deed's Creek, transformed of late years into Heter Ditch. 

Farther to the west and forming sections of the southern water- 
shed of the Tippecanoe is the country watered by Trimble and Yel- 
low creeks. A well known and attractive expansion of Trimble 
Creek, on the borders of Harrison and Seward townships, is Pales- 
tine Lake, while the headwaters of Yellow Creek are mei'ged into a 
charming group of little lakes in the central sections of Seward 
Township, the largest of which are Beaver Dam and Yellow. Still 
farther south is Silver Lake, the bright little child of Silver Creek. 

There are several other lakes in the county, serving to make this 
section one of the noted lake regions of Northern Indiana and the old 
Middle West (now the Eastern West, if the term may be allowed). 

There are few districts -in the country which nature has better 
adapted to the raising of live stock and the development of dairying 
interests than those included in Kosciusko County. 

Topography of the County 

Originally a heavy growth of walnut, maple, hickory and oak 
covered most of the southern portion of the county. In the northern 
sections are the largest of the prairies, such as Big Turkey, Little 
Turkey and Bone, and the surface of the land, if not level, is gently 
rolling. These considerable tracts of level land aggregate some 10,000 
acres. Both in the northern and other portions of the county were 
numerous tracts of lowlands, which the early settlei's designated as 
"wet prairies" and which, under modern methods of ditching and 
drainage, have been reclaimed and made very productive. Such work 
has been made possible and greatly facilitated, by the wonderful 
system of drainage provided bj- Nature. 

The Surp.\ce Geology 

The surface geology of Koseiiisko County has been largely deter- 
mined by borings and other explorations in the vicinity of the lakes. 


It has been ascertained that there are abont forty depressions, which 
form the beds of as many lakes, some of which cover but a few acres. 

The county lies within the drift formation of the Bowlder Epoch, 
in geological parlance. The transported material ranges in thick- 
ness from about 150 feet on the southeast to 200 feet on the northwest. 
A sample series of the strata usually encountered is afforded by a well 
boring made near Silver Lake, in the southeastern part of the county, 
the result being: Black loam, 4 feet; dark sand, 18 feet; hard-pan 
clay, 15 feet; dark sand, 6 feet; blue and gray hard-pan, 30 feet; 
light fine sand, 7 feet; gray hard-pan, 8 feet; white sand, SVo feet; 
gray hard-pan, 6 feet ; tine white sand, 3 feet ; hard-pan, 6 feet ; hard- 
pan and sand, 5 feet; fine white sand, 5 feet; small bowlders, 41/0 
feet. Total, 121 feet. 

At this point in the boring, the water rose seventy-eight feet in 
the well, though bed-rock had not yet been reached. It is reasonable 
to assume that it would have been encountered at least thirty feet 
farther down. 

Other wells have been bored in Warsaw, Etna Green, Syracuse, 
Webster and other places, and the general result is to substantially 
determine the fact that about seventy feet of the drift overlying the 
area of Kosciusko County is stiff, tenacious clay, with an occasional 
parting of sand, pebbles and transient rock. Where the clay has been 
unusually solidified, it is termed hard-pan. It is impervious to water, 
and serves as the bed of many of the lakes in the county. It is also 
of use as forming the walls of natural water resei-yoirs, the inter- 
mediate layers of land completing Nature's filter and insuring purity 
of supply. 

Depth op Lakes 

Most of the lakes in Kosciusko County have been "officially" 
sounded. It is believed that Winona (Eagle) is the deepest lake 
in the state; certainly the deepest in the county. Its depth is sev- 
entj'-eight feet. Center Lake was sounded by a geological paity some 
forty years ago, and found to have a depth of forty-two feet; the 
greatest depth of Pike Lake is thirty-six feet, and so on down to 
shallow ponds. 

Sunken L.vkes 

A number of sunken lakes have been uncovered, or discovered in 
Kosciusko County. One of the most notable instances was the sink- 
ing from sight of a portion of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago 


Railroad where it crossed the tamarack marsh east of Warsaw. When 
it disappeared, clear water alive with fish took its place. These 
sunken lakes are generally surrounded by a heavy growth of marsh 
grass, which is constantly' invading the water and adding its quota 
to the peat formations found in various portions of the county. 

Composition op the Drift 

The drift which forms a thick blanket for Kosciusko County, 
Northern Indiana, Southern Michigan and Northwestern Ohio, was a 
glacial deposit. Granite, basalt, spar, iron and clay were all brought 
down from the north in a vast moving field, and the water and the 
air, laden with chemical agents of silent dissolution, pulverized and 
disintegrated the mass, and deposited vast potential wealth in the 
upper soils of Kosciusko Count3\ 

Various compounds of iron (mineral paint) have been found in 
the central and southern townships — especially in Seward, Clay and 
Jackson. The colors include red, brown, yellow, buff and dark red. 

The course of Tippecanoe is also marked with large deposits of 
bog iron, particularly in the marshy places. About forty years ago 
some of this iron was smelted in the furnaces located at Rochester, 
Fulton County, Mishawaka, St. Joseph County, and Lima, LaGrange 
County, but nothing commercially profitable came from the experi- 
ments, as fuel was too expensive, and not long afterward the immense 
deposits of iron ore in the Northwest were opened to the country and 
the world. 

Also in this connection, it was hoped that the extensive beds of 
peat uncovered in the "boggy" country could be used both as fuel 
for the smelting of iron and for illuminating purposes. But supplies 
for both purposes wei-e destined to come from other sources. 

The clays of Kosciusko County are well adapted to the manu- 
facture of brick and tile, and they abound in every township. An 
especially fine clay is found in some portions of the county, and may 
be used in making superior grades of stoneware. 

As the county progressed in material things, however, it was 
found that the wealth of its soil was not to be garnered in direct 
and immediate forms of manufacture, but through the intermediary 
of Nature and her wonderful processes of transformation in the 
animal and vegetable kingdoms. The how and wherefore of these 
changes, stated most simplj- and practically in the story of agricul- 
tural progress, are subjects for another chapter. 



First County Officers — Sheriff Isaac Kirkendall — Judicial, 
Financial and Legal — A Very Temporary Courthouse — The 
Old Jail — New County Buildings in 1848 — ^Warsaw's Critical 
Years — Territory Proposed to Be Clipped for Leesburg — Ups 
AND Downs of Warsaw — Oswego Pushed as County Seat Can- 
didate — National Politics Enters — Warsaw the Final Victor 
— Peter L. Runyan, Sr. — Lieut. John Runyan — The Third 
Courthouse — The Courthouse of the Present — The County 
Infirmary — Kosciusko by Civil Divisions, 1890-1910 — Value of 
Farms — Value op Town and City Property — Total Wealth op 
Kosciusko County — Finances of the County. 

Under the provisions of the legislative act creating Kosciusko 
County, an election for officers was held at Leesburg, the temporary 
seat of justice, on the 4th of April, 1836. The judges of election 
were Samuel Stooky, G. W. Royce and Elisha Boggs, and the clerks, 
Benjamin Johnson and John G. Woods. 

First County Officers 

According to the poll books, there were then 219 votei-s in 
Kosciusko County, and they elected the following as their first offi- 
cers : Clerk and auditor, R. H. Lansdale ; recorder, Arnold L. Fair- 
brother; treasurer, John Blaiu; sheriff, Isaac Kirkendall; surveyor, 
C. D. Lightfoot ; coroner, T. W. Kirkpatrick ; county commissioners, 
William Felkner, for the northern third of the county ; David Rippey, 
for the middle, and William Kelley, for the southern. 

Mr. Lansdale served as clerk and auditor until his resignation in 
May, 1840. The county treasurer was originally appointed by the 
county commissioners, at their March term. This was the custom 
until 1841, when the office was made elective. Mahlon F. Davis was 
the first county treasurer elected. 

Sheriff Isaac Kirkendall 

Of these pioneer county officials, perhaps none was better known 
than the sheriff, and he, more because of his unique character than 

Picturesque Kosciusko County 
Wiuona Lake Old Channel, Winona Lake 

Turkey Creek Bridge, ililford Along the Shore, Syracuse Lake 
Wawasee Lake Tipper-anoe Lake 


because of any marked ability which he displayed. Kirkendall made 
a creditable sheriff; as a man he was unique. 

Isaac Kirkendall, who is noted as having arrived the same year as 
John B. Chapman (1835) was not noted for his abilities, but for his 
absolute lack of imagination, and his bluntness of speech made him 
a famous character in the annals of the pioneer period. As his con- 
versational and oratorical talents were zero he must have been elected 
and re-elected from sheer force of character. He served as sheriff 
from 1836 to 1840, and at that time was nearing his fiftieth year. 
The sheriff stood six feet high, had one crooked eye, and was bald, 
with the exception of a thin fringe of gray hair which circled the 
back and lower part of his head. When he was in earnest — and he 
generally was — his voice was pitched in a high asthmatic treble, and 
it had remarkable "earrj-ing" qualities, when he chose to speak at 
all. Kirkendall's home was on the farm with his brother Jacob, on 
the east side of Little Turkey Creek. When bound for Warsaw, or 
otherwise traveling on official business, he rode a large dapple gray 
horse. As stated, Isaac wasted no words, and was nothing if not 
personal. The only speech he is ever known to have made was during 
the campaign for the first election of county officers. It was delivered 
at Leesburg to this effect: "Gentlemen: — I am a candidate for 
sheriff, and if you elect me, and any of you need hanging while I am 
in office, I will hang you dead as h — 1." He was elected, but no 
candidate came forward to test the sincerity of his promise. 

Sheriff Kirkendall was no more versatile at letter-writing than 
at speech-making. Soon after his settlement in the county, he com- 
menced to get letters from his folks in Ohio begging him to write 
and tell them about the country and his personal affairs. He deferred 
the disagreeable task until his conscience really pained him, and one 
Sunday, when the children were away and his brother's house quiet 
and favorable to composition, he drew up the kitchen table, collected 
paper, ink and quill pen and sat himself down to his duty. 

The sheriff correspondent progressed rapidly with the name 
of the county and state, and the year, month and day, with which his 
letter naurally commenced. "Dear Brother, I am well." That, too, 
was easy. Then hard labors brought forth : "Jake's Folks are well." 
Another much longer pause than the first, and painful facial and 
bodily contortions in his efforts to create another idea, with appro- 
priate dressings. Finality relief came with: "And if j'ou are well, 
then, by G — d, all's well. 

"Yours truly, I. K." 

In politics Sheriff' Kirkendall was a whig and afterward a repub- 
lican. With all his eccentricities and brusque mannerisms he made 


an efficient official, and was a congenial neighbor and a true friend. 
He died of lung fever, on March 17, 1863, aged seventy years. 

Judicial, Financial and Legal 

Although the courts and their officers are treated in a separate 
chapter, mention of those who headed the list is made at this point 
which marks the civil creation of Kosciusko County. Samuel C. 
Sample was president judge of the eighth circuit, and his citizen asso- 
ciates were Joseph Comstock and Henry Ward, the former also serving 
as probate judge. The prosecuting attorney for the Circuit Court 
was Joseph L. Jernegan. 

The records indicate that in 1836 there were 289 polls in the 
county and that the taxable property amounted to $16,943.20. A 
tax of 50 cents was levied on each hundred dollars of valuation and 
50 cents on the poll. 

As stated, the first session of the Circuit Court, over which Judge 
Sample presided, was opened at Levi Lee's house, in the infant vil- 
lage of Leesburg, on October 31, 1836. His associates, Messrs. Com- 
stock and Ward, were on hand, but in the afternoon an adjournment 
was effected to the greater privacy (and perhaps area) of the village 
school. There was impaneled the first gi-and jury of Kosciusko 
County, composed of John McConnell, Thomas Harper, Sr., John 
Cook, Andrew Willis, Benjamin Bennett, Samuel Sackett, David Phil- 
lips, Samuel Harlan, James Bishop, Luke Van Osdel, Richard Gaw- 
throp, Charles Erwin and Benjamin Johnston. Mr. Willis was elected 

At this session, also, the following were admitted to the bar of 
the Circuit Court for Kosciusko County : Gustave Everts, C. B. 
Simpson, Joseph L. Jernegan, Jonathan Lister, J. D. Defrees and E. 
M. Chamberlain. Thomas Powers had been appointed sheriff to 
organize the county but, as stated, the first sheriff elected was the 
eccentric Kirkendall. 

A Very Temporary Courthouse 

The foregoing seems to have been all that was accomplished, when 
the court adjourned to meet on November 2, 1837, at the house of 
Jacob Losier, in Warsaw; but the county solons were too anxious to 
get a working organization to defer all action until that time, and 
the session opened, as the records show, in March of that year. Mr. 
Losier 's house was its scene, but an adjournment placed the court 


within the precincts of the one-story frame courthouse which had 
just been completed as a temporary hall of justice. It was twenty 
by thirty feet on the ground, and was divided into a courtroom 
twenty feet square and two jury rooms, each of about half that size. 
The courthouse proved to be of even a more temporary character 
than was anticipated, for in the summer of its first occupancy a 
brush heap caught fire and the flames set off the little "frame" like 
tinder. It is said that the progressive citizens of Leesburg were much 
relieved at the thorough work of the conflagration, as otherwise the 
courthouse shack might have been "made to do." The original 
structure stood on the northeast corner of Center and Indiana streets. 

The Old Jail 

In the fall of 1837 a fairly creditable court house of two stories 
was erected. About the same time a jail of logs was built, the rough 
timbers being about fourteen inches square. The lower story was 
"double thick;" the upper, single. The only entrance to the lower 
part was through a trap-door in the floor of the upper story, through 
which prisoners were let down by a ladder, which was then pulled 
up and the entrance closed. The jail was about sixteen feet square 
and placed near the center of the courthouse square. 

New County Buildings in 1848 

Both the second courthouse and the first jail were replaced by 
more commodious and convenient structures in 1848. This was made 
feasible from the fact that, after years of political wrangling and 
uncertainties, the limits of the county had been made as permanent 
as such matters can be, and Warsaw had won the fixture of the county 
seat over all the contentions of rivals and their machinations. 

That stirring and at times disconcerting period, for those resi- 
dents of the county who wished a settled .state of affairs as- an induce- 
ment to the coming of substantial men and the investment of their 
means and talents, has been so well described by William C. Graves 
that his account is repi-oduced, as follows : 

W^vRSAw's Critical Years 

In the early period of its history, Warsaw had much to contend 
with and for many years its prosperity was greatly retarded by 
unfortunate circumstances. Having been laid out in 1836, when 


money was plentiful and all western towns were improving at a rapid 
rate, it ought to, and otherwise would have obtained a good start in 
building and other improvements. 

John B. Chapman, on behalf of himself and the other proprietors 
of the place, held the first sale of lots in June of that year. The 
lots were bid off at good prices — higher than they sold for at any 
time within the succeeding twenty years. But the other proprietors, 
all of whom lived at a distance, and were engaged in other and more 
interesting speculations, thought the prices too low and refused to 
ratify the sales, save of a few lots which sold at high prices. The 
remainder were withdrawn from the market, and for several years 
it was with great difficulty that a person wanting a lot could find a 
proprietor to sell him one. 

The next year, 1837, came the great financial crash, the most dis- 
astrous in the history of the nation, which brought down the prices 
of all real estate, and caused a general suspension of western im- 
provements for a number of years. And, as if "Warsaw's cup of 
miserj' was not yet full, about this time came the iinkindest cut of 
all, the so-called "clipping" question, which began to assume foi-- 
midable proportions. It served to render any investment in Warsaw- 
property extremely hazardous and likely to prove a total loss. 

Territory Proposed to Be Clipped for Leesburg 

This clipping ciuestion was a project by interested parties to effect 
a removal of the county seat from Warsaw by clipping, or detach- 
ing, some six miles from the southern end of the county and thus 
throw the center north of Warsaw and near to the more dense settle- 
ments of the prairie region. 

It is true that the early settlers were imbued w-ith the belief that 
Leesburg was the most suitable place for the seat of justice, and as 
early as December, 1835, a petition was forwarded from that place 
to the care of Hon. E. M. Chamberlain, then the representative from 
this district, praying that body to lessen its area by detaching six 
miles wide from its southern extremity. This it was desired to do, 
in anticipation of the appointment, at that session, of commissioners 
to locate the seat of justice, who would find, on their an-ival, the 
geographical center to be near Leesburg. But no effort was made 
beyond forwarding the petition by mail to their representative, who 
presented the same, had it referred, and that was the last of it. Had 
a lobby of two or three gone with it, the effort could not but have 
succeeded, for Chamberlain was friendly to the project, Warsaw had 


theu no existence, and there were not twenty voters in the central 
part of the coiintj', nor, in fact, in all the county south of the Tippe- 
canoe River. The true reason for an absence of effort at this time 
was a confident feeling at Leesburg that its superior claim for the 
county seat could not well be ignored in any event. 

Ups and Downs op Warsaw 

But events shaped themselves differently ; the seat of justice was 
located at Warsaw, or, we should rather say, in the center of the 
eount}^ and the plat of Warsaw was laid out and recorded. The 
selection was acquiesced in with scarcely a murmur, and the feeling 
prevailed for a time that being in the center of a large county of 
excellent laud, it must become a thriving and growing place. The 
sale of lots before referred to was largely attended, the bidding was 
brisk and most of the business men of the other villages announced a 
determination to remove to Warsaw. But all its prospects were 
blighted by the differences among the proprietors, resulting, as they 
did, in the withdrawal of the lots from the market and the failure of 
the proprietors to take any further interest in the place. Chapman, 
the only proprietor who resided in the place, when he found the other 
proprietors would not ratify his sale, sold out to them all his interest 
and withdrew from the concern, and the other proprietors scarcely 
ever returned to the place. 

Oswego Pushed as County Seat Candidate 

This sudden stoppage of improvements at Warsaw revived the 
talk in favor of some other place, and the question of removal began 
to be agitated. Soon a powerful opposition to Warsaw manifested 
itself, which established the clipping question upon a formidable 
basis. A firm of wealthy men, Messrs. Barbee, Willard & French, 
laid off the village of Oswego on Tippecanoe Lake, with the publicly 
expressed intention of effecting a removal of the seat of justice to that 
point. They erected mills and made other improvements and, by the 
liberal use of money, Oswego soon became a popular and thriving 

The Oswego interest effected a combination with some land-holders 
in the soulh part of the couutj^, which had the effect of arraying the 
settlers in the south against Warsaw. These land-holders had in 
view the formation of a new county out of parts of Kosciusko. 
Wabash and ^liami counties, and the securing of a seat of justice in 


Clay Township. Thus an almost solid combination was formed against 
Warsaw by the people of the south, as well as northeast of Warsaw, to 
a greater distance than three miles. Beyond that distance, in these 
directions, Warsaw had but few friends. The center only was a unit 
for Warsaw, and that was numerically weak. The citizens generally 
of Milford, of Leesburg, and to the west of the latter place, were for 

National, Politics Enter 

But there was an evident majority of the voters of the county 
favorably disposed toward the Clippers, principally actuated bj- mo- 
tives of self-interest, and the project of clipping could not have failed 
of success if the local question could have been brought to a square 
test. But the complications incident to national politics could not be 
avoided, aud, somehow or other, they would sadly interfere with the 
arrangements of the Clippers just when success seemed ready to 
crown their efforts. 

Messrs. Barbee, Willard & French were whigs, but several others of 
the more prominent Clippers were of the democratic persuasion, and 
were enabled to enlist influential democratic leaders in their behalf. 
By means of this influence, they nearly succeeded in accomplishing 
their designs in the year 1839. In that year the democracy were gen- 
erally successful at the polls throughout the state. Kosciusko County 
gave a majority of ninety-three for Congress. A. L. Wheeler, of Ply- 
mouth, was elected to the Legislature from Marshall and Kosciusko, 
receiving a decided majority in each county. This senatorial district, 
however, composed of the same counties, with the addition of the 
County of St. Joseph, was i-epresented in that body by a whig, elected 
in 1838 — the Hon. Thomas D. Baird, a very able and popular man. 

When the Legislature met in December, 1839, Wheeler, with the 
able assistance of Judge Long, of Franklin County, championed the 
cause of the Clippers in the House, and after a stormy contest, suc- 
ceeded in passing through that body the bill to divide the county. 
Baird, however, in the Senate, espoused the cause of Warsaw, made a 
series of brilliant speeches in denunciation of the scheme, and finally 
succeeded in defeating the bill by a small majority. 

Having been so nearly successful, the Clippers now felt sure of 
ultimate triumph, and prepared for another and more vigorous effort. 
But the year 1840, unluckily for them, brought around that most re- 
markable political campaign in our national history, the Log Cabin 
and Hard Cider contest, which was destined, during its continuance. 


to overshadow and dwarf all other questions. In vain did French, 
who, by the waj^, had remarkable talent as an organizer, endeavor to 
rally his democratic and whig Clippers in a common cause, and in- 
duce them to support Clippers for office without regard to political 
considerations. Dearly as they loved the Clipper cause, they would 
drift into political currents. Whigs would support whigs and dem- 
ocrats support democrats, without regard to their status on the local 

The prominent men of "Warsaw and Leesburg were whigs. The 
whigs of Warsaw wanted Peter L. Runyan, Sr., for representative on 
both political and local grounds, and the whigs of Leesburg, feeling no 
interest in common with Oswego, stood by the whigs of Warsaw. A 
convention to nominate whig candidates for senator and representative 
was held in ilarch of that year in Plymouth. The whigs of St. Joseph 
and Marshall were enthusiastic for Baird, on political and personal 
grounds. This suited the whigs of Warsaw and Leesburg, and he was 
unanimously renominated. In return, the whigs of Marehall County 
were for Runyan, who received the nomination for representative. 
French a)id some of his friends protested against both nominations ; 
but it was wholly useless. The battle cry was Harrison and Tyler, 
and naught else could receive a hearing. Warsaw was so fortunate 
as to be able to suit herself with candidates both locally and politically, 
and a whig nomination that was equivalent to an election. This vir- 
tually settled the clipping question for that year. The formality was 
gone through with, as usual, of presenting to the Legislature petitions 
with a formidable array of signers, but they received little attention. 

In 1841 the political excitement had abated, and the people were 
again in a mood to pay attention to local questions. The Clippers 
became more active, determined and confident of success. But as the 
sequel shows, they were again to be foiled by political interference. 
The county had now been joined with Whitley Countj' for represen- 
tative purposes. The whigs of Warsaw and Leesburg, with the aid 
of those of Whitley, again succeeded in nominating Runyan. French 
now determined that he should be beaten and, though a whig him- 
self, announced himself as a candidate, in which he had the promised 
support of most of the democratic leaders. But two others also an- 
nounced themselves as candidates — John R. Blaine, of Leesburg, a 
whig, and Joseph Hall, of Prairie Township, a democrat. 

Warsaw the Final Victor 

At the election French led all the othei*s, receiving a solid sup- 
port in the southern townships and the principal support of the north- 


east. Rmiyan came next, receiving the solid support at Warsaw of 
both parties, a fair share of the whig support at Leesburg, and some 
scattering whig votes throughout the county. In the county, he fell 
some thirty votes behind French. Blaine received a respectable vote, 
drawing his support mostly from those who would otherwise have sup- 
ported French. Hall received but a small vote in the county, all the 
influential democrats supporting French. Whitley County decided 
the contest. The democrats supported Hall on political grounds, the 
great majority of the whigs supporting Runyan because he had the 
regular whig nomination. In the two counties, Runyan had some 
thirty majority over French, and Warsaw was again victorious. 

French laid his defeat to Blaine, who drew his votes from French's 
district east of Leesburg. It is certain that if Hale had not been a 
candidate, French would have received the democratic vote of Whit- 
ley, because Runyan was known as the regular whig candidate. 

These successive defeats, owing mainly to the interference of na- 
tional politics, served to greatly discourage the Clippers, as it left 
them without friends in the Legislature. Thej- made, however, a 
very vigorous effort in the ensuing winter, by means of delegates to 
the lobby armed with long petitions, and gi-eatly worried the poor 
inhabitants, who had to counteract them in the same manner and at 
great expense. The petitioning was kept up for still another year, 
but the efforts gradually weakened and died out. In 1843 the county 
commissioners became satisfied that the question was settled, and put 
the present (written in 1879) court house under contract. 

The excitement lasted about four years and, at times, ran so high 
that the people of the neighboring counties became interested and took 
sides in argument. Wai'saw was greatly injured in character at a 
distance because the grossest falsehoods were circulated as to the 
health of the place, and people abroad really came to believe that it 
was beyond comparison the most unhealthy location in the western 
country. It was asserted and believed by many that the reason why 
the place did not improve more than it did, was that few people could 
live there long enough to build a house. 

Peter L. Runyan, Sr. 

There was probably no citizen of Kosciusko County who was more 
intimately and prominently connected with the early politics, public 
affairs and developmental movements of this section of northern In- 
diana that Peter L. Runyan, Sr., familiarly and affectionately called 
Uncle Peter. He was an Ohio man of Virginia parentage and in his 


early manhood married into the widely known Ervin family. In 
November, 1831, he joined his father-in-law, Charles Ervin, and, with 
his own family, journeyed overland from Ohio to Goshen, Elkhart 
County, Indiana. Nothwithstanding the threats of the Black Hawk 
war, the Runyans remained in that section of the western frontier, and 
Uncle Peter of the future (he was then a rugged frontiersman of 
twenty-six) soon came into notice as a strong, practical man worthy 
of being entrusted with the public afiPairs of his locality. 

In the fall of 1832 Mr. Ruuyan was elected justice of the peace 
for Elkhart County, and two years afterward was called to the present 
neighborhood of Milford to officiate at the marriage of Henry H. Wil- 
kinson with a Miss Wright — one of the first affairs of that nature to 
occur in what is now Kosciusko County. The counti-y evidently ap- 
pealed to him, for in January, 1836, he resigned as justice of the 
peace for Elkhart County, and early in that year located on the site 
of what soon afterward was platted as the village of Leesburg. In 
partnership with Thomas Thomas he there engaged in business as 
one of its first merchants. At the same time he was appointed deputy 
sheriff. But he evidentlj- foresaw that Warsaw was to be the better 
town, in 1838 sold his interest in the Leesburg store and in the fol- 
lowing year located at the county seat. 

At Warsaw, Mr. Runyan became proprietor of the Losier House, 
which in pioneer times was considered a sure stepping stone to local 
preferment of an official and political nature — provided the landlord 
had the requisite qualities to advance in both fields ; and Peter L. 
Runyan abundantly possessed them all. As has been noted, in the 
year that he located at Leesburg, that place and Oswego were in the 
running for the location of the county seat, and a strong movement 
was under way in the southern townships to have a new county organ- 
ized from portions of Kosciusko, Wabash, Fulton and Miami. Clip- 
pers and anti-Clippers, whigs and democrats, wrestled back and forth, 
complicating local issues with national politics, and P. L. Runyan, 
Sr., was in the thick of it all. At length after four years of this sort 
of campaigning, in 1840 he was elected representative to the Legis- 
lature — the first substantial victory gained by either party during 
that period. 

During the legislative session of that year Indiana was redistricted, 
and Kosciusko and Whitley formed into one district. Mr. Runyan 
was renominated by the anti-Clippers, and, after a bitter contest, was 
re-elected. He had already been serving for several years as com- 
missioner of the Three Per Cent Fund, derived from the sale of pub- 


lie lands and applied to the building of roads and bridges. During 
September, 1837, to September, 1841, in that capacity he had per- 
sonallj' superintended the construction of most of the principal roads 
and bridges which had been opened in Kosciusko County. He also 
held the position of commissioner of the Surplus Revenue Fund dur- 
ing two years of the same period ; was collector of taxes for the county 
in 1839 and county agent in 1843-50. In the last named capacity he 
superintended the erection of the 1848 court house. 

From 1840 to 1853, Mr. Runyan was engaged in business at War- 
saw, and in 1853 secured contracts for carrying the mail from that 
place to Fort Wayne. From that year until the completion of the 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad, in 1856, he also operated 
a daily stage line between these points, and a tri-weekly stage between 
Warsaw and Plymouth, Goshen, Peru and Rochester. His contracts 
expired in 1857, when he again opened a store and continued in mer- 
cantile pursuits until January, 1861, when Warsaw was visited by her 
first large tire. 

Although Mr. Runyan 's properties, stocks and entire savings were 
swept away, he regathered the small remnants of his accumulations 
and prepared to recuperate like any other brave and hardy man. He 
held the postmastership of Warsaw from April, 1861, to December, 
1866, more than covering the Civil war period, dui'ing which he proved 
to be an invaluable Union, citizen, albeit he was beyond the age and 
strength when his physical qualities could be drawn upon by his 

Lieutenant John N. Runyan 

John N. Runyan, one of his sons, however, a Warsaw youth, went 
to the front, was a second lieutenant before he was seventeen, and 
commanded his company at the battle of Chattanooga. He is said to 
have been the youngest officer placed in such a post of responsibility 
during the war. He was a first lieutenant before he was eighteen, and 
soon after he had entered his nineteenth year, at the battle of Kenne- 
saw Mountain, was shot through the right leg. The knee was so shat- 
tered that it was thought necessary to amputate the leg. Afterward 
Lieutenant Runyan was admitted to the bar and later served as post- 
master at Warsaw. 

The father died at an advanced age, his three sons and two mar- 
ried daughters assisting to keep green the family name in Kosciusko 
County and honor its founder. Uncle Peter Runyan. 

Kosciusko County Court House 


The Third Court House 

Tlie third court house for Kosciusko County, which was built in 
1848, under the supervision of County Agent Runyan, was a two-story 
frame building facing Buffalo Street, on the corner of Center, and, 
was erected at a cost of $4,200. In comparison with its predecessors, 
it was considered rather a fine looking structure. The county offices 
were subsequently housed in a substantial two-story brick building, 
which stood north of the court house and was completed for $4,500. 

As stated, the old log jail was replaced, also in 1848, by a brick 
structure built under the immediate supervision of Mr. Runyan. It 
was located on the southwest of the square. 

The Court House op the Present 

The court house of 1848, with necessary repairs and improvements 
demanded by the requirements of the passing times, served its pur- 
poses for more than thirty years. It was finally wrecked, to give place 
to the structure now occupied. The court house of today was begun 
about 1881 and completed in 1884 at a cost, including furnishings, of 
nearly $198,000. Its ground dimensions are about 100 feet by 160 and 
the ornamental tower is somewhat over 162 feet in height. The archi- 
tects were T. J. Tolan & Sons, and Hiram Iddings was the builder. 
At the time of its construction the county commissioners, who gen- 
erally supervised the work, were W. Bybee, H. P. Kelly and J. Whet- 
ten. Joseph S. Baker was auditor. 

A number of improvements have been made to meet modern re- 
quirements. The court house has been painted, concrete steps added 
and electric lights installed. A ladies' rest room has also been pro- 
vided, in line with the better ideas of public service which now pre- 
vail, in comparison with those of the olden times. ■ 

The County Infirmary 

The original county infirmary building was erected in 1874, with 
Bradford G. Cosgrove as architect and Charles W. Chapman as con- 
tractor. Complete, it cost $7,400. It was a two-story brick building, 
40 by 80 feet, and capped a slight elevation near the Peru road, about 
a mile and a half south of Warsaw. The county farm comprised 115 
acres, consisting mostly of timbered land and most of it cultivated. 


Oliver Dewey was the first superintendent of the County Infirmary, 
and five years after it was opened about thirty inmates were being 
cared, for at the institution. They were mostly women and children. 

Kosciusko County by Civil Divisions, 1890-1910 

The first complete national census to cover Kosciusko County was 
that of 1860, which recorded 17,418 inhabitants; that of 1870 gave 
23,531. And there has been no such increase in any other decade. 
As that decade covered the Civil war, the fact would be hard to under- 
stand, were it not for the correlative circumstance that it also was the 
era of railroad extension in the county. It was the period of recon- 
struction and revival, especially after the close of the war and its dis- 
organizing effects. The result was to draw a large immigration to 
the fertile prairies and valleys of Kosciusko County. 

The census figures representative of the four succeeding decades 
show that the population was nearly stationaiy, the average being 
slightly below that of 1890. The statistics were as follows: 1880, 
26,494^; 1890, 28,645 ; 1900, 29,109 ; 1910, 27,936. Although no decided 
increase in population is to be noted in that period, there was an 
advance in the valuation of property; the farms increased in pro- 
ductiveness and value ; industries were developed, and there was a 
general advancement all along the line. , Necessarily, each resident 
was, on the whole, in better circumstances in 1910 than in 1880; so 
that an increase in population by no means tells the whole story of 
substantial growth. 

Civil Divisions 1910 

Clay Township 1,246 

Claypool Town 408 

Etna Township 1,110 

Etna Green Town 431 

Franklin Township 1,219 

Mentone Town (Franklin and Harri- 
son townships) 728 

Harrison Township 1,900 

Jackson Township 1,177 

Jefferson Township 1,237 

Lake Township 1,190 

Silver Lake Town 493 

























































Civil Divisions 1910 

Monroe Township 802 

Plain Township 1,320 

Leesburg Town 401 

Prairie Township 929 

Scott Township 990 

Seward Township 1,253 

Tippecanoe Township 1,302 

Turkey Creek Township 2,398 

Syracuse Town 1,379 

Van Buren Township 1,856 

Milford Town 814 

Washington Township 1,817 

Pierceton Town 817 

Wayne Township 6,190 

Warsaw City 4,430 

Value op Farms 

What a county is worth in property, or what can be realized from 
it in the way of taxes, does not wholly fix its comparative importance 
in the commonwealth, but it goes far toward indicating its financial 
standing as a political unit. The same holds true as to the various 
civil divisions of the county. The figures covering the value of the 
real estate (farm land) in the townships, compiled in the fall of 1918, 
are as follows: 

Civil Divisions Net Value Civil Divisions Net Value 

Real Est. Real Est. 

Jackson Township $692,540 Seward Township $831,370 

Monroe Township 517,240 Franklin Township 922,770 

Washington Township . . 781,470 Harrison Township 938,660 

Tippecanoe Township . . 695,835 Prairie Township 701,680 

Turkey Creek Township. 846,185 Jefferson Township 705,695 

Van Buren Township . . 911,610 Scott Township 531,950 

Plain Township 757,635 Etna Township 422,630 

Wayne Township 991,660 

Clay Town.ship 600,500 Total $12,369,320 

Lake Township 519,890 



Value of Town and City Property 

The net value of the real estate in the corporations of the county 
was as follows : 

..$ 197,330 

. . 251,480 


.. 1.537,320 

Pierceton . . . . 
Winona Lake 



Total $3,270,445 

Syracuse $315,400 

Milford 240,415 

Leesburg 107,390 

Claypool 66,850 

Silver Lake 90,105 

Mentone 168,000 

Etna Green 62,425 

The grand total of the real estate valuation was $15,439,765. 

Included in the item "value of personal and corporation prop- 
erty ' ' is the assessed valuation of the steam and electric railway lines 
in the county, which amounts to $4,173,270, distributed as follows: 
Warsaw, $295,565; outside in Wayne Township, $644,165; Washing- 
ton, $525,855; Van Buren, $417,220; Harrison, $416,550. The tele- 
graph and telephone property is valued at $223,535, and that of ex- 
press companies at $16,775. The grand total of personal and corpora- 
tion property is $7,905,930. 

Total Wealth op Kosciusko County 

The grand total of all kinds of property in the county, of what- 
ever nature — in other words, the total wealth of Kosciusko County 
was assessed as follows: 


Jackson Township . . . .$3,588,760 

Monroe Township 1,489,731 

Washington Township. 2,896,017 

Tippecanoe Township.. 2,330,260 

Turkey Creek Township 1,933,778 

Van Buren Township. . 4,401,652 

Plain Township 2,592,576 

Wayne Township 4,414,416 

Clay Township 2,630,884 

Lake Township 2,260,901 

Seward Township 3,080,425 

Franklin Township . . . 2,468,550 

Harrison Township . . . 2,732,863 

Prairie Township 2,589,795 

Jefferson Township . . . 2,866,865 


Scott Township $ 1,585,930 

Etna Township 2,307,921 

Syracuse Town 2,121,435 

Milford Town 1,566,729 

Leesburg Town . . . 
Claypool Town .... 
Silver Lake Town. . 
Mentone Town . . . . 
Etna Green Town . 
Pierceton Town . . . 
Winona Lake Town 

Sidney Town 

Warsaw City 

Grand Total . . 






. 1,209,123 

. 1,437,092 


. 12,383,003 



Finances op the County 

The county auditor's report for the year January 1, 1917, to and 
inclusive of January 1, 1918, indicates that Kosciusko County is in 
a vigorous state of health financially, as on the latter date the treasury 
showed a balance of more than $228,000. The total receipts were 
$995,745, the largest sources of revenue being these: Sale of road 
bonds, $274,626; local tuition tax, $81,850; regular county taxes, 
$51,345. In January', 1918, there was a balance in the road fund of 
over $163,000, the largest credits being as follows: Stamer Road, 
$45,490 ; Polk Road, $35,848 ; MeAlspaugh Road, $18,347 ; Orn Road, 



Circuit Court Has Staying Qualities^The Old Eighth and 
Ninth Circuits — President Judges and Their Associates — Sam- 
uel C. Sample, First President Judge — First Associate Judges 
OF THE County — Early Circuit Court in Action — Young Beau 
Brummel 'Squires — ^Went to the Bottom op the Case — Juries 
— Appeals to the Jury — Special Pleading, Early Nightmare — 
Flickering Torchlight op Justice — President Judges of the 
Ninth Circuit — The Circuit Courts of Today — Shifting op the 
County in the Circuits — Judges op the Tenth Circuit — James 
L. Worden — Judges of the Fourteenth Circuit — Judges Elisha 
V. Long and Walter Olds — Fipty-Fourth Circuit Judges — 
Judge James S. Frazer — Judge Lemuel L. Royse — Judge Francis 
E. Bowser — The Probate Court and Its Judges — The County's 
Probate Judges — The Common Pleas Court and Judges — Courts 
op Conciliation — Common Pleas Court Abolished — Common 
Pleas Districts — Common Plelis Judges for the County — The 
Prosecuting Attorneys — District Prosecuting Attorneys — 
Circuit and County Prosecuting Attorneys — The 'Squires of 
the County — Duties of Justices op the Peace — The Justices 
OF Today — The Kosciusko County Bar — George "W. Frasier — 
Andrew G. Wood — Practitioners op Today 

The courts of Kosciusko County and their personnel of judges and 
lawyers constitute both the setting and the decorations of a stately, 
mellow and homely chapter in its history. As the country and its 
facilities in every field were poor and primitive, the actors in matters 
legal and judicial were called to exercise unfailing ingenuity and the 
most practical knowledge of human nature. The learned were largely 
discounted by the shrewd and the wise; it was much more necessary 
to know how to handle men than to manipulate books and their eon- 
tents. It is still a mooted question with those who have had experience 
with both the old and the new order of things and persons, in their 
relation to the Bench and Bar, under which regime real justice for 
the average American has most flourished. 
Vol. 1—9 129 


Circuit Court Has Staying Qualities 

In Kosciusko County, as well as in other sections of the state which 
do not embrace any very large centers of population, the Circuit Court 
is by far the most representative of all its judicial bodies. Others 
have come and gone, have been tried for various purposes and found 
wanting, but the Circuit Court has withstood everj^ test and is still 
vigorously useful. With the increase of population, and for other 
reasons, sometimes of a political nature, Kosciusko County has been 
shifted into different circuits of the state, but the main features of 
the court have been retained. 

The second j^ear after the county was organized, a Probate Court 
was established with the design of relieving the Circuit Court of some 
of its many functions, but, after a dozen years of legislative experi- 
ments, both bench and bar and law-makere relinquished the attempt in 
disgust. Much in the same line was the founding of the Common 
Pleas Court, the birth of which shortly followed the death of the Pro- 
bate body. The Common Pleas was more of a success, but after reach- 
ing man's estate (twenty-one years) was also abolished, leaving the 
great bulk of the legal and judicial matters of Kosciusko County to be 
handled by the Circuit and Justices' courts. 

The sheriff of the county has been from the first the executive 
officer of the Circuit Court, and the constable, elected by the township, 
holds the same position in relation to the Justices' Court. The details 
of their development and present jurisdiction will be brought out with 
the progress of this chapter. 

The Old Eighth and Ninth Circuits 

The Circuit Court for Kosciusko County was, as has been noted, 
organized with the political and civil machinery of the new body, in 
1836, and was, of course, placed under way by authority of the con- 
stitution of 1816. When the county was organized it was in the 
Eighth Circuit and was judicially attached to Elkhart County. 

As a result of the formation of several new counties in 1837, a new 
circuit was organized. It was formed by dividing the Eighth and 
adding new counties both to that circuit and the new Ninth. As a 
result of this regrouping, the Eighth Circuit was made to consist of 
Cass, Miami, Wabash, Huntington, Allen, Adams, Wells, Jay, DeKalb, 
Steuben, Noble, LaGrange and Whitley counties. 

The Ninth contained Elkhart, St. Joseph, Porter, Lake, Newton, 
Starke, Pulaski, JIarshall, Fulton and Kosciusko counties. 


In 1839 Indiana was divided into eleven circuits. Kosciusko re- 
mained in the nintli, from which Newton, Starke and Pulaski had been 
transferred to other circuits. New schedules were made in 1841 and 
1843, although no new circuits were created. 

President Judges and Their Associates 

The General Assembly was given power to increase the number of 
judicial circuits with the expansion of the population. The Circuit 
Court consisted of a president judge and two associates, the latter 
being chosen for each county in the circuit. The president, or both 
associates, could hold court ; the latter, however, seldom took advan- 
tage of this provision, as they seldom had enjoyed sufficient legal 
training to adjudicate the simple cases which usually were brought 
to court. The associates, even had they so desired, were forbidden to 
sit on capital or chancery cases ; for the original Circuit Court had not 
only complete criminal jurisdiction, but could trj^ all common law 
and chanceiy cases. 

The General Assembly, on joint ballot, selected the president judges 
for a seven years' tenure of office, and the associate judges and justices 
of the peace were chosen at the general elections, the latter for five 
years' terms. The clerk of the Circuit Court was also elected but 
could not serve without a cei-tificate from either a Supreme or Cir- 
cuit Court judge. The regular term of the clerk was seven years, 
but it usually happened that an efficient and popular clerk remained 
in office much longer, in not a few cases, a lifetime. 

As stated in Dr. L. J. Monks ' ' ' Courts and Lawyers of Indiana ' ' : 
"The chief criticism that can be made on the Indiana system of 1816 
is that it continued the pernicious system of Associate Judges. In 
most eases they were more than merely useless or meddlesome. As 
compared with the many superb men who rode the circuits as pres- 
ident judges, they were a very inferior class. Yet it is only fair to 
say that many excellent citizens were associated judges. The new 
system was simple and clear cut." 

Samuel C. Sample, First President Judge 

Samuel C. Sample was president judge of the Eighth and Ninth 
circuits, in 1836-43, and therefore served the first lawyers and liti- 
gants of Kosciusko County in the early sittings of the court at Lees- 
burg and Warsaw. Judge Sample was a native of ^Maryland. In 
1823 he settled at Connersville, Indiana, and in 1833, soon after his 


admission to the bar, located at South Bend. Not long afterward be 
became prosecuting attorney of the circuit, and in 1835, president 
judge. His service as judge of the Ninth Circuit commenced June 
1, 1837, and concluded with his resignation, August 8, 1843. 

First Associate Judges of County 

The associate judges for the same period were as follows: 

Henry Ward, elected June 13, 1836, to serve seven years from 
that date. 

James Comstock, elected on the same date for the seven years' 
term. Moved from the county in May, 1841. 

James Brown, chosen at a special election, on August 14, 1841, to 
serve seven years from June 13, 1836. 

Samuel D. Hall, elected August 10, 1842, to serve seven years 
from June 13, 1843. 

James Brown, elected August 10, 1842, to serve seven years from 
from June 13, 1843. 

After the incumbency of Samuel D. Hall and James Brown, as 
associate judges, until the coining of the new Circuit Court, under 
the constitution of 18.51, James Humphreys and Isaac H. Jennings 
served in that capacity. They were both elected August 25, 1849. 

Early Circuit Court in Action 

Again borrowing from Dr. Monks' "Courts and Lawyers of In- 
diana": "To get anything like a correct picture of the court, it is 
necessary to divest our minds of all pictures of the furniture and 
trappings of the court room of today. The country was young, 
awkward and violent. Knowledge and skill, though highly prized, 
were not widely distributed. The associates, or 'side' judges, had 
no pretension to legal knowledge. Many of the presiding judges had 
little more than a smattering of the law. The prosecutor was almost 
invariably a novice, while the foreman of the grand jury was very 
frequently a local preacher. Many of the practicing lawyers were 
of the class commonly called 'shysters.' They attained considerable 
success at the bar when the 'side' judges presided by prejudicing the 
judges against the reall.y competent lawyers. 

"The language of this court was strewn with Latin wrecks, many 
of them so disfigured as to have lost all resemblance to their original 
forms. If a lawyer was uncertain just how to lay his declaration, 
he worked it in all conceivable ways in the hope that at least one 


of his counts would be good. If he was uncertain just what to say, 
he said everything possible, in the hope that in one place or another 
he would get it said correctly. 

Young Beau Brummel 'Squires 

"The young lawyers, always called 'squires,' attracted most at- 
tention from the court house crowds. They sported what had been 
bee-gum hats; but stress of rain and frost had weakened the fiber 
or rotted the glue until many of them resembled, on a small scale, the 
leaning tower of Pisa. From beneath the wreck of a former beaver 
there protruded a long plait of hair, carefully wrapped in an eel 
skin, which hung to the belt, the whole appendage being a queue. 

"The young 'squires courted the admiration and homage of the 
multitude. The lawyers had no offices. Neither did they prepare 
their cases ; so that if not actually engaged at the bar, they were at 
leisure to walk around through the crowd and talk politics, for all 
were candidates for a seat in the Legislature. 

"The people thought holding court one of the greatest perform- 
ances in the range of their experience. If not unavoidably detained, 
all those who had no business there flocked to court to hear the great 
lawyers 'plead^." * * * * 

Went to the Bottom op the ,Case 

"Judge Charles Test has left a reminiscence of a scene that was 
not only typical, but very common. A man was on trial charged 
with assault and battery for pulling another man's nose. The case 
was before a jury. The room was crowded to the last man. The 
evidence was all in and the crowd had assembled to hear the 'plead- 
ing. ' Judge Test, then a young man, rose and said to the Court : 

" 'If the Court please — ' 

"Before he could continue. Judge Winchell from the bench broke 
in with: 'Yes, we do please. Go to the bottom of the case, young 
man; the people have come in to hear the lawyers plead.' He then 
proceeded in a three houi-s' address to show how greatly his client 
had been provoked to pull the plaintiff's nose. As he closed and took 
his seat, the judge bawled out, 'Capital! I did not think it was in 
him.' " 


"The laws and regulations concerning petit and grand juries have 
remained substantially the same through the centurJ^ Under the 


present constitution the practice is necessarily the same throughout 
the state. According to the act of Mai-ch 3, 1913: 'In causes tried 
by jury, a jury fee of $4.50 shall be taxed as costs in favor of the 
county. Jurors, grand and petit, shall be paid $2.50 per day while 
in actual attendance, and five cents for each mile necessarily traveled.' 
"Petit juries are drawn by two jury commissioners, who, accord- 
ing to statute, must be of opposite political faith. These commis- 
sioners receive $3 per day for the time actually occupied in filling 
the box. The larger number of indictments tried by the Circuit 
Court is presented by the grand jury. There is now no serious 
opposition to the grand jury, such as existed in 1850, when the con- 
stitutional convention threatened to abolish it. * * * * 

Appe.\ls to the Jury 

"From 1816 to 1835, the practice was featured by the appeal to 
the jury. A large part of it was in the Criminal Court. In this 
the attorney depended almost exclusively on his appeal to the jury. 
Men like General W. Johnston, James Noble, Governor Ray or Amos 
Lane developed considerable powers in this field of oratory. Per- 
haps no one of our day would care to hear one of these men speak 
four hours on a provoke case, but the folks of that day enjoyed it. 
We read of juries wrought up to frenzy, or melted to tears, by the 
eloquence of these early barristers. 

Special Ple.\ding, E.vrly Nightmare 

"While this species of forensic eloquence remained characteristic 
of the old Circuit courts, lawyers as early as 1830 began to give more 
attention to the pleading side of the practice. By 1840 many of the 
special pleaders had attained such skill in this line that, with an un- 
certain judge and an unskillful attorney to oppose, they could almost 
prevent a ease coming to trial. The revision of 1843 shows distinctly 
the effect of this practice. 

"On the other hand, a study of the debates in the constitutional 
convention shows that the public did not think highly of this form 
of practice. In the old days a ease was set down for trial and the 
people could gather in with the assurance that the trial would come 
off on schedule time, but by 1850 it had become customary to delay 
cases at bar for a year or more." 

"Special pleading became a hobby of a few lawyers and a night- 
mare to the lawyers not read up on it. Chitty was the standard 


work on the subject, enforced by Saunders' Reports. On one occa- 
sion a demurrer to a pleading of this kind came up before the asso- 
ciate judges at Charlestown. Charles Dewey and Harbin H. Moore, 
two as able lawyers as could be found in Indiana, perhaps, argued 
it to the judges all day. As Moore closed his powerful argument, 
one of the judges roused up. 

' ' ' Mr. Moore, do I understand that a demurrer means a dispute ? ' 
"With disgust, Moore answered, 'Yes, Your Honor.' 
" 'Then,' said the judge, 'the opinion of the court is that the 
demurrer go.' 

" 'Which way shall it go?' queried the attorney. 
" 'Mr. Moore, I will let you know that you are not to ram your 
rascality down the jaws of justice in this court,' responded the 

Flickering Torchlight of Justice 

"Much of the early litigation was over trivial affairs. It is not 
infrequent in the early court records that one finds a verdict for 
five or ten dollars with costs of $200 or $300. Corporations as well 
as corporation laws were little known. Slander and libel suits were 
frequent, most of them having their origin in political or religious 
difficulties. Many cases of ad quod damnum appear on the early 
records. The larger number of these were for mill sites — always 
called 'damsites.' The law authorized one to condemn private land 
for this purpose. 

"In concluding this chapter, one can hardl3' refrain from observ- 
ing that a study of the old court dockets is the best possible way to 
get an appreciation of the long and painful road by which society 
struggles on to higher forms and fuller life. It is a museum of 
misery, misfortune, and despair, illuminated by the flickering torch- 
light of justice." 

President Judges of the Ninth Circuit 

Succeeding Samuel C. Sample as president judge of the Ninth 
Circuit were John B. Niles, who served by appointment from August 
to December, 1843, and who had previously been prosecuting attorney 
of the circuit, as well as one of the ablest lawj^ers of Northern In- 
diana ; E. ^I. Chamberlain, who served from December 1, 1843, until 


his resignation in August, 1852, and Robert R. Lowry, who was in 
office as the last of the president judges, from August to October, 
1852, inclusive. 

The Circuit Courts of Today 

The Circuit Court of the present was created by the constitution 
of 1851, but it was established and its duties defined, with the increas- 
ing demands made upon it by the development of the county, by 
various statutory enactments. The respective creation and aboli- 
tion of the Probate and Common Pleas courts have also made it nec- 
essarj^ to periodically decrease or increase the scope of its juris- 

The constitution provides that the judge shall preside in his cir- 
cuit and be elected for a term of six j'cars, although it permits the 
General Assembly, in extraordinary cases, to direct a judge to hold 
court on a circuit other than his own. The Legislature also fixes the 
salary of the circuit judge and may confer upon him extra-judicial 
powers. The constitution permits a judge to be removed from office 
for cause, and the General Assembly directs that such impeachment 
be conducted by the attorney general of the state, proceeding on in- 
formation before the Supreme Court. Thus the groundwork of this 
court, as of other institutions, was laid by the constitution, and the 
General Assembly worked out the details to conform to changing 

The legislative act of April 7, 1881, recreated the Circuit Court 
of today, in the following words: "Such court shall have original 
exclusive jurisdiction in all cases at law and equity whatsoever, and 
in criminal cases and actions for divorce, except where exclusive or 
concurrent jurisdiction is, or may be confei-red by law upon justices 
of the peace. It shall also have exclusive jurisdiction of the settle- 
ment of decedents' estates and of guardianships; 

"Provided, however, that in counties in which Criminal or Supe- 
rior courts exist or may be organized, nothing in this section shall 
be construed to deprive such courts of jurisdiction conferred upon 
them by law, and it shall have such appellate jurisdiction as may 
be conferred by law, and it shall have jurisdiction of all other causes, 
matters and proceedings where exclusive jurisdiction thereof is not 
conferred by law upon some other court, board or office." 

It will be perceived that, by the enactment noted, the new Circuit 
Court inherited all the functions of the old Probate and Common 
Pleas courts. The only important amendment to the act of 1881, 


which defined the jurisdiction of the court, was passed thirty years 
afterward (1911) to the following effect: "There shall be no distinc- 
tion in pleading and practice between actions at law and suits in 
equity; and there shall be but one form of action for the enforce- 
ment or protection of private rights and the redress of private 
wrongs, which shall be denominated a civil action. All courts which 
are vested both in law and equity may, to the full extent of their 
respective jurisdiction, administer legal and equitable remedies in 
favor of either party, in one and the same suit, so that the legal and 
equitable rights of the parties may be enforced and protected in one 

The legislative act of June 17, 1852, divided the state into ten 
judicial circuits. Besides Kosciusko County, the Tenth comprised 
Adams, Wells, Whitley, Allen, Noble, DeKalb, LaGrange, Steuben 
and Elkhart. Since that date, there have been more than 180 
changes in the judicial circuits of Indiana ; or, putting the matter in 
another way : ' ' There have been only five sessions of the Legislature 
since 1852 in which a new circuit has not been organized, or one or 
more old circuits reorganized. Politics has often played a prominent 
part in the establishment of these circuits, and it has been said that 
there have been times when some counties were not attached to" any 
circuit for a short time." 

Shifting op the County in the Circuits 

The acts of the General Assembly which have specially affected 
Kosciusko County have been these: Act of February 20, 1867, by 
which the county was transferred from the Tenth to the Fourteenth 
Circuit; March 6, 1873, by which the Common Pleas courts weire 
abolished, and Kosciusko County transferred from the Fourteenth to 
the Thirty-third Circuit and the act of ^larch 1, 1889, which made 
the county coextensive with the Fifty-fourth Judicial Circuit, as it is 
at present. 

Judges op the Tenth Circuit 

While Kosciusko County was in the Tenth Circuit, the following 
served as judges of the court : E!za A. McMahaon, from October 
12, 1852, until his resignation, August 15, 1855 ; James L. Worden, 
who was appointed on the latter date and resigned Januaiy 18, 1858 ; 
Reuben J. Dawson, who served by appointment from January to 
October, 1858; Edward R. Wilson, circuit judge from October 26, 


1858, to the same date in 1864, and Robert R. Lowry, from October 
26, 1864, to February 20, 1867, when the county was transferred to 
the Fourteenth Circuit. 

James L. Worden 

Hon. James L. Worden, who occupied the bench for nearly two 
years and a half, was one of the ablest lawyers and judges who ever 
served the cause of justice in Indiana. From the Circuit bench he 
was elevated to the State Supreme Court which he honored and 
graced for twenty-five years thereafter. Judge Worden was a res- 
ident of Fort Wayne for about thirty-five years, that being his home 
city at the time of his death. By birth he was a Massachusetts man 
and by education, a product of Ohio. He practiced in the Buckeye 
State for a number of years before (in 1844) he moved to Indiana. 
He located at Fort Wayne in 1849 ; was prosecutor of the Tenth 
judicial circuit in 1851-52, sei-ved as its judge in 1855-58, resigning 
in January of the latter year to accept the justiceship of the Indiana 
Supreme Court, to which he had been appointed by Governor Wil- 
lard. Judge Worden was retained in that position by successive 
elections of the democratic party until his retirement on December 1, 
1882. His death occurred about eighteen months after his retire- 

Judges op the Fourteenth Circuit 

While Kosciusko County was in the Fourteenth Circuit, Hiram 
S. Tousley and James I. Best presided — Judge Tousley, from Feb- 
ruary 28, 1867, to October 30, 1872, and Judge Best from the latter 
date until the passage of the act of March 6, 1873, when the Common 
Pleas judges were legislated out of office and there was a general 
rearrangement of judicial circuits. 

In 1881 the Legislature passed an act designed to relieve the con- 
gested docket of the State Supreme Court, creating for that purpose 
five special commissioners, with two years' terms, who were appointed 
by the justices of the Supreme Court. Judge William A. Woods 
selected James I. Best as the commissioner for his district (the 

Judges Elisha V. Long and Walter Olds 

The following served Kosciusko County judicially, while it was 
included in the Thirty-third Circuit : Elisha V. Long, March 17, 1873, 


to October 22, 1885 ; Walter Olds, from the latter date until his res- 
ignation on December 31, 1888; Joseph W. Adair, from December 
31, 1888, to March 1, 1889. The act of the latter date made Kos- 
ciusko County the sole county in the Fifty-fourth, where it has since 

Judge Long had either practiced law or been engaged in the 
newspaper business for fifteen years, when he ascended the bench. 
He was a native Hoosier of Wayne County, and his father, also 
Elisha, had been prominent in the development of the system of In- 
ternal Improvements during 1836-40 — the period when not only 
Indiana, but neighboring states, were also agitated over the systema- 
tic promotion of canal and railroad schemes. 

The son came to Kosciusko County, with other members of the 
family, when a boy. He taught school at Leesburg and in Elkhart 
County, received the benefit of a partial course at Fort Wayne Col- 
lege, studied law at South Bend, and in 1857 was admitted to the 
bar. In the following year he commenced practice at Warsaw in 
partnership with his brother Moses J. Long, which continued until 
1862, when he formed a partnership with Edgar Haymond, which 
was dissolved three years afterwai"d. 

Mr. Long's practice became quite extensive, but from 1860 to 
1865 he edited the Warsaw Union as well as engaged in his regular 
pi-ofessional work. In the latter year he moved to Anderson, where 
he edited the Standard and also practiced law, but at the end of a 
twelve-months' period he returned to Warsaw. He continued busily 
and profitably engaged as a member of the bar until March, 1873, 
when Governor Hendrick commissioned him as the Common Pleas 
judge for the Thirty-third Circuit, to hold the office until the fall 
election. In the succeeding October he was elected for the six-years' 
term by a large majority, and in October, 1878, was re-elected for a 
second term. His record on the bench was a natural continuation 
of his previous professional record of ability and dependability. 

Judge Olds resigned to become judge of the Indiana Supreme 
Court, remaining on that bench until June 15, 1893. He then re- 
signed to enter practice in Chicago, but in 1901 moved to Fort 
Wayne. In both cities he has become widely known as a railroad and 
a corporation lawyer. 

Fifty-fourth Circuit Judges 

Since Kosciusko has alone covered the Fifty-fourth Circuit, the 
following have occupied its bench : James S. Frazer, March 1, 1889- 


November 17, 1890; Edgar Haymond, November 17, 1890-November 
17, 1896; Hiram S. Biggs, November 17, 1896-February 1, 1904; 
L. W. Royse, February 1, 1904-November 17, 1908 ; Francis Bowser, 
November 17, 1908 (term expires on November 17, 1920). 

Judge James S. Feazer 

Judge Prazer was a member of the bench and bar, and a public 
man, of remarkable ability, with varied as well as solid talents. He 
was a Pennsylvanian by birth, of Scotch parentage, and located in 
Wayne County, Indiana, in his youth. He was admitted to the bar 
before he had attained his majority and at once opened an office for 
practice in Warsaw. That was in 1845. Two years afterward he 
was elected to the lower house of the Legislature, serving in that body 
in 1847, 1848 and 1854. From 1865 to 1871 he served on the State 
Supreme bench, and in May of the latter year was appointed by 
President Grant as one of the three commissioners to adjust the 
claims between Great Britain and the United States arising out of 
the Civil war. In line with the duties of that position he was called 
to Washington, where he resided from 1873 to 1875. 

In 1879 Judge Frazer was appointed a member of the Board of 
Commissioners selected to revise and codify the laws of the state. As 
stated, he served as Circuit judge of Kosciusko County for more than 
eighteen months in 1889-90. He died at his home in Warsaw, Feb- 
ruary 20, 1893. 

Seven children were born to Judge Frazer and his wife (nee 
Caroline Defrees). The eldest, William D. Frazer, is the prominent 
lawyer and citizen of Warsaw, and the oldest of the six daughters. 
Miss Harriet D. Frazer, is widely known as a court reporter and a 
leader in ail the higher activities of her sex. 

Judge Edgar Haymond was also an old Warsaw attorney, having 
practiced at the county seat for over thirty years, when he was elected 
circuit judge (in November, 1890). 

Judge Lemuel W. Royse 

Judge Lemuel W. Royse is a native of Kosciusko County, and was 
born January 19, 1848. His fathei-, who was a son of the Granite 
State, spent many years in Ohio as a preacher and a doer of Metho- 
dism. The son received a smattering of book learning in the public 
schools of Warsaw, but practically all his education has been secured 
through his own systematic reading. He studied law under Judge 


James S. Prazer, was admitted to the Kosciusko County bar in Sep- 
tember, 1874, and in the following year began the practice of his 

Judge Royse is therefore one of the veterans of the bar, measured 
by length of active practice, and the nature of his public and judicial 
services have further stamped his personality on the county. In 
1876 he was elected prosecuting attorney of the Fifty-fourth Circuit 
and served one term; was six j'ears mayor of Warsaw, 1885-91, and 
was the congressman from the Thirteenth District for two terms 
covering 1895-99. As stated, he occupied the Circuit bench in 1904- 
08. In every position he has proved his mental ability and his moral 
worth.— H. G. C. 

Judge Francis E. Bowser 

Francis E. Bowser, who succeeded Judge Royse to the Circuit 
bench, is of the younger generation of lawyers. He is also a native 
of the county; was admitted to the bar in 1885, and was associated 
with Andrew 6. Wood for twenty-three years. Judge Bowser is 
serving his second term which expires November 17, 1920. 

The Probate Court and Its Judges 

The thirteen years which in Kosciusko County covered the period 
when probate matters were segregated from the jurisdiction of the 
Circuit Court were marked by much statutorj' patchwork, which, in 
the end, did not accomplish anything of consequence. Specifically, 
that period covered the time from August 16, 1838, when Kosciusko's 
first probate judge assumed office, until May 14, 1852, when the 
Legislature abolished the court and transferred its functions to the 
Common Pleas Court. 

The pernicious practice of special legislation, which became com- 
mon about 1840, rapidly undermined the Probate Court. In the 
revision of 1843 the law organizing the court was somewhat simpli- 
fied. The concurrent jurisdiction of the Circuit and Probate courts 
were retained in all suits at law and equity, in all partitions of real 
estate, in assignment of dower and a few other minor cases. The 
court first taking cognizance of a case retained it. The right of 
appeal was given to either the Circuit or Supreme Coui't, the usual 
rules prevailing in such practice. 

Fifteen laws of the General Assembly of 1845 dealt with the 
same court ; twenty-two amendments were enacted in 1846 ; nineteen 


in 1847 ; twenty-five in 1848 ; at least thirty-seven changes were made 
in the law of 1849; and in 1850, under the shadow of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, it was amended a time or two. ^Most of these 
statutes were merely personal and meddlesome. 

"It is hardly necessary to observe that no institution could live 
on the chop-seas of such legislation," concludes Monks' history of the 
Courts and Lawyers of Indiana. "By 1850 scarcely any resemblance 
to a system of courts remained. Each in large measure was a special 
court for the county in which it was located. 

"The Probate Court does not even seem to have given much satis- 
faction. The first report of the judicial committee to the Constitu- 
tional Convention failed to provide for the Probate Court. Its duties 
were turned over to the Circuit courts. This report made by John 
Pettit, an eminent lawyer of Lafayette, provoked a long discussion 
among the lawyers, in which may be read the histor.y of the Probate 
courts during the twenty-one years of their existence." 

"Enough has been given here to show that the leading lawyers 
of Indiana, in 1850, considered the old Probate Court a failure. It 
was not only a failure in itself, but a constant source of corruption 
to public opinion. 

"Nothing is more dangerous or costly to a community than mis- 
information in regard to the law. This is what usually was obtained 
at the Probate Court. Legal advice at this court could be had with- 
out price, and this caused it to be in considerable favor with the 
common people. When the opinions of the probate judge were over- 
thrown in the upper courts, it was often attributed, not to the error 
of the opinion, but to the smartness or trickery of the lawyers. The 
whole misfortune can be traced to the attempt to be too economical 
in county government." 

The County's Prob.vte Judges 

The probate judges of Kosciusko County, with the periods of 
their service, were as follows: William B. Blaine, August 16. 1838 
(resigned) ; Jacob Baker, June 16, 1842 (vice William B. Blaine) ; 
Joseph Hall, August 10, 1842- July, 1843 (resigned) ; Clement B. 
Simonson, July 25, 1845 (special election), vice Joseph Hall; John 
Rogers, August 15, 1843 (resigned prior to August 7, 1850) ; William 
C. Graves, August 7, 1850 (vice John Rogers, resigned) ; Jacob Felk- 
ner, August 20, 1850. 

In this list of probate judges, the only one of any special prom- 


inence was William C. Graves, a sketch of whom has alreadj' 

The Common Pleas Court and Judges 

The Common Pleas courts, which were in operation from 1852 to 
1873, inclusive, took over the probate business, as well as various 
civil and criminal litigation from both the Circuit and the Justices' 
courts; with the jurisdiction of the latter, however, there was little 

Exactly how the lines were drawn has been concisely explained 
in Doctor Monks' Covirts and Lawyei-s of Indiana, as follows: 

"When the constitutional convention of 1850 decided to abolish 
the Probate Court, the Common Pleas Court was planned to take 
over all the probate business, as well as have jurisdiction of part of 
the business formerlj^ intrusted to the Circuit Court. For this reason, 
the Legislature, on May 14, 1852, organized a large number of Com- 
mon Pleas courts, dividing the state into forty-four districts for 
common pleas purposes. This meant that the state had more than 
four times as many Common Pleas courts as Circuit courts. 

"The same act abolished the old Probate court, which had been 
in existence under the 1816 constitution, and transferred most of 
the business of that court to the newly created Common Pleas Court. 
It was given exclusive jurisdiction over all probate matters and had 
original jurisdiction of all that class of offenses which did not amount 
to a felony. One exception of this is to be noted — it did not, of 
course, invade the jurisdiction of the justices-of-the-peace courts, 
which had been given exclusive jurisdiction over certain kinds of 
cases. The Common Pleas Court was given jurisdiction, under 
definite restrictions, of certain felonies where the punishment could 
not be death, but in no case was the intervention of the grand jury 

"In all cases except for slander, libel, breach of marriage con- 
tract, action on the official bond of any state or county officer, or 
where title to real estate was in question, the Common Pleas Court 
had concurrent jurisdiction with the Circuit Court, where the sum, 
or damages due or demanded, did not exceed $1,000, exclusive of 
interests and costs and concurrent jurisdiction with the justices of 
the peace where the amount involved did not exceed fifty dollars. 

"When the court was first organized, appeals could be taken 
from it to the Circuit Court, but that was changed by a legislative 
act so that no appeal could be taken to that court. However, the 


same act provided that appeals could be taken fi"oin the Common 
Pleas Court to the Supreme Court of the state. From time to time 
the jurisdiction of the Common Pleas Court was changed, in an effort 
to make it a more useful and efficient adjunct of the state judiciary. 
The Clerk of the Circuit Court and the sheriff of the county were 
ex-oiBcio officers in their respective capacities for the Common Pleas 

Courts of Conciliation 

"The judge of the Common Pleas Court was ex-officio judge of 
the Court of Conciliation. A Court of Conciliation was provided for 
by the constitution of 1851. In pursuance with its provisions, the 
Legislature passed an act, on June 12, 1852, establishing such courts 
and authorized the judges of the Common Pleas courts to preside over 
them. ' ' That judicial body was abolished by legislative act of Novem- 
ber 30, 1865. 

Common Pleas Court Abolished 

"The Common Pleas Court was abolished by an act of the Legis- 
lature approved ilay 6, 1873, and all the business formerly transacted 
by it was transferred to the Circuit Court. As early as 1867 Crim- 
inal courts had been established in a few counties in the state, and 
in 1871 the Legislature provided for Superior courts in counties of 
a certain population. The Legislature was of the opinion that with 
the creation of these new courts it was a useless expenditure of money 
to continue the Common Pleas Court. Accordingly, it was decided 
to discontinue it and create new Circuit, Superior or Criminal courts 
in those counties which had more business than they could handle. 

Common Pleas Districts 

"The act of March 14, 1852, establishing the Common Pleas Court, 
divided the state into forty-four districts. The districts were not 
numbered, and remained unchanged until the act of March 1, 1859. 
The second act divided the state into twenty-one districts, but again 
did not number them. The act of March 11, 1861, numbered them, 
but made no change in the districts. Between 1861 and 1873, when 
the court was aljolished, four new districts were created." 


Common Pleas Judges foe the County 

Following were the Common Pleas judges for Kosciusko County : 
John L. Knight, 1852-56, resigned; George E. Gordon, January- 
October, 1856 ; Joseph H. Matlock, 1856-60 ; Kline G. Shryock, 1860-62 ; 
David D. Dykeman, 1862-65 ; Thomas C. Whiteside, 1865-70 ; Daniel 
P. Baldwin, August-October, 1870 ; James H. Carpenter, 1870-73. 

The Prosecuting Attorneys 

The constitution of 1816 made no provision for a permanent 
prosecuting attorney of either circuit or county. At first the presi- 
dent .iudges appointed a prosecutor for each term of court, and from 
1824 to 1843, under legislative enactment, the General Assembly 
elected a prosecutor for each judicial circuit for a term of two years. 
Then for four years that official was elected by the people, and in 
January, 1847, the Legislature took a hand in the matter and decreed 
that a prosecutor should be elected for each county in the state with 
a three years' service. 

To elect a prosecutor for each county proved to be too expensive 
a procedure, and in 1849 there was a reversion to the plan of a 
popular choice of a prosecutor for each judicial circuit, with the 
exception of the fourth and eighth, the tenure of office to be three 

The constitution of 1851 called for the election of a prosecutor 
for each circuit, by vote of the i>eople, such office to be held for two 

District Prosecuting Attorneys 

While the Common Pleas courts were in existence, each of the dis- 
tricts over which they had jurisdiction was provided with a prose- 
cutor, known as the district prosecuting attorneys. 

District prosecuting attorneys of Kosciusko County : 

Joseph H. Matlock, 1852-55; resigned. 

James Wallace, appointed July 14, 1855-56. 

Moses F. Collins, 1856-58. 

Walter Scott, 1858-59 ; resigned. 

Elisha V. Long, 1859-60. 

William DeHart, 1860 ; resigned. 

W. W. Shuler, appointed December 22, 1860-61; resigned. 

E. T. Dickey, appointed November 2, 1861-62. 


Stewart T. McConnell, 1862-64. 

John A. Farrell, 1864-66 ; resigned. 

Dj'er B. McConnell, appointed March 14, 1866. 

Horace S. Foot, 1866-68. 

Jerome Q. Stratton, 1868-70. 

Hiram G. Depuy, 1870-72. 

H. B. Shively, 1872-73. 

Circuit and County Prosecuting Attorneys 

Keeping in mind the methods by which the prosecuting attorneys 
of either the circuit or the county came into office, since the organiza- 
tion of Kosciusko more than eighty years ago, the following list is 
presented, and among the names will be found those of not a few 
men who afterward rose to positions on the Circuit bench : 

Joseph L. Jernegan — Appointed June 1, 1837 ; resigned August 
15, 1838. Ninth Circuit. 

John B. Niles— Appointed August 15, 1838-December 7, 1838. 

William C. Hanna— December 7, 1838-December 15, 1842. 

E. M. Chamberlain— December 15, 1842-September 19, 1843 

Reuben L. Farnsworth— September 19, 1843-September 19, 1845. 

Johnson Horrell — Appointed September 19, 1845, but as he failed 
to comply with the law and file his bond and oath of office with the 
secretary of state, his commission was returned April 29, 1846 ; 
Farnsworth remaining in office. 

James Bradley — Appointed April 13, 1846 (vice Farnsworth, who 
had moved from the state) ; served to August 25, 1846. 

Joseph H. Mather— Appointed August 25, 1846-August 25, 1848. 

James S. Frazer— August 28, 1851-October 12, 1852. 

John M. Connell— October 12, 1852-January 27, 1853. Tenth 

Joseph Breckenridge — Appointed January 27, 1853 ; declined to 
accept office. 

James L. Worden — Appointed February 17, 1853; resigned Feb- 
ruary 1, 1854. 

E. R. Wilson— Appointed February 1, 1854: resigned August 20, 

Sandford J. Stoughton— August 20, 1856-December 6, 1858. 

James M. Defrees — December 6, 1858 ; died in May, 1859. 

John Colerick— May 10, 1859-October 26, 1860. 

Augustus A. Chapin— October 26, 1860-November 3, 1862. 


James H. Schell— November 3, 1862-November 3, 1866. 

Thomas W. Wilson— November 3, 1866-February 20, 1867. 

Act of later date placed Kosciusko County in Fourteenth Circuit. 

James H. Carpenter— March 7, 1867-October 30, 1867. 

Ezra D. Hartman— October 30, 1867-Oetober 24, 1870. 

James McGrew— October 24, 1870-May 20, 1872. 

Leigh H. Haymond— May 20, 1872-March 6, 1873. 

The act of March 6, 1873, transferred Kosciusko County from the 
Fourteenth to the Thirtj'-third Circuit. 

Thomas I. Wood— March 6, 1873-October 26, 1874 ; act of March 
6, 1873, transferred Wood from the Ninth to the Thirty-third Circuit. 

Perry 0. Jones— October 26, 1874-March 9, 1875. Transferred 
to Forty-first Circuit. 

James A. Campbell— March 9, 1875-October 25, 1876. 

Lemuel W. Royse— October 24, 1876-October 24, 1878. 

Michael Sickafoose— November 17, 1882-November 17, 1884. 

James W. Cook— November 17, 1884-November 17, 1888. 

George M. Ray— November 17, 1888-November 17, 1890. 

The act of March 1, 1889, placed Kosciusko in the Fifty-fourth 
Circuit, where it remains ; also transferred Ray to the same circuit. 

William H. Filer- November 17, 1890-November 17, 1894. 

L. B. McKinley— November 17, 1894-November 17, 1896. 

Melvin H. Summy — November 17, 1896-January 1, 1901. 

Henry W. Graham — January 1. 1901-January 1, 1905. 

John A. Sloane — January 1, 1905-January 1, 1907. 

F. Wayne Anglin — January 1, 1907-January 1, 1909. 

Hersehell V. Lehman — January 1, 1909-January 1, 1913. 

F. Wayne Anglin — January 1, 1913-January 1, 1915. 

Homer Longfellow — January 1, 1915 — (Present incumbent.) 

The 'Squires of the County 

In common with the other counties of limited population in the 
state, Kosciusko is indebted to the justices of the peace, in almost 
equal measure with the Circuit judges, for a fair and democratic 
administration of justice. The small matters intimately affecting the 
individual and the family; quarrels and complications, which mean 
so much to the average person and citizen, have been brought before 
the 'Squire, and it is the exception wherein the angry or perplexed 
has not met with sympathy and good advice. Many more affairs 
would go awry than do at present were it not for the wise and 
homely administrations of the justices of the peace in Kosciusko 


Duties of Justices of the Peace 

The office of justice of the peace was recognized by the consti- 
tution of 1816. Specifieally, by act of January 28, 1818, he was 
granted jurisdiction coextensive with the county in criminal cases. 
At his bar anyone could prefer a charge and have the one accused 
arrested and arraigned. If necessary, the justice might then com- 
mit, discharge, or allow the prisoner his freedom on bail. 

"If the person ai'rested was charged with 'riot, rout, affray, 
unlawful assembly, or breach of the peace,' it became the duty of the 
justice, within thirty days, to have a jurj- of twelve qualified electors 
impaneled by the constable or sheriff and proceed to trial. The 
highest punishment he could inflict was a fine of twenty dollars and 
costs. In default of payment the condemned could be taken to jail. 
If, during the trial, the justice felt that he could not administer suffi- 
cient punishment, he could stop the trial and bind the prisoner over 
to the Circuit Court. It was not necessai-y that the county prose- 
cutor attend these trials. 

"In civil cases the power of the justice extended only through- 
out his own township and to suits involving not beyond fifty dollars. 
The justice was required to keep a docket and furnish copies of the 
record. Considerable latitude was given the parties to a suit. They 
could by agreement try their cause before the justice himself, or 
have him call a jury; or, by agreement, they could select three arbi- 
trators, who should hear and determine the suit. In this latter case, 
the award could not be vacated by the higher court except for fraud. 
In all other cases an appeal would lie to the Circuit Court, provided 
the appeal was prosecuted within thirty days. 

"The justices were not permitted to try other than trivial suits 
affecting real estate. If there was no constable convenient to carry 
out his orders, the justices had power to appoint one. By a law of 
the next Assembly the justice was placed under $1,000 bond and 
compelled, when leaving the township, to deposit his docket with 
another justice of the township. 

"The same law also gave the justices' courts exclusive jurisdic- 
tion over suits involving five dollars or less. This was amended by 
the act of January, 1827, by which justices might try cases in debt or 
assumpsit involving as much as $100. In the revision of 1831 jus- 
tices were given power to try replevin suits where the value of the 
article did not exceed twenty dollars. If the plaintiff demanded a 
jury and failed to recover at least twenty dollars he was compelled 
to pay thejui-y fees. The justices' code of 1831 contains eighty-nine 


sections and twenty-four blanks for different writs and forms used 
in his court. This indicates that these courts were coming to be 
widely used. 

"The law of February 3, 1832, gave the justice wider jurisdiction 
at the expense of the Probate Court. Executors, guardians and 
administrators were permitted to sue in the justices' court, if they 
could bring a similar suit in their own right. The limitations to 
jurisdiction with reference to trover and conversion were removed. 
In suits on account it was made imperative that the plaintiff include 
all his accounts in one suit. If there was evidence that the defendant 
was making away with his goods an execution could be issued on 

"In 1833 the justice was given permission to use a jury of six 
men in small civil cases. The parties were given the right to chal- 
lenge the same as in the Circuit Court. Two new misdemeanoi's were 
added to the criminal code this year, over both of which the justice 
had exclusive jurisdiction. One was that of horse-racing on the pub- 
lic highway, and the other was shooting 'on, along or across' the 

"In the revision of 1838 the law governing justices' courts is 
expressed in 105 sections, with twenty-four forms of writs pi-escribed. 
A comparison of this with the early revisions shows a gradual widen- 
ing of the powers of the court, which may be taken to indicate its 
growing popularity in the counties. In the revision of 1843 the 
chapter on Courts and Justices of the Peace has grown into a code of 
346 sections, besides the forms. It would be too tedious to trace the 
development further, especially through the wearisome years of spe- 
cial legislation. The justices' court suffered at this time much as the 
other institutions of the state. Amendments were made to apply 
to a few or a single county. Not only a few of these special laws 
were enacted, but scores of them during the period from 1840 to 

"The Justices' Court was one of considerable importance in our 
early history. Relatively, it occupied a more important position in 
the community than at present. Aside from his strictly judicial 
duties, the justice was a man of great social prominence and useful- 
ness. In a community composed in large measure of Southern people, 
the traditional English reverence for the country squire remained 

"Pirst-class practicing lawyers were so scarce that much of the 


duty now devolving on them was drawn up by the justice. He 
wrote out contracts, wills, deeds, mortgages and all kinds of notices — 
legal and otherwise — as well as counseled his neighbors on the prob- 
able effect of their intended actions. While a great many stories have 
been told at his expense, and though doubtless man.y a court held by 
him was ridiculous in the eyes of the lawyei-s, still he was a worthy 
officer. ' ' 

The Justices of Today 

"The constitution of 1850 provides for justices of the peace, by 
directing that a sufficient number be elected in each township of 
the several counties. The constitution also gives them a foui\vear 
term, but leaves their powers and duties to be prescribed by the 
General Assemblj^ That body has fixed the number at not more 
than two for each township, one for each town and one for each 
city. In a county having a city of 100,000 there are to be not more 
than five. With these limitations the regulation of the number is 
turned over to the Board of County Commissioners. 

"Each justice has an executive officer, called a constable, who, 
like the justice, is elected on a township ticket. The justice must 
keep his own docket and furnish his own office. All remuneration in 
these courts is in the form of fees. In a criminal case, if the accused 
be acquitted, neither the justice nor the jurors receive any fee ; if 
convicted, the prisoner pays the justice and constable and jury if 
one is called. 

"In civil cases a justice is limited in his jurisdiction to his own 
township ; in a criminal case, his power is coextensive with the county. 
Rules of evidence are supposed to be the same as in the Circuit 
Court. In general, his criminal jurisdiction is confined to misde- 
meanors, and his civil jurisdiction to recoveries of money judgments 
for $100 or less, except in cases of confession of judgment, when it 
extends to $300. Practically, all his jurisdiction is concurrent." 

The Kosciusko County Bar 

The bar of Kosciusko County has always averaged liigh, in com- 
parison with other sections of the state which did not develop any 
large centers of population, with corresponding interests of magni- 
tude, and complications which, in the modern order, bring in their 
wake legal adjustments and readjustments. The smaller communi- 


ties also have the good fortune to avoid much of the physical and 
civil crime which disturbs larger and more congested districts and 
which attracts the legal talents to these fields of professional work. 
But, as stated, in view of its comparative standing among the coun- 
ties in Indiana, Kosciusko has reason to be proud of the judges and 
lawyers who have come, gone and still remain in the county. Some 
of the ablest of them devoted themselves solely to practice, and did 
not even prefer the more dignified positions which attach to the .judge- 
ships. In that class were George W. Frasier and Andrew G. Wood. 

George "W. Frasier 

George W. Frasier was one of the earlier practitioners whose 
untimely death prevented him from realizing the ambitions which 
his abilities might reasonably have led him to expect. When a boy 
he moved with the family from New York to Ohio, and thence to 
South Bend. Soon after his marriage in 1847 he commenced the 
studj' of law in the office of Judge Stanfield of that city; was 
admitted to the bar in 1850, and, after practicing for two years in 
LaGrange County, located at Warsaw. There he resided, labored and 
succeeded both in his profession as a lawyer, as well as in his capacity 
of faithful citizen and public servant. The period of his activities 
at Warsaw extended from the time of his coming, in December, 1852, 
until his death on April 2, 1872, in his forty-eighth year. 

Notwithstanding his delicate constitution and the ravages of the 
disease which caused his death, Mr. Frasier was always active and 
forceful, and had it not been for his generous disposition, which 
often led him to prefer the advancement of his friends to his own 
progress, he might have been awarded more public honor than came 
to him. But his reward was of the high order which few are willing, 
not to say eager, to receive. In October, 1860, he was elected to the 
lower house of the Legislature, as a representative of Kosciusko and 
Wabash counties, and, as ever, he acquitted himself with ability and 

One of his friends, Col. J. B. Dodge, thus writes of hiin : "Dur- 
ing the last years of his life he traveled quite extensively, vainly 
seeking relief from the disease which was sapping his vitality, going 
to California in 1871. After a long stay, he returned to die. His 
unflinching determination and indomitable energy were illustrated 
in his last professional effort, it being an argument to the court 
delivered while he was reclining on a lounge brought into the room 
for that purpose. He had an inexhaustible fund of humor and ready 


wit, and even now expressions are in use by the older members of 
the bar of this county that recall sadly pleasant recollections of him. ' ' 

Andrew G. Wood 

Andrew G. Wood was one of the old-time substantial lawyers 
and citizens of Warsaw. He was an Ohio man and was admitted to 
the bar of that state in 1860, three years before he became a resident 
of Lawrenceburg, Indiana. In 1863 he enlisted from that place and 
served as a Union soldier until his discharge in September, 1865, 
when he located in Warsaw. There he not only attained a high 
standing at the bar, but served as councilman and mayor, and took 
a leading part for many years in the development of the agricultural 
resources of the county. For more than forty years he acted as a 
trustee of the Winona Agricultural Society. Mr. Wood was in 
partnership with Francis E. Bowser, present Circuit judge, for about 
twenty-three years, but in 1913 associated himself with Merle L. 

Practitioners of Today 

Besides a few veterans of the bar who have been mentioned as 
still active practitioners, there is a larger class of men of middle 
age and even comparatively young in years, who are finely maintain- 
ing the high standard of practice set by the pioneers of the pro- 
fession who gained substantial prominence. 

The Brubakers, father and son, have long been prominent at the 
Kosciusko County bar. John H., the former, practiced for many 
years, and in 1901, the son, Walter, was admitted to the bar, and 
became associated with his father under the firm name of J. H. 
Brubaker & Son. Since 1912 Walter Brubaker has served as city 
attorney of Warsaw. 



Days of Individuality and Confusion — State Treasurer as 
Superintendent of Schools — State Board of Education — 
Township Libraries Established — Early Work of Superin- 
tendent AND His Department — State Board of Education 
More Professional — The Reconstruction of 1865 — The County 
Examiners Brought Under Control — Commissioned High 
Schools Established — M^vking Text Books Fairly Uniform — 
County Board op Education Created — State Board in Con- 
trol of Text Books — County Superintendents Added to the 
Board — Compulsory Education and Its Local Enforcement — 
The Betterment of Rural Schools — Regulating Efficiency 
AND Pay of Teachers — Teaching of Agriculture, Manual 
Training and Home Economics — Educational System Now in 
Force — Object Lesson in This Chapter — Strictly Local — 
Superintendent Sarber's Sketch of County School System — 
Earliest Subscription Schools — "Frames" and "Bricks" — 
Rural Consolidated Schools — High Schools of County — First 
Schools in Northern Townships — Tippecanoe and Harrison, 
Too — Jefferson Township — Washington and Clay — Seward 
and Franklin Townships — Present Status of County Schools 
— Passing of the "Good" Old Days 

The relation of the county's system of public instruction to the 
broad plan covering the entire state, and applicable to every age and 
condition, as well as ambition of life, should be made clear, in order 
to get the most good out of this history. A statement of mere unre- 
lated facts, as to attendance, number of schools and teachers, value 
of school property and the like, would be of comparatively little value 
or interest. 

Days of Individuality and Confusion 

Kosciusko County, like every other growing section of the state, 
passed through many years of experiments and struggles in order to 
provide the younger generations with the education best suited to 

Some Kosciusko County Schools 

High School, Pierceton Public School, Milford 

Silverlake School, Silverlake Public School, Syracuse 

Public School, Mentone 

High School, Warsaw Public School, Leesburg 


tlieir changing requirements, and at the same time measured and 
often badly cramped by the poverty of a new country and its resi- 
dents of very limited means. Scattered localities did what they could 
to hire teachers; provide accommodations for their classes in log 
dwellings, barns, mills, blacksmith shops, churches, and otherwise 
express their practical appreciation of the value of education. Some- 
times there were township trustees to engineer these otherwise unre- 
lated attempts, but more often they were the results of private house- 
holders with children. "This extreme local freedom," says an old 
teacher, "resulted in diversity of text books, varying lengths of 
school terms, absence of supervision, lack of local organization, waste- 
ful expenditures of school money, local difficulties over boundary 
lines and sites of buildings, and the employment of incompetent teach- 
ers through frequent changes and poor personal selection." 

State Tre.vsurek as Superintendent op Schools 

As the settlement of various sections of the state, especially the 
northern counties, progressed with unusual rapidity in the early '40s, 
it became obvious that these sectional attempts at betterment of 
educational conditions could only be made efficacious by gradually 
placing them under the control of some state-wide agency. Conse- 
quently, in 1843, seven or eight years after the first schools had been 
opened in the cabins and barns of the pioneers of northeastern 
Kosciusko County, the treasurer of state was declared to be ex-ofificio 
superintendent of common schools, and in that capacity directed to 
present annually to the General Assembly an account of the condi- 
tion of the school funds and property of the various types of schools, 
both public and private, and suggest plans "for the better organiza- 
tion of the common schools." 

Magnitude of Task Looms Apace 

George H. Dunn was the first state treasurer to perform the addi- 
tional functions of superintendent of common schools. In the portion 
of his report dealing with educational mattei-s, he states that the 
Legislature had required him to "prepare a book of forms and in- 
structions for the use of officers connected with the public schools," 
but concludes with this frank statement: "The success of the com- 
mon school system must depend so much upon the harmonious action 
of all concerned in its operations, that I felt reluctant to devise 
or establish rules and forms for the conduct of its offices, until I 


could collect all the information afforded by the legislation and prac- 
tice of other states, together with such as could be derived from the 
experience and observation of the officers connected with the system 
in the several counties of this state. Incessant occupation thi-oughout 
the year has prevented my giving attention to the preparation and 
arrangement of the materials so collected, nor will it be in my power 
to do so until the publication of the Revised Statutes is completed." 

Superintendent of Public Instruction Created 

Until the new constitution was promulgated in 1851, each suc- 
cessive treasurer-superintendent expressed himself more and more 
emphatically that the duties of the dual-official should be separated, as 
those connected with the examination and supervision of the system 
of public schools were amply sufficient to tax the strength and 
ability of any man. Before the meeting of the constitutional con- 
vention several bills and resolutions had been submitted to the Legis- 
lature favoring the establishment of a state superintendent of public 
instruction and a bureau of education. Finally, the convention car- 
ried a resolution to the following effect: 

"The General Assembly shall provide for the election by the 
people of a State Superintendent of Public Instruction to hold his 
office for two years, and to be paid out of the income arising from the 
educational funds, and whose powers, duties and compensation shall 
be prescribed by law." 

State Board of Education 

The foregoing declaration became section VIII, article VIII, in 
the constitution of 1851, and various statutes enacted in 1853 defined 
the duties of the new official. They also established a state board 
of education, consisting of the state superintendent of public instruc- 
tion, the governor, the secretary of state, the state treasurer and the 
auditor. A state board of education, under a different organization, 
had been often recommended to the Legislature, but never carried 
into effect. 

Township Libraries Est.\blished 

Elected to the office of state superintendent in 1854, Caleb Mills 
brought into the administration of affairs in his department a knowl- 
edge of school conditions in the state, of educational progi'ess up to 


that time, and of practical needs unequalled by any of his prede- 
cessors and perhaps unsurpassed bj- any of his successors. Under 
his administration $100,000 was expended in the purchase and dis- 
tribution of books to townships, as school libraries, and he was the 
chief factor in the selection and purchase of the literature. 

In 1855 the attorney general of the state was added to the mem- 
bers of the state board of education, as its official legal adviser, which 
greatly strengthened its working force. 

During the first eight years of its life, interest centered in the 
selection of books for the township libraries, in the establishment of 
which about $250,000 was spent in the first three years. Series of 
text books for uniform use throughout the state were also selected and 
recommended to the common school officials. 

Early Work of Superintendent and His Department 

Both in 1855 and 1861 amendments were made that effected the 
state department of public instruction, which may be denominated 
the executive board of educational expei'ts, while the state board of 
education, which contained onty one member of the teaching profes- 
sion (the superintendent himself), was chiefly concerned in the admin- 
istration and distribution of the school funds. The most important 
reform effected by the legislation of 1855-61 was more elaborate and 
accurate reporting from the county officials to the state superin- 
tendent. The latter was authorized to direct attention of the county 
commissioners and county auditors to deficits in their reports, which 
they were required to make good, and he was also empowered to 
visit said officials and examine their books if he was not satisfied with 
their statements. By the amendments of these j-ears, the state super- 
intendent was further authorized to supply to each common school 
library all legislative journals and acts, and the annual reports of 
the state board of agriculture and his own department. 

Thus, through the superintendent and the two boards of educa- 
tion, the state and the county were becoming knit together closely 
and completely. 

State Board of Education More Professional 

In 1865, by the reorganization of the state board of education 
on more of a professional basis, the two departments were brought 
nearer together. By legislative enactment the members of the board 
were made to consist of the governor, state superintendent of public 


instruction, president of the State Univei'sity, the president of the 
State Normal School (when it should be established; as it was, soon 
afterward) and the superintendents of common schools of the three 
largest cities in the state. The superintendent of public instruction 
was to be ex-officio president of the board, and there was to be a 
secretary and treasurer elected by the board. This change to a board 
of professional men put emphasis in the administration of school 
affairs, upon the educational rather than the legal and financial 

The critical and legal problems had been somewhat solved, and 
with this new board began an educational policy for the schools of 
Indiana that has made its system and its state board respected 
throughout the land. 

The Reconstruction of 1865 

The duties and powers of the board as stated in the law of 1865 
ai-e: "To perform such duties as are prescribed by law, and to make 
and adopt such rules, by-laws and regulations as may be necessary 
for its own government, and not in conflict with the laws of the State, 
and to take cognizance of such questions as may arise in the practical 
administration of the school system not otherwise provided for, and 
to duly consider, discuss and determine the same." 

As stated by Superintendent Greathouse: "Since the early laws 
are silent on most of the details concerning the management of the 
schools, the most important matters leading to the development of the 
public schools of Indiana have been established by the State Board 
of Education." 

The act of 1865, which created the Indiana State Normal School 
made the state superintendent of public instruction an ex-officio 
trustee of that institution. 

In line with its prescribed duties, the state board of education 
recommended to the Legislature, in 1867, that the Bible should be 
read daily in all the common schools of the state and that it be 
made the .standard "on all questions of morality." 

Other recommendations were made from year to year, looking to 
the improvement of the sj'stem and especially endeavoring to get the 
State University and the State Normal School in closer touch with 
the schools and teachers of the various counties. As a rule, such sug- 
gestions and recommendations were practically incorporated into 
legislative laws and through them into the .system itself. 


The County Examiners Broitght Under Control 

Among the most important of these were the suggestions to the 
county examiners of the state, embracing the following points: (a) 
Necessity of unifying and elevating the standard of teachers in 
various parts of the state and providing more through examination 
of the same; (b) naming provisions of school law concerning teach- 
ers' examination, often violated by examiners; (c) suggesting series 
of questions in various common school branches; (d) suggestions as 
to manner of conducting examinations. 

In 1871 the state board decided to prepare twelve sets of examina- 
tion papers upon the required branches, and sent one each month to 
the county examiners, thus obtaining complete control .of this impor- 
tant branch of educational work. 

Commissioned High Schools Established 

In the year 1873, much progress was made in the harmonizing of 
high school and university courses, which culminated in the estab- 
lishment of commissioned high schools. More and more, the state 
board developed into a "body of experts, with extensive discriminat- 
ing powers, whose wise recommendations have almost the binding 
force of legal enactment." 

Making Text Books Fairly Uniform 

In the meanwhile an evil had been developing not only in bulk 
but in virility, and the whole system of education had become more 
or less affected for the worse. The lack of uniformity of text books 
in the public schools of the state had retarded proper classification 
of the pupils, had been the means of wasting the educational funds 
raised by taxpayers, and had sadly interfered with the efficiency of 
the teaching force. Other evils were created and embraced by this 
fundamental defect. 

In the earlier years of its existence, the state board of education 
had only the power of recommendation as to uniformity of text books. 
Although it took advantage of this function and its recommendations 
had been often adopted by the school officials of city, town and 
county, still, with the growth of population and the multiplication of 
the schools, such books were far from uniform and confusion was the 
most obvious outward manifestation in the working of the local sys- 
tems. In 1865, the board was relieved of responsibility of even 


recommending school books, and the choice was left to township 
trustees, patrons or teachers, which naturally threw the matter into 
chaos more confounded than ever. 

County Board op Education Created 

Then, in 1873, the county board of education was created and 
empowered to adopt texts for the specific territory over which it had 
jurisdiction. One county might have a uniform set of text books 
and the adjoining counties entirely different sets. While that legal 
arrangement lasted, school book publishers surely had their inning 
and were all in clover — but at the immediate and dire expense of the 

State Board in Control of Text Books 

In 1889 the state board of education came into its own, and re- 
ceived the reward of its wise and honorable labors of the years when 
it had at least the power of recommendation ; for in the year named 
it was made a state board of text book commissioners, with power to 
adopt uniform text books for use in the elementary schools of the 
state. The period of adoption was fixed at five years, with the privi- 
lege of revisions and continuance for a like period. In 1905, the 
period was extended to ten years, except for copy books, histories and 
geographies, the contracts for which were to remain at five years, and 
in 1909 a uniform period of five years was re-established. 

County Superintendent Added to the Board 

Since 1891, when Hervy D. Voris became state superintendent of 
public instruction, educational matters, especially affecting the dis- 
trict, village and city schools, have undergone radical changes and 
generally in line with greater efficiency and harmony. During Super- 
intendent Voris' administration, county superintendents were added 
to the representation on the state board of education. 

Compulsory Education and Its Local Enforcement 

D. M. Greeting was state superintendent of public instruction in 
1895-99, and the efforts of his administration centered on the estab- 
lishment and promotion of the township high school and the com- 
pulsory educational law. The latter was passed in 1897, and a 


state truancy board created, one member of which should be ap- 
pointed by the state board of education. In 1913, the Legislature 
made its membership to consist of the state superintendent of public 
instruction, a member of the state board of education, and the secre- 
tary of the board of state charities. 

Under the provisions of the law passed in that year, the state 
truancy board also was empowered to pass upon the "special educa- 
tional requirements to be possessed by all persons appointed as attend- 
ance officei*s and shall take such steps toward the uplift, unification 
and systematization of methods of attendance work in this state as 
may be deemed proper." In other words, the state truancy board 
has the appointment of local truancy officers under its control, and is 
the judge as to the proper means to be employed to enforce the pro- 
visions of the compulsoi-y educational law of the state. The co- 
operation between the teachers and the truancy officers, the proper 
steps to be taken when it is necessary to resort to legal and judicial 
proceedings in the case of incorrigible scholars, and other proceed- 
ings of a fundamental nature are determined by the state board. 
Having formulated the rules and regulations in general, it is left 
largely to the principals of the schools as to the handling of special 
eases which come before them. 

The Betterment of Rural Schools 

The administration of Prank L. Jones as state superintendent 
of public instruction covered the period from 1899 to 1903, and his 
personal efforts were largely directed toward the betterment of rural 
schools. He put consolidation on a substantial basis and greatly 
improved the sanitary conditions and architecture of school build- 

During the first j-ear of his administration, an act was passed 
by the State Legislature adding three members to the state board of 
education, making eleven in all. The three additional members were 
to be appointed by the governor for three-year terms — one each 
annually — and one of them was to he the county superintendent of 

Fassett A. Cotton, who served three terms as state superintendent, 
from 1903 to 1909, materially advanced the consolidation of the rural 
schools, community interest in the schools organized and the study 
of agriculture as a radical part of the public systeii. In other words, 
the country system of schools was being brought into better control, 
and the parents and communities into •Jcser identification with 


teachers and pupils, resulting in a clearer realization and a deeper 
and more practical interest in the work being accomplished. 

Regulating Efficiency and Pay op Teachers 

In 1907, during the latter period of Superintendent Cotton's ad- 
ministration, an evil which had caused much criticism and disorgan- 
ization in the teaching force of the state was partially remedied. 
Before that year, anyone who could obtain a license was eligible to 
teach, regardless of scholarship or training, and such teacher could be 
paid whatever the trustee or school board saw fit to offer and the 
teacher cared to accept. This lack of all regulation as to qualifica- 
tion or salary was a direct encouragement to schemers and bold 
inefficients, and was often more discouraging to those who were really 
competent but lacked effrontery. 

The minimum wage law of 1907 was therefore generally com- 
mended, as it placed the minimum scholarship of the teacher at 
graduation from a commissioned or certified high school, and the 
minimum professional training at twelve weeks in a teachers' train- 
ing school approved by the state board of education. The duties of 
the latter were also enlarged by the law, as it was required to pass 
upon the work of all schools that offered courses for the training of 
teachers. There are about thirty of these approved schools or depart- 
ments for the training of teachers in the state. 

Robert J. Aley's administration as state superintendent of educa- 
tion, in 1909-10, was marked by a sustained effort to bring about 
a closer articulation between the elementary and high schools and 
the high schools and colleges, but his call to the presidency of the 
University of Maine transferred that problem to the care of his 
predecessor, Charles A. Greathouse. 

Teaching op Agriculture, Manual Training and Home Economics 

Under Superintendent Greathouse, the department of public in- 
struction has been enlarged and carefully organized. The greatest 
extension made at any one time occurred in 1913, when the state 
Legislature provided for more uniform inspection of high schools, 
and made mandatory the teaching of agriculture, manual training 
and home economics in the elementary and high schools of the state, 
providing at the same time for the establishment of separate voca- 
tional schools and departments, at the option of the local school 
authorities. The organization and general supervision of all this 


work were placed in the hands of the state board of education. The 
details were to be worked out and executed by the superintendent of 
schools and the department of education. 

Educational System Now in Force 

The provisions of the law of 1913 also affected the membership 
of the board of education by adding three persons to it, known to be 
actively interested in vocational education, one of whom should be 
a representative of employes and one of employers, and discontinu- 
ing the ex-o£ficio membership of the governor. Under the various 
enactments affecting the board, the membei-s now number thirteen. 

The educational laws as they now stand give the power to issue 
teachers' licenses to the state board of education, the superintendent 
of public instruction and the county superintendent of schools. 

The state board has control of the entire system, preparing the 
uniform questions to be used in the examinations, fixing the stand- 
ards and arranging for licensing the teachers in those subjects not 
provided for by special statutes. It conducts all examinations for 
professional and life state licenses and grades all manuscripts on the 
same. Other examinations are conducted by the county superin- 
tendents and, with the exception of the high school and supervisoi-s ' 
manuscripts, may be graded by them also. 

The board of education manages the state library, appoints five of 
the eight members of the Indiana University trustees, and names all 
the members of the board of visitors of the State Normal School. 

By the law of 1913 a large responsibility for the character of the 
state board of education is placed upon the governor of the state, 
for, under its provisions, he appoints six of its thirteen members. 
Responsibility also rests upon the school boards of three of the largest 
cities of the state, as they name the superintendents of their schools 
as three of the members of the state board. 

Three of the remaining four members of the board are presidents 
of the State Normal School, Purdue University and Indiana Uni- 
versity, whose qualifications as heads of these schools must neces- 
sarily be of high rank. 

The superintendent of public instruction, head of the state de- 
partment of public instruction, and elected by the people of Indiana, 
is chairman of the state board of education. 

The character of the entire membership of the board insures 
wisdom, executive efficiency and prompt professional judgment, and 
is a suiSeient explanation of the resvilts achieved in the educational 


evolution of the system covering the Indiana schools from its smallest 
rural institution to its broad-gauge universities. 

Object Lesson in This Chapter 

There is not a school in Kosciusko County, or a feature of the 
system under which its children, youth and maidens, its young men 
and women, its teachers and its parents, and its communities as a 
whole, are educated, which are not, in some degree concerned in the 
development of the educational institutions of the state. All classes 
of its people ought to get a broader outlook of these relations through 
the foregoing narrative. This treatment of the subject is in line 
with the advanced methods of scholastic education, and it will be of 
some practical assistance to local educators, enabling them to show 
their pupils the state origin of many of the methods from which 
all are deriving so much benefit. We venture to add that there may 
be some information in the record which the elders might study with 
advantage, either as news or as a revival of matters which have be- 
come faintly impressed. 

Strictly Local 

The statement of the local facts relating to the schools will have 
a new significance when the reader understands their origin and the 
mainsprings which govern the actions of the educators who have 
worked for the advancement of the county system. Even this sub- 
ject is subdivided, as no more than an historical sj'nopsis can here 
be given, the details being largely reserved for the stories of the 
various townships and even more condensed centers of population, 
such as villages (towns), and the City of Warsaw. 

Superintendent Sarber's Sketch of County School System 

One of the best general pictures of the Kosciusko County system 
is contained in the biennial report of State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction Greathouse, which was transmitted to the General Assem- 
bly in January, 1917. It embraced historical sketches from the 
county superintendents, and E. B. Sarber, the predecessor of Jesse 
Bruner, presented the following for Kosciusko County: "According 
to tradition, which, by the way, seems to be authentic, the first schools 
in the county were conducted in Prairie and Turkey Creek, other 
townships following suit as fast as they were .sufficiently settled. No 



school, howover, employing more than one teacher was established 
until 1854. This was located in Warsaw, enrolled 140 pupils, and was 
taught by the late Joseph A. Funk, assisted by Miss Emeline Yocum. 

Earliest Subscription Schools 

"In common with other parts of the state the first school houses 
were built of logs, had greased paper windows, backless slab benches 
for seats, and were heated by means of fireplaces, the larger boys 
being required during school intermissions to cut wood from logs 
which had been hauled to the school grounds by the patrons. Many 
of these early buildings were made to "pay a double rent," being 

Old Eight-Sided Schoolhouse, Plain Township 

occupied during the week as school houses and on Sunday as places 
of worship. 

"As all the schools from 1836 to 1853 were subscription schools 
dependent upon private liberality for their maintenance, salaries of 
teachers ranged from five to fifteen dollai-s per month. The sub- 
jects taught were spelling, reading, writing and arithmetic, with the 
emphasis on .spelling. 

■ Frames ' 


"Soon after free public schools were established, the old log struc- 
tures gave way to frame buildings having glass windows, home-made 
desks with backs and heated by stoves. Instead of being plastered. 


these houses were ceiled and one end of the room was painted black, 
so that the boys and girls in those daj-s had the pleasure of 'work- 
ing' their problems on real-for-sure black boards. From 1880 to 1900 
the frame buildings were displaced by brick. From the standpoint 
of heat, light and ventilation, these offered little, if any, improve- 
ment over their predecessors. Better desks, black boards and other 
equipment were provided, however. 

Rural Consolidated Schools 

"Except in villages and towns all buildings were of the one-room 
variety, and it was not until 1906, at which date there were 118 of 

Wayne Township Consolidated School 

these one-room buildings in use, that the fii-st rural consolidated 
school was built in the county. Since then the sum of $350,000 has 
been expended in modern, well-equipped, up-to-date, sanitary con- 
solidated schools, leaving only about 50 of the old-type buildings to 
be used the coming year.* 

* Since this was written, more than two years and a half ago, the number 
of old-type schools still in use throughout Kosciusko County has been mate- 
rially reduced. 


High Schools of County 

"Until 1908 Kosciusko County had but one commissioned high 
school. The number of high school pupils enrolled that year was 
215 and the graduating class numbered 48. At present (January, 
1917) we have 11 commissioned, 3 certified and 1 non-certified high 
school, with a total enrollment of more than 900 and a graduating 
class of 150. Most of these schools besides being equipped to do reg- 
ular high school work are doing some very creditable work in manual 
training, agriculture and domestic science. 

"A very large per cent of our teachers have had some normal 
and college training, and are doing conscientious, efficient work. 
With this good start, we confidently believe that the day is not far 
distant when not only two thirds, but all of our boys and girls will 
have the opportunity of attending school in well equipped, sanitary 
school buildings, and have for their teachers throughout their entire 
course only noble, well trained men and women." 

First Schools in Northern Townships 

It seems almost superfluous to make the statement that it was in 
the townships which were first settled in Kosciusko Coiinty that the 
first schools were established. Thus as early as 1835-36 Turkey Creek, 
Prairie and Van Buren townships blossomed forth with these mani- 
festations of intelligent American entei-prise. 

The first sehoolhouse in the county of which there is positive rec- 
ord was that erected on section 29, Van Buren Township, a short 
distance southwest of Deware Lake and about a mile north of Mus- 
quabuck's Resei-vation. John G. Woods taught the first class col- 
lected within its log walls. 

Turkey Creek Township established its first school on the hill at 
Syracuse in 1836. The village was platted around it in the following 

As the sehoolhouse was in the extreme northwestern part of the 
township, the settlers in the southwestern sections secured the sei-vice 
of a teacher in 1837, and their children were gathered for instruction 
in an unoccupied log house on the farm of Timothy Mote, which had 
formerly been used for a stable. 

The northern sections of Prairie Township were first accommo- 
dated with a sehoolhouse and a teacher. Jlr. Moore had tlie honor 
of officiating and he, his few scholars and the rude log cabin on sec- 
tion 10 effected a combination in 1836. Among other pupils, Hiram 


Hall, Clinton Powell and Mrs. Malinda Parks are known to have 
dedicated this primitive schoolhouse. 

"Tippecanoe and Harrison Too" 

Tippecanoe and Harrison townships next joined the good com- 
pany of Van Buren, Prairie and Turkey Creek in showing their faith 
in education by their works in providing schoolhouses and teachers 
for the future men and women of the county. Tippecanoe's first 
school was taught in the winter of 1838-39 in a cabin built by Warren 
"Warner and then abandoned. Thomas K. Warner was the teacher. 

Henry Bradley was the first to teach in Harrison Township, and 
gathered his pupils in a log cabin on section 29, in the southern part 
of the township not far from the present line of the Winona Inter- 
urban, about the time that Teacher Warner was instilling the great 
Three into the minds of the Tippecanoe Township class. 

Jefferson Township 

Then the settlers in the northern part of what is now Jefferson 
Township decided to join the progressives and in 1840 employed 
James Martin to teach school in a log cabin on section 11. Like all 
the other schools of this period in the county it was a subscription 
institution, and the settlers who raised the money had a very faint 
idea as to what was going on in neighboring counties in like matters 
of educational provision. 

Washington and Clay 

In the same year, Washington and Clay townships, farther to the 
south, entered the lists against ignorance. The first efforts of the 
settlers of Clay were centered in the erection of a rather shaky cabin, 
built of poles and raised in the northwest corner of the township. 
That was replaced in the following year (1841) by a building of 
hewn logs, which was used for both intellectual and religious educa- 
tion; it was deemed sufficiently secure to be used for both a school 
and a church, and was known as Mount Pleasant. The combination 
was followed by two school buildings — one, a frame, erected in 1859, 
and the other, a brick structure, completed in 1877. 

It is said that Adam Laing taught the first school in Washington 
Township in a log building erected on the farm of William Moore 
for that very purpose. 


Seward and Franklin Townships 
These southwestern townships also organized subscription schools 
a number of years before the educational institutions of the state 
commenced to take shape as a system under the constitution of 1851. 
Both Seward and Franklin established schools in 1842 — Seward, in a 
house erected on the farm of John Robinson, and taught by Mark 
Smith, Sr., and Franklin Township, in a rude log cabin, built on the 
land of Solomon Nichols, bj' Jeremiah Burns. 

Present Status of County Schools 

The status of the schools of Kosciusko County, in the fall of 1918, 
presented all the contrast expected when made with those of three- 
quarters of a century ago. As a matter of fact, there is no means of 
making a comparison, since until long after the '40s had passed no 
figures and few facts had been gathered showing their general con- 

The following table indicates by townships, towns and city ("War- 
saw) four of the main groups of facts in connection with the schools 
of Kosciusko County: 

Civil Divisions — Enrollment 

Clay Township 291 

Etna Township 278 

Franklin 216 

Harrison 411 

Jackson 268 

Jefferson 244 

Lake 271 

Monroe 132 

Plain 123 

Prairie 233 

Scott 237 

Seward 326 

Tippecanoe 273 

Turkey Creek 139 

Van Buren 451 

"Washington 507 

"Wayne 345 

Leesburg Town 141 

Syracuse Town 324 

"Warsaw City 1,129 

Total 6,349 85 220 $591,420 





















































• 34,000 












The figures supplied for one of the latest school years indicate that 
the disbursements made for the support of the county schools amount 
to about $170,000 annually. Some $80,000 was paid the teachers of 
the elementary schools, and about $50,000 expended for apparatus, 
books, furniture and repairs. Over $30,000 was expended in salaries 
to the commissioned high school teachers and $7,000 in apparatus, 
books and other upkeep. 

As to the graduates, there were more than 360 from the classes 
represented by the common branches, and 155 from the commissioned 
and certified high schools of the county. 

The total school fund amounted to more than $130,000. 

The foregoing facts and figures with the table giving a substantial 
picture of the schools late in 1918 ought, as a whole, to convey definite 
ideas as to the present status of the county system. 

Passing of the "Good" Old Days 

The reports as to the activities of the consolidated niral schools 
indicate that the "good old days" when the boys and girls had to 
tramp three, four and five miles to school daily, in all kinds of weather 
and over all kinds of roads and paths — or none at all — are past. Such 
exertions to get their education undoubtedly toughened some and 
injured others, but nowadays they are carried to school in comfortable 
conveyances, if they live beyond what is considered a reasonable walk- 
ing distance from their homes, and obtain their exercise under more 
favorable and agreeable conditions. 

As stated, most of the ancient and unsanitary schoolhouses in the 
country districts have been abandoned, and others selected within 
range of the routes laid out by the township trustees and traveled by 
the wagons provided by the local authorities for the transportation of 
the children. There are about a score of these consolidated rural 
schools in the county, from eighty to ninety wagons are in service to 
carry the pupils to their destinations, and the average length of these 
routes is four miles and a half. From 650 to 700 pupils are thus 



The Pioneer White Men's Traces — Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & 
Chicago (Pennsylvania) Railroad — Pierceton and Warsaw 
Secure Connections — Completed to Plymouth, Division Town 
— Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis (Big Four) — The 
Goshen, Warsaw & Wabash Railroad Project — Cincinnati, 
Wabash & Michigan Railroad — First Trains on the Present 
Big Four — New York, Chicago & St. Louis (Nickel Plate) — 
The Wabash and Baltimore & Ohio Roads — The Winona Inter- 
urban Railway — Railroad Statistics of the County — The Good 
Roads Movement in the County — Miles op Roads, by Town- 
ships — Gravel Road Building — Auto Licenses as Promoters of 
Good Roads — The Buggy and the Gas Carriage. 

In the fleeting picture given in a pi-evious chapter of the displace- 
ment of the Indian and all his civilization (if his life and customs may 
be so designated) by the ways and institutions of the white man, a 
brief record has been made of the trails, or traces, which were visible 
on the soil of Indiana when the pioneers of Kosciusko County first 
planted themselves and their homes. Generally speaking the early 
roads pushed through the forests, through the swamps and over the 
prairies of the county by the white settlers from Elkhart County over- 
laid the network or system of Indian highways which they already 
found in this section of the state. 

The Pioneer White Men's Traces 

The roads in what is now Kosciusko County to be first laid out for 
the benefit of homesteaders and home-seekers were located in the pres- 
ent townships of Turkey Creek, Van Buren, Plain, Tippecanoe and 
Washington, and were connecting links between the older and much 
traveled thoroughfares of the territory now embracing Elkhart, Cass 
and other counties of northernmost Indiana, and the trails and high- 
ways leading southwest toward Logansport and the valley of the 
Wabash, and southeast in the direction of Huntington and the border- 
lands of Ohio. 



The first of the maiu north-and-south trunk lines to penetrate Kos- 
ciusko County was the road put through, in the middle '30s, from 
White Pigeon, southern Michigan, to Huntington, Indiana, by way of 
Goshen, Elkhart County, and Turkey Creek and Van Buren town- 
ships, Kosciusko County. About the same time (1834-35) a road was 
surveyed south from Goshen, and farther to the west in this county, by 
way of Leesburg and Milford. It was laid out by James R. McCord, 
of Elkhart County. 

Perhaps the first of the southwestern roads to strike through Kos- 
ciusko County toward the Wabash Valley was known as the Logans- 
port & Mishawaka Road, and, like the others which veered toward the 
southeast, joined the east-and-west trunk lines which passed through 
northern Indiana between lakes Erie and Michigan. The road also 
went by way of Peru, Miami County, and was more direct to Chicago 
and the southern shores of Lake Michigan than the lines which passed 
more to the east. This highway was surveyed through Franklin Town- 
ship in 1836. 

In the following year roads were surveyed through Washington 
and Jackson townships, chiefly along the route of the Fort Wayne & 
Chicago road. The mail was carried over the Washington Township 
section on horseback from the postoifice established at the house of 
G. W. Ryerson. In 1838 another road was laid out in Washington 
Township from Warsaw to Wolf Lake, Noble County. 

Another pioneer thoroughfare was surveyed from Warsaw to 
Springfield, Whitley County, and was included in that class or system 
of diagonal roads which were pushing from the southeast toward the 
northwest and Lake Michigan, including Kosciusko County on the 
way. It was put through Kosciusko County in 1837. 

A later work of this character, more of a local character, was the 
road for which James Garvin petitioned the Legislature, praying, in 
1840, that it be located through the center of Seward Township from 
north to south. The road was accordingly sui-veyed, soon afterward, 
by George R. Thralls, David Garvin and Daniel Underbill, with chain 
bearers and one blazer (William Stapleford). 

With the increase of population and continuous settlement of the 
county, other roads were surveyed both for local convenience and in 
order to complete various links of more extended thoroughfares, which 
were already being displaced by the ways of iron and steel. 

Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago (Pennsylvania) Railroad 

The Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad was the first of 
the modern ways to invade the old-time fields of the Indian traces and 


the "blazed" roads of the white man. In June, 1854, the work was 
fairly inaugurated in the county by the breaking of ground at War- 
saw, at the east end of Jefferson Street south of lot 193, in the pres- 
ence of Hon. William Williams, A. T. Skist and others. Mr. Williams, 
who had alreadj' obtained some prominence in banking circles and in 
the public affairs of the county and was to become more widely known 
as a congressman and in large affairs of state, had been quite influen- 
tial in promoting this pioneer railroad project. Subsequently, he acted 
as its director for a number of years. 

Princeton and Warsaw Secure Connections 

The following information regarding the county affairs of the 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad was furnished by 
D. P. Nichols, station agent of the road in 1855 : The road reached 
Pierceton May 25, 1853, and the town was surveyed on January 1, 
1854. The first agent at that point was A. A. Bainbridge, who was 
appointed October 1, 1854, and served until April 1, 1855, when 
Mr. Nichols succeeded him and continued there in that capacitj' until 
January 5, 1878. 

The first station house used for passenger and freight office was a 
one-story frame, twenty by thirty feet, built at a cost of $125. The 
first passenger train reached there September 1, 1854. The name of 
the engine (important in those days) was the "Plymouth."* The 
first freight left Pierceton in October, 1854, and was less than a car- 
load. It consisted of local merchandise. 

The road was completed to Warsaw in November, 1854, and soon 
afterward a station was built at that place. It was a cheap wooden 
building and was consumed by fire in 1875. George Moon was the 
first agent at Warsaw. D. P. Nichols commenced his long service in 
that capacity in 1878. 

Completed to Plymouth, Division Town 

The report of Samuel Hanna, president of the Fort Wayne road, 
on December 1, 1854, stated that it was the purpose of the company 
at that time to direct its efforts to the early completion of the division 
between Port Wayne and Plymouth, for the purpose of getting a tem- 

* Plymouth was a noteworthy name in the history of the Pittsburgh, Fort 
Wayne & Chicago Eailroad at this early period, as it was the first diWsion town 
on the line, and the road was completed to that point more than a year before it 
reached Chicago. 



porary connection with Chicago over the Indianapolis, Peru & Chicago 
road, which was completed to Plymouth at that time. The first train 
over the Fort Wayne road arrived at Pljinouth on November 11, 1856. 
It was more than a year before the road was completed to Chicago. 

Several residents of Plymouth were connected with the initial 
organization of the company and the building of the road. A. L. 
Wlieeler was a member of its first board of directors and took an 
active part in its management until it was completed, when he resigned. 
C. H. Reeve, attorney and solicitor of the company, is credited with 
much of the important work connected with the raising of the original 

Ready for the Iron Highway 

funds, and several Plymouth men were identified with the first engi- 
neer corps of the road. 

So there are many good reasons why one of the first engines to be 
placed on the tracks of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Rail- 
road should be christened "Plymouth." 

The Pennsylvania Company's line passes nearly through the geo- 
graphical center of the county, in a slightly diagonal direction, and 
has the following stations along the way: Pierceton and Wooster, 
Washington Township; Warsaw, Waj^ne Township, and along the 
northern shores of Winona Lake and south of Center into the northeast 
corner of Harrison Township, where it cuts across the southern half of 
Motas Reserve to the Village of Atwood, which lies both in Harrison 
and Prairie townships, and thence to the last station on the line in the 


county, Etna Green, on the western border of Etna Township. It joins 
the Big Four at Warsaw. 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago &j St. Louis (Big Four) 

The extension of the Big Four (Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St. Louis) through Kosciusko County was a railroad movement from 
/Michigan. In northern Indiana, Goshen was, for some years, the cen- 
ter of such activities. Hon. Joseph H. Defrees, of that city, became 
very prominent in these efforts to establish north and south lines into 
the interior of the state which should connect with and tap the great 
trunk systems running east and west through northern Indiana. It 
was at once seen how much Elkhart and Kosciusko counties would be 
benefited by lines which might place them not only in touch with the 
tide of travel passing between the Great Lakes, but with the older and 
prosperous settled country of southern Michigan. 

The Goshen, Warsaw^ & W^vbash Railroad Project 

Mr. Defrees, of Goshen, William Williams, of Warsaw, and others 
were most active in promoting the Goshen, Warsaw & Wabash Railroad 
Company, which was put in operation between Warsaw and Goshen in 
1870. If completed as originally intended, it would have passed 
through Aliddlebury, Elkhart County, and connected at White Pigeon, 
St. Joseph County, Michigan, with the railroad running thence to 

To secure this, Middlebury voted liberal aid, and the money was 
paid into the county treasury for the company, but the road was never 
built and the money was returned. The failure to eonsti-uct the line 
was a most serious detriment to Goshen, as it would have placed that 
place midway on an important line extending from Grand Rapids to 
Indianapolis. Its construction was prevented by the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern, which refused to agi-ee to buy it if built, as its 
projectors had been led to believe would be the case. The result was 
that Goshen was the northern terminus of the line for some time. In 
1872 the extension of the road to Niles, Michigan, was promised, if 
towns and cities and territory generally along the proposed line would 
aid in its construction ; this having been done, the extension was 
quickly made. 

Cincinnati, Wabash & Michigan Railroad 

In the previous year (1871) a consolidation had already been 
effected of the so-called Warsaw, Goshen & White Pigeon and the 


Grand Rapids, "Wabash & Cincinnati railroads, under the name of the 
Cincinnati, "Wabash & Michigan Railroad. "Without going into all the 
details as to the many legal steps and consolidations involved, it is 
sufficient for local purposes to know that the Cincinnati, "Wabash & 
Michigan was the predecessor of the present Big Four system. The 
original consolidation of June, 1871, known as the Cincinnati, "Wabash 
& Michigan, controlled a line from Anderson, Madison County, north- 
east of the central part of Indiana, to Goshen, Elkhart County, a dis- 
tance of 114 miles. It was opened throughout its entire length in 
May, 1876. 

First Trains on the Present Big Four 

As stated, the section between Goshen and "Warsaw was completed 
several years before that date. The first train left "Warsaw going north 
on August 9, 1870. A. T. Skist was the first freight and ticket agent 
at that place ; "William M. Kist, the first express agent. The first sta- 
tion was located on the east end of lot 200, in a building erected by 
Samuel E. Loney. The firet freight house was on lot 7, at the east end 
of Market Street, and was known as Kist's warehouse. 

From north to south, the stations on the Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago & St. Louis Railroad are Milford Junction and Milford in 
"Van Buren Township ; Leesburg, Plain Township, after which, a mile 
and a half south, it passes across the eastern portion of the Monoquet 
Reserve ; "Warsaw, "Wayne Township, running between Pike and Center 
lakes and a short distance west of Lake "Winona ; Reed's Station, in the 
southern part of the same township ; Claypool, Clay Township ; about 
a quarter of a mile east of Silver Lake and Rose Hill station. Lake 

The juncture of the Big Four with the Pennsylvania line is at 
"Warsaw, and with the Nickel Plate, at Claypool. 

New York, Chicago & St. Louis (Nickel Plate) 

The Nickel Plate line was completed through the southern part of 
Kosciusko County, from east to west, late in 1882 and early in 1883. 
The original survey located the line about four miles south of Argos, 
Marshall County. The efi'ect was to greatly disturb the citizens of 
that town, who finally induced the company to change the projected 
route and include Argos as one of its stations. The people of Argos 
paid for the survey, gave the right-of-way to the construction com- 
pany, and the building of the road on that line was pushed rapidly 


to completion. It need not be added for the information of business 
and traveling men that the New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad 
is now one of the important trunk lines between the East and the 
West, and is valuable to the people in the southern part of Kosciusko 

The Nickel Plate line crosses the county in a generally easterly 
and westerly direction, including as its stations, Kinsey and Sidney in 
the northern part of Jackson Township ; Packerton, cornering on Jack 
son, Monroe and Clay townships ; Claypool, west of the central part of 
Clay Township ; Burket, northwestern part of Seward Township, and 
Mentone, located mostly in Harrison Township and partly in Franklin 
Its junction with the Big Four is at Claypool. 

The Wabash and Baltimore & Ohio Roads 

There are two other railroads which cross the territory of Kosciusko 
County, but such small portions of it that they have little effect upon 
its development. The Wabash, or Vandalia line, was one of the pioneer 
railroad projects, the object of which was to connect Northern Indiana 
with the Southwest and St. Louis, by way of Fort Wayne and Hunt- 
ington, Logansport, Lafayette and the valley of the Wabash in gen- 
eral. The Huntington people were especially close to those of Kos- 
ciusko County. The Eel River Valley was an important section of the 
route as finally adopted, and the line which cut off a small southeastern 
corner of the county was originally called the Eel River Railroad. 
There is no station on the Vandalia line in Kosciusko County at the 
present time. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company began to survey its Chi- 
cago branch, which passes through several of the northern townships 
of the county, in 1873-74. The line was completed to the Village of 
Syracuse, at the western extremity of the lake by that name, and 
greatly stimulated it, as it did the other points farther east along the 
shores of Nine Mile (Wawasee) Lake. Wawasee and Syracuse are the 
stations in Turkey Creek Township. Milford Junction, at the point 
where the Big Pour crosses the Baltimore & Ohio, is in the northern 
part of Van Buren Township. 

The Winona Interurban Railway 

The Winona Interurban Railway passes through the county from 
north to south, or vice versa, is a most popular line of travel, and for 
some time has provided both passenger and freight service. The trunk 

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EenEral Offices - Warsaw, Indiana 
Kosciusko County's Interurban System 


of the system extends from Goshen, Elkhart County, to Peru, Wabash 
County, a distance of sixty -nine miles, so that Kosciusko County forms 
the central section of the line. 

The enterprise originated in 1903, and in the following year Elk- 
hart Township voted $30,000 for the construction of the road, which 
was to pass through Waterford, New Paris, Milford and Leesburg to 
Warsaw. Construction was begun in 1905, when the Winona Inter- 
urban Railway Company was incorporated. The line was afterward 
extended to Peru, where connections are made with the Indiana Union 
Traction Company's lines to Indianapolis and other points south. 

At Warsaw, hourly cars run to the Chautauqua assembly grounds 
on Lake Winona and to the village which has been created in that 
beautiful locality, and close connections are also made with the Pitts- 
burgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago (Pennsylvania) and the Big Four 

The freight and express service of the Winona Interurban Railway 
is not only in connection with these systems, but with all electric lines 
in Indiana, Ohio, Michigan and Kentucky, and with the Wabash and 
Chesapeake & Ohio steam lines. 

In the summer months, and often far into the autumn, the traveling 
public of Kosciusko County is also accommodated by auto busses run- 
ning between Milford and Syracuse, Milford Junction and Nappanee 
and Warsaw and Columbia City, Whitley County. 

In the open season there are few points in the charming lake regions 
of the county which are not accessible by means of either the steam or 
electric lines, with their accessoi'ies — the autos, either open to the 
public at a stated fare, or to the individual, willing to pay according 
to his pleasure or necessity. 

Railroad Statistics of the County 

According to the report of the State Board of Tax Commissioners 
in 1917, the Winona Interurban Railway Company was operating 
more than sixty-five miles of track, which was valued at over $395,000, 
or about $6,000 per mile. Its rolling stock was assessed at nearly 
.$40,000 and the improvements on its right-of-way at over $21,000. 
The total assessed value of the road was given as nearly $461,000. 

Within the limits of Kosciusko County, according to the figures of 
the State Board of Tax Commissioners, there are nearly ninet.y-five 
miles of main track of the various steam railways. The railroad prop- 
erty — trackage, rolling stock and improvements along the right-of- 
way— was estimated at $3,854,000 in 1916. 


The Good Roads ^Movement in the County 

The Good Roads ]Movement is really but a few years old in Indiana, 
and it is somewhat unfortunate for the advancement of the cause in 
Kosciusko County that the main trunk line of the projected state sys- 
tem, running north and south, passes almost directly through the 
center of its territory, thereby leaving the county to the east of the 
longitudinal route. North of Indianapolis, this passes through Hamil- 
ton, Tipton, Howard, Miami, Fulton, Marshall and St. Joseph, con- 
necting at South Bend with the main east and west cross trunk line ; 
the central crosses the main highwaj' at Indianapolis, and the southern 
routes generally follow the trend of the Ohio Valley. 

Miles of Road, by Townships 

The Good Roads Movement in Kosciusko County has been largely 
local and independent in its character, and chiefly determined by the 
needs of the larger centers of population to get into close connection 
with the farmers and rural communities of the more thickly settled 
and prosperous townships. Wayne, Plain, Van Buren and Jackson 
townships have been leaders. In the first-named are a number of good 
gravel roads and it is proposed to build at least a dozen miles of con- 
crete roadway in the near future. Plain Township has already eight 
miles of concrete roads and two of gravel, while Van Buren has ten 
miles of concrete. 

On the other hand Jackson Township, in the extreme southeast of 
the county, is a productive section, and at the same time very deficient 
in railroad accommodations. Special efforts have therefore been made 
to provide her farmers and villagers (those of Sidney) with good 
roads. The county surveyor, Paul Summy, reports that some six miles 
of gravel roads, three miles of concrete and three of stone, have been 
built in that township. 

That official also gives the following as the approximate number of 
miles of road now available to the vehicle traveler and the footman in 
Kosciusko County: 

Scott Township — Two miles of stone, two of concrete and two of 

Jefferson — Six miles of gravel road. 

Turkey Creek — One-half mile of concrete. The poor showing made 
by this township is explained by the fact that nearly a half of its area 
is occupied by the Flat Belly Reservation, and that the natural roads 
are above the average. 



Prairie — Six miles of gravel and three of concrete. 

Etna — Five miles of gravel road and one-half mile of brick. 

Harrison — There are about six miles of concrete road and three of 
gravel extending from the northwest corner of Franklin Township, 
along the Harrison Township line to Palestine, theuce north and east 
two miles beyond the latter township. 

xV G()(ii> Wudi.sY 

Franklin — Six miles of gravel road along the west line of the town- 
ship and two miles of gravel elsewhere in the township. 

Seward — Two miles of gi-avel within the township and three miles 
along its south line. 

Lake — Four miles north and south along the Hoosier-Dixie High- 
way, including half a mile of stone pavement through Silver Lake 
Village ; as well as six miles of gravel road along the south line of the 

Wasliington — Six miles of concrete road proposed. 


Tippecanoe, Monroe and Clay are not even backsliders in the Good 
Roads Movement, as they have never entered the contest. 

By collating the foregoing figures, it will be found that over 100 
miles of road have been constructed in Kosciusko County, of which 
fifty-seven are of gravel and thirty-eight of concrete. 

Gravel Road Building 

Since 1912, when systematic work upon the Kosciusko County 
roads was inaugurated, bonds in increasing amounts have been voted 
for the especial construction of highways of the gravel variety. On 
January 1, 1912, the amount available for that purpose was $1,440; 
January 1, 1913, $1,368; 1914, $11,352; 1915, $12,728; 1916, $81,893; 
1918, $163,452. 

In the last named year the auditor of the county repoi-ted the 
condition of the special road funds as follows: Available for the 
Starner road, $45,490 ; Polk road, $35,848 ; McAlspaugh road, $18,347 ; 
Orn road, $15,466; Vanderveer road, $9,744; Metzger road, $9,289; 
Davisson road, $8,604 ; Miller road, $8,490 ; Boon road, $6,817 ; Anglin 
road, $2,498. The following had reduced their available funds below 
$1,000: Heekaman, Johnson, Landis, Circle, Maxwell, Gresso, Snure, 
Lawrence and Reed (in both Seward and Lake townships) roads. 

Auto Licenses as Promoters of Good Roads 

Of late years — in fact, ever since the county has gone into the road- 
building business — one of the most productive funds for the promotion 
of the good road movement has been derived from the license tax on 
automobiles. During the session of the Indiana General Assembly of 
1905, was enacted the first state law bringing the "auto" under the 
supervision of the commonwealth. Few changes were made in the law 
for some seven years, but the number of machines had so increased 
and the public highways were being so worn out by their continuous 
grind that the tax payers came to the conclusion that it was no more 
than just that the owners and users of automobiles should paj^ a share 
of the expenditures required for the building and upkeep of the roads. 

"In 1912," says the Indiana secretary of state, "there were about 
fiftj^ thousand machines in Indiana and the use they made of 
the public highways became a menace to good roads, which caused 
their upkeep of deep concern to taxpayers. Automobiles had the free 
use of the public roads without contributing anything toward their 
repair, and sentiment began to crystallize for a license tax on all 


machines, the funds thus derived to be apportioned over the State for 
the benefit of the public highways. Prom 1905 to 1913 a fee of only 
one dollar was charged for a perpetual license on a car, not a dollar 
of which was spent on the highways. To give relief to the taxpayers, 
the Legislature in 1913 enacted a law by which all the funds received 
for the licensing of automobiles, above the actual expenses of adminis- 
tering the business of the department, was to revert back to the ninety- 
two counties of the State to be applied on the expenditures for the 
repair of improved roads. That there might be an equitable distribu- 
tion throughout the State, the law provided that one-third of the total 
net receipts should be divided equally among all the counties; one- 
third should be divided in proportion to the number of miles of free 
gravel or macadam roads in the county bear to the whole number of 
such roads in the State, and one-third should be divided among the 
counties on the basis of the amount received from the counties from 
such registration tax. 

"When the law went into effect in 1913 it became very unpopular. 
Owners of automobiles felt like it was an unjust burden upon them and 
applications for licenses came in very slowly, many cars being run 
under the old seal and perpetual dollar license, but when large sums 
of money began to be returned to the counties and the upkeep of the 
public roads began to show evidence of the money so well appropriated 
and so well expended, sentiment changed and the law became popular. 
There has been a constant and substantial increase in the receipts of 
the department, and the money applied to the public highways has 
brought about such splendid results that the automobile license fee is 
now cheerfully paid." 

Under the law of 1913, Kosciusko County received the following 
amounts from the state license fees on automobiles : Proportionate 
one-third going to each county, $2,474.28 ; share according to road 
mileage, $166.44 ; one-third net receipts from the county, $3,255.77. 
Total due the county from the auto fees, $5,896.49. The total gross 
receipts from the county applicable, for the year named, to the gravel 
road fund, amounted to $10,381. 

The passage of the state law by which the counties of Indiana were 
made to pay so large a proportion of the expenses incurred in the 
building and upkeep of their main thoroughfares, out of the licenses 
levied upon automobiles, was a forcible illustration of the popular use 
of the machine. In fact, even in the smaller of the counties, the horse 
and the buggy had become rather a rarity ; the machine had the right- 


The Buggy and the Gas Carriage 

It appears from the tales which have come down to the present that 
the horse and buggj^ had a monopoly of the roads in northern Indiana 
— at least, in the neighborhood of Kosciusko and Noble counties — for 
about eighty years. 

Benjamin Yohn, who came to Kosciusko County in 1847 and settled 
in Tippecanoe Township, had the honor of introducting the first bugg\' 
to that region on the occasion of a Fourth-of-July celebration, held in 
Noble County in 1833. He drove eighteen miles for his "best girl," 
and when taking her home the bugg>' broke down and she had to ride 
horseback for the remainder of the trip, he walking beside her. The 

Old Covered Bridge of the "Buggy" Period 

account of the accident does not specify whether it was because of the 
poor condition of the road or of the vehicle, but probably, if the expres- 
sion had been current in his day, Mr. Yohn would have said that it 
was a case of "fifty-fifty." 

Little did the pioneers of that day dream that mammoth gas car- 
riages, with blown-up rubber wheels, would be rushing over hard, 
smooth roads in almost a continuous procession, at a rate of speed far 
exceeding any of the locomotives of the in their day, and even at 
that, wearing down substantial beds of gravel and cement with their 
constant grind and friction. But Mr. Yohn and his kind had their 
long, happy, comfortable day, with all its little drawbacks ; now it is 
the turn of another kind and generation. Query: Which gets the 
most good out of life in the long run ? 



Reclaimed Lands — Local Phases of Agriculture and Agricultur- 
ists — The Times of the Sickle and the Flail — The Reaping 
Hook and the Cradle — "Ground-Hog" Threshing Machine 
AND Fanning Mill — Corn Husking Bees Replace Log Rollings 
— Wool and Worked Into "Home Spun" — Corn and the 
Hominy Mortar — Bringing the Wheat to Grist — Strong Points 
OF Today — Kosciusko County Cattle — Dairy Products — Horses 
and Colts — Sheep and Wool — Hogs — Poultry and Eggs — 
Clover Hay and Seed Flourish — At the Front as Rye Pro- 
ducer — Good Onion and Only Pair Wheat Country — Farms 
AND Rural Population — Progressive Agriculture — The County 
Agent and His Work — Farm Demonstrations — Home Project 
Work — State Fair Exhibits and County Agents ' Confer- 
ences — Work Commenced in Kosciusko County — The First 
Year's Work — Fine Work op the Emergency Labor Bureau — 
Improvement op Wheat and Clover — Raising the Rye Grade — 
Cultivation of Hemp and Mint. 

Kosciusko County is in the rich agricultural and live stock belt 
of Northern Indiana which is watered by various streams constitut- 
ing a portion of the headwaters of the water system of the Wabash. 
Not a few of the head reservoii-s are represented by the beautiful 
lakes of the county, and the network of streams in the county em- 
braces a series of productive prairies, as well as woodlands, uplands 
and bottom lands. The general result is an unusual variety of 
lands and soils, which naturally adapt the country to the raising 
of the crops upon which live stock flourishes and to furnishing the 
physical requirements under which they thrive. 

Reclaimed Lands 

The industry and forethought of the permanent settlers of the 
county have improved upon tlie offerings of nature, and thousands 
of acres which proved to be among the most productive and valuable 

Kosciusko County Corn 


within its bounds have been "made" — that is, reclaimed from shallow 
ponds and marshes. To show to what extent that work had pro- 
gressed by the late '70s, it is only necessary to reproduce a portion 
of the report of the county auditor, made during the latter part of 
that period. He gives the following as the length of the different 
ditches which had then been constructed in the county : William 
McNamara's ditch, 30,850 feet long; Kindig and Irwin's, 17,550; 
Levy Tenney's, 9,318; John Kirlin's, 8,700; Thomas Rhinehart's, 
7,400; Herman I. Stevens', 7,425; Jeremiah Adams', 7,215; Samuel 
R. Valentine's, 7,090; Jacob Doremire's, 6,150; Abraham Haas', 
2,900; John G. McNamara's, 4,300; James Cook's, 2,650. 

At the present time, there are few miles in Kosciusko County 
which are not cut by one or more ditches, leading from the natural 
lakes and streams of the country. In many cases the original creeks 
and rivulets have been cleared of rubbish and their channels straight- 
ened and deepened, what were formerly useless waters being made 
to fertilize the land or supply water to grazing live stock. 

Local Phases of Agriculture and Agriculturists 

There were many areas in the county, especially in the pioneer 
period of its settlement, which were profitably cultivated to wheat 
and corn, but, with the opening of the far western states, the vast 
prairies of which offered such superior advantages for easy culti- 
vation and modern machinerj-, such middle western states as Ohio 
and Indiana turned their attention to cattle, horses and sheep, to 
dairy products, to poultry and eggs and to vegetables. The experi- 
ence of Kosciusko County farmers has been that of many other 
sections of Northern Indiana, in that while not making them gen- 
erally rich it has rendered them, as a rule, self-supporting and fairly 
contented. The average of comfort is high and, in comparison with 
many of the states farther west which are classed as the royalty of 
American agriculture, the farmers of Indiana do no shifting about. 
The consequence is that there are an unusually large number who 
can recall the pioneer times not only of Indiana, but of the formative 
period of American agriculture itself, before the ingenious labor- 
saving inventions considered almost necessities of the present-day 
farmer were conceiVed. 

The Times op the Sickle and the Flail 

Regarding these pioneer times in the agricultural communities — 
and there were then virtuallv none other — Mrs. S. Roxana Wince 


says: "Wheat in the pioneer times was mostly cut with the sickle. 
Neighbors helped each other. The field that ripened first was first 
harvested, and so on, until all was safely in shock ; then it was stacked 
in the same way. On the woodland farms the patches were small, 
and tedious, as the process would seem now, it was soon over, many 
hands making light work. On the prairies the fields were large, and 
the cradle had probably been introduced. 

"Threshing was done to a great extent with the flail, and often 
the whole winter was consumed in getting the grain threshed and 
cleaned ready for the mill and market. This, in cold, .snowy weather, 
could only be done in a barn, and as most of the settlers had no barns 
I cannot see how they managed. Horses and oxen were sometimes 
used to tread out the wheat, as they have been for ages in Palestine 
and other countries." 

The Reaping Hook and the Cradle 

In the early days, the sickle mentioned by Mrs. Wince as the 
pioneer harvesting implement of the county was often called a 
reaping hook. It was a crooked steel knife, with a serrated edge 
and a handle at one end. As more land was brought under cultiva- 
tion, and the number of acres sown to wheat each year increased, 
progress demanded a better method of harvesting the grain and the 
cradle was invented. This consisted of four fingers of tough wood, 
bent to conform to the curvature of the scythe, over which they were 
mounted on a light framework. A good cradler could cut four to 
five acres a day. At a comparativeh^ late period, it was no unusual 
sight to see half a dozen or more cradlers in a field, each followed by 
a boy with a rake to bunch the wheat into sheaves and a man to 
bind them. These were followed by a shocking party, which stacked 
the sheaves into shocks. 

As stated, when one man's grain was harvested, the party would 
move on to the next ripest field, until the wheat of the entire neigh- 
borhood was taken care of and made ready for the flail, or the 
primitive threshing machine. 

At the log-rolling and harvesting bees a little whisky was always 
provided for the men, yet it was uncommon for anyone to drink 
enough to become intoxicated. On these occasions the women would 
assist in preparing the meals for the harvest hands. 

"Ground-Hog" Threshing Machine and Fanning Mill 

After a while the flail gave way to the old "ground-hog" thresh- 
ing machine, which separated the grain from the straw, but did not 


clean it of the chaff. Then the fanning mill was invented, and many 
a boy who wanted to spend an afternoon along some stream fishing 
for "shiners" was compelled to turn the crank of the fanning mill, 
thus furnishing its motive power, while the father fed the wheat and 
chaff into the machine. 

Corn Husking Bees Replace Log Rollings 

After the settlers had been in the county for a number of years, 
and commenced to raise considerable crops of corn, as well as wheat, 
husking bees began to take the place of the log rollings of the earlier 
days. This does not mean that the log rollings ceased when the 
corn huskings began, for both were continued together for a number 
of years. But after each farmer had a comparativel}^ large acreage 
cleared, the log rollings became less frequent and corn huskings 
more so. The women had their methods of co-operation, as well as 
the men, and took occasion to combine sociability with the business 
in hand. Wool pickings and quiltings were among their "frolics," 
and these occasions were not less enjoyable to them than the log 
rollings, raisings, huskings and harvesting bees were to the men. 
Often they also assisted their husbands in the fields, in order that 
the farm work might be done in season. 

Wool and Fl-ax Worked Into "Home-Spun" 

Some of the farmers had sheep, from the wool of which, in the 
very early times, were made the flannels and other "home-spuns" 
required in cold weather. There were some who were fortunate 
enough to have both flax and wool, and who consequently could 
produce a greater variety in their wearing apparel than those who 
had only one variety of raw material. 

In nearly every neighborhood of any consequence there was at 
least one set of hand cards for converting the wool into rolls; the 
card was a sort of brush with short wire teeth, all bent slightly in 
one direction. After the rolls were made, they were spun into yarn 
on the old-fashioned spinning wheel. This was turned with a stick 
having a knob at the end, the housewife walking back and forth as 
the rapidly revolving spindle made the roll into woolen thread. 
After the yam was spun it was colored with indigo, or the bark of 
some such tree as the walnut, and then woven into flannel, jeans or 
linsey on the old hand loom. 

When the flax plant was ripe, it was pulled up by the roots, and 


spread out to dry or rot. After the straw had been made brittle bj' 
this process, the flax was ready for the "break" — an implement 
which broke the straw into short pieces. Then, in order to separate 
the straw from the fiber, the flax was thrown over the rounded end 
of a board set upright, and beaten with the "scutching knife," a 
piece of hard wood with moderately sharp edges. Pieces of straw 
too small to be caught by the scutching process were removed by the 
"hackle," which was made by sharpening a number of nails or 
pieces of wire, of equal length, and driving them closely through a 
board. Combing the flax through the hackle also split the fiber into 
fine threads and thus made it ready for the spinning wheel. 

Flax was generally spun on a small wheel operated by foot power. 
After the linen was woven, it was spread out upon a grass plat to 
bleach, after which it was used for table cloths, sheets for beds 
and numerous articles of summer clothing. 

Corn and the Hominy Mortar 

As to the food crops, of couree wheat and corn were the leaders. 
Corn at first entered most generally into the diet of the pioneer, 
probably because it was more easily and quickly grown than other 
grains. It was beaten into a coarse meal in a hominy mortar, an 
implement which long ago passed into disuse and of which there is 
perhaps none in existence in the county — certainly none which is 
not classified as a great curiosity and an interesting heirloom. 

Bringing the Wheat to Grist 

As soon as the first wheat crop was harvested, it became pos- 
sible to procure flour from the home-grown crop. But for some 
years the early settlers of Kosciusko County, who had mostly located 
in the northern townships, patronized the grist mills of Elkhart 
County, as superior to the half a dozen or so which were first erected 
along Turkey Creek in the neighborhoods of what are now Syracuse 
and Milford, and on the Tippecanoe between Monoquet and the 
present site of Oswego. 

Strong Points of Today 

There are various general phases of agriculture which apply to 
Indiana as a state, but they may be said to be a collation of the best 


or strongest points presented by the counties separately. Kosciusko 
County has a number of specialties in the live stock and agricul- 
tural fields which has given it positive standing, and it is the design 
of the following paragraphs to bring them to the front. The facts 
presented for that pui-pose have been largely taken from the six- 
teenth biennial report of the Indiana Department of Statistics, pub- 
lished in 1917. There is nothing later, covering so much ground 
and also the data required for the purposes of this history. 

Kosciusko County Cattle 

From the figures furnished by the Indiana Department of Statis- 
tics, it is evident that Kosciusko County is well to the front in the 


j^ 1 


Dairy Herd and Modern Buildings 

raising of cattle. In comparison with the other counties of the state, 
it is usually among the first. In 1916, it led all the rest, with 24,777 
on hand. Allen County had 24,216, and Adams and Marshall a trifle 
over 20,000 each. In the year named the cattle of Kosciusko County 
were valued at $889,615. During the previous year (1915), 10,644 
had been sold valued at $475,148. Although first in the number of 
cattle on hand, Kosciusko County stood twelfth in the value of those 
which had died of disease, demonstrating both healthful surround- 
ings and good care. 


Dairy Products / 

The advantages of Kosciusko County as a dairy country need be 
demonstrated in no more forcible manner than by reference to the 
hard figures supplied by the State Department of Statistics. They 
show that there is no county in the state which, as a whole, has 
surpassed it for a number of years past in the production of butter, 
milk and cream, the money value of these articles mounting well 
toward $950,000 in 1915. 

In the year named the county was first in the amount and value 
of cream sold and second in the butter produced. As it stood fifth 
in the number of gallons of milk produced, it follows that its quality 
must have been an unusually rich quality. An intelligent study 
of the statistics in this field, as in other matters, will yield other 
valuable information. 

The actual figures, with the items which they cover, are as fol- 
lows: Average number of cows milked in the county, 10,265, valued 
at $511,988; milk produced, 4,777,233 gallons, valued at $512,441; 
cream sold, 1,072,348 pounds, which brought in $272,227; butter 
produced, 685,725 pounds, for which the farmers received $157,645. 

Horses and Colts 

In 1915, Kosciusko County was second among the counties of 
Indiana in the number of horses and colts on hand ; Allen was first. 
The latter retained its lead in 1916, with Elkliart second and 
Kosciusko third. In the year named Kosciusko County had 12,652 
horses and colts on hand valued at $1,382,849. During the preced- 
ing year, its farmers had sold 2,318 for $323,608. 

Sheep and Wool 

Kosciusko County has been prominent as a sheep and wool pro- 
ducer for many years. It stood fourth of the Hoosier state counties 
in both particulars in 1915 and 1916. The reports showed that on 
the first of the latter year there were 12,302 sheep on hand valued 
at $70,976, and that 13,151 had been sold for $70,072. It was sixth 
of the counties in the loss from disease. 

The wool clip for Kosciusko County amounted to 89,571 pounds 
and was valued at $23,633. 



The county is also among the foremost in the raising of hogs. lu 
1915 it was fourth of the counties in the state, with 57,101 on hand, 
but in 1916 had dropped to eleventh place, with 42,982. They were 
valued at $300,803. Again, as in the matter of disease among its 
cattle, in comparison with the other counties of the state Kosciusko 

DuROc Hogs of the County 

County presented a remarkable bill of health for its hogs ; it was 
sixty-second of the ninety-two counties. 

Poultry and Eggs 

Indiana as a state, and especially the northern and central parts 
of it, has developed the production of poultry and eggs until the 
industry has become one of its leading sources of profit. In that 
field, which has gradually increased in productiveness, Kosciusko 
County has reached second place in Hoosierdom. According to the 
latest accessible reports, there were in the county 18,771 dozens of 
laying hens valued at $100,796. They produced in 1915, 1,544,657 
dozens of eggs with a market value of $319,183. All kinds of poul- 
try sold amounted to 12,249 dozens annually and brought their 
keepers $72,476. 


Clover Hay and Seed Flourish 

It follows, in line with common sense, that Kosciusko County 
farmers have given much attention of late years to the production 
of clover hay, as unexcelled feed for dairy cattle. In comparison 
with the other counties, it usually stands among the first half dozen. 
It was fourth in 1915, with its production of 21,674 tons, and third 
in its yield of clover seed (4,545 bushels). On the other hand, in the 
production of the coarser and less nourishing timothy hay, Kos- 
ciusko County was tenth. 

At the Front as Rye Producer 

Of the cereals Kosciusko County's standard crop is now rye. It 
averages third or fourth among the Indiana counties in both acreage 
and yield. There are about 6,500 acres devoted to that grain, pro- 
ducing 96,212 bushels, or 14.48 bushels per acre. 

Good Onion and Only Fair Wheat Country 

Kosciusko County stands about iu the middle ranks of the first 
ten counties of the state in the production of onions; and there is 
a material difference between such counties as Jasper, Noble and 
Starke, with their annual yields of from 150,000 to 250,000 bushels, 
and Kosciusko, with its production of from 60,000 to 90,000 bushels. 
Kosciusko County has under cultivation from 300 to 400 acres of 

Even in comparison with other sections of Indiana, the county 
has no high standing as a wheat producer, although naturally many 
sections of it are well adapted to growing it. Generally speaking, 
the hard winters of Northern Indiana are a drawback to the raising 
of wheat. In 1915 an acreage of 39,657 was sown to wheat in Kos- 
ciusko County and the yield was 848,920 bushels, or an average of 
21.41 bushels per acre. 

Farms and Rural Population 

The last complete figures compiled showing the number and 
value of the farms in the various counties of the state, with the 
rural population per square mile as compared with the total popu- 
lation, were issued in 1915. They indicate that the rural population 
of Kosciusko Countj- (43.4 per square mile) is neaily equal to the 


general average (51.6). In other words, there is no great dispro- 
portion between the rural and the urban density. While these are 
equal in the case of more than twenty of the counties in the state, 
the comparison is greatly in favor of the general average in the case 
of the counties which have large centers of population, such as 
Marion, Vanderburgh, Floyd, Vigo, St. Joseph and Allen. 

Kosciusko County is forty-third among the ninety-two counties 
in the state as to the value per acre of its farm lands — $31.19. There 
are 3,733 farms within its limits, including 337,336 acres. The total 
area of the county is estimated at 541 square miles, or 346,240 acres ; 
so that, obviously, there is very little "waste" land now within the 
bounds of Kosciusko County. 

Progressive Agriculture 

Kosciusko County has seen its ups and downs in matters of agri- 
cultural progress, like all other Indiana counties. It has had to 
adapt itself to the changing conditions of the country and the tre- 
mendous demands made upon it, as a whole, to keep its rapidly 
increasing population in a state of physical vigor and satisfaction. 
Crops which could not be raised to advantage in competition with 
other sections of the United States, such as com and wheat, have 
been largely displaced by other agriciiltural industries to which the 
country and its people were specially adapted. 

The County Agricultural Society and the County Fair Associa- 
tion accomplished much in the early periods of these changes and 
adaptations to new conditions and demands, and the latter is still 
active. Of late years, however, modern science and education have 
taken a hand in the problem, with the result that all the progressive 
forces and individual farmers are able to co-operate through such 
organized work as is effected by the agricultural extension depart- 
ment of Purdue University, the United States Department of Agri- 
culture and county agents. 

The County Agent and His Work 

More than forty counties of the state have appointed agents, who, 
in the language of one of their number, serve as connecting links 
"between the experimenter and the farmer," and "many facts are 
brought to the latter 's attention which, when applied to his work, 
add materially to the income of the farm. 

"An especial effort has been made to select lines of work that 



have an economic value in the several counties. The following sub- 
jects have received particular attention : Soil acidity drainage ; or- 
ganic matter ; supply legumes ; wheat production ; seed corn selection, 
storing and testing ; oat smut control ; alfalfa production ; pork pro- 
duction, including cholera control ; horse production ; beef produc- 
tion; dairy production, and boys and girls' clubs. 

Farm Demonstrvtiovs 

In most cases the work on a given line was introduced through a 
series of meetings held in the various parts of the county in which 



the county agent was assisted by a specialist from that division of 
the extension department which was most interested. These meet- 
ings were followed up by an arrangement with at least one farmer in 
each locality whereby he was to try out on his farm the principles 
involved in the particular subject. Thus we have the farm 
demonstration involving the liming of the soil, the growing of soy- 
beans as substitutes for clover when the latter fails, the testing of 
varieties, the comparison of cultural methods, use of commercial 
plant foods in varying amounts and combinations, the testing of the 
dairy herd or the organization of the community cow testing associa- 
tion, the feeding of th? hogs with varying rations, with and without 
the self-feeder; the feeding of a })unch of steers divided into two or 


more lots, each receiving different rations with accurate accounts 
as to cost of the gains. "We also have the boys' corn growing or 
pig feeding club, where the members compete with each other on a 
basis which involves cost of production, as well as excellence of the 
article produced. 

"In instances where conditions warrant it, a meeting is held at 
the conclusion of the demonstration to which the farmers of the com- 
munity are invited. Results obtained under farm conditions and 
under the direction of a farmer, make a more forcible appeal to the 
farm people than would similar results obtained elsewhere." 

Thus, year by j'ear, many farmers are induced to incorporate 
better methods into their general farm practices. 

Home Project Work 

The home project, or Young People's Club work, is one of the 
important lines of the county agent's work, as it gives an oppor- 
tunity to reach the young people in a practical way. The Corn Club, 
the Pig Club, the Dairy Club, the Garden Club, the Canning Club, 
the Sewing Club and the Cooking Club — each offers an opportunity 
to do some part of the work of the home or the farm under competent 
direction, thus affording an object lesson not only to the boy and 
girl, but to the parents as well. 

"The methods of production and the records of the cost of pro- 
duction, which are carefully kept, serve as valuable subjects for 
study when compared with the common farm practices. The club 
work is generally organized on the township unit plan, with the 
first prize for each township being a trip to the Farmers' week at 
Purdue University, with all expenses paid." In every county and 
in most of the to-s\aiships, industrial exhibits are arranged whereby 
each boy and each girl are enabled to compare the best samples of 
their handiwork with those of their co-workers, thus fixing more 
clearly in the mind the essential points. 

State F.ur Exhibits .\nd County Agents' Conferences 

Through the courtesy of the State Board of Agriculture, a large 
building on the fair grounds has been made available for the display 
of county agent work. The main object of this comparative exhibit 
has been to demonstrate methods by which the agricultural products 
of the various counties may be improved, rather than to exhibit prize 
products. It has not only served as headquarters for the farm folk 


of the several counties, which had had the enterprise to appoint 
agents, but visitors from all parts of the state were enabled to gain 
a clear conception of the county agent movement. 

Agricultural extension workers held several annual conferences 
at Purdue University, and at other times they have visited various 
counties to meet the agents for the purpose of discussing local phases 
of the work with them, or to confer with the leading farmers of 
counties and the trustees of townships in those sections which had 
failed to appoint regular agents. 

The result of these conferences was to divide the state into dis- 
tricts, and the county agents of each district were invited to meet 
for a day's discussion of their common and special problems. Each 
agent was especially asked to discuss his least successful pro.iect and 
give his plan of work. The most successful projects were also out- 
lined for the benefit of new men who had not attempted work along 
that particular line. 

Work Commenced in Kosciusko County 

Kosciusko County was one of the later counties to get into the 
agricultural extension work in all its phases. In March, 1918, W. 
R. Zechiel, who had been employed by Professor T. A. Coleman, at 
the head of the extension work in connection with the county agents, 
as assistant demonstration agent, was shifted to Kosciusko County 
from Southern Indiana to fill the vacancy left by Mr. Williams, as 
an emergency agent. In the following May, Mr. Zechiel received the 
appointment as a regular county agent for Kosciusko, and has since 
developed the work along the lines in which he has been so well edu- 
cated and trained. 

Mr. Zechiel came into the county at a very inopportune time to 
accomplish much the first year, and was compelled to spend several 
months in getting thoroughly acquainted with the people and their 
special needs. At the time, there was little organized effort to 
further the agricultural interests of the county, and he set about 
the formation of a county farm bureau, or better farmers' organiza- 
tion. The people soon saw the advantages of such co-operation, and 
various communities organized themselves into buying and ship- 
ping unions and equity elevator companies, in order to assist the 
farmers to get their products to market most advantageously. The 
Short Horn raisers and the Poland-China men also organized socie- 
ties for the exchange of views and business co-operation. 

The County Fair Association, one of the oldest organizations in 


Kosciusko, has accomplished much in the improvement of live stock, 
fruit and grain. It is also largely due to that organization that the 
county agent movement has been finally established. 

The First Year's Work 

The first year of the county agent's work was a busy one. In 
the spring he secured for each farmer the special seed corn adapted 
to his needs and conditions. The crop promised a fine yield, but a 
heavy June frost destroyed at least half the acreage and yield. This 
misfortune created the problem to secure substitute crops for the 
frozen districts. The silo men replanted, and others put in buck- 
wheat, millet, potatoes and beans ; which, in part, supplemented the 
loss of corn. The losses in that line, however, put the county on the 
market for at least fifty carloads of corn. 

The mid-summer programme for 1918 was mainly that of crop 
inspection, such as locating certified fields of wheat to recommend 
for fall planting, and the checking over of oat fields, whether they 
had been treated for smut or not. The average loss in the non- 
treated fields was IVo per cent, while on the treated fields it was 
less than 1 per cent, or only a trace. 

The result of the wheat inspection was that it was found that 
seven fields in the county, with a total of 144 acres, and a yield of 
55,000 bushels, had passed the state and federal requirements for 
certified seed. Considerable stinking smut was found in the wheat, 
and much publicity was used asking farmers to guard against it for 
another year. 

Fine Work of the Emergency Labor Bureau 

In answer to a call by farmers in different localities, the business 
and commercial men of the towns united themselves into an emerg- 
ency labor bureau. They pledged themselves to supply the farmer 
with the necessary labor during haying and hainresting, to the extent 
of closing their places of business, if needs be. In Mentone, Warsaw 
and Leesburg many calls were received and filled in this way. This 
was especially true in the Mentone neighborhood, where it would 
have been almost impossible to have taken care of the crops had it 
not been for such an organization. 

The emergency labor bureau was a war measure and furnished 
a forcible illustration of the practical value of the county agent as 
a Government instrument in that wonderful campaign by which the 


warring forces of democracy were physically sustained and enabled 
to crush their ruthless enemies. 

It was during June and July of 1918 that a vigorous campaign 
was launched in the county to stimulate the erection of silos for the 
purpose of taking care of poor and frosted corn that might be 
grown in the county. This was not entirely successful, but it aroused 
much interest and manj' new silos were put in operation. 

Improvement op Wheat and Clover 

In the late summer and fall of the year special efforts were made 
to improve the prospects of wheat and clover. The steps taken to 
carry out the programme included: (a) More careful preparation 
of wheat lands by early plowing and systematic and thorough culti- 
vation; (b) the securing of certified seed wheat; (e) more extensive 
use of commercial fertilizers, especially phosphoric acid; (d) testing 
of numerous samples of soil to determine the lime requirement, and 
the recommendation that lime be generally introduced to the high 
clay and sandy loam soils; (e) the use of straw and other loose 
litter for the top dressing of wheat lands; (f) treating seed wheat 
by wet formaldehyde for the prevention of smut. 

Raising the Rye Grades 

As the county has normally a large rye acreage, the farmers were 
asked to use rosen rye for seed purposes, with the result that 2,500 
bushels were planted of the variety named. Although most of it 
was introduced under one shipment, many fanners who did not 
obtain their quota, or a sufficient quantity to meet their desires, made 
special trips to Elkhart and St. Joseph counties to obtain the kind 
recommended by the county agent. 

Farmers were encouraged generally to use fertilizei-s on all spring 
crops of the following year; rather to increase yield than acreage. 
They were also recommended to order their fertilizers early, have 
them shipped early, and get them to their farms as soon as ship- 
ments could be made after the holidays. 

Cultivation op Hemp and jMint 

Kosciusko County has several thousand acres of hemp and mint 
lands and of late considerable attention has been given to their culti- 
vation. The difficulties to be overcome in the raising of these crops 


is the winter killing of mint and the uneven growth of hemp. Although 
the growth of hemp represents hy no means a large crop in Kos- 
ciusko County, its development is considered of some consequence, 
as no other county in the state produces more. 

Among the projects mentioned by County Agent Zeehiel as being 
under way are the formation of an organization of the bee keepers 
of the county, and a survey of all the farms, with a view of classifying 
the information thus obtained and combining it with the data derived 
from the county assessor's sheets. 

It is evident from the foregoing review of the general and the 
special work of the county agent that the progress of the agricul- 
tural interests of any section of the state largely depends upon the 
close co-operation of the farmers, including their wives, boys and 
girls, with the educational agencies provided by county, state and 
general Government. 



The Civil War — The First Three Months' Regiment (the Ninth) 
— Reorganized for Three Years and as Veteran Regiment — The 
Eleventh Infantry (Three Years) — The Twelfth (One Year 
AND Three Years) — Gen. Reuben Williams— The Thirteenth 
Regiment (Three Years) — The Sixteenth Infantry (One 
Year) — The Seventeenth (Three Years) — The Twentieth 
(Three Years) Infantry — Twenty-first Regiment (Three 
Years) — Twenty-second Infantry Regiment — Twenty-sixth 
Indiana Infantry — The Twenty-ninth Regiment — Thirtieth 
Regiment (Three Years) — Thirty-fifth Regiment (First 
Irish) Regiment — Thirty-ninth Infantry (Afterward Eighth 
Cavalry) — Forty-first Infantry (Second Cavalry) — Forty- 
second Regiment of Infantry — Forty-fourth Infantry — 
Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh Regiments — Forty-eighth 
Regiment — The Fifty-eighth Regiment — Fifty-ninth and 
Sixty-eighth Regiments — The Seventy-fourth Regiment — 
Lieutenant Runyan at Kenesaw Mountain — Lieutenant 
Kuder at Jonesboro — Charles W. Chapman, Colonel op the 
Seventy-fourth — John N. Runyan — Seventy-seventh Regi- 
ment (Fourth Cavalry) — Eighty-third and Eighty-eighth 
Regiments — Ninetieth Regiment (Fifth Cavalry) — One Hun- 
dred and Eighteenth Regiment (Six Months) — One Hundred 
and Nineteenth (Seventh Cavalry) — One Hundred and 
Twenty-seventh Regiment (Twelfth Cavalry)— One Hundred 
and Twenty-ninth Regiment — The One Hundred and Thir- 
tieth — One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Regiment — One Hun- 
dred and Fifty-first and One Hundred and Fifty-second — 
Light Artillery from Kosciusko County — Soldiers of the Civil 
AND THE World's Wars — Grand Army Posts — The Soldiers' 
Memorial — In the Spanish-American War — Company H, One 
Hundred and Sixtieth Regiment — Kosciusko County in the 
World's War — Realizing that the War Existed — Volunteers 
Get the Start of the Draft — Officers and Organizations in 
August, 1917 — Bartol and Swihart Sail for France — First 



Cross Drives — Kosciusko County Men Off for Camp Benjamin 
Harrison — Dr. Milpord H. Lyon Leaves for France — Third 
Indiana Reorganized as Artillery — A Hoosier Opens the War 
FOR THE Americans — County's Part in Second Liberty Loan 
Drive — Jamer R. Frazer, County Food Administrator — 
County's First Gold Star — Home Guard Organized — Official 
State Military Band — Lieut. J. F. Horick, "World's Champion 
Pistol Shot — First Personal Battle News — Very Successful 
Third Liberty Loan Campaign — Sale of War Stamps — Lieuten- 
ant Bartol at Chateau Thierry — Three Thousand Men Regis- 
tered — High School Boys Enrolled — Fourth Liberty Loan — 
First Man of the New Draft — Winona Lake Training Camp 
Opened — Boys of Battery D Arrive in France — The United 
War Work Fund — The Riot of Peace — Among the Last Home 
Victims — Total Man Power of the County — At the Close of 
THE War. 

Although the county had been organized for a decade when the 
war with Mexico was declared, it is not of record that any of the few 
who had then become residents of Kosciusko departed for the south- 
western front. Most of those who afterward became prominent in the 
Civil war, like Gen. Reuben Williams, Col. C. W. Chapman, and Capt. 
D. W. Hamlin, were mere youths or very young men in 1846. Gen- 
eral Williams, however, was a son-in-law of JIaj. Henry Hubler of the 
Twelfth Regiment who had served in the Mexican war while the resi- 
dent of another county. But at the time of the War of the Rebellion, 
Kosciusko County had reached so large a population as to be in a posi- 
tion to materially contriliute of men and other resources for the cause 
in which it believed. 

More than sixty years after so much of the strength of the county's 
manhood had been absorbed by the vampire of one war,, a smaller 
danger of the same breed threatened, but fortunately Kosciusko 
County was little affected, although its men were eager to do their 
full share; and they did. 

The third test offered by the war-god found the county still 
prepared, by tradition and American temperament, to "go over the 
top" in every patriotic movement, whether staged at home or "over 
there." Its combination of hardy, foreign vigor and youthful 
enthusiasm for democratic institutions, with a broader and more 
cultured appreciation of American privileges and ideals, kept Kos- 
ciusko steadily to the special tasks assigned to her by the higher 


powers of the General Government ; and whether in the raising of 
troops or of monej'. Red Cross and other Christian relief work, or 
the detection and punishment of slackers and alien enemies, the 
men, women and children of the county were tireless and efficient. 

The First Three Months' Regiment (the Ninth) 

Kosciusko shared with other counties and sections of the state 
and nation, the uncertainty as to the serious nature of the rebellion 
and the probability of a long period of military service for those 
who volunteered. In accord with the orders of the War Department 
and President Lincoln, three months' regiments were first formed, 
with the understanding that, if necessary, the men of such organi- 
zations could re-enlist for longer periods. 

The Ninth, the first of the three months' regiments to be organ- 
ized in Kosciusko County, was mustered into service at Indianapolis, 
on the 25th of April, 1861, with Robert H. :Milroy as colonel. This 
was the first regiment which left Indiana for West Virginia. It 
arrived at Grafton, in that state, on June 1st ; thence marched to 
Philippi, and participated in the surprise on the Confederate camp 
at that place two days later. The Ninth afterward was engaged 
in the skirmishes at Laurel Hill and Carriek's Ford, and was dis- 
charged at Indianapolis in July. 

Reorg.vnized for Three Years .\nd as Veteran Regiment 

The Ninth became a three years' regiment, and was mustered 
into the service, as thus reorganized at Laporte, in September, 1861. 
It was again placed in command of Colonel Milroy, and remained 
in winter quarters in West Virginia until January, 1862, after hav- 
ing participated in several minor engagements. In February it 
was transferred to Buell's army and in the following spring arrived 
at Pittsburg Landing in time to take part in the second day's battle 
at Shiloh. It was also with Nelson's division at the evacuation of 
Corinth, was with the forces which pursued Bragg from Nashville 
to Louisville, and was identified with the battles at Perryville and 
Danville. Stone River, Chiekamauga, Mission Ridge and Lookout 
Mountain were added to its major engagements in 1863, and in the 
last month of the year the entire regiment re-enlisted as a veteran 
organization for the period of the war, however long it .should last. 
Subsequently it joined Sherman's army in the Atlanta campaign, 
but returned to Tennessee and engaged in the campaign against 


Hood. In the spring of 1865 the regiment was ordered to New 
Orleans and later to Texas, where it remained until September, 
when it was mustered out of service and returned to Indiana. 

The Eleventh Infantry (Three Years) 

The Eleventh Infantry also passed through all the grades of 
three months, three years and veteran organization, its three years' 
service dating from August 31, 1861. Its colonel was Lewis Wal- 
lace, who, when the regiment arrived at Padueah, Kentucky, in 
September, ready for the "front," was promoted brigadier general. 
Lieut. Col. George F. McGinnis succeeded him in the command. 
Fort Donelson, Shiloh, the siege of Corinth, and marching and cam- 
paigning in the swamps and bayous of the Southwest, were the main 
features of its record until it joined General Grant's army in the 
spring of 1863. Then came Port Gibson, Champion Hills and the 
siege of Vicksburg. The regiment veteranized in March, 1864, and 
after its furlough rejoined the service at New Orleans. Subse- 
quently it was placed under General Sheridan and participated in 
all the movements and battles of the famous Shenandoah Valley 
campaign. It was finally mustered out of the service at Baltimore, 
Maryland, in July, 1865. 

The Twelfth (One Year and Three Years) 

It soon became evident to the North that the Rebellion could not 
be quelled in three months, and many of the organizations which 
had been formed for the short term were consolidated into one-year 
regiments. In May, 1861, six regiments which had assembled at 
Indianapolis, under the presidential call for three months' service, 
were reorganized and the surplus of certain companies was formed 
into the Twelfth Regiment and accepted for state service for one 
year. In July, it was transferred to the United States service for 
the remainder of the year. It was in command of John M. Wallace. 
Assigned to General Banks' Army of the Shenandoah, under com- 
mand of Col. William H. Link, who had succeeded Colonel Wallace, 
the Twelfth was engaged during the fall of 1861 and the spring of 
1862, in various operations against Johnston in Maryland and Vir- 
ginia. It was on its way to re-enforce Sheridan at Winchester when 
news reached it of the Union victory, and it was mustered out of the 
one-year service at Washington, in May, 1862. 

The Twelfth at once reorganized for three yeai-s, at Indianap- 


olis, in August, 1862, with "William H. Link, its old commander, as 
its colonel. He was killed less than two weeks afterward at Rich- 
mond, Kentucky, where the entire regiment lost quite heavily. The 
greater part of the command was captured and paroled. Soon 
afterward the men were exchanged with Confederate prisoners of 
war and joined General Grant's army, the regiment being placed 
in command of Reuben Williams, of Warsaw, who had been pro- 
moted from the lieutenant colonelcy. He retained the command of 
the regiment from November, 1862, until the fall of Atlanta, in 
July, 1864. That period included the investment of Vicksburg, as 
a portion of Logan 's Fifteenth Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee ; 
the pursuit of Johnston's army, which had come to the relief of the 
besieged city ; the march to Chattanooga' to relieve the Army of the 
Cumberland and the battle of Mission Ridge; the Atlanta campaign, 
with all its fierce battles and the subsequent pursuit of Hood through 
Northern Georgia and Alabama, and the still later marches and cam- 
paigns through the Carolinas up to the time of Johnston's surrender 
at Raleigh. The Twelfth was finally mustered out of the service at 
Washington, in June, 1865. 

General Reuben Williams ' 

Upon the reorganization of the Twelfth as a three years' regi- 
ment, August 17, 1862, Captain Williams was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant colonel. On September 20th Col. William H. Link died of 
his wounds received at the battle of Richmond, Kentucky, three 
weeks before, and in the following November Lieutenant Colonel 
Williams was regularly commissioned as colonel of the regiment. 
This rank he held until near the close of the war, when he received 
the appointment of brevet brigadier general of volunteers. After 
succeeding to the command of his regiment he was frequently called 
upon to assume command of his brigade, this being the case during 
the Atlanta campaign. 

Reuben Williams, of Warsaw, who commanded the Twelfth Regi- 
ment during the most active and important portion of its service, 
came to Warsaw from his native city of Tiffin, Ohio, in 1845. He 
was then twelve years of age. As a boy and youth he learned the 
printer's trade, and while a very young man published the Warsaw 
Democrat for a short time. For another short period he wandered 
through the West as a journeyman printer, and in 1856, with G. W. 
Fairbrother, commenced the publication of the Northern Indianian 
at Warsaw. 


On the 5th of April, 1857, j\Ir. Williams was united in marriage 
with Miss Jemima Hubler, a daughter of Maj. Henry Hubler, who 
had alread.y served in the Mexican war and was to be an officer in the 
Twelfth Regiment of the Civil war. 

When Sumter fell, the editor of the Northern Indianian pub- 
lished a call for volunteers from Kosciusko County, and on the 19th 
of April, 1861, its first company was organized. That was Company 
E, of the Twelfth Regiment. His commission as second lieutenant 
of it is dated May 7th as is also that of its captain, Henry Hubler, his 
father-in-law. The latter was promoted to be major of the regiment 
in the following August, and Lieutenant Williams was at the same 
time advanced to the captaincy. 

As noted, the regiment was at first mustered into the service as 
a one-year organization, and at the expiration of that period vyas 
formed a state organization for one year, but shortly afterward was 
transferred to the United States army. As a state regiment it was 
ordered to Evansville, where it assured security of travel and com- 
merce on the Ohio River and kept an ej-e on the Confederate sym- 
pathizers on the Kentucky side. 

At the defeat of the Union troops in the first battle of Bull Run, 
the Twelfth was ordered to join the Banks command at Harper's 
Ferry, and soon after the arrival of the regiment in Virginia occurred 
the promotions of both Major Hubler and Lieutenant Williams. The 
Twelfth remained with General Banks until April, 1862, and com- 
posed the advance guard of the Union army when it occupied Win- 

On the 11th of December, 1861, Captain Williams was captured 
by a Confederate force under Stonewall Jackson while making a 
reconnaissance of the enemy's position, was taken to Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, and confined in the famous Libby Prison until exchanged in 
the following March. 

, After the fall of Atlanta, Colonel Williams was selected as one of 
the court martial convened to try the Indiana conspirators against the 
Federal Government, known as the Knights of the Golden Circle. 
That treasonable organization existed in several of the states besides 
Indiana. As a member of the Indiana court martial, Colonel Wil- 
liams voted in favor of hanging Milligan and other conspirators. 

At the conclusion of these trials, Colonel Williams rejoined his 
regiment at Savannah, Georgia, and commanded it on the march 
through the Carolinas to Petersburg and Richmond, and thence to 
Washington, where it had the honor of leading in the grand i-eview 
down Pennsylvania Avenue and past President Lincoln and other 


great men and distinguished visitors. The commander of the Twelfth 
was brevetted brigadier general because of his masterly execution 
of a raid in South Carolina, in the face of a superior force of the 
enemy, by which the enemy's railroad communication between the 
northern and southern portions of the state was completely severed. 
He cut loose entirely from Sherman 's army and his severing movement 
also involved the destruction of large quantities of Confederate stores 
and material necessary for any effective resistance to the Union forces. 

Retiring from the service at the close of the war, General Williams 
again assumed editorial control of the Northern Indianian. This was 
the main business of his life for many years, temporarily interrupted 
in 1875 by his short editorship of the Fort Wayne Daily Gazette and 
his Government service in connection with the comptroUership of the 
United States treasury. 

Besides "Reub" Williams and Henry Hubler, Andrew P. Gal- 
lagher served as an officer in Company E from Kosciusko County. 
He was also commissioned first lieutenant May 7, 1861, and Andrew 
S. Milice became second lieutenant in September of that year, soon 
after Lieutenant Williams had been promoted to the captaincy. The 
company, in fact, was virtually a Kosciusko County organization. 

At the reorganization of the Twelfth as a three years' regiment. 
Companies F and I drew their strength from Kosciusko County. 
Samuel Boughter, who was a sergeant in old Company E, became 
the captain of F and was subsequently promoted to be major of the 
reorganized Twelfth. 

Samuel G. Wells was the first captain of Company I, and was 
succeeded, during the war period, by Thomas J. Anderson and Lemuel 

The Thirteenth Regiment (Three Years) 

The Thirteenth was also originally accepted for state service for 
one year, was subsequently transferred to the service of the United 
States, and in June, 1861, was mustered at Indianapolis for the three 
years' period, in June, 1861. Jere. C. Sullivan was its colonel. On 
the 10th of the following month it joined General McClellan's forces 
at Rich Mountain, West Vii-ginia, and on the next day participated 
in the battle at that place. The noted campaign of which it 
was a part was that of the Shenandoah, with the historic battle of 
Winchester as its historic feature. In May, 1862, Colonel Sullivan 
was commissioned a brigadier general and Lieutenant Colonel Robert 
S. Foster was advanced to the command of the regiment. It re- 


mained in Shenandoah Valley during the earl}- part of the summer, 
and formed part of McClennan's army in its operations in that region 
for some months. The next decisive move of the Thirteenth was to 
Charleston Harbor, South Carolina* in June, 1863, where it partici- 
pated in the famous assault on Fort .Wagner. In the following 
December a portion of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans, enjoyed 
the regular furlough in Indiana, was dispatched to Florida in Feb- 
ruary, 1864, and in April was re-ti-ansferred to Virginia in time to 
engage in General Butler's operations south of Richmond. In this 
campaign, the regiment lost quite heavily at Foster's Farm in May 
of that year. 

Soon afterward the Thirteenth joined the Army of the Potomac 
at Newcastle, and was engaged at Cold Harbor and in all the opera- 
tions along the Chickahominy and in the assaults upon Petersburg. 
In the meantime, the non-veterans of the regiment had been mustered 
out of the service at Indianapolis. The veterans of the Thirteenth 
continued to participate in the siege of Petersburg and Richmond. 
In November, 1864, it was sent to New York City to preserve order 
during the election riots, and at its return sailed with the first expe- 
dition to Fort Fisher. The veterans were then recruited, by order 
of General Butler, and reorganized into a battalion of five companies, 
which, with the addition of five companies of drafted men, was 
formed into a full regiment. During January and February, 1865, 
it engaged in the second attempt at the reduction of Fort Fisher, the 
capture of Fort Anderson and the occupation of Wilmington, North 
Carolina. Then it participated in the advance on Raleigh and in the 
other movements in that state which marked the close of the war. 
The regiment was mustered out of service in September, 1865. 

During the last two years of the war, the Thirteenth was com- 
manded by Cyrus J. Dobbs, having succeeded Robert J. Foster as 
colonel in June, 1863. 

The Sixteenth Infantry (One Year) 

There were several men from Kosciusko County in the Sixteenth 
Indiana Infantry, including John H. Rosseau, a descendant of the old- 
time French trader. It was originally organized for service within 
the state, but with the news of the Bull Run disaster it was incor- 
porated into the Federal forces. In July, -1861, it left for Richmond 
and the Army of the Potomac, and was the first regiment to pass 
through Baltimore after the Confederates fired upon the Sixth Mas- 
sachusetts. Its fii-st decisive military movement was as a unit of 


General Banks divisiion, to cover the retreat of the disorganized 
Union forces after the battle of Ball's Bluff in October. The fol- 
lowing spring was passed in the Shenandoah Valley with General 
Banks command, and in May, 1862, the men of the regiment were 
discharged from the service. Their colonel, Pleasant A. Hackelman, 
had been commissioned brigadier general during the preceding month, 
and in the following September was killed at the battle of luka, Mis- 

The Seventeenth (Three Years) 

Kosciusko County also furnished a few men to the Seventeenth 
Regiment of Infantry, a three years' organization commanded during 
the first ten months of the war by Colonel Milo S. Hascall, who was 
then promoted to be a brigadier general. The regiment was mustered 
into the service in June, 1861, and until the fall i-emained in Mary- 
land and West Virginia engaged chiefly in the construction of Fort 
Pendleton. It then joined Buell's army in Kentucky and, after much 
marching and counter-marching, finally entered Nashville, Tennessee, 
in March, 1862. It was at that time that Colonel Hascall received 
his appointment as brigadier general. 

The following two years constituted a period of almost ceaseless 
campaigning and fighting. The regiment fought at Shiloh, engaged 
in the siege of Corinth, followed Bragg through Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky, and in February, 1863, became a mounted organization, the 
better to prosecute the rapid-moving style of warfare. The men were 
armed with Spencer rifles, which proved unusually effective, espe- 
cially during the engagement at Hoover's Gap, where they were op- 
posed by a superior force, but captured prisonere and valuable arms 
and equipment. The month of August saw the Seventeenth doing 
its part at Chickamauga, and later the regiment proved a decided 
success in the pursuit of Wheeler's elusive cavalry and other horse- 
men of the enemy. During the battle of Mission Ridge the command 
performed valuable service in the destruction of trains and stores, 
and other demoralizing movements, and finally went into camp at 
Pulaski, Tennessee, where several hundred of the men veteranized. 
The Seventeenth arrived at Indianapolis, on furlough, in January, 

The regiment was remounted and again left for the front in April, 
joining Sherman's army for Atlanta in 'Slay. From that time to the 
end of October it was engaged in all the movements and battles in- 
cident to the fall of that southern stronghold and the pursuit of 


Hood's army northward. It then returned to Louisville for remount- 
ing, was assigned to Wilson's cavalry division and took part in 
various engagements in Alabama and Georgia leading to the capture 
of Macon. There it remained until its muster-out in August, 1865. 

There were few Indiana regiments which had a more varied service 
than the Seventeenth. 

The Twentieth (Three Years) Infantry 

Quite a number of men from the county joined the Twentieth 
Regiment as members of Companies C and H. The regiment was 
organized at LaFayette in July, 1861, and was mustered into the 
service during the same month at Indianapolis. It first saw service 
along the southern coasts, and in the spring of 1862 participated in 
the engagement between the Merrimac, Cumberland and Congress 
and in the capture of Norfolk. Soon after, it was absorbed into the 
Army of the Potomac, and subsequently took part in the battles of 
Fair Oaks and Manassas Plains. Colonel Brown, its commander, 
was killed in the latter engagement. Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville and the pursuit of Lee through Maryland into Pennsylvania 
preceded the second day's battle at Gettysburg in the record of the 
Twentieth. There its loss was very heavy and included the death 
on the battlefield of its commanding officer. Colonel John Wheeler. 
First Lieutenant Ezra B. Robbins, of this county, was also killed at 

The Twentieth was one of the regiments sent to New York City 
to restore order there as the result of election riots. In January, 
1864, a portion of the regiment re-enlisted for veteran service, and in 
the spring was with Grant's army in the fearful campaigns of the 
Wilderness. At Cold Harbor, the veterans and recruits of the Four- 
teenth Regiment were consolidated with the Twentieth, and not long 
afterward was called to the siege of Petersburg. It also took a lead- 
ing part in the operations preceding the fall of Richmond, and was 
finally mustered out at Louisville, in July, 1865. 

Twenty-First Regiment (Three Years) 

During the first eighteen months of the war the Twenty-first was 
in the infantry service, but thereafter, until January, 1866, was in 
the heavy artillery branch. As a three years' organization, it was 
mustered into the service at Indianapolis, in July, 1861, with James 
W. McMillan as colonel. After it reached the front, it was held for 


several months in Baltimore, engaged in General Lockwood's opera- 
tions against Confederate points in eastern Virginia. In the spring 
of 1862 it joined Butler's expedition to New Orleans, and was 
the first Union regiment to march into that city. For several months 
its main activities were directed against blockade runners in the 
Louisiana district. In November, 1862, Colonel Mcilillan was pro- 
moted to be brigadier general and Lieutenant Colonel John L. Keith 
assumed command of the Twenty-fii-st. 

By command of General Banks, in February, 1863, the Twenty- 
first regiment was transferred to the heavy artillery branch of the 
service, designated as the First Heavy Artillery, and two companies 
were added to it. As thus reorganized, it participated in the siege 
of Port Hudson and the Red River expedition. In the winter of 
1863-64 a large portion of the regiment veteranized, and returned to 
Indiana on furlough. At the conclusion of their leave of absence, 
the men rejoined the service as a command of the Department of the 
Gulf, and in April, 1865, six of its batteries were assigned to positions 
in the siege of Mobile and the reduction of its protecting forts. After 
these objects were accomplished, the different batteries were assigned 
to duty in the neighborhood, with headquarters at ]Mobile. As a 
whole, the regiment was mustered out at Port Hudson, in January, 
1866, following a grand parade of its twelve batteries, but about 200 
of the men, under command of Captain William Bough, preferred to 
be discharged in Indianapolis. 

The Twenty-Second Infantry Regiment 

Five companies in the Twenty-second Infantry were represented 
by Kosciusko County recruits, the largest quota (about forty) being 
in Company D. During almost four years of its service in the Civil 
war, this regiment marched, campaigned and fought with the armies 
of the Southwest, finally joining Sherman's army in its sweep to At- 
lanta, and northward through the Carolinas to the last decisive 
battlefields of the conflict. 

The Twenty-second was organized at Madison, Indiana, in July, 
1861, and mustered into the three years' service at Indianapolis, in 
the following month, with Jeff. C. Davis (then captain in the regular 
army) as its colonel. In December, Colonel Davis was commissioned 
brigadier general. In March, 1862, it lost heavily at the battle of 
Pea Ridge, among those killed being Lieutenant Colonel John A. 
Hendricks. Soon afterward it joined the Union army fronting Co- 
rinth, and after the evacuation of that place became a part of the 


forces engaged in the pursuit of Bragg. At Perrj'ville it lost half of 
its effective strength, and among those killed in that battle was the 
lamented Colonel Keith. The force of the Twentj'-second was also 
materially reduced at Stone River. From that time on, its history 
is identitied with that of the Army of the Cumberland — Mission 
Ridge, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Savannah, Bentonville 
and all the rest. In December, 1864, enough of the Twenty-second 
had re-enlisted to retain the regimental organization and it was after 
its return from the Indiana furlough that it joined itself to Sher- 
man's army and the fortunes of the great commander, as the Union 
forces under him swept up fi-om the south to join Grant and the 
armies of the North. 

Twenty-Sixth Indiana Infantry 

In Companies A and C were the Kosciusko County men of the 
Twenty-sixth Indiana Infantry, which was mustered into the mili- 
tary service of the United States, at Indianapolis, in August, 1861. 
The colonel of the regiment was William M. Wheatley. It left for 
St. Louis and the front in the following month to participate in Gen- 
eral Fremont's Missouri campaign. The regiment remained in that 
state and in Arkansas until June, 1863, when it was ordered to join 
Grant's army before Vicksburg, which fell on the fourth of the suc- 
ceeding July. 

Soon after the surrender of Port Hudson, the Twenty-sixth was 
transferred to that place, and subsequently to Carrollton, Louisiana. 
In September, the regiment was badly defeated at Morganza, and 
nearly half of the force was captured and confined for several months 
at Tyler, Texas. In February, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as vet- 
erans and after their return from furlough were assigned to garrison 
duty at Fort Butler, where they remained until the spring of 1865. 
At that time the campaign opened against Mobile, and the last im- 
portant action in which the regiment engaged during the remainder 
of the war was the assault upon Spanish Fort. It was mustered out 
at Vicksburg, in January, 1866. 

The Twenty-Ninth Regiment 

A dozen or more Kosciusko County men were members of the 
Twenty-ninth Infantry, which, in August, 1861, was mustered into 
the service for three years, with John F. Miller as colonel. In Oc- 
tober, it joined General Rousseau's command at Camp Nevin. Ken- 


tueky. Its first battle was at Shiloh, where it lost heavily in men 
and officers, and it was in the front line at the siege of Corinth. Upon 
its battle flags were also inscribed Stone River, Chickamauga and 
other leading engagements. In January, 1864, the regiment veteran- 
ized, but thereafter its services were confined to garrison duty. It 
was mustered out of the service in December, 1865. 

Thirtieth Regiment (Three Years) 

The Thirtieth Infantry was largely composed of Kosciusko County 
men. Company B and Company I almost entirely consisting of 
"home boys." The regiment was organized at Fort Wayne and mus- 
tered into the service for three years, in July, 1861, under the com- 
mand of Colonel Simon S. Bass. In October it was ordered to Camp 
Nevin, Kentuckj-, and assigned to McCook's division, of Buell's army. 
It got into the fighting line at Shiloh, where it lost heavily of officers 
and men. Of the former fatalities, the most serious was the death on 
the battlefield of Colonel Bass. 

The command of the regiment then devolved on Lieutenant Colonel 
Joseph B. Dodge, a resident of Kosciusko County. The Thirtieth 
participated in all the campaigns and critical battles of the Rosecrans 
campaigns in Tennessee and Mississippi — Shiloh, Stone River, Co- 
rinth, Chickamauga and the other historic engagements which so 
tested the mettle of both Northern and Southern troops. In Decem- 
ber, 1863, it joined the veteran organizations of the Union armies, 
and in the following January was called into the great and decisive 
campaigns and series of battles conducted by Sherman. After the 
reorganization, seven companies of the old regiment were formed into 
a battalion under Lieutenant Colonel Henry W. Lawton. At the fall 
of Atlanta, the Thirtieth was part of the force which intercepted 
Hood in his march on Nashville, and fought the battle in defense of 
that city in December, 1864. With the retreat of the Confederates 
and their pursuit into Alabama, the regiment proceeded with the 
Fourth Army Corps to East Tennessee, whence it was ordered to 
Texas. In that state it saw hard campaigns, but few actual engage- 
ments, and was finally mustered out at Victoria, Texas, in Novem- 
ber, 1865. It was still commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Lawton. 
It is said by old Civil war officers, and the statement is borne out by 
the records, that the Thirtieth saw as much hard service and lost as 
many men as probably any regiment that went from the state. 

Lieutenant Colonel Nelson N. Boydston was a faithful and able 
officer in the Thirtieth from Kosciusko County. He entered the serv- 


ice as first sergeant of Company B, and advanced through the two 
lieutenancies to the head of that unit. At the veteranization of the 
Thirtieth, he was promoted to the lieutenant colonelcy. 

Previous to its veteranization. Company B had only two captains, 
both from Kosciusko County. Captain Boydston was preceded by 
Martin L. Stewart, who commanded the company during the first 
two years of its service. Company B, of the reorganized regiment, 
was commanded by Captains Boydston and Thaddeus Hoke. In the 
veteran Thirtieth was also quite a number of men from Kosciusko 
County, including several officers. 

Thirty-Fifth (First Irish) Regiment 

The above-named regiment had substantially the same military 
experience as the Thirtieth, and acquitted itself with equal credit. 
Not the same local interest was attached to the Thirty-fifth as to 
the Thirtieth, as in the former was a comparatively small represen- 
tation from Kosciusko County. It was mustered into the service at 
Indianapolis, in December, 1861, with John C. Walker as its colonel. 
Subsequently and before getting into action, it was consolidated with 
the Sixty-second, or Second Irish Regiment. The Thirty-fifth was 
mustered out of the service in Texas, during June, 1865. 

Thirty-Ninth Infantri' (Afterward Eighth Cavalry) 

In October, 1863, after having been battle-seasoned as an infantrj' 
organization at Shiloh, Stone River and Chickamauga and the great 
southwestern campaigns of which they were the whirlpools, the 
Thirty-ninth Indiana Infantry, in which were only a few men from 
the county, was reorganized as a cavalry regiment. Two companies 
were added to the original command, and the reorganized regiment 
performed picket and scout duty in the vicinity of Chattanooga until 
February, 1864, when it re-eulisted as a veteran body. After its 
authorized furlough, it returned to the southwestern field of war in 
time to participate in the Atlanta campaign with Kilpatrick's famous 
cavalry. Now the Eighth Cavalry, it swept along with Sherman's 
army in the march to the sea and the northern Carolina movements. 
The regiment was mustered out of the service in North Carolina, in 
July, 1865. 

Forty-First Infantry (Second Cavalry) 

Companies D and M of this regiment drew a few soldiers from 
Kosciusko County. The infantry organization of this regiment was 


not long maintained, and it was the fii"st complete cavalry regiment 
raised in the state. It was organized at Indianapolis, in October, 
1861, with John A. Bridgeland as colonel. From December of that 
year until the fall of Atlanta, in September, 1864, the historj- of 
the Forty-first is identified with the campaigns of Buell, Rosecrans 
and Sherman. Soon after Atlanta capitulated, the regiment was 
reorganized and placed in the veteran class. It was consolidated into 
a battalion of four companies in command of Major Roswell S. Hill, 
and thereafter, until the close of the war, was engaged in scouting 
and picket duties, with occasional raids into Alabama. The con- 
solidated battalion was mustered out at Nashville on July 22, 1865. 

FoRTi'-SEcoND Regiment op Inf.vntky 

This regiment, which was organized at Evansville, with James 
G. Jones as its colonel, in October, 1861, shared the battles and cam- 
paigns of such Indiana organizations as the Second and Eighth Cav- 
alry, which were attached to Sherman's army at the conclusion of the 
Atlanta campaign. There was a very small sprinkling of Kosciusko 
County men in its ranks. It was mustered out of the service at 
Louisville, in June, 1865. 

The Forty-Fourth Infantry 

One company (B) of the Forty-fourth was composed entirely of 
soldiers from Kosciusko County, and Company C had a sihaller rep- 
resentation. All the companies of the regiment were raised in the 
old Tenth Congressional district, and its organization was effected at 
Fort Wayne in October, 1861, with Hugh B. Reed as colonel. It took 
part in the capture of Fort Donelson and in the two days' fighting at 
Pittsburg Landing, in both of which it lost heavily. After the pur 
suit of Bragg and the battle of Perryville, the fortunes of the Forty- 
fourth were intertwined with those of the Army of the Cumberland 
and after Murfreesboro, Chickamauga and Mission Ridge, the regi 
ment was received into the veteran class. It then enjoyed the well 
earned furlough granted to all such, and was honorably discharged 
from the service, as the provost guard at Chattanooga, in September 

Captain John Murray was the first in command of Company B 
and died of wounds received at Shiloh, in April, 1862. First Lieu- 
tenant John Barton succeeded him. James S. Getty, also formerly 


of the lower grade, was promoted to the captaincy in March, 1863, 
and John S. Deardorff was made captain in February, 1865. 

The Forty-Sixth and Forty-Seventh Regiments 

These two organizations, which numbered small delegations of 
men from Kosciusko Count}% were altogether engaged in the south- 
western campaigns and chiefly in Kentucky, Missouri, Arkansas, Mis- 
sissippi and Louisiana. Their operations were in connection with 
the long-continued efforts of the Federal forces to obtain complete 
possession of the Mississippi Vallej^ 

The Forty-sixth was organized at Logansport in October, 1861, 
with Graham N. Fitch as colonel, and mustered into the service in 
December of that year. Its first real active service was at New 
Madrid, Fort Pillow and other points in Arkansas, with Pope's army. 
It participated in the expedition to Yazoo Pass and the Vicksburg 
campaign, after which it re-enlisted as veterans and left for Indiana' 
on furlough. The regiment was a victim of Bank's ill-fated Red 
River expedition after which it re-enlisted as veterans. In the fol- 
lowing spring (1864) it became one of the victims of the ill-fated 
Red River expedition under General Banks, and it was not until the 
following June, with its ranks much depleted by battle losses, that 
the men were enabled to take the veteran furlough to the Hoosier 
State. The regiment was ordered to Kentucky, at the conclusion of 
its stay in Indiana, and spent the remainder of its war service in 
guarding the southern state against Confederate raids and threatened 
invasions. It was mustered out in September, 1865. 

The Forty-seventh was organized at Anderson, Indiana, with John 
R. Slack as colonel, in October, 1861, and was mainly composed of 
companies raised in the Eleventh Congressional district. Until the 
termination of the Red River campaign, its movements were similar 
to those of the Forty-sixth, but in the spring of 1865 it took a leading 
part in the operations before iMobile and in the campaign which 
dispersed General Price's army. The Forty-seventh was mustered 
out of the service at Shreveport, in October, 1865. 

Forty-Eighth Regiment 

There were fair representations of men from Kosciusko County 
in Companies G and I of the Forty-eighth Infantry, which was organ- 
ized at Goshen, in December, 1861. Norman Eddy was its colonel. 
It left for Fort Donelson on February 1, 1862, and arrived there the 


day following the surrender. After the siege of Corinth and the 
Vieksburg campaign, the regiment was a part of Sherman's grand 
army in all its movements and engagements to Atlanta, and thence 
northward through the Carolinas to the tag-ends of the Civil war. 
In the meantime it had veteranized and in July, 1865, it was mus- 
tered out of the service at Louisville, Kentucky. 

The Fifty-Eighth Infantry 

The first distinct period of service which fell to the Fifty-eighth 
Regiment, covering more than two years, was of the hard-fighting 
order, and included the battles of Pittsburg Landing, the siege of 
Corinth, the battle of Chickamauga (it was the tirst Union regiment 
to enter Chickamauga), Mission Ridge and the siege of Knoxville. 

The regiment veteranized in January, 1864, and upon its return 
to Chattanooga in April commenced an entirely new experience in 
its military service. It was then assigned to the engineering depart- 
ment, and placed in charge of the pontoon trains of Sherman's ad- 
vancing arm}^ After being re-enforced by veterans and recruits 
from the Tenth Indiana, the Fifty-eighth assumed its new line of 
duties in earnest and made a distinctive record for efficiency and 
promptness under every soldierly test. As soon as a river was reached, 
it was the part of the Fifty-eighth to see that the Union boys got 
across without delay, and in that most important task it was never 
known to fail; flood, sharp-shooting or shell fire, was alike ignored 
when the pontoons had to be laid. Such services were absolutely 
indispensable in the marches and campaigns through the Carolinas, 
in which states every available bridge had been thoroughly destroyed 
by the enemy. Upon reaching Washington City, at the close of the 
war, the Fifty-eighth was ordered to Louisville, where it was mus- 
tered out of the service, in July, 1865. 

Fifty-Ninth and Sixty-Eighth Regiments 

.These are among the later infantry regiments of the war and their 
service was mainly in the southern states of the Mississippi River 
valley, concluding with Sherman's campaigns, in whole or in part. 
The Fifty-ninth was mustered into the service in February, 1862, 
and its record embraced the Missouri engagements, the siege of Vieks- 
burg, the Chattanooga campaign ending with the battle of Mission 
Ridge, the march to the sea, with Atlanta as the chief goal, and all 
the Carolina movements to the final collapse of Confederate power. 


Nearly all the men of the Fifty-ninth had re-enlisted as veterans 
and taken their allotted furlough in Indiana. The regiment was 
mustered out at Louisville, in July, 1865. 

The Sixty-eighth Infantry was raised in the old Fourth Con- 
gressional district and mustered into the service at Greensburg in 
August, 1862, with Edward A. King (lieutenant colonel of the Nine- 
teenth Infantry) as colonel. A few weeks afterward, at Mumfords- 
ville, with other Union troops, it was captured by a part of General 
Bragg 's Confederate army, and after the men had been exchanged 
as prisoners of war in the following December, it left for Louisville, 
and thence for Murfreesboro. From that time on, it was incorporated 
in the Army of the Cumberland, and after Sherman's march to the 
sea had been accomplished it was made part of the Union forces 
collected to bar Hood's advance upon Nashville. Colonel King, its 
commander, was killed at the battle of Chiekamauga. The Sixty- 
eighth was mustered out at Nashville in June, 1865. 

The Seventy-Fourth Regiment 

After General Williams, there was no officer of the Civil war who 
stood higher than Colonel Charles W. Chapman, of the Seventy- 
fourth. In some ways. Colonel Chapman was closer to the hearts of 
Kosciusko County people than General Williams; and the fact that 
he was the son of John B. Chapman, the father of the county as well 
as of the colonel, gave the commander of the Seventy-fourth a special 

The regiment was recruited in the Tenth Congressional district, 
all of Companies A, F and K and a portion of Company I being 
raised in Kosciusko Count}'. It was organized at Fort Wayne, eight 
companies strong, in August, 1862, Charles W. Chapman, who had 
been captain of Company A, being commissioned as colonel. At first 
it was part of the Army of the Ohio, and after it had engaged in 
the pursuit of Bragg, with other Union forces, and participated in 
the battle of Perryville, it was joined by two other companies and 
brought up to full strength. The companies had just been released 
as prisoners of war, having been captured some time before bj' a 
section of Bragg 's command in its assault on Muufordsville, Ken- 

The Seventy-fourth was engaged at Chiekamauga and Mission 
Ridge, in both of which battles it suffered heavy losses, and in May, 
1864, became a iinit in Sherman's army on the move toward Atlanta 
and the sea. During the early part of the battle of Chiekamauga, 


Colonel Chapman commanded a brigade, and in the afternoon, during 
a charge of his men upon an enemy battery, his horse was killed by a 
grape shot, throwing him to the ground, breaking his arm and shoul- 
der and otherwise injuring him so severely that he was obliged to 
resign. He did not fully recover from his injuries for some years 

Lieutenant Runyan at Kenesaw Mountain 

The battle of Kenesaw Mountain, about twenty-five miles north- 
west of Atlanta, was one of the fiercest engagements in which Sher- 
man's army engaged before reaching the coast. It was on the 15th 
of June, 1864, that the Union troops bivouacked near the base of that 
rugged stronghold, upon whose sides was posted the enemy. Among 
the numerous brave acts performed on that battle field by both Fed- 
eral and Confederate troops is one which has been recorded in favor of 
a Kosciusko County soldier, who afterward also achieved prominence 
as a public man. Lieutenant John A. Runyan, of Company A, Sev- 
enty-fourth Regiment, was ordered by his superior officer to double 
the line held by an Ohio company, take charge of the same and dis- 
lodge the enemy from the position he held in a log house and behind 
a fence. After forming the line, he informed the company in a 
voice which carried to the sheltered Confederates that they had been 
ordered to capture both fence and log cabin and must do so at all 

Lieutenant Runyan gave the command "Fix bayonets, forward, 
double quick, march ! ' ' Everything and everybody were swept away 
in that section to the foot of the mountain, and while the lieutenant 
was considering the next most feasible step a minnie ball struck him 
in the upper part of his right knee, passing through the bone and 
burying itself in an oak tree some distance in the rear. This ended 
his career as soldier; he was taken to the field hospital near Big 
Shanty and his leg amputated at about ten o 'clock the same night. 

Lieutenant Kuder at Jonesboro 

Among the brisk engagements fought by Sherman's boys after the 
capture of Atlanta in the vicinity of the city, in order to clear the 
road to the sea of impeding Confederates, was the battle of Jones- 
boro ; and in one of the actions of that battle special honors went to 
a Kosciusko County man — Lieutenant Jeremiah Kuder, of Company 
A. On the 1st of September, at the battle mentioned, the Seventy- 


fourth, with the brigade to which it was attached, carried an espe- 
cially strong section of the enemy's works, capturing four pieces of 
artillery and more than 700 men. Lieutenant Kuder's part in the 
brilliant performance was of such noteworthy dash and braveiy that 
he was afterward awarded a bronze honor medal by Congress. 

The Seventy-fourth continued with the other commands of Sher- 
man's army to the ocean, Savannah and thence through the Carolinas 
to Richmond. It was mustered out of the service at Washington, in 
May, 1865. 

Charles W. Chapman 

Colonel Charles W. Chapman, a native of Wayne County, was 
onh^ seven years old when the family settled on a farm near Lees- 
bui^. He obtained a partial collegiate education at Indiana Asbury 
University, Greeneastle, Indiana, and soon after his return to his 
home, at the age of nineteen, commenced the study of law. That 
profession did not appeal to his nervous temperament, rather im- 
patient of slow results, and he then drifted into mercantile pursuits. 
With the $1,000 which his father loaned him he bought a stock of 
merchandise in New York and located first at Leesburg, but finally 
in Warsaw. Mr. Chapman again studied law, but abandoned it for 
business, in which he was successfully engaged at the outbreak of 
the War of the Rebellion. It may here be said that, in 1857, he 
erected the first flouring mill in Warsaw, and, like most of his other 
ventures, this enterprise proved successful. 

Colonel Chapman was a representative of the lower house of the 
Legislature during the first year of the war. After receiving the 
severe injuries mentioned at Chickamauga, he was invalided home 
and, partially regaining his health, assisted in raising the One Hun- 
dred and Forty-Second Indiana Regiment. He did not accompany 
it to the front, as he was elected to the State Senate in the summer 
of 1864, representing Kosciusko and Wabash counties. He also served 
in the upper house in 1865, 1866 and 1872 (the last time, for four 
years). During this period he took a very active and influential 
part in public legislation, being for a large portion of the time chair- 
man of the Finance Committee. He held the ofSce of register in 
bankruptcy from 1868 to 1872, resigning it when elected to the State 
Senate for the four years' tenn. The colonel was also a persistent 
and influential promoter of all industrial and transportation enter- 
prises which promised well for Warsaw and the county. He was 
active in building the Warsaw Woolen Jlills and elected president 


of the controlling company, and no man was more entitled to pro- 
nounced leadership in the furtherance of railroad projects than he. 
Further, the public schools never had a warmer or a more practical 
friend. He was among the largest land owners in the county, and 
at one time had about 1,000 acres under cultivation. 

Colonel Chapman was held in high esteem by Governor Oliver P. 
Morton, and as mark of that regard appointed him one of the honorary 
pall bearers selected by the governors of the different states to accom- 
pany the remains of Lincoln from Washington to Springfield. 

John N. Runyan 

John N. Runyan, a native of Warsaw, and identified with both 
the Twelfth and the Seventy-fourth regiments, was one of the young- 
est officers ever called to the performance of important duties in the 
Union army. When in his sixteenth year he could hold himself in 
leash no longer, he found that he was too short in stature to reach 
military requirements, but thick soles and well-stuffed boots overcame 
that drawback, and in December, 1861, he was finally accepted as a 
recruit for Company E, Twelfth Indiana Infantry. His was one of 
the short-term regiments and he was mustered out without seeing 
active service, in May, 1862. 

But Private Runyan had been baptized and now his overpowering 
ambition was to be a real soldier; so upon his return to Warsaw he 
took an active part in recruiting Company A of the Seventy-fourth 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and in July, 1862, then only in his 
seventeenth year, -was mustered in as sergeant. The regiment became 
part of the Fourteenth Army Corps, under Tliomas. He was pro- 
moted second lieutenant in April, 1863, and at the battle of Chatta- 
nooga in the following November, the captain and first lieutenant 
of Company A having been badly wounded early in the action, the 
command devolved upon Lieutenant Runyan. From every authentic 
account he was fully equal to the occasion. Twenty-five of his fortyy 
four men were pierced by enemy bullets, and he was also struck by 
a spent ball, but remained at his post. The result of this remarkable 
and steady bravery in one who was still a mere youth was promo- 
tion to the grade of first lieutenant, in December following the battle 
of Chattanooga. 

Lieutenant Runyan was also in the front line at Mission Ridge, 
but during the winter of 1863-64 was sent home as a recruiting officer. 
His record and his enthusiastic personality were both calculated to 
further that work, and in April he returned to his regiment with 


strengthened reputation, in time to participate in the Atlanta cam- 
paign. His prominence in carrying the outposts of the Confederate 
troops at the base of Kenesaw Mountain has already been described. 
The wound there received which terminated his militarj' career healed 
superficially and, under the tender ministrations of a tender and 
admiring father, he was able to return to his home within thirty 
days of his misfortune. When able to do so, he proceeded to Cincin- 
nati to obtain his honorable discharge. 

Lieutenant Runyan entered the Fort "Wayne College for a short 
course of study, but his wound commenced to assert itself to such a 
degree that he abandoned, for the time, his legal ambitions, and 
through the influence and exertions of his father, Peter L. Runyan, 
secured the appointment of the Warsaw postmastership. The father, 
so prominent in county and state affairs and one of the most able 
and popular of the pioneers, had held that office through the entire 
period of the Civil war, and the son continued in the office for many 
3'ears thereafter. 

But the wound received at Kenesaw Mountain persistently pained 
him, and it became evident that the amputation had been improperly 
performed, or that the hospital treatment had been faulty. After 
careful consultation, it was decided that a re-amputation was neces- 
sary. This was performed and undoubtedly saved him long years 
of suffering, if not prolonged his life. He afterward resumed the 
study of the law ; practiced his profession for some time ; and was 
also interested in the Warsaw Woolen mills, the Opera House and 
other local enterprises. 

Seventy-Seventh Regiment (Fourth Cavalry) 

Organized at Indianapolis, in August, 1862, with Isaac P. Gray as 
colonel, the regiment engaged in a number of semi-independent raids 
and skirmishes in various parts of Kentucky and Tennessee before it 
joined Rosecrans' movement against Chattanooga. The Fourth Cav- 
alry led the advance and participated at Chickamauga as a strong 
Union force. It was afterward ordered to East Tennessee, where it 
remained until the spring of 1864. During that period (in Jan- 
uary) it was engaged in a fierce fight at Fair Garden, or Strawberry 
Plains, in which a battalion of four companies under Lieutenant 
Colonel Joseph P. Leslie (a Kosciusko Count}' man), made a saber 
charge on a Confederate battery, capturing it and several hundred 
prisoners. The gallant Union leader, however, was shot through the 
breast and died on the field. 


During the campaign against Atlanta, the Fourth Cavalry oper- 
ated on the flanks of General Sherman's army, took part in the 
McCook raid and was engaged in several battles. After the fall of 
Atlanta, the regiment returned to Tennessee, where it was assigned 
to Wilson's Cavalry division, and in the spring of 1865 accompanied 
it in the Alabama raids carried out by those troops. The Fourth as 
a whole was mustered out of the service at Edgefield, Tennessee, in 
June, 1865. During the first few months of its service, the regiment 
was divided and assigned to different portions of Kentucky, and for 
about a year and a half of 1863-64 Company C was detached to per- 
form escort duty at the headquarters of Gen. A. J. Smith. It re- 
.joined the regiment late in 1864, having taken part in the operations 
against Vicksbiirg and in the Red River expedition. 

Company C, of the Seventy-seventh Regiment, or Fourth Cavalry, 
was composed entirely of recruits from Kosciusko County, and was 
wholly officered by residents of that section. Joseph P. Leslie, whose 
death on the battlefield of Strawberry Plains has been noted, was 
captain of the company when it was organized for the war and in 
May, 1863, was promoted from the rank of major to that of lieu- 
tenant colonel. William S. Hemphill was for some time captain of 
the company, having come up from the first sergeaney, through the 
various grades. 

Eighty-Third and Eighty-Eighth Regiments 

The two regiments mentioned were in that large class of com- 
mands which so tried both the endurance and the military stamina 
of the American soldier of the Civil war — that is, the combined march- 
ing and fighting regiments. Their men were by no means the only 
Union soldiers whose marches and campaigns afoot covered from 
seven to ten thousand miles. 

The Eighty-third Regiment was organized at Lawrenceburg, in 
September, 1862, and Benjamin J. Spooner was commissioned colonel. 
Its first active operations were in connection with the siege and 
assaults against Vicksburg and the country in its vicinity. Next came 
the campaign conducted for the relief of Chattanooga, including the 
graphic storming of Mission Ridge, followed by all the battles woven 
into the Sherman campaigns to Atlanta and the sea and far north- 
ward, culminating in the collapse of the last of the strong Confederate 
armies and the Grand Review of the victorious Union legions at the 
national capital. The Eighty-third was mustered out in June, 1865. 

The Eighty-eighth was mustered into the service at Fort Wayne, 


in August, 1862, with George Humphrey as colonel. The lines of 
its marches and the list of its battles and campaigns followed sub- 
stantially those laid down by the Union leaders for the Eighty-third. 
It was also mustered out of the service in June, 1865. 

Kosciusko County furnished onlj^ small quotas to these two regi- 
ments, their only officer from the home county being Chaplain Wil- 
liam S. Wilson, who finally resigned from the service on account of 

Ninetieth Regiment (Fifth Cavalry) 

The chief service performed by the Fifth Cavalry, which was 
organized at Indianapolis in the fall of 1862, was in the protection 
of the Unionists of northern Kentucky and the residents of southern 
Indiana against the Morgan raids and the incursions of other Con- 
federate horsemen. In that work it was divided and distributed in 
the Ohio Valley at critical and threatened points, until the spring 
of 1863, when the regiment was reunited at Glasgow. As a strong 
cavalry force it continued such operations, and at Buffington Island 
it headed the main Morgan command, routed it and captured a bat- 
tery and numerous prisoners; after which it returned to Louisville. 
It then moved to East Tennessee, and remained there until the open- 
ing of the Atlanta campaign. 

The Fifth met with disaster in the famous Stoneman cavalry raid 
to the rear of Atlanta. It was surrounded by the enemy and surren- 
dered by General Stoneman over the protest of its active commander. 
Colonel Butler, who insisted that his men could have "cut their way 
out" and joined the main command. After this, the Fifth was as- 
signed to guard duty in the rear until January, 1865, when it was 
remounted and equipped at Louisville. Thereafter, until its dis- 
charge in June, 1865, the regiment was engaged in scouting, guard 
and courier service. The men always felt that they were not given a 
fair chance to prove their mettle in the Stoneman raid matter, al- 
though the decision of their commander-in-chief was undoubtedly 
prompted from wise considerations of a conservation of man power 
and a desire to avoid the useless sacrifice of Union life. 

The largest representation from Kosciusko County in the Fifth 
Cavalry was in Company M. Joseph L. Thralls, a home man, was 
its second lieutenant for over a year. 

One Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment (Six Months) 

This six months' regiment, composed largely of quite young men, 
was mustered into the service in September, 1863, with George W. 


Jackson as its colonel. Company A was recruited entirely in Kos- 
ciusko County and was in command of Captain Henry A. White; 
first lieutenant, Joseph B. Davis ; second lieutenant, Peter L. Runyan, 
Jr., a bi'other of the famous young officer, John N., of the Seventy- 

Notwithstanding the youth of both rank and file of the One Hun- 
dred and Eighteenth, it was immediately ordered to important scenes 
of military action in Kentucky and Tennessee. It reached Cumber- 
land Gap in October, and, after shifting around for a time, reached 
Clinch River, and in December was brought under fire at Walker's 
Ford. The brigade to which the regiment had been attached had 
been sent to the relief of the Fifth Indiana Cavalry, which had en- 
gaged a heavy force of the enemy south of the river and was falling 
back with the melting of its supply of ammunition. The raw youth 
of the One Hundred and Eighteenth reached the river, plunged in, 
waded across, formed in line of battle on both sides of the road and 
advanced on the Confederates. Their movement enabled the Union 
cavalry to fall back and cross the river. The retreat was well cov- 
ered by the relief, although pressed by an entire brigade of the 
enemy moving against both flanks of the regiment. The loss of the 
One Hundred and Eighteenth was fifteen killed and wounded. 

After having thus proved its reliability, the regiment was ordered 
to Tazewell and other sections in East Tennessee, doing most arduous 
duty and suffering many privations in its winter campaigning both 
there and in Kentucky. Much of the time it was almost impossible 
to get supplies to them, and to add to their sufferings they were in- 
sufficiently clothed, but although raw, unhardened soldiers, they en- 
dured all with the uncomplaining bravery of the average American 
when he believes he is enduring and suffering for the right. The 
boys — for if ever the term was literally applicable, it was in connec- 
tion with this regiment — were mustered out of the service in the 
latter part of February, 1864. 

One Hundred and Nineteenth (Seventh Cavalry) 

After operating for the last year and a half of the war in Missis- 
sippi against Forrest's cavalrymen, and in Tennessee, Arkansas and 
Missouri in pursuit of various sections of the Confederate armies of 
the Southwest, the Seventh Cavalry spent several months thereafter 
in Louisiana and Texas, engaged in "mopping up" scattered bands 
of the enemy who persisted in fighting after the real backbone of 
the rebellion had crumpled. It was mustered into the service at In- 
dianapolis on the first of October, 1863, with John P. C. Shanks as 


colouel. Only two months of training preceded its start for the front 
and its incorporation with the forces of General A. J. Smith in 
Northern Mississippi, who had been assigned the hard task of cutting 
off Forrest's cavalry forces from the defense of Jacksou. The move- 
ment commenced late in December, when the thermometer had dropped 
to below zero, and as the men were not prepared for such weather 
they suffered severely. The preliminary skirmishes between the Fed- 
eral and Confederate forces were all in favor of the Union men. 

Near Okalona, Mississippi, in February, 1864, the enemy was 
finally encoiuitered in force and a fierce engagement continued 
throughout the day. The entire division was routed by Forrest's men 
and driven from the field, albeit the Seventh held the enemy in check, 
saved the train and prevented a total defeat. Late in the evening it 
made a saber charge upon the enemy, saved a Union battery that had 
been abandoned and, being driven back, was compelled to leave sixty 
of its men on the field. Eighty-four was the total loss of the regiment 
in killed, wounded and missing. 

Again, in the following June, a Union force of cavalrj', including 
the Seventh, was defeated near Guntown, Mississippi, by Forrest's 
cavalry, and driven back to Memphis. Until the succeeding Novem- 
ber the Indiana cavalry was engaged in guard duty in the Memphis 
neighborhood, protecting the railroads and civilian property. It then 
left Memphis, crossed the river with Mower 's division of the Sixteenth 
Army Corps (infantry) and moved north after the Confederate gen- 
eral Price, who had then commenced his invasion of Missouri. After 
pursuing him across that state the Seventh returned to Memphis. In 
December it participated in the Grierson raid through Mississippi, and 
registered a decisive victory over the enemy at Egypt Station, destroy- 
ing a large train of stores and goods. Guard duty along the Memphis 
& Charleston Railroad followed, and in June, 1865, the regiment was 
ordered to Alexandria, Louisiana, where it was consolidated into six 
companies and sent to Hempstead, Texas. Thence it was ordered to 
Austin, where it was mustered out in February, 1866. 

The largest contingent from the county in the One Hundred and 
Nineteenth was in Company I, of which James H. Carpenter was 
captain. He was promoted major of the regiment and was succeeded 
by Elijah S. Blackford. Robert S. Richart, sergeant, was promoted 
to a captaincy in the Twelfth Cavaln,- Regiment. 

One Hundred and Twenty-Seventh Regiment (Twelfth Cavalry) 

This organization had a large representation from Kosciusko 
County in Company I, of which Robert S. Richart was captain. It 
was mustered into service at Kendallville in April, 1864, with Edward 


Anderson as colonel. After being ordered to the front, it remained 
a short time at Nashville, and in May was assigned to the duty of 
guarding a sixty-mile section of railway in Alabama. It was then 
stationed for some time at Tullahoma, Tennessee, in order to cir- 
cumvent Forrest and his cavalry who were endeavoring to break the 
Federal communications on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad. 
The Twelfth also had another set-to with Forrest's command in the 
Murfreesboro region, but in Februaiy, 1865, was embarked on trans- 
ports for New Orleans. It had a good part in the operations against 
the defenses of Mobile, and in April assisted in the Grierson raids 
through Alabama and Georgia and thence to Columbus, Mississippi. 
These operations covered a course of 800 miles and probably con- 
stituted the most successful cavalry raid in this section of the enemy 's 
country. The regiment was mustered out at Vicksburg, in Novem- 
ber, 1865. 

One Hundred and Twenty-Ninth Regiment 

Most of Company G, about half of Company H and a number of 
men in Companies I and K were drawn from Kosciusko County into 
the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Regiment. It was organized 
at Michigan City and mustered into the service in March, 1864, with 
Charles Case as colonel. It reached Dalton in time to be absorbed 
into Sherman's army just opening its great campaign toward At- 
lanta. The regiment was engaged in the battle of Resaca and par- 
ticipated in the engagements at New Hope Church and Lost Moun- 
tain, Decatur and Strawberry Run. After the capture of Atlanta, 
in September, the regiment encamped with its corps at Decatur, 
where it remained until October, when it took up the pursuit of 
Hood who was trying to gain a position in Shennan's rear, and was 
afterward detached from the main army to form a portion of the 
Union forces which had been ordered to Nashville to protect that 
city against its threatened assault by the Confederates. Hood's plans 
also miscarried in that region and a large Union force, including the 
One Hundred and Twenty-ninth, again joined in the pursuit of the 
Confederate leader. 

In January, 1865, the regiment and corps started for North Caro- 
lina to re-enforce Sherman's army which was rapidly closing around 
Richmond. The decisive engagement at Wise's Forks was in favor 
of the Union troops, although the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth 
and other Federal regiments suffered heavy losses. It saw no more 
active service during the war, and was mustered out at Raleigh, North 
Carolina, in August, 1865. 


Julian A. Robbing was captain of Company G, when the One 
Hundred and Twenty-ninth Regiment was organized, and died of 
wounds received in the battle near Decatur, in July, 1864. First 
Lieutenant Reuben James succeeded to the command. 

The history of the One Hundred and Twentj'-eighth Infantry is 
almost identical with that of the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth, 
just given. They were organized at the same time, fought the same 
battles, endured the hardships of the same campaigns, were mus- 
tered out on the same date, and acquitted themselves with equal 
bravery and steadiness of nerve and purpose. 

The One Hundred and Thirtieth 

This regiment, which was recruited in the Eleventh Congressional 
district, was organized a little over a week after the One Hundred 
and Twenty-eighth and One Hundred and Twenty-ninth. It was 
mustered into the service on the 12th of March, 1864, with Charles 
S. Parrish as colonel. From Nashville, as a part of the Twenty-third 
Army Corps, it started for Charleston, East Tennessee, in April and 
in the following month it moved with the balance of its division and 
corps on the Atlanta campaign. From that time and point, until the 
battle of Nashville, the history of its movements has already been 
written in the narrative of the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth. 
After the defeat of Hood before that city, it embarked on transports 
at Clifton, Tennessee, and proceeded by boat, rail and afoot to the 
vicinity of Fort Fisher, North Carolina, where its identity was al- 
most lost in the larger military movements which preceded the sur- 
render of Johnston's army and the virtual close of the war, in April, 
1865. After remaining on guard duty at Charlotte, North Carolina, 
until December of that year, it was called to Indianapolis and mus- 
tered out of the service. 

One Hundred and Thirty-Eighth Regiment 

Company E, commanded by Daniel W. Hamlin, was also largely 
recruited from the county. Its first lieutenant was Peter L. Runyan, 
Jr. It was a unit of the One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Regiment, 
a hundred da.ys' organization. Undoubtedly such regiments played 
an important part in throwing the final fighting strength of the war 
on the Union side. 

The governors of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin 
having offered to raise for the service of the General Government a 


force of volunteers to serve for one hundred days, Governor Morton, on 
the 23d of April, 1864, issued his call for Indiana's quota of that 
force. The troops thus raised were to perform such services as might 
be required of them in any state, and were to be armed, subsisted, 
clothed and paid by the United States, but were not to receive any 
bounty. These troops were designed to make the campaign of 1864 
decisive, by relieving a large number of veterans from guard and 
garrison duty and throwing them into the active fighting lines. The 
places of the seasoned troops performing these secondary duties were 
filled by the hundred days' men as fast as the latter could be raised, 
organized and sent to the front. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Indiana Regiment was one 
of these organizations of the second line of land troops, and was com- 
posed of seven companies from the Ninth and three from the Eleventh 
Congressional district. They were organized as a regiment and mus- 
tered into the hundred-days' service, at Indianapolis, in May, 1864, 
with James H. Shannon as colonel, and left at once for Nashville. 
There they were assigned to duty along the lines of the Nashville & 
Chattanooga, Tennessee & Alabama and Memphis & Charleston rail- 
roads, until late in August of that year. The special duty of the 
regiment was to guard these lines of communication and transporta- 
tion, then being used by Sherman to transport troops and supplies 
to his army advancing toward Atlanta. At the expiration of its term 
of service it was mustered out at Indianapolis. 

One Hundred and Fifty-First and One Hundred and Fifty- 

Later in the decisive year of 1864, after the calls had been issued 
for the hundred-days' men, the General Government decided to raise 
a number of regiments for one-year service, chiefly in post, guard 
and garrison duty. In December of that year a call was made for 
such purpose and recruiting stations were established at the head- 
quarters of the provost marshals, from which the men were for- 
warded to the general rendezvous at Indianapolis. Recruiting offi- 
eei-s were also appointed in the congressional districts to aid in the 
raising of this class of troops. 

Under the call noted, the One Hundred and Fifty-First and the 
One Hundred and Fifty-Second regiments were raised, mustered 
and sent into the field. The former was composed of companies re- 
cruited in the Ninth Congressional district and was mustered into 
the service in March, 1865, with Joshua Healy as colonel. A few 


days after its departure from Indianapolis it reported to General 
Rousseau at Nashville, and during its entire period of service per- 
formed the routine duties assigned, thereby proving itself possessed 
of the true soldierly character. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-Second was mustered into the serv- 
ice about two weeks after the One Hundred and Fifty-First, with 
Whedon "W. Griswold as colonel. The field of its duties was the 
Shenandoah Valley and West Virginia, but its time was also devoted 
to post and garrison service, and it was mustered out in September, 

Company D, of the One Hundred and Fifty-Second Regiment, 
was raised entirely in Kosciusko County, Peter L. Runyan, Jr., serv- 
ing as its captain. Austin C. Funk was it first lieutenant and Wil- 
liam B. Hess, its second lieutenant. 

There was quite a number of home men, also, in Companies A 
and B, and a few in Companies E, F, I and K. 

Light Artillery from Kosciusko County 

Kosciusko County was represented in the light artillery branch 
of the service by the Fifteenth, Twentieth and Twenty-Third bat- 
teries. The Fifteenth Battery of Light Artillery was organized at 
Indianapolis in May, 1862, and was assigned to the work of guarding 
prisoners at that place. It was not formally mustered into the serv- 
ice of the United States until July of that year, with John C. H. 
Von Schon as captain. It was ordered at once to Harper's Ferry, 
Virginia, and was at that place at the time of its surrender by Gen- 
eral Miles in September. In March of the following year, having in 
the meantime been supplied with new guns at Indianapolis, the 
battery was ordered to Kentucky to aid in the pursuit of Morgan's 
raiding cavalry. During the succeeding summer it was also called 
into action on the same errand and followed the Confederate raidei-s 
through considerable sections of Southern Indiana and Ohio. 

The battery was then moved into East Tennessee, and was en- 
gaged in a series of actions that culminated in the siege of Knox- 
ville. It accompanied Sherman's army in its Atlanta campaign, and 
was then diverted for a time to assist in blocking Hood's attempt to 
capture Nashville. It was then ordered to rejoin the main army in 
its concentration on Riclimond, and was dispatched by boat and rail 
to Fort Fisher, North Carolina, via Cincinnati and Washington. The 
batterj"- formed part of the forces which occupied Wilmington, that 
state, the headquarters of the Confederate blockade running, after 


which (m March, 1865) it left that point to join Sherman's army and 
participate in the tinal actions and maneuvers of the war, terminat- 
ing with the surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston. It was mus- 
tered out at Indianapolis in June of that year. 

The Twentieth Battery was mustered into the service in Septem- 
ber, 1862, with Frank A. Rose as captain, and left for the front in 
the following December. In January, 1863, the guns of the Twentieth 
were turned over to the Eleventh Indiana Battery, and the members 
of the former were assigned to the duty of manning the siege guns of 
the Nashville fortifications. It was not until the following October 
that the Twentieth Battery was again supplied with light guns, and 
from that time until March, 1864, was employed in guard duty along 
the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad. The next scene of its activi- 
ties was in Northern Georgia. In July it joined Sherman's army in 
front of Atlanta, was at the battle of Jonesboro and other engage- 
ments of that campaign, and in December had been sliifted to the 
west and the operations involving the defense of Nashville and the 
subsequent pursuit of Hood. In June, 1865, it was on duty at the 
fortifications of Chattanooga, and in the same month was mustered 
out of the service at Indianapolis. 

The Twenty-Third Battery was mustered in during November, 
1862, with James H. Myers, of Fort "Wayne, as captain, and until 
September, 1863, was on duty guarding prisoners at Camp Morton, 
Indianapolis, was then ordered to Camp Nelson, Kentucky, and as- 
signed to Wilcox's Division. Thereafter its movements in the At- 
lanta campaign. Hood 's pursuit, the battle of Nashville, and the final 
stages of the conflict in North Carolina, coincided with the program 
of the Fifteenth Battery. It was mustered out of the service at In- 
dianapolis, a short time before either the Fifteenth or the Twentieth. 

Soldiers of the Civil and World's Wars 

On the face of this narrative, descriptive of the participation of 
Kosciusko County manhood and boyhood in the military trials and 
bitter tests of the Civil war, appear many details which are of little 
interest to the majority of present-day men and women. But the 
accounts of such matters which have previously been published are 
much longer and more weighted with names and facts than the con- 
densed story carried by this history. The salient data and outstand- 
ing features of this phase of the county 's history have only been re- 
tained, both because the record is a notable one and that those of 
today, who have had their experience of modern warfare, may have 


an opportunitj' to compare the past of the Civil war with the mightier 
and more complex conflict which has just terminated. 

Even a careless study of the geography of the United States will 
be a forcible reminder of the different conditions met by the American 
soldier of 1861-65 and the American fighter of 1917-18. The Union 
and Confederate soldiers marched thousands of miles in all seasons 
and in every style of country known. The military record of Kos- 
ciusko County is that of every other section of the United States, 
and bears out the statement that since the days of Caesar and Hanni- 
bal no warring people on eai'th ever conducted campaigns which in- 
volved such grand detours, or fought so many great battles at such 
widely separated points, as the soldiers of the North and South dur- 
ing the Civil war. In both sections of the country, the vast theater 
of the war and the initiative of the American soldier gave birth to 
military moves and combinations which were revelations to European 
leaders who considered themselves masters of the art of war. Most 
of the hardest blows received on either side were usually in the open 
battlefield. The sieges: the dogged trench warfare, first introduced 
as a distinct military feature in the Civil war ; the long drawn-out 
policy of starvation and wearing-out ; the ceaseless attrition of the 
enemy, were rather regional actions than portions of a general plan 
or system. 

The warfare, in which the American soldier of Kosciusko County, 
or any other section of the United States, was called upon to wage 
in the World's conflict "over there," was as different from that which 
developed in the War of the Rebellion, as the engines and inventions 
of destruction in the twentieth century differed in power and destruc- 
tion from those of the nineteenth century. With the terrible instru- 
ments of destruction intensified a hundred-fold, suffocating and burn- 
ing gases introduced, the ancient Greek fire revived, God's air even 
made a field of carnage, millions of men packed into a few thousand 
square miles instead of hundreds of thousands fighting over nearly a 
million square miles — ^such is a faint contrast between the conditions 
which the Americans had to face in 1861-65 and 1917-18. Death in 
the World's war was seldom in the open; it was often a quick death, 
but while life lasted it was usually a stifling, agonizing end. 

If the great differences between the brave soldier of the '60s and 
his equal of the World's war were to be defined in a few words, the 
definition might be thus given : The vital and fundamental test of 
the Union and Confederate soldier was endurance; of the American 
soldier of 1917-18, nerve — always nerve in the face of such awful 


forms of death as did not seem fair to humankind. Bravery, in both 
types, was always taken for granted. 

The inequalities of conditions so much against the present modes 
of warfare would have been crushing, had it not been for the alleviat- 
ing agencies which hurried to the front in the forms of expert sur- 
gery, prompt aid to the injured, efficient and loving care of those 
put out of the fighting, and the numerous forces brought to bear upon 
the minds, spirits and souls of the soldier to sustain his elasticity and 
his morale, or restore to health those shattered nerves, which must 
be of steel to withstand the concentrated horrors directed against 
them. It was a realization of that fact and a wise combination of 
every mental and religious influence to attain the end in view that 
made the American soldier irresistible. It was unnecessary that these 
matters should be taken so seriously into account under the broader 
physical conditions of the Civil war conflict. 

Grand Army Posts 

Kosciusko County having sent more than 2,000 volunteers to the 
Union army, it was to be expected that the Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic, the great patriotic organization of the North, would be appro- 
priately represented among those who went to the front. Kosciusko 
Post No. 114 was the first to be established, it being chartered on 
November 11, 1882, with thirty-two members. Nathan C. Welch was 
its first commander. The post rapidly increased in numbers, as at that 
time there were many Union soldiers residing at Warsaw and vicinity. 

In 1886 Kosciusko Post No. 114 was divided, and Henry Chip- 
man Post No. 442 was formed. The division and formation of the 
new post occurred April 12th of that year, a charter being granted 
at that date and Colonel C. W. Chapman elected commander. 

In 1916 the two posts were consolidated and chartered under the 
name of Warsaw Post No. 114, Department of Indiana, Grand Army 
of the Republic. Captain Nelson E. Miller, of Kosciusko Post, was 
continued as commander of the consolidated body for 1916, and Ben- 
ton Q. Morris, who had been head of Henry Chipman Post during 
the preceding year, was chosen commander of Warsaw Post No. 114 
in 1917. 

During 1918 Samuel C. Funk served as commander. He was re- 
elected in 1919, the following being also chosen: James S. Smith, 
senior vice commander; Thomas R. North, junior vice commander; 
John W. Sellers, adjutant; Dr. C. W. Burket, surgeon, and Rev. L. 
C. Semans, chaplain. 


There are now 105 names on the roll of Warsaw Post No. 114, 
which makes it one of the strongest in the state. 

The Soldiers' Memorial 

In the fall and winter of 1897 the two Grand Army posts were 
the means of erecting the handsome Soldiers' Monument in the court 
house square which is chiefly a memorial to the sacrifice made by 
Kosciusko County — its soldiers, with their fathers and mothers — 
during the Civil war. An interesting feature of the memorial are 
the guns and cannon ball which at one time were a portion of the 
defenses of Port Royal. 

In the Spanish-American War 

The Spanish-American war of 1898 was over so quickly that the 
Kosciusko County soldiers shared the record of the great bulk of the 
National Guard called to the colors of the United States; they held 
themselves in full readiness, they responded promptly to every call, 
but they did not get into action with the enemy. 

Company H, One Hundred and Sixtieth Regiment 

The One Hundred and Sixtieth Regiment of Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry was formed of the old Fourth Regiment of the Indiana Na- 
tional Guard, and composed of companies from Marion, Decatur, 
Lafayette, Wabash, Blufifton, Ossian, Columbia City, Warsaw, Tip- 
ton, Huntington, Anderson and Logansport. It reached Camp Mount 
in April, 1898, and was mustered into the volunteer service of the 
United States on May 12th following. The regiment then entrained 
for Camp Thomas, Chickamauga Park, Georgia, and arrived, on the 
12th of the month, under orders for Porto Rico. 

The regiment broke camp July 28th, and reached Newport News, 
Virginia, two days later. The Porto Rican orders were counter- 
manded, and in August the command was shifted from Newport News 
to Camp Hamilton, Lexington, Kentucky, and thence, in November, to 
Columbus, Georgia. In January, 1899, the One Hundred and Six- 
tieth was sent to Matanzas, Cuba, in three sections, where it remained 
for two weeks and then went into camp. The boys remained in the 
neighborhood of Matanzas until March 27th, when they were trans- 
ported to Savannah, Georgia, where they were mustered out of the 
service April 25, 1899. 


Compam- H, the local organization which is of particular in- 
terest to residents of Warsaw, was organized at the county seat on 
November 23, 1886, and was assigned as Company K, Second Regi- 
ment of Infantry. Subsequently^ it was transferred as Company 
K, Third Regiment, and afterward as Company H, Fourth Regi- 
ment, under which designation it entered the service at the outbreak 
of the Spanish-American war, being assigned to the One Hundred 
and Sixtieth Regiment. With its regiment it served from the date 
of enrollment, April 26, 1898, to the time of muster-out, April 25, 

The oiReers of Company H were: Captain, Charles A. Sharp of 
Warsaw; first lieutenant, Edwin G. Hinkley, Fort Wayne; second 
lieutenant, William L. Hughes, Warsaw ; first sergeant, William J. 
Hafert, Warsaw; quartermaster sergeant, Herbert Kehler, Warsaw. 

Memories of the Spanish-American war in Warsaw are kept alive 
by the organization of Veterans known as Camp No. 4. 

Kosciusko County in the World's War 

Although President Wilson, in behalf of the American people, 
issued the declaration that a state of war existed between the United 
States and Germany, in February, 1917, it was some time before the 
country fully realized that such was the ease. First came the Con- 
gressional act of May, which created a new National army; then in 
June the enrollment of all persons subject to military duty, per- 
formed in one day by 4,000 registration boards sitting in all por- 
tions of the United States, and calling, for selection, a body of more 
than 9,500,000 young men; and finally the draft, in July, by which 
registrants were called by the numbers previously assigned them for 
examination as to their fitness for military service. The drawing 
was performed in Washington by lotterj-, and each number drawn 
called for the examination of those to whom it had been assigned in 
approximately the 4,000 registration boards throughout the United 
States. The registrants had been divided into five classes, broadly 
determined as to the dependents relying upon them for support, the 
necessity of retaining them either as home providers or public ser- 
vants, and their qualifications as to good citizenship, morality and 
physical health. 

Realizing That the War Existed 

Kosciusko County and every other section in the United States 
of America commenced to keenly realize that the country was actually 
at war when the young men everywhere received notifications that 


their registration numbers had been drawn by Secretary of War 
Baker, and about five months later, when they were filling out their 
questionnaires, which were to determine their military classification. 
The first regulars of the United States army had landed overseas 
on the 27th of June, 1917, but that fact did not so strike to the homes 
of the people, as did the business-like draft and the probing ques- 
tionnaires. In July it was announced that the population of Kos- 
ciusko County to serve as a basis for the selective draft was 22,039, 
and its first Liberty Loan allotment had been published as $307,000. 
The Red Cross workers had also raised more than the county's 
quota, and evidence was constantly multiplying that a life-and-death 
task had been assigned to Kosciusko with everj' other countj^ in the 
United States. 

Volunteers Get the Start of the Draft 

So many of th& eager young men of the county could not wait 
for the draft that when it finally occurred over 160 had volunteered 
for service as members of Company H. From that time on until 
the armistice with the enemy nations was signed, to outsiders the 
best evidence of the ceaseless exertions of Warsaw and Kosciusko 
County to do their share in "landing the knock-out blow," which 
finally brought a bruised, exhausted and discouraged enemy to the 
ground, is furnished by the newspapers; the men, women and chil- 
dren who were in the midst of it all may also call upon their mem- 
ories for a rounding out of the story into lifelike vitality. 

Officers and Organization in August, 1917 

In August, 1917, it was stated that the following citizens had 
joined the regular army of the United States: Ernest R. Marvel, 
second lieutenant. Sixty-second United States Infantry ; Robert Doug- 
lass, engineer corps, and ten others in the infantry, cavalry, medical 
and signal corps. 

In the navy, Verne Boggs was assistant paymaster, and there 
were two marines and four others in that branch of the service from 
Kosciusko County. 

Walter Kelly held the commission of captain in the Second 
Regiment, Indiana National Guard, and Herschel Cook commanded 
Company F, of the Third. 

Emmett Douglass was first lieutenant in the Engineers' Corps 
of the Indiana National Guard; and there were four others in the 
same branch of the service. 


Edgar Catlin was first lieutenant in the Reserve Corps of the 
Ordnance Department. 

The Third Regiment, Indiana National Guard, was also repre- 
sented by the Machine Gun Company, the Headquarters Company 
and the Supply Company. 

On the 6th of the month (August) Frank L. Evans, the build- 
ing contractor, was appointed captain of engineers in the National 

Bartol and Swihart Sail for France 

The camp of Company H was established at the Winona golf 

That the war was really on was a decided matter of home con- 
cern when the people of the country were informed on August 29th 
that Lieutenants Walter Bartol and Frank Swihart, the first of their 
boys to go overseas, had actually sailed for France. 

Several days before, Capt. Samson J. North, who was equally 
ready to offer his life on the battlefield, died at his home in Milford. 

Announcement was made that thirty-three Kosciusko County men 
had been found available for the first call and that, on account of 
the number who had volunteered and been accepted, the draft quota 
had already been filled. 

First Examination of Registrants 

The first day of the examining board was August 6th, and twenty- 
seven registrants were examined, in the order in which their num- 
bers were drawn in Washington. No. 258, the first number drawn 
from the jar and which represented the first potential soldier of the 
National army to be called under the selective system, proved to be 
John R. Smith of Pierceton. The other boys promptly responded in 
the following order : Howard H. Watkius, Syracuse, 458 ; Walter 
Ringenberg, Warsaw, 1436; Deleese Kline, Winona Lake, 854; For- 
est J. Croap, Warsaw, 1894; Pietro Tracio, Warsaw, 1878; Rus- 
sell G. Barber, Akron, 1095 ; Forrest J. Kelly, Warsaw, 2022 ; Albert 
Darkwood, Milford, 1455; William H. Stout, Warsaw, 783; Harold 
L. Stockmeyer, Warsaw, 1813 ; Ralph J. Lucas, Warsaw, 1858 ; Fred 
M. Seniff, Warsaw, 1752; Albert Laughman, Silver Lake, 1117; Roy 
C. Holderman, Nappanee, 1572 ; Benjamin F. Simcoke, Warsaw. 
1748; John O. Warner, Warsaw, 857; Orvel E. Phillips, Warsaw, 
2036 ; James A. Gilbert, Tippecanoe, 337 ; Phillip H. Pound, Oswego, 


676 ; George A. Anderson, Piereeton, 275 ; Oliver W. Miller, Syra- 
cuse, 509; Jesse E. Newell, Mentone, 1185; Pearl E. Pickering, Mil- 
ford, 564 ; Percy R. Ring, Claypool, 945 ; Lemoyn C. Miller, "Warsaw, 
1913, and Ortie W. Leemon, Milford, 596. 

First Liberty Loan and Red Cross Drives 

In July it was announced through James R. Frazer, chairman 
of the Finance Committee which managed the First Liberty Loan 
drive in the county, that 370 people in Warsaw had subscribed to it, 
representing nearly 5 per cent of its total population. 

In the following month, the Red Cross fund was oversubscribed 
nearly 50 per cent, about $15,000 being raised. 

In September, 1917, the first group of drafted men from Kos- 
ciusko County went into training, after having been given a farewell 
demonstration at the Winona camp by Company H. 

Kosciusko County Men Off for Camp Benjamin Harrison 

On the 10th of the month a delegation of 136 men from Kosciusko 
County started for Camp Benjamin Harrison. They included the 
following officers: 

Commissioned — Lester L. Boggs, captain; Fred Longfellow, first 
lieutenant; and Lawrence Brubaker, second lieutenant. 

Non-commissioned — First sergeant, Leroy Bibler; supply ser- 
geant, Lawrence Gibson ; mess sergeant, Fred Cripe ; sergeants, 
Richard Robinson, Ralph Lichtenwalter, Arwid McConnell, Lever- 
ette Peterson, Merl Zimmerman, Tom J. Douglass, Arthur Clark and 
Ezra Graham; Corporals Warren Davis, George East, Wynn Win- 
ship, Otho Enyert, Charles Carteaux, Porter K. Mickey, Benjamin 
Elder, Tom D. P. Frazer, James M. Ladd, Loren N. Melick, Glenn 
D. Melick, Russell Phillips, Merl J. Starner, Frank Harlan, Harold 
Henderson and Jesse Moore. 

Dr. Milford H. Lyon Leaves for France 

One of the first of the noted Young Men's Christian Association 
workei-s to be supplied by Kosciusko County for the French sector of 
the western front was Dr. Milford H. Lyon, a well known evangelist 
of the Winona Lake Assembly, who left for the scene of his labors 
and dangers on September 17th. 

A week afterward the United States regulars were placed under 


fire for the first time in the World's war and under the conditions 
which wrote an entirely new chapter in their military experience. 
As was to be expected, they acquitted themselves with the daring 
and steadiness of the best European veterans. 

The 1st of October saw the commencement of the Second Liberty 
Loan drive in Warsaw, under the chairmanship of A. 0. Gatlin of 
the State Bank of Warsaw. 

Third Indiana Rkorganized as Artillery 

About this time the old Third Indiana Infantry was reorganized 
at Camp Shelby, Hattiesburg, Mississippi. The first and second 
battalions were organized into the artillery, Lieut. Col. 0. B. Kilmer 
and Chaplain James M. Eakins being transferred to that branch. 

Maj. Carl P. Beyer, commander of the third battalion, was trans- 
ferred to the Depot Brigade. 

Second Lieutenant Raymond B. Williams of the Third Infantry 
Machine Gun Company was transferred to the Headquarters Com- 
pany of the Artillery. 

Company H of the Third Regiment, in the reorganization be- 
came Battery D, One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Pield Artillery, 
and retained Captain Boggs, Pirst Lieutenant Longfellow and Sec- 
ond Lieutenant Brubaker. Clarence E. Clark was added to its 
commissioned officers as first lieutenant. 

Not long afterward, Lieutenant Colonel Kilmer became an artil- 
lery officer at Port Sill, Oklahoma, to which were assigned only those 
of known ability. 

Major Beyer of Warsaw was placed in charge of the training 
battalion of the One Hundred and Fifty-first Infantry. Attached 
to the battalion were also these Wai-saw men: Lieutenants Samuel 
Murphy, Charles Wagner and Walter Thomas, and Sergt. Maj. Arwid 

A HoosiER Opens the War for the Americans 

Hoosierdom was thrilled by the report that the first shot from the 
National army, which more literally than that fired at Bunker Hill 
' ' echoed 'round the world, ' ' came from a red-headed sergeant of artil- 
lery whose residence, in civil life, was South Bend. He thus defied 
militarism, international deceit and sin against all honor and human- 
ity, and honored his city, state and nation, at 6 o'clock on the morn- 
ing of October 27, 1917. It speeded up the good fight all along the 


western front and made every man of Indiana stand up straighter 
and set his jaw harder to see "the thing through." 

Country's Part in Second Liberty Loan Drive 

Two days later, W. H. Kingerly, county chairman of the Second 
Liberty Loan drive, announced a total subscription of $566,900; the 
county's quota was $514,000. Warsaw raised $314,000 of that amount, 
$60,000 more than the city's quota based on its banking resources 
and $210,000 more than its proportion based on the value of its 
taxable property. Well done, for the county seat! 

James R. Prazer, County Food Administrator 

From the first, the administration perceived that the conserva- 
tion of food for the Allies was of equal importance with the manu- 
facture and wise use of ammunition, and in November, 1917, James 
R. Frazer was appointed food administrator for Kosciusko County. 

Jesse E. Eschbach had made a good record as one of the state 
conscription officers stationed at Warsaw, but resigned toward the 
last of November, because of the i-uliug by the Federal Government 
that such officials should be commissioned as majors in the National 
army and be subject to transfers from point to point. 

County's First Gold Star 

The first gold star claimed by Kosciusko County was because of 
the death of Howard Stahl of Pierceton, in December. He was one 
of twenty boys of Company H, of the Third Regiment, who had 
joined Battery B, mostly composed of Indianapolis men, and gone 
to France with the Rainbow division. He died of pneumonia. 

Toward the last of that month Rev. James M. Eakins, chaplain 
of the One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Field Artillery, resigned 
and returned to his home in Warsaw. 

Pei'haps the great event of national import for December, 1917, 
was the taking over of the railroads of the country, as a war measure, 
by Secretary of the Treasury McAdoo. 

Home Guard Organized 

About the middle of November, the men of Warsaw who did not 
fall within the scope of the selective draft took advantage of the 
new military provisions to organize a Home Guard, or company of 
State Militia. These bodies of second-line soldiers were organized 


and drilled all over the country, and were designed primarily to 
replace the National Guard of the states, then being rapidly absorbed 
into the American Expeditionary Forces. Walter Brubaker was 
selected by the State Council of Defense to perfect the local organi- 
zation, which was soon recruited up to about sixty. 

In February, 1918, another of Warsaw's physicians was called 
to the front. Dr. C. Norman Howard being commissioned captain in 
the Medical Reserve Corps of the United States. 

Official State Military Band 

In the same month the Warsaw Band was notified by the adju- 
tant general that it had been selected to furnish the military music 
for the new State Militia Regiment. 

The succeeding March brought the inspii-ing and thrilling news 
from overseas that the first American troops had "gone over the 
top" in a successful raid into the German trenches, independent of 
French participation, in the American sector north of Toul. The 
Yanks had broken the apron strings of their European instructors, 
and thereafter were considered equal to any emergency which the 
war could produce. The only fault ever found with them was that 
they often went so fast that they got out of the sight and hearing 
of their supports. 

Lieut. J. F. Horick, World's Champion Pistol Shot 

Quite a number of Kosciusko County men had gone to Camp 
Zachary Taylor to take courses in the officers' training school there, 
and several of them made notable records in various specialties. The 
achievements of Lieut. J. Forest Horick of the One Hundred and 
Fifty-ninth Depot Brigade, created nation-wide comment. In the 
previous year he had carried away the United States championship, 
at Jacksonville, Florida, in rapid-fire pistol shooting, and in Feb- 
ruary, 1918, at Camp Ta3-lor, he defeated the world's champion, 
Captain Raymond, by one point at the same kind of contest in small 
arms. Lieutenant Horick is a son-in-law of ^Ir. and Mrs. C. D. 
Densel of Warsaw. 

Thirty-seven candidates for commissions left for Camp Zachary 
Taylor in April, 1918. 

First Personal Battle News 

A local item of interest to those identified with the fighting men 
of the war, either directly or by proxy — and what resident of Kos- 
ciusko County would not thus be included — was that the first War- 


saw boy to send word home of a battle in which he had participated 
was Bab Gilliam, son of Mr. and Mrs. Claven Gilliam. It came to 
them April 19, 1918, in the form of a cablegram bearing, under the 
Atlantic, the welcome assurances of safety. 

Very Successful Third Liberty Loan Campaign 

The Third Liberty Loan campaign was completed on May 4, 
1918, and the result was to raise in Kosciusko County $662,800; its 
quota was $450,000. Warsaw subscribed $142,200 ; its quota, $50,000. 
Of the former amount, Mrs. W. W. Reed, chairman of the Woman's 
Committee, i-eported that her sisters had taken $113,150. 

M. L. Gochenour had been selected chairman of the County 
Committee to raise the loan, and it was under his management that 
the campaign was fairly inaugurated and pushed to completion. The 
county was thoroughly organized by townships, speakers and work- 
ers being appointed to interest the people (if that were necessary) 
and obtain the practical results in the shape of subscriptions. 

The chairmen and respective quotas of this campaign, which was 
remarkably successful considering not a few discouraging circum- 
stances, were as follows: 

Townships and Chairmen — Quota. 

Clay— Embra W. Kinsey $23,000 

Etna— Seth Iden 18,000 

Franklin— M. E. Yokum 27,000 

Harrison — Mahloan Mentzer 33,000 

Jackson— Elmer E. Circle 22,000 

Jefferson— N. F. McDonald 19,000 

Lake— William Kern 17,000 

Monroe— Talmon H. Idle 12,000 

Plain— Cyrus Hall 23,000 

Prairie— Art Anglin 18,000 

Scott— William Hartzell 13,000 

Seward— Andrew J. Hill 22,000 

Tippecanoe— J. E. Ruhl 17,000 

Turkey Creek— Sol Miller 33,000 

Van Buren— Edward Higbee 26,000 

Warsaw City — Norman E. Haymond 50,000 

Washington — Eugene AUeman 32,000 

Wayne — George Minear 45,000 

Total $450,000 


At the height of the campaign came a severe frost which played 
havoc with the corn, ruined fully a quarter of the peppermint crop 
and blasted the hemp near Piereeton. Then the drought baked 
Northwestern Kosciusko County with particular vigor and its entire 
territory with disastrous results ; so that, between frost and drought 
there was scarcely a square mile of farming country in which the 
residents were not on the verge of gloom. Yet the work of raising 
the designated quota went on with unimpaired vigor; and the result 
was what has been stated. 

Sale op War Stamps 

In the sale of War Saving Stamps the result had been equally 
commendable. James R. Frazer was the county chairman of that 
movement, and under his supervision and impetus $120,000 had been 
received for this item since January 1, 1918. The county had been 
assigned $568,000 for the entire year (1918), and at the conclu- 
sion of the twelve months had more than passed the mark set 
for it. 

Lieutenant Bartol at Chateau Thierry 

Not a few of the boys from Kosciusko Count}' were in the epochal 
battle of Chateau Thierry, Jlay 30, 1918, in which the American 
troops routed hordes of the best disciplined and most fearless of the 
shock troops of the Imperial German armj'. Among many other 
heroes, there appeared Lieut. Walter H. Bartol, of the Ninth In- 
fantry, who was cited for bravery by Major General Omar Bundy. 

In June, 1918, a movement of Battery D boj-s was noted toward 
Camp Shelby, and on the 28th of that month forty-five who had 
been trained there had arrived safely in France. 

July, August and September saw the recruits from Kosciusko 
County still streaming into Camps Shelby (Mississippi), Custer 
(Michigan), Grant (Illinois), and Taylor and Thomas (Kentucky). 

Further news of the fierce and bloody fighting in which some of 
the home officers and privates were engaged also commenced to come 
"over here" and be fearfully and eagerly devoured by relatives 
and friends. Word came that Sergt. John E. Leiter, a veteran ma- 
rine who lived a mile west of Mentone and had been in the United 
States army seventeen years, had been badly wounded, and that 
Capt. Ray P. Harrison of Columbia City had been killed in action. 


Three Thousand Men Registered 

By September, 1918, more than 3,000 men had registered for 
military service from Kosciusko County, and a classification by ages 
indicated that a surprisingly large number had been registered be- 
tween the ages of eighteen and twenty, inclusive, and between forty 
and forty-five, inclusive. The record follows: 

Years. Number. Years. Number. 

Eighteen 216 Thirty-seven 179 

Nineteen 203 Thirty-eight 174 

Twenty-one 170 Thirty-nine 171 

Twenty-three 12 Forty 173 

Twenty-five 1 Forty-one 140 

Thirty 1 Forty-two 193 

Thirty-one 127 Forty-three 184 

Thirty -two 194 Forty-four 173 

Thirty-three 183 Forty-five 175 

Thirty-four 195 

Thirty-five 169 Total 3,035 

Thirty -six 169 

On the 18th of September, 1918, Lieut. Merle Lyon, son of Dr. 
Milford H. Lyon of Winona Lake, instructor at Camp Dix, returned 
from France on the transport ]\Iount Vernon, which was torpedoed 
during that month. 

High School Boys Enrolled 

Still the armies of the Allies and the Central Powers wrestled 
back and forth and even the democracies did not know how near 
was the collapse of the mightiest of their enemies. In the United 
States, even, whose manhood had scarcely been touched, the High 
School boys who averaged several years below the minimum draft 
age, commenced to be formed into companies and be braced into the 
soldiers of the future, should their services be required. Between 
ninety and a hundred in Warsaw eagerly responded to such invita- 
tions of stern, but good old Uncle Sam, in the early fall of 1918. 

Fourth Liberty Loan 

The campaign for the raising of the Fourth Liberty Loan ended 
in September, 1918, and resulted in bracing the Government to the 
extent of $1,068,500. Its quota was $900,000. 


First Man op the New Draft 

In pursuance of President Wilson's declaration that force would 
be applied to the task of ending the war, as far as the United States 
was concerned, without measure and without stint, the new draft 
went into effect in September, 1918. The first Kosciusko County 
man drawn was Henry North (No. 322) of Route 3, North Man- 

Winona Lake Training Camp Opened 

The training camp at Winona Lake was officially opened October 
15, 1918, but the commandant, Lieut. B. L. McNichols, did not arrive 
upon the ground until the 18th. At that time he found 1,000 selected 
men ready for orders and military training. 

Boys of Battery D Arrive in France 

About the same time a number of relatives in the county had 
received cards posted on the arrival in France of the Thirty-eighth 
Division, in which were seventy-five Kosciusko County boys of Battery 
D, One Hundred and Thirty-Seventh Field Artillery, who had been in 
training for over a year at Camp Shelby, Mississippi. 

The United War Work Fund 

The next great work at home in financial and moral support of 
the boys in training and at the front was the formation of the 
United War Work Fund, raised in one canvass and apportioned 
among the Red Cross, Young Men's Christian Association, Knights 
of Columbus, Jewish Welfare Fund and Christian Science Comfort 
Fund. W. H. Kingery of Warsaw was chairman for the county of 
this consolidated fund, which was collected in record time during 
October, 1918. George R. Eckert of the Lake City Bank was dis- 
trict campaign manager. 

The United War Fund was largely used, to the inexpressible 
relief of the people of the United Spates, in allaying the wounds and 
suffering already inflicted, rather than in the alleviation of miseries 
so progressive and cumulative that the task seemed well nigh hopeless 
while the awful conflict continued. 


The Riot op Peace 

With the coming of peace in November, 1918, Warsaw, the head- 
center of the celebrations, was carried out of all bounds of reason — 
at least, of dignity — sharing the inundation of enthusiasm and 
hilarity which swept away all considerations of age, social position 
or personal appearances. Those who could remember the peace cele- 
bration following the surrender of Richmond and the armies of the 
Confederacy had to admit that the jollification of 1918, if anything, 
exceeded that of 1865, in volume of noise and absolute abandon, and 
was also superior to that of half a century previous in that it was 
sober and sane, measured by the standard of artificial stimulants. 

The celebration at Warsaw included a grand parade of civic and 
military bodies under the marshalship of Capt. William Ostermaier, 
then commandant of the training station at Camp Winona. The 
Warsaw Military Band led the march ; the boys at camp turned out 
in force and were ably seconded by the Winona High School cadets. 
The Civil war veterans, although most of them professed their 
eagerness and ability to walk with the younger boys, were carefully 
tucked away in autos and had the place of honor following the band. 
Then there was the giant bonfire on the grounds of the Center 
Ward School, and the final gathering at the courthouse square where 
Kaiser Bill was appropriately devoured by the flames, without hav- 
ing a chance to once "go over the top." 

Among the Last Home War Victims 

Afterward it was learned, with deep regret, that several Kos- 
ciusko County boys had paid the last sacrifice not long before the 
signing of the armistice. Harry N. Robinson, son of Mr. and Mrs. 
J. J. Robinson, who was a sophomore in the Warsaw High School 
when he was drawn into the National army, was killed by the burst- 
ing of a shell, after he had been in Prance since August. John C. 
Peterson, who was killed in action during October, had only been 
over a month, in the artillery with the Rainbow Division. He had 
been in military service for three years and was a member of Com- 
pany H, Third Regiment, Indiana National Guard, having seen some 
practical campaigning in Mexico before being sent overseas from 
Camp Winona. 

Total Man-Power of the. Country 

From the figures prepared by Charles A. Kelly, chairman of the 
examining board for the county during the later period of the 

Lieutenant Colonel 0. 1>. Kilmek 


war, it is gleaned that 500 volunteers went from Kosciusko County 
and 1,700 men were drafted. 

Lieut. Col. 0. B. Kilmer 

At the conclusion of the war, Lieut. Col. Orville B. Kilmer was 
commanding a brigade of heavy artillery at Camp Zaehary Taylor, 
Kentucky. He was one of the most thoroughly trained officers rep- 
resentative of the soldiery oi Kosciusko County. He had resided 
in Warsaw from early boyhood and at the age of twenty entered the 
service as a member of Company H, Fourth Infantry, Indiana Na- 
tional Guard, serving with it through the Spanish-American war. 
"When the Indiana National Guard was reorganized in 1900 he con- 
tinued his identification with it, and passed through all the officers' 
grades to the .captaincy in April, 1903. In June, 1912, he was pro- 
moted to major and assigned to the First Battalion, Second Infan- 
try, Indiana National Guard. Owing to another reorganization of 
the guard regiments, twenty-four officers (including Major Kilmer) 
were placed on the retired list. 

The call of active service, however, brought the major at once 
from retirement and in July, 1916, he was called to the Mexican 
border as captain of the machine gun company of the Third Indiana 
Infantry. He was reappointed to the grade of major in March, 1917, 
and in April, 1917, being the senior of that rank in the Indiana 
National Guard, he was promoted to the lieutenancy and assigned 
to the Third Indiana Infantry. 

Lieutenant Colonel Kilmer was called into Federal service in 
May, 1917, and during the following two months completed a course 
of training at the School of Musketry, Port Sill, Oklahoma, and 
afterward conducted a school in military science for field and staff 
officers of the Third Indiana Infantry at South Bend, Indiana. In 
October, 1917, that regiment was changed to the One Hundred and 
Thirty-seventh Field Artillery and located at Camp Shelby, Mis- 
sissippi. The first three months of 1918 were spent in the Artillery 
School of Fire at Fort Sill and the courses completed with satisfac- 
tory grades. Lieutenant Colonel Kilmer then returned to the One 
Hundred and Thirty-seventh Field Artillery at Fort Shelby, and 
served there until September, 1918, when he was transferred to the 
Field Artillery Replacement Depot at Camp Zaehary Taylor, Ken- 
tucky. After filling the position there for several months as assistant 
to the senior instructor, he was assigned to the command of the First 
Brigade, Field Artillery Replacement Depot, which consisted of the 


First and Seventh regiments of heavy artillery. That post he was 
holding' until several months after the war ended. 

The Prazers in the War 

At the conclusion of the war, besides those already mentioned, 
James R. Frazer, a leader in all the sustaining movements in Kos- 
ciusko County, had been called to Washington, with the rank of 
major, and assigned to duty in the office of the judge advocate. 

Theodore Frazer, another son of William D. Frazer, was a captain 
at Camp Custer. 

The father of the major and the captain had himself been tire- 
less in every home work recommended by the Government, and Miss 
Harriet D. F. Frazer, the sister of William D., had been among the 
foremost of the women who gave unstintedly of their time and 
strength to "carry on." 

At the Close op the War 

Carl W. Mc Council was director of a band in France, holding the 
rank of chief musician and first lieutenant, at the war's close. 

Of the Warsaw physicians, Dr. C. C. DuBois and Dr. C. Norman 
Howard were captains overseas and Dr. Orville Ricker, a first lieu- 
tenant, was in Siberia. 

P. G. Fermier of Leesburg and Cecil Whitehead, Howard Obern, 
Frank Swihart and Arthur Shepler of Warsaw, with others drawn 
from the patriotic men of the county, were holding the rank of first 
lieutenants "over there"; which was often a most convenient term 
to use, when men had dropped out of sight in the fearful European 
war of 1917-18. 

The last important home act in connection with the war was the 
transfer of 900 men from the Winona Camp to the Indianapolis 
Fair Grounds, there to continue their training until such time as 
the defeated Germans and associates should show whether they in- 
tended to keep the peace, or their professions were all camouflage to 
mask their real intentions. Followed rather weary months of wait- 
ing and uncertainty before the Kosciusko County boys, who had not 
been sent overseas, were discharged and returned to their homes, farms, 
s, stores, factories and other welcome surroiindings of peace. 



Pioneers of the Warsaw Neighborhood — First Store in the Town- 
ship — John B. Chapman, Warsaw's God-Father — Pioneers of 
the Warsaw Neighborhood — The County Seat Platted — First 
C.VBIN and Store in Warsaw — Pioneer Local Industries — 
Buildings and Residents of 1837 — Potential Congressman Wil- 
liams — Hard Raising from the Ground — First Postoffice and 
Early Postmasters — Joseph A. Funk, Pioneer Teacher — In- 
corporated AS A Town — Birth op Local System of Public 
Instruction — Private Fire Department Organized — Famous 
Independent Protection Engine — Getting Fire Water Under 
Difficulties — Becomes Public Fire Department — Firemen as 
Union Soldiers — Fire of 1866 — Expansions of the Department 
— "Chiefly for Sporting Purposes" — Fire Department in 
1875-76 — Building of Schools in 1872-73 — Public Schools at 
Municipal Incorporation — The High School op 1904 — New 
Center Ward Schoolhouse — Public School System of Today — 
The Warsaw Public Library — Public Utilities and Necessities 
— Winona Electric Light and Water Company — The Warsaw 
Gas Company — Commercial Telephone Company. 

Neither Kosciusko County nor its seat of justice has experienced 
a mushroom growth; neither has suffered "growing pains," occa- 
sioned bj' an undue expansion of their bodies politic or the pre- 
scribed limits of their territories. Their development has been con- 
tinuous and substantial, and consequently all the more dependable; 
like the constitution and physique of a sturdy man, with broad 
shoulders and average height, who stands fairly and s(iuarely on 
his feet. 

The first distinct period in the development of Warsaw com- 
mences with the platting and settlement of the place in 1836, lajid 
concludes with the incorporation of the town in 1854. That period 
may be called its villagehood. 

Pioneers of the Warsaw Neighborhood 

Two years before the county was organized and Warsaw platted, 
a number of settlers had located in Wayne Township, most of them 



not far from the future site of the place ; in fact, that fact may 
have determined in some measure the location of "Warsaw. 

In the summer of 1834 Peter Warner, William Kellj' and John 
Knowles migrated thither from Wayne County, Ohio. Mr. Warner 
settled just northwest of the future county seat on the farm occu- 
pied long afterward by John Sloan. After looking the neighborhood 

A Typical Pioneer Woman 

over, however, he decided to build a sawmill farther south and did so, 
on the west line of section 36, on the Tippecanoe River. 

First Store in the Township 

James Comstock, who was to be appointed one of the first two 
associate judges of the Circuit Court when the county was organized, 
opened the first store in Wayne Township and one of the first in the 
county, two days before the first of July, 1835. He undoubtedly 
wished to be prepared for the rush of the Fourth, and on that memo- 
rable second of July exposed his merchandise for sale on the north- 


east quarter of section 29, also in the southern part of the township. 
Judge Comstoek had hired Metcalfe Beck as his clerk, and his first 
sale was half a pound of Cavendish tobacco to Benjamin Bennett. 

John B. Chapman, Warsaw's God-Father 

In the following year Hon. John B. Chapman, the eccentric law- 
yer and politician, pushed the bill through the Legislature which 
created Kosciusko County. He also had the consistency to stand 
sponsor for a town near the territorial center of the new political 
division, and named it Warsaw, thus bringing the Polish patriot and 
his home city together in Northern Indiana. Sir. Chapman, how- 
ever, did not identify himself with it until it seemed quite probable 
that Leesburg had definitely lost the county seat. 

The County Seat Platted 

The first plat of Warsaw was filed by W. H. Knott, proprietor, 
on the 21st of October, 1836, and acknowledged before Jacob Ran- 
nells, justice of the peace. Christopher Lightfoot, the county sur- 
veyor, did the practical laying out of the lots. The county had ar- 
ranged with Proprietor Knott that, in consideration of fixing the 
seat of justice in his town, half the proceeds from the sale of lots 
should go into the public treasury. 

First Cabin and Store in Warsaw 

The first cabin erected on the site of Warsaw was placed ou Lot 
6 by Matthew D. Springer, and stood near the edge of what was 
then a tamarack swamp. Poles cut from the marsh constituted the 
chief material in its eonstruetion. The structure, which is thus de- 
scribed, was used both for a residence and a tavern : It was about 
twenty by twenty-four feet ; the floor laid from the north end to 
within six feet of the south end, which space was occupied by a fire- 
place, cupboard, etc. The back-wall for five or six feet was built of 
niggerhead rock. Stakes were driven each side of the fireplace, 
having forks at the top in which a pole could be placed for hanging 
pots and kettles over the fire. The range for beds was made by 
poles and forks around the walls, with hickory bark stretched for the 
beds to rest upon. The landlord and the landlady officiated as hosts, 
cooks, chambermaids and hostlers, and all slept in the same room and 
were happy. 


The first store within the limits of Warsaw was erected in the 
fall of 1835, before the town was platted, and was located on what 
became the northwest corner of Lake and Market streets, by Wil- 
liam J. Pope. It was also a tamarack pole concern, one story high. 

The second tavern was built in the year Warsaw was platted by 
Jacob Losier, and was located on the southwest corner of Lake and 
Center streets. It was more pretentious than Springer's inn, being 
a two-story hewn log building, and also considerably larger upon the 

Pioneer Local Industries 

The first industries to arise in Warsaw were the blacksmith shop 
of Phillip Lash and the chair shop of John Giselman, which were 
both opened in 1836. 

H. Higby started a regjilar furniture shop in 1837. 

Buildings and Residents of 1837 

At that time, on the east end of the lot afterward occupied by 
the Wright House stood a one-story frame building, eighteen by 
thirty-six feet, divided into two rooms. The west room was occu- 
pied by a store and the east room, weather-boarded and having a 
stick chimney, was the office of R. H. Lansdale, county clerk and 
auditor. The building was burned in 1838, the fire having originated 
in aforesaid chimney. 

A little one-story frame building stood on the lot afterward 
occupied by the book store of Runyan & Miliee, but in 1837 it was 
the headquarters of Slahlon F. Davis, county treasurer — both his 
home and his official residence. 

Clement B. Simpson, attorney, had his office and dwelling place 
in a log cabin eighteen feet square on the west end of the lot after- 
ward occupied by the Lake City Bank. 

Potential Congressman Williams 

South of the Weirick House stood a small log building in which 
was displayed a small stock of goods by William J. Pope & Company. 
The eighteen-year old clerk of the concern was William Williams, 
who had served as a chain-bearer to the county surveyor when War- 
saw was laid out, and who, within thirty years, was gradually ad- 
vanced through many .stages to a seat in Congress. But when he 


carried Liglitfoot's chain and sold Pope's goods, he had no inkling of 
coming events ; he just put everything which was in him to the busi- 
ness at hand. 

In the brush north of the cabinet wareroom of Richard Loney 
stood a small frame building which represented the grocery of An- 
drew Nye. One who sampled various items of his stock at the time 
says that it comprised a few pounds of candy, a barrel of whiskey, 
a bottle of brandy, one of gin, and several quarts of filberts and al- 
monds. A small box stove supplied the required heat and a long 
bench the sitting accommodations for both customers and visitors. 

Not far from the site of what afterward was the West Ward 
schoolhouse stood the log cabin and home of Jacob Baker, who be- 
came probate judge and was then postmaster. On the high ground 
south of what is now the Pennsylvania Company's depot was the log 
house of Ludlow Nye, surrounded by a clearing of about an acre 
and a half. Mr. Nye was elected sheriff several years afterward. 

Hard Raising from the Ground 

South of Eagle Creek, in a small cabin, lived Philip Lash (the 
blacksmith) and his family, and his experience in providing for his 
household when he first located in this new country was not uncom- 
mon, although none-the-less trjdng. He had cleared a small piece of 
ground that spring and planted it to corn, but the ground squirrels 
were so numerous and industi-ious that they gathered the crop while 
it was underground. As it was then too late in the season to plant 
again, Mr. Lash put in some potatoes. But before even the potatoes 
could sprout, the family larder got so low that the household pro- 
vider had to dig them up to ward off hunger from the wife and chil- 
dren. Still hopeful and undaunted, Mr. Lash sowed some buckwheat 
and actually raised it from the ground. Much depends on the per- 
sistency applied to the task of "getting a start," and Mr. Lash's 
future of comfort proves the contention. 

Arnold J. Pairbrother, recorder of the county, occupied a com- 
bination of office and home in a log cabin situated on a knoll north 
of the outlet of Eagle Lake. 

In November, 1837, Alfred Wilcox came from Ohio to become a 
resident of Warsaw, and one of the prominent men of the county. 
Several years after he located at the county seat he was elected 
auditor and served for a decade. To him the local historian is in- 
debted for many of the facts connected with the first years of War- 
saw's existence. 


First Postoffice and Early Postmasters 

The postoffice at Warsaw was established Pebruai-y 11, 1837, and 
Jacob Baker was its first master — in other words, the first postmaster 
of the place. He held the office for more than four years, or until 
the appointment of George W. Stacey by President Harrison, the 
whig. Judge Baker was a democrat and a Van Buren man. 

Joseph A. Funk, Pioneer Teacher 

In all probability, there were schools and teachers in Wayne Town- 
ship and Warsaw, supported and boarded by householders with their 
customary quotas of children, previous to the '40s, but the first definite 
account we have of either comes from J. A. Funk, who himself taught 
during the winter of 1844-45. He was employed by John Rogers, 
the probate judge, in behalf of the township, at a salary of $17 
monthly, out of which was to come his board. The schoolhouse was 
on lot 218, Fort Wayne Street. 

Mr. Punk was succeeded by a Mr. Clark, who taught in the old 
court house, and the former resumed his teaching in the new school 
house on Indiana Street, South Warsaw. At the time the town was 
incorporated in 1854, Mr. Funk was also in the pedagogic traces and 
pulling steadily and efficiently for the good of the increasing body 
of juveniles. In the year mentioned, the subscription school under 
his charge had an enrollment of about 140, with an average attend- 
ance of 120. He was assisted by Miss Emeline Yocum. This was 
the first school in the county in which two teachers were employed. 

Mrs. Jane Cowan also started her school about this time. It was 
afterward known as Mrs. Cowan's Seminary. 

Incorporated as a Town 

On March 8, 1854, Andrew J. Power and John Rogers peti- 
tioned the county commissioners. Nelson Baker, Samuel Wallace 
and John McNeil, that Warsaw might be incorporated as a town. 
Judge Rogers had occupied the Probate bench for several years — 
but not immediately preceding the steps taken to incorporate — and 
was especially influential. 

According to law, they represented more than one-third of the 
voters within the limits of the town intended to be incorporated, and 
their petition to the commissioners contains other interesting facts 
required, before the place could legally become a town. The peti- 


tioners, through these representatives, stated that S. R. Gordon had 
made the survey of the proposed town limits, which embraced 236 
acres, and described them as follows: Commencing at the south- 
west corner of section 8, township 32, north of range 6 east; thence 
north 83° 12', east 194 poles (rods), 12 links; thence north 3°, west 
68 poles, 20 links; thence north 82°, east 65 poles, 14 links; thence 
north 4'' 30', west 80 poles, 7 links; thence south 83° 150 poles; 
thence north 3° 30' 11 poles; thence north 51°, west 53 poles, 11 
links; thence north 56°, west 62 poles, 15 links; thence south 4° 30', 
east 250 poles, 15 links. 

The census, taken on the 4th of February, 1854, indicated that 
on that day there were 752 residents within the limits described. 

Affidavits were attached to the petition verifying the facts con- 
tained in it, signed by S. R. Gordon as to the survey and Messrs. 
Rogers and Power as to the accuracy of the census. The map ac- 
companying the survey was verified by G. W. Fairbrother, the county 
surveyor, and it had been deposited in the recorder's office for public 
examination during the month required by law. 

All the other provisions of the law having been complied with, 
the county commissioners ordered the voters within the proposed 
town limits to meet on the 25th of March to determine the question 
of incorporation. The auditor of the county was directed to give the 
legal ten days' notice of the election by publication in the Kosciusko 
Republican and by public postings in town. 

All of which was done, according to the law, made and provided, 
and Warsaw duly became an incorporated town. 

Birth of Local System op Public Instruction 

After Warsaw had continued under town government for twenty- 
one years, its people decided that it had reached its majority and was 
entitled to a municipal form. Several years passed as a town before 
the efforts of the citizens to provide adequate educational advantages 
and a reasonable measure of protection against tire took definite form. 
The year 1858 was most fruitful of the earlier times in these regards. 

It was during the year mentioned that the first public school of 
Warsaw was opened, in charge of Professor D. T. Johnson, who sub- 
sequently was principal of the graded school. It is said- that the 
building contained three rooms on the ground floor and one large 
room above. Five teachers were employed. 

The successive town superintendents were Brown, Violus 

Butler, D. W. Thomas, A. H. Elwood, E. 0. ililler and W. H. Wheeler. 

On W 


Among the early teachers, all serving under the superintcndency 
of Mr. Thomas, were the following : Miss V. A. Rundles, high school ; 
Mi-s. A. C. Wait, grammar school ; Miss E. M. Huffman, intermediate ; 
Miss L. A. Baldwin, senior secondary; Miss Ella Dresser, junior; 
Mrs. S. A. Holbrook and Miss Florence Frasier, primary. 

Private Fire Department Organized 

By the fall of 1858, the town had quite an array of frame structures 
and several of them had already been scorched, or more seriously 
damaged, and others had gone up completely in the flames. The 
volunteer bucket brigade had been outgrown, and quite a collection 
of the real wide-awake citizens gathered at the Court House to discuss 
ways and means of organizing a regular department. First they de- 
cided to interview the town trustees to ascertain what they could do 
toward furnishing equipment. But the capacity of the town treasury 
was stretched to the utmost and no funds were available for that pur- 
pose, necessary as it was admitted to be. The outcome was a joint 
stock company which issued shares of $5.00 each, and shortly 
raised enough money to purchase a second-hand engine. Although 
this was the nucleus of a fire department, this initial organization was 
not, strictly speaking, a public institution. Nor did it become such 
for a number of years. 

A permanent organization of the department was effected in Feb- 
ruary, 1859, with the following officers: Foreman, Peter Marvin; 
first assistant foreman, William B. Boydstou; second assistant, A. T. 
Skist ; secretary, William S. Hemphill ; treasurer, Dr. Joseph P. Leslie ; 
companj- engineer, Bradford G. Cosgrove ; chief of the fire department, 
Joseph A. Funk, likewise the schoolmaster — evidently a man of many 

Famous Independent Protection Engine 

At first, the department was Independent Protection Engine Com- 
pany No. 1, and its foreman, Mr. Marvin, was sent to Adrian, Michi- 
gan, to look over an old hand-engine there which "might do." The 
engine was purchased, on his recommendation, and on March 10, 1859, 
it was tested through 300 feet of old leather hose. Despite the ragged 
condition of the conveyor the test was quite imposing, although it 
was demonstrated that a couple of hundred feet of absolutely new hose 
was a prime necessit.y of the "department." 

The new hose on hand, the boys bought some bright red jackets. 


drilled weekly and as promptly responded to what they knew were 
false alarms, as to the bona fide call-outs. The company leased a strip 
of land opposite what is now the First National Bank Building and 
erected a shed for the Independent Protection engine, which was soon 
to redeem itself and all concerned. How this came about is another 

The night of November 14, 1859, was bitter cold — just the kind ot 
a night when eveiy capable stove was run to its utmost capacity. Some- 
body overdid the matter in a certain frame building on Center Street 
and when the boys of Independence Protection Company got the alai-m 
dense clouds of smoke and rolling, darting flames were pouring from it. 

The company was promptly on hand, but the outlook was bad; 
and much worse when it was found that the moment the water en- 
tered the cylinders they froze solid, and naturally were paralyzed. 
Fortunately, the fire was in the vicinity of the Wright House. By 
this time the day had dawned and the good landlord of the tavern 
had a large boiler of coffee already steaming hot for his cold and 
hungry patrons. A member of Protection Company, with a long, 
cool head, called that fact to mind, when the congealed cylindei*s 
of the engine refused to budge and the fire still raged. His idea 
and message were flashed to the foreman and chief of the depart- 
ment, and simultaneously the action occurred by which the boiler of 
steaming coffee was transferred from the Wright House, diverted 
from its primary purpose, and poured into the cylinders of Pro- 
tection Engine No. 1. The valves were immediately loosened, "down 
brakes" rang out on the frosty air, and a free and welcome stream 
of water poured into the flames. 

In fact, the water started with such momentum and force that 
although the fire was extinguished the stream played havoc with the 
old leather hose. One of the participants in the excitement, who long 
afterward was classified as an Old Settler, says : ' ' There was scarcely 
five feet along the entire line that had not burst and been wrapped 
with bed-quilts, sheets, silk and linen handkerchiefs, and calf and 
sheep .skins. This incited a subscription at once, and a sufficient 
amount was contributed to finish the engine house and procure the 
needed supply of hose." 

Getting Fire Water Under Difficulties 

The supply of water in those days was not always equal to the 
demand, and had to be procured under very discouraging circum- 
stances. In September, 1860, when a stable belonging to S. H. Chip- 


man on Fort Wayne Street was burnt, the only way that water could 
be procured was by taking the engine to Dr. Davenport's residence 
on Detroit Street, and pumping and carrying the water in pails, 
through the house ; filling the engine box, which held about eight 
barrels, and then hauling it to the fire. Processes repeated as long 
as the fire lasted. 

Becomes Public Fire Department 

Warsaw suffered its first really serious conflagration on January 
24, 1861, when the Chapman Block, on Center Street south of the 
Public Square, was burned. Although that building was destroyed, 
the Thomas Block, on the east side of the alley, was saved, and the 
fire limited to the Chapman structure. Old Independent Protection 
was badly scorched and blistered and some of the boys were rather 
badly burned, but the affair brought such credit to both engine and 
firemen that within a few days from the time of the fire the town 
trustees purchased the stock of the citizens' company; the company 
and the department were thus given a public character. 

Thereafter Independent was dropped from the name of the engine 
company, and Hose Company No. 1 was organized. 

Firemen as Union Soldiers 

In April, 1861, in response to the call for troops at the begin- 
ning of the War of the Rebellion, thirty-nine members of the War- 
saw Fire Department enlisted for the national service. At first Pro- 
tection Engine Company No. 1 was almost disorganized, but it was 
soon recruited nearly to its original strength and the high standard 
of the organization maintained. As the old boys had become at least 
partially inured to discipline, their records in the army were some- 
what noteworthy. Of the thirty-nine who entered military service, 
five rose to the rank of lieutenant, seven to that of captain, two of 
major, two of colonel and one to that of brigadier general. Nine of 
them died in the service of their country — Colonel Joseph P. Leslie, 
Captain Julian A. Robins and Cyrus Bair killed on the field of battle, 
and six from other causes, either at the front or soon after returning 

Fire of 1866 

In June, 1866, occurred one of the most destructive fires of the 
Town period. It swept away the Wright and the Kirtley hotels, at 


Indiana and Center streets, the new Baptist Church and other build- 
ings, but the fire department came through it with honors, notwith- 
standing. The greatest handicap in a successful fight against the 
progress of the fire was a scarcity of hose, and the fact that nearly all 
the buildings, even in this business district, were of the light frame 
kind. Before this disastrous month closed, a new supply of hose 
was procured, and the Lake City Hook and Ladder Company No. 1 
was organized. 

Expansions of the Department 

In the spring of 1868 the Board of Trustees determined to thor- 
oughly equip the department, and contracted with the Silsby Man- 
ufacturing Company for a good first-class steam fire engine, a hose 
cart and a large supply of new hose. A substantial brick house had 
been erected during the previous year and there the new engine 
(Kosciusko No. 2) was duly installed, in charge of the old and tried 
Protection Company No. 1. 

About the time Protection No. 1 took charge of the steamer, a 
company under the name of Young America No. 2 was organized 
with L. C. Wiltshire as foreman, Clinton Walton as first assistant, 
Joseph A. Brewer, second assistant, G. E. Runyan, secretary, and 
M. L. Crawford, treasurer. The members, numbering thirty-five, 
were young, ranging from sixteen to twenty-one years. After about 
a year the organization was abandoned. 

It was evident, however, that there was room for another com- 
pany, and in February, 1871, some of the fonner members of Pro- 
tection Company organized the Never Fails No. 2. James IMilice, one 
of the old charter members, was elected foreman ; George Pratt, first 
assistant; Joseph A. Wright, second assistant; W. B. Punk, secre- 
tary, and John S. Wynant, treasurer. Old Protection hand engine 
was assigned to the new organization, but in February, 1873, the 
trustees purchased a more powerful engine from the Cleveland Fire 
Department and gave it into the keeping of Never Fails No. 2. 

Chiefly fok Sporting Purposes 

Independent Hose Companj^ No. 1 was organized in June, 1876, 
■'chiefly for sporting purposes," and was, to a great extent, "com- 
posed of members of other companies," but had a "full complement 
of men for service." The words in quotation were taken from a con- 
temporaneous writer, who continues : ' ' The company is not subject 


to the orders of the chief or of the City Council, as they owu their 
outfit — a very handsome hose carriage from the Babcoek Manufac- 
turing Company, purchased at a cost of $300. This company is not 
backward in re«pionding to an alarm of fire, however, and when they 
do so they use the hose belonging to the department." 

Fire Dep.\rtment in 1875-76 

At this time Warsaw had been a citj^ about a year, and its fire 
department was given as follows : Protection Company No. 1, 26 
members, and Hose Company No. 1, 13 members, in one organiza- 
tion ; Never Fails No. 2, 18 members, and Hose No. 2, 12 members, 
in one organization; Lake City Hook and Ladder No. 1, 15 mem- 
bers; Independent Hose Company No. 1, 16 members. 

The apparatus: One Silsby steamer, valued at $4,500; one serv- 
iceable hand engine, $750; one old hand engine (Pi'otection), not in 
use, $300 ; one hook and ladder truck, with entire outfit, $450 ; three 
hose carts, cost not given. Total cost, or value, $6,000. Altogether, 
there was now about 1,500 feet of good hose, chiefly rubber. 

Building of Schools in 1872-73 

The early '70s were marked by a busy season of school building. 
The second high school and the East and "West Ward schools were all 
erected in 1872-73. 

Following is a succinct statement of their original cost: 

The ground for the East Ward cost $ 400 

The ground for the West Ward cost 675 

The two buildings, ready for seating 15,650 

Furnishings, grading, fencing, etc 2,700 

Total East and West Ward schools $19,425 

The old building used for a high school was sold for $1,000. The 
new building erected on the same ground in 1872-73, being lots 172, 
173, 174 and 181, cost, ready for seating, $15,824.23; to this add 
interior furnishings and improvements of grounds, $2,700 ; making 
a total for the high school of 1872-73 of $18,524.23. 

Public Schools at Municipal Incorporation 

About the time the city was incorporated, the following repre- 
sented the Public School system of 


Board of Education — N. N. Boydston, president ; H. W. Upson, 
secretary; J. D. Thayer, treasurer; 0. W. Miller, superintendent. 

Teachers — Center School : Mrs. C. A. Hass, high school ; Mrs. S. 
C. Long, grammar A ; Miss Emma Hayward, grammar B ; Miss MoUie 
Neff, grammar C; Miss Sarah L. Hodge, intermediate; Miss S. A. 
Holbrook, primary. 

East School: Mrs. H. P. Miller, intermediate; Mrs. M. H. 
Prazier, primary. 

West School : Mrs. Celestia Grant, intermediate ; Miss Ella Fet- 
ters, primary. 

The High School op 1904 

These buildings were improved and enlarged to keep pace with 
the growing city and its requirements, until it became necessarj- to 
make radical additions to the school accommodations and meet the 
modern demands for ventilation, heating and lighting as a powerful 
auxiliary to the mental efficiency and development of the pupils. 
The first of the buildings erected in the early '70s to be remodeled 
was the Center Ward structure, which was terribly overcrowded. 
Not only was the high school accommodated therein, but the gram- 
mar grades. In 1904, however, the new building was erected at the 
corner of Main and Washington streets and all the high school work 
concentrated in it, while the grades were retained in the Center Ward 
school. Thus both departments were given a chance to expand. 

New Center Ward Schoolhouse 

About 1912, the old Center Ward building, corner of East Market 
and Detroit streets, was condemned by the city as being unsafe and 
unsanitary. Some time later lots were purchased of William Con- 
rad, William Losure, Earl Conrad, Mre. George Snyder, William F. 
Matchett and B. 0. Morris, on Main Street at the north end of High, 
as the site for a new building. Plans were finally drawn by Samuel 
A. Craig, of Huntington, and construction was begun under the direc- 
tion of "the Warsaw contractors, Gast & Hodges. In June, 1916, the 
comer stone of the schoolhouse was laid by the local Masonic lodge, 
the work was rushed through the summer and fall months, and the 
new Center Ward School building was in readiness for occupancy 
in the second week of January, 1917. It was erected and equipped 
at a cost of more than $56,000, and is the best illustration in Warsaw 
of up-to-date school architecture, furnishings and appliances. 


The Center Ward School is three stories in height, with the 
ground floor above the level of the street, the entrance being into 
the second. On the ground floor are the rooms used for manual 
training, laboratory work, domestic science and sewing: heating and 
ventilating plants; toilet, fuel and storage accommodations. On the 
second floor are six class rooms, and suites of offices and rest rooms; 
on the third floor, four class rooms, a large auditorium with stage 
and equipment, cloak rooms, and toilet accommodations on each floor. 

Concrete steps lead to the street and concrete walks to the play- 
grounds, which are provided with all the modern appliances for the 
exercise and entertainment of the pupils. 

Public School System of Today 

The addition of the Center Ward building gives Warsaw ample 
school facilities for present needs and probable demands of the future 
for some time to come. The chief executives of the local systems are 
as follows: W. F. Maish, president of the School Board; William 
Crist, treasurer; Flint E. Bash, secretary; James M. Leffel, super- 
intendent of schools; R, W. Townseud, principal of the high school. 

Through comparatively late reforms the Warsaw s.ystem of pub- 
lie education has been raised in efficiency and broadened in scope. 
The ward buildings have grades from the First to the Fifth, inclus- 
ive, with the Sixth, Seventh and Eighth grades of the entire city or- 
ganized into the Junior High School, at the new Center Ward build- 
ing. The purpose of this plan is to make it possible for the pupils 
of the upper grades to have a more diversified course of study, such 
as manual training, domestic science, general science and other spe- 
cial lines which are to be introduced later. 

By grouping the pupils in this way, it is not necessary to dupli- 
cate equipment in the various buildings, thereby ■ using it at one 
building, full time. It is also possible by these diversified courses to 
give more practical phases of education to the pupils who are not 
permitted to continue work in the high school. In view of the fact 
that not more than nine per cent of the pupils enrolled in the Sixth, 
Seventh and Eighth grades get into high school courses, the advan- 
tage of this arrangement is apparent. It ofl:'ers special training of a 
practical nature to grades below the regular high school which would 
not otherwise receive its benefit. 

Among the new features of the local system made possible by the 
building of the Center Ward school were: Vocational training in 
agriculture in the high school for boys; home making, a vocational 



course for girls; afternoon classes in sewing for adults; evening 
classes in sewing and cooking; evening commercial classes; and a 
complete record of all school children in the city. In addition to the 
usual financial reports, statistics of all phases of the school work are 
periodieallj^ prepared. 

Because of the space and facilities added to the system by the 
erection of the Center Ward building, and the impi'ovement of other 
schoolhouses, health conditions have been much improved. The stu- 
dents are now so distributed that only one grade is occupying a room 
where formerly it was necessary to crowd two or three grades into 
the same space. 

One of Warsaw 

These improvements of the last few years have been so radical 
and far-reaching, that the Warsaw school system is about to be ad- 
mitted to the Northern Central Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools. This organization includes the educational institutions men- 
tioned throughout the Central States, and i-equires its members to 
reach a certain standard of work in order that the pupils may enter 
college without further preparation. 

The Warsaw Public Library 

None of the public institutions of Warsaw have been more con- 
sistently supported, or proved higher and broader in their uplifting 
capacity, than the public library. As in other progressive cities, it 


has reached the point for which its founders and promoters have 
always aimed, and is heartily recognized as the close connecting link 
between the public and the local systems of education. Especially 
do the teachers of the public schools and the public library manage- 
ment co-operate to give literature a new and vital meaning; to make 
books instruments of true culture by applying them to current topics 
and the every-day aifairs of life. 

The history of the "Warsaw Public Library presents a special rea- 
son why this should be so, as the original movement in the collection 
of books was started by the public school management and, until a 
comparatively recent date, the library was installed in the old Center 
School building. 

The nucleus of the public library was formed as early as 1885, 
and was conducted for many years by the City School Board. A re- 
organization was effected under the state law of 1911, but no material 
change in the management was made until a special Library Board 
was organized in 1915. 

The first Library Board was composed of the following: Mrs. 
William Conrad, president ; Mrs. W. W. Reed, vice president ; Flint 
Bash, secretary ; other members, A. G. Wood, Mrs. Emma Shackel- 
ford, T. Wayne Anglin and Superintendent of Schools H. S. Kauf- 
man. After the death of Mr. Anglin, Mr. Van Schrom was appointed 
to till the vacancy, and Superintendent James M. Leffel succeeded 
Mr. Kaufman. Aside from these changes and the addition of C. C. 
Dukes, trustee of Wayne Township, an ex-oiScio member of the board, 
the management remains the same. Three of the members are ap- 
pointed by the judge of the Circuit Court, two by the School Board 
and two by the City Council. 

The basement of the old Center Ward School, in which the librai-y 
was first housed, began to seriously tell upon the nerves of the ladies 
of Warsaw who had long been promoters of the enterprise. A sep- 
arate, comfortable and convenient building was their aim, and, al- 
though at first defeated in their efforts, they persevered and tinall}- 
got into correspondence with the Carnegie Corporation of New York. 
To push the work more sj-stematically and effectively, they organized 
the Warsaw Library Board, as announced, on February 26, 1915. 

As soon as the organization was effected, the board began plans 
for the erection of a suitable building and earnestly appealed to the 
Carnegie Corporation for assistance. Samuel A. Craig, of Hunting- 
ton, Indiana, drew the plans which were sent to the Carnegie people 
in New York. Their proffered allowance of .$12,500 did not meet the 
expectations of the Library Board. After further correspondence 


on this point, the Carnegie Corporation agreed to a donation of 
$15,000, provided the librai-y management would consent to include 
the whole of Wayne Township in the scope of its accommodations. 

With this substantial assurance, the Warsaw Library Board pur- 
chased a lot for the building site on the corner of Detroit and Buffalo 
streets, owned by Mrs. Robert Wallace, of Leesburg and occupied by 
the old McCoy Sanatorium. As most of the progressive people of the 
city deemed that site inadequate, B. F. Richardson, then mayor of 
the city, bought the adjoining lot, with the understanding that the 
Library Board should come into formal possession of it when the 
property could be purchased. 

When this ample site had been secured, work was started on the 
building (July, 1916), and it was ready for occupancy in April, 

The old Center School building was abandoned for library pur- 
poses on January 1, 1917, when the collection consisted of less than 
5,000 volumes. These were moved to the basement of the uncom- 
pleted library building. Then commenced the gleaning of the worn 
and imperfect books, which resulted in greatly reducing the number 
of volumes reported as available to the public. Since that time, by 
purchases and gifts the number of volumes had been increased to 
more than 6,400, with some 3,000 regular borrowers. 

The successive librarians have been Ethel Baker, Mrs. Clint Ded- 
erick (Blanche Goddard), Mrs. Frank Leonard (Lulu Helpman), 
Mrs. Minnie Gary and Miss Miriam Netter. 

In addition to the regular work of the circulating department, 
the feature of story-telling was introduced to the activities of the 
library. Though epidemics and other causes have at times inter- 
fered with this juvenile work, it has, on the whole, been continuous 
and the results have been most satisfactory. 

While the war was in progress, its work was also broadened and 
intensified, as was the case with every other public institution in the 
land. It did everything possible to assist the Government in its 
campaigns for food conservation, by supplying economy recipes for 
cooking, food posters and general information for housewives. 
Prospective soldiers and those in actual training were supplied with 
military manuals, and the librarj' was the headquarters for the col- 
lection and distribution of most of the books sent to the military 
camps. Also, while the war gai'dens were in process of formation 
and in full operation, hundreds of amateur truck raisers sought the 
Public Library for practical instruction in their work; and never 
applied to it in vain. 


The benefits of the library are not confined to "Warsaw, but sub- 
stations have been established in the Heeter School and the East and 
"West "Wayne consolidated schools, in order to thoroughly carry out 
the agreement made with the Carnegie Corporation, by which the 
gift, as originally proposed by that body, was increased. The work 
of the library has been broadened and made more effective by the 
close co-operation of the club ladies of Warsaw, and through the 
hearty support of the enterprise by the public in general. 

Public Utilities and Necessities 

"Water and light have always been classed as necessities, and in 
the modern days electricity and gas have virtually fallen into that 
group. They are often owned or controlled by the town or city 
within which the systems are operated, but in the case of "Warsaw 
the owners and operators are private corporations. 

The two most essential commodities in the life of the city — water 
and light — are furnished consumers by the "Winona Electric Light 
and "Water Company. "With the exception of the "Winona Interurban 
Company, it is the leading utilities organization in the county, rep- 
resenting an investment of more than $300,000. 

"Winona Electric Light and "Water Company 

The "Winona Electric Light and "Water Company originated in 
the old "Warsaw "Water Company, which was organized in 1886 under 
the direction of James S. Prazer. Subsequently it erected an electric 
light plant at the north end of Buffalo Street near the water works, 
but furnished illumination only to the business district, cutting off 
the cui-rent at 10 o'clock each night. In 1903 a company was organ- 
ized by the "Winona Assembly, with Thomas Kane as president, to 
furnish light and heat to the property controlled by that corpora- 
tion. After combining the two companies and their utilities, with 
headquarters established in "Warsaw, extensive changes were made 
and both the light and water lines were extended to cover a much 
larger territory. 

In 1910, Theodore Frazer was made manager of the consolidated 
"Winona Electric Light and "Water Company, and under his manage- 
ment many improvements and extensions were made. At the present 
time there are about fifteen miles of water mains in "Warsaw and five 
miles in the Town of "Winona Lake. 

The company furnished steam heat to fifty public buildings and 


residences in Winona. Light is furnished to both places, and thei'e 
are also some fifty power customers iu Warsaw. In addition to the 
water supplied to the residences and public places, about ninety fire 
plugs are stationed throughout the city. 

In order to provide a more abundant and better supply of water, 
in 1914 the company sunk twelve-inch wells, 100 feet deep on South 
Lake Street, and installed a pumping station there, in addition to the 
plant located on Center Lake at the north end of Buffalo Street. In 
1917 a large steam turbine was placed at the light plant, costing 
about $20,000. During the two years before the entry of the United 
States into the war, more than $40,000 was spent for improvements 
by the company. Like all other men of affairs and standing, Mr. 
Frazer was drafted into the service and did his good part, and the 
management and development of the Winona Electric Light and Water 
Company were teraporarilj- left in other hands. 

The Warsaw Gas Company 

Although gas commenced to be supplied to the residents of War- 
saw and Winona many years ago, under local ownership and man- 
agement, it is only within the past dozen years that sufficient means 
have been invested in the sj'stem to make it represent a really im- 
portant utility. For several years the city has enjoyed a twenty-four 
hour gas service, which has met every requirement. The gas and 
coke plant of the company are located on the Big Four Line near 
South Street, while its central office is in the business district of 

The present owners of the system, which covers both Warsaw 
and the Town of Winona Lake, are the American Railways Company, 
of Philadelphia, and it is operated under the name of the National 
Gas, Electric Light and Power Company. E. G. Jones is superin- 
tendent and K. P. Hawkins local manager. The foreign ownership 
and management obtained a controlling interest in the Warsaw sys- 
tem in 1905. 

During the early part of 1917, the Warsaw Gas Company, with 
many other gas and electric concerns in the East, was combined and 
bought by the Philadelphia syndicate mentioned. It was the inten- 
tion of the purchasers to promptly place the purchased properties in 
running order, improve upon old machinery and equipment, and pre- 
pare for an increase of patronage. During the year new pipe lines 
were laid in different parts of the city, often in sections where the 
patronage would not have justified the expenditure for an extension 


of the service. In 1917 and 1918, when the coal shortage was greatest, 
the company supplied householders with fuel when it was sometimes 
almost impossible to purchase it of local dealers ; the better grades of 
Virginia coal being customarily sold to the people at the prices 
charged by dealers for the inferior Indiana article. 

In the summer of 1917 the company also laid a separate pipe line 
to Winona Lake, and since then that growing community and incor- 
porated town has had an abundant supply for both illuminating, 
cooking and heating purposes. Necessarily, the war interfered with 
many of the contemplated improvements in machinery and other me- 
chanical outfit, as, with the unprecedented rise of materials and 
wages, it was impossible to carry out many contracts based upon the 
ante-war scales. 

At the present time, the gas system which embraces the corporate 
areas of Warsaw and Winona Lake, with much intervening territory, 
includes 20.36 miles of mains, and accommodates nearly 1,500 con- 
sumers. Its chief bi-product, coke, is also manufactured in large 
quantities and is readily purchased both by manufactories and house- 

The Commercial Telephone Company 

The above named stands for another private enterprise which has 
so expanded as to become a leading public utility. It was organized 
in 1900, and the service includes both Warsaw and Winona Lake, 
with about 1,000 telephones in operation in the city and 500 in the 
village and rural districts. It is estimated that there is invested in 
the system something like $125,000. The company owns its own 
building in Wai-saw and operates a utility which, as need not be re- 
peated, is as near indispensable as anything can be upon which actual 
life does not depend. Conceive of being entirely without telephones ! 
It would almost seem like going back to the dark ages. 



First Warsaw Church, Tamarack Cabin — M. E. Conference and 
Local Organization — Pay op Early M. E. Circuit Preachers — 
First Methodist Camp Meeting — First and Present Sabbath 
Schools — Methodist Edifices — M. E. Home of Today — First 
Presbyterian Church — Christian Church of Warsaw — The 
Baptist Church — The Baptist Temple — United Brethren 
Church — The Brethren Church of Warsaw — Other Religious 
Bodies — Secret and Benevolent Societies — The Masonic Bodies 
— The Odd Fellows of Warsaw — Knights of Pythias and 
Pythian Sisters — Red Men and Modern Woodmen — The Elks, 
Eagles and Moose — Other Organizations. 

The instinct of men and women is to grasp for the supports and 
comforts of religion in the midst of their phj'sical hardships and their 
mental trials. Therefore it is that in a new, untried and uncertain 
country, in which such strains and perplexities are sure to arise, the 
first institutions which are organized are the churches. Religious 
bodies and expounders of religion may appear before even the civil 
forms of government take shape. 

Where two or three are gathered together in the wilderness and 
before the Christian membership is strong enough to form a class or 
society, some man of God is found ready to plant the seed of his 
faith or nourish that which has already germinated. So, in Kos- 
ciusko County, there are records of several Methodist circuit riders 
who preached the word of comfort to the scattered settlers of the 
northeastern townships before Warsaw was placed on the map. 

First Warsaw Church, Tamarack Cabin 

Among the most faithful of these servants wa.s Rev. Richard Har- 
grave, and not long after Warsaw was platted, and Matthew D. 
Springer built its first cabin of tamarack poles, the Methodist mis- 
sionary was invited by its owner to preach the Word, according to 
his faith, in this primitive temple. There is no record as to the 


strength of the attendance upon the occasion of the delivery of this 
first sermon on the site of Warsaw ; but it could not have been large, 
although it is safe to say that it was remarkable when judged by its 
proportion to the total number of settlers in the neighborhood. The 
location of this tamarack church was what is now the southeast corner 
of Center and Hickory, and is occupied by the residence of Mrs. Lulu 

M. E. Conference and Local Organization 

The first quarterly conference met at Warsaw, then known as 
the Mission and embracing all of Kosciusko County, on the 26th of 
January, 1839. Rev. George Beswick was presiding elder and Rev. 
Thomas P. Owen, missionary in charge. The local preachers were 
Peter Warner, J. Ockerman, Alexander ilcElwain and Edwin Cone ; 
exhorters, John Cook, T. Blake, John Wood, Robert Warner, Aquilla 
Belt, William Devenny, Joel Martin, Alexander Richhart, George 
Warner and George Hartshorn; stewards, William Alexander, H. 
Bowdle, R. H. Lansdale and James McLeod; class leaders, Daniel 
Webb, John, Daniel Groves, John Doke, David Hayden, L. D. 
Warner, Isaac Kern, Charles Ketcham, Henry Engel, E. S. Blue and 
Aquilla Belt. At that time the places of meeting wei*e at Warsaw, 
Leesburg and Syracuse, and at the homes of Robert Warner, H. 
Bowdle, Daniel Groves, James McLeod, Edwin Cone, Daniel Webb, 
T. Blake, James McLeod, Aquilla Belt and perhaps two or three 

Pat op Early M. E. Circuit Preachers 

Were it not that a dollar would go many times further eighty 
years ago than it does in 1919, it would have been physically im- 
possible for an infant to exist on what was paid those hard-working, 
ever-circulating Methodist missionaries. The salary of the preachei-s 
was fixed by church law — $100 annually for a single man ; a minister 
with a wife, $200 ; with allowances for each child of a certain age, for 
house rent, table expenses, fuel and horse feed — the last named items 
to be determined by a committee appointed for the purpose. All 
salaries, allowances and extras were subject to the final revision and 
approval of the quarterly conference. A sample of these "allow- 
ances" is furnished in the experience of Rev. Thomas P. Owen, 
table expenses for one year were placed at $70. 


First ^Methodist Camp Meeting 

The first Methodist camp meeting in the county was held at 
Groves' Camp Ground late in June, 1839. In the fall of the suc- 
ceeding year the charge was named Warsaw circuit, and attached 
to the South Bend district. At that time S. K. Young was the pastor 
in charge, and in 1841 Rev. 0. V. Lemon was appointed as his assist- 
ant. Mr. Lemon was in charge of the meeting held at Peter Warner's 
Camp Ground in September of that year. Warsaw was then at- 
tached to the Fort Wayne district. The recording steward's books 
show that Brother Lemon was allowed $75 for table expenses during 
1841 and received $163.36 as his salarj-. 

First and Present Sabbath Schools 

In 1843 the circuit was divided, and Rev. Elihu Anthony was 
appointed preacher in charge. During 1844 the first Sabbath School 
was organized at Warsaw, with forty scholars and six teachers; Joel 
Fish, superintendent. The preacher reported it as "a wholesome 

Somewhat of a contrast, the present Sunday school of the Fii-st 
M. E. Church of Warsaw, with its 800 scholars and more than 70 
officers and teachers! 

Methodist Edifices 

It was near the close of 1844, while Rev. Nelson Green was pastor 
of the society that the first efforts at building a new church were 
made. James Stinson donated a lot on South Indiana Street, which 
has been occupied by the Methodists ever since. It was some time 
before the work of building was fairlj- under way, so that the church 
was not completed until 1848. During 1867-68 this structure was 
removed to make place for a new brick church, and was taken to the 
lot on the line of the Big Four and, with an addition, made to do 
service as an elevator. It was occupied by Kinsej' Brothers as the 
Big Four Elevator. 

Construction work upon the new brick church was begun in 1867, 
in the pastorate of Rev. Thomas Comstock, and completed in the 
spring of the following year. At that time it was considered one of 
the finest church edifices in Indiana. Completed, it cost nearly 
$23,000 and seated about 700 people. 

During the forty-seven years of continuous service in that hand- 


some brick church, the membership of the societj' increased from 380 
to 1.150. During the same period, the Sunday school grew from 
an enrollment of 400 to more than 800. In 1914 the graded system of 
lessons was adopted. 

i\I. E. Home of Today 

When it was found that the brick church building was not large 
enough to accommodate eveiy department of the work, it was decided 
to erect a new and larger structure, and the quarterly conference of 
1915 appointed a building committee for that purpose. In order 
that the work of the church might not be interrupted during the 
progress of construction, a wooden tabernacle was erected on West 
Center Street. This was accomplished by the men of the church in 
less than a week's time. The Methodist Tabernacle was thus used 
during the year 1915. 

Active building operations had been in progress on the third 
church home since March, 1915, and the corner stone was laid on 
Sunday, May 16th, of that year. It was completed during the fol- 
lowing year at a cost of about $60,000. 

Both in its exterior appearance and its interior furnishings, the 
First M. E. Church building is stately, elegant and modern. The 
main structure is massed around a grand central dome, under which 
IS the capacious auditorium seating, with balconies, about 700 people. 
Immediately behind the pulpit is a grand pipe organ. Large folding 
doors connect the main auditorium with the Groves Sunday School 
room which is on the east side. With these doors thrown open, a 
large audience can be comfortably seated within sight and hearing 
of the speaker. The edifice has five entrances, the main one being 
on Market Street. 

In several other features, the church stands eminent as a mod- 
ernly equipped plant. In the basement is a dining room that will 
comfortably seat between 400 and 500. It also provides a gymnasium 
and a fully equipped kitchen, shower bath and cloak rooms. 

The general plan of the interior, which was carried out with note- 
worthy success, was to so ari-ange it that every department of the 
church society could meet simultaneously, if need be, without inter- 
fering with each other. It was furthermore planned that the church 
should be open to the congregation everj- day in the year, which was 
a great help in solving some of the social problems which confronted 
the society, especially with refei-ence to the young people. With the 
addition of the nuiltitudc of war activities to the usual church work. 


it proved fortunate that that program had already been formulated. 
Nearly 100 young men joined the army and navy during the progress 
of the war, and a number of gold stars were placed on the honor flag 
of the church. 

Since April, 1915, the First Methodist Church of Warsaw has 
been under the pastorate of Rev. Leslie J. Naftzger, D. D., under 
whose charge it has reached a membership of between 1,100 and 

First Presbyterian Church 

The Presbj'terians were the second of the sects to organize in 
"Warsaw. It was formed by Rev. J. WolfP, on November 7, 1840, by 
authority of the Logansport Presbytery, with the following members : 
William Williams, Mary Williams, Peter Hover, Isaac Lucas, Catha- 
rine Lucas, Priscilla Davis, Mary McFadden, Eliza Nye and Eliza 
Van Ohren. Messrs. Williams and Hover were chosen elders. Mr. 
Hover was only stated supply, the first regular pastor of the church 
being Rev. Samuel G. Weeks, who came in December, 1843, and served 
for nearly five years. 

Rev. W. S. Wilson assumed the pastorate in 1854 and his term 
covered a period of fourteen years. During two years of the Civil 
war, commencing in August, 1862, he was chaplain of the Eighty- 
Eighth Regiment, but resigned on account of disability and resumed 
his pastorate in the Presbyterian Church. During his absence at the 
front, the pulpit was supplied by Dr. Jacob Little and Rev. Mr. 

In 1859 the first choir was organized by A. J. Mershon, Mrs. 
McComb's father, who led the singing with his big bass viol. In 
1865 a two-manual organ was purchased. 

In 1886, during the pastorate of Rev. Thomas Boyd, the brick 
church was built, located on the south side of Market Street near 
High. Its cash cost was $12,000 and many thousands more were 
donated in work and material. Mr. Boyd was pastor for eleven years. 

Rev. J. Quincy Hall was the succeeding pastor, and during his 
incumbency the present pipe organ was installed. 

Rev. James M. Eakins assumed charge in October, 1909, and in 
the same month of 1915 the massive and handsome edifice on South 
High Street now occupied by the society was dedicated with im- 
pressive and appropriate ceremonies. Since 1840 the membership 
of the First Presbyterian Church of Warsaw has increased from 10 
to alx)Ut 425, with a corresponding expansion of religious, social and 


charitable activity in all directions. Rev. Frank N. Palmer, the 
pastor now in charge, succeeded Mr. Eakins in September, 1918. 

Christian Church at Warsaw 

For more than fifteen years before a regularly organized church 
of this denomination was formed in Warsaw, various members of the 
faith met in residences and listened to the expounding of the Word 
by Christian preachers. The first local move in that direction was 
made in 1849 by Elder John Gordon, who had come from Knox 
County, Ohio, and induced Isaac Butler, a preacher of the Church 
of Christ, to settle in Warsaw and organize a society, or class, of 
eleven members. Mr. Gordon, who had brought about the organiza- 
tion, continued as elder until his death in September, 1877, a dozen 
years after the church had effected a regular organization. The 
iineetings, which were held at his house, were continuously maintained 
until 1865. 

In March of the year mentioned. Elders M. N. Lord and William 
McElvaine organized a church under the name of the Christian 
Church of Warsaw. John Gordon and Noah Watts were selected as 
its elders, and Jacob Nye and H. B. Stanley as deacons. J. B. Mar- 
shall began his ministry in May, 1865. The first church home was 
a small building purchased of William Cosgrove and formerly owned 
by the Presbyterians, for which the Christians paid $400. They also 
bought lot 305 (original plat of the Caty of Warsaw) of Elder Gor- 
don for $500. The house was moved to that site, on Lake Street, 
repaired at an expense of $250, and when occupied was considered a 
very neat and comfortable place for worship. 

The first Bible School of the Christian Church was organized in 
February, 1871, and E. V. Peek was made superintendent; Mrs. Vic- 
toria Moon, secretary. Although it opened with only nine pupils, it 
has since developed into an instrument of general religious benefit 
to the community. 

In the spring of 1876 Rev. Knowles Shaw conducted an evan- 
gelical meeting which is still considered the most successful ever held 
by the local society. 

In the summer of 1887, Rev. C. M. Granger was called to the 
pastorate, and through the unbounded zeal and untiring efforts of 
himself and wife the present church edifice was completed in 1889. 
At that time it was the handsomest and most complete house of wor- 
ship in the city. 

In 1888 the Christian Woman's Board of Missions was organized. 


with Mrs. Victoria Moon as its president, and in the same year the 
Yoiing People's Society of the church was founded. Both organiza- 
tions have been helpful and uplifting. 

The present membership of the church is about 250, with a Bible 
School enrollment of 200. The minister now in charge, Rev. R. H. 
Jones, assumed charge in June, 1918. 

The Baptist Church 

The First Baptist Church of Warsaw was constituted on January 
11, 1851, there being but two Baptists known in Warsaw at that 
time— Brother S. B. Clark and Sister Hester A. Clark. Clear Creek 
Baptist Church, located three miles southeast of Warsaw, disbanded, 
and, with these two, organized the Warsaw Baptist Church. At that 
time, the Baptist organizations in Franklin Township, Yellow Creek, 
Oswego and Monoquet were flourishing and through their pastors. 
Revs. James Martin, Ira Gratton, Edward Desborough and Zebidee 
James, they called a council and constituted the following as the reg- 
ular Baptist organization at Warsaw: Brothers S. B. Clark, L. P. 
Howe, Isaac Brady, Daniel Weiss and Edward Desborough, and 
Sisters Hester A. Clark, Elizabeth Howe, Jane Knowles, Ruhannah 
Losure and Sarah Bates. S. B. Clark and L. P. Howe were chosen 
deacons; Isaac Brady, church clerk; S. B. Clark, I. Brady and I. J. 
Morris, trustees. 

At first the congregation worshipped in the Second Presbyterian 
Church building, but in June, 1854, occupied its own meeting house. 
Rev. Edward Desborough seiwed as pastor until the coming of the 
minister elect. Rev. Abner Denman, who had charge from March, 
1851, until his death on April 19th of the following year. 

The next settled incumbent was Rev. Daniel Thomas, who served 
from November, 1853, until his decease on September 24, 1854. The 
succeeding pastor also passed away while a servant of the Warsaw 
Baptist Church, on July 3, 1856, having given the last eleven months 
of his life to this cause. Then followed several years of trials and 
uncertainties, during which the pulpit was unoccupied for much of 
the time. 

There was a revival of strength and growth under Brother R. H. 
Cook who came in February, 1862, and remained for four yeare. A 
new and larger house of worship was built and the Sabbath school 

In 1866-67 Brother John Carter and Rev. J. B. Hutton served 
the church, and in 1870-71, Revs. D. L. Clouse, A. L. Seward and 


F. Moro. During the incumbency of the last named, on August 19, 
1871, the church home was destroyed by fire. It was rebuilt after a 
time, and had the misfortune to be partially wrecked by a wind storm 
in June, 1875. But, notwithstanding these misfortunes, the society 
made a consistent gain as the years passed. 

Among those pastors who greatly contributed to the well-being 
of the church were Rev. J. B. Tuttle, who became pastor in 1876 and 
served two years ; Rev. J. R. Edwards, whose pastorate extended 
from April, 1880, to October, 1884; Rev. J. H. Winans, from April, 
1885, to January, 1889; Rev. Noah Harper, March, 1889, to March, 
1890 ; Rev. W. W. Hicks, July, 1890, to September, 1892 ; Rev. W. A. 
Pavy, April, 1893, to January, 1896, during which the church was 
remodeled and more than a hundred added to the society's member- 
ship; Rev. E. J. Brownson, March, 1896, to May, 1898; Rev. A. A. 
Williamson, October, 1898, to February, 1899; Rev. C. C. Marshall, 
March, 1899, to August, 1900; Rev. W. B. Cullis, June, 1901, to Jan- 
uary, 1902 ; Rev. George Lockhart, March, 1902, to June, 1904 ; Rev. 
C. A. Lemon, ilarch, 1905, to October, 1906 ; Rev. W. B. Cullis, who 
had before served the church as supply, from November, 1906, to 
June, 1907; Rev. B. H. Truman, October, 1907, to November, 1912, 
during which period the church lost, by death, his deacon, I. J. Mor- 
ris, who died March 4, 1910; Rev. A. A. Fletcher, September, 1913, 
to November, 1914; Rev. A. W. Littrell, November, 1914, to Novem- 
ber, 1917, and Rev. H. G. Hamilton, from the latter date to the 

The Baptist Temple 

The project of building a new and modern house of worship had 
been under discussion for some time when Rev. A. W. Littrell as- 
sumed the pastorate. Largely under his superintendency, the edifice 
now occupied and known as the Baptist Temple, was completed. It 
was dedicated on May 11, 1915, and is located opposite the Public 
Library, comer of Center and Detroit streets. The Temple was 
erected at a cost of $20,000 and is one of the most striking houses of 
worship in Warsaw. The old church property had been sold to the 
city for municipal purposes in January, 1915. Under the pastorate 
of Rev. H. G. Hamilton the church membership is about 315. 

United Brethren Church 

The United Brethren of Warsaw have been organized into a church 
for more than thirty-five years, their first pastor. Rev. A. Maynard 
Cummins, having served in 1883-85. His successors until 1894 were 


Revs. J. Simons, J. T. Keesey and E. H. Pontins. Rev. J. A. Groves 
served from 1894 to 1896, and during his pastorate the present build- 
ing was erected on the corner of Center and "Washington streets. 

Following Mr. Groves as pastors were Revs. R. J. Parrot, G. F. 
Byer, J. W. Lower, A. Maynard Cummins (second term), J. L. 
Goshert, B. F. Thomas, J. A. Groves (second term), F. P. Over- 
meyer and W. P. and Alice Noble (husband and wife). Mr. and 
Mrs. Noble have been in charge of the church activities of the United 
Brethren since 1916, and the society has developed into one of the 
strongest in the city, having an active membership of more than 400. 

The comfortable parsonage of the church was erected during the 
ministry of Rev. J. L. Goshert in 1909-10. 

The society has developed a prosperous Sunday school, in Hue 
with the traditional policy of the United Brethren Church, its present 
enrollment being 500. The Christian Endeavor alone has a mem- 
bership of more than 100. The organization as a whole evinced note- 
worthy activity in all the movements of the late war, as they applied 
to the material and moral support of the Government through such 
agencies as the Young Men's Christian Association, Red Cross, etc. 

The Brethren Church op Warsaw 

The above is the incorporated name of the progressive branch of 
the Warsaw Dunkards. The house of worship is located on the corner 
of Center and Bronson streets. The society was organized at Warsaw 
in 1890 and worshipped in an old building in the neighborhood until 
its first church was completed in 1892. It stood upon the site of the 
church now occupied, which is of brick and was completed in 1910. 

The successive pastors of the Brethren Church have been Revs. 
L. W. Ditch, C. F. Yoder, H. R. Goughnour, G. C. Carpenter, C. E. 
Kolb and A. T. Ronk, who is now in charge. The present member- 
ship is 445. 

Other Religious Bodies 

The St. Andrew's (Episcopal) Church, the foundation of which 
was laid in 1861, was, for many years, one of the religious bodies of 

The Catholics established a permanent mission in Wai-saw, during 
1852, and in 1877 erected a small brick church on West Market 
Street. It has always been under the jurisdiction of the Fort Wayne 


bishopric and its pulpit is now supplied from that point. The mission 
is known as St. Joseph's. 

The Christian Scientists meet on North 'Detroit Street, with Rhodes 
Lloyd as first reader. 

Secret and Benevolent Societies 

Warsaw, in common with other growing and progressive com- 
munities, has long supported the standard orders of a secret and 
benevolent nature whoch have alwa.ys constituted a marked feature 
of American life, and ha.s also organized others which have made 
special appeals to the particular character of its people. Among the 
oldest and foremost of these are the bodies connected with Masonry, 
Odd Fellowship and Pythianism. 

The Masonic Bodies 

Warsaw Lodge No. 73, Free and Accepted Masons, was the first 
Masonic body to be organized in Kosciusko County. This occurred 
in 1848, and it was chartered on June 1, 1849. It has initiated a 
large number of Masons and has enrolled as high as 130 members, 
although with the organization of other bodies its strength has been 
considerably reduced below that figure. There are now five bodies 
of Masons in Warsaw — Blue Lodge, Chapter, Council and Com- 

William Parks was the first worthy master of Warsaw Lodge 
No, 73, and, besides him, its charter members were F. A. Harris, Wil- 
liam B. Barnett, Jonathan Moon, Robert Graves, J. W. Stapleford, 
Clark Yager, John W. Morris, Jeremiah Stephenson, C. M. A. Burse, 
George Moore, John Knowles, S. D. Bowsley, Nelson Millice and 
Solomon Ayres. 

Messrs. Harris and Barnett succeeded Mr. Parks as head of the 
lodge, previous to 1855, when William C. Graves and C. W. Chap- 
man served as worthy masters until nearly Civil war times. Mr. 
Graves also occupied the chair during five terms within the succeed- 
ing twenty-five years, 1877 being his last year as worthy master dur- 
ing that period. C. W. Chapman, George Moon and William G. Piper 
were also prominent during these early times. 

Lake City Lodge No. 371 was chartered in 1868, being an off- 
shoot of Warsaw No. 73, but was finally discontinued. Its charter 
members were J. M. Leamon, 0. II. Aborn, L. P. Pentecost, E. M. 
Goodwin, J. W. Dunlay. T. B. Felkner, J. D. Thayer. William Con- 


rad, W. S. Hull, E. G. Burgess, A. P. Jackson and 11. R. Rizer. 
Mr. Leamon was the firet worthy master. 

Warsaw Chapter No. 48, Roj'al Arch Masons, of Warsaw, was 
granted a dispensation by the Grand Chapter of the State of In- 
diana, on October 25, 1862, upon petition of the following Royal 
Arch Masons: T. Davenport, George Moon, C. W. Chapman, B. 
Becker, J. M. Leamon, Jeremiah Stephenson, J. T. Donahoo, I. R. 
Walton and J. W. Pottenger. Among the early high priests of the 
chapter were T. Davenport, C. W. Chapman and W. C. Graves. 

The Knights Templars organized in 1867 by the Grand Encamp- 
ment at Shelbyville, under the following officers: Abraham Reeves, 
grand commander ; William Cosgrove, generalissimo ; Edward Moon, 
captain general. 

The fourth Masonic body in Warsaw is Council No. 88, Royal 
and Select Masters. 

The fifth is Warsaw Chapter No. 88, Order of the Eastern Star, 
the woman's auxiliary of the order. 

The Masons have occupied their present home on East Center 
Street, corner of Buffalo, since 1883. The anticipation is that a new 
and appropriate temple will soon be erected, although the war has 
broken into the plans looking to that end, so that it may be farther 
away than now seems probable. As in the other live orders, the local 
membership, especialh' the most active element, was considerably re- 
duced while hostilities were under way, and those who could not serve 
at the front were at times so absorbed by patriotic activities that 
the work of the order had to be given second place. 

The Odd Fellows of Warsaw 

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows is represented by two 
lodges, an encampment and a woman's auxiliary in Warsaw. The 
oldest body, Kosciusko Lodge No. 62, was chartered on Januarj' 9, 
1849, on petition of A. B. Crihfield, George ]\Ioon, James Frazer, 
Joseph A. Funk, John N. Cosgrove and Lyman A. Lattimer. In the 
following February it was instituted by the charter members named, 
George Moon being elected its first noble grand. 

The first meeting of the lodge was held in the third story or attic 
of a frame building on the corner of Market and Buffalo streets, 
owned by H. P. Buir and occupied by the Sons of Temperance. In 
1850 it occupied the third story of Moon & Cosgrove 's brick building, 
corner of Center and Buffalo streets, and continued to make its home 
there for eight years. A stock company among members of the order 


was then formed with the idea of pi-oviding a hall of some per- 
manence. The Empire Block, corner of ]\Iarket and Buffalo, was 
completed about 1859 and for a dozen years served admirably for 
the conduct of lodge work and all executive and administrative affairs. 
The building was burned to the ground on January 31, 1871, and 
unfortunately the company in which it was insured failed within a 
week after the fire and before the insurance money had been paid. 
Notwithstanding this loss, which was almost complete, another build- 
ing fund was raised and a new hall dedicated in October, 1873. 

There is probably no secret and benevolent body in Kosciusko 
County which is the mother of so many lodges therein as Kosciusko 
Lodge No. 62, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Previous to 1880, 
it had given birth to eight lodges of that order in the county : Pieree- 
ton. No. 257 ; Jubilee, No. 268 ; Sevastopol, No. 403 ; Lake City, No. 
430 ; Leesburg, No. 432 ; Milford, No. 478 ; Atwood, No. 493, and Clay- 
pool, No. 515. 

Lake City Lodge, No. 430, of Warsaw, was instituted in January, 
1874, and its charter members were : H. W. Upson, James H. Carpen- 
ter, Ancil B. Ball, W. G. Piper, D. R. Pershing, Joseph S. Baker, 
Charles Wall, Hudson Beck, W. B. Funk, Edward Moon, Samuel 
Seachrist, Levi Zambrum and E. A. Sheffield. Mr. Upson was the 
first noble grand and Mr. Baker was first vice grand. For a time the 
new lodge shared the hall of Kosciusko Lodge, No. 62, but moved into 
independent quarters in September, 1875. 

The Daughters of Rebekah, Salome Lodge, No. 27, organized in 
Warsaw in the late '70s, Hon. Schuyler Colfax, of Indiana, after- 
ward vice president of the United States, being the founder of the 
women 's auxiliary of the order. 

Lake City Lodge, No. 442, and Hackelman Encampment, Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, were organized at a still later date. 

Knights of Pythias and Pythian Sisters 

On the 18th of January, 1874, H. C. Milice and J. Silbers, then 
the only Knights of Pythias in Warsaw, called a meeting of those 
who wished to join the order at the Milice Art Gallery. P. L. Run- 
yan, Jr., J. W. Curtis, H. D. Hetfield, C. W. Graves and Colonel 
Wiltsheir, met the gentlemen named, and together they signed a 
petition for membership in the proposed lodge. Finally, in May, 
1874, a society was instituted, and on May 22d of that month Forest 
Lodge, No. 4, Knights of Pythias, was chartered, with thirty-six mem- 
bers and the following officers: H. C. Milice, past olianeellor; Reu- 


ben Williams, ehaucellor commander; W. D. Frazer, vice chancelloi-; 
P. L. Ruuyan, prelate ; ]\I. W. Mumaw, keeper of records and seals. 

But two of the charter membei-s are living — John Peterson and 
Charles L. Bartol, the latter having served as keeper of the records 
and seals for nearly forty years. 

The lodge occupied rooms in Moon Block for many years, but in 
1912 purchased the W. H. Gibson home on East Center Street and 
transformed it into an elegant and convenient Pythian home. The 
membership of the society is about 200. Its auxiliary, the Pythian 
Sisters (Temple No. 1), which also occupies the home, is a flourish- 
ing organization of about 175 members. 

Red Men .\nd Modern Woodmen 

One of the oldest and strongest of the orders, the origin of which 
is of comparatively recent date, is the Improved Order of Red 
Men, of which the local body is Peashwa Tribe, No. 83. E. W. Baker 
petitioned for its charter, which was granted September 19, 1889, 
and organized by seventy pale faces. L. B. Weaver was the first 
prophet; E. W. Baker, sachem; Warren A. Smith, senior sagamore; 
J. W. Camfield, junior sagamore ; Robert W. Nelson, keeper of the 
records ; C. W. Gruesbeck, keeper of wampum. 

The organization was in charge of District Deputy William Sears 
and the woi-k was done by members of Pottawatomie Tribe, No. 16, 
of Bourbon, the third oldest body of the order in the state. When 
the late war commenced, Walter Bolinger was prophet of the tribe, 
and, with other members went into the service, which, before its 
strength was materially reduced, was more than 280 strong. Per- 
haps the most prominent of its members is L. B. Weaver, who be- 
sides serving as the first prophet of the local tribe is past great sachem. 
Charles L. Bartol has also been one of the great trustees for the past 
ten years. 

The Modern Woodmen of America of Warsaw, Camp No. 3,555, 
was instituted in 1896 with seventeen charter membere — F. E. Bow- 
ser, Abe Brubaker, C. A. Edwards, A. E. Goshert, S. D. Goshert, 
J. C. Grandy, C. E. Guild, John G. Graf, B. C. Hubbard, William 
T. Loehr, Hippolite Netter, A. G. Partridge, T. J. Shackelford, N. A. 
Stewart, Charles A. Strain, Joseph Neinberg and George B. Williams. 
The local camp carries the usual insurance feature, as well as some- 
thing unusual; it mantains and operates a sanitarium at Woodman, 
California, for the treatment of tuberculosis among its members. 


The Elks, Eagles and Moose 

The local Brotherhood Protective Order of Elks was organized 
July 31, 1903, as Warsaw Lodge, No. 802. For some time meetings 
were held in the I. 0. R. M. hall, but in 1907 was completed the beau- 
tiful Elks' Temple on East Center Street. With furnishings, the 
building was valued at $30,000. At the opening of the World war, 
the lodge had a membership of 260 on the books, but of that num- 
ber thirty or forty were in military service, and it was not until the 
summer of 1918 that it commenced to return to normal strength. 

The Fraternal Order of Eagles, Kosciusko Aerie, No. 1,339, was 
organized in Warsaw on March 8, 1906, and owns its own home on 
the third floor of the Indiana Loan and Trust Building, South Buf- 
falo Street. It has a membership of more than 200, and its average 
per capita holdings, $104, are claimed to be the highest in the world. 

The success of the aerie has been greatly due to the energy and 
generosity of Robert M. Hickman, who on March 12, 1915, secured 
the only life membership ever issued by the local aerie. He has made 
provision in his will that the Hickman Building, located immediately 
west of the Eagles Home, shall become the property of the order 
at the time of his death. When all the conditions have been com- 
plied with and the property passes to the aerie, a considerable source 
of permanent income will be provided. 

John A. Moon, who has been secretary of the Warsaw body since 
it was organized nearly fourteen years ago, is entitled to much credit 
for its substantial and rapid growth. 

But probably Wallace J. Dillingham has attained the widest 
prominence of any member of the order in Warsaw. He served as 
state president in 1917, and since then has been junior past state 
president and special deputy to the grand worthy president. In the 
latter capacity, Mr. Dillingham is called upon to visit the aeries 
throughout the United States east of the Mississippi River, and see 
that the business and conduct of the different organizations in that 
vast territory are being operated in accord with the laws and pur- 
poses of the order. In the performance of these duties, he has not 
only become widely and favorably known as an individual official, 
but has carried the name of Wai-saw far over Eastern United States. 

The Loyal Order of Moose is the youngest of the really strong 
orders, and Lodge No. 1,423 of Warsaw was not instituted until Octo- 
ber 6, 1913. On opening night 167 members were initiated. Wilbur 
Lowman was the first man to take the work in Warsaw. In 1915 the 
lodge bought its present home in the Opera House Block, and soon 


after the close of the late war steps were taken to put it in shape for 
a modern lodge house. W. B. Yost is past dictator and Thomas J. 
Nye, dictator. The present membership of the lodge is about 500. 

Other Organizations 

There are other secret and benevolent organizations of more or 
less prominence, such as the Tribe of Ben Hur, Royal Neighbors of 
America, Ladies of the Maccabees of the World and the Daughters 
of Pocahontas, but those of whom special sketches have been given 
are noteworthy for their progressive spirit and substantial character. 
Others might have been noticed, had requests for information met 
with the desired responses. 



The Local Newspapers — The Kosciusko Republican — Warsaw 
Democrat and Northern Indianian — Lake City Commercial — 
General Williams Resumes Control — Later Record op the 
Northern Indianian and Times — The Warsaw Union — The 
Local Banks — State Bank of Warsaw — Lake City Bank- 
Indiana Loan and Trust Company — Business and Industries — 
The Warsaw Commercial Club. 

Warsaw is one of the most flourishing business, commercial and 
financial centers of Northern Indiana outside of the great industrial 
belt bordering on Lake Michigan, from South Bend westward to the 
territory immediately tributary to Chicago. It has quite a variety 
of manufactures, although not greatly looming in bulk, and its banks 
and business houses are in keeping with the thrifty and progressive 
temperament of its people. The streets of the city, both business 
and residence, are broad and neat, and altogether creditable, as be- 
fitting a substantial, progressive community of 5,000 people. 

The Local Newspapers 

The newspapers of Warsaw, two in number, are well conducted, 
and, as is usual in small cities which would not support an unlimited 
number of periodicals, divide the patronage of the two dominant 
political parties. The elder of the two, the Times, with its weekly edi- 
tion, the Northern Indianian, is republican, and the Union, which 
also issues a daily and a weekly, is democratic. Both are evening 

The Kosciusko Republican 

The newspaper above named was the first to be published in the 

county. It was originally issued from the village of Monoquet, three 

miles north of Warsaw, and named after the Indian village in the 

reservation by that name. At the time the Republican was projected 

Vol. 1-19 289 


the Harrises were striving with apparent success to make Monoquet 
a flourishing manufacturing point and the eventual county seat. But 
"things" did not seem to come the way of either the new village or 
its projectors, and in the autumn of 1846 the Republican was sold 
by Charles Murray to Messrs. Bair and Runyan, who moved it to 

The paper was continued at the county seat as a stalwart whig 
organ, but Peter L. Runyan soon retired from his connection with 
it, and for a number of years thereafter it was owned and conducted 
by A. J. and H. P. Bair, or the latter alone until his death. It then 
passed into the hands of Hon. William Williams, the able lawyer and 
public man, and G. W. Fairbrother. After conducting it for about 
a year, they passed it over to two other able and popular citizens, 
John Rogers and young Reuben Williams. The latter was publisher 
and Mr. Rogers editor. The junior partner did not retire until it 
became evident that starvation stared both in the face, if both re- 
mained on the floundering ship, and Mr. Rogers was left to weather 
the storm alone. The elder man kept the craft afloat for about a year, 
issuing the paper not according to the weekly calendar, but the con- 
dition of the office finances. The Odd Fellows constituted the strong- 
est local lodge at that time, but Rogers did not approve of them and 
kept at them in the Republican with such vim and persistency that 
they withdrew their patronage from his paper. This loss of business 
completely knocked the props from under the enterprise, and the 
Republican suspended — in fact, died — permanently. 

Warsaw Democrat and Northern Indianian 

In 1848 T. L. Graves purchased from the Goshen Democrat the 
Old Sea Serpent press ; so called because every ornament connected 
with the castings was in the shape of a snake. From that uncanny 
press was soon issued the Warsaw Democrat, with D. R. Pershing and 
Dr. A. B. Crihfield as editors. 

The Northern Indianian was established cotemporaneous with the 
birth of the republican party. Reuben Williams was still a young 
man, but more experienced than when he originally lived in War- 
saw, and there was a general demand in the community that he be 
placed behind the organ of the new politics. He was a practical prin- 
ter, having taken a four years' course in the Republican office when 
A. J. Bair was conducting it. As has been observed, he had en- 
joyed (?) a short experience as publisher of the Warsaw Demo- 
crat, and after that, as a journeyman printer had worked in several 


western offices. While thus employed in Iowa, with his horizon broad- 
ened by study and travel, the republican pai-ty was organized, and 
many of the old-time whigs and new i-epublicans of Warsaw pressed 
him to return and assume active charge of the contemplated news- 
paper. This he accordingly did, in company with G. W. Fairbrother, 
and commenced the publication of the Northern Indianian. Its title 
gave an indication of the enlarged ambitions of the local publication. 

George W. Copeland was political editor of the Northern Indi- 
anian, and George R. Thralls its local editor ; this division of editorial 
duties also indicating enterprise and determination to be abreast of 
the times. But it is said that the original cost of the entire office, 
including type, presses, a keg of ink, two rolls of paper and other 
miscellanies, was $428. The record of its first year shows, however, 
that every issue came out on time; which is unique in the history of 
newspaper enterprises, either in old or recent times. 

At the close of the first volume of the Northern Indianian, Mr. 
Fairbrother moved to the West and Mr. Copeland to Goshen. Then 
Mr. Williams became its proprietor and George R. Thralls, editor. 
The combination proved a success and the Northern Indianian took 
its stand as a leader of the state press. In 1859 it was sold to C. G. 

Lake City Commercial 

In December of that year Reuben Williams started the Lake City 
Commercial. There was not enough local patronage to sustain two 
newspapers at that time; moreover, there was decided personal fric- 
tion between Messrs. Williams and Mugg. The logical result was 
brought to pass — a bitter professional warfare; but before serious 
damage to either newspaper had been done, the disputants agreed to 
compromise by a consolidation of the rival concerns under the super- 
vision of Mr. Williams. 

At the outbreak of the War of the Rebellion, Mr. Williams sev- 
ered his connection with the Northern Indianian for the more vital 
affairs of national preservation, and his splendid record of four years 
as a soldier brought him back to Warsaw and newspaper life as Gen- 
eral Williams. During that period it had been published by Car- 
penter and Funk, F. T. Luse, and H. C. Rippey. 

General Williams Resumes Control 

Early in the year 1866 General Williams resumed his control and 
editorship of the Northern Indianian, and in 1868 he formed a part- 


nership with Quincey A. Hossler, which continued until 1875. During 
the latter portion of that period thej' purchased the Fort Wayne daily 
and weekly Gazette, which was conducted by the Northern Indianian 
management until July, 1876. 

Later Record op Northern Indianian and Times 

General Williams continued as the dominant force in the conduct 
of the Northern Indianian until his death, on January 15, 1905. 

In September, 1881, was established the daily edition of the North- 
ern Indianian under the name of the Times. It is published every 
evening in the week, except Sunday, and strictly speaking, the North- 
ern Indianian should be called the weekly edition of the Times, in- 
stead of vice versa. 

The firm of Reuben Williams & Sons, by which the papers are still 
published, was formed in April, 1904. Logan H. Williams, then city 
editor, was taken into the firm, and at the death of his father, in the 
following year, assumed the editorial management of both papers. 

Mr. Williams started at the printer's trade in 1880, on the North- 
ern Indianian, founded by his father in 1856, and which was then 
published by Reub. Williams & Son. llel. R. Williams was the Son, 
and junior member of the firm. In April, 1904, the partnership of 
Reub. Williams & Son was changed to a corporation, under its present 

The Warsaw Union 

The Warsaw Experiment lived up to its name, for it only en- 
dured about a year. C. G. Mugg, former proprietor of the North- 
ern Indianian, started that publication early in 1859, and Henry C. 
Rippey, who purchased it in the following year, changed its name 
to the Warsaw Union. Another year passed, the local democracy 
were not satisfied with their organ, and E. V. Long, Dr. T. Daven- 
port and John Foulke took over the establishment both as to its pub- 
lication and editorship. In May, 1864, while the country was cross- 
ing the bloody stream of the Civil war, the Union again changed 
hands, P. J. Zimmerman becoming its proprietor and publisher. E. V. 
Long remained its political editor. At that time, the office was in 
the third storj' of Thrall's brick building on Center Street, and com- 
prised one Washington hand-press, a small assortment of type and 
other miscellaneous material, with a total valuation of $650. 

Following Mr. Zimmerman, was A. G. Wood, who assumed the 


proprietorship in January, 1866, and in the following year S. S. Baker 
and M. L. Crawford became the publishers, Mr. Wood being its edi- 
tor. In April, 1868, F. J. Zimmerman again became sole proprie- 
tor and editor, thus remaining for many years. 

A daily evening edition of the Union (except Sunday) was estab- 
lished in 1904. E. A. Gast, the present proprietor and editor, suc- 
ceeded C. W. Smith. 

The Local Banks 

The three banks of Warsaw have for a number of years handled 
the business, industrial and commercial interests of the city with 
efficiency and wisdom. While conservative, at the same time they 
have kept pace with every material development, and looked far 
enough ahead into the future to be prepared for every emergency. 
With the progress of the late war, new and untried duties were placed 
upon them, but they rose fully to every occasion, and the bank offi- 
cials of Warsaw both as private citizens and as financiers were always 
in the van of all patriotic movements which called for their services. 

State Bank of Warsaw 

The above named is the oldest financial institution in the city. 
It was founded in 1863, as the First National Bank, under the war 
act of that year. Its articles of association bore date of August 14, 
1863, and it commenced business under a certificate of authority 
issued by the comptroller of the currency on September 22d of that 
year. The First National Bank of Warsaw, the eighty-eighth of its 
kind to organize in the United States, threw its doors open to the 
public in a building on East Market Street, on the 30th of Septem- 
ber, 1863, and was operating on a capital of $50,000. 

Its first directors were Samuel H. Chipman (president), William 
C. Graves (cashier), Thomas S. Stanfield, Simon Hartman, William 
G. Chapman, John Makemson, Andrew J. Stephenson, Silas W. Chip- 
man and Stedman A. Chaplin. Charles W. Graves was assistant 
cashier, and A. 0. Catlin, teller. 

In 1881 the First National Bank was chartered as a state insti- 
tution under the name of the State Bank of Warsaw, and its capital 
stock increased from $50,000 to $100,000. At the same time, the 
location was moved to the present site, at the corner of Buffalo and 
;\Iarket streets. 

Since the original organization as a national institution, the bank 


has had but four presidents — S. H. Chipman, W. C. Graves, S. W. 
Chipman, who served for thirty-one consecutive years; and A. 0. 
Catlin, the teller of the First National, cashier (under state control) 
in 1881-86 and 1902-16, and president since the latter year. Nor- 
man E. Haymond was also elected cashier in 1916, and L. W. Royse, 
vice president. 

Mr. Haymond "s father, the late Judge Edgar Haymond, was a 
director of the institution from the time of its organization as a state 
bank until his death, and was vice president for twenty years. 

The condition of the State Bank of Warsaw is well illustrated by 
its statement of November 1, 1918, issued shortly before the close of 
the war. Its total resources amounted to $1,120,568, of which more 
than $708,000 consisted of loans and discounts, and $196,000 United 
States bonds. Under the head of liabilities were its paid-in capital 
stock of $100,000; surplus, $22,500, and deposits nearly $928,000. 

Lake City Bank 

The Lake City Bank commenced business May 14, 1872, as a pri- 
vate institution, of which the proprietors were James McMurray, 
J. B. Mcilurray and John H. Lewis. The McMurrays were respec- 
tively president and cashier. 

In November, 1875, the Lake City Bank was reorganized and 
incorporated as a state institution. There were twenty-six charter 
stockholders, who selected from them the following board of direc- 
tors : Hudson Beck (president), John H. Lewis (cashier), Moses 
"Wallace, H. B. Stanley, John Grabner, Metcalfe Beck, Christian Sar- 
ber, J. B. Lichtenwalter, Hiram Hall and Albert Tucker. 

The Lake City has remained a state institution since its incor- 
poration as such in 1875. Hudson Beck continued as its president 
until 1885, when he was succeeded by W. B. Funk. Mr. Funk was 
at the head of its affairs from that year until 1899. He was followed 
by D. H. Lessig, who remained in that capacity until 1912, at which 
time the late John Grabner was made president, ilr. Grabner was 
succeeded by J. W. Coleman in 1915 and he still holds the presidency, 
with E. B. Funk as cashier. The latter is a son of W. B. Funk, for- 
mer president, and some member of that family has been identified 
with the Lake City Bank since its origin. W. H. Kiugerly is vice 

The bank was reorganized in 1895 and again in October, 1915, as 
the state charters expire every twenty years. It is now capitalized at 
$50,000, and has deposits of about $378,000. According to its state- 


ment of November, 1918, its total resources then amounted to nearly 

Indiana Loan and Trust Company 

The institution named transacts not only a general banking busi- 
ness, but loans money on farm and city real estate, as well as on col- 
lateral security; makes investments for its customers; writes fire in- 
surance ; furnishes bonds for administrators, guardians, trustees, etc. ; 
manages estates and other interests and has a safety deposit depart- 
ment, so that in some respects it assumes activities not usually included 
in the scope of a regular banking institution. It was, in fact, the 
first trust company to commence business in Kosciusko County, which 
was as late as 1900. 

At that time, its predecessor, the "Warsaw Building Loan Asso- 
ciation occupied a small room south of the present location of the 
Indiana Loan and Trust Company on South Buffalo Street. In May, 
1911, the Wareaw Improvement Company was incorporated by John 
D. Widaman, William D. Frazer, Jerome H. Lones and George W. 
Bennett. Two days later it leased a portion of the lot on the south- 
west corner of Buffalo and Center streets and plans were at once 
made for the erection of a fireproof building suitable to the pur- 
poses of a banking and a trust concern. The work of wrecking the 
old building was begun in August, 1911, and the new home of the 
Indiana Loan and Trust Company was occupied in the following year. 

The initial business of the company was capitalized at $25,000, 
and its total resources in December, 1900, were $28,000; in 1905, 
they amounted to over $163,000; 1910, $286,000, and in the fall of 
1918, $1,059,000. Its capital stock had then increased to $50,000 ; sur- 
plus and undivided profits, $27,000, and deposits, $967,000. 

During the years since the company's organization, there has 
been practically no change in the personnel of its management. When 
founded in 1900, its president was John D. Widaman ; vice president, 
Jerome H. Lones; secretary and treasurer, George W. Bennett; at- 
torney, William D. Frazer. In 1912 William S. Rogers was made 
secretary and treasurer, and since that year William D. Frazer has 
been chosen vice president and Oliver R. Bodkin, cashier. 

Business and Industries 

There are numerous evidences in Warsaw of collected wealth and 
successful investments of capital. Among the old business houses 
are the Beyer Brothers, probably the largest shippers of poultry 
and eggs in the state; the Warsaw Elevator Company, whose ware- 


house was built in 1872, and the Rutter Hardware Company, the 
business of which was founded by the late Richard S. Rutter in 1874. 
The Warsaw Grain and Milling Company and the Little Crow I\Iill- 
ing Company represent leading local industries, both old and new. 
The carriage and wagon factory of Harry Oram & Son, opposite the 
courthouse, have also been in the field since 1880. Even earlier of 
establishment (by twenty years) were the wagon works of William 
Conrad, who retired from business in 1909 and whose son, Earl W., 
has glided into the work of pushing the modern successor of the 
wagon. His Honor, the automobile. 

Of the industries lately established in Warsaw, probably none 
is more prosperous than the manufacture which has been developed 
since 1911 by the Warsaw Overall Company, under the presidency 
of W. S. Felkner. In addition to the large factory at Warsaw, which 
employs about 150 hands, there is a branch at Pierceton. 

Also worthy of mention are the manufactures represented by the 
Loehr Acetylene Company, the Warsaw Cut Glass Company, Cruick- 
shank Brothers' Company (local branch of the Pittsburgh Canning 
Company), and the DePuy Manufacturing Company (for twenty 
years makers of splints and artificial arms and legs). 

The Warsavf Commercial Club 

For a number of years past, the Warsaw Commercial Club, which 
has taken the place of the former Chamber of Commerce, is the rep- 
resentative body of the progressive element of the city in all matters 
relating to business, commerce and the industries. It has been alert 
to secure investments of capital not only in the establishment of new 
industries but in the expansion of those already in operation. 

In other words, the Commercial Club is the moving spirit of War- 
saw and aims to secure the co-operation of all classes of citizens — 
merchants, manufacturers, professional men, propertj' owners, em- 
ployers and employees — in order to pennanently advance, promote 
and foster the best enterprises of the community. It is the further 
desire of the club to bring all classes of citizens together on a com- 
mon plane of association with a view of developing a profitable ex- 
change of views, as well as a social fellowship, among the people 
whose lives and interests are centered in Warsaw. 

The Warsaw Commercial Club has a membership of about 150,. 
with the following officers : William D. Frazer, president ; Charles 
H. Ker, secretary and treasurer. Its directors, besides the foregoing, 
are A. 0. Catlin, L. W. Royse, J. H. Jones, Eugene Alleman, J. W. 
Coleman, L. C. Wann, W. W. Reed and C. Edwin Stout. 



First Improvements for Summer Resorters — Beyer Brothers and 
Spring Fountain Park — Carnahan's Military Park — First 
Spring Fountain Park Assembly — Dr. Sol C. Dickey Appears 
— Assembly Site Purchased of Beyer Brothers — Winona 
Assembly and Its Founders — The Indian Mound — Physical 
Improvements — A Pen Picture of the Winona Assembly by 
Doctor Dickey — Cause of Financial Embarrassment — Winona 
Assembly Grounds — The Winona Bible Conference — Side 
Conferences — Conference Against Crime — The Prophetic 
Conference — Children's Musical Pageant- — Red Cross Work 
— The I. A. E. — Schools and Colleges at AVinona Lake — The 
Winona College — Winona College of Agriculture — Indiana 
University Biological Station — The Winona Church — The 
Town of Winona Lake. 

The beautiful cluster of lakes — Pike, Center and Winona — in 
which are gathered the headwaters of the Tippecanoe River and 
around which are grouped so many of the natural and artificial out- 
door attraction.s of Kosciusko County, also constitute the material 
center of an intellectual, moral and spiritual movement which has 
brought to this section of Indiana a high and still mounting fame. 
Some features of the splendid Winona Assembly have temporarily 
languished, but that fact does not affect the general and the vital 
success of the movement and its institute. 

First Improvements for Summer Resorters 

The restful, reviving and picturesque region covering the assem- 
bly grounds and the incorporated Town of Winona Lake, has no 
early history; in the southern sections of Wayne Township occurred 
the pioneer settlements. Thirty years ago the stretch of country 
and lakes now covered by charming beaches and sliores, lined with 
pretty cottages and alive with pleasure craft and pleasure seekers, 


Winona Assembly 


SiiMMER School 

1. Auditorium in center of central 
ring, with band stand and Commercial 
building to north; Inn to the south- 
west and Marshall Home and Moody 
building to the south. 

2. Biological Station and Kosciusko 
Lodge to the extreme southwest, and 
Chicago Hill tlie farthest point south. 

'■i. Indian Mound, east of Biological 

4. The Laguna bounds McDonald 
Island on the east. 

5. Pittsburgh and Fort Wayne B. R. 
cuts through northern part grounds, 
south of Golf Links and Golf Club 

6. Map reduced from large drawing, 
courteously furnished by the Winona 
Assembly and Summer School Associa- 


as well as those who are seeking mental and spiritual uplift amid 
the healthful inspirations of nature, was naught but a region of 
farms, herds and industrious agriculturists. Then the birds of the 
air and the fowls and fish of the waters had pretty much their own 
way in all the region around Winona (then Eagle) Lake. One of 
the first organizations which attempted to provide some of the con- 
veniences and recreations required by the average tourists was the 
Warsaw Summer Resort Association, but their eiforts in that direc- 
tion were directed toward Center and Pike lakes, especially Mineral 
Beach, a tract of laud upon the high bluffs on the east shore of that 
body of water. Lakeside Park was the result, to which plied a pleas- 
ure steamer and trains of the Pennsylvania Company. 

Beyer Brothers and Spring Fountain Park 

The purchases and improvements which laid the basis of the 
Winona Assembly and the Town of Winona Lake were made by 
John F., C. C. and J. E. Beyer. They were wholesale dealers in 
dairy products. These gentlemen bought a large tract of land east 
of Eagle Lake in 1888, and first erected upon it a creamery and a 
wa3'side inn, or hotel. Within a couple of years the Beyer brothers 
had developed their land into a popular and beautiful resort for 
people of all classes and widely known as Spring Fountain Park. 
The park and Eagle Lake were located vei-y near the water-shed 
of Northern Indiana, separating the waters of the Great Lakes from 
those of the Wabash, Ohio and Mississippi valleys. The region there- 
fore occupies the highest ground in the state. 

By the year 1890, Spring Fountain Park was one of the most 
popular places for picnic parties and assemblies of a social, educa- 
tional and religious nature in Northern Indiana. The secret and 
benevolent societies, the Grand Army, the Spring Fountain Park 
Assembly and a dozen other associations were making it their sum- 
mer meeting place. Cottages now lined winding paths and roads, 
and a large auditorium graced the hillside in the southern portion 
of the park near what was known as Garfield Park. The latter was 
laid out in a shady grove around a living spring, which, by means 
of a huge hydraulic ram brought from the Mentor farm of ex-Presi- 
dent Garfield, forced the water to the cottages on the assembly grounds 
and vicinity. 

The elegant Eagle Lake Hotel had been erected, the finest hos- 
telry in any Indiana watering place, witli its tall observatory, wide 
verandas and abundant supplies of water, sunlight and fresh air. 


Besides the usual provisions of steamers, boats and bathing accom- 
modations, special picnic grounds, a driving park of fifty-five acres, 
a switch-back railwaj', and a baseball diamond, Spring Fountain Park 
offered several features far from the ordinary. 

Near the deer park and at the foot of the hill upon which most 
of the cottages were then located was a large maple tree and from 
its trunk burst a clear cold spring water, which was carried through 
acres of the surrounding grounds. It is one of many living springs 
in that section of the park, but is the only one which has found its 
way to the surface of the earth through such a remarkable medium. 
There were many fountains scattered through the grounds, the most 
conspicuous being the Sheridan Fountain in the center of the park. 

Carnahan's Military Park 

Stretching out into the lake was a level stretch of ground twenty 
acres in extent, known as the Carnahan Military Park, named in 
honor of the Indianapolis general. It served as an ideal parade ground 
and such organizations as the Uniformed Rank Knights of Pythias 
and the National Guard took advantage of its good qualities upon 
several occasions. 

The main gateway to the park was the arched entrance erected by 
the Pittsburgh, Fort "Wayne & Chicago Railway, and not far within 
was the huge cyclorama of the Siege of Chattanooga, or the battles of 
Chattanooga, Mission Ridge and Lookout Mountain. It was the out- 
come of five years of labor by the late Professor Harry J. Kellogg, 
who served under General Thomas with the typographical engineers 
during the siege. 

First Spring Fountain Park Assembly 

The first gathering of the Spring Fountain Park Assembly was 
held in the hall erected for that purpose in the southern part of the 
grounds, July 16-28, 1890. As the association which organized it 
and conducted it for three years thereafter was, in a way, the nucleus 
of the Winona Assembly, a short pause is here due to notice it. 

The original teachers of the assembly consisted of the following: 
Superintendent of instruction. Rev. D. C. Woolpei-t, M. D., D. D., 
Warsaw ; normal classes, Rev. T. W. Brake, Warsaw ; school of philos- 
ophy, Prof. T. J. Sanders, A. M., Ph. D., Warsaw; chorus class 
and voice culture, Prof. D. A. Clippinger, Chicago; young people's 
interview, Rev. T. W. Brake, Warsaw; ministers' institute, Rev. 


M. M. Parkhurst, D. D., Greeneastle, Indiana; school of pedagogics, 
Prof. T. J. Sanders, Warsaw; kindergarten, Miss Ella Clark, War- 
saw; Bible school. Rev. M. M. Parkhurst; art department, Miss il. 
E. Tibbals, Fort Wayne, Indiana; Sunday School synod. Rev. M. M. 
Parkhurst, Greeneastle; boys' and girls' convention. Miss Mary Cos- 
grove and Miss Hattie Long, Warsaw; school of stenogi-aphy and 
typewriting, Profs. McDermut and Whiteleather, Fort Wayne, In- 
diana; Sunday School superintendent, W. D. Page, Fort Wayne, 
Indiana; conductor of music. Prof. D. A. Clippinger, Chicago; the 
wit and wisdom of the crayon, Prof. W. M. R. French, Chicago ; elocu- 
tion, Prof. Mark B. Beal, Albion, Michigan. 

The first officers of the Spring Fountain Park Assembly Associ- 
ation were : Dr. D. C. Woolpert, of Warsaw, president ; J. A. Punk 
and J. S. Baker, Warsaw, and W. D. Page, Fort Wayne, vice presi- 
dents; S. W. Oldfather, Silas W. Chipman, P. L. Runyan and Wil- 
liam B. Funk, directors ; J. E. Beyer, Warsaw, secretary ; J. F. Beyer, 
Warsaw, treasurer; C. C. Beyer, North Manchester, Indiana, superin- 
tendent of grounds. 

Prominent speakers were called to address the Assembly from all 
parts of the country, and with the growth of the movements new 
departments were added and the scope of those already established 
greatly expanded. A summer school was opened under the imme- 
diate superintendeney of Prof. T. J. Sanders of Westerville, Ohio, 
and a woman's department, under Mrs. Gertrude Sanders. 

Dr. Sol C. Dickey Appe.\rs 

In the meantime a movement essentially of a religious nature was 
heading toward the Assembly, the headquartci-s of which were at 
Spring Fountain Park. In 1894-96, Sol C. Dickey, D. D., was serv- 
ing as superintendent of home missions for Indiana, and in the prog- 
ress of his work he realized the need of a common meeting place 
for rest, counsel, recreation and inspiration; "a kind of a religious 
Chautauqua," as it has been well described. The first place selected 
w^as Bass Lake, Starke County, Indiana. There 160 acres were pur- 
chased and arrangements made with the citizens to build a short 
spur from the nearest railroad to the lake. The citizens failed to do 
their part in providing the necessa .y funds to build the railroad and 
another location was sought. 

A few days later Doctor Dickey met one of the Beyer brothers 
on the train and incidentally mentioned his difficulty. "Come and 
see Spring Fountain Park at Eagle Lake," was the prompt invita- 

Rev. Sol C. Dickey, D. D. 



tion. "We have just what you need and we want to sell." The in- 
vitation was accepted, and within a few days the purchase was made. 
Prom that day to the present Doctor Dickey has lived and worked 
for the Winona Assembly. 

Assembly Site Purchased of Beyer Brothers 

The land originally purchased of Beyer brothers comprised about 
160 acres, and extended from the Winona depot on the main line of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad and along the northeastern and eastern 
shores of Winona Lake. From the purchase price of $100,000 the 

McDonald Island 

sellers donated $25,000 to the furtherance of the project and 
cepted $20,000 additional in stock. 

WiNON.v Assembly and Its Founders 

Winona Assembly was incorp,orated on January 22, 1895, with 
Charles H. Conner of New Albany, Indiana, as its first president. 
He not only contributed the first $1,000 to the enterprise, but was 
the first to purchase a summer home at the new location. Mr. Con- 
ner's business and financial abilities, joined with his enthusiastic 
and persistent religious work, made him an invaluable president while 
the foundations of the Assembly were l)eing laid, and his resignation, 
because of ill health, was a great loss to its strength. 


In the same class is also Rev. E. S. Scott, of Marion, who so long 
served as recording seeretarj^ President Conner, Doctor Dickey, 
the general secretary, and Mr. Scott all visited Chautauqua, New York, 
in order to become familiar with the management of that famous 
assembly before actually formulating their plans for the Winona 
institution. There they conferred with Bishop John H. Vincent. 
Doctor Dickey also visited Dwight L. Moody, the evangelist, at North- 
field, ilassachusetts, and obtained good advice from that great re- 
ligious leader and organizer. 

Another of Winona's useful early friends was Alexander Mc- 
Donald of Cincinnati. When the site of the grounds was purchased, 

Consecration of Indian Mound 

the one unsightly and apparently valueless piece of land was a penin- 
sula of about thirty acres extending into the lake west of the audi- 
torium. On account of insufficient outlet, this land was subject to 
overflow. Later the lake outlet was enlarged by the county com- 
missioners, and now the water level is entirely under control of 
Winona by means of a dam at the lower end of the lake. 

The situation being explained to Mr. McDonald, he ordered the 
purchase of a large dredge and the construction of a seventy foot 
canal across the broad end of the peninsula ; also the deepening and 
straightening of the shore lines. The earth thus obtained was spread 
over the island, raising the land surface and making the lots on ]Mc- 


Donald's Island salable. From that source about $75,000 was real- 
ized. The use of the dredge also made possible the cutting of two 
more canals and the creation of so many islands. 

The Indian Mound 

On the southeastern shore of the lake is a mound of ancient origin 
and at its summit is the grave of an old Indian trader named Hamil- 
ton, who, in 1833, was buried by his red friends. He had won their 
regard by his fair dealings, and it is said that as a token of their grati- 
tude his grave was placed on this eminence that it might receive the 
last rays of the setting sun. 

Physical Improvements . 

Many other landscape improvements were made by the Winona 
Assembly and Bible Conference, but the chief building additions 
were in the extensions of the cottage areas, and the erection of such 
structures as the Bethany Girls' and the Chicago Boys' club houses. 
Tennis courts were laid out, new beaches opened, and the grounds 
otherwise beautified and adapted to the coming of a larger and a 
more varied attendance than was usual in the old days. But such 
forms of amusement as the driving park, the cyclorama and the 
switch-back railway, which did not seem to sei-ve any good purpose 
as an auxiliary to mental or spiritual stimulus, though innocent 
physical activitj^, were discontinued. 

Pen-Picture of the Winona Assembly by Doctor Dickey 

If anj'one can write of the Winona Assembly as "one having 
authority," it is Dr. Sol C. Dickey, its general secretary. In re- 
sponse to a letter of inquiry sent to him by the editor of this work, he 
drew a pen-picture of the fine and strong movement of which he has 
been the guiding spirit from the first. It was written in December, 
1918, and presents the record, in brief, virtually up to the present. 
Liberal extracts taken from Doctor Dickey's letter follow: 

Emphasizing the fact that the Assembly was started by the Synod 
of Indiana while he was state superintendent of home missions, he 
called attention to the other fact that "it is, and has been through 
most of its history, inter-denominational, requiring of its speakers 
only two conditions — that they believe in the Deity of Jesus Christ 
and the inspiration of the Scriptures;" also that it "was founded 


on the two ideas of Chautauqua and Northfield." The doctor con- 
tinues: "I received my main inspiration for the work on a visit 
to both Chautauqua, New York, and Northfield, Massachusetts, and 
cheerfully recognize the cordial reception and advice which I received 
from Bishop Vincent at Chautauqua and from Dwight L. Moody, at 

Cause of Financial Embarrassment 

Regarding Winona 's financial embarrassment : ' ' The chief cause 
of financial trouble was the building of the Interurban Railway from 
Peru to Goshen. Whilst the Winona Interurban Railway has always 
been a separate institution, yet the funds for the building of the 
same were furnished by Winona's directors and friends. No one 
could foresee the increased use of automobiles and the opposition of 
the Legislature to all railways, including interurban. 

"Winona directors invested in the Interurban Railway $1,500,000 
of their own funds, in the fond hope that the railway earnings would 
be sufficient to not only pay the interest on their investment, but 
yield a fine revenue for Winona Assembly ; the directors holding all 
of the common stock in trust for the Assembly. A number of our 
directors and principal givers suffered financial failure and twenty- 
eight of them died, leaving nothing in-their wills to Winona Assembly. 
The last four years have been years of reconstruction, and have dem- 
onstrated Winona's place in the hearts of its friends and its useful- 
ness to the public. 

"The new organization will, by its charter, keep free of debt 
and cannot declare dividends. If there should be earnings above 
expenses, the same must be used in improvements or educational 
work. The men on whom responsibility chiefly rests today are con- 
servatively confident that Winona Assembly in the coming years will 
be able to successfullj' develop the plans formed for a great institu- 

"Winona Assemblj' proper will confine itself to its legitimate 
work, and all subsidiary institutions located at Winona will be financed 
separately and will form no part of its responsibility. 

"It should be understood that the directors of Winona Assembly 
personally furnish three-fourths of all the money necessary for its 
establishment, and one-half of the funds raised for the Winona In- 
terarban Railwa.v. The directors not only cheerfully bore their loss, 
but have furnished the necessai-y funds with which to reorganize. 
Special interest is taken by the old directors and friends in the 

Restful Scenes on Winona Lake 


$100,000 fund which is being raised, and which will be distributed 
through a committee to former creditors who are in absolute need. 
About $60,000 of this fund has already (December, 1918) been sub- 
scribed in five annual payments, and $21,000 has been disbursed. 

"We believe that Winona has a great work to do, and that the 
Evangelical church of the middle West will rally to her support as 
never before." 

Winona Assembly Grounds 

The physical home of the Assembly is an harmonious combination 
of the beauties of nature and the artifices, comforts and restful sur- 


roundings provided by men and women. The park grounds cover 
nearly two hundred acres, extending along the eastern side of Lake 
Winona and I'unning back from the shore lines an average distance 
of 1,600 feet. The northern portion of the grounds rises somewhat 
abruptly and furnishes the sites for most of the finest cottages. Still 
beyond are the choicest resident sections of the town, and the two 

These pretty slopes, covered in places by groves of oaks, elms and 
maples, overlook the auditorium, the old military parade grounds 
(turned into a camp by the exigencies of the late war), the inn, the 


Moody Building, the fire engine house, stores and quite an array of 
cottages. McDonald's Island is cut off from the main body of the 
park by the. canal which cuts across its western sections, while still 
farther to the southwest are the biological station, the Indian Mound 
and the Chicago Hill, on the side of which is the Chicago Boys' Club 
House. Cement walks and good drives wind through pretty gi-ass 
plats and groves, bordering the lake, and the grounds near the audi- 
torium and Moody Hall are ornamented with several bits of artistic 
statuary, with a gem of a lily pond thrown picturesquely into the 
landscape. The girls of the assembly are especially honored by the 
Bethany Girls' Lodge House, from which every member radiates 
health, happiness and spirituality. There every Christian girl knows 
she has a home. 

The Winona Bible Conference 

The greatest single movement within the purview of the Assembly 
is the Bible Conference. William Jennings Bryan is president of 
this, as well as of the Winona Assembly. This is a session at which 
religious teachers and lecturers of acknowledged eminence present 
to the public, in form at once attractive and educational, subjects 
that relate to the Holy Scriptures. Also Christian statesmen, writers 
of ability, leaders in reform and sociology-, captains of industry, spe- 
cialists in every field of righteousness and correct living, who have 
messages based upon experience and Bible analysis, contribute to the 
general treasury of the Bible Conference at Winona Lake. The an- 
nual attendance averages 10,000 Christian workers. 

The Conference of August 16-25, 1918, was typical of the general 
nature of such gatherings, and, added to the usual programme, were 
the special messages brought by Christian workers from the horrors 
and spiritual elevations of the battlefields overseas. Besides Presi- 
dent Bryan, such speakers as the following took part : Bishop Thomas 
Nicholson, D. D. ; Rev. J. Wilbur Chapman, D. D., moderator of the 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church; Bishop Edwin Holt 
Hughes, D. D. ; Rev. A. T. Robertson, D. D., professor of New Testa- 
ment Interpretation in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 
Louisville, Kentucky; Rev. Frank N. Palmer, D. D., director of 
Winona Summer Bible School; Rev. Paul Rader, pastor of Moody 
Church, Chicago; Rev. Sol C. Dickey, D. D., general secretary and 
director of the Bible Conference ; and Rev. AV. E. Biederwolf , assis- 
tant director Bible Conference. 


Side Conferences 

During the ten days covered by the Bible Conference were also 
held a number of side conferences, a mere mention of which illus- 
trates the scope of the Assembly activities. Notable among these was 
the Dry Workers Conference, over which Mr. Bryan presided. 

The Conference of Jewish "Workers was headed by Rev. Joseph 
Cohn, secretary of the Williamsburg Mission to the Jews. 

There was a Conference of Rescue Mission Workers, with Rev. 
Mel E. Trotter as leader. 

The Winona Older Girls Conference in July was organized for 

f » '^'jgf^ ■"■■( 




StMf-siits^i&tStMyU,^ m^, >^9|^^^^^H^^^^^^| 


|^^I^^^2mMm1^^ - >^^^^^^^^^^^^H 

On the Shores of the Lake 

those between thirteen and twenty-four years of age and its purpose 
was to prepare them for leadership in church, Sunday School and 
communit.y work. It was under the auspices of the Sunday Scliool 
Department of Winona. 

The Boy and Religious Conference was in charge of Rev. A. Christy 
Brown, D. D., and the training class was in connection with the boys' 
work in the Young Men'.s Christian Association and the boj's' clubs 
in touch with the Assembly. 

A number of societies, associations and churches hold their an- 
nual conferences on the Assembly grounds, thus adding to the absorb- 
ing interest of the general programmes of the Chautauqua and the 


Bible Conference. Of these mention may be made of the Christian 
Citizenship Institute, controlled by the National Reform Associa- 
tion and owning a hall for its meetings on McDonald Island. As 
indicating the importance of these citizenship institutes, it may be 
said that their staff of speakers includes such men and women as 
Dr. James S. Martin, general superintendent of the association ; Frank 
J. Cannon, former United States senator from Utah; Mrs. Lulu 
Loveland Shepard and Mrs. Marion Williams, of the far "West — the 
latter a polygamous wife for many years. 

The Christian, Brethren and United Brethren churches all held 
annual conferences in 1918, and special summer meetings were held 
by the Presbyterian young people and the Winona Woman's Mis- 
sionary Society. 

The Assembly grounds also furnished a meeting place for the 
Winona Pastore' Association, of which Dr. D. H. Guild was president. 

Conference Against Crime 

More widespread attention than was attached to any of the fore- 
going gatherings, however, seemed to be gained by the Conference 
Against Crime and the Prophetic Conference. To this Conference 
Against Crime came not only special lecturers on prison reform, the 
management of state institutions dealing with all types of crime and 
all classes of criminals, and on sociological and psychological phases 
of the subject, but wardens, chaplains and state officers who had come 
in daily touch with criminals and spoke not so much from study as 
from experience. The conference brought together all that was best 
in practice and theory, considered from many viewpoints, and created 
national interest. 

The Prophetic Conference 

The Prophetic Conference, although specially intended for minis- 
ters and Christian workers, was open to all who desired to attend, 
and was held from August 8-15. It was pre-eminently a gathering 
of Bible students who were privileged to present their views of pre- 
millenarian, postmillenarian and futurist pi-opheeies. They were dis- 
cussed, but not debated, and the list of speakers included such as 
Dr. W. H. Griffith Thomas, Dr. George L. Robinson, Dr. Daniel 
Heagle, Dr. W. B. Riley, Dr. J. C. Massee, Dr. James M. Gray, Dr. 
P. Y. Pendleton,- Prof. A. F. Wesley, and, from abroad, Dr. G. Camp- 
bell Morgan and Gipsey Smith. 


Children's Musical Pageant 

During the summer of 1918, Prof. Henry B. Roney, of Chicago, 
superintended the training of the children's and young people's 
classes in vocal music. The climax of the course was a grand his- 
torical pageant and song festival held on the shores of the lake and 
in the auditorium and representing 300 years of American history. 
The exhibition and festival were held on the evenings of August 7 
and 10, and in them participated 500 singers, ranging in ages from 
five upwards. In many respects they constituted the most bi-illiant 
and impressive event of the season. 

Red Cross Work 

The courses given in the many activities to be performed by the 
member of the American Red Cross, whether man or woman, were 
approved by the Central and Lake Divisions and the Kosciusko 
County Chapter of the national society. The training school was 
under the presidency of Dr. Henry H. Everett, of Chicago, who also 
gave lectures in first aid. The authorized courses covered not only 
that subject, but elementary hygiene, home care for the sick, dietetics 
and surgical dressings. 

As so man}' trained in Red Cross work were soon called overseas 
to the battle fronts, the courses were made as practical as possible. 
The demonstrations included bed-making, with the patient in bed; 
changing mattresses under the patient; moving the patient from bed 
to bed ; the prevention of bed sores ; all the steps in first aid for 
bruises, sprains, fractures, surgical and shock cases, exhaustion, suf- 
focation, . gas, drowning and poisoning ; lessons in the preparation 
and care of surgical dressings ; and special instruction in food con- 
servation. Details of the course last named are not necessary, as the 
period is comparatively recent when Herbert Hoover and his depart- 
ment were flooding hotels, restaurants and homes with instructions 
as to how America could keep Europe well fed-up, to come out of the 
war not completely exhausted. In this particular course, the Amer- 
ican Red Cross Society did not have a monopoly. 

The I. A. E. 

The Interdenominational Association of Evangelists, which was 
organized in 1904 and incorporated in 1906, has an intimate con- 
nection with the work of the Winona Assembly and Bible Conference. 



Its officers are Milford H. Lyon, president; William E. Biederwolf, 
first vice president ; William A. Sunday, second vice president ; Her- 
bert C. Hart, third vice president; Charles R. Seoville, fourth vice 
president ; John M. Dean, fifth vice president ; Parley B. Zartmann, 
general secretary and treasurer. The headquarters of the association 
and office of the secretary and treasurer are at Winona Lake. The 
widely known evangelist, William A. Sunday (popularly spoken of 
as Billy Sunday), has had a cottage at Winona Lake for many years, 
and some members of the family are usually enjoying it as their 

Schools and Colleges at Winona Lake 

Of the various summer schools held under the auspices of the 
Winona Assembh', two have always stood out with special prom- 

The College Building 

inence — the Summer Bible School, at the head of which is Dr. Frank 
N. Palmer, and the Summer School of Missions, under the imme- 
diate auspices of the Interdenominational Committee of the Central 
West for Missions, with Mrs. C. E. Vickers as chairman. 

There was a regular Training School for Sunday School Work, of 
which Marion Lawrance, general secretary of the International Sun- 
day School Association, was chairman. The ~ instructors are spe- 
cialists of national reputation, and the school is one of the most 
popular features of the Assembly. 

The Winona College 

The Winona College and the College of Agriculture have occu- 
pied well-defined fields of educational work, but have been some- 
what handicapped from lack of funds and the fact that the state 


system, with the backing of the commonwealth itself, covered their 
strongest features. 

The Winona College originated in a normal school which was 
established in 1908. In the following year it was reoi'gauized under 
its present name with four departments. Dr. Jonathan Rigdon as 
president — Libei-al Arts, Education, Business and Music. It has 
maintained a preparatory department covering a full four years' 
high school course. A Department of Household Arts was added in 

The summer school of Winona College has presented such dis- 
tinctive features as courses in agriculture and manual training for 
teachers, supervisors' courses in music and drawing and courses in 
primary methods embracing storj- telling, hand work, songs, plays 
and games. 

Although the institution has broadened its scope and entered the 
college class, normal work has maintained its prominence. Rev. W. 
E. Biederwolf, the well known evangelist of Monticello, Indiana, in 
1917 became president of the college, and E. 0. Excel!, of Chicago, 
chairman of the board of regents. 

The Winona College closed temporarily in 1918 because of the 
war, but has maintained its summer school for two summers. 

WiNON.v College op Agriculture 

The Winona College of Agi'iculture, while it furnishes the prac- 
tical coui'ses based on scientific principles which are presented by 
the universities of the state, also endeavors to develop moral and 
spiritual character. It is claimed that it is possible to consider the 
student's welfare more carefuU.v from the standpoint of individual 
traits and requirements than if he were connected with a larger 

Besides this individual upbuilding of manhood, it has been the 
chief object of the management to prepare graduates for faiin man- 
agers, teachers of agriculture, county agents or superintendents of 
farm bureaus and for civil service work and a high order of cit- 

This college was also closed on account of the war and has not yet 
decided to reopen. Rev. J. C. Breekenridge has been its president 
from the first. 

Indl\na University Biological Station 

As noted, the building in which are carried on the courses in 
connection with the biological department of the Indiana University 



is located in the southwestern part of the Assembly grounds. The 
twenty-fourth annual session of the Station began in June, 1918, 
and lasted nine weeks. Requirements for admission are the same as 
at the State University. The courses offered were in general zoology, 
embryology and cellular biology, advanced students being allowed to 
do individual work under the direction of the staff. 

The Winona Church 

The church was an outgrowth of the Winona Assembly, and 
especially of the schools which made the establishment of a church a 

necessity of the community. Accordingly, the Winona Federated 
Church was founded in 1905. 

Dr. Sol C. Dickey and Dr. J. Wilbur Chapman were to supply 
the pulpit during the summer, and Dr. Frank N. Palmer, Dr. J. C. 
Breckenridge and Dr. E. S. Scott, who were connected with the 
Winona schools, were to discharge the pastoral duties during the 

In September, 1911, Dr. J. W. Clokey assumed charge of the 
Winona church and thus continued for two years. In June, 1913, 
the church was taken under the care of the Presbytery of Fort Wayne 
and enrolled as the Presbyterian Church of Winona Lake. At the 


same time, it continued the broad basis of membership open to all 
evangelical believers and offered affiliated membership to students 
and others temporarily living at "Winona Lake. The first and only 
pastor of the church thus organized is Rev. James A. Gordon, D. D. ; 
he began his pastorate on December 1, 1913, and is still in service. 

The meeting place is Westminster Chapel, with Sunday school 
rooms in the same building. Lots were purchased adjoining the 
W&stminster building and a building fund was started, when the 
outbreak of the war stopped the movement, which, with the coming 
of peace, may soon be resumed. 

The membership of the Winona Church was cut down to small 
proportions owing to the closing of the colleges, and at the end of 
the war was only about 100, but it numbered among its supporting 
families a full score of well-known evangelists, Young Men Christian 
Association workers and ministers, was active in all lines and gen- 
erous in support of every good cause. It is a community church. 
On its service flag are twenty-nine stai-s and on its Young Men's 
Christian Association banner seventeen triangles. 

During the summer season all meetings are held in the Winona 
Auditorium, and Dr. S. C. Dickey as general secretary arranges for 
the services of eminent preachers for the Assembly, culminating in 
the great Bible Conference in August. 

The Town of Winona Lake 

Chiefly for the purpose of furnishing adequate protection against 
fire for the buildings of the Assembly grounds and those of the im- 
mediate vicinity and to effect an organization through which public 
improvements could be handled and facilitated, the Town of Winona 
Lake was incorporated June 2, 1913. Its area covers 200 acres, the 
town limits beginning at the entrance to the Chautauqua grounds on 
the north and west, including the territory between the King's High- 
way and thelake and extending as far south as the Kosciusko Lodge, 
just south of Cherry Creek. The corporation site is divided into 
three wards. It would be impossible to state the population of 
Winona Lake, as it ranges from 600 in the winter months to 10,000 
during the height of the Chautauqua activities. 

As elsewhere stated, the water supply and electric lights enjoyed 
by the community are furnished by the Winona Electric Light and 
Water Company. The fire protection is fully equal to all require- 
ments, and both permanent villagers and Assembly visitors have no 
apprehensions on that score; for not only is an extra water pressure 


provided in case of fire, but the town has provided a modern little fire 
engine (a Howe) at a cost of $2,750. The engine was purchased in 
May, 1914, and a neat concrete house erected for it and other appa- 
ratus in the following October. It is located in the central portion 
of the Assembly grounds, within easy reach of the main buildings, 
and the villagers are justly proud of their stanch little engine and 
fire department. 

Since the incorporation of the Town of Winona Lake, the fol- 
lowing have served as presidents and clerk-treasurers of the Board 
of Trustees: 

Presidents— George P. DeHoff, 1913-16; W. E. Lugenbeel, 1916; 
William G. Fluegel, 1916-18. 

Clerk-Treasurers— William G. Fluegel, 1913-18; John 0. .^lotto 
and Charles Ben. Taylor, 1918. 



Centers of Beauty and Pioneer Settlement — Syracuse Founded 
— The Churches of Syracuse — The Sy^racuse School — Town 
of Syracuse — The Journal — The Library and the Chautau- 
qua — Nine Mii,e Changed to Wawasee Lake — Wawasee Sta- 
tion — George W. Miles. Summer Resort Pioneer — The Old 
Fishing Days — First Improvements at Wawasee — Initial Work 
in Fish Propagation — Original Site of Wawasee State Hatch- 
ery — Extension of the State Hatchery — Death of George W. 
MiLis — South Park — Lake View — Oakwood Park — Vawter 
Park — Crow's Nest and Waveland Beach. 

In the northeastern portion of Kosciusko County, Turkey Creek 
expands into its largest body of water, known for years as Nine Mile 
Lake, with a northwestern projection, Syracuse Lake. There seems 
to be, even to this day, a difference of opinion as to the length of the 
larger body of water (called, for some years, Wawasee Lake), the 
range, from northwest to southeast, being nine miles, and the average 
width from one mile to four miles. 

Centers of Beauty and Pioneer Settlement 

But size is by no means everything, and least of all when the 
presentation is made by Nature ; and lovers of her mild and restful 
beauties, and the elegant recreations furnished by men and women of 
taste and means, justly claim that there is no region in the lake 
country of Northern Indiana which so thoroughly supplies these crav- 
ings as that of which these two lakes are the centers. 

Tliese gems in the valley of Turkey Creek, with the beautiful 
wooded hill country in which they nestled, attracted "the first settlers 
from Elkhart County to Kosciusko. They came, in fact, several years 
before Kosciusko County was organized, and about a year afterward 
laid out the Village of Syracuse at the foot of the lake by that name, 
where Turkey Creek debouches from it. 

It was at that point that Henry Ward and Samuel Crawson came, 

Wawasee Lake and Vicinity 


in 1832, and constructed a dam across the creek, with a view of erect- 
ing a grist mill there, when the pending treaty with the Indians 
should be concluded and the lands be placed in the market. In the 
following year Mr. Crawson built a log cabin near the site of the 
proposed mill, and his was the first house in the township. 

In 1834-35 several settlers ventured farther south, chiefly in sec- 
tions 26 and 20, beyond Nine Mile Lake. Estin McClintoek, the 
first of these, settled on section 26 early in 1834, and later in the 
year was followed by John C. Johnson, Patrick Johnson, William 
Cassiday, George Phebus, Andrew Guy, Valentine Slate, Henry 
Madden and Robert Wagner. Valentine Fockler located on section 
20, in 1835, where he built a cabin and prepared to be a real settler. 

Syracuse Founded 

It soon became evident that the mill site at the foot of Syracuse 
Lake was the logical location for a settlement or village. In 1836 
Mr. Crawson put up a frame building there (on the future site of 
the Lake House), and William Kirkpatrick opened a modest store 
in that structure. Not long afterward Kirkpatrick sold his stock to 
Messrs. Crawson & Ward, and William Cassiday also opened a store 
in the building which he had also erected as a dwelling. 

Joseph Cowell started a forge at what is now Syracuse in 1834. 

The first school in the township was also built on the hill, at the 
village site, in 1836. In this eventful year, Messrs. Ward & Crawson 
also erected'a saw-mill on Turkey Creek, which made the first building 
operations of the locality more convenient. 

The Methodists commenced to organize about the time that Syra- 
cuse was platted, and the physicians to the body located there even 
earlier. Drs. Hartshorn and John Shue are said to have settled in 
the locality as early as 1835. 

The first hotel in the township was kept bv George Kirkpatrick in 

Other preparations were also being made for the village which 
was to be. In 1836 a son of Harvey Veniman died and was buried, 
and in the natural order of the universe other like events might be 
expected. Consequently, Samuel Crawson, who seemed always on 
hand when anything was wanted, donated an acre of ground for a 
cemetery just west of what had been fixed upon as the town plat. 

Syracuse was laid out by that name on August 11, 1837, by Craw- 
son & Ward, proprietors of the land on which it was surveyed by 
Christopher D. Lightfoot, county surveyor. 


The Churches op Syracuse 

The Methodists were perhaps the fii-st to organize iu the village. 
The German Baptists established a society in the southern part of 
the township in 1851, and in 1856 the United Brethren also organized 
in that section. In 1858 a Church of God was founded east of Nnie 
Mile Lake, and four yeai-s later the same denomination established 
a society in town ^vhich is proliably the oldest religious body in 

The present Methodist Episcopal Church of Syracuse, of which 
Rev. F. H. Cremean is pastor, was organized iu April, 1870. Its first 
house of worship was erected in October, 1886, and it was remodeled 
and reopened, successively, in 1911 and 1919. 

The Evangelical Association had a small society and church build- 
ing in the '70s, although the organization under which it now oper- 
ates was not effected until the fall of 1897. Rev. J. J. Wise, then 
of New Paris, organized the chui'ch. Rev. L. Newman was the fii'st 
assigned pastor, and did not assume charge until 1901. George Wey- 
rick was the first class leader. The pastor now in charge is Rev. F. 
F. McClure and the society has a membership of about 150. In 1898 
was erected the present house of worship, at a cost of $5,000. 

The Grace Lutheran Church was established in 1904, and its first 
pastor. Rev. T. F. Weiskotten, served from that year until 1907. 
Rev. R. E. M. Engers ha,s been the minister in charge since October, 
1917. Its baptized membership is about eighty; contributing, fifty. 
The meeting house in which the society worships was erected iu 1904. 

The Syracuse School 

A fleeting glimpse has been given of the first schoolhouse of the 
township built on the hill at Syracuse. It was a small log structure 
and stood near the corner of HaiTison and Washington streets. As 
the settlement then consisted of only a few houses, it is quite safe to 
say that the attendance was very small. In those times the terms 
consisted of only three or four months, and the teacher was paid iu 
whole or in part by the patrons. About 1862 the old log schoolhouse 
was replaced by a frame building. 

The teachers who taught in tlie early years were a Mr. Fattis, 
William Morrison, William Dennis, William Worley, Daniel Brown, 
Rebecca Sprowl, Isaac Kitson, Haunah Galbreath and others. 

George Hattle taught the school in the winter months of 1870-71. 


The term was then four months. Mi*s. Martha Whitehead and a iliss 
Guy taught the school from 1871 to 1874. 

The four room briek building which faces Main Street was erected 
in 1874 by Joseph Kindig, who was then trustee of Turkey Creek 
Township. It was two stories and basement and its gi'ound dimen- 
sions were 36 by 76 feet. At the time, there was much opposition 
to the expenditure of the sum of money required to complete this quite 
pretentious sehoolhouse, and Mr. Kindig was severely criticized for his 
extravagance. But tlie enterprise was carried through, much to that 
gentleman's credit. For years the building and gi-ounds were a 
source of pride to all the people of Syracuse, and the quiet influence 
of the environment upon the character of the many children that have 
been comfortably housed and schooled in the handsome structure can- 
not be estimated. 

The first term in the brick building was taught in 1874-75 by 
E. M. Champlin, now of Warsaw, as principal, and Miss Amy Aber, 
as teacher of the primaiy department. In 1875 Frank McAlpine was 
chosen principal, with Joseph P. Dolan in charge of the intermediate, 
liud Miss Aber, the primary grades. Mr. McAlpine resigned in the 
spring of 1876, and ;\Ir. Dolan finished the term. During the same 
year H. S. Bortner was chosen principal ; J. P. Dolan, teacher of the 
intermediate, and iliss Lida Welch, of the primary gi-ades. Mr. Bort- 
ner remained in charge of the school until 1878. 

Joseph P. Dolan was chosen principal of the school in 1878, and 
continued at its head, with the exception of five years, until 1898; 
during the period named Mr. Dolan was engaged in business. No 
personality has done so much to raise the standard of the school and 
maintain it as that of Mr. Dolan. During the eighteen years of his 
service as its piuncipal he brought it into widespread prominence, 
and the summer normals conducted by him even attracted students 
from several of the adjoining counties. The young men and women 
who went out from the school as teachers not only entered their pro- 
fession thoroughly grounded in its principles, but inspired with high 
ideals as to its worth and dignity. 

J. A. Cummins was principal of the school from 1887 to 1889, 
during which the high school course was established, although Mr. 
Dolan had previously taught classes in algebra and geometry. Miss 
Blanche Sprague was the first high school graduate, class of 1889. 

Louis H. Kreke, who succeeded Professor Cummins, assumed the 
principalship of the school in 1889, and thus continued until 1892, 
when ilr. Dolan resumed his old position. 

Allen A. Norris was elected principal in 189S, by which year Syra- 


cuse had outgrown its school facilities. lu 1900 the upper east room 
in the brick building was divided, but that move by no means solved 
the problem, and in 1902 the old Kern building was moved to the 
south end of the school grounds facing Main Street and occupied as 
a high school. The building has since been used for the high school 
grades, which now follow a four-years' course. 

Mr. Norris retired in 1904 and was succeeded by W. B. Owens, 
who was principal for one year. C. C. Bachman has served since 

In 1908 a modern building was constructed in which the school 
is now housed. Its total enrollment is about 300, of which the high 
school enrollment is 75. Ten teachers are employed. 

Tow^N OP Syracuse 

The Town, or Village, of Syracuse is a prosperous corpoi-ation on 
the Baltimore & Ohio line, and has not only its due complement of 
churches and schools, but has its own good system of water works and 
adequate fire protection for its substantial business houses and fac- 
tories. Further, it has a well conducted bank, and a newspaper to 
set forth its strong points, as well as the attractions of Lake Wawasee, 
with all its summer attractions to the southeast. 

The Journal 

The Syracuse and Lake Wawasee Journal is a weekly, which was 
established in 1908, and is now published and edited by Preston H. 
Miles. During the season when the summer resortei-s are the life of 
the region 'round-about, Syracuse takes a back seat and Wawasee 
comes to the fore; then also the Journal is profusely illustrated with 
the natural and artificial charms of the country. 

The State Bank 

The State Bank of Syracuse was organized in July, 1899, as a 
private institution. It came under state control in Ma.y, 1908. Since 
the latter organization it has had no change in management. S. L. 
Ketring is president; J. P. Dolan, vice president, and W. M. Self, 
cashier. Besides Messrs. Ketring and Dolan, A. A. Rasor, Andrew 
Strieby and Lewis Baugher are directors. Its financial status in the 
.spring of 1919 is illustrated by the following items : Total resources. 


$349,000; capital stock paid in, $25,000; surplus, $9,000; deposits 
and demand certificates, $311,000. 

The LiBR.uiT and Chautauqua 

Syracuse has had a growing library since October, 1908, which 
was organized chiefly through the exertions and persistency of C. C. 
Bachman, J. P. Nolan, Andrew Edmonds and Mrs. Fannie Hoy. 
Mr. Bachman has been president of the Library Board since its 
establishment. Mrs. Ida Knorr served as librarian for the first eight 
years, or until September, 1916, and ^Miss Wilma Kitson held the 
position from that date until his death in April, 1918. In the fol- 
lowing May Mrs. Knorr resumed the work, in which she is still faith- 
fully engaged. Wilma Hire is secretary of the board. 

Syracuse has also become quite widely known as the center of a 
Community Chautauqua, the grounds on which it is held being thickly 
and beautifully wooded and yet located in the outskirts of the 

Syracuse is not greatly addicted to lodge life, although it has 
rather strong organizations of both Masons and Knights of Pythias. 

It has a substantial array of business houses and several industries 
which are creditable to a place of its size. Among the latter are: 
The Syracuse Cement "Works, of which L. T. Heerman is superin- 
tendent; Syracuse Flour Mills, A. J. Jenkins, proprietor; Syracuse 
Boat Factory, Sam Searfoss, proprietor; Ryan Mineral and Soap 
Works, Thomas J. Ryan, manager, and W. M. Wilt Box Concern, of 
which Mr. Wilt is proprietor. 

Nine Mile Changed to Wawasee Lake 

Obviously, Wawasee has an Indian ring to it. How did it happen 
to displace Nine Mile, so very prosaic? In this wise, as told by the 
Journal : After the burning of the old Cedar Beach Club House, on 
the northeastern shores of the lake, many years ago, it was deter- 
mined to form a new club. A number of the members did not like 
the name Cedar Beach, for it was often confused with Cedar Lake, 
a resort which did not have the best of reputations at that time. 

At one of the club meetings it was resolved that Colonel Eli Lilly 
should rename both the club and the lake. He had learned of the 
former existence of an old Flat Belly Indian chief named Wawas, 
which meant "shape of the moon." Neither the colonel nor any red 
skin had ever traced any resemblance to the moon in the shape of 


Nine Mile Lake, but, as Wawas sounded smooth to the gentleman 
charged with the double rechristening, he added "ee" to it; and there 
you have the euphonious Wawasee. Laying the proposed name before 
several of the members of the new club, they greeted it so enthusiasti- 
cally that it was adopted then and there. 

The next step was the baptism of the infant ; its formal christen- 
ing. This was accomplished by painting two signs and nailing them 
on the railway station over in the cornfield back of Riddles, which 
was where the passengers on the Baltimore & Ohio landed in those 
days. As it seemed a good enough name, the railroad company also 
adopted it and worked it into its literature. 

Daniel Ransdall, one of the members of the old Cedar Beach Club, 
was then marshal of the District of Columbia, and in touch with the 
Harrison administration, and through his good offices the PostofiBee 
Department also changed the name of the postoffice to Wawasee. 
Thus the name was fixed, the present Wawasee .station, on the Balti- 
more & Ohio Line being about half a mile north of Cedar Beach. 

Wawasee Station 

Wawasee station is simply the center of the summer resorters, 
who distribute themselves from that point around the shores of the 
lake, making a more or less permanent stay at the different parks, or 
beaches, or camps, .so channingly sprinkled throughout the region. 
The great supply depot, or business town of the locality is Syracuse, 
which, with the half a dozen sunuuer hotels, reaps the chief financial 
harvest of the summer season. 

George W. Miles, Summer Resort Pioneer 

The Wawasee Inn, one of the largest and most elegant of these 
hotels, was the direct outgrowth of the old Cedar Beach Club House, 
and perhaps no one man was more instrumental in launching the im- 
provements and arousing general enthusiasm in the possibilities of 
this lake region as an unsurpassed country for summer visitors and 
sportsmen than George W. ]\Iiles. The club had been founded ten 
years when he resigned his position as telegraph agent at Alida, 
Indiana, because of ill health and returned to Syracuse to study law 
with George M. Ray, with whom he afterward formed a partnership. 
He had been born in Syracuse, as a boy knew every foot of the lake 
shore and had explored every creek and inlet and. as a sick, tired 


man was renewing liis love for this particular piece of nature's 

"With this renewed acquaintance on the part of Mr. Miles, between 
1886 and 1890, Nine Mile or Turkey Lake, as it was still called, began 
to broaden its acquaintance with sportsmen, who came in the spring 
to hunt or spend a few weeks camping and tishing, and several of 
them found their surroimdings so much to their liking that they 
erected summer cottages and invited vai'ious members of their fami- 
lies to share their healthful pleasures. It was during this period 
that the membei-s of the Cedar Beach Club got together and fastened 
the pretty name of Wawasee upon their organization and the lake 
itself. They also erected the Inn, and, to assist in spreading the 
new name, christened it Wawasee. 

Site of Wawasee Inn 

The Journal, from which most of the information here conveyed 
is condensed, has this interesting bit regarding the site of Wawasee 
Inn: "There were (in 1876) only a few farm houses on or near 
the lake. The only boats were hewn out of logs. The land (for the 
site of the club house), consisting of about seven acres, was purchased 
for about $350. It was covered with a heavy growth of large oak 
and walnut, with cedar trees along the bluff on the lake. The present 
site of the Inn was undoubtedly the eastern terminus of the old In- 
dian trail, which led from what is now called Greider's Landing 
across the sandbar to Ogden Island and thence to this point on the 
mainland. From this elevated point war-smokes and scouts undoubt- 
edly made their observations and plans known to their tribe, the Pot- 
tawatomies, on the surrounding shores and ad.iacent land. 

The Old Fishing Dats 

"Boats could go between Ogden Island and the main laud then 
on their way from the main body of the lake to the kettle, or John- 
son's Bay. Members of the Cedar Beach Club tell wonderful tales 
of the fishing and hunting in those days. One of the members, Keubeu 
Lutz, tells of seeing acres of blue gills on the top of the water on 
sunny June days when the water was smooth. Some of the original 
members were Reuben Lutz, Judge John W. Pettit, Hai-vey Iken- 
berry, George King, Bill Ditton, Gary Cowgill and Fred Smallstreet. 
Finally Indianapolis men joined the club, and for one reason or an- 
other the members ceased to come, and the property was sold to Col- 


onel Eli Lilly and others and the club house became a hotel. The 
following year it burned." 

A new hotel was built and the name of the lake having been 
changed from Nine Mile to Wawasee Lake, the new hotel was also 
christened accordingly. The Wawasee Inn has had a number of 
changes in ownership and management, but has maintained the high 
standard which it originally set. 

First Improvements at Wawasee 

With the increase of sportsmen and summer visitors to the lake 
region, it became evident that, as had often happened in other similar 
sections of the country, the fish supply was threatened with exhaus- 
tion. Several of the most enthusiastic of the visiting and local sports- 
men, among the foremost being Mr. Miles, formed various plans for 
promoting Wawasee Lake as the chief attraction of a summer resort 
region. Among other steps taken was the reorganization and incor- 
poration of the club in the early '90s as the Wawasee Protective Asso- 
ciation, with Mr. Miles as its pi-esident. 

Through the efforts of that organization, the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad Company improved its service and erected a more becoming 
station, while the association itself built a pier at that point and a 
concrete walk leading from the lake shore to the track. 

Initial Work in Fish Propagation 

The first work in the propagation of fish and the restocking of 
the lakes was undertaken. A broodery was built in a small bay ad- 
joining the canal at Pickwick Park, between Syracuse and Wawasee 
lakes, and for two or three seasons schools of bass fry were gathered 
from their beds in the lake and placed within the screened enclosure. 
A deputy warden was commissioned and placed in charge of the 
broodery and authorized to enforce the fish and game laws of the 
state, half of his salary being paid by the Improvement Association 
and half by the State Commission. 

When Thomas R. Marshall was elected governor in 1908, Mr. 
Miles sought the appointment of commissioner of fisheries and game, 
and two years later was named for the office. One of the first 
changes the new appointee asked of the Legislature was that he be 
empowered to spend money for the propagation of fish, and through 
his efforts the third of the department funds which had formerly 
been applied to the questionable work of stocking game preserves 
with Hungarian partridges were devoted to practical pisciculture. 


"Before the state could undertake actively the propagation of 
fish," says the Journal, "it was necessary to find suitable locations for 
the hatcheries. The task of seeking out the most favorable locations 
was not an easy one. The commissioner visited the hatcheries in Michi- 
gan and Wisconsin to acquaint himself thoroughlj^ with the details 
required to constitute a good location. The traveling deputies and 
the commissioner himself made a thorough search over Indiana, and 
at last found three places — at Brookville ; at Tri Lakes, near Columbia 
City, and at the southeast end of Lake Wawasee. 

Original Site of Wawasee State Hatchery 

"By far the best location found was at Lake Wawasee. The 
Northern Indiana Improvement Company had made a site possible — ■ 
had, in truth, unintentionally created an ideal location for a hatchery 
— by erecting a few dams at the inlet to the lake, flooding more than 
300 acres of land amongst the hills at the southeast end of the lake : 
thus creating an enormous head-water that was eight feet above the 
level of Lake Wawasee. This newly created and beautiful body of 
water the Improvement Company christened Lake Papakeechie, after 
the tribe of Indians of whose reservation the inundated land was 
formerly a part. 

"A low marshy tract of land with an area of between four and 
five acres lay between Lake Papakeechie and Lake Wawasee; and 
at each of the two remaining sides of this tract stood a large hill of 
gravel, which offered the shortest possible hauling in the work of 
constructing the necessary embankments for the ponds. When 
Charles Sudlow, president of the Northern Indiana Improvement 
Company, was approached by Commissioner Miles relative to pur- 
chasing this tract of ground for a hatchery site, he met the proposi- 
tion in a very public spirited manner. He gave the state a perpetual 
lease on the ground, and all he asked in return was that a planting 
of bass be each year put into Lake Papakeechie equal to that planted 
annually in other Indiana lakes of its size. 

"The work was begun by throwing up embankments and making 
two ponds of the tract. In this way the hatchery was operated for 
two seasons." 

Extension of the State Hatchery 

In 1914 another tract of about five acres was purchased by the 
state as a site for ponds. It was also between Lakes Papakeechie 
and Wawasee and lay a few hundred feet to the northeast of the old 


pouds, bauked by two conveuient gravel hills. Eight large ponds 
were constructed of this tract, and the old ponds were divided into 
seven more by the construction of embankments. In the fall of 1914, 
a large and handsome building was erected on the summit of the hill 
bordering the west side of tlie old group. It was designed as a res- 
idence for the custodian of the tifteen ponds and the beautiful sur- 
rounding grounds, as well as a temporary stopping place for any 
deputy wardens who might be visiting that part of the state. 

Death of George W. Miles 

George W. Miles, the founder of this Wawasee State Hatchery, 
did not live to see his plans bear full fiiiit, as his death occurred at 
his old home in Syracuse, while still commissioner of fish and game, 
in December, 1914. 

None of the four hatcheries of Indiana are better adapted to the 
purposes for which it was designed than the establishment between 
Lakes "Wawasee and Papakeechie. From these hatcheries are shipped 
various .species of fish best adapted to the different waters of the 
state, and anyone desiring an allotment for any particular river, 
stream, pond or lake, may procure the kind of fish desired by making 
application to the Fish and Game Commission, of which E. C. Shire- 
man is the present commissioner. 

South Park 

Especially bright and numerous are the attractions which center 
in the parks above mentioned, which lie along the shores of Wawasee 
Lake. More than sixty years ago, Uncle Davie Sharpe and his old 
wife owned a tract of land and dreamed on the south shore of Wawasee 
Lake, and in 1888 they sold a strip about 150 feet wide immediately 
abutting its waters to Messrs. Wood & Draper. The gentlemen named 
platted their purchase into lots and built a road along the rear of 
the property, indicating that they had entered the lists of modern 
promoters. Two years afterward Charles A. Sudlow and Major F. 
E. Marsh, of Indianapolis, bought part of the strip, and in the spring 
of 1890 Major Marsh and John Yorhees built cottages on their lots. 

Other cottages followed and in 1902 Major Marsh bought the 
remainder of the Sharpe farm from the heirs and put the road back 
100 feet farther from the lake shore. He then commenced an ex- 
tended and systematic improvement of his large property, planting 
ornamental trees and shrubberv and fruit trees, laving out flower 



gardeus and cutting roads aud paths where most desirable. His 
place, The Oaks, became a model for other resident lovers of the 
beautiful out-of-doors to emulate, aud became the nucleus around 
which South Park developed with all its beauties and modern con- 

Lake View 

There is a point of laud on the south shore of Lake Wawasee with 
a fine gravel beach, which extends well out into the sunnv waters and 
which has become widely known by local pleasure seekers as Lake 
View. It was originally called Black Stump Point, as its western 
shore was punctuated by a collection of black stumps. Lake View 
IS not far from South Park, the Point having been a portion of the 
old Sharpe farm. The land has passed through the hands of such 
men as Milton Wood, Joseph Moore and George L. Lamb The two 
last named built the Lake View Hotel, which was at first largely pat- 
ronized by Goshen people. Within the past few years a protecting 
wall has been built around the Point and other improvements been 
made which make Lake View a picturesque and refreshing resort. 

Oakwood Park 

Oakwood Park, on the west shore of Lake Wawasee, is owned and 
controlled by the Lidiana Conference of the Evangelical Associa- 
tion. It IS the annual camp gi-ound of the Young People's Alliance 
and Woman's Missionary Society, where also are held the conferences 
and conventions of these bodies. In 1914 the tabernacle erected, in 
1898, by the conference branch of the Young People's Alliance was 
destroyed by fire, but replaced within a few months bv a larger and 
more beautiful structure. The grounds, in even- way, sustain the 
word Park, the superintendent of which has a handsome home on a 
hill overlooking its charms. The large Oakwood Hotel, the dormitory 
and numerous cottages at the Park, afford ample and comfortable 
accommodations for the large crowds which gather each year in • 

Vaw^ter Park 

Vawter Park also lies on the south shore of Lake Wawasee. and 
in the early times was a dense beech forest, with small creeks fed by 
living springs and running to the lake a few hundred feet 
It IS west of an old Indian trail, which led across the lake b 



of the sandbar extending from the south shore to Ogden Island. Elk 
antlers and arrow heads are strewn along trail and sandbar, giving 
the locality a distinctive Indian atmosphere. 

The tract of land upon which Vawter Park was laid out was in- 
cluded in the parcel purchased in 1846 by Balser Hess from the 
State of Indiana. He built a log cabin upon it, as was necessary, 
and that is all known either of him or his purchase for eleven years. 
In May, 1857, he sold to Israel Hess, who, in 1864, transferred it to 
George Markej'. Mr. Marker cleared more ground and placed it 
under cultivation. In April, 1883, he sold the property to John T. 
Vawter, the founder of the Park, who was then a resident of Frank- 
lin, Indiana. 

Mr. Vawter soon platted the land into lots, with a roadway behind 
them, and called it Vawter Park ; built a hotel which took the name 
of the park, and some time later sold the old Markey farm house,. 
at the south end of the grounds, to Charles A. Sudlow. Mr. Sudlow 
added to it, remodeled the entire structure and transformed it into a 
pleasant summer home. In November, 1887, Mr. Vawter sold the 
hotel to the Crescent Club, largely composed of Indianapolis men, 
and it was owned and operated by that organization until 1896. The 
hotel then returned to Mr. Vawter, and since 1901 has been under 
various ownerships and managements. From the park and the hotel 
as a starting point, cottages of all sizes and descriptions have crept 
along the south shore of the lake, along Ideal Beach to the northwest 
and toward South Park, and in a southeasterly direction toward Cot- 
tingham Beach. 

Crow's Nest and Waveland Beach 

The upper end of Lake Wawasee commemorates the name of a be- 
loved pioneer family in the form of one of the most picturesque 
lodges and private grounds in the region; Crow's Nest is known to 
every frequenter of this lake country and all who have sampled its 
simple beauties have come again. The original arrival of Nathaniel 
Crow, the founder of the family in these parts and of the Nest, is 
thus described by a local historian-. "In the early spring of 1848 
a tall young man on horseback, with a change of clothing strapped on 
behind — the horse, saddle, bridle and clothing comprising his whole 
worldly possessions — came plodding his weary way through the dense 
forest of walnut, oak and poplar of what is now Nattycrow Beach, 
and halted at a tiny clearing on the present site of Crow's Nest, 
where a man, IMr. John Chapman by name, was hoeing corn with a 


grubbing hoe. Travelers along the narrow zigzag path were a rarity 
in those days, so Mr. Chapman halted from his work and extended 
to the young stranger a hearty handshake and a glad welcome. 

"Such was the coming of the young pioneer, Nathaniel Crow, 
and thus his first sight and acquaintance with the beauties of the spot 
which for sixty-four long and useful years thereafter was the place 
of all places most dear to him. With his share of his father's estate 
($25) he had purchased the horse, saddle and bridle, and with youth's 
spirit of adventure set bravely forth on his trip from Champaign 
County, Ohio, to Indiana, which was then the Wild and Woolly West." 

Nathaniel Crow was so pleased with the country and the few 
people he found around the southeastern shores of the lake that he 
stayed and soon had his young bride sharing his land, his cabin and 
his fortunes. This ideal partnership and comradeship endured for 
fifty-three years, and at his own death in November, 1912, he was 
the owner of between 500 and 600 acres along the eastern shores of 
the upper lake, including Waveland Beach and other familiar stretches 
of shore. Being a home-loving man, Nathaniel Crow spent the later 
years of his life in the pleasant work of establishing a comfortable 
and pleasant abiding place — fii-st for his wife and children and then 
for his daughter, who, after the death of the mother, co-operated 
with him in the founding and beautifying of Crow's Nest. It is 
now a modem retreat — a veritable lodge of rest. 



Pioneer Settlers of Washington Township — ilAiN Events of the 
Early Times — Uncle Johnny Makemson — Some Pioneer ^Iar- 
RL\GES — The Summervilles and John Dunh.oi — The Ryerson 
Cemetery — Pierceton Founded — The Town Incorporated — 
Churches and Societies — The Pierceton of the Present — 
Financlvl and Industrial. 

Washiiigton is in the easteru tiei" of townships and includes some 
of the earliest settled sections of Kosciusko County. It has always 
been largely a community of rural peoples, Pierceton being the only 
large center of population. 

In area, it is one of the square townships of the county, six miles 
each way, and its surface is not characterized by any marked features, 
being generally undulating and, in places, flat and low. It is watered 
bj' Deeds and Willow creeks, or ditches, and there is little land which 
has not been brought under thorough and scientific cultivation. 

Pioneer Settlers of Washington Township 

In the fall of 1835 the first white settlers entered the township with 
a view of making their homes therein. They were John and Vincent 
Makemson, from Logan County, Ohio, who settled on section 3. For 
an entire year they -were the only residents in Washington Township. 

In the fall of 1836 they were joined by John McNeal, Henry 
Hoover, George and Henry Sommerville, Samuel Firestone, William 
Moore, Alexander Graham and William Beasley. 

During 1837 came John Hoover, William Stephenson, Jehu Dun- 
ham, Robert McNeal and John Doke, and in 1838 James Chaplin, 
Charles Chapman. Jesse Little, Lewis Keith, James Stinson and 
John Elder. 

;\Iain E\'ents op the Early Times 

By adding to this brief picture of some of the pioneers of Wash- 
ington Township, a mention of the main happenings of the early 


times a fairly complete idea of this formative period ma.y be obtained 
by the outsider. 

The first house in the township was erected by John Makemson iu 
1835. He was assisted by his two brothers and a hired man, and 
after its completion all joined forces to erect the cabin of Vincent 
Makemson, the second home in the township. 

The first road to be surveyed through the township was known 
as the Fort Wayue and Chicago and was laid out in 1837. Over it 
the mail of the first settlers was carried on horseback from the post- 
office kept at the house of George W. Ryerson and his son, Ira J., in 
whatever direction it was destined. In the following year (1838) the 
second road was surveyed from Warsaw to Wolf Lake. 

The first religious meeting was held at the house of John Bratt 
in 1838 by William Divinney, a missionary of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The occasion was the funeral of liis daughter. 

The Baptists held the second meeting in the township at the cabin 
of William Moore in 1839. 

In the latter year John McXeal donated a lot to the Methodists, 
who erected a frame cluirch buildiug upon it. 

About the same time Lewis Keith opened the first blacksmith shop 
on his farm, and Cr. W. Ryerson established the pioneer tavern at 
his homestead near the Fort Wayue and Chicago road. The latter 
was especially a well-advertised success. 

Blacksmith Keith also Imilt the first grist mill on Deeds Creek 
at about the same time that he opened his shop. 

As stated, a log schoolhouse was opened iu 1840 on the William 
Moore farm, and was taught in the winter of that year by Alfred 
Laing. The second schoolhouse was built near the home of G. W. 
Ryerson, and was known as the Ryerson School. It should not be 
neeessai*y to add for the benefit of those who ai'e at all posted on the 
institutions and customs of these times that they were both private, 
and supported by the subscriptions of the neighborhood settlers who 
liad children to send to them. 

The first orchard iu the townshii) was set out by George W. Ryer- 
son in 1841, the trees being raised from seed brought from Fort 
Wayue, Indiana, in the following year .lames Chaplin, the father 
of Mrs. Roxauna Wince, established the second orchard. 

The free-school system of Indiana was inti'oduced to Washington 
Township in 18.51, and within a few years each district was receiving 
substantial support from the public treasury, instead of being ob- 
liged to depend upoji the luicei'tainties of pi-ivate subscrijitiotis. 


Uncle Johnny jMakemson 

Mrs. Roxana "Wince has written the following regarding most of 
the prominent pioneers mentioned thus briefly in the foregoing para- 
graphs : "I was not intimately acquainted with Mr. John Makemson, 
but have good cause to hold him in kindly memory, ' because of his 
Christian bearing toward my brother in the closing years of his life. 
His people had come from England to Kentucky and had moved from 
there to Logan County, Ohio, when the settlers had to flee to block 
houses at night to protect themselves from the Indians. John was 
born there December 19, 1811, and was therefore two j-ears j'ounger 
than my father, when he and his brother, Vincent, came to Wash- 
ington Township in October, 1835. They then settled on section 3, 
John having entered a farm of 200 acres. 

"John Makemson cut the first tree that was felled by a white 
man in the township. He brought his horses, cattle and hogs with 
him, and as there was no hay to feed the cattle he kept them through 
the winter by giving them the branches of trees upon which to browse. 
The hogs, I suppose, lived on beech nuts and acorns. He had his own 
tools and with these he made his own bedsteads, tables, chairs, plows, 
harrows, rakes, cultivators, sleds and grain cradles, as well as the 
lasts and pegs used in making shoes of deer-hide for his family. He 
cut his own road to Warsaw and Leesburg the first year he was here 
and, having bought some sheep of a man in another township, his 
wife, after shearing time, carded and spun the wool, had the yarn 
woven into cloth and made their own winter clothes. 

"Uncle Johnny was a good man and much esteemed. He helped 
in the building of ten churches. He and his brother Vincent and 
their families lived alone in the township for a year, with only the 
Squawbuek and Miami Indians for neighbors and with the Miamis 
somewhat hostile. 

"In the fall of 1836, the John McNeal, who donated the lot for 
the first Methodist Episcopal Church built in the township, moved 
here from Ohio, accompanied bj' Henry Hoover. George and Henry 
Sommerville came from Virginia ; Samuel Firestone and William 
Moore from Logan County, Ohio, and Alexander Graham and William 
Bea.sley, also from the Buckeye State. 

Some Pioneer Marriages 

"You will remember that the first school in the township was 
taught by Adam Laing in a log building on the farm of William 
Moore, in 1840. So Mr. Laing must have been one of the early 


comers. He had been united in marriage to my aunt, Miss Mary J. 
Chaplin, the same year that he taught this school. Mr. Edwin Cone, 
a brother of Mrs. David Hayden, performed the ceremony, and was 
so frightened that he forgot to pronounce the couple man and wife. 
My baby brother, Byron, constituted himself the 'best man,' stand- 
ing up with the bride and holding fast to her dress, a prettily figured 

"Mr. Morse Pierce Chaplin, a brother of the bride, had been 
married a short time before to Miss Sarah Ann Morris, one of the 
early settlers of Wayne Township. His marriage was one of the 
first that was celebrated in our township, and took place almost 
simultaneously with that of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria. Wil- 
liam Williams of Warsaw was married to Miss Eliza J. Douglass in 
April of the same year. 

The Sommervilles and John Dunham 

"I remember the Sommervilles well. They were fine people. The 
two sons of George Sommerville were my pupils when I taught school 
in the Adam Laing district the winter of 1857-58. They ultimately 
moved to Kansas, where the boys, George and Jasper, I suppose, if 
living, still reside. In 1837, John Hoover, William Stephenson, John 
Dunham, Robert McNeal and John Doke came on from Ohio, the last 
named from Logan County. Mr. Steplienson died during the sickly 

"John Dunham was the father-in-law of the William M. Millin, 
in whose family cemetery the Indian, Mozette, was buried. This 
Mr. Dunham put up the first carding mill on the Tippecanoe River 
in this county. It was built for Mr. Elias Sholl, or ShuU — as we 
used to pronounce it. Robert McNeal was for a long time a resident 
of Pierceton, but finally moved to Warsaw and died thei-e. 

"In the fall of 1838 my parents moved from their home near 
Collamer, Whitley County, Indiana, and settled on the farm where 
I still reside, while my grandfather, having been given his choice of 
the two places, left his Eel River farm and located on the place ad- 
joining ours on the north, both being in section 34 (Washington Town- 

The Ryerson Cemetery 

"But I must pass on to others now. Charles Chapman, the old 
baelielor, of whom father bought the apple trees, came in 1838, and 
his little cabin stood long after he had vanished from sight. He died 

Vol. 1—22 


and was buried in the hollow in the Ryerson Cemetery north of where 
Norman Lipps and Abner T. McQuigg were laid to rest, with no 
near friends to weep over him, no stone to mark his grave. This spot, 
consecrated by common consent as a place in which to bury strangers, 
holds several nameless sleepers, among others one poor traveler who 
was taken sick with throat trouble at the Ryerson tavern and died 

"Jesse Little also came in 1838 and settled on the farm in section 
36, where two of his children, Mandane and Clarke Little, still re- 
side. The young folks used to have fine times going to his home at 
singing school. He and his wife, Elizabeth, were old and full of 
years when they fell asleep and were laid away in the Ryerson 
Cemetery. ' ' 

PiERCETON Pounded 

On December 6, 1852, during the administration of Franklin 
Pierce, Lewis Keith and John B. Chapman platted the town which 
carried the presidential name. 

Before the year closed, Mr. Chapman opened the first store of 
the new settlement in a log cabin north of its corporate limits, on 
the farm afterward owned by J. A. Shorb. He brought his mer- 
chandise from Fort Wayne by ox-team, and the currency employed 
included skins and furs, and the "wild-cat" money of the country. 

The first postoffice at Pierceton was established in 1854 and was 
thrown open to the public in a frame building subsequently occupied 
by the Citizens Bank. 0. P. Smith was the first postmaster, but was 
succeeded in 1855 by Dr. William Hayes, who continued in office for 
a number of years. 

The Town Incorporated 

Pierceton was incorporated on May 10, 1866, and on that day 
the Board of Trustees held its first meeting. John Moore represented 
the first district ; Adam Simmons, the second ; and Alexander Daugh- 
erty, the third. E. T. Marshall, although not the president of the 
board, was surely the chief executive of the town, since he was del- 
egated to serve as clerk, treasurer, assessor and marshal. At an ad- 
journed meeting, held two days afterward, Mr. Simmons was elected 
president of the Board of Trustees. 

Messrs. Moore and Daugherty were appointed a committee to draft 
a constitution and by-laws, which were adopted at a meeting of 
May 23d. 



The first local School Board was appointed by the trustees in 
November, 1866, and consisted of Michael Murray, John A. Shorb 
and John Shaffer. 

It was ten years afterward (August, 1876) before Aldrt Fire 
Companj' No. 1 was organized and the first systematic effort made to 
furnish the town with protection against fire. 

It was necessary that this movement be put under way, as Pierce- 
ton even at that early day had founded quite a number of industries. 
There were the Pierceton Flouring Mills, founded by Michael Mur- 
ray in 1862; the furniture factory, originally started by Baker & 
Conant near the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad, in 

Factory at Pierceton 

1864; the saw and planing mill, started by the Flukes in 1865; the 
wagon and carriage factories of P. Conrad and M. Rush, also of the 
late '60s; J. A. Shorb 's hub and spoke factory, established in 1867; 
the chair factories of B. W. Kirkland and Shumaker & Humphreys. 
F. V. B. ]\Iinnich's shovel-plow works and perhaps other smaller 

Churches and Societies 

Pierceton has three church societies which are well supported 
within its limits — the Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian and Bap- 
tist. The two fii-st named are the oldest and strongest. The Jletho- 
dists first organized in 1854, two years after the town was platted. 



and held their first meetings at the Fort Wayne depot. A house of 
worship was erected in the early '60s. The pastor now in charge 
is Rev. G. E. Whitten. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Pierceton was organized at the 
Crawford sehoolhouse in January, 1858, the first stated supply being 
Rev. W. S. Wilson. The Ryerson sehoolhouse, as well as the one 
erected in Pierceton, was also used by the Presbyterians, previous to 
the building of a separate structure for that purpose in 1863. Rev. 
H. G. Hauser is the present pastor. 

The Baptist Society is in charge of Rev. C. E. Rusk. 

Elm Street, Pierceton 

In 1870 the school trustees erected a handsome brick sehoolhouse 
in the southwestern part of the town at a cost of $9,900. The main 
structure was 40 by 70 feet, with an L, and had accommodations for 
more than 500 piipils. In the fall of that year it was organized as 
a graded school by Professor C. P. Hodge. 

The only substantial lodges of a secret and benevolent nature are 
Pierceton Lodge No. 257, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, char- 
tered in May, 1866, with a present membership of 100 ; Pierceton 
Lodge No. 377, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, organized in 
June, 1868, and having a membership of about sixty, and a Knights 
of Pvthias Societv. 


The Pieeceton op the Present 

The town, or village of today is a neat, prosperous place on the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, which is noticeable for its well paved streets, 
this public improvement having been placed under special headway 
since 1916. Like other communities of smart and up-to-date appear- 
ance, Pierceton owes much of its present substantial appearance to 
a large fire— that of September, 1897, which swept away not a few 
of its old and unsightly buildings. In the following year a municipal 
water and light plant was also established, which has been another 
source of civic pride. With a direct pressure pump, fire plugs at 
convenient locations, and a good chemical engine, both the house- 
holders and the business men of Pierceton have cause to feel secure 
and realize that they have accomplished a creditable work in this 
regard. The most serious trouble at the municipal plant occurred 
in November, 1917, when, on account of a break in the well, Pierce- 
ton was without water or light for several days. 

Financial and Industrial 

The two local banks are the Peoples and the State, of which W. F. 
Mitchell and Walter E. Shoop are respectively cashiers. The latter 
was organized in June, 1918, and has total resources of nearly 
$100,000. It is capitalized at $25,000. 

The Pierceton Record is another invaluable town institution of 
nearly forty years standing, the year of its founding being 1880. 
Its editor and proprietor of longest service is M. F. Brosnahan, the 
hardware merchant, who controlled the Record in 1893-1905. J. R. 
Hover has owned and edited it since 1910. 

Among the local industries which give Pierceton a standing are 
the large plant of Reid, Murdock & Fisher, manufacturers of ketchup 
and sauerkraut; two saw mills, a planing mill, a manufactory of 
wood-working machinery, an elevator and two feed mills. There is 
also a solid local company which deals in lumber and other builders' 



Settlers op 1833-35 — A Few First Things — Early Village of 
MiLFORD — Incorporated as Milford Junction — Water Works 
AND Fire Departjient — Electric Light and Power — Industries 
and Banks — The ]Milford Mail — Milford 's Public Library — 
The School — Local Churches and Lodges. 

Van Buren Township is in the borderland of Elkhart and Kos- 
ciusko counties traversed by Turkey Creek, and the lakes strung 
along its valley, both of which attracted settlers into the latter region. 
Considerable of the township's area of thii'ty-six square miles was 
originally considered so marshy as to be almost valueless; but the 
days of scientific ditching and draining have changed all that, and 
Van Buren is now one of the most productive and desirable sections 
of the county. 

The two principal bodies of water created by Turkey Creek are 
Waree and Deware lakes, known for years as Wauwus and Lingle. 
The foi-mer, about one mile southeast of Milford, is a mile and a half 
long, and perhaps half a mile wide, while Deware, the eastern shores 
of which extend into Turkey Creek Township, is about a mile square. 

Settlers of 1833-35 

The early settlement of Van Buren Township was formed on 
Little Turkey Prairie in the southern part of the township. Having 
no timber to fell, the settlei-s proceeded at once to plant crops, and 
the soil of the locality being very rich they were rewarded with a 
good harvest. Fencing proceeded rapidly and that section was one 
of the earliest in the county which showed real improvement over 
its natural advantages. 

The year 1833 saw the tirst noteworthy influx of settlers — Oliver 
Wright and his son, Moses, to .section 28 ; William Felkner, to section 
21 ; Elijah Miller and Richard Gawthrop, to section 32 ; A. C. Cory, 
to section 1; Mrs. Sarah De Vault, with five children, to section 32. 
and Samuel Street, to section 29. 



Early in the spring of 1834, Judge Aaron M. Ferine settled on 
the present site of Milford, and later, in the same j'ear, came Samiiel 
Stephenson and Alexander Thompson. 

In 1834-35 the following joined the settlement : James and Samuel 
Chipman, Joel Long, Henry Doolittle, John Egbert, Samuel Sackett, 
Elijah Jones, Bentley Jarrett, James Jan-ett, Andrew Edgar, Wil- 
liam Maekey and David Maxwell. 

A Few First Things 

Eaehel Felkner, daughter of William and Mary Ann Felkner, was 
the first white child born in the township, that important event occur- 
ring on May 15, 1833. 

In October of the following year was celebrated the first marriage 
in Van Buren Township, that between Fred Sumraey and Miss Adeline 

The first schoolhouse to be erected iu the township was completed 
on section 29, in the fall of 1835. John G. Woods was the teacher. 

About the time the first settlers located on Little Turkey Creek 
Prairie, the road from Logansport to Goshen was surveyed through 
the township, coming to Milford by way of Leesburg, from the south. 

The first mills in Van Buren Township were built, in 1837 and 
1839, by John Egbert and both were on Turkey Creek — one, a saw mill, 
about a mile east of Milford, and the other, a grist mill, iu the village 

Early Village of JMxlford 

Judge Aaron M. Periue was proprietor of the original Milford, as 
laid out in section 8, April 10, 1836. 

In the same year that Samuel Sackett set up his blacksmith's 
forge, Judge Ferine opened a sort of a hotel, and Chipman, Chipman 
& Doolittle established a store where all the simple wants of those 
days could be met. 

Three years after Milford was platted by Judge Ferine, tlie tirst 
physician settled therein. Dr. Joseph Chamberlain. 

Milford may be said to have concluded its childhood with the 
coming of the Cincinnati, Wabash & Michigan Railroad (Big Four) 
to it in 1870. 

Incorporated as Milford Junction 

Although the Junction (Shakespeare) is about a mile north of the 
larger village, at the meeting of the Baltimore & Ohio and the Big 


Pour lines, the town generally known as Milford was incorporated as 
Milford Junction in 1882. It lias increased in population, business, 
industrial and commercial interests, until it has at present about 1,000 
people; well gi-aded and lighted streets; a creditable newspaper, 
school and Carnegie library ; a substantial plant for the conservation 
of an abundant water supply and an efficient protection against fire ; 
two solid banks; several growing industries; thoroughly stocked and 
handsomely housed business concerns; and churches and societies 
which are necessary elements in the intelligent growth of every Amer- 

LooKiNG South on Main Stri:ft, ^Iilford 

ican town. Such evidences of corporate life and growth cover an 
area of a square mile. 

Water Works and Fire Department 

Milford has been in advance of most communities of its size for 
thirty years in the way of furnishing its citizens with an abundant 
supplj' of pure water and protection against fire. The original water 
works, near the corner of Main and Fourth streets, were erected in 
1888. The principal building is the one-story brick boilerhouse which 
is an addition to the old George R. Ogden flouring mill, now operated 
by the Milford Grain ^Milling Company. In 1902 a duplex pump was 
added to the mechanical equipment. At that time was also erected a 
standpipe 110 feet high, with a capacity of 83.000 ga'lons. The water 
supply is drawn from two wells, each 160 feet deep, through eight- 


incli pipe. The distributing system is more than two and a third 
miles in extent. The entire pumping capacity of tlie works is given 
at 720,000 gallons daily. 

As measures of protection against fire, there are not only the 
extra pressure furnished by the water works, but the volunteer fire 
department, divided into three companies and furnished with the 
necessary supply of hose and trucks. 

Electric Light and Power 

Milford's electrical supply, both for lighting and power, is con- 
trolled by Goshen capitalists, under the name of the Syracuse Power 
& Light Company. The plant is at North Syracuse, about four miles 
east and at the foot of Syracuse Lake. 

Industries and Banks 

Milford has a number of local industries of a miscellaneous 
nature which give material life to the place, such as the saw mill of 
Lentz & Son, the Milford Novelty Company's establishment, and the 
factories of Jehu Beer for the making of porch swings, chairs and 
seats, and of Fred Lott, who turns out door frames. The Milford Lum- 
ber and Coal Company is a very substantial concern ; its name speaks 
for itself. 

The two financial institutions of the town are the old Miles & 
Higbee Bank and the Farmers State Bank. The former was estab- 
lished in 1S82 by Preston F. Miles and E. W. Higbee and is now con- 
trolled by E. W. Higbee, Lizzie Miles, the widow of one of the founders 
mentioned, and the sou, Leroy Miles. The paid-in capital of the 
concern is $10,000 and the deposits, $200,000. 

The Farmers State Bank is an institution of later establishment. 
Its president is Jacob B. Neff ; cashier, James T. Shepard. 

The ]\Iilford Mail 

The local newspaper, under the name above mentioned, was 
founded by Groves & Williams on November 6, 1888. W. E. Groves 
succeeded the firm as proprietor, in 1889; W. W. Breton assumed 
the ownership and management in 1894, and from 1896 to 1900 Mr. 
Groves again was at the head of its aft'airs. During the succeeding 
five or six years J. P. Priekett was owner and editor of the Mail, and 
since 1906 A. J. Forbing has been in control. 


MiLFORD Public Library 

lu 1907, the Columbia Reading Circle, a federated woman's club 
of Milford, decided to start a public library, and for that purpose 
appointed a committee to secure donations of books and money. After ■ 
collecting a small library, the committee organized a library circle of 
seven members in order that the community might receive the benefit 
of traveling libraries from the Indiana Library Commission. 

These pioneer membei-s of the first library association were : E. W. 
Higbee, Mrs. M. P. Wright, Mrs. Alpha Benson, Miss Maud :Mc- 
Laughlin, Miss Arilla Arnold and Richard Vanderveer. A small 
bookcase was borrowed and a room in Hotel Milford was donated 
for its use. Miss Arnold was selected as librarian. After a year 
the establishment was moved to a room in Miles & Higbee 's bank, 
where it. remained for several years. 

In 1916, Andrew J. Carnegie gave the Library Association 
$10,000 for a building, which is located on the corner of Catherine 
and Main streets. In the meantime (1915) Van Buren and Jeffei-son 
townships had joined Milford in the library movement, and the insti- 
tution is now maintained by their joint support. 

Great credit should be given to Miss Arilla Arnold (now Mrs. 
A. Pitt Bowers) who, for four years, donated her services as libra- 
rian, and by her personality kept the interest alive which culminated 
in the' erection of the beautiful building now occupied. At the pres- 
ent time the library comprises more than 2,100 volumes, which num- 
ber is being steadily augmented. Not only is the general public of 
Van Buren and Jefferson townships accommodated, but service is 
maintained in eight rural schools of that territory. The present 
library board is as follows: E. W. Higbee, president; C. R. Brittsan, 
vice president ; Mrs. Alpha Benson, secretary ; Victor Fuller, Orvilla 
Yeager, A. J. Forbing, W. 0. Scott, Mrs. F. M. Neff. :\Irs. Arilla 
Bowers and Richard Vanderveer. 

The School 

The school at Milford was graded soon after the eoiiiplctioii of 
the two-story brick building, in the fall of 1878. The first teachers 
were: C. P. Hodge, principal and teacher of the high school depart- 
ment ; Miss Loisa Felkner, teacher of the intermediate department : 
Miss Jennie McDonald, teacher of the primary department. Alva 
V. Stout is the principal now in charge. 

The High School 

IxTKRrRr.AX Station- 


Local Churches and Lodges 

The Methodists, Duiikards an4 German Christians all have organi- 
zations which have been supported for many years in Milford. The 
Methodists were the first to occupy the local field, and it is believed 
that they organized as early as 1850. Up to the j'ear 1861 the class 
was not served by anj^ regularly appointed pastor, but services were 
conducted occasionally by circuit riders. Rev. J. W. Bradshaw ap- 
pears to have been the first preacher to be assigned to Milford, and 
served in 1861-62. In accord with the custom of the church his suc- 
cessors served only one year or two years, so that Rev. R. V. John- 
son, the pastor now in charge, is the thirty-seventh to occupy the 
pulpit of the Milford Methodist Episcopal Church since the incum- 
bency of Rev. J. W. Bradshaw. The society has occupied two build- 
ings, erected in 1866 and 1900, respectively. Its present membership 
is about 120. 

The Christian Church (now German Christian) was organized in 
December, 1866, with Rev. Mr. I\Iarshall as its first pastor and the 
following officers: Elders, H. P. Stanley and Jacob Felkner; dea- 
cons, Jonathan Weaver and C. D. Felkner. They erected a house 
of worship in 1867. Rev. F. A. Thomas is the pastor now in charge. 

The Dunkards of ililford are strong, although divided iuto two 
societies, as elsewhere — the progressives and conservatives (Apostolic 
Church). The latter are chiefly Germans, and are under the pastor- 
ate of Rev. Edward Haab. The minister of the Progressive Dunkards 
is Rev. W. E. Thomas. 

The most substantial of the local lodges are those which have been 
supported by the Odd Fellows and the Masons for many years. The 
former was organized in 1875 under the name of Milford Lodge No. 
478, and at the present time numbers about ninety members. The 
Masons are not quite as strong, and the Knights of the Maccabees 
and the Woodmen of the World probably follow in the order men- 



First Settlers of Harrison Township— Palestine Postoffice — 
Rise and Decline of Palestine — Atwood Rises — Town of Men- 
tone — Early Settlement of Lake Township — Old Village op 
Silver Lakeville — Sil\^r Lake of Today. 

Harrison Township, which is watered by Tippecanoe River in 
the north and by Trimble Creek in its central and southeastern sec- 
tions, is one of the western divisions of the county, and one of the few 
townships which is comparatively devoid of lakes. In the early times, 
when marsh lands were considered very inferior, the township was 
looked upon with favor by the pioneers seeking homes which could 
easily be improved and made productive. The small lake (little 
larger than a pond) on section 7, now known as Crystal, was called 
Woodden's Lake by the pioneers. 

Palestine Lake, often spoken of as Palestine Pond, is only par- 
tially in Harrison Township, extending from its southeastern cor- 
ner into Seward Township. 

First Settlers op Harrison Township 

James Woodden (after whom the lake is named) and Andrew Sell 
were the first settlers in the township ; came from Preble County, 
Ohio, in the spring of 1834, and located, respectively, in sections 
18 and 19, on the banks of Trimble Creek. They both remained for 
years and became prominent. 

For two years after the arrival of Messrs. Woodden and Sell only 
the following, with their families, joined the settlement : Thomas 
Romine, Daniel and John Underbill, Thomas Reed, Joseph Snively, 
William Blue, Isham Summy and Christian Sarber. Phildon Ro- 
mine, an unmarried man, also located in the township during 1836. 

Palestine Postoffice 

In 1836 the first postoffice in the township was established at the 
house of James Woodden, and naturally he was appointed postmas- 
ter. In the following year, when Palestine was laid out at the foot 


of the lake the postofiSce was moved thither, with Isham Summy as 

It was also in 1836 that Daniel Underhill sold the first stock of 
general merchandise in Harrison Township on the site of the future 
town of Palestine. 

Andrew Sell lost a child about this time and buried the dear one 
on his home farm in section 13. That fact induced him to donate 
a lot for burial purposes, near the location of the church which was 
afterward erected for the Center United Brethren. 

Isham Summy erected the first mill in the township, during the 
year 1838, on the bank of Trimble Creek. It was both a grist and 
saw mill, and met two pressing needs of the settlers of the neighbor- 

In the same year, the first schoolhouse was erected on section 29, 
near the Creek, and Henry Bradley first taught therein. 

Rise and Decline op Palestine 

Palestine, now almost a deserted village, is the oldest town in 
Harrison Township, and one of the most ancient in the county. Lo- 
cated at the mouth of Trimble Creek where it emerges from Palestine 
Lake and at the site of a good water power, it seemed destined to 
become a growing center of population and a mill town of promi- 
nence; but after twenty years of rather steady growth and bright 
hopes, not to call them real prospects, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & 
Chicago Railroad passed it by in favor of Atwood, farther to the 
north, and from that event and time date the decline of Palestine. 

The village of Palestine was laid out by Isham Summy on April 
20, 1837, and until the Fort Wayne Railroad was put through the 
county in 1854-57 promised to remain the chief supplj' center of the 
productive valley of Trimble Creek and the surrounding country for 
years to come. 

Atwood Rises 

But in September, 1857, a rival to Palestine appeared in tlie vil- 
lage of Atwood which was laid out by Harvey Hunt and Mrs. Agnes 
Teegarden as a station on that railroad. It was first called Mount 
Ruska and retained that name until December, 1865, when by peti- 
tion of its citizens it was christened Atwood. A postoffice was estab- 
lished at the station in 1864 and Ira Hovey appointed postmaster. 
Then Atwood had its little season of hopes, with small fruition; for 
it was too near Warsaw to control anv considerable territorv. 


Town of Mentone 

It was evident, however, to the builders of railroads and the 
founders of towns that there was room for another village in the 
County of Kosciusko farther south and west, on Yellow Creek. But 
that is a story of the early '80s, when the Nickel Plate cut through 
the southern townships of the county and made Mentone one of its 
stations. Still later the Interurban came down from the north and 
gave it such fine transportation connections as to fix its status as a 
shipping and banking center for a large area of productive country. 

It has at the present time a good newspaper, a well-conducted 
bank — the Farmers, of which Frank Mannwarring is cashier — and 
a saw mill and gi-ain elevator. The newspaper, the Tri-County Ga- 
zette, is fairly descriptive of the location of Mentone, being the center 
of a circumscribed area cutting into Kosciusko, j\Iarshall and Fulton 
counties. It is one of the noteworthy publications of Northern Indi- 
ana, in that it was established at Mentone in 1885, and has been 
published there for thirty-four years under the management of C. M. 
Smith, who is editor, publisher and proprietor. 

Mentone has three churches which are supported in a substantial 
way both as to membership and finances — the Baptist, 0. B. Miller, 
pastor ; Christian, Rev. A. J. Bachman ; Methodist, Rev. David Wells. 
The Methodist organization is the oldest. The Baptist Church was 
organized in September, 1886, and was an outgrowth of the Sevasto- 
pol Society. While its own house of worship was being erected, the 
members of the Baptist Church were accommodated in the Metho- 
dist meeting house on alternate Sundays. The leading personal fac- 
tor in the new organization was Deacon Elliot Mannwarring, who 
is still living and honored by his home community. The first house 
of worship was completed in the fall of 1886 under Rev. G. C. Gra- 
ham, who as the pioneer pastor of the society served until January, 
1888. The first church edifice was occupied for thiily years, or until 
December, 1916, when the house of today was completed. The pres- 
ent membership of the church, which has been in charge of Rev. 0. E. 
Miller since December, 1915, is about 275. 

Early Settlement of Lake Townsihi' 

Lake is one of the small townships of the county, embracing only 
twenty-four square miles — four sections north and south and six, 
east and west. Silver Lake, a beautiful little body of water, is on 
its western border, a small corner of it extending into Seward Town- 


^1^^^ ' ''^•- T/^'^'^ itk^^^^ftK 


t - . _ . 


Public School 


As it is in the southern tier of townships, the tide of settlement 
from Elkhart County did not rise thus far until several years after 
it overtiowed the northern sections of Kosciusko. 

The first settlers of Lake Township were Jacob Rhoades and fam- 
ily, who located on section 34 in May, 1837. Between that year and 
1840, the following pioneers arrived in the township and established 
homes: Isaac Vangilder, Chris. Correll, Amos Snoke, Joshua Heren- 
deen, Caleb Phillips, Joshua Batkin, George Butterbaugh, John But- 
terbaugh, and William Left'el. Gabriel Swihart came in January, 
1840. John and Chris Franz, Jacob Hay, John and Sol Ulery, John 
Montle and Abraham Roland were also among the early settlers. 

The first child to be born in the township was Enoch Rhoades, 
son of John and Catherine Rhoades, whose birthday was in October, 

Settlement was by no means rapid, so that it was eleven years 
after the coming and the increase of the Rhoades family that the north- 
ern part of the township felt the need of a saw mill. In 1848, how- 
ever, Henry B. Funk built one on section 34. It was operated by 

The first store was opened by Jacob Paulus in 1853 on the site 
of what was first platted as Silver Lakeville ; afterward named Silver 
Lake. He and his brother, Henry, continued in business in that local- 
ity for many years. 

Old Village of Silver Lakeville 

This was platted by Jacob Paulus, March 8, 1859. As it was just 
southeast of the lake, in the midst of a good agricultural and live 
stock country which was tributary to it, even before the Big Four 
was built through the township in 1869-70, the village had a number 
of good general stores, an agricultural implement depot, marble works, 
carriage and wagon shop, a grist mill, saw mill and broom-handle fac- 

Silver Lake Today 

The village of the present is a place of over 500 people within 
convenient distance of the Big Four Railroad. Its streets are well 
lighted through the Winona Light and Power Company. Two banks 
— the Commercial State and the Farmers — have been in operation for 
some time. The state institution was organized in 1905 and is now 
doing business with a capital of ^25,000 and average deposits of 


$200,000. W. H. Kern is its cashier, and D. F. Homman holds the 
same position with the Farmers' Bank. 

The local newspaper, the Record, was founded in 1886, and is now 
published and edited by Brush and Hanson. 

Silver Lake is the center of a fine dairy country, and the cream- 
ery located in town is one of the largest in the county. There are also 
large houses for the packing of native meats and the handling of 
produce, and a combined saw and feed mill is another. of its note- 
worthy establishments. The Leonard Supply Company does quite an 

Silver Lake Street 

extended business in supplying the rural schools with desks and the 
neighboring farmers with machinery. 

There are three churches in Silver Lake, only one of which (the 
Methodist Episcopal) has a settled pastor. Rev. J. F. Blocker. The 
United Brethren Society, organized in 1855, is supplied by Rev. J. W. 
Diekison, of Claypool, and the Lutherans, who established their 
church in 1865, depend upon a Warsaw clergyman. 

J. D. L. Kline is the local superintendent of schools. 

Although the Masons organized a lodge in 1873, they have dis- 
continued their activities, and the Knights of Pythias and the Odd 
Fellows now occupj' the field. The former have a membership of 100 ; 
the latter of about 80. 



Pioneers of Etna Township — Village op Etna Green — Early 
Settlers and Events op Clay Township — First Permanent 
Resident — First Union School and Church — The Village of 

Etna Township is one of the small political subdivisions in the 
western border of Koseiiisko County and is of irregular shape, caused 
by its southern boundary which is the Tippecanoe River. Near that 
stream the land is hilly; elsewhere it is comparativel.y level and, 
until it was drained, rather marshy and unproductive in the eastern 
and central portions. Camp Creek, which has been transformed into 
a drainage ditch, originally rose in the northwestern part of the 
township and joined the Tippecanoe River at a point about two miles 
south of the present Village of Etna Green. 

Pioneers op Etna Township 

The settlement of Etna Township was not begun until many of 
the neighboring townships had been organized and become quite 
populous. The pioneers of this part of the county located near the 
present site of the village in 1843. Among them may be mentioned 
Robert Reed, Solomon Klingerman, (Charles Rockliill, George Burg, 
William Bowman and Abraham Bowman. 

The first house in the township was built by Robert Reed on sec- 
tion 34, soon after his arrival, and each new settler was thereafter 
assisted in the building of his cal)in by his neighbors already e.stab- 

Village of Etna Green 

In 1853 David Carr and Levi Keeler platted the Town of Etna 
Green as a station on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Rail- 
road, which was then being constructed through the central town- 
ships of Kosciusko County. ]\[r. Carr had already built a mill on 


the site of the town, and soon after it was laid out Mr. Keeler erected 
the first building designed for mercantile purposes. Its walls were 
hardly up before its proprietor arranged to give his townsmen such 
postal accommodations as he could, since he had been named as post- 

Another important event occurred during the first year of the 
new town and railroad station. The first township election, probabl.y 
held at Mr. Keeler 's store, resulted in the choice of Joel Leffel for 
justice of the peace and Samuel B. Gay for constable. 

The present village is a quiet, neat residence town, with its own 
light and water plant ; which has been in operation since 1910-11. An 
adequate and pure water supply is drawn from'a well about 100 feet 

The chief business and industrial interests of the place are repre- 
sented by the Etna Green Lumber and Milling Company, controlled 
by J. W. Stackhouse and Lewis Mason. The milling branch of the 
firm includes a feed mill and elevator. 

Banking accommodations are supplied by the private institution 
of S. P. Iden, which was established in 1900. It has a capital of 
$20,000, surplus of $10,000 and average deposits of $300,000. 

The Etna Township schools are under the principalship of Lloyd 
B. Eherenmau, whose headquarters are at Etna Green. The school- 
house there occupied was completed in 1914. The village enrollment 
is about 200; actual attendance half that figure. 

As to the local churches — the Methodists, United Brethren and 
Christians have all been organized for many years. The Christian 
Church, which was established at Etna Green in 1866, is supplied 
by Rev. F. A. Thomas, of Milford, who also has the Palestine charge. 

The United Brethren Church was organized in the early '70s, or 
before, and is now in charge of Rev. E. F. Stump. 

The Methodists built their first house of worship in 1881 and the 
one which they now occupy in 1915. Rev. Edwin Dickson is the pres- 
ent pastor of the church. 

Early Settlers and Events of Clay Township 

Clay is one of the undulating and well-drained of the southern 
townships. Originally, it was thickly overgrown with timber, which 
has been mostly cleared away, leaving a strong and productive .soil. 
There are quite a number of pretty lakes in the township, although 
none of large extent. One of them, in the northern section 3, became 


somewhat famous in the earlier years for its abundant supply of 
muskalonge; and was named accordingly. 

The first settler, Samuel Bishop, located in section 17, in the spring 
of 1836, not far from the site of the present Village of Claypool. 
He built a cabin there, but returned to his Ohio home soon afterward 
and was therefore never corfsidered a permanent settler. 

First Permanent Resident 

George Luke was the first resident to reach the standard of per- 
manency, as in August, 1836, he came from Ohio with his family, 
built a cabin on section 4, and commenced really to live. In the fol- 
lowing October he was joined by John S. Popham and Zadoc McCoy, 
from Knox County (his own state), who settled in his neighborhood. 

In the year 1837 Joshua Caldwell ; the Minears, father and son, 
with ther families, as well as Thomas and William Jameson, fixed 
their homesteads on section 19. 

Mr. and Mrs. Luke's son, George, was born in April, 1837, and 
he was the first white native of the township ; the Jamesons had a 
daughter in September, the pioneer native of her sex in Clay Town- 

The first death in the township was that of Mrs. Sarah Minear, 
who died in the fall of 1838. Later, in the same season, Mrs. Samuel 
Beatty passed away, and both were buried on the farm of Isaac 

The last named was one of the most prominent of the pioneers. 
At the first township election held in his cabin in April, 1838, Mr. 
Minear was elected a justice of the peace and John S. Popham, inspec- 

First Union School and Church 

The first school was taught in a cabin built of poles in the north- 
west corner of the township, in 1840. During the following year, a 
hewed-log building was erected on section 8. This schoolhouse. known 
as Mount Pleasant, also served the Methodists as their first public 
place of meeting and they continued to occupy it on Sundays for 
nearly twenty years. In 1859 the old log schoolhouse was replaced 
by a frame structure, and the latter, in 1877, by a brick building. 

The Methodists were the first to hold services in ttie township, 
meeting at the house of Joshua Caldwell in the winter of 1837-38. 
The services were in charge of Rev. Elza Van Schaick, a circuit rider 
and misslonar}^ 


In 1840 was oi'ganized the Mount Pleasant Methodist Episcopal 
Church. After holding meetings at the homes of the eai'ly members 
and in the log sehoolhouse on section 8 until 1860, the church erected 
a religious home in that year and on the section named. 

In 1853 the Presbyterians organized a church on section 24, in the 
southeastern part of the township, and others were organized in other 
sections at a later day. 

The Village op Claypool 

In May, 1873, not long after what is now the Big Four Kailroad 
was built through Kosciusko County, John M. and Nelson Beigh 
platted a station on the line which they recorded as Claypool. It 
was laid out on tlie northeast quarter of section 20 and has since ex- 
tended, on the north side of the tracks, into section 17. 

The town took its name from the old postoffice, which was estab- 
lished in 1840 at the house of Joshua Caldwell. The oiBee was abol- 
ished in 1865, but was re-established in 1873 and gave the name to 
the station on what was then the Cincinnati, Wabash & ^Michigan 

One of the first churches to be organized at the new town was 
that of the United Brethren, which was founded in 1877 with Rev. 
John Good as its pastor. At first, they met in the village school- 
house, but within a few years erected a church building. The house 
of worship which they now occupy, under the pastorate of Rev. J. 
W. Dickison, was completed in 1909. 

The Methodists have also a church society and a meeting house 
(built in 1891), which is in charge of Rev. J. F. Blocker of Silver 

Claypool has a good school under the superintendency of H. A. 
Lucas, who is also in charge of the institution at Packerton, four miles 
to the east, on the Nickel Plate line. 

The State Bank of Claypool, which accommodates the local busi- 
ness and neighborhood trade, as well as the shippers who look to this 
junction of the Big Four and Nickel Plate lines, was founded as a 
private institution by H. and E. W. Kinsey in June, 1900. The for- 
mer was president and the latter, vice president and cashier. In 1917 
it was incorporated under the laws of the state, with George Merkle 
as president, J. 0. Deaton as vice president and E. W. Kinsey as 
cashier. The State Bank of Claypool has a paid-in capital of $25,000, 
and average deposits of .$150,000. 



Leesburg, the Old County Se.vt — Incorporated as a Town — 
Railroad and Newsp.vper — Churches and Societies — Bank and 
Flourishing Mills — Village op Oswego — The Decline of Os- 
wego — Tippecanoe Lake Resorts — Tippecanoe Township, An- 
other Lake Region — Pioneer Settlements — Road and Mills 
Built — Village of North Webster. 

So much of the very early history of Kosciusko County is cei;- 
tered in Plain Township, with its Indian reservation and Village 
of Monoquet; with Leesburg, the first county seat and the oldest 
town in Kosciusko ; with Oswego, also a remnant of the real pioneer 
times, and other memorials of the long past, that the olden days of 
this section of the county have already been covered. 

Leesburg, the Old County Seat 

Leesburg, which is reached by both the Big Four and the Winona 
interurban lines, is a neat, if mellow, community of contented and 
conservative people. Although one of the smallest of the villages 
it maintains good pavements and sidewalks; has a fair local busi- 
ness and a bank, the latter capitalized at $25,000 and carrying de- 
posits of .$200,000, and a school, now in charge of Estil B. Van Dorn, 
the history of which reverts to 1835. 

The pioneer school children of Leesburg were housed on Lot No. 
1, Prairie Street; then, after several years a small frame house was 
erected at the east end of town ; in 1868 the two-story brick house was 
built, and after about fifteen years that gave place to a still larger 
and better structure. 

Incorporated as a Town 

In 1876 Leesburg was incorporated as a town, its first board being : 
W. J. Crawford, president ; James W. Armstrong, clerk ; W. D. Wood, 
treasurer; Dr. J. H. Long, attorney; Alfred Clark, marshal. The 


school board appointed by the town board comprised the following: 
A. M. Sanderson, president; "William Archibald, secretary; H. B. 
Stanley, treasurer. 

Railroad and Newspaper 

Leesburg has had the usual experience "enjoyed" by towns, the 
fortunes of which have been uncertain. A few years after the Big 
Pour was built through the county, with the old county seat as a 
station, it looked as though Leesburg might take on a new lease of 
life, and as prohibition was also a live issue, the general situation, 
to the minds of L. C. Zimmerman and S. J. North, seemed to demand 
a newspaper at that point. About 1882 was therefore started the 
Kosciusko County Prohibitionist by the gentlemen named, :which was 
moved to Milford after about two years. 

In 1888, J. W. Armstrong commenced the publication of the Kos- 
ciusko County Standard, and, with his son, also fought for prohibi- 
tion through its columns. It was afterward sold to Jacob White- 
leather & Son. Armstrong & Son subsequently came into possession 
of it again, and sold it to the publisher of the Syracuse Journal. 

Churches and Societies 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Leesburg, which is now in 
charge of Rev. Herbert Boase, was organized in 1837 by Rev. Wil- 
liam M. Fraley. The organization was effected at the house of Charles 
Erwin and comprised six members. A church building was erected 
in the following year. Under the pastorate of Rev. George Guild, 
who was in charge in 1844, a parsonage was built. The Methodist 
house of worship was greatly improved in the late '70s, and a hand- 
some new church dedicated in December, 1895. 

The Leesburg Christian Church was organized in November, 1869, 
and the society has occupied two buildings, completed about 1872 
and 1881. The church of 1872 was destroyed by fire. 

Various lodges of Leesburg have come and gone, until at the pres- 
ent time only two of them may be considered substantial. The Odd 
Fellows are represented by Leesburg Lodge No. 432, which was organ- 
ized in December, 1873, and the Knights of Pythias by St. Leon 
Lodge No. 192, formed in May, 1887. 

Bank and Flouring ]Mills 
The Peoples Bank of Lee.sburg was opened for business in Janu- 
ary, 1903, with Joel Hall as president and J. A. Irvine as cashier. 
In 1908 it became a state institution. 


The first Leesburg flouring mills were established in 1850, but 
were moved to Syracuse. The mills at the east end of Van Buren 
Street, nearly opposite the Big Four Depot, were built in 1899. 

Village of Oswego 

The settlement at the southwestern end of Tippecanoe Lake clus- 
tered around the little mill on the banks of the Tippecanoe River is 
all that is left of quite an ambitious enterprise. After the Indians 
had relinquished the Musquabuck Reservation and moved west, the 
Village of Oswego was laid out by Messrs. Willard Barbee and B. 
French, in 1837. Mr. French had been appointed Indian agent and 
had charge of the removal of Musquabuck 's tribe to their reserva- 
tion beyond the Mississippi River. 

At the time Oswego was laid out Messrs. Barbee and French 
owned a large tract of land to the east of the village. They built the 
first business I'oom and opened the first store. Mr. French was in 
charge of the store, and the firm did a good business for ten years. 
The building of the establishment was the one used so many years 
by John Pound as a general store and in which the postofSce is located. 
Mr. Pound has carried on the store for twenty-five years, and has 
long been the village postmaster. 

At the time that Barbee and French were booming Oswego, and 
for some years afterward, the village was second to none in the county 
as a prosperous community of substantial prospects. Their mills, 
with auxiliary improvements, constituted the most important enter- 
prise ever undertaken in Plain Township. In order to secure enough 
water to operate the plants a large dam was built across Grassy 
Creek, about two miles from Oswego and just below the outlet of 
Barbee Lake. A three-foot head of water was thus secured, and con- 
ducted through a race to Tippecanoe River at Oswego, where the 
mills were built. Their flouring mill was the only one in the county 
for several years, the next probably being the Harris Brothers' plant 
at Monoquet, completed in 1844. The Barbee-French mills were run 
by the original owners for many years, and during that period Oswego 
was quite a town. 

The Decline op Oswego 

"After several years," says J. W. Armstrong in his histoiy of 
Plain Township, "the big dam across Grassy Creek broke during an 



excessively rainy season. The dam was rebuilt, but later was again 
broken, it was thought by parties who were opposed to it on account 
of the fact that it caused the overflow of a lai-ge tract of low land 
which otherwise would be valuable for agricultural purposes; and 
as those opposed to the rebuilding of the dam threatened to bring 
suit for damages it was not reconstructed, and a new site was ar- 
ranged about one mile down the river from Oswego. 


Oldest Building in the Countv 

"To this new location the old mill building was moved and was 
run for several years, but finally abandoned on account of the opposi- 
tion of those whose lands were flooded by water. The old mill bxiild- 
ing stood until a few years ago (written in 1914), when the waters 
of the river undermined its foundations and it fell to rise no more. 
The old race can still be traced almost the entire length east from 

"The only mill now in the village is a feed mill built of cement 

Scene ox Tippecanoe Lake 


blocks on the river bank as you go into town from the west. This is 
owned and operated by G. W. Craven, who is enjoying a nice little 
business. ' ' 

Tippecanoe Lake Resorts 

Tippecanoe Lake, lying just northeast of Oswego, has of late years 
gained quite a reputation as a summer resort. Along in the early 
'80s, Eli Summy and others from Leesburg built a club house on 
the southern shore of the lake, which was the first place erected for 
summer resort and sporting purposes on that body of water. Although 
it has been moved, the old club house is still in existence, standing 
rather as a memorial of the earlier times than as a representative 
of today. 

G. W. Gregg, of Marion, Silas Adams, of Portland, Charles Spen- 
cer and George Smith, who had been camping for several years on 
the northern side of Tippecanoe Lake, bought a strip of land on the 
south shore, and platted it into lots as a summer resort. Stony Ridge 
Hotel was then built ; Cripple Gate Heights, Pleasant View, Govern- 
ment Point, Fair Oaks, Kalorama, and half a dozen "landings," 
have since appeared on the shores of Tippecanoe Lake, with a fleet 
of pleasure boats and all the accessories of an attractive watering 

Tippecanoe Township, Another Lake Region 

Tippecanoe Township stands for another political and civil divi- 
sion of the county which nature has plentifully sprinkled with lakes ; 
little bodies of water which are decidedly ornamental, as well as 
useful in the form of reservoirs and natural catch-basins. They are 
not only attractions to those seeking recreation and refreshment in 
the open .seasons, but are of untold value to the farmers and stock 

The township is a square, six miles each way, and since its low 
lands in the lake regions have been drained and made tillable to a 
large extent, the condition of its agricultural residents has greatly 
improved. Most of Tippecanoe Lake is within its borders, and old 
Boydston and Barbee lakes farther to the east and southeast are the 
other similar features of the township which represent, in general 
terras, the headwaters of Tippecanoe River. Boyd.ston Lake of the 
olden days is now Webster Lake, and the Village of Webster, one 
of the old towns of the county, has been incorporated in later years 


as North Webster. The larger of the bodies of water which used to 
be known as Barbee's Lakes is now designated as Hammond. 

Pioneer Settlements 

The first settlements in the township were made between Tippe- 
canoe and Boydston's lakes. In the spring of 1835, Benjamin John- 
son, from Harrison County, Virginia, settled on section 9, and in 
the following fall entered 160 acres of land which he finally tranis- 
formed into a homestead. 

, On the Shores of Gr.\S8y Creek 

Ephraim JMuirheid, of Virginia, was the next permanent settler 
of prominence; in fact, he built a cabin near the outlet of Boydston's 
Lake, as early as the winter of 1834-35, but in the following spring 
returned to his old home in Virginia, and when he re-visited his 
claim in Tippecanoe Township, in the summer, found that his kins- 
man, Benjamin Johnson, had occupied his own cabin and was fairly 
established as a permanent settler. 

Road .\nd Mills Built 

The first road, running from White Pigeon, Michigan, to Hunt- 
ington, Indiana, by way of Goshen and Northeastern Kosciusko Coun- 


ScKNES ARotTxn Webster Lake 


ty, had already been surveyed through the township, so that the 
pioneers of the late "30s were not completely shut in by the wilds of 
this section of Northern Indiana. 

In 1836, Mr. Muirheid erected a saw mill near his cabin home, 
and in the following year built a grist mill in the immedate vicin- 
ity. The latter was remodeled in later years and was in good run- 
ning order in the early '80s. 

In 1837 William Barbee also erected a saw mill near the outlet 
of the lakes which had taken his name. 

In 1835-36 William Divinney settled near Benjamin Johnson oil 
section 9, and Henry Warner also joined them in that locality. 
Messrs. Divinney and Warner were Ohio men. In the latter year 
(1836) Thomas K. Warner also came from Cincinnati and located 
on the present side of North Webster, and Andrew Woodruff, of 
Huron Coiinty, Ohio, took up his homestead in section 6, near the 
northwestern shores of Tippecanoe Lake. 

In fact, not a few of the early settlers of Tippecanoe Township 
were either from Virginia or Ohio. 

The Warners were especially prominent at this time. The first 
school in the township was taught by Thomas K. Warner in the win- 
ter of 1838-39 in a cabin which had been built by Warren Warner. 

The first marriage in the township was celebrated in 1840 between 
Rev. Samuel K. Young and iliss Amelia Ann Warner. 

^'ILLAGE OF North Webster 

In May, 1837, R. R. Shoemaker platted the village of Webster on 
the southeast cpiarter of section 10, near the W'estern end of wliat 
was then Boydston's Lake. Henderson Warner was its first mer- 

The first post office was established at BoycLston's Mill, about a 
mile east of the village in 1848. Thomas G. Boydston was the first 
postmaster and an empty flour barrel did duty as a general deliv- 
ery. The postofSce was moved to the village in 1861 ; then returned 
to the mill in 1862, and, within comparatively recent years, the little 
town has taken the name of its postoffice. North Webster. 

Xoi'th Webster, although quite a distance from any railroad, is 
the center of quite a large rural territory, and supplies the farmers 
with general goods, as well as with their banking accommodations. 
The Farmers State Bank of the place has total resources of over 
$120,000 and operates under a capital of .$25,000. Its average de- 
posits are about .$90,000. Tlie officers of the Fanners State Bank of 
North Webster are as follows: Albert Garber, president; Samuel 
Miller, vice president: James E. Ruhl. cashier. 


Where the 
/ind5 <3n 

The Barbee Lakes 



Seward Township Well Watered — Early Settlers and Events — 
BuRKET — Jackson Township — Early Settlements and Set- 
tlers—Village OF Sidney. 

Seward Township embraces another thirty-six square miles of 
varied country, the central districts of which are largely occupied by 
lakes. The surface is sufficiently undulating to supply a good natural 
drainage, and artificial ditching has largely supplied the means of 
bringing under cultivation many lands which otherwise would have 
been useless to the farmer. 

Seward Township Well Watered 

Yellow Creek Lake occupies nearly all of the south half of sec- 
tion 27, and has an outlet by way of Yellow Creek, which flows from 
the northern extremity of the lake through Seward and Franklin 
townships. Its neighbor, Beaver Dam Lake, lies to the southwest in 
the central part of section 33, and in the very early times was the 
favorite resort of the industrious little wood cutters. Again to the 
east of Yellow Creek Lake and the south of Beaver Dam, are pretty 
widenings of the creeks into little lakes or ponds. The entire coun- 
try is so well watered as to furnish almost ideal surroundings for live 

Early Settlers and Events 

Among the early settlers of Seward Township were Samuel Bishop, 
William Davis and James Garvin, who located in 1836 ; Girdon Hurl- 
but, with his three sons, who settled in 1837 ; John and Robert Robin- 
son, who came in 1838, and Milo R. Barbour, who joined the Seward 
Township colony in 1839. 

The first white child born in the township was a girl Rhoda L., 
the daughter of C. B. and Gratia Hurlbut. Her birthday was Sep- 
tember 23, 1838. 

Vol. 1—24 QfiQ 


The first marriage was solemnized between Daniel Hulbut and 
Ann Robinson, on September 10, 1839. 

Rev. Asa Johnson, a Presbyterian minister from Peru, Indiana, 
conducted the first religious exercises in the township some time in 
1839, but the first house of worship was not erected until 1850. 

Also in the year 1839, William Magner built a saw mill on the 
north fork of Trimble Creek, and operated it suceessfullj^ for several 
years, when he sold it to Thomas King. 

The first schoolhouse was erected on the farm of John Robinson 
in 1842, and Mark Smith, Sr., was the teacher. 

A number of churches were organized near Yellow Creek Lake 
many years ago — the United Brethren in ilarch, 1859, and the 
Church of God in February, 1863. 


There was no center of population, business or finances, however, 
until the Nickel Plate line cut across the northern sections of the 
township in the early '80s, and the station and postoffice of Burket 
was established. This place has now a number of stores, a bank, 
two cream stations, two saw mills, a grain elevator, two coal depots 
and a hay station. The Burket High School, with Howard Berkey- 
pile as principal, has a good reputation for thoroughness, and two 
churches conserve the religious principles and morals of the place: 
First Methodist Episcopal Church, Rev. Henry Laeey, pastor, and 
the United Brethren Church, Rev. H. C. Pence, pastor. 

Jackson Township 

Jackson Township is in the well-drained southeastern part of 
Kosciusko County, which is netted with creeks, but not so abun- 
dantly studded with lakes as to be overburdened with what the old 
settlers used to call "wet lands." In fact, it has no body of water 
large enough to be dignified by the name of lake. The surface of the 
township is usually rolling, the natural drainage is excellent, and the 
farms, whether devoted to grain or live stock, are unusually produc- 

Early Settlements and Settlers 

Most of the early settlements of the township were made in the 
northeastern sections, not far from where the Nickel Plate line 


passed through its northern and northeastern sections in the early 
'80s, and on which Sidney and Kinsey became stations. 

In September, 1834, James Abbott and family came from Preble 
County, Ohio, and located on section 13, near the Eel River and not 
far from where the Vandalia line now passes. His son, Samuel 
Abbott, and wife, however, entered 160 acres on section 25, in the 
northeastern part of the township and there resided for many years. 

In the fall of 1835 Abner McCourtney and Alexander Hapner, 
of Montgomery County, also Ohio, each entered eighty acres in sec- 
tions 25 and 26, and in the year 1836 Jesse Kyler and James Per- 
kins both settled on section 25. 

The first white child born in the township was Abner Abbott, sou 
of Samuel Abbott and wife, and his coming dates from June 11, 1835. 

The first postoffice was established at the house of Jesse Kyler, 
on section 25, in the year 1839, and that gentleman was postmas- 
ter. He served in that position until his decease, when his son Jacob 
succeeded him. 

Jesse Kyler was also elected one of the first justices of the peace 
for the township, at the election held in the spring of 1838 in the 
house of Abner McCourtney. 

The first road in the township, surveyed in 1837, also passed 
through its northeastern sections, being a part of the highway run- 
ning from Warsaw to Springfield, Whitley County. 

Village of Sidney 

Sidney, on the Nickel Plate Railroad, in the northeastern part 
of the township, is the business and banking center of considerable 
territory. The place has also a light plant installed in April, 1917, 
by A. T. Ronk, and about a year afterward purchased by J. Haines 
and C. C. Shira. 

The Bank of Sidney has a capital of $10,000 and is responsible 
to the extent of $300,000; average deposits, $170,000. 

The village has several good .stores, both general and special; a 
hotel ; repair and blacksmith shops and garage ; hardware and agri- 
cultural implement store; a produce and live stock house, and a 

Sidney was incorporated as a town in August, 1914. 

The United Brethren Church is the only religious body of suflB- 
cieut strength to warrant a settled local pastor. Rev. L. A. Myer.s 
being now in charge. The Christian Church has an organization, 
but no pastor. 



Prairie Township — Its Pioneer Whites — Indians Refuse to Be 
Made Farmers — Galveston Platted — Jefferson Township and 
Its Settlement — The Marshy Barrier — A Powerful Single 
Vote — Gravelton — Scott Township Settled — Millwood and 

The three northwestern townships — Scott, Jefferson and Prairie — 
are entirely devoted to agriculture and live stock raising. In all this 
area of more than 57,000 acres of land, there are only a few miles 
of railroad, and only one station entirely within the limits of the three 

A tip of Jefferson Township is cut off to the northeast by the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and Gravelton is a station near the Elk- 
hart County line. Atwood, in the southwestern corner of Prairie 
Township, on the Pennsylvania line, is partly in Harrison Township. 

Prairie Township 

The first of the three divisions of this large rural domain to be 
settled was the distinctive prairie section in the township by that 
name. Fully half of the thirty-six square miles of Prairie Town- 
ship is covered by Turkey Creek Prairie. The soil was so produc- 
tive and well drained that although the country bore little or no 
timber, which many of the early settlers considered necessary for 
purposes of home-building, Prairie Township was settled several 
years before several of the townships farther north. 

Its Pioneer Whites 

John Powell, the first white settler of the township, located on 
section 21, in March, 1833, his homestead being selected near the 
center of its territory. There he resided until his death in 1874. 

In the following month James H. Bishop, with his family, located 
on section 1, in the northeast corner of the township ; he built his 

Scenes in the Rural Townships 


cabiu. planted a small amount of corn, and brought other things to 
pass which were necessary to the advancement of the pioneer of those 

In the summer of 1833, Jacob Smith erected his cabin on section 
13, and at a somewhat later day took up 160 acres on section 14, 
the latter tract finally being improved as the family homestead. 

Section 25, in the far southeastern part of the township, also re- 
ceived James Gari'in in the same year as a settler. 

Samuel D. Hall came to the township in 1835 and was prominent 
among the early settlers. He was the second justice of the peace in 
Prairie Township, and in 1852 was elected to the State Senate. 

Indians Refuse to Be Made into Farmers 

It is said that previous to the arrival of the families mentioned, 
the Government caused a ten-acre tract of land to be fenced and 
prepared for corn, in the hope of inducing the Indians to adopt a 
profitable occupation and engage in farming; but after the sod had 
been broken and all prepared to their hand, they refused to take the 
trouble of planting the corn ; whereupon General Tipton, agent for 
the tribe, caused it to be planted and cultivated at Government ex- 
pense. It is not known that they refused it after it had been har- 
vested and tendered to them. 

The first schoolhouse was a rude log structure erected on section 
10, in 1836. 

William Bowman erected the pioneer forge at Stony Point in the 
same year. 

Galveston Platted 

In the southeast quarter of section 10 and the northeast quarter 
of section 15. Felix Miller platted the Village of Galveston in 1846. 
Although it retained a po.stofiiee for a number of years, it never be- 
came very much of a village. The rural settlement is now known as 
Clunette. The United Brethren organized a church in the village 
some time during 1876 and erected a house of worship therein. 

In that part of the Village of Atwood which lies in Prairie Town- 
ship, the Methodists organized a society and built a church in the 
late '60s, and in 1878 the graded schoolhouse building was erected 
in that part of town. 


Jepfkrson Township and Its Settlement 

Previous to its settlement in 1836, Jefferson Township was gener- 
ally covered by a heavy growth of timber. Through its central sec- 
tions, however, a marsh extended across the entire township from 
east to west. It was from half a mile to a mile in width, and has been 
subsequently drained and made arable. But, with the exception of 
this marsih, Jefferson Township was considered most desirable land 
as it came from the hand of nature. 

The first white settler in the township was Jacob Brumbaugh, 
who came from Elkhart County with his family in October, 1836. 
He erected the first log cabin in the township ; cleared a tract of land 
during the ensuing winter and in the spring planted a crop. 

Late in the fall of 1836, Mr. Brumbaugh was joined by John 
Leatherman, Andrew Sheely, James Martin, James Simpson and 
George Platter, with their families. 

The Marshy Barrier 

This settlement was formed on sections 1 and 2, north of the 
large marsh and near the line of Elkhart County, not far from the 
future site of Gravelton. 

During the summer of 1837, the first settlement south of the marsh 
was formed by David and Samuel ]\IcCibben, Joseph Alexander and 
Isaac Bliven, with their families. 

For some time, the marsh formed an impassable barrier between 
the two neighborhoods, and neither was aware of the fact that there 
were other residents of the township beside themselves; but later, 
roads were surveyed and close communication established between 
the north and the south of Jeiferson Township. 

A Powerful Single Vote 

The first township election was held at the house of David McCib- 
ben, in April, 1838. He had been chosen as inspector, and, as the 
result of the election proved, his office was a necessary one ; for of the 
five votes cast it was found that four were illegal, as the voters had 
not resided in the township a sufficient length of time to entitle them 
to the local I'ight of suffrage. Thus the single legal vote of Isaac 
Bliven elected the ticket, consisting of a justice of the peace, constable, 
two road supervisors, three overseers of the poor and one inspector of 



The first school in Jefifei-son Township was taught in 1840 in a 
log cabin on section 11, north of the marsh. The settlement in that 
section was largely German and as early as 1837 representatives of 
that nationality organized a Baptist Church, and held their meetings 
for many years in the schoolhouse. After Gravelton was platted as a 
station on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, a church building was 
erected in town and the activities of the society centered therein. 

Gravelton, which is still a station and a shipping point on that 
line, was laid out by David Brumbaugh in 1876, at the time when 
the road was completed through the county. He opened the first 
store in the new town, and was afterward postmaster for many years. 

Scott Township Settled 

Scott Township was the last of the three northwestern townships 
mentioned to be settled, and it compares favorably, as to soil and 
drainage, with other portions of the county. 

In the fall of 1837 Casper Hepler and family, Jacob and Henry 
Yocky and Jacob Hepler settled on section 11. During the following 
winter and spring, they were engaged in clearing land and planting 
crops. The Hepler and Yocky cabins were the first to be erected in 
the township, and the death of Daniel Hepler, son of David, which 
occurred in August, 1839, was the first in the township. 

Millwood and Heckaman 

The first postoffice was established at Millwood, on the southwest 
quarter of section 25, in the southern portion of the township, during 
the year 1853. J. D. Koffel was the postmaster and carried the mail 
from Leesburgh to Millwood. The location of the postofQce was after- 
ward transferred a mile west, to the southeastern quarter of section 27. 

Scott Township settled very slowly, although a small hamlet com- 
menced to form in the neighborhood of the Hepler and Yocky farms. 
The original name of the village was Hepton. A general store, a 
mill, a creamery, a good school and other evidences of an intelligent 
and settled community gradually appeared in that neighborhood, and 
all were stamped by Uncle Sam as the Heckaman postoffice. Of late 
years this has been consolidated with the rural service; Millwood had 
already been discontinued, so that, at present, Scott Township has no 
local postoffice. 



Forest Land Along Indian Highway — Pioneers Drift in — First 
Birth and Marriage — School and Church Come to Stay — • 
Beaver Dam Postoffice — Primitive Industries — Village of 
Sevastopol — Monroe Township — The Pioneers — Mills — Town- 
ship Organization — First Aids to American Development. 

In the southwestern corner of Kosciusko County, Franklin Town- 
ship has an irregular area of thiitj^-six square miles, its northern 
portions five miles east and west, by six miles north and south, with 
a southeastern projection of six square miles. Its soil is mostly black 
loam and the surface of the township is naturallj^ drained by Yellow 
Creek, the waters of which have also been thoroughlj' utilized by 
means of artificial ditching until there is little waste land. 

Forest Land Along Indian Highways 

As the township was originally covered with a dense growth of 
timber, the saw mill industry was for many years in the lead of its 
sources of industrial support. 

As Franklin Township was right in the Indian highway from 
Peru to the Northwest and for years after its fii-st settlers located 
therein, the red man's trail could be distinctly traced on its soil, it 
was of late occupancy by the whites. The first roads surveyed 
through this section of the county were the Logansport and Misha- 
waka State Road, in 1836, and the Logansport and Warsaw State 
Road in 1838. 

Pioneers Drift in 

Midway of these years the first white settlers in Franklin Town- 
ship commenced to drift in from Ohio and Northern Indiana. Ben- 
jamin Blue, the leader of the Ohio colony, settled on section 2 in 
1837, and continued to reside in the township until his decease in 
the '70s. 



For a number of years Mr. Blue's only neighbors were Pottawa- 
tomies. Benjamin West built a cabin and settled on section 7, where 
he remained for two years ; but his homestead was two or three miles 
east of the Blue place, although in those days all within that distance 
were considered by many as constituting a "neighborhood." 

Mr. West remained but two years, during which he made some 
improvements, but then left the county permanently. His land was 
purchased by John Bybee, Sr., who continued the good work and 
made the place his home for life. 

Dr. I. H. Jennings located on section 10, not far from the south 
branch of Yellow Creek, in 1838, and in the fall of the same year 
Jesse Myers settled on the northwest quarter of section 19, adjoining 
the present site of Sevastopol. Mr. Myers also remained about two 
years, when he sold his land to Rudolph Hire and left the county. 

First Birth and Marriage 

The first white child born in the township was James, son of 
Benjamin Blue, and the year 1839 marked his advent. In the fol- 
lowing year occurred the pioneer marriage, Hugh Bryan uniting his 
lowly fortunes to those of Miss Anna Nichols, daughter of Prosper 
Nichols, a former resident of Harrison Count.v, Ohio, who had just 
settled on section 35, in the southern part of the township. In those 
days a marriageable daughter could not long be hidden; she was at 
a tremendous premium. 

The senior Nichols died in 1868, his son, Solomon Nichols, who 
also settled on section 35, surviving him as a useful and industrious 
resident of that locality for many years. 

In 1841, Amos Baldwin fixed his homestead on section 81 and 
George Sarber, on section 2 — and there were other good men, some 
of whom came with their wives and children, who labored in the 
forests of Franklin Township to hew out their homes and destinies. 

School and Church Come to Stay 

In the early '40s both the school and the church came to stay in 
the township. The German Baptists first gathered at the house of 
Prosper Nichols, in 1840, and worshipped under the leadership of 
Rev. Jacob Miller, and probably in the following year Elder Amos 
Baldwin assembled the members of the Christian Church at the home 
of Jeremiah Burns. About the same time, the Baptists met at the 


home of Benjamin Blue, where services were conducted by Rev. James 

In a log cabin built on Solomon Nichols' farm, section 35, Jere- 
miah Burns taught the first term of school in the township during 

Beaver Dam Postofpice 

A postoffice named Beaver Dam was established at the house of 
Samuel Rickel, on section 6, in the year 1844, and that gentleman 
was postmaster for a period of fourteen or fifteen years. In after 
years both postmasters and postoiiice-locations changed, Beaver Dam 
being for some time on the ad.joining section 31. In those days, of 
course, the location of the postoffice depended on where the post- 
master lived, as his home was the government office. Beaver Dam 
postoffice has long since been absorbed by the rural system of delivery. 

Primitive Industries 

In 1842, Benjamin Blue established the first and only tannery 
in the township on section 2. Its water power was Yellow Creek. 
The enterprise was suspended after three or four years. 

About 1849 Edwin C. Gordon erected a steam saw mill, to which, 
several years later, he attached a run of buhrs for grinding corn. 
Still later he erected a steam flouring mill near the saw mill. Both 
were located at Sevastopol and were in operation for many years. 

Village op Sevastopol 

The old Village of Sevastopol, which is now about half a mile 
cast of the Winona Interurban line, was laid out by George W. White, 
John Tucker and John Mollenhour, proprietors of the land on which 
it is situated, in the year 1856. This hamlet, just outside the main 
highway of travel, commemorates the great historic event of the 
middle-nineteenth century in European warfare, culminating, at the 
close of the Crimean war. in the fall of the Russian stronghold of 
Sevastopol, before the final sieges and assaults of the Fi-ench and 
British allies, during September, 1855. The Sevastopol postoffice 
was established in 1857 and William Dunlap was appointed the first 
postmaster. Until 1861, the office was kept in his house, about half 
■d mile west of the village ; but in the year named it was moved to 


the town and installed in the store of the new postmaster, A. J. Whit- 
tenberger. Sevastopol is now in the rural system of postal delivery. 

Monroe Township 

In the southeastern tier of townships, Monroe Township was in- 
cluded in the original timber belt which stretched across that portion 
of the county. It has an area of twenty-four square miles, its greatest 
extent (six miles) being east and west. It is a country of small lakes 
and creeks, which comprise some of the headwaters of the Tippecanoe 
River, and is admirably adapted to stock raising and farming. The 
township has neither postoffices nor stations within its limits, with the 
possible exception of Packerton, the northeastern corner of which 
juts over into its southwestern tip. 

The Pioneers 

The settlement of Monroe Township commenced with the coming 
of Hiram Bennett, in the spring of 1836. It is known that he built 
himself a shack against a fallen tree and sold whiskey to the Indians 
of the township ; and that is about all which comes down to us, either 
by tradition or through the early prints. 

Other more reputable characters and permanent settlers were 
William Norris, who, in 1837, is said to have cut his wa.y through the 
woods from the Hayden settlement of Washington Township and 
located a claim on section 24, in the southeast comer of the town- 
ship ; Joel Phillips, Cornelius Hand, father and son, and Thomas 
York, H. I. Stevens, John Cuppy and John Copelin, who made their 
homes in various localities in 1839. 

Thomas York cleared the tirst land on section 15 and planted the 
first crop. 


The fii-st mill in the township was built in 1843 by H. I. Stevens 
at the outlet of a small lake on his farm, and it was operated for 
twelve or thirteen years. 

The first steam plant was the saw mill erected by Daniel Miller 
in 1856 on section 15, not far from the center of the township. 

Township Organization 

The year 1856 was rather "big with events" for Moni'oe Town- 
ship, for besides the happenings already recorded, the township was 
organized as a political and civil body in that year. At the March 


term of 1856, the Board of County Commissioners appointed Jacob 
S. Rogers, H. I. Stevens and James Norris, trustees of Monroe Town- 
ship. In turn, they met at Mr. Stevens' house and appointed Daniel 
Miller township clerk ; also located the road and school districts. 

In April, 1856, the first township election was held at the house 
of Daniel Miller, the newly appointed township clerk, and the fol- 
lowing officers were elected: J. S. Rogers, John Gripe and David 
McPherson, trustees, and David Miller, clerk. 

First Aids to American Development 

Thus Monroe Township was given a body politic, and the ground- 
work laid for the education of the young people who were coming 
either by migration or by nature; scattered neighborhooas were being 
bound together by private and public roads ; mills were springing up 
by which the early settlers were provided with crude food-stuflPs and 
building material, and many other first aids created for the typical 
American development of native life and intelligent enjoyments.