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3 1833 01790 9752 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 





An Authentic Narrative of the Past, with Particular 
Attention to the Modern Era in the Com- 
mercial, Industrial, Civic and Social De- 
velopment. A Chronicle of the 
People, with Family Lineage 
and Memoirs. 


Assisted by a Board of Adz-isory Editors 



^/ / 





^. T^K^Uc^'^ (}KUy€^^ 


These volumes might well be called "The Centennial History of 
Lorain County" for it is scarcely more than a hundred years since the 
first white settlers came within its borders. It is difficult for the present 
generation to imagine the conditions which surrounded the first settlers. 
Then a dense, almost imiienetrable forest of trees of immense size, cov- 
ered cvci'v acre of tlie territory. 'I'lu; heroism of llie families who plod- 
iled tlu'ir way tliither from New Eiighmd, some on fool, some on horse- 
back, and others in slowly moving carts, occupying more days in tlie 
journey than it takes houi's now, is woi-tliy of all praise. The rapid 
ch'aring of homesteads, and establishment of educational and religious 
institutions, scarcely find a parallel anywhere else in liistoiy. 

Industrially, Lorain County was slow in couung to it.s own. C!]eve- 
lantl should by good rights have been at the magnificent harbor fur- 
inshed by the jn-eglacial channel of Black IJiver. .Much woubl have 
been saved if the Ohio Canal had crossed the watershed at the head of 
Black River at Lodi, which is much lower than that at Akron. But she 
has now found her own. 

In these days of the suprenuicj' of railroads, the shortest line coiuiect- 
ing the iron mines of the Lake Superior Region and the coal of the Pitts- 
burgh district, runs through the center of the county, and Ihe growth 
of her manufaetui'ing industries is already phenomenal, and its contin- 
uance insured, thus affording to the farmers an unrivalled market for 
all their products. Li these respects, as well as in her educational insti- 
tutions, headed by Oberlin College, she is already leading the state. 
The history of tins growth will comnniiul the attention of all future gen- 
erations. Tts writing lias been an inspiration as well as a laboi- of love, 
and it is with regret that we lay our pen down, and turn to less inspir- 
ing tasks. 

G. Frederick AVright. 




The Ohio Shale in Ijorain County — The Waverly Sandstone — Marks 
or the Glacial Period in the Cuunty — The Lakio Ridges — Soils — 
Elevations in the County— Natural Gas and Oil 1 


By Mary E. Day 

The Trees— The Shrubs— The Wild Flowers- The Ferns — The 
Grasses — Flora of the County — A Unique Bog — Collectors op 
Plant Life 13 


By Prof. Lynds Jones 

Native and Migratory Birds — Changes in Varieiies — Water Birds — 
Songsters — LIammals of Lorain County — Prehistoric Remains — 
Fishes of the County — Amphibians — Reptiles — Insects 20 



Great Historic Waterways — French Scheme op Colonization — 
French Northwest Territory — Fornfally Claim Lousiana — Eno- 


Lisii Serve Notice of Possession — Fikst Ohio Company and Agent 
Gist — Geokge Crogiian — In tue Land of the Dei^a wares — French 
AND English Clash — The DeluV wares Move Westwardly — The 
Ottawas and the Wyandots of the Lake Erik IIeoion — J3ou- 
quet's Expedition — Shawnkes Last to Surrender — A Northwest 
Territory Assured — Lifting of the Indian and State Titles — • 
Lord Dunmore's Squatters — American System of Land Surveys 
— Public Lands— Congress Lands — Connecticut Western Re- 
serve — Fire Lands — United States Military Lands — Virginia 
Military Lands — Ohio Company's Purchase — The Germ of Ohio 
— Donation Tract — Symmes Purchase — Refugee Tract — French 
Tract — Canal Lands — School Lands — Other Public Tracts. . .27 

chapter v 
daavn of civil government 

The Ordinance of 1787 — Ohio-Michigan Boundary Finally Fixed — 
First Surveys of Western Lands — How the Reserve Became 
National Territory — ]\Iilitary and Civil Friction — First Judi- 
ciary — Indians at "Last Subdued 49 



How the Reserve Was Sold — Acreage op the Reserve — Judge Par- 
sons, Pioneer Land Buyer — Washington County (1796) Claimed 
Jurisdiction — In the Country of Canahogue — ^Wayne County 
(1796) — Jefferson County (1797) — Lawless But in Name — 
Trumbull County (1800) Recognized — Period of Civil Complica- 
tion 55 



The Treaty of Fort Industry (1805) — ^Western Lands Surveyed — 
Surplus Lands of Lorain County — Equalizing Land Values — 
Four Townships Considered Most Valuable — The Land Duaw- 



Jurisdiction fhom 1807 to 1811 — Adjustment of County Bound- 


Jnducemknts Foit Count y-Skat Location — Ijocatkd at J'^fyYiuA — 
— FiiisT Courthouse and Jail — Civil OitGANizAxioN — First Com- 
missioners' ]\Ieeting — First Official, Document — Judicial 
IMaciiinkry in Motion — Original Organization of the Town- 
ships 62 



Indians Adopt First White Settler — Disgraced by Getting Lost in 
the Woods — Starts for the Buvck River — -Reaches the Lake — 
Join Wyandots on the Site of Lorain — The Camp at Elyria — 
Replenishing the Common Larder — Fur-Hunting Expeditions — 
Return to Civilization — ^Moravian ('of/iny Attempts to Settler- 
Would Rkti.'kn to Ruined .MusKiN(iUM Villagics — I-'oun'd Pilgeruh 
(Pilgrlm's Rest) — Ahandon 1'lan of Keturx to the .Muskingum 
— Ordered to Move On — Three Days in Lorain County — Final 
Return to the ]\Iuskingum — David Zeisberger, AVould-He Settler 
— Settlements from 18(^7 to 18P2 — A War Scare op 1812 — 
Eastern Shipbuilders Driven Wi«t — Lorain's Early Ship-Build- 
ing Industry — Black River Settlement Becomes Charleston 
Village — Hearse, First Public Utility — Plowing Out a River 
Channel — Early' Hotels — Charleston's Lean Years — Scent op 
the Coming Iron Horse — First Colony of Permanent Settlers — 
Columbia Township Organized— Pioneer Settlers of Ridgeville 
— Ridgeville Township Organized — Eaton Township Settled — 
Civil Organization — The Beebes and Perrvs of Black River — 
Other Pioneers — Black River Township Organized — -Founding 
of Lorain City — Early Settlers of Amherst Township — Josiah 
Harris — As a Political Body — Amherst as a Village — Town- 
ships Settled During the War — Pierrepont Edwards Draws Avon 
Township — The Cahoon Family — Avon Township Created — 
Pioneer I'''amilies Crowd into Siiefkield — SiikfI''iei,d, 1""'ii{ST Town- 
ship After County Organized — Pittsfield Townshii' ];)rawn — 
First Permanent Set'I'i-eus — Township Oiwianizi:i) — Village of 
Elyrta Founded — The Ely Home. — The Famous Beebe Tavern — 
The I'^irst Beebe HoMh>— The Bridal Trip— The Old-Time Fiur- 


I'LAcE — Last 13eebe House, Pride of the Town — Elyria Township 
Partitioned in 1816 — "Raisings" — Township and Village Sur- 
veyed — Postofpice Established — Townsiiip Erected — Elyria City 
OP Today — Father and Pioneers op JJrownhelm — Township 
Created and Organized — Settlement of Russia Township — 
Founding of Oberlin — Russia Township Organized — First Year 
op Pioneering in Grafton — Township Incorporated — Village op 
Grafton — Wellington's Original Owners and Settlers — Arrival 
OF First Family — Township Organization — Wellington Village 
— Township of Huntington — The Labories and Other Families 
— Wooden Bowl Factory — Organization of the Township — Pen- 
field Township Rightly Named — Coming of the Penfields — • 
Fajiilies of Calvin Spencer and Others — Carlisle Township — 
Pioneer Families Settle — Brighton Township — Henrietta Tov^tn- 
siiip — Camden Township 74 



A Centennial Herald — Earlif>5T Record of Lake Shore Region — The 
Smith Tr-vvels — Relics of French Adventurers — Rising op the 
Lake Level — vVvon's IMysterious First Settler — Avon Through 
A Hundred Years — Physical Features — Pierrepont Edwards, 
Original Proprietor — Permanent Colony Arrives (1814) — • 
Wilbur Cahoon Pounds First Permanent Family' — Original 
Cahoon Tract — of Wilbur Catioon — Nicholas Young — 
Lewis Austin — Other Families Join Colony — Elah Park — The 
Sweet Family — First Setti^er in French Lick Village — The 
Stickney and Williams Families— First Events — Industries — 
Religious Matters — Pioneer Schoolhouse — Holy Trinity Church 
— Cheese- jMaking Abandoned — Curious IMounds Razed — Avon's 
Patriotism — The Sheffield Centenniai., — Norman Day Describes 
First Colonists — The Burrells Explore — Wallace, First Tem- 
porary Settler — Four Settlers in Winter of 1815-16 — First 
Woman and Pioneer Family — Arrival of the Day and Burrell 
Families — Captain Smith and Family — Other Come — 
Churches Organize — First Events — Township Organization — 
Death of Captain Smith — Other Members of the Family — De- 
cease op Pionhusrs — Historic Contributions from Miss May Day — 
Building the Saw-Mill on French Creek — Grist and Saw-IMill 


IJUUUKl.LS AND IIliCOCKS TuiC llo(JT 1<\VM1LY — Tllli DaY.S — ItEMS 

About 1'ionkkks (JicNKiUi-hY — Two UNsucuKssKuii Inhtitu'I'kjnh — 
Siiu' BuiLUEKS and Lake Cai-tains — Gold Hunters of 184!)-50 — 
Judge AVilliam Day, Active Land Agent — The Parks Families 


History, 18G5-1915 — First Railroad — De/Vth of Robbins IJurrell 
— Second Railroad — Fatality to Edward Burreli^ — Woods 
Leveled for Steel Pl^vnt — First Short Line Street Car — Last 
OP THE Day Pioneers — First Car over the Electric — Eightieth 
Anniversary of Congregational Church — Claimed as Founder of 
RuiuL Free Delivery — Industrial jNIatters — Deaths of 1815-16 
I'loNEERs — Golden Weddings — Old Family Relics — Famous 
Natives — The German Residents — St. Theresa's Catholic 
Church — Details of the Sheffield Celebration — The Absent 
Ones — Historic Programme — Huntington's Home-Coming — 
]\Iyron T. Herrick, Native Son — Professor F. D. Ward — The His- 
toric Kelsey Band — Plans for a Centennial — The Perry Cen- 
tenniaij — Local Particii-ation — The Niagara Raised from the 
Lake Bottom — C«rand Welcome to the Restored Flagship — ■ 
Perry Relics Exhibited 127 



At First, No Educational Fund — Legal Compensation in 1803 — 
Actual Land Grant in 1834 — The Western Reserve School Fund 
— Progress of School Laws to 1834 — Foundation op Present 
System — The Akron Law and Free Gr.4.ded Schools — Teachers' 
Institutes — Pioneer Schools and Teachers — Mrs. and Mr. Bron- 
SON — Schools Founded in 1810-20 — The Strut Street School, 
Brow^nhelm — Pioneer Schools in Elyria and Wellington — 
Russia Townsphp Schools — Huntington and Amherst — First 
School in Penpield Township — Present Status op County 
Education — The County Infirmary — The County Home for 
Children — Superintendents and ]\Iatrons — Aim: To Provide 
Permanent Homes — Buir,i)iNGS — Intellectual and Moral Train- 
ing — Past and Piudsent Management — Tiho County Agricultural 
Society — First Aorioulturat> Socii^yrv — Town J^^vir at Oberlin — 
OnHiiN oi'' (I'ooi) Roads JMovement. — (Jountv Society Founded in 


]846 — J^^'iKST Faik — IjiocTimioiw Aim-ointko — Ladiks' IIohsk.mansiiii' 


1 IMI'ICOVIOMIONTS <)l'' (llCOHNDH— IOa ICI.Y I 'lll'iM I II MH I )ltOl'l'KI) — I ^A'l'IOK 


TowNsiiii'S AND CoitrouATioNs, ]!)10, 1<)00, 1890— Klectuic Unifica- 
tion IN Lorain County 170 



Grand Opening of First Territorial Court — Harrison, Later-Day 
Big Buckeye — First Court in Lorain County — Grand Jury 
Purely Honorary — Early Judges and Associates — Associates 
Abolished— ^Old Bench 2iIoRE Democratic — Philemon Bliss — First 
Probate Judge — Josiaii Harris — Two Noted President Judges — 
Woolsey Welles— Delegates to the 1851 Convention— Present- 
Day Courts— Common Pleas Judges, 1852-80— Stevenson Burke 
— Washington W. Boynton — John C. Hale — Early Probate 
Judges — William F. Lockwood — Lionel A. Sheldon — Charles H. 
DooLiTTLE — John W. Steele — Laertes B. Smith — Prosecuting 
Attorneys Previous to 1S80 — Joel Tiffany — John M. Vincent — 
Joseph H. Dickson — Other Early Prosecuting Attorneys — Pio- 
neer Lawyers, Pure and Simple — Horace D. Clark — Other Fel- 
low Practitioners — A. A. Bliss — Judson D. Benedict — IMyron R. 
Keith — Joshua JMyers— John V. Coon — "Foreign" Practitioners 
— Accessions from 1845 to 1860 — Sylvester Bagg — Attained 
Prominence Abroad — Oberlin Lawyers — John ]\I. Langston — The 
Oberlin-Wellington Rescue Case — Came in the '60s and '70s — 
J. C. Hill — Roswell G. Horr — Retrospect of the Earlier Bar — 
Bench and Bar Since 1880 — Common Pleas and Probate Judges 
— PION. David J. Nye, Veteran Active Practitioner — Hon. Clar- 
ence G. Washburn — Leading Members op the Bar — The Bar Asso- 
ciation — Notable Cases Within Forty Years 197 



Dr. Norton S. Townshend — John Henry Barrows — Db. Barrows' 
MoTiiEit — His Ante-Oberlin Career — Through the Eyes op 



OiiAuiJos Cani)I';k Uai-owin— liUCY Stonk and Antoini'JTTk Huown 
— (iioNKKAi; (^niNCY Adamh (U\a,m<)hf. — A MoitAh AH Wi;i,i/ ah I'atui- 
(jtic IIkiio — lli)N. Mviu)N T, IIeuuick — Frank II. Hitchcock. . .228 



Contributions from Oberlin College — Company C, Seventh Ohio 
Infantry — Fatalities — The Squirreu^ Hunters — Company D, 
Twenty-third Regiment — Fatalities — Company K, Twenty- 
third Regiment — Fatalities — Regimental History — Company II, 
Forty-first Regiment — Regimental History — Forty second Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry — Company E — Regimental History — The 
One Hundred and Third Infantry — Company F — Company II — 
Regimental History — The Forty-third Infantry — The Fifty- 
fourth Regiment — The German One Hundred and Seventh — 
Other Infantry Bodies — Battery B, Light Artillery — Fif- 
teenth Ohio Independent Battery — Second Regiment, Ohio Vol- 
unteer Cavalry — The Twelfth Ohio Cavalry — Other Civil War 
Organizations — Fifth Regiment, Ohio National Guard 247 



Great Indian Shore Trail — The Girdled and State Roads — Early 
Post Routes — Canals Give Lorain the Go-By — The Old Turn- 
pikes — The Stage Era — Elyria, First Railroad Center — Rail- 
roads Crush Side-Wheel Steamers— The Aw^vkening op Lorain— 
"When the Railroad Came" — The Great Railroad Docks — The 
Ne\v York Central System — The Electric Lines— IMacadam 
Roads 280 



Black River "Boom" op the '30s — Rise and Fall of Charleston — 
Thk Saviors op the Town — Village ('haktkrkd as Lorain — First 


School and Police Dei'Aktment — Increase ok Population — Incor- 

lOpUCA-nONAL I'i'EMH — J;(JUA1n'h J»')lt.S'l' IJNION SciHX»Ii — Sl'KCIAL 

School Elections — Supeuintendents and Clerks — Statistics — 

School Population — Present School Buildings — The Lorain 

, Free Public Library — The Postoffice 288 



The Black River STii.\MuoAT iVssociATiuN — Era of Wooden Ship- 
Building — The Fishing Industry — Pioneer and Veteran Fisher- 
men — Status op the Present Industry — Lorain's First Iron 
Furnace — Planing ]\Iill and Stove Works — The Johnson Steel 
]\IiLLS — First Great Plant Located at Lorain — Founding op South 
Lorain — South Lorain as It Is — First Work on the Johnson 
Holdings — Opening of the Lorain Plant — Operations as the 
Lorain Steel Company — The National Tube Company — Other 
Leading Industries — Era of Steel Shipbuilding — Early Improve- 
iViENTs OP River and Harbor — Development of B. & 0. Terminal — 
The Harbor of the Present — The Lorain Board op Commerce — 
Source op Artificial Light and Power — Telephone Service — The 
Lorain Banks — The City Bank — National Bank op Commerce — 
The Old Bank of Lorain — The Citizens Savings Bank Reorgan- 
ized — Cleveland Trust Company, Lorain liRANCii — The Lorain 
Savings & Banking Company — The Central Banking Company — 
The Lorain Banking Company — The George Oroszy Banks. . .304 



Oldest Existing Church — The ^Iethodists and Lot No. 205 — 
"Father" Betts and the Presbyterians — The Baptists Hold 
Early Services — The Presbyterians "at Home" — Methodists 
OiiGANizE First Church — First Congregational Church — First 
^r. E. Church — Church of Christ — St. IMary's Roman Catholic 
Church — Twentieth Street Methodist Church — St. John's 


Evangelical, First ]^ai'tist, United liiiKTiiREN and Second Con- 


CiJUKCJi — Cjiurcxi oe THE Nativity — IIungarlvn Catholic 
Churches — Other South Lor^un Churches — Churches Formed 
BY Colored People — The First Presbyterian Church — The First 
Church oe Christ, Scientist — Jewish Synagogue — First English 
Lutheran — Hungarian ReI'^ormed Church — Trinity Baptist 
Church 335 



The Press — The Black River Commercial — The Lorain ^Monitor — 
The Lorain Times-Herald — The Lorain Daily News — The Post 
— Uplh-^ing Societies — Lorain's Young INIen's Christian Associa- 
tion — Woman's Christian Temperance Union — The Sisterhood 
OF Lorain — Social Settlement Association — Literary Clubs — 
The ^Iaking op American Citizens— Musical Organizations — 
Federation of Women's Societies — The Associated Charities — 
St. Joseph's IIospiTAii — Lodges and Fraternities 349 



The Village in 1833 — The Elyria High School — First District 
Schools — Board of Education Formed — Jason Canfield, First 

PLETE Curriculum Adopted — -First High School (Jraduates — 
Other School Events of the '60s — Board of Education Speaks 
Its i\IiND — Construction of School Buildings — Manual Training 
and Technical High Schoot^ — The Social Settlement School — 
IOnrollment of I'npi[,K and Teachers — The I'umlic liiiiRARV — Pro- 
tection Against. Fire — Increase in IOlyria's Population — I'uhlic 
Improvements — The Elyria Ciiamiier of Commerce — (.'ivk; Fm- 


IIkm.tii :i(iO 



Pioneer Religious Bodies — Methodism in Elyria — The Head op the 
Circuit — Becomes a Station — Permanent iCiiurch Building — " 
New Parsonage — Pastors Who Have Served — Building of the 
1'resent House op Worship — Present Status op the Church — 
The Presbyterian Church — First Congregational Church — The 
First Baptist Church — St. Andrew's Episcopal Church — St. 
IMary's Church and Parish — First Resident Catholic Pastor — 
Death of Rev. F. A. Sullivan — Long Pastorate op Rev. Louis 
IMoLON — Lesson Given to a Future Pastor — Death of Father 
Schafpield — St. Agnes Parish Formed — St. John's German 
Lutheran Church — Other Churches — Elyria jNIemorial Hospi- 
tal — Grounds and Buildings — The W. N. Gates. Hospital — Past, 
Present and Future of the Hospital — Its Founding Described 
by the Chamber op Commerce — The Young ]\Ien's Christian As- 
sociation — The Young Women's Christian Association — The 
Masons and Their Temple— The IMasonic Temple Company — 
Other Fraternities 374 



Newspaper and Railroad Parallei. — The Lorain Gazette — Ohio 
Atlas and Elyrlv Advertiser — The Elyria Courier — The Inde- 
pendent Democrat — George G. Washburn — The Elyria Repub- 
lican — The Daily Tele(;ram — The Elyria Democrat — The 
Lorain Constitutionalist — Frederick S. Reefy — The Elyria 
Chronicle — Elyria 's Manufactories — The Southwestern Trac- 
tion Shops — Primitive Industries — The Topliff & Ely Plant — 
Western Automatic IMachine Screw Company — Elyria Canning 
Company — The Garford Manupacturing Comi'any — The Willys- 

PANY — TROXKFi Manufacturing Company- — The Amekican Lace 
Manufactuiuxg Company — Elyria Foundry Company — The 
Perry-Fay Company — Wortihngton Company and Machine Parts 
Company— Other Industries — Elyria Gas & Electric Light 


Company— TiiK NationaI; Bank ok Ei-yuia— Tiik Savings Dki'osit 

ItANK— Tlir, lOl.VlilA SAVINdS & UaNKINO CoMI'ANV- 'I'iIK liOltAlN 
(.'oUNTY 15 \NKIN(1 (!oMI'ANY '^'^^ 



The College a :Modern University— College and Town Pounded To- 
gether— Rev. John J. Shipherd and Philo P. Stewart- The 
IIiST(jRic Elm— Peter P. Pease, First of the Colonists— Erection 
of Oherlin and Ladies' Halls— First Congregational Church 
Founded — The Pig Tent and Cincinnati IIali. — Rev. Asa .AIahan, 
First President— The College in 1845— President Finney and 
THE ^Memorial Ciiapei. — Consolidation of Library Associations — 
Oderlin Students' IMonthly— Presidents Faircihld, Ballantine 
AND Barrows— The ^Memorial Arch— President Henry C. King 
The Great Endowment Funds — Other Buildings of the Col- 
lege Plant— Carnegie Liijuary— The Olney Art Collection- 
Warner, Sturges and Peters Halls— Rice ]\Iemorial Hali^-New 
Administration I^uilding— The ^NIen's Building— The Academy 
Buildings— AVarneu and Women's Gymnasiums— Outdoor Sports 
AND Exercise — Laboratories and Museums — Dormitories for 
Women — The Faculty — College Administration — INIusical and 
Literary Advantages— The Student Body— Graduate Fellow- 
ships—The College Enrolment— Churches of Oherlin— The 
First Congregational Church— Christ Protestant Episcopal, 
Church— First Baptist Church- First M. E. Church— The Rust 
M. E. Church— Church of the Sacred Heart— ^Mount Zion Bap- 
tist Church — The Oherlin ]\Iissionary Home Association — The 
Oberlin Hospitai.— Westwood Cemetery— Social, Literary and 
Benevolent Organizations— Village Improvement and Social 
Betterment — The Oberlin Grand Army op the Republic 420 



Incorporated in 1846— Its Schools— Oberlin Business College- 
Water WoiiKs AND Fire Protection— Gas and Electricity^— First 


Newspapers, College Publications — The Biuliotiieca Sacha — Tuis 
Jj()i£AiN (JoiiN'i'Y News — Tiik Ticiuune — Cukken')' (Jolleue Phhlica- 


Company — The Chadwick P^rauds In Oberlin — Carnegie to the 
Rescue — Village Items of the Early Days 494 



How Wellington Was Named — Uneventful Twenty Years — The 
Academy — Progress of the Public Schools — Incorporation op 
Wellington Village — Public Improvements — Wellington Water- 
works — The Herrick Library — Wellington Churches — The 
First Congregational Church — The Methodist Episcopal Church 
— The Wellington Church of Christ — The Baptist Church — The 
Catholic Mission — Tpie Wellington Enterprise — The First Wel- 
lington Bank — Big Robbery — Old-Time Dairy Interests — Home 
OP the Horrs — Wellington as It Is 510 



Village Pounded — First Quarries Opened — Growth and Consolida- 
tion — The Cleveland Stone Company — The Ohio Quarries Com- 
pany — The Union School — Superintendents — The Town Hall 
— Public Institutions — The Public Library — The Chamber op 
Commerce — Water and Sewage Systems — Good Streets and Side- 
walks — Other Signs of Progress — The Churches — IMethodism — 
South Amherst Churches — Amherst Congregational Church — 
St. Peter 's -Evangelical Church — St. Paul's Lutheran Church 
— St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church — Salem Church (Evan- 
gelical Association) — Episcopal Mission — Lodges — Industries 
and Banks — Nicwspapers 531 


Acndc'iiiy RiiiUlinpia, Oborliii Collpgo, 448 

AcaiU'iny, Tlie, 511 

Adair, V., G74 

Adams, Charles F., 728 

Adams, R. C, 901 

Adams, William ^^., C92 

Administration Building, Oberlin College, 

Akron law and free graded schools, 173 
Albright, Charles, 1051 
Aldricli, W. Scott, 888 
Allen, K. F., 652 
Allen, P. C, 51 

Allen, Tearl (Smith), (portrait), 58C 
Allison, Thomas B., 721 
American Lace Manufacturing Company, 

American Shipbuilding Plant at Lorain 

(view), 322 
American Stove Company, 318 
American system of land surveys, 35 
Amherst as a village, 99; founded, 531; 

industries, 533; growth and consolidu- 

tion, 534; public institutions, 537; 

water systems, 540; churclies, 542; 

banks, 553; industries and banks, 

553; fraternities, 553; newspapers, 

Amherst Congregational Church, 547 
"Amherst Free Press," 554 
Amherst Hospital, 9G3 
Amherst Public Library, 538 
Amherst Town ITall, 537 
Amherst Town Hall (view), 538 
Amherst Union School, 536 
"Amherst Weekly News," 554 
Amherst township organized, 73; early 

settlers, 97; incorporated, 99; lirst 

ollicers, 99; schools, 175 
Anderson, Robert O., 678 
Andress, George 11., 956 
Andress, Henry. M., 844 
Andrews, F. K., 906 
Amirews, S. J., 217 
A Preghicial fiorge (view), 5 
Aniohl, Herbert 10., 1012 
Arteinas Heche 'I'liverti, IH20 (view), 657 
Artil'u'ial light and power, 331 
Artress, 'I'humas II., 001 
Aschenbiich, ('. C, >.)<.)5 
Associated Charities, 357 

Anlt, Stanley A., 711 

Austin, Lewis, 101, 134 

Avery, Floyd G., 877 

Avery, William E., 876 

Avon townsliip organized, 73; settled, 
100; created, 101; celebration, 131; 
l)hysical features, 131; mysterious 

, lirst settler, 131; first settlers, 131; 
first events, 136; industries, 137; tirst 
religious service, 137; j)ioneer school- 
house, 138 

Awakening of Lorain, 284 

Babcock, Allison IL, 587 

Bacon, Aaron L., 899 

Bacon, Lida M., 900 

Bagg, Sylvester, 220 

Baldwin, Charles C, 238 

Baldwin Cottage (view), 451 

]5allantine, William G., 435 

Bank of Lorain, 332 

Banks, 332, 416, 503, 527, 553 

Banning, L. V., 919 

Ba|)tist Cluu-cli, ^Vellington, 520 

liajitisls, 337, 382, 526 

Barnes, Lewis, 994 

Barrows, John IL, 230, 437 

Bartholomew, J. W., 961 

Bassett, Henry, 635 

Bassett, Miles S., 1039 

Battery B, Light Artillery, 272 

Uattle of Lake Erie, 165 

Beck, Henry A., 770 

Beckley, Harley 0., 1003 

Bedortlia, Lutlier, 151 

Beebe, Artemas, I, 650 

Beebe, Artenuis, II, 658 

Beche, Artemas, III, 059 

Beel>e, David, Sr., 92 

Beebe, Pamelia, 658 

Beebes and Perrys of Black River, 94 

Beebe home, first, 106 

Beebe tavern, 105, 057 

Behnke, C. J., 959 

lielden. Homer B., 887 

lieiieh and liar, 197; since 1880, 226 

Benedict, .ludson I)., 318 

Beniiingtcin Atalanta, 941 

llennington, 'I'lioiuas I!., 940 

lletts "I'ather," 336 

xviii INDKX 

liihliothoca Sacra Coiiipaiiy, 001 liutlcr, Hii'haid, ;!5 

"liii' Huckuyc," I'JH IJiittfiibciiili-r, ( liarlcs II., 910 

lii^'''i<il.l..Ty, 5;J7 

jjjj, '1 ,.|it, Kid CaliODii )iiiiiily, 101, l.'ll 

Jiilliii(,'H, I'laiik C, sad CalKHMi, ll<ira<.' .)., i:il, 707 

liiiirliower, JosL'pli, 77'J Caliooii, WilOiir, 101, llta 

Uirils :;0 CVIkjou, Williaiii K., 710 

liivin' Claude B., 719 Caley, l)anii-l, 151 

Black River "boom" of the ISO's, 288 Calkins, J. II., 10:iO 

Black Kiver Commercial, 340 Camden Lake, IH 

Black Uiver settlement, 88 Camilen towri»lii|) organized, 7;i, 123; 

Black Kiver Steamboat Association, 87, pioneers, 124 

304 Cameron, JO., 70,'J 

Black River townslii]) organized, 73, 9.') Campbell, H. A., 998 
Blakeslee's Old INlill, Carlisle township Canals t;ive Lorain the go-by, 282 

(view), 120 Canlield, .lason, 303 

Bliss A. A. 218 Carlisle township organized, 73, 119; 
Bliss,' I'liilei'aon, 201 'pioneers, 119 

Board of education, I'.lvriu, 302 Carnegie Library (view), 440 

Boise, L. S., 900 " Carnegie Library, Obcrlin College, 441 

]?orn,'jolin D., 941 Carpenter, K|iliraini K., 705 

Botany of Lorain County, 13 Carpenter, Lavma C, 700 

Boundaries, 07 Carter, John, 151 

BoiKpict, Colonel, 33; expedition, 33 Casscll, (Jcorge C, 972 

Bo.x, (ie(jr"e 11. 805 Catholic Mission, Wellington, 520 

Boyiiton, A. J., '578 Catholics, 340, 383, 520 

Boynton, Patrick IL, 577 Celoron, 29 

Boyiitoii, Washington W., 207, 572 Centennial celebrations, 126 

Bradhv, V. V.., 040 "Centennial Herald," 127 

liraman' ( harles M., 044 Centennial Log Cabin, ICIyria (view), 128 

Braman,' William A.', 043 Central Baking Company, 333 

Brandt, Fred C, 994 Cbadwuk Frauds, .-,04 

Branson, Alan R., 781 Chamberlam, (Icorge IL, 037 

Braun l'"d H. 1043 Cliamberlain, Wells A., 1035 

]{ri'ghton township organized, 73, 120 Chamber of Commerce, Amherst, 539 

Jirwiks, Walter K., 1017 Chapiii, Roswell, 933 

Brown, Antoinette, 240 Chapman, Erie D., 623 

Brown, M. G., 1034 Chapman Family, 618 

Brownhelm quarry, 533 Chapman, Harlan P., 622 , ^ „ , 

Brownhelm township organized, 73; Charleston village, 88; rise and fall of, 

created, 111; idoneers, 110 290 

Briiiik Machine and Forging Companv, Chillicothe Land District, 3 < 

■jj^ Christ Protestant lOpiscojjal Church, 465 

Brunk, Philip, 714 Chronicle Printing Co., The, 781 

Brush, Mario H., 649 ^ '"'''' °! >./"•'". \vu- . .or 

Brush, Lafayette, 648 ^ '"'■•^' ' ^[ <^ "'^^t- ^^ ';''"'Kton, 525 

Buehs, Peter, 935 H '"'' ' °! m ''' 3'"''^'V A'' t n. r ^7, 

Buell (ieor"e L 692 Church ol the Sacred Heart, Oberlin, 471 

Building of "the ii'rst steamboats, 304 Churches, 150, 159, 335, 374, 402, 510, 

Burgett. Lawrence A., 880 542, 545 , ,, 

Buri'ctt, LeRov P., 1021 Churches formed by colored people, 340 

Burke, Stevenson, 206 Cincinnati Hall, 426 

Burrell, Kdward, 155 Cincinnati Land District, 38 

Bnrrell, Libert J., 589 Ciiiniger, Albert W., 588 

Burrell Isaac, 140, 149 Citizens (!as and Electric Light Coin- 

Bnrrcir, .Maha'la, 590 I''"'}'. '•^'■^^ 

ISurrelJ, .laliez, 140, 149 (!itizeiis Savings Bank, 333 

liiirrell, .lames, 149 City Bank Company, 332 

Burrell, U(d)biiis, 154 Civil govcnuncnt, 27, 49 

Iturrell, Soleii, 152 t'ivil jurisdiction from 1807 to 1811, 00 

Biirsley, (Jeorge F., 1005 Civil organization, 72 

Biisv i)av on West Main Street (view). Civil war, 2 17 

,r,;j() ■ Civil war siddiers, 153 



fliiik, lloiiuo IX, 31 (J 

<'liiik, l,ctiimi(l, i:il 

ClinU, I'rrkiiiH K., HIO 

CIciMctit, lOriicHt I'., 7(18 

(.'Icvcliiiiil, (ii'ii. iMoHC'H, 58 

CIcvcIiukI Stone Oiiii|iiiiiy, 535 

Cleveland, SontliweHtcrii & Columbus 

Traction Company, 411 
Ck'vehuul Trust Company, 333 
ClifTonl, L. F., 1038 
Cole, Stephen M., 848 
College townships, 48 
Collefjiate Institute, 184 
Colsou, Frederick W., 782 
Columbia Steel Company, The, 413, 817 
Columbia townshi]) oiganized, 73, 91 
Comings, William R., 722 
Common pleas judges, 20G 
Company C, Seventh Ohio Infantry, 249 

fatalities, 250 
Comjiany D, Twenty-third regiment, 253 

fatalities, 253 
CorTijianv K, Twenty-tliird regiment, 253 

fatalities, 253 
Conijiany 11, I'^orty-fiist regiment, 255 
Congiegationa lists, 380 
Congress Lands, 30 
Connecticut Land Conii)any, 57 
Connecticut Western Reserve, 3C, 40 
Consolidation of Library Associations 

Oberlin College, 431 
Constitutioiuil convention of 1851, 204 
Conway, Thomas A., 800 
Cook, Lester C, 957 
Cook, Minnie M., 057 
Coon, .lolin v., 319 
Corts, .lohu L., 900 
Co\intry of Canahogue, 58 
County Board of ICducation, 170 
County boundaiies, adjustment of, 07 
County Inlinnary, 177 
County-seat location, 09 
Courts, 198 
Cowley, .Tohn, 808 
Crehorc, Charles J., 889 
(Vehore, Ceorge, Sr., 151 
Ci-isp, Ernest J., 005 
Cris]), George E., 003 
Crisp, Mary L., 004 
Crisp, William, 704 
Crittciulen, William, 113 ^ 

Croghan, George, 30 
Crooks, Sumner G., 031 
fVosse, Franklin P., 734 
Ciiddeback, Mrs. O. L., 154 
f'uiidiis mounds razed, 139 
Current College |iul)lications, 503 
Cushing, Charles F., 871 
("usliing, Charles H., 873 
Cutler, Dr. Manassch, 49 

"Daily Telegram," 408 
Daugiiertv, iM'ed A., 1011 

Daugherty, TIenry R., 903 

Davidson^ Andrew, 931 

Davidson, Andrew W., 074 

Davidson, .lolin K., H98 

Davidson, Samuel, 570 

Da vies, D. W., GOG 

Davies, Walter A., 902 

Davis, L. T., 857 

Davis, Noah, 133 

Day, Cornelia, 150 

Day, Hubert, 709 

Day, John, 140, 150 

Day, I\rary E., 13 

Day, iLiud A., 504 

Day, May, 140 

Day, Norman, 140 

Dav, Sumner B., 502 

Day, William, 153 

Decker, David, 953 

de la Galissoniere, Marquis, 39 

Delaware Avenue ^Methodist Episcopal 

Church, 344 
Delawares move westwardly, 32 
Delia &. Galli, 749 
Delia, Angelo, 748 
Dellifield, George, 939 
Deiin, Fred E., 815 
D'Iberville, U., 28 
Dickson, Joseph IL, 215 
Dimick, C. J., 992 
Dinichthys Terelli, 2 
Disbrow, M. L., Sr., 1000 
Distinguished characters, 228 
]:)onation Tract, 30 
Diuiglas, Edward A., 592 
Dudley, Carl H., 829 
Dudley, Jcdin B., 920 
DulT, Captain, 151 
Dunmore, r.,ord, 33; squatters, 35 
Dunn, Oscar G., 736 
Durand, Bert 0., 007 

Ivuly, Henry J., 575 

Earliest record of Lake Shore Region, 

]':arly hotels, 89 

I'^arly judges, 200 

Early mills, 93 

Early post routes, 281 

Eaton township organized, 73; early set- 
tlers, 93; settled, 93 

Edwards, Charles P., 001 

Edwards, James L., 1021 

Edwards, Pierrepont, 100 

Eightieth anniveisary of Sheffield Con- 
gregational Church, 150 

Eldred, Dewitt, 810 

Electric lines, 387 

Electric uniruation in Lorain County, 

Ely, iremnn, 09, 104, 035 

Ely, lleman, .Ir., (i38 

ICIy, llcnian (portrait) 90 


Kly Home, 105 First Agricultural Society, 184 

Elyriii, county sent at, 71; founded, 104; First Baptist Churcli, :!42, ;{8a 

laid out, lOr); [lioiiccr vilhigiTH, lOH; ]''irHt liaptist Cluirtli, ()l)orlin, 470 

Hurvcyed', lO'J; first lot sold, 109; post- I'irst J!ccl)c home, 100 

olliee estahlished, lO'J; city of today. First Cluircli of C'lirist, Hcientist, 347 

110; lirst school, 175; first railroad First colony of permanent settlers, 00 

center, 38:!; incorporated, 300; in First commissioners' meeting, 72 

1833, SCO; schools, 3G1; school events First Congregational Church, Elyria, 380 

of tlie 'OOs, 304; lire deiiartment, 3G8; First Congregational Cliurcli of Lorain, 
population, 3GS; public im|)rovements, 336 

300; churches, 374; hospitals, 301; First Congregational Church, Oherlin, 
newspapers, 404; industries, 410, 426; (view) 463 

banks 410 First Congregational Church, Wellington, 
Elyria Business College, The, 599 516 

Elyria Canning Company, 412 First county fair, 185 

]-;iyria Chamber of Commerce, 309 First courthouse and jail, 71 

'MO'lyi'i"' Chronicle," 410, 781 First court in Lorain county, 199 

"Elyria Courier," 400 First F:nglish Evangelical Lutheran 
"F:iyria Democrat," 409 Church, 347 

FZlyria F'oundry Company, 415 First federal cens\is of Lorain County, 
F^lVria (ias & IClectric Light Company, 189 

4](i I'irst Frame House in Elyria (view), 
Elyria iligii School, 301 :i01 

lOiyria Iron it Sleil Company, 414 l''irHt Crowth l''orest Tree (view), 14 

lOlyria MiMiiorial Hospital, 391, 050; First judiciary, 54 

(view) 392 l''irst mail in the Western Reserve, 281 

Flyria Public Library, 307, 738 l''irst Methodist Episcopal Church, 
"fflyria Kepublican," 407 Lorain, 339 

I'.lyrin Savings & Banking Company, First Methodist Episcopal Church, Ober- 

41() liii, 470 

F;iyria township organized, 73; settled. First Methodist iiarsonage on the West- 
104; partitioned, 107; surveyed, 109; <'rn Keserve, 375 

erected 110 l''irst National Bank of Wellington, 527 
Emanuel 'Evangelical Church, 335 I'li^t Ohio Com|)any, 30 

English Lutheran Chinch, 347 I'^iist I'resbyterian Church, 340 

lOngiish serve notice of possession, 29 First probate judge, 202 

Episcopal Mission, Amherst, 553 First settler in French Creek Village, 
Episcopalians, 343, 303, 553 135 

E(pializing land values, 64 First territorial court, 198 

Era of wooden ship-building, 305 Fisher, Lewis, 984 

lOvans, Alfred B., 999 Fisher, Orscmus L., 985 
ICverson, Isaac, 759 Fishermen, 310 

Everson, Mary, 760 I'ishes of Lorain County, 23 

Fishing industry, Lorain, 308 
Fairehild, James II., 432 Flora of Lorain County, 18 

Fair grounds, 188 Folger, Thomas, 046 

Famous Beebe tavern, 105, 057 Ford, Jesse E., 1031 

I'ainous law cases, 222 Forty-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 

"Father" Belts, 330 I'o'o 

Fimver, Frank U., 828 Forty-third Infantry, 207 

Fe<leration or' Women's Societies, 357 Founder of Rural Free Dcdivery, 156 

Ferris, W'oodbridge N., 51 Fraternities, 400, 489, 528, 553 

Fili(dd, Henry O., 1022 French Cr.'.'k Village, 135 

Fifteenth Ohio Independent Battery, 274 ImciicIi (iiant, 30, 45 
I'lfth regiiiient, Ohio National Onard, I'rencli Northwest Territory, 28 

;)7j< " l''rencli sclu'iiie of c<doni/.ution, 28 

l''irt\'-fi)urlh rei'iment, 269 l'"rencli took formal possession of Louisi- 

FiUiation plant? Lorain, 292 mm, 29 

Finkel, C. C, 970 Friday & Thomas, 097 

Finney, Charles (',.. 431 l''riday, Carl (1., 097 

Finney IMemorial Chapel, 432 Fulton, .lohn, 50 

I'iie liimls, 30, 41, 03 iMir Imnling expeditions, 78 



(Jalli, Caesar A., 749 

(JaiiiiL't, S. S., 51 

OiirliL'ld, -Milton, 153 

(Jiuford, Arthur L., 579 

Garford Manufacturing Company, 412 

Can .s[irinf,'H, 11 

General View of South Lorain Steel 
Mills (view) 319 

Geologic Map of Ohio, 1 

Geology of Lorain County, 1 

George, S. Jesse, 730 

George Oroszy Banks, 334 

German residents, 159 

Geukes, Henry W., 921 

Gibbs, Earl X., 923 

Gibson, L. D., 893 , 

Gillmore, Edmund, 726 

(iillniorc, Jlaj.-Gen., Quincy A., 241, 725 

(iillinore, Quincy A., 728 

(iii-dh'd and Ht;ite roads, 281 

Gist, Clnistiipher, 30 

Glacial jieriod, 5 

Cilattstciii, Adolph, 85G 

fJlew, Artliur T., 781 

GMadcMhuttcn, 79 

(;.)ld hunters of 1849-50, 152 

Golden weddings, 158 

(!()od Koads Movement, 184 

Goss, Clair 0., 053 

Gow, Tiicddore C, 700 

Grace Methodist Episcopal Church, 344 

Grafton, 1 14 

(iraftun township organized, 73; pio- 
neers, 113 

(irand Arniv of the Reimblic at Oberlin. 

Grand weleome to the restored flagship, 

Great historic waterways, 28 

Great Indian Slinre Trail, 280 

(ireat railroad docks, 280 

(Ireer, Hugh D.. 75(5 

(ireen, William, 1007 

(iregg, Frank U.. 915 

Grills. Albert T., 949 

firills, Wesley L., 070 

(Junn, U. 1). 'a., 855 

Ifaag, Anna :\r., 919 
Haag, .lohn .1., 918 
Hacker, Henry, 948 
Hadawav Hrothers, 811 
Hadaway, George IT., 811 
Hadiiwax', Lf)uis, 7tsG 
Ihigeiniin, Albert ^'.. 071 
Ibihii, Ceoigi' A., OTiO 
Ihiist, I'rederick, 922 
Hale, Alfred !■;.. 855 
Hale, .John ('., 209 
Hall, Kre.l L., 8 15 
Hall, Hugh f-., 95-1 

lllMllilloll. W'illilMII II., 591 

lliniiliii, I)., 757 

Ilaning, E. C, 1051 

llannaford, Florence II., 5G9 

Harris, Josiah, 98, 202 

Harris, .Judge Josiah (portrait), 98 

Harris, William, 50 

Harrison, Melvin F., 765 

Hart, G. A., 975 

Hasenflue, Charles J., 945 

Haserodt, John F., 715 

Haserodt, Oscar P., 717 

Haserodt, Otto E., 716 

Hathaway, R, 933 

Hawley, Cyrus W., 1039 

Heckewelder, John, 81, 280 

Hecock, Davis, 149 

Hecock, Erastus, 149 

Hecock, Harry J., 843 

Heldmyer, William, 568 

Henderson, John T., 802 

lleM<lricks, Maurice K., 850 

Henrietta Township organized, 73, 122; 
first settlement, 123; pioneers, 123 

Herrick Public Library, 514 

Herriek, .Myron T., 163, 245 

Hewitt, James A., 787 

Hill, J. C, 224, 732 

Hinkson, Harry, 754 

lliseo.x, William A., 679 

Hisloiic conti'ibutions on Shclfield town- 
ship, 146 

Historic I'lm, Oberlin, 423; (view) 424 

Historic Shellield program, 101 

Hitchcock, Frank IT., 246 

Hitchcock, Henry H., 951 

Ibdlingsworth, George W., 1003 

Holy Trinity Catholic Church, 138 

Horn, Conrad A., 803 

Horr, Poland A., 529 

Horr, Roswell 0., 225 

Horr, Roswell P., 529 

Horsley, James T., 636 

Hospitals, 358, 391 

Houir, Joseph M., 696 

Houghton, John W., 519, 1012 

How the Reserve became national terri- 
tory. 52 

How the Reserve was sold, 55 

Howk, L. E., 898 

Hubbard, F. I., 892 

Hughes, William L., 878 

Hume, Thomas J., 082 

Hungarian (Catholic (^hiirches, 345 

Hungarian Reformed Church, 347 

Huntington, W. P., 946 

Huntington township organized, 73; in- 
corporated, IKi; (irst settlers, 116; 
early industries, 117; organized, 117; 
scIkJoIs, 175 

Huntington's Centennial, 164 

Huntington's home-coming, 162 

Hurd. Judson N., 929 

Hurst, J. Ilarrv, 792 

1 1 listed. I). S., 852 



Hutchins, Thomas, 33 
Ilyland, Daniel W., 088 

IniprovemcntB of river and harbor, 323 

"Jiiiluiic'iuJtJiit J)eiiiocrut," 40G 

Inilian vvarH, 33 

Indians, 31, 33; subdued, 54; adopt lirst 

white settler, 75 
Ingersoll, C. B., 927 
Ingersoll, George W., 837 
Ingersoll, Henry W., 738 
Ingersoll, William, 113 
Irish, Charles M., 1024 
Iron industries, 311 

Jackson, Alexander L., 867 
Jackson, Andrew J., 974 
Jackson, Calvin, 861 
Jaeger, William, 1050 
Jameson, Joseph B., 136 
Janiieson, Charles T., 912 
Jellerson County in 1797, 59 
Jelley, John T., 702 
Jenkins, I']arl G., 800 
Jenne, A. K., 990 
Jewett, Frank V., 1030 
Jewisii Synagogue, 347 
Jolict, 28 

Johnson, John B., 846 
Johnson, Kay D., 916 
Johnson Steel Mills, 312 
Johnston, Charles W., 216 
Johnston, IClcie JI., 596 
Johnston, Paul M., Sr., 746 
Johnston, Paul M., Jr., 747 
Johnston, Thomas, 744 
Jones, Augustus, 151 
Jones, Charles A., 820 
Jones, Charles S., 990 
Jones, Prof. Lynds, 20 
Judges, 73, 198 

Kaiser, John, 774 
Kaiser, Louis P., 775 
Keith, Myron R., 219 
Kelly, Charles R., 944 
Kelly, George B., 639 
Kelly, James ]\L, 851 
Kels'ey Band, 163 
Kendeigh, Milo C, 1046 
Killip, Edward T., 891 
King, Frank J., 942 
King, Henry 0., 438 
Kingsb\iry, Josei)li, 121 
Kinnison, R. II., 914 
Kiinect, William II., 805 
Knapp, II. Lynn, 752 
Kothe, LouiH \V., 909 
Krebs, W. J., 1001 

Laboratories and inuseums, Oberlrii Col- 
lege, 450 
Laborie, .lohu, 110 

Ladies' Hall (view), 425 

Lagrange, 122 

Lagrange township organized, 73, 121; 
jiioneerH, 121 

Lugron, Arthur P., 718 

J.,ak<; captains, 151 

J^akc ridges, 6 

Lake Shore Electric Railroad, 156 

Land drawings, 65 

Land grant in 1834, 171 

Land of the Delawares, 30 

Land routes, 280 

Langston, John M., 221 

Last Beebe house, pride of the town, 107 

LaSalle, 28 

Lathrop, Alice W., 571 

Latteman, John A., 938 

Lawrence, Amos E., 879 

Lawyers, 198 

Lee, Artlnir, 35 

Lee, Norman, 926 

Leonard, Samuel S., 853 

Lersch, Carl T., 742 

Lersch, John, 740 

Lersch, Robert B., 743 

J.,ife Saving Station at Lorain (view), 

Lifting of Indian and State titles, 34 

l^ight ami power, 331 

Lindsley, W. B., 999 

Liteiary Clubs, 355 

Little, Sarah C, 407 

Lockwood, William F., 210 

Lodges and fraternities, 359 

Lorain, earlj' shipbuilding industry, 87; 
founding of, 97; incorporated, 288; 
lirst school, 291; ])olice department, 
291; jjopulation, 292; incorporation as 
a city, 293; water system, 292; fire 
department, 294; schools, 295; first 
union school, 295; frei' jjublic library, 
300; commercial and industrial, 304; 
first iron furnance, 311; industries, 
318; banks, 332; harbor, 320; news- 
jiapcrs, 349; hospitals, 35!S; lodges 
and fiaternitii's, 359 

Lorain Baidving Company, 334 

Lorain lioiird of Comincice, .■!29 

Lorain Casting Company, 318- 

"Lorain Constitutionalist," 409 

Loiain County surveyed, 02; organized, 
02; in the Civil war, 248 

Lorain County Agricultural Society, 183 

Lorain County Conrtbousc, lOlyiia, 
(view) 70 

Loiain County Chihhi'n's Home, 179 

Lorain ('oiinty Childreii'.i llonic (view), 

TiOrain Connly Inlirnniry, 177 

Liirain (iMiiily Inlirmniy (view), 178 

"Lorain County News," 502 

Lorain County Savings & Trust Com- 
pany, 119 



Lorain Ootiiity ToHcliorK' IiiHtituto, 177 

Lorain I'ryMtal leu Company, ;ilH 

"Lorain Daily Nowh," :i,'jl 

"Lorain (!a/.rtti'," 40.') 

Lorain lli;.'li Scliool (view), 299 

Lorain Milliiif; Company, 'MS 

"Lorain Monitor," 350 

Lorain Porry Home Week, 165 

Lorain Postollieo (view), 302 

Lorain Savings & Banking Company, 333 

Lorain Social Sottlomcnt Association, 

Loiain Steel Company, 317 
"Lorain Timcs-IIerakl," 350 
Lord, Addison E., 094 
Lord, Charles C, 777 
Lord Cottage, 452 
Lord Diinmore's Squatters, 35 
Lord, William F., 784 
Lovcland, Aimer, 121 
Lovelan.l, William, 982 
Lozier, C. K., 817 
Liicas, Stuart H., 824 

^Macadam roads, 287 
:Malian, Asa, 427 
ISlanl.y, Henry W., 1009 
^Mammals of t^irain County, 23 
;N[anual Training and Tcclmical Iligli 

Scliool, 3GG 
!Ma]i of Lorain County, C7 
l^lajK's. ficorgi', fiOO 
]\h\rietta Land District, 38 
!Mar(iU('tte, 28 

MaHonic 'I'dniile Company, 401 
]\[as(>nic Temple, IClyria (view), 402 
INfasons, 489, 528, 553; their temple, 400 
^Tassaere at Cnadenhutten, 79 
Jlavnard, Orlando T., 005 
l^lcConnell, Stewart, 1008^n, dames A., 771 
I^rcQueen, A. F., 890 
McQueen, Fred B., 894 
IMeek, J. A., 829 
Memorial Arch (view), 436 
;Memorial Arch, Oberlin College, 437 
^ren<lclson, Solomon, 804 
:\Iennell, Allen E., 885 
iFennell Family, 884 
IMennell, Jay D., 885 
Menncll, Perry, 1028 * 

:\ren's liuilding (view), 449 
i\[en's lUiildinu', Olierlin College, 440 
Metcalf, Kliab W., 1053 
Metcalf, Ceorge P., 210 
Metcalf, iVfaynard M., 1050 
!Methodist {episcopal Church, Wellington, 

l^lethodists, 330, 375, 519, 543 
^Military matters, 247 
Miller, TIenry, 778 
T\liller, Xath'an, 1025 
Mills, Edgar 1)., 1011 

IMills, Isaac, 111 
Ministeriul Lands, 48 
^litchell, A. W., 1027 
Monroe, Alhert, 849 
^Montour, Andrew, 30 
Mooney, James li., 804 
Moore, Leonard M., 571 
Moore, Smith W., 783 
^Moravian colony, 79 • 
^Moravian colony return to the Muskin- 
gum, 84 
Moravian Lands, 4() 
^Foravian missionaries, 75 
Morgan, Thomas W., 894 
IMoriarty, Alma 1\., 030 
:Morse, Charles L., 034 
Morse, Leyi, 631 
!Mosher, (leorgo A., 594 
^rosher, William E., 595 
Mounds, 139 

Mount Zion Baptist Cliurch, 473 
Murray, Charles D., 988 
Murray, James A., 990 
Musical Organizations, 350 
!Mussey, Ifenry E., 217 
■Mussey, Beuhcn, 217 
]\rycrs", Josliua, 219 

National Bank of C<unnu'rce, 332 

National Hank of Elyria, 416 

National Stove (\)m|iany, 318 

National Tube Company, 317 

Nash, Simeon, 1042 

National Vapor Stove & Manufacturing 

C<impany, 094 
Native and migratory birds, 20 
Natural gas, 11 
Naylor, Samuel, 904 
Naylor, Sarah, 905 
Nelson, Thomas L., 739 
New ConiU'cticut, 40 
New York Central System, 286 
Newspaiiers, 349, 404, 500, 520, 554 
"Niagara," the raised, 106 
Nichols, Allen M., 809 
Nichols, Byron (i., 055 
Nichols, C iiarles A., 029 
Nichols, John J., 029 
Nichols, W. 0., 818 
Nieding, Anthony. 798 
Nielsen, Hans P„ 500 
Noakes, T., 574 
Xorthcrn internatioiuil boundary, 09 
Northwest Territory, 34 
Nye, David J., 220,' 557 

Oberlin College, 420; the modern uni- 
versity, 421; and city founded to- 
gether, 422; lirst cidlege building, 
425; I'niversity incoiporated, 427; in 
1845, 428; objects of, 430; great en- 
dowment fund, 439; buildings, 441; 
laboratories and museums, 450; fae- 


ulty, 453; ndniinistration, 45G; niimi- 

t':il mill liti'iary iiilviiiilagcH, iriT; 

hIikIciiI l>«"ly, 'ISH; ;,'iii(linit(: follow- 

Bliip, 401; (■iiiollriicnt, 4(iL 
Obi'iiiii, foiiiuliiig of, 112; town fair, 

184; lawyuis, 231; first colonist, 434; 

cliurclies, 402; fraternities, 489; incor- 

l)orat('il, 494; schools, 494; water 

works system, 498; lire dejjavtnient, 

498; newspajjors, 500; village items of 

llie early ilays, 500 
()l)erlin Ajiriiiiitliral Society, 184 
ttbeiliii liaiikiiij,' Company, 50:i 
Oljerliii Hoard of Commerce, 503 
Obeilin Husir.css College, 490 
Oberliii Federation for Village Ini|)rove- 

ment and Social Betterment, 490 
Oberlin f!. A. R., 491 
Oberlin Ifospital Association, 480 
Oljcrliii Hospital (view), 480 
Oberlin Missionary Ifoiije Association, 

472, 474 
"Oberlin College Review," 435 
"Oberlin Stndents' Monthly," 431 
Oberlin-Wellington Rescue ease, 233 
"Ohio Atlas and IClyria Advertiser," 405 
Ohio ('anal I^ands, 40 
Ohio Company, 30 
Ohio Com|iany's Purchase, 30, 43 
Oliio-Michi;:an boundary, 50 
Ohio National Guard, 378 
Ohio (Quarries Company, 530 
Ohio shale, 1 
Ohio \'alley, 27 
Oil, 11 

Old American House (view), 530 
Old family relics, 158 
Old Hill" and Baptist Church, The, 

(view), 543 
Old-time fireplace, 100 
Old turnpikes, 383 

Old Union School of 1857 (view), 303 
Oldest Kxisting Church, 335 
Olds, Emma S., 585 
Ohnsted, Oeorge, 315 
Olnev Art Collection, 443 
One Hundred and Third Infantry, 303 
One of the I'irst Frame Houses Built in 

Andierst Township (vi(!w), 580 
One of the Great Amherst Quarries 

(view), 534 
Opening of the Lorain steel plant, 317 
Ordinance of 1787, 49 
Original Cahoon tract, 133 
Original organization of the townships, 

Ormsby, Caleb (portrait), 532 
Ormshy, "Amit Kate" (pord-ait ) , 53:i 
Onis/v, Ceoi'tie, 33 1 
Oros/y, George, Baid<B, 334 
Other Civil war oruani/ations, 277 
Othei- infantrv bodies, 372 
Olteibaeher, il. ('., 002 

'ark, Charles F., 931 

'ark, h'-lah, 135 

'ark, William C, 932 

'arsch, (Miristian, 582 

'arsch, ,lohn C, 583 

'arsons, Charles C, 243 

arsons, John G., 989 

""arsons. Judge, 57 

'arsons, Zavalah R., 813 

'art of Plant of National Tube Com- 
pany (view), 319 

'aterson, John, 1023 

'ay ton, Archie C, 890 

•eiibody, Otis E., 1020 

'ease, Seth, 02 

'(dton, Floyd M., 908 

'enlield, Peter, 118 

'enlield, Truman, 118 

'enlield township organized, 73, 119; 
first settlers, 118; nanu'd, 118; first 
school, 170 

'enney, Fred J., 088 

'eo])les Hanking Company, 504 

'ermanent settlers, 90 

'eriy Centennial, 105 

'erry-Fay Company, 415 

'erry r(d'ics exhibited, 108 

'eters Hall, 440 

'eters Hall (view), 445 

'hipps, h",mnui, 925 

•hipps, Wesley B., 924 

'ierce, Clarence V.., 905 

'ierce, lOlisha M., 080 

'ierce, Frnest L., 903 

'ilgeruh, 80 

'ilgrim's Rest, 80 

'ioneers, 50, 91, 95, 108, 110, 119, 132, 
135, 140, 149, 151, 157 

'ioneer and veteran fishermen, 310 

'ioneer frame house in Lagrange 
Townslii|) (view), 133 

'ioneer land buyer, 57 

'ioneer lawyers, 310 

'ioneer schools and teachers, 173 

'ioneer settlement, 74 

'ii|ua Land District, 38 

'ittsfield township settled, 100; drawn, 
103; first permanent settlers, 103; or- 
ganized, 73, 104 
Plato, Albert A., 049 
Planing mill and stove works, 313 
I'lant life, collectors of, 19 
Plocher, Alvin J., 701 
P(dl(.ck. John J., 008 
Pond, Channcey N., 601 
l'<md, Norman M., 917 

I'dliulatioii (if the eoiiMtv, 1830-1910, 189 
Portion of Flyria High Scliocd (view), 

I'ounds, Harry A., 753 
l'ic'lii--tiiric remains, 22 
I'lcparedni'ss. HO 
I'resbyd'rians, 336 


Present County Jail (view), 71 

I'resciit-diiy coiiita, 205 

]'ieHctit Hcliool l)uil(liii{,'s, Lorain, 298 

I'icscnl HtiituH of county education, 17(5 

Prince, fjeorge C, 830 

Profjress of scliool laws to 1834, 173 

Prosecuting attorneys previous to 1880, 

Pryco, Samuel V,, 827 

Public education in the Western Re- 
serve, 170 

Public High School (view), 511 

Public Lands, 36 

Public Library Decorated for Honie- 
Coming Week (view), 539 

Quarries, 533 

Railroads, 155, 283 

Raisings, 109 

Randall, Wintlirop, 153 

Ranshaw, George R., 790 

Rath, Thomas, 094 

Rathwell, Frank S., 892 

Rawson, Charles B., 822 

Rawsoii Faustina B., 085 

Rawson, Samuel B., 084 

Reamer, Chambers D., 1053 

Rcdington, Eliphalet, 90 

Redington, Harry ]\L, 743 

Redington, Horace G., 703 

Reefy, Fva L., 841 

Reefy, Frederick S., 839 

Reefv, Karl P., 836 

Reefv, l^hilip D., 834 

Refugee Tract, 30, 45 

Regimental history, 253, 255, 201, 2 

Relics of French adventures, 130 

Republican Printing Company, 

Resek, fi. Adolphus, 880 
"Re|)ort('r," 554 

Retrospect of the earlier bar, 235 
Rice :Meniorial Hall, 440 
Rice Meinoiial Hall (view), 447 
Rice, Robert H., 704 
Richey, I'rancis 0., 751 
Richmond, Klmer A., 958 
Ridgeville, 8 

Ridgcville, jiioneer settlers of, 91 
Ridgeville township organized, 73, 
River an<l harbor inii)r(ivements, 32 
Rochester township oigani/ed, 73, 

first settlement, 134 
Rochester, 124 
Roe, William E., 799 
Rogers, K. M., 895 
Rogers, Ceorge, 35 
Rogers, I'liiiy 11., 833 
Koss, .lames', 115 
Hoot, Aaron, 150 
Root, i;plnMiMi, 115, Lyman, 93 




Root, Orville, 567 

Root, ^Villiam 11., 150 

Uosecrans, lOdgar F., 1056 

Kuggles, Ahnon, 04 

Russia township organized, 73, 113; 

lirst school, 114; incor|)orate(l, 114; 

settlement of. 111; schools, 175 
Rust, Albert F., 831 
Rust, Bonnie K., 832 
Rust Jlethodist Episcopal Church, 471 

St. Agnes Catholic Cliurch, 390 

St. Andrew's l-^piscopal Church, 383 

St. Clair, Gen. Arthur, 53 

Sts. Cyril and ^lethodius Church, 346 

St. David's ICpiscopal Church, 343 

St. John's Evangelical Church, 341 

St. .John's German Lutheran Church, 390 

St. Joseph's Catholic Church, Amherst, 

St. Joseph's Catholic Church, Lorain, 550 
St. Joseph's Hospital, 358 
St. I>adislaus Catholic Magyar Cluuxh, 

St. .Mary's Catholic Church, Elyria, 383 
St. Mary's Catholic Church, Lorain, 340 
St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Amherst, 

St. Paul's United ICvangelical Church, 

St. Peter's Evangelical Church, Amherst, 

St. Theresa's Catholic Church, ShefTielJ, 

Salem CTiurch (Evangelical Association), 
Amherst, 551 

Sainpsell, Joel V., 767 

Sampsell, Paul W., 795 

Sanford, Frank A., 690 

Savage, Charles H., 731 

Savings ]?ank Company, 504 

Savings Deposit Bank, 418 

Scene in Cascade Park, Elyria (view), 

Schaffeld, John T., 593 

Schaible, Charles, 874 

Schaible, John 874 

Schibley, Jacob IL, 997 

Schiblev, W. H., 965 

School 'Lands, 46 

School elections, 296 

School statistics, 397 

School population, Lorain, 397 

Scho.ds, 173, 494, 511, 530 

Schools r.nindcd in 1810-30, 174 

Schwartz, h'rank K., 863 

Sehwarz, Charles ('., HS3 

S( Ill Hiiptist Chinch, 310 

Second Congregational Church, Lorain, 

Second Congregational Church, Elyria, 



Second Coiigrcgatioiuil Cliiii-cli, Obi'ilin, 

Second ISIetliodist lOpiscoiml churches, 

Second Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Cav- 
alry, 274 

Seher, William, 704 

Settlements from 1807 to 1812, 85 

Seward, Dennis W., 007 

Seward, James B., 682 

Shaking Hands Over the Interstate 
Boundary (view), 51 

Sharp, William G., 807 

Shaw, Stanley G., 616 

Shetlield Centennial, 139, 160 

SlielUeld, Joseph G., 10:i4 

Sliellield Land Company, 314 

Shellield townshi[) organized, 73; settled, 
100; pioneers, 102; first townsliip 
after county organization, 102; cele- 
bration, 139; first colonists, 140; pio- 
neer families, 141; ehurehes, 143, 156, 
159; lirst events, 144; organization, 
144; decease of pioneers, 145; historic 
contributions, 146; industries, 147; 
in the Civil war, 152; lirst railroad, 
154; history, 1865-1915, 154; deaths 
of 1815-16 pioneers, 157; industrial 
matters, 157; famous natives, 158 

Sheldon, Lionel A., 211 

Shelley, James IL, 1044 

Sherman, C. IC, 51 

Slii])buildcr3, 151 

Ship-building, 305, 320 

Slirubs, 16 

Shupe, Jacob, 97 

Silie, William C, 823 

Simonson, George, 970 

Sisterliood of Lorain, 355 

Six Nations, 27 

Slab Hall (view), 427 

Smalley, Charles W., 785 

Smith," Burdette S., 876 

Smitli, ('. ])., 817 

Smith, Charles W., 863 

Smith, Frank A., 789 

Smith, F. A. & Brother, Company, 790 

Smith, Henry F., 647 

Smith, James, 75, 128 

Smitli, James C, 800 

Smith, Laertes B., 212, 675 

Smith travels, 128 

Smith, Will M., 790 

Smjthe, F. A., 1050 

Smythe, John J., 091 

Snow, Clemon H., 686 

Snyder, (ieorge N., 971 

Social Settlement School, Klyria, 366 

Soils, 8 

Soldiers, 153, 247 

Sorosis Club, 355 

South Amherst Churches, 545 

South Lorain, founding of, 314; of 

today, 316 
S])allord, Amos, 64 
Spear Zoolo^'ical Laborator}', 444 
Spencer liand, 103 
Spencer, Calvin, 118 
Sperry, E. E., 686 
Spiegelberg, William H., 955 
Sponseller, F. :M., 1038 
Squatters, 35 
Squirrel hunters, 252 
Stage era, 282 
Stankard, Edward J., 612 
Starr, Justus M., 913 
State Line Monument, 50 
Status of Lorain Countv Highways 

(map), 287 
Steel plant, 155 
Steel shipbuilding, 320 
Steele, Elizabeth K., 300 
Steele, John, 135 
Steele, John W., 212 
Stetson, Frank A., 774 
Stetson, Hinaldo R., 772 
SteubenviUe Land District, 39 
Stevens, I'rank M., 751 
Stewart, Samuel L., 677 
Stiekncv, Albin, 136 
Stiwald", A. E., 980 
Stone Carvings by Water (view), 9 
Stone, Lucy, 240 
Stolzenburg, Henry, 810 
Slolzenburg, William, 704 
Storrs, Lemuel, 121 
Straus, August, 809 
Street, Titus, 111 
Streeter, S, JL, 957 
Strenick, James F., 883 
Strickland,' Earl J., 761 
Strut Street School, Brownhelm, 174 
Sturj^'os Hall, 444 
Summers, Charles R., 595 
Snr|d\is Lands, 04 
Surveys of western lands, 52 
SiitlilV, Blanche, 897 
Sutliir, (leor^'e M., 897 
Sweet, ^Vaterman, 135 
Syiumes, John Cleves, 53 
Sj'inmes I'urcliaso, 30, 45 

Taleott Hall, 453 
Tank family, 482 
■^rank Home for ^Missionary Children, 

Tank Home for Missionary Children 

(view), 473 
Tappan Hall (view), 429 
I'avlor, A. iMl^'eiie, 591 
rcachcrs' Institutes, 173 

idi'phone service, 331 
Terrell, Ichabod, 92 
i'he llerrick I'ublie Library (view), 514 


Tho Historic Mini (viow), 424 

'I'lic "Niii^Mrii" niisi'il, I (Ki 

'I'lii- Old Hill iiikI l!M|>liHl Cliuicli (view), 

"Til.' I'liHt," :i.-,i 

'J'licw AiituiiiatiL' Shovel Company, Tlu', 

:nK. lo-i.s 

Tlii'W, Kirliaril, 1057 

ThoMiiis, David, 700 

'I'lionias, (;ladc li., 008|is(iii, William li., 723 

'nilany, .loid. 2V.i 

Tillin Land District, 30 

Tillotson, Albert Z., 070 

Tod, (ieoijie, 203. 

Topliir, .lohn A., 013 

Town Fair at Ohcrlin, 184 

Town.seiid, Norton S., 228 

Townships settled diirinj; the war, 100 

Towiishi|)s, ori;anization of, 73 

Transportation, 150 

Trees, 13 

"Tribune,'' Oberlin, 503 

Trinity liaptist finnoh, 348 

Tro.xei, David S., 500 

Troxel Maniifaetnrinjr Company, 414 

Trnmbiiil Conntv (1800) reco','ni/od, GO 

Tinker, Charles K., 700 

Twelfth Ohio Cavalrv, 270 

Twentieth Street :\[ethodist Church, 341 

Twinin^i', W. T., OS(i 

Two noted president judges, 203 

Unique bop;. A, IS 
United Hrethrcn Church, 342 
Unit.'d :\Iilitary Lands, 36 
United States ".Military Lands, 42 

Vandcmark, Eoy ¥., 703 

View on liroad Street, Elvria (view), 

Village of Klyria founded, 104 
^'^ineent, .Tohn ^I., 215 
Virginia ^Military Lands, 30, 42 

W. N. Gates Hospital, 304 

Wadswortb, Le07i H., 1045 

Walker, Russell, 150 

Wallace, Timothy, 141 

Walton, Kli/abeth, 073 

Walton, Ceorge P., 072 \ 

Walton Tee Company, 072 

War scare of 1812, 80 

Ward, C. W., OS!! 

Ward, F. D., 103 

Ward, l!<ib.rt 0., 830 

Warner and Slurges Halls, 4 14 

Warner .Cymnasium, 448 

Winner Hall (view), 113 

AVarreii, Kraidc D., 081 

Warren, W. D., 005 

Washburn, Clarence (i., 227, 053 

Washbinii, (H'orgi' 0., 407, 500 

Washington County (170G) claimed 
jurisdiction in Western Kesorve, 5S 

Watti'rs, Iv [■:., 00 1 

WattH, Walter II., 027 

Wayne Couidy in 1700, 50 

Wci)ber, Amos U., 041 

Webber, Lawrence IL, 042 

W(d)st<'r, lOdward F., 077 

"Weekly News," 554 

Weidmann, .laeob, 030 

W(dler, Ceorge L., 070 

Welles, Woolsey, 204 

Wellington, 110; school, 175; how 
iianu'd, 510; schools, 511; incorporated, 
512; i)ul)lic improvements, 512; water- 
woiks, 512; churches, 510; newspaiiers, 
520; banks, 527; fraternities, 528; old- 
tinu' daily interests, 528; as it is, 530 

"Wcdlington iMiterprise," 520 

Wellington Public Library, 080 

Wellington township organized, 73; orig- 
inal owners and settlers, 114; first 
family, 115; organized, 110 

Wells, Addison, 842 

\\'esbecher, .loseiih, 882 

^Vcst, Anson O., 875 

West, Edward H., 007 

Western Automatic Machine Screw 
Company, 412 

Western lands, 52 

Western lands surveyed, 03 

^\'estel■ll Reserve in 1820, 40; liow sold, 
55; acreage of, 57; civil complication, 
GO; trustees of, 00; school fund, 172 

Western Reserve Historical Society, 58 

Westwood Cemetery, Oberlin, 487 

When the railroad came, 284 

Whitney, Frank S., 1000 

Whitney, ^Lark A., 078 

Whitney, Otis .L, 901 

Whitney, Terry C, 983 

Whitney, William, 712 

Wbiton, Fbenezer, 73 

Whittlesey, Charles, 238 

Wilcox, Calvin, 009 

Wilcox, Harvey C, Oil 

Wilcox, Hubbard A., 010 

Wild (lowers, 17 

Williams, Havid A., 1018 

Williams, Larkiii, 130 

Williams, Perry S., 1033 

Williams, Salonas A., 1010 

Williams, Seward H., 1043 

Williams, William T., 900 

Willis, Frank B., 51 

Willys-Overland Conijiany, 413 

Wilson, Charles K., 008 

Wilson, (Jecnge IL, 800 

Winckles, Carey T., 814 

Winekles, llarvey T., 701 

Winckles, Thomiis T., 003 

Wisi'inan, (ieorge R., 003 

Wolf, I'lvderi.'k (!., 007 



Wolf, ](la, 908 

^Volllall's Chiistian Tt'iii]K'iiuuc Union, 

W'unicn'a ])(>rniitoiiP8, Oborlin CoIIpl'c, 

451 ^ . 

\V()nicn'N OyinnuHiinn, Obcrlin (IoIIcl'c, 

Wood, ir. B., 858 
Wood, If. H., farm, 858 
Wood, Marshall A., 859 
Wood, Rcnbcn, 204 
Woodrnir, Lewis, 152 
\\'ooster Land District, 39 
Worcester, Erwin, 624 
Worcester, Perry G., 664 
Worthington Company and Machine 

Parts Company, 415 

Wright, C. Frederick, 1058 
^\■llrnl.ser, Henry O., 660 
Wiirst, Henry \V., 847 
\\'uiMt, Sainiiil h;., i):i7 

Vouiig Men's Cliristian Assoeiution, 353, 

Ydiin;,' i^Ien's Christian Association 

Uuilding (view), 397 
Yo\mf,', Nidiohis, 101, 134 

Zanesvillo Land District, 39 
Zeisberger, David, 79, 84 
Ziegler, Frank, 987 
Zilch, Conrad, 977 
/Ciniinerinan, Ixjis A., 943 
Ziniinerman, Louis, 943 



Geologic map of Ohio. 

Explanations of the Formations 

Tlie Permian area is barren of coal. The Pennsylvanian area contains workable 
coal dejiosits. The Mississijiiiian is Siibcarboniferous and contains the conglomerate 
exposures of Thompson Lcd^'es, Little Mountain and similar ones in Medina County, 
and the sandstone deposits quarried at Berea, iOlyria, Grafton, Andierst, Norwalk and 
Wavorly. Tlio Devonian area contains the slialo deposits cro[)pinj,' out uU along the 
shore of Lake Krie, and the Corniferous limestone (jmirried at l\olloy Island, Marblo- 
liead, Sandusky, ('oliindms, and intervening areas. Tlio Silurian area covers I'ut-in- 
liay Island and the wiile region to th(! south famous for its oil wells. Tlu) Dtnoniaa 
area in tlie midst of it, is u rcinruint left by erosion occupying tlie elevated area 
about Hellcfontaine, Ij^-lO feet above tiile. The Ordovirian area luis been generally 
known as I^ower Silurian and contains near its ]) the Trenton liniestoiK; wliicli 
is tlio source of the gas and oil Inoiight to the surface in the Silurian ilistrict. The 
oil and gas of lOastern Ohio is largely <lerivod from the Devonian fornuitjon. The 
oldest rocks in Olii(< are the Siluiian and Oi'iloviciiin. The newer, overlying rocks 
iip|i(^:ir in ri^gular order on either side. 

History of Lorain County 



TiiK Ohio Shale in Lorain County — The Waverly Sandstone — ]\L\rks 
OP THE Glacial Period in the County — The Lake Ridges — Soils — 
Elevations in the County — Natural Gas and Oil. 

The lowest rocks underlying the whole of Lorain County belong to 
the Devoniiui formation whieh occupies about the middle portion of the 
geological scale. They consist of soft shales with occasional thin Ijcds of 

The Ohio Shale in Loijain County 

Their outcrop can be studied all along the lake shore from Avon Point 
to the vicinity of Lorain ; but to better advantage in the gorges of Black 
River l)elow Elyria, and of Vermilion River where it runs through Hen- 
rietta and Brownhelm townships. The total tliickness of these shale 
dei)Osits is several hundred feet, and tliey are evidently composed of sedi- 
ment which settled upon the bottom of a deep sea, for the ])artieles are 
exceedingly fine and the fossils both of plants and animals are marine. 
Specimens of these shales, between Elyria and Lorain, from which an 
elVort was made to nuuuifacture brick, were found by Prof. A. A. Wright 
to contain, in addition to the particles of clay which form the bulk of 
the deposit, from ten to twenty per cent of carl)Onaceous matter, con- 
sisting in part of tlie spores of alga? such as float around in tlie Sargasso 
Sea in the Allaiilic at the present time. So great was llie amount of 
eai'lionaccous mattci' that the bi'ick were burned to a crisp and rendered 
so nearly useless that tlieir manufacture luul to be abandoned. 

'IMii'se same sludes liave a gi'eat in Weslei'ii I'enn.sylvania, 
nnih'iMieath the oil sands, and tlie oil and gas of Ihal region are supposed 



to result from the slow distillation of their carbonaceous material. 
Indeed, Trofessor Newberry, before tlie tliseovery of i)etroleum, estimated 
that oil could be distilled from the Ohio shale at a cost of 25 cents 
a gallon, so that it is possible for us to look forward to this source of lieat 
when in the distant futui'e otlier sources shall fail. 

These sh.ales belong to tlie .same age as tiie Old Red Sandstone in 
Scotland, in which llugii ]\Iiller discovered remains of the remarkable 
jjlated iish which lie called Ttericlitliys. But fifty years ago, Prof. 0. N. 
Allen of Oberlin ami Mv. J. Terrell of Sheflield found on the beach west of 
Avon I'oint portions of the skeleton of a fish similar to the Pterichthys; 
but it was so much larger that Professor Newberry named it Dinichthys 
Terelli (^ten-ible fish), after j\Ir. Terrell, wlio later found much more 
perfect specimens at Lake lireeze, three miles east of Lorain. A still 
larger number of specimens wei'e found by Doctor Clark of Perea along 
the outcrops of Rocky Rivei-, ami earlier, sj)ecimens of allied species had 
been found by Rev. II. Ilertzer at Delaware, Ohio. The most valualile 
specimens have been taken away from the state. Harvard ami Columbia 
universities each paid $1,2U() for nearly i)erfect specimens, while Mr. 
Woodward of the British Museum obtained the whole collection of Doctor 
Clark in lierca and took them over to London, where they are displayed 
in most ell'ective manner on the walls of tlic Devonian I'oom in the 
British Museum. But Oberlin Colle<,'e was able to I'etain a goodly 
iunui)er of separate jiortions of this remarkable fish, the sight of which 
will well repay a pilgriiiuige to that town. 

One of the most interesting specimens taken to the British IMuseum 
was the imj)i-ess of a shark's skeleton with the 1)0iies and scales of a 
small fish in the pit of the shark's stomacli where the monster had pi'C- 
.served it to tell its strange tale. Prof. A. AVright and E. AV. Claypole 
on examination determined that this little fish belonged to a species of 
which no other specimen had eome to light. On a recent visit to the 
British Museum 1 asked Professor Woodward about this specimen. In 
answer he promj)tly took me to the place where it was exhibited upon 
the walls. Lorain County visitors to London will find it worth while to 
study this collection of Lorain and Cuyahoga fossils now in a foreign 

The top mend)er of these shales is of a red color which can be easily 
detected, and forms a guide to the Bei'ea Sandstone wliich innnediately 
overlies it and is of such great ecoiloniica] value. This poi-lion is caHed 
lirdlord Shale fi'om file town wlier'c its nu'Sl typical oufcr(i|) occui's. It 
lias a thiekncss of alioiit 100 feet. This slialr is \\\'\\ shown at the N'illage 
(if flench CiH'ck in Avon Township, in the gorge of Black River at 
I'^lyria, in the I'ailroad cut between lOlyria and Ainhersl, in the (iiiarries 


at Aiiihci'.st, and in tlie clid's Ijoi'dcriii^' Vcriiiilioii Hivcr in Urowii- 
Ir'Iii!; I)iil best of all at tlio paik in Klyria. 

TiiK Wavkui.y Sandstone 

Tills ovorlios the shale deposits everywhere in the eoiiiity south of 
Elyria and Amherst. It was originally ealled "Waverly Sanilstone" 
from a townin the southern pail of tlie state in the Seioto Valley where 
it was extensively (piarrietl on the opening of the Ohio Canal. It is 
now more widely known as the " Berea Crit," or "Amherst Sandstone." 
The sandstone appears all along from Berea to Berlin Heights and Nor- 
walk. It rests uneonformahly on the Bedford Shale. This appears 
very elearly in the west fork of Black River at Elyria where it is evident 
that tile surface of the Bedford Shale hail suffered much water erosion 
before the material of tlie sandstone was deposited. 

This unconformity helps to explain some of the remarkable things 
connected with the deposits of sandstone so valuable for (luarryiiig pur- 
jioses at Brownhelm, Amherst, Elyria, and farther east at Berea, whicli 
ill many respects are the most remarkable in the world, both for their 
extent and for the ([uality which gives them economical value. As to 
(piality we note that the sandstone is remarkably free from everything 
but pure silica (sand), the eementiiig matei'ial being silica. Secondly 
the sand grains are remarkably sharp so that the finest grindstones in 
the world are manufactured from this — the absence of cement prevent- 
ing the stone from glazing over and losing its cutting power. Thirdly, 
the of sandstone are remarkably free from fracture which would 
destroy its value for building i)urposes, while it is three or four times 
as strong as brick to resist pressure. Fourthly, the extent of the deposits 
combining these (pialities is uiieiiualled. In the stone (piarries at South 
Amherst the thickness of the deposits combining the above qualities i.s 
from 100 to 175 feet. 

But the deposits are not of uniform value over the county. On the 
other hand ]\Ir. AV. G. Burroughs (see article in Economic (ieolouy, 
Xo]. 8, No. 5, Aug., 1918) has shown that the stone valuable for (piarrying 
Js found tilling channels which had ])eeii eroded in the surface of the 
liedroi-d Shale, and that it bad been l)rought in by streams fi-om the; 
northwest. These channels in the I'.edl'oi'd Shale secured both the inas- 
sivrncss of file deposils and Ihcir IVeedoin from fiadure niid also pro- 
li'cled Ihe grains of sand IVoni being rolled smool h hy Ihi- waves on the 
shore. 'I'lie tpiai'ries opened at I'llyria, (iral'fon and \Vellingl(ni, while 
cxrellenl for ordinary building i)Ui'|)oscs, are lacking in some of llieso 
eleiiicnls which give special value to the Amhcrsl. Stone. 


Tlie relation of theso sliale and sandstone strata (the only stratified 
I'ocks in the county) is interesting and important. Tiie strata are not 
perfectly horizontal, but dip toward the southeast. In conse(iuenee wells 
have to be bored down 1,000 feet to strilce the Corniferous limestone 
which crops out at Sandusky. Beyond the limits of the county, toward 
the south and the southeaat there is a vast covering of Subcarboniferous 
and Carl)ouiferous strata. These appear in striking precipitous ledges 
of conglomerate at Little Mountain, Thomson and Nelson ledges, and 
in the gorge oi Rocky River east of Medina, rising to an elevation of 
1,200 feet above the sea; while still farther to the southeast at Wads- 
worth seams of coal appear. Such is the dip of these strata that 
borings in the regions where coal is found would have to descend more 
than 1,000 feet to reach the sandstone of Lorain County. The outcrop 
of Ohio Sliale underlying the sandstones of the county extends eastward 
clear across the state, and through Erie County, Pennsylvania, and far 
into the State of New York, increasing in thickness througii the entire 
distance. AVest of Lorain County the outcrop of these strata extends 
to Jierlin Heights and there turns southward, reaching the Ohio River 
a little west of the mouth ot' the Scioto and, appearing in Kentucky, 
forms a circuit arouml the J'>lue Crass region. 

The ag(! of the rocks already (lesci'ibed must be esliiiiated in millions 
of years, the lowest estimate !)eiiig l(),()l)(),(;()0 or 12,000,000. After 
these strata had been ilei)osite(l in the bottom of the sea, they were 
elevated and sul)jected to a long period of erosion both by running 
streams and by the action of the waves which dashed against the shore. 
This period contiinied through all Tertiary time and is to be estimated 
as at least 2,000,000 years. Towards the latter part of the Tertiary 
period the land .stood much higher than now so that the rivers cut 
gorges, or indeed we may call them canyons, of great depth in the over- 
lying strata. The Cuyahoga River had cut a channel 500 feet lower 
than its i)reseiit bottom, and uuist have found an exit to the ocean 
mueli l)elow that depth. The i)reglacial gorge of, Rocky River was at 
least 200 feet below its present level, as also were doubtless those of the 
lower i)art of Black antl Vermilion rivers. But these conditions in oui' 
county have been alinost completely disguised by the inHuenee of the 
(ilacial pei'iod, during which the aeeumulation of snow ami ice over the 
regions to the north of us was such that a vast glacier slowly crept down, 
(hunming up the di'ainage of the St. Lawrence River and i)onding up 
the water befoi-e it until it poured over the various low i)asses into the 
Mississippi Basin. Prominent among these water weirs is that from the 
]\laumee into the Wabash at Fort Wayne, that froni the Sandusky River 
through the Timoelitee Pass into the Scioto, that from Vermillion River 


tliroiif<!i .Savannah Lake into tlu,' Jcroiiic Fork of the jMohicaii iioar Ash- 
land, that througli lilaek River into the Kilhiiek at Lodi, and that through 
firand Jiiver into tlie i\Ialioning at Warren. 

]\L\UKS OF THE Glacial Peimod in tjie County 

.Slowly creeping southward during the Glacial period the ice filled 
(he hed of Lake Erie, and rose till it surmounted the watershed between 
the fireat Lakes and the j\Iississippi, which in Huntington and Rochester 

l'liot(Kr.ii'li I'y •'. W. SihciiK' 

A Pheglacial Gorge 

View looking north tliroiijj;!! the outlet of tlie luejilacial gorge just below the 
jniictioM ot tlio east ami west liraiiclies of Ulack Kivcr in (.'ascaile t'ark, I'llyriu. 
Tlio roiky masses on either side have fallen off from the clilts ami erept in toward 
tlie tenter of the stream. In the liatkground apiiears the preglacial valley which 
passes southward west of tlie west hrancli. In the i>i('ture this pregla<ial valley is 
seen to he filled with glacial niatejial wliere the roik had heen eroded away. Sand- 
stone strata apjiear at the surface a little distance lielow the jiictiire. 

in the south part of Lorain County is fully 500 feet ahove Lake Erie. 
Pressing still farther soutliward the glacier's front reached Millcrshurg 
ill Holmes County and jiushed a loop down the Scioto and ]\iiami 
valleys as far as Cincinnati, where it crossed the Ohio and rested on the 
highlands of Kentucky a few miles south of tli;\t city. 1 have in llie 
museum al Oherlin 'a red jasper conglomerate bowlder, three feet in 
diameter, whieli must liave been jiicked up by the ice north of Lake 
Huron and carried over the watershed into tlie Mississippi Valley and 
deposited in I'oone ('ounty, Kentucky, seven miles south of Cineiiniali, 


aiul 500 t'wt aI)ovc' tlic Oliio Ivivor. Tliis with miiiu'roiis other l)0\vklers 
hruiiylit. I'loiii Caiiachi is well worlii inakiiijr a i)ilj^i-iiiiaye to 01)erliti 
to see. 

The fact i& that during the Glaeial period the conditions of Green- 
land existed all over the nortliern part of the United St^ites and over 
all but the southeastern quarter of the State of Ohio. In the center of 
Greenland the ice is now a mile and a half tliick, and under its own 
weight is slowly pressing outwards on every side along lines of least 
resistance. In New England we know that the ice was a mile deep 
because it dropped Canadian bowlders on the top of Mount Wash- 
ington. Considering the low degree of the plasticity of ice it must have 
been a mile deep over Lorain County in order to move over the water- 
shed to tlie soutli as far as the central and southern part of the state. 

The Lake Ridges 

Wlii'ii the climatic conditions changed and llu; ice front receded to 
the north a most interesting condition of things existed in the noi'th(!rii 
part of our .state. While the ice was melting back from the southern 
shore of Lake Erie and still ol)structed the drainage to the east, a lake 
was foruK^d in front of the ice, ttie water rising to the level of the 
lowest ])ass into the Mississij)))! Valley, which was from the Maumee 
into the Wabash at Fort Wayne, Indiana. This pass is 76.'{ feet above 
tide, or approximately 200 feet above Lake Erie. Through this pass 
there is a di.stinct abandoned river channel as wide and deep as that of 
the Niagara below Buffalo, leading from the IMaumee Valley into that 
of the Wabash. Evidently this was the outlet of the drainage l)asin of 
Northern Ohio, while the ice was melting Ijack to open .some lower 
channel. Naturally the water rose to a height of twenty feet or more 
aI)ove tile bottom of the channel so that there was a shore line formed 
all across the State of Ohio at approximately 200 feet above the i)resent 
level of the lake. This must have continued for several, perhaps many, 
centuries resulting in the throwing up upon the margin a sand and 
gravel l)eacli, su{;h as is found upon the shore at tlie present time, and 
along the bar where sliallow water is found a short distance from tlie 
sliorc. Thus there originated what is called the south, or 200-foot, sand 
ridge facing Lake Erie through all the northern counties of Ohio. Tliis 
ciiii lie traceil at that level from Coniicaut to I'^ort Wayne, whei'c on the 
dthci' side of llie oiillct spoken of it turns nortliwcst passing through 
Adiiiiii, IMichigan. In Lorain (homily it is well (h-veloijcd in Kidgeville 
and i'^aton towiisiiijjs wliere it is known as liutternut Ridge. This 
pas,ses tlirough the northwest corner of I'-aton Townsliip reaching the 


west branch of lihick Rivor in Carlisle, about five miles south of lOlyria. 
On the west side of llie river it appears a-^'ain runninj,' north and south 
past llie (•ounty inlirniary, following tiu; line of a l)ay wliirh set up into 
the Valley of liiaek Jiiver. Here it is known as Murray Ridge;; Init 
near where the Amherst Road from Elyria crosses the northern division 
of the Lake Shore Railroad, the ridge following the same level continues 
westward tlirough South Amherst ami Brownhelm, entering Erie 
County at Birnungiuun. 

When the ice front had withdrawn over iNIichigan a little north of 
Port Huron, an outlet for the pent-up waters of this glacial lake was 
opened across what is called the tliumb (a peninsula separating Saginaw 
Bay from i'ort Huron) into the headwaters of Grand River at Maple 
Rapids whence it ran into the glacial lake occupying the south end of 
Lake Michigan, and thence through the depression occupied by the 
Chicago Drainage Canal into the Illinois River. This outlet in due time 
lowered the level of the glacial lake about fifty feet ; when a series of 
beaches, or ridges, roughly parallel to the 200-foot ridge was formed 
at an approximate level of 150 feet above the lake. When the ice front 
had receded still further beyond Saginaw Bay, an outlet into (J rand 
River lifty feet lower still was opened at an approximate level of 100 
feet above the level of Lake Erie. This gave rise to a still lower lake 
ridge approximately 100 feet above tlie present level. 

The lilO-foot ridge is well sliown all across Lorain County, and is 
known under the name of IMiddle or Center Ridge. It enters the county 
at the northeast corner of Ridgeville and is followed by the main 
travelled road to Elyria, where for a space it is interrupted by the 
Valley of Black River. It begins again in the northwest corner of 
Elyria Township, and runs north to within two miles of Lorain, where, 
turning southwest, it passes through North and Brownhelm, 
and on westward through Birmingham and Berlin Heights. This ridge 
is everywhere well marked, and like the other ridges was used from the 
earliest settlement of the county as a natural roadway, free from the 
nuul which characterizes the most of the surface. 

The 100-foot ridge, also, ejttends clear across tlie county, being known 
as the north ridge. This is a continuation of the Euclid Avenue and 
Detroit Street Eidge which passes through Cleveland. It enters the 
county from Dover in the vicinity of Avon (!enter, passing tiirougli 
Avon and, entering Slieffield, crosses Black Kiver near tiu! (iai'lield 
lionicstrail, and like tlie pi'eceding, curving down to within two miles of 
Lorain, licnds soutiiwest tiii-ough Nortli Amiierst and lirowniielm to the 
lOrie Countv line in Vermilion. 

8 , JIlSTOin" Ob' J.OitAIN COUNTY 

The Town of IJidgeville is especially lavored with lake ridges. Sugar 
Kidge, ill the soutliwest corner of the towiislii]), is only a f(!\v feet 
hi^dicr tliaii Middh' Ifidj^n', and owes ils roniialioii to the n<'"<'''"l I'^vei 
of Ihe fomitry. Chcsliiiit Hidgc, in tli(; Koiilheast eoriier ol' tlu; tovvii- 
siiij), is only tc-n feet lower than Hiitternut Jfiilge, and parallel to it. 
This is a continuation of Coe Kidge which appears west of Rocky Kiver 
and runs through the southeast corner of Dover and the northeast corner 
of Olmsted. Tliere is also in the northeast corner of Amherst and in 
Brownhelm what is known as Whittlesey Ridge, which is a few feet 
lower than the north ridge. 

As already said these sand ridges furnished the original settlers 
with the best available roads. The sandy character of the soil along 
them has also been favorable to the cultivation of garden truck and 
small fruits, as well as for attractive building sites for the suburban 
population which in increasing numbers is overtiowing from the growing 


The soil of the county is varied and adapted to every kiud of agri- 
culture. All that portion of the county wiiicli is soutii of tiie 2()0-foot 
lake ridge consists of tlie direct glacial deposit or "ground moraine" 
produced by the grinding up of the shale which crops out all along the 
shore of the lake. This grist was mixed in due proportion with debris 
of tiie sandstones which outcrop a little fartiier to the .south, and with 
a smaller amount of limestone which came from the bed of Lake Erie 
and from Ontario together with an abundant sprinkling of granitic 
material which the ice brought from farther nortli in Canada. This 
deposit is of great depth, probably averaging fifty feet over the southern 
part of the county. Sixty or seventy i)er cent of it consists of ground 
np shale, which forms the tenacious clay whicli makes the roads so 
nearly impassable when frost is coming out in the spring. 1 have seen 
wagons stalled in this mud in one of the principal streets of Oberlin, 
the wheels settling down to the hubs. According to a reasonable esti- 
mate this clay is seventy-five feet deep in Oberlin. A correspondent, 
writing from Oberlin to a New York paper, said that he did not doubt 
this statement for he knew that it was 21/2 feet deep, so that he could 
easily take the other 721/0 feet on faith. 

Though this clay soil is somewhat difficult of cidlivatiou, when i)rop- 
erly treated it yields the best of results. It is specially adapted for 
grazing, and produces abundant liarvests of small graiiks. At fre(|U(;nt 
intervals over tliis region tliere are extensive beds of peat or muck 


Stone Carvings by AV.ater 

AVateifall on tlie west brancli of Black Eiver in Cascade Park, Elyiin, sliowiug 
the Waveily samlstone over which the water phinf^es ami into wliicli it lias worn a 
gorge aliont twenty feet in (le|ith. At the left is a cave formed liy the erosion of the 
soft Bedford shale. The talus on either side obscures the underlying strata of 
Bedford shale. 


Waterfall on (>ast fork of Black ]{iver in (!ascad(! I'ark, l''lyria. 'I'he Wavorly 
sandstone strata held are projcMting over the Bedford shale wirnli has been removed 
by the back lash u\ the water. 


oec-upyiug what are known by glacialists as "kettle holes" where masses 
of ice were originally buried and after melting left depressions with- 
out any outlets. The shallow and smaller depressions of tliis kind have 
been lilled up with ck-cayed vegetable grovvtii liirnisbing beds whieh are 
favorable for cultivation of oinons and celery. About tliree miles south- 
west of Kipton one of tliese kettle holes is so large and deep that it is 
only partially filled with peat, so that there is left a pond of water in 
the middle covering several acres. The peat deposit, however, has 
encroached upon it to a considerable distance all around the edge. By 
drainage, also, the level of the water has been somewhat lowered. The 
principal service of the county ditches has been to furnish drainage for 
such depressions in the county. 

Just south of the ridges, also, lower areas occasionally occur which 
were at first swamps where rich vegetable mold had accumulated, mak- 
ing most valuable land. Ditches across the lake ridges, however, have 
had to be dug to drain such areas. In several instances where these 
ditches have penetrated the lake ridges, fragments of trees liave been 
found buried fifteen or twenty feet below the surface, showing that 
forests gi'ew upon the shore of the lake while the ridges were being 
formed. The most of these fragments appear to be of sycamore trees. 

Elevations in tiik County 

Everywhere north of the north ridge the level is less than 100 feet 
above the lake. Between the middle ridge and the north ridge the 
general level is between 100 ami 150 feet above the lake, and between 
the middle I'idge and the south ridge the general level is between loO 
and 200 feet. These level areas were lake bottoms during the suc- 
cessive stages of the recession of the ice. South of the upper ridge, 
some of the levels are as follows — Elyria on the 150-foot ridge is 730 
feet above tide; OIhtUu is nearly 100 feet higher or 827 feet above tide; 
Kipton, 30 feet higher, is 857 feet aljove tide (a level which at Collins 
in Huron County rises to 900 feet) ; Wellington is 856 feet above tide, or 
30 feet iiigher than 01)erlin, while at Huntington Center the level is 970 
feet al)ove tide, rising to 1,015 feet one mile south and to 1,100 feet on 
the line between Lorain and Ashland counties. Farther .south in Sulli- 
van the land rises to an elevation of 1,200 feet, or 827 feet al)ove Lake 
Krie. The 1 .OOO-foot level is reached at Lilclilield. easl ol" Penliehl wiiieli 
is for tile most jjai't on a h'vel with Weliiiiglon, 855 feet above tide. The 
level of Lagrange corresponds closely to thai in Oherliii and i'itlslicid, 
being about 825 feel aliove tide, but eastward liirou^^h (Jral'loii it rises 


on the border of the county to i)12 feet above tide. The elevations iu 
Ifochcster correspond closely witli those in lluntiiiyton. 

Natiikai. (iah and On- 

Gas sjjrings have long been known in various parts of the county. 
When 1 was in college in 1857 Professor Allen used to take his classes 
over to the Gaston Farm a mile or two southwest of South Amherst to 
see a burning gas jet which came out of the ground just east of the road. 
]n Siiel'tield in the Valley of Black River near Curtis' JNIill, a mile south 
of the Center, there was also a jet of gas wliich gave a brilliant flame 
when lighted. Evidently these jets came from the carbonaceous matter 
wiiicii we have said formed such a large portion of the Devonian Shale 
wliich covers the northern part of the county to a great depth. 

Aftei" the iliscoveries of natural gas in Western Pennsylvania wells 
lu'gaii to l)e l)ored in the county about 1,000 feet to the bottom of the 
shale, from which deptli a small but steady supply of illuminating gas 
was usually obtained, in nuiny cases this was sufficient to furnisli 
light for the house and to do the cooking, and in some eases to provide 
all tile heat which was necessary to warm the during winter. 
Sucli wells were specially successful in Ulack Kiver, Sheffield, lOlyi'ia, 
Ivu.ssia, Carlisle, I'ittslield, and Lagrange townshij)s. iu I'ittslield and 
Ijagrange the supply of gas from this .source was more abundant than 
in tile other townsliii)s. 

Later a luucli larger supply of gas, with occasional small quantities 
of oil, was found about 1,000 feet lower down in what is called the 
"Clinton sand." This is just below a thick and tleiise dcpo.sit of lime- 
stone which had evidently confined the gas and kept it in pockets uiuler 
consideralile pressure. 

The largest amount of gas so far derived from this source in the 
county was olitained in Avon where two or three wells each produced 
at first more than r),fK)0,()00 euliic feet a day. At tlie present writing 
there are seventeen i)io(lueing wells iu Avon, furnisliiiig about 10,000,000 
cubic feet of gas a day. In Lagrange one well |)ro(luci'(l at first 1,500,000 
ciiliie I'cct per day. In Ku.ssia (iiic well produced at first 1, ;')()(), 000 cubic 
feel per day, and one produced in addition to tiic gas five liarrels of 
oil i)cr (lay for six months, when for some i-eason water got into tlie 
well and inferfered witii tin? siip|)ly. In I'ittslield, one well jiroduced 
at first 4,000,000 cubic feet ])er day, and six i)roduced 500,000 ciiliic 
feet each. At the present linu' one well is producing from five to .seven 
bairrls of oil. If will finis appear tliat a belt of gas-|iroduciiig territory 
I'liiis lliidiigli tl:e ciislcrn and ccnirai part of flic coiinly fi'oin nortii to 


soiith. But the county has not heen explored for gas and oil as 
have IMedJna and Ashland counties and others farther south, where 
iiuK-h larj^er (luantities of gas and oil art; heing olitained. Tliat the 
gas exists in limited pools unconnected with each other is sliown hy 
the fact tliat tlie ])ressurc diininislies after a time, while often a dry 
well and a good well are sunk near to each other. 

Following is tlie log of a well hored hy the Lagrange Cleveland Stone 
Company, which gives a good idea of tlie rock strata underlying tlie 
county : 

10-inch drive pipe through glacial deposits.. 60 ^ 

Shale deposits 860 920 

Limestone deposits (Corniferous, etc.) 280 1,200 

Loose deposits with much water 62 1,262 

Rock salt 2:5:5 1,495 

Sliale deposits 8 1,50:3 

:\lore salt 2 1 ,505 

Limestone (Niagara, etc.) 525 2,0:50 

Limestone (Clinton) 40 2,070 

Clinton sands 78 2,148 

Medina samistone 149 2,297 

A small amount of gas was found in the Clinton sands at 2,160 feet. 

It may he well to note that in the above log the Corniferous limestone 
.struck at 920 feet is the rock that appears at Sandusky, ]\Iarblehead, 
and Kelly Island; and that the Niagara and Clinton deposits are those 
which appear in the Niagara gorge overlying the ]\Iedina sandstone. 
It is interesting to notice, also, that an abundant quantity of rock salt 
underlies Lorain County as well as Barl)erton, Cleveland and Fairport. 



By Mary E. Day 

The Trees — The Shrubs — The AVild Flowers — The Ferns — The 
(jR ASSES — Flora op the County — A UNUiUE Bog — Collectors of 
Plant Lu'^e. 

AVheii the first settlors came the land was covered with a dense forest, 
much of it valuable timber. About sixty species of trees have been 
noted in the county belonging to seventeen families and thirty genera: 
the Oaks, Maples, Elms and Ashes being the most abundant. 

The Trees 

Tile tall straight Oaks (Quereus allta) many feet xij) to the lowest 
limljs from having grown .surrounded by other trees were perhaps of tlie 
greatest value. They were sawed into plank three or four inelie.s thiek 
and sold for ship-plank. In 1816 these 2)lank sold for $10 per thousand. 
In 1S47 the j)riee had ri.sen to $11 per thousand, and $16 for long plank. 
Many of these trees measured over 1,000 feet of plank, but the average 
was below that. Thirty years later the ])riee of White Oak kunl)er sawed 
in four, live, and six inch plank, had risen to $38 per thousand at tlie 
sawmill and was sold as high as $45 per thousand delivered in Tona- 
wanda. New York. One AVhite Oak tree measured 2,500 feet of plank, 
but the average was about 800 feet. Some of the finest oaks grew where 
the Steel Plant is now situated, on soil that in some places is only a few 
ftet deep over the shale. AViiite Oak also grew near the streams in rii-h 
soil. Oidy a few of these fine old trees are left in the county now. The 
Bur-Oak aiul Swamp AVhite Oak are included with tlie White Oak in 
commeree. They have been used extensively for railroad ties and fence 
j)()sts. We have live other si)ecies of Oak known as the lied Oak, Pin 
Oak, Seai'let Oak, Chestinit Oak ((^uei'cus Mnhleiibei-gii), and Yellow- 
barked or Piack Oak (Quereus velutina). The iiuicr l)ark of this last 
named Oak was used by the ])ioneers for coloring cloth. 

The 'i'ulip-tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), conniionly known as the 
"Whitewood, is one of the most bcautil'ul of our native trees. It gi'ew 
iimst aluuulantly near the lake ridges. Tlie Indians used this tree for 
their dugout canoes. The lund)er was much prized by the early settlers 
in building houses, cf^pecially for siding. 




Tlie Chestnut tree is also foniul on the ridges. The fruit is valuable 
and in cai'Iy times llu; Chestnut made llie best wood J'oi' I'ail I'enees, 
because it is readily s])lit and is durable. 

Tlie White I'ine (Pinus strobus) is round on the river bank in Elyvia 
Township, and in a lew scattering places farther down the stream, and 
also to some extent in Brownhelm on Vermilion River. These, with a 
few specimens of the Ilendoek and the Red Cedar, are the only other 
evei'gi'eens we have. 

I'liolugraiJli by C. \V. Sclicide. 

FiHST GiiOWTii FouEST Tkee 

Specimen tree prcseiveil Iroiu the origiiml forest. Until tlie Nickel Pl.ite R. K. 
was built tliis tree stood upon tlie t:irm of Norman Day ia SliellielJ. Originally 
tlie whole county was thickly covered witli trees of this size. 

Very lai'^e T-lnck Walnul lives gi'ew near the streams and on the 
rich bhii-k soil of the liottom hinds along the river. AVith great labor 
^\'illnll^ trees \vci-c cut down liy the early settlers and burned in log 
heajis tiiat would have proved a fortune if saved. In ISvSf) the l^la(;k 
Walnut trees that grew on three acres of land in Hheflield Township 
were sold standing by Judge William Day for ^l.-'iOO. The largest tree, 

n rnorr.ii 


iiicasiiriiiji; ]0,0(K) feet of liinil)er, sold for $()() pel- tlioiis;ui(], l)riiifiiiig 
$(J()(). 'I'lic tfcc wiis iiciii'ly T) feet in (liiiiiu'tci- iiiul .'{;"> feet \i]) to the 
lirst, liiiil). 'I'lic ])liuik from oiu; liliu-U Walnut \(>^ ]H fee;! loii^ that was 
(luy: out of a Hood jtilc wlici'c it^ had lain foi- many years was sold l)y 
.James Day for $100. 

The Syeauiore or Biittomvood grew to an immense size near the 
river. »Soine of these trees, too large to be sawetl wiiole, were split in two 
with dynamite. 

There are several speeies of ]\Iai)les. The Ked or Soft Maple grows 
most luxuriantly in the swamps. The Sugar ]\Iaples (Aeer saeeharum) 
are abundant all over the eounty. The early settlers obtained a bountiful 
supply of sugar from these trees, and it was evident tliat some of the 
large old Maples along the river had been tapped before the settlers 
came. The making of maple syruji and sugar is an important industry 
in the county at present. In 1915 there were 75,74-1 ]\Iaple trees from 
which syrup or sugar was made, the product lieing 2,150 pounds of sugar 
and lo,652 gallons of .syrup. The Curly or Birdseye Maple that is now 
very valuable is found occasionally. This is not a different species of 
r>Iaple, but is found in all the si)e(;ies. 

'i'hci'e ai'e s(;veral species of Hickory. The Shagbark Hickory yields 
the [))-incii)al hickor}' nut of the market. Tiie tree is not veiy alnuuh.nt 
now. The Indians made great use of the luits for food. 

The BliU'k Cherry (Prunus serotina) grows to a lai-ge size. The 
lumbci' was much i)rize(l in early days for making fui'uiture. Tlic birds 
feast on tiie fruit. 

The Amei'ican Elm is a well-known tree. It sometimes reaches a 
great size when growing near streams. Tiie Red or Slippery Elm is 
also iibundant. 

There ai'e four s])ecies of Pojilar, including the American Aspen 
and the Large-toothed Aspen. Populus heterophylla is a large tree 
growing in the swamps. This tree is called the Black Poplar. Populus 
deltoides is called Cottonwood. As a native tree this is not very abuutl- 
aut, but is found along the lake shore. 

Several of the native Willows rank as trees and add much to tiie 
beauty of our landscapes. 

There are four siiecies of trees. The White Asii and Black ai-e best known. There is also the E<'d Ash (Fraxinus pennsyl- 
vaiiica), and the vai'iety lanceolata, known as the (Jri-en Ash, and the 
Pmiiiikin Asli (Fraxinus profunda). 

Tile 15eeeh ( Fagus grand! folia ) is one of our (iiiesi trees. It has a 
smooth ash-gray bai'k that makes it a noticeable tree in winter as well 
as siiiniiii r. It often grows willi tlie llendock, the two I rees liarmoni/.ing 
perrrclly. l''ossil i-cmains I'l'piTscnling this genus have been found in 



Alaska, Colorado, and California. There is a yellowish-brown plant, 
named Beeeh-drops, tliat is always found under Beech trees, a parasite 
on tlieir roots. 

The Basswood or Linden has flowers tliat are a great attraction to 
the bees. 

The Sassafras roots yield oil of sassafras. 

The Blue Beech (Carpinus earoliniana) is a small tree belonging to 
the Bii'ch family. It is also called Hop Hornbeam. The wood is very 

The Ironwood, another small tree, is often found growing in tlie 
same vicinity. Tliis tree also has very hard wood. 

There are a number of trees in the county that are never very 
abundant in Northern Ohio. Among these are the Cucumber-tree 
(Magnolia acuminata), Kentucky Cotfee-tree, Honey Locust, Pep- 
peridge. Red Mulberry, C-'ork Elm, Ilackberry, Box Elder, and the 
Yellow Birch. The Kentucky Colfee-tree, resembling the Locust, has 
been found in two localities in Sheftield, four or five trees in each group; 
the Cucumber-tree in Elyria Township ; the Honey Locust, as a native 
growtii, near tiie mouth of Black River. Tlie Ilackberry or Sugafberry 
(Celtis occidetitalis), a lieautiful tree resembling an FAm, grows near 
the streams; the fruit is a bei'ry. The Box Kkler grows where tiie 
soil is very rich. 

Tiie Yellow Bircli (Betula lutea) is found in tiie township of Elyria 
and Sheffield near the nortii ridge. Tlioreau says of the Yellow Birch: 
"How pleasing to stand near a new or rare tree; and few are so hand- 
some as this; singularly allied to the black birch in its sweet checker- 
berry scent and its form and to tlie Canoe Birch in its peeling or 
fringed and tassel bark." 

The Pepperidge or Black Gum (Nyssa sylvatica) is known by its 
shining leaves and horizontal ])ranclies. It is so seldom one finds a 
Bepperidge tree that its location is always remembered. 

The .June-berry, Pawpaw, two of the Dogwoods (Cornus) and one 
Black Haw (A'iliurnum) often grow to the size of trees. AVe also have 
the Oiiio Buckeye, Hutternut, Wild Crab Apple, and a number of 
si)ecirs of Thorn. 

TwE Siiuuis.s 

"We have many nalivi! slirubs, some of them bearing fruil in autumn 
that is very liright and showy. The Climbing Bitter-swcn-t (Celastrus 
.scandens), Waaiion, Wiiiferbci-ry ( lli'X vertieillala), the Dogwoods, and 
Sniilax are examples. The rvd Iiei-ries of the WinteiOierry are neaily 
as slmwy as lliose of our Aniei'ieiin lidlly (Ilex ojiaea) wliieli grows 


riirduT soulli. Tlu' hcrrifs ortoii hang on tlio I)u.s1k'S until Cliristinus 

Tin; Witcli-llnzel (Ilaiiiaiiielis virgiiiica) I^Iossoinn late in the autumn, 
somc'timt's after the snow conies, and matures its seeds tlie next 
autumn, bearing flowers and ripe fruit at tiie same time. In early days 
the fruit of the wild plum and the wild grape was gathered for use. 

The High or Swamp ]51uel)erry, growing in the marshes, furnished 
delicious fruit for many years. There were also cranlterries at tiiat 
time in the marshes. Both are now nearly extinct. The Red Rasp- 
berry still grows on the mai-gin of the swamps. The Black Raspberry 
vines were not seen until openings were made in the forest. They 
sprang up where brusli heaps had been burned. There is a variety with 
yellow fruit. The Blackberry is the finest of our wild fruits, surpassing 
in sweetness the cultivated berry. Tiie Huckleberry (Gaylu.ssacia 
resinosa), a low slirub, is (]uite abundant. The variety with white berries 
is found in Avon. The wild strawberry is becoming very eonunon, 
growing along all our roadsides and ou the borders of the fields. There 
is also a variety of wild strawberry with white fruit. The elderberries 
are also a valued fruit. All of these fruits furnish food for the birds. 

The Wild Floweus 

The wild flowers that grow within our limits are very numerous, 
the flrst in the springtime being the IIei)atieas, followed in quick suc- 
cession liy all the troops of delicate wild beauties. 

A number of Orchids have been noted, among them the Sho\vy 
Orchis with its rich green leaves and pink flowers, the Ragged Pringed- 
Orcliis, and the l)eautiful liabenaria psycodes with its rich red purple 
l)lossoms. The Yellow Lady's Slipper is founil occasionally, but the 
Pink Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium aeaule) has not been found for a 
number of years. Butty-root (Ai)lectrum hyemale) is an orchid that 
forms a solid bulb each .year, and these bulbs were eaten by the pioneer 
boys with much enjoyment, imt tiie j)lant was not (piite exterminated 
by this use. 

The Wild Hyacinth, growing on the bottom lands in great abundance, 
has a root that resembles an onion, which the Indians used for food. 
The AVhite Water Lily (Castalia tuberosa) gi-ew in the river at the 
lower end of the island opposite the steel plant, until a few years ago. 

The wild Sunflowers of several species, and Ihe Joe-Rye Weed form 
a mass of color along the I'iver diii-ing August and Se|)teiiil)er. The 
tall yellow Coreopsis aiul the (Jreat Willowdierb are showy flowei-s at 
South Loi-ain. 


The Ferns 

There are about thirty species of fenis growing in our county, rang- 
ing from the stately Ostrieli Fei'ii growing in alhivial soil to the ch;lieate 
As])leninni Triehoiiiaiies and tlie Walking Leaf on tlie roeks in Flyria. 
Tlie Christinas Fern tliat is green all winter is one of our most common 
ferns and tlie Bladder Ferns the most beautiful. Dieksonia is a sweet- 
scented fern. 

The Grasses 

A large number of in the county now are naturalized grasses, 
but the native grasses numlier fifty or more, the streams, marshes, 
and lake beach adding many tall showy species. The i\Iarsh Grass, or 
Slough Grass, three or four feet tall, grows on the baidc of French 
Creek Jiear its moutli. Indian liiee, or Water Oats (Zizania a(iuatica) 
a beautiful grass is found near the mouth of Black River. The grain 
is white like rice and in Canada the Indians use it for food. The Reed 
Grass (Phragmites conmumis), growing ten or twelve feet high, is 
found at Jjorain. It spreads from the roots, and so forms large patches. 
Two tall graceful grasses grow along the lake beach, Switch Grass 
(Panicum virgatum) and Wild Rye with long drooping spikes. There 
are native Poas, Panicums, Erogrostos, and Agrostis, .some growing in 
open ])laces, some kinds in woods, some where it is dry, others in wet 
places — all having their favoi'ite locations. 

Flora ov the County 

The flora of our county whose congenial luibitat is farther north is 
the Hemlock, IMountain ]\laple, Red-lierried Elder, Purple Flowering 
Raspberry, Gobi Thread, Calla jjalustris, Swanif) Saxifrage, and Club- 
Moss (Lycopodium luciduluin). These are all eonunon in the North 
and their presence here is due to the Glacial pei'iod. Nearly all jjlants 
have a preferred habitat. The Pyrola, or Shin Leaf, with its white 
fragrant blos.soms chooses pine or hemlock woods. The Closed Gentian 
grows where the ground is rich aiul moist. The lovely ^loss Pink 
(Phlox su])ulata) grows on our dry banks. This plant and our Climbing 
Rose (Rosa setigcra) are often cultivated. The Swamp Rose I\lallow 
(Hibiscus jMoscheutos) makes the marshes at Lorain and Beaver Creek 
bright with its lai'gc! jiink blossom. Tlie AVild Cobiiubiiie (Afpiilegia 
canadensis) grows its best in tlie shale of the jx'rpendicular river bank 
at llic Fort Spi'iiig in Mlyi-ja Township witli Die water from the spring 
above constantly dri|)ping over it. 

A TTNKjdE Bo(i 

(!aiii(len Lake in (lamdcn Township is sni'roundcd by a low wet bog 
where S|>liagiiiiiii Moss, the preiloiiiiiieni source of nenl, grows. In lliis 


hog many plants lliat have Ih-coiiio rare or extiiiet in otlier parts of the 
county are t'ouiid growing ahundantly. Among the slii'\ihs foinid here 
are Poison JOhh'r or. Poison Sumadi (Rhus vernixj, tlie most poisonous 
]ilant we have; the species of Chokeherry witli hhick I'ruit (I'yrus 
melanoeari)a) ; tlie Junelterry or Sliad JJusli (Amelancliier spicata). 
Tile fruit of this species rii)ens in September, while tin; fruit of our 
common Juiiehei-ry ripens in June; Mountain Holly (Neopantlnis 
nuK.Tonata) and Withe-rod (Vihunnim cassinoides). The American 
Cranberry (Vaccinnium macrocarpon) and the Trailing Swamp lilack- 
berry grew together in tiie moss. A number of fine water-loving Orchids 
have been found in this bog — Pogonia ophioglossoides, Calopogon pul- 
chellus, Ilabenaria clavellata, and Ladies' Tresses (Sj)ii'anthes cernua). 
Arrow Arum (Peltandra Virginica) flourishes here. The fern NVood- 
wardia Virginica, and the Pitcher Plant (Sarraeenia purpurea) have 
been found only here. 

Collectors of J'lant Life 

In Dr. J. S. Newberry's catalogue of Ohio plants published in IS.')*) 
he gives the names of a number of i-are species of plants collected in 
Elyi'ia by Doctor Kellogg that have not l)een collected in the county 
since. Four rare ferns were reported — Woodsia glal)ella, a small fern 
that grows on mossy rocks and is found in Noithern New England, 
New York, and Minnesota, and in Alaska and Greeidand; AspL-nium 
pinnatifidum, a very rare fern, and Asplenium montaiuim, both grow- 
ing on cliffs and rocks; and [{otrychrum simi)lex. The shrub jjabrador 
Tea (Ledum (Jrocnbindieum) whicii grows in l)ogs and on mountain 
slopes north wai'd and is found in Greenland. Doctor Kellogg is the 
only one to rej)oi-t tliis plant from Ohio. lloi'setail (E(|uisetum 
variegatum), a rare plant, also coming from the north, is reported from 
Black River. 

ir. ('. Peardslee's catalogue of Oiiio plants published in 1874 includes 
in its list specimens collected liy Dr. R. S. Harvard of Elyria ami his 
pui)il Dr. X. S. Townsend. Tn this list the Amei'ican ^lountain Ash 
(Pyrus sitehensis) is reported from Elyi'ia, also the Fringed Polygala 
(Polygala paucifolia). 

I'l-oF. Charli's I'cniield and Doctor Dascomli wrre early colleelors 
in Obcrlin. 

.Ml-. .). Tccri'll i'ound thi' rare Slioi'l-IVingcd Ccnlian ((Jcniiana ser- 
rata ) in Hi-ownhcim on the Y<'rmiii(iu River in LSSI). 

(iinscng (i'anax (|uin(|Ueroliuin) which was once rather abumlanl on 
rich banks is now vcvy rare. The Ar'oimitic W'iiilcrgrccu (d'aullhcria 
prdcniiiliciis ) is iilso liccoming rai'c in nwv cdiiiilv, 


By Prof. Lynch Jones 

Native and JMigratouv Bhjos — Changes in Varieties — Wateu Birds — 
SoNOSTEus — JMammals of Ijt»i{AiN CouxTV — Pkehistoimc Kemains — 
Fishes of the County — Amphibians — Rei'tiles — Insects. 

There liave been found within the confines of the county 2G1 diiferent 
species of Inrds whicii eitiier reside in the county regularly or visit 
the county in tlieir migrations north and south. Most conspicuous reg- 
ular residents are Boh AVliite, Cardinal, Chickadee, Bald Eagle, Gold- 
liiich, eight species of Hawk, Blue Jay, Praii'ie Horned Lark, White- 
breasted Nuthatch, five species of Owl, Tufted Titmouse, Cedar Waxwingl, 
three species of Woodpecker, and Carolina Wren. In small numlxjrs, 
also, members of ttie following species remain during the wintei', name- 
ly, Ihe Crow, Robin, ]iluel)ird, ]\lea(low Ijark, Nortliern Flicker, Bron;a'd 
Crackle, and JMourning Dove. 


Tliere are eighty-si.x; species whicli l)reed in tlie county, and tlie fol- 
lowing species reside in the county in tlic winter only, namely, P>rown 
Creeper, Tree Sparrow, Golden ('rowned Kinglet, Slate Coloreil Junco, 
Purple Finch, Winter AVren, Red-breasted Nuthatch, Pine Siskin, 
Horned Lark, Nortliern Shrike, and Snowflake. Wild Geese, Swans, 
various species of L)ucks, and otlier water birds visit the Oberlin water 
works foi- a short period of rest on their migratory journeys. 

Chancks in VAi£n;Tii;s 

The Wild Turkey and Passenger Pigeon have entirt'ly disappeared 
bel'ore llie advance of civilization, and the RulTcd Grouse and Northern 
Pileati'd Woodpecker ai'c pi'aclieally exteiMiiinated, only an occasioiud 


individual may still venture into tlio borders of tlie county from some 
ncif^lilioi'inf^ fastness. 

TIm; (lisappearanec of the vast forests has hrouf,'ht about sonu; markiMl 
eliaMf,'es in bird life. Many iiehi birds which were unknown wliik^ the 
forests remained have gradually spread over tlie state as the area of 
open iields lias increased. We still notice this movement of certain 
Inrds wiiich have invaded the county within the past score of years, sucli 
as Baciinum's and Lark Sparrows, both beautiful songsters. 

Water Birds 

Lake P^rie furnislies us with some rare water l)irds, such as tlie Lje- 
land Gull and Briinnich's ]Murre. Wliile there has been no appreciable 
lessening of the numliers of the gulls and terns which are found along 
tlie lake, tliere has been a marked decrease in the numliers of ducks and 
geese and siiore Ijirds. Where once vast numliers were to be found now 
only scattering individuals are met witli. This decrease is due both 
to pot hunters and sportsmen, and to tlie settlement of the lake shore 
and the occupation by industrial plants of the swamp lands at the 
mouths of the streams which emi)ty into tlie lake. Where coiisideralile 
areas of swamp and marshland still remain ducks and geese may still 
be found in coiisideralile numbers. 


It is worth noting that certain of the song birds have greatly increased 
in the last iifteen years. Cardinals were scarce fifteen years ago but 
are now common over most of the county, ('arolina Wnnis were hardly 
known at all llieii wiiile they are to-be found in every river gorge and in 
some of the villagi'S now. Yellow-breasted Chats could be iiuiiibered 
on the lingers of both hands twenty years ago, Init now nearly every 
consitlerahle brushy copse harbors a pair or more. Bewick's Wren and 
Carolina (Miiekadee have been found in Oberlin within the last three 
y,..,is — first eounly records. Lorain County is on the migration route 
of the rare Kirtland's Warbler. 

Value op Quail 

AVhen the farmers come to appreciate the value of the (luail as the 
most important enemy of the (;onimon potato beetle this bird will receive 
the iirotection which it deserves and we shall again iiiid it along the 
I'oadway and liear its call in every field. This county represeiils the 


iiorthormuost limit of the range of the quail, and in severe winters 
many are frozen to death. J3ut if tliey are supplied with al)undaiit 
food and provision made for sheltering them where predatory mauimals 
eaiiiKjt iind tlieni at night tliey will certainly survive in snflieient num- 
bers so that they will prove of invaluahle aid in the control of the 
potato beetle and other insects wiiieh injure crops. 

AIammai.s ov Loit-viN County 

The Opossum is tiie oidy representative of the ]\Iarsupials in the 
county. There is a record of tweidy-one Kodenls for the county, of 
\vhicli the Cray and lilack S(iuirrels and Beaver have disappeared en- 
tii'cly. They were numerous wiicn the county was settled and for years 

There are probably seven .si)ecies of I)ats in the county, of wiiich tlie 
Common Red Bat is the best known and most numerous. 

The only native I'ngulates seem to have been the Common Deer and 
the Wapiti, both of which have long been extinct, except for an oci-a- 
sional stray deer [)robably fi'om IMichigan. It is possii)le that straying 
indivitluals cross the lake on the rare occasions wiien it is solitlly frozen 

I find records of tliirteen or fo\irtecn .species of Carnivora for the 
county. Of these the Black liear. Otter, Jiadger, Gray Fox, Timljer 
AVolf, Wild Cat and Punm or Panther are gone. The Raccoon, Skunk, 
Weasel, l^Iiiik are still faii'ly common, while the Retl Fox is rarely re- 
l)ortc(l. 'i'iu' least Weasel has been recorded only twice. It is inevitable 
that the larger Carnivora should be driven out or exterminated with the 
increasing settlement of the county. 

PiuouiSTuinc Rem.mns 

Of coui'se the Indians have disappeared, but theiv still renunn the 
three kitchen-middens where for ceiduries, probably, they lived in vil- 
lages fortified against their foes. One of tiiese is on the forks of French 
Creek, north of Elyi'ia, another on the Black River about half way be- 
tween Elyria and Lake Erie, the otiier on the Vernulion River near the 
Swift farm. 

Any account of the inhabitants of the county would be incomi)lete 
which did not contain mention of tiie Mastodon remains whicii havi- 
been i'oiiiid. On the i"'reni-li f;irm, in Mrownhelm Township, both tusks, 
most of the skull, and numerous vertebrae and other fragments of the 
skeleton were; discovered while a drain diteli was being dug in n nuick 


ai'ca iiiiiiicdialcly soiilli of tlii; laku rid^'i; at tliat place. Tlu'sii I'rag- 
iiiciits are now in the Oherliii JMiiseimi. Ki'at^iiieiil.s ol' iiiolai' teeth ol" a 
mastodon were I'ound in a muek jjateli wliieli was lieini^ drained tiii'ee 
miles soutiiwest of Oherlin. Tliis is some live miles south of the soiilhern- 
most extent of the upper lake ridge. This indicates that the mastodon 
wandered over the I'egion which is now Lorain County at least as late 
as the close of the Ice Age. 

Pishes of the County 

I\lr. L. M. iMcConnick, in a "Descriptive List of the Fishes of Lorain 
County, Ohio," published by Oberlin College in 1892, gives eighty-nine 
species, of which the "Paddle Fish" is jjrobably the only species which 
has entirely disappeared. The college museum contains a somewhat 
nuitilated specimen of this large fish. It is undoubtedly true that many 
of the food fishes and game lishes have decreased in numbers in the last 
twenty-live years, especially in the streams which have, in the interval, 
been utilized for industrial plants. The lessening How of most of our 
streams and their filling with del)ris must have e.Kerted some influence 
upon the fishes which live in them. 

The Sturgeons are very common off shore in the lake and often 
grow to a large size. One specimen measured 6 feet 2 inches and weighed 
12!) pounds. 

The Garpike, or Bill-fish, is common in the lake, and large schools 
come into the rivers in April to spawn. They grow to be from 2 to 5 
feet long. 

The Catfishes are represented by ten species. Of these the Blue Cat, 
connnon in the lake and lower parts of the rivers is highly prized as 
food. Individuals sometimes weigh as much as 100 poiuid.« ; Init five 
jiounds is the probable average of those that are caught. 

Suckers are represented l)y nine species, of wbich the White-nosed 
Sucker, the Big-mouthed IMullet, and the Small-mouthed Alullet, are 
most common. Ja early spring these crowd up into the rivers to spawn; 
but by the middle of IMay most have returned to the lake. Small ones, 
however, up to 8 inches or more can be found all sununer. 

Twelve si)t'cies of miiuiows are found. Some of these are extremely 
beautiful in their coloring, in the spring es|)ecially. They ai'i' chiefly 
valnabli' as furnishing green pastures for lai'ger speckles. During the 
iiioiitlis of April and IMay they crowd nj) the rillles in inniiensc niun- 
bci's to spawn; but by the lirst of -Inly (hey have nearly all retui'ued lo 
the lake. 

The (liz/ard-shad which now abounds is said lo have entei'<'d Lake 


Erie when the Erie Canal was opened in 1848. It is very Iiandsonie 
but worthless. 

The Salmons are among the most valued of all the fishes, ineluding 
the White Fish, J^ake lleri'ing, and J^ake Trout; but they do not i're- 
queiit the rivers. J\Ir. Nieliohis of Veimilion reported a wiiite lish tliat 
wi'iglied li*|/^ pounds. 

The Pikes are represented by three species. The Little Pickerel 
frecjuents tlie headwaters of most of the streams, and are coiiuuon in 
Vermilion River near Kipton. Tliey feed on smaller tish, even on their 
own young. One 6V2 inches long was found in the act of digesting 
the head of another which was 'iyn inches long, the rest of the body 
waiting its turn outside. The Muskalonge was formerly very abundant 
but now rarely taken. 

The Sun Fishes are re^jresented by ten species of which the Rock 
Bass is most valuable and common in the large streams. The Pumpkin- 
seed is abundant in tlie ril'llcs of tlie larger streams, and in the bayous 
near tlie lake. It is not frecjuent above the dams in the streams, but 
is found in Camden Lake where it attains a large size. 

The Perches are represented by fourteen species, of which the Rain- 
bow Darter, Yellow Perch, and Blue Pike are the most eomiuon. The 
Blue Pike occasionally reaches the length of three feet and a weight 
of mort' than thii-ty pounds. Jt is very common in the lake but enters 
streams oidy occasionally. This is one of the most valualtle food fishes 
taken in the pounds. 

The Sea Bass (White Bass) is closely allied to a large saltwater 
family, and is supposed to be the land-locked form of the Striped Bass. 
This is quite common in the lake, ascending the streams to the dams; 
but I\Ir. (ieorge Dewey reported finding them in Kipton far above the 

The Sheeps-head, a worthless tish common in the lake and in the 
streams below the dams, is principally remarkable for its ear bones 
which are the lucky stones often found on the lake beach. 

Of the Sculpins, the Star Gazer or ]\Iud Head has been found oidy 
in Spring Brook and Chance Creek, where it is common. 


There are between twenty-five and thirty species in Lorain County, 
but the group has not received the exhaustive study which would make 
]iossil)le ])ositive statements. Probal)ly most of the sjx'eies which are 
dei)endent upon swamj) or marsh conditions have decreased with the 
decreasing areas of their proper habitats. In favorable places the large 


Bull Frog may be found in some numbers, and his "l)ellowings" heard. the Wood Frog lives only in beeeh woods, and such woods are 
fast disapi)cariiig, this sixM-ies is fast deereasing. Tice h'rogs are also 
less ninneroiis than hel'oi't; tlie woods beeanie so scattering and so small. 
Many of the breeding places of the frogs have either been completely 
drained, or now dry up in summer so that the species which require 
more than a sliort season for growth in the tadpole stage are unable to 
lind suitable breeding places. 


■\Ir. L. ^I. ]\IcCormick is the chief authority on this group for this 
county. The list which he compiled and was made ready in 1892, con- 
tains the names of forty-three .species, of which fifteen are turtles and 
twenty-eight snakes or snake forms. j\Iost of the turtles have decreased 
with the decreasing swamps and marshes and i)onds, but may still 
be found in the extensive marshes outside of the county. ]\, if not 
all, of the extremely large Snapping Turtles have been captured. The 
small Painted Turtle is now the connuonest of the turtles. 

Only three venomou.s snakes have been found in the county, and they 
are now apparently exterminated. The Banded liattle Snake, the 
]\Iassasauga or Black Rattler, antl the (."opperhead have not been found 
within the last ten years. It is likely that there are none in the county, 
except possibly as occasional wanderers. None of the remaining true 
snakes are venomous, and none are harmful, wliile many of them are 
distinctly bc'iieheial in their food haljits. 


It would be hopeless to try to say more tlian that the county has its 
full (]Uota of insects. Such pests as the Ten-lined Potato Beetle, the 
Codling ]\Ioth, Canker Worm, San Jose Scale, and many others have 
invaded the county within recent years. It is likely that many species 
have disappeai'ed with the cluinging conditions due to settlement, and 
that nuiiiy have changed their food plants and otherwise so modified 
their behavior that they were able to successfully meet the changed con- 
ditions. The number of species is so great, and many of the forms so 
small that the task of compiling a complete list of all of the species 
which live in tlie county is too great for any one generation of students 
of insects. Very little real i)rogress has yet been made towartl th(! 
control of insect ])ests. 

Of the I'emaiuiiig forms of animal life it is possible 1o speak only in 


the most ^n-iHTiil Icniis. A little iirof^rcss lias l)c'fii iiiadt^ in llio. study oE 
tilt' (')'aylislu's, a little has been done with the niiiiiite ('rusta<'ea whii-ii 
are found in water, we know a little about our fresh water Coelenterates, 
Spon^'es, and Protozoons, and some work has been done on the Molluses, 
partieularly the Snails and the Clams. But the field is an open one and 
a rieli one. 



LISH SEUVh; Notice of I'osse.ssion — First Ohio Company and Auknt 
Gist — George Croghan — In the Land of the Delawares — French 
AND English Clash — The Delawares I\1ove Westwardly — The 
Ottawas and the Wyandots of the Lake Erii': Region — Bou- 

Territory Assured — Lifting of the Indian and Statk Titles — 
Lord Dunmore's Squatters — American System of Land Surveys 
— Public Ijands — (Congress Lands — Connecticut Western Re- 
serve — I<'iRE Lands — United States ]\1ilitary Ijands — Virginia 
Military IjAnds — Ohio Comi'any's 1'urchase — The Germ of Ohio 
■ — I )oNA'i'ioN Tract — Symmes Purchase — Refugioe Tract — French 
Tract — Canal J^ands — School Ijands — Other Public Tracts. 

During- tlie forty years preceding the close of the Revolutionary war, 
tlie lakes region and tlie Vadey of the Oliio weretiie great hatth,' gi'ounds 
contested l)y the Fi-eneh, Fnglisli and Aiiierieans, witli tlieir respective 
Indian allies. Altiiougli the French claimed the land hy vii'tue of dis- 
covery and exploration and seventy years of loose oceupane)', the Eng- 
lish, as later adventurers, laid claim to the rich and heautiful valley 
through their j)o\\'erful red allies, the Six Nations. This claim was of 
rather dubious strength, considering that the Ohio Valley and the vast 
domain included witliin its meshes were never in xindispiited possession 
of the L'ocpiois. But the English point of contention was tiiially i)ressed 
home through force of English arms and diplomacy. 

The second distinct phase of the international contentions over tlie 
Ohio Valley and the territory to the nortliwest of it hinged on the con- 
flict lietween Great Britain and her American colonies, with the result 
wliich is world's histoiy. The wi-iler will therefore (irsl enter into 
certain essential details regarding the discovery, clashes at arms and 
uncertain ()cc'U|)ancy ol' the country hi'oadly designated as the Valley 



of the Oliio previous to the cstaltlisliineiit of a gliostly civic body over 
tlie vast territory iiortliwest of the Oliio Ifiver hy tiie Ordiiiaiiet! of 1787. 

(jiiKvv IIisToiiic Watekway.s 

The explorations of Marquette, Joliet and LaSalle from New France 
to the Mississippi Valley, and gi'adually to its nioutli, were conducted 
for nearly a decade from 1671^, hut their routes from the (Jreat Lakes to 
till! valley of the Great Jfiver were hy way of tlie Wisconsin, the Illinois 
and the Wabash — almost eontiinious waterways. There was no such 
feasible, fairly continuous and inviting courses through the interior of 
Ohio. Actual settlements and even the appearance of the French voy- 
ageurs and fur traders were therefore of a later date than like occurrences 
in regions farther to the west. But tlie discoveries and explorations of 
these fearless French pioneers placed upon the maj) of tlie world the 
stupendous Territory of Louisiana wliich contained the smaller regions 
included in tlie country of the (Jreat J^akes and Valley of tlie Ohio. 

FuKNcii ScmcMic OF Colonization 

After the tour of exploration by Marquette and Joliet and tlie unsuc- 
cessful etfort at colonization by LaSalle, tlie French, still ardent in their 
])urpose of securing possession of the fertile lands east of the Mississippi, 
■finally had the satisfaction of seeing a comprehensive scheme of coloniza- 
tion established by ]\L D 'Iberville, who is considered the founder of 
French authority in Louisiana. lie was sent with an expedition com- 
prising four ships and two hundred settlers to explore the mouth of the 
^lississippi. This he did, erecting a fort on what is now tlie southern 
shore of the State of j\Iississipi)i and which was afterward abandoned 
for one on the west bank of the ]\Iol)ile Kiver. Later he built fortifica- 
tions at a point corresponding to the City of Natchez, protected the set- 
tlers from the incursions of the English, and in other ways strengthened 
the French claim to the Valley of the JMississippi. 

French Nohtiiwest Terhitory 

Previous to the year 1725 the Colony of Louisiana had been divided 
into quarters, each having its local government, but all subject to the 
(•(iiincil general of fjouisiana at (Quebec. One of these (|iiarfers included 
the territory nortiiwest of the Ohio Iviver. 

At this time the Fi'encii had ennded forts on the upjxir Mississippi, 
on tlie Illinois, on the Maumee and on the fjreat Lakes. Communication 


witli (Canada was cliicfiy tliiou,i,'li Lake Micliif^aii, l)ut liiiioro 1750 u 
Freiicli ])().st liad Ijccm TofliliiMl at the luoulli of tin; Wahasli, and a roiit(.' 
to New France was established tlirouj^li that river and tlie Waiuaee 
of the Lakes. The French had. now established a chain of foi'ts from 
the mouth of the JMississippi up the valley and its chief connectinjj 
waterways with the Oreat Lakes, along tlie shores of the lakes and up 
tile Ohio Valley to the Englisli settlements of the Allegheny region. 

Formally Claim Louisl\na 

Tlie l']nglish l)ecame alarmed at this systematic occupancy of interior 
America, especially as the French took formal possession of Louisiana 
in 1741). This was done by the burial of leaden plates ))y the royal 
emissai'ics sent from New France, in connnand of Celoron de Bienville, 
their locations in the Ohio country lu'ing at the junction of the river by 
that name with the Rlississippi, and at the mouths of the nuiin tributary 
streams of the Ohio. That found at the mouth of the Kanawha in 
March, 1846, nearly a century after it was placed there by the French 
commandant, has been translated as follows: "Jn the year 174!), of the 
I'eign of Louis XV of France, we, Celoron, commandant of a detaciuaent 
sent by the IManiuis de la Galissoniere, Captain (Jeneral of New France, 
in order to re-establish tran<iuility among some villages of savages of 
these parts, have buried this i)late at the mouth of the river Chi-no-da- 
hicli-e-tha, the ISth August, near the I'iver Ohio, otherwise Beautiful 
River, as a monument of renewal of possession, which we have taken 
of the said river Ohio, and of all those which empty themselves into it, 
and of all the lands of both sides even to the sources of said rivers; as 
have enjoyed, or ought to have enjoyed, the preceding kings of France, 
and that they have maintained themselves there by force of arms and by 
treaties, especially by those of Ryswick, of Utrecht and of Aix-la- 

Altogether, Celoron planted six plates at the mouths of the various 
Ohio ti-ibutaries, as of the Kanawha, JMuskingum and the Great ]\Iiami, 
signifying a renewal of possession of the country. This was done as 
follows: TTis men were drawn up in order; JiOuis XV was proclaimed 
lord of all that I'egion ; the arms were stamped on a sheet of tin nailed 
to a tree; the plate of lead was buried at the foot, and the notary of the 
ex[)e(lilioii (li'ew up a foi'iiial aet^ of tlu- entire procee<lings. 

Enolisif Skrvk Notici': ()!■' Possicssion 

For several years pi'cviously the English had sei'ved notices on their 
rivals that they would dispute iiossession of the Ohio Valley; in fad. 


tliiit llic Six Niitioiis owned it hy I'i^'lit of i-oiKiucst mid liiid phiccd it, 
under their proteetion. Some ol' the westei'n J;inds weru claimed liy tlu; 
Hritisli as liavint,' l)een actually i)Ui'cliased at Jjancastor, I'eiiiisylvaiiia, 
in 1744, by a treaty between tiie colonists and the Six Nations. About 
tlie limo tile Frencli gave tlie world notice tliat they claimed JjOuisiaiui, 
tli(; English I'onned the Ohio Company for tiie purpose of establishing 
trading posts among the Iiulians. 

First Ohio Company and Agent Gist 

From October, 1750, to May, 1751, Christopher Cist, a land surveyor 
and agent of the Ohio Comi)an3' (an association of ^Maryland and Vir- 
ginia gentlemen organized to buy lands in the Ohio Valley), exploivd 
the country adjacent to the main river and at various points some dis- 
tance inland. As he kept a journal of his travels, it is evident that ho 
found a number of traders on the ground, botii French and English, 
the whole region being in the throes of the conflict between the people 
of the rival nations. In December, 1750, he reached an Indian town a 
few miles above tlie mouth of the ^Muskingum, inhabited by AVyandots, 
who, he says, were divided in their allegiance between the French and 
the Englisli. The village consisted of about 100 families. 

George Crogiian 

George Croghan was the leading English trader of that region, and 
had lioisted the English colors at the post. While ]\Ir. Gist lingered 
tliere, stoi-ies came in of the capture of I\Ir. Croghan 's men by Frencli- 
men and their Indian allies. He was invited to marry into the ti'ibe, l)ut 
delicately declined. In January an Indian trailer came to town and 
informed the English tradi-rs that the Wyandots of the Lake Erie region 
had advised him that the region around the great lakes was claimed by 
the Frencli, but that all the branches of the Oiiio belonged to them and 
their brotliers, the English; tiiat the French liad no business there, and 
it was expected that the southern bi'anch of the Wyandots would desert 
the French and come over bodily to the English. 

In the Land of the Dklawahks 

i\Ir. Croglnin was aflerwai'd appointed deputy Indian agent. On 
tile 15th of January, 1751, he and Andrew i\Iontour, an influential man 
among the Delawares and Sluiwiiees, accompanied Mr. Gist in his visit 
to an Indian town at flic mouth of the Scioto and to the towns on the 


]ii<,' I\Iiaini. Tlieir trip to the Valley of the .Scioto and down the river 
to its month is descrii)('d in ]\Ir. Oist's joni-nai. Under chite of Jannaiy 
15, ITni, h(! says: "We lel't jMnskinf^inii and wt-nt live miles lo the 
While Woinan's ereek, on wineh is a small town. Tins white woman 
was taken away from New England when she was not above ten years 
old by the French Indians. She is now upwards of fifty; has an Indian 
husband and several children. Her name is i\Iary Harris. She still 
remembers they use to be very religious in New England, and wonders 
how the white men can be so wicked as she has seen them in the woods. 

"Wednesday, 16: Set out .southwest twenty-five miles to Licking 
creek. The land from j\Iuskingum is rich and broken. Upon the north 
side of Licking creek aijout six miles from its mouth, were several salt 
licks or j)onds, formed by little streams or di'ains of water, clear, but 
of blueisii color and .salty taste. The tradei's and Indians boil their 
meats in this water, \,hich, if proper care is not taken, will sometimes 
make it too salty to cat." 

The course was west and .southwest from Licking Creek to (rock- 
hocking, a small Delaware town, and thence to the Ujjper Scioto, which 
was descended for about twenty miles to Salt Lick Creek. On the 2.3th 
he traveled twenty-eight miles, all the way thi'ough a country occupied 
by the Delaware Indians, and on Sunday arrived at om- of their towns 
on the southeast side of the Scioto, about five miles from its mouth. 
Thi.s, Mr. Cist says, was the last of tiie Delawai'e towns to the westward. 
He renuiined a few days at that locality, held a council with the friendly 
Indians who made several speeciies. He continues: "The Delaware 
Lidians, by the liest accounts I could gather, consist of about five hun- 
dred iighting men, all firmly attached to the English interests. They 
are not i)roperly i)art of the Six Nations, but are scattered about among 
most of the Lidians on the Ohio, and some of them among the Six 
Nations, from whom they have leave to hunt ui)on their land." 

At the time of Cist's visit the Delawares had commenced to come 
into notice as an expanding tribe or Indian nation in much of the 
tei-ritoi'V now embraced in Northeastern and Eastern Ohio. They were 
an eastei-n people, had been ti'aditional enemies of the lro(piois iiy whom 
they were crowded beyond the Allegiienies, but in their western home 
]-ose into power with the permanent decline of their old-time rivals and 
eon(pierors. I'.y the coiiimencemeni of tile eighleeuth century, the Dela- 
wares were a. densely settled nation teiwitory virtually stretched 
from the Dliio to Lake lOr'ie, with the center of their jiower in the iijjper 
Muskingum and Tusc'arawas. 


Fkf^ncu and English Ci.asii 

Al'lcr IIk; I'ctur-ii of Mr. Oist tli(r Ohio (Joiiipiiiiy proceeded to tiik(; 
possession oi' tile lands they elaiiiied on the Ohio and establislied a trad- 
iiijj house on tlie liig Miami about a luuidrod miles from its mouth. Early 
in 1752 the French heard of this proceeding and sent a military expedi- 
tion to the Indians demanding the surrender of tlie P]nglish traders as 
intruders upon the French lands. As the demand was i-efused the post 
was attacked by the French, assisted by the Ottawas and. Chippewas. 
After a tierce engagement, during which fourteen Indians were killed, 
the trading house was captured and destroyed and the Englishmen car- 
I'ied as prisoners to Canada. This was considered the first settlement 
in tile Ohio Valley which approached permanency. 

In the following year Washington, with Gist as liis guide, had recom- 
mended the erection of an English fort upon the present site of Pitts- 
burgh, and the fiercest conflicts between the rivals for the possession of 
tile Ohio Valley were waged in that vicinity for tiie capture of Fort 
Du(^)uesiie, the military heachiuai'ters of the French. 

The Dei.awaues ]\I()vk WKSTWAinjLY 

The Delawares, by the middle of the eighteenth century, or at the 
commencement of the French and Indian war, were most numerous in 
the Valley of the Tuscara>\'as, Eastern Ohio, but thirty years later the 
center of their strength was near the present center of the state, in the 
region of the county which bears their name. 

By liie beginning of the nineteenth century tin.' several ti'ibes, whose 
territories \\-ere (|uiti' clearly defined iifty years iireviously, had com- 
mingled iis a means of defense against the common wiiite enemy, and 
as the shores of Lake lOrie and Valley of the Ohio became fringed with 
the cabins and villages of the pale faces, the tribal lines of the rM men 
lu'canie more and moi'e oblitei-ated. In Xortheni, lOastern and Central 
Ohio, where the Delawares and Sliawiiees once held almost undisputed 
sway, there were now to be found also Ottawas, Wyandots, ]\Iingoes 
and even :\riamis from the western border. The Ottawas and the Wyan- 
dots were especially partial to the Lake Erie region or the northern 
regions of what was to become the Western Reserve. 

This commingling and union of the Ohio Indians I'csulted largely 
from tlieii- experiences in the Fiviieh and Indian war of liry'y-G-i. The 
pi'omi)t action of the h'reneh in desti-oying the JMiglish trading i)ost on 
the Big ?iliami and taking its occupants to (Canada as jirisoners of war 
brought eountei- action from the British government. Farly in the 


spriii;^ of 1755 (Jeiicral linuldoek, witli a ('Oiisiderable Toree, was sent 
to take possession of tlie Oiiio country. His terrible defeat near Fort 
l)u(^ucsn(' was rollowcd \ty a fruitless expedition, the ycai' alter, vvliieh 
was dircetiMl aj,'ainst tlie Indian towns on the Oliio. Finally, in 1758, 
the Freiieli were expelled from Fort DuQuesno, and in 1763 France 
ceded to Great Britain all her North American settlements. The Britisli 
then gave their attention to the defiant Indians. 

In 17C4 General Bradstreet, having dispensed the Indian forces be- 
sieging Detroit, passed down into the AVyandot country by way of 
SandiLsky Bay. Having ascended the bay and river as far as possible 
in boats, the party encamped and concluded a treaty of peace witli the 
representatives of many of the Indian tribes. 

Bouquet 's Expedition 

But tlie Shawnees of the Scioto River and the Delawares of the 
Mu.skingum continuetl hostile. For the purpose of subduing or placating 
them. Colonel Bouquet was sent from Fort Pitt into tlie heart of the 
Ohio country on the ]Muskingum River. This expedition was conducted 
with great prudence and skill ; but few lives wei'e lost, a treaty of peace 
was effected with the Indians about a mile from the forks of the ]\Ius- 
kinguin, but not before all the white prisoners, amounting to some 
.'500, had been delivered to the colonel and his force. 

Accompanying Colonel Boucpiet as an engineer was Thomas Ilutchins, 
who afterward l)ecame geographer of the United States. Mr. Ilutchins 
drew a map of the country through which the expedition passed. It 
was pul)lished in London two years after the return of the expedition 
and covers much of the territory now emiiraeed in Eastern Ohio. 

Various expeditions were sent against the Hclawares, AVyandots and 
Iroquois of "Western Pennsylvania, Virginia and Eastern Ohio in 1774, 
and as they were chieHy under the direction of Lord Dunmore, gov- 
ernor of Virginia, they are usually designated as " Dunmore 's war." 
Lord Dunmore 's march took him up the Hocking Valley and over into 
wiuit is now Pickaway County, where, in the fall of 1774, he made a 
li'ealy with all the hostile Indians at Camp Charlotte, near the present 
site of Circleville. 

SiiAWNicK.s Last to Suuukndku 

During and after the Revolutionary war, various American exi)edi- 
tioiis were sent a^alust the warlike? Shawnees, but the scenes oi' tliese 
forays and ei»nllicts were in the upper Vidley of tlie Scioto. In 1771' 

Ill vs. (I' 


CoJonel Bowman heiulod au expedition against tlieiii, and their village 
ol' Ciiillieotlie waf? burned; liiit tlie Sliawnee wari-iors .showt'd an un- 
daunted iroiit and the whites were J'oreed to retreat. Jji tlie summer 
of tlie following year (Jeneral Clarke led a body of Kentuekians against 
the iShawnees. On their approaeh the Indians burned Chillieothe them- 
selves and retreated to their town of Piqua, six miles below the present 
site of Springfield. There they gave battle and were defeated. In 
Septemher, 1782, this officer led a second expedition against them and 
destroyed their towns of Upper and Lower Piqua, in what is now 
Miami County. Other expeditions from Kentucky were directed against 
the stubborn Shawnees of the upper Scioto Valley antl along the .Miami 
rivers farther west, these eonHiets covering 1786-8. 

A NouTiiwEST Territory Assured 

In the meantime, by the treaty of Paris concluded between Great 
liritain and the United States in 1783, the western boundary of the 
United States was declared to be the Mississippi instead of the Ohio 
IJiver. The British commissioner stoutly contended that the Ohio was 
Its legitimate limits; but sturdy John Adams, the American repre- 
sentative, carried the day for the Missi.ssi])pi Kiver, thus saving for liis 
countrymen the splendid Xorthwest Ten-itory. 

Lifting of and St.\te Titles 

The next great step in the l)uilding of the nation was to satisfy the 
land claims of the origuial occupants of the soil. Tiie fii-st negotiations 
were with the Six Nations of the East. Finally, at Fort Staiiwix, in 
October, 1784, the Mohawks, Onondagas, Senecas, Cayugas, Oneidas and 
Tuscaroras ceded all their claims to the western lands to the Govern- 
ment of the United States. But citizens could not settle in that great 
domain until every other Lidian title was lifted, and the individual 
states also relincjuished tiieir claims. By the year 3786 all the eonnnon- 
weallhs of the Union had ceded their claims to the General Government; 
then remained tiie task of extinguishing the Indian claims other than 
those ceded by the Six Nations. Elforts had been contiinious since the 
conclusion of peace with Great Britain. But the problem was a difficult 

The Indian tribes were allies of the English, with such minor excep- 
tions as the Moravian Indians, or Chi'istian Delawares of Lake Erie 
\u-ii'wn and the Muskingum and Tuscarawas valleys, and did not sur- 
render their homes without a struggle. For several yeai's their was a 


•Series of liostile iiioveiiicnts iiiul imnieroiis aets of I'cveiigc, ))ut about 
1780, wlieii tlie (leiiei-al (Jovei'iimciit liad adjusted all tlie state elaiiiis, 
a conciliatory j)olicy was adopted toward llic Indians, and l»y a series 
of j)ureliiises and treaties, uia<i(^ at, various dates, tlieir titles were ]»eace- 
ably extinfjuisiied. It is a faet worthy oi" note and ])rid(', that the title 
to every foot of (Jiiio soil was honorably acquired from the Indians. 

Loud Dunmohe's Sc^uattehs 

Hut for more than a decade "squatters" had planted themselves 
ill the fertile soil of the Ohio Valley. Wiieii Lord Dunmore's army of 
1,200 men was disbanded at the month of the Hocking Kiver in 1774, 
there is nuicli evidence that not a few of them saw that the land was 
good to look upon and decided to occupy it. At least, in January, 1785, 
when the commissioners appointed by the (jovcnuneiit to treat with 
the Delawares and Wyandots arrived in the Oliio country they found 
white settlements at Hocking Falls, at the Muskingum, tlie Scioto and 
]\Iiami, and along the north bank of the Ohio. The largest appeared to 
have been Hocking, and there was quite a town on the .Mingo Bottoms 
oj)posite what is now Wheeling. 

The Indian comnu.ssioners, George Rogers, Richard Butler and 
Arthur Lee, wen; compelled to Jiegotiations with the Delawares 
and Wyandots until all the lands west of the Ohio were di.spos.sessed 
of the whites. Ensign John Armstrong was sent by Colonel Ilarmer to 
drive the wliite invaders from Indian soil, and by March most of them 
had left the country, although .some failed to leave and kept hilling 
ujitil the titles to the lands w-ere made clear. 

In 1784, ten years after the disbandment of Dunmore's army at 
the mouth of the Hocking River, Congress passed an ordinance for the 
govei-nment of the Northwest Territory, all claim to which had been 
reliiKiuished l)y CJreat Britain. So far as the organization of any civil 
govei-innent under it is concerned, it was a dead letter, but under its 
general provisions one very important stop was taken toward the realiza- 
tion of the white man's order and the security of property rights. On 
i\Iay 20, 1785, a supplementary ordinance was passed for the survey 
of the western lands. 1954138" 

A.MKuiCAN System oe Land Siiuvkvs 

A siii'veyor was ebosen from each slate winch oi'iginally laid claim 
to the doiiiairi west of the Alleghenies, who was lo act under the geog- 
rapher' of IIk' I'nited Stales, Thomas llulchins, in laying olV Ihe laud 


into townships of six miles s(iuare. The geograplier was instructed to 
designate tlie townships l)y nuinhers, from south to nortli, and tlie 
rangi'S were to he inimhei-etl from east to west. It is tliis simi)le system 
of dcscrihiiig land that has heen followed hy the (Jovernment and private 
surveyors ever since, and may be called the American system. The 
survey of the western lands was well under way at the time of the 
passage of the permanent and living ordinance of 1787, which has been 
described as "the last gift of the Congress of the old Confederation 
of the people of the States." 

Tub Public Lands 

When Ohio was admitted into the Federal LInion as an independent 
state, one of the terms of admission was that the fee simple to all the 
hauls within its limits, excepting those previously granted or sold, 
should vest in the United States. Different portions of them at divers 
l)eriods were granted or sold to various individual companies and bodies 

The following were the names by which the principal bodies of these 
lands were designated on account of the different forms of transfers: 

1. Congress Lands. 

2. Connecticut AVestcm Reserve. 
\i. Fire Jjands. 

4. IJiuted States JMilitary. 

5. Virginia Military. 

G. Ohio Company's Purchase. 

7. ]3onation Tract. 

8. Symmes Purchase, 
f). IJefugee Tract. 

10. Flench Grant. 

These ten principal bodies of pul)lic lands are noted and described, 
with the accompanying map, that tiie reader may obtain a clear idea 
of their comparative importance in the development of tlie state. It 
will be seen that willi the excei)tion of the Congress and the Virginia 
I\lilitary lands, lliosc included in the Western Reserve constituted the 
lai'gest hotly and, in view of its favorable i)osition adjacent to the well- 
settled di.slriets of Western Pennsylvania and to easily-acce.ssi])le regions 
of Lake ICrie, it was the cream of the territory northwest of Ihe Ohio 

CoNdltKSS Lan'ds 

In 1S2!), then, the following descriptions of lliese eliief divisions 
<il' |)iiiili(; lands within tlie State of Ohio were correct : "Congress lands 


iii-i' so called l)ocause they are sold to purchasers by the iiniiiediate officers 
of the General Government, confonnahle to sn(;h laws as are, or may be 
fiom Hmk; to time, enacted ))y Congress. They are all regularly sur- 
veyed into townships of six miles scjuarc ea<'li, under autlioi'ily and at 
1lie expense of the National (government. In tli(; eastern half of the 
state — that is, east of the Scioto river and of a mcritlian line drawn 
lliree miles within the ea.sterii limits of Marion and (,'rawford counties — 
the ranges are counted from east to west, and the numl)ers of the town- 
ships from south to north, beginning on the Ohio river as a base. But 
in the west half of the state, the ranges begin on the state line of Indi- 
ana and are counted eastwardly until they reach the other ranges, which 
are numbered westwardly, as above mentioned; excepting lictwcen the 
two ]\Iiami rivers, where the ranges run from south to north and the 
nuiidiers of the townships from west to east — that is, fi-om the Great 
]\Iiami river as a base. In the pui'chase made in 1818 north of the 
Greenville Treaty line, however, a base line is made in about the middle 
of the tract on the parallel of the forty-first degree of north latitude, 
from which the townships are numbered both north and south. The 
townships are again subdivided into sections of one mile sipiare, each 
containing 640 acres, by lines running parallel with the township and 
range lines. 

"In establishing the township and sectional corners, a post is first 
planted at the point of intersection ; then on the ti'ee nearest the post and 
standing within the section intended to be designated, is numbered with 
tile marking iron, Ihe range, townshii) and muiiber of the .section. 

"Section No. 16 of every lownshii) is perpetually reserved for the 
use of the schools and leased und(;r the state government. All tlie others 
may lie taken up either in sections, fractions, halves, (juarters or half 

The Eioiit L.\nd Distiucts 

"For the purpose of selling out these lands, they are divided into 
eight land districts, called after tin; names of the towns in which the 
ol'lices are kept, namely: Woostctr, Steid)('nville, Zanesville, Marietta, 
Chilli(-othe, Cincinnati, Pi<pui and Tiffin. 

"Ciiillicothe Land Disti'ict is composed of the seven westernmost of 
the Iwcnty-two j-angcs of townships of (!ongress lands south of th(^ 
Kefugce tract, and therefore extends from said Ivefngee tract on the 
nortli to the Ohio river soutii, and from the Zanesville land district and 
Ohio f'ompany's Purchase on the east to the Scioto river on the west. 
It ineliKJes parts of l^'i'aidvlin, l^'airlield, I'ickaway, ivoss, Athens, liock- 


iii^', Jackson, Ijawi'cMicc, Pike, Sciolo and (Jallia eouiitics, l)iit not cntii'oly 
lliL' wliolo of any. 

" (,'iiicinnati Ijand Distcict coiiijH'iscs that ])ortion oi' tlio southwi'stijrii 
quarter of the stale honiuled hy tlie old Gireeiiville ti'oaty line on tlie 
iiortli. the Ohio river soutii, the V'^irgiiiia Military Traet and Syiunies 
Purchase east and the Indiana state line west; and also that part of tlie 
state of Indiana lying east of a lirie run directly from opposite the 
mouth of the Kentucky river to Fort Recovery, at the northwest corner 
of Darke county. It includes all of Miami, Darke, Prehle, Montgomery, 
and considerahle portions of Shelby, Logan, Champaign, Clark, Green, 
Warren, Putler and Hamilton counties, Ixisides all of Dearborn, and 
parts of Switzerland, Franklin, Union, AVayne, Ranaolph and Adams 
counties, in the state of Indiana. This district is not probably, excelled 
by any other in the westei-n country in the fertility of its soil, especially 
for tlie production of wheat, and the number and goodness of the various 
mill scats abounding ui)on its almost infinitely muncrous .streams aiul 

"^Marietta Land District is small, embracing only parts of Belmont, 
JMonroc and Washington counties. There are no rivers or streams of 
any considerable magnitude, excepting the Ohio river, which washes 
its whole southeastern limits. 

"Pi(|ua Uaiul District is in the northwest quarter of the state, ad- 
joining Michigan territory north, the Tiffin district east, Cincinnati 
district south, and the state of Indiana west. It cnd)races the first eight 
ranges of townships in the land purchased of the Indians in 1818. It 
is forty-eight miles broad, from east to west, and, upon an average, 
cighty-hve miles long from north to south, endjracing an area of al)0ut 
-1,080 sipuire miles, or 2,611,200 acres of land. This computation, how- 
ever, includes all the Indian reservations at Wappakouetta on Hlanch- 
ai'd's I'ork on the Auglaize, and on St. Mary's rivers — altogether about 
120,000 acres, thereby leaving about two aiul a half million acres sold, 
and to be sold by the general goveriniient in this district. It is not yet 
mucii settled, but the Ohio Legislature, in 1820, to set at rest antici])ated 
future trouble in i)ai'tielling it out into counties, divided it into seven 
districts to which they attacheil the names of Allen, Putnam, Henry, 
Williams, Paulding, Van Wert and IMerct'r, to be organized into separate 
counties, whenever sufficiently settled. Reside which, about one hun- 
dred and fifty s(|nare miles of the disti-ict falls wilhin the linuts of 
Shelby county. .Vone of these coniities ar'c, however, yet organized, 
excepting i\Iereer and Williams, il is watered by the J\laumee, Auglaize 
and St. Mary's rivers, besides their numerous branches. The I'oute for 
the confenqihifed !\liami canal rinis centrally through this disti'ii't. It 


must, tluTc'fore, witliin twenty years, beeoine a populous and iinportaut 
section of the state. 

"Steuhenville district includes all CoUind)iana, -JelVerson and Har- 
rison, and parts of Stark, Tuscarawas, Guernsey, and Belmont coun- 
ties. It contains extensive bodies of valuable laml. A consideral)le 
portion of tlie district, however, is very hilly, and of an indiH'erently 
good soil, ft has some salt si)rings, iron ore, and abundance of stone 

"Tiffin district is composed of the nine easternmost ranges of town- 
ships in the Indian purchase of the year 1818. It extends from iMich- 
igan territory and Lake Erie ou tlie north, to the old Greenville treaty 
line south, a)id from the Connecticut "Western Reserve and tlie Wooster 
district on the east, to the Pi(iua district on the west, comprising about 
two antl a half millions of aci'es. it is nearly eighty miles long, north 
and .south, and fifty-four broad from east to west, and eird)races all of 
Sandusky, Seneca, Hancock and AVood, and the greater part of Craw- 
ford, iMarion and Hardin counties. It is watered by the Maumee, 
Portage, Sauilusky, Scioto and Whetstone rivers; and by Touisanl, 
iVIuddy, Muscalunge, Green, AVolf, Tymoehtee and Honey creeks, and 
lilanchard's fork of the Auglai/e river. A considerable portion of the 
land in Crawford and JMarion counties is open ])rairie,' called 'the ])lains. ' In Sandusky and Wood comities, boi-dering upon Lake 
Erie, much of the land is low and marshy. Hut taking this whole region 
of country together, it may be considered fertile and valuable. The 
land oiifice is kept at Tiffin, to which i)lace, in 1828, it was removed, from 
Delaware, where it was formerly kept. It was therefore, formerly, 
called Delaware district. 

"Wooster district includes the whole of Richland, and Wayne, and 
parts of Stark, Holmes, and Knox counties, and a strip of three miles 
wide off from the east end of Crawford and jMarion counties. This is 
generally a hilly district of country, and comprises the highest region 
of land in the state. The land office is kept at Wooster, but during, and 
previously to the last war, it was kept at Canton, from which circum- 
stance it was then called Canton di.striet. Salt springs, stone coal, and 
some iron ore are found in this district. 

"Zanesville district embraces the whole of Morgan and parts of 
Perry, ]\Iuskingum, Guernsey, Monroe and AVashington counties. In 
Washington county, however, it includes only the six miles S(|iiare town- 
ship (>r Aiirclius. I'>iil as there are a great many (piarter lowiisliips in 
the eastern half of tlu^ United States' Military lands, which have not 
been wanteil, to satisfy those warrants for which they were originally 
appi'opriatcd, these (|uarter townships have been surveyed, by the gen- 


eral yovenmieiit, into sections of 640 acres eacli ; and sucli lands situ- 
ated within tin; first, eleven rant,M's of said United States i\lililary lands, 
arc sold, as oilier conKress lands nvc, at. the Za/iesville land ollie.e, and 
may therefore he considered as eonstitntint^ a j)arl of this district. In 
this view of tlio suhjeet, all .Muskingmn anil Coshocton counties will 
fall within its limits, and parts of Licking, Knox, Holmes, and the greater 
jKirt. of Tuscarawas, and fiuernsey counties. This district is generally 
hilly, and comparatively of a poor soil. But, as it is excellently well 
watered, by the Muskingum river and its numerous branches, well suited 
for various mills; lias the Ohio grand canal passing througii it; and 
has inexhaustible beds of stone coal, iron 'ore, and abundance of salt 
springs, it has already become a populous and wealthy ])Ortion of the 
state; anil is rapidly improving. 

"The '.seven ranges' of townships, are a portion of the Congress 
land.s, so called, being the first ranges of public lands ever surveyed, by 
the general government, west of the Ohio river. They are bounded on 
the north by a line drawn due west from the Pennsylvania state line, 
where it crosses the Ohio river, to the United States Military lands, 
forty-two miles; thence south to the Ohio river, at the southeast corner 
of Marietta township, thence up the river to the place of beginning. 
It comprises all of Jefferson, Harrison and Belmont counties, the greater 
part of Monroe, and parts of Washington, Guernsey, Tuscarawas, Stark 
and Columbiana counties. These ranges compose all of Marietta, and 
a considerable part of Steubenville land districts. 

The "Western Re.serve in 1829 

"Connecticut Western Reserve, oftentimes called New Connecticut, 
is situated in the northeast quarter of the state, between Lake P^rie on 
the north, Pennsylvania east, the parallel of the 41st degree of north 
latitude south, and Sandusky and Seneca counties on the west. It 
extends one hundred and twenty miles from east to west, and, upon 
an average, fifty miles from north to south, although, upon the Penn- 
sylvania line, it is sixty-eight miles broad from north to south. The 
area is about 3,800,o6o acres. It is surveyed into townships of five miles 
square each. A body of half a million acres is, however, stricken off 
from the west end of the tract, as a donation, by the state of Connecticut 
to certain sufferers by fire in IIk; Revoliitionai'y war. These laiuls con- 
stitute Huron county. 

"New Connecticut is divided into the eight counties of Ashta1)ula, 
Truiid)ull, Portage, (Jeauga, Cuyahoga, Lorain, ]\Iedina and Huron ; and 
is i)rincij)ally settled l)y emigrants from the states of Massachusetts and 


Connoeticut. In 1820 these counties contained, in tlie ii<?{?i'egate, abont 
57,000 inliahilarits, wliictli luive since considerably iiio'cascul. 

'"I'lic maimer by wiiich (yonnecticiit became possessed of Ibe land in 
'luestion, was the following: King Ciiark's II, of England, pursuing 
the example of his brother kings, of granting distant and foreign regions 
to his subjects, granted to the then colony of Connecticut, in 1662, a 
charter right to all lands included within certain specified bounds. 
]?ut as tlie geographical knowledge of Europeans concerning America 
was then very limited and confused, patents for lands often interfered 
with each other, and many of them even by their express ternis, extended 
to the Pacific ocean or South sea, as it was then called. Among the rest, 
that for Connecticut enibi-aced all lands contained between the forty- 
tiist and forty-second parallels of north latitude, and from Providence 
plantations on the east to tlie Pacific ocean west, with tlie exception of 
New York and Pennsylvania colonies; and, indeed, pretensions of these 
were not finally relinquished without considerable altercation. And, 
after tiie United States became an independent nation, these interfering 
claims occasioned much collision of sentiment between them and the 
state of Connecticut, which was finally compromised, by tlie United 
States relinquishing all their claims upon, and guaranteeing to Con- 
necticut the exclusive right of soil to the ;5, 800, 000 acres now described. 
The Uniletl States, however, by tiie terms of comi)romise, reserved to 
themselves the riglit of jurisdiction. They then united this tract to 
the territory, now state of Ohio. 

Fire Lands 

"Fire Lands, a tract of country so called, of aliout 781 square miles, 
or 500,000 acres, in the western part of New Connecticut. The name 
originated from the circumstance of the* state of Connecticut having 
granted these lands in 1792, as a donation to certain sufferers by fire, 
occasioned by the English during our IJevolutionary war, particularly at 
New London, Fairfield and Norwalk. These lands include the five 
westernmost ranges of the Western Reserve townships. Lake Erie and 
Sandusky bay project so far southerly as to leave but the space of six 
tiers and some fractions of townships between them and the forty-first 
parallel of latitude, or a tract of abont thirty by miles in 
extent. Tiiis tract is surveyed into townships of about five miles scpiare 
each; and these townships are then subdivided into four fjuarters. The 
principal waters, beside Sandusky bay and Lake Erie, whicii skirt the 
whoh; northern boundary, an; Huron and Vermillion rivers, and Cold, 
Pipe and IjaChapelle creeks, running northwardly into Sandusky bay. 


Tlie lands are generally pretty fertile and well timbered. They lie 
within and eonstitute tlie wliole of Huron eounly. A (;onsideral)le por- 
tion oL' the land is owned l)y jion-residenls, and a majority of tliese 
ownei'S reside in Coiuieetieut. 

United States IMilitauy Lands 

"United States I\Iilitary Lands are so called, from the circumstance 
of their having been appropriated, by an act of Congress, of the ]st of 
June, 1796, to satisfy certain claims of the ofificers and soldiers of the 
Revolutionary war. The tract of country embracing these lands, is 
bounded as follows : Begiiniing at the northwest corner of the original 
seven ranges of townships, thence south fifty miles, thence west to the 
Scioto river, thence up said river to the (Jreenville treaty line, thence 
northeasterly with saitl line to oUl fort Lawrence on the Tuscarawas 
river, tlience due east to the place of beginning; including a tract of 
about 4,000 square miles, or 2,560,000 acres of land, it is, of course, 
bounded north by the Greenville treaty line, east by the seven ranges of 
townships, south by the Congress and Refugee lands, and west by the 
Scioto river. These lands are surveyed into townsiiips of five miles 
square. These townships were then again, originally, surveyed into 
(luarter townships of two and a half miles sciuare, containing 4,000 
acres each — and subsecjueiitly, some of these quarter townships were 
.subdivided into forty lots of 100 acres each, for the accommodation 
of those soldiers, holding warrants for only 100 acres eacii. And again, 
after the time originally assigned, for the location of these warrants, 
had expired, certain quarter townships which had not then been located, 
were divided into sections of one mile sciuare each, and sold by the 
general government, like the main body of Congress lands. The greater 
part of the following counties are situated in the United States' ^Military 
lands; namely, Tuscarawas, (Juernsey, Muskingum, Coshocton, Holmes, 
Knox, Licking, Franklin, and Delaware; but not the entire whole of 
either; excepting Coshocton. Franklin county, however, is not more 
than aliout one fourth, comjiosed of these lands. For a more particular 
description of lands, the reader is referred to the several descrip- 
tions of the above-named counties, respectively, in the sul).se(iuent part 
of this voliniie. And for a vu-w of tlu! ranges and townsliii)S, reference 
may be had to the author's large i\Iap of the stale of Ohio. 

Virginia Militahy Lands 

"Virginia Military Tjaiids are a body of land lying between the 
Seioto jiiid liittle iMiiniii rivers and bounded ii\' the Ohio river on the 


soiilli. TIr' stiitc of Vii'j,'iMiii, Iroin tlir iiidcliiiitc iiiid v!i^,'ii(' tcniis <»L' 
oxi), ill its orif(iiial colonial cliartor of territory from Jaiiies 1, 
Kiii<^ of Kiigla/id, in tlu' year ]00!), claimed all llie eoiitiiieiit \v< st of 
tlie Oliif) river, and of llie north and south hreadth of Virf^inia. hut 
finally amoiij^ several other compromises ol' eonfiicdiiij^ claims, which 
were made sul)se(iuently to the attainment of our national independence, 
Virginia agreed to reliiKpiish all her claims to lanils northwest of the 
Ohio river, in favor of the general government, upon condition of the 
lands, now descrihed, being guaranteed to lier. The state of Virginia 
then appropriated this body of land to satisfy the claims of her state 
troops, employed in the continental line, during the Revolutionary war. 
This district is not surveyed into townships, or any regular form : 
but any individual, holding a Virginia military land warrant may locate 
it wherever he chooses within the district, and in such shape as he 
pleases, wherever the land shall not previously have been located. In 
consecjuence of this deficiency of regular original surveys, and the- 
irregularities with which the several locations have been made, and the 
consequent interference and encroachment of some locations ui)on others, 
more than dou])le the litigation has probably arisen between tlie liolders 
of adverse titles in this district, than there has in any other part of 
the state of equal extent. It embraces a body of 6,570 scpjare miles, 
or 4,204,800 acres of land. The following counties are situated in this 
tract : Adams, Brown, Clermont, Clinton, Payette, Ilighhuul, IMadison, 
and nnion entirely; and greater or less portions of Marion, Delaware, 
Franklin, Pickaway, Ross, Pike, Scioto, Hamilton, AVa.rren, Green, 
Clark, Champaign, Logan and Hardin. 

Ohio Comi'any's Puuciiake 

"Ohio Company's Purchase is a l)ody of land (containing al)out 
1,500,000 acres, including however the Donation tract, school lands, etc., 
lying along the Ohio river, and including Rfeigs, nearly all of Athens, 
and a considerable part of Washington and Gallia counties. Coii- 
sideral)ly less tlian 1,000,000 acres was, however, ultimately paid for, 
and, of course, patented. This tract was purchased of the General 
Govcriinicnt in Ilic year 1787, by Manasseh (Sutler and AVinthrop Ser- 
geant from the neigbl)orhood of Salem, IMassachusetts, agents foi' tlie 
Ohio ('()iii|»any, so called, which had then been formed in Rlassachnsel ts 
for the ])ur])ose of a settlement in the Ohio country. Peside every 
section Ifi, set apart, as elsewhere, for the support of schools, every 
section 2i) is aiiproi)riated for the su])port of i-eligious institutions. In 
addition to wliieh, were also granted 1 wo six miles scpiare townships, 


for tlic use ol" a colk'jjc. But, unfortunately foi' the Ohio Company, 
owing to tlu'ir want of toi)OKraj)liieal knowh^-tlge of the country, the 
body of land seh'et(Ml Ijy them, with some partial exceptions, is the must 
liilly and sterile, of any tract of similar extent in tlie state. 

The Gekm of Ohio 

"A great portion of the first settlers were revolutionary soldiers, 
with their families. They made their first settlement on the Ohio river, 
at tlie mouth of the Muskingum, wliere they founded the town of 
jMarietta. Tiiis ))eing the first important settlement in the state, is 
often referred to, by writers Jind orators, as the nucleous around wiiich 
the whole state has suiiseciuently grown. As an instance of this I'hetorical 
figure, the following extract is selected from an address, delivered at 
Salem, Mas.saehusetts, on the 18th of Sept., 1828, by the lion. Edward 
• Everett, on occasion of the Li-eentennial celebration of the first settle- 
ment of that town: 'It is just forty years, this summer, since a long 
ark-like looking wagon was seen travei'sing the roads, and winding 
through the villages of Essex and Middlesex, covered with a black can- 
vas, inscribed on the outside, in large letters, "To Marietta on tiie 
Ohio." That expedition, under Dr. Cutler of this neigid)Oihood, was 
the firet germ of the settlement of Ohio, which now contains near a 
million of inhabitants. Forty years have scarce pa.ssed l)y, and this 
great state, with all its settlements, imi)rovements, its migiity canals 
and growing population, was covered uj), if 1 nuiy so say, under the 
canvas of Dr. Cutler's wagon. Not half a century, and a state is in 
existence (twice as large as our old Massachusetts), to whom, not old 
England, but New England is the land of ancestral recollection.' 

Donation Tract 

"Donation tract, is a body of 100,000 acres set off in llu; northern 
limits of tile Ohio Comjjany's tract, and granted to tlicm by Congress, 
provided they should obtain one actual .settler upon each hundred acres 
thereof within five years from the date of the grant, and tliat so much 
of the 100,000 acres aforesaid as should not thus l)e taken up shall revcirt 
to the Ceneral Gov(trnment. This tract may, in .some respects, be con- 
sidered a part of the Ohio (!(>mp!iny's purciuise. It is situiited in the 
nortiiern linuts of Washington county. It lies in an oblong sliape, 
extending nearly seventeen miles fr'om cast to wi'st, and about seven 
and (uie-half miles from north to south. 


Symmes Purchase 

"SyiiniK'.s PureliusL' is ;i tract of ;J11,C82 acres of land, iti llie soiitli- 
wcstcni (juartcr ol" tlio slate, between the (jreat and Jjiltle JMiami rivers. 
It l)orders on tlie Oliio river, a distance of twejity-seveii miles, and 
extends so far back from tiie latter between tlie two JMiamies as to 
inclnde the quantity of land just mentioned. It was patented to Jolm 
Cleves yyuimes, in 1794, for sixty-seven cents per acre. Every sixteenth 
section, or mile scjuare, in each township, was reserved by Congress 
for tile use of seiiools, and sections 29 for the support of religious 
institutions, beside fifteen aci'cs around Fort AVashington in Cincinnati. 
This tract of country is now one of tlie most valuable in the state. 

Refugee Tract 

"Uefugee Tract, a liody of 100,000 acres of land granted by Con- 
gress to certain iiidivitluals who left the British provinces during the 
revolutionary war, and espoused the cause of freetloin. It is a narrow 
strip of country four and one-half miles broad from north to south, and 
extending eastwardly from the Scioto river forty-eight miles. It has the 
United States' XX ranges of military or army lanils north, and XX 1 1 
ranges of Congress lands .south. In the western borders of this tract, 
is situated the town of Columl)us. 

Fkencii Guant 

"French Grant, a tract of 24,000 acres of land, bordering upon the 
Ohio river, in the southeastern quarter of Scioto county. It was granted 
by Congress, in ]\Iarch, 1795, to a number of French families who lost 
tlieir lands at Gallipolis by invalid titles. It extends from a point 
on the Ohio river, one and one-half miles above but oi)posite the mouth 
of Little Sandy creek in Kentuek}', extending eight miles in a direct 
line down the river, and, from the two extremities of that line, back at 
I'ight angles sufficiently far to include the (piantity of land re(|uired, 
which somewhat exceeds four and a half miles. Pine or Hale's and 
Genet's creeks are tiie principal waters, excepting the Oliio river, whicli 
forms its southwestern l)oundary. Although the land in (piestion was 
originally granted exclusively to Frenchmen, yet there ai'e not al)ove 
eigiit or leu i"'i'eneh families who now reside upon it, the other poilion 
of the population being composed of emigrants from ^^'l■mont, New 
Hampshire autl other states. Here a postoftice is kei>t called French 
Gi'ant office. Tliis tract composes the townsliip of Green, Scioto cnimfy. 


Moravian Lands 

"jMoraviaii lands ai'o tlircc! several tiaets oF 4,(K)() acres eaeh, 
originally j^raiited by llie old (Joiitiiientai Coiit^rvss, July, 17H7, and eon- 
firmed, l)y tile aet oi" Coiif^i'ess, oT June 1, 17IiG, to the Moravian liretlm^n, 
at Bethlehem in Pennsylvania, in trust and for the use of the Chris- 
tianized Indians living thereon. They are laid out in nearly sciuare 
forms, on the Muskin^im river, in what is now Tuscarawas county. 
They are called by the names of the Schoenlirun, (inadenluitten and 
Salem tracts. The Indians, however, have now, nearly or (luite all left 

Ohio Canal Lands 

"Congress, by an aet, passed on the 2-ith of May, 1828, granted to 
the State of Ohio, 500,000 acres of land, to aid the state in completing 
its extensive canals, now in progress: and also a quantity, 'ecpial to one- 
half of five .sections in width, on each side of saiil canal' (meaning the 
Miami canal) so far as it passes through the public lands, north of tlie 
old (Jreenville treaty line (estimated at one hundred and six miles), 
thereby making the cpiantity of land thus granted 340,000 acres (840,000 
acres, in all), provided that all troops and property of the United States 
transported thereon shall pass free of toll, as in the case of the before- 
mentioned Turnpike lands. Tiiey have been selected under the direc- 
tion of the Governor of Ohio, chiefly in the Piciua and TifHn distrietn. 
For both the Canal and Turnpike lands, the Governor of Ohio is to 
make tiie deeds to individual purciiasers. 

Sciioob Lands 

"By compact Iietween the United States and the state of Ohio, when 
the latter was admitted into the Union, it was stipulated, for and in 
consideration that the state of Ohio should never tax the Congress 
lands, until after they should have been sold five yeai's and in con- 
sidei'ation that the ])ublic lands would thereby more readily sell, that 
the one thirty-sixth part of all the territory included within the limits 
of the state should he set apart for the support of couunon schools 
tlieirin ; and, foi- the i)uri)0se of getting at lands, which sliould, in point 
(Jf (juality of .soil be on an average with the whole land in the country, 
they dcci'ecd tiiat it should be selected, by lot, in small tracts each, to 
wit -that it should consist of section ninnbcr Ki, let that .section I)e 
good or bad, in every township of Congress lands; also in the Ohio (!oiii- 
])aiiy, and in Synnnes' |)urchascs; all of which townsiiips ari' composed 
of thirty-six sections each; and for the United Slati's' Military Lands, 


and Coiiiu'eticul livserve; a muiil)L'r oi' quarter to\vusliii)s, two and oiio- 
lialt' miles scuiaro each (heiiiy the NiiiaUcst piil)lie surveys tliereiii, tlieii 
made) should l>e selected by the seeretui-y of the tr(;asury, in dilVereut 
places throughout the United .Stat(;s Military tract; e'|uivalent, in quan- 
tity, to the one thirty-sixth part of those two tracts respectively. And 
for the Vii'ginia JMilitary tract, Congress exacted that a quantity of land 
equal to the one thirty-sixth part of the estimated (piantity of land 
contained therein, should be selected, by lot in what was then called 
tile New i'urchase, now composing Kichland, Wayne, and part of 
Holmes, and Marion counties, in (piarter township tracts of three miles 
square eacii. JMost of these selections were accordingly made, but, iu 
some instances by the carelessness of the officers conducting the sales, 
or from some- other cause, a few sections 16 have been sold. In which 
case. Congress, when applied to, has generally granted other lands in lieu 
thereof; as for instance, no section 16 was reserved in Montgomery towJi- 
ship, in whieli Columbus is situated, and Congress, afterwards gratited 
therefor, section 21 in the township coi'neriug thereon to the southeast. 

"Furthermore, as the Virgiiua J\lilitary tract has latterly been found 
to be much larger than was formerly supposed, there are not, really, 
school lands enough set oft' for tliis district, into two quarter town- 
ships, or eighteen sections. Also when the school lands for the Western 
lieserve wei'e set oft', the Indian title had not been extinguished any 
further west than to the Cuyahoga river; so that Congress has never yet 
set oft' any land for that part of the Keserve, west of said river. 

"The conse(juence of these, and some other deficiencies, is that we 
have, in fact, according to the official report by the state Auditor, in 
1826, but 500,74*J acres: whereas, by compact, we are entitled to 711,111 
acres; which is the one thirty-sixth part of 25,6UU,0U0, the wliole number 
of acres of land, actually in the state : tiiereby leaving a deficiency of 
210,362 acres, to which we are yet .justly entitled. The total valuation 
of these 500,749 , acres of lands, as appraised, in the year 1825, was 

"All these lands are vested in the Legislature, in trust, for the use 
of the people for school purposes. And by the adoption of a principle 
which many consider incon'eet, the Legislature has sanctioned a prin- 
ciple, contended for by the people of certain townships, wherein is an 
extraordinary good section — namely, that the said section IG was granted 
to them, sjiecificaliy, and not that they are barely entitled to their i)ro- 
l)orli()n of the annual ])i'ocecds of all the school lands in the state, which 
would seem to be the most reasonable constru(;tion to put upon the 
original ij;eneral grant. Tiie original intention of Congi-ess was, no 
doubt, that llie total rents or anniuil proceeds of all the lands through- 


out the state, granted Tor seliool purpose, should be throwu into one 
conunon mass, and tlien be annually distributed, by the Legislature, 
according to population: if otherwise, they would, doubtless, have set 
apart the school lands lor eacii section of country, within its own limits; 
for instance, the Vii-ginia IMilitary lands would have had their pro- 
portion set off, within their own bounds ; but which is not the case. 

"A lair opening is however now presented to the Legislature, for 
correcting the former course of proceeding since the school lands, with 
the permission of Congress, are all authorized to be sold ; the money for 
which they shall sell, to be vested in permanent funds and the interest 
only, to be annually distributed for school purposes. It would also 
vastly siniplify the iiscal arrangements of the state government, if they 
would now adopt this ])road principle of throwing into one common fund 
the total products of tiie sales of all the sections 10 tliroughout the 
state, all tlie Lhiited States Military, all the Virginia Military and the 
Western Reserve school lands, lying within the state ; and then, annually, 
distribute the interest of the whole amount among the several counties 
according to poi^ulation. 


"Collcgi,' Townsliips are tiirce si.x miles si|uare townships granted by 
C!()iigivss; two of tliciu to till' Oliio Company, I'oi- tlie use of a college 
to be established within tlieir purchase, and one I'or tlie use of the 
iniuibitants of Synnnes' purchase. Tiiose two in the Ohio Company's are situated near the center of Athens county, and constitute 
tlie principal part of the permanent funds of tlie Ohio university. That 
one l)elonging to Synnnes' purchase composes the nortliwe.sternmost 
township of Butler county. Its income is appropriated to the Miami 
university, which is erected tiiereon. These laiitls are no donations, 
but were part of the considerations inducing tlie Ohio company and J. C. 
Symmes to make their respective i)urchases. 

Ministerial Lands 

"Li l)Oth the Ohio Comi:)any and in Symmes' purchases every sec- 
tion 2U (('(iiuil to one tliirty-si.xth part of every township) is reserved, 
as a permanent fund, for the support of a settled minister. As the i)ur- 
chasei's of these two tracts came from parts of the union where it was 
customary and deemed neeessai-y to have a I'cgidarly settled clergyman 
in every town, they l!iei'eror(! slipidated, in tiieir original pni'ciiase, that 
u pei'iiianent fund in hind shoiihl tiius Ix- sr| apari for lliis purpose. 
Ill no otlitT pai't oi' the state, othei' liian in liiese two purciiases, are any 
hinds set iijiiii'l I'di' this objccl, " 



The Ordinance of 1787 — Oiho-IMichigan Boundary Finally Fixed — 
First Surveys of Western Lands — How the Reserve Became 
National Territory — ]\Iilitary and Civil Friction — First Judi- 
ciary — Indians at Last Suudued. 

As to the author of the famous ordinance of 1787, credit is now 
generally accorded to Dr. IManasseh Cutler, whose depth of scholar- 
ship, grace of diction and hreadth of practical al)ility, as well as lofti- 
ness of purpose, endowed him with all tlie qualities which breathe 
tlirough that nolile document. Undoubtedly, lie embodied the views of 
Thomas Jefferson, as expressed in tiie ordinance of 1784, witli his own 
commanding personality. 

Doctor Cutler had come before Congress to purchase for a company 
composed eliiefly of ]Massachusetts men, a large body of public lands. 
In the opinion of the associates of the Ohio Company, the purpose would 
be virtually useless if uncovered by the guarantee of civil law and order. 

The Ordinance of 1787 

The ordinance of 1787 was the answer, and the necessary prede- 
cessor of tile first substantial colonization of tlie Northwest Territory. 
Congress wisely considered that such a colony would form a barrier 
against the British and Indians, and that the initial movement would be 
speedily followed by other purciiases and extending settlements. 

The southern states had even a greater interest in the West than 
New England, and Virginia especially was eager for the development 
of the country beyond the Ohio. The South in general warmly sup- 
ported the planting of colonies of men in the West whose energy and 
patriotism were wt'U known; and liiis, notwithstanding the aiili-slavery 

The ordinance jjrovided that there shoukl be formed i'rom the 
territory between the Ohio and the ]\Ii.ssissippi rivers and the (lanadian 

I'ol. 1—4 



hoiiiulary, not less than three and not more than tive states. If only 
tliree states were ereeted, tlie westennnost was to be bounded by the 
.Mississippi, the Ohio and tlie \Val)ash rivers; a direct lint; drawn from 
the Wabash River and Port Vincent (Vincennes) nortii to the inter- 
national boundary, and westward along the Canadian line to the Lake 
of the Woods and the Mississippi River. Thus Illinois. 

The middle state was to be blocked off between the Ohio and the 
international boundary, Illinois, and a line drawn due north from the 
mouth of the Great Miami to Canada. That was Indiana. 

Tlie easternmost state was to be Ohio, whose southern and eastern 
Ijoundaries were to be the Oliio River and Pennsylvania, and its northern 
limits the Dominion of Canada. 

But, as is well known, advantage was eventually taken of the pro- 
vision that Congress might form, two other states from the territory 
between the Ohio, the .Mis.sissippi and the international boundary, north 
of a line drawn east and west from the southernmost bend to Lake Michi- 
gan. Under that .proviso were created ^Michigan and AViseonsin, and 
the substantial estaljlisinncnt of the boundaries of Ohio as we know 
them today. 

Oino-MicuiGAN Boundary Finally Fixkd 

As it is the duty of the historian to explain any (pialifying word in 
his narrative, the author i)auses at this point to explain the term "sub- 
stantial establisliment." The qualifying word was used because the 
eonelusive survey of the Michigan-Oiiio boundary ami the placing of 
the State Line monument was not a matter of liistory \uitil 1015. 

It was the original intention, and so incorporatetl in tiie constitu- 
tion of the state, that the northern boundary of Ohio should fall north 
of the mouth of ]\Iaumee River. Also, if possible, it slmuld be a due 
east and west line from the southerly extreme of Lake Llichigan. How- 
ever this due east and west line fell some seven miles south of the 
:Maumee Bay and a new line from the northerly cape of ^Maumee Bay to 
Lake ]\Iichigan was run. 

About 1817, (iovernor Cass of Michigan employed "William Harris to 
locate the southern boundary of jMichigaiL Through a misunderstanding 
he ran the second of the above lines which caused much ill feeling in 
]\li(']iigan. In ISIO, Pi-esident ]\lonroe commissioned John Fulton to 
I'cUx-ate llie line. He ran tlic east and west line wliich was not at all 
pleasing 1() Ohio. I'^inally in 1S:{7, Coiigfcss ordi'ivd llie Harris line 
re-rini and, witii tlie view of settling the 1n)\il)le, gave .Michigan the 
|)i'esent n|)i>er Peninsula in lien of tlie sir'ip tliey claimed to Inive lost 



by this survey. Tlie old stakes have Jjceii lost and on account of Iho 
(level()|)iricnt of llu; country it was deemed necessary to pernuinently 
mark the line. Al'lei- s(;v('ral ycai's ell'ort, autlH>i-ity to do the work was 
finally f,'ranted by lej^ishitures ol' both .states. Under tiie direction of 
C. E. Siiei'inan for Ohio and P. C. Allen for Michigan, the line has becii 
re-run and j)eriiianently inomniiented by S. S. (Jannet of the United 
States (Jeolof^ieal Survey. 

The nionuMieiit at the end of Point Place Koad near Toledo, was 
dedicated November 24, 1915, under the auspices of the Toledo Society 
of Engineers. On tiie transverse side, cut e(iually l)y the state line. 

Sll.\KIN(i IIaN'DS OvKK Till': lNTKI(S'r.\TI'; ]i(tlINI).\UY 
(iovenior Feiris, of Mi(lii<,':iii ( iif,'lit) ; Ciovenior Willis, of Ohio (loit). 

is the inscription '* State Line. Surveyed by S. S. Oannet, fit'0<>rapher 
United States Geological Survey. P.)ir)." 

On the .Michigan side: "iMiehigan. Woodbridge N. Ferris, Governor. 
Erected by authority of the 48th Legislature, Act .'54, Pul)lic Acts of 
P)!;"). Py ]\Iichigan Geological Survey — P. (.'. Allen, Director. Jointly 
with the State of Oliio." 

On liie Oiiio side: "Ohio. Frank P. Willis, Governor. Ki'ccted 
by aulhoi'ify ot the Hist (ieneral .Assembly, Act ol' .May 27, IDlf.. Py 
Ohio Geological Survey — ('. P. Sherman, Inspector', .jointly with the 
State of I\Iicliigan." 

The dedicatory baiKjuet and e.xcreiscs at Toledo, on .\'oveiid)er 24th, 
wci'e lliei-el'or'e historic^ events. The speaker's for* Oirio wer'e (Jov. I'^'ank 


E. Willis; Prof. G. F. Wriglit, ivprcscntiiig the Arclieologieal ami 
ilistoriciil Society of Ohio; \V. 1<\ Slu-ptliii, of J^'rcmoiit, rciircKciitiiij,' 
the Ohio JOii<j;iii('criM^' Socicly; mid (!iii)t. Orriii Henry, of (.'oliuiilxiH, 
r('[)n'seiitiii|? tlu; Ohio State Land Oiliee. 

For ]\lioiiigaii, spoke Gov. Woodhridge N. Ferris; Rt. Rev. Mgr. 

F. A. O'Brien, representing tiie Mieliigan Historical Commission; lion. 
Junius K. Jieal, representing tlie Pul)lie Domain Commission, and Prof. 
C. T. Jolin.son, representing the Michigan Engineering Society. 

There were also present C. E. Siierman and P. C. Allen, respectively 
inspector and director of the Ohio and Michigan geological surveys; S. 
S. Gannet, geographer of United States Geological Survey ; Frank Rogers 
and Clinton Cowen, respectively state higlnvay commissioners of I\Iichi- 
gan and Ohio. 

FiKST Surveys of Westkkn Lands 

As has heen noted, a survey of the western lands had hecn com- 
menced under authority of an ordinance passed by Congress in 1785. 
Thus authorized, the Government surveyors laid out the first seven 
ranges l)ounde(l hy Pennsylvania on the east and the Ohio River on 
the south. 

How THK Reserve Became National Territory 

On the 14th day of September, 1786, the delegates in Congress from 
the State of Connecticut, being authorized and directed so to do, relin- 
(piished to the United States all the right, title, interest, jurisdiction, 
and claim, that she ])osses.sed to the lands lying west of a line running 
north from the 41st degree of north latitude to 42 degrees and 2 minutes, 
and being 120 miles west of the western line of Pennsylvania. The 
territory lying west of Pennsylvania for the distance of 120 miles, 
and between latitude 41 and 42 degrees, 2 minutes north, although, 
not in terms reserved by the instrument of conveyance, was in fact 
reserved — not having been conveyed— and by rea.son thereof was called 
the AVestern Reserve of Connecticut. It eml)raced the present counties 
of Ashtal)u!a, Trund)ull, Portage, Geauga, Lake, Cuyahoga, jMedina, 
Lorain, Huron, Erie, all of Summit, except the townships of Franklin 
and (ireen; the two norlhcni 1iers of 1ownshii)s of Mahoning; tlie town- 
sliips ol" Sullivan, Ti'oy and Ruggies, of Ashland; and the islands lying 
norlh of Sandusky, including Kelley's and l'u1-in-Hay. 

In 171)5 Connecticut sold and conveyeii all of Ihe Reserve, excejit the 
''SuH'erer's Island," to Oliver Phelps and Ihirty-live others, for the 


coiisidcratiou of $1,200,000. Those piircliasors formed llieniselves into a 
company ealled the Conned icut Land ('om|)any. Somu; uneasiness con- 
cerning tin; validily of llie title arose from the fact that whatever 
interest Virginia, Massachusetts, or New York may liav(^ had in the 
lands reserved and claimed hy Connecticut, liad been transferred to 
the United States, and if neither of the claiming states had title, the 
dominion and ownership passed to the IJnitW States hy the treaty made 
with England at the close of the Revolution. This condition of things 
was not the only source of difficulty and trouble. The Reserve was so 
far from Connecticut as to nuike it impracticable for that state to extend 
her laws over the same, or ordain new ones for the government of the 
iidiahitants; and having parted with all interest in the soil, her right 
to provide laws for the peo])le was not only doubted but denied. Con- 
gress luid provided by the ordiiuuice of 1787 for the govennnent of the 
territory northwest of the Ohio; but to admit jurisdiction in the United 
States to govern this part of that territory, would cast grave doubt upon 
the validity of the company's title. It was therefore insisted that the 
regulations prescribed by tliat instrument for the government of the 
Xortliwest Territory luul no operation or etfect witliin the limits of the 
Reserve. To quiet apjjrehension, and to reiiu)ve all ca\ise of anxiety on 
the subject, Congress, on the 28th of A])ril, 1800, authorized the Presi- 
dent to execute and deliver on the part of the United States, letters 
patent to the governor of Connecticut, whereby the United States 
released for the uses named, all right and title to the soil of the Reserve, 
and confirmed it unto those who had purchased it from that state. The 
execution and delivery, however, of the letters patent were upon the 
condition that Connecticut should forever renounce and release to the 
L^nited States, entire and complete civil jurisdiction over the territory 
released. This condition was accepted, and thereupon Connecticut trans- 
ferred her jurisdiction to the United States, and the United States 
released her claim and title to the soil ; and thus, while jurisdiction for 
purposes of government was vested in the United States, a complete 
title to the soil, in so far as the states could give it, was transmitted to 
the Connecticut Land (!ompany and to those who had j)urchased from it. 

MiiiVrAHy AND Civil; Fhiction 

Under llie provisions of the ordinMn<'e, (Jen. Arlhur Si. Clair was 
a|)poinled governor of liu; Northwest 'i'errilory, Wintlii'oj) Sargent, sec- 
retary, and Samuel U. I'arsons, James TI. Varnnm and .Jolni Armstrong, 
j\idges. .ludge y\rmslrong declined the jndiciary and .John Cleves 
Symmes was appointed in his place. 


Willi the C'Xce[)tioii of Jiid^c Ryiniiu-s, tlie territorial judges reaehed 
Mariclla on tli(^ !Mli of -lidy, 17HS. 'V\\r, I'onnei- joined Ills assoeiiites 
Kooii iil'lcr. At lirsl linTe !i|)|)caf.s lo have Itifii Home frielioii Ijclweeii 
the gover'iior and I h(r jndifiary. The ehief executive, u irum oi' lonj^ 
military ti-aitiiug anil experieiiee, called the attention of the judges to 
the efficiency of the militia in the conduct of affairs in a new country, 
hut tiiey paid no attention to his suggestions. Instead, they formulated 
a land-law for dividing and transferring real estate, which was rejected 
hy Congress heeause of its general crudities and especially because, under 
its provisions, non-resident land holders would have been deprived of 
their properly rights. 

First Jlidiciauy 

(lovernor St. Clair ei-ected a Court of i'robate, established a Court 
of Quarter Sessions, divided tlie militia into seniors and juniors, and 
in August, 1788, added three justices of the peace to the three whom he 
had ai)pointeil during the previous month; the new appointees were 
Archibald Cary, Isaac Pierce and Thomas Lord, and they were author- 
ized to hold the Court of Quarter Sessions. Keluru Jonathan .Meigs 
was clerk of the court. 


Thus did the governor endeavor to maintain a nice l»alanee between 
the military, civil and judicial authorities of Wasiiington County and 
the Noi'thwest Territory. But the Indians of tin- Northwest, I'ucouraged 
and supported by the Hritish, weiv still to lie reckoiied with liefore 
white settlers felt at all secure in their possessions or lives. It required 
nearly live years of warfare between the American ti'oops and the Indian 
warriors, with bloody disaster on both sides, the defeat of St. Clair and 
the crushing campaign of ]\Iad Anthony Wayne, before the peace of 
17!)5 was effected. Tn that year the twelve tril)es which had given the 
most troul)le signed tlie ti-eaty at Greenville. Tiiis was soon followed 
by the Hi-ilisii evacuation of all western military posts. Thereafter, 
neitlier llie Indians nor the I)i'itish seriously interfered with the s])rea(l 
of American sclllenicnt and eivili/ation in the lakes region, northern 
Oliio, liie Western l\eserve or Loi'ain (!oiinly. 



How THE Reserve Was Sold — Acreage oP the Reserve — Judge Par- 
sons, Pioneer Land Buyer — Washington County (1796) Claimed 
Jurisdiction — In the Country of Canaiiogue — Wayne County 
(1796) — Jefferson County (1797) — Lawless But in Name — 
Trumuull County (1801)) Recognized — Period of Civil Comi^lica- 

Before iiulicating how the Western Reserve was gradually brought 
under the eivil authority of county government and how its territory, 
more speeifieally that of Lorain County, was surveyed, its land titles 
cleared and all prepared for the secui'e residence of homehiiilders, a 
condensed statement should he given, showing who were the original 
purchasers of that great domain of the Northwest Territory, which 
was at first so rebellious, and the acreage covered by the original sur- 
veys. For that purpose we glean the following from the "History of 
the Western Reserve," issued by this comi)any several years ago. 

How THE Reskr\'e Was Sold 

"After formally resolving to sell it," says tlie account, "the legis- 
lature selected a committee of eight, one from each county, to transact 
the business. They were John Treadwell, Hartford county; James 
Wadsworth, New Haven county; I\Iarvin Wait, New London; William 
Edmons, Fairfield; Thomas Grosvenor, Windham; Aaron Austin, Litch- 
field; Elijah Hul)bard, ]\Iiddlesex, and Sylvanus Ciilbert, of Tolland 
county. It will be seen that the names of these men and these towns 
were used in many ways in New (Connecticut, as were also the names 
of the pui'cha.sers. At this time several individuals wished to ])uy land 
for lliemsclves or liicir friends, but the land company feared that some 
of llicm who wi'i'c not from ( 'onnecticul wriH- no! (inancially responsible, 
while the price others olT'ered was not sulbcient. Among the latter 
were Zepheniah Swift, author of Swift's Digest, ex-chief justice of 


Connecticut. He offered a million dollars for the whole tract. This, 
however, was not entirely individual ; some of his friends were interested 
with him. 

'"J'hose selected, after earefid consideration, sold tiie tract September 
5, 1795, to the following persons, with amounts given: 

Joseph Howland and Daniel L. Coit $30,000 

Eliam Morgan and Daniel L. Coit 51,402 

Caleb Atwater 22,846 

Daniel Ilolbrook 8,750 

Joseph Williams 15,231 

William Law 10,500 

William Judd 16,250 

' Elisha Hyde and Uriah Tracy 57,400 

James Johnston 30,000 

Samuel Mather, Jr 18,461 

Ephraim Kirby, Elijah l^oardman and Urial 

Holmes, Jr. 60,000 

Solomon Griswold 10,000 

Oliver Phelps and Gideon Granger, Jr 80,000 

AVilliam Hart 30,462 

Henry Champion, 2d 85,675 

Asher :\Iiller " 34,000 

liobcrt C. .Johnson 60,000 

Epiiraim Root 42,000 

Nehemiah Hubbard, Jr 19,039 

Solomon Cowles 10,000 

Oliver Phelps 168,000 

Ashael Hathaway 12,000 

Joiin Caldwell and I'elig Sanford 15,000 

Timothy Burr 15,231 

Lutlier Loomis and Ebenezer King, Jr 44,318 

William Lyman, John Stoddard and David King. . 24,730 

Closes Cleaveland 32,600 

Samuel P. Lord 14,092 

Roger Newbury, Enoch Perkins and -Jonathan Brace 38,000 

Ephraim Starr 17,415 

Sylvainis Griswold 1,683 

.labez Slocking and .Joshua Slow 11,423 

Titus Street 22,846 

Jairics liali, Aaron Ohnslcad and Joim Wiles 3(1,000 

J»i('i'repont Edwards 60,000 

Total $1,200,000 


"Tlie eai'ly diaries show some little ditt'erenees in names and amounts, 
the total always remaining the same, but the foregoing is from the Book 
of Drafts in the recorder's office at Warren. 

"These, then, were the men who formed themselves into the Con- 
necticut Land Company. So careful were they as to the letter of tlie 
law, so exacting as to the carrying out of their obligations, and such 
personal standing had they that, whereas in tracing titles in most places 
in the United States one must go back to the grants made by the rulers 
of the old world, in northeastern Ohio it is sufficient to go back only to 
the Connecticut Land Company. 

Acreage op the Reserve 

"In the beginning, that territory was supposed to contain four mil- 
lion acres, but it was found later that early maps and sketches had 
been defective ; that Lake Erie made a decided southern dip ; so that 
part of the land proved water, with some air thrown in. Below is a 
table prepared by Judge Frederick Kinsman, who was very accurate 
in all statements, showing the quantity of land (acres) in the Connecti- 
cut Western Reserve by survey : 

Land east of the Cuyahoga river 2,002,970 

Land west of the river (exclusive of surplus lands) 827,291 

Surplus land (so called) 5,286 

Islands Cunningliam, or Kelley's 2,749 

islands Bass or Bay No. 1 1,322 

Islands Bass or Bay No. 2 709 

Islands Bass or Bay No. 3 709 

Islands or Bay No. i 403 

Islands Bass or Bay No. 5 32 

Total in Connecticut Land Company's purchase. 2,841,471 

Parson's, or Salt Spring tract 25,450 

Sufferers' or Fire lands 500,000 

Total acres in the Western Reserve 3,3G6,921 

"Tlic .+ 1,2(M),()00 received in payment was placed hy Connecticut in 
its school fund and has always there remained." 

JiUHJE i'.MJSoNs, Pioneer Land Bdver 

Several yeai's before IIk! (loiiiieetieul Lan<i Comi)any was formed, the 
lirst piii'cliase had been iiiiidc in the Suit Spring region, of the |ircsrii| 


Ti'iiniiiuU County, \>y Ccii. Samuel 11. I'arsoiis, a distiiiguislicd Revolu- 
tiuuai'y {^ciuTal from CoiiiU'etiL-ut ; in 1785, apjioiiitcil by Coiigivss as 
one of tlic Indian commissioners to arrange for land eessioiis, and in 
17iS7 elio.seu one of the judges for tlie Northwest Territory, beeoming 
eliief justiee in 178[). Having traveled tiirough the eountry he was 
faunliar with the land, and timilly bought of tlie commissioners appointed 
by the Conneetieut Legislature to sell land, a tract situated in the town- 
ships now known as Lordstown, Weathersfield, Jaekson and Austintown. 
The deed to this twenty-five thousand aeres is now on reeord in the 
Trumbull County courthouse, and all records and maps agree as to its 
boundaries, lie chose this spot undoul)tedly because the Indians and 
traders had cleared the land roundabout, because the springs found 
there contained brackish water from whicli he hoped later to nianufae- 
tui-e salt, and because Pittsburgh was comparatively near at hand and 
stores could be gotten at Beaver and other points on the river. lie, 
however, never occupied this purchase, as he was drowned in the Beaver 
K'i\-er, probably at the falls, wiien returning east. Little or no money 
had been actually paid down foi- the land, but his lieii's claimed it never- 

Wasiiingtox County (1796) Claim kd Juuisdiction 

When Justice Parsons entered this first piece of land in the Western 
Reserve, it was under the civil jurisdiction of the County of Washington, 
which had been organized by proclamation in 1788, and included all 
of the Reserve east of the Cuyahoga River. In 1796, the year of the 
arrival of the surveying party for the Connecticut Land Company, 
under tlie direction of Oen. ]\Ioses Cleveland, the County of AVayne was 
ei'ccted as a political division of tiie Northwest Tci-ritory and included 
over half of Ohio— all of the Western Reserve west of the Cuyahoga. 
Even then, although nominally under civil jurisdiction, the lands west 
of the Cuyahoga River, embracing, of course, the present County of 
Lorain, were not the clear propei-ty of the TJjiited States, as the Wyan- 
dots, Ottawas, Cliippewas, Delawares and other tribes held primitive 
titles to them. As stated, the treaty of Fort Indu.stry, in ISOf), cleared 
these lands of such incumbrances. 

In titk Countuy of Canaiiouuk 

Thus the Cuyahoga Rivei- may be said to be the historic stream of 
Northeasteni Ohio. The first definite mention of it is in a French map 
of M'}') ami i)reservcd hy the AVestern Reserve TTislorical Societv of 


Clevelaiul. It iiaiiu's the country between tlie Ciiyalioga and San- 
dusky I'ivers as Caualiogue, and tluit east oi; tlie Cuyalioya, as Uwalioga. 
What we know as liOi'ain County was tlicrei'orf inclu(h;(l in (Jwahoga. 
Tliis is also tin- name yiven to the river wliieh is uiade to eiuijty into 
Canahoyue Hay, and the country desigiuited as Canaluigue is intlicated 
as "the seat of war, the mart of trade and the chief limiting grounds 
of the Six Nations of the Lakes." What we know as Ijorain County 
was tiierefore included in the country of Canahogue more than a cen- 
tury and a half ago. 

AVaynk County (ITiJG) 

The Wayne County of IT'JG included besides the Western Keserve 
west of the Cuyaiioga Ixiver, a portion of Indiana, all of .Miehigan, aiul 
the waters of Lakes Superior, Huron, St. Clair and Erie to the mouth 
of the Cuyahoga, which were under the jurisdiction of the United 
States. The seat of justice of Wayne County was Detroit. 

Jekfersox County (171)7) 

"In 1797," says Judge Jioynton, "Jetferson county was established 
and the Western lieserve east of the Cuyahoga becauie a part of it by 

restricting the limits of Washington. 

Lawless But in Name 

"But Connecticut and the Land Company refused to recognize the 
jurisdiction of the United States prior to 1800. The act of inclusion of 
their western land within the counties of Wasliington, Wayne aiul Jef- 
ferson, they declared to be unwarrantetl, and tlie power of Congress 
to preserilie rules for the government of the same they denied, and from 
the opening settlement in 179G until the transfer of jurisdiction to the 
General Covernment was complete, on the 30tli of May, ISOO, the new 
settlers were entirely witliout municipal laws. There was no rcg'ula- 
tion govi'i'iiing the transmission of, or succession to pro|)erty, on the 
decease of the owner; no regulations of any kind seciu'ing the protee- 
lion of rights, oi- the i-edrcss of wrongs. 

"The want of laws for the goverinneiil of the settlers was seriously 
i'elt, and as eai'ly as 17i)6 the com|)any jietitioned the Legislature of 
(!onne<'lieut to erect the IJeservi^ into a county, with jji'ojier and suilabie 
laws to regulal(! the internal policy of the tei'ritoi'y for a limited period. 
This petition, however, was not granted, and for upwards of four years 

) !.,;[' 


fluj iii1('rc'0iii'S(; and coiidiKit of tlic early settlers were regulated and 
)-estraiiied only hy their .New JOnf,'land sense ol' justice and ri{^ht. 

Tkumiuill County (18(J0) I^iccounizkd 

"But on the 10th of July, 1800, after Connectieut had released her 
jurisdiction to the United States, the Western Keserve was erected into 
a county by the name of TruuiliuU, in lionor of the goveriniient of Con- 
necticut, by tlie civil authority of Ohio." 

Period of Civil Complication 

This period of civil complication and inicei'tainty, which logically 
and historically affected wluit is now Lorain County, hut i)i'actieally did 
not concern it as its territory was devoid of inhabitants, is thus described 
by Col. Charles Whittlesey in one of hi.s many papei*s contributed to the 
history of the Western Ileserve : ''The state of Connecticut claimed 
jurisdiction over the Ileserve, but made no movement toward the erec- 
tion of counties. AVhen she sold to the Land Company in 1795, l)oth 
l)ai'ties imagined that the deed of Connecticut convej-ed powers of civil 
government to the company and that tht; grantees might organize a new 
state. As the United States objected to tiiis mode of setting up slates, 
the region was practically without any magistrates, courts or other 
organized civil authority, until that question was settled in 1800. 

"Immediately after the British had retired in 17!>6, Governor St. 
Clair erected the County of Wayne, witli Detroit as the county seat. It 
included that part of the Reserve west of the Cuyahoga extending south 
to Wayne's ti-eaty line, west to the waters of Lake Micliigiui and its 
tributaries, and nortli to the territorial line. Its boundaries are not very 
precise, but it clearly embraced about one-third of the present state of 
Ohio. The question of jurisdiction, when Wayne County was erected 
in 1796, remained open as it had under the County of Washington. In 
1797 the County of Jefferson was established, eml)racing all of the 
Reserve east of the Cuyahoga. 

"When Trumbull County was erected in 1800, it embraced the entire 
Western Reserve, with magistrates and courts having full legal authority 
under the territorial goverinnent. Before this, although no deeds could 
be (!Xecut(!d here, those executed elsewhere were, in sonu' cases, I'ecordod 
at ]\larietta, the county seat of Washitigton (bounty. Some divines had 
ventured to solemnize marriages befoi-e 1800 by virtue of their ministerial 
office. During the first four yeai's of the settlement of the Reserve there 
was no law, the force of which was acknowledged here; but the law- 



altidiiij,' spirit of New England among the early settlers was such tluit 
|)eaee ami order generally |)revailed." 

All iiistorians are agreed that had the lii'st seltlei's in IIm; Western 
JJeserve, while this state of legal "lawlessness" prevailed, heen otiii;r- 
wise than the staid, educated representatives of New England communi- 
ties whieh, for generations, had lived under Anglo-American laws, tlie 
results might have been most perplexing and retarding to the develop- 
ment of this large portion of Northern Ohio. But although the drawing 
of lands east of the Cuyahoga River had been i)rogressing during these 
uncertain years prior to 1800, those west of the river, including the 
present domain within the limits of Lorain County, did not take place 
until April 4, 1807, when that territory was under the civil administra- 
tion of Geauga and Portage counties. All land and civil complications 
had been cleared away when tlie lirst Connecticut colony to be planted 
within Lorain County located in what is now Cohuubia Township, late 
in the vear 1807. 



The Treaty op Fort Industry (1805) — Western Lands Surveyed— 
Surplus Lands op Lorain County — Equalizing Land Values — 
Four Townships Considered Most Valuable — The Land Draw- 
ings — Drawing the Townships — Trustees op tiie Reserve — Civil 
Jurisdiction from 1807 to 1811 — Adjustment op County Bound- 
aries — Fixing the Northern International I^oundary— 1"'ly's 
Inducements for County-Seat Location — Located at Elyria — 
—First Courthouse and Jaii. — Civil Organization — First (Com- 

M a(;iiin1';rv in Motion — Original OiniANizATioN oi' the Townshii's. 

The surveys of tlie lands of the AVesterii Reserve east of the Cuyalioga 
River, made under the direetion of Aloses Clevehuid and Seth I'ease in 
1796-97, do not interest us except in a general way, hut tliose west of 
the liistorie stream whicli were hiid out soon after tlie treaty of Fort 
Industry in 1805 emhraeed tlie territoi-y witliin tlie present limits of 
Lorain County, 

The Treaty op Fort Industry (1805) 

Tlie Cuyalioga River and the portage hetweeii it and the Tuscarawas 
as lietween the United States and th(; Indians, constituted the western 
boundary of the United States upon the Reserve until July 4, 1805. On 
that day a treaty was made at Fort Fiidustry with the chiefs and warriors 
of the Wyandot, Ottawa, Cliii)pewa, Munsee, Delaware, Shawanese and 
Pottawattamie nations, by which the Indian title to all the lands of the 
lieserve lying west of the Cuyahoga was extinguished. By this treaty 
all the lands lying between the (,'uyahoga and tlie meridian 120 miles 
west of I'ennsylvaiiia, were ceded liy the hidiaiis for $20,000 in goods 
and a i)er])etual annuity of $9,500, ])ayable in goods at first cost. And 
allliough tins annuity remains unpaid, because there is nobody 1o claim 
it, the title to the land on Ihc Jicscrve west of llie river was forever 
set at rest. 



Westeijn Lands Suhveyed 

Till- survcy.s of tlKisc lands west of tlic (hiynhoi^a Kivcr Jiic, llms 
(h'sciibcd by .ludf^c iJoyiiton : "TIk; iiicridiaiis and parallcils wcix' run 
in JHOG, hy A. 'l'aj»i)on, and liis assistants. Tlio l)asc' and wostc-rn lines 
of the lic'si'i've were run by Seth Pease for tiie Government. The ranges 
of townships were numbered progressively west, from the western 
boundary of Pennsylvania. Tlie first tier of townships, running north 
and south, lying along the border of Pennsylvania, is range No. 1, the 
adjoining tier west, is range No. 2, and so on throughout the twenty- 
four ranges. The townships lying next north of t!ie 41st parallel of 
latitude in each i-ange, is township No. 1 of that range. The township 
next north is No. 2, and so on progressively to the lake. Kidgeville 
being in the sixteenth tier from the base line of the Reserve, is town- 
ship No. 6, in range No. 16. AVellington is township No. '.i, in range 18. 
Elyria, township No. 6, in range 17. It was supposed that there were 
4,000,000 acres of land between Pennsylvania and the Fire Lands. If 
the suppo.sition had proved true, the land would liave cost thirty cents 
per acre. As it resulted, there were less than 3,000,000 acres. (3,366,000 
acres — Editor.) Tiic mi.scalculation arose from the mistaken assumption 
tliat the soutli shore of Lake Erie bore more nearly west than it does; 
and also from a mistake made in the lengtli of the east and west line. 

"The distance, west from the Pennsylvania line, surveyed in 1796-7, 
was only fifty-six miles. Tluit survey ended at the Tuscarawas River. 
To reacii the western limit of tiie Reserve, a distance of sixty-four miles 
was to ))e made. Abraham Tappen and Anson Sessions entei'ed into an 
agreement with the Land company, in 1805, to complete the survey of 
the lands between the Fire Lands and the Cuyahoga. This they did 
in 1806; and from the width of range 1!), the range embracing the 
townships of lirowidielm, Henrietta, Camden, P>righton, Rochester and 
Troy, it is very evident that the distance from the east to the west line 
of the Reserve is less than 120 miles. This tier of townships is gore 
shaped, and is mucli less than five miles wide, circumstances leading 
the com])any to divide all south of Bvownhelm into tracts, and use it 
for purj^oses of c(|uaiization. The west line of range 19, from north 
to south, as oi'iginally run, bears to tlie west, and between it and range 
20, as indicated on the map, there is a strip of land, also gore sliajied, 
thai was Icfl in the lii'st instance unsurveyt'd, the surveyoi's not know- 
ing llic exact whci'caliouts of th(; eastei'n line of the 'half million acres' 
liclonirinir to the SulVei'ers. 


Surplus Lands op Lokain County 

"In ]806, Amos SiJalTonl, of Clevelaiul, and Almoii Riif,'<,'](;.s, of 
IIuroM, were af,'ro('(J on by the two coiiipaiiu'.s to ascertain ami locate the 
line between the Fire Lands and the lands of the Connecticut Company. 
They first surveyed ott' the 'half million acres' belonging to the Suf- 
ferers, and not agreeing with Seth Pease, who had run out the base and 
west lines, a dispute arose between the two companies, which was finally 
adjusted before the draft, by establishing the eastern line of the Fire 
Lands where it now is. This left a strip of land east of the Fire Lands, 
called Surplus lands, which was included in range 19, and is embraced 
in the western tier of townsliips of Loi-ain county. 

Equalizing Land Values 

"The mode of dividing the land among the i)urchasers was a little 
peculiar, although evidently just. An equalizing committee accom- 
panied the surveyors, to make sucli observations and take such notes of 
the character of the townships, as would enable them to grade tliem 
intelligently, and make a just estimate and equalization of their value. 
Tile amount of tlie i)urchase money was divided into four hundred 
shares. Certificates were issued to each owner, showing him to 
be entitled to sucli proportion of the entire land, as the amount he paid 
bore to the purchase price of the whole. Four townships of the greatest 
value were first selected from that part of the Western Reserve to which 
the Indian title had been extinguished, and were divided into lots. Each 
townshii) was divided into not less than 100 lots. The Jiumber of lots 
that the four townships were divided into, would at least ecjual tiie 400 
shares, or a lot to a share, and eacii person, or company of persons, 
entitled to one or more shares of the Reserve— each share being one 
four hundredth part of the Reserve— was allowed to participate in the 
draft tliat was determined upon for the division of the joint property. 
The committee appointed to select the four most valuable townships for 
such division, was directed to proceed to select of the remaining town- 
ships, a sufficient number, and of the best quality and greatest value, to 
be used for equalizing puri)Oses. After this selection was made they 
were to select the best remaining township, and tliis townshij) was the 
one, to the value of whicli all others were Iiroughl, by the eciualization 
process of annexation, and if there were several of equal value with the 
one so selected, no annexations were to ])e made to them. Tiie e(|ualiziiig 
townsliips were cut up into parcels of various size and value, and these 
jmrcels were annexed lo townships inferior in value, to the standard 

lllSTOin' OI<' liOlJAIN COUNTY Gj 

township, .selected in tlie manner indicated, and annexations of huul 
i'roni the equalizing to\vnslii2)s were made iii quantity and (luality to the 
ijirerior townshijis, Hul'lieient to make t(i<.'m all equal in value to the 
township so selected. 

Fouii TuwNSuu'S Considered Host Valuable 

"The lands of Lorain county, that were taken for the purpose of 
equalizing township.s of inferior value, were those of Koehester, Brighton, 
Camden, Black ]?iver, and that part of Henrietta that did not originally 
belong to Brownhelm. Tract S, in range 19, being partly in Brighton, 
and partly in Camden, consisting of 3,700 acres, was annexed to La 
Grange, to etiualize it. Tract No. 3, in LaFayette township, Medina 
county, consisting of 4,8101/2 acres, was ainiexed to Penfield. Tract 1, 
in gore i, in range 11, consisting of 2,225 acres, was annexed to Katon. 
Tract 2, in gore 4, range 11, consisting of 2,650 acres, was annexed to 
Coliunbia; 1,700 acres, in tract. 4, in Rochester, were annexed to 
Huntington; 2,769 acres, in fraction No. 3, in range 11, Summit county, 
were annexed to Ridgeville; 4,600 acres, in tract 9, in Camden, were 
annexed to (Jrafton; 4,000 acres. Tract 7, in Brighton were annexed to 
Wellington ; 4,300 acres, in tract 3, gore G, range 12, were annexed to 
Russia; 1,500 acres, in tract 14, in Henrietta, were annexed to .Siiellield ; 
3,000 aci'es in tract 11, in Camden, were annexed to Pittsfield; tract 3, 
con.sisting of 4,050 acres, in Rochester, was annexed to Elyria; 4,000 
acres, in tract 2, in Black River, were annexed to Amiierst; Bass Islands, 
No. 1, 2, and Island No. 5, lying north of Erie county, consisting of 
2,063 acres, were annexed to Avon; and Kelley's Island, consisting 
of 2,741 acres, was annexed to Carlisle. 

The Land Drawings 

"After the townships were all made equal in value by the process of 
tacking and annexation, they were drawn by lot. There were ninety- 
three; lownshii)s, or e<iualized pai'cels drawn of the Cuyahoga, and 
forty-six on tlie west. The draft of the lands oast of the Cuyaiioga, 
took place prior to 1800, and of those west of that river on tlie Itli of 
April, 1807. Ill the draft ol' liic land east of the river, it required nil 
owiierslii|» of .+ 12,903.23 of the original purchase iiKuiey, jo entitle the 
owner to a township; and in the draft of west of the i-ivei', which 
included tlie lands of Lorain county, it recpiii-ed an owiiei'shii) of $2G,0S7 
in the oi'iginal ])Ui'ehase money, to entitle the owner to a township. Tile 
saiiie mode and phiii wi'i'e foHowed in each dnifl. 


Drawing tiik Townsiiii's 

"The towiisliips wcru munbered, and the numbers on separate pieces 
of paper, placed in a box. Tiie names of tlie proprietors, wlio liad sub- 
scribed and were the owners of a sufficient amount of the purchase 
money to entitle them to a township, were arranged in alphabetical 
order, and where it was necessary for several persons to combine, because 
not owning severally a sufficient amount of the purchase money, or 
luimber of shares, to entitle tliem to a township, tlie name of the person 
of the company that stood alphabetically first was used to represent them 
in the draft, and in case the small owners were unable from disagree- 
ment among themselves, to unite,' a committee was appointed to select 
and class the proprietors, and those selected were required to associate 
tiieiiiselves together for the purpose of the draft. The townsliip cor- 
responding to the first number drawn from the box, belonged, with its 
annexations for purposes of equalization, to the person whom he repre- 
sented ; and the second drawn, belonged to the second person, and so on 
throughout the list. This was the mode adopted to sever the ownership 
in conniion, and to secure to each individual, or company of individuals, 
Iheir intei-est in severalty, in wliat, bcl'oi'e then, hat! been tiic eoiiuiion 
pi-operly of all. AViien a townsliip, by the draft, became tiie proi)erty 
of several, resort was had to the courts after their organization here, 
to effect partition of the same. 

Trustees op the Reserve 

"Soon after the conveyance to the Land Company, to avoid com- 
plications arising from the death of its members and to facilitate the 
transmission of titles, the company conveyed the entire purchase, in 
trust, to John ^Morgan, John Cadwell and Jonathan Brace; and as titles 
were wanted, either liefore or after the division by draft, conveyances 
were made to the purchasers by these trustees." 

Civil Jurisdiction from 1807 to 1811 

Althougli seltlers comincnccd to romc in wilh tlie di-altiiig of lands 
west of fbe (Juyahoga Ivivef, in 1807, liftccn years wci-c to ])ass bcl'oi-e 
liorain Coiiiily had a body corporate of its own. During that period of 
l)ioneer settlement tlie civil jurisdiction siiifled from county to county. 
TI)(( early ('oiiiers (irsi, looked to old Ti-iimliull (bounty I'oi- Iheir civil 
rights and legal protection; iikicc spceilicnlly, they were attached to the 
Townnliip of Ctcvchiiiil, one nl' the cicjil l(i\viiKlii|iN (if tbiil coimly, In 






ll)p. t Cb. tinet —^ fj.-Ko'iff :________ 

ScAleorMIIet. ? i i , i f 



IcSO,") the Coiiiity of (i('iiii<^<i was rrciitcd, iiiul in ISO? tluit ])!irt ol' llio 
Western licscrv<' lyiiif; west ol' the (Jiiyalio^a liivcr and iiortli of town- 
sliip \, was attached to tliat eounty I'oi' civil, jii(li(rial and political pur- 
poses; the portion of the present county for which provision was thus 
made, inelucU'd the territory nortli of the townships of Canulen, i'itts- 
lield, Lagrange and Grafton. That i)ortion of the county reuiained thus 
attached until 1810, when the new county of Cuyaiioga al)sorl)ed it; tiie 
southerii part of the county was attached to Portage County until 1811. 


IIow the Loi'ain County of tlie future was gradually created after 
more than a decade of adjustments and rearrangements is a complicated 
story, and runs as follows: "On January 22, 1811, the houndary line 
of Huron was extended east, on the line now dividing Camden and Hen- 
rietta, Pittsfield and Kussia, Carlisle and Lagrange, to the southwest 
corner of Eaton; and thence north on the line ilividing Carlisle and 
Eaton, and Elyria and Ridgeville, to the northwest corner of Ridgeville ; 
thence west to Black River, and down the same to the Lake. On the 
day that these lines were so altered and extended, the Legislature ex- 
tended the south line of Cuyahoga county, from the southwest corner 
of Stroiigsville west to the southwest corjier of Katon; thence north, 
between Eaton and Carlisle, to the nortiiwest corner of Eaton; and h'om 
that point west, between Elyria and Carlisle, to the east branch of Black 
river and down the same to the Lake. Here was a eonHict in boundaries. 

"The Boundary of Huron county included all of Elyria extending 
east to Ridgeville and the boundary of ("uyahoga included within its 
limits that part of Elyria lying east of the east branch of the river. 
The river was the dividing line between the two counties, in the one 
act and the line between Elyria and Ridgeville was the dividing line in 
the other. This conflict was removed at tiie next session of the Legis- 
lature, by adoj)ting the townsiiip line, instead of the river, as the Ijountl- 
ary line between the two counties, at this point. This adjustment of 
the boundaries gave to Huron county the townships now known as 
Elyria, Carlisle, Russia, Henrietta, Brownhelm, Amherst and all of 
l)lack Rivei' and Sheffield lying west of the river; and to Cuyalioga 
county, Eaton, (.'olumbia, Ridgc-ville, Avon, and all of tlie townships of 
lilack River and Shefdeld lying east of the i-ivei'. At Ihat date, 1811, 
the territory now (;oini)risiiig the county of Lorain, belonged to tlu; 
counties ol' Union, (!uyalioga, and l'orlag(!. 

"The county of llui'on, although established in 1S()!I, and extended 
east- of I '.lack b'iver in 181 1 , was annexed to ( 'uyhoga in 1810, I'or Judicial 


and otlior purposes, and ivinainod so annexed, until January, 1815, 
wluMi it was or<^ani/.ed, and assumed control of its own alT'airs. 

"On the ]!Hli day of Keliruary, 1H12, Medina was iornu-d, and com- 
prised all of the tei-ritory between llie eleventh ranf^o of townships and 
Huron county, and south of townshii)s luunher live. It tlierefore in- 
cluded all of the present county of Lorain, south of Eaton, Carlisle, 
Russia and Henrietta. On the Uth day of January, 1818, that county 
was organized, and its local government put into operation. From the 
date of its formation to the date of its organization it was attached to 
the county of Portage, for judicial and civil purposes. On the 2Gth of 
Dcccndjer, 1822, Lorain county was estahlislied. It took from the county 
of Huron the territory embraced in tlie townships of Hrownhelm, Henri- 
etta, Amherst, Russia, Elyria and Carlisle, and those parts of the town- 
ships of Black River and Shetifield that lie on the west of Black River; 
and from the county of Cuyahoga the townships of Troy (now Avon), 
Ridgeville, the west half of Olinstead (then called Lenox), Eaton, 
Cohunbia, and those i)arts of Black River and Sheffield lying east of 
the river; and from the county of ^Medina, Camden, Brighton, Pittstield, 
Lagrange, and Wellington. The county, as originally formed, embraced 
seventeen and one-half townships, which, until the county was organized, 
were to remain attached to the counties of jMedina, Huron and Cuya- 
hoga, as formerly. It was, however, organized independently, and went 
into operation on the 21st day of January, 1824. In the organization of 
the county, it was provided that the first officers should be elected in 
April, 1824; and at that election, tliat part of Lenox that was brought 
into Lorain, should vote at Ridgeville, and that i)art of Brigiiton, lying 
in Medina before then, should vote in the adjoining township of Wel- 

"On January 2i), 1827, the ])oundary lines of the county were 
changed. The townshi])s of Grafton, Penfield, Spencer and Homer, 
Huntington, Sullivan, Rochester and Troy — some of them organized and 
some not — were detached from ]\Iedina, and annexed to Lorain ; and the 
half of Lenox Ix'lnnging to Lorain, was set off to Cuyahoga, to In; a part 
of ]\Iiddlebury, until otherwise provided. Ppon the formation of the 
county of Suimnit, in 1840, the townships of Spencer and Homer were 
attached to IMediiia; and ui)oii the ioi'iiialion of Ashland county, in 
Eebruaiy, 184G, Sidlivan and Troy wrw detached fi'om Lorain, and 
made a iKirl of liiat county. Pi'ior to this, and on the 2!)lii of January, 
1827, an ad was i)assed, lixing the ncrlhern l)oundary of tlu- coiuily. 


Fixing the Nortiikhn International ]5oundary 

"The mode of formiii;^ and or^'aniziiif,' tlu; coiuitics liad been such 
as to leave unsettled tlie nortliern limit of the eounties of Ashtabula, 
Oeauga, (.'uyahoga and Lorain. And in matters uivolvin<,' the exercise 
of criminal jurisdiction of oflfenses committed along the lake shore, the 
(luestion was of too nuich practical importance to be left in doul)t. The 
treaty between the United States and Great Britain iixed the line run- 
ning through the middle of the lakes as the dividing line between the 
two countries. Connecticut had reserved the land between the 41st 
degree of north latitude and 42 degrees and 2 minutes. The eoiirse and 
shajie of Lake Erie were such that the parallel of 42 degrees and 2 
miiuites would cross llie middle line of the lake; and adjoining Ashta- 
bula, that degree of latitude would be .south of, and, adjoining Lorain, 
north of the boundary liiu; between Canada and the United .States. It 
was therefore declared, l)y this act, that the northern boundary of these 
four counties sliould extend to tlu; northern boundary of tiie United 
States. This carried the northern boundary of Lorain to the middle of 
Lake Erie, without regard to the northern limit of the "Western Reserve." 

Ely's Inducejiext for County-Seat Location 

On the 22d of February, 1822, several months before Lorain County 
was created and a year before the county seat was located at Elyria, 
Ileman Ely had dedicated to the inhabitants of the township the public 
park lying between Broad and South streets, and placed the title in 
Edmund AVest as trustee, for their benefit. lie also conveyed to West, 
in trust for the county, a plat of ground, eight rods by twelve, provided 
such tract should be used for county buildings. The courthouse now 
stands upon that site. :\Ir. Ely, at the same time, conveyed to the town 
the remainer of the back square. 

In 1828 a permanent county building was erected in the center of the 
tract donated by Judge Ely. It was a two-.story red brick l)uilding, 
with four large pillars in front and surmounted by a cupola. The court- 
room was on the second floor and the county offices on the first. The 
old courthous(; remained in use from the time of its completion in 1828 
until it was replaced by Ihe massive stone .struct un; now oeeupi(!d, 
eivclcd in IMSO-.SJ. 

It was in Hie old courthouse that Mv. Ely .served for a number of 
years as associate judge, and olitained the title by which he was gen- 
erally known, "Jn<lg.'" Ely. lie <li(.,| it, IH.VJ, and up to the vrvy last. 

JjOKAIN ('oI;NTY Coi'lJTIlOl'Hi:, ElA'lUA 


took the deepest interest and the gi'eatest pride in the improvement of 
tlie town of whieli he was one of the recognized fonnders. 

Located at Elyria 

The creative act of December, 1822, named the commissioners who 
were to locate the county seat. The committee thus formed were con- 
sidered to he disinterested persons who would examine the merits of the 
rival claimants, having in view public convenience and welfare, both 
as to the present and future. The people of Black River, Sheffield and 
Elyria townships were all most anxious to secure the honor. In Feb- 
ruary, 1823, the conunissioners made tlieir appearance in Elyria and by 
Artemas Bee])e wci'e conveyed to Black River and Sheficld to weigh tlie 
advantages of the localities in the lake region. Elyria was obviously the 
most central and readily accessible to the majority of residents of the 
county, and it is also probable that Mr. Ely's promise to furnish the 
land and a temporary courthouse and jail, as well as to donate j|^2,000 
toward the erection of a permanent courthouse liad a bearing upon the 
selection made. 

FiiJST CouirnioiisK and JaiI; 

On the 14lli of February, 182,"!, tlie commissioners drove the stakes 
for the location of the first court liouse, on the corner of JNIain and Cheap- 
side streets. It was a little one-story frame building which Mr. Ely there 
erected and in which the first court commenced its sitting on tlie 24th 
of tlie following May. 

After the erection of the permanent courthouse the building was 
moved to a lot fronting Broad Street and was used as a sclioolhouse and 
by the Presbytci'ian Cliuix-li. 

The first county jail was erected on wliat is now tlie South I'ulilic 
S(|uare. It was a two-story frame building, the inside of one end lined 
with sijuare-hewn logs and reserved as the prison cell. The other end 
was used by tlie family of tlie jailor. 

Civil Organization 

In the civil organization of the new county, the most pressing matter 
was the oi'gaiiization of the Court of Common Pleas and the board of 
coiiiity commissioners, wilii the inslaHation of those ollieials who iiad 
most to do with the auditing of a<'eoiinls and tiie apprehension of [joh- 
sil)le oll'eiiders against tlie i)eace of society. The latter liigh-soundiiig 
words ap|)ly to the auditoi- and the sherilf. 


The April election of 1824, which was the first step in the civil organ- 
ization, ri'siilted in tlie clioicc of John S. JJcid, Asliahcl Oshorne ami 
Hfnjaiiiin Hucon, as county coimiiissioncrs, with Shcriiian Minott as 
anditor and Josiali Harris, as shcrill'. 

First Commissioners' IMeeting 

The first meeting of the commissioners was held at Elyria on the 24th 
of ^lay, 1824. All the memhers of the board were present, and their 
first official act was the appointment of Edmund West as county treas- 

Present County Jail 

urer, who gave a bond of $:^,()00 for the faitliful discharge of his duties. 
At the following June session, the first road establislied by the county 
was thus described in tlie official records: "Beginning in the high- 
way a little easterly of the dwelling house of Walter Crocker in Black 
River Township, tlience running in the most convenient route near the 
dwellings of Frederick and Daniel Onstine, thence across Beaver creek 
near the house of ]\Fr. Rice, thence to intersect the North Ridge road 
so called, a little eastwardly of the dwelling house of Mr. Ormsby." 

Fn the fall of 1824 nnolher ele(;li()n was held, at whicli ;{:i2 ballots 
were cast and wliicli resulted in the re-eh'clion of I lie oHieials mentioned. 
In the first year of tlie eoniity's existence jis n civil Ixxiy lOiiward 
Dnrand commenced his duties as sui'veyor, and .John Pearson as collector 
of state and county taxes. 


First Oi-^ficiai. Document 

KlKMiczcr Wliiton, tlic first recorder of Lorain County, performed }it 
Iciist one oflieial act while it was still attaolied to old Huron County, 
eivilly, i)o]itically and judicially. His first act was to record a deed 
from Benjamin Pritehard to Anna Merrills, conveying a parcel of land 
containing thirty and three-fourths acres, situated in township No. 6, 
range 18, in the County of Huron, and being a part of lot No. 3L This 
instrument was acknowledged May 10, 182;:{, before Isaac :\Iills, justice 
of the peace; was witnessed by I. Mills and llary :\Iills, and endorsed: 
"Received April 13, 1824, and recorded .May 11, 1824, on page 1, Book 
A, Lorain County Record of Deeds." This may therefore be called 
Lorain County's first official document. 

Judicial ^Machinery in ]\Iotion 

On the 24tli of I\lay, 1824, when the county commissioners held their 
first meeting, the Court of (,'ommon I'leas also commenced its first sit- 
ting in the courthouse provided by Judge Ely. Sheriff' Josiah Harris 
opened court, the bench comprising Ceorge Tod, the president thereof, 
and his associates, iMoses Eldred, Henry Brown ami Frederick Hamlin. 
AVoolsey Welles was appointed prosecuting attorney of the county, and 
he also acted as clerk of the court during tiie oj)cning day of the session. 
On tlie second day Ebenezer Whiten, the recorder, was appointed perma- 
nent clerk, and served in tliat cajjacity until 1S;{6. 

Thus was the judicial and civil macliincry of Lorain County fairly 
put in motion. 

Original Organization op the Townships 

The twenty-one townships into which Lorain County is now divided 
were organized under their present names as follows; it must be remem- 
bered, however, that the years by no means indicate the dates when they 
acquired their present areas and forms : 

Columbia, 1809. Eaton, 1822. Penfield, 1825. 

Ridgeville, 1813. Huntington, 1822. Lagrange, 1827. 

Black River, ]817. Carlisle, 1822. Henrietta', 1827. 

P.rowiiJiclm, 1818. Brigliton, 1823 Amherst, 1830. 

(Ji'arion, 1818. Shcnield, 1824. Pittsdeld, 1831. 

Elyria, 181!). • Avon, 1824. Camden, 1835. 

Wellington, 1821. Russia, 1825. Rochester, 1835. 



Indians Adopt First ^VIIITE Settler — Disgraced by Getting Lost in 
THE Woods — Starts for the Bu^ck River — Reaches the Lake — 
Join Wyandots on the Site op Lorain — The Camp at Elyria — 
Replenishing the Common Larder — -Pur-IIunting Expeditions — 
Return to Civilization — Moravian Colony Attempts to Settle — 
Would Return to Ruined Muskingum Villages — Found Pilgeruh 
(Pilgrim's Rest) — Abandon Plan of Return to the ]\[uskingum 
— Ordered to JVIove On — Three Days in Lorain County — Final 
Return to the Muskingum — David Zeisberger, Would-Be Settler 
— Settlements from 1807 to 181 2 — A War Scare t)F 1812 — 
Eastern Shipbuilders Driven West — Lorain's Early Ship-Build- 
ing Industry — Black River Settlement Becomes Charleston 
Village — Hearse, First Public Utility — Plowing Out a Ri\er 
Channel — Early Hotels — Charleston's Lean Years — Scent of 
THE Coming Iron Horse — First Coix)ny op Permanent Settlers — 
Columbia Township Organized — Pioneer Settlers op Ridgeville 
— Ridgeville Township Organized — Eaton Township Settled — 
Civil Organization — The I^eebes and PratRvs of I^lack River — 
Other Pioneers — Black River Tow^nship Organized — Founding 
OF Lorain C^ity — Early Settlers of Amherst Township — Josnii 
Harris — As a Political Body — Amherst as a Village — Town- 
ships Settled During the War — Pierrepont Edwards Draws Avon 
Township — The Cahoon Family — Avon Township Created — 
Pioneer Families Crowd into Sheffield — Sheffield, First Town- 
ship After (JouN^rv Or(;anizei> — I'ittsfield Township Drawn — 
First Permanent Settlers — Township Oiujanized — Village of 
Elvuia Founded — The Ely IIohU': — The Famous Beebe Tavern — 
The First Beebe Home — The T^ridal Trip — The Old-Time Fire- 
pi, accIjAst Ukkiie House, I'ridk of the 'I'own — I'Ilyria Township 
I'Aicri'rioNKD in 1810 — "Raisings" — Township and Village Suij- 


OF Today — Father and Pioneers of Buownhelm — Township 



Creatki) and Organized— Settlkment oe Russia Township- 
Founding OK OuKULiN— Russia Townsiiii- Organ izkd— First Year 

■ 0|.' I'lONEKRINd IN (hlAI'TON — 'I'OWNSIIII' I N(JOKI-l)RATKD — Vll.l,A(iE OK 

(;rakton — Wellington's Original Owners and Si;ttler.s— Arrival 
OK FiitsT Family— TowNSii II' Organizatkjn- Wellington Village 
— Townsiiii' ok Huntington— The Labories and Other Families 
—Wooden Bowl Factory— Organization ok the Townshii'- Pen- 
field Townsiiii- Rightly Named — Coming ok the Penkields— 
Families of Calvin Spencer and Others— Carlisle Townsiiii — 
Pioneer Families Settle— Brighton Township— Henrietta Town- 
ship — Camden Township. 

Previous to the beginning of the nineteentli century only two tempo- 
rary settlements had been made by wliite people within tiie present 
limits of Lorain County. The first was l)y James Smith, a youth who 
luid l)een captured by the Indians while working on a military road in 
Western l\-nnsylvania, and the second, more than thirty years after- 
ward, by a colony of Moravian missionaries. Smith, in his later life, 
became prominent both in the British and American armies and repre- 
sented Kentucky in the State Legislature for a number of years. He 
was carried by his tiu'ee hulian captors, two of wiiom were Delawares, 
1o Furl \)u (^)ucsne, in ^lay, 1755; Ins white comrade was scalped, bul, 
after running the gauntlet, Smith was adopted l)y the tril)e and taken 
to a Delaware town on tlie ])anks of the .MuskingnuL Tiiis wa.s in the 
spring of ll^nt, during the French and Indian war. 

Indians Adopt First Wihte Settler 

Smith has left an interesting account of his experiences covering the 
two years during which he visited what is now Lorain County. His 
adoption into the tribe is thus descri])ed: "The day after my arrival 
at the aforesaid town (on the Muskingum) a number of Tiulians gatliered 
about me and one of them began to pull tiie hair out of my head. He had 
some ashes on bark into which he frequently dipped his fingers in order 
to take a firnu'r hold; and so he went on, as if he had l)een plucking 
a turkey, until he had all the hair clean out of my head except a small 
.spot three or four inches scpiare on the crown. This they cut oft' with a 
])air of scis.sors, excei)t three locks which they dressed up in th<'ii' own 
iiHidi'. Two of these they wra|)i>ed around with a narrow bea<led gai-t.(;r, 
UKide by t lieiiiselves I'oi- liie |)ur|)().se, and thi; otlic'r they i)laited at I'nll 
length and stuck it full of silver i)roaciu'S. After tiiis they bored my 
nose and ears, and fixed me up witii nose and ear jewels. Tin'ii they 


ordered ine to strip off my elothes and put on a lireeeli elout, wliieli T 
did. 'i'liey then painted my f'ai c, hands and hody in various e()h)i's. 
Tliiy |)iit a hirgc helt of wanii)nni on my ne(;k, and silver hands on my 
hands and right arm; and so an old eiiiel' led me out in the street and 
gave the alarm lialloo several time repeated quiek (Coo Wigh!) and on 
this all that were in town came running and stood around the old chief 
who held me by the hand in their midst. 

"As at that time I knew nothing of their mode of adoption, and had 
seen them put to death all they had taken, I made no doubt that tiiey 
were about putting me to death in some cruel manner. The old chief, 
holding me b/ the hand, made a long speech, very loud, and when he 
liad done he handed me to three young squaws, who led me by the hand 
down the bank into the river until the water was up to my middle. The 
Sfpniws then made signs to me to phingi! myself into tiie rivei-, but 1 did 
not understand them. I thought the result of the council was that 1 
was to be drowned, and that these young ladies were to be the execu- 
tioners. They all three laid violent hold of me and, for some time, I 
resisted tliem witii all my might, which occ^asioned loiul lau-^hter by the 
multitude that were on the bank. At length one of the .scpuiws said, 
'No hurt you;' on this I gave myself up to their ladysliips, who were as 
good as tlieir word; for, though they plunged me under tlie water and 
rubbed me, I could not say they hurt me. They then led me uj) to tlie 
council house, where the tribe were ready with new clothes for me. 
Tliey gave me a new ruffled shirt which I put on ; also a pair of legging,s 
done olf with ribbons and beads; also a pair of moccasins and a tinsel- 
laced cappo. They again painted my head and face with various 
colors. When I was seated the Indians came in dressed in their grand- 
est manner. At length one of the chiefs made a speech as follows: 
'^ly son, you are now flesh of our flesh and bone of our bone. By the 
ceremony wliich was performed this day every drop of white blood is 
washed out of your veins.' After this ceremony I was introduced 1o 
my new kin and invited to attend a feast that night, which I did." 

Disgraced by Getting Lost in the Woods 

Smith wandered around with various hunting parties in Central and 
Southern Ohio, in the course of which he visited several of the famous 
salt licks in that pail of the country. During one of these excursions, 
whil(! following buffalo, he got lost in the woods where lu; spent the 
niglit. For that offense his gun was taken fi'om him, and he was reduccnl 
to a bow and arrow for nearly two years, or until the termination of his 


Starts fou the Black Kivku 

"1 iLMiiuiiicd ill this town," coiitiiiiu.'.s Siuitii, "until some liiiio in 
0(;tol;L'r, when my adopted brotiier, Toiitiieauyo, wiio liad Jiiarried a 
Wyandot siiuaw, took me witii iiim to Lake Erie. On tliis route we 
luul no horses with us, and wlien 1 started from the town all the pack I 
carried was a i)OUcli containing my books, a little dried venison and my 
lilauket. 1 had tlien no gun, but TontiJeaugo, who was a first-rate 
hunter, carried a rifle, and every day killed deer, raccoons or bears. NVe 
left the meat, except a little for present use, and carried the skins with us 
until we camped, when we dried them by the fire." 

Re-vches the Lake 

The travelers struck the Canesadooharie (Black Kiver) proliably 
near its source, and followed it down for some distance, when tliey 
must have left it, as they reached the lake shore some six miles west of 
its mouth. As the wind was very high the evening they reached the 
lake, they were .surprised to "hear the roaring of the water and see the 
high waves that dasiied against the shore like the ocean." They camped 
on a run near the shore, and as the wind fell tluit night they ]jursued 
tlieir journey in the morning toward the mouth of the river on the .sand 
along the shore. They observed a number of large flsh that had been 
left in the hollows liy the receding waves, and numbers of gray and bald 
eagles were along the shore devouring them. 

Join W van dots on the Site of Louain 

Some time in the afternoon they came to a large camp of ^Vyandots 
at the mouth of the Canesadooharie, where Tontileaugo's wife was. 
There they were hospitably received and entertained for some time. 
Smith says: "They gave us a kind of rougli, brown potatoes, which 
grew .spontaneously and were called liy the Caughiiewagas ohenata. 
These potatoes, peeled and dipped in raccoons' fat, tasted like our sweet 
potatoes." They killed wiiile tiiere some di-xT and many raccoons 
whicii were I'emarkably large and fat. They kept moving up tiie river 
until they came to tlie great falls. These were iirobably the east falls 
of Llack River, now within the corporation of Elyria. At that locality 
they buried their eanoi! and erected a winter cal)iii; froiri the descrip- 
lion, il was at i']vergreeii I'oint. 


The Cami' at Eiaiua 

T\u: Jiarralivi! j)roc(;c(ls: "It was hoiik; liini! in \httiini]ntr wlicii wt* 
liiiislied our winter ealjiii. Tlioii another dillieiilty arose; we had noth- 
ing to eat. While the hunters were all out exerting their utmost ability, 
the siiuaws and boys (in whieh class 1 was) were scattered in the bottom 
hunting red haws and hickory nuts. We did not succeed in getting 
many haws, but had toleraljle success in scratching up hickory nuts 
from under a light snow. The hunters returned with only two small 
turkeys, which were but little among eight hunters and thirteen squaws, 
boys and children. But they were divided eciually. The next day the 
hunters turned out again, and succeeded in killing one deer and three 
bears. One of the bears was remarkably large and fat. All hands 
turned out the next morning to bring in the meat. 

Replenishing the Common Lakder 

"During the winter a war party of four went out to the borders of 
Pennsylvania to procure horses and scalps, leaving tiie same number in 
cainp to provide meat for the women and children. They returned 
toward .spring with two scalps and four After the departure 
of the warriors we had hard times and, though not out of provisions, 
we were brougiit to sliort allowance. At length, Tontileaugo imd fair 
success and ])rouglit into camp sufficient to last ten days. Tontileaugo 
then took me with him in order to encami) some distance from the wniter 
camp. We steci'cil soutii u]) the creek ten or twelve miles and went 
into camp." 

That locality is ])elieved to lie in Lagrange Township. The brothers 
by adoption went to bed hungry the tirst night, but on the following 
day killed a bear, and the Hay after a bear and three cubs. During the 
following three weeks, whicli they spent in this locality, they killeil an 
abundance of game and then returned to the winter cabin. There was 
great joy in the camp, at theii- anival, as jn'ovisions had run very low. 


Tn Ai)ril, Rmith and Tontileaugo dug uj) their canoe, made another 
one foi- I lie coiivcyancM; of their jx-ltry, and left their winlei- cabin at 
tlic falls; the Indian ijrocceded toward the lake by water and bis white 
liiolJKr oil horseback. On i-eaciiing the iiioiitii of the river, tiiey 
iJiocecded west along tile lake shore to Sini-yeu-deauk (Sandusky), 
aiiollier Wvaudot town, hale in llie lall Smith joined a iiiintiiig party 


and proctit'cled to tlie Cuyaliof^a River. At a (lifstaiice of ahout tliirty 
miles I'l'Oiu its iiioiitli, tlicy I'oniu'd a canip iicai' a small lake and spcMit 
tlic, wintci- in (•at('liin{^ Ixtavcr. In tim sptinf^ of ITf)? tlicy rctnnicd to 
Sandusky, and soon went by water to Detroit, wliere they disi)Osed of 
tiieir peltry to the Freneh traders. 

Return to Civilization 

In 1759 Smith accompanied his Indian relatives to ^Montreal, where 
he was iinally exchanged, and returned to his Pennsylvania home in 
1760, only to find his old sweetheart married, all supposing him dead. 
He afterward became a captain in the regular British army, and was 
chiefly engaged in protecting the border against Indian raids. During 
the Revolutionary war, he rose to the rank of colonel in the patriot 
army, and did good service against both the British and their Indian 
allies. In 1788 Colonel Smith migrated to Bourbon County, Kentucky, 
where he represented his district in the Assembly as late as the com- 
mencement of the nineteenth century. 

MouAViAN Colony Attemi'Ts T(j Settle 

The second settlement — temporary though it was — within the present 
borders of Lorain County was made by a delegation of Moravian or 
(Jhrislian Indians, under the lead of the missionary, David Zeisbcrger, 
during a few days of April, 1787. For fifteen or sixteen years both the 
Indians and their faithful white leaders of the cloth had been striving 
to find a chance to 'dwell anywhere in peace. Their persecutions by 
enemy tribes, such as tlie Chippewas, Delawares and AVyandots, with 
the connivance of both British and American soldiers, who seemed to 
disapprove of industry and thrift on the part of the Red JMan, had 
culminated in the cold-blooded massacre at Gnadenhutten, on the Tus- 
carawas River, in 1782. Afterward they were invited to Detroit by the 
eomnumder and traveled thither by way of Sandusky; finallj' settled 
on the Huron River about thirty miles from Detroit and founded New 
(iiradenhutten. Then, in the following year came the peace with Great 
Britain, and within the following three years they had established a 
pretty, industrious and contented settlement. 

Would Return to Riuneo IMuskincuim Vit-laoes 

r>ii1 the tronbles of the missionaries and llieir Indian wards were 
by no iiir;iiis o\'rr. Tln' ( 'liippewiis had given lliriii Ihe IracI of liiiid 


upon which the village stood and in 1786 claimed it again, saying their 
hunting grounds had ])eeu injured hy its estal)lisliment. The savages 
even threatened another massacre if they did not move on. Wliilc i^re- 
paring for their departure tiiey received intelligence tiiat the Congress 
of the United States, after the conclusion of the war, had given express 
orders that tlie territory on the iMuskinguui formerly inhabited by the 
Christian Indians (in the present Tuscarawas County) should be reserved 
for them. But the Uelawares and the Shawanese, especially, were still 
determined to oppose the United States and declared their intention to 
oppose the return of the Moravian Indians. Notwithstanding, the mis- 
sionaries and their people left New Gnadenhutten in April, 17S6, and, 
with the assistance of the governor of Fort Detroit, were, in a few days, 
embarked in two trading vessels belonging to the Northwest Fur Com- 
pany for the mouth of the Cuyhoga River, the idea being that thence 
they could easily reach the headwaters of the IMuskingum to the south 
and return to their restored lands from which they had been driven 
five years before. 

Found PilgeUuii ( Pilgrim '.s Rest) 

When within sight of their destination a violent storm drove the 
vessels back toward the west. After many delays the two divisions were 
reunited and reached the mouth of the Cuyahoga on the 7th of June. 
Want of provisions made them hasten their departure and, proceeding 
up the river, past the site of Cleveland, they came to an old deserted 
Ottawa town about ten miles south, where they resolved to spend the 
summer. Though the season was already far advanced, they cleared 
the ground for planting and even sowed some Indian corn. They called 
the place Pilgeruh, or Pilgrim's Rest. But the name proved to be sadly 

Abandox Plan of Return to the Muskingum 

Bands of Chippewas, Ottawas and Delawares often visited the new 
mission, and those who had not been Christianized often strove to draw 
the Cliristian Indians back to their traditional beliefs; and they not 
infrequently succeeded. That troul)le, with persistent reports of threat- 
ened renewal of hoslilities lietween the Americans and hostile Indian 
tribes, deti.'rmined the missionaries to relinquish all idea of returning 
to tlicii' abandoned villages on llu; i\Iuskiiigiim and to seek some con- 
veiMcut spot betwei'ii the Cuyahdga and I'etciuotting (at the mouth of 
till' iliii'dii River, ill lOrie Coniily). 



It was at tliis point tliat tlio harried wanderers were to eiieainp upon 
the soil of Loi'aiu (jouiity, at the inoutii of HIaek (Caiiesadooiiarie) 
River. In April, 1787, they abandoned Pilgeruli and, dividing into 
land and water parties, skirted the laice westward. In less than a week 
they arrived at their destination. Tiie soil was fertile, producing wild 
potatoes in abundance, apple and plum trees grew here and there, and 
the lake near by produced all kinds of fish. Everything seemed pro- 
pitious, but their joy was of only three' days' duration, for at the end 
of that period of short proliation a Delaware captain appeared and gave 
them positive orders to move on to Sandusk)*. 

Three Days in Lorain County 

The details of this period which directly concerns the nai-rative are 
thus told by the missionary, Jolin Ileckewelder, whose laboi's covered 
so many years among the Ohio Indians: "Shortly after the commence- 
ment of the year 1787, accounts were received from various quarters 
that the Christian Indians would not l)e permitted to stay wliere they 
were at present, and that they would have to move nearer to tlie settle- 
ments of the savages. The government of the United States had also 
at this time advised the Christian Indians, througii General liutler, 
agent of Indian affairs, not to move to the Muskingum for the present, 
but to remain at Cuyahoga. The speech from Captain Pipe, already 
taken notice of, called on them to leave the Cuyahoga and settle at 

"Such was the state of things at that time; and discouraging as it 
was, we durst not look upon the speeches sent to us with indifference ; 
especially what came from Captain Pipe. Whilst the Christian Indians 
had this subject under consideration the hostile tribes were holding a 
great council at Sandusky, at which it was finally resolved that a war 
with the United States should commence and that if the believing Indians 
would not decline going to the ]\Iuskingum they would force them to 
do so, and that their teachers should not be taken prisoners as heretofore, 
liut killed on the spot. A glimpse of hope, however, yet remained and 
induced Ihem to l)elieve tliat a peace miglit yet take ])lace. Tiie Iro- 
quois (Si.x Nations) it was said had sent a solemn embassy to all the 
western nations, Imt parliculai'ly to flut Sliawanese, advising tiiem to 
be at peace. A I'cport also cii'cubiled that the conuuandant at Detroit 
had persuaded niiK! oi' ten ti'ibcs of Indians to keep llie pcaei;, and that 


he even threatened such as sliould commit hostilities against the United 

"The (Jlirisliaii IndiaiiH, al'tcr inatuiu! dcliljcratioii on llie Kjioec^lics 
whicli had Ix'cn sent thciii, resolved to seek for a spot of ground lictweeu 
('uyalioga and Pet(|uotting, where they might live hy themselves in peace 
and (|uiet without heing interrupted by the savages, and having for 
that purpose examined the country along the lake, they found a place 
(piite to their mind. 

"At this time the following private message from a friendly Dela- 
ware chief was brought out and delivered to the missionary Zeisberger: 
'Grandfather! Having heard that you proposed going to live on the 
^luskingum, I would advise you not to go thither this spring! I cannot 
give you my reasons for so advising you (meaning that he durst not 
disclose). Neither can I .say whether we shall have war or peace; but 
so much I can .say — that it is not time yet to go there. Do not tliink that 
I wish to oppose your preaching the word of God (the Gospel) to the 
Indians. I am glad you do this, l)ut 1 advise you not to go to tlie 
]\Iuskingum.' This gootl chief's friendly message was well understood. 
Respecting the missionaries as his friends, he wai'iied them of the 
danger they would ])e in, in going there. 

"On the lyth of Ai)ril the Cliristian Indians closed their stay at 
this place by otfering up solemn ])rayer and jjraise in their chapel. 
They thanked the Lord for all blessings, both internal and external, 
which he had showered down on them at this place, and then set out 
in two parties, one by land and the other by water. The latter was, 
however, delayed a couple of days on account of a dreadful storm 
arising just at the moment they were about to run out of the Cuyahoga 
river into the lake, the wind blowing violently from the opposite side 
' on this shore. The waves beat witli such force against the natural wall 
of stone or rocks that the whole earth seemed to tremble, and the 
travellers thanked God that they at the time were in the river in safety, 
and where they further had the good fortune 1o catch several hundred 
good large fish by torch light — a iish called in this country the 
maskenuntschi, or maskenunge, and nuich resembling the pike. 

"On the 24th of April the lajid travelers and, on the day following, 
these who were gone by water, arrived at the place they had fixed upon 
as their future residence; which was on a large creek that emptied itself 
into Die lake from the south, and where a 'tine fertile spot was found 
much I'esembling an orchard, it being interspersed with crab apple 
and plum trees; wild potatoes (an article of food much valued by the 
Indians) were likewise fouiul here in abundance. In short, there was 
noliiing wanting to encourage tliem to form a regular selliement at this 


place, tlie wliieli the}' intendod to do should tlioy be permitted to remain 
liere. This, however, was iiot the case, Tor on tlie 27th they were 
api)i'ised by a Delaware cai)tain, who was sent for tlu; ])urj)0se, tliat 
they Were not permitted to stay, but must i)roceed on to Sandusky, 
where a place ten mih^s distant from tlie nearest habitation of Indians 
was destined foi- them to live at, and where ])rotection woulil be granted 
them; that the orders he ))rought were positive and must be oiieyed 
without furtlier consideration. The captain was furtiier charged with 
a sei)arate message to Zeisberger to this effect: 'Hear my friend! You, 
my grandfathei'! I know that you have formally been adopted by our 
chiefs as a member of the nation. No oiu' shall hurt you, and you need 
not be afraid, or have any scruples, about coming to live at Sandusky' 
(delivering a string of wampum). 

"The answer given to the foregoing speech was, of course, in the 
affirmative- yet not without representing to the captain, the malice, 
deceit and treachery imposed upon tliem for these six or seven years 

"While prejiaring to leave this favorite spot, IMichael Young who, as 
before I'clated, had gone to Hethleheni from Upper Canada in 178:^, now 
returned to resume his missionai'y station and joining the company, 
they continued their journey as before, some travelling by land wiiile 
others, with the baggage, went by water. Arriving at the Huron river, 
which emj)tied itself into Lake Erie about thirty miles to the eastward 
of Sandusky, they learned, from good aulhoi'ity, that the message sent 
lliem by llie savage ehief was not llie li'utli, and thai llie ])lace allotted 
foi- tiiem to live at was but two miles from Ihe village ol' tlie savages, 
and tiuit the real intention of tiiem was to di'aw tlie Ciiristian Indians 
ba<'k into heatiienism. The latter, linding this to be tlieii- object, resolved 
not to go any further for the present, but to remain where they were in 
opposition to the orders of the chiefs, let tiie eonseciuenee be what it 

"Aftei- running their canoes a few miles up the rivei' tlu'v, on the 
mil of May, halted and all hands luniing out, both men and women, 
they erected foi' llieiiiselves, on the same day, a siiffieieiit niiml>er of 
small hark huts to lodge in, and on the next Ai^y sent a (le|)u1ation to 
the chiefs giving their reason for wliat they had done, on which they 
wei'c permitted to stay where they wei'e I'oi' one year unmolested. The 
village was aft<'rward built on the east side of a high hliill' and their 
eoi'ti fields wei'e Oil the opposite side, 'i'o this place, which tiicy named 
New Salem, the heathen sometimes came to hear the prcaehinii' of the 
(lospel, some of whom also .joined the congregation, liecoming sti-ady 
memliefs (»r the church." 


Final Kctukn to thl: Muskingum 

Strictly writing, the author .should dismiss tho Moravian colony 
wlicn its members, under the faithful Zeisberger, left the mouth of the 
Black Itiver for the mouth of the Huron, but it is excusable to add that 
after founding New Salem, near the site of the present Milan, Erie 
County, they were forced into Canada, about eighteen miles from 
Detroit, in 1791. Tliey rested there a year, were tlien moved to laud on 
the Thames, in I-']nglish territory, and establislied the flourishing settle- 
ment of Fairfield, and, five years afterward, returned to their American 
lands on the Muskingum, where, under Zeisl)erger and Ileckewelder, 
they founded Go.shen on the site of tlieir old town, Schoenbrunn. Fair- 
field, their Canadian village, was destroyed in 1813, during the War of 

D.vvii) Zei.sheuger, Wuuld-Be Settler 

David Zeisberger, the missionary, who may be called the first white 
iium to attempt a permanent settlement on what is the soil of Lorain 
County, died at Goshen (now a few miles southeast of New Pliihulel- 
piiia, Tu.scarawas County), on November 17, 1808, in the eighty-eiglith 
year of his age. One of his Ijrother missionaries writes of him thus: 
"Of this long life he had .spent above sixty years as a missionary among 
Hie Indians, suffering numberless hardships and privations and endur- 
ing many dangers. He had acquired an extensive knowledge of the 
Delaware language and several otlier Indian tongues. But most of his 
translations, vocal)ularies and other books for the in.struction of the 
Indians being only in manuscript were burned on tlie ]\Iuskingum 
(during the massacre of 1782), and the unsettled state of the mission 
for a long period after, his other multifarious avocations and his advanc- 
ing age,, did not allow him sufficient leisure or strength completely to 
make up his loss. His zeal for the conversion of the heathen never 
abated and no consideration could induce him to leave his beloved 
Indian flock. The younger missionaries revered him as a father, and 
before they entered upon tiieir labors generally spent some time at 
Goshen to profit Ijy his coun.sel and instruction. Within a few months 
of his death he became nearly blind, yet being perfectly resigned to the 
v.'ill of God, lie did not lost; his \isual cheerfulness, and, lliough his body 
was worn almost to a sUflctoii, his jiKlgmciil remained unimpaired." 

Heekwclder, in his "Nai'rative," says: "In the. (evening of his days, 
v.licn his faculties began to fail him, his desire to depart and l)e with 
CliiisI increased. Al. IIk; same time he awaited his dissolulioii with 


uniform, calm and dignified resignation to the will of liis ]\Iaker, and in 
the sure and certain hope of exchanging this world for a better. Tlis 
last words wei'e 'Lord Jesus, T pray thee come and take my spirit to 
thyself.' And again 'Thou hast never yet forsaken me in au}' trial; 
thou wilt not forsake me now.' A very respecta1)le comi)any attended 
his funeral. The solemn serviee was performed in the English, the 
Delaware and (Jerman languages, to suit tlie diffei'iMit auditors." 

As to Ills sirholarly aeciuirements in the field to wliich he had so 
long dcvofed himself, Ileckewelder adds: "lie made himself complete 
master of two of the Indian languages, the Onondago and the Delaware, 
and actpiired some knowledge of several others. Of the Onondago he 
composed two grauunars, one written in English aiul the other in Ger- 
man. He likewise compiled a dictionary of the Delawai'e language, 
which in the nuiiuiseri])t contained several hundred pages Nearly tlie 
whole of these manuscripts was lost at the hui-ning of the settlement 
on tlie ]\ruskingum. A spelling book in the same language has passed 
through two editions (written in 1820). A volume of sermons to Chil- 
dren and a hymn hook containing uj)Wards of live hundred hymns, 
eliielly li'aiislalions from the English and (Jerman hymn liooks in use 
in the Hi-ethren's cliureh, h.ive also been jjidilished in the Delaware (or 
Lenape) language. lie left behind him, in mainiscript, a grammar of 
the Delawai'e, written in Genuan, and a translation into the same 
language of Lieberkuehn's 'Harmony of the Four Gospels.' The former 
of these works has since been tran.slated into English for the American 
Philosophical Society l)y P. ^^. Du Ponceau, of Philadelphia, and the 
Female Auxiliary ]\Iissionary Society of Bethlehem has undertaken the 
l)ul)lication of th(i 'Harmony.' " We learn further that Zeisberger was 
of low, sturdy stature and cheerful countenance — evidently a stalwart, 
earnest, enthusiastic, steadfast German, who eonunanded such uni- 
versal respect and affection that we are proud to welcome him as the 
pioneer settler of Lorain County, and only regret that his stay could 
not iiav(' been longer and more satisfactory. 

Skttlejients from 1807 to 1812 

In 1807, the year before the death of the beloved and venerable 
missionary, permanent settlement commenced at and near the mouth 
of tile Plaek Piver, llie hxtalities which were the scenes of the Moravian 
a1teni|)ls, and of Smith's visit befori- them. In that year (1807) there 
came I'rom tin- l^ast A/.ariah Peebe and his wife. Tlicy iialted at the 
mouth of the Canesadooharie, as the I\loravian colony Inul done twenty 
yeai's before; they also saw that the country was t'nir lo look iip'>u loir. 


so thoy l)uilt a loj,' cahin on tlio sito of tlie di'scrtod villiiKo. Snoii tlii'y 
were joined by Nalliiiii J'orry, the Inider; tlie Coimecticiil colony i)ene- 
li-at('(I iMhind and settled in ('oluinliia Tovvnsliij), a few months afl(!r- 
wai'd, and from 1810 additions to the lake region were qnite continnons 
nntil the coiiuneneement of hostilities with Great Uritain. 

A War Scare of 1812 

Lorain C'onnl^' was l)y no means exempt from war "scares" during 
those ti-ying limes to the region of tiie lower lakes and the scene of the 
greatest naval activities. Very early in the war period the word was 
passed through all the lake shore settlements of the county that a large 
party of hostile British had landed at Huron, a few miles west. ]\Ien, 
women and children fled their homes in terror, and as the inhabitants 
of Ridgeville readied Columbia in their flight they found that settlement 
nearly al)andoned. Tiiis panic, however, was of short duration,' for 
Levi Bronson, returning froui Cleveland, brought the well-autiicnticated 
news tliat the persons landed at Huron were tiie prisoners that Hull 
surrendered, at Detroit, to the British. On the return of those who 
had .sought safety in flight from Colum])ia, the elder Bronson, who had 
refused to join them, informed thein that "the wicked flee wiien no 
man pursueth." 


The inhabitants of Columbia, Ridgeville, ]\Iiddl('bury and Laton, 
however, at onee joined in the erection of a blockhouse, just south of 
the center of the Town of Cohuubia. This was the fortress to which 
to flee foi- safety in the hour of danger. Captain Iloadley had tiie honor 
of commanding this post. A eoiiipaiiy was organized to garrison it, but 
we are well informed that the enemy had not the temerity to come 
within reach of its guns. The Captain and his men were mustered into 
tlic service, and paid as soldiers of tlie United States army. Able-bodied 
men constituted the garrison, while the old men, women and children 
were left nnprotected, at their homes, to cultivate the soil and receive 
the first assiiult of the unexpected foe. The roar of the cannon, off 
Put-in-Bay Island, on the 10th of September, 18i;{, was the first and 
the last heard of Die enemy after these military preparations for defense 
were made. 

h\)V some time jirter hostilities with Creal Uritiiin had ceased there 
were few signs of a revival of colonization to the lake shore region, but 
in 1817, after the wai- clouds had fiiii'ly lifted, Heman VAy pliitled his 


land at tlie mouth of Black River. Then there was another pause for 
ih'ciilcd (IcvelopiiU'nts, wliii-li came witliiii tlie succeeding three years. 

"As yet," says tlie Lorain Times-IIei'ald in its "-Perry Centennial" 
edilion oT VJl'A, "the .settlement on tlie Canesadooharie had not felt the 
pulse of industry. It was coming. 

Eastern Shipbuilders Driven West 

"Over on the Connecticut river Augustus Jones and William Mur- 
dock luid been shipbuilders before the war. A raid liy tlie British, who 
ascended the Connecticut under the cover of darkness and ])urned their 
ship-yard.s, left the two men, among other fellow craftsmen, almost 
penniless. When the Government, in 1820, offered them land in the 
AVestern Reserve, they accepted the prolVer and took grants near the 
mouth of Black river. 

Lorain's Early Shipbuilding Industry 

"So began Lorain's ship-])uilding industry. From tlie start, made 
by the establishment of the yards of Jones and Murdoek, this new 
activity flourished. Ship-carpenters, the community's lirst employed 
workingmen, came from the East. As the industry grew, other master 
builders estal)lished yards. Not only along the river, but on the lake 
shore, east and west of the harbor mouth, wooden sailing vessels were 
built and launched. The first merchant ship to sail Lake Superior was 
turned out of a yard here. There was no navigable passage then between 
Lake Sui)erior and Lake Huron, and the vessel had to be taken from 
the water on the Northern Peninsula of ^liehigan, portaged overland 
and launched into White Fish Bay. 

"In addition to August Jones and William ]\Iurdock, other early 
shipbuilders mentioned in available records were F. Church, Captain 
A. Jones and his sons, William and B. B. ; A. Gillmore, Edward Gill- 
more, Jr., and F. N. Jones. From F. N. Jones' yard, in 1837, was 
launched the first steamboat built at Lorain, the Bunker Hill. The 
completed hull was towed to Cleveland, where the machinery, which 
liad been brought overland by o.\-teams, was installed. 

"Some of the shipbuilders had become ship owners. Fleets of 
schooners, iiitei'spi'rsed with an o(;('asional 's(|uare-rigger,' sailed in and 
oul oi' Plack I'iver, carrying the communily's commerce over its only 
meiiiis of lransi)ortation, the water. In ISlUi vessel owners here joined 
themselves into the Black Uiver Sleand)oat Association. Lorain's history 
lis a lake [)oi'l had begun. 


Black JRiver Settlement ]5ecomes Charleston Village 

"11, vviiH ill \h{.'. KiiiiK! year — lH:t(i — llmt, the; .sctllcinciit, iitilil llicn 
known iis Jilack liivcr, was in corpora teil as a village;. Cliarlostoii, grow- 
ing into importanee as a siiipping point, prcsentt'd tlie paradox of hav- 
ing no means of coniniercial transportation exci-pt the water. To pro- 
viile a eonnection witii the county seat at Elyria a ])lank road, with a 
re<?idation toll gate, was l)uilt between the two viUages. The present 
J?roadway, from its lower end at tlie river front to al)out the Fifth- 
street intersection, lies on the line of tlie ohl planked highway. 

Hearse, First Public Utility 

"Charleston was luisy but not comfortable as a living i)la('e. Despite 
the fact that old residents of today, recalling the days of the '40s and 
'50s, declare proudly that Charleston^ had no doctors ])ecause it needed 
none, they admit that the conuuunity was infested with malaria and 
typhoid in the hot summer months. Undi'ained marsh land along the 
river provided a breeding place for disease which the village, lacking 
public sanitation, was unable to combat. Ship-yard workers left the 
place in the suminei- for a more healthful climate. 'Those of us wlio 
I'enuiined in the summers dared not die, liecause there weren't men 
enough to bury us,' an old resident said to the writer. 'Our oidy ceme- 
tery for a time was on Bank street, now Sixth. We had no hearse. 
When someone died, we had to convey the body to the burying ground 
in a farm wagon. Then a cemetery was established at Amherst. The 
two villages went in together and bought a hearse. I guess that hearse 
was the community's first inunici])ally-owned public utility.' 

"Until 1S50 (!harlcston had no church. Services were held in the 
homes of the villagers, a circuit rider coming in fi'om the outside to 
attend to the spiritual needs of the settlement. The first i)ul)lic meeting 
house was an all-denominational institution erected on the corner of 
Washington avenue and West Erie. Later, the meeting house was 
moved to the present site of the First Congregational Church, Fourth 
street and AVashingtou avenue. 

"District school was held in a big barnlike wooden building on the 
site of the present No. 1 fire station. 

"Connnerce had its difdcullics, also. 'IMicrc weiv no i)i'()tcclii)n i)iers 
to fend oil" from the iiarbor mouth the fury of the sloi'ms. A north- 
easter would send sand-laden seas aci'oss the lowlands on the cast side 
of the river and the channel woidd chok(; up with silt. Afler unusually 


severe storms the villagers could wade across the river at the lower end 
of the old plank road. 

Plowing Out a River Channel 

" 'The storms made it bad for vessels that were in the harbor,' tlie 
old residenter said. 'Often there would be several schooners at the 
sawmill up at Globeville (Globeville was the name given to the territory 
of the present South Lorain). To get the boats out into the lake again, 
the men would take their teams and plows down upon the sandbar in 
the river, and plow out a channel which tlie current would enlarge 
sufficiently to allow the passage of the bottled-up vessels.' 

Early Hotels 

"Without a railroad, Charleston had two big hotels and an immense 
boarding house. On the site of the present "Wagner building was the 
Reid House, Iniilt and owned by Conrad Reid. Where the abandoned 
S. L. ]*ierce shoe factory stands was the Lanipman House, owned and 
operated ])y the late ]\Ianred Lampman. Across from the Lampman 
House was the Canard, a boarding house that passed through several 
hands and finally burned one night, furnishing the village with the 
first big fire in its history. 

Charleston's Lean Years 

"Charleston was sanguine. Its shipbuilding industry was expand- 
ing and bringing the village fame among Great Lakes communities. 
Then came a reaction that was to mean many cheerless, sterile years for 
the village on the l)anks of the old Caijesadooharie. 

"The railroad was coming westward from the Hudson over the trail 
of the ox-teams. The Cleveland and Toledo railroad stretclied an iron 
highway across Ohio. But Charleston was left out of the itinerary of 
the iron horse. The line passed through Elyria, and the interior trade 
tiiat had been Charleston's fell into the willing lap of the county seat. 
The farmers Avho had l)eeii wont to haul their produce over the plank 
road to the wharves at Charleston, found it more convenient to haul it 1o 
tiic freight depot at Elyria. Cluirleston began to jiitie away. The Hlack 
K'iver Steamboat Association became a tiling of llie past. The sons of 
Ihc village went out to broader fields. Her old men — those who had rung 
llicii- fixes in llic I'oresl wlicti Cbai'lrstoM luul been a sctHeiiicnl — died, 
mid Ibi'ir Idiiibstoiics in Ihc lilHe i»l<l cciiicti'rv on Sixth street lire lirokeii 


and HTowu over with mos-s. A few of the sliiphiiihh'rs rcmaiiU'd — l)iit 
only a iV'w — a lew tnulei-s, a hlacksniith or two, and the attemhuit arti- 
sans who wait on villaj^e neei'ssities. 

Scent op the Coming Iron Horse 

"Years passed thus. Then in 1872 came the awakening that was to 
niai'k the beginning of the last epoch in the development of what is now 
incorporated Lorain." None in these days is so that he does not 
scent the coming railroad; in Lorain's case, it was the Baltimore & Ohio. 

With the ground cleared for the real building of the City of Lorain, 
the review j^asses to other foundation events in the county's history. 

First Colony op^ Per.m.\next Settlers 

"With the Indian titles to the lands west of tlie Cuyahoga cleared by 
treaty, and any prior complications guaranteed by the Connecticut Land 
Company, the tirst colony of permanent settlers, with their families, 
conniieiiced to arrive in what is now the northeastern borders of Lorain 
County, in the fall of 1807. in Septemlier of that year a company of 
thirty i)ersons left AVaterbury, Connecticut, for that part of the county. 
Its members were as follows: Calvin Iloadley, wife and five children; 
Lenuiel Iloadley. wife, three children, father and wife's mother; Lathrop 
Seymour and wife; John AVilliauis, wife and live children; a Mrs. Parker, 
with four children; Silas Iloatiley and Chauncey Warner; ami Bela 
Jironson, wife and child. The colony spent two months in reaching 
Buffalo, took boat for the mouth of the Cuyahoga, but were cast ashore 
in a storm near Erie, and many of them were coini)elled to make the 
remainder of the journey on foot. 

'"The greater part of this company," says Boynton, "stopped at 
Cleveland and remained through the winter. But Bela Bronson, wife 
and child; Levi Bronson, John Williams and AValter Strong, puslied 
across the Cuyahoga, cut their way through the wilderness to Columbia, 
erected a log house and commenced pioneer life. They were eight days 
in cutting their way from Cleveland to Columbia. 

"In tile winter of 1S07-8, the families of John Williams and James 
(ieer, arrived; and in the; sjjring and summer of 1808, those who 
remaineil at Cleveland during llie winter, arrived also. At the appor- 
lioiiiueut, by draft, in 1807, l-evi iJronson, Harmon Bronson, A/.or l>ron- 
son, ("alvin Iloadley, and Jared Ix'ichards, had formed an association 
called the Waterl)ury Land Company. This company, Menjamin Doo- 
liltle, ,Ir., Samuel Doolitllc, and William Law, di'ew that township, as 


No. f), Kiiiige 15, witli 2,050 acres in liichficld imd Boston, in Snimiiit 
eonnty, annexed to equalize it. 


"Columbia, at the time of its organization, which took place in 
1809, was a part of Geauga county. The tirst election was held on the 
first ^Monday of April, of that year, at the house of Calvin IIoadle3\ 
There were nineteen voters at the election. Calvin Iloadley, Jared 
J'ritchard and John AVilliams were elected trustees. Bela Bronson 
was elected clerk. Having no use for a treasurer, none was elected. 
Laliiroj) .Seymour was elected constable aiul, to i)rovi(le him emi)loy- 
mcnt, in I\Iay following, Nathaniel J^oan was elected justice of the 
peace. All of (Jeauga county lying west of ('olumbia, was annexed to 
that township for judicial and other jjurposes. The jurisdiction of that 
functionary, covered, in territorial extent, nearly an eiiii)ire. Tiie plain- 
till' on the first action l)rought before him, lived on (ii-and River, and 
the defendant on the Vermillion. It was the case of Skiiiuer v. liaker. 
The i)laintiff had judgment, which was paid, not in legal tender, but in 
labor. The first school taught was in the summer of 1808, by .Mrs. Bela 
Bronson, in the first log house erected." 

Pioneer Setti>ers of Ridgeville i 

After Columbia, the next si'ttlers in the county located in the Town- 
ship of Ridgeville, nearer Lake Erie. Tlu-y were also Watcrbury peo[)le. 
alliiough the original drawer of the township was a Hartford lawyer 
named Ephraim Root. For a few years after its settlement it was called 
Rootstown, after Lyman Root, the original owner of the township and 
one of tile colony of purchasers and settlers. In 180f)-lO Oliver Terrell, 
Ichabod Terrell and David Beeljc, resid*;nts of Waterl)ury, exchanged 
their lands in that place for about one-fourth the Township of Ilitlgeland. 
In the spring of 1810 j\Ir. Beebe, with his sons David and Lonuin, Joel 
Terrell and Lyman Root, left Waterbury and, after a long journey, 
reached Ridgeville. On tlie 6th of July of that year Tillotson Terrell 
arrived, with his wifi^ and tlu-ei^ children. His was the first family that 
si'llled in the to\viishi|i. In the suMuiier of that year David Ueebc, dr., 
rtliirrird to Waterbury and brought on the family of his father, and 
the wife and childri'n of Lyman Root. At the same time, Iciiabod 
Tci-i-cU, his wife Rhoda, and five children, his father aiul Asa Moi'gan, 
his teamster, exchaMged their Conueclicut homes and comforts foi- tlu' 
niitrii'il cxperii'iices ol" frontier life. Oliver Terrell, I'lilher of Ichabod, 


ui)\vards of eiglity years of age, made tlie entire trip on horseback. They 
reached Ridgevillo in the fall, cutting a wagon road from IJocky River 
to the i)lace of destination. They were two days and three Jiights en 
route from Kocky J{iver. The company that came on in tlie spring had 
huilt a small caliin of logs of such size as so few could carry, the roof 
l)eing of bark and the iioor of earth. This cabin was built in the first 
clearing made. Here all had lived together and kept bachelor's hall. 
Upon tlie arrival of Tillotson Terrell and family, in tiie early jjart of 
July, he "moved in" and remained until the erection of a log house 
for himself and family. This was not long after his advent into the 
town. About the same time David lieebe, Sr., built a log house, a little 
west and nearly opposite the residence of the late Garry Root. These 
log cabins were an im])rovenient on the one previously built, in one 
respect at least: each had a puncheon Hoor and an opening for a window. 
As window glass was an article not posses.scd, foolscap paper was em- 
I)loyed in its stead ; ami while it was a poor instrument to exclude the 
cohl air from the rude dwelling, it was the best means possessed as a 
sul)stitute for the admission of light. Joel Terrell, one of the of 
the spring company, returned to Connecticut in 1810, and remained 
until 1811, when, with his family, he directed his steps again westward 
to his future home. 

The families of David Bee])e, 8r., Lyman Root and Tchabod Terrell, 
that came on in the fall of 1810, consisted of Iwcnty jjcrsons. They 
were seven weeks on the way. Two yokes of oxen to a wagon, with a 
horsi' as a leader, constituted the motive power that conveyed them 
hither, lihoda Terrell, the wife of Tchabod, was a survivor of the 
AV'yoming massacre; and at her death left ninety-one grandchildren and 
a large number of grcat-grandciiildren. 

Tlie first schoolhouse was erected near the center of the town, on the 
sjiot where the Tuttle House afterward stood. It was consumed by 
lire in 1814. The first frame house was built hy ^Inj. Willis Terrell. 

Early IMills 

The first mill for grinding flour was the offspring of necessity. It 
was erected near where Tillotson Terrell built his log house. 11 was 
llie mortar and pestle. A log about three feet in length, cut from a 
pepix'i'agc tree, set on its end and burned out round in the to|), with 
a pestle attached to a sjiring ])ole; llies(! were the sum total of its parts 
and its meelianism. This was a familiar and friendly acquaintaiici! of 
llie neighhoring inhabitants, and by tlicui was kept in constant use, until 
lime and meaiis broiiglil in better days. In 1S|'J-1:! .|osej)li Calioon, of 


Dover, l)uilt a grist mill on the small creek at the center. Cai)tain 
Iloadley, of Columl)ia, possessed a hand grist mill; and in the winter 
of ]81(i-17 a mill was l)uilt at Elyria, thus removing the necessity for 
the further use of the mortar and pestle. 

RiDGEViLLE Township Org.vnized 

The Township of Ridgeville was organized in 1813. At the spring 
election of that year there were fifteen voters; and they were all at the 
election. Judges of election were provided, and the polls were opened. 
David Beehe, Ichahod Terrell and Joel Terrell were elected trustees. 
Joel Terrell was elected ju.stice of the peace; David Beehe, Jr., con- 
stahle, and Willis Terrell, township clerk. A postotifice was established 
in 1815, and Closes Eldred appointed po.stmaster. Up to this date the 
Cleveland postoffiee was the ueai-est. Town No. 5, in the same range 
(Eaton), was included in the organization of Ridgeville. 

Eaton Township Settled 

Eaton Township was settled, in the fall of 1810, by mend)ers of the 
colony who came from "Waterljury, Connecticut, as associates of those 
who located in what is now Ridgeville Township. Before its incorpoi'a- 
tion by name, it was designated on the maps as town 5, range 16, and 
was tiie property originally of Caleb Atwater, Turhand Kirtland, 
llolbrook and ten others. Tract 1, gore 4, range 11, was almexed to it, 
to bring it up to full value. It was originally called llolbrook, and 
retained that name until 1822, from the circumstance that Daniel IIol 
brook was a large owner of its soil. It was first settled in the fall of 
1810, by Asa Jlorgan, Silas Wilmot, Ira B. ]\Iorgan and Elxiiiezer ^Yil- 
inot. These were all single men. They came from Waterbury, Con- 
necticut, in the spring and summer, with those who took up their abode 
in Ridgeville. They built a log house, in the fall pf that year, on the 
land long occupied by Silas Wilmot, and jointly occupied it, until, by 
change in their circumstances, sucli occupancy was no longer desirable. 
By agreement, this ])ecame the property of Silas Wilmot. It was 
the first erection in the town. 

In 1812, Silas Wilmot married Chloe Iluljbard, of Ashtabula County. 
They commenced married life in a log cal)in on the Ridge. His was the 
first family that settled in the town. Soon after, Ira B. Morgan inter- 
married with Louisa Bronson, of Columi)ia, built a log house just east of 
Wihnot's, and tliere took up his abode. Ilis family was the second tiiat 
took up its residence in the town. Asa soon married and settled west 
of Wilmot's. 


Not long after, tlio familit's of Levi iMills, Tlniret F. Chapman, 
Seneca Andress, JNleritt Osboru, A. iM. Dowd, Dennis Palmer, Sylvester 
Morgan and others wen; addcMl. The first seliool was taught hy Julia 
Johnson, daughter of Piiiiieas, then a resident of No. 5, range 1(J. 

Civil Organization 

The organization of the Townsliip of Ridgeville included Eaton ; 
and the two towns were embraced in cue civil organization, until 
December 3, 1822, at which time it was ordered by the commissioners 
of Cuyaiioga County, on the petition of the inhabitants, that No. 6 (5), 
range 16, be set off into a township by the name of Eaton. At the 
spring election, in 1832, the reipured township officers were elected, the 
township detached from Ridgeville and organized for independent 

The Beebes and Peruys of Black River 

As an interesting historic event the attempt of the Moravian mis- 
sionaries to establish a at the mouth of the Black River in 1he 
])resent township by that name has been described in detail. It will be 
remembered that they remained a few days before leaving in tlu; face 
of tlie threats of the Delaware chief, and their coming had no con- 
nection with the .settlement whicli ap[)roachetl permanency; that honor 
fell to the Beebes, Vermonters, in 1807, which, for Lorain County, 
may be called the "year of assurance." Nathan Perry, Jr., son of 
Nathan Perry, of Cleveland, both of Vermont, opened a store at Black 
River for trade with the Indians. lie employed Azariali Beobe as his 
advance agent, who, with his wife, went aiiead, ojiened the store and 
comiiienced housekeeping. jMr. Perry soon after followed and boarded 
with tliem. The store and residence wei'e located east of the river. The 
]>cebes remained there for several years and then dropped out of sight. 

No addition was made to the settlement until 1810, but in the 
spring of that year Daniel Periy, an uncle of Natlum, Jr., settled with 
his family near the mouth of the Black River. lie, also, was fi'om 
Vermont. He remained at that locality but a few yeai's, then moved 
to Siieffield and thence to l^rownhelm, whei'e he spent the i-emaiiidei- 
of a vei-y useful life. Lix'al historians geuei'ally give'lhe I'errys, uncle 
and nei)hew, the credit ol' calling es])ecial attention to the eomiiiercial 
advautages of th(^ locality around the mouth ol' the illack, and of ))lan1- 
ing the seed of the coiiuiiunity which finally developed into the large 
iiiihisl rial ( 'il y of Loi'iiin. 


Other Pioneers 

Diiriiif,' 1810, tli(! year of Daniel I'crry's arriviil, caiiK; 1o l{la(;k 
]{iviT 'I'ounsliip -Jacoh Sliupc, .loscj)!! (^iit,'lL'y, iicoiga Kelso, Andri-w 
Kelso, Kaljdi l.yoii and a Mr. Seeley, some of wiioiii settled in wliat 
hecanu' Aiidierst, Towiisiiii). in the foiio\vin<,r year the little colony was 
inereased hy the arrival of John S. Keid, Quartus Giiniore, Aretus 
Gihuore and ^Villian^ .Martin. Mr. Reid was a man of great energy of 
eliaracter, and soon became prominent, as the leading citizen of the town. 
He 'was one of the first three commissioners npon the organization of 
the county, in 1824, and before then, and while Black River was a part 
of Huron County, in 1819, he was a commissioner of that county. He 
was one of the commissioners of Huron County that directed the joint 
organization of Elyria and Carlisl.-. He died in 18:31, and his son 
Conrad spent his life in the township. Quartus and Aretus Gilmore 
were sons of Ednnind, who moved to Black River with his family in 
1S12. He was the owner of a large tract of land in Black River and 
Amherst, and built, in that year, tlie first framed barn ever erected in 
the county. 

Black River Townsiui' Org.\nized . 

On the 14lli of November, 1811, the Township of Dover was organ- 
ized by the commissioners of Cuyahoga County. It incltided within its 
defined limits the present townsliii)s of Dover, Avon, Siieffiold, and that 
])arl of Black River east of the river; and on tiie 12lh of Mareh, 1812, 
the lei'rilory now comprising the townships of Klyria, Amhei'st, all of 
Black Rivei" west of the river, and Hrownhelm were attaciied to Dover 
for township pui'poses. Tiiey remained so attached until Vermillion 
was oi'ganized, wlien the towns now known as Andierst, Hrownhelm and 
])lack River, west of the river, were annexed to that township. On the 
27t!i of October, 1818, the Township of Troy was organized and included 
the i)reseiit towns of Avon and all of Shcflield and lUark River lying 
east of the river, it will lie remembered that Huron County was organ- 
ized ill 1815, and was extended east of Black Iiiver, and for a distance 
beyond it. 7\t the Febrnai'y sessi(ni, in. 1817, of liie commissioneis of 
Huron Counly, it was ordered tlial Township No. G (Amherst) and 
that part of Xo. 7 (Black River) in llie Miuhleeiilh Range wliieii lay 
ill t he ( !ouMly of I liiroii, with all (he lands therelo a It ached in said II iiroii 
County, be set oiV from llie Township of X'ei'miilioii and organized into 
a separate towiishi]) under the name of Black River. Tims Amherst, 
Black Ri\'ei- and Hrownhelm were first organized as Black River. 



III Juno, 1824, tlic corner oP tlic town lyiiif? cjist of llio river was 
annexed to JJIaek River Townsliip I'oi- jndieial purposes. The first 
election for offieors of Ulack Riv(;r 'i'ownsliip was lield in April, 1817. 
Tile names of all the officers elected are not known. There were two 
postof'fices in the town. 

<^^ ^^i-tJy ^(yi^yj-j 


^^^;^^0:^^z^i^^t:) Cj2^,. 

The Black River ]iostofnce was located on fhe Houtli River, now 
South Aiiih(!rst, and tlu( olher was nauK^d '"i'he JMoutii of Black liivcr 
i'osf Ol'lice." lOIipliah'l l\fdin^,'t()n was the lirsf postiiuistcr ol' Ihc ol'lici' 
on South River, and John S. Reid of the postoflice at tlie mouth of Black 



It was not, Until 1S17 thai tlic .sclllcnictit, at the rnoiilli of Ww. lUack 
JtivLT pi'OMii.sed to blossom into a fiill-l>lo\vn village. In that year Judge 
Ilenian Ely, also the founder of Elyria, established his colony in that 
portion of the great tract which lie had purchased from the Connecticut 
Land Company. In his early manhood Judge Ely had spent some time 
in the Province of Lorraine, France, and the pleasant memories of his 
residence in that charming and romantic country induced him to sug- 
gest the name of the new county which was created by the Legislature 
in 1822. The French spelling was, liowever, contracted and Anglicized. 
Afterward the boat-liuilding and fishing settlement at the mouth of 
Black River took that name. The fine harbor at that locality, added to 
these industries, made it quite an important lake port, before the early 
'70s, when the railroads entered the land territory naturally tributary 
to it ; it was incorporated as a village ; the steel works and other large 
industries located; population increased rapidly; it was incorporated 
as a city and established its position as the leading commercial and 
industrial center of the county and one of the most thriving musiicipali- 
ties on Lake Erie. Abundant proof of these general statements is 
afforded in the details packed into succeeding pages. 

Early Settlers op Amherst Township 

Jacob Shupe, already mentioned, is entitled to the post of honor as 
the pioneer settler of what is now Amherst Township. He came into 
Black River in 1810 and early in the following year moved over the line 
into Amhei'st and settled upon Beaver Creek. Within a short time he 
erected both saw and grist mills, and several years afterward the first 
whiskey distillery in the township. He spent his money to the limit in 
various primitive improvements, and it was while making an extension 
to one of his mills on Beaver Creek, in 1832, that a timber fell on him 
and caused injuries which resulted in his death. His widow lived to 
be ninety years of age. 

In October, 1815, Chileab Smith settled with his family on Little 
Beaver Creek, in Amherst, four miles west of Elyria, where he lived 
until his death. He opened and kept the first tavern in that vicinity. 
During the same year Stephen Cable, before then a resident of Ridge- 
ville, moved from the latter town and took up his residence near the 
Corners, formerly called Ilidbert's Corners, si.v miles west of P^lyria. 
In the yciar 181G Reuben Webb settled on the farm lying at "Webb's 
Corners." In 1817 there were other additions to the town, among them 




the family of Thomas Waito, whieli i-cmaiiicd l)nt ono year, and thon 
removed into Kiissia. The i'amily of Kzckial (.'randall settled near 


In the year 1818 Josiah Harris settled at what is now North Amherst, 
where he spent a long and \iseful life. He came from Becker. Berkshire 

Judge Jusiaii Harris 

County, RTassaelnisetts. He was elected justice of the peace in 1821, 
and heUl tlie oHiee tiy re-election lor tliirty-si.\ eonsecutive years, lie 
Avas i)()stmastei- at North Amherst foi- a continuous period of forty 
years; was the first sheriiV of the county; was appointed associate judge 
ill 1S2!), and served for tlie jx'riod of seven y.-ars. lie was the oliject of 


universal respect l)y tlie iiiliabilauts of tlie town of liis a<loj)tion. 
'riiroil^li tlie lieiielieeiiee of his eoiliisel, parlies lili^Mi.l often left, his 
eoiirl. vvilli their cause nniieahly sellled, with all irrilalion reinoveil, ainl 
pei'sonal good feeling restored. 

Khenc/er Whiton became a resident tlu; same or the i)revious year. 
I'jliphalet lledington settled on the .South Ridge, now Soutli Aiidierst, 
in h'ebruary, 3818. lie was selected by the Legislature as one of the 
conuiiittee to locate the road leading fi'oni tlie eastern termination of 
the one running east from tiie foot of the rajiids of tlu; ]\Iiami of the 
Lake to Elyria. 

JOIijab Saiulersou settled near him in the same year. Prior to 1820 
there were numerous additions to the town, among whom were Calel) 
Ormsl)y, Ezekial Hai'nes, Elias Peal)ody, Thompson Blair, Israel Cash. 
Roswell Crocker, Harry Kedington, Jesse Smith, Adoniram Webb, 
Frederick Henry, Michael, David and George Onstine. 

As A Political Body 

In the meantime, while this region near tlie lake shore was being 
settled, the present Townsliip of Aiidierst was being l)rought into shape. 
Tliis was not effected until 1830. Old Black River Township was organ- 
ized in April, 1817, as a part of Huron County. Brownlielm Township 
was detaclied in 1818, and Russia in 1825, leaving the territory now 
embraced in tlie townships of Amherst and Black River as one town- 
ship, under the name of lilack River Townsliii). On January 12, 18.30, 
the Oliio Legislature passed a sjiecial act of division. This was made 
necessary in view of the act prohibiting the incorporation of any town- 
shij) with an area of less than twenty-two s(|uare miles; the territory 
to be divided made it impossible to abide l)y tiiat law and tiui Legislature 
thei'efore passed a special measnre on the date named. The inhabitants 
of fractional township No. 7, range 18, in tlie Connecticut Western 
Reserve, were incorporated as the Townshij) of lilaek River, and town- 
ship No. 6, in the same range, as Amherst. 

The fii'st officers of Amherst Townsliip were elected at the April 
election of 1830. 

Amherst as a Village 

For many years it was seen that the Corners, nearly in the center 
of the township, was tlic logical site for a village. Judge Josiali Harris 
liad also a large tract of land around the Old Spring, in the same local- 
ity, a portion of whieli he laid out into lots in 1830 and started the 


A^ilhigo of Amherstville. Tlie three decades followintr brouglit a very 
slow ;;ro\vth. 'IMieii eaiiie llie Cleveland & Toledo Railroad (now the 
Lake Sliore & .Micliif,'aii SoiiUieni) and an increased demand for the 
raiiioiis Aiidierst sandslone. 

iMilo Harris honglit the interests in the townsite of his father's 
heirs and made an addition to the village. In 1873 the Village of North 
Andierst was chartered. The name of the village has changed several 
times. First it was known as the Corners, then as Plato, next as 
Andierstville, was incorporated as North Amherst, and, within recent 
years, has dropped the North and become plain Amherst. 

Since the year 1886 the Village of Amherst has been the center of 
the large industries developed by the Cleveland Stone Company, but, 
with the rapid e-xpansion of cement manufacture, several of the quarries 
have been shut down and the enterprise, as a whole, has declined in 
importance. A large number of men, however, still find employment in 
the old line. A substantial plant for the making of special machine 
parts, a concern, two good banks and a number of large 
stores, with a handsome town hall, well paved and lighted streets and 
oilier outward signs, demonstrate the standing of Amherst as tlie second 
or third village in the county after Obei'lin. Wellington and Amhersl 
claim about the same population. Andierst has a population of about 
2,200, ])erhaps half of that credited to the beautiful college village of 
Russia Township. 

Townships Settled During the War 

Sheffield, Pittsfield and Avon townships, as they are known today, 
received their first accession of pioneers during the war period of 
1812-15. Avon, however, seems to have been the most fortunate in 
providing homes for a number of settlers who proved to be permanent 
in their character. 

Pierrepont Edwards Draws Avon Township 

In 1807 Pierrepont Edwards, the famous Revolutionary soldier, 
congressman and judge, of Connecticut, drew town No. 7, range 16 
(Avon), together willi three of the Bass islands in Lake Erie west oi' 
North Sandusky, aiuiexcd to the town for i)ui'pose of ef|ualization. In 
1812 Noah Davis settled on the lake slioi'c, erected a log house, I'cinained 
bid a short lime and left, never to leliirn. 


Tiiio Caiioon Family 

III 1K14, Wilbur (Jiiliooii, Tj(;wi.s Austin iiiid Xicliolas Yniiii",' iiiatic 
tlu! first pcrinancnt scttleiiiont of tlio town, and a eoiitury afterward, 
on the 10th of September, their deseendants celebrated the event. On 
that occasion, Horace J. Gaboon, grandson of AVillinr and tlien in liis 
seventy-eighth year, who had l)een appointed historian, read an inter- 
esting paper, from wliich lilieral extracts are taken clsewliere. Asich; 
from the interest which attaches to tlic i)crsoiiali1y of Wilbur Cahoon 
as one of the first three settlers of Avon Township, he was the lirst 
justice of the peace elected for the jurisdiction now divided among the 
townships of Avon, Sheffield and Dover (the last named now a part 
of Cuyahoga County). He made his good influence felt in many ways, 
although his death occurred as early as 1826. The widow died in 1855. 
Of their eight children, Leonard was the only om; to be born in Avon 
Tow-nship, and he was its first native white cliild. All the other chil- 
dren were born in Herkimer County, New York. The Cahoon family 
has long ))een identified with township and county matters, Horace J., 
before mentioned, serving for nearly ten years as recorder. 

Avon Township Created 

On the 27th of October, 1818, the Town of Avon, together with the 
annexations hereinbefore stated, was set off from Dover, and organized 
in a separate township by the name of Troy, by the commissioners of 
Cuyahoga County. It will l)e remembered that, at tliis date, the river 
from the point where it passes into Slieffield north to the lake was the 
boundary line between Huron and Cuyahoga counties. A special elec- 
tion was ordered for township officers, to be held Noveml)er 1), 1818. 
Elah Pai'k, John- Williams and Lodovick ]\Ioon were ehicted trustees; 
Larkin Williams, township clerk; Abraham ]\roon, ti-easurer. In June, 
1819, Jabez Burrell, living in the Sheffield district, and William Cahoon 
were elected justices of the peace. 

l^revious to 1818 the inhabitants called the town Xeuina, notwith- 
standing it was a part of Dover. In I)eceml)er, 1824, upon petition of 
forty citizens, the name of the town was changed from Troy to Avon, l)y 
1ii(! commissioners of Lorain County. In 1818, the first schoolliouse 
was built, near the center of the town, anil in the fall of that year 
Larkin A. Williams opened it to the youth of the few -settlers of the 


PioNiOKu Familiks Crowd Into SiiicI'M'^iicld 

Sporadically — if the (.'Xprcssioii may he applictl 1o huiiiari hcings 
and tlic'ir coming — the pioneers of Shei'field Township extended tiieir 
opei'ations over a period of a dozen years hefore it was organized under 
its present name and with its present hounds. William Ilart, of Say- 
l)rook, Ashtahula County, drew it originally. Previous to his disposi- 
tion of the land, ahout 1812, he agreed to give Timothy AVallace his 
choice of lots, if he would settle and occupy the same. Wallace accepted 
the otfer, entered and improved a few acres on the Rohbins Burrell 
farm, and finally abandoned it. In January, 1815, Hart conveyed the 
township to Capt. John Day and Cai)t. Jabez Burrell, of Berksliire 
County, ^Massachusetts. Obediah Deland, Joshua Smith, Josepji Fitch, 
Solomon Fitch, Isaac Burrell and Henry Austin became joint owners 
with Day and Burrell. In June of tiiat year Jabez Burrell and Isaac, 
Captain Day and Joshua Smith came west and made selections. In the 
following November, Smith and son reached tlie selected ground and 
l)eeame fixed settlers. They were soon joiiu'd liy Samuel B. Fitch and 
Asher Chapman, who struck hands with them, built a small shanty and 
occu|)ied it dni'ing the winter of 1815-16. 

Freeman Richmond and family took up their aboile on Lot 2. This 
was the first settlement of the town by a family. In April following, 
Henry Root, wife and six children, two boys and four girls, arrived from 
Sheftield, Ma.ssachusetts, and took shelter in Smith's shanty until the 
log house was thrown up that was to constitute their hundjle habitation 
for the immediate future. 

William II. Root was the youngest of the two boys. Next and soon 
came Oliver IMoon, IMilton Garfield, John B. Oarfield, A. R. Dimmick, 
William Richmond and Willis I^orter. In July and August there came 
the families of John Day and Jabez Burrell, the first arriving in July, 
and consisting of twelve persons, and the lattej; consisting of ten. 
William, the oldest son of John Day, at a later day becaine one of the 
associate judges of the county. Captain Smith, in the fall, returned 
to l\lassachusetts, and brought on his family in Rlarcli of 1817. There 
soon followed the IMoores, Stevens, Ilecocks, James, Arnold and Isaac 
Burrell. There is no township in the county, unless it be Crafton, and 
possibly Brownhelm and La Grange, tliat seems to have filled up as 
rapidly as Siicftichi, in the lii'sl years of its settlement. 

SiiKFKii';i,i), I'^insT TovvNsiiii' Aktick County Orc. anizatiox 

When Wallace commeiujed tlu^ imi)i'Ovement of his land in 1812, the 
area now included in Sheriield Townshij) was, terriloi'ially, a pai't of 


Huron County, but it was attaclied to Cuyahoga County for judit-ial 
antl otlier i)uri)Oses, and so rciiiaiiu'd until 1815, when Huron County 
was i'ully ori^ani/.cd and assumed control of its own all'airs. Originally, 
Dover Township emhraecd Avon, and all of Shei'lield and HIack Jtiver 
townships east of the river. At a later day all of the teri'itory men- 
tioned constituted the Township of Troy, also in Cuyahoga County. 

Froni 1815 to 1824 all of Sheffield west of lilack River was attached 
to the TownsJiip of Black River, as it existed before its territory was 
reduced to its present limits. That part of Sheffield was then in Huron 
County. On the first Monday of June, 1824, a petition was presented 
to the commissioners of Lorain Count}^ wliich had just been organized, 
praying for a township organization which should embrace its present 
area — all of Black River Township east of the stream by that name, 
and so much of No. 6, range 17 (Elyria), as was set off to Enoch 
Perkins in the partition of that township. The petition was granted 
and Sheffield was the first township incorporated after the organization 
of Lorain County. 

A special election for townshi[) officers occurred July 10, 1824, and 
resulted in the choice of the following officers: John Day, Isaac Burrell 
and A. R. Dimmick, trustees; Nathan Stevens, clerk; JMilton Garfield, 
treasurer. Jabez Burrell had l)een elected justice of the peace in 181!), 
while the town was a part of Troy ; was re-elected in 1822, and was still 
in office at the date of township organization. 

PiTTSFiELD Township Drawn 

In the draft at Hartford, Connecticut, in 1807, what is now known 
as I'ittstield Township was drawn l)y Ebenezer Devotion, William Per- 
kins and eight others. The iirst white inhabitants were a man by the 
name of Barker and his two sons. The father cleared a small tract on 
the nortlieast corner of Lot '.)6 and tliei'e built a log cabin, but early 
in 1818 he ai)andoneil it for military service and left thx' house and the 
clearing to his sons. They,, remained for but a short period, and 
proliably were drawn into the ranks. 

First Perm.vnent Settlers 

Tiicn came a hiatus of a dozen years, bi-okeii, in 181!), by the survey 
of the township into lots on the i)ai't of miw proprietors. Milton Whilney 
was one oj' the lai'gest owners of that jx-i-iod. In 1820 lu; caiiie from the 
iOast, made an examinalion of the hnid, and entered iuto an ai-range- 
menl with Thomas and JelVrey Waite, sons of 'JMiomas Waite, then of 


Russia, by which they were to settle in town No. 4, range 18, upon his 
giving- them fifty acres of land eacli. Tiiis he did, and in the spring 
of 1821 the two Waites moved into the town, and took up their resi- 
dence tiiere. They were the first j)erjuanent settlers in Pitlslield. 

Immediately following the settlement of the Waites, they were 
joined by Henry and Chauncey Remington, upon a gift of 100 acres''of 
land to eacli of them by Whitney. The next settler was a minister by 
Ihc name of Sniitli. Mr. Norton soon thereafter moved into the town, 
lie built the first frame barn erected therein. The town filled up quite 
slowly, so much so that there was Init one frame liouse in the town as 
late as 1834. 

Township Organized 

The town was early annexed to AVellington for township purposes, 
and remained so annexed until December, 1831, when, on the petition of 
the inhabitants, it was detached and incorporated into a township by 
the name of Pittsfield. JMany of its largest land-owners resided in the 
^Massachusetts town of that name. In April, 1832, the selection of 
towiisliip ofiicers completed its organization as a sei)arate civil body. 

Village of Elyuia Fouxdkd 

J]lyria Township was settled soon after the cessation of the War of 
3812. That conflict interrupted settlement in Lorain County, as in 
every other portion of the Western Reserve. The first settlement of the 
township was coincident witli the founding of the Village of Elyria. It 
was not until 181G that the nucleus of the settlement was formed by 
the arrival of a ^h*. Beach, who located with his family in the western 
portion of what is now the townsite. The place cannot be said to have 
been founded, however, until the coming of Heman Ely from West 
Springfield, Massachusetts. He had purchased of the Connecticut Land 
('omi)any about 12,000 acres of land lying around tiie falls of the Black 
River, and in March, 1817, arrived to take possession of his purchase 
and prepare for its improvement. Building a dam and erecting a grist 
and saw mill on the east branch of the river, he set about energetically 
to lay out the village, which, in his honor, assumed the name of Elyria. 

It should be stated that the first persons to arrive on the scene of 
ihe Vj]y improvemeiils were Ilire(! men whom Ihe .liidge had sent ahead 
ill .laiiiuiry, 1817. Tliey wen! U'oderick Ashley, hldwiii Uiisii and .lames 
rortcr. Tlu'y walked Ihi' entire dislance from Massachusells to the 
Western Reserve, eai'rying axes on their siioulders. When Mr. I'lly 


arrived in ^lareli tbey had made quite a clearing in the forest for the 
l)uilding of the town. James Porter, tlie Irishman of tlie party, remained 
in Elyria, acquired property, })uilt liouscs and died there; his associates, 
liowever, returned 1o their homes in New England. 

The Ely Home 

The Village of Elyria was soon laid out and some time in the succeed- 
ing year, 1818, Mv. Ely moved into his resilience, which he occupied for 
years afterward — the first frame house erected in tlie village. That 
residence has heen described as a buiding 45 by 40 feet, two stories, 
with cellar under the main part; kitchen in the rear; fireplace in every 
room, and brick oven in the kitchen. No stoves were known at tiiat 
time. The siding of the house was made from a single whitewood tree 
cut on the place near a bend in the road. A large barn was built at the 
same time. Invitations were sent to Ridgeville, and both frames were 
raised the same day. | 

In the fall of 1818 I\Ir. Ely returned to his home in West Springfield, 
being a passenger on Walk-on-the-AVatcr, the first steamboat which ever 
])licd Lake Erie to Buffalo. On October lOtli he married IMiss Celia 
J^elden, who returned witli him to tlie new Village of Elyria. As tiie 
Ely home was not then completed, for some time the young couple 
occupied a log house. Mrs. Ely was a woman of lovable disposition, and 
it was to the deep grief of her many friends tiiat she did not long 
enjoy the home which she helped to make. She died in 1827, leaving 
two sons, Ileman and Albert. 

The Famous Beebe Tavekn 

Of the party who accompanied Judge Ely to the site of Elyria, in 
February, 1817^ was Artemas Beebe, an expert carpenter and builder. 
The second house to arise on the village site, after ]\Ir. p]ly's residence, 
was built by I\Ir. Bcelie on the first lot purchased of the proprietor and 
opposite wliat afterward became known as the Ely homestead. It was 
a large two-story frame building, with an ell, and was used for many 
years as tavern and a stage office. In the early times Beebe 's Tavern 
was the acknowledged center of social life for the entire Village of 
Elyria, as it was the general stopping place for travelers seeking west- 
ern homes, and for lawyers and judges, as well as the lounging place 
of the villagers themselves. The tavern was long what 'may be called 
the general "news excliang(i," and, in a way, became tiie i)olitical head- 
(|uarte?\s of the county. 

lU navo A-yfM 1 

il iiO tfJO 


The First Beebe Home 

During the first yi-ar of business Air. Heehe had a i)artiier in his 
tavern venture, but from 1819 to ]8;f5 actively conducted it himself. lu 
.1820 lie returned to his home in West Si)i'ingfield, Massachusetts, also 
Judge Ely's old home, where he married an old acquaintance. Miss 
Pamelia ]\Iorgan, of that place. One of their daughtei*s (the late 
J\l]-s. Mary Beebe Ilall), who afterward became known in the commu- 
nity as a woman of literary ability and social distinction, not long 
before her death issued an interesting booklet entitled "Reminiscences 
of Elyria," wherein she describes the journey of the young couple 
to their Elyria home, as well as the appearance of the primitive house, 
in which they counueneed their married life. 

"On October 4, 1820," she says, "Air. Heebe was uuirried to 
Pamelia Alorgan, of West Springfield, Massachusetts, and started for 
their western home with a span of hoi-ses, and covered wagon filled with 
all possible articles required for housekeeping (necessities largely) — 
a big brass kettle to use over the fire for all domestic purposes; brass 
andirons, candlesticks, warming pan to heat the beds; foot stove to use 
in riding, or sitting in cold rooms; bed linen and wartirol)e. 

The BiiiDAh Tini' 

"For four long weeks this young couple journeyed on through mud 
and various mishaps of overturned wagon and contents, and landed in 
Elyria to begin their home-making in a large and unplastered house. 
Tiiey were welcomed by Captain Cooley and family, who had occupied 
the house after it was finished, up to Air. Beel)e's home-coming with 
his wife. This home contained large fireplaces in all the living rooms 
and a larger one in tiie kitchen, with oven and crane; a big stone hearth 
and plent}' of wood to burn, and great back logs for foundations, for 
fires were always buried at night, as uuitches were not known. 

/fiiE Old-Time Fujeplace 

"The arrangement of this home was typical of many others of the 
early times, with fireplaces and ovens. Occasionally, the ovens were 
biiill outside under a slu'il, with a ])ig stump used foi' foundation. This 
big liirplacc deserves a i)assiug notice, and I always feel sorry for 
ix'ople who nevei" have known how much pleasure is associated with it. 
A large iron Ijake kettle, with a lid, would be utilized at times in the 
<'()rnei' ol' the big hearth. What a delight for a child to sit and wateh 


the process! With live coals from the fireplace under and over, biscuits, 
gingerhread and johiiny-eake were done to a turn. Once a week the 
oven would he lieated and filh;d with bread, pies and cake. What 
antici[)ations of coining good things! Heefstcak on gridiron in i'ront 
of the lire, with live coals to l)roil it (nev(!r such steak) ; spare ribs or 
turkey on a cord in front of the fire, turned and basted until fit for a 
king! IIow pretty a row of apples looked roasting! How nice corn 
popped, and what fun to crack liickory inits on tlie stone heartli (for 
it ilid not crack it), and ea1en in the evenings! Baskctsful were gath- 
ered and sjircad on the garret floor, making a winter's supply for family 
and friends. Sweet cider, too. Stomachs were not recognized; one 
never lieard of appendicitis. There were rhubarb and castor oil in the 
house, and peppermint iu the lot, if one needed remedies in emergencies. 

L.vsT Beeise House, Pride of the Town 

"In 1835, having ])uilt a house on the corner of Broad street and 
East avenue, I\Ir. Beebe rented the tavern to George Prior, brother-in- 
law of J\Ir. Ely, and moved to this home, which has been the home- 
stead and is still occupied by the youngest daughter. In 18-17 Mv. 
Beebe completed the Beebe House, at the corner of Park and I\Iain 
streets. At the time of its building, no town the size of Elyria could 
boast of such a fine, substantial hotel; an ornament to the town and a 
creilit to tlie builder, who wished to fui'iiish suitalile acconunodations 
for the increasing population of town and country. Jt was l)uilt and 
kept as a temperance house, as long as o\vned by the family, (.iather- 
ings from town and country were entertaineil in the large parlors and 
dining room; also sleigh rides and ban(iuets. The fourtii floor was the 
Odd Fellows' Lodge for years. The dancing ball for private parties 
made this hotel the center of social life." 

The two families — the P]lys and the Beebes — have the joint honor 
of being file central forces around which the infant Village of Elyria 
marshaled its forces and became fairly established as a growing com- 

Altliough the village and the county seat early absorbed many of 
Die activities and most forceful characters of the township, the history 
of the latter, as a whole, is given, accoi'ding to the plan of this ciiapter. 
The fads arc taken fi-om -Iiidgc Uoynton's histoiy. 

I']r,YiiiA TowNsiiU' I'AicrrnoNEi) m IHIG 

Town Xo. (), in i-ange 17 (Klyi'ia), at the draft in April, 1807, was 
drawn by .lusliii MIy, ivogcr Ncwbui'y, -ionallifin Brace, Flijaii White, 


Eiiocli Perkins, a coiiipan}' composed of T{o<fer Newbury and olliers, 
.]olui II. Buell and Jonathan Dwij^ht. Tliey also drew tract :i, in the 
nineteenth range, annexed to the town to cfiualize it. These lands were 
divided between the owners, at the September term of the Supreme 
Court, in Portage County, in 1816. The south part of the town, about 
one-third of the whole, was set off to Justin Ely; the central part to 
Elijah White; 2,100 acres north of White's to Jonathan Brace; and 
the remainder to Perkins and Newbury. White conveyed to Justin 
Ely, and Justin Ely to his son, Ileiiian Ely, who purchased the Praee 
tract, making him the owner of 12,500 acres, in a solid body. 

Pioneer Villagers 

In 1816 Ileman Ely left his home in West Springfield, :\lassachu- 
setts, to visit the lands of his father, soon to become his, in the above 
numbered town. In due time he arrived, and took up his abode at the 
hotel of Capt. IMoses Eldred, in Ridgeville, about two miles east of the 
river. During the season he engaged Jedediah Ilubbell and a I\Ir. Shep- 
ard, of Newburgh, to erect a sawmill and gristmill on the east branch 
of the river, near the foot of the present Broad Street, and in the fall 
of that year returned to Massachusetts. The erections contracted for 
were made during the winter of 1816-17. As stated, in January, Rode- 
rick Ashley, Edwin Bush and James Porter arrived from West Spring- 
field, with axes on their shoulders, prepared to grapple with the forest 
along the Black' River. In February, 1817, Mr. Ely, Artemus Beebe, 
Ebenezer Lane, Luther Lane, Miss Ann Snow, and a colored boy called 
Ned, left Massachusetts for Ohio, and in :\Iarch joined the company that 
came on in the winter. Ebenezer Lane, afterward, and for niauy years, 
occupied with much distinction a place upon the bench of the Supreme 
Court of the state. 

The party, on their arrival, took up their abode in a log house, built 
the previous year by ]\Ir. Ely, and the first structure of any kind erected 
in the town. Previous, however, to its occupancy, and in November, 
1810, a family by the name of Beach had located in the western part 
of the town. George Douglas and Gersham Danks arrived in April, 
1817. Pestus Cooley arrived from ^lassachusetts, ]May 28th, having 
made the entire distance on foot, and on the next day look charge of 
the mills on the river. There were now at least eleven i)ersoiis on i\w. 
townsite, and work was at once commenced in earnest. 



'I'lic first Irainc building was tlic one occupied duriii;^ the first season 
for a joiner siioj) and tliereai'ter, for many years, for a store. Edmund 
West opeiKHl the first store in 1818. Tlie second frame building was 
for tlie residence of Mr. Ely. At the raising, as was customary in those 
times, men from many miles away were present, to i)ut tlieir shoulders 
to tile bent, and assist their neighbor in providing a habitation. All 
were considered neighbors within a distance of twenty miles. While 
buildings were being erected the forest was being felled. 

Clark Eldred, then twenty yefirs of age, in 1816, upon ]\Ir. Ely's 
first visit here, entered into a contract with him for the purchase of 
lot No. 16, two and a half miles west of the river; and during the 
winter of 1816-17 commenced to clear the ground upon which he spent 
nearly a life. This was the first chopping in the neighboriiood. 

J Township and Village Surveyed 

In 1817 the survey of the township and village was commenced by 
Joshua Ilensliaw, a skillful surveyor, and continued until completed. In 
the fall of 1817 Ileman Ely and the two Lanes returned to Massachusetts, 
and spent the most of the winter. In October, 1818, IMr. Ely again 
visited the East; was made happy while there by his marriage to Miss 
Celia Belden, returned to Elyria, and directed renewed energies to the 
development of the town. 

The first schoolhouse was built in 1819, of logs, just east of the 
river; and for years it served the double purpose of a schoolhouse and 
a church. Not far distant, and in the same year, Cliester Wright 
erected a distillery, one of the most flourishing institutions of pioneer 
times. The first village lot sold was to Artemus Beebe and George 
Douglas, carpenters and builders. The consideration paid was $32. 
As noted, the Beebe Tavern was erected thereon. INIaj. Calvin Iloadley, 
of Columbia, in the same year, as one of Mr. Ely's employes, built a 
Ijridge over the east branch of the Black River. 

PosTOFKiCE Established 

In May,. 1818, a postoffice was estalilished under tlie name of Elyria, 
and on the 2;]d of tiie month i\lr. Ely was appointed i)ostmaster, and 
continued in the office until April, ^H'^'.], when he was succeeded by 
.lohii S. Matteson. 


Township EinxTEo 

On tlie 2()tli of OcIoIkt, IHl!), tlu; Towiisliip ol" Klyriu was (iiTctcMl. 
licsidcs its i)i't;s(;nt tcri-ilory, it tlicii ciuhraLcd wliat is now Uu; Townsliij) 
of Carlisle, which bcL-anie an independent orf^ani/.ation in Jnne, 1822, 
after which Elyria Township retained its sepai-ate eivil administration. 

Elyria City op Today 

Elyria is a busy and handsome city, and well worthy of its honor as 
the eivil and ])olitii'al center of the eoniity. Sueh huildings as tiio 
eourthouse, the Masonic Temple, tlu; Y. >M. (!. A., the liiyh school, the 
Memorial Hospital and sovei-al of its chnrches, would ho creditahlc 
to any city in the state, while the large soldiers' monument in the 
courthouse square indicates its standing as a patriotic community. 
Commencing with Judge Ely's mills, first erected on what is now 
J\lain Street, and the establishment of the first considerable manu- 
factory at Elyria by the Lorain Iron Comjjany iu 18:^2, Elyria has 
developed her industrial life to a larger extent than most county seats. 
That statement will become evident in the detailed account which is 
elsewhere given, and four solid banks stand behind the local industry, 
commerce and trade. Sucli general statements regarding IClyria are 
made to fill out the bird's-eye view covering the jjrincijjal events in 
file seftlemenf and composition of ].,orain County. 


TIh! (irst settler of town No. (i, range liJ, lying along Lake Ei'ie and 
then a part of Huron County, was Col. Henry Brown, from Stock- 
bridge, ^Massachusetts. He was accompanied by Peter P. Pease, Charles 
"Whittlesey, William Alverson and William Lincoln, who assisted Colo- 
nel Brown iii building his house, as did Seth and Rensselaer 
Cooley. ]\ and Cooley returned to the East for the winter. Alver- 
son, Lincoln, Pease and Whittlesey remained on the ground. In after 
years iMr. Whittlesey became distinguished not only as a general in the 
Civil war, but as an arclueologist and historian. He was the founder 
of the Western Reserve Historical Society and its president for many 
years. The Township of Brownhelm is named in honor of the leader 
of the original colony, of wiiich ('olonel Whittlesey was a meml)er in tlie 
period of his young manhood and obscui'ify. Petei- P. Pease was tin* 
lirst settler of Oberlin. 

On the 4th of .Ldy, 1817, the families of Levi Shepard, Sylvester 


Banmiii and Stephen James arrived in Brownlielm Towiiship, and after 
celeln-atinj^ the J^'oiirth on the sliore, entered upon jjioneer life near the 
lof^ of lirovvn. These W(M-e tlie lii'.st raitiilics tliul setth;d in the 
town. During the same year the Tamilies of Solomoii WhiUlesey, Alva 
('urtis, iieii.jamin Baeon and Elteiiezer Scott arrived. In 1818 many 
otiier families were added, giving hope of a speedy filling up of the 
town. They were those of Colonel Brown, (Jrandison Fairehild, Anson 
('uoj)i'r, Klisiia I'eek, Ceorge Baeon, Alfreil Avery, Knos Cooley, Orrin 
Sage, John Graham and others. There were other families that arrived 
and settled in the south i)art of the town, suhsecpiently set otf to Hen- 
rietta. Tliey will he named in connection with the mention of that 
town. The first framed house in the town was huilt hy Benjamin 
iiacon. The hrst brick house in the county was Ituilt by (Jrandison 
Fairehild in the summer of 1819. 

TowNSiup Ckil\T£d and Organized 

From February, 1817, until October, 1818, the town was a part of 
Black River. At the latter date, on the petition of the inhabitants to 
the commissioners of Huron County, No. 6, in the nineteenth range, 
together with the surplus lands adjoining west, and all lands lying west 
of Beaver Creek, in No. 7, eighteenth range (Black River), was organ- 
ized into a sejjarate township by the name of Brownhelm. Colonel 
Brown had the honor to select the name. Township officers were chosen 
at the spring election in 1811), held at the house of George Bacon. Cal- 
vin Leonard, Levi Shepard and Alva Curtis were elected trustees ; 
Anson Cooper, township clerk; AVilliam Alverson, trea.surer; Benjamin 
Bacon and Levi Shepard, justices of the peace. This perfected the 
township organization. That part of the present Town of Black River 
lying west of Beaver Creek was, in June, 1829, by order of the commis- 
sioners, detached from Brownhelm, and reannexed to Black River. 

Settlement of Russia Township 

The original proprietors of Russia Township were Titus Street and 
Isaac ]\lills, the latter selling his interest to Samual Hughes before set- 
thnnent actually commenced. In 1817, Thomas Waite moved his family 
fi-om Ontario C!ounty, New York, and resided in Amherst until th(! 
spi'ing of 1818, when he moved into Russia Township, taking up a pi(!C(^ 
of land in its noi'tliwest corner, north of the road leading fi'nin AVebli's 
Cornel's 1() Henrietta. Tliere, a few years aflerwai'd, he died, llie (ii'st 
settler in Hie townsiiip. 

bi(fi muiithH 


111 1820 the west road began to be opened, and Daniel Rathburne 
and Walter and Jonathan Jiuek, with their families, settled in the town 
iu that year. Jn 1821, the I'aiiiilies ot John i\leCauh;y and Lyruan 
Wakely were added. Tliey were followed in 1822 by Samuel T. Wight- 
man and Je.sse Smith, witll their families. In 1823, Jolm Maynes joined 
the settlement, and in 1824, Aleeker, George and Jonathan Disbro, 
Daniel Axtell, Abraham Wellman, Israel Cash, Richard Rice, James R. 
Abbott, and Henry and John Thurston took up their abode there. Some 
of these may have moved in, in 1823. They were soon followed by Elias 
Peabody, Samuel K. Alellen, Lewis D. Boynton, El)er Newton, Joseph 
Carpenter and otliers. Whether the first schoolhouse was built just 
north of Eber Newton's, or near the residence of Alonzo Wright, is in 
dispute. There was one at each place at an early day. 

Founding of Oberlin 

Until 1833 the southern part of tlie township was unbroken ground 
and largely dense forest. In the spring of that year, Peter P. Pease, 
one of the Brownhelm pioneers and the advance guard of the Oberlin 
colony, erected his log cabin opposite where the Park Hotel now stands 
and on college ground. 

Messrs. Street and Hughes, proprietors of the town, had donated 
upwards of 500 acres of land to the contemplated Oberlin Collegiate 
Institute, and had sold to its friends 5,000 acres more at .1<1.50 per acre. 
The resale of that tract at $2.50 an acre provided the fund that founded 
the college, and thus was firmly established the most important move- 
ment and institution which had originated within the bounds of Lorain 

The annual report of the institute for 1834, the second year of its 
life, has the following: "One and a half years ago, its site was unin- 
habited and surrounded by a forest three miles square, which has since 
been taken by intelligent and pious families, which have formed a- 
settlement called Oberlin Colony that will soon prol)ably over.spread the 
entire tract. This site was chosen because it was supposed to be healthy, 
eouhl be readily api)roaclied by western lakes and canals, and yet was 
suffieiently remote from the vices and temptations of large towns, and 
because extensive and fertile lands could here be ol)taiiied for the manual 
lal)or (U'liartinent of this Institute and for tlu; settlement of a sustain- 
ing colony on better terms than elsewhere. Its grand olgect is the 
difl'u.sion of useful science, sound moi-ality and true I'cligion, among the 
growing nudtitudes of the Mississippi valley. One of its ol)jeets was 
the elevalion of female character, and included witliin its genei-al design 


was tlio t'ducatioM of tlio coiiiiiioii people with tlie Iiij^lier classes in such 
iiiaiiiier as suits the nature of repuhlieau institutions." 

Russia Tuwnsuu' Okuanizkd 

When Hlaek River was organized in February, 1817, by the com- 
missioners of Huron County, tiie lands adjoining the present township 
of Amherst, on the south, were aiuie.xed to enable the itduibitants to 
enjoy township privileges. The inhabitants of Russia remained so 
anne.xed, until June, 1825, at which time, on petition of many of her 
citizens,, it was detached from Black River l)y tlie commissioners of 
Lorain County and incorporated into a separate township. The elec- 
tion of township officers was had at a log schoolhouse on the hill near 
Wright's in the summer of 1825, it being a special election ordered for 
the purpose of perfecting the township organization. At this election, 
George Disbro, Israel Cash, and Walter Buck, were elected trustees ; 
Richard Rice, clerk ; and Daniel Axtell, justice of tlie peace. 

First Yel\.r of Pioneeuing in Grakton 

The pioneer settlers of what is now Grafton Township also came 
into that part of the county after the War of 1812 had spent its force 
and it seemed safe to locate in the region of the great lakes. The town- 
ship was then attached to IMedina County. Settlement commenced in 
1816. In May of that year, from fifteen to eighteen men left Berk- 
shire County, Ma.ssachusetts, and journeyed hither for the purpose of 
selecting and locating lands for which they either had exchanged or 
were to exchange, lands owned by them in that state. Among these 
men were Jonathan Rawsoii, John and George Hibley, Seth C. and 
Thomas Ingersoll, sons of I\Iajor William Ingersoll and brothers of Mrs. 
Harriet Nesbit. The selection was made and all returned East, except 
the Sibleys, and the men employed by Rawsou to remain and work at 
clearing the forest. 

In the fall of that year, IMaj. William Ingersoll moved his family 
into the town, arriving on November 4th. He settled just east of 
Kingsley's Corners, on land selected by his sons in the spring. The 
journey was made with a span of horses, and three yoke of oxen. A 
small shanty bad been built on tiie land of the Sil)lcys, and upon their 
invitation il was occupied by the fainily of Major Ingersoll foi- about 
two weeks, during which time In- and Ihe boys erccled a log house upon 
land of his own. 

In l'\'luuary, 1SI7, the family of William Critlemlcii arrived. This 
was familv No. 2. 


Jii tlie iiioiitli of :\lar(;li following, ciimc the families of the Rawsons, 
]iou{,'hto)is, Siljleys and Nesl)it.s; and a little later in the same season the 
j'amili<'s of (Jai)t. William Twrn(!r, Aaron Root, and I'.ildad lieidin ; 
and Jiot loiif,^ al'Uir tlu; family of David Ashley. An attack was at onee 
made upon the thick forest, and within twelve months from the arrival 
of Major Ingersoll, twelve log houses were erected, that gave shelter to 
jiinety-seven persons. During the following year, additions were made 
l)y the arrival of many other families. 

Township Incorporated 

Medina County was not civilly organized until January, 1818, and 
on the 25th of the following July its connnissioners incorporated the 
Township of Grafton. At the first election held in August, 1818, 
Eliphalet Jones, William Ingersoll and William Ji. Crittenden were 
elected trustees; AVilliam Bishop, clerk; Reuben Ingersoll, trea.surer; 
David Ashley, appraiser of property; Grindel Rawson and Seth C. 
Ingersoll, fence viewers. Previous to the organization of the township, 
it had been attached to Liverpool for judicial purposes, and in April, 
1818, Reuben Ingersoll had been elected justice of the peace at the 
election held in that town. 

The first school was taught by Miss I\Iary Sibley in 1818, in the 
log house built near the residence of Cajit. William Turner. During 
the same year a churcii was organized l)y Rev. T. Brooks. 

Village of Grafton 

Grafton Village, which is eight miles southeast of Elyria, is a place 
of about 1,000 people, divided by the line between Grafton and Eaton 
townships, the bulk of the commuinty lying in the former. Some years 
ago it was an important center of the stone industry, l)ut the growth of 
the cement business, and the use of artificial material in the construc- 
tion of bridges and building, so seriously interfered with the quarry- 
ing of stone that only one live quarry remains at that place. That 
is a branch of tlie Cleveland Stone Company operating under the name 
of the Grafton Stone Company, and its output consists chiefly of grind- 
stones. The only other considerable business concern of the place is the 
(Jrai'ton Jjumber and Consti'uction (.'ompany. The village corporation 
(laics from 1S82. 

Wkllin(;ton',s Oruiinal Owni;ks an'd Skttlkrs 

Allliough the Duke of Wellington was still a hero of the day when 
Ihc pioncci- scillcrs cnnic inlo Wclliii^ldii T(»\vnslii|i, am! even when il 


was organized ])olitically, tlio origin of tlie iiaino is directly traced 
to one William Welling, a New Yorker, who was of tlie original hand 
of eiiiigrants. Settlement commenced in ]H\H and lln; township was 
oi'^'anizcd three yeai's latei-. 

lOjiiiraim Jioot anil .James Jioss were the original owners, and they 
sold the town to Frederick Ilaudin, James Adams, Francis llerrick and 
Ilai-mon Kingshnry, of Berksiiire County, JMassachusetts ; two of these, 
Adams and Kingshury, never hccame residents of the town. In the 
spring of 1818, the settlement of the town was commenced. Epiiraim A. 
Wilcox, John Clifford, Charles Sweet and Joseph Wilson, of Berkshire 
County, ^Massachusetts, and AVilliani AVelling, of Montgomery County, 
New York, reached Grafton in Fehruary of that year, and in ^March 
following cut their path through to Wellington. They maile an open- 
ing to the sunlight at the center of the town, and at once liuilt a log 
cahin for habitation. They carried a few blankets and bed ticks, filling 
the ticks with dry leaves. The bedstead was constructed by driving 
four ci-otched stakes in the ground, laying poles fi-om stake to stake, 
and placing white oak shakes from pole to pole. Upon this structure 
they placed their leafy bed, and upon tliis bed their weary limbs. Having 
provided a ilwelliug they at once conunenceil to clear the forest. As 
often as once a week two of the luimber went to (irafton, a distance of 
tell miles, to get their bread baked. The number and ferocity of wild 
animals made it dangerou.s for one to go alone. There being two, eaeii 
coiislituled a body guard for the other. 

Arrival of Fhjst Family 

('litford returned to jMassaeliusetts in the following ]\Iay. On July 
4t]i, of the same year, Frederick Hamlin arrived, accompanied by the 
wife of AVilcox, her son Theodore, Caroline Wilcox, and Dr. I). J. Johns. 
l>efore their arrival, AVilcox had erected a log house on land selected 
by him northwest of the center, into which he at once took his family. 
This was the first family that made its advent into the town. Othei's 
were soon added, among wiiom were of John llowak, Alaiisoii 
Tlowak, AVhitman De W^olf, P.enjamin Wadsworth, Silas Hailey, Amos 
Adams, Judson AVadsworth, James Wilson and Josiaii Bradley. 

In the spring of 1820, the lii'st sciioolhoiise was opened in the house 
of .{(jjin Clifford by ('aroline Wilcox. 

l''riMlcii(k Hamlin was one of the associate judges in the county, 
appointed in 1824, upon its organizalion. lie was succeeded in that 
office by his fellow townsman, Dr. D. J. Jolins. 



Tlio townsliip was orgnuy^d in April, 1821. it was then a i)art of 
Mediiiu County. Ilainliu was elected a trustee; Wilcox a justice of the 
peace, aud D. J. Johns township clerk. Colonel Ilerrick had been a 
meniber of the Massachusets Legislature while a resident of Massa- 
chusetts. He did not remove here until 1837. 

Wellington Village 

Wellington, as a village, came into historic prominence in the late 
'50s because of the rescue of a fugitive slave from the hand of a United 
States marshal and two Kentuckians on his way to his southern owners. 
In later years it became one of the leading cheese centers of the country, 
and has developed into a clean, substantial and progressive village of 
some 2,200 people. It has two banks, a number of manufactories, a 
handsome town hall, modern water works and electric light facilities, a 
well-organized school system and churches to meet the requirements of 
all its residents. 

The settlement at Wellingt;)n, or the Center, dates from the first 
influx of residents as early as 1818-19, but its standing as a leading 
center of trade and higher activities 1)egins with the construction of the 
Cleveland, Colunilius and Cincinnati Railroad, chiefly through the per- 
sistency and ability of its Dr. D. Z. Johns, in 184!)-r)(). That line gave 
Wellington control of much of the southeastern part of the county, and 
the pcniianent growth of the village, which was incorporated in 1855, 
was assured from that time and l)y that event. 

Township of Huntington 

In February, 1818, about the time that IMessrs. Hamlin, Wilcox and 
Clifford left Berkshire County, Massachusetts, to establish homes in 
AVellington Township, Joseph Sage, John Laborie and others departed 
from Huntington, Connecticut, for the town immediately to the south. 
It was then simply No. 2, range 18, but in 1822 was incorporated as 
Huntington, in honor of the Connecticut Village. 

TiiK LAiioiiiKs AN'i) ()tiii;i{, I^'amu.iks 

Joiin liuboric and wil'e (tlie latlei' being llie daughter of .Mr. Sage) 
weiH' llh! parents of the lirsl rainily that took up its settlement in the 
(own. They li'j'l in February, IHJH, aceoiupanietl by four boys and ;i 


gii-1. Tlu'y made tlio route; I'roiii Coiiiiueticnt to Ihulsoii, tlieu in Port- 
ai^e county, in four weeiis, travolinj,' tlie whole distance in a sleigh. At 
Stow tlicy hired an ox team to take thcin tiirou^h, and after six days 
of severe journey, they reached town No. 1 (yidlivan)., then liaving 
hut four families — settlers of the previous year — within its boi'ders. 
On the next day, they moved forward and took ])ossession of a log 
tiiat had been built by Henry Chase. Tliere was an opening for a door, 
but nothing to till or close it; no window nor cliimney. The cracks, or 
openings between the walls, had not been chinked. They had one neigh- 
bor. He had just preceded them in settlement, and was from Eastou, 
New York. Laborie at once erected a log house, and moved into it, 
and there lived for some three weeks, without a window, floor or chim- 
ney. The bedsteads were made of puncheons, and the beds were ticks 
filled with leaves. The boys chopped some poles, placed them on the 
joists above, making a chamber and took up their lodging in the loft. 
Sage went South, bought some hogs, drove them home, butchered them 
and salted them down in a trough. The trough cracked, the brine ran 
out, the salt lost its savor and away went the pork. , 

^Irs. Laborie was not, however, to remain long without female 
friends from her Eastern home. On the 20th of June, of the same 
year, the family of Jsaae Sage arrived. In the afternoon of tiie day of 
their arrival, liiey were feasted on a pot-i)ie, made of the meat of a 
young bear. 

Wooden Bowl Factory 

Early in fall, there came the families of Oliver Rising and Daniel 
Tillotson. Benjamin Rising came with Oliver. The first framed dwell- 
ing was built by Reuel Lang. 

Benjamin Rising was the first manufacturer of the town. J. B. 
Lang thus describes his manufactory: "It was a latlie, operated by a 
spring-i)ole, for turning wooden bowls. A bark rope, attached to a long 
spring-pole, overhead, passing around the mandrel, which was of wood 
and attached to a treadle below. The treading on this threw the block 
around two or three times, and then the pole springing back threw 
the block back, ready for another 'gouge.' " 

Organization op the Township 

In August, 1822, the commissioners of Medina County, to which 
Huntington then belonged, incorporated the town by the name it now 
bears. It took its name from Huntington, Connecticut, the former abid- 

• aW 


iiig place of flu! Ljihorics. Tho organization also ciiibracL'd tlic new 
U'l'rilory now witliin llio lownsliip of liochoster. An election was iield 
ii|t()n llic first Monday oi.' Scpti-iiihcr, ]H22. -Joscpli Sai^c, lli-nry K. 
.l*'eiTi.s and Jienjainin Uanniiij^ were ehieted trnstees; Isaac Saj?e, town- 
sliij) clerk; and David J"]. Ilickox, treasurer. Joseph h5age was elected 
tile first juslice of the peace at a special election held soon after. 

Penfield Township Rightly N.vmed 

Penfield Township has an appropriate name, as its first settler was 
thus dcsig-nated and for several years after he located the majority of 
its inhabitants were Penfields. liefore it was incorporated under that 
name it was designated by the surveyors as township No. S, range 17. 
By the draft it became the proi)erty of Caleb Atwater, who gave it to 
his six daughters, Lucy Day, Ruth Cook, Abigail Andrews, IMary Heebe, 
Sarah I\Ierrick and the wife of Judge Cook. 

The first exploration of the township b.y persons seeking western 
lands, was in the fall of 181S, by Peter Penfield and Calvin Spencer, 
then residents of Kastern New York. TJiey were assisted in their 
examination of the township by James Ingersoll, of Grafton, after wliich 
they returned to the East. 


In 1819, Peter Penfield again came, and selected land, emjjloyed 
Seth C. Ingersoll to erect a log house upon it, and returned home. 
Ingersoll completed the dwelling in the fall of that year. In February 
the next, Peter Penfield and Lothrop Penfield arrived and in connection 
with Alanson, a son of Peter, already on the ground, and who remained 
during the winter preceding and taught school in Sheffield, commenced 
to open the forest four miles from the nearest inhabitant. 

In the fall of 1820, or early winter, Truman Penfield arrived with 
his family, the first that came, and moved into the log house built by 
Ingersoll. In the following I\Iarch, the family of Peter Penfield, which 
up to this time had remained ICast, arrived and joined in the occupancy 
of the log cabin, until another could l)e erected. 

l>\\Mn,iKs (^r (!.\LViN Si-knoiou and OriiKits 

Calvin Spencei* came again in 1821, selected land, engaged i'eter 
Penfield to build a house upon it, and returned to New York. In the 
fall of 18U1, Samuel i\niipp came, examined tlii- land, made a selection 

>^! r 


and rc'tui-ncd home, and ivniainod tlu'i-e until the fall of 1822, when 
with liis family he took ui) his ahode in the infant setthuiient, npon the 
lands so selected. (Jther families soon followed. Diivid I'. Merwin 
arrived in 1824. Calvin Speiieei' moved his family into the liouse pre- 
pared for him in the spring of the same year. The fanuly of Stephen 
lOiapp arrived about the same time, and the family of Benjamin E. 
Merwiu in 1825. 

The township was organized at an eleetion in 1825, held at the 
dwelling house of Truman Penfield, having been previously ordered 
by the commissioners of ^Medina County, of which county the town then 
formed a part. The officers elected were Samuel Kuapp, Samuel Root 
and Peter Penfield, trustees ; Truman Penfield, clerk ; Lothro]) Penfield, 
treasurer. In 1826 Ben.jamin E. INFerwin was elected justice of the 
peace. Previous to its incorporation, the inhabitants had agreed iij^on 
Richland as the name of the town, and petitioned the conniiissioners 
for an order of incorporation by that name. But the conunissioners 
ascertaining there wei'e other localities having the name of Richland, 
rejected the application, and named it Penfield, in honor of the first 
settler. Previous to the organization of the town, it had l)een annexed 
to (irafton, and in connecMion with that town enjoyed townshi[) privi- 
leges until it was set apart to act under independent organization. 


As has been stated, Carlisle and Elyi-ia were organized together 
for civil purposes, in October, 1819, under the name of Elyria and as a 
township of Pluron County. Carlisle was detached and separately 
organized in June 4, 1822, on petition of Obed Gibbs and others. Pre- 
viously, a part of town 5 had acquired the name of Murraysville, but that 
was not satisfactory to the inhabitants who resided any considerable 
distance from IMurray's Ridge. Phineas Johnson, one of the first two 
settlers, wished the township named Berlin, after his native Connecticut 
town. So the citizens compromi.sed by naming the township neither 
Miirraysville nor Berlin, but Carlisle. 

Pioneer F-vrhlies Settle 

The first settlement of the town was madi' in the spi'ing of 1819, ])y 
Samuel Urooks, from IMiddletown, ('oiniectieid. lie was aeeompaiut'd 
by riiineas ffohnson, his wife's fathei-, who assisted in selecting the spot 
for their future home, -lohnson returned to Connecticut. A log house 
was soon erected, and in it Samuel Brooks took ui> his abode. This 



was oil the east hrauch of Black River, in tlie oast part of the town. 
In September of that year Ilezekiah Brooks, a ])rother of Samuel and 
Avhose wives were (hiuglitctrs of Pliineas Johnson; Capt. James Jirooks 
and I'atriily, tofjether with the families of Johnson and Riley Smith, 
left MiddletowQ, and after the usual tedious journey of about six weeks, 
with ox teams, I'eached Elyria. Smith and family remained at Elyria 
for a while, and then went into Carlisle. The families of the Brookses 
and Jolmsons pushed forward to Carlisle, and moved in with Samuel, 
and remained until other dwelling ])laces eould be provided. 

At about the same time that this settlement was making in the east 
part of the town another was springing up in the western part. The 






















{■ 'TTh 







H^^BBn.- ;:^'.Ai^iLJl 



Blakkslee'.s Old .Mill, Caklisle Township 

families of Jamison Murray, before then for some time residents of 
Ridgeville, and Philo ]\Iurray, and Philo, Jr., had taken up their resi- 
dence on the ridge, and Obed Gibbs and family, with Ransom and David, 
had settled further south. Soon afterward, the families of Solomon 
Sutliff, Chauncey Prindle, Bennett, Drakely, Ilurd and others were 
added. Prindle .settled at the center of the town. Abel Farr and Abel 
Farr, Jr., and John Baeon, were among the earliest residents of the 


Brighton township is a produet of tlie early '20s. Only a few set- 
tlers had located previous to its civil organization in 182;i Its pioneer 
settler was Abner Loveman, Jr., who located on tract 7 in 1820, and 


in tlie following year Joseph Kingsl)iu-y made liis home in tlie same 
locality, ijike most other good New iOiiglaiuh'rs, tliey brought their 
i'aiiiilies witli tliem. 

Had tlie territory comprised by the township lines been surveyed 
into a township, it would liave been town 3, range 19, and it was so 
entered on tlie county records at the date of its incorporation. It was, 
however, formed by the commissioners of ^ledina County, out of tract 
7, a part of tract 6, and a part of tract 8. 

Lemuel Storrs was the original owner of all of tract 8. He drew 
it at the draft in connection with Lagrange, to which it was annexed 
for equalization. Four thousand acres in tract 7, were annexed to Well- 
ington, to ecpialize it, and were drawn by Ephraim, Root and James Ross, 
in connection with that township, and tract 6 by Peter Brooks, John 
Call, William Shaw, George Black, and Bennewel Cheney. Some of 
these parties sold to, and others exchanged with Tuckerman Brothers, 
Ilarman Kingsbury, Norton, Stocking, Deming, Hamlin and Alford. 
Tuckerman Brothers sold to Levi Bliss, of ^Massachusetts. 

The township was organized at the spring election of 3 823. Joseph 
Kingsbury, Avory Hall, and Calvin Roice, were elected trustees; Leonard 
11. Loveland, clerk; Alnier Loveland, treasurer; and Abner Loveland, 
Jr., justice of the peace. There were twelve electors, just about the 
numlK'r of persons required to fill the offices in those days. The town- 
ship belonged to Lorain, as then formed, but, with other townships, 
remained attached to Jledina County, until the organization of Lorain 
was completed. 

Lagrange Township 

At the June session of tlie commissioners of Lorain County, town 4, 
range 17, was attached to Carlisle for civil and judicial purposes, and 
remained so attached until its separate organization, as Lagrange Town- 
ship, in January, 1827. The first election for township officers was held 
in April of that year at the residence of Fairchikl Hubbard. Eber AV. 
Hubbard, afterward one of the associate judges of the Common Pleas 
Court, was elected towoship clerk; James Disbrow, treasurer; Noah 
Holcomb, Noah Kellogg and Fairchild Hulibard, trustees, and Eber W. 
Iluliliard, justice of the peace. 

Town 4, range 17, with 3,70() acres in tract 8, range 19, now in 
Brigiilon ami Camden, was drawn by Henry Ciiampion and Lemuel 
Storrs, Champion owning two-tliirds and Storrs one-third of the pur- 
chase. Cham])ion conveyed his part of the town to liis son-in-law, Eiizur 
Goodrich, wlio exchanged i)art of it with Nathan Clark, Roger Phelj)s. 



Noali Ilolcoiiilt iiiul James I'clloii, I'oi' lands owiird liy tliciii in JcnVi'Sou 
(!()iin1y, New York, wlicrc llicy rornici-ly i-csidi'd. Tin- I hive last naini'd, 
ifi lliL- i'all of l«2r), visited the {ground to form u .jiidKmenI of its iiiei-its 
lor J'arnnn^' pni'poses, and I'eliirned lionie. (Joudrieli, also exeliaiiiJied 
lands with David Koekwood, Asa Jfockwood, Fairehild Hubbard, Joseuh 
Robbins, Sylvester ^Merriam and Levi Johnson. 

On .\ovend)er 14, 1825, Nathan Clark uv.nU'. the first settlement of 
the town. During the next season the families of Noah Iloleond), Syl- 
vester .Merriam, James Disbrow and Joseph A. Graves arrived for perma- 
nent settlement and a new abiding place. In the latter part of the same 
year, Fairehild Hubbard .moved in from Brighton, where he had re- 



mained during the reason of 1826. Population so increased, that in the 
fall of that year there were over sixty i)ersons resident in the town, 
with more continually coming. 

Lagrange is a little village of about 500 people, seven miles north- 
east of Wellington, on tlie Uig Four line. It i.s incorporated; has a good 
school, to aeeommfidate which a substantial liuilding was erected 
in 181)1 and an annex in 1!)15; a ivliahle bank; sevei-al churches 
aiul other evidences of intelligence, morality and progressiveness. 

Henrietta Township 

TTeiirietfa Township was organized from Tirowniielin in 1827, but it 
was eight years before it ac(|uii'ed its present form, in Novendiei'. 182U, 


the inhabitants in the soutli part of IJrownlielni, pL'titioiied tlie coinniis- 
sionors to taku oil' tlie three south tiers of lots, attaeli them to unsettled 
lands lying, soutli, and incorporate the same into a township. The i)(;ti- 
lioners took oeeawion to say, that it was seven miles from the lake shore 
to the south line of the towusliip; that there had been but little eomnui- 
nieatiou between the north and south settlements; and that if it was 
extrouiely inconvenient for a portion of the people to transact the pub- 
lic business of the town. The prayer of the petition was rejected, but 
at tlie same session of the commissioners it was ordered tliat tracts 9, 10, 
11, 12, 13, 14, 15, in range 19, with surplus lots lying west of said 
tracts, be erected into a township, by the name of Henrietta, and be 
atttaciied to Brighton for judicial purposes. The townsliip, as thus 
formed, inchuletl a large part of the present Townsliij) of Camdem, and 
a little more than two-thirds of Henrietta. 

As organized, it was not satisfactory to the inhabitants of tlie south 
part of Brownhelm, and in February, ]827, upon tlieir petition, two 
tiers of lots, being over a mile in wiiUh, were iletaclied from the soutli 
part of Brownhelm, and annexed to Henrietta; and tract No. 9, was 
detached from Henrietta, ami annexed to Brighton. An election was 
ordered for townsliip ofiiceis, wliich took place in Ai)i'il, LS27. Calvin 
J..eonard, Simeon Durand and Smith Hancock, were elected trustees; 
Justin Abbot, clerk; Joseph Powers, treasurer; Kdwai'd Durand, justice 
of tile i>eace. In ^March, lcS;{9, lots 86, 87, and 88, wei'e detached from 
lirowiihclm, and annexed to lleiirietla; and in March, 1835, lots 81, 82, 
83, 84 aiul 85, the remainder of the tier, were added. 

The settlement was on the Brownhelm Territory. The first 
occui)ants were Calvin Leonard, Simeon Durand, Ruloft' Andress, Joseph 
.Swift, John Denison, Uriali Hancock, Jedediah Holcomb, Aimoii IIol- 
comb, 0])ed Holcomb, Jo.seph Powers, tlie A))liots and possibly otiiers. 
They look up their abode there, in 1817, about tlio same time that 
the Shore Settlement was made. After the organization of the town, in 
1827, a postoffice was established on the hill, and 'Squire Aliliot appointed 
first postmaster. 

Camden TowNaiiu' 

Tlu' townshiiis of Camden and Rochestcir were organized by the eom- 
missiiiiHis of li'irain (Jounty in March, 1835. Camden Townshij) was 
carved out of Hrigliton and lleni'ietta. Tim j)r()longation of the line 
bel wccu Kiissia and Piltslield, west 1o range 20, was its noilheni 
bomidary, and the extension west to llie same range, of tlie line between 
Pill.sliclij and Wellinglon, its soiilhern. TrnelH !l and 10, and parl.s 


of lots 8 and 11, in ranf^'c ]9, tof,'(.'tlii'r with surplus lands lyinj,' west, 
J'oi-iiiud the material I'or its territorial eoiiijjosition. Tract !), by the 
dralt at llartford, hceaiiK; aiiiM;X(;(l to (Jrai'loii, and was drawn hy 
Leiinnjl Hturrs; tract 10, annexed to Dover, hy Neheniiah Hubbard and 
Joshua Storrs. Tract 11, annexed to I'ittsheld, was drawn hy Henry 
Champion and Lemuel Storrs. None of the lOth range south of Brown- 
helin, as originally formed was surveyed into townships, hut was all 
surveyed into tracts, which were originally annexed to other towns for 
purposes of equalization. 

Leonard Clark with his family, accompanied hy his wife's father, 
Closes Pike, made the lirst occupancy of land now forming the Town of 
Camden. This was in 1H2'.). The J'ainily livi'd there but a few years 
before moving West. In ]\larcli, 1S;5;{, the families of William Scott and 
John Johnston took up their settlement on tract 11. These were the 
first families that permanently settled, at least in that part of the town 
then constituting a part of Henrietta. Later in the season, a school- 
house was "thrown up" by the inhabitants, and Mrs. Johnston gathered 
the few children and opened the lirst school. Other settlers soon 
joined, among whom were those of Waugh, Clark, Douglas, AVasid)urn, 
Cyrenius, Holcomb, AVells, Lee, Wilcox, Smith and Eddy. On the (ith 
of April, 1835, the first election for township officers was held in the 
log schoolhouse, and resulted in the choice of Azel Washburn, Robert 
Douglas and Obed Holcomb, trustees; John Cyrenius, clerk; David 
Wells, treasurer. Gideon AVaugh was the first justice of the peace. 

Rochester Townsiiii' and Vill.\ge 

At the same session that Camden was set apart and organized into 
a township, lots 1 to 15, inclusive of tract 'S, with all of tracts -i and 5 
and a part of tract 6, in range 19, together with surplus lots, 9 to 14, 
inclusive, lying west of the range, with a jiart of surplus lot 8, were 
formed into the Township of Rochester. Tract No. 5, was drawn by 
Uriah Holmes, in connection with the Town of Litchfield, IMedina 
County; and tract 4, by Oliver Sheldon and others, was annexed to 
Huntington. The first settlement was made hy Elijah T. Baiuiing, in 
April, 18;n. Between ]8:{1 and 18:55 Benjamin C. Perkins, William 
Slicpard, rlohn (Jonaut, John Baird, Samuel Smith, Luther Blair, ffo-sepli 
IlatHcy, Nchcmiah Tuc.l<(;r, M. W. V\ Kay, lOrastus K'napp, Obijali 
W. Bahcock, John Peet and others, some with families, were joined to 
the .si'tllement. 

The township was organized on the 6th of April, 1835, by the election 
of John CoiiMut, Joseph liadley, and NeliciiiiMli Tuckci', trustees; 1\1. \j 

itilu^i It It: I II; 


Blair, elurk; Benjamin C. Perkins, treasurer. Tiie organization of 
Camden and Rochester, in March, 1835, completed the organization of 
the townships of tlie L'litire county. 

Rochester is a station and a village of perhaps 300 people on the 
Big Four line, half a dozen miles southwest of Wellington. It owes 
it« origin to the old Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad, 
whicli, largely through the energy and influence of Dr. I). Z. Johns, of 
Wellington, was put througli the southeastern i)art of the County, several 
miles south of Elyria and Oberlin. The earlier settlement in the town- 
ship was at the Center, although the postoffice of 1837 was at its south- 
east comer. But with the construction of the railroad in 1849-50 the 
postoffice was moved to the Station and not a few residents transferred 
their interests tliither from the Center. The first store at the Station 
was opened in 1848. 

Revolutionary Soloier Buried in Eaton Township 

One ()[' the very few Revolutionary soldiei-s buried in Lorain County 
is Geoi'ge Fauver, whose remains lie in Butternut Cemetery, Eaton 
Township. Among his descendants are such men as L. B. Fauver, Ross 
Fau\'cr, L. 1). llaiidin and Julian Fauver of Elyria and L. A. Fauver, 
of Lorain; also ]\Iable Ciibsoii, of Oljerlin, and the I\Iunn and Lyons 
I'aiuilics, of lOaton Township. 



A Centennial IIekald — Earliest Record op Lake Shore Region — The 
Sjiitix Tiuvels — Relics of French Adventurers — Rising ok the 
Lake Level — Avon's Mysterious First Settler — Avon Through 
A Hundred Years — Physical Features — Phcrrki'ont Edwards, 
Original Proi'Rietor — Permanent Colony Arrives (1814) — 
WiLiiUR Cahoon Founds First Permanent Faahlv — Orkjinal 
Cahoon Tract — DivVth of Wilbur Cahoon — Nicholas Young — 
Lewis' Austin — OTiiut Families Join Colony — Elaii Park — The 
Sweet Family — First Settler in French Lick YiLLA(iE — 'I'iie 
Stickney and Williams Famimios — First IOvknts — Industries — 
Religious IMatters^I'ioneeu Schoolhouse — Holy Trinity Church 
— Cueese-RIaking Auandoned — Curious Mounds Razed — Avon's 
Patriotism — The Sheffield Centenniai, — Norman Day Descrihes 
First Colonists — The Burrkli.s ExplorI': — Wallace, First Tem- 
porary Settler — Four Settlers in Winter of 1815-16 — First 
Woman and Pioneer Family — Arrival of the Day and Burrell 
Families — Captain Smith and Family — Other Burrells Come — 
Churches Organize — First Events — Township Oi;ganizati()n — 
Death op Captain Smith — Other ^Members of the Family— De- 
cease OP Pioneers — Historic Contributions PRt)M jMiss ]\Iav Day — 
]}uilding the Saw-IMill on French Creek— Grist and Saw-I\Iill 
— Other IMills — Brick Houses — Settling in a Duck Pond — The 
Burrells and Hecocks — The Root Family— The Days — Items 
About Pioneers (lENEiauLv — Two Cnsuccessful Institutions — • 
Ship Builders and Lake Captains — Gold Hunters of l<s4!)-r)0 — 
Judge William Day, Active Land 7\(;ent — The Parks Families 
— Siii:ffield in the Civii, War— ]\Iilton Garfield — Sheffield's 

IllSTOIiV, l<S()r)-l!)ir» I''|RST Ii'AILROAD l)lv\TII Ol' l\OBItlNS l)URRi;i,L 

— Second Railroad — h\\TALiTV to I'Idward Uikuell — Woods 
Li;vi:ui':i) for Sti;i;l I'lant — I'^ius'i' Siioi£'i' liiNE Sti!EI:t Car — I^ast 
Ol'' Till'', Day rioNEi''.KS — l^'iitsT Cak o\i:u tiii'. MmsCTIgc -I'IigiitiI'.tii 




Rural Free Dei.ivery — Jnuustwai. A1atter.s — Deaths of 1815-16 


Natives — The German Residents — Hr. Theresa's Catiiomc 
Church — Details of the Sheffield Celebration — The Absent 
Ones — Historic Programme — Huntington 's Home-Coming — 
Myron T. Heruick, Native Son— Professor F. D. Ward— The His- 
toric Kelsey JiAND — Plans for a Centennial — The Perry Cen- 
tennial — Local Particii'ation — The Niagara Raised from the 
Lake Bottom — Grand Welcome to the Restored Flagsuu' — 
Perry Relics Exhibited. 

In the years 1914 and 19L5 oeeiirred various historic celebrations of 
special interest to tlie old I'esidents in the territory and townships border- 
ing Lake Erie. There were honie-eoniings of both families and sections, 
marking the passage of a century since the pioneers of the lake region 
in Lorain County tirst planted themselves therein for tlie benefit of the 
generations whieli were to follow. Some of their descendants yet 
remained in tiieir tracks, but most of them had ventured into other 
counties and states. 

A Centennial Herald 

During tlie early period of tliis eenteiuiial season of celebrations and 
reminiscences a wortliy herald appeai'ed in tlie columns of the Lorain 
Times-Herald, with the following message: "The time is a])proi)riate 
for mentioning tliat the centennial anniversary of the settlement of that 
portion of tiie Lake Shore lying Itetween iilack River and Rocky River 
is near at hand, and that people should he gathering their reminiscences 
for the occasion. Tile townshii)s of Black River, Siietiield, Avon and 
Dover are comprised within tliese Iioundarics. Eacli of these townsliips 
will have its own tale to relate aliout the early settlers and their descend- 
ants, reciting also matters relating to the life and improvements of the 

IOauijest Rkcoui) of FiAKK Shore Ri^ciox 

"The earliest record of this i)arj of Ohio belongs in cominon to all 
llies.' t()wnshi|)s, before their present boundaries were strictly marked. 
The (iist reference to this lake region hitherto discovered is contained in 
Chai'levoix' History of New Kranc, piiblished in 17-U. Speaking of 
1li(! soiitliern sJHHv of j^nke i'lrie IJic imllini- says: 'All ihi.s ,s||,,iv is 



nearly unknown. ' There is also an old French map made in 1755 to be 
seen in the rooms of the Western Reserve Historical Society in Cleve- 
land. This map shows the country west of the Cuyahoga to the San- 
dusky River, and this region, which includes the northern townsliips of 
Lorain Comity is designated as the seat of war, the mart of trade and 
the chief hunting grounds of the six Indian nations of the lake. 

TijE Smith Travels 

"In the spring of 1755 one, James Smith, eighteen years of age, was 
captured near Bedford, Western Pennsylvania, by Indians from the 
lake region. He was adopted into their tribe and remained with them 

Centennial Ia)g Cabin, Elvria 

until 1760, wlien he rejoined his own people, rose to the rank of Colonel, 
and wrote an account of his adventures with his Indian friends. His 
memoir was first published l)y James Taylor, a journalist of Sandusky, 
in tlie first volume of his history of Ohio. 

"Smith first saw Lake Krie six miles west of Black River and tells 
how he Avas impressed by the roar of thu storm-driven waves. After 
the storm subsided he, with the Indians, traveled east to the mouth 
of Black River on the sand bcadi along the shore. lie tt'lls of seeing 
ii nnmlier of large; (isli which had been stranded on the hea(;li in iiollows 
in the sand by the foi-cc of llic waves tiial, on I'cceding, iiad left tlicni 
tlicre. At tile mouth of the river was a eauip or town of tlie Wyandots. 
Thi'y spent some time at the camp making hunting expeditions as far 


soutli as the falls of Black River, now Elyria. They found abundance 
of t?anie — deer, lieai', I'aeeoons, etc. — and loaded tluniiselves witli fur. 
Tlienee, with ])a(:kK of furs, they took an easterly course ami camped for 
the winter of 1755-56 on the banks of Rocky River, where they found 
much provision of game, etc., and in February made sugar. Starting 
the latter part of i\Iarch the party made their way along the shore of 
Lake Erie to Sandusky, where was a French trading post. There they 
bartered their furs for clothes, paint and tobacco and whatever else 
they fancied. After this they again moved east, this time in cauoes, 
along the shore, landing at the mouth of the Cuyahoga. They spent the 
winter of 1756-57 on the banks of this stream and in the spring, making 
a large chestnut canoe, they had a fine voyage along the south shore of 
tho lake as far as Sandusky, when, a storm coming up, they landed on 
Cedar Point. Those who wish to read the further adventures of Colonel 
Snutli may find them published in Howe's historical collections of Ohio, 
Vol. II, page 580. 

"Here we have a little ray of light thrown on the dark primeval 
forests of northern Ohio. P\dl of game they were — deer, bear, raccoons, 
wild turkeys— but we see the Indians 2)ref erring the water route to going 
too far into the umbrageous wilderness. The lake also furnished them 
with fish, although Smith relates that they were unskilful fishermen. 
The country then was claimed by the French who had a trading j^ost at 

"As to the subsequent settlement and legal organization of these 
townships much may be learned from an address delivered by Judge 
AV. W. Boynton on July 4, 1876, on the early history of the Western 
Reserve and Lorain County, which must always remain a most valuable 
foundation for any future history. More details of these early days are, 
however, very desirable, especially as to the Lake townships. Judge. 
Boynton speaks of the difiiculty of obtaining accurate information. He 
says: 'P'ew of the early settlers are left to recount the incidents, priva- 
tions and rude pleasures of early life. Tradition is not always reliable, 
and memory, once fresh and faithful, fades with advancing years.' If 
this were so in 1876, the difficulties now, thirty years later, are cor- 
respondingly increased. 

"Nevertiielcss, much may undoubtedly be yet collected by those 
interested in the sid).ject. There are local tales and traditions that no 
person uiiaidetl could well gather. JMuch may be gleani'd from old deeds, 
wills and other records, and there is a later history that can be readily 

Vul. I- i 


Rklics of Fhencii Adventuijes 

"111 Avon, I'or instance, there is a graveyartl on tlie shore where 
'tlie rude fore fat liers of the liaiiilet sleei>' eluse to tlie sounding hike tiiey 
loved so well in life. Tradition siiy.s tliis plat was used for burial pur- 
poses long before the settlers, wliose deseendants now live there, arrived. 
And the original graves found in this God's aere were not Indian gi-aves. 
The story told is that tliey are the graves of Freiieli soldiers or traders 
who died on tiieir voyages to and fro on the lake. 

"A bronze or brass pipe, a reiiiiniseeiice of the Frencii traders, was, 
some years ago, dug out of a diteh near the bank of tlie lake, it was a 
cheap thing, evidently made for the trade, in the sliape of a tomahawk. 
The handle, tlie stem of the pipe, had rotted away, but the fleur de lis, 
the lilies of France, were conspicuous on the patterned surface of the 

Rising of the Lake Level 

"Traditions about the lake levels are interesting and, if well looked 
into, may even now prove of value. Some of the old settlers now dead 
used to say that the lake was much lower when the first settlements were 
made ; that the sand-bar now existing a short distance from the bank, 
but now always under water, was then, in ordinary weather, above the 
waves, and that between the sand-bar and the bank was a narrow strip 
of water. When tiie sea rose it would wash over the bar and throw 
fish into the water behind tiie bar where, when the sea went down, they 
would l)e trapped and could be easily caught. This may have been so. 
Fish were more abundant, and Smith seems to corroborate the tradi- 
tion when he says he saw the sands covered witii fish after a storm, 
and the gray and bald eagles feasting on them. These old settlers also 
told how the water afterward rose, and ascribed the higher level to 
the building of the wing dam on the Niagara River at Black Rock to 
impound water for the Erie Canal. The Erie Canal was completed in 
1825, but the dam may have been built later. Jf tiiis was the real cause 
of the higher water we can see the effect on our lake shore property if 
the recently proposed dam across the Niagara River to raise the lake 
level be ever constructed. 

"This tradition about the sand bar also relates tiiat before there was 
any road on tiie bank, tliis bar was used as a road and that the U. S. 
mail was carried upon it. .Judge Boynton states that the /ii-st mail west 
of Cleveland was carried by liorace (Jiin in LSOH, and that there were 
only two houses on the route over at Black River and one at i\lilan. 
Ill 1809, he continues, the mail over this route was carried by Beiioni 


Adams, of Coliiinbia. Tlie only road was an Indian trail along the lake 
and the carriei' went on loot. We have s('<mi tliat tlit'ic was an Indian 
trail aluny the sand heaehes. 

Avon's Mysteuious Fikst Settlek 

"The first settler in Avon on the lake shore is said to have been one 
Noah Davis. He eanie in 1812, did not remain long, went away and 
never retnrned. lie was here two years het'oi'e any one is known to 
liave settled on the ridge anil appears to iiave been tlie Moses Clcaveland 
of Avon. One wonders what beeame of him. Is there any way of finding 
ont his origin or his destiny? Like the man in the iron mask, the first 
settler on the lake shore in Avon, we fear will ever remain a mystery. 

"As the time for the eeiitennial celebration ai)i)roaelie.s, j)eople in 
each of tiie townships ought to be interested to recall incidents of the 
past, either of persojiaJ experience or of what they have been told l)y 
their fathers. Using as a foundation the of Judge Boyiiton, it 
will no doubt be possible to obtain a fairly complete and accurate history 
of each of the lake townshijjs of Lorain County." 

Avon Thk(jitgii a IIundued Years 

^lention has already been made of the (Jahoon family, representing 
a prominent pioneer force in the early settlement and development of 
Avon Township and the county as a whole. Horace ,]. Cahoon, the 
grantlson of Ihe family pioneer, Wilb\ir, who brought the original mem- 
bers into the lake I'egion of Lorain County in 1814, is himself a native 
of Avon Township in his seventy-eighth year. Four generations of the 
family have contributed, both in public and private service, to the up- 
building of the county, and it is very appropriate that Horace J. Cahoon 
should have been a])pointed historian of the centennial celebration organ- 
ized by the desceiulants of the original settlers of Avon Township and 
held September 10, 1914. Upon that occasion he read the following 
historical i)a[)er : 

I'livsiCAii Features 

"Avon, or township Xo. 7 in Range 1(i, is located in tlie northeast 
cerncf of Loi'ain connly bounded as follows: On the iioilli by Lake l']rie, 
on the soiilli by b'idgcvillc, on llie easi by Dover lownsliip in Ciiy;dioga 
connly, nnd on Ihe west by Slieflield. The surface is generally level. 
I'assing llirough the lownsliip ffom cnsi lo wesi and bearing soulhward 

*«l] i.. 


is wliat Hci'iiis to he a (toiilimiatiou ol' the ridf^'e .so proiiuiicully marked 
in the easlcni coniitics of tlu^ State, and {j;en(^i'ally l)elieve(l to liave lieen 
at some remote period llie shore of Ijake JOrie. Avon is an aj^ricultural 
township, thougli daii-yiufj finds some eneouraj^ement, and on tlie extreme 
shore of tiie lake grape growing is proseeuted to quite an extent. 

''Pi(;rpont Edwards hecame proprietor at tlie draft in 1807 of Town 
No. 7, Eange IG, togetlier with Bass island No. 1, eomprising 1,322 acres; 
iiass Island No. 2 of 700 acres and Island No. 5, 35 acres, in Lake Erie, 
west and north of Sandusky, annexed to the town for the purpose of 
equalization. Previous to 1818 the inhabitants called the town Xeuma, 
notwithstanding it was a part of Dover. On organization the township 
was christened 'Troy' and continued to be thus known until December, 
1824, when upon the petition of forty citizens the name was changed to 
'Avon' by the commissioners of Lorain county. 

Davis Settles on Lake Siioke Road 

"Early in the history of the Western Reserve a road was established 
from Cleveland westward along the shore of the lake. Over this mail 
was transported as early as 1807. Through tiie township of Avon, this 
road passed very near the bank of tlu; lake and here, where is now a 
succession of tasty cottages and beautiful villas, Noah Davis, in the year 
1812, made a settlement, the first in the township. He erected the first 
log house, but where it was located, or who composed his family, we have 
been unable to ascertain, as he only remained a short time, removing 
from the township in less than one year. 

Permanent Colony Aruives (1814) 

"Two years passed before another attempt at a settlement is made, 
this time by men of great courage and a fixed determination to make 
themselves permanent homes in the wilderness. How well they have 
succeeded, the finely kept farms, their substantial residences, skirting 
the line of the settlement (the Ridge road) liear ample evidence. 

AVii,iiiMi Caiioon Founds I^'irst Pkrmanent Family 

" In the summer of 181-1- Wilbur Cahoon and family ; Nictholas Young 
and son William; jjciwis Austin and family; l<)|)hraim Keycs and family; 
and two brothers, Spink and Reuben Coo[)er, with Iheir wives, took liieir 
departure from IMoiitgomery county. New York, for Ohio — the objective 
l)oint being township No. 7 in llie IGlii Range. The cavalcade consisted 



of five horses, four yoke of oxen and tliree cows. Arriving at Aslital)iila, 
Keyes and llu; brotliers Cooper, decided to remain there for a time. Th(; 
other three families eaitie on and early in the fall retaehed the end of 
th(; Ridge road at Barney Halls in Dover townshif), Cuyahoga county. 
Here the families remained until a road had been cut along the suuniiit 
of the ridge to Section 11, in which the greater portion of the lands 
selected hy Mr. Cahoon were situated. Soon a log house was constructed 
on this section, the first liuilt ])y a permanent settler, and into this the 
family of Mr. Cahoon soon moved. 

"]\rrs. CahooJi was formerly ]\Iiss Priscilla Sweet of Rhode Island. 
Their children were: Susan, who married Ilarley .Alasou, January 1, 
1820; Jesse S., who married Macena jMoore, November 30, 1831; 
"Wilbur, Jr., who married Thirza Moore, April 6, 1826; Ora B., who mar- 
ried Jane T. Jameson, Deceud)cr 10, 183-1; Orra, the next child, who 
)uari'i('(l Henry Titus; Huldah, who died in 1826 in the sixteenth yeai- of 
her age; ^Melissa M., wlio married John C. Steele in 1833; and Ijeonard, 
who married IMary Titus, November 14, 1848. 

"Leonard, who was born December 1, 1814, was the [)ioneer baby, 
being the first native white cliild born in the township. 

OuiGiN.Mi Cauuon Thact 

"Wilbur Cahoon purchased his land of Orrin Ensign (who had sur- 
veyed the township and reeeived in payment certain tracts, lying in 
dijferent sections of the township), paying therefor in eastern lands. 
The description of the lands conveyed is as follows: Premises lying in 
Township No. 7 in the 16th Range of townships, in the Connecticut Re- 
serve (so called) in the State of Ohio, to wit: The north half of Lot 
No. 3 estimated at 328 acres; 188 acres on the west side of Lot No. 6 
and 170 acres in Lot No. 11, south of lands deeded to Elias Cady in said 
lot by the State of Connecticut, extending through the whole length of 
said lot east and west and etjual wiilth, each tract to be dividetl by 
parallel lines with the lines of the lot from which the same is taken, con- 
taining 686 acres, more or less, being the same land once conveyed to 
the said Wilbur by the said Orrin and the same Orrin not having 
on record his deed of the same land, as the law requires, has taken a 
new deed and makes this conveyance to the said Wilbur on condition 
that the former or first conveyance by deed of said land is null and 
void and of no effect to the said Wilbur conviyed by the said Orrin. 
"Warranty Deed Signed by Oi'i'in lOnsign 

Cuyahoga Co. Deed 

Volume H-2 Page 207 Naiu^y Ensign to Wilbur Cahoon. 

Dated Dee. 13, 1815. Filed l\Iay 8, 1816. 
Considcralien $2,000.00." 


Death of Wimuiu Caiioon 

" Wilbur (Jaiioon did not live to witiu-ss tlic (•oiriplctioii of llic (ii'st 
frame house in tiie township. Sudch'uly and swiftly cauie the pale 
uiessenjxer; while in full health he was stricken down with apoplexy and 
in one brief hour had passed on. This was in the year 182G. Tiie wife 
and mother survived him many years, dying in 1857. 

Nicholas Young 

"The land of Nieliolas Young consisted of one lumdrod acres in 
Section 22; afterwards owned by Di: N. S. Townslu-nd. U])on this a 
log dwelling was constructed during the sunnijer of 1815 by himself and 
his son William. AVhen ready for occupancy Mv. Young returned east 
for his family, with whom he arrived in October. He exchanged his 
farm in Section 22 for land in Section 15, at the center, upon which he 
remained until 1835, when he disposed of his property and removed to 

Lewis Austin 

"Lewis Austin settled on fifty acres of land in Section 27, then 
owikhI by Waterman Sweet and now the property of the heirs of 
William Ilurst. Mr. Austin's family were a wife and seven children, 
none of whom renuiin in the township. 

Other Families J(jin Colony 

"The summer of 1815, the throe families "who remained at Ashtabula 
joined our little colony. Ephraini Keycs was originally from Tyring- 
ham, ]\las.sachnsotts. Tie settled on the west side of Section 11. His 
ramily were a wife and three children, none of whom remain in the 

"^Messrs. (.'oojier became the owners of tiie entire lands contained in 
Seel ion 1. Spink Coopei- and wil'e both died about 18;{.'5, leax'ing no 
children. The wife of Keiiben Cooper died soon alter settling in Avon, 
and he married a young wife !)y whom lie iiad two children. In June, 
1821), li(! and family were returning from an adjoining township and 
while attempting to cross Ulack U'iver (then swollen to an unusual 


lu'it,'lit by rcL'i'iit rains) in a cart drawn by oxon, tlie eonveyanco was 
ovcrl.nnicd, and he and one ciiild drowned, as was also a younj^ y;\v], 
\lnv\\r\ i'otlcr, wlio was witli tliciii. The wil'c alli-rward niarricd licvi 
Wetnioi'L' and iinally removed to Michigan. 

"Three brothers, Abraliain, Oliver and Lodowicli I\roon, reached 
Avon at about the same period the Coopers did and a short time after 
another brotlier, Amos Moon, arrived, (,'olonel Al)raham Moon married 
Tlierissa Durand in 1819. Hhe was a native of Esse.\ county, New York, 
but had located in Henrietta, this county, prior to marriage. Colonel 
JMoon purchased three hundred acres of land in Sections 1 and 2. He 
erected a double log house and in time planted an orchard of five 
huiulred trees covering a space of ten acres. He died in September, 
1831. His family con.sisted of three sons and one daughter. 

Elaii P.\rk 

"Elah Park, whose place of nativity was Tyringiiam, Bei-kshire 
county, Massachusetts, married Elizabeth ]\Ioon of the same place. He 
settled on Section 21 in Avon township in the fall of 1815. Mr. Park 
was a prominent public man, and held many positions of honorable dis- 
tinction, beginning with the office of justice of tlie peace, to which he 
was many times elected. He was recorder of Lorain county from 1841 
to 1843, and state representative from 1846 to 1848. He died in Avon 
October 22, 18C6. Mrs. Park died iMarch 14, 18C!). 

Tiiii: Sweet Family 

"Waterman Sweet (a bi-other of Mrs. Priscilla Calioon) came from 
Norway, Herkimer county, New York, to Avon in the year 1817, arriving 
on July 18th. He located on three hundred acres of land in Section 27. 
With ]\lr. Sweet came his aged father and mother, and Huldah 
Sweet, a widowed si.ster, who married Daniel Wilco.K, and his own 
family, then a wife and three children, William, Colvin and Laura. 
Four children were born subsequently to his locating in Avon : Eliza, 
Henrietta, Cinderella and Mary Ann. Waterman Sweet died November 
14, 1S72, and ]\Irs. Sweet July 28, 1843. 

h'lKST SKri'i,i':i{ in Fi(i:n(;ii Chiikk Vim.ack 

"John Steele was the first, settler in French Creek Village. He came 
in 1817, his log house was erected on the site of the present Catholic 
ehnrcli, lie snbseipienlly moved to 


"Adam Miller and Gaston Young were the first i)t'rnianent settlers 
on tile lake shore. ]\Ir. iMiller loeated on Seetion 6, i\Ir. Young moved 
into the Davis eat)in. Of other settha's along the siion- we find that 
Josei)h Moore from iMiddh^town, (>)nne('ti(Mit, settled on Section lb. 
.iohn Mast in, lOdmonds, Oolhy, JJritton and otiiei-s were early settliu'S 
in this loeality, hut we are uiial)le to learn anything furtiier of them. 

The Stickney and Williams Families 

"Alhin Stickney made the trip from Cornwall, Vermont, to Ohio, 
in 1815, traveling the entire distance on foot. lie remained in Madison, 
Lake county, until the year 1817, when he removed to Avon. lie 
settled on one hundred fifteen acres in Section 22. His wife was ]\Iiss 
Clarissa Moon of Avon. They ilied iipoii this farm, she on ]\Iay 3, 18G6, 
and he on February 17, 1807. Three children were born to this union: 
Solomon R., Sarepta R. and Sidney A., tlie latter being 'the only sur- 
vivor, and now in his eighty-fourth year. 

"Larkin "Williams and family, of a wife and eight children, came 
from Berkshire county, ]\Ias.sachusetts, in the fall of 1817. He settled 
on the ridge east of the center. John Hurlingame came from Rutland, 
Vermont, to Ohio in the fall of 1822, locating on one hundred acres of 
land in Section 7 directly on the bank of Lake Erie. 

"Joseph B. Jameson, wife and three children, settled in Avon in 
1824. Their location was on the ridge, some one half mile east of 
French Creek. The eldest eliild, Jane T., married Ora B. Cahoon. 

• First P]vents 

"The first marriage occurred in the fall of 1816, the parties most 
interested were AVilliam Richmond and ]\Iiss Rhoda, adopted daughter 
of Reu1)eu Cooper. Joel Terrell, Esq., of Ridgeville Township made 
the twain one flesh. 

"The first doctor to locate in Avon township was Heman, son of 
Larkin Williams. Dr. Williams is spoken of as a gentleman of fine 
ability and superior professional attainments. lie was also the first 
postmaster of Avon townshif), said offi(!(^ being established in 1825. 

"TIk; first death was Lydia iM., daughter of Larkin Williams, 
January 11, 1818. Sh(i requested that ber burial might be under a chest- 
nut tree (a favorite resting place of hers) on the knoll on the site of 
the present cemetery at the center of Avon township. 

"TIk; first wheat sown was by AVillmr (,'ahoon in the Call of 1815. 


The following? spring he planted an orcliard of one Inindred trees ou 
Section 11. The trees were procured at Newburg, Cuyahoga county. 

"Samuel Carpenter opened the jiioneer store in Avon at French 
Creek in 182-1 or 1825. Tliis venture does not appear to have been a 
success as he soon closed out and removed from tlie township. 

"Tlie iirst blacksmitli in Avon township was a man named Cheeney. 
He removed from the township pi'ior to 1818. Adolph Cai'lick suc- 
ceeded him in 1818 or 1819. 

"The first hotel was kept by John Steele at French Creek soon 
after the settlement. 

"A distillery was erected at French Creek <juite early in tl)e settle- 
ment b.y two men from Dover township, Cuyahoga county. Tliis was in 
operation for only a few years. 

"In the year 1818 a special election was ordered for townsliip 
officers to be held November 9th, at which time the following persons 
were elected : Elah Park, John "Williams, and Lodowieh JMoon, ti'ustees ; 
Larkin Williams, clerk; Abraham ]\Ioon, treasurer; James B. Fitch and 
Tyler "Williams, constables. On June 22, 1819, Jabez lUirrell and 
AVilbur Cahoon were elected justices of the peace. 


"The first saw-mill was erected on Section 11 in llie fall of 1815 ))y 
Wilbur Cahoon. The waters of Frencli Creek were utilized to propel 
tlie rude macliinery of this mill, which was in operation full fifty years. 
Another saw mill was erected on the same stream Ijy Messrs. Jameson 
& Ileminway Brothers in the year 1824. This mill was in operation 
for many years. In the summer of 1818 Wilbur Cahoon built a grist 
mill near the saw mill above mentioned, tlie water propelling which 
being supplied from the same pond. There were two run of stone. This 
mill was finally abandoned in consequence of a scarcity of water. 

Religious IMatters 

"The first religious service in Avon township was held at the house 
of Nicholas Young immediately after a settlement was commenced by 
a local preacher of the Baptist church named Jashar Taylor, then resid- 
ing ill Dover township. A cliurch was not formed however until the 
year 1817. In elune of that year KUU'V llartwelj from the JOast lield 
meetings at the housi! of AVilbur Cahoon a few times and traveled west- 
ward. Returning some two or three months later, he found that the 
seed sown on his first visit had brought fortli fruit, the result of wliieh 


was tliat the following persons were fonned into a church: Nicholas 
Young and wife, Jared Jiarr of Avon, Jashar Taylor, Atwell and wife 
of Oovcr, Dean Alexander and wife of Koekjjort. la 1818 a log scliool- 
lionse was built at the center and in this regular services were iield. 
The lirst ordained minister to settle in Avon was the liev. John Tuttle, 
who remained until his death, some four years. 

"In the year 1826 or 1827 a large block meeting house was built. 
In it were held meetings of all denominations. This was burned in 1837. 
The present Baptist church was built iu 1839 or 1840. The first class 
of the M. E. church was organized as early as 1820. This class was 
composed of Keyes Carpenter and wife, "Waterman Sweet and wife, 
I^lphraim Keyes and wife, Amasa Chapman and wife, Elah Park and 
wife, AVillis Potter and wife, AVilliam Richmond and wife, and Mrs. 
Polly and ]\Iary Cooper, wives of David and Reuben Cooper. Keyes 
Carpenter was class leader. Rev. IMr. Smith, a local preacher, organ- 
ized this class and was the first minister of tiiis denomination to locate 
iu Avon. 

Pioneer Sciiooliiouse 

"Tile first school lious(! in Avon township was erected in tlie summer 
of 1818. The material of whieh it was constructed was logs and the site 
was at the center of tlie township. The suljsequent fall Larkin A. 
Williams began teaching in this building. There were twenty-five chil- 
dren in attendance, mo.'^tly from the fanulies of Gaboon, Cooper, Wil- 
liams and Steele. 

Holy Trinity Church 

"Among tlie first settlers of East Avon were several families who 
were natives of Bavaria, Germany. The following named persons 
formed what is now known as The Holy Trinity church : Jacob Mueller, 
Paulus Faber, Peter Schwartz, John Nagel, Peter Bierinacher, Simon 
and Adam Zeh, Nicholas ]\rotsh, Peter Kraus, John Nagel, second, and 
Peter Seheit. The first church was erected in 1843 and was a sul)- 
stantial frame structure, 30x40 feet in size, and stood on what is now 
the cemetery. This church building has long since passed out of existence 
and lias been replaced l)y a very pretentious and modern church build- 
ing wjiicli stands on i)aiM of llm land formei-ly owned by Dr. N. S. 
Townshcnd. There is also another veiy modern church at French Creek, 
but of this we have been unal)le to pi'ocure dala nei-essary for history. 
There was at once time ([uitc an extensive Congregational cluii'cii in 
Avon. This lui.s long ceased lo be. 


Cheese-Making Abandoned 

"Tliu first clieese factory was erected on Section 28 about 1865 by 
Messrs. .Jameson, Snow & Phelps. It was not a succes-s and was dis- 
continued after one season. The French Creek factory was l)uilt in 
Marcli, 1875, by Wilbur and Josepli Cahoou on Section 11. This was 
operated for a number of years, but was finally discontinued for lack 
of patronage. 

CiiKious Mounds Razed 

"When tlie settlement was made in Avon there was on the west bank 
of Frencii Creek in Section 11 quite a remarkable endjankiiient. Jt was 
constructed of stone, circuhir in form, of some six or eiglit feet in 
lu'iglit and perhaps four rods in diameter. Tiie stone were of snudl 
size and were not reguhirly laid, but were simp!}' piled up. Further 
down the creek was an mound of stone, the most remarkable 
feature of wiiicli was that it was composed of snudl sized 'cobble head' 
stones and was located in a portion ol' the township wliei'e this kind 
of stones do not abound. On the ridge, where now stands tiie Methodist 
Episcopal churcli tliere were a luunber of mounds. These, on being 
opened, were found to contain human bones. These were leveled to the 
eartli, and the stones comprising the fortification were drawn away as 
re(juired, until notiung now remains to nuirk the spot. 

"]\lany remember the early days of 1861. Sumter had fallen. The 
Soutliern Confederacy was formed; the Soutli had organized a for- 
mitlal)le army; secession was unnnstakal)ly resolved ui)on. So appalling 
Avere these events that tin; Nortii stood awiiile paralyzeil anil awe 
stricken. Then came our president's call for seventy-five thou.sand men. 
Everywhere throughout the northern states there was a hearty response 
— nowhere was it heartier tiiau upon the Reserve of Northern Ohio. 
Avon took a gallant part in this first outburst of northern patriotism; 
and during the entire period of the war there was no time when she 
was found faithless to duty. AVherever danger lurked thickest there 
we find the Avon boys. IMany, very many never returned; their lives 
went out as a sacrifice, and l)eneath the skies of the sunny South, where 
the groves of the magnolia and the orange shed an undying i)erfume — 
the spot perliaps unmarked and unknown — they 'sleep the sleep that 
knows no waking.' " 


Sheftield Township celebrated the centennial of its original settle- 
ment in August, ll)ir>, the Day fauuly holding mucii the same relation 


to its liisloi'y Jis do the Calioons to tlic pioneer ])i'o<fi'e,ss of Avon, 
('iipl. -liihe/, HiiiTell and ('apt. -John Day, of Sliellield, iMas.saeluisetts, 
Wen; tli<: lii'st owncu's ol' (lie towiisliip to a<:tnally examine llu; land for 
purposes of settlenuiiit and to make a sueeess of tlieir venture. As 
they were the real founders, so in the eenteinn'al eelehration membei's 
of tlieso two families were most prominent in tlie litei'ary and liistorie 
exci'cises of the gathering. 

On the fiftieth aiuiiversary of tlie settlement, held on the I'Mh of 
November, 1865, Norman Day read his historic and original address 
covering the period up to that time. Mr. Day's paper was re-read at the 
centennial anniversary, and Mrs. G. L. Cuddeback presented the history 
of the township from 1865 to 1915. The "Early History of Slieffield 
Township," prepared by Miss jMay Day, adds many interesting items to 
tlie paper originally written by Norman Day. Tlie material facts in 
these three articles are therefore given in the following paragraphs and 
present a complete history of one of the interesting and sul)stantial 
of the lake townships. 

Norman Day Dkscriues Fujst Colonists 

In January, 1815, (Japt. Jabez Bui'i'cll and Capt. -lolin Day, of 
Shcl'tichl, licrkshire (-'ounty, ^Massachusetts, purchased of (jen. Win. 
Hart, of Saybrook, Connecticut, townsliip No. 7, in tlie 17tli range of 
townshij)S, Connecticut Western Reserve, State of Ohio, now Shel'tield, 
Lorain County. After the by Burrell and Day, Obadiah 
Deland of Slieffield, Capt. Josliua Smith, Col. Joseph Fitch, and Solo- 
mon Fitch of New Marlborough, Berkshire County, Isaac Hurrell, of 
Salisbury, Herkimer County, State of New York and Henry Austin of 
Owasco, Cayuga County, became partners. 

The Burreu.s Explore 

The two Burrells, Day and Smith, explored the township in June, 
and selec'tcfl lots for themselves and friends. About the (ii'st of October, 
Captain Smith and his oldest son, Douglass, then a lad seventeen years 
of age, left l\lassaehu.s(1ts with a yoke of o.\en and horse and necessary 
tools for clearing and cultivating a new farm. .After starting, Cajitain 
Smith left. Douglass to pursue the tedious Joiinicy alone, while lie went 
to Sacketl.'s Harbor to visit friends, but overtook him again before 
li(^ got to Oiiio. On tile eleventh duy of Novi'iiiber, they arrived at 
Wilbur (Gaboon's, in Avon. The ne.\t day being Sunday, tliey rested, 
and on the Ihirleenlh day of November, 1HI5, they followed down l''rench 


(Jrcck williout ;i trjiil, .uid coinmoiicfd tlu; first permaiiuiit si'ttloineiit in 
the t()wii,slii|), oil lot 04, llic lai'iii now owned by Frederick Krelile. 


J'revious to the purchase of tlic townsliip ))y BurrcU and Day, about 
1812, (jcncral Hart made an arrangement witli a young man, Timotliy 
Wallace, to commence a settlement, by which he was to have a choice 
of lots, provided Mr. Hart sold the township by lots, lie selected lot 65, 
now owned by Robbins Burrell, improved a few acres, built a small 
house and then abandoned it. The cause was supposed to be fear of the 
Indians. Nothing more is known of his history. Captain Smith's 
nearest neighbors were John S. Reid and Daniel Perry, at the mouth of 
the river, four miles, Cahoon, of Avon, five miles, and JMoses Eldred, of 
Ridgeville, seven miles distant. For comfortable lodgings, they spent 
some of their nights at the mouth of the river, and some at Cahoon 's. 

Four Settlers in Winter of 1815-16 

There was a road through the town on the lake shore, the road lead- 
ing from Cleveland to Huron, and a wagon track from Ridgeville to 
the old fishing ground, at the upper end of the Big Bottom, where men 
and boys came from Ridgeville and Columbia every spring to catch 
fish. They were taken in the night in great abundance, while running 
over the ripi)le, with a torch maile of hickory l)arks and a spear. It was 
rare sport and furni.shed one of the necessaries of life. In a few 
days after the arrival of Captain Smith and son, they were joined 
by two young men from their native town (New Marlborough), Samuel 
]5. Fitch and Asher Chapnuin. These four men soon built a rude shanty 
where they spent the winter of 1815-16, shut out from the outer world, 
dependent upon their own resources for amusement and enjoyment. 
Captain Smith was a humorous, jovial man; enjoyed a joke, and was 
fond of a good story, well calculated to amuse himself and companions 
in their seclusion. 

First Woman and Pioneer Families 

fn F('I)i-uary, 1816, Fi-ecman Richmond settled on lot 2, now owne<l 
by Josepii Townsliend. Mrs. Richinond wa.s Hk! first r(!male settler. 
On the tiiii'd day of Ai)ril of this year, Henry Root and wife and si.x 
eliildren arrived from Sheflield, Massachusetts. The children's names 
weie Aaron J., Wm. Henry, Julia Aiui, Jane, Frances and Mary. They 


lived three weeks in tlie slianty with Captain Smith, wliile they pre- 
Itai-ccl a liaintatioii i'or tlieui.selves. .Mr. Root settled on lot 17, near 
wiiere tiie (jlei'iiian Chureii Jiow .stands. 

Soon after the arrival of Mr. Root and family, Oliver Moon, from 
Avon, State of Kgw York, located on lot 11; Milton Garfield and John 
B. Cartield, of Tyringham, Massachusetts, on lots 73 and 74; A. R. Dim- 
inick on lots 75 and 7(j; Wni. Richmond on lot 2, with his brother Free- 
man, and Willis Potter on lot 1. 

AinavAL OF tue Day and Bukkell Families 

On the 27th of July, Captain Day and family arrived. Their names 
were William, Rhoda, .Maria, John, Norman, Fanny, James, Lydia, Kel- 
logg and Frederick; and Fdmond A. and JCieanor, horn in Ohio. 

On the nth of August, Captain liurrell and family of eight children, 
anil Solomon Weeks, a young man who had been an apprentice to 
Captain Jiurrell, arrived by way of tiie lake, on tiie .schooner Black 
Snake, and came up the river on Keid's ferry scow. Their names were 
Julia, Saraii M., Roliliins, liyman J., Soloma, Jabe/. L., Hli/.a and 
]\Iary Ann. 

JNlessrs. Burrell and Day shii)ped their heavy household goods and 
farming utensils at Schenectady, on a small, half decked schooner of 
about tiftecn tons burthen, called the Fire Fly, built there by Anon 
Ilarmond, of New .Alarborough, j\Iassachusetts. lie sailed up the 
^Mohawk, locked by the Little Falls; and thence by the Rome Canal into 
Wood Creek; down AVootl Creek into Oneida Lake; then down the outlet 
and Oswego River to Lake Ontario. At t^ueenston he unloaded and 
drew her out; loaded her on cart wheels, drew her by Niagara Falls to 
Chil)I)ewa and launciied ; then drew her cargo and reloaded; then ])ro- 
eeeded through the lake and uj) Black River to the mouth of French 
Creek, and landed her cargo of salt and goods on the I>ig Bottom. 

Captain Smith and Family 

In the fall of ISUi, Captain Smith went to IMassacluisetts for iiis 
family, and returned in March, 1817. In his family were eight chil- 
di-cn: Douglass, Isaac, Rachel, Elea/.er, Harvey, AVarren, Caleb and 
licnel. Aiicl Moore eame li-om New MarIl)orougii with Captain Smith, 
and settled on lot 50 with three ciiildren : Lorinda, Lovina and Abigail. 
In h'eliruary of this year, Henry Austin and wife, from Owasco, Stat(> 
of New York, settled on lot 81, and Nathan Stevens and wife, from 
New Marlborough, on lot 81. In June, Davis Heacoek and I'lraslus 


Ileaeock selected lots 85 and 86 and conimeDcod improving tlieiii, keep- 
ing haclielor's hall. About the same time Samuel iMunson connueneed 
on lot, 72. 


On the 5tli of July, James Burrell, from Hloomtield, New York, 
arrived and settled on lot 61). His children were JIarriet, Cyla, Aliuoran 
and Alva J. Arnokl Jiurrell and wife eame from Binghamton, New 
York, liis first residence was on lot 68. 

Isaac Jiurrell, one of the proprietors, from Salisbury, New York, 
arrived on the 28th of February, in his family were six children: 
Eunice, Hiram, Jane, Augusta, Mary and Charlotte. In the spring of 
this year, Daniel Perry, who came from Vermont to the mouth of Black 
River, in 1810, sold his farm there and luoved into Sheffield with a 
family of nine children: Polly, Harvey, Sophia, Alexander Hamilton, 
Koyal, Julius, Lester, Bushrod and Williams, and located on lot 22. 
The Fleming family are old residents but not properly pioneers. In the 
winter of 1816, religious meetings were conunenced at the house of 
Cai)tain Burrell, which consisted in reading a sermon, singing and 
prayer by ]Mr. Ilanchett, of Kidgeville, then working for Captain Bur- 
rell, for there was not at that time a male profes.sor in the settlement. 
Whatever of moral and religious princii)le hangs about the native popu- 
lation of Sheffield is due to the intiuenee of pious pioneer mothers, in 
the si)ring of 1816, Alvan Coe preached the first sermon. About the 
first of June, Eev. Jesse Ilartwell, a Baptist elder from New lAlarl- 
Ijorough, on a mis.sionary tour to the western part of the Reserve, held 
]iieetings on his way out and when he returnetl. In July, Mr. Treat, 
of Windham, and Mr. Seward, of Aurora, Portage County, visited the 
settlement as missionaries. 

Churches Org.\nized 

In the fall of this year (1817) Alvan Hyde, a young man of talent 
and pit^ty-^son of Reverend Doctor llydc, of Lee, Berkshire County, 
Massachusetts— was commis-sioned by the Berkshire Missionary Associa- 
tion to ])reach in the new settlements on the Resen-e. He chose for his 
(ii'ld of labor Dover, Slieffield and Ridgeville, alternately. The setth^'s 
of Slieffi,.!,] jiiid Dover wen; fi'oin Berkshire Coniity. The cliureli at 
Dover was formed in his native town by iiis father, before lliey left 
in ISll. Mr. Hyde's labors, and the sudden death of Captain Smifli, 
made a deep impression on the infant settlement; a revival followed' 
and some were boj)efully converted. 


Oil the 1st of Miiy, 1818, Rev. William AVilliams, a luissiouaiy from 
the (.'omieclieuL J\'y Society, as-sisted hy Mv. Hyde, I'onned a 
Coiigre{,'ational Chureii. The members were Natiiau Stevens and wife; 
Mrs. Mary liurrell, wife of Capt. Jabez Burrell, and their daughters 
Julia and Sarah M. ; Mrs. Martha Smith, wife of Capt. Joshua Smith, 
and Douglass their son; Henry Root, Preston Pond, Wm. Day, Wm. 
Sniith, Samuel B. Fiteh and Daniel Perry, thirteen in number. 

First Events 

The tirst school was taught by Dr. Preston Pond, from Keene, New 
Hampshire. The sehoolliouse stood on the brow of the hill north of 
the center schoolhouse. 

The tifst white child born in the town was Maiy Ann Austin, August 
20, 1817; died November 15, 1831, in the Town of Skaneateles, Onondaga 
County, State of New York. 

The first couple married were Samuel IMunson and Phila Tyler, by 
Ebenezer Whiton, Esq., December 17, 1818. IMr. Muuson died August 
6, 1820. Mrs. Munson married Mr. Rooks, and died at Niles, Cayuga 
County, New York, July, 1862. 

TowNSiiu' Org.vniz.\tion 

When Dover was organized it included Avon and Sheffield to Black 
River, which was then the dividing line between Cuyahoga and Huron 
counties. The west side of the river was in Black River Township. 
In 1818 Avon was organized with tlie name of Troy, including the east 
part of Sheffield. Jal)ez Burrell was elected justice of peace, June 22, 
181!), and re-elected August 13, 1822. The first act of the Lorain County 
(Commissioners, at their first .session, in June, 1824, was to organize 
the Town of Siieffield. The first town meeting was held July 10, 1824. 
The officers chosen were Nathan Stevens, clerk; John Day, Isaac Bur- 
rell and A. R. Dimmick, trustees; Milton Garfield, treasurer; and Jabez 
Burrell and Henry Root, poorma.sters. Nathan Stevens was the first 
magistrate after the town was organized. 

Death of Captain Smith 

Captain Smith, the first .settler, was the to die. He fell a victim 
to the ague and bilious fever, and died suddenly September 2f), 1817. 
Tile infant settlement was shocked as the thrilling news spread from 
house to house: "Captain Smith is deail!" Deacon James, of lirowii- 


helm, officiated at the funeral, giving out to be sung the good old 
runeral pieces, "Hark from tlie Tombs" (tune. New Durham) and the 
ninetieth Psalm, "l^ord. What a Feeble I'ieee" (tune, Florida). It 
was a solemn tlay, and tlie death of Captain Smith was deeply lamented. 
A burying ground was selected on the bluff near French Creek Bridge, 
where he was then buried, but being afterwards abandoned, in 1848, 
his bones were disinterred and deposited in the Ridge Cemetery. 

Other Members of the Family 

]Mrs. Martha Smith, widow of Captain Smith, was married January 
16, 182G, to General Isaac Hall, of Pompey (now La Fayette), Onon- 
daga County, New York, where she lived to a good old age, and died 
Octol)er 18, 1859. Douglass remained in Slieffield, and died Marcli 16, 
1862. Lsaac lives in Hopkinsville, Iowa. Rachel married Ceorge W. 
Cotton, and died in Elyria, September 21, 1859. ]\Ir. Cotton died March 
28, 1865. Eleazer died in LaFayette, New York, January 23, 1849. 
Harvey died in Newton, Calhoun County, Michigan, October 5, 1852. 
AVarren lives in ]\Iiehigan. Calel) died in Delhi, Delaware County, Iowa, 
l\Iarcii 14, 1861. Reuel lives in Logansport, Indiana. Samuel B. Fitch 
settled on lot 62. In Septend)er, 1818, he married Dolly Smith, of his 
native town, New Marlborougli. She died May 6, 1845. Mr. Fitch 
married a second wife, Miss Nancy Willard, of Pawlett, Vermont. She 
died Noveml)er 4, 1860. Mr. Fitch died September 15, 1861. Asher 
Chapman, the last survivor of the four who spent the winter of 1815-16 
in the wilderness, first settled in Avon where Doctor Townshend now 
lives, moved to Amherst, then to Wisconsin, and finally died in IMichigan 
in the early part of the present year, 1865. Freeman Riclimond and 
Willis Potter live in Amherst. William Richmond lives in LaGrange. 
Mrs. Richmond, the first female settler, died in the summer of 1819. 

Decelvse op Pioneers 

Henry Root died April 6, 1829. ]\Irs. Root died February 11, 1859, 
at tile advanced age of eighty-seven years. Captain Aaron Root died 
September 13, 1865. Francis died Septenil)er 6, 1862. IMary (.Mrs. 
Fitzgerald) died December 4, 1859. Wm. H. and Julia Ann (:\Irs. 
Noniian Day) are in Sheffield, and Jani' (Mrs. Harvey Austin) is in 
Monroe, Michigan. Oliver Moon and wife, and ,John li. ({arlicid and 
wil'e are living on llie farms where they first localed. (lolonel Milton 
Garlield died Novendier 5, 1862. His widow is still living in Sheffield. 
Mr. Diinmiek lost Iiis wife in l\lay, 182!); married again, movi-d to 

Vdl. I— 10 


Aiiilierst and there lost his second wife; moved to Illinois and from 
there to Oregon, wlmi'e he died in tlie spring or snnnn(;i' of 18()4. 

"(Japtain -John Day died Oetoher 8, 1827. Mrs. Day died Oetober 
U, 1854. Rhoda Maria died October 10, 1825. These three deaths 
occurred each on Llonday morning, and they were severally buried on 
the day of the State election. Frederic died August 11, 1840. Of the 
nine survivors eight are residents of Shetilield, and one (Kellogg) is in 
Denmark, Iowa. 

"Mrs. Jabez Burrell died August 26, 1831; Esc]. Burrell married 
again in June, 1833, and died September 25th of tlie same year. Of 
their eight children, six survive. Julia (]\Irs. Humphrey) and Sarah 
31. (Mrs. Knapp) live in Windham, Portage county; Robbins on the 
old farm, Lyman J. in California, Jabez L. in Oberlin, and Eliza (Mrs. 
Whittlesey) in Cleveland; Saloma (Mivs. Warner Strang) tlieil in Octo- 
ber, 185G. Mary Ann (Mrs. Jiol)ert E. Cillett) died July 31, 1837. 
Solomon Weeks lives in Allen Township, Allen county, Indiana. Ariel 
Moore died February 10, 1824; Mrs. Moore removed to Fredonia, New 
York, where she died a few years since. Lorinda (]\Irs. Norman Bedor- 
tha) and her sister Lovina live at Saratoga. Abigail (Mrs. Burgress) 
went on a mis.sion to India, and died there. Nathan Stevens and wife 
died in Michigan. Henry Austin and wife went back to tlieir native 
town in 1820, and are both living. 

"Davis Heeoek and Erastus Ilecock left their river farms and 
located in the southwest part of the town. Davis died October 18, 
1858. Erastus is a resident of Siieliield. James Burrell died Septem- 
ber 2i), 1855. Mr.s. James Burrell died July 6, 1862. Harriet (Mrs. 
John B. Garfield) is the only survivor of the family. Cyla died 
March 20, 1818. Almoran died December 28, 1841, and Alva J. died 
June 20, 1833. Arnold Burrell and wife live in the townsliip of 

"Isaac Burrell died March 12, 1860. Mrs. Burrell, the last of the 
pioneers who came into town with a family, died December 17, 1864. 
Their six children all survive: Eunice (Mrs. Era.stus Ilecock), Hiram, 
on the old farm, Jane (Mrs. Butman) and Augusta (Mrs. Wm. Day) 
live in Sheffield; ]\Iai'y, in Elyria, and Charlotte (]\Irs. Amanda IMoore) 
on Put-in Bay Island." 


Judge Williiim Iliii't of Saybrook, (^otinceticiit, bouglit (lie Town- 
shij) of Shel'lield, with the addition of 1,500 aci'cs in Ileni-ictta, for 
.+30,^62. It is not known what Jabez Buri-ell and John Day agnted 

li r-IVBCl 


to i);iy ^fr. Hart for the towiiHliij), but wi; do know tlicy sold Obadiali 
Di'land oiic-ci^ditli of their piirchas*'. Tor $l,2(i!).!);{. Tlie lownsliij) h)t.s 
W(M'e ol" dill'erciit sizes and sold i'or varyinj^ jd'ieis. 

I^uiLDiNG THE Saw-Mill on French Creek 

111 the fall of 1816, within a few weeks of tlie eoiiiiii<j of the Bur- 
rell and Day families to Sheffield, Avork was begun on a saw-mill on 
Freneh Creek on what is now the James Day farm. Jabez Biirrell, 
John Day, and Mr. Deland seem to have been partners in this mill. 
Mr. Deland never lived in Sheffield, but came in the fall of 1816 while 
they were working on the mill and brought a millwrigiit witli him. 
Four men, Jabez Burrell, John Day, Joshua Smith, and the man who 
eame with ]\Ir. Deland, worked two months or more on the mill in the 
summer of 1817. Can we not pause a moment to think of the pieture 
of these men cutting down trees, drawing them together with o.\en, 
digging in the banks and working in the bed of the creek in the water 
to lay the foundation of their log dam deep and strong — tlie dense 
forest all around them and the days growing shorter and coUler ' They 
worked until Xovemlier 21st. Tlie average jiriee of a day's work in 
1816 was 6 shillings per day, but Joshua Smith received $58 for fifty- 
eight days' work on the mill in 1816 and $25 for twenty days' work in 
]817. There is no account of sawing until April, 1818. 

The mill would no doubt be considered very pi'imitive now, lint it 
was of great value in those early days in sawing lum])er for the new and barns; also lumber for making new furniture to replace 
that left in Massachusetts. Black cherry was often used for the pur- 
pose. There are still highly prized bureaus and tables in Sheffield 
made in those days. 

In the summer of 1819 John Day built a large frame house not 
.standing now, perhaps the first in town. It .stood on the lirow of the 
hill between the liouse and the barn of AVilliam S. Day. Tlie great 
ambition of the early .settlers was to build for themselves and families 
houses as large and comfortaljle as the houses left in New England. 

Grist and Saw-IMiel 

In the fall of 1823 Charles Cheney Imilt a dam to obtain power for 
a grist and saw-mill on thi; I'iver at what is now known as Day's Dam. 
This (lam went out in a Hood Ixd'orc tlic buildings wvrv, erected. Later, 
in 1821, lOrastiis Ihtcock and Davis llecock became partners with .Mr. 
Cheney, ])ut in a new dam and built a grist and saw-mill. Before the 
mill was e(iiiiplcled tile llecock brothers buiight out Mv. Cheiiew 


Oiie-lialf of this mill changed hands many times until 1847, when 
Ei-astus lleeoek and Mr. JJresser .sold to William Curtiss and Wilbur 
Cahooii. Jt was bought by William Day and son Sunnier in 1862. 
Tiiis grist mill must have been hailed with joy by the young boys as 
well as their mothers, tor it had been the custom to send small boys 
long distances on horseback with a Ijag of grain on the horse with them 
to null. They were often gone two days. William 11. Jtoot and James 
Day, in later life, enjoyed compai-ing their experiences on such trips 
in their boyhood. 

Otiieu Mills 

There was a steam sawmill at Globesville that sawed ship plank and 
a sawmill on the river opposite the island known as the Birmingham 
Mill. The mill on French Creek, after about ten years, was not used 
until about 1840, when it was rebuilt and ship ])lank for the Cleveland 
market was sawed. 

Brick Houses! 

Jabez Burrell, Issiac Burrell, Samuel B. Pitch and John Carficld 
built bi-ick houses; all of tiiem large, comfortable homes now, after 
nearly KM) years. They nuule their own brick and the houses testify 
to their good workmanship. The Jabez Burrell house was built soon 
after lioI)bins Burrell brought his bride to Sheffield from New Marl- 
borough, Massachusetts, ]\Iarch 1, 1825. It has been stated that there 
were only twenty families in Sheflield at that time. The Henry Root 
frame house was prolnibly Iniilt in 1826. 

Settling in a Duck Pond 

]\Iilton Garfield was married May 4, 1820, the couple living in a log 
liouse until they built the large pleasant home now occupied by their 
daughter, Mrs. Julia Root. IMilton Garfield walked from Tyringham, 
]\Iassachusetts, with his ax on his shoulder, to Sheffield, in 1815, trap- 
ping and liunting; then went back to ]\Iassachusetts, coming again in 
181G in th(( sanu' way. When lie came up the river and reached tlie 
ridge, he heard someone choj)ping and said to iiis companion, "Go see 
what fool has settled in Ibis duck pond," as the woods were a swamp. 
It proved to b(( his cousin, John Garfield. 

The Kob])ins Huri'ell house was bui'ned iu Decembei'. 1812, in the 
(lav tiuu; and was a long lime burning; so neighbors cann; from all 


(liiT'ctioiis and everything in the liouse was saved, even to the doors, 
uiii(h)\vs and tlie iiiaiitcis of the lii'ejihiees. Some ol' the old hi'ick walls 
Wire icl'l when the house was iclMiilt and ai'c slill in good condition. 


Jalu'Z Burrell, Isaae Burrell and James Burrell were 1)rothers, three 
out of a family of thirteen ehildren. Tiieir father was Abraham liur- 
rell. Three Burrell brothers eanie over from England. One froze to 
death, one went baek to England, the thii'd was ancestor of the Sheffield 
Burrells. Two children of James Burrell died unmarried. One daugh- 
ter married John (Jartield. One son, Alva, died at Green Springs, Ohio, 
in 1833, leaving a son, Alva, who died in Elyria a few years ago. He 
was the last of the male line in the Burrell family. 

Isaac Burrell had only one son, Hiram, and Hiram Burrell had only 
one son, who lived to manhood, Isaae ]3urrell, who died in Lorain, the 
last in the male line in the Isaac Burrell family. Eunice, daughter of 
Isaac Burrell, married Erastus Ilecock. He was a soldier in the War 
of 1812, enlisting when a boy from Salisbury, Herkimer County, New 
York. Mrs. Ilecock received a pension for many years after his death. 
Mr. Ilecock was captain of state militia, then colonel. They removed 
to the .southwest part of the town and built a line home. He met a 
tragic death August 23, 18G6, while riding with a friend. Both were 
instantly killed by a train when crossing a railroad track at Carlisle. 

There were two brothers of Davis and Erastus Ilecock, who came 
in early times to Sheffield, Rufus and Harry. Rufus was drowned in 
Black River when their boat overturned, and was buried in tlie old 
graveyard on JMr. Reid's land beside the river. Harry Ilecock mar- 
ried Jane, daughter of Isaae Burrell. Ho died with fever in a few 
years, leaving two daughters, Hannah, and Iluldali, who married Lewis 

Those who lived on the lots .selected for them until their deaths 
were the Burrell bi'others with their wives, John Day and wife, Samuel 
B. Fitch and wife, John and Milton Garfield with their wives, Mr. and 
Mrs. Oliver Moon, Henry Root, Joshua Smith and Ariel Moore. Doug- 
lass Smith left the farm where his father settled, and moved to the 
ridge, whei'e Ik; lived the rest of his life on tlie farm now owned by 
]\Ir. Minai'd. i\Irs. Mai'tha Hoggs, of Las Animas, (.'olorado, is the only 
remainini' child of Mr. Smith. 


The Root Family 

'I'Ik: lioot, riuiiily lived cii^'-hlcfii years on tlu! i'ann near tin: (Jatliolic 
(Jhnri-li ami then moved to the lake shon; — William II. Root, to tin: Tarm 
now owned liy lii.s son, Orville, and Aai'OJi lioot to the larui next oast. 

Ilirani Buri'ell lived all his life on the farm to which he came as a 
boy, and Kobbins Burrell was oidy absent from Sheffield a few years 
in Oberlin and Elyria. 

The Days 

John and Cornelia Day lived nearly all tiieir married life on the 
farm across the river from the James Bnrrell place. Norman and Julia 
Day settled on a lake shore farm soon after they were married, and 
tliis was their lifelong home with the exception of a few years in 

Kellogg Day went as a teacher in 1840 to the Dwight IMission among 
the Cherokee Indians in Indian Territory. Jn 1841 he came back ajid 
was married in the State of New York. He I)rought his briiie to Shef- 
tield for a visit and then they continued their wedding journey from 
Cleveland to Cincinnati b}' canal, then down the Oiiio and Mississippi 
rivers and up the Arkansas to Fort Smith; thence, the last sixty miles 
to iJwiglit, on horseback, joining the mission family, four months after 
their mari'iage. In KSaO they left the mission foi' Deinnark, Iowa, 
making the journey in a "prairie schooner" so that tiiey neeel not 
travel on Sunday. The journey of four weeks was delightful, in the 
beautiful October weather. Denuuirk became theii- permanent home. 

The James Austin (Senior) family moved from Sennet, New York, 
in 1834, and settled on the farm across tlie river where the tul)e mills 
were built a few years ago. This farm and tiie farms where the Ilecock 
brothers first settled are now of great value. The Hiram Burrell farm 
is covered with railroad tracks and three high-level bridges connect it 
with the City of Lorain. 

Mr. and Mrs. Arnoki Burrell lived in Sheffield when they first came, 
but removed to Elyria Township. They always attended the Sheffield 
Churcli. ^Ir. Burrell was a nephew of the Burrell l)rothers. When the 
ehurcii moved into their new building in 1852 all the families were 
assigned seats which they retained, with a U'W changi's, for many yeai's. 
At this time there was, in atldition to the families already mentioned, 
many others, among them the Randall, Chapman, Reeves, L. T. Parks, 
Woodruff, Carter, Austin, Belden, Swan and Mallory families. Tht; 
church was well tilled. 


Items About ]'ioni<:ei{s Generally 

Liitlicr Hcdortha \v;i.s in Slicriicld as early us 1K2:{ and lived on wliat 
was alterwai'd llie Caiij; lai-iii and is jiovv the; 'J'roxler jjlaeo. His 
brother, Hiram Hodortlia, lived on tliu Kiden i'anii. lie was in Sliei- 
fiekl as late as 1845, but both families had probably moved away before 
the chufeh was built. 

iMr. and ]\Irs. Jolin Carter came from England as young people, 
were married and lived oji the Robbins Burrell farm for live years, and 
then bouglit the farm where they lived for nuiny years, now owned by 
Frank Caley. 

George Crehore, Sr., and his brother, Asahel, came from Survey 
Townshij), near Keane, New Ilami)sliire, to Sheffield. Asahel Crehore 
died with fever, but the George Crehore family became permanent resi- 

The ]\loore, Faragher, Irish, Case, Podley, Lliller and Hill families 
have long been residents of the lake shore. The Caley, Taft, Kane and 
Kinney families settled near the center. Daniel Caley and his wife 
with six children, tiiree sons and three daughters, came from the Isle of 
Man in IHIJO in a small sailing vessel, making tiie pasjsage in five weeks 
and three days. They bought a farm in Sheffield, west of the river, 
paynig .$7 an acre. This property continued in the possession of the 
Caley descendants nearly sixty years, when it went to the Sheffield Land 

Two Unsuccessful Institutions 

Oberlin College in 183G established a branch school in Shefifield at 
the home of Rol)l)ins Burrell. The experiment only lasted one year. 

In 1854 or 1855 a farmer's club was organized in Sheftield, with 
Richmond Baker, president; L. T. Parks, treasurer, and Lewis Wood- 
ruff, secretary. This clul) lu'ld several unsuccessful fairs on William 
Day's Farm. 


The Lorain ship i)lant has been oidy the continuation of an old 
industry. There were several boats built at the Mill by .Mr. 
Curtiss and ids son-in-law. Captain Dull', one The Alu-v Duff and one 
liiat went down tlie St. Lawrenec to the ocean. They were talo'ii down 
the river during a flood. 

Augustus Jones built a nundxT of boats at Globeville; one Tlie 


Globe, gave the place its name. Five boats were l)inlt in Sheffield on the 
lake shore; The Juno, at the Wolcott place; The Gladiator and Forest 
Maid, at, Lewis AVoodruir's. 

Shel'fiehl furnished a nuiaber of lake eaj)taiii8 in early times. Cap- 
tain Itoot sailed the lakes ami also crossed the ocean to Liverpool. 
Frederic 0. Day was one of his crew. Richard crossed the ocean in 
1858 with Captain Smith Moore on the first lake schooner to go through 
the canals to the ocean. In 1859 he crossed the ocean from Savannah 
to Liverpool as captain, the boat being sold in Liverpool. 

Captain Winthrop Randall was a trusted lake captain until his 
death. He was taken sick on board his boat and only lived a few days 
after reaching home. 

Solcn Burrell, oldest son of Robbins Burrell, went on a whaling 
voyage to the Pacific Ocean in the early '50s. He was gone several 
yeai-s. Soon after his i-eturn, while walking along the street in Mil- 
waukee, a brick fell on his head from a building in the course of con- 
struction, and caused his death. He was brought back to Sheflield and 
his funeral held from the church in October, 1854, the same day that 
the funeral of Mrs. John Day was held in the church. 

Gold Hunters op 1849-50 

Several "Forty-Niners" went from Sheffield to California during 
the gold rush— William JMallory from the Sliore, who never came back 
except for visits; Henry Garfield, who came back to the old home on 
the Ridge, and Wilbur Gaboon, who never came back to Ohio. 

Joliij L. Day went to Tike's Peak in .search of gold in the latter 
part of the '50s. He returned for a visit and then in 1864 went across 
the plains to Helena, I\lontana, accompanied by Henry Fitch, Orville 
Root, Daniel Mallory, James Faragher and Charles :\Iaddock. They all 
returned in a few years except Henry Fitch. He died in Sheridan, 

Judge William Day, Acting Land Agent 

After John Day died with fever in 1827, his oldest son, William 
Day, who had just returned from New .Orleans wheiv he had spent 
seven years, went to (loiineelieut on horseback (o see Mr. Hart and get 
iiim to lake back the unsold land in the townsliip, which he did, a])point- 
iiiK William Day as his land agriit. l''or lliirly yciii's after this .Mr. Day 
was active in selling tjiis land, the Germans buying land together in the 


oast part of tlio township. Judge Hart died soon after he took liack 
tile land and his two (huighters, Miss Hetty B. Hart and Mrs. Jai'vis, 
were his heirs. 

AVilliaia Day kept a stoek of goods in the Hecoek mill at one time 
and later had a store on the hill near tlie east end of the bridge at 
Thirty-first Street. In 1849 he was associate judge with Hon. Philemon 

The Pakks Families 

Alonzo Parks, a brother of L. T. Parks, kept a country store at the 
Center, near Hiram Burrell's, for a short time. He married a daugh- 
ter of John Garfield. They soon moved away. The L. T. Parks family 
came from Dalton, Mas.sachusetts, where he was a merchant. They 
were related to the Chapman and Randall families. 

Sheffield in the Civil War 

Sheffield furnished her full quota of men for tlie War of the Rebel- 
lion. Among these were Lewis Burrell, Horace Pitch, Simeon Kane, 
Alfred Day, Edgar, Stephen, Jackson and Giles Irish, John and Antone 
Youngbluth, Prank Deidenck, Isaac and Joseph Taft, the Ilyland 
brothers from the west part of the town, and John Bacon. Joseph died 
with measles. John Bacon was killed on the battle field at Resaca, 
Georgia. Edgar Irish was among the missing. Six of the Ilyland 
brothers were killed or died of disease during the war. Edward Root 
and Prederic 0. Day served through the war in Illinois regiments. 
Dwiglit R. Burrell was a member of the Ohio National Guards and saw 
service at Washington, D. C. 

]\IiLTON Garfield 

For several years before ]\Iilton Garfield was married, he and his 
brother Elijah kept bachelors' hall in a log house across the road from 
the later home. One night the two brothers heard a knock, and when 
the door was opened two Indians stood there. They asked to come in 
and dry their clothes. They staid all night, sleeping on the floor before 
the fireplace. They said they had killed a i)i'ar on the knoll of the flats 
and had left it hanging there. This knoll on the old Taylor place is 
still called the "Bear's Knoll." The next day the two Indians hunted 
in the North woods, killing two deer and coming l)ack to i\Ir. Garfield's 
to slay the second night. Tin; two brotlu'i-s helped them shoulder tiie 

I n c 


deer next morning, l)ul, they wondered how they were to carry the bear, 
as they said they were going I'or it. Tlie Indian eam^) was at Indian 

]\Ir. Garfield hrouglit from iMassachiiselts in a small box slips of liell 
pear, Cantield and I5ow ajjples. lie grafted the IJell pear on a thorn 
hnsh. All of the slips lived and there ai-e two trees of Bell pear and 
a nnnd)er of the Bow apples on the Kidge now. Mrs. (larfield nsed the 
small tin box for her tea. Elijali Garfield went ])aek to iMassaeluisetts, 
married and died there. 

Siikffield's IIistouy, 1865-1015 

The following is a synopsis of the paper presenting the history of 
.Sheffield for the past fifty years, written liy Mrs. G. L. Cnddeljaek: 

For the first part of our last fifty years Sheffield seems to have 
dwelt peacefully and serenely, each one treading llie path of hard work 
and duty, paying off mortgages or adding more acres to the few just 
])aid for. The large and growing families were to be cared for and 
their education and careers planned. Schools were just about the same, 
except for now and then a teaclier with a new vision and once iii a great 
while a .school director l)road-minde(l enougli to let them try it out. 
Our easy access to Oberlin lias brought many teachers and iireacliers 
of greater ability than is probal)ly allotted to most townships, although 
file dear old .saints tired often of being Olierlin's "call' pasture." 

At the close of the war, i\laria Hoot and Delia Day left their homes 
to give themselves as leachers to the work of the Freeilmen's Bureau, 
working at IMacon, Slilledgeville and Andersonville, veritable pioneers 
in the great home missionary work of the South, which has grown all 
these years into a factor of untold influence. 

First Railuo.vd 

In 1872 came the C. L. & W. Railroad, cutting off oidy a small por- 
tion of the township, but giving to Sheffield residents, as well as Black 
River, the vision of a large city, where little Black River then stood. 

Dkatii of RonniNs Burrkij. 

In 1878 was recorded the death of Robbins Bnrrell. In the winter 
of 1S2.'i-24 he taught the only public school then existing in tlie city 
of Cleveland. 



In 1KH2 aiiotlicr niilnmd cjuik; lo SlicHicId, lli<; Nickel I'liilc, wilii 

J wo .stations, oiiu at Sliuliield siding, and one on the Maddoek road, 

called Jjake Jireeze. Cleveland and return was made in one day and 

with a great degree of eoml'ort, even it the trains did only run twice a 


In 1884 the Lakeside KSunday school celebrated its silver anniversary. 
The Center School was invited. Rev. E. C. liarnard gave tiie address, 
iMrs. J. Austin a history of the school. The superintendents had been 
Win. Day, Sr., jMr. Felch, Mr. Root, Mr. Chapman and .Mr. Austin. 
This Sunday seiiool was supported until in 1895 the corporation of 
Lorain took in the land upon which tlie stood and the 
buiUling was torn down. 

Fatality of Edvvaiu) Buuuell 

In 181)1 Edward Burrell of tlie third generation in of 
this si)ot, met with a fatal accident. 1 quote from an article by his 
brother, Howard Burrell, wiio said, "lie had lived on this farm thirty 
years, lie was a 'doer of the Word,' just, humane and charitable. The 
Sunday morning before the funeral was touching. With the death of 
the elders of the community, and the emigration of the childi'en, the 
Congi'egational church had dwindled down to six families. Only 
twenty-three were out that morning. They could not afford a jiastor and 
for two years Edward had read a printed .sermon tiiere to keep up a 
service and bind np the remainder." 

Woods Leveled for Steel Plant 

January 2, 1894, ]\Irs. Henry Studley entertained the North Ridge 
and Center Sunday schools at a Christmas tree festival at her summer 
iioiiie on the (ilobeville road, and little ilid they realize then that never 
again would it l)e a jdeasant place for ])icnics and outings, but I'ather 
a liive of industry and iiianufa('ture. In June of tiuit year iiundreds 
of men went into these woods and in nine months, by* April 1, 1895, luul 
transformed them into a .steel plant of innuense pi-oi)ortions. 

In 1895 Sheriield Township schools held graduating in the 
cIuiitIi. lOigiit schools were i'e|iresente(l and Mrs. William Day pre- 
sided. Slu' is the veteran teacher of Sheffield, having served eighteen 


First Short Line Street Car 

The next important event to tlie Shore, espeeially, was the running 
of the short line street car, which started Fehruary 4, 1896. The first 
car left Lorain at 7 :10 a. m., with sixteen passengers and made the trip 
in lOVli minutes. Twenty passengers enjoyed the trip back. Walter 
Root acted as conductor. For nineteen years this little "dinkey" has 
served as a i)lace to lace shoes and adjust collars and ties for belated 
sul)ur]janiles, carried flour, provisions and lumber when mud was knee 
deep, and served us at weddings and funerals. 

Last of the Day Pioneers 

In March, 1896, ]\Ir. James Day died. lie was the last of the pioneers 
who came from Massachusetts. | 

First Car Over the Electric 

In October, 1897, was run the first car over the Lake Shore Electric, 
prolialily bringing to tlie Shore, if not to all Sheffield, the greatest con- 
venience in llie way of travel it had ever had, and its Soutli Lorain 
spur, coming in 1!)()G, was a still greater boon to Shcfliehl Center. 

P^iGiiTiETii Anniversary of Congregational Church 

In 1898 was celebrated the eightieth anniversary of the Sheffield 
Congregational Church. Some of the dear pastors who ministered to 
Sheffield's spiritual life have been Reverends "White, AValker, Gough, 
Wright, Shaffler (who thanked the Lord always for his right reason), 
Delong, Baldwin, Barnard, Deidrich, Kelsey and Iladley, who was the 
last minister to live in the ])arsonage. Others, Oberlin students, came 
over on Sunday to preach, but had no continued pa.storate. Tiie last 
service held in the old church was in 1903, that of the funeral service 
of one of Sheffield's sweetest and fairest maidens, Edna Crehore. 

There had been for many years a Sunday school at the Ridge school- 
house, with Mrs. Garfield, Robert Eberhard, Hubert Day and ]\Iiss Jessie 
Garfield as superintendents. Just as the Shore and Center schools were 
merged into North and South Lorain Congregational churches, so this 
liecanie a part of what is now known as Vincent Church. 

Claimed as Founder of Rkral Free Delivery 

Russell Walker, besides being a pioneer mail carrier and playing an 
iinpoi'tanl pai'f in IIk; life of Sheffield, is beli(.'ved to be the originator of 


tlu! rural \'rvt'. delivery now in universal use tlii'ou[,'liout llie IJnilod 
Slates. After carrying tiie mail to Crandall, .ShelTiidil, Avon Lake and 
Lake iin^eze for many years, Ik; ])roi»os(td to the farmers to deliver tlie 
mail at their door three times a week for the small sum of $LUO per 
year. Tliis mel, with approval and was tried and later hrought daily 
free delivery, it was first established February 15, IDOL To the later 
marine interests and life, Sheffield has contributed Mallonej's, 1^'araghers, 
.Woodruffs and Cases. 

Industkial IMattehs 

In 1S94 Jessie Garfield, in au article for the Day-Austin reunion, 
foretells a great and glorious future for Sheffield as a manufacturing 
place, the old church getting so crowded another would have to be built 
and electric cars running aci'oss town in all directions, etc. Her dream 
as to railroads has very nearly come true. Just at the top of the hill 
as you used to go to Day's Mill across the river is the high level and 
fill used for road traftic and the Lake Sliore Electric bridge also. 
Farther to the north is the bridge of tlie Lake Terminal, the entrance! 
to llie tube mills, the Lake Shore and the Lorain & West Virginia rail- 
roads. These lines meet just north of the old Carter home, the West 
Virginia line crossing the river at the Ridge and curving around by the 
Kinney places. 

A paper of 1904, at the time of the launching of the sliip Wolvin 
at Lorain, says: "It is a long way from the canoe of the Indian and 
the 'General Huntington' of 1819 to the 'Wolvin' and it is a still longer 
way from these simple craft to the Steamer 'Trimble,' 605 feet long, 
carrying 12,109 tons of ore to the steel plant dock and unloading it in 
seven liours, approximately handling three tons a minute, and this in 
old ShetlHeld. 

"Most all of Lorain's groat industrial jilants stand on land that was 
formerly Sheffield, but we would not wish it back to lay idle, for tiirough 
these mills, she is giving to thousands a ciiance to earn a better living 
than tliey ever had before, and to educate tlieir chihlren and nuike of 
tliem splendid American citizens. ]*rol)ably one-third of Sheffield's 
population is foreign, and 1 mean by tiiis, those from Southern Europe, 
not on I' (Jei'man ncigIiI)ors, with whom we have gi'own up." 


l*\)llowing ai'e some ol' tlie dates of th(! deaths of tiiose who came into 
liie country in 1815-10: Julia Koot Day, 18(39; John Day, 1871 ; Fainiie 


Day Root, 1878; Norinan Day, 1880; Kellogg Day, 1887; William Day, 
Sf., 188!); AViJliain Root, Hr., 1889; Lydia Day Kiimcy, 1891; Jaim-s 
Day, l8(Hi; lOmiii-C! iJurn;ll Hwock, 1891). 

Oraiidrtia Ifandall probably lived to be tlie oldest of any resident of 
Sheflield, being ninety-seven years, six months old when she died in 

Four of the original lots are occupied by descendants of these first 
settlers, they being two of the Garfields, Hurrell and Day. 

Golden Weddings 

The golden weddings celebrated by Sheffield couples were William 
Day and wife, Asel Taft and wife, Mr. Jacob ]\Ieyers and wife of the 
Ridge, Mr. Jacob IMeyers and wife of the German settlement, Lewis 
Woodruff and wife, James Austin and wife, and Frank Diedrich and 
wife, the last occurring July 25, 1915. 

Old Family Relics 

Of the articles brought from Massachusetts in 1815 by these pioneers 
some things of value and interest remain. A blue silk dress is at the 
home of Arthur Austin, a white dress at the home of Professor Wi-iglit, 
a mug at the home of Everett Day, the old Day Bible, publi-shed in 
1813, at Sumner Day's, and the old red paeony at the home of William 
Day, Jr., and a part of that also at the Artliur Austin home in Lorain, a 
writing desk of Mrs. Mertou's, an account I)Ook of John Day's and a 
telescope at Dow Day's home, while many choice relics are at Shirley 
Burrell's home, brought by Abraliam Burrell. 


Of the boys and girls l)orn and brought up in Sheffield, Katherine 
Schnitzler has become an actress; Peter Ikmgart has become an expert 
in the collection of fossils and has a position with a Canadian company 
which is in search of geological and museum specimens. ]\Ir. Bungart 
collected and .sold many valuable specimens from our own Black River 
banks. This work was started first in Sheffield by Jay Tyrrell, who 
built and lived at th(! Lake Breeze; hotel, now known as llii! Lake Bree/.o 
dairy farm. 

The folh)wing clii)[iing from S. II. Burrell's scrap book, iibout 
another Shcfdehl I)oy, Mr. Howard BuiTell, coiirerns tlie most 'uniipu- and 
vei'satiie of edilors. He was eily editor of the Cleveland Leader during 


tlie latter clays of the war, but rcsii^'iu'd beeause bis boaltli was shattered. 
Jle wa\s a great I'catler aiul read hundreds of books eaeii year. Of Hlief- 
tield's d(!seeudeiits, Burrell lleeoek, son of Anna Bell Burrell and Harry 
Heeoek, of Cleveland, is reeoguized by the world as one of its greatest 
heroes, sacrificing his life trying to save a man and wife froui drowning 
at Niagara i"'alls in February, 1912. Prof. G. Fi'ederiek Wright has 
done much writing of books and is an authority on scientific geological 
research. Helen Cogswell has been an actress of note; E. Dana Durand, 
census enumerator of the United States, while many others of Sheffield's 
sons and daughters have given time and talent to social service, philan- 
thropy, litei'ary club work and different lines of church activities. 

^Irs. Cuddeback closed her interesting historical outline with a charge 
to the younger generation present. She advised them to take up the 
prol)lems of this and the next generation in the same spirit of self- 
sacrilice as ditl those men and women of a liundi'ed years ago. 

The Gehman Residents 

The history of the German residents of Sheffield was prepared by 
Miss Mary C. Diederich and in its essential outlines was as follows: 

"About 1840 the Germans began to emigrate to the Western Reserve. 
They were young and ambitious people, but not largely blessed with 
earthly goods. Their coming into a strange country, the language of 
which they knew not, and being handicapped with attacks of fever and 
ague, maiie the prospect anything but alluring. In all their hardships 
they Were kindly helped by their English neighbors, who were ever ready 
to help the newcomers. There were people from all parts of Germany, 
speaking various dialects, but nevertheless trained to one language at 
school. Now, most of these i)eople have l)ecome Anglicized and speak the 
English language. 

St. Theresa's Catholic Chuhch 

"St. Theresa's Catholic church of Sheifield was organized in 1845 
by Rev. Peter Greiseh, its first pastor, with a membership of thirty- 
three. At the time of organization every member paid one dollar, with 
which total amount an acre of land was purchased. Upon this was 
l)uilt a log eliurch, 24x;]0 feel, which was occupied until the fianie one 
was built in 1H47 at a cost of .$1,500. 'J'he land was bougiit from (Japt. 
Aaron K'oot, with the understanding that if he sold the farm lie would 
give the purchasers another acre, which he did. Tiie jii-st trustees of St. 
Theresa's cliuri'li were -Tolui Miller, Christian i\Iarck, Peter L(tu.\ and 


Peter Schneider. Since 1879 a substantial brick parish house has been 
erected at a cost of $3,000. 

"Early in March, 1908, the frame church was destroyed by fire just 
as plans were l)eing made for a new editice. On the following Christmas 
tlic liist .services were held in the sul)stantial brick church, which had 
been completed at a cost of $15,000. The present membersiiip comprises 
forty-five families. The people have tlirived, and while the number of 
residents is much smaller, the farms are larger. The good people who 
came first and laid the foundations for our present homes are gone. 
They braved the ocean's storms and the wilds of the forest that we 
might enjoy the' fruits of their labor. May God bless those who helped 
to prosper our German people and make Sheffield one grand home, for 
the present generation." of the Sheffield Celebration 

The celebration of the Sheffield Centennial occurred on August 11 
and 12, 1915, at the home of Mr. and INIrs. Harry Burrell. The pro- 
gram began on the former day with a launch ride from Lorain, up 
the Black River to tlie landing near the Hyer Farm, some seventy-five 
or a liundred people enjoj-ing the trip. At the top of the hill, jitney 
buses met the people, taking them to French Creek Hollow, where the 
program was to have been carried out. The rain in the afternoon pre- 
vented the carrying out of part of it, and all were taken to the old 
church. The basket picnic was the first thing on the program, 100 or 
more enjoying this feature. ]\Ir. Orville Root called the assembly to 
order. By the light of one lamp the following exercises were carried out : 

The Absent Ones 

Letters were read by Mrs. Arthur Austin from Frank Day, Weeping 
Water, Nebraska ; Mrs. Laura Day Bullen, Moline, Iowa ; Mrs. Carrie 
Walker, Doylestown, Pennsylvania ; Edith Day Allen, Providence, Rhode 
Island; I\lrs. Bertha Austin, Cleveland; Mr. Sherod Soule, Hartford, 
Connecticut; Mrs. Lydia Fitch, Montana; Mrs. Armin Tyrrell, Alhaml)ra, 
California; Mrs. Fannie Au.stin Evans, Fort Wayne, Indiana; Mrs. 
Carolyn Cogswell Gardner, Wakefield, Massachusetts; Mrs. Carrie Park 
Ames, Los Angeles, California; Mrs. Angie I'aul, Des Moines, Iowa; 
Mr. and Mrs. All)ert Caley, Livingston, Alabama; Mrs. Ella Durand 
Williams, York, Nel)raska ; Miss Alice Carter, Claremont, California; 
Mrs. Sarah Nash, Hopkinton, Iowa ; Mrs. Mary Everard McKinstry, 
(!lii('ope(', Massacliusi'lts; Mi-s. Julia Mci'ton, Portland, Oregon; and one 


I'rom Howard Burrell of Iowa, read by Mrs. Tempa Burrell. Sliort 
addresses were made by luaiiy of tlie old time friends, telling of many 
tilings of interest which lia2:)pened in those pioneer days. Mrs. Celia 
Durand read a paper, ''The Pioneer Women of the Western Reserve." 
j\Ir. Asaph Jones sang, "One Hundred Years from Now," thus closing 
the first day's exercises. 

Historic Program 

Thursday, August 12th, the friends assembled on the spacious lawn 
of the old Robbins Jiurrell home, where the time was spent in visiting 
aiul recalling old time experiences. Six long tables seating fifty each had 
been arranged on the lawn and were soon filled by the many people in 
attendance. Three hundred were seated at the first tables, while many 
others waited their turn. The chicken pie dinner, with all the other 
fixings was very much enjoyed by all present. After dinner the com- 
pany again assembly.! at the old church, where the afternoon's program 
was carried out, Mr. Root acting as chairman. Ray Cogswell gave the 
first fifty years of the history of Sheffield, Avhieh had been i^repared by 
Norman Day. He spoke of the coming of the first settlers, Capt. Jabez 
Burrell and Capt. John Day, from Connecticut in 1815, and the pur- 
chasing by them of the townsliip from Gen. Wm. Hart of Saybrook, 
Connecticut, and later the coming of Captain Smith and his son Douglas 
from Massachusetts by ox cart. The families of Freeman Richmond, 
Henry Root, Oliver ]\Ioon, Milton and John (jiarfield, A. R. Dimmick, 
Henry Austin and others arrived, some coming by boat as far as Niagara 
Falls and then by stage, others by ox carts and many walking. At the 
end of the first year in Sheffield the population of the first settlement 
was fifty persons. The first white woman to settle was Mrs. Freeman 
Richmond, wiio came in Fobruaiy, 1816. Nathan Stevens was the first 
magistrate after the town was organized and Captain Smith was tlie 
first settler to die, his death being caused by ague and fever in 1817. 
Mrs. Isaac Burrell, one of the last of tiie settlers, died in 1860. 

The history of the second fifty years was given by j\Irs. G. L. Cudde- 
back. Other articles from histories were read by Messrs. Chas. Crehore 
ami Louis Bacon. Short addresses were made by Mr. Jesse Lang of 
Oberlin, who is now eighty-nine years old, and who taught the fii'st 
school in Siicfficld ; Everett Day, Walter Austin and others. Mr. Siiii-ley 
.Burrell of Lorain read an excellent pai)er telluig of the first newspaper, 
j)riiit('(l July 24, LS2i), wiiich was known us llie Lorain (lazetlc, and its 
snbsci'iption price was $2.00 a year, 'i'liis closed tiie pi'ogram lor the 
afternoon. Adjournment to the Burrell Farm again took place, where 


]\Ir. LeittT of Lorain took a pictiiro of tlu; larj,'!- {,Mtlieriiig, and which 
may he bouf^lit uL his sliulio at any time. 

All intcrestiiif^ j^iait(; was th(- mifio room, aiwanj^cd in the J'foiit i)ait 
of tlie JUirrt'U llonu'stead. Aniony the ivlies were a shawl owned hy 
:\lr.s. 11. C. Jiurrell, wiiieh was worn l)y Capt. John Day's wife, when she 
eauie to Sheffield, lOU years ago; Jolm Day's silk hat and Judge Day's 
silk hat, a bundle of flax, which grew on the Day Farm seventy-tive years 
ago; a iiuip of Connecticut, dated 1790; a scarf worn by Leonora Burrell 
seventy-live years ago; a dress made in 1790 by Mrs. John Day; a dress 
worked by lihoda ]\laria Day in 1811, and a yarn weaver made by the 
Shakers and sold to Ilalsey Garfield fifty years ago, and many other 

The pageant which was to have taken place Wednesday evening 
was carried out Thursday evening, and began by a dozen little fairies 
appearing from a distance, dancing to the music of a graphophone. 
Then the music died away and tlie Indians appeared on hoi-seliack. 
Halting they started a fire and began getting their vvcjiing meal. Soon 
afterward a covered wagon drawn by two horses was seen coming down 
the road. It represented the coming of the first family to Slieifield. 
The camjifire was started, lighting the whole Hollow. Dancing by many 
of the younger and .some of the older ones followed, with music by Mr. 
Clark Cox and Mr. Boyd, two of the old tiddlers. This was one of the 
happy features of the evening's entertainment. Mr. Jones sang "The 
Perfect Day," wiiich closed one of the most successful and interesting 
gatherings tliat Siiellield has ever witnessed. 

Huntington 's Home-Coming 

On Tuesday, August 10, 1915, Huntington held a home-coming cele- 
bration that was attended by nearly 1,000 ])eople. Those who had moved 
away, members of families who were among the first settlers, mingled 
again with those who had elected to remain in the community. It was 
a happy reunion time, old acquaintances being renewed and other days 
lived over again. The weather was ideal and the hospitality of Hunt- 
ington's citizens unbounded. For the time-being, those who had wan- 
dered afar, wondered why fate had taken them away from old-time 
associates and associations. 

The celebration was held on the grounds of the (central School Build- 
ing and at noon a basket dinner was .sc^i'ved. There was, however, ample 
and generous provision for all liome-comers and visitors. Housewives 
vied with each other in adding sul)stantials anil delicaeies to the family 



basket, witli tlie result that there was such an abuiulaiiee that supper 
was ser\'e(l on the f^rouiids. 

Mykon T. IIkuiuck, Nativk Son 

Following (liuuer tliei'e was a program oi' addresses, the first being 
liy lion. Myi'on 'l\ liei'riek, i'oniier ainliassador to l<'ranc(;. Huntington 
is i)rou(l to eiaiiii Mr. ll(;rriek as one of its own. lie was born tiiere and 
his boyhood days spent in a eonununity tiiat promised niueli in the early 
(lays. ^Mr. Ilerriek's acUlress was largely of the character of personal 
reniiniseenees. lla recalled the men who were prominent in tlic place 
when he was a school boy, sj)eaking in an appreciative way of wliat it 
jiieant to Huntington or any other community to have such men sot 
the standards. His boyish feeling of tiiem being great men had not been 
outgrown. Among them were cultured men from tlie East, such as Kev. 
Ansel Clark, that time pastor of Huntington's Congregational Church. 
Otiiers were referred to as shaping the eonununity by the influence of 
their unswerving character. ]\lr. Herrick, in speaking of modern con- 
ditions, said that "modern motles of travel had made of the world a 
m-ighborhood and that it was up to us to nudic it a brotheriiood. " 

Hon. J. T. Haskell, of Wellington, was unable to be pix'sent, but 
Rev. Mr. Willard, of the .s.ime i)lace, was secured in his slead. Kev. 
J\li-. AVillard was for three periods pastor of the Baptist Church of 
Huntington but is now living in retirement in tiie nearby town. He, too, 
recalled many pleasant instances of liis earlier life in the community, 
saying that he liked it so mucli that lie came back of his own free will 
the second time, and that the community lik<'d him so well that it 
insisted upon him coining hack the third time. 

PlJOF. F. 1). Waki) 

I'rof. F. 1). Ward, of the faculty of Baldwin Wallace University, 
Herea, and a former resilient, spoke with love for and priile in the 
eai'ly inslitutions of Huntington. He especially referred to the simple 
directness ol' educational iiu'thods ('mi)loyed by some of the teachers 
after tiie Civil war. He also spoke of some of the old families. I'ro- 
fcssor Ward has (piite recently fitted up the old home in JIuntington, 
wilh 1lic idea of uifimately returning lo it. 


A I'eatui'c; of the day was the music furnished by Kelsey's Baud and 
Ihe S|)eiieer Band. Tin; foi'mer is u historical iiislitulion and has 


licloii^'cd to Iliiiitiii<,'luii as loii^' iis tiicrc iiavc been iiii)' Kelsi'ys in tlio 
low II. 'l"lu' lu'lscy JJaiid'^ Wliy tlirre lias hi'i-ii a Ivclscy Band as long 
as tin; oldusL settler ean n-iiieiidjer. The Kelsey i'aniily has always \)in:\i 
notetl i'or its uiusieal leanings, and tliere are at present six members 
in the baail. On this oeeasion the band played martial and patriotic 
music almost entirely. Tlie contributions of the Spencer Band were also 
apin-eciated. In the morning there was a spirited basejjall game between 
the Huntington Giants and the Nova team. 

Plans for a Centennial 

Before tiie close of the afternoon, plans for organization for the 
celebration of Huntington's Centennial were discussed. The centennial 
will occur in 1918. • 

Not all of the home-coming as enjoyed by Huntington residents had 
to do with the past. Old residents, old times, the good old days were 
enjoyed in reminiscences and story, but there is another side to the ali'air. 
Like many rural communities, Huntington has seen larger jjlaces profit 
because of the city-ward trend. Perhaps like many other rural com- 
munities, Huntington has been napping, a little, satisfied that certain 
things were inevitable. But when a few years ago a very sul)stantial 
centralized school building was erecteil at a cost of more than $12,000, 
tliere was an unmistakable sign tliat Huntington was stirring herself. 
Of there were those who could not sec the necessity of abandon- 
ing .schools already built, and the suliject is still a tender one with some 
tax payers. The other side to the story as developed at the home-coming 
is that Huntington is slated for progress, and when l!il8 arrives, tliere 
is going to be a i)roud recounting of what of the vision has come to i)ass. 

The ])r()gram of the hoiiie-coiiiing eiiuiiiei'ates the lollowiiig desirable 
things ol' the and the future: Huntington is making pi' 
We have centralized schools. We have some stone roads. We will get 
more stone roads. The value of property is increasing. We are har- 
vesting bumper crops. We want an up to date high school. AVe will 
have a modern country chui'eh. We want a grange. We are having 
\isi()iis of an ideal community. Our aim is to realize these visions. 
Our motto is "Kverybody Boost." Wateli Huntington make progress. 

At the evening meeting held at 8 o'clock, there were talks l)y okl 
seltlers, music by a mi.\ed (|uai'tet, and a short address by Rev. A. H. 
liapking of the IM. iO. (!liurcli on "The Future of lluiitiiigton." liis 
talk embodied the principal it^ms as enumerated under Huntington's 
progressive i)i'ogi'am, and tended to unite the whole eomiiiuiiity in a 
plan for better things. He spoke of "Wellington as having rested upon 


1li(! slioiildci's of lliiiitiMfftoii." Time Wiis wlicii ] I iintiii^'ton was tlie 
iiiuic proiiiisiiif^ center of i)Oi)uIatioii of the two. Jiiit the promised r;iil- 
roiiil wnit lo tlie iici^^lihoriiit; coiiiiiiuiiity aiid niiiin-roiis inhabitants of 
IIiintin{.;1on f(jllo\V(;(l it. If Huntington lives u|) to iier future phins, 
then; iKM'd Ih; no recurrence of foi-nier cx])eriences. — Elyriii Deiuocrat. 

The 1'euky Centennial 

Tile centennial coniiiieniorative of the Battle of Lake Erie, Septeiii- 
lier ]1), 1S1;{, generally known as the Perry Centennial, einbraet'd ten 
states of the ninon and especially appealed to the pati'iotism and enthu- 
siasm of the lake i)orts. Lorain Perry lIom(! Week, from .July Lith to 
the 20tii, inclusive, will long be reniend)ered as one of the most suc- 
cessful public celebrations wliicli lias l)een interwoven with the history 
of tile county. 

As early as 1911 the (iencral Assembly of Ohio took llie initiative 
toward a Perry Centennial, and was followed in the movement by the 
legislatures of Pennsylvania, jMichigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, New York, 
Iiliode Islaiul (the native state of Oliver II. Perry), Kentucky, IMinne- 
sota and Louisiana. Commissioners were ai)i)(iiiited by the stales, and 
by President Taft, for tlie United States, and together they were organ- 
ized as tile Inlerslate lioard of Perry's Victory Centennial (!ominission, 
witii iicadquarters in Cleveland and Ccorge II. Wortliiiigton, of that 
city, as president-general. 

Local Particitation 

Lorain's enti'y into the centennial movement came wiien W. N. Litll(\ 
president of tiie Loi'ain I'oard of Commerce, accepted an invitation to 
apjiear before the Interstate Commission to determiiU! what cities would 
participate in tlie celebration. It was througli ]\h'. Litthi's cITorts befoi'e 
tiiat Lorain was given recognition and accorded a jiiace on liie inter- 
city program. 

Returning to l^orain, ]\Ir. Little referred to the citizeiisliip tlie (|nestion 
of whether or not Lorain should undertake to participate. At a meet- 
ing of citizens held on June .Ith tlie (luestion was answered in the 
afiirmative, and i\li-. Little, Dr. Clia.s. V. Carver and II. K. Ford wei-i? 
named to constitute an i',\eeutiv(! (unrMnittee for (U'gani/.ation ])urposes. 
A f<;w days lat(;r the executive committee of tlirci; drew ufi the follow- 
ing organization : Honorary pi'csidents: M. M. Suppes, W. ){. Tiiomp- 
soii and Riciiard Tiicw. Ilonoi'ary vice presidents; Mayor T. W. 
Piipc, ,\. ( '. Allen and Thoinas b'atii. I'rcsldeiil, \V. \. i>iltlc. \'ice 


president, ])r. C. V.,Garver. Secretary, II. E. Ford. Treasurer, George 
A. Clark. Assistant seeretary, R. Ji. Patin. Executive eonunittO(!: W. 
J5. 'I'hoinitson, eliairiiian ; Dr. ('. V. Carver, viee eliaii-nian ; Mayor l*ai)(,", 
Ceor-^'e A. (JIark, T. C. Met/<,'er, W. ,). Wright, August Baldwin, E. 1'. 
Reidy, E. C. J^aMarelie and R. J. Aspin. J^ater, l)y action of the com- 
plete organization, the names of Mr. Little and Ui: Ford were added 
to tlie executive committee membership. It was formally decided to call 
the 'city's demonstration of July 11^-20, the Lorain Perry Home Week, 
action having been taken to combine a home-week celebration with the 
Perry Centennial. 

Tiii<; NiAGAUA Raisioi) kuom Tiui Lake JJottom 

In the meantime at a cost of over $70,()()0, Perry's second flag-ship 
in the Battle of Lake Erie, was raised from the bottom of ^Misery Hay 
near Erie, where it had lain for a century and restored to a replica of 
what tlie ship was as she went into the memorable battle 100 years ago. 

Oidy the keel, about half the ribs, and three or four "courses" of tlie 
original planking remained as a starting point for the reconstruction 
work. Naval experts, assigned to the task of superintending the restora- 
tion, conned histories and the navy dei)artment records for data upon 
which to work. Old "tar.s," veterans of the days of the.sciuare-rigger 
were ((uestioned. When the work had been completed, the Niagara, 
down to every pulley block, almost to every spike and nail, was just as 
she liad been when she turned defeat into victory 100 years ago. 

GiJANi) WkIvCome to the Restcjued Flag.siiii* 

July IStli was the great day of the week, as it marked the demonstra- 
tion of welcome to the restored Niagara, and strikingly typified the 
heroism of tlie younger days of the Republic and, by contrast, the 
"bigger Ihings" of the ]>resent. The Lorain Times-IIerald issued an 
elaborate "Pci'iy edition" on the Ifitli, from which the following inteivst- 
ing paragraphs are extracted: 

"Web'omed by the din of whistles and by the clieei's of the thousands 
that lincil the wharves of the river and lake, the Niagara, second flag- 
shij) of Commodore Perry in the battle of Lake Erie, entered F^oi'aiu 
harbor at sboi'tly aftci- -I o'clock ycslerday afternoon. 

"Consoi-led by her oflieial escort, the H. S. ships, Wolvei'inc and 
Essex, the Niagai'a moved uj) the river cliannel to hei' mooring, ])resi'nt- 
ing as siie passed under the sliadows of the sliijjping of modern times, 
a striking contrjisl. ()iic huniii'i'd years before she had been the Hag- 


slii|) of a fleet of ijaltlesliips. Yesterday the tii)S of her spars scarcely 
to2)pe(l tlie decks of tlie ships slic passed in iier entry. 

"A wliite-ehid iiiai'iiie l)aiid on the (h-ck of the fainons shi|) phiyed 
pati-iotic airs as she warj)ed to her moorinjr at tlie city dock. Tlie land- 
ing dock could not hold all of the throng that had a.sseriihled to sec and 
welcome the floating relic of the national triumphs of another day. 
Erie avenue iiraul)ridgo along its northern rail was a living of 
humanity. Along the docks on the opposite side from the landing 
place, spectators formed a .solid line. Bi'oadway at its lower end and 
water works i)ark each held portions of tiie overflow of crowd. As the 
band struck up its stirring lilt, the thousands that watched hurst into 
checr.s. Hats and iiandkerchiefs waved a givat welcoming salute. 

"On hoard the Niagai'a as she entered the port and docked, was an 
official rece])tioii conuiiittec, representing the city ami the Lorain Perry 
Home AVeek Association. As an ad.iunct to tlie reception committee, 
and adding a touch of historic color, tii(?re was on hoard, also, a band of 
Lorain Red IMen, arrayed in full war regalia. Immediately after mount- 
ing the Niagara's rail as she entereil the piers, the Red Men were taken 
'prisoners' by the reception committee, and were still in humorous 
bondage when the dock was reached. 

"The rece])tion committee included W. N. Little, ])resident of the 
celebration association; IMayor T. W. Pape ; Capt. Richard Thew, chair- 
man of the reception committee; IMajor ('. F. Cramer, Dr. A. T. Crills. 
Holdeii AVood, J. E. ]\Iooney, R. 15. Patin, Chas. A. Iloyt, C. E. Krantz, 
L. A. Dawes, Custer Snyder, AValdo Purcell and C. L. Corts. 

"]\Iayor Pape, Major Cramer and xAIcssrs. Purcell and Corts had con- 
stituted a committee that went to Cleveland early yesterday morning 
and joined the flotilla when it passed that i)ort enroute from Fairport 
to Lorain. The remaining meml)ers of the reception committee l)oarded 
the Niagara outside the harl)or mouth here before her entry into the 

"Towed by the Wolverine, the Niagara arrived outside the mouth at 
about 1 p. m. liotli ves.sels anciiored, awaiting tlie coming of the Essex, 
which had stopped in Cleveland. ^Members of tlie reception committee 
Avho had remained in Lorain were placed on board the Niagara by the 
tug E. i\L Pierce. The Essex, upon iu-r arrival, also went to anchor. 
The Lorain City Hand alioard the Kssex g.ive a eoiiecrt as the boat w;;:i 
being docked. 

"At 4 p. 111. the flolilia got under way. As the entry was made, the 
Niagara, towed by the tugs E. M. Pierce and Sui)erior, came first,' and 
was followed by the AVolveriiie and the Kssex in the nvAi'v named. The 


vessels were doeked in the order in wliieli lliey entered. After tlio land- 
iug liad boon ott'eoted, gang-planks wore put out from tlio Niagara and 
tlio oagor spoctators allowed to go aboard for a tour of inspoetion. Presi- 
dent Little, aceonii)anied by the inendjers of tbe reeoption committee 
and the war-paintod Red Men, boarded in turn the Wolverine and 
Essex and formally extended the city's welcome to the respective cora- 
manders, Capt. W. L. Morrison and Capt. A. P. Nicklett. 

The Niagara, throughout her cruise of lake ports, is in the command 
of Ensign G. M. Lowry, U. S. N., who has been specially commissioned 
to the assignment. Captain Lowry is in charge of the historic relics 
the Niagara has on board. 

Perry Relics Exhibited 

"The relics mentioned were the battle flag carried by Perry in the 
battle near Put-in-Bay and Ijcaring the motto 'Don't Cive up the Ship'; 
the sword which he wore; his duelling pistols; his commission as cap- 
tain in the United States navy, and the sword of ^Midshipman A. Perry, 
the fourteen-year-old brother of the commander, who accompanied the 
commoilore wlien the colors were transferred to the Niagara. The famous 
battle flag is about nine feet sipiare, with a background of closely-woven, 
dark blue muslin. The flag was made in the liomo of Thomas Stuart 
at Erie, Pa., by Margaret Forster, wife of Thomas Stuart, who was an 
officer of the Pennsylvania troops, with the assistance of Dorcas Bell, 
wife of Capt. Wm. Bell, Elizabeth Rachel, Mary Theodosia and Catherine 
Arn, wives of officers of Perry's tleot. AVhile the vessels of tlie fleet were 
being built at Erie, the officers used to visit the Stuart home and on one 
of these visits asked Mrs. Stuart to make a flag for them. The words 
'Don't give up the ship,' were uttered by Capt. James Lawrence as he 
fell, mortally wounded on the deck of the frigate Chesapeake in the 
engagement with the British ship Shannon, on June 1, 1813. The flag 
flew at the masthead throughout the Battle of Lake Erie. 

"Perry's duelling pistols are now owned by the family of the Late 
Gen. James Alexander J'erry, U. S. A. They were loaned by the family 
for exhibit purposes. 

"The commodore's sword is the property of Hon. Perry Belmont, of 
AVashington, D. C. Pen-y's commission as ca])tain, signed by Presi- 
dent James Madison, is owned by August Belmont. JMidshipman Perry's 
sword is the property of the family of the late Gen. Jas. A. Perry." 

The other days of the week than that which marked the reception 
of the Niagara were interesting, including, as they tlid, civic i)arade.s, 


iiKliisli'iiil i)iij,'(')iiit.s, iiviatioii fciil.s, i)OW('rl)Oiit nieos, military cxliibitioiis, 
swimming contests, boat laiiuclies iroiii tlie American Sliiphuildiiif? 
Company's yards, and speaking liy Governor James li. Cox and otli<;r dis- 
tingiiisiied visitors. It is said that on several ot-easions the City of 
Lorain entertained fully 2."i,()00 visitors; that is, tlie centennial about 
doubled her normal population. 



At First, No Educational Fund — Legal Comi^ensation in 1803 — 
Actual Land Grant in 1834 — The Western Reserve School Fund 
— Progress op School Laws to 1834 — Foundat.k)n op Present 
System — The Akron Law and Free Graded Schools — Teachers' 
Institutes — Pioneer Schools and Teachers — Mrs. and Mr. Bron- 
SON — Schools Founded in 1810-20 — The Strut Street School, 
Brownhelm — Pioneer Schools in Elyria and Wellington — 
Russia Township Schools — Huntington and — First 
School in Penfield Townshii' — Present Status of County 
P^DUCATioN — The County Infirmary — The County Home for 
Children — Superintendents and IMatrons — Aim: To Provide 
Permanent Homes — Buildings — Tntellectual and Moral Train- 
ing — Past and Present Management — The County Agricultural 
Society — First Agricultural Society — Town Fair at Oberlin — 
Origin of Good Roads IMovement^ — County Society Founded in 
1846 — First Fair — Lecturers Appointed — Ladies' Horsemanship 
Introduced — Pure-Bred Cattle — Star Farmers— First Election 
— Improvements of Grounds — Early Premiums Dropped — Later 
Hi.story of the Society — Population of the County, 1830-1010 — 
, Townships and Corpor.vtions, 1010, 1000, 1800 — Electric Iinifica- 
TioN IN Lorain County. 

The liistory of pui)lic education in tlie Western Reserve is distinct 
from that of otlier poi'tions of the Nortluvest Territory covered 1)y tlie 
provisions of the Ordinance of 1787; that is, for nearly half a centnry it 
did not enjoy the benefits of the educational fund created l)y tliat instru- 
ment, for the reason tliat for more tlian a dozen years after it went into 
force those who controlled it refused allegiance to the General Govern- 
ment whicli hehl jurisdiction throuj,'h tlie ordinance named. 

At First, No Educational Fund 

The explanation and outcome of this complication — this first serious 
conflict. l)etweeii localized and centralized govcriimeut — is lliiis de- 



scribed hy Judf^o Boyuton : "Hy tlie ordiiiaiii-c of ('oii<rr('ss of 1785, 
it wiis (Iccliircd tliiit Section 1(5 ol" eveiy towiisliip sliould lie I'eservcd 
lor tile lUiiinleiiaiice oL" jiiililic schools in tlie township. The Ordinance 
of 1787 rcallirnied the i)olicy thus deciai'ctl. The jjrovisions of these 
ordinaiices, in this respect, were not applieal)le to, nor operative over, 
the rejjion of the Keserve, hecause of the fact that the United States did 
not own its soil ; and although the entire amount paid to Connecticut 
by the Land Company for the territory of the Jiciserve was set apart 
for, and devoted to tiie maintenance of public schools in that State, no 
])art of that fund was appropriated to purposes of education here. Here 
was an inequalit}' of advantages between the people of the Reserve and 
of the remainder of the State, in that respect. 

Legal Comi'exsation in 180;} 

"This inecjuality was, however, in a measure, removed in 1803 by an 
act of Congress, wiiich set apart and approi)riate(l to the Western 
Reserve, as an e(|uivalent for section IG, a sul'licient (luantity of land 
ill the lliiiled States Military District, to com])ensate for the loss of 
that .section to school purposes in the lands lying east of Cuyahoga. 
This amount was equal to one thirty-sixth of the land of the Reserve, to 
which the Indian title had, before that time, been extinguished. 

Actual Land Grant in 1834 

''The Indian title to tlie lands of the Reserve west of Cuyahoga not 
then having been extinguished, the matter seemed to drop from puhlie 
notice, and remained so until 1829. At this date the legislature, in a 
]\remorial to Congress, directed its attention to the fact that l)y the 
Treaty of Port Industry, concluded in 1805, the Indian title to the land 
west of Cuyahoga liad lieen relinquished to tlie United States, and 
l)rayed in recognition of the fact that an additional amount of land 
lying within the United States Military District should be set apart for 
the use of the pulilic schools of the Reserve, and ecpial in quantity to 
one thirty-sixth of the territory ceded to the United States by that 

"The Memorial ])roduced the desired result. In 1834, Congi-ess, in 
eompliance with the i-e(|uest of the Legislature, gi'anted such additional 
amount of laml to the Reserve for school purposes as to equalize its 
distribution of lands for such purpose, ami in furthei'ance of it.s object 
to cari'y into efl'eet its determination, to donate oiic thirty-sixth part of 
tile piihlic! doiiiain to the purposes of education. 

•»x. Uxili 


The Wksteun Rkskkvk Sciiooi, Fund 

"The lands first allotted to the Reserve for sueh purpose were situ- 
ated in the counties of Holmes and Tuscarawas, and in 1834: were sur- 
veyed and sold, and the proceeds arising from their sale, as well as 
the funds arising- from the sale of those subse(iuently appropriated, 
were placed and invested with other school funds of the State, and 
constitute one of tlie sources from which the people of the Reserve 
derive the means of supporting and maintaining their common schools. 
This fund is called the Western Reserve School Fund." 

Progress op School Laws to 18.34 

In tlu; meantime, great progress had been made in the establish- 
ment of a real system of public education, not depending on the uncer- 
tainties of private subscription and voluntary sujjport. That the schools 
were maintained as well as they were in the struggling days of pioneer 
settlement was highly credital)le to the intelligence, and often generosity, 
of those wlio l)rought their families into the western wildei'ness, or 
reared them amid such surroundings. The State Constitution of 1802 
rcjieated the educational clause of tlie Oi-dinance of 1787 aiul made it 
the duty of the Legislature to carry out its intent. At first the school 
lands were only leased, and many abuses and scandals arose tlu'reliy. In 
1821 tlie iirst law was passed levying a tax for the support of the public 
schools; authority was given, but the levying was not made obligatory 
until 182.5, which measure also provided for the appointment of school 
examiners. The law of 1821 also authorized the division of townships 
into school districts and the election of district school committees who 
miglit erect schoolhouses. In 1827 tlie state abandoned the policy of 
leasing the school lands and made provision for selling them and invest- 
ing tlu! proceeds. As fast as the lands were sold, the ])roceeds were paid 
into tlie state treasury and the state pledged itself to pay 6 per cent 
interest perpetually, such interest being annually distriliuted among the 
vai-ious townsliijis and districts for scliool; as a matter of fact, 
1lie fund is borrowed by the stat(? and tlie aniuuil interest is raised by 
taxalioii under tlie law of 1825. 


'IMuis file iirojjer machinery foi- the- founding of a system of ])ublic 
ediieation was beinpf provided, luit, as a wliole, Ihe Western Reserve was 
not placed on a par as to jiarliciijatioii in tlie j)ublic school fund until 


18;U. \jy 1838 the state eominoii school fund had reached $200,000; 
was mliiwd la $150,000 in 1842; raised to $300,000 in 1851, ami 
abolislicd in 18r)3, wiieii tlie entire systi-ni of j^eiiei'al taxation i'or seliool 
])uri)Oses was revised and tlie loundation of the present plan adopted. 

The Akhun Law and Fkee (Jiuded Schools 

In Lorain County, as in other progressive sections of Ohio, the 
system of free graded schools developed from the famous measure 
known as the Akron law of 1847. Througii its provisions that town 
was organized into a single school district controlled by a board of six 
directors, who were authorized to establish primary schools and a central 
grammar scliool and take all the practical steps to employ teachers, erect 
buildings and purchase api)aratus. In 1848 the provisions of that 
comprehensive law were extended to otiier incorporated towns and 
cities. A general law was passed in 184i) ena])ling any town of 200 
inhabitants to organize as under the Akron law. It furtiier provided 
for the establishmejit of an adeciuate numl)er of pi'imary schools, con- 
veniently located; a school, or schools, of higlier grade or grades; for 
the free admission of all white children, antl that the schools nuist i)e 
kept open not less than thirty-si.x weeks in each year. The general law 
of 184i), growing from the Akron measure of 1847, founded tlie .system 
of free graded sciiools for every county in Ohio. 

Teacheus' iNs'rrruTEs 

In 1845 the first Teachers' Institute was held and in 1848 a state 
law was i)assed providing for the appro[)riation of money in each county 
for the purpose of having such institutes conducted. In Decend)er, 1847, 
was organized tlie State Teachers' Association, which has held annual 
meeliiigs in Lorain' County as follows: 

Pioneer Schools and Teach eks 

As a rule, the people who first .settled in Lorain County wen; men 
and women with children, or, at least, potential parents, and the pi'imi- 
tive log selioolhouse, or the little class of scholars gathered in the cabin 
lioiiie, followed closely tlie eoiniiig of the pioneers. Cliiireli and sc'hool 
and home were the solid triangle of the New Lngland civilization which 
they brought with them. 

We cannot more than mention, at this point, a few of the faithful 
teachers of the siibsci'iplion schools which were taught in the pioneer 

reb t^lO' 

'J ;<;i.i ..I 111 



period of tlie county as the predecessors of those sujjported by tlie i)nblic 
scliool fund or general taxation. 

Mlia. ANU Mh. Jil£(JNHON 

The first school in the county was tauglit in the sunnner of 1808 by 
]Mrs. Bela Bronson, wife of one of the original proprietors of Columbia 
Township, who, with her husband and child, and three others of tlie 
Waterbury (Connecticut) Colony, journeyed from Cleveland during 
the previous year and had just commenced family life in a brand new 
log liouse. Two other fainilies had arrived witii several children of 
scliool age and tlie young teacher had every reason to believe that moi'o 
would follow. This Hist school in the Jironson shack was conducled 
with comparative comfort in suninier, but in the winter of 18()'J-10 Mr. 
JJronson decided to take a hand himself as an educator, and taught a 
class in a blacksmith slio]), with all the heat the woril implies. 


In the fall of 1810 a colony of about twenty people migrated from 
Waterbury into Kidgeville and not long afterward a log schoolhouse 
was Itiiilt near the center of the town. There the children of the settle- 
ment were taught until the building was burned, in 1814. 

Sheffield and Grafton filled up quite rapidly during the early years 
of their settlement, and schools were taught as early as 1818. iMiss .Mary 
Sibley, the pioneer teacher in (irafton Township, gathered a class during 
that year in a log cabin built for the purpose near the residence of 
Capt. William Turner, who had come into the township in 1817 among 
its pioneer settlers. 

A schoolhouse was also built near the center of Avon Township, in 
1818, ami Larkin A. Williams, the townshij) elerk, was the teacher. It 
was then Troy Township. 

To this period, or a little later, lielongs the la])ors of i\Irs. William 
Alverson, wife of one of the men who accompanied Col. Henry J^rown 
from ]\Iassachusetts to Brownhelm Township, in 1816. About three years 
afterward Mr. and Mrs. Alverson were living in a house of their own, 
and a number of families, comprising the usual large quota of children, 
had located near them. So the hou.sewife gatliered the children of the 
neighborhood and oi)ened the first school of the township in her own 

TiiK Strut Stukkt School, PjitowNdioLM 

In llie fall of 181!) (|iiile a sizable log sclioolhouse was built on Iho 
brow of the hill in the Hrownhelm settlement; the sti-uctiire was IS by 


22 tVet. lint it was so pretentious that tlie thoroughfare on whicli it 
stood was (liil)h('(l Strut Sti'cct and retained tlie name for many years, 
(ii'andison l-'airchild taut,'lit the school the iirst two winters, reeeivin(^ his 
tuition in elioj)j)iiit,'. Money was very seareci in those days, labor and 
produee being usually employed in the exehange of values. I\lr. Fair- 
ehild eouki teach better than he eould chop ; as he )ieeded some chopping 
done, and could not get money with whieii to hire choppers, he acted 

PioNELUi Schools in P]lyi{ia .\Nn Wkllington 

The first school in Flyria was organized in ]81!J in a log house on 
the hill, on the side, and in 1827 the well known Yellow School- 
house was built on the site of the present opei'a house. 

In the spring of 1820, Caroline Wilcox, daughter of one of the original 
colonists who came from Berkshire (Jounty, -Alassachusetts, to settle on 
the site of the future Village of Wellington, opened the first school in 
the township in the house of John Clifford, a fellow pioneer. She con- 
tinued to teach until a log schoolhouse was ei-ected on the site afterward 
Occupied by the American House. The school was closed with a grand 
exiiibition, said to have been the first entei'taimnent of the kind given 
west of the Cuyahoga. Julia Joimson, daughter of Phineas Johnson, one of tlie first 
settlers of Carlisle, was a ])ioneer teaciier in that township, as well as in 
JOaton and Elyria. She|uently became the wife of Edmund West 
and resided at Elyria. She taught .several years during the early '2()s. 

Russia Township Schools 

The early settlers of Russia Township, from 1817 to 1822, located in 
its northern, especially its northwestern, sections and not long after 
they colonized, sehoolhouses were built near the houses of Eber Newton 
and Alonzo Wright. Settlement in the southern i)ai't of the township 
and the founding of Oberliii College came a iunid)er of years later. 

Huntington and Amherst 

Tluntingtoii, in th(i far southei-n i)art- of the county, was early entered 
in tlie list of seliool communities. ]ii 1822, during the year of the town- 
ship's formation, a schoolhouse was built and during that scjisoii Miss 
Lovinia jjoveland taught foiu'teen scholai-s, some coming a distance of 
two miles tliroiigh the woods. \Ui{ lliaf was nolliing unusual; tlie boys 


and girls of those days had to work liard for their education, as did 
tlieir elders for everything of value wliieh they eaiiie to possess. Sehool- 
iii}^ was a foretaste of Uiose liardcniiij,' times during winch nothing eaiiie 

Sehoolhouses were huilt at an early date in both the north and south 
parts of Amherst Township. ISophronia JJlair taught a i)ioneer class on 
the south ridge, and there was another early school just beyond the 
corporation line of the present village, but then known as the Corners. 
Miss Fannie Barnes, later ]\Irs. David Smith, taught at the latter school 
in the summer of 1823, and afterward Miss Philania Barney, who became 
j\Irs. S. N. Moore, was a teacher in the same log building. 

First School in Penfield TowNyiiii' 

About tlie time that these first Amherst schools were coming to life, 
Pentield Township families were subscribing for the services of JMiss 
Clarissa Rising as a teacher of their tender offspring. Calvin Spencer, 
one of the first land purchasers, who first came with Peter Penfield on a 
prospecting tour in 1818 had erected a house in 1821, and donated it to 
tile community and to Teacher Rising. Therein the first, school in the 
township was opened, and in 1828 a special log house was erected for 
educational purposes. The winter term in the new building was taught 
by George R. Starr. 

Present Status of County Education 

Many years ago the schools of the county outgrew the primitive 
sehoolhouses, apparatus and methods of teaching wliieh were prevalent 
in the da^'s when such faithful men and women as those mentioned 
labored in the field of pedagogy, •^'illage, townsiup, city and state have 
all combined to give Lorain County all that is modern and progressive 
in educational forces, from the elementary schools to the high schools' 
and colleges. Among the higher institutions of learning and moral 
uplift, Oberlin and IMount Union colleges will compare favorably with 
any similar institutions in the state; so that no student need go outside 
tlie limits of the county to acquire a thorough, safe and lilieral education. 

The present County Board of Education is as follows: Robert G. 
Iiigicson, Avon Lake, j)residciit ; (Miarles T. Jamieson, Wellington, vice 
|)r('si(l(Mit; M. C. Keiideigh, Amherst; F. II. Bronson, Kipton ; I. N. 
llavcii, I'llyria. W. A. liiseox is cDUiily sii|)i'rint('Mdent, willi head- 
(|iiarl('rs at l']lyria, and fi'om him we obtain the following statistics 
showing the general condition of the schools under the control ol" the 

:♦ ^c ?{t 

•*H' tft t«»''t "mn *')•> j'wx- 


county board, of which he is the chief executive: Enrolment in the 
county system, 5,]4r); numhei- of school buildings, 122; value of school 
I)i'oi)(;i'ty, jfi-'jOO, ()()() ; iuiml)cr of teachers, 200; number ol' distfict supijrin- 
tcndcnts, 8. 

The Lorain C^ounty Teachers' Institute is conducted under the 
auspices of the County Board of Education. The instructors of that 
held in the fall of 1915 were Dr. S. C. Schmucker, of the State Normal 
School, West Chester, Peiuisylvania ; ]\Iiss Edna Joseph, East Liverpool; 
Griffith J. Jones, Lorain, musical director; Laura Krautter, Lorain, 

The teachers of Lorain County have been holding an annual Teachers' 
Institute for many years past. The 1915 session was held August 28-Sep- 
tember 3, 1915, in the auditorium of the new technical iiigh school build- 
ing, Elyria, Ohio. This was the first ses.sion of the institute held since 
the new high school building was completed. The institute enrolled 
To men and 367 women, making a total of 440. Tiiis was the largest en- 
rollment in the history of the county. This was pronounced one of the 
best institutes which the teachers of Lorain County ever enjoyed. The 
institute for 1916 will l)e held in Elyria, August 28th-Septeud.)er 1st. 

The County Infirmary 

The Lorain County Infirmary is a large modern building erected and 
developed for the care of the poor, its founding and expansion covering 
a period of fifty years. The institution, with its grounds of over a 
quarter section, is located in Carlisle Township, two miles west of Elyria. 

The infirmary was founded under tiie following circumstances: On 
March 17, 1866, Tabor Wood, George Clifton and Reuben Eddy, county 
conunissioners, purchased of Joseph Swift, Jr., 170 acres of land in 
Carlisle Township for an infirmary farm, for which they paid $10,500. 
On January 8, 1867, the contract for the erection of a suitable building 
was awarded to John Childs, of Elyria, and Samuel C. Brooks, of Cleve- 
land, for the sum of $37,500. The structure was accepted by the com- 
missioners September 10, 1868, and the builders, on account of extra 
work, were paid $1,000 above the contract price. As completed, the main 
building was 123 by 46 feet, three stories high, and in its center and 
rear was a wing, 32 by 75 feet, two stories high — the entire structure 
containing 120 rooms. Althougli tiie first inmate was i-eceived on Decem- 
ber 1, 1868, the origiiud buildings were not entirely completed and 
furnished until thi'ec! years had passed. 

The growth of the county's po|)ulation and the increase in the number 
of the ])Overty-striekeii seeking admission, forced an extension of accom- 



Miodations, Jiiul liiially, in 1!J()5, lioiids vvt're voted for the erection of a 
iiiodcni adilitioii. It was completed, in tlio following year, at a eost of 
about .+8,500. 

Tile county iiilii'iiiai-y, as it stands today, is rcpi'eseiited Ity a sub- 
stantial, modern and well-l)uilt jtlant, loeateil on a liij^li ;nid dry site. 
The fai'in is all tilled, and, with buildings, stock and machinery, is valued 
at ovei- $97,000. The water supply and means of fire protection are 
furnished by a water tower eiglity feet high, with a capacity of 15,000 
barrels. Fire plugs are distrilnited throughout the grounds. Electricity 

W! J 


sujiplics the lights aiul power for laundry machinery cream separator, 
etc. There are about 100 inmates at tiie infirmary, three-fourths of whom 
are men. 

The first superintendent of the Lorain County Infirmary was Tabor 
Vincent, wlio served until his death in ]\Iarch, 1S7G, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Iliraiu Patterson. He was followed by Levi JMorse and 
Addison Blanchard, each of whom served three or four years. The 
definite records commence with C. E. Cooley as superintendent, who had 
active charge of the infirmary from June 1, 1889, to November 1, 1893. 
His successors were Dell Johnson, who .served from Novend)er 1, 189.'J, 
to l\larch 1, 1908, when the jjresent superintendent, Judson (i. Starr, 
took oflice. His wife, Sadie i>. Stan-, is matron, and \)v. C. E. French is 

The first directoi's of the inlii'iiuiry, a|»pointcd by flic board of com- 
missioners in 18()8, wi're Isaac S. Metcalf, Samuel IMund) and [;Ucius 



Ilt'iTick. Those now .serving' (January, 1!)1G) arc AV. J. Ilillior, Klyria; 
A. K. JIalc, OluTliii, and Oscar (;. Diiiiii, also of lOlyria. 

Till': County IIomio Foit (Juiij)i(iCN 

Tlic Lorain County Cliildrcn's Home, in the eastern edge of Oberlin, 
wliich cares on an average for sixty dependent cliildren under eighteen 
yeais of age, is an institution wliicli is an honor to the founders and the 
inanagciiicnt. Prior to the hegiiniiug and organization of an institution 
for tlie care of dependent children in Lorain County, philantliropic 
residents of the county iiad conferred together frc(|Uently respecting 
such an undertaking, and finally tlirougli tlie earnest ell'orts of Rev. F. C. 
KIdred, of Klyria, tlie (|uestioii came before the voters for tiicir opinion, 
and (he movement was endorsed at a special election held in Aj>ril, 1H!).S,' 
hy a majority vote of U.'!, thus giving the county conniiissioncrs power 
(o j.rocccd with locating and building a county children's lioine. 

Col. J. W. Steele, of Oberlin, took up the matter of location for the 
home, and ])rought it before the people of Oberlin through the board 
of commerce, who .secured from the Village of Oberlin certain concessions 
should th(! home be located there. 

The board of conuni.ssioiier.s, consi.sting of A. 15. Hayes, F. K. Criffin 
and IL A. Durkce, had several i)ieces of i)roperty otfeivd, and aftci- due 
consideration selected the present site, one mile from the center of 
Oberlin Village, consisting of fifteen acres on the extreme eastern villa-'c 
line of the town, and boumled by College, Crosby and Lorain .strc.-rs, 
with a street to be opened on the western side of the grounds, giving 
amj)le room foi- buildings, play grounds, lawns and garden. The ovUmrdl of the land was $;:l,67r,. The architects .selected were Lelimairaud 
Schmilt of Cleveland, and their plans were ado])ted and the contract for 
the buildn.g of four .separate brick houses was given to a Columbus con- 
tractor, who faded before completing the buildings. His bondsman 
Robert McClure, continued and finished the work in lS!)i) The entire 
cost including grading of grounds and drilling for gas, amounted to 


^Ir. and Mrs. II. 1'. Kennedy received their ai),)ointments as sui)er- 
>"<-'"l''"t and matron, rcspectivly, before the buildings were completed 
or furnisla.d; they began their service July 1, l!)()(), „nd continued it 
tor live years and four months, when they were sucre,.led by the presimt 
".eumbents, Mr. and Mrs. (.'corge A. Moslu-r. The (iisl endeavor of the 


managt'ineiit was to get the rooms prepared for the reception of children, 
wliicli was doiu', teiuporaiiiy, permanent acconmiodations l)eing after- 
ward jxTfcclfd. The iiist inmates wei'e three chihJren committed Ity the 
inlirmai-y directors, who came on Ani^ust -i, 1900. The first year fifty- 
one ciiihiren were received, and during the period of Mr. and Mrs. Ken- 
nedy's incnmhency, 201 ciiildren were cared for. JMost of those had 
Ijoth parents living, a few were half orphaJis, and eight only had lost both 
l)ar(iits. (jicncrally speaking, the division of labor between the superin- 
ti'udciit and the matron is that the former regulates the conduct of the 
inmates and instructs tiiem in out-of-door work, wliile the matron keej)S 
them clean, looks after their food and health, teaches them tlie domestic 
virtues; in fact, mothers tliem, which carries to all a world of meaning. 

Aim: To PH()vn)E Permanent Homes 

From the first it has been the aim of the management to provide the 
ciiildren with permanent homes as soon as those can lie found adapted 
to individual temperaments and wants. In tlie meantime tliey are fed, 
clot lied, educated and trained to be a credit to any households which 
may ado])t them. "Where there are persons who have a legal right to 
the possession of a child, they are re(iuired to sign a paper giving the 
trustees of the home entire control until the child reaches the age of 
eighteen. The children are placed on trial for two or three months. 
Jf, a Tier such a test, the child gives satisfaction and if the home proves 
to be such as the child needs, the stay is made permanent, by adoption 
or otherwise; but if all is not satisfactory, the home recalls the child. 

The conditions under which children are placed in families are as 
follows : 

1. That the applicant be of good moral character, and furnish satis- 
factory rtd'ereiices and recommendations. 

2. Tliat the children be given a fair trial, and if not suited, to be 
returned within sixty days. 

'i. That they be kindly treated, comfortably clothed, given medical 
attendance \vhen necessary, and be protected from evil examples and 
immoral influences. 

4. That they be given not less than five months' schooling each year 
and that they be )'ci|iiiiT(l to attend church and Sabbnlli school when 

5. That they be fi-ee ;it eighteen years of n^v, and receive a good 
out lit of clothing and a bounty of from $50 to .+200. 

No child (tan be r(;turned after the expiralion of the time for triid 

/)h'A()A '•]f' Y:!'i':'c!: 


willioi'.t K'ivin<>- due notice, stating reasons in writing,', and obtuiaing the 
eonseJit oi.' the majority of tiie board of trustees. 

(Jliiklren may bi; visited onee a year or ol'tener by some one authorized, 
and the riyiit ol' recalling' a child at any time when its welfare demands 
it, is reserved. 

The majority of the inmates of the Lorain County Children's Home 
are of foreign nationality, principally Poles, Hungarians, Slavs, with 
a few Irish, English, German and. Americans, including colored. They 
are sent largely because of the drunkenness or inlidelity of parents; 
some because of the death of father or mother, or both, and others on 
account of sickness, i)overty and want of employment. They come 
largely from Lorain and Elyria, a, few from Oberlin and Wellington 
and fewer still from the surrounding country. No child is accejited who 
has not resided in Lorain County for at least a year. 


In the cai'rying out of this most commendable work ade(iuate and 
tasteful buildings and beautiful grounds have been provided. Tiie main 
building is a two-story, pressed brick structure, the front of wiiich is 
used for trustees' office, and the su])erinten(lent 's home; in the rear are 
the dining rooms for children and family, as well as the kitchen and 
])antry. The nursery dormitory and sleeping apartments are on the 
second floor, with a large attic over entire building. The two siile build- 
ings, connected with the main building i)y ai'ches ai'e used for ilormi- 
tories; the one on the west of main building for girls and on the east for 
hoys. There is sleeping room for about sixty-five children in the three 
dormitories. Both buiUlings are conveniently arranged with toilet and 
bath rooms. A room for school purposes is located in the boys' building 
and a similar room for kindergarten work in the girls' building. Large 
attics ovei' both are used for play rooms in .stormy weather. 

A i)rick .structure for laundry j)ur])Oses is located in the rear of main 
building. With two gas wells the i)lace is furnished with light and gas 
enough for cooking and laundry work, and also for partial heating. The 
main heating is by furnace and steam. Obei'lin Village furnishes water 
and sewer privileges without charge. The grounds ai'e attractively 
adorned with handsome shade trees, shrubbery and flower beds with fine 
lawns, a lily jxmd, a fountain, stone walks and drives. 

Outbuildings consist of barn, carriage and tool house and j)oultry 
houses, 'j'he garden furnishes vegetables in season including most of 
the potatoes used. An acre or two of ground has been planted with fi'uit 
trees consisting of apples, pears, j)lums, peaches aiul cherries, with small 

'^ '.K '■>'[' e'.ii'i 


I'ruits, sucii as currants, berries and grapes, which in time will aini)ly 
supply the home witli ahumhint fruit. 

'i'lie Ch'vchiiKl & Soutliwestorn troHcy line passes tlie home, allording 
easy communication with the outside world. 


A school was started and a teacher employed in liJOl. This continued 
until the fall of li)(.)8, when it was deemed I)est to send tiie childivn to 
the Oherlin schools, where they have advantages which cannot be given 
them in an ungraded scliool. It also gives them the opportunity to 
mingle with other children in study and play as eciuals, thus breaking 
up their in.stitutional life. 

School work for the youngest children is i)rovided through the Kinder- 
garten Association, who sentl their nonnal students during the college 
year to instruct anil anuise them. 

A Sunday school at the home is mainfained and cared for by the 
Y. 'M. v. A. of the college and has been of much benefit. The children 
are taken to the Oberlin cluirches fretiuently. 

Through lAIrs. O. F. Carter, the Xon-Parti.san W. C. T. II. has organ- 
ized a junior temperance society amongst the children and has given 
them instruction along tempei'ance lines. 

Past and Present Manage.ment 

The following are the names of the commissioners who have served 
during the life of the home: A. B. Hayes, F. E. fJriffin, 11. A. Durkee, 
C. K. \Vilson, J. M. Jayeox, II. C. Wangerein, E. M. Kemp, R. C. Ilage- 
man, Z. R. Parsons and II. F. Arndt. 

The trustees appointed by the conunissioners have been : J. AV. Steele, 
of Oherlin; S. B. Day, Elyria ; W. J. Krebs, Pentield ; A. II. Bahcock, 
Lorain; O. F. Carter, Oberlin; Frank Young, Lorain, and J. F. Ran- 
dolph, Oherlin. Of the trustees mentioned, IMessrs. Steele, Carter, Bab- 
cock and Day have died during the life of the home. 

The I)oard of trustees now in service eonsi.sts of Dr. Frank Young, 
Lorain; J. F. Randolph, Olterlin ; AV. J. Krebs, Penfield, and Ceorge E. 
Hill, of Elyria. 

Tjie County AciKicui/ruijAL Society 

Both Elyria and Oberlin claim the credit of starting the original 
movement which culminated in the Lorain Co\inty Agi'ieultural Soeietv. 


The Oberlin champions do not deny that tlie first fai^, largely a stock 
sliow, was held early in 1S3S on the eoiiiinon just oast of tlie Beebe House, 
on tlie ])res(!iit site of lOly Park. They also admit that $00 was awarded 
as ])i-ejiiiums upon cattle, horses and articles of various kinds upon that 
occasion, and tiiat several fairs might have been held at the couuty 
scat before any were organized at Oberlin. 

FiHST Aguicultuual Society 

On the otiier hand, the first formal organization of those intei'ested 
in things agricultural in Lorain County Avas the society formed in 183'J 
by the faculty, students and colonists of the Collegiate Institute and the 
Village of Oberlin ; the time, about five years after the founding of both. 
The society held weekly meetings at which essays were read and dis- 
cussions arranged on various subjects pertaining to agriculture for not 
only residents of the village, but tile management of the college had a 
])ractical interest in the sul)ject, as the very existence of both, in tlie 
earlier years, depended largely on the successful tillage of the soil. 

Town Fmh at Obeklin 

For many years town fairs were also held at Oberlin. In a small 
sheet called the People's Press, issued from the college town in October, 
1845, is published an account of the fair held that year. There was an 
address by Professor Kirtland, of Cleveland, and in the evening Dr. N. 
S. Townshend, President Malum and Professors Cowles and Fairchild, 
of the college, delivered speeches. The opening address by the president 
of the society is given entire in the paper. At tiiis meeting a plowing 
match was held, and cattle and other stock competed for premiums. 
Professor Cowles was chairman of the committee on plowing. 

Origin of Good Roads ]\Iovement 

Largely through the efforts of the Oberlin Agricultural Society and 
the i-egular county organization ])eri'ected in lH4fi, the roads between 
the college town and the county seat were iiiaile passable at (piite an 
early day. M'lie movement for good roads originated in the $:{()() sub- 
scribed by the Oberlin colonists and the $400 raised l)y the faculty and 
students to imi)rove them. On a certain day, recitations being 
suspended, all turned out and worked on the road leading to Elyria. The 
young ladies provided the men with a bountiful dinner. So that, in 


more ways than one, did Oberliii College strive to inculcate tlie healthful 
and democratic hcjnclits of well-directed labor. 

County Socikty Foundkd in iy4G 

The final movement which resulted in a county agricultural society, 
however, centered in Elyria, and to Dr. N. y. Townsiiend, of that place, 
is given the largest share of credit for its establishment. On April 21), 
1846, nearly sixty residents of the county intei^ested in the 
met in Elyria to organize a county society, under the act for the 
encouragemejit of agriculture pa.ssed by the State Legislature on Feb- 
ruary 27th of that year. Judge Josiah Harris, of Amherst, was called 
to the chair and Doctor Townshend was appointed .secretary. As eighty- 
eight names were enrolled as applicants for member.ship and $80 sub- 
scribed for current expenses, an organization was legally effected by the 
election of the following board of directors: Joseph Swift, president; 
Daniel B. Kinney, vice president; Artemas Becbe, treasurer; A. H. 
Redington, secretary; Henry Tracy, George Sibley, Edwin Byington, 
D. T. Baldwin and T. W. Osborn, managers. 

Two members from each township wci-e appointed to solicit sub- 
scrii)tions and to generally promote the society, and as they were the 
representative farmers of that early period their names are given: 
H. Jirownell and J. C. Bryant, Andierst; Uriah Thompson and Elah 
Park, Avon; C. Read and Samuel Stocking, Black River; Hosea Dunbar 
and P. S. Goss, Brighton; C. L. Perry and Jolni Curtiss, Brownhelm; 
Hiram Allen and Gideon Waugh, Camden; R. Gibbs and C. Prindle, 
Carlisle; S. Reed and B. B. Adams, Columbia; James Firlas and 6. 
Spei'i-y, Eaton; D. Ncsbitt and Festus Cooley, Jr., Elyria; A. S. Root 
and Thomas Ingersoll, Grafton; Hervey Leonard and Levi Vincent, 
Henrietta; Henry Tracey and IL P. Sage, Huntington; N. P. Johnson 
and H. Hubbard, Lagrange; William Andrews and Lewis Starr, Pen- 
field; P. lAIcRoherts and E. Matchem, Pittsheld; Otis Ik'ggs and L. 
Beebe, Ridgeville; John (Joiumt and M. L. Blair, Rochester; H. C. 
Taylor and Doctor Da.scom, Russia; William Day and AVilliam H. Root, 
Sheffield; Harvey Grant and J. AVad.sworth, AVellington. 

First F.vnt 

The meeting adjourned to reassemble at the May i:{tli to 
fix premiums and transact any other I)usiiiess. AVlicn tlie society did 
meet at that date and place it was 7'esnlv(!d that a fair 1m- held at Klyiia 
on WedncNday, Seplember :i(l, IHKi; Ihat George Sibley, 1'. Mch'obcrts, 


Ilai'iy Tci'ivU and K. Saiidi'i'soii he appointed to examine farms and 
cfops; that the hnlics of llic coiinly he inviled to maniil'aetnn! useliil 
ailii'h's lo he (l()iialc(| Id (he Mocicly; that they hohl a I'aif on the al'lei'- 
iioon and cvcnin",' oi" the tlay of exiiihilion, and tiiat all eitizens l)e 
re<iue,sted to bring ehoieu speeimens of frnit uiul flowers and manu- 
faetureil artieles, to ho oti'ered for sale at the hulies' fair, for the heuefit 
of the soeiety. 

Tile next meeting' was held at Oherlin August 2U, 1S4G, and it was 
resolved to offer premiums amounting to $117 for the fair of September 
;«)th following. Tiiey were for herds of eattle, not less than fifteen head, 
owiied by one farmer, and for flocks of sheep, not less than twenty-five 
head eaeli. 

At the election for officers of the society, held November 20th, no 
changes were made in tiie presidency, vice presidency, or secretarysiiip, 
but John II. Faxon succeeded Arteraas Beebe as treasurer, and the 
following were elected nuuiagers : Edwin Byington, II. C. Saff'ord, 
^V. X. Eace, A. W. Whitney and Benjamin C. Perkins. At a meeting 
of the hoard January 28, 1847, Mr. Iloltslaiuler was elected manager to 
fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of William N. Kace. 

Lectukers Appointed 

At that meeting, also, tiie society appointed lecturers for liie dilTVrent 
towiisluj)s, who were delegated to instruct file farmers on the advantages 
of organization and advaneeil nietliods of agriculture, thus forestalling 
an imi)ortant branch of the national department of agriculture. Tlie 
lecturers api)ointed by the Lorain County Agricultural Society for 1847 
were as follows: Dr. N. S. Townshend for Elyria, (Carlisle, Eaton, 
Columbia, Jiidgeville, Avon and Slieftield ; I'rof. J. Dascomb, for Craf- 
ton, Lagrange, Penfield, Huntington, Wellington and Pittsfield ; Prof. 
J. II. Fairchild, for Black Iliver, Audierst, Brownhclm, Henrietta, Cam- 
den, Brighton and Rochester. 

The first four fairs were held at Elyria, the fifth at Oherlin and the 
sixth, at Wellington. There was (|uite a contest for the 1852 fair 
between Elyria and Wellington, the 01)ei-lin people usiudly supporting 
the county seat location, as the roads were in Ijetter condition north of 
llieir town than south. Elyria finally outbid AVellington, j|<100 to $52, 
and the sixth fair was held at the county seat October 6 and 7, 1852. A 
small sum was also spent on buildings and grounds dui-ing that year. 

Ladies' IIousEMANsiin' Tntkoduced 
The premiums became moi-e and more liberal, and new features were 
introduced into the progranunos from year to year. At the ninth fair, 


ill 1854, lor instance, Uiree premiums were offered for ladies' liorscmau- 
sliip: First, silver eake l)asket; second, ladies' ridinj;' hat; tliinl, t,'old 
pencil. The sncccssrid (•omi)etitors wcva Miss y\rys 'J'errell, Miss Sopliia 
I'en-y and Airs. li. S. -Jenkins. 

Pltre-Bked Cattle 

Previous to tlie tentii fair very few, if any, pure-hred cattle had been 
exhilnted, with the exception of Aston and Humphrey's Ileret'ords. The 
rei)ort, as to that feature ol the exhibition, was as follows: "During 
this year (,1854) Ileman Ely purchased several llerd-lJook short-horns — 
the hull, Sir Humphrey, 974, and a fine cow and heifer bred by ileber 
and Kutz, Fairtield county, Ohio. These aninuds made a good showing 
and were adunred by the visitors., the lamented Charles Arthur 
Ely had purchased a tine herd of pure Devon cattle. These, too, were on 
exhibition, and were of great excellence. ProbaJjly Ohio has not 
exhibited finer .specimens of the Devon up to this day. The fine old 
Bull, the Duke of I)e\on, was in every point a lirst-class animal. E. 
I\Iatchem exhibited Devons anil owned some thoroughbreds." 

.Star Farmers 

At the early meetings of the .society much interest was taken by the 
memhei's in the premiums awarded for the best cultivateil farms in the 
county. in 1847 do.seph Swift, of Henrietta Township, took first 
premium in that class, and Alonzo Gaston, of Russia, second ; in the 
following year JMr. Gaston was first and N. Jackson, second, and at tiie 
fifth lair, held in 1850, E. Clark took first premium and Mr. Claston, 
second. In 1856 I\Ir. Gaston again took first on best cultivated farms, 
Pitt \V. Hall, second, and D. B. Kiiuiey, third. Altogether, Alon/.o 
(Jaston seems to have been the star farmer in the early years of the 
society 's contest.s. 

Josej)h Swift, of Henrietta, mentioned as carrying off the first 
premium in 1847, was president of the society during the three 
years of its life. 1). B. Kinney succeeded him in 184f), continued for 
two terms, and was followed in 1852 ])y B. C. Pei'kin.s. N. B. Gates 
served from 185;{ to 1H57; Edwin Byington during the succeeding two 
years; Dr. N. S. Townshend in 185;)-G0. 


The election of officers did not take place on the day of liie fair 
in 18fi() owing lo a regulation issued by llu; Oliio State Board of A-ri- 

^UIMU '><'^\ I" 


culture tliat all county agricultural societies siiould hold their aiuiual 
elections in January; eonseciuentiy tlie okl hoartl of the Lorain County 
Society of IKGO held over, and on -January 7, 1801, N. J>. (Jates was 
cliosen ])i'esident; .]. Swift, Jr., vii;e ])t'esident, and P. A. JJishop, 
secretary and treasurer. Mr. JJislioj) refu.sed to s(,'rve and K. C. Gi'iswold 
was appointed in his stead. Mr. Gates served for four terms, or iicarly 
tlirough the Civil war period, was followed hy D. A. Stocking for two 
terms; then hy AVilliam A. Braman, for four, from 1867 to 1870, 
inclusive; Charles S. Mills, 1871-72; R. Baker, 1873-74; AVilliam A. 
Braman, 1875-76; C. S. Mills, 1877-7'J. 

Tiie secretaries of the society have heen as follows: Dr. N. S. Towns- 
hend, 1846; Ldwin Byington, 1846-47; A. IL Redington, 1846-51 
(secretary and treasurer since 1850) ; Edward Matehem, 1851-54; IL C. 
Safford, 1854-55; A. II. Redington, 1855-57; William H. Root, 1857-59; 
IL M. Redington, 185fJ-60; E. C. Cri.swokl, 1861; R. G. Horr, 1862-63; 
Moritz Gallup, 1864-65; T. S. Metealf, 1866-68; C. W. Johnson, 1869-71; 
George P. Metealf, 1872 (treasurer appointed separately until 1876); 
T. S. Metealf, 1873; E. G. Johnson, 1874-79 (secretary and treasurer 
after 1877). 

Imi'kovement of Grounds 

For several years after 1852 the old fair grounds at Elyria, were 
imj)roved in a snuili way, as they were leased and not tlie property of 
the society. In 1866 active steps were taken to raise a fund for the 
purchase of grounds and their proper improvement, which inchuled a 
Jcfjuest to the county commissioners for an appropriation. In 1867 land 
was finally purchased of Ileman VAy, heing lots 112 and 113 west of the 
river and comj)rising over eigiiteeii acres. The okl huildings on the 
oi)poHite side of Black River were taken down hy an organized "Bee" 
and transferred to the new grounds. The new era was also signalized 
hy a vote aggreeing to pay the secretary and treasurer for his oi'ticial 

During tlie year 1867 the work of improvement progressed liriskly, 
file grounds were fenced, new huildings erected, a trotting course con- 
structed and everything made ship-shape for the fall fair. The huikling 
of the new hridge over the river added to the conveniences of the fair 
management and llie attendants. A hirge dining hall was (i-ected ni tlie 
foHowing yt'iiv and tlie h'loral Hall was added to the sulistanlial im|)rove- 
iiicnfs ill 1S71. The latter was used for tlic display of domcslic, oi'nn- 
iiicntal, tloral and artistic articles. 

Tlic Ihird aiiiniMl picnii' and eseursioii of the society in 1K72 was u 




piirl of tlu; celi;l)ratiou liold in honor of tliu oi)ening of the Tuscarawas- 
Coiinortoii Vall(!y Jiailroad. One of the tliree steamers cliartered to 
take lh(; excursionists to lilaek River proved unseaworthy and a (Jravv- 
haek to tlie i)i-of,'rainnie, hut the iinaneial returns to tiie society were 
quite encouraging. 

The fairs continued to be held at Elyria, that of the Centennial year 
being arranged for July 4tli. The board decided to erect a "log cabin" 
on the grountls, and members of the society were requested to contribute 
a log each for building material, and to be on hand early to throw up 
the structure.. The logs were promptly on hand and the building com- 
menced, but a deluge early in the day drove away tlie laborers. But a 
large procession was formed and paraded in the rain. The clouds lifted 
in the afternoon and enabled Judge W. W. IJoynton to deliver that 
historic address on the "Early History of Lorain County," which has 
become sucli a local clas.sic. Afterward the log cabin was finished in a 
substantial way and used by the keeper of the grounds and his family. 

Early Premiums Dropped 

One of the early presidents of the society, R. Baker, in an extended 
historical review, has the following: "In the opinion of the most 
thoughtful, it would liave l)een better had the society conformed to the 
requirements of the act passed in 1846 for the encouragement of agricul- 
ture. For years the society offered inducements for improved plowing. 
Tlic last contest for best plowing was in 1860. Here was tlie great 
mistake. Also, encouragement was given for the best cultivated farm. 
This was dropped in 186:3. The offering nuule for the best crops of 
grain have been discontinued since 1873. All these, I think, should have 
been continued, and should have formed a prominent part in the pre- 
miums offered by the society." 

Population of the County, 1830-1010 

Tlie first Federal census of Lorain County was for the year 1830, and 
indicates a population of 5,696. For the initial years of successive 
decades, the showing is as follows: 1840, 18,467; 1850, 26.086; 1860, 
29,744; 1870, 30,308; 1880, 35,526; 1890, 40,295; 1900, 54,857; 1010, 

A eompai'i.son by townships and iiicorjjoratcd cities and villages is 
also presented, the Clovernment census figures for 1890, 1900 and 1010 
l)eing presented for that j)urpose. It should be understood that as the 
cities and villages, althouL-li they are given se])arately in the tables, are 


included in the towiishi]) figures, and tliat in easting up the county 
totals, the latter should oidy be added. 


Amherst Township, including Amherst Village. . -1,5!)7 

Amherst Village 2,106 

Avon Township 2,148 

Jilack liiver Township, including Ijorain (Jity . .2!),30r) 

Jjorain City 28,88:3 

Ward 1 4,2!Jl 

Ward 2 5,553 

Ward 3 6,757 

Ward 4 12,282 

Brighton Township - 426 

Brownhelm Townshiji 1,106 

Camden Township 8:54 

(,'ai'lisle Township 2,0!)6 

(Johunhia Townshii) 1,084 

Eaton Township, including part of (ii'ai'ton Vil- 

lag(! 1.266 

(irartoii Village (part of) 248 

Total for (Ji'afton Village in Katoii and (iralton 

townshij)s !)55 

Klyi'ia Township, including lOlyria City l(i,046 

Klyria City 14,825 

Ward 1 2,788 

AVard 2 4,880 

Ward :i 4,01::} 

Ward 4 :5,144 

Grafton Township, inchuling part of (irafton Vil- 

Iag(,' 1 ,522 

Grafton Village (part of) 707 

Henrietta 'I'ownship 802 

Huntington Township 61!) 

Lagi'ange Township, including Lagrange Village 1,408 

Lagrange Village 467 

Penfield Township 602 

I'iltslield Township 787 

K'idgevilh.' Townsliip 1,725 

Iv'oeiiester Township, including Koehester V'^il- 

lage 522 

l{o<-licst('r Village 18(i 























1 ,255 

1,1 :50 















1 ,476 








1 ,575 

1 ,55:5 






ToWNSI Ill's AM) C()IU'(»I!ATU)NS liJlU 1 'JOO 3 8'JO 

Russia Towiislii)), iiiL'liiclint,' Oliurlin Villago.... 5,;}(j.'j r),()G;J Ii,;j(i!i 

Ohcrliii Vill}i<,'(; ■i;U'>'> 4,()H2 4,:{7G 

Slic-rfield 'I'owiislii]) ],0(JU 8!)U 'JM 

Wciliugloii 'J'owiisliip, iii(;lii(iiiif^ Welliriffton Vil- 
lage! 2,719 2,655 2,G;j:j 

AVc'Iliiigtoii Viliag-i; 2,1;J1 2,094 2,UG9 

Totals 76,037 54,857 40,295 

Electric Unification in Lokain County 

Tlu' recent unification of tiie power i)lants, substations and transmis- 
sion lines serving Lorain, Elyria and otiier points in the eountj-, is of 
siuli \vi(lesj)read scope and importance that a desci-iption of it in detail 
is inserted at this place. The late George E. ^Milligan and R. E. Burger 
were ehietly instruiiieiital in this consolidation, anil its i)reliiuinai'y opera- 
tions have heen described by the latter. One j)erliiu'nt change in the 
text of the article a.s i)repared by him in 1914 is to substitute the naiiio 
of .1. 15. John.son for that of R. E. JJurgei-, as agent or manager of the 
lOlyiia and Lorain electric pro])erties. In the summer of 1!)15 ]\lr. 
IJni'ger sevei'ed ins connection with the Lorain Coiiiity enterjii'ise to 
assume a I'esponsiiile position with the Toledo Railways and Lij^ht 

Eollowing is the article, as originally i)i'ei)ared by Mr. Burgei' with 
the nece.ssary changes to bring it up to date : 

"In the fall of 1912, Mr. Ceorge E. Milligan, acting for II. L. 
Doherty & Co., who o\v;n and operate a number of Pul)lic Utilities in 
various parts of the country, purciiased the electric lighting and power 
business of tlie tliree companies who previous to this time had been 
operating in Elyria. These companies were the Ely Realty Co., The 
(.'itizens Gas & Electric Co., and the Elyria jMilling & Power Co. Eacli 
of these comjianies ojjcrated a separate plant and maintained its own dis- 
tributing .system. The new owners immediately began the construction 
of a modern central station .system with a view of giving the public 
l)etter .service at lower rates, furnishing tlie various manufacturing plants 
witli a reliable and efficient source of power for less than the factories 
themselves could produce it and by offering cheap and efficient power 
to new industries help to induce them to locate here and thus build 
up the comnninity realizing that anything which benefits the community 
benefits the (Central Station furnishing that connnunity. 

"Realizing that the plants in operation were not large enough to meet 


the requirements of the situation, the company purchased the large 
power plant which the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co. had a short time 
previously erected in Lorain and proceeded to install additional equip- 
ment of the most modern design and to build transmission lines from 
this plant to the various communities to be furnished with electric 
service. At the time the B. & 0. plant was purchased, a contract was 
made with the railroad company to furnish them the power required 
for operating their shops and ore docks at Lorain and at about the same 
time contracts were made to furnish electric service to the Citizens Gas 
& Electric Co., of Lorain, the Cleveland Stone Co. quarries at South 
Amherst and Berea, the Municipal Electric Plant at Amherst and the 
village of Olmsted Falls. The present organization operating for the 
time being under the name of R. E. Burger, Agent, is now furnishing 
power to all of tiie above towns in addition to Elyria and at the present 
time is preparing to also furnish the village of Ridgeville. By reduc- 
ing the number of plants from eight small plants to one large plant 
the company has been able to effect operating economies from which 
the public are now reaping tlie I)enefit. 

"Since the reorganization some of the former generating stations 
have been rehabilitated while the operation of others has been discon- 
tinued, new sub-stations and transmission lines have been erected and 
every effort made to deliver efficient and reliable service to the com- 
pany's patrons. Although the company has yet to complete the first 
year of its existence, rapid strides Imve been made in l)uilding up a 
lighting and industrial motor load on tlie system. 

"Pending the completion of plans for reincorporation now l)eiug 
prepareil, the system as al)ove noted is being operatetl umler the name 
of 'R. E. Burger, Agent,' under which style all transactions have been 
carried on since the sudden death recently of Mr. Geo. E. Milligan. 
Later it is expected that the name 'The Lorain County Electric Co.' 
will be adopted. 

"The Ore Docks i)lant at Lorain is now the main generating station, 
all of the power being generated there except in emergencies. Tliis i)lant 
is a large brick and concrete Imihling of i)leasing arcliitecture. In the 
boiler room are located 8 large boilers wliicli carry 175 11)S. per S(|uare 
inch steam pressure with 100 degrees superlieat. These boilers are hand 
lired and equipped with rocking grates. Tliese boilers are of sufficient 
size to allow the entii'i; load of the plant U> be carried on live oi' tlirm 
giving at all times thi'ee boilers in I'escrve. Tlii^ \\-v{\ water piniips, etc., 
are also located in the same I'ooin and these are ail in (lu|>lieiite so that 
there are always reserve pumps ready for instant use, 

"In the generating r(i(»in are located two .lOO K\V direct eonneeted 


t>{lJ lo •=^".nT ■nil -,'l 9ilt 


oiiyiiie il liven generators wliieli ordinarily are used Tor supplying power 
to tlie ore ilocks and one 2,50U KW steam turbine driven generator which 
ordinarily supplies the remainder of the system. Between the turbine 
and the engine driven generators are located two motor generator sets 
of 8U(J KW capacity so arranged that alternating current can be fur- 
nisheil to the transinissiou lines from the engine driven generators 
tiirough the motor generator sets or direct current furnished the ore 
docks from the turbine. The turbine is operated condensing and some 
idea of the high grade of apparatus that has been installed from the 
fact tiiat tlie vacuum is kept within 3-10 inch of perfect. The switch- 
board exciters, etc., are also located in this same room. This switchboard 
is complete in every detail. JMeters on each circuit measure the exact 
amount of power lielivered to each part of the system, and the highest 
gratle of switches and instruments have been used throughout. In the 
engine room are also located recording instruments which keep an 
accurate record of the amount of draft under the boiler and also the 
amount of CO. in the flue gases showing how nearly tlie efficiency of 
the boilers is kept up to standard. 

"On the west end of the power plant a step-up sub-station has been 
built. The turbine generates current at a pressure of 2,200 volts. This 
current goes through the switchboard to the step-up sub-station where 
tlie voltage is stepped up to 22,000 and fed to the transmission line at 
this higii voltage. The highest grade lightning protective apparatus is 
installeil in this sub-station to protect the station apparatus from line 
disturbances due to lightning. 

••The double 22,000 volt line leaving the ore dock plant follows the 
B. & O. right-of-way to South 22nd street, Lorain, where the step-down 
sub-station for the city of Lorain is located. The current for Lorain is 
taken from the main transmission line at this point and stepped down 
to 2,-2()0 volts by means of a sub-station of 1,050 KW capacity. This 
current is tlien delivered to the switcliboard of the Citizens Gas & Elec- 
tric Co., who distribute it throughout the city of Lorain over their own 
distribution lines. This sub-station at Lorain is typical of all the sub- 
stations on the system. The building is a .small two story one of brick, 
concrete and steel. • The first floor contains the transformers for chang- 
ing the voltage of the current and the second floor contains the lightning 
protection apjjaratus and high tension switches. At South 22nd° street" 
Lorain, is also located the plant foi'inerly operated by the Citizens Gas 
& Klectri(; Co. Tliis phmt contains gas engine driven generators of 500 
KW capacity. This ai)paratus has been put in first class operating con- 
dition and while not operated is kept in instant readiness to be started 
up as a generating station sujiijlying current to the system in ease of 

ll1 jljiUOUlIi 


necessity. fSwitc'lu's are provided lit this sub-station so that any local 
ti'ouijle can lie isohited witliout clTectinf^ tlie I'est of tlie system. There 
is also a switch in tliis suh-station controlling the line to Amherst and 
South Amherst so that trouble on that section can be cleared up with- 
out interfering with the rest of the system. 

"At 36tli street, Lorain, the main transmission line branches into 
two parts, one line going to Amherst and South Amherst, and the other 
line going to Elyria, the line to Olmsted Falls and Berea branching ofl" 
from the Elyria line a sliort distance from Elyria and being controlled 
by a switch in the Elyria sub-station. 

"At the municipal plant has been shut down and con- 
verted into a sub-station, the transformers, lightning arresters, and 
switching apparatus being located in the building formerly used for the 
j)lant. ('uri'cnt is sold to the city by the com])any and tiie city retails 
the service to their various (-ustomers. The municipality has found that 
it is cheaper to buy their curi'ent than to make it and in fact have been 
able to reduce tlieir rates considerably since shutting down their own 
plant. They are also able to fui-nish their customers 2-1 hour service 
now instead of 12 hour service as heretofore. This has been the means 
of increasing the city's business as several industries in Amherst have 
recently contracted with the city for their j)ower requirements at a 
saving to the factories and a gain for the city. 

"At Soutli Amherst is another step-down sub-station installed for 
the Cleveland Stone Company's (juarries at that point. Approximately 
1,0U0 IIP. in motors are supplied with power from this sub-.statiou and 
it is expected that this will be doubled within the coming year. 

"The sub-station at Olmsted Ealls is a small one of the out door type 
and is of 5U KW capacity. Cui-rent li-om this stntion is sold to the 
municipality who in turn retail it to their customers for lighting and 
power as well as use it for street lighting. Olmsted Falls has iiever 
before had electric service and. they are very enthusiastic about it. The 
iiuuiieijiality built and owns all its own disti'ibuting lines and simply 
buy their electricity instead of making it. 

"The sub-station at Berea is of 450 KAV capacity and is similar to 
the other stations previously mentioned. Practically the entire opera- 
tion of the quarries and mills at Berea is electric, there being over 1,000 
TIP of motors in use in these quarries. 

"The suh-slalion at Elyi-ia is located on Huron street near the 15. & 
O. I'ailroad station. This sub-station is somewhat larger and moi-e 
elaboi-ate than the other stations because of the fact that tin; company 
is I'etailing electric .service in lOlyria and all of the lighting and i)ower 
circuits as W(;ll as the street lighting system are controlled from this 


l)oiiit. This snb-station lias a opacity of 2,100 KW at tlio prosont time 
and provisions liavt; Ix'cn inailc for doiihlinK its capacity. The ciiiTcnt 
coininj,' Iruiii Loi'aiii is stepped down to 2,200 volts and divitjed into 
vai'ious cifcnils i'or ligiitint,' and power. 'J'hc city is divith'd into dit- 
i't'i'ciit districts, cacii district liavinfj its own separate circuit. This is 
done so that in case of trouble caused by a tree blowing,' down or any 
similar oidy that district will be all'ectcd instead of the whole city. 
This system also makes it very much easier to locate and i-emedy such 
troulile ill mucii sliorter time as the men know just where to go to look 
i'or the cause. The power circuits are kept entirely separate from the 
lighting circuits so that the power customers are assured uninterrupted 
service. The company has spent large sums during tlie year in 
replacing old poles, cross arms, wire, etc., on the distributing system 
antl in fact is doing everything in its power to make this system a model 
one. How well they are succeeding is shown by the fact that since the 
new power plant and transmission lines have been in operation there has 
been bnt one interruption of service of more than one minute's duration. 

"Particular care has been given to the construction of the 22,000 
volt transmission lines. The type of construction used is far from being 
the cheapest but it is the best for central statioji systems of this kind. 
By referring to the cut it will be noticed that each pole carries two cross 
arms, tiie toj:) arm carrying one phase of the three line and the 
l)ottom arm the other two i)]iases. Paralleling the wire on the toj) arm 
is a gi'ound wire wliich is grounded at every second pole. A second 
ground wire is i)laeed below the bottom a)'m. These two wires give a 
perfect path to the ground for lightning, thus absolutely protecting the 
transmission line from disturbances by ligiitning. The sliort two pin 
arm shown just below this second ground wire carries the company's 
private telephone line which connects the various suli-stations and plants 
with the main office in El^-ria. 

"As a further insurance against interruption of service ai'range- 
ments have been made to keep the dam of the Elyria I\Iilling & Power 
Co., filled with water after the completion of the Washington avenue 
bridge. This jilant has a capacity of 500 KW and will be almost in- 
stantly available in case of necessity. The old plant of the Citizens Cas 
& Electric Co., on LFaple street, Elyria, has also been put in shape so 
that in case it was ever required it can be put into service as soon as 
steam can be geiu'i'ated in the boilers. 

" l^'rom the aljove description of this .system it will be .seen tiiat no 
skill or expense has been spared to make it one of th(! best of its kind in 
the country. That these efforts are appreciated by the public is shown 
by the way the load is growing. The management are now con(emi)lating 


the installation of another steam turbine driven generator at the Loraiu 
plant of 5,U00 KW capacity. 

".Mr. Henry L. ])olierty, the head of tlic Company operating this 
central station, was tiie first man in this industry to realize the necessity 
of a sales organization for a- central station and he was the tirst one to 
organize such a department. ]\Ir. Dolierty did uot believe in waiting 
for business to come to him and then acting as if a favor were being 
done the customer by giving him service. He believed that the central 
station was like any other manufacturing business and to be successful 
should push the sale of its product. This policy has been carried out 
in all the plants with which he is connected. Realizing that the 
central station must depend upon the public for its patronage the idea 
always kept prominently in mind by all of the employes of the Doherty 
organization is that their first duty is to the public and that good 
service, courteous treatment and a square deal nuist be given to all 
customers. The local company is striving to follow out this policy. 

"In order that everyone in Elyria within reach of its lines may enjoy 
the benefits of electric service without unreasonable expense, the com- 
pany has in.stituted a .system of house wiring whereby a si.K room house 
may l)e coiui)ietely o(iuipj)ed for about $45 including lamps and fixtures. 
As the prices for more elaborate installations are in proportion and the 
custoiiier is given the oi)tion of paying in small montlily installments if 
desired, llus system is proving very po|)ular and houses are being wired 
at the rate of forty per month. A similar campaign for electric sign and 
show window advertising is now in pi-ogress and it is safe to iiredict 
that in the very near future Elyria will be one of the best lighted cities 
ill this part of the country." 



Grand Opening op First Territorial Court — Harrison, Later-Day 
Big Buckeye — First Court in Lorain County — Grand Jury 
Purely Honorary — Early Judges and Associates — Associates 
Abolished — Old Bench ]\Iore Democratic — Philemon Bliss — First 
Probate Judge — Josiah Harris — Two Noted President Judges — 
WooLSEY Welles — Delegates to the 1851 Convention — Present- 
Day Courts — Common Pleas Judges, 1852-80 — Stevenson Burke 
— Washington W. Boynton — John C. Hale — Early Probate 
Judges — AVilliam F. Lockwood — Lionel A. Sheldon — Charles H. 
DooLiTTLE — John W. Steele — Laertes B. Smith — Prosecuting 
Attorneys Previous to 1880 — Joel Tiffany — John M. Vincent — 
Joseph II. Dickson — Other Early Prosecuting Attorneys — Pio- 
neer Lawyers, Pure and Simple — Horace D. Clark — Other Fel- 
low Practitioners — A. A. Bliss — Judson D. Benedict — ]\Iyron R. 
Keith — Joshua Myers — John V. Coon — "Foreign" Practitioners 
— Accessions from 1845 to 1860 — Sylvester Bagg — Attained 
Prominence Abroad — Oberlin Lawyers — John 'M. Langstox — The 
Oberun-Wellington Rescue Case — Came in the '60s and '70s — 
J. C. HiLi. — Roswell G. Horr — Retrospect of the Earlier Bar — 
I'.ENCH AND Bar Since 1880 — Comjion Pleas and Probate Judges 
— Hon. David J. Nye, Veteran Active Practitioner — Hon. Clar- 
ence G. Washburn — Leading ^Members of the Bar — The Bar Asso- 
ciation — Notable Cases Within Forty Years. 

As we know, the judicial system of the state and tlie United States, 
upon which depends the county couiis and the judicial bodies of even 
iiini'e local scoi)e, were rooted in tlie ordinance of 1787, and wlien llie 
iirst Snpreiiie Conrt of llie Northwest 'i'ei-rilory was opened with iinieh 
pomp at ]\f arietta, in 1788, the lawyers and the Supreme judfres pro- 
crdcd th(^ ^'overnor and llie cler-(,'ymen, altliouf^h tlicy i'oHowcd the 
lii^h shei-ilV, the citi/eim mid lli(( military. I'^iirl lier, as it was upon 



that occasion that the iiaine Buckeye first sprung to tlie front as a 
characteristic word, althouf^h not tiien applied to any region, we con- 
dense one of llildretli's accounts of the matter. 

Grand Opening of the Fik-st Terkitorial Court 

Upon tiie opening of the first court in the Northwest Territoiy, on 
the 2d of September, 1788, a procession was formed at the point where 
most of the settlers at ]\Iarietta resided, and marched up a path that 
had been cut and cleared through the forest to Campus Martins Hall, 
in the following order: 

1st. Tlie high sheriff with drawn sword. 

2tl. The citizens. 

3d. Olficers of the garrison at Fort llarmar. 

4th. rilembers of the bar. 

5tli. Supreme judges. 

Gth. Tlie governor and clergyman. 

7th. The newly appointed judges of the Court of Common Pleas, 
General Rufus Putnam and lienjamin Tupper. 

There the whole countermarched and the judges, Putnam and Tup- 
per, took their seats. The clergyman, Rev. Dr. Cutler, invoked the 
divine blessing, and the sheriff. Col. Kbene/.er Sproat, proclaimed 
with his solemn "0 yes!" that "a court is opened for the administration 
of even-handed justice, to the poor as well as to the rich, to the guilty 
and the innocent, without respect of persons, none to be punished with- 
out a trial by their peers and then in pursuance of law." Although 
this scene was exhibited thus early in the settlement of the state, few 
ever equaled it in the dignity and exalted character of the actors. 
Among the spectators who witnessed the ceremony and were deeply 
impi'essed by its solemnity and seeming signiticanee, was a large body 
of Indians collected from some of the most powerful tribes of the North- 
west for the purpose of making a treaty with the whites. Always fond 
of ceremony themselves, they witnessed the parade, of which they little 
suspected the import, witii the greatest interest, and were especially 
impressed with the high sheriff who led the procession with drawn sword, 
lie was, over six fei't in height, of fine jjhysical proportions and com- 
Mumding presence and, amid muririiii\s of admiration, fhe awe-sti'uck 
Indians named him, on llie spot, lleluek, or liig l?U(^key(!. It was given 
the colonel as an expression of their gi-eatcst admiration, l)ut was 
aflerwai'd jocosely applied to Colonel Spi'oat by his white friemis as 
II sort of nickname. 


Haruison, Later-Day liiG Buckeye 

Tliat was certainly the first known applioation of Buckeye to an 
individual, but there is no evidence that the name, at that period, be- 
eaiiie so eurn-nt as to be attached to tlie state. But during the many 
years that pioneer migration spread westward through the state the 
horse chestnuts, known as buckeye, were gathered by travelers in the 
rich valleys of Ohio and brought back as curiosities to the East. Their 
medicinal properties were also di.scovered and added to their fame as 
a characteristic product of the state. But the name never became fully 
crystallized until during the Harrison campaign of 1840. Early in the 
political fight an opposition paper spoke of the General as one "better 
fitted to sit in a log-cabin and drink hard cider than rule in the White 
House." The remark was at once taken np by Harrison's friends,, and 
from that time until his election he was generally pictured as sitting 
by the door of a rude log cabin, through which could be seen a barrel 
of hard cider, with the walls luing with coon skins and strings of buck- 
eyes. Tn all the processions appeared log cabins built of buckeye logs, 
and the campaign songs were replete with such expressions as "buck- 
eye cabin," "bonnie Buckeye State," "jolly Buckeye boys," and "the 
Buckeye," referring especially to General Harrison. The swing and 
fame of that campaign fixed the name on Oiiio. The President had 
become the more famous successor of the original Hetuck, or Big Buck- 
eye, who had opened the first Court of Connnon Pleas for the Nortli- 
west Territory nearly half a century before. 

First Court in Lorain County 

When the first Common Pleas Court in Lorain County was organ- 
ized in 1824, it was, of course, created under the constitution of 1802. 
The details of its first sitting are matters of record, the impressive pre- 
lude being as follows: "Be it remi'ml)ere("l that on the 24th day of 
May, A. D. 1824, at Elyria, in the county of Lorain, in pursuance of 
a statute law of the State of Ohio passed on the 10th of February in 
the year aforesaid, entitled an 'Act regulating the time of holding 
judicial court,' the first Court of Common Pleas, in and for said county 
of Lorain, was opened in due form l)y the sheriff tiiereof, Josiali Har- 
ris: liolding said coui't, Cicorge Tod, ])i-csiden1 of tlie Court of f!om- 
moii IMeas for the Third circiiif in Ibis slalc, iu wliidi cir'cuil is tlie 
said county of Tjoi'aiu, and liis associalcs, l\Iost's I'jhlrcd, Hcni'y Brown 
and I'^'cih'i'ick Hamlin, before which Court tiie foHowiug proceedings 
wc'i'i' had, to-wit : Woolsey Welles, an attorney of n'coi'd in the ('ourt, 


was appointed the attorney to prosecute the pleas of the state for this 
county during the pleasure of the Court." Mr. Welles was also ap- 
pointed temporary clerk. 

The first official act of the court was the appointment of Lueinda 
Holcomb, widow of Almond Iloleomb, and Edward Durand, as admin- 
istrators of the Holcomb estate. The first suit, Simon Nichols vs. Thomas 
G, Bronson, was for the recovei'y of $1,427.27, and was won by the 
plaintifi". Ebenezer Whiton was appointed permanent clerk of the 
court on the second day of the session. 

Grand Jury Purely Honorary 

The first grand jury, which was sworn and charged by Judge Tod, 
and which failed to find any business provided for it, was composed 
of the following citizens: Ileman Ely (foreman), Benjan\in Brown, 
Eliphalet Redington, Phineas Johnson, j\Iahel Osburn, Edward Du- 
rand, Harry Reddington, Gardner Howe, Erastus Ilauiliu, Simon 
Nichols, Silas Wilmot, Thomas G. Bronson, James J. Sexton and Abra- 
ham Moon. 

Early Judges and Associates 

At the ]\Iarch term, 1830,. Hon. Reuben Wood took his seat as pre- 
siding judge, with the same associates as before given. Heman Ely 
becajne associate judge in the fall of 1830, and in April, 1831, Josiah 
Harris and E. W. Hubbard commenced their terms as Judge Wood's 

In the spring of 1834 Hon. Ezra Dean ascended the bench as presi- 
dent judge; Heman Ely, Josiah Harris and Franklin Wells, associates. 
Ozias Long was appointed associate judge in the spring of 1835 and 
Daniel J. Johns in 1837. 

In 1840 Hon. John W. Willey became presiding judge and died in 
office, July 9, 1841. Hon. Reuben Hitchcock filled the vacancy until 
January, 1842, when he was succeeded by Hon. Benjamin Bissell, with 
Franklin AVells, Daniel J. Johns and Jo.seph L. Whiton as associates. 

In the May term of 1815, Elijah DcWitt and Daniel T. l^ahlwin 
bccaiiK! iissociale judges, iiiul in the A]»ril t<'i'iii, THIS, Bciijiiiniii C, 
Perkins was ap[)oinle(l. 

Hon. Philemon Bliss Ix^came president judge in May, IS 10, and 
William Day an associate. 


Associates Abolisukd 

A new constitution was adopted by the convention at Cincinnati 
on Mareli 10, 1851, but as it did not go fully into effect until the fol- 
lowing year, it is generally known as the constitution of 1852. Under 
that instrument tlie office of associate judge was abolished and that of 
judge of, the Court of Common Pleas made elective for a term of five 

Old Bench ]\Iore Democr.vtic 

The Common Pleas bench, especially under the provisions of the 
first constitution, drew to itself much ability. Its old composition, with 
its two or three associates dra\\Ti from citizen ranks, brought the pre- 
siding judges in close touch with the people and enabled them more 
effectually to advance their public ambitions, if their aims were in that 
direction, than under the present constitution by which they are elected 
and have no intermediaries. Those who first served Lorain County as 
heads of the court were such non-residents as George Tod, of Trum- 
bull County, who had been on the State Supreme bench before he pre- 
sided over the Common Pleas Court; Reuben Wood, of Cuyahoga 
County, afterward chief justice of the State Supreme Court and gov- 
ernor of the commonwealth ; John AV. Willey, first mayor of Cleveland 
before he came into Lorain County to preside for his short term (cut 
oft' by death), and Reuben Hitchcock, of Painesville, so prominent in 
the educational matters of that section. 

Philemon Bliss 

Hon. Philemon Bliss, who was the last presiding judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas under the old constitution, had been a member of the 
Elyria bar for a number of years previous, and for thirty years there- 
after his record, both at home and abroad, was one worthy of individual 
and county pride. Although of Connecticut nativity, his parents moved 
to New York when be was a boy, and later he was educated at Oneida 
Institute, AYliitesboro, that state, and at Hamilton College. He was 
loo poor to graduate and' in 1833, when he left college, he entered a law 
office at Whitesboro, where he studied a year, and then went to Florida 
1o regain his health. Althougii his stay there did not materially benefit 
him, he decided to join his older brother in Elyria. 

Tile result was lliat he com])lelcd his legal studies wilh his brother, 
A. A. Bliss, then a leading lawyer and a member of Ihe State Legis- 



lature, and in 1841 himself entered practice in Elyria. Tlie two 
brothel's formed a j)artnersliip which was iiuitually profitable, and in 
the winter of 1848-!) Philemon was elected hy tlie (leneral Assembly 
I)residing judge of the Fourteenth Judicial District, which endjraced the 
counties of Lorain, Cuyahoga, Lake and Geauga. The new constitu- 
tion created the office of probate judge, and in October, 1851, he was 
elected to the new judgesliip. lie was connuissioned bj^ Governor Reu- 
ben Wood in January, 1852, and entered upon his duties in the fol- 
lowing March. 

First Probate Judge 

Judge' first official act as the first incuiid)ent of tlie Probate 
bench for Lorain County bears date iMarch 5, 1852, and was the grant- 
ing of a license to Rev. William O'Connor, a Catholic priest, authorizing 
him to solemnize marriages. Judge Bliss was succeeded by William F. 
Lock wood in November, 1854, as he had been elected a member of the 
Tliirty-fourth Congress, and in 185G he was lionored with a re-elec- 
tion. In the national halls of legislation, as in the courtroom and on 
the bench, he was quiet, industrious, straightforward, thorougli and 
ai)le, and gained the confidence of his fellow members both south and 
north during that period of gathering conflict. lie is said to have made 
several arguments upon the legal aspects of slavery in its relations to 
the Federal Government, which Charles Sumner and other leading 
iiKMnbers of the Senate pronounced the most conclusive which had l)een 
delivered in the House of Representatives. 

In 1861, President Lincoln appointed Judge Bliss chief justice of 
Dakota Territory, ])ut after organizing the courts the appointee re- 
signed, in 1864, and moved to St. Joseph, ^ILssouri, where he engaged 
in newspaper work and proved a strong force in holding the state in the 
line of free states and as a supporter of the Union. In the fall of 1868 
Philemon Bliss was elected judge of the Supreme Court of ^Missouri 
and served his term of four years. In 1872 he was elected ])rofe.ssor 
of law in the ]\Iissouri State University and dean of the law faculty; in 
fact, he opened that department of the Slate University. Judge Bliss 
iiuule a fine record on the bench and as an able litei-ary expounder of 
tile law, wliili' a i-csidcnt of the State of iMissouri, and his oldest son, 
William, also bci'aiin' one of its leading la\v\crs and rcpiiljlicans. 

JosiAH IIaukis 

The old constitution provided for a president judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas, "well versed in the law," and associates who were to 

•>enM iifif.mid 


]){'. r('i)i-fsciilutiv('.s of llio coiuily and not i'('(|uir('(l to have other qualifi- 
cations than j)lain eoniinoii sense and {^ood nioi'al standing in tlie coin- 
iiuinit y. As a rule, despite tin^ir la(tk of l(;t;al traininj^, tiiey were worthy 
representatives of the people and useful assistants to the presiding 
judg(!. Of these early associate judges none measured up to a higher 
standard than Josiali Harris, of Ainiierst. lie was a Massaehusetts man 
and one of the founders of the town, upon the site of wiiieh he first 
encamped in 1818. In the following year the first election in Black 
River Township was held in his log liouse, and in 1821 he was chosen 
justice of the peace for a territory which embraced what are now Black 
River, Amherst, Russia, Brownhelm and Henrietta townships. During 
the three years of his .service, it is said that only five appeals were taken 
from his docket and only one of these ever came to trial in the Court of 
Common Pleas. He was the first sherilf of Lorain County and served 
two terms, tiie limit of the old constitution. 

'Sijuire Harris was appointed associate judge in 1829 and served 
seven years in that capacity. During that period Hon. George Tod, 
father of Governor Tod, and Hon. Reul)en Wood, who afterward became 
chief justice of the State Supreme Court and governor of the state, were 
the president judges of the court. 

In 1827 Jutlge Harris represented Cuyahoga County in the state 
House of Representatives. Such was tlie condition of the roads and 
conveyances at that time that Judge Harris rode his to Columbus, 
wintered him there, and returned on hoi'seI)ack in the si)ring. After 
representing Lorain and IMcdiiui in the two terms, he was elected 
seiuitor from the .same district and served for two yeai's. , Although a 
member of the dominant party in the Legislature, he successfully re- 
sisted its attempt to repeal the ciiarter of Oberlin College, then obnoxious 
to many on account of its al)olition tendencies. At the time of his 
death in Amherst Village, ]\Iareh 26, 1868, at the age of eighty-four, 
Judge Harris was one of the oldest postmasters in the United States, 
having held office for more than forty years. He was first appointed by 
Postmaster General Return J. Meigs, whose terms expired in 1823 as a 
niend)er of the i\Ionroe cabinet. 

Two Noted Presidknt J(;dgks 

George Tod, of TiMurdndl County, was about concluding his .service 
of fouitccii ycai's as judge of the (.ourl of Common I'leas when Mr. I!ai'- 
I'is comiiKMHtcd his cai'cer' as an associate. Wv had already served sevei'al 
leiiiis as slide si'uatoi- and had been a member of the State Supreme 

t''!iy\."ii' >'U]-n -III 


Court. lie was a Yale graduate aud thoroughly read in the law before 
he came West. 

R<iiiben "Wood was a Vermonter and an able la\vyer. After his long 
service on the State Supreme bench, in 1850, he was elected governor 
on the democratic ticket, but resigned to enter the diplomatic service in 
the Chilean field. The climate undermined his health, and he returned 
to his farm near Rockport, Cuyahoga County; there (known as "Ever- 
green Place") he died in 1864. 

WooLSEY Welles 

Woolsey Welles, the first prosecuting attorney of Lorain County, 
and long a prominent lawyer and a leader of public opinion at Elyria, 
was of ^lassachusetts birth and New York education, and soon after 
attaining his majority and his admission to the bar, in the fall of 1823, 
became a resident of the county seat. As public prosecutor of the 
county, for two years, he received $120, when he moved to Akron to 
assume the duties of his position as collector of canal tolls at that point. 
He held that office for about a year, wlien, on account of his religious 
scruples, he resigned to avoid Sabbath laboi-s. j\[r. AVelles also held 
the postmaster.ship at Akron under presidents John Quincy Adams 
and Jackson, and was justice of tlie peace for nearly five years. He 
resigned the last-named office in 1834 in order to give all his time to 
his duties as traveling agent of the Ohio State Temperance Society, of 
which Governor Lucas was president. After being thus employed for 
about a year, lie returned to Elyria and re-entered the practice of the 
law in partnership with Ileman Birch. 

In the fall of 1837 Mr. Welles moved to Cleveland, Avhere he .spent 
three years in practice, at the end of which he again located at Elyria, 
where he remained for nearly a decade. During that period he became 
more prominent as an anti-.slavery agitator than as a lawyer, and, 
through the agency of Dr. N. S. Townshend, whom the Freesoilers had 
elected to the Legislature, received the appointment of state agent for 
the sale of Western Reserve school lands. This necessitated his resi- 
dence in Defiance, Williams County, where he resided .some nine years. 
He was then appointed to an Iowa land agency and settled at Fort 
Dodge, that state, where he spent the later years of his life. 

Dklkoates to- the ]8r)l Convention 

The delegates from the county to the constitutional convention of 
1851 were Dr. Norton S. Townshend and Horace D. Clai'k. During liis 


resfdciicc' ol' fliirty years in Lorain Ooiiiily, most ol' tliat i)oriotl bein-r a 
citi/cii oL' Klyria, Doctor 'I'owiisIicikI altaiiicil imicli piihlic proiniiicnee 
as well as jirofc'ssional raiiu;. 

Horace L). Clarlc, tlie second delegate from Loraiu County to the 
constitutional convention of 1851, was one of tlie oldest and Lest known 
lawyers in Nortliern Oliio." At that time he had been practicing seven- 
teen years in Elyria, and naturally a more extended account of his 
professional career will be given in the section devoted to prominent 
members of the bar who have held no judgeships. In fact, as far as 
]Mr. Chirk was concerned, during his thirty years of practice at Elyria 
lie lield no official position other than as delegate to the constitutional 
convention of 1851. 

Present-Day Courts 

As finally adopted, the coiistitution i)rovided for five judges of the 
State Supreme Court. From that time to this only one member of that 
body has been selected from Lorain Countv — W. W. Ijoynton of 

The judicial power of the state is vested in a supreme court, 
courts of appeals, courts of common pleas, courts of proltate and such 
othfi- inferior judicial bodies as may be established by law. The Supreme 
Court judges are elected for six years; under the 1851 constitution they 
were elected for five years. The tenn is the same for common pleas 
judges, and the office is also elective. The probate judges are elected for 
four years. The amendments adopted by the constitutional convention 
of 1912 almost entirely changed the judicial system of Ohio. Each 
county was given one or more common pleas judges, the common pleas 
districts heretofoi-c exi.sting being abolished. 

Till' Federal courts have only one representative from Lorain County, 
Hon. Tiiomas A. Conway, of Elyria, a referee in bankruptcy for the 
Eastern Division of Ohio, jurisdiction also covers ^Medina County. 
He was a former probate judge and succeeded James II. Leonard in 
IMay, rJ15. As to the courts of appeals, Lorain County is in the Eighth 
District of the state, but has no resident judge on the bench. 

The judge of the Court of Common Pleas for Lorain County is Hon. 
Horiice (i. Redington. Teclinically, it is included in the Fourth Dis- 
ti-ict, Second Sididivision, of llie state. In Septeml)er, 1014, was a])- 
pointed to succeed Hon. Stroiip, ol" Lorain, to hold the office until 
liis successor was elected and (|iiali(ied. In tbe fall of li»U Judge Red- 
ington and ^^'. P. Tliom]is()n were candidates for election to fill tliat 
position. The election I'csidted in a tie, no one being elected. Jiulge 


Redington continiu'd to hold tho office and is still holding it. There 
was ;i contest and llie voles wen; recounted by tlie ('onrt of A|)|)eals. 
The ("oiirl. of Appeals found that, tlicrc was a tic 'IMk; ease tiii'U went 
to tlie Supi'ciiic (,'ouit and tlie decision of thi; (Joiirt of Appeals was 
aflinued by tlie »Supreiiie Court leaving Judge Jtedington upon tiie Ifciich 
as his successor had not been elected. 

At the last se.ssion of the Legislature the office of another conunon 
pleas judge for Lorain County was created and W. B. Thompson was 
appointed to fill the new position. We, therefore, have both Judge 
Redington and Judge Thompson upon the bench, .serving under appoint- 
ments of the governor. 

The times for holding of courts are fixed each year by the judges. 
The Court of Appeals holds two terms in the county and the Common 
Pleas Court three terms. 

Common Pleas Judges, 1852-188:3 

lion. Samuel Ilumphreyville was the first incumbent of the Common 
Pleas Court, nnder the present constitution, commencing his services in 
1852; was succeeded l)y James B. Carpenter in 1857; Thomas Bolton, 
1858; AVilliam n. Canfield, 1859; John S. Green, 18G1 ; Stevenson Burke, 
18G2-!); W. W. Boynton, 18Gf); John C. Hale, 1877-83. 

Stevenson Burke 

Among the most prominent occupants of the Common Pleas bench 
in Loi'ain County under the new constitutional era were Stevenson- 
Burke and Washington W. Boynton, whose experiences are somewhat 
similar, both having made their broadest reputation as lawyers in Cleve- 
land after their retirement from the bench; but while Judge liurke de- 
parted permanently from the scene of iiis first jn'ofessional work 
(I]lyria) Judge Boynton, after gravitating l)etween his home town, 
Columbus and Cleveland, for a long series of years, finally returned to 
his first love, and is now living in honored retii'ement at his beautiful 
home in the county seat. 

Judge l^urke is a New York man, l)orn in St. Lawrence County 
on the 2Gth of November, 182G, and is therefore nearing his eightieth 
year. In .March, 1S;M, his father moved from New York to Ohio, and 
settled with the family in Ridgeville, Loi'ain County, where he resided 
unlii his (h^alb in August, 1875. Up to tln' age of si.xteeii, Steveiisoti's 
sclmoling came in vei'y small and irregular instalments. For some time 
afterward he enjoyed more regular iiisti'uction in .sele(^(. schools at 



Rid;^L'ville Center and Elyria, and still later at Delaware University, 
located in flic town by that name in the eeiitrai ])art of tin; state. There, 
in \H\{') JK' also (■oniMienccd Ihc study of law iiiidri- Messrs. I'oweli and 

In the spring of 1848 ]\Ir. Hiirke eoni])leted his i)rofessional studies 
at Elyriti under Horace D. Clark; was admitted to jjraetice by the 
.State Suinx'ine Court on August 11 th of that year, and became a resi- 
dent lawyer at the county seat. In April of the following year his 
preceptor admitted him into a copartnership, which continued until 
May, 1852. The succeeding decade was one of industry, ceaseless labor, 
continual progress and impairing health. As a judicial position was 
less wearing, his friends secured his election to a judgeship of the 
Court of ConuMon J'leas of the Kourth Judicial District of Ohio, which 
he held from Februarj', 18(i2, to January, 18()'J. At that time he had 
served two years of a second term and was succeeded by Judge Boynton. 

Judge Burke relinquished his judicial duties to resume the practice 
of the law, having formed a partnership in Cleveland with Hon. F. T. 
Backus and E. J. Estep. The association was dissolved hy the death 
of I\lr. Backus in IMay, 1870, hut was continued with ]\Ir. Estep until 
1875, after which Mr. Burke practiced alone. From the first he took a 
high standing among the leading lawyers of Northern Ohio, carrying 
much important litigation Ijcfore the supreme courts of Ohio and adjoin- 
ing states and the Supren\e Court of the United States. From 1872 to 
1880 he .served as general counsel and director of the Cleveland & ^la- 
honing Valley Railway Company, and during a portion of that i)eriod 
as its president. From 1875 to 1881 he was general counsel and director 
of the Cleveland, ColumI)us, Cincinnati & Indianapolis Railway, and 
heeanie its president in 1S86. From 1881 to 188(j he was also presi- 
dent of the Colum])us, Hocking Valley & Toledo Railway Company, and 
during most of that period vice president of the Indianapolis & St. 
Louis Railway Company; after 1886 president of the Toledo & Ohio 
Central and Kanawha & ^Michigan, and after 1894, until his death in 
1905, he was jn-esident of the Central Ontario Railway Company, besides 
being at the head of .such large corporations as the Repuhlic Coal Com- 
pany and on the directorate of the Canadian Copper Company, the 
Anglo-American Iron Company, etc. In fact, at the time of his death, 
ten years ago, there was no man in Oliio mort; prominent as a corpora- 
tion lawyer or executive than Judge I'.urke. 


Judge W. W. Boynton, who has now heen a continuous resident of 
lOlyria for a decade, is in bis eighty-rouiih year and eoiinneneed ])rae- 



tice in his home town nearly sixty years ago. lie was born in Russia 
Township, Lorain County, January 27, 1833, and is a son of Gen. 
Lewis I), and Jlulli (Wcllman) iJoyntoii, both natives of .Maine and 
representatives of ohl New 10nj,'land families. The founders of i)olli 
the Loynton and Wellman families in Lorain County wore among the 
first score of settlers in the northern part of Russia Township, which 
was settled several years before Oberlin, in the southern part, was 
founded. The mother died on tlie old homestead in January, 1840, 
■wliile still in her early '30s; the father, who reached his seventieth year, 
died in 1871. General Boynton was a leading farmer and citizen of 
the county and attained such leadersliip in the old state militia that he 
was appointed brigadier general. 

The future judge, who was christened Washington Wallace Boyuton 
was early trained for solidity, both physical and mental. II(! early 
showed intellectual aptitude and accomplishments and, like otliers in 
his position and of his temperament, taught in the district sciiool as a 
young man, and later conducted a select institute in Amherst Town- 
ship. He was also a school examiner for a time. During this period 
he commenced his law studies under his uncle, Elbridge (J. Boynton, 
then one of the repi*esentative lawyers of Elyria. 

Mr. Boynton was admitted to the bar in 1856, established his resi- 
dence in Elyria in 1857 and not long afterward formed a partnership 
with Gen. L. A. Sheldon, with whom he practiced until 1861. In that 
year his partner entered the Ihiion army as lieutenant colonel of the 
Forty-second Ohio Volunteers and distinguished him.self in tiie Union 
service. From the spring of 1859 until the autumn of 1863 Mr. 
Boynton served as prosecuting attorney of Lorain County. During 
that period he formed a partnership with John C. Ilale, but his health 
had become so seriously impaired in 1863 that he relinquished his prac- 
tice and sought rest and recuperation in the Nortliwest. 

Somewhat benefitted by the eliange of climate aiul surroundings. 
Judge Boynton returned to Elyria and was in partnersiiip witii Laertes 
B. Smith until February, 1869, when Governor Hayes appointed him 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas to succeed Judge Burke, resigned. 
Thereupon Judge Boynton retired from the linn of Boynton and Smith. 
At the ensuing fall election he was elected to fill Die vacancy, and 
two years thereafter was chosen for the full term. In Octolx-r, 1876, 
h(! was elected judge of tlie State S\ij)reme Couii, and took his seat on 
lliat bench as one of tiie associate justices in I'V'bruary, 1877. Ill 
health again comix'llcd him to resign in Novendier, 1881. 

After ids retirement from the supreme bench, Judge Boynton located 
in Cleveland, where his foriuei- hiw pai'tner, Jolin ('. Ilale, who had 


succccdt'd him on the Coiuinon Pleas beach, in 1883, again joined him 
in tlie i)nicliL'e of iheii- prol'i'ssion. During the succeeding lifteen years, 
tlie liniis or JJoynton and Hale and Jioynlon, Hale and Ilorr, of which 
lie was u senior partner, hecaiiie widely known throughout the state. 
In 1888 Norton T. Ilorr had been admitted to the old partnership 
and in 1892 Judge Hale had been elected to the Circuit bench and re- 
tired from practice. For the succeeding five years Boynton and Horr 
continued a large professional business, and on January 1, 1897, Judge 
Boynton retired from the firm. For several years thereafter he devoted 
himself to the trial of special cases, became largely a consulting attorney, 
and finally retired from all active practice. At first he erected at 
North Ividgeville, on the site of the birthplace and girlhood home of 
his wife (formerly Betsey A. Terrell), a large and attractive residence. 
There they maintained their home until 1906, when they removed to 
Elyria and occupied their pi-esent spacious, elegant and homelike 

Jndge Boynton has made a broad, stable and unusual record both 
as a judge and a public legislator, although in the latter capacity his 
career covers but three years; but they fell within the early and por- 
tentious period of Reconstruction, in which he had the honor of playing 
a leading part. From 1865 to 1867, inclusive, he represented Lorain 
County in the State Legislature, and first offered the resolution eliminat- 
ing the color line from the Constitution. On the first vote the resolution 
was defeated in the House, but i)assed in the Senate. The measure was 
then returned to the lower house, where it was adoptctl after a bitter 
contest and, in the ensuing state election, defeated by popular vote. 
Judge Boynton was a vigorous champion of the measure which lie 
introduced, and not long afterward had the satisfaction of seeing it, in 
all its essentials, become incorporated into the Constitution of the 
United States. By the present state constitution, it is provided that 
"every white male citizen of the United States" shall be entitled to 
vote. An amendment was proposed by the Fourth Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1912 to omit the word "white," but it was voted down by 
the people, probably because they did not understand what it meant. 
Colored people vote in Ohio now, but on account of the Constitution of 
the United States which accords them that privilege. 

John C. Haijo 

John C. TLile, Judge Boynton 's old law partner, who also succeeded 
him as Common Pleas judge in 1877, had no superior in Lorain County 
as u strong and honorable member of the profession, whetlitir on the 


m! J' 


bench or at the bar. lie was a New Ilampsliire fanner boy, but fitted 
liiiiisc'lf for Dartmouth College and graduated therefrom in 1857 when 
t\V(;Mty-six years of ag{\ To o})tain his education In; had burdened him- 
self with a $1,000 debt — wiiich he paid, with interest. Immediately after 
his graduation from- Dartmouth (Jollege, he settled in Cleveland, and 
during the succeeding three years taught in its public schools and 
studietl law. 

In the meantime J\Ir. Hale had married a good Cleveland girl ; was 
admitted to the bar in July, 1861, and in the following October located 
at Elyria for practice. Two years afterward, lie had so proved his 
worth that he was elected prosecuting attorney, succeeding AV. W. 
Boynton, with whom he had been in partnership, and held the oftice for 
three terms, of two years each. During that busy period he also held 
the office of register of bankruptcy, continuing thus until the position 
was abolishe/1 by the consolidation of districts. lie was an active and 
influential delegate to tiie Constitutional Convention of 1873 and served 
as judge of the Coui't of Couunon i^leas from 1877 until 1883, when 
he returned to Cleveland to become again associated with Judge Boynton, 
who had located in tliat city for practice after his retii'ement from the 
bench of tlie State Supreme Court. In 1892 the partnership of Boynton, 
Hale and Ilorr (Norton T.) was dissolved, because of Mr. Hale's elec- 
tion to the circuit judgeship. 


At the time of the organization of the Probate Court in 1852, the 
term of the probate judge was thi'ee years and remained that way until 
1905, when l)y an amendment of the Constitution the terms of various 
county, district and state officers was adjusted so as to have those 
officers elected in the even years and the municipal and township officers 
elected in the odd years. By that amendment the terms of the Supreme 
Court and Circuit Court judges were fi.xed for six years, Common 
Pleas judges for six years and the Probate Court judges for four years. 
Since that time tjie tei'iii of the i)robate judge has been four years. 

"William F. Lockwoou 

William V. Loekwood, wlio succeeded Phileiiu)n Bliss as judge of 
the Pro])ate Court in 1854, was one of the ablest lawyers and judges 
ever coiuiected with the profession in Lorain County. TL; was a native 
of (!oiinecticu1, spent his youth in New Yoi'k ami in 1841, when just 
approiK-iiing mnnlnxxi, sellled in I'llyria luid became a law sludent in 

!<» IfO A**i">t' 


tlie offici' of Ilainliii and Hliss. Tn llu; following year he was adniitled 
1o the har; served as proseeuting attorney of the eounty in 1844-8, 
and in hSH'i went to lialtiniore as a deiej,^a1e to the; Whij,' Convention 
whieh nominated Wiidiidd Scott for the presi(h;ney. 

After serving as prohate judge from 1854 to 1856, Mr. Loekwood 
moved to Omaha, Nehraska, where he residetl two years; then located 
in Dakota City, Nehraska Territory. He served as one of the Federal 
judges from April, 1861, until Nehraska was admitted to statehood in 
1867. lie was then nominated hy President Johnson as United States 
district judge for tiie State of Nehraska, hut was not confirmed hy tiie 
Senate. Juilge Loekwood then heeame a resident of Toledo, hecame 
(luite prominent as a democrat and was elected judge of the Connnon 
Pleas Court in 1878. 

As to otiier early prohate judges, Lionel A. Sheldon was appointed 
to that l)ench when Judge Loekwood resigned in 1856, and he was in 
ofticefrom Novendjer 25th of that year until Fehruary 8, 1858, when 
Charles II. Doolittle was commi.ssioned hy Governor Chase to succeed 
him. Then came John AV. Steele in Decem])er, 1867. lie served until 
his resignation in June, 1871, when Laertes B. Smith hecame prohate 

Lionel A. Sheldon 

Judge Sheldon came of a New York family, his parents ])ringing him 
to La Grange, Lorain County, when he was ahout three years old. lie 
ohtained his legal education in the office of Clark and Burke, Elyria, 
and at the Poughkeepsie (New York) Law School, heing admitted to 
practice hefore the State Supreme Court in July, 1S51. He commenced 
practice at Elyria as a partner of John M. Vincent, and was afterward 
associated, at different times, with George B. Lake, L. B. Smith and 
W. AV. Boynton. After retiring from the pro])ate judgesliip, wiiich he 
held in 1856-8, he returned to private practice and remained in P^lyria 
until the opening period of the Civil war. 

In August, 1861, Judge Sheldon went to the Union front as captain 
in the Second Ohio Cavalry, and was sul)se(]uently a major in the same 
regiment. At the organization of the Forty-second Oiiio Volunteer 
Infantry he was commissioned its lieutenaid colonel and on tiie ])romo- 
lioM of its colonel, James A. Gai'lield, hecame colonel oT llie regiment. 
After serving thus until neai' the close of tiie war, lie was advanced 
to the rank of lii'cvet lirigadier general. 

At the close of the AVar of the Rehellion General Siieldon settled in 
New Orleans. He hecame interested in ])olitics; was elected to Congress 


in 38G8, 1870 and 1872, uiul in 187G wjis one of the i)rcsi(lc'ntial doctors 
from Louisiana in the famous Ilayus-Tilden controversy. While resid- 
ing in New Orleans permanently, he spent liis siniim(;rs on his larye farm 
in i^a Orange, wliieh had been the family homestead for so many years. 
After leaving? New Orleans he was appointed receiver of one of the great 
western railroads, served as governor of New Mexico under appoint- 
ment by President Garfield and afterward nioved to California. 

Charles IL Doolittle was born in IMiddlebury, Vermont, October 20, 
1814, son of Judge Joel Doolittle of the Supreme Court of Vermont. 
He was educated at IMiddlebury College, lie came to Ohio in 1840 
and practiced law in Huron. In 1842 he formed a law partnership with 
Russell & Case of Unionville, Ohio, where he married, December 25, 
1842, Elizabeth Kemp. In December, 1850, he came to Elyria where, 
with tile exception of a few months, tiie remainder of his life was spent. 
In 1851 he was elected justice of the peace. About 1858 he took the 
office of probate judge to which he had been elected, which office he 
held until 1867. Then after this he had a severe illness which made 
him an invalid for a couple of years, and his first activity was an out- 
of-door business, which took him from Elyria for several months. With 
better health he resumed his former business, and in 1873 was estab- 
lished in a law ofifiee in Elyria. In 1874 he was again elected nuigistrate 
which ofifiee he held until his death, January 10, 1890. 

John W. Steele 

John W. Steele was admitted to the bar before the opening of 
the Civil war, served throughout that period and was probate judge 
for about 3i/j years, from 1867 to 1871. He moved to Oberlin in 1877 
and practiced there. 

Laertes B. Smith 

Laertes B. Smith was admitted to the bar in Elyria, during Septem- 
ber, 1858. He practiced and held the office of justice of peace until 
June, 1871, wiieu he was appointed probate judge to fill the vacancy 
caused by the resignation of John W. Steele. He was elected to that 
office the same year for the unexpired terra and held the judgeship, by 
successive re-elections, until February 9, 1882. 

Prosecuting Attorneys Previous to 1880 

The office of jirosecuting attorney of a county always draws some of 
its best, lej^nil Inlfiil, of I he younger class, and is generally considered a 

BttBhiuod fflOl'l 


stcijpiiig-stoiie to a judgeship. Such expectations have a basis of I'act 
in tile list of tliese officials wlio served the county in the early period 
of its corporate life. 

Woolsey Welles, the first prosecuting attorney of Lorain County, 
served from the organization of the county in ]\Iay, 1824, for about two 
years, when he was succeeded by Frederick Whittlesey, a young man 
from Connecticut who had just opened an office in town. With the 
exception of a short break, when J. W. Willey, was prosecutor, "Sir. 
Wiiittlesey held the office until 1835, when he departed for a broader 
field in Cleveland; during his stay in Elyria he also served two terms 
in the Legislature. In Cleveland, where he resided until hi.s death in 
1854, he held the oflice of clerk of the courts of Cuyahoga County ; was 
also an associate judge of tiie Court of Common Pleas and represented 
Cuyahoga County in the State Senate. 

For a short time, while in Elyria, Mr. Whittlesey edited the Lorain 
Gazette, the first newspaper published in the county and which was 
established in 1829. His example in this respect was followed by quite 
a number of the young lawyers who early commenced practice at the 
county seat, as they were able thereby not only to add somewhat to a 
precarious pi'ofcssional income but to forward any public ambitions 
wlii<'li liiey miglit harbor. 

iMJward S. Hamlin, a i)artner of ]Mr. Whittlesey, succeeded his asso- 
ciate as prosecuting attorney in 1835. lie held the office for about a 
year and in 1837 moved to Cleveland, but soon returned to Elyria, 
where from 1840 to 1845 ho was in partnership with Albert A. Bliss. 
During the later two years of that period he served an unexpired term 
in Congress, having just completed a second term as prosecuting at- 
torney. Sul).se(juently, William F. Lockwood was associated with him 
and the connection continued until Mr. Hamlin left Elyria in 1849. For 
some years he practiced his profession in Cincinnati. 

Elijah Parker, who was one of Woolsey Welles' competitors when the 
county was organized, siiceeeded IMr. Hamlin as prosecuting attorney in 
1836. He served for a year. ]\Ir. Parker was a Vermonter, was in 
rather i)oor lieaUii and was not in active practice after 1854, although 
he continued to reside in Elyria until his death in April, 1859. He 
was justice of the peace for several terms, as well as prosecuting attorney 
in 1836-7. 

Jokij Tiffany 

Joel Tiffany, 'Mr. Parker's successor, was one of the most lirilliant 
men who ever practiced in Elyria. He was a native of Connecticut, 
apjieai's to liave (irst practiced in Medfna, and to have come into view 


at Klyriii in IH'A'). As tlit- court records indicate, he made tlie county 
scat his lieadfjuarters until 3848, iluriii^- uiiich period he served as 
prosecuting attorney for the tlirce terms commencing ]8!j7, 1841 and 
1845. .Mr. Tiffany was associated witii L. G. Byingtou for a short time 
and with E. II. Leonard for about two years. His professional reputa- 
tion rests both on his record as prosecuting attorney of Lorain County 
and his works as an autiior and couipiler. Upon leaving lillyria he 
went to I'ainesville and sul)sequently to New York City. From 186;j to 
180!) he resided in Albany, where he was reporter of the Court of 
Appeals of New York, publishing during that period twelve volumes 
of reports and issuing, either alone or in collaboration, such standard 
works as "Tiffany and Smith's New York Practice," "The Law of 
Trusts and Trustees, as Administered in England and America," 
"Forms Adapted to tlie Practice and Special Pleadings in New York 
Courts of Kecord," and "A Treatise on Government and Constitutional 
Law, According to th^ American Theory." From Albany ]Mr. Tiffany 
moved to Chicago. 

]\Ir. Tiffany had many friends and admirers in Lorain County, not- 
witlistanding his erratic ways. One of them thus touches on iiis local 
career: "]Mr. Tiffany approached nearer to l)eing a genius, as liiat 
word is oi'dinarily understood, than any otJier practitioner of the l^orain 
bar. Willi acute and accurate perceptions, great mental powers of 
acquisition and assimilation, a pi"odigious memory and, withal, an elo- 
quence seldom equalled, he was extremely well equipped for all foi'cnsic 
encounters. In the locally-celebrated counterfeit cases, i\]r. Tiffany 
exerted his great powers to their utmost and made for himself a reputa- 
tion that will long endure in Lorain County. These were tried in 
1838-9, when he was prosecuting, and no fewer tlian fourteen per.sous 
were sent to the penitentiary for being imi)licated in the making and 
issuing of counterfeit money. 

"The great qualities we have mentioned were, however, handicapped 
by an nnsteadiness of purpose and lack of application to his profession, 
wliich rendered tliem of comiiaratively little value to their possessor. 
He engaged in a variety of enterprises outside of his profession, while 
in Elyria, none of wliich proved profitable, while they pi'evented him 
from I'eacJiing tliat success in his [)rofession wliicji he miglit otherwise 
have allaincil." 

Tile (h'cade after Mi'. Tilfaiiy's (list Ici'm was lilh-d out, in the prose- 
cuting attorney's oltice, by 10. II. Leonard, Tiffany, Horace A. Tenny, 
TilVany again, and AVilliam F. liOckwood, afterward jn'obate judge. 


John i\r. Vincknt 

-luliii M. Vincent .succeeded Mr. Ijoekwnod in 1H.^)(), Hcrved Ivvo (ton- 
Kceiilivc lei-nis, ami eoinnienecd lii.s tiiird Icnii in \HM. lie was an able 
and i)Oi)\vyer, haudieai)i)L'd hy a frail eonslitution. While a youth 
he eanie from Mas.sachusetts to Ohio; began his collegiate course at 
Oberlin, but completed it at Union College, Schenectady, New York, 
from which he graduated in 1846. Returning to Elyria he entered the 
office of II. D. Clark as a law student, and was admitted to the bar 
at the State Supreme Court in the county seat, August 11, 1848. About 
a year afterward he was elected to liis first term as prosecuting attorney. 
In the autumn of 1859, after several years of practice, somewhat inter- 
rupted by failing health, he was elected to the lower of the 
State Legislature and served in that l)ody during the se.ssion of 1860-1. 
In the summer of 1863 lie went to Minnesota, hoping to l)e physically 
strengthened by a cluxnge of clinuite, but died in Milwaukee, while 
journeying toward his Elyria home. 

Joseph II. Dickson 

Jcseph II. Dickson, who followed jNIr. Vincent as prosecuting attorney 
of tlie county in January, 1858, was a young lawyer who had been 
admitted to the bar at Elyria in 1852 and several years afterward located 
at Wellington. AVhile residing in Elyria he was in partnership with 
:Mr. Vincent. At the conclusion of his two-year term as prosecuting 
attorney, on the last day of December, 1855, he moved to AYellington, 
whei-e, for years he continued in practice and became a pul)lic character 
of consideral)le prominence. He represented Lorain County in the 
Eifty-eiglith and Fifty-ninth general assemblies, which covered the 
period from January, 1868, to ]\Iay, 1871. During that period he voted 
with the great majority for Ohio's adoption of the joint resolution 
ratifying the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution of the United 

Other Eauly Prosecuting Attorneys 

Ceorge Olmsted, who had come from New York as a practicing 
attorney and located in Elyria in 1853, followed Mr. Vincent at the 
conclusion of his second term, iiis own service connnencing in January, 
1858. After liolding oftice a little over a year, in March, 185!), he resigned 
ami moved to Indianapolis. After a year spent in that city he returned 
to i'llyria, wl:en' lie prai'ticed until 1862; then four years of absence 


preceded his return to the county seat. Afterward he liekl the office 
oi' justice of tile i)eaee for a uuinher of years. 

Wlien i\Ir. Olmsted resi<jned as prosecuting attorney in ]\Iarcii, 185!), 
W. W. Boyntou was appointed to till tlie vacancy and was regularly 
elected in the fall, serving, through two successive re-elections, until his 
resignation in the fall of 1863. John C. Hale, his law partner, suc- 
ceeded him, and held the office for six years. The fine judicial record 
of these two friends and a.ssociates in the law has already been pre- 

Charles W. Johnston, Judge Hale's successor as prosecuting at- 
torney, held the position for two terms, being elected in 1869 and 1871. 
He formerly practiced medicine in La Grange, Lorain Count}', but 
linally preferred law and entered the ranks of that profession in 185!). 
In that year he located at Elyria and formed a partnership with Phile- 
mon liliss under the name of Bliss and Jolmston, which continued until 
Judge Bliss moved to Dakota in 1861. ]\Ir. Johnston resided in Elyria 
for many years afterward, engaged in active practice. 

George P. ]\retcalf, who succeeded Mr. Johnston, was admitted to tlie 
bar in 1869. He was elected pro.secuting attorney in 1873, 1875 and 

Pioneer Lawveus, Pure and Simi'LE 

After the names of those early members of the Lorain County bar 
who became prosecuting attorneys and judges have been eliminated, as 
in the foregoing pages, the list is reduced to rather small proportions. 

Horace D. Clark 

The most noteworthy case of really able and popular lawyers who 
steadfa.stly refused official or judicial honors, was the veteran attorney 
Horace D. Clark. As previously stated, the only position ever held by 
him which could approach the official class was that of delegate to the 
constitutional convention of (adopted by that body in) 1851. His was 
such a rare case and his personality became so dear to the members 
of the bar, many of whom came to owe their start and advancement to 
his interest and kindness, that the following sketch is (juoted from the 
])en of one who wi'otc; wliile lie was still living in Moutri'al, Caiiiida, in 
his seventy-fifth year, the abandonment of his pra(;tice and his (le|)arture 
lliither dating Fi'om 1865: "Il<)ra(!e 1). (Jhirk, one of tiu; lawyers who 
had tlui largest continuous practice in Lorain county, was born ^lay 
22, 1805, at Granby, Conneclicut, whei'e his niollu'i- slili resides at the 



age of ninety-four years. lie went to district school suininers until he 
was eij^Mit years of af^'c and in the winter until he was sixteen, when he 
was jiiaccd in a country slon-, serving; his ai)i)renticcsliii) and afterward 
heiiif,' received as a jjartncr. in this husiness he continued four years, 
at tile enil of which he says, in a recent letter, '1 found we had lost 
so much by bad debts and the stealings of clerks that there was l)Ut 
little left, and 1 quit the business in disgust.' lie studied law one year 
in Connecticut and in November 17, 1832, started for Ohio, reaching 
Hudson, that state, in December. He at once entered the law school 
of Judge Van R. Humphrey and a year later was admitted to the bar 
by the Supreme Court at Columbus. 

"On the Fourth of July, 1834, ]\Ir. Clark opened a law otKce in the 
soutiieast corner room of the Court House in Klyria. He continued to 
practice in Elyria from that time for about thirty years, having during 
a large portion of tiiat time the most extensive practice in the county — 
a practice never approached in magnitude by more than one rival at 
a time. A. A. BYias, Ilandin and Bliss, Joel Tiffany, Benedict and 
ijeonard, Hamlin and Lockwooil, and AV. V. Lockwood alone, were at 
different times, his nearest comjietitors ; but IMr. ('lark steadily main- 
tained llie leading position lie had gained until after he ceased to reside 
in Klyria; for, although he continued to practice there until 186-1 lie 
moved witii his family to Cleveland in 1851. 

"In 1845 ^Ir. Clark took as a partner Cyrus Olney, who came from 
Iowa where he had been in practice. 'He was about twenty-eight,' says 
^Ir. ('lark, 'and the best si)ecial pleader of his age I ever saw.' In 
]Mar(h, 1849, he formed a partnership with Stevenson Burke, who had 
been admitted to the bar the August i)revious, having been a student 
in iMr. Clark's office. His partnershii) continued until about June, 1852. 
John M. Vincent and John V. Coon were also students with ]Mr. Clark 
during his practice in Elyria. He was an excellent lawyer, although 
not especially an elofjuent advocate." 

Other Fellow Practitioners 

Reuben Mussey, the father of Henry E. jMussey, practiced iu Elyria 
from 1825 to 1837, subsequently residing for .siiveral years at Kish- 
waukee, Illinois, where he died in 184;i. 

S. J. Andrews was one of the accomplished lawyers from Cleveland 
who, in the late '2()s, practiced in the courts at Elyria. For a short 
time he was judge of the old Superior Court in that city, and was also 
a iiieiiiber from (Juvahoga (!ouiily of the constitutional conventions of 


IcSno iiiid 1S7.'5. He was Uni'^ rciiiemlicvcd i'or his ohxiuciicc, (luick wit 
and ^■('iillcniaiily inirl li. 

'rill- pciiod from \H:',\ 1o IHlf), willi lar^(! increase in husiiicss and 
population in the county, witnessed tiie advent of about a score of new 
lawyers to tlie Elyria bar. Among these were Edward S. Ilaniliu, 
Horace D. Clark, Joel Tiffany, Albert A. Bliss, Philemon Bliss, Judsou 
J). Benedict, Robert .McEachron and William F. Lockwood. 

A. A. Bliss 

Among the ablest on that list, and who has lieretofore been merely 
mentioned, was A. A. Bliss, brother of Judge Piulemon Bliss. Before 
he was twenty Albert had mastered a trade and secured a fair educa- 
tion. He then attended the Oneida Institute, at \Viiitestown, New York, 
which had recently l)een organized on the manual training plan. In 
tlie spring of 18U3, having recently attained his twenty-second year, 
A. A. Bliss commenced tlie .study of law at I^lyria in the office of 
Whittlesey and Ilandin, and also engaged in newspaper work. He was 
admitted to the l)ar in Cleveland during September, lS;5o, and in tlie 
following spring moved to that city, where, through the i)olitical cam- 
paign of that year he eiUtcd tiie Daily (Jazctte. 

.Mr. Bliss returned to lOlyria in KS:57 and practiced his profession 
there for ten years. From 1840 to 1845 he was in i)artnership with 
E. S. Hamlin, and the lirm prosperctl. Tlie steady increase of his law 
business and his reputation as a lawyer were much retarded Iiy growing 
interest and prominence in politics. In 18:5!), 1840 and 1841 lie was 
elected to the State Legislature and spent much time in the editing 
and management of i)olitical newspapers. In the winter of 1846-7 he 
was elected state treasurer, holding that office until January, 1852. 
Although he moved to Columbus, in the spring of 1847, he kept in touch 
with his Elyria practice through his partnership with Sylvester Bagg, 
which continued from 1846 to 1849. ]\Ir. Bliss returned to p]lyria late 
in 1852, where he remained until the spring of 1863. From that time 
until 1874 he engaged in l)usiness as a resident of Jackson, Michigan, 
but returned to iiis law practice in tiiat city, and became prominent in 
various pul)lic matters connected with municii)al and state institutions. 

JlIDSON I). Bkn'kdict 

-liidsdu I). Beiirdicl came to lOlyria from Medina in 18:58 an<l was 
engaged in i)i'actice for alioni ten years therearier. At dilVerent times 
he was in i)artnership with I']. il> Leonard, Joel TilVany, Kobert Me- 


EiK'lirou and Joshua ^Slyt-rs. About 1848 ^h: lieni-dict abandoned the 
hiw and became a Canipljellile preaehei", si)endin^ many years near 
r.iiHalo, New Yoi'lc, as a missionary of the Chfistian (Jimreli. lli; died 
in Canada in the late '70s. 

]\Iykon R. Keith 

In October, 18:52, .Alyron ]{. Keith, as a boy, was Itrouj^ht from New 
York l)y liis father, Col. Ansel Keith, and settled in Elyria. A year 
after his admission to tiie bar (1841) he moved to Cleveland, where he 
continued in practice for four years. In January, 1846, he returned 
to lOlyria, and was appointed clerk of the courts for Lorain County, 
liius olTiciatinj? until llie sjn'in^^ of ]8r)2. In August of that year lie 
returned to Cleveland, where, for many sul)se(iuent years be was register 
in bankruptcy ami an active memlier of tlie l>ar. 

Josmi.V ]\lVEI!S 

i'rioi- to 1880 Josluui Myci's lield llie I'ecord foi' eonliiiuous lengtii of 
pi'actiee in Lorain County. Although lie was an active member of tiie 
liar two years longer than II. I). Chirk, he never attained nuich i)i'()mi- 
nence or establisiied a large i)raetiee. Mr. Myers eanu- to the l)ar a))OUt 
1844 and remained in Elyria until his death in 1877. lie was iirst 
associated witli Judson 1). ISt'nedict and tiien with liobert .McEaehron. 
From 18r)0 to 1854 his partner was Judge I5i.sseil, of I'ainesvilie, in tlie 
linn of Bissell and IMyers. That was the i)eriod of ins greatest profes- 
sional prosperity. Wiien alone, bis practice was never large. During 
the later years of INIr. Myers' life, he lield the office of justice of the 
peace for a term, securing his election luirlly tlirougli the anti- 
temperance excitement, or opposition to tlie Crusade, in 1874. 

John V. Coon 

Jolin V. Coon, although he never nuule a distinguished place for 
liimself at the liar, was one of its l)est known veterans. He was admitted 
to tlie l)ar at Elyi'ia in 1846 and i)racticed for many years. He did not, 
however, devote himself exclusively to his profession, Imt engaged in 
farming, dealing in real estate and investing in various maiiufacturing 
♦'uterprises. As a lawyer, be was liest known in the field of real estate 
traiisaclions. Some time in tlic early '8()s lie iviiiovcd from lOlyi'ia to 
I'.iiif b'apiils, Kansas, where he had iiiv<'slments in real estate and water 
p(i\\ei\ and aflerwards died liieiv. Mr. CodU was pari ieiilarly known in 


Lorain County as questioning tlie titles at the nioutli of ]?laek River 
now ill tlie City of Lorain, and eauscd very iiiueli lilij^ation over the 
titles licre. 'i'liat was (|iiitc a fcatui'c in Mr. (Joun's life in JOlyria, from 
about ]871 up to tlie lime that he moved to Kansas. 

"Foreign" Practitioners 

It is said that up to ahout 1845 few of the praetieing lawyers of the 
Lorain bar were able to make a living by confining them.selves strictly 
witliin pi'ofessioual limits, nearly all engaging in newspaper or business 
enterprises. AlthougJi the relative amount of law liusiness transacted 
by foreign attorneys after the '80s was much less than during tlie earlier 
period, a large number of attorneys from Ch'veland and otlier outside 
points practiced oceasionally in Lorain County. Besides 8. J. Andrews, 
of that city, may be mentioned in that class W. Sillimau, of Wooster, 
and C. L. Lattimer, of Norwalk. 

Accessions from 1845 to 1860 

The period from 1845 to 1860 witnessed an almost complete change 
in the personnel of the bar. About thirty new members joined it during 
lliat period, and at its close riiilemon Hliss remained the only resident 
lawyer who had begun practice jirior to 1845, althougli Mr. Clai'k, then 
residing in Cleveland, si ill practiei-d in the courts at Fiyria. Some of 
the ablest members of the bar were arrivals of those years. Of the 
number were Stevenson Burke, John I\I. Vincent, Sylvester Hagg, Lionel 
A. Siieldon, George H. Lake, Washington W. Hoyntou. Laertes B. Smith, 
Edward ]). Ilolbrook, John ]\L Langston, John V. Coon, Charles H. 
Doolittle and Jose])h IL Dickson. 

Sylvester Bagg 

Of those not particularly mentioned, Sylvester Bagg attained much 
prominence after leaving P^lyria. lie commenced practice in Elyria in 
1845, having come from .Massachusetts a short time before. lie had not 
tiien reached his twenty-second year. Mi*. Bagg remained at the coiuity 
seat for ten years, practicing alone or in i)artnershi|i witli A. A. Bliss, 
10<lmiiM(l A. West or (ieorgc Ohiisted. 'I'o maki' Ixitli ends meet 
etpially, he engaged at limes in the drug and insurance business. In 
1S57 lie located at Watei'ioo, Iowa, made a good Union iTcoi-d in tlu; 
Civil war; served as circuit .iudge from 1868 to 1878 and, for a iiuniber 
of years tlicreaflei', as distriel judge. 



Attained Pkominence Abroad 

Gcoi-fcc- 15. r^ako, who praclicod from 1851 to 1857, moved to Omaha 
and ,sul).si'(iiU'iitly oecuiiifd a seat ui)oii llie heiieh of the Nebraska 
Supreme Court. 

Houston II. Poppleton, who first studied law with Judge Burke at 
Elyria in 1858-9, commenced practice in 1860, formed a i)artner.ship 
with liis preceptor and in 187:} became general attorney of the Cleve- 
land, Columbus, Cincinnati and Indianapolis Railway Company, of 
which Judge Burke was the executive head. 

p]dward D. Ilolbrook is another of the Elyria lawyers of that period 
who attained his greatest prominence in tlie far West. He commenced 
practice at Elyria in 1858, the year after his admission to the bar, 
and renuiined thus engaged until the spring of 1861. He then went to 
California, where he remained studying carefully the mining laws until 
May, 1862; at that time he moved to Idaho Territory, where he rapidly 
acquired a large practice and rose to public prominence. From 1865 to 
1869 he represented the territory as a delegate to the Thirty-ninth 
and Fortieth congresses. In June, 1870, he was murdered at Idaho 
City by Cliarles H. Douglas. 

Oberlin Lawyers 

Elyria, as the county seat, M-as the logical headquarters of the litiga- 
tion brought to the courts of the county, but as there was considerable 
local business at such population centers as Oberlin, Lorain and AVelliug- 
ton, several of the enterprising firms established outside branches. 
Philemon Bliss and Washburn Saft'ord formed a partnership of that 
nature in 1855, its third mend^er, the Oberlin representative, being R. 
H. Allen. 

J. AV. Steele, who served as probate judge of Lorain County in 1867- 
71, located at Oberlin in 1877, and practiced there for some time there- 

John M. Langston 

But perhaps the ablest member of the bar who ever practiced at 
Oberlin, and really a high credit to the profession irrespective of color 
lines, was .lohii ^I. Langston, a re[)resentative of tiu; colored race. For 
twelve years he enjoyed a large business, chiefly among his own peoi)le, 
was honored by the entire comuuinily in various pul)lie ways, and iinally 
achieved a .substantial reputation in several lines of the national service, 
as will more fully appear I'l-Dm Ihe biogi'aphit; facts which follow. 

{ : ' ■ !(> YPor^ if 


John ]\[ereer Laiigstoii was born in Louisa County, Vir^nia, on the 
]4th of Dcceniljci-, 182!), and at tlie age of six was einani'ii)att'd from 
shivery. In 184!), wlien hut twenty, lie graduated from 01)ei'lin College 
in the regular literary course, ami in IH'y.i from tlic tiieologieal depart- 
ment. He reeeived the following degrees: A. M., Oherlin, ]852; LL. I)., 
Howard University. Having studied law, he was admitted to the bar 
of -Ohio in 1854, and praetieed his profession at Oherlin until 18G9. 
During that period he was clerk of several townships in Ohio, being tlie 
lirst colored nuui elected to any olliee by popular vote. He was also a 
member of the Board of Education of Oherlin. 

In 1869 ^Ir. Langston was called to a profes.sorshii) of law in Howard 
University, Washington, which had been organized two years previous, 
under the auspices of the National Govermnent, for the benetit of his 
race and which had been founded along the same lines which had given 
Oherlin so wide a fame. Professor Langston became dean of the faculty 
of law, of which he was one of the organizers, and remained at its head 
for seven years. President Grant then appointed him a member of the 
Board of Health of the District of Columbia, of which he was elected 
secretary in 1875. hi 1877-85 he was United States minister and consul 
general to Hayti, ami on liis return to this country was ai)pointed pi'esi- 
dent of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute, at Petersl)urg. 

In addition to various addresses and pa])ers on j)olitieal, biographical, 
literaiy and scientific subjects, Professor Langston was the author of 
a vohime of select addresses entitled "Freedom and Citizenship," i)ub- 
lished in Washington, 1883. He died at Wasliington, District of Colum- 
ijia, Novemljer 15, 18!)7. 

The Obeijlin-Weujngton Rescue Case 

One of the most famous cases in which either I\Ir. Langston or any 
other lawyer in Lorain County was identified was that known to history 
as the Oberlin-Wellington Rescue Case, and the al)]e and learned colored 
attorney ])articipated in it not only as an advocate ])ut as one of the 
derendanls convicted of the conspiracy to rescue a negro fugitive from 
the hands of his captors (including United States officials) while en 
route to ills southern master. It all hapixiied in the spi-ing of 185S and 
constituted tlie last attempt to recover a slave in Nortiiei'n Ohio under 
llie law of 1850. The i'aels were lliese: .Idhii I'riec, a riigilive slave 
from Kentucky, had been some lime in Oberliii, when liy » rwm: he was 
s<'ize(I by the United States marshal and bis deputy, accompanied by two 
K'erit iiekiaiis wlio represented his master. The slave was di'iven ovei- 
to Wellington, eight miles iiway, where he was made a |)risoner at Wads- 


wortli's Hotel, tlio dcsigrn being to take him fSouth by tlic first train and 
re-iiilrodiiec iiini to shivery. 

It ha|)|)('n('(l at tliis eiilieal time there was a lart^e crowd at Wcl- 
iingtoii, attracted by a iii'e, and as soon as they received word of the 
state of afifairs at tiie liotei, with re-enforcements from Oberlin tiiey sur- 
rounded the temporary prison and rescued llie fugitive. Tiie grand 
jury of tlie United States District Court tiiereupon indicted thirteen 
persons in Wellington and twenty-four in Oljerlin — all leading citizens 
— for aiding in tlie rescue, tlieir cases being called at Cleveland on April 
5th. The AVellington defendants, who were considered more as assistants 
than principals in the rescue of the slave, were each fined $20 
and costs and sent to jail for twenty-four hours. Simon Bushnell, of 
Oberlin, and j\lr. Langston, who made a strong sjjeeeli defemling his 
course, were eonvicteil and sentenced-;— tlie former to sixty days in prison 
and a fine of $600, and the latter to a $100 fine and twenty days' sen- 
tence. Twelve of the Oberlin men remained in jail at Cleveland, but 
all of the prisoners, it is said, had a rather enjoyaljle time. 

The result of these convictions was to tlie people throughout 
Xorthei'ii Oliio who were oj)posed to slavery, and on the 24th of ^lay 
an immense mass meeting was held at Cleveland to give expression to 
the prevailing .sentiment. Hon. Joshua R. Giddings, Governor (Jiiase 
and others addres.sed the meeting and the feelings of the community 
were aroused to a high pitch of excitement. Visitors came in throngs 
from all parts of the city to .see the prisoners, syin])atiiize wilh them 
and make their imprisonment comfortable. One of tlie most remarkable 
demonstrations was in favor of ]\Ir. Fitch, of Olierlin, who had been 
superintendent of the Congregational Sunday school there for sixteen 
years. The children, numliering 400, came to Cleveland in a body, fill- 
ing the jail and the corridors during tiieir visit to their beloved super- 

President James H. Fairchild, of Oberlin College, thus descriljos an 
attempt to get two of the prisoners from the jurisdiction of the Federal 
Court through the agency of the State Supreme Court: "A writ of 
habeas corpus was granted by one of the judges of the Supreme Court, 
commanding the sheriff to bring Busimell and Langston before that 
court tliat tlie reason for their imiirisonmeiit might be considered. The 
case was ably argued at C'olumbiis for a week, but the court, tiiree to 
two, declined 1() grant a release. This was a severe blow In the men in 
jail. They had coiinled wilh iim(!li eonlidenee upon relief from that, 
(liiarler. It is idle 1o speculale upon the possible resiills if a singh; 
judge had held a different opinion. Salmon P. Chase was governor at 
the lime, and it was well understood that lie would sustain a decision 


reU-asing llie prisoners by all tlie powers at his command; and the 
United Status CJovernment was as I'uUy committed to the execution ol" 
the Fugitive Slave Law. This would have placed Ohio in conflict with 
tli(! (iciicral (Jovenimeiit in defense of State Rif^hts, and if the l)arty 
of frcciloiii tiiroiioiioiil tlu; Norlli liad rallied, as seiJined possible, the 
war migiil iiave come in 1858 instead of 18G1, with a secession of the 
northern instead of the southern states. A single vote apparently turned 
the scale, and after a little delay the party of freedom took possession 
of the government and the party of slavery became the seceders." 

But as no sufficient proof of title to the slave, John Price, had been 
presented by the claimant who had issued his power of attorney to the 
Keiituckians, on the Gtli of July, 1858, the prisoners were all released. 
Tile four men who had seized him and had been indicted on the charge 
of kidnai)iug in Lorain County, I)eeame alarmeil. So, by mutual con- 
sent, all further proceedings were dropped. 

On their arrival at their home town, on the same day, the Oberlin 
men were escorted to the First Congregational Church where, until 
midnight, the people of the village gave way to their enthusiasm in the 
form of song and prayer. 

C.VME IN THE '60s AND '70s 

Of a later generation of lawyers than tliose mentioned was Elizur 0. 
Johnson, who was admitted to the bar in 1861 and resided in La Grange 
until he was elected county auditor in 1869. At the conclusion of his 
term in 1876 he commenced practice at the county seat. Other lawyers 
who commenced practice at the Lorain County bar in the '60s include 
Iral L. Webster, whose headquarters were at Oberlin ; Norman L. John- 
son, Charles Downing and P. II. Boynton. Those of the '70s embrace 
such as J. M. Ilord, Winslow L. Fay, E. II. Ilinman (North Amherst), 
David J. Nye, Walter F. Ilerrick, who had previously been a colonel 
in the Union army and a member of the State Legislature for several 
terms; John II. Faxon, who had .served two terms as sheriit" in the '-lOs 
and two terms in the Legislature in the '70s just before commencing 
practice in Elyria; G. C. Jeffries, E. C. jManter and J. C. Hill; Fred 
Webster, who also had an Oberlin office; and Roswell G. Ilorr, formerly 
county clerk. 

J. C. Hill 

Mr. Hill was admitted to the bar about 1862, came to Elyria with 
Hon. John C. Hale. After practicing a short time he went into the 
cattle business, afterwards into the nursery business, and in 1872 helped 
to organize the predecessor of the Savings Deposit Bank & Trust Com- 

Jo 'lOr-H'. 


pany and has coutinued as cashier and president of that bank up to 
the present time. He lias now retired as president, but is chairman 
of the hoard of direetors, an honorary j^osition. While lie has not been 
in active practice of the hiw, lie has done most of the legal business 
of the bank. 


Roswcll G. Ilorr was clerk of the Common Pleas Court of Lorain 
County from 1S5S to 1864, and at the expiration of his term was ad- 
mitted to practice. lie formed a partnership with John C. Hale, but 
after two years of practice moved to Missouri and subsequently to East 
Saginaw, Michigan. He became prominent in the polities of the latter 
state and served creditably in Congress, being elected the fii'st time in 
November, 1878. 

Retrospect of the Eaui.ieu Bar 

Al)out 1880, the following suggestive and interesting review was 
made of the Lorain County bar: "Ten of its meml)ers have been 
elevated to the bench (aside from probate judges) and held iifteen dif- 
ferent judicial positions, viz. : Frederick Whittlesey, common pleas judge 
in Oliio; Philemon Bliss, common pleas judge in Ohio, territorial chief 
justice of Dakota and supreme judge of Missouri; William F. Lockwood, 
territorial judge of Nebraska and common pleas judge in Ohio; Eleazer 
Wakeley, territorial judge of Nebraska; Cyrus Gluey, judge in Iowa; 
S. Bagg, circuit and district judge in Iowa; S. Burke, common pleas 
judge in Ohio; George B. Lake, supreme judge of Nebraska; W. W. 
Boynton, common pleas and supreme judge in Ohio, and John C. Hale, 
common pleas and circuit judge in Ohio. 

"h'our Lorain lawyers have been members of Congi'ess, holding in 
all eight terms: E. S. Hamlin, one term; Philemon Bliss, two terms; 
Lionel A. Sheldon, three terms, and E. D. Ilolbrook (delegate), two 

"The bar furnished one of the delegates, Mv. Clark, to the constitu- 
tional convention of 1851, and tlie single rejjresentative, j\Ir. Hale, to 
that of 187;}. Two former Lorain lawyers are lecturers in law schools — 
(Judge Bliss antl Mr. Langstoii — and two, Judge Bliss and .Mr. TiiVany, 
are authors of legal treatises. 

"So I'ar as llie writer lias been able to learn, Philemon Bliss seems 
to have held the lai'gcst number of important ollieial positions; two 
tefiiis in ("(ingress and (including probate ju<lgeships) liv(; dinVrent 
judicial positions. To ]\lr. i\lyers belongs the distinction of having 
been Ihe longest at the bar, from 1811 to 1877. The next longest, and 


by far the longest practice of the leading lawyers of the bar, was that 
of II. D. Clark, from IHU to 1S65." 

liENCil AND li.AR SlNCE 1880 

For the past forty years, or more, there have been many changes in 
the personnel of the bench and bar of J^orain County, both in the 
natural order of nature and because of the great industrial develop- 
ment and marked ijierease of wealth and general culture outside of 
Elyria. The bar of Lorain, for instance, has had marked accessions to 
its membership and strength even since the early '9Us, and corpora- 
tion practice, especially, which forty years ago was virtually unknown 
to the county bar, is Jiow a large and profitable field. In the earlier 
times, when an Elyria, Lorain, Oberlin, Amherst or AVellington lawyer 
became ambitious to enter a broader practice than he could establish 
at home, he considered that his only hope to localize larger things was 
to move to Cleveland. That has not been the case for the past twenty 
or twenty-five years; members of the Lox'ain bar have not been forced 
from the home field to obtain business commensurate with the best talent 
and the highest professional ambition. 

Hon. David J. Nye, Vetehan Active Practitioner 

Judge David J. Nye is, since the retirement of Judge Boynton, the 
veteran of the Lorain bench and bar, and he has been far longer in con- 
tinuous service both as a lawyer and .judge in Lorain County than any 
member of his profession. His home record dates from April, 1873, 
one year after his admission to the bar and his return from Kansas, 
where his professional career commenced. Judge Nye is a native of 
New York, of old Vermont .stock, his parents spending most of their 
years in the rugged farming district of AVestern New York. His first 
ta.ste of education outside the district schools was at Randolph Academy, 
and from 1863 to 186(3 he taught both in New York and Northern Ohio. 
Cuyahoga, Sunnnit and Erie counties were the western fields of his 
lal)ors in that line. In 1867 he entered Oberlin College and during the 
succeeding four years was both teacher and student. During his senior 
year he served as supei-intendent of schools at j\Iilan, Eric County, and 
at the same time prosecuted his law studies. 

Judge Nye graduated from Obcrliu College in 1871, I'elui-ned to 
i\Iilau to i-esume his woi'k as supei'iiiteiident of schools, and in August, 
1S72, was admitted to tlie bar at El^'ria. After a brief residence at 
Emporia, Kansas, where he coiinnenced practice, in IMarch, 1873, he 
relunicil to the counfy scat and cDiitiiiUcd his studies in tlic ol'lice of 


Joliu C. iralc. hi .1874 lie t'stahlislicd liimsclf at Klyria and lias siinx' 
been aclivc! and j)r()tj;rcs,siv(! citlicr at tin; bar or on the; briicli. 

In .July, ISDl, llu; iv])ublican iiiciiibcfs of the bar si'biclcd .Imi'^r. Nyo 
as Uk; itaity candidate lor tlio coininon pleas bench; lie was eleeled in 
the iollowing November and took his seat in iA'Jjruary, 1892, and liis 
service in that capacity dnring the succeeding decade is well indicated 
by the fact that only one criminal case whicli came before him was 
reversed by tlu; liiyher courts. One important case tried before him 
involved the right to have debts deducted from national bank stock for 
taxation. Judge Nye held such deductions were inadmissible under the 
laws of Ohio. This decision was suliseciuently arfirmed by the State 
.Sui)reme (Joiirt and by the Supreme Court of the United States. 

Since retiring from the bench, Judge Nye has devoted himseir to 
his e-\tensive private practice and varied business interests. In 1912 
he served as a member of tlie fourth constitutional convention, lie 
is one of the most prominent IMasons iii the country. Other details than 
those given in this sketch, which has been virtually confined to liis career 
as a lawyer and a judge, will be found elsewhere. 

Hon. Clarkncio G. W.\siji!uun 

Clarence G. Washburn, who served by appointment and election as 
judge of the Court of Couunon Pleas from 1904 to 191;i, represents the 
younger generation of his profession, as he is now in his forty-ninth 
year. A native of Huron County, Ohio, his parents were New Yorkers 
who came to the Buckeye State from their farm near Syracuse. 

Judge Washburn spent his years until he reached young manhood 
in the Village of Greenwich, Huron County, and in the State of Kan- 
sas, lie pursued his law studies under ])rivate instruction and at the 
University of Michigan, being graduated from the latter in June, 1892. 
lie commenced practice at Lorain, where he also served as village 
solicitor, and in 1896 was elected clerk of the courts. In the following 
year he moved to Elyria to assume his official duties, and was re-elected 
to that position in 1899. lie returned to practice in the fall of 1903, 
1)ut in 1904 was appointed judge of the Court of Common Pleas and, 
by successive elections, served until Kebi-uary, 19i;{. TIk^ foregoing 
simple record is snllicient, without comment. Judge Washburn's wife, 
wild, before her marriage had been a (le|)iily in the probate oniee of 
Huron C'ounly, and who afterward assisted her husband when be was 
serving as clei'k of the Loi-ain County coiii'ls, was ailmitted to the bar 
herself in 1890, )iut never engaged in active ])i-ac1ice. 



Dk. Norton S. Townsiiend — John Henry Barrows — Dr. Barrows' 
Mother — His Ante-Oberlin Career — Through tih: Eyes of 
Daughter and Father — Colonel Charles Whittlesey — Jui>ge 
Charles Canuee Baldwin — Lucy Stone and Antoinette Brown 
— General Quincy Adams Gii-lmore — A IMoral as Well as Patri- 
otic HERO — Hon. ]\Iyron T. Herkick — Frank II. Hitchcock. 

Although a majority of those who achieve distinction in ])olitical or 
public life liave a legal training and have therefore largely figured iii 
the preceding chapter, Lorain County presents several notable excep- 
tions. Some of its distinguished characters are natives; others have 
resided within its bounds only a few years at different periods of their 
lives; some have laid tlie basis of a hardy constitution on its farms and 
in its rural communities; others have obtained their first intellectual 
stimulus from its scliools of higher learning; both white and black, men 
and women, have gone out into the world from Lorain County and 
made tine records for themselves and the towns, cities or institutions 
which have touched their lives. 

Dr. Norton S. Townsiiend 

For more tlian a qiun'ter of a century, the late Dr. Norton S. 
Townsiiend was one of the most prominent citizens of Northern Ohio 
and, altliough he was a successful and skillful physician and sui'geon, 
his public services iiuich overshadowed his professional career. Dr. 
Townsiiend was of English parentage, and wlien the boy was fourteen 
yeai's of age tlie family settled on a beautiful farm in Avon Township. 
In his early youth he evinced an aejive intellect and a i)ronounee(l lit- 
ci'ary talent, but, when twenty-one years of age, in IHliT, entered tiie 
ofliee of Dr. U. \j. Howard, of lOlyria, as a student of medicine. 

In the fall and winter of lS;i7 Dr. Townsiiend attended a course of 
medical lectures in Cincinnati, returned to Elyria to continue his private 



studies, and in tlie fall of 1839 coininonced liis final course at the College 
of I'liysieiiiiis and Siirj^eons, New Yoi'k. Soon after ^ri-iduatinrr tlien;- 
frotii, in the spi'iiij^ of IM-IO, he saih'd i'or lOiiroiie and spent the siie- 
eeediiif,' year and a half attending the liospilals and elinies of Paris, 
London, Edinhurgli and Dultlin. He then returned to Ohio and, for a 
short time, practiced in Avon, but in 1843, soon after his marriage to 
]\Iiss Harriet Wood, located at Elyria. His I)road education and pro- 
fessional skill at once brought him practice, and while thus actively 
engaged he performed a number of such capital surgical operations as 
litiiotomy and amputations of the thigli and shoulder. 

But Dr. Townshend's mind was too active and his ambitions too 
broad for him to confine himself to the labors and honors of the profes- 
sion. Locally, Ins influence was (juiekly felt. For example, he was 
prominent in organizing the Elyria Natural History Society, and deliv- 
ered numerous and able lectures before it. Whenever a speaker faiK'd 
to appear, the doctor was sub.stituted and was always ready to deliver a 
most interesting and instructive address. 

In 18-18 the Free Soil party elected Dr. Townshend to the lower 
house of the State Legislature. He and John F. ]Morse, of Lake County, 
were the only mend)ers of tliat party elected to tlie body named, and 
also held the balance of power between the whigs and democrats. Jlessrs. 
Townshend and .Morse were tiierefore able to wield considerable politi- 
cal power and, with the aid of the democracy, secured the repeal of the 
notorious lilack Laws. They also threw the senatorial election in favor 
of Salmon P. Chase and launched him on his career as a famous Ameri- 
can, as well as brought about the appointment of several anti-slavery 
men to prominent positions in the State of Ohio. 

Doctor Townshend's record in the State House of Representatives 
gave iiim so much prominence that he liecame a mem])er of the constitu- 
tional convention of 1851, having already connnenced his term as a reprc;- 
sentative of the Thirty-second Congress. In both bodies he added to 
his standing as a leader of state ami national sentiment. As he was 
only thirty-five wiien he was sent to (Jongress, he was considered rather 
as an inexperienced upstart, especially by the dignified and elderly 
members from tlie South who virtually controlled the lower house. 
Px'inu' a rabid abolitionist, the young ddctor was truly a i)opular target 
for the representatives of slavery, but their shafts rebounded. Among 
others, K'epn'seiitative Stanley of North Carolina attacked him in a 
bitter speech, to which the doctor rei)lied with such etfect that the 
southern gentleman named was usually referred to thereafter as "IIk; 
late Air. Stanley." 

In I8r)3 i!()elor Townshend was elecled to the Stale Senate. Dui'in'f 

2a0 lllSTOItY 01'^ I.OIfAliV (JOUNTV 

the session lie introdueed a l)ill to estaldisli an asylum for imhecile eliil- 
(Ifcii and yoiilli. It. pjissed at the next si'.ssioii, and he was appointed u 
iiieiiih(i-.s of Ihe hoar'd oi' Inistees, hohlin^^ llie position by reappoint- 
ment until 1H78. In \Hf)H, whik; livin<f on his farm in Avon (the family 
homestead), he was eleeted a menil^er of the State J5oard of Agrieulture. 
He eontinued in that offiee for eight years, heing elected twice as presi- 
dent of the hoard. In ]86;5-5 he sen'ed as medical inspector in the 
Union Army, with rank of colonel of cavalry. The year 1867, when he 
accepted a professorship in the Iowa Agricultural College, marks the 
end of his continuous residence of more than twenty years in Elyria, 
for even when engaged in army service he considered that city as his 
home. But he onl}- remained ahout two years in Iowa, and in 187U 
secured the passage of the law to estahlisii an agricullural and mechani- 
cal coUege for Oliio. lie was ai)pointed a trustee of tiie institution, and 
acceptetl a professorship therein when the collfgc was opened in 187.'1 
He then moved with ins family to Columl)us. 

The doctor's first wife died in 1854, and he was subsequently mar- 
ried to ]\Iiss .Margaret A. Haily, of Clarksl)urg, Virginia. 

John IIkn'kv B.\iiRows 

Tu'V. John Henry Uarrows assumed tiie presidciiey in Noveiid)er, 
1898, and contiiuu'd at the head of Oherlin College affairs until his 
death, .lune ){, li>()2. He was the first president of that institution to 
die in office, his decease occurring al)out two months after the passing 
away of his predecessor, President Fairchild. It is i)roI)ahle that no 
l)resident of Oherlin College enjoyed so cosmopolitan a reputation as 
Doctor Barrows, his name heing honored hy scholars and religionists 
of two hemi.spheres. He fii'st came into world-notice as president of 
the great Congress of Religions at the Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 
and afterwards extended his fame hy the profound lectures in the pro- 
motion of religion which he delivered from Calcutta, India, to San 
Francisco, California. As a preacher, orator, scholar and college 
executive he had few ecjuals in the United States. 

In 1904 Doctor Barrows' daughter, Mary Eleanor Barrows, puh- 
lishiMJ a memorial vohnue of lier father, a loving, simple and complete 
tribute to his intellectiud and spiritual greatness — greatness spiritually, 
in the scnsi' of lieiglit and dcjitli of iiring. Tli;d book, to which all are 
refeii'cd who to truly know the broad president of Olfcrlin College, 
traces many of his remarkable gifts to tiie father, John IManning Bar- 
rows, who received his early and liberal education at the l{ens.selaer 
l*olytechni(! institute, at Troy, New York, and Oherlin (College, and 


from Catherine Moore (Barrows), a learned, wise and tender mother, 
also drawn from the East to that uniqne home of physical, intellectual 
and moral ecjuality in what was tlien the West. Tlicy met at Oherlin 
as students, when the institute was sending,' forth its tirst {graduates, 
and as man and wife, father and mother, l'oujj;lit slavery togetlier for 
many years, and preached and taught various communities in New 
York, Ohio and ^lichigan. 

Doctor Barrows' Mother 

Doctor Barrows himself once wrote of liis mother thus: "She was 
born in Saratoga County, New York, and taught a district school before 
she had reached tlie age of fifteen. She was converted in Troy by the 
personal ministry of Reverend Fayette Shipherd, a brotlier of the 
founder of Oherlin. Being hungry for a college education, she went to 
her father and said, 'Give me the portion of goods that falleth to me 
that I may go West, where Professor Cliarles G. Finney is;' and she 
went. It was a journey of four hundred miles or more that she made 
in a stage coach to reach the forests of the Western Reserve, there to 
undergo the trials, the sickness, and the hardship and to gain the 
inspiration of student life in those .stirring early days of Oherlin. It 
was a time when bean soup was deemed dainty fare, when a slab hoard- 
ing house was a palace of, and when ornaments of all kinds on tiie 
pei'son of a young lady were indications of a carnal heart. iMy mother 
ac(piired some; linguistic learning which nearly all vanished in later 
pioneer hardships. She read the New Testament through in Greek. 
Besides studying Latin and attaining a good knowledge of French, she 
read thirty chapters of the book of Genesis in Hebrew, and I think used 
to hush her children to sleep by repeating the deep-toned, full voweled 
opening words of the old Bible. But better than the language taught 
was the earnest spirit breatiied from the brave lives of those pioneer 
teachers who helped to nudte Oherlin perhaps the greatest single factor 
in the evangelization of the West. Their theolog}' did not square alto- 
gether with the Westminster Confession, l)ut it made revivalists, reform- 
ers, and public spirited citizens. The iimbition of the early Oherlin 
students, exemplified by my mother as completely as Ity any other 
])ei'S()n r ever k'new, was to be noiily usei'ul, to sell their lives for tlie 
greatest i)Ossible good." 

Doctor Baukow.s' Antk-Omkrun Cahkkr 

Rev. .John M. Uan-ows, the fatliei-, was graduated from the theologi- 
ciil department of Obcrlin College in ISiiS. Nine years afterward, John 


Henry Barrows, the son, was born in a log cabin about five miles from 
^Medina, Lenawee County, ^lichigan, the fourth of five children, all but 
one of whom were boys. Tlie career of that son as student, teaelier and 
minister, in tlie JOast and the West, during wliich a broad and Ijrotherly 
outlook was being evolved in his personality, cannot be traced in detail. 
The fifteen years of his life in Chicago constituted a period, of continuous 
advancement and expansion, and culminated in his elevation to the 
chairmanship of the Parliament of Religions, held as an auxiliary of 
the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, and his appointment soon 
afterward to the Haskell and Barrows lectureship of the Ujiiversity of 
Chicago. Then followed his pilgrimage to India and Japan in the 
interest of a world bi'otherhood of religious beliefs. Tlie last three years 
of his life, which was one of the highest historic examples of tnie culture, 
are those which are saci-ed to Olierlin College and so closely concern 
tliis history of Lorain County. 

Through the Eyes op Daughter and Father 

Fortunately Doctor Barrows' daughter has accorded generous space 
to her fatlier's connection with the institution which gave both of his 
parents such an intellectual and moral impetus when they were entering 
the mysteries and responsibilities of parenthood. We tiierefore extract 
from her "Memoir" the following pertinent paragraplis: 

"In November, 1S9S, he received a unanimous and pressing call to 
the presidency of 01)erlin College. This was accompanied by the prom- 
ise of the trustees to cooperate with him in raising the standard of 
scholarship, in putting the college on a firmer financial basis, in broaden- 
ing its ideals, and in giving it a more commanding place among educa- 
tional institutions. Those of his friends that were not Congregational- 
ists advised him to decline this invitation. They believed the college to 
be so provincial in its ideas and so conservative in its policy as to make 
sure and rapid progress doul)tful. It was true that Oberlin had lieen 
long without a president, had lost some of its earlier prestige, had cut 
ih)wn its courses, had a large annual deficit, many dissatisfied alumni, 
and was falling oif in the number of its students. To accept this call 
meant that he nuist leave the city that he loved, relinquish his freedom 
and the large income that his lectures brought him, and assume grave 
r('Si)onsibilities and some uncongenial duties. He had no friends among 
Obeiliu's trustees and but two accpiaintances on its faculty. It was 
periiaps tlu' oidy large college in the; country that he had never 
addressed. But he was very familiar with Oiu'rlin's emphasis upon 
justice and soi-ial sei'vi<-e, and with llie signal devotion and sacrilice 


tliat liatl made its history sacred; to ([iioto liis own words: 'AVitli very 
liiiiilcd means il lias done an almost iiiilimilcd work. More than thirty 
thousand men and womi'ii have coiin; as studi'uts under Oherlin ti'aininf^, 
and these [jeojjle, seattei'i'il as teachers and citizens through almost 
eveiy villa<,'e ami city of Ohio and the ]\]iddle West, and even the Far 
"West, liave done an incalenlalile service for tlie hifj^her life of the conn- 
try. Oberlin was the tirst college to admit women to ef|nal and couunon 
privileg-es with men in tlie chi.ssical collegiate education. It opened its 
doors to students, irrespective of race, and was foremost in the Anti- 
slavery agitation which led up to the Civil AVar and the act of Emanei- 
jiation. It may .justly he deemetl tiie historic college of the West, 
standing at the center of the moral and s|)iritual forces whieh liave 
shaped our newer civilization. It is intimately linked with the life- 
work of President Finney, that epoch-making force in juodern Christen- 
dom. Three presidents of the United States — Hayes, Garfield and 
^IcKinley — have spoken in emphatic eulogy of what this college has 
wrought for the higher life of the country. The late General Jacob D. 
Cox has shown that it was the mighty and incessant work of the Oherlin 
reformers and the thousands of Oberlin students who went forth as 
teacliers, lecturers, and missionaries that turned tlie scales in the Anti- 
slavery contest, led to the election of Abraham Lincoln and the gigantii! 
results which followed, making for Union and Freedom. America owes 
a great debt, not yet paid, to this liistoric college. Oberlin students 
have been active doers in all the held of the world's work, not oidy as 
preachers and teachers iu the North, but in foreign luis.sion lands, among 
the Indians, and among the African race in the Southern States and in 
the AVest Indies. AVhat Edward Everett Hale has called "the most 
democratic and cosmopolitan college in the country " such 
strong traditions and stands for such an earnest type of character that 
its moral endowment is already large.' 

"Unfortunately for the success of his friends' persuasions, he went 
with my mother to Oberlin, to survey the held and lecture to the college. 
And it came to pass when he looked into the faces of a thousand students 
while the foot ball captain led the cheering in his honor, that boyhood 
memories rushed back upon him, the op])ortunity seemed large, and 
one of those decisive spiritual experiences connnon to him in crises of 
his life marked this college presidency as the dut}' to which God now 
called him. He took up his new work on the hrst of January, 1891), and 
his own words spoken at dilferent times tell of the college's attractions 
for him, his hope for its future, and his sympathy with its ideals. 

'■'As nuiny, reading the last chapter of Drummond's "Ascent of 
^lan," liav(i exclaimed, "Oil, foi- some one 1o lake u|> and carry forward 


liis fine and stiiniilatiiig siisgcstious, and sliow the later and higher 
evoliilion of man in recorded iiistory!" so, as I have reviewed wlial has 
already h(H;ii aeeorriplislied in 01)('rlin, and now bcliohl lliis hiiiigiy, 
aspiring, nndnished eollege world, the strong appeal eoines to nie lo tal<e 
up and carry on this work and place it upon some loftier anil more 
radiant tableland. 

" 'Tlie founders of Oherlin dared, for man's sake and i'or Christ's 
sake, to he peculiar. Surely this has been the distinctive mark of the 
leaders of our race, for nothing except sin reduces the grandeur of 
human life like inert gregariousness, the making of one's self like every- 
one else. The world needs more men and women in the couHiets of this 
generation who bravelj' listen to God, who are not cheated out of their 
better selves either by tlie subtle temptations of sin, or by "tlie dull 
fool's palsying sneer, " and who have not been smootlied down into well- 
shaven formalists. 

" 'In going to Oberlin I feel, in one sense, that I am going home. 
It was at Oberlin that my father and mother first came to know and 
love eaeh other, and from Oberlin have come the chief forces that have 
shaped my life. 

" 'Oberlin possesses, in a large measure, tlie ideals which I have 
always preached, tiie ideals of true brotherhood, i-eal democracy, 
freedom from artificial temptations, zeal for service, devotion to higher 
education, intellectual liberty, independent and intelligent patriotism, 
and consecration to the expansion of the divine kingdom among men, 
ideals which are supported by the fresh young life of the students and 
by the beautiful spirit of the community. All good things seem po.ssible 
in a eollege with such a history.' 

"Ilis efforts were not simply verl)al. Never was he more skillful 
than now in rallying men about him to produce desired effects. At 
times he travelled so continually that he would write home, 'The head- 
ing for this week's chapter is "Six nights in a sleeping-car." ' During 
the brief three and a half years allotted to him, he called on hundreds 
of possible Oberlin supporters all over the country and gave more than 
four hundred sermons and speeches mostly before teachers' associations, 
schools, and colleges. By this means he spread 0])erlin's influence, 
made her many new friends, and attracted to her botli more students 
and more kinds of students. [Tnder his inspiration nearly .$600,000, 
not including gifts for buildings, were added to the college resources; 
this Sinn not only I'emoved the annual deficit, but made it ])ossible to 
I'etain men of powei" already in the faculty and to add to their iiumiier. 
'IMiroiigh the generosity of Lueieii ('. Warner, Louis II. Severance and 
I). Willis James, a .Men's (lymiiasium and a {■hemical Laboratory were 


liiiilt, jiiul tlic money secured for a Memorial Arch. Other results of his 
leadersliii) wei'e the hetter atljustmeiit of tlie colle<j:e re(iiuremeiits to 
Ihc hcst, scc()ii(hiry schools, closer harmony uilh the ns!it,'es of the forc- 
iriost American coilcf^es, the estaltlishmcnt of ^n-adiiati! sciioiarships as 
incentives to advanced study, consi(leral)Ie modilications of student regu- 
lations in the interests of larger liberty, the appointment of a College 
Dean and a College Secretary, more ample provision for the teaching 
of the Englisii language and literature, the strengthening or sifting out 
of poor students, hj' means of a committee on detieient scholarship, and 
a reunion of all Oherlin alumni, the si)ecial feature of which was the 
discussion of burning educational topics by representative men from 
American univei'sities. lie gave courses of lectiires to Freshmen, on 
John Frederick Obei'Iin, Hooks, and J\Ietho(ls of Study; to Seniors, on 
Ethics, to the Seminary, on Comparative Religions. He was glad to add 
to the college's notable collection of photographs and to lecture in con- 
nection with their exhibition. He brought many of his distinguished 
friends to sjjcak to the student body. He took a lively interest in the 
College Glee Club, athletics, oratory and debates. To the Oberlin Con- 
servatory of IMusie he gave his hearty commendation. He was grateful 
not only for its excellent routine work, but for its service to tiie churcli 
music, its siiuport of a great chorus, and tiie eminent musician that it 
regularly brought before Oberlin audiences. R>y means of the iios- 
l)itality to whicii he was given, .he stimulated social life among students 
and faculty and brought tiie conununity and college into more cordial 

"The lo.sses of the college, through the deaths of some of its trustees 
and teachers, he made his own. He said at President Fairchild's 
funeral: 'For three years I have been a message-bearer from groups 
of alumni in different parts of the country, who have sent him through 
me their messages of grateful and reverent love. It was pleasant to 
see the quiet joy in his face that reflected all the Beatitudes. A few 
days ago T brought to him a grateful message from his friends in 
Southern California. 1 could not remain, a.s the physician was in wait- 
ing, to tell him all that I had to say and his last words to me (and how 
significant they are) were tliese: "We'll talk over the rest of it later." 
Those words ari' a comfort to all of us. "We shall not see this ]\Iaster in 
oiii' Israel again on the sli'cets which he made radiant by his presence, 
but il is his faith and ours that the fellowships of time are to be con- 
tinued beyond. From the passing days he took not their i)Oorest, but 
tiieir l)est gifts; not a few herbs and ai)i)les, but the stars and kingdoms 
of llic soul, and tlic sky that holds lliem all.' 

"lie sidVei'cd deeply ovei' (he Shansi Mai'tyr's and rejoiced in their 


iiiomiinont to be erected in Oherlin l)y tlie American IJoard of Foreign 
.Alissioiis, of wliich lie was now a coi'poi'ate iiicinhcr. 'lint llicir iriost 
j^'loi-ioiis inciiKirial,' he declared, 'shall l>e the I'c^'eiicralion of an eMi|)ii-(; 
and the ,s])(;c(lier coiKiuesl ol' the woi'ld.' 

"On Deeeniber 31, 1901, he retnrned from Cleveland very happy at 
tlie snceessfnl end of a movement in winch Oherlin had been engaged, 
to raise $:iOO,000, and tliereljy secure $'200,000 more, that .Air. Rocke- 
feller had offered conditionally. liut he was tired and the following 
months brought liim little rest, Avhich may partly account for his 
declination of an invitation to take charge of all the congresses in con- 
nection with the St. Louis K.xposition of 1904. Ilis engagements carried 
him to California where lie gave thirty-six addresses, among them the 
tii-st course of Earl lectures before tlie Pacific Theological Seminary. 
According to his letters botli Berkeley and Stanford have 'vast outlooks 
into the twentieth century. One is overwhelmed on the Pacific Coast 
by the possibilities of the American future.' 

".Alost of jMarcli, April, and ]\Iay he spent in Oherlin, glad to be 
working at home, to entertain his faculty with a series of dinners, and 
to give the Baccalaureate Sermon before the Theological Seminary. On 
]\Iay IHth be j)reached in his old Chicago pidpit, on 'Lessons from the 
Life of Jolm Frederick Oberlin. ' This sermon, wlucli joined his old 
life to his new, was his last address. From Ciiicago he went (o New 
Haven to a banquet in honor of Professor Fisher, and thence to the 
meeting of the General Assend)ly in New York where he rejoiceil over 
llie fiiud action concerning tlu; Re,vision of tlie Westminster Confession. 
Oji his way home, he was prostrated by an illness that proved to be 
pneumonia, complicated by pericarditis. Tliis resulted in his death the 
morning of June 3rd, ten days later. 

"During his illness the anxio\is crowds before the bulletin board 
from seven in the morning until eleven at night, the grave faces and 
hushed voices of students, faculty, and townspeople, bore witness to 
the love in which he was held. The students gathered in a mass meet- 
ing and sent Jiim the following message: 'AVe, tlie student body of 
Oberlin College, send to our dear president our fullest sympathy and 
()ur ]jrayer in tliis great need. You have stood not alone for the 
Oherlin ideals of Christian character and democracy, b\it yon have stood 
also for th(;ir realization in the liroadest, most liberal, and most modern 
Innii. Yon have ever been lo ns all thai a noble presideiil could be, and 
we pray that (iod will spare you lo us. We could not beai" foi' our own 
sake that you should lack now this simple ex|)ressioii of oui- iin'e('lion 
that is cvei- yours.' Such messages as this and letters and telegrams 
IViiMi absent rrjen<ls lilled his last days with happiness. As lie struggled 


heroically with pain, that farewell week, his devotion to the college for 
wliicii he had spent himself, and his tireless tiioughtfulness of almost 
countless friends, were honi'ly evident. lie left loving messages for 
scores of pc()i>]e, remcml)eriiig hy name famons preachers, men of affairs, 
parishioiu-'rs both rich and lowly, struggling students, his Oherlin faculty, 
his hosts and hostesses in distant places, missionaries to far lands, and 
many more. He did not forget his little girls in his Lemon and Soda 
Society and requested that their yearly dues l)e doul)led when his good- 
bye was sent them. He asked, too, that his body might rest in Oberlin 
and that JManning might be placed beside him. He faced death wit- 
tingly, with the blessed peace of one about to gain the crown of life. 

"Ilis ))urial was princely. For three days no college classes met, 
and all Oberlin business was suspended llie morning of his funeral. 
This was held on June fiftli, in tlie Second Cluirch of Olierliu. The speak- 
ers were his minister. Dr. II. j\I. Tenney, the dean of the college, Pro- 
fessor Henry C. King, who has since become his successor, and Dr. L. C. 
Warner of Oberlin 's Board of Trustees. Their loving words, the won- 
derful display of tlowers sent from many places, and the strains of the 
Gounod Sanctus and Benedictus sung by grieving students, helped to 
soften and ennolile the hard fact of death and to express the sorrow of 
the Oberlin community and of l)usiness men, educators, divines, aJid 
other friends who had assend)led from afar. 

"The casket was carried from the church to West wood Cemetery liy 
seventy-two young men of the four college classes. As one of his faculty 
has written: 'He showed to his students everywhere such courtesy, 
such an interest in tlieir sports, their studies, their spiritual welfare, 
they could not but feel that he was their friend. It was fitting tiiat he 
should be tenderly borne to his grave by their .strong anus, — relay suc- 
ceeding relay, and all eagerly giving this proof of their love. As they 
passed through our streets l)etween its crowds of spectators, their 
gracious service reminded us of a siuular scene depicted by Browning 
in ''A (I'raiiiniai'ian's I'^ineral:" 

" ' "This is our master, famous, calm and dead, 
Borne on our shoulders." ' 

"On the first anniversary of his death, students covered his grave 
with tlowers. The stone that. marks his (piiet resting place beside his 

oldest son, l)ears these words: 

" 'He gave 
His body to tliis pleasant comitry's earth. 
And his pure soul unto his captain, Christ, 
Under whose colours he had fought so long.' " 


'11 // 'i 'J. 


Coi>. Ckarlks AVjhtti,ksky 

No one person luis ever b(!eii connected lont^cr or more proniineiilly 
with Jiistoricul and arelicological research in the Western Reserve than 
Col. Charles Whittlesey, who, a yoiinj^ man, first settled in Brownhelin 
Township as a pioneer woodsman and builder. lie was a graduate of 
AVest Point; fought in the Black Hawk war of 1831-32; in 183'J was 
connected with the first Ohio Geological Survey; later, made a thorough 
examination of the ancient earthworks of the state, and in the late '4Us 
made a geological survey of what became the famous Lake Superior 
copper region. In the Civil war he was colonel of the Twentieth Ohio 
Regiment and chief engineer of the Department of Ohio, on the second 
day of the battle of Shiloh being in command of a l)rigade and esijuciaily 
conuuended for bravery. After retiring from the army, Colonel Wliittle- 
sey again turned his attention to the exploration of the Lake Superior 
region and the upper Mississippi Basin. In 1867 he organized the 
Western Reserve Historical Society, with lieadcpiarters in Clevehmd, 
his residence, and remained its i)resident until his death in 1886. 

JuDUK Candek Baldwin 

Judge Charles C. Baldwin, who pa.ssed liis boyhood in Elyria, was 
far more than a member of the bench and bar of Cuyahoga Countj'. 
With Col. Charles Whittlesey, he was one of the founders of the West- 
ern Reserve Historical Society of Cleveland, and succeeded his friend 
and co-worker as president, at the death of Colonel Whittlesey in 188G. 
Both were widely known for their historical, anthropological and 
antiquarian researches and publications, and were ever ready to 
encourage and assist others in such {ields. At Judge Baldwin's ileath 
in Cleveland, Feljruary 2, 1895, when he had but just entered his sixty- 
first year, he had achieved a high rei)utation as a lawyer, a judge, a 
financier, a man of practical affairs and a deep scholar. He was a man 
of tireless industry, positive in his views, even aggressive in his tem- 
perament, but withal so symjjathetic, lielpfid, straiglitforward and 
friendly that, although lie had antagonists, he made no enemies. 

Charles (Jaiidee Baldwin was born j)ecem])er 2, 1831, at .Middletown, 
Connecticut. His ])ar('nts wen; Seymoui- Wesley Baldwin and ]\iary 
('aiiih'e I'.aldwin. Marly in the sevcnIccMlh cciiliiry, llie Baldwins uci-e 
a proiiiincnt faiiiily in A yiesliiiry, iOiigbind, fi-om whirh i)lace most of 
lliciu ciiiigratcd lo ( 'oiiiicci icnt in 1(!37 ; S,\ Ivcslcr, llic dircci, iiiKcslor 
of 'iud'^i' Baldwin, dying, however, on shipboard ])efore reaciiing his 
destinaliiin. .Mrs. Uaidwin was a bright, allraclive, and inlelligenl. 


yoiiii^' woman, oT a FrciK;!! TTiif^MU'iiot family cai'ly in ('oiiucclicitt, ami 
(Icseciidcd, lliroiitili licr iiiotlici', rroiii siicli woi'lliics as William J'yiiclioii, 
lli(! lii'st, Iri'usiircr of; Massacliusclts colony aiui tin- foiimlci' of 
Si)rin<^licl(l ; Captain Wadsvvoi'tli, wJio liid tlie Connectieut charter; and 
the famous secretary, Jolm Allyji, of tliat colony. In every line, the 
ancestry of 'Mr. Baldwin is purely Connecticut for 200 years. 

When Charles was five months old, his parents moved to Elyria, 
Ohio. A considerable part of the journey was made by boat on the 
Erie Canal, at that time the most luxux'ious mode of travel. The 
crowded condition of the boat made it necessary for many ladies to 
sleep upon the Hoor of the ladies' cabin, and it was with the greatest 
difficulty that a berth was secured for the infant and his mother — a 
favor, which we are told, was the more readily granted because of the 
lusty use which he made of his untrained vocal powers. 

In 1834 Northern Ohio was mainly a wilderness. The first clear- 
ings in the forests of Lorain County by white settlers had been effected 
less than twenty-five years before, but scarcely any progress was made 
in settlement until after the War of 1812. Elyria was not occupied by 
settlers until 1817. Though the accessions to the population from then 
on were unusually rapid for those times, the dense forests yielded 
slowly to the woodman's ax ; so that it is related that when Charles was 
two years old he was lost in the woods where the Elyria depot now 

Judge Baldwin's father was a most energetic, successful and highly 
respected mercliant in Elyria from 1835 to 1847. During this period 
there is little direct knowledge of the boy's experience; but from a 
descrij)tion of the times which Judge Baldwin gives in a biography of 
his father much can be learned indirectly concerning the history of 
that formative portion of his life. 

The trade of a merchant was at that time chiefly conducted by 
barter. Potash in its various forms, derived from leaching the aslies 
obtained by l)urning the heavy timber, constituted the chief article of 
conuuerce with the P]ast, and was considered as good as cash. IMuch 
lumber was also sent by way of the Erie Canal to New York. The dry 
goods and groceries were brought with great difficulty after the 
of navigation, and Mr. Baldwin's father displayed his energy in highest 
degree in overcoming these difficulties of prompt transpoi'tation. 

All this was well calculated to impress the mind of a ])oy in his teens, 
as were also the scenes which he conslantly witnessed about his father's 
store. " lOlyria in those days," writes -Judge Baldwin, "was a sight to 
see. Tile farmer came over the road with his heavy wagon, frequently 
with oxen, for twenty-fiv<; miles, bringing ])art of his family and such 


articles as he had to sell, and doing tlie trade for the spring and the 
fall. The street at midday would l)e full of wagons, there often heing 
oni; liundred, more or less." Tlic perplexities of IIk; merchant were 
increased during tliis perioil hy tlie terrihle financial crisis of 18L57, and 
Seymour liiddwin was one of the few who passed through it without 
failure. Tlic impress of sucii a father was indelil)le upon tlie mind of 
the son, wliile the importance of energy and persevei-ance was empha- 
sized by the loving, but faithful pressure of parental discipline. Judge 
Baldwin frequently said he never eovdd forget the lessons of perse- 
verance which liis father taught him by insisting that when he was 
sent for the cows he must not come liome without them, but must over- 
come his timidity and look in every nook and corner of the pasture until 
they were found — a habit of action whicli was pre-eminent throughout 
all his later life. 

A little more than a year after reaching Elyria, Charles' mother 
died, leaving his lirotiier, David, an infant five days old. After a time 
their father married lor a second wife I\Iiss Fidelia Hall, who thus came 
into the care of these snudl children. Of lier Judge Baldwin wrote that 
she was as gentle and conscientious as any mother could l)e. 

In 1S47 the family returned to Connecticut, and resided for nine 
years in I\Ieriden. During this period, when fourteen years of age, 
Charles entered a boarding school in INIiddlelown to i)rei)are for college. 
Among his companions at tliat time, and one with whom he manitained 
pleasant association in late life, was the distinguished iiistorian, John 
Fiske. At the age of sixteen, Charles entered Wesleyan University, 
]\liddleto\vn, graduating with honor in August, 185.5, at the age of 
twenty. Among his classmates was Justice Brewer, late of the Supreme 
Court of tliL' United States. Tnuiiediately upon graduating from college, 
young Baldwin entered Harvard Law School, taking the degree of 
LL. B., in 1857. 

Li'CY Stone .vnd Antoinette Brown 

Lucy Stone, of ^lassachusetts, one of the earliest and most eloquent 
of the pioneers in the e(|ual-rigiils movement, graduated from Obcrlin 
in 1847. During her four years' course, she supi)orted herself partly 
by tejjching in the long vacations and partly by doing housework in 
Ihe Ladies' hoarding Hall at ){ cenls an iiour. She was au aelivi- 
|)i'()pagaiidis1, of aid i-slavery and woman's rights doctrine among the 
stuilents, ami was re^^arded as a dangerous ehaiacter by liie more eon- 
.servative ])rofessors, although, as one of them said to her many years 
al'ler, "You know we always liked you, iju<'y!" Anioinelle ilrown of 


New York, who afterwards Iieeame the first ordained woman niiiiister, 
was also an Ohri'Iin stmlenl, and siie and i^ncty Stone oi'^'ani/i'd tlure 
llic liist, dclialin;^ elidi ever i'oi'hicd anionj^ collc^^r \s'OMicn. 

'J'hr yoiui^' nicii liad to hohl deiiates, as part of llieir work in 
rlietorie. The young women were reqnired to be present, in order to 
help form an audience for the young men, but they were not allowed 
to take part. Luey Stone was intending to lecture and Antoinette 
Brown to preach. Tliey wanted tlie practice in puljlic speaking. They 
and some others petitioned tliat the girls should be allowed to share in 
the debates. With many misgivings, the authorities allowed them to 
take part in one. It proved an unusually brilliant one, l)ut the faculty 
decided that it was contrary tu St. Paul for women to speak, and that 
it must not hapi)en again. An old colored woman who owned a small 
house, and whom Lucy Stone had taught to read, (-on.sented to let them 
meet in her parlor. Coming by one and two at a time, so as not to 
attract notice, the debating club used to a.s.semble there and discuss all 
sorts of high sul)jects. In summer they sometimes met secretly in the 

When Luey Stone graduated, she was invited to write an essa^' to 
be read at commencement, but she was told that one of the professoi's 
would have to read it for her, as it was not proper for a woman's voice 
to be heard in public. Rather than to consent to this, she declined to 
write it. JMaiiy years after, when Oberlin celebrated its semi-centennial, 
she was invited to be one of the speakers en that great occasion. 

Gen. Quixcy Ad.\ms Gillmore 

Among tlie famous residents of Lorain County were Generals Quiney 
A. (iillniore and Charles C. Parsons, and it happened that both achieved 
their greatest war fame in the artillery service of the Union Army dur- 
ing the Civil war. 

Quiney Adams Gillmore was born at Black River, in 1825. After 
attending Norwalk Academy and lillyria High School, he began to study 
medicine and wrote for publication. There was a vacancy at AVest 
Point and the boys appointed failed to In the search for a suit- 
able candidate, Gillmore was recommended because of iiis integrity and 
scholarship. lie was not in the neighborhood at the time of the arrival 
of the messenger who sought him, who therefore passed Black River to 
seek other likely young ukmi of military am])itions. But word was soon 
brought to young Gillmoi-e, who ])romptly mounfed his hoi'se and gave 
chase, ovei-takiiig liis man in time to secure llu- appointment. In 184!) 
be graduated from the West Point Academy at the head of his class and 
entered the service. 

Viil. I III 


deiici-iil CJillinore's fame as an artilloi-y officer was estahlishod ilur- 
iiif,' I lie sict,'c and captiiri; ol" l'\)rt I'nlaski, (U'.ovi^in, in l^Gli. At that 
historic sic^,'(; and hoinlmi'driicnt In; jdaiitcd liis hallcrics at di.stanccs 
which, i)n;vious to that titric, \v(;fc thouglit to he suicidal, i)ut in less 
than two days he reduced the fortress which had In-en pronounced l)y 
eminent engineers as impregnal)le. 

It is often claimed that General (Jillmore's cannonade and capture 
of Fort Pulaski revolutionized the naval gunnery of the world, and 
extended his fame throughout Europe as well as America. For that 
service he received the brevet of lieutenant colonel and was made briga- 
dier general of volunteers April 28, 1862. His next notable success was 
with the noted "Swamp Angel," a gun used in the siege of Charleston. 
The gun was apparently planted in the edge of the sea, but really in the ' 
shallow marsh between ]\Iorris and James islands. There a firm founda- 
tion was laid, a low breastwork built around the gun, and 100-pound 
shells were dropped into Charleston. But it was only fired thirty-six 
times, exploding at the last discharge. Other guns soon after did as 
etl'ective work, but the "Swamp Angel" is remcinliercd because it first 
proved the practicability of the method. 

Later, Cieneral Gillmore, with the Tenth Cori)s, took part in the 
final operations of the Army of the James River. lie received brevets 
of brigadier general and major general for services before Charleston, 
resigning his volunteer conunission as major general in Decendjer, 18(i5. 

After the war, General Gillmore was engaged upon important 
engineering works, and his name is closely associated with the improve- 
ment of the Charleston and Savannah harbors, with other like works 
along the Atlantic Coast and, as president of the ]\lississippi River Com- 
mission, with the great works which were projected for tiie rectification 
of that great waterway. His treatises on Road ^Making and Paving are 
regarded as the highest authority. He was l)reveted four times for 
meritorious conduct, upon the last occasion as major general of the 
I'nited States Army "for gallant and meritorious conduct in capturing 
Forts Wagner and Gregg and for the demolition of Fort Sumter." 
Although after the war he bought the old'hoine farm at Plack River and 
converted it into a vineyard, he spent much of the later period of his 
life in the East, and died at Brooklyn, New York, in 188S. 

A MouAii, .\s Wkli. as Patiuotic Hkko 

Gen. Charles C. Par.sons was ])orn in iOlyi'ia in 18158, •rradualed from 
West Point in 18G1, and soon afterward was placed in comuumd of a 
■haltery which became famous both in llu; Union and ( 'onfedei-ale. 



ciriiiics. After the war lie Ix'canie cliiL'f of artillery in General llaii- 
eock's Indian I'xpeditions, hnt later took orders in the i'rotestanl, lOpis- 
cojial (^Inircli. His dealli occiu'rcd at Mein|)liis, Scjitendicr 7, 1H7!), and 
was dire(itly traceable to overwork during tlie terrible yellow fever 
epidejriie of tliat year. His end proved liini to he a moral, as well as 
a ])atriotie hero. 

(Jliarles Carroll Parsons was the son of Jonathan Trunil)ull and 
j\[ary C. Parsons, who moved from Bloomfield, Hartford County, Con- 
nect lent, to Elyria, in 1827, and settled on what was then fanning land. 
The father died when tlie son was hnt six months old, and a few years 
afterward the widow married U('V. William Putlin. Charles, however, 
had a favorite uncle with whom he lived during most of his boyhood 
and youth. He was hriglit, active and studious and in 1857, through 
the influence of Judge Philemon liliss, who was then in Coiigress, was 
appointed a West Point cadet. 

]\Ir. Parsons- graduated from the military school in 1861, was at 
once commissioned a first lieutenant and assigned to the Fourth Iiegi- 
nient, U. S. Artillery. After serving a few months in the mountains of 
West Vii'ginia, he joined General Huell 's ti'Ooi)s, wlio by a loreed 
march readied tlie battielield of Shiloh at tlic close of tlie iirst day's 
disastrous Iiattlc (leneral Hitell's troops ci'ossed the river as .soon as 
I)ossiblc, the army was rallied aiitl hefore morning took its position for 
the second day's battle. Lieutenant Parsons commanded a battery of 
I'liitcd States 1roui)s in that battle, and for distinguished bravery in. 
the action was i)romoted to a cai)taiiicy. In the early .sunnaer he 
ohtained a leave of ahsence, returned North and was married to -Miss 
Celia Lijjpett, of lirooklyn, New York. Keturning to lUity, he reached 
Louisville, where he found communication with liis battery cut otf by 
General Bragg. General Terrel, then in command of a brigade at that 
point, made a detail of 200 raw infantrymen and ordered them to rejjort 
to Captain Parsons for duty. With them he organized an eight-gun 
battery, which he commanded at I^erryville. Tn that engagement 
General Jackson, his division commander, and General Terrel, who .com- 
manded the brigade, were killed almost at Ids side, and forty of his 
own men fell either dead^ or wounded. His horses were also nearly 
all killed, and the troops supporting the battery I'ctreated. Still Captain 
l-'arsons stood by his ginis ; his was then truly a one-man battery. 

At. this juncture a column of (Confederates advanced to take the 
guns, ami the captain, with his face to the enemy retreated backwards. 
A hundred guns were raised to shoot him, but the enemy commander 
ordered them not to tire, each officer gave the other the military salute, 
and Captain Parsons walked deliberately away. During tiie following 


iiioniiiij^ lio r(!ca[)ture(l part of his Ijattuiy. His conduct at Porryville 
eanied liiin tlie rank of hrcvet major. 

Tliu next Ijaltlo in wliicli Captain Parsons participated was that of 
Stone Kiver. Ceneral (afterward Governor) Palmer, of Illinois, said 
of him: "During tlie whole day 1 regarded the battery commanded by 
Capt^un Parsons as my right arm. My orders to Parsons were simple : 
'Fight where you can do the most good.' Never were orders better 
obeyed." For his part in the battle Captain Parsons was breveted lieu- 
tenant colonel of tiie regular army. Soon afterward, however, he was 
obliged to go to New York for a surgical operation, and after his 
recovery was detailed as an instructor at tlie AVest Point ]\Iilitary 
Academy. There he remained until the close of the war and for the 
two succeeding years was stationed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, when 
he was again ordered to AVest Point as a teacher. 

The return of Colonel Parsons to the military academy was the 
turning of his distinguished career as a soldier into quite different chan- 
nels. AVhile engaged in the i)erformance of his duties there as an 
instructor in the profession and art of war, he became ac(puunted with 
Pishoi) (^uintard of the diocese of Tennessee, under whose guidance 
he began the study of theology. Resigning liis position in tlie army, 
he repaired to ]\Iemi)his, took holy orders in 1S70, and, for a lime, 
served as rector of St. Mary's Church in that city. He was soon called 
to St. Clary's in the Highlands, at Cold Spring, opi) AVest Point, 
New York, where he remained two years. Father Parsons was then in 
charge of the Church of the Holy Innocents at Iloboken, New Jersey, 
for three years, when, soon after the death of his wife, he returned to 
IMemphis to assume his office as canon of St. IMary's cathedral. There 
he laliored with his accustonunl zeal and ability, and finally met that 
sweei)ing epidemic of yellow fever with the liravery of the soldier con- 
secrated by the spirit of the priest. 

The press of these terrible days, in speaking of the soldier-priest on 
September 6, 1878, bore many messages of comfort to his numerous 
frieiuls. A former comrade wrote as follows in the Chicago Tribune: 
"A man of polished intellect, beautiful soid, the jiossessor of every 
grace, Pai'sons seems to Jiave been created for the sweet oftices of charity 
aiiil Iriciulsliip. From tlie outbreak of the pJague until he became one 
of its victims, he had been constantly busied (as he wrote me a few days 
ago) in caring for the dead, the dying and forsaken. He has been 
winning the useful victories of ])eace; he has stood by his guns, but, 
alas! the invisibk^ enemy, less gt-nerous than the visible, has not held 
his lir'c." Anolhei' IViciid in the .Madison (Wisconsin) Democi'at : "He 
hiokcil death caliiilv in Hie lace and when his turn came died as a true 


solditT ol" Christ, at liis post of duly. L(:t no ouu soi'i'ow ovor sueli <a 
(It'atli. Jt rounds out in I'uU jJL-r feel ion tiu' record of a hero's eouraf^e 
and a martyr's sicadt'astticss." . 'I'hr .Memphis Avalanche: "He died 
1o save those af^ainst whom lie I'ouf^ht." 

IIO.N. JMyitUN T. llKliUlCK 

Note is made clscwlierc of how ex-Governor ITerrick, and late and)as- 
sador to France, delivered an address at the Ilunting'ton liome-eoming 
of ]915. Altliough a lawyer by profession, he has been so long before 
the public, in various capacities, that his personal sketch seems logically 
to fall in this chapter. Ilis birth at Huntington occurred on the 9th 
of October, ISHy. Jioth his grandfathers were Revolutionary soldiers, 
liis paternal ancestor of that generation being Timothy Ilerrick, who, 
in 1837, migrated from Watertown, New York, when Tiniotiiy R. (the 
governor's fatiier-to-be) was l)ut nine years of age. 

]\Iyron T. Ilerrick was reared in the vicinity of the old farm, and 
attended the district school at Huntington, the Union School at Welling- 
ton, and Oberlin College and the Ohio Wesleyan University, at Dela- 
ware, Oliio. Wliile at college in his seventeenlh year, he taught scliool 
for a time. Although he did not graduate fi'om eitlier college or uni- 
versity, he has an honorary A. M. from the Wesleyan institution con- 
ferred in 18!)9. liefore attaining his majority, tiie young man traveled 
througli tiie Southwest, and his h'tters published in tlie eastern press' 
contained much valual)l(! information for those seeking homes in tliat 
section of the United States. 

In 1875 Colonel Ilerrick located at Cleveland for the purpose of 
reading law, entering the office of his relatives, (J. E. and J. F. Ilerrick. 
In 1878 he was admitted to the bar and, although lie entered active 
practice, became interested in tinancial matters, and in June, 1886, 
commenced his career as a banker b}' organizing the Euclid Avenue 
National Bank. In the following September he resigned from the 
directorate of that institution to become secretary-trca.siirer of the 
Society of Savings, holding that office until 18i)4, when he assumed the 
presidency. Colonel Ilerrick and his associates in tlie banking business 
also erected the Arcade Building, extending from Euclid Avenue to 
Superior Street and considered one of the finest structures of the kind 
in the country. He also became largely intei'cstcd in other productive 
real estati; in the heart of Cleveland. 

(Jolonel llerriek's pronunence as a republican and a citizen of pub- 
lic, alTairs commenced in ^HH^), when he was elected city councdman, 
serving in that capacity until 1888. In tiie latter year lie lirst served 
as a delegate to tlie Ke[)ublican Natioiial Convention, and the honor was 


repeated in 1892, 1896 and 1904. He acted as Ohio commissioner to 
tlu! New Yoi'k Centennial in ]889, and in 1S!)2 was selected as a presi- 
di'jitial elc('tor-at-lai-j,'c I'oi- llie slalc in the latter y(!ar (Jovei-nor 
IMcKiniey ai)j)ointed liim as a menil)er of ids military stall", with tiie 
rank of colonel, hy vvhicli he is generally best known, lie had Ijcen 
identified with the Cleveland militia for fourteen years, so that the 
appointment seemed particularly appropriate. 

Colonel Ilerriek's influence as a man of large affairs and a stal- 
wart republican was strikingly manifest by his election to the gul)erna- 
torial chair in IdO'S. lie served the term covering the years 1904-05 ; 
was a delegate to the Republican National Convention again in 1908, 
and commenced liis lately-completed service as andjassador to France 
in 1912. 

Fr.\nk II. Hitchcock 

Amherst is the birthplace of Frank II. Hitchcock, postmaster general 
in the Taft cabinet, from 1909 to 1913. His father was Rev. Henry C. 
Hitchcock, a Congregational minister of long service and high .standing 
in Lorain County, and his mother (formerly .Mary L. Harris) was the 
youngest child of .Judge Josiah Harris by a second wife. ^Irs. Hitch- 
cock, the widowed anil venerable mother, is still living on the old iiotne- 
stead near Amherst, but the house where l^'rank IL Hitchcock was born 
was burned down al)out forty years ago. 

The future postmaster general lived in Amherst, wheiv lit; was born 
October 5, 1867, until he was twelve years of age, when he moved to 
Boston, Ala.ssaehusetts. He was educated at the Hub and was gratluated 
from Harvard University, with bis A. U. degree, in 1891. He com- 
pleted a legal course at (;ohuul)ian (George Washington University) in 
1894, which conferred the degree of LL. li. upon him at that time, 
and LL. U. in 1895. 

Mr. Hitchcock was admitted to the bar of the District of Columbia 
in 1894 and to practice before the Supreme Court of the United States 
in 1897. In the latter year he commenced his political career as chief 
of the Division of Foreign Markets, Dei)artment of Agriculture, con- 
tinued ill that position until 190.'}, was afterward identiiied with the 
Department of Lal)or and other Government boards, and in 1!)05 became assistant postmaster general under George B. Cortelyou. As assist- 
ant secretary of the Republican National (Joiumittee in 1904-8, he was 
manager of the campaign of the latter year which resulted in the elec- 
tion of William II. Taft to tlu; presidency, and during the following 
administration (19()9-l;{) hi; sei'ved as postmaster general, lie has since 
practiced his profession in New York City. 



Contributions from Oberlin College — Company C, Seventh Ohio 
Infantry — Fatalities — The Squirrel Hunters — Company D, 
Twenty-third Regiment — Fatalities — Cojipany K, Twenty- 
third Regiment — Fatalities — Regimental History — Company H, 
Forty-first Regiment — Regimental History — Forty-second Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry — Company E — Regimental History — The 
One Hundred and Third Infantry — Company F— Company II — 
Regimental History — The Forty-third Infantry — The Fifty- 
fourth Regiment — The German One Hundred and Seventh — 
Other Infantry Bodies — Battery B, Light Artillery — ^Fif- 
teenth Ohio Independent Battery — Second Regiment, Ohio Vol- 
unteer Cavalry — The Twelfth Ohio Cavalry — Other Civil War 
Organizations — Fifth Regiment, Ohio National Guard. 

In proportion to its i)opnlation, Loi-ain Coiuity sent into tiie Ihiiou 
rank and fiU' an nnnsually larg-e minil)i'r of youth and nu-n, and in no 
section of tlie state were tiie girls- and tlie women more tireless iu the 
work of relief tlian tiiose "at iiome. " in the raising of funds, the for- 
warding of provisions, clothing and medical supplies, and hundreds of 
other acts which constituted war relief, the large and more effective 
organizations of Cleveland ahsorlied many of the activities and eon- 
triliutions of the people of Loi-ain County; hut no thought of distinctive 
credit entered the minds of the patriots of those days; the all-important 
aim was to get tlie relief to the front as rapidly as possible. 

The all-pervading sentiment of patriotism so manifest during the 
period of the Civil war was only to be exi)ccted from communities which 
had so long been molded by strong moral and religious influences, with 
a .sustained sentiment of many years gi'o\itli against the inslitution of 
slavery; and Olierlin Colh'ge, as tlie strongest U>vvc/i\i the proi)nlsi()ii 
and dis.seminatioii of sueii influences, nolily proved hei- faitli liy her 




In speaking of tlie part taken Ijy Lorain County in the Civil war, a 
special tribute must be paid the student body of Oberlin College. The 
l^utriotic drafts upon the membership of that institution, upon several 
occasions, threatened the very life of tl)e college. On April 20, 1861, 
not long after the firing on Fort Sumter, more tlian 430 students applied 
for admission to Company C, Seventh Regiment, Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry. Only eighty-one, tlie maximum of tlie company, were received. 
A second company was promptly organized and filled to its maximum, 
and, a few months after Company C enlisted, Oberlin College and 
vicinity sent another company to the Forty-first Regiment. In tlie second 
year of the war still another company Avas raised in the college and the 
village to join the One Hundred and Third Regiment, and not long 
afterward, when Cincinnati appeared to. be threatened by the Confed- 
erate cavalry, every student in the college able to bear arms marched to 
the defense of that city. Although the services of these so-called 
Squirrel Hunters were not required, their prompt action showed their 
manly spirit and they returned home with honor; but hundreds of Ober- 
lin students there were who saw actual .service on the battle field, and 
many eiieerfully sacrificed their lives to the Union. A testimony to this 
patriotism is tlie Soldiers' I\Ionument which stands opjiosite the cumpus. 

On the main face, which fronts West College Street, is the inscrip- 
tion : "Our brave volunteers who fell in the War for the Union." 

On the opposite side of the Memorial are the names of Lieutenant 
Herbert Kenaston, U. S. A., and the privates who also fell in line of 
duty. Fredericksburg, Stone River, Gettysburg, Fort Wagner, Chieka:- 
niauga and Pittsburg Landing are etched in this stony face, as they 
must have been in the memories of the gallant soldiers when alive. 

On the side facing South Professor Street is the sad and gallant 
record of Company C, Seventh Ohio Volunteers. There appear the 
names of Captain 0. P. Brockway, Lieutenant E. H. Smith and Charles 
F. King, and the battles of Cross Lanes, Cliattanooga, Winchester, Port 
Republic, Cedar Mountain and Antietam, and on tlie reverse side of the 
monument, Ringgold, Petersburg, Fort Harrison, Five Forks, Cold 
Harbor, Olustie and Port Hudson. 

There are otlier memorials of the Civil war than those of stone. For 
instance, tliere is an elm nearly oi)posite the Carnegie Library upon 
whose massive trunk is the inscription: "Transplanted vXpril 2, ISf)!), 
by Purl'ord Jeakins, Oberlin College, 'Gl ; Company C, 7lh Regt, 0. V. 1. 
.Alortally wounded at Cross Ijaiies, August 2G, lH(il. Died at (Janiieux 
Ferry, W. Va., September 22, lH(il." 


Company C, Si'.ventii Ohio Infantry 

Company C, Seventh Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, which con- 
tained HO many 01)erlin .stuch-nts, was mustered into the service at Camp 
Dennison, Oliio, June 20, 3861, and mustered out at Cleveland, on the 
(Jtli of July, 1864. Following were its commissioned officers: 

Captain Giles W. Shirtliff, resigned March 18, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Judson N. Cross, promoted to captain of Company 
K, November 25, 1861. 

Second Lieutenant Ephraim XL Baker, promoted to first lieutenant 
Novend)er 25, 1861; resigned IMarch 1, 1862. 

Second Lieutenant Henry AV. Lincoln, promoted from sergeant to 
second lieutenant, August 9, 1862; to first lieutenant, November 6, 1862; 
resigned January 7, 1863. 

Second Lieutenant Isaac C. Jones, enrollecl ]\Iarch 1, 1863; promoted 
from sergeant to second lieutenant; died November 30, 1863, of wounds 
received in the battle of Ringgold, Georgia, November 27, 1863. 

Company C was with its regiment for more than three years, and 
its record shows what a firm basis trne grit has in moral sentiment. 
The Seventh Regiment was made up entirely of Northern Ohio men, and 
John S. Casem(!nt of Painesville was its first major. He resigned after 
a time, and assisted in raising other organi>:ations. He ascended the 
steps of pi'omotion until he was brigadier-general when he left the serv- 
ice. At the expiration of the term of service for which they were 
nuistered, the regiment re-enlisted, almost to a man, for three years; 
and on June 20, 1861, it started for the iield to take part in the opening 
of the campaign in Western Virginia, and on the following day first set 
foot on Rebel .soil, near Benwood. They marched along the line of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to Clarksburg and went into camp. There a 
l)eautiful stand of colors was presented to the regiment by Captain 
Schulte, in l)ehalf of the "Social Turnverein," of Cleveland. The regi- 
ment made its first march fully equipped. The day was oppressively 
hot, and before one mile had been laboriously overcome many valuable 
and useful articles, supposed to be absolutely indispensable, had become 
an intolerable burden ; at three miles, when a halt was ordered, the men 
went deliberately to work reducing their baggage. Blankets, dress uni- 
forms, books, underclothing and every article that could possibly be 
dispensed with, were emptied on the ground and left there. This march 
teniiinated at Weston. After doing considerable nuirehing, tlu; I'egi- 
iiient reached Cross Lanes on the 10th of August; and it was there, on 
the 25th of the same month, that they had their first tight, which proved 
a disastrous affair. The regiment was obliged to rdi'eat, altliough jt iield 


its ])o.sition for some time against overwhelming numbers. Its loss was 
120 in killed, wounded and prisoners. The next battle was at Win- 
chestiT, on March 2.'5(i. At '.i o'clock P. I\l. tlie battle began in earnest 
and raged furiously until dark, resulting in success to the Union army. 
Again at i'ort Rei)ublie the Seventli fouglit si)lendidly and elfeetively. 
In that engagement, with less than 3,000 men, Stonewall Jackson's force 
of 14,000 Confederates was held at bay for five hours. The Union forces 
were, however, obliged to retreat. On August Dth, at Cedar IMountain, 
the regiment was again at the front and engaged in a fierce haiul-to- 
hand conflict. Of tlie 300 men engaged in tlie "Seventli" only 100 
escaped unhurt. The next battle was at Antietam, but it would recpiire 
a volume to tell of all the fighting the regiment did. On Saturday, June 
24, 1864, it took its departure for Cleveland, where it was mustered out 
of the service on the 8th day of July following, having been in the field 
a little more tlian three years. During that time 1,800 men had served 
in it, and wiien mustered out there were but 240 men remaining to bring 
liouie their colors, pierced by the shot and sliell of more liian a score of 


The fatalities of Company C, which exceeded those of any other 
similar comuumd- which was drawn from Lorain County, were as fol- 
lows : 

Killed in liattle: First Sergeant Arthur C. Danl'ord, proiimted to 
lirst sergeant November 20, 18(il ; killed at Wincluster, \'ii'ginia, .March 
23, 1862. 

Sergeant Charles P. Bowler, promoted to sergeant April 1, 1862; 
killed at Cedar ]\Iountain, Virginia, August !J, 1862. 

Corporal John J. levers, promoted to corporal November 20, 1861; 
killed at Cedar ^Mountain, Virginia, 9, 1862. 

Corporal Lewis R. Gates, promoted to corporal April 1, 1862; killed 
at Port Republic, Virginia, June 9, 1862. 

Coi'poral George R. Matgary, promoted to corporal April 1, 1862; 
killed at Port Republic, Virginia, June 9, 1862. 

Ronuiin J. Kingslniry, killed at Port Republic, Virginia, June 9, 

Charles V. King, killed at Ringgold, Georgia, November 27, 1863. 

James M. Rai)pleye, killed at Ct'dar Mountain, Virginia, August 9, 

Warren F. Richmond, killed at Cedar IMountain, A''irginia, vVugust 9, 


E(lw;ii-(1 I'. Slicp{)iir(l, killed at (Jcdar JMouiitiUii, Vir<,'iiiia, Aii{,'iist '.), 

(Jiiarlcs E. Wall, killed at Riiif,'{,'()ld, (icorgia, Novemher 27, ]«(i;{. 

i^ainel P. Wood, killed at Rinj^gold, Georgia, Noveiid)ur 2, 1863. 

Died: Sergeant William W. raniieiiler, taken prisoner at battle 
of Lanes, Virginia, August 26, 1861 ; died in I'arisii Prison, New 
Orleans, Louisiana, Novendjer 18, 1861. 

Sergeant John Gardner, appointed sergeant May 1, 1863; died 
Deeend)er 19, 18G3, of wounds reeeived in l)attle of Ringgoltl, Georgia, 
November 27, 1863. 

Sergeant Oliver C. Trembly, ai)pointed .sergeant January 1, 1864; 
drowned in the Ohio River, June 2-4, 1864. 

Corporal Edward AV. Goodsel, died September 19, 1862, of wounds 
reeeived in battle of Antietam, Afaryland, Seplember 17, 1862. 

William Uiggs, taken prisoner at l)attle of Ci' J>anes, Virginia, 
August 26, 1861, and died in Parish Prison, New Orleans, Louisiana, 
Oeto!)er 17, 1861. 

Wallace Coburn, died ]\Iareli 29, 1862, of wounds reeeived in battle 
of Winehe.ster, Virginia, IMareh 23, 1862. 

Jo.seijli 11. Collins, died August 27, 1861, of wounds reeeived at battle 
of Cross Lanes, Virginia, August 26, 1861. 

Cyrus P. Hamilton, wounded and captured at battle of Port Repub- 
lie, A'irginia, June 9, 1862; died in Rebel hospital of wounds. 

Daniel S. Jud.son, wounded and captured at ])attle of Port Repul)]io, 
June 9, 1862; died of wounds in Rebel hospital. 

Purford Jenkins, wouiuled and captured at battle of Cross Lanes, 
Virgiiua, August 26, 1861 ; died of wounds Se[)tend)er 6,. 1861. 

Harrison Lewis, died in Fairfax Seminary llosjjital, Virginia, 
December 6, 1862, of fever. 

Josepli -McCanan, died July 22, 1863, of wounds reeeived at l)attle 
of Gettysl)urg, July 3, 1863. 

Levi jMyers, died in hospital at Nashville, Tenne.s.see, Deceml)er 20, 
1863, of smallpox. 

Fred M. Palmer, died April 7, 1862, of wounds received in battle of 
Winchester, I\Iarch 23, 1862. 

Edward G. Saekett, died I\Iarch 29, 1862, of wounds reeeived in 
battle of Winchester, Virginia, iMarch 23, 1862. 

Thomas Sweet, died Novend)er 30, 1863, of wounds received in I)attl.; 
of Ringgold, Noveml)er 27, 1863. 

Orlando Worcester, died April 15, 1862, of wounds received in battle 
of Winchester, Virginia, i\Iarcli 23, 1862. 

ill ,DtBqfT*»rlH 


The SciuiuHKL IIuntkhs 

In striking contrast to the foregoing record is tliat of tlie organiza- 
tion, which so promptly assembled, in the antumn of 1862, to re[)el the 
Confederate general, Kirby Smith, from his anticipated attack npon 
Cincinnati. (Governor Tod had issued a proclamation calling npon all 
who would furnish themselves with rations and arms to turn out, 
organize under their own officers, and rendezvous at the threateued city, 
ti-ansportutiou over the railroads to he provided by the Goverinnent. 
About 350 citizens of Lorain County responded to the call of the gov- 
ernor. They saw no fighting, but tlieir work was cheerfully performed, 
and they were ready for wliatever might come, (iovernor Tod cau.sed 
lithograph discharges to be forwarded to those whose names could be 
obtained, and not a few of tliem have been preserveil by the descendants 
of the lioiiie gaiard, as highly prized documents. Although those who 
thus gathered at Cincinnati were afterward jocosely called Scpiirrel 
Hunters, tiiey W(;re always honored just the same. 


Company D, of the Twenty-third Regiment, was recruited mostly 
from Loi-ain County. It went into the service over 100 hundred strong, 
being organized at Camp Taylor, Cleveland, May 16, 1861. It was 
)iiustered out at Cumberland, ^Maryland, July 2(), 1865. 

The comuiissioned officers of Company D were as follows: Captain 
Howard S. Love joy ; resigned Febniai-y 13, 1863. 

First Lieutenant Abram A. Hunter, i)romoted to captain March 1, 
1862, and assigned to Company K. 

Second Lieutenant Henry Richardson, promoted to first lieutenant 
July 24, 1861, and assigned to Company U. 


Corporal John II. Lindley, promoted to sergeant; killed at South 
Mountain, :\Iaryland, September 14, 1862. 

Isaac W. Barker, Hiram Durkee, Frederick Hooker and Edmund A. 
Sims, also killed at South Mouulain. 

James V. Eldridge, killed at Antietam, :\larylaiid, Septeuiber 17 

John R. Searl, died at Raleigh, North Carolina, July 17, 1864. 

Saiiuiel (JliHoi-d, died in Coiifcdcrale prison, Jidy 12, 1804. 

«).'[+ rs<i 



(!()iiii)iuiy K, ())■ tin; Twciity-I.liinl Rc^'iinciil, wiis ()ff,'iiiiiz(!(l at lOlyria, 
and imislcccd into llu; scrvict' llic inoiilli I'ollovviiif,' llic ()rj,'atiizati()ii ot 
Coiiii)aiiy J). Tiicy weiv both iiuistcretl out willi Uicir rej,'iment, at 
Ciuiil)erlaiul, Maryland, July 26, 18G5. 

The c'OHiniissioned officers of Company K were as follows: Captain 
Dewitt C. Howard, resigned July 11, 1862. 

First Lieutenant Frederick H. Bacon. 

Second Lieutenant Archie C. Fisk. 


The fatalities of the coini)any durin<? tlie war include the following: 
Sergeant Thomas G. Wells, killed in tlie battle of Soutii .Mountain, 
]\Laryland, September 14, 1862. 

Corporals Timothy C. Wood and Lyman W. Carpenter, both of 
whom died at Cliarleston, West Virginia, the former November 20, 1862, 
and the latter, August 8th of that year. 

Jonatlian Ring, wounded at Antietaui, September 17, 1862; died 
September 21, 1862. 

Fit/.land Scfuires, wounded at Soutli Mountain, J\laryland, Septendjcr 
14, 1862 ; died September 27, 1862. 

Regimental History 

Companies T) and K had the honor of being units of one of the most 
famous regiments which ever went from Ohio— famous, not only for its 
soldierly record, but for tlie after-fame of its commanding officers. 
Their simple names are the proof to all who have even an inkling of 
American history. William S. Ro.secrans was colonel, Stanley Matthews 
lieutenant colonel, and Rutherford B. Hayes major, when the regiment 
was first organized. Under command of Colonel K. P. Scammon, the 
Twenty-third went into active service in West Virginia, meeting with 
the new and exciting events common to inexperienced soldiers, which 
were almost forgotten amid tlie sleruer iralities of active warfare. 

The regiment particij)aled in tlie baltles of Carnifex Ferry, Vir- 
ginia, Seplciiiber' 10, 1861, and Ciles (!oiirtiiousc. May 10, 1862, and 
iiad the lionor of opening the batlh' of Soulh Mountain, September 14, 
1S62, wliere it, lost thirty-liirei! men killed and eighty wounded, among 
tile latter Rulhcrford B. Hayes, afterward President of the United 
Slates. As an incident of this battle, it is said that tlie Twelftli and 


Tweuty-third Ohio and Twelfth and Twenty-third North Carolina — 
Companies B on each side — were directly engaged with each otiier. 
The Twenty-third, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Hayes, was 
in the advance on that day. It was an early hour to advance up the 
mountain and attack the enemy. From beiiind stone walls the Con- 
fedei-ates poured a destructive iire into the Federal ranks at very short 
range. The conunand of the Twenty-thinl fell upon j\Iajor Comly after 
Lieutenant Coloiud Hayes was wounded, tlie latter again nud<ing his 
appearance on the tield, with his wound half dressed, and fought, against' 
tile remonstrances of the whole command, until carried ott'. Near the 
close of the day at Antietam a change was made by the division to which 
the Twenty-tliird lielonged, and it was exposed to a large force of the 
enemy posted in a cornfield in the rear of the left. Its colors were sliot 
down, and at the same time a feint was made in its front. The colors 
■were planted on a new line at right angles with its former front, and 
the regiment formed a line in the new direction, and opened fire upon 
the enemy, who retired. The division withdrew, hut no order reached 
the Twenty-third, and it remained on the field until the division com- 
mander returned and ordered it to the rear. 

Tiie Twenty-third assi.sted in heading off Moi'gan's conunand at 
Buifington's Island, ttien returned to Charleston, West Virginia, and 
afterward .ioined General Crook's forces for a raid on the Virginia and 
Tennessee Railroad. :\Iay i), 1864, the Twenty-third fought at Cloyd 
Mountain. The enemy occupied the first crest of tlie mountain, defended 
by artillery' and rudely-constructed breastworks. The hill was steej), 
thickly wooded, ditificult of ascent, and skirted by a stream of water two 
or three feet deep. At the word of command the regiment advanced 
across the stream to the foot of the mountain, under a heavy fire of 
Jiuisketry and artillery, without returning the fire of tlie enemy. A 
fnrious assault was made upon the enemy's works, carrying tliem, with 
two i)ieces of artilleiy. The struggle at the guns was of the fiercest 
description. The Confederate artillerynu'n attempted to reload their 
pieces when the Federal line was not more then ten paces distant. The 
Twenty-third was with Hunter in the attack on Lynchburg, and in 
luunerous skirmishes aiul battles in the Shenandoah Valley. At Win- 
chester, July 24, 18(i4, it 15:5 men. At the battle of Opequan, Sep- 
tember l!)th, Hayes' brigade had the extreme i-iglit of the infantry. 
.Moving foi'wai-d under (ii-e, the briga(h' came ujK)n a deep slough, forty 
or fifty yards wide and nearly waist deep, wilii soft mud at the l)ottom 
overgrown with a thick bed of moss. It seemed impossible to get flirough 
it, aiul tlie wliole line was staggered for u moment. Just then Colonel 
Hayes ])lunged in willi his horse, and under a siiowei* of iiullets and 

low '.Hj 


shells he rode, waded and dragged his way through — the tirst man over. 
The Twenty-third was ordered by the riglit flank over the slough. At 
the same place men were suffocated and drowned; still the regiment 
plungcMl tlii'ougli, re-formed, charged forward again, driving tlie enemy. 
Tlie division commander was wounded, leaving (!olonel Hayes in com- 
mand. He was everywhere, exjjosing himself as usual; men were fall- 
ing all around hiui, but he rode through it all as though he had a eharuied 
life. No reinforcements, as promised; something must be done to stoj) 
that tire that is cutting the force so terribly. Selecting some Saxony 
rifles in the Twenly-third, pieces of seventy-one calil)re, with the range 
of twelve hundred yards, Lieutenant ]\IcBride was ordered forward 
with them to kill the enemy's artillery horses, in plain sight. At the 
first shot a horse drops, immediately another is killed, a panic .seems 
to seize the artillerymen, and they connnence limbering up. The infantry 
take the alarm, and a few connnence running from the intrenthments, 
and the cavalry, which has been hovering upon the flanks, sweeps down 
upon the enemy, capturing tiiem by regiments; and the battle is at an 
end. The Twenty-third fougiit at North ^Mountain, September 20, 18G4, 
and at Cedar Creek, October 19 — a day that is a household word tlirough- 
out the laud. The Twenty-third was mustered out on the 2Gth day of 
July, ISGf), at Cumberland, Maryland, and was paid and disl)ainlrd at 
Camp Taylor, Cleveland. 


Company II, Forty-first Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, was 
largely recruited from Lorain County, and several joined Company K, 
of the same regiment. Witli other companies of that stalwart couimand, 
they saw more than four years of service covering every phase of warfare 
conceived by the brave and ingenious soldiers of those days. 

The commissioned officers of Comi)any II included the following: 
Captain, Alonzo Pease, resigned January 9, 1862. 

First lieuteiuuit, John W. Steele, prouioted to captain, Febi'uary 
3, 1862. 

Second lieutenant, Albert McRoberts, promoted to first lieutenant, 
March 1, 1862; resigned, May 24, 1862. 

Regimental History 

The Forty-first was one of the famous veteran regiments of the 
Union army. It was raised iuimediately after the battle of P>ull Run 
by a luimber of citizens of Cleveland and Capt. William B. Ilazeii, of 


llic; ]']ip:litli United States Tiifanlry, wiis iippoiiilod coloiicl. The ctuiip 
WHS fsliililislu'd iiciic ( 'Icvcliiiid, mid hy Scpli'iiilicr 1st it was <jiiit(! full 
iiiid tile work ol" iiistnicl ion connriciiccd. An oriicci's' scliool was iiisti- 
liilc'd, and tlit' slricti-st tliseipline L-nt'oreed, and, hy the time tiie rogi- 
nii'iit was mustered as eomplete, on the 31st of Oetoher, 1861, tlie 
offiijers and men weiv (piite well drilled. On Novend)er 6th tiie regi- 
ment moved hy rail to Camp Dennison, where it was supplied witli 
arms. These consisted of the Greenwood rifle, a weapon nearly useless 
and soon discarded l)y the Government. After a week at Camp Denni- 
son, the regiment i)roceeded to Gallipolis, taking steamer from Cin- 

A few raiding excursions from this point into Virginia was the oidy 
relief from daily drills, and in the later part of the month, the regiment 
was ordered to Louisville, and reported to General Bucll then oi'gani/.ing 
the Army of Ohio. The Forty-first heeame a part of the Fifteenth 
lirigade. Nelson's division, and during the winter remained at Camp 
Wicklift'e, Kentucky. There tlie Forty-first was made the nucleus of 
a new hrigade (the Nineteenth), to which were assigned the Forty-sixth 
and Forty-seventh Indiana and the Sixth Kentucky, commanded hy 
Colonel Ilazen. 

On the 14th of Fehruary, 1862, Nelson's division marched to West 
Point, which was reached after a severe march of three days. Thence 
the two Indiana regiments were sent to Grant. Nelson emharked on 
transports for the Tennessee River, and arrived at Nashville on tlie 
27th of February, 1862. Aliout the middle of March, the regiment 
moved with the army to Savannah on the Tennessee River, arriving 
witliin two miles of that point tlie Saturday preceding tlie battle of 
ritlshurg Landing. Heavy firing was heard on the morning of the 
6th of April, and at 1 o'clock P. M., after being supplied with rations 
and ammunition, the regiimMit moved for Pittsburg Landing, one com- 
pany (G) being left to guard the camp and garrison equipage. At 
5 o'clock, the troops arrived opposite the l)attlefield, and Ilazen 's hrigade 
was the second to cross the river. The regiment lay that night on the 
field, in the driving rain among the dead and wounded, and at day-light 
moved forw^ard in its first engagement. 

The r^rty-first was on the right of Nelson's division, and when the 
rebels were discovered to lie advancing Ilazeu's brigade was ordered 
to charge. The I<'orly-fii'st was ])laced in Ihe front line, and advanced 
sleailily llii'ough a diMise thicket of undei-growtli, and, emei'ging into 
llic iiioi-e o|)eii ground, was saluted with a murderous fii-e. The line still 
advaficed, checked tiie approaching ('onredei'ate.s, drove them back 
hevond their fortifications and captui-ed tlu'ir guns. Three ol'lieers and 


three men, who, at different times, carried the colors in the chai'ge, were 
citlier killed or wounded, and, of the 373 who entered the euyaf^ement, 
141 were i)iit out ol" liie li^ht in the space of ludl' an hour. 

The ni<,dit after llie hultle, Ilazen's hrif^adt;, as an outlying i'oree, 
occupied the Tan liark Road upon the left of the army. The regiment 
occui)ied a miserable camp on the field of battle, surrounded by the half 
buried bodies of men and horses, until the army moved on Corinth. It 
suffered wry mucli from exposui'e, during the marcii and in tlie opera- 
tions iunneilialely following. The Forty-lirst was with Buell's army 
on its march to Louisville, moving, day after day, over bad roads, with 
short rations and water supply, until, nearly exhausted, ragged and 
dirty, it entered Louisville on the West Point Road, and encamped for 
a three days' rest. On the 2nd of October, the regiment marched against 
Bragg. At the battle of Perryville, its duties wex*e chiefly in the line 
of skirinisiiing. 

Al)out October 20th, the brigade commenced its return to Nashville. 

Decend)er 26th, the Forty-first, with the army, moved on iMurfrees- 
boro. At midnight, on the 30th, the regiment took position in the first 
line facing Cowan's house, and from this time, until the cessation of 
hostilities, was actively engaged. Of the 410 officers and men of tlie 
Forty-tii'st, the largest number it ever took into battle, 112 were killed 
and wounded. 

On January 10, 1863, the regiment moved to Reedyville, where, it 
remained, in comparative (luiet, until the 24th of the following June, 
when file command moved to TuUahoma; but as that place had been 
evacuated before they reached it, the troops returned to . Manchester 
and went into camp. Tents were struck on the 15th of August, and 
the command moved toward Chattanooga, near Gordon's ]\Iills. About 
1) o'clock A. ^1., the battle commenced, and at 1 o'clock P. M. Palmer's 
division (comprising the Forty-first), went into the fight, attacking in 
echelon l)y brigatles, Ila/.en's brigade being the first echelon. The 
regiment advanced rapidly, over an open field, to a strip of woods. 
After holding the position two hours, and, during the time losing 100 
men, the regiment was withdrawn. It was immediately moved to the 
assistance of General VanCleve, and was continually under fire. At 
length the brigade was formed in columns, by regiments, and advancing, 
one after the other, delivered its volley into the dense masses of the 
enemy, who reeled and fell back. This was the last fighting on Chicka- 
nuiiiga. Tlie next day was spent on Mission Ridge, and on the following 
nigiit the regiment retired to Ciu\ttanooga. 

In the reoi'ganization of the army, Ilazen's brigade was composed 
of the First, Forty-first and Ninety-third Ohio, Fifth Kentucky and 


Sixth Indiana, and was assigned to the Fourth Army Corps, ]\Iaj.-Gen. 
Gordon Granger, commanding. 

At ;] o'clock in the morning of Octolx-r 27th, fifty-two pontoons, 
])('aring Ila/,(Mi's hrigadc, pushed out, sih'iilly from ( Miatlanooga and 
floated liown the river, in half an hour's time the leading pontoons 
were ])assing in front of the enemy's pickets on the hank, 100 feet above. 
The conversation of the rebels could be distinctly heard, but their atten- 
tion was not once directed to the 1,200 silent enemies floating past, 
within pistol shot. Just as tlie first pontoon arrived opposite its landing, 
it was discovered ; but the lauding was eft'ected, the pickets driven in 
and the hill gained. AVhen the morning haze cleared away, the Con- 
federates on Lookout saw the hills beneath them, commanding two roads 
to Bridgeport, covered with Union soldiers wlio occupied a position 
from wliich they could not be driven, with a pontoon bridge to connect 
them with Chattanooga, almost completed. 

At noon, on the 23d of Noveiidjcr, the brigade was ordered to fall in 
for a reconnoissance. The brigade advanced briskly, driving the enemy's 
skirmishers into a dense undergrowth, on a small ritlge, between Chat- 
tanooga and jMission Ridge. The line followed, and received a heavy 
fire. Nothing could be seen; but it was too hot a fire to bear quietly. 
Colonel Willey ordered the regiment to charge, and orders from Ilazen, 
at the time, directed the taking of tiie line on the hill. Tiie Forty-lirst 
delivered a volley, trusting to fortune for its effect, tiien dashed forward 
through tlie thicket and balls into the enemy's works, capturing the 
colors of the Twenty-eighth Alabama Regiment. In this, its severest, 
engagement, the Forty-first was associated with the Ninety-third Ohio, 
which shared fully the danger and honor of the figlit. The jjosition was 
held without trouble, and was known as Orchard Knob. Soon after the 
fight. Generals Grant, Thomas and others, passed along the new line, 
when Thomas, looking at the ground within fifty paces of the rebel 
Avorks, where the fight had been fici-cest and where lay the hoj-ses of 
Colonel Willey and Lieutenant-Colonel Kimberly, called for the officers 
of the regiment, and said to Colonel Willey: "Colonel, I want you to 
express to your men my thanks for their splendid conduct this after- 
noon. It was a gallant thing. Colonel — a very gallant thing." That, 
from General Thomas, was better than an houi-'s speech from any other 

On the 25th, Ilazen 's brigade moved across the valley from Orchard 
Knob to I\lission Ridge, under a heavy artillery fire; and, at the foot of 
the ridge, a dash Avas made and tlie enemies' works captured. The 
troops were here exposed to canister and musketry, and to remain was 
impossi))le: so they advanced up the steep hill, swei)t by an oifilading 


fire of artilleiy; up tliey wont, and when near tlie top, the fire ol; the 
Foi'ty-first was (lii'c'(;tc(l to tlic batlcrifs on Uic rij^lit. Tlic (loniVdcrates 
rctiicd, and, willi a clircr, llie line occupied the works on llic ridt^c. 
A s(|iiiui of th(! I^'orty-lirsl seized a Itattery aliiiost licfore tiic cnciiiy 
iiad left it, turned it to tlie rigiit and diseiiarged it directly along the 
sunuuit of the ridge, where the oneniy in front of Newton's division 
still stubbornly held their position, with the result that Ihey were (piiekly 
dislodged. Eighteen captured pieces of artillery graced General Ila/.en's 
headcpiarlers that night, of which the Forty-first and Ninety-third could 
fairly claim six as their troj)hies, while the former also captureil a 
Ijattleflag. The Losses were severe. One hundred and fifteen of the 
Forty-tirst, most of them in the fight of the 23d, had fallen. 

After resting scarcely long enough to bury the dead, the regiment 
moved with its corps for Knoxville. Supplies had been scarce, and 
before the march was half accomplished two-thirds of the men were 
walking over the frozen ground barefooted; but with their feet wrapped 
up in sheep-skins and cow-hides they journeyed on, and finally reached 
Clinch Mountain, twenty miles above Knoxville. There the regimi'nt 
re-enlistetl, 180 o\it of 188 becoming veterans, and on the ."jth of January, 
1864, starter for Chattanooga, reaching Cleveland, Ohio, on the 2d of 

AVith nearly 100 reci'uits, the regiment joined its division, in i'];ist 
Tennessee on the 2Gtli of INTarch, and was placed in a battalion with the 
First Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel. Kind)erly commanding. At liocky Face 
Ridge the battalion was complimented for its steailiness under a galling 
fire, and at Resaca it gained a crest within seventy-five yards of the 
enemy's main line and effectually jjrevented the use of his artillery. 
At Dallas, on May 26tli, the Forty-first lost 180 men out of 2(30. During 
subsecpient movements the regiment was engaged at Peach Tree Creek, 
before Atlanta, in the movement against Hood, in DeciMuber, where it 
did noble work; it participated in the pursuit of Hood, and finally 
rested at Iluntsville, Alabama. 

In June, 1865, the corps end)arked at Nashville, for Texas. Near 
Cairo the steamer collided with a gunboat, and said< in a few minutes, 
with all the regimental and company papers and most of the personal 
property of the officers and men. Fortunately no lives were lost. In 
Texas the regiment was stationed near San Antonio until November, 
when it was ordered to be mustered out. It reached Columbus, Ohio, 
about the middle of the jnontli, and was disciiai'ged on llie 261 h of 
November, 18(1.'), after four years and one month of creditable service. 

The fatalities of Company II, of the Forty-lirst Regiment, were: 


First Sergeant Henry S. Dirlam, promoted to first lieutenant Rrareli 24, 
18G3 ; killed November 23, 1 863. 

llyman A. Brown, died at Corinth, Mississippi, in 1862. 

James W. Blaekwell, killed in battle, November 23, 1863. 

IMattliews Chamberlain, killed at Shiloh, April 7, 1862. 

Albert I. Clark, died at Corinth, r^lississippi, 18C2. 

Albert ^l. Kellogg, died 1862. 

Ebenezer Kingsbury, killed in l)attle, November 23, 1863. 

Daniel Lawrence, died in 1862. 

John C. Lenhart, killed at Stone River, December 31, 1862. 

Joseph H. Lincoln, died in 1862. 

William A. ]\Iills, killed in battle, November 23, 1863. 

John (;. ^lills, killed in battle, May 27, 1864. 

Franklin Poiueroy, died in 1862. 

Harvey Sanderson, died at Corinth, IMississippi, 1862. 

Oliver II. Smith, died in 1862. 

Josiah Staples, killed in l)attle, May 27, 1864. 

Benoni B. West, died in 1864. 

Henry West, killed at Shiloh, April 7, 1862. 

Forty-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry 

The band of the Forty-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry and Com- 
pany E, of that regiment, drew much of their membership from Lorain 
County. The company was mustered into the service at Camp Chase 
near Columlius, in October, 1861, and the band was organized in the 
following month. The Forty-second was a three-yeai-s' regiment, being 
mustered out of the service in November, 1864. 


Commissioned officers of Company E : Captain, Charles II. Howe, 
resigned :\Iay 1, 1863. 

First lieutenant, Ceorge F. Brady, resigned March 27, 1862. 

Second lieutenant, I\Ielville L. Benham, i)romoted to captain, 'Slny 17, 

The record shows the list of fatalities to be as follows: Frederick 
Brooks, died at St. Louis, jMissouri ; date not given. 

Christopher Dimmock, wounded in battle; died .Alarch, 1863. 

Lidce I'Miiif, (lii'd l''ebruary 'S, 1862. 

Henry llilmer, died August 1!), 1S63. 

Lyman llawley, wounded at N'ickshurg; arm amputated; drowned 
]\rarch 12, 1864. 


Martin Lilly, killed in battle Decemhcr 29, 1862. 

George W. Lcc, died January 12, 1862. 

Charles O'JJrion, died >May 18, ]862. 

Sanford Pliinney, died ; no date given. 

George Sexton, died February 7, 1862. 

Cornelius Springer, died of wounds, 1863. 

iMason Terry, died at Baton Rouge, Louisiana ; date not given. 

Thomas AVilliams, died in Memphis. 

Frederick Watson, killed in battle July 12, 1863. 

John Curl, died June 30, 1863. 

George Goldsmith, died February 12, 1863. 

Alfred Lucas, died j\Iay 6, 1863. 

Friend lAfeNeal, died March 25, 1863. 

Julian W. Smith, died January 29, 1862. 

Thomas F. Williams, died of wounds, April 11, 1863. 

Regiment.\l History 

Companies A, B, C and D of the Fort.y-second Regiment were 
)iiustered into the service at Camp Chase, September 25, 1861; Company 
E, October 30th; Company F, Novemlier 12th, and Coinjianies G, II, I 
and K, November 26th. 

On the 14th of December, 1861, orders were received to take the field, 
and on the following day the regiment moved by railroad to Cincinnati, 
and thence by steamer up the Ohio River to Catlettsburg, Kentucky, 
where it arrived the morning of December 17th. The regiment, 
together with the Fourteenth Kentucky Infantry and JMcLaughlin'.s 
squadron of Ohio Cavalry, proceeded to Green Creek. Another advance 
was made December 31st, and on the night of Januai-y 7, 1862, the whole 
command encamped within three miles of Paintville. The next morning 
five companies, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Sheldon took 
possession of the village. On the evening of the same day Colonel 
Garfield took the Forty-second and two companies of the Fourteenth 
Kentucky, and advanced against Marshall's fortified position, about 
three miles south of Paintville Village. Arriving at about 9 o'clock 
P. M., they found the works evacuated, and everything valuable either 
carried away or destroyed. Marching all night, they readied Paintville 
a little after daylight. 

About noo]i on the 9th, Colonel Garfield, with 1,100 infantry from 
the Forty-second Ohio and other regiments, and about 600 cavalry, 
started in pursuit of ]\Iarshall, and about 9 o'clock in the evening the 
advance was fired upon by Marshall's pickets, on the summit of Al)l)ott's 

•hT W 


ITill. Oar(iol(] look possession of tlu; liill, hivouaduMl for tlio nif?ht and 
till! next iiioriiiiif,' coiilimicd tin; |)Ufsuil, ovciMakirif,' tlic ciKjiny at lh<! 
forks of Rliddlo Creek, tliree miles southwest of rresloiilmrg. Marshall's 
foree eoiisisteil of al)Out 3,500 men, infantry and cavalry, with three 
pieces of artillery. Major Pardee, with 400 men, was sent across Middle 
Creek to attack I\Iarshall directly in front, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Monroe (Twenty-second Kentucky) was directed to attack on Marshall's 
right Hank. The fight at once opened with considerable spirit, and 
Pardee and IMonroe became hotly engaged with a force four times as 
large as their own. They held their ground with great obstinacy and 
bravery until reinforcements reached the field, when the enemy com- 
menced to fall back. The National forces slept upon their arms, and at 
early dawn a reconnoissaiiee tliseloscd the fact that IMarshall had burned 
his stores and fled, leaving a portion of his dead upon the field. From 
this date, for a eonsidera))le time, the regiment was engaged in several 
expeditions against guerillas. 

Tlie arduous nature of the campaign, the exceedingly disagreeable 
weather, and the want of supplies, were disastrous to the healtii of the 
troops, and some eighty-[iv(! of the Forty-second died of di.sease. On 
June 18, this regiment led the advance, and was the first to plant the 
Union tlag on the stronghold of Cumberland (iap. When the regiment 
left tlie (iap it numbered 750 men, and while on the march there were 
issued to it 275 pounds of Hour, 400 pounds of bacon, and two rations 
of fresh pork: the rest of the food consisted of corn grated down on tin 
plates and cooked upon them. The distance marclied was 250 miles. 
The weather was very dry and the men suffered for water. They were 
without shoes, and their clothing was ragged and filthy. Tiie Forty- 
second lost but one man from all causes, and it was the only regiment 
tiuit brought through its knapsacks and blankets. These proved of 
great service, as the men were compelled to camp at Portland, Jackson 
County, Ohio, two weeks before clothing, camp and garrison equipage 
could be furnished them. "While at Portland the regiment received 103 
recruits, and at Memphis, whither it arrived on November 28th, sixty- 
five more. It had from time to time received a few, so that the whole 
numl)er reached 200 or more, and the regiment could turn out on parade 
nearly 900 men. At Memphis the division was reorganized as the Ninth 
Division, Thirteenth Army C'orjis. 

On (he 201 h of Deeemher the l-'orty-second, with other troops, under 
(liii. \V. 'i\ ShermiMi, emharked at Memphis, and pi-oceeding down the 
river, liiiided at -Johnston's plantation on the Yazoo. The Forty-second 
led the advance against the defenses of Vicksburg on the 27th of DiM-em- 
liei-, and skirmished with the enemy until dark. The next morning the 


regiment resumed the attack, and by a charge, which was made with, 
great spirit, succeeded in gaining possession of the woods, driving the 
Confederates into tlioir works. Al)Out 9 o'clock A. M., on the 2i)th, a 
charge was made, the Forty-second being on the extreme right of the 
assaulting column. The storm of shot and shell was terrific, but the 
regiment maintained its organization and came off the field in good 
order. An important victory followed, in January, 1863, being the 
assault upon and capture of Fort Ilindman, Arkansas. In this the 
regiment led the advance. The spoils were 7,000 prisoners, all the guns 
and small arms and a large quantity of stores. At Port Gibson the 
regiment had hot work, and sustained a heavier loss than any regiment 
in the corps. After the surrender of Vieksburg the regiment marched 
to Jackson and particii)ated in the reduction of that place, and then 
returned to Vieksburg, where it remained until ordered to the Depart- 
ment of the Gulf. Companies A, B, C and D were mustered out Novem- 
ber 25th, and the other four companies, December 2, 1864. One hundred 
and one men remained whose term of service had not expired, and they 
were organized into a company and assigned to the Ninety-sixth Ohio. 

The One Hundred and Third Infantry 

The One Hundred and Third Ohio was composed of men from the 
counties of Cuyahoga, Lorain and ^ledina. Companies F and II being 
especially representative of Lorain County. Its service covers tiie 
period from September, 1862, to June, 1865, and Cleveland .saw both 
the commencement and the close of its good record. 

Field and staff ofificers from Lorain County: IMajor, Dewitt C. 
Howard, discharged February 15, 1865. 

Surgeon, Lutlier D. Griswold, resigned August 1, 1864. 

Quartermaster sergeant, Clark P. Quirk, promoted a regimental 
quartermaster, July 21, 1863. 

Hospital steward, Cyrus Durand, promoted from sergeant in Com- 
pany H. 

Fife major, John IMountain, discharged ]\Iay 15, 1863. 

Company F 

Commissioned officers of Company F: Cai)taiii, Philip C. Haynes, 
promoted to colonel of tlie regiment, June (!, 1865. lieutenant, Simeon Windecker, ])romoted to captain, June 24, 

S('(;ond lieutenant, Cliarles K. Morgan, promoted to captain Novem- 
ber 18, 1861. 



Fiitiilitic'S of Company F: Lullicr Bciiiis, died at Danville, Ken- 
tucky, July ]7, lH(i;{. 

John jr. Jiowers, died November 2U, JBOIJ, oL' wounds received in 
battle near Knoxville, Tennessee, on the preceding day. 

Lewis Carver, died at Camp Nelson, Kentucky, October 3, 1863. 

Liimpson ]i. Franklin, died at Lexington, Kentucky, Novendjer 21, 

Silas Kingsley, died at Camp Dennison, Ohio, July 12, 1863. 

David Robinson, died November 28, 1863, of wounds received in 
battle near Knoxville, Tennessee, three days before. 

Company H 

Commissioned ol'licers of Company II: Captain, George F. Brady, 
resigned May 9, 1863. 

Fii'st lieutenant, John Booth, promoted to captain I\Iay 9, 1863; 
resigned April 24, 1864. 

Second lieutenant, P. B. Farsons, resigned Jujie 18, 1863. 

Fatalities of Comi)any II: Frederick Ambrose, died April 27, 1863. 

Tlioinas Bunnell, died January 14, 1863. 

Benjamin F. Crippen, died January 18, 1863. 

Robert Dickson, died October 15, 1863. 

Harrison Coding, died November 25, 1863, of wounds received at 
battle of Armstrong Hill. 

j\Iartin Hudson, died November 3, 1863. 

William Howes, died December 6, 1863, of wounds received at Arm- 
strong Hill. 

Joseph IMathews, died at Frankfort, Kentucky, March 26, 1863. 

Hannibal T. Osgood, died March 23, 1863. 

Grosvenor Pelton, died November 10, 1863. 

Carey J. Winekler, died IMarch 13, 1863. 

Regimental History 

Ten companies of the One Hundred and Third Regiment rendez- 
voused at Cleveland, in August, 1862, and on the 3d of September started 
for Cincinnati, which they found in a state of excitement and alarm, 
l)ccause of the luiar ai)j)roa(Oi of tlu- enemy, under Kirby Siiiilli, upon 
Lexington, Kentucky. Having received ai-ms in Cincinnati, the regiment 
crossed over to Covington, when; it was furnished with clothing and other 
necessaries for camp life. Thus ecjuippcd, it mai'ched out to Fort; 
Mitchell, on the evening of the 6th. 


Ai'ter a few days of suspense, information was received at head- 
quarters that the enemy had retreated. Immediate pursuit' was ordered. 
Tlie One Hundred and Third moved out on tlie 18tli, with otiier forces, 
in pursuit, taking the pike toward Lexinf,'ton. Having followed three 
days, without being able to overtake the Confederate cavalrymen, the 
National forces returned as far as Snow's Pond, where they encamped 
for a short time. AYhile there sickness prostrated nearly one-half of 
the regiment. It was now organized, with two other regiments, into a 
brigade under the command of Brig.-Gen. Q. A. Gillmore. The regi- 
ment, with its brigade, moved on the 6th of October, to repress the out- 
rages of the enemy's cavalry, and, becoming separated from the l)rigade, 
went into camp on the bank of tlie Kentucky River, at Frankfort, where 
it remained until the 5th of April, 180:1 At that date, the regiment 
marehed to Stanford. 

.Marauding bands of mounted men, nominally belonging to John 
Morgan's command, but, in reality, independent squads of freebooters, 
had kept all this region in a constant state of excitement and alarm, and 
gave considerable annoyance to tlie National troops — capturing parties 
stationed at outposts and destroying supply trains. A large force Avas 
gathered at Stanford, and on the 25th an advance was ordered by 
Gen. S. P. Carter, then commanding. The National forces moved for- 
ward to Somerset and Mill Springs, the enemy falling back all the 
time; but there were not wanting indications of an intention, on the 
part of the Confederates to concentrate their scattered forces for the 
purpose of making a stand at some point favorahle for defense. The 
Union infantry had considerable difficulty in crossing the Cumberland, 
on account of high water; but, once over, it pushed rapidly after the 
enemy, preceded by the cavalry which had cros.sed a little below. On 
the 30th, the cavalry came up with a body of Confederates, when a 
smart skirmish took place. On the 5th of ^lay, the Federal forces were 
ordered back to the Cumberland. The One Hundred and Third took a 
position near Stigall's Ferry, where it was soon visited by a body of 
enemy troops, wlio fired on them from the southern bank. ^Much power 
was expended by both parties, but with little result. 

On the 5th of July, the regiment, with other troops, marehed toward 
Danville, where they remained a few days and then fell liack to Hickman 
Bridge. Returning to Danville, shortly after, the regiment, witli other 
coiniriands, was formed into the Twenty-third Army Coi'i)s, and placed 
under the command of Major-General Hartsuflf. The Nintli Army 
Corps having been added to the Union foret; at that point, the troops 
began to move on the 18th of August under llie command of Gen. A. E. 
J?iii-iisi<le. 'IMuit army siilTenMl many hardsliips in its marcli from 


Danville, via Stanford, Crab Orchard, the Cumberhuid, Burnside's 
I'oint, Chitvfrood, Montgomery, Emery's Iron AVorks and Lenoir, to 
Concoril, Tennessee. On the lOtli of September, tlie regiment joined in 
tlie general advance, whicli resulted in driving back the enemy to his 
main force, then assembled at Jonesl)oro. 

On the 4th of November, tlie regiment proceeded by railroad to 
Knoxville, and was stationed with its brigade, on the south side of the 
river. Longstreet was now advancing upon the city, with a large force. 
During tlie investment, the Union troops sutfered much from insufficient 
clothing, shoi-t rations and other privations. About noon, on the 25th, 
six companies of the I'egiment wei-e sent forward to relieve a company 
on picket-duty, and, while so doing, a heavy charge was nmde l)y the 
Confederates with the intention of capturing the entire detachment. 
The men, assisted by the pickets of the Twenty-fourth Kentucky and 
the Sixty-fifth Illinois, poured into the ranks of the enemy a well- 
directed fire ; but this did not check them in the least, for, with wild 
yells, they rushed upon the picket-line, and a desperate struggle ensued. 
The regiments of the respective pickets coming up, in full force, a 
l)a.yonet charge was ordered, which soon decided the contest, for the 
opposition broke and tied, leaving tlie dead and wounded upon the field. 
The regiment lost, in this engagement, some thirty-five in killed and 

The One Hundred and Third Regiment finally became a part of the 
grand army, with which Siierman marched to the .sea, and on the 13th 
of ]\Iay arrived in front of Resaca. The next day, the Twenty-third 
Corps charged the enemy's works and carried his two lines. • The regi- 
ment lost, in this engagement, over one-third of its effective force. 
Among those who fell were Captains W. AV. Hutchinson and J. T. 
Philpot. The regiment finally reached Decatur on the 8th of September. 
It had lost heavily during this campaign. On INIay 1st its effective force 
numbered 450 men ; but when it encamped at Decatur, it could only 
nuister 195. 

At Spring Hill, the regiment, while supporting a battery, showed 
conclusively its reliable material. On tlie 24th of February, 18()5, with 
its corps, it arrived at Wilmington, and on the Gth of March it started 
forward, moving through Kingston to Goldsboro, wiiere it again met 
Slirniiaii's army. The whohi army .soon took up its march, and on the 
l;!lli of April reached Kaleigli, where the regimen!, rciiuiiiied till the 
lOlii of -iune, when it started for (Mevehiiid, Ohio, to be mustered out. 
As tli(^ train, conveying tiic men, was descending the western slo|)e of 
the Alleghany .Moiiniaius, a truck iiroke loose, throwing three of the 
eiirs down a Htee|i einhnnkiiienl and eiiii.sing tln' dentil (»!' Iliree men, 

, CI 


and the iiiutilatioii of a rmicli larf^ei- juhiiImt. On tlu! ]!)tli, tlie rogiiiicut 
reacticd Clcvclainl, and on th'j 22d it was paid ofi' and mustered out. 

The Forty-tiiikd Infantry 

Tile Forty-third Infantry had quite a numher of Lorain County men, 
Companies F and I being well represented in that ivgard. Company F 
served from tiie fall of 1861 to July, 1865, and Company I was mustered 
in in 1862 and out, in the last year of the war. 

As a regiment, the Forty-third was organized at Camp Andrews, 
IMount Vernon, Ohio, February 7, 1862, and left its rendezvous for the 
front on the 21st of the same month. On the 26th of Februai-y, it 
reported to Hrig.-Gen. John I'ope, eommanding the District of ^li.ssis- 
sii)i)i, and was at onee assigned to the Ohio l)rigade, eomi)Osed of the 
Twenty-seventh, Thirty-ninth, Forty-third and Sixty-third regiments, 
First Division, Army of the IMississippi. 

It was Init a few days before the regiment was introduced to active 
service, for in JMarch, 1862, it was under fire at New Madrid, JMi.ssouri; 
and in all the operations against tliat post it l)ore a prominent part, 
especially in its final bombardment and capture on the 13th anil 14th 
of .Marcii. Tlie loss of tlie regiment in killed and woundeil was (piite 

In the movements against Island No. 10, and the crossing of the 
IMississippi River in the face of the enemy, the Forty-third l)ore a con- 
spicuous ])art, as also in tiie subsequent ca])lure of tlie forces of General 
McC'all, at Tiptonville, Tennessee. The ne.xt movement was against 
Foi't Pillow. In all the oi)eratioiis oT llutt campaign, the Forty-third 
bore its part. The actions of the 8th, 9th and 2{)th of IMay, may be 
particularly mentioned. At Corinth, the Forty-third was posted imme- 
diately on the left of Battery Robinett, and the Si.xty-third on the right 
of the battery; and it is said these two regiments did more to save the 
day than any other organization engaged. Tlie grand a.ssault of the 
Confederates was made at daylight on the 4tli of October. They opened 
on liatlery liobinett with artillery at about ;K)0 yards, and at 10 o'clock 
A. j\I., led by Colonel Rogens, of the Second Texas, moved forward to 
the assault. Tlu^ Forty-third and Sixty-third Ohio stood lirmly at their 
posts and succeeded in staggering the assaulting (column and in hui-ling 
it biiek, at a lime when the Union lines were liroken and tli<' Iroojjs wei'c 
seen living from every other pari of the lield. Tiie opposing forces 
were but a few feet apart, and I'ought almost hand to hand, and men 
Went down on ])oth sides in great nuiidters. Colonel Smith fell mortally 
wounded III liir lirsl ousel, wiiile galliinlly disrluii-ging his duty. 


Ailjutaiit Iloyl and Captain Spanglor were killed at about tlie same 
moineiit. Capt. S. F. Tiininons and Lieut. S. ^IcClaren, A. L. Howe 
and II. L. Prophet received honorable wound.s. The casualtie.s among 
the men were very severe. In a few minutes of fighting, over one-fourth 
of those engaged of the Forty-third were either killed or wounded. 
Colonel Smith died eight days after the battle. The next movement of 
the Forty-tliird was with (Jrant's army, at Oxford, IMississippi. Jn the 
campaign against Forrest, in West Tennessee, in the winter of 1862-63, 
and in General Dodge's raid in North Alabama, in April, 1863, the 
Forty-third was with General Sherman when he made his memorable 
march from ilemphis to the relief of the Army of the Cumberland. 

In December, 1863, the regiment almost unanimously re-enlisted as 
veterans, and went home on a furlough of thirty days. Returning, the 
regiment assisted at the capture of Deeatur, Alal)auni, and lay at that 
point until the opening of General Slierman's campaign against Atlanta. 
On the 1st of May, 1864, the eonnnand began the march for Chattanooga. 
On the 13th, it was engaged in the advance on Re.saca and suffered 
severely. At Dallas, the Forty-third took an important part; and in 
the advance on the enemy's position near Big Shanty, Comi)any 1), of 
the regiment, participated in a most brilliant charge of .skirmisliers, 
capturing a strong ])arrica(le from the Twenty-ninth Tennessee and 
nuuierous prisoners. Immediately thei'cafter came tlie siege of Kenesaw, 
with its deadly skirmishing, its grand cannonading aiul the disastrous 
repulse of the National forces on the 29th of June. 

Tlie Forty-third participated in the general movements of the corps 
until the advance of the army on Decatur, when it was detached to hold 
the bridge across Chattahoochee. This was successfully accomplished, 
and during the remaiiuler of the Atlanta campaign the Forty-third 
shared the trials and successes of the Sixteenth Army Corps; and on 
the 4th and 7th of August, particularly, in advancing the National lines, 
won the thanks of Ransom, the division commander, by splendid and 
steady fighting. After the fall of Atlanta, tlie Forty-third enjoyed 
General Sherman's "full month's rest;" after which, the regiment 
])arlicipated in the chase after Hood. as far as Resaca, aiul then hurried 
back to join Sherman in his great "march to the sea." Of this cam- 
paign, the lii.story of one regiment is the history of all. It was a daily 
succession of easy marches, with little interruption, with plenty of 
forage for both man and and full of ]»leasaiit adventure. Savan- 
nah was readied and l)esiege(l. In Ibis the Forty-third performed its 
full sliare of duty. 

In Januai-y, 1865, the regiment moved to Beaufort, and directly 
afterward upon Pocolaligo, wlier(> it lay until the bciniiiii"- of 


Sherman's march through the Carolinas. On the 2d of February the 
Seventeenth Corps crossed Wliippy Swamp, and was soon confronting 
the enemy, strongly posted at River's Bridge. There Colonel Swayne 
lost a leg ))y a shell. The regiment lost in him a brave and competent 
leader, who had been with it from its organization, and who liad always 
shown the utmost devotion to its interests. The next day, the regiment 
received a baptism of fire, in a charge on a battery which commanded 
the bridge and the causeway approaching it. Down this narrow cause- 
way the regiment rushed amid a storm of shot and shell, compelling the 
Confederates to withdraw their battery and uncover the crossing. The 
war closing, the regiment went to "Washington and took part in the 
grand review ; returning to Ohio, it was mustered out of service on the 
lath of July, 1865. 

The FiFTY-Fouirrii Regiment 

Tlie Fifty-fourth Regiment was represented in tlie county by Com- 
pany B, of which Robert Williams was captain. He was promoted to 
be lieutenant-colonel of his regiment, and lionorai)ly discharged Sep- 
tember U, 3 86-1. 

Tlie reported fatalities were : Samuel Glunt, died July 6, 1863. 

Jesse and John Glunt, died in hospital ; no record. 

Francis V. Hale, killed in the battle of Shiloh. 

Recruiting for the Fifty-fourth Regiment began late in the summer 
of 1861, at Camj) Dennison, where it was organized and drilled during 
the fall of 1861. It entered the field Fel)ruary 17, 1862, witli an 
aggregate of 850 men. The regiment readied Paducah, Kentucky, 
February 20th, and was assigned to a l)rigade in the division commanded 
by General Sherman. On the 6th of April the regiment engaged in the 
battle of Pittsburg Landing, its position l)eing on the extreme left of 
tile army; l)ut, on the second day, it was assigned a new position near 
the center of the line. 

In the two days' fighting the regiment sustained a loss of 198 men 
killed, wounded and missing. It was next engaged ujion the movement 
upon Corinth, and, upon tlie evacuation of that i)oint, was among the 
first oi-ganized bodies to enter tlie town, and afterward performed pro- 
vost duty tliere. During tlie summer the regiment was engaged in 
several short expeditions. It was engaged in the assault on Chickasaw 
liayou, December 28th and 20th, witli a loss of twenty killed and 
wounded. On January 1, 186;{, the regiment ascended the IMississipiji 
and Arkansas I'ivers and engaged in tlie assault and capture of Arkansas 
Post. On tlie (ith of May, the regiment began its mai-eh to the rear of 


Vieksburg, by way of (iraiul (iiilf, ami was ongagcd in the batlles of 
Cbaiiipioii Hills and Big Ulack liriilge. It was ciigagetl in a general 
assault on tlie enemy's works, in the rear of Vicksbnrg, on tbe I'Jth and 
22(1 oT Jnne, losing in tiic two engagements forty-seven killed and 
wonnded. It was eontiiiually employed in skirmisiiing and fatigue duty 
during the siege of Vieksljurg. After the fall of Vieksburg, the Fifty- 
fourth moved with the army upon Jackson, Mississijjpi, and was con- 
stantly engaged in skirmisiiing from the 9th to the 14tii of July. It was 
engaged in the battle of Alissionary Kidge, November 2(jth, and the 
next day marched to the relief of the garrison at Knoxville, Tennessee. 
It went into winti^r quarters, January 12, 1864, at Larkensville, Alabama. 

The regiment was nuistered into the service as a veteran organization 
on the 22d of January, and at once started to Ohio on furlough. Return- 
ing, it entered on the Atlanta campaign on tiie 1st of May. It 
participated in a general engagement at Resaca, and at Dallas, and in 
a severe skirmish at New Hope Church, June Gth and 7th. It was in 
the general assault uj)oii Keuesaw Mountain, Juue 27th, losing tweuty- 
4'ight killed and wouiideil, and was in a liatth^ on tlie east side of Atlaida, 
July 21st and 22d, sustaining a loss of ninety-four killed, wounileil and 
missing. The Fifty-fourth lost eight men killed and wounded at Ezra 
Chapel, July 28th; and from tlie 2i)tli of July to the 27th of August, 
it was almost continually engaged in skirmishing before Atlanta, was 
in the march to Savannah, and assisted in the eaplure of Fort McAllister, 
Decembei- hltli. It was closely engaged in the vicinity of Columbia, 
and pai'ticipateil in tlii; last battle of Sherman's army at .Heiitonsville, 
North (!ai-oliiia, on j\Iareh 21, IHCr). The iH'giment nuirched to liich- 
mond, Virginia, and tlience to AVashington City, where it engaged in 
the grand revi(!W. It was mustered out at Camp Dennison, Ohio, 
August 2-4, 1865. 

During its term of service the Fifty-fourth ]?egiment marched a 
distance of 15,682 miles, pai'ticipated in four sieges, nine severe 
skirmishes, fifteen general engagements, and sustained a loss of 506 men 
killed, wounded and missing. 

TiiK Gki{m.\n Onic IIundrkd and Seventh 

The One Hundred and Seventh Regiment was composed almost 
enlii-ely of (iermans and recruited ])riMcipally in (y'levelaiid. Comjiany 
(J was raised to a large extent in Lorain County. It was mustered into 
tbe service at Cleveland, September !), 1S62, and mustered out, July Id, 
1865, at Charleston, South (Carolina. 


Coimnissionod officers: Captain, Anton Peterson, resigned Novein- 
l)cr 7, 1S(;2. 

I"'irsl liciilcMaMl, .loliii ITaCf, n'sif^^iicd Novi'iidici' 2I{, lK(iI{. 

Second liciilciianl, (Jliarlfs l'\ Marskey, promoted lirst lieutenant 
November 25, 1862; resigned January 12, 1863. 

Fatalities: Nicholas i5urr, died .Alarch 25, 1865. 

Joseph Cramer, died of wounds, January 22, 1863. 

^Michael Klinshern, died prisoner, January 13, 1864. 

:\Iathias Pfeifer, died January 25, 1863. 

Peter Simniei', died prisoner, January 7, ]864. 

Joliii Weber, killed in battle, July 1, 1863. 

i\lartiii Walls, died prisoner, November 16, 1863. 

Company E, which contained a few Lorain County men, had the 
same length of service as Company G, and both were mustered out 
with their regiment. 

The One Hundred and Seventh Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 
was organized at Camp Taylor, near Cleveland, and lay in camp at 
that place until late in September, when it moved under orders to 
Covington, Kentucky. The niove was made with reference to the 
antiei])ated attack on Cincinnati l)y Kirby Smith's Confederate cavalry. 
The regiment was next ordered to AVashiugton and for nearly a month 
was engaged in the construction of fortifications around the national 
capital. In Noveiid)er it was assigned to the Second Brigade, Fii'st 
Division, lOleventh Army Corps, Major-General Sigel commanding. On 
the 2d and 3d of iMay it i)articipated in the battle of Chancellorsville. 
and suffered a loss of 220 officers and men, killed, wounded and cap- 
tured. On July 1st is reached Gettysburg, was at once engaged with 
the enemy on the right wing of the Union army, and was obliged to fall 
back, tlirough tlie Town of Gettysl)urg, to Cemetery Hill, which it held 
during the remainder of the battle. In that movement it was further 
decimated to tlie number of 250, and it also lost heavily in the second 
day's fight. The total loss of the regiment in the three days' battle 
was over 400 out of about 550 rank and tile, with whicli it entered ; but 
the remnant joined in the pursuit of the enemy. Its subsequent engage- 
ments were light, the most important being at Sumterville, South 
Carolina, March 23, 1865, where it eaptui-ed quite a detachment of the 
defeated enemy. On Ai)ril 16, 1865, news was received of the surrender 
of Lee's aTid Jobnsfon's armies. Three weeks fhereafler tlie regiment 
was laken liy steamer to Cbai'lesloii, Soulli (Carolina, wliere if was 
muslered out of tlie serviee and sent lioiiU; to ('leVeland, where Ww 
soiiliei's wei'e ])ai(l oil' and discharged. 



Other Infantuy Bodies 

Company C, One Ihuulred and Seventy-sixth Regiment, was mus- 
tard into the serviee for o..e year, in Septenih.r, 18C4. Its co.u.m.h- 
sioned offieers were: Captain, Aaron K. Lindsley, mustered out with 

eompany. • . -i o nicr 

First lieutenant, Joseph A. Lovejoy, promoted captain April 8, l«bj, 
and assigned to Company II ; mustered out with company. 

Second lieutenant, Kamson real)ody, promoted to first lieutenant 
April 8, 1S65, and assigned to Company C; mustered out with company. 

Several of its members died before the muster-out of June, 18Gu, as 
follows: Luther S. Brown, died December IG, 18G-i. 

All)ert Forbes, died December 5, ISG-i. 

James Foote, died INIay 2, 1865. 

Nathan Gray, died Noveml)er 2, 1864. 

]\Iorris W. Plain, died April 14, 1865. 

Albert S. Reynolds, died December 24, 1864. 

Company C, One Hundred and Ninety-seventh Regiment, was mus- 
tered in for a year in April, 1865, but its services were only required 
until the following July. 

B.vTTERY B, Light Artillery 

Quite a number of the men from Lorain County joined the light 
artillery service of the state. Battery B and the Fifteenth Independent 
Battery were the representative commands from Lorain County. The 
former was mustered into the service October 8, 1861; re-enlisted Jan- 
uary 4, 1864, and was mustered out July 22, 1865. The Independent 
Battery's service commenced in January, 1862, and ended in June, I860. 

Non-commissioned ofticers of Battery B: Corporal, Addison J. 
Blanchard. discharged on account of disability, July 15, 1862. 

Corporal, Alon/.o Starr, died of fever at .Alount Vernon, Kentucky, 
November 19, 1861. 

Corporal, Harvey P. Fenn, died of fever at LeI)anon, Kentucky, I eh- 

ruary 22, 1862. . . 

Corp. ^lerwin Blanchard. discharged l)y reason of severe injury 
caused liy his horse leaping a fenc while endeavoring to escape the 
enemy, ])y whom he was cai)tured and paroled. 

Corp. Lewis R. Penfield, promoted to sergeant October 2, 1862; 
re-enlisted as veteran volunteer, January 4, 1864. 

liesides tlie deatlis of ("orporals Starr and Fenn, Tliomas Wliito 
died at Lebanon, Kentucky, February IS, 1862, and Leonard G. Starr, 


who joined tlii' liiiltciy ScpU'ialn'r 28, 18G2, died oL' IVvcr on tlu; 27tli of 
Novciidn'i" I'ollowiiiff. 

iJalliTy J*., I''ii'.s1, Ohio Ijij^ht Artiili'i'y, wiis off^Miu/cid iiL (Jariip J)cii- 
iiisoii and miistfrud into the sca-viee October 8, 18U1, with an aggivj^atc 
slrt'iigtli of 147 iiujii. liy onU'i- of Clon. 0. M. iMiteliull it left Cincinnati 
to report to (Jen. Oeorf^e 11. Thomas, then in eoiiunand at Camp Diek 
Robinson," Kentucky. The iirst experience it had in tiic Held was a brisk 
little affair at Camp Wild Cat, in which it fired twelve rounds and 
silenced one of the enemy's guns. From Wild Cat it inarched to 
London, Kentucky, where it remained two weeks. On November 5th, 
the battery, under orders, joined tlie Seventeenth Oliio at Fishing Creek, 
and was engaged during the wiiole of that nionlli in skirmishes and scout 
duty, with licadquartei-s at Somerset. On January 27th, it moved to 
]\Iill Springs to re-enforce General Thomas. It took part in tlie battle 
of Mill Springs, and performed very effective service. On February 
lOtli, it took up its line of marcli for Louisville, Kentucky, where it 
embarked for Nashville; arriving there, it was assigned to Colonel 
Barnett's Artillery Reserve. 

On July 18, 1862, the battery reported to Major-General Nelson at 
]\Iurfrces))oro, and during the months of July, August and September 
was almcst constantly on the march, and frequently engaged in 
skirmishes with the enemy. On December 26th it moved with its brigade 
and division from Nashville towards IMurfreesboro, skirmishing heavily 
in and about La Vergne. It was there that John Blanchard, afterward 
county recorder, lost his right arm. In the battle of Stone River 
Battery B was stationed on the left of General Negley's division. It 
was involved in the disaster on the right, but succeeded in withdrawing 
all its guns from the field. It bore its full part in the battle, and lost 
seventeen men, killed, wounded, and missing, and twenty-one horses 
killed. On June 24, 18G3, it joined in the advance of the National forces 
on Tullahoma, and on September 19th, it engaged in the battle of 
Chickamauga. On the next day it was charged by the enemy, but 
succeeded in beating him off. A second charge soon followed which 
overwhelmed the battery, and it was obliged to leave two of its guns 
in tlie hands of the enemy. In this charge sevei'al members of the 
battery were wounded and captured. This was at the siege of Chat- 
tanooga. On January 4, 1864, sixty-five of the original members of 
Ihc batlery I'e-ciilisled as vetci'uns, and wen; furh)ughed home for thirty 
days. The liattery returned to Na.shville in JMarcli, and on the IGtli 
of tliat iiionlh reported at Bridgeport, Ahd)ama, where it remained until 
July, 1866. It was then sent home to Columbus and tliere uiusterod 
o\it, being ouv of llie last organizations to leave llie .service. 

Vol. I— IS 


Fifteenth Ohio Independent Battery 

01' 1.1ios(; j'csidiiif,' in Loniin County .Jaiiics I'liirdick, i)roinot(;(l from 
firsf, lieutenant, was at one time L-aptain of the Kiflcentli Independent 
]5attery. The nieinbei-s who died were as follows: William lierry, at 
Vicksljurg, iMississippi, Aiigust 7, 1863 ; George AV. Knoup, at Memphis, 
Tennessee, September 23, 1862; John H. Taylor, Curtis E. Thompson, 
and Lyman W. Smith, in the same city, during 1863; Chester Phillips, 
at Collier^'i]le, Tennessee, February 7, 1863; John H. Taft, at LaGrange, 
Tennessee, January 23, 1863, and Charles I. Spencer, at home (date 

The Fifteenth Ohio Independent Battery was recruited by Capt. J. 
B. Burrows and First Lieut. Edward Spear, Jr. ; was mustered into 
the service February 1, 1862; ordered to Cincinnati, where it embarked 
February 16th, under orders for Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, but on 
reaching Paducah, Kentucky, was disembarked by order of General 
Sherman. Horses were drawn here and the battery embarked to 
report to General Grant, at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee. "While pro- 
ceeding up the Tennessee and when near Whitehall Landing, the boat 
was fired into by guerrillas from the shore. The fire was returned with 
shell, under cover of which the men of the battery landed, drove the 
guerrillas from their cover and captured some prisoners and horses. 
In this expedition, the battery lost one man wounded. It reported to 
General Grant on the 20th, and was assigned to the Fourth Division, 
Army of the Tennessee. The batteiy was on the first line during the 
siege of Vicksburg, having position on the Hall's Ferry Road, southeast 
of the city and within 200 yards of their line. In this, as in all 
engagements in which the battery figured, most excellent service was 
performed. The Fifteenth was with General Sherman and participated 
in his famous "march to the sea." An incident is related that at the 
battle of Chattahoochee River a bird flew upon the shoulder of Private 
Scth Bowers, who was acting No. 1 on one of the guns, where it remained 
during the engagement. At every discharge of the piece, the bird would 
thrust its head in the man's hair. After the recoil, it would again take 
its position on the man's shoulder and watch the operations of loading. 
After the battle, th(^ bird remained around the men's quarters, but, 
after a few days, disappeared. 

The Fifteenth Batt<'ry was mustered out June 20, 1865, at Columbus, 

Second Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Cavalry 

The Second Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Cavalry was organized at 
Cami) \Vad(', Cleveland, in the fall of 1861, and served for three years. 


A ])ortioii of the men then re-enlisted, thereby heeoining veterans of 
the serviee. 

'I'h(! local e()iii|)any, II, was imistered into tlu; serviee in Oetolier, 
]8G1, and served as a body nntil He[)teiiiber, .1805. 

Coinniissioned officers: Captiiin, Aaron K. Lindsley, discharged 
February 15, 1863, and second lieutenant, Franklin S. Case, promoted 

The Second Cavalry was recruited and organized in the sunnuer and 
autuinu of 1801, under the supervision of the lion. Benjamin F. Waile 
and Hon. John Ilutehins, who received special authority from the war 
office. The regiment rendezvoused at Camj) Wade, near Cleveland, 
Ohio, and the last company was mustered in on the 10th of October, 
1861. lieing the first cavalry regiment raised in the northern part of 
the state, it drew into its ranks a large proportion of wealth, intelligence, 
capacity and culture. Men and officers were almost wholly from the 
AVestcrn Reserve, and represented every trade and profession. The 
Second was uniformed, mounted and partly drilled at Cleveland, and 
in November was ordered to Camp Dennison, where it received sabers 
and contiiHied drilling during the month of December. Early in <lan- 
luiry, 1862, under ordors from the war ticpartment, the Second pro- 
ceeded, by rail to Platte City, ]\Iissouri. 

On the 18th of February, Doubleday's Brigade, of which the Second 
was a part, was ordered to march through the border counties of 
]\Iissouri to Fort Scott, Kansas. On the 22d of February, and during 
tile march, a scouting i)arty of 120 men of the Second Ohio Cavalry was 
attacked in the streets of Independence, jMissouri, by an equal force, 
under command of Quantrel. As the result of the Second's "first fight," 
Quantrel was routed in fifteen minutes, losing five killed, four woiuided 
and five captured, including one officer. The Second lost one killed and 
three wounded. Arriving at its destination about March 1st, it remained 
for several months doing garrison and scouting duty. In the fall fol- 
lowing, it participated in tlie campaign ending in the victory of Prairie 
(Jrove, Arkansas, December ;j, 1862. It also fougiit at Carthage and 
Xewtonia, Missouri, and at Cow Hill, Wolf Creek, and AVhite Kiver, 
Arkansas. In November and December, the Second was transferred to 
the Eastern army, moving by rail to Camp Chase, Ohio, to remount and 
refit for the field. Tliis accomi)lished, the regiment left early in Ai)ril 
for Somerset, Kentucky, and remained in camp lliei'e, witli the exception 
of an occasional reconnoissance, until tlie 27th of June. 

In May and June, the Second fought twice at Steubenville, twice at 
Monticello, and once at Columbia, Kentucky. On the 1st of July it 
joined in tlie pursuit of John I\Iorgan, and followed the great raider 


1,200 miles, through three states, marching twenty liours of the twenty- 
four, living wholly upon the gifts of the i)eoi)le for twenty-seven days 
and finally sharing in the capture at Buffington Island. On January 1, 
18G4, nearly the entire regiment re-eidisted and it was mustered out at 
Camjj Ciiase, Ohio, September 11, 1865. 

The Second Regiment campaigned through thirteen states and one 
territory. It marched an aggregate distance of 27,000 miles; fought in 
ninety-seven battles and engagements; served in five different armies, 
forming a continuous line of armies from the headwaters of the Arkansas 
to the mouth of th& James. 

The Twelfth Ohio Cavalry 

Company F, of the Twelfth Cavalry Regiment, served from October, 
1863, to November, 1865. First Lieut. Reuben XL Sardane, of Lorain 
County, who had been first lieutenant, was promoted to the captaincy. 

The fatalities: Sergt. AVilliam W. Worcester, died October 19, 1864; 
Sergt. Charles II. Sherburne, died from wounds December 13, 1864; 
Corp. George C. Rising, died March 20, 1864; Charles :\I. Hall, died 
from wounds, June 16, 1864. t 

The Twelfth Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, was recruited dur- 
ing the months of September and October, 1863, from nearly every 
county in the state, rendezvousing at Camp Taylor, near Cleveland, 
where it was mustered into the service on the 24th day of November, 
1863. One-half of the regiment was engaged in doing guard duty, 
during the winter of 1863-64, on Johnson's Island, having been ordered 
thither on the 10th of November. The regiment was mounted, armed 
and equipped at Camp Dennison, and moved successively to Louisville, 
Lexington and i\Iount Sterling, Kentucky. Little of importance tran- 
spired until the 23d of ]\Iay, when the regiment was a portion of General 
Burbridge's command on the first Saltville raid. On the arrival in the 
vicinity of Pound Gap, after eight days' marching, it became evident 
that John ^Morgan had entered Kentucky, and the command immediately 
started in pursuit. After severe marching, with but little time for 
eating or sleeping, the command arrived at Mount Sterling on the 9th 
of June, 1864. The Twelfth was closely engaged with the enemy at 
this point, behaving with so mucli gallantry, as to be especially coin- 
l)limcnlcd by General |{iir!)ridge. Tlie Tweinii again overlook iMorgau 
at Cynthiana and fought with him, scattering his forces in every 
direction. The regiment charged through the town, crossed the river, 
and pursued the retreating cavalrymen for tliree days. During the 
second (■xi)edition to Saltville in Se[)teml)er, it became necessary to 


silence ii liiittcry jjosted U])on a liill; the 'I'weH'tli, with its Iji-if^ade, 
(•h<u-{:;e(i ii[) tiio iiill and ilrovc the eiicniy from liis works. Afterward 
the rcf^iiiicnt. ciicaiiipt'd at Jjexinj^toii, until ordered to Crali Oreiiard to 
join anotiier Saltviilo expedition. 

The divi.sion left Crab Orehard on the 22d of November, during a 
severe snow-storm, and moved to Bean's Station. On the night of their 
arrival the Twelfth made a sueee.ssful reconnoissance to Rogerville. It 
did its full share of duty under General Stoneman, at Bristol, at Abing- 
don, at i\larion, and thence as support to General Gillam in his pursuit 
of Vaughn. It then returned to jMarion, where (Jeneral Stoneinan 
engaged Breckenridge for forty hours and finally defeated him. In 
this engagement all of the Twelfth bearing sabers, participated in a 
grand eiiarge, driving back the enemy's cavalry. The regiment behaved 
gallantly throughout the fight, and received the praise of Generals 
Stoneman and Burbridge. On the 21st of December Saltville was cap- 
tured, and the forces returned to Richmond, Kentucky, where head- 
(luartcrs were established. As a result of this raid four boats were 
captured, 150 miles of railroad, thirteen trains and locomotives, lead 
mines, salt works, iron foundries; and an immense quantity of stores of 
all soi-ts were destroyed. During tlie raid. Company V acted as escort 
to General liurbridge. About tiie middle of Febi-uary the regiment was 
thoi'oughly armed, ecpiipped and mounteil. It then pi'oceeded by way 
of Louisville and the I'iver to Nasliville, arriving .March 6th. Thence it 
irmved to i\lurfreesboro and Knoxville, where it again formed part of a 
raiding expedition under General Stoneman. Tlie Twelfth finally 
rendezvoused at Nashville, and was mustered out on the 14tli of Novem- 
ber, 1865; tJien proceeded to Columbus, Ohio, where ii was i)aid and 
discharged on the 22d and 2;{d of the same month, after two years of 
incessant service. 

Other Civil War Org.\nization.s 

Among otlier military organizations which may be credited, at least 
in jiai't, to Lorain County, may be mentioned: Company R, Sixteenth 
Ohio Infantry, whicli served more than a year of the later war period; 
Company G, Seventy-second Regiment, with a record of over three years 
in the field; Company C, Eighty-sixth Regiment, a six months' organi- 
zation; ('oinpany D, Eighty-seventh lieginuint, which served tliree 
months; Company C, One Hundred and Eleventh, a three years' com- 
mand ; Company K, One Hundred and Fifteenth Regiment, Ohio 
National Guard (100 day men) ; Company A, B and G, Twenty-seventh 
Regiment United States Coloi-ed Troojjs; Fifth Independent Company 


oi' Sharp SlioottTS, wlio .served from Deceiiibcr, 18G2, to July, 18()5, and 
the so-ealled Hoffman's Battalion, comprising' Companies B, C, D, E, F, 
I, On(; Iliindred and Twenty-eighth Kegiment, Ohio Volunteer Jnl'aiitry. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Regiment, although chielly 
oeeujjied in guard duty within the borders of the state, was an organi- 
zation of three years' troops, enlisted and mustered into the United 
States service the same as other volunteer troops, and was liable to 
service wherever required. It attained maximum strength on the 25th 
of December, 1863, and consisted of four companies before known as 
the Hoffman Battalion raised at different times in 1862. At and before 
the time of forming the regiment, the* Hoffman Battalion was under the 
command of a lieutenant-colonel and major. Six new companies were 
mustered in at Camp Taylor, near Cleveland, between the 8th and 15lh 
of Jaiuiary, 1864. The four old companies had been on duty at John- 
son's Island n(>arly all the time since their muster-in, but had frequently 
furnished detachments for service elsewhere, including a shoi't l)Ut active 
cami)aign in pursuit of Confederate troops in West Virginia in 1862. 
The One Hujidred and Twenty-eighth was chiefly occupied at th(^ 
frontier posts of Johnson's Island and Sandusky. Fortune did not give 
the regiment an opportunity to win a battle-record, but it performed all 
the duties assigned to it with faithfulness and efficiency — both essentials 
of military sei'vice and success. The regiment left the island on July 10, 
186.'), aiul was nuistered out at Camp Ciiase, on the 17th of that month. 

The fatalities reported during tiie foregoing period of service, were 
as follows: Company B — Privates William II. Lindman and Amasa 
S(]uires, the former of whom died July ;{, 1862, and the latter, Novem- 
ber 8, 186-1. 

Company 1) — Sergt. Andrew Ryan, died ]\Iarch 2i), 186:}; privates, 
George Piiipijs (died October 24, 1862), Henry C. Royce (February 15, 
1863), and Andrew F. Hamlin (January 23, 1863). 

Company E — (ieorge Puff died January 2, 1865. 

Fifth Regiment, Ohio National Cuakd 

Tile Ohio National Guard, as the organization affects Lorain Countj', 
originated in the Ely Guards, afterward changed to the Hart Guards. 
They were nuistered into the service of the state in July, 1877, to serve 
foi- a ])criod of live years. The organization was soon afterward assigned 
to till' Fifteenth Regiment as Company G, with liead([uarters at Cleve- 
land. AVith the subsequent reorganization of the Ohio National Guard, 
into nine regiments of infantry, with cavalry, artillery, signal and 
cnginrcring corps, and marine companies, to complele the slate militiiry 


system, tlie various units of tiu' Fifth liogiiiieut were distributed tlirough 
Nortlicastoru Oliio. Company headcjuarters were' establislied at Cleve- 
land, lierea, J'llyria, Noi'walk, Oeneva, Warren and Youngstown. Com- 
j»any H is stationed at Eiyria, with Capt. Roy E. Ilultz in eomniand. It 
was oiganized at Elyria January 25, ]!)07. Captain Ilultz' pi'edecessors 
were Captains II. W. Davis, S. A. Beyland, J. L. Richey and II. B. 
Clawson. The present strength of tlie eompany is fifty, ineluding three 



Great Ixdian Shore Trail — The (Jirdleu and State Roads — Early 
Post Routes — Canals Give Lorain the Go-By — The Old Turn- 
pikes — The Stage Era — Elyria, First Railroad Center — Rail- 
roads Crush Side- Wheel Steamers — The Awakening ov Lorain — 
"When the Railroad Came" — The Great Railroad Docks — The 
New York Central Systeji — The Electric Lines — ]\L\cadam 

Witli the exception of tlie Indian trail along the lake shore, which 
was also used by traders, missionaries, soldiers and the pioneer settlers 
of the Western Reserve, the territory now embraced in Lorain County 
had nothing which by the most painful stretch of the imagination could 
be called a road, when its first settlements connneneed in 1807-10. 
Inland, there were numerous Indian patlis which led from one Indian 
village to another, or from stream to stream. The Indians used the 
creeks and streams for transportation sometimes, but as their courses 
were winding and therefore longer than land trails most of their travel 
was done on foot. 

Great Indian Shore Trail 

But until Lorain County was well settled the lake shore route was 
the main line by land. In 1796, the same year that the surveyors came 
into the R<.'serve, the Moravian missionary, Ileekewelder, published a 
map based on his travels, showing numerous Indian paths, the main 
trails being from Pittsburgh, through what is now Trumbull County, 
toward the lake shore. It followed the shores of Lake Erie from a point 
further east and in the direct line of travel most convenient for the 
Indians of the Six Nations and white travelers from AVestern New York 
and Northern New England. The trails .shown on the Ileekewelder map 
all converge at the mouth of the Cuyahoga. The main lake slioi'e line 


:.)i 'l/.L. 


ol travel readies tlie IMoraviaii villages oecupied lemjjorarily in 1786-87, 
altiioiigli its lessening iiiiportaiiee is evident after it passes tlie mouth of 
the Cuyahoga. 


One of the first woi'ks aeeomplislied liy tlie surveyors employed by 
the Conneotieut Land Company was to lay out a road along the old 
Jiidiau trail, from the nortlieastern eoriier of the Reserve at Conneaut 
to Cleveland. Where it entered the timber the trees were girdled thirty- 
three feet eaeh side, and for that reason was called the (iirdled Road. 
It was completed in 1798, and about the same time the more southern 
thoroughfare, known as the Kirtland or State Road, was put through 
from tlie Pennsylvania line by way of what are now Trumbull, (Jeauga 
and Lake counties to Fairport, at the moutli of (irand River midway 
between Conneaut and Cleveland. 

Later, came tlie old ChillicotlK; Road, ])ut tlu'ougii from Kirtland, 
liake County, on the line of tlie State Road to Ciiillicotlie, tiie state 

Ihit all these roads were of little benefit to the residents of Lorain 
County, who came to the country some years later. In fact, it was not 
until tiiirty years after the laying out of the Girdled Road along the 
lake shore tiiat its settlers, even a few miles inland, saw any material 
improvement in their transportation conveniences. 

Early Post Routes 

The mail in the AVestern Reserve west of Cleveland was carried 
by Horace Gun in 1808. The route was from Cleveland to the Mauniee. 
The only houses on the route were one at Black River, occupied by 
A/.ariah Peebe, and one at IMilan, occupied by a Frenchman liy tiie name 
of Flemins. In I80'J the mail over this route was carried by Beiioni 
Adams, of Columbia. It recpiired two weeks to make the trip. The only 
I'oad was the Indian trail along the lake, and the carrier went on foot. 
There was no postoffice between Cleveland and the ]\Iaumee, no way 
mails, and but few who could eitlier read or write. The carrier was 
compelled, from the length of the route, to lodge one niglit in the Black 

In 1818 a post route was established between Cleveland and Lower 
Sandusky, and Elyria became one of the .stations, with Ilcman Ely as 
postmaster. The official duties were not espcH-ially wearing upon his 
vigorous pliysifjue, as the mail for the year was carried Imt once a 

frm it'itSHiliv 


week, and aftXT tliat, i'oi- .some tiiiio, twice weekly; but even these uecoiii- 
iiiotlations were eonsidereil somewhat unusual bel'ofe the year 1820. 
Judye Ely continued to be Elyria's postmaster for fifteen years. 

The postmastersliip was not lucrative enough to warrant any political 
tight over it, but the mail route was considered by the pioneer business 
nuin as something quite desiral)le. In 1826 Artenias Beebe and Ezra 
Adams became proprietors of the route, and in 1827 the former went to 
AVashington and, through the iniiuenee of Judge Ely and Elisha Whittle- 
sey, secured the contract for carrying the mail from Cleveland to 
Fremont, Sandusky County, and as his six-passenger coach was the first 
to appear in tlie western part of the Reserve, it created fully as much 
excitement as did the first railroad train which commenced to run 
through tile same country a quarter of a century later. 

Canals Give Lorain the Go-By 

The Beel)e stage line was something, but far from satisfactory. Even 
in tile late '20s and the '30s, when Ohio's system of internal improve- 
ments was under way, the canals and the turnpikes built between the 
lake and the Ohio passed either to the east or the west of Lorain County. 
Clex'eland and Sandusky were naturally favored at the expense of the 
City antl County of Lorain. 

The Old Turnpikes 

Even as late as 1830 there were only about 100 miles of public roads, 
or turnpikes, in the entire territory of the old Western Resei"ve, and 
none in Lorain County. The First Range turnpike, sixteen miles in 
length, commenced near tlie northeast corner of the state and ended at 
the mouth of Conneaut Creek ; the Trumbull and Ashtabula turnpike, 
forty-eight miles, was fi-om AVarren to Ashtabula, and the third 
thoroughfare, fifty-one miles, had its southern terminus at Wooster, 
Wayne County, and followed the route to Cleveland by way of Medina. 
In the year mentioned (1830), a fourth turnpike was under construction 
from Columbus to Sandusky, 106 miles; but neither did this penetrate 
any Lorain County territory. These highways are mentioned to show 
the paucity of such accommodations in other parts of the state, more 
thickly settled, and to indicate that the people of Lorain County were 
not so fai- behind the times after all. 

The Stage Era 

In 1820 a stage line was also established between Cleveland and 
Columbus, and soon thereafter to Pittsburgh and Buffalo. Tliis system, 



with Cli'voland as its center, eoiiiici'ted with tlie Elyria-Norwalk line, 
eoiitrolletl by Mr. Jioehe; so that tliu county seat was l)y no means isolated 
duiiii^' the thirty years which covei'ed the sta<^<; era, whiin the eiKiclies 
thiiiuh'red ah)n^' the i-idj^e i-oads which parallehnl the lake sliore and the 
liuf^de and tlie vvliip-erack eidivened the villages and lianilets along the 
well-traveh'd routes. 

Elyki.v, First Iv.mlkoau Center 

Before the coming of the railroads many roads had been opened in 
Lorain County away from the lake shore, especially between Wellington, 
01)erlin, Klyria and Lorain, and in 1850 commenced the new era. ' Li 
tluit year tiie Junction Railroad, now tlie Lake Shore and I\liclugaii 
iSouthern, was completed, l)y way of Elyi-ia and Amheiist, looping south- 
ward through the county several miles from Lake Erie and Lorain. It 
was not until 1866 that the line to Toledo, by way of Oberlin and 
Norwalk, Huron County, was opened, its completion gave Elyria two 
oast and west outlets by rail, and Lorain seemed destined to be neglected 
by all enterprises designed to furnish adequate land traiisi)ortation. 

liAnj!()Ai),s Crhsii SioE-WiiEEL Stkamicrs 

Then, in 1850-52 came the Cleveland, Colum])us & Cincinnati, Cleve- 
land & I'ittsbui'gh, Cleveland & Toledo and tli(! (Cleveland & Ashtabula, 
or ijake Shore, connecting with the New York Central and Erie lines. 

"Thus, as early as 1852," .says a local writer, "a complete line was 
in operation from the seacoast to Chicago, and even to Koek Island on 
the Mississippi river. This great system of travel and had 
the immediate effect of sweeping from the chain of lakes, as it had the 
stages from the land, the line of splendid side-wheel steamers and float- 
ing palaces that for many years had plied between Bulfalo and Chicago, 
each crowded with hundreds of passengers. 

"The railroads changeil the order of business at Cleveland, and for 
a brief season the lake conunerce at that port presented a gloomy aspect, 
and the total ruin of the marine industry was prophesied. Eortuiuitely, 
however, tlie Cleveland & IMahoning Valley Railroad was soon completed, 
extending into the great coal fields, opening up a new territory to trade 
and laying the foundation and stimulating manuracluring enterprises." 

The City of Lorain passed through the same experience as Cleveland. 
The causes were general and widespread and in both eases I lie I'csuit of 
|>lacing them in touch, by rail, with the rieji coal districts of tlie .soiitii- 
easl, was lo stimulate them as indiisli'ial centers, lo give Iheir lake 



foiiiinercc a lU'W lease of life uiuU'r vn.stly eiilar^ced conditions, and 
event iially to fiirjiisli tliem willi (•oiiii)lete railway eoiineelions as well, 
east and \V(;st. In otliei- words, as I'ar as lliis county was concerned, 
J>oi-ain had now tlie advantage of Elyria and the interior points. 

The Awakening of J.okain 

With the advent of the year 1S72 (-aine the notable awakening-. The 
Clevelanil, ivoraia & Wheeling Railway was jjiojeeted, anil in August 
of tiiat year its first passenger train entered Lorain. Its southern 
terminus was then still far north of the Oiiio Kiver, but the road nevor- 
tlieless served as an oi)en door yielding eoiiununication with a world 
wliirli iiad been shut oil', tapping at Elyria the great east autl west trunk 
line wliose advantages hatl uuiintained cominereial supreuuu'y at the 
county seat and, opening to the vast and prolific coal regions, it traversed 
a i)ort a1 the nioutli oF the Black liiver whence distribution of their 
yield could be maile at a luininuini to any point upon the chain of 
lakes. The creation of tiiis direct air line, straight as the bee Hies, 
fi-oni north to south, from Lake ICrie to the Ohio Kiver, developed Loi'aiu 
as a most advantageous point of transshipment for the ore juoduced in 
the norlbern jx-niusular iron region and bi'ouglit by water to liiul con- 
version into steel in the immense mills of the rennsylvania ii'onuuisters. 
The lumber of the Wisconsin and ]\linnesota pinei'ies, seeking the least 
costly route to a market, also found here rare facilities for an interchange 
of cargoes. AVith such a start, accelerated by the natural reijuirements 
of commerce, that vast trade wherein the ore and hnuber of the north- 
west exchanges itself on I^orain docks for the fuel aiu! mill products of 
the ceidi'al .states, became established and thiived anuizingly. .\either 
tlu> rail lines nor the lake freighters are compelled to go empty-iiautled 
either in oi- out. The one bears in its coal and returns with ore and 
lumber. The other discharges lumber and ore and goes back loaded 
with fuel and iron. Since 1899 the Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling line 
lias been a part of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern .system. The 
main line is from Bridgeport, Ohio, to Cleveland, 160 miles, with a 
l)ranch of thirty-one miles from Lester to Lorain. 


The Lorain Times-IIerald lias the following regarding this first of 
the railroads which started the city toward pei-manent growtii and 
prospei'ity; the account fills in with details the general narrative which 
has ali-eady been presented: " 'AVhen the I'ailroad canu'.' So spoke 


the lioraiuitcs of aiiotluT day, datiiitj; tlic liappciiiu^s of tlieir lives from 
llir (vciil llial iiiai'krd in their coiiiiiimiity a Krciit awalcciiiiij,' -an 
awakcniiit,' that followed yearH of diseoiiraf^'inj,' n-lupse. When tin- 
j'ailroad came, liOrain was yiveii a new lease on life. 

"The railroad was the Cleveland and Tuscarawas Valley, which line, 
tappinj;' the coal fields of soullieasterii Ohio, touched the banks of lilack 
Itiver in 1872. Since lcS72 that pioneer railroad that hrout,dit renewed 
hope and communal life has i)asscd through eiiangcs in name and owner- 
ship, I)ut day by day and year by year the foresight of its founders has 
been vindicated. 

"Today that which was the Cleveland and Tuscai-awas Valley rail- 
road is a division of the Baltimore and Ohio, the oldest railroad .system 
in America and one of the greatest. At its Lorain terminal the Balti- 
more i.^ Ohio is transshipping annually quantities of coal and iron that 
are running into liillions of tons. Its facilities here represent an invest- 
ment running into millions of dollars. Hundreds of men find employment 
upon its tiMininal premises. To her wonderful harbor and to the Balti- 
more and Ohio railroad Lorain must give the credit for her reputation 
as a leader among the shipping points of the Great Lakes. 

"It was the failure of the Cleveland and Toledo railroad to pass 
through Lorain and tlie selection of the route throiigh the county .seat, 
Elyria, that brought a commercial relapse to Lorain (Charleston then) 
after the lieydey years of wooden shipbuilding and lake trading. Com- 
merce Howed to Klyria and the village at the mouth of tiie Black River 

"15ut the coal fields of southeastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania and 
West \'irginia were overflowing with a product that could find no outlet. 
A few men saw the possibilities of building a railroad from the coal 
mines direct to the lakes; and among these were Selah Chamberlain, 
W. S. Streator and Amasa Stone, Cleveland capitalists. ^Vith other.S' to 
aid them in linaiicing the project, Cliamberlain, Streator and Stones late 
in the 60 's organized the Cleveland and Tuscarawas Valley railroad. 
It was originally proposed that the lake terminal of the line should be 
Cleveland. The southern end was to be Uhriehsville, Ohio. 

"The project became a reality, and the Cleveland-to-IIhrich.sville line 
began o|)eration. After a year or so had ])econie so flourishing 
that an extension to Lorain was proposed. Land was i)urchased on the 
west side of Black River for dockage facilities, a right-of-way was 
impi'oved, and the Lorain braneli began operation. This was in 1872.'" 


THH (lUIOAT Railkoai) DoCKS 

Altliou^,'!! flu! (lock fjunlilics of the old (;i(!V(!l!Ui(l and TuscaniwaH 
Valley line at JiOraiii wcit at fifst ci-iidc, the of shi|)j)iiig the 
on; at tlu; ujjpcr lake rcf^ion to the I'eiinsylvaiiia nulls and reeciviiig 
coal for disti'ilHitioii throu^'hout the uoi-tliwcst was the basis of a solid 
(■oiiiiiKMTial expansion froiu tlu; (irst. Until IHH'.i \\u: southern terminus 
of the system was Uhrielisville, Tuscarawas County, where it connected 
with tlie J^^nnsylvallia system, but in that year a direct line was built 
southeast to the Ohio River, and the Cleveland, Lorain and \Yheeling, 
of the Baltimore and Ohio system, was created. Jn 1900 the Jialtiinore 
and Ohio absorbed the line and thencerorth terminal facilities at Lorain 
were expanded with redoubled speed. The story of that exjjansion, 
which is such a marked feature of the city's gi'owth, is deferred to the 
pages devoted to its history. 

The New York Central System 

Neither the City or the County of Lorain at first realized the advan- 
tages of being i)laced in railway connection with the rich and populous 
regions of three states bordering ou the Ohio River, as the entire country 
was soon in the throes of the stagnation following the panic of 1878. 
The storm and the depression had been weathered, however, by the early 
'80s, when the Nickel Plate (the New York Central) line was constructed 
nearer the lake than the old Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, and 
gave Lorain a direct east and west outlet. At the same time, such lesser 
])oints as Avon, Sheffield and Brownhelm were accommodated. 

It ma}' serve to create a better understanding on the part of 
not familiar with the relations of the great railroad systems which cover 
Northern Ohio to note that the New York Central system controls the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway Company, the main line of 
which runs from Butfalo to Toledo, via Norwalk, with a branch from 
Elyria to Milll)ury Junction, seventy-three miles. The Lake Erie, 
Alliance & Wheeling Railroad Comjiany came into the system in 1912. 

The railroad popularly known as the Nickel Plate is ol'ti(^ially 
designated as the New York, (Chicago & St. Louis, and is within the 
New York Central system. 

The Wheeling & Lake P^rie Railroad, which pa.sses through the .south- 
western ])art of the county, taking in Brighton and Wellington as 
.stations, is conti'ollcd ))y the AVabash Pitt.sburgh Terminal Railway 
("ompany. It runs from Lak(! Junction to Soutii Lorain and is for 
fi'eight .service only. 



The Electric Lines 

Tlieri! is prol);il)ly no scc.'tioii of tlie IJiiitcd States vvliieh is more 
llioroiiglily jx'ovided with electric roads than Nortlierii Ohio, and Lorain 
County is in the very lieart of tiie best system. The Lake Shore Electric 
Railway, running from Cleveland to Toledo, a distance of 125 miles, is 
the longest traction line in the United States under one management. 
It completes Lorain's free outlets to the east and west. The Cleveland, 
Southwestern and Columbus line connects J^orain, Elyria, Oberlin, 
Grafton and Amherst with minor points. A more local line is known 

Status of Lorain County Highways 

as the Lorain Street Railway, specially connecting Lorain with Oberlin, 
and is chiefly patronized by the hundreds of workmen connected with 
the great .steel plant in South Lorain. 

Macadam Roads 

Especially within the past four years, Lorain County has beei^ con- 
ducting a vigorous campaign against bad roads, with the result that 
there are now within her borders 215 miles of good macadam highways, 
fifty-seven miles of which have a bituminous surface; of the total, 165 
miles arc credited to tlie jjcriod named, 'i'lie estimated cost of construc- 
lioii is .'|il,2()(),0()(). Li addition to the macadam roads of the county, 
concrete road has been constructed to the extent of over ten miles, of 
which only about a mile has been built by the townships. The foregoing 
figures are given upon the authority of C. T. Biggs, road engineer. 



Black River "Boom" of the '30s — Rise and Pall, of Charleston — 
The Saviors of the Town — Viliage Chahtered as Lorain — First 
School and Police Department — Increase of Population — Incor- 
poration as a City — Conserving Physical and Intellectual 
Health — The Filtration Plant — The Fire Department — Early 
Educational Items — Lorain's First Union School — Special 
School Elections — Superintendents and Clerks — Statistics — 
School Population — Present School Buildings — The Lorain 
Free Public Library — The Postoffice. 

With the coming of its first railroad in 1872, the settloiiient of 
Charleston, or of Bhick River (as it was called from tlie postoffice), 
commenced to talk of villayehood, and two years tiieroafter was actually 
ineorj)Orated. It was j^roposed to incorporate as Charleston, but as it 
was necessary to have a postoffice also and there were several of that 
name in the state, the new body politic was designated as Lorain. It is 
quite probable, also, that as not a few distasteful memories were attached 
to the ohl days when the struggling town at the mouth of Black River 
was so overshadowed by the brisk railroad village and county seat, the 
reincorporation and rechristening as Lorain were matters of general 

The general causes for the stagnation of Black River and Charleston, 
which commenced with the decline of the old-time ship building and 
continuing as long as the railroads neglected her, have been stated; 
the details follow. 

Black River "Boom" of the '30s 

The Ohio Railroad was surveyed in the year 1832. It was the pioneer 
enterprise of the kind in the slate, and its route, as originally surveyed, 
led through the settlement of Black River. Tiie following year work 
was begun on the Ohio Canal, whose terminus, it was confidently 



L'Xi)c'ek'cl, would 1)l' at tlie iiioutli of the Bl.iek i{iver. The expected early 
eoiiipletioii oi' these two great eouuuereial enterprises gave a decided 
impetus to the activity of the young town, especially in the boom of real 
estate. A part ot the John S. Iteid farm at the uioiith of the river was 
surveyed into lots in 1834 by Edward Durand. Soon afterward land 
for a considerable distance around the Center was held as high as $1,000 
an acre, while village lots were almost beyond reach. The canal went to 
Cleveland, but the price of village lots and the high spirits of the 
villagers were bolstered up for some time by another anticipated canal 
and the railroad, work upon which was actually commenced in 1837. 

In 1835 tile following were the principal business men of Black 
River: William Jones, merchant; Gates & Creen, general merchandise; 
Delos Phelon and 0. Root, forwarding and commission mercliants; 
Daniel T. Baldwin, farmer; Barna IMeeker, proprietor of the old Reid 
House; A. T. Jones, blacksmith; E. ]\liller, shoemaker; Thomas Brown, 
tailor; W. E. Fitch, stave dealer; Quartus Cillmore, farmer and justice 
of the peace, and Conrad Reid, postmaster. 

i\Ir. (Jillmore controlled the original plat of Black River and in 1836 
Mr. Reid's farm adjoining was cut up into lots. This '"boom" period 
is described by Xalunn B. Gates, who, at the time was a young Vermonter 
of two years' residence at Elyria and Jilack River. lie afterward 
became one of the most prominent men in the county — in ])usiness, in 
the building and operation of mills, in the construction of plank roads 
and railroads, and in public life. Mr. Gates writes thus in the Elyria 
Republican: "In early spring, 183G, State Engineer Dodge, with his 
(•oi-j)s of assistants, came in from Coshocton, via Wooster, surveying 
what was termed tlie Kilbuck and Black River Canal. As the engineers 
came down, real estate went up. About this time Dr. Samuel Strong 
put in an appearance. Ilis first of real estate was some five 
acres of land taken from the farm of Conrad Reid adjoining the village 
plat of Black River. This was mapped out on paper, with streets, lanes, 
etc., and sales commenced. Every person in Jilack River that could 
write and had any leisure time, was set to writing out articles of agree- 
ment for the Doctor and his purchasers. The five acres were soon 
exhausted and the Doctor l)0ught six acres from the same farm adjoining 
the five already platted. All the Black River clerical force was again 
employed writing land contracts. About this time the great patroon, 
IT. C. Stevens, i)ut in his appearance and gobljled up all that was left 
for sale. Fie purchased the residue of Ihe (Conrad Reid farm, entering 
into coiiti'act to i)ay for the same seventy-five thousand dollai-s. Tie also 
purcliased of Quartus Gillmore a third-interest in the original plat of 
Black River for a lilieral sum. We all dabbled in city lots more or les.s, 



and nearly everybody in Black River and a good many in Elyria got 
j-i,;|i — oil paper — in a very .siiort lime. Jl. C. Stevens claimed to bo 
worth liair a million — in lact, we wt.-i'e Jill rieli." 

Rise and Fall of Chakliostun 

In 1836 the village was honored by the Legislature with a corpora- 
tion charter by the name of Charleston, and in the spring of 1837 the 
first and only charter election under that name was held. As that set 
of officials never entered upon their official duties, their names did not 
become a matter of record. 

Charleston's monopoly of the grain business of much of the lake 
region of Northern Ohio continued for ten years or more. It had stores, 
grain warehouses and hotels, property was lield at a high figure and its 
population reached several hundred. Of course, it is known to those 
at all acquainted with state history that the original Ohio Railroad com- 
pletely collapsed; but as long as other neighboring towns did not secure 
railway connections Charleston, with its tine harbor and water transpor- 
tation by lake, was not materially affected. But in 1851 its grain trade 
was seriously curtaileil by the building of the Cleveland, Cohunbus and 
Cincinnati Railroad, and in 1853 its gloom increa.sed by the commence- 
ment of the Cleveland & Toleilo road. These two lines of land travel 
gave Elyria the upper hand, and Charleston fell into a dead faint. Its 
hotels practically closed ; its merchants de])arted ; its warehouses were 
pai'titioneil among the farmers of the vicinity for barns and fences; its 
cor])Oi'(ite organization was abandoned, and Charleston was placed in 
the long list of defunct paper towns. 

The Saviors of the Town 

Although corporations may die, there are always .some vital characters 
in any connnunity which has once prospered who refuse to siiccumb to 
the general paralysis. "Not dead," they insist, "but only sleeping." 
Several were left on the site of Charleston who still had firm faith in 
the ultimate triumph of its favorable geographic i)osition for purposes 
of connnerce and indu.strial expansion. Of these were IT. R. Penfield 
and S. 0. Edison. ]\Ir. Penfield almost at his own expense, had a survey 
iiiadi- from Kocky River to V'ermilion, through Black River (as the 
])lac(' again came to Ik; called), for the ])roposed Cleveland, Rort Clinton 
& Toledo Railroad; but capitalists could not be induced to fostei- the 
scheme. Mr. Edison, also a large owner of land, established a charcoal 
riirnaee and bnilt a sawmill on the river nearly a mile from its nioulli. 



Tlic I'liniiicc was iil'tcrwai'd iHinicd to tlic ground. Yet Toi* two iiicii to 
thus show tlicir faith in tiie liiud i'ouudiuy of a city at the nioiilh of ilio 
Jihicic Jiivcr held tiie lo(;aiity in public vic^w, and wiutu lh<; Lake; Slion; 
& Tuscarawas VaUcy Railroad iiualiy cauic in 1H72, such faith hecainc a 
Ijj'of^ix'ssivo realization. 

Village Chaktkueu as Luiuin 

At a regular meeting of the Lorain County eoniniissioners, late in 
January, IST-i, that body unanimously granted to Black River a charter 
of incorporation under the name of Charleston, but the authorities at 
Washington refused to give the town a postotlice with that name, which 
liad aireaily l)een granted elsewhere in tlie state. At the request of 
titi/eus J^orain was therefore substituted, ami under that name it 
received its charter. 

The first election of the reincorporated village was held on April 6, 
1874, with the following choice: Conrad Reid, mayor; p]. Gregg, 
treasurer; II. A. Fisher, clerk; E. C. Kiiniey, civil engineer; Quart us 
(iillmoi'e, nuirshal; R. J. Cowley, street commissioner; E. Gillmore, 
Thomas (iawn, E. T. Peck, John Stang, James Porter and F. AY. Edison, 
eouneilmen; Drs. R. 0. Rockwood and A. Beatty, James Connelly, E. 
Swartwood, AVilliam Cunningham and Beaver Brown, l)oard of health. 

FiusT School and Police Dei-artment 

The yeai- after tiie village was reincoi'porated under the name of 
Lorain, the old wooden building afterwai-d used as a fire station for 
No. 1 was replaced by a four-room brick structure, wiiich is now the 
middle ])ortion of the Washington sehoolhouse. Then, it was considered 
imposing and an evidence of civic enterprise and digiiity. The school 
and the local system was also under the first superintendent. 

The peace and dignity of the village was further per.sonified in 
Lance Bridge, who had been tender at the lighthouse for several years 
and when the corporation was created was appointed marshal. One 
who knew of those times as.serts "There wasn't much for a mar.shal to 
do. Nor would the duties of lighthouse tender consume all of tlie time 
of an active man like Bridge. His services in other than purely official 
directions were cheerfully volunteered and gratefully received. When 
necessity demanded, the marshal dire(de(l funerals. At the. laundiings 
of file wooden .sidling vessels in the shipyards that dotted the river and 
lake banks, his two-fold representation of the majesty of the government 
of the United States and of tlie government of the village of Charleston 



threw ail agrceahle ylaiaour over liis nionieiitary authority of master of 
(;ereiiionies. lie was a versatile man, was Lorain's lirst police depart- 


liy J 880 the population of Lorain liad reached 1,51)5 and three years 
afterward, when direct railroad connection with the southeastern coal 
fields was secured through the Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling line, her 
expansion became really noteworthy among the growing ports of the 
Great Lakes. In 1890 the population of Lorain was •i,863, an increase 
of 300 per cent ; in 1900, it was 16,028, and in 1910, 28,883. The estimate 
for 1916 was 33,000. 

Incoki'ouation as a City 

As Lorain dates her revival and awakening from the time "when 
the railroad came" in 1872, so her people consider tliat the really modern 
epoch of her development originated witii the planting of the great 
Johnson steel mill on her site in 1894. That was the leader of a nohle 
procession of industries. In that year the local government also became 
a municipality, the first election, in tiie spring of 1894, resulting as 
follows: ^layor, George Wickens; clerk, J. 15. Chapman; treasurer, 
John Stang; city solicitor, C. G. Washburn; city engineer, L. A. Fauver; 
marshals, Ciiarles Doll and G. J.' Braman. 

Councilmen — First Ward, E. M. Pierce and F. W. Pierce ; Second 
Ward, C. E. llagernum and II. Griffiths; Third Ward, William Mc- 
Allister and James Reid; Fourth Ward, Frank Snow and E. A. Ault. 

Conserving Physical and Intellectual Health 

Lorain's remarkable expansion of population was attended with the 
development of measures and institutions tlesigned to i)rotect the public 
health and furnish the pi'ovisions for popular education demanded by 
all iiiU'lligeiit communities. The churches and societies developed with 
the schools and llie sanitary systems, but tiiey were in the domain of 
private activities and have a i)lace of their own in this history. 

The Fir/ruATio.Nf Plant 

TIk! main considerations foi- conserving the public health are the 
pi'opcr disposition ol' the sewage and an ade(|uate and pui-e su|)|)ly of 


watfi". liotli oi' tlifst; liOi'aiii now enjoys, liiit did not ol)tiiiii without 
careful eonsideration, luird work and ^'reat expense. The filtration 
l)lant, wliieh is the ^'eni of the Kyst<Mii, t,Mves Lorain as healthful a water 
supply as can be i'ound anywlua-o. 

"Tiu! first installation," says Thomas II. Tristram, suporinteiideiit 
of filtration and long conneeted with the system, "was luiilt in 1884, 
and eonsisted of an intake, pumping station and distribution system. 
The method was to pump the water direct to the consumer witliout any 
previous treatment or purification. 

"This method obtained without any very serious effect on public 
health, until the year 1892, when a system of sanitary sewers was con- 
structed in Lorain, and these carried practically all of the sewage of 
the city into Black River. The effect of this sewage, on the wholesome- 
ness of tile water supply is indicated by the fact that the typhoid death 
rate for 1893 increased to the unusually high figure of 183 per 1U0,0()0. 
A high death rate from this disease prevailed for two or three years 
after the sewers were built. 

"To remedy this disastrous ami undesirable condition tlie intelligence 
and enterprise of our citizenslii]j was exerted to the end, that in the year 
1897 a mechanical filtration plant of three million gallons daily capacity 
was l)uilt. This plant has the distinction of l)eing the first municipal 
filter i)lant in tiie country to lie Imilt ui)on a bacterial guarantee. 

"For several years after the installation of the im[)roved equipment, 
the city experienced a comparatively low death rate from typhoid until 
the latter part of the year 1903 when it beoame necessary to make exten- 
sive rei)airs to the filters, and tlie plant was shut down. The typhoid 
death rate immediately mounted upward and the rate for that year 
reached 51 per 100,000, the highest to that time since the Iniilding of 
the plant. 

"No more striking proof of the efificiency of filtration in the removal 
of pollution in a water supply can be found tlian that presented during 
the months of inactivity of the filter plant in the year 1903. 

"For a number of years the city had en.joyed a rapid growth in 
population and in the year 1905 it was found that the capacity of the 
old purification plant was exceeded by the quantity of water pumped, 
and, with commendable zeal on the part of pu1)lic officials and citizens 
to maintain the standard already attained, plans were drawn for a new 
filtration i)]ant of double flie cai)acity of the old one. 

"The new plant went info operation April, 1907; and has been in 
successful operation until the present time. 

"About the same time in wliieh the new plant went into service the 
government breakwater at the harbor entertance was being built out to 


tj ,Our.. 


the wi'stwanl and tliiTateiie'd to enclose tlie iiitalco pipes through which 
the supply was tiien Ijcing drawn. 

"Phuis wore immediately made to extend the intake to a point 
beyond the breakwater and outside the danger zone. 

"This, however, was not accomplished until the year 1912, when, in 
the month of April, the plant began receiving water through this new 
intake and has so continued to the present time. 

"With all of these improvements to the water supply, the typhoid 
death rate in Lorain has, with one or two exceptions averaged close to 
the so-called 'normal' rate of 20 per 100,000 population. ^luch can yet 
be done, however, to reduce this rate, and plans for extensions and 
improvements to the filtration system have lieen prepared and submitted 
to the State Board of Health." 

The Fike Department 

AVitli the development of the local waterworks, the protection of 
Ijorain against lire has been considered by residents and exi)erts as fully 
ade(|uatc. The large industrial plants of South liOraiu also have special 
apparatus and sources of water supply, in case of- emergencies. The 
fire department of the city compi-ises eight well-organized companies, 
with its central station on Fourth Street, all under David K. Ilatt, 
chief. Fire hydrants are distributed at convenient points throughout 
the city, and are especially easy of access in localities where the property 
interests are heaviest and where human life would be most endangered 
by a .serious (conflagration. 

Tlie i)umps at the water works drive the water through the mains 
at a pressure of sixty-five pounds to the inch for ordinary daily service. 
In case of fire, at a moment's notice, through an arrangement with the 
local telei)hone company, the pressure may be increased to 100 pounds. 
The public tests have shown that a good stream can l)e thrown 150 feet 
high through a 21/2 inch hose and a 1% nozzle. The fire apparatus is 
ui)-to-date, so tliat, taking all into consideration, the people of Loi'ain 
are not thrown into a panic at tlie sound of a fire-alarm. 

The fire fighters of Lorain connected with the department number 
more than 100 men, of whom about a tliird are i)aid. Tt costs about 
$40,000 annually to uuiintain the department. Besides two Knott 
steam engines and jilenty of hose carts, the e(iuipment includes two 
up-to-date motors. The smaller of tiie two is a combination chemical 
apparatus and hose carrier; the larger, an aerial ladder truck. Each is 
jiropelled by a six-cylinder !)0-hoi-se power gasoline motor. The aei'ial 


ti'uck carries a self-raisiiig ladder, long enough to reach the roof of tlie 
liigliest hiiilding in tlu; (tity. 

No. 1, or Central Station, on Fourth Street near Washington Aveiiuo, 
is an architectural ornament to the city, being constructed of pressed 
brick with a tile roof, bungalow style. The interior furnishings are 
handsome and the arrangements convenient and sanitary. The two 
motors are housed in No. 1, which is in the heart of the city. 

No. 7, on Fourteentli Street near Broadway, is the largest fire house 
in the county, as No. 1 is considered the most elegant. It is headquarters 
for the only all-paid fire company in the city, and has accommodations 
for twenty firemen, two pieces of apparatus and six horses. 

No. 2 Station, on Broadway between Eighteenth and Nineteentli 
streets, like several other houses, is used for apparatus and horses. 

In general, Nos. 1, 7 and 2 are designed to protect the business and 
resident districts, both down-town and up-town. 

E.\iUyY EnucATioNAi. Items 

If tile lines are drawn very clo.sely around the subject, the record of 
the public schools of Lorain commences with the incorporation of the 
village in 1874, but some of the old books in the office of the board 
of education furnish a few items of comparative interest, chiefly illustra- 
tive of how small were all educational matters in the times when 
Charleston had its "deestrict" school as a modest part of the township 
system. The first item is recorded August 30, 1862, and shows the semi- 
annual tax apportionment for the educational support of the townsliip 
to be $896.20. 

The total cost of teaching for the township in 1865 was $489.06, 
while for the year 1870 it had increased to $1,175.00. 

The first adoption of books seems to have been in 1871 and includes, 
MeGufFy's readers, Ray's arithmetics and Harvey's grammar. 

The first graded school within what is now the City of Lorain, was 
organized and housed in the old hose house which stood where our new 
modern hose house No. 1 now stands. It consisted of a two-room school 
and was the only school building within the present limits of the city 
until 1875, when the new 1)rick school, now the middle portion of the 
old Washington Street building, consisting of four rooms, wa.s completed 
and occupied. 

Lorain's First Union School 

The initial steps which led to the erection of the Lorain Union School 
wore taken at a special election held IMay l]0, 1S74, when if was unan- 

■'<^i-'M r.i'.'li 



iiiiously voted to bond tlie village in the sum of $14,000, to be used as 
follows: Two thousand dollars for the purehase of a site, $10,000 for 
the building and $2,000 for niaintenanee of the two schools witiiin the 
district. Stanley Uriftin, the contractor, completed the building during 
the following year, at a cost of $15,000. 

lienjamiu F. Bellows was accorded the honor of being the first super- 
intendent of schools. With one assistant, j\Iiss Kirkbridge, he con- 
.stituted the entire teaching force. The following year .Aliss Hannah E. 
Burrett was made the third member of the faculty. Her name will ever 
be a synonym for faithful, efficient service and devotion to the interest 
to those to whom for thirty-seven years she so unselti.shly gave the best 
years of her life. 

From 1875 to 1877 Miss Ilettie Ayres was superintendent and teacher 
of upper grades. 

Special School Elections 

A second bond election was held in June, 1882, asking for $8,000, 
for the purpose of erecting three frame schools, one to be located east 
of the river, one on the Washington Street grounds and one in the 
Jiraman addition at the south end of the city. The bond issue was lost 
by a vote of G3 to 7. Tlie next meeting night the board asked tlie people 
to bond the village for $4,500, to erect two buildings, out to be located 
east of the river and one at the south end. This election was held early 
in July and carried by a vote of 46 to 4. 

In JMay, 1883, the village carried a bond issue for $5,500, to build the 
south wing of the Washington Street building, liy a vote of 3'J to 5. four rooms, completed, $5,030. 

Superintendents and Clerks 

From 1877 to 1888, with the exception of one year, 1881-82, when 
Mr. J. A. Wilson was in charge, Mr. J. R. Rogers was the capable head 
of the system. It was during the first years of his administration that 
the schools were thoroughly organized, a definite course of study pro- 
vided, a high school organized and ecpiipped and the schools put upon a 
workable Inisincss basis. 

E. E. Raymond was superintemlent of schools from 1888 to 1890, 
and was succeeded by II. D. Ward, who served until 1905. During that 
period, from 1887 to 1899, Miss E. N. IMcConnell was ])rincipal of the 
High School and is honored for her splendid work by all those who 
have also 1)een idiiiitilied with the development of the public system. 


1). J. liooiic, tlu! present superiiiteiicleiit, was sul)seqiiently principiil. 
A. ('. 10l(li'(!(ltj;i' .siice(;e(le(l Mr. Ward as siii)eriiiteii(leiit in TJO.'j, and was 
i'ollowi'd liy Mr. I'loone in S('i)t(;nd)er, llilT). 

Tlic clci'ks of tlie board of education have l)een as follows: lO. Oill- 
morc, 18(i2-72; J. C. McDowell, 1873; Otto Hraiin, 1871-75; K. Gillmore, 
1876-79; E. C. Kinney, 1880; F. J. King, 1881-82,; Otto Braun, 1883-88; 
day Cobb, 1889-99; E. E. Hopkins, 190U-()7; E. Briiell since September 
1, 1907. 

Tile Lorain Board of Education (1916): Dr. Frank Young, presi- 
dent; H. P. Nielsen, vice president; Mrs. Eva E. Hills, R. J. Aspin and 
"W. H. Williams, other members. 


The statistics considered most germane to indicate the growth of the 
public school system in any community are those which deal with the 
progressive enrolment and increase in school property. ]\Iany educators 
consider such illustrations rather crude and materialistic, and would* 
rather gauge such progress by actual advance in methods of instruction 
and appliances to carry out approved courses of study. But, as a. rule;, 
the increase in the value of school projjerty indicates, in progressive 
eomnumities, like Lorain, an expansion of up-to-date facilities. It nuiy 
be added that the problem in Lorain is similar to that with which 
the Nciiool autiiorities of Clary, liuliana, have wrestled, as nuiny of the 
pupils are of foreign blood and the ehildi-en of those connected witii tin; 
gx-eat industries of the city. It is worthy of note tliat both tlie schools 
and the Public Library make special efforts to educate and improve this 
element, in whatever expansion is undertaken. 

School. Population 

When the old building afterward known as Fire Station Xo. 1 on 
Fourth Street was first occupied as a school in 1871, three years before 
the ineori)oration of the village, seventy-five scholars wei'e crowded into 
its two little rooms. 

The population of .school age in the township, recorded in 1870, 
nund)ered 292. 

h'ifleen yeai's later the enumeration of children of school age in the 
village alone was 885, and tlu^ following year (1886) it had increased to 
l,0:i;!. In 1SS7 the actual enrolment in tile elementary grades was 602, 
and in the high school, -10. I'^roni that year until 1894, there was a 
slow increase in the enrolment, the (igures I'or the lader year being 907 



Hov the elementary pupils and 77 for those attending high school. 
With the founding of the steel works during 1894 and the establishment 
of other large industries during the following decade, including the 
building of steel ships in 1898, the population of Lorain nearly doubled, 
witli the natural effect of pushing forward the eni'olment in a cor- 
responding ratio. From 1897 to 1902, the period of greatest industrial 
expansion, the enrolment in the Lorain city schools increased from 1,850 
to 2,646. In 1897 the enrolment in the elementary schools was 1,745, 
and in the high school, 105 ; while in 1902 it was, respectively, 2,460 
and 186. In 1913, the elementary schools enrolled 4,072 pupils and the 
high school, 462, and two years later, as we have seen, the figures had 
increased to 4,246 and 523. 

By the early '90s, the value of school property within the city limits 
was less than .'t;30,000 ; in 1897, it was $89,000, and in 1902 had increased 
to $186,700. Ten years later it was about $250,000 and at the present 
time (January, 1916), according to the estimates of the board of educa- 
tion, about $750,000. 

Following is the enrolment in the public schools, witii names of 

Scuoor^s Enrolment Pi{incm'al.s 

High School 523 P. C. Bunn. 

Fairhome 391 Jane Lindsay. 

Charleston 471 Raymond F. Sullivan. 

Brownell 280 Lilian Reynolds. 

Harrison 261 Georgia I\Iead. 

Carden Avenue 545 Robt. B. Fai'is. 

(iarfield 701 E. S. AValker. 

Lincoln 782 A. II. :\Ieese. 

Lowell 368 j\I. R. Simpson. 

Oakwood Park 447 E. E. Buell. 

Total 4,76!) 

Present School Buildings 

The schools of I^oi-ain furnish a sj)len(lid illustration oi" tlie broad 
and I'apid growtli of tin; city in all the fields oC social and civic life. Its 
sch(K)i i)()pulali()n is now aliriost e((ual to llie total po|)ulation of llie city 
in 1890. According to the figures furnished the writer late in tiie fall 
of 1915 the eni'olment in tiie fen city sciiools was 4,769, and more than 
150 teachers wwr employc'd in tiie o|)eration of tiie j)ublic system of 




Tlu; i)iil.lic. scliool l.iiildiii^'s now occupied, willi tlic (lutes of tlifU- 
ureclion, are: 

Ganlcii Avenue, 1891 aiul 18!i5. 
" J.owcll, Kast Thirty-first Street, 1895 and i:)12. 
Charleston, Sixtli Street, 18!)'}. • 
Faii'liOMie, Garden Avenue, ]'M)2-'i. 
Garfield, Hamilton Avenue, 1902-:]. 
Brownell, 1904. 

Harrison, Hamilton Avenue, 1904. 
Lineoln, Vine Avenue, 1904 and 1912. 
Garfield Annex, Thirty-first Street, 1909. 


Lorain High School 

High sehool, AVasliington Avenue and Ninth Street. The magnificent 
new building, dedicated in January, 1916, was completed after four 
years of construction at a cost of .+250,000. it is thive .stories in height 
and cla.ssic and impressive in its style of architecture. Besides thirty 
regular rooms, its interior accommodations include two large study 
lialls, library, room for the Board of Education, superintendent's and 
principal's offices, complete outlay for inanual training and domestic 
science, gymnasium, auditorium witii about 1,150 sealing (•ai)acity, and 
tearhei's' rest and hxtker rooms. Wor'k on this line building was com- 
meneed in 1911 and the south wing was comj)leled the following year, 
the central portion and the north wing having been but recently entirely 

Lincoln Annex, Kast Tliirty-lirst Slivet, 1915. 



The Lorain Prer Pubeic Library 

TIk! Lorain Free I'lihlic Liljiary, as it is known orficiully, is a strong 
(■(lueational force in close and elil'octivu cooperation witli tlie i)ul)lic scliool 
system, altliough an independent institution. It is but fifteen years old 
— Iiaving been, for most of tbat period, a Carnegie Library — and, 
althou|:;h tlius young, lias given a line account of itself. The initial 
movement was largely the result of the local Sisterhood, that organiza- 
tion of philantliropie and progressive women which has done so much 
of real good to Lorain. 

Miss Elizabeth K. Steele, who has been librarian since Septeml)er, 
1910, furnisiies tiie facts' incorporated in tiie following sketch. On the 
IDth of August, ]!)0;5, the corner-stone of Ihe Lorain Public Library 
was laid and the building was opened in ]\Iay of tiie following year. 
This was the happy culmination of tlie efforts of some of the public- 
spirited men and women of Lorain who for four years had worked 
unweariedly toward this result. The need of a public library liad been 
felt for years and several efforts had been made toward the estalilisli- 
nient of a library of some sort, but in 1900 at a meeting of the Sister- 
hood, the project was formally launched, and the oi'ganizalion of a 
library board effected. This fii-st board was eomi)0.sed of ]\lrs. E. M. 
Pierce, chairman; Mrs. Eva Hills, secretary and treasurer; ]\Irs. AV. R. 
Comings, Mrs. F. D. Ward, Mrs. F. W. Mcllvaine, ]\Irs. A. E. Thomp.son, 
Mrs. IMcKee, Mrs. J. A. Graham, jMis. S. Klein and IMrs. C. B. Hopkins. 

Later, the board joined forces witii tlie Reading Room Boai'tl, an 
organization of men under auspices a reading room was main- 
tained through private subscriptions, in a one-room buiUling just olV 
Broadway. Entertainments were given to raise money; book showers 
wei'e lield ; the W. C. T. U. and the Wimodaughsis coiitriliuted their col- 
lections of books, and in October, 1900, tlie library and reading room 
was formally opened with less than 500 books upon the shelves. In 
Ajiril, PlOl, the two boards united and were duly iiicoi'poi'ated as the 
Lorain Pul)lic Library Association, with the following officers: E. E. 
Hopkins, president ; AV. R. Comings, vice jiresident ; E. C. Loofbourrow, 
secretary; Mrs. F. AV. Mcllvaine, treasurer. 

'Hie other trustees were E. M. Pierce, ]\Irs. Eva Hills, F. A. Rowley, 
A. E. Tiiompson, F. P. Bins, Oeoi-ge Wickens. 

They (irst secured from Hk; Board of I'ldiication tiie tax levy ])ro- 
vided liy law for the siii)i)ort of libraries, and tlie following year re- 
ceived a tax of IMOtli of a mill amounting to ^1,:'()0. Thereupon they 
applied to Andrew Cai'iiegie for a donation for a building. Tlie city 
cdiiiicil granted the tax (which is usiinlly made a coiKlitioii liv Mr. 




Carin'giuj ol' 10 [kt cent oL' the value ol tlie buildiuj^ for its support, 
and a site in one of the city parks. J\Ir. Carnegie signilied his willinj,^- 
ness to ^nve a $30,000 building to Lorain; contracts were let and the 
building was dedicated in May, 1!)04. 

The building, situated in Strcalor Park is one of tlie most attractive 
librai'ies in the State of Ohio; is well lighted and ventilated and has 
ample s])ace to acconunodate many thousands of volumes. From its very 
beginning, the highest standanls have been maintained in organiza- 
tion and in administration, and the ideal of the Lorain Public Library 
has always been the greatest service and the widest usefulness. At the 
time of its opening, there were on the shelves, about 2,000 volumes, six 
newspapers, eigiitceii weekly and twenty-five monthly magazines. fSince 
then the story of the Lorain Public Library has been one of steady but 
of very slow growth in the size of the collection. 

On January 1, 1<J13, there were 8,712 volumes in the library which, 
by December 31, 1914, had increased to 9,768. According to the biennial 
report issued by the librarian for the two years ending with that date, 
the circulation of ])ooks for 1914 reached a total of 64,716. The figures 
inilieated a marked increase over the previous year and the result was 
largely attributed to the shutting down oT so many mills, the enforced 
iilleness of so many men and the conseiiuent increase in the number of who patronized the lil)rai-y. Along this line, the following para- 
graph is suggestive: "This winter the librarian asked the heads of 
several deinirtments in our largest industrial plants to send us lists of 
books which, in their judgment, would be helpful to the men in tlicir 
ami similar departments. All replied, and from these list.s, compared 
with what we had and what we had calls for, a list of mechanical books 
was purchased. They were received the last day of the year, but in the 
short time we have had them, there has been considerable interest shown 
in their receipt and numerous calls for them. A printed list has been 
prepared for distribution among the men intei'ested in the industrial 
trades and it is hoped it may serve to bring tiie library more dii'cctly 
to their attention and so be the means of greater usefulness." 

The branch library at South Lorain is specially designed to accom- 
modate the readers, both old and young, of the i'oivign element and 
the management has purchased a number of books in foreign languages, 
especially in Polish, Hungarian and German. 

Special classes of ])atrons mentioned in the rc|)ort are high school 
students, members of literary clubs and those connected with cimrch and 
missionary .societies. The handsome club room of the library is used 
by such organizations as the Soiusis Clul), Jlinisters' Association, l.orain. 
Fcderalion and Slali- IJoard of Health. 




C. 10. Diiiiicls was scciT'tiipy of lli(^ old library boai'd for some yoars 
ami j)roiiiiiK'iit in tlu; early days of tlio enterprise until lie left llio 
city, hut Ww. lirst librarian of tin; ('onsolidali'd Assoeiation of 1!)01 was 
iMiss Mai-garet Deniing, who icsi^ned in Deeemher, ]ii()4, about seven 
jnonths after the dedication of the new Carnegie Building. She was 
succeeded by Miss May Chapman, who also resigned in February, 1907. 
]\Iiss Frances Root then served until the fall of 1910, since which j\Iiss 
Elizabeth K. Steele has held the position. 

The Postoppice 

The Lorain Postoffice, completed in 1914, is a fine building on the 
northeast corner of Broadway and Ninth Street. The first office was 

Lorain Postoffice 

on Fifth Street, and after that was burned temporary quarters were 
occupied for a time in a store on Broadway, noi-th of Sixth Street. In 
190G another move was made to the building on Si.xlh, half a block 
west of Broadway, and in February, 1910, Congress appropriated 
$150,000 for a suitable postoffice site and structure ; for something be- 
iitting the city's standing and progress. In December, 1911, the present 
site was j)urchased by the Po.stoffice Department for $42,500, and grouiul 
for the new building was broken in April, 191:5, I*ostniaster Ciiai'los 
Doll tui'iiing the first shovelful of earth. As completed in the following 
year and since occupied, the Lorain Postoffice has a frontage of over 
100 feet on Broadway and its Ninth Street facade stretches back 


('if,'lity-t\vo Tcct. Its lacing is ol' Amlici'st Kaiidstoiic and tlu> foiuula- 
1i(»n and outer stairway ol" Nortli Carolina j^n'aiiitc. Tin; main cut ranee, 
is from Hroadway, witli a rear approaeh and driveway for eiii[)loyei;s. 
Tile areliitecture is simple and Orecian, like most Government build- 
ings, and notliiiig has been neglected to make the interior arrangements 
tasteful, convenient and sanitary. 



The Black River Steamboat Association — Era op Wooden Ship- 
Building — The Fishing Industry — Pioneer and Veteran Fisher- 
men — Status op the Present Industry — Lorain's First Iron 
Furnace — Planing Mill and Stove Works — The Johnson Steel 
Mills — First Great Plant Located at Lorain — Ii'ounding op South 
Lorain — South Lorain as It Is — First AVork on the Johnson 
Holdings — Opening of the Lorain Plant — Operations as the 
Lorain Steel Company — The National Tube Comi^any — Other 
Leading Industries — Era op Steel Shipbuilding — Early Improve- 
ments op River and Harbor — Development op B. & 0. Terminal — 
The Harbor op the Present — The Lorain Board op Commerce — 
Source op Artipicial Light and Power — Telephone Service — The 
Lorain Banks — The City Bank — NationalBank op Commerce — 
The Old Bank op Lorain — The Citizens Savings Bank Reorgan- 
ized — Cleveland Trust Company, Lorain Branch — The Lorain 
Savings & Banking Company — The Central Banking Company — 
The Lorain Banking Company — The George Oroszy Banks. 

The industrial life of Lorain commenced with the building of wooden 
vessels and scows for the lake marine. It continued with great activity, 
Avith spells. of depression, until 1873, or the l)eginning of the railroad 
era as it aflPected Lorain. As already stated, the General Huntington 
of 1819, a sloop, was the first vessel to be turned out of the Black River, 
Charleston and Lorain yards. 

The Black River Steamboat Association 

Tile ])uilding of the hrst steamboats, Bunker Hill and Constellation, 
in 1837, induced the formation of the Black River Steaml)oat Associa- 
tioiL They were called Black River boats, altliough the controlling 
interest in them was owned by parties in Buffalo and Cleveland. The 




l)iisiiiens men ol" Jihick River, heliovint,^ that tlieir best interests enlled 
iuv llie hiiildiii^' ol" enil't wliicli slioiild he controlhul by (li(;iiiselv(!.s, 
or^'uiii/ed tlie assoeiation named, ami in 18I58 eonstructed tlie Kleairi- 
boat Lexington. The officers of the first organization were : Daniel T. 
Baldwin, presiilent ; liarna ]\Ieeker, viee president; Nahum li. Gates, 
secretary and treasurer. 

Era of AYooden Siiip-Building 

The era of wooden ship-building at the mouth of the Black River, 
up to the time of the coming of the railroad and the incorporation of 
the Village of Lorain, is so distinct and characteristic of the early 
period, that the entire list of vessels constructed there is given: 

Name Year 

General Huntington 1819 

Schooner Ann 1821 

Young Amaranth 1825 

Nucleus 1827 

Sloop William Tell 1828 

Schooner President No. 1 182!) 

Steamer General (iraeiot 1881 

Schooner White Pigeon 18;52 

Schooner Globe 1832 

Brig John Henzie 18;5:5 

Schooner Nancy Dousman IS:]'-] 

Brig Indiana 18:J4 

Seiiooner Florida 18:U 

Schooner Juliette 18;U 

Sloop Lorain ] 834 

Schooner St. Joseph 18;}5 

Schooner Texas 183(i 

Schooner Erie 1836 

Brig Ramsey Crooks 1836 

Brig North Carolina 1834 

Steamer Bunker Ilill 1837 

Steamer Constellation 1837 

Steamer Lexington ]838 

Sloop Randolph 1 8.37 

Schooner Algoiuiuin 183!) 

Schooner Tom Coi-win 1H4() 

Schooner iMarioii 11^41 

Vi.i. 1 '.{n 

F. Church 
F. Church 
F. Church 
William AVilson 
Captain A. Jones 
Captain A. Jones 
Captain A. Jones 
W. and B. B. Jones 
Captain A. Jones 
W. and B. B. Jones 
Captain A. Jones 
W. Jones; A. Gillmore 
W. and B. B. Jones 
W. and B. B. Jones 
Ed Gillmore, Jr. 
F. N. Noyes 
J. Hamblin 

F. N. Jones 

G. W. Jones 
J. Ilamblin 
F. N. Jones 
A. Gillmon; 
F. N. Jones 
Captain A. Jones 
(i. W. Jones 

(!. W. Jones 

Captain Thomas Cobb 


Name Year Builder 

Schooner J're.sidcnt No. 2 1H41 F. N. Jones 

Sc'liooner George Watson 1841 0. AV. Jones 

Brij,' Rosa 18-41 F. N. Jones 

Brig Iloosier 1842 F. N. Jones 

Brig Alert 1842 F. N. Jones 

Si'hooner Equador 1842 F. N. Jones 

Seliooner Aeorn 1842 Captain Thomas Cobb 

Schooner Trenton 1843 W. S. Lyons 

Schooner Endora 1843 T. Cobb 

Schooner Andover 1844 William Jones 

Schooner Farmer (rebuilt) 1844 D. Rogers 

Seliooner ^Magnolia 1845 W. S. Lyons 

Schooner John Erwin 1845 CobJj & Burnell 

Schooner Thomas G. Colt 1846 William Jones 

Schooner W. A. Adair 1845 T. H. Cobb 

Steamer 11. Hudson 1846 Jones & Company 

Brig P]merald 1844 Joseph Keating 

Brig Concord 1846 W. S. Lyons 

Schooner Palestine 1847 J. Keating 

Schooner T. L. Ilamer 1847 W. S. Lyons 

Schooner Rambler 1847 Benjamin Flint 

Schooner Samuel Strong 1847 Captain T. Cobb 

Propeller Delaware 1847 Cobb, Burnell & Co. 

Propeller Ohio 1848 S. D. Burnell 

Schooner Vineennes 1846 ^Y. S. Lyons 

Brig Eureka 1847 S. D. Burnell 

Schooner Asia 1848 Captain T. Cobb 

Brig A. R. Cobb 1841 Captain T. Cobb 

Brig ]\Iahoning 1848 AVilliam Jones 

Schooner Florence 1848 W. S. Lyons 

Propeller Henry Clay (rebuilt) 1851 William Jones 

Seliooner T. P. Handy 181!) AVilliam Jones 

Schooner Meridian 1848 AVilliam Jones 

Schooner Abagail 1848 Lyons & Fox 

Bark Buckeye State 1852 ^Ir. Hubbard 

Schooner J. Reid 1852 W. S. Lyons 

Schooner AVinfield Scott 1852 AVilliam Jones 

Schooner ]\Iain 1852 W. S. Lyons 

Schooner Hamlet 1852 AVilliam Jones 

Schooner IT. C. AVinslow 185-? AVilliam Jones 

Schooner AV. F. Allen 185.3 Jones & Co. 


Name Year Hiiildor 

Sc'liooncT City IHrjiJ D. Kot,'('rs 

SehooiKT Cascade 1H5;{ AVilliairi Jonos 

Schooner II. E. Mussey 185:5 lienjaiiiin Flint 

Schooner AVings of tlie Morning. . . . 1854 Jones & Co. 

Schooner Peoria 185-1 A. Gillinore 

Propeller Dick Pinto 1854 G. \V. Jones 

Schooner G. L. Newman 1855 P. Flint 

Scliooner Drake 1855 Jones & Co. 

Bark Lemuel Crawford 1855 Jones & Co. 

Schooner Kyle Spangler 1850 AVilliam Jones 

Scliooner Leader 1856 Lyons & Cilluiore 

Scl\ooner W. II. AVillard 185(i diaries Iliniiian 

Schooner John Webher 185f) Cluiries 1 liniiian 

Scliooner Grace Murray 185G Wiiliain Jones 

Schooner L. J. Farweli 1S5G AVilliaiii Jones 

Bark David Morris 1857 AVilliaiii Jones 

Schooner Return 1855 D. Fox 

Schooner Herald 1857 AVilliain Jones 

Schooner Freeman 1855 AVilliam Jones 

Schooner Ogden 1857 AVilliam Jones 

Bark Levi Hawson 18()1 AVilliam Jones 

Bark AVilliam Jones 18G2 Jones & Co. 

Schooner Alice Curtis 1858 Edwards 

Propeller Queen of the Lakes 1855 AVilliam Jones 

Brig Audubon 1855 AVilliam Jones 

Schooner John Fretter 185:5 Charles Ilininan 

Schooner E. F. Allen 1802 A. Gillinore 

Bark Franz Sigel 1 8G2 G. AV. Jones 

I'ark Orphan Boy 18G2 AVilliam Jones 

Conrad Reid 1SG2 II. 1). Root 

II. 1). Root lS(i:5 II. 1). Root 

IVIinerva 1S0:{ William Jones 

AVilliam II. Cliapmaii I8(i5 11. I). Root 

Schooner Fosloria 18G5 W. S. Lyons 

Pride LSGG II. D. Root 

AV. S. Lyons ISGG AV. S. Lyons 

l'.iii-h Siiiiiiiicr Cloud ISGI Lester Siiiilii 

Srlidoiier Lillie Vox IHGG |), |.\,x 

Kate Lyons l.SGG William -loiies 

Bark 1'. S. .Marsh 18(17 G. W. Jones 

S<-li(i()iier II. ( '. Post (i-ebiiill) l.SGi; Thomas Wilson 




Name Year Builder 

General Q. A. Gillmore 1867 'J'hoina.s Wilson 

II. 0. Cleveland 1H67 William Jones 

Clou^'li 1867 1). Fox 

Vernie Blake 18G7 II. D. Root 

Tliomas AVilson 1868 Thomas Wilson 

Brig E. Cohen 1867 II. D. Root 

Tliomas Gawn 1872 John Snuires 

l^arge Sarah E. Sheldon 1872 Qnelos & Peck 

Mjiry Groh 187:5 11. D. Root 

Steamer Charles Ilickox 187;J 11. D. Root 

Steam liarge Egyptian 1873 Quelos & Peek 

Schooner Our Son 1875 II. Kelley 

Schooner Sumatra 1873 Quelos & Peek 

Schooner Three Brothers 1873 II. D. Root 

About forty scows were also ))uilt during the period from 1847 to 
1870. Among the builders engaged in that line of construction were 
D. Dayton, S. F. Drake, William Jones, 11. D. Root, L. Smith, S. W. 
IJuck, William Curtiss, A. Gillmore, S. Root and S. Fields. 

The Fishing Industrv 

Shortly before "the railroad came," there arose the most important 
early industry of Lorain, after the building of wooden vessels. The 
first historical records of the French mi.ssionaries and English travelers 
pronounced the mouth of the Black River as among the most pro- 
ductive fishing grounds along the .shores of the Great Lakes. The waters 
of Lake Erie off Lorain have been especially noted for their perch, pike, 
herring, pickerel, white-fish and lake trout. In other words, all the 
characteristic fish of the Great Lakes have swarmed around the harbor 
of Lorain. Three quarters of a centur}-- before the locality was to 
become famous as a wooden shipbuilding industry, Black River boasted 
of a considerable Meet of fishing sloops, whose aggregate annual catch 
ran up into the thousands of pounds. 

The twin-industries of sliip-building and fishing went on apaci?, and 
the "hauls" were famous even with the crude boats and appliances 
which were brought into service. It was not until the late '60s and the 
ciirly '70s that tlie fishing reached the dignity of an industry of really 
commercial importance. To John Gawn, drag-seine (isherman with an 
establishment in the woods on the east side of the river, is accredited 
the distinction of having founded the present industry. Other fisher- 
men inspired by the success of the pioneer (iawn, followed his example. 




Al)oiit 1889 tlu-n^ was fotiiulcil tlic first ])ar1iicrslii|) of fislicniu'ii to 
opcralc I'roin Ijoniiii — IIk; Kollx; IJi'ollicrs and Ifaiiiicy ( Joiiipaiiy. A 
short, tiiric lalcr u second coinijaiiy was (jr^anizcd hy '1'. \V. Srnilli. 'I'lic 
KoIIh! lii'otlici's soon dro|)i)ed out of llic (irst i)arlnci\slii[) and tlic remain- 
ing interests in tlie original concern formed tiic nucleus of tlie Jianney 
Fish Company, the largest concern of its kind on fresh water. The 
J. W. Smith concern was al)sorhed soon after its organization hy tlie A. 
Booth Company. Lorain's third large fishing concern, tlie liegcr & 
Werner Company, was formed ahout 11)01. There iiave always heen 
smaller operators, generally called '"independents" to distingnish them 
from such large combinations as the Ranney and Booth Companies. 

"I\Iany improvements in fishing equipment have heen made since 
the days of John Gawn" says a local writer. "His old drag seine — the 
net of Biblical fi.shermen — became obsolete when the resources of the 
larger operators were turned toward the increasing of efficiency. After 
the drag seine came the pound net, a line of woven cord suspendetl on 
poles driven into the lake bottom stretched in a straight line and ending 
in a circular 'pocket.' Fish, following the long, straight leader, would 
enter the pocket and bewildered by the circular wall of net, would be 
unable to find again the opening by which they had entered. 

"Last of all in the evolution of improvement in fish-catching equip- 
ment came the gill net, its meshes cunningly designed to slip over the 
head of a fish and tighten back of the gills. 

"The fishing sloop was superseded years ago by the self-propelled 
fishing cx'aft, using steam and later gasoline as motive power, 

"Steel is replacing wood in the construction of the larger fishing 
vessels. One of the local companies' fleets includes six steel tugs, sturdy 
and fast and equipped with the largest devices for the 'lifting' of nets 
and the storage of fish on the run to the harbor from the fishing grounds. 

Picturesque, Even if Commercialized 

"Commercialized to the highest degree, fishing still has the glamor 
of picturesqueness and romance. Fishermen are still the most daring 
of mariners. Long before the monster steel freighters dare venture from 
the harbors in the spring, the rakish little fishing tugs poke their noses 
out beyond protecting piers, and, skirting the iierilous ice fields, .skurry 
away for the (isiiing grounds. 'Set your nets early,' is flie word, 'you 
can always gel back in — .somehow.' 

"Day after day Ihrouglioul the fishing season, on calm days when a 
run into tlie lake is tlu' work of a 'rockiiig-chair' s.iilor, and on stormy 
days, wlicn a ti'ip to the nels means plunging for mih's through the seas 



that keep tlie 'l)ig- fellows' at tlicir falilcs 'inside,' tlio lisliinjy eraft ply 
in ami out. Before the daylight they are away, si)eeding for the nets 
miles out into the open lake. At dark they return, laden to the gun- 
wales with their eargoes of shimmering silver." 

Pioneer and Veteran Fishermen 

"In the memory of some of the oldest residents of our city," says 
a writer in a late loeal publication, "is the picture of Lorain's first lish- 
erinan, Daniel Gawn, father of the late Thomas Gawn. Fifty years ago, 
at the mouth of Black River, with the use of a seine, IMr. Gawn began 
the first net-fishing out of Lorain, or Charleston, as it was then called. 

Life Saving Station at Lorain 

He di-sposed of his product to people coming from the towns toward the 
south who journeyed hither in wagons along the then-popular plank 
road. Barney Bark, who, though in feeble health, is still a resident of 
our city (written in the spring of 1915), was in the employ of i\Ir. Gawn 
in this enterprise. Mr. Gawn was succeeded by Adam Ilolstein and 
Adam Clause, who used a pound-net in their industry. Succeeding 
them was Charles F. Friend. About this time the fishing l)usiness 
began to be popular, and soon there were eight little beach fisheries 
between Jjorain and Vei'niillion. 

Two Vkti;ran " IIoi.d-Ovkks" 

"The moneyed interests have long since al)sorbe(l these lilth; fisher- 
ies, but have wisely retained the services of many of the experienced 


Wi ofll ' 

/fOim-^ui* orfJ q*,1>I f:;l'l 


fisiierinen. Captain Charles Friend is in point of active service among 
tile oldest fisliermon on Lake Erie. He has been engaged in tiie fishing 
husiness eoiitinuoiisly for fifty yeai's, and cacli day finds him at the 
wheel of the tiig liirmiiigliaiii, eoiidneling vvilh cant and enicien(;y th(! 
lak(! management of tlie iJooth Fisheries Company. Corneliu.s Meyers, 
a veteran of the Civil war, is another pioneer fisherman, having spent 
forty-eight years in the industry — sixteen years at Huron and thirty- 
two, at Lorain. He is connected with the Booth Fisheries Company as 

Status op the Present Industry 

After descri])ing the modern methods of fishing, as now in vogue at 
Lorain, the writer concludes with matters more specific, thus: "The 
United States Government fosters with great care the fishing industry. 
Each year, in the late autumn, men called spawn takers from the 
Government Fish Hatchery at Put-in-Bay go out on the fish tugs and 
strip the fish of their eggs, sending them to the hatchery. There they 
are hatched and, at the proper time, returned to the lake to grow into 
fish large enough to he taken by hook and line for the pleasure and 
conifort of mankind. 

"Each state regulates its fishing. Laws provide when this may be 
done, how many weeks are allowed for net fishing and, in fact, the 
industry is surrounded l)y conditions and safeguards that foster it so 
that the finny trii)e shall not become extinct. Each person or firm 
operating nets in Ohio waters must procure a license by the payment 
of a prescribed sum to the Ohio Fish and Game Commission, and the 
revenue thus accruing is used for the maintenance of hatcheries for 
the conservation of fish. 

"Lorain has three firms in tiie fishing business: The Booth Fish- 
eries Company, the Ranney Fish Company and the Reger and Werner 
Fish Company. Together they operate about 113 pound and trap nets 
and from 4 to 37 tugs. Approximately, four hundred men are given 
employment, the number varying with the catch. Statistics of the catch 
for one year can hardly be used as a basis for determining the produc- 
tion for the next year, since no two seasons show up alike. There is 
really no means of gauging this, until it is visii)le." 

Lorain's First Iron Furnace 

Although the stalwart line of industries which have established 
Lorain as a leading manufacturing center of the Lakes Region is oidv 


a little over twoiity years of age, llie liistorie pioneer of them all 
appeared in the loeal tield the year before tlu; opeiiiiijjj of the Civil war. 
Ill IS(Jl), also twelve years l)ei'ore the eoiiiiiii,' of the railroad, a little 
iron fiiniaee was perched on the west hank of tiie Black River. It was 
located at wliat is now the foot of Eightli Street, and its property 
stretched along the river front for a thousand feet, including the future 
site, of the Ranney Fish Company. S. 0. Edison, brother of F. W. 
Edison, of Lorain, who resided on Second Street, and Dr. I'hilo Tilden 
were partners in the founding of the furnace. Later the concern was 
known as S. 0. Edison & Company. William McKinley, father of the 
President, was furnace-man, or superintendent, and also acted as book- 

The plant prospered until 1871 when it was burned to the ground. 
It was never rebuilt on that site, although a similar furnace was located 
hy ]\lr. Edison at Pigeon River, Saginaw Pay, ]\Iieliigan. This later 
project was abandoned within a short time, and tlie founder retired 
from active business, going to East Orange, New Jersey. 

The capacity of Lorain's first blast furnace was thirty tons per 
day. Charcoal was used as fuel. An interesting feature is that the 
pig-iron i)roduced from the little plant sold at one time for $87.50 per 
ton, the higliest price for that product ever obtained locally. 

When asked one day if the plant made money, .Mr. Edison replied: 
"In 18G5, we cleared .$65,000." 

Planing Mill and Stove Works 

The coming of the Lake Shore & Tuscarawas Valley Railroad to 
Lorain was soon followed by the estaiblislnnent of new industries. 
Among these were the planing mills of Brown Brothers & Company and 
E. Slaight & Sons, botli erected in 1873, and the formation of the Lorain 
Stove Company, organized by leading citizens of Lorain, two manu- 
facturers of stoves in Troy, New York. Buildings were erected and 
the plant commenced operations, but that old business story was 
repeated — the friction between "foreign" and local interests. The New 
York parties were voted out of office, the property was sold and suhse- 
(juently leased to the Co-operative Stove Company of Cleveland, by 
wliich it was operated for some time with C. II. Baldwin as resident 

The Joiin.'^)X Steel ^Mills 

It was twenty years after these small eonecrns made so futile an 
effort to live tliat the Johnson steel mills located at Lorain and made 


an iiulustrial iiiaimiioth of what had before been little more than a 
Jjij^niiy. It was the real coiniueiicenient of the Steel City of tiio Lakes, 
whieli tile National Tube Company, controlled by tlie United Steel 
(.'oritoration, lias been most instrumental in founding. That great 
imiustry has created South Lorain, and it is no exaggeration to say that 
fully one-half the population of the entire city dej^end entirely, or par- 
tially, upon its operations for their livelihood. 

In 1893, when the little Village of Lorain was on the point of becom- 
ing a city, its industries comprised a few shipyards for building wooden 
vessels, a lumber mill and an antiquated lime-kiln. But five years before 
there had been organized at Johnstown, Pennsylvania, by Thomas L. 
Johnson, street railway and manufacturing capitalist, what was known 
as the Johnson Steel Street Rail Company. Street rails for traction 
lines were turned out of its plant, and some time after it was in opera- 
tion the controlling corporation became generally known as the JohnsoJi 

Gradually the management of the steel plant came to realize that 
the iiiills were too far away from the supply of raw materials and that 
the only way to save the enterprise was to transfer the industry to 
some locality where those entering into the manufacture of steel — ore, 
coal, coke and limestone — could be most cheaply brought together. Tliat 
decision was reached in 1893, and early in 189-1 the eastern capitalists 
interested in the Johnson plant visited Cleveland, Painesville, Fairport 
and Lorain, in their explorations for a suitable site for the new steel 

First Great Plant Located at Lorain 

The final decision, made in IMarch, 1894, was for Lorain, and in the 
following month occurred its first municipal election. The great steel 
mills and tlie city were twin-births. Tiie proposal of the Johnson Com- 
pany was that its rail mills would be moved to Lorain, provided the 
town .should take upon itself the responsibility of widening and sti-aight- 
ening the Black River channel. The individuals then in control of the 
company were Tom L. Johnson, tlie heaviest stockholder in the mills; 
A. J. ]\Ioxham, president, and Mux ^l. Supi)es, general manager. One 
of the first measures which went through tlie new city council in April 
was to eagerly accede to this proviso and agree to improve the river as 

The new John.son Company was incorporated with a capital of 
ifia.noO.OOO by Tom L. Jolinson, A. J. ^Mo.xliam, Andrew S(|uire, James 
Paniialee and II. S. Davics. 'I'liiiigs began 1o hai)pcn in the young 

Ml a:-; 



city. Vacant lots on Broadway, long overgrown with weeds, became 
valiial)le "real estate," and tlie talk of steel mills and harbor improve- 
iiiciils was ill 1li(! air and evei-ywiiere. Tin; city fatlu-rs dcliiiilely 
|)l('(|ij;r(| llie municipality to maintain a navigable eluuuKd in lilack 
Kiver as far south as the land iield by the Johnson interests. Late in 
May, 189-4, commenced the work of clearing the mill site on the north 
bank of the river in what is now South Lorain. 

Founding op South Lorain 

Even before the Johnson Company decided to locate at Lorain 
options had been secured on about 4,000 acres of land. These options 
were subsequently closed, the intention being to control, as far as pos- 
sible, speculation in land values and prevent any sudden inflation 
thereof in place of the steady and permanent increase so neces.sary for 
future stability. 

The Sheffield Land Company was a sub-division of the Johnson Com- 
pany, created for the convenience of transacting its real estate business. 
A separate department was devoted to land held for manufacturing 
])urposes, inrpiiries regarding suital)le locations for various industries 
having become so nuniei'ous as to demand special attention and con- 
sideration. Of the 4,000 acres of land controlled by the Johnson Com- 
pany, 1,700 were set apart for manufacturing purposes, one-third being 
on the north bank of the river, the remaining 1,200 acres comprising a 
continuous tract, bounded on two sides liy the river, and on a third by 
the Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling Railroad. The total river frontage 
was over six miles, ^'/^ of which was navigable water. Less than 200 
aci'cs were comprised in the low land ad.jacent to the river, the larger 
part being located on a table land, averaging al)out forty-five feet in 
heiglit above the river from which it rises in a precipitous blutf. 

As the high land was of very regular contour, sloping slightly toward 
the river, it was readily drained of surface water. Tiie soil is rather 
tenacious clay, underlaid at a depth of from four to seven feet by a 
very compact shale formation .several hundred feet in thickness, offering 
the best possible foundation for building and machinery. 

About a year after the Johnson Company liad commenced opera- 
tion at Lorain, an industrial edition of the Herald reported progress, 
and wliat follows may be designated as a continuation of the "Found- 
ing of South Lorain:" "With the exception of some 600 acres reserved 
by the Johnson Company for present and future uses, the land is held 
for disposal, for manufacturing purposes only, to legitimate business 
('nleri)rises whi(;li may desire to locale here. About 2.;{00 acres of land 


lyiiiy south ol' Tcutli AveiiiU' arc iivailal)le Tor town siU; purposes, and 
u c'Oiisid(,'ral)lu portion of tliis is already laid out. The sul)-ilivision of 
this addition to the villar^e of Lorain was inauf^urated upon a hroad- 
iniiKh'd and lihei'al basis. 

"A tract of den.sely wooded land in the heart of the new town con- 
taining over seventy acres, was deeded to Lorain for perpetual use as 
a public park. All avenues and streets are made either 80 or 100 feet 
in widtli. Tlie lots have a frontage of 50 feet, and vary in deptii from 
120 to 200 feet. Flagstone sidewalks, curbing, paving, sewers and 
similar betterments are provided for before the original transfer of 
I^roperty takes place and are thus assured. Clauses are inserted in the 
deeds for l)idding the .sale of intoxicating liquors. This will be omitted, 
however, at intervals iji certain portions of the town, as the intention is 
not to force temperance upon the people, I)ut to attempt so far as pos- 
sible to govern the number and location of saloons. 

"Nearly three miles of sewer has been laid, emptying temporarily 
into the Jilack river, but with provision for ultimate; connection with 
the general sewer .system of tiie town of Lorain, unless some method of 
sewage disposal may prove more desirable. Connection has been made, 
at considerable expense, with the water system of Lorain, insuring the 
advantages of a [»ure and abundant water supply from tlie lake. 

"The main liusiness street, on which all the buildings must be of 
brick, is already paved with fire brick for a distance of half a mile. 
Several hundred houses are completed and occupied. IMost of these will 
be owned liy the occupants and have been constructed with a view to 
offering an attractive home to the workingman. The style of architec- 
ture is sufticiently varied to present a pleasing effect far ditferent from 
that usually obtained in manufacturing settlements. 

"Peculiar advantages in the way of cheap material exist at Lorain 
for those desiring to build. Stone of the finest quality is quarried near 
at hand and is cheap and plentiful for the foundation purposes. Shale 
brick is a local product, and lumber is brought from the forests of I\Iichi- 
gan by water at a minimum cost for transportation. 

"The electric street railway connecting Lorain with the county 
seat, Klyria, passes througii the new town site. AVith a fifteen minute 
service over a road-bed equal to that of any trunk line in the country, 
a) a si'hcilulc. speed of thirty miles pel* houi', ])i-ompl and frequent eoiii- 
inuiiicalioii is olVci-ed with (/'leveland, via the Lake Siiore and Michigan 
Soiilhei'ii Railway at Klyria or the Nickel Plate; at Lorain." 




South Lorain, as It Is 

Tlio South Lorain of today, althougli under tlie general municipal 
governriiciit of Loi'ain City, is one of tJie striking evidence's of rapid, 
Mibstiiiilial and eoinfortahle industrial growtli i)i'es(;nted in several other 
sections of the United States. It is chiefly the creation of tiie Slieflield 
Land Company, in turn the creature of tiie National Tube Company, 
wliieh is a satellite of the Unit(;d Steel Company. South Lorain is Cary, 
Indiana, on a minor scale, but very large at that. 

Tile streets are from 80 to 100 feet wide, and are graded, curbed and 
macadamized. Stone sidewalks are laid and water and sewerage are 
fully provided. Tenth Avenue and Pearl Street are the business 
thoroughfares, and are paved witli brick in addition to other iini)rove- 
ments, and a nuiidjcr of artistic and important business blocks and stores 
contribute a handsome architectural elfect. Large sums were expended 
by the Shellicld Land Company in street improvements, and the laying 
of water, sewer and gas mains. Such main thoroughfares as ICleventh, 
Twelfth, Thirteenth, Pearl and Seneca are well paved with macadam, 
and lined with neat and tasteful, and, in some cases, handsome resi- 

South Lorain is also the center of a distinctive moral, intellectual 
and religious expansion, in whicli sucli organizations as the Young Glen's 
Christian Association, the Public Library management, the Irving Lit- 
erary Society, South Lorain Congregational Institute, the Sisterhood, 
the ]\Ien's League and the Catliolic Young Men's Club, luive earnestly 
and faithfully ])articipated, with the result tiiat residents of tliat section 
of the city, whetlier of foreign or Americanized stamp, have fouiul 
living conditions jileasant and profitable. 

Throughout all this work of development the Sheffield Land Com- 
pany was well to the fi'ont. It offered premiuiris for the best-kept gar- 
dens, and for many years numerous owners of modest homes vied with 
each otiier to make them attractive. Liberal terms were also given 
employees of the .steel works and other industries in South Lorain to 
enable them to become the owners of comfortable homes convenient to 
their woi'k. Five ])er cent of the purchase i)rice is recpiired in cash, 
and the l)alance is payalile at the rate of 1 per cent per month, includ- 
ing interest at tlie rate of (i per cent. For examide, a and lot 
costing $l,r)()() would re<iuii'e a cash j)ayment of $7;'), and llie ])alanc(i 
payable ill. the rale of $1") per mouth. The purchaser has the |)rivilege 
of paying as much as he likes in addition to the $15 per month which 
will lie applied to his future payments in case anything should happen to 
him or his family. 



FiiisT WouK ON THE Johnson IIom)incjs 

Jii rliiiK!, lfSl)4, lal)orur.s in tlic employ ol" tlic .Johnson (Jonii)aiiy liroku 
groinul lor tliu power-house of the Lorain-Elyria electric line, whieii was 
to he owned and operated hy that corporation. South of the site for the 
steel mills land was also cleared for the residence section, on land owned 
hy the company. Work on the mill-site i)roper was begun in July, and 
a monlh thereafter a thousand men were at work on the excavations 
and foundations. 

Opening of the Pl.vnt 

Throughout the winter of 1894-95 the task of moving the steel mill 
from Jolmson, Pennsylvania, to Jjorain, Ohio, 200 mikss, progressed 
rapidly and smoothly, and hy February the original Lorain phuit was 
complete. Within the fence on tlie newly-cleared grounds, were a 
Bes.semer converting works, a blooming mill, a rail-i'olling mill with 
fiiushing equipment, and a group of mechanical shops. 

April 1, ISDf), was a gala day, for it marked the tirst "blow" of 
steel in tlie new mills and the official beginning of their oi)cration. 
About 1,200 men were employed. Tiie ofti(;ials, on the oi)ening day, 
wi're : A. J. Maxham, president; Tom L. Johnson, vice i)resi(lent; Max 
M. Su])pes, general manager; I'. M. Boyd, secretary; W. A. Donaldson, 
treasurer. The first rail to be turned out of the new mills was rolled 
in the month following the official opening. 

With its first organization, the Lorain plant had no blast furnaces. 
Pig iron, from whi(;h the steel for the rails was made, was imported 
from outside furnaces. 

Operations as the Lohain Steel Company 

For four years the plant operated as the Johnson Company. Then 
in 1898 there came a reorganization, changing the name to the Lorain 
Steel Company, and expansion of the manufacturing facilities of the 
plant began almost simultaneously with its opening. Lnprovements in 
steel-making and steel-handling machinery increased the mass of the 
output as time went on. JMonth by month the number of employes 
momited ui)ward. In 1899 the present blast furnaces were completed, 
their installation making necessary the buiUling of docks for the handling 
of ore. 

The Nationai, Tome (,'ompany 

The twentieth century l)rouglit the opening of the last and greatest 
epoch in the hisloiy of Lorain as a siccl-making center. Amalgamation 

■) -nn'tT 

.' loir^ui uliJ lit il;>U(|- 


or interests evolved tlie organization of tlie National Tube Company, of 
Ohio, witli William Ji. Seliiller as president. 

To the eastward of tlie site of the st('el inills at Lorain were laid the 
foundations of the present tube i)huit. (Jonstriietion on tlie tul)e-making 
de])artment was coimnenced in l!K);j. The first pipe was made on 
Fel)ruary 10, 1905, and the tube mills were completed in the following 

In 190!) one of the most important improvements was added in the 
open heartli deijartment, bnilt lor the purpose of manufacturing by a 
newer process a better grade of steel than is possible Ity the old Hessemer 

Mr. Schiller is still president of the National Tube Company, whose 
head<iuarters have ])een transferred from Pittsbiirgli to Toledo. IMax 
yi. Suppes, who came to Lorain with tiie old Jolmson Company, in 1894, 
has been the executive head of the mills ever since. 

Other Leading Industries 

Outside of the National Tube AVorks, among the largest of the 
industrial plants in South Lorain are those of the Thew Automatic 
Shovel (.'ompany and the American Shovel and Stamping Company 
and the American Steel and Tube Company. They are located on East 
Twenty-eighth Street and the Baltimoi-e & Ohio Railroad tracks. They 
were established in 1899, and employ several hundred men. 

The Thew Automatic Shovel Company manufactures both steam and 
electric shovels for ore and fuel docks, blast furnaces and steel works, 
mines and ])rickyards, and for general excavating purposes. Tiie Ameri- 
can Shovel and Stamping Company and the American Steel and Tube 
Company, which ai'e oi)erated under joint management, are devoted 
especially to the production of pre.ssed-steel specialties for agricultural 
implements and vehicles. 

Of the other large industries which have given Lorain so substan- 
tial a reputation may be mentioned the National Stove Comi)any, a 
branch of the American Stove Comjjany, whicli turns out everything in 
the line of stoves, ranges, ovens and heaters; the Lorain Casting Com- 
pany, the Lorain iMilling Company, the Hrunk ]\[achine antl Forging 
Company and tlie Lorain Crystal Ice Company. 

'i'iie National Slove (Company was originally llu; National Vajjor 
Slove and Manui'aeliiring (Company, which was incorporated in Cleve- 
land in 1889 and its i)lant and bnsiness transiVi'i-c'd to Lorain in 189;i. 
Li 1895 a consolidation was efl'eeled with Ihe ]\Ioon Range Company of 
Colnmbiis, and subse(|Uen1ly the extended and iiiipr(iv<>(l j)lanl was 


(ilONKUAli \'li:\V OF SolITlI LoHAIN StKEL ]MiLLS 



talccii over by tlie Natioiuil Stove Company, ii (,'ori)oration witliin the 
sysli'in ol" the Aniericaa Stove Company. 

Ek.v op Stkel Siiii'building 

For fifteen years or more after 1897, when ground was broken for 
the great steel shipyards on tlie east l)ank of the Black River, Lorain 
was one of the leading centers of the industry in the country; of late 
years there has been a marked decrease in tlie output of the yards, caused 
largely by general conditions, such as the transfer of much of the iron 
and steel manufactures to points further West, and to the local fact 
that the metal industries of Lorain have l)een largely diverted into spe- 
cial channels and away from the making of tlie material which enters 
into the construction of steel ships. Notwithstanding, the present plant 
of the American Shii^building Company is one of the best-equipped in 
the West, and it is still doing considerable constructive work. 

The history of the rise of the great industry is given thus by the 
Lorain Times-IIerald : "From 1820 to the early '90 's as nearly as can 
be ascertained from the records, no less than 'AOO wooden ships were 
built in and near Lorain. In what might be called tlu; second era of 
wooden shipbuilding, Henry D. Root, still active at nearly eighty 
(written in July, 1913), and only recently retired, was a prominent 
figure. His yard on the west side of the river, almost opposite the pres- 
ent plant of the American Shipbuilding Company, turned out many 
of the larger vessels. The schooner 'Our Son.' l)uilt by ^Mr. Root in 
1875 for H. Kelley, was in commission until less than ten years ago. 

"Tile '80 's marked tlie passage of tlie ))uildiiig of wooden lake ves- 
sels. Tlie steel freighter was coming into its own. 

"Early in 1897 there was organized in Cleveland the Cleveland 
Shipbuilding Company, with Robert Wallace, a .shipbuilder of experi- 
ence, as general manager. The company jjurchased a site of twenty 
acres of land on the east bank of Black River, between the Erie avenue 
and Nickel Plate bridges. 

"On February 10, 1S97, John J. Stang, Sr., now deceased, who was 
tlie contractor for the construction of tiie dry-dock, turned the first 
shovelful of eartli on the site of the new yards. Beside the dry-dock, 
tjvo launching slips were dredged and four construction lierths laid. 

"i-'iirly ill bSDS active ojx-i'alioii of the yards was begun with a 
force of about 1,L'()0 men. 'j'liomas Briscoe, as superintendent, was in 
active charge. 

"Tile ship built was the steamer Sujierior City, coustnieted 
for the Zenith Traiisportation Company of Duluth, and launclied on 


April 1:3, 1898. To the populace, and for tliat matter to the sliip- 
huikliiif,' inuU'. itself, the Superior City was u wojidci-ful ship. With iiii 
ovci'-iiil h'lij^th oi' '150 feet, a beam of 50 f<!('t, and a molded depth of 
28 I'eet, slie had a varvyiug eapueity of 7,000 tons. 

"Lorain made the Superior City's launching a gala event. Specta- 
tors came from miles around and joined a party of distinguished guests 
to witness tlie affair. The boat was christened by Mis-s Liez Pierce, 
daugliter of E. M. Pierce. 

■'Since the Superior City there have l)een turned out of the Lorain 
yards a total of 129 boats, with a combined tonnage of over 650,000. 
liesitle some of the leviatiian fz'eighters of later days, the Superior City 
is dwarfed. In over-all length, the 500 foot, and the 600 foot mark 
have beeJi pa.ssed. Contrasted with the 7,000-ton capacity of the fii"st 
monster, the Superior City, are the cargoes of over 12,000 tons that 
Lorain-built boats have carried from the mines at the upper lakes into 
the lower-lake ports. 

"A eoneeption of what Lorain has accomplished in ship-building 
since 1897 may be gained from an analysis of the list of vessels turned 
out here. Of the 129 boats built, six had carrying capacities of 12,000 
tons eaeli, tlie largest class of boats on fresh water; 11 had capacities 
of 10,000 tons; one had a capacity of between 9,000 and 10,000; two, 
between 8,000 and 9,000; 15, between 7,000 and 8,000; 40, between 
6,000 and 7,000; eight, between 5,000 and 6,000; 36 were in the class 
of 5,000 tons and under. One hundred and nine of the boats turned 
out were freighters; two were oil steamers; seven were oil barges; nine 
were tugs ; one was a salvage lighter, and one a catamaran built for a 
mountain summer resort. 

"The masterpiece is the James A. Farrell, flag-ship of the Pittsburg 
Steamslii}) Company's fleet. The Farrell was launched on September 28, 
1912. For a second time Lorain made a launching a gala event. On 
tlie christening stand when the vessel took the water were James A. 
Farrell, president of the billion-dollar United States Steel corporation, 
for whom the boat was named; William B. Schiller, president of the 
National Tube Company; officials of the Pittsburgh Steamship Com- 
pany, and other personages of note in the industry and commerce of the 

" i-'or two years after its foundation, the Lorain plant operated 
iii(l( |Hii(|eiitly. 'flien, in 1899, the American Siiipbiiilding Comjiany, 
with a capitalix.ation of .$15,000,000 came into complete control. 

"Until 1!)0() the i>lant operated upon its original site of 20 acres. 
A glow in^- demand for more and larger ships nmde expansion necessary, 
and a tiiiet of 2)5 acres, to the so\illi of the old plant was a('(]uired. 

iilO'l"! 9111 



"In tlie added space was coustnicted a new dry-doek, 747 feet long, 
with a widtli oi" 125 feet at the top and a widlli of IG feet over the 
keel ])locks. This dock is still the largest on fresh water and among the 
half-dozen largest in the world. Later, on the new territory, came a 
second punch sliop, 180 by 245 in size, a boiler shop 110 by 120 feet, a 
foundry 140 by 200 feet, and last of all a i-einforced eonerete-and-steel 
niaehinc shop, 180 by 245 feet in ground dimensions. In the machine 
shop is installed one of the largest boring machines in the United States 
and the second largest planer in Ohio. 

"With tlie new equipment in operation a completed vessel, except 
for a few of the minor details of construction can be turned out of the 

American Shii'iujildixg Plant at Lorain 

Lorain yards. Until recently it has been necessary to bring the boilers, 
engines and larger forgings for boats from outside shops." 

Thomas Uriscoe, first superintendent of the local yard at the time of 
its establishment, was succeeded, at the time of the merger with the 
American Shipbuilding Company, by W. W. AVaterson, who resigned 
after two years to become superintendent of construction for the Pitts- 
burgh Steamshii) Com])any. Fraidc fleCfrey was supei'iutendent fi-om 
18!)!) until li)()4, wlien he look charge of the Union Iron Works yard 
at San l"'i'aneiseo. I'\ C. lialMarclie succeeded Mr. .It'lVrey and he, in 
turn, was followed by tlie former assistant superintendent, A. W. Payton. 

Tlie years from lf)00 to 1910 seem to have been the most i)rosperous, 
since which th(>rc has been a general decline in liie outi)u1. Tlie increase 
in production comiiiciiced willi llic entry of the v\iiiericaii Slii[)biiildiii!.'' 


f;oiiij)imy !is tliii owiici- oi" tlio j)laiil. As slatt'd, llu; sU'iiitici- Superior 
i'My was tlu; lirst boat coiistriictcd, when the Lorain phiiit. was estab- 
lislied l)y the (Cleveland Sliii)hiiildiii(,' Company. It was completed in 
the early spring of 18D8, and during that year four other boats were 
launclied from the yards. Only thi'ee were turned out in 1899, but in 
the following year (the first twelve months under the ownership of the 
American Shipl)uilding Company) eight were completed; the same 
number for each of the years 19U1, ]'J02 and 1903; four, in 1904; si.x, 
in 1905; seven, in 1906; eleven, in 1907; eight, in 1908; twelve, in 1909; 
eleven, in 1910, and nine, in 1911. Five boats were launched in 1912, 
and not to exceed four, in any year since, although seven are under con- 
tract for 191(j. This includes tisii tugs, tire tugs, freighters, oil boats, 
and pleasure craft and jjai'ges. 

E.\RLY Improvements of River .\nd IIaruor 

The material improvement of tlie harbor did not commence until 
1894, or the year of the founding of the Jolmson steel works and the 
incorj)oratioJi of the city. Later, tiie owners of tlie new steel shipyards 
eo-operated in the improvement of their own large pro])erties, and the 
National Government has added its money and efficiency in the further- 
ance of the great work. 

Tile initial improvements in preparation of tlie modern expansion, 
is described by a local paper issued in 1895, as follows: 

"Lorain lias the best natural harbor on the; south shore of Lake 
Erie. Others may surpass it in development, but none can equal it in 
oiijjoi-tunity. Some may exceed it in ])resent tonnage, but none can 
compare in brilliancy of prospects. 

"Long years ago, before the hand of man had straightened its course 
or deepened its channel, it offered shelter to the largest boats that then 
traversed the lakes. The flagship of Commodore Perry might have 
entered its winding course and followed up beneath tlie waving bouglis 
of primitive oaks for four miles without touching bottom or being 
impeded at a single turn. Even forty years ago, had there been 
a Vessel drawing 13 feet of water, it might have gone inland nearly, if 
not (juite, two miles, without discovering the river liad a bottom. Local 
shipmasters yet living can testify that the channel for 1% miles was 
then at least U feet deep and 200 feet wide, and that above that point,, 
for two miles further, it was 14 feet deep most of the way. A vessel 
drawing any amount less than 14 feet inight have gon(! inland the 
distance mentioned, and tlieii have winded as easily as on the broad 
expanse of tlie laker's bosom. 


"The harbor is wliat it is today chiefly because nature made it so. 
True, the lower chaunel has been straightened, the piers extended, the 
bottom dredged near the docks, but less than $75,000 has been spent in 
general dredging, yet what a change. The modern monsters that plow 
the lake may sail in and out and pass three abreast almost anywhere in 
the river for S^/o miles of its course. There is now a channel 17 feet 
deep, 90 feet wide and much of the way 250 feet wide. This is tlie 
result of a single summer's work. There is no point which the largest 
vessels can not pass with safety, and a 300-foot boat could easily wind 
at the top. 

"The city has undertaken the of widening, deepening and 
straightening this magnificent natural channel until it shall be seven- 
teen feet deep for a distance of four miles inland ; until it shall be 
four hundred feet wide at the narrowest part and eight hundred feet 
some of its way. The city has pledged itself to put in this 400-foot 
channel, but the ease with which it can be done and the restriction on 
taxation, guard against the work ever becoming a burden. The munici- 
pality is pledged never to levy more than one mill of the tax duplicate 
for river purposes. This, it is believed, will l)e amply sul^cient, witli 
wluit help the Governnient will give, not only to provide the 400-foot 
channel for the entire four miles, but to keep it in excellent condition. 

"The sea seldom runs so high that ves.sels cannot enter the harljor, 
but when it does the bottom of the lake on all sides of the piers affords 
the best possible anchorage, where vessels may ride out storms in com- 
parative safety. There is another advantage in this harbor seldom 
enjoyed elsewhere. When the dredging is once done it is done forever. 
]>lack River drains for forty miles inland a .section made up of shale 
and clay. Its waters, though dashing over precipice and fre([uently 
raging along its upper confined boundaries, brings no silt or sand to 
fill the navigal)le chaunel beneatli. The sides and I)ottoms of tiie deeper 
channel are equally fortified against abrasion, and tlie lake about tlie 
moutli is as free from accumulations of sand as any harbor on the lakes. 
Tluis, dredging once done, lasts almost forever. Docks once capable 
of receiving siiips, remain so. The, uncertain in amount l)ut 
generally heavy and dreaded, of maintaining tlie channel clean, and of 
keeping the docks accessil)le, is lieri' unknown. 

"Of this uuignificeiit river frontage, extending four miles on either 
si(b'— fnlly eiglit niih'S in ail — less than a niMe and a half is in actual 
use. The (yleveland, Lorain & Wlieeling Railroad owns a large arimunt 
of valnalih' dock on llie west side near the rivei- mouth. On this have 
lieen erected the most iinpi'oved and extensive ore and coal handling 
maehiiierv. The faeilities of Hie Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling l>;iail 


are unsurpassed by any one eoneern on tlie soutli shore of Lake Erie. 
Tlio Jolmson Company is putting in extensive docks in ttio vicinity oT 
their works. These will be Jarge enough to acconiino(hite tiie immense 
ore and iron traffic of that big concern. A lew otlier docks are scattered 
along the river, but the remaining frontage is available for any indus- 
trial enterprise. Cood sites are just as plentiful as ever, and they may 
be ol)tained at very reasonable prices. Any substantial business con- 
cern can get a site free upon making a satisfactory sliowing of liusiness 
and financial standing. 

"As an example of liow rapidly the l)usiness of this harbor is 
developing, a statement of the amount of coal, ore and lumber liandled, 
will l)e interesting. The lumber received last year amounted to 
15,442,426 feet, the ore and coal amounted to 678,935 tons. The influ- 
ence of the recent improvements in ore and coal handling machinery 
and tile building of the Johnson Company furnaces promise to double 
the latter figures for the next season." 

Years ago the city pledged itself to expend an amount not to exceed 
one mill per annum on the assessed valuation for the ])i-oadening, (lecj)- 
eniiig and straightening of the river eiumnel. The amount actually 
expended has been far below this figure. The city engineer estimates 
the average yearly expenditure for harbor improvement at al)0ut +8,000. 

The actual figures for the years 1902 to 1913 follow: 11)02-1904, 
$190,000; 1905, nothing; 1906, $5,000; 1907, nothing; 1908, $8,000; 
1909, ,$14,700; 1910, $14,239; 1911, nothing; 1912, $25,000; 1913, 
$15,000 (estimated). It is to be noted in connection with the figures 
just given, that during the years 1902-1904, an amount of $190,000 was 
exi)ended in one big river dredging contract. This really was an ex- 
traordinary expense, found necessary after many years during which the 
river channel had virtually been neglected. The big total cannot be 
considered normal. The floods of early spring, another extraordinary 
circumstance, made necessary the dredging work to be done durij)g the 
present year, which is estimated at $15,000. 

As the inner portion of the harbor must be maintained by the care 
and effort of men, so must the outer portion. Old settlers tell of seeing 
men plow trenches in the Black River bottom after a hard "north- 
easter" has sent seas across the lowlands near the mouth of the stream 
and filled the channel with sand. Concrete protection piers, constructed 
by the Federal Covernment at a cost of iiundreds of thousands of 
dollars, ward off the mischievous northeasters now. Hetvveen the i)iers 
is an entrance 400 feet wide. 

Out beyond the protection piers stands the 1>reakwater wall, mas- 
sively built of limestone from the (piarries at the upf)er end of tiie lake. 

:\\'i-l ,'"'/!.' 


iiiid (U'si^iiud iillimiilcly to ronii IIk; two halves oi' ii {rrvni liair-s{iiiare, 
with ils aiiyU; ronioved. 'I'Ik; western arm, when eoni]»h'l(Hi, will he 
1J,;{5U feet in total leiij^th. The- eastern arm is planned for u length ol! 
2,;{0() feet. Tlie openinj^ hetween the two arms, is directly opposite the 
40()-foot opening hetween the inner proteetion piers, and of the same 
width. The hreakwater is praetieally eomplete. 

So far, the Federal Government has eontined its operations at the 
Lorain iiarbor strictly to that portion lying ontside the river mouth. 
Now forces are at work to induce Congress to draw upon the national 
treasury for extensive improvements in tiie inner chaiuiel. Straighten- 
ing work, already carried forward hy the city, would be continued on 
a far larger scale than the municipality can afford. A survey to deter- 
mine tlie extent of the work has already been authorized l)y the National 

So much for what the harltor is and will be. Now for a few facts 
concerning what the harbor is doing. Figures cease to l)e dry and 
uninteresting after they pass the million mark. An analysis of the 
bu.siiiess of the port as given by United States Inspector Henry F. Alex- 
ander, for a iiuml)er of years, is presented without comment : 

Rec 'pts and Shipm 'ts 

Coal Shipments 

Iron Ore Rec 'pts i 

\n Kinds Fr. 


Net Tons 

Net Tons 

Net Tons 





























The comparatively small amount of freiglit handled during 1914 was 
owing to the general busine.s.s tlepression. 

The 1I.\uiu)u of the Pkesent 

The harbor ot Lorain has had a reputation for many years of being 
not only the most secure of any of the Great Lakes, liut also oiu; of the 
most thoroughl}' improved. It was this feature of the i)ort more than 
any other which deternuned the location of the i>lants of the American 
Shii) Building Company and the .Johnson Steel (Company. 'IMie fine; 
harbor also decided th<' Cleveland, Loi'ain & AVheeling Raili'oad to make 
liorain its terminus, with the establishment of its imnu'use docks for the 


handling of ore, coal aiul lunil)er. Furtlier, the harl)oi- protected and 
encouraged the tisliing industry, which had heen early estahlished at 
the mouth of the Black River and is still of considerahle volume. 

The harhor of the present emhraces not only the gigantic outer hreak- 
water which offers protection for marine craft at tlie river moutli, hut 
81/; miles of dockage along the Hlaek River. Altogetlier tliese facilities 
represent 87,000 lineal feet, or over seven uulcs of dockage. In tliese 
improvements, as well as in the maintenance of dee]) water at the mouth, 
the Federal Government has already appropriated about $480,000, to 
wliich the city has added nearly !t;l)0(),000 ; and there is now available, 
both from the national and municipal funds, fully $900,000 for harl)or 
and river improvements. The principal improvement now in progress 
is the work of widening tiie ciianiud between tlie Government i)iers, whicli 
run into the lake for 2,000 feet to the lightiiouse. In order to maintain 
an ade(]uate channel, the City of Lorain has acipiired the laiul necessary 
to secure the minimum river width of 400 feet. Tiiis step luis been 
taken to forestall encroachments upon the river by the growing industrial 
plants established along its course. An important harbor improvement 
in the near futui'e is the construction of a lateral breakwater 2,400 yards 
in length and located about a f(uarter of a mile from the ends of the 
lake i)icrs, thus greatly adding to the capacity and security of the outer 

Development of B. & 0. Termin.\l 

A notabh; feature in the harbor improvements and a leading element 
in the commercial and industrial revival and continuous growth of 
Lorain, are indicated in the improvements commenced by the Cleve- 
land & Tuscarawas Valley Railroad and continued by its successors, 
the Cleveland, Lorain & ^Vheeling and the Baltimox'e & Ohio. The 
broad and remarkable expansion of the railway interests devoted to the 
transhipment of iron ore and coal at that ])oint, commencing with 
the early '70s, is thus pictured by the Lorain Times-IIerald : "In 
transhipping equipment at the Lorain terminal, the Cleveland & Tus- 
carawas had tliree coal docks, each of the derrick type with buckets 
that were tilled liy hand. One dock was locatiul at llie foot of lower 
Hi'oadway and tlie otliei" two a slmrt distance soutii of the Krie Avcmue 
viadui't and bridge. Vov oi'e uuloa<iing lliere were two I'li'ie ci'aiies, 
mounted at the site of tlie jjresent No. 2 coal dump near the Round 
TFouse bend. The cranes dropped tiieir loads on tlie dock, wlieni'e it 
was transporfed lo the storage bins in 'man-power' wheelbarrows. 

"Crude MS 111 piipmeiil was, llie ('levelnnd (.^ Tiiseiirawas N'ailey 


contrived to reship at Lorain between 40,000 and 60,000 tons of ore 
and in the neighborhood of 175,000 tons of coal each season. 

"The early '80s brought marked development. RidiiianeiMg was 
effected With its lines extended to the Ohio river, the road, in ISSU, 
expanded under the name of the Cleveland, Lorain & Wheeling. ^ Three 
years before E. M. Pierce, who was to become one of Lorain's most 
influential citizens, had come liere from UhriehsviUe 1o assume the 
responsibility of agent of the coal terminal. 

"Agent Pierce's administration, covering the period between 1880 
and 1907, was marked by extensive development of the re-organized 
railroad's' terminal facilities. 'Whirlies,' and later a battery of Brown 
hoists, replaced the cranes for unloading ore. The coal-loading der- 
ricks gave way to the present No. 1 coal loader nortli of the Erie Avenue 
bridge, capable of picking np a 'gondola' and dumping its contents into 
a vessel. Yardage and repaid facilities were expanded. 

"In 1900 came a second reorganization, opening the ])reseHt and 
the greatest epoch in the history of the road. The patriarch Baltimore 
& Ohio, reaching westward for outlets, alisorbed the Cleveland, Lorain & 
"Wheeling. In legal name only the old road still exists. In a material 
way to it has been imparted the pulse of the larger, more powerful 

"Improvements in terminal facilities went forward with the 
redoubled speed under the new ownership. A second coal-dump, with 
a larger eai)acity than the old No. 1, was built on the east side of the 
river south of the Nickel Plate bridge. Last, but by no means least, 
there was placed in commission in May, 1912, a $2,000,000 ore unload- 
ing plant at the foot of Broadway, where once stood the derrick coal 
loaders, with their liand-fiUed buckets. 

"Nowhere on the Creat Lakes is there a more complete cargo- 
handling plant of the big-storage type than that which rears its great 
structural steel bulk at the lower end of the city's principal business 
street. Thousands of cubic yards of concrete, thousands of tons of 
steel, and hundreds of tliousands of rivets went into the making of this 
great mass of machinery that will unload two 10,000-ton ves.sels in 
twenty-four hours. The three moval)le 'ram' unloaders, each carrying a 
9-ton, claTn-shell bucket. At the rear of the three unloaders travels 
the great conveyor bridge, as big as many a modern sky-scraper, itself 
mounted on wlu'cls, and carrying aloug its titanic length a V-'-tou 'clam.' 
The conveyor takes the ])lace of tlic! man-power wheel-bari'ows in trans- 
mitting the ore back to the storage; bins. 

"Improvements have been made in both No. 1 and No. 2 coal-loaders 
since they were first installed. No. 2, the more modern, has a capacity 


of 20,000 tons in twenty-four liours; No. I's capacity is 10,000 tons 
in the same period of time. 

"For several years the Lorain yards have l)een doing a largo sliare 
of the freight car repair work of the Cleveland division of the Baltimore 
& Ohio. The shops have grown and increased in size many times since 
1872. Today they are the largest shops assigned to freight-ear work 
on the entii'e Baltimore & Ohio System." 

The Lokain Board op Co.m merge 

The Lorain Board of Commerce, with organizations of a kindred 
nature of an earlier date, has accomplished much toward the com- 
mercial and indiistrial development of Lorain. The present body is the 
result of a merger of the old chamber of eonnnorce, founded in 1883, 
and the board of trade, organized in 1899; the con.solidation occurred 
in 1908 under the name of the Lorain Board of Commerce. The details 
which led to these three steps toward development are as follows : 

On the afternon of July 28, 1883, eight men met in the directors' 
room of the old First National Bank to organize the Lorain Board of 
Public Improvement. The eight citizens were Theodore F. Daniels, 
founder of the bank in which the meeting was held; E. U. Pierce, 
Lorain agent for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad ; David Wallace, vessel 
owner; John Staug, marine contractor; C. J. Hills, secretary of the 
Lorain Brass Works; G. J. Clark, a leading attorney; Frank M. White- 
man, a merchant; and F. A. Rowley, owner and editor of the Lorain 

]\Ir. Clark was instructed to draft articles of incorporation, and 
three days later a charter was issued by State Secretary James W. New- 
man. The name of the organization, meanwhile, had been changed to 
"The Chamber of Commerce, of Lorain, Ohio." The incorporators 
were ]\Iessrs. Whiteman, Rowley, Hills, Pierce and Daniels. 

At the first business meeting on September 20th, a board of directors 
comprising IMessrs. Hills, Daniels, Whiteman, Pierce and Clark was 
elected. The directorate, at its tirst session, named the first officers: 
President, T. F. Daniels; vice president, E. M. Pierce; secretary, F. A. 
Rowley; ti'easurer, C. J. Hills. 

For eight years the chamber of connnerce waged its campaign for 
public improvement, handicapi>ed by a lagging i)ublic interest. The 
official pcrsomicl cliangcd, but no records i;t'iiiairi of the organization's 

Then in 1891 new interest was awakened. On April 15th, of that 
year, a reorganization ineeting was held in the office of Mayor W. B. 


"^ =tr, 


Tliompsoii. Coinmittcos wore namod to draft now incorporation articles 
and Traiiie a new eonslilutioii and l)y-laws. On April 25111 a new cliarter 
was issued ]>y tli(! state to iiicorpoi'ators .laiiu'S U. Ilo^e, II. .1. IJarrowH, 
JO. iM. J'icrce, Otto Braiiii and dames Reid. Tweiily-llvo nieiiil)ers .siii:iied 
the new enroll iiient. 

A new board of directors, including W. B. Thompson, E. RI. Pierce, 
James 15. Iloge, \V. A. Jewett, II. J. Barrows, Otto Braun and T. F. 
Daniels was elected, and the directors, in turn, elected as officei'S : 
President, AV. B. Thompson ; vice president. Otto Braun ; secretary, 
James B. Iloge ; treasurer, AV. A. Jewett. 

At tile next regular election, E. AT. Pierce was chosen to succeed 
President Thompson. President I'ierce was succeeded by IMax ]More- 
liouse, wlio resigned, and wbose unexpired term was filled by the 
election of John Stang as president. 

Then followed a [)eriod of several years, of wliich no record or 
minutes remain. The year 18t)9 brought a second r(;-organization. At 
a meeting in tlie council chamber in the Wagner Building on May 511), of 
that year, tbe following directorate was elected: JO. AI. Pii'ree, F. A. 
Rowley, George L. Glitscli, 0. P. Moon, S. L. liowman, G. A. Wilder, 
E. A. Braun, W. A. Donaldson and N. B. Ilurst. 

The offtcers chosen were: President, E. M. Pierce; first vice presi- 
dent, George L. Glitsch ; second vice president, 0. P. I\roon; treasurer, 
10. A. Braun ; secretary, l^"*. A. Rowley. 

W. A. Donaldson was elected president on Uny 27, 1902, and 
between that time and 1908 served four terms, Mr. Pierce being 
re-elected for tbe term of 1906-07. The membership of the organization 
in 1906, according to the records, was forty-three. 

Tbe year 1908 lirougbt tbe amalgamation of the cbamber of com- 
merce and the board of trade. 

Tbe latter organization was formed early in 1908, D. II. Aiken being 
its first and only president. At the time of tbe amalgamation, tbe 
l)oard of trade enrolled about six1y nieinbei's, tbe ma,iority of whom 
were South End merchants and ])rofe.ssional men. 

Tbe meeting which combined tiie two bodies was held in the AVickt'US 
Uuilding on the evening of Novemlier 24, 1908. V. C. LaAIarcbe, vice 
])resi(lent of the cbamljer of commerce, acted as cbairman. A resolu- 
tion, ei'eating an oi'ganization to lie known as "The Loi-ain lioard of 
( 'iimniene," was adiipled. It was I'uniially agreed that membei's of the 
two (ii'gani/ntions that wei'(^ parties to tlie coiidiinat ion siionld be mem- 
liers, e\ ot'lieio, of the new body. 

AV. X. Little was elected temporary president. On l")ecend)er Utb, 
of the same yri\\\ his election was made permanent, President Lillle's 


nni\ii'^'/\ug interest in the linked affairs of tlie hoard and of tlio eity 
iias l)een reeof^ni/.ed l)y his re-election to tiie executive chair Tor every 
term since he look office in 1908, exeei)t for the period from July, l'.)ll, 
to January, lf>12. As a candidate for the nuiyoralty nomination. 
Ml'. Little resigned the presitlency and was succeeded l)y II. D. Laker, 
wiio resij>ned on Octol)er IS, 1911, and in turn was succeeded by C. R. 

.Mr. Little was re-elected in 1912-14 and Oeorge A. Clark in 1915. 
'J'he i)resent officers are : Lester A. Fauver, president ; D. J. Boon, first 
vice pri'sident ; G. W. ^lonasmith, secretary; A. E. Cameron, treasurer. 


The Citizens (las and Electric Liglit Company, with a large plant 
oil East Twenty-first Street, is an outgrowtii of the Lorain Gas Com- 
pany, wliicli was organized in October, 1899, with a capitalization of 
.+300, 000, and which purchased, at the time, the rival plants of the 
Wright Gas Company and the Lake Ei*ie Electric Light Company. It 
is the source of light and power for Lorain, Elyria and considerable 
adjacent territory. The Lake P^rie Electric Light Company was organ- 
izeil in 1891, especially to operate the national incandescent system and 
the Edison arc lamp. 

TELEPiioNE Service 

The complete and efficient telephone .service of Lorain was inaugu- 
rated in the .spring of 1894 by the organization of the Black River 
Telephone Company, with the following officers: J. B. Coffuiberry, 
president; Harry C. Burrell, vice president; James B. Iloge, secretary 
and treasurer; George L. l^uell, manager, and C. G. Washburn, attorney. 
Aljout 1902 the new building of the exchange was occupied. It was 
largely tiirough the technical skill and long practical experience of 
Arthur W. Iloge, consulting engineer and contractor, that the local 
system was brought into such smooth working order. Mv. Iloge was 
associated witli the engineering department of the Lorain steel plant 
during its consti'uctive period, and previous to tiiat period had lieen 
division engineer during the Imibliiig of the ( 'li'vcland, Lorain & 
Whei'lirig K'ailroad. 10. M. Tierce, for a numl>er of years president of 
the IJJaek Iv'iver Telepiioiie Company, was also a strong force; in its 
founding and development. 


Tiiio IjOhain Hanks 

Half a dozun 1)aiiks, with avoraf^e deposits of lictwecii $4,000,000 and 
$5,000,000, co-operate with the couiiiieree, business and industries of 
Lorain, and thus uphold tlie substantial character of the place as one 
of the growing lake ports of the country. 

The City Bank 

The oldest of the Lorain banks now in operation is conducted by 
the City Bank Company. In 1899 it was established as the City Bank, 
at Pearl Avenue and East Twenty-eighth Street, South Lorain — its 
present location. 

National Bank of Commerce 

Although the National Bank of Commerce dates its separate organi- 
zation from January 10, 1900, it was, in a certain sense, the predecessor 
of the old Citizens Savings Bank, which connnenced business under 
the name of the Bank of Lorain in October, 1880. The original mover 
in that enterprise was T. F. Daniels, cashier of the Citizens National 
Bank of Oberlin, who came to Lorain in 1879 to investigale the pros- 
pects of the awakened village at the mouth of Black Hiver. lie was 
so impressed tliat he returned to the college town, resigned his position 
as cashier, returned to Lorain, bought a tire-proof and burglar-proof 
safe, moved it into the front ])arlor of ^Irs. Mnvy Keid's residence on 
P>road\vay and anno\inced that the town's lirst bank was ready for 

The Old Bank op Louain 

The Baidc of Lorain was a success from the beginning, and in Jan- 
uary, 1882, through the initiative and continuous exertions of 'Slv. 
Daniels, it was reorganized as the First National Bank, with a capital 
of $50,000 and authority to increase that sum to $300,000. W. A. 
Braman was elected president and T. F. Daniels cashier. The First 
National Bank of Lorain also 'threw IMrs. Reid's front parlor doors 
open to the public, allliough it broke ground for a building of its own 
at tlie corner of Broadway and J?ank Sti'eet-. In DeciMubei', 1882, the 
new building was ready for occupancy, increa.sed. There 
also was a growing demand in tlie couununity for loans on mortgages, 
which the hunk could not meet under its National charter. In .March, 


1893, the institution was reorganized as the Citizens Savings Bank, and 
was o])erated niider that name until several years ago. 

'J'liK Citizi:ns Savings Bank RKouoANiziio 

In 1900, Charles Ilahn, who had been vice president of the Citizens 
Savings Bank, E. A. Braun, who had served as its assistant cashier 
untler T. F. Daniels, and others, organized the National Bank of 
Coiiuuerce. jMr. Ilahu became president of the new institution; George 
L. Glitsch, vice president; Mr. Braun, cashier, and A. R. Rladdock, 
a.ssistant cashier. The present otticers are: Charles Ilahn, president; 
(icorge L. (ilitsch, vice i)resident; E. A. Braun, vice president; A. R. 
.Aladdock, cashier. The capital stock of the National ]3ank of Commerce 
is ,$100,000, surplus and undivided profits over $24,000, and average 
deposits, about $1,300,000. 

Cleveland Trust Company, Lorain Branch 

Jn ^lay, 1905, the Cleveland Trust Company took over the old 
Lorain Savings & Banking Company, and reorganized its business as a 
branch of that corpoi'ation. The local manager is A. E. Cameron. Ilis 
jircdcccssors were A. V. Ilageman ami J. A. Purccll. The first location 
was in a small two-story building on the east side of Broadway north 
of Fourth Street. It afterward occupied the ]\Iajcstic Building and 
.still hiter its own financial home on Broadway and Fourth. 

The Lorain Savings & Banking Company 

Tile Lorain Savings & Banking Company, which was thus absorbed 
by tin- Cleveland Trust Company, was organized in January, 1891, 
creeled a Imilding in the spring of that year, and commenced business 
in .July. E. ]\I. Pierce, president, Thomas Gawn, vice president, and 
•lames H. Ilogc, cashier, were the mainstays of the institution which 
for fourteen years was so stanch a factor in the financial .stability of 
Lorain. .Messrs. Pierce ami Iloge were also identified with the earlier 
aelivities of the Cleveland, Loi'ain & Wheeling Railway Company. 

The (-kntkae Banking Company 

111 .lime, 1I)0,">, Hie I'eiifield Aveinie I'.aiik Company was organized, 
llie li\isiness being eoiidueted undei' that name uiilil .lanuai'y, 1910, 
when il was assuiiied liy Hie ('<'iilral Uaiik Company, more generally 


known as tlie Central liank. II. J. Barrows served as president for 
live years, when he was snceeeded by the present ineunibent, W. B. 
Thompson. Charles ]\I. J^rainan, the first eashier, is now viee president, 
and B. A. Foskett has l)een ])roinoted from assistant eashier to easliier. 
The first viee president is D. II. Aiken, who, with the others mentioned, 
assumed olfice in January, 1914. The capital stock of the Central 
Bank Company is $50,000; surplus and undivided profits, $37,500, 
and average deposits, $750,000. 

The Lorain Banking Company 

The Lorain Banking Company is one of the solid institutions of the 
city, and is officered as follows: R. Thew, president; Orville Root, first 
viee president; B. G. Nichols, second vice president; C. ]\I. Irish, secre- 
tary and treasurer. The capital stock is $125,000 ; surplus and undivided 
profits, $15,500; deposits, about $550,000. 

The George Oroszy Banks 

George Oroszy also operates two private 1)aiiks, one in .Soutli Lorain. 



Oi.nKST Existing Ciuihcii — The ^Methodists and Lot No. 205 — 
"Father" ]5etts and the Presbyterians — The liAPrisTS Hold 
EAiiLY Services — The J*resi}\'terianh "at Home" — I\Ietiiodists 
Organize First Church — First Congregational Church — First 
^1. E. Church — Church op Christ — St. jMary's Roman Catholic 
Church — Twentieth Street Methodist Church — St. John'^ 
Evangelical, First Baptist, United ]Jretiiren and Second Con- 
gregational Churches — Episcopal Churches — Delaware Avenue 
and Grace M. E. Churches — St. Joseph's Roman Catholic 
Church — Church of the Nativity — Hungarian Catholic 
Churches — Other South Lorain Churches — Churches Formed 
BY Colored I^eople — The First Presbyterian Church — The First 
Church op Christ, Scientist — Jewish Synagogue — First English 
Lutheran — Hungarian Reformed Church — Trinity Baptist 

Although the Baptists, Presbyterians and Jletliodists are known to 
]iave held scrviees as early as when Lorain was the little fishing settle- 
iiieiit of Hlaek Jiiver, or the infantile Village of Charleston, and the 
Ceriaan-speaking settlers also organized in the struggling pioneer days 
of the plaee, it was not until the early '70s, when Lorain was generally 
acknowledged to he fii-mly rooted, that religionists of all denominations 
also eomiiiciieed to organize with fonfideiiee in the future of their 
ehurelu'S. A (piarter of a century afterward, with the birth of modern 
industrialism at Lorain and the consequent expansion of its activities 
in every direction, including a large influx of workmen from abroad, 
lh(! nuiid)er of churches increased correspondingly. During that ])eriod 
fully a dozen substantial organizations were established, including tlire(; 
large Catholic churches. 

Oldest IOxisting Church 

Tlic oldest existing ehurcli in Tiorain is the I'biianuel I'>vangelical. 
lis iiouse of worship is on Reid Avenue, between Fifth and Sixth 


.streets, and its pastor, Rev. C. J. IloUinger. Tlie society befjan its 
missionary labors in Lorain during 1848, its first meeting being in a 
small chapel on the farm of Caspar Dute. The church was organized 
in 1851, with seven charter members, at which time services were being 
held in a log house on Oberlin Avenue. In 1855 a frame church was 
Iniilt on the corner of what is now Fourth Street and Hamilton Avenue, 
which was used as a place of worship until 1889, when the property now 
occupied was purchased and tlie brick edifice erected. The mendjer- 
.ship is about 175. 

TuE Methodists .\nd Lot No. 205 

The ^Methodists appear to have held services at an early day and 
organized a class in 1856, but to have experienced quite a long period of 
inactivity prior to the early '7Us, when the3^ were revived as a mission 
and in 1875 organized as a cliurch. In 1870 the Methodists had decided 
to build a new edifice and moved their old wooden meeting house from 
their property on Washington Avenue just north of Erie, to Lot 205, 
and gave it to Charleston as a town hall. That lot had been public prop- 
erty since 1837. In the original plat of Charleston of that year, Lot 
No. 205 was mai'ked iMeeting House, and was to be donated to that 
body of Christians who should first erect thereon a house of worship of 
certain dimensions. Evidently none of tlie religious bodies of Charleston 
had been able to build a church of sufficient dimensions to claim the site. 

"Father" Betts and the Pkesbyterians 

The First Congregational Church of Lorain antedates the ^Methodist 
as an independent local organization by about three j'ears. Among 
its founders and its faithful workers for many years were tlie okl 
banker, T. F. Daniels, and his good wife, both of whom moved to 
Florida in 1906 in a search for restored health. At the silver anni- 
versary of the church, held July 25, 1897, ]\Ir. Daniels read an interest- 
ing history of its progress to that time. He thus speaks of the early 
religious movements at Lorain: "It is difficult to ascertain just wlien 
an organized effort was made to establish a church here, although a 
Presltyterian church was organized at Elyria in a log schoolhouse, 
Xovciiiber 25, 1824, fhrougli Ihe elVoils of 'Fatiicr' Alfred 11. Betts, 
who began i)rca<'hiiig at {{rowidielm in 1820 and was ordained in 1821. 
Ijclonging to Huron l*r('sl)ytery. 'Fallier' Hctts laljored all through 
tills region, being iiersonally known by a number here who are still 

'(•fi,)it.,r '5:tc'' A:i''{ 'jjf' 

• it itlittll 


Tjiic Uai'tists IIom) Eaklv kSiORvrcios 

"TIk'Iv is Jill iiiipri'ssioii that the Itaptists lield services, and perliaps 
had an oi'yanization liuru, prior to tlie Presl)yterians, l)ut I can get no 
jxjsitive data thereon. Tliey certaiidy had sei'vices, whicli were held 
foi- a time in the schoolhouse which stood on that part of the Lake Road 
a few rods west of Washington street, wliieh is now all washed away; 
for you will bear in mind that the business and residence thoroughfarus 
not only through Black River, but between New York and Chicago, 
crossed the river by ferry near its mouth and on westward, where tlie 
waters of Lake Erie now roll. The Baptists also held services in the 
frame building— one of the to be erected in Black River— which 
was afterward used as a church by the Presbyterians and JMethodists, 
as a si-lioolhouse and a towji hall, still later by this church, and now as 
a residence belonging to Mv. Moyses on AVashington street near First 

The PRE,sByTERi.vN.s "At Home" 

"In 1841 01- 1S42 the Presbyterians secured themselves a home 
Ihroiigh tile generosity of their members; notably, T. Baldwin and his 
wife, Sojihia, sister of Conrad Reid, who owned the above mentioned 
frame building, then located on Lake street between Washington and 
the lOlyria Road, and at one time occupied hy Jacob Vetter as a resi- 
dence and shoe shop. This they donated, in whole or in part, and it 
was moved on the property later known as the IMethodist Church lot 
on Washington near Erie (or .Main street, as it was then called). Tiie 
lot was furnisiied by Mi: Baldwin, the Days, and Captain J. W. Randall, 
others out of town assisting in moving and remodeling the church. The 
bell came from the Wilcox boarding house, located south and west of 
Mi\h\ street and the Elyria Road (corner of Broadway and Erie 

Methodists Org.\nize FntsT Church 

"Where the Presbyterians worshiped before, and how long they 
were (ii'ganized, it is difficult to ascertain. They held services in Lorain 
for years, but finally, through the cessation of 'Father' Betts' labors, 
the ehurih became feeble. The building was used as a schoolhouse until 
Uie spring of LSaG, when the present Alelhodist church was organized 
by K'evs. Hard and (Iriffin, as the result of a reimirkable series of 
revival meetings conducted by them the preceding winter. There were 
nineiy-nine jiersons who united at the lime of organization. 


"The present German Evangelical Church of Rcid and Bank streets, 
formerly located on Doane street, and even earlier worshiping in the 
log house of 'Grandma Brown,' corner of Doanc; and Wasliington streets, 
antedates the Methodist organization by several years." 

First Congregational Church 

• As already noted, in 1870 the ]\Iethodist people decided to build a 
new edifice and moved the wooden meeting house onto Lot 205, now 
occupied by the Congregational Church. It was formally turned over 
to the authorities as a town hall, the present building being then used 
as a schoolhouse. In the booni of 1872, incident to the building of the 
C]eV(!land, Tuscarawas Valley & Wheeling Railroad, there seemed to be 
rootri for another organization. "Father" A. i). Barber, then laboring 
at North Amherst, was solicited by A. R. Fitzgei'ald to visit this place 
and hold services; which he did, and the present Congregational Church 
grew out of the effort and canu' into being in this same litth; meeting 
house, by council convened July 2:i, 1872. 

The council which thus established the First Congregational Church 
was composed of Rev. A. D. Barber, J. W. Humphrey and II. S. Davis, 
of Amherst; Rev. Samuel Wolcott, D. D., of Cleveland, moderator; 
Rev. F. D. Kel.sey, scribe, and L. Rice, of Columl)Us, and Rev. S. Bryant, 
of Vermillion. Nine members were then received into tlie new church — 
Roland Osgood, Laura O.sgood, Cas.sie Osgood, Ruby Prince, Elizabeth 
Peachy, Ann Gilmore, Elizabeth Brown and IMargaret Cunningham. 
As the ]\Iethodists had released all claim to the building and the town 
authorities could not hold the lot for other than religious purposes, the 
indirect owners of the land eleared the title on Lot 205. Tlie quit-claim 
deed was dated August 2, 1872, and signed by the Fitzgeralds and Gil- 
mores, and in ]\Iay, 1881, nearly tliree years after the completion of the 
present building, the city officials, through the mayor and clerk, gave 
their consent to the use of the site, as reciuired by the original owners. 
Thus the title was completed. 

Not long after its organization in 1872, through the efforts of Rev. A. 
D. Barber, the church secured tlie services of Arthur T. Reed, then a 
student at Oberlin College. 

The second pastor was B. N. Chamberlain, ordained and installed 
by council. The third was Rev. J. B. Stocking. On ]\Iarch 13, 1876, 
action was taken to adojit i)liins drawn l)y E. C. Kinney for a new 
church, and to rent a lot in the rear of tlie church for five years onto 
which to move the old biiilding. 

On October 17, 1876, the cornerstone of the present building was 


laid, and tlie fiiiislied structuro was dedicated Noveinl)er 1:5, 187S. The 
i'ourtli piislor, J{cv. Fvnnk iMcCoiiauKliy, served rroiii 1877 lo 1S84. Tlio 
lil'th ])as1of was liev. Sidney Slronf?. Tlie sixUi was Kev. A. I). Harher, 
under whose Jeadersliip llio oliurcli paid its deht and i)nreliased tlie lot 
and one-half on which the parsonage stands. 

Tlie seventh pastor, Rev. F. P. Sanders, served Trom ISHO to 1892. 
During his pastorate the pipe organ was i)ureliased. The eluireli iiiem- 
bershij) at that time was 241. 

The eightli j)astor was Rev. C. J. Dole, 1892 to 1895, and the ninth 
Rev. T. I). I'hilips, 189G to 1899. During liis pa.storate tiic parsonage 
was built. 

The tenth pastor was Rev. A. E. Thompson, 1899 to 1903. While 
'^h•. Tliomp.son .served, the eliureh was remodeled, a mortgage of :f8,000 
being placed on the church jiroperty, and the building was rededicated 
February 23, 1902. The eleventli pa.stor was Rev. 11. 1). Sheldon, VMi 
to 1910. Tlie longest pa.storate in the history of the church. The 
twelfth pastor was Rev. A. R. Hrown, 1910 lo 1914. Rev. P. X. Pcii- 
iiett, who now occui)ies the pulpit, began work in I\Iai-ch, 1!)14. The 
First (Jongregalional Olmrch has a present iiieiiibei-sliii) of 400. 

First M. K. Cjniijcir 

Tn 1875 the First :\rethodist l']pi.scopal Church was n.ade a ".station" 
under the Mi'llioilist i>laii, having a membership of eighty-six. Prior to 
that time, for a number of year.s, it had been part of a circuit, having 
the services of a pastor only i)ai-t of the time. Rev. A. P. Jone.s 
appointed pastor at that time. The first church building stood on the 
corner of Washington Avenue and West Ki'ie Street. 

In 1890 Rev. J. Frank Smith was appointed pa.stor and under his 
leadership a new site was purchased at the corner of Sixth Street and 
Reid Avenue, for +1,274, and the pi'csent building was erected at a 
total, including lots, of !};2(),481. A pipe organ was afterwards 
installed and other additions and imi3ro\'emeiits were made from time 
to time, greatly increa.sing the value and utility of the struclure. The 
I)roperty is now valued at $30,000. The church also has a line parson- 
age valued at $5,000, located at the coi-ner of Reid Aveiuu- and Seventh 
Street. Succeeding Mr. Smith as i)astor were Rev. N. E. Davis and 
Rev. Jo.sephiis R. Jacob, the latter having lu-en in charge since Sei)teni- 
bcf, 1!)13. 

The church at present (1915) has a member.ship of over fiOO and Iho 
Sunday school an enrollment of nearly 500. 



In 1874 W. S. Streator, president of thu Cleveland, Tusearawas 
Valley & AYheeling Railroad, sent W. A. Wire to Lorain to take charge 
of the yai'ds of the company. It was through ]Mr. Wire's efforts that 
the Church of Christ was established on December 17, 1876. Among its 
charter menibei's were jMrs. AYire, Mrs. S. D. Porter and V. II. Osgood. 
The first meetings were held in Edison's Ilall on the corner aftcward 
occupied by the Lorain Hardware Company. The first pa.stor of the 
church was Rev. Robert Moffctt, and his successors have been Revs. C. (.J. 
Aldrich, J. E. Rhodes, L. A. Chapman, A. K. Adrock, Glen Warnock, 
V. G. IIo.stetter, W. E. Adams, T. D. Garver, F. M. Gibbs, J. J. Karris, 
j\I. J. .Maxwell, William Downing, W. A. Wire, U. A. White, L. J. 
^McDonald, Garry L. Cook, A. C. Gray, AV. S. Ilayden, A. II. Jordan 
and N. Zuleh. In the year 1878 the congregation purchased a site on 
Fifth Street and built a one-room chapel. That building was the home 
of the congregation for twenty-four years. In 1902 the little chapel 
was replaced by the substantial structure now in use, wliich was erected 
at a cost of $10,000. The church has a membership of over 400. 

St. ]\I.\ry's Roman Catii'^lic Church 

The oldest and the largest Roman Catholic Church in Lorain is St. 
Mary's. In 1873 Rev. L. ]\Iolon, of Elyria, first ministered to the few 
Catholics then residing at the mouth of the Black River. Until January, 
1878, he visited Lorain monthly, saying mass in private families. The 
conununity's first resident priest was Rev. Joseph Romer, who came to 
the village in February, 1878, and for a time held .services at the resi- 
dence of Peter ]Miller. In March, 1879, a chapel on Reid Avenue near 
wluit is now Seventh Street, acquired through the efforts of Father 
Romer, was opened. The congregation at this time enrolled about thirty 

In 1883 a larger church replaced the first little chapel. A year 
later the church was made self-supporting, and Rev. Joseph Eyler 
becanu' the resident pastor. 

The Sisters of St. Francis took charge of the church school in 1888, 
and late in the same year the i)resent two-story brick school building 
was ci'ecfed at a cost of $10,000. On June f), 189.'), the frame church 
was destroyed by lire and a year later the handsome edifice at present 
occupied by the church was completed, tlu- building representing an 
oullay of $35,000. Tlie ciuirch was dedicated on Sunday, May 23, 1897, 
by the Ut. Rev. Uishop llorstiiuni. 

'fT'ifji*;'! t 


Since till! (;oinin<» of llic iii-csi'iif ])astor, Ri'V. J. J. Joliiisloii, a n'^- 
tofv, costiiif,' alxmt $2"), ()()(), lias Ix'cii ciwM'tcd. 'IMu- cliurcli's I'cal i)i'oi)- 
ci-ty now includes six lols, oinbraciiij^ tin; entire liloek on the west side 
of iu'id Avenue betweoi Seveiitii and Eiglitli streets, the church, school 
and rectory buildings. The total value of the i)roperty exceeds .i>20U,000. 
The church has a menibership of 1,600. The Sunday school enrollment 
is ."JOO and that of the i)arochial school more than 300. 

Twentieth Street Metiiodlst Church 

The second organization of the Lorain Alethodists, the Twentieth 
Street M. E. Church, was founded by IJev. Jolm WiLson in 1879. It is 
an oftshoot of the First M. E. Church, of whicli ]Mr. Wilson was at the 
time pastor. Meetings were at first held in a little chapel at Reid Ave- 
nue and Seventeenth Street. There were forty-nine members. Rev. F. 
E. Baker was the first pastor and was succeeded by Rev. ]\Iilo Kelser. 

The present cluirch edifice at Reid Avenue and Twentieth Street 
was erected in 18!)9. Until the street names were changed several years 
ago the church was known as the Kent Street ]M. E. Church. 

TIk; successors of J\Ir. Kelser were Revs. John M. Baxter and -Joseph 
Kinniiy, the latter, now in service, assuming the pastoi'ate in October, 
I!)!-!. The church has a membersliip of about 325 ami the Sunday 
school a somewliat larger enrollment. 

St. John's Evangelical Church 

St. Jolm's Evangelical Cluirch, now more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury old, was organized i\Iay i), 1880, with sixteen ciiarter mend)ers. 
These were Conrad AViegand, Conrad Ilagdman, John Ruger, Jolm 
Aschenbach, August Nahorn, Adam Braun, Carl Roeder, Carl Ileinrieh, 
Ernst Becker, Henry Steinhauer, Henry Nobele, Catharine Reid, 
Catherine Pratsch, ^lathilda Reichard and Gust Zellmer. 

Services were held by Rev. John Vontobel of Amherst, fii-st in 
Edison's hall and later in the First Congregational Church. 

The first of worship (the little frame church still used as a 
liouse of worslii]) by the Second IM. E. Church) was erected at Reid 
Aveinu^ and Seventh Street. .Mr. Vontobel was .succeeded by Rev. W. 
A. Walter, who came fi'om Andierst every other Sunday and held 
l)r('aciiing services. 

Rev. -lolm liisclioff was llie first resident minislei-. Tie came here 
in IMS,") ami remained for ten years. During his ])astorate the first par- 
sonage was erected on Iveid Avenue. l\Ir. HiscliolV was succeeded l)v 

'\H f.Jo i.l 


Rev. C. W. Loher, now of Baltimore, Maryland, in ]895. Inuring his 
pastorate; tlie present hrick cliurch at Reid Avenue and tSeveiith Street 
was creeled. Mr. Jjolier resit^ned in 1898 and was sueeeeded on Septeni- 
her lltli of tlie same year by Rev. \V. L. Bretz, wlio continued as pastor 
for some seventeen years. During his pastorate the church developed 
into an organization of some 600 coniinunicants, with a flourishing Sun- 
day school and other large auxiliaries. Services are conducted in both 
German and English. 

The Fikst Baptist Church 

The First Baptist Church was organized i\Iay 14, 1882, with seven 
members. JMiss Laura Young is tlie only charter member residing in 
Lorain. On July 9, 1882, the congregation moved from the north end 
of tile city to a building at the south end. The Buck Building was sold 
and meetings were then held at the home of Mrs. E. J. Nichols on 
Livingston Avenue. On September 27, 1882, 'William A. Brainan & 
Company donated two lots and a church building was erected on the 
corner of Woodland Avenue and Forest Street, now Reid Avenue and 
Eighteenth Street. Services were lield for llie first time in the new 
church l)y Rev. P. S. Aioxom on July 10, 188:5. 

Rev. C. C. Green, tiie lirst resident pastor, came to Lorain May 2i, 
1883. He remained until September, 1884, and was succeeded by Rev. 
F. Ilodder. Other ministers who iilled the pulpit were Revs. S. Early, 
F. II. Young, A. W. Stone, A. Cooper, C. S. Collins, J. L. Cook, II. Wil- 
liam Pilot, E. C. Siuimaker and W. Waldemar W. Argow. The last 
named has occupied the pulpit since Jlay, 1914. The present member- 
ship of the church is over 200. A new building is being planned for 
the near future. 

The United Bretiiken Ciiukch 

The United Brethren Church is also one of the old religious organiza- 
tions of Lorain, as age goes in that comparatively young town. On 
January 6, 1895, it was organized hy twelve charter members. Services 
were first conducted in a rented chapel on West Twenty-first Street 
until June 7, 1908, when the edifice now in use was completed at 
Twenty-first Street and Reid Avenue. Among its pastors have been 
Revs. I). J. Good, Frank Tyler and T. J. Robey. Its memliership is 
aliout 200. 

Skconi) (!(»Noin';(i.\Ti(>NAh ('iriutcrr 

Under tile frees of a grove in the Stei'l Plant District location, and 
through tlie elVorls of Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Day with other co-workers, 


there was organized on Sunday, June 2, 1892, a Congregational Sunday 
seliool which was soon to enroll 300 pupils. By August a chapel had 
been crceted. The chapel now forms the soutli wing of' the Second 
(Congregational Churcii on Kast Thirty-first Street, formerly Thirteenth 

On September 8, 1895, Rev. J. A. Seibert began work as tiie pastor 
of the church. A temporary organization was effected in February, 
189G, and tile regular church officers were elected. There were four- 
teen charter ineml)ers. Soon after the above date the little band was 
reduced to six and discouragement settled over the congregation. 

January 8, 1899, the first conununion .service was held in the little 
chapel. On January 2, 1899, the church was reorganized with thirty- 
one members. The next pastor was Rev. E. E. Scoville, who, in turn, 
was succeeded by Rev. Wni. A. Dietrich. lie was followed by Revs. G. S. 
Brett, W. A. Elliott, Walter Spooner, Harry Janes and 11 V. Tippett, 
the last named being the present pastor. 

The first little chapel stood on borrowed land. The present church is 
on a site owned by the congregation. The building is the largest Eng- 
lish Protestant Cliurch in the Steel Plant District, which is largely 
monopolized by Catiiolic bodies. The present ciiurch membership is 125. 

Episcopal Churches 

St. David's was the first Episcopal Church in Lorain, its organiza- 
tion dating from 1895. An edifice was erected on Pearl Avenue. Some 
four years afterward the Latlies' Guild of the Redeemer Mission was 
formed in the northern portion of the city, services being lii-st held in 
the German Church. Archdeacon Brown presided. After a time serv- 
ices were discontinued for a number of years, but in 1901 a reorganiza- 
tion was effected under the name of St. George's ]\Ii.ssion, and Rev. T. E. 
Swan was appointed rector. In less than a year Mr. Swan died and was 
succeeded on ftlarch 9, 1902, by Rev. W. S. Llewellyn Romily. At the 
annual meeting, in May, 1904, it was resolved to call the church by its 
original name, "The Church of the Redeemer." 

Earnest effort on the part of the members of the church materialized 
in an individual place of worship, tin- present hand.some stone edifice at 
Reid Avenue and Seventh Street, the cornei'sfone for which was laid 
Oelober 2, 1901. 

In the rectorafe Mr. Romily was succeeded by Rev. E. Ileeley 
Moloney, wliose successors were Revs. ('. A. Dowell and 10. \'\ iJigler, 
the liiller (iflieiating at liolli the Chureli of the K'edeemer and SI. Diivid 's. 


Delaware Avenue M. E. Ciiuhcii 

On vXiif^iist (J, 18!)!), (iavvii Avciiik; Mission Suiidiiy s(;li()()l was orj^iiii- 
izcd l)y till! hoard of Hk; h'irst .M. JO. (Jliui'i-li. TIk; j)astoi' ol" the l''irst 
Cliurch was Jlov. Albert VaiiCaiiii) at that time, and hu and Samuel 
Butler took charge of the school. The Sunday school sessions were 
held in tlie school building on old Fifth Street. During the year IDOl 
the late Thomas Gawn built a chapel on Delaware Avenue and presented 
it to the Gawn Avenue congregation. 

In 1904 the cliurch was organized with nineteen charter members. 
Rev. F. D. Stevic was the pastor. In 1906 the first chapel was sold and 
a larger church huilt at East Erie and Delaware avenues. 

The last two pastors of Delaware Avenue M. E. Church have been 
Rev. G. AY. Ilouk and Rev. J. II. Le Croix, the latter having served 
since September, 1913. The mendjership is nearly IGU, and the Sunday 
school enrollment over 200. 

Grace Methodist Episcopal Cimiscii 

The Grace ^Methodist Episcopal Cliurch, formerly known as the 
South Lorain M. E. Churcli, was organized at a called meeting of the 
Methodists of the south part of the city, on July 13, 1900. The congre- 
gation held its first meetings in the K. 0. T. IM. hall on East Twenty- 
ninth Street with Rev. ]\Iilo Kelser, assistetl liy Rev. E. R. Romig, as 
pastors. The congregation grew so rapidly that it was soon alile to 
build a church edifice and on PVbruary 23, 1902, it moved info the pres- 
ent building on East Thirty-first Street. Unencumbered by delit, the 
institution plans to erect a parsonage within the near future. The 
present enrollment is 140, with a Sunday school of 175. 

Pastors who have filled the puli)its since the first organization 
include Revs. E. S. Collier, II. D. Fleming, S. E. Sears, R. Halmer, W. 
B. Maughiman, J. F. Stewart and E. AI. Iloagland. The last named is 
the present pastor, having a.ssumed the pastorate in September, 1915. 

St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church 

St. Joseph's parish was organized by Rev. Charles Reichlin, the pres- 
ent pastor, on January 5, 1S!)G. The first .service was held in the chapel 
of St. Joseph's Ilo.spifal. h'our lots at the intersection of Reid Avenue 
and Eighteenth Street were purchased, and a church was creeled. 'IMie 
present edifice was dedicated i)y IJisiiop Ilorstman, Sunday, .May 9, 1S97. 
Tlie structure is a massive brick building with stone IrimmiuL's 

<llll 111 ' l< 


A parish school was organized sinuiUaiiooiisly with tlie parisli. In 
January, ]Si)G, two rooms wen- n-nti'd for tin; purposn and two Sisters 
of St. Franeis were instalh'd as t<'achers. Forty diihlren wvn- in atlend- 
aiiec when tlie sehool was oj)ene(l and l)eror(; the end of .June TOO pupils 
Were enrolled. The parish now lias ahout 125 families, a large Sunday 
school, and a beautiful new parish iiouse, recently built. Rev. Charles 
1^'iehlin, who was sent here by liishop lIoi'stm;in when tlu' church was 
oi-gani/ed, is still in eliarge. 

Church of tiie Nativity 

Jn 1895 Catholic Polish people began to settle in Lorain, where the 
docks and rolling mills gave the men employment. For nearly three 
years they attended nuiss at St. .Mary's R. C. Church on Fighth 
Street. Rev. Adolph Swierezynski was sent to Lorain in January, 18!J8, 
to conduct services for the Polish speaking resiilents. He secured a 
room in St. .Mary's School and had it fitted up as a i)]aee of worshii). 

Services were held every other Sunday. Rev. Chas. II. 
succeeded Father Swierezynski in June, 1898. The room at St. ^Mary's 
School was abandoned in October and the church was moved into the 
ba.sement of St. Jo.seph's Church. In September, 1898, five lots were 
purchased at the corner of Jje.xington Avenue and Fifteenth Street to 
serve as a site for church, school and pastoral residence. 

Another lot was bought in November, 18i)9. A two-story frame, 
combined church and school building, was finished in April, l!)(l(), and 
was dedicated on Septendjcr 9th of tiie same year. The edilice cost 
$10,000. In Septendjer, 1900, a parisli scliool was opened with an attend- 
ance of sixty-five pupils, in charge of a lay teacher. 

'J'he church at the ])resent time is in charge of Rev. A. A. Radecki. 
It has a memljershij) of 460 families and a school enroll nu'iit of 285 
pupils. The in'ojx'i'ty is owiu-d by the church and valued at +;U),(!()0. 

IIuNG.\RiAN Catholic Chltrches 

The origin of St. Ladislaus Roman Catholic Magyar Church, which 
is one of file largest of the organizations sujtitorted l)y the foreign cle- 
ment in South Lorain, was St. Stephen's Sick Penevolent Society, 
founded by the Hungarians of tliat locality in 1898. A parish was 
founded l»y IJcv. Charles Zochm, ])a.stor of St. Flizabelh (Muirch, Cleve- 
land, and his assistant, Rev. Jose|)h Szabo. Fatiier Szabo became the 
first resident priest of the i)ari.sli in 1904, and during bis i)astorate of 
seven yeai's the church and i)arish house were erected at Wood Avenue 

in''-i3 riv, 

'i|(j ;|i; I il- 


and East Twenty-ninth Street. In 1910 he was suceeeded by Rev. S. C. 
Soltez, whose eharge comprises some 300 families. 

In 190G tlie Hungarians of .South Lorain also organized a Greek 
Catholic Church (St. Michael) which, for several years, has been in 
charge of Rev. Basil Berecz. 

Other South Lorain Catholic Churches 

Sts. Cyril and Methodius Parish was organized in 1905. The first 
pastor -was Rev. Amlrew Smerkar, who, in 1907, was transferred to a 
charge in Cleveland. In the fall of 1907 the church and rectory at 
present occupied were purchased from St. John's Parish, which after- 
ward built new parochial buildings on a site more suited to its purpose. 
The parochial property consists of six lots on East Thirty-first Street 
adjacent to the corner of Globe Avenue- — a combination church and 
parochial school building and a rectory. 

The parochial school connected with the parish is conducted by the 
Notre Dame Sisters, of Cleveland. 

Rev. J. A. Stefanic, present pastor of the church, assumed his charge 
in :\larch, 1908. 

The Slavisli settlers of Lorain in 1903 purchased 3^/; acres of land 
located at Twenty-fifth Street and Elyria Avenue. On this was erected 
the Holy Trinity Ciuirch, parochial school and pastor's rectory. The 
site, together with the buildings represented a total outlay of about 
$40,000. Tile first pastor was Rev. Joseph Avomek and Rev. Francis 
Zozelek assumed charge in February, 1908. The chui-ch has a member- 
ship of about 150 families. Its parochial school is under the supervision 
of the Franciscan Sisters. 

In Septembex', 1900, the cornerstone of St. John's Roman Catholic 
Church was laid on East Thirty-first Street, mass being celebrated for 
the first time in the following December. 

Churches Formed by Colored People 

The Second Baptist and the Second ^I. E. churches (botli formed by 
colored people) were organized in 1894. The African ^Methodist Episco- 
pal Church (St. Mathews) was formed in 1905. 

TlIK h'lltS'l' I'liKSIlYTKItlAN (!llUUCH 

Tlie I'Mi'st I'rt'sliyterian Church was organized l)y Dr. F. N. Kiale 
Mild cstidilishcd by the Cleveliiiid I'rcsbytcry Oelobcr 25, 1!)0(). Meeliiigs 


were lield iii the pai'lors of llie Y. iM. C. A. until September 20, 1903, 
wlieii the present eluireli buildiiijj wus dedieated. \V. A. Donaldson was 
the lirst elder. The ehureh is the only one of its denomination in Lorain 
County. Tlie meiidjersliip roll lists 188 active and forty reserved or 
inactive. The present pastor, Rev. A. C. Thomson, bef,'an his ministry 
March 1, 1911. 

The Fu{.st Ciiukcix of Chiust, Scientist 

The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Vas organized in 1900. The 
membership lias steadily increased. The church occupies rented 
quarters at Reid Avenue and Nintli Street. 

Jewish Synagouue 

In 1900 the Jewish people in Lorain organized the Agudheh Acliiu 
congregation and erected a synagogue on Twelftli Street between Broad- 
way and Reid Avenue. The congregation has a meml)ersliip of about 

First Engusii Lutheran 

Tlie First Englisli Evangelical LuHieran Cliurch was organized Sep- 
tendjcr 20, 1903, witli twenty-three charter memljers. The church 
services and Sunday school sessions were held in the Pierce Block, 
Royal Arcanum rooms. A call was extended by the young congrega- 
tion to Rev. N. J. Iladley to become its pa.stor, and he assumed charge 
October 1, 1903. He continued with the congregation from that date 
until December 31, 1912, when he resigned and was succeeded by the 
present pastor, Rev. J. E. Shewell. 

In tlie latter part of 190G the congregation Itought tlie present site 
of its cliurch at the corner of Washington Avenue and Sixth Street. 
The society worships in a chapel at that location. 

Hungarian Reix)rmed Church 

The Hungarian Reformed Church was organized in 1902 l)y Andrew 
S. Estciics, wlio was also its tii'st elder, in tlie rollowing year tlu' eon- 
grcgalion ercclcd thi' church at (ih)be Avenne and lOasI 'IMiirt.v-lirst 
sired, South Lorain. Uw. J{ala Uasso, tlie lirsL pastor, was succei'ded 
by Revs. Alexander Ludman and Stephan Virag. The church member- 
ship is about 200. 


Trinity Baptist Cnuucii 

Trinity Baptist Cliurc-h reprcKcnts ratlicr a small orf^aiiizatinii of 
lliat (Iciioiiiiiiation, organized in 1909 as tlic South Lorain l>aptist 
f'imi'eli, and tlicro may bo otlicr modest, l)nt faillif'iil, religious bodies, 
wliieli l)otli spaee and laek of informal ion iiuist j)ass over witlioiit men- 
tion, l)iit with good wishes. 



The Press — The Black River Commercial — The Lorain jMonitor — 
The Lorain Times-IIerald — The Lorain Daily News — The Post 
— Upliftjno Societies — Lor.un's Young Wen's Christian Associa- 
tion — Woman's Christian Temperance Union — The Sisterhood 
oE Lorain — Social Settlement Association — Literary Clubs — 
The .Making op American Citizens — Musical Organizations — 
Federation oe Women's Societies — The Associated Charities — 
St. Josei'h's Hospital — Lodges and Fraternities. 

The piTss of Lorain, despite the fact that since its birth about thirty- 
seven years ago it has experieiieed numerous changes and the usual 
run of retarding experiences, has been a strong force in the progress 
and uplift of the village and city. Undoubtedly, one reason why the 
newspajjer field there has not been as encouraging to enterprising news-^ 
paper men and women as some otiier localities in Northern Ohio is 
because of tlie large foreign element in the local population. That, 
coupled with llie fact that much of tlic wealth upon which the news- 
paix'i-s depend for their advertising patronage, is concentrated in a few 
large industries, tend rather to contract the field of operations. Under 
the circumstances, the pul)lications which have been issued from the 
Lorain oftices have been most creditable and helpful to the reading and 
the progressive elements of the community, which are already strong 
and constantly expanding. 

The Black River Commercial 

Tile initial number of the above-named newspaper, the father of the 
local ])rcss, was issued ]\Tay 8, 187;^, by II. A. I'^isher, at Black River; 
wliicli was llic year bel'oic the incorporation of the settlement by that 
name as the Village of (Miarleslon. The Commercial was a five-column 
quarto — Imns, $1.50 a year. On the following '.id of July its form was 
changed to an eight-colnmu folio, and on the ISlli of Seplember it was 



I'f'cliiccd to six columns. On tlic 8tli oi" Jjuiiiiiry, lS74,.it. was restored 
to an eifi'lit-coliiiiiii folio, wilii j)ateiil, outside |)af,'es, and on liie ninth oi' 
tile foliowinf^ May, about a nionlli al'liT tin; first villa{.,'e election, its 
size was increased to nine coluniiis. 'I'iu; editor and proprietor was evi- 
dently "feeling out" tlio coniinunity to see how much of a Coniinercial 
it would sustain, but discontinued its venture at Charleston on the 12th 
of September, 1874, "for want of adequate support." ]\Ir. Fisher then 
moved liis plant to Elyria and commenced the publication of the Elyria 

The Lorain iMonitor 

No other venture in the local tick! was made until 1879, when the 
Lorain Monitor was issued by Lawlcr & JJrady. It was a small five- 
column folio, witli ])atent "outsides. " From its modest start was 
evolved the Times-IIerald of today. 

The Lorain Times-IIerald 

The Lorain Times-IIerald, which represents the second local news- 
paper venture, has been tireless in pushing along the business, industrial 
and higher interests of the diverse communities which make the place 
.so noteworthy ; and right liere the editor of this work wishes to acknowl- 
edge his indebtedness to that publication for many of the facts which 
are woven into the chapters devoted to the history of Lorain. Its various 
anniversary editions have been found of great help — in fact, almost 

On the twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the Lorain 
Times-IIerald by the establishment of the Lorain Daily Times in Novem- 
ber, 1879, Frederick A. Rowley, then its editor and proprietor, issued a 
special "silver edition," packed with interesting matter, both current 
and historical. 

These are the graphic paragraphs which relate to the founding of 
tile Times: "Looking back now to that day, November 6, 1879, when 
two boys left their studies at Oberlin and, coming down to Lorain, found 
Irving Lawler and his brother, Eddie, at work in the jMonitor office, it 
seems almost impossible that so much could have happened in twenty- 
five years. The office of the Monitor was in a wooden l)uilding at the 
corner of Erie avenue; and Broadway. Upstairs in the Vernam Hlock 
it was, and Irving was bustling about getting the i)aper ready lo ])rint. 
lie and lOddie were both setting tyjx' out of the same case, or, at least, 
fliey often did tluit. 'i'iie Oberlin Itoys sei'utini/.ed the .Monitor ollice 

' MO Yr 

i'tT '•m ;:•'' "in nH 


very critically, and were not long in making it known that they wei'c 
li'ving to break into liie ii('\vsi)aper hnwiness. Irving sent lOddie ont 
ior I'ii Lavvier, and in an lionr or so a deal was closed for the purchase 
of the Monitor at the price of three hundred dollars for the whole outfit. 

"Tile Oberlin 'boys went home, gave up their books and transplanted 
themselves from the classic influences of Oberlin to the more sturdy and 
strenuous life in Lorain. The office was soon moved to two rooms over 
A. n. liabcock's grocery store, two doors north on Broadway. There, 
in a poorl^'-lighted upstairs room, with an Army pres.s, a small lot of 
much-worn type and a little 5x7 Golding jol) press, the business of the 
Times was" conducted during the winter of 1879-80. The Oberlin boys 
slept in the office, occupying a room barely large enough for the bed and 
so cold they had to lay up very close together at night to keep from freez- 
ing. ISo the winter' i)assed. Hardly enougli iiioney was taken in to pay 
Aunt Eunice, at Uncle AVilliam Jones', the board for two hungry young 
editors. It was a severe lesson in the practical responsibilities of life, 
but it was worth all it cost. The many difficulties overcome at that time 
siiowed that obstacles can be surmounted. That has been the history 
of tlie paper. It has had the spirit of a winner from the start and sonie- 
liow it has coiKjuered, often when it seemed that there was nothing but 
defeat to be expected." 

The Weekly Herald was established in 1892, and the first num1)er 
of the Evening Herald was issued May 22, 189-1. 

In li)01 a con.solidation was effected under the iiresent title of the 
Lorain Times-Herald. The present editor and manager is C. A. Rowley, 
son of Frederick A. Rowley, and the paper is published by the F. A. 
Rowley Estate. ' 

The Lorain Daily News 

The Lorain Daily News was founded in 1888, and has always been 
a democratic paper. In September, 1900, the Daily Democrat was issued 
under the ownership of the Democrat Publishing Company. F. II. King 
and Jacob IMeyer were prominently interested in the enterprise. There 
were a number of changes in the proprietor.ship and editorship of both 
publications, the business becomiiig much involved. The News-Democrat, 
as the consolidation was called, has been for some time the Lorain Daily 
News. It is published by the Lorain Democrat Company and J. W. 
Spaiilding is etlitor. 

The Post 

1'h(! Post is an in(le])endent Oerman newspa])('r, established in 1S94, 
the year that Lorain was incorporated as a city. It is edited by Louis 
Alaui'cr and i)ul)lished by tlh; Loi-ain Democrat (Company. 



A review of the cliaritahle, l)eri(;voleii1,, social and literary (ields in 
Lorain is a hazardous and complex task, as, with the best of intentions, 
the writer cannot do full justice to the subject. Neither time, strength 
or space at command can be applied to bring out all the details fully 
illustrative of the broad work being accomplished by strong and high- 
minded men and women in a rapidly growing community composed of 
so many distinctive elements. Connected with the numerous churches 
are hundreds of societies, working as their auxiliaries, and ceaselessly 
active in labors of charity, benevolence and general uplift. 

In addition, there are such undenominational forces in action as the 
Young Men's Christian Association, the Associated Charities, the Sister- 
hood and the Lorain Federation of Women's Societies and scores of 
secret and lienevolent organizations. The Fedei-ation itself covers the 
activities of nearly tifty societies, each standing for some special form 
of charitable, reformatory or intellectual work. 

LoR.Mx's Young IMen's Ciiristi.\n Association 

One of the oldest of these general forces operating for good is the 
Young ^Men's Christian Association, organized in the fall of 1897, soon 
after the starting of the steel plant at South Lorain. Although it is 
conducted under the world-familiar plan of tliat body it was primarly 
founded for the benefit of the steel workers. 

Soon after the estalilishment of the steel plant at South Lorain by 
the Johnson Company, the question of a elul) house for its men was 
agitated. After careful consideration, IM. M. Suppes, the general man- 
ager, bf'came convinced that the Young ]Men's Christian As.sociation 
' was the most desirable form of organization for the purpose. The mat- 
ter was laid before the state association, but the officers hesitated to 
organize sucli a work in an entirely untried field. So persistent was 
Mr. Suppes, however, that the task of securing subscriptions was finally 
undertaken. This was in the fall of 1897, and notwithstanding the fact 
that it Avas a time of great financial depression, there was a liberal 
response from the business corporations and citizens of Lorain and 
Elyria. The sum of $15,000 was secured. The largest individual con- 
tributors were A. J. IMoxbam and lion. Tom L. Johnson, wlio each gave 
!|>1,000. Two lots on 'i\iilii Avcnu(>, near the general office, were given 
l)y the Sheffield Land (!ompany. 

The initial movement which resulted in llie founding of the Y. M. 
C. A. originated in llie desire of llie National Tube ol'licinls to establish 


night classes for mill einployos. The idea was given impetus from 
various dircclious, and witiiiii a short time 0. (J. Colton, now of Fort 
('olliiis, ('olorado, was chosi'ii as lirst s('(;n!tary, with an ahh^ assistant 
in John llclincr, as physical director. F. A. Siiiythc! was j)resid(Mit of 
tlio (irst y. iM. C. A. oilieial board. 

in the spring of 1898 the present structure was erected at an approxi- 
mate cost of .$30,000. The membersliip that time was 434. Immediately 
tile membership grew, and the scope of the association widened. New 
features were introduced and an etfort made to make the local institu- 
tion the equal of any of its size. That has been accomplished. 

The member.ship enrollment in li)15 was about 750, with prospects 
of steady increase.. The debt on the building has been decreased rapidly. 
Tile National Tube Company contributes a substantial amount each 
monlh toward running expenses. 

One of the most interesting features of the association's work is the 
educational classes. The enrollment in the night school averages over 
2t)() men, a majority of whom are in the English classes. These men 
are jirincipally employes of the National Tube Company, American 
.Shipl)uil<ling Company and the Thew Automatic Shovel Company. The 
subjects taught aside from English are: Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, 
trigonometiy, mechanical drawing, electricity, steam engineering, and 
sheet metal drawing. 

In the physical department there was a total attendance on class 
nights during the year of nearly 6,000. The work of this department 
sliows up si)lendidly. I\luch interest is manifested in tennis, Sunday 
school, l)aseball leagues, and the National Tube Industrial Baseball 

Tlie social side of the work is not at all neglected. Receptions, 
entertainments, dinners, lectures, concerts are all in the yearly curri- 
culum. The Woman's Auxiliary plans and successfully executes many 
social affairs. Plea.sant reading rooms add to this feature. 

Tile religious phase of the association is naturally developed exten- 
sively. Esi)ecially fruitful is the work done among the boys. Home 
l{il)le classes have been organized and every effort made to emphasize 
the importance of ciiaracter-building. The M. and M. Club, or Mush 
and Milk Club, is an effective organization, formed of men banded 
together for the purpose of helping to develop and promote religious 
woi'k. There are twenty mendjcrs. 

Since the oix-ning of the industrial Depai'tment numerous foreign 
speaking men liav(( been aided in seiniring naturalization papers. Dur- 
ing the year the South Lorain branch of the Public Library circulated 
neariv i:i,000 books. 


The association building is located on Kast Twenty-eighth Street near 
Pearl Avenue. The slnicture eonlaiiis tw(!iity-two rooms, including 
ofliccs, reading rooins, asscinhly rooms, class rooms, billiard and pool 
rooms, gymnasium, swimming pool, bath, lockor rooiris, social rooms, 
dark rooms and kitchen. 

The building is built of mottled pressed brick and is of colonial 
architecture. On ent<iring one finds himsell' in a reception hall, which 
is the key to the entire building. This contains the office and liln-ary. 
At one end is a large fireplace, where a cheerful wood fire is kept burn- 
ing whenever the weather demands it. Off the reception hall opens the 
public reading room for men, the games, music and boys' room. The 
reading room is large, well lighted, and supplied with about sixty of 
the best publications. The gymnasium occupies an annex in the rear. 
It is 38 by 58 feet, and 20 feet high. It is well lighted and ventilated. 
It contains a gallery and ruiming track, and is well equipped. The 
basement contains the bath and locker rooms. The former i.s. supplied 
with hot and cold shower, needle and sponge baths. The swimming 
pool is one of the finest in the state. It is 40 by 16 feet, and is grad- 
uated from four to six feet in depth. It is lined witli white tile, and 
is filled with filtered lake water, which is tempered throughout the year. 
The locker room contains 200 lockers for the use of the members. The 
second floor, which is reached from the reception room, contains the 
assembly hall, seating 200 persons, a committee room, kitchen and 
pantry. By sliding curtains it is possible to divide the as.sembly hall 
into three class rooms for the use of the educational department. The 
board of trustees in control of the local body is composed of the follow- 
ing members: D. W. Lawrence, president; Isaac Ilonecker, vice presi- 
dent; James A. Long, recording secretary; W. A. Davies, treasurer; 
Dr. W. S. Baldwin, D. A. Cook, Dr. D. B. Donaldson, E. II. Eddy, A. C. 
Eldredge, J. II. Evans, W. C. Fisher, H. li. Henes, E. M. Pierce, II. D. 
Townsend and W. J. Wright. The local executive force comprises the 
following: W. H. Coleman, general secretary; II. Darnell Brittin, 
physical director; Henry V. Laseh, assistant secretary. 

The Women's Auxiliary of the Y'oung ]\Ien's Christian Association 
was organized in February, 1911, since which it has been of material 
assistance in not only conducting social activities but in raising funds 
for the current expenses of the main body. 

Wom.\n's CiiRisTi.AN Temi'khanck Union 

The women of Lorain, fis of the world, have always been foremost 
in works of relief, charily and S(M'ial I'eform. One of their pioneer 

•4 ,99n'yiv/mt .V/" .(T ca 


.soi'iclics, still ;ictivc, is tlic loeiil l)raii('li of tliu Woinim's Ciivistian Ti'iu- 
jxTiiiice lljiiuii, whic'li was formed about 1876. An offslioot of the 
]iaiciil luxly was oi'gaiii/x'd in 1!)1U in lliu Steel JMant JJistrict of Soiitli 

The Sisteruood of Lorain 

It was twenty years after the founding of the W. C. T. U. at Lorain, 
in l^'ebruary, 189G, that the local Sisterhood was formed. From the 
outset of its work, the Sisterhood has faithfully followed its prescribed 
course, although the scope of its activities has broadened and its labors 
intensitied, with the growth of the communities in which its members 
have become so beloved. The aiding of widows is the prinuiry ol)ject of 
the Sisterliood, although entire families are often assisted when the 
heads of the households are ill or otherwise helpless. Scores of children 
are also kept in the public schools by being clothed and properly nour- 
ished. The first officers of the organization were: ]\Irs. E. 'M. Pierce, 
l)resident; ^Irs. Samuel Klein, vice president; Mrs. John Root, treasurer; 
Mrs. IL J. Barrows, secretary. The membei-ship of the Sisterhood is 
over 100. 

Social Settlement Association 

Tile Lorain Social Settlement Association is an organization more 
restricted in its work than the Sisterhood. The movement started as a 
day nursery in the Steel Plant District and several girls' clubs were 
connected with it. In May, 1910, a visiting nurse was called from 
Cleveland, and the Social Settlement Association was organized with 
these officers: ^Irs. E. M. Pierce, president; ]\Irs. 11. C. Burrell, first 
vice president ; ]\Irs. N. E. Davis, second vice president ; Mrs. John Colib, 
secretary ; :\Irs. E. M. Ransom, treasurer. The association has had as 
many as 150 families on its list at one time, to which it was extending 
aid in various forms. 

In the charitable work carried on by these two leading organizations, 
]\Irs. E. ]\1. Pierce and Mrs. II. C. Burrell have been especially promi- 

Literary Clubs 

l^orain has a number of flourishing literary organizations, devoted to 
the presentation and discussion of intellectual and social topics. The 
first of these clubs, which ha.s a successor, was with the Clnysantiiomum, 
fonned in IHflf), and reorganized in 1f)02 as Sorosis. Mrs. l'\ H. Vernam 

I ■)iiA :S •■■< : [: 

:i if {••:n-iM 


was long its president. Tlie Wiinodaughsis Club was organized in 1896, 
and united with the Lakeside Foderation in 1901 and with tlie State 
Federation in 1905. The Round Table cairie into existence in 1898, the 
East Side Literary Club in 1902, and the University Club in 1909 ; and 
there are doubtless others, as well as fifty or sixty social organizations, 
such as sewing societies, bridge clubs, girls' clubs, mothers' clubs and 
afternoou clubs. 

The ]\Lvking op American Citizens 

In South Lorain, it is said that there are fully fifty societies, organ- 
ized entirelj^ by foreigners. xMniost every nationality in the city is 
represented by a soeiety. After being in America a long enough time 
to become acquainted to some degree with American customs and 
language, the foreigner, American-like, frequently joins an organiza- 
tion of his own nationality. These societies or clubs, hold regular meet- 
ings ami entertainments, to which are often invited as guests and speak- 
ers many of the English speaking citizens of the cit}'. Many excellent 
entertainments and musicals have been given in this city through the 
medium of these societies. Almost every society has its own Jmnd. 

It can be said witli truth tiuit the majority of nou-AmerieaixS desire 
to become American citizens, iietween them and tlieir dc^sire stands 
the process of naturalization, which, however easy of attainment it may 
seem to the casual observer, is nevertheless a barrier requiring much 
honest effort to surmount. INfany are surmounting it each year, and 
many are trying to surmount it year after year. The recpiirement is 
an examination, to pass which means months of patient study. Twice 
each year examinations for prospective citizens are held at the court- 
house in Elyria. The exaiuiiiatiou consists of a list of questions covering 
the family history of the applicant and the physical history of the United 
States. Before he can apply for citizenship, a foreigner nuist have 
made the United States his home for three years. 

Classes for instruction in work necessary to pass the tests are eon- 
ducted throughout the city. The Y. ]\I. C. A. gives instructions and 
private classes are organized. After obtaining his papers a foreigner 
is no longer a foreigner, but is authorized to take part in municipal and 
govenniiental affairs to as full an extent as a native l)orn American. In 
coming yeai's, the number of those taking advantage of the [)rivilegfs 
will prdliably increase I'cgularly. 

Musical Oijganiz.vtions 

Of late years quite a number of musical organizations have been 
foniicd iu Lorain, among wliicli luav be mentioned the Musical Society, 


the Lorain Male Chorus, the Festival Oi-chcstra, the ]\Ieii(lelssolin Trio 
and the South Lorain Quartette. Among tlie individuals wiio have 
hecn prominent in the musieal devcloj)meiit of tlu; place are named 
Grillitli J. Jones, N. E. ]''ox, Edward Kieler and Iloraee Whitehouse. 

Federation op Women's Societies 

In 1914 two organizations were formed at Lorain for the purpose 
of consolidating the charitahle, social and literary activities of the city. 
In January of that year representatives from thirty-six of the women's 
societies met at the Hoard of Commerce rooms and organized the Lorain 
Federation of Women's Societies; about a score have since 1)een added 
to the membership. Its aims, as announced through olficial literature, 
are stated thus: "As members of the Lorain Federation we aim to use 
our united strength to obtain better homes, better schools, better sur- 
roundings, better citizenship and better laws. To work together for 
civic health and civic righteousness, and to preserve our heritage, the 
forests and natural beauties of the land, to procure for our children an 
education which fits them for life — the training of hand and heart, as 
well as the head ; to prevent the children of our own being deprived of 
their birthriglit of natural childhood ; to obtain conditions and proper 
safeguards lor women who toil." 

The Federation ofificers in 1915 were: President, ]\Irs. Regina 
Llewellyn; first vice president, ^Irs. K. J. Veamans; acting vice presi- 
dent, .Mrs. Theodore Oehlke ; second vice president, .Mrs. Robert Fried- 
man; recording secretary, ]\Irs. A. Z. Prescott; corresponding secretary, 
Mrs. W. C. Hayes; auditor, "Mm. Joseph Gould. 

The Associated Charities 

In ]\Iarch, 1914, the Associated Cliarities of Lorain was incorporated 
as an outgrowth of a small day nursery begun in 1910. The organiza- 
tion is governed by a board of fifteen directors elected annually on the 
third Monday in January. The officers for 1915 were as follows: 
President, L. A. Fauver; secretary, R. li. Patin ; treasurer, F. ]M. 
Pierce. The other members of the board of directors were: Mrs. II. C. 
liurrell, Mrs. N. M. Fldred, Mrs. Elizabeth Wickens, Mrs. Sam Klein, 
Mrs. 'IMioiinis .McGeachie, Mr's. .loseph (Joidd, Miss Harriet U'oot, Mrs. 
-loliu ('oi)l), (Jeorgc! (ilitsch, J. II. (Jcrliart, (hisler Snydei- and Frank 
Ay res. 

In the fall of 1914 the work of the Associated Charities was entirely 
reoigani/.ed. Among oilier elianges, Ihe visiling nursing was diseon- 



timifd, as tliat fi-alun; liad boon assuiiicil l)y Uio city. Tlu; Settlfiiioiit 
House ami ri'liel" work was placed iu charge of IMiss Ileli-n M. Wright 
and lilt! social work intrusted to Miss Winifred Sta'rbird. In the work 
of investigation, as a i)recedent to relief; in the care of girl and juvenile 
transients, thrown out of work or their lionies; iu the pensiouing of 
deserving mothers that they may care for their children at home, and 
in the aetual labors incident to material relief, the Associated Charities 
has been a local blessing, especially in times of industrial depression. 
It is a well-organized central body, with which the various organizations 
of the city, whether church or non-sectarian, heartily and generally 

St. Joseph's Hospital 

Although founded ami controlled by the Catholic Church, St. 
Joseph's Hospital, located on Penfield Avenue on a four-acre site 
between the steel plant and the shipyard, is so generally patronized and 
its work of relief is so broad, that its eharacter ims come to be recog- 
nized as semi-public. The hospital was established in 1892 by Rev. J. 
N. Bihn, now deceased, who also fouiuled the immense St. Francis 
Orphan A.sylum and Home for Ageil at Tiffin, Ohio. Facilities were at 
first necessarily limited, but new ecpiipment and a more extensive serv- 
ice were gradually added. 

The grounds now occupy an entire city block bounded by Broad- 
way, Twentieth and Twenty-first streets and Reid Avenue. Flanked by 
the city's principal street car lines, the locality has the advantage of 
easy accessibility. 

The hospital buildings consist of main structure of frame construc- 
tions, three stories in height, and connected with this, a three story, 
prcssed-brick faced annex. The annex is of comparatively recent erec- 
tion, the nuiin building liaving been built at the time the hospital was 
founded in 1892. 

In 1903 the St. Joseph's Training School for Nurses was established 
in connection with the hospital. The course requires three years and 
includes general, medical and .surgical nursing, also ophthalmic and 
gynecological nursing. The class of graduates from the school has never 
been less tluin two, and last year reached seven. 

The Ladies' Auxiliary of the hospital has been a great instrument 
of heli)fulness. The ladies, who number at present about 100, have 
regular meetings at which hospital sewing is attended to and a.ssistanco 
rendered in any possible way. 

To tlie medical slalV of the inslitnlion belong many of the city's lead- 



ijig i)liysicia)is. Tlie staff was oftittially organized in 1001. The various 
l)'iaiis arc aswigiicd to liilVcn'nt depart iiiciils, MHidieal, Hurgi(;al and 
eye and ear. 'I'lie oh.jeet oi" llic .stall' is to attend to (tliarity paticwits and 
to tlie lielpfnlness of tlie hospital by liie eond)ined professional 

The present superioress is Sister JNIary Pius, her predeeessor, for 
many years, having been Mother Superior Seraphine. About seventy 
patients are now (1916) in care of the Sisters. 

Lodges and Fraternities 

Lorain is well represented by various lodges and fraternities, out- 
side of tlie foreign section in South Lorain. A local statistician places 
the eonibiued uieinbership at fully 10,000. The same authority gives 
the JMasons priority as an order, the combined membership of their 
sewn bodies estal)lished at Lorain being over 1,300. The Knights of 
Pythias, with the Pythian Sisters, come next, nearly 1,000 strong; then 
the Knights and Ladies of the Maccabees, over 760, and the Odd Fellows 
(including the Rebekahs), more than 600. The largest individual organ- 
izations are Lorain Aerie of Eagles, with a membership of over 700; 
the Lorain Lodge of IMasons (No. 552), about 425; the IMoose Lodge, 400, 
and Lorain Tent No. 1, Knights of the ^Maccabees, 370 or more. There 
are about 500 members connected with the railroad unions and brother- 
hoods, Knights of Columl)us, Royal Neighbors, and the Elks, Woodmen, 
Red J\len, Tribe of Ben Hur, Protected Home Circle, and Royal Arcanum 
have also growing organizations. 

t-.UiU'JliV i>)i 



The Village in 1833 — The Elywa High School — First District 
Schools — Board of Education Formed — Jason Canfield, First 
Superintendent — Public High School. Building Erected — Com- 
plete Curriculum Adopted — First High School Guaduates — 
Other School Events of the 'GOs — Board of Education Speaks 
Its ]\1ind — Construction of School Buildings — ]\Ianial Training 
and Technical High School — The Social Settlement SchooIj — • 
Enrollment of Pupils and Teachers — The Public Library — Pro- 
tection Against FiRJi — Increase in Elyria's Population — Public 
Improvements — The Elyria Chamber op Commerce — Civic Im- 
provement — Legislation — ]\Iunicipal Sanitation and Public 

When Elyria was incorporated as a village on the 23d of February, 
1833, it had been the county seat of Lorain County since the independent 
civil organization of the latter in 1824. It had been a postoftiee for 
fifteen years. 

The Village in 1833 

The first little court house and jail graced the public square donated 
by Heman Ely. He and Artemas Beebe (with his hotel, stage line and 
general store) were the leading citizens of the place. Quite a number 
of small business houses were around the square, including the store 
of Thompson Miles and the harness and saddlery shop of Ezra S. Adams, 
who was also in partnership with I\lr. Beebe in the operation of the 
line of stage coaches> between Cleveland and Sandusky. Tliere were 
thirty or forty houses scattered over the village site lying l)et\veen the 
branches of Black River, and three churches had been organized by the 
four or five hundred people witliin the village limits and in the imme- 
diate neighborhood. 

The Presbyterians had been organized for nearly ten years, while 
the ]\Ietliodists and Disciples of Christ were in their infancy, but filled 




with zeal and ambition. Altliough the Masons, had formed a lodge as 
early as 1819, the result of the Morgan agitation was to make it a{lvisal)le 
to sns])en(l its operations from ]H2H to 1848, so that in tlie year of the 
vilhige incorjjoration (183.'5) it was in a state of sus|)endetl animation. 

The EhYRiA High School 

Among the most flourishing institutions of that day was the P^lyria 
High School. It was under private control and instruction, it is true, 
but for about twenty years answered some of the best purposes of a 

First Fk.vme House in Elykia 

public school. From 1827 to 1850 a number of private schools were 
conducted at Elyria, but the high school was tlie most notal)le and drew 
to itself not a few instructors who afterward became well known in a 
broader province of education. 

The Elyria High School Avas under the management of a board of 
trustees. In 1831 Ilcman Ely had erected a building at tlie rear of 
the Methodist Churcli, between Hroad and Second .streets, and leased 
the l)uilding and the land to the trustees of tlie Elyria High School for 
a term of years. 

Rev. John Monteith was called to take charge of the first class as 
organized, being assisted by bis wife iind Miss Mary lOells. Tbe com- 
mon branches were taugiit, as well as advanced studies. J. II. I^'airchild 
and his brother, E. H. Faircbild, long afterward presidents, respect- 


ively, of Oberlin College, Ohio, and Berea College, Kentucky, pursued 
preparatory courses at the Klyria High School. 

Mr. and Mrs. Jiranch, Dr. A. Ji. Jirown and wife, Kev. John I'. 
Cowles (afterward professor in Oberlin College), and Luther M. Oviatt, 
successively had the management of the high school. 

.After retiring from the Elyria High School i\Ir. IMonteith, assisted 
by his wife, opened a school at his own house, and Rev. David A. 
Grosvenor, of the Presbyterian Church, established a girls' school in a 
building on East Third Street formerly occupied by that denomination. 

First District Schools 

But the tax-payers demanded something more democratic than such 
private institutions, creditable though they were, and almost a jjublic 
necessity until the community had reached such a condition of material 
stability that public schools could be supported on a scale demanded 
by the intelligence of the place. 

In the spring of 184G a meeting of the voters of School District 
No. 1 was called to vote a tax of itil,O()0, to be used in the building of a 
public school for that section of the county. The vote was against the 
proposition, but as many were dissatisfied with the outcome a bill was 
passed through tiie Legislature dividing the school district into Nos. 
1 and 9. 

In the winter of 1846-47 meetings were held in the district named, 
and each voted a tax of $1,000 for the erection of a public schoolhouse 
within its own territory. During the following season the stone school- 
house on the corner of East Avenue and Third Street was erected for 
No. 1 and a brick building in the west part of the village for No. 9. 

Board op Education Formed 

The Akron school law of 1847, and the general state law passed 
February 21, 1849, wluch incorporated its main provisions and specially 
provided "for the better regulation of public schools in cities and 
towns," had a stiinulating eiVect upon the citizens of Elyria. In May, 
1850, they were largely represented in the meeting at the courthouse 
at which they voted to reorganize the local s(!liools under the general 
law. Under its provisions, an election was held on the 8lh of June, 
]Hr)0, at which the following were (thosen the; first board of education 
of Elyria: E. DeWitt and 0. Cowles, three years; M. W. I'ond and 
Tabor Wood, two years, and C. S. Coodwiii and 1'. ('. Dolley, one year. 



Jason Canfiei,d, First Superintendent 

III Oetolicr, IHoO, .Jusoii (laiiMcId was calli'd to tako cliarj^i; of llie 
Elyria union seliools, vvhicli then consisted of tlic stone; and hfick liouses 
erected in 1847, in the east and west parts of the village; an interme- 
diate, or secondary school, and a high school, both of the latter being 
taught in the old Elyria High School Building erected by Mr. Ely 
nearly twenty years previously. Thus was the local system fairly estab- 

Oed Union Sciiooe op 1857 

In 1853 another department was organized, making three below the 
high school, which was taught in the old "session room," previously 
used for religious, judicial and educational purposes. 

Public High School Building Erected 

The first high school building erected by the village was completed 
in 1857 and stood between IMiddle and West avenues. It was first 
occupied by the high, grammar and secondary grades in the winter of 
1858, and tlie old Ely High Seliool and the "session room" were aban- 

Complete Curriculum Adopted 

At a meeting of the l)oard of education held November 17, 1859, a 
coni-sc of study for all the departments was adopted. In tiie grades 


below the liigU school provision was made for instruction in reading, 
si)elling, writing, drawing, vocal music, iiritlimetic, geography, grammar, 
comj)osition, diM-lamation, pliysioiogy. United States history and morals. 
A regular tliree years' course of study was arranged for tlie high sciiool, 
with an optional fourtii year. Upon completing the full course of four 
years, the pupil was entitled to a diploma, signed by the president and 
members of the board, the superintendent and examining conunittee — a 
document, certainly, which should have been fully binding and weighty. 

FiKST High School Graduates 

The first regular class which graduated from the high school con- 
sisted of Lydia A. Ball, Beza N. Boynton and Henrietta ('. Scliail)ly, 
and they went forth in 18G:5. The four graduates of 18()1. wlio had 
completed but a partial course, were Cyrus Y. Durand, Thankful D. 
Boynton, Frances AV. Sanford and Louise Terrell. 

Otiiek School Events of the 'GOs 

AVhat were long known as the East and West Side primary schools 
of the Elyria union scliools, were formerly Sul)-distriets Nos. 2 and 6 
of the township system. These were assumed l)y the Elyria School 
Board in April, 1864. 

At a meeting of that body held in September, 1867, the local cor.rses 
of study were again revised. A set of rules was also adopted regulating 
the meetings of the board and specifying the duties of its memliers, as 
well as those of superintendent, teachers and pupils. 

Board of Education Speaks Its IMind 

The following suggestive message went forth, at the same time, from 
the board of education as a body: "Public schools are expensive. They 
cost the young people a great deal of valuable time. They teachers 
and other friends of education a great deal of labor and care. They 
cost tax-payers a good deal of money. But schools are worth all they 
cost. No community can aflt'ord to do without them. It is cheaper to 
support schools and churches than penitentiaries and infirmaries. Free 
public schools are the palladium of liberty. Universal education is the 
surety for the perinanency of free institutions. Every good citizen 
feels a direct interest, in the prosperity and efficiency of scliools, and 
should also feel a jx-rsonal responsibility Ihci-efor. Good schools arc 
not only worth what they cost; they are worth uiulei'standing and 




caring for. The best way to know them is to go and see them. Anyone 
may h-ai'n more about sdiools by visiting tlicm a U'W iioiu's, than liy 
much ianlt-liiiding with the Icaifhers and the Hoard of Kdncation." 


In 1868 the board added a two-story wing to tlie higii school l)uilding, 
to provicK' for tlie increasing nmnber of pupils, and in ]87() made 
anotiier revision of the curriculum. Tliere has never been a time since 
that tlie boards and the superintendents, principals and teachers, havo 
not striven to the limit of their strength and ability for 'the improvement 

PoKTioN OF Elvria IIigii Sciiool 

of the public system of education, with the result that Elyria's standing 
as an educator is remarkably high. The development of its high school 
has been especiallj' notewoi'thy. 

In 1875 the board commenced the erection of a school building west 
of that occupied by the high school, fronting on Sixth Street, it being 
occupied in the fall of 1877. This made the fourteenth school in what 
was then known as the Union School District. 

With the incori)oi'atioii of KJyria as a city in 1892, tlu; local system 
of public cducalion was I'corgani/ed and consolidated. 

With the exception of the Ritlge Street School, which is the oldest 
building now in us(!, the structures in Klyria devoted to public education 
are comjtai-atively new; that is, so Muiny additions have been made; to 


the original buildings tliat most of them have effectually covered old- 
time features. 

The old Elyria Iligli Sehool, on Sixth Street and ^Middle Avenue 
(the Franklin Building), was burned about twenty years ago, and 
finally rebuilt as a thirteen-room structure. At first it contained all 
the public school grades, but the growing attendance at length over- 
fiowed into the Lincoln School Building which had been erected on adja- 
cent grounds. 


In i^lay, 11)15, was completed the magnificent three-story building 
connected by corridors with tlie earliei' striictui-c, known as the ^laniuil 
Training and Technical High School. It contains thirty rooms, iiiulud- 
ing a fine auditorium and the moilern facilitii'S to completi- a four 
years' practical course in wood, i)attern and cabinet work; molding, 
casting and printing; dressmaking and millinery, and the arts and 
crafts generally. Academie courses are i)Ursued«in the older portion 
of the institution, eollectively known as the high school, wliieh also 
contains lunch rooms, physical and chemical lalioratorics, and anotiier 

The other scliools included in the present system are as follows: 
The Hamilton School, on ]\liddle Avenue and Thirteenth Street, built 
fifteen years ago as a four-room house; four rooms were adiled in li)()7, 
and another four in l!)l;}. 

On East River Street is the ^McKinley School of twelve rooms com- 
pleted a decade ago. In 11)14 the Garforil Building, still farther east, 
provided four rooms for the overflow from the .MeKinley. 

In 1914 the Gates Sclioolhouse was ei-ecfed on Lake Avenue, being 
a handsome three-story building taking the place of an old structure. 
Its auditorium is large and modern. 

The Jefferson School, on Jelfcrson and Foster avenue, fartliei' north, 
is about a dozen years old, although a large addition was made to it 
five years ago. It is a ten-room liouse. 

The veteran of them all, the Ridge Street Sclioolhouse, was orig- 
inally a little two-room affair, and two years ago four rooms were added, 
nuiking it (juite respectable in size and adequate for the re(|uired 


One of tlie new schools is that erected on the Western Heights of 
Mlyria for the foreign children who are llicre (|uilc largely ri'|)rcscntc(l ; 


it is gonenilly known as the Social Settlement Scliool. The two-story 
building rei)resenting its many interesting features was ereuted by the 
county, but tlie kindergartcji and night classes Tor the instruction of 
tljose too young or too old to ])ursue the reguhir day courses provided, 
are supported by the city board of education. 

Enrollment of Pui'ir^s and Teachers 

Altogether, tlie enrollment of pupils in the public school system of 
Elyria numbered about 3,000 late in li)15. Of that number some 600 
were high school scholars, wlio were instructed by a corps of twenty-tive 
teachers, and scattered among the other schools of the city were more 
tlian 100 instructors. 

The Public Library 

Elyria is indebted for its public library to Charles A. Ely, a son of 
the judge, who was born May 2, 1829, and died September 30, 18C4. 
Ilis early life was spent in iiis native village, and he became a well 
known business man, meclianic and manufacturer. lie was also a man 
of unusual mental gifts and high ideals. In 1850 ]\lr. Ely married 
Louisa C. Foot, of Cleveland, who was deeply interested in the library 
project and materially assisted her husl)and in its furtherance. 

A codicil to Mr. Ely's will, added in 1857, contained a bequest which 
conveyed the site of the present library or Ely Block, with the building 
then standing upon it, to five trustees named in the instrinnent. The 
e.xecutor was also directed to pay $5,000 to them as a book fund for 
immeiliate vise and t|ilO,000 as a permanent fund, the income only of 
which was to lie applied to li1)rary purjioses. These provisions were 
carried into efl'ect soon after "Sir. Ely's death in 1864. 

The trustees named in the will were : Dr. Norton S. Townshend, Ile- 
inan Ely, Ilarwood ]M. Redington, George Olmstead and Prof. James 
]\Ionroe, the last named on the faculty of Oberlin College. As I\lr. Mon- 
roe could not act, Hon. John C. Ilale was appointed to fill the vacancy. 
The trustees immediately entered upon their work, the building was 
fitted for library purposes, 2,000 volumes were purchased and on June 
10, 1870, the public was admitted to its privileges. The event was cele- 
liratcd at the courthouse, tlie e.\ercises including addresses by Doctor 
Townshend and other trustees and leading citizens. 

A disastrous fire oceurrinl on Maix-h 15, 1873, by which the building 
and library were virtually consumed. Only 375 of tlie, 4,000 volumes 
then in tlie lilirary were saved. There was a small insurance on the 


building, which, with an additional sum, provided a rebuilding fund. 
Portions of tlio block were occupied in May, 1874, but the library was 
not I'copencd until .July 2^)\\\ following. It .si ill occupies the second 
floor of the building and is well patronized. 

Protection Against Fike 

Elyria enjoys ade(|uate protection against fire both through its local 
department and its large nuiincii)al pumping station on Lake Erie, a few 
miles to the north, where its domestic supply of water is filtered and 
softened. Several of the large manufactories have also their special sys- 
tems of protection fire. Electric light and power are supplied by 
a private corporation, which, as will be seen by an article elsewhere pub- 
lished, has given Elyria considerable prominence in that tichl. 

Although the lire department of Elyria is eomparatively small, it 
has a long history; for in 18:];) the villagers purchased a little hand 
engine and organized a volunteer company of thirty men under the 
luime of the Aetna Fire Company No. 1. S. W. Baldwin was foreman. 
The foregoing was the entire department until 1850, when another hand 
engine was purchased and Phoenix Fire Company No. 2, also thirty 
men strong, was formed. Then a hook and ladder eompany was added, 
and soon after the tire of .March, IHT.i, a steam fire engine was purchased 
from the famous factory at Seneca Falls, New York. Sufficient hose 
and two hose carts, with other auxiliaries of what was then eonsidered 
modern, were also bought, under the .stress of the tire panie, until the 
village authorities had expended .$6,750. The first officers of the first 
tire engine were as follows: John T. Houghton, ehief engineer; John 
Ilufner, assistant engineer; Charles S. Bird, engineer; John ;\I. Tite, 
fireman. The foregoing are the main facts eonnccted with the founding 
of the Elyria Fire Department. It now comprises three efficient com- 
panies with apparatus to meet all requirements. 

Inckease IX Eia'ria's Population 

Prom 1830 toi about 1870 Elyria was chiefly known as the .seat of 
justice of Ivorain County and a town general trade with the sur- 
rounding country was large. It grew slowly, but substantially. Until 
lS(i() no census of its poi)idation was taken apart fi'oni that of the town- 
ship, but in that year the natioiud enumerators gave it as 1,()13. 

In 1850, the construction of the Lake Shore & ^lichigan Southern 
(as the Junction Railroad) was commenced and, as completed, furnished 
Elvria with an east and west outlet, thus greatly expanding the field of 


licr actual activities and also her ambition. In 18(i(J was opened the 
line to Toh'do, via Norwalk and Oherlin, and in 1872, the ClevoUxnd, 
Loi'ain & Wlieelin^' Ifailroad {,'ave lOlyiia aeeess hoth lo Lake Krie and 
the Oliio Ivivci- rc;^ions. 

Ly 1870, under tlie earlier railroad stimulus, the j)opulati()n of Hlyria 
had increased to 3,038 and in 1880, to 4,777. In 18<)0 the figures were 
5.(ill: in 1900, 8,791; in 1910, 14,825, and the estimate for 1916 is 


Especially within the past twenty years has Eiyria made great 
progress in everything which stands for the life of a typical American 
city. Its streets have been widened and paved ; a complete system of sani- 
tary sewerage established, comprising thirty-five miles of sewers; munici- 
pal waterworks founded ; modern business blocks and handsome residences 
built ; a massive and elegant city hall erected, and a score of large indus- 
trial plants established. J\lany of the city churches have been erected 
during that period and others improved; and it is doubtful whether 
there is any city of its .size in the United States which has a more com- 
pete Yonng .Men's Christian Association Uuilding than the massive 
structure completed in Eiyria in 1914. 

The beautiful memorial monument in the public park, erected to the 
soldiers and sailors of Eiyria Township, was completed in the spring of 
1888 at a cost of about .+8,000. The contractors were Carabelli & Brog- 
gini, of Cleveland, and the township trustees, under whose supervision 
the work was completed, Edwin C. Griswold, Levi ]\lorse and Lewis D. 

Eiyria has the all-pervading atmosphere of home life and stability. 
In fact, there are few cities of its size in the middle ^Vest which have so 
small a proportion of that undesirable element known as "the floating 

The Elyria Chamber op Commerce 

One of the most influential of those in.stitutions which has greatly 
contributed to the general advancement of the city is its Chamber of 
Commerce, Us membership of over tiOO representing practically every 
profession, trade, business and industry within the limits of the cor- 

The Eiyria Chamber of Commerce was chartered under tlie laws of 
Ohio on January !), 1907. As slafed by one of its founders: "A small 

'(f»« t^jI ovfp bcJB Poi?ivi)ue Iwtfi 

'.>(jl iii 



body of men were infused witli tlie idea that Elyria needled some or- 
ganization whieli might serve as a eiearing house for ideas and as a meet- 
ing ground for the business men of the eity, wliere petty diftVn-nees 
might bo forgotten in zeal for the eommon interests and the eity's wel- 
fare. The first reeord of its mcndx;rsliip diseloses 187 meml)ers. " 

Under the plan of organization, the last five ex-presidents constitute 
an advisory board or committee, which meets with the directors, Init has 
no voting power. The Board of Directors composed of fifteen membera 
elected annually, is charged with the real administration of tiie Cliamber. 
And acting under and in connection with the directors there are nine 
standing committees, composed of from five to nine members, through 

View on Broad Street, Elyri.v 

whom investigation are carried on, recommendations to the directors 
and the Chamber made, and interest in worthy projects aroused. 

The best idea of the general work of these committees can be gained 
from a brief reference to the work being done by a few of them. The 
Good Roads Committee has been ever alive to the need and demand 
for improved highways; has been in constant touch with the state 
and national organizations working toward tliat end ; and has, for the 
past few years, exerted an almost daily and ever effective influence 
upon Ihe county and township olliciids williin wliose j)Owci' it was to 
do anything for the improvement of tlic roads. It may be said fairly 
that the major share of the road improvements in Lorain County are 
due directly or indirectly to the interest and activity of tlie Good 
Roads Commitlee of \hi'. Chamlx'r of (,'oimiUM-ee. 


'tiwf l.'»e' fim "io v' '-.' 


The Iiuhi.strial Committi'e of the Cliainber of CoinmercL' iuvesli- 
gatos the jnerits of industries seeking to loeate in Elyria and also 
seeks to induce desirable plants to establisli tliemselves. Then there 
are the ediucational, tlio transportation and the eivie improvement 
committees. Tlie last named has been especially active in examining 
and exploiting the relative merits of the various municipal mctliods 
of sewage and garbage disposal. 

Any one who has in any way gained the idea that the Chamber 
stood primarily for money making need only consider the various or- 
ganizations or instit\itions to which it lias given and is now giving 
active support, to learn tliat such is not the fact. Tlie Cliamber was 
largely instrumental in the organization, and is still active in tlie sup- 
port of the Elyria ^lemorial Hospital ; it was the real starting point 
of the campaign for the Yo\nig ]\len's Ciiristian Association; it was 
responsible for the organization of the Social Settlement Association; 
it proposed and effected the organization of the Associated Cliarities; 
while the Chamber in it.self and througli its members is giving prin- 
cipal support to every civic organization and charitable institution in 
the city. 

Civic Imi'rovement 

From one of the reports issued by the Chamber the following 
paragraphs are taken as fairly illustrative of the nature of the woi'k 
accomplished by this progressive body of citizens: "The beauty of 
Elyria appeals to the aesthetic eye of the stranger who nuiy come 
here to visit or with the idea of seeking a location for an industry. As 
soon as a favorable impression is made, the industrial value of Elyria 
is enhanced. 

"Special action has been taken in many individual cases in induc- 
ing property owners to clean up their premises. 

"Influence brought to bear on the telephone and lighting companies 
to remove all dead or unused poles and to back lot lines of property 
owners, instead of the streets for the erection of poles, has l)rought a 
fair return, as manifested by the improved conditions. 

"An ordinance was drafted and sulimitted to the Council, making 
it a misdemeanor, subject to fine, to in any way danuige, treat or 
remove any shade trees in the piiblic parks or highways of Klyria. 
The ordinance as framed by the Chamber was pa.ssed by tlie Council 
and is now in full force and effect. 

"Active and continued protests against the smoke nuisance in 
this city ha.s aroused the attention of the lieavy coal users toward pre;- 

-OiJ '"iO 

•1U8 Jfiril tl lE'^l t>J 

lo n<>4- 


veuting tliis nuisance and definite results are apparent. All such 
energy is eontrii)uting to the ultimate industrial benefit of Elyria. 

"Co-operation witii tlie Home Garden Association iu having lectures 
delivered has increased the planting of trees, shrul)s and flowers. 
The floral display in the public park and tlie distribution of over 
!),00() packets of seeds to .scliool children has instilled a greater desire 
in the community to beautify Elyria. 


"To determine tlie actual ))enefits derived from the cffort.s towards 
proper and effective legislation is not possible. Appeals have ))een 
made to our state and national senators and representatives to have 
them take, what the Chamber deemed proper action towards the enac- 
tion or defeat of pending legislation. 

" Conipulsoi-y education; the employment of minors; the liability 
of employers; the proper dispo.sition of the proceeils. of tlie Dow liipior 
tax; the prohibition of deception, misrepresentation and the nse of 
false advertising and false pretenses in the procuring of employees 
to work in any department of labor are a few of the many subjects of 
legislation which have had the attention of the Chamber. 

]\Iuxicii'AL Sanitation and Public Health 

"Various cities throughout tlie United States have been aroused 
by stati.sties which have revealed an alarming numl)er of defects in 
the faculties of school children. Tlie Elyria Board of Education, 
through the efforts of the Education Committee of the Chamber of 
Commerce, had the school children physically examined by a competent 
physician and plans are being formulated whereby visiting nurses 
from the Elyria IMcmorial Hospital may be secured to visit the schools 
and keep in touch with the children and thus prevent the disastrous 
results of contagious diseases and to find out where impoverished con- 
ditions exist among the school children. 

"How important this care and attention is, appeals to everyone who 
has any interest in the present and future welfare of our children and 

"Through tlie Education Committee a campaign of education along 
the lines of Municipal Sanitation and Public Health was inaugurated 
and this committee was successful in securing the services of ]\lr. Starr 
Cadwallader, superintendent of the Health Department of Cleveland, 
to deliver an address before our members upon the above subject. 


Mr. Ciulwallader treatotl the questiuu of the proper disposal of waste, 
the treatment of sewerage, the iiMi)ortaiiee of i)nl)lii; coUeetion of 
iinvhufic. ; also the (|ue.stioii of the child and its can; in tlie scliools, (;x- 
plainiijf^ liow the eliild learns by activity and not hy absorption; ree- 
oniniended organized group games and play for children under a com- 
petent play director. His treatment of the question of the care of 
milk and meat, together with the other subjects mentioned aroused an 
interest wliich has made the efforts of the Education Committee effective. 

"The problem of public playgrounds and the securing of suital)le 
rooms for the young men of Elyria are engrossing the attention of the 
Education Committee. The character of plays and the question of tires 
in tile electric theaters was investigated which resulted in the sending 
liere of the .State Inspector, whose visit contributed to improved 

"An appeal was made to the local Board of Health to investigate the 
condition in public laundries, with the view of preventing the transmis- 
sion of disease through the contact of clothes." 

The present officers of the Elyria Chamber of Commerce are : Charles 
II. Savage, president ; E. J. Crisp, first vice president ; James A. Hewitt, 
second vice president; C. W. Phillips, treasurer; Robert H. Rice, sec- 



Pioneer Religious Bodies — ]\Ietiiodism in P^lyria — Tue Head op the 
Circuit — Becomes a Station — Permanent Chijrch Building — 
New Parsonage — Pastors Who Have Served — Building of the 
Present House op AVorsiiip — Present Status op the Church — 
The Presbyterian Church — First Congregational Church — The 
First Baptist Church — St. Andrew's Episcopal Church — St. 
Mary's Church and Parish — First Resident Catholic Pastor — 
Death op Rev. F. A. Sullivan — Long Pastorate op Rev. Louis 
jMolox — Lesson Given to a Future Pastor — Death op Father 
ScHAPPiELD — St. Agnes Parish Formed — St. John's German 
Lutheran Church — Other Churches — Elyria Memorial Hospi- 
tal — Grounds and Buildings — The W. N. Gates Hospital — Past, 
Present and Future op the Hospital — Its Founding Dkscriued 
BY the Chamber op Comjierce — The Young jMen's Christian As- 
sociation — The Young AVomen's (,'iiristian Association — The 
Masons and Their Temple — The ]\Lvsonic Temi-le Company — 
Other Fraternities. 

Tlu- spirit of ivligioji, cliurit}' aiul Ijciicvolciici' lias Ik-l-ii active and 
contimioiLS in Elyria ever since it liad a history. Like all counuunities 
founded essentially by New England men and women, its churches and 
schools were twin-births. Remeudjering that dominant note whicli ran 
through all of the pioneer settlements of the Western Reserve, and of 
most of the territory northwest of the Ohio River, it is one of the remark- 
able traits of American e-xpansion that tlie dividing line between the 
administration of the s(;hools and the churches should have been dis- 
tinctly maintained by the west,ern pioneei's in obedience to the provi- 
sions of the National Constit\diop. 

I'ionickr Kki>igious Boduos 

The ]\Iethodists, the Baptists, the I'resbyterians and the Congrcga- 
tionalists first cultivated tlu- local (ield of I'eligion, sul)staiitially in llie 



order named. The Methodist organization has waxed particularly strong 
with tlie passage of tlie years since it was formed and, witli nearly a 
century Inliind it, tlie local cliurch is .still as zealous as it was in the 
days of its youth. The interesting paper which follows is by its pastor, 
Dr. .Samuel L. Stewart. 

Methodism in Elyria 
By tiamucl L. SStexvurt, D. D. 

j\Iethodism began in these parts before there was any settlement of 
Elyria. In 1S12 at the first meeting of the Ohio Conference a preacher, 
James .Me.Malion by luime, was appointed to this territory. In all North- 
east Oiiio there was no ^Methodist organization. Here and there were 
JNlethotlists who had moved in from older settlements. But this preacher 
with his horse and saddlebags roamed over the territory, seeking out 
houses where he could preach and finding those whom he could organize 
into future churches. When the first preaching by Methodists was done 
in Elyria after its settlement in 1817 is impossible to determine. But in 
18l'3 a class of ^Methodists was organized in a little brown schoolhouse 
that once stood on what is now Cleveland Street by the pastor of the 
Black River Circuit, Rev. Zarah Co.ston. It consisted of eight persons 
of which Hiram Emmons was the first class leader. In 1S2G with Henry 
O. Sheldon as pastor meetings were held in the old frame courthouse, 
and here he organized a class with Lewis Ely as leader. These two 
classes were combined and in 1827 he organized the Methodist Episcopal 
Church of Elyria. In 1827 Shadrach Ruark was appointed to the Black 
River Circuit and the place of meeting was changed to the "yellow 
schoolhouse" that had just been built where now stands the city hall 
and interurl)an station. Tliis continued to be the preaching place for 
several years. Then a Presbyterian Church bought the old courthouse 
and fitted it up for a "session" and permitted the ^Methodists to 
occupy it for their preaching service on the Sabbath. In 1828, Ru.ssell 
Bigi'low, ])erhaps the most wonderful orator of Western Methodist, be- 
came the lU'csiding elder of the Portland (now Sandusky) District of 
which Elyria was a part. i 

First IMetiiodist Pausonaoe on the Western Reserve 

III 182!), Cyrus S. Carpenter and II. Colclazer were the preachers 
on Hbiek Kivcr Circuit. At the first (piart(;rly conference of this year 
a restihilion was adoi)te(l declaring that "Seeing that the married preach- 
ers who are sent to this circuit siilVer many inconveniences and find it 

I'Bft t'^b'tO 



very iiicoiiveiiieiit to ])rocurL' suitable houses for their fauiilies, tliere- 
fore, a coitunittee sliali he ai)])oiutecl whidi sluill seloet u suitahh' site 
and adopt Hueli iiieasuniH as sliall \h: neci'ssary 1o scuMin; the ])hici'." 'I'his 
coiiunittee liavirig seieeted Klyi'ia, a suhseriplion was started aud ou 
August 20, 1831, tlie deed was acknowledged to tlie plot of ground where 
now stands the present parsonage. This was the iirst parsonage prop- 
erty of the ^Methodist Church on the Western Reserve and is now the 
oldest parsonage property of any Protestant church in Northern Ohio. 
The house was soon built and so from that time there has been a .Meth- 
odist preacher living almost continuously on that spot. 

The Head of tiik CnjcriT 

In 1831, Elyria was recognized as the head of the circuit and the 
name of lilack River disappears from the minutes. On Decendjer 8, 
1832, the first Sunday School was organized in connection witli the 
church. In 1837, Elyria Avas made a station with one hundred members. 
The "Yellow School house" proving too small, steps were now taken to 
secure a church building. It was thought to erect only a temporary 
structure and defray the erection of a larger and more permanent edifice 
until later. Accordingly in ]\Iareh of 1838 a lease was drawn up for 
town lot 159 on East Second Street signed by the trustees and .Mr. 
llcman Ely. The house built here was of boards, 38x40 feet in size. 
Jt was covered with clapboards, three windows on a side, two doors in 
front and pulpit at the opposite end. Its entire cost was about i|;700. 

Becomes a Station 

"When the North Ohio Conference was organized at Norwalk in 1840, 
Elyria Station was again merged into the circuit and two preachers 
were appointed. But in 1843 Elyria again became a station in which 
manner it continued until this day. It reported to the conference of 
1844, 110 members. 

Permanent CnuRcn Building 

The' lease on the lot expiring in 1848 a meeting of the membership 
was called to decide on building a substantial ehureli. A motion was 
adopted to proceed at once to build a eliureh, under the direction of an 
architect. The lot wa.s purchased and the building, a brick s1r\ieture, 
40x70 was erected. It is now used ]»y the Disciple Church. Tiie esti- 
mated cost was $4,000 and the total expense was not much over that sum. 

■ .-!(I tyl I: 


Tliis church was dedicated on January 21), 185], by tlic Rev. Edward 
Thuiupsoii, afterwards bishop, tlieu i)rcsidt'iit of tliu Oiiio Weslcyan 
University. At tliis time tlie church had 110 members, Sunday school 
si-liolars, HO, ol'liccrs and teacliers, 10. 

Fj-om this time tlie cliurcii made more rapid growtii. Jn 1852, there 
were reported 143 full members, 25 probationers, 130 Sunday school 
scholars and 11 teachers. In 185!) tlie membership reached 175 full 
members, 30 probationers, 178 Sunday school scholars and 28 teachers. 
In 1861 there were reported 19fj full members, 216 Sunday school 
scholars, 27 otificers and teacher.s. In 1867 there were 225 full mem- 
bers, 18 probationers, 265 in Sunday .school with 30 ofticers and teacher.s 
with 550 books in library. 

New Parson.\ge 

June, 186i), at a meeting of the board it was decided tluit the old 
parsonage should be sold and a new one built. It was decided to dispose 
of the old house and the south part of the lot and to buikl a new 
on the remaining portion of tlie lot. A committee consisting of AVilliain 
Bennington, Levi ]\Iorse and J. W. Adams was appointed to complete 
tlie sale. Then S. W. Baldwin, Wm. Snearer and J. W. Adams were 
made a building committee anil instructed to build such a house as in 
their judgment was needed. At a meeting in .March tin; committee re- 
ported to the board that they had contracted with Josei)h jMcI\Ialion to 
build the house comiilete for $2,500. About the first week in October 
the enterprise was completed, and at a meeting of the board dated Octo- 
ber 12, 1870, a vote of thanks was tendei'ed the building committee 
for their efficient services. 

P.vsTORS Who Have Served 

The pastors of this charge from its beginning to 1870 are as follows: 
1812, Trumbull Circuit, James IMcMahon ; 1813, New Connecticut, John 
Colomon and Oliver Carver; 1814, New Connecticut, James ^Mc^fahon 
and Lemuel Lane; 1815, Grand River, Samuel Brown;. 1816, Grand 
River, Ileni-y Baker; 1817, Huron Circuit, John Brooke; 1818, Huron 
Circuit, Wiliiam Westlake; 1810 and 1820, Huron (Circuit, Dennis Cod- 
dard; 1H21, Huron (Circuit, I'hilip (ireeii; 1822, Nathan Walker and 
John AValker; 1823, iilack River (Circuit, Zarah (Boston (organization of 
class at Klyria) ; 1824, Black River Circuit, James Tayloi- — James IMc- 
Mahon, presiding elder; 1825, Black River Circuit, Elijah II. Field; 
182(;. Mlack ITivei- Circuit, Harry O. Sheldon (oi'gani/ation Elyria 


Churcli) ; 1827-1828, Black Rivor Circuit, Shadrach Ruark; 1829, Cyrus 
S. Carpenter, II. Colcliester (parsonage project started); 1830, Cyrus 
Carpenter and E. C. Cavitt (parsonage completed) ; 1831, Elyria Cir- • 
cuit, AVni. Runnells, (Jeorge Elliott; 1832, Win. Runneils and J. Kiu- 
near (Sunday school organized) ; 1833, A. Billings, J. Brewster; 1834, 
A. Billings, J. Wilkinson; 1835, J. Wheeler, Thomas BarkduU; 1836, 
Elyria Circuit, in Norvvalk District, became part of the iNlichigan Con- 
ference, with Samuel M. Allen and Jonothan Hudson, preachers; 1837, 
Elyria Station, J. E. Chapin as preacher in charge ; 1838, John M. Gos- 
horn (first temporary church built) ; 1839, James Brewster; 1840, Elyria 
merged in circuit at tirst session of Nortli Ohio (Jonferenee, Jo.seph Jones, 
John Brooktield; 1841, Cyrus Sawyer, Samuel Guyberson; 1842, E. C. 
Gavitt, Peter Sharp; 1843, Elyria Station, Wni. Runnells, reappointed 
in 1844; 1845-184G, Lorenzo Warner; 1847-1848, William Disbro; 1841), 
William C. Pierce (building Second Street Church) ; 1850, M. Rowley 
(dedication of church building) ; 1851, S. L. Yourtee ; 1852, W. D. God- 
man; 1853, James I\l. Morrow; 1854, Uri Richards; 1855-1856, ]\1. D. 
Hard (Elyria in Cleveland Distriet, 1855); 1857, Thomas BarkduU; 
1858, James A. Kellam; 1859-1860, C. II. Owens; 1861, W. B. Disl)ro; 
1862-1863, E. II. Bush; 1864-1865-1866, G. II. Ilartupee; 1867, J. S. 
Broadwell; and 1868-1869-1870, Jaim-s A. Mudge (par.sonagc built). 

In 1871, J. W. IMendenhall became the i)astor and renuiined for 
two years. He left the inem))ersliip, 240, probationers, 20, Sunday 
school scholars, 173. 

Rev. A. J. Lyon came in 1873 and remained for three years. At 
the close of his pastorate there were 223 full members, 4 probationers, 
and 220 Sunday school scholars. His daugliter then a young girl is 
now the wife of Bishop IMcDowell. 

BuiLuiNc ov Tin-; Presknt IIousi.; of AVohsiiii' 

In 1876, Isaiah II. ]\IcCoiniell was appointed pastor and in his oldest 
son Prank, then a boy of six, tlie Elyria parsonage again held the future 
inhabitant of an episcopal residence. Doctor McConnell remained for 
three years which was then tlie limit of pastoral service. During this 
time the movement for the present church was inaugurated, most of 
Ihe money subscribed and the contracts let. In the sununer of 1878 
al)out $12,000 having been subscribed mainly through the pastor's 
efforts, E. E. Myers of Detroit, wlio drew the plans for tlie courtiiouse 
then lieing built in Elyria, was emi)loyed to furnisli plans for a church 
building the cost of which was not to exceed i|(l 5,000. But when the 
plans were completed and the work done it was found that the entiro 

\l^":■M\ ',{ 


cost of the building and furniture was $20,074. From tlio first subscrip- 
tion was collected $11,000. Tiie sale of tlie obi jjroperly on Second 
Street realized $;j,;JOO, wliile $5,774 was subscribed on tbc day of dedica- 
tion. JJoctor .MeConnell's leriu expired in September of 1871). On tlie 
last week of his pastorate the contract for the new building was signed. 
At tins time there were 250 mendjers of the church. 

W. G. Ward then became pa.stor and remained until after tlio dedica- 
tion of the church which was on the 31st of Jaiuiary, 1881, Henry B. 
Ridgway, D. D., of Cincinnati having charge of the dedicatory services. 
There were then 288 full members, 18 probationers, 230 Sunday school 
scholars. T. C. Warner, known affectionately as "Tommy Warner," 
was pastor from 1881 to 1884. In 1884 tlie Kev. Francis S. Iloyt, 1). 1)., 
became the i)residing elder of the Cleveland District and C. II. Stock- 
ing was pastor at Elyria. lie remained foi- two years and a half and 
was then transferred to another conference and J. S. Youmans filled 
the pulpit from ]\lay until Conference of 1887. E. O. Buxton became 
pastor in 1887 and remained for two years when be was transferred 
to Franklin Avenue, Cleveland. In the fall of 188!) Fred A. Gould 
became pastoi' and remained for four years. This was the longest 
pastorate up lo this time, the time liuiit only having been clmnged to 
five years in 18S8. During Doctor Gould's pastorate the parsonage 
was painted iiisiile and out- and tlie church was re-frescoed and re- 
carpeted. Ill the fall of 18!)2 the North Ohio Conference met in this 
church with Bishop John P. Newman presiding. The conference had 
])reviously been held liere in 1857 and in 1865. At the close of his pas- 
torate Doctor Gould reported 408 members. lie was followed in 1893 
by G. A. Keeder wlio is the first pastor to have stayed five years. During 
his pastorate gracious revivals were hehl each year, one lasting for ten 
weeks and having \nnny over 100 profess conversion. In 1898 he was 
removed by the time limit. lie left behind him 475 full members and 
17 probationers, a Sunday school with 400 members and an average 
attendance of 240. 

In 1898 W. C. Endly came from ]\It. Vernon where he had spent his 
full five years. lie also remained in Elyria for five years. During his 
jiastorate the parsonage jioreh was built and many minor repairs made 
on lioth church and par.sonage. The membership grew until at the close 
of his i)astorate in 1903, 610 members were reported. The Sunday school 
now had an enrolment of 375 and an average attendance of 245. 

Ill ]!)0.3 AVilliam C. Daw.son, D. I)., was appointed by Bishop Mc- 
Cabe. Althougii his health was failing and tlnr illness which led to his 
death was upon liim his four years of pastorate were marked by real 
pro.spei'ity to the charge. His last Sunday was made memorable by llu' 

uv/ M'lit'Milij'. hiiii V: i?> 


I't'C'option of ;i class of thirty probationers into full iiiciiilH-rsliip. Duriiifj 
Ills pastorate tlic siihscripl ion was Iic},miii for tfic new Sunday si-liool 
room. Doctor Dawson diid Octolicr 2\, 11)07. 

l{i'V. Thomas Wallis Orusc was a))poinlc(i. to iOlyi'la at the confcri'iiL-u 
of 11)07 from Wcllinj^ton whore he hail completed a live year pastorate. 
At once the improvement of the church was begun. The auditorium 
was given new windows which greatly increased the light of the cliurch 
in daytime and new electric fixtures were installed. The auditoriiuu 
was re-freseoed, carpeted and painted. A new Sunchiy school depart- 
nuMit was erected, one of the largest and most convenient in tiie Con- 
ference. A fine basement was provided for dining room, kitchen and 
j)arlors. The cost of tliis impi'ovement was about ^2;'), ()()(). The service 
of dedication was conducted ])y Hishop .Mooi'c, April 4, 1 !)(>!). in Sep- 
tember of lf)Oi) tlie North Ohio ('onference met in the iOlyria Church, 
BLsliop William F. Ajulerson presiding. Tiie special features were tlie 
scholarly and interesting addresses by Prof, ("amden ]\1. Coburn of 
Alleghenj' College. In September, li)]l, Doctor Grose was transferred 
to First Church, JMansfield. 

The Rev. Samuel L. Stewart, having eomi)leted a six years' pastorate 
at First (yhurch, .Mansfield, was appointed to Elyria at the Conference 
held in Church, .Mansfield, by Hishop Bristol, September IS, lilll. 
He preached his first sermon Septeml)er 24, 1912. 

Present Status of the CiirKcn 

Before his family arrived the board had decided to rel)uild tiie ])ar- 
sonage. A 'temporary houu- was found for the family and the work was 
given into the hands of a conunittee consisting of George II. Cliamber- 
lain, R. P. Vaughn, Jenkins Edwards, ('. II. Snow, Henry Tiieman, 
Charles II. Jackson and ^Villiam Biggs. Jenkins F^dwards was given 
geiiei-al oversiglit of the work. The entire cost of improvement wa.s 
.$4,7.'i4.00 and tiie pastor and his family occupied their new home on 
February 2, 1912. 

Tile iiiembersiiip of the Metiiotlist Episcopal Church of Elyria in 
1015 was aliout SOO members, and the Sunday school enrolment 710, 
with an additional 140 credited to tlie home department and cradle roll. 

1<'||{ST CoN'OUKdATION \I, ClU'lU'll 

The First Coiigregal ioiial Church of I'Myria was orgaiii/ed 
under the famous "plan of union" between the Congregationalists and 
the Presb^ierians, under which the internal alTairs of the church were 


regulattHl by CougiTgational usages hut the churcli was under tlie care 
of tile Prcshyteiy, and the ministers heh)nged to tlie Preshytery. Soon 
after 1850 tlie Congregational ehurclies organized on this plan through- 
out the West began to sever their eonneetion with the Presliyteries, the 
chureh in Elyria doing so some time after 18GU. 

The Coiigregationalists of Klyria organized in 1824, and have main- 
tained ii society ever siiK.'C. Vov many years it has been one of tin; 
strongest religions bodies in lOlyria and has one of the most beautiful 
liomes for worshij) and for eommunion in numerous works of charity 
and benevoleiiee. Through the years during which the chureh has 
gi'owii from a small membership to one of nearly 600, the fol- 
lowing pastors have served: Daniel W. Lathrop, 1825-30; Rev. 
John J. Siiipherd (founder of Oberlin College), 1831-32; Rev. James 
II. Eells, 1S34-3G; Rev. Lewis II. Loss, 1837-41; Rev. David A. Gros- 
venor, 1843-52; Rev. Timothy ]M. Hopkins, 1852-54; Rev. Francis A. 
Wilber, 1855-66; Rev. Fergus L. Kenyon, 1867-70; Rev. Edwin E. Wil- 
liams, 1873-96; Rev. William E. Cadmus, 1807-1908, and Rev. John II. 
Grant, 1908, to the present time (1916). 

The massive building now oeeui)ied by the First Congregational 
Chureh was edieated in 1900; it has had two predecessors, erected in 
1834 and 1848, respectively. 

TIk' executive body of the society comprises the following: William 
II. .Searle.s, elmreh clerk; Ralph B. Fay, parish treasurer; George M. 
Day, church (benevolence) treasurer; i\Irs. j\I. D. Chapman, assistant 
treasurer and church visitor; Cora M. Walton, church seeretar3^ Its 
present memliership is 572 and the chureh property is valued at .$85,000. 

From the Dedication Souvenir of the First Congregational Church, 
issued in 1900, it is evident that the Elyria organization was a pioneer 
of its kind in the Western Reserve. At the time of the first settlement 
in Elyria in 1817, no Congregational or Presbyterian churches, with 
one or two exceptions, had been founded in that part of the reserve 
lying west of the Cuyahoga River. For more than seven years mission- 
aries of the Conneetieut ]\Iissionary Society ministered to the little com- 
pany at l^lyria. On the 30th of October, 1822, a church was organized 
in the adjoining Town.ship of Carlisle, consisting of seven members, 
six of whom, and one who had been admitted, subsequently united with 
the church. A consolidation of these two religious bodies was effected 
Novemlier 25, 1824, iintler the name of the Presbyterian Church in 
Elyria. The union of the two churches continued until August 3, 1833, 
when the Carlisle members withdrew and resumed their original organi- 

The copy of the reeoi'ds of this chureh, commeneiiig November 25, 

.;->.T 'iin 

I I'll; 


1824, ai)d of tlie church at Carlisle, coininciieiiig October 29, 1822, cease 
wilh tlic meeting of Sei)teinber 4, 1880. It is a inoiniiiieiit to the pains- 
tiikiiig devotion of lie inan VAy, and only ceased when his healtli wouhl 
no longer sustain him in such labors. 

Second Congregational Church 

A Second Congregational Church was organized in 1897, and erected 
its house of worship on the west side. This now has a membership of 
204 and numbers 300 families among its constituency. Its pastor is 
Rev. Alfred J. Barnard, its clerk John E. Ilecock, treasurer, U. D. 
Miller, superintendent of Sunday school, E. J. Taylor, and the value of 
its church propei-ty, $12,000. 

The First Baptist Ciu'RCIi 

Toward the of June, 1836, Rev. Daniel C. AVait, who had but 
recently graduated at Hamilton, New York, came AYest in search of a 
field for gospel labor. Arriving at Cleveland, he consulted Avith Rev. 
Levi Tucker and was directed to Elyria. In July following he visited 
the village and was allowed the use of the court room for a meeting of 
his co-religionists. After several rather encouraging gatlierings had 
been held in the courthouse, Mr. Wait's enterprise shifted to tlie old 
yellow schoolhouse, then standing on the west side of the public sciuare. 

On the 26th of November, 1836, the following united to form the 
First Baptist Church of Elyria: Luther Ilartson, Sr., Luther Ilartson, 
Jr., :\Irs. Mercy Brooks, Miss ^Margaret Wright, and Lucius and Sally 
Andress. Mr. Wait continued as i)astor until June, 1837, and during 
the succeeding three months the pulpit was unoccupied. Rev. j\Ir. Ilillis 
assumed the pastorate in September of that year and during the fol- 
lowing winter steps were taken wbicli led to tlie building of the first 
church edifice in 1839. ^Mr. Hillis had, however, resigned in the spring 
of 1838, and in June of that year been succeeded by Rev. Silas Tucker. 

Succeeding Mr. Tucker, from November, 1840, until the fall of 1915, 
were the following: Rev. Joseph Elliott, November, 1840, to :\Iarch, 
1843; Rev. H. Silliman, October, 1843, to ^Nlarch, 1845; Rev. David Ber- 
nard, October, 1845, to February, 1846; Rev. Daniel Eldred, :\rarcli, 
1847, to June, 1849; Rev. N. S. iiuHon, Sei)lember, 1850, to July, 1S53; 
Rev. Lewis Ransted, July, 1853, to June, 1854; Rev. Amasa Heath, 
J\larcb, 1855, to May, 1857; Rev. 1. W. Ihiyliurst, June, 1857, to Feb- 
ruary, 1867; R<;v. CJeorge E. lA'Onard, October, 1861, to l\Iarch. 1866; 
Rev. IT. II. liawden, SeptendM-r, 1866, to February, 1874; Rev. M. L. 


Bickford, April, 1874, to April, 1876; Rev. W. A. DePue, April, 1877, 
to December, 1878; Rev. J. Cyrii.s Tlioins, September, 1885, to -May, 
1888; Rev. W. A. Spinney, October, 1888, to April, 1892; Rev. E. E. 
Knapp, August, 1893, to April, 1!)02; Rev. George W. Johnson, June, 
1902, to November, 1915 (pastor at that date). 

The edifice now occupied by the First Baptist Church was com- 
pleted in 1884. The membership is 400. L. E. Sutliff is clerk and F. 
I. Hubbard, treasurer of the church. 

St. Andrew's Episcopal CiiURcn 

St. Andrew's Church was organized in the year 1837 and the Rev. 
Ansoji Clark was the first rector of tlio parisli. The services were then 
held in the courthouse, a modest l)rick structure then staiuling where 
the present beautiful stone ])uilding stands. In 1840 the parish ei-ected 
a church building, a small frame structure, on Cheapside. During the 
early years of St. Andrew's the trials were many and for several years 
after the departure of Mr. Clark the church was practically closed. It 
was not until the coming of Rev. B. T. Noakes, D. 1)., in 1857 that a real 
revival in interest took place. IMany were added to the churcli hy bap- 
tism and confirmation. A new rectory was purchased and old and stand- 
ing prejudices were allayed. The Civil war, of course, brought reverses 
and discouragements in the church's life. Often the church was without 
a resident rector because of the absence of the rector as chaplain in the 
army and because of sickness. In 1870 Doctor Noakes again assumed 
the rectorate of the parisli and from that time on there has been steady 
advance. It was during these years and under the direction of 
Doctor Noakes that the present beautiful church and rectory were built. 
There have been seventeen rectors during these eighty years of hi.story. 
The present rector, Edwin B. Redhead, accepted the rectorship of the 
parish September 1, 1913. W. J. Tasman is lay reader of St. Andrew's 
and H. J. Eady and S. S. Rockwood, wardens. Over 350 communicants 
are on the parish register and the Sunday scliool has a membersliip of 100. 

St. Mauy's Ciiukcii and Parish 

Catholic immigrants from Ireland and Gennany began to settle in 
Elyria and the iiiunediatc c(Mintry around it about tin; year 1815. Piv- 
vious lo lluit lime any Catholii; living in Elyria liad to go to Avon, or 
French Creek, or LaPorte for religious Kcrviccs. In 1845 IJishop Piir- 
ccll, of {^iTicinnati, made an episcopal visitation of churches and mis- 
sions in Noi'thcrn Ohio, for at that time there' wa.s only one bishop I'or nil 

.1 .ll 

II bn« 


Oliio and tile dioci'se of Clcvi'laiid, to wliicii l"]lyriu now belongs, was not 
ere(;ted until April 23, 1847. 

Tliis lour ol; the sainlly and eioiinent |)relate is especially remark- 
able and worthy of memory for the Catholies of Klyriu and Lorain 
County, for it was on this occasion that L. C. Boynton, deputy sherilf 
of Lorain County, invited the bishop to deliver a lecture iu the court- 
house on any subject he might think most fitting. So pleased were the 
non-Catholics with this discourse that he was asked to give them the 
pleasui'e of hearing him in the Baptist Church of Elyria. This discourse 
was also received with interest. There were at that time not twenty 
Catholic households in Elyria and the adjacent country, and Bishop 
Purcell, having comparatively few priests for his large territory, nuide 
arrangements to have mass said in Elyria onee a month on week-days. 
He accordingly directed the Rev. Peter McLaughlin of Cleveland, to 
perform the good office for the people and to minister as best he could 
to their spiritual wants. Father IMcLaughlin thus acted as pastor of 
Elyria for about one year, when the bishop appointed the Rev. ]\Iaurice 
Howard, who continued to visit Elyria till 184!). 

From 1849 to 1851 Father DeOoesbriand, vicar general of the 
Diocese of Cleveland, ami afterward bishop of Burlington, Vermont, 
attended to the Catholics of Elyria, coining regularly from Cleveland. 
Then for two years the Rev. William O'Connor and the Rev. Jacob 
Kingeli, a iii'iest of the t'ongregation of the Precious Blood, !uade their 
customary visits to Elyria in the i)erformanee of tlieir prie.stly duties. 

Uj) to this time, I'^lyria was, in church language only a "station." 
It had not even the tlignity of a "mission," for a "mission" is a con- 
gregation with a church, but having no resident pastor, whereas a "sta- 
tion" is a conuuunity of Catholics without a resident priest and with- 
out a church, who .are visited by a i)riest at stated intervals and hold 
services in private houses. We can readily understand why Elyria 
should thus remain so long a "station," if we consider the relatively 
small number of Catholics living in it and the scarcity of priests. When 
Bishop Rappe came to Cleveland as its bishop, in October, 1847, 
Father IMauriee Howard was the only priest stationed in Cleveland, and 
Elyria was only one of many places in Northern Ohio to which he had 
to give priestly attention. 

I'^iRsr Rksidknt CATii()r>io Pastou 

The first resident pastor of Elyria was the Rev. ]Michael Ilealy, ap- 
pointed by Bishop Rappe in IMay, 1853. One year after his appoint- 
ment he purchased a site on the .southwest corner of Middle Avenue and 


Foiirtli Stivct ill cxcliaiij,'!' tor a property wliicli llic Ciitliolics of Filyi'iii 
liiid pri'vioiisly scciiri'd near tlic i-onicr where now .stands tlic lieaiilil'iil 
( 'oiif^ref^ulioiial (Miiircli. I''a1liei' llealy al oiiee j)ioceeded to ereeL a 
frame eliurcli on tlie new site, and in the suimiier of \S7)A the modest 
little structure was reaily for use and mass was no loiifjer said in private 

Jii February, 185!), Father Ilealy wa.s transferred to the pastorate 
of St. IMary's Church, Tiffin, Ohio, in which charge he remained for 
more than forty years, until iiis death. He was suc(?eeded in Elyria liy 
the Kev. Roliert A. Sidley. During his incumbency Father Sidley en- 
larged the ciuirch, because of the growth of the congregation, and built 
a pastoral residence on the lot ne.xt to the church on JMiddle Avenue. 
This house built in 1859, at different times enlarged and remodeled, 
remains today in tiie old place, rrevioiis to flie erection of tlie i)arisli- 
house, the pa.stor of Elyria liveil in a reiiteil iiouse on the east side of 
West Avenue, two doors south of Fourth Street. This house which 
served as the home of the first pastors of Elj^ria, was afterward moved 
to West River Street, where it stands today hearing the street number 
117. It was Father Sidley who founded