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IT IS INCOMPARA.BLY the greatest, and positively the latest, most complete, most 
authoritative, and most sumptuous unabridged dictionary in existence. It embodies the 
expert knowledge of nearly two hundred and fifty of the world's most eminent authorities and 
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and including twenty United States Government Experts. 

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Two hundred and forty- seven of the most Containing 75,000 more vocabulary terms than 

eminent and trustworthy authori:ies in all de- any other dictionary, the exclusive features of 

partments of human knowledge contributed Synonyms and Antonyms (125,000), besides 

tlieir expert skill and experience to it. 45,000 Quotations, and 5,000 Illustrations. 

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lines and compound words. Its etymologies are thorough, its definitions full, exact, and clear. 
Its tables of measures, plants, animals, coins, etc., are unexcelled. 

PROF. SAYCE, of Oxford University, England, the Eminent Philologist, says : " The 
Standard Dictionary Is txuly magnificent, and worthy of the great continent which has 
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The helpfulness of a dictionary can not reach beyond the limit of its vocabulary or the range 
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Tocab. Terms Editor\ 

Worcester's Dictionary 105,000 18 ' 

Webster's IxTEENATiONAii 125,000 41 

The Century Dictionary 225,000 81 

Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary 301,863 524'? 

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FUNK & WAGNALLS CO., Publishers, 30 Lafayette Place, NEW YORK. 

The Standard 




* Of the English Language 

Designed to Give the Orthography, Pronunciation, Meaning, and 

Etymology of about 38,000 Words and Phrases in the Speech 

AND Literature of the English-Speaking Peoples. 


Abridged from the Funk & WagnaUs Standard Dictionary of the 
English Language by 






Copynghty 1899, by Funk & Wagnalls Company. Registered at Stationers' Hall^ London, England. 




The Standard Intermediate=School Dictionary is specially designed 
for use in Public Schools below the academic grade. The aim has been to 
prepare a dictionary of moderate size and cost, which should give all the 
words and phrases in most frequent use among the English-speaking peoples, 
and which should at the same time adequately represent the latest advances 
of lexicographic knowledge and of our constantly growing language. To this 
end the present work has been abridged from the Funk & Wagnalls Standard 
Dictionary of the English Language. It contains more than 38,000 words 
and phrases, which, it is believed, will meet the needs of all pupils of the 
grade referred to, as well as of a large part of the reading public. 

Following the methods of condensation which have won general approval 
as exemplified in the Students' Standard Dictionary, the editor has spared 
no pains in the endeavor to. combine Wiethe present work the qualities of 
accuracy, clearness, and conciseness, with the view to include in the smallest 
compass the greatest worth. It has been the constant study to give in the 
simj)lest form the Orthography, Pronunciation, Meaning, and Derivation of 
all words that are not self^defining. Such adjectives, adverbs, and abstract 
nouns as are self=explanatory when the root word is understood have been 
generally given in one paragraph under the root word. 

The Standard Intermediate=School Dictionary is particularly adapted 
to the needs of Teachers and Pupils, and its vocabulary, having been com- 
piled with a view to meeting their needs, will be 
I. The Vocabulary. „ , . ,i i • i i. t 

found exceptionally comprehensive and exact, in 

orthography it is conservative, but when two ways of spelling the same 
word are sanctioned by usage, the two forms have been recorded, and prefer- 
ence has been given usually to the simpler form. The spelling is that of the 
Standard Dictionary as finally determined in accord- 
ograp y. ^^^^ ^.^^^ ^^^ views of the Advisory Committee of 
Fifty leading Philologists and Educators, and will be found in accord with 
that now adopted by the best authorities. 

Only such words as should be written with capital initial letters are 
capitalized in the vocabulary, thus enabling the Teacher and Pupil to see at a 
glance how to write the word. The introduction of 
III. Capitalization. ^^^.^ feature specially distinguishes The Standard 
Intermediate=School Dictionary from all other dictionaries designed for 
school use. 

The pronunciation of words is indicated by phonetic respelling in the 



vi Introductory. 

characters of the Standard Scientific Alphabet. This alphabet was prepared 

and promulgated by the American Philological Asso- 

IV. Pronunciation. . ^.^ ,*. -,. J^. . , .,, . , 

ciati.on, and mdicatmg, as it does, with a minuteness 

and accuracy unattained by all other systems for conveying sounds, the 
powers of the letters, it is the simplest aid to exact pronunciation yet devised. 
It requires fewer characters, and involves fewer changes from the ordinary 
spelling, than any other system. 

Special care has been taken to make the definitions at once comprehen- 
sive and concise by embracing recent meanings and distinctions, and by 

making the general definitions thoroughly inclusive. 

V. The Definitions. ^ , ? , . ^^, a ix •^- c ^i, oZ i a 4i 

In abridging the definitions of the Standard, there 

has been no longitudinal reduction, merely cutting off a part ; but each defi- 
nition has been thoroughly digested, and reduced by studied condensation at 
once into the smallest compass and the simplest language. The most common 
meaning has been placed first ; the others in the order of their divergence. 
Definitive statements have been given as far as space permits ; where defini- 
tion by synonym is employed, as is often necessary, there has been none of 
that hasty catching at synonymns which, in some of the small dictionaries 
heretofore published, has resulted in sending the reader from synonym to 
synonym till he returns, with no increase of knowledge, to the original start- 
ing=point ; in this work, scrupulous care has been taken always to define the 
unfamiliar by the familiar word, or by a word which is itself more fully 
defined in its own place. 

In this Dictionary the system of compounding words adopted by the 

Standard Dictionary has been applied, and the German double hyphen is 

used to distinguish hyphenated compound words from 

ompoun ng. compounds in which words originally distinct are 

united without the hyphen, as coachman, sunbeam, wildcat, etc. The single 

hyphen is used merely to indicate division of words into syllables. 

The etymologies have been given in a clear though condensed form, 
tracing each word as far as practicable to its ultimate source, that the pupil 
may know whence the word started, and just how it 
>mo og es. came to have its present signification. This introduc- 
tion of etymologies is a wholly new feature in a dictionary prepared for 
pupils below the academic gi*ade, and meets the requirements of the Board 
of Regents of the University of the State of New York regarding the knowl- 
edge of the stems of words. 

For the benefit of the pupils, and for ease of consultation, the etymolo- 
gies have been transliterated, thus facilitating the reading of all foreign 
words, whether of Arabic, Greek, Hebrew, or other origin. 

All important prefixes and suffixes which enter into the composition of 
words receive separate treatment in alphabetical place. 

Obsolete and dialectic words and meanings, and the specific terms of 

Special Explanatory Notes. 


art and science, have, in general, been excluded, for it is believed that such 

words do not ordinarily require place in a dictionary 

^ «?' , ^^f **^^f ^"* designed especially for intermediate=school use. It is 
Dialectic Words. , ,.^ , , .-, ^ -, , , 

believed, however, that the vocabulary contains all 

words that are in general use or that are likely to be met with in any but 

special treatises. 

The illusti-ations, more than 800 in number, have been selected, not for 
mere embellishment, but as aids in definition, conveying the meaning of 
terms through the eye to the mind as, in very many 
cases, mere words can not do. These illustrations 
have been in great part made especially for this work, 
and will be found scientifically exact and artistically accurate. 

The Editor acknowledges gratefully valuable suggestions and advice 
from Isaac K. Funk, D.D., LL.D., editor ==in:=chief of the Standard Diction- 
ary, and also the cooperation of Frank H. Vizetelly, of the Standard 
Dictionary editorial staff, whose care in the selection of illustrative material, 
and skill in securing general typographical and pictorial accuracy have con- 
tributed largely to the general excellence of the work. 

New York, Jan. 1, 1899. J. C. F. 

IX. The Pictorial 


Nouns and their Plurals. 

^;W Where the comparative and superlative 


NOUNS are not given, they are formed regularly, 
according to the simplest rules of grammar. 

The pronunciation of plurals of nouns is Indi- 
cated either by respelling or by the sign (•«) Inserted 
after the plural form. Example : du'ty, diu'ti, 1>. 
fDu'TiEsz, p/.] The sign (») is used to indicate that 
the pronunciation of the plural is obtained by ad- 
ding "z" to the pronunciation of the vocabulary 
word. Thus, du'ties Is pronounced diu'tlz. 

Verbs and their Participles, Etc. 

%W~ Where the tense and participial forms 
OF A VERB are not given, add -ed to the vocabulary 
word for the imperfect tense and the past participle, 
and -ing for the p.resent participle, except in com- 
pound verbs. 

The pronunciation of the participles of verbs Is 
indicated as follows: 

The sign (t) added after a verb, or after Roman 
I., as It. (when several parts of speech are grouped 
under one vocabulary entry). Indicates that the 
pronunciation of the past participle or Imperfect 
of this verb Is obtained by adding " t " to tlie pro- 
nunciation of the vocabulary word. Example: 
lookt, luk, ». By adding "t" to the pronunciation 
of look, the pronunciation of looked* jop.. is ob- 
tained, thus : luk -f t = lukt ; so blotch, bloch. I*. 
vt., indicates that the past participle or imperfect Is 
blotched, pronounced blecht. 

The sign (d) added after a verb, or after Roman 
T., as Id. (when several parts of speech are grouped 
under one vocabulirv entry), indicates that the 
pronunciation of the past participle or imperfect 
Of this verb Is obtained by adding " ed " to the pro- 

nunciation of the vocabulary word. Examples: 
ainendd, a-mend'. By adding "ed" to the pro- 
nunciation of amend, the pronunciation of 
anieuded, imp. and pp.M obtained, thus: a-mend' 
+ ed = a-mend'ed ; so ainoiint, a-maunt'. Id. v., 
indicates that the past participle or Imperfect is 
pronounced a-maunt'ed. 

The pronunciation of the past participle and Im- 
perfect of the verbs is obtained where no sign is 
given, by adding "d " to the pronunciation of the 
vocabulary word. Examples: love, luv; loved, 
luvd; cable, k^'bl; cabled, ke'bld. 

Compound Words are defined under their first 
element, except when some special reason, as of 
classification, requires them to be grouped under 
the second element. 

The participles and imperfects of compound 
verbs (if not given with the compounds), as disa- 
buse, disagree, will be found under the final ele- 
ment of each compound, as under abuse, agree. 

Etymologies, Etc. 

Where the derivation of a word has been traced 
through more than one language In the Standard 
and Students' Standard, condensation is secured 
in the present work by indicating the intervening 
language or languages by means of superior let- 
ters; the intervening languages (where more than 
one Is noted) being given in the order which the 
derivation of the word has followed : thus, under 
the word butter, w., the expression [< Gr.L+AS 
hoiityron] indicates that the word hittter has come 
into the English language from the Greek houtyron 
through the medium of the Latin, and later of the 
Anglo-Saxon, with various modifications in the 
process of transition. 

Suffixes, as -ly, -ness, following the treat- 


Key to Pronunciation. 

inent of any vocal)ulary word denote that the suffix 
Is to be added directly to the preceding word to 
form the corresponding adverb, or other derivative. 
Example: transparent, -ly, adv. -ness, n., 
these Indicate that the adverb Is transparently 
and the verbal noun transparentness; sacri- 
ficial, -ly, adv., Indicating that the adverb Is 

The Sin&le Hyphek (-) connects parts of a 
word that are arbitrarily separated, as at the end of 
a line, or in the division of words into syllables; the 
syllables which it connects being closely joined in 
ordinary writing or printing. The single hyphen is 
omitted when the primary or secondary accent is 
used, as In vocabulary words: as-tron^o-my for 
astronomy; in'^di-vid^u-al for individual. 

The Double Hyphen (=) connects only the parts 
of a compound word, and is to be retained in ordi- 
nary writing or printing; as, halfsinasf (writ- 
ten ordinarily half 'mast). 

Abbreviations and Arbitrary Signs. 

[Colloq.l Colloquial. i f = obsolete. 

[Dial.] Dialectic. II = archaic. 

Prep. Prepositions. § = rare. 

[Prov.] Provincial. % = variant. 

[Poet.] Poetical. < = derived from. 

* = hypothetical. > = whence. 

For other abbreviations, see the list of Abbre- 
viations in the Appendix. 

A Single Parenthesis Maek before the last 
letter of a word, or of a syllable in a word, as 
aniiabKeness, usabKe, etc., means that in the 
reformed spelling, recommended by the American 
Philological Association and the Philological So- 
ciety of England, the letter immediately following 
this sign is omitted. 

' Indicates the primary or chier r-.ccent; as, a'ble. 
" Indicates the secondary accent; as, as-80''ci- 
a'tion ; mul^^ti-pli-ca'tion. 


Tbe pronunciation of vFords is indicated by the phonetic respelling that follows the vocabu- 
lary word; as, a'ble, §'bl. The letters used in the phonetic respelling have the sounds given in 
the following table. 

Two pronunciations are intended by the diacritics -^ and ^ below a vowel: (1) a formal 
pronunciation; (2) an approved colloquial weakening. The mark ^-^ indicates that the colloquial 
weakening is toward u m bwt. The mark ^ indicates that the colloquial weakening is toward 
% in pity. 














































in partake, monarch, breakfast, final. 

in arm, alms, calm, father, martyr. 

in ask, chant, dance, fast, grasp. 

in at, add, man, random. 

in fare, bear, fair, heir, there. 

in alloy, accuse, madman. 

in pen, sunset, excuse, ferry, yet. 

in eclipse, epistle, elegant, element. 

in moment, absence, colonel. 

in ever, fem, bird, fir. 

in fate, ale, aid, ei^/At, play, they. 

in usage, mountain, preface. 

in tin, it, divide, fill, miss. 

in machine, meet, eve, bier, serene. 

in react, remain, create. 

in obey, follow;, eulogy, theory. 

in no, glory, note, blow, over, foal. 

in not, odd, what, comma, forest, was. 

in nor, abhor, oughX^ awthority, walk. 

in actor, idiot, atom. 

in fwll, could, book, woman, pwt. 

in n/le, rwde, food, unto, wooing. 

in meas^/re, inj7/re, nati^re. 

in bwt, twb, ?mder, nation, hwrry. 

as in bwrn, cwr, cwrl, hi/rt, work, wort. 

ai as in pine, eye, ply, height, ice, fire. 

au as in aut, thou, oivl, bownd, town. 

ei as in oil, boy, avoid, joint, moist. 

iii as in tew, addwce, d?/ty, vaute. 

iu as in d«i ation, mt/latto. 

15 as in fut?/re, lect?<re, natwre. 

c = k as in cat, epoch, sceptic, chaBva, ^ing. 

ch as in cAurch, cAair, match, chip, muck. 

cw = qu as in queen, quite, quit, g-wality. 

dh (th) as in the, then, smooth, hreathe. 

t as in/ancy, sulAir, physic, laugh. 

g (hard) as in go, gun, game, dog. 

H as in abriV^, loc/i (Scotch), ach (Ger.).* 

hw (wh) as in zvhy, when, where, tohiie. 

j as in^'aw, .O'em, pigeon, reUgion, soldier. 

ng as in sing,' long, tongue, Qu7ig. 

T) as in ink, bank, junction, single. 

ti as in bon (French). t 

s as in sin, cell, city, vice, cypress. 

sh as in she, cAaise, machine, ocean, social. 

th as in thin, worth, hreath, pith, think. 

fl as in dwne (French).^ 

z as in zone, is, lives, music, wise. 

zh as in azure, treasure, ambrosia, cohesion . 

♦ H = aAa; t A = silent; $ ii = music — these English substitutes are only approximately correct. 

The Standard 
Intermediate -School Dictionary. 


a, e {unaccented, a), indef. article or adjective. 
One; any; some; each: before a vowel, an. 

a-, prefix, with values as follows: a-i. On; as, 
aboard. [< AS. on, an.'] a-^. Away, out (in- 
tensive, or without special force); as, arise; 
awake. [< AS. a-, = Goth, us-, = G. er-.] a-^. 
Of, from (intensive); as, adown; athirst. [< 
AS. of, af.] a-4. Against; as, along. t<AS. 
: Go ■ 

and-, -■ 

ioth. and; anda-, = G. ant-, ent-, — L. 

ante-,anti-.] a-*. Together; as, aware. [<AS. 
ge-.] a-«. To; as, ado. [ME. a-, < Ice. at.] a.-\ 
H( • " • .-..., 

3, avast. [<I>.houd.] 
[< L. ab.] - " 

old (opening); 

From- as, avert. [< L. ab.] a-^. Out; as, 

amend. [< OF. a-, e-, < L. ex.] a-*°. To; 

as, ascend. [<] a-i*. To; as, avalanche. 

r< OF. a-, < L. ad.] a-12. From; as, abate. 

[< OF. a-, < L. ah.] a-^^. Ah (intcrjectional); 

as, alas. [< OF. a-, < L. ah.] a-^*. Not; as, 

achromatic. [< Gr. a-, an-, privative.] 
ab-, prefix. Off; from; away; as. absolve; abdi- 
cate; abrogate. [< L. ab- (ab), = Gr. apo, = AS. 

<?/".] In aftbreviate, ab- represents ad-. 
a-back^, a-bac', adv. So as to be pressed 

backward, as sails; backward; aloof, 
ab'a-cus, ab'a-cus, n. [-cus-es or -ci, -soi or 

-ci, pi.] 1. A reck- 

oning^table with eli- 

dingljalls. 2. A slab 

forming the top of a 

capital. [Gr.!- abax, 

a-baft', a-bgft'. 

Naut. I. adv. To- 
ward the stern; 

back ; behind. II. 

[< A-i, prefix, + BE- 


prep. Further aft than. 
, prefix, -(- AFT.] 

a-lian^doii, a-ban'dun, vt. To forsake or re- 
nounce utterly; give up wholly; quit; leave; 
resign. [< F. abandonner, < a bandon, in 
the power.] — a-ban'don(e)d, pa. Given over; 
profligate.— a-ban'don-meiit, n. 

a-l)ase', a-bes', vt. [a-based"; a-ba'sinr.] 
1. To lower; cast down; humble. 2. To de- 
base, as coin. [< L.*" ad, to, -f- LL. bassus, 
low; see base, a.] — a-base'ment, w. 

a-basli^, abash', vt. [a-bashed" or a-basht' ; 
a-bash'ing.] To make ashamed; confuse; 
embarrass. [< OF. esbahir, astonish.] 

a-bate', a-bet', r. [a-ba'ted*'; a-ba'ting.] 
I. t. To lessen; diminish; reduce; do away 
with. II. i. Togrow less; decrease. [<L.f 

ad, to, -f batuo, beat.] — a-bate'ment, n. 

ab'a-tis, jab'a-tis, n. Mil. An obstruction 

ab'at-tis, ) of felled trees, with the branches 
sharpened and pointed in the direction of ex- 
pected attack. [F.] [house. [F.] 

a'^baf toir', a"bg"twflr', n. A elaughter- 

ab'ba, ab'a, n. Father. [Syr.] 

ab''be', g'be', n. An abbot; also, a literary ec- 
clesiastic not holding a benefice. [nunnery. 

ab'bess, ab'es, n. The lady superior of a 

ab'bey, ab'§, n. [abbeys, pi.] A monastery 
or nunnery; also, a place of worship or other 
building that is or has been connected with a 
monastic establishment. 

ab'bot, ab'et, n. Eccl. The superior of a 
monastery. [< Syr.i' abba, father.] 

— ab'bot-snip, n. ab'ba-cy:):. 
ab-bre'vi-ate, gb-brl'vi-et, vt. [-a'ted<i; 

-A'TiNG.] To shorten; reduce; condense. [< 
L. ad, to, 4- brevis, short.] — ab-bre''vi-a'- 
tion, n. A shortening; an abridgment. 
ab'di-cate, ab'di-ket, v. [-ca'ted^; -ca"- 
TiNG.] I. t. To give up voluntarily, as royal 
power; renounce. II. i. To renounce power, 
office, etc. [< L. ab, from, -f dico, proclaim.] 

— ab'^di-ca'tion, n. 

ab-do^men, ab-do'men, n. The visceral cav- 
ity; belly. [L.] — ab-dom'i-nal, a. -ly, adv. 

ab-duce'!l, ab-dius', vt. To draw away; abduct. 
[< L. abduco; see abduct.] — ab-du'eeut, a. 

ab-duct'"i, ab-duct', vt. 1. To carry away 
wrongfully; kidnap, 2. Ffiysiol. To draw 
aside. [ < L. ab, from, + duco, lead.] 

— ab-duc'tion, n.— ab-duct'or, n. 
a-beam', a-bim', a. & adv. Naut. At right 

angles to the line of a vessel's keel. 

a-bed', a-bed', adv. In bed; on a bed; to bed. 

ab'^er-ra'tion, ab'gr-e'shun, n. 1. Devia- 
tion; wandering; error. 2. Med. Partial in- 
sanity. [< L. ab, from, -f erro, wander.] 

a-bet', a-bet', vi. [a-bet'ted<>; a-bet'ting.] 
To encourage and support (wrong»doing or a 
wrong'doer); incite; instigate; countenance. 
[< OF. abeter, < a, to, + beter, = bait, v.] — 
a-bet'ment, n.— a-bet'ter, a-bet^tor, n. 

a-bey'ance, a-be'ans, n. Suspension or in- 
action. [< OF. abeance.] a-bey'an-cy$. 

ab-bor', ab-hSr', vt. [ab-horred' ; ab-hor'- 
bing.] To view with repugnance; detest; 
loathe. [< L. ab, from, + Iioi^reo, shrink.] 

— ab-hor'rence, n.— ab-hor'reut, a. 

papa, gsk; at, air; element, they, usege; it, i, i (ee); o, oh; ©rat^r, or; full, rule; but, wr; 
fiut|ure (future); aisle;" au ((Wt); "oil; c'ck); cliat; dU (i/ie); go; eing, iiBik; thin. 


a-bide', a-baid', t". [a-rode'; a-bi'ding.] I. 

t. 1. To await expectantly or defiantly. 2. 

To endure. II. i. To continue in a place or 

state; remain; dwell. [< AS. dbidan.] — a- 

bidding:. I. pa. Enduring; permanent. II. 

n. Abode; sojourn, -ly, adv. 
a-bil'i-ty, a-bil'i-ti, n. [-ties^/*/.] The state 

of being able; power; talent; faculty. [< L. 

habilitas, < habilis; see able.] 
ab'ject, ab'ject, a. Mean; despicable; servile. 

[< L. 06, from, -\-jacio, throw.] 

— ab'jecf ly, adv.— ab'jecfness, n. The 
state of being abject, ab-jec'tiont. 

ab-jure', ab-jur', vt. [ab-jured'; ab-jur'- 
iNti.] To renounce under oath; recant; repu- 
diate. [< L.*' ab, from, -\-juro, swear.] 

— ab''ju-ra'tion, w. [blaze. 
a-blaze^, a-blez', a. & adv. On fire; in a 
a'ble, e'bl, a. [a'bler; a'blest.] 1. Having 

adequate power; competent; qualified. 2. Hav- 
ing superior abilities; capable. [<L.*^*'/ia- 
bilis, expert, skilful.] — a'bly, adv. 

-abl(e, sxtfflx. Given to; tending to; like to; fit to; 
able to. [< F. -able, < L. -abilis,iovm. of -bilis 
(see -bl(e) after verb^stems ending in a-.] 

ab-lu'tion, ab-lu'shun, n. A washing; bath. 
[< L. ab, from, + Ivo., wash.] 

ab"ne-ga'tion, ab"ne-ge'shun, n. The act 
of renouncing; renunciation. [< L. a6, off, 
-f nego, deny.] 

ab-nor'mal, ab-ner'mal, a. Not according 
to rule; unnatural- irregular. [< L. ab, from, 
-|- norma, rule.] -ly, adv. — ab'^nor-mal'l-ty, 
n. [-ties*, p/.l Irregularity, ab-nor'mi-tyt. 

a-board', a-bOrd', 1. adv. On board ; along- 
side. II. prep. On board or alongside of. 

a-bode^, a-bod'. I. v. Imp. of abide. II. 
n. Dwelling; home; sojourn; stay. 

a-boFisbS a-bel'ish, vt. To do away with; 
put an end to; annul; destroy. [< L.*" ab, 
away, -f- oleo, grow.] 

ab'"o-li'tion, ab"o-lish'un, n. The act of 
abolishing; extinction: the state or fact of be- 
ing abolished.— aVo-ll'tion-lst, n. One who 
favors abolition, as of slavery. 

a-boxn'i-na-bl(e, a-bem'i-na-bl, a. Very 
hateful; loathsome; detestable; horrible. 

— a-boin'i-na-bly, adv. 
a-boin''i-iiate, a-bem'i-net, vt. [-na'ted''; 

-NA'TiNo.] To abhor: hate. [< L. a6, off, -4- 
omen; see omen.] — a-l)om''i-na'tion, a-bam"- 
l-ne'shun. n. Strong aversion or loathing; some- 
thing to be abhorred or loatlied. 

ab"o-rigf'i-nal, ab"o-rij'i-nal. I. a. Native 
to the soil; indigenous; primitive. II. n. An 
original inhabitant. — aVo-rifs'l-ncs, ab"o- 
rij'l-nlz, n. pi. The original Inhabitants of a 
country. | L., < ab, from, -f origo, origin.] 

a-bor'tion, a-bor'shun, n. An untimely birth ; 
arrest of development- failure. [< L. ab, 
from, -|- orior, grow.] — a-bor'tloii-al, a.— 
a-bor'tlv(e, a-bSr'tlv, a. Brought fortli i)ro- 
niaturely; Imperfectly developed; unsuccessful. 
-ly, adv. -11688, 71. 

a-bound''', a-baund', vt. To be or have in 
abundance. [< L.'' ab, from, + nnda, wave.] 

a•bOUt^ a-baut'. I. adv. Around the out- 
side; on every side; almost; at the point: 
ready; moving around; astir; hither ancl 
thither; to anclfro. II. prep. On tlu; outside 
or on every side of ; all around; over; besi<le; 
close to; somewhere near; j.n connection with; 

engaged in; in reference to. [< AS. dbiitan, 

< an, on, -j- butan, outside.] 

a-bove', a-buV. I. adv. Vertically up; over- 
head; higher up; on the upper side. Above is 
often used as a. or n., by ellipsis. II. prep. 
Vertically over; upon; in excess of; superior 
to; beyond; free from. {< AS>. dbufan, < an, 
on, -f- bnfan, above.] 

— a-bove'board", a. & adv. Open; openly. 
ab-rade^, ab-red', vt. [ab-ra'ded''; ab-ra'- 

DiNG.] To rub or wear away. [<L. a&, from, 

+ rado, scrape, rub.]— ab-ra'sion, ab-re'zhun, 

n. The act or result of abrading. 
a-breast', a-brest', adv. Side by side and 

equally advanced, 
a-bridge', a-brij', t'i. [a-bridged'; a-bridg^- 

iNG.] 1. To shorten; condense; epitomize. 

2. To deprive of; debar (from). [< OF. 

abregier, < L.^^ ad, to, -j- bi^evis, short.] 

— a-bridg'ment, a-brij'ment, n. The act 
of abridging; the state of being abridged; an epit- 
ome or abstract. a-bridge^inent:t> 

a-broad', a-bred', adv. Beyond the bounds 
of one's home or country; outof doors; away; 
at large; in circulation. 

ab'ro-gate, ab'ro-get, vt. [-ga"ted<1; -ga'- 
TiNG.] To annul; abolish; repeal. [< L. ab, 
from, -}- rogo, propose a law.] — ab''ro-ga'- 
tion, n. Authoritative repeal. 

ab-rupt% ab-rupt', a. Beginning, ending, or 
changing suddenly; broken off; sudden; dis- 
connected; steep. [<L.a6, off, from,-]- ?-Mmpo, 
break.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

ahs-, prefix. Off; away; from. [AB-,beforec, g, «.] 

ab^scess, ab'ses, n. A collection of pus in a 
tissue of the body; a tumoit; boil. [< L. ab- 
scesms, < ab, from, -f- cedo, go.] 

ab-scind'"!, ab-sind', vt. To cut off. [< L. 
ab, off, -}- scindo, cut.]— ab-scis'sion, ab-sizh'- 
un, n. The act of cutting off or the state of be- 
ing cut off or removed. 

ab-scond', ab-scend', vi. To depart suddenly 
and secretly; hide oneself. [< L. abscondo, 

< ab, from, + cum, together, -}- do, put.] 
ab^seuce, ab'sgns, n. The state, fact, or time 

of being absent; lack; want. [away. 

ab-sent^'J, ab-sent', vt. To keep (oneself) 

ab^seut, ab'sgnt, a. Not present; lacking; 
missing; absent-minded. [F., < L. absen{t-)s, 
ppr. of abmm, < ab, from, -\- sum, be.]— ab'- 
sent-ly, «'??'.— ab'^st^ntsmind'ed, f'. Men- 
tallv abstracted.— ab^sen-tee', «. One who 
Is absent; a non-resident. 

ab'so-lute, ab'so-int, a. 1. Unrestricted; 
unlimited; independent. 2. Arbitrary; uncon- 
ditional. 3. Complete; perfect. 4. Unadul- 
terated; pure. 5. Positive; entire; total; un- 
questioiuible. [< L.^f absolvtu^, pp. of ab- 
solvo ; see absolve.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

ab'^so-lu'tion, ab "so-iri'slnm, n. An absolv- 
ing, or a being absolved; forgiveness. 

ab-solv(e', ab-selv', vt. [ab-solv(e'»d'; ab- 
soLV'iNG.] To set free; forgive; pardon; ac- 
(juit. [ < L. ab, from, -f- ^'olvo, loose.] 

ab-sorb', ab-sSrb', vt. To drink in or suck 
up; engross completely ; swjUIow up. |< L.^ 
ab, from, -|- sorbeo, suck in.] — ab-sorb'ent, 
ab-sSrb'eut. I, a. Absorbing or tending to ab- 
sorb. 11. 71. A substance, duct, etc., that ab- 
sorbs. — ab-8orb'inff-ly, actv. — ab-sorp'- 

papA, 98k; at, air; el^mgnt, th6y, usgge; It, |, £ (ee); o, oh; orator, er; full, rule; but, ©r; 


tion, ab-sSrp'shun, n. The act of absorbing; 
the condition of being absorbed. 

ab-stain', ab-sten', vi. To keep oneself back ; 
refrain: with /7vm. [< L.^ abstineo, < abs, 
from, + teneo, hold.] — ab-stain'er, n. One 
who abstains; a teetotaler. 

ab-ste'ini-ous, ab-sti'mi-us, a. Eating and 
drinking sparingly; avoiding excess; self- 
denying; temperate. [ < L. abs, from, 4- tefne- 
tum, intoxicating drink.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

ab-sterge', ab-stgrj', vt. To wipe away; 
cleanse. [< L. abs, off, + tergeo, wipe.]— ab- 
ster'geut. I. a. Cleansing. II. n. A cleans- 
ing application, ab-ster'sivet.— ab-ster'- 
sion, n. The act of wiping or cleansing. 

ab^sti-nence , ab'sti-ngns, n . The act or prac- 
tise of abstaining, especially from intoxicating 
drinks; self-denial. [< L.*" abs(ine?itia, < ab- 
stineo; see ABSTAIN.] ab'sti-nen-cyi. 
— ab'sti-nent, a. Abstemious, -ly, adv. 

ab-stract'<', ab-stract', ri. 1. To takeaway; 
remove; purloin. 2. To withdraw the atten- 
tion of; divert. 3. To separate in thought 
(attributes, etc.). 4. To abridge; epitomize. 

ab'stract", ab'stract', a. 1. Considered apart 
from the concrete; general; theoretical. 2. 
Imaginary; visionary; abstruse. 

ab'stract'', n. A summary; epitome; com- 
pendium; an abstract idea or term. [< L. 
abs, from, -f traho, draw.] -ly, adv. 

— ab-8traet'ed, f/. 1. Absent»mlnded. 2. 
Separated from all else; apart; abstruse, -ly, 
adw.— ab-strac'tioii, ab-strac'shun, n. 1. 
An abstracting. 2. An abstract idea; something 
unreal or visionary. 3. Separation; removal; 
theft. 4. Absence of mind. 

ab-struse', ab-strus', a. Hard to be under- 
stood. [< L. abSi from, -f irudo, push.] 
— ab-8truse'ly, adi?.— -ab-struse'ness, n. 

ab-surd', ab-surd', a. Opposed to manifest 
truth; irrational; preposterous; ridiculous. [< 
L. ab- (intens.) -f- surdus^ deaf.] — ab-surd'- 
i-ty, n. [-TIES*, joZ.] 1 . The quality of being 
absurd, ab-i^iird'ness:!:. 2. Something ab- 
surd.— ab-surd'ly, adv. 

a-bun'dance, a-bun'dans, n. A plentiful sup- 
ply; copiousness; plenty. [OF.; see abound,] 

a-bun'dant, a-bun'dant, a. Plentiful; 
abounding; ample. — a-bun'dant-ly, adv. 

a-buse', a.-\i\nz',vt. [a-bused'; a-bu'sing.] 
To use improperly or injuriously; wrong; hurt; 
revile; violate; formerly to deceive. [< L.^" 
ab., from, + utor, use.] 

a-buse', a-bius', n. Improper or injurious 
use; ill 'treatment; perversion; misuse; vicious 
conduct; vituperation. 

a-bu'siv(e, a-biu'siv, a. Of the nature of or 
characterized by abuse. -\y,adv. -ness, w. 

a-but', a-but', vt. & vi. [a-but'ted^; a-but'- 
TiNG.] To touch at the end or side; border: 
followed by on., njwn, or against. [< OF. 
ahiiter^ < a, to, -\- boter., butt, strike.] 

a-but'ment, a-but'mgnt, n. The act of abut- 
ting, or that which abuts or is abutted upon ; 
a supporting or buttressing structure, as at the 
end of a bridge or wall. 

a-byss', a-bis', n. A bottomless gulf; any 
vast depth. [< Gr.^- a- priv. + byssos, bot- 
tom.] — a-bys'mal, a-biz'mal, a. Pertaining 
to an abyss; unfathomable. 

ac-, pr^x. Form of ad- before c and q, as in ac- 
cuse; an improper form of a-2 before c, as in ac- 

-ac, suffix. Having, pertaining to, affected by, as 
in demoniac, cardiac: preceded by -«-, and some- 
times followed by -al. [< L. -acus, usually < 
Gr. -akos.} 

A-ca'ci-a, a-ke'shi-a or -cg'si-a, n. 1. A 
genus of thorny flowering 
trees or shrubs. 2. [a-] A 
plant of this ge- 
nus; also, some 
similar plant, as 
the common locust. 

ac"a-dein'ic, ac"- 
a-dem'ic, a. 1. 
Pertaining to an 

academy. 2. Clas- ^'^^ Acacia, 

sical and literary 
rather than technical. ac"a-dein'ic-alt:. 

a-cad'e-my, a-cad'g-mi, n. [-MIEs^i;/.] A 
school intermediate between a common school 
and a college; a learned society. [< Gr. aka- 
demeia, the pleasure-ground near Athens, 
where Plato taught.] — a-cad"e-nil' clan, a- 
cad'e-mish'an, ii. A member of an academy. 

A-can'tbus, a-can'thus, n. 1. A genus of 
perennial plants, with large, handsome flowers. 

2. [a-] A plant of this genus; also, a conven- 
tionalized representation of its leaf. 

ac-cede', ac-sid', vi. [ac-ce'ded'I; ac-ce'- 
DiNG.] 1. To consent; agree; assent. 2. Tc 
come into possession; succeed. [< L. accede, 
< ad, to, 4- cedo, go.] 
ac-cel'er-ate, ac-sel'er-et, vt. & vi. [-a'ted^"; 
-a "TING.] To move faster; hasten. [< L. 
ad, to, -4- celer, quick.] — ac-cel"er-a'tion, 
TC. — ac-cel'er-a-tiv(e, a. 
ac-cent'<', ac-sent', vt. To speak, write, or 

print with an accent; emphasize. 
aCcent, ac'sent, n. A stress of voice on a 
« particular syllable in pronouncing 
Acan- h ^ word, or a mark used to indicate 
such stress; stress of voice or in- 
strument in music. [< 
L.F ad, to, + cano, sing.] 
— ac-cen'tu-al, ac- 
sen'chu-al, a. Of, per- 
taining to, or indicating 
accent. — ac - cen ' tu - 
ate, ac-sen'chu-et or 
-tiu-et, vt. [-a"ted<1; -a"- 
TiNG.l 1. To speak or 
write with an accent. '2. To emphasize.- ac- 
ceii'-'tu-a'tion, 7i. 
ac-cept'*!, ac-sept', vt. 1. 
To take when offered; agree 
to; receive; believe; resign 
oneself to. 2. Com. To 
agree to pay, as a draft. 

3. Law. To acknowledge 
(as valid or as received). 
[ < L. ad, to, + capio, take.] Acanthus^leaf . 

— ac-cept'a-bl(e, a. Worthy of being ac- 
cepted; pleasing; welcome. — ac-cept'a-bl(e- 
ness, ti. ac-cepfa-bll'i-tyt. — ac-cept'- 
a-bly, «d».— ac-cept'ance, ac-sept'uns, 7i. 
1. The act of accepting; state of being accepted 
or acceptable. 5J. Co7n. & Law. The accepting 
of a bill, service, etc.; an accepted bill of ex- 
change or the like. 3. Acceptation.— ac"cep- 
ta'tion, ac'sep-te'shun, tc. 1. The accepted 


flut|ure (future); aisle; au (put); ©11; c (k); cliat; dh. (^Ae); go; sing, iifk; thin. 


meaning of a word. *i. The state of being ac- 
cepted or acceptable.— ac-cept'er, -or, n. 

ac'cess, ac'ses or ac-ses', n. 1. Approach; 
passage; path. 2. Increase. 3. An attack, as 
of disease. [< L.^ accedo; see accede.] 

ac-ces'sa-ry. See accessory. 

ac-ces'si-blCe, ac-ses'i-bl, a. Easy of access; 
approachable; attainable.— ac-ces^'si-biFi-ty, 
??.— ac-ces'si-bly, adv. 

ac-ces'sion, ac-sesh'un, n. 1. One who or 
that which is added; addition. 2. Attainment, 
as of office. 3. Assent; agreement. 

ac-ces'so-ry, ac-ses'o-ri. I. a. Aiding sub- 
ordinately; contributory. II. n. [-kies^, j-j/.] 
A person or thing that aids snbordinately; an 
adjunct; accomplice. [< h.^^ accedo; see 


ac'ci-dence, ac'si-dgns, n. A small book 
containing the rudiments, as of grammar; 
hence, elements or rudiments. [Corr. of acci- 
dents, pi. of accident.] 

ac'ci-dent, ac'si-dgnt, w. 1. Something that 
happens undesignedly; a fortuitous event; 
contingency; casualty; mishap. 2. Any non* 
essential circumstance or attribute. [< L. ac- 
cido, happen, < ad, upon, + cado, f.ill.] — 
ac'^ci-den'tal, I, a. Happening by cliance; 
casual; fortuitous; non-essential; incidental. II. 
n. 1. A casual, incidental, or non=essential fea- 
ture or property. 2. Mus. A sharp, flat, or nat- 
ural elsewhere than in the signature, -ly, atlv. 

ac-claim', ac-clem'. I.rt.&vi. To proclaim 
by acclamation; shout applause; applaud. II. 
n. A shout, as of applause. [< L. ad, to, -f 
clamo, shout.] 

ac'^cla-xna'tion, ac"la-me'8hun, n. A shout, 
as of applause; a unanimous viva voce vote. 

ac-cli'mate, g.c-clai'met, Tt. [-ma"ted''; 
-MA'TiNo.] To habituate to a foreign climate: 
said of persons. [ < F. acclimater, < ac-, to, 
+ climaf, < Gr. klima(t-\ region.] — ac^eli- 
ma'tion, n. ac-cli'^aia-ta'tioni. 

ac-cli^ma-tize or -tise, gc-clai'ma-taiz, vt. 
& lit. [-tized; -ti"zing.] To habituate or 
become habituated to a foreign climate: said 
of animals or plants.— ac-clP'ma-ti-za'tion 
or -Ha'tion, n. 

ac-cliv'i-ty, ac-cliv'1-ti, w. [-ties*, 7;/.] An 
upward slope. [< L. ad, to, -\- clivus, hill.] 

ac-com'mo-date, gc-cem'o-det, vt. [-da"- 
TED''; -DA"TiNo.] 1. To do a favor to; oblige; 
help. 2. To provide for; lodge. 3. To adapt 
or conform; compromise. [< L. ad, to, + 
cominodus, fit.] —'in(»-da''tinff, jxi. 
Obliging. — ac-coni^''ino-da'tioii, ac-ceni"o- 
d6'8hun, n. 1. Adjustment; reconciliation; com- 
promise. *2. A convenience; entertainment; 
loan, '.i, 01)llgingnc88. 

ac-com'pa-ny, ac-cum'pa-ni, vt. & vi. 
[-nied; -ny-ino.] To gowith; attend; escort; 
play an accompaniment. [ < L.^ ad, to, 4- corn-, 
together, -\- pariis, bread.] — ac-oom'pa-iil- 
inciitt n. 1, Anything that accojupanies. '<i. 
Man. A subordinate part, voice, or Instrument. 
— ac-coin^paii-iHt, n. Mus. A performer 
who plays or sings the accompaniment. 

ac-com'plice, gc-com'plis, //. An associate 
in wrong or crime. [< ac (prob. for a, indef. 
art.) |- V. complice, accomplice, < L. corn- 
plexns; see complex.] 

ac•coIn'plish^ ac-com'plish, vt. To bring 
to |)as8; perform; effect. [< L.*' ad, to, -f 

compleo; see complete, r.]— ac-j»om'plished, 
ac-cem'plisht, pa. 1. Proticient; polite; pol- 
ished, ti. Completed; consummated. — ac- 
coin'plisli-nient, n. 1, An accomplishing; 
performance; completion. 2. An acquirement; 

ac-coinpt', etc. Same as account, etc. 

ac-cord^'^, gc-cerd', V. I. t. 1. To render as 
due; grant; allow. 2. To bring to an agree- 
ment. II. i. To agree; harmonize. [< L.^ 
ad, to, 4- C07' (co?'d-), heart.] 

ac-cord', n. 1. Harmony, as of sentiment, 
action, sounds, colors, etc.; reconciliation; 
agreement. 2. Spontaneous impulse; choice. 

— ac-cord'ance, n. Agreement; harmony. 
— ac-cord'ant, a. Consonant; harmonious.— 
ac-coril'ant-ly, adv. 

ac-cord'ing, gc-cerd'ing. I. j?a. Agreeing; 
harmonizing. II. adv. Agreeably; conform- 
ably; just. — according to, in accordance with; 
In conformity to; as stated or believed by.— ac- 
cord'ing-ly, adv. In a conformable manner; 
suitably; consequently. 

ac-cor'di-on, gc-cer'di-§n, n. A portable 
free»reed musical wind-instrument, [< It. ac- 
cordare — accokd, f.] 

ac-cosf'i, gc-cest', vt. To speak to; address. 
[< F. accoster, < L. ad, to, 4- casta, rib.] 

ac-COUnt''', sc-caunt', t). t. t. To consider; 
estimate; deem; attribute; count; compute. 
II. i. 1. To answer {with or to a person Jo/- 
a thing). 2. To explain: followed by for. 
[< L.of ad, to, + computo; see compute.] 

ac-couiit',y<. 1. A reckoning; computation; 
record; any nar- 
rative, statement, 
or description; 
mental record; 
notice. 2. A 
statement of rea- 
sons; explana- 
tion. 3. Impor- 
tance; concern; 
consideration ; es- 
timation; esteem. 

— ac-couiit'- 
a-bl(e, «. Liable 
to be called to ac- 
count; responsible.— ac-coiint''a-bil'i-ty, n 
ac - count' a - bl(e - nessi. — ac- count 'a- 
bly, «f/?\— ac-count'ant, «. One who keeps 
or 18 skilled in accounts. 

ac-cou'ter, I gc-cu'tgr, vt. [-tei{(e)d or 
ac-cou'tre, f -tked; -teu-ino or -thing.] To 

furnish with dress or trappings; equip. [< F. 

a, to or for, 4- couire, < L. cnittos, keeper. | 

— ac-cou'ter-ni«Mit, ac-cou'tr«'-ment, 
n. Kqulpment; apparel; dross; trappings. 

ac-cred'it'", gc-cred'it, vt. To give credit to; 
furnish with credentials. [< L.*" ad, to; and 
see cKEDiT, n.] 

ac-cre'tion, gc-cri'shun, n. Growth; in- 
crease. [ < L. ad, to, 4- cresco, grow.] 

— nc-cre'tiv(e, a. 

ac-crue', ac-^-r^'i ^i- rAc-cnuED'; ac-cru'- 
iN(j.| To arise as an addition; be added* ac- 
cumulate. I < li.'" ad, to, 4- cresco, grow.] 

ac-CU'mu-late, yc-kiii'miu-let, v. [-la"- 
TEi)''; -LA'TiNO.] I. t. To heap or pile uj); 
amass; collect. II. i. To increase, as prof- 
its, etc.; also, to amass wealth, f < L. ail, to, 
-f- c'imuliiH, heap.] — af-cu''niH-la'lloii, n. 


popfl, 98k; at, air; element, th6y, usfge; It, g, i (ee); o, oh; orator, ©r; f uU, rfile; but, ©r; 


An amassing; increase; a collected mass.— ac- 
cu'inu-la-tiv(e, ac-kiu'miu-le-tiv,a. Tending 
to accumulate; accuiuulating; cumulative.— ac- 
CH'iiiii-Ia'''tor, n. 

ac'cu-ra-cy, ac'yu-rs-si, n. The quality of 
being accurate; exactness; correctness. 

ac'cii-rate, ac'yu-ret or -rgt, a. Conforming 
exactly to truth or to a standard; precise; ex- 
act; correct. [< L. ad, to, + citra., care.] 
-ly, adr. >ness, n. 

ac-cursed', §c-curst' or gc-curs'gd, a. 
Doomed to, deserving, or causing a curse; 
cursed; wretched; detestable. [Properly 
acursed, < AS. a- intens. -|- cursian, curse.] 

ac-cu'sa-tivie,ac-kiu'za-tiv. Gram. I. a. 
Objective. II. «. The case of Latin and 
Greek nouns, corresponding to the English ob- 

ac-cuse', §c-kiuz', v. [ac-cused'; ac-cu'- 
siNG.] I. t. To charge with crime, fault, or 
error; censure. II. i. To make accusation; 
bring charges. [< L. ad, to, -\- causa, cause 
(inlaw).] — ac^'cu-sa-'tioii, ac"yu-ze'shun, 7}. 
An accusing; indictment; a charge.— ac-cu'- 
sa-to-ry, a. Pertaining to an accusation.— 
ac-cu'ser, n. One who or that which accuses. 

ac-cus'tom, ac-cus'tum, vt. To make famil- 
iar by use; habituate or inure. [< IjP^ ad, 
to: and see CUST03I.]— ac-cus'tomed, a. Ha- 
bitual; usual. 

ace, es, n. A single spot on a card or die; a 
unit; particle. [< L. as, unit, < as, Taren- 
tine form of Gr. heis, one.] 

-a-ceous, -ti-8\\\\}s,, sufflx. Of the nature of; be- 
longing or pertaining to; like; as, cvQlaceoiis, 
chalky. [< L. -aceus, of the nature of, -f- -ous.J 

a-cerb'i-ty, a-sgrb'iti, 71. [-ties^, pL] Sour- 
ness, as ol^ temper, etc. ; harshness; sliarpness. 

a-ces'cent, a-ses'gnt. I. a. Becoming or 
tending to become sour; slightly sour. II. 71. 
That which is slightly acid. [ < L. acesc€n{t-)s, 
ppr., < aceo, be sour.] — a-ces'cence, 71. 
Acetous fermentation. — a-ces'ceu-cy, n. 
Slight sourness. 

ac'e-tate, as'e-tet, n. A salt of acetic acid. 

[< ACETIC.] 

a-cet'ic, a-set'ic, a. Pertaining toor'like vin- 
egar; sour. [< L. acetnin, vinegar, < aceo, 
be sour.]— acetic acid, acid found in vinegar. 

a-cet'i-fy, a-set'i-fai, rt. & vi. [-fied; -fy"- 
iNG.] To turn into acid or vinegar. [< L. 
acetum, vinegar, -f -fy.] 

ache, ek. I. vi. [ached'; a'ching.] To 
suffer dull, continued pain. II. 7%. A local, 
dull, and protracted pain. [< AS. am??, ache.] 

a-cliiev(e', a-chiv', v. [A-cHiEv(E)r>'; a- 
CHiEv'iNG.] I. t. To accomplish by valor, 
skill, perseverance, etc. ; perform; finish; win. 
II. i. To accomplish something; attain an 
object. [< F. achever, < a chef, to an end.] 

— a-chiev(e'inent, «. 1. A noteworthy 
and successful action. 2. Her. An escutcheon. 

acli''ro -mafic, ac"ro-mat'ic, a. Free from 
color or iridescence; transmitting pure white 
light, as a lens. [< Gr. a-, without, -f chroma, 

ac^id, as'id. I. a. Sharp and biting to the 
taste, as vinegar; sour; pertaining to, yielding, 
or like an acid. II. n. 1. Any sour sub- 
stance. 2. Chem. A compound of hydrogen 

capable of uniting with a base to form a salt. 
[< L. acidns, < aceo, be sour.] — a-cid'i-fy, 
vt. & vi. To make or become acid.— a-cid'i-ty, 
a-sld'i-ti, 71. The quality of being acid; strength 
of an acid, ac'id-nessi.- a-cid'u-lale, ^■«. 
To make acid or sour.— a-cid'u-lous, a. 
Slightly acid. 

-acious, s?(^aj. Abounding in; characterized by; 
given to; as, \)ugnacious. L< L. -ax, act-, + -ous.] 

ac-knowFedge, ac-nel'ej, vt. [-edged; 
-EDG-iNG.] To own or admit as obligatory, 

fenuine, or valid; confess; avow; certify. 
< A-i + KNOWLEDGE.] — ac-knowl'edg- 
iiieut, 71. Avowal; confession; recognition. 

ac'me, ac'me, 71. The highest point, or sum- 
mit; perfectfon; climax. [Gr.] 

ac'o-nite, ac'o-nait, n. Med. A poisonous 
plant. Called also ttionk^s'liood or wolf^S'ha7ie. 

a'corn, e'cern, n. The fruit of the oak, a one- 
seeded nut, fixed in a woody cup. 
[< AS. secern, < secer, field; see 


a-cous'tic, a-ciis'tic or a-caus'tic, 
a. Pertaining to the act or sense 
of hearing; adapted for conveying 
sound or aiding hearing. [< Gr. 
akouo, hear.] — a-cous'tics, n. 
That branch of physics which treats 
of the phenomena and laws of sound. Acorn 

ac-quaint''', §c-cwent', vt. To 
cause to know; inform; followed by m^7i. [< 
L.oF ac/, to, -1- CO- (ciiTn), with, -f gnosco, know.] 

ac-quaint'ance, gc-cwent'ans, 71. 1. 
Knowledge of any person or thing. 2. A per- 
son or persons with whom one is acquainted. 

ac^'qui-esce', ac"wi-es', vi. [-esced'«; -es'- 

ciNG.] To tacitly consent or concur; accept: 

assent; complv. [< L. ad, to, -f qities, rest.] 

— ac^'qiii-eVceuoe, m. Quiet submission; 

passive consent.— ac^qui-es'ceiit, a. 

ac-q.uire', gc-cwair', vt. [ac-quired'; ac- 
quir'ing.] To obtain by search, endeavor, or 
purchase; get as one's own; receive; gain. 
[< L. ad, to, 4- qusero, seek.] — ac-quire'- 
ment, ac-cwair'ment. n. The act of acquiring; 
an acquired power or attribute; attainment.— 
ac'^qui-si'tion, ac"wi-zi8h'un, 7t. 1. The act 
of acquiring. '^. Anything gained or won; a 
power or possession.- ac-qnis'i-tiv(e, ac- 
cwlz'i-tiv, a. Able or inclined to acquire, as 
money or property, -ly, ariw. -ness, w. 

ac-quit', ac-cwit', vt. [ac-quit'ted'' or ac- 
quit'; ac-quit'ting.] 1. To free or clear, as 
from an accusation; declare innocent; excul- 
pate; exonerate. 2. To relieve, as of an obli- 
gation; absolve. 3. Reflexively, to deport; 
as, he acquitted himself with credit. 4. To 
repay, as a debt, favor, etc.; requite, [< L.*' 
ad, to, -\- quietus; see quiet, a.] — ac-quil'tal, 
n. The act of acquitting, or the state of being 
acquitted.— ac-quit'tance, ac-cwit'ans, 71. 
Release or discharge, as from indebtedness; sat- 
isfaction of indebtedness or obligation; a receipt; 
an acquittal. 

a'cre, e'kgr, n. 1. A measure of land, 43,560 
square feet. 2. A field; in the plural, lands. 
[< AS. se.cer, field.] 

ac'rid, ac'rid. I. a. Of a cutting, burning 
taste; pungent; bitter. II. n. An irritant 
poison. [< L. acris, sharp.] — ac-rid'i-ty, n. 
ac'rid-nessj.- ac'rid-ly, adv. 

flutlure (future); aisle; au (owt); oil; c (k); chat; dh (<Ae); go; sing, iiik; tliin. 


ac'^ri-mo'iii-ous, ac"ri-mO'ni-us, a. Full of 
bitterness; sarcastic; sharp. -\y,adv. -ness, n. 

ac'ri-mo-ny, ac'ri-mo-rti, n. [-nies^, p^.] 
Sharpness or bitterness of speech or temper; 
acridity. [< L. acer (acr-), sharp.] 

ac^ro-bat, ac'ro-bat, n. A rope»dancer or 
trapeze performer. [ < Gr. akros, tip, -\- baind, 
go. J — ac'^ro-bafic, a. 

ac-rop'o-lis, ac-rep'o-lis, n. The citadel of 
an ancient Greek city. [< Gr. akros, highest, 
+ polls, city.] 

a-cross', a-cres'. I. adv. From one side to 
the other; over; at the other side; crosswise. 
II. j)7-ep. From one side to the other side of; 
over; on the other side of; beyond. [< a-* 
+ CROSS, n.] 

a-cros'tic, a-cres'tic, n. Prvs. A composi- 
tion in which initial or other letters, taken in 
order, form a word or phrase. [< Gr. akros, 
end, -|- stichos, line.] 

act'', act, V. I. t. To perform; carry out or 
fulfil, as a purpose or plan; do; play, as on 
the stage; feign. II. i. 1. To put forth 
power; perform an act; behave; do; perform 
on the stage. 2. To be employed tempo- 
rarily in some office or capacity; as, the aid acts 
for his general. [< L. actus, pp. of ago, do.] 

act, n. 1. The exertion of power, bodily or 
mental; something done; a deed. 2. A sec- 
tion of a drama. 3. An enactment or edict. 

ac^tion, ac'shun, n. 1. The process of acting 
or doing; operation; activity. 2. The mode 
of acting. 3. The thing done; deed. 4. A 
course of events, as in a drama; a battle; suit 
at law. 5. A mechanism that exerts power. 
[< L. actio{n-), < ago, do.] 

— ac'tion-a-ble, a. Affording ground for 
prosecution, as a trespass or a libel. 

act'iv(e, act'iv, a. 1. Abounding in action; 
agile; lively; brisk; busy. 2. Gram. Ex- 
pressing action, as a verb. 3. Being in action, 
as a volcano. 4. Causing or manifested in ac- 
tion; practical. -\y,adv. -ness, n. 

ac-tiv'i-ty, ac-tiv'i-ti, n. [-tiess^>;.] The 
state or quality of being active; action; vigor- 
ous movement; active force or operation. 

act' or, act'gr, n. One who acts; one who 
plays a part, as on the stage. 

— ac'tress, ac'tres, n. fern. 
ac^tu-al, ac'chu-al o?' -tiu-al. I. a. Existing 

in fact; biding in existence or action now; ex- 
istent; present. II. n. Something real. 

— ac''tu-al'i-ty, «. [-ties«, ;y/.J The qual- 
ity of being actual; reality; realism, ac'tu-al- 
nesst.— ac'tu-al-ly, adw. In act or fact; In 
reality; truly. 

ac'tu-a-ry , ac'chu-g-ri or -tiu-a ri, «. [-kies, 
pi.] The official statistician of an insurance 
company; a clerk; notary. [< L. actuarius, 
clerk, < actus; see act, t'.] 

ac'tu-ate, ac'chu-et or -tiu-et, r. [-a"ted<>; 
-A'TiNO.] I. t. To move or incite to action- 
influence; impel. II. i. To act. [< L.'-'- 
actus; see act, v.] 

a-cu'men, a-klQ'men, n. Quickness of in- 
sight or discernment; keenness of intellect. 
[L., point, < acuo, sharpen.] 

a-cu'xni-nate, a-kiu'mi-net. I. vt. & ri. 
[-na'ted; -NA'TiNG.] To sharpen ; taper. II. 
a-klQ'mi-net or -ngt, a. Tapering to a point. 

a-cu'ini-na"tedi. — a-cu'^ml-na'tion, n. 
a-cute', a-kiut', a. 1. Keenly discerning or 
sensitive. 2. Affecting keenly ; poignant; in- 
tense. 3. Sharp at the end; sharp'pointed. 
4. 3Ied. Coming to a crisis quickly; violent. 
[< L. acuo, sharpen.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

— acute accent, a stress of voice, or a mark 
(') Indicating it.— a. angle, an angle less than 
a right angle. 

-acy, siifflx. Used In forming nouns denoting 
quality, state, condition, office, etc.; as, curac//, 
celibacy. [< L. -acia or -alia, or < Gr. -ateid.] 

ad-, prefix. To; as, adhere: often. In Englisti, 
without perceptible force. Ad- undergoes eu- 
phonic change to ab-, ac-, a/-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, 
ar-, as; at-, before b, c, and q, f, g, I, n, p, r, t; 
ad- was reduced to a- before sc, sp, st, and gn. 
In some cases the Anglo-Saxon a- and other pre- 
fixes have been erroneously changed to ad-, ac-, 
etc., as In artvance, occuse, etc. [< L. ad, to- 
ward, upon, for, etc.] 

-adi, sujix. Of or pertaining to (a person, place, 
thing, etc., as Iliad, Dunclad). [< L. -as, -ad-, 

< Gr. -as, -ad-.] 
-ad^, stifflx. See -ade. 

-ad3, stijffix. To; toward; In the direction of. [< 
L. ad, to.] 

ad''age, ad'§j, n. An old saying; a proverb. 
[< L.*" ad, to, + aio, say.] 

ad'a-mant, ad'a-mant, n. A very hard min- 
eral, real or imaginary; formerly, the diamond. 
[< Gr. a-priv. -f cfflwa5,tame.]— ad'^a-man'- 
tin(e, a. Made of or like adamant; of impene- 
trable hardness. 

a-dapt''', a-dapt', vt. To adjust to situation, 
environment, or the like; make suitable; con- 
form; remodel. [< L. ad, to, -|- aptus, fit.] 

— a-dapt'a-bl(e, a. Capable of being 
adapted.— a-dapt'^a-bil'i-ty, n. a-dapt'> 
a-bl(e-nesst.— ad'^ap-ta'tion, ad'ap-te- 
shun, 11. An adapting; that which is adapted. 

add**, ad, '<;. I. t. 1. To join or tmite, so as 
to increase the quantity or number; find the 
sum of; unite in one sum. 2. To say or write 
further; go on to say. II. i. To make or be 
an addition; perform addition. [< L. addo, 

< ad, to, + do, give, put; see do.] — add^a-ble, 
add^i-blc, a. That may be added. 

ad-den^dum, ad-den'dum, n. [-da, pl.^ 
Something added, or to be added. [L." 

ad'der, ad'gr, n. The com- 
mon European viper, about 
two feet long. [< AS. nx- 
dre (a nadder m OE. be- 
coming an adder).] 

ad-dict'd, gd-dict', vt. To 
apply (oneself) persistently ; 
give (oneself) up to. [< L. 
addk'o. devote, < ad, to, -f 
dico, allirni.] 

— ud-dic'tion, ad-dlc'- 
fihun, n. Habitual Inclination; 
bent, ad-dict^ed-nesst. 

ad-di'tion, ad-dish'mi, ?^ 
The act of adding, or that 
which is added; an increase; 
annex; accession. 

— ad-di'tion-al, a. Be- 
ing in addition; supplementa- 
ry .—ad-di'tion-al-ly, adr. 

ad^dle, ad'l, I. rt. & ri. 
[ad'dled; ad'dling.I To spoil or become 
spoiled, as eggs; muddle. II. a. Spoiled, as 


papfi, gsk; at, fiir; el^m^nt, thSy, usfge; It, j, i (ee); o, oh; orator, er; full, riile; but, ur; 


eggs; rotten; worthless, ad'dledj. [< 
AS. adela, mud.] 

ad-dress', ad-dres', vt. [ad-dressed" or ad- 
drest'; ad-dress'ing.] 1. To direct spoken 
words to; accost; discourse to. 2. To direct, 
as a letter. 3. To devote, as oneself, one's 
energies, etc.; apply. 4. To woo. {<liJ ad^ 
to, -|- directus, direct.] 

ad-dress', n. 1. A formal discourse; a 
greeting; an appeal; petition. 2. The name, 
place, residence, etc., of a person. 3. Man- 
ner; bearing. 4. pi. Courteous attentions; 
wooing. 5. Skilful conduct; adroitness; tact. 

ad-duce', ad-dius', vt. [ad-duced"; ad-du'- 
ciNG.] To bring forward for consideration; 
cite or allege. [< L. ad, to, -f dnco, lead.] 
— ad-duce'a-bl(e, a<l-du'ci-bl(e, a. 

-ade, szifflx. Relating to; pertaining to; as, dec- 
ade. [< F. -acle, < L. -as, -ad, < Gr. -as, -ad-.] 

a-dept', a-dept'. I. a. Highly skilful; profi- 
cient. II. n. One who is proficient; an ex- 
pert. [ < L. ad, to, + apiscor, attain.] 

ad'e-quate, ad'g-cwet or -cw§t, a. Equal to 
what is required"; fully sufficient. [< L. ad, 
to, -}- sequus, level.] — ad'e-qua-cy, -cwg-si, n. 
ad'e-qiiate-iiesst.— ad'e-quate-ly, adv. 

ad-liere', ad-hir', vi. [ad-hered'; ad-her'- 
iNG.] To stick fast; stick together; be at- 
tached; cling; belong: with /o. [< L. ad, to, 
4- hsereo, stick. ] — ad-her'ence, n. Adhesion. 
a<l-her'en-cyt.— ad-lier'ent. I. a. Cling- 
ing or sticking fast. II. n. One who Is devoted 
or attached, as to a cause or leader. 

ad-lie'siou, ad-hl'zhun, n. 1. The act of 
adhering; the state of being attached; fidelity; 
adherence. 2. Assent; concurrence. 3. Close 
connection, as of ideas. [< Ju. ad -f- hsereo; 
see adhere.] — ad-he'8lv(e, ad-hi'siv, a. 
Tending or causing to adhere; adhering; cling- 
ing; sticky, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

a-dieu', a-diu'. I. n. [a-dieus' or a-dieux', 
a-diuz', p^.] A farewell. II. interj. Good- 
bv; farewell. [F., < a, to, + dieu, God.] 

ad'i-pose", ad'i-pOs". I. a. Pertaining to 
fat; fatty. II. n. Fat. [< L."- adeps, fat.] 

ad'it, ad'it, n. An approach; entrance; pas- 
sage; horizontal entrance to a mine: [< L. 
aditus, approach, < ad, to, -\- eo, go.] 

ad-j a'cent, ^d- je'sgnt, a. Lying near or close 
at hand; adjoining; contiguous. [< L. ad, 
near, 4- jaceo, lie.] — ad-ja'cen-cy, ad-je'sgn- 
si. ?i. [-cies»,7jZ.1 Contiguity, ad-ja'ceucet. 

ad'jec-tiv(e, aj'ec-tiv. I. a. Pertaining to 
or of the nature of an adjective or adjunct. 
ad'jec-tiv-alt. II. n. Gram. A word 
i:sed to limit or qualify a noun. [< L. ad, to, 
■j-jacio, throw.] — ad'jec.tiv(e-ly, adv. ad'- 

ad-join'', gd-jein',?). I. ^. 1. To he next to; 
border upon. 2. To join to; append. II. i. 
To lie close together; be in contact. [< L.^' 
ad, to, -\-jungo, join.] 

ad-join'ing, »a. Lying next; contiguous. 

ad-journ', ad-jurn', v. I. t. To close (a 
meeting or session); postpone. II. i. To 
close a session or business either for a time or 
finally. [< L.^ ad, to, -f diwnvs, daily, < 
dies, day.] — ad-journ'ment, n. The act of 
adjourning; postponement. 

ad-judge', jd-joj', v. [ad-judged'; ad- 
JUDG'ING.] I. t. To award; decide judicial- 

ly; decree; condemn. II. i. To pass sen- 
tence. [< L.^ ad, to, -\- iudico, judge.] 
ad-j u'di-c ate, ad-jil'di-ket, vt. & vi. [-ca"- 
ted'1; -ca"ting.] To determine judicially; 
adjudge. [< L. ad, to, -{-jndico, judge.] 

— ad-ju"di-ca'tion, ad-ju'dl-kfi'shun, n. 
A judicial decision. 

ad'junct, aj'u^ct. I. a. Joined subordi- 
nately; auxiliary. II. fi. Something con- 
nected subordinately ; an auxiliary. [< L. ad, 
to, -\-jungo, join.] — ad-june'tion, n. The act 
of joining; also, the thing joined.— ad-j uiic'- 
tivCe, a. Constituting or contributing to form 
an adjunct.— ad-junc'tive-ly, adv. 

ad-jure', ad-jur', vt. [ad-jured'; ad-jvr'- 
ing.] To charge or entreat solemnly, as under 
oath; appeal to; invoke. [< L. ad, to, -\-ju7V, 
swear.] — ad"ju-ra'tion, n. 

ad-just'-J, ad- just', vt. To cause to fit; ar- 
range; regulate; settle. [< L.*" ad, to, + 
jungo, join (as if jv.ttiis, just).] — ad-just'a- 
bl(e, a. Capable of being adjusted.— ad- 
just'er, n. ad-just'orj.— ad-just'nieut, 
n. Regulation; arrangement; settlement. 

ad'ju-tant, aj'u-tant. I. a. Assistant; aux- 
iliary. II. n. 1. M^. A staff 'Officer who as- 
sists the commander; as, the adjtttant of a 
regiment. 2. A carrion»eating East^Indian 
stork. [< L. adjuto; see aid, v.] 

— ad'ju-tan-cy, n. The of- 
fice or rank of an adjutant, ad'- 

ad-meas'ure, ad-mezh'iur 
or-y\ir,vt. [-ured; -ur-ing.] 

1 . To assign a share of or to ; 
apportion. 2§. To measure. 
[< LL.*^^ admensuro, < L. 
ad, to, -\-metior, measure.] 

— ad-ineas'ure-meiit, 
n. 1, An admeasuring. '^. 
Measure; size; dimensions. ,,•(/ 
ad-iiien"su-ra'tiont. _y»4li 
— ad-meas'iir-er, n. L-- ■ 

ad-min'is-ter, ad-min'- 
is-ter, t\ I. t. 1. To take A/n„tor,f ^/ 
or have the charge of; Adjutant. 1/47 
manage; regulate; to take charge of and settle, 
as an estate, by will or official appointment. 

2. To supply or provide with (something); 
apply; inflict; cause to take. II. i. 1. To con- 
tribute toward an end; minister: with to. 2. 
Law. To act as administrator. [< L. ad, to, 
-f minister, assistant.] — ad-min^is-tra'tion, 
ad-min"is-tre'shun, n. An administering; ofiiclal 
management; existing executive government or 
those composing It. — ad-miii'is-tra"tiv(e, 
ad-min'i8-tre"tiv,a. Pertaining to administration; 
executive.— ad-iiiin"is-tra'tor, n. One who 
administers.— ad-niin"i8-tra'trix, n. fern. 
t-TKi'CEs, -trai'slz or -trl'ces, ^5^.] 

ad^mi-ra-MCe, ad'mi-ra-bl, a. Worthy of 
admiration; excellent. [< L.^; see admire.] 

— ad'mi-ra-bly, ad». 

ad'mi-ral, ad'mi-ral, n. A naval officer of 
the highest rank; the commander»in*chief of 
a fleet. ' [< Ar. armr, commander, -f al, the, 
-f bahr, sea.] — ad'mi-ral-ship, 71. The office 
or rank of an admiral.- ad'iiii-ral-ty, ad'ml- 
ral-tl, n. A court or department having charge of 
naval or maritime affairs; the otfice of an admiral. 

ad^mi-ra'tion, ad"mi-re'shun, n. 1. Won- 
der combined with approbation; gratified con- 
templation. 2. That which is admired. 

fiut|are (future); aisle; au (.out); oil; c (k); chat; dli (tho); go; sing, i^kf thin. 


ad-mire', ad-mair', t'. [ad-mired'; ad-mik'- 
iNu.J I. (. To regard with mingled wonder 
and approbation or with pleased surprise; gaze 
on with delight. II. i. To feel admiration ; 
be pleased. [< L-^ «^i at, -f miror, wonder.] 

— ad-inir'er, n. 
ad-mis'si-'bl(e, ad-mis'i-bl, a. Such as may 

be admitted; allowable. [<1LJ admitto; see 
ADMIT.] — ad-niis''si-bil'i-ty, n. — ad-mis'si- 
bly, adv. 

ad-mis'sion, ad-mish'un, n. An admitting; 
entrance; concession. 

ad-mit', ad-mit', v. [ad-mit'ted<1; ad-mit'- 
TiNG.] I. f. To allow to enter; allow; re- 
ceive; permit; concede. II. i. 1. To give 
scope, warrant, or permission: with of. 2. To 
give entrance: often with to. [< L.of admit- 
To, < ad, to, -]- mitto, send.] — ad-mit'tance, 
n. Right or permission to enter; admission. 

ad-mix'ture, ad-mix'chur or -tiftr, n. A mix- 
ture; the ingredient added to form a mixture; 
act of mingling or mixing; state of being mixed, 
[< L. admixtus, pp., < ad, to, + wi^ceo, mix.] 
ad-mix'tion:|:.— ad-mix', vt. 

ad-mon'isli% ad-men'ish, vt. To advise of a 
fault; caution; exhort; instruct solemnly; 
warn. [ < L. ad, to, + moneo, advise.] 

— ad^ino-ni'tioii, n. The act of admonish- 
ing; gentle reproof or reprimand.— ad-inon'i- 
to-ry, a. Giving admonition. 

a-do', a-du', n. Unnecessary activity; bustle; 

fups; trouble. [< a-^ + do.] 
a-do'be, u-do'be, /i. Asun^driedbrick. [Sp.Am.] 
ad"o-les'cent, ad"o-les'gnt. I. a. Ap- 
proaching manhood or maturity; pertaining to 
youth. II. ;i. A person in the period of ado- 
lescence. r< L. ad, to, 4- alo, nourish.] 

— ad^o-lea'cence, ad'o-les'ens, n. The 
process or period of growth; youth. 

a-dopt'<', a-dept', tt. To accept as one's own; 
as, to adopt a son, a phrase, a creed. [< L.^ 
ad, to, -+- opto, choose.] — a-dop'tlon, n. The 
act of adopting or the state of being adopted.— 
a-dopt'ive, a. Pertaining or tending to adop- 
tion; characterized by adoption. 

a-dore', a-dor', v. [a-dored'; a-dor'ing.] 

1. t. 1. To render divine honors to; worship. 

2. To love or honor with intense devotion. II. 
i. To offer worship. [< F. adorer, < L. ad, 
to, -f oro, speak, < os {or-), mouth.] — a-dor'- 
a-bi(e, a-dor'Q-bl, rt. Worthv of adoration or 
devoted affection.— a-dor^a-bly, adv.— ttA'^- 
o-ra'tion, ad'o-rC'shun, «. The act of adoring; 
worslilp or devotion.— a-dor'eis n. One who 
adores; a lover. 

a-dom', a-dSm', vt. To furnish with orna- 
ments; be an ornament to; make beautiful; 
decorate. [ < L.^ ad, to, + omo, deck.] — a- 
dorii'inir* 1. 7'"- Ornamental. IT. 7i. Adorn- 
ment.— a-dorn'ment, n. The act of adorn- 
ing, or that which adorns; ornament. 

a-down', a-daun', adv. & prep. Downward; 

a-drlft', a-drift', adv. In a drifting state; 

a-droii', a-dreit', a. Skilful In emergencies; 
dexterous; expert, [F,, < a, to, -f droit, 
rigiit.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

ad"u-la'tlon, ad'yu-lfi'shun, n. Servile flat- 
tery: liypocritical praise; fulsome compliment. 

ad'u-la-to-ry, ad'vu-la-to-ri, a. Obsequi- 
ously rtattering.— a({'u-la"tor, n. 

a-dult', a-dult'. I, a. Pertaining to mature 
lire; full»grovvn. II. n. One who (or that 
which) has attained the age of maturity. [< 
L. adultiis, pp. of adolesco, grow up.] 

a-dul'ter-ate, a-dul'tgr-et, I. xt. [-a"ted<'; 
-A'TiNG.J To make impure by admixture; 
corrupt. II. a. Adulterated; corrupted. [< 
L. ad, to, -f alter, other.] — a-dul''ter-a'tion, 
-e'shun, ?i.— a-dul'ter-a'^tor, n. One who 

a-dul'ter-y, a-dul'tgr-i, n. [-ies^, pi.'] Vio- 
lation of the marriage vow; unchastity, [< 
L. ad, to, -\- alter, other.] — a-dul'ter-er, 
a-dul'ter-ess, n. A man or woman guilty of 
adultery.— a-dul'ter-ou8, a. Of or pertaining 
to adultery.— a-du I'ter-ous-ly, adv. 

ad-um1)fate, ad-um'bret, vt. [-bra'ted; 
-bra'ting.] To foreshadow; typify: over- 
shadow. [< L. ad, to, ■\- vmbra, shade.] 

— ad-uiii'brant, a. Dimly shadowing.— 
ad'^uin-bra'tion, n. A slight sketch; fore- 
shadowing; overshadowing. — ad-um'bra- 
tiv(e, a. Faintly indicating; typical. 

a-dusi'i, a-dust', adv. & a. In the dust; dusty. 

a-dust'2, a. Burning; hot and dry; burned; 
seared; browned; tawny, l<L.adiistus,]^p., 
< ad, to, + vro, burn.] 

ad-vance', 9.d-vgn8', v. [ad-vanced"; ad- 
van'cixg.] I. t.^ 1. To move or bring for- 
ward; present; propose, 2. To pay or fur- 
nish beforehand or on credit; help forward; 
accelerate. 3. To elevate; increase; promote. 
II. i. 1. To go forward; make progress; 
grow; increase. 2. To rise in value, [< L.*' 
ab, away, -f- ante, before.] 

ad-vance', a. Being an a'flvance, 

ad-vance', n. 1. An advancing; progress- 
improvement. 2. Anything supplied or paid 
beforehand; prepayment. 3. An overture; pro- 
posal. 4. The place or persons at the front; a 
lead- start; the van.— ad-vanced', pa. Being 
In advance; having reached a later or higher 
stage; marked by or characteristic of advance- 
ment.— ad-vaiice'inent, n. An advancing, or 
being advanced; furtherance; promotion. 

ad-van'tage, ad-vgn'tgj. I. vt. & vi. 
[-taged; -ta-ging.] To give advantage to; 
gain advantage; favor; profit. II. n. Any- 
thincj favorable to success; superiority; favor- 
ing circumstance; profit; utility, ("< F. arant, 
before.] — ad"van-ta'geou9, aa"van-te'jns, 
a. Affording advantage; profitable; favorable. 
-ly, adv. -ness, n. 

ad'vent, ad' vent, n. 1. A coming or arrival. 
2. [A-] (1) The coming of Christ. (2) Led. 
The four weeks before Christmas. [< L. ad, 
to, 4- venio, come.] 

ad"ven-ti'tiou8, ad'ven-tish'os, a. Not in- 
herent; extrinsic; accidental. 

ad-ven'ture, ad-ven'chur or -tiQr. I. it. & 
vi. [tuked; -tur-ino.] To venture. II. 
w. A hazardous or exciting experience; dar- 
ing feat; commercial venture; speculation. 
[< L.OF ad, to, + veuio, come.] — ad-ven'tur- 
er, n. A seeker of adventures; one who seeks 
his fortune In new fii'lds or by questionable ex- 
pedients.— ad-v<'ii'tiir-e88, «. A female ad- 
venturer. — ad-vcii'tu r-oiiH, ad-ven'chur-us 
or -tlQr-us, «. 1, Disposed to seek adventures; 
ventiiresome. ad-ven'tiire-soiiie+. i2« At- 
tended with risk; hazardous, -ly, (7f/r, -nc89,n. 

ad'verb, ad'vgrb, n. Gram. Any word used 

papfi, 98k; at, air; element, they, usfge; It, %, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, or; full, rule; but, ©r; 


to modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. 

[< L.P oc/, to, 4- verbum, verb.]— ad-ver'bi- 

al, a.— ad-ver'bi-al-Iy, adv. 
ad^ver-sa-ry, ad'ver-se-ri,«. [-riessjs/.] An 

opponent; antagonist; enemy. [< L.^ ad, to, 

+ rerto, turn.] 
ad' verse, ad'vgrs, a. Opposing or opposed; 

antagonistic; detrimental. [< L. ad, to, + 

verto, turn.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 
ad-ver'si-ty, ad-vgr'si-ti, n. [-ties^, »^.] A 

condition of hardship or affliction; misfortune. 
ad- vert', ad-vgrt', vi. To turn the mind; refer 

incidentally. [< L. ad, to, + verto, turn.] 

— ad-vert'eiice, n. The act of adverting; 
notice. — ad-vert'en-cy, n. Attentlveness. — 
ad-A^ert'ent, a. Giving attention; heedful.— 
ad-vert'eiit-ly, adv. 

ad'ver-tise" or -tize", ad'vgr-taiz", v. 
[-TI8ED"; -Ti'siNG.] I. t. To make known 
bj^ public notice; publish; inform. II. i. To 
give public notice. [< L.^ ad, to, + verto, 
turn.] — ad'yer-tis'^er or -tiz"er, n. One 
who advertises.— ad"ver-ti8e'nient, ad'ver- 
taiz'ment or ad-ver'tiz-ment, n. A printed pub- 
lic notfce, as In a newspaper; notification. 

ad- vice', ad-vais', n. 1. Encouragement or 
dissuasion; counsel; suggestion. 2. Informa- 
tion; notification. Si!. Deliberation; fore- 
thought. [ < L.F ad, to, 4- mdeo, see.] 

ad-vise', ad-vaiz', v. [ad-vised' ; ad-vi'sing.] 

1. ^ 1. To give advice to; counsel; warn; 
recommend. 2. To apprise (of); notify; in- 
form. II. i. To take or give counsel; consult. 

— ad-vi"8a-bil'i-ty, n. ad-vi'sa-bKc- 
nesst. — ad-vi 'sa-ble, ad-vafza-bl, n. 
Proper to be advised or recommended; expedi- 
ent. — ad-vi'8a-bly, adv. — ad-vi'sed-ly, 
ad-val'zgd-Ii, adv. With forethought or advice; 
not hastily.— ad-vi'ser, ad-val'zer, n. One 
who advises.— ad-vi'so-ry, a. Having power 
to advise; containing or given as advice. 

ad'vo-ca-cy, ad'vo-ca-si, n. The act of ad- 
vocating; a vindication; defense. 

ad'vo-cate, ad'vo-ket. I. rt. [-ca'ted"!- 
-CA "TING.] To speak in favor of; defend ; plead 
for. II. n. One who pleads the cause of an- 
other; an intercessor; counselor. [< L.^ ad- 
Toco, call to, < ad, to, + vox, voice.] 

ad-vow'son, ad-vau'zn, n. The right of pres- 
entation to a vacant ecclesiastical benefice; 
patronage. [< OF. avoesson, < L. advoca- 
tw{n-)\ see advocate.] 

ad'y-tiiin, ad'i-tum, «. [-ta, -ta,pZ.] An Inner 
or secret shrine. [L., < Gr. a- priv. -\- dyo, enter. ] 

adz, { n. A hand cutting»tool having a curved 

adze, f blade at right angles with its handle. 

88, 1 or e. A diphthong of Latin 
origin. For words not found 
under a?, as xgis, yEolian, etc., 
see EGis, EoLiAN, etc. 

a'er-ate, e'gr-et, vt. [-a'ted^; 
-a"ting.] 1. To supply or charge 
with air or gas; make ethereal. 

2. To oxygenate, as the blood. 
[< L. aer, < Gr. aer, air.] a'er- 
x-tyX. — a'^er-a'tion, n. — a'er- 
a"tor, n. 

a-e'ri-al, e-I'ri-al, a. Of or like 
the air; atmospheric; high in air 
the air; airy; spiritual. [< L. aer, air.] 

— a-e'ri-al-ly, adv. 
a'er-ie, e'gr-i, n. The nest or brood of a pred 

[< L. 

A kite»like 


atory bird, as the eagle, on a crag. 
area, open space.] 

a'er-i-form, e'gr-i-form, a. Like air; gase- 
ous; unsubstantial; intangible. [< L. aMr, air, 
-{- forma, form.] 

a'er-o-lite, e'gr-o-lait, n. A meteorite. [< 
Gr. aer, air, + lifhos, stone.] 

a'er-o-naut, e'gr-o-net, n. One who navi- 
gates the air; a balloonist. [< Gr. aer, air, -j- 
nautes, sailor.]— a"er-o-iiaut'ic, e"gr-o-net'ic, 
a. a"er-o-naut'ic-aU. — a^er-o-naiit'- 
ica, n. The branch of aerostatics that treats of 
floating in or navigating the air. 

a'er-o-plane, e'gr-o-plen', n, 
flying'inachine, self"- 
sustaming only in a 
current ot air or when 
drawn or propelled. 

a'er-y, n. See aekie. 

tes-thet'ic, -thet'- 

iC8, etc. SeCESTHET- 

a-far', a-fflr', adv. At 
or to a distance; re- 
motely. [< A-i + 


affa-blCe, af'a-bl, a. Easy and courteous in 
manner. [< L.*" ad, to, -4- /"w, speak.] 

— af"fa-bil'i-ty, afa-bil'I-ti, n. The qual- 
ity of being affable; easy courtesy. at''fa-bl(e- 
nesst.- af fa-bly, adv. 

af-fair', af-far', n. Anything done or to be 
done; business; matter; thing. [< F. a, to, 
-\-faire, do.] 

af-fect'KJ, gf-fect', vt. 1. To act upon; in- 
fluence. 2. To touch or move emotionally. 
[< L. affectvs, pp. of officio, influence, < ad, 
to, -\- facio, do.] 

af-fect'2d, vt. 1. To have a liking for; be 
fond of; love. 2. To haunt; frequent. 3. To 
pretend; counterfeit; attempt; profess. [< F. 
afecter, < L. afecto, aspire to, < ad, to, + 
facto, do.] — affec-ta'tion, af"ec-te'shun, n. 
Pretense; display. 

af-fect'edi, af-fect'§d, pa. Acted upon; in- 
fluenced; moved emotionally; attacked, as by 

af-fect'ed2,^a. Assumed artificially; showing 
affectation; inclined; frequented; unnatural. 
-ly, adv. -ii«88, n. 

af-fect'in^, af-fect'ing, pa. Moving; pa- 
thetic— at-fect'ing-ly, adv. 

af-fec'tioni, af-fec'shun, n. The act of in- 
fluencing, or state or fact of being influenced; 
state of mind or body; disease. 

af-fec'tion^, n. 1. Strong and tender at- 
tachment; love. 2. Any natural feeling; par- 
tiality or aversion. 

af-fec'tion-ate, af-fec'shon-etor -et, a. Hav- 
ing or expressing love; loving; fond. 

— af-tec'tiou-ate-ly, adv. 
af-fi.'ance, af-fai'ans. I. vt. [-anced'; -ax- 

cixG.] To betroth; pledge. II. n. A be- 
trothal; pledge of faith; confidence. [< L.f 
ad, to, -\-fidus, faithful.] 

af "fi-da'vit, af "i-de'vit, n. A voluntary sworn 
declaration, in writing, made before competent 
authority. [LL.] 

af-firi-ate, af-fll'i-et, v. F-a'ted''; -a'ting.] 
I. t. To receive on friendly terms; associate 
with; adopt; ally. II. i. To be intimate; sym- 

flutlure (future); aisle; au (put)', oil; c Ck): «liat; dli (Jthe)', go; sing, ink; thin. 



pathize; consort. [< LL. a^lio, < L. ad, to, 
+,filius, son.] — af-Iil'^i-a'tion, -e'shun, n. 

af-fln''i-ty, gf-fln'i-ti, n. [-tiesS pL] Natural 
inclination; close relation ; chemical attraction. 
' [< L. ad, to, + finis, end.] 

af-flrm', ^f-fgrm', v. I. t. To state posi- 
tively; maintain; assert; aver. II. i. 1. To 
maintain the affirmative. 2. To make a for- 
mal judicial declaration. [< L. ad, to, -j- 
firmus, firm.] — aP'flr-ma'tion, af"gr-me'- 
shun, n. A declaration; statement; solemn dec- 
laration In place of a judicial oath.— af-firm'- 
a-tivCe, af-ferm'a-tiv. I. a. Characterized 
by afflrmatfon; taking the " yes " side; asserting 
something as fact. II, n. That which affirms 
or asserts; an expression of assent, -ly, adv. 

af-fix'S a^flx', vt. To attach; fasten; append. 
I < LL. affixo, < L. ad, to, -\-Jigo, fasten.] 

af'flx, af'ix, n. That which is attached, ap- 
pended, or added; a prefix or suffix. 

af-flict'<*, af-flict', vt. To oppress with suffer- 
ing; trouble; grieve; distress. [< L. ad, to, 
-\- jligo, strike down.] — af-flic'tion, af-flic'- 
shun, n. Distress of body or mind or that 
which causes It; grief; calamity.— af-tlict'iv(e, 
a. Causing distress; grievous, -ly, adv. 

af 'flu-ence, af'lu-gns, n. A profuse or abun- 
dant supply, especially of riches; wealth. 

af'flu-ent, af'lQ-gnt. I. a. Abounding, as 
in wealth; rich; also, flowing freely; fluent. 
II. n. A tributary stream. [< L.f ad, to, -f- 
fiuo, flow.] — aPflu-ent-Iy, adv. 

af-ford'd, gf-fOrd', tt. 1. To have sufficient 
means for; be able to meet the expense of; 
sustain; bear; stand, 2. To produce, yield, or 
furnish, as fruit, profit, etc. [< AS. ge- 
(changed to a/-), intens. + fwtUan, further, 

af-fray', sf-fre', n. A public brawl; fight; 
fray. [< OF. affrayer, < L. ex, from, -f LL. 
fridus, peace, < OHG. fridu, peace.] 

af-fright'll, af -fruit', li.vt. To frighten. II. 
n. Fright, or that which frightens. [< AS. 
afi/rhtan; see a-2, fright.] 

af-front', gf-frunt'. I", vt. To insult openly; 
treat with insolence; offend. U. n. An open 
insult or indignity. [ < L.^ ad, to, +fron{t-)8, 

af fu'sion, af-fiu'zhon, n. Pouring. 

Af'gban, af'gan, «. 1. A native or the native 
language of Afghanistan, 2. [a-] A soft cov- 
erlid or knitted wool. 

a-fleld^ a-flld', adv. In or to the field; 
abroad; astray, [< a-* -}- field.] 

a-flre', a-fair', adv. & a. On fire. [ing. 

a-flame', a-flem', adv. & a. Flaming; glow- 

a float', a-flot', adv. & a. Floating; circula- 
ting; adrift; unfixed, 

a-fooV, a-fut', adv. On foot; able to walk; 
on the move; astir, 

a -fore', a-for', adv., prep., A ro»j. Before. 
L< AS. ouforan; see on, at, and foue.] 

— a-lbre'said", «. Said or mentioned be- 
fore.— a-f ore'tiiiic'% adv. At a previous time; 
formerly. a-forc'tiincH^'t. 

a-foul', a-faul', adv. & a. In entanglement 
or collision, 

a-frald', a-fred^ a. Filled with fear or ap- 
prehension; apprehensive; fearful. [ME. 
afraied, pp. of afraien, < OF, affrayer; see 


a-fresh', a-fresh', adv. Once more; anew; 

aft, gft. JVaut. J. a. Of or near the stern. II. 

adv. At, toward, or near the stern, [< AS. 

spftan, < afta, behind.] 
aft'er, gft'gr, I. a. 1. Xaut. Farther aft. 

2. Following in time, II. adv. 1. At a 
later time, 2. In the rear; behind. III. 
prep. 1. In succession to; subsequently to; 
because of; notwithstanding. 2. Behind, 
back of, or below in rank; inferior to; in pur- 
suit of; in search of, 3. In relation to; about; 
for; m imitation of; in obedience to; accord- 
ing to, 4. For the sake of; by the name of. 
[< AS. SB/ter, behind, lit. farther off.]— aft'er- 
clap", ti. [Colloq.] An unexpected and dis- 
agreeable sequel or demand.— att'er-crop", «. 
A second crop in aseason.— aft'er-matn'', n. 
The second mowing of the season.— aft'er- 
iiiost, a. superl. Naut. Nearest the stern.— 
aft^er-noon', n. That part of the day between 
noon and sunset; figuratively, the closing part. 

aft'er-"ward, gft'gr-ward, adv. In time fol- 
lowing; subsequently, aft'er- wards:}:. 

a-^ain', a-gen', adv. At a second or another 
time; once more; anew; afresh; back (often, 
back again); in reply; repeatedly; further; 
moreover; on the other hand, [< AS, ongegn, 
ongean, < on- (see on) + g^gn-, against.] 

a-gainst', a-genst', pr^/;, i. Into contactor 
collision with; in movement toward; opposite 
or contrary to; in contact with; also, opposite 
to; in contrast with. 2. In preparation for; 
in readiness for, 3. In exchange for, 4. 
To the debit of; as a charge upon, [ME, 
againest, < again (< AS. ongegn; see again), 
-f -es (adv., orig, gen, ending) -f- IntenB. t.] 

ag'ate, ag'§t, n. 1. A variegated waxy 
quartz; a gem, 2. A child's playing-marble, 

3. Print. 

The type In which this line Is set, 
[F., < Gr, Achats (river in Sicily).] 

A-ga've, a-ge'vt or -gg've, n. A genus of 
pUints, embracing the centuryplant, [< Gr, 
agauos, noble,] 

age, ej. I. vt. & ri. [aged; a'ging.] To 
make, grow, or seem to grow, old. II. n. 1. 
The entire period of life or existence. 2. The 
period of life already or previously passed. 3. 
Thedeclineof life; the state of being old. 4. A 
distinct staf^e of life; maturity; majority. 5. A 
distinct period of time in history; era; genera- 
tion; century. [< F, age, < L, a;fa{t-),t, age] 

a'ged, e'jgd, pa. 1. Advanced in years; of or 
like old ago; old, 2. Of or at the age of, 

a'gen-cy , e'jgn-si, n, [-cies», p/.] 1. Active 
power or operation; activity; histrumentality, 
2. The relation, business, or place of business, 
of an agent. 

a'gent, e'jgnt. I. a. Acting: opposed to 
pasdve. II. n. 1. One who or that which 
acts or has power to act; actor; doer. 2. One 
who or that which acts for another; a deputy. 
[< L, agen{t-)ti, ppr, of ago, do.] 

ag-gloxn'er-ate, ag-glem'gr-6t, I. vt. & vi. 
[-a'ted""; -a'ting.] To gather, form, or grow 
into a ball or mass, II. a. Gathered into a 
mass or heap; clustered. III. n. A heap or 
mass of things thrown together indiscrimi- 
nately, [< L, ad, to, + glomvs, ball.] — ag. 

papfl, gsk; at, ftlr; el§mfint, th6y, uefge; It, |, fi (ee); o, oh; orator, «r; full, rflle; but. Or; 



gloiii^'er-a'tiou, 11. An orderless mass, heap, 
or cluster. 

ag^gpran-dize or -dise, ag'ran-daiz, xt. & 
ti. [-dized; -di"zing.J To make or become 
great or greater; increase; exalt. [< L.*' arf, 
to, 4- grandis, great.] ag^gran-disej.— 
a8r'gTan-dize''ineut, ag'ran-daiz'meut, n. 
An aggrandizing; increase; exaltation. 

ag'gra-vate, ag'ra-vet, vt. [-vA"TED<i; -va'- 
TiNG.] 1. To make worse; increase; intensify. 
2. [Colloq.] To anger; provoke. [< L. ad, 
to, -|- gravis, heavy.] — a^j^'gra-va'tion, ag'- 
ra-ve'shun, n. 1. A making heavier or worse; 
an enhancing circumstance. 3. [Colloq.] Ex- 
asperation; irritation. 

ag'gre-gate, ag're-get. I. vt. & vi. [-ga"- 
TED**; -ga'ting.] To bring or come together, 
as into a mass, sum, or body; collect; mass; 
amount to. II. a. Collected into a sum, 
mass, or total ; formed by collection; collect- 
ive. III. n. The entire number, sum, mass, 
or (quantity of something; amount; total; col- 
lection. [< L. ad, to, -f (/rex (greg-), flock.] 
— agr^'gre-ga'tion, ag"re-ge'shun, n. A 
collection or mass; aggregate; whole. 

ag-gres'sion, ag-gresh'un, n. An unpro- 
voked attack; aggressive action. 

ag-gres'siv(e, ag-gres'iv, a. Disposed to at- 
tach or encroachment; also, disposed to vigor- 
ous, outgoing activity in behalf of an object. 
-\y, adv. -ness, 7i. 

ag-gres'sor, ag-gres'^r, n. One who com- 
mits an aggression or begins a quarrel. 

ag-grieve', ag-grtv', t'<. [ag-grieve»'; ag- 
GiUEv'iNG.] To cause sorrow to; give cause 
for just complaint; oppress. [< L.»' ad, to, -f 
graris, heavy.] 

a-gbast', a-ggst', a. Struck dumb with hor- 
ror. [< AS. a- (see a-^) -|- gsestan, terrify.] 
'il(e, aj'il, a. Active; nimble. \_<luJ ago. 


a-gil'i-ty, a-jil'i-ti, n. Quickness and readi- 
ness in movement; nimbleness. 
ag'i-tate, aj'i-tet, v. [-ta"ted''; -ta"ting.] 
1. t. 1. To excite (the feelings); perturb; 
ruffle. 2. To shake irregularly. 3- To dis- 
cuss publicly and incessantly. 4!1. To con- 
sider. II. i. To stir public interest and ac- 
tion, j; < L. agito, f req. of ago, drive.] — ag'^- 
i-ta'tion, aj"l-te'shun, n. Violent motion or 
emotion; open, active discussion: urgent con- 
sideration. —ag'i-ta''tor, aj'I-te"tgr, n. One 
who or that which agitates, 
ag'nail, ag'nel, w. Ahangnall. [= hangnail.] 
ag-nos'ti-cisxn, ) ag-nes'ti-sizm, ag-nes'tics, 
ag-nos^tics, Sn. The doctrine of nes- 

cience, which maintains that all being, inclu- 
ding God and the human soul, is unknown or un- 
knowable. [Gr., <o-priv. -\- gignosko,\i.\iO\y .1 
— ag-nos'tic, ag-nes'tic. I.' a. Professing 
Ignorance, especially In religion. II. n. One 
who holds the theory of agnosticism. 
a-go', a-go'. I. pp. Gone by; past. II. adv. 
In the T 

past; smce. 

AS. dgdn, go away, < 


a- intens. -4- gun, go.] 

— a-go'ing, adv. In motion: withsei. 

a-gog', a-geg', adv. & a. In a state of eager 

curiosity; excited with interest or expectation. 

[< OF. en gognes, < en, in, -f- gogue, fun.] 

ag'o-nize, / ag'o-naiz, t'. [-nized; -ni'zing.] 

ag'o-nise, fl. t. To subject to agony; tor- 

ture. II. i. To be in or cause agony; writhe- 
wrestle; strive. [< Gr. agonizomai, contend 
for a prize, strive.] 

ag'o-ny, ag'o-ni, ??. [-NIEs^;;^.] 1. Intense 
suflfering of body or mind; anguish; struggle. 
2. Violent or very earnest contest or striving. 
[< Gr.L agon, contest, < ago, assemble] 

a-g^ra^ri-an, a-gre'ri-an. I. a. Pertaining to 
land or its tenure or to a general distribution 
of lands. II. n. One who advocates agrarian- 
ism. [< L. agrarius, < a<7«', field.] — a-gra'- 
ri-an-i!§iii, a-grd'ri-an-izm, n. The theory or 
practise of equal distribution of lands. 

a-gree', a-grt', vi. [a-greed'; a-gree'ing.] 
1. To come into or be in harmony; be of one 
mind; concur. 2. To consent; assent. 3. To 
contract or promise formally. 4. To conform; 
be favorable; correspond; match. 5. Gram. 
To correspond in person, number, etc. [< F. 
d, to, -f- gre, pleasure, < L. gratus, pleasing.] 

a-gree'a-"bl(e, a-^l'a-bl, a. Agreeing with 
or suited to the mnid or senses; pleasurable; 
suitable; correspondent; walling. — a-gree''a- 
bil'i-ty, n. a-gree'a-bUe-ness:!:.— a- 
gree-'a-bly, adv. 

a-gree'rnent, a-gri'mgnt, n. 1. A coming 
into or being in accord; conformity. 2. Mu- 
tual assent; a contract. 

ag'ri-cul'^ture, ag'ri-cul"chur or -tjur, n. 
The cultivation of the soil for food; tillage; 
farming. [< 1,.^ ager, field, -^cidtura, culture.] 
— ag''ri-cul'tar-al, a. Of, pertaining to, 
or engaged In agriculture. — ag'^ri-cul'tur- 
ist, n. A farmer. 

a-ground', a-graund', adv. & a. On the shore, 
or bottom, as a vessel; stranded. 

a'gue, e'giu, n. Chills and fever; also, a chill. 
[< F. aigu, < L. acutus, acute.] — a'gu-ish, a. 

ah., G, interj. An expression of surprise, satis- 
faction, compassion, complaint, or inquiry. 

a-ha', a-hQ', interj. An exclamation express- 
ing surprise, triumph, mockery, or the like. 

a-head', a-hed', ac^tJ. At the head; in advance; 
before; forward. 

a-lieap', a-hlp', adv. In or into a heap. 

b.-To.oY', G.-\\Qi', interj. Navt. Ho there! 

aid<>, ed, V. I. t. To render assistance to; 
help; succor; help on. II. i. To help; as- 
sist. [< L.*' ad, to, -\-juvo, help.] 

aid, n. The act or result of helping or succor- 
ing, or the means employed ; cooperation ; as- 
sistance; a helper; assistant, 

aide'sdescamp'", ed'=de=camp' or ed'^dj;- 
cflA', n. [aides'-de^camp", edz=, fl.'] Mil. 
An officer who receives and transmits the or- 
ders of a general. Called also aid. [F.] 

ai'er-ie, ai'er-y. See aerie. 

ai'gret, e'gret, n. 1. A heron, the egret. 2. 
A tuft of feathers or the like. [< F. aigrette.'] 

ail, el, V. I. t. To cause uneasiness or pain 
in; trouble; make ill. II. i. To be some- 
what ill. [< AS. eglan, trouble.] — ail'ing, 
a. Somewhat ill.— ail'inent, n. Indisposi- 
tion; Illness, aili. 

aim, em, t'. I. ^. To direct, as a missile, blow, 
weapon, word, or act, toward or against some 
thing or person; point or level: with at. II. 
i. 1. To direct a missile, remark, etc., or to 
point a missile weapon at an object. 2. To 

flutjure (future); aisle; au (tmt); ©II; c (k); chat; dli (the)-, go; sing, ink; thin. 



have a purpose; endeavor earnestly. [< OF. 
esmei\ < L. sestirno, estimate.] 

aim, em, n. The act of aiming; line of direc- 
tion of anything aimed; object or point aimed 
at; mark; design; purpose. — aim'less, a. 
Wanting la aim or purpose. 

air, ar, vt. To expose to the air; purify or dry; 
ventilate; make public; display. 

air}, n. 1. The gaseous substance composed 
of oxygen and nitrogen, surrounding the earth; 
the atmosphere; also, an atmospheric current; 
wind; breeze. 2. Utterance abroad; publicity, 
f < Gr.i'+f' aer, < aemi, breathe.] — air'sbiad'^- 
der, n. A sac filled with air, as in fishes; the 
sound.— airsbrake, ?i. A brake operated by 
compressed air.— airscastle, «. A day«dream. 

— aii'jgrun, n. A gun Impelling a missile by 
compressed air.— airsliole, n. A hole con- 
taining, or made by or for. gas or air; a flaw in a 
casting; an opening in the ice.— air'ing, n. 1 . 
An exposure to the air for warming or drying. 
3. Exercise In the air.— airsline, n. l.'The 
shortest distance between two points on the 
earth's surface. 2. A direct railroad route. 

— airspuinp, «. A pump for exhausting, 
compressing, or trans 

- Exhausting 

mltting air. — air 
sprinir, n. A device 
for resisting sudden 
pressure by the elas- 
ticity of compressed 
air.- airstignt, a. 
Not allowing air to 

f)ass or enter. 
r2, n. 1. Charac- 
teristic appearance; 

mien ; manner. 2. 

Assumed manner; 

affectation: com- 
monly in the plural. [<Gr.i'+Faer, atmosphere.] 
air3, n. 3h/s. 1. A melody; tune. 2. The 

soprano. [< L.^^^*" aer, atmosphere.] 
air'y, ar'i, a. 1. Of or pertaining to the air; 

in or open to the air; breezy. 2. Like air; 

delicate; etliereal; buoyant; visionary. 3. 

Putting on airs; affected. 4. Vivacious; gay. 
— air'i-ly, (tflr. In a light or airy manner; 

delicately; jauntily.— air'i-ness, ar'l-nes, n. 
aisle, ail, n. 1. A pa-ssageway between seats in 

a church. 2. A wing 

of a cruciform churcli. 

[< L.oF a/a, wing.] 
a-Jar', a-jdr', a. & adv. 

Partly open, as a door. 

[< A-i 4- ME. char, 

a-kim'bo, a-klm'bo, 

a^lv. With hands on 

hips and elbows out- 
ward. [<A-» + KEEN 

4- BOW2.] 

a*kiix', a-kin', a. & 

adv. Of the same 

kin; related by blood; 

of similar nature or 

aU, prefix. 1. A on 

phonic form of ad- be 

fore /. »i. An Incorrect , , .i~,n^ 

form of A-2. 3. Tbe:^-"**^ 

Arabic definite article, ... , 

as in Alkor&n. Aisit. 

ara-bas^'ter, ara-bgs'tgr. I. a. Made of 

or like alabaster; smooth and white. II. n. 
Mineral. A white finegrained gypsum. [< 
Gr. alabastros, aiabastos, alabaster box.] 

a-Iack'll, a-\a,c' , inter j. An exclamation of regret. 

a-lac'ri-ty, a-lac'ri-ti, n. Cheerful willing- 
ness and promptitude; facility. [< L. cdac- 
rUa{t-).<i, < alacer, lively.] 

a-larm', a-larm'. I. vt. To strike with sud- 
den fear; arouse to a sense of danger; give 
alarm to. II. n. 1. Sudden fear or appre- 
hension arousing to defense or escape. 2. Any 
sound or signal to apprise of danger or arouse 
from sleep; a mecharrism, as of a clock, giving 
such signal. [< It.of a, to, -|- le, the, -f- aiine, 
arms.] — a-Iarm'ist, a-lflrm'ist, n. One who 
needlessly excites or tries to excite alarm. 

a-las', a-lgs', interj. An exclamation of sor- 
row. [< OF. a, ah! -\-las, wretched, < L. 
lassus, weary.] [albus, white.] 

alb, alb, n. A priests' linen vestment. [< LA^ 

al'ba-tross, al'ba-tres, ;?. [-tross-es, j9^.] A 
large, long»winged 8ea«bird. 
[< Ar.Pe al, the, + qadus, 

aF'be'itll, srbl'it, 

al-bi'no, al-bai'- 
no or al-bi'no, n. 
A person, animal, 
or plant unnatu- 
rally white. [< 
L.Pe albtis, white.] 

al^bum, al'bum, 
n. A blank book 
for holding photo- 
graphs, autographs, etc. 
albus, white.] 

al-bu^men, al-hiu'men, n. The w^hite of an 
egg or a similar viscous substance. [L., white- 
ness, < albus, white.] — ai-bu'min-ouii, a. 

al-cbem'ic, al-kcm'ic, a. Of, pertaining to, 
or produced by means of alchemy. -ic-al:t- 

aFclie>mist. al'ke-mist, n. One skilled in 
alchemy. al'cby'-mist+. 

al'clie-my, al'ke-mi, n. The crude medieval 
chemistry that sought the transmutation of 
base metals into gold, the elixir of life, etc. 
[< Ar.i-L+F al, the, -\- nmld, infusion.] 

al'CO-llOl, al'co-hel, «. The intoxicating prin- 
cijjle of wines and liquors; pure distilled 
spirit; ardent spirits. [< AntJ- al, the, -f 
koh'l, powdered antimony.] — aK'eo-hoFic. 
I. a. Pertaining to. like, containing, or pre- 
served In alcohol. II. n. 1. A toper; drunk- 
ard. "Z. pi. Alcoholic liquors. 

A 1 ''co-ran', arco-run', n. Same as Koran.— 
AT'co-rau'Ic, a. 

al'cove, al'cov, w. A covered recess connect- 
ed with or at the side of a larger room ; a recess 
for a bed; a compartment of a library. See 
illus. on next page. [< Ar. >^p * ^ al-qobbah, < 
al, the, + qobbah, vault.] 

al'der, 61'dcr, n. A small tree of the oak 
familv, growing in swamps or along streams. 
[< AS. air = G. erle, OIIG. erila, alder.] 

al'der-man, ei'd^r-msn, n. [-men, ;;/.] A 
city magistrate; formerlv an Anglo»Saxon lord 
or eari; [< AS. eald, ol"d, 4- ?na7i, man.] 

ale, el, T). A fermented malt liquor; a strong 
beer. [< AS. eo/?/, a kind of beer.] 

Albijtross. 1/34 
[L., white tablet, < 

papfi, 98k; at, air; el§mfint, they, usfge; It, $, I (ee); o, oh; erat^r, «r; full, rule; but, ©r; 



I. a. Another. 
III. adv. Otherwise; 

< alius, other.] 

a-lem'bic, a-lem'bic. n. An apparatus for- 
merly used in distilling an\ thing that te'«t'« 
purifies, or transforms? ( < \i " ' al (inhx/ < 
al, the, -I- avMq, still ] 

a-lert', a-lgrt', a 
Keenly watchful; on 
the lookout; ready for 
sudden action; vigi 
lant; also, liveh 
nimble. [< It J all 
erta, on the watch.] 
-ly, adv. -ness, n 

arga, al'ga, n. [ai/ 
GiE, -jT or -ge, pi.} A 
pea-weed . 

arge-bra, al'j§-bra, 
71. Mathematical (al 
culation by letters and 

. sym])ols; a treatise on 
this branch. [< Ar." 
al'jebr, binding to- 
gether.] Alcove. 

— al'^ge-bra'ic, arjg-bre'ic, a. Pertaining 
to algebra, -ali.— al"ffe-brn'ic-al-ly, adv. 
— al'Ke-bra'''i8t, «. One skilled In alpebra. 

al'gous, al'gus, a. Of, like, or filled with algae. 

a'li-as, e'li-as or g'li-as. I. a. Another. II. 
n. An assumed name, 
otherwise called. [L., 

aFi-bi, al'i-bai or -bi, n. Law. A plea of be- 
ing elsewhere at the time when a crime was 
committed. [L., < alius, other.] 

a'lien, e'lien. I. a. Of another country; 
foreign. II. n. An unnaturalized foreigner; 
a stranger. [< 'L.'^^ alien us, < alius, otlier.] 

a'lien-ate, e'lien-et, vf. [-a"ted''; -a"txn(j.] 
1. To make alien; estrange. 2. To transfer; 
sell. — a'lien-a-bl(e, e'lien-ci-bl, a. Thatr.iay 
be alienated. —a'^lien-a'tion, n. Estrange- 
ment; sale; mental derangement. 

a-ligbt', a-lait'. I. vi. [a-light'ed<'; a- 
LiGHT'iNG.] 1. To descend and come to rest ; 
dismount; settle. 2. To come (upon) by ac- 
cident. II. a. & adv. Lighted; on fire. 

a-liarn', a-ligrn'meut, etc. Same as aline, etc. 

a-like', a-laik'. I. a. Similar; like one anoth- 
er. II. adv. In like manner. [<A^.onlic.] 

al'i-ment, al'i-mgnt, n. Food for body or 
mind; nutriment; sustenance. [< L.^ alo, 
nourish.] — al'^i-men'tal, a. Nutritious.— 
aP'i-iiiea'ra-ry, a. Supplying nourishment; 
connected with the function of nutrition. 

ari-mo-ny, ari-mo-ni, n. Law. An allow- 
ance from a husband to a wife after divorce or 
separation, or during a suit therefor. [< L. 
alimorda, < alo, nourish.] 

a-line', a-lain', v. [a-lined'_; a-li'ning.] I.' 
t. To arrange in or bring into line, as in military 
tactics. II. i. To fall into line. [< L.f ad, 
\o,-{- linea,\mQ.']—a.-line^ment,n. 1. Posi- 
tion or place in line; formation In line. '^. A 
straight line. 

ari-q.uant, al'i-cwant, a. Contained in an- 
other number, but with remainder. [< L. al- 
iqvarttus, somewhat.] 

al'i-q.UOt, al'i-cwet, a. Contained in another 
number withoirt remainder. [< L. aliqnot, < 
c'ius, some, + quot, how many.] 

a-live', a-laiv', a. Having or full of life; ex- 
isting; sensitive; vigorous; active. [< AS. 
on, in, -f nf, life.] 

al^a-li , al'ka-li or -lai, n. [-lis^ or -liess pi.} 
A compound of sodium, potassium, or the like, 
capable of neutralizing acids; a caustic sub- 
stance neutralizing acids. [< Ar.F a^, the, -|- 
qoTiy, ashes of saltwort.] — aPka-line, al'ka- 
lin or -lain, a. Pertaining to or resembling an 
alkali; containing or produced by an alkali.— 
al'ka-loid, al'ka-loid. I, «. Of or like an al- 
kali. II. n. A nitrogenous organic sulstance 
(generally vegetable) of poisonous properties. 

\ I^'ko-ran', etc. Same as Koran, etc. 

all, el. I. a. The whole of; every one of; the 
utmost possible. II. n. The whole ; distiibu- 
tively, each and every person or thing. III. 
adv. Wholly; entirely; quite. [< AS. call.'] 

al-lay', gl-lo', vt. [al-layed'; al-lay'ing.j 
To calm the violence or reduce the intensity of; 
relieve; sooth; pacify; calm. [< a-^ + AS. 
lecgan, lay.] 

al-lege',al-lej',t-;. [al-leged'; al-leg'ing.] 
To assert to be true, but without proving; 
state; plead. [< L.of ex, out, -|- litigo, liti- 
gate.] — aP'le-pa'tion, al'g-ge'shun, n. The 
act of alleging, or that which is alleged. 

al-le''giance, gl-lfjans, n. Fidelity, or an 
obligation of fidelity, to a government, a supe- 
rior, or a principle. [< ME.liqeaiince,< liege.] 

al''le-gor''ic, I ar§-ger'ic, -al, a. Pertain- 

al''le-gor'ic-al, f ing to or containing alle- 
gory; figurative.— aP'Ie-gor'ic-ai-ly, adv. — 
nl'''ie-gor'ic-al-nes8, n. 

aFle-go-rist, al'g-go-rist, n. One who com- 
poses or uses allegories.- al^'Ie-go-ris'tic, a. 

arie-go-rize, al'g-go-raiz, v. [-rized;-ki"- 
ziNG.] I. t. To treat as allegorical. II. i. 
To use allegory, al'le-go-riset. 

arie-go-ry, al'g-go-ri, n. [-ries% pL] A 
symbolic representation in literature or art; a 
story to illustrate a truth; a parable. [< Gr.i'+F 
allegoria, < alios, other, -4- agoi'euo, harangue.] 

al"le-lu'ia, n. & inter). Same as hallelujah. 

al-le'vi-ate, gl-li'vi-et, vt. [-a"ted''- -a"- 
TiNG.] To make lighter or easier to bear; re- 
lieve; mitigate. [< L. ad, to, -f- levis, light.] 

— al-le'^vi-a'tioii, al-li'vi-e'shnn, n. An 
alleviating, or that wliich^alleviates. 

aFley, al'g, n. A narrow passageway; a long 
narrow space for bowling, or the building con- 
taining it. [< F. allee, passage.] — al'ley- 
way'', n. A short or narrow passageway. 

al-li^ance, al-lai'ans, n. A formal treaty or 
agreement between states or otlier parties, or 
the union so formed; any intimate relationship. 

alli-ga'^tor, al'i-ge"tgr, n. A large American 
crocodilian reptile. 
[Earlier alligarta, < 
Sp. el lagarto, < el, 
the, + lagarto, 

ai'-UtJer-a'tion, ^"'^=^^-- '/'^o 

al-lit'er-e'shun, n. The use of a succession of 
words with the game initial letter or sound; 
initial rime. [< L. ad, to, + litera, letter.] 

— al-lit'er-a-tiv(e, a. Pertaining to or 
marked by alliteration. 

al'lo-cate,aro-ket, i'<. [-ca'ted''; -ca'ting.I 
To place; setapart; apportion; locate. [< L."* 
ad, to, + locus, place.] — al'^lo-ca'tion, n. 

al'lo-cu'tion, al"o-kiii'shiJn. n. A formal ex- 
hortation or address, as of the Pope to the 
clergy. [< L. ad, to, + loquor, speak.] 

fintinre (future); aisle; au (owt); ©11; c (k); cliat; dh («/ie); go; ging, ink; thtia-. 



al-lop'a-thy , al-lep'a-thi, n. 3Ied. The sys- 
tem of remedial treatment in vvliich it is sought 
to cure a disease by producing a condition in- 
compatible with the disease: opposed to home- 
opathy. [< Gr. alios, other, + pathos, suffer- 
ing, disease.] — al'^lo-path'ic, al'o-path'ic, a. 
Pertaining to or favoring allopathy. 

al-lot',^l-let', ■?;<. [al-lot'ted<'; al,-lot'ting.] 
To assign by lot; distribute; apportion; ap- 
point; assign. [< F. allotir, < LL. lottum, 
lot.] — al-lot'ment, n. The act of allotting or 
that which is allotted; a plot of land; destiny. 

al-low', al-lcii^i'? ^- !• ^- 1. To put no obsta- 
cle in the way of; permit; tolerate; also, to 
approve; sanction 2. To grant; allot; give. 
3. To make allowance for; deduct. 4. To 
admit; acknowledge. II. i. To make allow- 
ance, concession, or abatement. {Allow derives 
its meanings from both Latin allaudare, to 
praise, and allocare, to place, stow.] — al-low''- 
a-bKe, a. That may be allowed; permissible; 
admissible.— al-low'a-bly. adv.— n.\-\ow'- 
ance. I*, vt. To put on an allowance; limit in 
amount. II. n. 1. That which is allowed; a 
limited amount or portion, as of income or food. 
3. Concession; a difference allowed in excess or 
abatement. 3. Acknowledgment. 

al-loy', gl-lei'. I. tt. & vi. To mix with or form 
into an alloy; temper; debase; combine by 
mixing. II. w. 1. A mixture of two or more 
metals or the baser metal in such mixture. 2. 
Anything that reduces purity or excellence, [< 
L. ad, to, -j- ligo, bind.] 

all'spice'', el'epais", n. The aromatic dried 
berry of a West* Indian tree, the pimento. 

al-lude', gl-liid', ti. [al-lu'ded<'; al-lu'- 
DiNG.] To refer (to something) without ex- 
press mention; make indirect reference. [< 
L. ad, at, to, -j- ludo, play.] 

al-lure', gl-liir', v. [al-lured'; al,-lur'ing.] 
I. t. To attract; entice; tempt. II. i. To 
exercise attraction. [< OF. cdurer, < a, to, 
-f- lurer, lure.] — al-lure'ment, n. 1 . Entice- 
ment; fascination; attraction, ti, A charm; lure. 

al-lu'sion, al-lu'zhmi, n. An alluding; indi- 
rect reference; suggestion. [tive. 

al-lu'siv(e, gl-lu'siv, a. Suggestive; figura- 

al-lu'vi-al, gl-lu'vi-a], a. Pertaining to or 
composed of earth deposited by water. [< L. 
ad, to, -|- Ivo, wash.] 

al-lu'vi-um, gl-lu'vi-um, n. [-vi-a or -vi-ums, 
pi.] Deposits, as of sand or mud, formed in 
the slack water or overflow of streams. [L.] 

al-ly', pl-lai', vt. &vi. [al-lied'; al-ly'ino.] 
To unite by relationship, treatv, or compact; 
form alliance. [< L.*' ad, to, -f ligo, bind.] 

al-ly', n. [al-lies'*, pi.] A state or ruler 
leagued with another by treaty; an associate or 
helper; a kinsman. 

al'ma-nac, §l'ma-nac, n. A book giving the 
days of the week and month through the year, 
with various data; a yearly calendar. [< Ar. 
al, the, -j- vianakh, calendar.] 

al-mighfy, al-nuiit'i. I. a. Able to do all 
things. II. n. [A-] God; the Supreme Being. 
[< AS. eal, all, -}- mihti(j, mighty.] 

alm'oild, flm'und or al'mund, n. 1. The stone 
of the fruit of the almond-tree. 2. The almond- 
tree, a native of Barbary or Morocco. See illus. 
in next column. [ < Gr-O*" amyridall, almond. ) 

al'mon-er , al'mun-gr, n. An official dispenser 
of alms; formerly, a household chaplain, as of 
a prince. [< Gr.iJ'+oP, 
see ALMS.] 

al'most, el'mOst, adv. Approxi- 
mately; very neanv. [< AS. 
mmst; see all; most.] 

alms, flmz, n. sing. & 2^1. 
gifts for the poor; 
charitable offer- 
ings; charity. [< 
AS. sdmesse, < Gr. 
eleemosyne, < eleos, 

()ity.] — alms'- 
louse'', 11. A 
house where desti- 
tute persons arc sup- 
ported or aided; 
aFoe, al'o, n. Any 
plant of the genus 
Aloe, including 
many species, with 
thick, fleshy leaves. 

, flowering branch; 6, c, fruit; 
d, stone. 

[< Gr.AS aloe, aloe.] 
— aPoes, &\' bz,n. sing. & pi. A bitter cathar- 
tic from certain species of aloe.— American 
aloe, the century=plant. 

a-loft', a-left', q,dv. In or to a high or higher 
place; on high; high up. [< Ice!^'^ ^^ on, in, 
+ lopt, air.] 

a-lone', a-lon', a. & adv. Without company; 
solitary; unique; unparalleled; only. [ME. 
al one, all one.] 

a-long', a-leng'. I. adv. 1. Over or through 
length in time or space; lengthwise; onward. 
2. In company or association (with). II. prep. 
On the line of; by the side of; throughout, 
r < AS. and- + lang; see a-* and long.] — a- 
long'side'''. I. adv. Close to or along the side. 
II. prep. Side by side with. 

a.-loot^,a-]uf', adv. .At a distance; apart. [< 
A-i -1- D. loef, part of a ship.] 

a-loud^, a-l'aud', adv. Loudly or audibly. 

alp, alp, n. A lofty mountain.— The Alps, a 
range of lofty mountains of central Europe. L< 
L. Jf^pes.l— al'pen-stock'', al'pen-stec",«. A 
mountaineers' long, Iron»pointed "staff. [G., < 
Alpen, Alps, -^atock, stick.]— Al'piiie, al'pln, a. 
Pertaining to the Alps or any higli range or peak, 

al-pac'a, al-pac'a, n. A sheep-like ruminant 
of South America, 
having long, silky 
wool; a thin cloth 
made of or in imi- 
tation of its wool. 
[Sp., < Ar. al, the, 
+ Peru, paco, name 
of the animal.] 

al'pha,al'fa,«. The 
first letter In the 
Greek alphabet, 
equal to the English 
A, ft; hence, the be- 
ginning or first of 
anything. [L., < Gr. alpha, < Heb. Ulleph, ox.] 

aFpha-het, al'fa-bet, n. The letters that form 
the eicnu'nts of written language, in order as 
fixed by usage; the simplest elements or rudi- 
ments ()f anything. [ < C Jr. alphabZtos, < alpha 
= a, -f beta = b.] — al"pl«n-l>«'t'l<*i «• 1 • Per- 
taining to, having, or exprrsscd l)y an alphabet. 
2. Alphabetical.— al''pha-bet'ic-al, a. 1. 

|^ M | Alpaca. 1/47 

papfl, 98k; at, air; element, they, usfge; It, %, i (ee); o, 5h; ©rat^r, er; full, rflle; bot, wr; 



Arranged in the order of the alphabet, ti. Al- 
phabetic— al-^pha-befic-al-ly, adv. ■ 

al-read'y, el-red'i, adv. Before or by this 
time or the time mentioned; even now. [ME. ; 
pee all; beady.] 

arso, el'so, adv. & corij. Besides; too; like- 
wise. [< AS. eal Siva; see all; so.] 

al'^tar, el'tar, n. 1. A raised place for burn- 
ing sacrifices or incense. 2. The communion- 
table; a place of prayer. [< L.o^ altai\ < al- 
,h(Sj high.] 

al'tfer, el'tgr, V. 1. t. To change; vary; mod- 
ify; transform. II. i. To become different. 
[< L. alter, other.] —al'ter-a-bl(e, a. Capa- 
ble of alteration.— aPtei*-a-bly, arft'.— af"- 
ter-a'tiou, erter-e'shun, n. The act or result 
of altering, or the'state of being altered; modifl- 
cation; change.— al'ter-a-tiv(e, el'ter-a-tiv. 

1. a. Tending to change gradually the" bodily 
condition to a normal state. II, n. An altera- 
tive medicine, al'ter-antt. 

arter-cate, al'tgr-ket, m. [-ca'ted-J; -ca"- 
TiNG.] To dispute; wrangle. [< L. altercor, 
wrangle, < a/^er, another.] — al'^ter-ca'tlon, 
n. Angry controversy: disputing; wrangling. 

arter-nate, al'ter-net, vt. & vi. [-NA'TEDd; 
-NA'TiNG.] To change, perform, or occur by 
turns. [L., alter, other.] 

al-ter^nate, al-tgr'net. I. a. .1. Existing, 
occurring, or following by turns; reciprocal. 

2. Every other (of a series); pertaining to 
such a series. II. n. [U. S.] A substitute or 
second. — al-ter'nate-ly, adv. 

al'^ter-na'tion, artgr-ne'shun, n. Occur- 
rence or action of two things or series of things 
in turn; passage to and fro ; permutation. 

al-ter'na-tiv(e, al-tgr'ng-tiv. I. a. Afford- 
ing a choice between two things. II. «. Some- 
thing that may or must be instead of something 
else; a choice of two (or more) things.— al-ter'- 
na-tiv(e-ly, adv. In an alternative manner. 

al-though.', e]-dhO\ conj. Admitting or grant- 
ing that; even though; notwithstandmg. [ME. 
al tliagh, al though; see all; though.] 

al'ti-tude, al'ti-tiud, n. Vertical elevation; 
height. [< L. altus, high.] 

al'to, al'to or al'to. Mus. I. a. Sounding or 
ranging between tenor and treble. II. n. The 
lowest female voice; also, the highest male 
voice, or counter=tenor. [< L.i' altus, high.] 

al'^to-geth-'er, srto-gedh'gr, adv. Com- 
pletely; wholly; entirely; also, finally; per- 
manently. [ < ME. al (see all) + together.] 

al'tru-ism, al'tru-izm, n. Disinterested be- 
nevolence. [< L.I' + F o/^er, other.] — al'tru- 
ist, n. One who holds to altruism.— aP'tru- 
is'tic, a. Pertaining to altruism or altruists; 
marked by disinterested benevolence. 

al'um, al'um, n. An astringent mineral salt. 
[< L. alunien.'] 

a-lu^mi-na, a-hl'mi-na, n. CJiem. Alumi- 
num oxid: the most abundant of earths. [< 
L. alumen, alum.] 

a-lu^mi-num, a-lu'mi-num, n. A light, blu- 
ish=white, malleable and ductile metallic ele- 
ment, which does not oxidize or tarnish, is 
lighter than glass, and by hammering and roll- 
ing becomes as hard as iron. [< L. alitmen, 
alum.] a'^u-min^i-um:}:. 

al'ways, el'wez, a6??J. 1. Perpetually; cease- 
lessly. 2. Regularly; invariably. [< AS. 

ealne iveg, everyway, always; see xi.l; way.1 
arway:): [Poet]. 
am, am, 1st per. sing. pres. ind. of be. [< AS. 

earn, am; cp. Gr. eimi. Sans, asmi, am.] 
a-main^ a-men', adv. Vehemently; exceed- 
ingly; without delay. [< a-i -f main^, ??.] 
a-maFgam, a-mal'gam, n. An alloy of mer- 
cury; a mixture; combination. [< OF. amal- 
game; cp. Gr. malagma, soft material.] 
a-maFga-mate, a-mal'ga-met, v. [-ma"- 
TEDd; -MA"TiNG.] I. t. To Unite (a metal) in 
an alloy with mercury ; form an amalgam with ; 
unite; combine. II.' i. To form an amalgam ; 
mix. — a-mal^'ga-nia'tion, n. The forming 
of an amalgam; mingling of races or elements; a 
substance formed by mixture. 

a-man''u-en'sis, a-man"yu-en''sis, n. [-ses, 
j)l^ One who copies manuscript or takes dic- 
tation. [L., < a (ab), from, -{- manus, hand.] 

am-'a-rantli, am'a-ranth, n. A plant of the 
genus Aniaimntus, with flowers that do not 
fade when gathered; also, an imaginary never- 
fading flower. [< Gr.^ a- priv. + maraino, 
wither.] — ain'''a.ran'thin(e, am''a-ran'thin,a. 
Pertaining to, like, or containing amaranth; un- 
fading; immortal; of purplish hue. 

a-mass^S a-mgs', vt. To heap up; accumu- 
late. [ < F. a, to, -\- masser, < masse, mass.] 
— a-niaN>i>''ineiit, n. An accumulation; heap. 

am^'a-teur', am"a-tur'. I. a. Pertaining to, 
like, or done by an amateur. II, n. One who 
practises an art or a sport, not professionally, 
out for the love of it. [< L.^ amator, lover, 
< amo, love.] 

am'a-tiv(e, am'a-tiv, a. Pertaining to sexual 
love; amorous. [< L. amatus, pp. of amo, 
love.] — ani'a-tiv(e-nes8, n. 

am'a-to-ry, am'a-to-ri, a. Characterized by 
or designed to'excite love; expressing or given 
to sexual love. [< L. amatol^; see amateur.] 

a-maze', a-mez', ^"^. [a-mazed'; a-ma'zing.] 
To confound or bewilder; astonish greatly. 
[< A-2 -|- maze.] — a-ma'zed-ly, a-me'zgd-li, 
«di?.— a-inaze'ment, «. Wonder; surprise; as- 
tonishment.— a-iiia'zing, pa. Causing amaze- 
ment; astonishing; wonderful. -|y, adv. 

Am^a-zon, am'a-z§n, n. One of a mythical 
race of female warriors; any female warrior; a 
virago. [< Gv.^ Amazon.']-— Am''a-zo'ni-an, 
am"a-zo'nI-an. I. «. 1 . "Pertaining to the Am- 
azons; warlike; masculine; bold. 5i. Pertaining 
to the Amazon river. II. ?t. An Amazon. 

am-t)as'sa-dor, am-bas'a-dgr, n. A diplo- 
matic agent of highest rank; minister plenipo- 
tentiary; any official messenger or agent. [< 
F. ambassadeur,< L. awftac^T/,?, servant.] em- 
"bas'sa-dor:!:. — am-bas'sa-dress, am-bas'- 
a-dres, ?i. 1. A female ambassador. 3. The 
wife of an ambassador. 

am^ber, am'bgr. I. a. Pertaining to or like 
amber. II. n. A yellowish fossilized vege- 
table resin, hard, brittle, and translucent. [< 
Ar.F ' anhar, ambergris.] 

am^er-gris, am'bgr-grts, n. A waxy sub- 
stance from the sperm-whale used in perfu- 
mery. [< F. ambre gris, gray amber.] 

am'^bi-dex'ter, am"bi-dex'tgr. I. a. Am- 
bidextrous. II. n. 1. One who uses both hands 
equally well. 2. A double-dealer; hypocrite. 
[< L. ambi-, on both sides, -\- dexter, right 
hand.] — am'^bi-dex-ter'i-ty, n. 1. The 

flutjure (future); aisle; au (owt); ©11; c (k); chat; dh (the); go; sing, i^ik; thin. 



state or quality of being ambidextrous. 2. Du- 
plicity; trickery.— am-^bi-dex'trous, am"bi- 
dex'trus, a. Able to use both bands equally well; 
very dexterous or skilful; dissembling; double, 

am'bi-ent, am'bi-gnt, a. Enclosing; encom- 
passing. [< L. ambi-, around, -f eo, go.] 

am-big^u-ous, am-big'yu-us, a. Capable of 
being understood in more senses than one; 
having a double meaning; equivocal; uncer- 
tain. [ < L. ambi-, around, -f cigo, drive.] 

— aiii-big'ii-oii8-ly, adv. — am^^bi-gu'i' 
ty, am"bi-gifi'i-ti, n. [-ties^, pi.'] The quality of 
being ambiguous; doubtfulness; an equivocal ex- 
pression. ain-big^u-ous-nesst« 

am-bi'tion, am-bish'un, w. 1. Eager or inor- 
dinate desire of power or distinction for its 
own sake. 2. Worthy eagerness to achieve 
something great and good. 3. An object of 
ambitious effort. [< L. amMtio(n-), < ambio, 
go about {i. e. to solicit votes).] 

am-bi'tious, am-bish'us, a. 1. Actuated or 
characterized by ambition; aspiring. 3. Pre- 
tentious; showv. -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

am'bl(e, am'bl. I. vi. [am'bl(e)d; am'- 
BLiNG.] To move with an easy, careless pace 
or with a swaying motion. II. n. An easy 
gait of a quadruped, in which both legs on one 
side move at once. [< L.^ ambulo., walk.] 

am-bro'sia, am-brO'zia, n. The fabled food 
of the gods; delicious food. [< Gr. ambrosia, 
< a- priv. 4- mbrotos, for mortos, mortal.] 

— am-bro'sial, am-bro'zial, a. Of or like 
ambrosia; fragrant; delicious; heavenly. 

am'bu-lance, am'biu-lans, n. A covered 
wagon for conveying the sick and wounded. 
[L.^ ambiilo, walli about.] 

am'bu-la-to''ry, am'biu-la-tO'ri. I. a. Per- 
taining to a walker or walking; shifting; not 
fixed or stationary. II. n. [-ries, jh.] A 

Slace, as a corri- 
or, for walking. 

am ''bus -cade', 
V. & n. Ambush. 

am'busb, am'- 
bush. I', vt. 1. 
To hide, in order 
to attack unex- Ambulance, 

pectedly. 2. To attack from an ambush; 
waylay. II. n. The lying concealed, to sur- 
prise or attack an enemy; also, the hiding-place 
or the persons hidden. [ < LL.o^ imbosco, < 
in, in, -j- boscus, < OUG. b^usc, G. busch, bush.] 

a-meer', a-mtr', n. The sovereign of Afghan- 
istan; a Mohammedan prince or governor. 
[< Ar. amir, ruler.] a-mir'$. 

a-melio-rate, a-ml'lio-ret, v. [-ra'ted''; 
-RA'TiNo.] I. t. To make more endurable; 
relieve; mitigate; improve. II. i. To grow 
better; improve. [< F. ameliorer, < a, to, -j- 
L. melior, better.] — a-me'llo-ra-bl(e, a.— 
a-me"lio-ra'tioii, a-nit'lio-rt'shun, n. An 
ameliorating; improvement. 

a"men', e'men' or {Muh.) fl'men', interj. So 
it is, or so be it. [< Ileb. dman, made strong.] 

a-me'na-bl(e, a-mt'na-bl, a. 1. Liable to 
be calletl to account; suljject to authority. 2. 
SubnuHsive; tractable. [< F. amener, bring 
to, < a, to, 4- m€7iei\ drive.] — a-me"na.bll'- 
l-ty, n. a-iiie'iia-bl(c-neHM:t.— a-iiie'iia- 
bly, adv. 

a-mend'<i, a-mend', v. I. t. To change for 
the better; correct; reform; improve. II. i. 
To become better in conduct. [<L.^ e, out of, 
+ menda, fault.] — a-meiid'a-bl(e, a.— o- 
inend'a-to-ry, a. Tending to amend; cor- 

a-mend'ment, a-mend'mgnt, w. 1. Change 
for the better. 2. The changing, as of a con- 
stitution, bill, or motion; also, any change 
made or proposed to be made therein. 

a-mends', a-mendz', n. pi. Reparation, sat- 
isfaction, or compensation. 

a-men'i-ty, a-men'i-ti, n. [-ties^,/?^.] Agree- 
ableness; pleasantness; suavity; (in the plural), 
things marked by such qualities. [< L. amce- 
nus, pleasant.] 

am'ent, am'ent, n. A catkin. [< L. amentum.'] 

a-merce', a-mgrs', vt. [a- 
" To 


mulct; fine; deprive. [< OF. 
a merci, at the mercy of.; 

A-mer'i-can, a-mer'i-can. 
I. a. Pertaining to the con- 
tinent or people of America, or 
of the United States. II. n. 

1. A citizen of the United 
States. 2. An inhabitant of 
the American continent. Ament. 

— A-iner'i-can-ism, n. 1. 
An American word, phrase, or usage. S* Amer- 
ican citizenship or spirit. 
am'e-tbyst, am'g-thist, n. 1. (Quartz of a 
clear purple or violet color; a precious stone. 

2. A purple violet color. [|< Gr.^'+OF amethys- 
tos, < a- priv. -f methy, wme.] 

a'mi-a-bl(e, e'mi-a-bl, a." Pleasing in disposi- 
tion; kind'hearted; friendly. [F., < L. ami- 
cabitis; see amicable.] — a"ini- a- bil'i-ty, 
C"mi-a-bil'i-ti, n. Sweetness of disposition; lova- 
bleness. a'iiii-a-bl(e-nesst.— a'mi-a-bly, 
e'mi-a-bli, adt\ Agreeably; complaisantly. 

am'i-ca-bl(e, am'i-ca-bl, a. Showing or pro- 
moting good will; friendly; peaceable. [< L. 
amicabilis, < amo, love.] — ani"i - ca - bil'l- 
ty. aiii'i-ca-bl(e-nc8s, n. The quality of 
being amicable.— am'i-ca-bly, adv. 

a-mid', a-mid', prep. In the midst of; among 
or mingled with. [< AS. on, in; iniddan, [and stern. 

a-mid'sbips, adv. Half-way between stem 

a-midst', u-midst', prep. In the center of; sur- 
rounded by; among; amid. 

a-miss', a-mis'. I. a. Out of order or rela- 
tion; wrong; improper. II. adv. Improper- 
ly; erroneously. [< a^ + miss', v.^ 

am'i-ty, am'i-ti, n. Peaceful relations; mu- 
tual good will; friendship. l< L.^ amicus, 
friend, < atno, love.] 

am-mo'ni-a, am-mo'ni-a, n. A colorless pun- 
gent suffocating gas; also, a solution of this 
gas in water, known as spirits of hartMliorn, 
aqua ainmunia, etc.— ai«"mo-nl'a.oal, am"- 
mo-nai'a-cal, a. Resembling, containing, or 
using ammonia, aiii-mo'iii-act. 

am"mu-ni'tion, am'miu-nish'un, n. Pow- 
der, ball, etc., used in thedischarge of firearms; 
resources for attack or defense. [< F. arnu- 
mtion, corr. of mutiition (see munition).] 

am'nes-ty, am'nes-ti. I. vt. [-tied; -tt- 
iNo.) To pardon. II. n. [-ties*, ;>/.] Agen- 

papfl, ^k| at, &lr; el©mfint, thfey, usfge; It, J, i (ee); o, 6h; orator, «r; full, rttle; but, ur; 



eral act of pardon of offenses against a gov- 
ernment. [< Gr. a- priv. + mnaomai, re- 

a-raong', I a-mung', a-mungst', prep. 1. 

a-mongsV, f In or into tiie midst of: mmgled 
with; snared by all of. 2. In the class, coun- 
try, or time of. [< AS. on, in, -\- viang, < 
(qe)inang, crowd.] 

am'O-rous, am'o-rus, a. Influenced by, per- 
taining to, or exciting to love or sexual desire; 
ardent in affection; enamored. [< L.^l*^'" aino, 
love.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

a-mor'phious, a-mer'fus, a. Without def- 
inite form; structureless; formless; uncrystal- 
lized; unorganized. [< Gr. a- priv. -f morphl, 
form.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

a-mount',* a-maunt'. I'*, vi. To reach in the 
aggregate or in effect; be equivalent: with to. 
II. n. A sum total; aggregate; result. [< 
OF. a-, to, -f- mont, mountain.] 

a-iiiour', a-mfir', 71. A lovc»affalr. [F.] 

aiii-pere', am-par', n. The practical unit of elec- 
trlc=current strength.— am-per'age, n. 

am-pb.ib'i-ous, am-flb'i-us, a. Living both 
on land and in water; suited to or comprising 
land and water. [< Gr. amphi, double, -f- 
6iOt*, life.] -\y,adv. -ness,?;. — am-phib'i-an, 
am-flb'i-an. ?;.* An amphibious animal. 

ain"plii-tlie'a-ter, / am"fi-tht'a-tgr, n. An 

am"plii-tlie'a-tre, f oval edifice having 
rows of seats which slope upward from an 
enclosed arena. [< Gr.i^ amphi, around, -|- 
theafro?}, theater.] 

ain'pl(e, am'pl, a. Spacious or capacious; 
large; complete; abundant; liberal. [< L. am- 
pltis, large.] — am'pl(e-ness, n. 

am-'pli-fy, V. [-fied; -fy'ino.] I. t. To en- 
large or expand in statement or treatment; add 
to. 11. i. To dilate; expatiate. [< F. am- 
pliflei; < L. amplus (see ample) -f facia, 
make.] — am''pli-n-ca'tion, am"pli-fi-ke'shan, 
n. Elaboration; augmentation; addition. 

am'pli-tude, am'pli-tiud, n. The state or 
quality of being ample; largeness; scope; ful- 
ness. [< L. amplitudo, < amplus, large.] 

am'ply, am'pli, adv. In an arapje manner; 
largely; liberally; sufficiently. 

am^pu-tate, am'piu-tet, vt. [-ta'ted"*; -ta"- 
TiNG.] To cut off, as a limb. [< L. ambi-, 
around, -|- ptito, trim, < puius, clean.] 
— am'^pu-ta'tion, n. 

am'u-let, am'yu-let, n. A small object worn 
to protect from witchcraft, accident, or ill luck; 
a charm. [ < L. amuletum, charm.] 

a-muse', a-miaz', r^ [a-mused'; a-mu'sing.] 
1. To occupy pleasingly; divert; entertain. 2. 
To excite to mirth. [< F. amuser, < a, at, + 
OF. muser, stare.] — a-muse'ment, n. Diver- 
sion; recreation; an entertainment, game, or 
spectacle.— a-mu'sing-Iy, adv. 

an, an, indef. art. or adjective. One, or any: 
used for the article a before words beginning 
with a vowel sound. [< AS. an, one.] 

an-, prefix, with values as follows: an-^, against; 
as, answer [< AS. aiid; see a-*]; an«-, on. In; 
as, anon [< AS. an; see a-1]; an-3, in; as.onoint 
[< L. ^n^\ an-'*, to; as, annul [< L. ad]: an-^, 
on both sides; as, ancillary [< L. an-, for ambi-, 
around]; an-^, up, back; as, anode [< Gr. ana; 
see ana-]; an-'', not; as, anarchy [< Gr. an-; 
see A-i<]. 

-an, sujix (often with euphonic -i-). Pertaining to: 
used in nouns or adjectives denoting country, ori- 
gin, race, etc ; as, Italian, amphibian, Lutheran. 
[< L. -anus, -ana, -anum, an adj termination.] 

ana-, pr^x. Up; back; again; anew; sometimes 
capable of being rendered re-; as, anabaptism, 
rebaptlsm. [< Gr. ana-, < ana (prep.), on.] 

-ana, sufflx (often with euphonic -«-). Pertaining 
to: connected with a certain notable subject, 
person, place, etc.; as, JohnsonIa?ia, etc. [L. 
neut. pi. of suf . -aiuis.] 

an-acli'ro-nisni, an-ac'ro-nizm, n. A chron- 
ological error; something occurring or repre- 
sented as occurring out of its proper time. [< 
Gr. ana, back, -f chronos, time.] 

an'^a-con'da, an'a-cen'da, n. A very large 
non-venomous tropical serpent that crushes its 
prey in its folds; a boa or python. 

an''''{es-tlie'si-a, etc. See anesthesia, etc. 

an'a-gram, an'a-gram, n. A word or phrase 
formed by transposing the letters of a different 
word or phrase. [< Gr.^ ana, anew, -f 
grapho, write.] — an'''a-gram-niat'ic or -ie- 
al, a.— an''a-grain-niat'ic-al-ly, adv. 

a-nal'o-gy, a-nal'o-ji, n. [-GlEs^ pi.] Re- 
semblance of properties or relations; similari- 
ty without identity. [< Gr. l+f qj^^^ accord- 
ing to, 4- logos, proportion.] — an'^a-Iog'ic-al, 
a. Containing or involving analogy, an'^a- 
log'ict.— an"a-log'ic-ai-ly, adv. Figura- 
tively.— an-al'o-gous, -gus, a. Resembling 
in certain respects.— an'a-logue, an'a-leg, ji. 
Anything analogous to something else. 

a-naFy-sis, a-nal'i-sis, n. [-ses, -siz, pi.] 
The resolution of a compound into its parts or 
elements; also, a tabular statement; logical 
synopsis. [< Gr. ana, back, + lyo, loose.] 

— an''a-lyt'ic or -ic-al, an'a-llt'lc, -al, a. 
Pertaining to or proceeding by analysis; resolving 
into first principles.— au''a-lyt'ic-al-ly, adv. 

an-'a-lyze, I an'a-laiz, t^<. [-lyzed, -lysed; 

an'a-lyse, f -LY"ziNG, -ly'sing.] To make 

an analysis of; examine minutely or critically. 

— an'a-lyst, n. One who analyzes. 
an'a-pest, I an'a-pest, n. Pros. A metrical 
an''a-paest, f foot consisting of two short syl- 
lables and one long syllable. [ < Gr. ana, back, 
-\-paid, strike.] — ^ an'^a-pes'tic or -paes'tic, a. 
& n. an''a-pes'[or -pa;8']tic-alt. 

an'arcli-ism, an'ark-izm, n. The theory 
that all forms of government are wrong and 
unnecessary.— an'areh-ist, an'ark-ist, n. A 
violent and destructive opponent of all govern- 
ment.— an'^arcli-is'tic, a. 

an'arcli-y , an'ark-i, n. Absence or utter dis- 
regard of government; lawless confusion and 
disorder; anarchism. [< Gr. anarchia, < 
anarchos, without a head.] — an-ar'cliic, an- 
ar'klc, a. Without or opposed to government; 
lawless. Rn-ar'chic-ali. 

a-natli^e-ma, a-nath'g-ma, n. [-mas or an'- 
a-them'a-ta, pi.] A formal ecclesiastical ban 
or curse; also, a person or thing anathe- 
matized. [< Gr. anathema, curse, < ana, 
up, + tithemi, place.] — a-natU'e-nia-tize or 
-rise, -talz, vt. & vi. [-tized; -ti'zing.J To 
pronounce an anathema against; utter anathemas. 

a-nat'o-my, a-nat'o-mi, n. [-MIEs^ pi.] 1. 
The science of the structure of organisms, as 
of the human body; also, a trectise on this 
science. 2. The art or practise of dissection ; 
also, a corpse or skeleton; hence, any emaci- 
ated person. [< Gr. ana, up, 4- temno, cut.] 

flutlflre (future); atsle; au (out); ell; c (k); chat; dli (the); go; sing, iiik; thin. 



— an''a-toin'ic-al, a. Pertaining to anat- 
omy or dissection; produced by dissection; 
structural as distinguistied from functional. 
an^a-tom'ici. -ic-al-ly, ads.— a-nat'o- 
inist, n. One skilled in anatomy.— a-nat'o- 
mize, vt. [-mized; -mi"zing.] To dissect; ex- 
amine critically; analyze, -iniset* 

-anc«, suffix. Forming from adjectives in -ant, 
and also directly from verbs, nouns denoting ac- 
tion, quality, or state; as, abundance, forbear- 
ance, perseverance. [< F. -ance, < L. -antia, 
-entia, termination used to form nouns from 
partlciples.l -an-cyl:. 

an'ces-tor, an'ses-t^r, n. A forefather; pro- 
genitor. [< L.OF ante, before, -|- cedo, go.] 

— an-ces'tral, a. Of , pertaining to, or in- 
herited from an ancestor.— an'ces-tress, n. 
A female ancestor.— au'ces-try, an'ses-tri, n. 
[-TRIES*, pl.\ 1, One's ancestors collectively. 
*J. Descent; noble or worthy lineage. 

an'ch.or, an'cer, ti. I. t. 1. To secure by 
an anchor. 2. To fix firmly; make secure. 
II. i. To come to anchor; lie at anchor; be- 
come fixed, secure, or abiding. 

an'clior, n. 1. An implement for holding 
a vessel to the bottom by means of a connect- 
ing cable, 2. Anything 
that makes stable or se- 
cure. [< AS. ancor, < 
Gr.!- ankyra, hook.] 

an'clior-age, an'c§r-§j, 
n. 1. A place fit for or 
used for anchoring. 2. A 
coming to or lying at an- 
chor. 3. That to which 
something is anchored; a -^ 
means of support or secur- 
ity. 4. The fee or equip- 
ment for anchoring. 

an'cho-ret, a^'co-ret, n. 
A recluse; hermit. [< Gr, 
choreo, retire.] an'clio-rite:]:. 

an-clio'vy, an-cho'vi, n. [-viesS pi.] A 
very small, herring-like fish, utilized for table 
sauce. [< Basque^p anchova, < antzua, dry.] 

an'cient, gn'shgnt, a. Belonging to or having 
existed from a remote antiquity; of great age; 
very old. [< ¥.ancien, < LL. untianus, < 
L. ante, before.] — an'cient-ly, arf v. In the 
distant past; of old. 

an'cicnt' , n. One who lived in ancient times. 

an'clent211, n. A flag or a standard-bearer. LCor- 
ruptlon of ENSIGN.] 

and, and, conj. A particle denoting addition: 
used as a connective, [< AS. and, and, and.] 

and'i"ron, and'ai'urn, «, A metallic support 
for wood in an open fireplace. 
Called also flre»dog. [< OF. 
andier, andiron.] 

-nne, srifflx. Same as -an: where, 
however, both the -an and -ane 
forms exist. It Is with a dlffer- 
cnvv. in meaning, as la human, 

an'ec-dote, an'ec-dot, n. A 
brief account of some inci- 
dent; a short story. [< Gr. 
anekdota, < an- priv. -J- ek, 


out, -f dotos, given.] - 
dot'ic.a. J . rcrtalnlng to anecdotes, an'ec- 
do'^tali. ti. Having the haJ)it of telling nnoc- 
dotos. nii''ee-dot'ic-aIt.— an'^ec-dot'lc- 
al-Iy, adv. 

a-ne'mi-a, ) a-nt'mi-a, -nl' [or -ne']mi-a, n. 

a-nae'mi-a, (■ Deficiency of blood; bloodless- 
nei?8. [< Gr. an- priv. -f haima, blood.] 

a-nein'o-ne, a-Eem'o-n§, n. A plant of the 
crowfoot family; a wind- 
fiower. {<Gv.^anemone^ 

an'e-roid, an'e-roid. I. 
a. Not employing a fluid. 
II. n. An aneroid barom- 
eter or battery. [< Gr, 
a- priv. + news, wet, + 
eldos, form.] — aneroid ba- 
rometer, an Instrument show- 
ing atmospheric pressure by the 
movements of the elastic top of an 
exhausted metallic box. 

an'^es-thCsi-a, I an"es-thi's!-a 

an^^8es-tlie''si-a, i or -the'si-a, n. 
Loss of physical sensation. [ < Gr. 
an- priv. -f aisthanomai, perceive.] 

— an''e8-[or -aes-ltliet'ic, an"- 
es-thet'ic. I. a. Pertaining to or producing 
anesthesia; making insensible of paiu. II, ?i. 
That which produces anesthesia, as ether. 

an'eu-rism, (an'yu-rizm, n. A tumor 

an'eu-rysm, j formed by a morbid dilatation 
of the coats of an artery. [< Gr. ana, up, -j- 
eurys, wide.] 

a-ne"W', a-niu', adv. As anew act; in a new 
way; once more; again. 

an'gel, en'jel. I. a. Angelic. II. n. 1. A 
spiritual being, especially one of celestial puri- 
ty. 2. A former English goHcoin worth from 
66\ M. to 10s. [ < Gr.^'+OF angelos, messenger.] 

an-gel'ic, an-jel'ic, a. Pertaining to, like, or 
consisting of angels; celestial; pure; beautiful; 
saintly, an-geric-al:;:. -al-ly, adv. 

an'ger, aij'ggr. I. vt. To provoke; irritate. 
II. n. Violent vindictive passion; sudden 
and strong displeasure: wrath; ire. [ME. an- 
ger, affliction, trouble.] 

ah'gl(e, an'gl, vt. & vi. [an'gl(e)d; an'- 
GLiNG.] To fish with rod, hook and line: with 
for. [< AS. angel, angtil, hook, fish-hook.] 

— an'ff ler, n. One who fishes with rod, hook, 
and line.— au'slins:, n. The act or art of fish- 
ing with rod, hook, and line. 

an'glei , n. The figure, concept, or relation of 
two straight lines ema- o 

nating from one point; 
a corner or point. [F., 
< L. angttlns, corner.] i 

In the strictest mathe- 
matical sense the word 
am/le signifies that rela- ft- 
tloh of the lines which Is a n i . 

measured by the amount Angit. 

of rotation necessary to make one coincide with 
tlie other. This amount Is commonly expressed 
In dee:ro('s. When the sides of an angle are per- 
]H'n(licular to each other. It Is a right angle (see 
fig. AOC); when loss than a right angle (as AOB 
or WOC), an acute angle; when greater than a 
right angle (as ]M)D), an obtuse angle: when the 
sides go out In oppo.sltc directions (as AOH), a 
.straight angle. Any angle not a right or straight 
angle Is an oblique angle. 

an'gle', n. A fish-hook; flshing-tackle; a 
fishing with hook and line. 

An'gle^, f). One of the early conquerors of 

papfi, ask; at, air; elgmgnt, thfey, ns^ge; It, g, fi (cc); o, oh; ©rat^r, or; full, rOle; but, ®r; 



Great Britain, from whom the country was 
called England (Angle»land). 

an'gry, an'gri, a. [an'gri-er; an'gri-est.] 
Moved with, evincing, or affected by anger; 
indignant; inflamed; keen; sharp.— an'gri-ly, 
rtrf».— aii'gri-ness, n. 

an'guisb., a^i'gwish. I', vt. & vi. To inflict 
or sutEer anguish. II. «. Excruciating men- 
tal or bodily pain; agony; torture. [< L.^f 
angro, choke.] 

an'gu-lar, a^'giu-lar, a. 1. Having an angle 
or angles; sharp^cornered ; pointed. 2. Meas- 
ured by an angle. 3. Pertaming to angles. 4. 
Bony; awkward and ungraceful. 5. Of a 
crabbed disposition. [< L. anguhis, corner.] 

— an'^'gu-lar'i-ty, n. [-tiesi, pi.] The 
state or condition of being angular, an^gru- 
lar-nesst.— au'gii-lar-iyj adv. 

an'il, an'll, n. 1. A West^Indian lndlgo«plant. 
ti. The dye indigo. [F., < Ar. al, the, -f nil, < 
Sans, nili, indigo.] 

an'il(e, an'il, a. Like an old woman; feeble- 
minded. [< L. anus^ old woman.] 

— a-iiil'i-ty, n. 

an^i-Iin, ( an'i-lin, n. A colorless oily com- 
an'i-line, f pound, the base of many coal'tar 

dyes. [< ANIL.] 
an'"i-nxad-vert''', an'i-mad-vgrt', vi. To 
pass criticism or censure; take note or cogni- 
zance: followed by upon. [< L. animadverto, 
< aTiimus, mind, + ad, to, -f- verfo, turn.] 

— an''i-niad-ver'8ion, an'i-mad-ver'shun, 
71. Criticism or censure. 

an'i-mal, an'i-mal. I. a. Pertaining to or 
derived from an animal or animals; pertaining 
to the bodily life of man. II. n. 1. A sen- 
tient living organism other than a plant. 2. A 
sentient creature inferior to man; a brute. 3. 
A debased and sensual human being. [L., < 
anirna, breath.]— an'i-mal-ism, n. The state, 
condition, or activity of mere animals. 

aii'^i-iiial'di-la, n. Plural of animalculum. 

an'^i-maFcule, an"i-mal'kiul, n. [-cules, 
-kiulz,p^.] An animal of microscopic smallness. 

— an''i-inal'cu-lar, a. Pertaining to or 
like animalcules. 

an''i-iiial'cu-luiii, -klu-lum, n. [-la, joL] An 
animalcule. [L., dim. of animal, anima^^.] 

an^i-xnate, an'i-met. I. -vt. [-MA'TEDd; -ma"- 
TiNG.] To impart life to; make alive; move to 
action; enliven; inspire. 
II. a. Possessing animal 
life; living; lively. [< 
L. aidma, breath.] an'- 
i - ma " tedl. — an '' i - 
iiia'tion, an"l-me'shun, 
n. The act of imparting or 
the stale of possessing life; 
liveliness; vivacity. 

an''i-mos'i-ty, an"i- 
mes'i-ti, n. [-ties*, pi."] 
Active and vehement en- 
mity; hatred; ill will. [< 
L. animosita(t-)s, < ani- 
mus, courage.] 

an'i-mus, an'i-mus, n. 
The animating thought or 
purpose; spirit; intention; 
temper. [L.] 

an'is(e, an'is, n. A small 
North-Af rican plant that furnishes aniseed ; an- 
iseed. [ < Gr. anison, anise.] — an'i-seed'", n. 
The fragrant warm =tastlng seed of the anise plant. 

a, root; 6, top. 

an-'klCe, an'kl, n. The joint connecting tL<- 
foot and the leg. \_< A^. ancleow.'] 

an'klet, an'klet, w. A band for the ankle. 

an^nals, SLn'a\z, A record of events in 
chronological order. [< L. annales, < annus, 
year.] — an'nal-ist, n. A writer of annals. 

an-neaF, ^n-nil', vt. 1. To render soft and 
tough by heating and then slowly cooling. 2? 
To flx (colors or enamel) by heating and cool- 
ing. [< AS. on-, on, -j- seldn, burn.] 

an-nex'S gn-nex', vt. To add or affix at the 
end; join; unite, as territory, etc.; attach, as a 
condition. [< L. ad, to, -f necto, bindj 

— an^'nex-a'tion, an'ex-e'shun,?*. The act 
of annexing; something annexed; an addition. 

an-nex', gn-nex' or an'ex, n. An addition; 
appendix; addendum. 

an-ni'hi-late, gn-nai'hi-let, vt. [-la'ted'I; 
-la'ting.] To reduce to nothing; destroy 
absolutely; also, to destroy the identity or or- 
ganization of. [< L. ad, to, + nihil, noth- 
ing.] — an-ni'^hi-Ia'tion, gn-nai'hi-le'shun, n. 
An annihilating; destruction; disintegration. 

an''ni-ver'sa-ry, an'i-ver'sa-ri. I. a. Re- 
curring annually. 11. n. [-RiES^, j!>/.] A day 
separated by a year or by an exact number of 
years from some past event; a commemorative 
observance on such a day. [< L. annus, 
year, -f verto, turn.] 

au'no l>oin'i-ni, an'o dem'I-nol or -ni, In the 
year of our Lord or of the Christian era: abbre- 
viated A. D. 

an''no-tate,an'o-tet, V. [-ta"ted<J; -ta"ting.] 
I. t. To make explanatory or critical notes 
on or upon. II. i. To make notes. [<\, 
to, -I- nota, mark.] —an ''no- taction, an"o-te'- 
shun, n. The act of annotating; a note or com- 
ment.— an'no-ta''tor, n. A commentator. 

an-nounce', gn-nauns', vt. [an-nounceb''; 
AN-NOUN'ciNG.] To give intelligence of; pro- 
claim; declare. [< L. ad, to, -f nuntius, mes- 
senger.] — an-nounce'nient, n. The act of 
announcing; publication; declaration. 

an-noy', gn-nei', vt. To be troublesome to; 
worry; bother; irritate.— an-noy'ing-Iy, adv. 
So as to cause annoyance. 

an-noy'ance, gn-nei'ans, n. The act of an- 
noying or that which annoys; the state of mind 
of one who is annoyed. 

an'nu-al, an'yu-al. I. a. 1. Eetuming or 
occurring every year. 2. Pertaining to the 
year; reckoned by the year. 3. Lasting only 
one year. II. n. 1. A book or pamphlet is- 
sued once a year. 2. A plant or other organ- 
ism living but for a single year or season. [ < 
L. a^?7?w^,year.] -\y,adv. Yearbyyear; yearly. 

an-nu'i-ty,gn-niu'i-ti, ?i. [-ties^, ^/.] An an- 
nual allowance or income. [< L.^ annus, year.] 

an-nuF, an-nul', vt. [an-nulled'; an-nul'- 
LiNG.] To destroy the force of; render or de- 
clare void; nullify; abolish. [< L.o^ ad, to, 
■4- mdlus, none.] — an-nul'ment, n. 

an'nu^lar, an'yu-lar, a. Pertaining to or 
formed like a ring; ring-shaped; marked with 
rings. [ < L. annulus, dim. of anus, ring.] 

an-nun'ci-ate, ( an-nun'shi-et, v^ [-a'ted''; 

an-nun'ti-ate, j -a"ting.] To make known; 
announce. [< L. anmtntio, announce.] 

— an-niin''ci-a'tion, an-nun"si-6'8hun, n. 
] . The act of announcing, or that which Is an- 
nounced; a proclamation. 2. (1) The announce- 

fiutlQre (future); aisle; au (out); ©11; c (k); chat; dh (<Ae); go; sing, iigik; thin. 



men* by the angel to the Virgin. Luke i, 28-38. 
(2) [A-] The festival (March 25; commemorating 
this event.— an-nun'ci-a'^tor, w. A person 
or thing that announces; a device for showing a 
number or name when a bell is rung. 

an'o-dyne, aa'o-dain. I. a. Having power 
to allay pain; soothing. H. n. Anything that 
relieves pain, calms, soothes, or comforts; an 

"^opiate. [< Gr. an- priv. + odyne, pain.] 

a-noint''', a-neint', tt. To put or pour oil 
upon, especially in sign of consecration; con- 
secrate. [< hM' in, on, -{- iingo, smear.] 

a-nom'a-lous, a-nem'a-lus, a. Deviating 
from the common rule; irregular; exceptional; 
abnormal. [< Gr. an-, not, -\-homalos, even, 
< homoft, same.] — a-nom'a-lous-ly, adv. 

a-nom'a-ly, a-nem'a-li, n. [-lies^, pl.^ De- 
viation from rule, type, or form; irregularity; 
anything abnormal. 

a-non', a-nen', ac?v. 1. In a little while; soon; 
presently; immediately. 2. At another time; 
again. [< AS. on an, in one.] 

a-non'y-mous, a-nen'i-mus, a. Having no 
acknowledged name; bearing no name. [ < Gr. 
an- priv. -f omjma, name.] -ly , adv. -ness, n. 

an-otli'er, g,n-udh'gr, a. & pron. Not the 
same; distinct; different; one more. 

an'swer, gn'ser, ^- "L. t. 1. To speak or act; 
reply in response to; acknowledge; obey; re- 
taliate. 2. To make or be a sufficient reply 
to; controvert. 3. To solve, as a riddle. 4. 
To be sufficient for. 5. To atone for; expiate. 

6. To correspond to; respond to reciprocally. 

7. To grant (a petition); reply favorably to (a 
petitioner). II. i. 1. To reply or respond. 
2. To speak or act in response to a call or ac- 
tion. 3. Tomeet a want; be sufficient. 4. To 
be responsible; atone; pay. 5. To correspond. 
[< AS. and-, against, -(- swerian, swear.] 

an'swer , n. 1 . A reply or response, especially 
one that is adequate and final. 2. Any action 
in return or in kind; retaliation. 3. A correct 
solution.— an'8wer-a-bl(e, -a-bl, a. 1. Re- 
sponsible; amenable; requiring or admitting of 
answer; obligated to answer, 'ii. Corresponding; 
adequate; suitable.— an'swer-a-bly, adv. 

ant, gnt, n. A small insect; an emmet; a pis- 
mire"^ [Contr. < AS. iemete.] 

ant-, pre,flx. Against, etc. See anti-. 

-ant, Hiiffix. 1. In the act or process of doing 
(what Is denoted by the stem): used to form ad- 
jectives with nearly the meaning of the ppr.; as, 
mlllta?t<, lltigaw*, etc. »J, One who does (what 
Is Indicated by the stem): forming nouns of ad- 

{ectlval origin; as, servaw^, one who serves. L< 
.,. -an{,t-)H, -en(t-).% ppr. suffix.J 

an-tag'o-nize, (^an-tag'o-naiz, v. [-nized, 

an-tag'o-nise, S -Ni8Ki);-NrziNG, -ni'sing.] 
I. f. To oppose, contend with, or struggle 
against; counteract; neutralize, offset, or 
check. II. i. To be or act in antagonism. 
[< Gr. anti, against, + agdnizamai, contend, 
strive.] —an-tan'o-nlsm, -nizm, n. Mutual 
resistance; opposition; hostility. -nn-tauf'o- 
nist, n. An adversary; opponent.— an-tasr''o- 
niH'tic, a. Opposed; hostile, -al-ly, adv. 

ant-arc'tic, ant-flrc'tic, a. Pertaining to or 
designating the south pole or the regions near 
it. [< ♦^'f- anfarkiikoH, southern.] 

ante-, prefix. Before. In time, order, or position; 
as.ara/^enatal. Compare anti-. [< 
L. ante, before.] 

ant'=eat''er, gnt'^ifsr? n. A mammal that 
feeds on ants. 

an^'te-ce'dent, an"t§- 
si'dgnt. I. a. Going 
before; preceding; an- 
terior. II. n. 1, One 
who or that which pre- 
cedes or goes be- 
fore. 2. The noun 
or phrase to which 
a relative pronoun 
refers. 3. pi. The 
facts, collectively, that have gone before in the 
history of a person or thing. 

an'te-dxam'^ljer, an'tg-chem'bgr, n. A room 
servingas an entranceway to anotherapartmei.t. 

an'te-date, an't§-det, vt. [-da'ted''; -da"- 
TiNG.] 1. To assign to a date earlier than the 
actual one; date back. 2. To be or occur 
earlier than (something else). 

an"te-di-lu'vi-an, an"te-di-lu'vi-an. I. a. 
Pertaining to the times, events, etc., before the 
flood; antiquated; primitive. II. n. A per- 
son, animal, or plant that lived before the 
flood; an old or old-fashioned person. [< 
ANTE- -\- L. dUinmim, deluge.] 

an'te-lope, an'tg-lOp, n. A deer^like animal, 
intermediate between cattle 
and goats, as the gazel, etc. 
[< (Jr.i'i'+*' antJiolops, an 

an'^te-me-rid'i-an, an"- 
te-me-rid'i-an, a. Before 
noon"; between midnight 
and the next noon. 

ant"e-met'ic, ant'e-met'ic. 
or preventing vomiting. II. n. A remedy 
used to allay or j)revent vomiting. 

an^'te-muii'dane, an"te-mun'den, a. 1. 
Pertaining to, existing, or occurring before i'cc 
world's creation. 2. Being or occurring before 
one's birth. 

an'^te-na'tal, an"te-ne'tal, a. Occurring or 
e.xisting l)cfore birth"; pertaining to conditions 
before birth. 

an-ten'na, an-ten'a, n. [-n.b, -ni or -ne, 2>/.] 
One of the feelers on the head of an insect; 
one of the horns of a snail. [L., sail-yard, < 
Gr. ana, uj), + teino, stretch.] 

an-te'ri-or, an-tfri-gr, a. 1. Antecedent in 
time; ])rior; earlier. 2. Farther front or for- 
ward in space; situated at or turned to the 
front. [L., < ante, before.] 

an'te-room'', an'te-rfim", n. A waiting- 
room; antechamber. 

an'tliem, an'thcm, n. A joyous or triumphal 
song or hymn, or the music lo which it is set. 
[< (;r.i'''+'AS anti, against, -\- phone, voice.] 

another, an'thgr,«. Bot. The pollen-bearing 
l)art of a stamen. [< Gr. ant/ios, flower.] 

an-tlioro-g:y, an-thol'o-jl, «. [-oies», pt.] A 
collection of choice literary extracts. [< Gr. 
ant/ia-i, flowt-r, + lego, gather.] 
— an''tlio-loK'ic-aI, a. 

an'thra-cite, an'thra-soit, n. Mineral coal 
of nearly pun- carbon; hard coal. [< Gr. 
ant/ira.r, co;\\.] 

an'thro-pold, an'thro-peid. I. a. Some- 
what like a human In-ing inform; manlike. 

Antelope. V25 
I. a. Allaying 

papa, gsk; at, air; el§m«nt, th6y, uegge; It, |, i (ee); o, dh; orator, «r; full, rfile; bot, Or; 


anthr op olo gy 

II. «. An anthropoid ape. [< Gr. anth7opos, 
man, + -oil). | 

an'''o-gy, an"thro-pel'o-ji, n. 
[-GiES^, j)l.\ The science of man. [< Gr. a?i- 
ihropos, man, + -ology, suffix.] —an'^'thro- 
po-log'ic-al, a. Pertaining to anthropology 
or to man. an'"tliro-po-log'ict.— aii^'thro- 
pol^o-gist, n. A student of or specialist in 

auti-, prefix. Against; opposed to; opposite to; 
corresponding to; in return for; instead of; equal 
to; like; mutually: commonly changed to a7it- 
hofore a vowel, and to a7ith- before the aspirate. 
1 < Gr. a7iti, against.] 

an'tic, an'tic. I. a. Odd; fantastic; ludi- 
crous; incongruous. II. n. 1. A prank; 
caper. 2. A clown; bull'oon. 3. A grotesque 
figure or play. [< L.*" antiqwus, ancient.] 

An'ti-clirist, n. An enemy of Christ; a false 
Christ. — an'^ti-chri-s'tian, a. Opposed to 
Christ or Christianity; pertaining to Antichrist. 

an-tic'i-pate, an-tis'i-pet, v. [-pa"ted<'; 
-PA'TiNG.J I. t. 1. To look forward to; fore- 
see; expect. 2. To act sooner than; forestall; 
prevent; foresee and fulfil beforehand; do, 
take, or use beforehand; foretaste. II. i. To 
do or consider something before the usual or 
proper time; cherish anticipation. [<lL,.ante, 
before, + capio, take.] — an-tic"i-pa'tIon, 
an-tis"i-pe'shun, n. The act of anticipating, in 
any sense; prevision or foretaste; expectation. 

an"ti-cli'max, an'ti-clai'max, n. 1. Rhet. 
A gradual or sudden decrease in the impor- 
tance or impressiveness of what is said: the 
opposite of c/imaa". 2. Any sudden descent or 
fall contrasted with a previous rise. 

an'ti-dote, an'ti-dot, n. Anything that will 
counteract or remove the effects of ])oison, dis- 
ease, or any evil. [< Gr. antidoto)}, < a7iii, 
against, + clidomi, give.] — an'ti-do"tal, a. 
Ilaving the nature or effect of an antidote; per- 
taining to antidotes. 

an'ti-mo-ny , an'ti-mo-ni, n. A silver'white, 
hard, crystalline, metallic element used in 
chemistry, medicine, and in the arts. [ < LL. 
a?iHmo72iu7n, antimony.] — an'^ti-mo'iii-al, 
an"ti-mo'ni-al. I. a. Of or containing anti- 
mony. II. n. An antimonial medicine. 

an'''ti-iio'ini-an, an'ti-nO'mi-an, ?<. One 
holding that faith frees the Christian from the 
obligations of the moral law: used also adjec- 
tivally. [< Gr. and, against, -f- notnos, law.] 
— an'^ti-no'ini-an-isin, n. 

an-tin''o-ray, an-tin'o-mi, n. [-mies^, jjL] 
Self-contradiction in a law; opposition of one 
law or rule to another; irreconcilability of 
seemingly necessary conclusions; paradox. 
[ < Gr. anti, against, -|- nomos, law.] 

an-tip'a-thy, an-tip'a-thi, n. [-thiess pL] 
An instinctive feeling of aversion or dislike, or 
that which excites it. [< Gr. UTiti, against, -\- 
pai/ios, feeling.] — an''ti-pa-thet''ic, a. Hav- 
ing antipathy; naturally repugnant or opposed. 

an-tip''o-des, an-tip'o-diz or -des, n. sing. & 
pi. A place on the opposite side of the earth, 
or its inhabitants; any person or thing dia- 
metrically opposed to another, or at the oppo- 
site extreme from another. [< Gr. ar?/^, op- 
posite, -(- pons (pod-), foot.] — an-tip'o-dal, 
an-tip'o-dal, a. 1. Pertaining to or situated on 
the opposite side of the earth. 3. Diametrically 

opposed.— an'ti-pode, an'tl-pod, «. 1. An 
exact opposite. 5i. One of the antipodes. 

an"'ri-an, an"ti-cwe'ri-an. I. a. 
Pertaining to antiquity or to the collecting of 
antiquities. II. n. An antiquary. 

an-', an'ti-cwe-ri, n. [-riess pi.] 
One who collects, examines, or deals in ancient 
objects, as coins, weapons, etc. [< L. anti- 
qmts; see antique, a.] 

an'ti-q.uate, an'ti-cwet, vt. [-qua'ted"!; 
-QUA'TiNG.] To make old or obsolete. 

— aii'ti-qua^'ted, pa. 1. Out of date; old= 
fashioned; obsolete. '2. Ancient; superannuated. 

an-tiq.ue', an-ttc'. I. a. Ancient in fact or 
in style. II. n. The style of ancient art, or 
an example of it; the facts and civilization of 
antiquity collectively. [F., < L. aniiquus, < 
a7)fe, before.] 

an-tiq.'ui-ty, an-tic'wi-ti, r<. [-tie^^, pi.] 1. 
The state or quality of being ancient. 2. An- 
cient times, people, or civilization, or anything 
belonging to ancient times. [< L. antigviivs, 
< an/iquus, antique.] 

an'^ti-sep'tic, an"ti-sep'tic. I, a. Prevent- 
ing or counteracting putrefaction, etc. -alj. 

II. n. Anything having antiseptic qualities. 
an-titli'e-sis, an-tith'o-sis, n. [-ses, sTz, w/.] 

1. The balancing of contrasted words or ideas 
against each other. 2. The direct contrary; a 
strorig contrast. [ < Gr. anti, against, -|- tithe- 
mi, place.] — an''ti-thet'ic-al, an"ti-thet'ic-al, 
a. Directly opposed; strongly contrasted, an''- 
ti-tliet'icl:. -ly, adv. 

an'ti-type, n. That which a type prefigures. 

ant'ler, ant'Igr, n. A deciduous bony out- 
growth or horn on the head of a deer. [< L.of 
a7ite, before, -|- ocidus, eye.] 

an'vil, au'vil, n. A heavy block 
steel, on which metal may be 
forged. [< AS. an-, on, -{-feal- 
da7i. fold.] 

anx^ious, anc'shus, a. 1. 
Troubled in mind respecting 
some uncertain matter. 2. Wor- 
rying; distressing. 3. Intent; eager; solicitous. 
[< L. anxius, < ango, distress.] — anx-i-'e-tv, 
an-zai'e-tl, n. [-tiess joZ.] Misgiving; solicltud'e; 
eagerness.— aux^ious-Iy, adv.— anx'ioiis- 
ucst^, n. Anxiety. 

an'y, en'i. I. a. 1. One (person, thing, or 
part) indeflnilely and indifferently; a; an; 
some. 2. Some (individuals) of a mimber, 
class, or total. II. pro77. One or more per- 
sons, things, or portions out of a number. 

III. adv. Somewhat; in the least; at all. [< 
AS. itiiig, one, any one.] 

a-or'ta, e-or'ta, n. [-t^, -tt or -te, pi.] The 
great artery springing from the left ventricle 
of the heart and forming the main arterial 
trunk. [ < Gr. aorte, < aeiro, raise.] 

ap-i, prefix. To: assimilated form of ad-. See ad-. 

ai>-2, prefix. From: form of apo- before a vowel. 

a-pace', a-pes', at^v. Rapidly; fast, [a-^.] 

a-part', a-part', adv. Separately; aside; by 
itself: t;sunder. [< F. a, to, -\-pa7's, part.] 

a-part'ment, a-part'ment, ??. A room or 
suite of rooms. [< L.^ ad, to, -\-partio, divide.] 

ap'a-thy, ap'a-thi, n. [-thtessj?/.] Lack of 
feeling, emotion, or sensation; insensibility; 
indifference. [< Gr. apatheia, < a- priv. -f 


fiutiure (future); aisle; au (owt); oil; c (k); chat; dli (the); go; sing, ink; tliin. 



pathos, suffering.]— ap-^a-thet'ic, ap"a-thet'ic, 
a. AVitliout emotion or feeling; unconcerned; 
impassive; stolid, -alt. -al-ly, adv. 

ape,ep. X. vt. [aped'; a'ping.] To imitate 
absurdly or elavisiily; mimic. II. n. 1. An 
01(1 World mau'lilie monliey, as a ciiimpanzee; 
any monkey. 2. A mimic. [< AS. apa, ape.] 

a-peak^, a-ptli', adv. Naut. In or nearly in 
a vertical position, as an anchor, etc. 

a-pe'ri-ent', a-pt'ri-gnt. Med. I. a. Laxa- 
tive. II. n. A gently purgative remedy. [< 
L. apei io, open, < a, away, -j- pario, get.] 

ap'er-ture, ap'gr-cliur or -ti]Jr, n. An open 
passage; orifice; hole; cleft. [< L. aperio; 


a'pex, e'pex, n. [a'pex-es* or ap'i-ces^, ap'i- 
Biz or -ces, pL] The highest point; tip; top; 
vertex (of an angle). [L., < apo, fit.] 

av\i-i prefix. SameasAPO-. 

aph-e'li-on, af-i'li-en, n. [-li-a, -li-a, ])l.'] 
The point in an orbit, as of a planet, farthest 
from the sun. [< ap-^ 4- Gr. helios, sun.] 

a'phis, e'fis or g'fis, n. [aph'i-des, af'i-diz, 
2)1.] A plant»eucking insect; a plant-louse. 
[< Gr. a- priv. -j- pheidomai, spare.] apli'- 
id (af'id)l:. 

aph'o-risin, af'o-rizm, n. A brief, senten- 
tious statement; proverb; maxim; precept. 
[< Gr. apo, from, -j- horizo, divide.] —aph'o- 
rist, n. A maker or user of aphorisms. — aph'''- 
o-ris'tic, a. -alt. -al-ly, adv. 

a'pi-a-ry, e'[or g']pi-e-ri, w. [-riesS;>/.] A 

Elace where bees are kept; also, a set of hives, 
ees, and appliances. [< L. apiarium, < 
apis, bee.] — a'pI-cuK'ture, n. Bee-keeping. 

ap'i-ces, ap'l-slz or -cSs, n. A plural of apex. 

a-piece', a-pts', adv. For each person or 
thing; to each one; each. 

a'pish., e'pish, a. Like an ape; servilely imi- 
tative; foolish and tricky, -l^fadv. -nesH,n. 

apo-, prefix. Off; from; away. Before a vowel 
apo- 18 shortened to ap-, and before the aspirate 
It Is modified to aph-. [< Gr. apo, from.] 

a-poc''a-lyps(e, a-pec'a-lips, n. 1. The rev- 
elation made to the Apostle John; any remark- 
able revelation. 2. [A-] The book of Revela- 
tion. [< Gr. apo, from, + kalypto, cover.] 
— a-poc'^a-lyp'tic, a. -alt. 

a-poc'o-pe, a-pec'o-p§, n. A cutting off or 
elision of tiie last letter or syllable of a word. 
[ < Gr. apo, off, + kopto, cut.] 

A-poc'ry-pha, a-pec'ri-fa, n. sinq. & pi. 
Fourteen books of the Septuagint and Vulgate 
not in the canonical Hebrew Scriptures, and 
held uncanonical by most Protestants. [< Gr. 
apo, away, + kri/pfd, conceal.] — A-poc'rv- 

f>lia1, a. 1. rcrtalning to the Apocrypha, i. 
a-1 Of doubtful authenticity; spurious, 
ap'od, ap'od. I. a. Without feet. II. a. A 

footless animal. ap'O-dant.— ap'o-dal, a. 
ap'o-gee, ap'o-ji, n. That point of the moon's 

orbit which is farthest from the earth. [ < Gr. 

a])o. from, -|- g?, earth.]— ap''o-ge'aI, -an, a. 
a-pol''o-get4c, a-pero-jet'ic. I. a. Of the 

nature or an apology. a-poI''0-get'lc-al$. 

II.??. An apology or defense. 
a-poro-gist, a-pel'o-jist, n. One who argues 

in defense of any person or cause. 
a-poro-gize, -gise, a-pel'o-jaiz, vi. 

I-gized; -oi'zing.] To offer an apology; find 

or make excuse. 

ap'o*log(,ue, ap'o-leg, n. A fable or moral 
tale. I < Gr. apologos, < apo, from, -f- lego, 

a-pol'o-gy, a-pel'o-ji, n. [-giess 2>l-] 1. 
A formal acknowledgment, as of error, offense, 
or incivility. 2. A justification or defense: the 
original meaning. 3. A poor substitute. [< 
Gr. fl;/)0to9'm, a speech in defense, < apo, away, 
-\- lego, speak.] 

ap'o-plitlieffin, etc. See apothegm, etc. 

ap'o-plex-y, ap'o-plex-l, n. Sudden loss or 
diminution of sensation and of the power of 
voluntary motion; a stroke of paralysis. [< 
Gr. ajJO, from, -\-plesso, strike.] — ap''o-plee'- 
tic, ap"o-plec'tIc,a. Pertaining to, afi'ected with, 
or tending toward apoplexy, -alt. 

Si--poTt\ a-pdrt', adv. Naut. On or toward the 
left or port (formerly larboard) side. 

a-pos'ta-sy, a-pes'ta-si, n. [-sies», pi.] De- 
sertion of one's faith, religion, party, or prin- 
ciples. [< Gr. apo, off, -f- histemi, stand.] 

— a-po8^tate, a-pes'tet or -tet. J, a. Guilty 
of apostasy; false. II. a-pes'tet, n. One who 
apostatizes.— a-po8'ta-tize,t'i. [-tized; -ti"- 
ziNG.] To forsake one's faith or principles. 

a-pos'tl(e, a-pes'l, n. 1. One of the twelve 
chosen by Christ to proclaim his gospel {Matt. 
X, 2-4). 2. Any zealous advocate of a doctrine 
or cause. [ < Gr. apostolos, messenger, < apo, 
off, + stello, send.] — a-po8''tl(e-8nip, n. a- 
pos'tol-atet.— ap^'os-tol'ic, ap''o8-tol'- 
Ic-al, ap'es-tel'lc, -al, a. 1, Of or pertaining 
to an apostle or the apostles. 2. According to 
the doctrine and practise of the apostles. 3. H- 
C. C/i. Papal. 

a-pos'tro-plie», a-pes'tro-fg, n. GratJi. 1. 
A symbol (') above the line, to mark the omis- 
sion, as of a letter, or to indicate the possessive 
case. 2. The omission so indicated. [L., < 
Gr. apostrophos, mark of elision.] — a-pos'tro- 
phizc^, vi. [-PHIZKD; -phi'zing.] To use tlie 
apostrophe; shorten a word by omission. 

a-pos'tro-phe', n. Rhet. A digressive ad- 
dress, as to an absent person, an attribute, or 
the Deity. [< Gr. apostrophe, a turning away, 
< apo, from, -f- strephd, turn.] — a-pos'tro- 
pliize^, V. l,t. To address by or In a rhetorical 
apostrophe. II. i. To deliver an apostrophe. 

a-poth'e-ca-ry, a-peth'g-kg-ri, n. [-ries», 
pi.] One who keeps drugs for sale and puts up 
prescriptions; a druggist; pharmacist. [< 
Gr.i'+*' apo, away, -j- lithhni, put.] 

— a-poth'e-ca-ries' measure, n. 
M'eiirlit, see measure, weight. 

ap'o-thegm, ap'o-them, n. A terse, instruct- 
ive, practical saying; a sententious maxim. 
[< Gr. ajX), from, -{- phthengomai, cry out.] 

ap'^o-tlie'c-slB, ap"o-tht'o-8is, n. [-ses, ;>/.] 
Exaltation to divine honors; deification. [< 
Gr. apo, from, + theos, god.] 

ap-pal', I ap-pSl', vt. [ap-palled'; ap-pal'- 

ap-pall^, f ling.] To fill with dismay or hor- 
ror; terrify; shock. [< L.^''^ ad, to, -\- palleo, 
be pale.] — ap-pal'ling-ly, adv. 

ap^'pa-ra'tus, ap'a-re'tus or -rg'tus, v. 
[-TUS or (rarely) -tus-es. /)/.] A complex de- 
vice or machine, or a set of tools, appliances, 
etc. [L., < ad, to, -\-paro, make ready.] 

ap-par'el, ftp-par'el. l.vt. [-ELEDor-ELLED; 
-EL-iNG or -EL-LING.] To clothe. II. n. Rai- 
ment; clothing. [ < L.*" ad, to, + par, equal.] 

papfi, gsk; at, air; el©m§nt, thSy, UB|ge; It, %, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, er; full, rflle; bat, m; 



ap-par'ent, (vp-pflr'^ut, a. 1. Clearly per- 
ceivea or perceivable; evident; obvious; vis- 
ible. 2. Seeming, in distinction from real or 
true. [ < L. appareo; see appear.] — ap-par'- 
eiit-Iy, rtrfw. Obviously or seemingly, [fantom. 

ap"pa-ri'tion, ap"a-rish'un, n. A specter; 

ap-peal', ap-pil', v. I. t. Law. To remove 
to a higher court. II. i. 1. To make earnest 
supplication; beseech; entreat; awaken re- 
sponse or sympathy. 2. Law. To take a 
cause to a higher court. [< L. apjyello, < ad, 
to, -j- pello, drive.] — ap-peal'a-bl(e, a. That 
may be appealed — ap-peal''er, n. 

ap-peal', n. 1. An earnest request; prayer; 
entreaty. 2. A resort to some higlier court or 
other power, as for sanction or aid. 

ap-pear', gp-pir', ri. 1. To come forth into 
view or public notice; become visible, plain, 
public, or certain, 2. To seem, or seem likely. 
[< L.F ad, to, -\-pa7'eo, come forth.] 

ap-pear'ance, gp-ptr'ans, n. 1. External 
show or aspect. 2. That which appears or 
seems; semblance. 3. pi. Circumstances 
or indications collectively. 4. A becoming 
manifest or public; advent; publication; a 
coming formally into court. 5. A phenomenon. 

ap-pease^, ap-plz', vt. [ap-peaskd'; ap- 
PEAs'iNG.] 1. To reduce to peace; soothe; 
placate; pacify. 2. To calm, still, or allay. 
[< OF. ahaisier, < a, to, -{-pais, peace.] — ap- 
peas'a-bKe, a.— ap-peas'a-bly, adv. 

ap-pel'lant, ap-pel'ant, n. One who appeals, 
in any sense. [< L. appello; see appeal.] 

ap-pel'late, gp-pel'et or -§t, a. Law. Per- 
taining to or havnig jurisdiction of appeals. 

ap"pel-la'tion, ap"el-le'shun, n. A name or 
title; theact of calling or naming.— ap-peFla- 
tiv(e, ap-pel'a-tlv. I, o. 1. Serving to des- 
ignate of name. 3. Denoting a class, as common 
nouns. II, 71. 1, A title; appellation. 3, A 
common noun. -ly, adr. •ness, 7i. 

ap-pend^'i, gp.pend', vt. To add or attach 
(something subordinate or supplemental). [ < 
L. ad, io, ■\- pendo, hang.] — ap-pend'age, ap- 
pend'ej, n. A subordinate addition or adjunct. 

np-peit'di-ces, n. A plural of appendix. 

ap-pen'dix, gp-pen'dix, n. [-dix-es, -dix-ez, 
or -Di-CES, -di-8iz, pi."] An addition or append- 
age, as of supplementary matter at the end of 
a book. [L., < ad, to, + j^enrfo, hang.] 

ap'^per-tain', ap"er-ten', vi. To pertain or 
belong as by right, fitness, etc.; relate: with 
to. [< L.*' ad, to, -\-pertineo, pertain.] 

ap'pe-tence, ) ap'e-tgns, -ten-si, ??. [-ten- 

ap'pe-ten-cy, f CEs^ -ten-cies*, pi.'] Strong 
craving or propensity; instinct or tendency; 
affinity. [< L. ad, to, -{-peto, seek.] 

ap'pe-tite, ap'g-tait, n. A physical craving, 
as for food; a mental craving; longing. [< 
L. ad, to, + peto, seek.] — ap'pe-ti'^zer, n. 
Anything that excites appetite or gives relish. 
ap'»e-ti''8er1:.— ap'pe-ti'^zing, pa. Giving 
relish; tempting, ap'pe-ti'^singt. 

ap-plaud'<', gp-pled', vt. & vi. To express 
approval of , as by clapping the hands; com- 
mend; praise. [< L. ad, to, -\-2Jlaudo, strike.] 
— ap-plaiise', ap-plez', n. The act of ap- 
plauding; acclamation; approval; praise.— ap- 
plaiis'ivCe, a. Expressing applause, -ly, «f<?;. 

ap'ple, ap'l, n. The fleshy fruit of a tree of 
the rose family; also a tree bearing such fruit. 

[ < AS. seppd, aepl, apple.] — apple of the eye, 
the pupil ur the eyeball; something precious. * 
ap-pli'ance, gp-lai'ans, a. 1. Something ap- 

plied to ellect a result; a devce; tool; an in 
strument. 2. The act of applying; application 

ap'pli-ca-'blce, ap'li-ca-bl, a. Capable of or 
suitable tor application; relevant; fitting. [< 
li. applico; see apply.] —ap'"^pli-ca-Ml'i-ty, 
n. L-TiESSjs?.] Thequallty of being applicable; 
suitability; fitness. ap'pli-ca-bUe-nessi.— 
ap'pli-ca-bly, adv. 

ap'pli-cant, n. One who applies; a candidate. 

ap"pli-ca'tion, ap"li-ke'6hun, m. 1. The 
act of ap'plying. 2. That which is applied, as 
a remedial agent. 3. That by which one ap- 
plies; a request. 4. Appropriation to a par- 
ticular use. [< L.^ applico; see apply.] 

ap-ply', gp-plai', t;. [ap-plied'; ap-ply'ing.] 

1. t. 1. To bring into contact with some- 
thing; devote to a particular use; test in a 
particular case; attach; refer to. 2. To give 
wholly (to); devote (oneself), as to study. II. 
i. 1. To make formal request; ask; petition; 
solicit. 2. To have reference, or adaptation. 
[< L. applico, < ad, to, -\-plico, fold.] 

ap-poinf'i, gp-peint', v. t. t. 1. To name 
or select (a person for a position); name a 
time and place for (an act or meeting); assign. 

2. To ordain, as by decree; command; pre- 
scribe. 3. To fit out; equip; furnish. II. i. 
To decree or ordain the doing of something; 
designate a person for a position. [< L.^ ad, 
to, ■^punctmn, point.] — ap-point-ee', n. One 
who Is appointed.— ap-poiiit^er, n. One who 
appoints.— ap-point'iiieiit, «. 1. (1) An ap- 
pointhig or being appointed; position or service 
to which one Is or may be appointed, station; 
ofllce. (2) An agreement, as for meeting at 
a given time; an engagement. "2, Something 
agreed upon; direction; decree; stipulation. 3. 
Anything for use or adornment; equipment. 

ap-por'tion, gp-pOr'shun, vi. To divide and 
assign proportionally; allot. [< L. ad, to, -f 
portio, portion.] — ap-por'tlon-ment, n. 

ap'po-site, ap'o-zit, a. Well adapted; appro- 
priate; pertinent; apt. [< L. appositns, pp., 
< ad, to, -\-pono, place.] -ly, adv. -ness, «. 

ap^'po-si'tion, ap"o-zi8h'un, n. 1. Gram. 
Tlie relation between nouns in the same subject 
or predicate and in the same case, where one is 
attributive or complementary. 2. A placing 
or being in immediate connection; application; 
addition. [<L.^ appositus; see apposite.] 
— ap''po-8i'tion-al, a. 

ap-praise', gp-prez', r>^. [ap-praised'; ap- 
PRAis'iNG.] To make an official valuation of; 
estimate; value. [< 'L.^^+of ^d, to, -f- W^- 
tiiim, price.] — ap-prais'al, n. An apprais- 
ing; omclal valuation, ap-praise'menti:.— 
ap-prais'er, n. 

ap-pre'ci-ate, gp-prl'shi-et, v. [-a"ted<'; 
-A "TING.] I. /. 1. To esteem adequately; 
perceive distinctly. 2. To raise in value. 3. 
To estimate. II. i. To increase in value. 
[< Ij.^\ ad, to, -\-pretium, price.]— ap-pre'- 
ci-a-bl(e, ap-prl'shl-a-bl, a. That may be ap- 
preciated; perceptible.— ap-pre'ci-a-bly, adv. 
— ap-pre^'ci-a'tion, ap-prrshl-e'shun, «. 1, 
An appreciating; true or adequate estimation or 
rocognltlon. tJ. Increase In value. 

ap'^pre-hend'^, ap"r§-hend', ^. 1. t. 1. To 
lay hold of or grasp mentally; perceive. 2. To 

flut|flre (future); aisle; an (owt); ©11; c (k); chat; dli {thQ)\ go; sing, i^k; thm. 



have an imprespion or opinion of; know par- 
tially. 3. To expect with anxious foreboding; 
be apprehensive of or concerning. 4. To ar- 
rest; seize. II. i. 1. To think or suppose- 
surmise; conjecture. 2. To look forward 
with foreboding. 3 . To grasp a truth or state- 
ment; perceive. [< li. apprehendo, <ad,to, 
+ prehendo. seize.] — ap''pre-hen'8i-bl(e, a. 
Capable of being apprehended.— ap'^pre-lien'- 
sion, 71. 1, Distrust or dread concerning the 
future. 2. Cognition; estimate; Idea; opinion; 
3. The faculty that apprehends; capacity. 4. 
Legal arrest. 5. A mental Image.— ap'^pre- 
heu'sivCe, a. 1. Antlclpatlve of- evil; anx- 
ious; fearful; suspicious. 2. Quick to appre- 
hend. 3. Responsive to sense-lmpreeslons. 4o 
Having cognizance; conscious. 

ap-pren'tice, sp-pren'tis. I. vt. [-ticed'; 
-Ti-ciNG.] To bind as an apprentice. II. n. 
One who is bound by indenture to serve an- 
other in order to learn a trade or business; any 
learner or beginner. [< L.^^ apprehendo, ap- 
prehend.] — ap-pren'tice-ship, n. 

ap-prise'i, ( §p-praiz', vt. [ap-prised', ap- 

ap-prize'i, (prized'; ap-pri'sing, ap-pri'- 
ziNG.J To notify; advise; inform. [<F. aj9- 
l>riSy < L. apprehendo; see apprehend.] 

ap-prise2 or -prize2. See appraise. 

ap-proach', sp-proch'. I', -ct. & li. To come 
or cause to come near or nearer to; make ad- 
vances to. II. n. 1. The act of approaching; 
a coming nearer. 2. Nearness; approxima- 
tion. 3. Opportunity, means, or way of ap- 
proaching. 4. pi. Advances, as to acquaint- 
ance, etc. [ < L.*" ad, to, -j-jyropius, compar. of 
prope, near.] — ap-proach'a-bl(e, a. -ness, n. 

ap'^pro-ba-'tion, ap'ro-be'shun, n. The act 
of approving; approval; commendation. 

— ap'pro-ba''tiv(e, a. Expressing or im- 
plying approbation.— ap'pro-ba-to-rj', a. Of 
the nature of or pertaining to approbation. 

ap-pro'pri-ate, jjp-pro'pri-et. I. vf. [-a'- 
TED^; -A'TiNG.] 1. To Set apart for a partic- 
ular use. 2. To take for one's own use. II. 
a. Suitable for or belonging to the person, 
circumstance, place, etc. [< L.^ ad, to, -f 
2>7'opnus, one's own.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

ap-pro''pri-a'tion, 8p-prO"pri-e'shun, n. 
An appropriating or something appropriated. 

ap-prove', ap-prQv', v. [ap-proved'; ap- 
pRov'iNG.] 1. t. 1. To regard as worthy, 
proper, or right; commend; sanction. 2. To 
show (oneself) worthy of approval. 311. To 
prove by trial; test. 11. i. To think with fa- 
vor: often with of. [< L.of ad, to, -\-j)robus, 
good.) — ap-prov'a-bl(e, a. Worthy of ap- 
proval. —ap-prov'al, n. Approbation; sanc- 
tion; commendation.— ap-prov'inB-Iy, adv. 

ap-prox'i-inate,}ip-prex'i-met,i\ [-ma'ted"*; 
-ma'ting.] I. it. &ri. To approach or cause 
to approacli closely without exact coincidence. 
II. sp-prex'i-met or -met, a. Nearly, but not 
exactly, accurate or complete; near. [< L.'-'' 
ad, to, -\- j)roxwiu8, superl. otpro})e, near.] 

— ap-prox'i-inate-Iy, rtfi».— ap-prox''l- 
ma'tiou, n. The act or process of approxima- 
ting; an approximate result.- ap-pr«x'i-ina- 
tlv(e, a. Obtained by or involving approxima- 
tion; approximate. -ly, adv. 

ap-pur'te-nance, op-pur't§-nan8, n. Some- 
thnig belonging or attached to something else 
as an accessory or adjunct. [< OF. aperie- 


nance, < L. ad, to, -|- perfmeo, pertain.] 

— ap-pur'te-nant, ap-ptjr'te-nant, a. Ap- 
- pertaining or belonging, as by right; accessory. 

a'pri-cot, e'pri-cet, «. A fruit intermediate 
between the peach and the 
plum, or the tree that yields it. 
[ < F. abricof.] 

A'pril, e'pril, n. The fourth 
month. [< L. Aprilis, < ape- 
rio, open.] 

a'pron, e'prunore'piJrn, «. A 
covering to protect or adorn the 
front of a person's clothes; an 
apron-like, adjustable covering on the front of 
a carriage. [ME. napron. < OF. naperon. A 
napron became an apron.'] 

a'''pro-pos', g'prO-pO'. I. a. Pertinent; op- 
portune. II. adv. 1. Pertinently; appropri- 
ately. 2. By the way. [< F'. dproj)os; a, to, 
-\- jn'opos, purpose.] — apropos of, with refer- 
ence to; as suggested by. 

apt, apt, a. 1. Having a tendency: liable; like- 
ly. 2. Quick to learn; skilful. 3. Pertinent; 
apposite. [< L. aptvs, pp. of ajw, fasten, fit.] 

— apt'ly, adv.— apt'ness, n. Aptitude. 
apt^i-tude, apt'i-tiud, n. 1. Natural or ac- 
quired adaptation, bent, or tendency; fitness. 
2. Quickness of understanding; readiness; 
aptness. [F., < L. aptus, fit, fitted; see apt.] 

a'qiia, 6'cwa or g'cwa,«. "Water. LL.] 

— a'qiia ani-ino'ui-{e« ammonia.- a. for'- 
tis, nitric acid.— a. vi'tte, distilled spirits. 

a-qua^ri-um, a-cwe'ri-um or -cwg'ri-um, n. 
[-RI-UMS or -Ri-A, pL] A tank or building for 
aquatic animals or plants. [L. , < aqua, water.] 

a-q.uat'ic, a-cwat'ic. I. a. Pertaining to, 
living, growing in, or adapted^ to the water. 
II. n. An aquatic animal or plant. [< L. 
aqvaticus, < aqua, water.] 

aq'ue-duct, ac'wg-duct, n. A water-conduit 
for supplying a community from a distance. 
[< L. aqua, water, -\- ductus, pipe.] 

a^que-ous, e'[or g']cw§-Ds, a. Pertaining to, 
made with, formed by, or containing water; 

aq'ui-lin(e, ac'wi-lin, a. Of or like an eagle 
or an eagle's beak; curving; hooked. [< L. 
aquila, eagle.] 

ar-, prefix. Euphonic form of ad-. See ad-. 

-ari, suffix. Pertaining to; like; as, regular-, sin- 
gular,- also, the person or thing bertalning to; 
as, scholar. [ME. -er, < OP", -er, F. -aire, •ier,< 
L. -arts (In nouns -are), used for -alis when pre- 
ceded by /.] 

-ar2, siiMx. A form of -art, -er: refashioned In 
Imitation of -arI; as, vicar, ME. \\cary, vik^r. 

-ar3, mfflx. A form of -kr: refashioned in imita- 
tion of -ar2; as, beggar. 

Ar'ab, ar'gl), 71. 1. One of the Arabian race; 
an Arabian horse. 2. [a] A homeless street 
wanderer, especially a child. [Ar.] 

ar"a-ljesque', ar'a-besk', n. Art. 1. Fan- 
ciful grouping of animal- and plant-forms, 
etc., as in Roman and Renaissance decoration. 
2. Flat ornamentation employing interlaced 
lines and curves, as in Arabian architecture. 
[< It.*" aral)e$co, < Arabo, Arab, ult. < Ar. 
Ai'ab.^ — ar^a-besque', a. 

A-ra'bi-an, a-re'bi-an. I. a. Of or i^ertain- 
ing to Arabia or its inhabitants. II. n. A 
native or naturalized inhabitant of Arabia. 

pcpu, gsk; at, air; element, th€y, us^ge; It, %, % (ee); o, oh; eratpr, or; full, rule; but, ur; 



Ar'a-bic, ar'a-bic. I. a. Of or pertaining to 
Arabia, its people, lan<juage, etc. II. fi. Tlie 
language of the Arabians. — Arabic figures, 
the numerals 1, 2, 3 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0. 

ar'a-bl(e, ar'a-bl, a. Capable of being plowed 
or cultivated. [< L. arabilis, < aro, plow.] 

ar'bi-ter, flr'bi-tgr, n. A chosen or appointed 
arbitrator or umpire; an absolute and final 
judge. [L., < ad, to, -f-Wto, come.] 

ar-bit'ra-ment, Gr-bit'ra-mgnt, n. Decision 
l)v arbitration or by an arbiter. 

ar''bi-tra-ry, flr'bi-trg-ri, a. Fixed, made, or 
done capriciously or at pleasure; absolute; 
despotic— ar'bi-tra-ri-ly, adv. 

ar'bi-trate, ar'bi-tret, v. [-tra'ted''; -tra"- 
TiNG.] I. t. To decide as arbitrator; settle 
by arbitration. II. i. To act as arbitrator; 
resort to arbitration. [< L. arbitror, < a?'- 
biter, arbiter.]— ar'^bi-tra'tion, Gr"bi-tre'- 
8hun, 71. The hearing and determining of a con- 
troversy by a person or persons mutually agreed 
upon by the parties.— ar'bi-tra''tor, ar'bi- 
tre'tgr, n. 1 . A person chosen by agreement of 
parties to decide a dispute between them. 2, 
One empowered to decide a matter; an arbiter. 

ar'bori, flr'ber, ?i. 1. Bot. A tree. 2. A spin- 
dle or axle. [< F, ai'bre, < L. arboi\ tree.] 

— ar-bo're-al, a. Pertaining to a tree or 
trees; living or situated among trees.— ar-bo'- 
re-oui^, a. Of the nature of or like a tree; 
forming a tree.trunk, as distinguished from a 
shrub.- ar'''bo-re8'ceiit, a. Tree^hke In char- 
acter, appearance, or size; branching. 

ar'bor^, n. A bovver, as of latticework, sup- 
porting vines; a shaded walk or nook. [Orig. 
herbcr, < LL.of herbarium, < herba, herb.] 

ar-bu'tus, flr-biQ'tus, w. BoL The Mayflower. 

arc, Arc, n. Part of the circumference of a 
circle: a bow; an arch. [F.,< L. arcus, bow.] 

ar-cade', Gr-ked', n. A vaulted passageway 
or roofed street; a range of pillared arches. 
[F., < It. areata, < L. arats, arch.] 

Ar-ca'di-an, flr-ke' [or -cg']di-an, a. Pertain- 
ing to Arcadia; ideally rural or simple; pastoral. 

ar-ca'uiiin, ar-ke'num or -cg'num, 71. L-J^a, jy/.] 
An inner secret or mystery, [L.] 

arch.', Qrch, v. I. t. To form into an arch; 
curve; span with an arcli or arches. II. i. To 
form an arch or arches. 

arch, a. 1. Characterized by merry and in- 
nocent cunning; polish; playfully sly; coy. 
2. Most eminent; chief. [< Gr. archos, chief.] 

— arch'ly, adv. — n.vcW\\e»s, n. 

arch, 71. 1. A bow'like curve, structure, or 

object. 2. Airh. A 

structure supported at 

the sides or ends only, 

and formed of distinct 

pieces no one of which 

spans the opening. [ < 

F. arche, for arc, < L. 

ai'cus, bow.] 
ar'^chae-oFo-gy* etc. 

See archeology, etc. 
ar-cha'ic, flr-ke'ic, a. 

Belonging to a former 

period; going out of «!>. spandrel; fc, keystone; 

use; antiquated. [< -P' P'^""- 

Gr. arc/i?, beginning.] — ar'cha-ism, flr'ke- 
Izm, n. An archaic word, idiom, or expression. 
arch'^an''gel, ark"en'jel, n. An angel of high- 
est rank; in Scriptural use, the archanqel. 

Eound Arch. 

arch'^bish'op, Srch"bish'up, n. The chief 
bishop of a province. — arch''bi8h'op-ric, n. 
The office and jurisdiction of an archbishop. 

arch'^dea'con, flrch"di'cn, n. A high official 
in a diocese, subordinate to the bishop.— arch''- 
<lea'con-ate, arcli'^dea'con-ry, «. [-ries', 
joZ.] Eccl. The office or jurisdiction of an arch- 

arch"di'o-cese, flrch"dai'o-8is, n. The dio- 
cese or jurisdiction of an archbishop. 

arch^dulce', Qrch'diuk', n. 1. A son of the 
emperor of Austria. 2. Formerly, one of sev- 
eral sovereigns in Europe.— arch-'MuVal, a.— 
arcli^'ducD'ess, arch'duch'es, 71. 1. A daugh- 
ter of the emperor of Austria. 2. The wife of 
an archduke.— arch''duch'y, n. [-uuch'ies*, 
pl.\ The territory or office of an archduke. 

ar"che-ol'o-g:y, | flr"k§-el'o-ji, n. [-gies», 

ar'^chae-ol'o-gy, fj?;.] The science or study 
of history from relics and remains of antiqui- 
ties. [< Gr. ar'chaios, ancient, + -ology.] — 
ar''clie-o-log'ic, ar''che-o-loK'ic-aI. ar"- 
ke-o-lej'ic, -al, a. Pertaining to archeology; 
versed in antiquities. — ar'^che-ol'o-srist, «. 
One who is devoted to or skilled In archeology. 
[All derivatives are spelled also archte-, etc.] 

arch'er, flrch'gr, n. One who uses the bow 
and arrow. [ < L.*" arctts, bow.] — arch'er-y , 
arch'er-l, »?. [-tes«, jt»/.] 1. The art or sport of 
shooting with the bow. 2. Archers collectively. 

ar'che-type, flr'kg-taip, n. A primitive or 
standard pattern or model; a prototype. [< 
Gr. archetyix)7i; see archi- and type.] —ar'- 
che-ty''pal, «.— ar''che-typ'icor-ic-al,rt. 

arch'fiend'", flrch'ftnd", n. A chief fiend; 
the devil. 

ar"chi-di-ac''o-nal, flr'ki-di-ac'o-nal, a. 
Pertaining to an archdeacon. 

ar''chi-e-pis'co-pa-cy, flr"ki-g-pis'co-pa- 
si, n. [-CIES, 2)1.] The rank and rule of an 
archbishop. — ar'^chi-e-pia'co-pal, a. 

ar"chi-pera-go, flr"ki-pel'a-go, n. [-goes» 
or -Gos», j)l] A sea studded with islands, or the 
islands collectively. [< Gr.!-*!' archi-; see 
ARCH- -\-pelagos, sea.] — ar'^chi-pe-lag'ic, ci. 

ar'chi-tect, flr'ki-tect, n. One who plans 
buildings, etc., and directs their construction. 
[ < Gr. a7xhitektdn, master-builder.] 

ar'chi-tec'^ture, Or'ki-tec'chur or -tjur, n. 

1. The science and art of designing and con- 
structing buildings or other structures. 2. A 
style or system of building. 3. Buildings, etc., 
collectively.— ar''chi-tec'tur-al, a. 

ar'chive, Gr'caiv, n. 1. pi. A depository for 
public documents: used mostly in the plural. 

2. A public document or record. [< Gr.iJ' + P 
archeion, a public office, < archo, rule.] 

arch'way'% flrch'we", n. An arched entrance 
or passage. 

arc'tic, arc'tic. I. a. Pertaining to, suitable 
for, or designating the north pole or the regions, 
etc., near it; far northern; cold; frigid. II. 
n. The arctic circle or regions. \_<Gv. arktos, 
bear, the constellation.] —arctic circle, the 
Imaginary circle, 23°27', that separates the north 
temperate from the north frigid zone. 

-ard, svfflx. Used to form from adjectives per- 
sonal nouns denoting the possession In a high 
degree of the quality denoted by the adjective; 
as, drunkard; sometimes changed to -ar<, as in 
braggarf. [< F. -ard, < G. -hart, < hart, hard.] 

fiut|ure (future); aisle; au {fmi)\ eil; c (k); chat; db (^Ae); go; sing, i^k; thin. 



ar'den-cy, Gr'dgn-si, 7i. The quality of being 
ardent; intensity; warmth. 

ar^deut, Qr'dsnt, a. Vehement in emotion or 
action; paseionale; intense; also, hot; burn- 
ing. [< L.<^^ arrf€0, burn.] -\y,adv. -ness, ?i. 
— ardent spirits, alcoholic distilled liquors. 

ar'dor, ar'd§r, n. 1. Warmth or intensity of 
passion or affection; eagerness; vehemence; 
zeal. 2. Great heat, as of fire, sun, or fever. 
[L., < ardeo, burn.] ar'dourj. 

ar'du-ous, flr'diu-us, a. 1. Involving great 
labor, hardship, or difficulty; difficult. 2. 
Toiling strenuously; laborious. 3. Steep and 
lofty. [< L. arduus, steep.] — ar'du-ous-ly, 
adt).— ar'du-ous-ness, n. 

are, flr, 1st, 2d, & 3d per. pi. pres. ind. of be, v. 

are, ar. n. A land-measure = 119.38 square yards. 
See METRIC SYSTEM uuder metric. [F., < L. 
area, area.] 

a're-a, e're-a, n. 1. Any open space. 2. A 
tract or portion of any surf ace. 3. Superficial 
extent. 4. A small sunken court in front of a 
basement. [L., open space.] — a're-ai, a. 

a-re'na, a-ri'na, n. The oval central space 
for contestants in a Roman amphitheater; any 
sphere of action or contest. [L., sand.] 

ar'gent, flr'jsnt, a. Like or made of silver; 
white; silvery. [< L.^ argenhim, silver.] — 
ar^'eren-tiPer-ous, a. Silver«bearing. 

ar^gil-la'ceous, flr"ji-le'shius, a. Contain- 
ing, consisting of, or like clay; clayey. 

ar'go-sy, flr'go-si, n. [-sies^, «;.] A large, 
richly laden ship, as formerly of Ragusa. [< 
It. Ragusea, < Ragusa, port in Dalmatia.] 

ar'gue, flr'giu, v. [ar'gued; ar'gu-ing.] I. 
t. 1. To urge reasons for or against; debate; 
discuss. 2. To influence (a person) by argu- 
ment. 3. To prove; show; imply. II. i. To 
present arguments; contend in argument; rea- 
son. [< L. a?'9'wo, show.] 

ar'^u-ment, flr'giu-mgnt, n. 1. A reason; 
evidence. 2. A course of reasoning by the use 
of evidence; demonstration. 3. Logic. The 
middle term of a syllogism. 4. A contest in 
reasoning; debate; discussion. 5. The plot 
or gist or a work; a summary, [< L. argu- 
menlum, < arguo, prove.] — ar''gu-men-tV- 
tion, n. Debate; argument. — ar^'KU-ni eu'- 
ta-tiv(e, a Pertaining to, consisting of, or 
marked tay argument; given to argumentation. 

-arian, svffix. Used In forming adjectives and 
adjectival nouns denoting occupation, age, sect, 
etc.; as, predestlnarfa/i. [< L. -arius, -ary, -f 
-anus, -AN.] 

ar'id, ar'id, a. Parched with heat; dry; bar- 
ren; profitless. [< L. aridus, < areo, be dry.] 
— a-rid'i-ty, n. [-ties*, p/.] The state or 
quality of belnp arid, ar'id-nesst. 

a-riglit', a-rait', a. & adv. In a right way; 
correctly; rightly; exactly. 

a-rise', a-raiz', vi. [a-rose', a-rOz'; a-ris'- 
EN, a-riz'n; a-ri'sing.] 1. To spring forth; 
appear; issue; originate. 2. To get up; come 
up; rise; ascend. [< AS.; see A-^ and rise.] 

ar"is-toc'ra-cy, ar'is-tec'ra-si, n. [-ciess 
pl.\ 1. A hereditary nobility; the chief per- 
sons of a country. 2. Government by a hered- 
itary nobility. [< Gr. aristos, best, + krated, 
rule.] — ar-is'to-crat, gr-is'to-crat. 71. A mem- 
ber of an aristocracy; u proud and exclusive per- 
son.— ar''iM-to-crat'ic. a. Pertaining to aris- 
tocracy; oligarchic; liaughty; exclusive, -alt. 

a-rithL'me-tic, a-rith'me-tic, n. The science 
of numbers and compululion, or a treatise upon 
it. [< L. arithmetica, < Gr. antlimos, num- 
ber.] — ar'^ith-met'lc-al, a.— a-rith^me-ti'- 
cian, a-rith"in§-tlsh'an, n. One who uses or is 
skilled in arithmetic. 

-ariuin, suffix. A termination forming noun.s 
denoting a place for (as, aquarmm), or that 
which confers or Is connected with. [L., neut. 
of -arius; see -ary.] 

ark, ark, n. 1. Scrijyt. (1) The ship of Noah 
{Gen. vi, 14-2^.). (2) The chest containing llie 
tables of the law {Ex. xxv, 10, etc.). (3) The 
papyrus cradle of Moses {Ex. ii, 3). 2. A flat* 
bottomed freight»boat or scow. [< AS. arc, 
< L. area, chest.] 

arm, arm, v. I. t. To provide with arms or 
armor; equip; fortify. II. i. To have or take 
arms. [< L. a?'mo, arm, < arma, weapons.] 

arm^, n. The upper limb of the human body; 
fore limb of a vertebrate; an arm-like part or 
branch. [< AS. arm.] — arm'hole", ;;>. An 
opening for the arm in a garment.— arui'pit'', 
n. The cavity under the arm. 

arm^, arm, n. 1. A weapon. 2. A distinct 
branch of the military service. See arms. 

ar-xaa'da, ar-me'da or -mQ'da, n. A fleet of 
war^vessels. [Sp.] 

ar'^ma-dil'lo, ar"ma-dil'5, w. An American 
mammal having an 
armor " like covering. 

ar'ma-ment, flr'ma- 
mgnt, n. 1. A land or 
naval force. 2. The 
guns and munitions of 
a fortification or vessel. 

ar'ma-ture, flr'ma- 
chur or -tiyr, n. 1. A 
piece of soft iron or wire-wound metal joining 
or rotating near the poles of a magnet. 2. Ar- 
mor; a set of organs. [< L.i' armo, arm.] 

arm'ful, flrm'ful, n. That which is held, or 
can be held, in the arm or arms. 

ar'mis-tice,flr'mis-ti8, n. Mil. A temporary 
cessation, by mutual agreement, of hostilities; 
a truce. [< L.^ arma, arms, -}- sto, stand.] 

arm'let, flrm'let, n. A little arm; an orna- 
mental band or armor for the arm. 

ar'mor, Qr'mur. \.vt.&vi. To furnish with 
or put on armor. II. «. A defensive covering, 
as of mail or of metallic plates, for a war-vessel, 
a divers' suit, etc. [< £.*■ armatura, armor.] 
— ar'mor-er, Qr'mur-gr, n. A maker, re- 
pairer, or custodian of arms or armor. — ar- 
ino'ri-al, ur-mo'ri-al, a. Pertaining to herald- 
ry or heraldic arms.— ar'iiio-ry, ur'niu-ri, 71. 
[-RIESX, pl.^ A place for the safe-keeping of 
arms, the assembling of troops, etc. 

ar^inour, etc. Same as armor, etc. 

arms, flrmz, n. pi. 1. Weapons of offense, 
collectively; also, formerly, armor. 2. The 
military service; war as a profession. 3. The 
official insignia or device of a state, person, or 
family. [< L.'' amia, weapons.] 

ar'my, flr'mi, n. [ar'mies*. ;>/.] A large or- 
(^anized body of men armed for military serv- 
ice on land. [< F. annee, < L. anno, arm.] 

a-ro'ma, a-ro'ma, n. [-mas* or -ma-ta, -mfl- 
td, ;;/.] Fragrance, as from plants; agreeable 
odor. [ < Gr.L ardma, spice.] — ar"o-inat'lc. 

papfi, gak; at, air; el©mgnt, th6y, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; ©ratgr, ©r; full, rule; but, Or? 



1. a. Having an aroma; fragrant; spicy. II, 
n. An aromatic substance. 

a-rose', a-roz', imp. of arise, v. 

a-round', a-rcund'. I. adv. 1. So as to en- 
compass or encircle all sides; in various direc- 
tions. 2. So as to face the opposite way or 
different ways successively. 3. From place to 
place; here and there. II. j5/'e/?. On all or 
various sides of; about. [< a-^ -f round.] 

a-rouse^, a-rauz', vt. [a-roused'; a-rous'- 
iNG.] To awaken; excite; animate; rouse. 
— a-rous'al, n. An arousing; awakening. 

a-row', a-rO', adv. [Poet.] In a row. 

ar-raign', gr-ren', ^^. ''1. Law. To call into 
court and cause to answer to an indictment. 

2. In general, to accuse. [< L.^f ad, to, -f 
ratio{n-), reason.] — ar-raign'ment, n. The 
act of arraigning; accusation. 

ar -range', gr-renj', v. [ar-ranged'; ar- 
ran'ging.] I. <. To put in definite or proper 
order; ogree upon the details of, as a plan; 
adjust; adapt. II. i. To make preparations; 
make an agreement or settlement. [ < F. a, 
to, -f- ranger, range.] — ar-range'nient, n. 1 . 
An arranging or that which is arranged; disposi- 
tion; order. 2. A preparation, measure, or plan. 

3. Settlement, as of a dispute; adjustment. 
ar'rant, ar'ant, a. Notoriously bad; unmiti- 
gated. [Var. of errant.] 

ar'ras, ar'as, «. Tapestry. [<^rras, In France.] 

ar-ray', ar-re'. I. vt. 1. To draw up in or- 
der of battle; marshal; set in order. 2. To 
clothe; dress. II. n. 1. Regular or proper 
order; arrangement, as for battle, display, etc. 
2. The persons or things arrayed; a military 
force. 3. Clothing; dress. [< OF. areyer, 
< a, to, -+- rei, order.] 

ar-rear', gr-rir', n. A part, as of a debt, over- 
due and unpaid: commonly in the plural. [< 
F. a/7ter«, < L. ad, to, -j- retro, backward, < 
re-, back.]— ar-rear'age, gr-rir'gj, n. Arrears. 

ar-rest'"*, gr-rest'. 1. vt. 1. To stop sudden- 
ly; check. 2. To take into custody. 3. To 
attract and fix; engage. II. w. An arresting; 
a stop, check, or stay; seizure by legal author- 
ity. [< L.oF ad, to, -f resto, remain.] 

ar-rive',ar-raiv',t'i. [ar-rived'; ar-ri'ving.] 
To reach or come to a destination, place, con- 
clusion, or result; come. [< F. arriver, < L. 
ad, to, + ripa, shore.] — ar-ri'val, gr-rai'val, 
n. 1. The act of arrivmg. 3. One who or that 
which arrives or has arrived. 

ar'ro-gance, ar'o-gans, n. The quality of 
being arrogant; haughtiness. 

ar'ro-gant, ar'o-gant, a. Having or showing 
excessive pride; supercilious; overbearing; 
haughty.— ar'ro-gant-ly, adv. 

ar'ro-gate, ar'o-get, vt. [-ga'ted^; -ga". 
TING.] To take, de- 
mand, or claim unrea- 
sonably or presumptu- 
ously; assume; usurp. 
[< L. ad, to, -f rogo, 
ask.]— ar^'ro-ga'tion, 
ar"o-ge'shuu, n. The 
act of arrogating; un- 
warrantable assump- 

ar'row, ar'o, n. A 
long, slender shaft with pointed head, to be 
shot from a bow. [< AS. arewe, arh, arrow.] 

Indian Arrow-heads. 

— ar'rowsheaiV', n. The sharp^pointed 
head of an arrow.— ar'row-y, ar'o-i, a. Like 
an arrow; swift; sharp; direct; also consisting 
of arrows. 

ar'row-root'", ar'o-riit", n. A nutritious 
starch obtained from a tropical American 
plant; also, the plant. 

ar'se-nal, flr'sg-nal, n. A public repository 
or manufactory of arms and munitions of war. 
[< Ar.^p ddvag'Qi' na' ah, workshop.] 

ar'se-nic, flr'sg-nic, n. A volatile chemical 
element; also, a white, tasteless, poisonous 
compound of this element with oxygen, arsenic 
trioxid. [< Gr.^^^ arsenikon, < arsen, male.] 

ar'son, flr'sgn, n. The malicious burning of a 
dwelling or other structure. [OF., < ardoir, 
< L. ardeo, burn.] 

art, art, 2d per. sing.pres. ind. of bk, v. 

art, n. 1. Skill in attaining some practical 
result; also, a system of rules for its attain- 
ment; dexterity; facility; a branch of prac- 
tical learning. 2. The embodiment of beauti- 
ful thought in artistic forms; also, the works 
thus produced, collectively, the principles in- 
volved, or the artistic skill required in their 
construction. 3. Craft; cunning. 4. An or- 
ganized body of trained craftsmen; a gild. 
T< L.P ar(^)s, skill.] —fine arts, the arts of 
beauty, as painting, sculpture, music, and poetry. 

ar'ter-y , flr'tgr-i, n. [-ies^, pl.\ One of the 
muscular tubular vessels which convey blood 
away from the heart; any great channel. [< 
Gt.^ arteria, prob. < airo, raise.] — ar-te'ri-al, 
ar-ti'ri-al, a. Pertaining to, contained in, or like 
the arteries or an artery.— ar-te'ri-al-ize, vt. 
To change (venous blood) to arterial blood. 

Ar-te'sian, Qr-tl'zhan, a. Of or pertaining 
to Artois, France, or a kind of well originating 
there. — Artesian well, a well bored down to 
a depth where the water»pressure is so great as 
to force the water out at the surface. 

art'ful, flrt'ful, a. 1. Craftv; cunning; 
tricky. 2. Artificial. 3. Skilful; ingenious. 

— art'lul-ly, adv.— art'ful-ness, 7i. 
Ar-tlirop'o-da, Qr-threp'o-da, n. pi. Zool. A 

subkingdom of animals, including invertebrates 
with j(*inted legs, as insects, spiders, and crabs. 
[< Gr. arthron, joint, -^pous (pod-), foot.] 

— ar'tliro-pod, a. & n. 
ar'ti-choke, flr'ti-chok, n. A thistle«like 

garden plant or its edible head. 

ar'ti-cle, flr'ti-cl. I. vt. [-cled; -cling.] 
To bind by or set forth in articles. 11. n. 1. 
A particular thing; a definite part, item, or 
point. 2. A brief composition! essay; paper. 
3. A single proposition of a series. 4. One of 
a class of limiting adjectives, as, a, an, and 
the. [ < L. articulus, dim. of artus, joint.] 

ar-tic'u-lar, ar-tic'yu-lar, a. Pertaining to 
an articulation or joint. 

Ar-tic/'u-la'ta, ar-tlc"yu-le'ta or -Ig'ta, n. pi. 
Zool. A subkingdom of animals, originally em- 
bracing all with a segmented body, as arthropods 
and worms. 

ar-tic'u-late, ar-tic'yu-let, v. [-la'ted"*; 
-LA'TiNG.] I. t. 1. To utter articulately; 
pronounce; enunciate. 2. To joint together. 
II. i. 1. To utter articulate sounds. 2. To 
unite by joints.— ar-tie'''ii-la'tion, n. 1 . The 
utterance of articulate sounds; enunciation; dis- 
tinct utterance; an articulate sound. 2. A joint- 
ing, or being jointed, together; joint. 

fiuttllre (future): aisle: au (ouiV. oil: c (k); chat; db {thQ)\ go; sing, iigik,- thin. 



ar-tic'u-late,ar-tic'ya-let, a. 1. Divided into 
consecutive syllables; united to form speecli. 
2. Clear; distinct. 3. Jointed; segmented.— 
ar-tic'ii-late-ly, arf?;. 1. By joints. »J. By 
articles. 3. With articulate sounds; distinctly. 

ar-tic'U-late, n. An invertebrate animal 
with segmented body; one of tha Artieulata. 
r < L. ai'ticulus; see article.] 

af'ti-fice, (Ir ti-fis, n. Subtle or deceptive art; 
trickery; strategy; stratagem; maneuver. [< 
L. ar(t-)s, art, -\-facio, make.] 

ar-tif'i-cer, Gr-tif'i-sgr, n. A skilful handi- 
craftsman ; also, an inventor or contriver. 

ar"ti-fl'cial, flr'ti-fish'al, a. 1. Produced by 
art rather than by nature. 2. Not genuine or 
natural; affected. 3. Not pertaining to the 
essence of a matter. — ar''ti-fl'cial-ly, adv. 

ar-til'ler-y, ar-til'gr-i, n. 1. Cannon, or that 
branch of military service which operates it. 
2. Engines or implements of ancient warfare. 
[< F. artillerie, < OP. artUler, fortify.] 

ar'ti-san.'', flr'ti-zan", n. A trained workman; 
superior mechanic. [F., < It. artigiano.] 

art'ist, Qrt'ist, n. 1. One who is skilled in 
art or who makes a profession of any of the 
fine arts. 2. One who works artisticallv. [< 
F. artiste, < L. ar{t-)s, art.] — ar-tis'tic, ar- 
tis'tic-al, a. Of or pertaining to art or artists; 
conformable to the principles of art; tastefully 
executed. — ar-tis'tic-al-ly, adth In an ar- 
tistic manner; from an artistic point of view. 

artless, flrt'les, a. 1. Without craft or de- 
ceit; unaffected; ingenuous. 2. Without ar- 
tistic skill or taste, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

-ary, suffix. Denoting In nouns, persons, things, 
or places; as, a notav!/, lihrary; also used to 
form adjectives; as, primari^. L< L- -ftriu-s: 
confused often with -ari-s.] 

Ar'yan, flr'yun. I. a. Of or pertaining to 
the Aryans. II. n. One of the primitive 
peoples of central Asia or of any of the races 
descended from them; the Aryan languages, 
also known as Indo-European and IndO' Ger- 
manic. [< Sans, a/'ya, noble.] 

as, az, adv. & conj. Like; for instance; in the 
character or under the name of; when; be- 
cause; since. [< AS. eal swa, entirely so.] 

as''a-fet'i-da, as"a-fet'i-da, n. A fetid drug 
j)repared from the juice of certain plants of the 
parsley family. [< Per. aza, mastic, -f- L. 
fmtidax; see fetid.] 

as-bes'tos, as-bes'tgs, n. A fibrous fireproof 
mineral. [< Gr.i' a- priv. -\- sbennymiy ex- 

as c end''', as-send', nt. & vi. To go or move 
tii)\vard on; move or slope upwara; mount; 
climb; rise. [< L. ad, to, -|- scando, climb.] 

as-cend'en-cy, | us-send'gn-si, -an-si, n. 

as-cend'an-cy, f Paramount influence; dom- 
ination; sway. 

as-cend'ent I as-send'gnt, -ant. I. a. 1. 

as-cend'ant, S Ascending; rising; coming to 
or above the horizon. 2. Superior; dominant. 
II. n. Preeminence; domination. 

as-cen'sion, tts-sen'shun, n. 1. The act of 
ascending. 2. FA-] Christ's visible ascent 
from the earth ; aiSO, Ascension day (tlie 40th 
day after Easter). 

as-cent', }js-sent', n. The act of ascending; a 
rising, soaring, or climbing; promotion; away 
of ascending; an acclivity. 

as^'cer-tain', as"gr-ten', vt. To learn with 
certainty about; find out; make certain; deter- 
mine; define. [< OF. a, to, -\- certain; see 
CERTAIN.] — as'^cer-taia'a-b^e, a. 

as-cet'ic, as-set'ic. I. a. Practising extreme 
abstinence and devotion; severely self-deny- 
ing. II. n. One excessively austere and self- 
denying; a hermit; recluse. [< Gv.asketikos, 
< asked, exercise.] — asrcet'ic-al-Iy, adv.— 
as-cet'i-cism, n. Ascetic belief and conduct. 

as-cribe', as-craib', vt. [as-cribed'; as-cri'- 
BiNG.] To refer, as to a cause or source; at- 
tribute; impute; assign. [< L. ad, to, -f 
scribo, write.] — a8-cri''ba-bl(e, a. — as-crip'- 
tion, as-crip'shnn, n. The act of ascribing; an 
expression ascribing, or that which is ascribed. 

a-sep'tic, a-sep'tic, a. Exempt from septic 
or blood-poisoning conditions; free from dis- 
easc'germs or tendency to putrefaction. [< 
A-i* 4- septic] 

a-sex'u-al, g-sex'yu-al, a. Having no sex; 
without sexual agency. [< a-^"* -|- sexual.] 

ashi, ash, n. A forest tree of the olive family, 
or its light, tough, elastic wood. [< AS. 3Bsc.] 

asli2, n. 1. The 
powdery residue 
of a substance 
that has been 
burnt: usually in 
the plural. 2. pi. 
Remains of the 
dead, or of per- 
ished hopes, 
plans, etc. [< 
AS. sesce.'] 

a-sbamed', a- 
shemd', a. 1. Feeling shame; confused by 
consciousness of fault or impropriety; abashed. 

2. Deterred by fear of shame; reluctant: fol- 
lowed by an infinitive. 

asb'enS ash'gn, a. Pertaining to or made of 

the ash. 
ash'en^, a. Of, pertaining to, or like ashes; 

awli'es, ash'ez, n. pi. See ash". 
asb'lar, I ash'lar, -Igr, n. Masonry. 1. A 
asb'ler, j block of stone. 2. A squared stone. 

3. Mason^work of sjjuared stones. [< L.o*" 
axillaris, < axilla, dim. of axis, board.] 

a-sbore', a-shor', adv. To or on the shore; 
on land; aground; not on a vessel, nor at sea. 

Asb "Wednesday. The first day of Lent. 

asb'y, ash'i, a. Of, pertaining to, or like 
ashes; ash»covered; asn»colortKl ; ashen. 

a-side^, a-said'. I. «. Something said or 
done aside. II. adv. 1. On or to one side; 
away; off; apart. 2. So as not to be over- 
heard, actually or apparently. [ < A-' -j- side.] 
— to set awide (//</w). toannul. 

as'i-nine, as'i-nin cw -nain, a. Pertaining to 
or like an ass; stupid; silly. [< L. aMnus, 
ass.] — as''l-nln'i-ty, n. 

asks gsk, v. I. t. 1. To make a request for 
or of; solicit; demand; claim. 2. To put 
questions to or about. 3. To invite. II. i. 
1. To make request; petition. 2. To make 
inquiries; inquire. [< AS. dscian, ask.] 

a-skance', a-skgns', adv. With a side glance; 
sidewise; disdainfully; distrustfully. !.< A-> 
4- skance.] a-skant'$. 


Tree? 2. Leaflet. 

papCI, Qsk; at, air; el^msnt. they, usfge; It, %, i. (ee); o, oh; erat^r, Sr; full, rfile; bot, At; 



a-skew', a-skiu', a. & adv. In an oblique 
position or manner; awry; askance. 

a-slaut', a-slgnt', I. a. & adv. In a slant- 
ing direction or position; oblique; obliquely. 
II. p?'ep. Across or over in a slanting direc- 
tion or position; athwart. 

a-sleep', a-slip', a. & adv. In or into a state 
of sleep; dormant; dead; benumbed. [tion. 

a-slope', a-slop', a. & adv. In a sloping posi- 

asp, gsp, /;. A venomous serpent, as the Euro- 
pean viper. [< Gr.L asjn{d-)s., viper.] 

as-par^a-gus, as-par'a-gus, n. The succu- 
lent edible shoots of a plant of the lily fam- 
ily; also, the plant. [L., < Per.^r aspar'ag, 

as'pect, as'pect, n. 1. Appearance or expres- 
sion; mien; look. 2. A view or phase. 3. 
A given side or surface; exposure; outlook. 
[ < L. ad, to, + specio, look.] 

asp'en, asp'en. I. a. Of or pertaining to the 
aspen; hence, shaking; tremulous. II. n. A 
poplar with tremulous leaves, of North Amer- 
ica or of Europe. 
[< AS. a^sp.] 

as-per'i-ty, as- 
p e r ' i - 1 i , ?i. 
[-TIES^, pi.] 
Roughness ox 
harshness, as of 
temper; also, 
hardship; diffi- 
culty. [< L. a«- 
per, rough.] 

as-perse^ as- 
Pijrs', rt. [as- 
persed"; AS- 
PEKs'iNG.] l.To Aspen, 

censure harshly «> branch; b, ament; c, tree, 
and falsely; calumniate; slander. 2. To be- 
sprinkle or bespatter. [< L. ad, to, -}- sparr/o, 

— as-per'sion, as-pgr'shun, n. 1. Slander; 
a'slanderous report or charge. »i. Sprinkling. 

as'phalt, as'falt, «. 1. Mineral pitch; hard 
bitumen. 2. A bituminous composition for 
pavements, etc. [< Gr. asphalfos.] as- 
phartum:}:.— as-phal'tic, a. 

as-phyx'i-a, as-fix'i-a, n. Suffocation. [< 
Gr. a- priv. + f<phyzd, beat.] — as-phyx'i-ate, 
as-flx'i-et, rt. [-a"ted<1; -a'ting.] To suffocate. 

as-pir'ant, as-pair'ant. I. a. Aspiring. II. 
n. One who aspires; a seeker for honors or 
place; a candidate. 

as'pi-rate, as'pi-ret. I. vt. [-ra'ted*'; -ra'- 
TiNG.l 1. To utter with a breathing or as if 
preceded by the letter h. 2. To draw out, as 
gas, by suction. II. as'pi-ret w -ret, a. Ut- 
tered with an aspirate or strong h sound, as'- 
pi-ra'^tedj. III. as'pi-ret, n. The letter 
h, or its sound. [< L. anpiro; see aspire.] 

as"pi-ra'tion, as"pi-re'8hun, n. 1. The act 
of jispiring; exalted desire. 2. The act or ef- 
fect of aspirating. 3. The drawing in of air; 
a breath; inspiration; suction. 

as-pire', gs-pair', v. [as-pired'; as-pir'ing.] 
I. i. 1. To have an earnest desire for some- 
thing high and good. 2. To reach upward; 
ascend. II. t. To long for; aim at. [< L.f 
ad, to, -f spiro, breathe.] — as-pir'ing, pa. 
Eager for attainment or advancement. 

a-sqiiint', o-skwint', a. & adv. With sidelong 
glance, squintlngly; askance; squinting. 

ass, Qs, ?i. [ass'es, «/.] A long=eared equine 
quadruped smaller than the ordinary horse; an 
obstinate or stupid person. .[< AS. assa.] 

as'^sa-fet'i-da, n. See asafetida. 

as'sa-gai, / as'a-gai, -§-gai, n. A light spear, 

as'se-gai, fused by Zulus, Kafirs, etc. 

as-saiF, gs-sel', vt. To attack violently with 
force, or with argument, censure, or the like; 
assault. [< L. ad, to, -\- salio, rush.] 

— as-sail'a-bKe, a.— as-saiFant. I. a. 
Attacking; hostile. II. n. One who assails. 

as-sas'sin, gs-sas'in, n. One who assassin- 
ates. [F., < Ar. Hashshdshm, hashish^eaters.] 

as-sas'sin-ate, gs-sas'ln-et, v. [-a'ted*"; 
-a'ting.] I. t. To kill by secret or treacher- 
ous assault. II. i. To commit treacherous 
murder.— as-sas'^sin-a'tioii, n. The act of 
assassinating; secret or treacherous murder. 

as-sault', gs-selt'. P. vt. To attack with 
violence; 'also, to assail by words, etc. II. n. 
Any act, speech, or writing assailing a per- 
son or an institution; attack; charge of troops. 
[< L.LL+F ad, to, + salio, leap.] 

as-say', §s-se', v. I. t. 1. To subject to an 
r.ssay. 2. To attempt; essay; prove; test. 
II. l. 1. To show by test a certain value. 2||. 
To endeavor. [< L.of exigo, prove, < ex, out, 
+ ago, drive.] — as-say'er, n. 

as-say', n. The scientific testing of an alloy 
or ore for valuable metal. 

as-sem^'bla^e, §s-sem'blgj, n. An assem- 
bling; association; any gathering of persons 
or things; collection; assembly. 

as-sem^ble, gs-sem'bl, v. [-bled; -bling.] 
I. t. 1. To collect or convene. 2. To fit or 
join together. II. i. To come together; meet; 
congregate. [< h.^^ad, to, + simul, together.] 

as-semljly, gs-sem'bli, n. [-blies^. }?^.] 1. 
An asisembling. 2. A number of persons met 
together for a common purpose. 3. Mil. The 
signal calling troops to form ranks. 

as-sent', as-sent'. I"*, vi. To express agree- 
ment; concur; acquiesce. II. n. 1. Mental 
concurrence or agreement. 2. Consent of 
will; sanction. [< L. ad, to, -(- sentio, feel.] 

as-sert'<*, gs-sgrt', vt. 1. To state positively; 
affirm; aver. 2. To maintain as a right or 
claim, by words or by force. [< L. ad, to, -f- 
sero, hind.] — as-ser'tion, gs-sgr'shun, n. 1. 
The act of asserting, ti. A positive declaration 
without attempt at proof. 3. The maintenance 
of a cause, principle, or right. 

as-sess'S §s-ses', vt. 1. To charge (a person 
or property) with a tax. 2. To determine the 
amount of (a tax or other payment). 3. To 
value for taxation. [< L.*5*" assideo, ad, to, -{- 
sedeo, sit.] — as-sess'nicnt, n. 1. Apportion- 
ment or amount, as of taxes. 2. A valuation of 
property for taxation.— as-sess'or, n. 

as'set, as'et, n. An item in one's assets. 

as'sets, as'ets, n. pi. Available property, as 
for payment of debts, legacies, etc. [< ¥. as- 
sez, < L. ad, to, -f satis, enough.] 

as-sev'er-ate, as-sev'gr-et, vt. [-a'ted*"; -a'- 
ting.] To affirm or aver emphatically or sol- 
emnly. [< L. ad, to, -f- severus, serious.] 

— as-sev^'er-a'tion, as-sev"er-6'shuD, n. 
An emphatic or solemn declaration. 

as-sid'u-ous, gs-sid'yu-us, a. Devoted or 

flut|ure (future); aisle; an (owt); oil; c (k); chat; dh {tM)\ go; sing, ink; min. 



constant; unremitting; diligent. [< L. ad, to, 
-\- sedeo, Bit.] -ly, adv. -ness, n.— as-^si-du'- 
i-ty, a8"I-cliCi'i-ti, n. [-tiesi, pL] Close and con- 
tinuous application; diligence; carefulness. 

as-sign', Qs-sain', v. I. t. 1. To set apart 
or select; designate; appoint; allot; specify; 
attribute. 2. To malce over, as to an assignee, 
in behalf of another. II. i. To make an as- 
signment. [< L. assigno, < ad, to, 4- signiim, 
marlv.] — a9-sign'a-bl(e, a. That may be as- 
signed or specilied. — as'^sig-na'tion, as'ig- 
ne'sbun, n. 1. An assigning; assignment. "Z. 
An appointment for meeting, especially for an 
illicit love»meetlng.— as''sign-ee'» as'in-i', n. 
One to whom property has been assigned in trust; 
an agent or trustee.— as-sign'inent, as-sain'- 
meat, 7i. 1. An assigning. '2, The transfer of 
a property or the instrument or writing of trans- 
fer.— as^'sign-or', as"in-er', n. One who as- 
signs or makes an assignment. as-sign'er+. 

as-sign', n. A person to whom property, 
rights, or powers are transferred by another. 

as-sim^i-late, gs-sim'i-let, v. [-la"ted'1; 
-la"ting.J 1. t. 1. To take up and incor- 

f)orate, as food. 2. To make or become like; 
iken; compare. II. i. 1 . To be made or to 
make something a homogeneous part of the 
substance or system. 2. To become alike. [< 
L. ad, to, + similis, like.] — aB-sim'i-la-bUe, 
a. That may be assimilated.— as-sim'^i-la'- 
tion, n. An assimilating or being assimilated; 
the transformation of digested nutriment Into an 
Integral part of an organism.- as-siin'i-la- 
tiv(e, a. Having the capability of or tendency 
to assimilation. 

as-sisf'i, gs-gigf, V. I. t. 1. To give succor 
or support to; aid; help; relieve. 2. To act 
as assistant to. II. i. To render aid or help; 
be of service. [ < L. ad, to, + si,sto, < sto, 
stand.] — as-sist'ance, w. Help; aid; support; 
relief.- as-sist'ant. I. «. 1 . Holding a sub- 
ordinate or auxiliary place, office, or rank. 2. 
Affording aid; assisting. 11. v. One who or 
that which assists; adeputyorsubordlnate; helper. 

as-size', gs-saiz', n. [as-si'zes, pi.'] A ses- 
sion of a court, the court itself, or the time 
and place of holding it: used chiefly in the 
plural. [< F. assise, < L. ad, to, 4- sedeo, sit.] 

as-so^ci-ate, as-so'shi-et, v. [-a'ted; -a"- 
TiNo.l I. t. 1. To bring together; unite; 
combme; ally. 2. To connect in thought. 
II. i. To be in company or relation; have 
fellowship or intercourse; unite; join. [< L. 
ad, to, + socius, united.] 

as-so^ci-ate, a. Joined together or witli an- 
other or others; united; allied. 

as-so'ci-ate, 7^ 1. Acompanion; ally; col- 
league. 2. A concomitant. ' 

as-so''ci-a'tion, gs-so'si-e'slmn or -shi- 
o'shun, n. 1. The act of associating, or the 
state of being associated; fellowship; com- 
bination for a common purpose, 2. Con- 
nection of ideas in thought; also, the process 
or faculty by which they are connected. 3. A 
corporation; society; partnership. 

as-sort'-', as-sSrt' v. I. t. 1. To distribute 
into classes; classify. 2. To make up of or fur- 
nish with a variety, as of goods. II. i. To 
fall Into a class; harmonize; associate; con- 
sort. [< L.P ad, to, + sor{f-)^, lot.J— a»- 
Mo rt^nieiit, n. 1 . The act or process or assort- 
ing. 2. A collection of various things. 

as-suage', gs-swej', vL [as-suaged'; as- 
sua'ging.] To make less harsh or violent; al- 
leviate; soothe; allay; abate; calm. [< L.^f 
ad, to, -f- suavis, sweet.] — as-suage'ment, n. 
— a8-sua'siv(e,a. Soothing; trauqullizing. 

as-suine% gs-siQm', v. [as-su3ied'; as-su'- 
MiNG.] I. t. 1. To take upon oneself; put 
on; adopt; undertake. 2. Totakeforgranted; 
suppose. 3. To affect; pretend. II. i. To 
be presumptuous. [< L. ad, to, -\-siimo, take.] 
— as-su^iiiingr, pa. Presumptuous; arrogant. 

as-sump'tiou, as-sump'shun, n. 1. An as- 
suming, or that which is assumed; a taking 
upon oneself ; a taking for granted ; a supposi- 
tion. 2. Arrogance. 3. A bodily taking into 

as-sur^ance, a-shur'ans, n. 1. The act of 
assuring; any encouraging declaration; a 
promise. 2. Full confidence; undoubting con- 
viction. 3. Self=confidence; boldness; ef- 
frontery. 4. Insurance. 

as-sure% a-shur', vt. [as-sured'; as-sur'- 
iNG.] 1. To offer assurances to. 2. To give 
confidence to; convince. 3. To insure. [< 
L.F ad, to, -4- securus; see secure, a.] — as- 
8iir'ed-ly, adv. Without doubt; certainly; with 
confidence; undoubtedly. 

as'ter, as'tgr, n. A plant having alternate 
leaves, and flowers with white, 

Surple, or blue rays and yellow 
isk. [< Gr. aster, star.] 

-aHter, siffflx. A contemptuous 
diminutive; as, poetaster, grani- 
m&t\castei\ criticaster, etc. L< 
L. -aster, dim. suflix.] 

as'ter-isk, as'tgr-isk, w. "A 
star (*) used in writing and 
printing, for references, etc. 
[ < Gr. asteriskos, dim. of aster, star.] 

a-stern', a-stgrn', adv. Naut. At any point 
behind a vessel; backward. 

as'ter-oid, as'tgr-eid, n. One of a cfroup of 
small bodies between Mars and Jupiter. [< 
ASTER- + -oiD.] — as'^ter-oid'al, a. 

astli'xna, as'ma, n. A chronic disorder char- 
acterized by extreme difficulty of breathing. 
[< Gr. asthma, panting, < ad, blow.] 

— aHth-iiiat'ic, as-mat'ic. I. a. Of, per- 
taining to, or affected with asthma. II. n. A 
person suffering from or subject to asthma. 

a-ston'isliS a-sten'ish, tt. To affect with 
wonder and surprise; amaze; confound. [ME. 
astunien, asto?nen, stun completely.] — a-ston'- 
ish-inff, pa. Producing or tending to nroduce 
astonishment.— a-8toii'i8li-iiifnt.«. Ihcstate 
of being astonished or that which causes It; great 
surprise; amazement. 

a-stound^<>, a-staund', v. 1. 1. To overwhelm 
with wonder or amazement; confound; stupe- 
fy. II. i. To cause amazement or alarm. 
[Corrui)ted < ME. astunien; see astonish.] 

a-8trad'dl<>, a-strad'l,a. &a(/p. In a straddling 
position; astride; bestriding. 

as'tral, a.s'tral, a. Of, pertaining to, coming 
from, or like the stars; starry. [< Qr.L+LL 
mtron, < aster, star.] 

a- stray', a-stre', a. & adv. Away from the 
right path; wandering; in or into error or 
evil, f < L.!-!-*"*' eu-tra,heyond,-\- vago, stray.] 

a-stride', a-straid', adr. & vren. With one 
leg on each side of, or with tlu; legs far apart. 

China Aster. 

papfi, 98k; at, air; element, th6y, usfge; It, %, i (ce); o, oh; ©rat^r, or; full, rflle; but, i3r; 



as-trin-'gent, as-trin'jgnt. I. a. Tending to 
contract or draw together organic tissues; 
binding; constipative; styptic. II. n. An as- 
tringent substance, as alum, tannin, etc. [< 
L. ad, to, + stringo, bind fast.] — as-trin-'- 
gent-ly, orf?).— as-trin'sen-cy, n. 

as-trol'o-gy, as-trei'o-ji, n. Anciently, the 
science of the stars, and their imagined in- 
fluence upon the destinies of men; star^divi- 
nation. [Gr. astron, < aster, star, + lego, 
speak.] — ao-trol'o-ger, as-trel'o-jgr, n. One 
who practises astrology.— as'^tro-log'ic, as"- 
tro-lej'lc, a. -ali. 

as-tron'o-my, as-tren'o-mi, n. The science 
that tieats of the heavenly bodies, their mo- 
tions, magnitudes, distances, and physical con- 
stitution, [< Gr. astron, star, + nemo, distrib- 
ute.] — as-tron'o-mer, as-tren'o-mgr, n. One 
learned in astronomy; a skilled observer of the 
stars.— as'^tro-noMi'Ic, -al, as'tro-nem'ic, -al, 
a. Of or pertaining to astronomy. 

as-tute', as-tiut', a. Keen in discernment; 
acute; shrewd; sagacious; cunning. [< Ij. a*'- 
tutus, < astus, (i\x\va\\ig?i, -lY,adv. -ness, ». 

a-sun'der, a-sun'dgr, adv. In or into a dif- 
ferent place or direction; apart; in or into 
pieces. [< AS. onsundran.] 

a-sy'lum, a-sai'lum, n. An institution for 
the care of unfortunate or destitute persons; a 
refuge; retreat; anciently, an inviolable shel- 
ter from arrest or punishment. [< Gr.i- a- 
priv. -\- sijlon, right of seizure.] 

at, at, jrrep. 1. Of a point in space: on; upon; 
close to; by; near; in; within. 2. Of motion: to; 
toward; after; by way of; through. 3. Of time: 
on or upon the point, stroke, or coming of; dur- 
ing the lapse of ; in; by. 4. Of occasion, cause, 
or instrument: on the happening or the utter- 
ance of; in response to; because of. 5. Of 
degree, etc.: up to; to the extent of; corre- 
sponding to. 6. Of relations in general: in; 
engaged in; occupied with; connected with; 
dependent on; in a state or condition of. [ME. 
at, < AS. set, at, to.] 

at-, prefix. Euphonic form of ad- before t, as in 

at'a-vism, at'a-vizm, n. Intermittent hered- 
ity; reversion to an ancestral type, trait, or 
the like. [< L. atavus, < avns, grandfather.] 

ate, et, imp. of eat, v. 

-atei, svfflx. A form occurring In participial ad- 
jectives derived from the Latin past participle; 
as, desolate. [< OF. -at, < L. -atus, pp. suffix of 
first conjugation.] 

-ate2, suffix. A form occurring in verbs repre- 
senting Latin verbs of the first conjugation and, 
by analogy, in other verbs; as, fascinate, assassin- 
ate. [< L. -atus; see -ateI.] 

-ate3, suffix. A form serving to denote office or 
function, also to denote salts formed from acids 
whose names end in -ic; as, magistrate, legale, 
nitrate. [< OF. -at, < L. -atus, suffix of nouns 
derived from nouns.] 

a'tlie-ism, e'thg-izm, n. The denial of or 
disbelief in the existence of God. [< Gr. a- 

Eriv. + theos, god.] — a'the-ist, n. One who 
olds or advocates atheism.— a'^'tlie-is'tic, a. 
ath^e-ne'um, * ath"e-nI'umor-ne'um,w. A 
ath^e-nae^um, f literary club or academy; a 
ica(ling»room, library, or the like. [< Gr. 
Atlu:iiT', Athena, goddess of wisdom.] 

a-thirst', a-thgrst', a. Wantingwater; thirsty. 

atli''lete, ath'lit, n. One skilled in acts or 
feats of physical strength and agility, as row- 
ing, wrestling, etc. [< Gr. atldetes, < athlon, 
prize.] — ath-let'ic, ath-let'ic, a. Of, pertain- 
ing to, or like an athlete; strong; vigorous; mus- 
cular.- ath-let'ics, ath-let'ics, n. Athletic 
games and exercises collectively; a system of 
athletic training. 

a-thwart', a-thwert'. I. adv. From side to 
side; across; also, so as to thwart; perversely. 
II. x>rep. Across the course of; from side to 
side of; in opposition to. 

•atic, SKjfflx. Of; of the kind of: used in adjec- 
tives of Latin or Greek origin; as, errattc, gram- 
niatic. [< F. -atiqtie, < L. -aticus, where -icns 
(see -IC) is added to a past=participle stem In -at, 
or < Gr. -atikos, where -ikos (see -ic) is added to 
a noun stem in -at-.'] 

-atioii, suffix. A form used in nouns of action of 
Latin origin and, by analogy, in nouns of non» 
Latin origin; as, creaijou, flirtation. [< Y.-ation, 

< L. -atioin-}, where -tio{n-) (see -tion) is added 
to the stem of verbs of the first conjugation.] 

at'las, at'las, n. 1. A volume of maps or the 
like. 3. A size of paper, 26 by 33 (34) inches. 
3. [A-] Class. Myth. A Titan supporting the 
pillars of heaven on his shoulders. 4. Anat. 
The topmost bone of the spine. [<Gr.^ At- 
las, < a- euphonic, -j- tlao, bear.] 

ai'mos-phere, at'mgs-fir, n. The mass or 
body of gases, chiefly air, that surrounds the 
earth or any heavenly body; any surrounding 
element or influence; environment. [< Gr. 
atmos, vapor, -|- sphaira, sphere.] — at^'mos- 
>her'ic, at"mg8-fer'ic,a. Pertaining or bclong- 
ng to or dependent on the atmosphere, af"- 

a-toll', a-tel', n. A ring'shaped coral if^land. 
[ < Malayalam 
adal, closing.] 

at'om, at'^m, ?«. 
1. One of the in- ^^^^^<*-«H.i'rw^«««-~''''4**fr'-«,^ 
divisible parts of 3t***f*I^N«w»MM»<te*^'***'"* 

•s^s^s^ ^^^^^ 

formed 2. The - -^t^ll. 

smallest imagi- 
nable portion of matter. 3. An exceedingly 
small particle or thing; an iota. [< Gr. atomos, 

< a- priv. -}- temno, cut.] — a-tom'io, -al, a. 
Of or pertaining to an atom or atoms; minute; In- 
finitesimal; elemental.— at^om-ize, vt. [-ized; 
-I'ziNG.] To reduce to atoms; pulverize; spray. 
at'om-iset.— at'om-i^'zer, n. Anapparatus 
for reducing a liquid to spray, at'om-i'^sert. 

at'om-yi, at'§m-i, n. [-iesS pl^^ An atom; 
pyg™y- [< L- atomi, pi. of atomus, atom.] 

at'o-my2, at'o-mi, n. A skeleton or an ema- 
ciated person. [< anatomy.] 

at-one', gt-on', v. [at-oned'; at-o'ning.] I- 
t. To make expiation or amends for; propiti. 
ate; appease; reconcile. II. i. 1. To make 
an expiation for sin or a sinner; make amends, 
reparation, or satisfaction. 2. To be at one; 
agree. [ME. at on (see at; one)]. — at-one'- 
inent, at-on'ment, n. Satisfaction, reparation, 
or expiation made for wrong or injury; some- 
thing suffered, done, or given by way of satisfac- 
tion; the sacrificial work of Christ. [above. 

a-top', a-tep', adv. & prep. On the top; up 

-at«r, svfflx. An agent; doer; actor; one who or 
that which; as, arbitrator; mediator. f< L. 

flutlflre (future); aisle; au (owt); ©tl; c (k); cliaf, dh {the)\ go; sing, ii^k; thin. 


•ator, where -tor, the suffix of agency, is added to 
the- stem in -a- of verbs of the first conjugation.] 

-atory, suffix. Of or pertaining to; producing 
or produced by; of the nature of; expressing; as, 
cxclamaior//. [< L. -atorius, where the adjec- 
tive suffix -ius Is added to -ator; see -atok.] 

a-tro'cious, a-trO'shus, a. Outrageously 
wicked, criminal, vile, or cruel; heinous; hor- 
rible. [< L. atrox, cruel.] — a-tro'cious-ly, 
adv.— a-tro'cious-ness, n.— a-troc'i-ty, 
a-tres'I-tl, ?i. [-ties«,p/.] The being atrocious; an 
atrocious deed; shocking cruelty or wickedness. 

at ro-phy, at'ro-fi. I. vt. & vi. [-phied; 
-PHY'iNG.] To cause to waste away; wither. 
II. n. [-PHiES^, 2)1. '\ A wasting or withering 
of the body or any of its parts; also, a stop- 
page of the growth of a part or organ. [< 
Gr.LL+F fi. priv. -f- trex)ho. nourish.] 

at-taclx'S at-tach', v. 1. t. 1. To fasten; 
join; connect; attribute; assign. 2. To unite 
by affection; win. Z. Law. To take and hold 
by legal process. II. i. To belong as a 
quality or the like; be incident; vest. [< F. 
attacher., < a- to, -f- Bret, tach, nail.] 

at-tachi'ment, §t-tach'mgnt, n. 1. An at- 
taching or a being attached; adherence; affec- 
tion, 2. That by which, or the point at wliich, 
anything is attached; a bond; band; tie. 3. 
An appendage or adjunct. 4. Law. A legal 
seizure of a person or property. 

at-tack'S gt-tac', v. I. t. 1. To set upon; 
begin battle or conflict with. 2. To assail 
with speech, etc.; criticize; censure. 3. To 
begin work on; set about. 4. To act npon 
vigorously, as acid upon metal. II. i. To 
make an onset or assault, [< F, attaquer., for 
attacher^ attach.] 

at- tack', n. The act of attacking; an onset; 
an attacking force; a seizure, as by disease. 

at-tain^ a,t-ten', v. I. t. To arrive at (a de- 
sired object); acquire; achieve; reach. II. i. 
To arrive or reach with effort: with to. [ < L.i' 
ac?, to, -\- tango., touch.] — at-tain'a-bi(e, a. 
That can be attained; practicable.— at-tain''a- 
bil'i-ty, at-tain'a-bKe-ness, n. — at- 
tain'inent, n. The act of attaining; that which 
Is attained; an acquisition; achievement. 

at-tain'der, st-ten'dgr, n. Eng. Law. A 
sentence of confiscation and outlawry against 
a person, as for treason, 

at-taint% at-tent', F. vt. To disgrace; 
inflict attainder upon; condemn; seize upon, 
as disease. II. n. 1. Imputation; stigma. 
2. Attainder. 3. A hit, as in tilting. [< OF. 
ateint, ult. < L. ad, to, -\- tango, touch.] 

at'tar, afar, n. The fragrant" essential oil ex- 
tracted from rose-petals. [< Per. 'atar., < 
At. 'itr, < 'atara, breathe perfume.] 

at-teiu'per, ftt-tem'pgr, vt. To modify by 
mixture; soften; moaerate; temper, 

at•tempt^ attempt'. I\ vt. To make an 
effort to do; make an effort against, as to con- 
quer or seduce; endeavor; try; essay. II. «. 
A putting forth of effort; a trial; endeavor; 
essay; attack. [< L.^ ad, to, -{- tento, try.] 

at-tend'-*, ftt-tend', y, I. ^ 1. To wait upon; 
minister to; visit or care for professionally. 
2. To be present at or in (a meeting, etc.). 3. 
To follow, as a result; accompany. II. i. 1. 
To give heed; listen: give attendance, care, or 
thought: with ^0. 2. To be an attendant; be 

present: with at, on, or upon. 3. To follow, 
as a result: with on or upon. [< L. altendo, 
< ad, to, + tendo, stretch.] — - at-tend''ance, 
n. An attending; those who attend; an audience 
or congregation; a retinue.— at-tend'ant, at- 
tend'ant. I. a. Following or accompanying; 
consequent; waiting upon. II. n. One who 
attends, as a servant, retainer, companion, or 
suitor; also, one who Is present (at a service). 

at-ten'tion, gt-ten'shun, n. 1. Close or 
earnest attending; active consciousness; the 
power or faculty of mentnl concentration. 2. 
An act of courtesy or gallantry. 3. Practical 
consideration; care. 4. The soldierly posture 
of readiness, [< L. attendo; see attend.] 

at-ten'tivCe, gt-ten'tiv, a. Of, pertaining to, 
giving, or showing attention; observant; in- 
tent; thoughtful; courteous; gallant; polite. 
-ly, adv. -ness, n. 

at-ten'u-ate, gt-ten'yu-et, v. [-a'ted''; -a"- 
ting.] I. t. To make thin, small, or fine; 
draw out, as a wire; emaciate; weaken; impair; 
enfeeble, II. %. To become thin; lose sub- 
stance or force. [< L. ad, to, -f- tenuis, thin.] 

— at-ten''u-a'tion, at-ten"yu-e'shun, n. 
at-test'd, gt-test', v. I. t. To certify as ac- 
curate, genuine, or true, as by signature or 
oath; confirm; vouch for. II. i. To certify. 
[ < L. ad, to, -f- testis, witness.] 

at-test', n. One who or that which attests; 

testimony; attestation. 
at'^tes-ta'tion, afes-te'shun, n. The act of 

attesting; the evidence or statement made in 

At'tic, at'ic, a. Of or pertaining to Attica or 

Athens in Greece; classic;^ witty. 

— Attic salt, refined, classical wit. 
at'tic, n. A half '■story nest the roof; a garret. 
at-tire', gt-tair'. 

I . vt . [a T - 

tired'; at-tir'- 

iNG.] To dress; 

array; adorn. 

II. n. Dress or 

clothing; appar- „ 

el* garments* Renaissance Attic. 

costume; adornment. [< OF. atirer, adorn.] 

at'ti-tude, at'i-tiud, n, 1. Position of the 
body, as suggesting some thought^ feeling, or 
action. 2. State of mind, behavior, or con- 
duct regarding some matter. [F.] 

at-tor'ney, 8t-tur'n§, «. t-NEYs,jo^.] A per- 
son empowered by another to act m his stead; 
a lawyer. [< OF. a, to, + tourner, turn.] 

at-tract'"', ftt-tract', v. 1. t. 1. Physics. To 
draw to or toward itself, as a magnet, without 
apparent mechanical connection. 2. To draw 
(a living agent) by some winning influence; 
charm; allure; entice; win. II. t. To exert 
attractive influence or power. [ < L. ad, to, -f 
traho, draw.]— at-trac'tion, ». The act or 
process of attracting, or that which attracts; at- 
tractive power or property; anything pleasing or 
alluring.— at-tract'iv(c, a. Having the pow- 
er or quality of attracting; drawing; pleasing; 
winning, -ly, adv. -nesisi, n. 

at-trib'ute, at-trib'yut, rf. [-u-ted<«; 
-u-tino.J To ascribe (something) ns due ana 
belonging, caused by, or owing to; assign; 
refer: with to. [< L. ad, to, -j- tribuo, allot.] 

— at-trlb'u-ta-bl(c, a. 

papfi, 98k; at, air; el^m^nt, they, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; orator, er; full, rule; but, Or; 




at'tri-bute, at'ri-biut, n. 1. That which is 
attributed; a characteristic. 2. Art. & Myth. 
A distinctive mark or symbol. 3. Gram. An 
adjective or its equivalent. 

af'tri-bu'tion, afri-biu'shun, n. An attrib- 
utiiip:, or that which is attributed; attribute. 

at-trib'u-tiv(e, gt-trib'yu-tiv. I. a. Per- 
taining to or of the nature of an attribute; ex- 
pressing or assigning an attribute; ascribed (to 
a certain author), as a work of art. II. n. 
Gram. An attributive word; an adjective or 
its eguivalent. at-trib'u-tiv(e-Iy, adv. 

at-tri'tion, gt-trish'un, n. A rubbing out or 
grinding down. [< L. ad, to, + tero, rub.] 

at-tune', at-tiun', vt. [at-tuned'; at-tu'- 
NiNG.] To tune; harmonize; adjust. 

au'burn, e'burn. I. a. Keddish^brown; us, 
auburn hair. II. n. An auburn color; a red- 
dish'brown. [< LL.of alburni/s, whitish.] 

auc'tion, ec'shun. I. vf. To sell by or at 
auction. II. n. A public sale of property to 
the highest bidder. [< L. anctio{n-), < avgeo, 
increase.]— auc''tion-eer',ec"shun-ir'. I. vt. 
To sell by auction. II. n. One who sells by or 
at auction. 

au-da^cious, e-de'shus, a. Defiant of ordina- 
ry restraints, as of law or decorum; bold; pre- 
sumptuous; shameless; insolent. [< L. audax 
(audac-), < audeo, dare.] -ly, adi\ -ness, ??. 

au-dac'i-ty, e-das'i-ti, n. f-TiEs% pl.^ The 
being audacious; impudence; boldness; a 
bold originality; recklessness, 

au'di-bl(e, e'di-bl, a. Perceptible by the ear; 
loud enough to be heard. [ < L.^-^ audio, hear.] 
— au"di-bil'i-ty, n. au^di-bl(e-nes8:t:> 
— au'di-bly, adv. 

au'di-ence, e'di-gns, n. 1. An assembly of 
hearers. 2. The act of hearing; a formal 
conference. [< L. audientia, < audio,heiiv.] 

au^dit, e'dit. !.<» vt. To examine, adjust, 
and certify, as accounts. II. n. An official 
examination and verification of accounts; a 
calling to account; a settlement of accounts; 
balance-sheet. [< L. auditus, < audio, hear.] 

au'di-tor, e'di-tgr, n. 1. One who audits ac- 
counts. 2. One who listens; a hearer. 

au'^di-tCri-um, e'di-tO'ri-um, n. [-ri-ums 
or -Ri-A, -ri-a, jyl.j 1. The audience»room of 
a public building. 2. [U.S.] A large building 
for public meetmgs. [L., < audio, hear.] 

au'di-to-ry, e'di-to-ri. I. a. 
ing to heanng, to the organs or 
sense of hearmg, or to ah audi- 
ence=room. II. n. [-riesS 
j)l.] 1. An assembly of hear- 
ers; an audience. 2. An au- 

au'ger, e'ggr, n. A large tool 
for boring holes in wood, etc. 
[< AS. nafegdr: the ME. a 
nauqer becanie an auger.'\ 

aught, St, n. Anything; any 
part or item. [< AS. dwiht, 

< an w'lht; see an; whit.] 
aug-ment''", eg-ment', vt. & Augers. 

ri. To increase; enlarge; in- 1. Twisted. 2. 
tensify. [< L. a^<(7»^e//^wm, Pos^'hole. 3.ship. 

< augeo, increase.] — aug^'men-ta'tioii, og"- 
men-te'shun, n. The act or result of augment- 
ing; enlargement; Increase; an addition.— autr- 


ment'a-tiv(e, a. Having the quality or power 
of augmenting. aiig-nieiit'iv(et. 

au'gur, e'gur, t'. I. ^. 1. To prognosticate; 
divine; predict. 2. To betoken; portend. 
II. i. 1. To be an augury or omen. 2. To 
conjecture from indications or omens. 

au'gur, n. A soothsayer; prophet. [L., < 
avis, bird, + garrio, talk.] 

au'gu-ry, e'giu-ri, n. [-RIEs^ 2>l.] 1. The 
foretelling by signs or omens: divination. 2. 
A portent or omen; prediction; presage. 

au-gUsV, e-gust', a. 1. Majestic; grand; im- 
posing. 2. Of high birth or rank; venerable; 
eminent. [< L. augvstvs, < avgeo, increase.] 

Au''gust, e'gust, n. The eighth month of the 
year, containing 31 days. [< L. Angustvs, the 
first Roman emperor.] 

auk, ek, n. A short»winged, web^footed diving 
bird of northern seas. [ < Ice. alka.] 

aunt, flnt, n. The sister of one's 
father or mother, or the wife of one's 
uncle. [< L.o*' amifa, aunt.] 

antral, e'ral, a. Pertaining to the 
ear or the sense of hearing; au- 
ricular. [< L. auris, ear.] 

au'ri-cl(e, e'ri-cl, n. 1. A cham- 
ber of the heart, which receives 
blood from the veins and trans- 
mits it to a ventricle. 2. The 
external ear; an [ear- 
shaped appendage or part. 
[< L. axiricula, dim. of 
auris, ear.] 

au-ric'u-lar, S-ric'j^u- 
lar, a. 1 . Of or pertaining 
to the ear or the sense of hearing ; intended for or 
perceived by the ear; audible; confidential. 2. 
Ear •shaped. 3. Of or pertaining to an auricle. 

au-rif'er-ous, e-rif'er-us, a. Containing gold. 
[< L. aurum, gold, •\-fero, bear.] 

au-ro^ra, e-rO'ra, ti. The Eoman goddess of 
dawn; the glow of early morning; dawn. [L., 
dawn.] — au-ro'ra bo^'re-a'Iis, bO"rg-e'lis or 
-g'lis, a brilliant nocturnal radiance often suffu- 
sing the sky of high northern latitudes, nortb- 
ern ligbtst.— aii-ro'ral, e-ro'ral, a. Per- 
taining to or like the dawn; dawning; roseate. 

aus'pice', es'pis, n. Favoring influence or 
guidance; patronage; in the plural, favoring 
circumstances or indications. [< L. auspex, a 
diviner, < avis, bird, + specio, view.] 

aus-pi'cious, es-pish'us, a. Of good omen; 
favorable; propitious; also, prosperous; for- 
tunate; happy. -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

aus-tere', es'tir, a. 1. Severe, grave, or 
stern; strict; abstemious. 2. Sour and astrin- 
gent. 3. Severely simple; unadorned. [< 
Qr.^'^'^^ austeros, < aub, dry,] — aus-tere'Iy, 
arfr.— aus-ter'i-ty, es-ter'i-ti, n. [-ties*, ph\ 
Gravity or rigor; also, severe self<=restraint. 

aus'tral, es'tral, a. Southern; torrid. [< L. 
auMralis, < auster, south.] 

au-then'tic, e-then'tic, a. According with 
the facts; authorized; trustworthy; genuine. 
[< Gr. authenles, real author.] au-then'- 
tic-alt. — au-then'tic-al-ly, adv. 

au-tben^ti-cate, e-then'ti-ket, vt. [-ca"- 
TED''; -ca"ting.] To make or show to be au- 
thentic. — au-then''ti-ca'tioii, n. An authen- 
ticating; attestation; confirmation. 

flutiilre (future); aisle; au (owt); eil; c (k); chat: db {tho); go; sing, iinik; thin. 



au'^tlien-tic'i-ty , e'then-tis'i-ti, n. The state 
of being authentic, authoritative, or genuine. 

au'tlior, e'thgr, n. 1. An originator; first 
cause; creator; theoriginalwriter, asof abook; 
also, one who makes literary compositions his 
profession. 2. An authpr's writings collect- 
ively. [< L.<5F auctor, < augeo, increase.] 

— aii'tlior-ess, n.fem.: now little used. 
au-th.or'i-ta-tiv(e, e-ther'i-te-tiv, a. 1. 

Possessing or proceeding from proper authori- 
ty; duly sanctioned. 2. Exercising authority ; 
positive; commanding, -ly, adv. 

au-tlior''i-ty, e-ther'i-ti, w. [-ties% /)^.] 1. 
The right to command and to enforce obedi- 
ence; the right to act officially; personal power 
that commands influence, respect, or confi- 
dence. 2. The person or persons in whom 
government or command is vested: often in 
the plural. 3. An authoritative opinion, deci- 
sion, or precedent. [< L.^ auctoritas, < ouc- 
ior, author.] 

au'thor-ize, ©'th§r-aiz, vt. [-ized; -i'zing.] 
1. To confer authority upon; empower; co:?i- 
mission. 2. To warrant; justify; sanction. 

— au'^tlior-i-za'tion, S'thgr-i-ze'shun, n. 
The act of authorizing; legal sanction. 

au'thor-sllip, e'ther-ship, n. 1. The state, 
quality, or function of an author. 2. Origina- 
tion or source. 

au''to-'bi-og''ra-pliy, e"to-bai-eg'ra-fi, n. 
[-PHiES^, pl.\ The story of one's life written 
by himself, [< auto- -J- biography.] — au''- 
to-bi-og'ra-i>her, n. — an '^ to-bi '' o- 
grapli'ic-al, a. Of, pertaining to, or hke au- 
tobiography. au'^to-bi'^o-jfrapli'Ici, 

au'to-crat, e'to-crat, n. A supreme ruler 
whose power is unrestricted and irresponsible. 
[< Gr. auiofi, self, + kratos, strength, power.] 

— au-toc'ra-cy, S-tec'ra-si, n. t-ciEs», pi.) 
The rule or authority of an autocrat; absolute 
government; controlling Influence. — an ''to- 
crat'ic, e"to-crat'lc, a. Pertaining to or like 
an autocrat or autocracy; Irresponsible; despotic. 

au'to-g^rapll, e'to-grgf. I. a. Written by 
one's own hand, as a note. II. n. 1. Writing 
done with one's own hand; one's own signa- 
ture. 2. An autographic copy. [<Gr. autos, 
self, -\- qrapho, write.] — au^'to-graph'ic, e"- 
to-graf'lc, a. Of the nature of an autograph; 
written with the author's own hand, au^^to- 

au''to-mat'ic, 5"to-mat'ic, a. 1. Self 'mov- 
ing or self-regulating. 2. Acting mechanical- 
ly; done from force of habit or without voli- 
tion ; done by self-acting machinery, au'^to- 

au-tom'a-ton, S-tem'a-ten, n. [;Tonh or-TA, 
-ta, ;;/. I Any automatic mechanism that imi- 
tates actions of living beings. 

au-ton'o-my, e-ten'o-mi, n. [-mies*,^;.] The 
power, right, or condition of self»{?overnment; 
practical indejjendence with nominal subordi- 
nation; self-determination, as of the will. 

au'top-sy, e'top-si, n. [-sies*, pi."] Post-mor- 
tem examination of a human body. [< Gr. 
autos., self, -\-oj)tos, seen.] 

au'tumn, S'tum, n. The third season of the 
year: often called /«//. f< Jj. autumtiuit, un- 
tumn.] — aii-lum'iial, S-tum'iml, a. Of, per- 
taining to. or like autumn; ripening; declining. 

aux-iri-a-ry, 6gz-iri-a-ri. I. a. Giving or 

furnishing aid; subsidiary; accessory. II. n. 
[-ries^, pi.] 1. One who or that which aids or 
helps; assistant; associate; a verb that helps 
in the conjugation of another verb. 2. pi. 
Allied troops. [< L. anxiliarins, < augeo, 
increase.] aux-iFi-arJ. 

a-vair, a-vel', v. I. ^. To assist or aid; profit. 
II. i. To be of value or advantage; suffice. 

a-vail', n. 1. Utility for a purpose; profit; 
benefit; good. 2. pi. Proceeds. [< a-^^ -f F. 
valoir, < L. valeo., be of value.] 

a-vaira-lJlCe, a-vel'a-bl, a. Capable of being 
used advantageously; usable; profitable; valid; 
at one's disposal, as funds. — a-vaiP'a-biPi-ty, 
r F'^ness to serve a given purpose, a-vair'- 
u-ol(e-nesst.— a-vaiPa-bly, adv. 

av'a-lancli(,e'', av a ignch". n. The fall of a 
mass of snow or ice down a mountain-slope; 
also, the mass so falling. [F., < L. ad, to, -[- 
vallem, ace. of vallis, valley.] 

av'a-rice, av'a-ris, n. Passion for riches; 
covetousness; cupidity. [< L. ava7'iiia, < 
aveo, crave.] 

av''a-ri''cious, av'a-rish'us, a. Greedy of 
gain; grasping; miserly, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

a-vast', a-vast', interj. Naut. Stop! hold I 
cease! [< A-'' -j- D. vast, fast.] 

a-vaunt', a. vflnt', interj. Begone ! away I 
[< F. avant before.] 

A've, e'vl oi a've, n. R. C. Ch. The saluta- 
tion to the Virgin; also, a prayer of invocation 
to the Virgin, called from the opening words 
the Ave Maria. [L., hail or farewell.] 

a-venge', a-venj', a. [a-venged'; a-ven'- 
GiNG.] I. t. To take v^geance or inflict 
exemplary punishment for (an act) or in be- 
half of (a person or i)er8ons). II. i. To take 
vengeance; exact satisfaction. [< L.of tin- 
dico, punish; see vindicate.] -—a-ven'ger, 
a-ven' jer, n. One who or that which avenges. 

av'e-nue, av'g-niu, n. A broad thoroughfare- 
away of approach; a way. [F., pp. fem. or 
avenir, < L. ad, to, -j- venio, come.] 

a-ver', a-vgr', vt. [a-verred'; a-ver'ring.] 
To declare confidently as fact; affirm. [< L.' 
ad, to, + vents, true.] — a-ver'ment, n. Posi- 
tive aflirmation. 

av'er-age, av'er-gj. I. vt. [-aged; -a-ging.] 
To calculate, fix, or be the average of; appor- 
tion on the average; do, take, or assume as an 
average. II. a. Obtained by calculating the 
mean of several; medium; ordinary. III. n. 

1. T^'e quotient of any sum divided by the 
num /^ of its terms; the mean amount, quan- 
tity, ii :ne like. 2. The ordinary rank, de- 
cree, 01 amount; general type. [< F. avarie, 
damr le to s' ip or cargo.] 

a-verse', <.\-\ grs', a. Turned away in mind or 
feeling; unfavorable; reluctant: with to. [< 
L. arerto; see avert.] -ly, adv. -ness, n.— 
a-ver'Hioii, a-ver'shun, n. 1. Mental opposi- 
tion; antipathy. "Z, That to which one Is averse. 

a-vert'*", a-vgrt', vt. 1. To turn away or aside. 

2. To prevent (danger or evil); ward oflf. [< 
L. averto, < a (for au), from, -4- verto, turn.] 

a'vi-a-ry, C'[orn']vi-j; ri, n. [-ries», />/.] An 
enclosure for live birds. [< L. aHs, bird.] 

a-vid'i-ty, o-vid'i-ti, v. Strong and engcr 
appetite or relish; greediness; chemical afllr.i- 
ty. [< L. avldus, eager.] 

papa, 98k; at, air; element, th6y, us§ge; It, f, i (ee); o, 6h; erator, er; full, rlile; but. Or; 



av'^o-ca'tion, av'o-ke'shun, n. 1. A casual 
or transient occupation; diversion. 2. One's 
business or vocation: common but improper 
usage. [< L. a (a6), awaj', + voco, call.] 

a- void.''*, a-veid', vt. To keep away or at a 
distance from; shun; evade. [< OF. es, out, 
-\-vuidier, < vinde, empty.] — a-void'a-bl(e, 
«.— a-voijFa-bly, adv. — a.-void'a.nce, n. 
The act of avoiding or shunning. 

av"oir-du-pois', av"^r-du-peiz', n. The 
ordinary system of weights of the United 
States and Great Britain. See weight. [< 
OF. aver, goods; de, of; pels, weight.] 

a-vouch.", a-vauch', vt. To affirm positively; 
proclaim; vouch for; acknowledge; confess. 
[< L.of ad, to, -f- t'oco, call.] 

a-vOTV', a-vau', rt. To declare openly; own 
or confess frankly; acknowledge. [< F. 
avouer, < a, to, 4- vouer, vow.] — a-vow'al, 
71. Open declaration; acknowledgment. — a- 
vow'ed-ly, adv. Confessedly; openly. 

a-wait'"*, a-wet', rt. 1. To wait for; expect. 
2. To be ready or in store for. [<0F. a-(A-") 
+ ivaiter, watch.] 

a-'wake', a-wek', v. [a-woke', a-wOk', or 
a-waked'; a-wa'kin6.] I. t. To rouse, as 
from sleep; excite; arouse; wake; waken. 
II. i. To cease to sleep; become awake or 
alert. [< AS. a- (a-») + wacan, wake.] 

a-wake', a. Not asleep; alert; vigilant. 

a-wa'ken, a-we'kn, vt. To awake.— a-wa'- 
keii-iug:, a-we'kn-lng. I. pa. Stirring; exci- 
ting. 1 1. 11. The act of waking; an arousing of 
attention or interest; revival. 

a-ward'"*, a-werd'. 1. vt. To adjudge as due 
between or among contestants; apportion; as- 
sign; allow. II. w. A decision, as by a judge, 
umpire, or arbitrator, the document containing 
it, or that which is awarded. [< OF. es-, out, 
+ warder, observe, watch.] 

a-ware', a- war', a. Possessing knowledge (of 
some fact or action); conscious; cognizant. 
[ < AS. gewxr, < ge- + tvser, cautious.] 

a- way', a-we', adv. At or to a distance; in 
another direction; off; absent; aside; at an 
end; on and on continuously. [Often by ellip- 
sis used like a verb or interjection.] [< AS. 
on, on, -J- iveg, way.] 

a'wCe, e. I. vt. [aw(e)d; aw'ino or awe'- 
iNG.] To impress with reverential fear. II. 
n. Eeverential fear; dread mingled with ven- 
eration. [< Ice. agi, fear.] 

aw'ful, e'ful, a. 1. Inspiring, or suited to 
inspire, awe; majestic and terrible. 2. Filled 
with awe. — aw'ful-ly, adv. — aw'ful-ness, n. 

a-wMle', a-hwair, ^adv. For a brief time. 
[ < AS. dne hwile., a while.] 

awk-'ward, ek'ward, a. 1. Ungraceful in 
bearing; unskilful in action; bungling. 2. 
Embarrassing or perplexing; also, difficult or 
dangerous to deal with, as an opponent. [< 
awk (< Ice. ofxtg, afug, back foremost), -|- 
-ward.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

awl, el, n. A pointed steel instrument for ma- 
king small holes. [< AS. a%veli\ 

awn, en, n. Bot. A bristle=like appendage of 
certain grasses; beard, as of wheat or rye. 
[ME. awn, < agun, < Ice. ogn, chaff, husk.] 

awn'ing;, en'ing, n. A roof »like shelter from 
sun or rain. [< F. aiivent, awning.] 

a-\voke', a-wok', imp. &pp. of awake, v. 

a-wry', a-rai', a. & adv. Toward one side; 
crooked; distorted; obliquely; perversely. 

ax, I ax, n. An edge-^tool for chopping, hew- 

axe, ) ing, or the like. [< AS. eax, sex.] 

ax'i-al, ax'i-al, a. Of, pertaining to, or con- 
stituting an axis. 

ax'i-om, ax'i-um, n. A self-evident or neces- 
sary truth. [< Gr. axionia, < ago, lead, 
weigh.] — ax''i-o-niat'ic, ax"i-o-mat'ic, a. 
Pertaining to or of the nature of an axiom; self » 
evident. ax''i-o-iiiat'ic-alt. -al-ly, adv. 

ax'is, ax'is, n. [-es, -iz or -es, pl.~\ A line on 
which something rotates, or around which 
something is symmetrically arranged ; any cen- 
tral line or pivotal point. [L., axis.] 

ax'l(e, ax'l, n. A shaft or spindle on which a 
wheel is mounted and on or with which it 
turns. [< Ice. oxul, axle.] 

ay, 6, adv. Ever; always, ayet.— for ay or 
aye, forever; eternally. 

aye, Qi. I. w. An ex- 1 
pression of assent; af- 
firmative vote. II. 
adv. Yes; yea. ay+. 

a-za'le-a, a-ze'le-a or I 
a-zg'le-a, n. A flower- ] 
ing 'shrub of the heath | 
family. [< Gr. aza- 
leos, < azo, parch.] 

az'ote", az'ot", n. 
Chem. Nitrogen: old 
name. [F., < Gr. a- 
priv. 4- zao, live.] 

az'ure, azh'yijr. I. a 
1. Like the blue of tin- 
sky; 8ky=blue. 2. Like ^Jl. 
the clear sky; cloud- 
less; spotless. 11. n. \/il(<i 
1. A clear skyblue color or pigment. 2. The 
clear sky; the blue vault of heaven. [< Per. 
'^■'^i'' Idjward, Idzhward, lapis lazuli, a blue 

fiut|ure (future); aisle; au (out); ell; c (k); chat; dh (<Ae); go; sing, ii^k; tliin. 




B, to, bl, w. [bees, B's, or Bb, biz, pL] The 
second letter in the English alphabet. 

toaa, bfl. I. vi. To bleat as a sheep. II. n. 
The bleat of a sheep. [Imitative.] 

toato'tole, bab'l, v. [bab'bled; bab'bling.] 

1. t. To utter unintelligibly; blurt out; tell 
thoughtlessly. II. i. To utter inarticulate 
sounds; murmur, as a stream ; prattle; gossip. 
[Imitative.] —bab'bler, n. 

toato'tole, n. The rippling sound of a stream; 
prattle; gossip. [tive; cp. babble.] 

toatoe, beb, n. An infant; baby. [Ult. imita- 

Ba'toel, he'bel, n. 1. The tower described in 
Gen. xi, 9; also, Babylon. 2. [b- or B-] Con- 
fusion of many voices or languages; tumult. 
[< Heb. Babel, Babylon, perhaps < Assyrian 
bdb'ilu, lit. gate of God, < bdb, gate, -f i^w, 
God.] — Ba'Del-doin, n. A condition like Ba- 
bel; noisy confusion. 

toato-oon', bab-un', n. A ferocious Old World 
monkey. [ < OF. 
babuin, baboon.] 

toa'toy, be'bi. I. vt. 
[ba'bied; ba'by- 
iNG.] To treat as a 
baby; play lightly 
with. II. 71. [ba'- 
BiES, pl.^ A child 
in arms; an infant. 

[Dim. of BABE.] 

— ba'by-hood,n. 

The period of Infan- Bahoon 

cy: the condition of i^aooon. 

being a baby.— ba'by-ish, a. Childish; Infantile. 

toac'ch.a-ixal, bac'a-nal, n. A votary of Bac- 
chus; a drunken reveler. [< L. Bacchus, god 
of wine.] toac'clianti; toac'chantet, 
bac'ant t^fem.). — bac''cha-iia'li-a, bac'a-ne'- 
11-a or -ng'll-a, n. pi. 1, [B-] Horn. Antiq. A 
festival of Bacchus, ti. Drunken revelries; 
orgies. [L.l — bac''cha-na'liaii. I. a. Of 
or like bacchanalla. II. w. A bacchanal. 

toach'e-lor, bach'§-l§r, n. 1. An unmarried 
man. 2. One who has taken his first universi- 
ty degree. 3. A young knight. [< LL.o^ 
baccoTaHs, bachelor.] 

toackS bac, v. I. t. 1. To force backward. 

2. To supply with a back; strengthen at the 
back; uphold; sustain- support. 3. To mount, 
sit, or ride upon the back of. 4. To write 
upon the back of; address or indorse. II. i. 
To move rearward. — back'er, n. One who 
backs, as with money; a supporter. 

toack, a. 1. In the rear; behind. 2. Eemote 
or retired. 3. In arrears; overdue, as a debt. 

toack, n. 1 . That side of the trunk nearest the 
spine, in man the hinder, in quadrupeds the up- 
per part. 2. The reverse, rear, or posterior 
part of anything. [< AS. baec, back.] 

toack, arfv. 1. To or toward the rear; behind. 
2. To or toward a source, a former place, con- 
dition, etc. 3. In a state of check or hin- 
drance. 4. Into time past; colloquially, in time 
past. 5. In return; again; as, to give back. 

6. In reserve or concealment. [For aback.] 

— back'bite'', vt. To revile or traduce be- 
hind one's back.— back'bi''ter, n. A secret 
calumniator or slanderer.- back'bi^'ting, a. 

& 71.— back'sbone'', n. The spine or vertebral 
column; firmness; resolution.- back'groiind", 
n. The part of a picture which is represented as 
behind the principal objects; a subordinate posi- 
tion; obscurity.— back'hantl''ed, a. 1. De- 
livered with the back of the hand, or with the 
hand turned backwards; hence, equivocal^ Iron- 
ical, ti. Sloping to the left, as writing.— back'- 
side'', n. The rear or hinder side.— baok'- 
slide^ vi. To return to wrong or vicious ways; 
relapse; apostatize.— back''wood8'% n. Wild, 
sparsely settled districts: used also attributively. 
— back^woods'^^niau, n. [-men, pZ.] 
toack^'garn'mon, bac'gam'un, n. A game 
played by two persons, on a special board, the 
moves of the pieces being determined by dice- 
throws. [< BACK, adv., + GAME.] 

toack'ward, bac' ward, a. 1. Turned to the 
back or rear; reversed. 2. Retiring; bashful. 
3. Slow; dull. 4. Late; behindhand. 

— back'ward, adv. 1. In the direction of 
the back; to the rear; Into time past. 2. With 
the back foremost; In reverse order; from better 
to worse, back' waiulst.- back' ward-Iy, 
rtrf?7.— back'ivard-ness, n. 

toa'con, be'cun, n. The salted and dried or 
smoked flesh of the hog, especially the back 
.and sides. [< OF. baco?i, ult. < v of back, n.] 

toad, bad. I. a. [avorse; wokst.] Opposite to 
g'OOcZ in any manner or degree; vicious; wicked; 
deficient; incorrect; worthless; distressing; 
unfortunate; disagreeable. II. n. 1. That 
which is bad ; those who are bad, taken collect- 
ively. 2. A bad state or condition. [ME. 
bad, badde, bad, evil.] -ly, adv. -iiess, n. 

bad(e, bad, tmp. of bid, v. 

toadge, baj, n. A token, mark, or decoration. 
[< LL. baaa, ring, collar.] 

toadg'er, baj'^jr, vt. To worry or persecute 
persistently; bait. 

toadg'er, n. A small, burrowing, nocturnal, 
ana carnivorous 
mammal. [< ME. 
bageard^ < bage, E. 
BADGE, from its 

toa"dl-nage', bg"- 
di-ngzh', 7i. Play- 
ful raillery; banter. 

toaf'fle, baf'l, vt. Ami-ilcan Badger. 

[baf'fled; baf'fling.] To defeat, foil, or 
frustrate; circumvent. [< OF. b^er, beffer, 

toag, bag, v. [bagged; bao'ging.] I. /. 1. 
To put into a bag or bags; capture or kill, as 
game. 2. To fill out like a bag. II. i. To 
resemble a bag; swell; bulge; sag. 

toag, 7}. 1. A sack or pouch; the udder of a 
cow. 2. What a bag will hold. 3. The amount 
of game bagged. I < Ice. baqgi, bag.] 
' ,lke a ■ 


bag; loose; bulging. 

papfi, 98k; at, air; el^mgnt, th6y, usfge; It, j, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, er; full, rule; but, ur; 



taag''a-tel(le', bag"a-tel', n. 1. A trifle. 2. 
Criimes. A modification of billiards. [F.] 

■bag'gage, bag'ej,n. 1. [U.S.] The trunks, 
packages, etc., ol a traveler. Called luggage 
in Great Britain. 2. An army's movable 
equipment. [< OF. bagiie, pack.] 

bag'ging, bag'ing, n. 1. The putting into 
bags. 2. A coarse material for making bags. 

bag'pipe, bag'paip, n. A Scotch musical 
wind-instrument in which the reeds are sup- 
plied with air directly from a bag under the 
player's arm. — bag^pi'^per, n. 

bails bel, vt. To admit to bail; set free on se- 
curity for appearance at a future day; also, to 
become surety for. [ < L.of" bajvlo^ bear a bur- 
den.] — bail'a-bl(e, a. Admitting of bail. 

bail^, vt. To provide with a bail or handle. 

bail3, vt. & vi. 1. To dip out, as water. 2. 
To clear of water by dipping it out. 

bails n. Law. 1. One who becomes surety 
for the debt or default of another. 2. The 
security or guaranty given or agreed upon. 3. 
Release, or the privilege of release, on bail. 

baiP, n. The handle of a pail or like vessel; 
an arch'shaped support. [ME. bayle.] 

bail3, n. 1. A division between the stalls of a 
stable. 2. Cricket. One of the crosspieces of 
the wicket. [OF., prob. < L. baculum, stick.] 

bai'lif(f, be'Iif, n. A sheriff's deputy; local 
magistrate. [ < LL.^f bajulus, guardian.] 

bai'li-wick, be'li-wic, n. The office, juris- 
diction, or district of a bailiff. [child.] 

bairn, barn, ?i. [Scot.l A child. {<AS.bear)i, 

bait<*, bet, v. 1. i. 1. To put a bait on or in. 

2. To feed while resting. 3. To torment, as 
by setting dogs upon- harass; worry. II. i. 
To stop for rest and refreshment. [< Ice. 
beita, make to bite, < bita, bite.] 

bait, n. 1. Anything used to allure a fish or 
other animal. 2. A luncheon, as on a journey. 

baiz(e, bez, n. A napped woolen fabric used 
for table-covers, etc. [< OF. bales, baize.] 

bake, bek, v. [baked; ba'kexj;; ba'king.] 

I. t. To cook by dry and continued heat: 
vitrify by heat, as bricks. II. i'. 1. To do 
the work of baking. 2 . To become cooked or 
hardened by heat. [< AS. bacan, bake.] 

— ba'ker, n. One who bakes and sells bread, 
cake, etc.— ba'ker-y, n. [-tes^, pL] A place 
for baking bread, cake, etc.— ba'kiiifir, n. The 
act of baking; the quantity baked. 
baFance. bal'ans, v. [bal'anced; bal'an- 
ciNG.] I. t. 1. To bring 
into or keep in equilib- 
rium; poise. 2. To ad- 
just, as an account. 3. 
To offset. 4. To weigh; 
deliberate upon; ponder. 

II. i. 1. To be m equi- 
poise. 2. To hesitate. 

3. To dance to and fro. 
balance, n. 1. A pair 

of scales or other instru- 
ment for weighing. 2. 
The act of balancing or » t> i 

comparing. 3. The be- A Balance, 

ing in equilibrium; equipoise. 4. Cotn. (1) An 
equality between the credit and debit totals of 
an account. (2) The difference between such 
totals; excess on either side. (3) Hence, col- 

loquially, remainder; surplus. 5. The balance- 
wheel of a watch. [< L.*" bi-, two, + lanx, 
dish.] , ,-r , 

bal'co-ny, bal'co-ni, n. [-niesSj^^.] A project- 
ing balustraded platform before a window; a 

tier of seats in a theater. [< It. balco, scaf- 

ffold, story.] 
bald, bold, a. Destitute 

of hair or other natural 

covering ; unadorned. 

-ly, adv. -ness, n. 
bal'der-dasb, bel'dgr- 

dash, n. An empty and 

pretentious flow of 

words. [< Dn. balder, 

noise, clatter, + dash.] 
bale, bel, vt. [baled; 

ba'ling.] To make into a 

bales n. A package of 

bulky goods, corded or 

otherwise prepared for 

transportation. [ < LL.o*" 

bala, round bundle, pack- 

balesil, n. That which causes 

A Balcony. 

ruin or sorrow; wo. [< AS. 
ftea^jf, evil, wickedness.]- bale'ful, a. Hurt- 
ful; malign; malignant; pernicious. 

balks )bok, ■?;. I. t. To render unsuccessful ; 

baulk, [thwart; frustrate. II. i. To stop short 
and refuse to proceed. 
— balk'y, bek'l, a. Disposed to balk. 

balk. In. 1. An obstruction; hindrance; de- 
baulk, ) feat. 2. A failure; miss; blunder. 3. 
A feint. [< AS. balca, heap, beam.] 

ball, bel, vt. & vi. To form into a ball; form 
balls upon, as of 
snow on the foot. 

balls n. Any glob- 
ular or spherical 
body; a game played 
with a ball. [< 
MHG.OF balle, bal, a 
spherical body.] 

ball^, n. An eve- 
ning assembly for 
dancing. [< Gr. 
1^+*' ballizo, dance, 
< ballo, throw.] 

bariad, bal'ad, n. 
Any popular narra- 
tive poem. [< F. 
ballade, dancing* 

bal^last, bal'ast. 
I'', vt. To provide 
or fill with ballast; 
steady. II. n. 1. 
Any heavy sub- 
stance, as sand, etc., „ „ ^ ,,, , , 
laid in the hold of a Walloon trailing Anchors, 
vessel to steady it. 2. Gravel or broken stone 
for a railroad»bed. [D., lit. 'back=load.'] 

bal'let", bg'le", n. A dance by women on the 
stage; the ballet-dancers of any theater, col- 
lectively. [F., dim. of bal; see ball^. w.] 

bal-looh^, bal-lun', n. A bag, inflated with 

flut|fire (future); aisle; au (pu^; ©II; c (k); chat; dli ijthe)', go; sing, iijik; thin. 



gas lighter than air, that rises and floats in 
the air. [< It. ballone, < MHG. bcU; see 
ball', w.] — bal-loon'ist, n. An aeronaut. 

bariot, bal'^t. I**. vL 1. To cast a ballot; 
^ ote by ballot. 2. To draw lots. II. n. 1. 
A written or printed vote or ticket; a little 
ball. 2. The act or system of voting secretly 
l)y balls or tickets; also, the whole number of 
votes so cast. [< F. ballotte, little ball.] 

balm, bflm. I. vt. To anoint with or as with 
balm. II. n. 1. A soothing application; any- 
thing that soothes or heals. 2. An aromatic 
resinous exudation from various trees or 
shrubs; balsam; also, a tree or shrub that 
yields balm; any one of various aromatic 
plants. [< L.oP balsamvm: see balsam, n.] 
— balm'y, bam'i, rt. 1. Fragrant; aromatic. 
2. Healing; soothing; mild. 

bal'sam, bel'sam, n. 1. An aromatic, oily 
preparation used for healing; a fragrant oint- 
ment; balm. 2. An aromatic resin or the tree 
that yields it; also, a flowering plant. [< L. 
bnlsamum, < Gr. balsamon, balsam=tree.] 

bal'us-ter, bal'us-tgr, v. One of a set of 
small pillars that support a hand»rail and form 
with the hand-rail a balustrade. [< It.*' 
balaustro, < balaustra, wild pomegranate^ 
flower.] — baF'us-trade', bal"us-tred', n. A 
hand=rail supported by balusters. 

bam-boo', bam-bQ', n. A tall tree*like or 
shrubby grass, its stem, wood, leaf, or fiber, or 
any article made 
from it. [< Ma- 
lay bambtf.] 

ban, ban. I. vt. 
& vi. [banned; 
ban'ning.] To 
place under a 
ban; anathema- 
tize; issue a ban. 
II. n. 1. A 
proclamation or 
edict; a sentence 
of outlawry; any 
authoritative pro- 
hibition ; excom- 
munication ;oath; 
curse. 2. pi. An 
announcement of 
intention to mar- 
ry. [< AS. (ge)- 
ban, proclama- 
tion, edict.] 

ba-na'na, ba- 
nfl'nu, 71. The 
fruit of a large herbaceous tropical plant; also, 
the plant, banana'plant. [Sp., < native Guin- 
ea name.] 

band, band. F. Tt. 1. To bind, tie, or unite. 
2. To mark with a stripe. II. n. 1. That 
which binds, ties, or unites; a bond- aflat flex- 
ible strip of any material used for binding, as 
an article of dress, etc. 2. A company of per- 
Bons associated, as for playing musical instru- 
ments. fUlt. < OIIG., < V of birdaiu bind.] 

band^age, band'gj. I. vt. [-aged; -a-oino.j 
To bind or cover with a bandage. II. «. 
A etrij), usually of soft cloth, used in dress- 
ing wounds, etc.; any band. [F., < bande, 

a, section of the stem at a node. 

band'box'", band'bex", n. A light round 
box for carrying bonnets, etc. 

ban'dit, ban'dit, n. [ban'dits or ban-dit'ti, 
pL] A highwayman; brigand. [< It. ba7i- 
dito, pp., < LL. bandio, banrno; banish.] 

ban'dy, ban'di, vt. [BAN'mED; ban'i>y-ing.] 
1o give and receive; exchange, as words, 
blows, etc. ; knock or pass to and fro. 

ban'dy, ban'di, a. Crooked outward at the 
knees. — ban'dy s leg{j;ed'', -legd, a. Havirg 
bandy legs; bow-legged. 

ban'dy, n. [ban'diess 2^1-'] !• Hcckey. 2. 
A hockey =stick. [< G.^ band, band, bond.] 

bane, ben, n. Anything pernicious or nox- 
ious; a scourge; disease; poison. [< AS. 
bana, murderer, destruction.]— bane'ful, btn'- 
ful, Of. Noxious; poisonous; dangerous; injuri- 
ous; deadly.— ban e'ful-ly, adv. 

bangi, bang, vt. & vi. To strike with a heavy 
sound; knock; beat; make a loud, heavy sound. 
[< Ice. banga, beat, hammer.] [hair. 

bang2, vt. To cut straight across, as the front 

bang*, n. A sudden or noisy blow, thump, 
whack, or explosion. 

bang2, n. Front hair cut straight across. 

bang, ac^v. 1. With a violent blow or loud 
and sudden noise. 2. All at once; abruptly. 

ban'^ian, I ban'yan, n. An East=Indian tree 

ban'yan, f of the nettle family, which sends 
down from its branches roots that develop into 
accessory trunks; Indian fig. 

ban'isbS ban'ish, vt. To expel from one's 
country or from any customary or desired 
place; drive away; dismiss'^ exile. [< OHG. 
^+<^^ bannan, summon.] — ban'ish-ment, n. 
Exile; expulsion. 

ban'is-ter, ??. 1. A baluster. 2. pi. A bal- 
ustrade: a corruption, ban'nis-terj. 

ban'jo, ban'jo, n. A musical instrument of 
the guitar class, 
with a parch- 
hoop instead of 
a hollow wood- 

, en body. [Negro corr., < 
Gr.sp pandoura, musical in- 

bank", baiik, vt. To make 
into a bank; shelter under a 
bank; form or lie in banks. 

banket, r. I. ^ To deposit in a bank. II. i. 

To do business as or with a bank or banker. 

— bank'a-bl(ts a. Keceivable by a bank. 

bank', ». 1. A long acclivity; a rising grotiiu'. 
2. The land at the edge of a watercourse. 3. 
A shallow; shoal. [< AS. banc, mound.] 

bank^, n. An institution for lending, borrow- 
ing, issuing, or caring for money, [rit. < 
MiIG. banc, bench.] — baiik'er, bayk'gr, n. 
One engaged In bunking.— bauk'siiote''« «. 
1 . A promissory note. Issued by a bank. 5J. A 
note payable at a bank. 

bank'lng', n. The business of a bank or 
banker: used also adjectivally. 

bank'ing'-', n. The forming of a ridge or 
.mound; an eml)ankMient. 

bank'rupt. bayk'rupt. F. vt. To make 
bankrupt. II. «. Unable to pay one's debts; 
insolvent. III. n. A person unable to pay 
his debts or without credit or resources. [< . 

A Banjo. 

popfi, gsk; at, air; element, th6y, usgge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; ©rater, or; full, rule; hot, Or; 



It. banca, bank, + rotta, broken.] — bank^- 
rupt-cy, n. [-cies*, »Z.] The state of being 
Insolvent; failure or Inability to pay just debts. 

ban'ner, ban'gr, n. A cloth bearing a device, 
su.spended from a pole by a cross»bar; any flag 
or standard. [< LL.of bandej^ia, banner.] 

banns, bans, banz, n. pi. of ban. 

ban'QLuet, ban'cw§t. I-i. vt. & vi. To feast 
richly. U. n. A sumptuous feast. [F.] 

ban'tanx, ban'tam, n. A small breed of the 
domestic hen. [ < Bantam, in Java.] 

ban'ter, ban'tgr. I. vt. To make sport of; 
joke. II. n. Good'humored ridicule; raillery. 

bant'ling, bant'ling, n. A young child; in- 
fant; youth. [Corr.ofbandling, <BAiiD^,n.] 

ban'yau, n. Same as banian. 

bap-tise', vt. & vi. Same as baptize. 

bap^tism, bap'tizm, n. The act of baptizing; 
an ordinance in which water is made use of in 
symbol or acknowledgment of consecration to 
Christ, as commanded in 3Iatt. xxviii, 19. 
— bap-tis'inal, a. Pertaining to baptism. 

Bap'tist, bap'tist, n. One holding that the 
only valid baptism is the immersion of a be- 
liever; originally, one who baptizes. 

bap'tis-ter-y, (_bap'tis-ter-i, -tri, n. [-ter- 

bap'tis-try, ) ies^, -tries^,/?/.] A reservoir 
in a church, for baptism by immersion; a por- 
tion of a church set apart for baptisms. 

bap-tize', bap-taiz', vt. &vi. [-tized'; -ti'- 
ziNG.] To administer baptism to; administer 
the sacrament of baptism ; to christen or name ; 
consecrate; dedicate. [< Gr.i'i'+F bapiizo., < 
bapto, dip.] bap-tise^t> 

bar, bflr. I. vt. [barred; bar'ring.] 1. 
To close; obstruct; hinder; prohibit. 2. To 
except. 3. To mark with bars. II. n. 1. 
A piece of solid material, long in proportion 
to its width and thickness; a barrier; an ob- 
struction; a bank, as of sand, at the entrance 
to a river or harbor. 2 . An enclosed place in 
a court-room; a court or any place of justice; 
the legal profession. 3. A counter where liq- 
uors or refreshments are dispensed. 4. A 
stripe. 5. 3fus. The vertical line that divides 
a staff into measures. [< LL.of barra, bar.] 

barb, bflrb, vt. To provide with a barb or 
barbs ; hence, to make cutting or severe. 

barbi, n. A backward»projecting point, as on 
an arrow, a fish»hook, etc. [< L.^ barba., 

barb^, 7i. A horse of the breed brought by the 
Moors from Barbary into Spain. 

bar-ba'ri-an, bflr-be'ri-an. I. a. Uncivil- 
ized; cruel; barbarous. II. n. An uncivilized 
or uncultured person; anciently, a foreigner. 
[< L. barbarus; see barbarous.] 

bar-bar-'ic, bflr-bar'ic, a. Rudely splendid, 
striking, or picturesque. 

bar^a-rism, bQr'ba-rizm, n. 1. The status 
between savagery and civilization; rudeness. 
2. A foreign or disapproved word or idiom. 

bar-bar'i-ty, bQr-bar'i-ti, w. [-tiess pi.'] 
Brutal or barbarous conduct; a barbarous deed. 

bar''ba-rous, bar'ba-rus, a. 1. Pertaining 
to or like a barbarian; uncultivated; rude; 
cruel; brutal; savage. 2. Marked by barba- 
risms in speech; unpolished. 3. Rude or 
harsh in sound. [ < L. barbarus., < Or. bar- 
6aro«, not Greek, foreign.] •\y,adv. -ness, ?;. 

bar'be-cue, ) bQ.r'b§-kiu. 1. vt. [-cued; 

bar'ba-cue, ) -cu"iNG.] To roast whole. II. 
n. An animal roasted whole, as an ox. [< 
HaytianSp barbacoa, framework of sticks.] 

bar'ber, bar'bgr, n. One who cuts the hair, 
shaves the beard, etc. [< L.of barba, beard.] 

bard, bard, 71. A Celtic minstrel; any poet. 

barei, bar, vt. [bared; bar'ing.] To lay 
bare; strip; reveal; expose. 

bare2||, imp. of beak, v. 

bare, a. 1. Devoid of covering or dress; 
naked; unfurnished; empty; unarmed; un- 
sheathed. 2. Not more than just suffices; 
simple; mere; plain; meager. 3. Manifest or 
evident; undisguised. [< AS. bser, bare.] 

— bare'faced'', a. Having the face bare; 
hence, impudent; audacious.— bare'foot'^ a. 
& adv. With the feet bare.— bare'ly, adv. 
Only just: scarcely; scantily; nakedly; boldly; 
plainly.— bare'ness, n. 

bar'gain, bar'gen. I. vt. & vi. To barter; 
trade; negotiate; stipulate. II. n. 1. A 
mutual agreement between persons. 2. That 
which is agreed upon; an advantageous trans- 
action; an article bought or offered at a low 
price. [< LL.oF barcanio, traffic] 

barge, barj, n. A flat-bottomed freight^boat 
or other large boat, as for pleasure excursions. 
[ < LL. barga; see bark^, /? .] 

bar'i-tone, n. Mun. Same as barytone. 

bark^S bQrk, vi. To utter a bark, as a dog. 
[< AS. beorcan, borcian, bark.] 

bark^t^ ^,^. 1. To remove the bark from; 
scrape; girdle. 2. To rub oft" or abrade the 
skin of . 3. To cover with or as with bark. 
4. To tan or color in an infusion of bark. 

bark', n. A short, abrupt, explosive sound 
made by a dog, a fox, etc. 

bark^, n. The rind or covering of a tree or 
other plant. [< Sw. bark, rind.] 

bark^, n. A three-masted vessel square-rigged 
except for the mizzenmast, which is forehand' 
aft rigged; any vessel or boat. [< F. barque, 
< LL. barca, barga, bark.] barquej. 

bar'ley, bOr'le, n. A hardy, bearded cereal; 
also, the grain borne by it. [< AS. baerlic.'] 

barm, barm, n. The froth or foam rising on 
fermented malt liquors; brewers' yeast. [< 
AS. beorma, yeast.] — barm-'y, a. 

barn, bflm, n. A storehouse for hay, etc. ; also 
[U. S.], a stable. [< AS. bern:\ 

bar'na-cl(e, bflr'na-cl, n. A shell-fish found 
attached to rocks, ships, etc. ; also, a species of 
wild goose; a persistent follower. [ME. 6ar- 
nakylle, dim. of bernake, the goose.] 

ba-rom'e-ter, ba-rem'g-tgr, n. An instru- 
ment for indicating atmospheric pressure. [ < 
Gr. baros, weight, -f metron, measure.] 
— bar-^o-mefric, a. bar''o-iiiet'ric-alt. 

bar'on, bar'un, n. A member of the lowest 
order of hereditary nobility in several European 
countries. [F., < LL. baro{n-), < OHG. baro, 
man.] — bar'on-ess, n. fern. — ba-ro'ni-al, o. 
Pertaining to a baron, a barony, or the order of 
barons.— bar'on-y, n. [-ies, pl.'\ The rank, 
dignity, or domain of a baron. 

bar'on-et, bar'un-et, n. An inheritable Eng- 
lish title, below that of baron; also, the bearer 
of the title.— bar'on-et-cy, n. [-cies, pl^ 
The rank of a baronet, bar^on-et-shipl:. 

ba-roucbe', ba-rush', n. A four-wheeled 

flutgQre (future); aisle; au (owt); oil; c (k); cliat; dli (JLh€)\ go; sing, ink; thin. 



low^bodied pleasure»vehicle with folding top. 

[< L.Jt + « bis (see bi-) + rota, wheel.] 
bar 'rack, bar'ac, n. A permanent structure, 

as for the lodgment of soldiers: 

generally in the plural; a light 

adjustable roof for sheltering 

hay, etc. [ < It.F baracca, sol- 
diers' tent.] 
bar-'rel, bar'el. I. vt. [bar'- 

RELED or bar'relled; bar'- 


put or pack in a barrel. II. 
71. 1. A round vessel, made Hay=barrack. 
with staves and hoops, about 31 inches high. 
2. As much as a barrel will hold. 3. Some- 
thing resembling a barrel, as the tube of a fire- 
arm, the body of an animal, etc. [< LL.of 
barile, barrel.] 

bar^ren, bar'gn. I. a. Sterile; unprofitable; 
dull. 11. n. A tract of barren land. [< OF. 
baraiqne, barren.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

bar''ri-cade', bar"i-ked'. I. vt. [-ca'ded<»; 
-ca'ding.] To defend with a barricade. II. 
n. A barrier closing a passage, as for defense. 
[ < Sp.F barricada, < barrica, barrel.] bar''- 

bar'ri-er, bar'i-gr. 


Something that 
structs progress or prevents encroachment; a 
boundary; obstruction. [< OF. barriere, < 
LL. barra., bar.] 

bar'ris-ter, bar'is-tgr, n. Eng. Law. An 
advocate. [< bar^, n.\ 

bar'room'', bQr'rum", n. A room Avhere liq- 
uors and refreshments are served. 

bar'rowi, bar'O, n. A tray or box having a 
wheel or wheels and handles. [ < AS. *berewe, 
< beran, bear.] 

bar''row2, n. A burial-mound; cairn; heap. 
[< AS. beorg., hill, place of burial.] 

bar''ter, bflr'tgr. I. vt. & xi. To exchange 
(commodities); trade by exchange of commod- 
ities. II. n. The exchanging of commodi- 
ties or a commodity given in exchange. [< 
OF. bareter, < bar at, barter.] 

bar'y-tone, bar'i-ton. I. a. Mus. Having 
a register higher than bass and lower than ten- 
or. II. n. Mus. A barytone male voice, or 
a person having such a voice. [< Gr.i« barys, 
heavy, -f- to/ios, tone.] bar'i.tone+. 

ba'sal, be'sal, a. Pertaining to, of, or at the 
base; fundamental. 

ba-salt', bu-solt', n. An igneous rock of a 
(lark color and often of columnar structure. 
I < L. banaltes, dark marble.]— ba-salt'ic, a. 

base, bes, vt. [based; ba'sino.] To place 
upon a base or basis; ground; establish. 

base, a. 1. Low in sentiment, morals, or rank; 
of humble or ignoble birth; abject. 2. Low 
in value. 3. Mus. Same as bass. [< LL.*' 
basms, low.] -ly, adv. -ness, n.— base's 
born", a. Born out of wedlock; also, of low 
birth; plebeian. 

base, n. 1. The lowest or supporting part; 
the foundation. 2. Mus. Same as bass. 3. 
Chem. A compound which is capable of so 
uniting with an acid as to neutralize its acid 
properties and form a salt. 4. Mil. A basis 
of operations or of supplies. [< Qr.^*^ basis, 
stepping, base, < bain5, go.] — base'less, a 
1. Without foundation. 2 " " 

less — base'inent, n. The ground floor of a 
building, beneath the principal story. 
ba-shaw', bg-shS', n. See pashaw. 
bash'ful, bash'ful, a. Shrinking from notice; 
shy; timid. [< abash.] -ly, at/i'. -ness,n. 
ba'sic, be'sic, a. Pertaining to or like a base. 
bas'i-lisk, bas'i-lisk, n. 1. A fabled creature 
whose breath and look were fatal. 2. A lizard 
having an erectile crest. [< Gr. basiliskos, 
dim. of basileus, king.] 
ba'sin, be'su, fi. a shallow vessel, with slo- 
ping sides; a cavity like that of such a vessel. 
[< LL.f bachinus, < bacca, bowl.] 
ba'sis, be'sis, n. [ba'ses, be'stz, pi.] That 
on which anything rests; support; foundation; 
chief ingredient. [L.; see base, n.] 
basks bgsk, vi. To luxuriate, as in warmth. 

[< Old Scand. badhask, bathe oneself.] 
bas'ket, bgs'ket, n. 1. A vessel of interwo- 
ven twigs, splints, or strips. 2. What a basket 
will hold, bas'ket-fult. [< W. basged.] 
bas''»re-lief' , bQ " -re-llf ' or bgs"»,w. Sculpture 
in which the figure projects but slightly from 
the background. [< It.^' basso'rilievo, < basso, 
low, -\-^rilievo, relief.] bass'^-re-lief J. 
bass, bes, a. Mus. Low in tone or compass. 
bass^, bgs, n. One of various food^fishes. 
bass^, bes, n. Mus. The lowest tones of the 
male voice, or of an instrument. [< OF. bas; 
see base, a.] 
bas8^, bgs, n. Same as basswood. 
bas-soon', bas-stin', 71. A wooden reed-in- 
strument with curved mouthpiece. [< It.^ bas- 
sone, < basso, < L. bassus, low.] 
bass vi'ol, bes vai^^l. A large, stringed in- 
strument of the violin type. 
bass'wood'', bgs'wud", ti. The American 

linden- or whitewood-tree. bass:}:, 
bast, bgst, «. The fibrous inner bark of trees; 
also, cordage, etc., made from it. [ < AS. bsesf, 
bas'tard, bas'tard. I. a. Bom out of wed- 
lock; spurious; abnormal or unusual. II. n. 
An illegitimate child. [< MHG.i^J^+offtaiV.mat.] 
bas'tard-y, n. Illegitimacy, 
basted best, vt. [ba'sted'*; ba'sting.] To 
sew loosely together. [ < MHG.of besta7i, hind.] 
baste^d, vt. To cover with gravy or the like 

while cooking. 
bas'^ti-na'do, bas'ti-ne'do. or -nQ'do. I. vt. 
To beat on the soles of the feet; boat or flog. 
bas'^ti-nade't. II. n. A beating with a 
stick, usually on the soles of the feet. [ < Sp. 
bastonada, < basto7i, cudgel.] 
bas'tion, bas'tiun, n. Fort. A projecting 
part of a fortification. [< It. bastione, < bas- 
fire, build.] 
bat, bat, t'^. & t7. [bat'ted*; bat'ting.] To 

strike with or as with a bat. 
bat', n. 1. Any stick or club for striking the 
ball in baseball, cricket, etc. 2. A brickbat. 
3. A sheet of batting. 
bat^, 71. A nocturnal mammal with wings con- 
nected by a wing-membrane. [Corr.<Dn. 
bakke, bat.] battt. 
batch, bach, n. The dough for one baking, or 
the quantity of bread, etc., baked; the grain 
for one grinding; grist; any set of things made 
or done at one time. [< AS. bacuTi, bake.] 

Unfounded; ground- 1 bate, b6t,t'<. [ba'ted"*; ba'tinq.] 1. Toles- 

papfi, 98k; at, air; element, th6y, usgge; It, g, i (ee); o, oh; orator, or; full, rule; but, or; 



sen; moderate; abate. 2. To deduct. [OF. 
abatre; see ab.\te, t.\ 

ba"teau', ba'to', n. [ba"teaux', -tOz, pl.l A 
flat'bottomed boat; a pontoon for a bridge. 
[< A^M-*^ bat, hoat.] 

batb, bgth, w. [baths, bgdhz, ^y/.] A ba- 
thing; that in which one bathes; a building or 
receptacle for bathing. [< AS. bseth, bath.] 

bathe, bedh, v. [bathed; ba'thing.] I. t. 
To wash or immerse; wet; lave; suffuse. II. 
i. To take a bath.— ba'tlier, /*. 

bat'on, bat'un, n. A short staff or rod. [F. 
b'ltori, < LL. basto(n-), stick.] 

bat-tal'ion, bat-tal'yun, n. Two or more 
companies of infantry; a body of troops. [< 
LL.i' + P battalia; see battle.] 

bat'teni , bat'n, vt. & vi. To make or grow 
fat; thrive; gratify a craving, as for cruelty. 
[< Ice. batna, grow better, improve.] 

bat'ten^, vt. To put battens on. 

bat'ten, n. A narrow strip of wood; a cleat. 

bat'ter, bat'sr, vt. & vi. To strike repeatedly; 
beat; dent; mar; deface. [< LL.*' batio, < 
battuo, beat.] 

bat'ter 1 ,n. A thick liquid mixture beaten up 
for use in cookery. 

bat'ter^, n. A heavy blow; also, repeated 
blows, or the condition resulting from them. 

bat'ter^, n. A batsman, as innaseball. 

bat'ter-ing»ram", bat'gr-ing«ram", n. A 
long beam, with heavy head, 
ancientlj^ used in forcing gates 
and making breaches in walls. 

bat'ter-y, bat'gr-i, n. [-ies^, 
pi] 1. Mil. (1) An earth- 
work enclosing cannon. (2) on 
A company of artillerymen, 
or their guns and other equip- 
ment. 2. Elec. A group of Batterlng»i-am. 
cells, dynamos, etc. 3. Law. The unlawful 
use of force by one person upon another. 

bat'ting, bat'ing, n. Cotton or wool prepared 
in sheets, or the art of preparing it; also, the 
act of batting in any sense of the verb. 

bat'tle, bat'l. 1. vi. [bat'tled; bat'tling.] 
To fight; struggle; strive. II. 7i. 1. A com- 
bat between hostile armies or fleets; a fight; 
conflict; contest. 2}. Arms or an armed force. 
[< LL.F battalia, < batto; see battek, v.] 

bat'tle -dor e", bat'1-dor", n. A parchment* 
covered bat used to drive a shuttlecock. 

bat'tle -ment, bat'l-mgnt, n. A parapet in- 
dented along its upper line. — bat'tle-nient-ed, 
pa. Furnished with battlements. 

bau'bl(e, be'bl, n. A worthless showy trinket; 
gewgaw; toy; originally, the wand of a jester. 
[< L.OF babulus, foolish.] baw'blef. 

baulk, V. & n. Same as balk. 

bawl, bel, vt. & vi. To cry or wail loudly. [< 
Ice. baula, low as a cow.] 

bay, be, v. 1. t. To bark at; drive or bring to 
a stand in the chase. II. i. To bark hoarsely. 
[< OF. bayer, < LL. bado, gape.] 

bay, a. Red^brown: said of horses. 

bay', w. 1. A body of water partly enclosed 
by land; an arm of the sea. 2. Any recess. 
3. A kind of wood used for furniture. bay'= 
■wood"J. [< F. baie, < LL. baia, bay.] 

bay2, n. 1. The laurel-tree. bay'stree":}:. 

2. A^ laurel' wreath; poetic renown. [< F. 
baie, < L. baca, berry.] 

bay 3, n. A bay horse. 

bay^, n. 1. A deep bark or cry, as of dogs in 
hunting. 2. The situation of a hunted crea- 
ture compelled to turn on its pursuers. [For 
abay, < OF. abai, barking.] 

bay^, w. 1. A large space in a barn for stor- 
age, as of hay. 2. A principal compartment 
or division, as between piers or columns. [ < 
F. baie, < bayer, gape; see bay, v.] 

bay'ber"ry , be'ber'i, n. One of various trees, 
as the wax^myrtle or the laurel»tree. 

bay'o-net, be'o-net. I'', vt. To stab or 
charge with a bayonet. II. n. A dagger»like 
weapon attachable to the muzzle of a musket. 
[Prob. < Bayonne, in France.] 

bay'ou, bai'u, 71. A sluggish inlet or outlet 
from a lake or bay. [ < Choctaw bayonet 

bay ■win'dow. Arch. A projecting window 
structure of angular plan, reaching to the 
ground, as distinguished from an oriel window 
(supported on corbels or brackets) and from 
a bow window (curved in plan). 

ba-zaar', | ba-zflr', n. 1. An Oriental mar- 

ba-zar', i ket-place or range of shops. 2. A 
fancy fair for charity. [ < Per. bazar, market.] 

be, bt, xi. [am, aut, is, are, pres. ; was, wast, 
were, imp.; be, were, wert, «w6j.; be, im- 
per.; been, pp.; being, ?;»y»'.] 1. To have 
existence. 2. To exist in a special state, rela- 
tion, etc. 3. To happen. 4. To belong; con- 
cern: with to. [< AS. beon, be.] 

be-, prefix. By; near; on; about: used (1) In its 
original prepositional sense; (2) to render intran- 
sitive verbs transitive; (3) to form verbs from 
adjectives or nouns; (4) to intensify the notion 
of a verb; (5) to give a secondary meaning to a 
simple verb; (6) with nouns, adjectives, or ad- 
verbs, to form other adverbs, conjunctions, or 
prepositions; (7) with privative force; i. e., to 
give a meaning opposed to that of the simple 
word; (8) without special force. Be- forms nu- 
merous compounds which are readily understood 
by combining the meaning of the prefix with that 
of the second element. 

beach, bich. I', vt. To run or haul up on a 
beach. II. n. The sloping shore of a body 
of water; a wavcwashed margin ; strand. 

bea'con, bi'cn. I. vt. To furnish with a 
beacon; light up; shine as a bea- 
con; guide by a light. II. n. A 
prominent object, set up as a guide 
or warning to mariners or others ; 
a signal'fire or flight. [< AS. 
beacen, sign, signal.] 

bead, bid. I<'. vt. & vi. To dec- 
orate with or as with beading or 
beads; collect in beads; bubble; 
foam; sparkle. II. n. 1. A little 
perforated sphere or the like, in- Tjpacon 
tended to be strung on a thread or * 

attached to a fabric for decoration. 2. pi. A 
rosary; hence, prayers. 3. A bubble or bub- 
bles of gas on the surface of a liquid; froth; 
a small knob used as the front sight of a gun. 
4. A small convex molding. [ME. bede, 
prayer, bead.] — bead'ing, n. Bead-like orna- 
mentation; beads collectively; beaded fabrics. 

bea'dl(e, bt'dl, n. [Eng.] A petty parish or 
university official; a crier or messenger of a 

fiut|ure (future); aisle; 

(OMt); oil; c (k); cliat; dli {the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



court. [< OHG.OF butil, one who summons.] 
bea'gl(e, bi'gl, n. 1. A small, short'Coated 

hunting^houna. 2. A constable. 
beak, bik, n. The projecting jaws or other 

mouth'parts of birds; bill; also, the prow of a 

ship. [ < LL.F beccus, beak.] 
beak'er, bik'gr, w. A large wide^mouthed 

cup or goblet. [< Gr.^^+^'^<' bikos, wine=jar.] 
beam, bim, v. I. t. 1. To send out as or like 

rays of light. 2. To furnish with or as with 

beams. 3. To burnish. II. i. To shine. 

— heam^ing, pa. Radiant; bright; cheerful. 
beam, n. 1. A long horizontal piece of wood, 

stone, or metal forming part of the frame of a 
building or other structure. 2. The bar of a 
balance. 3. A ray of light, or a group of 
nearly parallel rays. [< AS. beam, tree, ray 
of light.] 

beam'y, bim'i, a. 1. Radiant; joyous; glad- 
some. 2. Like a beam; massive. 

bean, bin, n. The oval edible seed of certain 
plants; a plant that bears beans. [< AS. bean.] 

beari, bar, v. [bore, bOr, or bare, bar; borne 
orBORN, bOm; bear'ing.] I. t. 1. To sup- 
port; hold up; sustain; convey; carry. 2. To 
show visibly; display; exhibit. 3. To suifer; 
endure or undergo. 4. To have; hold; main- 
tain; entertain. 5. To produce; give birth to. 
6. To conduct (oneself); behave. II. i. 1. 
To produce fruit. 2. To be able to sustain a 
desired weight. 3. To have a certain direc- 
tion; take an aim or course. 4. To rest heavi- 
ly; lean; press. 5. To be in a certain direc- 
tion. 6. To endure with patience; suffer. 7. 
To have relation or reference; be pertinent. 
[< AS. beran, carry, wear, bear, suffer.] 

— bear'a-bl(e, Mr'a-bl, a. Capable of being 
borne.— bear'a-bly, o*'.— bear'er, bar'er, 
w. One who or that which bears, carries, or 
has In possession.— bear'ing, bar'lng, «. 1. 
The act of sustaining, enduring, producing, etc. 
2, Deportment; manner. 3. Relation; connec- 
tion; meaning. 4. A part (of a machine) that 
rests on something, or on which something rests. 
5. A heraldic device. 

bear2, vt. [U. S.] Finance. To depress the 

price of (stocks, etc.). 
bear, n. 1. A large plantigrade carnivore, 

with massive body and short tail 

2. A speculator who seeks to de 

press prices. 3. One 

of two constellations: 

the Great Bear ( Ursa 

Major) or Little Bear 

(Ursa Minor).— 

bear'ish, a. iAkc a 

bear; rough; surly. 
beard, btrd. I''", r/. 

To tak(! by tin; beard; 

pull tlic beard of; de- . , ,", , ,' 

IV II /I 1 'PI,,. •^'"*^'J'h-»iii I51ii<-'kBear. Voo 

hairon ;i ni.iiis l.icr. (specially on the chin. 2. 

Some similar mowiii uv appendage; a tuft of 

hair»like processes; .m awn, as of grass; the 

barb of an arrow or of a liooiv. ' | . .\S. 

ftcan?. 1 — Ix'Hnl'rd, (I. llasiiiLT a luard. 

bcard'h'HH, (/. Wilhout u beard; voiiiii,'; iiie.v- 

beast, l)ist, n. 1. One of the inferior uiiiuijiis; 

u quadruped. 2. A rude or filthy i>erBon. [< 

L. bestia, beast.] — beast'ly, a. 

beat, bit, v. [beat; beat'en or beat; beat'- 
iNG.] I. t. 1. To strike repeatedly. 2. To 
excel; overcome; vanquish. 3. To dash or 
strike against, as wind or wave. 4. To range 
over in hunting. II. i. 1. To strike repeated 
blows. 2. To throb; pulsate. 3. Navt. To 
work up against the wind by tacking. 4. To 
conquer; win. [< AS. beatan, beat, thrust.] 

beat, n. 1. A stroke or blow; a pulsation. 2. 
A round, line, or district regularly traversed, 
as by a sentry or a policeman. 

be-at'i-fy, b§-at'i-fai, tI. [-fied; -py'ing.] 
To make supremely happy; enrol among the 
saints. [< LL.^ beatus, happy, -f/ado, make.] 
— be'^a-tific, bi'u-tif'ic, a. Imparting or 
expressing supreme happiness; blissful. — be- 
af'^i-fl-ca'tion, be-at"i^fl-ke'shun, n. The act 
of blessing, or the state of being blessed. 

be-at'i-tude, b§-at'i-tiud, 71. Supreme bless- 
edness; a declaration of blessedness, as in 
Matt. V. 3-11. 

beau, n. [beaus or beaux, boz, pi.] 1. 
ladies' man; a dandy; fop. 2. [Colloq.] An 
escort or lover. [F., < L. bellus, line, pretty.] 

beau'»i-de''al, bo'^ai-dfal, n. The highest 
conceivable type of beauty or excellence. [F. 
beau ideal (the), ideal beautiful.] 

beau'te-ous, biu't§-u8, a. Full of beauty; 
beautiful, -ly, adv. -ness, ti. 

beau'ti-ful, biu'ti-ful, a. Possessing conspic- 
uous beauty; excelling in form or grace; com- 
plete and harmonious, -ly, ac?t'.— beau'ti-fy, 
biu'ti-fai, vt. & vi. [-fied; -fy'ing.] To make 
or grow beautiful; adorn. 

beau'ty, biu'ti, n. [beaxj'tiess jjI.] 1. That 
quality of objects that gratifies the esthetic na- 
ture; the perfection of form resulting from the 
harmonious combination of diverse elements 
in unity. 2. A person or thing that is beauti- 
ful. [< F. beaute, < L. bellus, beautiful.] 

beaux, boz, n. Plural of beau. 

bea'veri, bi'vgr, n. 1. An amphibious rodent 
of rat'like form, with a scaly, flat, oval tail 
and webbed hind feet, noted for skill in dam- 
ming shallow streams, and valued for its fur. 
2. The fur of the beaver or a hat made of it; 
a high silk hat. [< AS. befer.] 

bea'ver^, n. A movable piece of medieval ar- 
mor covering the lower part of the face. [< 
OF. baviere, prop, bib, < bave, saliva.] 

be-calm', bg-cflm', vt. To make calm; still; 
delay (a ship, etc.) by reason of a calm. 

be-caiiio', be-keni', imp. of become, ?'. 

be-cause','be-cez'. I. adv. By reason (of). 
II. conj. For the reason that (literally, by 
cause); since. [< be- -f cause, «.] 

be-cbance', b§-chgn8', vt. & ri. [be- 
chanced"; be-chan'cing.] To befall; happen. 

beck', bee, vt. & vi. To beckon. 

beck', //. A nod or other sign of wish or 

beck-, n. A small brook, or the valley in 
which it runs. [< Ice. bekkr, stream, brook.] 

beck'on, bec'n, v. I. t. To summon by ges- 
lure. II. i. To make a mute signal, as with 
I lie hand. [< AS. ht ('tenia n, bt'ckon, nod.] 

be-cloud''', be (1(111(1', r/. To obscure; darken. 

be-come', i)e-cinn', r. |iu;-came', bg-kem'-'; BE<;oM'iN(i.j I. t. 1. To accord 
with; befit. 2. To set off; grace. II. i. 1. 

papfi, 98k; at, &ir; el^mfint, they, usege; It, J, i (oe); o, oh; orator, or; full, rule; but. Or; 



To come to a state or condition from any pre- 
vious one. 2. To begin; come about. '3. To 
be fit or suitable. [< AS. hecuman, befall.] 

■be-com'ing, b§-cum'ing, j'ja. Appropriate; 
suitable; pleasing; adorning, -ly, adv. 

bed, bed, t'. [bei>'ded<i; bed'ding.] j^ ^_ to 
lay in or as in a bed; put to bed; plant in a 
bed; cohabit with. II. i. To sleep; cohabit. 

bed, 71. 1. Any place or thing used for sleep- 
ing in or on; a couch. 2. Something likened 
to or serving as a bed, foundation, or support. 
3. A layer; deposit. [< AS. bed.'] 

be-dab'ble, be-dab'l, vt. [-bled; -bling.] 
To sprinkle or splash with liquid; dabble. 

be-daub', bg-deb', Tt. 1. To smear with 
something oily or sticky; soil; abuse; vilify. 
2. To load with vulgar ornament or flattery. 

bed'bug'', bed'bug", n. A blood=sucking 
wingless bug of reddish=brown color and vile 
odor, infesting houses and especially beds. 

bed'ding, bed'ing, n. 1. The furnishings for 
a bedstead. 2. Straw or other litter for ani- 
mals to sleep on. 3. A putting to bed. 4. 
That which forms a bed or foundation. 

be-deck'S be-dec', tt. To deck; adorn. 

be-dew', be-diu', tt. To distil, as dew, upon. 

be-dim', bedim', vt. [be-dimmed'; be-dim'- 
MiN(;.| To' make dim; obscure. 

be-diz'en, be-diz'n, vt. To dress out; adorn 
with tawdry s'plendor. be-diz'zen+. 

bed'lam, bed'lam, n. An excited crowd; an 
uproar; an insane asylum. [Corr. of Bethlehem.] 

Bed'ou-in, bed'u-in, n. One of the nomadic 
Arabs of Syria, Arabia, etc.; any nomad or 
vagabond. '[< Ar.^ 6a(/«?i'7//, desert<lweller.] 
Bed'a--weent; Bed'u-in^. 

be-drag'gle, be-drag'l, vt. & vi. [-gled; 
-GLiNG.J To make or become wet or soiled, as 
by dragging. 

bed'rid'''den, bed'rid'n, a. Confined to bed 
by sickness or weakness. [Corr. < AS. bed- 
rida, < l)€d, bed, -f rida, rider.] bed^rid''^. 

bed'stead, bed'sted, n. A framework for 
supporting a mattress, bedding, etc. [< AS. 
bed., bed, + stede., place.] 

bee, bi, /2. 1. A social honey ^gathering insect. 
2. A gathering of 
neighbors for work or 
amusement. [< AS. 
beo.] — bee'hive'', n. 
1. A hive for a colony 
of honey»bees. "Z. Any 
place filled with busy 
workers. — beesline, 
71. The shortest course 
from one place to an- 
other, as of a bee to its 

beech, btch, n. A for- 
est tree of the oak fam- 
ily. [< AS. bece (< 
boc; see book), beech.] 

Th"^e'd!bletrianguTarnn£ ^^^^-^^^IPl^Tl^'^.f^^^ 
of the beech, beecli^ English Beech. 
mast'^t. — beech'eii, a. Pertaining to the 
beech-tree or Its wood. 

beef, bif, n. 1. The flesh of a slaughtered 
adult bovine animal. 2. [beeves, ;j/.] Any 
adult bovine animal. [< L.^ lx>s (bov-), ox.] 

been, bin or bin, jajo. of be. 

beer, btr, n. An alcoholic fermented liquor 
made from malt and hops; a similar beverage 
made from roots, etc. [< AS. beor.] 

bees'wax'', blz'wax", n. The wax of which 
honeybees make the cells of their comb. 

beet, bit, ti. The fleshy edible root of a bien- 
nial herb; also, the plant. [< L.^^beta, beet.] 

bee'tl(ei, bl'tl, m. [bee'tled; bee'tling.] 
To jut out; overhang. 

bee'tl(e2, vt. To beat or stamp with or as 
with a beetle, mallet, etc. ♦ 

bee'tl(e, a. Overhanging; prominent; as, a 
beetle brow, bee'tling:;. 
— bee'tKesbrowed'^ a. 

bee'tl(ei, n. Any coleopterous insect. See 
CoLEOi'TERA. [ < AS. bltel, betl, biting animal.] 

bee'tl(e2, n. A heavy wooden hammer or mal- 
let; a maul. [< AS. bptel, betel, mallet.] 

beeves, bivs, n. Plural of beef. 

be-falll', be-fel', v. [be-fell', b§-fel'; be- 
fall'en; be-fall'ing.] I. t. To occur or 
happen to. II. i. To come about; happen. 
[< AS. be-, BE-, +feallan, fall.] 

be-fel (!', be-fel', imp. of befall, v. 

be-fit', bg-fit', t'^. [be-fit'ted''; be-fit'ting.] 
To be suitable for; be worthy of.— be-flt'ting, 
pa. Becoming; adequate; suitable. 

be-fog', be-feg', vt. [be-fogged'; be-fog'- 
GiNG.] To envelop in fog; confuse; bewilder. 

be -fore', bg- for'. I. adv. 1. In front; ahead. 
2. Prior in time; earlier. II. jyreji. 1. In 
front of ; ahead of . 2. Prior to, in time; an- 
terior to. 3. In advance of, in rank, etc. 4. 
In preference to; in comparison with. 5. 
Face to face with; in the presence or within 
the jurisdiction or cognizance of . 6. Demand- 
ing the immediate attention of. III. conj. 

I. Rather than. 2. Previous to the time when. 
[< AS. be-, BE-, -\-foran, before.] 

be-fore'band". I. a. Being in easy cir- 
cumstances; forehanded. W. adv. In ad- 
vance; before the time. 

be-friend''', be-frend', vt. To be a friend to; 
stand by; help'in time of need. 

beg, beg, v. [begged; beg'ging.] \. t. 1. 
To ask for (a thing) earnestly; solicit in chari- 
ty. 2. To entreat (a person); supplicate; be- 
seech. II. i. To ask alms. [< AS. bedecian, 
beg.] — to beg the question, to take for 
granted the matter in dispute. 

be-get', beget', vt. [be-got', bg-get', or be- 
gat', bg-gat'; be-got' or be-got'ten; be- 
get'ting.] To procreate; generate; bring into 
existence. [< AS. bi- (see be-) + gUan, get.] 

beg'gar, beg'ar. I. vt. 1. To reduce to 
want; impoverish. 2. To outdo; exhaust. 

II. n. One who asks alms; a poor person; 
(humorously) fellow; rogue.— beg'gar-li-ness, 
«.— beg'gar-ly. a. Miserably poor; mean; 
sordid.— beg'gar-lyll. afZ». In the manner of 
a beggar; meanly; suppllantly.— beg'gar-y, n. 

I. Extreme indigence or deficiency. 2. Beg- 
gars as a class. 3. The act or habit of begging. 

be-gin', bg-gin', v. [be-gan', be-gan', or be- 
gun', bg-gun'; be-gun'; be-gin'ning.] I. t. 
To takc"the first step in; give origin to; start. 

II. ^. 1. To take the first step; start. 2. To 
come into existence; arise; originate. [< AS. 
be-, BE-, + -ginnan, open.] — be-gin'ner, n. 
1 . A founder; originator. »J, A novice; tyro.— 
be-gin'niiiff, n. 1 . The starting-point; origin. 

fliitlure (future); aisle; au (owt); ©il; c (k); chat; dli {the); go; sing, ink; tliin. 




2. The first stage or part. 3. The source or 
first cause of anything. 

\iesoiie\ he-gen', interj. Depart! away! 

be-Kot', be-get'", imp., be-8:ot'teu, -get'n, pp. 
of BEGKT, ^'. [grudge. 

"be-grudge', be-gruj', vi. [be-grudged'; be- 
GRUD(i'iNG.] To eavy one the possession of; 

toe-guile', l)§-gair, vt. [be-guiled'; be-gui'- 
LiNG.] 1. To deceive; delude. 2. To while 
away; charm; divert. [< be- + guile.] 

be-s:uii',»be-gun', imp. & pp. of begin, v. 

'be-lialf', "be-hQf , n. The interest or defense 
(of any one): preceded by in, on, or ttjMyn. 

be-have', be-hev', v. [behaved'; be-ha'- 
viNG.] I. ^ 1. To conduct with regard to 
deportment or duty ; comport. 2 . To conduct 
properly or suitably. II. i. To act, operate, 
or comport oneself: said of persons and things. 
[< AS. behabban, restrain.] — be-ha'vior, n. 

I. Manner of conducting oneself; demeanor; 
deportment. 2. Manner of action of a machine, 
a chemical, etc. be-ha'viourt. 

be-h.e(a)d.''', b§-hed', vt. To take the head 
from; decapitate. [< be-4- head.] 

be-held', be-held', imp. &,pp. of behold, v. 

be-best', l^e-hest', n. An authoritative re- 
quest; command. [< AS. behaes, command.] 

be-hind'', b§-haind'. I. adv. In, toward, or 
at the rear; backward; in reserve; behindhand. 

II. jn'ep. 1. At the back of; on the other side 
of. 2. In a position to aid. 3. Remaining 
after the death or departure of. 4. Inferior 
to. [< AS. be-, be-, -f- hindan, behind.] 

be-hind'band", adv. & a. Behind time; 
late; behind; backward; in arrears. 

be-hold', be-hOld',t7. [be-held', bg-held'; be- 
HOLD'iNG.]" I. t. To look at or upon; view; 
see. II. i. To observe something; look; see: 
used in the imperative, like an interjection. 
[< AS. be-, be-, + healdan, hold.] 

be-bold'en, a. Indebted. 

be-bold'er, «. An eyewitness; spectator. 

be-hoof , b§-hiif', n. That which benefits; 
advantage; use. [< AS. behdf, advantage.] 

be-boove', bg-huv', vt. [be-hooved'; be- 
iioov'iNG.] To be becoming to, needful, or 
right for. 

be'ing, bl'ing. I. ppr. of be, v. Existing; 
continuing to be. II. n. Anything that exists 
or is conceived of as existing; existence. 

be-la'bor, be-le'b§r, vt. To beat; thrash. 

be-late', be-let',r^. [be-la'ted''; be-la'ting.] 
To delay past the proper hour. 

belchS belch, v. I. t. To eject violently, 
as gas from the stomach; vomit; eject (wind) 
noisily from the stomach. II. i. 1. To eruct- 
ate noisily. 2. To come forth forcibly, as 
flame from a furnace. [< AS. bealcan.] 

belcb, n. An eructation. 

bel'dam, ( bel'dam, -dOm, n. A forbidding 

bel'dame, f or malicious old woman; a hag. 
1 < F. bel, fair, -f- dame, lady.] 

be-lea'guer, bg-li'gyr, vt. To surround with 
an armed force; besiege. [< D. belegei'en.] 

bel'fry, bel'fri, n. [bel'fries*, pi.] A tower 
in which a bell is hung, or the part containing 
the bell. [Corr. < ME. berfray, watch-tower. J 

be-lie', be-lal', vt. [bk-lied'; be-ly'ing.I 
1. To give the lie to; contradict. 2. To fall 
short of; disappoint. [< AS. ledgan, falsify.] 

be-lief, b§-lif', n. 1. Probable knowledge; 
intellectual conviction; acceptance of some- 
thing fts true; trust in another's veracity. 2. 
That which is believed; theory; opinion. [< 
AS. geleafa, belief, < gelefan; see believe.] 

be-liev(e', b§-liv', v. [be-liev(e)d' ; be- 
liev'ing.] I. ^. 1. To accept as true on tes- 
timony or authority; be convinced of, as the 
result of study or reasoning. 2. To credit (a 
person) with veracity; accept the word of. II. 
i. 1. To be sure of the existence or truth of 
anything. 2. To have confidence in the truth 
or integrity of a person, the strength of a 
thing, etc. 3. To think; suppose. [< AS. 
gelljifan, gelefan, believe.] — be-liev'a-bi(e, a. 
That may be believed. — be-Iie'v'er, n. One 
who believes; an adherent of a religious faith. 

be-like', b§-laik', adv. Perhaps; probably. 

be-lit'tl(e, b^-lit'l, vt. [-tl(e)d; -tling.] To 
detract from; disparage; depreciate. 

bell, bel, vt. To put a bell on; shape like a 
bell; give forth a oell'like sound. 

bell, n. A hollow metallic instrument for 
giving forth a sound 
when struck. [< AS. 
belle, < bellan; see 

belle, bel, n. A beau- 
tiful and attractive 
woman. [F., fern, of 
beau; see beau.] 

let'r, n. pi. Polite liter- 
ature. [F.] 

bel'li-cose", bel'i 
cOs", a. Pugnacious; 
warlike. [ < L. bellum, 

bel-lig'er-ent, bel- 
lij'gr-gnt. I. a. 1. War- 
like; bellicose. 2. Engaged in or pertaining 
to warfare. II. n. A power or person engaged 
in legitimate warfare. [< L. bellu?n, war, 4- 
gero, carry on.] 

bell'man, n. [-men, pi.] A town crier. 

bel'low, bel'O, v. I. t. To proclaim with 
loud voice. II. i. To utter a loud hollow 
sound; roar; shout. [< AS. bellan, bellow.] 

bel'low, w. A loud hollow cry or roar. 

bellows, bel'Oz, 7i. sing. & pi. An instru- 
ment with an air-chamber and flexible sides, 
for directing a current of air upon a fire. 

bel'ly, bel'i. I. vt. & vi. [bel'lied, bel'id; 
bel'ly-ing.] To swell out or fill, as a sail. 
II. n. [bel'lies*, p/.] The abdomen; some- 
thing round and protuberant; as, the belli/ of 
a sail. [< AS. belg, bag, husk, shell.] 

be-long', bg-leng', vi. 1. To be a possession 
or part, a resident or native; appertain. 2. 
To concern; be an attribute; be suitable (to).— 
bo-loiiff'iiiir? «• That which or one who be- 
longs to a person or thing: usually In the plural. 

be-love', bg-luv', vt. [be-loved'; be-lov'- 
iNG.] To love: only in the passive. 

be-lov'ed, be-luv'gd. I. a. Greatly loved; 
dear to the heart. II. n. One greatly loved. 

be-low', bg-lo'. I. adv. 1. In or to a lower 
place; lower in place or rank; farther down 
on a page, or farther on in a list, a book, etc. 

"Czar Kolokol," the 
Great Bell of Moscow. 

papfl, ask; at, air; el§mfint, thfey, uefge; It, g, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, or; full, rule; but, wr; 



2. On the earth, as distinguished from heaven. 

3. In or to Hades or hell. II. prep. 1. Be- 
neath in point of place; under. 2. Farther 
down than in course or direction. 3. Lower 
than in grade, degree, etc. ; inferior to. 

belt, belt. I"*, vt. To gird with a belt; fasten 
on with a belt; mark with belts or bands; sup- 
ply with or drive by a belt, as a machine. II. 
n. 1. A band worn around the waist; a band 
for transmitting power in machinery. 2. Any 
broad encircling band, region, etc.; a zone'; 
strip; strait. [< AS. belt, < L. bcdteus, belt.] 

be-Inoan^ b§-mOn', vt. To lament. 

bench., bench, n. 1. A long, wooden seat, 
with or without a back. 2. A stout table for 
mechanical work. 3. The judges' seat in 
court; the judge or the judges collectively; the 
judiciary. [< AS. bene] 

bend, bend, v. [bent or bend'ed*"; bend'- 
ING.] I. t. 1. To bring into a curve, or out 
of or aside from a straight line; crook; deflect; 
direct. 2. To apply closely, as the mind. 3. 
To subdue. 4. Naitt. To make fast; tie. II. 
i. 1. To take a curved shape. 2. To take a 
certain direction. 3. To yield; submit; con- 
form. 4. To devote oneself. 5. To overhang. 
[< AS. bendan, bend, < bend, band, bond.] 

bend, n. 1. A curve or crook. 2. An act of 
banding or bowing. 3. Narit. A loop or knot. 

be-neath', be-nith'. I. adv. 1. At a lower 
point; below; in a lower position. 2. Under 
a cover or surface. II. prep. 1. Under; lower 
in place, condition, etc., than. 2. Below the 
surface of. 3. Under the power of. 4. Un- 
worthy of. [ < AS. be-, be-, -j- neothan, below.] 

ben"e-dic'tlon, ben'g-dic'shun, v. The act 
of blessing, as at the close of worship; bless- 
ing; favor. [< 'L.^^betie, well, + c^ico, say.] 

ben'^e-fac'tion, ben'g-fac'shun, n. A kindly 
or generous act; a gift or boon; beneficence. 
[ < L. bene, well, -|- facio, do.] — ben''e-fac'- 
tor, ben'e-fac't^r, n. A friendly helper; a pa- 
tron.— ben^'e-fac'tress, n.fem. 

ben'e-flce, ben'g-fis. I. vt. To invest with 
a benefice. II. n. An ecclesiastical • living 
or its revenue. [ < L. benejicium, favor.] 

— ben'e-ficed, a. Holding a benefice. 
be-nef'i-cent, be-nef'i-sgnt, a. Bringing 

about or doing good; characterized by charity 
and kindness. [< L. be7ie, well, -\- facio, do.] 

— be-nePi-cence, n. — be-iiei'i-cent-ly, 
«rf».— ben"c-fi'<"ial, ben'e-fish'al, a. Confer- 
rlngbenefita; helpful. — ben'^e-H'cial-ly, adv. 

ben"e-fi'cia-ry, ben"g-fish'ia-ri. I. a. Per- 
taining to benefits or benevolence. II. n. 
[-RiEs^, j)l.'\ A recipient of a charitable privi- 
lege, or of any benefit or profit. [< L. bene- 
ficiarius, < beneficium, favor.] 

ben'e-fit'i, ben'g-fit, v. I. t. To be helpful 
or useful to; profit; improve. II. i. To de- 
rive improvement; be helped. 

ben'e-flt, n. 1. Profit; advantage. 2. A 
favor bestowed ; privilege. [ < F. bienfait, < 
LL. bene/actum, benefaction.] 

be-nev'o-lence, bg-nev'o-lgns, n. 1. Desire 
for the well-being or comfort of others; love 
to mankind; charitableness. 2. Any act of 
kindness or well*doing; charity; humanity. 

be-nev'o-lent, a. Characterized by benev- 
olence; kindly; charitable. [< L.^f bene, well. 

-f- Tden{t-)s, ppr. of volo, wish.] -ly, adv. 

be-nigbt'<i, bg-nait', tt. To involve in dark- 
ness or gloom. — be-night'ed, pa. Overtaken 
by night; Ignorant; depraved. 

be-nign', bg-nain', a. Gracious; generous; 
kindly; soft; genial; propitious; mild. [< L. 
benignns, benignant, kind.]— be-iiign'ly, adv. 

be-nig'nant, bg-nig'nant, a. 1. Condescend- 
ing; gentle; gracious. 2. Helpful; salutary. 
-ly, arte— be-nie'ni-ty, n. [-ties', jo/.] 
1. Kindliness; beneficence. 2. Healthfulness; 
salubrity. 3. A gracious action or influence. 

ben'i-son, ben'i-sun, n. A benediction; bless- 
ing. [< LL.OP benedictio, benediction.] 

bent, bent, imp. & pp. of bend, v. 

bents n. 1. Tendency; bias; disposition; 
mood. 2. The degree of tension; limit of en- 
durance or capacity. 

bent^, n. One of various stiff wiry grasses. 
{< K^.beonet.} bent'^grass":]:. 

be-nuni(b', bg-num', vt. To make insensible 
or torpid; stupefy; deaden. [< AS. be-, -by.-, 
-\- niman, take.] — be-nuinbed', pa. 

be-q.ueathS bg-cwidh', tt. To give by will; 
make a bequest of; transmit by inheritance. 
[< AS. be-, BE-, + cwethan, say.] — be-quest', 
be-cwest', n. The act of bequeathing or that 
wliich is bequeathed; a legacy. 

be-rate', bg-ret', vt. [be-ra'ted<'; be-ra'- 
ting] To chide severely ; scold; rail at. 

be-reav(e', bg-riv', vt. [be-reaved' or be- 
reft', bg-reft'; be-reav'ing.] To deprive, as 
of something valuable or beloved; despoil; rob. 
[< AS. be, BY.-,-\-rea1ian, rob.] — be-reav(e/- 
incnt, n. The act of bereaving, or the state of 
being bereaved; an afflictive loss. 

berg, bgrg, n. An iceberg. [ < Ice. or G. berg.l 

ber'ry, ber'i. I. vi. [ber'ried; ber'ry-ing.] 

I. To form or bear berries. 2. To seek for or 
gather berries. II. n. [ber'ries^ ^^/.] 1. A 
small succulent fruit. 2. A coffee-bean or 
the like. [< AS. 6m<7e.] 

berth, bgrth. l^.vt. To provide with a berth. 

II. n. 1. A bunk or bed in a vessel, sleeping^ 
car, etc. 2. Naut. Any place in which a ves- 
sel can lie; sea»room. 3. A place on a vessel; 
office or employment in general. [Perhaps < 
\f of BEARi, v.'\ birtht. 

ber'yl, ber'il, n. A precious stone of varying 
color. The aquamarine and emerald varieties 
are used as gems. [< Gr.i'+OF beryllos.] 

be-seeeh', be-sich', f<. [BE-souGHT',bg-set'; 
be-seech'ing.] To entreat earnestly; implore; 
supplicate; beg; plead. [< be- -j- ME. sechen, 
< AS. se^ean, seek.] 

he-seem', bg-sim', v. I. t. To be becoming 
to; befit. II. i. To seem. 

he-set', bg-set', vt. [be-set'; be-set'ting.] 

I. To harass, obstruct, or embarrass. 2. To 
set or stud, as with gems: only in the past par- 
ticiple. [< AS. be-, about, -\- settan, set.] 

— be-set'ting, i9rt. Constantly assailing, 
he-side', bg-said'. I. adv. Close by; at hand. 

II. jn^ep. 1. At or by the side of; near; close 
to. 2. In comparison with. 3. In addition 
to. 4. Away or apart from. 

he-sides', b§-saidz'. I. adv. 1. Inaddition; 
also. 2. Aside from. II. prep. 1. In addi- 
tion to; other than. 2. Except. 

he-siege', be-sij', ?)<. [besieged'; be-sieg'- 

fIut|Ore (future); aisle; au {out); ©il; c (k); chat; db {the); go; sing, iigik; thin. 



ING.] To lay siege to; beset or harass. — be- 
siesr'er, n. 

be-smear', b§-sinir', vt. To smear over; sully. 

be-smircli'S r<. To soil; stain; defile. 

be'som, bl'zera, n. A bundle of twigs used 
as a broom: any agency that cleanses or abol- 
ishes. [< AS. besma, broom.] 

be-sot', be-set', vt. [be-sot'ted"*; be-sot'- 
TiNG.] To stupefy, as with drink; enslave; 
infatuate. [< be- + sot, w.] 

be-sougl>t', bg-set', imp. & pp. of beseech, v. 

be-speah:', be-sptk', vt. [be-spoke', bg-spok'; 
be-spoke' of be-spo'ken, be-spo'kn; be- 
speak'ing.] 1. To ask for in advance. 2. 
To give token of; indicate. 

Bes'se-mer, bes'g-msr, n. Steel prepared by 
forcing a blast of air through the molten metal. 
[< Henry Bessemer, the inventor (1855-98).] 

best, best. I. a. \Superl. of good.] Most 
excellent or desirable. II. n. The most ex- 
cellent; the highest degree or state; the utmost. 
III. adv. [Swperl. of well.] In the most 
excellent or suitable manner; with the most 
favorable result; to the utmost degree. 

be-sted.', /bg-sted', vt. [be-sted'; be- 

be-stead', f stead'; be-sted'ing; be-stead'- 
ing.] [Now only in the participial combina- 
tions.] To put in some (commonly undesirable) 
position; beset. [< be--}- ME. s<i?c?e«, place.] 

bes'tial, bes'tial, a. Pertaining to or like 
beasts or a beast; animal; brutish; sensual; 
depraved. [< L. bestialis, < bestia, beast.]— 
bes''ti-al'i-ty, bes'ti-al'i-tl, n. Character or 
conduct befitting beasts.— bes'tial-ly, adv. 

be-stir', bg-stgr', t)<. [be-stirred'; be-stir'- 
RiNG.] To move with life or vigor; incite to 
brisk activity. 

be-stow', bg-stO', vt. 1. To confer as a gift: 
with on or upon; present. 2. To use or ex- 
pend; apply. — be-8tow'a-bl(e, a. — be-stow'- 
al, n. The act of bestowing; gift. 

be-strew', be-stru', vt. [be-strewed' or be- 
strewn'; be-strown'; be-strew'ing; be- 
STROw'iNG.] 1. To sprinkle with things 
strewn. 2 . To scatter about, be-strow'j. 

be-stride', bg-straid', vt. [be-strode', bg- 
strOd', or be-strid', bg-strid'; be-strid'den 
orBE-STRiD'; be-stri'ding.] To stand over 
or sit upon astride; step over at a stride. 

bet, bet, f. [bet orBET'TED**; bet'ting.] I. 
/. To stake or pledge on an uncertain issue. 
II. i. To wager money, etc., upon some un- 
certain issue or event. [Short for abet.] 

bet,«. 1. The act of betting; wager. 2. The 
stak(! in any wager. 

be-take^, bg-tek', vt. [be-took', bg-tiik'; be- 
ta'ken; be-ta'kino.] To resort (to); take 
(oneself), remove, or go (to). 

be-think', bg-thiijk', vt. & vi. [be-thought', 
bg-thSt'; be-think'ino.] To remind oneself ; 
take thought; deliberate. 

be-thou():ht% be-th6t', imp. &pp. of bethink. 

be-tide', bg-tafd', vt. & vi. [be-ti'ded*'; be- 
ti'ding.J To happen to or befall; betoken; 

be-times', be-taimz', adv. In good season or 
time; soon. [< be- -}- time, ;/.] 

be-to'ken, be-tO'kn, vt. To be a sign of; give 
promise or evidence of. [be- + token.] 

bc-took', bg-tOk', imp. of betake, ». 

be-tray', bg-tre', t'^ 1. To deliver up to an 
enemy; be a traitor to. 2. To disclose (a mat- 
ter) in breach of confidence. 3. To lead 
astray; sednce. 4. To reveal unintentionally ; 
show signs of. [ < be- -\- OF. trair, < L. trado.] 
— be-tray'al, 7i.— be-tray'er, n. 

be-trotb'S bg-troth'orbg-treth', vt. To engage 
to marry ; promise in marriage; affiance. [< 
be- + troth.] — be-troth'al, n. Engagement 
to marry, be-troth'mentt. 

bet'ter, bet'gr, vt. & vi. To make or grow 
better; improve; also, to surpass; excel. 

bet'ter, a. [C'owjaar. of good.] 1. Superior 
in excellence, amount, or value; preferable; 
surpassing. 2. Improved in health; conva- 
lescent. [< AS. betera.] 

bet'teri, n. 1. Advantage; superiority. 2. 
A superior, as in ability, rank, age, etc. 

bet'ter^, w. One who lays wagers, bet'tort. 

bet'ter, adv. [Compat\ of well.] In a su- 
perior manner; more excellently; more thor- 
oughly or correctly; in a higher degree. 

bet'ter-ment, bet'gr-ment, n. Improve- 
ment; an addition to the value of real property. 

be-tween.'', bg-twin'. I. adv. In interve- 
ning space, time, position, or relation; during, 
in, or at intervals. II. pirp. 1. In the space 
which separates (two places or objects). 2 . In- 
termediate in relation to (qualities, etc). 3. 
With relation to both of; taking one or the 
other of. [< AS. be-, be-, + tweonum, dat. 
pi. of tweon, double, two.] 

be-twixt', bg twixt', adv. & prep. Between. 
[< AS. be-, BE-, -j- -twia% < twi-, two.] 

bev'el, bev'el. I. vt. & vi. [bev'eled or 
bev'elled; bev'el-ing or bev'el-ling.] To 
give a sloping edge to; have 
a sloping edge. II. a. Ob- I^C^s 
liqne; slanting; beveled. r~' ^* "' 
III. n. 1. Any inclination i 
of two surfaces other than 
90°, as at the edge of a tim- Bevel. sciuaro. 
ber, etc. 2. An adjustable instrument for 
measuring angles; a bevel-square. [< F. 6i- 
veau, bevel.] 

bev'er-age, bev'gr-gj, n. Drink; that which 
is drunk. [< OF. bevre, drink.] 

bev'y, bev'i, n. [bev'iess pl.\ A flock of 
birds; a small group, as of girls or women. 
[< OF. beveye, a drinking company.] 

be-wail', bg-wel', vt. & vi. To mourn for; 
lament over; make lamentation. 

be-ware', bg-wSr', v. I. t. To look out for; 
be wary of. II. i. To be cautious or wary; 
exercise prudence or heed; lookout: often with 
of. [ < AS. beon (see be), + wser, wake».] 

be-wil'der, bg-wil'dgr, vt. To confuse or 
l)erplex; daze. [< be- -f "^>^ild.1 ~ be-wU'- 
d«r-iiient, 7i. Confusion; entanglement. 

be-wi(t)ch,'S bg-wich', vt. 1. To gain power 
over by charms or incantations. 2. To please 
irresistibly; charm; fascinate. [< be- -|- 
■wiTCH.] — be-wl(t)ch'lng, pa. Charming; 
captivating.— be-wi(t)cb'inK-ly, adv.— hc' 
wi(t)ch'iiieiit, n. The act or power of be- 
wltcliing, or the state of being bewitched. 

be-wray'il, be-r<)', vt. To disclose; betray. 

be-yond', be-yend'. I. n. That which is on 
the other side or farther on; the future life. 
II. adv. On the other side of something in- 

papd, gsk; at, air; el^mgnt, th6y, us^ge; It, %, i (ee); o, oh; orator, or; full, rule; but, ur; 



tervening; yonder; far off. III. prep. Far- 
ther or later than ; out of reach of ; superior to; 
surpassing; more than. [< AS. hegeondan.,< 
be-, BE-, -4- geond, yond.] 
bi-, bai, prefix. Twice; doubly; two. [< L. bi, < 
bis, twice, < duo, two.] Bi- sometimes becomes 
bin- or bis- for euphony.— bi-au'uu -al, a. Oc- 
curring twice a year; semiannual.— bi-an'iiu- 
al-Iy, adv.— bi-cen'te-ua-ry. I. a. Occur- 
ring once in 201) years. II. n. The space of aOO 
years; the 200th anniversary, bi^'ceii-teii'iii- 
alt.— bi-ceph'a-loiis, bai-sef'a-lus, a. Hav- 
ing two heads.— bi-coPored, a. Of two colors. 

— bi-eu'iii-al. I. a. Occurring every two 
years; lasting two years. 11. n. A plant that lives 
twoyears.— bi-fo'li-ate, a. Bot. Two=leaved. 

— bi-fur'cate<i, v. To fork; divide Into two 
branches or stems, [-f L. furca, fork.] — bi- 
furcate, a. Forked, bi-fur'ca-tedt; bi- 
fur'cousi.- bi-fiir'cate-ly, adv.— bi-^fiir- 
ca'tion, «.— bi-Iat'er-al, a. Pertaining to 
two sides; two-sided.- bi-lin'giial, bai-lin'- 
gwal, a. Recorded or expressed in two lan- 
guages; speaking two languages.— bi-lit'er-al, 
a. Composed of two letters.— bi-meu'sal, a. 
Bimonthly. [-4- L. mensis, month.] — bi- 
mouth'ly, a. & adv. Once in two months.— 
bi'^met-al'Iic, a. Consisting of or relating to 
two metals.— bi-met'al-isin, n. The concur- 
rent use of both gold and silver as money at a 
fixed relative value, bi-inet'al-lisinl:.— bi- 
par'tite, bai-par'tait, a. Consisting of two 
corresponding parts, [-f L. pars, part.] — bi- 
scK'nient, n. The half of a segment, as f onned 
by bisection.— bi-week'ly. I. a. Occurring 
or appearing once in two weeks. 11. n. A bi- 
weekly publication. 

bi'as, bal'as. I. vt. [bi'ased' or bi'assed'; 
bi'as-ing or bi'as-sing.] To cause to incline 
or swerve; influence or affect unduly; preju- 
dice. II. a. Running diagonally across the 
texture; cut slantingly: said of cloth. III. 
n. [Bi'As-EsorBi'As-SES, ^;.] 1. Aline, cut, 
or seam running obliquely across the threads 
of a fabric. 2. A mental predilection or prej- 
udice. [< F. biais, slant.] 

bib, bib. I. vt. & vi. [bibbed; bib'bing.] 
To tipple. II. n. 1. A cloth worn under the 
chin by children at meals. 2. A waist^piece 
attached to a woman's apron. [< L. bibo, 
drink.] — bib'ber, bib'er, n. A tippler. 

Bi'ble, bai'bl, n. 1. The Sacred Scriptures of 
the Old and New Testaments. 2. The sacred 
books of any people. [< Gr. biblia, pi. of bib- 
lion, dim. of biblos, byblos, book, papyrus.] 

— Bib'lic-al, bib'lic-al, a. 1. Pertaining to 
the Bible. "Z, In harmony with the Bible. 

biblio-. Of or pertaining to a book or books, 
especially the Bible: a combining form. [< 
Gr. biblion, book.] — bib''li.og'ra-pher, n. 
One who writes about or is skilled in bibliogra- 
phy. — bib'^li-o-grraph^ic, a. bib''^li-o- 
graph'ic-alt. — bib'^li-og'ra-pby, bib"li- 
eg'ra-fl, n. I-phies^ pl.^ 1. The description 
and history of books. "Z. A list of the works of 
an author, or of the literature bearing on a par- 
ticular subject. 1+ Gr. grapho, write. 1 — bio'''- 
li-ol'a-try, n. Book-worship; especially, ex- 
travagant homage paid to the letter of the Bible, 
[-f Gr. latreia, worship.] — Bib''Ii-ol'a-ter, 
«.— bib''li-o-ma'ni-a, n. Book^madness; 
the passion for collecting books. [+ Gr. mania, 
madness.] — bib''li-o-ma'iii-ac. I. a. Per- 
taining to bibliomania; book=mad. II. n. One 
who has a passion for collecting books.— bib^- 
li-o-phile, bib'li-o-fll, ?i. One who loves books. 

[+ Gr. philos, loving.] — bib^'Ii-o-the-'ca, 
bib li-o-thi'ca, n. A library, or a collection of 
books. [+ Gr. theke, case.] 

bib'u-lous, bib'yu-lus, a. Given to drink; 
taking up moisture readily ; absorbent. [< L. 
bibulus, < bibo, drink.] 

bi'ceps, bai'seps, n. The large muscle of the 
upper arm. [L., < bi- (see bi-) + caput, head.] 

bick'er, bik'gr, vi. 1. To dispute petulantly; 
wrangle; chatter, as a bird. 2. To flow noisily, 
as a brook; flicker and splutter, as a flame. 
[Etym. doubtful.] bick'er-ingt. 

bi'cy-cle, bai'si-cl. I. vi. [-cled; -cling.] 
To ride a bicycle. II. n. A two. wheeled 
vehicle with a tandem arrangement of the 
wheels, and cranks or levers for its propulsion 
by the feet. [ < bi- + L. cydus ( < Gr. kyklos), 
wheel.] — bi'cy-clist, n. One who rides on a 
bicycle; a wheelman, bi'cy-clerl:; cy'distt. 

bid, bid, v. [bade, bad, bad, or bid; bid'den 
or bid; bid'ding.] I. t. 1. To make an of- 
fer of (a price). 2. To command; order. 3. 
To address, as a greeting or farewell. 4. To 
proclaim publicly; announce. II. ^. To offer 
a price, or a service for a certain price. [Used 
for two AS. verbs, Uddan, pray, ask, and beo- 
dan, command.] — bid'der, n. — bid'ding, bid'- 
ing, n. 1. A notification or command; also, a 
solicitation or Invitation. ^. The making of a 
bid or bids, as at a sale. 

bid, n. An offer to pay or accept a price. 

bide, baid, v. [bi'ded'' or bode, bod; bi'- 
DiNG.] I, t. 1. Towaitfor; await.' 2. To 
tolerate; suffer; endure. II. i. To dwell; 
wait; stay; abide. [< AS. lndan\ 

bier, btr, n. A framework for carrying a corpse 
to the grave; a coffin, hearse, or the grave it- 
self. [< AS. b'jer, < beran, bear.] 

big, big, a. [big'ger; big'gest.] 1. Of great 
size, amount, or intensity; large; great; bulky. 
2. Fruitful; pregnant. 3. Full to overflowing. 
4. Puffed up; pompous. — big'ness, «. 

big'a-my, big'a-mi, n. The crime of marry- 
ing any other person while having a legal 
spouse living. [< L.^'i'+Of W- (see bi-) -f- Gr. 
gamos, marriage.] — bi-gam'ic, a. big'a- 
moiisi.— big'a-mist,w. One guilty of bigamy. 

bight, bait, n. 1. A slightly receding bay; a 
small recess in a bay, a bend in a river, or the 
like. 2. Naut. A loop or turn in a rope. 
[ < AS. byhf, corner, bay, < bugan, bend.] 

big'ot, big'§t, n. An illiberal adherent of a 
religious creed or of any party or opinion. [F.] 
— big'ot-ed, a. Stubbornly attached to a 
creed, party, system, or opinion.— bigr'ot-ry, 
n. [-KiES»,joZ.] Obstinate and intolerant attach- 
ment to a cause or creed. 

bf jou', bi'zhu', n. [bi'joux', bl'zhu', pl.^ A 
jewel; a trinket. [P.] — bi-jou'te-rie, bl- 
zhu'te-rl, n. Jewelry, bi-jou'tryt. 

bile, bail, n. 1. A bitter yellowish or green 
fluid secreted by the liver. 2. Anger; peevish- 
ness. [< L. bilis, bile, anger.] 

bilge, bilj, V. [bilged; bil'ging.] I. t. 1. 
Naut. To stave in the bottom of (a vessel). 
2. To cause to bulge. II. i. 1. Naut. To 
be stove in. 2. To bulge. 

bilge, n. 1. The flat or nearly flat part of a 
ship's bottom. 2. The bulge of a barrel. 
[Var. of bulge.] — bilge'=wa''ter, n. Foul 
water that collects in the bilge of a ship. 

fiutljjre (future); aisle; au (m\); oil; c (k); chat; dh {the)', go; sing, ii^k- thin. 



biliosus, < bilis, 

bil'i-a-ry, bil'i-a-ri, a. Pertaining to or con- 
veying bile. [< L. bills, bile.] 

bil'ious, bil'yus, a. 1. Suffering from real 
or supposed disorder of the liver; hence, ill* 
natured. 2. Of, pertaining to, containing, or 
consisting of bile. [< L^*' 
bile.] — biFious-ness, n. 

-bility, siifflx. A termination forming nouns 
from adjectives In -ble; as, proba6?7«77/, from 
proba6/e. [< F. -bilite, < L. hilUa{l-)s, < -bilis, 
-ble, -f -ta(t-)s, -TY.] 

bill', oil, vt. To enter in a bill; charge; adver- 
tise by bills or placards. 

bill^j ^i. To jom bills, as doves; caress. 

bill', w. 1. A statement of an account or of 
money due. 2. [U. S.] A bank» or govern- 
ment»note; as, a ten=dollar 6i//. 3. A list of 
items; as, a bill of fare. 4. The draft of a 
proposed law. 5. Law. A paper filed in a 
court calling for some specific action. 6. Some 
public notice or advertisement. [< LL. billa, 
for bulla; see bull^, n.] 

bill2, 71. A beak, as of a bird. [< AS. bile.] 

bill3, n. A hook^shaped instru- 
ment or weapon; a halberd. [< 
AS. bill, sword, ax.] — bill'man, 
n. A soldier armed with a bill. 

biiaet^ bil'^t, v. I. t. 1. To 
lodge (soldiers) in a private 
house. 2. To serve with a billet. 
II. i. To be quartered; lodge. 

bil'let', n. 1. A written mis- 
sive ; a note. 2. A requisition 
on a household to maintain a 
soldier. 3. The place of men so 
lodged. [F.] 

biriet*, n. A stick, as of fire- 
wood ; any short thick stick. [ < OF. billete, 
< LL. billus, log.] 

bil''let=€loux', Dire»du', n. [bil"lets=doux', 
pi. I A lover's note. [F.] 

billiards, bil'yardz, n. A game played with 
ivory balls propelled by cues on a cloth»covered 
table. [< F. billard, < bille, block.] 

bil'lings-gate'', bil'ingz-get", n. Vulgar 
and abusive language. [< Billingsgate fish* 
market, London.] 

bil'lion, bil'yun, n. 1. U. S. & Fr. A thou- 
sand millions (1,000,000,000). 2. Eng. A mil- 
lion millions (1,000,000,000,000). [F.] 

bil'low, biro. I. vt. & vi. To raise into or 
roll in billows; surge; swell; undulate. II. 
n. A great wave or the sea; a storm»wave; 
also, any wave, as of sound, etc.; in the plural, 
the sea. [< Ice. bylgja.] — bilMow-y, a. 

bil'ly, bil'i, n. [bil'lies*, pi.] A short bludg- 
eon; a policeman's club. 

bin, bin, n. A large receptacle for holding 
meal, coal, etc. [< AS. binn, manger.] 

bin-, pr^x. See bi-. 

bi'na-ry, bai'na-ri. I. a. Pertaining to, char- 
acterized by, or made up of two; double; 
paired. II. n. [-ries», pi.] A combination 
of two things; a couple; duality. [<L.bina- 
rim, < bim, two, < bis; see bi-.] 

bind, baind, v. [bound, baund; bound or 
bound'kn; bind'ino.] I. t. 1. To tie to- 
gether; make fast by tying; cause to cohere. 
2. To constrain as by moral infiuence or moral 
or legal obligation. 3. To put a bandage or a 

Bill of the 
time of Hen- 
ry VII. 

binding on. 4. To gather and fasten between 
covers the sheets of (a book). II. i. 1. To 
have binding force; be obligatory. 2. To co- 
here; stick. 3. To tie up anything. [< AS. 
binda?i.']—hind'er, n. One who or that which 
binds.— bind'er-y, balnd'er-i, 71. I-ies'-, pi.] A 
shop or establishment where books are bound.-— 
bind^ingr. I, pa. Causing to be bound; legal- 
ly or morally obligatory. II. 71. 1. The act of 
fastening or joining. 2. Anything that binds 
objects to each other, as the cover of a book. 
3. A strip sewed over an edge for protection. 

bin'na-cl(e, bin'a-cl, ti. A stand or case for 
a ship's compass. 

bi-og'ra-pby, bai-eg'ra-fi, ti. [-vni^s^, pi.] 
A written account of a person's life. [ < bio-, 
< Gr. bios, life, + grapho, write.] — bi-og'ra- 
pher, bai-eg'ra-ferj ?j. One who writes an ac- 
count of a person'slife.— bi''o-8:raph'ic, bf- 
o-gi'aph'ic>a], baro-graf'lc, -al, a. Pertain- 
ing to or consisting of biography. 

bi-oro-gy, bai-ePo-ji, 7i. The science of life 
or living organisms. [< bio- -j- -logy.] — 
bi''o-Iog''ic, boro-lej'lc, «. bf o-logr'ic-alt. 

bi'ped, bai'ped. I. a. Having two feet. II. 
71. An animal having two feet. [< L. 6i- (see 
BI-) -\-2ies, foot.] — bip'e-dal, bip'§-dal, a. Of 
or pertaining to a biped. 

birch., bgrch, n. 1. A tree or shrub of the oak 
family, with light thin foliage and the outer 
bark separable in thin papery layers. 2. A 
birch rod. 3. The wood of the birch. 4. 

[< AS. beorc] -^ 

canoe made of birch bark. 
birch'en, a. 
Pertaining to 
birch; made of 

bird, bgrd, w. 
ed, feathered, 
egg-laying ver- 
tebrate ani- „, ^ ^ , ^ 
mal, having Blrch-bark Canoe, 
the fore limbs modified as wings. [< AS. 
b7'idd, bird.]— blrd'lime'', n. A sticky sub. 
stance smeared on twigs to catch small birds. 

birtb, bgrth, ti. 1. The fact or act of being 
born; nativity. 2. A beginning; an origin. 
3. The bringing forth of ofl:spring; parturi- 
tion. 4. Ancestry or descent; lineage. 5. Is- 
sue; offspring. [< AS. beorth, < beran, bear.] 
— birth'day'', n. The day of one's birth or 
Its anniversary: used also adjectivally. 

biH-, prefix. See bi-. 

bis^cuit, bis'kit, n. 1. A small soft cake; 
also, a cracker, 2. Bisque. [F.] 

bi-sect'<', bai-sect', vt. To divide into two 
parts of equal size. [< bi- -}- L. sectus, pp. of 
seco, cut.] — bi-sec'tlon, n. 

bisb'op, bish'up, w. 1. An overseer in the 
church, having charge of a diocese. 2. A piece 
in a set of chessmen. [< Gr.-^"* ej)iscoi)OS, < 
ein, upon, -f- skoped, look at.] — bisn'op-ric, w. 
The office or the province of a bishop; a diocese. 

bi^son, bai's^n, «. A bovine ruminant, nearly 
related to the true ox; especially, the so»callea 
North- American biifalo. [< Gr.'-*'' bisbn.] 

bis-sex'til(e, bi-sex'til. I. a. Pertaining to 
aleap'year. II. «. A leap-year. [<L. W-, 
BI-, -f aextus, sixth, < sex, six.] 

bit', bit, vt. [bit'ted''; bit'ting.] To put a 
bit in the mouth of; train, as a horse, to the 

papfl, ^8k| at, ftir; el©mfint, they, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, 6h; erat^r, Sr; full, rule; but, ©r; 


use of a bit; bridle; curb; check; restrain. 
bit2, bit, i7np. & pp. of bite, v. 
blti, n. 1. A wood'boriug tool adapted to be 

used with a stock or brace. 2. The metallic 

mouthpiece of a bridle. 3. The part of a kc}- 

that engages the bolt or tumblers of a lock. 

[< AS. bltan, 

bit2, n. A small 

piece, portion, or 

fragment; a little. 

[< AS. Mta, < 

mtan, bite.] Bits and Bit-stock or Brace. 

bitCb, bich, n. i. Brace. 2. Chuck for ^p- 

The female of the pin? round=^shank bits. 3. Screw- 

dof or other Ca- driver bit. i. End«boring bit. 5. 

niiTA nnimnl f^ Drill-bit. 6. Spoon-bit. 7. Gim- 

AsS] ^^'^''''^'- «• Center-bit. 

bite, bait, v. [bit, bit; bit'ten or bit; bi'- 
TiNG.] I. t. 1. To seize with the teeth ; re- 
move by biting: with of, etc. 2. To sting, as 
mosquitos. 3. To act upon, as mustard on 
the tongue, or an acid on copper; cause to 
smart; sting; corrode. 4. To grip; take hold 
of. 5. To cheat; trick. II. i. 1. To seize 
something with the teeth. 2. To be pnngent 
or stinging to the taste. 3. To wound or 
pierce; sting. 4. To take a bait, as fish. 5. 
To take firm hold on something; grip. [< 
AS. b'ltan, bite.] — I)i''ter, n. 

bite, n. 1. The act of biting, or the hurt in- 
llicted by biting. 2. A morsel of food. 3. 
The grip taken by a tool in action. 

bit'ten, ijp- of bite, v. 

bit'ter, bit'gr, a. 1. Having a peculiar acrid 
taste, as of quinin. 2. Producing pain of body 
or mind; keen; poignant; severe. 3. Feeling 
or showing hate or re- 
sentment. 4. Stinging; 
sharp ; severe : said of 
words. [< AS. bitei% < 
bitan, bite.] -ly, adv. 
-11 ess, n. 

bit'ter, n. 1 . That which 
is bitter; bitterness. 2. 
pi. An infusion of bitter 
ingredients, often with 

bit'tern, bit'grn, ?i. A 
small heron. 

bi-tu'men, bl-tiu'men, n. 
1. Mineral. A native mi.\- 
ture of hydrocarbons, as 
naphtha or asphalt. 3. A 
brown paint. [L.]— bi-i, 
tii''ini-iioiis, a. ^" 

bi'valv(e, bai'valv. 
I. a. Having two 
valves, as a mollusk. bi'- 
valv(e)di; bi-val'- 
vous^; bi-val Ovu- 
lar:;:. II. n. A head- 
less mollusk having a 
shell of two valves, as 
the oyster. [ < bi- + valve.] 

biv'ou-acbiv'u-ac. I. vi. [biv'ou-acked'; 
Biv'ou-ACK-iNG.] To encamp for the night 
without tents. II. n. A temporary encamp- 
ment without shelter. [F.] 

bi-zarre', bi-zflr', a. Grotesque; odd. [F.] 

A Bittern 

blab, blab, v. [blabbed; blab'bing.] I. t. 
To tell or repeat indiscreetly. II. i. To teh 
tales; tattle. [< Dn. blabbre, babble.] 

black, blac. I', vt. & vi. To make or become 
black; blacken and polish. II. a. 1. Having 
little or no power to reflect light; of the color 
of jet. 2. Having a very dark skin; swarthy. 
3. Destitute of light; gloomy; dismal; forbid- 
ding; also, sad; shameful. 4. Evil; malig- 
nant; wicked; deadly. III. n. 1. The ab- 
sence of color, or the darkest of all colors: 
sable. 2. That which is black. 3. A negro! 
black'a-moor:):. [< AS. blac, dark.] 

— black art, magic; necromancy.— b. list, 
a list of persons under suspicion, censure, etc.— 
b. lead, graphite, plumbago. 

black'bair', blac'bel". I. vt. 1. To vote 

against, as with a black ball; ostracize. 2. 

To blacken, as shoes, with blackball. 11. ?i. 1. 

A vote rejecting application for membership. 

2. Shoemakers' blacking made into balls. 
black'ber^'ry, blac'ber"i, n. [-ber'ries*, 

pi.] The black edible fruit of certain shrubs, 

or one of the plants producing it. 
black'bird", blac'bgrd', n. 1. A common 

European thrush, the male of which is black, 

with a yellow bill. 2. One of various black 

or blackish North- American birds. 
black-board'', blac'bord", ». A blackened 

surface, for marking upon with chalk, 
black'en, blac'n, t'. I. t. 1. To make black, 

dark, or gloomy; darken. 2. To defame; 

calumniate. II. i. To become or grow black. 
black'guard, blag'flrd. I-', rf. To revile. 

II. a. Of or like a blackguard; base; vile. 

III. n. A low, vicious fellow. 
black'ing, blak'ing, n. A preparation used 

to give blackness or luster, or both. 

black'leg", blac'leg", n. A professional 
swindler or gambler; a cheat; sharper. 

black'raail", blac'mel". I. vt. To levy 
blackmail upon. II. n. 1. Extortion by 
threats or accusation. 2. [North. Eng. & 
Scot.] A tax formerly paid to bandits to in- 
sure immunity from pillage. 

black'smitb", blac'smith", n. A smith who 
works in or welde wrought iron. 

black'tborn", blac'thern", n. A thorny 
shrub of the rose family; also, a walking- 
stick made of its wood. 

blad'der, blad'gr, ?i. A sac in the pelvic cav- 
ity, for the temporary retention of urine; some 
part or organ of analogous structure, as an air- 
vessel or an air-cell. [< AS. blasdre, blister, 
< V of blow 1, v.] 

blade, bled, n. 1. The flat, cutting part of 
any edged tool or weapon. 2. The leaf of 
grasses or certain other plants. 3. A rakish 
young man. [< AS. blaed, leaf.] 

biain, blen, n. A pustular tumor; a blister. 
[< AS. blegen, boil, < V of bloavi, ^..] 

blame, blem. I. vt. [blamed; bla'mixg.J 
To find fault with; censure; accuse. II. n. 
Expression of disapproval, as for something 
wrong; faultfinding; censure; also, fault; cul- 
pability. [< F. Warner, < LL. Uasphemo; see 
blaspheme, v.] 

— bla'ma-ble, a. Deserving censure; cul- 
pable; faulty, blaine'fult ; blanie'wpr"- 
thyi. — bla'ma-bly, ad*. — blaiiie'ful-ly. 

flutSure (future); aisle; au (owt); 

©il; c (k); chat; dh (^^e); go; sing, ii^k; thin. 



adr— blame'ful-ness, «.— blame'less, a. 

Innocent; guiltless, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

blancbS blanch, vt. & vi. To make or become 
white or pale; bleach; pale. [< F. blanchir, 
< blanc, white.] 

blanc"»niange', blg"=martzh', 7^. A whi- 
tish jelly-like preparation used for desserts, etc. 
[< F. blancmanger, white*eating.] 

bland, bland, a. 1. Affable in manner; gen- 
tle; suave. 2. Mild; balmy; genial. [< L. 
blandus^ mild.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

blan'disbS blan'dish, vt. To wheedle; caress; 
coax; please. [<lu.^^ blandus,\>\&i\d.'] 

— blan'dish-ment, n. Soothing, caressing, 
or flattering speech or action. 

blank, bla^k. I. a. 1. Wholly or partly free 
from writing or print. 2. Lacking in orna- 
ment, interest, or results; empty; void. 3. 
Without rime; as, blank verse. 4. Discon- 
certed; confused. 5. Utter; downright. 6. 
Pale or white; colorless. II. n. 1. A paper 
containing no written or printed matter. 2. A 
written or printed paper with blank spaces. 
3. A vacant space. 4. A lottery-ticket which 
has drawn no prize; a disappointing result. [< 
F. blanc, < OHG. blanch, white.] 

blan'ket, blan'k§t. I^. vt. To cover with 
or as with a blanket. II. n. A heavy woolen 
covering, as of a bed; also, a sheet of other 
material, as of india-rubber. [OF., orig. 
white, < blanc, white.] 

blare, blar. I. vt. & vi. [blaked; blar'- 
iNG.J To sound loudly, as a trumpet. II. n. 
A loud brazen sound. [Onomatopoetic] 

blar'ney, blflr'ng. I. vt. & vi. To flatter, 
cajole, or wheedle. II. n. Wheedling flattery. 

blas-plieme', blas-ftm', v. [blas-phemed'; 
blas-phe'ming.] I. t. To speak in an im- 
pious or irreverent manner of God or sacred 
things. II. i. To speak blasphemy; use pro- 
fane language; swear. [< Gr. ^^' blasphemd,< 
blaptd, hurt, -{- phemi, speak.] — blas-phe'- 
mer, n.— blas'plie-inoiis, a. Impious; Irrev- 
erent; profane, -ly, arf». — blas'phe -my, 
blas'fe-mi, n. [-mies*, pl.l Evil or profane 
speaking of God or sacred things. 

blast, blast. I^.vt.&vi. 1. To rend in pieces 
by explosion. 2. To wither, as by a wind; 
blight; shrivel; destroy. 3. To bring to ruin 
or infamy; curse. II. n. 1. A strong or 
sudden wmd; a strong artificial current of 
air, steam, or the like. 2. The discharge of a 
firearm, or of any explosive; a loud, sudden 
sound, as of a trumpet. 3. A blight or blight- 
ing influence. [< AS. blsesf, blowing.] 

bla^tant, ble'tant, a. Noisy; blustering. 

blaze'i, blez. I. vt. & vi. [blazed; bla'- 
ziNG.] To cause to blaze or to .shine vividly; 
burn or shine with a flame; flame; gleam. 
II. n. A vivid glowing flame ; brightness; 
effulgence; ardor. [< AS. blxse, flame.] 

blaze^. I. vt. To publish abroad or noise 
about; proclaim. II. || n. A proclamation or 
report. [ME. blasen, blow a trumpet.] 

blaze^. I. vt. To mark (a tree) by chipping 
or peeling; hence, to mark out (a path) in this 
way. II. n. 1. A white spot on the face of 
an animal^ as a horse. 2. A mark cliipned on 
a tree, to indicate a path; a path so indicated. 

bla'zon, bld'zn. 1. vt. 1. To proclaim; pub- 

lish. 2. To inscribe or decorate. 3. To em- 
blazon, as heraldic bearings; delineate. II. n. 

I. A coat of arms; show or semblance. 2. A 
proclaiming abroad. [< F. blason, coat of 
arms, shield.] — bla'zon-ry, n. 1 . The art of 
describing or depicting heraldic devices, 'i. A 
coat of arms. 3. Decoration; show. 

-bl(e, suffix. Used in forming adjectives from 
verbs: usually preceded by a vowel. [< F. -ble, 
< L. -Mlis, -BLE.] 

bleacbS b]ich, vt. & vi. To whiten; blanch. 
[< AS. blxcan, become pale.] 

bleak, bltk, a. 1. Exposed to wind and 
weather; bare; barren; dreary. 2. Cold, cur- 
tmg, or penetrating. [< AS. blSc, blcic, shi- 
ning.] — bleak'iv, a<^t7.— bleak'ness, n. 

blear, blir. I. vt. To dim or inflame (the 
eyes); obscure; blur. II. a. Dimmed; dull; 
bleared. [ME. bleren, blink.] 

bleat, blit. Id. vi. To cry as a sheep or goat. 

II. n. The cry of the sheep or goat. [< AS. 

bleed, blid, v. [bled, bled; bleed'ing.] I. 
t. 1. To draw blood from; cause to lose sap or 
other fluid. 2. To shed or exude. 3. [Colloq.] 
To extort money from. II. i. 1, To lose 
blood; feel deep grief or sympathy. 2. To 
suffer or die, as in battle. 3. To lose blood, 
sap, etc. [< AS. bledan, < blod, blood.] 

blem^ish, blem'ish. I', vt. To mar or im- 
pair. II. n. A disfiguring defect; also, moral 
reproach, or stain. [< OF. blemir, wound, < 
Ice. blar, livid, bluisn.] 

blencbS blench, ri. To shrink back; flinch; 
quail. [< AS. blencan, decbive.] 

blend, blend, vt. & vi. [blend'ed; blend'- 
ED*" or blent; blend'ing.] To mix; mingle; 
combine. [< AS. blandan, mix.] 

bless, bles, vt. [blessed' or blest, blest; 
bless'ing.] 1. To bring happiness or good 
fortune to; prosper. 2. To invoke God's 
favor upon (a person or thing). 3. To con- 
secrate. 4. To honor and exalt; praise; glori- 
fy. 5. To account (oneself) happy; felicitate. 
[< AS. bledsian, bloedsia?), bless.] 

bless'ed, * bles'gd, a. 1. Being in enjoyment 

blest, f of feliciiy in heaven; beatified. 2. 
Worthy of veneration or of blessing. 3. Joy- 
ful; healing. 4. Happy; favored. 
— bless'ed-ly, arfi?.— bless'ed-ness, n. 

bless'ing, bles'ing, n. 1. That which makes 
happy or prosperous; a gift of divine favor. 
2. A benediction. 3. Grateful adoration; wor- 
ship. 4. Cursing or scolding: a euphemism. 

blew, blu, imp. of blow, v. 

bligbt'', blait, v. I. t. To cause to dt^cay; 
blast. II. i. To be affected with blight. 

blight, n. 1. A diseased state of plants, as 
mildew, rust, etc. 2. Anything that withers 
hopes or prospects. 

blind<<, blaind, vt. 1. To make blind. 2. To 
shut off from view; screen; hide; eclipse. 

blind, a. 1. Without the power of seeing; 
also, lacking in perception or judgment. 2. 
Acting or proceeoing at random. 3. DilHcult 
to trace or understand; illegible; unintelligible. 
4. Having no opening or outlet; hidden; ob- 
scure. [< AS.W/»r/.] — bllnd'ly,flr//\ With- 
out sight or without foresight: at random; reck- . 
Icssly.— blind^man, n. The blindfolded player 

papfi, 98k; at, air; el^mgnt, th6y, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; ©rat^r, or; full, rule; but, wr; 




Venetian Blind. 

(of either sex) in blindman's buff.— blindman's 

buff', a game in wliicli one who Is blindfolded 

must catch and identify some one.— blind'- 

ncss, n. 
blind, blaind, v. Something that obstructs 

vision or shuts oil" light; 

a screen or shutter ; a 

subterfuge; ruse. — 

blind'er, n. One who 

or that which blinds; a 

flap on the side of a 

horse's headstall. 
blind 'fold''. Id. rf. 

To cover or bandage 

the eyes ; hoodwinlv ; 

mislead. II. a. 1. Having the eyes bandaged. 

2. Having the mental vision darkened ; heed- 
less; rash. 

blink', blink, v. I. t. To look at with half- 
closed eyes; miss or evade seeing; pass by. 
II. i. 1. To wink repeatedly and rapidly; 
get a hasty glimpse. 2. To twmkle; glimmer. 
[ME. blenken, shine.] 

blink, n. 1. A glance or glimpse. 2. A shim- 
mer or glimmer.— blink'er, n. 1 . A horse's 
blinder. "Z, One who or that which blinks. 

bliss, blis, n. 1. Superlative happiness; heav- 
enly joy. 2. A cause of delight. [< AS. blis. 
< bruh, sweet.] — bliss'ful, a. Supremely hap- 
py.— bliss'fiil-ly, or/i).— bliss'iul-ness, n. 

blis'ter, blis'tgr, v. I. t. To produce a blis- 
ter or blisters upon; hurt as by a blister; gall. 
II. i. To have a blister or blisters form or rise. 

blis'ter, «. 1. A thin vesicle, especially one 
on the skin, containing watery matter. 2. 
Any substance used for olistering. [ME. blis- 
ter. Allied to BLAST.] 

blitbe, blaidh or blaith, a. Joyous; gay; mer- 
ry; sprightly. [< AS. bUth, bUthe, sweet, hap- 
py.] —blithe'ly, arfr.— blithe'some, a. Show- 
ing or imparting gladness; cheerful; merry. 

bliz'zard, bliz'ard, n. [U. S.] A high cold 
wind accompanied by blinding snow. [< AS. 
blaesan*, blow.] 

bloat*!, blot, tt. & vi. To puff up or swell; in- 
flate, as with conceit. 

bloat, 71. One who is bloated; a drunkard. 

bloat'er, n. A selected smoked herring. 

blocks blek, vi. To stop with or as with a 
block; impede; obstruct: often with itp. [< 
F. bloqvei\ block up; of G. origin.] 

block, n. 1. A solid piece of wood, metal, or 
other material. 2. A section or di- 
vision; a mass or row, as of houses. 

3. A sheave or pulley, or set of pul- 
leys, in a frame or shell. 4. An ob- 
struction. [ME. blok. orig. doubtful.] 

— block'be(a)d", n. A stupid 
person.— block'house", n. A fort 
of logs and heavy timbers, with loop- 
holes for musketry. 
block-ade', blek-ed'. I. vt. [-a'- Block. 
DED''; -a'ding.] To close to traffic 
or communication by military or naval force; 
obstruct; block up. II. n. The investing 
and closing of a seaport, etc., by hostile forces. 

[< BLOCK, v.'\ 

blond, blend. I. a. 1. Having a fair skin 
with light eyes and hair. 2. Flaxen or golden, 
as hair. II. n. A blond person: feminine 
blonde. [F., < LL. blondus, yellow.] 

blood, blud, n. 1. The fluid that circulates in 
the heart, arteries, and veins; red in almost all 
vertebrates. 2. Kinship by descent; lineage; 
race; especially, noble lineage. 3. Vitality; 
temperament; mood; passion. 4. Bloodshed; 
war; murder. 5. A dashing fellow; gallant. 
[< AS. blod, < V of BLOW, bloom.] 

— blood'sheat", n. The normal temperature 
of the human body, about 983^° F. — b.shorse, 
71. A horse of a fine breed, especially of the 
English^Arab cross.— b. shot, a.— blood'less, 
a. 1. Having no blood; without color; pale; 
lifeless; cold»hearted. »i. "Without bloodshed. 
-ly, adv. -ness, n.— b.smoney, n. Money 
paid for bloodshed.— blood'shed", «. The 
shedding of blood; slaughter; carnage.— blood'- 
suck"er, 7i. An animal that sucks blood, as a 
leech; a cruel extortioner.— blood'thii*8t"y, 
a. Thirsting for blood; murderous: cruel.— 
blood'thii-8t"i-ly, ad».— blood'thirsfi- 
ness, ?«.- b.=vessel, n. Any tubular canal in 
which the blood circulates. 

blood'bound", blud'haimd", n. A keen- 
scented hound employed in tracing fugitives. 

blood'y, blud'i, a. [blood'i-er; blood'i- 
EST.] 1. Covered or stained with blood. 2. 
Consisting of, containing, or mixed with blood. 
3. Characterized by or delighting in blood- 
shed; sanguinary; bloodthirsty. 4. Red like 
blood; suggesting blood. [< AS. blod, blood.] 

— blood'i-ly, ad?;.— blood'i-iiess, n. 
bloom, bliim, vi. 1. To bear flowers; blos- 
som. 2. To glow with health and beauty. 3. 
To produce luxuriant vegetation.— bloom'iiig, 
pa. Coming Into flower; fresh and beautiful; 

bloomSr;. 1. The act of blooming, or the 

state of being in flower; fulness and freshness 

of life. 2. A flower or flowers collectively; 

the downy covering of fruits, as of the peach. 
bloom^, n. Metal. A mass of malleable iron 

from which the slag has been beaten off. 
bloom'er, blum'gr, n. A trouser-like dress 

for women. 
blos'som, bles'um. I. vt. & vi. To bloom. 

II. n. 1. A flower, or flowers collectively. 

2. Thestateor period of flowering; bloom. [< 

AS. blostma, blossom.] 
blot, blet, V. [blot'ted<1; blot'ting.] I. t. 

1. To spot with ink; stain. 2. To disgrace; 
sully. 3. To blur or obliterate, as writing: 
often with out. 4. To dry with blotting-pa- 
per. 5. To obscure; darken. II. i. Tomake 
a blot or blots; become blotted.— blot'ter, 
blet'er, «. 1. A sheet, pad, or book of blotting* 
paper, ii. The first record*book, as in a police* 
station. 3. Anything that blots or defiles.— 
blot'ting;pa"per, n. Unsized paper for ab- 
sorbing any excess of ink. 

blot, n. A spot or stain, as of ink; reproach; 
blemish; an erasure. [< Ice. blettr, stain.] 

blotch, blech. IK vt. To mark or cover with 
blotches. II. n. 1. A spot or blot. 2. An 
inflamed eruption on the skin. [< blot, ?«.] 

blouse, blauz, «. 1. A short loose shirt or 
frock, worn as an outer garment by working- 
men in France; hence, a French workingman. 

2. A loose upper garment for either sex. [F., 
perhaps < OF. bliaiit, upper garment.] 

blow^, blO, v. [blew, blu; blown; blow'- 
iNG.] 1. t. 1. To move, remove, eject, or 
overthrow by a current of air. 2. To form by 

fliitlure (future); aisle; au {cmt)\ oil; c (k); chat-, dh {the); go; sing, ink; tliin. 



inflating a material, as glass. 3. To force air 
into or through (a wind instrument); cause to 
sound, 4. To put out of breath. 5. To lay 
eggs in, as flies in meat. II. i. 1. To emit a 
current of air or a jet of water or steam. 2. 
To move in a current, as the wind; be carried 
by the wind. 3. To sound by being blown. 

4. To pant; be winded. [< AS. bldivan.^ 
blow2, blo, ri. To bloom. [< AS. blmvan.] 
blowi, n. 1. A sudden or violent stroke; 

thump; thwack. 2. A sudden misfortune. 

blow"'', n. 1. The act of blowing; a blast; 
gale. 2. The oviposition of a fly; a flyblow. 

blow3, n. The state of flowering; a mass of 
blossoms; blossoms in general. 

blow'er, blO'gr, n. One who or that which 
blows; a device for increasing a draft. 

blow'pipe''', blo'paip", n. A tube by which 
air or gas is blown through a flame for the pur- 
pose of heating or melting something. 

blowz'y, a. 1. Having a red or flushed face. 
2. Slatternly or unkempt; slovenly, blous'- 
yt: blows'y^; blowzed^. 

blub'ber, blub'gr, vi. To sob noisily. 

blub'ber, n. The layer of fat beneath the 
skin, as in a whale. 

bludg'eon, bluj'un, n. A short club, used as 
a weapon. [Cp. D. bludsen, bruise.] 

blue, blu. I. vt. [blued; blu'ing.] To 
make or cause to become blue; treat with blu- 
ing. II. a. [blu'er; blu'est.] 1. Having 
the color of the clear sky. 2. Dismal; dreary; 
melancholy; despondent. 3. Severe or Puri- 
tanic; strict. 4. Faithful; genuine; sterling. 

5. Livid, as from contusion, cold, or fear. 6. 
Devoted to literature; pedantic: said of wom- 
en. III. n. 1. The color of the clear sky; 
azure; also, a dye or pigment of this color. 
2. A bluestocking. [< OF. bleu, < OHG. 
blao, blue.] — blue'bird'', ?j. A small Amer- 
ican bird, CI a prevailing blue 
above. — bill ' insT, n. The 
giving of a blue tint to; also, 
the tint so given, or the ma- 
terial used, as Indigo.— blu'- 
isli, a. — blue'stock"- 
in(r< n. A learned or literary 
woman. — the bines, low 
spirits; melancholy. 

bluCP, bluf, vf. & vi. To 
overawe by bold assump- 
tion ; boast in order to mis- 

bluff, a. 1. Blunt, frank, 
and hearty; rude or abrupt, 
liising steep and bold, as a cliff. 

bluff 1, n. Bold speech or manner intended to 
overawe or deceive. 

bluff2, n. A bold, steep headland. 

blun'der, blun'dgr. I. tt. & ri. To bungle; 
err egregiously; proceed stupidly; stumble. 
II. /I. A stupid mistake. [< Ice. blunda, 
doze, slumber.] — blun'der-er, n. 

blun^der-buss, blun'dfir-bus, n. A short 
gun with large bore and flaring mouth. [< D. 
dom/er, thunder, -f- bus, box.] 

blunt, blunt. I'>. rf. & vi. To make or be- 
come blunt; dull tlu" edge or point of; lose 
sharpness. II. a. 1. Having a thick end or 
edge; not sharp or piercing. 2. Abrupt in 

manner; plain-spoken; brusk. 3. Slow of 
wit; dull.— blunt'ly, ac?».— biunt'ness, n. 

blur, blijr. I. vt. '& vi. [blurred; blur'- 
RiNG.] To make or become obscure or indis- 
tinct; also, to dull, soil, or blemish. II. i. 
To become indistinct or smeared. III. n. A 
smeared or indistinct marking; a blemish. 

blurt<*, blurt. '«. I. ^ To utter abruptly; burst 
out with. II. i. To puff out the breath sud- 
denly, as in contempt. [Akin to blare, ?•.] 

blush.', blush, ?;. I./. To make red; redden; 
suffuse. II. e. To become red; flush; redden. 
[< AS. blpsan, blush, < blys, blaze.] 

blush, n. 1 . A reddening, as of the face, from 
modesty, shame, or confusion; a red or rosy 
tint: flush. 2. A glance; glimpse; view. 

blus'ter, blus'tgr. I. vi. To blow in gusts; 
fume with anger; utter vain menaces; swag- 
ger. II. n. 1. Boisterous talk or swagger. 

2. A fitful and noisy blowing of the wind ; blast. 
— blus'ter-er, w.— blus'ter-ingr, pa. 1. 

Windy; disagreeable. 2. Noisy; swaggering. 
bo'a, bO'a, n. 1. Any large non-poisonons 

serpent that crushes its prey in its folds. 2. 

A long fur or feather neck=wrap worn by 

women. [L.] 
boar, bOr, n.' 1. A male hog. 2. The native 

hog of the Old World. [ < AS. Mr, boar.] 
boardd, bOrd, v. 1. f. 1. To enclose with 

boards. 2. To furnish with meals for pay. 

3. To put at board. 4. To come alongside or 
go on board of (a ship, etc.). II. i. To be 
supplied with regular meals for pay. 

board,??. 1. A thin and broad flat piece of 
wood. 2. A table, spread for serving food; 
the food served; meals regularly furnished for 
pay. 3. An organized olflcial bodv. 4. ;;/. 
The stage of a theater. 5 . Pasteboard ; a paste- 
board book^cover. 6. The deck or side of a 
vessel, as in the phrase on board. [< AS. 
boi'd. board, side of a ship, table.] 

board'er, n. 1. A person who receives regu- 
lar meals, or meals and lodging, for pay. 2. 
One detailed to board an enemy s shij). 

board'ing, n. 1. Boards collectively; a struc- 
ture of boards. 2. The obtaining of food, or 
food and lodging, regularly for pay. 3. The 
act of going on board a ship. 

boast'', bost, t). I. ^ 1. To speak of osten- 
tatiously. 2. To ^)ossess as a distinction. II. 
i. To vaunt or pride oneself; exult; glory. 

boast, 7?. 1. A boastful speech. 2. A source 
of pride,— boast'er, ?i.— boast'ful, a. Inclined 
to boast; proud, -ly, adv. -iiess, n. 

boat, hot. I-i. vt. & ri. To carry or place in 


a boat; go in a boat; row; sail; navigate. II. 

fi. A water-craft; especially, a small vessel 

for oars or sails, f < AS. bdt.\ 
boat'STvain, l)Ot'swen or (Xauf.) bo'sn, ti. A 

petty ottleer of a ship in charge of rigging, etc. 
bob, bob, rt. & ri. [bohukd; bob'bino.] To 

papfi, Qsk; at, air; element, they, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; orator, or; full, rule; but, or; 




move with a jerky motion; angle with a bob. 
bob, bob, V. 1. A cork or float on a fishing line. 

2. A small pendent object, as a pendulum. 

3. A jerky movement. [Onomatopoetic] 
bob'bin, beb'in, n. A slender spool or small 

pin to hold weft or thread. [< F. bobine.] 
bob"T3i-net', beb"i-net', n. An open perfo- 
rated fabric; a machine-made lace. 
bob'o-linf , beb'o-link", n. An American 

singing bird. [Imitative 

from its note.] 
bob '= white '^ bob'- 

hwait", n. The North' 

American quail; also, its 

cry. [Imitative.] 
bode, bod, v. [co'ded''; 

BO'DING.] I. t. 1. To ^ 

have a token or presen- 
timent of. 2'. To predict 
or presage. II. i. To 
presage good or ill. [< 
AS. bodian, announce.] 

bod''ice, bed'is, n. 1. 
The closc'fitting waist of 
a woman's dress. 2. A 
woman's ornamental laced waist. [< body.] 

bod'i-less, bed'i-les, a. Having no body; 
without material form; incorporeal. 

bod'i-ly, bed'i-li. I. a. Pertaniingtothebody; 
corporeal. II. adv. 1. In the body; in per- 
son. 2. All together; wholly; completely. 

bod^kin, bed'kin, n. A pointed instrument 
for piercing holes in cloth, etc. [Celtic] 

bod'y, bed'i. I. Tt. [bod'ied, bed'id; bod'- 
Y-iNG.] To embody; represent. II. n. [bod'- 
lES', j//.] 1. The entire physical part of a 
man or other animal ; also, the trunk, exclusive 
of the limbs; the principal part of anything. 
2. A person; an nidividual. 3. Geom. A 
solid. 4. A collection of persons, things, facts, 
or the like, as one whole. [< AS. bodiff.] 

Boer, bur, n. A Dutch colonist, or person of 
Dutch descent in South Africa. Boor:):. 

bog, beg. I. vt. & vi. [bogged; boo'ging.] 
To sink or stick in a bog. II. n. Wet and 
spongy ground; marsh ; morass. [ < Ir. bogac/i, 
< bog. soft.] — bog'gy, a. Swampy; miry. 

bog'gle, beg'l, ft. & vi. [bog'gled; bog'- 
cLiNG.] To bungle; hesitate; quibble. 

bo'gus, bo'gus, a. Counterfeit; spurious. 

bo'gy, (bD'gi, n. [bo'gies^ bo'geys^, pi.] 

bo'gey, ) A goblm ; bugbear. 

boil, boil, V. I. t. 1. To bring to the boil- 
ing=^point. 2. To cook, affect, or produce by 
boiling. II. i. 1. To come to the boiling- 
point; bubble up; be agitated. 2. To be ex- 
posed to the action of a boiling liquid. [< 
L.OFbuUio, < bulla, bubble.]— boiI>ing=poiiit", 
u. The temperature at which a liquid begins to 
boil: of water, under ordinary conditions, 212°F. 

boil', n. A purulent and painful tumor seated 
in the skin. [< AS. bpl, bple.] 

boil2, n. 1. The act or state of boiling. 2. 
An immersion in boiling water. 

boil'er, beil'gr, n. A vessel in which a liquid 
is boiled or steam generated. 

bois'ter-ous, beis't^r-us, a. Vociferous and 
rude; tempestuous, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

bold, bold, a. 1. Possessing, showing, or re- 

quiring courage; audacious; fearless; spirited. 

2. Presuming; forward; brazen. 3. Striking; 
vigorous; prominent. [< AS. beald, bald.]— 
bold'ly, nrtp. — bol<Fnes8, n. 

bole*, bol, n. The trunk of a tree. [< Ice. 
fxtlr, bull', lit. a round body; akin to ball.] 

bole^, n. A fine, compact, soft clay. [< L. 
bolus, < Gr. bolos, clod.] 

boll, bol. I. vi. To form into or produce pods. 
II. n. 1. A round pod or seed'capsule, as of 
llax or cotton. 2. A knob, [< AS. bolla, 
bowl ; akin to ball.] 

boFster, bol'st(,M-. I. rt. To support with or 
as with a bolster; prop up; aid; abet. II. n. 
A long underpillow for a bed. [ < AS. bolster.] 

bolt^'i, bolt, V. I. /. 1 . To fasten witli or as with 
a bolt or bolts. 2. U. S. Polit. To refuse to 
support; break away from; as, to bolt a candi- 
date. 3. To swallow hurriedly, 4. To drive 
out suddenly or with force; expel; blurt out. 
II. i. 1. To dash off unexpectedly; run away, 
as a horse. 2. U. S. Polit.- To 'repudiate a 
party measure or candidate. — bolt'eri , n. Que 
who or that which bolts in any sense. 

bolted, t'^. To sift; examine as by sifting. [< 
Gr.i'+OF 2jy7\ fire, coarse woolen cloth.] 
— bolt'er^, n. Same as bolt2, n. 

bolt^, n. 1. A sliding bar or piece for fasten- 
ing a door, etc. 2. A 
pin or rod used for hold- 
ing anything in itsplace. 

3. An arrow; a long 
cylindrical shot for a 
cannon, or tlie like; 
hence, anything coming 
suddenly. 4. U. S. 
Polit. A refusal to sup- 
port a party, candidate. 

3 Bolts. 

1. Boiler^patch bolt. 

brpolicv. '5. Asuddeii Counter=sunk bolt 3. 

st^rt, departure, or S^.^b'^ b*olt'*''^" 

spring. 6. A roll, as of 

cloth ; a block of wood. [ < AS. bolt, catapult.] 

bolt^, n. A rotating cylindrical or other frame, 
covered with silk or the like, for sifting flour. 

bolt, adv. Like an arrow; stiffly; swiftly; 
straight. — bolt upright, in an erect position. 

bo'lus, bo'lus, n. A large pill. [L.] 

bomb, bem, n. A hollow iron projectile con- 
taining an explosive material to be fired by con- 
cussion or by a time=fuse. bomb^shelll; 
shell t> [Gr.i' bonibos, hollow sound.] 

bom-bard''!, bem-bflrd', vt. To assail with or 
as with cannon=balls or shells. — bom-bard''- 
iiient, n. An assault with shot or shell. 

bom'bast, bem'bgst, n. Grandiloquent lan- 
guage; rant. [< OF. bombace, padding.] — 
boin-bas'tic, a. Inflated; grandiloquent. 

bo-xian^za, bo-nan'za, n. [U. S.] A rich 
mine, vein, or find of ore; profitable specula- 
tion. [Sp., success, < L. bonus, good.] 

bon'bon", beh'beiV, n. A sugar=plum; con- 
fection. [F., < L. bo?ms, good.] 

bondd, bend, vt. 1. To put under bond; mort- 
gage. 2. In building, to bind securely together. 

bond, a. Subject to servitude; enslaved. [< 
AS. bonda, bunda, head of a family, peasant.] 
— boud'maid'^, n. A female slave. — boiur- 
mau, n. L-men, jo?.] A male slave or serf. 
bonds^inanl:. — bond'wom'"an, bonds'- 
M'oin^'an, n. fern. 

fiutjure (future); aisle; au (owt); ©II; c (k); cliat; dh {th€)\ go; sing, ink; thin. 



bond, bend, n. 1. That which binds; a band; 
tie. Fetters; captivity. 3. An obligation 
or constraint. 4. An obligation in writing 
under seal. 5. An interest=bearing debt=cer- 
tificate. 6. In building, timbers or stones which 
help to bind together. [Var. of bandi, n.] 

bond'age, bend'gj, n. Compulsory servitude; 
slavery; imprisonment; captivity; subjection. 

bond'ed, bond'gd, j9a. 1. Hypothecated for 
payment of bonds; mortgaged. 2. Held in 
bond for payment of duties. 3. Secured by 
bonds, as a debt. 

bonds'man, bendz'm^n, n. [-men, ^/.] 1. 
Law. One who is bound as security for 
another. 2. A bondman. 

bone, bon, ^'^. [boned; bo'ning.] 1. Tore- 
move the bones from. 2. To stitfen with whale- 
bone. 3. To fertilize with bone=dust. 

bone, n. 1. The frame or skeleton of a verte- 
brate animal, or any portion of it. 2. ipl. The 
skeleton; mortal remains. 3. Something made 
of bone or similar material. [< AS. han.'\ 

— bone'sdusf, n. Pulverized bone: used as 
a fertilizer. 

bon'fire'', ben'fair", n. A large fire in the 
open air. [ < bone, /«., + fire.] 

bonne, ben, n. A French nurse»maid. [F.] 

bon'net, ben'et. I."* vt. To put a bonnet on. 
II. n. A covering for the head; especially, 
an outdoor head=dress for women. [F.] 

bon'ny, ben'i, a. [bon'ni-er; bon'ni-est.] 

1. Having homelike beauty; sweet and fair. 

2. Blithe; merry; cheery. [< F. 6o«, good.] 
bon'ny-clab''ber, ben'i-clab'er, n. Milk cur- 
dled by souring. [Of Ir. origin. J 

bo'nus, n. A premium or extra allowance. 
[L., good.] 

bo'ny, bO'ni, a. 1. Of, like, pertaining to, or 
consisting of bone or bones. 2. Having prom- 
inent bones; thin; gaunt. 

boo'by, bu'bi, n. [boo'bies^, /?t] A dull fel- 
low; dunce. [< Sp. hobo., fool.] 

book, buk. I', vt. & vi. To enter in a book; 
engage beforehand, as seats, etc. II. n. 1. 
A number of sheets of paper bound or stitched 
together; a printed and bound volume. 2. A 
treatise or one of its subdivisions. [< AS. 
65c, book, (orig.) beech»tree.] 

— bo«k'bind"er, n. One whose trade is the 
bindlngof books.— book'bind'"er-y, n. L-ies», 
pi.] A place where bookbinding Is carried on.— 
book'bind^^int;, n. The art, act, or process 
of binding books.— book'isb, a. 1. Fond of 
books; book^lciiined. 5i. Pedantic; unpractical. 
— book'keep'^er, //. One who keeps accounts; 
an accountant.— book'keep''injf, ?i. The art, 
method, or practise of recording business trans- 
actions systematically. — book'sell'^inar, n.— 
book'worm'', ii. 1. A close student. 3, 
The larva of an Insect destructive to books. 

boom.>, bQm. I. vt. &vi. To sound with a 
deep, resonant tone, as a cannon; hence, to 
rush onward imnetuously; also, to hum loudly, 
ae a beetle. II. n. A deep, reverberating 
sound, as of a cannon, or of breakers. 

boom^. I. vt. To move, extend, obstruct, or 
confine by means of a spar or boom. II. «. 
1. A spar holding the foot of a fore-and-aft 
sail. 2. A chain of logs to confine floating 
logs, etc. [< D. boom, tree, beam.] 

boom3. [Colloq., U. S.] I.vt.&vi. To bring 

forward; advertise energetically; advance with 
a rush; gain rapidly. II. n. A swollen, roar- 
ing torrent; sudden activity or prosperity. 

boom'e-rang, biim'g-rang, n. 1. A curved 
wooden missile of the native Australians that 
will return to the thrower. 2. Any proceed- 
ing that recoils upon the originator. 

boon, biin, a. 1. Possessing convivial quali- 
ties; genial; jovial. 2. Fortunate; jrosper- 
ous. 3 II. Benign; bounteous. [< F. bon, good.] 

boon, n. A good thing bestowed; favor; bless- 
ing. [< Ice. bon, petition.] 

boor, bur, n. 1. A coarse rustic; an ill=bred 
fellow. 2. A Dutch peasant. 3. [B-] Same 
as Boer. [< D. boe?, < boinven, till.] — boor'- 
\sh, bur'ish, a. Eude; clownish. 

boost, bust. Id. rt. [Colloq., U. S.] To push 
or lift from beneath. II. n. A lift; help. 

booti, bQt. I*), rf. &vi. To put boots on; put 
on one's boots. II. n. 1. A leather covernig 
for the foot and leg. 2. A high shoe. 3. A 
carriage receptacle, for carrying parcels, etc. 
4. A medieval instrument of torture, com- 
pressing the foot and leg. [ < F. botte.'] 

— boot'black, n. One who cleans and blacks 
boots.— boot'jack'', ?i. An Implement to aid 
In removing boots. 

boot2. Id. vi. To profit; avail. II. n. 1. 
Something over and above given in barter. 2. 
Advantage; resource; help. [< AS. bot, 
profit.] — to boot, in addition; over and above. 

booth., badh or buth, n. A stall at a fair, mar- 
ket, etc.; a temporary shelter. [< Ice. bildh.] 

boot'less, bQt'les, a. I*rofitless; useless; un- 
availing, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

boots, buts, n. A hotel bootblack. 

boo'ty, bQ'ti, n. [boo'ties^, pL] The spoil of 
war; plunder; gam. [< Ice. b^ti, exchange.] 

bo'rax, bo'rax, n. A white crystalline com- 
pound used as an antiseptic and as a flux. 

bor'der, ber'dgr, v. I. t. 1. To put a border 
on. 2. To be contiguous to; adjoin. II. i. 
To lie on the border; be contiguous; approx- 
imate; resemble: with on or upon. 

bor'der, n. A margin or edge; outer portion 
or limit; brink; verge; frontier: used also ad- 
jectivally. [< F. bordnre, < D. booi'd, edge.] 
— bor'der-er, n. One who dwells on a frontier. 

bore',bOr, V. [bored; bor'ing.] I./. 1. To 
make a hole in or through, as with an auger. 
2. To make (a hole) by or as by turning an 
auger. S. To tire; weary; annoy. II. i. 1. 
To make a hole with a boring-tool. 2. To 
yield to a boring-tool. 3. To advance by grad- 
ual motion. [< AS. bo?itin, < \f bhar, cut.] 

bore2, imp. of bear, v. 

bore, «. 1. A hole made by or as if by bor- 
ing; the interior diameter of a firearm or cyl- 
inder. 2. A tiresome or uncongenial person; 
an annoyance. [ < AS. boi\ auger.] 

bo're-al, bo'rg-al, a. Pertaining to the north 
or the north wind; northern. 

Bo're-as, bO'rg-as, /?. The north wind. [Gr.] 

born, bSrn, a. 1. Brought forth or into being, 
as offspring. 2. Natural; ingrained. [< AS. 
boveti, pp. of beran, bear.) 

borne, bOrn, pp. of bear, ( 

bor'ouch, bur'o, «. 1. U^S.] An incorpo- 
rated village or town, or a distinct section of a 
city. 2. [Eng.] A municipal corporation or a . 

papa, ^k; at, air, el^m^nt, tbSy, usfge; it, g, i (ee); o, dh; erat^r, or; full, rille; but, Or; 



town possessed of certain privileges. 3t. Any 
town. [< AS. hurg^ burh, fort, city.] 

taor'row, ber'O, v. 1. t. 1. To obtain on 
promise of return. 2. To appropriate; copy; 
adopt; pretend; feign. II. i. To procure the 
loan of something; copy or adopt thoughts, 
words, etc., from others. [< AS. borgian, 
give a pledge, borrow, < borg, pledge.] 

bos'om, buz'um, n. 1. The breast of a human 
being, especially that of a woman. 2. That 
portion of a garment covering i\\e breast, or 
the receptacle which it forms. 3. The breast 
as the seat of affection, etc. 4. Any deep or 
enclosed place or supporting surface. Used 
adjectivally in all senses. [< AS. bd87n.'\ 

boss^ bes. I', vt. To work in relief; em- 
boss. II. 71. A circular prominence; a knob; 
stud. [< F. bosse, hump, bump.] — boss-'y, a. 
Decorated with or as with bosses. 

boss^, bes or bes. [Colloq., U. S.] I', tt. & 
t'i. To master; manage; domiuate. II. n. 1. 
A superintendent or employer of workmen; 
manager; foreman. 2. An organizer or dic- 
tator of a political party. [ < D. baatt, master.] 

bot, bet, 71. 1. The larva of a bot»fly. 2. A 
bot'fly.— bot-fly", n. A fly, the larv« of 
which are parasitic In vertebrates, as in horses. 

bofa-ny, bet'a-ni, ^. [-nies^, ;;;.] The sci- 
ence that treats of plants with reference to 
their structure, functions, classification, etc. 
[< Gr. botanikos, < boiania., a plant, < bosko, 
feed.] — bo-tan'ic-al, b^-tan'ic-al, a. Of or 
pertaining to botany; connected with the study 
or cultivation of plants, bo-taii'ict. — bo- 
tan'ic-al-Iy. a<i».— bot'a-iiist, n. A student 
of or one versed in botany.— bot'a-nize, bet'- 
a-naiz, ?;. [-nized; -ni"zing.] I. <. To explore 
for botanical specimens, etc. II. i. To make 
botanical investigations, bot'a-uiset. 

botch.', bech, v. 1. t. 1. To do in a bungling 
way. 2. To mar or spoil; disfigure. II. i. 
To make or mend a thing clumsily; bungle. 
[< OD. butsefi, strike, repair.] 

botch, 71. 1. A bungled piece of work; a bad 
job. 2. A bungling workman.— botch'y, o. 

both, both. I. a. The two inclusively or to- 
gether; the one and the other alike. II. 2)ron. 
The two. including the one and the other; the 
pair. III. adv. & conj. Equally; alike; as 
well. [< Ice. bdthir; cp. AS. M, both.] 

both'er, bedh'gr. I. tt. & ti. To trouble; 
annoy; make a fuss. II. 7i. A source of 
annoyance; petty perplexity; vexation. [Prob. 
for pother; cp. Ir. buaidM7% trouble.] — 
botli'^er-a'tion, n. Annoyance; vexation. 

bott, 71. Same as bot. 

bot'tle, bet'l, vt. [bot'tled; 
bot'tling.] To put into a bot- 
tle or bottles ; restrain ; shut in . 

bot'tle 1, n. 1. A vessel for 
holding, carrying, and pouring 
liquids, having a neck and a 
narrow mouth that can be stop- ^ ^ 

ped. 2. As much as a bottle Leather Bottle, 
will hold, boftle-ful^. [< OF. bouteille, 
botel., ult. < Gr. pytiTie, flask.] 

bot'tleSf, n. A bundle, as of hay. 

bot'tom, bet'um. I. vt. & vi. 1. To provide 
with a bottom or basis; base or found (.upon). 
2. To fathom; rest, as on a foundation; touch 
bottom. II. a. Lowest; fundamental; basal. 

III. 71. 1. The lowest part of anything; un- 
der surface; base; support. 2. The ground 
beneath a body of water. 3. The real mean- 
ing; base; root. 4. Low land along a river. 
5. The part of a vessel below the water-line; 
hence, a vessel. 6. Residuum or dregs. 7. 
Endurance; stamina; grit. [< AS. botni.'] 

— -bot-'toin-Iess, a. Having no bottom; un- 
fathomable; baseless; visionary. 

bou'doir'', bQ'dwflr", 71. A lady's private sit- 
ting-room. [F., < bonder, pout.] 

bough, bau, n. A limb of a tree. [< AS. 
bog., boh. arm.] 

boiigrht, bet, i7np. &pp. of buy, ??. 

bouil'lon, buFyeti, n. Clear beef soup. [F.] 

boul'der, bol'dgr, w. A large stone moved by 
natural agencies from its original bed. [< 
S\v. dial. bullersteTi, large pebble.] 

bOU'le-vard, bu'le-vflrd, ;i. l. A broad city 
avenue. 2. Originally, a rampart. [< G.*" 
bolhve7% bulwark.] 

bounce, bauns. I. vt. & vi. [bounced'; 
boun'cing.] To cause to bound; move with 
a bound. II. n. A sudden or violent spring 
or leap; a bounding or elastic motion; rebound. 
[< LG. btmsen, beat, knock.] 

— boiin'cer, 71. 1 , A large or strong person 
or thing. 2. One who or that which bounces. 
3. [Colloq.] An audacious lie.— boiiu'cinsr, 
pa. 1. Strong and active; large; exaggerated. 

2. Swaggering; boastful; untruthful. 
boundKi, bound. I. vi. To leap lightly; 

spring; spring back; rebound. II. n. A 
light elastic leap or spring; also, a rebound. 
[< F. boridir, leap, < L. bonibvs, buzzing.] 
bounded. I. vt. 1. To set bounds to; re- 
strict. 2. To form the boundary of; adjoin. 

3. To describe or name the boundaries of. 
II. 71. 1. That which circumscribes; bound- 
ary. 2. pi. The district included within a 
boundary or limits. [< l^L.^^ bodi7ia, limit.] 

— bound'less, a. Having no limit; vast; 
measureless; Infinite, -ly, adv. -iiess, «. 

bound, pa. 1. Made fast; tied; confined in 
bonds. 2. Constrained or compelled. 3. 
Having a cover or binding. 4. Apprenticed. 
[ < AS. bunde7i, pp. of bi7ula7i, bind.] 

bound, a. Having one's course directed; on 
the way; destined: with for or to. [< Ice. 
buinn, pp. of bua, prepare.] 

bound' a-ry, baund'a-ri, 71. [-ries^ pi.] A 
limiting or dividing line or mark. 

bound'en, baund'gn, a. 1. Obligatory; nec- 
essary. 2|. Under obligations; obliged. 

boun'te-ous, baun'tg-us, a. Giving freely 
and largely; generous; beneficent; plentiful. 
-ly, adv. -ness, n. 

boun'ti-ful, baun'ti-ful, a. Bounteous; gen- 
erous; abundant, -ly, adv. -ness, 71. 

boun'ty, baun'ti, n. [-ties'^, pi.) 1. Liber- 
ality in giving or bestowing; munificence. 2. 
Gifts or favors generously bestowed. 3. A 
grant or allowance from a government. [< 
L.OF bonita{t-)s. goodness, < bonus, good.] 

bou"q.uet', bu'ke', w. 1. A bunch of flow- 
ers: a nosegay. 2. Aroma. [F.] 

bourn, I born, n. That which limits; bound; 

bourne, I goal; end. [< LL.^ bodina, limit.] 

bout, baut, w. 1. A single turn; a set-to. 2. 
A fit of drunkenness, reveling, or illness. 3. 
A bend orturn, as of a rope ; bight. [ < bow i,t?.] 

fiutgflre (future); aisle; au (owt); ell; c (k); cliat; dli {the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



too'vine, bO'vin, a. Ox»like; slow; stupid. 
[ < LL. bovinus, < L. bos, ox.] 

bow', bau, V. [bowed, baud; bow'ing, bau'- 
ing.] 1. t. 1. To bend in reverence, courtesy, 
etc. 2 . To express by bowing, as assent. 3 . To 
attend with bows. 4. To press down; humili- 
ate; oppress. II. i. To bend forward the 
head or body in courtesy, assent, etc.; bend; 
stoop; worship; submit; yield. [< AS. 
bugau, bow, bend, flee.] 

bow2,b0, t'^ [bowed, bod; bow'ing, bo'ing.] 
To curve like a bow; bend. 

bowl, bau, n. An inclination of the body or 
head forward and downward, as in salutation 
or worship. 

bow^, bo, w. 1. A bend or curve, or something 
bent or curved. 2. An elastic weapon, bent 
by a cord 
ing an ar- 
row by its 

Sen"*;? BOW ana Arrow 

leased. 3. A rod having parallel hairs strained 
between raised ends, used with a violin by draw- 
ing across the strings. 4. A knot with a loop 
or loops, as of ribbon, etc. 5. Any one of 
various bowshaped objects, as one of the rims 
of a pair of spectacles or one of the curved 
supports passing over the ears. [< AS. boga, 
< biigan; see bowi, v.I 

— bow'skiiof , n. A knot so formed as to be 
readily untied.— bow window, a projecting 
window built up from the ground=level, with 
curved ground^plan. Compare bay window. 

bow^, bau, w. 1. The forward part of a ves- 
sel: often in the plural. 2. The forward oars- 
man of a boat. [< Ice. bogr, shoulder, bow. J 

bow'el, bau'el, n. 1. An intestine; the inner 
part of anything. 2\\. pi. The intestinal regions, 
formerly considered as the seat of the tender 
emotions ; pity ; compassion ; heart. [ < L."' + of 
botellvs, dim. of botulus, sausage, intestine.] 

bowser, bau'gr, n. A shady recess; a retired 
dwelling; private apartment; arbor; boudoir. 
[< AS. bur, chamber, < buan, dwell.] 

bow'ie=knife'', bu'i«naif" or bO'i»naif', n. 
[U. S.] A strong hunting-knife. [< James 
Botvie, Texas, 1790-1836, its inventor.] 

bowl, bOl, t;. I. t. 1. To hit with anything 
rolled; knock down; prostrate. 2. To carry 
or trundle along on wheels. 3. Cricket. To 
deliver (a ball). II. i. 1. To play at bowls. 
2. To roll a bowl or other round object. 3. 
To move smoothly and swiftly forward, as on 
wheels. 4. Cricket. To deliver a ball. 

— bowl'er, n. 1. One who plays at bowls. 
2. Cricket. The player who delivers the ball. 

bowlSn. A concave domestic vessel, nearly 
hemispherical and larger than a cup; a large 
goblet. [< AS. bolla: so called from its 
rounded shape; cp. bole>, n.] 

bowl", 71. 1. A large wooden ball for playing 
bowle or tenpins. 2. A turn or inning at a 
game of bowls. [ < F. boule, < L. bulla, buoble.] 

— bowls, bolz, n. pi. [Eng.l An open-air 
game pliiyeu wltii one-sided or weighted balls. 

bow'sprit, bo'sprit, w. A 8i)ar projecting for- 
ward from the bow of a vessel. 
box^', hex,vt. 1. To put into or enclose in a 

box: often with ^lp. 2. To furnish with a 
bushing or box. 

box^S V. I. /. To cuff or buffet. II. i. To 
spar with boxing-gloves. [< Dn. 6a^A;e, slap, 
strike.] — box'er, n. A pugilist.— box'ing, 
n. Sparring; pugilism. 

boxi,n. 1.. A receptacle or case of wood or 
other material. 2. Any one of various objects 
or receptacles resembling a box, as an axle* 
bearing, the raised seat of a coach, etc. 3. 
The quantity contained in a box or that a box 
will hold. [< AS. box, < L. buxum, anything 
made of box=wood, < buxiis, box=tree.] 

box2, n. A slap or cuff on the ear or the cheek. 

box3 ,n. 1 . A small tree or shrub of the spurge 
family, of the Old World; a dwarf variety of 
which is used for garden»edgings. 2. Box- 
wood. [< AS. box, < L. buxus, box»tree.] 

box''wood'', bex'wud", «. The yellowish 
close'gramed wood of the box. 

boy, bei, n. 1. A male child; lad; youth; son. 
2. pi. Comrades; fellows. 3. A male serv- 
ant.— boy'hood, n. 1 . The state or period of 
being a boy. 2. Boys collectively.— boy'ish, 
a. Of, pertaining to, or like boys or boyhood. 

boy'cott, bei'cet. I"*, vt. To combine against 
by refusing to deal or associate with. II. ti. 
Refusal of all dealings with a person or per- 
sons. [< Captain Boycott, first notable victim 
of the system in Ireland (1880-'81).] 

brace, bres. I. vt. [braced'; bra'cing.] 1. 
To strengthen; render firm; prop. 2. To join 
together by a brace. II. n. 1. A support, as 
of wood or metal, to hold something firmly in 
j)lace; in the plural, suspendprs. 2. A crank= 
like handle, as for a bit. See illus. at bit. 3. 
A clasp or clamp, or, in writing and printing, a 
doubly curved line i~^) for uniting words, 
etc. 4. A pair; couple; two. 

brace'let, bres'let, n. An ornamental band 
encircling the wrist or arm. [F.] 

brack'et, brak'et. I"*, vt. To provide with a 
bracket or brackets; join with a brace; couple 
together. II. n. 1. Apieceprojectiiifjfrom a 
wall, as to support a shelf; a projecting gas- 
fixture or lamp-holder, etc. 2. In printing or 
writing: (1) One of two marks, [ ], used to en- 
close any part of the text. (2) A brace. [< 
L.^p braca, pi. bracae, breeches.] 

brack'^ista., brak'ish, a. Somewhat saline; 
nauseous. [ < D. brak, brackish.] 

bract, bract, n. A modified leaf in a flower- 
cluster. [< L. bractea, thin metal plate.] 

brad, brad, n. 1. A small and slender nail. 

2. A Glaziers' tack. [< Ice. bivddr, spike.] 
brag, brag. I. rt.&vi. [bragged; brag'- 

GiNo.] To boast; bluff; vaunt oneself. II. n. 
1. The act of bragging; boastfulness; boast- 
ful language. 2. The thing bragged of; boast. 

3. A person who brags. [< OF. braguer, 
brag; of Celtic orig.] 

— braff'trart, lirag'art, n. A vain boaster. 

braid, bred. I'^.vt. To weave together; plait; 
bind or ornament with braid. II. n. A nar- 
row flat tape or strij) for binding or ornament- 
ing fabrics; anything braided or plaited. [< 
AS. bregdau, brandish, weave, braid.] 

brain, lirCn, n. 1. Anat. That part of the 
central nervous system that is witlun the skull; 
hence, mind; intellect: often in the plural. 2. 

papa, ask; at, air; elgmfint, thfey, usege; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; erater, »r; full, rule; but, Or; 



Zool. The principal regulating ganglion of in- 
vertebrates. [< AS. bregen.] — brain'less, a. 
Without brain; destituteof intelligence; senseless. 

brakes brek, ^^ [braked; bra'king.] I. ^ 
To apply a brake to; reduce the speed of; 
ijruise, as flax. II. i. To act as brakeman. 

brake2 [Archaic or Obs.], imp. of break, v. 

brake', n. 1. A device for retarding or arrest- 
ing the motion of a vehicle, a wheel, etc. 2. 
A harrow. 3. An implement for separating 
the flber of flax, hemp, etc., by bruising. [< 
LG. brake, flax=brake, < v of break, v.'] 

— brake'iiiaii. brakes'inan, n. [-mex, 
pl.^ One who tends a brake or brakes. 

brake2, n. A variety of fern; bracken. 

brakes, n. A thicket. 

brain'bl(e, bram'bl, n. The European black- 
berry; hence, any prickly shrub. 

bran, bran, n. The coarse outer coat of wheat, 
rye, and other cereals. [F., < W. fira»,hu8k.] 

branch, branch. I', vt. & ri. To put forth 
branches; separate into branches. II. a. Di- 
verging from or tributary to a trunk, stock, or 
mam part. III. n. 1. A secondary stem of 
a tree, shrub, or the like; an offshoot. 2. A 
separate part; side issue; division; depart- 
ment. 3. A tributary stream. [< LL.^ 
b7'afjca, claw.] 
— brancli'let, n. A small branch; a twig. 

brand, brand. I^. vt. To mark with or as 
with ahotiron; stigmatize; imprint indelibly. 
II. «. 1. A burning stick; firebrand. 2. A 
mark burnt with a hot iron; trademark; 
stigma. 3. Quality; kind. 4. A brandings 
iron. 5. A sword. [< AS. brand, burning] 

bran'dishS bran'dish, vt. To wave, shake, 
or fl()uri^^h triumphantly or defiantly. 

brand'=new', brand'^niu', a. Quite new; 
fresh and bright, bran'snew'1: [Colloq.] 

bran'dy, bran'di, n. [bran'diess pi.] An 
alcoholic liquor distilled from wine. [< D. 
brandewijn, brandy, lit. burnt wine.] 

bra'sier, n. Same as brazier. 

brass, brgs, n. An alloy of copper and zinc, or 
something made of it. [ < AS. br3es.^, — bras'- 
sy, a. Covered with, made of, or like brass. 

brat, brat, n. A child : contemptuously. 

bra-va''do, bra-ve'do, n. [-dos^ or -does*, j)l-] 
Arrogant defiance or menace; affectation of 
reckless bravery. [< Sp. bravada, < bravo, 


brave, brev. I. vt. [braved; bra'ving.] 
To meet, face, take, or treat with courage and 
fortitude; defy; dare; challenge. II. a. 
[bra'ver; bra'vest.] 1. Having or showing 
courage; intrepid; courageous. 2il. Elegant; 
showy; splendid. III. n. A man of cour- 
age; a soldier; a North-American Indian war- 
rior; a bravo. [F.] — bra'ver-y, bre'vgr-i, w. 
[lESi, pl.'\ 1, The quality or state of being 
brave; valor; gallantry; hemism. 2. Elegance 
of attire; show; splendor; beauty. 

bra'vo, bre'vO or bra'vo. I. n. [bra'vos^ or 
bra'voes^, jjI.] 1. A daring villain; hired 
assassin; bandit. 2. A shout of applause. 
II. hrQ.'\0, interj. Good! well done! [It.] 

brawl, brel. I. vt. & vt. To utter noisily; 
wrangle; scold; flow noisily, as water. II. n. 
A noisy quarrel or wrangle; a row; a roaring 
of a stream. [= D. brallen, G. prahlen, brag.] 

brawn, bren, n. 1. Flesh; firm muscle; 
strength. 2. The flesh of the boar. [OHG.of 
brato, < bratan, roast.] 

— bra-wn'y, bren'i, a. Having or character- 
ized by brawn; muscular; strong. 

bray', bre, vt. To bruise, pound, or mix, as 
in a mortar. [< G. of brechen, break.] 

bray 2. I. vt. & vi. To give forth the cry of an 
ass, or any loud, harsh, jarring sound. II. n. 
Any loud, harsh sound, as the cry of an ass. 
[< LL.oF bragio, cry aloud.] 

braze', brez, vt. [brazed; bra'zing.] To 
make of or like brass; ornament with brass. 

braze^, vt. To join by hard solder. [< Ice.f 
brasa, harden by fire.] 

bra'zen, bre'zn, a. 1. Made of or like brass. 
2. Impudent; shameless. [< AS. brsesen,'Of 

breacb, bric'i. I', vt. To make a breach in; 
break throu<jh. II. r^ 1. The act of breaking; 
infraction; infringement. 2. That which is 
broken; a gap or break. 3. A quarrel. [< 
MHG.o*' brechen, or < AS. brecan, break.] 

bread, bred, n. An article of food made of 
flour or meal; also, food in general; the neces- 
saries of life. [< AS. bread; cp. brew.] . 

— bread'friiit'', n. The fruit of a tree of 
the South Sea is- 
lands: when roasted, 
resembling bread ; 
also, the tree.— 
bread'stiifP', v. 
Material for bread; 
grain, meal, or flour. 

breadtb, bredth, ». 

1. Measure or dis- 
tance from side to 
side; width. 2. 
Catholicity ; liber- 
ality 3 . Thatwhich Breadfruit, 
has breadth ; a piece 
of a fabric. [< AS. brsbdu, < brad, broad.] 

break, brek, v. [broke, brok, or brake 
(poet.); bro'ken, brO'kn, or broke; break'- 
iNG.] I. ^. 1. To separate into parts or make 
a fracture in, as by a blow; rupture or shatter. 

2. To fail to keep; violate; transgress; in- 
fringe. 3. To make bankrupt. 4. To degrade, 
as a military officer; cashier. 5. To tame. II. 
i. 1. To become fractured, interrupted, or 
shattered; burst. 2. To begin, open, or change 
suddenly. 3. To lose health, credit, etc.; fail; 
become bankrupt. [< AS. bi'ecan.] — break'- 
agre, n. 1. A breaking, or being broken. 2. 
Articles broken.— break'down'', n. The act 
of breaking down; a collapse.— break'er, n. 
1. One who or that which breaks. 2. A wave 
of the sea that breaks on a beach, etc.— break'- 
iieck''. I, a. Likely to break the neck; dan- 
gerous. II. n. A steep and dangerous place.— 
break'wa'-'ter, n. A mole or wall for pro- 
tecting a harbor from the force of waves. 

break, n. 1. An opening or breach; interrup- 
tion. 2. A starting or opening out; as, the 
break of day. — break'a-bl(e, a. 

break'fast, brek'fast. I<i.vt.&vi. To give 
a breakfast to; eat breakfast. II. n. The 
first meal of the day. 

breast, brest. I^. vt. To encounter, buffet, 
or stem; bear the brunt of. II. ?i. 1. The 
front of the chest. 2. One of the mammary 
glands; the bosom. 3. The seat of the affec- 

fiut|ure (future); aisle; au (out); ©il; c (k); chat; dli (the); go; sing, ink; tbin. 



tions, etc.; the mind or heart. [< AS. breast.] 
— breast'plate'', «. Defensive plate armor 
for the breast.— breast's wheel '',n. A water* 
wheel receiving the water on a level with its 
horizontal axis.— breast' work'', 7i. Fort. A 
low temporary defensive work; a parapet. 

breatll, breth, fi. 1. Air respired; an act of 
respiration; life; respiration. 2. An instant; 
breathing' time; pause. [< AS. Irrseth^ breath, 
odor.] — breath'less, a. 1 . Out of breath. 2. 
Intense or eager. 3. Taking away the breath. 
4. Without breath; dead. 

breatlie, bridh, v. [breathed; BREATn'mo.] 

1. ^. 1. To inhale and exhale, as air; respire; 
emit by breathing; utter; suggest; manifest. 

2. To give exercise to; overtire. 3. To rest, 
as for breath. II. i. 1. To inhale and exhale 
fiir; respire; to be alive. 2. To pause for 
breath. 3. To move gently, as air; exhale. 

breech., brich, n. The posterior and lower 
part of the body; the rear end of a gun or can- 
non. [< AS. brec, pi. of broc, breeches.] 

breecll'es, brich'gz, n. 2^1- A garment for 
men, covering the waist, hips, and thighs. [A 
double pi., < AS. bf^ec; see breech, w.] 

breecb'ing, brich'ing, n. A hold-back strap 
t)as8ing behind a horse's haunches. 

breed, brid, ?;. [bred, bred; breed'ing.] I. 
I. 1. To produce, as offspring; beget; hatch; 
raise; hence, to originate; cause. 2. To bring 
up; train. II. i. 1. To bear, beget, or pro- 
duce young. 2. To be born; develop; orig- 
inate. [< AS. brldan., < brod, brood.] 

breed, /?. The progeny of one stock; a race 
or strain; a sort or kind. 

breed'ing, brid'ing, n. 1. The generating, 
bearing, or training of young. 2. J^urture or 
its effect; manners, especially good manners. 

breeze, briz, n. A moderate current of air; a 
gentle wind. [< F. bi^ize, bt^se, — Sp. 6ma, 
northeast wind.] — breez'y, briz'i, a. Like a 
breeze; airy; windy; brisk o'r animated. 

bretb'ren, bredh'ren, n. pi. Brothers. 

bre-vet', bre-vet'. l..vt. [bre-vet'ted''; bre- 
vet'ting.] To raise to a specified rank by 
brevet. II. a. Held or conferred by brevet; 
holding rank by brevet; brevetted. III. n. 
Mil. A commission advancing an ofticer in 
honorary rank without advance in pay or in 
command. [F.] 

bre'vi-ar"y, brl'vi-er"i, n. [-ies", pi.] JR. C. 
& Or. Cks. A prayer«book. [< L. breviarium, 
< brevis, short.] 

bre-vier', brg-vir', n. A size of type. [G.] 

This line is in brevier. 

brev'i-ty, brev'i-ti, n. [-ties*, ;;/.] The qual- 
ity of being brief; brief time; conciseness. [< 
L. breMtan, < brevis, short.] 

bre'W, brQ. I. vt. & vi. To make by fermen- 
tation, as ale or beer; concoct; plot; contrive; 
be in process of production. II. 71. That 
which 18 brewed; the product of brewing. | < 
AS. bredwan.] — hrcw^er, brfi'yr, «.— brew'- 
er-y, brQ'gr-1, n. l-iKst, pi.] An establishment 
for brewing, brew'shouse"!. 

bribe, braib. I.vt.&vi. [bribed; bri'bino.] 
To give a bribe to; give, offer, or promise 
bribes. II. n. Any gift or emolument used 
corruptly to influence public or official action; 

anything that seduces or allures; an allure- 
ment. [OF., piece of bread.] — bri'ber, ».— 
bri'ber-y, w. [-ies«, j&;.] The giving, offering, 
or accepting of a bribe. 

bric'sa^brac", bric'^a-braC, n. Art. Objects 
of curiosity or for decoration; rarities; an- 
tiques. [F.] 

brick, brie. I', vt. To cover or line with 
bricks. II. n. A molded block of clay, usual- 
ly burned and about 8i by 4^ by 2 inches in size; 
bricks collectively. [< OD.f bncke, brick, 
orig. fragment.] — brick'bal", n. A piece of 
a brick. — brick' skilu", n. A structure in 
which bricks are burnt. — brick'lay"er, n. 
One who builds with bricks. 

bri'dal, brai'dal. I. a. Pertaining to a bride 
or a wedding; nuptial. II. n. A wedding. 
[< AS. brpd, bride, -f- ealu., ale.] 

bride, braid, n. A newly married woman, or 
a woman about to be married. [< AS. brpd.] 

bride'groom", braid'grum", n. A man new- 
ly married or about to be married. [< AS. 
brj/d, bride. + guma, man.] 

brides'maid",/?. A young unmarried woman 
who attends a bride at her w^edding. 

bridge, brij. I. rt. [bridged; bridg'ing.] 
To construct a bridge or bridges over; span; 
get over; pass. II. }i. A structure erected 
to afford pas- 
sage across a 
waterway or the 
like ; a raised 
support. [< 
AS. bnjcf/.] 

bri'dle, brai'- 
dl, V. [bui'- 


DLiNG.] I. t. Girder Bridge. 

To put a bridle on; check; curb: restrain or 
govern. II. i. To raise the head and draw 
m the chin, through resentment, pride, etc. 

bri'dle, 71. The liead-harness of a horse, in- 
cluding bit and reins; any check; curb. [< AS. 

brief, brif. I', vt. To epitomize; abridge. II. 
a. Short in time or space; quickly passing; 
of few words; concise; limited. III. ;;. Any 
short or abridged statement, as of the law and 
authorities in a case; an epitome. [< F. bref, 
< L. brevis, short.] — brlePly, adv. 

bri'er, brai'gr, «. A prickly bush or shrub. 
[ < AS. b7-dr.] bri'ar J.— bri'er-y , a. 

brig, brig, n. A two»masted square-rigged 
vessel. [Abbr. of brigantine.] 

bri-gade', bri-ged'. Mil. I. vf. [bri-ga'- 
DKi)*"; bri-oa'ding.] To form into a brigade. 
II. 71. A force of two or more regiments com- 
manded by a brigadier-general. [F.] 

brig"a-dier', brlg"a-dir', n. Mil. A general 
otlicer wlio commands a brigade, brigadiers 

brig'and, brig'and.n. Arobber; a bandit. [F.] 
— briif'aiul-aife, n. 1. liobberj-. 2. Brig- 
ands collectively. 

bright, brciit. a. Full of light; shining; brilliant; 
quick- wilted; cheery; auspicious; illustrious. 
I < AS. briht, bright.] -ly, adv. -ness, «. 

bright'en, brait'n, vt. & vi. To make or 
become bright or brighter; illuminate; cheer; 

papfi, gsk; at, air; element, they, usege; It, %, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, or; full, riile; bot, in; 



bril'liance, I bril'yans, -yan-si, n. Thequal- 
bririian-cy, f ity of being brilliant; bright- 

iK'ss; luster. 
bririiant, bril'yant. I. a. Sparkling or glow- 
ing with luster or light; very bright; showy; 
accomplished; illustrious; splendid. II. n. 1. 
A diamond of the finest cut. 2. The smallest 
size of type. 


[ < F. brillant, ppr. of driller, sparkle.] 
— brilf liant-Iy, a(/».— bril'liant-ness, n. 

brim, brim. I. vt. & ri. [brimmed; brim'- 
MiNG.] To fill or be filled to the brim. II. n. 
The rim of a cup; the margin of a river; a pro- 
jecting rim, as of a hat. [AS. 6nm, surf.] — 
bl•illl'ful''^a. Full tothe brim. briiii'luH'^i. 

brim'stone, brim'ston, n. Sulfur. [ME. 
breimen. burn, -f ston, < AS. stdn, stone.] 

brin'ded, brin'ded, a. Irregularly streaked. 
[ < Ice. brandr.] brin''dledj. 

brin'dlCe, brin'dl. I. a. Brindled. II. «. 
.\ brindled color, or a brindled animal. 

brine, brain, n. Water strongly impregnated 
with salt; sea^water; the ocean; tears. [< 
AS. bryne, salt liquor.] — bri'ny, a. 

bring, bring, vt. [brought, bret; bring'ing.'' 

1. 'lo convey, carry, or conduct to or toward 
the place where the speaker is, or is to be, or is 
thought of as being; cause to come; fetch. 

2. To influence; persuade. 3. To cause; pro- 
duce; yield; return; render. 4. To exchange 
for; fetch as a price. [< AS. biingan.] 

brink, brink, n. 1. The verge of a steep 
place, or of a dangerous condition, action, 
event, or time. 2. The margm of any water; 
bank; shore. [< Dn. bri//k% Verge.] 

brisk, a. 1. C^uick, sprightly, or vivacious; 
spirited; lively. 2. Sharp or stimulating; ef- 
fervescent. [Prob. Celt.] -ly, adv. -ness, 7i. 

bris'ket, bris'ket, n. The breast of an animal. 

bris'tle, bris'l, v. [bris'tled; bris'tling.] 

1. I. To erect as or like bristles; cover as with 
bristles: make bristly; excite; irritate; agitate. 
II. i. 1. To be thickly beset, as with bristles. 

2. To erect the bristles; show anger: often with 
up. 3. To become erect like bristles. • 

bris'tle, n. A coarse, stiflf hair, as of swine. 
[ME. bristle, berstle, dim. of AS. byrst, bristle.] 
— bris'tly, bris'll, a. Having or resembling 

Brifisb, brit'ish. I. a. Pertaining to Great 
Britain, the United Kingdom, or the British 
empire. Bri-tan'nic:J:. II. n. 1. jil- The 
people of Great Britain. 2. The language of 
the ancient Britons. [< AS. Bryttisc, < Bryt- 
tas, Britons.] 

Brit'on, brit'un, n. 1. One of the ancient 
Celtic people of Great Britain. 2. A native 
cr citizen of Great Britain. 

brit'tle, brit'l, a. Liable to break; fragile. [< 
AS. breotan, break.] — brit'tle-iiess, n. 

broacb, brOch. I', vt. 1. To mention or in- 
troduce (a matter); make public. 2. To tap, 
rsacask. II. n. 1. A boring-tool; reamer. 
2. A brooch. [< lA^.^ broca, spike.] 

broad, bred a. 1. Extended in lateral meas- 
urement; wide; expanded; vast. 2. Compre- 
hensive; catholic; liberal; tolerant. 3. Strong, 
rude, or coarse, as speech. [< AS. brdd.^ 

— broad'casf . 1. vt. To cast, scatter, or 
disseminate widely. II. a. Cast or scattered 
abroad, as seed. HI. n. Agric. A casting or 
scattering of seed, etc., over the ground. Iv. 
adv. By scattering abroad, or so as to scatter 
abroad or disseminate.— broad'cloth'", n. A 
fine quality of black cloth.— broad'side''. I. 
n. 1 . All the guns on one side of a man of war, 
or their simultaneous discharge; any sweeping 
attack, "i, A vessel's side above the water-line. 
3. A large sheet of paper, printed on one side. 
II. adv. With the broadside turned, presented, 
or exposed.— broad'sword'', n. A sword with 
a broad cutting blade and obtuse point. 

— broad'iy, «dt'.— broad'ness, n. 
broad'en, bred'n, vt. & vi. To make or be- 
come broad or broader. 

bro-cade', bro-ked', n. A silken fabric woven 

with raised figures. [< LL.I'+^^p broca, stake.] 
bro^chure', brO'shiir', n. A pamphlet; slight 

sketch. [F.] 
bro'gan, bro'gan, n. A coarse, heavy shoe. 

[< Gael, brogan, dim. of Irrdg, shoe.] 
brogue, brOg, n. A dialectic (especially Irish) 

pronunciation of English. 
broil, breil, vt. & vi. To cook by direct heat, 

as over coals. [ < OF. bj-uiller.] 
broil',;?. A turmoil; noisy quarrel; brawl. [< 

F. brainller, confuse.] 
broil^, n. Something broiled; a broiling heat. 
broke, imp. of bkeak, v. 
bro'ken, bro'kn, j)p. (of break, v.) & pa. 

Shattered; crushed; tamed; infirm; bankrupt; 

interrupted; disordered; irregular. 

— bro'keu-Iy, acto.— bro'keii-ness, n. 
bro'ker, bro'kgr, n. One who buys and sells 

for another on commission. [AS. Irucan, use.] 

— bro'ker-agre, n. The business or com- 
mission of a broker. 

bro'ma, brO'ma, n. 1. The dry powder of 
cacao'seeds, or a beverage prepared therefrom. 
2. Med. Solid food. [< Gr. broma.] 

bron'chi-al, bren'ki-al, a. Of or pertaining 
to tiie chief air-passages of the lungs. 

— bronchial tubes, the two subdivisions 
of the trachea, conveying air into the lungs. — 
bron-chi'tis, bren-cal'tls or -ki'tis, n. Pathol. 
Inflammation of the bronchial tubes. 

bron'co, bren'cO, n. [U. S.] A native horse; 
mustang. [ < Sp. bronco, rough.] bron'clio:|:. 

bronz(e, brenz. I. vt. [bronz(e)d; bronz'- 
ING.] To harden or color like bronze; brown ; 
tan. II. «. A reddish^brown alloy of copper 
and tin, or a statue made of it; a bronze-like 
pigment. [< OHG.i'+f brun, brown.] 

brooch, brOch or bruch, n: A breastpin. [= 

BROACH, n.] 

brood'', brud, v. 1. t. To cover with body 
and wings, as a bird its young; cherish; nurse. 
II. i. 1. To sit, as a b'ird, on eggs or over its 
young. 2. To meditate long or moodily. 

brood, w. 1. All the young birds of a single 
hatching; all the young of the same female; 
young creatures collectively; offspring; prog- 
eny. 2. Species; kind; race. [< AS. brod.] 

brooks bruk, vt. To put up with; endure; 
tolerate. [< AS. brucan, use, enjoy.] 

brook, w. A small natural stream; a rivulet. 
[ < AS. broc, brook.] — brook''let, n. A little 

broom, brum, n. 1. A brush attached to a 
long handle for sweeping. 2. Any shrub of 

fiutiilre (future); aisle; au (out); ell; c (k); chat; dlk ithe); go; sing, ink; thin. 



the bean family, with stiff green branches. [ < 
AS. brom, broom; orig. a kind of shrub.] 

— brooin'scorn", ". A cane=]ike grass, of 
which brooms are made.— brooin'stick'', n. 

The handle of a broom. 

brotb, breth, n. A fluid food made by boiling 
flesh, vegetables, etc., in water; a thin or 
strained soup. [AS.] 

brotb'er, brodh'gr, n. [broth'ers or breth'- 
REN, bredh'ren, pl.^^ 1. A son of the same 
parents or parent. 2. One closely united with 
another or others, as by religious, political, or 
family bond: also used adjectivally. [< AS. 
brothar.^ — broth-'er-hood, n. Fraternal rela- 
tionship; a society orfraternlty.— brotli'er-Iy, 
a. Pertaining to or like a brother; fraternal. 

brougb'am., bru'am, n. A kind of clos3 
four»vvheeled vehicle for two 
or four persons. [< Lord 

brought, brSt, imp. & pp. of _ _ 

br5w?'brau, n. 1. The front ^Brougham, 
upper part of the head; the forehead; the eye- 
brow; the countenance in general. 2. The 
upper edge of a clrflf or the like. [< AS. bru.] 

brow^beat", brau'bit", vt. [brow'beat"; 
brow'beat'en; brow'beat"ing.] To in- 
timidate by stern, overbearing manner; cow; 

brown, braun. I. vt. & vi. To make or be- 
come brown; bronze; tan. II. a. Of the 
dusky or tawny color known as brown. III. 
n. A dark color, shading toward red, yellow, 
or black, as the color of faded leaves; also, a 
pigment or dye used to produce it; a thing or 
part that is brown. [< AS. brun.] 

brown'ie, braun'i, n. A homely good-na- 
tured sprite. 

browse, brauz,t'<.,&^i. [browsed; brows'- 
ing.] To feed upon (leaves, twigs, etc.); also, 
to graze. [< MHG.o*" broz, shoot.] 

bru^in, bru'in, n. A bear. [D.] 

bruise, bruz, v. [bruised; bruis'ing.1 I. 
t. 1. To batter in or dent without breaking: 
contuse. 2. To pound small; crush, as in a 
mortar. II. i. To use the fists in boxing or 
fighting; box. [< OF. brviser,briser., break.] 

— br u is'er, n. A pugilist. 

bruise, n. A surface injury caused by violent 
contact; contusion. 

bruit, brOt. I'', vt. & vi. To noise abroad; 
report; proclaim. II. n. A rumor noised 
abroad; a din; clamor. [F., < bruire^roax.] 

bru-nette', brQ-net', n. A wo:nan or girl of 
dark complexion, eyes, and hair. [F.] 

brunt, brunt, v. The main shock or stress; 
hardest i)art. [ < Ice. biijria, advance like fire.] 

brush', brush, zj. I./. 1. To use a brush on; 
sweep; touch lightly. 2. To furnish with 
brushwood; bush. 11. i. To move lightly 
and (juickly, often with a touch. 

brush, n. 1. An ini piemen t, as of bristles, for 
cleansing, smoothing, etc. 2. The act of 
brushing. 3. A thicket; wooded country: 
brushwood. 4. A bushy object, as the tall of 
the fox, 5. A smart skirmish; a dashingride; 
chase. [< OWG. ^^' ^ ^^ binista, bristle.] 

— brush' woo<l'', n. 1. A low thicket; un- 
derwood. '■Z. Cut bushes, or branches. 

Rude or curt; 
[<; It.f Irrusco, 

brusk, \ brusk, briisk, a. 

brusque, (blunt; offhand. 
rude. J -ly, adi:. -iiess, n. 

brute, brut. I. a. 1. Wanting the rational 
faculty; merely animal; unintelligent; also, 
sensual; brutal. 2. Merely material; uncon- 
scious; dead. II. n. Any animal other than 
man, as a horse, dog, etc.; a brutal person. 
[< L.F b7'utu8, stupid.] 

— bru'tal, a. 1. Characteristic of or like a 
brute; sensual; cruel; savage, tj. [Recent.] Un- 
feeling; rude; coarse. L< L. hrutu.<i, stupid.! — 
bru-tal'i-ty, n. [-ties*, p?.] The being brutal; 
a brutal action.— bru''tal-iize, vt. L-izkd; -i"- 
zrxG.l To make brutal.— bru'tal-lj% adv.— 
bru'tish, a. Pertaining to, characteristic of, 
or resembling brutes; stupid; Irrational; sensual; 
gross.— bru'ti8h-ly,a(/».—bru'tisb-ne8s,«. 

bub'ble, bub'l. I. vi. [bub'bled; bub'- 
BLiNG.] 1. To form bubbles; rise in bubbles. 
2. To make an intermittent liquid sound. II. 
n. 1. A vesicle of liquid, filled with air or 
other gas. 2. Anvthing unsubstantial; a delu- 
sion; cheat; fraud. 3. The process or sound 
of liubbling. [Scand. or D.] 

buc'^ca-neer', ' buc"a-nir', n. A pirate or 

buc^'a-nier', T freebooter. 

bucks l)uk, V. I. t. 1. Mil. To punish by 
fastening the elbows, wrists, and knees to- 
gether. 2. To throw (a rider) by bucking. 
II. i. To spring viciously from the ground, 
as a horse or mule. [< bucri, ?>.] 

bucks n. 1. The male of various animals, as 
of deer, rabbits, etc. 2. A dashing fellow; a 
young blood. [ < AS. bucca, he»goat.] 

buck2, n. Tlie act of bucking. 

buck''=bas"ket, n. A basket for soiled 

buck'board", buk'bord', n. [U. S.] A 
light, four»wheeled vehicle having a long elas- 
tic board in place of body and spnngs. 

buck'et, buk'et, n. 1. A deep cylindrical 
vessel, with a "bail, for dipping or carrying 
liquids. 2. [Local, U. S.] A pail. 3. As 
much as a bucket will hold, buck'et-fulj. 
4. A compartment on a water-wheel, or the 
like. [ME. boket, dim. of AS. bui\ pitcher.] 

buck'eye", buk'ai', n. The horse»chestnut 
of the United States. 

buck'lei, buki, v. [buck'usd; buck'ling.] 
I. t. To fasten with or 
as with a buckle. II. i. 
To apply oneself vigor- 
ously; grapple. 

buck'le'^ vt. & vi. To 
bend, warp, curl, or 
crumple. [< F. boucler, 

buckles n. A metal 
frame with movable 
tongue, for fastening 
straps, etc. [ < F. tx)ude. /._ 
< L. buccula, dim. of ^ 
bt/rca, cheek.] 

buck'le^, n. A bend; 

buck'ler, buc'ler. n. A 
sniikll round shield; a plate 
or protective covering on various animals. 

buck'ram, buc'ram. I. a. Of or like buck- 
ram; stiff; precise. II. /<. A coarse glue-sized 

papfl, Cfsk; at, air; el©m§nt, t)ifey, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; orator, ©r; full, rule; but, or; 



like shepherds or herdsmen ; pastoral. II. n. 
pastoral poem. 

fabric, for stiffening garments. [< OF. bau- 

caran, coarse cloth.] 
buck'sbot", buk'shet", n. Large shot, used 

in hunting large game, as deer. 
buck'skin", buk'skin". I. a. Made of or 

colored like buckskin. II. n. The skin of a 

buck; a soft, strong, grayish=yellow leather, or 

something made of or resembling it. 
buck'wbeat", buk'hwtt", n. A plant, or its 

seeds, from which a kind of flour is made. [< 

AS. boc, beech, + wheat.] 
bu-col'ic, biu-cel'ic. I. a. Pertaining to or 

■ "" A 

[ < Gr. bovkolikos, < bo>/s, ox.] 

bild, bud^tj. [bud'ded<i; bud'ding.] I. ^ 1. 

To graft by inserting a bud into the slit bark. 

2. To put forth, as buds. II. i. 1. To put 

forth a bud or buds. 2. To begin to grow. 
bud, n. 1. An undeveloped stem, branch, or 

shoot. 2. The act or stage of budding. 3. 

Zool. A bud=like projection, as in polyps, etc., 

developing into a new individual. 
budge, buj, ri. & ri. [budged; budg'ing.] 

To move a little; stir; give way; go. 
budg'et, buj'gt, ti. Formerly, a small sack or 

its contents; a collection of news; financial 

estimate. [< F. hoitgette, dim. of bouge, bag.] 
buff, buf. I. a. Madeof or of the color of buff= 

leather; brownish=yello\v. II. n. 1. A thick, 

soft, flexible leather. buffMeath'^ert. 2. 

Its color, a light yellow. 3. A coat made of 

buff=leather. [ < LL.^ biifalus; see buffalo.] 

buf'fa-lo, buf'a-lo, n. [-loes^ or -los'', pi.} 1. 

A large Old World ox, now largely domesti- 
cated. 2. The North' 

American bison. [It., 

< Gr.i' bonbalos, Afri- 
can antelope.] \ 
buffer, buf'er, n. A \\ 

device for lessening vj 

the shock of concus- ' 

sion. [< OF. buffe, a 

bu^fet^ buf'et, vt. & 

ri. To strike; beat 

with repeated blows; 

struggle against; con- 

tenoT I 

buff eti , buf 'et or bii"- 

fe', n. 1. A sideboard 

room. [F.] 
buffet^, bof'et, «. A blow; cuff; assault. [< 

OF. buffet, dim. of bnffe, blow.] 
buf-foon', buf-fun', n. A professional clown; 

low jester. [< It.F bvffone, < buffa, jest.] 

— buf-foon''er-y, M. [-ies«, jo/.] Low droll- 
ery or coarse jokes, as of a buffoon. 
bus, bugi n- Any one of various insects or 

small crustaceans. [< W. bwg, specter.] 
bug'bear"', bug'bar", n. An imaginary ob- 
ject of terror; a specter. 

bug'gy, bug'i, n. [bug'gies^, 

j)l\ A light four=wheeled 

vehicle with or without n 

hood: when with a hood, 

called a top'bvggy. [Op. 

Hind, baggl, gig.] Top^buKKy. 

bu'gle, biu'gl, a. Of, resembling, or adorned 

with bugles, 

Buffalo. V45 
2. A public lunch» 

See BUGi e2, n. 

bu'gle', n. A wind«instrument resembling a 
horn or trumpet; a huntsman's 1 
horn. bu'gle=horn''±. 
[OF., an ox.J 

— bungler, blu'gler, n. One 
who plays on the bugle. 

bu'gle^, 71. A tube»shaped 


bead. [< MYiG.^^ bouc, bong, ring, 

buhl, bul, n. Metal or tortoise»shell inlaid in 
furniture; also, cabinet»work so decorated. [ < 
Bovle French artist.] 

build, bild, v. [built' or build'ed''; build'- 
iNG.] I. t. 1. To frame, construct, or erect, 
as a dwelling, a ship, etc. 2. To fabricate; 
establish; found. 3. To renew; strengthen: 
usually with i/p. II. ^. 1. To follow the busi- 
ness of building; form; construct. 2. To rely; 
depend: with on or vpon. [< AS. byldan, < 
bold, house.] 

— build, 71. The manner or style in which 
anything is built; form; figure.— build'er, n.— 
build'ing, ?i. 1. That which is built; an edifice. 
ti. The art, business, act, or process of building. 

bulb, bulb, n. 1. Bot. A cluster of thickened, 
scalc'like leaves, growing usually underground. 
2. Any protuberance resembling a plant-bulb. 
[< Gr.i' bolbos, bulbous root.] — biiU/ous, a. 
1 . Bot. Having or growing from bulbs. 3. Of, 
pertaining to, or like a bulb. 

bulge, bulj. I, vt. &vi. [bulged; bul'ging.] 
To swell out or be protuberant; press out of 
shape. II. n. The most convex part, as of a 
cask; a protuberant part; swelling. [Scand.] 

bulk, bulk, n. 1. Magnitude; mass; volume; 
size; a large body. 2. The principal part; 
main body; majority. [< Ice. bidki, heap.] 

— biilk'y, a. [bulk'i-ek; bulk'i-est.J Huge; 
large: unwieldy.— bulk'i-ness, 11. 

bulk'he(a)d''^, bulk'hed"; r>. A compartment 
or partition, as in a ship or mine. 

bull, bul, vt. To speculate for an advance in 
the price of, as stocks. 

bull', n. 1. The male of domestic cattle or of 
some other animals. 2. Finance. A dealer 
who seeks or expects higher prices. [ < an AS. 
word seen in the dim. bulluca; see bullock.] 

bull2, n. An official document of the Pope, 
sealed with a leaden seal ; rescript; edict. [< 
LL. bulla, edict, seal, < L. bulla, boss, knob.] 

bull3, n. A ridiculous blunder in speech. [Cp. 
OF. boule, fraud.] 

bull'dog'', bul'deg", n. A squat and muscu- 
lar dog with flat head and projecting under 
jaw, remarkable for the tenacity of its grip. 

biilFdoze^', \>nVAoz",vt. [bull'dozed"; bull'- 
do"zing.] [Slang, U. S.] To intirpidate; bully. 
[Explained as < dose of the bull=whip.] 

bul'let, bul'et, n. A small projectile for a 
firearm. [< L.f bulla, knob.] 

burie-tin, bul'g-tin. I. vt. To make public 
by bulletin. II. n. A brief official summary, 
publication, or placard. [F.] 

bulFfinch'', bul'finch", n. A singing bird 
having a short stout bill. 

bull'frog'", bul'freg", n. A large Korth= Amer- 
ican frog, with a bellowing cry. 

bul'lion, bul'yun, n. Gold or silver uncoined 
or in mass. [< LL.^ Inllus, log.] 

bul'lock, bul'uc, n. An ox over four years 
old. I < AS. bulluca.} 

fiut|are (future); aisle; au (put):, eil; c (k); cliat; dli {the); go; sing, i^k; thin. 



buU's'seye", bulz'«ai", n. The center of a 
target, or a shot that hits it; a circular window; 
a thick disk or lens of glass, or a lantern fitted 
with one; a small perforated wooden block. 

bul'ly, bul'i, V. [bul'lied, -lid; bul'ly-ing.] 

I. t. To browbeat; terrorize; drive; coerce. 

II. i. To be quarrelsome and blustering. 
bul'ly. I. a. [bul'li-er; bul'li-est.] 1. 

[Slang.] Excellent; admirable. 2. Quarrel- 
some; blustering. II. W. [BUL'L^ES^ p^.] A 

quarrelsome, swaggering, cowardly fellow. 
bul'rusb'', bul'rush', n. A tall rush-like 

plant growing in damp gi'ound or water. 
bul'wark, bul'wark, n. A defensive wall or 

rampart; fortification; defense; the raised side 

of a ship, above the upper deck. [< Dn. bul, 

trunk of a tree, -\- vserk^ work.] 
bum'ble-bee'', bum'bl-bi", n. A large, hairy, 

social bee. buin'ble- 

bee'^i. [Imitative.] 
bum'mer, bum'gr, n. 

[U. S.J A plundering 

straggler of the army; a 

worthless loafer. [Cp. G. 

bummler^ loafer.] 
bump, bump, I', vt. To Bumblebee. 2, 

bring or come into collision with; thump; 

knock; jolt. II. n. 1. A violent impact or 

collision; a heavy blow. 2. A protuberance 

like that caused by a blow. 
bump'eri, bump'gr, ii. 1. Something that 

bumps or causes a bump. 2. A buffer. 
bump'er^, n. A cup or glass filled to the brim. 

[Corr. of BOMBARD, leather liquor jug.] 
bump'kln, bump'kin, n. An awkward rustic; 

a clown; lout. [For boomkin, small boom.] 
bun, bun, n. A small sweet cake. 
bunch., bunch. I', vt. &vi. To make into or 

form a bunch or bunches; collect; gather; 

group. II. n. 1. A compact collection; group; 

cluster. 2. A hunch; hump; protuberance. 

[< Ice. bunki, heap.] — bunch'y, a. Being, 

growing in, or having bunches; like a bunch. 
bun^dlCe, bun'dl, v. [bun'dlkd; bun'dling.] 

I. t. 1. To make into a bundle: often with 
vf). 2. To dismiss or dispose of summarily. 

II. i. To pack up and be otf. 
bun'd.l(e, n. A package; group; collection. 

[< AS. byndele, < bindan, bind.] 
bung, bung, n. A stopper, for the large hole 

through which a c.-xsk is filled; also, the hole 

itself. bung'»liole''$. 
bun^gl(e, buy'gl. I. vt. & vi. [bun'oled; 

BUN'GLiNo.] To make or do badly orclumsily; 

botch. II. n. An awkward, clumsy, and im- 
perfect job or performance; botch. [< Sw. 

dial. ban(/la, work ineffectually.] 
— bunsf'Ier. ;».— bun'arlina:, pa. Awkward; 

clurtisy; unskilful. 
bun'lon, bun'yun, n. A painful swelling of 

the joint at the base of the great toe. [< 

Ice.oF + it ifunga, elevation.] 
bunk, bupk. I', vi. To sleep in a bunk; to go 

to bed. II. 71. A small compartment, shelf, 

or recess, etc., used as a sleeping-place. 
bun'ker, buu'kgr, n. A large receptacle, as a 

coal>hin on a ship. 
bun'ting' , bun'ting, n. A light, woolen stuff 

used for flags; hence, flags, etc. 
bun'tlng^, ?i. A bird related to the finches. 

The Snow=bunting. 3. 
The Comsbunting. 


bunt'line, bunt'lin, n. Xaut. A rope used 

in hauling a square sail 

up to the yard. 
btm'yon, n. Same as 


buoy, bei. I. vt. 1. 
To keep afloat; support; 
sustain. 2. To mark 
with buoys. II. n. A 
float moored, as on a 
rock or shoal, as a guide 
to navigators. [< L. 
boia, halter.] 

buoy'ant, bei'ant, a. 
Having the power or 
tendency to float or keep 
afloat; vivacious; cheer- 
ful; hopeful, -ly, adv. 
— buoy'an-cy, bel'an- 
si, n. 1 . Power or tendency to keep afloat. 
Elasticity of spirits; cheerfulness. 

bur, I bur, n. [Commonly bur in literary and 

burr, \ botanical, burr., in mechanical uses.] 1. 
A rough or prickly flower»head, or the like. 2. 
The burdock. 3. A protuberance; lump. 4. An 
impediment or unwelcome adherent. See burr. 

bur'bot, bur'bgt, n. A fish with barbels on 
the nose and chin. [< F. bourbotte.] 

bur'den, biJr'dn, vt. To load or overload. 

bur'deni , n. 1 . Something heavy that is borne 
or carried; a load. 2. The carrving capacity of 
a vessel. [< AS. byrthen, load.] — bur-'den- 
soine, a. Hard or heavy to bear; oppressive. 

bur'den^, n. Sornething often repeated, as. 
in a song; refrain. [< LL.^ biirdoiJi-), drone.] 

bur'dock, bur'dec, n. A coarse biennial 
weed, with a globular bur and large roundish 
leaves. [< bur + dock, plant.] 

bu'reau, biu'ro, n. [bu'reaus or bu'reaux, 
hm'roz, pL] 1. [U.S.] A chest of drawers 
for clothing, etc. 2. A public department; an 
organized staff of literary workers, etc. ; also, 
the place where the work is done. 3. A wri- 
ting-desk; escritoire. [F.] 

burg, burp, n. A borough; village. 

biir-sreois'', n. Same as bourgeois. 

bur'gess, bur'jes, n. A freeman, citizen, or 
oflicer of a borough or burg. 

burgh., bijrg, n. An incorporated town or 
village; borough; originally, a castle.— bur^h'- 
er, n. An inhabitant, citizen, or freeman of a 
borough or burg. 

bur'glar, bur'glar, n. One who commits a 
burglary. [< OF. borg, borough, 4- laire, 
robber. J — bur-gla'rl-ous, a. 

bur'gla-ry, bur'gla-ri, 7i. [-RIEs^ pL] The 
breaking and entering of a buildiiisj; with in- 
tent to commit robbery, or any otlirr crinu". 

bur'go-mas"ter, bur'go-mgs'tgr, //. 1. A 
Dutch nuinicipal magistrate; a mayor. 2. A 
large arctic gull. ,-=-—-. 

bur'i-al, ber'i-al, n. The ivSlk'T^' 

burying of a dead body; .^J^Z-l^-iV. 
sepulture. [< AS. byrgeh, X'^^^X -t--.*-. 

bu'rln, bifl'rin, v. An en- ■'^"""• 

graver's tool ; graver; also, his style or manner 
of execution. [F.] 

burlap, bur'lap, n. A coarse stuff of jute: 
flax, etc., used for wrapping. 

popfl, 98k; at, ftir; element, thSy, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; orator, er; full, rule; bwt, oi 



tour-lesque', bur-lesc'. I. vt. & vi. [bur- 
LESQUED'i; BUR-LESQU'iNG.] To represent 
mockingly or ludicrously; caricature. II. a. 
Marlied by ludicrous incongruity. HI. n. Lu- 
dicrous imitation or representation; caricature. 

bur'ly, bur'li, a. 1. Large of body; bulky; 
stout; lusty. 21. Bluff or rough in manner. 
[Cp. OHG. bwTih, lofty.] — bur'li-ness, n. 

burn, burn, v. [burnt or burned; burn'ing.] 

1. t. 1. To destroy, change, or damage by 
fire; consume; scorch. 2. Surg. To cau- 
terize. II. i. To be in process of consump- 
tion by fire; appear or feel hot; be eager, in- 
tense, or excited; glow. [< AS. beornan.] 

— biirii'ingsgiass'^ n. A convex lens, for 
concentrating the sun's rays upon an object. 

burn', n. An effect or injury from burning; 

a burnt place. 
biirn^, 11. [Scot.] A brook or rivulet. [< AS. 

bui'na.] bournt: bournet. 
burn'er, bOrn'gr, n. One who or that which 

burns; the light-'giving part of a lamp, etc. 
bur'nisbS bur'nish, v. I. t. To jwlish by 

friction; make brilliant or shining. II. i. To 

become bright. [ < OF. burnir, polish.] 
burnt, burnt, pj). of BURN, v.; also pa. Af- 
fected or consumed by fire; charred; scorched; 

also, diseased, as grain. 
burr, n. A roughness or rough edge, or a tool 

that produces it. See bur. 
biir'ro, bur'o, n. [Sp., or Southwestern U.S.] A 

small donkey, used as a pack»anlmal. 
bur'row, bur'o, v. I. /. To dig a burrow 

into or through; perforate. II. i. To dig 

into, under, or through something; make or 

live in a burrow. 
bur'row, n. 1. A hole made in and under 

the ground, as by a rabbit, etc., for habitation. 

2. A mound or barrow. 

burst, burst, t'. [burst; burst'ing.] I. /". To 
rend or break suddenly or violently. II. i. 

1. To suffer rupture from an interna), force. 

2. To become suddenly active or excited; 
break forth, out, or away. [< AS. bersian.] 

burst, n. 1. A sudden or violent explosion, 
rending, or disruption. 2. A spurt; rush. ' 

bur'theu, bOr'dhn, v. & n. Same as btjkdex. 

bur'y, ber'i, vt. [bur'ied, -id; bur'y-ing.] 
To put in or under the ground, or other cover- 
ing; inter; hide; cover up; engross deeply; ab- 
sorb. [< AS. byrgan, < beorgan., hide, pro- 
tect.] — bur'y-ingsground"', 11. A cemetery. 

busb, bush, n. 1. A thickly branching shrub. 
2. A forest with undergrowth. 3. A bough. 
4. A fox's brush. [< Dn. busk, bush.] 

— bush'y,bush'i, o. 1. Covered with bushes. 
ti. Like a bush; shaggy. 

busb'el, bush'el, n. A measure of capacity, 
four pecks, or a vessel holding that amount. 

busb'ing, bush'ing, n. A metallic lining for 
a hole, as in the hub of a wheel. 

bus'i-Iy, biz'i-li, adv. Actively; industriously. 

busi'ness, biz'nes, n. 1. A pursuit or occu- 
pation; trade; profession; calling. 2. A mat- 
ter or affair; interest; concern; duty. 

bus'kin, bus'kin, n. A laced half»boot, worn 
by Athenian tragic actors; hence, tragedy. 

— biis'kined, bus'klnd, a. 

bust, bust, n. The human chest or breast; a 
piece of statuary representing the human head. 

shoulders, and breast. [< LL.^' + f bushini, 

trunk of the body.] 
bus'tard, bus'tard, n. A large Old World 

bus'tle, bus'l, vt. & vi. [bus'tled; bus'- 

Ti.iNG.J To hurry; hustle; make a stir or fuss. 

[ < Ice. bustla, bustle, splash about.] 
bus'tlei, n. Excited activity; noisy stir; fuss. 
bus'tle^, n. A pad worn by women on the 

back below the waist to distend the skirts, 
bus'y, biz'i. I.rf.&vl. [bus'ied, -id- bus'- 

y-ing.] To make or be busy; keep employed; 

occupy oneself . II. o. [bus'i-er; bus'i-est.] 

1. Intensely active; constantly or habitually 
occupied. 2. Temporarily engaged; not at 
leisure. 3. Officiously active; prying: med- 
dling. 4. Pertaining to or filled with business. 
[< AS. bysig, active.] — bus^y-bod'^y, biz'i- 
bed'l, «. [-BOD"iES2, pi.'] One who officiously 
meddles with the affairs of others. 

but, but, adv. No otherwise than; no more 

than; only; merely; simply. 
"but, prep. Leaving out; except; barring. 
Taut, cOT)j. 1. With the exception that; except. 

2. Otherwise than (that); more than (that). 

3. Still; yet; nevertheless; however; notwith- 
standing; though; even if . 4. Moreover; be- 
sides; again. [< AS. ftiZton, except, without.] 

butch'er, buch'gr. I. vt. To slaughter (ani- 
mals) for market: hence, to kill men barba- 
rously or brutally. II. n. 1. One who slaugh- 
ters animals or deals in meats for food. 2. A 
bloody or cruel murderer. [< OHG.^ bocch, 
he»goat.l — butch'er-ly, a. Of or pertaining 
to a butcher.— bntcb'er-y, buch'er-i,7i. [-iesi, 
pL] 1. Wanton or wholesale slaughter. 2. LGt. 
Brlt.l A slaughter=house; the butcher's trade. 

but'ler, but'lgr, n. A man servant in charge 
of the dining=room, wine, plate, etc. 

butt^ but, vt. & vi. 1. To strike with or as 
with the head or horns. 2. To project; jut; 
abut. [< OHG.OF bilzan, strike.] 

butti, n. 1. The larger or thicker end of any- 
thing. 2. A hinge. 3. A target. 

butt^, n. A stroke, thrust, or push with or as 
with the head. 

butt^, n. A large cask; a measure of wine, 126 
U. S. gallons; a pipe. [< F. botte, cask.] 

butte, but, n. A conspicuous hill or natural 
turret. [F.] 

but'ter, but'gr. I. vt. To put butter upon. 
II. 71. The fatty constituent of milk, separated 
by churning. [< Gr.^ + AS bovtyron, prob. < 
bous, cow, -\- tyros, cheese.] — but'ter-milk'', 
n. The liquid left after churning. 

but'ter-cup'', but'er-cup", n. A plant, with 
yellow cup'shaped flowers; also, the flower. 

but'ter-fly'', but'gr-flai",/?,. [-flies"%;;/.] 1. 
A diurnal insect, with brightly colored wmgs. 
2. A gayidlerortrifler. [< AS. buttorjleoge.] 

but'ter-in, I but'gr-in, n. Artificial butter; 

but'ter-ine, f oleomargarin. 

but'ter-nuf, but'gr-nut", n. 1. The oily 
edible nut of the North»American white wal- 
nut; also, the tree. 2. A nut of British Guiana. 

but'ter-y, but'gr-i. I. a. Containing, like, 
or smeared with butter. II. n. [-ies^, pL] A 
pantry: a wine=roomor wine=cellar. 

but'tock, but'gc, 71. 1. The hinder part of a 
ship's hull. 2. pi. The rump. 

flnt|ure (future); aisle; au (o?/t); ell; c (k); oliat; dli (the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



but'ton, bat'n, v. I. t. To fasten with or 
as with a button or buttons. II. i. To admit 
of being buttoned. 

but'ton, n. 1. A knob or dislc, as of bone or 
metal, by which one part of a garment may be 
fastened to another. 2. A pivoted fastener for 
a door, window, etc. 3. A knob or protuber- 
ance. [< OF. boton, bud, button.] 

but'ton-bole", but'n-hol". I. vt. [-holed"; 
-Ho"LiNG.] 1. To worlv buttonholes in. 2. 
To hold by the buttonhole; interview; bore. 
II. n. A slit to receive and hold a button. 

but'ton-wood'', but'n-wud ", n. The plane» 
tree of the United States, syc^a-more:}:. 

but'tress, but'res. I', vt. To support with 
or as with a buttress; sustain; 
uphold. II. n. A structure 
built against a wall to strength- 
en it; a support. [< OF., < 
boufer, bofer, push.] 

bux'om, bux'um, a. 1. In 
full health and vigor; plump; 
comely. 2. Brisk and cheer- 
ful. [< AS. bugan, bow, -+- 
-mm, -SOME.] 

buy, bai, v. [bought, bet; 
buy'ino.] 1. t. 1. To ob- 
tain for a price; purchase. 2. 
To bribe; corrupt. 3. To be 
a price for. II. i. To make 
a purchase or purchases. [< „ 
AS. bycgan.] — b-iy'er, n. Buttresses. 

buzz, buz, t;. I. ^ To whisper; gossip. II. «. 

To hum, as a bee; whisper; murrauA [Imita- 

buzz, n. A low murmur, as of bees, of talk, or 
of distant sounds; rumor; gossip. 

buz^zard, buz'ard, n. 1. A large hawk. 2. 
An American vulture, turnkey ^buz"- 
zard:}:. [< L.^f buteo, buzzard.] 

by, I bai, n. 1. Something of minor impcr- 

bye, ) tance; a side issue. 2. A goal.— by the 
bye or by. Incidentally; by the way. 

by, adv. 1. In the presence or vicinity; at 
hand; near. 2. Up to and beyond something; 
past. 3. On one side; aside; apart; off; up. 
— by and by, 1. After a time; at some 
future time. ij. The hereafter. 311. At once; 
Immediately .—by:way, a side or secluded lane, 
road, or way. byspatlit; by-road?. 

by, ha\,p'ep. 1. Alongside of; along the line 
of; beside; past; over (a course). 2. Through 
the agency, means, or help of; with. 3. In 
accordance with; according to. 4. To the ex- 
tent, number, or amount of; multiplied into; 
in connection with or in the name of: used in 
oaths, etc. [< AS. 67, big.] 

by'gon(e'^ bai'gen". I. a. Gone by; former, 
past; out'Of'date. II. n. Something past. 

by'slaw'', bai'-le', n. A rule or law subordi- 
nate to a constitution or charter. 

by'stand'^er, bai'stand'gr, ti. One who stands 
by; a looker»on. 

by'word'', bai'wijrd", n. 1. An object of 
derision. 2. A nickname. 3. A trite saying. 
[< AS. biwordy < biy by, -^ word, word.] 

C, c, 61, n. [CEES, C's or Cs, siz, pL] The third 

letter in the English alphabet. 
cab, cab, n. 1. A one-horse public carriage. 

2. [U. S.J The covered part of a locomotive. 

(Abbr. of CABRIOLET.] 

ca-bar, ca-bal'. I. vi. To form a cabal; plot. 
II. ri. A number of persons secretly united 
for some private purpose; intrigue; conspira- 
cy. [< Ileb.f qabbcUdh, secret doctrine.] 

cabHaage, n. The close-leaved head formed 
by ccrtjiin plants, or the plant producing it. 
[ < L."F canut, head ] 

cab'ln, cao'in. I. vt. & vi. To shut up or 
dwell in or as in a cabin; crib; hamper. II. 
n. 1. A small, rude house; hut. 2. A com- 
partment of a vessel for ofticers or passen- 
gers. 3. A small room; bedroom. [< LL.'' 
cupmina, cabin.] 

cab'i-net, cab'i-net. I. a. 1. Pertaining to or 
suit il)le for a cabinet. 2. Secret; confldential. 
II. «. 1. The body of official advisers of a 
king or president; a council, or the chamber 
in which it meets. 2. A room for works of 
i;rt, etc.; also, the articles so collected. 3. A 
piece of furniture lltte<l with shelves and 
drawers. 41. A small private room; a study or 
closet. [F., closet.] —fab'l.iiet«nia'''ker, n. 
One who niiikes household furniture. 

ca'ble, ke'bl. I. vt. &vi. [ca'bled; ca'bling.] 

1. To fasten, as by a cable; tie fast. 2. To 
send (a message) by submarine telegraph. II. 
7U 1. A heavy rope or chain, as for mooring 
vessels, etc. 2. A cable's-length, 100 fathoms. 
3. An insulated telegraph wire or wires, as 
for a submarine telegraph. 

ca-boose', ca-bus', n. 1. A conductors' car 
on a freight-train. 2. The cook's galley on a 
ship. [ < D. koTfibuw, cook's cabin.] 

cab''ri-o-let', cab"ri-o-le', n. A one-horse 
covered carriage with two seats; a cab. [F.] 

ca-ca'o, cu-ke'O, n. Chocolate-nuts, or the tree 
protlucing them. [< Mex.**? cacauafl, cacao.] 

cach^'in-na'tion, cak'i-ne'shun, «. Loud 
laughter. [< L. cachinno, laugh loudly.] 

cack'l(e, cak'l. I. vi. [cack'l(e)»; cack'- 
LiNo.] To make a shrill cry, as a hen that 
has laid an egg; chatter. 11. 7). The shrill, 
broken cry made by a hen after laying an epg; 
the gabbling of a goose; idle talk; chattering 
or chuckling. [Imitative.] 

cac'tus, cac'tus, n. [cac'ti, cac'tai or -tt, or 
t'Af'Ti'sEs, pi.] A green, fleshy, spiny plant. 
See ilhis. on next page. (L.] 

cad, cad, n. 1. A low fellow or hanger-on. 

2. [Kng.] The conductor of an omnibus. [< 
CADKT. 1 — fnd'dlsh, a. 

ca-dav'er-ous, ca-dav'i;r-us, a. Like a 

papfi, Qsk; at, air; el^m^nt, thdy, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; orator, er; full, rule; but, 




Coflfee. [F., = 

corpse; pale; ghastly. — ca-da-'ver, ca-de'Tgr 
or -dg'ver, n. A corpse. 

cad'dVrcad'i, n. [cad'dies^, pi.'] A recep- 
tacle for tea. r< Malay kati, pound.] 

ca''dence, ke'dgns, n. Rhythmical movement, 
!,s in music; modulation. 
[< L. cado, fall.] 

ca-det', ca-det', n. 1. A 
pupil in a military or 
naval school. 2. A 
younger son or brother 
serving in the army with- 
out a commission. [F.] 

Cae'sar, st'zar, n. A Ro- 
man emperor; hence, any 
powerful emperor or auto- 
crat. [L.] 

cte-su'ra, cae-su'ral, etc. 
See f'ESUKA, etc. 

ca"f6', cg"fe', n. 1. A 
cotfee»house; restaurant. 


cage, kej. I. 'vt. [caged; ca'ging.] To 
shut up in or as in a cage; confine; imprison. 
II. 11. A structure, with openwork of wire or 
bars, as for confining birds or beasts. [F.] 

cairn, earn, n. A mound or heap of stones, 
as for a memorial. [Scot., < Gael, cam, heap.] 

cais'son, ke'sgn, n. 1. Mil. An ammuni- 
tion^chest or <=wagon. 2. Engin. A large 
water'tight box within which work is done un- 
der water, as on a bridge»pier. [F.] 

cai'tiff, ke'tif. I. a. Vile; cowardly; basely 
wicked. II. n. A base, wicked wretch. [< 
L.oF captivus, captive.] 

ca-jole', ca-jol', vt. & vi. [ca-joled'; ca-jo'- 
LiNG.l To impose on by flattery; dupe: 
wheedle. [< F. cajoler, <cage; see cage. n.'\ 
— ca-jo'ler-y, n. [-iks», pZ.] The act of ca- 
joling; deceit; flattery.— ca-jo'ling-ly, adv. 

cake, kek. I. vt. &vi. [caked'; ca'king.] 
To form into a hardened mass. II. n. 1. A 
sweetened and baked culinary composition; 
also, a small or thin mass of dough, etc., baked 

' or fried. 2. A hardened mass. [< Ice. kaka.] 

cal'a-bash., cal'abash, n. A gourd of' the 
cahibash'tree, or a vessel made from its shell; 
also, the tree. [< Per.^p + F kharbitz, melon.] 

ca-lam'i-ty, ca-lam'i-ti, n. [-ties^ »;.] A 
misfortune or disaster; adversity; distres?. 
[ < L.F calamitait-)s.] — ca-lam'i-tous, a. Of, 
attended by, or resulting from calamity; disas- 
trous, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

caFa-mus, cal'a-mus, n. [-mi, -mai o?' -niT, 
pi.] 1. A kind of flag. sweet'=flag'':|:. 
2. [C-] A genus of Oriental cUmbing palms — 
the climbing rattans. 3. A reed; quill; pen; 
flute. [< Gr.!- kalamos, reed.] 

ca-lasb.', ca-lash', n. A lowwheeled light 
carriage with folding 
top; a folding carriage- 
top or hood. [< G.f" 

cal-ca^re-ous, cal- 
ke're-us, a. Of, con- 
taining, or like lime or 
limestone. [< L. calx 
(calc), lime.] ^ , ^ 

cal'ci-mine, cal'si- Calash, 

main. I. vt. [-mined; -mx'ning.] To apply 

calcimine to, II. n. A white or tinted wash 
for ceilings, walls, etc. [ < L. calx {calc-\ lime.] 

caFcine, cal'sin, vt.& vi. [cal'cined; cal'- 
ciN-iNG.] To render or become friable by heat. 
[< L.*" calx {pale), lime.] — cal'^ci-na'tlon, n. 

carci-um, cal'si-um, n. A metallic element, 
found in limestone, etc. [< L. calx, lime.] 

carcu-late, cal'kiu-let, vt. & vi. [-la'ted*; 
-LA"TiNG.] To compute mathematically; ascer- 
tain by computation; reckon; estimate; plan. 
[< L. calculus, pebble.] — caPcu-la-bl(e, a. 
Capable of being calculated, estimated, or fore- 
cast.— cal^'cu-la'tion, 71. 1. The act or art 
of computing. 3. A computation; reckoning. 
— cal'cii-la^'tor, cal'klu-le'tgr, 7i. One who 
calculates; a calculating machine or set of tables. 

caFcu-lus, cal'kiu-lus, n. [-li, -lai or-\i,pl.] 

1. Pathol. A stonc'like concretion, as in the 
bladder. 2. Math. A method of calculating 
by algebraic symbols. [L., dim. of calx {calc-), 
stone.] — cal'cu-lous, a. Stony; gritty; per- 
taining to, like, or affected with calculus. 

cal'dron, cel'drun, n. A large kettle or boil- 
er. [< L.oF caldaria, < caldns, hot.] 

cal'en-dar, cal'en-dar, n. 1. A systematic 
arrangement of subdivisions of time, as years 
and months. 2. An almanac. [<'L.calendse, 
calends (first day of the Roman month).] 

cal'en-der, cal'en-dgr. I. vt. To press in a 
calender. II. ti. A machine for giving to cloth, 
paper, etc., a gloss, by pressing between rollers. 
[< L.i'i'+F cylindrus, cylinder.] 

calfi, cflf, n. [calves, cflvz, pi.] 1. The 
young of the cow or of various other animals. 

2. The skin of the calf, or leather made from 
it. cairskin''$. [<AS. cea//.] 

calf2, «. [calves, »;.] Thehinder part of the 
human leg below the knee. [< Ice. kdlji.] 

caFi-ber, | cal'i-bgr, n. 1 . The internal diam- 

cal'i-tore, j eterof a lube, as of a gun-barrel; 
size of bore. 2. Degreeof individual capacity 
or power. [< F. calibre, bore of a gun.] 

cal'i-co, cal'i-co. I. a. Made of or like cali- 
co. II. n. [-COES'' or -coss pi.] 1. [U. S.] 
Cotton print. 2. [Eng.] White cotton cloth. 
[< Calicut, in India.] 

ca'Iif, (ke'lif, n. The spiritual and civil 

ca'liph., (head of a Mohammedan state. [< 
Ar. khaHfah, successor {i. e., of Mohammed).] 
— cal'if-ate, cal'ipli-ate, cal'if-et, n. The 
office, dignity, or reign of a calif. 

ca-lig'ra-pliy, n. Same as calligraphy. 

cal'i-per, cal'i-pgr, n. An in- 
strument like a pair of com- 
passes, for measuring diameters: 
usually in the plural. [Corr. of 


ca'lix, ke'lix, n. [cal'i-ces, cal'- 

i-siz or -ces, pi.] 1. A cup- 
shaped organ or cavity. 2. Same 

as CALTX. [L., cup.] 
calk^S I cek, vt. 1. To make 
caulk', f tight, as a boat's seams, 

by plugging with soft material. 

2. To fasten together. [< L.o^ 

calco, tread.]— calk'ing, 7). 
calk^S vt. 1. To furnish with 

To wound with a calk. 
calk, n. A spur on a horse's shoe, to prevent 

slipping. [ < L. calx, heel.] — calk'er, n. 

flutlflre (future); aisle; au (mA); ©11; c (k); cliat; dh {the); go; sing, ii^k; thin. 



call, c51, V. I. t. 1. To appeal to by word of 
mouth. 2. To utter or read aloud. 3. To 
summon; convoke; convene; invoke solemnly. 
4. To designate or characterize in anyway; 
name; style; suppose; assume to be so much. 
II. i. 1. To send out a cry or summons; ap- 
peal; sound a signal. 2. To make a brief 
visit. [< AS. ceallian.] — caliper, n. 

call, n. 1. A shout or cry to attract attention 
or reply. 2. A summons or invitation; divine 
vocation; requirement; claim; right; obliga- 
tion. 3. A brief visit. 

cal'la, cal'a, n. Bot. A South»African plant, 
with a large milk-white blossom. [L.] 

cal-lig'ra-pliy. cal-lig'ra-ti, n. Beautiful pen- 
manship. [< Gr. kalos, beautiful, -j- grapJw, 
w rite.] — cal''Ii-graph'ic, a. 

causing, coring, n. 1. A summons. 2. Ha- 
bitual occupation; avocation. 

cal'Ii-per, ?^ Same as caliper. 

cal"lis-tlien'ics, cal"is-then'ic8, n. pi. Light 
gymnastics to promote grace as well as health. 
[< Gr. kalos, beautiful, -|- sthenos, strength.] 

caFlous, cal'us, a. Thickened and hardened, 
as the skin under pressure; insensible; un- 
feeling. [< L. callosus, < callum, bard skin.] 
-ly, adv. -ness, w.— cal-Ios'i-ty, cal-les'i-tl, 
n. [-ties«,jdL] A thickened, hardened portion 
of the skin; hardness; insensibility. 

callow, cal'o, a. Unfledged; inexperienced; 
youthful. [< AS. calu., bald.] 

calm, cflm, V. I. t. To still; soothe; tran- 
qnilize. II. i. To become quiet or placid. 

calm, a. Free from disturbance or agitation; 
quiet; placid; serene. [< Gr.Li-+F kauma, heat 
of the sun.] -ly, adv. -ness', n. 

calm, n. Tranquillity; stillness; serenity. 

cal'o-mel, cal'o-mel, n. A heavy, white, taste- 
less compound of chlorin and mercury. [< 
Gr. kalos, beautiful, + vielas, black.] 

ca-lor'ic, ca-ler'ic. I. a. Of or pertaining to 
heat. II. n. Heat; formerly, a supposed prin- 
ciple of heat. [< L. calor., heat.] 

cal'u-met, cal'yu-met, n. A tobacco«pipe, 
used by American Indians at conferences; pipe 
of peace. [F., < L. calamus, reed.] 

cal'um-ny, cal'um-ni, n. [-nies^,^^;.] A false, 
malicious, and injurious accusation or report; 
defamation; slander. [< L.p calumnia, < 
calvor, deceive.] — ca-lum'ni-ate, ca-lum'- 
nl-6t, V. [-a"ted<1; -a'ting.] I. t. To accuse 
falsely; defame. II. i. To utter calumnies.— 
ca-Ium^'ni-a'tion, n.— ca-liini'iii-a''ror, 
71.— ca-Iuin'iii-ou8. ca-lum'nl-us, a. Slander- 
ous; defamatory, ca-liim'ni-a-to-ryl:. 

calv(e,cGv',^-/!. &Ti. [calv(e)d; 
CALv'iNG.] To bring forth (a 
calf). [< AS. cea/Jian, < cealf, 

calx, calx, n. [calx'es* or cai/- 
CKS, pL] The residue from the 
calcination of minerals; also, lime 
or chalk, [h.] 

caayx, ke'iix, 7/. fcAi/v-cKs ,„]::;;-i;v. ,■,:;: 

or CA'I.YX-ES, klirisl/. c/- -crs, sU-aU. s. and 

ke'lix-ez, ^/. 1 1. 'I'hc (Miicrniosi ^'iv-'sa [■.•.ipr..- 
series of leaves of a llower. 2. ''''iv^ "lot'on 
Acup'Shapedpartororgan. [L.] to the fly.rod, 
cam, cam, n. Afech. A non'cir- 
cular or eccentric rotating-piece, to give recip- 
rocating motion. [< Dn. /cam, comu.] 


cam'bric, kem'bric, n. 
a coarse cot- 
ton fabric. [< 
Kameryk, a 
Flem. city.] 


of COME, V. 

cam'^el, cam'- 
el, n. 1. A 

large Asiatic 
or African ru- 
minant, hav- 
ing a humped 
back, capable 
of subsisting 
long without 
water. 2. A 
buoyant wa- 
ter-tight con- 
trivance for 
lifting wreck 

A fine white linen or 


A strong'scent- 

;, etc. [< Ileb. gdmdl, camel.] 
. ca-mel'i-a, n. Bot. A tropical 
Eastern tree or shrub with white or rose=col- 
ored flowers. [< Kamel, a Jesuit traveler.] 

ca-mel'o-pard, ca-mel'o-pflrd, n. The gi- 
raiie. [Gr. kamelos, camel, -\-pa7'dalis, pard.] 

cam'e-o, cam'g-O, n. A striated stone (as onyx 
or agate) or shell, carved in relief; also, the 
art of so carving. [< LL.^' cammseus, cameo.] 

cam'e*ra, cam'g-ra, n. [-Ras or -r^, -rt or 
-re, pl.^ 1. A chamber or box in which the 
image of an exterior object is projected upon 
a plane surface by a lens or lenses. 2. A 
chamber. [L., vault, < Gr. kamara, anything 
arched.] — cam-'e-ral, a. 

cam'o-mile, cam'o-mail, 
ed bitter herb of the as- 
ter family. [< Gr.L+F 
chamai, on the ground, 
-f melon, apple.] 

camp. I', vt. & vi. To 
place in or go into camp; 
encamp; lodge tempora- 
rily. II. n. 1. A group 
of tents or other shelters, 
as for soldiers or hunters, 
or the place so occupied; 
also, a single tent, cabin, 
etc. 2. An armv en- 
camped; military life; the 
field. [<L.Fca7?ii;«s,fleld.] Camomile. 

cam-paign', cam-pen', «. 1. A series of 
connected military operations; also, the time 
an army keeps the field. 2. .\ political, com- 
mercial, or other contest. [< L.*" campus, 
field.] — enin-palgn'er, «. 

cam'plior, cam'fgr, 7i. A fragrant gum»like 
compound, obtained from an Asiatic ever- 
green-tree. [< Malay-^'" + ''" kapil); camphor.] 

— cani'uhor-ate, vt. [A'TEDd; -a'ting.J 
To treat with camphor.— cain-plior'ic, a. 

can', can, v. [coui.d, cud.] [A defective 

luxiliary how used only in the present and im- 
jicrtVct indicative.] To be able (to do some- 
thing). r< AS. cann, 1st and ;M per. sing, of 
cininau, know.] ic.uis. 

can^, r<. [canned; ca.n'mm.-I Toputupin 
can, «. A vessel for holding, carrying, or pre- 
serving liquids. [< AS. cauna, can.] 

papfi, gak; at, &lr; el§mfint, th€y, us^ge; It, j, i (ee); o, oh; orator, or; full, rule; but, Or; 



ca'^naille', cg"ner, «. The rabble; mob. [F.] 
ca-nar, ca-nal', n. An artificial inland water- 
way; any channel, groove, passage, or duct. 
[_ < LJ canalis, channel.] 
ca-nard', ca-nard', n. A fabricated sensa- 
tional story. [F.] 
ca-na'ry,ca-ne'ri, «. [-ribs', p/.] 1. A finch, 
originally of the Canary Islands, now a com- 
mon cage bird. 2. A bright yellow color. 3. 
Wine from the Canary Islands. 

can''cel, can'sel, vt. [can'celed or can'- 
celled; can'cel-ing or can'cel-ling.] To 
mark out or off, as by crossed lines; strike 
out; annul; revoke. [< L.*" cancello, make 
\ like a lattice.] — can^oel-a'tion, n. 

can'cer, can'sgr, y^ 1. A malignant and com- 
monly fatal tumor; any inveterate and spread- 
ing evil, 2. [C-] The Crab, a zodiacal constella- 
tion or sign. [L., crab.] — can'cer-ous, a. 
Pertaining to, of the nature of, or affected with a 
cancer; virulent; incurable. 

can"de-laa)rum, can'de-le'brum or -\a'- 
brum, n. [bka, pL] A branched candlestick 
or lamp'Stand. [L.] 

can'did, can'did, a. Sincere; ingenuous; 

frank; impartial; fair. [< hJcayididus.whiie.] 

— ran'did-Iy, flrfu.— can'ilid-ness, 7i. 

can^di-date, can'di-det, n. A nominee or as- 
pirant for any position. [< L. candidatus, 
candidus, white (because officcseekers in 
Rome wore white togas).] — caii'di-da-cv, 
can'dl-de-si, n. [■ciES^,pl.] The state or position 
of being a candidate, caii'di-date^shipl:; 

can'dl(e, can'dl, n. A cj'linderof tallow, wax, 
or other solid fat, contaming a wick, to give 
light when burning; a light or luminary. [< 
L.AS candela, < candeo, shine.] — can'dle- 
Ntick, n. A support for a candle or candles. — 
Can'dlc-inai^, n. Eccl. The feast of the Pu- 
rification, held on Feb. 2; also, the day itself. 

can'dor, can'dgr, n. Freedom from mental 
reservation or prejudice; openness; frankness; 
impartiality; fairness. [< hJ candoi\ < can- 
deo, be white.] can'dour:}:. 

can'dy, can'di. I. vt. & xi. [can'died, 
can'did; can'dy-ing.] To form, form into, 
deposit,or cover with crystalsof sugar; preserve 
by coating with sugar. II.??. [cAN'DIES^7?;.] 
A confection of sugar or molasses, or both. 
[Orig. < Sans, khavda, < khand, break.] 

cane, ken. I. rt. [caned; ca'ning.] 1. To 
strike or beat with a cane. 2. To bottom or 
back with cane, as a chair. II. n. 1. A walk- 
ing'Stick. 2. A slender, flexible woody stem, 
or a plant with such a stem, as a rattan, or the 
sugar-cane. [Qt.^*^^ kanna, TGed.]— cane'-. 
brake''', n. Land overgrown with canes. 

ca-nine', ca-nain', a. Of, pertaining to, or like 
a dog. [ < L. caninus, < canis, dog.] 

can'is-ter, can'is-tgr, n. 1. A metal case, as 
for tea. coffee, or spices. 2. A metallic cylinder 
filled with bullets to be fired from a cannon. [ < 
Gr.i' kanistron, < kanna, reed.] 

can'ker, can'kgr, v. I. t. To infect with 
canker; eat away or mto like a canker; corrode; 
corrupt. II. i. To fester. 

can'ker, n. 1. Any ulcerous sore with a 
tendency to gangrene; a gronp of small ulcers 
in the mouth. 2. A disease of fruit-trees. 3. 
Any secret or spreading evil. 4. An insect de- 

structive to fruit'trees. can'ker=worni'':|:. 

[< L.As cancer, cancer.] 
can^ni-bal, can'i-bal. I. a. Pertaining to or 
characteristic of cannibals or their feasts. II. 
n. A human being that eats human flesh; also, 
an animal that devours its own species. [ < 
Sp. Canibales ( < Caribes, Caribs).] — can'ni- 
bal-isin, n.— can'^ni-bal-is'tic, a. 

can'non, «. [can'nons or can'non, ^;.] A 
large tubular weapon for dis- 
charging heavy shot; a great 
gun. [< LL.f canon, tube, < 
Gt.^ kanna, reed.] — can''- 
iion-ade', can"un-ed', v. [-a'- 
DEDd; -A'DiNG.] I. < To attack Modern Krupp 
with cannon»shot. II. i. To Steel Gun 
fire cannon repeatedly .— can"- 
non-ade', n. A continued attack with or dis- 
charge of cannon.— can '''ii on -eer', n. A sol- 
dier who serves as gunner, can'^non-ier't. 

can'not, can'§t. Can not. See cani, v. 

ca-noe', ca-nu', n. A light boat propelled by 
paddles. [< Ilaytian^p ca«oa.] 

can'oni, can'§n, n. 1, A rule or law; standard; 
criterion. 2. The books of the Bible that are 
recognized by the Church as inspired. [ < 
Qr_nAs kanon, rule.] 

can'on2, n. A dignitary of the Church of 
England. [< LL.of ca;?0772cw«, canonical.] 

ca-iion', ( ca-nyOn' or can'yun, n. A deep 

can'yon, i gorge or ravine. [Sp. canon.'] 

ca-non-'ic-al, | ca-nen'ic-al,ca-nen'ic, a. 1. 

ca-non'ic, ( Belonging to or characteristic 
of the canon of Scripture. 2. Regular; law- 
ful; accepted or approved. [< (jx.^'^kanonikos, 
< kanon; see canon^.] — ca-non'ic-al-ly, 
art??.— can''on-ic'i-ty, can"gn-is'i-tl, 7i. The 
quality of being canonical. 

c^-non'ic-als, ca-non'ic-alz, n. pi. Official 
robes, as of the clergy. 

can'on-ize, can'§n-aiz, xt. [-xzed; -i'zing.] 
To declare to be or regard as a saint. [ < L.^-^- 
canon; see canoni.]— can'^on-i-za'tion, n. 

can'o-py, can'o-pi. I. vt. [pied; -py-ing.] 
To cover with or as with a canopy. II. n. 
[-PIES', 111.] A suspended covering as over a 
throne, shrine, bed, etc. [< Gr.*" konopeion, 
bed with inosquito»curtains.] 

cant'<i, cant, x. I. t. To set slantingly; tip up; 
tilt. II. i. To tilt; slant. 

canted, xt. & VI. To talk with affected relig- 
iousness. [< L. canto, freq. of cano, sing.] 

cants 'n. An inclination or tipping; a slope or 
set to one side. [< LL.^^f cantns, corner.] 

cant^, n. 1. Hypocritical or ostentatious re- 
ligious talk. 2. Any technical or professional 
phraseology. [< L.^^^ canivs, song.] 

can't, cgut. [Colloq.] Can not. 

can'ta-loup, can'ta-lup, ?i. A variety of 
muskmelon. [F.] 

can-ta''ta, cgn-tfl'tg, n. 3Ins. A choral com- 
position in the style of oratorio. [It.] 

can-teen', can-tin', n. Mil. 1. A soldiers' 
drinking'flask. 2. A sutlers' retreshment» and 
liquor=shop. [< It.f cantina, cellar.] 

can'ter, can'tgr. I. xt.&vi. To ride or move 
at a canter. 11.?/. A moderate, easy gallop. 
[< Canterbury, in allusion to the pace of 
pilgrims riding to Canterbury.] 

can'ti-cl(e, can'ti-cl, n. 1. A non-metrical 

flutiure (future); aisle; au (out); ©il; c (k); chat; dh (the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



hymn, to be chanted. 2. [C-] pi. The Song 

of Solomon. [ < L. canlicnluin., < cano, shig.j 

can'ti-lev'^er, can'ti-lev'gr, n. 1. A heavy 

Cantilever lirids-'e. 
bracket supporting a balcony, or the like. 2. 
One of two long bracket»like trusses, reaching 
toward each other from opposite piers, and 
joining to form a bridge. [< CANT^ n., + 
LEVER.l can'ta-lev^'er:}:; can'ta-[or-te- 
or -ti-]liv"eri. 

can'to, can'to, n. A division of a poem. [< 
L.I' cantus, song.] 

can^ton, can't^n, ?;. I. t. 1. To divide into 
cantons. 2. To assign to quarters. II. i. To 
enter into cantonments. 

can'ton, ?2. 1. Adistrict, as of the Swiss con- 
federation. 2. The rectangular part of a flag 
next the istalf. [F.] — can'ton-ment, «. A place 
for lodging troops, as In a town. 

can'vas, can'vas, n. A heavy, strong cloth of 
various grades, used for sails, painting, or em- 
broidery. [< L.OF cannabis, hemp.] 

can'vass', can'vas, i;. I. t. 1. To go about 
a district to solicit (votes, etc.); traverse (a dis- 
trict) for solicitation; personally solicit. 2. To 
examine; scrutinize; sift. II. i. To go about 
soliciting votes, orders, or the like. [ <canvas, 
n.\ orig. meaning ' sift through canvas.'] 

— can'vass-er, n. One who canvasses; one 
who solicits trade from house to house. 

can'vass, n. 1. The going about to solicit 
orders, interest, or votes. 2. A detailed ex- 
amination; inquiry; scrutiny. 

caout'chouc, cA'chuc, w. India-rubber. [< 
S.'Am.*' cahuchu.] 

cap, cap, T. [capped'; CAP'piNG.] I. t. 1. To 
put a cap on; cover; crown; complete; also to 
excel. 2. To doff the cap to in salutation. 
II. i. To uncover the head, as in salutation. 

cap, n. A covering without a brim, to be worn 
upon the head; a covering at the top or end of 
anything. [ < LL.^s cappa, hood, cape.] 

ca'pa-bKe, k6'pa-bl, a. Having adequate 
ability or capacity to do or to receive; efficient; 
able; qualified; competent. [< LM-^^ capio, 
take, hold.] — ca''pa-bin-ty, ke'pa-biri-ti, n. 
[-TIE8*, jo/.l The state or quality of being capa- 
ble. ca'pa-bl(«'-iifs8!.— ca'pa-bly, adv. 

ca-pa'cious, ca-|)e'Bhu8, a. Able to contain 
or receive much; spacious; roomy. [ < L. 
capnx, < capio, hold.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

ca-pac'i-tate, ca-pas'i-tet, vt. [-ta"ted'»; 
-TA'TiNu.] To render capable; qualify in law. 

ca-pac'1-ty, ca-pas'l-ti, n. [-ties», pi.] 1. 
Ability to receive or contain; cubic extent; 

carrying power or space. 2. Adequate mental 
power to receive, understand, etc.; ability; tal- 
ent; capability. 3. Specific position, charac- 
ter, or office. 4. Legal qualification. [ < L.^ 
capacitas. < capax; see capacious.] 

cap''=a=pie', cap"'a«pi', adv. From head to 
toot. [OF.] 

ca-par'i-son, ca-par'i-sun. I. rt. To put 
housings on; clothe richly. II. 7i. 1. Deco- 
rative trappings for a horse. 2. Showy or 
sumptuous apparel. [< LL.^p + ^f cappa, cape.] 

capei, kep, n. A point of land extending into 
the sea or a lake. [ < F. cap, < L. caput, head.] 

cape^, n. A circular sleeveless upper garment; 
a short cloak. [< LL.*" cappa, cape.] 

ca'per, ke'pgr, vi. To leap playfully; frisk. 
[< L.i' capi^eolus, dim. of caper, capra, goat.] 

ca'per', n. Leaping or frisking; prank; antic. 

ca'per^, n. pi. The flower=buds of a low 
shrub of Mediterranean countries, used as a 
condiment. [< Ar.Gf+F Jcabbdr, caper.] 

cap'il-la-ry, cap'i-lg-ri. I. a. Of, pertain- 
ing to, or like hair; fine; slender; having a 
hair^like bore, as a tube or vessel; also, per- 
taining to such a tube. II. n. [-kies", pi.] 
A minute vessel, as those connecting the arter- 
ies and veins; any tube with a fine bore. [< 
L. capillaris, < capillus, hair.] 

cap'i-tal, cap'i-tal, a. 1. Standing at the 
head or beginning; chief; principal; excellent; 
admirable. 2. Of or pertaining to the death 
penalty; punishable with death. [< L.^ capi- 
talis, < caput (canit-), head.] — cap'i-tal-ly, 
adv. 1 . Excellently. iJ. So hs to deserve death. 

cap'i-tal\ n. 1. A chief city or town; the 
seat of government. 2. A large letter used at 
the beginning of a sentence, of a proper name, 
etc. [< capital, a.] 

cap'i-tal^, n. 1. Wealth employed in or 
available for production. 2. Resources or ad- 
vantages. [< LL.P capitate, property.] 

cap'1-tal^, n. The upper member of a column 

or pillar. [< L. capitel- ^ ^ 

lv7n, dim. of caput {capit-), 

cap'i-tal-ist, n. An 
owner of capital. 

cap'i-tal-izei, cap'i-tal- 
aiz, vt. [ized; -i'zing.I 
To begin with a capital 

^^'^ «''■* 11 o . r Egyptian Capital. 

cap'i-tal-ize3,?;<. [ized; 
-rziNo.] To convert into capital or cash. 

cap'^i-ta'tlon, cap'i-te'shun, n. An indi- 
vidual assessment or tax. [< h. caput, head.] 

Cap'i-tol, cap'i-t^l, n. 1. [U. S.] The offi- 
cial building of Congress or of a State legis- 
lature; a state-house. 2. The temple of Jupi- 
ter Maxiinus in ancient Rome or the hill on 
which it stood. [< L. capitolium, < caput 
(capit), head.] 

ca-pit'u-late, ca-pit'yu-let, vt. & vi. [-la"- 
TED-i; -LA'TiNG.] To Surrender ou stipulated 
terms; make terms. [ < L.'-'- capit uliim, chap- 
ter, < caput, head.] — ca-pit"u-la'tlon, n. A 
coiullt tonal surrender, or the instrument em- 
bodvlng It; a cbarter or treaty. 

ca'p'on, ke'pun, n. A cock gelded to improve 
the Mesh and increase growth. [< Gr.''^'^s 
kapdn, capon.] 

papa, gak; at, Sir; el©mfint, thfey, usfge; It, J, i (ee); o, oh; orator, «r; full, rflle; bot. Or; 


ca-price', ca-prls', n. A sudden unreason- 
able change of mood or opinion; a whim; 
freak; also, a capricious disposition ; anything 
capricious. [F.] — ca-pri'cious, ca-prish'us, 
a. Characterized by or resulting from caprice; 
fickle; whimsical, -ly, art?;, -ness, ?i. 

Cap'ri-corn, cap'ri-cern, n. A constellation 
or sign of the zodiac. [< L. caper {capr-), 
goat. -\- covfiu, horn.] 

cap''si-cunx, cap'si-cum, n. The plant produ- 
cing red pepper, or its fruit. [ < L. capsa, box.] 

cap-size-', cap-saiz', rt. & vi. [cap-sized'; 
CAP-si'ziNG.] To upset or overturn. [Ult. < 
L. caput, head.] 

cap'stan, cap'stan, ri. An upright windlass 
for hoisting anchors, etc. [L.'^ capistruni, a 

cap^sule, cap'siul, n. 1. A dry dehiscent 
seed* vessel, as of a pink or a lily. 2. A small 
case, shell, cap, or seal. [F.] 

cap'tain, cap't§n, n. The commander of a 
vessel, or of a company of soldiers; a chief; 
leader. [< L.f caput (capit-), head.] — cap'- 
tain-cy, «. [-cies«,joZ.) The position, rank, or 
term of office of a captain, cap'tain-shipl:. 

cap'tion, cap'shun, n. 1. A title, introduc- 
tion, or heading. 2. An arrest. [< L. cap- 
tio{?7-), < capio, take.] 

cap'tious, cap'shus, a. 1. Apt to find fault; 
hypercritical. 2. Perplexing; sophistical. [< 
L.*" capiiosus, deceptive.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

cap'ti-vate, cap'ti-vet, vt. [-va"ted<1; -va"- 
TiNG.] To charm; win; fascinate. [< L. 
captivatus, < captivus, captive.] 

cap'tiv(e, cap'fiv. I. a. Taken prisoner; 
held in confinement or bondage. II. n. 1. 
One captured and held in confinement or re- 
straint; a prisoner. 2. One who is held cap- 
tive in will and feeling. [< L. captivus, < 
captus, pp. of capio, take.] — cap-Uv'i-ty, ?/. 
The state of being held captive; thraldom.— 
cap'tor, n. One who takes or holds captive. 

cap'ture, cap'chur or -tiyr. I. vt. [cap'- 
tured; cap'tur-ing.] To take captive;" take 
possession of; catch; gain; win. II. n. 1. 
A capturing, or being captured. 2. ,The per- 
son or thing captured. [F., < L. cdptura., < 
captus., pp. of ca2no, take.] 

car, cflr, ?i. 1. [U. S.] A vehicle for use on a 
railroad. 2. A wheeled vehicle; chariot. 3. 
The basket of a balloon or the like. [< OF. 
car; of Celtic origin.] 

car'a-bine, n. Same as carbine. 

car'a-mel, car'a-mel, n. 1. A confection of 
sugar, butter, etc. 2. Burnt sugar. [F.] 

car'at, car'at, n. 1. A twenty>=fourth part of 
the fineness of gold. 2. A unit of weight for 
gems, about 3.2 grains. [F.] 

car'a-van, car'a-van, n. An Oriental armed 
company of traders, pilgrims, etc.; traveling 
company or menagerie. [< Per.^p+F kdrwan, 
caravan.] — car^'a-van'sa-ry, car"a-van'sa-ri, 
71. [-RIESZ, p/.] An Oriental hostelry or Inn. 

car'a-vel, car'a-vcl, 7i. A light fleet vessel of 
Spain and Portugal in the 15th century. See 
illus. in next column. [< Gt.^^ karabos., light 

car'a-way, car'a-we, n. A European bien- 
nial herb; also, its fruit, the so-called seeds. 
[< Ar.sp al, the, -f karwlya, caraway.] 


car'ltiiie, car'bain, n. A horseman's rifle or 

musket. [<'abin.] — car'^bi-neer', cQr"- 

bi-nir', n. A 

soldier armed 

with a carbine. 

car-bel'ic, a. 

Of, pertainirg 

to, or derived 

from carbon 

and oil ; of or 

pertaining to 

coal»tar oil. 

[ < CARBON + 

L. olevm. oil.] 
acid, a caustic poison, used as an antiseptic and 

car'^bon, car'b§n, ri. A non-metallic chemical 
element found in all organic substances, and in 
the coals, etc; pure charcoal; also, anything 
made of carbon. [< L. carbo{n-), coal.]— car''- 
bo-na^ceous, cur'bo-ne'shius, a. Of, pertain- 
ing to, or yielding carbon.— car'bon-ate, car'- 
bgn-C't. I. vt. L-A"TED<i;-A'TiNG.] To Charge With 
carbolic acid. II. m. A salt of carbonic acid.— 
car-boii-'ic, car-ben'ic, a. Of, pertaining to, or 
obtained from carbon. — carbonic acid, a 
heavv, colorless, Incombustible gas, produced In 
the respiration of animals and In the decay or com- 
bustion of organic matter.— car'^bon-if er- 
01I8, a. Containing or yielding carbon or coal.— 
car'bon-ize, car'bgn-alz, vt. [-ized; -i"zing.] 
To reduce to carbon; coat or charge with carbon. 

car'boy, cdr'bei, n. A large glass bottle en- 
closed in a box or in wickerwork, for corrosive 
acids, etc. [< Per. garaba, demijohn.] 

car^bun'^clCe, car'bun"cl, n. 1. A malignant 
boil; anthrax. 2. Mi7ieral. A gem of brilliant 
fire and deep red color. [< L.o^ ca7-bu7icuh(z, 
dim. of carboi?!-), coal.] 

car'cass, | car'cas, «. 1. The dead body of 

car'case, ) an animal. 2. The frame, as of a 
hou^e or ship. 3. A bomb filled with an in- 
flammable substance. [< OF. carcas.] 

card'', card, vt. To comb, dress, or cleanse 
with a card. See card^, 71. 

cardi, 71. 1. A piece of cardboard bearing a 
name, address, business, etc., or symbols for 
use in certain games. 2. Cardboard. [< 
Gr.i' + P charte, leaf of paper.] — card'board", 
71. A thin pasteboard of fine quality and finish. 

card2, «. A wire-toothed brush for carding 
wool, etc., or for currying 
cattle and horses. [< h.^^ 
ca7'dvus, thistle.] 

car'di-ac, cQr'di-ac. Per- 
taining to, situated near, or 
affecting the heart. 

car'di-nal, cflr'di-nal, a. 1. 
Of prime importance; chief; 
fundamental; principal. 2. 
Of a rich red color; vermilion. 
[< L. ca7'dinalis, pertaining 
to a hinge, important.] 

car'di-nal, w. 1. Oneoftlu' 
princes of the Roman Catho 
lie Church, constituting the 
Pope's chief advisory council. 
2. A cardinal-bird. 3. A short, hooded 
cloak worn by women in the 18th century. 4. 
A bright and rich red color. [< L. ca7'di/ialis; 


J fiutlfire (future); aisle; au (out); oil; c (k); chat; dh {the)- go; sing, i^k; tliin. 



see CARDINAL, a.] — oar'di-nal-ate, n. The 
rank, dignity, or term of office of a cardinal, car'- 
ili-nal-sliipt. — car'di-nalsbird'', «. An 

American, cardlnal=red, crested finch; red^blrd. 

care, car, vi. [cared; car'ing.] 1. To be 
interested or concerned for some person or 
thing. 2. To be inclined or disposed; desire. 

care, n. 1. Anxiety or concern; solicitude. 
2. Responsible charge or oversight. 3. 
Watchful regard or attention; heed. 4. Any 
object of solicitude or guardianship. [< AS. 
ca7'u, ceani.] — care'ful, a. Exercising, marked 
by, or done with care; attentive and prudent; 
circumspect, -ly, adv. -ness, 7i.— care-'less, 
a. 1. Neglectful; Indifferent; heedless, ii. Free 
from solicitude or anxiety; light»hearted. 3. 
Negligent; easy, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

ca-reen', ca-rin', vt. & vi. To tip or incline to 
one side, as a vessel. [< L.^ carina, keel.] 

ca-reer', ca-rir'. I. vi. To move with a swift, 
free, and headlong motion. II. n. A free and 
swift course; a swift run or charge; a life or 
period of notable achievement. [< F. carriere., 

< OF. carter e, road.] 

ca-ress', ca-res'. I', vt. To touch or handle 
endearingly; fondle; embrace; pet; treat 
with favor. II. n. Th(3 act of fondling; a 
gentle, affectionate movement. [< LL.i'+*' 
caritia, dearness, < L. cams, dear.] 

car'et, car'et, n. A sign (a) placed below a 
line, denoting an omission. [L., there is want- 
ing, < careo, want.] 

car'go, cflr'gO, n. Goods and merchandise 
taken on board of a vessel; lading; load. [Sp.] 

caWi-bou, car'l-bu, ?i. The North* American 
reindeer. [Canadian F.] 

car'i-ca-ture, car'i-ca- 
chur or -tiQr. I. vt. 
[-tured; -tur"ing.] To 
represent so as to make 
ridiculous; travesty; bur- 
lesque. II. 71. 1. A pic- 
ture or description marked 
by ridiculous exaggeration 
or distortion ; burlesque. 2. 
The act or art of caricatur- 
ing. [F.] — car'i-ca-tur-ist 

ca'ri-es, ke'ri-iz orcg'ri-es, n. Ulceration and 
decay of a bone or of a tooth. [L.] — fa'ri-oiis, 
a. Affected with cartes; decayed. 

car'i-ole, car'1-51, ?i. A small carriage. [F.l 

caii, curl, n. [Dial, or Poet.l A stout fellow; 
rustic; churl. [< AS. car/.] carlet. 

car^man, cQr'raan, n. [car'men, pL] One 
who drives a car or cart. 

car'mine, cflr'min, n. A rich purplish-red 
color; a pigment prepared from cochineal; 
rouge. [< Ar.sp qirmazi, crimson.] 

car^nage, cflr'ngj, n. Extensive and bloody 
slaughter; massacre; also, the bodies of the 
slain. [< L.J' + F caro {earn-), flesh.] 

car^nal, cflr'nal, a. Pertaining to the fleshly 
nature or to bodily appetites; sensual; for- 
merly, worldly; not spiritual. [< L. carnalis, 

< caro, flesh.] — car-naPi-tv, //. The quality 
of being carnal; Bcnsuallty.— Var'iial-ize, vt. 
To make carnal.— car'nal-Iy, adv. 

car-na'tion, cdr-ne'shun, n. 1. Flesh-color. 
2. A pink of southern Europe. [< L.'' 
(cam-), flesh.] 

Caribou Antlers, 
n. A maker of 


car-ne'lian, cflr-nt'lian, w. A clear red chal- 
cedony, often cut as a gCm. [<\j.^ cormi, 
horn] cor-ne'liant. 

car'ni-val, cflr'ni-val, n. 1. A period of fes- 
tival and gaiety, just before Lent. 2. Any gay 
festival or revel. [ < L.^l + " cam, flesh, + levo, 
take away, lighten.] 

car-niv'o-rous, cflr-niv'o-rus, a. Eating or 
living on flesh. [< L. caro (cairn-), flesh, 4- 
voro, devour.] — car-niv'o-ra, n. pi. An order 
of carnivorous mammals.— car'ni-vore, ii. 
One of the Carnivora. 

car-'ol, car'§l. I. vt. & vi. [car'ol(e)d or 
car'oll(e)d; car'ol-ing orcAR'or.-LiNG.l To 
utter in song, as a bird; sing; warble. II. n. 
A song of joy; the warbling of birds; a hymn 
of religious joy. [< OF. catvle.] 

car^'om, car'§m. I. ri. To make a glancing 
movement. II. n. The impact of a billiard= 
ball against two other balls in succession, or 
the stroke producing it. [Abbr. of F. caram- 
bole.] can'nont [Eng.]; car'romj. 

ca-rot'id, ca-rot'id. I. a. Of, pertaining to, 
or near one of the carotids. -al:|:. II. «. One 
of the great arteries of the neck, carotid 
artery^. [ < Gr. karoti{d-)s, carotid artery.] 

ca-rou'sal, ca-rau'zal, n. A jovial feast or 
banquet; boisterous revelry. 

ca-rouse', ca-rauz'. I. ri. [caroused'; 
CA-ROUs'iNG.] To drink deeply and boister- 
ously. II. n. A carousal; a buniper. [< G."^ 
gar, completely, -f dus, out.] 

carp', cQrp, vi. To find fault unreasonably; 
cavil. [< Ice. Tcarpa, boast] 

carp, n. [carp, formerly carps, ^/.] A fresh- 
water food-fish. [< LL.oF carpa, carp.] 

car'pal, cQr'pal, a. Of, pertaining to, or near 
the wrist. [< Gr. karpos, wrist.] 

car'pel, cflr'pel, n. A one-celled pistil or seed- 
vessel. [< Gr.A;ar;x>«, fruit.] car-pel'um:!:. 

car'pen-ter, cflr'pgn-tgr, n. A builder or re- 
pairer of w-ooden structures. [< L.^f cai^^en- 
titm, two-wheeled carriage.] — car'pen-try, 
71. The art, trade, or work of a carpenter. 

car'pet, cflr'pgt. 1^. vt. To cover with or as 
with a carpet. II. n. A heavy ornamental floor- 
covering; also, the fabric used for it. [< 
LL.OF carpita, thick woolen cloth.] — car'pel- 
basr'", 11. A hand-bag for travelers, especially 
one made of carpeting.— car'pet-iiitr, n. 1. 
Material used for carpets; carpets collectively. 
3. The act of covering with or as with carpet. 

car'riage, car'ij, n. 1. A wheeled vehicle for 
carrying persons. 2. That which carries some- 
thing, as in a machine. 3. Transportation; the 
charge for, or cost of, carrying. 4. Deport- 
ment; bearing. 51J. That which is carried. 
[< OF. cai-iage, < caiier, carry.] 

car'ri-er, car'i-gr, n. One who or that which 

car'ri-oix, car'i-un, n. Dead and putrefying 
flesh; a carcass. [< "L.^^ caro, flesh.] 

car'rot, car'et, n. A reddish-yellow edible 
root, or the plant producing it. [ < Gr.^^^kar- 
dlon, carrot.] — car'rot-y, a. Lik« a carrot; 

car'ry, car'i, v. [car'ried, car'id; car'ry- 
iNo.] I. t. 1. To bear, or cause to be borne 
from one place to another; transport; convey. 
2. To bear in mind; contain; include; com- 

papfi, 98k; at, Sir; el^mfint, th6y, us^ge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, er; full, rQle; hot, Or; 



prise; involve; imply. 3. To lead; urge; move; 
influence. 4. To transfer; remove; extend. 
5. To win; capture. 6. To bear up: sustain; 
hold. 7. To demean or conduct; bear; behave. 
8. [U. S.l To keep on hand. II. i. 1. To 
act as a carrier. 2. To have or exert impelling 
or propelling power. [< L.^f cannts, cart.] 

car'ry, car'i, n. [car'ries^, pi.] A portage. 

car'ry-all'', car'i-sr, n. A one-^horse four- 
wheeled covered vehicle. [Corr. of cariolk.] 

cart'', cGrt, V. I. t. To convey or carry in or 
as in a cart. II. i. To drive or use a cart. 

— cart'age, n. The act or cost of carting.— 
cart'er, n. One who drives a cart; a teamster. 

cart, n. 1. A heavy two»wheeled vehicle, for 
carrying loads. 2 . A light t\vo»wheeled vehicle 
with springs, as for pleasure. [< Ice. kartr.] 

cartel, cQrt, n. A card or paper; a bill of fare. 
[F., card.] — carte blanche, cQrt blQAsh, an 
order sipned In blank to be filled up at discretion; 
unconditional permission or authority. [F.] 

carte^, «. A position in fencing. [<F.guart€, 
lit. fourth.] 

car'tel, cGr'tel, n. 1. A written official agree- 
ment, as for the exchange of prisoners. 2. A 
written challenge, as to single combat. [F.] 

car'ti-lage, car'ti-lej, ??. A tough, elastic 
animal tissue; gristle. [F.] — car^'ti-Iatf^i- 
nous, cQr"tI-laj'l-nus, a. 1. Of or like cartilage; 
gristly. 3, Having a gristly skeleton, as sharks. 

car-toon', cQr-tun', ti. 1. A sketch for a 
fresco or mosaic. 2. A caricature. [< + f 
c/iarfa: see card*, n.] 

car'tridge, cflr'trij, /?. A charge for a firearm 
or for blasting, enclosed in a case or shell. 
[Corr. < F. cartonche, cartridge.] — blank car- 
tridge, a cartridge containing powder only. 

carv(e, cflrv, ?;. [carv(e)d; carv'ino.] I. ^. 

1. To cut figures or designs upon. 2. To make 
by cutting or chiseling; sculpture. 3. To cut 
up, as cooked meat. II. i. 1. To make carved 
work or figures. 2. To cut up cooked meat 
served at table. [ < AS. ceoi'fan.'] — carv'er. 
n. 1. One who carves, ii. A carving»knife. — 
cary'ingr, n. The act of one who carves. 

cas-cade', cas-ked', n. A small waterfall. [F.] 

case, kes, vt. [cased'; ca'sing.] To' cover 
with a case; incase. 

easel, n. 1. The state of things in a given 
instance, real or hypothetical. 2. An event; 
contingency. 3. A particular instance or ex- 
t ample; in law, a cause of action; a suit; an ac- 

tion. 4. State; physical condition or situation; 
plight. 5. (?mm. The relation of a noun, pro- 
noun, or adjective to other words, or its form 
indicating the relation. [< L.^^ cai^s, event.] 

case^, n. 1. A box, sheath, bag, or other cover- 
ing in which something is or may be kept; 
quantity or number so contained; a set. 2. 
Frint. A tray, with compartments for holding 
type. [< hJ capsa, box, < capio, receive.] 

case':liard"en, kes'*hQrd"n, vi. 1. To 
harden by carbonizing the surface of (iron). 

2. To make callous or insensible. 
case'mate,* kes'mgt, n. A vaulted chamber 

in a fortification, or an armored bulkhead on 
shipboard, with openings for guns. [F.] 
case'ment, kes'mgnt, n. A hinged window- 
sash; a window. [< LL. casamenium, house- 
■' frame.] 

ca'se-ous, ke's§-us, a. Of, pertaining to, or 
like cheese; cheesy. [< L. caseus, cheese.] 

casli% cash, rt. To convert into cash, as a check. 

casll>, n. Current money in hand. [< OF. 
casse, box.] 

cash^, 7?. [cash, pi.] A coin of China, worth 
one-fifth of a cent. [< Tamil kdsu, small coin.] 

cash-ier', cash-Tr', rt. To dismiss in disgrace, 
as a military officer. [< L.^f+d casso, destroy.] 

casll-ier','??. A custodian of money; a cash* 
keeper or paymaster. [ < F. cassier, < caisse, 
casse, money-box.] 

cash.'inere, cash'mtr, n. A fine, soft, costly 
fabric made from tlie wool of the Cashmere 
goat. [< Cashmere (state in the Himalayas).] 

ca-si'no, ca-si'nO, n. 1. A room or building 
for public resort and diversion. 2. A summer- 
house, or the like, as in Italy. 3. A game of 
cards. [It., dim. of casa, house.] 

cask, cask, n. A barrel-shaped wooden vessel, 
or the qiiantity it will hold. [ < Sp.^ casco, cask.] 

cas'ket, cgs'ket, n. 1. A small box or chest, as 
for jewels or other precious articles. 2. [U.S.] A 
burial-case. [< F. cassette., dim. of casse, chest.] 

casque, case, ??. A helmet; a helmet-like pro- 
tuberance." [F.] 

cas-sa'va, cas-sfl'va, n. 1. One of various 
tropical American shrubs or herbs; manioc. 2. 
Tapioca. [< llajtian^p*^ kasabi.] 

cas'sia, cash'ia, n. A coarse variety of cinna- 
mon; also, the tree yielding it. [L.] 

cas'si-mere, cas'i-mir, n. A woolen cloth 
for men's wear. [< F. casimir, = cashmere.] 

cas'sock, cas'§c, n. Eccl. A close-fitting gar- 
ment, reaching to the feet, as worn by tlie Ro- 
man Catholic clergy, {li.^ casacca, greatcoat.] 

cas'so-wa-ry, cas'o-wg-ri, n. [-riess pi] A 
large, fleet, ostrich- 
like bird of Austra- 
lia. [< Malay kas- 
suwaris, cassowary.] 

cast, cast, V. [cast; 
cast'ing.] 1. t. 1. 
To throw with force ; 
fling; hurl. 2. To 
throw off, out, or 
over; emit; let fall; 
shed. 3. To depos- 
it; give; as. to cast a 
vote. 4. To direct 
or turn; impute. 5. 
To make a cast of; 
found; stereotype. 6. To compute; reckon 
up; calculate. 7. Theat. (1) To assign, as for 
a part. (2) To distribute the parts of (a play). 
8. Law. To defeat in a suit. II. i. 1. To 
take shape in a mold, as metal. 2. To make 
a computation. [< Ice. kasta, tlirow.] 

cast, n. 1. The act of throwing; anything 
throw n, or the distance to which it is or may 
be thrown. 2. An object founded or run in 
or as in a mold. 3. An impression, as in wax 
or plaster. 4. A characteristic formation; 
stamp; shade. 5. A twist; warp; squint. 6. 
Theat. The distribution of parts to performers. 

cas'ta-net, cas'ta-net, ?i. A pair of small 
clappers, used as an accompaniment to song 
or dance. See illus. on next page. [< L.^p 
castanea, chestnut.] 

Helmeted Cassowary. 


flutlflre (future); aisle; au (out); 

oil; c (k); chat; dli (^^e); go; sing, i^k; thin. 




cast'a-way, cgst'a-we, v. One who 
wrecked or abandoned; an outcast. 

caste, cast, n. One of the hereditary cl 
into which society is divided in Hindustan 
asocial class. [< L.^'s 
castus, pure.] 

cas'tel-la'^ted, cgs'tg- 
le'tgd, pa. 1. Having 
battlements; built like a 
castle; fortified. 2. Hav- 
ing a castle or castles. 

cast'er, / cgst'gr, -§r, n. 1. One who or that 

cast'or, (which casts. 2. A cruet for condi- 
ments. 3. A small (swiveling) roller fastened 
under an article of furniture, etc. 

cas'ti-gate, cas'ti-get, xt. [-ga"ted<'; -ga"- 
TiNG.] To punish with or as with the rod; 
chastise. [< L. castics, pure, -j- ago, make.] 

— cas'^ti-tra'tion, cas'ti-ge'shun, n. A 
whipping; severe rebuke or criticism. 

castling, cgst'ing, n. The act of casting, or 
any metal object cast in a mold. 

cas'tl(e,cgs'l. [cas'tl(e)d; cas'- 
TLiNG.] 1. To place in or as in a castle; fortify. 
2. Chess. To change simultaneously the rela- 
tive positions of king and castle. II, n. 1. 
A strong fortress; a castle»like building; any 
place of rightful defense and security. 2. 
Chess. A castlc'shaped piece; a rook. [< L.^s 
castellum, dim. of castrum, fort.] 

cas'tori, cgs'tgr, n. 1. A beaver, or its fur; a 
fur, silk, or other hat. 2. A heavy fabric for 
overcoats, etc. [< iir.'^ kastor, beaver.] 

cast'oi'2, n. Same as castek. 

cas'tor=oil'", cgs'tgr»eil", n. A thick vegeta- 
ble oil : used as a cathartic. 

cas'trate, cas'tret, tt. To emasculate; geld; 
mutilate. [< L. ca^fro, castrate.] 

cas^U-al, cazh'yu-al, a. Occurring by chance ; 
accidental; unusual. [< \^.^^*^ casus, ch&ncQ.} 

— cas'u-al-ly, <7<^J?j. — cas'u-al-ty, cazh'- 
yu-al-tl, n. [-ties*, pl.^ 1 . A fatal or serious ac- 
cident. 3. A chance occurrence. 

cas'u-ist-ry, cazh'yu-ist-ri, n. [-ries^, pl.l 

1 . The determination of duty in doubtful cases. 

2. Sophistical reasoning. [< 1,.^ casus, case.] 

— cas'u-ist, n. 1. An expert In casuistry. 

3. A moral sophls*. - cat^^'u-is^tic, a. cas''- 
ii-is'tic-alt.— c--8''u-i8'tic-al-ly, adv. 

cat, cat, n. 1. A domesticated carnivorous 
mammal, kept to kill mice and rats and as a 
pet. 2. Any related or similar animal, as a 
lion, tiger, or polecat. 3. One of various fishes. 
cafflsh.''!. 4. A purchase for hoisting an 
anchor. 5. A whip with nine lashed, formerlv 
used in army and navy, cafso'snine's 
tailSit' [< AS. cat.] — cat'boat'', n. A small 
one»masted sailboat. — cat'irut", n. A very 
tough cord, made from the Intestines of animals, 
for stringing musical Instruments, etc.— cat'- 
Inint'^ n. An aromatic herb of which cats are 
fond. cat'iiip'''t. — catH'paw'', n. 1. A 
person used as a tool or dtipe. ti. Naut. A light 
wind barely ruffling the water. cat's'spaw^J, 
— cat'sup'', 7i. Same as catchup. 

cata-, prefix. Down; against; under; wholly: used 
In words of Greek origin, becondng cat- "before 
a vowel and cath- before the aspirate. 1 < Gr. 
katu, down, against, through, concerning.] 

cat'a-clysm, cat'a-clizm, n. An overwhelm- 
ing flood, convulsion, or catastrophe. [<Gr. 
kata^ down, -f klyzd^ wash.] 

An unders 


cafa-comT), cat'a-cOm, n. 
gallery used as a burial=place. 
down, -\- kymbe, hollow.] 

cat'a-lep-sy, cat'a-lep-si, 71. A sudden sus- 
pension of consciousness, with muscular rigid- 
ity. [< Gr. kata, down, -f lamhano, seize.] 
— cat'^a-lep'tic, a. «fe n. 

cat'a-logue, cat'a-leg. I. vt. [-logued; 
-LOGU-iNG.] To make a catalogue of; insert in 
a catalogue. II. n. An alphabetical list of 
names, persons, or things. [< Gr.F kata, en- 
tirely, -p lego, reckon.] 

ca-tal'pa, ca-tal'pa, n. A tree of China, 
Japan, and North America, having large, ovate 
leaves, large bell'shaped flowers, and long 
slender pods. [Am. Ind.] 

cafa-ma-ran', cat"a-ma-ran', n. 1. Along, 
narrow raft with outrigger. 2. A pleasure- 
boat with twin hulls. [< 'YajcnWkatta'inaram, 
tied wood.] [cougar, or lynx. 

cat'a-mount, cat'a-maunt, n. A wildcat, 

cat'a-plasm, cat'a-plazm, w. Med. A poul- 
tice. [< Gr. kata, down, -{-■plasso, form.] 

cat'a-pult,cat'a-pDlt, n. An ancient military 
engine for throwing stones or other heavy mis- 
siles. [ < Gr.L katapeltes.] 

cat'a-ract, cat'a-ract, n. 1. A great water- 
fall. 2. Opacity of the crystalline lens of the 
eye. [Gr. kata, down, -f- arasso, dash.] 

ca-tarrh.', ca-tQr', n. Exaggerated secretion 
from a mucous membrane, especially of the 
throat and head. [< Gr.^ kata, down, -f- rheOy 
flow.] — ca-tarrh'al, a. 

cat-as^tro-plie, cat-as'tro;f§, n. 1. Any final 
event; denouement; a fataf conclusion; great 
and sudden misfor- 
tune. 2. Geol. A sud- 
den, violent change; 
cataclysm. [< Gr. Art- 
tastropM, < kata, 
down, -4- strepho, turn.] 

cafbird'' cat'bgrd", 
n. A small slate-col- 
ored North-American 
thrush: named from catbird. Vu 

Its cat-like cry. * 

catch, each, v. [caught, cSt; catch'ing.] 

1. ^. 1. To take, seize, or come upon, as some- 
thing departing or fleeing; take captive; cap- 
ture. 2. To entrap; ensnare; surprise. 3. 
To seize and hold; grasp; engage; captivate. 
4. To apprehend or perceive clearly, as some- 
thing faint or evanescent. 5. To contract, as 
a disease; incur, as an injury, etc. II. i. 1. 
To seize or attempt to seize something: with«/. 

2. Baseball. To act as catcher. 3. To be- 
come entangled or fastened. 4. To be com- 
municated or communicable, as a disease. [ < 
L.OF capto, freq. of capio, take.] — catch'er, n. 
— catch'inar, pa. Infectious; captivating.— 
catch'pen''ny, I. a. Cheap, poor, and 
showy. II. n. t-NiKS«, j9/.] An Inferior article, 
made merely to sell. 

catch, 71. 1. The act of catching. 2. That 
which catches or fastens; a fastening. 3. That 
which is or maybe caught or gained. 4. An 
artful trick. 5. An imi)ediment; a break. 6. 
Mus. A round; a scraj) of song. 

catch^up, cach'up, n. A spiced condiment foj- 
meats. [< E. Ind. kitjap^ 

juiai conclusion; great 

papa, 98k; at, air; element, th6y, ns^ge; It, %, i (ee); o, oh; orator, or; full, i file; bwt, fir; 



cat''e-cllisni, cat'§-kizm, n. A ehort religious 
treatise in tlie form of question and answer. 
[< Gr. kata, down, + echo^ sound.] 

— caf^e-cliet'ic, -al, cat'e-ket'ic, -al, a. 
Of or pertaining to oral instruction; consisting 
of question and answer. 

cat^e-chlze, -cliise,cat'e-caiz,tY. [-chized, 
-chised; -chi"zing, -chi'sing.] To interro- 
gate solemnly; instruct as by catechism. 

— cat'e-chist, n. One who catechizes. 
cat'e-chi'"zei' or -sert. 

cat'e-Ch.u, cat'§-chu, n. An astringent ex- 
tract from various East»Indian and African 
plants. [< Malay A;acAw.] 

cat'e-go^'ry, cat'§-go"ri, n. [-RIEs^ pi.] A 
class of things existing or conceived of as ex- 
isting. [< Gr. kat£goiia, accusation, asser- 
tion.] — caf e-gor'ic-al, cat"§-ger'ic-al, a. 
Without qualification; absolute; positive; une- 
quivocal, -ly, adv. 

ca'ter, ke'tgr, m. To furnish food or enter- 
tainment, f < OF. acater., buy.] — t-a'ter-er, n. 

cat'er-pil"lar, cat'gr-pirar, n. The larva 
of a butterfly, or of some other insects. 

cat'er-waiil, cat'gr-wel, vi. To utter a dis- 
cordant cry like a cat. [Imitative.] 

ca-thar'tic, ca-thQr'tic. I. a. Purgative; 
purifying. II. n. A purgative medicine. [< 
(Jr. kathartikos, < katharos, pure.] 

ca-tlie'dral, ca-tht'dral, n. The chief church 
of a diocese; the bishop's church, containing 
his official chair or throne: used also adjec- 
tivally. [< Gr.^+^^ kathedra, seat.] 

catli'ode, cath'Od, n. The negative pole of a 
galvanic battery. [ < Gr. kata, down, -{- hodos, 

Cath'o-lic, cath'o-lic. I. a. 1. Pertaining to 
the whole Christian church. 2. Pertaining to 

, the Church of Rome. 3. [c-] Largcminded; 
liberal; comprehensive; broad; general ; univer- 
sal. II. n. A member of the Roman Catholic 
Church. — Ca-thol'i-cism, ca-thel'i-sizm, ti. 
The doctrine and practise of the Roman Catholic 
Church. —cath'''o-lic'i-ty, cath"o-lia'i-tI, «. 
1, Comprehensiveness in views, tastes, and 
sympathies; liberality; breadth. "2, Universal 
prevalence or acceptance; universality. ' 

cat'kin, cat'kin, n. Bot. A deciduous scaly 
spike of flowers, as in the willow ; an ament or 
cattail. [<MD. katteken, dim. of katte, cat.] 

cat'tle, cat'l, n. pi. Domesticated bovine an- 
imals. [ < LL.OP capitale, property.] 

Cau-ca'sian, ce-cash'ian w ce-ke'sian, n. 
A member of the white division of the human 
species. — Cau-ca'sian, a. 

cau'cus, ce'cus, n. [U. S.] A private or pre- 
liminary meeting of members of a political 
party to select candidates or concert measures. 
[ < the Caucus Club, Boston, < Algonkin cau- 
cawasu., Chickahominy cockarouse, councilor.] 

cau^dal, ce'dal, a. Of, pertaining to, or near 
the tail. [< L. cauda., tail.]— cau'dal-ly, adv. 

cau'dl(e, ce'dl. n. A warm drink of' wine, 
eggs, etc. [< L.oF calidus, warm.] 

caug^ht, est, i)np. of catch, v. 

caul, eel, n. A membrane, as a fold of the 
peritoneum. [< OF. cale, cap.] 

caul'dron, cSl'drgn, n. Same as caldron. 

cau'li-flow'^er, ce'li-flau'gr, n. The fleshy 
edible head of a variety of cabbage; also, the 
plant. [ < L. caulis, cabbage, -j- flower.] 

caulk, caulk-'er, etc. Same as calk, etc. 

cause, cez. I. vt. [caused; caus'ing.] To 
be the cause of; produce; effect; induce; com- 
pel. II. n. 1. The power or efficient agent 
producing any thing or event. 2. A reason. 3. 
A ^reat enterprise or movement. 4. Law. An 
action or suit. 51|. Behalf; interest; also, pur- 
pose; aim: called in philosophy Jinal cause. 
[< L.F causa, cause.] — caus'al, a. Pertaining 
to, constituting, Invoh ing, or expressing a cause. 
— cau-sal''i-ty,n. [■ties'; pi.} 1 . The relation 
of cause and effect. ^Z. Causal action or agency. 
— cau-sa'tion, 7i. The principle of causality; 
causative power, action, or agency; causation. 
— caus'a-tiv(e, a. Effective as a cause; ex- 
pressing cause; causal.— caiise'less, a. 1. 
Having no just cause; groundless. »i. Uncaused; 
self=produced. -ly, adv. -uess, n. 

cause'way'', cez'we", ?). A raised road or 
way, as over marshy ground. [ < causey ( < 
LL.oF ccUcio, tread) -\- avay.] cau''sey$. 

caus'^tic, ces'tic. I. a. Corroding; corrosive; 
stinging; sarcastic. II. /?,. A caustic substance. 
[< Gr. kaustikos, < kaid, burn.] — caus-tic'- 
i-ty, cSs-tls'I-ti, n. caus'tic-nesst* 

cau'ter-ize, or -ise, ce'tgr-aiz, vt. [-ized; 
-i"ziNG.J To sear with a caustic drug or a 
heated iron; make callous or insensible. 
— caii''ter-i-za'[v>r >sa']tioii, n. 

cau'ter-y, ce'tgr-i, n. [-ies^, pi.] The appli- 
cation of a caustic; a cauterizing a^ent. [< 
Gr. kautei-ion, dim. of kanUr, a searing iron.] 

cau'tion, ce'shun. I. vt. To advise to be 
cautious; warn. II. n. 1. Care to avoid in- 
jury or misfortune; prudence; wariness. 2. 
An admonition or warning. [ < L. caiitio{n-), 

< caveo, beware.]— cau'tion-a-ry, ce'shun- 
g-rl, a. Constituting or conveying a warning; 
admonitory.— caii'tious, cS'shus, a. Exercising 
or manifesting caution; wary; prudent. — cau'- 
tioii8-ly, «rt». — cau'tioiis-ness, n. 

cav''al-cade', cav"al-ked' n. A company of 
riders; a parade. [F., < L.^^ caballus, horse.] 

cav'^a-lier', cav'a-lir'. I. a. Free and easy; 
offhand; also, haughty or supercilious. II. n. 

I. [C-] An adherent of the Stuarts of Eng- 
land as opposed to the Puritans. 2. A horse- 
man; knight; lover; escort. [F., < It. cava- 
liere, < L. caballus, horse.] -ly, adv. 

cav'al-ry, cav'al-ri, n. Mounted troops. 
cave, kev. l.vt.&vi. [caved; ca'ving.1 To 
hollow out; cause to fall in; give way; fall in. 

II. n. A natural cavity beneath the surface of 
the earth. [< L.^ cavea, < cavus, hollow.] 

cav'ern, cav'gm, n. A large cave; a den; cav- 
ity. [ < L. caverna, < cavus, hollow.] — cav'- 
erii-oii8, cav'ern-us, a. Consisting of or con- 
taining caverns"; like a cavern; hollow; hollow* 
sounding. — cav'ern-ous-ly, adv. 

cav^i-ar', cav"i-flr', n. The salted roe of the 
sturgeon. [< Turk, khdvyar.] 

cav'il, cav'il. I. m. [cav'il(e)d or cav'- 
ill(e)d; cav'il-ing orcAv'iL-LiNG.] To pick 
flaws, or raise frivolous objections. II. n. A 
captious objection; caviling. [< L. oi" cavillor, 

< cavilla, jeering.] — cav'il-er, cav'il-ler, n. 
cav'i-ty, cav'i-ti, n. [-ties^, pi.] A hollow 

or sunken space; hole. [< L.*" cavus, hollow.] 
caw, ce. I. vi. To cry like a crow. II. n. 

The cry of a crow. [Imitative.] 
Cay-enne^ ke-en', n. Red pepper. [< F. 

Cayenne, town in Guiana.] 

fiut|fire (future); aisle; au (aut); oil; c (k); chat; dli {the); go; sins, ii.ik; thin. 



cay'man, ke'man, n. A tropical American 
alligator. [< Sp.; of Carib. origin.] 

cease, sis, v. [ceased'; ceas'ing.] I. t. 
To leave off or discontinue (one's own action). 
II. ^. To come to an end; stop; desist. [< 
L.F cesso^ freq. of cedo, yield.] — cease'less, 
sls'les, a. Continuing without pause or stop. — 
cease'less-ly, of/w. — cease'less-ness. n. 

ce'dar, st'dar. I. a. Pertaining to cedar. II. 
n. A large tree of the pine family, having ever- 

freen leaves and fragrant wood. [< Gr. I'+of 
edros, cedar-^tree.] 
cede, sid, vt. [ce'ded''; ce'ding.] To yield 
or give up; surrender title to; transfer: said 
especially of territory. [< L. cedo, yield.] 
ceil, sil, vt. To furnish with a ceiling; line the 
roof of. [ < F. del, < L. caelum, heaven, sky.] 

— ceil'inir, string, n. The overhead covering 
of a room; internal sheathing, as of a vessel. 

cel'e-brate, sel'§-bret, vt. [-bra"ted'^; -bra"- 
TiNG.] 1. To commemorate joyfully; keep: 
observe. 2. To make famous, as by song or 
poem. 3. To observe with solemn rites. [<L. 
celebratus, < celeber, renowned.] — ceFe- 
brant, n. One who celebrates, as mass.— cel-'- 
e-bra'^ted, pa. 1. Famous, tj. Performed 
with customary rites.— cel'^e-bra'tion, n. 
The act, time, or means of celebrating; a festal 
observance. — ce-leb'ri-ty, se-leb'ri-ti, n. 
[-TiES», pZ.] 1. Tlie being celebrated. 2. A 
celebrated person. 

ce-ler'i-ty, se-ler'i-ti, w. Quickness; speed; 
rapidity. [< L.^ celerifas, < celer, swift.] 

cel'er-y, sel'gr-i, w. A biennial herb, whose 
blanched stems are used as a salad. [< Gr.r 
selinon. parsley.] 

ce-les'tiBil, s§-le8'chalor-tial. I. a. 1. Of 
or pertaining to the sky or heaven; heavenly; 
divine. 2. Of or pertaining to the Chinese dy- 
nasty or dominion. II. n. 1. A heavenly be- 
inj. 2. [C-] A Chinese. [< L.of codvm, 
heaven.] -ly, adv. 

cel'i-ba-cy, sel'i-ba-si, n. The state of being 
unmarried. [< L. csblebs, unmarried.] 

— cel'i-bate, n. An unmarried person. 
cell, sel, n. 1. A small chamber, space, or 

cavity. 2. A minute l 2 S k 
vesicle of. a living organ- 
ism. 3. E'.ec. A single 
element of a voltaic bat- 
tery. [< h.^^cella, small 

cel'lar, sel'ar, n. An 
underground room, as 
under a building. [< 
L.^ cellarium, pantry, 
< ce^^a, cell.] — cel'lar- .. ^ 
affe, n. A cellar or eel- 'loP**" bronze celts. 4. 
Jars; storage In a cellar or American celt of pol- 
the i-harge f or It. '^^^'^ «*«°«- 

cel'lu-lar, sel'vu-lar, a. Of, pertaining to, or 
lilie a cell or cells; consisting of or containing 
cells, f < L. cellula, dim. of cella, cell.] 

ceriU'loid, eel'yu-leid, n. A hard elastic com- 
pound, i)repared from guncotton and camphor, 
etc., under hydraulic pressure. [< L. cellula, 
little cell, -}- -oiD.] 

Celt, I selt, kelt, n. A member of the branch 

Kelt, I of the Aryan family, that includes the 
Irish, Manx, Welsh, Cornish, and low Bretons. 
[< Gr.i'-J' iTf/^oi, Celts.] — Celt'Io,KeU'Ic. 


3. Prehistoric Eu- 

selt'ic, kel'tic. I. a. Of or pertaining to the 
Celts. II. n. The language of the Celts. 

celt, n. A prehistoric implement or weapon of 
stone or bronze. See illus. in preceding col- 
umn. [< L. celtes, stone^chisel.] 

ce-ment''', sg-ment', v. I. /. To cover with 
or unite by cement. II. i. To cohere. 

ce-ment', n. 1. A substance for joining ob- 
jects by adhesion; hence, any bond of union. 
2. A mortar^like substance for producing a 
hard, smooth, or water»proof surface. [ < L.o^ 
csemenlvm, < csedo, cut.] 

cem'^en-ta'tion, sena'cn-te'shun, n. 1. The 
act of cementing. 2. A process of making 
steel by heating wrought iron in charcoal. 

cem.'e-ter-y, sem'g-ter-i, n. [-ies^, pi.] A 
place for the burial of the dead. [< Gr. koi- 
fneterion, < keitnai, lie down.] 

cen'o-'bite,6en'o-bait, ??. A monk. [< (Jr.^L 
koiiios, common, -4- bios, life.] 

— ceii''o-bit'ic, cen''o-bit'ie-al, a. 
cen'o-taph., sen'o-tgf, n. An empty tomb. 

[< Gr.L kenos, empty"^ -{- taphos, tomb.] 

cen'ser, sen'sgr, n. A vessel for burning in- 
cense. [< L.OF incenswn, incense.] 

cen'sor, sen'ser, ??. 1. An ofhcial examiner 
of manuscripts, empowered to prohibit their 
publication. 2. Any one who censures or ar- 
raigns; a critic. 3. An ancient Roman magis- 
trate. [L., < c^nseo, judge.]—'ri-al,fl. 
Of or pertaining to a censor.— cen-so'ri-ous, 
a. Given to censure; judging severely; faultfind- 
ing.— cen-so'ri-ous-ly, adv.— cen-so'ri- 
ous-ues8< 71.— cen'sor-ship, n. The office, 
term, or powers of a censor or crjtic. 

cen'sure, sen'shur. I. vt. [cen'sured; 
cen'sur-ixg.] To blame; condemn; repri- 
mand. II. n. 1. The act of censuring; dis- 
approval or blame. 2. Reprimand. [< L.^ . 
cenmira, < censeo, judge.] — cen'8ur-a-bl(e, 
a. Deserving censure; blameworthy. 

cen^sus, sen'sus, w. An official numbering of 
the people of a 
country. [L., < 
cemeo, assess.] 

cent, sent, n. 1. 
The one»hun- 
dredth part of a 
dollar. 2. Cen- 
tum or cento, hun- 
dred; an abbrevi- 
ation, chiefly in 
the phrase per 
cent. See per. [< 
L.P centum, hun- 

cen-tare', srui-tSr', 
11. See METRIC 


cen'taur, sen'tor, 
n. A fabled mon- 
ster, half man and 
half horse. [< 
VjV. ke/itai/ros.] 

sen'te-iiii-ri. I. o. 
dred or a century, 

A hundredtli anniversary. 2. A perl 
hundred years. [< L. centum, hundred.] 

— cen''te-na'rl-an, n. One who has 
reached the age of one hundred years. 

Of or pertaining to a hun- 
II. n. [-RIES», pi.] 1. 
nod of a 

papfi, gsk; at, air; el§ment, thfey, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; ©rat§r, or; full, rule; but, Or; 



cen-ten'ni-al, een-ten'i-al. I. a. Of or per- 
taining to a hundredth anniversary. II. n. A 
hundredth anniversary. [< L. centum^ hun- 
dred, -f- annus, a year.] 

cen'ter, ( sen'tgr, v. [cen'teked, cen'tred; 

cen'tre, f cen'ter-ing, cen'trinq.] I. t. To 
place in or on a center; draw to a center; de- 
termine the center of. II. i. To be or con- 
verge in the center. 

cen'ter, \ n. 1, The middle point; that point 

cen''tre, f within a circle which is equally dis- 
tant from every point of the circumference. 
2. A point of attraction or convergence; focal 
point. [< Gt.^^^ kentron, < kenteo, prick. 1 

— cen'ter-ror -tre-Jbit", n. A bit with a 
cutting edge that revolves about a central point. 

cen-tes'i-mal, een-tes'i-mal, a. 1. One* 
hundredth. 2. Pertaining to progression by 
hundreds. [< I., ce/ifemnus, hundredth.] 

cen'ti-grade, sen'ti-gred, a. Graduated to 
a scale of a hundred. [On the centigrade ther- 
mometer the freezing=pri;it of water is zero 
and its boiling-point 10C°.] [< L. centum, hun- 
dred; and see grade. //.] 

cen'ti-gram or -grniiiine, sen'ti-gram, ceii'- 
ti-IF'ter or -n"tre, sen'tl-li'ter, cen'ti- 
ine'^ter or -ine'^tre, sen'ti-ml'tef. See met- 
i:ic SYSTEM under metric. 

cen'ti-ped. / sen'ti-ped, -pid, n. A many- 

cen'ti-pede, flegged insect. [< L. centum, 
hundred, -\- pe(d-)s, foot.] 

cen'tral, sen'tral, a. Of or pertaining to or 
aciine from the center; chief, -ly, adv. 

cen'tral-ize or -ise, sen'tral-aiz, vt. & vi. 
[-ized; -I'ziNG.] To make central; bring or 
come to a center; concentrate. 

— ceii"tral-i-za'tion or -na'tion. ??. The 
concentration of control in a central authority. 

cen'rre, n. Same as center. 

cen'tric, sen'tric. r/. Central; related to a 
i:crve=center. cen'tric-alj. -al-ly, adv. 

cen-trif'u-gal, sen-trif'yu-gal, a. 1. Di- 
rected or tending away from a center; radia- 
ting. 2. Employing centrifugal force. [< L. 
centrum, center, -\-fugio, flee.] -ly, adv. 

cen-trip'e-tal, sen-trip'g-tal, a. Directed, 
tending, or drawing toward a center. [< L. 
ceNlnrin, center, + peto, 
seek.] -ly, adv. 

cen'tu-pl'e, sen'tiu-pl, a. 
Increased a hundredfold. 
[< L.P centum, hundred, -j- 
rdico, fold.] 

cen-tu'ri-on, sen-liri'[o?' 
-tu']ri-un, n. Rom.. AuCni 
A captain of a century. 

cen'tu-ry, sen'chu-ri n, 
-tiu-ri, n. [-riesS ?>^.] 1. Ji,'|'l 
A period of 100 years. 2. Y 
Rom. Antiq. (1) A body of 
foot-soldiers (at one time ItJO 
men); one*sixtieth of a le- 
gion. (2) A division of the 
Roman people. 3!'. A hun- 
dred things of the same 


kind. [ < L. centuria, < cen- 
tum, hundred.] — cen'tu- 


rysplant'', n. The Amer- 
ican aloe, formerly supposed to flower once in a 
ceph-al'ic, sef-al'ic. a. Of, pertaining to, on. 

m, or near the head. [< Gr.L kephale, head.] 

cer-am''ic, ser-am'ic, a. Pertaining to pottery. 
[ < Gr. keranws, potters' clay.] 

ce^rate, st'ret, n. Pharm. An ointment of 
oil or lard, with wax, etc. [< L. cera, wax.] 

ce'ra"ted, si're'ted, a. Covered with wax. 

ce're-al, si'rg-al. I. a. Pertaining to edible 
grain. II. z^. A grain, or a gram»yielding 
plant. [< L. Cerealis, < Ceres, goddess of 

cer'^e-bel'lum, eer'e-berum, n. [-bel'la, 
-bel'a, pi.} Anat. The little or hinder brain. 
[L., dim. of cerebrum, brain.] 

cer'e-torunx, ser'e-brum, n. [-bra, -bra, ;;;.] 
The upper and anterior part of the brain : as- 
sumed to be the seat of thought and will. [L.] 

— cer'e-bral, ser'e-bral, a. Of, pertaining 
to, or like the brain; mental, cer'e-brict.— 
cer^'e-bra'tion, ser'e-bre'shun, n. Brain- 
action, conscious or unconscious. 

cere'ment, sir'mgnt, n. A garment or wrap- 
ping for the dead. [ < F. cirement, a waxing.] 

cer'e-mo-ny, ser'g-mo-ni, n. [->[IES^ ;V.] 1. 
A formal act, rite, or observance, or a series of 
them. 2. Observance of etiquette; formal 
civility. [ < L. caeremonia, ceremony.] 

— cer''e-ino'Mi-al. I. a. Of or pertaining 
to ceremony; ritual; formal. II. ?i. A system 
of rules of ceremony; ritual; etiquette; ceremo- 
ny, -ly, «'iiJ.— cer''e-ino'ui-oM8, a. Ob- 
servant of or conducted with ceremony; formal. 
-ly, adv. -ness, 7i. 

cer'tain, sgr'tgn, a. 1. Sure, as matter of 
fact, expectation, purpose, eflicacy, or effect. 
2. Havmg a settled conviction; assured; confi- 
dent; positive. 3. Indefinite; one; some; as, 
a certain man. [<L.o*' certus, <cerno, de- 
termine.]— cer'tain-Iy, sgr'ten-li. adv.—cev^- 
tain-ty, ser'ten-tl, n. [-tie"s«, pl.\ 1. The 
quality or fact of being certain. 2. A known 
truth. 3. Precision: accuracy. 

cer-tin-cate, sgr-tif'i-ket. I. vt. [-ca"ted'1; 
-CA "TING.] To furnish with or attest by a cer- 
tificate. II. n. A written declaration or 
testimonial. — cer-ti''fl-ca'tioii, n. The act of 

cer'ti-fy, sgr'ti-fai, v. [-fied; -eVing.] I. t. 
1. To give certain knowledge of (a thing); at- 
test. 2. To make a positive statement to (a 
person); assure. II. i. To make attestation. 
[< L.F certus (see certain); and see -ft.] 

cer'ti-tude, sgr'ti-tiiid, n. 1. Perfect assur- 
ance; confidence. 2. Assured fact or reality; 
sureness and precision. 

ce-ru'T.e-an, se-rii'le-an, a. Of a deep clear 
blue; sky ==blue. [< L.cierw/ew.<, dark»blue.] 

cer'vi-cal, sgr'vi-cal, a. Of, pertaining to, or 
near a neck. [< L. cervix, neck.] 

ces-sa'tion, ses-se'shun, n. A ceasing; stop; 
l)au8e. [< L. cessatioin-). < cesso; see cease.] 

ces'sion, sesh'un, n. The act of ceding; sur- 
render, r < L.F cessioin-), < cedo, yield.] 

cess'pool'', ses'puP, n. A covered well or 
pit for the drainage from sinks, etc. [< Gael. 
SOS, dirty mess, -f- tool.] cess'pifj. 

Cliafe,Chef, t'. [CHAFEDl; cha'fing.] I. f 1, 
To injure or make sore by rubbing; gall. 2. 
To fret; irritate; annoy. 3. To try to make 
warm by rubbing. II. i. 1. To rub so as to 
wear: become ai)raded. 2. To be irritated- 
fret; fume. [ < L.^p caleo, glow, -\-facio, make.] 

flutjure (future); aisle; au {out); ail; c (k); chat; dh (^^e); go; sinff, inik; thin. 



chaff's chgf, v. [CoUoq.] To poke fun at; banter; 
ridicule. [Var. of chafe, v.] 

chaff 1 , /! . 1 . The external envelopes or husks 
of grain; also, straw or hay cut fine. 2. Refuse; 
trifles collectively. [< AS. ceaf.] 

chaff 2, n. Good»natured raillery; banter. 

chaffer, chaf'gr. I. vi. 1 . To dispute about 
price. 2. To talk idly; chatter. II. n. A 
disputatious bargaining. [< AS. cedp, bar- 
gain, -{-fan/, journey.] — chaPfer-er, n. 

chaffinch, chaf inch, n. A European song= 
finch. [< chaff', n., -\- finch.] 

cha'fln^=dish'', che'fing'dish", n. A vessel 
for holdnig live coals, a lamp, or hot water, for 
heating or cooking. 

cha-grin', sha-grin'. I. ft. To humiliate; mor- 
tify. II. n. The vexation of disappointment 
and wounded pride; mortification. [F.] 

chain, chen. I. Tt. To fasten, as with a chain. 
II. n. 1. A string of interlinked rings or 
links, serving to bind, drag, ornament, or hold. 
2. Shackles; bonds; enthralment: usually in 
the plural. 3. Any connected series; a suc- 
cession; range, as of mountains. 4. A sur- 
veyors' measuring^line of 100 links. [L.*" ca- 
tena, chain.] — chain'sgang'', n. A gang of 
convicts compelled to work In chains. — c.s 
pump. n. A pump that raises water by means 
of buckets or disks on an endless chain passing 
through a tube. 

chair, char. I. vt. To put into or carry in a 
chair; install in office. II. n. 1. A movable 
seat with four legs and a back. 2. A seat of 
office, as of a professor or nioderator; also, the 
office or officer; a chairman. 3. Hallway. An 
iron block for holding rails in place. 41!. A 
sedan. [< F. chaire,< Gr. katJiedra, seat.] 

chair'man, char'm^n, n. [-men, plJ[ 1 . One 
who presides over an assembly. 2||. One of 
the carriers of a sedan-chair. 

chaise, shez, n. 1. A two-wheeled, one- 
horse vehicle for two 
persons. 2. A light 
four - wheeled car- 
riage. [F.] 

chal-ced''o-ny , cal- 
sed'o-ni, n. Mineral. _, ^ ,^. i * -.^/.n 
A waxy, translucent "^"^^^^^ Chaise of 1760. 
quartz. [< Gr. ChalkMon (town in Asia 
Minor).] cal-ced-'o-nyif. 

Chardron, chel'drun, n. A weight or meas- 
ure for coal and coke: (Eng. 32 to 36 bu., U. S. 
2,500 to 2,900 lbs.). [ < F. chaudron.] 

cha'^let', eha"le', n. A Swiss cottage. [ < 
Swiss chalet.] 

chaFice, chal'is, n. A cup used in the Lord's 
Supper. [< L.P calix {colic-), cup.] 

chalk, chSk. I', vt. To put chalk on or in; 
mark with chalk. II. n. A soft, white, com- 
pact limestone, or a piece of it, used for mark- 
mg or drawing. [ < L.'^'* calx (calc-), lime.] 
— rhalk'y, a. Of, containing, or like chalk. 

challenge, chal'enj, v. [-lenged; -len- 
oiNo.] I. ^ 1. To dare (a person) to a contest 
or trial; call out to a duel. 2. To invite or 
defy (scrutiny or proof). 3. To claim fls one's 
due. 4. To call in question; dispute; object to 
(a juror, voter, or vote). 5. Mil. To utter a 
challenge to, &s a sentry. II. i. To dare or 
defy any one. 

challenge, n. 1. A call or defiance to per- 
sonal contest. 2. A formal objection or ex- 
ception against a person or thing. 3. A sen- 
try's call, requiring one to halt and give the 
countersign. [< L.oFca^wmnia,* see calumny.] 

— clial'len-ger, n. 
cha-lyh'e-ate, ca-lib'g-i-t or -gt, a. Impreg- 
nated with iron. [< Gr. chalyps. steel.] 

Cham'her, chem'bgr, n. 1. A room in a 
dwelling-house, especially a bedroom. 2. j)l. 
[Eng.] A suite of rooms or offices. 3. A hall 
where an assembly meets; also, the assembly. 
4. An enclosed space, as at the breech of 
a gun. [< L.*' camera, vault.] — cham'ber- 
lain, chem'ber-lgn.n. 1. A palace oflicial. 2. 
A steward or* treasurer.— chain'ber-inaid'', 
n. A woman having care of bedchambers. 

cha-me'le-on, ca-mi'lg-§n, n. A lizard that 
has the power of changing its color. [Gr.i- 
chaniai, on the ground, + leon, lion.] 

oham'fer, cham'fgr. I. tt. To cut a channel 
in; bevel. II. w. A groove or channel; a bevel. 

cham^ois , sham'i or sham' we, n. 1 . A moun- 
tain antelope of Europe and Asia. 2. A soft 
leather. [F.] 

chain'o-inile, n. Same as camomile. 

champs champ, vt. & vi. To bite impatiently, 
as a horse the bit. [< Swed. dial, kamsa, 
chew with difficulty.] 

cham-pagne', sham-pen', /?. An effervescent 
wine, es])('cially from Champagne, France. 

cham-paign', sham-pen'. I. a. Of or per- 
taining to level ground or open country. II. 
n. Flat and open ground. [ < LL.*^*' campania; 
see campaign.] cham-pagne't. 

cham^pi-on, cham'pi-un. l7 vt. To act as 
the champion of; contend for; advocate. II. 
n. 1. Originally, one who fought in behalf of 
another; one who defends a person, principle, 
etc. 2. The victor in an open contest. [< L. 
^^*^ camjnis, field.] — cliaiii'pi-on-ship, n. 
The state or position of a champion. 

Chance, chgns. I. vi. [chanced'; chan'- 
ciNG.] 1. To occur accidentally; happen. 2. 
To come unexpectedly or undesignedly {on or 
vpon). II. a. Occurring by chance; casual. 
III. n. 1. Fortune; luck. 2. An accident. 
3. A favorable conjuncture of circumstances; 
opportunity. 4. Probability; contingency; 
likelihood. [< LL.*" cadentia, < L. cado, fall.] 

Chan'cel, chan'sel, n. The space about the 
altar in a church, for the clergy. [OF.l 

Chan^cel-lor, chgn'sel-^r, w. 1. A high offi- 
cer of state or of a university. 2. A judicial offi- 
cer sitting in a court of chancery or equity. 
[< IAj.^*' cancellarius, usher of a law-court.] 

— Liord Hiarh C, in Great Britain, the high- 
est judicial officer of the crown. — eh an'cel- 
lor-Hhip, n. The office of a chancellor. 

chan'cer-y , chan'sgr-i, n. A court of equity; 
formerly, in England, the court presided over 
by the Lord High Chancellor. [< LL.^can- 
ce'larius; see chancellor.] 

chan'^de-lierS shairde-llr', n. A branched 
supi)ort for lights susi)ended from a ceiling. 
[< L.''''^*' candela, candle.] 

chand^ler, chand'lgr, n. A trader; dealer, 
especially in candles; as, a tallow'c7/<///<//<-/". 
[< F. chandelier, chandler, candlestick.] 

— chaiui'Ier-y, n. [-iKS'.p/.] A chandler's 
shop or goods; place for keeping candles. 

papfi, gsk; at, air; elfmfint, thfey, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; orator, or; full, rule; but, Or; 



change, chenj, v. [changed; chan'ging.] 

1. t. 1. To make different; convert; alter. 

2. To exchange; interchange. II. i. To be- 
come different; vary. — change''a-bil'i-ty, n. 
change'R-bKe-nessi.— change'a-bl(e, 
chenj'a-bl, a. 1. Capable of beln^ changed. 
'i. Likely to change; inconstant. — cliange'a- 
bly, rtrt».— change'ful, chenj'ful, a. Full of 
or given to change.— change'less, a. Free 
from change; immutable.— chan^'ger, n. 

change, ?i. 1. The act or fact of changing; 
alteration; substitution, or something used in 
substitution. 2. Small money. 3. A place 
for general transaction of business. See ex- 
change. [< LL.*" cambium, exchange.] 

change'ling, chenj'ling, n. 1. An ilWa- 
vored child supposed to have been substituted 
by fairies for a beautiful one stolen away. 2. 
A fickle person: used also adjectivally. 

chan'nel, chan'el. I. tt. [chan'neled or 
chan'nelled; chan'nel-ing or chan'nel- 
LiNG.l To cut or wear channels in. II. n. 
The bed of a stream; deep part of a river; a 
wide strait; any groove or passage. [< L.of 
canalis, water=pipe.] 

chant, chgnt. I. vt. & vi. To sing, as to a 
chant; sing. II. «. A melody adapted to words 
without strict rhythm; a psalm or canticle so 
recited; a song; melody. [< L.^ cantus, < 
mno,sing.] chaunt:}:-— **•'»"*'«'*» ^- chant'- 
ort; chaiint'ert.— cbaiit'ress, n.fern. 

chan'ti-cleer, chan'ti-clir, «,. Acock. [< 
F. chanter, chant, -(- clair, clear.] 

Cha'os, ke'es, n. A condition of utter disorder 
and confusion, as the unformed primal state of 
the universe. [< QvJ chaos, < chaino, gape.] 

— cha-ot'ic, kc-et'lc, a. Of, pertaining to, or 
like chaos; unformed; disordered. 

chap, chap, vt. & vi. [chapped' or chapt; 
CHAP'piNG.] To crack and roughen, as the skin. 

chap', n. A crack, as in the skin. 

Chap2, n. [Colloq.] A fellow; lad. 

chap3, chop, n. A jaw: in the plural, the 
mouth and cheeks. [ < Ice. kiaptr, jaw.] 

chap''ar-ral', chap"a-ral', n. A tangle of 
dwarf oak, low thorny shrubs, etc. '[Sp-, < 
chaparra, evergreen oak.] 

cha'^peau', shg"po', n. [cha'peaux', sha"- 
poz',^y/.] A hat; especially, a plumed or mHi- 
tary hat. [F.] 

chap^el, chap'el, w. 1. A place of worship 
other than a large and regular church. 2. A 
chapel service. [ < LL.o^ capella, dim. of cappa, 
cape, cope (orig. of a saint, held as a relic).] 

chap'er-on, shap'er-On. I. vt. To act as 
chaperon to. II. n. A woman who acts as 
attendant or protector of a young unmarried 
woman in public. [F.] chap^er-onej. 

— chap'er-on-age, n. 
Chap'fal^'len, / chep'fern, a. Having the 
chop^fal'^len, (chap or jaw drooping; hence, 

dejected ; crestfallen. 
Chap'lain, chap'len, n. A clergyman having 
official charge of religious services, as of a leg- 
islature, a regiment, or a ship. [ < F. chapelain.] 

— chap'lain-cy, n. [-ciEs«,p/.] The office of 
a chaplain, chap^laiu-shipt. 

Chap'let, chap'let, 7i. A wreath or garland; 

necklace; rosary. [< F. chapelet.] 
chap^man, chap'mgn, n. [chap'men, pL] 

A pedler. [< AS. ceap, trade, + man, man.] 

chapiter, chap'tgr, n. 1. A division of a book. 
2. The clergy of a cathedral. 3. A branch of 
a society. [< L.p capitulum, dim. of caput, 

char, char, vt. & vi. [charred; char'ring.] 
To scorch or be scorched; burn to charcoal. 

char'ac-ter, car'ac-tgr. I. vt. To impress, 
engrave, or depict; characterize. 11. n. 1. 
The quality, or qualities, distinguishing any 
person or class, especially high qualities; moral 
force. 2. Reputation. 3. A representation; 
assumed part; rSle; also, the person holding 
or represented as holding it. 4. A figure en- 
graved, written, or printed; mark; sign; 
letter. [ < Gr. charakter, an engraved mark, < 
charasso, engrave.] — char''''ac-ter-i8'tic. I. a. 
Distinguishing; marking spcclftcallj-. II. n. A 
distinctive feature; peculiarity, -al-ly, adv. 

char'ac-ter-ize or -ise, car'ac-tgr-aiz, vt. 
[-ized; -i'zing.] 1. To describe; designate. 

2. To be a mark or peculiarity of; distinguish. 
— char^'ac-ter-i-za'tion or -sa^tion, n. 

cha-rade', sha-red' orshg'rad', n. An enig- 
ma given in representation. [F.j 

char'coal'', char'cor, n. A black, porous 
substance, obtained by the imperfect combus- 
tion of wood in an air=tight kiln; nearly pure 
carbon. [< AS. cearcian, crack, -f coal.] 

charge, cliflrj, v. [charged; char'ging.] 

1. ^. 1. To lay or impose something upon, as 
a load, trust, or requirement; exhort; instruct; 
enjoin. 2. To set or state as a price; demand. 

3. To set down or record something as due 
from; debit. 4. To accuse. 5. To make an 
onset upon. 6. To emblazon, as with heraldic 
emblems. II. ^. 1. To demand or fix a price. 

2. To make an onset. [< F. charger, < LL. 
carrico, < L. carrus, car.] 

charge, n. 1. The quantity put or to be put 
into a firearm, a furnace, etc. 2. Care and 
custody, or that which is under one's care. 3. 
A price; entry of indebtedness; tax; expense; 
cost. 4. An address of instruction or admoni- 
tion. 5. An accusation. 6. An impetuous 
onset; also, the signal for it. 7. A heraldic 
figure or device; a Dearing. 

charge'a-bl(e,chflrj'a-bl, a. Capable of be- 
ing or rightfully to be charged. 

char-'ger, chQr'jgr, n. 1. One who or that 
which charges; a war=horse. 211. A large dish. 

Char'i-ly, char'i-li, adv. In a chary manner. 

char'i-ness, char'i-nes, n. The quality of 
being chary. 

Char'i-Ot, char'i-§t, ??. 1. Antiq. A two- 
wheeled vehicle used in war and in racing. 2. 
An ornate four»wheeled carriage. [OF.] - 
char'^i-ot-eer', n. One who drives a chariot. 

Char'i-ty, char'i-ti, ??. [-tiesS;?;.] 1. Lib- 
erality to the poor; almsgiving; alms. 2. An 
institution for the help of the needy. 3. 
Readiness to overlook faults; leniency. 4. 
Benevolence; Christian love. [<L.Fcon- 
ta(t-)s, < crtrws, dear.]— char'i-ta-bl(e, chai'i- 
ta-bl, a. Beneficent; generous; considerate; 
lenient; Indulgent, -ne^s, n. -ta-bly, adv. 

char'la-tan, shar'la-tan, n. A pretender, as 
to medical knowledge; quack. [F.] — char'- 
la-taii-ry, n. char'la-tan-ismj. 

Charm, chflrm, v. 1. t. 1. To put a spell 
upon; captivate; fascinate; delight. 2. To 

fluttnre (future); aisle; au {out); eil; c (k); chat; dh (^^e); go; sing, ink; thin. 



protect as by a spell. II. i. To act like a 

charm; be fascinating.— charni'er, n. 
charm, charm, n. 1. The power of alluring 

or delighting; fascination; also, that which 

charms; beauty. 2. A magical spell; amulet. 

[ < F. charme, < L. carmen., song.] 
Cliarm^ing, chflrm'ing, pa. Having power 

to charm, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 
char'nel, chQr'nel. I. a. Sepulchral. II. 

n. A sepulcher. cliar'nel=liouse'^J. [< 

L.^ caro (carn-\ flesh.] 
chart, chflrt. I<i. vf. To lay out on a chart. 

II. n. A map, as for the use of navigators. 

[< Gr.i' + OF chai'te, leaf of paper.] 
char'ter, chQr'tgr. I. tt. 1. To hire by 

charter, 2. To establish by charter. II. n. 

1. An act of incorporation. 2. A document 
granting special rights or privileges. 3. A 
lease of a vessel, a railroad train, etc. [ < L.^f 
chartvla, dim. of charta; see chart, n.] 

char'wom'^an, char'wum'an, n. fEng.] A 

char'y, char'i or che'ri, a. 1. Cautious; wary. 

2. Careful; prudent; sparing. [< AS. cearig, 
sorrowful, sad, < ceat^i, care.] 

chases ches, v. [chased'; cha'sing.] I. t. 

1, To follow with intent to catch, obtain, etc. ; 
pursue. 2. To drive away; dispel. II. i. To 
follow in pui-suit ; run swiftly. [ < OF. chacie?\ 
< L. capto; see catch, v.'] 

chasers vt. To ornament by indenting. 

chases??. 1. Earnest pursuit. 2. That which 
is pursued. 3. The practise of hunting; hunt- 
ers collectively; the hunt. 4. [Eng.] A pri- 
vate gamc'preserve. 

chase^, n. 1 . A frame into which type is fast- 
ened for printing. 2. The forward part of a 
cannon. 3. A groove; trough; trench. [< 
OF. chasse, < L. capsa; see case^, n.] 

chasm, cazm, n. A yawning hollow; deep 
gorge. [< Gr. chasma, < chaino, gape.] 

chaste, chest, a. 1. Sexually pure; modest; 
virtuous. 2. Pure in style. [<L.^castv8,p\iTe.] 
— cliaste'ly, adv.— chaste'ness, n. 

cha^sten, che'sn, vt. 1. To discipline by 
pain or trial. 2. To moderate; soften. 3. To 
refine; purify. 41. To chastise, 

chas-tise', chas-taiz', vt. [chas-tised'; 
CHAs-Ti'siNo.] 1. To correct with the rod. 

2. To punish, as an enemy. [< chasten.] 
chas-tize^:|:* — chas'tise-ment, chas'tiz- 
m^nt, n. The infliction of punishment, especial- 
ly for the benefit of the sufferer. 

chas'ti-ty. chas'ti-ti, «. The state or quality 

of being chaste; 

chat, chat. I. 

vi. [chat'ted"*; 

chat'tino.] To 

converse in an 

easy manner. II. 

n. Easy and fa- 
miliar speech. 

[Short for chat- 

shQ"tO', n. [cha'teaux', slig'tOz', pi.] A 

castle; country mansion. [F.] 
Chat'tel, chat'el, n. Law. An article of 

personal property ; a movable. [ < OF. chatel. ] 

French Chateau. 

chat'ter, chat'gr. I. vt. & vi. 1. To click 
(the leeth) rapidly together, as in shivering. 

2. To talk fast and trivially. 3. To make 
rapid and indistinct sounds, as a monkey. II. 
n. 1. Idle prattle. 2. Jabbering, as of a 
monkey. 3. A rattling of the teeth. [Imita- 
tive.] — chat'ter-box''', n. A voluble talker. 

chat'ty, chat'i, a. Given to chat; loquacious. 

cliat'ty, 71. An East=Indian porous water=jar, 

cheap, chip, a. Bearing or bringing a low 
price; hence, poor; mean. [< AS. cmjo, trade 
(in phrase good cheap).] —cheap^en, chlp'n, 
vt. & vi. 1. To make or become cheap. 21. To 
beat down the price of; chaffer or bargain for.— 
cheap'Iy, ar^r.— clieap^ness, n. 

cheat<i, chit, vt. & vi. To deceive or defraud; 
impose upon; delude; beguile. [Abbr. of es- 
cheat, v.] — cheat'er, n. 

Cheat, n. 1. A fraud; imposture, 2. A 
swindler. 3. A weed; chess. 

check', chec,t'. I. t. 1. To restrain by force 
or suddenly; stop; curb. 2. To mark with a 
check or checks; hence, to test by comparison. 

3. To attach a check to, or obtain one for. 4. 
To put in check, as in chess. 5!!. To rebuke; 
reprove. II. i. To pause; halt. 

check, w. 1. A checking or being checked. 
2. That which checks, as a check»rein. 3. A 
written order for money, drawn upon a bank or 
banker. 4. A numbered tag, or the like, to 
identify the owner of an article. 5. A mark 
for verification, as in an account. 6. A square 
in a checkered surface; any checkered pattern. 
7. In chess, an attack or menace to the king. 

[ < F. echec, < Per. shah, king.] 
heck'er, chck'gr, vt. To mark wit 
or crossed lines; diversify. 

cheekier, n. 1. A piece in the game of 
checkers. 2. A square in a checker»surface. 
3. pi. A game played on a checker'board; 
draughts. [< OF. e-^chelier, chess=board, ult. 
< Per. shah, king.] checq'uert.— check'- 
ersboarcl^'', n. A board divldod into 64 squares. 

check'mate", chec'met". I<i. rt. Chess. 
To put (a king) in a check from which no escape 
is possible; defeat by a skilful maneuver. II. 
n. The act or position of checkmating. [< 
Ar.F shah, king, -|- mat, dead.] 

cheek, chtk, n. Either side of the face below 
the eye; an analogous part of any object. [< 
AS. ceace.^ 

cheer, chir, v. I. t. 1. To make cheerful. 
2. To applaud with cheers. II. i. 1. To be 
or become cheerful. 2. To utter cheers. 

cheer, «. 1. A shout of applause or encour- 
agement. 2. Cheerfulness, 3. Provisions for 
afeast. 4il. Expression; look. [<1j1j.^ cava 
(< Gr. kara), head.] — cheer'ful, rt. In good 
spirits; loyous; lively; willing.— clieer'fui-Iy, 
f/f7r.— clieer'lul-ness, «.— cheer'Ieps, a. 
Dt'Stltuteof cheer; gloomy, mly, adr. -nces, «. 

cheer'y, chlr'i, a. 1. Abounding in or show- 
ing cheerfulness. 2. Fitted to cheer; cheer- 
ing.— cheer'i-ly, adv.— cheer'i-ness, n. 

cheese, chtz, 71. Tl»e pressed curd of milk. 
I^< h.^>^ casetis, cheese.] —chees'y, chtz'i, rt. 
Containing or resembling cheese. 

chef, shef, n. A male head cook. [F.] 

chef'sd'flcn'vre, 8hC'"»dO'vr, n. [CHKFs'-D'ffiu'- 
VRK, shfi'dO'vr.joI.I A masterpiece, [F,] 

chem^ic-al, kem'ic-al, I. a. 1. Of or per- 

papA, gsk; at, air; element, th%, ue^ge; it, %, i (ee); o, 9h\ orator, er; full, rille; bot, Or; 




taining to chemistry. 2. Obtained bv or nsed 
in chemistry, chem'ict [Poet.]. 11. n. A 
substance obtained by or used in a chemical 
process. — chem'ic-ar-ly, adv. 

che-mise', shg-mtz', n. A woman's under- 
garment. [F., < LL. camisia, shirt.] 

chem'ist, kem'ist, n. 1. One versed in chem- 
istry. 2. A dealer in chemicals. [Abbr. of 


chem'is-try, kem'is-tri, n. 1. That science 
which treats of matter considered as composed 
of atoms and of their relations and affinities. 
2. A treatise on this science. 

cheque, chec, n. Same as check, 3. 

clieq'iier, etc. Same as checker, etc. 

Cher'ishS cher'ish, vt. 1. To care for kind- 
ly; foster; nurture. 2. To entertain fondly, 
as a hope or an idea. [< F. cher, dear.] 

cher'ry, cher'i. I. a. 1. Like a cherry; red, 
2. Made of cherrywood. II. n. [cher'- 
RiES^, pi.'] A small roundish or heart»shaped 
red or reddish fruit growing on a long pedicel, 
and containing a small round stone; also, the 
tree that bears it, or its wood. 

Cher' uh, Cher 'ub, 7h 1. [cher'ubs, t?/.] The 
representation of a beautiful winged child, or 
the winged head of a child; hence, a beautiful 
child. 2. [cherubim, pL] One of an order 
of exalted angelic beings. [< llcb.^ k'rilbh, 
cherub.] — che-rii'blc, che-ru'bic-al, a.— 
clier'u-bim, n. 1. Plural of cherub. 2. 
[Erroneous.] A cherub: with plural cherubims. 

cher'up, cher'up, v. & n. Chirrup; chirp. 

Chess 1, ches, n. A game played by t\\o per- 
sons on a checkered 
board divided into 64 
squares, with 16 pieces 
on each side. [< OF. 
esches, pi. of eschec; see 
checrI, w.] ~ chess's 
board'", n. The board 
on which chess Is played. 
— chess'inaii, n. One 
of the pieces in chess. 

chess^, n. An oat'like 

chest, chest, n. 1. A 
large box, as for pack- opening of 

ing. 2. The part of the rook; b, knight; c, bish 
body enclosed by the op; d, queen; eking; /, 

ribs; the thorax. [< ^'fe' /',-''P'l^^' '''' 

— chest of dra^vers, a hox«llke frame con- 
taining drawers: [U.S.] ^.bureau. 

chest'nut, ches'nut. I. a. 1. Richly red* 
brown. 2. Made of the wood of the chestnut. 
II. n. 1. An edible nut, growing in a prickly 
bur; also, the tree that bears it, or its wood. 
See illus. in next column. 2. A reddish=brown 
color, or a horse of that color. Ches'nutf. 

Chev^a-lier', shev'a-lir', n. A knight; cav- 
alier. [F.] 

chev'ron, shev'r§n, n. A device of V-shaped 
bars worn on the sleeve by non-commissioned 
ofhcers. [F.] 

chew, chu. I. vt. & vi. To cut or grind with 
the teeth; work the jaws and teeth; ruminate; 
meditate. II. n. The act of chewing, or that 
which is chewed. [< AS. ceowan., chew, eat.] 

Chi-cane', shi-ken', n. Mean, petty trickery, 
Avith fair pretense. [F.] chi-ca'ner-y:}:." 

Pieces as arranged at 
opening of game; a, 

2. A 

1. Leaf of the Amer- 
ican chestnut. 2. 
Leaves of European 

chick, chic, n. 1. A young chicken, 
young person; a child. 

chick'en, chik'§n, 11. 1. The young of the 
common fowl; looselv, a fowl of any age, or 
its flesh. 2. A chilcl, or 
an inexperienced person, 
[^< AS. cicen., for *cycen, 
dim. of coc, cock.] 

— chick'ensheart'''ed, 
a. Faint-hearted or cow- 
ardly.— c.spox, n. A mild 
febrile disease of children. 

chic'o-ry, chic'o-ri, n. A 
perennial herb of the aster 
family: used in adultera- 
ting coffee. [< Gv.^ kic- 
hm'a, chicorj.] 

chide, chaid, vt. & vi. 
[chid, chid (chode, 16th 
cent.); chid'den, chid'n. 
orcHiD; chi'ding.] 1. To 
rebuke; admonish; scold. 
2. To beat with murmur- 
ing sound, as waves; mur- 
mur; bay, as hounds. [< 
AS. cldan.] 

chief, Chlf. I. a. Highest chestnut: a, a bur; 6, 
in rank or authority; fore- » 'i"'^- 
most; greatest; of great importance. II. n. 
1. A ruler, leader, or head; principal actor or 
agent; principal part. 2. Her. The upper 
part of a shield. [< F. chef, head.] — chiePly, 
a(h\ Most of all, or above all; especially. 

Chieftain, chif't§n, n. The head of a High- 
land clan; chief; leader. [< LL. capitanus,< 
L. capvt, head.] — chiePtain-cy, n. The rank 
or territory of a chieftain, chief^'tain-shipj:. 

Chi'grnon, shr'nyeh, n. A roll of hair worn 
on the back of the head by women. [F.] 

chirhlain, chil'blen, n. A blain of the hands 
or feet, from exposure to cold. chilFhlaint. 

child, n. [chil'dren, chil'dren, pi.'] A hu- 
man offspring, considered with reference to 
parent or parents; a descendant; a person be- 
tween infancy and youth. [AS. did.'] — child'- 
hood, n. The state or time of being a child.— 
child'ish, a. Like children or childhood; 
puerile; petty, -ly, adv. -ness, n.— child'- 
Iess,a. Having no children. -ly, adw. -ness, 
??.— child'like'', a. Like a child; artless; con- 
fiding; docile, -nes^, n. 

childe, challd, n. A youth of gentle blood, 
especially as in training for knighthood, childt. 

chill, chil, V. I. t. To reduce to a low tem- 
perature; make chilly; discourage. II. i. To 
become or feel unpleasantly cold. 

chill. I. a. Moderately, unpleasantly, or in- 
juriously cold; chilly. II. w. 1. A sensation of 
cold, as that which precedes a fever. 2. A check 
to ardor, joy, etc. [ < AS. ciele, cyle.] — chill'y, 
a. Producirigorf eelinga chill.— chill'i-ness, n. 

chi-mse'ra, n. Same as chimera. 

chime', chaim. I. vt. & vi. [chimed; chi'- 
MiNG.] To ring musically; sound melodiously; 
harmonize; agree. II. n. A set of bells tuned 
to a scale; harmony; agreement. [< AS. cim- 
haU < L. cymbalum; see ctmbal.] 

chime2, ) i. vt. To make a chime in (a stave, 

chimb, fete). II. n. 1. The edge or brim of 
a cask, barrel, or tub. 2. A channel in a ves- 
sel's deck. [Of AS. origin.] 

flut|flre (future); aisle; au iput)\ oil; c (k); cliat; dh {th€)\ go; sing, ink; thin. 



chi-me'ra, I ki-mi'ra, w. 1. An absurd and 
chi-mae'ra, f groundless fancy. 2. [C-orc-] 

A mythical fire-breathing monster. [< Gr.i- 

chiinaira, < chimairos^ he goat.] — chi-mer'- 

ic-al, ki-mer'ic-al, a. Like a chimera; imprac- 
ticable; visionary. chi-mer'icJ. -ly, adv. 
chim'ney, chim'ng, n. A flue for the smoke 

or gases from a fire; a structure containing i', 

or something resembling such a structure. 
chim-pan^zee, chim-pan'zt, n. A West* African 

ape, about 5 feet in height. "[Angola.] 
chin, chin, n. The central and anterior part of 

the lower jaw, [< AS. cin. (orig. 'cheek').] 
chi'na, chai'na, /4. 1. [C-] A country of Asia. 

2. Porcelain or porcelain^ware (originally from 

China). chi'iia-'ware'^J. 

— Clii'iia-inan, n. One of the Chinese. 
chinch, chinch, n. 1. A bug destructive to 

^'rain. 2. The bedbug. [< L.^Pcim^a:;, bug.] 
chin-chil'la, chin-chil'a, n. [S. Am.] 1. 

The soft, pearlygra^ fur of the chinchilla; 

also, a woolen imitation of it. 2. A squirrel- 

like rodent of the Andes. [Sp.] 
chine^, chain, n. The spine, back-bone, or 

back; a piece of meat from the back. [< OF. 

eschine^ back-bone, < OHG. skina., needle.] 
cliine2, n. Same as chime2. 
Chi-nese', chai-nis'. I. a. Of or pertaining 

to China. II. n. sing, or pi. A native or nat- 
uralized inhabitant of China, or the language 

of China, 
chinh:^ , chipk. I', vt. To make a chink. II. 

ji. A short, sharp, metallic sound, [Imit.] 
Chink^. I', vt. &vi. 1. To open in chinks; 

crack. 2. To fill, as chinks. II. n. Along, 

narrow cleft; crevice, [< AS. cinu, chink.] 
chints, chints, n. A cotton fabric printed with 

designs of flowers, etc., in colors. [< Hind. 

chlnt, < Sans, chitra, variegated.] chintz:):, 
chip, chip, V. [chipped'; chip'ping.] I. t. 

To break off a chip from; break open. II. i. 

To scale off. [< cHOpi.] 
chip, n. 1. A small piece cut or broken off. 2. 

A small disk or counter used in games, 
chip'munk, chip'munk, n. [Am. Ind.] A 

North-American squirrel-like rodent with 

stripes on the back, chip'muckt; chip'- 

ping=sq.uir''rel^ ; g:round''=sq.uir"reli: . 
Chi-rog'ra-phy, cai-reg'ra-fi, n. Style or 

character of handwriting. [<Gr. cheir, hand,-f 

graphd., write.] — chl-rog'ra-pher, n. — chi''- 

ro-grapli'ic, cbi'^ro-gi'apli'ic-al, «. 
Chi-rop'o-dist, cai-rep'o-dist, 7i. One who 

treats ailments of the hands and feet, [< Gr. 

cheir, hand, 4- pons, foot.] 
chirp, cherp. I'. V. To give a cliirp, II. n. 

A short, sharp, cheerful sound, as made by some 

birds and insects. [Imitative.] 
chir'rup, chir'up. I', vt. & vi. To chirp with 

a sustained note, II. n. A chirp; a cheery 

sound. [< CHIRP.] 
Chis'el, chi//el. I. vt. [cuis'eled or chis'- 

eli.ed; chis'kl-ino or 

chis'el-lino.] To cut, 

engrave, or carve, as 

with a chisel, II. ?i,. A 


cutting-tool with a beveled edge, used for mor- 
tising, etc, [< LL, d^c^wm, forceps.] 
chit, chit, n. A girl or yonng woman regarded 
as little more than a child, [Cp, cat», kitten,] 

chit'schaf , n. Careless, familiar talk, 

chiv'al-ry , chiv'al-ri or shiv'al-ri, n. 1 . The 
knightly system of feudal times. 2. Disinter- 
ested courtesy; bravery; magnanimity. 3. A 
body of knights, warriors, or gallant gentle- 
men, [< F. chevalerie, < chevalier, knight.] 
— chiv'al-ric, a. Pertaining to chivalry.— 
chiv'al-rous, a. 1. Knightly; gallant; cour- 
teous, generous, and brave. 2. Pertaining to 
chivalry, -ly, adv. >ness, n. 

chive, chaiv, n. A perennial herb allied to 
the leek and onion. [< L.^ cepa, onion.] 

chlo'ral, clo'ral, n. A compound obtained 
from chlorin and alcohol, used as a hypnotic, 
etc. chlCral hy'drate^. 

chlc'rin, I clo'rin, -rin or -rain, n. Chem. A 

chlo'rine, (greenish-yellow, poisonous, gase- 
ous element with an offensive odor, having 
great power for bleaching, deodorizing, and 
disinfecting. [< Gr. chloros, green, < chloe, 
verdure.] —chlo'rate, n. A salt of chloric 

* acid.— chlo'ric, clo'rlc, a. Of, pertaining to, 
or combined with chlorin.— chlo'rid, chlo'- 
ride, clo'rld, -rid or -raid, n. Chem. A com- 
pound of chlorin with a more positive element 
or radical.- clilo-rid'ic, a. 

chlo'ro-form, clO'ro-ferm. I, rt. Med. To 
administer chloroform to. II. n. A liquid 
compound, used as an anesthetic, chloric 
ether :t • 

chlo'ro-phyl, | clo'ro-fil, n. The green col- 

chlo 'ro-phy 11, foring- matter contained in 
plants. [ < Gr. chloros, green, -f phyllon, leaf.] 

chock, chec. I', v. To fit or 
wedge in tightly. II. n. A> 
block or wedge, as to prevent or 
limit motion. [< choke, v.} Warping. 

chock'=full'', chec'-ful" 


Completely full; full to crowding or choking. 

choc'o-late,chec'o-leto?'-]gt. I. a. Flavored 
or colored like, or made with chocolate. II. 
n. A preparation of cacao-nuts, or a beverage 
made from it. [< Mex.^p chocolatl.] 

choice, cheis, a. [choi'cer; choi'cest.] 1. 
Select ; elegant ; excellent. 2. Fastidious; 
dainty. — choice'ly, adv.— choice' neas, n- 

choice, n. 1. The act, fact, power, or privi- 
lege of choosing; preference; election. 2. One 
who or that which is chosen or to be chosen; 
also, a variety from which to choose. [ < OF, 
chois, < chmsir, coisir, choose.] 

choir, I cwair. I. vt. & vi. 1. To cause to siiig 

q.uire, T together. 2. To sing, as in a choir. II. 
n. 1. A body of trained singers, or that part of 
a church occupied by them; chancel. 2. A 
band or organized company. [ < L.'^*' chorus; 
see choral, a.] 

choke, chok, v. [choked*: cho'king,] I. t. 
1. To stop the breathing ol^, as by obstructing 
or constricting the throat; suffocate. 2. To 
fill up; stop; obstruct. II. t. To become 
suffocated, clogged, or foul. [Of AS, origin; 
perhaps imitative.] — choke'ber''ry, v. A 
North-.\m(>rlcan slirub of the rose family; also. 
Its small red or purnle astringent fruit.— choke'* 
cher^'ry, n. A North-Aniorlcan wild cherry. 
— odainp, 71. MiniiK/. Ulack damp; carbon- 
dloxid gas.— cho'ky, chO'kl, «. Suffocating; 
somewhat choked, 

choke, n. The act of choking. 

papa, 9flk; at, ftir; el^mfint, thdy, usfge; It, j, i (ee); o, oh; ©rat^r, er; full, rfile; hot, ©r; 



choke'jfuIF', a. Same as chock-full. 

chol'er, cel'gr, n. Heat and hastiness of tem- 
per. [< L.*" cholera: see cholera.] 

— chol'er-ic, cel'er-ic, a. Easily provoked; 
hlgh^tempered; irascible. 

chorer-a, cel'gr-a, n. Pathol. 1. An acute 
epidemic disease. A''si-at'ic choFer-a:):. 
2. An active prostrating disease, not epidemic. 
choFer-a mor'bust. [L., < Gr. cholera, 
< chole, bile.] — chol'"e-ra'ic, cerg-re'ic, a. 
Pertaining to cholera. 

oil o Pie, n. Same as colic. 

choose, chiiz, vt. & vi. [chose, chOz; cho'- 
SEN, cho'zn; choos'ing.] To take by prefer- 
ence; select; make selection. [ME. chusen, 
chesen., < AS. ceosan.'] — choos'er, n. 

chop 1, chop, ?;. [chopped'; CHOP'piNG.] l. t. 

I. To cut or make by strokes of a sharp tool; 
hew; mince. 2. To chap. 3. To utter jerkily. 

II. i. 1. To make cutting strokes. 2. To 
interrupt abruptly. 3. To crack open; split. 
[< V of MD. koppen, G. kopi>en, cut.] 

Chop2t, V. I. t. To barter; exchange. II. i. 

To veer suddenly; shift, as wind. [< D. 

koopen, cheapen.] 
chops n. 1. A cut of meat, as of mutton, 

containmg a rib. 2. Coarsely ground or bro- 
ken grain. 3. A cleft or fissure. 4. An act 

of chopping or a tool for chopping. 
chop2, n. A jaw : in the plural, the parts about 

the mouth. [< Ice. kiajitr.'] 
cliop'fal''len, n. Same as chaff allen. 
chop'shouso''!, n. An eating-house. 
chop'shouse''^, n. A Chinese custom-house. 
cliop'per, 11. One who or that which chops, 
chop'ping, chep'ing,jDa. 1. Shifting suddenly, 

as wind. *i. Full of short, broken waves. 
chop'py, chep'i, a. 1. Full of fissures. 2. Full 

of short rough waves. 
chop'ssticks''', chep'-stlcs", Slender rods 

of Ivory, bone, or wood, used t < 

In pairs, in China, Japan, 

and Korea, to convey food to 

the mouth. [< chop (corr. 

of Chin, kih, quick) -f- 

STICKI, 71.] 

Cho'ral, co'ral. I. a. Per- 
taining to a chorus or a // ' Wi) 


choir. II. n. Mus. A 
composition for choral per- 
formances. [< L. chorus., 
chorus, < Gr. chores., dance.] — cho'ral-ly, adv. 

chord'', cerd, v. 1. t. 1. To furnish with 
chords. 2. To bring into accord. II. i. To 
be in harmony; accord. 

chord, n. 1. Mus. A harmonious combina- 
tion, as of musical tones. 2. A string of a 
musical instrument; hence, sensibility or emo- 
tion. 3. Math. A straight line connecting the 
extremities of an arc. 4. Engin. One of the 

f)rincipal members of a bridge-truss, common- 
y horizontal and in tension. 5. Anat. A 

cord; tendon. [< L. chorda, < Gr. chxyrde, 

string of a musical instrument.] 
chore, chor, n. [U. S. & Prov. Eng.] A small 

job: commonly In the plural. [< AS. cerr.^ 
chor'is-ter, cer'is-tgr, n. 1. A member of a 

choir. 2. [U.S.] A musical director. 
Cho'rus, cO'rus, w. 1. A song, or the refrain 

of a song, for several voices. 2. The body of 

singers who perform choral parts. [L.J 
chose, choz, imp. of choose, v. 


cho'sen, cho'zn, ^p. of choose, v. 

Chough, chuf, 11. 1. A crow-like bird. 2. A 

jackdaw. [< AS. ceo; imitative of its cry.] 
chow' s chow '', chau'- 

chau", n. [Pidgin-Eng.] 

A mixture, as of pickles; 

chow'der, chau'dgr, 

A stew of clams or 

[Perhaps < F. chaudilre., 

chrism, crizm, n. A consecrated ointment in 

Gr. and R. C. churches; an anointing. [< Gr. 

chrisma, < chrio, anoint.] — chris'mal, a. 
chris'om, criz'um, n. A christening robe. 

[Var. of CHRISM.] 

— chris'omschild'', n. An innocent babe. 
Christ, craist, n. The Anointed; the Messiah : 

a title of Jesus the Savior. [< Gr. Christos, 
orig. pp. of chrio, anoint.] 

chris'ten, cris'n, vt. 1. To name in or as in 
baptism. 2. To administer baptism, especial- 
ly infant baptism, to. [< L.^s christianus; 
see Christian, a.] — Chris'ten-dom, cris'n- 
dum, n. Christian lands, or Christians collect- 
ively; the Christian world. 

Chris'tian, cris'chian. I. a. 1. Relating to 
or derived from Christ or his doctrine. 2. 
Professing or following the religion of Christ. 
II. n. 1. A disciple of Christ. 2. Loosely, 
one of a nation where Christianity prevails; a 
civilized person ; a human being. [< Gr. 
christianos, <Christos; see Christ. ]—Chri8''- 
ti-an'i-ty, cris'chl-an'I-tl, n. 1. The Christian 
religion. »i. The stat« of being a Christian. 

Christ'znas, cris'mas, n. The 25th of Decem- 
ber, celebrated as the anniversary of the birth 
of Christ. [< Christ -f mass, religious serv- 
ice.] Christ'masstide''':]:. 

chro-inat''ic, cro-mat'ic, a. 1. Pertaining to 
color. 2. Mus. Proceeding by semitones. [< 
Gr. chromait-), color.] chro-mat'ic-all:. 

— chro-mat'ics, n. 1. The science of col- 
ors, ti. pi. Chromatic tones or intervals. 

chro'mi-um, cro'mi-um, n. Chem. A gray- 
ish-white metallic element. [< Gr. chroma; 

see CHROME.] 

chro'mo, cro'mo, n. A print in colors. 
chr o'^rao -lith'o- graphs . 

chroii''ic, cren'ic, a. Continuing for a long 
period; inveterate, as disease. [< Gr.i- chron- 
ikos, < chronos, time.] 

chron'i-cl(e, cren'i-cl. I. vt. [-cl(e)d; 
-CLING.] To record. II. n. A register of 
events in the order of time. [< Gr.^+^chroni- 
kos, chronic] — chron'i-cler, n. 

chro-nol'o-gy, cro-neFo-ji, w. [-gies=, ^^.] 
The science that treats of time, or the order of 
events. [< Gr. chronos, time, -f -logy.] 

— chro-nol'o-srer, n. One who studies or 
is versed In chronology, chro-nol'o-gistt.— 
chron'''o-loe:'ic-aI, a. chron'^o-log^icj.— 
chron'"o-log'ic-al-ly, adv. 

chro-nom'e-ter, cro-nem'g-t^r, n. A porta- 
ble timekeeper of high precision. [< Gr. 
chronos, time, -f -meter.] 

chrys'a-lis, cris'a-lis, n. [-lis-es, -lis-ez, or 
-al'i-des, -al'i-diz or -des, pL] The pupa of 
an insect, enclosed in a shell from which the 
perfect insect emerges. [< Gt.^ chrysallis, < 
chrysos, gold.] — chrys'a-Iid, a. 

flutlflrc (future); aisle; au {out); ell; c (k); chat; dh (<Ae); go; sing, ink; thin. 



chrys-an'tlie-znuin, cris-an'th§-mum, 71. 
A plant of tlie aster family, v.'ith large heads 
of showy flowers. [< Gr.^- chrysos, gold, + 
anthemon^ flower.] 

clirys'o-lite, cris'o- 
lait, n. An olive»green, 
transparent to translu- 
cent mineral : used as a 
gem. [< Gr. chrysos, 
gold, + lithos, stone.] 

chub, chub, n. A Euro- 
pean carp»like fish. 

cliub^by, chub'i, a. 
Plump; rounded. 

cliuckiS chuk, vt. To 
pat or tap, as under the 
chin. [F. choguer, jolt, 

chiuck^t, vi. To cluck, 

S,U°ft1,°."'[?S.j" chrysanthemums. 

chucks n. A playful pat, throw, or toss. 

chuck^, n. 3Iech. A clamp, chock, or wedge. 

cliuck^, n. A short sudden noise; cluck. 

chuck'*, n. A chick: a pet name. 

Chuck^full'', chuk'.ful", a. Chock»^full. 

chuck'Ke, chuk'l. I. vi. [chuck'l(e)i); 
chuck'ling.] To laugh to oneself. II. n. 
A low, suppressed, or broken laugh. 

chum, chum. I.vt.&vi. [chummed; chum'- 
MiNG.] To place in or share the same room. 
11. n. A roommate: intimate companion. 

chunk, chuijk, n. A short, stout thing, per- 
son, or animal. [Var. of chuck^, n.] 
— chunk'y, a. [U.S.] Short and thlck»set. 

church, church, w. 1. A building for Chris- 
tian worship. 2. [C-] A distinct body of 
Christians} a denomination. 3. A congrega- 
tion; also, all Christian believers collectively. 
4. The clerical order. [< Gr.AS Jcynakon, < 
kyrios, lord.] — church'fy, a.— church'man, 
n. [-MKN.joZ.] 1, An adherent or member of a 
Church. iill, A clergyman; ecclesiastic— 
church'man-ly, a.— chiircli'man-sliip, n. 
— church'war''tleii, n. An officer of an 
Anglican church having the care of church prop- 
erty and of the poor.— cliurcli'yard^', «. A 
yard or graveyard adjoining a church; a cemetery. 

churl, churl, w. 1. A low=bred, surly fellow. 
2. A sordid person. 3. A peasant. [< AS. 
ceorl, man.] — churl'Ish, a. Of or like a churl ; 
rude; sordid, -ly, adv. -iiess, n. 

churn, churn. I. vt. & vi. To agitate (cream 
or milk), as in a chum ; make butter by churn- 
ing: be in agitation. II. n. A vessel in which 
milk or cream is agitated to separate the butter. 
[< AS. C7/rin.] — churn'ing, n. The process 
of churning; the butter churned at one time. 

Chute, shQt, n. An inclined trough leading 
from a higher to a lower level. [F.] shute^. 

chyle, call, n. A nutritive fluid formed during 
digestion. [< Gr. chylos, < c/ieo, pour.] 

Chyme, cairn, n. The partly digested food in 
liquid form as it passes from the stomach into 
the small intestines. [< Gr. chymos, juice.] 

ci-ca'da, si-ke'da or -cg'da, n. [-das, -daz, or 
-D^, -di or -de, pi.] A large insect that pro- 
duces a loud, shrill sound; locust. [L.] 

cic'a- trice, eic'a-tris, w. A scar. [<L. dc- 
atrix, scar.] cic'a-trixt.— cic'a-trize or 
-trise, sIc'^Q-tralz, vt. & vi. [-trized; -tki'- 

ziNG.] To form a scar.— cic'^a-tri-za'tion 
or -sa'tion, n. 

ci'^ce-ro'ne, chi"che-rO'ne or sis'g-rO'ne, n. 
[-NI, -nl; -NEs, -nes, pi.] A local guide. [It.] 

ci'der, sai'dgr, n. The expressed juice of ap- 
ples. [Ult. < Heb. shekar., strong drink.] 

ci''sde-vant'5^si'sde-van',a. Former. [F.J 

ci-gar', si-gar', n. A small roll of tobacco- 
leaves for smoking. [< Sp. cigarro, cigar.] 

— cig'^a-rette', slg"a-ret', n. A small roll 
of flnclycuttobaccoInthinpaperortobacco4eaf. 

rim'e-ter, n. Same as simitar, cim'i-tari. 

Cim-me'ri-an, sim-mt'ri-an or -mer'i-an, a. 
Densely dark; shrouded in gloom, as the Cim- 
mejii, a mythical people living in perpetual 

cinch, sinch, n. [Western U. S.] A broad 
saddle-girth, knotted into place. [< L.^p cin- 
gula, girdle, < cingo., gird.] 

cin-cho'na, sin-co'na, n . Peruvian bark : the 
source of quinin; the tree that yields it. 

cinc'ture, siric'chur or -tiQr, n. A belt or 
girdle. [< L. cinctura, < cingo., gird.] 

cin'der, sin'dgr, n. A bumt»out coal; a scale 
from the forging of iron; slag; coarse lava. 
[Prop, sinder, < AS. sinder.] 

cin'na-mon, sin'a-mun, «,. 1. The aromatic 
inner baric of a tropical 
laurel, used as a spice. 
2. Cassia* Chinese cin- 
namon. i< Heh.'^^^ qin- 
ndmon, cinnamon.] 

cing.ue'foil, sinc'feil, 
n. 1. A five=cusped or- 
nament or window. 2. 
Bot. A plant, with five- 
lobed leaves. [< L. 
guingiie, five, -f folium, 

ci'pher, sai'fgr, v. I. t. 
1. To calculate arith- 
metically. 2. To write 
in secret characters. 3. 
To add a cipher to. II. 
i. To figure out arith- 
metical examples. 

ci'pher , n. 1 . The char- 
acter 0; zero. 2. A method of secret writing; 
anything so written. 3. A monogram. [< 
Ar.LL + F gij-f., < safara, be empty.] cy'pheri . 

Cir-ce'an, sgr-sran or -ce'an, a. Kewitching 
and degrading, like the goddess Circe, who 
transformed men into swine. 

cir-cen'sian, sgr-sen'shian, a. Of or pertain- 
ing to the Roman circus. [< L. circensis, < 
circus, circus.] 

cir'cl(e, sgr'cl, vt. & vi. [cir'cl(e)d; cir'- 
CLiNG.] To encircle; move m a circle. 

cir'cl(e,«. 1. Ceow. A plane figure bounded 
by a curved line called the circumference, 
everywhere equally distant from a point within 
called the center; also, the circumference. 2. 
Anything circular; a ring. 3. An association; 
set; coterie; class. 4. An argument in which 
the conclusion is assumed to prove the premise, 
and then the premise made to prove the conclu- 
sion. [< L. circulus, dim. of circus, ring.] 

— cir'clet, «. A small ring. 

Clr'cuit, sgr'kit, n. 1. A passing or traveling 
round. 2. A district to be traveled over. 3. 

1. Flowering branch. 
2. Cinnamon»bark, pre- 
pared for market. 

papfi, 98k; at, air; el^mgnt, thfiy, usfge; It, %, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, or; fall, rflle; bm, ©r; 



Distance around; compass; circumference. 
[< L.*" drcum, around, + eo, go.] — cir-cu'i- 
tous, ser-kiu'l-tu8, a. Of the nature of a circuit; 
indirect; roundabout, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 
cir'cu-lar, sgr'ljiu-lar. I. a. 1. Forming, or 
bounded by, a circle; round. 2. Moving in a 
circle. 3. Intended for circulation. II. n. A 
communication for general circulation; a cir- 
cular letter. [< L.^^ circult/s; see circle, n.] 

— ci r"cu -lai-'i-ty, n. [-ties*, pL] 
cir'cu-late, sgr'kiu-let, v. [-la"ted<'; -la"- 

TiNG.] I. t. To spread abroad; disseminate. 
II. i. 1. To move by a circuitous course back 
to the starting=point, as the blood through the 
body. 2. To spread abroad, or become dif- 
fused, as a report. [< LL. circulo, < L. cir- 
culus; see circle, «.] — cir'^cii-la'tion, sgr"- 
kiu-le'shun, n. 1. Transmission: diffusion; dls- 
.seminatlon. a. The extent or amount of distri- 
bution; number of copies issued, etc. 3. A cur- 
rent medium of exchange, as coin, etc.— cir'cu- 
la^'toi', ?i.— cir'cn-la-to''ry, ser'kiu-le-to'rl, 
((. Of or pertaining to circulation;"cIrculatlng. 

cir''cuin-ain''bi-ent, ser'cum-am'bi-gnt, a. 
Extending or going around; encompassing. 

cir'cum-cise, sqr'cum-eaiz, vt. [-cised; -ci"- 
siNG.] To perform circumcision upon. . [< L. 
cira/m-, around, -f- csedo, cut.] — cir^'ciim- 
ci'sion, ser'cum-sizh'un, n. The Initiatory rite 
of Judaism; figuratively, spiritual purification; 
also, those so purified; the Jewish people. 

cir-cum.'fer-ence,sgr-cum'fer-en8, n. The 
boundary=line of a circle; distance around; 
circuit; compass. [< L. circum, around, -{- 
/ero, bear.] — cir''cum-fe-ren'tial, a. 

cir'cum-flex, sgr'cum-flex. I. a. Pronounced 
or marked with the accent called circumflex; 
hence, bent or curved. II. n. A mark (^'") 
used over a letter to indicate the combination 
of a rising with a falling tone, or to mark a 
long vowel; also, the tone so indicated. [< 
L. circum, around, -{-Jlecto, bend.] 

cir'^cum-ja'cent, sgr'cum-je'sgnt, a. Bor- 
dering on all sides; surrounding. [< L. circum, 
around, + jaceo, lie.] 

cir'^cum-lo-cu'tion, sgr'com-lo-kiu'shun, 
7i. Indirect or roundabout expression; the use 
of superfluous words. [ < L. circumlo'cutio{n-\ 
< circum, around, -f loquor, speak.] 

cir^'cum-nav'i-gate, sgr "cum-nav'i-get, nt. 
[-GA"TED<i; -GA"TiNG.] To Sail around. 

— cir^'cuin-iiav'^i-gra'tion, 71.— cir^'cuin- 
iiav'i-ga''toi', n. 

cir"cuin-po'Iar, sgr"cum-pO'lar, a. Near, 
surrounding, or revolving about a pole. 

cir'^cum-scribe ', sgr"cnm-scraib', vt. 
I-scribed'; -scri'bing.] 1. Todraw alineor 
figure around; to mark out the limits of; define. 
2. To confine within bounds; restrict. [< L. 
circum, around, -f scribo, write.] 

cir'''cuni-scrip'tion, sgr"cum-8crip'shun, n. 
1. A circumscribing; restriction. 2. The 
periphery. 3. The space circumscribed. 

cir'cum-spect, sgr'cum-spect, a. Watch- 
ful; cautious; welUconsidered. [< L. circum, 
around, + specio, look.] 

— cir'^cum-spec'tion, cir'^cuin-spect'- 
ness, ?i.— cir''ciiin-spect''ly, adv. 

cir^cum-stauce, egr'cum-stans. I. vt. 
[-STANCED'; -sTAN-ciNG.] To placc in or undcr 
limiting circumstances or conditions: chiefly 

in 2iP- II- n. 1. Something incidental; a 
concomitant; incident. 2. pi. Environment; 
means and style of living; worldly estate. 3|i. 
Formal display; ceremony; pomp. [< L. of 
circum^tantia, < circum, around, +«Yo, stand.] 
— cir^'cum-stan'tial, a. 1. Consisting of 
details; minute; particular. 2. Pertaining to or 
dependent on circumstances, -ly, ac?».— cir''- 
eum-stau'ti-ate, vt. [-a'teixI; -a'ting.] To 
set forth or establish circumstantially. 

cir ''cum- vent''', sgr"cum-vent', vt. To get 
around ; get the better of, as by craft. [ < L. dr- 
cum, around, -f- venio, come.] — cir^cuni-ven'- 
tioii, 11. A forestalling by artifice; stratagem. 

cir'cus, sgr'cus, n. A show in which feats of 
horsemanship, etc., are exhibited; also, the 
enclosure where they are given. [L., ring.] 

cir'rus, eir'us, n. [cir'ri, sir'ai or -T, pQ 1. 
Meteor. A tufted form of cloud. 2. A ten- 
dril or a thread=like appendage. [L., curl.] 

cistt, n. Same as cyst. 

cis'tern, sis'tgm, n. A reservoir for holding 
water. [< L.<^^ cisterna, < cista, chest.] 

cit'a-del, sit'a-del, n. A fortress command- 
ing a city. 

cite, salt, iJ<. [ci'ted''; ci'ting.] 1. To quote 
or name for argument or exemplification; refer 
to specifically. 2. Law. To summon to ap- 
pear before a tribunal. [< 1,.^ cito, freq. of 
cieo, call.] — ci-ta'tion, sai-te'shun, n. 1. 
The act of citing, or a passage cited. 25. Law. 
A judicial summons.— ci'ta-to-ry, «. Of the 
nature or form of a citation. 

cit'i-zen, sit'i-zn, n. 1. One owing allegiance 
to, and entitled to protection from, a govern- 
ment : opposed to alien. 2 . A resident of a city 
or town . 3 . A private person ; one who is not a 
public officer nor a soldier. [< F. citoyen, < 
cite; see city.] — cit'i-zen-ship, n. The status 
of a citizen, with Its rights and privileges. 

cit'ron, sit'rim, n. A fruit like a lemon, but 
larger and less acid; also, 
the tree (citron*tree) yield- 
ing it. [< L.i' + F citrus, 

cit'y, sit'i, n. [cit'ies*, pi."] 
A place inhabited by a 
large, permanent, organ- 
ized community; a munici- 
pality. [< F, cite, < L. 
civitas, < civis, citizen.] Citron. 

civ'et, siv'§t, n. 1. A substance of musk»like 
odor, secreted by certain carnivores. 2. A 
carnivore that secretes this substance. [< Ar.*" 
zabdd, civet.] civ'etscat":}:. 

civ'ic, siv'ic, a. Of or pertaining to a city, a 
citizen, or citizenship. [< L. civicus, < civis, 

civ'il, siv'il, a. 1. Observing the social pro- 
prieties; formally polite. 2. Of or pertaining to 
a citizen, as opposed to ecclesiastical or military. 
3. Pertaining to the relations of citizens; occur- 
ring between citizens of the same country. [F., 
< L. civilis, < civis, citizen.] —civil service, 
the depai'tments of the public service that are 
neither military nor naval.— ci-vil'ian, sl-vll'- 
yan, n. One who follows the pursuits of civil 
life; one not a soldier.— ci-viVi-ty, sl-vll'i-ti, 
n. [-TiESz, pl.^ The being civil; courtesy; cold 
or formal politeness; also, a civil act or speech.— 
civ'il-ly, adv. 

fiut|ure (future); aisle; au (owt); ell; c (k); chat; din (jthe); go; sing, i^k; tliin. 



civ'i-lize or -lise , siv'i-laiz, vt. [-lizeu ; -li "- 
ZING.] To bring into a state of civilization; 
reclaim from savagery. — civ''i-li-za'tion or 
-na'tioii, siv"i-li-ze^8hun, n. The act of civili- 
zing, or the state of being civilized; a condition of 
organization, enliehtenment, and progress. 

civ'i-lized or -Used, pa. Being in a state 
of civilization; pertaining to civilized men. 

clab'ber, clab'gr. I. m. To curdle, as milk. 
II. 71. Milk curdled by souring. 

clack, clac. I', vt. & vi. To clap; rattle; bab- 
ble; chatter. II. n. A sharp, short, clapping 
sound, or something producing it; chatter. 
[Imitative.] — clack'er, n. 

clad, clad, i7np. & pp. of clothe, v. 

claim, clem. I. vt. & vi. To lay claim to; 
make a claim; maintain. II. n. 1. The de- 
mand of something from some one on the 
ground of right; the assertion of a right; a 
right or title. 2. The asserting, as of a fact. 
3. Anything claimed, as a settler's tract. [< 
L.OF damo., cry out.] 

— claim'aiit, n. One who makes a claim. 
Clair- voy'ance, clar-vei'ans, n. Assumed 

preternatural knowledge, as in a trance. [F.] 

— clair-voy'ant, a.&n. 

clam, 11. A bivalve moUusk, much esteemed 

as food. [< AS. clamm., clamp.] 
clam^ber, clam'bgr, vi. To climb with diflfl- 

ciilty. [< Ice. Artomftra, clamp.] 
clam'my, clam'i, a. 1. Damp and cold. 2. 

Soft and sticky. [ < AS. cldm^ clay.] 

— clain'iiii-ly, arf».— clam'ini-ness, w. 
Clamper, clam'er. I. vi. To utter loud out- 
cries or demands; vociferate. II. n. 1. Any 
loud, repeated outcry; vociferation; noisy con- 
fusion of voices. 2. A vehement objecting or 
demanding. [ < L.^f clamxyt\ < damo, cry 
out.] Clam'ourl. — clain'or-ous, «. Ma- 
king or made with clamor, clain'our-oiis:^* 
-ly, adv. -ness, n. 

clampi, clamp. I', vt. To join or bind as 
with a clamp, II. n. A device for compress- 
ing, holding, or binding together two or more 
parts. [<u.klamp.] 

clamp^. 1. vi. To walk heavily; tramp. II. 
//. A heavy tread; tramp. [Imitative.] 

clan, clan, n. A tribe, as of Scotch Ilighland- 
ers: set; clique. [ < Gael. c^«/m.] — clan'nish, 
a. Like a clan; disposed to cling together; bound 
l)y class prejudices; narrow. -ly, adv. -ness, 
7J.— clan'sliip, n. Union under a chief.— 
clauH^inan, n. [-men, pi.] A member of a 
clan or of the same clan. 

clan-des^tine, clan-des'tin, a. Kept secret; 
concealed; surreptitious. [< L. dandestinvs, 
< dam, in secret.] -ly, adv. Secretly. 

clang, clang. I. vt. & vi. To send forth a 
clang. II. n. A ringing sound, as of metal 
struck. [< L. dan go, resound.] 

clan'gor, chui'ggr, n. Eepeated clanging; 
clamor. [< L. danqor, < dango, clang.] 
clan'gour:^.— claii^gor-ou8, a. 

clank, claijk. I', rt.&vi. To emit, or cause to 
emit, a clank. II. n. An abrupt, short, harsh 
metallic sound. [Imitative.] 

clap, clap, V. [cLArrKD* or clapt; clap'ping.] 

1. t. 1. To Htrik(! together with a sharp, ex- 
plosive sound; annlaud by clajjping the hands. 

2. To place quickly or suddenly. 3. To slap. 
II. i. To applaud by striking the hands to- 

gether. [ME. dappeti; perhaps imitative.] 

' " ' ' " t which claps. 

-clap'trap'', «. Something designed to 

-clap'per, n. One who or that which claps. 
j'trap'', n. Something 
evoke applause; cheap or unworthy artifice. 

clap. n. The act or noise of clapping 

clap^board, clap'bord, ?i. A lapping w-eather« 
board. [Cp. LG. klappen, clap, -{-holt, board." 

clar'et, clar'et, n. A red table «wine. [OF. 

clar'i-fy, clar'i-fai, vi. [-fied, -faid; -fy"ing. 
To make clear or transparent; free from im- 
purities. [< L.*" daims, clear.] 

— clar''i-fi -caption, «.— clar'i-fi^'er, n. 
clar'i-net, clar'i-net, 7i. Mus. A wooden 

wind-instrument, with finger=holes and keys. 
[< F. dari)wtte.] clar'i-o-netj. 

clar^i-on, clar'i-§n, n. A small trumpet, or its 
sound. l< L.o^ dartfs, clear.] 

claslx, clash. I', vt. & vi. To strike together 
with a clash; collide; conflict; be in opposi- 
tion; interfere. II. n. A confused resound- 
ing metallic noise; collision; conflict; opposi- 
tion. [Imitative.] 

clasp, clgsp. I', vt. To take hold of with 
an encircling grasp; fasten as with a clasp. 
II. n. 1. A fastening by which things are 
bound together. 2. A firm grasp or embrace. 
[ME. dapsen; akin to clip^, v.] — clasp'er, n. 

class, clgs. I', vt. To arrange or group in 
classes; assi^ to a class. II. n. A body of 
persons or things having common characteris- 
tics; a number of students having the same 
teacher or studies. [< L.^ daseis, class.] 

clas^sic, clas'ic. I. a. 1. Belonging to the 
lirst class or rank in literature or art. 2. Con- 
nected with or made famous by Greek or Latin 
authors. 3. Classical. II. n. A standard 
work of literature or art, as of Greek or Roman 
genius; the author of such a work. [< L. 
dasdcus, of the first rank, < dassis, class.] 

clas'sic-al, clas'ic-al, a. 1. Of or pertain- 
ing to the ancient Greeks and Romans. 2. Re- 
sembling or modeled after the highest forms 
of ancient literature or art. 3. Classic. [<L. 
dasdcus; see classic] — clas'^si-cal'I-ty, n. 
The quality of being classical, clas'sic-al- 
nessf.— clas'sic-al-ly, adv. 

clas'si-fy, clas'i-fai, vt. [-fied; -fy'ing.] 
To arrange in a class or classes. [ < L. dassis, 
class, -}- -FY.] — flas'^si-ll-ca'tion, clas"i-fi- 
k6'8hun, 71. A classifying, or a system of things 
classified. [< L. da.'^si.s, class, + facto, make.] 

class'mate^'', clgs'met", n. A member of the 
same class in school or college. 

clat'ter, clat'gr. I.vt.&vi. To make a clatter. 
II. 71. A rattling noise; noisy talk; chatter. 
[< AS. *datnan, in dai'/T/nj/, clattering.] 

— clat'ter-er, 7i. 

clause, dSz, n. 1. A distinct part of a com- 
position, as a paragraph or article. 2. Gram. 
A subordinate sentence: distinguished from 
j)hrase. [< L. dausvs, pp. of daudo, close.] 

claus'tral, clSs'tral, a. Cloistral. 

claveiU clCv, imp. of cleave, v. 

clav'i-cl(e, clav'i-cl, 7i. The bone connect- 
ing the shoulder-blade and breast-bone; collar- 
bone. [< L. dai^cula, dim. of davis, key.] 

— ola-vic'u-Iar, a. 

Claw, c!5. I. vt. & vl. To tear, scratch, dig, 
pull, etc., as with claws; use the claws or 
nails. II. n. 1. A sharp, usually curved. 

papfl, gsk; at, ftir; el^m^nt, th6y, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; arat^r, er; full, rule; but, ur; 



horny nail; a claw^iike part or organ; any- 
thing sharp and hooked. 2. A stroke, clutch, 
or the like, as with claws. [ < AS. clawu, cla.'\ 
clay, cle, n. 1. A common plastic earth, a 
compound of aluminum and silica. 2. Earth 
in general; the human body. [< AS. clsea^^ 

— clay'ey. cle'e, a. Of, abounding In, like, 
covered, or mixed with clay. 

clay'more''', cle'mOr", n. The two»handed 
broadsword of the Scottish Highlanders. [< 
Gael, claidheamh^ sword, -|- moi\ great.] 

clean, cltn. I. vt. To free from dirt, soil, or 
impurities. II. a. 1. Free from dirt, impu- 
rity, or defilement; unblemished; pure. 2. 
FYee from bimgling; dexterous; complete. 3. 
Well=proportioned; symmetrical. III. adr. 
In a clean manner; unqualifiedly; wholly. [< 
AS. clxne, clear, pure.] 

— clean'er, n. — clean'iiess, n. 
clean'ly, clen'li, a. iNeat; tidy; pure. 

— cleaii'li-Iy, a(ip.— clean'li-iiess, n. 
clean'ly, clin'li, adv. In a clean manner, 
cleanse, clenz, ^^. [cleansed; cleans'ing.] 

To free from dirt or defilement; clean; purge. 
[< AS. clsennan, < clxne, clean.] 
clear, cllr, tJ. I. ^. 1. To make clear; bright- 
en; clarify; clean. 2. To free from encum- 
brances, accusations, etc.; disencumber; ac- 
quit. 3. To gain over and above expenses. 

4. To obtain or give a clearance for (a ship). 

5. To pass without touching. II. ^. 1. To 
become free from fog. cloud, obscurity, or en- 
tanglement. 2. To pass away, as a mist or 
fog. 3. To settle accounts. 4. To take out 
clearance papers, as a ship. 

clear, a. 1 . Free from anything that dims or 
darkens; unclouded; distinct; intelligible; 
discerning; discriminating. 2. Free from ob- 
struction or hindrance. 3. Free from encum- 
brance, responsibility, or guilt. 4. Free from 
adulteration, defect, or blemish. 5. Without 
deduction; net. 6. Undisturbed; serene. 7. 
Plain; evident. [< L.^ c/a^t/*, clear.] 

— clear'Iy, arf».— clear'iiess, n. 
clear, n. Unbroken or unobstructed distance 

or space. [clearly; 'plainly. 

clear, adv. "Wholly ; completely ; quite ; 

clear'ance, clir'ans, n. 1. A clearing. 2. 
A certificate permitting a vessel to sail. 

clear''ing, cllr'ing, ??. 1. A making or be- 
coming clear. 2. That which is clear or 
cleared; a tract of cleared land.— clear'ings 
house", n. An office where bankers ex-change 
drafts and checks and adjust balances. 

cleat, cllt. V. vf. To furnish or strengthen 
with a cleat or cleats. II. n. A strip of wood 
or iron fastened across other material, or 
nailed against a wall, etc. [< -»/ of clot.] 

cleav(ei, cllv, v. [cleft, cleft, clove, clov, 
or clave, clev; cleft, clo'ven, clo'vn, or 
cleav(e)d; cleav'ing.] I. ^. 1. To divide 
forcibly; cut through; sunder; split. 2. To 
make by cutting or hewing. 3. To pass 
through; penetrate. II. i. To divide by 
natural lines of cleavage; split. [< AS. 
cleofan.] — cleav'a-l)l(e, cliv'a-bl, a. Capable 
of being cleft.— cleav'age, cllv'fj, n. 1. A 
cleaving or being cleft; a split; cleft; division. 
'^. A tendency in a rock or crystal to divide in 
certain directions.— cleaT'er, «. One who or 
that which cleaves; a butchers' chopper. 

cleavie-, vi. [clbav(e)d ; cleav(e)d or 
cLAVEji; cleav'ing.] To stick fast; cling; 
adhere. [< AS. cMJian, cleqflan.] 

clef, clef, n. Mus. A character placed upon 
the stafE to determine the pitch. [F.] 

cleft, cleft, imp. & pp. of 


Cleft, jm. Divided par- 
tially or completely. 

cleft, n. An opening 
made by cleaving; fis- 
sure; crevice; rift. [< 
Ice. khift.^ 

clem'a-tis, clem'a-tis. 



Treble or G clef. 

Bass or F clef. 

, A perennial flower- 
ing plant or vine of the crowfoot family. [< 
Gr. klematis, < klemaif-), vine.] 

clem-'en-cy, clem'gn-si, n. Mildness, espe- 
cially toward offenders; 
leniency; mercy. [< L. 
dementia, < demen{t-)s, 
mild.] — clem'ent, a. Le- 
nient; mild; pleasant, -ly, 

clench., clench. I', rt. 

1. To grasp or grip firmly. 

2. To close tightly, as the 
fist or the teeth. 3. To 
clinch, II. n. A clench- 
ing ; firm grip ; clinch . [Of 
AS. origin.] 

— clencli'er, n. One 
who or that which clenches 
an imanswerable argument. 




clep"to-nia'ni-a, ( clep"to-me'ni-a or -mg'- 

klep"to-nia''ni-a, f ni-a, n. An insane or 

uncontrollable propensity to pilfer. [< Gr. 

klepto, steal, -{-mania.] 

— clei»''to-[or kIep''to-liiia''ni-ac, n. 
cler'gy, clfir'ji, n. [clek'gies% pl.'\ The 

body of men ordained to the Christian minis- 
trv. [Gr.i^+oF klerikos; see clerk, n.] 

"— cler'sfy-man, «. [-men.p?.] One of the 
clergy; a Christian minister. 

cler'ic, cler'ic. I. a. Clerical. II. n. A 
clerk in holy orders. 

cler'ic-al, cler'ic-al, «. 1. Of, belonging to, 
or characterizing the clergy. 2. Of or per- 
taining to a clerk or clerks or penmanship. 

— clerical error, an error of inadvertence 
in a writing, as in a record or other document. 

Clerk, clerk {Eng. cldrk), ??. 1. One who 
keeps records or accounts; a secretary; as- 
sistant; ru. S.] a salesman. 2. Ang. Ch. One 
who leads in the responses. 31. [Eng.] A 
cleric; anciently, any learned person. [<Gr.A8 
klerikos, clerical.] — clerk-'ship, n. 

clev'er, clev'gr, a. Ready and adroit, as with 
hand or brain; dexterous; capable; quick- 
witted; talented, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

clew, cia. I. vt. 1. To move or fasten by or 
as by a clew or clew==line. 2. 
To coil into a ball; roll up into 
a bunch. II.?*. 1. A thread 
that guides through a maze; 
something that leads to the 
solution of a mystery. 2. A 
lower comer of a sail, or a 
loop at the corner. 3. A 
ball of yarn. [< AS. ditven _ 

click, clic. I', vt. & vi. To produce, or cause 
to produce, a click or clicks. II. n. 1. A 

flut|ure (future); aisle; au (miV, oil; c (k); chat; dli {th€)\ go; sing, i^k; thin. 



short, sharp, dull sound, as from a light blow. 
2. A detent or stop; a pawl. [Imitative.] 

Cli'ent, clai'ent, n. 1. One in whose interest 
a lawyer acts. 2. A dependent or follower, 
as of an ancient Roman patrician. [< L. 
clien{t-)s, cluen{t-)s, < duo, hear.] 

cli^'en-tele', claren-tir or -tel', or cli'en-tel', n. 
A body of clients, dependents, or adherents; a 
following. [F.] 

cliff, clif, n. A high steep face of rock, as on 
the seashore; a precipice. [< AS. clif.] 

Cli''inate, clai'met, n. 1. The temperature 
and atmospheric conditions of a locality; aver- 
age weather of a place or region, etc. 2. A 
region; clime. [< Gr. klima{t-), region, < 
kliriOy slope.] — cll-mat'lc, a. 

cli'max, clai'max, /i. 1. Bhet. A progressive 
increase in force throughout a passage, cul- 
minating at the close. 2. The culmination; 
acme. [< Gr. klimax, ladder, < Mino, slope.] 

climb, claim. I. vt. & vi. [climbed or 
CLOMB, clOm (poetical); climb'ing.] To as- 
cend by means of the hands and feet, or of ten- 
drils or the like; mount, rise, or go up by 
gradual ascent. II. n. The act or process of 
climbing. [< AS. climban.] — climb'er, n. 

clime, claim, n. [Poet.] A region; climate. 

clinchS clinch, v. I. t. 1. To secure firmly, 
as a nail, staple, etc., by bending down the 
protruding point; confirm, as a bargain or an 
argument. 2. To grapple with. 3. To clench. 
II. i. To take a strong, close hold; grapple 
with one another. [Var. of clench.] 
— clinch'er, clinch'er, n. A clencher. 

Clincb,, n. A clinching" or that which clinches 
or is clinched; a decisive argument. 

clins;, cling, vi. [clung, clung; cling'ing.] 
To hold on to something firmly, as by grasp- 
ing, embracing, or winding round ; adhere 
tenaciously; stick. [< AS. clingan, shrivel.] 

Clin^ic, clin'ic, n. Medical instruction at the 
bedside of patients. [< Gr.^ klitdkos, of a 
bed.] cli''mq.ue'i, cli"ntc'.— clin'ic-al, a. 
Of or pertaining to a sick"bed or a clinic. 

Clink, cliijk. I^ vt. & vi. 1. To make, or 
cause to make, a clink. 2. To strike smartly. 
II. n. A slight ringing sound, as of glass or 
small metallic bodies in collision. 

dinkier, n. A thing that clinks, especially a 
partly melted mass left by coal in burning. 

Clipi, cliiD, vt. [clipped' or clipt; clip'ping.] 
1. To trim with shears; shear. 2. To snip a 
part from, as a coin. [< Ice. klippa, clip.] 

Clip2t, vt. To clasp; embrace; hold tightly. 
[ < AS. clyppan, clasp.] 

clip^S vi. To move swiftly; speed. [< clip^, ??.] 

clips n. The act of clipping, or that which is 
clipped off; the wool-product of one shearing 

Clip*, T). A clasp for holding letters, etc, 
clip'per, clip'jjr, n. One wlio or that which 

clips; a swift sailing vessel. 
clip'ping, clip'ing, n. 1. The act of one 

who or that which clips. 2. That which is 

clipped off or out. [coterie. [F.J 

cllque« cllc, n. An exclusive or clannish set; 
cloak', clok, V. I. t. To cover with a cloak; 

disguise; conceal. II. i. To put on a cloak. 
cIocUe, n. 1. A loose outer garment. 2. 

Something that covers or hides; a pretext; 

disguise. [< OF. cloque, < LL. cloca, bell.] 

clock, dec, n. An instrument for measuring 
and indicating time by mechanical movements. 
[< LL. clocca, bell.] — clock'work'^, clec'- 
wOrk", n. The machinery of a clock, or any 
similar mechanism. 

clod, cled, V. [clod'ded^; clod'ding.] I. vt. 
&vi. 1. To throw clods or stones (at). 2. 
To turn into clods. II. n. 1. A lump of clay 
or the like; the soil. 2. Anything earthy and 
gross. [Prob. < Dn. dode, globe.] — clod''- 
liop'''per, n. A plowman; rustic; lout. 

clog, cleg, V. [clogged; clog'ging.] I. f. 
To put a clog on; hinder; choke up; obstruct. 
II. i. 1. To become choked up; be hindered 
or retarded. 2. To adhere in a mass. 

clog, 71. 1. Anything that impedes motion, 
as a block attached to an animal or a vehicle ; 
encumbrance- hindrance. 2. A wooden^soled 
shoe. [Allied to clay.] 

clois'ter, cleis'tgr. I. vt. 1. To seclude; 
confine, as in a cloister. 2. To provide with 
cloisters. II. ?i. A covered walk; hence, a 
monastery; convent. [< L.^f danstrum, en- 
closed place, < daudo, close.] — clois'tral, a. 
Of or pertaining to a cloister; secluded. 

cloket, V. & 11. Cloak. 

cloinbt, clomb'ent, imp. &pp. of climb. 

close, clnz, v. [closed; clo'sing.] I. i. 1. 
To shut by bringing external parts together, as 
the mouth. 2 . To fill or obstruct, as an opening 
or passage; stop; shut up. 3. To bring to or 
together, as a door or the lips. 4. To bring 
the parts of together; shut up, as a knife or 
book. 5. Tobring to an end? terminate; con- 
clude. 6. To bring into contact; join, as the 
parts of an electric circuit. II. i. 1. To come 
together so as to enclose something. 2. To 
come to an end; terminate. 3. To grapple; join 
battle. 4. To join; coalesce; unite; come to an 
agreement. [ < L.^daiisus, pp. of dawrfo, close.] 

close, clOs, a. 1. Shut in; confined; cramped 
or limited; secluded; secret. 2. Closed; fast 
shut. 3. Near, or near together, in space, 
time, etc. 4. Having parts or objects near 
each other; dense; compact. 5. Trusty: in- 
timate; as, dose friends. 6. Near to some aim, 
purpose, or standard; as, a dose imitation. 7. 
Watchful; strict; searching; as, dose attentiou. 

8. Nearly even or equal; as, a dose contest. 

9. Secretive; reticent. 10. Avaricious; stingv. 
11. Ill-ventilated; stifiing; oppressive. 1!^. 
Gram. Pronounced with lips partly closed. 
13. Shut or restricted by law; not open or 
free; confined to a few; as, a dose corpora- 
tion. 14. Fitting tightly or snugly. 

— close'ly, o^/r.— close'ness, n. 

close', clOz, n. 1. The end; conclusion. 2. 
A grapple. 3. A junction; meeting. 

close*, clOs, n. 1. An enclosed place; land ad- 
joining a house. 2. A narrow lane or passage. 

Close, clos, adv. Closely. 

clos^et, clez'§t. I**, vt. To shut up or con- 
ceal; admit to a private interview. II. n. A 
small chamber, side room, or recess for stor- 
age or i)rivacy. [OF., dim. of dos, close.] 

clo'sure, clO'zhur, n. 1. A proceeding to 
stop debate in a deliberative body. 2. A clo- 
sing or enclosure; that which closes or en- 
closes. 3. A conclusion; end; close. 

papa, 9Bk; at, ftir; elfment, th6y, uefge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; orator, er; full, rule; but, ur; 



clot, clet. I. vt. & vi. [clot'ted<i; clot'ting.] 
To form into clots; coagulate; fill or cover 
with clots. II. n. A coagulated mass. 

cloth., cleth, n. 1. A woven fabric, as of wool, 
silk, flax, cotton, etc. ; a piece of such fabric. 

2. Clerical attire; hence, the clerical office; 
the clergy. [< AS. claih.] 

clotlie, clodh, vt. [clothed or clad, clad; 
cloth'ing.] To cover or provide with clothes; 
dress; invest. [< AS. cldthian, clothes.] 

clothes, clodhz, 1. Garments collect- 
ively; raiment; clothing. 2. Covering for a 
bed. ■bed'clothes'^J. [< AS. cldthas, pi. 
of clath, cloth.] 
— clothes'spreBS-", n. A closet for clothes. 

cloth'ier, clodh'ygr, n. One who makes or 
sells cloths or clothing. 

cloth'ing, clodh'ing, n. Dress in general; 
garments; raiment; apparel; covering. 

clo'tnre, clo'tiir, 71. Same as closure, 7i.,l. [F.] 

cloud'*, Claud, v. I. t. 1. To cover with 
clouds; dim or darken; obscure. 2. To cover 
with obloquy. 3. To variegate, as marble. II. 
i. To be overcast with or as with clouds. 

cloud, n. 1. A mass of visible vapor float- 
ing in the air; any cloud^like mass. 2. Some- 
thmg that obscures, darkens, dims, confuses, 
or threatens. 3. A dimmed appearance; a 
spot. 4. Law. A defect; blemish ; as, a ctowt? 
on a title. [< AS. clild, round mass.] — 
cloud'less, a. Unclouded; clear.— cloud'y, 
a. 1. Overspread with clouds. *2. Of or like a 
cloud or clouds. 3. Obscure; va^ue; confused. 
4. Gloomy; sullen. 5. Not limpid or clear. 
6. Marked with cloud^lke spots.— cloud'i-ly. 
Of/?;.— cloud''i-iie8s, Ji. 

Clout", claut, tt. 1. To patch; bandage. 2. 
To protect with an iron plate. 

c\out^^,vt. [Colloq.] To beat; cuff. 

clouts'*, ^f^ tq g^^^ y^.-^^Yi iron nails. 

clout*, n. 1. A piece of cloth or leather; 
patch; rag. 2. The center of a target. 3. 
An iron plate. [< AS. chit, < W. clwt.] 

ClOUt^, n. A short, stout nail. 

clouts, n. [Colloq.] A blow; cuff. 

clove, clov, imp. of cleave, v. 

clove, n. A dried flower »bud of a tropical 
evergreen tree (the 
clove'tree) of the 
myrtle family: used 
as a spice. 

clo'ven, c\o'\ri, pa. 
Parted: pp. of 
CLEAVE, V. — clo'- 
venstbof ed, a. i . 
Having the foot cleft 
or divided. 2. Sa- 
tanlc- c.5hoofed,a. n^.^,^^^ m^ 

Clo'ver, clO'vgr, n. , Common Clove. 
Anyone of several species of three=leaved plants 
of the bean family. [< AS. clxfre, trefoil.] 

clown, claun, w. 1. A professional buffoon; 
a jester. 2. A coarse or vulgar fellow; boor. 

3. A countryman. [Akin to Ice. klunni, clum- 
sy fellow.] —clown'ish, claun'ish. a. Of or 
like a clown; rude; Ill-bred, -ly, advi -ness, n. 

cloy, cloi, vt. To satiate, as with sweetness; 

surfeit. [ < F. doner, nail. j 
cluto*, clob, vt. [clubbed; club'bing.] 1. 

To beat with a club. 2. To use like a club. 
Club^, V. I. t. To contribute to a common 

purpose; make common stock of. II. i. To 
combine with a common object; join purses or 
efforts; form a club. 
Club*, «. 1. A stout stick or staff; cudgel. 2. 
A three=lobed spot on a playing-card; a card so 
marked. [< Ice. klubba, Mumba, club.] 

— clubbed, a. Shaped like, held, or used as 
aclub.— club'foof 5 ?i. Congenital distortion 
of the foot.— club'stoot'^ed, a. 

clul>2, n. 1. An organization of persons for 

social intercourse or other common object. 2. 

A club-house or club^room. 
cluck*, clue, V. I. i. To call with a cluck. 

11. i. To make the noise of a brooding hen; 

utter a click or cluck. [Var. of clack.] 
cluck, n. A sound made, or like that made, 

by a brooding hen in calling her chicks. 
clue, clu, V. & n. Same as clew. 
clump, clump, n. A thick cluster; tuft; lump. 

[< Dn. Sw. Uump.^ — cXumi^^y, a. 
clum'sy, clum'zi, a. [clum'si-er; clum'si- 

est.] 1, Lacking dexterity, ease, or grace; 

awkward. 2. Rudely constructed; unwieldy- 

ungainly. [ < Sw. dial, klummsen, benumbed. J 

— eluin'si-ly, art?'.- cluin'si-ness, n. 
duns, clung, imp. of cling, v. 

clus'ter, clus'tgr. I. vt. & vi. To produce in 
or collect into a cluster or clusters; grow or 
gather in a cluster or clusters. II. n. 1. A 
group or bunch, as of grapes. 2. An assembly ; 
aggregation. [AS.] 

clutch*, cluch, V. I. t. To seize eagerly; 
grasp and hold firmly. II. i. To make a 
snatch; catch: with a/!. 

clutch*, w. 1. A rapacious or powerful grasp; 
a tight grip; an attempt at seizure: commonly 
in the plural. 2. A talon, claw, paw, or hand. 
3. A device for coupling objects. 

clutch^, n. A setting of eggs; a brood. 

cluster*, clut'gr. I. vt. To throw into con- 
fusion; litter. II. n. A disordered state; 
confused heap; litter. 

clut'ter^. I. vi. To clatter; make a noise. 
II. n. A clattering noise; chattering. 

co-i, prefix. With; together. See com-. 

eo-2, prefix. Of the complement; as, cosine; co- 
tangent. r< L- compleme7itum, complement.] 

coach, cOch. I', vt. & vi. 1. To tutor or 
train; study with or act as a tutor or trainer. 
2. To carry or be carried in a coach. II. ?i. 
1. A large 'four* wheeled close carriage. 2. A 
tutor; trainer. 3. A railway passenger«car. 
[ < F. coche.'] — coach'man, n.. [-men, pi.] One 
who drives a coach or a carriage, coach'eei. 

co'^ad-ju'tor, co"ad-ju't§r, n. A coworker or 
colleague; an oflicial assistant. [L., < co-, with, 
+ acijuvo, AID.] — co'^ad-ju'tress, co'^ad-ju'- 
trix, 11. fern. 

co-ae'val, a. Same as coeval. 

co-ag-'u-late, co-ag'yu-let, v. [-la"ted<*; 
-la'ting.] I. t. To change into a curd-like 
mass; curdle. II. i. To become clotted or 
curdled. [< L. coagulatns, < cogo., compel.] 

— co-ag'^u-la'tion, n. 

coal, col, V. I. t. To supply with coal. II. 
i. To take in coal. 

coal, n. 1. A brittle, compact, amorphous 
substance derived from ancient vegetation: 
found in beds or veins in the earth and used as 
fuel. 2. A piece of coal as broken for use; 
such pieces collectively: In Great Britain com- 

flutifire (future); aisle; au {mi)\ oil; c (k): chat; dh («Ae); go; sing, i^k; thin. 


monly used in the plural. 3. A fragment of 
burned wood. [< AS. col.] — ooal'soiF', w. 
Petroleum.— c. spit, n. 1. A pit from which 
mineral coal is obtained. ^. A pit for making 
charcoal.—, n. The black pitch distilled 
from bituminous coal.— coal'y, a. Pertaining 
to, like, or containing coal. 

co'^a-lesce', co"a-les', vi. [-LEscED't; -les'- 
ciNG.] To grow or come together into one; 
fuse; blend. [< L. coalesco, < co-, with, -f 
alo, nourish.] — co''a-les'cence, n. A coales- 
cing; union.— co^'a-les'cent, a. Growing to- 
gether; united; uniting. 

co'^a-li'tion, cO"a-lish'un, n. 1. An alliance 
of persons, parties, or states. 2. Coalescence. 

coarse, cOrs, a. 1. Composed of large or 
rough parts or particles. 3. Inferior in quali- 
ty; low; vulgar; indelicate. [Var. of course; 
i. e., in course, ordinary.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

coast, cost, l^.'vt.&vi. 1. To sail or travel 
along (a shore or border). 3. [U. S.] To ride 
down a elope by force of gravity, as on a sled 
or bicycle. II. n. 1. The land next to the 
sea; the seashore. 3 11. A boundary; region: 
chiefly j5/. 3. [U. S.] A coasting, as on a sled. 
[< OP. cosie, < L. Costa, rib, side.] — coast'er, n. 

coat, cot. Id. vt. To cover with or as with a 
coat, as of paint. II. n. 1. An upper and 
outer garment with sleeves: usually worn by 
men." 3. Any outer covering, as the fur of an 
animal, or a layer of ice or paint. [ < MHG. 
LL+OF Jcotze, coarse mantle.] — coat'ing, n. 1. 
A covering layer; coat. 2. Cloth for coats.— 
coat of arms (ITer.), the armorial bearings of 
a person, taken collectively.— c. of mail, a de- 
fensive garment of chain mail. 

CoaxS cOx, V. I. t. To persuade, or seek to 
persuade, by gentleness and tact; wheedle; 
win; soothe. II. i. To use gentle persua- 
sion. [To make a coax (dupe) of, < F. coquin., 
< L. coquus., cook.] — coax'er, n. 

cob, ceb, n. 1. A roundish mass, heap, or 
lump. 3. [U. S.] The spike of an ear of maize. 
3. A strong, thick»set, short-legged horse. 
[Var. of COP, n.] 

cobalt, cO'belt, n. A tough steel'gray metal- 
lic element that forms blue pigments. [< G. 
kobalt; prob. same as kobold, a demon.] 

cobHsle, ceb'l, v. [cob'bled; cob'bling.] 
I. ^ 1. To patch or repair, as boots; make 
clumsily. 3. To pave with cobblestones. II. 
i. To work as a cobbler, [< L.^p copula, join 
together.] — col/bler, ceb'lgr, n. One who 
patches boots and shoes; a clumsy workman. 

cob'ble-stone", ceb'l ston", n. A rounded 
water * worn stone, as 
for paving, cob'ble:}:. 

oo^ra, co'bra, n. A 
very venomous snake of 
India that can dilate its 
neck into a broad hood. 
[Pg., < L. cdubra, 
snake.] co ' bra » de » 
[das ordisjca-periol 
(cO'bra-de-[da- or dt«j 

cob'web'', ceb'web", I. 

Cobra-de-capello tn 
the special basket 

vt. [cob'vtebbbd" ; coB'- 
WEB'BiNG.] To cover 
with or as with cobwebs. 
II. n. The network or fine thread span by a 

of a Hindu snake- 

spider; hence, a snare, or anything fine-spun 
or flimsy. 

co'ca, co'ca, n. [S. Am.] The dried leaves of a 
South-American shrub, used as a tonic. 

co'ca-in, / co'ca-in, n. A white, bitter, crys- 

CO''ca-ine, f talline alkaloid obtained from 
cocoa: used as a local anesthetic. 

COCll'i-neal, cech'i-nll, n. A dyestuff yield- 
ing a brilliant scarlet dye, consisting of certain 
insects (of Mexico, the Canary Islands, and 
Java) killed and dried by heat. [< L.^p cocci- 
nus, scarlet, < Gr. kokkos, berry.] 

cock^S cec, vt. To raise the cock of (a gun or 
pistol), in readiness for firing. 

cock^t, vt. To turn up or to one side, as the 

head, ears, etc.; tilt; prick up. [< cock^, 'ii.\ 

— cocked hat, a hat with brim turned uj). 

cock^', vt. To arrange in cocks, as hay. 

cock, a. Male; as, a cock lobster. 

cocks n. 1. A full-grown male of the domes- 
tic fowl. 3. Any male bird. 3. [Eng.] A 
leader; champion. 4. A faucet. 5. Thenam- 
mer of a firearm, or its position 
when raised. 6. A weatliercock. 
7. Cock'crowing. [< AS. cocc 
(imitative).] — cock's and sbuli-", 
a. [Colloq.] Highly improbable; 
incredible; absurd.— c.seye, M. A 
squlntingeye.— c.seyed, a. Crossa 
eyed.— c. of the walk or of the 
loft, an undisputed leader or chief. 

cock^, n. A significant tip or upward turn; a 
pricking up; upward bend of a hat- brim. 

COCk3, ^. X. small conical pile, as of straw or 
hay. [Akin to Ice. kokkr, lump.] 

cock-ade', cek-ed', n. A rosette, knot of rib- 
bon, or the like, worn on the hat. [ < ¥. co- 
carde, < coq, cocki, n., as if a cock's comb.] 

cock''a-too', cec"a-tu', n. A crested parrot. 
[< Hind, kdkatua, from its cry.] 

cock'a-trice, cec'a-tris or -trcus, n. 1. A 
fabulous serpent, said to kill by its breath or 

f;lance. 3. Any crawling venomous creature. 
OF., corr. of L. crocodilm, crocodile.] 
cock'boat", cec'bot", n. A small rowboat. 
cock'crow'', cec'crO', n. The early morning. 

cock'er-el, cek'^r-el, n. A young cock. 
cock'l(e, cec'l, vt. & vi. [cock'l(e)d; cock'- 

LiNo.] To wrinkle; pucker. [< cockle^ «.: 

from the form of the shell.] 
COCk'l(ei, w. A weed that grows among grain, 

[< AS. coccel, < Ir. cogal, corn-cockle.] 
cock1(e'', n. An edible European bivalve, or 

its shell; a scallop-shell, etc. [< Gr.^^F j^. 

chylion, < konchS, mussel.] 
cock'loft", cec'left", ti. A loft under the roof. 
cock'ney, cec'ne, n. A Londoner; one having 

the traits of uneducated Londoners. — cock'- 

iiey-iHiii, 71. The speech or ways of cockneys. 
cock'pit", cec'pit", n. 1. A pit or ring for 

cock-lighting. 3. An apartment for the wound- 
ed in a war-ship. 
cock'roacll'', cec'rOch", n. An insect with a 

flat oval body, chiefly nocturnal, infesting 

houses and ships. 
cocks'comb", cecs'com', n. 1. A plant 

with red flowers, suggesting tlie comb of a 

cock. 3. A coxcomb. 3. A scarlet ridge on 

a jester's cap; also, the cap. 

papfi, gsk; at, air; el^m^nt, they, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; orator, er; full, rule; but, ur; 



cock-'swain, n. Same as coxswain. 
cock'tail'', cec'tel", n. [U. S.] A drink 
made of spirits mixed with bitters, sugar, and 
co'co, ( co'co, n. The palm-tree that pro- 
co'coai, (duces coconuts. [< Sp. coco, prob. 

< Gr. kouki, coconut.] co'co=paliii'''f . 
co'coa^, n. A powder made from the dried 
seed»k:ernel8 of the cacao; also, a beverage 
made from it. [Corr. of cacao.] 
co'co-nut", I cO'co-nut", n. The fruit of a 
co'coa-nut", f tree (the coco'tree or cocO' 
palm), a white=meated seed enclosed in a hard 
shell, and containing a milky liquid. 
co-coon', co-cun', n. 1. The envelope in 
which silkworms are enclosed in the chrysalis 
state. 2. The egg=case of spiders, etc. [< 
F. cocon, dim. ofcoqite, shell.] — co-coon-'er-y, 
n. A place for reanng silkworms. 
cod-i, ced, n. A food^fish of temperate northern 
seas. [Akin to D. A:oo?rf^, club.] cod'flsh.^'i. 
cod2, //. 1. A pod or husk. 2. A bag or en- 
velope. [AS. codd, bag.] 
cod'dle, ced'l, vt. [cod'dled; cod'uling.] 
To treat as a baby or an m valid; pamper. [< 
cod2, n., bag, pillow.] 
code, cod, n. 1. A systematized body of law. 
2. A system of signals or of rules. [< L.*' 
codex, caudex, tablet.] 
codg'er, cej'sr, n. A testy or eccentric old 

man; fellow. [V&v. of cadger, haggar.'] 
cod'i-cil, ced'i-sil, n. A supplement to a will. 
[< L.codiciUt/fi, dim. of codex (codic-),wnting.] 
cod'i-fy, ced'i-lai, f/l. [-fied; -fy"ing.] To 

systematize, as laws.— cod''i-fl-ca'tion, n. 
co-ed"u-ca'tion, cO-ej"u- [or -ed'yu-] ke'- 
sliun, 71. The education of both sexes, or of 
whites and negroes, together. 
co'^ef-fi'cient, cO'ef-tish'gnt. I. a. Jointly 
efficient; acting together to a common end. II. 
n. 1. A cooperating agent. 2. A number or 
letter put before an algebraic expression which 
is to be multiplied by that number, 
— co''ef-fi'cieii-cy, n. 
cee'no-bite, n. Same as cenobite. 
co'^e'qual, C0"i'cwal. I. a. Of the 'same 
value or importance; equal and conjoined. II. 
71. The equal of another or others. 
co-erce', co-grs', vt. [co-ERCED't; co-er'cing.] 
To constrain by force 
or fear; compel; re- 
strain or repress. [< 
L. CO-, together, -j- 
ai'ceo, press.]— co-er'- 
cion, co-er'shun, n. 
1. Moral or physical 
compulsion. 2. Gov- 
ernment by force. 3. 
Compression; pressure. 
— co-er'civ(e, a. 
Serving or tending to 
co-e'val, co-i'val, a. 
Of or belonging to the 
same age or period. 
[< L. CO; together, -f- 
sevvm, age.] 

CO''''r, cCegZ- spiit;showlngthe'"'berns; 
ist', vt. To exist to- 
gether. — co'^ex-ist'ence, n. — co^'ex-ist'ent, 

a. Existing together; contemporaneous. 

Coflee«=branch and 


a, the flower; &, a berrv, 

co^'ex-tend'^j cO"ex-tend', vt. &, vi. To make 
or be coextensive.— co''ex-ten'siv(e, a. Hav- 
ing tlie same limits or extent. 

coffee, cef'§, ti. The seeds, enclosed in dark 
cherry -like berries, of a tropical tree; also, a 
beverage made from, or the tree producing 
them. [The seeds are also called " beans " or 
"berries."] See illus. in preceding column. 
[ < Turk, gahwe, < At. qahxce, coffee.] — coP- 
leeshoiise'', c.:rooiii, «. A house or room 
where coffee and other refreshments are sold; a 

coffer, cef'gr, n. 1. A chest or box; strong 
box; safe; caisson. 2>. pi. A treasury ; financial 
resources. [ < L.^ cophimis; see coffin.] 

— cof fersdain'', w. A temporary enclosing 
dam built in the water and pumped dry, to pro- 
tect workmen. 

coffin, cef'in. I. vt. To put into or as into a 
coffin. 11.71. 1. The case in which a corpse 
is buried. 2. The lower part of a horse's hoof. 
[< li.^^ copfmws, < Gr. kophinos, basket.] 

cog, ceg. I. vt. [cogged; cog'ging.] To 
furnish with or as with a cog or cogs. II. n. 
A tooth projecting from the surface of a wheel. 
[< Gael, ccg, cog.] 

— cok's wlieePs 7i. A wheel with cogs. 
co'gent, cO'jgnt, a. Compelling belief, assent, 

or action; forcible; convincing. [< L. cogo, 
compel, < CO-, together, + ago, drive.] -ly, 
adv.— co'g:en-cy, «. Convincing power. 
cog'i-tate, cej'i-tet, vt. & vi. [-ta'ted''; 
-ta'ting.] To think over or about (some- 
thing); meditate; reflect; think. [< L. co-, 
with, -f- agito, agitate.] — cog^'i-ta'tion, 71. 
Consideration; reflection; thought. 
cog'nac, co'nyac, n. French brandy. [F.] 
cog''nate, ceg'net or -ngt. I. a. Allied "by blood; 
kindred; akin; especially, related through fe- 
males only. II. ceg'net, «. A person or thing 
that is cognate to another or others. [ < L. co-, 
together, + 7iaius, pp. of nascor, be born.] 

— cosr-na'tion, 7i. Relationship. 
cog-ni'tion, ceg-nish'un, 71. 1. The act, 

power, or faculty of knowing. 2. Knowledge; 
loosely, a conception. [< L. co-, together, + 
71OSC0,' know.] — cog'ni-tiv(e, a. Pertaining 
to or having the power of cognition; knowing. 

cog'nize or -nise, ceg'naiz, vt. [-nized; 
-Ni"ziNG.] To know, perceive, or recognize. 
[< L. CO-, with, -f- nosco, know.] — cog'ni-za- 
bl(e, ceg'ni-ZQ-bl, a. Capable of being known, 
or of being judicially tried or examined.— cog'- 
ni-zance, ceg'ni-zans, w. 1. Apprehension or 
perception; knowledge; notice, especially judicial 
notice or jurisdiction, ri. A badge or mark.— 
cog'ni-zaiit, ceg'ni-zant, a. Taking notice; 
aware, cog'ni-santi:* 

cog-no'men, ceg-nO'men, n. [-no'mens or 
-nom'i-na, -nem'i-na, pi.] A surname; collo- 
quially, any name. [L., < co- {pun), together, 
-^- nomen, name.] 

CO-liab'it'', co-hab'it, vi. To dwell together 
as husband and wife. [< L. co-, together, -\- 
JiaUto, dwell.] — co-hab''i-ta'tion, n. 

co'^lieir', cO"ar', n. An heir with another or 
others. — co-heir'es8, n. — co-heir'ship, 71. 

co-here', co-htr', vi. [co-hered'; co-her'- 
iNG.] To stick or hold firmly together. [< L. 
CO; together, + hxreo, stick.] — co-her'eiit, 
co-htr'ent, a. 1. Cleaving or sticking together. 
2. Logically consistent. 3. Suited; adapted; 

flut|ure (future); aisle; au {out); ©11; c (k); cliat; dli (^^e); go; sing, i«ik; tliin. 



accordant. — co-her'ence, n. Conjunction; 
consistency; agreement, co-her'en-cyj.— 
co-her'ent-Iy, «d».— co-he'siou, co-hf- 
zhun, n. The act or state of cohering; union; 
consistency; cohesive attraction. — co-lie'- 
siv(e, a. Belonging to. exerting, or having the 
property of cohesion, -ly, adv. -iie^s, n. 

coliort, cO'hert, n. An armed company; the 
tenth of a Roman legion, 500 to 600 men. [< 
L. co/ior(t-)s, company of soldiers.] 

coif 11, ceif, n. A close-fitting cap, hood, or head* 
dress. [< F. coijfe, < OHG. chuph, head.] 

coiffure, cei'fiur, ?i. 1. An arrangement or 
dressing of the hair. 3. A head=dress. [F.] 

coign, cein, n. A projecting angle or stone; 
a corner. [= coin, n., 4.] coignet. — coign 
of vantage, an advantageous position. 

coil, ceil, vt. & vi. To wind spirally; form rings 
or coils. [ < L.OF col; together, + lego, collect'] 

coil' , w. 1 . A ring or spiral formed by winding. 
2. An involvement; a perplexity. 

coill|2, n. Confusion or tumult; turmoil. [< Gael. 
Ir. goill, war.] 

coin, cein, v. I. t. 1. To make into coins ; 
stamp or mint. 2. To originate, as a word. 
II. i. To make counterfeit money. 

coin, n. 1. A piece of metallic money. 2. 
Coined money collectively. 3. Kind or means 
of recompense. 4. A quoin. [F., < L. cunevs, 
wedge.] — coin'age, cein'gj, n. 1. The ma- 
king of coins, or the coins made; the system of 
coins of a country. 2. The cost or charge for 
coining money. 3. The act of fabricating, or 
the thing fabricated. 

co'^in-cide', cO "in-said', vi. [-ci'ded''; -ci'- 
DiNG.] To agree exactly, as in direction, ex- 
tent, amount, or opinion; concur. [< co- -)- 
L. incido, fall on.] — co-in'ci-dence, n. Agree- 
ment; correspondence. — co-in'ci-dent, a. 
Agreeing, as In position, extent, time, etc.; con- 

CO-i'tion, co-ish'un, n. A coming together; 
especially, sexual intercourse. [ < L. co-, to- 
gether, -f- iiw, pp. of €0, go.] co'i-tust. 

coke, cok. I. vt. & vi. [coked'; co'king.] 
To change or be changed into coke. II. n. 
Coal from which the volatile portion has been 
expelled by heating, as in a retort, coakt. 

col-i prefix. With; together. [Form of com- 
before I.'] 

co-la'bor-er, cO-le'b§r-6r,w. A fellow laborer. 

col'an-der, cul'an-dgr, n. A perforated vessel 
for straining liquids, etc. [ < Sp. colador, < 
L. colum, sieve.] cul'len-derj. 

cold, cold, a. 1. Of a low temperature; frigid; 

chilled; chilly. 2. Lacking ardor or sympathy; 

stolid; not cordial; discouraging. [< AS. ceald.] 

— cold'schiM^'el, n. A steel chisel for cutting 

cold metal.— cold'ly, ari». — cohl'ness, n. 

cold, n. 1. A low temperature; lack of heat, 
or the sensation caused by it. 2. A disorder 
caused by exposure to cold. 

cole, col, n. A plant of the same genus as the 
cabbage. [< L.^s caulis, cabbage.] 

— cole'sHlaw'', n. A salad of cabbage cut 
fine, cold'swlaw'^t. — cole'wort'', n. The 
cabbage or a kindred plant. 

Col"e-op'te-ra, cere-op'ty-ra or co'le-, 7k pi. 
Entom. An order of insects having horny 
front wings that fit as cases over the hind 
wings; beetles. [< Gr.A»/eo«, sheath, 4-p^<'wn, 
wing.] — col'^e-op'ter, n. A beetle.— coP'e- 
op'ter-ou8, a. coF^e-op'terpall:. 

col'ic, n. Acute spasmodic pain in the bowels. 
[< Gr. JcoHM, < kolon, colon.] — coFicli-y, 
cel'ik-1, a. Subject to, suffering from, resem- 
bling, or productive of colic. 

col-laps(e',c§l-laps', v. [-laps(e)d''; -laps'- 
ING.] I. i. To cause to shrink, fall in, or 
fail. II. i. 1. To fall together; cave in. 2. 
To fail utterly; come to ruin. 3. To lose 
strength or courage; be prostrated ; succumb. 
[< L. col-, together, -f labor, fall.] 

COl-laps(e', n. 1. A falling or sinking to- 
gether. , 2. Extreme prostration. 3. Utter 
failure; ruin. 

coFlar, cel'ar. 1. vi. To grasp by or provide 
with a collar. II. n. A band or circlet for 
the neck ; a ring or band on or about anything. 
[< L.oF collare, < collum, neck.] 

— col'larsbone'^ M. The clavicle, 
col-late', cgl-let', t). [col-la'ted<i; col-la'- 

TiNG.] I. ^. 1. To compare critically; examine. 
2. To present, as to a benefice. II. i. To 
bestow a benefice. [< L. col-, together, -{- latus, 
borne.] — col-la'tion, n. 1 . A collating; com- 
parison. 2. A lunch or light repast. 

col-lat'er-al, cel-lat'er-al, a. 1. Attendant 
or secondary; incidental. 2. Corroborative; 
confirmatory. 3. Being or lying alongside; 
parallel; bordering. 4. Descended from the 
same ancestor in a different line. [< L. col-, 
with; and see lateral.] -\y,adv. 

col'leag(ue, cel'ig, n. An associate in office. 
[< L.*' col-, with, + lego, depute.] 

col-lect'"*, c§l-lect', t;. I. t. 1. To gatherer 
bring together. 2. To gather or obtain the 
payment of (money). 3. T6 regain control of; 
brmg or call back. 4I|. To infer. II. i. To 
come together; assemble; accumulate. [< 
LL.F collecto, < collecta, assemblage.] 

— col-lect'a-[or-i-]bl(e, a. 
col'lect, cel'ect, n. A short condensed prayer. 
col-lect'ed, c§l-lect'§d, pa. 1. Assembled; 

gathered. 2. Composed; self-possessed. 

col-lec'tion, cgl-lec'shun, n. A collecting; a 
group of collected objects or individuals; an 
aggregation ; accumulation. [ < L. coUectio{n-), 
< col-, with, -\- lego, gather.] 

col-lect'iv(e, cQl-lect'iv. I. a. 1. Kelating 
to, consisting of, or denoting an aggregate or 
group. 2. Having the power or quality of 
bringing together. 11. n, 1. Gram. A singu- 
lar noun naming a collection or group. 2. A 
collection or gathering.— col.Iect'iv(e-ly, adv. 

col-lect'or, cgl-lect'gr, ?i. One who col- 
lects; one who receives taxes, duties, or the 
like, or collects debts. — col-lect'or-nte, coi- 
lect'or-ship, n. The office or Jurisdiction of 
a collector. 

col'lege, cel'§j, n. 1. An incorporated school 
for instruction in the liberal arts or profes- 
sional studies; a school of higher learning; 
one of the educational institutions of a uni- 
versity. 2. A body of associates or colleagues. 
[P., < L. collegium, < collega, colleague.] 

col-le'gi-al, cgl-lfji-al, a. Collegiate. 

col le'gi-an, cgl-lfji-an, n. A college student. 

col-le'gl-ate, c^l-lfji-et or -gt. I. a. Per- 
taining to, conducted like, or connected with a 
college or colleges. II. n. A collegian. 

col-llde', cgl-laid', vi. [col-li'dbd"; col- 
Li'DiNG.] To meet and strike violently; 

papa, gsk; at, air; element, th6y, usfge; It, %, i (ee); o, 6h; orator, or; full, rule; but. Or; 




clash. [< L. co^, together, -\- laedo, strike.] 
coFlie, cel'i, n. A Scotch 8heep=dog. [Prob. 

< Gael, cuilein, puppy.] corieyj. 
col'lier, cel'ygr, n. A coal=miner; a vessel 

employed in coal*carrying, or one of her crew ; 

formerly, a dealer in coal.— coPlier-y, n. 

[-IES2, pl.^ A coal=mine; the coal=trade. 
col-li'sion, cgl-lizh'un, 71. The act of colli- 
ding: violent contact; clashing; antagonism. 
coFlo-cate, cel'o-ket, rt. [-ca''ted«'; -ca"- 

TiNG.] To put or arrange together; station. 

[< L. col; together; and see locate.] 

— col^'lo-ca'tion, n. 
col-lo'di-on, cel-lo'di-en, n. A solution of 

guncotton in ether and alcohol that forms an 
adhesive film. [< Gr. kolla, glue, + eidos, 
form.] col-lo'di-um:|:. 

coFloid, cel'eid. I. a. Jellylike; colloidal. 
II. n. A jelly-like substance, as albumin. [< 
Gr. koUodes, glue=like.] — eol-loFdal, a. 

col-lo'q.ui-al, cel-lo'cwi-al, a. Pertaining to 
conversation, especially to common speech, as 
distinguished from literary usage, -ly, adv. 

— col-lo'qui-al-isni, ?i. A form of speech 
used only or chiefly in conversation. 

corio-quy, col'o-cwi, n. [-QUIEs^ ;V.] An 

informal conference; conversation. [< L. 

col-, together, -f- loquar, speak.] 
col-lude', c§l-lud' or -liud', vi. [-lu'ded*'; 

-lu'bing.] To cooperate secretly; conspire; 

connive. [< L. col-, together, + hido, play.] 
— col-lu'sioii, n. Fraudulent cooperation. 

— col-lu'8iv(e, a. Fraudulently concerted 
or devised. ~\y, adv. -ness, n. 

col'ly, 71. Same as collie. 

co-logne', co-lOn', 71. A perfume, consisting 
of alcohol flavored with aromatic oils. [< 
Cologne, Germany.] 

co'loni, cO'l§n, 71. A punctuation^mark (:) in- 
dicating a pause greater than a semicolon, but 
less than a period. [ < Gr. kolon, member.] 

co'lon^, 71. The large intestine. [L.] 

colo^nel, cur'ngl, 71. The highest officer of a 
regiment. [F., < It. colonTiello., dim. of colonna, 
column.] — colo'neI-cy,?^. colo'nel-ship:}:. 

col'^on-nade', cero-n^d', ». A range of 
columns connected by an entablature. [F.] 

coFo-ny, cel'o-ni, TO. [-nies^js^.] 1. A body 
of emigrants or their descendants in a remote 
region under the control of the parent country, 
or the territory occupied by them. 2. Any 
aggregation of individuals in a common group, 
as of alien residents in a country, of bees, etc. : 
used also adjectivally in all senses. [< L. 
colonia, < colo7ius, farmer, < colo, till.]— co-lo'- 
ni-al, co-lo'ni-al, a. Of, pertaining to, being 
produced in, living in, or forming a colony or col- 
onies.— col'o-iiist, cel'o-nist, ?t. A member or 
inhabitant of a colony; a settler.— coi'o-nize, 
cel'o-naiz. v. [-nized; -ni'zing.] I. t. To 
settle a colony or colonies in; emigrate to and 
settle in. II. t. To establish, unite in, or settle 
in a colony or colonies, col'o-niset.— col^'o- 
ni-za^tion or -sa^tion, n. 

col'or, cul'gr, ■?;. 1. t. 1. To give a color to ; 
dye; paint; tint; stain. 2. To misrepresent; 
modify; give a tone to. II. i. To change 
color; blush. — col'or.a-bI(e, a. — col'^or-a'- 
tion,n.— col'ored, pa. Having color; of a 
dark-skinned race; embellished or exaggerated. 

— coPor-er, w. — col'or-ist, ft. One skilled 
In the use of color. 

coFor, cul'gr, «. 1. Any one of the hues of the 
rainbow or spectrum, or a tint produced by the 
blending of those hues; loosely, any hue, inclu- 
ding black and white. 2. A paint or pigment. 

3. An appearance; semblance; pretense; dis- 
guise. 4. pi. An ensign, flag, or badge. [< 
L. color, tint.] — col'or-less, a. Without col- 
or; Impartial; uninteresting; negative. 

co-los'sus, co-les'us, 71.. [-SI, -sai or -st, or 
-sus-Es, pL] A gigantic statue, especially the 
bronze of Apollo at ancient Rhodes. [< Gr. 
kolossos, gigantic statue.] — co-los'sal, a. 
Enormous; huge; gigantic, -ly, adv. 

col'our, coFour-a-bl(e, etc. Color, etc.: the 
usual spelling lu England. 

corpor"teur, cel'pOr"tgr, n. A traveling 
agent of a religious society, who sells or gives 
away Bibles, religious books, etc. [F.] col'- 
por'^terj.— coKpor^tage, cel'pOr"t§j, to. A 
colporteur's work. 

colt, colt, TO. A young horse. [AS.] 

— colt'isli, a. Like a colt; frisky; wanton. 

col'ter, col'tgr, to. A blade or disk on the 
beam of a plow, to cut the sod. [< L. culter, 
knife.] coul'terj. 

corum-bine, cel'um-bin, a. Dove-like. [< 
L. col>(7iibim(s, < cohmiba,do\e.] 

col'um-bine, cel'um-bain, to. 1. A herba- 
ceous plant with flowers 
of five petals. 2. [C-] 
In pantomimes, the 
sweetheart of Harlequin. 
[< L. columbinus; see 


col'umn, cel'nm, to. 

1. A vertical shaft or 
pillar; a prop or support. 

2. A vertical series of 
written or printed lines, 
or words, figures, or the 
like. 3. Mil. A body of 
troops with narrow front, 
but extended rearward. 

4. Naut. A fleet in single file. [ < L. coluni7Ki, 
column.] — col-um'nar, cgl-um'nar or co-lum'- 
nar, a. 

com-, prefix. Together; with: often used with 
intensive force. [< L. cotoi-, < cum, with.] 

co'mai, co'ma, to. A state of unconsciousness 
with slow, heavy breathing; stupor; lethargy. 
[< Gr. kbma, slumber.] — co'ma-tose, cO'ma- 
tos, a. Relating to or affected with coma; ab- 
normally sleepy, co^ma-toust. 

CO'ma^, TO. [co'm^, cO'mi or -me, pl^^ 1. The 
nebulosity around the nucleus of a comet. 2. 
A tuft of silky hairs. [< Gr. kcmil, hair.] 

co'mate''', cO'met", n. A companion. 

comb, com, v. I. t. To draw a comb through; 
disentangle, or cleanse with a comb; card; 
hackle. II. i. To curl over and break into 
foam, as waves. — comb'er. to. One who or 
that which combs; a combing wave.— comb'- 
ing, TO. The act of combing or what is removed 
by a comb. 

comb, TO. 1. A thin piece of horn, or the like, 
with teeth: for cleaning, dressing, or holding 
in place the hair. 2. Something resembling 
such a comb in appearance or use. 3. The 
fleshy crest on the head of a fowl. 4. The 
crest of a hill or wave. 5. Honeycomb. [< 
AS. camb, comb, crest, ridge.] 

fiuttflre (future); aisle; an (owt); ©II; c (k); chat; dli {ihey, go; sing, ink; tliin. 



coza'bat, cem'bat or cum'bat. I**, 'vt. & vi. 
To fight or contend with; oppose; resist; do 
battle; contend; struggle. II. n. A battle or 
fight; struggle; contest. [< L. com-, together, 
+ L.^ battiio, beat.] — single combat, a fight 
between two; a duel.— com'bat-ant. I. a. 
Contending in fight; ready or disposed to com- 
bat. II. n. One engaged in combat or hostili- 
ties.— coin'bat-iv(e, a. Having a pugnacious 
disposition; contentious; full of fight.— coni'- 
bat-ive-ly, adv.- coiii'bat-ive-ness, n. 

com-bine^, c§m-bain'. I. vt. & vi. [-bined' ; 
-bi'ninq.] To bring or come into a close 
union; blend; compound; unite. II. n. [U. S.] 
A trust; ring; cabal. [< L. com-, together, + 
bini, two.] — com''bi-na'tion, cem"bi-ne'shun, 
n. 1, A joining together; union; alliance. 3. A 
compound or group.— com -bi'ner, n. 

com-bus'ti-"bI(e. I. a. Susceptible of com- 
bustion; inflammable. II. ti. Any substance 
that will readily burn, as pitch or coal. 

— com-bu8'ti-bI(e-nes8, n. com-bus'"- 

com-bus^tion, cgm-bus'chun, n. The act or 
process of burning; the combination of a sub- 
stance with oxygen or the like, generating 
light and heat. [< L.^^ combnstus, pp. of 
camburo, bum up.] 

come, cum, vi. [came, kem; come; com'ing.] 
1. To move to or toward the place, time, or 
condition at or in which the speaker is or 
thinks of himself as being; move hither; draw 
nigh; approach. 2. To move into view; be- 
come perceptible. 3. To arrive; be present; 
exist. 4. To follow as an effect or result. 5. 
To happen; occur; become. [< AS. eiiman.] 

— com'er, n. One who comes or arrives. 
com'e-dy, cem'§-di, n. [-dies^ pL] An en- 
tertaining drama; anything ludicrous or com- 
ical. [< Gr.i'+F konws., revel, -f ode; see ode.] 

— co-me'di-an, co-mi'di-an, 7j,. Acomic act- 
or.— co-me''di-enne', co-m6"di-en', n.fem. 

comely, cum'li, a. [come'li-er; come'li- 
est.] 1. Pleasing in person; handsome; grace- 
ful. 2. Suitable; becoming; decorous. [< AS. 
cymllc.'] — come ' li - ly , adv. come'ly$. — 
come^li-ne88, n. 

com'et, cem'gt, n. Astron. A heavenly body, 
consisting of a coma sur- 
rounding a etar»like nucle- 
us, with a nebulous train. 
[< Gr.L+AS ]comete.f, long- 
haired, < homl., hair.] 

— com'et-a-ry, a. co- 
rn et'ict, 

coxa'fit, cum'flt, n. A dry 
sweetmeat; confection. [<] com.'fl-turei. 

com'foirt, cum'fort. I'^. vt. 
or encouragement to; encourage; console; sol- 
ace. 2. To countenance; abet. II. n. Free- 
dom or relief from pain, annoyance, or want; 
also, anything that contributes to such a state. 
[< F. confort. < L. con-, with, + fortis, 
brave.] — com'fort-a-bl(e. I. a, 1. Having 
or Imparting comfort, till. Comforting. II, n. 
tU. S.l A wadded bcdqullt or comforter.— 
com'^fort-a-bl((>-iicNM, //. — com'lbrt-a- 
bly, ad».— com'lorl-cr, n 1 . One who com- 
forts; a consoler; lC-1, the Holy Spirit, ti. |U. S.] 
A wadded quilt. 3« A long woolen scarf.— 
com'fort>leMS, a. Destitute of comfort. 

com'ic, cem'ic. I. a. 1. Pertaining to, like, 
or connected with comedy. 2. Comical. II. 
n. A comical person or thing; comic actor. 

com'ic-al, cem'ic-al, a. 1. Droll; ludicrous; 
diverting. 2. Comic. [< Gr. komikos, < 
komos, revelry.] — com''i-cal'i-ty, n. 1. The 
quality of being comical. 2. A comical thing. 
com'ic-al-nesst.— com'ic-al-ly, adv. 

com'i-ty, cem'i-ti, n. Kindly consideration 
for others; friendliness; good will; courtesy. 
[< L. comita(t-)s, < comis, kind.] 

com'ma, cem'a, n. Gram. A punctuation- 
mark (,) indicating the slightest separation. 
[< Gr.L komma, segment, < kopto, cut off.] 

com-mand''', cgm-mgnd', v. I. t. 1. To 
order with authority; bid; require; enjoin. 2. 
To have or hold under one's control; be mas- 
ter of; hence, to be able to get; overlook, a« 
from a height; cover; guard. 3. To claim ir- 
resistibly. II. i. To be in authority; rule. [< 
L.^ com- intens. -|- mando, command, order.] 
— com^'mau-dant', cem'an-dant', 71. An 
oflicer in command, as of a military post.— 
com-mand'er, cgm-mand'er, 71. 1. One In 
command; a military leader. '^. A naval ofilcer 
next below a captain. — com-inand'ing, »a. 
Fitted to command; impressive; authoritative; 
dlgniflcd.— coui-mand'ment, n. An authori- 
tative mandate; edict; order; law. 

com-mand', n. 1. The right to command. 
2. The act of commanding. 3. An order; 
commandment. 4. The force or district under 
a commander. 5. Dominating power; hence, 
range of view; use or control; mastery. 

com-mem'o-rate, c§m-mem'o-ret, vt. [-ba"- 
ted"!; -ka°ting.] To celebrate or signalize the 
memory of; keep in remembrance. [< L. com-, 
together, -f menwr, mindful.] — com-mem''o- 
ra'tion, n. The act of commemorating, or 
that which commemorates.— coin-meni'o-ra- 
tiv(e, a. com-inein'o-ra-to-ryt. 

com-mence', cgm-mens', v. [-menced'*; 
-men'cing.] I. t. To begin; give origin to; 
initiate. II. i. 1. To have or make aoegin- 
ning; originate; start. 2. To begin to be; set 
up as. [< li.^ com-, together, + initio, begin- 
ning.] — com-menoe'ment, c§m-mens'mgnt, 
n. 1 . A beginning; origin. ^, A celebration by 
graduates of the completion of a college course, 
wlu'ii degrees are conferred; also, the day so 

corn-mend''*, cgm-mend', vt. 1. To express 
a favorable opinion of; approve; praise. 2. To 
recommend; accredit; also, to present the re- 
gards of. 3. To Cvommit with confidence; en- 
trust. [< L. commendo, < com- intens. -|- 
may;(/o, command, order.] — com-meiid'a-bl(e, 
a. Laudable; creditable.— com-mend'a-bI(e- 
nc88, «.— com-mend'a-bly, ad?;.- coiii''- 
men-da'tioii, n. 1. The act of commend- 
ing; approbation. *Z. Something that commends. 
— com-iiicnd'a-to-ry, a. Expressing com- 
mendation; serving to conunend. 

com-men'su-ra-bl(e, cQin-men'shu-ra-bl, 
a. Measurable by a common unit; propor- 
tionate.— com-men''8ii-ra-bll'i-ty, n. coni- 
ineii'HU-ra-bI(e-uo88t. — com-iaeu'sii- 
ra-bly, (titr. 

com-men'su-rate, c«?m-inen'shu-ret, a. 1. 
Commeiisunible. 2. In proper proportion; 
l)roportionate. [ < L.'-'' com-, together, -4- LL. 
men»uro; see measure, v.'\ -ly, culv. -ness, 
n.— com-men"sii-rn'tlon, n. 

papfi, 98k; at, air; el^mfint, th€y, us^ge; It, %, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, ©r; full, rule; but, or; 


com'ment, cem'ent. I<^. vi. To make com- 
ments: with on. II. n. A note or remark in 
explanation or criticism. [< L. com7nento?\ 
freq. of coinmimscoi\ invent.] 

— com'men-ta-ry, cem'eu-te-ri, ??. [-kies», 
PL'S A series or body of commeiils; exposition. 
— coin'men-ta'''tor, cem'en-te'tgr, n. A 
writer of commentaries; au annotator; expound- 
er. [LL.] coiii'inent-erl:; coin'nient-orl:. 

com-merce', cem-mgrs', m. [com-merced''; 
com-mer'cing.] To have intercourse; associ- 
ate; commune.— com-nier'cer, ». 

com'merce, com'mgrs, n. 1. Exchange of 
goods, productions, or propertj% as between 
states or nations; extended trade. 2. Inter- 
course. [P., < L. com-, together, -\-merx, 
wares.] — com-iner'cial, a. Pertaining to, 
employed in, devoted to, or resulting from trade 
or commerce.— com-mer'cial-ly, adv. 

comL-min'gl(e, c§m-mi^'gl, vt. & vi. 
[-gl(e)d; -gling.] To mix together; mingle. 

com'mi-nute, cem'i-niut, Tt. [-nu"tei)<i; 
-nu"tixg.] To reduce to minute particles ; 
crush; pulverize; triturate. [< L. cam- in- 
tens. -\-fni}iuo, diminish.] 

— com'^ini-nu'tion, n. 1, Trituration; pul- 
verization. '2, ^urg. A comminuted fracture. 

com-mis'er-ate, cem-miz'sr-et, vt. [-a'- 
tedJ; -a"ting.] To feel or manifest pity for; 
compassionate. [ < L. com-, with, + miseroi', 
pity.] — com-mis''er-a'tion, n. 

com'mis-sa-ry , cem'i-sg-ri, n. [-bies^, pLI 
1. A commissioner. 2. Mil. An officer in 
charge of subsistence, etc. [< L. commissiis, 
pp. of committo, commit.] — coin'^mis-sa'ri- 
at, cem"i-se'rl-at, 7i. An army department sup- 
plying food and other necessaries; also, military 

com-mis'sion, cgm-mish'un. I. vt. To 
give a commission to, as an officer; put into 
commission, as a ship of war; appoint; em- 
power; delegate. 11. n. 1. The act of com- 
mitting; doing. 2. The act of entrusting; the 
matter entrusted; a trust; charge. 3. A docu- 
ment conferring rank or authority; also, the 
rank or authority so conferred. 4. A body of 
persons acting under public authoritv. ' 5. 
Com. (1) Agency. (2) Compensation "of an 
agent. [F., < L.^ commiss^is; see commis- 
sary.] — to put in or into commission, to put 
In direct command of a designated officer, as a 
ship of war, for active service. 

com-mis'sion-er, c§m-mish'un-gr, n. The 
head of an executive department of govern- 
ment; one specially commissioned. 

coxn-mit', cgm-mit', vt. [com-mit'ted*!; com- 
mit'ting.] 1. To do; perpetrate. 2. To 
place in trust or custody; consign; entrust. 
3. To devote; pledge; hence, to involve, com- 
promise, or bind (oneself). 4. To memorize, as 
a speech. 5. To refer, as to a committee. [< 
L. committor < com-, together, -j- mitto, send.] 

— com-mit'ment, n. The act of commit- 
ting, or the state of being committed, as to 
prison, com-mit'talt. 

com-mit'tee, cgm-mit'§, n. A person or per- 
sons appointed to act upon some matter. 

com-mo'di-ous, cam-mo'di-us, a. Suit- 
able ; convenient; spacious. [< L. cornmo- 
dus, < com-, together, -f- modus, measure.] 
-ly, adv. -ness, n. 

com-mod'i-ty, cgm-med'i-ti, ji. [-TIEs^ pL] 

1. A movable article of value; something 
bought and sold. 2t. Convenience; profit. 

com.-'m.o-dore, cem'o-dor, n. 1. [U. S.] A 
naval officer between captain and rear>=admiral. 

2. [Gt. Brit.] The commander of a squadron. 
[ < ^■p.coinendador, < L. commendo, commend.] 

corn'mon, cem'un. I. a. 1. Often occur- 
ring, met, or seen; frequent or usual; custom- 
ary; regular. 2. Pertaining to, connected 
with, or participated in by two or more per- 
sons or things; alike; joint; general. 3. Com- 
monplace; coarse; vulgar; low. 4. Gram. 
(1) Of either gender. (2) Applicable to any 
individual of a class; as, a common noun. II. 
n. Land owned by a town; land open to the 
use of all. [ < L.^ communis, common.] 

— com'mon-al-ty, n. [-ties^, pi.'] The 
common people; the lower classes.— com'inon- 
er, cem'un-er, n. [Gt. Brit.] One of the com- 
monalty; any subject not a peer.— com'mon- 
ly, ac;r. — com^nion-ness, 7J. — com'nion- 
place''. I. a. Not remarkable or interesting; • 
ordinary; trite. II. n. 1. A trite remark; 
familiar truth; platitude; truism. 3. A memo- 
randum.— com'«ion-place'":book'', n. A 
book in which memoranda are recorded meth- 
odically.— com'mons, n. pi. 1, The com- 
mon people; commonalty. *i, [Gt. Brit.] The 
legislators of the lower house of Parliament. 3. 
A company eating at a common table, as in a 
college; the provisions so furnished.— com'- 
mon-weal'", n. The general welfare.— 
com'mon-wealth'', n. 1. The people of a 
state; the state. 2. A republic. 

com-mc'tion, cgm-mo'shun, re. A violent 
agitation; excitement; tumult. [< L. com-, 
together, -\- moveo, move.] 

com-mune', cgm-miiin', vi. [com-muned'; 
COM-MU'NING.] 1. To converse or confer in- 
timately. 2. To partake of the eucharist. 
[< L.^ communico; see communicate.] 

com''m.une, n. 1. The smallest political 
division of France, governed by a mayor and a 
council. 2. A self-governing community. 
[F., < L.^ communis; see common, a.] 

— com'niii-ual, cem'yu-nal, a. 1. Of or 
pertaining to a commune. '^. Common; public. 

-com-mu-'ni-cate, c§m-miu'ni-ket, v. [-ca"- 
TED<*; -ca"ting.] I. t. To impart; make 
known. II. i. 1. To make or hold a com- 
munication; have means of communication. 
2. To partake of the Lord's Supper. [< L. 
communicatus, < communis; see common, a.] 

— com-inii''ni-ca-bil'i-ty, «. — com- 
mu'ni-ca-bKe, a. — coin-inu^ni-cant, n. 
One who partakes of the Lord's Supper.— coni- 
mu^'ni-ca'tion, n. 1. The act of communi- 
cating; Intercourse; conference; correspondence. 
2. That which Is communicated; a letter or mes- 
sage. 3. Means of communicating, as a high- 
way or passage.— com-niu'iii-ca-tiv(e, a. 
Ready to communicate; frank; talkative, -ly, 
adv. -ncHs, ?^— com-mu'ni-ca'''tor, n. 

comi-mu'ziion, c§m-miu'ny§n, n. 1. The 
act of communing; sympathetic intercourse; 
fellowship. 2. The sacrament, or the act of 
partaking of it. 3. Religious fellowship; also, 
a denomination of Christians. 

com'mu-nism, cem'yu-nizm, n. Common 
ownership of property; the abolition of private 
property and state control of labor, religion, 
social relations, etc. — com'mu-nist, cem'yu- 

flutgare (future); aisle; au {outy, eil; c (k); chat; dli {tha); go; sing, ink; thin. 



nist. n. One who advocates communism or com- 
munallsm.— coin'^inu-iiis'tic, a. 

com-mu'ni-ty, cgm-miQ'ni-ti, n. [-ties^, 
pi.] 1. A body politic, as a village, town, 
cityj or state; the public; any body of persons 
having common interests. 2. A sharing or 
participation; identity or likeness. 

com-mute'', cgm-miiit', v. [com-mu'ted"*; 
com-mu'ting.] I. t. To put or accept some- 
thing less instead of. II. i. To effect com- 
mutation; pay in gross at a reduced rate, as 
railroad fare. [< L. com-, + mvto, change.] 
~com-mu''ta-bil'i-ty, n. com-mii^- 
ta-bKe-iiesst. — -com-niu'ta-bKe, a.— 
com'^mu-ta'tioii, n. 1. A substitution of 
one kind of payment or service for another. 
^. Law. A reduction or change of penalty.— 
commutation ticket, a railway or other 
ticket issued for a certain length of time at a 
reduced rate.— com-mit'ter, n. One who 
commutes, or uses a commutation ticket. 

com-pact'i"*, c^m-pact\vt. To pack or press 
closely; compress; unite closely; compose. 

com-pact'^d, tj. To join by a compact; con- 

coin-pact^, a. 1. Closely and firmly united; 
solid; dense. 2. Condensed; brief; terse. 
3. Composed; compacted. [< L.^ corn-, to- 
gether, -\-pango, fasten.] 

com'pact, cem'pact, n. A covenant or con- 
tract. [< L. com-, with, -\-paciscoi\ agree.] 

coxn-pan'ioni, cgm-pan'yun, n. 1. One 
who or that which accompanies; a comrade; 
associate. 2 II . An inferior or worthless person ; 
fellow. [< L.i'i'+OF com-, together, -{- panis, 
bread.] — com-pan'Ion-a-bl(e, a. Sociable; 
agreeable.— com«pau'ioii-ship, n. 

com-pan'ion2, n. Naut. A skylight or 
window. {_<!). kompaTije.l 

— com-pan'ion-way. «. A staircase lead- 
ing from the deck to a cabin. 

com'pa-ny, cum'pa-ni, n. [-niessj?/.] 1. 
The society or presence of another or others; 
fellowship; association; society. 2. One or 
more guests; persons met for social purposes; 
society. 3. An assemblage or corporation; a 

Eartner or partners not named. 4. ARl. A 
ody of men commanded by a captain. 
oom-pare', cgm-par', v. [-pared'; -par'- 
iNG.l I. ^ 1. To examine so as to perceive 
similarity or dissimilarity. 2. To liken. 3. 
Gram. To state the degrees of comparison of 
(an adjective or adverb). II. i. To be worthy 
of comparison. [< L. comparo, < cmn- {< 
cum), together, -\- jJar, equal.] 

— com'pa-ra-bl(e, cem'pa-ra-bl, a. That 
maybe compared; lit to be compared; similar.— 
com'pa-ra-bly. adv. — com-par'a-tiv(e, 
a. 1. Pertaining to, resulting from, or making 
use of comparison, "i. Estimated by comparl- 
Bon; relative. 3. Gram. Expressing a higher 
or lower degree, as of the meaning of an adjec- 
tive.- com-par^a-tiv(e, n. Gram. The com- 
parative degree, as of an adjective, -ly, adv. 

com-parc'iU n. Comparison. 
oom-par'i-son, cem-par'i-8§n. n. 1. A com- 
an estimate of relative likeness or un- 


likeness; a simile; example; resemblance. 2. 
Oram. That inflection or adjectives or adverbs 
whicli indicates dilTerences of degree. 
ooxu-part'ment, cgm-parfment, n. A sep- 
arate section or chamber, as of a ship. [ < LL.f 

compartio, < L. cum, together, -{-pars, part.] 
com'pass, cam'pas. I', vt. 1. To attain; 
plan lor; plot. 2. To grasp mentally; com- 
prehend. 3 P. To go around; surround; en- 
compass. 11. n. 1. Extent within limits; 
reach; scope. 2. A boundary or circuit. 3. 
Moderate bounds; due limits. 4. Mus. The 
range of a voice or instrument. 5. An instru- 
ment for determining directions, usually by 
the pointing of a magnetic needle free to turii 
in a horizontal plane, and carrying a marked 
card, as in the mariners'' compass. 6. Intent, 

.-Ml N «n.. 

The letters at the circumference are abbreviations 
of the points; they are read: North, north by east, 
north»northeast, northeast by north, northeast, etc. 

purpose, or design. 7. A circular course or 
journey; round; circuit. [< F. compos, < L. 
com-, together, -\-passus; see pace, n.] 

com^pass-es, cum'pas-ez, n. pi. A jointed 
instrument for marking measurements, descri- 
bing circles, etc. 

com-pas'sion, cgm-pasli'mi, n. Pity for 
suffering, with desire to help or to spare; com- 
miseration. [F., < L.!-!- com-, together, -f- 
fatior, suffer.] — com-pas^sion-ate. I. vt. 
A'TEDd; -a'ting.] To havc compasslon for; 
commiserate. II. a. Feeling compassion; merci- 
ful; sympathetic. -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

coni-pat'i-bl(e, c§m-pat'i-bl, a. Capable of 
existing together; congruous; congenial. 
— com-pat^'i-bil'i-ty, n. The state of 

being compatible; congrulty; congeniality; con- 
sistency, com - pat'i - bl(e - 1 
pat'i-bly, adv. 

•ae»»t. -com- 

com-pa'tri-ot, cem-pd'tri-gt, n. A fellow 

countryman or patriot. 
coin-peer', cem-pir', n. One of equal rank; 

a comrade; associate. [< L.^ cowi-, together, 

-f par, equal.] 
com-pel' cgm-pel', v. [com-pellbd'; com- 

PEL'uNG.] I. t. 1. To urge irresistibly, 

constrain; coerce; force. 2. To obtain 6y 

force; exact. II. i. To use compulsion. [< 

L."F com-, together, -|- jiello, drive.] 
com'pend. cem'pend, n. A compendium. 
com-pen'di-ous, cgm-peu'di-us, a. Briefly 

stated; succinct; concise. -ly,flc?<;. •ness, n. 
com-pen^di-um, cgm-pen'di-um, 7i. [-di- 

UMs or -Di-A, pi.] An abridgment; abstract. 

f < L.'-i- com-, together, -\- feudo, weigh.] 
oom'pen-sate, cem'pen-set, ?>. F-sa'ted''; 

-SA'TiNo.] I. ^ 1. To make suitaole return 

papfi, gsk; at, ftir; element, th6y, us^ge; It, g, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, er; full, rule; but, or; 



to or for; requite; remunerate. 2. To make 
amends for; counterbalance. II. i. To make 
return or amends. [< L. co?«-, together, + 
penso, weigh.] — com'"pen-sa'tion, n. The 
act of compensating, or that which compen- 
sates; payment; amends. 

com-pete', cgm-pit', vi. [-pe'ted''; -pe'ting.] 
To contend emulously, as for a prize; vie. [< 
L. com-, together, + peto, seek.] — com'^pe- 
ti'tion, cem'pe-tish'nn, 7i. Contention of two 
or more for the same object or for superiority; 
rivalry. — coiii-pet'i-tiv(e, a. Pertaining to 
or characterized by competition.— coiii-pet'i- 
lor, n. One who or that which competes. 

com'pe-tence, / cem'pe-tgns, -tgn-si, n. 1. 

com'pe-ten-cy, f The state of being compe- 
tent; ability. 2. Sufficient means; sufficiency. 
3. Law. Qualification or admissibility. 

com'pe-tent, cem'pg-tgnt, a. 1. Having 
sufficient ability or authority; qualified. 2. 
Sufficient; adequate, -ly, adv. 

com-pile', cgm-pail', t'^. [-piled'; -pi'ung.] 
To compose (a literary work) from other works ; 
gather (materials borrowed or transcribed) into 
a volume or the like. [ < L.^ compilo, plunder, 
< com-, together, -\- pilo, rob.] — com'^pi-Ia'- 
tion, cem'pi-lO'shun, n. The act of compiling, 
or something cojnpiled.— com-pi'ler, n. 

com-pla'cence, I cem-ple'sgns. -sgn-si, n. 

com-pla'cen-cy, ) [-ces, CIES^ j)l-} Satis- 
faction; self 'approval; serenity. 

com-pla^cent, -sgnt, a. Feeling or showing 
complacency. [ < L. complaceo, < com-, togeth- 
er, -\-placeo, please.] — com-pla'cent-ly, adv. 

coxa-plain', c§m-plen', ri. To express a 
sense of ill treatment or of pain, grief, or the 
like; murmur; find fault; present a formal 
statement of grievance. [< L.*" com-, togeth- 

■ er, -f- plango, strike.] — com-plain'ant, n. 

I. One who" complains, com-plain'erl:. ^Z, 
One who enters a formal complaint. 

com-plaint', c§m-plent', n. 1. A statement 
of wrong, grievance, or injury. 2. The act of 
complaining. 3. A grievance. 4. A physical 
ailment; disease. 

com'plai-sant", cem'ple-zgnt", ^a. Show- 
ing a desire or endeavor to please; affable; 
courteous. [< L.^ complaceo; see compla- 
cent.] — coiii'plai-sance'', cam'ple-zgns", n. 
The desire or endeavor to please; politeness. 

com'ple-ment, cem'ple-mgnt. I*, xt. To 
add or form a complement to; supplement. 

II. n. 1. Full number; that which fills up or 
completes; the state of being complete. 2. 
An addition or appendage; an accessory. [< 
L. complementwn, < compleo; see complete, 
a.] — com'^ple-men'tal, a. Completing; ad- 
ditional; accessory, com'^ple-inen'ta-ryi. 

com-plete', c§m-plit'. I. vt. [-ple'ted<i; 
-ple'ting.] To make complete; accomplish; 
finish; fulfil. II. a. Lacking nothing; en- 
tire; perfect; full; finished. [< L.^ completus, 
pp. of compleo, < com- intens. -\-pleo, fill.] 

— coin-plete'ly, adv.— coni-plete'ness, 
n.— coin-ple'tioii, cgm-pli'shun, n. The act 
of completing, or the state of being completed; ac- 
complishment; fulfilment.— com-ple'tiv(e, a. 

com'plex'', cem'plex", I. a. 1. Consisting 
of various parts or elements; composite. 2. 
Complicated; involved; intricate. II. n. 
Something composite or complicated; a com- 

plication; collection. [< L. complexus, pp.,< 
coin-, together, + plecto, braid.] 

— coiii-plex'i-tj', 71. L-tiesi.p^.] The state 
of being complex; something complex. 

com-plex'ion, c§m-plec'shun, 71. 1. The 
color and appearance of the skin, especially of 
the face. 2. General aspect; character; qual- 
ity. [< L.F complexi/s; see complex, a.] 

com-pli'ance, cgm-plai'ans, n. 1. The act 
of complying. 2. Complaisance. 

com-pli'ant, cem-plai'ant, a. Complying; 
yielding. — coni-pli''ant-ly, adv. 

com'pli-cate, cem'pli-ket. I. vt. & vi. 
[-CA'TED''; -cA'TiNG.] To make or become 
complex, difficult, or perplexing; mix; con- 
fuse; intertwine; entangle. II. a. Compli- 
cated; complex. [< L. com-, together, -j- 
plico, fold.] — ooni'pli-ca-cy, cem'pli-ca-si, 
n. [-ciES»,jDZ.] The state of being comphcated; 
that which is complicated; complication; com- 
plexity.— com^'pii-ca'tion, n. 1. The act of 
complicating, or the state of being complicated; 
complexity. 2. Anything that complicates. 

com-plic'i-ty, cgm-plis'i-ti, n. [-ties^,j)1.] 
The act or state of being an accomplice. 

com'pli-ment'', cem'pli-mgnt, v. I. t. To 
pay a compliment to. II. i. To use or ex- 
change compliments. 

com'pli-ment, w. 1. An expression of ad- 
miration, congratulation, or the like. 2. A 
formal greeting or remembrance: usually in 
the plural. [< L.^'+f complementvm; see 
COMPLEMENT.] — com^'pll-men'ta-ry, a. Ex- 
pressing or expressive of compliment. 

comi-ply', c§m-plai', vi. [-plied'; -ply'ing.] 
To act in conformity (with); consent; obey. 
[< L.I' compleo; see complete, a.] 

com-po'nent, c^m-po'ngnt. I. a. Forming 
a part or ingredient. II. n. A constituent 
part. [< L. compono; see composite.] 

com-port'"!, cgm-pOrt', v. I. t. To conduct 
(oneself). II. i. To be compatible; agree. 
[< L. ccnn-, together, -\-porto, carry.] 

com-pose', c§m-pOz', v. [-posed'; -po'sing.] 
I. t. 1. To make up of elements or parts; 
construct; form. 2. To be the constituent 
parts of; constitute. 3. Totranquilize; calm. 
4. To reconcile; arrange; settle, II. i. To 
engage in composition. [< F. con^ioser, < 
com-, together, -4- poser, place.] 

— com-posed', pa. Free from agitation; 
calm.— coin-po'sed-ly, adv.— com-po'sed- 
iiess, n.— com-po'ser, 71. 

com-pos'it(e, cgm-pez'it or cem'po-zit, a. 
Made up of separate parts or elements; com- 
bined or compounded. [ < L. compositus, pp. 
of comjyono, < com-, together, + x>ono, place.] 

com^'po-si'tion, C0m"po-zi6h'un, n. 1. The 
act of composing, or the state or manner of be- 
ing composed. 2. A literary, artistic, or mu- 
sical production. 3. A compound or combina- 
tiop. 4. Typesetting. 5. An agreement or 
settlement; compromise. [F., < L. eoinposi- 
tio{n-), < co7npositus; see composite.] 

— coin-pos'i-tor, cgm-pez'i-tgr, n. One 
who composes; a typesetter. 

coin'pos men'tis, cem'pes men'tis. Of sound 
mind. [L.] 

com'post, cem'pOst. 1^. vt. To make into 
or cover with compost. II. n. A fertilizing 
mixture; a composition for plastering. 

flfitgOre (future); aisle; an (o^<t); ©11; c (k); chat; dh (the); go; sing, ink; tliin. 



conx-po'sure, cgm-pO'zhur, n. Tranquillity, 
as of manner or appearance; calmness; serenity. 

conx-pound'<i, c§m-paund', v. I. i. 1. To 
mix intimately, or make by such mixture; 
combine. 2. To settle for less than the sum 
due, as a debt. 3. To cover up or condone (a 
crime) for a consideration. II. i. To come 
to terms; give or accept pay for an offense. 
[< L. OF compono; see composite.] 

com'pound, cem'paund, a. Composed of 
two or more ingredients or parts; composite. 

com'pound' , n. A compound substance. 

com'pound^, n. The walled or fenced en- 
closure of a residence or factory in the Orient. 
[< Malay Jcampong, enclosure.] 

com^pre-lxend'''', cera'prg-hend', tV. 1. To 
grasp mentally; understand fully. 2. To in- 
clude; comprise; encompass. [< L. conipre- 
hendo, < com-, together, -|- preJiendo^ seize.] 

— coin''pre-lien'''8i-biI'i-ty, n. The state 
of being comprehensible, com^'pre-hen'- 
si-bKe-nesst. — coin''pre-hen'8i-bi(e, a. 
Capable of being comprehended; conceivable. 
— coin''pre-hen'si-bly, adv. — com'^pre- 
hen'sion,n. 1. The mental grasping of ideas, 
facts, etc., or the power of doing so; understand- 
ing, ti. Inclusion; comprehensiveness.— coin ''- 
pre-heu'8iv(e, a. Large in scope or content; 
inclusive; broad. -ly, adv. >ne88, n. 

corn-press", cgm-pres', vt. To press together 
or into smaller space; condense; compact; con- 
centrate. [ < L. compressus, < com-, together, 
+ premo, press.] — com-press'^i-biFi-ty, n. 
com-press'i-blCe-nesst.— com-press'i- 
bl(e, a. Capable of being compressed.— coin- 
pres'sion, n. The act of compressing, or the 
state of being compressed.— coln-pre8^/i v(e, 
a. Tending to or having power to compress.— 
coin-press'iv(e-ly, adv. — coiii-pre88'or, 
n. One who or that which compresses; a com- 
pressing muscle or machine. [pressing. 

coni''press, cem'pres, n. A device for com- 

com-prise', cgm-praiz', t'^ [-prised'; -pri'- 
siNG.J To include and cover; consist of; em- 
brace. [< L.F comprehendo ; see compre- 
hend.] com-prize't. 

com'pro-znise, cem'pro-maiz, v. [-mised; 
-Mi'siNG.] I. ^. 1. To adjust by concessions. 
2. To expose to risk or suspicion. II. i. To 
make a settlement by concessions. 

com'pro-mise, n. 1. An arrangement for 
settlement by mutual concession. 2. The 
habit or spirit of concession. [< L. com-, to- 
gether, -\-promittOy promise.] 

coiiiptiU count, n. Account; reckoning.— com p- 
trol'ler, cen-trol\!r,/i. Same as controller,!. 

com-puFsion, cgm-pul'shun, n. The act of 
compelling, or the state of being compelled; 
coercion. [< L. cofnpulms, pp. of compello; 
see compel.]— coin-pul'8lv(e, a. Compelling, 
or tending to compel; compulsory, -ly, adv. 
-ne88, M.— com-pul'so-ry, a. j. Employing 
compulsion; eonipelllng; coercive. »i. Enforced; 
forced. — com - pii I'so - ri - ly, adv. — coni- 
pul'80-ri-n(>MH, n. 

oom-punc^tion, cein-puijc'shun, 71. Self- 
reproach for wrong»doing; slight regret. [< 
L. com- intcns. -{-punyo, sting.] 

— com-pune'tiou8, a. 
com-pute', cgm-pint', vt. & vi. [-pu'ted'I; 

-pu'ting.J To estimate numerically; calculate; 
reckon. [< L. com-, together, -\-puto, reckon.] 

— com-pu^'ta-bll'i-ty, n. — com-pu'ta- 

bl(e, a.— com'-'pu-ta'tion, n. 1 , The act of 

computing, ii. A computed amount.— com- 
pu'ter, n. 

com'rade, cem'rad, n. An intimate com- 
panion. [< L.F camera, chamber.] — com'- 
rade-8hip, n. com'rade-ryj. 

con, cen, vt. [conned; con'nincj.] To study 
with care; peruse; learn. [< AS. cunnian, 
test, try to find out, < cunnan, know.] 

con, n. & adv. The contrary; against. Cj). 
PRO. [< L. contra, against.] 

con-, prefix. With; together: form of com- be- 
fore c, d, f, g, i,j, n, q, s, t, w. 

con a-mo're, cen a-mo're. With love; heartily. 

con-cat'e-nate, cgn-cat'§-net, vt. [-na'ted''; 
-na"ting.] To join or link together; connect 
in a series. [< con-, with, -\- L. catena, 
chain.] — con-caf e-na'tion, n. The act of 
concatenating; a chain=like series. 

con'cave'', cen'kev'. I. a. Hollow and 
rounded, as the interior of a sphere or circle. 
II. n. A concave surface; vault, as of heaven. 
[ < L. con- intens. -j- cavies. hollow.] 

— con-cav'i-ty, n. [-ties*, pi.] The state 
of being concave; a concave surface; hollow. 

con-ceaF, cgn-sil', vt. To hide; secrete. [< 
L.OF C071-, together, + ceto, hide.] 

— con-ceal'a-bl(e, a. — con-ceal'ment, 
n. 1 . The act of concealing, or state of being 
concealed. 2. A hiding<=place. 

con-cede', c§n-sld', ^'<. [-ce'ded"!; -ce'ding.] 

1. To yield to demand; allow; surrender. 2. To 
bestow; grant. 3. To acknowledge; admit. [< 
L. concedo, < con-, together, + cedo, yield.] 

con-ceit', cgn-sit', n. 1. Overweening self- 
esteem. 2. A fanciful idea; a quaint or hu- 

■^ morons fancy; clever thought or expression. 
3. Apprehension; understanding. [< L.^^ cofh 
cipio; see conceive.] 

— con-ceit'ed, pa. Having an excessive 
opinion of oneself; vain, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

con-ceiv(e', cgn-siv', •r. [-ceiv(e)d'; -ceiv'- 
iNG.] I. ^. 1. To form an idea of. 2. To 
become possessed with, as hatred. 3. To 
think; imagine. 4. To become pregnant with; 
engender; originate. 511. To understand. II. 
i. 1. To form a mental image; think; imagine. 

2. To become pregnant. [<1..*^^ concipio, < 
con-, together, + capio, take.] — con-ceiv'a- 
bl(e, «.— con-ceiv'a-bly, adv. 

con'cen-trate, cen'sen-tret or c§n-sen'tret, 
V. [-TUA'TED'i; -TRA'TiNG.] I. t. To draw to 
acomuKm center; concenter; condense; inten- 
sify. II. i. To converge toward a center; be- 
come compacted or intensified. [< con-, to- 
gether, + L- centrum, center.]— con^cen- 
tra'tiou, n. The act of concentrating, or that 
which Is concentrated. — con-c<Mi'tra-tiv(e, 
a. Tcndlngto or characterized by concentration. 
-ly, adv. -nc8H, «.— coii'r<Mi-tra''tor, n. 

con-cen'tric, cgn-sen'tric, a. Having a com- 
mon center, as circles, con-cen'tric-al^. 

— con -een'tric- al - ly, a</r. — con^'ccn- 
tric'l-ty, n. 

con'cept, cen'sept, n. An abstract general 
notion or idea; also, any notion combining 
elements into the idea of one object. [< L. 
coitccptns; si'C conceit, /;.] 

con-cep'tion, cgn-sep'shun, n. 1. The act 
or faculty of conceiving. 2. That which is 
conceivea; an idea; notion; plan; invention. 

papa, gsk; at,- air; element, th6y, ns^ge; It, $, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, or; full, rule; bot, or; 



con-cem', cgn-sgrn'. I. vt. 1. To relate or 
belong to; be of interest or importance to. 2. 
To occupy or engage. 3. To affect with so- 
licitude; trouble. 11. n. 1. That which con- 
cerns one; affair; business. 2. Solicitude; in- 
terest. 3. A business establishment. [< L. 
con-, with, 4- cerno, distinguish.] 

con-cern'ing, prep. In relation to; about. 

con-cert''', cgn-sgrt', vt. To arrange in con- 
cert; contrive. [< L.^'+^cowcer^o, debate.] 

con'cert, cen'sgrt, ». 1. Mas. A musical per- 
formance by a number of voices or instru- 
ments, or both. 2. Harmony; agreement; ac- 
cordance; unity. 

con-ces'sion, cgn-sesh'un, n. The act of 
conceding, or that which is conceded. 

— con-ces'8iv(e, a. Involving concession. 
concb., ce^ic, n. A large marine univalve 

shell; the shell of a mollusk; a shell blown as 
a horn. [< Gv}' konche, shell.] — con-choi'- 
dal, a. Having shelUshaped depressions and 
elevations. con'choid+.— con-choFo-srist, 
n.— con-chol'o-jjy, n. The study of shells. 

con-cierge', cen-slarzh', 71. A janitor. IF.] 

con-cil'i-ate, cgn-sil'i-et, vt. [-a'ted''; -a"- 
TiNG.] To pacify; soothe; gain; win. [< L. 
concilium, council.] — con-cil'^i-a'tion, n.— 
con-cil'i-a-to-ry^ a. Tending to concili- 
ate. con-ciPi-a-tiv(et« 

con-cise', cen-sais', a. Expressing much in 
brief form; compact; terse. [< L. concido, 
cut off.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

con'clave, cen'clgv, n. A secret council or 
society. [F.] 

con-clude', cgn-clud', v. [con-clu'ded''; con- 
clu'ding.] I., t. 1. To come to a decision 
about; determine; decide; also, to infer; de- 
duce. 2. To terminate; finish; settle. II. i. 
1. To come to an end. 2. To infer. [< L. 
con-, with, 4- claudo, shut.] 

con-clu'sion, cen-clu'zhun, n. 1. The act 
of concluding; termination; end. 2. A con- 
viction from inference. 3. A practical deter- 
mination; decision. 4. The closing part, as 
of a discourse. [F., < L. concludo, conclude.] 

con-clu'siv(e, c§n-clu'siv, a. 1. Decisive; 
putting an end to doubt. 2. Leading to a 
conclusion; final, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

con-cocf'i, CQn-cect', vt. To prepare by mix- 
ing ingredients; contrive; plan; scheme. [< 
L. con-, together, + coquo, boil.] 

— con-coc'tion, n. The act of concocting, 
or the thing concocted; contrivance; mixture. 

con-com'i-tant, c^n-cem'i-tant. I. a. Ex- 
isting or occurring together; attendant. II. 
n. An attendant circumstance. [<L.iJ'COw-, 
with, -|~ comes, companion.] — con-com'i- 
tance, «.— con-coiii'i-tant-ly, adv. 

con'cord, ceri'cerd, n. Unity of feeling or 
interest; agreement; accord; harmony. [< L. 
Concordia, < con-, together, + cor, heart.] 

con-cord'ance, cgn-cerd'ans, w. An index 
of words or topics in the Bible or other book. 

con-cord''ant, c§n-cord'ant, a. Existing in 
concord; consonant. -ly, adv. 

con'course, cen'cOrs, n. 1. An assembling 
or moving together; confluence. 2. An as- 
sembly; throng. [< L.*" coneursus, pp. of con- 
curro; see concur.] 

con-crete', c§n-crit', v. [con-cre'ted'>; con- 

cre'ting.] I. t. To form into a hardened 
mass; lay concrete upon; supply with con- 
crete. II. i. To coalesce; congeal. 

confer ete, cen'crit, a. 1. Joined in or con- 
stituting a mass. 2. Embodied in actual ex- 
istence. 3. Applied or relating to a particular 
case; individual; particular. 4. Made of con- 
crete, -ly, adv. -ness, n.— con-cre'tion, n. 
The act of concreting; a concrete mass.— con- 
cre'tivCe, a. Tending to concretion. 

con'crete, n. 1. A hardened mass, as of 
gravel united by hydraulic cement. 2. A con- 
crete object, or the conception of it. [< L. 
concretus, < con-, together, 4- cresco, grow.] 

con'cu-'bine, cen'km-bain, n. A woman who 
cohabits with a man without marriage; a mis- 
tress. [< L. con-, with, -\- cvbo, lie.] 

— coii-cii'bi-nage, n. 
con-cu'pis-cence, cen-kiu'pis-gns, n. 1. 

T-ndue or illicit sexual desire; lust. 2. Any 
inordinate appetite or desire. [F., < L. co?i- 
intens. -f o/pio, desire.] — con-cu'pis-cent, a. 
Lustful; carnal; sensual. 
con-cur', c§n-cur', vi. [con-curred' ; con- 
cur'ring.] To come or happen together; agree, 
as in opinion; coincide; cooperate; unite; com- 
bine. [< L. concurro, < con-, together, -|- 
cioro, run.] — con-cur'rence, cen-cur'gns, n. 

1. Combination or cooperation. 2. Agreement; 
approval. 3. A simultaneous occurrence; coin- 
cidence.— coii-ciir'rent, cgn-cur'ent, a. Oc- 
curring or acting together; meeting in the same 
point; coordinate; concomitant, -ly, adv. 

con-cus'sion, cgn-cush'un, n. A violent 
shaking; shock; jar. [< L. concussioiri-), < 
C071-, together, -\- quatio, shake.] 

— coii-cii8'8iv(e, a. Fertainlng to, produ- 
cing, or tending to produce concussion. 

con-demn', cgn-dem', vt. 1. To speak 
against; hold or prove to be wrong; censure. 

2. To pronounce judicial sentence against. 

3. To ofticially forbid the use of, as some- 
thing unfit. 4. To judicially appropriate for 
public use; declare forfeited. [< L. c&n- 
demno, < con- intens. -{- danino, condemn.] 

— coii-dem'iia-bl(e, o. — con^'dem-na'- 
tion, n. The act of condemning, or the state 
of being condemned.— coii-ilem'ua-to-ry, a. 
Containing or expressing condemnation.— con- 
demned', cgn-demd',pa. 1. Intended for per- 
sons sentenced to death. 2. Pronounced guilty 
or worthless, as a man or a building. 

con-dense', cgn-dene',??. [-densed''; -dens'- 
iNG.] I. f. To make dense; compress; con- 
solidate; abridge; epitomize. II. i. To be- 
come condensed. [< L.*" condenso, < con-, 
together, 4- densiis, thick.] — con"den-8a'- 
tion, cen'den-se'shun, n. 1. The act of making 
dense or denser, or the state of being condensed. 
2. Any product of condensing.— coii-deiis'a- 
[or -i-]bl(e, a.— con-dens'er, cgn-dens'er, n. 

con"de-scend''', cen"dg-send', vi. To be 
gracious, affable, or social, as with an inferior; 
deign. [< F. condescendre, < L. con-, to- 
gether; and see descend.] — con"de-8eend'- 
ing, pa. Showing condescension; gracious; 
patronizing, -ly, ad».— con"de-8cen'8ioii, 
n. The act of condescending; graclousness or 
courtesy to Inferiors. 

con-dign', cgn-dain', a. Well deserved; mer- 
ited; deservedly thorough and severe, ae pun- 
ishment. [< L.^ condignus, < con- intens. -f 
dignus, deserving.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

fiut|fire (future); aisle; au (owt); ell; c (k); chat; db (<Ae); go; sing, iigik^ tliin. 




con'di-ment, cen'di-mgnt, n. A sauce, relish, 
spice, etc. [< L. condimentnm.] 

con-di'tion, cgn-dish'un. I. vt. 1. To place 
a condition or conditions upon 5 limit. 2. To 
be the condition of; be prerequisite to. 3. To 
specify as a condition; require. II. n. 1. 
The state or mode in whicli a person or thing 
exists. 2. State of health; especially, a healthy 
state. 3. A modifying circumstance. 4. A 
prerequisite. 5. A grade or rank; especially, 
nigh social position. [P., < L. condicio, < 
con-, together, -f dico, mention.]— con-di'tion- 
al, a. Expressing or imposing conditions; not 
absolute.— con-di-'tion-al-ly, adv. 

con-di'tioned, c§n-dish'und, ^xi. 1. Limited 
by or subjected to a condition, conditions, or 
relations. 2. Circumstanced; placed. 

con-dole', cgn-dol', ri. [-doled'; -do'ling.] 
To grieve or express sympathy with another. 
[< L.LL con-, with, + doleo, grieve.] 

— con-do'lence, n. 

con-done% c§n-don', ^t. [-doned'; -do'- 
NiNG.] To treat as overlooked or forgiven; 
forgive. [< L. con-, together, -}- dono, give.] 

— con'^oo-ua'tioii, n. Forgiveness. 
con'dor, cen'der, n. A large vulture of the 

high Andes. [Sp.] 

con-duce', cen-dius', vt. [-duced''; -du'- 
ciNO.] To help or tend toward a result; con- 
tribute. [< L.*" con-, together, -\-dnco, lead.] 

con-du'cIv(e, cgn-diu'siv, a. Contributing 
to a result; leading; helping, -ly, adv. -ness, w. 

con-ducf'i, cgn-duct', V. I. ^. 1. To accom- 
pany and show the way; guide; escort. 2. To 
manage; carry on; control; also, to direct or 
behave (oneself). 3. To transmit, as electricity. 
II. i. 1. To serve as a conductor. 2. To 
direct or lead. 3. To behave; act. 

— con-diic'tion, cgn-duc'shun, n. Trans- 
mission or conveyance, as of heat, sound, or elec- 
tricity.— con-duct'iv(e, cgn-duct'Iv, a. 1. 
Having the power of conducting. 2. Proceed- 
ing by or resulting from conduction.— con''- 
duc-tiv'i-ty, a. Power to conduct, as heat or 
electricity.— con-duct'or, cgn-duct'er, 7i. ] . 
A guide; leader; manager. 2. [CJ. S.] A rail- 
way oflacer in charge of a train or car. 3. A 
body having conducting power, as a lightnings 
rod.— con-fluct'ress, n.fe^n. 

con'duct, cen'duct, n. 1. One's course of 
action; behavior. 2. The act of managing; 
direction; control; skilful management. 3. 
The action of leading; escort; convoy, f < L. 
conductus, pp. of conduco; see conduce.] 

con'duit, cen'dit, n. A means for conducting 
something, as a tube or pipe for a fluid, a sub- 
way for electric wires, etc. [F.] 

cone, cOn, n. 1. A solid figure that tapers 
uniformly from a circular base to a point; also, 
any object having such shape. 2. Bat. A dry 
multiple fruit, as of the pine, composed of 
scales arranged symmetrically around an axis 
and enclosing seeds. [< Gr.*- konos, cone.] 

con-fab'n-latc, cen-fab'yu-lCt, vi. [-la'thd^; 
•LA'TiNO.] To chat; gossip; converse. [< L. 
con; together, -\- fabula; see fable.] — con- 
fab^'u-la'tion, n. Familiar conversation; 
chat, con'fabi. 

oon-fec'tion, CQn-fec'shun, n. A sweetmeat; 
conserve. [F.] con'fect$.— con-fec'tlon- 
er, n. One who makes or deals In confectionery. 
— con-fec'tloii-er-y, n. [-ies*, pi.] I, Can- 

dies, sweetmeats, etc., collectively. 2. A con- 
fectioner's shop. 

con-fed'er-a-cy, cgn-fed'gr-a-si, n. [-cies", 
2)1.] A number of states or persons in league 
with each other; league; confederation. 

con-fed'er-ate, c§n-fed'gr-et. I. vt. & vi. 
[-A'TEDt*; -A'TiNG.] To form or join in a con- 
federacy. II. a. Associated in a confederacy. 
III. n. One who is united with others in a 
league or plot; an associate; accomplice. [< 
L. con- (< ci/m), together, -f- fcedus, league.] 
— con-fed'^er-a'tion, n. 1. The act of 
confederating. 3. A confederacy. 

con-fer', cgn-fgr', v. [-ferred'; -fer'ring.] 

1. t. To grant as a gift or benefit; bestow. 
II. i. To hold a conference; consult. [< L. 
confero, < con-, together, -{-fero, bear.] 

con'fer-ence, cen'fgr-gns, n. 1. A formal 
meeting for counsel or discussion; an official 
council. 2. Conversation; discourse. 

Con-fer'va, cen-fgr'va, n. [-v.e, -vi or -ve, 
pi.} A green, fresh=water alga. [L.] 

con-fess', cgn-fes', v. [con-fessed'S some- 
times con-fest'; CON-FESS'lNG.] I. ^ 1. To 
acknowledge oneself to be guilty of; own; ad- 
mit, as a fault. 2. To acknowledge belief in, 
as a doctrine. 3. To demonstrate; disclose; 
reveal. II. i. To make acknowledgment, as 
of fault, crime, or error. [< L. confessvs, < 
con-, together, -\-fateor, confess.] — con-fess'- 
ed-ly, adv. By admission or confession; Indis- 
putably.— con-fes'sion, cgn-fesh'un, n. 1. 
The act of confessing; avowal; acknowledgment. 

2. That which Is confessed; a qreed.— con-fes'- 
sion-al. I. a. Pertaining to a confession. II. 
n. R. C. Ch. A priests' cabinet for hearing con- 
fessions.— con-fess'or, cgn-fes'gr, 7i. 1, One 
who confesses his faith in Chrlstlanitv, especially 
in the face of persecution. 2. B. C. Ch. A 
priest who hears confessions; a spiritual adviser, 
as of a king, con-fess'ert. 

con'^fi-dant', ceu'fl-dgnt', fi. A person to whom 
secrets are entrusted. [F.] con'^fl-daute', 
cen'rt-dgnt', n.fem. 

con-fide', cgn-faid', v. [coN-ri'DED**; con- 
Fi'DiNG.] I. t. To reveal in trust or confi- 
dence; entrust (to). II. i. To repose confi- 
dence (in). [< L. con-, with, -{-fldo, trust.] 

con'fl-dence, cen'fi-dgns, n. 1. Trust in or 
reliance upon another; belief in a person or 
thing. 2. Assurance; self-reliance. 3. Pri- 
vate conversation or communication ; a secret. 
4||. That in which one confides. — con'fl-dent, 
cen'fl-dent, «. Having confidence; assured; self- 
reliant, -ly, od?\— con"fi-<len'tinI, cen'fl- 
den'shal, rt. 1, Having private relations with 
another; trusted; Intimate. 2. Given In confi- 
dence; secret. 3. Disposed to confide in another. 
— cou"fi-deii'tiaI-Iy, adv. 

con-flg"u-ra'tion, cgn-flg'yu-re'shun, n. 
Structural arrangement; conformation; con- 
tour. [< L. con-, together, -\- Jigiiro, figure.] 

con-fine', cgn-fain', t'^ [con-fined'; con- 
Fi'NiNo.] To shut up; imprison; limit; re- 
strict. |< L.^ co«^/<i.«f, adjoining, < co/;-, to- 
gether, -\-Jinhi, liniit.l — con'flne,cen'fain, n. 
A boundary; limit; border; frontier.— cou-flne'- 
lcs8, a. tJnbounded; boundless. — coii-line'- 
iiieiit, 11. 1. The Htnto of being confined; Im- 
prisonment. 2. Ai-couohement. 

con-fimx', cgn-fgrin', rt. 1. To corroborate; 
verify ; make certain. 2. To strengthen. 3. Ldic. 
To ratify; sanction. 4. Ecd. To establish in of- 

papfl, (jBk; at, fiir; el«mfint, th%, us^ge; It, $, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, er; full, rflle;- bot, 9r; 



flee ; receiveinto the church by confirmation, [ < 
L.confirmo, < cow-, together, 4- fiffnus, &Tm.] 
— con^'fir-ina'tion, cen'fer-me'shun,^. 1. 
The act of confirming. 2. That which confirms; 
proof. 3. The rite of full Induction Into the 
Roman Catholic, Anglican, and certain other 
churches.— coii-firin'a-tiv(e, a. Tending to 
confirm; confirmatory.— con-firin^a-to-ry, a. 
Helping to confirm or establish. 
con-'fis-cate, cen'fis-ket o?* c§n-fis'ket, vt. 
[-CA'TEDd; -CA"TiNo.] Lttw. To appropriate 
as forfeited to the public use or treasury. [< 
L. con-, together, +^1scw5, purse.] — con-fls'- 
ca-bl(e, a. Liable to confiscation, con^'fls- 
ca'ta-bl(et.— con'fis-cate, a. Confiscated 
or forfeited.— coii^'fis-ca'tion, «.— con'fis- 
ca'^tor, 71. 
con'^fla-gra'tion, cen'fla-gre'shun, n. A 
great or extensive fire. [< L. cow -, together, 
-{-Jlagro, burn.] 

con-flict'd, cgn-flict', vi. To come into col- 
lision; be in mutual opposition; clash; con- 
tend. [< L. con-, together, -\-fligo, strike.] 

con-'flict, cen'flict, n. A contest; strife. 

con^flu-ent, cen'flu-gnt. I. a. Flowing to- 
gether so as to form one; blended into one. 
II. n. A fork or branch of a river. [< L. 
con-, together, -\-fluo, flow.] 

— con'flii-ence, n. A junction of streams; a 
gathering and mingling; uniting; union. 

con-form', c§n-fSrm', v. I. t. To make like 
in form: with to. II. i. To act in accord; 
correspond; comply. [< L. con-, together, -f 
foi'ma, form.]— con-form'a-bl(e, a. Existing 
or occurring In conformity; correspondent; con- 
sistent; compliant; obedient. — con-foriii'a- 
bly, orf». — con'^for-ina'tion, n. General 
structure, form, or outline; arrangement of 
parts.— CO n-form'ist, n. One who conforms, 
as to an established church.— coii-form'i-ty, 
n. Correspondence In form, manner, or use; 
agreement; acquiescence. 

con-found'd, c§n-fannd', vt. 1. To strike 
with confusion or amazement ; perplex ; over- 
whelm; abash. 2. To confuse with some- 
thing else; mix. [< L. con/undo, < con-, to- 
gether, -\-fiindo, pour.] 

con''fra-ter'ni-ty, cen'fra-ter'ni-ti, n. 
[-TiEs^ />/.] An association; brotherhood. 
[< L. con-, together, -\-f rater, brother.] 

con^'frere', cSn'frar', n. A colleague. [F.] 

con-front'd, c§n-frunt', vt. 1. To stand face 
to face with; face deflantly. 2. To put face 
to face. [ < L.*" con-, together, -^-frons {front-), 

con-fuse', cgn-fiQz', v. [con-fused'; con- 
Fu'siNG.] 1. t. 1. To perplex; bewilder; 
abash; disconcert. 2. To mix indiscriminately; 
disorder; derange. II§. i. To become con- 
fused. [< L. confusns, pp. of confundo, con- 
found.]— con-fu'sed-ly, adv.— con-fu'sion, 
cgn-fiu'zhun, n. The act of confusing, or the 
state of being confused; perplexity; distraction; 
embarrassment; shame. 

con-fute', c§n-fiiit', vt. [con-fu'ted"1; con- 
fu'ting.] 1. To prove to be false or invalid; 
refute successfully. 2. To prove (a person) 
to be in the wrong. 3ii. To confound. [< L. 
confuto, < con-, to^ether,+/Mto, pour.] — eon''- 
fii-ta'tion, n. The act of confuting; disproof. 

con'^ire', cSh'zhe', n. 1. Leave»taking; parting. 
2. Dismissal. [F.] con^'gee't. 

con-geal', cgn-jll', vt. & vi. To convert or be 

converted from a fluid to a solid condition; co- 
agulate; stiffen; harden; freeze. [< L. con-, 
- ,' - J..- " , ' , - .,- , old.]— con. 

together, -f gelo, freeze, < 

fireaPa-bl(e, a. con-ffe'la-blet.— con'^ge- 

la'tion, n. A congealing; clot; concretion. 

con'ge-ner, cen'j§-ner, n. A member of the 
same genus or kind with another. [L., < con-, 
together, -f genus, race.] — con^'ge-ner^ic, a. 
con-ge'nial, c§n-jl'nial, a. 1. Having sim- 
ilar character or tastes; sympathetic. 2. 
Suited to one's disposition; agreeable.— con- 
ge"ni-al/i-ty, w. — con-ge'nial-ly, adv. 

con-gen'i-tal, cgn-jen'i-tal, a. Born with 
one; existing from birth, [< L. con-, together, 
-f- gigno, bear.] — con-gen^i-tal-ly, adv. 

con-gest''', cgn-jest', vi. To become con- 
gested. [ < L. congestus, pp., < con-, together, 
-f- oero, carry.] — con-ges'tion, cgn-jes'chun, 
n. An excessive accumulation, as of blood in the 
blood=vessels, or of population; overcrowded 
condition.- con-gest'ivCe, a. Pertaining to, 
characterized by, or indicative of congestion. 

con-glom'er-ate, cgn-glem'gr-et. I. vt. & 
vi. [-A"TED<'; -A"TiNG.] To gather into a co- 
hering mass. II. -et or -§t, a. Massed or 
clustered; consisting of loosely cemented het- 
erogeneous material. III. n. A heterogene- 
ous collection; a rock composed of pebbles 
loosely cemented together. [ < L. con-, togeth- 
er, -f glomus, ball.] 

— coii-glom''er-a'tioii, n. 1 . A conglom- 
erated mass. 3. The act of conglomerating. 

con-grat'u-late, c§n-grat'yu-let, vt. [-la"- 
TED*'; -LA"TiNG.] To express sympathetic 
pleasure in the joy or good fortune of (another). 
[< L. C071-, together, -j- gratuloi\ wish joy.] — 
con-grat^'u-la'tiou, n. 1 . The act of congrat- 
ulating. 3. pi. A congratulatory speech or wri- 
ting.— con-grat'ii-la'"tor, n.— con-ffrat'- 
ii-la-to-ry, a. Expressing congratulation. 

con'gre-gate, ceri'grg-get, vt. & vi. [-ga"- 
TEDd; -GA'TiNG.] To bring or come together 
into a crowd: assemble. [< L. con-, together, 
+ grego, collect.] 

con'^gre-ga'tion, ceij'gr§-ge'shun, n. 1. 
The act of congregating. 2. An assemblage, 
as for worship; a religious community or com- 

con''gre-ga'tion-al, ce5i"gr§-ge'8hun-al, a. 
1. Pertaining to a congregation. 2. [C-] Per- 
taining to Congregationalism or to the Congre- 
gationalists. — con^'gre-ga'tion-al-ism, n. 
The church polity that makes the authority of 
the local congregation supreme within its own 
domain, or [C-] the religious denomination 
founded on that polity. —Con''ere-8f a'tion- 
al-ist, n. A member of the Congregational 

con' gross, cen'gres, n. 1. An assembly or 
conference. 2. [C-l The national legislative 
body of the United States. 3. A coming 
together; intercourse. [<L. co/i-, together, -P 
gradior, walk.] — con-gres'sion-al, a. Per- 
taining to a congress, especially [C-] the United 
States Congress.— Con'Kress-man.M. [-men, 
2}l.'i A member of the United States Congress. 

con'gru-ent, cen'gru-gnt, a. Having mutual 
agreement or conformity; correspondent; ap- 
propriate. [< L. congnien{t-)s, ppr. of con- 
grvo, agree.] — con'gru-ence, ti. eon'gru- 
en-cyl. — con'8rru»ent-ly, adv. 

con'gru-ous, cei>'gru-us, a. Harmoniously 

flfltjare (future); aisle; au (owt); oil; c (k); chat; dli {the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



related or coiubiued; appropriate; consistent. 
[< L. congruus, < congimo, agree.] -iy, adv. 
— con-gru'i-ty, cen-gru'i-ti, n. [-tiks», pl.l 
Agreement; harmoniousness; appropriateness. 

con'ic, cen'ic, a. Cone»shaped. con'ic-al:J:* 

co-nif er-ous, co-nif'sr-us, a. Cone*bearing. 
[ < L. conns, cone, -{-fero, bear.] 

con-jec'ture, cgn-jec'chur or -tiyr. I. nt. 
&vi. [-tubed; -TUR-iNG.] To judge from in- 
complete evidence; surmise; guess. II. n. 1. 
An indecisive opinion; a guess; surmise. 2. 
The act of conjecturing. [ < L. con-, with, -\- 
Jacio, throw.] — con-jec'tur-al, a. Of the 
nature of or dependent on conjecture. 

con-join', c§n-jein', vt. & vi. To join togeth- 
er; associate; connect; unite. [< L.^ con-, 
together, -\-jungo, join.] 

con- joint', a. Associated; conjoined. 

con'ju-gal, cen'ju-gal, a. Pertaining to mar- 
riage; connubial; matrimonial. [<L. conju- 
galis, < con-, together, -\-Jungo, join.] 

— con'jii-gal-ly, adv. 
con'ju-gate, cen'ju-get. I. vt. [-GA'TEDd; 

-ga"ting.] To give in order the inflections of: 
said of verbs. II. cen'ju-get or -ggt, a. Joined 
in pairs; coupled; paired. [< L. conjugo, yoke 
together, < con-, together, -\-jugum, yoke.] 

— con"ju-ga'tion, n. 1. Conjunction; un- 
ion. '^. Gram. The inflection of a verb. 

con-junc'tion, cgn-junc'shun, n. 1. The 
state of being joined together; cf)mbination; 
league. 2. A part of speech that connects 
words, clauses, and sentences. 3. Astron. The 
nearest apparent approach of two heavenly 
bodies to each other. [ < L. conjunctio, < con-, 
together, -\-jungo, join.] 

con-junc'tiV(e, cgn-juric'tiv, a. 1. Joining; 
connective. 2. Joined together. 

con-junc'ture, c§n-juric'chur or -tiQr, v. 

I. A combination of circumstances; juncture; 
crisis. 2. The act of joining; union. 

con''ju-ra'tion, cen'ju re'shun, n. 1. A 
solemn invocation; adjuration. 2. An en- 
chantment; incantation; spell. 

con'jurei, cun'jur, v. [con'jured; con'juk- 
iNG.] I. t. 1. To effect by magic. 2. To 
Hiimmon, drive away, or control by magic art. 

II. i. To practise magic. 

— con'jur-eri, n. A juggler. 
con-jure'2, cgn-jur', v. [con-jubed'; con- 

jub'ino.] 1. 1. To call on ui the name of God 
or of something sacred; appeal to solemnly; 
adjure. II. i. To bind oneself by oath taken 
with others. [< L. con-, together, -{-jutv, 
swear.] — con-jur'er2§, ?t. 

con-nate', cen-n6t', a. Born in and with one; 
innate; congenital; congenitally or closely uni- 
ted. [ < L.'-i' co/i-, together, -f nascor, be born.] 

con-nect''', cgn-nect', vt. & vi. To join, unite, 
or combine; associate or be associated. [< L. 
con-, together, + necto, bind.] 

— con-nect'ed-ly» adv. Jointly; coherently. 
— coii-nec'tioii, cgn-nec'shun, n. 1 • The act 
of coimecting or the state of being connected; 
union; combination. '^. Family relationship; a 
relative. 3. A company; denomination. 4. A 
direct transfer from one route to anotlier, as In 
railway service. con-nex'i«nt.— con-nect'- 
lv(e, cen-nect'Iv, a. Capable of connecting, or 
serving to connect; causing or Involving connec- 

tion, -ly, acZ?'.— coii-nect'or, cgn-nect'gr, n. 

A person or thing that connects. 
con-nex'ion, etc. Same as connection, etc. 
con-nive', c§n-naiv', vi. [-nived'; -ni'ving.] 

1. To encourage or assent to a wrong by silence 
or feigned ignorance; followed by at. 2. To 
be in collusion: followed by with. [< L. con-, 
together, + nicto, wink.] — con-nl'vance, w. 

con"nois-seur', cen"i-sur', n. A competent 
critical judge of art. [F.] 

con-nu'toi-al, c§n-niu'bi-al, a. Pertaining 
to matrimony; relating to husband or wife; 
matrimonial; conjugal; nuptial. [< L. con-, 
together, -f nnl)0, marry.] 

co'noid, co'neid. I. a. Concshaped; conical. 
II. ti. Something having the form of a cone. 

con'quer, cen'kgr, t). I. t. 1. To overcome; 
subdue; vanquish. 2. To obtain in war, or 
by any conflict or struggle. II. i. To be vic- 
torious. [< L. con-, together, -\- qusero, seek.] 
— con'quer-a-bl(e, a.— con'qiier-or, n. 

con' quest, ce^'cwest, n. 1. The act of con- 
quering. 2. The thing conquered. [< L.^f 
conqniro; see conqueb.] 

con''san-guin'e-ous, cen'san-gwiu'e-us, a. 
Descended from the same parent or ancestor. 
[< L. con-, together, + sanguis, blood.] — 
con"san-guiii'i-ty, n. Blood=relationshIp. 

con'science, cen'shgns, n. The power or 
faculty which distinguishes between right and 
wrong; moral sense. [F., < L. conscientia, < 
con-, together, + scio, know.] — - con"scl-en'. 
tieus, cen'shi-en'shus, a. Governed or dic- 
tated by conscience, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

con'scious, cen'shos, a. 1,. Knowine one's 
own existence and mental operations. ^. Em- 
barrassed by undue self'consciousness. 3. 
Cognizant. 4. Present to the mind; recognized 
as belonging to oneself. [< L. con-scius, < 
con-, with, -f scio, know.] — con'sclous-ly, 
ad».— cou'8ciou8-ues8, n. 1. The state of 
being conscious; sensation; knowledge. 'Z. The 
power of self-knowledge; internal perception. 

con-script''', cen-script', vt. To force into 
military service; draft. 

con'script, cen'script. I. a. Registered; en- 
rolled. II. n. One who is compulsorily enrolled 
for military service. [< L. cow-, together, + 
so'ibo, write.] — con-scrlp'tion, cgn-scrip'- 
shun, 71. A compulsory enrolment of men for 
military service; draft. 

con'se-crate, cen'8§-cret, vt. [-cba'teu''; 
-CRA'TINU.J To appropriate to sacred us>es: 
devote; dedicate; hallow. [< L.con-, togeth- 
er, -|- sacer, sacred.] — con"8e-ora'Uoii, n. 
The act of consecrating, or the state of being 
consecrated.— con'»e-cra"tor, n. 

con-sec'u-tiv(e, cgn-sec'yu-tiv, a. 1. Fol- 
lowing in uninterrupted succession; successive. 

2. Consequent: with ^o. [< L. co/i-, with, -f 
seqiior, follow.] -Iy, adv. -ness, n. 

con-sen'sus, cgn-scn'sus, n. A collective 
opinion; general agreement. [L., < <v)«-, to- 
gether, -f sentio, feel.] 

con-sent', cgn-sent'. I*", vi. 1. To yield 
voluntarily; accede, as to a request; acquiesce. 
2il. To agree together; accord. II. n. 1. A 
voluntary yielding; compliance. 2. Agree- 
ment; concord. [< L.^f co;^se«rto, agree.] 

con"sen-ta'ne-ou8, cen'sen-te'ne-us, a. 
Mutually consenting or agreeing; acquiescent. 

popfl, cjsk; at, air; el^mgnt, th6y, ns^ge; It, %, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, or; full, rule; but, ur; 



con^se-QLuence, cen'8§-cwens, n. 1. That 
which tollows, as a result or conclusion. 2. 
Distinction; consideration; importance. 

con'se-q.uent, cen's§-c\vent. I. a. Follow- 
ing as a natural result or as a logical conclu- 
sion; logical. II. n. The conclusion of an 
inference or syllogism ; consequence. [< L.of 
con-, together, + sequor^ follow.] 

— coii'se-qiieiit-ly, aclr. 1, As a conse- 
quence; therefore. 2. In a consequent manner. 

con'^se-auen'tial, cen"s§-cwen'shal, a. 1. 
Having or showing importance; self=important. 
2. Following logically; consequent, -fy, aclr. 

con-servce', cgn-sgrv', vt. [-serv(e)i)'; 
-SERV'iNG.] To keep from loss, decay, or 
injury; preserve. [< L.^ conserro, < con-, 
with, -f- servo, keep.] — con^'ser-va'tion, ??. 
The act of conserving.— con-serv'a-tisiii, 
n. Disposition to be conservative.— con-Nerv^- 
a-tiv(e, I. a. 1. Adhering to the existing 
order of things; opposed to change or progress. 

2. Conserving; preservative. II. n. A con- 
servative person.— con'ser-va'^tor, cen'ser- 
ve'tgr, n. A protector; guardian.— con-serv'- 
a-to-ry. I, a. Adapted to preserve. II. ?i. 
[-KiES«, pL] 1. A glazed apartment for tender 
plants. 2. A school of art or science. 

con'serve, can'serv, w. 1. A sweetmeat. 2. 

Puarm. A confection, 
con-sid'er, cgn-sid'gr, ??. I. ^ 1. To reflect 

upon; ponder. 2. To think to be; estimate. 

3. To think well of; treat well. 4. To make 
allowance for. 5 i|. To observe closely. 6. To 
fee; remunerate. 7. To be of the opinion 
(that): followed by a clause as object. II. i. 
To think closely; cogitate. [< L. co?isidero, 
< con-, with, 4- sidus {sider-), star.] — con- 
Hid'er-a-bl(e, a. Of noteworthy size, quanti- 
ty, or Importance.— con-sid'er-a-bly, adv.— 
con-sid'er-ate, cgn-sid'er-ct or -6t. a. Ex- 
hibiting or given to consideration; tlioughtful; 
kind; prudent, -ly, adv. -nesH, 7i. 

con-sid."er-a'tion, cgn-sid"5jr-e'shun, n. 1 . 
The act of considering. 2. Thoughtful and 
kindly feeling or treatment. 3. A circum- 
stance to be taken into account. 4. Something 
§iven in return for a service; remuneration. 
. Importance; consequence; standing. 

con-sid.''er-ing, c^n-sid'^r-mg, jjrep. In view 
of; taking into account the fact of: used also 
eliiptically like a conjunction. 

con-sign', c§n-eain', rt. To deliver into the 
care and control of another; entrust; commit; 
transfer; relegate. [< L. consigno, < con-, 
together, -j- sig-nwrn, mark.] — con'^sign-ee', 
cen'saln-I', n. Com. A person to whom prop- 
erty has been consigned; a factor.— coii-sigu'- 
ineiit. cgn-sain'ment, n. 1. The sending of 
property to a person for keeping, sale, or ship- 
ment. 2. The property consigned, or a contract 
consigning it.— con'^'si-giior', cen"si-nSr' or 
con-sain' gr, n. One who consigns or makes a 
consignment, con-sign'erj. 

con-sisf'i, c§n-sist', ti. 1. To be composed; 
be made up: followed by o/". 2. To have as 
its foundation, substance, or nature; be: fol- 
lowed by in. 3. To be compatible; harmo- 
nize: followed by witJi. 4. To stand together: 
subsist. [< L. con-, together, -\-sisto, stand.] 

con-sist'ent, cgn-sist'gnt, a. 1. Character- 
ized by consistency; agreeing with itself ; not 
self-contradictory. 2. Congruous; compati- 
ble. 3. Firmly united; solid, -ly, adv. — 

con-sist'ence, con-sist'en-cy, n. [-ces» 

or -CIES*, pl.'\ 1. Compatibility or harmony be- 
tween things, acts, or statements. 2. Degree of 
firmness or density. 3. That which has coher- 
ence or firmness. 

con-sis'to-ry, cgn-sis'to-ri, n. [-riesSju^.] 
An ecclesiastical court; the place where it is 
held; a civil court.— con'^sis-tc'ri-al, a. 

con-sole% cgn-sOl', rt. [-soled'; -so'ling.] 
To comfort (a person) in grief or sorrow ; sol- 
ace; cheer. [< L. con-, together, -j- solar, 
comfort] — coii-so'la-bl(e, a. That may be 
consoled.— coii'^so-la'tioii, n. 1. The act of 
consoling, or the state of being consoled. 2, A 
comforting thought or fact.— con-sol'a-to- 
ry, cgn-sera-to-rl. I. a. Tending to console. 
II. ?i. [-KiEs^, p^.] Aconsolingspeechor letter. 

con'sole, cen'sOl, 7i. A bracket; a corbel. [F.] 

con-sol'i-date, cgn-sel'i-det, v. [-da"ted''; 
-T)A"TiNG.] I. t. To make solid, firm, or co- 
herent; unite. II. i. To become united, 
solid, or firm. [ < L. con-, together, + solidtis, 
solid.] — con-sor'i-da'lion, n. 

con's ols, cen'selz, n. pi. A contraction for 
''consolidated annuities," a British govern- 
mental secnritv. [soup. [F.j 

con"soni-nie', ceh"so-me', n. Clear meat 

con'so-nant, cen'so-nant. I. «. 1. Being 
in agreement or harmony; consistent. 2. 
Consonantal. II. n. An alphabetic sound 
not easily uttered without a vowel; a letter 
representing such a sound. [ < L. consonan{t-)s, 
ppr., < con-, together, -{-so7io, sound.] -ly, adv. 
— coii'so-iiance, n. Agreement, as of sounds; 
accord; concord, con'so-nau-cyt. 

con-sort''', cgn-sert', v. I. t. To join; as- 
sociate. II. i. To keep companir. 

con'sort, cen'sert, n. A companion or asso- 
ciate; a husband or wife; an accompanying 
vessel; also, companionship; company. [< 
L. C071-, together, -|- sors, lot.] 

con-spec'tus, c§n-spec'tU8, n. A general 
view of a subject; also, a digest or summary. 
[L., < con-, with, -|- specio, see.] 

con-spic'u-ous, cgn-spic'yu-us, a. 1. Clear- 
ly visible; prominent; obvious; striking. 2. 
Eminent; notable. [< L. con-, together, -f 
(tpecio, see.] -ly, adi\ -ness, n. 

con-spire', cgn-spair', v. [con-spired'; con- 
spiR'iNG.] I. t. To plot; scheme for. II. 
i. 1. To join in or form a conspiracy. 2. To 
concur in action or endeavor, as circumstances, 
agencies, or persons. [< L. conspiro, < con-, 
together, + spiro, breathe.] — con-spir'a-cy, 
cgn-spir'a-si, M. [-cies», joZ.] A secret combina- 
tion for an evil purpose; plot; also, any combina- 
tion to surprise.— coii-8|>ii''a-tor, w. One 
who engages in a conspiracy.— con-spir'er, it. 

con'sta-tole, cun'sta-bl, n. 1. An officer of 
the peace; a policeman. 2. A high military 
officer in medieval monarchies. [< L.'-^+O''' 
comes stabuli, lit. 'count of the stable.'] — con'- 
8ta-ble-sbip, n.— con-stab'u-la-ry, ceu- 
stab'yu-le-ri. I. a. Pertaining to or consLsting 
of constables. II. n. [-RiEs^.pZ.] Constables 
collectively; a military police force. 

con'stan-cy, cen'stan-si, n. 1. Steadiness 
in purpose or action ; faithfulness in service or 
affection. 2. Stability. 

con'stant, cen'stant. I. a. 1. Steady in 
purpose; resolute; persevering; faithful. 2. 
Steady in movement; long»continuing, or con- 

flutiOre (future); aisle; au (out); oil; c (k); chat; dh {the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



tinually recurring; invariable. II. n. An 
unchanging property or quality. [F., < L. 
con-^ together, -f- do, stand.] -ly, adv. 

con^'stel-la'tion, cen'stel-le'shun, n. A 
group or cluster of stars. [F., < L. con-, to- 
gether, 4- Stella^ star.] 

con^'ster-na'tion, cen'stgr-ne'shun, n. Sud- 
den overwhelming fear; terror with confusion; 
dismay. [ < L. con-^ together, -^-sterno, strew.] 

con'st'i-pate, cen'sti-pet, tt. [-PA'TEDd; 
-PA'TiNG.] To fill and stop (the bowels). [< 
L. con-, together, + stipo, press.] — con^'sti- 
pa'tion, n. A morbid inactivity of the bowels. 

con-stit'u-ent, cgn-stit'yu-gnt. I. a. 1. 
Being a necessary part; component. 2. En- 
titled to vote for a public officer or representa- 
tive. II. n. 1. One represented politically 
or in business; a voter; a client. 2. A neces- 
sary part or element. [< L. constituen(jt-)s, 
ppr. of constituo; see constitute.] 

— cou-8tit'u-en-cy, cgn-stifyu-en-sl, n. 
[-CIES2, pl.^ A body of constituents. 

con^sti-tute, cen'sti-tiiit, vt. [-tu"ted'1; 
-TU"TiNG.] 1. To make (anything) what it is; 
make up; frame; compose. 2. To establish 
as by authority; enact. 3. To depute; appoint. 
[< L. constitutus, pp. of co?istiiuo, < con-, to- 
gether, -f siatuo, place.] — con'sti-tu'^tive, a. 
Helping or having power to constitute. 

con'^sti-tu'tion, C0n"sti-tiii'shun, w. 1. The 
act of constituting. 2. A system of related 
parts; composition or make-up; bodily frame 
or temperament; the fundamental or organic 
law of a state or of an association.— con-^sti- 
tu'tion-al, a. 1. Pertaining to, Inherent In, 
or affecting the constitution of a person or of a 
state; consistent with the constitution of a state; 
lawful. 2. Acting under and controlled by a con- 
stitution.— con'''8ti-tu''tion-aFi-ty, n. Ac- 
cordance with a constitution; lawfulness.— 
coii''8ti-tu'tion-al-Iy, adv. In accordance 
with or in relation to physical constitution or 
organic law; naturally; legally. 

con-strain', c§n-stren', t'^. 1. To compel by 
physical or moral means; urge; oblige. 2. To 
confine or compress. [ < OF. constraindre, < L. 
constnngo; see constrict.]— con-8train(e)d', 
pa. Subjected to or resultmg from constraint; 
compulsory; repressed, — coii-strain'ed-ly, 
adw.— con-straint', cgn-strent', w. Tlie act of 
constraining, or the state of being constrained; 
compulsion; repression or embarrassment. 

con-strict'"', cgn-strict', vt. To compress or 
draw together at some point; bind; cramp. 
[< L. cwistrictus, pp. of constringo, < con-, 
together, + stringo, draw tight.] —-coii-stric'- 
tion» n. A constricting, or a constricted part. 
— con-8trict'iv(e» a. Tending to constrict. 
~con-8trict'or, w. That whic-h constricts; a 
serpent, as a boa, that crushes Its prey. 

con-struct''^, cgn-struct', vt. To put togeth- 
er and set up; build; arrange; devise. [< L. 
con-, together, -j- struo, pile up.] — con-struct'- 
er, coii-8truct'or, n.— coii-8truc'tion, ?k 
1 , The act of constructing; a structure. "Z. Style 
of building or composing; grammatical arrange- 
ment and relation of words. 3. The act of 
construing; Interpretation; meaning. — con- 
Btrnct'lvCe, a. Involving construction; hav- 
ing power or tendency to build up; tending to or 
reaching positive conclusions; afflnnatlve. 

oon'strue, cen'strQ, vt. & vi. [con'strubd; 
coN'8TRU"iNO.] To State the Syntax of; trans- 

late; interpret; explain. [< L. construo; see 

con'sul, cen'sul, n. 1. An officer appointed 
to reside in a foreign port or city, chiefly as the 
representative of his country's commercial in- 
terests. 2. A chief magistrate of ancient 
Eome, or of the French republic (1799-1804). 
[L., < consulo, consider.] — con'su-lar, cen'- 
slu-lar, a. Pertaining to a consul. — con'sii- 
late, n. 1. The office or term of office of a 
consul. coii'8ul-8hip:{:. 3. The official place 
of business of a consul. 

con-sulf'i, c§n-sult', v. I. t. 1. To ask the 
advice of. 2. To have regard to, as interest or 
duty; consider. II. i. 1. To ask advice. 2. To 
compare views ; take counsel : followed by 
with. [ < L.F consnlto, f req . of consulo, consult.] 
— con''8ul-ta'tioii,7i. 1. The act of consult- 
ing. 2. A meeting, as of doctors, for confer- 
ence.— con-8ult'er, coii-8ult'or, n. 

con-sume', cgn-sium', v. [con-sumed'; con- 
su'ming.] I. t. To destroy gradually, as by 
burning, eating, etc.; waste; spend. II. i. 
To be wasted or destroyed. [< L. con-, to- 
gether, 4- mmo, take.] — con-su'mer, n. 

con-sum'mate, c§n-sum'et or cen'sum-et, 
vt. [-MA"TEDd; -MA"TiNG.] To bring to Com- 
pletion or perfection. [< L. can-, together, -(- 
summa, sum.] — con-sum'mate, cen-sum'et 
or-gt, a. Of the highest degree; perfect; com- 
plete, -ly, rtc??;.— coii''suin-ina'tion,n. The 
utmost completion; perfect development. 

con-sump'tion, c§n-sump'shun, n. 1. The 
act or process of consuming. 2. Med. A 
wasting disease; phthisis. \< L. con^ump- 
tio{n-), < consumo; see consume.] — con- 
suinp'tivCe. I. a. 1. Tending to, causing, 
or designed for consumption. '2. Med. Con- 
nected with or affected by phthisis. 11.71. A per- 
son affected with phthisis, -ly, adv. -iie88, n. 

con'tact, cen'tact, n. The coming together, 
meeting, or touching of two bodies. [< L. con- 
tingo, <.con-, together, -f tango, touch.] 

con-ta'^ion, c§n-te'jun, n. 1. The com- 
munication of disease by contact, direct or in- 
direct; sympathetic mental influence. 2. Pes- 
tilential influence; pestilence; plague. [< L. 
contagioin-), < contingo; see contact.] 

con-ta'gious, c^n-te'jus, a. 1. Transmis- 
sible by contact, as a disease, or by sympathy, 
as emotions; catching; spreading. 2. Trans- 
mitting disease; pestilential, -ly, adv. -no88, ?/. 

con-tain', c^n-ten',??. I. ^ 1. To hold or be 
capable of holding; have room for; enclose; 
include; comprise. 2. To keep within bounds ; 
restrain. III. i. To restrain one's desires. 
[< L. contineo, < con-, together, -f teneo, 
hold.] — con-taln'', a. That may be 
contained.— cou-tain'er, Ji. 

con-tam'i-nate, cgn-tam'i-nC't, rt. [-na"- 
TED"!; -na'ting.] To make impure by contact 
or admixture; taint; defile; pollute. [< L- 
con-, with, -f tango, touch.] — con-taiii'i-nn- 
bl(e, a. That may be contaminated.— con- 
tain "i-ua'tion, n. A contaminating; taint. 

con-temn', cgn-tem', vt. To despise: scorn. 
[< L. contemno, < con- mUin». -\- temno, de- 
spise.] — con-tem'ner, n. 

con-tem'plate, c§n-tem'plet or cen'tem- 

plet, V. t-PLA"TBD<*; -PLA'TING.l I. t. To 

look at attentively; consider thoughtfully; 

papfi, gsk; at, air; element, they, usfge; It, %, l (ee); o, oh; orator, or; full, rule; but, ur; 



view as possible or probable, II. i. To med- 
itate; muse. [< L. co)i-, together, -f- ^^m- 
jj^wm, temple.] — con'^tem-pla'tion, n. The 
act of contemplating; continued thought or ab- 
straction.— con-teiii'pla-tiv(e, a. Given to, 
characterized by, or pertaining to contempla- 
tion.— con'teiii-pla^'tor, n. 

con-teni'"po-ra'ne-ous, cen-tem°po-re'ne- 
us, a. Living or occurring at the same time. 
[< L. con-, together, -{- tempus, time.] -ly, 
adv. -uess« n. 

con-tem'po-ra-ry, c§n-tem'po-re-ri. I. a. 
Contemporaneous. II. n. [-ries^, pi.] A 
person or thing that is contemporary. 

con- tempt', c^n-tempt', n. 1. The act of 
despising; disdam; scorn; wilful disregard of 
authority, as of a court. 2. The state of being 
despised; disgrace; shame. [kIj.*^^ contempt- 
lut, < contemno; see contemn .] — con-tempt''- 
i-biFi-ty, n. con-tempt'i-bKe-nesst. 
— con-terapfi-bUe, a. Deserving of con- 
tempt; despicable; vile. — con-teiiipt'i-bly, 
o(/?j.— con-temp'tii-ous, cgn-temp'chu-us or 
-tlu-us, a. Disdainful, -ly, adv. >ue8S, n. 

con-tend'd, c§n-tend', v. I. t. To maintain 
in argument: followed by that with an object- 
ive clause. II. i. 1. To struggle, as to ob- 
tain or defend some object; strive. 2. To 
debate earnestly; dispute. [< L. contendo, < 
con-., together, + tendo, stretch.] 

con-tent'd^ cgn-tent', tt. To fulfil the hopes 
or expectations of; satisfy. — con-tent'ed, j)a. 
1 . Satisfied with things as they arc; content. 2. 
Eesigncd; willing. -Xy^adv. -iiess, ?;.— coii- 
teut'ment, n. The state of being contented. 

con-tent', a. Contented; satisfied. [< L. 
contentus, < contineo, contain.] 

con-tent'i, n. Rest of mind; satisfaction. 

con'tent^, cen'tent, n. All that a thing con- 
tains : usually in the plural. 

con-ten'tion, c§n-ten'shun, n. 1. The act 
of contending; strife; conflict: struggle; dis- 
pute. 2. An object or point m controversy. 

con-ten'tious, cgn-ten'shus, a. Given to or 
involving contention; disputatious; quarrel- 
some, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

con-ter'mi-nous, cen-tgr'mi-nus, . a. Hav- 
ing a common boundary «=line; coextensive. 
[< L. con-, with, + te^'mimis, limit.] con- 

con-tesf-^, c§n-test', v. I. t. To contend 
about; dispute; strive to win. 11. i. To con- 
tend strenuously. [< L. confesio?\ call to wit- 
ness, < con-, with, -f- testis, witness.] 

con'test, cen'test, n. The act of contesting; 
a struggle; conflict. — con-test'ant, n. One 
who contests. 

con'text, cen'text, n. The portions of a dis- 
course, treatise, etc., connected with a passage 
quoted or considered. [< L. con-, together, 
+ texo, weave.] — con-tex'tu-al, a. -ly, adv. 

con-tex'ture, cen-tex'chur or -tiijr, n. 'Some- 
thing interwoven; style or manner of inter- 
weaving; texture.— con-tex'tur-al, a. 

con-tig'u-ous, c§»n-tig'yu-us, a. Touching 
or joining at the edge or boundary; adjacent. 
[< L. contiguus, < contingo; see contact.] 
-ly, adv. -ness, w.— con''ti-8ru'i-ty, cen"- 
ti-glu'i-ti, 11. 1, Nearness; proximity. 2. Un- 
interrupted connection; continuity. 

con'ti-nent, cen'ti-ngnt, a. Self«=restrained; 

abstment; chaste. [< L. continen{t-)s, ppr. 
of contineo; see contain.] -ly, adv.~con'- 
ti-nence, -nen-cy, n. Seif«restraint; chastity. 

con'ti-nent, 7i. 1. One of the great bodies 
of land on the globe. 2. [C-l Europe, as dis- 
tinguished from the British islands. [< L.iJ- 
continens, continuous.] — con^ti-nen'tal, a. 

con-tin-'gent, c§n-tin'jgnt. I. a. Likely or 
liable, but not certain, to occur; fortuitous; 
probable. II. n. 1 . A contingency. 2. A 
proportionate share; a quota of troops. [<L. 
contingen{t-)$, ppr. of contingo; see contact.] 
-ly, adv. — con-tin'gen-cy, cgn-tln'jgn-si, 
n. L-ciES», pl.'^ A contingent event, cou- 

con-tin'u-al, c§n-tin'yu-al, a. 1. Renewed 
in regular succession; of ten repeated. 2. Con- 
tinuous. [Continuous describes that which is 
absolutely without pause or break; co7itinual 
strictly denotes that which often intermits, but 
as often begins again.] -ly, adv. 

con-tin'ue, cen-tin'yu, v. [-ued; -u-ing.] 
I. ^. To extend or prolong. 11. i. 1. Tobe 
durable; last; endure. 2. To remain; abide. 

3. To keep on; persist.— con-tin'u-ance,w. 
1. The state of continuing; duration. 2. Un- 
interrupted succession; survival. 3. Laic. Post- 
ponement.— coii-tiii''u-a'tion, n. The act of 
continuing, or something added by continuing. 

con-tin'u-ous, c§n-tin'yu-us, a. Connected, 
extended, or prolonged without a break; un- 
broken; uninterrupted. [< L. continuus, < 
contineo; see contain.] — con^'ti-nu'I-ty, 
cen'tl-nia'I-ti, n. The state or quality of being 
continuous, -ly, adv. -uess, n, 

con-tort''', c§n-tSrt', vt. To twist violently; 
wrench out of shape or place. [< L. contort- 
U8, pp., < con-, with, + torqueo, twist.] — 
coii-tor'tioii, cgn-tSr'shun, n. The act of 
contorting; unnatural or spasmodic writhing or 
wryness, as of the limbs.— cou-tort'iv(e, a. 

con-tour', cen-tiir' or cen'tur, n. The line 
bounding a figure or body; outline. [F.] 

contra-, prefix. Against; opposite; contrary. 
[< L. contra, against, < cum, with.l 

con'tra-band, cen'tra-band. I. a. Pro- 
hibited or excluded, as by military law; forbid- 
den. 11. n. Contraband goods or trade. [<It, 
contrabbando, lit. 'contrary to proclamation'.] 

con-tract''*, cgn-tract', •?;. I.^. 1. To short- 
en by drawing together; narrow; limit; con- 
dense. 2. Gram. To shorten, as a word, by 
omitting a medial part. 3. To take or acquire; 
become affected with, as a disease or a habit. 

4. To arrange or settle by contract. II. i. 1. 
To shrink. 2. To make a contract. [< L. 
contractus, pp., < con-, with, + traho, draw.] 

— con-tract'ed, cgn-tract' Not broad, 
ample, or liberal; narrow; me'an; scanty, -ly, 
adv. -nesN, ?*.— con-tract"i-bil'i-ty, n. 
con-tract'i-bl(e-nesst; coii"trac-til'i- 
tjX.— con-tract'i-bl(e, a. con-tract'- 
iiet; con-tract'ivet. 

con'tract, cen'tract, n. A formal agreement, 
or the writing containing it. 

con-trac'tion, c§n-trac'shun, n. 1. The 
act of contracting, or the state of being con- 
tracted. 2. That which is contracted. 

con-tract' or, cen-tract'§r, n. 1. One of the 
parties to a contract. 2. One whose business 
is to execute plans under contract. 3. A 
muscle that serves to contract. 

flutiure (future); aisle; au (owt); oil; c (k); chat; dh {the)', go; sing, iiik; thin. 



con'^tra-dict'd, cen"tra-dict', r. 1. t. 1. To 
deny (a statement) directly or by implication. 
2. To deny a statement of (a person). 3. To 
be inconsistent witti (a statement, belief, or 
the lilie). II. i. To utter a contradiction; 
deny. [< L. contra, against, -(- dico, speak.] 
— con^'tra-dict'er, cou'^tra-dict'or, n. 
— con^'tra-dic'tiou, n. The act of contra- 
dicting; Inconsistency; direct opposition; some- 
thing self-contradictory. — con'''tra-dict'o- 
ry. I, a. Characterized by opposition; incon- 
sistent; diametrically opposed; mutually exclu- 
sive. II, 71. [-KIES2, pi.] A proposition by 
means of which another proposition is abso- 
lutely denied. — con^'tra-dict'o-ri-ly, adv.— 
con"tra-dict'o-ri-ne88, n. 

con-tral'to, c^n-tral'to or -trgl'to, n. 1. The 
part between soprano and tenor. 2. A con- 
tralto singer. [It.] al'to$. 

con'tra-ry, cen'tra-ri or -tre-ri. I. a. Op- 
posite in disposition, character, action, or 
direction; opposing; antagonistic; captious; 
perverse. II. n. [-riesS^^.] 1. One of two 
contrary things. 2. The opposite. [< L.*" 
contrarins, < contra, against.] — con"tra-ri'- 
e-ty, cen"tra-rai'e-tl, n. [-ties»,jo?.] 1. The 
quality or state of being contrary, ti. A quality 
or a proposition contrary to another; an incon- 
sistency; a contrary.— con'tra-ri-ly, adv.— 
con'tra-ri-ness« n. — con'tra-ri-wise, 
adv. 1. On the contrary; on the other hand. 
ii. In the reverse order; conversely. 

con-trast'<i, cgn-trgst', v. I. t. To compare 
in order to show unlilieness. II. i. To stand 
in opposition; manifest unlilieness. [< L.*" 
contra, against, + sto., stand.] 

con^trast, cen'trgst, n. The opposition be- 
tween things similar in some respects, but dif- 
ferent in others; also, the things thus opposed. 

con'^tra-vene', cen"tra-vln', r<. [-vened'; 
-ye'ning.] To prevent or obstruct. [< L.^J' 
contra, against, + venio, come.] 
— con'^tra-ven'tioii, n. 

coii'tre-temps'', cen'tr-tuiV, 7i. An embarrass- 
ing occurrence; awkward Incident. [F.] 

con-trib'ute, c§n-trib'yfxt, v. [-u-ted-J; -u- 
TiNG.] I. t. To supply as part of a common 
stock; give in aid 01 some oDject. II. i. To 
share in effecting a result. [< L. con-, with, 
-f tribuo. grant, allot.] — con''tri-bii'tion, «. 
The act of contributing, or that which Is con- 
tributed; a gift: subscription. — coii-trib'u- 
tor, n. One whocontrlbutes.- con-trib'ii-to- 
ry. I. a. Contributing. coii-trib'ii-tiv(et. 
II. n. (-RiEs«, pi.] One who or that which 

con'trite, cen'trait, a. Broken in spirit be- 
cause of a sense of sin; penitent. [< L. con- 
t/ifu)!, pp. of contero, bruise.] -ly, adv.— con- 
Iri^fiun, cgn-trish'un, n. Sincere soitow for 
sin; deep penitence, con^trite-nesst. 

con-trive', cen-traiv', vt. & vi. [con-tkived' ; 
coN-Tui'viNG.] To plan ingeniously; devise; 
invent; scheme; plot. [< F. con-, with, 4- 
t roarer, find.] — con-trPva-bl(e, a.— con-tri'- 
van(;e, n. 1. The act of contriving. tJ. An 
artllice; stratagem; device.— con-tri'ver, n. 

con-trol', cen-trol'. I. vt. & vi. [con- 
tkolled'; con-trol'ling.] To direct; govern; 
influence; regulate; manage. II. n. The act 
of controlling; restraining or directing in- 
fluence; regulation; government. [< F. con- 
trole, < LL. contrarotulum, counterToll.] 

— con - troP'Ia - bil'i - ty, con - troPla- 
bUe-ness, n.— con-troFla-bl(e, o.— con- 
trol'ler, n. 1. An officer to examine and 
verify accounts, comp-trol^lert. 3. One 

who or that which controls. 

con'tro-ver^sy, cen'tro-vgr"si, n. [-sies^ 
2il.] Debate or disputation; dispute. [< L. 
controversia, < contra, against, + versus, 
turned.] — con^'tro-ver'siaT, cen'tro-vgr'shal, 
a. Pertaining to controversy ; polemical ; con- 
tentious.— con^'tro-ver'sial-ist, n. A dis- 
putant.— con-^tro-ver'sial-ly, adv. 

con'^tro-vert''', cen"tro-vert', vt. To en- 
deavor to disprove; oppose in debate. [< L. 
contra, against, 4- verto, turn.] — con'''tro- 
vert'er, n. con^'tro-vert'istt.- con'^tro- 
vert'i-bl(e, a. Capable of being controverted; 
disputable.— con-'^tro-verfi-bly, adv. 

con'tu-ma-cy, cen'tiu-mg-si, n. [-CIES^ pl.'\ 
Contemptuous disregard of authority; insolent 
and incorrigible obstinacy. [< L. conturna- 
cia, < contumax, stubborn.] 

— con^'tu-ma'cious, cen'tlu-me'shus, «. 
Of, pertaining to, or characterized by contuma- 
cy; rebellious; refractory, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

con'tu - me - ly , cen'tiu-mg-li or -mi-li, n. 
[-LiEs^, pi.] Insulting rudeness in speech or 
manner; scornful insolence. [< OF. contu- 
melie, < L. contumelia, reproach.] — con'^tu- 
inc'li-ou8, cen"tiu-ml'll-us, a. Scornfully of- 
fensive, insulting, or insolent, -ly, adv. 

con-tuse', c§n-tiuz', vt. [con-tused'; con- 
Tu'siNG.] To bruise by a blow. [< 1,. con-, 
with, 4- tundo, beat, bruise.] —con-tu'sion, 
cgn-tlu'zhun, n. The act of bruising; a bruise. 

co-nun'drum, co-non'drum, n. A riddle; 

con^'va-lesce', cen'va-les', vi. [-lesced''; 
-LEs'ciNG.] To recover after a sickness. [< 
L. con- intens. + vcdesco, < valeo, be strong 
or well.] — con^'va-les'cence, n. Gradual re- 
covery from Illness, con'^va-les^cen-cyi.- 
con''va-Ie8'cent. I. a. Recovering health 
after sickness. II.?;. One who Is convalescing. 

con-vene', c§u-vln', v. [con-vened'; con- 
ve'ning.] I. t. To call together; convoke. 
II. i. To come together; assemble. [< L. 
convenio, < con-, together, 4- venio, come.] 

con-ve'nient, cgn-vl'nignt, a. Conducive to 
comfort or ease; serviceable; suitable; com- 
modious; favorable; timely. [< L. cotive- 
nien{t-)s, ppr. of convenio; see convene.] 

— con-ve'nience, cen-vi'nigns, n. 1. The 
state, time, or quality of oelng convenient; suit- 
ableness; fitness. iJ. That which Is convenient. 
con-ve'nien-cyt. — con-ve'nient-ly, adv. 

con'vent, cen'vent, n. A body of monks or 
nuns, especially the latter, or the house occu- 
pied by them. [< L.^f conventus, < convenio; 
see convene.] 

con-ven'tl-cle, cgn-ven'ti-cl, n. A religious 
meeting, especially a secret one of Scottish 
Covenanters. — con-ven'tl-cler, ti. 

con-ven'tion, cgn-ven'shun, «. t. A formal 
or stiite<l meeting of delegates or representa- 
tives. 2. The act of coming together. 3. 
General consent, or something established by 
it; a conventionality. 4. A compact, of less 
dignity than a treaty. ( < L. conrentio{n-), < 
convenio; see coNVENEri — eon-vrn'Jlon-al, 
cen-ven'shun-ul, a. 1. Establislied l)y conven- 
tion or custom; agreed: stipulated; customary; 
formal. ;2. Of or pertaining to a convention of 

papfi, 98k; at, air; el©mjnt, they, us^ge; It, %, i (ee); o, oh; orator, or; full, rule; but, Or; 



delegates. 3. Art. Represented according to 
artistic convention or rule, rather than to nature 
or fact, -ly, «di'.— cou-ven'tion-al-ism, n. 
Kegard for conventionality. — con-ven'tion- 
al-ist, M.— cou-ven'^tiou-al'i-ty, n. [-ties^, 
pl.^ The state of being conventional; something 
conventional; a formality.— con-ven'tioii-al- 
ize or -ise, vt. [-ized; -i'zing.] To make con- 
ventional; represent conventionally. 
con-ven'tu-al, cen-ven'ehu-al or -tiu-al, a. 

I. Belonging to a convent. 2. Conventional, 
con-verge', c§n-vgrj', v. [con-verged'; con- 

ver'ging.J I. t. To cause to tend toward 
one point. II. i. To tend toward one point; 
come together by gradual approach. [< L.^^ 
w;i-, with, 4-t'e/Y/o, VERGE.] — con-ver'gence, 

II. The act or state of converging; tendency 
to converge, con-ver'gen-cyi.— con-ver'- 
geiit, a. Tending to one point. 

con'ver-sant, cen'vgr-sant, a. 1. Knowing 
fully; versed: followed by wi^/t, formerly by 
in. 2. Intimately acquainted. 3. Actively em- 
ployed; concerned: followed by with or abot/t. 

con'^ver-sa'tion, cen"vgr-se'8hun, n. 1. The 
speaking of two or more persons alternately 
with each other; colloquy. 2. Intimate asso- 
ciation or intercourse. 3 i|. Deportment. [P\, 
< L. conversatioin-), < conversor; see con- 
verse, v.'\ — con^'ver-sa'tion-al, a. Pertain- 
ing to conversation. -ly, arfi?.— coii''ver-sa'- 
tion-al-iHt, n. One who converses; an in- 
teresting talker. con'''ver-sa'tioii-i8tt. 

con-verse', con-vgrs', t"i. [-versed''; -vers'- 
iNG.] 1. To speak together informally and 
alternately. 2||. To associate; have intercourse; 
commune. [< L. conversor., live with, < con- 
terto ; see convert, v.] — coii-vers'a-bl(e, 
a. Disposed to converse; ready in conversation; 
sociable.— coii-vers'er, n. One who converses. 

con'verse, cen'vgrs, a. Turned about so that 
two parts are interchanged; transposed; re- 
A'ersed. [< L. converses, pp. of convert o; see 
convert, v.'] — con'verse-Iy, adv. 

con'verse^, n. 1. Conversation. 2. Close 
intercourse; communion; fellowship. 

con'verse^, n. That which exists in a con- 
verse relation; an inverted proposition. 

con-ver'sion, cgn-vgr'shun, ??. The act' of 
converting, or the state of being converted. 

con-vert''*, c§n-vgrt', ■t?. 1. t. 1. To change 
into another state, form, or substance; trans- 
form. 2. Theol. To turn from sin or error to 
truth and righteousness. Ilii. i. To become 
changed in character. [< L. converto., < con-, 
with, -\- verto, turn.] — con'vert, cen'vgrt, n. 
A person who has been converted.— con-vert'- 
er, 11. One who or that which converts; espe- 
cially, a vessel in which iron is converted into 
steel, con-vert'ori.— con-vert"i-bil'i-ty, 
con-vert'i-bKe-ness, ?*.— con -vert'i- 
bl(e, a. 1. Capable of conversion, 'i. P^qulva- 
lent in meaning; interchangeable.— ecu- vert'- 
i-bly, adv. 

con'vex", cen'vex". I. a. Curving outward 
like a segment of a globe or of a circle; bul- 
ging out. II. n. A convex surface or body; 
convexity. [ < L.^ convexus,^ < con-, together, 
+ veho, carry.] — con-vex'i-ty, n. 1. The 
state of being convex. 2. A convex surface. 
coii-vex'ed-iiesst; con'vex-nessi:. 

con-vey', c§n-ve', vt. 1. To transport from 
one place to another; carry; transmit. 2. To 
communicate. 3. Law. To transfer the title 

to or of, as real estate. [ < F. convoy er, < L. 
con-, with, 4- '^i'(J'^ way.] — con-vey'ance, 
cen-ve'uns, n. 1, The act of conveying. 2. 
iTiat by which anything is conveyed; a vehicle; a 
document transferring title. — cou-vey'au- 
cer, 11. One whose business is conveyancing.— 
con-vey'an-cing, n. The business of pre- 
paring conveyances, including the investigation 
of titles.— cou-vey'er, n. One who or that 
which conveys. 

con-vict''*, c§n-vict', vt. 1. To prove guilty; 
find guilty after a judicial trial. 2. To awaken 
to a sense of sin. [ < L. convictus, pp. of con- 
vinco; see convince.] 

con'vict, cen'vict, n. One found guilty of or 
undergoing punishment for crime; a criminal. 

con-vic'tion, c^n-vic'shun, n. 1. The state 
of being convinced or convicted; also, in law, 
the act of convicting. 2. A doctrine or propo- 
sition which one firmly believes. 

con-vince', cgn-vins', vt. [con-vinced"; 
con-vin'cing.] 1. To satisfy by evidence; 
persuade by argument. 2\\. To convict. [< 
L. convinco, < con-, with, -4- vinco, conc[uer.] 

con-viv'i-al, cgn-viv'i-al, a. Pertaining to 
a feast, especially a drinking^ feast; festive; 
jovial. [< L. con-, together, -f 'vivo, live.] — 
con-viv"i-al'i-ty, «,. [-ties^,^;^.] Festivemer- 
rlment or joviality. — con-viv'i-al-ly, adv. 

con-voke', c§n-vOk', vt. [con-voked"; con- 
vo'king.] To call together; summon. [< L, 
con-, together, -[- voco, call.]— con"vo-ca'tior , 
11. 1. The act of convoking. '2. [C-] An eccle- 
siastical congress or council. 

con-volve', c§n-velv', V. [con-volved'; con- 
volv'ing.] I.^. To roll together; wind around 
something; twist; turn. II. i. To turn or 
wind upon itself. [< L. con-, together, 
-4- volvo, roll.] — coii'vo-lute, cen'vo-liit or 
-liiit, a. Rolled one part on another or inward 
from one side. coii'vo-lu"ted1:. — coii"vo- 
lu'tion, cen'vo-lu'shun, n. 1. The act of con- 
volving. 2. The state of being convolved; a turn; 
fold; especially one of the folds of the brain. 

con-vol'vu-ius, cgn-vel'viu-lus, n. A twi- 
ning herb with large showy trumpet»shaped 
flowers. [L., bindweed.] 

con-voy', c§n-vei', vt. To act as convoy to; 
escort and protect. [< F. convoyer, convey.] 

con'voy, cen'vei, n. The act of convoying; 
that which convoys or is convoyed. 

con-vulse', c§n-vuls', vt. [-vulsed"; -vuls'- 
ing.] To throw into convulsions, as of dis- 
ease, rage, or laughter ; agitate violently. 
[< L. con-, with, + vello, pull.] — con-vul'- 
sion, cgn-vul'shun, n. 1. A violent and ab- 
normal muscular contraction of the body; spasm; 
fit. 2. Any violent commotion.— con-vuls'- 
ivCe, a. Producing, resulting from, or charac- 
terized by convulsions, -ly, adv. 

co'ny, co'ni, ?J. [co'nies^, /?/.] A rabbit. [< 
L.o*' cunicnlus, rabbit.] co'neyj. 

coo, cu. I. vt. & vi. To utter in a cooing 
manner; utter the note of a dove; make love 
in low, murmuring tones. II. n. A murmur- 
ing note, as of a dove. [Imitative.] 

cook, cuk. I', vt. & vi. To prepare for food 
by heat; do the work of a cook. II. n. One 
who prepares food for eating. [< L. coquo, 
cook.] — cook'er, n. A mechanical device for 
cooking food.— cook'er-y, n. |-ies»,joZ.] The art 
or practise of cooking-, also, a place for cooking. 

flutg^re (future); aisle; au {put); ©11; c (k); chat; dli {the); go; sing, ii^k; thin. 



cook-'y, cuk'i, n. [-ies^, pi.] A small, sweet 
cake, cook'eyt; cook-'lej. 

cool, cul. I. vt. & vi. To make or become 
lees hot, excited, ardent, angry, or affectionate. 
II. a. 1. Moderate in temperature; somewhat 
cold. 2. Serving to produce coolness. 3. Self* 
controlled; self-possessed; apathetic; chilling; 
slighting. III. w. A moderate temperature ap- 
proaching cold. [< AS. colian, become cool.] 

— cool'er, n. That which cools, as a vessel 
to cool liquids.— cool'ly, adv.— cooVness, n. 

coo^lie, cii'li, n. An Oriental laborer or menial. 
[< Tamil Mil.'] coo'ly:^. 

coon, cun, n. The raccoon. 

coop, cup. I', vt. To put into a coop; con- 
fine. II. n. An enclosure for femall animals, 
as fowls or rabbits. [< L. cupa, tub.] 

coop'er, cQp'gr, n. One whose business it is 
to make casks, barrels, etc. — coop'er-age, n. 
The work of a cooper, or the cost of It. 

co-op'er-ate, co-ep'gr-et, vi. [-a"ted'1; -a"- 
TiNG.] To operate together for a common ob- 
ject: followed by mi;/i. — co-op''er-a''tion, n. 
Joint action; profit-sharing. — co-o]>'ei*-a- 
tiv(e, a. Operating together, especially by 
Industrial cooperation.— co-op'er-a'"tor, n. 

co-or'di-nate, co-er'di-net. I. vt. & vi. 
[-NA'TEDt"; -NA'TiNG.] To put or be in the 
same rank, class, or order, or in harmonious 
or reciprocal relation. II. co-er'di-net or 
-ngt, a. Of the same order or rank; existing 
together in similiar relation. III. co-er'di-net, 
n. 1. One who or that which is of the same 
order, rank, power, etc. 2. Math. A member 
of a system of lines or angles by means of 
which position is determined. [< L.^ co-, 
with- and see ordinate, a.] -ly, adv. — co- 
or^di-na'tion, n. The act of coordinating, or 
the state of being coordinate. 

coot, cut, 71. 1. A rail-like aquatic bird. 2. 
\ stupid fellow. 

co'pal, co'pal, n. A 
hard transparent resin 
used for varnishes. [< 
Mex. copalli, resin.] 

co-part'ner, co-pflrt - 
ngr, n. A sharer; a part - 
ner in business. — co- 
part'ner-Bhip, n. 

cope, cop, vt. [coped'; 
tend on equal terms; oppose or resist, 
couper, cut, < coup., a blow.] 

cope, n. 1. Anything that arches overhead; 
a coping. 2. Eccl. A long mantle, especially 
one worn by priests. [< LL. capa, cape.] 

Co-per^ni-can, co-pgr'ni-can, a. Pertaining 
to the astronomer Copernicus (1473-1543), or to 
his theory that makes the sun the center of the 
solar system. 

cop'i-er, cep'i-gr, n. A copyist; imitator. 

cooping, cO'ping, n. The top course of a wall. 

CO'pi-ous, cO'pi-us, a. Abundant; ample. 
[< L. copiosits, < cojna, abundance.] 

— co'pi-ou8-Iy, ndi\— co'pi-oiiH-uesB, n. 
oop'per, cep'gr. I. vt. To cover with copper. 

II. n. 1. A reddish ductile metallic element. 
2. An article made of this metal. [Ult. < Gr. 
Kypros, Cyprus.] — cop'per-plate''. n. An 
engraved plate of copper or an engraving or Im- 
pression printed from It: often used adjectivally. 
— cop'per-y, a. Like copper. 

Aaicikau Coot. Vi8 
co'piNG.] To con- 

cop'per-as, cep'gr-as, n. Cheni. A green 
crystalline astringent sulfate of iron. [< F. 
coiiperose.] green vit'ri-ol:;:. 

Morth'American snake. 

cop'pice, cep'is, n. A 
low =» growing thicket. 
[< OF. copeiz, < coper, 
cut.] copset. 

cop'u-la, cep'yu-la, ?i. 
[-LAS or --LJE, -li or -le, 
2)1.1 The word that 
unites the subject and 
the predicate of a sen- 
tence; strictly, the pres- 
ent indicative of the verb 
to be. [L., link.] Copperhead Snake. 

cop''u-late, cep'yu-let, /12 

V. [-LA"TED<J; -la"ting.] I. t. To couple. 
II. i. To unite in sexual intercourse. — cop-" 
11-la'tion, 71. 1. The act of coupling. 2. 
Sexual union; coition.— cop'u-la-tiv(e, a. 

cop-'y, cep'i. l.vt.&vi. [cop'ied, -id; cop'- 
Y-iNG.] To make a copy of; reproduce; imi- 
tate; also, to admit of being copied. II. 71. 
[cop'iES^, pL] 1. A reproduction or imita- 
tion; duplicate. 2. A single printed pam- 
phlet, book, or the like, of an edition or issue. 
3. A pattern given for imitation, especially 
manuscript or other matter to be reproduced 
in type. [< L.i^ copia, abundance.] — cop'ys 
book'', 11. A book containing copies to be Imi- 
tated in penmanship; a wrIting=book.— cop'y- 
er, n. Same as copier. — cop'y-ist, n. One 
whose business It is to copy;,^also, an Imitator.— 
cop'y-riprhf. F. vt. To secure copyright 
for (a book or work of art). II. 71. The exclu- 
sive legal right of authors and artists to publish 
and dispose of their works for a limited time. 

co-quet', co-kef, v. [co-quet'ted'*; co- 
quet'ting.] I. t. To treat with pretended 
affection; deceive with affected fondness. II, 
i. To trifle in love; treat a person with a pre- 
tense of fondness. [< F. coqueter^ strut, < 
coq, cockI .] — co'qiiet-rv, cO'ket-ri, n. [-ribs', 
pl.\ Trifling in love; also, the quality of being 
coquettish.— co-quette', co-kef, n. A woman 
who endeavors to attract admiration merely for 
the gratification of vanity; flirt. [F.]— co- 
quet'ti8li,a. rertalning to a coquette; disposed 
to coquet, -ly, adv. -iiess, n. 

cor-, prefix. With; together. [Form of com- be- 
fore r.] 

cor'al, cer'al. I. a. Consisting of or like 
coral. II. n. A calca- 
reous secretion of various 
marine zoophytes, often 
forming reefs or islands. 
[F., < Gr. korcUlion, cor- 
al.] — cor'al'line, cer'a- 
lln, a. Of, pertaining to, 
producing, or like coral. 
— cor'al-Ioid. a. 

cor'hel, cw'bal, 11. Arch. 

1. A bracket projecting 
from the face of a wall. j^g^j Coral 

2. The basket-shaped 

cushion of a Corinthian capital. [OF., •*. L, 
corbis, basket.] cor'"bil$. 
cord, cSrd. 1^. vt. 1. To bind or secure with 
cord ; furnish with cords. 2 . To pile firewood 
by the cord. II. n. 1. A string of several 

papfi, 98k; at, air; elfmfint, th6y, us^ge; It, J, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, dr; full, rule; but, ur; 



A measure for wood, equal to 128 
le plural. 

strands. 2. A measure lor wooa, equ, 
cubic feet. 3. Corduroy: often in th( 
[< Gr J cho?'de, string.] —cord'age, cSrd'gj, 
n. Ropes and cords collectively. 

cor^date, cer'det or -dgt, a. Bot. Heart- 
shaped, as a leaf . [<L. cor, heart.] -ly, aay. 

cor'dial, cer'jal or cer'- 
dial. I. a. Proceeding 
from the heart; exhibiting 
or expressing kindliness; 
hearty; encouraging; cheer- 
ing. II. n. 1. That 
which invigorates or exhil- 
arates. 2. A sweet and 
aromatic alcoholic liquor. 
[< L. cor (cord-), heart.] — 
cor-dial'i-ty, n. [-ties«, 
pl.'\ The quality of being 
cordial. coWdial-nesst* 
— cor'dial-ly, adv. ^ ^ . ^ 

cor' don, cer'dgn, n. 1. Cordate Leaves. 
An extended line, as of men, ships, forts, etc. 
2. An ornamental lace, cord, ribbon, mold- 
ing, or coping. [F.] 

cor-'du-roy", cer'diu-rei", n. 1. A thick and 
durable cotton stuff, corded or ribbed. 2. A 
corduroy road. [< F. corde dii rot, lit., cord 
of the king.] — corduroy road, a road made 
of transverse logs laid side by side. 

core, cOr. I. tf. [cored; cor'ing.] To re- 
move the core of. II. n. 1. The central or 
innermost part of a thing; heart, as of an apple 
or pear, containing the seeds. 2. The pith of 
a subject. [< L."^^ €0?\ heart.] 

co'^re-spond'ent, C0"re-spend'pnt, n. A 
joint respondent, as in a suit for divorce. 

co'^ri-an^der, cr/ri-an'der, n. A plant of the 
parsley family, bearing aromatic seeds. [< 
Gr.L koriannon, < koris, bedbug.] 

Cor-in'tM-an, cgr-in'thi-an, a. Pertaining 
to Corinth, in ancient Greece, 
or to an order of architecture 
marked by slender fluted col- 
umns with ornate capitals. 

cork, cerk. I', rf. To stop 
with a cork, as a bottle. II. 
n. 1. The light, porous outer 
bark of a tree (the 
cork'oak or cork" 
tree): used for stop- 
pers for bottles, for 

floats, etc. 2. Any- ^ , ^ , ^v,. ^ .. , 
thing made of cork Greek Corinthian Capital 
or serving as a cork. ^""^ ^'^^''' 

[ < L.Sp cortex {emetic-), bark.] — cork'screw", 
n. A spirally shaped Instrument for drawing 
corks from bottles.— cork'y, a. Like cork. 

corm, cerm, n. Bot. A bulb»like, solid, fleshy 
stem. [< Gr. k07'mos, tree=trunk.] 

cor'mo-rant, cer'mo-rant. I. a. Like a 
cormorant; greedy; rapacious. II. n. 1. A 
large voracious aquatic bird. 2. Hence, a 
glutton or avaricious person. [< LL.^ corvns 
marinus, sea=crow.] 

corn, corn, ft. To preserve in salt or in brine. 

com', 7?. l.Tlie edible seeds of cereal plants: in 
England, wheat, barley, rye, and oats collect- 
ively: in America, maize, or Indian corn. 2§. 
A granule, as of salt or gunpowder. [< AS. 
corn.] — corn'scob'", ?i. The cob of maize. 

com", ti. A horny thickening of the cuticle, 
common on the feet. [< L.^ cornu, horn.] 

cor'ne-a, cSr'u§-a, n. Anat. The anterior 
part of the outer coat of the eyeball. [< L. 
corneus, horny, < cornu., Iiorn.] 

corned, cemd, a. Preserved by laying down 
in coarse salt or in brine; as, corned beef. 

cor'nel, cer'ngl, n. A tree with hard, compact 
wood, as tlie dogwood. 

coi'-iie'lian, n. Same as carnelian. 

cor-'ner, cer'ngr. I. 'ot. 1. To drive into a 
corner, or a position of difl9iculty or embarrass- 
ment. 2. [U. S.] To forestall the market so 
as to secure a monopoly. II. n. 1. An angle; 
an angular projection or recess. 2. A retired 
spot; a nook. 3. A position of embarrassment 
or difliculty. [ < L.*" corim., horn.] — cor'ners 
stone", n. 1 . A stone uniting two walls at the 
corner of a building. 2. Something funda- 
mental or of primary Importance.— cor'ner- 
wise, adv. "With the corner In front; diago- 

cor'netS cer'net, n. A small wind»instrument 
of the trumpet class. [F., < L."- cornu., horn.] 

cor-net'2, n. Mil. [Eng.] Formerly, the 
lowest commissioned cavalry oflicer, or a pen- 
nant carried by him; a flag or standard. [< F. 
carnette, standard.] — cor'net-cy, n. The 
rank or commission of a cornet. 

cor'nice, cer'nis, n. A horizontal molded 
projection at the top of a building, or round tlie 
walls of a room close to the ceiling. [< It.o^ 
cornice., < Gr. koronis, wreath.] 

cor"nu-co'pi-a, cer"nu-[or -niu-]cO'pi-a, n. 
[-AS or -JE, -I w -e, jyl.] The horn of plenty, 
symbolizing peace and prosperity. [LL., < L. 
cornu., horn, -|-co/>i£e, gen. of copia, abundance, 
plenty.] cor^'nu-co-'pi-eej. 

co-rolla, co-rel'a, n. Bot. The inner circle or 
set of leaves of a flower, composed of petals. 
[L., dim. of corona, crown.] cor'ol:):. 

cor'ol-la-ry, cer'g-lg-ri, «. [-ries'-, js^.] A 
consequence; obvious deduction. 

co-ro'na, co-rO'na, n. [-nas^ or -n^, -ni or 
-ne, 2^1-] A crown or garland; a crownlike 
part- upper part of the head; a luminous cir- 
cle; halo. [L., crown.] — cor'o-nal, cer'o-nal. 
I. a. Of or pertaining to a corona or halo, or to 
the crown of the head. II. n. A crown or gar- 
land, cor'o-iia-ryj.— cor'^o-na'tion, cer"- 
o-ne'shun, n. The act or ceremony of crowning 
a monarch. [< L. corona, wreathe, crown, < 
corona, crown.] 

cor'o-ner, cer'o-ngr, n. An oflicer who in- 
quires into the cause of sudden or violent 
death. [F.] 

cor'o-net, cer'o-net, n. An inferior crown, 
denoting noble rank less than sovereign; any 
chaplet or wreath for the head. 

cor'po-ral, cer'po-ral, a. 
Belonging or relating to the 
body as opposed to the mind; 
as, corpo?-al punishment. [< 
L. C07'p09'alis, < corjms (cor- 
por-), body.] 

— cor'po-ral-ly, adv. 

cor'po-ral, cer'po-ral, n. The lowest non- 
commissioned officer in a company of soldiers. 

cor'po-rate, cer'po-ret or -rgt, a. Incor- 
porated or belonging to a corporation. [< L. 
corjn/s, body.] cor'po-ra-tiv(e$. — cor'- 


fiutgure (future); aisle; au (put)-, oil; c (k); cliat; dh (^^e); go; sing, ink; thin. 




■rate-ly, ad». 1. As a corporate body. 3. 
In the body; bodily.— cor^'po-ra'tion, cer"- 
po-r6'shun, n. A body of persons legally asso- 
ciated for the transaction of business.— cor'po- 
ra^tor, n. A member of a corporation. 

cor-po're-al, cer-pO'rg-al, a. Having a body; 
of a material nature; physical: opposed to im- 
material or spiritual. [< L. corpoi^eus, < 
corpus {cm^or-), body.] — cor-^po-re'I-tv, 
c§r"po-rI'i-ti, n. Existence in the body; material 
existence; materiality, cor-po-^re-al'i-tyt; 
cor-po're-al-nesst. — cor-po're-al-ly, 
adv. In or relating to the body; bodily. 

corps, Cur, n. A number of persons acting to- 
gether ; a section of an army ; a special military 
department. [F., < L.^f corpus, body.] 

corpse, cerps, 7i. A dead body, as of a human 
being. [ < F. corps; see corps.] 

cor'pu-lent, cer'piu-lgnt, a. Having a great 
ercessof fat; very fleshy. [F., < L. corpiilentus., 
fleshy, < corpus., body.] — cor'pu-lence, n. 
cor'pii-leu-cyt. — cor'pu-lent-ly, adv. 

cor'pus-cle, cer'pus-l, n. A minute parti- 
cle or body; a cell; atom. [< L. corpuscidum, 
dim. of corpus, body.] cor''pus-cule$. 
— cor-pus'cu-lar, a. Of, pertaining to, or 
made up of corpuscles; molecular. 

cor-ral', cer-ral'. I. vt. [cor-ralled';cok- 
ral'ling.] [Western U. S.] To drive into and 
enclose in a corral ; pen up. II. n. An enclosed 
space or pen for live stock. [Sp.] 

cor-rect', egr-rect'. l-^. nt. 1. To set straight; 
remove faults or errors from; make right; rec- 
tify. 2. To remove, as an error; remedy. 3. 
To chastise; punish. 4. To point out the mis- 
takes of; set right. II. a. Free from fault or 
mistake; true, right, or proper; accurate. [< 
L. correctus, pp. of cmiigo, < con-, together, -f- 
rego, rule.] — cor-rect'a-bl(e, cor-rect'i-bl(e, 
«.— cor-rec'tioii, cgr-rec'shun, «. 1, The act 
of correcting or setting right; rectification; em- 
endation. *i. That which is offered as an im- 
provement. 3. The act or process of disciplin- 
ing or chastening, cor-rec'ciont.— cor-rec'- 
tion-al. I. a. Tending to or intended for cor- 
rection. II. w. A house of correction.— cor- 
rect'iv(e. I. a. Adapted to correct. II„ n. 
That which has power or tendency to counteract 
anything wrong or injurious. — cor-rcct'ly, 
«d».— cor-rect'ness, m.— cor-rect'or, n. 

cor^re-spond''', cer"e-spend', vi. 1. To be 
adequate or proportioned; be equal or like. 2. 
To hold communication by means of letters. 
[< L.*^ cor-, together, + respondeo, respond.] 

cor"re-spond'ence, cer"g-spend'ens, n. 1. 
Mutual adaptation; c<mgruity; agreement. 2. 
Communication by letters; also, the letters 
themselves. cor''re-spond'en-cy$.— 
cor'^re-Mpoiid'ent. I. a. Having corre- 
spondence; adapted: with <fl. II. 7i. One who 
comnumlcatc^s with another by mall or telegraph. 

Cor''re-spond'ing, car'e-spend'ing, ;;a. 1. 
Correspondent ; being similar and similarly 
placed: with to. 2. Carrying on a correspond- 
ence: followed by wi^/i. '\y,adv. 

cor'ri-dor, cer'i-dSr, n. A wide gallery or 
passage in a building. [F.] 

cor'ri-gi-'blCe, cer'i-ji-bl, a. Capable of being 
corrected. | < L. corrifjo; see correct.] 

cor-ro'b'o-rate, cgr-reb'o-ret, vl. [-ra'teu*'; 
-RA'TiNO.] To strengthen, as conviction; con- 
firm. [< L. ccyr-, together, -f robur (robor-). 

strength.] — cor-roVo-ra'tion, ti. The act of 
corroborating; confirmation; that which corrob- 
orates.— cor-rob'o-ra-tiv(e, a. Tending to 
confirm; verifying, cor-rob'o-ra-to-ryj. 

cor-rode', cer-rod', r. [-ko'ded''; -ro'ding.] 
I. t. To eat away gradually; rust. II. i. To 
become corroded. [< L. cor-, together, -\- rode, 
gnaw.] — cor-ro'sion, cgr-rO'zhun, w. Aneat- 
mg or wearing away; gradual decay.— cor-ro'- 
sivCe, cgr-rosiv. I. a. Having the power of 
corroding. II. «. That which corrodes; a cor- 
roding agent. -\y, adv. -11 ess, n. 

cor'ru-gate, cer'u-get. I.rt.&vi. [-ga"- 
ted"1; -ga'ting.] To contract into alternate 
ridges and furrows; wrinkle. II. cer'u-get 
or -g§t, a. Contracted into ridges or folds; 
wrinkled. cor''ru-ga"ted$. [<L. cor-, 
together, -|- ruga, wrinkle.] — cor'^ru-ga'- 
tiou, n. The act of corrugating; a wrinkle. 

cor-rupt'"!, cer-rupt', v. I. t. To subject to 
decay; spoil; also, to vitiate; deprave; pollute; 
pervert, as by bribery. II. i. To become rot- 
ten; putrefy. — cor-rupt'er, cor-rupt'or, ti. — 
cor-rupt'''i-biFi-ty, m. The quality of being 
corruptible. — cor-rupt'i-bl(e, a. That may 

be corrupted; subject to decay.— cor-rupt' 

«. — cor-i'upt'i-bly, aa 
rupt'iv(e, a. Of a corrupting character. 


cor-rupt', a. 1. In a state of decomposition; 
tainted; pntiid. 2. of a perverted character; 
given to bribery; dishonest; depraved. [< L. 
cor-, together, -f- rumpo, break.] — cor-rupt'- 
ly, ar/?;.— cor-rupt'uess, n. 

cor-rup'tion, cer-rup'shun, n. 1. The act 
of corrupting, or the state of being corrupted. 
2. A corrupting influence, as bribery. 

cor^sage, cer'sgj, n. The bodice or waist of a 
woman's dress. [F.] 

cor'sair, cer'sar, n. A pirate; also, his vessel. 
I < Pr.*' corsari, < L. cursus, course.] 

corse, cers, n. 1. A ribbon used for vest- 
ments. 21!. A corpse. [< OF. cars, body.] 

corse'let, cers'let, n. Antiq. The complete 
armor of a soldier; also, a breastplate. [F.] 

cor'set, cer'set, n. A close»fitting laced bodice, 
worn as an undergarment by women. [OF.] 

cor'"te$re', cSr't^zh', n. A train of attendants. 
LF., < It. corte, court.] 

cor'ti-cal, a. Of, or pertaining to, consisting 
of, or like bark; external. 

cor^'us-cate, cer'us-ket, vi. [-ca'ted''; -ga'- 
ting.] To give out sparkles of light. [ < L. cor- 
uscatus, pp. of corusco, flash.] — cor''ii8-ca'- 
tion, n. A burst of sparks or flashes. 

cor'^vette', cer'vet', n. A wooden war^vessel, 
ranking next below a frigate. [F.] cor'vet$. 

cor'vin(e, cer'vin, a. Of or pertaining to a 
crow; crow'like. [< L. corvus, raven.] 

co'M«'y, a. & n. Same as cozy. 

cos-met'ic, cez-met'ic. I. a. Pertaining to 
the beautifying of the complexion. C08- 
meVic-al:^. II. n. A compound applied to 
the skin to improve its appearance. [< Gr. 
kosinos. ornament.] 

cos^'^mo-pol^i-tan, coz"mo-pel'i-tan. I. a. 
Common to all the world; not lociil or limited; 
at home in all parts of the world; widely dis- 
tributed, asagenns. II. v. A citizen of the 
world, cos-mop^o-litet. 

cos'iuos, cez'mes, n. The world or universe 
as a system; any liarmonious and complete 
system. [< Gr. "kosmos, order.] 

papa, ^Bk; at, air; element, they, uefge; It, J, i (ee); o, oh; orator, or; full, riile; but. Or; 



cos'set, ce8'§t. F. 'vt. To fondle; pet. II. 
n. A pet lamb; any pet. 

cost, cost. I. tt. [cost; cost'ing.] To re- 
quire as a price; cause the expenditure or 
loss of life. II. 11. The price paid for any- 
thing; outlay; expense; charge. [< L.^+^ 
consto, < con-., together, -4- sto, stand.] 

cos'tal, ces'tal, a. Of, pertaining to, on, or 
near a rib. [< L. costa., rib.] 

cos'tivie, ces'tiv, a. Constipated. [< L.f*^ 
con-^tiix); see constipate.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

cost'ly, cest'Ii, a. &adv. Of great cost; ex- 
pensive. — cost'li-ness, n. 

cos'tume, ces'tium, n. The garments, col- 
lectively, worn at one time; dress, especially of 
a country, period, class, etc. [F., < L.^ co?)- 
suetudo., CUSTOM.] 

co'sy, a. & n. Same as cozY. 

cot, cet, n. 1. A cottage. 2. A light, portable 
bedstead. 3 . A finger«stall. [< AS. cote, cot.] 

cote, n. A sheepfoTd, or place of shelter: used 
chiefly in compounds. [< AS. cote, cot, den.] 

co-tem'^po-ra'iie-oiis, co-teiii'po-ra-ry» 
etc. See contemporaneous, etc. 

CO'^te-rie', cO'tg-rl', ji. A set of persons who 
meet habitually; a clique. [F.] 

co-ter'mi-iiou8, a. Same as conteeminotjs. 

co-til'lion, co-til'y§n, n. 1. A square dance; 
quadrille. 2. The music for such a dance. 3. 
A series of round dances; the german. [< F. 
cofillon,<OF. cote :e.eecoxT, n.] co-til'lon:};. 

cot'tage, cet'gj, ?i. 1. A humble dwelling: 
small house. 2. [U.S.] An out^of'town res- 
idence, often large and sumptuous. [< cot.] 
— cot'ta-ger, n. The 
occupant of a cottage.— 
cot'ter', n. A cottager; 
farn* tenant, cot'tari; 
cot'ti-erj. — cot'ter2, 
n. A key or wedge, as to 
fasten a wheel on Its 

cot'ton, n. 1 . The soft, 
fibrous material append- 
ant to the seeds of a 
plant (the cottorcplant)', 
also, the plant itself, or 
cotton»plant8 collective- 
ly. 2. Cotton cloth or 
thread. {< Ax.'^f^^ qu- 
tun, cotton.] — cot'tons 
tfin'', n. A machine 
tised to separate the seeds 
from the fiber of cotton. 

cofy-le'don, cet"i-li'- 
d§n, n. A seed-leaf, or first leaf of an embryo. 
See illus. in next column. [< Gr. kotylMoti, 
socket.] — cofy-ied'on-oiis, cet"i-]ed'un-us, 
a. Of, pertalning'to, or like cotyledons, cofy- 

couch.', cauch, V. I. t. 1. To cansc to lie or 
recline; lower, as a spear, for attack. 2. To 
express, imply, or conceal in a form of words. 
3. Snrg. To remove (as a cataract). II. i. To 
lie down; rest; crouch. [ < F. coucher?[ 

coucll, n. 1. A bed or other support for 
sleeping or reclining. 2. Any place for repose. 

coiich'ant, cQuch'ant, a. 1. Lying down. 3. 
Her. Reclining with head uplifted. [F.] 

cou'gar, cu'gar, n. The puma or panther. 
[< S.»Am. cugvaciiara.'] 

cougliS cef, V. I. t. 1. To expel by a cough: 


rt, the boll ready for 


Cotyledon, c, 
c, of an Al- 
mond = seed, 
separated to 
show the 
Germ (a) ; r. 

with up. 2. To produce (some result) by 
coughing. II. i. To expel air from the lungs 
in a spasmodic or noisy manner. [Imitative.] 

cough,, n. A sudden, harsh expulsion of 
breath; a disease productive of coughing. 

could, cud, imp. of can, v. [< AS. cuthe, pret. of 
cunnan, = cani, ».] 

cou-loinb\ cu-lem', n. The practical unit of 
quantity in measuring electricity; the amount 
conveyed bv one ampere in one second. [< 
Coulomb, a French physicist.] 

couFter, col'ter, n. A colter. 

coun'cil, coim'sil, n. An as- 
sembly for consultation or de- 
liberation. [<Jj.^ concilium, < 
con-, together, -f calo, call.] — 
conn'cil-nian, coun'cil-or, 
«. A member of a council. 

coun'sel, caun'sel, v. [-seled 
or -selled; -sel-ing or -sel- 
ling.] I. t. To give advice 
to; admonish; advise. II. i. To 
take counsel; deliberate. 

coun'sel, n. 1. Mutual con- 
sultation or deliberation. 2. Opinion; advice; 
deliberate purpose. 3. Good judgment: pru- 
dence. 4. A lawyer or lawyers engaged in a 
cause in court; an advocate. [ < L.i' consilium, 
< consnlo, consult.] — coun'sel-or, caun'sel- 
gr, n. 1 . One who gives counsel; an attorney at 
law; advocate. 3. A councilor, coun'sel-lort. 

count'', count, ^;. I. t. 1. To number; enu- 
merate; compute. 2. Toconsider tobe; judge. 
3. To ascribe: with /o. II. i. 1. To call off 
numbers in order; number. 2. To carry weight; 
add value. 3. To rely: with o» or «/^o;^. [< 
L.^ compiito; see compute.] 

counts n. 1. The act of counting; number. 
2. Attention; heed; estimation. 3. Law. A 
separate charge, as in an indictment. 

counts, n. In France, Spain, Italy, etc., a 
nobleman originally corresponding to an earl 
in England. [< L.op comes, associate.] 

coun'te-nance, caun'tg-nans. I. vt. 
[-NANCED'; -NAN-ciNG.] To approve; cucour- 
age; abet. II. n. 1. One's face or features. 
2. Expression; appearance; an encouraging 
aspect; hence, approval; support. [< F. 
contenance, continetitia; see continent, n.] 

coun'ter, caun'tgr, vt. & vi. To return, as 
one blow by another; give a return blow. 

coun'ter, a. Contrary; opposing. 

count'eri, caunt'gr, n. 1. One who or that 
which counts, especially a machine for count- 
ing. 2. A piece of wood, ivory, etc., used in 
counting. 1<L.^^ cofup^uto; see compute.] 

coun'ter^, caun'tgr, n. A table on which 
to count money or expose goods for sale. [ < 
OF. contoir, < L.^-i- computo; see compute.] 

coun''ter3, ^. i, ^n opposite, or that which 
is opposite; a parry; counter blow. 2. The 
portion of a shoe that surrounds the heel of the' 
wearer. [< counter-.] 

coun'ter, adv. Contrary; reversely. 

counter-, J9re^a;. Contrary; opposite. [< F. 
contre-, < L. contra-; see contra-.] [Besides 
the words defined, co^inter- is used as the first 
element of a large number of words, which may 
be readily defined by combining the meaning of 
the prefix with that of the second element.] 

coun^'ter-act''', caun"ter-act', vt. To act in 

fiutlflre (future); aisle; au {put); ©il; c (k); chat; dli {the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



opposition to; check; frustrate; hinder.— 
coun'^ter-ac'tion, n. 

coun^^ter-barance, caun"ter-bal'ans. I. 
vt. f-ANCED'; -AN-ciNG.] To oppose with an 
equal force; offset. II. n. Any power 
equally opposing another; a counterpoise. 

coun'ter-feit, caun'tgr-fit. I"*, vt. To make 
fraudulently or unlawfully, as money; imitate, 
with intent to deceive; feign; pretend. II. a. 
Resembling or made to resemble some genuine 
thing, with intent to defraud; imitated; spuri- 
ous. III. n. Something, as a coin, made 
fraudulently to resemble the genuine; also, 
any imitation, as a portrait or copy. [< L.*' 
contra^ •\-facio^ make.] — coun'ter-feir'er, n. 
One who counterfeits money; any pretender. 

coun^'ter-mand', caun''ter-mand'. I<i. vt. 
1. To recall or revoke, as an order. 2. To con- 
tradict; oppose. II. n. An order contrary to 
or revoking one previously issued. [< L.^ 
contra, againpt, -j- mando^ order.] 

coun'^ter-marcb'. V-.vt.&im. To march 
back. II. n. 1. A return march; change of 
front. 2. Any reversal of conduct or method. 

coun'ter-panc", caun'tgr-pen% n. A cov- 
erlet or quUt. [ < L.OF cidcita., quilt, -\-puncta., 
fem. of punctus, point.] 

coun'ter-pa-rf, n. 1. A person or thing 
precisely like another; a facsimile. 2. Some- 
thing corresponding reversely, as the impres- 
sion to the seal, or the right hand to the left; a 
complement; supplement; opposite. 

coun'^ter-poise', caun"tgr-peiz'. I. vt. 

t poised'; -pois'ing.] 1. To bring to a poise 
y opposing with an equal weight; counterbal- 
ance. 2. To offset or irustrate. 11. n. 1. A 
counterbalancing weight, effort, influence, 
power, etc. 2. A state of equilibrium. [< 
L.o*" contra, against, -{-pensvm, weight.] 

coun^'ter-sign', caun"tgr-8ain'. I. vt. To 
authenticate by an additional signature. II. 
n. A secret word or phrase to be given, as to a 
sentry; a watchword. 

coun''ter-sink', caun'tgr-sink'. I. vt. 1. 
To cut or shape (a depression), as for the head 
of a screw. 2. To sink, as a bolt or screw, into 
a corresponding depression. II. n. 1. A tool 
for countersinking. 2. A depression for a 
screw'head, bolt, etc. 

countless, caunt'es, n. The wife of a count, 
or, in Great Britain, of an earl. [< F. com- 
tesse, < L. comes; see count", n.] 

count'ingsbouse'', n. An oftice for trans- 
acting the business of a mercantile or other 
establishment, count'ingsroom^t. 

countless, a. That can not be counted. 

coun'tri-fy, con'tri-fai, vt. [-fied; -rY"iNG.] 
To make rural or rustic. 

coun'try, cun'tri. I. a. . Of or pertaining to 
the country; rustic; simple; unpolished. II. 
n. [coun'tries* ;;/.] 1. A region or nation ; 
district; tract of land; native land. 2. With 
the definite article, a mral region. 3. A com- 
munity; the public. [F. contree, < LL. con- 
trata, < L. contra, against.] — coun'try. 
dance", n. A dance In which the partners arc 
ranged In opposite lines.— coun'try-iiian'', ii. 
[•MKK. pl.^ 1. One living In the country; a rus- 
tic, a. An Inhabitant of a particular country; 
one of the same country with another.— couu'- 

trysseaf, n. A dwelling or mansion In the 
country.— coun''try-side'', n. A section of 
country, or its Inhabitants.— coun'try-'woiii'"- 
an, n. 

coun'ty, caun'ti, w. rcouN'TiEs*, p^.] A civil 
division of a state; also, its inhabitants. [< 
JjL.^ comitatxis, < L. comes; see coxxnt'', n.\ 

coup, cli, n. A sudden telling blow; a master- 
stroke; stratagem. [F.] — coup de grftce, cu 
de grgs [F.], the finishing or mortal stroke; liter- 
ally, a stroke of mercy.— c. d'^'-'tat', cu de'tfl' 
[F.], a sudden stroke of policy or statesmanship, 
often accompanied by violence. 

cou^'p^', cu"pe', n. 1. A low four-wheeled 
two'seated close carriage. 2. The forward 
compartment of a French diligence, or a half- 
compartment of a Continental railway=carriage. 
[F., < couper., cut.] 

couple, cup'l. 1. vt. & vi. [coup'led; 
coup'ling.] To join; place together in a pair; 
join in wedlock; connect; unite. II. n. Two 
of a kind; a pair. [< L.^ copulo, < copula; 
see COPULA.] — coup'ler, /i. 1. One who or 
that which couples. *Z, A mechanical device by 
which objects are connected, coiip'lingt. 

coup'let, cup'let, n. Two similar things taken 
or considered together; two lines of verse in 
immediate sequence, riming together. [F.] 

cou'pon", cu'pen", n. A detachable portion 
of a bond, ticket, or the like, certifying some- 
thing, as interest to be due. [F., < covper., cut.] 

courtage, cur'gj, n. Intrepidity, calmness, 
and firmness in face of danger or opposition ; 
bravery. [F., < L. car, heart.] — cou-ra'- 
Keous, cTT-r6'ju8, a. Possessec\^of or character- 
ized by courage; brave; Intrepid, -ly, adv. 

cou'ri-er, cu'ri-gr, n. A messenger; also, a 
traveling attendant. [OF., < L. ciirro, run.] 

course, cors. I. vt. &vi. [couksed'; cours'- 
ING.] To run or cause to run; run through or 
over; hunt (hares) with greyhounds. II. n. 

1. The act of moving onward; career. 2. The 
way passed over, or the direction taken. 3. A 
series of connected motions, acts, or events; 
sequence. 4. Line of conduct. 5. The portion 
of a meal served at one time. 6. A row or 
layer. 7. 2^^ The menses. [F., fern, of tw/r*% 
< L. cursus, course, < citn'O, run.] — cours'er, 
cOrs'er, n. 1. A fleet and spirited horse. »J. 
One given to the chase. 

court, cOrt. I"i, vt. 1. To make love to; woo. 

2. To seek the favor of ; seek as a favor; solic- 
it: used also intransitively. II. a. Of or 
pertaining to a court. III. n. 1. A judicial 
tribunal, or the presiding judge or judges. 2. 
The residence, or the council and retinue, of a 
sovereign. 3. A courtyard or a blind alley. 
4. Obsequious or flattering attention. [< 
L.LL+OF cors {cort-), short for cohors (cohort-).] 

— coiirt'ly, a. Pertaining to or befitting a 
court; elegant lu inauueis. — coiii't'Ii-ucH!!i, ». 
— court iiiarriul L<'<>i'1!ts maktial, ;;/.], ft 
court, convened to try olTt'iises against military or 
naval law.— court'spIaM'''ter, n. A thin, fine 
adhesive plaster.— coiirt'ship, n. The act or 
period of courting or woolnp. — court'yard", 
n. An enclosed yard adjoining a building, or 
surrounded by buildings, towhldiitgives access. 

COUr'te-OUS, crir'tj,?-us,rt. Showing courtesy; 
polite; affable, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

coiir'to-Baii, n. Same as couktbzan. 

courte'sy, curt'si, vi. [-sied; -st-ing.] To 

popfl, gsk; at, ftir; el^mgnt, th6y, usgge; It, j, i (ee); o, 5h; orator, «r; full, rule; bwt. Or; 




I make the gesture of respect called a curtsy. 

* cour'te-syi, n. [-sies'-, pl.^ A gesture of 

civility or respect; a curtsy. See curtsy. 

cour'te-sy2, cur'te-si, n. [-sies^, pi.} 1. 

Genuine and habitual politeness; courtliness. 

2. A courteous favor or act. 3. Common con- 
sent. [< F. courtoisie.'] cur'te-sy:}:. 

cour'te-zan, cur'tg-zan, n. A prostitute. 
[< It.F cortegiano, < corte, court.] 

court'ier, cbrt'ygr, n. 1. A member of the 
court circle. 2. One who seeks favor by flat- 
tery and complaisance. [OF.] 

cous'in, cuz'u, n. The child of an uncle or 

aunt, or a descendant of one so related. [F.] 

— cousin gerinaii, a first or full cousin. 

cove, cOv, n. 1. A small bay or baylike re- 
cess. 2. A narrow valley among mountains. 3. 
A concavity. [< AS. cofa, chamber, cave.] 

cov'e-nant, cuv'g-nant. I. vt. & vi. To 
promise by covenant; bind oneself hy cove- 
nant. II. n. An agreement entered mto by 
two or more persons or parties ; a compact. [ < 
L.o^ convenien{t-)s, < con, together, -\- venio, 
come.] — cov'e-nant-er, n. One who enters 
Into a covenant, cov'e-nant-orj, 

Cov'en-try, cuv'gn-tri, n. A town of War- 
wickshire, England. — to send to C, to banish 
from society or social Intercourse; ostracize. 

cov'er, cuv'gr, ?;. I. t. 1. To overspread or 
overlay with something; enwrap; put upon; 
sit or brood over, as eggs. 2. To hide; screen. 

3. To suffice or compensate for. 4. To bring 
and keep within range, as of guns or troops. 
5. To accomplish; pass over, as a space or dis- 
tance. II. i. 1. To spread or extend over 
something. 2. To put one's hat on. [< L.*^^ 
cooperio, < co- intens. -f- operio., hide.] — oov'- 
er-ing, ?i. 1. Anything that covers. "2. The 
act of putting on acover.— cov'er-let, n. The 
outer covering of a bed; a quilt. cov'er-Iidt. 

cov'er, n. 1. That which is spread or fitted over 
or encloses anything. 2. A veil or disguise; 
pretext. 3. A shelter or defense; protection. 

4. A thicket or underbrush, etc., sheltering 
game. 5. Table furniture for one person. 

cov'ert, cuv'grt. I. a. Concealed; secret; 
sheltered. II. n. Something that shelters, 
defends, or conceals; a shady place or thicket. 
[OF., < covHi\ COVER.] — cov'ert-ly, adv. 

cov'er-ture, cuv'gr-chur or -ti^r, n. Law. 
Marriage; the legal state of a married woman. 

cov'et'', cuv'et, i;. I. t. 1. To have an inor- 
dinate or unlawful desire for. 2. To have an 
eagerand worthy desire for; crave. II. i. To 
indulge extreme or unlawful desire. [ < L.o^ 
ciipidita(t-)s; see cupidity.] — cov'et-ous, a. 
Inordinately eager to acquire and possess.— 
cov'et-ou8-ly, adv.— co^'et-ona-ness, n. 

cov'ey, cuv'e, n. A fiock, as of quails or par- 
tridges. [< F. couvee, < couver.,hTood.] 

cow, cau, vt. To overawe; intimidate; daunt. 
[< Ice. kuga, tyrannize over.] 

cow, n. The female of domestic cattle and of 
some other animals. [< AS. cu.] — cow'boy'', 
n. A boy, or, in the Western United States, a 
mounted man, employed to tend cattle.— co w'- 
catch'^er, n. An iron frame on the front of a 
locomotive, to throw obstructions from the 
track; pilot.— CO w'he I'd'', n. A herdsman.— 
cow'hide''. I. vt. [cow'ih'ded<1; cow'hi"- 
DijTG.] To whip with or as with a cowhide. IT. 



n. 1, The skin of a cow, either before or after 
tanning. 2. A whip made of twisted leather.— 
co^v' slick", n. A tuft of hair turned up over 
the forehead as If licked by acow.— cow'pox", 
71. An acute contagious disease of cows, the 
source of vaccine. 

cow'ard, cau'ard, n. One lacking in cour- 
age; a craven; poltroon. [< F. couard, < 
OF. coue (< L. Cauda), tail.] — cow'ard, a.— 
cow'ard-ice, cau'ard-is, n. Unworthy timid- 
ity; poltroonery.— cow'ard-ly, I. a. Like or 
befitting a coward; pusillanimous, ll, adv. In 
a cowardly manner.— cow'ard-li-ness, n. 

cow^er, cau'gr, vi. To crouch tremblingly; 
quail. [< Ice. kura, doze.] 

cowl, caul, n. 1. A monks' hood; a hooded 
garment. 2. A monk. 3. A hood-shaped top, 
as for a chimney. [< L.-^^ cucullus, hood.] 

co'^work-'er, cO'wurk'gr, n. A fellow worker. 

cow'slip", cau'slip", n. An English wild 
flower of the primrose 
family; an allied or sim- 
ilar American wild flower. 
[< AS. cuslyppe, < cu, 
cow, -I- slyppe, cowdrop- 

cox'comb'', cex'cOm", r.. 

1. A pretentious and con- 
ceited fop. 2. Same as 

COCKSCOMB. Cowslip. 

cox'swain, cec'swen (cex'n, Navt.), n. 
who steers or has charge of a rowboat. 

coy, cei, a. 1. Shrinking from notice or fa- 
miliar advances; diffident; shy. 2. Coquet- 
tish, [OF., < L. quietus, quiet.] 

— coy'ly, ad».— coy'ness, n. 
co-yo'te, co-yO'te or cai'ot, n. A burrowing 

dog=like mammal, the prairie-wolf of the 
western United States. [Sp., < Mex. coyotl.] 

coz, cuz, 71. A cousin. 

coz'en, cuz'n, vt. & vi. To cheat in a petty 
way. [< F. cousiner, < cousin, cousin.] 

co'zy, co'zi, a. [co'zi-er; co'zi-est.] Snugly 
and easily comfortable; contented; sociable. 
[ < Gael, cosach, full of hollows, snug, < cos, 
crevice.] — co'zi-ly, co-'si-ly, adv. 

craal, n. Same as kraal. 

crabi , crab, n. 1 . A 10-f ooted crustacean hav- 
ing the abdomen or tail folded under the body. 

2. [C-] A constellation, Cancer. 3. A form of 
windlass. [< AS. crabba.'] 

crab2, n. 1. A kind of small, sour apple. 
crab'=ap"plet. 2. A tree bearing this fruit. 
[< Sw. krabb- in krabbdple, crab-apple.] 

crab'bed, crab'gd, a. 1. Sour-tempered; pee- 
vish. 2. Harsh; sour; abstruse; cramped and 
irregular. [< crab^, w.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

cracks crac, v. I. t. 1. To make cracks in; 
burst; split; break open. 2. To cause to give 
forth a short, sharp sound; snap. 3. To de- 
range mentally. 4. To tell with spirit. II. i. 
1. To split or break. 2. To make a sharp, 
snapping sound. [< AS. cracian (imitative).] 

— crack'er, crak'gr, w. A person or thing 
that cracks; a firecracker; a thin, brittle biscuit. 

crack, n. 1. A partial breakage; a fissure. 2. 
A sudden and sharp sound; a sounding blow. 

crack1(e, crac'l. I.vt.&vi. [crack'l(e)d; 
crack'ling.] To crack slightly and repeated- 
ly; cover with cracks. II. w. 1. A succession 
of light, cracking sounds; crepitation. 2. A 

fiutjure (future); aisle; au (owt); oil; c (k); cliat; dbi (<Ae); go; sing, i^k; tliin. 



small crack; a network of fine cracks, as on 
china. [Freq. of crack.] — crack'Iing, crac'- 
llng, 11. 1. A crackling sound. '2. The crisp 
browned skin of roasted pork. 

cra'dle, cre'dl, rt. & ti. [cra'dled; cra'- 
DLiNG.] 1. To put into, rest, or rock in or as in 
a cradle; soothe; nurse; nurture. 2. To reap 
with a cradle, as wheat. 3. To wash, as gold" 
bearing gravel, in a mining*cradle. 

cra'dle, n. 1. A rocking or swinging bed for 
an infant. 2. A place of birth; origin. 3. 
Agric. A scythe with fingers that catch the 
grain when cut. 4. A frame for sustaining a 
vessel. 5. A box on rockers for washing ore. 
[< AS. cradely < Ir. craidhal.] 

craft, crgft, n. 1. Cunning or skill; guile. 2. 
Atrade, or those employed m it. S. ^aut. A 
vessel; also, collectively, vessels. [< AS. crseft. 
skill, art, strength, courage.] 

— crafts'inan, w. [-MEX,i9?.] A member of 
a craft; a skilled mechanic— craft'y, crgft'l, a. 
Skilful in deceiving; cunning.— craft'i-ry> «f'?'- 
— craft'i-ness, n. 

crag, crag, n. A rough, steep rock jutting out 
prominently. [< W. craig., rock.] — crag'- 
ged, a. Having numerous crags, crag'gyi,— 
crag'ged-ness, n. eras' K\-ne»st. 

cram, cram, v. [crammed; cram'ming.] I. 
t. 1. To press together; pack tightly; crowd. 
2. To feed to satiety. 3. To force into the 
mind. II. i. 1. To eat greedily. 2. To force 
knowledge into the mind by hurried study. 
[< AS. crammian, stuff.], cramp. I', -vt. To fasten with or as 
with a cramp. II. n. A device, as an iron 
with bent ends, for binding two pieces firm- 
ly together, [Of AS. origin.] 

crazap^. I', nt. To affect with cramps. II. 
n. Med. 1. An involuntary, sudden, painful, 
muscular contraction. 2. A form of local 
paralysis. [< F. crampe, < D. Icramp.'] 

cran'toer'^ry, cran'ber"i, n. [-RIE8^ pl.^ The 
bright-scarlet acid berry of a plant growing 
in marshy land, or the plant itself. [< AS. 
cran., for crane i, w., + berry >.] 

cranei, cren, n. A 
large long'uecked, long- 
legged, heron-like bird. 
[< AS. cmn.] 

crane^, n. Mech. 1. A 
hoisting-machine with a 
swinging arm. 2. A 
support for kettles in a 
fireplace. 3. A siphon. 
[< crane>, n. (its arm 
resembling the neck of a 
crane).] Cranes. 

cra'ni-um, cre'ni-um or crg'ni-um, n. [cra'- 
Ni-A, o/.] The skull. [LL., < Gr. kranioii, 
skull.] — cra'nl-al, cre'ui-al, a. Of or per- 
taining to the cranium.— rra''iii-oI'o-8:y,w. 
The study of skulls.- cra^'ni-o-loff'ic-al, «. 

crank, craijk, a. 1. Naitt. Delicately or ill bal- 
anced; easily capsized. 2. Hence, shaky. 3. 
Spirited; lively. [Ult. < AS. cnncan, yield.] 

crank, n. 1. A bent arm attached to an axis, 
or a bent portion of an axle, for converting ro- 
tary into reciprocating motion, or vice versa. 
See illus. in next column. 2. [Colloq., U. S.] 
An Hnbalance<l person; a monomaniac. [< 

A narrow 

CRANK, a.] — crank'y, cra?ik'i, a. 1 . Full of 

whims; mentally unbalanced. 3. Crooked. 3. 

Rickety; liable to upset, 
cran'ny, cran'i, /?. [cran'nies=',j9;.] A narrow 

opening; fissure. [< L^.cre^ia, notch.] 
crape, crep, n. A thin gauze»like 

material. [< F. crepe.} crSpeJ. 
crashS crash, t. I. t. To dash in 

pieces noisily. II. i. To make a ' 

noise, as of sudden violent breaking. 

[< Sw. krasa (imitative).] __ 

crash.!,/?. 1. Aloud, crashing noise. _ , 

2. Destruction; bankruptcy. i^ranK. 
crasta.^, n. A coarse linen fabric, as for towel- 
ing. [< L. crasms, coarse.] 

crass, eras, a. 1. Coarse or thick in struc- 
ture; dense. 2. Dull; obtuse. [< L. erassus, 
thick.] — crass'ly, adv. — crass'ness, n. 

crate, cret. I"^. vt. To put in a crate. II. n. 
A large wickerwork hamper or framework of 
slats, for transporting various articles. [< L. 
cratis, v.'ickerwork.] 

cra'ter, cre'tgr, n. The bowl-shaped depres- 
sion forming the outlet of a volcano or of a 
hot spring. [< Gr. krater, mixing-vessel.] 

cra-vat', cra-vat', n. A neckcloth. [< F. 

crave, crev, v. [craved; cra'ving.] I. t. 1. 
To beg for humbly and earnestly. 2. To long 
for. II. i. To desire or entreat humbly or 
seriously: with/o?\ [< AS. crajian.] 

cra'ven, cre'vn. I. a. Lacking in courage; 
cowardly. II. n. A base coward. [< L.^*' 
crepo, break.] — cra'ven-hy, adv, 

craw, ere, n. The first stomach or crop of a 
bird. [< Dn. kro.] 

craw'fisli'', cre'fish", n. A small fresh-water 
lobster-like crustacean. [< OHG.^f chrebiz, 

crawl, crel, vi. To move as a worm; move 
slowly or cautiously; creep. [< Ice. krafla, 
paw, crawl.] —crawl'Ing-ly, adv. 

cray'fisli'', cre'fish", n. A crawfish. 

cray'on, cre'un, n. 1. A slender cylinder, as 
of charcoal or prepared chalk, for drawing on 
paper, 2. An oily pencil, used in lithography. 

3. A carbon-point in an arc-light, 4. A draw- 
ing made with crayons. [F.] 

craze, crez. I.vt.&ri. [crazed; or a'zino.] 

1. To make or become insane. 2. To make 
or become full of minute cracks or flaws, as 
pottery. II. w. 1. Mental disorder; an insane 
freak of fashion ; a caprice, prejudice, or 
crotchet. 2. A flaw in the glaze of pottery. 
[ < Sw. krasa, crash.] — craz-ed, a. 1 . Insane. 

2. Cracked, as glaze.— cra'zy, ((. [cua'zi-kk; 
cra'zi-est.J 1. Insane; originating In or char- 
acterized by Insanity, ti. Dilapidated; rickety. 
— cra'zi-iy, «rfr.— cra'zi-ness, n. 

creak, crtk. I', vt. & vi. To make, or cause 
to make, a creak. II. n. A sharp, squeaking 
sound, as from friction. [Var, of crack, «.] 
— creak'y, a. Apt to creak; creaking. 

cream, crim. I. vt. & vi. To skim cream 
from, or supply cream to; be covered with 
cream, or witli scum, etc. II. n. 1. A gather- 
ing of fatty globules on the surface of milk; 
hence, any substance similar in formation or 
appearance. 2. The part of something re- 
garded as the choicest or best. [ < F. creme.] 

papfl, 98k; at, Sir; element, th6y, usfge; It, %, i (ee); o, 6h; erat^r, «r; full, rule; but, *r; 



— creaiii-'er-y, n. [-ies^^j?.] 1. A place 
for collecting, keeping, or selling cream, ii. A 
butter*raaking establishment. — cream'y, a. 
Resembling or containing cream. 

crease, cris, r<. [creased'; creas'ing.] To 
make a crease, fold, or wrinkle in. 

creasei, n. The mark of a wrinkle, fold, or 
the like. [Perhaps Celt.] 

crease^, 71. Same as creese. 

ci'e'a-sote, n. Same as creosote. 

cre-ate', crg-et', t\ [cre-a'ted^; cre-a'ting.] 
1 . To bring into existence ; make out of noth- 
ing; originate; prodtice; occasion. 2. To invest 
with a new rank, etc.; appoint. [< L. c?'eo, 
make.] — cre-a'tion, cre-e'shun, n. 1. The 
act of creating. '2. That which is created; the 
universe. 3. Investiture.— cre-a'tiv(e, a. 
Having the power to create; productive.— cre- 
a'tor, 11. 1, One who creates; [C-], God as the 
maker of the universe. •2. That which produces 
or causes.— crea't lire, crl'chur oi- -tiur, n. 1. 
That which has been created; a living being. -Z» 
A dependent; tool. 

creche, cresh, 7J. 1, A public day»nursery. 2. 
A foundling asylum. [F.] 

cre'dence, crt'dgns, n. Confidence based 
upon external evidence; belief. [< L.^f a^e- 
de)i{f-)>^\ ppr. of or do, believe.] 

cre-den'tial, cre-den'shal, n. That which 
certities ones authority or claim to confidence. 

cred'i-blie, cred'i-bl, a. Capable of being 
believed ; worthy of credit, confidence, or ac- 
ceptance. [< L. credibilis, < credo, believe.] 
cred'i-bl( e-ness:t> — ered" i-biK i-ty, n. 
The state or quahtv of being credible; trustwor- 
thiness.- cred'i-bly, adv. 

cred'it, cred'it. I^. vt. To give credit to or 
for; believe; accept as true. II. n. 1. Be- 
lief in the truth of a statement or in the sin- 
cerity of a person; trust. 2. Eeputation for 
trustworthiness; character; repute. 3. Title 
to praise or esteem; honor. 4. In bookkeeping, 
amount in one's favor, or the entry or record of 
it. [Kli.^credi/mn, orig. < credo, believe.] — 
cred'^'it-a-biFi-ty} n. cred'it-a-bKe- 
iiesst.- cred'it-a-blCe, a. Deserving or re- 
flecting credit; praiseworthy; meritorious.— 
credMt-a-bly, arf».— cred'it-or, n. One to 
whom another is pecuniarily indebted. 

cre'do, cri'do or cre'do, n. A creed, especially 
the Apostles' Creed. [< L. ordo, I believe.] 

cred''u-lous, cred'yu-lus, a. Apt or disposed 
to believe on slight evidence. [< L. creduhts, 
< credo, believe.] -ly, adv. — cre-du'li-ty, 
crg-diu'li-tl, n. The state or quality of being 
credulous; a proneness to accept the nnprobable 
or the marvelous. cred'ii-Ioiis-neNMl:. 

creed, crid. n. A formal summary of religious 
belief; doctrine. [< L.'^^ cr^if/o, believe.] 

creek, crlk, n. A small inlet or stream. [< 
AS. crecca, orig. bend or turn.] 

creel, crll, n. A fishing=basket. [Sc] 

creep, crip, ti. [crept, crept; creep'ing.] 
1. To move as a serpent; crawl. 2. To move 
slowly, imperceptibly, secretly, or stealthily. 
3, To exhibit servility; cringe. [< AS. creo- 
lianJi — creep'er, crTp'gr, n. One who or that 
which creeps; a creeping or climbing plant.— 
creei»'iiig-Iy, adv. By creeping movements. 

creese, cris, n. A Malayan dagger with a waved 
blade. [< Malay kriH, dagger. | 

cre'mate, cri'met, rt. [-ma"ted''; -5ia"ting.] 
To burn up; reduce to ashes. [< L. cremo (pp. 

crematus), burn.] — cre-ma'tion, n. The act 

or practise of burning, especially of burning the 
dead. — cre-ma'tor, n. — cre'ma-to-ry, n. 

[-KIES2, pl.~\ A place for cremating dead bodies, 

cre'ole, cri'ol, n. A native of Spanish America, 
or of the West Indies, of European parentage. 
[ < Sp.*" criollo, negro.] — cre'ole, a. 

cre'o-sote, cri'o-sot, n. An oily liquid com- 
pound distilled from wood and having a smoky 
odor and burning taste. [ < Gr. kreas, flesh,-f- 
soter, preserver, < sozo, preserve.] 

crept, crept, imp. of creep, v. 

cres-cen'do, cres-shen'do or cres-sen'do. I. 
a. Slowly increasing in loudness or power. 
II. n. Mus. A gradual increase in the force 
of sound. [L.i<^ cresco, grow.] 

cres'cent, cres'ent. I. a. 1. Increasing: 
said of the moon in its first quarter. 2. 
Crescent'-shaped. II. n. 1. The visible part 
of the moon in its first or last quarter; the 
new or old moon. 2. Something crescent- 
shaped, as the device on the Turkish standard; 
hence, the Turkish or Mohammedan power. 
[< L. crescen(t-)s, ppr. of cresco, increase.] 

cress, cres, n. A plant of the mustard family, 
having a pungent taste. [< AS. 
caerse, cressa.] 

cres'set, cres'et, n. A frame or vessel 
mounted to hold a torch or beacon; a 
burning light. 

crest<', crest, v. 1. t. To serve as a 
crest for; crown. 11. i. To take 
the form of a crest. 

crest, 7). 1. A comb or tuft on the Cresset. 
head of a fowl; projection on the top of a 
helmet; a plume; tuft; the ridge of a wave or 
of a mountain; the top of anything. 2. A 
heraldic device; coat of arms. 3. Loftiness; 
pride; courage. [< OF. creste, < L. crista, 
tuft.] — crest'ed, a. Bearing a crest. 
faF'leii, a: Having the 
crest or head lowered; dis- 
pirited; dejected. 

cre-ta'ceous, cre-te'- 
shius, a. Consisting of or 
related to chalk; chalky. 
[< L. creta, chalk.] 

cre-tonne', erg-ten', n. 
An unglazed cotton fabric 
printed on one side in col- 
ored patterns. [F., < 
name of first maker.] 

crev-asse', crev-gs', n. 
1. A deep fissure in a 
glacier. 2. [U. S.] A 
breach in a levee. [F.] 

crev'ice, crev'is, n. A 
small fissure or crack. [< F. crevasse, < 
crever, break.] 

crewil, cru, imp. of crow, v. 

crew, n. 1. Tlie company of seamen belonging 
to a vessel. 2. Any company of men working 
together; a crowd; gang. [Cp. accrue.] 

crew'el, crii'el, n. A slackly twisted worsted 
yam, used in fancy=»work. 

crib, crib. I. vt. & vi. [cribbed; crib'bing.] 
To enclose in a crib; confine closely; use a crib; 
steal ; plagiarize; bite the crib, as a liorse. II. 
n. 1. A rack, manger, or stall for cattle. 2. A 


Crest (a Dragon) 
upon a 16th*cen- 
tury Helmet. 

fiutlOre (future); aisle; au (put); ©11; c (k); chat; dU {the)', go; sing, ink; thin. 



child's bedstead, with side railings. 3. A box 
or bin for grain. 4. A small raft. 5. A frame 
of wood or timber, as to retain a bank of earth. 
6. A petty theft, or the thing taken ; plagiarism ; 
also, a translation or other unauthorized aid in 
study. 7. A house, cottage, lodging, etc. [< 
AS. crib.] — crib'ber, n. — crib'bing, n. 1. 
The act of cribbing. "2, Same as crib, n., 5. 

crib'toa^e, crib'gj, n. A game of cards. 

crick, eric, n. A spasmodic affection of the 
muscles, as of the neck; a cramp. [Cp. cuook.] 

crick'eti, crik'et, n. A leapmg insect with 
long antenna}, the male of which makes a 
chirping sound. [ < D.^ krieken, creak, chirp.] 

crick'et^, n. An outdoor game played with 
bats, a ball, and wickets. [Perh. < OF. 
criquet, stick.] [crutch. 

crick'et^, n. A footstool. [Cp. AS. crice, 

crick-'et-er, crik'et-gr, n. A cricket=player. 

cried, crald, imp. of cry, v. [losses, etc. 

cri'er, crai'gr, n. One who publicly cries sales, 

crime, craim, n. 1. Law. An act that sub- 
jects the doer to legal punishment. 2. Any 
grave offense. [F., < L. crimen, crime.] — 
criin'i-nal, crlm'1-nal. I. a. Relating to. Imply- 
ing, or guilty of crime. II. n. One who has com- 
mitted an offense punishable by law. — criiii'^i- 
nal'i-ty, w,. — crini'i-nal-ly, adv. — critn'' 
i-iiate, crim'i-net, vt. [-NA'TEDd; -na"ting.] 
To accuse of or implicate in crime. — crim'^i- 
na'tioii, 71. The act of criminating.— crim''- 
i-noPo-«ry, crlm"I-nero-ji, n. The scientific 
study and Investigation of crime and criminals. 

crimp, crimp. I'^.vt. To bend or press into 
ridges or folds; corrugate; flute. II. a. 1. 
Brittle and crisp; friaolc. 2. Inconsistent or 
contradictory. 3. Stiff, as if starched. III. n. 

1. Anything crimped, as a lock of hair. 2. A 
crimper. 3 . A decoy or extortioner. — crinip'y , 
a. Wavy; frizzled. — crim'pKe, crim'pl. I. 

vt. & Vi. lCRIM'PL(E)D; CRIM'PLING.] To Wrfn- 

klc. II. «. A wrinkle. 
crim'son, crim'zn. I. tt. & vi. To make or 

become crimson; redden; blush. II. a. Of 

the color called crimson; deep*dyed. III. ti. 

A red color having a tinge of blue; deep»red. 

[Ult. < Ar. qirmdzi, crimson.] 
cringe, crinj. I. vt. [cringed; crin'oing.] 

To crouch in servility or cowardice; fawn. II. 

n. A servile crouching. [< AS. cringan, yield.] 
crin'kKe, criij'kl. I. vt. & vi. [crin'kiXe)i); 

crin'kling.] To form or move with folds or 

wrinkles. II. w. A wrinkle; ripple; twist. 

crin'cklet.— crin'kly, a. 
crip'ple,crip'l. I. vt. J^CRip'rLED;cRip'PLiNG.] 

To lame; impair or disable. II. n. A person 

or animal lacKing the natural use of a limb or 

limbs. [< AS. crypel, < credpan, creep.] 
crl'sis, crai'sis, n. [cri'ses, crai'etz, jl>^.] A 

turning'point; a critical moment. [L., < Gr. 

krisis, < krind, decide.] 
crisp, crisp. l*^.vt. & vi. 1. To ripple; crinkle; 

curl, 2. To make or become crisp. II. a. 1. 

Somewhat firm and brittle; crumbling readily. 

2. Terse or pithy; curt. 3. Fresh; bracing. 
4. Crinkled; crisped. [< L.^s a-isjx), curl.] 

cri-te'ri-on, crai-tl'ri-gn, n. [-ri-a, pi.] A 
standard; lest. [< Gr. kritdrloriy < krinO., 

crit'ic, crit'ic. n. 1. One who judges anything 
by some standard. 2. One who judges severe- 

ly; a caviler. 3. The science or art of criticism. 
4. A critique or review. [< F. critique, < L. 
criticus, < Gr. kritikos, < krino, judge.] 

— crit'ic-al, crit'ic-al, a. 1 . Of or pertaining 
to a critic or criticism, ii. Disposed or compe- 
tent to judge; judicious; fastidious. 3. Cap- 
tious; faultfinding. 4. Analytical; thorough; ex- 
act. 5. Of the nature of or preliminary to a 
crisis; perilous, -ly, ac/r.— crit'i-ci8in,crlt'- 
i-sizm, ?i. 1, The act or art of criticizing. 2. 
A discriminating Judgment; severe or unfavor- 
able judgment. 3. The principles or rules for 
judging anything, especially works of literature 
or art.- crit'i-cize or -cise, crit'I-salz, v. 

[-CIZED, -CISED; -Cl'ZTNG, -Cl'SING.] I, t. 1. 

To examine critically (a work of literature or 
art). 2. To judge severely; censure. II, j. To 
express critical judgment.— cri -ti qu e', cri-tlc' , 
n. 1, A criticism; critical review. 3, The art 
of criticism. [F.] 

croak, crOk. I', vi. 1. To make a harsh 
guttural sound, as a frog or raven. 2. To talk 
dolefully; forebode evil; grumble. II. ?i. A 
hoarse vocal sound, as of a frog or raven; also, 
a doleful or foreboding speech. [< AS. cra- 
cetian (imitative).] — croak'er, n. 

cro-ctiet', crO-she'; in England, crO'shiorcrO'- 
she. I. vt.&vi. [cro-cheted', crO-shed'; 
cro-chet'ing, crO-she'ing.] To form or knit, 
as crochet. II. n. A kind of fancy=work pro- 
duced by looping or entwining thread into a 
fabric with a hooked needle. [F.] 

crock^, crec, n. An earthen pot or jar; a pot- 
sherd. [< AS. crocca, crock.] 

crock. I*, vi. To Impart crock or dye to other 
articles. II2. «. 1, The colprlngBmatter that 
rubs off from a dyed stuff, as cloth. 2. Soot. 

crock'er-y, crek'gr-i, n. Earthenware. 

croc'o-dile, crec'o-dail, «. A large lizard- 
like carnivorous amphibious reptile with long 
jaws, an armored skin, and webbed feet. [F., 
< Gr. ^ krokodeilos, lizard, crocodile.] — croc''- 
o-diPi-an, a. & n. croc^'o-dU'e-aial:. 

cro'cus, crO'cus, n. 1. A plant of the iris fam- 
ily, withlong grass»like leaves and large flowers. 
2. A red or yellow polishing powder. [L., < 
Gr. krokos, saffron.] 

croft, creft, 71. 1. A small field near a house. 
2. [Scot.] A very small farm. [< AS. croft.] 

— croft'er, «. A tenant cultivating a croft. 
crone, crOn, w. A withered old woman, 
cro'ny, crO'ni, «. [cro'nies*, ;?^.] Afamiliar 

friend. [Var. of crone.] 
crook, cruk. I', vt. & vi. To bend; make 
or grow crooked. II. n. 1. A bend or curve; 
something bent or crooked. 2. An implement 
with a crooked or hooked end. 3. [Colloq.] A 
professional criminal ; a sharper. 

— crook'ed, cruk'ed, a. 1. Not straight; 
having angles or curves. 2. Not straightfor- 
ward; dishonest, -ly, adv. -iiess, n. 

croon, crun, vt. & vi. To sing or hum in a low, 
monotonous manner. [Imitative.] — croon, n. 
clkl^L^crep, V. [cropped' or cropt; crop'- 
I. t. To cut or eat off closely; mow; 
II. i. To appear above the surface; 
: usually with 7/p or out. 
crop, n. 1. Cultivated plants or grains col- 
lectivelv; also, the product of a particular 
kind, place, or season; harvest. 2. The act of 
cutting. 3. The first stomach of a bird; a 
craw. [< AS. cropp\ lit. bunch.] 

popfi, ^k; at, Sir; el^m^nt, th6y, us^ge; It, j, t (ee); o, 6h; orator, Sr; full, rule; but, ur; 



cro-q,uet', cro-ke', in England crO'ki or crO'- 
ke, 71. A lawn»game played with balls and 
mallets. [< F. crochet; see crochet.] 

cro-qiiette', cro-ket', n. A ball or cake of minced 
food, fried brown. [F., < croquer, crunch.] 

cro'sier, cros'let, n. See ckozier, ckosslet. 

cross', ores or ores, v. 1. t. 1. To mark, 
fold, laj% or move across; traverse; intersect. 

2. To cancel, as by crossed lines: with o^"or 
oi/t. 3. To obstruct; hinder; contradict; irri- 
tate. 4. To make the sign of the cross upon. 
5. To mix with a different variety or strain. 
II. i. 1. To cross each other; move across 
something. 2. To iliterbreed. 

cross, a. Ill=tempered; peevish. [Partly < 
Acuoss, partly < CROSS, «.] -iy, adv. -ness, ??. 

cross, n. 1. An ancient instrument of torture 
consisting of two crossed timbers, on which 
the condemned were fastened and exposed un- 
til they died. 2. [C-] Christianity, or the 
Atonement. 3. Something endured for Christ's 
sake; trial; tribulation. 4. A mark or sym- 
bol resembling a cross. 5. A mixing of 
breeds; an animal of mixed breed; hence, 
anything intermediate between two other 
things. 6. An old English coin. [<Ij.crux 
(crucis), cross.] — cross'sbar'', 7i. A trans- 
verse bar.— c.sbarred, a. Secured by or 
marked with transverse bars.— cross' bill", 
n. A finch=llke bird, 
the points of wliose 
mandibles cross each 
other. cros8'beak'''|. 

— c.sbones, ?«. pL A 
representation of two 
bones crossing, sur- 
mounted by a skull, as a 
symbol of death. — 
cross'bow'', n. A 
bow fixed transversely 
upon a stock. — c.s 
bred, (i. Hybrid; mon- 
grel.- c.sbreetl, n. A hybrid. — c.sbreed- 
ing, n.— c.icnt, n. A cut across, or a short 
cut. — c.sexainine, ?'<. Laio. To cross^ques- 
tion.— c.sexaiiiination, n.— ciexaminer, 
n. — c.seyed, a. Having a squint; squinting. 

— c.sgraiued, a. Having the grain gnarled and 
hard to cut; stubborn; perverse. — c.spurpose, 
71. A conflicting aim.— c.:<|iiestion, vt. To 
question minutely, as in order to elicit facts from 
a reluctant witness. 

cross'ing, cres'ing, n. 1. The place where 
something, as a roadway or waterway, may be 
crossed. 2. Intersection, as of threads or roads. 

3. The act of crossing in any sense. 
cross'iroad'^, cres'=rod, n. A road that crosses 

another, or thaf crosses from one main road to 
another, cross'^way'':!:.— cross-roads'', n. 
A place where roads cross: often marked by a ru- 
ral settlement. 

cross'wise, cres'waiz, adv. 1. Across; some- 
times with to. 2. In the form of a cross. 

crotch., crech, n. A point of division or diver- 
gence; fork. [Var. of crook.] 

crotcli'et, crech'et, n. 1. A whimsical no- 
tion; a conceit; an eccentricity. 2. Mus. A 
quarter note. 3. A small hook. [< F. crochet, 
small hook, quaver.] — crotch'et-i-ness, n.— 
crotch'et-y, «. Whimsical; eccentric. 

crouch.', crouch, m. To stoop low, as a per- 
son in fear or an animal making ready to spring; 
cringe. [Var. of crook; cp. crutch, n.] 

lied Crossbill 

croup 1, criip, n. A disease of the throat, with 
the formation of a false membrane; loosely, 
inflammation of the larynx. [Sc.]— croup'ous, 
a. Of, like, or affected by croup, croup'yt. 

croup2, n. The rump; portion of a horse's 
back behind the saddle. [< F. croupe, crup- 
per.] croupe:}:. 

crow, cro, ri. [crowed, crod; crow'ing.] 
1. To utter the cry of a cock. 2. Hence, to 
exult; boast. 3. To utter sounds expressive 
of delight, as an infant. [< AS. crdwan.'] 

crow, n. 1. An omnivorous bird, about 20 
inches long, with glossy black plumage. 2. 
The rook, or other crowlike bird. 3 . A crow- 
bar. 4. The cry of a cock, or any like sound. 
[< AS. crdive, < crdwan, crow.] — crow'bar", 
cro'bar', n. A straight iron or steel bar, flattened 
or squared at one end: used as a lever.— cro w'- 
foot", cro'fut", 11. [cKow'FOOTs''z, pl.^ The 
buttercup: so called from the shape of the leaves; 
also, one of various implements.— crow's's 
foot", croz'»fut% 11. 1. One of the wrinkles 
divergmg from the outer corner of the eye. 2. 
A caltrop. 3. A three»pointed embroidery stitch. 

crowds, croud, v. I. t. 1. To fill to over- 
flowing; pack; press together. 2. To shove 
along; push; urge. II. i. 1. To throng to- 
gether; assemble in multitudes. 2. To push 
forward or together. — crowd'er, n. 

crowd,??,. 1. A numerous collection of per- 
sons or things gathered closely together; mul- 
titude; throng. 2. The populace; mob. [< 
AS. croda, ge'crod, < creodan, crowd.] 

crown, craun. I. vt. 1. To put a crown, 
wreath, or garland upon the head 
of; hence, to invest with royal, 
imperial, or other high dignity; 
honor; reward. 2. To form the 
topmost part of ; cap; finish; com- 
plete. II. n. 1. A decorative 
circlet or covering for the head, 
especially as a mark of sovereign 
power. 2. A sovereign ruler: with Crown, 
the definite article. 3. Sovereignty. 4. A 
wreath or garland for the head. 5. A reward; 
prize. 6. The top or summit; crest; perfect 
state or type; acme. 7. The top of the head 
or of a hat. 8. The part of a tooth beyond the 
gum. 9. Eng. A coin worth 5 shillings cr 
about §1.25. [< L.^ corona, crown.] 

crown'less, craun'les, a. Having no crown. 

cro'zier, \ crO'zhgr, n. A bishop's oflicial staff 

cro'sier, f surmounted by a crook or a cross. 
[< Ice.F krokr, hook.] 

cru''cial, cru'shial, a. 1. Determining abso- 
lutely the truth or falsity of a view or theory; 
decisive; searching. 2. Having the form of a 
cross. 3. Severe; excruciating. [F., < L. 
crnix (citic-), cross.] 

cru'ci-bl(e, cru'si-bl, n. A vessel made of 
incombustible material, as clay, for melting 
metals or minerals; a trying and purifying test 
or agency. [< D.^^+i^ kroes, pot.] 

cru'ci-flx, cru'si-fix, n. A cross bearing an 
efhgy of Christ crucified. See illus. on next 
page. [F. ; see crucify.] 

cru^ci-flx'ion, cru'si-fic'shun, n. 1. The 
act of crucifying. 2. The death upon the 
Cross, especially that of Christ on Calvary. 

cru'ci-form, cru'si-ferm, a. Cross»shaped. 

flutiure (future); aisle; an (out); ©11; c (k); chat; dh (the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



cru''ci-fy, cru'si-fai, vt. [-fied; -fy'ing.] 
1. To put to death by fastening to a cross. 2. 
To subdue, as bodily desires; mortify. [< L.*' 
crux^ cross, -\-Jlgo, fix.] 

crude, crud, a. 1. Not having reached its 
complete or mature form; 
not refined; raw; unrijf^e; 
immature. 2. Lacking 
knowledge or skill; superfi- 
cial; unfinished. [< L.o*" 
amdus, immature.] — crude'- 
ly, ad».— cru'di-ty, cru'di- 
tf, n. r-TiEs», jDZ.] 1. The 
state of being crude, crude'- 
nesHt. '^. That which is 

cru'el, crii'el, a. Disposed 
toinfiictsufEering; indiflierent 
to others' suffering; pitiless; 
unreasonably severe; harsh; 
distressing. [F., < L. crude- 
lis, severe.] -ly, adv.— cru'- 
el-ty, cru'el-tl,«. [-ties»,2?Z 
A cruel disposition or act; In 

cru'et, crii'§t, n. A small 
glass bottle for vinegar, oil, 
or the like; a caster. [Dim. 
of OF. cruye, pitcher, < D. ^ ,^ 
kniik, cup.] Crucifix. 

cruise, cruz. I. rd. & ti. [cruised; cruis'- 
ING.] To sail over or through; sail about on 
the ocean or along a coast. II. n. A voyage 
at sea; a sailing to and fro. [< D. kruisen, < 
kf-uis, cross, < L. cnix (cruc-), cross.] — 
cruls'er, n. A person or ship that cruises; 
a vessel of war Inferior to a battle=8hlp. 

cruller, crul'gr, n. A ring'shaped cake of 
dough, fried brown in boiling lard. [< D. 
kruTlen, curl.] 

crum, I crum. I.vt. [crximmed, crumbed; 

crumb, f crum'ming, crumb'ing.] To break 
into small pieces; crumble. II. n. 1. A small 
bit, as of crumbled bread; a morsel. 2. The 
soft inner part of a loaf. [< AS. C7'nma.] 

crum'tolCe, crum'bl, ^'<. &vi. [crum'bl(e)d; 
crum'blino.] To cause to fall to pieces; dis- 
integrate; decay. [Dim. of crum, v., < crum, 
n.] — crum'bly, a. Apt to crumble; friable. 

crum'pet, crum'pet, n. A sort of muffin. 

crum'pl(e, crum'pl, vt. & vi. [crum'pl(e)d; 
crum'pling.] To press into wrinkles; become 
wrinkled; rumple. [Of AS. origin.] 

cruncb, crunch. I', vt. & vi. To crush 
with the teeth; chew audibly: crush or grind 
noisily; press with crushing lorce through a 
brittle substance. II. n. The act of crunching. 

crup'per, crup'gr, n. 1. The looped straj) 
that goes under a horse's tail. 2. The rump of 
a horse. [< P. croujyiere, < croupe; see 

cru'ral, crfi'ral, a. Of or pertaining to the leg 
or the thigh. (< L. crnralis, < crrt«, leg. J 

cru-sade^, crQ-sed'. I'', vi. To go on or en- 
gage in a crusade. II. n. 1. Hist. A medi- 
eval warlike enterprise of the Christians of 
Europe, for the conquest of the Holy Sepul- 
cher. 2. Any vigorous concerted movement. 
[< Ij.^crux, cross.] — cni-sa'der, n. 

cruse, crQs, n. A small bottle, flask, or jug; 
cruet. [< Ice. krtts, pot.] cruise^. 

crush.', crush, v. I. t. To press out of shape; 
mash; break into bits by pressure; break 
down; conquer. II. i. To become broken or 
misshapen by pressure. [< Sw.<5^ krysia, 
squeeze.] — crush'er, n. 

crush., n. 1. A violent colliding; breaking, 
bruising;, or deforming by violent pressure. 2. 
A pressing or crowding together; a crowd; jam. 

crust, crust. I'', vt. & vi. To cover with or 
acquire a crust. II. n. A hard, thin coating; 
the outer part of bread; a bit of bread, es- 
pecially if stale and hard. [< L. attsta, crust.] 

crus-ta'ce-an, crus-te'shg-an or -tg'se-an. 

I. a. Of or pertaining'to the Crustacea. II. 
n. One of the Crustacea, a division of ar- 
thropods having crust»like shells, including 
lobsters, crabs, barnacles, sow^bugs, etc. [< 
L. crusta., crust.] — crus-ta'ceous, a. 1. 
Having a crust=like shell. 2. Crustacean. 

crust'y, crust'i, a. 1. Crust'like. 2. Morosely 
curt in manner or speech; surly.— crust'i-ly, 
rtfZ?7.— crust'i-ness, 7i. 

crutch, cruch. I', vt. To prop up, as on 
crutches. II. n. 1. A staff with a cross- 
piece fitting under the armpit, used as a sup- 
port in walking. 2. Any one of various simi- 
lar mechanical devices. [Of AS. origin.] 

cry , crai, tJ. [cried; cry'ing.] I. ^. To utter 
loudly and publicly; shout out; proclaim. 

II. i. 1. To speak, call, or appeal loudly; 
shout; yell; yelp; bay. 2. To shed tears; 
weep. [< L.^ Qui?^to, ireq. of guero7\ lament.] 

cry, n. [cries*, pi.] 1. A loud or passionate 
utterance, whether articulatfe or not; a call; 
shout; yell. 2. The act of weeping. 3. Ad- 
vertisement by outcry; proclamation. 4. Ru- 
mor; public opinion or demand. 5. A pack 
of hounds; a company of persons; a party. — 
cry'ing-, joa. Calling for immediate action or 
redress; self»proclalming; notorious. 

crypt, cript, n. A recess or vault, as under 
some churches. 

crypto-. A combining 
form. [< Gr. kryptos, hid- 
den.] — cryp'to-gam, n. 
Bot. A plant that has no 
true flowers, but propagates 
by spores. \_-\- Gr. gamos, 
marriage.] — cryp^'to- 
srain'ic, a.— cryp-tog'a- 


mous. crln-teg'u-mus, a.— cryp'to-jrram, n. 

A writing In cTphei 

< graphd, write. 
Written in 

1+ Gr. gramma, writing, 
e.l — cryp''to-Ki'aph'ic. a. 

1, 'Written in cipher. "2, Used for cipher- 
writing.— cryp-tojf'ra-phy, n. 1 . The art of 

clplier-wrlting. "2, A system of cipher-writing. 

crys'tal, cris'tol. I. a. Composed of or like 
crystal; extremely clear; limpid. II. «. 1. 
The solid mathematical form assumed by 
many minerals. 2. Transparent quartz. 3. 
Flint glass. 4. A watch-glass. [< Gr.L + F 
krystmos., < kryo^, frost.] — fry8'tal-llii(e, 
crfs'tal-ln or -oin, a. Of, pertaining to, or like 
crystals or crystal; transparent; puii'; pellucid. 
— cryH''tal-log'ra-pliy, ii. The science of 
crystals. | < Gr. kri/siallos, crystal, + -(iKAPJiY.] 

crys'tal-lize or-iise, cris'tal-oiz, r. [-lized; 
-i.rziNci.] I. t. To cause to form crys- 
tals or become crystalline; bring to definite 
and permanent form. II. i. To assume the 
form of crystals; take on a definite aspect.— 
crys'tal-ll'^za-bKe or -Ha-bl(e, a. — 

papfi, Qsk; at, ftir; element, thSy, uefge; It, %, fi (ee); o, 5h; erat^r, 5r; full, rfile; but, Or; 



crys^'^tal-li-za'tion or -sa^tiou, 7i. The 

act of crystallizing. 

cub, cub, n. The young of the bear, fox, wolf, 
and certain other carnivores; a whelp. [Per- 
haps < Ir. cuib, < cu, dog.] 

cube, kiub, 71. 1. A solid bounded by six 
equal squares and having all its angles right 
angles. 2. The third power of a quantity; the 
product of three equal factors. [F., < L. cu- 
bus, < Gr. kybos, cube.] — cu'bic, kiu'bic, a. 
1. Formed like a cube 2. Being, or equal to, 
a cube whose edge is a given unit; as, a cubic 
foot. 3. ^?^. Of the third degree, cu'bic-alt, 
— en'bic-al-ly, adi;.— cu'bic-al-ness, n. 

CU'T>it, kiu'bit, n. An ancient measure of 

length, originally represented by the length of 
the forearm: about 20' 
elbow, < citbo^ bend.] 


L. cubitum. 


American yellow^billed 
Cuckoo and Nest. 1/4 

cuck'old, cuc'old, n. The husband of an 
adulteress. [< L.^f cuculus, cuckoo.] 

cuck'oo, cuc'u, n. A bird, many species of 
which deposit 
their eggs to be 
hatched in the 
nests of other 
birds. [< L. cu- 
culus, cuckoo (imi- 
tative of its note).] 

kiu'cum-bgr, n. 
The oblong hard» 
rinded berry of a creeping plant of the gourd 
family. [< l^.^^ cucmnis, cucumber.] 

cud, cud, n. Food forced up into the mouth 
from the first stomach of a ruminant and 
chewed over again. [< AS. cudu, cwidu, cud.] 

cud'dl(e, cud'!, v. [cui)'i>l(e)d; cud'dling.] 

I. t. To protect and caress within a close em- 
brace; hug. II. i. To lie close; hug one 
another. [Prob. corr. of ME. cuthen, cuddle.] 

cud'dy, cud'l, «. [cud'diessp?.] Naut. AsuxdW 

cabin; a cook's galley. 
cudg'el, cuj'el. I. vt. To beat with a cudgel. 

II. n. A short thick stick used as a club. 
cue, kiu, n. 1. A tail, or tail»like appendage; 

a long braid of hair, queue:}:. ' -2. The 

closing words of an actor's speech, serving as 

a signal for his successor; a catchword* hint; 

suggestion. 3. A straight tapering rod, used 

in billiards, pool, etc. [< F. queue, tail.] 
cuff', cuf, V. I. t. To strike, as with the open 

hand; bullet. II, i. To scuffle or fight ; box. 

[< Sw.kuffa, cuflE.] 
cuff' , n. A blow, especially with the unclosed 

cufi^, 71. A band about the wrist; the lower 

part of a sleeve. [< LL.^s cuffa, cojia, cap.] 
cui-rass', cwi-rgs', n. A breastplate. [< F. 

cuit^asse.] — cui^'ras-sier', cwfra-sir', w. A 

mounted soldier wearing a cuirass. 
cui-sine', cw§-zin', n. The kitchen; cooking 

department; style or quality of cooking. [F.] 
cul'sde^sac', cii'»ds=sac' ar ciil'=, 71. [culs'» 

DE=sAc', cii'», pL] A passage open only at 

one end; blind alley; trap. 
cu'li-na-ry, kiu'li-ng-ri, a. Of or pertaining 

to cooking or the kitchen. [< L. culina, 

cull, cul. 'L.'vt. [culled; cull'ing.] To pick 

or sort out; collect apart. II. n. Something 

picked or sorted out; hence, something re- 
jected. [< OF. cuillir, < L. coUigo, col- 
lect.] — cull'er, 71. 

cul'len-der, ti. Same as colakder. 

culm^ culm, 71. Bot. The jointed, usually 
h' dlow, stem of a grass. [ < L. culmus, stalk. J 

culin2, 71. 1. [U. S.] Anthracite coal-refuse. 
2. An inferior coal. [ME. culme, soot.] 

cuFmi-nate, cuPmi-net, vi. [-na"ted'1; 
-NA"TiNG.] To attain the highest point or de- 
gree. [< LL. culminatus, pp., < L. culmen^ 
top.] — cuPmi-nal, «.— cuP'iiii-na'tion, n. 
1 . The highest point, condition, or degree. 2. 
The passage of a heavenly body over the meridian. 

cul'pa-bl(e, cul'pa-bl, a. Deserving of blame 
or censure. [OF., < L. culpabilis, < culpa, 
fault.] — cul'^pa-bil'i-ty, cuKpa-bI(e-ness, n. 
— ciiPpa-bly, adv. 

cul'prit, cul'prit, n. A guilty person; crim- 
inal. [< L. culpatus, pp., < culpa, fault.] 

cult, cult, n. 1. A system of religious observ- 
ances. 2. Extravagant devotion to a person 
or thing; also, the object of such devotion, 
[< L.P cultus, < colo, worship.] 

cul'ti-vate, cul'ti-vet, vt. [-ya'ted''; -va'- 
TiNG.] 1. To till (land); raise, as a plant or 
crop, by tillage. 2. To improve or develop by 
study or training. 3. To pay assiduous atten- 
tion to. [< \Aj. cultivatus,'^^., < li. cultus; 
see culture, n.] — cuP'ti-va'tion, n. The 
act of cultivating; improvement; development; 
culture.— ciil'ti-va^'tor, ti. One who cul- 
tivates; a machine for cultivating. 

cul'ture, cul'chur or -ti^r. I. vt. [cul'- 
tured; cul'tur-ing.] To educate or refine; 

' cultivate. II. n. 1. Cultivation of plants or 
animals, especially with a view to improve- 
ment. 2. The training, improvement, and re- 
finement of mind, morals, or taste; enlighten- 
ment. 3 . The development of micro-organisms, 
or the organisms so developed. [F., < L. 
cultura, < cultus, pp. of colo, cultivate.] 
— cul'tur-al, a. Of or pertaining to culture. 

cul'tus, cul'tus, 7t. A cult. [L.] 

ciii'ver-in, cul'ver-in, n. A long cannon used 
in the 16th century. [< L. coluhra, serpent.] 

cul'vert, cul'vgrt, n. An artificial covered 
channel for water, as under a road. 

cum'ber, cum'bgr, vt. To hinder by or as by 
a burden; hamper; weigh down; oppress. [< 
L_LL+F i^, in, -\- cwmt/Tw^, heap.] — cuni'ber- 
some, cum'ber-sum, a. Moving or working 
heavily or witTi difficulty; unwieldy; trouble- 
some; burdensome, -ly, adv. -ness, 7i. 

cum'brous, cum'brus, a. Cumbersome. 
-ly, adv. -ness, n. 

cum'in, cum'in, 71. An annual of the parsley 
family, with fennel-like leaves; also, its seeds. 
[Ult. < Heb. kanimon, cumin.] curn'minj. 

cu'mu-late, kiu'miu-let, vt. [-la'ted**; -la"- 
ting.] To collect into a heap; accumulate. 
[< L. cumulo, < cumulus, heap.] — cu'^mu- 
la'tioii, n. The process of massing or heaping 
together; a heap.— cu'mu-la-tiv(e, «. Gath- 
ering volume or strength by addition or repeti- 
tion; steadily increasing. 

cu'ne-i-form, kiii'ne-i-ferm, a. Wedge- 
shaped, as the characters in ancient Assyrian 
inscriptions. [< L. cuTieus, wedge, -f -form.] 

cun'ner, cun'gr, «. A small brownish-blue 
fish of the Atlantic coast of the United States. 
See iilus. on next page. 

flutliire (future); aisle; au (owt); oil; c (k); cliat; dli (the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



cun'ning, coa'ing. 
shrewd; artful; guileful, 
ly artful ; bright ; amu- 
sing. 3 II. Ingenious. 
4t. Learned; knowing. 
II. n. 1. A crafty dis- 
position; craft; guile; 
artifice. 2||. Knowl- 
edge combined with 

.a. 1. Crafty or 
2. [U. S.] Innocent- 


skill; dexterity. [ME. cunning^ vb. n. of cun- 
nen, know.] * 

cup, cup. [cupped'; cup'piNG.] 1. 
'lo bleed, as by scarification and drawing the 
blood to the surface under an exhausted cup. 

2. To shape like or place in a cup. II. w. 1. 
A small drinking'vessel. 2. A cupful. 3. Any 
unusual affliction or blessing; lot. 4. Intoxi- 
cating drink. [< AS. ciippe, < LL. cupa, cup, 
L. ci/joa, tub.] — oup'bear'^er, n. One who 
serves the wlne»cup, as to guests at a feast.— 
cup'fuF', n. As much as a cup will hold. 

cup'board, cub'ord or -erd, n. A closet or 
cabinet with shelves, as for tableware. 

Cuspid, kiu'pid, n. Myth. The Roman god 
of love. [< L. Viipido, < cupido, jjassion.] 

cu-pid'i-ty, kiu-pid'i-ti, n. An inordinate 
wish for possession, especially of wealth; ava- 
rice. [ < L.*" cu2ndUa{t-)s, < cupio, desire.] 

cu'po-la, kiu'po-la, n. A dome; hemispher- 
ical roof; colloquially, any small structure 
above the roof of a building; a turret on an 
armored ship. [It.] 

cur, cur, n. 1. A mongrel, worthless dog. 2. 
A mean or malicious person. [< Ice. kurra, 
murmur, gi-umble.] — cur'rish, a. 

cur'a-bl(e, kiQr'a-bl, a. Susceptible of being 
cured. — cur''a-bil'i-ty, w. cur' 
— cur'a-bly, arf». 

cu'ra-cy, kiu'ra-si, n. [-cies^, pL] The po- 
sition, duties, or term of office oi a curate. 

cu'rate, kiu'ret w -rgt, n. 1. [Brit.] A rec- 
tor's or a vicar's assistant. 2!!. A pastor, [< 
1,.^'^ cura, care.j — cu'rate-ship, n. A curacy. 

cur'a-tiv(e, kiur'a-tiv. I. a. 1. Possessing 
power or tendency to cure. 2. Relating to the 
cure of diseases. II. n. A remedy, -ly, adv. 

cu-ra'tor, kiu-re't§r, n. A superintendent; 
guardian. [L., < euro, care for, < cura, care.] 

ciirb, curb. I. vt. To hold in subjection; 
control, as with reins and curb. II. n. 1. A 
chain or strap to brace a bit against a horse's 
lower jaw; also, a bit so arranged; anything 
that restrains or controls. 2. A curbstone. 

3. The framework at the top of a well. [< 
L.*^'' cixmo, bend, < curviis, crooked.] 

curb'ing, curb'ing, n. Curbstones collectively. 
curb'stone"", curb'stOn", n. A stone, or a 

row of stones, on the outer edge of a sidewalk. 
curd, curd, 71. The coagulated portion of milk 

of which cheese is made. [ < Ir. cruth, curds.] 
— cur'<lle, vt. & vi. [cuh'dlep; cur'dlino.J 

To change or turn to curd; coagulate. 
cure, kiQr, v. [cured; cur'ino.] I. t. 1. 

To restore to a healthy or sound condition. 2. 

To eradicate, as disease or evil; heal. 3. To 

J reserve, as by salting, drying, or smoking. 
I. i. 1. To bring about recovery, as from 
disease. 2. To be preserved, as meat, by ealt- 
ing and smoking. [< L.*" cwro, care for, < 
cura, care.] 

cure, 1). 1. A restoration to a sound or healthy 
condition. 2. That which restores health or 
abolishes an evil. 3. Spiritual care; a curacy; 
as, the a/re of souls. [F., < L. eura, care.] 

cii'^re', cu"re',«. A French parish priest of the 
Roman Catholic Church. [F., citPvATE.] 

cur'fcw, cur'fiii, n. An ancient police regula- 
tion requiring fires and lights to be put out at 
the tollmg of a bell; also, the bell itself, or the 
hour of ringing. [< OF. courfeu, contr. of 
convrefeti, < covrir, cover, -\-feu, fire.] 

CU'ri-O, kiii'ri-o, n. A curiosity: a rare or cu- 
rious article of virtu. [Abbr. of curiosity.] 

CU''ri-os'i-ty, kiu"ri-es'i-ti, n. [-ties^, p/.] 

I. Habitual anxiety for knowledge of some- 
thing, as the private affairs of others. 2. Any 
object adapted to excite interest or inquiry. 
3 11. Curiousness; ingenuity. [< L.*" cvriosi- 
ta{t-)s, < curiostts; see curious.] 

cu'ri-ous, kiu'ri-us, a. 1. Eager for infor- 
mation; inquisitive; prying. 2. Adapted to 
attract attention or excite interest; novel; odd; 
strange; mysterious. 3. Involving ingenuity 
or skill. 4t. Fastidious; delicate. [OF., < 
h. curiosvs,<cv7'a, cave.] -ly, ac?t". -ness, «. 

curl, curl, V. I. t. 1. To coil into ringlets, 
curves, or spirals. 2. To adorn with curls. 

II. i. To become curved; take spiral shape. 
curl, n. Anything coiled or spiral, as a ringlet. 

[ME. crul, < MD. krvl (MHG. krol), curl.] 

— curl'y, a. Having curls, coils, or eddying 
ripples; wavy.— curFi-ness, n. 

cur'lew, cur'liii, n. A shore»bird with long 
bill and legs. [< OF. 
corlieu, curlew.] 

cur-mud'geon, cur- 
muj'un, 1). A miserly or ^' 
churlish person. 

cur'rant, cur'ant, n. 1. 
A small, round, acid betry; 
also, the bush producing 
it. 2. A small seedless ''. , 
raisin. [< Gr.i'+F Korin- ,,„,,, „. , 
thos, QonnVti.-] Cuu.nn. \_-, 

cur'rent, cur'gut. I. a. 1. Circulating free- 
ly; generally accepted. 2. In actual progress, 
or belonging to the immediate present. II. i). 
1. A continuous onward movement, as of a 
stream; a fluid thus fiowhig. 2. Any con- 
nected onward movement; course. [< L.*^^ 
cu7'ren(t-)s, ppr. of cinro, run.] -ly, adv. 
-ii«;s8, M.— ciir'ren-cy, cur'en-sl, 71. 1-cies«, 
pl.\ 1. The current niedinm of exchange; coin 
or bank-notes. "2. The state of being current. 

cur-ric'u-lum, cur-ric'yu-lum, «. A pre- 
scribed course of study, as in a college. [L., a 
race, < cvrro, run.] 

cur'ri-er, cur'i-gr, «,. One who curries leather, 

cur'ry, cur'i, vt. [cur'ried, -rid; cur'ry- 
INU.] 1. To clean with a currycomb; groom, 
as a horse. 2. To dress for use, as tanned 
hides. [ < OF. cour7V!/er, prepare.] — oiir'ry- 
comb'', n. A comb consisting of a series of up- 
right serrated ridges, for grooming horses. 

cur'ry, n. [cur'riesS pL] A pungent sauce 
used as a relish; also, a dish served with this 
sauce. [ < Tamil kari, curry.] 

curse, curs, v. [cursed' or curst; curs'ing.] 
I. /. 1. To invoke evil upon; anathematize; 
excommunicate; execrate; swear at, 2. To 

popfi, 9Bk; at, air; element, they, us^ge; it, ^, i (ee); o, oh; orator, dr; fiill, rule; bvt, Or; 



cause great evils to. II. i. To utter impreca- 
tions; swear; blaspheme. [< AS. cursian, 
Erob. < L. crux, cross.] — curs'ed, curs'ed, a. 
nder a curse, or deserving a curse; execrable; 
detestable.— curs'ed-ly, adv. 

curse, curs, n. 1. An imprecation of evil; any 
profane oath. 2. Calamity invoked; also, a 
source of calamity or evil. [ < AS. curs, curse.] 

cur'siv(e, cur'siv. I. a. Running; flowing: 
said of writing in which the letters are joined. 

II. n. A letter or character used in cursive 
writing. [< L. ciirsus, < curro, run.] 

cur'so-ry, cur'so-ri, a. Rapid and superficial; 

liasty. [ < LL. cvrsorius, relating to running.] 

— ciir'so-ri-ly, adv.— cur'so-ri-ness, n. 

curt, curt, a. Concise and abrupt; short and 
sharp in manner; brusk. [< L. mirttis, short- 
ened.] — curt'ly, adv. — curt'ness, n. 

cur-tair, cur-tel', vt. To cut off, or cut short; 
abbreviate; lessen, reduce. l< OF. courtault, 
< court, short.] — cur-taiFment, 71. 

cur'taln, cur'ten. I. vt. To supply with cur- 
tains; separate as by a curtain. II. w. 1. An 
adjustable draping or covering, hanging loose- 
ly. 2. Something that conceals or separates. 
3. I'ort. Part of a rampart that connects the 
flanks of two bastions or towers. [< OF. cvr- 
tihe, < LL. cortina, < L. cohors, an enclosure.] 

curt'sy, curt'si, v. & n. Preferred form of 
coL'RTESYi. curt'seyt. 

curv(e, curv. l.xt.&ri. [curv(e)d; curv'- 
iNG.] To assume or cause to assume the form 
of a curve; move in a curve; bend. II. a. 
Having a different direction at every point. 

III. n. 1. A line continuously bent so that 
no portion of it is straight, as the arc of a 
circle. 2. A bending, or something bent. f< 
L. curvo, < curvus, bent.] — curv'ate, curv'et 
or-6t, «. Evenly bent; curved.— curv'a-tiire, 
ctJrv'a-chur or -tjur, n. The act of bending, or the 
state of being curved; amount or rate of bending. 

cur'vet, cur'vet. I*), vt. & vi. To prance or 
cause to prance. II. n. A light, low leap of a 
horse. [< L." curvo, < curvus, hent.'] 

cur"vi-lin'e-ar, cGr"vi-lin'e-ar, a.. Formed 
by curved lines. [< L. currus, curved, + 
linea, thread, line.] cur'^vi-lin^e-alj. 

cush^ion, cush'un. I. vt. To place on a 
cushion; provide with a cushion. II. n. A 
flexible casing filled with soft or elastic mate- 
rial, as feathers or air; any device to deaden 
jar. [< L.iJ'+o*' culcita, pillow.] 

cusp, cusp, n. One of the points of the cres- 
cent moon, or something resembling it; a prom- 
inence or point, as on the crown of a tooth. [ < 
L. cuspis, point.] — cus'pi-date, cus'pi-det or 
-det, a. Having a cusp or cusps, cus'pi-dalt ; 

cus'pi-dor, cus'pi-dor or -dor, n . A spittoon. 
[< L.i'e conspvo, spit.] cus'pi-dore:^.. 

cus'tard, cus'tard, n. A mixture of milk, 
eggs, sugar, etc., boiled or baked. [< F. 
crovMade, pie, < L. crusta, crust.] 

cus'to-dy, cus'to-di, n. 1. A keeping; guard- 
ianship. 2. Restraint of liberty ; imprisonment. 
[< L. custodia, guard, < custo{d-)s, guardi- 
an.] — cus-to'di-al, cus-tO'di-al, a. Pertaining 
to custody or to a custodian.— cus-to'di -an, 
cus-to'dl-an, n. A guardian. 

cus'tom, cHs'tum, n. 1. Habitual practise; 

common or recognized usage. 2. Business 
support; patronage. 3. A tariff or duty as- 
sessed by law. [< L.J'L+OF comneindo, cus- 
tom.]— cus'tom-a-ry, cus'tum-g-ri, a. Con- 
formmg to or established by custom. — cus'- 
tom-a-ri-iy, adv. In the customary manner; 
ordinarily, ciis'tom-a-blyi.— cus'toin-a- 
ri-ness, 71. cas'tom-a-hlie-JiessU—cus^- 
toin-er, 71. One who gives his custom or trade; 
a purchaser.— cus'tomshouse'', 7i. The place 
where entries of imports are made and duties 
collected; the department of customs. 
cut, cut, V. [cut; cut'ting.] I. t. 1. To make 
an incision in; divide, trim, or shape, as with a 
sharp tool; sever; prune; clip; hew; wound. 
2. To affect deeply; hurt; pain; grieve. 3. 
To reduce the length or extent of. '4. To re- 
fuse recognition to. II. i. 1. To make a cut. 
2. To be adapted for dividing. [Celt.] 

— cut'soiT", 71. 1, [U.S.] A short cut. 2. A 
mechanism that cuts off flow, as of steam.- 
cut:out, n. Elec. A arrange- 
ment, as for cutting a light out from a circuit.— 
cut'purse''', ?i. A pickpocket.— cut'ter, cut'- 
er, 11. 1. One who cuts, shapes, or fits anything 
by cutting, ti. That which cuts, as a tool or 
machine. 3. Naut. A small, swift vessel, as In 
the revenue marine service; a medlum=slzed man= 
of » war's boat. 4. lU. S.] A small sleigh.— ciif- 
tliroat'^ 71. A bloodthirsty ruffian. — cut'- 
tiiigr, I. pa. 1. Adapted to cut; edged. St, 
Disagreeably penetrating; sharp; chilling. 3. 
Sarcastic. II. 7i. 1. The act of severing. 2. 
Something obtained or made by cutting; a piece 
cut off or out; a young shoot cut off for rooting; 
an open excavation, as for a railroad track.— 
cufwa'^ter, 71. 1. Na^it. The forward part 
of the prow of a vessel. 3. The edge on the up- 
stream side of a brldge»pier.— cut' worm'', «. 
A larval moth that cuts off young plants. 

cut, pa. Formed or affected by cutting ; 
wounded; severed; dressed or finished by a 
tool, as stone or glass. 

cut, n. 1. The opening, cleft, or wound made 
by an edged instrument; a gash; slit. 2. A 
cutting motion or stroke. 3. The part cut 
off. 4. That which cuts or hurts the feelings. 
5. A cutting. 6. A direct way, as across an 
angle. 7. Fashion; form; style. 8. Print. 
An engraved block, or an impression from it. 
9. A reduction, as in rates. 10. A refusal to 
recognize an acquaintance. 

cu-ta'ne-ous, kiu-te'ne-us, a. Consisting of, 
pertainingto, or like skin. l<'l^. cutis, skin.] 

cu'ti-cl(e, kiu'ti-cl, n. The outer layer of 
cells that protects the true skin; epidermis; 
any superficial covering. [< L. cniicida, dim. 
of cutis, skin.] — cu-tic'u-lar, a. 

cut'las, cut'las, n. A short, heavy, sword- 
like weapon. [< 
Yi.^ cultellus,(^va\. 
of cnlter, knife.] 

cut'ler cut'ler British Cutlas of the 10th 
n. One who Century, 

makes or deals in cutlery.— cut'ler-y, n. 1. 
Cutting'instruments collectively. 3. The oc- 
cupation of a cutler. 

cut'let, cut'let, 7). A thin piece of veal or 
mutton for broiling or frying. [< F. cotelette, 
dim. of cote, rib.] 

cut'tle, cut'l, n. 1. A cuttlefish. 2. Cuttle- 
bone. [< AS.c?/c?e/f.]— cut'tle-bone",n. The 

fiutlure (future); aisle; au iouX); oil; c (k); chat; db {the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



Cuttlefish. 1/21 
a, the cuttlebone. 

of a spiral leaf«= 

internal calcareous plate of a cuttlefish.— ciit'- 
tie-fish'', n. A marine, rapacious, carnivorous 
niollusk, with lateral tins and 8 or 10 sucker= 
hearing arms and an internal calcareous shell or 
hone, having the power of ejecting an inky fluid 
to conceal itself. 

cy'cle, sai'cl, vL [cy'- 
cled; cy'cling.] 1. To 
pass through cycles. 2. 
To ride a bicycle, tricycle, 
or the like. 

cy'cle, n. 1. A period 
of time, at the end of which 
certain aspects or motions 
of the heavenly bodies re- 
peat themselves ; a round 
of years or of ages; a vast 
period; eon. 2. Biol. 
An entire turn or circle, 
structure. 3. A body of legends. "4. Jfat/i 
A closed path in a diagram; loop. 5. A bi- 
cycle, tricycle, etc. [< Gr."^ kyklos, circle.] 

— cyc'lic, sic'lic, a. Pertaining to or charac- 
terized by cycles; I'ecurring in cycles.— cy'clingr, 
n. The sport of riding the bicycle, tricycle, etc ; 
the art of a cyclist.— cy'clist, 71. 1. One who 
rides a bicycle or tricycle, or the like, cy'clert. 
2. One who maintains the cyclic recurrence of 

cyclo-. A combining form. [< Gr. ki/Mos, 
circle.] — cy'cloid, sai'cleid. I. a. Like a cir- 
cle; somewhat circular. 
TI. n. Geom. The curve 
described by a point in 
the plane of a circle that 
rolls along a straight 
line. — cy-cIoiMal, a. Common Cycloid. 

7^^ZT.?}^^"'!^^^*^ll ^?i" c, circle; b, d, line upon 
clom'e-ter, 71. An in- ^'hich circle rolls- a 
Strument for recording point on circumference'; 
the rotations of a wheel, had cycloid 
as of a bicycle. > • > 

cy 'clone, sai'clOn, n. A violent and destruc- 
tive wlnd'storm; tornado. [< Gr. kyklon., ppr. 
of kyklod, whirl round.] — cy-clon'ic, a. Like 
a cyclone; situated where cyclones occur.— cy- 
cloii'ic-al-ly, adv. 

Cy''clo-pe'an, sai"clo-pl'an, a. Of or per- 
taining to the Cyclopes, a race of mythical 
giants, or their work; gigantic; colossal. 

cy''clo-pe'di-a, ( 8ai"clo-pI'di-a, 71. 1. A 

cy^clo-pae'di-a, ( work giving a summary of 
some branch of knowledge. 2. An encyclo- 
I)edia. [Short for kncyclopeuia, -p^dia.] 

— cy^'clo-pe'Lor-pte^Jclic, a. 1. Of or per- 
taining to a cyclopedia. 2, Like a cyclopedia; 

1. [C-] One 

embracing a wide range of knowledge, cy^'clo- 
pe'[or -pfe']dic-alt. 

cyg'net, sig'net, «. A young swan. [< L.^ 
cycrms (< Gr. kykTios), swan.] 

cyl'in-der, sil'in-dgr, «. A circular body of 
uniform diameter, the extremities of which are 
equal parallel circles. [< Gr.i'+i' kylindros, 
< kylindo, roll.] — cy-lin'dric, a. Shaped 
like a cylinder or a section of a cylinder. 
cy-liii'dric-alt. — cy-lin'dric-al-ly, adv. 

cyjn'bal, sim'bal, 71. One of a pair of plate* 
like metallic musical instru- 
ments played by being clashed 
together. [< Gr.^+^ kr/mbal- 
ori, < k7/7nbos, hollow of 

cyme, saim, 71. Bot. A flat- 
topped flower«cluster. [< Gr. 
kyrtia., sprout, wave.] 

cyn'ic, sin'ic. I. a. 1. [C-] 
Belonging to or like the Cyn- 
ics, cyn'ic-ali. 2. Astron. 
Pertaining to Sirius, the dog- 
star. 3. Of or like a dog. II. 
of a sect of Greek philosophers who taught 
contempt for pleasure, intellectual or sensual. 
2. A sneering, captious person; a misanthrope; 
pessimist. [ < Gr.i- kynikos, dog=like.] — cyn'- 
ic-al-Iy, adf?^— cyn'i-cisiii, n. The stat'e or 
quality of being cynical; contempt for the virtu- 
ous or generous sentiments of others. 

cy^no-sure, sai'no-shur, n. An object of 
general interest or attention. [< Gr.^ Kynos- 
oura, the Little Bear.] 

cy'press, sai'pres, 71. An evergreen 
tree of southern Europe and western 
Asia, remarkable for the durability 
of its timber; also, a kindred plant, 
as the funeral cypress, with pendulous 
branches like a weeping willow. [< 
Gr. kypa?'isso8^ cypress-tree.] 

cyst, gist, 71. A membranous sac or 
vesicle in living organisms. [< 
Gr. kystis, bladder.] 

czar, zflr, 71. An emperor or 
absolute monarch; especially 
[C-], the emperor of Russia. 
[< ilus. (mte, < L. Csesar, 
Ciesar.] tsar:}:; tzart. 

— Czav'e-vitcli, zar'g-vlch, 
n. The eldest son of the Czar of Russia, tsar'e- 
vitcht.— Cza-ri'iia, zu-rl'iia, ?t. The em- 
press of liussia. t8a>ri'ua:t. 


Cypress and 
'its P'ruit. 


1), d, dt, n. [dkes, D's, or T>s, dtz, pi] The 

fourth letter in the English alphabet; as a 

Koinan numeral, 500. 
Aaib, dab, vt. &vi. [dabbed; uab'sinq.] To 

strike softly or quickly; pat.— daVber, n. 
dab',;/. 1. A gentle blow; a pat. 2. A small 

lump of soft substance, as butter. 
dab'*, w. A skilful person; adept, dab'sterit* 
dabn^Ke, dab'l, v. [i)ab'bl(e)d; dab'blin(i.] 

I. t. To dip lightly and often; splash; sprinkle. 

II. i. To play, as with the hands, in a fluid; 

splash gently; engage slightly or superficially. 
[Freq. of dab, t'.j — dnb'hler, 71. 

dace, des, n. A small fresh-water fish. See 
ilhis. on next page. 

dacbs'hund, dacs'hfint, «. A small, short- 
legged, long-bodied dog. [G., badger-hound.] 

dac'tyl, dac'til, n. 1. Prvs. A foot consisting 
of a long syllable followed by two short ones 
(— — ^). 2. A finger or toe; digit. [< Gr. 
(lakfj/los, finger, dactyl.] — dao-tyl'Ic. I. a. 
Of or pertaining to dactyls. II. 71. A dactylic 

papfi, 98k; at, air; el$m^nt, th6y, usfge; it, g, i (ee); o, oh; orator, er; full, rule; bot, ur; 



verse.— dac'^tyl-d'o-gy, «. The use of the 
da'do, dfl'do or de'do, n. A plain flat, often 

European Dace. 1/4 

decorated surface at the base of a wall, as of a 
room ; one of the faces of a pedestal. [It.] 

die^inon, etc. Same as demox, etc. 

daf'fo-dil, daf'o-dil, ». A plant with solitary 
yellow flowers. [< Gr.^E asp/todelos, aspho- 
del.] daffa-dimyi; daf'fo-dimy:|:. 

daft, flgf t, a. Silly; Imbecile; insane. 

dag'ger, dag'gr, n. 1. A short, edged, and 
pointed weapon, for stabbing, etc. 2. Print. 
A reference=mark (+). [< W. dagr, dagger.] 

da-guer're-an, da-ger'e-an, a. Pertaining 
to the dagnerreoty])e. da-guer'ri-ant. 

da-guerre'o-type, da-ger'o-taip. I', vt. To 
take a daguerreotype of. II. n. A former 
photographic process, using silver>=coated met- 
allic plates; a picture so made. [< Daguerre, 
the inventor, -\- Gr. typos, type.] 

dalx'lia, dfl'lia, n. A flowering plant of the 
aster family. [< Dahl, Sw. botanist.] 

dai'ly, de'li. I. a. Occurring, appearing, or 
pertaining to every day; diurnal. II.' n. 
[dai'i.ies% 7?^.] A daily publication. 111. adv. 
Day after day; on every day. 

dain'ty, den'ti. I. a. 1. Kefined or particu- 
lar in taste; fastidious. 2. Delicate and 
agreeable to the taste: delicious. 3. Graceful; 
refined; decorous. TL.n. [-TIES^^;.l Some- 
thing choice, delicate, or delicious; a delicacy. 
[< OF. daintie, < L. dignitas, < dignus, 
worthy.] — dain'ti-ly, adv. — dain'ti-ness, n. 

dai'ry, de'ri, n. [dai'ries^, pi.] 1; A place 
where milk is kept and made into butter and 
cheese. 2. A place for the sale of milk»prod- 
ucts ; a dairy=farm ; also, the business of 
dealing in such products. [< Ice. deigja, 
orig. dough»kneader.] — dai'rysfarm", n. A 
farm for dairy products.— dai'ry-maid'', n. 
A maid who works in a dairy. 

da^is, de'is or des, n. A raised platform, as at 
the upper end of a room. [F.] 

dai'sy, de'zi, /?. [DAI''SIES^ p^.] A low Euro- 
pean herb having a yellow disk with white or 
rosc'Colored rays; also, a similar American 
plant. [< AS. dxges edge., day's eye.] 

dale, del, n. A small valley. [< AS. dsel.] 

dal'ly, dal'i, vi. [dal'lied, dal'id; dal'lt- 
ING.] 1. To trifle; loiter; delay. 2. To toy, 
play, or wanton amorously. [ME. dalien, 
play, trifle.] — daPli-ance, dal'i-ans, n. The 
act of dallying; loitering; fondling; social chat. 

dam, dam, vt. [dammed; dam'ming.] To 
stop or obstruct by a dam; restrain, 

dam^, n. A barrier to check the flow of a 
stream. [Of AS. origin.] 

dam^, n. A female parent of one of the lower 
animals. [A form of dame.] 

dani''age, dam'gj. I. vt. & vi. [dam'aged; 
dam'a-ging.] To harm; injure; impair; be- 
come impaired. II. n. 1. Injury; harm. 2. 
pi. Law. Money recoverable for a wrong or 
an injury. [OF., < L. damnum, loss.] 

dam'ask, dam'ask. I. a. Of, pertaining to, 
or like damask. II. n. 1. A fine silk or 
linen fabric woven in elaborate patterns. 2. 
The fine steel made at Damascus. 3. Pink= or 
rose=color. [< Damascus, city in Syria.] 

dame, dem, n. 1. A woman of high social 
position; a lady. 2. A married or mature 
woman; matron. [F., < L. domina, mistress, 
lady, fem. of dominus, master.] 

damn, dam, v. I. t. 1. To condemn to fu- 
ture or everlasting punishment. 2. To curse 
profanely. 3. To condemn; ruin by adverse 
criticism. II. i. To swear. [< L. damno, 
condemn, < damnum, loss.] — dam-'na-b^e, 
dam'na-bl, a. Meriting or causing damnation; 
detestable; outrageous.— dain'iia-bly, adv.— 
daiii-na'tion,n. 1. Condemnation to future 
punishment or perdition ; the state of the 
damned. ♦Jll. Condemnation.— dain'na-to-ry, 
a. Tending to convict or condemn; consigning 
to damnation.— damned, damd or dam'ned, 
pa. Judicially reprobated and condemned; sen- 
tenced to eternal punishment. — dani^ningr, 
dam'ning, pa. Condemning; inculpating. 

damp, damp. I', vt. & vi. To make moist; 
dampen; discourage; check; also, to bank, as 
a fire. II. a. 1. Somewhat wet; moist. 2. 
Clammy; cold. — damp'ness, n. 

damp, n. 1. A moderate degree of moisture; 
dampness; fog; mist. 2. Foul air; poisonous 
gas. 3. Depression of spirits, or that which 
produces it. [ME. *damp (in dam,pen, choke, 
= MHG. dimpfen, smoke).] — damp'en, 
damp'n, vt. & vi. To make damp; moisten; 
put a damper on; check: chill or depress.— 
dainp'en-er, w.— damp'er, n. One who 
or that which damps or checks; a device to 
check the draft, as of a stove.- damp^ly, adv. 

dani'^sel, dam'zel, n. A young unmarried 
woman; maiden, [< LL.of domicella, < L. 
domina, dame.] dam'o-selt. 

dam'son, dam'zn, n. A small purple plum; 
also, the tree producing it. 

dance, dgns, iJ. [danced^; dan'cing.] I. ^. 

1 . To perform the steps or figures of (a dance). 

2. To dandle. II. i. 1. To perform the 
figures of, or participate in, a dance. 2. To 
leap, quiver, flit, or skip lightly. [< OHG.of 
danson, drag along.] — dan'cer, n. ■ 

dance, n. 1. A series of rhythmic concerted 
movements and steps timed to music. 2. A 
dancing'party; ball. 3. A tune to dance by. 

dan^de-li^'on, dan'de-lai"un, n. A milky 
herb with a large yellow flowered head. [< 
F. dent de lion, lit. 'lion's tooth.'] 

dan^dl(e, dan'dl, vt. [dan'dl(e)d; dan'- 
DLiNG.] To dance, as on the lap; treat like 
an infant; fondle; caress. [Of LG. origin.] 

dan'druflf, dan'druf, n. A fine scurf on the 
head. [Etym. uncertain.] dan-'driflfj. 

dan'dy, dan'di, I. a. Like a dandy. II. n. 
[dan'oies", pi.] A man fastidious in dress 
and aflEected in manner • a fop ; exquisite. [Of 
LG. orig.] — dan'dy-ish, a. — daii'dy-ism, n. 

dan'ger, den'jer, n. Exposure to chance of 
evil, mjury, or loss; peril; risk. [F.] 

flut|ure (future); aisle; au (owt); ell; c (k); chat; dh {the)\ go; sing, ink; tlxux. 



dan'ger-ous, den'jgr-us, a. Attended with 
danger; hazardous; perilous; unsafe. 
-ly, adv. -neHS, n. 

dan''gl(e, dan'gl, vt. & ti. [dan'gl(e)d; 
DAN'GLiNG.] To han^ or swing loosely; be an 
attendant or suitor: with before, about, or after. 
[Dn.] — dan'gler, v. 

dank, dank, a. Damp and cold; moist; wet. 
[ < 8\v. dial, dank, marshy ground.] 

dap'per, dap'gr, a. Trim and pretty; neat; 
natty: also, little and active. [D., brave.] 

dap'pl(e, dap'l. I. vt. [dap'pl(e)d; dap'- 
PLiNG.] To make spotted. II. a. Spotted; 
variegated. dap'pl(e)dj. III. n. A spot 
or dot, as on the skin of a horse ; an animal 
marked with spots. [< Ice. dejnll, spot.] 

dare, dar, v. [durst, durst, or dared; dar'- 
iNG.j 1. t. 1. To be bold enough (to do or 
attempt); venture. 2. To challenge; defy. 
II. i. To have courage enough; venture. [< 
AS. dear, 1st per. pres. ind. of durran, dare.] 
— darling, dar'ing. J. pa. Possessing cour- 
age; bold; brave; venturesome; also, audacious; 
presuming. II. n. Heroic courage; bravery. 

dark, dflrk. I. a. 1. Lacking light. 2. Of 
a deep shade. 3. Obscure; mysterious. 4. 
Gloomy; disheartening. 5. Unenlightened. 
6. Atrocious; dastardly. 7. Of brunette com- 
plexion. 8. Blind; unknowing. II. n. Lack 
of light; a place, position, or state where there 
is little or no light; a shadow. [< AS. deorc] 
-ly, adv. -ness, «.— dark'eii, dark'n, vt. 
&vi. 1. To make or grow dark or darker. *J. 
To deprive of vision, literally or figuratively. 
3. To obscure. 4. To fill with gloom.— dark'- 
lingr. I. a. Dim; obscure or obscuring; blind; 
gloomy. II. adv. In the dark; blindly; uncer- 
tainly.— dark'some, a. [Poet.l Dark. 

dar'ling, dflr'ling. I. a. Tenderly beloved; 
very dear. II. n. One tenderly beloved; a 
pet. [< AS. deovling, < deore, dear.] 

darn, dflrn. I. nt. To repair a hole in by 
filling in yarn or thread with a needle. II. n. 
A place mended by darning. [Of W. origin.] 

dar'nel, dQr'nel, n. A grass; rye^grass; a 
noxious weed. [< F. dial, darnelle.^ 

dart'', dflrt, v. I. t. To emit swiftly or sud- 
denly; shoot out, as a dart. II. i. To shoot 
darts; move swiftly; fliy like a dart. 

dart, m. A pointed missile weapon, as a javelin; 
a sudden and rapid motion. [OP., of Teutonic 

dashS dash, v. I. t. 1. To throw suddenly 
and violently; hurl; shatter; splash. 2. To 
sketcli or write hastily: with off. 3. To 
check-j discourage; abash. II. ^ To rusli or 
move impetuouslv. [< Dn. daske, slap.] 

dash., ft. 1. A sudden advance or onset; short, 
spirited rush or race. 2. Imnetuosity; spirit; 
vigor. 3. Display. 4. A check or discom- 
fiture. 5. A snght admixture. 6. A collision 

or concussion. 7. A horizontal line ( ), 

as a mark of punctuation, etc. 

dash'ing, dash'ing, 7?a. Spirited; bold; im- 
|)etii()us; ostentutiously showy or gay. 

das'tard, das'tard. I. a. Base and coward- 
ly, das'tard-lyj. 11. n. A base coward; 
l)oltroon. ( < Ice. dsedr, exhausted.] 

da'ta. dC''tu or dy'tu, n. Plural of datum. 

date, det, v. [ua'tkd''; da'tino.] I. t. To 
mark with a date; assign a date to. II. i. 

To have or take a certain date as a bt-ginning; 
bear d ate : w i th from . 
datei, «. 1. Tliatpart of a writing which tells 
when, or when and where, it was done. 2. 
The time of some event; a point of time; du- 
ration; age. [P\, < L. datus, pp. of do, give.] 

— date'less, a. Without date; not assign- 
able to any date; of Indefinite duration. 

date^, n. 1. An oblong, sweet, fleshy fruit, 
enclosing a single hard 
seed. 2. A lofty tree bear- 
ing this fruit. [OF., < L. 
dactylus, finger (from its 

daub, deb, v. I. t. To 
smear or coat with some- 
thing sticky; plaster; be- 
smear; paint badly; dis- 
guise. II. i. 1. To paint 
rude or cheap pictures. 2. 
To flatter. [ < OF. dauber, 
< L. de, thoroughly, -|- 
altnts, white.] 

daub, n. A sticky applica- 
tion; a smear or spot; a 
poor, coarse painting. 

— daiib'er, n. 
daugh'ter, de'tgr, ??. A 

female child or descendant. 
l<AS.dohtor, < \/dht/gh, 
milk.] — daii^h^tersins 
law'', n. The wife of one's 
son. — daiisrli'ter-ly, a. 
Like a daughter. 
daunt'), dflnt, vt. To dis- 
hearten or intimidate; cow; 
tame; conquer. [< L.of of' ripening fruit 
dOrnitO, freq. of domo, (dates); c, a single 

tame.] -- daunt 'less, a. **^^''- 
Fearless; Intrepid, -ly, adv. -ness, ti. 

dau'pbin, de'fin, ??. The eldest son of the 
king of France. [F.] — dau'phin-ess, n. The 
wife of a dauphin. 

dav'it, dav'it, n. A small crane on a ship's 
side for hoisting boats or anchors. 

daw, de, n. A jackdaw. 

daw'dl(e, de'dl, vt. & vi. [daw'dl(e)d; daw'- 
DLiNG.I To waste (time) m slow trifling; act 
lazily; loiter; trifle. — daw'dler, n. 

davtrn, den. I. vi. To begin to grow light; 
begin to be manifest, expand, or give promise. 
II. n. 1. The first appearance of light in the 
morning; daybreak. 2. An awakening; be- 
ginning. [< AS. dagian, < dxg, day.] 

day, de, n. 1. The period from dawn todark; 
hence, daylight or sunlight. 2. The twenty- 
four hours during one revolution of the earth 
upon its axis; also, the hours appointed for 
labor, or the distance journeyed within such 
period. 3. A time or period; an age. 4. A 
contest or battle, or its result. [< AS. dseg, 
(pi. dagos).] — day'sbook", n. Jiookkeening. 
The book in which trai'.sactlons are rccoraod in 
tlie order of their taking place.- ilay'hreak'', 
n. Same as DAWN, «., l.-daysdri'aiii, ". A 
reverie.- day'litfht", n. 1. 'I'he light received 
from the sun; the light of day. '^. Same a.s day, 
«., 1. — day'HpriHHr", n. [Poet.] The early 
dawn.— day sHtar, n. The star of morning or 
dawn; an emblem of hope.— day'tinie"» «. 
The time between sunrise and sunset. 

a, a date tree, bear- 
ing fruit; b, growth 

popli, gsk; at, air; el^mfint, they, usfge; It, j, i (ee); o, oh; ©ratpr, «r; full, iftle; but, nr; 



<!ays''nian;i, dezman, 7^ [-men, pZ.] An arbi- 
trator or umpire; mediator. 

daze, dez. I. vt. [dazed; da'zing.] To 
f-tupefy or bewilder, as by a glare of light or a 
shock. II. n. The state of being dazed. 

daz'zlfe, daz'l, v. [daz'zl(e)d; daz'] 
I. /. 1. To blind momentarily by excess of 
light. 2. To bewilder or charm, as with brilliant 
prospects. II. i. To be blindingly bright; 
be blinded by light; excite admiration by dis- 
play. [Freq. of daze.] 

del, (ie, prep. Of: In phrases or proper names. 
I F.] — oe2, dt or de, prep. From; of : used In 
Latin phrases. i'L.'i — Ae-, prefix. From; down; 
out: used with privative, Intensive, or completive 
force. In some words It Is equivalent to dis-. 
L< F. de-, de-, < L. de-, de, from (< F. de); and 
see DIS-.] 

dea'con, di'cn, n. Ecd. A church officer or 
subordinate minister. [< Gr. diakonos, serv- 
ant.] —dea'con-ry, dea'con-ship, n. The 
office, rank, duty, or term of service of a deacon 
or deaconess. — dea^con-e$^s, n. A woman 
appointed to assist In the work of the church. 

dead, ded. I. a. 1. Having ceased to live; life- 
less; insensible; numb; motionless; inanimate; 
inorganic. 2. Complete; utter; absolute; per- 
fect. 3. Unproductive; inactive; useless. 4. 
Without break, brightness, resonance, elas- 
ticity, interest, or spirit. 5. Deadly. II. n. 
1. The most lifeless period; as, the dead of 
night. 2. Dead persons collectively: with the 
definite article. III. adv. 1. [Colloq.] To 
the last degree; wholly; absolutely; as, dead 
ripe. 2. Naut. Exactly; as, the wreck was 
dead ahead. [< AS. dead, = Goth, dauths, 
dead.] — dead'en, ded'n, vt. To diminish the 
force, speed, or Intensity of- blunt; dull; retard. 
— dead'Iy, ded'li, a. 1. Liable or certain to 
cause death; fatal. 2, Aiming or tending to 
kill; mortal; Implacable. 3. Kesembling death; 
deathly.— dead'li-ness, 7i.— dead'ly, adv.— 
dead^ness, n. 

deaf, def, a. 1. Lacking or deficient in the 
sense of hearing. 2. Determined not to hear 
or be persuaded. [< AS. deaf, orig. dull; cp. 
DUMB.]— deaPen, def'n.t'^. Tomakedeaf ; con- 
fuse or stun, as with noise.— deafsinute'', n. A 
congenltally deaf*and=dumb person; especially, 
one dumb because of deafness.— deaPii ess, n. 

deal, dtl, v. [dealt, delt; deal'ing.] I. t. 
1. To distribute; apportion. 2. To deliver; 
inflict. II. i. 1. To have dealings; do busi- 
ness; trade. 2. To conduct oneself; behave. [< 
AS. dselan, < dsel, share.] — deal'er, n. One 
who deals In any sense; a trader.— deal'insr, n. 
The act of one who deals; any transaction with 

deals n. 1. A quantity, degree, or extent. 2. 
A distribution of cards; a single round. 3. 
[U. S.] A secret bargain. [< AS. dsul, part.] 

deal2, n. A board or plank, or the wood, as 
fir or pine, of which it is made. [< D. deel.] 

dean, din, n. The chief officer of a cathedral ; 
an executive officer of a college. [< LL. de- 
canus, one set over ten, < L decern., ten.] 

— dean'er-y, ??. [-iesi,???.] The office, reve- 
nue, residence, or jurisdiction of a dean.— deaii'- 
ship, n. The office, rank, or title of a dean. 

dear, dir. I. a. Beloved; precious; highly 
esteemed; costly. II. n. One who is much 
beloved; a darling. III. adv. Dearly. IV. 
interj. An exclamation of regret, surprise, 

etc. [In a good sense, < AS. deore, in a bad 
sense, < AS. dear, wild, cruel; see deer.] 

— dear'ly, ari».— dear'ness, n. 
dearth., dgrth, n. Scarcity lack; famine. 
death, deth, n. 1. Cessation of physical life. 

2. Extinction of anything; decay; destruction. 
[< AS. death, = Goth. davthus.^ — Ae&tW- 
less, a. Notliable todie; undying; unending; per- 
petual.— death'ly, a. 1 , Having the semblance 
or suggestion of death, deatli'liket. 2. 
Deadly.— death^li-ness, «.— death'ly, adv. 

de-bar', de-bar', tt. To bar or shut out; pro- 
hibit; preclude; hinder: commonly with /row. 

de-bark's d§-bark', ^^ l.t. To set upon the 
shore from a vessel; land. II. i. To go ashore. 

— ile'^bark-a'tion, n. 

de-base', d§-bes', vt. [de-based'S de-ba'- 
sing.] To lower in character, purity, or value; 
depreciate ; degrade. [ < de- -|- base, a.] — de- 
base'iiient, «.— de-ba'ser, n. 

de-bate', d§-bet'. I. tt. & vt. [de-ba'ted<1; 
de-ba'ting.] To discuss argumentatively; 
argue; consider; reflect. II. n. The discuss- 
ing of any question; argumentation; dispute; 
controversy. [ < L.^ de, down, -|- batuo, strike.] 

— de-ba'ta-bl(e, a.— <le-ba'ter, n. 
de-bauch', dg-bech'. I', vt. & vi. 1. To 

make or become corrupt in morals ; lead astray; 
seduce. 2. To vitiate; pervert. II. n. 1. 
An act or occasion of debauchery; a carouse. 
2. Excess; intemperance; lewdness. [< F. 
debaucher, < de-{see de-) -f- OF. haucher, hew.] 

— deb"au-chee', deb"o-shi' or de'bu-shS', n. 
One habitually profligate, drunken, or lewd; a 
libertine. — de-Daucn'er, n. One who de- 
bauches; a seducer.— de-bauch'er-y , n. L-iks», 
pl."\ Licentiousness; drunkenness. 

de-bil'i-tate, de-bil'i-tet, vt. [-ta'tedi^; 
-ta'ting.] To make feeble or languid; weaken. 
[< L. debUis, weak.] — de-bil'i-ty, n. Abnor- 
mal weakness; languor; feebleness, 

deb'it, deb'it. !<'. vt. 1. To enter on the 
debtor side of an account. 2. To charge, as 
with debt. II. n. The debit side of an ac- 
count; a debt or debts recorded; something 
owed. [ < L. debitum, < debeo, owe; see debt.] 

deb"o-nair', deb"o-nar', a. Gentle or cour- 
teous; affable; complaisant. [<F.debonnaire, 
< de-, of, + bon, good, -f air, mien.] -ly, adv. 

deb-oucb'S deb-ush', vi. To emerge or issue; 
pass out. [< F. de-, of, from, + bouche, 
mouth.] — de"bou"chure', de"bii"8hiir', n. 
The opening out of a valley, stream, or the like. 

d6"bris', ) de'bri', deb"ri', n. Accumulated 

deb"ris', ) fragments; ruins; rubbish. [F.] 

debt, det, n. 1. That which one owes; an ob- 
ligation; the state of being indebted. 2§. A sin; 
trespass. [ < F. dette, < L. debitus, pp. of debeo, 
owe.] — debt'or, n. One who is in debt. 

d6"but', de"bii', n. A first appearance, as in 
society or on the stage; first attempt. [F.] — 
de"bii-taiit', d6"bu-tuh',7i. One who makes a 
debut.— de"bu-tante', de'bii-tant', n. fern. 

dec'ade, dek'gd, w. 1. A period of ten years. 
2. A group or set of ten. [< Gr. deka{d-)s, < 
deka, ten.] dec'adj. 

de-ca'dence, de-ke'dgns, n. Deterioration; 
decline; decay. ~'[< F. decadence, < L. de, 
down, + cado, fall.] de-ca'den-cy:}:. — 
de-ca'dent, a. Falling into ruin or decay. 

deca-. A combining form. [<Gv. deka, ten.'] 

— <lec'a-8ron, dec'a-gen, n. A figure with ten 

fiiitiure (future); aisle; au (jmi); ell; c (k); cliat; dli (//le); go; sing, ink; tliin. 



sides and ten angles. — de-cagr'o-nal, a.— 
dec'a-8:rain or -t; ram me, dec'u-gram, dec'- 
a-li-^ter or -tre, dec'a-me''tei' or -tre, 
dec'a-stere, see Metric System, under 
METRIC— dec^'a-he'dron, dec'a-hl'dren, n. 
A solid bounded by ten plane faces. — dec^'a- 
he'dral, a. — dec'a-pod. I. a. Ten^footed, 

or ten=armed; of or pertaining to the Decapoda 
a division of crustaceans with five pairs of legs 
Including crabs, lobsters, etc. II. n. A ten 



dec-ap'o-dal, dec-ap^o- 

f ooted crustacean 
doiis, a 

dec'a-log(ue, dec'a-leg, n. The ten com- 
mandments ; the moral law. [ < Gr. dekalogos, 
< deka, ten, + logos^ word.] 

de-camp's de-camp', %i. 1. To break camp; 
march away. 2. To leave suddenly or secretly; 
run away. — de-cainp'inent, n. 

dec'a-nal, dec'a-nal, a. Of or pertaining to 
a dean or deanery, [< LL. decanus; see dean.] 

de-cant''', d§-cant', vt. To pour off gently. 
[< F. decanter^ < de-, from, + OF. cant^ 
edge.] — de"can-ta'tion, n. — de-cant-'er, n. 
An ornamental bottle for wine, water, etc. 

de-cap'i-tate, dg-cap'i-tet, vt. [-ta"ted''; 
-TA'TiNG.] To behead. [< L.ll de., off, -f- 
caput, head.] — de-cap'^i-ta'tion, n. 

dec'a-stere, dec'a-stir, n. Ten cubic meters. 
See Metric System, under metric, dec'a- 
steri; dek'a-sterel:. 

de-cay', d§-ke', v. I. t. To affect by decay; 
impair; rot. II. i. To suffer decay; deterio- 
rate; decline; Icccorae rotten. {< l,fi^ decido, 
fail, < de, down, + cado, fall.J 

de-cay', w. A gradual decline; deterioration; 
decomposition; corruption; rottenness. 

de-cease', dg-sts'. I. vi. [de-ceased"; de- 
CEAs'iNG.] To depart from this life; die. II. 
n. Departure from this life; death. [< L. de- 
cessus, < de- (see de-) 4- cedo, go.] 
— de-ceased', pa. Dead. 

de-ceit', dg-sit', n. The act of deceiving; de- 
ception; fraud; deceptiveness^ trick. [<L.o*' 
deceptus, pp. of decipio, deceive.] — de-celt'- 
ful, de-stt'ful, a. Characterized by deception; 
false; tricky; fraudulent, -ly, adv. -uess, n. 

de-ceive', dg-slv', vt. [de-ceived' ; de-ceiv'- 
iNG.] To mislead by or as by falsehood; im- 
pose upon; delude. [< F. decevoir., < L. de- 
cipio; see deceit.] — de-ceiv'a-bl(e, a. Ca- 
pable of being deceived; liable to imposition.— 
de-ceiv'a-bl(e-ne88, n.— de-ceiv'a-bly, 
rtd?;.— de-ceiv'er, n. One who deceives. 

De-cem'ber, dl-sem'l)er, n. The twelfth 
month of the year, having 31 days. [L.] 

de'cen-cy , dl's^in-si, n. T-cies*, pi.] Propriety 
in conduct, speech, or dress; modesty; that 
which is decent. 

de-cen'ni-al, dg-sen'i-al, a. Continuing for 
ten years; occurring every ten years. [< L. 
decern, ten, -\- annus, year.] — de-cen'na-ry, 
a. (;on8l8tlnK of or pertaining to ten; pertain- 
ing to ten years or to a tithing. 

de'cent, dl'sgnt, a. 1. Proper; decorous; re- 
spectable. 2. Modest; chaste. 3. Sufficient ; 
passable ; moderate. [< L. decen{t-)s, ppr. of 
rfec«<, it becomes.] -\y,adv. -ness, yj. 

de-cep'tion, dg-sep'shun, n. The act of de- 
(H'iving; deceit; the state of being deceived; 
anything that deceives; a delusion. 

de-cep'tiv(e, de-sep'tiv, a. Having power or 
tendency to deceive. 

dec"iare', dcs"iar', dec'i-gram or -gramme, 
des'i-gram, dec'i-li"ter or -tre, dec'v> 
me"ter or -tre, dec"i-stere', see Metric 
System, under metric. 

de-cide', dg-said', v. [de-ci'ded<'; de-ct'- 
DiNG.] I. t. To determine authoritatively or 
conclusively; adjudge; arbitrate; resolve. II. 
i. To give judgment; come to or give a deci- 
sion. [< L. decido, < de, off, + csedo, cut.] 
— de-ci'ded, joa. 1. Free from uncertainty; 
unquestionable; unmistakable, tj. Determined; 
resolute; emphatic— de-ci'ded-Iy, adv. 

de-cid'u-ous, dg-sid'yu-us, a. 1. Falling off 
at maturity, as leaves, antlers, teeth, etc. 2. 
Shedding leaves annually, as a tree, etc. [< L. 
deciduns, < decido, fall off.] 

dec'i-mal, des'i-mal. I. a. Pertaining to or 
founded on the number 10; proceeding by 
powers of 10 or of one-tenth, II. n. A dec- 
imal fraction or one of its digits. [L.^l+of 
decimus, tenth, < decern, ten.] — decimal 
fraction, a fraction whose denominator (usu- 
ally unexpressed) is 10 or a power of 10. — d. 
point, a dot or period used before a decimal 
fraction.— dec'i-mal-ly, adv.— dec'i-mate, 
des'i-met,t;«. [-MA'TEDd; -ma'ting.] 1. To kill 
one out of every ten of. 2. To destroy a large 
proportion of.— dec"i-ma'tion, n. 

de-ci'pher, dg-sai'fgr, vt. To make out the 
words or meaning of. [< de- 4" cipher.] — 
de-ci'pher-a-bl(e, a. — de-ci'pher-er, n. 

de-ci'sion, dg-sizh'un, n. 1. The act of de- 
ciding; a fixed intention; decisive result; settle- 
ment; judgment of a court. 2. The quality of 
being positive and firm; determination. 

de-ci'siv(e, dg-sai'siv, a. 1. Putting an end to 
uncertainly, debate, or question; conclusive. 2. 
Prompt; positive; decided. Ay, adv. -ness, w. 

decks dek, vt. 1. To array; dress elegantly; 
adorn; decorate. 2. To put a deck on. 

deck, n. 1. Naut. A platform covering or 
extending horizontally across a vessel; the 
space between two such platforms. 2. A car* 
roof. 3. A pack of playing-cards. [< D. 
dek, < dekken, cover.] 

de-claim', dg-clem', v. I. t. To deliver ora- 
torically in public; recite. II. i. 1. To speak 
in rhetorical style; harangue. 2. To give a 
recitation. [< L. declamo, < de- intens. + 
clamo, cry out.] — de-claini'er, n. — dec"la- 
ma'tion, n. 1. The act of declaiming; empty 
or bombastic oratory, ti. A speech or selection 
recited or to be recited from memory.— de- 
clam'a-to-ry, dg-clam'a-to-ri, a. Using, char- 
acterized by, or pertaining to declamation. 

de-clare',dg-cljTr', t;. [de-clared'; de-clak'- 
iNo.] I. t. 1. To make known; reveal; ex- 
plain. 2. To assert positively. 3. To announce 
formally to be or exist. 11. e. To make a 
declaration ; proch im a choice or decision. [ < 
L. declaro, < de-, thoroughly, -j- clarus, clear.] 
— dec"la-ra'tion, dec'la-rC'shun, n. A 
formal, positive, or explicit statement; the act of 
declaring, or that which Is declared.— de- 
clnr'a-to-ry, dg-clar'a-to-rl, a. Making adec- 
laration; attirmatlve. de-clar'a-tiv(et. 

de-clen'sion, de-clen'shun, n. 1. Gratn. (1) 
The inrteclion of nouns, pronouns, and adjec- 
tives, as to indicate fjender, number, and case. 
(2) A class of words tnus infiecte<l. 2. Decline; 
deterioration. 3. The act of declining. 4. A 
slope; Incline. 

papfi, 98k; at, air; element, th6y, us^ge; It, |, i (ce); o, oh; orator, er; full, rule; but, Or; 



de-cline', d§-clain', v. [de-clineb'; de-cli'- 
NiNG.] I. t. 1. To refuse to accept or com- 

Ely with; reject. 2. To bend down; depress. 
. To give the case^forms of, as a noun; in- 
flect. 'II. i. 1. To refuse. 2. To bend, 
slope, move, tend, or hang downward; decay; 
diminish. 3. To turn aside or away; deviate. 
[< L. declino, < de, down, -f clino, lean.] — de- 
cli'na-blCe, de-clai'na-bl, a. Capable of being 
declined.— dec'^li-iia'tion, dec"li-ne'shun, n. 

I. The act of declining; inclination; descent; 
slope. 2. Deterioration; decay. 3. Refusal; non= 
acceptance. 4. Astron. The angular distance 
of a lieavenly body from the celestial equator. 

de-cline', n. The act or result of declining; 
deterioration; decay. 

de-cliv'i-ty, de-cliv'i-ti, n. [-ties^, pl.l A 

downward slope; descending surface of a hill 

or mountain. [< L. rfe, down, -\- divus, hill.] 

— de-cliv'i-toiis, a. Sloping downward. 

de-coc'tion, de-cec'ehun, n. The act of boil- 
ing; a liquid preparation made by boiling a 
substance. [ < L. de, down, -\- coquo, cook.T — 
€le-coct'<i, rt. To make a decoction of; cook. 

dd''col''le-t<^'^ de"cere-te', ;aa. 1 . Cut low In the 
neck. 2. [de'col'le-t^e' /em.] Having the 
neck and shoulders bare. [F.] 

de-col'or, di-cul'§r, vt. To deprive of color; 
bleach.— de-ool'"or-a'tion, n. 

de'<coin-pose',di'c9m-pOz',t'^.&n. [-posed'; 
-po'siNG.] To separate into constituent parts 
or elements; decay; putrefy. — de-com'^po-sP- 
tion, n. The act, proces.^?, or result of decom- 
posing, by chemical action or by natuial decay. 

dec'o-rate, dec'o-ret, xt. [-ra'ted''; -ra"- 
TiXG.] To adorn; ornament; confer a decora- 
tion upon. [< L. decorOy adorn.] 

dec'^o-ra'tion, dec"o-re'shun, n. 1. The act, 
process, or art of decorating; ornamentation; 
an ornament. 2. A badge of honor. — dec'o- 
ra-tiv(e, a. Of, pertalmng to, or suitable for 
decoration; ornamental.— <lec'o-ra''tor, n. 

de-co'rous, de-co'rus or dec'o-rus, a. Proper; 
becoming; suitable, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

de-co'rum, dg-cO'rum, n. Propriety, as in 
manner, conduct, etc. [L., < decorus\ becom- 
ing, befitting, < deceU it befits.] 

de-coy', dg-cei', I. vt. To entice, as into 
danger or a snare; draw on, so as to entrap. 

II. n. One who or that which decoys; a lure, 
de-crease', d§-cris'. I. t;^.&i;i. [de-creased"; 

de-creas'ing.] To diminish gradually; re- 
duce. II. n. The act, process, or state of 
decreasing; the amount or degree of loss; dim- 
inution. [< L. de., from, -\- cresco., grow.] 

de-cree', d§-cri'. I. vt.&vi. [de-creed'; de- 
cree'ing.] To order, adjudge, ordain, or ap- 
point by law or by edict; issue a decree. II. 
n. A law; edict. [ < L. decretum.] 

dec're-ment, dec'rg-mgnt, n. A decreasing; 
loss by decrease; waste. 

de-crep'it, de-crep'it, a. Enfeebled, as by old 
age; broken down. [< L. de-., de-, -|- c?'(?2W, 
crack.] de-crep'idt. — de-crep'i-tude, n. 
Enfeeblement through infirmity or old age. 

de-cry', de-crai'.i;?;. [de-cried'; de-cry'ing.] 
To say disparaging things about; traduce. [< 
F. decrie7% < de-, down, -f crier., cry.] — de- 
cri'al, n. The act of decrying.- de-cri'er, «. 

dec'u-ple, dec'yu-pl. I. vt. [-pled; -pling.] 
To increase tenfold. II. a. Tenfold. III. n. 

A number ten times repeated. [ < L. decuplus, 
< decern, ten.] 

ded'i-cate, ded'i-ket. I. vt. [-ca'ted''; 
-cA"TiNG.] 1. To set apart for sacred uses; 
consecrate; devote. 2. To preface with a 
dedication. II. a. Dedicated; devoted. [< 
L. de, down, 4- f?i<70, declare.]— ded"i-ca'tion, 
n. 1. The act of dedicating. 2. An inscription, 
as to a friend, prefixed to a book.— ded'i-ca"- 
tor, «.— ded'i-ca-to-ry, a. 

de-duce', d§-dius', vt. [de-duced" ; de-du'- 
ciNG.] 1. To derive as a conclusion; infer; 
conclude. 2. To trace, as derivation or origin. 
[< L. deduco, < de, down, -{- duco, lead.] — de- 
<lii'ci-bl(e, a. Capable of being deduced. 

de-duct' •!, de-duct', vt. To subtract; take 
away. [< L. deduco (pp. deductus); see de- 
duce.] — de-duct'i-bl(e, a. — de-duc'tion, dg- 
duc'shun, n. 1. The act of deducing; an infer- 
ence; conclusion. 2. The act of deducting; sub- 
traction; abatement.— de-duct'iv(e, a. Infer- 
ential; deducible.— de-duct'iv(e-ly, adv. 

deed, did. F. vt. To convey by deed. II. 
n. 1. Anything done; an act; achievement. 
2. Fact; truth; reality. 3. Law. A written 
instrument of conveyance under seal. [< AS. 
dsed, < don, do.] 

deem, dim, vt. & vi. To decide; judge; con- 
sider; regard; believe. [< AS. deman, < 
dom; see doom.] 

deep, dip. I. a. 1. Extending far down- 
ward, backward, or inward. 2. Profound; 
abstruse. 3. Sagacious; penetrating; also, 
scheming; designing. 4. Extreme; heartfelt. 
5. Low or sonorous in tone; dark in hue. 6. 
Muddy; heavy, as a road, 11. n. That which 
has great depth; an abyss; the sea. 111. adv. 
Deeply. [< AS. c?e5i;, deep.] Ay, adv. -ness, 
«.— deep'en, dtp'n, vt. & tn. To make or be- 
come deep or deeper, in any sense. 

deer, dir, n. [deer, jjI.} A ruminant with ant- 
lers (in the male sex), as the moose, elk, and 
reindeer. [< AS. deor, wild animal.] 

de-face', dg-fes', vt. [de-faced"; de-fa'- 
ciNG.] To mar; disfigure; efface. [< L.^f 
dis-, DIS-, -J-/ad«s, face.]— de-face'meiit, n. 

de fac'to, dl or de fac'to. Actually or really ex- 
isting, as a government: distinguished from de 
jure. [L.] 

def'al-ca'tion, def"al-ke'shun, n. A fraud- 
ulent appropriation of money held in trust; 
embezzlement; also a deficit. [< L.^ de, off, 
+ faix ifalc-), sickle.] 

de-fame', de-fem', vt. & vi. [de-famed'; de- 
fa'ming.] To calumniate; slander; libel. [< 
L.^ diffamo, < dis-, dis-, -f fama; see fame, 
??.] — "defa-ma'tion, def"a-me'shun, n. The 
act of defaming; aspersion; calumny.— de-fam'- 
a-to-rv, a. Slanderous. — de-fa'iner, n. 

de-fault'd, dg-felt', v.- 1. t. 1. To make de- 
fault in; neglect. 2. Law. To declare in de- 
fault. 11. i. To make a default.— de-fault'- 
er, n. One who defaults; a delinquent; embezzler. 

de-fault', n. 1. A failure in or neglect of an 
obligation or duty; failure to appear or plead 
in a suit. 2. Want or deficiency; absence; 
lack. [< L.i^ de, away, -\-fallo, deceive.] 

de-fea'sance, de-ft'zans, n. A making null 
or void; an annulment. [< OF. dtfeisance,< 
defaire, undo, defeat.] — de-fea'sl-bl(e, dg-fl'- 
zi-bl, a. Capable of being rendered void. 

flut|fire (future); aisle; au (ml); ©il; c (k); chat; db (the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



de-feat'', dg-fit'. I-i. vt. 1. To battle; over- 
come; vanquish; frustrate. 2. Latv. To make 
void; annul. II. n. The act or result of de- 
feating; an overthrow; in law, an annulment. 
[< L.o*" de-, DE-, -\-facio, do.] 

de-fect', dg-feet', n. Lack or absence of some- 
thing essential; imperfection; fault; a blem- 
ish; failing; fault. [< L. defectus, < de, from, 
-}- facio^ do.] — de-fec/tion, d§-fec'shun, n. 
Abandonment of allegiance or duty; desertion.— 
cle-fect'iv(e, a. 1. Incomplete or Imperfect; 
faulty. 2. Lacking some regular grammatical 
forms, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

de-fence', -less, etc. Same as defense, etc. 

de-fend'", de-fend', v. I. t. To protect; 
maintain; vindicate. II. i. Latv. To make 
defense. [< L. defendo^< (?^, away, -\-fendo, 
strike.] — de-fend' ant. I. a. Making defense. 
II. n. One against whom a legal action Is 
brought; a defender. — de-fen cl'er, n. One 
who defends or protects; a champion. 

de-fense', I de-fens', n. 1. The act of def end- 
de-fence', fing; protection. 2. Anything 
that defends. 3. A plea in justification; ex- 
cuse; apology. — de-fense'less, de-fence'less, 
a. Having no defense or means of defense; un- 
protected.— de-fen'si-bl (e, a. Capable of be- 
ing defended, maintained, or justified. — dc- 
fen"8i-bil'i-ty, de-fen'si-bl (e-ness, n — 
de-fen'sivCe. 1. a. Intended or suitable for 
defense; done In defense; making defense. II. 
n. An attitude or condition of defense; means 
of defense; safeguard, -ly, adv. 

de-fer'i, de-fgr', v. [de-ferred'; de-fer'- 
RiNf;.] l.t. To put off; postpone. II. i. 
To delay; wait. [< L. differo., bear apart.] 

de-fer'2, ^, [de-ferred'; de-fer'ring.] I!. 
t. To submit or refer (something) respect- 
fully: with to before the indirect object. II. 
i. To yield respectfully; submit: with to. 
[ < L. defero., < de., down, -|- /ero, bear.] — 
dePer-ence, def 'er-ens, n. Respectful yielding; 
respect; regard.— dei^'er-en'tial, a. Marked 
by deference; respectful, -ly, adv. 

de-fi'ant, dg-fai'ant, a. Showing or charac- 
terized by defiance.— de-fl'ance, n. The act 
of defying; a challenge; bold opposition. 

de-fl'cient, dg-fish'gnt, a. Lacking; insufti- 
cient; incomplete; imperfect; defective. [< L. 
deficien{t-)s, ppr. of deflcio, be wanting.] -ly, 
«^?;.— de-fi'cien-cy, de-flsh'gn-sl, n. 1-ciks«, 
n/.l The state of being deficient, or that which 
18 rteficlcnt; lack; Insufllclency; defect. 

def'i-cit, def'i-sit, n. A deficiency, or falling 
short in amount; shortage. [L.] 

de-flle'i, de-fail', vt. [de-filed'; de-fi'- 
i-iNo.] To pollute; debauch; violate. [< AS. 
afJ/lan, < a-, a-2, -\-fm, foul.] — de-flle'inent, 
n. The act of defiling, or state of being defiled; 
uncleanness; pollution.— de-fl'lcr, n. 

de-file'3, m. To march by files; file off. [< 
F. d^ler, < de- priv. -hJUer, spin.] 

de-file', n. 1. A long narrow pass; gorge. 
2. Mil. A marching in file. 

de-fine', dg-fain', v. [de-fined'; de-fi'- 
NiN(i.] I. ^ 1. To state the meaning of; ex- 
plain. 2. To determine precisely; bring out 
the limits or outlines of. II. i. To give a 
definition or decision. [< L. definio, < de, off, 
-\-_1iniK, end.] — de-li'na-bl(e, a. Capable of 
being defined.— de-fl'ner, n. 

def'i-nit(e, def'i-nit, a. Having precise lim- 

its; known with exactness; determined; 
clear; precise, -ly, adv. -ness, n.— de-fln'i- 
tiv(e. I. a. Sharply defining or limiting; de- 
terminate; explicit; positive. II. n. A word 
that defines or limits, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

def'i-ni'tion, def "i-nish'un, n. 1. A descrip- 
tion or explanation of a word or thing, by its 
attributes, properties, or relations, that dis- 
tinguishes it from all other things. 2. The 
act of defining. 3. The state of being definite; 
deflnitiveness. 4. The determining of the out- 
line or limits of anything; the state of being 
clearly outlined or determined; the power of a 
lens to give a distinct image. 

de-fiect'**, dg-flect', v. I. t. To cause to 

swerve; bend from a course. II. i. To turn 

aside; swerve. [< L. de., away, -f-^erfo,bend.] 

— de-flec'tion, n. A turning aside; deviation. 

de-fiow'er, de-flau'gr, r^. To despoil; ravish. 
[< L.LL (Ze, from, -\- Jlos {flor-), flower.] 

de-form', dg-ferm', vt. 1. To render mis- 
shapen; distort; disfigure. 2. To change the 
form of. [< L. de., out of, -f- forma., shape.] 
— def'or-ina'tion, «.— de-formed', pa.— 
de-form'i-ty, de-fSrm'I-ti, 71. L-TiEsi,/>i.] A 
deformed state; an unnatural or misshapen part; 
disfigurement; unsightliness. 

de-fraud''', dg-fred', vt. To take or withhold 
something from by fraud; cheat; swindle. [< 
L. de, fully, -\-frau{d-)s, fraud.] 
— <le-fraud'er, n. 

de-fray', de-fre', vt. To make j>ayment for; 
bear the expense of; pay. [ < F.rfe, off, -\-frais, 
cost J — de-fray'al, n. The act of defraying. 
de-fray'mentt.— de-fray'er, n. 

deft, deft, a. Neat and skilful; handy; apt; 
clever. [< AS. dsft, in gedsefte, fit, gentle.] 
-ly, adv. -ness, n. 

de-funct', defunct'. I. a. Dead; deceased; 
extinct. II. n. A dead person ; the dead. [< 
L. de, off, -\-fu7igor, discharge.] 

de-fy', dg-fai', ^'<. [DE-FiED',-faid'; de-fy'- 
iNG.] To challenge or dare; act in disregard 
of; resist openly or boldly. [< F. dejier, < L. 
dis-, DIS-, \- fides, faith.] 

de-gen'er-ate, dg-jen'gr-et. [-a"ted<'; 
-A"TiNG.] To become worse or inferior; decline; 
deteriorate. II. dg-jen'gr-et or -gt, a. Having 
become worse or inferior; deteriorated; de- 
graded. III. n. A deteriorated or degraded 
individual. [< L. degeneratus, < c?<?, down; 
and see generate.] -ly, adv. -ness, n.— 
de-jren'er-n-cy, de-.ien'er-n-sl, ??. The state 
of btnng dog('nt'r!itt';"'tlu' ifct or process of de- 
generating.— de-g<Mi"<'r-»'l ion, n. The act, 
state, or i)r()C('S8 of degenerating; decline; de- 

deg'lu-ti'tion, deg'lu-tish'un, n. The act, 

5)roce6s, or power of swallowing. [< L. de, 
town, 4- glufio, swallow.] 

de-grade', dg-gred', v. [de-gra'ded<'; de- 
gra'ding.] 1. 1. 1. To reduce in rank; re- 
move from oflioe. dignity, etc. 2. To debase 
or lower the cliaractor or quality of; make 
mean or contemptible. II. i. To decline in 
character, reputation, or standing; degener- 
ate. [< F. degrader, < L."- de, down, + 
gradior, go.] — deg"ra-da'llon, ^(. The act 
of degniding. or the state of being degraded. In 
anv sense of the verb.- de-trra'dinK-b% o<iv. 

de-gree', dg-grt', n. 1. One of a succession 

papfi, 98k; at, air; elfrngnt, tb6y, us^ge; It, j, i (ee); o, 5h; ©rat^r, ©r; full, rule; but, Or; 



of steps, grades, or stages; rank; station. 2. 
Relative extent, amount, or intensity. 3. One 
of the three forms in which an adjective or ad- 
verb is compared; as, the positive, compara- 
tive, and superlative degrees. 4. A title con- 
ferred by an institution of learning. 5. A 
subdivision or unit, as in a thermometric scale; 
the 360th part of a circle, as of longitude or 
latitude. [ < L.^ de, down, -f gradns, step.] 

de-his'ceiice, de-his'gns, n. 1. A gape or 
papnig. 2. The opening or manner of open- 
ing, as of a capsule. [< L. c?e, off, + hisco, 
open.] — de-hls'cent, a. 

de'i-fy, di'i-fai, vt. [-fied, -faid; -ft"ing.] 
To regard or worship as a god; adore. [< L. 
dens., god; and see -fy.] 

deig^n, den, vt. To stoop so far as to grant or 
allow; condescend; vouchsafe. [<0¥. deign- 
er, < L. diqnor^ < digmis, worthy.] 

de'ism, di'izm, n. The belief orf the existence 
of God, with disbelief of revelation and Chris- 
tianity. [< F. deisme,< L. devs., god.] — de'- 
ist, n. A believer In deism.— de-iH^tic, a. Of 
or pertaining to deism or deists. de-is'tic-aU. 
-al-ly, adv. 

de'i-ty, dt'i-ti, n. [-ties^, pi.'] 1. A god, god- 
dess, or divine person. 2. [D-] The one true 
God. 3. Godhead; divinity. [< F. deile, < 
L. deus, god.] 

de-jecf'J, de-ject', vt. To depress the spirits 
of; discourage; dishearten. [< L. dejectus, 
pp., < de., down, -\-jacio, hurl.] — de-ject'ed, 
pa. Depressed; disheartened, -ly, adv. -ness, 
n.— de-jec'tion, «. A dejected state; depres- 
sion; melancholy. , 

de j u're, dl or de ju'rl nr -re. Law. By right of 
law; rightfully or legally: distinguished from de 
facto. [L.l 

dek'a-, <Iek'a-8:raiii, etc. Same as deca-, etc. 

de-laine', d§-len', n. An untwilled wool, or 
cotton and wool, dress'material. [< F. (mous- 
seline) de laine, < L. de, of, -f- lana, wool.] 

de-lay', de-le', v. I. ;;. 1. to put off; post- 
pone; defer. 2. To detain; retard; hinder. 
II. i. To actor proceed slowly; procrastinate. 
[< F. delayer, < L. dilato; see dilate.] 

de-lay', n. 1. A putting off; postponement; 
procrastination. 2. A temporary stoppage or 
stay; also, a loitering or lingering. 

de'le, di'li, r«. Priiit. To take out; delete. [L., 
imperative of deleo, erase.] 

de-lec''ta-'bl(e, de-lec'ta-bl, a. Delightful; 
charming. [< L. delectabilis, < delecto; see 
DELIGHT, v.] — de-lec'ta-bly, adv .— Ae''\ec- 
t action, n. Delight. 

dere-gate, del'g-get. I. vt. [-ga"ted<1; 
-ga'ting.] 1. To send as a representative, 
with authority to act; depute. 2. To commit 
or entrust. II. der§-get or -ggt, a. Sent as 
a deputy. III. del'g-get, n. A representa- 
tive; deputy. [< L. de, from, -f lego, send.] 

— del^'e-ga'tion, n. The act of delegating; a 
person or persons appointed to act for another 
or others; delegates collectively. 

de-lete', dg-ltt', vt. [de-le'ted<1; de-le'- 
TiNG.] To blot out; erase; cancel; dele. [< 
L. deletus, pp. of deleo, erase.] — de-Ie'tion, n. 
Erasure; matter erased or canceled. 

del''e-te'ri-ous, der'g-tl'ri-us, a. Hurtful; 
injurious; pernicious. [< Gr. deleterios, < 
deleomai, spoil.] 

delft, \ delft, delf , n. A colored glazed earthen- 

delf, S ware made first at Delft, in Holland, about 
1310; hence, any tableware. 

de-lib'er-ate, dg-lib'er-et. I. vt. & vi. [-a"- 
ted<'; -A"TiNG.] 1. To weigh in the mind; 
take counsel; consider reasons; ponder. 2. 
To hesitate; stop and think. II. de-lib'gr-et 
or -gt, a. 1. Acting with deliberation; slow 
and cautious. 2. Done after deliberation; 
not sudden or rash; leisurely; intentional. 
[< L. deliberatus, pp., < de, from, -\- libera, 
LIBERATE.] -ly, adv. -ness, n.— Ae-\Wer- 
a'tion, n. 1, The act of deliberating. 2. 
Slowness and care In deciding or acting. 3. Fore- 
thought or intention.— de-lib'er-a-tiv(e, a. 
1. Pertaining to or of the nature of deliberation. 
ti. Characterized by or existing for deliberation. 
— <le-lib'er-a-tiv(e-ly, adv. 

del'i-cate, del'i-ket or--kgt, a. 1. Fine and 
light, as in texture or color. 2. Daintily pleas- 
ing; delightful. 3. Nicely constructed or ad- 
justed. 4. Easily injured; tender; frail; frag- 
ile. 5. Requiring cautious treatment. 6. Re- 
fined and considerate; pure; chaste. 7. 
Fastidious; dainty. 8. Nice in discrimina- 
tion; sensitive. \< L. delicatxis, pleasing, < 
de, from, -|- lacio, entice.] -ly, adv. -ness, 
n.— del'i-ca-cy, del'l-ca-si, n. [-cies^, pl\ 
1. The quality or state of being delicate; fine- 
ness; daintiness; sensitiveness; fragility. 2. A 
luxury; dainty. 3. Subtlety; nicety; need of 
careful treatment. 4. Refinement of feeling; 
fastidiousness; consideration for others. 

deP'i-ca-tes'sen, deFi-ca-tes'en, n. pi. Table 
delicacies. [G.] 

de-li'cious, dg-lish'us, a. Extremely pleas- 
ant or grateful, [ < L. deliciosus, pleasant, < 
delicto, charm.] -ly, adv. -ness, ti. 

de-liglit'd, dg-lait', v. I. t. To please or 
gratify highly; charm. II. i. To feel a deep 
and tender interest; rejoice: followed by in or 
an infinitive. [< OF. deliter, < L. delecto, < 
delicto, charm.] —de-light'ed, jm. Highly 
pleased; joyfully gratified. -\y,adv. 

de-light', n. Great pleasure, gratification, or 
joyful satisfaction, or that which affords it. 

— de-light'ful, a. Affording delight; ex- 
tremely gratifying; charming. de -light '- 
somcj:. -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

de-lin'e-ate, dg-lin'g-et, vt. [-a'ted^; -a"- 
TiNG.] 1. To draw in outline; trace out. 2. 
To portray; depict; describe. l< Ij. delinea- 
tiis, < de, off, -{-linea, line.] — de-lin''e-a'- 
tion, n. 1 . The act or art of delineating. 2. 
A portraiture; sketch.— de-lin'e-a''''tor, w. 

de-lin'quent, dg-li^'cwgnt, I. a. .1. Neg- 
lectful of or failing in duty or obligation; 
faulty. 2. Due anu unpaid, as taxes. II. n. 
One who fails to perform a duty or who com- 
mits a fault. [< L. delinqnen(t-)s, ppr., < de, 
from, -f linqiio, leave.] — de-lin'quen-cy, n. 
[-ciES^ pi.] The state or fact of being delin- 
quent; neglect; fault; offense; misdemeanor. 

del'-'i-quesce', deri-cwes', vi. [-quesced''; 
-QUES'ciNG.] To become liquid by absorption 
of moisture from the air; pass away gradually. 
[< L. de-, DE-, + liqveo, be fluid.] — deF'i- 
ques'cence, n. — der'i-ques'cent. a. 

de-lir'i-ous, dg-lir'i-us, a. Suffering from 
delirium, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

de-lir'i-um, dg-lir'i-um, n. 1. Mental aber- 
ration, as in fever; wandering of the mind. 

flut|ure (future); aide; au {out)-, ©II; c (k); chat; dh {thQ)\ go; sing, ink; thin. 



2. Intense excitement; frenzy; rapture. [L., 
< delirus, crazy, < de, from, -\-lira, furrow.] 

— de-lir'i-iim tre'niens, delirium tri'- 
mens, a violent form of delirium, as from excess- 
ive use of alcoholic liquors or narcotics. 

de-liv'er, de-liv'gr, vt. 1. To free from re- 
straint; set free; rescue; release; save. 2. To 
handover; transfer; give; give up; communi- 
cate. 3. To relieve of a child in parturitioii : 
often with of. 4. To utter; speak formally or 
officially. [< F. delivrer, < L. de, from, -|- 
libero, liberate.] — de-liv'er-ance, n. 1. 
The act of delivering; rescue; release. 2. An 
expression of opinion.— de-liv'er-er, n. One 
who delivers.— de-liv'er-y, M. [-iEsz,p;.] 1. 
The act of delivering; liberation; release; trans- 
ference; surrender, ti. Parturition. 3. Mode 
of utterance, as in singing or public speaking. 

dell, del, n. A small secluded valley; glen; 
dale. [< D. delle, dal, dale.] 

del'ta, del'ta, n. 1. The fourth letter in the 
Greek alphabet (A, 6). 2. A triangular al- 
luvial deposit at or in the mouth of a river; 
anything triangular. 

de-lude^, de-lud' or -liud', vt. [de-lu'ded^; 
de-lu'ding.] To mislead; beguile; deceive. 
[< L. de, oflf, -f- ludo, play.] — de-lu'der, n. 

del'uge, del'iuj. I. Xit. [del'uged; del'u- 
GiNG.J To overwhelm with water; inundate; 
submerge. II. n. A great flood ; inundation, 
as in the time of Noah {Gen. vii.) [< F. de- 
luge, < L. diluvium, < diluo, dilute.] 

de-lu'sion, de-lu'zhun or -li&'zhun, n. 1 . The 
act of deluding; state of being deluded; a false 
belief, especially when persistent, of what has 
no existence in fact. 2. The act of deluding; 
deception. — de-lii'8iv(e, a. Tending to de- 
lude; misleading; deceptive. m\y, adv. -ness, n. 

delv(e, delv, t'/. & vi. [delv(e)d; delv'ing.] 
To dig, as with a spade; penetrate; fathom; 
make laborious research. [< AS. delfa?i.] 

deni'a-gog(ue, dem'a-geg, ji. One who 
leads the populace by pandering to their preju- 
dices and passions; an unprincipled politician. 
[< Gr. demos, people, + dffo, lead.] 

de-main.^, I dg-men', -men' or mtn', n. A 

de-mesne', j manor-house and adjoining 
lands; landed estate; domain. [< OF. de- 
maine, var. of domaine; see domain.] 

de-mand'"', de-mgnd', ?;. I. t. 1. To claim 
as due; ask for peremptorily ; insist upon. 2. 
To have pressing need for; require. II. i. To 
inquire urgently, authoritatively, or peremp- 
torily, r < L*". de, from, + mando, order.] 

de-mand', n. The act of demanding, or that 
which is demanded; requirement; claim; need. 

de'^mar-ca'tion, dt"mflr-ke'8hun, n. The 
fixing of boundaries or limits; limitation; dis- 
crimination; the limit or line fixed. [<de- + 
I.L. Duircatvs, marked, < OIIG. marca, 
bound.] de'^mar-ka'tiont:. 

de^mean', de-min', rt. To behave; conduct: 
used refiexively. [< F. dtmener, < de-, down, 
4- L. minor, menace.] 

de-mean'or, de-mtn'§r, n. Behavior; Iwar- 
ing; deportment; mien, de-mean'ouri. 

de-ment'ed, ;>a. Dcinivcd of reason; insane. 

— d»'-ineii'ti-a, dr-nien'shi-a, ii. Loss or 
Imimlnnent of the faculty of coherent thought; 
insiinltv. I L., < de, from, + men(t-)fi, mind. ) 

de-mer'it, de-mer'it, n. 1. Ill desert; mis- 

conduct. 2. A mark for failure or miscon- 
duct. [< L.F de- priv. 4- mereo, deserve.] 

de-mesne', n. Same as demain. 

demi-, prefix. Half: often written with a 
hyphen, as if a full word in composition. [F., 
< demi, half.] — dem'i-god, n. The fabled off- 
spring of a god and a mortal; a godlike man; hero. 

dem.'i-jolin, dem'i-jen, n. A jug^^like glass 
vessel enclosed in w^ickerwork. [< Ar.*" dama- 
jdna, < Bamagan, a town in Persia.] 

de-mise', d§-maiz', v. [de-mised'; de-mi'- 
siNG.] \. t. 1. To bequeath; give. 2. To 
convey for life or for a term of years; lease. 
II. i. To pass by will or inheritance. 

de-mise', n. Death, as of a sovereign; a 
transfer or conveyance of rights or estate. [ < 
F. demettre (pp. demis), resign.] 

de-moc'ra-cy, de-mec'ra-si, n. [-cies^, pi:\ 
Government directly by the people collectively ; 
a government BO conducted; the mass of the 
people. [< Gr. demokratia, < demos, people, 
4- tcrated, rule.] — dem'o-crat, n. One who 
favors a democracy; a member of a democratic 
party.— dem'^o-crat'ic, a. Of or pertaining 
to democracy or a democracy; characterized by 
the fact, spirit, or principles of popular govern- 
ment. dein''o-crat''ic-ali. -al-ly, adv. 

de-mol'islit, d§-mel'ish, vt. To destroy by 
tearing or throwing down; overthrow; ruin. 
[< L.^ de, down, 4- molio?', work, < moles, 
mass.] — dem''o-li''tion, dem"o-lish'un, n. The 
act or result of demolishing; destruction. 

de^mon, dl'm^n, n. 1. An evil spirit; devil; 
wicked or cruel person. 2. Gr. Myth. A 
guardian spirit; genius. [<*Gr.i' daimon. god, 
ghost, evil spirit.] dae'znon:^; dai'monj. 

— de-ino'ni-ac, de-mo 'ni-ac. I. a. Of,like, 
or befitting a demon or evil spirit; devilish. 
de''mo-iii'a-calt, drmo-nai'a-cal; de- 
inon'ict. II. n. One possessed of a demon or 
evil spirit; also, a lunatic. 

de-mon'e-tize or -tise, di-mun'g-taiz, tt. 
To divest of the character of standard money. 

— €le-inon''o-ti-za''tioii or -sa'tioii, n. 
de-mon'strate, de-men'stret or dem'gn- 

stret, xt. [-sTi{A"TEi)<i; -stra"ting.] 1. To 
prove with mathematical certainty. 2. To 
teach by exhibition of examples, as anatomy. 
3. To pointout; make clear. [<L. de, fully, 
-\- viomtro, show.] — de-mon'-8tra-bl(e, a. 
Capable of positive proof. —de-mon'slra- 
bl)e-neM8, n. de-iiion''8tra-bil'i-ty1:.— 
de-moii'Htra-bly, adv. 

dem'^on-stra'tion, dem'gn-stre'shun, n. 
1. A pointing out; manifestation. 2. A proc- 
ess or reasoning that leads to an absolutely 
certain conclusion, as in mathematics. 3. The 
exhibition and description of examples, as in 
anatomy. 4. A public exhibition, as of ap- 
proval, condemnation, affection, or military 
force. — de-mon'8tra-tlv(e, de-men 'strci-tiv. 
I, a. 1 . Having the power of demonstration; 
convincing and conchislvc. »J. Inclined to 
strong expression of feeling or opinions. 1 1 . ?i. 
A demonstrative j)rt)noun. -ly, (ulr. -ncHS, 
n.— deiiionwtralivr pronoun y(;nitii.), 9. 
pronoiui which defines or points out the object 
to which it refers; as, this, that, these, those.— 
dem'on-Htra^'tor, dem'en-strf-'ter, 7?. 1, 
One who demonstrates. "2. One who exhibits 
and explains dissections to a class In anatomy. 

de-mor'al-ize or -ise, de-mor'al-aiz, r/. 1. 

papfi, 9Bk; at, air; element, th6y, U8§ge; It, %, i (ee); o, «h; erat^r, or; full, rule; but, ©r; 




To corrupt or deprave. 2. To disorganize and 
dishearten, as troops.— de-mor"aI-i-za'tion 
or -sa'tinii, fi. 

de-muFcent, de-mul'sgnt. 3Ie(l. I. a. 
Soothino;. II. n. A soothing application. 
[< L. de, down, + mulceo, stroke.] 

de-mur', d§-mur'. I. H. [-muured'; mur'- 
RiNG.] 1. To offer objections: talce excep- 
tion. 2. To delay; hesitate. II. n. A sus- 
pension of decision or action; hesitation; ob- 
jection. [< L. de, from, -\- mora, delay.] 

de-mure', de-miiir', a. 1. Having a sedate 
or modest demeanor. 2. Affecting modesty; 
prim; coy. [< OF. de murs, of manners.] 
-ly, (Kir. .nei^s, n. 

de-mur^reri, dg-mur'er, n. One who demurs. 

de-mur'rer^, v. Law. A pleading which 
denies that valid cause of action exists; an 
issue on a question of law. 

den, den, «. 1. A cavern occupied by animals; 
a lair. 2. A low haunt. 3. [Colloq.] A room 
for privacy; sanctum. [< AS. denn.'l 

de-nl'al, de-nai'al, n. The act of denying; 
contradiction; disavowal; non»compliancc. 

— de-ni't'i*, n. One who makes denial, 
den'i-zen, den'i-zn. ?i. A citizen; inhabitant. 

[< L.oF de. from, intus, within, < in, in.] 
de-nom'i-nate, de-nem'i-net. I. rt. [-na"- 
TED'i; -NA'TiNG.] To givc a name to; call; 
name. II. de-nem'i-net or -net, a. Arith. 
Made up of units of a designated kind ; concrete. 
[< L. denominatuft, pp., < de, from, -f- namen, 
name.] — de-noiii'i-na-tiv(e, a. That gives 
or constitutes a name; appellative.— de-noin'i- 
iia^'tor, n. 1, One who or that which names. 
"Z, That term of a fraction which expresses the 
number of equal parts Into which the unit Is 
de-nom''i-na'tion, de-nem "i-ne'shun, n. 1 . 
The act of naming. 2. A name; epithet; ap- 
pellation. 3. A body of Christians having a 
distinguishing name; sect. 4. Arith. A class 
of units of one kind and name. 

— cle-noiii^'i-na'tion-al, a. 
de-note', de-not', vt. [de-no'ted"*; j)e-no'- 

TiNG.] To represent; signify; serve as a sign 
of; indicate; designate; show. [< L. denoto, 

< de, down, -|- nofo, mark, < nota, mark ] 

— <le-iio'ta-bI(e, a.— <le"no-ta'tion, n. 
de-noue'ment, de-nu'mflrt, n. The catas- 
trophe of a play or novel; issue; outcome. [F., 

< de-, from, -+- nouer, tie.] de-nou'ment:;:. 
de-nounce', de-nauns', vt. [de-nouxced''; 

de-noun'cing.]" 1. To attack as deserving of 
punishment, censure, or odium; stigmatize; 
arraign. 2. To inform against; accuse. 3. 
To threaten; announce threateningly, as evil 
or vengeance; menace. [< L.of de, down, -)- 
nuntio, announce.] — de-nouiice'inent, n. 

de no'vo, di or de no'vo. From the beginning; 
anew. [L.] 

dense, dens, a. [den'ser; den'sest.] 1. 
Having its parts crowded closely together; 
compact in structure; thick; close. 2. Hard 
to penetrate; obtuse; stupid; dull. [< L. 
densus, thick.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. — den'- 
Bi-ty, den'si-ti, ?*. 1. Denseness; compactness. 
2. The mass or quantity of matter of a substance 
per unit of Its volume. 

dent'', dent, vt. To make a dent in; indent. 

dent, n. A small depression made by striking 

or pressing; indentation. [Var. of dint.] 
den'tal, den'tal. I. a. Of or pertaining to 
the teeth or dentistry. II. n. A sound, as 
that of d, t, or n, produced by placing the tip 
of the tongue against or near the front teeth ; 
also, a letter representing such sound. [< L. 
den(t-)s, tooth.] — den'tate, den'tet or -tet, a. 
Having teeth or tooth=like processes, -ly ^ad7K 
— den'ti-frice, den'tl-fris, n. A preparation 
for cleaning the teeth.— den'tin, n. The hard, 
calcified substance forming the body of a tooth; 
ivory, den'tinet. — den'tist, n. One who 
operates on the teeth.— den'tist-ry, ?i. Dental 
surgery.— den-ti'tion, den-tish'un, n. 1 , The 
process or period of cutting the teeth; teething. 
"2. Zool. The system or arrangement of teeth 
peculiar to an animal. 
de-nude', d§-niud', vt. [de-nu'decI; de- 
nu'ding.] To strip the covering from; make 
naked. [< L. de, from, -f nudus, bare.] 

— cleu'^ii-da'tioii, n. The act of denuding, 
or the state of being denuded. 

de-nun"ci-a'tion, de-nun"si-e'shun, n. The 
act of denouncing; arraignment; accusation; 
menace. [< L. denuncio; see denounce.] 

— de-nun'ci-a-to-ry, a. Containing de- 
nunciation; threatening. de-iiun'ci-a-tiv(e1:. 

de-ny', de-nai', t>. [de-nied', -naid'; de-ny'- 
iNG.j l.^t. 1. To declare to be imtrue. 2. 
To refuse to give, acknowledge, or permit; 
withhold; disown; forbid. II. i. To answer 
in the negative; say "no"; declare anything 
to be untrue. [< L.^ de-, de-, + riego, deny.] 

de-o'dor-ize or -ise, di-o'd§r-aiz, vt. 
[-IZED, -ised; -i"zing, -i"sing.] To modify or 
destroy the odor of, as by disinfectants. — de- 
o"dor-i-za'tioii or -sa'tion, ?i.— de-o'- 
dor-i"zer or -ser, n. 

de-ox'i-dize, (_di-ex'i-daiz, vt. To remove 

de-ox'i-dise, ( oxygen from; reduce from 
the state of an oxid.' de-ox'i-datej.- de- 
ox"i-di-za'tioii or -na'tioii, n. de-ox"i- 

de-part'"!, dg-pflrt', vi. 1. To go away; with- 
draw: followed by frw/i. 2. To deviate; dif- 
fer; vary: followed by /rom. 3. To leave this 
life; die; also transitively, io depart this life. 
[< L.«F disjyartio, part, < dis-, dis-, + pars, 
part.] — de-part'ment, n. 1 . A distinct part; 
a division, as of an organization. 2. A sub- 
division of territory, as for military purposes.— - 
de"part-ineii'tal, «.- de-par'ture, de- 
par'chur or -tiur, n. 1. The act of departing; 
deviation; death. 2. Navt. The distance a ves- 
sel has gone east or west of a given meridian. 

de-pend'"!, de-pend', ti. 1. To have full re- 
liance; triist;"re]y. 2. To be conditional or 
contingent. 3. To be obliged to rely, as for 
support; be dependent. 4. To hang. [< L. 

de-pend'ent, de-pend'gnt. I. a. 1. Depend- 
ing upon something exterior; subordinate; 
contingent; needy. 2. Hanging down; pend- 
ent. 11.11. 1. One who looks to another for 
support or favor; a retainer. 2. A conse- 
quence: corollary, de-pend'anti. -ly, 
ad?7.— de-peiid'ence, n. 1. The act or rela- 
tion of depending, or the state of being depend- 
ent; hence, reliance; trust. 2. Subordination. 
3. That on which one relies. de-pend'aiice:t. 
— de-pend'en-cy, w. [-ciEssp/.l 1 . That 
which is dependent. 3. A subject or tributary 
state. 3, Dependence, de-pend'an-cyl:. 

fiutiure (future); aisle; au {out); oil; c (k); cliat; dh {the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



de-pict'*', d§-pict', vt. To portray or picture; 
describe or represent vividly. [ < L. c?e, down, 
-^pingo, paint.] de-pic'ture:}:. 

de-plete', d§-plit', vt. [-PLE'TEDd; -ple'ting.] 
To reduce, lessen, or exhaust, as the quantity 
of blood in the veins; empty. [< L. de., from, 
-\-pleo, fill.] — de-ple'tion, n. The act of de- 
pleting, or the state of being depleted. — de- 
ple-'tivCe, de-pll'tiv, a. Inducing, or tending to 
mduce, depletion, dep'le-to-ryt. 

de-plore', de-plor', vt. [de-plored'; de- 
plor'ing.] To feel or express deep regret or 
concern for; lament. [< L. de- intens. + 
ploro, wail.] — de-plor'a-bKe, a. Lamenta- 
ble; pitiable.— de-plor'^a-bil'i-ty, «.— de- 
plor'a-bly, adv. 

de-ploy', dg-plei', vt. & vi. Mil. To spread 
out in line of battle, as troops. [< F. deployer, 
< LL. displico, display.] 

de-po'nent, de-po'ngnt. I. a. Laying down; 
passive in form, but active in meaning, as cer- 
tain Latin verbs. II. n. 1. Gram. A depo- 
nent verb. 2. Law. One who deposes; a person 
who gives written testimony. 

de-pop'u-late, dg-pep'yu-let, vt. [-la'ted^; 
-la"ting.] To remove the inhabitants from ; 
unpeople. [< L. de, thoroughly, -\- popular. 
lay waste.] —de-pop''u-la'tion, n. The act 
of depopulating, or the state of being depopula- 
ted.— de-pop'ii-la'"tor, n. 

de-port''', dg-pOrt', vt. 1. To carry away; 
transport; banish. 2. To behave or conduct 
(oneself). [< L. de, from, -\-})orto, carrj^.] 
— de^'por-ta'tion, n. Transportation. 

de-port'ment, dg-pnrt'mgnt, n. Conduct or 
behavior; demeanor; bearing. 

de-pose', dg-poz', v. [de-posed' ; de-po'sing.] 

I. t. 1. To deprive of official rank; remove; 
degrade. 2. To bear witness to; state on oath. 

II. i. To give testimony; make a deposition. 
[< F. deposer, < de-, from, -{-jwser, place.] 

de-pos'it, dg-pez'it. I^. vt. & vi. To place, as 
for 8afe=keeping; lay down; cause to settle or 
adhere, as sediment; form or make a deposit. 
II. n. 1. The act of depositing, or that which 
is or has been deposited or precipitated; sedi- 
ment; money or personal property deposited, as 
in a bank for 8afe-keeping,or as a security. 2. 
The act of depositing, or the state of being de- 
posited. [< L. depono, < de, down, + pono, 
place, lay.] 

de-pos'i-ta-ry, dg-pez'i-tg-ri, n. [-riess pi.] 
1. A person entrusted with anything for safe» 
keeping; a trustee. 2. A depository. 

dep"o-si'tion, dep'o-zish'un, n. 1. The act 
of depositing; a deposit; accumulation. 2. 
Law. The written testimony of a sworn wit- 
ness. 3. The act of deposing, as from office. 

de-pos'1-tor, de-pez'i-t§r, n. One who makes 
a deposit. [LL.J 

de-pos'i-to-ry , dg-pez'i-to-ri, n. [-ries*, pl.l 
A place where anythmg is deposited. 

de'pot, dt'pOordep-0', n. 1. A warehouse or 
storehouse. 2. [U.S.] A railroad station. [< 
F. depot, < L. depo«lmni: see deposit, w.] 

de-prave', dg-prev', r<. [de-praved'; de- 
i-ra'vino.] To render bad or worse, especially 
in morals; corrupt; vitiate. [< L.'' de, thor- 
oughly, -^-pravus, crooked, depraved.] —dep"- 
ra-va'tion, dep'ro-vC'shun, n. The act of 

depraving, or the state of being depraved or de- 
teriorated.— de-prav'i-ty, de-prav'1-tl, n. The 
state of being depraved; wickedness. 

dep're-cate, dep'rg-ket, vt. [-ca'ted''; -ca"- 
TiNG.] 1. To beg or plead earnestly against; 
2. To desire or pray for deliverance from, as 
threatened evil. [< L. de, from, -f «;ww, 
PRAY.] — dep're-ca^ting-ly, adv. — dep'^re- 
ca'tion, w.- dep're-ca-to-ry, a. Charac- 
terized by entreaty or protest against something; 
deprecating, dep're-ca-tivei. 

de-pre'ci-ate, de-pri'shi-et, v. [-a'ted''; 
-A'TiNG.] I. t. 1. To lessen the worth of; 
lower the price or rate of. 2. To underrate; 
disparage. II. i. To sink in estimation, price, 
or value; become of less worth. 1< X- de, 
down, -|- pretium, price.] — de-pre"ci-a'tion, 
n. The act of depreciating, or the state of being 
depreciated.— de-pre'ci-a-tiv(e, a. Tending 
to depreciate. -ly, arft\ — de-pre'ci-a"tor, 
«. — de-pre'ci-a-to-ry, a. 

dep're-date, dep'rg-det, vt. & vi. [-da'ted^; 
-DA'TiNG.] To prey upon; lay waste; despoil; 
pillage; plunder. [< 1^.^-^ de, thoroughly, -(- 
/jy-asrfa, prey.] — dep"re-da'tion, n. A plun- 
dering; robbery. — dep're-ila^tor, n. A rob- 
ber.— dep're-da"to-ry, a. Plundering. 

de-press", de-pres', r?!. 1. To press or push 
down; lower. 2. To force or keep down the 
activity or the price of . 3. To dispirit; sadden. 
4. To humble; degrade. [< L.of depressvs, 
pp. of depHnio, < de, down, -\-j»'emo, press.] 

— de-pres'8ioii,?i. 1. The act of depressing, 
or the state of being depressed; low spirits or 
vitality; dejection; melancholy. 2. That which 
Is depressed; a low or hollow place. — de- 
pres8'iv(e, «. Tending to or causing depres- 
sion.- de-press'or, n. One who or that which 
depresses; a depressing muscle or instrument. 

de-prive', dg-praiv', vt. [de-prived'; de- 
PRi'viNG.] 1. To take something away from; 
dispossess; divest: with of before the object 
taken away. 2. To keep from acquiring, using, 
or enjoying something; debar; depose. [< 
L.OF t?e, thoroughly, + ;>?'n'o, deprive.] — dep"- 
ri-va'tion, dcp'Vi-ve'shun, n. The act of de- 
priving, or the state of being deprived. 

depth, depth, n. 1. The state or degree of 
being deep; extent or distance downward, in- 
ward, or backward. 2. A deep place; the in- 
nermost part. 3. Profundity or extremity of 
thought or feeling; utmost extent; immen- 
sity; extremity. 4. The guality of being dark 
in shade, or rich and deep in color or tone. [ME. 
depthe, < dep, < AS. deop, deep.] 

de-pute', dg-piut', vt. [de-pu'ted**; de-pu'- 
TiNG.] To appoint as an agent, deputy, or 
delegation ; send with authority. [ < L. deputo, 
cutoff, select, < de, from, 4- mito, prune.] 

— dep"n-ta'tion. dep'yu-te'shun, 7J. 1. A 
person or persons acting for another or ot'iers; 
a delegation, •i. The act of deputing, or the 
stiue of being deputed.— dep'u-liz«', dep'yu- 
talz, ?J. [-TizED; -rrziNO.] (U.S.] To depute. 
— €lep'ii-ty. dep'yu-tl, ?/. [-ties*, p/.l A per- 
son delegated or apj)olnte(l to act for another or 
others; a representative; subordinate; agent. 

de-rail', di-rel', vt. To run off from the rails, 
as a car or train. — de-rali'ment, n. 

de-range', dg-renj', vt. [de-ranged'; dk- 
ran'gino.] To disarrange; disorder; craze. 
[ < F. deranger, < de-, dis-; and see range, v.] 

— de-ranjred', pa. Insane.- de-rangre'- 

papfi, gek; at, air; el^mfint, they, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, or; full, rule; but, ur; 



ment, n. 1. The act of deranging, or state of 
being deranged, 'i. Insanity. 

der'e-lict, der'e-lict. I. a. 1. Neglectful of 
obligation; unfaithful; remiss. 2. Deserted 
or abandoned. II. v. That which is deserted 
or abandoned, especially a deserted wreck at 
sea. [< L. derelictus, pp., < de, thoroughly, 
+ relinqvo, relinquish.] — der'^e-lic'tion, 
der'e-lfc'shun, n. 1. Neglect or wilful omission; 
failure in duty. ti. Voluntary abandonment of a 
charge or property. 

de-ride', de-raid', vt. [de-ri'ded<'; de-ki'- 
DiNG.] To treat with scornful mirth; ridicule. 
[< L. de- intens. + rideo^ laugh.]— de-riMer, 
n. — -de-ri'ilinif-ly, art?'. — 3e-ri'sioii, de- 
rlzh'un, «. 1. The act of deriding; ridicule; 
mockery; scornful laughter. 2. An object of 
ridicule or scorn. — de-ri'siv(e, de-roi'slv, r/. 
Expressive of or characterized by derision; mock- 
ing, de-ri'so-ryt. -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

de-rive', de-raiv', vt. [de-rived'; de-ri'- 
viNG.] 1. To draw or receive, as from a 
source, principle, or root. 2. To deduce, as 
from a premise; draw, as a conclusion. 3. To 
trace the derivation of (a word). [ < L.^ derivo, 
< de, from, + rii:r/.<t, stream.] — ae-ri''va-bl(e, 
de-ral'vQ-bl, a. Capal)le of being derived.— der-"- 
i-va'tion, der'l-ve'shun, 7i. Theact of deri- 
ving, or the condition of being derived. — de- 
riv'a-tiv(e, de-rlv'a-tiv. I. a. Coming or 
acquired by derivation; of or pertaining to der- 
ivation or evolution; derived. II. n. That 
which is derived; any word or thing derived from 

der'o-gate, der'o-get, ri. [-ga'ted'^; -ga"- 
TiNG.] To take away or withdraw something; 
detract: used with 'from. [< L. de, from, + 
rogo, propose a law.] — der^'o-ga'tion, n. The 
act of derogating; detraction; disparagement. — 
de-rog'a-to-ry, a. Lessening in good repute: 
detracting from estimation; disparaging, de- 

der'rick, der'ic, n. An apparatus, as a mast 
with a hinged boom, for hoisting and swinging 
into place heavy weights. [< Derrick (a Lon- 
don hangman of the 17th century).] 

der'vish, der'vish, ?(. 1, A Mohammedan -men- 
dicant friar; a fakir, ij. A member of certain 
fanatical tribes of upper Egypt. [Turk.] der'- 

des-cant'<', des-cant', vi. To discourse at 
length; hold forth: with on or upon. [< LL. 
discanfo, < L. dis-, apart, -f canto, sing.] 

des'cant, des'cant, n. The act of descanting; 
a series of remarks; a varied melody or song. 

de-scend'<*, de-send', v. I. t. To pass from 
the up])er to the lower part of; go down. II. 
i. 1. To move from a higher to a lower point; 
go downward in any sense; fall. 2. To pass 
down, as from generation to generation; be 
sprung or derived: with/rom, formerly of. [< 
L. de, down,-\- scando, climb.] — de-scend'ant, 
n. One who is descended lineally from another. 
de-8cend'entt. — de-scend'ent, a. 1. 
Proceeding downward; descending. 2. Issuing 
by descent, as from an ancestor, de-seen d'- 
antj.- de-scend'i-bKe or -a-bl(e, a. 1. 
That may be descended. *2. That may pass by 
descent; inheritable.- de-scen'sioii, n. De- 
scent; declension. — de-scent'', ?i. 1. Theact 
of descending; decline; deterioration; fall. '■Z. A 
descending way; declivity; slope. 3. Lineage; 
birth; extraction. 4. Descendants; Issue. 5. A 
hostile visitation; Invasion. 

de-scribe', d§-scraib', v. [de-scribed'; de- 
scri'bing.] I. t. To give the characteristics 
of; represent; delineate; outline. II. i. 1. 
To give or make a description. 2. To serve 
as the object of description. [ < L. de, fully, -f 
scribo, write.] — de-scri'ba-bl(e, a.— de-scri'- 
ber, 71. de-scrip'tion, de-scrip 'shun, d. 1. 
The act of describing; a portrayal or explanation; 
a drawing or tracing. 2. A sort; kind. — de- 
scrip'tivCe, a. Characterized by or contain- 
ing description; serving to describe, -ly, adv. 
-ness, n. 

de-scry', de-scrai', vt. [de-scried', -scraid'; 
de-scry'ing.] To discover with the eye; dis- 
cern ; detect. [ < OF. des-, dis-, 4- crier, cry.] 

des'e-crate, des'§-cret, vt. [-cRA"TEDd; -cra"- 
TiNG.] To divert from a eacred to a common 
use; profane. [< de- -f- 1,. sacro, make sa- 
cred.] — des'e-cra"ter, n. de9'e-cra"tor:|:. — 
des"e-cra'tion, n. Profanation. 

de-sert'<i, de-zgrt', v. I. t. To depart from or 
leave unwarrantably; forsake; abandon. II. 
i. To forsake a post or service without leave. 
[< L.F desero, < de, from, -\-ser0s join.] 

— de-sert'er, n. One who forsakes a serv- 
ice, duty, party, or friends; an absconding soldier 
or sailor. — de-ser'tion, de-zer'shun, n. The 
act of deserting. " [ren; waste. 

des'ert. dez'grt, a. Of or like a desert; bar- 

des'ert',/?. Geog. A region without vegeta- 
tion, rainless, and uninhabitable. 

de-sert'2, dg-zgrt', n. 1. The state of deserv- 
ing reward or punishment; merit or demerit. 2. 
That which is deserved: often in the plural. 
[< OF. deserte,< deservir, deserve.] 

de-serv(e', de-zgrv', r<. Lde-serv(e)d'; de- 
sERv'iNG.] I. t. To be entitled to or worthy 
of, by either merit or demerit. II. i. To be 
worthy or deserving. [< L. deservio, serve 
devotedly, < de- intens. -|- servio, serve.] 

— de-serv'ed-Iy , adv. According to desert; 
justly.— de-serv'ing. 1. pa. Worthy; meri- 
torious. T I. ?i. The act of deserving. -\y,adv. 

des"b a-bi 1 1 e', n. Same as dishabille. 

des'ic-cate, des'i-ket, v. [ca'ted"!; -ca"- 
ting.] I. ^. To exhaust or remove the mois- 
ture from; dry thoroughly, as for preserving. 
11. I. To become dry. [< L. (?e, thoroughly, 
-{- siccus, dry.] — des"ic-ca'tiori, n. — des'- 
ic-ca-tiv(e. I. a. Drying, des'ic-ca-to- 
ryt. II. n. A drying application.- des'ic- 
ca"tor, n. One who or that which desiccates. 

de-sid'er-ate, dg-sid'gr-et, vt. [-a"ted<'; -a"- 
TiNG.^ To feel desire or need for; be in want 
of; miss. [< L. desideratus, pp. of desidero; 
see desire, v.'\ — de-9id'er.a-tiv(e. I. a. 
Having, Implying, or expressing desire. II. n. 
1. A desideratum. 2, Gram. A derivative 
verb expressing desire. 

de-sid"e-ra'tum, de-sid'e-re'tum or-rg'tum,n. 
[-ra'ta, pl.'\ Something not possessed, but 
needed or regarded as desirable. [L.] 

de-sign', dg-zain', r. 1. t. 1. To plan; pro- 
ject; invent. 2. To draw; delineate; sketch in 
outline. 3. To purpose; intend. 4. To plan 
or contrive for a purpose. II. i. To form de- 
signs or plans; contrive; act as a designer. [< 
L.P de, fully, -f- signmn, mark.] — de-sign'ed- 
\y, adv. By design; purposely; intentionally.— 
de-sign'er, n. 1. One who forms designs; a 
contriver; schemer. 2. One who Invents and 
prepares decorative or artistic designs. — de- 
sigrn'ing, pa. Artful; scheming. 

flutlnre (future); aisle; au (owt); oil; c (k); chat; dh (the); go; sing, ink; tliiij. 



de-sign', d§-zain', n. 1. A pattern; prelimi- 
nary sketch. 2. The art of designing; artistic 
invention. 3. A fixed purpose or intention; 
scheme; plot. 4. The adaptation of means to 
an end; plan; contrivance; also, the object or 
reason: final purpose. 

des'ig-nate, des'ig-net, vt. [-na'ted''; -na°- 
TiNG.J 1. To indicate by some mark, sign, or 
name, etc. 2. To name; identify by name. 3. 
To select or appoint for a specific purpose.— 
des^'ig-na'tion, n. The act of designating; a 
distinctive mark, name, or title.— des'ig-na- 
tiv(e, a. Serving to designate, des'ig-na- 
to-ryt.— des'ig-na^'tor, n. 

de-sire', de-zair'. I. vt. [de-siked'; de- 
siR'iNG.l 1. To wish or long for; covet; 
crave. 2. To ask; pray for; request. 3j. To 
regret; miss. 11./?. 1 . An earnest wishing for 
something; longing; craving; yearning. 2. A 
request; wish; prayer. 3. An object desired. 
4. Appetite; passion. [< L.^ c?e, from, -\- sidus 
(sider-), star.] — de-sir'a-bl{e, a. Worthy or 
likely to be desired; worth having.— de-sir''a- 
bil'i-ty, de-sir'a-bKe-iiess, w.— de-sir'a- 
bly, adv.— desir'ous, a. Having desire; ex- 
periencing a wish or craving, -ly, acW. 

de-sist''', de-sist', vi. To cease from action; 
forbear; 8to"p: often followed hy from. [< 
L. de, down, -{- sisio, set, caus. of sto, stand.] 

desk, desk, n. 1. A table or case specially 
adapted for writing 
or studying. 2. A 
stand for public 
reading or preach- 
ing; pulpit. [< F. 
disque, < L. discus, 

des'o-late. I.des'- 

O-let, vt. [-LA'TED"*; 

wasted make'^deS Deskused by Washington, 
late, sorrowful, gloomy, or forlorn. II. des'o- 
let or -Igt, a. 1. Destitute of inhabitants, 
dwellings, etc.; laid waste; deserted; aban- 
doned. 2. Without friends; forlorn; sorrow- 
ful; afflicted; lonely. [< L. de, entirely, -4- 
solus, alone.] -ly, adv. -ness, n.~ des'o-Ia''- 
ter, n. des'o-la ''tort. — des'^o-la't ion, n. 

1, The state or condition of being desolate; 
loneliness; dreariness; sadness; affliction. *i. A 
desolate region; a waste. 3. The act of making 
desolate; d(!vastatlon. 

de-spair', dg-spar'. I. vi. To abandon all 
hope; be or become hopeless: often with o/*. 
II. 71. 1. Utter hopelessness and discourage- 
ment. 2. That which causes despair or which 
is despaired of. [ < L. despero, < de, from, -|- 
(tpes, hope.] — de-spair'ln^s-ly, adv. 

des-patcll', des-pach'. I', vt. 1. To send off 
to a destination; especially, to send swiftly. 

2. To do promptly; execute; accomplish, 3. 
To kill summarily. II. n. 1. The act of des- 

Eatching. 2. A message sent with haste, as 
y telegraph. 3. The prompt completion of 
work; expedition; speed. 4. A swiit convey- 
ance, or system of conveyance. [< OF. des- 
pechier, < L. dis- priv. -f- pedica, trap.] 
des"per-a'do, des'pgr-e'do or -fl'dn, n. 
[does* or -i)08», ;;/.] A man of desjxjrate 
character and deeds; a ruffian. [Sp.] 
des'per-ate, des'p^ir-et or -gt, a. 1. With- 

out care for danger; reckless, as from despair. 
2. Resorted to in a last extremity; hazardous; 
reckless; furious. 3. Regarded as irremedi- 
able; despaired of. [< L. desperatus^ pp. of 
c?(?«7;ero, DESPAIR.] -\y,adv. -ness, «.— des"- 
per-a'tion, n. The state of being desperate; 
the recklessness of despair; blind fury. 

des'pi-ca-bl(e, des'pi-ca-bl, a. Capable of 
being, or deserving to be, despised ; contempt- 
ible; mean; vile. [< L.^^- de^tpicio; see de- 
spise.] —des"pi-ca-bil'i-ty, -n. The quality 
of being despicable, des'pi-ca-bl (e-ncss:!:. 
— des'pi-ca-bly, adv. 

de-spise', de-spaiz', vt. [de-spised'; de- 
spi'siNG.] To regard as contemptible; disdain; 
scorn. [< L.oF desjncio, < de, Aown, -\- specio, 
look at.] — de-spi'sa-bl(e, a. 

de-spite', dg-spait'. l.n. Extreme aversion ; 
spite; malice; disdain with defiance. II. 
pre}). In spite of ; notwithstanding. [< OF. 
despit, < L. despectus, pp. of despicio, de- 
spise.] —de-spite'ful, a. Full of spite; ma- 
licious; malignant. -ly, adv. -nes^, n. 

de-spoil', dg-speil', vt. To strip or deprive of 
something by or as by force; plunder: with of. 
[< L. de- intens. + sjMlium, spoil.] 
— de-spoil'er, n.— de-»po"li-a'tion, v. 

des-pond'^i, des-pend', vi. To lose spirit, 
courage, or hope ; be depressed or cast down. 
[< L. de. from, + spondeo, promise.] 

des-pond'ent, des-pend'gnt, a. Dejected 
in spirit; disheartened, -ly, at/r.— des-pond'- 
en-cy, n. dcs-pond'encet* 

des'pot, des'pet, n. An absolute monarch; 
autocrat; a hard master; tyrant. '[OF,, < Gr, 
despotes, master.] — des-pbt'ic, a. Of or like 
a despot or despotism; tyrannical.- des'pot- 
ism, des'pgt-lzm, n. 1.' Absolute power; au- 
tocracy. 2. Any tyrannical control. 

des-sert', dez-zgrt', n. A service of sweet- 
meats, etc., at the close of a repast. [F,] 

des"ti-na'tion, des'ti-ne'ehun, n. 1. A pre- 
determined end; point to which a journey is 
directed; goal. 2. A destining; appointment. 

des'tine, des'tin, vt. [des'tined; des'tin- 
iNG.] To design for or appoint to a distinct pur- 
pose or end; foreordain, [< L. de- intens, -|- 
sto, stand.] 

des'ti-ny, des'ti-ni, «. [-nies*, »>/.] 1. That 
to which any person. or thing is destined; for- 
tune; doom, 2. Inevitable necessity; divine 
decree ; fate, 

des'ti-tute, des'ti-tint, a. 1. Not having or 
jjossessing; entirely lacking: with o/'. 2. Be- 
ing in want; extremely poor. [< L. de, down, 
-\- statuo,'pni.] — de8''u-tu'tion, n. 

des-troy', des-trei', vt. To bring to ruin; over- 
throw; demolish; ruin; kill, [< L,oi' de, from, 
-\- struo, build.] — des-troy'er, n. 

de-struc'tion. dg-etruc'shun, n. 1. The act 
of destroying, or state of being destroyed; dem- 
olition; ruin. 2. That which destroys.— de- 
8truc'ti-bl(e, a. IJable to destruction. — de- 
Htrur'liv(e, «. Tending or fitted to destroy; 
causing (l(>siniction;pernici(ius; ruinous. 

des'ue-tude, des'wg-tind, n. Disuse. [< L. 
desuefi/do, < de, from, -{- sueo, be used.] 

des'ul-to-ry, des'ul-to-ri, a. Passing abruptly 
and irregularly from one thing to another; 
starting suddenly; fltful; changeable; unmeth- 
odical. [< L. de, down, -f salU), leap.] 

papfi, cjsk; at, air; el^m^nt, th6y, usfge; It, |, S (ee); o, oh; orator, or; full, rule; but, Or; 



de-tacll'S de-tach', rf. To disconnect; sever; 
separate; part. {<F. detacher, < c?e-, from, 
+ Bret, tach^ nail.] — de-tach'ment, n. 1 . A 
detaching; separation. 2. Something detached, 
as a body of troops for special service. 

de-tail', de-tel'. I. vt. 1. To report or nar- 
rate minutely. 2. To select for s{)ecial serv- 
ice. II. n. 1. A separately considered par- 
ticular or item; minor part; accessory. 2. A 
minute narrative. 3. Mil. A small detach- 
ment assigned to some subordinate service. 
[< F. detainer, < de-, apart, -j- tailler, cut.] 

de-tain', de-ten', vt. To restrain; stop; with- 
hold; keep back. [< L. detineo, < de, from, 
-{- feneo, hold.] 

de-tect''', d§-tect', rt. To discover something 
hidden or recondite; find out; determine; ex- 
pose; disclose. [< L. de, from, -\- tego, 
cover.] — de-tec'tion, n. The act of detect- 
ing; discovery.— de-tect'iv(e. I. a. Skilled 
in or fitted for detection; employed to detect; b«v 
longing to detectives. II. n. One employed to 
ferret out crime and capture criminals. 

de-ten'tion, dg-ten'shun, n. The act of de- 
taining, or the state of being detained; re- 
straint; delay. [< L.^ detineo; see detain.] 

de-ter', de-tgr', vt. [de-terred'; de-ter'- 
RiNG.] To prevent or restrain, as by fear. [< 
L. de, from, -(- terreo, frighten.] 

de-ter'gent, de-tgr'jent. I. a. Cleansing; 
purging. II. ?^. A cleansing medicine, as for 
wounds, etc. [< L. de, from, -J- tergeo, wipe.] 

de-te'ri-o-rate, de-ti'ri-o-ret, vt. & vi. [-ra"- 
TEi)''; -ra'ting.] To make or grow worse; 
impair; degenerate. [ < h.^^ deterior, worse, < 
de, down.] — de-te''ri-o-ra'tion, n. 

de-ter'min-ate, de-tfir'min-et or -et, a. Defi- 
nitely limited or fixed. -\y,adv. -ness, n. 

de-ter"nii-na'tion, de-tgr'mi-ne'shmi, n. 

I. The act of determining; a firm resolve. 2. 
The quality of being earnest and decided; firm- 
ness. 3. Authoritative opinion or conclusion. 

de-ter'miiKe, de-tgr'min, v. [-min(e)d; -min- 
ing.] I. ^. 1. To resolve; decide. 2. To fix; 
settle; decree. 3. To limit; terminate; end. 

II. i. 1. To come to a decision; resolve: with 
on. 2. To come to an end. [< L. de, com- 
pletely, -\- termino, terminate.] — de-ter'- 
liiiiied, 2)a. Resolute; settled; determinate. 

de-test'd, d§-test', vt. To hold worthy of ex- 
ecration; dislike or hate with intensity'; abhor. 
[< L. detestor, denounce, < de- intens. -f- 
testis, witness.] — de-test'a-bl(e, a. — de-test'- 
a-bly, artr.— def'es-ta'tioii, n. Ejctreme 
dislike; hatred; abhorrence. 

de-th.rone', d§-thrOn', vt. [de-throned'; 
de-thro'ning.] To remove from the throne; 
depose. [ < L. de, from, -|- thronus, throne.] 
— de-tlirone'inent, %. 

det'o-nate, det'o-net, vt. & vi. [-na'ted'^; 
-na'ting.] To explode with a sudden loud re- 
port. [< '\ntenB.-\-tono, thunder.]— det''- 
o-iia^tioii, 11. A report or explosion. 

de"tour', de'tur', w. A roundabout way. [< 
F. detour, < de-, Dis-, + toui'ner, turn.] 

de-tract'^ de-tract', v. I. t. To take or draw 
away; withdraw so as to lessen value or estima- 
tion. II. i. To lessen, as reputation or credit; 
disparage: commonly with /rom. \_<\j.^de- 
tracto, freq. of detraho, < de, from, -\- traho. 

draw.] — de-trac'tlon, n. The act of detract- 
ing; slander; defamation.— de-tract'or or 
-er, n. A defiimer; slanderer. 

det'ri-ment, defri-mgnt, n. 1. Something 
that impairs or injures, or causes damage or 
loss. 2. Injury or loss. [< L. detrimentum, 
damage, loss.] — defri-men'tal, a. Injurious; 

de trop, de tro. Too much; not wanted: said of 
a person whose company Is inconvenient. [F.] 

deuce S dius, n. Two: a card, or side of a die, 
having two spots. [< F. deux, < L. duo, two.] 

deuce^, «. The devil. [< 'L.'^^ deus, god.] 

dev'as-tate, dev'as-tet, vt. [-ta'ted^; -ta"- 
TiNG.] To lay waste, as by war, fire, flood, 
etc.; destroy; ravage. [< L. de, thoroughly, 
+ vastus, waste.] — dev^as-ta'tion, n. 

de-veFopS dg-vel'op, v. I. i. To uncover or 
unfold; bring to light or to completion by de- 
grees; increase. II. i. 1. To advance by stages 
from a lower to a higher state. 2. To come to 
light gradually; disclose itself. [< F. develop- 
per, unfold.] — de-vel'op-ment, n. Gradual 
evolution or completion. 

de-vest'*", dg-vest', ^. "L.t. To deprive; alien- 
ate. II. i. To be lost or alienated, as a title 
or estate. [< L. de, irom, -\-vestis, dress.] 

de'vi-ate, dl'vi-et, vi. [-a"ted'>; -a'ting.] 

1. To turn aside; wander; diverge. 2. To 
differ. [ < L.'-'' devius; see devious.] 

— ile^vi-a'tion, n. The act of deviating, or 
Its result; variation or deflection; error; sin. 

de-vice', de-vais', n. 1. A contrivance; de- 
sign; pattern; heraldic emblem or motto. 2. A 
plan; artifice; stratagem; plot. [< L.^ divisus, 
pp. of divido, divide.] 

dev'il, dev'l, n. 1. An evil spirit; demon; 
Satan. 2. A wicked or malignant person; 
wretched fellow. 3. 3Iech. One of various 
machines. 4. A printers' apprentice. 5. A 
dish of highly seasoned food. [< AS. deofol, 
diobal, < Gr. diatx)los, slanderer.] 

— dev'ilsfish", n. One of various large 
marine animals or ugly appearance, as an octo- 
pus.— dev'il -ish, a. Having the qualities of 
the devil; diabolical; malicious. -ly, adv. 
-ness, n.— dev'il-try, n. Wanton and mali- 
cious mischief, or the spirit Inciting to it. 

de'vi-ous, di'vi-us, a. Winding or leading 
away from a straight or right course; ram- 
bling. [< L. devius, < de, from, -\- via, way.] 
-ly, adv. -ness« n. 

de-vise', dg-vaiz', v. [de-vised'; de-vi'- 
siNG.] I. t. 1. To invent; contrive; scheme. 

2. Lain. To transmit (real estate) by will. II. 
i. To form plans or schemes; contrive; con- 
struct. [< F. deviser, < L. divisus; see de- 
vice.] — dev"l-see', n. The person to whom 
a devise is made.— de-vi'ser, n. One who con- 
trives. — de-vi'sor, n. One who gives by will. 

de-vise', de-vaiz' or dg-vais', w. Law. 1. A 
gift of lands by will. 2. The act of bequeath- 
ing lands. 3. A will, or clause of a will, con- 
veying real estate. 

de-void', dg-veid', a. Not possessing; desti- 
tute: witho/". [< OF. desvotdier, empty out] 

de-volr', de-vwar', ??,. Service or duty; respect- 
ful attention. [F., < L. debeo, owe.] 

de-volv(e', dg-velv', v. [de-volv(e)d'; de- 
voLv'iNG.] I."^. To deliver over, as to a suc- 
cessor; transmit. II. i. To pass from a pos- 
sessor to his successor or substitute: with to. 

fiut|ure (future); aisle; au (out); oil; c (k); cliat; dh (the); go; sing, ink; tliin. 



on, OT upon. [< L. de^ down, + t^olvo, roll.] 

de-vote', d§-vot', vt. [de-vo'ted<'; de-vo'- 
TiNG.J 1. To give or surrender completely; 
set apart; dedicate; consecrate. 2. To doom; 
curse; execrate. [< L. devotus, < de, from, 
4- voveo, vow.] — de-vo'ted, de-vo't§d, pa. 1 . 
Feeling or showing devotion; ardent; zealous; 
devout. "2, Set apart as by a vow; consecrated; 
also, doomed, mly^ adv. -ness, «.— dev^'o- 
tee', dev"o-tl', n. One zealously devoted, espe- 
cially to religious observances; a votary; zealot. 

de-yo'tion, d§-v0'8hun, n. 1. The state of 
being devoted, as to religious faith or duty; 
devoutness; zeal; ardor. 2. An act of worship; 
prayer: usually in the plural. 3. The act of 
devoting. — de-vo'tion-al, a. Of or pertaining 
to devotion; devout. 

de-vour', de-vaur', vt. To eat up greedily; 
consume; destroy; waste. [< L. de, thor- 
oughly, -f- voro, devour.] 

de-vout', d§-vaut', a. 1. Earnestly religious; 
containing or expressing devotion; pious; 
reverent. 2. Warmly devoted; heartfelt; sin- 
cere. [< OF. devot, F.devot, < h. devotus; 
see DEVOTE.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

dOTV, diu. I. vt. To wet with or as with dew; 
bedew. II. n. 1. Moisture condensed from 
the atmosphere in small drops upon the upper 
surface of plants. 2. Anything moist, gentle, 
or refreshing as dew. [< AS. dedw.] —dew's 
cla^v'% n. A rudimentary toe or hoof in dogs 
or cattle.— dewsclawed, a.— dew'drop'', n. 
A drop of dew.— dew'lap'', n. The pendulous 
skin under the throat of cattle.— dew'y, dlfi'i, 
a. Moist, as with dew; of, like, or yielding dew. 

dex'ter, dex'ter, a. 1. Right-hand; right: 
in heraldry, on the wearer's right, and hence 
the sjjectator's left. 2. Favorable; propitious. 
[L., right.] — dex-ter'i-ty, dex-tgr'i-ti, n. 1. 
Readiness and skill in using the hands; expert- 
ness. 2. Mental quickness, adroitness, or skill. 
— dex'tral. a. Of, pertaining to. or situated on 
the right side; rlght»hand. — dex'ter-oiis, 
dex'trous, a. Characterized by dexterity ; 
skilful or adroit; expert ; handy ; clever ; artful. 
-ly, adv. mnetiSi n. 

Ai''^i prefix. Two; twofold; double; twice; doubly. 
[< L. di; < Gr. di-, < dis, doubly, < dyo, two. J 

di-2, prefix. Form of ms- before ft, d, g, j, I, m, 
n, r, v: used to indicate separation. 

di-3, prefix. Form of pta- before a vowel. 

dia-, prefix. Through; thoroughly. [< L. dia-, 
< Gr. dia-, < dia, through, during, etc., < dyo, 

di^'a-tool'lc, I dai'a-bel'ic, -al, a. Of, per- 


fM)lofi; see devil.] — dV^a-hol'lc-al-ly, adv.— 

di''a-boI'ic-al-nc8H, n. 

di-ac'o-nal, di-ac'o-nal, a. 
Of, i)ertaiiiing to, or befit- 
ting a deacon or the diaco- 
nate. [< LL. diaeoniis, 
deacon.] — dl-ac'o-nate, n. 
The office of a deacon; dea- 
cons collectively. 

di''a-crit'ic, dai'a-crit'ic. 
I. u. Marking a difference; 
distinguishing; distinctive. 
di"a-crit'ic-al*. II. Head with Diadem. 
n. A diacritical mark, point, or sign attached 
to a letter. [< Gr. dia, between, -f krin&, dis- 

-Doric, ( aara-Dei'ic, -ai, a. Of, per- 
-bol'ic-al, f taining to, or like the devil ; 
nic; infernal. [< Q,r.^ diabolikos, < dia- 

di'a-dem, dai'a-dem, n. A crown; regal 
power; sovereignty. See illus. in preceding 
column. [ < Gf . diadema, < dia, through, -{- 
deo, bind.] 

di-fer'e-sis, di''ae-ret'ic. Same as dieresis, 

di^ag-nose', dai"ag-nus' or di'ag-nos', vt. 
[nosed''; -no'sing.] 3fed. To make a 
diagnosis of, as a disease.— di^'ag-no'sls, 
dai"[o>' dr]ag-no'sis, n. The determination of 
the distinctive nature of a disease; discrimina- 
tion between things or conditions of a similar 
nature. [< Gr. dia, between, + gignosko, know.] 

di-ag'o-nal, dai-ag'o-nal. I. a. Crossing 
obliquely; oblique; marked by oblique lines or 
the like. II. n. A straight line or plane pass- 
ing from one angle, as of a square, 
to any other angle not adjacent. 
[< L. diagonalis, < Gr. dia, 
through, 4- gdnia, angle.] 
— di-ag;'o-nal-ly, adr. 

di'a-g:raxn^ dai'a-gram, n. A 
mechanical plan or outline; a 
map, or the like. [< Gr. dia- 
gramma, < dia, across, -f- grapho, 

di'al, dai'al. I. vt. [di'aled or 
di'alled; di'aling or di'al- 
LiNG.] To measure or survey 
with a dial; make dials. II. n. 

1. A device for indicating time by 
means of the shadow of a gnomon or style 
thrown upon a graduated plate; as, a swu'dial. 

2. Any graduated circular plate or face, as of 
a watch or clock, a mariners' compass, etc. 
[ < Ij.^^ dies, day.] 

di'a-lect, dai'a-lect, M. 1. A provincial mode 
of speaking a language. 2. Any given mode 
or use of language; idiom; style. [< Gr. dia- 
lektos, < dia, between, -\- lego, speak.] — di''- 
a-lec'tic. \, a. 1. Pertaining to or of the 
nature of a dialect, ili'^a-lec'talt. 2. Per- 
taining to dialectics; logical; argumentative. 
di^'a-lec'tic-alt. II. n. 1. Logic in general: 
often used in the plural. 2. A specific mode of 
argument. 3. Argumentative ability, -al-ly, 
r/f/r.— di'-'n-lec-ti'eiaii, ii. A logician. 

di'a-logiue, dai'a-leg, n. A formal conver- 
sation or discussion in which two or more 
speakers are represented as conversing. [< 
Gr. dialogos, < dia, between, -|- legd, speak.] 

di-am'e-ter, dai-am'§-tfir, n. A line through 
the center, as of a circle or sphere, terminated 
at the boundary thereof; the length of such a 
line. [< Gr. dia, 
through, -f- met- 
ron, measure] — 
a. 1, Of or pertain- 
ing to a diameter; 
coinciding with a 
diameter. di- 
aiii'e-tralt. 2. 
Of or peitaining to 
the ends of a diam- 
eter; directly ad- 
verse or opposite, 
and as far removed 
as possible, di'^a- 
inet'rict. — di''- 

ly, adv. 1. In the manner of a diameter. 


Forms of Cut Dlaim 


papfi, 9Bk; at, air; element, th^y, asfge; It, ^, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, er; full, rule; bvt, vr; 



di'a-mond, dai'a-mund, 71. 1. A gem of 

great refractive power, consisting essentially of 
crystallized carbon. See illus. on preceding 
page. 2. A figure bounded by four equal 
straight lines, and having two bf the angles 
acute and two obtuse; a rhomb or lozenge. 
3. Print. A size of type next larger than 
brilliant: 4» or 4i*point. 



a, a, height of arch 

during expiration ; 

6, fe, neight of arch 

during inspiration. 

Thia line is set in 

4. A lozenge=8haped spot on a playing»card, 
or a card so marked. [< Gr.^ adamas., < a- 
priv. + damao, tame.] 

di''a-pa''son, dai'a-pe'sgn, fi. 1. Mus. A 
principal stop in a pipe»organ, characterized 
by fulness and richness of tone. 2. Compre- 
hensive or fundamental harmony; accord. [< 
Gr. dia, through, -\-])as, all.] 

di'a-per, dai'a-pgr, ??. 1. A fine figured silken 
or linen cloth. 2. An infants' breech-cloth. 
[< OF. diapj^e, < L. iaspis, jasper.] 

di-apli'a-nous, dai-af'a-nus, a. Transparent: 
translucent; thin or attenuated. [< Gr. dia, 
through, + phaino, show.] 

di'a-pliragm, dai'a-fram, ??. 
important muscle used in 
respiration, situated be- 
tween the thoracic and ab- 
dominal cavities, mid'- 
Tifft- 2. Any dividing 
membrane or partition. [< 
Gr. dia, through, -f phrag- 
nymi, enclose.] — di^'a- 
phrag-mat'ic, a. 

di'a-ry, dai'a-ri, n. [-ries^, 
pL] A record of daily 
events. [ < L. diarium, < 
die.% day.] 

di^ar-rlie'a, dai"a-ri'a, n. 
Morbidly frequent and fluid evacuation of the 
bowels. [< Gr. diarrhoia, < dia, through, 
4- rhed, flow.] di^'ar-rlioe'at. 

di^a-ton'ic, dai'a-ten'ic, a. Mus. Designa- 
ting the regular tones of a key (or scale). [< 
Gr. dia, through, -4- teino, stretch.] 

di'a- tribe, dai'a-traib, n. An abusive' dis- 
course; invective. [< Gr. diatribe, y/eaxmg 
away, < dia, through, -\- triho, rub.] 

dib'bl(e, dib'l. I. tt. [dib'bi.(e)d; dib'- 
BLiNG.] To dig, plant, or set with a dibble. 
II. n. A gardeners' pointed tool for planting 
seeds, setting slips, etc. [ < dib, dip, ?).] 

dice, dais, vt. & m. [diced'; di'cing.] To 
make with a dice«=like pattern ; play with dice. 

dice, n. j)L [die, dai, sing.] 1. Cubes, usu- 
ally of bone or ivory, marked on each side with 
black spots, from one to six. 2. A game played 
with dice. [Irreg. pi. of ME. dee; see die, n.] 
— dice'sbox'', n. A small box. from which 
dice are thrown.— di'cer, n. A player of dice. 

dick'er, dik'gr, I. vi. & vi. [U. S.] To barter; 
haggle. II. ti. A petty trade; bargain; deal. 
[< L. decuria, division by tens, < rfecem, ten.] 

dic'tate, dic'tet. I. vt. & vi. [Dic'TA'TEDd; 
dic'ta"ting.] 1. To declare with authority; 
command; prescribe. 2. To communicate 
orally (something to be written by an aman- 
uensis). II. n. An authoritative sugges- 
tion or prompting; a rule, precept, or max- 
im; positive order. [< Jj. dictatus, pp. of 

dicfo, freq. of dico, say.] — dic-ta'tion, n. 1 . 
The act of dictating; also, that which is dictated. 
"i. Arbitrary control. 

dic-ta'tor, dic-te'ter, «. 1. A person invested 
with absolute power. 2. One who dictates. — 
dic'^ta-to'ri-al, a. Given to dictating; over- 
bearing; imperious; absolute. -|y, adv. -ness, 
n.— dic-ta'tor-ship, n. 1 . The office, or term 
of office, of a dictator. »^. Supreme control. 

dic'tion, dic'shun, n. The use, choice, and 
arrangement of words and modes of expres- 
sion. [< L. dictio(7i-), < dico, say.] 

dic'tion-a-ry, dic'shun-e-ri, n. [-riess pi.] 
A book containing the words of any language, 
or of anjr department of knowledge, arranged 
alphabetically, and defined; lexicon; word- 
book; vocabulary. 

dic'tum, dic'tum, n. [dic'ta, dic'ta, pi.] An 

. :l.] 

difl. did, itnp. of do, v. 

authoritative or positive utterance. [L.] 

di-dac^tic, dai-dac'tic, a. Pertaining to or of 
the nature of teaching; preceptive; expository. 
[< Gr. didal-fikos, apt to teach.] di-dac'- 
tic-alj.— di-dac'tic-al-iy, adv. 

didst, didst, 2d per. sing. imp. of do, v. 

diei, dai, t't. [died; dy'ing.] 1. To suffer 
death; pass from life; decease; expire. 2. To 
become insensible or indifferent: followed by 
to. [ME. die7i, deyen, < Ice. deyja.] 

die2, vt. To cut or stamp with or as with a die. 

die, n. [dice, dais, pi., in defs. 1 and 2; dies, 
daiz, pi., in defs. 3 and 4.] 1. A small, figured 
cube, used in games. 2. A cast, as in dice- 
playing; stake; hazard. 3. A hard metal de- 
vice for stamping or cutting out some object, 
as a coin. 4. Arch. The cubical part of a 
pedestal. [< OF. de, F. de, < L. datum, some- 
thing given.] 

di-er'e-sis, » dai-er'e-sis, n. [-ses, pi.] 1. 

di-8er'e-sis, (Two dots (•) placed over the 
second of two adjacent vowels that are to be 
pronounced separately: not used in the text of 
this dictionary. 2. The separation of sylla- 
bles or vowels by these dots. 3. Division, as 
of a cell. [< Gr. diaii^esis, division.] 

di'et'i, dai'et, v. I. t. To regulate or restrict 
the food and drink of. II. i. 1. To take food 
and drink according to a regimen; eat carefully 
or sparingly. 2. To take food; eat. 

di'et^ n. 1. A regulated course of eating and 
drinking; regimen. 2. The daily fare; victuals. 
[< Gr. diaita, manner of living, diet.] 

— di'et-a-ry, dal'et-e-ri. I. a. Or or per- 
taining to diet or eating. II, n. [-ries», p?.] 
A system of diet.— di'^e-tet'ic, df e-tet'ic- 
al, dai'e-tet'lc, -al, a. Relating to diet or die- 
tetics.— Jli'^e-tefics, n. The branch of hygiene 
that treats of diet and dieting. 

di'et^, n. A legislative body; convention; coun- 
cil, [diet*, influenced by L. dies, day.] 

differ, dif'gr, vi. 1. To be unlike in quality, 
degree, form, etc.: absolutely or with from. 
2. To disagree; dissent: absolutely or w4th 
frcmi or with. 3. To quarrel: absolutely or 
with, ivith. [< L. dis-, apart, -\- fero, carry.] 

dif fer-ence, difgr-gns, n. 1. The state or 
quality of being other or unlike, or that in 
which two things are unlike; distinction. 2. 
A disagreement; controversy; quarrel. 3. A 
separate treatment; discrimination. 

dif fer-ent, dif'gr-gnt, a. 1. Not the same; 

fiutjilre (future); aisle; au {putV, oil; c (k); chat; dh {th€); go; sing, ink; thin. 



distinct; other. 2. Marked by a difference; 
unlike.— diPfer-ent-lv, adv. 

differ-en'tial, difgr-en'shal. I. a. Rela- 
ting to, making, or marked by a difference; 
distinctive; discriminative. II. n. Math. An 
infinitesimal difference between two values of 
a quantity. — diP'fer-en'tial-ly, adv. 

dif'fer-en'ti-ate, dif"gr-en'shi-et, v. [-a"- 
TEi)''; -A "TING.] I. t. To constitute, estaib- 
lish, or note a difference between. II. i. To 
acquire a distinct and separate character. 

— differ-en-ti-a'tion, n. 
dirfl-cult, dif'i-cult, a. 1. Hard to do or be 

done; arduous; perplexing. 2. Hard to per- 
suade, overcome, or satisfy; intractable; ex- 
acting. — diPlI-ciil-ty, dif'i-cul-ti, n. [-ties'-, 
pl.^ 1, The state or quality of being difficult; an 
obstacle; hindrance; objection. »i. [U. S.] A 
quarrel. 3. Financial embarrassment; a strait; 
trouble: generally In the plural. 
dif'fi-dent, dif'i-dgnt, a. Affected or pos- 
sessed with self»distru8t; timid; shy; modest. 
[< L. dls-., apart, asunder, + fides., faith.] 

— difli-dent-ly, artw. — ttif'fi-dence, n. 
Self-distrust; shyness; modesty, dif'fi-dent- 

dif-fuse', dif-fiuz', ri^.&t'i. [dif-fused'; dif- 
Fu'siNG.] To pour or send out so as to spread 
in all directions; spread abroad; circulate; per- 
meate. [< L. dis-, apart, -f fundo, pour.] 

— dif-fu'si-bl(e, a. Spreading rapidly and 
energetically.— dif-fii''si-bil'i-ty, n. dif- 
fu'si-bKe-iiesst.— dif-fn'sioii,dlf-flu'zhun, 
n. The act or process of diffusing, or the state of 
being diffused; a scattering; dissemination; dis- 
persion; circulation. — dif-fii'8iv(e, dif-fiu'siv, 
n. Having the property of diffusing; tending to 
diffuse; spreading abroad. m\y, adv. -iiess, «. 

dif-fuse', dif-fius', a. 1. Redundant; prolix; 
verbose. 2. Widely spread out; extended. 

— dif-fuse'ly, arfr.— dif-fuse'ness, n. 
dig, dig. V. [dug, dug, or digged; dig'ging.] 

I. t. 1. To break up, heap up, form, make, or 
bring out by excavating, as with a spade. 2. 
To insert; push, or force in, as a tool into the 
ground. II. i. To break or turn up earth or 
other material, as with a spade; toil; plod. [< 
AS. dlcian, < die, ditch.] — dlg'^er, n. 

di-gest''', di-jest', •?;. I. t. 1. To convert into 
chyme in the stomach, as food; assimilate 
physically or mentally. 2. To systematize; 
analyze and classify; form into a digest. 3. 
To tolerate patiently; submit to; endure. 4. 
Chem. To soften by heat and moisture. II. i. 
To be assimilated; undergo digestion. [<L. 
digestus, pp. of digero., < di-, apart, + gero, 
carry.] — ai-gest'er, n.— dl-geHt'^i-bin-ty, n. 
The quality of being digestible. di-ffeHt'i- 
bKe-nesst.— di-srest'l-bKe, rt. — di-trest'- 
iv(e, «. Pertaining or conducing to digestion. 

di'gest, dai'jest, n. A systematic arrange- 
ment, as of writings; summary; compilation. 

di-ges'tion, di-jes'chun, ??. 1. I'Injsiol. The 
pr<)ceH.s of dissolving and chemically changing 
food in the stomach, so that it can be assimila- 
ted by the blood and furnish nutriment to the 
body. 2. The power to digest; the digestive 
functions. 3. Mental reception and assimila- 
tion, 4. Chem. Exposure of a substance to 
heat and moisture. 

dig'it, dij'it, n. 1. A finger or toe. 2. Any 
one of the ten Arabic numerals! 3. An ancient 

measure of length: about two^thirds of an 
inch, [< L. rfig'/iz/i*, finger,] —dig'i-tal, dij'- 
1-tal, a. 1. Of, pertaining to, or like the fingers 
or digits. 3. Digitate. — dig'i-tate, dij'T-tet 
or -tet, a. Having parts, as leaflets, arranged 
like the fingers of a hand. -\y, adv. 

dig'ni-fy, dig'ni-fai, r^. [-fied; -fy"ing.] 1. 
To impart or add dignity to; honor, 2. To 
invest with dignities; promote; elevate; exalt. 
[< L.J^+op dignus, worthy; and see -FY.] 

— dis:^ni-fied, dig'ni-faid, pa. Characterized 
by or invested with dignity; stately; honored. ■ 

dig'ni-ta-ry, dig'ni-tg-ri, n. [-ries^,J9;.] One 
who holds high official position. 

dig'ni-ty, dig'ni ti, ??. [-tiess pl.'\ 1. Grave 
or stately bearing. 2. High rank, office, or 
position; distinction. 3. A dignitary. 4. The 
state or quality of being excellent, worthy, or 
honorable. [ < L.^ dignitas, < digmis., worthy.] 

di'graph., dai'grgf, n. A union of two char- 
acters representing a single sound, asoa in boat. 
[< Gr. di; twofold, -f grapho, write.] 

di-gress'S di-gres', vi. To turn aside; go out 
of the way; deviate; wander. [< L. di-, apart, 
-f gradior, step.] — di-gres'sion, n. The act 
of digressing; that which digresses; a turning 
aside, as from a subject; deviation; divergence, 

dike, daik. I. vt. [diked'; di'king.] To 
surround or furnish with a dike; drain by 
ditching. II. n. An embankment to protect 
low land from inundation. [ < AS. d~ic, ditch,] 

di-lap'i-date, di-lap'i-det, v. [-da'ted''; 
-DA'TiNG.] I. t. To cause to fall into partial 
ruin; impair by neglect or misuse. II. i. To 
be impaired by misuse or neglect; decay. [< 
L, di-, apart, 4- lapido, < lapis (lapid-), 
stone.] —di-Iap"'l-da'tion, n. 

di-late% di-let', vt. & ti. [di-la'ted«'; di-la'- 
TiNG.] To enlarge in all directions; swell, 
spread, or puff out; distend; expand; enlarge; 
expatiate. [ < L. di-, apart,-]- ladts, carried.] — 
di-la'ta-bl(e, a. Expansible. — di-la'tion, 
di-le'shun, ?i. The act of dilating; expansion. 

dil'a-to-ry, dil'a-to-ri, a. Given to, character- 
ized by, or tending to cause delay; tardy; slow. 

[ < LL. dilatmnns., < L. dilatus; see dilate. ]- 

dil'a-to-ri-ly, arfw.— dil'a-to-ri-ness, n. 
di-lem'ma, di-lem'a, ??. A necessary choice 

between equally undesirable alternatives; a 

perplexing predicament. [Gr. dilemma., < di-, 

two, + IT'iiima, anything taken.] 
dil"et-tan'te, dil"et-tgn'te, i). [-ti, -W,pl.'\ 

A dabbler in art matters; a superficial amateur: 

used ali^o adjectivally. [< It. dilettaitte, < L. 

delecto; see "delight, v.'\ dil"et-tant'i, — 

<lil''et-taii^te-i8in, n. dil^'et-taut^isuil:. 
dil'i-gencei, dil'i-jgns. n. 1. Assiduous 

application; industry. 2. Proper heeti or 

attention; care. 

dil'i-jgns or dt'li- 

zharts', «. A 

French four* ' 

wheeled public 

stage • coach, 

drawn bv from 4 .^.„ 

to 7 horses. [F.] Diligence. 

dil'i-gent, diri-jgnt, a. Possessed of or 

showing dilitjence; pai.istaking; industrious. 

[F,, < L. rfi/tg'<'7*(/-K careful,] -ly, arfv. 
dilMy.dal'^Iy, dll'l-dan, ri. f-LiKD, -Id; -ly- 

papfi, <}sk; at, air; element, th6y, us^ge; It, g, i (ee); o, oh; ©rat§r, or; full, rule; but, ur; 



TXG.l [Colloq.l To loiter or trifle. [< dally.] 

di-lute', di-lut' or -liut', vt. &vi. [di-lu'ted<'; 
Di-LU'TiNG.] To make or become weaker or 
more fluid by admixture; weaken: tliin. [< L. 
di-, apart, -f- luo, wash.] — di-lu'tion, di-lu'- 
shun or -liu'shun, n. The act of diluting, or the 
state of being diluted; something diluted. 

di-lu'vi-al, di-lu'vi-al, a. Of, pertaining to, 
or produced by a flood. di-lu'vi-an:|:. 

dim, dim. l.rt.&vi. [dimmed; dim'mixg.] 
To render or grow dim; tarnish; fade. II. a. 
[dim'mer; dim'mest.] 1. Obscure from faint- 
ness of light or from lack of visual or mental 
perception; indistinct; shadowy; misty. 2. Not 
seeing'or perceiving clearly; purblind; obtuse. 
3. Lacking luster; tarnished. [< AS. dim, 
dark.] — diin'ly, adr. — dim'ness, n. 

dime, daim, n. [U. S.] A silver coin worth ten 
cents. [< L.F c?edm«/s, tenth, < rf<?oew, ten.] 

di-men'sion, di-men'shun, n. Any measu- 
rable extent or magnitude, as len^h, breadth, 
or thickness. [F., < L. dimensio{n-), < di-, 
apart, -|- mefior, measure.] 

di-min'isliS di-min'ish, v. I. t. To make 
smaller or less; decrease; belittle; degrade. 
II. i. To grow smaller; lessen; dwindle. [< 
L.Prfe, fmm,-\- minus, less.] — dim^'i-nii'tion, 
dlm'i-nlu'shun, n. The aetof diminishing, or the 
condition of being diminished: reduction. 

di-min'u-tiv(e, di-min'yu-tiv. I. a. 1. Of 
relatively small size; small; little. 2. Dimin- 
ishing, or tending to diminish. 3. Gram. 
Expressing diminished size. II. n. 1. A 
word formed from another to express dimin- 
ished size. 2. Anything very small. {<\j.^^ 
</e, from, + mi«?/c?, less.] -\y,adv. -ness, ??. 

dim'i-ty, dim'i-ti, n. [-tiess pl.^ A variety 
of cotton cloth or dress'goods. [< Gr. di-, 
two. twofold, -4- miios, thread.] 

dim'pl(e, dim'pl. I. vt. & vi. [dim'pl(e)d; 
DiM'PLiNG.] To mark with dimples; form 
dimples. II. n. A slight depression on the 
cheek or chin, or on any smooth surface. 
[< Norw. dipel, dim. of dape, pool.] 

din, din. I. vt. & vi. [dinned; din/ning.] 
To assail with confusing noise; urge with 
clamorous repetition: make a din. II. n. A 
loud continuous noise or clamor; a rattling or 

clattering sound. [< AS. dyn, dyne.] 

[dined; di'ning.] I. t. 

dine, dain, v. 

give a dinner to. II. i. To take dinner. [< 

F. diner, contr. of dejeuner, breakfast.] 
dingi, ding, vt. & vi. [dinged or dung, dung; 

DiNG'iNG.] Tostrike; pound; scold; bluster. 

[ME. dingen; cp. Ice. dengja, hammer.] 
ding2, i-t_ & vi. To urge insistently; resound 

monotonously, as a bell; ring; toll. [Imitative.] 
ding, n. A blow or stroke. 
ding-dong'', ding'»deng", n. 1. The peal of 

a bell. 2. Any monotonous repetition. 
din'gey, din'g§, n. A small boat; a survey- 
ors' sleeping'car. [< Beng. dingt, boat.] 

din'gee:}:; din'gyf. 
din'glte, di^i'gl, n. A narrow valley; glen. 

[Var. of DIMPLE.] 
din'gy, din'ji, a. Of a dusky color, as if 

soiled; dull; tarnished. [< dung.] 
— din'gi-ly, adv.— din' gi-ness, n. 
din'ner, din'gr, n. The principal meal of the 

day; a banquet. [< F. dmer; see dine.] 

dint, dint. I. vt. To make a dent or dint in. 
II. n. 1. A small depression made by a blow; 
a dent. 2. Active agency; efficacy; as, by 
dint of hard work. [< AS. dynt, blow.] 

di'o-cese, dai'o-sis, n. Eccl. The territory 
or the churches under a bishop's jurisdiction. 
[< Gr. dioikesis, < dia, through, -f- oiked, 
dwell.] — di-oc'e-san, dai-es'e-san or dai'o- 
sl'san. I. rt. Of or pertaining to a diocese. 
II, 71. A bishop. 

di'"'o-ra'ma, dai"o-rfl'ma, n. A painting, or 
series of paintings, as of a battle, arranged for 
spectacular exhibition. 

dip, dip, t). [dipped^ or DIPT ; dip'ping.] I. 
t. 1. To immerse in a fluid and withdraw 
again. 2. To lower for an instant and then 
raise, as a fkig. 3. To lift up and out by 
scooping. 4. To put or sink slightly or par- 
tially (into a liquid). II. i. 1. To plunge 
partly or momentarily into any liquid. 2. To 
engage slightly or temporarily in any matter: 
with in or iiito. 3. To incline downward; de- 
cline. 4. Geol. To lie at an angle with the 
horizon, as strata. [< AS. dyppan, dippan, 
< dj/pan, deepen, < deop, deep.] 

dip,/?. 1. The act of dipping; a plunge; bath; 
dipping up; depression. 2. A liquid into 
which something is to be dipped. 3. Inclina- 
tion, as of geologic strata, or of the magnetic 
needle. 4. A candle made by dipping. 

diph-tlie'ri-a, dif-thi'ri-a, n. Pathol. An 
acute infectious disease characterized by a 
tendency to form a false membrane in the 
throat. [< Gr. diphthera, leather, < depho, 
soften.] — dlph''the-rit'ic, a. diph-the'ricj. 

dipll''tliong, dif'theng, n. Orthoepy. The 
union of two vowels in one sound or syllable. 
[< Gr. diphthongos, < di-, two, twofold, + 
phthengomai, cry" out.] — diph-thon'gal, a. 

di-plo'ma, di-plo'ma, n. An oflicial honorary 
certificate, as of graduation. [L., < Gr. diplo- 
ma, lit. paper folded double.] 

di-plo'ma-cy, di-plo'raa-si, n. [-cies^, pl^ 

1. The art, science, or practise of conducting 
negotiations between nations. 2. Tact, shrewd- 
ness, or skill in conducting any affair. 3. The 
body of diplomatic officials of a government. 
[< F. diplomatie, < L. diploma, diploma.] 

— dipMo-inat, dip'lo-mat, n. One employed 
or skilled in diplomacy, dip'lo-matet.— 
dip'^Io-matMc, a. 1. Of or pertaining to 
diplomacy. "2. Characterized by special tact in 
negotiation; dexterous; wary; adroit, dip'^lo- 
mat'lc-ali.— dip''lo-inat'ic-al-ly, adv.— 
di-plo'ina-tist, n. 1. A 
diplomat. 2. One remark- 
able for tact and shrewd 
dip'per, dip'gr, n. 1. One 
who or that which dips. 

2. A small, thrush'like i 
diving bird. 3. [D-] [U. 
S.l The group of seven 
bright stars in the constel- 
lation Ursa Major. 

dip''so-nia'ni-a, dip'so- 

me'ni-a or -mg'ni-a, n. , . ~^ x^- 
Pathx)l. An uncontrollable American Dipper, 
craving for alcoholic drink. '* 

[< Gr. dipsa, thirst, + mania, mania.] — 
dip"80-ina'ni-ac, n. 

flut|ure (future); aisle; au (out); eil; c (k): chat; dh (the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



dire, dair, a. [dir'er; dir'est.] Extremely 
calamitous; dreadful; terrible. [< Ij. dims, 
fearful.] -\y,adv. -ness, w. 

di-rect'"^, di-rect', v. 1. 1. 1. To point straight 
toward a thing; aim. 2. To point out a way 
to (a person). 3. To regulate; control; govern. 
4. To place an address upon, as a letter. II. 
i. To act as a guide, conductor, or leader. 

di-rect', a. 1. Having or being the straightest 
course; straight; shortest; nearest. 2. Free 
from intervening agencies or conditions; im- 
mediate. 3. Straightf orw^ard ; plain. [< L. 
directus, pp. of dirigo, direct.] — di-rect'iv(e, 
dl-rect'Iv, a. That directs or points out, rules, 
or governs.— di-rect'Iy, dl-rect'li, «(/». 1. In 
a direct line or manner. 2. Without medium, 
agent, or go=between. 3. Immediately; at once; 
as soon as possible. 4. Exactly; precisely.— 
di-rect'ness, dl-rect'nes, n. The quahty of 
being direct; straightness; straightforwardness. 
— di-rect'or, dl-rect'gr, n. One who or that 
which directs. di-rect'ert. — di-rect'or- 
ate, 11. 1. A body of directors. 3. The office 
or power of a director.- di-rect'ress, n.fem. 

di-rec'tion, di-rec'ehun, n. 1. The position 
of one point in relation to another without 
reference to the intervening distance. 2. Tend- 
ency; aim. 3. Superintendence; administra- 
tion. 4. Instruction; command; order. 5. 
The name and residence of a person; address. 

di-rect'o-ry, di-rect'o-ri, n. [-RiBs^,pl.] 1. 
An alphabetical or classified list, as of the 
names and addresses of the inhabitants or 
business'houses of a city. 2. A collection of 
rules, as for church worship. 3. A body of 
directors; directorate. 

dire'ful, dair'ful, a. Most dire; dreadful; 
terrible, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

dirge, dgrj, n. A funeral hymn or tune. [< 
L. dirigo., direct, in funeral hymn beginning 
'' Ding'e, Bomine.^] 

dir'i-gi-blCe, dir'i-ji-bl, a. That may be di- 
rected or controlled; as, a dirigible balloon. 

dirk, dgrk. I. vt. To stab with a dirk. II. 
n. A dagger or poniard. [< Ir. 
duirc, dirk.] 

dirt, dgrt. I. a. [Colloq., U. S.] 
Made of earth; as, & dirt ro&d. II. 
n. 1. Any foul or filthy substance; 
refuse; trash. 2. [Colloq., U. S.] 
Loose earth; garden»loam. [ME. 
diit, < Ice. drit, dirt, excrement of 
birds.] — dlrt'y, dgrt'i. I. vf. 

[DIRT' FED, -Id; DIRT'Y-ING.] ToSOil; 

make filthy; sully; tarnish. II. a. 
(dirt'i-eb; dirt'i-est.] Unclean;foul; 
filthy, physically or morally.— dirt'i- 
ly, adv.— dirt'i-neat*, 71. 
dis-, prefix. Apart; asunder. In nu- 
merous compounds, dis- has simply 

negative force, causing the compound 
" " Is' 


to express the contrary of what Is Implied by the 

second clement. 
dis-a'ble, dis-e'bl, t?/. To render physically, 

mentally, or legally incapable of proper or 

effective action; cripple; impair.— dl«"a-bll'l- 

ty,n. l-TiEs», />;.! Lack of ability; inability. 
dls''a•buse^ dis'a-biflz', vt. To rid of a false 

notion or impression; undeceive. 
dis'^ad-van'tage, dig-ad-von't^j. I. v(. To 

injure the interest of; prejudice; hinder. II. 

n. 1. That which hmders, prevents, or is 

prejudicial to success; drawback; injury. 2. 
A state of inferiority or unfavorable contrast : 
preceded by at; as, the army was at a disad- 
vantage.— dis-ad'^van-ta^geous, a. Attended 
with disadvantage ; detrimental ; inconvenient. 
-ly, adv. -ness, n. 

dis''af-fect'i, dis"§,f-fect', vt. To destroy or 
weaken the affection of; alienate.— dis'^af- 
fect'ed, pa. Alienated in feeling; estranged; 
unfriendly.— dis'^af-lec'tion, n. Discontent; 
disloyalty; estrangement. 

dis^'a-gree', dis"a-gri', ri. 1. To differ; be 
at variance in opinion; fail to agree; contend; 
quarrel. 2. To be unfavorable in action or 
effect, as food; be injurious: followed by with. 

— dis^'a-gree'a-bLe, dis'a-gri'a-bl, a. Re- 
pugnant to taste, sentiment, opinion, or the 
senses; not agreeable; displeasing; unpleasant.— 
dis'-'a-gree'a-bKe-ness, n. dis'^a-gree''- 
a-bil'i-tyj. — dis'"a-grree'a-bly, adv. — 
dis'^^a-gree'ineiit, n. Failure to agree; dis- 
similarity; variance; unsuitataleness; incongru- 
ity; altercation; quarrel. 

dis'^al-low', dis"al-lau', vt. & vi. To refuse 
to allow or permit; disapprove. — dis''''al-low'- 
ance, n. Refusal to allow; disapprobation. 

dis''ap-pear', dis'ap-pir', vi. To pass from 
sight or view; fadeaway; vanish. 

— dis'^ap-pear'aiice, 7i. 
dis'^ap-point''', dis"sp-peint', vt. 1. To de- 
feat or fail to fulfil the expectation, hope, or 
desire of (a person). 2. To prevent the attain- 
ment or accomplishment of (a hope or plan); 
frustrate.— dis'^ap-poini'meiit, n. The state, 
condition, or sense of being disappointed; that 
which disappoints; failure- frustration. 

dis-ap'^pro-ba'tion, dis-ap"ro-be'shun, n. 
Disapproval; unfavorable judgment. 

dis^'ap-prove', dis"ap-pruv', v. 1. 1. 1. To 
regard with disfavor or censure; condemn: 
often with o/". 2. To refuse assent to; reject 
as inadmissible. II. i. To feel or express 
disapproval. — dis'^ap-pror'al, n. The act of 
disapproving; the withholding of approval; dis- 
approbation.- dis^ap-prov^ing-ly, adv. 

dis-arm', dis-flrm', v. I. t. To cause to sur- 
render arms; deprive of weapons or of power 
to harm or annoy; quell; allay. II. i. To lay 
aside arms; reduce a land or "naval armament 
from a war to a peace footing. 

— dis-arin'a-ment, n. 
dis"ar-range', dis'ar-renj', vt. To disturb 

the arrangement of; derange, -ment, w. 

dis-as'ter, diz-gs'tgr ordis-as'tgr, «. Crush- 
ing misfortune; a calamity. [< F. desastre, 
< L. dis; ill, -\- aMnwi, < Gr. astron, star.] — 
dis-as'trous, diz-gs'trus or dis-as'trus. a. 1 . 
Occasioning or accompanied by disaster; ca- 
lamitous. !i. Threatening disaster; Ill-boding; 
gloomy; dismal, -ly, arfr. -iiess, 7i. 

dis^a-vow', dis"a-van', vt. To refuse to ac- 
knowledge; deny; disclaim- disown. 

— dis''a-vow'al, n. A disowning; denial. 
dls-band''>, dis-band'j v. I. t. 1. To dis- 
charge from further united (especiall v military) 
service. 2. To dismiss (an individual) from 
an organization; discharge. II. i. To retire 
from service as an organization. 

— diN-band'nient, m. A disbanding. 
dis-bar', dis-bflr', vt. Law. To deprive of 

the right to ai)pear in court as an attorney. 
dis'^be-lier, ais'bg-llf, n. A conviction that 

a statement is untrue; positive unbelief . 

papfi, gsk; at, &ir; elfm^nt, th^y, usfge; It, %, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, er; full, rule; bot, ur; 



dis'lie-lievCe', di8"b§-liv', 'ct. & vi. To re- 
fuse to believe; withhold belief or credit; deem 
false.— dis''be-Iiev'er, n. 

dis-bur'den, dis-bur'dn. vt. &vi. To unload; 
disencumber; get rid of; unburden, dis- 
"bur'tlieni [Archaic]. 

dis-tourse', dis-burs', vt. [dis-bursed"; dis- 
BURS'iNG.] To pay out, as in meeting current 
expenses. [ < OF. des-, apart, + battrse, purse.] 
— dis-biirse'ment, n. Expenditure. 

disc, «. Same as DISK. 

disc'al, disc'al, a. Of, pertaining to, or like a 
a disk. 

dis-card''^, dis-cflrd', v. I. t. To turn off as 
useless or undesirable; reject; dismiss. II. 
i. To throw out a card or cards in playing. 

dis-cern', di-zgrn', v. I. i. To see as dis- 
tinct from other objects; perceive; distinguish; 
recognize. II. i. To recognize a distinction 
or difference; discriminate. [< L.^ dtscerno, 

< dis-, apart, -|- ce/"/?©, separate.] — dis-cern'- 
i-bl(e, a. Capable of being discerned; perceiv- 
able.— dis-cern'i-bly, ori». — dis-cern'ingr, 
pa. Quick to discern; discriminating; pene- 
trating. — dis-cern'inent, n. 1. The act or 
process of discerning. 'Z. The mental power of 
discerning; keenness of judgment; Insight. 

dis-charge', dis-chflrj', v. [dis-charged'; 
dis-char'ging.] I.^. 1. To deliver the contents 
of, as a gun or a ship; fire; unload. 2. To re- 
move, as a cargo by unloading, a charge by 
firing, or an employee by dismissal ; send forth ; 
emit* set free, as a prisoner. 3. To meet the 
requirements of; pay, as a debt; perforin, as a 
duty, oflice, etc. II. i. To deliver a charge 
or charges; put off a load or burden; give or 
send forth contents; shoot; fire; pour. 

dis-cliarge', n. 1. The actor process of dis- 
charging; a firing or unloading; dismissal; re- 
lease. 2. That which discharges, as a certifi- 
cate of release. 3. That which is discharged, 
emitted, or thrown out or off, as from a wound. 

dis-ci^pl(e, di-sai'pl or dis-sai'pl. I. vt. \ms- 
ci'pl(e)d; dis-ci'pling.] To convert. II. n. 
One who accepts and follows a teacher or a 
doctrine; a pupil or learner. [F., < L. disci- 
pulus, < disco, learn.] — dis-ci'pl(e-8hip, n. 

dis'ci-plin(e, dis'i-plin. I, vt. [dis'ci- 
plin(e)d; dis'ci-plin-ing.] 1. To train to 
obedience, subjection, or effectiveness; drill; 
educate. 2. To punish or chastise. II. «. 1. 
Systematic training or subjection to authority, 
or its result; subjection. 2. Training result- 
ing from misfortune, troubles, etc. 3. Punish- 
ment for the sake of training; correction ; chas- 
tisement. 4. A system of rules, or method of 
practise, as of a church. [F., < L. disciplina, 

< disdimlus, disciple.] — dis"ci-plin-a'ri- 
an, dl8"l-plln-6'ri-an. I. a. Of or pertaining to 
discipline. II. 7i. One who disciplines; one 
strict in discipline: a martinet. — dis'ci-plin- 
a-ry, dls'I-plin-e-rl, a. Of, relating to, or having 
the nature of discipline; employed in discipline. 

dis-claim', dis-clem', vi. To disavow; dis- 
own; reject; deny. [< L.of c?is- (see dis-) -f 
damo. cry out.] — dis-olaim'er, n. One who 
or that which disclaims. 

dis-close', dis-c\Oz\vt. &vi. [dis-closed' ; 
dxs-clo'sing.] To lay bare; uncover; make 
known; divulge; open. [< L.^f dis- (see dis-) 
-+- daudo., close.] — dis-clo'sure, dis-clo'zhur. 

n. 1. The act or process of disclosing. 3. Any- 
thing disclosed. 

dis-coFor, dis-cul'§r, vt. To give an unnat- 
ural color to; stain.- dIs-coK'or-a'tion, n. 

dis-com'flt'i, dis-cum'fit, vt. To defeat utterly; 
frustrate; rout; vanquish. [< L.o*" dis-, apart, 
+ con- intens. -\- facia, do.] 

— dis-coin'fi-ture, n. The act of discomfi- 
ting, or the state of being discomfltcd; defeat. 

dis-com-'fort, dis-cum'fgrt. I'^.vt. To make 
uneasy; trouble; pain; grieve. II. n. The 
state of being positively uncomfortable, or that 
which causes it; disturbance; disquietude. 

dis'^com-mode', dis"cem-mod', vt. [-mo'- 
ded<*; -mo'ding.] To cause inconvenience to; 
trouble; annoy. [< 'L. dis-, si^art, -\- commo- 
dus, fit, convenient.] 

dis'^com-pose', dis"c6m-pOz', vt. [-posed'; 
-po'siNG.] To disorder or disarrange; derange; 
agitate; disturb. — dis'^com-po'sure, n. Agi- 
tation; disorder. 

dis'^con-cert''', dis"c§n-ssrt', r^. 1. To con- 
fuse, as by a surprise; disturb; discompose. 
2. To disarrange, as apian; frustrate; hinder. 
[< L. dis-, apart, -j- concerto, concert. 1 

dis'^con-nect''', dis "c§n-nect', vt. To undo or 
dissolve the connection of; dissociate; separate. 

— dis'^con-nec'tion, n. 
dis-con^so-late, dis-cen'so-let or -l§t, a. 1. 

Destitute of consolation; inconsolable. 2. 
Marked by gloominess; cheerless; saddening. 

dis'^con-tent', dis"cen-tent'. I^. vt. To 
render discontented; dissatisfy. II. n. Lack 
of content; dissatisfaction; uneasiness, dis''- 

dis'^con-tent'ed, a. Ill at ease; dissatisfied. 
-ly, acJr. -nenn, n. 

dis^con-tin'ue, dis'cgn-tin'yu, v. [-tin'- 
ued; -tin'u-ing.] I. t. To break off or cease 
from; bring to an end; cease; stop; intermit. 
II. i. 1. To come to an end; cease. 2. To 
separate or be disunited. — dis-^con-tin'u- 
ance, dis'cgn-tin'yu-ans, n. The act of discon- 
tinuing, or state of being discontinued; Interrup- 
tion or intermission.— dis"con-tin''u-a'tion, 
n. — dis'"con-tin'u-ous, a. Not continuous; 
characterized by interruptions or breaks. 

dis'cord, dis'cerd, n. 1. Variance or strife; 
contention. 2. A combination of dissonant 
sounds; lack of harmony. [F.. < L. discordia, 
< dis-, apart, -f cor (cord-), heart.] — dis- 
cord'ance, n. A discordant state or quality; 
discord, dis-cord'an-cyt. — dis-cord'ant, 
a. Contradictory; harsh; dissonant, -ly, adv. 

dis-count''', dis-caunt', v. I. t. 1. To de- 
duct, as a portion of an amount owing; make 
an allowance of. 2. To buy for less than face 
value, the difference going to the purchaser. 3. 
To give less than full credit to (a story or state- 
ment); discredit; disregard. 4. To act upon 
beforehand; anticipate. II. i. To purchase 
or accept notes, etc., at less than face value, 
retaining the difference, when paid, as interest. 
[< L.OF dis-, apart, -|- computo, compute.] 

dis'count, dis'caunt, n. 1. An amount 
counted off or deducted. 2. Finance. The 
interest allowed and deducted from the face 
amount for advancing money on negotiable 
paper. 3. The act of discounting. 4. The 
rate of discount. 

dis-coun'te-nanceS dis-caun'tg-nans, vt. 

fiutgfire (future); aisle; au (out); ell; c (k); chat; dli (the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



1. To look upon with disfavor; disapprove or 
discourage. 2i|. To abash. 

dis-cour'age, dis-cur'ej, vt. [-aged; -a- 
GiNG.] 1. To damp or quench the courage of; 
dispirit: dishearten; deter. 2. To destroy, or 
attempt to destroy, confidence in; oppose; ob- 
struct. — dis-cour'age-ment, n. The act of 
discouraging, or the state of being discouraged; 
also, that which discourages. 

dis-course', dis-cOrs'. I. vt. & vi. [dis- 
coursed''; Dis-couRS'iNG.] To givc expres- 
sion to; utter; converse: make an address. II. 
n. Connected communication of thought; con- 
versation; a formal discussion or address. [< 
L.''i^+P dis-^ apart, to and fro, -|- curro, run.] 

dis-cour'te-sy, dis-cur'tg-si, n. [-sies^, pi.] 
Rude behavior; impoliteness. — dis-cour'te- 
ous, dis-cOr'te-us, a. Showing discourtesy; im- 
polite; rude, -ly, adv. -nesn, n. 

dis-cov'er, dis-cuv'gr, v. I. t. 1. To get 
first sight or knowledge of; find and bring to 
the knowledge of the world. 2. To disclose; 
reveal; expose. 3!!. To uncover. II. i. To 
show oneself. — di8-cov'er-a-bl(e, a. — dis- 
cov'er-er, «. — dis-cov'er-y, di8-cuv'er-i,n. 
[-IES«, pL] i . The act of discovering; disclosure. 
ti. Something discovered. 

dis-cred''it, dis-cred'it. P. vt. 1. To disbe- 
lieve. 2. To injure the creditor reputation of; 
dishonor. 3. To destroy faith or belief in. II, 
n. 1. The act of discred^iting, or the state of be- 
ing discredited. 2. Lack of credit; impaired 
reputation; dishonor. — dis-cred'it-a-bUe, a. 
Hurtful to credit or reputation; disreputable. 

dis-creet', dis-crit', a. Wise in avoiding er- 
rors; judicious; prudent; careful. [< L. dis- 
crettis, pp. of discerno, discern.] 

— <Iis-creet'Iy, od».— dis-creet'ness, n. 
dis-crep'ant, dis-crep'ant or dis'crg-pgnt, a. 

Inharmoniously diflferent; opposite; contrary; 
discordant. [OF., < L. dis-, apart, 4- crepo, 
crackle.] — dis-erep'an-cy, dis-crep'cn-si, ??. 
[-ciEs», pl.'\ A disagreement or difference; vari- 
ance, dis-crep'ancel:. 
dis-crete', dis-crlt', a. 1. Disconnected with 
others; distinct or separate. 2. Made up of 
distinct parts or separate units; discontinuous. 
3. Denoting opposition or contrariety. [< L. 
discretiis, pp. of discerno., discern.] 

— dis-crote'ly, ad».— dis-crcte'ness, v. 
dls-cre'tion, dis-cresh'un, n. 1. Cautious 

and correct judgment; prudence; sagacity. 2. 
Liberty of action ; freedom in the exercise of 
judgment. [OF., < L. disc7'etio(n-), < discre- 
tus; see discrete.] — dls-cre'tlon-a-rv, a. 
Exercisable at or left to discretion; uncontrolled 
legally except by discretion. dis-cre'tion-aU. 

dis-crim^i-nate, dis-crim'i-net, v. [-na"- 
TED''; -NA'TiNG.J I. ^ To notc the differences 
between; note or set apart as different. II. i. 
1. To observe a difference; distinguish. 2. To 
make a distinction; treat unequally or unfairly. 
[< L. rfeATnm2/?o, divide, distinguish.] — dis- 
criiii'i-na''tiiijf, ;)a. 1. Having power or serv- 
ing to distinguish. >2. Kstahlishing a distinction; 
differential. -diM-criiii'i-iia'"tiii8r-ly, (i((t\ 

dis-crim'l-nate, dis-crim'i-net w-nQt, a. 1. 
Noting differences; discriminating. 2. Dis- 
criminated, -ly, adv. -neM8, n. 

dis-crim^'i-na'tion, n. The act or power 
of discriminating; distinction. — dU-crlm'i- 

na-tiv(e, a. Discriminating; distinctive or 
characteristic, dis-criin^i-ua-to-ryt.— dis- 
criiii'i-na-tiv(e-Iy, adv. Ldethrone. 

dis-crown'. vt. To deprive of a crown; 

dis-cur'siv(e, dis-cur'siv, a. Passing from 
one subject to another; wandering; digressive. 
[< L. disatrsus, pp. of discurro, < dis- (see 
DIS-) -|- c?/rro, run.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

dis-cuss", dis-CDs', rt. To argue for and 
against; reason upon ; debate. [ < L. discussus, 
< dis-, apart, + quado, shake.] 

— dis-ciis'sion, dls-cush'un, 7i. The act of 
discussing; argumentative examination; debate. 

dis-dain', dis-den'. I. vt. To regard with 
proud indifference; despise: recoil from with 
pride or scorn. II. n. A blended feeling of 
superiority and dislike; proud contempt. [< 
L.^^ dis-, apart, 4- dignor, deem worthy.] 

— dis-dam'ful, a. Filled with or expressing 
disdain; scornful. -\y,adv. -ness, 7i. 

dis-ease', diz-tz'. I. vt. [dis-eased'; dis- 
EAS'iNG.] To cause disease in; disorder-; de- 
range. II. n. Disturbed or abnormal action in 
the living organism; a morbid condition result- 
ing from such disturbance. [ < OF. desaise, < 
des; apart; and see ease, «.] 

dis^'em-toark'', dis'em-bQrk', vt. & vi. To 
put or go ashore from a ship; land; unload. 

— dis-eiii''''bar-ka''tion or -caption, n. 
dis'^em-barTass', dis'em-bar'as, vt. To 

free from embarrassment, -ment, v. 

dis^em-bod'y, di8"em-bed'i, tY. 1. To free 
from the body. 2. To disband, as troops. 

dis'^em-bow'el, dis'em-bau'el, vt. To take 
or let out the bowels of. 

dis^en-chLant'-i, dis'en-chgnt', vt. To free 
from enchantment; disillusionize, -ment, n. 

dis''en-cuin'"ber, dis"en-cum'bsr, vt. To 
free from encumbrance or burden. 

dis'^en-gage', dis'en-gej', rt.&vi. To set or 
be free irom engagement; become detached; 
withdraw. — di.s''en-gage'inent, n. 

dis''en-tan'gl(e, dis'en-ta^i'gl, vt. To re- 
lieve of entanglement or perplexitv; unravel. 

dis^'es-tab'lisht, dis"es-tab'lish, vt. To de- 
prive of established character; withdraw state 
])atroiuige from; as, to disestablish a church. 

dis-fa'vor, dis-fe'vgr. I. vt. To withdraw 
or withhold favor from; discountenance. II. 
n. Lack of favor; disapproval; dislike. 

dis-fig''ure, dis-fig'yur, vt. To impair or in- 
jure the beauty of; render unsightly; deform. 

— dis-fiK^ure-ment, ii. 1. Tha't which dis- 
figures, 'i. The act of disfiguring, or the state 
of being disfigured, dis-fiff^'ii-ra'tiont. 

dis-fran'cllise, dis-frgn'chiz or -fran'chaiz, 
vt. [-chised; -ciii-siNo.] To deprive of a citi- 
zen's privileges, as of the ballot, -ment, n. 

dis-gorge', dis-gorj'," vt. & vi. To eject; 
vonut; restore; make restitution. 

dis-grace', dis-gres'. I', vt. To bring re- 
j)roach or shame upon; dismiss with ignominy. 
II. n. 1. Heproach; infamy; ignominy. 2. 
That which disgraces. 

— diM-jfrace'ful, a. Characterized by or 
causing disgrace; shameful, -ly, adr. -nes8« n. 

dis-guise^ dis-gaiz'. I. vi. [dis-ouised'; 
Dis-Gui'siNG.] To change the appearance of, 
as by a mask; hide; conceal; alter. II. n. 
The act of disguising, or the state of being 
disgnised; something that disguises. 

papii, ask; at, ftir; elfm^nt, th6y, us^ge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; orator, or; full, rule; but, ©r; 



dis-gusV, dis-gust'. I<*. vt. To affect with 
loathing or aversion. 11. n. Strong aversion 
or repugnance, physical, mental, or moral. 

— dis-gust'insr, pa. Serving or fitted to pro- 
voke disgust; odious; revolting, dis-gust'- 
fult.— dis-gust'iiig-ly, adv. 

dislxS dish, v. 1. t. 1. To place in a dish or 
dishes; serve as food. 2. To malie concave, 
as a wheel. II. i. To be or become concave. 

dish., n. 1. A concave or hollow vessel for 
serving food at meals. 2. The kind or amount 
of food served in a dish. 3. Concavity. [< 
Gr.L^^ AS cliskos. disk.] — dish-Tul, n. The quan- 
tity that a dish will hold. 

dis'lia-'bille', di8"a-bir, n. Undress, or neg- 
liirent attire. [< F. deshabille, undressed.] 

dis-lieart''en, dis-hflrt'n, ft. To discourage. 

di-sh.ev'el, di-shev'el, vt. & vi. [-eled or 
-ELLED : -EL-iNG or -EL-LING.] To disorder (the 
hair) ; disarrange (the dress), [ < L.^ dis-, priv- 
ative, + capillus, liair.] 

dis-hon'est, dis-en'est, a. Lacking in hon- 
esty; untrustworthy; fraudulent; false. 

-ly, «d;;.— tlis-hoii'es-ty, n. Falsity; In- 
sincerity; violation of trust; fraud. 

dis-hon'or, dis-en'§r. I. rt. 1. To deprive 
of honor; disgrace; insult. 2. To violate the 
chastity of; seduce. 3. Cwn. To decline or 
fail to pay, as a note. 11. n. 1. Lack of honor 
or of honorable character; degradation; in- 
sult; reproach; stain. 2. Refusal or failure 
to pay a note, etc., when due. — dis-hon'or-a- 
bl(e, a. Characterized by or bringing dishonor; 
discreditable; ignoble. — dis-lioii'or-a-ble- 
iiess, n.— dis-liou'or-a-bly, adv. 

dis^in-cline', dis'in-clain', vt. To make un- 
willing or averse; indispose. — dis-in''cli-na'- 
tion, n. Distaste; aversion; unwillingness. 

dis^in-fect'"*, dis"in-fect', vt. To purify from 
infection. — dis-^in-fecfant. I. a. Disin- 
fecting. II. «. A substance used to disinfect.— 
dis^in-fec'tioii, v. The act of disinfecting. 

dis''in-gen'u-ous, dis'in-jen'yu-us, a. Not 
sincere; deceitful, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

dis'''iii-lier'it"', dis"in-her'it, rt. To deprive of 
an inheritance. — dis'^in-her^it-ance, n. 

dis-in'te-grated, dis-in't§-gret, vt. & vi. To 
break into pieces or particles; fall in pieces; 
crumble.— dis-in''te-gra'tion, n. 

dis"in-ter', dis"in-tgr', vt. To dig up, as from 
a grave; exliume. — dis'^in-ter^ment, n. 

dis-in'ter-est-ed. dis-in'tgr-est-gd, a. Free 
from self 'interest; unselfish; impartial. 
-ly, adv. -ness, n. 

dis-join', dis-jein', i'/. & vi. To sever or be 
severed; separate; sunder; part. 

dis-joint''^, dis-jeint', vt. To divide at the 
joints, or put out of joint; dislocate; discon- 
nect; disorder.— dis-jbint'ed, pa. Dislocated; 
disconnected; Incoherent, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

dis-junct'iv(e, dis-ju^ct'iv. I. a. Helping 
or serving to disjoin. II. ti. That which dis- 
joins, as one of certain conjunctions, -ly, adv. 

disk, I disk, n. Any plane or surface that is 

disc, f flat and round. [< Gr.^ diskos, disk.] 

dis-like', dis-laik'. I', vt. To regard with aver- 
sion. II. /;. Distaste; repugnance; aversion. 

dis'^lo cate, dis'lo-ket, vt. [-ca"ted<i; -ca"- 
TiNG.l To put out of johit or out of order; 
displace. [< L.^-i- dis-, apart, -f locus, place.] 

— dis'^lo-ca'tion, n. 

dis-lodge', dis-lej', vt. To drive out; eject; 
displace. — dis-lodg'iiient, n. 

dis-loy'al, dis-lei'al, a. False to one's alle- 
giance or obligations; faithless. 

-ly, rirfc- dis-loy'al-ty, n. The state of 
being disloyal; unfaithfulness; inconstancy. 

dis'mal, diz'mal, a. Cheerless; doleful; 
gloomy. [ < disme, ' in the dismal time, ' mean- 
nig ' in the tithing time.'] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

dis-man'tKe , dis-man'tl, vt. [-tl(e)d ; -tling.] 
To strip of furniture, equipments, or defenses. 

dis-mast''', r/. Nant. To remove the masts of . 

dis-may', dis-me'. I. vt. To fill with con- 
sternation; daunt; appal; affright. II. n. A 
state of overwhelming embarrassment and 
fright; consternation; terror. [< dis- -(- F. 
-mayev, < OHG. magan, have power.] 

dis-mem'toer, dis-mem'bgr, vt. To separate 
limb from limb or part from part, -ment, n. 

dis-miss", dis-mis', vt. To put out of office, 
service, or consideration; discharge; set aside; 
send away; reject. [< dis- -|- L. misms, pp. 
of mitto, send.]— dis-niiss'al, n. A dismiss- 
ing; discharge, dis-niis'siont. 

dis-mount'"', dis-maunt', v. 1. t. To re- 
move from a horse, as a soldier, or from a 
mounting, as a cannon. II. i. To get off or 
alight, as from a horse; come down; descend. 

dis'^o-ljey', di8"o-be', vt. «& vi. To neglect or 
refuse to obey; to be disobedient. — dis^o-be'- 
di-ence, n. — ilis'^o-be'di-ent, dis'o-bi'di- 
ent, a. Neglecting or refusing to obey; refrac- 
tory, -ly, adr. 

dis"o-blige', di8''o-blaij', vt. To neglect or re- 
fuse to oblige. — dis'^o-blFffins, ;>«. Not dis- 
posed to oblige; unaccommodating, -ly, adv. 

dis-or'der, dis-or'dgr. I. vt. To throw out 
of order; disarrange; derange. II. n. 1. The 
state of being disarranged; disorderliness. 2. 
A disturbance of the peace. 3. Derangement 
of the bodily or mental functions; disease. 

— dis-oi'^der-ly, dls-er'der-ll, a. & adv. 1. 
Being in disorder; not orderly. 2. Lawless; dis- 
reputable— diM-or'dcr-li-ness, n. 

dis-or'gan-ize, vt. To deprive of organiza- 
tion; brealv up. — dis-or''^an-i-za'tion, n. 

dis-own', dis-On', vt. To refuse to acknowl- 
edge or to admit; deny; reject. 

dis-par'age, dis-par'gj, t'^. [-aged; -a-ging.] 
To speak of slightingly; undervalue. [< OF. 
des-, + parage, rank.] 

— dis-par'age-ment, n. The act of dis- 
paraging; detraction. 

dis-par'i-ty , dis-par'i-ti, n. [-tiess pi.] The 

state of being dissimilar; inequality; difference. 
dis-pas'sion-ate, dis-pash'un-et or -gt, a. 

Free from passion; unprejudiced, -ly, adv. 
dis-patch', etc. Same as despatch, etc. 
dis-peF, dis-pel', vt. [dis-pelled'; dis-pel'- 

LiNG.] To scatter; disperse; dissipate. [<L. 

dis- apart, asunder, -\-pello, drive.] 
dis-pense', dis-pens', v. [dis-pensed"; dis- 

pen'sing.] I. t. 1. To deal out or divide in 

portions; distribute; administer, as laws. 2. 

To relieve or excuse, as from obligation. II. i. 

To grant dispensation. [< L. dispenso, freq. 

of dispendo, < dis-, apart, -{- pendo, weigh.] 

— dis-pen'sa-bl(e, a. Capable of being 
dispensed or dispensed with.— dis-pen'sa-ry, 
dis-pen'SQ-rl, n. [-kiesi, pl.^ A place where 
medicines are kept and compounded, especially 

flutlure (future); aisle; au (owt); oil; c (k); chat; dh (the); go; sing, ink; tliin. 



where they are given freely to the poor.— dis^- 
pen-sa'tion,' dis'pen-se'shira, w. 1. The act 
of dispensing. -2. Special exemption, as from a 
rule or vow. 3. A special divine revelation.— 
dis-pes'sa-to-ry, dis-pen'sa-to-ri. I. a. Of 
or potaining to dispensing or dispensation. 
II. n. r-BiE«», pi A A book tn which medicinal 
sabetances are described; pharmacopoeia. —to 
dispease ^rith. to waive tbe observance of; 
relinqaish; forego.— dis-pen'ser, n. 

dis-perse', dis-p?rs', rt. &. r». [dis-pkbsed'M 
Dis-PKRs'ixG.l To scatter; dissipate: separate: 
disai^iear. [< L. </i*-, apart, -f- ^pargo. 
scatter.] — «»-peK8i<M, dis-pgr'shtm, n. The 
act of dispersing, <w the state of being dispersed. 

dis-pir'it^. dig-pir'it, rt. To render cheerless 
or h<i{HLle<s: depress; dishearten. 

dis-place", dis-ples', r^ 1. To remove from 
its place. 2. To take the place of, as by 
posbine out. — ^is-piace^ment, n. 

dis-play', dii^ple'. I. tt. & ri. To make 
maidfest (w conspicuous; parade: op«i; tm- 
fold; expose: make a display. U. n. The 
act of si^eading out, tmfolding, or bringing to 
the view or to the mind; ostentations show. 
[< L.o*" rfiV-. apart, +ptico. fold.] 

dis-please', dis-pliz', rt. & ri. To vex; an- 
noy; offend; ^ve offense. [< L.of </i^ _|_ 
piactOy pleasej — dis-pleas'in^, pa. Offen- 
sive, .ly, adr.— dis-pleas'are, dl»^lezh'ar 
or -igr, n. 1 . The state of being displeased; 
dfawatjafaction; vexation; Indignant dlsapprovaL 
^ An annoyance; offense. 

dis-porf, di&-pOrt'. I^. rt. An'. TodivCTt; 
play ; sport. U. n. Diversion ; pastime : 
epiMl. [< L.o*' de, away, -\-porto, carry.] 

dis-pose^, dis-puz', T. [dis-posed'; dis-po'- 
sisG.] I. t. 1. To set in order; arrange; 
settle. 2. To direct the mind of; incline. 
S. To order or ajqtoint; r^nlate. 4. To 
make over or alienate, as prcq>erty: now 
vaaeaiajdigpomif. U. t. To arrange or set- 
fle 8(HDethiiig. [< F. dUpoter, < cfw-, apatt, 
-+- poeer; see rosxi, r.]— tP dbfMiae oi; to 
part with; get rid of.— dis-»*'8a-bl(e, a. 
Sabjeet to dlaposal; free to be ued as occasion 
may require.— dis-pp'sal, n. 1, The act of 
disposiiig: arraiQcement : ordo'; distribatfon. 
!2. A getting rid of. as by gift or sale. 3. Power 
of control, outlay, or distrfbotlon.— dis-pp'- 
ser, n. One who disposes or orders. 

dis^po-sition, dis'po-zi^'an. n. 1. The 
act of disposing, or the state or manner of dis- 
poeal; final settlement. 2. Natural tend^cy; 
temp« or temperament; characteristic spirit; 
bent ; propensity. [F., < L. dit-^ a|wrt, 
s^Mratelr, + jxmo, puce.] 

dis'^K>s-sess^, dis'pM-zes'. or -ptw-aes', rt. 

To e jtK-t ; oost.- 

dis-proor. n. Hefntatkm; c<Mifatatioo. 

dis^pro-por^om, dis'pro-pOr'shun. I. zt. 
To make of ansnitable prmortitMiB. H. n. 
Want of doe {voportioo or ruation.— dia^'pra- 
»«r^iaB-aie« a. Out of prt^M^tion: dispro- 
PMtiooed. dia^pra-pai^tiaa-all. Aj,adr. 

dis-prove', dis-prflv', rt. To prove to be 
false, OToneoas. frandnlent, or illegal; con- 
fate; refute. — ila-prov'al, «. Disproof. 

dis-pute'. dis-piQt'. r. [dis-pc'ted*; di*- 
pu TING.] I, /. 1. To question; challenge: 
controvert. 2. To argue about ; diacnss ; 
contest. H. j. 1. To debate; wrtagle; quar- 

rel. 2. To compete, as for a prize. [< F. 
digputer. < L. digputo^ < dig-, apart, 4- pufo, 
reckon.] —dis-pa'ter, n. — tfa'pn-ta-biie. a. 
That may be disputed; conb^vertible: doubtful. 
— dis'pu-tant. I. a. Engaged In controversy; 
disputing. II. n. One who disputes.— dis''- 
pa-ta'tion. n. The act of disputing; con- 
troversy; discussion: argumentation.- dis^pa- 
ta'tiou<>. !:?"piu-te'shus, a. Characterized by 
or I • : ■ .:::-• : -dispute. dis-pa'ta-tiTiet. 

dis-pute'. . A controversial discussion; a 
coiitc*;; altercation: \ATangle; quarrel. 

dis-qual'i-fy, dis-cweri-foL, rt. To deprive 
of qualifications; incapacitate; dibble; debar. 

— di»-4*al^»fi-ca'tiaB, n. 
dis-qui'et, dis-cwoi'et. I^. r^ To make un- 
easy or restless: harass; distnrb. U. n. Best- 
lessne<^s: nr>e«siness. dis-q.ui'et-iiess^; 

dis"qui-si'tion, dis'cwi-zi«h'Dii, «. A sys- 
tema:;c :rt;;i:ise or discourse; dissertation. [< 
L. rfi#-, apart, about, -{- quaero. sedc] 

dis^re-grard', dis're-gOW'. I*.rt. TosUgbt; 
overlook. II. n. Want of regard ; neglect. 

dis''re-pute', dis're-piut', n.^Lack or loss of 
reputation: ill repute. — dis-rep'u-ta-blie, dis- 
rep'jru-ta-bl, a. Being In or causing 111 repute; 
disgraceful. — dis-rep'a-ta-fely, tutt. 

dis^re-spect', dis'rg-qject', n. Lack of re- 
spect : disconrtesy. — dis^re ■q > ect^lhi, a. 
Wanting In respect; 'disconrteoos. -ly, adv. 

dls-robe'. dis-rOV, rt. & ri. To unclothe; 
undress: strip. 

dis-rupt'S cUs-ropt', rt. To burst asunder. 
[ < L. rfi*-, apart, asunder, 4- rutifpa, burst.] 

— dis-rap'tioB, dls-nrp'shtm, ». The act of 
bursting or tearing asunder; tbe state of being so 
torn.— di»>rapt'iT> e. a. Producing, resulting 
f^m. or attending disruption; rending; bursting. 

dis-«at^is-fy , dis-«at 'L^f oi, rt. To disappoint ; 
disi^ease. — di»-«at''ls-fac'tion, n. A aissat- 
fefled state or f eeUng; discontent. 

dis-sect^, dis-sect', rt. To cut apart and an- 
alyze critically; anatomize. [< L. ditaeetmt, 
pp., < rfw-, ^lart, -I- stco, cut.] — ila aee^. 
tiaa, dis-sec'staon. n. 1 . Tbe act of dissecting. 
"i, A dissected object; an anatomical prepara- 
tion; a critical ana^is. — di a aect^ar, n. One 
who dissects; a treatise on dissection. 

dis-sein1>l(;e, dis-sem'bl, r. [-bled; -BLnic] 
I. /. To conceal, as by a false appearance; pre- 
tend; feign, n. i. To pat on false appear- 
ances; dissimulate. r< L.* disthnulo, < <fi#-, 
apart. + fimiiiA, like.] — d is a ei ^er, n. 

dis-seml-nate, dis-aem'i-net, rf. [-xa*- 
TM>*; -NA'Tixe.] To sow broadest; scatter; 
diffuse; iwomulgate. [< L. dU-^ apart, + 
temina, sow, < genten, seed.] — tf a ae t *T- 
aa'tian, a.— dia-aea^-aa'^lar, a. 

dis-sen'slon, dls-sen'shtm, n. Angry <»' 
violent difference of opinion; discord; strife. 

dis-senV, dis-eent'. I<<. ri. To disagree; with- 
hold assent. U, n. The act w state of dis- 
senting; disa^eement; refusal to conform to 
an establiahea church. [< L. dig-, apart, + 
gfntio, fed.] — d ii ae « t^er, a. One who dia- 
sents. as from an estabUahed ehurcli; a non-con- 
formist: often cai^talized. 

dis'^ser-tatlon, dis*€r-t^shan, n. An ex- 
tended and argnmentatiTe treatise or dia- 
coorse; disqnisitioo. [< L.u-tftMtfn>,di0CU8s.] 

dis-^ev'efr, difr«er'sr, rt. Sc ri. To sever; 

popA, ^; at, Ur; elfmfint, they, oa^; it, |, i (ee); o, «h; erat^r, «r; fall, rftle; bot «r: 



disjoin; separate; part.— dis-sev'er-ance, n: 
Separation. di!^-sev'er-iiicut1:. 

dis^si-dent, dis'i-dgnt. I. a. Dissenting; 
differing. YL. n. A dissenter. [< L. 6?imc?eo, 
sit apart, < (lis-, apart, -f sedeo. sit.] 

— dis'si-dence, n. Disagreement; dissent. 
dis-sim'i-lar, dis-sim'i-lar, a. Unlike; dif- 
ferent, -ly, orfw.— dis-siin''i-lar'i-ty, n. Un- 
likencss; d'lfference.— dis^'si-inil'l-tude, n. 
The state of being dissimilar. 

dis-sini''u-late'>, dis-sim'yu-let, vt. «fc ^•i. To 
conceal by feigning; dissemble. [< L. dis- 
sirnulatus, pp. of dissinmlo; see dissemble.] 

— dis-siin'^ii-la'tion, n. False pretense. 
dis'si-pate, dis'i-pet, v. [-pa'ted'I; -pa'- 

TiNG.] I. t. To disperse or scatter utterly; 
drive away; dispel; waste; squander. II. i. 

1. To scatter; vanish; disappear. 2. To be 
wasteful or dissolute. [< L. dis-, apart, + 
supo, throw.] — dis'si-pa'^ted, pa. Pursuing 
pleasure to excess; dissolute.— dis^'si-pa'tion, 
n. The act of dissipating; excessive indulgence, 
especially in vicious pleasures. 

dis-so'ci-ate, dis-so'shi-et, vt. [-A'TEDd; 
-a'ting.] To disconnect; separate. 

— dis-so''ci-a'tioii, n. 
dis'so-lu-bl(e, dis'o-lu-bl {literature) or dis- 

sel'yu-bl {chem.), a. 1. Separable into parts. 

2. Capable of being dissolved or decomposed. 
dis'so-Iute, dis'o-lut, a. Abandoned; profli- 
gate, -ly, adv. -ne88, n. 

dis'^so-Iu'tion, dis'o-lii'shun, /?. 1. The act 
of dissolving; disintegration. 2. Chem. De- 
composition. 3. Liquefaction. 4. Separation; 
breaking up, as of a partnership. 5. Death. 

dls-soIv(e', diz-elv', v. [dis-solv(e)i)'; dis- 
soLv'iNG.] I. t. 1. To melt; liquefy. 2. 
To break up, as an assembly. 3. To annul or 
abrogate, as a magic spell or a legal injunction. 
4. To make weak or languid; relax. 5. To 
destroy. II. i. 1. To become fluid; melt; 
evaporate; decompose; fade; vanish. 2. To 
become languid; weaken. [< L. dissolvo, 
loosen (pp. dissolutvs).] — di8-8oIv'a-bl(e, a. 
— <lis-soIv'eiit, a. & «. 

dis'so-nant, dis'o-nant, a. Harsh in sound; 
inharmonious; incongruous. [F., < L. dis-, 
apart, -1- sono, sound.] — dis'so-iiance, n. Dis- 
cord; disagreement, dis^so-nau-cyt* 

dis-suade', dis-swed', Tt. & ti. [dis-sua'- 
DED"!; dis-sua'ding.] To persuade or advise 
against (an act) : with/;ww. [ < L. dis-, apart, 
+ suadeo, persuade.] — di8-sua'sion, n. 1. 
The act of dissuading. '2. A dissuasive.— dis- 
sua'sivCe. I. «. Tending or Intended to dis- 
suade; dissuading. II. n. A dlssuadln^^ argu- 
ment, facf, or consideration. 

dis-syria-l)I(e, dis-sil'a-bl, n. A word of 
two syllables. [< Gr. di-, two; and see syl- 
lable.] — dis'^syl-lab'ic, a. 

dis'taf(f, dis'tgf, n. [dis'taffs or (rarely) 
dis'taves, pl.^ A rotating vertical staff that 
holds the bunch of flax or wool in hand» 
spinning. [< AS. distsef.] 

dis^tain', dis-ten', ^'<. To stain; sully; defile. 
[< L."""' dis-, intensive, -f- tifigo, tinge.] 

dis^tance, dis'tans. I. vt. [dis'tanced'; 
dis'tan-cing.] To leave hopelessly behind in 
a race; excel; outstrip. II. n. 1. Length of. 
separation in space. 2. The state of being dis- 
tant; separation; remoteness; a remote point. 

3. Eeserve; deference; coldness; haughtiness. 

dis^tant, dis'tant, a. 1. Separated in space 
or time; remote; indistinct; indirect. 2. Re- 
served or unapproachable; formal. [F., < L. 
di, apart, -(- sto, stand.] -ly, adv. 

dis-taste% dis-test', n. Aversion; disrelish; 
dislike.— dis-taste'ful, o. -ly, adv. -ness,n. 

dis-tem'per, dis-tem'pgr, vt. 1. To affect 
with disease or disorder. " 2. To anger; rutfle. 

dis-tem'peri, n. 1. A malady, as of brutes. 
2. Ill humor; derangement. 3. Lack of due 

dis-tem'per^, n. 1. A pigment mixed with 
a vehicle soluble in water, as for scencpaint- 
ing. 2. A painting executed in such materials. 

dis-tend'<', dis-tend', vt. & vi. To expand; 
swell; inflate; dilate. [< L. dis-, apart, -+- 
tendo, stretch.] — dis-ten''si-bil'i-tv, ».— dis- 
ten'si-bUe, a. Capable of being distended.— 
dis-ten'tion, n. The act of distending, or the 
state of being distended, dis-ten'siont. 

dis'ticll, dis'tic, n. Pros. A couplet. [< 
Ur.i' distichos, < di-, two, + stichos, row.] 

dis-til', I dis-til', ^7. I.;;. 1. To extract or 

dis-till', ) produce by vaporization and con- 
densation; purify by distillation. 2. To give 
forth or send down in drops; shed; emit. II. 
i. 1. To extract volatile substances by vapor- 
ization and condensation. 2. To exude in 
drops. [ < L. distillo, < de, down, 4- stilla, 
dim. of stiria, frozen drop.] — dis^'til-Ia'tion, 
n. The act or product of distilling. 
— dis-til'ler, n. One who distils; 
a condenser used in distilling.— dis- 
til' I er-y, n. r-iES»,j[>Z.] An estab- 
lishment for distilling, especially for 
producing alcoholic liq- 
uors by distillation. 

dis-tinct', dis-tinct', a. 
1. Clear; plain; unmis- 
takable. 2. Standing ; 
apart, or viewed apart, 
from other things; dis- 
joined; separate. [F., 
< L. distinguo, distin- 
guish.] -ly, adv. -ne88, 

n. dis-tinc'tion, dis- c, condenser; r, receiver; 
tinc'shun, n. 1, A dis- s, still, 

tlhgulshlng mark or qual- 
ity; a characteristic difference. 2. The act of 
distinguishing; discrimination. 3. A mark of 
honor; superiority; honorable position.- dis- 
tinct'ivCe, a. Characteristic; distinguishing. 
-ly, adv. -ness, n. 

dis-tin^guishS dis-tin'gwish, v. I. t. 1. 
To mark or recognize as different or separate; 
discriminate; differentiate. 2. To make emi- 
nent or conspicuous. II. i. To discriminate: 
followed by between. [ < L. distinguo, sepa- 
rate.] — di8-tin'guish-a-bl(e, a. — dis-tin'- 
(fuislied, pa. Conspicuous; eminent.— dis- 
tin'sruish-in?, pa. Constituting difference or 
distinction; characteristic. 

dis-tort''*, dis-tert', vt. To twist into an un- 
natural or irregular form; interpret falsely; 
pervert. [< L. dis-, apart, -\- torqueo, twist.] 
— dis-tor'tion, n. The act of distorting; a 
deformity; perversion. 

dis-tract't*, dis-tract', vt. To divert or turn 
aside; bewilder; confuse; craze. [< L.i^ dis- 
traho, < dis-, apart, -\- traho, draw.]— dts- 
tract'ed, pa. 1. Bewildered or harassed. '2. 

Pharmaceutical DIs- 

flutjure (future); aisle; au {out); ©il; c (k); cliat; dh {the); go; sing, ink; thin. 



Mentally deranged; mad. — dis-trac'tion, n. 

1. A diversion of the mind; confusion; disorder; 
interruption, ti. Strong agitation; frenzj'; mad- 
ness.— dis-tract'iiig, <lis-tract'iv(e, a. 
dis-train', dis-tren', v. I. t. To seize (per- 
sonal property) for debt. II. i. To make a 
levy on personal property for debt. [< L.o*' 
distringo, < dis-, apart, -|- stringo, draw tipht.] 
— dis-train'er, dis-traiii'or, w. One who 
distrains.— dis-traint', n. Law. The act or 
process of distraining, 
dis-trait', flis-trg', a. Absent-minded. [F.] 
dis- tr aught', dis-tret', a. In state of dis- 
traction. [Var. of DISTRACTED.] 

dis-tress^, dis-tres'. I', vt. 1. To inflict 
suffering upon; agitate painfully. 2. Law. 
To distrain. II. n. 1. Acute or extreme suf- 
fering; pain; trouble. 2. Latv. (1) Distraint. 
(2) Goods taken by distraint. [< OF. des- 
tresser, < L. districtus, pp. of distringo; see 
DISTRAIN.] — dis-tress'ful, a. -ly, adv. 

dis-trito'ute, dis-trib'yut, v. [-u-ted-I; -u- 
TiNG.] I. t. 1. To divide among a number; 
apportion; share. 2. To classify or arrange. 
3. Logic. To apply to all the members of a 
class taken separately: opposed to vse collect- 
ively. II. i. To make a distribution. [< L. 
dis-, apart, -\- tribuo, give.] — dis-trib'u-ter, 
dis-trib'ii-tor, n. — dis-^tri-bii'tioii, dis"- 
trl-biu'shun, «. 1. The act of distributing; ap- 
portionment; arrangement; disposition, ti. That 
which Is distributed.— dis-trib'ii-tiv(e, dls- 
trlb'yu-tiv. I. a. 1, Serving or tending to dis- 
tribute; pertaining to distribution. 5i. Denoting 
Individual action or consideration. II. n. Gram. 
A distributive pronoun, adjective, or numeral, 
as "each," "every," etc. -ly, adv. 

dis'trict. dis'trict. I. vt. To divide into dis- 
tricts. II. n. A portion of territory spe- 
cially set off or defined; a region; tract. [< L. 
districtns, pp. of dif^tringo; see distrain.] 

dis-trust', dis-trust'. "l^. vt. To withhold 
trust from; doubt; suspect. II. n. Doubt; 
suspicion; discredit. 

— dis-tru8t'ful, a. -\y,adv. -ness, m. 
dls-turb', dis-turb', vt. 1. To rouse from re- 
pose or rest; disquiet; agitate; trouble. 2. 
To disarrange or disorder. [ < L.^f disturho, 
< dis-., apart, -\- tnrba, tumult.] — dis-tiirb'- 
ance, n. The act of disturbing; a public tumult; 
menuil confusion. — diH-tiirb'er, 7i. 

di8"u-nite''', di8"yu-nait', r. I. t. To sepa- 
rate; disjoin; alienate; estrange. II. i. To 
come apart; become separated or parted, as 
friends. [ < L-'"'' <ii>-^ apart, -}- L. unus, one.] 

— dis-u'nion, dls-yun'yun, n. The state of 
being disunited; severance; rupture.- dis-u'- 
nion-ist, n. An advocate of disunion. 

dis-use', dis-yQz', vt. To cease to use or prac- 
tice; discontinue. 
dis-use', di8-);ri8', n. The act of disusing, or 

the state of being disused, dls-u'sage^:. 
ditch', dich, v. I. t. 1. To di^^ a ditch or 

ditches in or around; drain by ditching. 2. 

To run into a ditch. II. i. To make a ditch 

or ditches.— dltch'er, it. 
ditch, n. A narrow trench in the ground, as 

for drainage. [ < AS. die, dike.] 
dit'to, dit'O. I. V. The same thing repeated; 

the aforesaid. II. adv. As before; likewise. 

[It., < L. dictum; see dictum.] 
dit'ty, dit'i, n. [dit'ties*, pi.} A short sim- 

■ pie air; lay. [< OF. dittie, < L. dicfatus; see 

di-ur'nal, dai-ur'nal, a. 1. Happening every 
day; daily. 2. Done in or pertaining to the 
daytime. [< L. diiirnalis, < diurnus, daily, 
< dies, day.] — di-ur'nal-Iy, adv. 

di-van', di-van', n. 1. An Oriental govern- 
mental council; also, a councilechamber. 2. A 
cafe; a couch. [< Pers. dlvdn, council.] 

dive, daiv. I. ^•^. [dived or (Colloq.) dove, 
dOv; Di'viNG.] To plunge head foremost, as 
into water; plunge or rush in. II. n. 1. A 
plunge head foremost into or as into water. 

2. [Colloq.] A disreputable resort; den. [< 
AS. dijffan; cp. deep.] — di'ver, /?.— di'vings 
bell'", n. A hollow, water-tight vessel in which 
persons may be lowered into and work under 

di-verge', di-vgrj', vi. [di-verged';di-vi!:r'- 
oing.] To extend in different directions from 
the same point; deviate: differ. [< L. di-, 
apart, -\- vergo, incline.] — di-ver'gence, n. 
di-ver'gen-cyj.— di-ver'jrent, a. Differ- 
ing; deviating. di-ver'giiijrJ. 

di'vers, dai'vgrz, a. 1. More than one, but 
not a great number; several. 2. Of different 
kinds; various. [F., < L. diversiis, pp. of 
diverto; see divert.] 

di- verse', di-vgrs', a. Differing essentially; 
distinct. [< L. divei'sus; see divers.] -ly, 
arf».— di-ver'si-fy, v<. [-fied; -fy'ing.] To 
make diverse; variegate. — di-ver'^si-fi-ca'- 
tioii, n. Variation; variety. 

di-ver''sion, di-vgr'shmi, 71. The act of di- 
verting, or that which diverts; Tecreation. 

di-ver-'si-ty, di-vgr'si-ti, n. [-ties^ pi.] The 
state of being diverse; dissimilitude. 

di-vert'**, di-vgrt', rt. 1. To turn aside; de- 
flect. 2. To amuse; entertain. [< F. diverti7\ 
<Jj.di-, apart, -f- verto, turn.] 

di-vest'**, di-vest', vt. To strip, as of clothes, 
ornaments, or ofiice; dispossess; deprive. [< 
L.oP devestio, < de-., from, -|- vestis, clothing.] 

di-vide', di-vaid', v. [di-vi'ded*; di-vi'- 
DiNG.] I. /. 1. To cut or separate into parts; 
sunder. 2. To disunite; break up; keep apart. 

3. To distribute; portion out; apportion. 4. 
To form the partition or boundary between. 
II. i. 1. To come or go apart; cleave; open; 
diverge. 2. To differ in opinion; be at vari- 
ance. [< L. divido, divide.] 

— di-vi'der, di-vai'der, «. 1 . One who or that 
which divides. 2. pi. Compasses. 

di-vide', n. A watershed. 

div'i-dend, div'i-dend, «. 1. ^fat/i. A quan- 
tity divided, or to be divided, into eiiunl parts. 
2. Com. A sum of money to be distributed, as 
profit on shares or the like. 

di-vine', di-vain', I. rt. & vi. [divined': 
Di-vi'NiNG.l To find out or foretell oy assumed 
supernatural aid; practise divination; prog- 
nosticate; have a presentiment; surmise; guess; 
conjecture. II. «. 1. Pertain in t: to. proceed- 
ing from, or of the nature of (5od or of a god; 
offered to(iod; sacred. 2. Altop'thcr exfel- 
lent; godlike. 3. Pertaining to divinity or the- 
ology. III.//. One vcrsea in divinity; a the- 
ologian; clergyman. [<1,.^ diviiius,'<dinis, 
belonging to a god.l -ly, adr. — dlv''i-iia'- 
tloii,n. 1 , The act or art of dlvluliig. ri. An 
Instinctive presentiment.— di-vl'ner, «.— di- 

papfi, ^sk; at, air; el^m^nt, they, usfge; It, %, i (ee); o, oh; erat^r, or; full, rule; but, ur; 



viii'i-ty, n. [-ties», ;jZ.] 1. The quality or 
character of being divine. 2. [D-] The Deity; 
God. 3. A false god. 4. Theology. 

di-vi'sion, di-vizh'un, n. 1. The act of di- 
viding. 2. A part; section. 3. Separation; 
disagreement. 4. That which separates or 
divides. [F., < L. divisioin-), < divido, di- 
vide.]— di-vi'sion-al, a. Pertaining to divi- 
ding or to a division, di-vi'siou-a-ryt.— 
di-vis''i-bil'i-ty, w. di-vis'i-blCe-nesst. 
— di-vis'i-bi(e, di-viz'i-bl, a. 1. Capable of 
being divided, ti. Math. Admitting of division 
without a remainder.— di-vi'8iv(e, di-vai'siv, 
a. Causing or expressing division. —di-vi'- 
sor, di-vai'zgr, n. Math. That by which a 
number or quantity is divided. 

di-vorce', di-vOrs'. I. vt. [di-vorced''; di- 
vor'cing.] To free by legal process from 
the relationship of husband and wife; sunder; 
separate; put away. II. n. Legal dissolution 
of a marriage contract; severance; separation. 
[F., < L. divortium, < diverto^ divert.] 

di-vulge', di-vulj', t'<. [di-vulged'; di-vul'- 
GiNO.J To tell, as a secret; disclose. [<L. (/i-, 
apart, here and there, -|- vulgo, make public] 

.diz''zy, diz'i. t. vt. [diz'zied; diz'zy-ing.] 
To make giddy; confuse. II. a. [diz'zi-er; 
Diz'zi-EST.] 1. Having a feeling of whirling 
and confusion, with a tendency to fall; giddy. 

2. Causing or caused by giddiness. [ < AS. dy- 
sig, foolish.]— diz'zi-ly, adv.—AWU'ncsH, n. 

do,du, V. [did, did; do'ing; DONE, dun.] I. 
t. To bnng to accomplishment; perform; 
execute; effect; transact; complete; finish. 
II. i. 1. To exert or employ oneself in any 
way; act; strive or work vigorously; make 
effort or exertion. 2. To comport, demean, or 
conduct oneself; fare, as in health. 3. To an- 
swer the purpose; be enough; suffice. III. 
auxiliary. As an auxiliary do is used (1) in 
interrogative or negative clauses; (2) to express 
emphasis; (3) sometimes in the imperative; as, 
do speak; (4) merely as an inflection of the 
principal verb. IV. substitute. Do is often 
used elliptically as a substitute for a verb in- 
dicating action, to avoid repetition. [< AS. 
don. In part < AS. dtigan, suit.] — do'er, n. 

do, do, n. Mus. The first of the syllables com- 
monly used in solmization; the key-note (1) of 
any key, (2) of the so-called natural key, 

doat<i. vi. Same as dote. 

doc'il(e, des'il or do'sil, a. Amenable to train- 
ing; easy to manage; tractable. [< L. docilis, 
< doceo, teach.] — do-ciPi-ty, ti. 

dock", dec, vt. 1. To shorten; cutoff; abridge; 
rcMlnce. 2. Laiv. To rescind. 

docket, rt. To lay up in or as in dock. 

docki, n. Any one of various plants of the 
buckwheat family. [< AS. docce, dock.] 

dock^, n. 1. An artificial basin for vessels; 
also, a wharf. 2. An enclosed space for pris- 
oners in a criminal court. [ < MD. docke.] 

dock^, n. The stump of a tail. [ < Ice. dockr.] 

dock'et, dek'et. P. vt. To place on a docket; 
record; indorse; label. U.n. 1. A summary; 
abstract. 2. A calendar of the cases to be called 
at any time of court; any calendar of business. 

3. A tag or label. [< docri, v.] 
dock'yard", doc'yQrd", n. [Eng.] A ship- 
yard provided with docks . 

dbc'tor, dec't^r, n. 1. A practitioner of med- 

icine or surgery. 2. A person who has received 
a diploma of the highest degree in a faculty, 
as of divinity, law, etc. [ < L. doctor, teacher, 

< doceo, teach.] — doc'tor-ate, n. 
doc'triii(e, dec'trin, n. 1. That which is held 

to be true by any person, sect, or school, es- 
pecially in religion; a tenet, or body of tenets. 
2i|. Instruction; teaching. [F., <L. doctrina, 

< doctor: see DOCTOB,, «•] — doc/tri-nal, a. 
1. Pertaining to or characterized by doctrine. 
"Z. Having to do with teaching; instructive. 

doc'u-ment, dec'yu-mgnt, n. A piece of 
written or printed matter conveying informa- 
tion or evidence. [F., < L. documentnm, les- 
son, < doceo, teach.] — doc''u-men'ta-ry, a. 
Of, pertaining to, or based upon documents. 

dodeca-. A combining form. [<Or.dddeka, 
twelve.] — do-deo'a-^on, ?i. A figure, espe- 
cially a plane figure, with twelve sides and twelve 
angles, [-j- Gr. gonia, angle.] — do'Mec-a-he'- 
dron, n. A solid bounded by twelve plane faces. 
[+ Gr. hedra, side.] 

dodge, dej, v. [dodged; dodg'ing.] I. t. 

1. To avoid by a sudden turn. 2. To follow in 
an evasive or skulking way. II. i. 1. To move 
quickly to one side. 2. To practise shifts or 
evasions; skulk. [Cp. Ice. dadra, shake.] 

— ilodg'er, dej'er, n. 1. One who dodges; a 
tricky fellow. 2. [U. S.] A small handbill. 3. 
[U. S.] A cooked cake of Indian meal. 

dodg^e, n. An evasion; trick. 

doe, do, i). The female of the deer, antelope, 
hare, rabbit, or kangaroo, [< AS. da.] 

doe!^, duz, 3(1 per. sing. ind. pres. of do, v. 

doe'skin'', do'skin", n. 1. The skin of a doe. 

2. A fine woolen cloth, 

doflf', def, V. I. t. To take off, as a hat or 
cloak; strip off, as fiber. II. i. To take off 
the hat in salutation, [Contr. of do off.] 

dog, deg. I. vt. [dogged; dog'ging.] To 
follow persistently; hound; hunt. II. ri. 1. 
A carnivorous mammal, commonly domesti- 
cated, and remarkable for its intelligence and 
its attachment to man. 2. An implement or 
part of machinery; a catch, detent, or pawl. 
[< AS. rfoc<7a.] — dog'scart'', n. A two- 
wheeled one»horse vehicle, 
with two seats set back to 
back, with an enclosed space 
for dogs beneath the seats. 
— dogsdays, n. pi. The 
hot, sultry season in July 
and August, when the dog- 
star (Slrius) rises with the 
sun.- dog'ssear, n. The 
corner of a leaf in a book, 
turned down like a dog's 
ear. dog:eart. — dogs 
star, 11. The star Sirius, 
the most brilliant star in the 
heavens.— dog' wood'', n. 
A flowering tree of the 
United States and Canada, 
or its hard, compact wood; Dogwood 

also, one of various shrubs, 

dog'ged, deg'ed, a. Silently or sullenly per- 
sistent; stubborn; obdurate. -\y,adv. -ness, n. 

dog'ger-el, deg'gr-el, n. Trivial, empty, ill- 
made verse: used also adjectivally. 

dog'gisll. deg'ish, a. Like a dog; snappish. 

dog'ma, deg'ma, n. [dog'mas^ or dog'ma- 
TA, pL] A doctrine, as of a creed, asserted 

fliitlure (future); aisle; 

au (owt); ell; c (k); chat; dh {the)\ go; sing, i^k; tliin. 



and adopted on authority; a dictum. [L., < 
Gr. dogma{t-), opinion.] — dog-raat'ic, a. 1. 
Marked by positive and authoritative assertion. 
3. Like or pertaining to dogma, dogr-iiiat'ic- 
alj. — dog-mat'ic-al-ly, adv. — dog'ina- 
tisnif deg'ma-tizm, n. Positive or arrogant as- 
sertion, as of behef, without proof. — dog'ma- 
tist, « — dosr'ma-tize or -tise, vi. L-tized; 
-Ti'zrxG.l To express oneself dogmatically. 

doi'ly, dei'li, n. [iwi'liess pl.'\ A email 
table napkin, doy'ley:):. 

doling, du'ing, n. 1. pi. Proceedings; acts; 
course of conduct. 2§. A transaction. 

doit, deit, «. Formerly, a small copper coin of the 
Netherlands; a trifle. [< D. duit, coin.] 

dole, dol, vt. [doled; do'ling.] To dispense 
in small quantities; give or deal out. 

doles n. 1. That which is doled out; a gratu- 
Itv. 2. [Poet.] Lot; portion. [< AS. dal.^ 

doie2, n. [Poet.] Grief; mourning. [< OF. 
doL < L. doleo., feel pain.] — dole'fnl, a. Mel- 
ancholy; mournful, -ly, acZ». -ness, «. 

dol(l, del, n. A toy representing a person. [< 
OD. rM,whipping'»top; or < Doll, for Dorothy.^ 

dollar, del'ar, n. The monetary unit of the 
United States and Canada, equal to 100 cents, 
or about 4*. \^d. English money; also, a similar 
coin of various other countries, as Mexico. [ < 
D. or G. dial, daalder., < G. thaler.] 

do'lor, do'lgr, 71. [Poet.] Sorrow; anguish. [OF., 
< L. dolor, pain.] doMourl:.— doPo-rous, 
del'o-rus, a. Sad; pathetic. ~\y, adv. 

doFpbin, dol'fin, n. 1. A cetacean of the 
Mediterranean and temperate Atlantic. 2. A 
large fish of open seas, noted for the changes 
inits color when dying. [< OF. dalphiti, < 
L. delphinus, < Gr. ddphis., dolphin.] 

dolt, dolt, n. A stupid ^lerson: blockhead; 
dunce. [< AS. dol,(iu\\.]'—doWish, a. 

do-main', do-men', w. 1. A territory over 
which dominion is exercised; commonwealth; 
province. 2. A department, as of knowledge; 
range. 3. A manor. 4. Absolute proprietor- 
ship; dominion; empire; rule. [< L.*" domin- 
ium, < doniimis, lord.] 

dome, dom, n. 1. The vaulted roof of a ro- 
tunda; a cupola. 2. [Poet.] A majestic build- 
ing; house. [OF., < Gr.'' domos, house.] 

do-mes'tic, do-mes'tic, I. a. 1. Belonging 
to or fond of the house or household. 2. Do- 
mesticated; tame. 3. Of or pertaining to one's 
own country* homemade. II. n. A family 
servant. [ < L.*' dofuesticvs, < domus, house.] 

— do-mes'tic-al-ly, adv. — do-mes'ti- 
cate, do-mes'tl-kf't, vt. [-ca'teixI; -ca'tinq.] 
To train or reclaim for domestic use; make do- 
mestic; tame, do-mes'ti-cizet. — do-ines"- 
ti-ca'tiou, n. — do"ines-tic'i-ty, do'mes- 
tls'l-tl, n. f-TiKR*, pZ.] 1, The state of being 
domestic, ij. A domestic affair. 

dom'i-cil, > dem'i-sil. 1. vt. [-ciled; -cil- 
dom'i-cile, j ino.] To j)r()vi(le with or settle 

in a home or abode, dom^i-cil'l-atet. 

II. n. A home, house, or dwelling. [< L. 

doinicilium, < dornus, boune.] 

— doiii"l-<;il'i-a-ry, dem"l-8il'l-s-rl, a. Per- 
taining to a private n'sidence. 

dom'i-nate, dom'i-net, r. [-na'ted""; -na"- 
TiN<i.] I. t. To control; govern; rule. II. i. 
To prevail; predominate. [< L. dofni/iatux, 

Ep. of dominor, rule.] — doni'i-nance, u. 
ontrol ; ascendency. doni'i-nan-cy:^.— 

doin'i-nant, dem'i-nant. I. a. Ruling; gov- 
erning; predominant. II. n. Mus. The fifth 
tone of a diatonic scale.— dom^'i-na'tion, n. 
Control; dominion. 

do'ini-ne, do'ml-ne. A parson. fL.] 

dom^i-neer', dem"i-nir', v. I. t. To dom- 
inate. II. i. To rule arrogantly or insolently. 
[< Jj.^ dominor; see dominate.] — dom"i- 
iieer'injf, pa. Overbearing, -ly, adv. 

do-min'ic-al, do-min'ic-al, a. Relating to 
Christ or to the Lord's day. 

dom'i-nie, dem'i-ni, w. A schoolmaster. [< 
L. domine, voc. of dominus, lord.] 

do-min'ion, do-min'yun, n. 1. Sovereign 
authority; rule; sway. 2. A country governed; 
realm. [F., < L.'^'^ dominus, lord.] 

dom'i-no, dem'i-no, w. [-noes, noz, joZ.] 1. 
A robe and hood, as worn at masquerades; 
also, the wearer; a mask. 2. 2^1- A game played 
with flat pieces marked like dice, each piece 
being also called a domino. [LL., ecclesiastical 
garment, < L. dominus, lord.] 

don, den, vt. [donned; don'ning.] To put 
on, as a garment. [Contr. of do on.] 

don, n. 1. Signer; sir. 2. A gentleman. [Sp.] 

do'nate, do'net, vt. [do'na"ted<'; do'na"- 
TiNG.] To bestow as a gift, especially a con- 
siderable gift; contribute. [< L. donatits. pp. 
of dono, give, < donum, gift.] — do-na'tion, 
n. The act of donating, or that which is donated; 
a gift; grant; offering.— don'a-tiv(e, den'a- 
tiv. I. o. Belonging by deed of gift. II. «. A 
donation; gift.— do-na'tor, n. 

done, dun, pa. Pp. of do. 

done, a. Given; made public i executed, as a 
proclamation. [Rep. OF. done, given.] 

don'key, deij'ki, n. An ass. 

do'nor, do'ngr, n. A giver; donator. [OF.] 

doom, diim. I. vt. 1. To consign to death 
or ruin. 2. To decree as a penalty. II. n. 
1. The act of dooming, or the state of being 
doomed; sad or evil destiny. 2. Judicial de- 
cision; condemnation; sentence. [< AS. cf5m, 
< don, do, put.] — dooms'day", dQmz'de", n. 
The day of final judgment. 

door, dor, n. x\n entrance, as to a house, or 
the hinged or sliding cover that closes it; pas- 
sagewav; access. [< AS. dor, duru.] — door'- 
keep"er, n. The keeper of a door; a janitor. 
— door'way'', w. An entranceway. 

Dor'ic, der'ic. I. a. 1. Relating to or charac- 
teristic of the district of Doris, in ancient 
Greece, or its inhabitants. Do'ri-anJ. 2. 
Constructed in accordance with the type of 
Doric architecture, marked by strength and 
apparent simplicity. II. 
n. The Doric dialect. ^wjr ^^ y y 

dor'mant, dSr'mant, a. Wv .^B^/ / 
Being in a state of, or 
resembling, sleep; torpid; 
inactive; unused. [F., < 
L. doi'mien{t-)Sy ppr. of 
dorniio, sleep.] 

— dor'iiian-cy,n. Tor- 
pidity; lethargy. 

dor'mer, dor'mgr, n. A 
vertical window rising ;^ 
from a sloping roof. [< Dormouse. 1/4 
L."P darmif/mnm; sec dormitory.] dor'- 

dor'mi-to-ry, dSr'ml-to-rl, n. [-ribs«, jd.] 

papA, 98k; at, air; clcmfint, they, usfge; It, j, i (ee); o, oh; eratjr, »r; full, rule; but. Or; 



Fisherman's Dory. 

A students' lodging* house at a school or col- 
lege; also, a large room in which many persons 
sleep. [< L. donnitorium, < dormio, sleep.] 

dor'mouse", der'mans", n. [dor'mice", der'- 
mais",;;/.] 1. A small Old World squirrel* 
like rodent. See illus. on preceding page. 2. 
[U. S.] The common white-footed mouse. 
[ < Ice. dorma ( < L. donnio), sleep, -|- mouse.] 

dor'sal, der'sal, a. 1. Of, pertaining to, on, 
or near the back. 2. Pertaining to the under 
surface, as of a leaf. [F., < L. dorsum, back.] 

do'ryi, do'ri, n. [do'ries^, pL] A sharp flat* 
bottomed row boat, much used by fishermen. 

do'ry2, n. One of va- 
ious fishes. [< F. 
doree, golden.] 

dose, dos. I. vt. & vi. 
[dosed'; do'sing.] To 
give doses to; deal out 
m doses; take doses 
repeatedly. II. n. The quantity of medicine 
to be taken at one time. [< Gr. dosis, < di- 
domi, give.] 

dost, dust, 2dper. sing. pres. ind. of do, v. 

dot, dot. I. tt. & vi. [dot'ted''; dot'ting.] 
To mark with or as with a dot or dots; make 
dots. II. n. A minute mark; a speck, spot, 
or point. [< AS. dott.] 

do'tage, do'tgj, n. Feebleness of mind, due 
to old age; senility.— do'tard, dO'tard, n. One 
who Is In his dotage. 

dote, dot, vi. [do'ted'J; do'ting.] 1. To 
lavish extravagant fondness: witho// or (/]X)n. 
2. To be in one's dotage. doat+.— do'ter, ti. 

doth, duth, ,3d per. sing.pres. ind. of do, v. 

doub'le, dub'l, v. [doub'led; doub'ling.] 
l.t. 1. To make twice as great. 2. To fold 
together: usually with up, over, etc. 3. To 
repeat. 4. To be twice as many or twice as 
much as. 5. To pass, march, or sail round. 
II. i. 1. To become twice as great or many. 
2. To turn and go back on the same track. 

doub'le, a. 1. Having two of a sort together; 
being in pairs; coupled. 2. Twice as large, 
much, strong, heavy, or many. 3. Twofold: 
hence, ambiguous or deceitful. 4. Bot. Having 
the petals increased in num- 
ber: said of flowers. [F., < 
L. duplus, < duo, two, + 
■plus, -ful.l 

— doiib'lesdeaF'insr. I. 
n. Treacherous; deceitful. 
II. n. Treachery; duplicity. 

doub'le, n. 1. Something 
that is twice as much. 2. 
A fold or plait. 3. A per- 
son or thing that closely re- 
sembles another; hence, an 
apparition or wraith. 4. A 
backward turn, as of a hunt- 
ed fox; a trick. — doub'le, 
doub'Iy, adv. In twofold 
degree; deceitfully. 

doub'let, dub'let, n. 1. 
One of a pair of like things; 
loosely, a pair or couple. 2. Doublet. 

A close=fitting outer body*garment (15th to 17th 
centuries). 3. A counterfeit gem. 

doub-loon', dub-lun', n. A former Spanish 
gold coin worth about $8. 

doubt'', daut, v. I. t. To hesitate to accept; 
hold as uncertain; distrust. II. i. To be in 
doubt. [< L.F dubito, be uncertain.] — doubf- 
er, n. One who doubts. 

doubt, n. 1. Lack of certain knowledge; un 
certainty; indecision. 2. A question; an 
objection; perplexity; problem. — doubt'fiil, 
a. 1. Subject to, entertaining, or admitting of 
doubt; uncertain; undecided; contingent. 3. 
Indistinct; vague; ambiguous. 3. Questionable; 
dubious. m\y,adv. -ness, 72.— doiibt'less, 
adv. Without doubt: unquestionably. -lyt. 

dou^'ceur', du'sUr', n. A small present; bribe; 
tip. [F.] 

douche, dush, n. A jet of water or vapor, or 
the instrument for administering it. [F.] 

dougb.. dn, n. A soft mass of moistened flour 
or meal, mixed for cooking into bread, cake, 
etc.; also, anv soft pasty mass. [< AS. ddh.^ 
— doiigli'iiuf, 11. A small cake of dough 


Like or containing 


fried in lard. 

dougb'ty, dau'ti, a. 

Brave; valiant; redoubt- 
able; also, boastful. [<AS. 

dijhtig.] — doufsh'ti-ly, 

ao?i'.— dough'ti-ness, n. 
douse, dans, ?'/. [doused'; 

doits' ing.] To plunge into 

a liquid; duck; drench. 

[Prob. < Sw.rf?/«/Ja, plump 

down.] dowsei. 
dove, duv, 1}. A pigeon. 

[< AS. dilfe.'] — Ao\e': 

cot'', d.scote, n. A house for tame pigeons. 

dove'tail", duv'tel". I. vt. To join by in- 
terlocking. II. n. A manner of joining boards, 

timbers, etc., by interlock- 
ing wedge*shaped tenon-- 

and spaces; the joint -< 

dow'a-ger, dau'a-jgr, // 

[Eng.] A widow holding 

dower. [< OF. doucr, 


dow'dy, dau'di. I. a. 
[dow'di-er; dow'di-est.1 
Ill'dressed, ill«fltting, and 
in bad taste; shabby. 
dow'dy -isbi. II. n. 
A slatternly woman. 

dow'el, dau'el, n. A pin 
two adjacent pieces to fasten them together. 
[ < F. douille, socket.] 

dow'er, dau'gr. I. vt. To provide with a 
dower; endow. II. /i. A widow's life«portion 
(usually a third) of her husband's lands and 
tenements; the sum of one's natural gifts; en- 
dowment. [< L.i-^ + f dos, dowry.] 

down, daun, a. 1. Going in a downward di- 
rection. 2. Downcast; dejected. 

downi, 71. Fine soft plumage, hair, or fibers. 
[Akin to Ice. dunn.] 

dOTvn^, n. A downward movement; reverse. 

down3,«. [Eng.] 1. A hill having a bioad, 
treeless, grass'grown top ; also, the open space 
on its top. 2. pi. Turf'covered, undulating 
tracts of upland. [< AS. dmi.] 

down, adv. 1. From a higher to or toward a 
lower level, place, position, etc. (literally or 

Dove*taIled Joint. 
a, open; b, closed, 
or peg fitted into 

flutiflre (future); aisle; au (out); ©il; c (k); chat; dli (the); go; sing, ink,- thin. 



figuratively); downward. 2. From an upright 
to a prone or prostrate position. 3. At the 
lowest point; in or into subjection; under con- 
trol. 4. Below the horizon; as, the sun went 
doivn. 5. To a smaller bulk; as, to boil down. 
[ < ADOWN, < AS. adun, of -dune, < of, from, 
4- dun, hill.] — down'cast'', daun'cgst", a. 
Directed downward or toward the ground; de- 
jected; depressed. — downTall'^ n. A falling 
or flowing downward; a fall; disgrace. — tlowii's 
falF'en, «. Fallen; ruined.— down'hearf- 
ed, a. Dejected- discouraged; low=spirlted. — 
down'shill''. I, a. Descending; sloping. II. 
adv. With a downward direction. — do^vn'- 
right''. I. a. 1. Straight to the point; unequiv- 
ocal; plain; outspoken; utter. 2. Directed down- 
ward. II, adv. 1, Directly downward. '2. 
Without doubt or qualification. 3, In the ex- 
treme; utterly.— do wn'trod'^den, a. Trodden 
under foot; oppressed, doi^vn ' trod '' t . — 
down'^ward, daun'ward. I, a. Descending 
or tending from a higher to a lower level, or 
from that which Is more remote. II. adv. 1. 
From a higher to a lower position. 2. From 
that which is more remote, as In place or time. 3 . 
Toward the extremities, down'wardst. 

down, daun, prep. In a descending direction 
along, upon, or within, literally or fieuratively; 

do'wn'y, daun'i, a. Of, pertaining to, like, or 
covered with down; soft; restful; soothing. 

dow'ry, dau'ri, n. [dow'kies^, pi."] The prop- 
erty a wife brings to her husband in marriage; 
an endowment or gift. [< dower, «.] 

dox-ol'o-gy, dex-el'o-ji, w. [-GIE8^^;.] An 
exultant hymn of praise. [< Gr. doxa, praise, 
+ lego, speak.] 

doze, doz. I. vi. [dozed; do'zing.] To 
sleep unsoundly or lightly; drowse. II. n. K 
light, unsound sleep; a drowse. [< Ice. dusa; 
cp. DIZZY.] — do'zy, a. Drowsy; soporific. 

doz'en, duz'n, n. Twelve things of a kind, 
collectively. [< OF. dozaine, < dauze, twelve.] 

drabi, drab, n. A yellowish-gray color: used 
also adjectivally. [< F. drap, cloth.] 

drab2, n. A slattern; lewd woman. [< Ir. drabog.^ 

drab'bl(e, drab'l, vt. [drab'bl(e)d; drab'- 
BMNG.] To draggle. 

draclim, dram, n. Same as dram. 

dracb^ma, drac'ma, n. 1. A Greek coin, an- 
ciently of the value of 9 to 17 cents, now equal 
to the franc (19i cents). 2. An ancient Greek 
unit of weight, now a gram. [< Gr. drachml, 

draft, Idrgft. !■». vt. 1. To outline in 

draught, [writing; sketch; delineate. 2. To 
select and draw oflf, as for military service; con- 
script. II. n. 1. A current of air. 2. The 
act of drinking; a drink. 3. Natit. The depth 
to which a vessel sinks in the water. 4. The 
act of drawing, or the fact of being drawn; 
also, that whidi is drawn or to he drawn, or 
its weight or resistance; a haul; pull; drag. 
5. Apian; outline; sketch. 6. Com. A money- 
order; bill of exchange. 7. A military or 
naval conscription; levy. 8. An exhausting 
demand. [< AS. dragan, draw.] 

drafts'man, I drgfts'man, n. [-men,/)/.] 

draug^hts'man, f One who draws or prepares 
plans, (ii'signs, deeds, conveyances, etc. 

drag:, drag, v. [draoord; drao'mino.] 1. 1. 
1. To pufi along by main force; haul. 2. To 

draw a grapnel along the bottom of, as in 
search of a dead body; search carefully or in- 
tently. II. i. 1. To be drawn along the 
ground; move slowly or heavily. 2. To'ply a 
drag; dredge. [ME. draggen; caus. of AS. 
dragan, draw.] 
drag, n. 1. The act of dragging or that which 
drags or is dragged, 
as a grapple, a 
dredge, a drag-net, a 
brake, or heavy har- 
row, a skid or shoe 
for causing a car- 
riage-wheertp drag. Drag and Four, 

as m gojng down a 

hill; any clog or impediment. 2. A long, 
high, four-wheeled carriage or coach. 

— drag'snef , ?z. A net to be drawn along 
the bottom of the water. 

drag'gl(e, drag'l, vt. & vi. [drag'gl(e)d; 
drag'gling.] To drag or trail on the ground 
so as to wet or soil; drabble; befoul. 

drag^o-man, drag'o-mgn, n. [-manss im- 
properly -MEN, pL] An interpreter or agent 
for travelers in the East. [F., < Ar. tarjumdn, 

drag'on, drag'un, n. 1. A fabulous, serpent- 
like, winged monster. 2. [D-] A northern 
constellation {Draco). [F., < L. draco{n-), < 
Gr. drakon, serpent.] — drag'on:fly'', n. An 
Insect with slender body, four, large wings, and 
enormous eyes. Called also darning»needle and 
deviVs darning-needle. 

drag-oon', drag-un'. I. vt. To harass by 
dragoons; coerce; browbeat. II. n. In the 
British army, a cavalryman. [< F. dragon^ 
dragon, dragoon.] 

drain, dren, v. 1. i. 1. To draw off by de- 
grees, as a fluid; draw water or any fluid from. 
2. To make exhausting demands lipon. II. i. 
To flow ofE or leak away gradually; become 
exhausted. [< AS.drehnigean, drenian.] 

drain, n. 1. The act of draining; continuous 
strain, leak, or outflow. 2. A pipe or trench 
for draining. 

drain'age, dren'gj, n. 1. The act or means 
of draining; a system of drains. 2. That 
which is drained off; also, the area, drained. 

drake, drek, /?. A male duck. [< A^. ened, 
duck, + suf. -rake, chief.] 

dram, dram, n. 1. In apothecaries' weight, 
(50 grains: in avoirdupois, 27.34 grains. 2. A 
drachma, 3. A drink of spirits. [< L.o^ 
drachma; see drachma.] draclinit. 

dra'ma, drfl'ma, n. 1. A composition to be 
acted u])on the stage; a play. 2. Stage rep- 
resentjitions collectively; the theater. [<Gr. 
dramad-), < drao, perform.] — dra-mat^ic, a. 
Of or like the drama; theatrical, drn-iiiat'ic- 
aU. — dra-inat'ic-al-ly, adv. — ilram'a- 
t\nU n. A dramatic author.— draiii'a-tize 
or -tiHe, vt. L-tizkd; -ti'zino.1 To sot forth In 
dramatic form; relate or represent dramatically. 

drank, drank, imp. of dkink, v. 

drape, drep, vt. & vi. [draped*; dra'ping.] 
To cover, as with hanging cloth; arrange, as 
drapery. [< F. dra/^er, < drap, cloth.] 

— dra'per, n. A dealer in cloths.— dra'- 

?»er-y, n. t-iB8», pi.} 1. Loosely hanging at- 
Ire; also, curtains, tapestry, etc. tj. The busi- 
nees of a draper. 3. Cloth In general. 

papfi, 98k; at, &ir; element, th6y, usfge; It, g, i (ee); o, 6h; erat^jr, 5r; full, rule; but, Or; 



dras'tic, dras'tic or drgs'tic. I. a. Acting 
vigoroiiely; effective. II. n. A strong purga- 
tive. [ < Gr. drastikos, < drao, act.] 

draught, see draft, etc. 

draughts, drafts, n. pi. The game of check- 
ers. [< AS. dragan, dravv^.] 

— draiights'inan, n. 1. A piece used In 
the game of checkers. 3. Same as draftsman. 

draw, dre, v. [drew, dru; drawn; draw'- 
ING.] I. t. 1. To pull; haul; lead; attract. 
2. To take or pull oa£; extract; call forth; 
elicit; evoke. 3. To call for and receive, as pay; 
obtain. 4. To write out; draft: commonly 
with w/). 5. To delineate; sketch; portray. 6. 
To require the depth of (so much water) in or- 
der to float, as a vessel. 11. i. 1. To exert a 
pulling force or an attractive influence; be at- 
tractive. 2. To have a free draft, as a stove or 
chimney. 3. To move as if drawn; come or 
go; as, to draw away; to df^iw nigh. 4. To 
obtain means or money, or receive supplies on 
application. 5. To delineate, as with a pencil ; 
practise drawing. 6. To unsheath a sword. 
LME. drawen, < AS. dragan.] — draw'back'', 
71. 1. Anything that hinders; a disadvantage. 2. 
An allowance; a rebate. — draw'bridge'', «. 
A bridge of which the whole or a part may be 
raised, let down, or drawn aside. — draw-ee', 
drS-1', 71. The one upon whom an order for the 
payment of money Is drawn. — draw'er, n. 1 . 
One who draws; formerly, a waiter. *2. Com. 
One who draws a bill of exchange, money»order, 
or the like. 3. A sliding receptacle, as In a bu- 
reau, table, etc. — draw'ers, n. pi. A trouser* 
like undergarment. — draw'ing, n. 1. The 
act of one who or that which draws, ti, A pic- 
ture, sketch, delineation, or design; also, the art 
of representing objects by lines; delineation. 

draw, ?i. 1. An act of drawing. 2. An in- 
decisive contest; a tie game. 3. The movable 
section of a drawbridge. 

draw'ingsroom", n. A room for the re- 
ception of company; also, the company assem- 
bled. [Abbr. of WITHDRAWING'ROOM.] 

drawl, drel. I. vf. & ri. To speak or pro- 
nounce slowly and lazily. II. w. Spiritless 
utterance. [Freq. of draav.] 

dray, dre, n. A strong, heavy vehicle, usually 
low at the rear. 
[< AS. draege, 
thin^ drawn.] 
, — dray'age, 
dre'§j, n. 1. 
The act of con- 
veying In a dray. 
2. The charge 
for draylng. 

dread, dred. F. vt. To anticipate with hor- 
ror or shrinking. II. a. 1. Causing great fear; 
terrible. 2. Exciting awe or reverential fear. 
III. n. 1. Unconquerable fright; shrinking 
horror; terrifying anticipation. 2. Fear joined 
to deep respect; awe. 31. That which causes 
awe or fear. [AS. drxdan.l — dread'ful, a. 
Inspiring dread or awe; terrible; awful.— 
dread'ful-ly, orfw.— dread'ful-uess, n. 

dream, drtm. I. vt. & vi. [dreamed or 
DREAMT, dremt; dream'ing.] To imagine in 
or as in a dream; have a dream or dreams; 
fancy; hope; imagine; also, to indulge in rev- 
erie. II. n. A tram of thoughts or images pass- 
ing through the mind in sleep; also, a visionary 

Two=wheeled Dray. 

idea, anticipation, or fancy. [AS. *dredm.] 

— dreamier, n. One who dreams; a vision- 
ary.— dream'ful, a.— dreain'i-ly, adv. In a 
dreamymanner.— dreaiii'Iess, a.— dream'y, 
drim'l, a. 1. Of, pertaining to, or given to 
dreams. 3. Appropriate to dreams. 

drear, drir, a. [Poet.] Dreary. 

drear'y, drtr'i, a. [drear'i-er; drear'i-est.] 
Forlorn, lonely, or gloomy; dismal; wearisome; 
monotonous; dull. [< AS. dreong., sad.] 
— drear'i-ly, ad».— drear'i-ness, n. 

dredge^ drej. I. vt. & vi. [dredged; 
dredg'ing.] To clean out by means of a 
dredge; remove by a dredge; use a dredge; 
seek laboriously or blindly. II. n. An ap- 
pliance for bringing up mud, silt, etc., from 
under water. [< OF. drege, oyster»net.] 

dredge^. I. vt. In cookery, to sprinkle or 
sift something, as flour, upon. II. n. A box 
with perforated lid, for dredging meat. 
[< F. dragee., < Gr. tragemata, sweetmeats.] 
dredge^box''^; dredg^ingsbox^'t. 

dredg'eri, drej'er, n. One who dredges; a boat 
or machine for dredging. 

dredg'er2, 7i. In cookery, a dredgIng=box. 

dredg'ing, drej'ing, n. The act of using a 
dredge; that which is taken up with a dredge. 

dregs, dregz, n. pi. The sediment of liquids; 
lees: grounds; refuse.— dreg'jjv, a. Contain- 
ing dregs; full of dregs; foul.— dreg'gi-ness, 
«.— dreg'cisli, a. 

drencllS drench, vt. 1. To wet thoroughly; 
soak. 2. yeter. To administer a drench to. 

drencll, ra. 1. Yeter. A liquid medicine, ad- 
ministered by compulsion, as to a horse. 2. A 
large draft or quantity of fluid; flood. [< AS. 
drenc^ < drincan, drink, v.] 

dress, dres, v. [dressed' or drest; dress'- 
ING.] I. t. 1. To attire suitably; clothe; 
array; adorn. 2. To put in order; arrange; 
adjust; cleanse and bind up, as a wound; pre- 
pare. II. i. 1. To put on or wear clothing, 
especially elaborate attire. 2 . To form in line ; 
range. [ < L.of directvs, direct, a.] — dress'- 
eri, dres'er, n. One who or that which dresses. 

— dre8s'er2, n. A kitchen table with shelves; 
a cupboard; sideboard.— dress'ing, dres'Ing, 
n. The act of dressing, or that with which any- 
thing, as a wound, is dressed. 

dress, n. 1. Covering for the body; clothes 
collectively; especially, elegant or fashionable 
attire. 2. A gown or frock of a woman or 
child. — dres8'ma''ker, n. One who makes 
dresses for women or children. — dress'ina-"- 
kiiig, n.— dress'y, a. [Colloq.] Fond of 
dress; showy; elegant. 

drew, dru, imp. of draw, v. 

drib'ble, drib'l. I. vt. & vi. [drib'bled; 
drib'bling.] To drip; give out bj^ piecemeal. 
II. Ti. Liquid falling in drops or in a scanty 
stream. [For dripple, freq. of drip.]— drib'- 
let, M. A scanty portion, drib^blet;. 

drieil, draid, imp. & pp. of dry, v. 

driver, drai'gr, n. One who or that which dries. 

dri''er, dri'est, compar. & superl. of dry, a. 

drift'', drift, vt. & vi. To carry or be carried 
along, as on a current; accumulate in masses 
by the force of the wind, as snow. 

drift, n. 1. That which is driven onward or 
piled up by a current. 2. A course of motion; 
tendency, as of an argument. 3. A driving; 

fifit|ure (future); aisle; au (owt); oil; c (k); chat; dh (the); go; sing, ink; tliin. 



an urgent force; controlling influence. 4. A 
drove. 5. A boring tool. Q. Mining. A hori- 
zontal passage. [ < AS. d?%fan; see drive.] 

drill, dril, vL & vi. 1. To pierce or bore, as 
with a drill. 2. To train or engage in military 
exercises. 3. To plant in rows or drills. [< 
D. cliiilen, bore, brandish, drill soldiers.] 

drill, n. 1. A boring=tool for metal. 2. A 
machine for planting seeds in rows; also, a row 
so planted. 3. Thorough military training. 

drill^ing, n. A firm twilled fabric of linen 
or cotton. [< L.^ trilix, of three threads.] 

drVly, adv. Same as dryly. 

drink, drink, vt. & vi. [imp. drank, dra^k 
(formerly drunk, drunk); 2^P- drunk (for- 
merly drtjnk'en); drink'i.v^g.] 1. To take 
(a liquid) into the stomach through the mouth. 
2. To absorb; receive eagerly.— drink'a-bl(e. 

I. a. Capable of or suitable for use as a drink. 

II. «. A beverage.— drink' er, w. 
drink, n. 1. Any liquid that is or may be 

swallowed; a beverage. 2. As much as is or 
may be taken at one time; a draft. [< AS. 
drinc, < drincan, drink.] 

drip, drip. r. vt. & m. To fall, or let fall, in 
drops. II. n. A falling, or letting fall, in 
drops. [< AS. dryppan., dnjinan, cause to 
drop.] — drip'ping, n. That which falls in 
drops; the fat from roasting meat. 

drive, draiv, v. [drove, drov; driv'en, driv'n; 
DRi'viNG.] 1.. t. 1. To push, urge, or press 
forward forcibly; impel, urge, and guide, as a 
horse; prosecute urgently, as a business. 2. 
To convey in a carriage. II. i. 1. To be im- 
pelled onward by force. 2. To press forward 
furiously; aim a blow; direct one's action. 3. 
To ride in a carriage or direct the animal or 
animals by which it is drawn. [ < AS. dnfan.] 

— dri'ver, n. One who or that which drn^es; a 
coachman; locomotive engineer; driving=wheel. 
— dri'viiigswlieel''', n. A wheel Imparting 
motion to other wheels, or Impelling a machine. 

drive, n. 1. The act of driving. 2. A road 
for driving. drive''way$. 3. A journey or 
excursion in a carriage. 4. Urgent pressure, 
as of business. 5. A drove or drift, as of cattle. 

driv'el, driv'l. I. vi. [driv'eled or driv'- 
elled; driv'el-ing or driv'el-ling.] To 
let spittle flow from the mouth; be weak or 
silly. II. w. 1. An involuntary flow of saliva 
from the mouth. 2. Senseless talk; twaddle. 

— driv'el-er, n. driv'el-lert. 
driv'en, driv'n, jop. of drive, v. 
driz'zl(e, driz'l. I. vt. &vi. [driz'zl(e)d; 

DRiz'zLiNo.] To shed or fall m flne drops. 
II. n. A lightrain.— driz'zly, a. 
droll, drOl. I. vi. To jest; play the buffoon. 
II. a. Odd; comical; ludicrous; funny; queer. 
Illll. n. 1. A jester; a funny fellow. 2. A 
farce; a comical tale. [< OP. droile^ < D. dfol, 
pleasant fellow, droll.] 

— droll'er-y, n. [-ib8«, jo/.] Wagglshness; 
facctlousncss; humor; oddity.— drol'ly, adv. 

drom'e-da-ry, druni'e-dij-ri, 7i. [-ries»,7>/.] 
A fleet, elegant, one»huniped riding camel. See 
illuH. in next column. [< P. dromadaire, < 
Gr. d7'oma8, a ninning.] 

drone', dron. I. vt. & vi. [dronbd; dro'- 
NiNG.] To hum. II. n. A dull, monotonous, 
humming sound, as of a bee; one of the three 
long tubes of the bagpipe. 

drone^. I. vt. To idle. II. //. A male bee, 
that gathers no honey; hence, an idler. 

droop, drup. 
I', vt. & vi. 

1. To allow 
to hang list- 
lessly; lean 
or bend 
sink as from 

2. To lose 
vigor and 
spirit; des- 
pond; de- 
cline. II. n. 
A sinking or 
down. [< 
Ice. dt'upa., 
< d7'jUpa, 

drop, drop. 
I. vt. & vi. 
[dropped' or dropt; drop'ping.] 1. To fall 
or let fall in drops. 2. To fall or let fall in any 


way, literally or figuratively; give up; 
descend; subside; sink. II. n. 1. A globule 
of liquid; a very small quantity of anything; a 
pendant. 2. A fall; descent. [<AS.d7V2)a, 
< dreopan, drop, drip.] 
drop'sy, drep'si, n. An abnormal accumula- 
tion of liquid in some part of the body. [Abbr. 
of HYDROPSY, < Gr.L+F hydropiasis, dropsy.] 

— drop')!ii-cal, a. Resembling, relating to, or 
affected with dropsy. -drop'sied, a. Afflicted 
with dropsy; swollen. 

drosh'ky, (^dresh'ki, dres'ki, n. 1. A light 

dros'ky, ) open four»wheeled Russian car- 
riage. 2. A public cab in some European cities. 
[< G. droschke, < Rus. drogi., carrnxge.] 

dross, dres, n. Refuse or impurity in melted 
metal; slag; cinders; refuse; waste. [< AS. 
dros, < dreosan; see dreary-.] 

drougrllt, ( draut, draulh, n. Long«contin- 

droum, (ued dry weather; want of rain; 
dearth; thirst. [ < AS. druaath, < dryqe, dry; 
see dry.] — drouglit'y, drouth'y, draut'i, 
drouth' 1, a. Marked 'by or suffering from 
drought or thirst; thirsty.- drouRlifi-ness, 
<lroutli'i-ne88, n. 

drove, drOv, n. A number of animals driven 
or herded for driving. [< AS. draf^ < di'ifan, 
DRIVE.] — dro'ver, n. One who drives animals 
In droves to market. 

dro-wn, draun, v. 1. 1. 1. To kill by immer- 
sion, as in water. 2. To overflow; deluge; over- 
whelm. II. t. Todieby suffocation in liquid. 
[< AS. druncnian, be drowned, sink.] 

drowse, drauz. I. vt. & ri. [drowsed; 
DROws'iNG.] To make, be, or becc.'ne sleepy; 
doze; be listless. II. n. The state of being 
half-asleep; a doze. [< AS. drusian, < di'ed- 
san, fall.]—- drow'sy, a. [drow'si-er; drow'- 
si-EST.] Ileavvwlth sleepiness; dull.— drow'- 
Ni-ly, a'fr.- «lro^v'Hi-nesM, ?i. 

drub, drub. I. vt. & vi. [drubbed; drub'- 
BiNo.] To beat; cudgel; thrash. II. n. . A 
blow; thump. [< AS. drepan, beat.] 

— drub'binv, n. A thrashing. 

papd, \|8k; at, air; elfimjnt, th6y, usfge; It, g, i (ee); o, oh; orator, or; full, rfile; but, ur; 



drudge, (Iruj. l.ti. [drudged; drudg'ing.] 
To toil without spirit or interest; worlc hard 
and slavishly. II. n. One who toils at menia) 
tasks.- drudg'er-y, «. [-ies^ pi.] Dull, 
wearisome, or menial work. 

drug, drug. I. vt. & VI. [drugged; drug'- 
GiNG.] To mix drugs with, or administer drugs 
to, especially soporific drugs; stupefy; also, 
to take drugs. U. n. 1. Any substance used 
medicinally. 2. An unsalable commodity. 
[< OF. drogue, drug, < D. droog, dry.] 

— drugr^Ki^t^ n. Adealerindriigs; an apothe- 
cary; pharmacist. 

drug'get, drug'et, n. A coarse woolen fabric 
for nigs and the like. 

dru'id, dru'id, n. A priest of ancient Gaul and 
Britain: used also adjectivally. [< L. drvida., 
< Old Ir. dnd, magician.] — dru-id'ic-al, a. 
Of or pertaining to the druids. dru-id'ict. 

drum, drum. I. vt. & vi. [drummed; drum'- 
MiNG.] 1. To play (a tune) on a drum; beat a 
drum. 2. 3Iil. To expel with beat of drum: 
withow^. 3. To arouse as by beat of drum; 
solicit, as trade: usually with w/?. II. w. 1. A 
musical instrument, consisting of a hollow 
cylinder, the ends of which are covered with 
skin, to be beaten with drumsticks. 2. One of 
various cylindrical organs or constructions, as 
the tympanum, or middle ear. — drum'nier, i}. 
1. One who drums. 2. [U. S.] A traveling 
salesman.— druni'stick'', n. A stick for beat- 
ing a drum. 

drunk, drvnk, pp. of drink, v.: formerly imp. 

drunk, a. Inebriated; intoxicated.— drunk'- 
ard, n. One who habitually drinks to Intoxica- 
tion; a sot.— drunk^en, a. Given to, resulting 
from, or characterized by drunkenness; drunk; 
tipsy, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

drupe, drup, n. Bot. A soft fleshy fruit en- 
closing a hard'shelled stone or seed, as in the 
cherry. [ < L. drupa, < Gr. drypepes,yery ripe.] 

dry, drai. I. vt. & vi. [dried; dry'ing.] 
1. To make dry; evaporate; wither. 2. To 
cease or cause to cease to flow: usually with 
up. II. a. [dri'er; dri'est.] 1. Lacking 
moisture; not wet or damp; not fresh; not 
green. 2. Thirstv. 3. Lacking interest; life- 
less; dull. 4. Slyly jocose or satirical. [<AS. 
dryge.]—dry^ly,adv. dri'ly:):.— dry'ness, «. 

dry'ad, drai'ad, n. Gr. 3£yth. A wood-nymph. 
[< Gr.^ dryas., < drys, tree.] — dry-ad'ic, a. 

dry'er, dry'est, n. Same as drier, driest. 

dry'ing, dral'lng, ppr. & verbal n. of dry, v. 

du'al, diu'al, a. Denoting or relating to two; 
composed of two, as of two natures; twofold; 
binary. [< L. dvalis, < dno, two.] — du'^al- 
is'tic, a.— du-al'i-ty, 7i. The state or char- 
acter of being two or of being composed of two. 

dub, dub, t-<. [dubred; dub'bing.] To con- 
fer knighthood upon; name or style; entitle. 

du'bi-ous, diu'bi-us, a. 1. Doubting; doubt- 
ful; problematic. 2. Suspicious; questionable; 
equivocal;, ambiguous. [< l,.^^dvbius, < duo., 
two.] -iy, adv. -ness, n. 

du^cal, diu'cal, a. Of or pertaining to a duke 
or a duchy. [ < L. dux {due-), leader.] 

duc'at, duc'at, n. One of several European 
coins, ranging in value from about 83 cents to 
82.25. [P., < L.i^ dux, leader.] 

ducb'ess, duch'es, n. The wife or widow of 
a duke; female sovereign of a duchy. 

ducli'y, duch'i, n. [DUCH'IES^ pi.] The ter- 
ritory or dominion of a duke; a dukedom. 

duck', due, vt. & vi. 1. To plunge suddenly 
underwater; dive. 2. To bow quickly; bob; 
dodge; cringe. 

duck^, n. A web=»footed, short=legged water- 
fowl. [< AS. duce.] 

— duck^Iiiig, n. A young duck. 
duck^, n. A sudden downward movement, 

as of the head; quick plunge under water. 

duck^, n. 1. A strong linen or cotton fabric. 
2. pi. [Colloq.] Trousers made from such 
cloth. [< D. doek; cp. G. tuck, cloth.] 

duct, duct, n. A tube or passage by which a 
fluid is conveyed. [< L. ductus, a leading.] 

duc'til(e, duc'til, a. 1. Capable of being 
drawn out, as into wire. 2. Easily led; tract- 
able; pliant. [< L. ductilis, < ductus, pp. of 
duco, lead.] — duc-tii'i-ty, n. The state or 
degree of bemg ductile, diic'til (e-nessi:. 

dud. dud, n. [Colloq.] An old or shabby garment. 

dude, diud, n. A fop.— du'dish, a. 

dudg'eon, duj'un, n. Sullen displeasure; 
resentment. [Prob. < W. dygen, malice.] 

due, din. I. a. 1. Owing and demandable; 
owed, as moral duty, or as a consequence; 
proper; appropriate; fairly to be ascribed. 2. 
Appointed or expected to arrive, as a ship or a 
train. II. n. That which is owed or right- 
fully required; a debt or obligation. III. 
adv. Directly; exactly; as, due east. [F., < 
L. debilus, pp. of debeo, owe.] 

du'el, diu'el, n. 1. A prearranged combat 
between two persons. 2. Any encounter 
between two contending parties. [F.] — du'el- 
iiigr, n. The act of fighting a duel or duels. 
du'eUliiigt.— dn'el-ist, n. An'e\-\\HtX. 

du-en^na, du-en'a, n. An elderly woman who 
watches over a young woman. [Sp.] 

du-et', diu-et', n. A composition for two voices 
or instruments; also, a four=handed piece for 
the pianoforte. [< It. duetto, < duo, two.] 

dug, dug, imp. & pp. of dig. 

dug, n. A teat or udder. 

dug'out'", dug'Qut", 11. 1. A canoe formed of a 
hollowed log. 3. [U. S.] A rude dwelling exca- 
vated In a hillside. 

duke, diak, n. 1. A nobleman of the highest 
rank. 2. A reigning prince inferior to a king. 
[< F. due, < L. dux {due-), leader.] 

— duke'doiii, n. 1. A duchy. 3. The dig- 
nity or title of a duke. 

dul'cet, dul'set, a. Sweet to the taste or to the 
ear; pleasing. [< L. c?wfci^, sweet.] 

dul'ci-mer, dul'si-mgr, n. 1. A stringed in- 
strument played with two padded hammers. 
2. An ancient wind»instrument. [< L.'^*' 
dulce, sweet, + melos, < Gr. melos, song.] 

dul-cin'e-a, dul-sin'e-a, n. A sweetheart: from 
Dulcinea del Toboso, In " Don Quixote." [Sp.] 

dull, dul. I. vt. & vi. To make or become 
less sharp, acute, bright, or intense; blunt; 
moderate; depress; cloud; tarnish. II. a. 
Not sharp, keen, bright, or acute; blunt; slug- 
gish; wearisome; sad^ dismal: obscure; dim. 
[<AS. dol (f or *dwol), < yof dwell.]— dull'- 
ard, dul'ard, n. Advdl or stupid person; a dolt. 
— dul'ly, adv.— duVncHS, n. dulPnessit. 

du'ly, diii'li, adv. In accordance with what 
is due; fitly; becomingly; regularly. 

dumCb, dum, a. 1. Havingnopower of speech; 

flutlure (future); aisle; a« (out); oil; c (k); cliai; dli (^^e); go; sing, ink; thin. 



eir', n. A gymnastic 

mute; silent. 2. Not clearly manifest; latent. 

[< AS. 6??/m6.]— dumb-'sbelP', n. A gymnastic 

implement consisting of a 

handle with a ball at each 

end.— d.swaiter, n. A 

movable framework for 

carrying things from one 

room or floor to another.- 

— d u m ( b ' 1 y , adv.- 

my, dum'l. I. a. Sham; Dmnb^bells. 

counterfeit. II. n. [dum'miesi, jo?.] A silent 
person or actor; something made with a super- 
tlcial resemblance to something else; a steam- 
motor car. 

dump, dump. It. vt. & m. To unload or re- 
move in mass. II. n. [U. S.] A dumpings 
ground; also, that which is dumped. 

dump'ling, dump'ling, n. A pudding, often 
enveloping fruit or meat. [< dump, w.] 

dumps, n. pi. A gloomy state of mind; melan- 
choly. [Prob. Scand.] — dump'ish, a. 

dump'y, dump'i, a. Short and thick; stocky. 

dun. dun, vt. &vi. [dunned; dun'ning.] To 
press for payment; make a din; clamor. 

dun, a. Of a dull, dark»brown color; swarthy. 

dun, n. 1. One who duns. 2. The act of 
dunning; a demand for payment. 

dunce, duns, n. A stupid or ignorant person. 

dune, diun, n. A hill of loose sand; a down. 

dung, dung, n. Animal feces. [< AS. dung.] 

dun'geon, dun'jun, n. A dark underground 
cell; any i)rison. [< F. donjon, dungeon.] 

dung'liill", dung'hir. I. a. From or of the 
dunghill; ignoble. II. w. A heap of manure. 

An'o, An'b.n. Mu.1. A duet. [It.] 

du^o-dec'l-mal, diii'o-dcs'i-mal, a. Deno- 
ting a system of reckoning by twelves^ [< L. 
ditodecim, twelve.] — dii'^j-dec'i-mal, n. 

du'^o-dec'l-mo, diij"o-de8'i-mo, n. 1. A book* 
page of about 4^^ by 7i inches; a book having 
such pages: often written 12mo.: used also 
adjectivally. 2. Mus. An interval of a twelfth. 

dupe, diiip. I. vt. [duped'; du'ping.] To 
make a dupe of; impose upon. II. n. One 
misled through credulity. [F.J 

du'plex, diu'plex, a. Having two parts; 
double; twofold; also, working in two ways 
or in opposite directions. [L., < duo, two, -)- 
plico, fold.] 

du'pli-cate, diu'pli-ket. I. vt. & vi. [-ca'- 
TED"!; -cA'TiNo.l To make a duplicate of; 
reproduce exactly; make a thing or do an act 
exactly like a preceding one. II. diQ'pli-ket 
or-kgt, a. 1. Made or done exactly like an 
original. 2. Growing in pairs; double. III. 
n. Originally one of two, now one of any num- 
ber of objects exactly alike; an exact copy; a 
reproduction. [< L. duo, two, -\- plico, lold.] 
du^^p1i-ca'tion,n. The act of duplicating, 

or the state of being duplicated.— du'pli-ca- 

tiire, dlQ'pll-k§-chur or -tlQr, n. A doubling or 

du-plic'i-ty, diu-plie'i-ti, n. [^-ties* pi.] 

Tricky deceitfuiness; double»dealing. [< F. 

dvydinte, < L. duplex, duplex.] 
du'ra-t)l(e, din'ra-bl, a. Able to continue long 

in the same state; lasting. [F., < L. duraUlis, 

lasting, < dnruo, hard.] — du'^ra-bll'l-ty, ;/. 

dii'ra«bl(e-nei!iHt«— du'rn-bly, adv. 
du^ranoe, din'rans, n. Personal restraint; 

imprisonment. [OF., < L. dvro, endure.] 

du-ra^tion, diu-re'shun, n. The period of 

time during which anything lasts; time in 

general. [< L.^^- duro, endure.] 
du''ress, diu'res or du-res', n. Constraint by 

force or fear; compulsion; imprisonment. 

[< L.OF durus, hard.] du-resse'J. 
dur'ing, diur'ing, j)r€p. In or within the time 

of. [Orig. ppr. of dure, last.] 
durst, dtjrst, imj). of dake, v. 
dusk, dusk. I. a. [Archaic or Poet.] 1. 

Somewhat dark; obscure; dim. 2. Swarthy. 

II. n. 1. A state between darkness and light; 
twilight. 2. Swarthiness; shadowiness. [Cp. 
Sw. dusk, raw weather.] — dusk'y, a. [dusk'i- 
ER; DUSK'i-EST.] Somcwhat dark; dim; obscure; 
swarthy.— dusk'i-ly, adz?.— dusk'i-ness, n. 
Moderate darkness. 

dust, dust. 1^. vt. 1. To brush or wipe dust 
away from. 2. To sprinkle as with dust. 3. 
To reduce to dust. II. n. 1. Any substance, 
as earth, reduced to powder. 2. A dead body; 
remains; the grave. 3. [Eng.] Ashes and 
household sweepings. [ < A'^.dust (for dust).'] 

— dust'er, n. 1. One who or that which 
dusts, "i, A cloth or brush for removing dust. 
3. A garment or covering to protect from dust.— 
diist'y, a. [dxist'i-er;dust'i-est.] 1. Covered 
with or as with dust. 2. Of the color of dust. 

Dutch, duch, n. 1. The people of Holland, or 
their language. 2. Loosely, the German race 
or language. [< G. de^itsch, German.] 

— Dutch'inan, duch'man, n. [Dutch'men, 
pi.] A Hollander. 

du'ty, diu'ti, n. [du'ties^, pi.] 1. That 
which one is under obligation to pay or do; 
moral obligation. 2. An impost, as upon im- 
ports. 3 Ij . A formal expression of respect. [ < 
DUE.] — du'te-ou8, a. Rendering due respect 
and obedience; dutiful, -ly, adv. -ness, «.— 
du'ti-a-bl(e, a. Law. Subject to impost.— 
du'ti-t n 1, a. Performing the duties of one's po- 
sition; submlS8ive;respectful. -ly, adv. -ne88,«. 

dwarf, dwerf. I', vt. 1. To stunt. 2. To 
cause to look small by comparison. II. a. 
Smaller than others of its kind; diminutive. 

III. n. A x^t-rson, animal, or plant that is un- 
naturally small. [< AS. diveorh.] — AwaTP' 
ish, a. Like a dwarf; diminutive; stunted. 

dwelU, dwel, vi. [dwelt or dwel(l)ed; 
dwel(l)'ing.] 1. To have a fixed abode; 
reside. 2. To linger; pause; expatiate: with 
on or unon. [< AS. divellan, caus. ofdwelan, 
be dull, err.] — dwel(l/er, n. A resident; 
Inhabitant. — dvrcKD'iiiir, n. A residence; 
domlcll; family abode. 

dwin'dl(e,dwin'dl, ri. [dwin'dl(e)d;dwin'- 
DLiNG.] To waste, dimmish, or become less; 
decline. [< AS. du'uian, pine away.] 

dye, dai, v. [dyed; dye'ing.] I. /. To 
color by soaking in liquid coloring-matter; 
stain; tinge. II. i. 1. To absorb liquid color. 
2. To follow the dyers' trade. [< AS. dea- 
gian, < dedg, dye, color.] 

dye, n. 1. A fiuid or coloring-matter used for 
dyeing. 2. A color produced by or as by dye- 
ing; hue. — dye'shouse", /J. A building where 
dyeing is done.— dye'inar, n. The act, process, 
or trade of flxing colors in cloth or the like.— 
dy't'v, «. One who dyes. 

dy'ing, doi'ing, pa. 1. Departing from the 
present life; near to death; expiring; failing; 
closing. 2. Destined to death; mortal; per- 

papfi, QBk; at, air; element, they, usfge; It, %, i (ee); o, oh; orator, »r; full, rule; but, wr; 



ishable. 3. Of or pertaining to death; also, 
given, uttered, or manifested juet before death. 

dyke, n. Same as dike. 

dy-nam'ic, l dai-nam'ic, -q1, a. 1. Per- 

dy-nam'ic-al, j taining to motion as the 
result of force, or to mechanical force of any 
kind. 2. Producing or involving activity or 
action; efficient; causal. [< Gr. dynamikos, 
powerful, < (Z?/wamai, be able.] — dy-nam'ic- 
al-ly, adt'.— dy-iiain'ic8, dal-nam'ics,7i. The 
branch of science that treats of the laws of force. 

dy'na-mite, dai'na-mait, n. An explosive, 
composed of an absorbent saturated with nitro- 
glycerin. [< Gr. c?2/namw, power.] 

dy'iia-mo, dai'na-mo, 7i. Elec. A machine 
for producing electricity by mechanical action. 
[Short for dynamo-'ELECtric machine ] 

dy'nas-ty, dai'nas-ti, n. [-ties^, pl.l A suc- 
cession of sovereigns in one line of family 
descent. [< Gr. dynasteia, < dynamai, be 
able.] — dy-nas'tic, -al, a. 

dys'en-ter-y, dis'en-ter-i, n. Inflammation 
of the large intestine; bloody flux; diarrhea. 
[< Gr.i'+F dys-, bad, -\- enteron, intestine.] 

— dys'^en-ter'ic, a. Pertaining to or suflfer- 
ing from dysentery. dy8''en-ter'ic-alt. 

dys-pep'si-a, dis-pep'si-a, n. Difficult or 
painful digestion, generally chronic. [< Gr.^ 
dyspepsia, < dys-, bad, -\-pepto, cook.] 

— dys-pep'tic. I. a. 1. Relating to, of the 
nature of, or suffering from dyspepsia; hence, 
morbid; querulous. 3. Tending to produce dys- 
pepsia; indigestible. dys«pep'tic-alt> II. n. 
A dyspeptic person. 


E, e, t, n. [ees, E's, or ^s, tz, pl.l The fifth 
letter in the English alphabet. 

e-,pr^x. Out of; out; from: a shortened form 
of EX- used before consonants. [< L. e-, < ex-, < 
ex, out, from.] 

each, ich. I. a. Being one of two or more 
individuals that together form an aggregate; 
every. II. p7vn. Every one of any number 
or aggregation considered individually; each 
one. [< AS. a for div, ever, + geFic, like.] 

ea'ger, t'ggr, a. Impatiently anxious for some- 
thing; intent; keen; vehement. [< F. aigi^e, 
< L. acer {acr-), sharp.] -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

ea'gl(e, I'gl, n. 1. A very large diurnal bird 
of prey. 2. A gold coin of 
the United States, value $10, 
weight 258 grains. 3. A 
Roman military standard, 
bearing the image of an 
eagle. [< L. ^'ag-wiTa, eagle.] 

ea'glet, t'glet, n. A young 

ear, Tr, vi. To form ears, as 

earl, n. 1. The organ of 
hearing. 2. The sense of 
hearing; nice musical per- 
ception. 3. Attentive con- 
sideration; heed. 4. Anything like the ex- 
ternal ear, as a projecting piece, handle, etc. 
[< AS. edre, = Goth, auso, ear.] 

— ear'less, a. Destitute or deprived of ears. 
— ear'mark'', n. An owner's mark on the ear 
of an animal; any mark of identification.— ear'- 
ring'', n. A pendant worn at the ear.— ear'- 
wig'', n. An insect with horny wlng^covers 
and a caudal forceps : popularly supposed to 
enter the human ear. 

ear^, n. The fruit=bearing part of a cereal 
plant; the head, as of wheat. [< AS. ear.] 

earl, grl, n. A member of the British nobility 
next above a viscount. [< AS. eorl, man, 
nobleman.] — earPdom, n. The dignity, pre- 
rogative, or territory of an earl. 

ear'ly, er'li. I. a. [ear'li-er; ear'li-est.] 
1. Occurring among the first in a series. 2. 

Head and Talon 
of an Eagle. 

Being or occurring sooner than is usual or nec- 
essary. 3. About to be or happen; soon to 
occur. II. adv. At or near the beginning of 
a period of time. [< AS. serUce, adv.] 

— ear'li-ness, n. 

earn, gm, vt. To gain as a just recompense 
by labor or exertion; merit. [< AS. earnian.] 

— earn'intr, n. That which is earned; com- 
pensation; wages: commonly In the plural. 

ear'nest, gr'nest, a. 1 . Zealous ; fervent. 2. 

Serious; important, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 
ear'nest^ n. Seriousness; reality. [< AS. 

eorness, zeal.] 
ear'nest^, h. 1. Money paid in advance to 

bind a bargain. 2. An assurance of something 

to come. [ < W. ernes, pledge.] 
eartb, grth, n. 1. The globe on which we 

dwell. 2. Ground; soil; an earthy metallic 

oxid, as ocher. 3. Those who inhabit the 

globe; the world. 4. The hole of a burrowing 

animal. [< AS. eorthe.] 

— eartli'en, erth'n, a. Made of earth or 
of burnt clay. — earth-'en -ware'', n. Pot- 
tery.— eartli'i-ness, n. The quality of being 
earthy or like earth.— eartli'li-ness, n. The 
quality of being earthly; grossness; worldllness. 
— earth'ling, «. A worldling or a mortal.— 
earth'ly, erth'li, a. Pertaining to the earth or 
to the present world; material; secular; worldly; 
carnal.— eartli'quake'', n. A vibration of a 
portion of the earth's crust.— earth'worin'", 
71. A burrowing terrestrial worm.— earth'y, 
a. 1 . Of or pertaining to earth or soil; made of 
earth. 3. Like earth. 3. Unrefined; coarse. 

ease, Iz. I. vt. [eased; eas'ing.] To give 
ease or relief; relieve; lighten. II. 9i. 1. 
Freedom from agitation or perplexity; tran- 
quillity; comfort. 2. Freedom from apparent 
effort; facility. 3. Freedom from affectation 
or constraint. [< OF. aiser, < aise, ease.] 

ea'sel, I'zl, n. A folding frame for supporting 
a picture. [ < D. ezd, ass, easel.] 

eas'i-ly, iz'i-li, adv. In an easy manner. 

eas'i-ness, Tz'i-nes, n. The state of being at 
ease, or of being easy to do or accomplish. 

east, Ist. I. a. 1. Placed or being at the 

fiutjure (future); aisle; au (owt); oil; c (k); chat; dh {the)\ go; sing, i^k; thin. 



east; eastern. 2. Coming from the east. II. 
n. 1. That point of the compass at which the 
sunrises at the equinox. 2. Any region to the 
eastward; [E-] the Orient. III. adv. In an 
easterly direction. [< AS. east, adv., in the 
east.]— east'er-ly, a. 1. Situated, moving, 
or directed toward the east; eastward. 2. Com- 
ing from the east.— east'er-ly, east'ern-ly, 
adv. Toward the east.— east'ern, a. 1. [E-] 
Of, pertaining to, or being in the East; Oriental. 
2. Moving to or from the east: easterly.— east'- 
ward. I. a. Eunning or tending in an easterly 
direction. W, adv. Toward the east. 

East^er, ist'gr, n. A Christian festival com- 
memorating the resurrection of Christ; also, 
the day on which it is celebrated. [ < AS. easier., 
< Eastre goddess of spring.] 

eas'y, iz'i, a. [eas'i-er; eas'i-est.] 1. T^ot 
involving great exertion or difficulty. 2. Free 
from discomfort or anxiety; comfortable. 3. 
Possessed of a sufficient competence. 4. Free 
from embarrassment or affectation; iiatural. 
5. Yielding; indulgent. 6. Gentle. 

eat, It, V. [ate or eat, et; eat'en, It'n (some- 
times eat, et); eat'ing.] I. ^ 1. To chew 
and swallow, as food; take in, as nourishment. 
2. To consume or corrode. II. i. 1. To take 
sustenance; feed. 2. To gnaw or penetrate 
something, as by any coiTosive agency. [ < AS. 
etan^ — eat'a-bl(e, It'a-bl. I. a. Fit to be eat- 
en; edible. II. n. Something edible.— eat'er, M. 

eaves, Ivz, n. iil. The projecting edge of a 
roof. [< AS. efese., clipped edge of thatch.] 

— eaves' cirop''^', ivz'drep",?;^. «& vl. To over- 
hear, or try to overhear; listen clandestinely.— 
eave8'drop''per,«.— eaves^drop^'ping, «. 

ebl>, eb. I. ri. To recede, as the tide; de- 
cline; fail. W.71. 1 . The reflux of tide*water 
to the ocean, ebb'stide'':):. 2. Decrease; 
decline. [<AS, ^66a.] 

eb'on, eb'en. I. a. 1. Of ebony. 2. Very 
black. II. w. Ebony. — eb'on-Ite, n. Black 
vulcanite, or hard rubber. — eb'on-ize or -ise, 
rt. To polish, in Imitation of ebony. 

eb'on-y , eb'^n-i, n. [-iess pl?^ A hard, heavy 
wood, usually black, used for cabinet-work, 
etc. [ < Gr.^+f 666«o«, prob. < Egypt, habni.l 

eb'^ul-ll'tion, eb'ul-lish'un, n. The bubbling 
of a liquid; l)oiling; violent agitation. | < f, '•'• 
€, out, -|- bullio, boil.] 

eC'^ prefix. From; out of: used be 
fore nuxny words begin- , *- - '' 

nlng with a consonant: ^■pE*',''. fi* 
sometimes equivalent In ^H 
Bchuitlflc terms to ^r/o- or 
exo-. [L., < Gr. ek-, < ek, form of 
ex, out, before a consonant.] 

ec-cen'tric, ec-sen'- Eccentn. 

trie. I. a. 1. Peculiar; Thedittk.rf, is.'.ccntnc- 
erratic. 2. Not in the ally fixed Iw the key, k, 
center; not having the *° "»*' «'"^". «; a"/ J"- 

anmp poiit^r- not n nor ^'t^^, niovenient of the 

same center, not a per- ^j.^ft imparts a recipro- 

fect circle, as an ellip- catinjr movement to the 
tical orbit. II. n. 1. eonnections of the col- 

Mech. A disk mounted 1*^^. <^- 
out of center on a driving-shaf t, and surrounded 
by a collar or strap connected with a rod, giv- 
ing the effect of a crank motion. 2. One who 
or that which is eccentric. [ < f Jr. ek\ out of, 
+ kentron, centeii.] ec-cen'tric-al$. 

— ec-ccn'trlc-al-ly, adv.— ec''cen-trlc'- 
l-ty, ec'sen-trls'l-tl, n. [-tiks«, pi.] 1, The 

state or quality of being eccentric; oddity. 2. 
An eccentric, odd, or capricious act. 3. Mech. 
The distance between the centers of two eccen- 
tric circles or objects. ex''cen-tric'i-tyt. 

ec-cle''si-as'tic, ec-li"zi-a8'tic. I. a. Ec- 
clesiastical. II. n. One officially set apart 
for the service of the church. [ < Gr. ekklesia, 
assembly.] — ec-cie'^si-as'tic-al, a. Of or 
pertaining to the church, -ly, adv. 

echi'o, ec'O. I. vt. & vi. To give back or be 
given back as an echo; reproduce; imitate; re- 
spond. II. n. [ECH'OES^ pl.'\ 1. A sound 
given back by an opposing surface and re- 
turned to its source. 2. Reproduction of an- 
other's views or thoughts: a close imitation; 
prompt response. [L., < Gr. echo., echo.] 

^''clat', e"clQ'. n. Showiness of achievement; 
brilliancy; celebrity. [F.] 

ec-lec'tic, ec-lec'tic. I. a. Selecting or made 
by selection; having broad views; liberal. II. 
n. One who practises selection from all systems 
or sources, as in philosophy or medicine. [ < Gr. 
ek., out, -\- lego, select.] — ec-lec'ti-cism, ec- 
lec'tl-sizm, n. An eclectic method or system. 

e-clipse', §-clips'. I. tt. [eclipsed''; e- 


To darken or 
hide by inter- 
vention; cast 
into the 
shade; sur- 
pas8;ob8Cure. Eclipses of the Sun and Mnmi. 

DSCUratlon between the sun and the earlh (e), 

01 a heavenly and causing an ecUpse of the former, 
body by the total in the depth of the shadow, 
intervention ^"'1 partial in the shaded region; «?-, 
r^t r.i^.-.f u^... the moon in position to be totally 
Ot another, eclipsed by the earth. 

any hiding, 

obscuring, or overshadowing. [< Gr.^- ekleip- 

sis, < ek, out, -|- kipo, leave.] 

e-clip'tic, §-clip'tic. I. a. Pertaining to 
eclipses or to the ecliptic. II. n. Astron. (1) 
That plane, passing through the center of tlie 
sun, which contains the orbit of the earth. (2) 
The apparent patli of the sun around the celes- 
tial sphere. 

ec'log(ue, ec'leg, n. A short pastoral poem. 
I < iiv. ekfof/e, selection.J 

e-con'o-my, §-cen'o-mi, n. [-MIEs^ pi.] 1. 
Disposition to save; frugality. 2. Cheapness 
of operation or production. 3. Practical, 
systematic management of the affairs of a 
household, of society, or of the state; as, 
domestic economv; political economy. [ < Gr.'- 
oikonomia, < oikos, house, -f 7ie/nb, manage.] 
— ec''o-iioiii'ic, ec"o-n«m'lc, a. 1. Relating 
to economics, to money matters, or to the means 
and methods of living well. 2. Economical.— 
ec"o-iioiii'ic-al, ec"o-nom'ic-ul, a. 1. Careful 
and provident; frugal; prudent. 2. Economic.— 
ec^'o-uoiii'lcH, ec"o-nem'lc8, «. The science 
that treats of the production and distribution of 
wealth; political economy. — (>-coii'o-ini8t« 
n. 1, One who Is prollcient in economics. 2. 
One who is careful and thrifty In management.— 
e-con'u-inize or -iiiiHe, r. (-mizkd; -mi'- 
ziNo.J I, t. To use economically or thriftily. 
IT. /. To be frugal or economical. 

ec'sta-sy, ec'sta si, «. [-sies», ;>/.] Raptur- 
ous excitement, exaltation, or delusion; rap- 
ture. [< Gr. ekstasis, trance.] — ec-Btat1c, 

pupO, Qsk; at, &ir; el^m^nt, th6y, usfge; It, ^, i (ee); o, oh; erater, or; full, rfile; but, 0r; 



a. Pertaining to or of the nature of ecstasy; 
transporting; enraptured, ec-stat'ic-ali. 

ec'''u-men'ic-al, ec"yu-men'ic-al, a. Of or 
pertaiiiingtothehabitableworld, or tothe Chris- 
tian cliurch throughout the world; universal. 
[< Gr. oikoumenikos, < oikownoie, whole 
world.] ec'^u-men'ict; oec'^u-men'- 
ict; cec^u-men'ic-alt. 

ec'ze-ma, ec'z§-ma, 71. An inflammatory dis- 
ease of the skin attended by itching. [< Gr. 
ekzema, < ek, out, + zed, boil.] 

-ed, suffix. Termination (1) of the past tense, and 
(2) of the past participle of regular verbs and 
analogous adjectives. [(1) < AS. -ede, -ode, -ade, 
being -de, a reduced form of dyde, pret. of don, 
do, preceded by a verbal formative. (2) < AS. 
-ed, -od, -ad, an adj. and pp. suffix.] 

ed'dy, ed'i. I. vt. & vi. [ed'died; ed'dy- 
iNG.] To move, or cause to move, in or as in 
an eddy. II. n. [ed'dies=, pi.'] A circling 
current, as of water; a turning aside; diver- 
sion. [ < Ice. idha, < idh-, back.] 

E^den, i'dn, ?i. The garden that was the first 
home of Adam and Eve; any delightful region 
or abode: paradise. [< lieh.^''e(/en, pleasure.] 

e-den'tate, i-den'tet or -t§t. I. a. Tooth- 
less. II. fi. A toothless animal, as a sloth. 
[<L. e, out, -f den(t-)s, tooth.] 

edge,ej. \.vt.&ri. [ergeu; edg'ing.] 1. 
To sharpen; incite. 2. To draw or move side- 
wise; sidle. II. ». 1. The thin, sharp cutting 
part of a blade; sharpness; acuteness. 2. A 
border; margin. [< AS. ecg'.] — edge'wise. 
I. a. Having the edge directed forward. II. 
adv. With the edge forward; In the direction of 
the edge, edjre'wayst.— edg'iiig, v. 1. 
Anything serving as or attached to an edge. "i. 
The dressing or ornamenting of edges. 

ed'i-tolCe, ed'i-bl. I. a. That maybe eaten; 
fit to eat. II. n. Something suitable for food. 
[< Ij.^ edo, eat.] 
— ed''i-bil'i-ty, n.— ed'i-bl(e-nes8, n. 

e'dict, i'dict, n. A proclamation of command 
or prohibition ; an ordinance; a decree. [OF., 
< L. e, out, -j- dico, say.] 

ed'i-fice, ed'i-fls, n. An important structure'; a 
building. [< L.^^^Ze*, building, -f/ado,make.] 

ed'i-fjr, ed'i-fai, vt. & m. [-fied; -rY"iNo.] 
To build up, as in morals or religion; improve. 
[< L.F sediflco; see edifice.] — ed''i-tl-ca'- 
tion, 11. The act of edifying, or the state of 
being edified; Instruction or enlightenment.— 
ed'i-fi''er, n.— ed'i-fy''iug, pa. 

ed'it'', ed'it, rt. To prepare for publication; 
compile; emend; arrange. [< L. editus, pp. 
of edo, give out.] — e-di'tion, §-dish'un, n. A 
special Issue of a literary work; also, the number 
of copies issued at one time.— ed'i-tor, ed'l-ter, 
n. One who edits; one having charge of a pulSli- 
cation.— ed'^i-to'ri-al. I. a. Of or pertain- 
ing to or emanating from an editor. II, 11. An 
editorial article.— ed'i-tor-ship, n. The office 
and duties of an editor. 

ed'u-cate, ej'u-ket or ed'yu-ket, -vt. [ca"- 
TED''; -CA"TING.] To tcach and discipline, so 
as to develop the natural powers; train; in- 
struct. [< L. educatus, pp., < e, out, + duco, 
lead.]— -ed'^u-ca'tion, ej''u-[ored"yu-]ke'6hun, 
n. The systematic development and cultivation 
of the natural powers, by inculcation, example, 
etc.; Instruction and training.— ed''ii-ca'tioii- 
al, a. Of or pertaining to education.- ed'u- 
ca-tiv(e, a.— ed'u-ca''tor, n. A teacher. 

e-duce', g-dius', vt. [E-DucED't; e-du'cing.] 
To call forth; draw out; deduce; evoke. [< 
L. e, out, -f- (^wco, lead.] 

eel, il, n: A fish without ventral fins and of 
elongated snake=like form, [< AS. sel.] 

e'en, adv. Same as even: a contraction. 

e'er, ar or er, adv. Same as ever: a contraction. 

ef-face', ef-fes', vt. [ef-faced''; ef-fa'- 
ciNG.] To obliterate, as written characters; 
wipe out; cancel. [< F. efacer, < ef-, out, -f 
face, FACE.] — ef-face'ment, n. 

ef-fect', ef-fect'. I<^. vt. To cause; produce; 
achieve; accomplish. II. ft. 1. A result or 
product; a consequence. 2. Practical effi- 
ciency. 3. The substance of a statement; gist. 
4. Active operation; execution. 5. Fact or 

. reality: following i?i. 6. pi. Movable goods. 
[< L. eff'€cti/s,y>i>. of efficio, < ex, out, -^facio, 
do.] — 'ef-fect'iv(e, a. Producing, or adapted 
to produce, an effect; efficient, mly, adv. -ness, 
«. — ef-fec'tu-al, ef-fec'chu-al or -tiu-al, a. 
Producing or capable of producing an effect; effi- 
cacious, -ly, adv. -ness, n. 

ef-feni''i-nate, ef-fem'i-net. I. vt. & vi. 
[-NA'TEDd; -na'ting.] To make or become 
womanish or unmanly; weaken. II. ef-fem'- 
i-net or -ngt, a. Womanish; unmanly. [< L. 
ex, ont,-\- femina, woman.] -ly, adv. -ness, 
71. — ef-fem'i-ua-cy, ef-fem'i-na-sl, 7i. The 
quality of being effeminate; womanishness. 

ef'fer-vesce', ef'gr-ves', vi. [-vesced''; 
-VEs'ciNG.] 1. To give off bubbles of gas; 
come away in bubbles, as gas; bubble. 2. To 
give way to irrepressible feeling. [< L. ex, 
out, -\-fervesco, <ferveo, boil.] — eP'fer-ves'- 
ceuce, n. The bubbling of a liquid from es- 
caping gas; irrepressible excitement or emotion. 
— ef fer-ves'cent, a. Effervescing. 

ef-fete', ef-fit', a. Worn out; exhausted; bar- 
ren. [< L. ex, out, -{-fettis, producing.] 

er'fi-ca'cious, ef "i-ke'shus, a. Having effi- 
cacy. [< L. efflcax, < efficio, effect.] -ly, 
adv. -ness, «.— ef'fi-ea-cy, ?«. The state or 
quality of being efficacious; effective energy. 

ef-fl'cient, ef-fish'gnt, a. 1. Acting, or hav- 
ing power to act, effectually; competent. 2. 
Productive of effects; causative. [< L. (ffi- 
cien(t-)s, ppr. of efficio; see effect.] — ef-r'- 
cien-cy, n. The character of being efficient; 
effectiveness.— ef-fi''cient-ly, adv. 

ef fl-gy , ef 'i-ji, n. [-gies^, pi.] A picture or 
a stuffed figure representing some person. [ < 
L. effigies, < ex, out, -\- Jingo, form.] 

effort, effort, n. 1. A voluntary exertion of 
power; strenuous endeavor; attempt. 2. An 
achievement. [F., < efforcer, < L. ex, out, -+- 
fortis, strong.] 

ef-front'er-y, ef-frunt'gr-i, n. Insolent as- 
surance; audacity; impudence. [< L.^ ex, 
out, -{- fron{t-)s, forehead.] 

ef-furgence, ef-f ul'jgns, n. A shining forth 
brilliantly ; beaming brightness ; splendor. [ < 
L. ex, forth, -f fulgeo, shine.] 
— ef-fnl'gent, «.— ef-ful'gent-ly, adxi. 

ef-fuse', ef -fiQz', V. [ep-fused' ; ef-fu'sing.] 
I. t. To pour forth; shed. II. i. To emanate. 
[< L. ex, out, -{-fundo, pour.] — ef-fuse', ef- 
llus', a. Widely or loosely spreading. 

ef-fu'sion, ef-fiu'zhon, n. 1. The act or proc- 
ess of pouring forth, or that which is poured 
forth. 2. An outpouring, as of fancy or senti- 

fiutlure (future); aisle; au {fmi)\ ©ilj ^.C;;, cliat; dli (^/ie); go; sing, i^k; tUin. 



mcnt: applied ironicaUj to Uterarj composi- 
tions. 3. SeDtimental demonetratioii. 4. 
Tbe poDring oat of the blood or otho- fluid, as 
into the c^nlar tJasne. [< L. e^^uHoin^), < 
dfuKus: see kftdss, «.] 

ef-m'siT(e, rf-fifi'siT, e. 1. Orerflowingwith 
soitiment; denKMHlntiTe; gashing. 2. Soar- 
ing fwth: with ff. -ly, adv, -mem, n. 

eft, eft, n. 1. Anewt. 2. Asmallliaurd. [< 
AS.tfeU.^ em. 

®erS* %* ^- To instigate or incite; oige: com- 
monly followed by on. [< Ice. eggja; see 


e^S*n> A body containing the gam and food- 
yolk, as of iHids, reptiles, or &hes, aidoeed 
m a membranoos or shelly covering. [< Ice. 
- =AS.^.] ^ "- 

i.f'jisorg'gis.n. [Oaaslc form iseis.] A 
Id or def enare armcH-, as tiie mantle of 
Minenra, bearing the Gkngpn^s head; any pro- 
tecting inflaenoe or power. [ < Gr.^ atgisA 

egaaa-tin(e, ^an-tain or -tin, n. A plant 
either of two qiedes of the genas JBteo, known 
as tiie sweefe-lxier, <m- the dogrose. [F.] 

egr'o, e^OorVga^n. Self, considered as the 
seatofofHiscioasDesB. [L.] — ec^o-tfaM, eg'o- 
Lor rKO-1tlzm.js. The h^t of thinking and toPc- 
ing mnch of oneself; aelf-concdt.— ec^^-tist, 
e^o^or f 'go-]ti8£, m. One characterized by ^o- 
tlan.— eir^«-tis'tic, a. Cluuacterized by or 
IHToceedlng fran ^:otIam. eg^^-ti^tic-mlU 

e-gre'gioiu, §^'jia8, a. SorpasBing; ex- 
ceasiTe: osaally £a a bad sense. [< L. «, oat, 
+ grex {greg-\ flock.] -ly, adv. -■«■■, n. 

e'gress, I'grea, n. A going oat; place of exit. 
C<L.e,oat,-{-9rc«fior,go.j e-gres'sioiLt. 

eg'tet, eg'ret or X'gret, n. A white herao, ot a 
plame or taft of its 
feathera. [< F. ff- 
gretU, < OHG. / - 
heron.] eVgrett e . 

smm. I. a. Of w per- 
taining to E^ypt. n. 
It. 1. A native or nat- 
uralized inhabitant of 
£gypt. 2. The lan- 
guage of Egypt. 
en,eore,tf}fe7'. What: 
an inteRogative ejaca- 
" * Great V. 

ei'der, oi'dw, n. A V« 

large sea-dndc of northern regioofl. [< Ice. 

— ei'«lcr*d«w«^, n. Tbe down of tiie elder. 

TalnaMe as a stofllng for plUowg, coTerleta. etc 
0igrl^'^ ct. I. a. CkwMBstingof one more than 

seven. D. n. The som of seven and one; 

eight units or sinf^ objects. [< AS. eaJUa, 

= Goth.aA/(n«.]— ei|ibth,«tth. I. a. l.Next 

tn order after the seventh. 

eight equal parts. II. n. 

parta.— eightli'lr, adr. 
•Ifi^t^een', et'tn'. I. a. d 

more than ten. II. n. The sum 

eig^t. [< AS. eoA/o, eight, + Udn^ ten.] 
— eiclit'<'eeBth%«tnnth'. I. a. Eighth in 

order tfter the tenth. II. n. One of elgfateen 

equal parts.— eight'^eeth'lF. tutv. 
9Agb.VYf ^t'L 1. a. Conswting of ten more 

than seventy. H. n. Qefat times ten.— dfElM'- 

i-eth. I. a. 1. Tenth In order after tbe sev- 
enti^Oi. *J. Being one of ei^ty equil parts. 
II. a. One of eteh^ equal parts. .ly, ado. 

ei'tt&er, t'dhsr. X a. 1. One or the other of 
two, indrtenninateiy or indiffeientty. 2. Each 
of two; one and tiie other. H. pnm. Oneof 
two; me w the other, m. eoiv. In one of 
two or more CMes, mdetenninately <vindiffa-- 
entiy. [< AS. Sgther.^ 

e-Jac^-lato, e-jaCyu-lSt, vL A vL [-la'- 
TKD' : -LA'Toie. J To utter or exdaim siiaden- 
ly. l< L. «, oat, -^Jaaiior^ flirow.] 

— e-jac^n-la'ti«B<&-Jac^Ju4e'shvn.«. The 
uttering of tolef suddoi evrlsmatlons; aia ex- 
ciamatum.- e-Jnc^-la^-cv-ry, a. 

e-Jecf , g-jecf, vL Tb throw or drive out bv 
sudden force; expd; diepossesB. [<!..«, out. 
-fia<rio. throw.]— e.Jee'da^ii. 1. The act 
of ejecting; expulrion. ^ Matter ejected.— 
e-jec^Bient, n. A casting oat; eviction.— 
e-ject'er, m. 

eke, lk,t!f. [kkkd'; Vkzhq.] To increase tin 
bandy sufScient; i^eoe out: fcrikmed by ouL 
[AS. hxm, front cans, of *eaean, increase.] 

ekel, adv. * ct»0. Likewise: also. l< AS. eOc] 

e-laVo-rate, §-lab'o^€4. I. tL [-ka'tei><; 
-KA'TiNe.] To devdop and ctMnplete by 
thcHOugh and careful wott. H. ^-hib'o-ret or 
•rgt, a, Devdoped wiOi thcxoug^mess or ex- 
actness. [<L.e,oat,-|-to&oro,LABOiL.] -ly, 
adv. -aeas, a.- e-lak^'A-im'tien, n. The 
act of dabontlng; that iriileh is dabonted. 

e-laps(e', §-Iq»', vL [b-i.af8kd^; m-VAPa'- 
jso.} To gUdew 8lq> 1^; pass away: said of 
time. [<Ij.«bQ)M»,<e,fTrom,-4-later, glide.] 

e-laa^e. e-las'tac I. a. 1. Spontaneously 
returning to a f onner size, sh^>e, or attitude 
after being moved ftom it^ encingy; acctn 
dating. 2. Cn)abie<rf quick reoovexyjjs 
misfortune or aqxesBian; buoyant A 
strip, cord, or band ci dastic material. [< 
tnd (elor), drive.] — eJaa^Ue-al-iy , adr. 


— el'<'a»«ic'i.CT.el-a»4;ornM-]tiri4i,it. The 

l»t>perty or qualiqr of being dastic 
e-late', g-Iet'. I. vL [«-i^'tkb*: B-UL^rnto.] 

To raise the spirits of; exdte; puff up. H. a. 

Exalted or tnimiphant; exultant. [< L. ex^ 

out, 4-2afiM;bomc]— e-ia'tion,!!. A julM- 

lant state of mind; exiiltatloo. 
ellMW.d'bO. I.t^.&ri. To push with the 

dbows; jostle; hustle H. n. The joint at 

the bend of the arm, or any outward bend re- 
sembling it. [< 

AB.dboaaJ] • 

eld, eld, n. [Ar- •^^ 

chsie*Poetl Old M^ 

times; antiqnftv; ▼^ 

old age. [< AS. 


eia'er, dd'gr, a., 

eompttr. of old. 

Having lived long- 

er; senior; <rider. 

[< AS. dtfftt. dd. 

er.] — eld'er-iy, 

a. 8(Nnewhat <M. 

— eid'eat* q^m- 

perLatouK rmu 

Dom; oldest. 
eld'eri, n. A 

jMince or head of 

a tribe or family; a church oflker or minister 

papa, oak; at, &ir; e%m(nt, th^y, us^; It, |, i (ee); o, 5h; •nU5^r, er; foil, rftle; hot, dr; 






3. pi. Tne bread and wine of ibe 
r. 4. Awri^Mti j one of die snb- 

O'^do-xafdo, flick mgolA or 

agoidafliipartnitr. [&.fte£olda.] 
e.leer,fi4ecr. P. «^ ^fock 

-ba^ g. «< bL a^m mat ODd forarirm- 

1. A penoa, or tody of penow. ckoom of 
ood for mtwwiSam or far lipedBl atrnoe. 2. 
On e w h o Mfwored or lacfcue d. [<I..cftrhM, 

orpcmMofaroate.M^bBBoL S. 

r.&] A 

of God.(»noaeclKii 
mjy .— 1 Ut'^atm iii% e^Am^K, «L To 

e-leeM:T<e,e4eetlT,c. LOT or 
« ckoieeWTote; iililiii d or " 
taooL 2. ^^«ttep>rrili 
Solt jett to ckflicr; opiioBoL 

e-leeTor, eJectrgc, «. 1. Om vho eiectt; a 
pamm i|oiBlf d to wate at i glf ctiiw. 2.Far- 
aKdy^oaeof tlK great pfiBoea of Gcnnaj.— 
e-togJvM&L o. r w aMoK tot n i wi i ni i «t. 

bite Rted tortEL roVL^ I^^^«»(«^1a. 
dip»;seeKLH!r.l -ly, adv.— cTe-oiiee, 
ggwai, a. 1. Tke aCato or l aa Wj at Mae 

aiMig; aiaeilj^n jmw ai ■ilkaorowf atteiiie. 

a flexilde 

ir«t,*t [-ta't: 
-TA-'nM.] 1. 

or cfcarartn : x^:. 2. lo raise 

&e aoBilB of ire. {< 'L. e, oat, 

+ fao.%kt- - -^^limm^m. 1. The 

aet of dewatiDg: ex&iiAnoB. ^ Am eleiaie * 
ftoce. a, T*e ftoat Tfcw off a li—ilai. or tte 
tmm.— ^9^rm^^ €m r ,u. O»ewfc o or ttiat wfefek 

e-ler'CB, Her^ I. a. CiiiiiiiMi, of ow 
kastea. !!.■., l^Theam o^tnia ad 

2« A taaBi or aide of dtiui nlaycn n 

ftetcan. x. IMbk oae off detca 
II.a. Owafdev«ac«palp«liL 

■ nile; adyyfc t< AS. a^-l 

I> o. IBdatias or iMlaneBK to 
m. 1. AmdfL JLAapM^tewM. 


ToatmceoatoroHal^aaapvtorawanL |.< 

^n^-feKe, cll4Md. «. CkpaUe of 

dMMca or deeten; VMQiy of 
trptaiw. fOF^<L.dr 

— el'i-«i-bly, «*»- 
e-lim'i-nate. ^fis'i-att. f<L [-xa-tkd'; 
-xa'tdtg/* TV» leieet and 

^•iatte. dJz'cr, ». A ^ ' 

aeorffid. [OF^<Ar. 

ellc.cik,«. A 


flftlJSre fhrine); 

om «wf); •H; e (k); clMt; «M (Oe); so; 

i^; tlua. 



ell, el, n. A measure of length now rarely used : 

in England, 45 inches. [ < AS. eln.'] 
el-lips(e', el-lips', n. A plane curve such that 

the sum of the distances 

from any point of the 

curve to two fixed points, 

called /od, is always the 

same; an oval. [< L. 

el-lip'sis, el-lip'sis, n. 

[-SES, -sTz, pi.} The 

omission of a word or 

words necessary to com- 
plete a sentence. [L., 

< Gr. elleipsis, < en, in, -f 
el-lip'tic, (el-lip'tic. 


f , g, focU pf 4- pg, 


leipo, leave.] 
-al, a. 1. Of, per- 

Whlte Elm. 
, flowers; b, leaves and fruit. 

el-lip'tic-al, f tainmg to, or shaped like an 
ellipse; oblong with rounded ends. 2. Gram. 
Characterized by ellipsis; shortened. 

elm, elm, n. A shade«tree with a broad, spread- 
ing, or overarch- 
ing top. [< AS. 

el"o-kiu'shun, n. 
1. The art of 
correct intona- 
tion, inflection, 
and gesture in 
public speaking 
or reading. 2. 
Manner of utter- 
ance. [< L. c, 
out, -f loeuttis, 
pp. of loquor., 
speak.] — ei'^o- 
cu'tlon-a-ry, a.' 
— el"o-cu'tion- 
ist, n. One who 
Is skilled In or 
teaches elocution. 

e>lou^gate, g-len'get, nt. & vi. [-ga'ted''; 
-ga'ting.] Trf make or grow longer. 

— e-lon'^Ka'tion. ?i. The act of elongating, 
or the state of being elongated; an extension. 

e-lope', §-10p', fi. [e-loped"; e-lo'pinq.] 
To run away from home with a lover or para- 
mour. [< D. ont; away, + loopen, run.] 

— e-lope'inent, n. 

el'o-quent, ero-cwgnt, o. Possessed of or 
manifesting eloquence; persuasive; convin- 
cing; expressive of emotion. [< L. e, out, -f 
loguor, speak.] -ly, adv.— cVo-qnence, eVo- 
cwens, 71. 1 . Lofty .'Impassioned, and convincing 
utterance. "Z. The quality of being eloquent, 
moving, or persuasive. 

else, els, adv. In addition to, or in the place 
of, something named; other; besides; instead; 
otherwise. [ < AS. eUes.] — else'wliere", adv. 
Somewhere or anywhere else. 

e-lu'ci-date, e-lQ'si-det, vt. [-da'ted-J; -da"- 
TXNo.] To throw light upon; clear up. [< 
L. f, out, + lucidus, LUCID.] — e-Iu^ci-da'- 
tion, n. The act of elucidating; an Illustration. 

e-lude'. g-lDd', vt. [e-lu'ded''; e-lu'dino.] 
To evaue; baftle. [< L. e, out, + If'do, play. 

— e-ln'slon, e-in'zhun, jj. The act of eluding 
or escaping.— o-lu'Miv(e, e-lfl'slv. «. Tending 
to slip away or escape. f>«Iu'i!io-ry:t. 

elve, elv, n. An old form of elf.— elves* n. 
Plural of BLF.— el'vish, a. 

E-lys'ian, §-liz'ian, a. Belonging to Elysium; 
hence, supremely blessed or happy. 

E-lys'i-um, g-liz'i-um, n. Gr. Myth. The 
abode of the blessed dead; paradise. [L., < 
Gr. elysios, < eleusomai, I shall go.] 

eiii-i, eni'^, priflxes. Forms of en-i, en-2, before 

el'y-tron, I el'i-tren, -trum, n. [tra, pi.] 

ery-trum I The thickened fore wing of cer- 
tain insects. [< Gr. elijtron, case, < elyo, 
wrap up.] 

e-ma'ci-ate, §-me'shi-et, tt. [-a'ted"!; 
-A'TiNG.] To reduce greatly in flesh. [< L. 
e, out, -{-macer, lean.] — e-ma'Vi-a'tion, n. 

em'a-nate, em'a-net, ri. [-na"ted<i; -na'- 
TiNG.] To flow forth or proceed, as from a 
source. [<L. e, from, -\-?nano, flow.] 

— ein^'a-iia'tion, em"a-ne'shun, n. The 
act of emanating, or that which emanates; an 
effluence or outflowing, as of the Divine Essence. 

e-man'ci-pate, g-man'si-pet, vt. [-pa'ted^; 
-PA "TING.] To set free, as from slavery. [< 
L. e, out, 4- mancipo, give up.] — e-raan''ci- 
pa'tion, n. Liberation from bondage, depend- 
ence, or oppression.— e-niaii'ci-pa'''tor, n. 

e-mas'cu-late, g-mas'kiu-let. I. vt. [-la"- 
TED'i; -LA"TiNG.] To deprive of masculine 
strength; castrate; weaken; impair. II. -let 
or -igt, a. Emasculated. [ < LL. e, out, -\- 
masculus, male.] — e-mas'^'cii-la'tion, n. 

em-'balm', em-bflm', vt. To preserve from 
decay, as a dead body, by antiseptic prepara- 
tions. [< L.F i?i, in, -f balsaminn, balm.] 

— em-balin'er, n. 

em-bank' S em-baijk', vt. ^To confine or pro- 
tect by a bank, dike, or the like. — em-bank'- 
liienf , n. A protecting or supporting bank; the 
process of strengthening by a bank. 

eiii'^bar-ca'tioii, n. Same as embarkation. 

em-toar'go, em-bflr'gO. I. vt. To forbid to 
depart from a port, as vessels or goods. II. n. 
An authoritative stoppage of commerce; an 
impediment; a check. [Sp.] 

em-bark", em-bark', vt. & vi. 1. To put or 
go on board a vessel or boat. 2. To venture 
or invest. [< F. embarqiier., < L. in, in, -|- 
LL. barca, boat, barge.] — eni''bar-ka'tion,n. 

em-bar'rassS em-bar'as, vt. 1. To confuse; 
fluster; abash. 2. To involve in difticulties, 
especially in business; hamper; encumber. [< 
F. enibar?'asser.] — em-bar' rass-ineiit, n. 1 . 
Discomposure; entanglement; dittlculty. "2, An 
Inipedlniont; lilndmncc; encumbrance. 

em-bnts'^ia-dor, etc. Same as amrassadob. etc. 

em'bas-sy, em'ba-si, ?/. [-sies», /;/.] 1. An 
ambassador and his suite. 2. An ambassador's 
oftice, mission, or oflticial residence. [< F. 

em-bat'tled, cm-bat'ld, pa. 
1. Drawn up in battle array; 
ready for battle. 2. Made the 
scene of a muster or battle. 
3. Having battlements. — eiii- 
bal'tle, rt. 

em-bed', em-bed', vf. [km- 
ked'ded"'; em-bei)'i)INg.1 To 
lay as in a bed. im-bed'J. 

em.'•bel'lish^ em-bel'ish, vf. 

1. To onuiment; decorate. 

2. To heighten the interest of by imaginative 
additions. [< L.*' in, in, -|- bellus, beauti- 

papA, 9Bk; at, ftir; element, th6y, usfge; It, |, i (ee); o, oh; arat^r, ©r; full, rule; bert, Or; 



fill.] — em-bel'lish-inent, n. The act of 

adorning; an ornament; ornamentation. 
em'ber, em'bgr, n. A live coal or an unextin- 
guished brand. [< AS. semyrian, embers.] 
em-bez'zl(e, em-bez'l, vt. [-zl(e)d; -zling.] 

To appropriate fraudulently to one's own use. 

[< L.oF imbecillis, weak.] — em-bez'zl(e- 

iiient, ??.— ein-bez'zler, 7i. 
em-bit'ter, em-bit'gr, rt. To render bitter, 

unhappy, or resentful, im-bit'tert. 
em-bla'zon, em-ble'zun, vt. 1. To adorn 

with armorial ensigns; display, as a bearing. 

2. To extol; celebrate.— em-bla'zon-ry, w. 
em'blem, em'blem, n. 1. A figurative repre- 
sentation; symbol. 2. A distinctive badge; 
ensign. 3. An allegorical picture or the like. 
[< Gr. emblema, insertion, < en, in, -f ballo, 
throw.] — em''blem-at'ic, a. Of, pertaining 
to, or serving as an emblem; symbolic, ein'"- 

em-bod'y, em-bed'i, v. [em-bod'ied; em- 
bod'y-ing.] I. t. 1. To invest with or as 
with a body; express concretely. 2. To collect 
into one whole; incorporate. 11. i. To unite 
or coalesce, as in a mass. — em-bod-'i-iiient, ?^ 
The act or process of embodying, the state of 
being embodied, or that which embodies; a con- 
crete expression. 

em-bold'en, em-bold'n, vt. To make bold. 

em-bos'om, em-buz'um, vt. To place in the 
bosom or midst of some thing or place; en- 
velop; shelter; cherish. 

em-boss'S em-bes', vt. To cover or ornament 
with raised work; cause to stand out. [< OF. 
e7nboss€t\ < em-, in, + bosse, boss.] 

em-bow'er, em-bau'gr, r<. & ri. To cover, 
shelter with, or take rest in a bower or foliage. 

em-brace', em-bres', v. [em-braced''; em- 
bka'cing.] 1. t. 1. To take or infold in the 
arms; clasp; hug. 2. To accept willingly. 

3. To surround; comprehend; include. II. i. 
To join in an embrace. [< L.^f in, in, -f- 
brachiimi, arm.] — em-brace'ment, n. 

em-brace', n. The act of embracing; a clasp- 
ing in the arms; a hug. 

em-bra'sure, em-bre'zhiur, n. An opening 
in a wall, as for a cannon. [F.] 

em^bro -caption, em'bro-ke'shun, n. A lini- 
ment, or its application. [< Gr.i^ en, in, + 
brecho^ wet.] 

em-broid'er, em-breid'gr, v. I. t. To orna- 
ment with designs in needlework; execute in 
needlework. II. i. To make embroidery. 
[< OF. em-, in, + broder, broider.] 

— em-broicl'er-y, n. [-ies», pi.'] Orna- 
mental needlework, or the art of producing such 
work; decoration or ornamentation. 

em-broil', em-breil', vt. & vt. To involve, or 
become involved, in dissension or strife. [< 
F. en-, in, -f- brouiller, confuse.] — em-broil'- 
ineiit. n. The act or result of embroiling; strife. 

em'bry-o, em'bri-O. I. a. Pertaining to an 
embryo; rudimentary. II. n. The germ or 
rudimentary form of anything, as of an animal 
or plant. [< Gr.^ en, in, + bryo, swell.] 

e-meer', e-mlr', n. An emir. 

'e-mend'<i^e-mend', vt. To make corrections 
or changes In, as a result of criticism. [< L. 
emendo: see amend.] — em"en-da'tion, em"- 
en-de'shun, n. A correction or alteration.— 
ein'en-da"tor, n.— e-nieiid'a-to-ry, a. 

em'er-ald, em'gr-ald, n. A bright»green va- 
riety of beryl; a rich and vivid green hue: used 
also adjectivally. [< Gr.i'+F smaragdos, a 
precious stone.] 

e-merge', g-mgrj', vi. [e-merged'; e-mek'- 
GiNG.] To rise, as from a fluid; come forth; 
come into view. [< L. e, out, + mergo, dip.] 

— e-mer'gence, n. 1. The process or result 
of emerging. 'Z. That which emerges; an out- 
growth.— e-nier'sion, e-mer'shun, n. The act 
or process of emerging. 

e-mer'gen-cy, n.