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. 'i 

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This work having been, accepted and appreciated by everyone who 
has seen it, and its merits acknowledged by thousands of letters, including 
one from His Royal Highness Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, K.G., 
authorised by letter from Sandringham, Norfolk, dated the 19th day of 
January, 1896, wherein it sdys that ^v His Royal Highness will be happy 
to accept the copy which you hav% been so good as to send him," I 
humbly acknowledge my grateful s^ase of- such general appreciation, and 
as a practical working Plu;nber most respectfully dedicate this work to 
Practical Plumbers, and hope that the Second Volume will assist in facili- 
tating the teaching of practicaF and technical Plumbing, and in every way 
promote the spread of our ancient trade in this our nineteenth century. 

Your very obedient Servant, 


Member of the No. 1 Lodge of the United Co-operative 
Plumbers* Association of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and Registered Teacher of Plumbings Gresham College, 
London, 1882. 

78, Earl's Court Road, 

Kensington, London. 

V of January^ 1896. 

DOUBTLESS my fellow- workmoa thought that « second volume of this work wa-i never coming. 
In fact, I have be<'n told, over and over again, by tho8o who have bad some little dealings 
with the work, that I should not be able to complet« it. 

However, 1 am pleased to say that 1 aui not one of those to tbmw up the sponge at anything 
that ia not an impoaatbility. 

Tlie work ia all tho belter for being kopt back. becsTue I have bad another t«n years (thas 
making in all tliirty-flvo years on the work) to put in matter, which wotiM have been impossible had 
I i>riutetl tht? secoud volume when it was announced, viz., iibout tho year 1886, since vhioh time 
there liu^'o boon some big atridvs made with witter companies and bacteriological knowledge. Besides 
this I have been able to devote the greater part of this Lime to auciont water supply, which 1 
troKt will be bnth useful mid intoresiiug. I havo atso been able to get sifitiatics from foreign 
oountriee, of whicli I knew notliing ivlien I piiblishod the firat volume. 

I have also been able to complete my experiments in cbemistri', the whole of which I have 

lat«Iy It ■w»it(r-i oat, in conjunction with well-known chemist*), in order to make it more certain 
and trustworthy. There is also the hydraulic ram work, which could not have been in this volume 
ten years ago, nor coiild I hiwe put in thoHO useful and intere»ting iUustrations of the injectors 
and ejectors, to aay nothing about tho pumps and turbines, so that you will be amply repaid for 
the waiting. You will &ud that 1 have trou.tvd the pump work most exhaustively. Many of the 
things tberuin ooritainod are most oncienl;, though quite now bo the presont age, to say nothing of 
the many new lavatories and baths which have l)een ailded. 

My object ii&st been to make this work what itfl name implies, viz. — a standard trade work, 
giving the history of whiit bos been done ; for it is a common occurrence to find old methods brought 
out under new titles, and ]mliiii;d upon tlie workman as something cjuite new, but which more often 
than not turn ont to bo old disused articles. This is not all, I have endeavoured to guard my 
younger reailei's against doiug work twice over, and to look out for the future, especially my country 
brethren liavlng to do with drainage and water supply, and to steer clear of all chances uf water 
contamination, or loung the sources of water supply. 

I have also given him a fair drilling against assuming tho title of sanitary engineer, bnt to stick 
to his old tmde name, and raise himself above the condition in which the trade was, when T began to 
write this work in the ye-ar IHCS. 

And it will lie remembered that about a month before I commenced this work, we tost one 
of the brightest men that ever Knglund possessed. I refer to the late Prince Consort. Now I 
Itesitatingly say that in the middle part of this century, through the neglect of those whose duty it 
•4 after hyyienic principliss, such as VocU'n, SamUtrg Etviinfrrx, Arrhit^fU, and HuiUen, 
all, by not looking after their work as became them, as a body, became dilatory, and 
' midon and Ihe country was grossly neglected. 


The plambers were equally to blame ; this was not all, bnt they became maaterd of the aiiaaiiMi, 
prood-strioken, thinking themselves above everyone with whom they came in contaot. They by n 
doing, created an ill-feeling amongst those that employed them, and sooner than have some of these 
plumbers in the house they would rather employ an ironmonger. These ironmongers saw that they 
could substitute inferior metals for lead, whereby the blacksmith's handicraft could be employed. 
Now the ironmonger, to make himself appear an important individoal, arrogated to himaelf the title 
of SutiTABT ENawEEB, and from that day to this the title is largely used by rank outsiders. AAd -the 
builders were equally at variance with the plumbers, and they sought a cheaper way to carry oat tbe 
work, and would only employ those belonging to the Trade Societies if they could help it, boqanae 
here, if a man misconducted himself, or did bis work slovenly, the individaal would be brought to 
book, but wfaeu the blacldegs found that they had to behave, they would not join the Trade Society, 
but worked a day here and a day there, or got into some builders' firm (under price) who knew little 
or nothing about the real plumbing work, and thus they went from builder to builder until the builder 
again bad been bitten. 

Kow this was intolerable ; the builder was compelled to get his work done at a price, which was 
the cause of zinc roofs and gutters, iron soil pipes in lieu of lead, iron service or communication pipes, 
and when once they could see that they could oust the plumber they lost no opportunity to do ao, 
making all sorts of excuses, such as lead water pipes are poisonous, rata eat leaden soil pipes, and 
looh like nonsense, and by the introduction of this, they have been the main cause of the loss of teas 
of tbousands of lives from typhoid and other fevers. 

Now we, of the present d&y, are saddled with all this, but happily now, we who have respeot fw 
our work, are regaining the individuality of our forefathers, who established for themselves legitimate 
and practical Trade Societies which at that time none but practical plumbers were allowed to enter, 
which we are now rapidly resuscitating, and there is every prospect of the status of the trade being 
as it was of old, and let it be so. 

In the first volume I thought it proper to apologise to my readers for the apparently extreme 
length of this work, and if it were necessary to do so then, it is doubly so now, but I may really 
exoose myself from this second apology because of the many difficulties that I have had to surmount 
during the last ten years. You will find that the historical part of the water supply has been almost 
lost, and I have had to get it through -old and almost forgotten documents in the King's Ubrary at 
the British Museum (the admission ticket of which I have held since April 2nd, 1879, No. 11-15, 
A 11), and also such places as the Record OfiSce, hunting books, the greater part of which aru iq 
iktin and Greek, so that the expense incurred has been fabulous to a plumber who has all Lis 
liiiatime had to work for his living. 


~rN Uie Introduction to Vol. T.I said tbat plnmbing, " u practised in Enftland.demandaaTeryextos- 
sivQ range of koowledgc." Truer words were never writton, for tktue are to-day man; ao-ouU«d 
excellent irorkmen, advanced in life, wlio liave never reached tbe platform of technicality in conneotioa 
with their calling. Tlicy have masterod many simple roof joljR, or making joints, and fixing a few of 
tlio sanitary contrivances to be fonnd in the market; but many of these proud-stricken individuals 
are at a sad toss should thc-y have Bomc out-of-thevay apparatus to fix, such aa a sulphate plant ; 
more ospcciaUy should they get a bit of good cast sheet lead to work. In point of fact, I have seen 
them terribly put about by turning or Hanging dovn Uie inlet of a caat lead trap, and personally 
have bod many a time to show (hem bov to go about tlic job without spUttiog (he lead. This is a 
DomraoD oocurrcncc with the flash joint-wiper and qnasi-pl umber. Utliers huvo on idea that 
it is a sort of hereditary affair, always boasting about what their fathers or uncles did ; some even go 
back to swagger about what thuir grandfathers did, and think that they are the only men that cannot 
be approached. 1 need not say that such men ore, as a rule, httle else than mei e automatons. These 
are the men that have let the wbitcsmitlis, braziers, bollhongorB, gasflttera, and general iromnongera 
into the trade, for you must understand that these hitter men are not, usually, dunces, and can see 
the flash jointer's and fiiuusi- plumber's folly. 

Plumbing Aooa not merely consist of hanse plumbing, viz., making joints, lieniling a bit of soil 
pipe, or putiing in a gutter, wliich am oImhI. the first things a lad should learn. This, in reality, is 
only the preparatory educotion of a plumber ; in fact, I much question whether we have any limit to 
what is rt>quired for a plumber to know, for, no matter what business it is, the chances ore tliat you 
will i!nd thut the plumber has had some 6nger in the pie. Take, for instance, the building trade, 
What is more important than this, though small, portion of the plumber's work ? In the omntry 
und in London he is the lirst on tlie scene with his pnmps. or the building supply. Ho next is engaged 
running up suitable pipes, which, if done in the corcosing, is done cheaper and in many cases ninch 
better, and, finally, be is engaged on the roots and fixing sanitary fittings, &e. Then wo will look at 
the plumber's work on board ship. Here his work has to be nf the very best class. Then in the Gas 
Works , the plumber is a ntoiil important individnal, and suchirork must be of the A 1, copper bottom. 

•■ for he is often called upon to make eaturators with sheet lead from |in. to lin. thick, and fix 
most intricate forms of tlie like substance. Next we will t^ke the Oil Mills and Oil 
Iso tlie work hns to be of the very best class, especially the tanks for relioiug 


oottoQ oil. Then we will take you into the Copper Works. Here tlie plnmbcr has g%antio leaden 
apparatus to make and look after for making sulphate of copper, which work requires a thorough 
knowledge of pumps, injectors, acids, and of the proporties and qualities of lead. Then the plumber 
is one of the most useful men in Brew Houses, Distilleries, Sugar Refineries, and lasUy, the Chemical 
Works, and in scarcely one of these places ia the work of a plumber alike. 

I could name scores of other places where the plumber is required, and, de facto, looked np to 
as one of the most important mechanics in these manufactories or works. 

Now, what do we find in London ? Some very good men at what is known as tho London 
plumbing, viz., fixing closets and running the piping neccsaary for a dwelling. It is very rarely that such 
plumbers are good roof men. But, even let them bo good roof men, with such scanty knowledge they 
must, when they come to think of these things, admit that they have only a portion of the knowledge 
of a plumber, and remember this, that the London plumber has no chance whatever of doing well or 
ram work, and this is one reason why I have so exhaustively treated the subject of ram and pump 
work. But don't for one moment suppose that by reading, and even learning, this book by heatt 
that it will enable you to do the work without the practical part ; but it will teach you how to go aboat 
your work more readily, and if you combine my writings with your practical work, then yon will have 
a fax better chance of getting on than you could otherwise. 

Of course I am not pitching into the house plumber alone, for many of the plumbers found 
about Chemical Works are equally as much to blame. They seem to be bom, and many of them 
buried, at one place, without knowing how to properly make a joiut ; and as to touching a bit of 
house plumbing proper, why I would sooner give the work to a carpenter I 

Then there is another thing — some of the house plumbers have an idea that they ought not 
to do lead burning. Then some of the Chemical Works' plumbers cannot do house plumbing. On 
the other hand, some of the plumbers of the Chemical Works think that the house plumber should not 
do work in a Chemical Works. But this is a sad mistake, for no plumber that is wortliy of the name 
of a plumber in 1896 should rest at this, or encourage such thoughts', for a plumber should know 
every branch of his trade, becanse it is not a difficult trade — in fact it is a simple trade — covering a 
large range of work ; and without a thorough knowledge of such he cannot go about it systematically 
to make it pay, nor can he tell where to look for and guard against defects. Bcmember this 
any ordinary person can teach himself to make a joint, to bum load, apparently welt ; but look at 
the difference in the time the properly-taught or well- versed workman takes compared with that of the 
nnsystematioally-tanght workman. The first keeps the trade together and the other drives it away, 
and accounts for tho status of the plumbing trade, which Is ever changing. 



This worit is original, antl n iMwk tlint lifui come rn>ni nothing but prMtiee. It wm Uw pione«r, 
tx^UQ is 1B62, and a large portion has ^ooe tiirougb (lifTereDt Irade jotirnals, cspoctally the liuilder, 
^JitiUdi»fi .Vfir*. F.»4ili»h .V.vA.iHj>, I'lHiiilifv and Dfforalor, and at least a dozen ollicr joumalii 
Bsides, and ainoo tbo &rsl publiunUon of this work, if yoa l<iok around you will find many books 
wbich are nothing more nor loss tlmn copies. 

In concloaion, I mnst thanit my thuiisanibt of readers for the extraordinary amount of praise 
vbidi they bnvo lavished upon tbcst; writing's, and especially over tbu first volume. I liare 
answered many of tliein personally, and have App«nded a fawmiU of two, oat of at least 6,000 or 
6,000, wbich I am prottd of. Tb« ^vriter of tlie. lirst of these, no far as I can remember, I have 
never seen or heard of before. 

I shall always be glad to continue answering questions, and giving my readers any bints or 
instructions witbin my power, by their communicating direct to 76, Karl's Court Road, Kcnsiogton, 


^*^ l^r'Z/^ 

^-r. y. 

Jf^^ ^ f 





The Mlowing is the second l«tl«r rafernd to:— 




36-JB NfPtrrlr S«rvcl 




/«^— u- 



Dedfcfttion ... vii 

Preface ix 

Intzoduction xi 

Water snpplf, wolb, and pnmps 36$ 

Working pompa . 423 

Fire engine pomps 43v 

Hydiaulio rams ... .. '... 456 

Tomi water uad other Hupply, nncicut and modem... 472 

Antnont London water sappljr ■-. 472 

London water Buppljr up to 189S 488 

Rain BtaUsUcs 494 

Water analysing ... .. 606 

Solphar and BulpburouB titlcti 635 

Analysis of tin and load, aW plumbers' oolder ... 523 

ICoro-organiBnifi and sanitary science ... o27 

Uicro-genns and tlioir names o28 

T^jdins baoillns and bacterial standard purity of 

watOT 529 

Useful hints and facts for plnmben 53 ) 

Town water supply and plumbers' fittings connected 

therewith 632 

QtotaHifj for plumbers, specially written , . S73 

MeehMUOS for plumbers, spectally written 602 


Boof woriE of every dengription where lead is used ... 60B 

Lead laying ' 616 

DorraerB, welts, and beads , fitl 

Flats and seam rolls SM 

Hips and ridgee 661 

Valleys, lead 666 

Louvre and other ventilators, tumts, apiros, domefl, 

&o 667 

Ornamental lead rain-water heads .. 686 

Fiiiialsand weathercocks 096 

Sinks 700 

Lavatories... 706 

Hot-water, gas, and iron pipe woA 726 

Hot water, theory and eiperimento on the circulation 

and expanrion thereof 728 

Rrilets 7U 

(Also see heating by hot water.) 

BathwoA 748 

Cock and valve repairing 762 

Cooking with hot water and steam 767 

Injectcffs and ejectors ... 760 

Hr>ating by hot water and steam 776 


Owing to the multitude of letters of onquiry, &c., sent to tlio 
Publishers of this work and to the Author, it is eamestiy and 
respectfully requested that, to avoid delay, all technical and other 
communications be forwarded to me, the Author. 

I shall then be able to answer any questions in reference to the 
subjects contained in the two Volumes, or relating to the Plumbing 
Trade in general. 

A stamped addressed envelope must accompany all letters of 


78, Karl's Couut Boad, Kensinoton, 

London, EnaiMiD. 










IN the renwilcflt of iijf«s of nntiituity. Ui« men in the 
l&ut m-iinitltTi-d lliL- irtiwO-wtioii of woUe. fountalii*, 
mkI cutvnw Uf Ik> one 'if llir ^nutfrst ocM of liensv<ilci)i'D 
t^^y could pcrfomi UiwnutU thrar fi'llnw-creaihirt*. In 
fact, rirfi men wniiii«i*d it a niurul duty to dovoUi a 
wrtJiin wirUiai n( their woiiltli lo tJie dJ(tgiB(r of wpII« hwI 
iho btulding iif cuBtrnw (ur thii supply of the thinly 

W" w-ill now pnwwxl to "the detwription and diDitnttiOD 
Df smtif uf Uio innut nnrliMit wolla, muiiy "f wlikb dat« 
nwiriy ihrw thomuinil yeikn before th« ClirialUn era. Wo 
vrQl vunuioniw with thv oldcnt uf which, we hnvo wiy 
rwaid, iiMin'ly. Uiiwe duK Vy Alirnham, nt Bf-tTNlmha, 
over 4. ICO yotPfi ayo. Of rinm".', tlit>iii«nd« i>f ypars 
naxB-d lipfore miui woji «iiiii>lW witli tht' micwary Uwlx 
l<.>r di^giri^f iiiii-Ji wi-lln UM iit BittnhK^bn. Th" m-Xt i& puinl 
oif niili'iuity, ulthuunli i-f nmoh inon- importunuH, if J«ob'« 
Well, u dria^ptiotk of which hIi'-uU inlervBt all i'otinDiTh<d 
with 1hi» iiubirfll, rooro espcciftlly on V^vunt of Su ktvM 
nittiiiuilr. it nnviafj bf«n mndi- «t l/Minl 3.(11)0 yearn npi), 
nnd of lUi wunilfrfiilly tM?rfii-l *taU- of iJi-cwtv.iti-m. 'Hii" 
well ietdtUBtcd ut S;i:hu.i-, "ti (lu- mad t" .Ti>niiintrm. mid ia 
I05fL iI«T>. and lifl. in diiimntcr. siuilt iuto Oil- solid rock, 
lu Htaikdiriff dpiitli of wiifrriH abimt 15ft. Nott wo c-jioo 
toJooeph'd wdII »t Cairw. Jt is of itn nljlong «liiiiw, and 
KUiik thniUKb tbesoUd nwk, and nu!H9rurx.<9t ISft. by 24ft, 
Tho deptli of thp finrt wtiH b lO.fft., whioli ia •hnwn at 
D, 1-V 7;o.piwrr3fl6. At thlfl point thor»M ■ Ur([«ch«mber 
rut ill n liilirnd dirtxitiou u at 1-:. Thh in for Ch(* bapMf, 
mulae. W iiwm;" *" wiirk tho lnwi-r w.]l-biipli«tii. Titi* 
MDtmd well i»t UOfl. by Ml. The tobd d.iplh of ili« wdl 
fmm fUADrivfito thf^^srcl buttuintk 29«Ct., 2ft. Iwing 
allowed forthc dipiun^ buck^ta at R. ^ 

Thntw iirt' vnriiiiu ojiiuioun rrnpn'tinjf thin W<-1I And iln 
diit4.' : BOtue nttiibutv it tu Baladiii, wlitUt olJitn 1ii.'1i«V(^ it 
to be tho workuf a inure «cHentiflc people. pn:>lu>l>tr tlii> 
prodnetinn of thftiw that biiiU tins wuntlcrful Pyramid wid 
tbfi tinriviilled niotinmpiit of ThHiM, Ifendanh, and 
Ktoeuubaul. Vwit »liiiiild ulw know thai Cuiro in •impo««l 
to owtipytiw !dl« of Etfyptidii Bu^jyk'U, niid tliU well I«lic 
th« Tvtaaaui of ihnt ikamnt city. Thpru is alto ii (wml 
rT««uu (or it« nblonn; nlaiic, vb., to bolter niligbtni its 
intvrtur by Britniorriiivivina; and rcitaitiiti); luuKvr tb« niyi 
rt( the sun. Kearly LVgty wrilcr ou history hu.4 h-id «uiue- 
Uiing to my ikboiit wrlU. 

In Iiim-Ji i.( war utlln w«e covpivd Up iind the lait-my 
thereby dcfcatnl, V.v-n Darid took thin i^oiirsf a^iiii<it tho 
Amaionitc*. Tlw Itible in fidl uf mention nn wrila and 
riivn. itnd a PfTHiikn ucury ia told of Aniani^n pitiiiar>'1i<i 
«oiuvolod wvitnd yitm in a wt-ll during tb>_' 
• ot Iha CJhruiLiaiv under UiMlclian and 

WH1« itand as landtntrkfl for the nort celebnted citlen 
nf thf nni^if-nt world, Hrliopoliii, Sycnr, and Bahyl'in in 
K^ypt; uf Tyre, SJdou, roluivm, Nluerel], OartbaKti, 
Utico, mid Bona aro all gone, {iut tbedr wbUs BtiU ai« in 
Dxixtmec : Jcrvwlrm'it Tomplo hax ^onc to the wtndK, btit 
SlLmUi'm fount/iin atUI Huwm, and lh« Keilnm >■ nlil) 
flowing' through the ruiW of Jeha«liaphat. Th«ri.< i* ulwj 
to ho B«aD thu pool of tivtbcvdn, ISOft. by 40ft.. with iU 
ixTgr-. curl) KtonbH wt:II craniped with imn, and Unod with 
cT-meut lUid flint. 

Well Heads. 

CTarh* or pampc^tA were goncmlly plueod round the 
mcrutlix of wi'lls, uod of a very coatly nature, oftun of 
maaaive nittrblL>, ornamented with higlily wrought tumlp- 
tnm from '20ia. Vj SUin- in huuht. I Laru juat aom 
two itneh <mrhH or wolt liAtdn matlc from Corinthian oapa 
at the Olytiipia, Wiwt Kenaiiixlon, and ahduld advice my 
reader lo icmpis-t Konui if he gt-M hnlf n chnooo ; and 
though tljf4M.' huuh* 010 uf rvout dflt«, Lhey ^ve tbo 
OATTect idea nf thiMS af the ansicnte. 

Muiy of Tiiy jiuiiiir iMidnro may a.ik why it i« tluit aonie 
w<*11h an.- wj iiiulIi d«tpnr tlioii othern, whiUt uUiena may wit 
fur a kliort ac^ttiunt of ihe tlioory of apriugi. Tlio fattor 
qaunlioD. wlwti anawurudi will fufly expliua tho fonner. 

Rain, Origin of. Springs. 

It nuty inlncHl you V> know i^inicthinff raipecting tlut 
rnuftf of tain («M8un*H lUy:-., rh-ttun- "^f cJimate in South- 
Woiteru Ana, and Stonin ui lli>t Wniur iutmduL-tiim, abo 
eoo pau^s 13f> and 136, Vul. I,, wheiv 1 liave drnwii your 
attention to the fttoiual amutint of niinfnll in Eiii.-huidj. I 
now will briefly explain what produce tbio rain. 

In tlio fint plaoo it is fonncd by tho mixtura of two 
KOMii, namely, oxygen mid liydrogv-n, ilui fnrmrr bnin^ 
Hlit«ca timoa hearier than the lutltr, tb««« ituat» coui- 
hinitig in the proportioiiH by volumo, of one volomu of 
nxyni-ii til twii of hydnip-ti, priklumt wnirr, and tlw jvro- 
dui'tion of watt-T by iht- uoinbiualioii of hydrogi'ii in Uib air 
iiutT L« catiily dLtnoUBlratMl by the ditfonrnce iii tomperotures 
of Uu' toHideiind the outkidn of a window, or by brin^n^ on 
iii«t>tlod (rliuMt orjar ounlaiiiinff airovrrlbe 
fluniii of the hyilnviTn blow pip*", ■"? t"'g. "!*• Vol. I, 
^vitfivnl ikf uia of mr or uitii), tlie glCM or jar at 
onou hccntntut dimmed, owing to the 'rondcnsatlon ol water 
m nnal] droixt upon tho dry, oold mirfnoe of tho ^laa*. 
Now, throufth tlii-w two mxm rni'In:liti^ thn whcdp <^urlh, 
w© are purtinlly iiidebftti to it (or our wa(«r supply, 
tojivtliiT with tho constant changes vf hoat ami uotd. 

Air at a ifivon tcnipfmtnm con only ronlain a (vrrtain 
quantity uf luui^-tun? in mlutiou, niid whi-it iLiw luaiiniuin 
cjunntily in arrivn) iil ii in <uiid to !■> wi'itnii'i^tl with aiiui^MiH 
vnpjur. and ih- warmer thw "lir ihv gnuii-r will U- lh« 



Fjo. 770. 

amotuit of vapoor oontained, snd when this satmted air 
is suddenly cooled (an in the ez|)erii&ent with tbe hot sir 
uid cold glaas), water is depoatted in veij fina globaks 
forming a miRt, cloud, or fog, and which is known as a 
nin cloud, which rain cloud if OTerchaiged with thin 
Gondenxing vapour the aqueoiu vesicles of the gathered 
mittt at fii^t grow large and heavy, and Heniral of them will 
coaleHce and form themiielves into a liqoid drop, which, 
when it hati reached ^th of an inch in diameter, deaoends hj 
the influence of iti* weight through the air, and ahoola 
the rain drum ci>mniencc falling from a, comparatiTely 
Hpcaldng, high or chilled region of the ati&o^>ha«, it growa 
larger aH it reaches the warmer and moiiter r^fimu Iwlow, 
and hero eondcnwa more moisture upon itself until it has 
attained large dropa f iilty a quarter of an inch in diameter, 
which will at timen acquire a velocity of 34fL per seoood 
in falling, bat never mure, on account dt the leaistance M 
the air, which prevents any further inoTMue of speed 
beyond that amount. A drop of rain ^th of an inea in 
diameter cannot pounltlv acquire a velocity of mora than 
13ft. per necond in faUing through the air, and a drop 
the wventy-fifth part of an inch in diameter can never 
OMiuire mure than Sft. spocd per aeoond, and a dn^ one- 
thousandth part of an inch could only attain a velocity of 
21 n, per oeoond. 

It fhould uImo be known that when rain dn^ tall 
through a long dintBiice of, comparatively speaking, dry 
air, ther natumlly evaporate, and consequently the drops 
diminir'n in hI/c kn they descend, which is tlie reverse of 
that of fulling into a warmer and yet moister renm: and 
not uufrequcutly does it happen that Urge rain cfoads will 
bo giving wattr above our heads, and yet not a uptA will 
reach the earth, but in entirely dissolved and taken up by 
the air, or cvl'ii carrieit milen au'ay by warm currents 
of dry air. 

No doubt my rvader hns noticed in fiat lying countries, 
eniiecially in the Hiring time of year, rain clouds poozing 
out their grey banilx of rain near the horizon with a kii^ 
of rag fringe of attenuated ends, which hang down below 
fheni, and tuwiirds the ground, but without touching. 

I may mention that dew, mist, and fogs, whichform a 
large ihirtioii of our water for Hprings, i;c., ve nothing 
more nur lews than the air sHtoratcd with condensed vapour 
formed as fcilliiWM :- - 

If the Nurfiu'e of the earth be hotter than the lowm air. 
tbe liqueoux va]Hiur ueur the earth is cfaiUed by the ooU 
air, and so prnduiTes dew: but if theloww air be hotter 
tliaii the eartl). then the vapour given off from the anrfiwa 
of the eiirth quii-kly riMM into the colder legkaiB and 
becomes (^Uitvls. Such phenomena is well OIUBtrated with 
stoHin, steam U'itig Invisible, but when it eomM in contaot 
with (^jbl air it is immediately eoudensed into larger mole- 
cules, whitli, like the clouds, become visiUe. To prove 
that steam is invisible, l(H)k into the water gangs of a 
boiler, or at the spout of a boiling kettle, &c, , from wbitA 
t,U-Ki\i i* allowtil to ftr-cly issue, you will not he aUe to 
discern the steam close to the spout of the kettle or pipe, nor 
within half !in inch or so, and according to the state of 
the atmosphere into which it issues. And the raJn and 
atmosphere is not at all unlike even to this Kupb 


For instanr*. in hot regions the erapon 
than in the ciilder. The Kiver Jordan is c" 
into the ]>Ciid Sou. which, nutwithatan 
evaporation at a level of more than ) ■ 
the IrIe<lit>TniiiGan. Taking the ■ 
evitporatiou from a free surface < 
equal tn the rainfall. The effi 




ipf>xit to Ik pninpiliitcd in Uu' ftmn of 
A ^*iiU>r iknil nion^ A'lntinUNl chill 
or brtii)^ nun, imil, Mr imnw, Wliil.-, |>v(T, in 
UlCpi'n plum them U !■■»( ni:t) nt a iTirmiilpniMo bci^it 
•bOT« ill" in^uml Utiiii al Ihe Hurf>u^\ ivim>-u Idtr tlitti-rviil 
oonilitioii.-) pn-vail in minntaiiioiin •livcrinlo. for iho mtnfnll 
fatenaat-K, bh a rule, in iiMvntlintf tlur !t]<i}«> <'if a moiintnin. 
^Rki quant'ly of rninlHll •>! niijr nxiitlty in iii tL*' luiiiii 
doptinilillt 'in tl)'' juMtinfi of l)ip moiinljiiii ninffm »ai\ tli(> 
provailinp dirrv-ltnti of Hvr ^tniU. Fur iriMtniiiv, Itullii, 
with ila. iniuiw^ii'*, art^nlaa (."kkI •'inniplcnf ihiifict, tlio 
^'hlit9■ or muiiiilain-i tuvunf the win<la fri<ni the m'ii hc-iii^ 
»ul)jC!Ot«ai to an alnindatit minfiill ; nhtV, uii tlia otlx-r 
tianil. TilR-t in iii«rljr rniiiU>tM. tlic llJinalayu moiiiitaUis 
flfii'tiuilly nctin^ aii couik-uJiM^ tii tlie viipoiir-bcAriTi^ 
wiiulK. In Eii^nnd, th«> :inniial ninfnil. on I tia%-f 
luiid on puirw li<-> ntuL t3C, Vol. I,, varit^ frmu at«.>ul 
Itoiii. at ^iMthwaiu% in CumborUnd, tu a littlo moro 
thau 20)11. ill fioinc- partn of Korfolk anr) LinoolnKtiiro, 
huE tho auniial vnriHtum io vrt/ ipent. TIic flucttin* 
Ui.nt <if raiiifnll i* nijirvullouti, ana i«m)I<m have made 
it a i->inii>l<Hc Etiidr. and found tliat in aaj p«irL tif this 
cowtitry tiwi wrtT^'it j-i-ar voiiM haro a mmfal] of ni-arlv 
bnlf w miiirh n^iti'iiH the nwan: rho dri>!^t yi^r would 
li;!!* lOC-tliiiTl !''«' thmi tJii" miitn ; thf iljii-«t. Iwii oon- 
eeculi^'u jtarw wmiJd enth have oiif^(|iinrti'r !*■« tliini tlii- 
mean ; and tlio dri"Ht three <ion>«outiv>> yiaM wuuld pacb 
ha*-* (jnft-lifth iciw tJinn th" mfun. It ha« h«-n piiiiit<Ml nnt 
that tlivrv mitxt, on bi^^i numiitainH. I>e nn «|>p(r Hiidf of 
tlio inaUBium anuMwt of rain. 'Ittp drn'tviiw 14 ti>m- 
pnntturc, with ianrauunjf ulrvalioii. itivulvr.! ■ d>.-nTyiM> in 
tho atniiunt of raponr h^d fn the air, aitd th« inaxlmum 
rainfall ia, thoreforo. lu ho «xyc*-AM nt th<> height nt which, 
aa m rula, unDdaimiii^n waa hn>t pruduocd. 


In En^nd Ihp rapid larltiog d imov In a fiwiumt 
and priiK^ipn! miuw i4 fbcida. p>p«>-iiillr in di'>tn>iHH cjii- 
xisting of pi>r\iu> mhI, tlu> ■urfniii- iif whirii hurl lir*>n hiinl 
frvxeu Wfuri- the miuw fill on U. Tln' aiiu.>uiti aiul i|uality 
of the watt't mjpply (r-;!!) a eivcn ammint t4 rain in nuwt 
immMlialrly ■iintiri't'<d witli tJui ^-oloxiiml rhiirurl'-r nf thr 
□unnliy iu which the raiu falln. Ii a ttai't of cuuiitry 
oxlHted of liBJv, )inpei"vioM", miliutiimi mnk, the piirfaoti 
bring tmv<T>ud liy vitUiiyx i-oiiw3-(ii|c iw iiw Tiuuiian 
outlet, the whiilfl i.f lIm rain, Ii-is khih; ituall quourity 
curried off by ptrajmrnlioii, would he iHiM-nil by that 
DUll«t. I'l itukti-ad «{ I'liniplvti- \-alW-i>y*ti-inK, tltarv 
hapw-nud to hu •lei)r>''>M3d p»nioiu funnin^f hauins, lak«« 
woiiid he fumuxh wbir-li aiiiriit I".' riihiTr iiormanent or 
teai|>>irary. If, imU'tuioi th« iY>ck Iwiuif )<'ir't, t.h^r« U a 
L'crtiiin amount of aiLin-i-liiiiAl soil and T<'^talto<ti. any 
nwidentle "hoaw wiMild b" atiwii-iiwi by tbr *ail and planti^ 
and htit liltk «-Ht«T would tmeh thi.' uut1i<1. A few day* 
nf fiiir^ wt-atlur 111 ■.niumeT wuuld rcudiT iho fniptfficia] aoQ 
nKaifi dry and ahwirl^nt, tt that tlifl water pancintr to the 
outlet mi)tht iH'.ir hut a Mnall pivportiou to thi.' min that 
felt ; but in wiiiLcT these prajnTtiooa would he tminedinlttly 
itK.T«aM<d. In Iho cMtt of iroptiTiaiui but (b«iin^ ronkr. 
the oxiolmri- ol thi! fia<uz« would Leail to multa not 
uiatrrinllv dilVi-rintt finm the prenen"* of lalH>-ban'n« within 
tlw ann. liup'tviuo" n^-k" arc ni^lly fuund in elevated 
~ cbuntry. when? il«* rainfall U uAunlly gnvt. and 
ptn of thi* mini ill lin<linff itn n-.iy into stnjnit 
li' bn;'' In (h'- Lvli K.»tritiii district, 
fpi ' ' ' " ''I wii" l<)3in, in 

iliwlmrifwl ftviin 
.irr- ir>ju' .f Jlin. 

I tho w lith r fruoi that 

itfl way anK-m^ th<rj>arti<:^:a r.( th*' wnil. The now 
itnw at l-ii-rrrixiid »• fuiiuil Iji ahwirb ;'jt'd "f Ha 

wbleh nmdtea bom rain fallii^ an fupcrnoiu rock, na In 
Ary aeaB(HM>«lay U tU^in-d bj ooamfitlan. and thoogb 
pmi^imlly impprvi'iiiH. it io by nomMnn uiinbwrbent : but 
Iwuvy t'luy UiidH an- luiw urlitii>iallr ilniiiiM. and ttwi 
fturface (i<xM not bwotiie walw-luioP-'d *>• fomtrrly. B'>th 
in ('lay dii^trirUi and th<iac formed ojf inipf'nn'«bl4> rnvlcn. It 
frojiii-fitly liapjirnn tbut tbiTc arr- iiii[V'i^r-iFi| ]ulRh<'>i of 
dT'iff, ;{Tavob< or ■.iiidn of an iilmnrhi'iit n'll.urr' ; t)ii-M>, iift^T 
hf'ai-y niin, lionimn ■■Iiiirirtil with wal-'r, .«0'ni.".if whlt'h l» 
MibiotitMuilIv ili'livi^nxl at tb- lowi-^t '■■iifnll". fonniiiM; laud 
-prliiffs. A)^iii. on iic-nii/^bl^ roi'l*' tli'-n' an- mMiJiiniiaHy 
{HitchL-a of )iujiriincaDlo oiny. Hindi a.« thi- tertiary otitliunt 
on the chnUt. Mr. Di- Kniiri- ba» publiitlwd a hydro- 
gDolayioal nwit of EtiK'land. in which he hns dlvldi.\l ttin 
ohnraoler of uii" ;«il iiil« tin- iniperuw^tJi'. tin- imtliully 
pflrau8,t1i» "dupra-p'TYioHM, " and iht'p»»nnnaWi>. fUaiirhty 
Nuoaklafr- thv wtatttni ]iarl <'f Knaland and Wuh-* i»iiiKt44» 
at impernunhlo and partially ro(Ju<. ami the gumIcth 
nf th« " «nmv-pcT\-iiinF? " and tb- permeable. Many rivet- 
hnHliia niDKiiit of Iwii iir miirR cl tlii-M' ditfiTcnt, lcin<li of 
will, and ijie Aow of trntcr in thmi [ima?<i>wnlly varifn tunch 
fruni tiinc' to tinu* : m wet weuthcT tlioy aiv subjec-t to 
ttin^abi. A larp' [<nrtinn of Kntflnnil rNm^LOa cit more or low 
abHir^x-nt iwk, Hoderlyraff a sfiU more al>«rhent Fiiperflria! 
umI, anil it i* tolhi» fart that the fomparativi' p<>rtnaTi,^nt 
chargiclvr of xnw riv.'r" i" dm.'. Any imAi wti- niti fillintt 
on an ah«orliMit iioll at onot.- diuippMr:! from ihe Htirfu<» 
and tiodn itn 
ml iiariditii 

own weight of wat>»r, of which nliout fino-biilf will Dot 
drain awny. Iu loose nod nod <.-Iuilk thr ul>4 •Tuition ia 
from ,'^th to Jth of the wettfht, or ar. th» ral« of J ^'^IIh. 
to the rulac fi'Hit. A cubic fuot of uoUtof and litiM- 
aTimrx would ahwrh ID to II pint* of wnlvr. With 
cuntinmtl rainfall. auythinK bt-yuul what rould be-TeMincd 
byeapJllaryattTadiion, trradiuilly gra vitatM do WB-mrds, until 
it :irriv(?a"at a point where th.; rmk i" nlrr«dy chaiwrti 
witJi wilier. In Uii- iKitlnm of valley- with »tn-smii runniiiff 
alonirT llii'in, ih^ fatiinitcl n>% wi'iilil !■' r'oiind near thv 
lurfa/^', bnt thcnia fallintt nn liil!j>mik'ht dtxtiid hundrodf 
'>f f<it Vtf-fom Brrivin(( at thi^ point of -aluratkm. Friction 
prrw^U Un- wattT niidtT tl»<; iiilS '--ripioti: n-a>lily . other- 
wife 'he surfs'.* of the ■mtnTnt«l ni-lt would pn-iu'nt nt'iirly 
a dfisd IfTel, and tlu* niiu would How olT at tin- lo»'tr-t n-nl 
ttlnirrtt At i)iii(ilily m it ]M'ii«'irBit<>l the pro'ind. At Driirtilou 
lilt* xirfHiv iif till- Nitiu'ilM [Mrtii.n of rh>" • h.ilk ^nkdniilly 
»ln]«« iipwiinl' ai il iniili-* fiMiii th"- wa, lltm rii<*liiDiLii>n 
h<-ini,- di«- to iho frictioniO rvM-iaiiee ojip-".*! by the ohalk 
M th<i pii«*in> of the wiitrr. Tb'i h-vrl ol tlw.- on'tfull raritv, 
but the Ilea i« m-vr-r ahU' to penrlralt- ajiy -liAanre into tba 
dialk, and ih<- niiiifnil kuflict:* to km'p up an iiiclinalioo 
eeawarde in i.1i>' witirr-lin" in thi rhalk. Tlir >nhtpmmMUt 
watrr-hnvl in H< rtford.<hirc, in int1uvuvi.iI by thi' hHOn and 
ralloy.', thu l.-vrl cf the water h.ina: m-J*lly ullii'd to tbMt*, 
though ihiT ini-liiialion in mufh W-m in Avjcm>. In the 
inid41',> ehnlk in Hiitford'^liitv tlit' i>l»pc iw uliciat 12ft- 9in. 
to a milp. in thr lower white chalk about lUft, Cin., and in 
Miiue ]iailN tit Kent im m\wh a^ tOft. to tho mile, After 
heavy rainfalN thp inrltnntioua are uiitcli Btt^'ier Where 
the puiiijiink,' from a Will in jmrotin nffc i« I'xce-Jiio', an 
invprtod cone of d<jptvM<iun la ft'niK-d iu thv planu vf KSturt* 
tion. Ihf an^e of which ia determined by iho ainoattt of 
fricliun iu iIk ruck. 

Bourties and Watercoupees. 

Wat^ reaJilv findu it'< %-^y alunv layerif of ninta in tbe 
chalk, ao that, in boring, an aci.v.^'ioa of water U obtataad 
directly a layer of flint i^ travorv^. Frtjtn divn iKirfngi 
the watia" gnncTally ricj^tat a liifjhf r h-mperatum ma.'ci ^.i^wn. 



on}iii«rr «pnii|ir"- "nw wntcr from Iha ortMan wsll at 
GrvnvlU*, elune tn I^ari" (bnTnfiw atxn tn br niiDbii tifi, 
wlii«b u inim a <li-pth u( I.ttOOft., ttu n h.'tn|)i-nitiLn! of 
82* KKbrenboit, betn^ aboat UO' aboro tbe Fpnngn in thr 
■tistriirt. ThttwNtioratUibbntUMBof « bnrinK l.&Mfl. dorp 
at RicbiDonil ha* n tenitM^nlurr- nf Tfil". Wlien- chalk m 
ovoriata liy rtifl elaj-. itroiigh wliirh. h'un'vw. it in plaixw 
pcVfitnUxt), trn-.-ill<iw-h(ilox iira fomml, iititl the rain falling 
nil thf! impi'-nniiun olaf, titrtu.t ittrrturui, w)il<?h nuiko their 
war tiiti) Hiii'li HWHllitw-holM aiid ditt-tppear to Hut dialk ; 
and thi», too, iit lb« ori^fii] uf tnibtvniLni-at) vrnfctrxniyv* bi 
liaiM'toiu) (Untrib'M. 


'RKp^"'"^'* ^ ^'^ [importion nf priwotataon thT^inieli 
alMiiit 3!l. of ainl to llus raiiifull tm tJi« ■urdiitt wcit mmti' 
by Vt. J(J)n Daltnn, of Maiu'licwbr. aiwl Mr. Maurine, nf 
GmovK, alwut tl)«i cnduf last cv^tury. Tlic prinvipln ou 
whid) the cxpuimpnla <ni itomilaUnn w<-m cnrrinl out 
WD* miii'lt lli<- fMRu? in all <;AHeit, null waa ttcn'rllx'']. IHm.-li 
hiul hii-n di'iKi in tliin dirHTtion by Mr, ITharli* 4in>ariui, 
Sir J. B, Mild III. MiltBTt. Thi- tvn* iiHl<T ircntU>- 
mcD had fuimd llinl, for tb<j U-n yearn, Wl to IMSD, uui r>f 
k mriLii niiiifati of lltl-ilin., irOIOin. piiM«d tbrou^cb 
'JOiti. uf naH, and l!t-24]ii). tbniu;(li (iilin. -, nttd that, out <>f 
Ifl'Sfldin, qC nnninwr rain, atily 4'tlliii. found iU> way 
llijvafcb OOtn. uf aoil; wbllv iii lL<? \riul"r diora ]:•>£»«(! 
»-130in. uuttif a lalnfullot ln-0S6in. The lato Mr. John 
I>ijckiDM>D baa the hoiicmr of Mof; tiw (inl in Uii» «niiiliy 
to roppnt tho oxptTinictitu nf Ur. iMltmi. Ilin npiTilii'ii'q 
bvgau In 183S ; but m>w ki>uk<m «xiv fixed ut Niuh MilU, 
HunelHempEtcod. HvrtfordAkirc. in ISi:>, and rilMin-ali<uut 
iiara been contiiintd ever dincA. Ur. Kviina. of the katuc 
place and wxnlM, luw nrranguil Utti mmltn nf tliirly yc<nni' 
ubaarratloiifl. The aventRe whuweil tliat, out uf a total 
•nnoal tninfall of 2i-S43in., ii-61U'iii. patwHl thrangh Sfi. 
of aoil, And lO-uOUin. tJinnigh Ihi^ Mimo dppth uf chnlk. 
Tha DToportiou of tli» ^n-ni'Iiitinu ui tUn rainfall variod 
vraatfy inmi tinio to tinit', wen for Uu- buiuu Ksaoua, 
niKtancMi et whiub wriv fjn\'(-n. It tnntiot bo too often 
rppfiutM that every gii!l«n of wal«r piunjiMl nod earried 
away from (in iibiwnrlwEil. district U m> iiiiil-Ii abNtraut«il 
from till- ftdnr nf t>in strpnnu> of that dintript. In inUiid 
diftricta dii> streama funii«d aa vxu'^t Kuutrc of tho ttxacMA 
of tha rainfall orrr tho watpr carriod ott by (^vapiimtion, 
and &Tiy artificial diniinutimi of tho wntor miut ntfixt the 

London Water Supply: How to obtain. 

If thi- antiiml noiiply of ^in. of ralu woiild. fmm 
rvi'CT H(uan) mile of luuiiLry, itiw a daily miiintitv nf 
nMirly IGOjOOttjfall. ut walir, wliitli, nt :i'>'ir»]l pir !»(ul 
|1PT diitn. it will niiiHiv for a pUDulati'Mi nf 3,0(1(1. A 
pjjiulatiuu of ^,^1l>^'.00l). Iiki> LtnuV^n. wonJd. lliiTi'fwr*, 
it supplied fn>m dcop v.dlii in tho Hiulk, ala^irh tho Mini 
Ti-awr Mipply of KOI) wjiinro miW .if ouunlry, or of :iii urc-a 
uiio quurlrtr lar^-tT tluiii Ihr nmnt.y nf llrrrlidrd, ami tlia 
-Kh'ilc' of the fiiirfaoi; nlrt.M[»>i ocer [hi» ljir),t> an-ii would, 
in dry y«at», dimppcor. 

Mr, J. T. Hamiion'a wbetnn for obtaining watw by 
menu* of tiinni^p ia tine chalk of the Tbiiiiii^ mlW nuavly 
in'-iin.« Ibnt nil thn wairr dnriviiil from lb<- tiuuiclH \rould 
••iliiiT be inI*Tt«pt4^d an it» wuy ^J tb<.' rivur, or filtw into 
llw tunncia frvin tlw bed of ihff riwr it«<-lf, Tho flow of 
th«ThiunM U-Iow wonld be diuiiniitlifil hr just tbn winu] 
MmouDtof malt-r aa LLul afawlnictod by nu.nnn of the tunnolfl. 

I think that I Iiatd writl<m fiiriflDient abont vbcrv ws 
pri our aiipgily uf water frcon, but it may utrilni mow of, 
my rvudvn, uh it diil a abarp appmntioA that alutid with h' 
noatli wido open, UMeaioK to ouv of ny leotorca on wat 
mipiily. Ur called out, "QoTtrnior.whav did the Inadilat' 
ontUejnt thrir wat«T fmn when In the waterleas wj)d«r» ] 
noniil' And ulthouKb tbe (junrfiuu watt a MnijJt one, it] 
R^lUnd a lot of ihiiddn)! about, in ordf r that llu' iivuwtion I 
floud lie natubotorily atixwvn'd ; yet, likv all other tliiumj 
when kunwn, It U aa nttiipl<' an ym or nu. ITerp ia tbe truff] 
«>xplanation. Abo aou Town Wiiti.>r Supply. 

Change of Climate and Watet* Supply In 
South-western Asia. 

How (lid thi> nattltf uf tho Ifim«litn« ruIhIkI in lb* 
wtklimi-w!' Tbo«i> wlio sMik it do au on a't.nunt of tmriip 
unawam that Che whnU clinukt^ uf Ruiilh-nVxii-ra Aida 
ha.H oban^d i!uHn|f the last ftrv lhoii«aiid year*. Thia 
chaiiftn h.ia iMfn ifotn^ nn ovpd in ivrwiit tinuv. Kapotaa^ 
f'lr ctaniiilr, whh (iucvib uf Faluiyrn, and wat ifr-fi^ttd bjr 
llic Ranuuia : but Uus Mti} of tbv ruiut uf Faluiym in oow a 
huwline wildi-mMn, wliiati ohrioualj it coald nut b»T« Umib 
when Paltnym won a pn|niluii« metroinlia. Xor in Ihw 
onae of rnlmyra by niiv uieana an bolatvd odo : ruina an 
rutiftaatly fpokan uf \>y ImTi'Ui.'Tii na found in waun-lcsa 
dftwrt/< : and thn tn^vllr'rM nut imfrKiiimtly iittrib:it« th» 
df^wlaliim to •mitav niynti'riuus chan^ro which th«y auppoaa 
tn linv tiiki'Ti pliu^ in the <u,U. flat the nauav ia,pcY>bM4f,] 
only thu Liulc of wat<.-r : tin- oUniatr hiu Iwooma mtt ; 

mil haa beoonte duit, and t)u! Mtnd fn^o Nandy tnobi 

blown about thron;^ not boin); held tocher by maiataM' 
and by voj^tTtitticm urhiili Miulil nu InnKi-r j^niw on it whi 
it beoamo drv. CSinlwiiiponirj- tniveUent. ajipiin, are lu-rtg. 
weary of pritiiunu: iIh- l-nlliaiuy tif tJii> ulimiilL- of Rtrypt, 
iinil, iniliid. of I^mitr F^tQ'pt. fnrlbM- than wlij.h'tbi 
iiiiijurily of tlit-iii Jo mil ja'nelruti?. But by Iht* ^itictrti 
l-lip p|iiriii)j' (if l''>rvi>t wan iioiinii!vTi«l to lie thi? rinel""? <>£ 
brilliant, and aa liico mm Uii' tldrtoeiitb otitlury an Arubias 
((Mignpher writM of it as da.rk and gloomy. Tho reaonn 
of thia ia easily intcUi^bie. Tlio whol« oonntry w; 
anutoritly irrigatnl by mmalu li-tulinK front tho Nile, wboaa 
waters wen •wuffht uiid ovapi.<rut^-i Iiiftt^ad of fluwlnjf in 
bidk tiRclowly to tho ModitcrTuntun ; anil, 
rt;marki'd, tha aiiniinl ornporatioo of an imniiii'M^ mam 
watvr muat have rondewd the air muoli miin- i-luudv tl 
it now in. The canals wen> nllowrd to become uooleiM 
the lutiT mixfort until of Tliryjii, and whatovvr winda bio 
frivm Kgypt arc now dry in-tbtad of heinff maiat. Tln^ aama 
LMinK* haa noon nlao ofwratiro tu tho valley of tlw TiuriaaiMi 
thi- KiipbniliHi, and rsmahu* of thnw raiiali> .-iro utill to 
acva ; but thi.-y bat c tulluii into ruEu. tho wati'rv of titc t 
fn'eat nwn run uselcfv^ly into the pprtian liiilf, )h<' 
<iiiuntry iadrinl up, and tliij winda whitili hluw fmiu il ari 
■WdiT. To (bin (.«uw uthcn iiuvu unWlity bwn added, 
but, Inldn^ it alone atid by ilM'lf, il tn prctly t-kar that it 
would bo ablo to pnidwrr nui"t irni*irt«nt n-xultd. Ni-i 
miirh in mpiiml bi turn tliu huiIu, in a tnijiicul ur 
Inipinal douulry, In fiit'txirof drynow* i and when 
amount of vctf.'talii^ bugriiu* to diRiln!:di tLtougb 
aridity, tb* diminution t^rul.'* to lie pn'jn*P.t.tive, 
]iliitili< Mid trit'M liring dnwu rain and Lultl the mo: 
tho pjirth, '[Tin fiiwrr of tlirnn tbimi ui», tho leaf 
fidU, and m<iTv of wliai di«a fall riiiiH lo wiwto; 
producefl a itlil funh<>r diiniiiutijn ut rt'7i''Tntir>n. 
la fnllowod by a fiirchiT diminuti'in in tbr i liiif^ill ; ui 
iH>D[i, till a lounlry wLii-h wus ooitt a juu^It- uuy bnou 
a «iituH««8 d«aort. 




Fi«. rn. 




AftCT the foTp^oin^ It will bo •e«a thitt Iho rain, miw. 
Ml-., wlii'ili fiill iHi the Mirf«« of Ore c«rtli, will jioiitiMti> 
gniaiiii,aaiMl, gruvcl, aiul nthcn- pnroiui Biiliabitiri-H, until 

""^fc Bmim wiHiI -uWitriiw jm nuk, or wnif plutio 

ok,Vi or other impcrviwtut tniilrrinlif, aiid if oot 
hnpotindnl or eoutintxl. tho Huid irlll fjtiito In a Intrral 
dirnctiiiii until it flniU Nomi! ktiul iif {H-rviiian niiitcrial. <>r 
wxiii- i.'{H*riiii);, niK'ti nn a fimure ur civtt in a rrx-k, whr<n it 
traii-clh tliroiiirh the oarth, uften for eoom (rf niiKw, until 
it KniU a InwcT Irrrl, and will nn niprily well:) or tMHyiinc 
ibd iipi-irwiirv Hpriti^. For »n illitHlmtii'iTi i>( Ihiit. I will 
Tvtir \;n to t'ig. 771- A{ U, «, I), H, O, w tli" Linil 
wlicivupuu the rniu tulL^ Suu]m)iu- it to bu ordinary 
ntandow Uuid, with thp ordinnry \uimv> noil nud rock Im-Iow, 
M at A, Fmiu ■\ t'l oiijwwiitc O it i* of wjnvcx Kluipc. 
Tfi'fv a mrt^in 4in<iiuit m thi- niu waliT irill !■• lirlil, iiud 
if n tliaft, aa at U. i* tmok l>> this watt'r k-nl. w« at unw 

Ke anuM tli« iqirin^. iind tho dociKT you dig: into tliiM 
I) <if iiiuTM the mori' ooitioim will thi^ su|>pl}r be. Now 
FxaniiDu Ou! liiuSt ai H: thin Ik Miuk iiilo tliv j>ol>bli.-M, 
hiiving no rlty or ri>ck U^lwnwi it »nd Ihn top of tho 
ofaann K. Hen no water vmn be obtuitiod. tKoauM it all 
'JjbbBta. aitd dropH into iho chasm. B.r ditfgnng furtlior yiiu 
inuld, in the Miurw of time, tnoct with wliat !■ not at all 
ttnknown to tlw weUHOnbi-i^— " Ibv drop," Mimv4in)cn to 
Us oertaln destariHtioii, and other limr» to hiv great joy. 
Tfain waa tbo ckm with tho bociny rodH of "it. Muli>t, wlii-n 
boring for the pelebrated wall of (In^nnlk^ in tho Pajia 
InHiti, of which f ithnll hoieaflGr fcirc fiilkrr piirtjculiirx. 
Aft«v htiring for iivrr t.S(l2ft., at ImIUm- hnrinjf mdn and 
toolN mado a Auddcu drop of w-ritml yanic. Uft fnmi thu 
brittiim of the dwkft It to tlui liotloin of thi- choMii K. 
I'^tif. 771. But in tlm rjiw of lliiji irnll, nrarty nil m^iIirJ!'!* 
abovv vrvrv im;ii-r<rioii», atid thtT watiT nnf ini|«iai> i 
HiK-h n tnaoui-r, Ifaut on tinpinK il tltu w-tliir tr- 
ronnidcmhle h^ffht atw-v. ' , r ' 'V. 7 

may ho Mwca wnlw nba:, - b 

met with in )i>' ■'- ■■■■ vtM 

water drops OT 
the Dc«re«t ^i^ i 
int<) n (.'iiiMiJ. {"'rtiui i' ' 
rook, whirh altowo thn - 
into tlx? ■.■Jinain P 
Uimujjb the mi 
into it. wh( 
diirk •|N>L, ti 
whi'H.- tl)» ■! 

Artetian Wells (London). 

I will now give you noinia itlua at our London artoiiiiii 

For tfiin piirpoctc rrfer to Fig. 77'I. A rcpro«cntt< thi- 
■nirfiuH* «( lliif fiirlli. R tliii Iioiidon clay, tlio top ijf whirii 
is iioLiinlinff to ilii- dii^rlL-l, K in the pbtstio olar, F Ui« 
thrdk frgm whcnoe wo pjt our best water. It will h* Mmi 
tJiat thriw nCreta afof a Ciirvfil form, their Mida mmbifr 
up til till! ■iirfari'. Ihr jiliiJtic^ tlay ut E, and tlio chalk at 
St Al^l:lnH mid Kmx-kliolt. Tlio ruin water falln upon thf 
cnilsof tho ehalk at DutiittabtL-, Knockholt, fto., ice, and 
Ia co]]KittA 111 tho tioil (>f thfi i-hAlk at V, H. It caanot 
gti away by ivujon of tlw tntpcmtMiblo iilrata uf fire cbiy 
and iriiult rtiy, whii'h in thin i-am.' aimwrr Uip Minin purjHMU 
M tho rock iu Fi'if. 771. The rviii wat^ la at-tumulilMl in 
the joints and ctevi«?if of the eboJk, and will overflow nt 
K on Uk' linn H, T, wliioh ia one of tho kiuoki of Ihft 
(Tatifr Biip|ilit?d bj lh« New Riwr CMnpany, of wlwtb 1 
stull aguin rcf«r to ^l^tlu•^ on in my town water sv|q>lT 
Tho draper tho woU, of ouutvu (lis boltor tbo mpply. If 
you want a hett«r nuptily than your neighhoum, you may 
Dt tiiuM gvt it by HLuKing dLvper. 

For iniiCaniv, auppuw.' the bottom of tbo sunk wrll J. G 
to be lOft. below th<« water lin* S. T. here, if not other- 
wiMt interfered with, you will ^ret tOft. of walor. But 
MippuM tJte wull V to bo mink ^fHt. i1n<p, and tlm pimipn 
ktTit at work, which woidd keep the walfO" kiTol iu wwU V 
\ivhiw the >K>ttoni of the well J. then J will haw to bo 
mink lowiT, mon- cHpoi-ially in nnrna parta of the chalk, 
)>«v^'nii>«.' t1iti^ do uol fiupply oiifficttnit lor the two wellfi -, 
whtlitt in othi-r p-nrtu you stay rink tiro wella dose togelfan* 
and then ff-t a full nnpplydf waii^, or it may Ixt thnt 
out will giM a jjfiiod Btipiily vrliilst thii othi^ will l«i dry. 

1 ni»v Imro rMiiiirk iWt ih"? mcrp borinR of a hole into 

rbu (Mrtli H not at all tiim^ii imAlriont to rnouix^ a good 

Ii u-(iti-r "upply, for in mniiy nlni'i'* yim may bcire a 

:>ml hiivi' lo pnm throuKti luna, *h)ngli«, &e., 

' ^<H ivi|uit«> tti<m<.> kind of piix.-* to kc)'p tliv bnlo 

'lie KUid. JiV. Iu London vol] dix^iug work 

' the wpU mnki'r. Imt in many [virM of tbu 

I I plumber has the manayvniiul of »tu*h work. 

<sr wh^rn a,~>i gvt tfati wiiti^ fti^m und one way to 

ihc l»j«i'li of tlic •■■irib : uod n.i IIiib i" a work 

I phnll uvt K' I'ltp-" tod to go much lai'i wdl 

e, (i.,r<(..'. 1 -> 41 onlT^ircyiiuagntrral 

' iinena yen to g:l a wucfc 


Well Sinking. 

VTiSl tiaiaag it ibuplj ihe di^n^: and mil »t«inmg 
b tih<- lititB^ of ihc> PXravBtcd nrt with brickwart: or 
ooncnt. Jfcc. ^ut St tiiau i^jrliiMer* 'j{ mm sr« wh4', 
«)diA nkT be -flin. to anj thii-kiicM brickwork. 
^Sm R|:».'77*. 81^. SOS. A.-.] Kor iiwtnw*, n loKw* 
poand «1U n^nim i-vrrj fiRuuiliun to >tetn tho work 
«r Mf <tf ilw wf>D tn k HitMUiiiUl nunnfir. w)ul«t in 
«•(« ol hod pxcsvadag-. nclt u tiuvogb bard vlulk w 
nvk. tbr opom^Nt 'if kUinin^r I'tu li« diMWnucd with. 
Wella mre itwn era lljr of a (Tirv-uLir fonii, um u tkv tml 
ft]w|<t' tu {ir^rmt lli*> «d» (ftUinif in, uul uf » Miitubk tixo 
inr a man !•< work [n rvrali>rUtilr. Somt^liini^ ibo devper 
llw; are tw Iv Muik the huigcr ihry abould br in diuiic<«r at 
ihe top. «• in womte caan tie steiBitif will iminire lo be 
tufer at top oD amm^ uf ibv loownev af ibr ■urttcr Mil. 
[8m Flf. 774] Of ''<mn«. larfp.* wella th|UUv thkkor 
fiTilifliy ihsd unall uon. Fur iitsliina<. n Wi.-II itt. In 
4iraMt>r Qavmgh ■ otiS rln;- will nnW nxjiuiv a 4}iii. 
l^rfBillj. wlwrau MM duublr lbl> dimiieier will m(nim a 
ttn. rtRbfay. Samgtilffl it U iu\'rurBrv to w^rk thtg 
ht iA»u rt i «ilk oenrat. whil^ at othi-r ttauv [lu« ix not 
nqiiini^ the Indw fceui)( Mni|>]}.- )>U«)d ruDiid tli« well 
■• K kind of ]i*i^klB^ nolj. SiMiieliinie*, wbprc bind njirinir* 
■fcMmd. it will lie neowBMj to Ik wry utnful aUiiut tliv 
Mrhdug hi-tnir pwldIM behind In aria to keep utit tk« 
lM»d ur auHarv i*nt«r. vt ioafeead «S puddled ciUjr ccinmt 
or nificrrt* maLjr V- - - . V or rvrn mm cylindnv Tho 
Iti-'k* cnplnyodf' i tttlioald be beat ntwib, hard, 

wvU homt. nod vi . --Lufv ; Mulu paviiw* ia taany 

(■)*« alMMlkl b» Biwd. 

Tbc nU airlhod of ttflininp-, and fvmi tliAt which la now 
pnetlMd in amav pttTl«, to wr ^iinplo. It io dnnr bj 
■^lojriBK ■ «Twd curb or cjtIiimit. Fig. *'3. about lifl. 
Inag lijr In. diiunrti^, tnailt^ out of. nty. liti.floor b.tnrdf. llw 
•1«Tat Lctnir i>rc(cnl>1,r nniWd ckw ti.i)^'tbi.T. tiv , whitn 
tbc gmmd h bad or Iomp ; nt nthrr litw- it >« ihimIi' with 
the M»v« or Iword* kept ui iiicl) or bu )i]wn. Nuw,tb« 
«nb bcitig RiD0Ti4 from the bottom und iImi caih buing 


WBLL snoMuto cvsa. 

loaded with brit'k* all miiml the inmiili-, n{>»on tike top, it, 
with thb euticr^lrudtit*' or HHtrbt. no thi- mrtli U dttg 
inatiaiA&r th« turli IiIok, niiiK* inwlually douii, and a» 
ibe work ji^M'i'nbi, i-Mtv (■'infr li>k«n nul t<i >li|^ tutirt- awnT 

^^onifinw Mtdr lltaii aiiiidiiT, ur llir wrUmill intt Ihi wiuk 
pliuab wuUs. Tbti) a^f' >nx tintll lh» <«ir)> will oiiik 
■ futher. owin)c to (!)■-' *nrth M<k<4lliiv. or pivwiiiir njiiiiiiNt 
ib» mdm of tbc ciirh, hi whi> h • aop a tn-w lurli oAmi tnuot 
h» anplnjiiil ciDalUir than tlw l)t*L (an' Fijr- •T'K tl, K 
being tbv top tiirli ur Mc4iL)itg iiIm«« tho uiMUtrr- Soiiiv 

^^nara^ w^Acw (^ ^rouod bokiw U lou*. ft 'o nv(.venrf tw 

haw an Mtm tMrlmrt* Mow. m nt E, F, F«r- 97B. Tbo | 
-leiuiiij:. whin the wt"Jil inirh i-not cwploywl. iftcuwilied by i 
uiKkintr th- lirii'kx |nnU dry and jMril.T willi ooment, tAo ■ 
lultt-riitintJ.v bi'iii>rftvmU(rwtofourcout>"of lirtekwork lit 
tveij Mt. or Hrft. Iciigtk. \>r, in oIIkt wofds at inlpriiila 
Ulwi*ii the i«irli.inti of dfT l>nrk work, which mwl b« 
ivku1«I>h] bj tlm iiatmv of the ^rroiiiid (»<^ Kig- "ilj. A 
U-luif the brickwork Ui i^mctn, ^nd B tli^ jmrtiou la ba^ 
ftllcd op bctwoon thi' rintn of oemoiil work, oa troial 
A to D. Tbe oarb Uiim built should be kept wvll biukl 
agaimt tbe earthwork, an the frii^'io actA ut a kind of 
nmport to tbv brick*, ai>d ao prvvem-. tbcm rJippin^ ; Ibo 
hlUcr bdnff ofta pm,'wnt«iby artifirin! ^nl■lUll^ iiiich im 
hr the nee of «i;d(K*, or by liic u**' of n Uitul at tho hmJc 
of tbo brii-kirork. Oi iv.iir^. muh Mi-iuiiiir wm tmlr Ihi 
done in finn trounJ. "uili a* iliy. A-'., winiljr tind Ii>i»* 
ground inii-t Ik- wurki-i with a itirb, &•■. ; or it can be 
Worked without & rurb by luiti^ ccmmt all up, vti.. ae tbi- 
lii«t ib-M-ribrd milbxil. ' &i>rottiiii*-> i-.isl iroa fUrt» an; 
eiiiplori'd wIkiv the Innd xprniir* niu*t he kept out. Or 
«bi*re thu gtuoDd a Iuuk ui-uth<riwt>v Ud. 




. Tlw method of laying the bridki for woD Et^ining 
gntcraUT Inigtbwajrs, broalring the j«nte of cwh la; 
aH ill oniiiMiy brfckwnik, but tutoi-tinm the lirirk* arv ] 
titdwfcT". \ii.. »ho tmd of the_ briiV* jmiitiiii^ tuwai * 
nut I* of tlir well, but lhi« » nol «> uwd n plan 
(uniM-i. Siim>o.i«-, ill botli, ibe bricki lo li« 
iT'iTi*'Dl. tliv )«irk* hitd karthwufF pTMt with iht-fa- 
tiitun Wfd;|[i-> iiJ M-iuenl. whilst tlunr laid mUwnys 
upini ibrir "id<^ npou tbo i«iiit:-!ii. 
ihitt ih«* t'riokf. mow vndwnyb 
the wi'lL 

fMafTt^ nhoultl hv worki^l ew-ry 
ru ni H^. 87^ and 6TS. ti; Gx tM 

tbr' pi|««. &V 

aii4_ Uw. c)>'<ri' 

o titri- 






History of Walt Boring, 

The Chin£«A hold tlie tild<<vt ncujd lA wcD boring. 
ThaitiiBiMl» of biirod vnrlh lii-L- U> tm fuuiid in the i>roviii«e of 
(»u-Ton|cKiito. Tbtw wdla an.< fn.>ni l.fiODft, to 2,00Dft. 
davp. aud iroja Wn- to Oin. boH'. Thi-v an- bcircd by firwt 
digging dnvn ii con\Tntt>iit dupUi, iiai aevtmuu Uii- miii 
wiiirr, lanil t>])riD^«, &«'., from getting inU> the ircU. Tlien 
tlivy ]irvc«fd mucli abuut the Mtmc n> thr' top oiiin nt Ibc 
leT«r JD ¥ig, j75> t>iic inctpwl nf a iltain mid iiiikotA': ^Li- 
CbincMUw ft nipewiOm ld»d of bt^xvydn^ tiiiuv«u weJKtit 
flx^.l tA the «Dd of it. Hnring MArtcd thu Wfigfaied drill 
arTAiigt>m«nt a ynrd or mo, tbe miui at tlx- i?«ii of the \tvtT 
bt'^ns lo lifi it up, whitlt, by thv ti^mun of tW n-pr, cauMa 
tW weiflrhl nni (frill to imrk round, then lie le^ it drop, 
iiudso, bf acoiitiniLal liftinfir&nd dropping tli« well iaborod, 
(NMiietiiue* tskinK tour lo mix rvim' cDiintaiit work to txna- 

plotV. TllO WOlKill >* "IXlUt -t L'Ulli. 

Tbe ground for foaudatioaa of buildinfnt. tic., U often 
bored, ha vrfut that of Ht. PauVf. Lnnil<>D : in fart, Ihh is 
lb(- firxt nipntiiiii of t-artli buriug in En^ltind. AVclla an 
kIsu burcd fvr mineral oib. 

Oa» Wslli. 

Till" nppcan- jlrunjtc to K"m'?p'>«iiili> : Imt thc'T*" arts nuinf 
(mi-h vriU iicnr Pittrbur^h. Tflo Buro" miB wfll. thirtf- 
firc inilea from Pittsburgh, und« out ].Oltr.U"U cubic feet 
of gHs per hour, weigluntr 6H| toua. TbU tfns ountuiiu 
*0 per i.viit, wf curbyii uinl 20 piT wnl. of h j<Jn)x*-ii. ami it 
1ia« thr Pitornioua pressure of SOOlU. y.-t iqiiatv iiii-li. 
Tliis -.upply is thiTcfoTP I.IOS tf>n*i per aii,r. or l.lJt lono 
of rnrbon iUid IJS'i Uma of lijilnifn-n, MlUiil lo l.ittO tOUB of 
aiitlirinitr eoal, or stifilcieiit to ^laelt ore nioujrh lo makv 
TOU tocecf pig ii\jii. 

Deepest Sort Hole in the World. 

P<tt1ia['* tilt iicfpc«t boTfl hole known is at SpcrHibirrir, 
abuul tweiity.four milea nuulii of Birlin. In ISflTaliorv 
bote, I9in. or w in iliitnetc-r, wim liKgun in tb« fn-pciim 
rwk, anil sunk 2T;ffi . wbm Hiitrydtii^ of lUue wa.i found, 
but on bftrin;; annihcr 3lt. or •^i ro^t pnit was trn*!. which, 
oil l)orinK to a <!o[ith i-f 'J^lft, thi- •.urfiife. w.oi 
fotinil I'l hf quti« put*'. Thi" hurt liule waxconliiiui-d till 
tbu ond of 1nS9, wlieri it Touehcd DMft . with a diameter of 

l'J}iii..aDd ihr«i' H'tA of iron lube*- bad been inanttd. 
BiniuK n^^iii (omnimrrnl in IHAV, b; At^am j>t>wn, and at 
ihn md (ij lb« yt-ar tin? well rmilied :t dt-plb of 'J,-^'.;7ft.,&nd 
tbe boriwr ifviitg continowl to the otid of IS7(*. ibp well 
3.«79ft^ d>cp,And at tbc uuldk' of tic year IS71 It wax 

i|170 f'^t deep. The strata of loik aalt here is 3,76!l(t, 

The Serpentine Well, Kensington Gardens- 
It uuy be uf iat«net to eoBUi of my London nvdon t« 
know ibut tbe ^londtd Serpentine Uke (wotaine oo« of tb« 
pUTMt auppUcA of wnt«r m the world. It u flnt sunk 
303ft. d«ep, and with tlio following tbickuesae* of brick- 
woril — 










The ramviindrr of th* well is liiwd with iron cylltidera, 
biivinif o <lii»uK-tt-r of ifl, 6iD. Tlu%o cylindrrs come to 
within 17sft. of the anrfaee. The water liaea to within 
loAft. of tlwiimrfttce. 

TheM ato tbesubetutns met witli — 
lr>>ni I*LUTIC ClAT. 


l-.'2ft. MimI» ^rround and LondimClKT 

t-'7ft. SbeUaandSBBd 

I37fu Mottled CUy 


... 1 22ft. 
... Aft. 
... lOfl. 



Utft. Sand and Tebbl.^ 4ft, 

HMt. UTottleiK'lAr.Grvoii Sand, and Pcbbleft Iff. 

I4t>ft. Grwrncolourul SandandPtobMM ... *tt. 

lAL'fL fire^ii roloured Sand ... -ii, ... 3ft. 

IMfl. Grey Siiud „. ... Jift. 


l9Mlt. Layer of Flint* 
29eUt. Chalk 

... Jft. 
... llWft. 

Totol ... ZOdjft. 

Thin veil U nid to bo 33lft. deep, but how they make it 
I know not. 

Well fiorlng and Artesian Well Tut>os. 

3lany n-ueins of baring have hcr.i> tnwntfd, and many 
nn pnicliiuxl to thia day, andalthouich the principle* urB 
exlmnuly mnipV^ yet uiv work re<|uirei> nkill ainl curv. 
After sinkinif the veil tu tin depth to which rou think 
your Kilter will rU*. yoii can ciiinmcni^o l>-jriiig\v any of 
Ihi- followin^ii lotum.' Boring with a ropu ia nill<Ml tbo 
C'liinuse nriierri. Hwrt the bntf'r i» »aspendcd by a tvnv, 
which, wbeu tho toul is worked vertically up and down, 
inmartAby ii^ torsion a L-Jrciilar motion to thn tool, Pitch 
tool bei lift fntTr-tiniinl by nn in^in tube. Ih« collected c-arlh 
in the Kpmv br-iii|f brotiffht to ihi> Aorfsoc in viirioua 
w:iT^. I ihiidi rery litilf of tlie aWvi- niclbod. 

The cidiiiury pliin of boring is shown at Fljr, 77fi, vijt., 
with an auger a.i fcliown at .\, Vig. 777. wJiicb diffora 
iiiY^iMtiiig to iW ti»tmfi uf Ibt- gpjiuid. Thusc augvrs are 
geiu-rally workoil a-ith r-ibi of lUffcrcnt leuj^lhit from 8ft, to 
12ft~, u c-irtutur motion bcuig girvn with a lorar by one or 
two men walking round in a cirrlc aa Uluatratcd at A, 
Fig. 77''>. the boring tools txdng ]«ni«Uy auapendod by a 
lever, vt otherwtar, u> ahowu ut L, E. F. 

Men Tubes. 

Aj> aoon aa tbo bole ia bor^i lo n r«aaon«blc depth, or 
ibrougb the oImt. > tube of iron or of copper. per/tfitUtd at 
tb» botiant. if tbe apring is in the >and, Ih let down into the 
bore hole l>i hiK^p ont the adM, or to {irfvenl. tbe und, &r., 
fruju gilting into the bor« hol», thireby preveutiiig tbe 
Virc hole becoiuiiit; t^hukvd up. A-« shown at Tube, 
Fig- ?7ft, tboae pipes are betiL eovwed t'other, and 
mini be einiDiilh nn tbrir outer wdo »i> ns lo ullow thrm to 
]uiMi throu;(L the Ujn-- Iiolu witboat i>bKtni(.'tiDn, and sa 
abown at Srivw, Fig. 77^. 8onietimei» twu ]oi« of lubea 
aio wml. vuv lo bring up tlie sand mpriuK water, and tbe 
other fontinuid iiiio tli<-' ibnlk for itic chau springs water. 
See the l>onblo Tube Well, Fi«. 770. 

Uf Gouiao.tlio latter lupci^oin.Mnalk'r boro, aiiduoiilinutd 
U-yond till; Mind «iJriuK Icvil. Sitcb a woH it in action at 
8l. Omgu, iu Fruncf'. &.« Fi^. 77fi. 

■^'■-^ niOl fTriii;? an 

a luid xi^riiin to 
bo on STdnuiun 
Ilill. KM> ing. 773. 
Bum u liole into 
the bottom of ibc 
well to the chalk. 
iLiw! jriiii will Winn 
find a dry Iniid 
Btiriii^ -Weil. Sto 
Brim. WvU. 

Well Boring Tools. 
Tho veil boring tuuti* fftiifrully ia qm nro dinwn at 
Fig. 777. Augi-rt ■!« nw<d for day nr nthrt Uhk* nuilft, 
irhilat t^liUelx uiKi hucIi likv nrv luwd-for tlie morf (li>ii>aa 
nuitvriiil, nnd l\tv ]'xmk partiok'tt rUip|mt fruiD Hiv nnk, &l-., 
&» iiickiHl ut) und niiHti] bi thr Mirffu-if vnth aii uugiv, 
huviii); a kind of viiliv in iu Liwit [Mrt, lifati tlml Hhovrn nt 
B, FifC, 777, arifl kisiiwii UH :t iiiiiu.*r. 

Sh»idd lliti n>iU VV, V, FiK- 7T7. uf tliv U>rinK loola gei 

tirokoo in tho bore Lok*. tlioy can t«> rccuvtrtd with euuh 

toola w am Kbnvm At F, 6^ J, ft«.. I'l^. 777. Thu tubcA 

■n auidetuiMui towered wttb a tool ntcdi an in kbowii a1 H, 

yifl. 777. Of uourae, U)»re are many other tuob ninilt; for 

»j'*'*Timt purpomM, ptifitMt for cutting the Ijoiti kole round tW 

^«j!«(,A« ow^, anrf ^ briiii^itir up the gtrtjut, kr.. in Oio 

«".P*'ai'»««»j5i)fflJrt:ft></'.£afe-; «.icJ» « tool may bosoon 

Fj«, j7S. 

nt I, I-'ip. 777, and I miiv add Uut different wHI b«ir«i» 
li«To diHiivnt I'm!" lu^rnri^tritr in riiii<*j", bnt the t'l-lc beni 
idiawD»<rrp tl) ((ivo llx' miiL-r a f^ncvsl iiiAi^ht into thr 
work. I t>linU conclude tlti> nmnint of well iMtriiiir by 
fflving my rwuWn an wwiuut uf n frw wclU wiiinh 1 hnva 
owu «>niu^>tfd witJi, viz,, t.wi> vi'll* whicb siiiiply thai 
fiiiuitiuii* at Tniin!g:ir 8i|uiiii-. Chrtfing Crosc. I/niidon, Midi 
BO awuDut of tho artosiLti wi'lt M Cin-ni lie, l'nrv«. 

'iTin artmiui 
wll» at Trafal- 
^'df .Sfjuare are 
L'notM.'iL'tMl l^ a 
bft. diiunutor 
Jrillway. Tho 
ijnti in front of 
t hi- K n t inn al 
Giillvrv in Munk 
!ib«\rt 1 80ft. 
dis'j>. und in 4 w 
Eiiti. in diomctu'; 
III'- other ia ia 
<)r:u)f{i' Street, 

ii|>>Olll UlL- UtUWl 

depth, bat «ft. 
In dJami'titr, and 
with Die drtft- 
wny wi 1 1 nt timoa 
otiUiiii 123,000 

»"!■.. in. «■•'«- At 

(lottinn of thcM.- KfWa tho lioriii^ eonMnoioed, and the on« 
the front of tho National GallCTj ia 395ft deep to 
nurfiuv.-, wtdlst the ono fit Onup Stmt is only about aootu 
to tlie Hurfaov. 

Th«f">llowin|?l«fi noption fit Uii* two wnIU:— 
OiUxoK Stbest Wkll. 
Dm iy. 

Made KTouiiil lo 

Gnivi-1 .. ... 6 

Ijoam and GraTel 10 

liondiinClfty ^ 

Thin layer of ShoUa 

I1a«tio tJiay 3« 

OrawL and Stone* 

Qraen Sand 




WkIJ. IM F«0!<T 09 THE NAtUMtAI. GxLtJUir. 

HmIc UrMind 

Orari-I 6 

iShiftuiK Ssud 7 

Grmvrl ... a 

I/wl.m fliiy U2 

11<iii Irfivcr Iff SlutlLa ... ... ... — 

J'lii»li.> TUt 30 

Onrii S,ii,<l. Flob)ilc». te. U 

On>«i Siind 42 

B(imlt3ulk NT 

Total 3M 

Artridiiii «'i-tl ftt GrcneUt', Pn-rirt. Tbiit ^■cll wim hnrnl 
lor the piirpiwe of siipplri'ig' th*' iihnttnir (ntnu^hU-r hmiaeit] 
,1^ H. MuIdU A(Ut i.iRlit jiMH"' lubour. with nmuy 
' " nto, na the 'JSih tVliniftnr. ISIl. M. Mulut nucticd 
■d^]rt}i<^ l,8U'.'ft.,nnd wa» crowiiod with ttir niii>Y-t><i of liia 
[ftvAl iiii<l(<irtHkin;t, who fur jmimbud l»i':i MiiTrvil nl by thf 
iiicrvOuluiiii. T)i« iiunionfiiH diffiuiiltica AltvtidiuK ihin wiirlt 
wwiv u( th« moBt trying i-liaraclc-r, iiri<qng from iho bn.'ali- 
in^of thorMlftandKncih likp. Kftr«y, uf^,^T tHirine l.aoOft,, 
VTUft. of tJiu fikIh fiillitiff III iJii.' iHitliitii, lirt'iikiiif{ tii(i> 
KV»nil i>ipL»-ii, Mnd ihon buvin^ t"» (hi H*h'>il up n^'aiii with 
m wiow Un> ; Uck vat fifl^n tiwjnth"' tr^uMit mid labuur. 
AiUT ihix. in tiui ronr IHIU. a rhit«l fell ^) tho butUnn and 
biiri«d ilorlf ill iht) mliii i-hxlk. In thin ohm it was 
nmiuuu'y t<> rltuir nil n>und tliii> timl ami tci gr»[}])l)> it up ttm 
bef'Tv. A^Ut lliUa nWIl f<--ll lo th>> ImttDin, vlik'h liau U> 
bo pu)vh«d OH ODO Ndo in oflcr (u cy>i]tiuuo th(> IwHiitf. 
'lliinilrinn. nod aftrriLnoibm' threi^ months' work, h« hud out 
tliruuj{li Iha fuUiiwtnf; ■ulatutuiva : — 

Drift Gnro] 

Hotid, n«y. TjifirnltiM, and rt'pUi-ing Ihi; 

CitlciLire OruHHier ... 
PragmpnU oi Chalk in n nivuivs uf Clay 


Chalk MrH 

U&ull. Cloy, and OreenSiuid 



Total 1.802 

And hen At th«> dr-pth of 1,802ft. n runh nl waUr «-ai> 
Scard, iiiul in next to d» limu it wan ht«ii to fluw nt the 
HnnminiiH nibiof MOO. Q(>" gallon*^ jxt day. nnd tonlieight 
of 12'2ft. alxivL- tbo h'*il »f tlui fortli at a uonoliuit 
tdnprratiirn of SIHI' Fnh. Tlic cont of thiH wfrll wiu* 
400,000 fmiii-B. nr £16.000, 

1 ttiiuk tli« IfirKVst, thiitijjh nui tin* dtH'pcHt. nrlndnn well 
i« at POmy, iti I'liri*. T!ii* wiOl in mink fhimnrli the diolk 
tiiUi thn tn^v'n wind, flni«hiii]c witli id. in th>' hiirp. and i* 
1,913ft. diL-i) : !i wiu Mil rran and nini' racinlhn alMiiit, nnd 
FMld* a.TOVnnfl ^fultonsp^r >l«y, the i^wl of wliit'li wiw 
(O.OOO. It vrnH liu<.^ with eoUd mosoury to i4 depth «( 
ft., then iiMt) tiihinif wojt fl><<d l.NOtft. frr>m thv 
i&ao, and IkIuw thin waa fixed a lenffUi of nrpp-r tuljc, 
t, pi«iv«d with hotpN, 

Brlinfl Wall at, Kisslngen. 

IVrlmiw ih.' dwp«t wcU l».ii>il b tfaat at KiMiiiigm, Ilk 

Bavaria, Ovnininy. Tlii» U a hrino wrll, htumn in the wnr 

mm. and In lTs<><' wat«r WM roocbad at a di-iitb of i,s;'<4ft.; 

•^ this il« di^ptli waa incnoaed to tho Ktk iMlt ot u 

iif l-.tiuoft. Th« WHtn- immea al tho nilv of lUO i^ihin 

miimtr. The ejcvtiu^ Con» la »uppci«ed to uuuo 

fton > aubtaTaiieoaa a U n »i ] i ha m of earitouir add ipui, 
|«puwlng wMi a fone equal to liitty onnoepbcm. The 
coiwirurtinn nf thii tube wril in nut like thorn bi<f(i«T> 
explabuv], iiiaaranch tu thi^n) ikIk^ ore L-onreuthc, vntur 
ruling btlwtvfi nil outi.T uitd niiddk- Inhir (xiniilm' I 'i that 
idiovni at i'iff. T""!- Iln' wiititr i«ii>»i^ ditwn ln-tunii tbm 
niidiUi- and uut«.T lulvn uud itiui tin* ru-'k Holt, wbttv )l 
bccoRii:'^ »tnnitod, and then it in tiumA up tlio middle tube 
til tho ti>p of th't well iU> lirinr'. 

1 tnay ii<Id Uiat •■»iii.-ltnii'f> tliu la>n- linin Is'tyniiMi Miailtnl 
with «iuul, kf. A* iirlv .1* tliM year l"fU nev have m'l.inlx 
vt ttimn mul bliH'kintr tnmblrn in w-ll buring. A Ur. 
Valliamr, of Nurbiidfl. Tnif nhnni, txitr lyimliin, niink » 
w*ll iSf'it. di"«-i> ; f«arintf t" »itik ftiilln-r, he <.iiiiini<.4ii:«<l 
[i (kniMo tliiokni.'w of Ktoinliig. ivorhiri^ Oft. frvni t)H> 
bot1<iin upwurdn, and h'lnui to Nim irilh a n'ln. niiffi^r. an<l 
n i.-oppcr pipe wns drivt'u duwn the bora Imtc tu a di-pth of 
!J4ft.. at wnich driilh thn bomr piiTTvl iliniit^h ili4- nick 
iuiu till.- vnttT •••tb a »nAim rfr-y. [S>-r Ktjr. 'Tl.alll.] 
Hnv u mixture of irtuid and wati^ i&.-tAiitlr riL'hod up tlw- 
ro|>TK>r tnl>c, iind in .kvMi minute* tbfit; troji l^Ilfl, of wiitcT 
in llu- wdl, iitid in one limir nnd twnity miiiutea the water 
jyttf to within 17ft, "f Iht- ("urfaw.-. 

Tlio WW diiy «-at);r won dnwu out to nbuul Mt., but 
in ti Hh'irt tlttii; It ayain mm t<> within 17ft- of thr mirfooi-. 
A M'Und lino woa ihin k-t down in milL-r lu try \\a dtjith. 
whon it wmt dinriivrrml th;iL th(< wvll »'!i« iml. wi dr<ip by 
iVfift. Thi- (suiiw vfOA um-rtaincd, sml wind wii" tin- o-iiult. 
After a few dnyit the vnb.r wa<i n^^nin loivfiril lOft., but it 
did not rtw A^in by at U-ii»t oiu- fi»t n* iH-furi'. 'I'hin wait 
iiK»iu nnd uk")" n-jirutrd. mid m<~)i time tbi' wat«T did iH>t 
tiw ao high by iibaiit onvfuot. At lowt ih«iuiiid whs T^nnbed. 
and m mntinuins ti< Wilout th<:* wntcT th'.- rnnd KhKWfd 
tt«olf quite dry imd liitrd. Thir< tuid ««as thftti utfabi Anix 
nut lo ubuut ijiJft. At IhiH ixiliit IIk' wiitt't ini-tanlJy iijfuin 
ruiitip«l nil thii citpiwr tnlx- witK j,-ir«t fume, nnd almnoi. 
nutTm-'atM tlu? man who hod been <-n;,'u;;i-d in tin' digtcinir. 
■nd in n Khart time the wntOT tmc again to williin tTfl. of 
tho l>ll^fa'M^, hut on letting di'ivn tho Miiinding lino Ihr wrti 
wim .!■ tn-fitrc fill-ud with »and to almut Ihu H«niu lunJ. Thi:' 
nuxt ihini; wan vo vet to with ii^in bucket* nod dmw up 
thf *<aiid bpforo it could get hnrd. and by kcciiinj; otmnifintly 
■it lliin Ihf watAr rAv in tliA well, and at loot lh« dlffif.iilty 
waa uwniiEiMf, and a raiif-tanl ovuTHoviu^ took plavi;, 
xhowinK that wlum tlia t-and vroa tboro it kvpt tbo 
wal«e iwwD. 

Cor or Djaacro a.<ci) Boiu.vo Wrllb. 

Kat«« ado*pt«d for unking a woU in Oakdonion Rood, 


Sinking a 6ft. Shaft, tbo fint 3flfc. 

Do. do. mvmd aoft. 

Do. do. thinl 30ft. 

Do. do. fourth SWt. 

Do. do. fifth :t»ft. 

Do. do. «ixtL 30ft 

Boring |ier foui a lOlin. bole... 

]>o. du. T^in. in cliiUk 

For PftrffiniteiiCopprr Pipo" fiiod pcrfontO 10 

Of ootirap, tbo my \M\T\ <i( tho aluvti clinfl Huuk 
much wider tlion tift., viz.. to 9ft. lifn. dtARi<-t«r, to olbiw 
for the Qin. brickvork and l-'iu. of pnddb'. tbiK wa.-> ivrrird 
down ti> a dt^tb of lltfl. , nnd nfti<r thin tb>> I'xrjiTiitiini wnn 
inly Tft. Oin. in ilijtiiii-lDr uml ,>ft. d>H-)>, lun) ihi- lui^'k 
Kh'inintr uuly of half ii bmk in tliii'kn*.-Hfi. co^.niilvlnl with 
cement. Thi-w xiinlhir t^ft. nrjtvation^ worit madu in 
miOMiMion, iind th'' tH»i':k rt^ininv only iu each rnw nam> 
pbitcd, until thn Ijundoii blun rtiiy wax roaubed at a depth 
of soft. The inner lOeioinK w«« tln-n carrii-d up in r'^rtluud 
commit and widl tfruut«d to tl>o buck »tduiiiK. QC <nnxw-. 

£G7 10 



6R 10 

60 10 

01 10 

67 ID 

1 2 

I " 

•ntO 10 




tli« iniiET stoiiiinii wm brvufrfat up Uf ihv boo of tlio 
finl pi»niiin of ibe pmJwrtiiiK Oiii. linokwnrk, im an to 
uiulerpiu tliL' f)r»t iHirtioii of this Din. Inirkworb wtiicli luul 
at Krnt Uttn iiinipIcUxl ; Uiiw t}it< liinil xjiriiiga won 
vtfn.'tuBUr tihiit mil. Aflt-T (Iiih, lliu work wvul. 'ni w |icr 

ETtce ana spcciBottion, to a it^pHi uf lAOft, Hsiv Hune 
»M niEMt (Inrk mnd irait mot. whtili wnuM tint atford 
B miffirimt fiiiiiidiitiiKi for tbi' briL'kwurk. Tbv vriitcT 
cvuld U'Jl bo inani>ed out or the wmd would "P** uj). 
■ixL Wra rust iron oylindm? wtrr ummI. dft. in auuoctcr 
anrt I ill. Uiiok for the iteluiti);. Tlir K|ieeiH«lioti for rap- 
[ilytiig the cjliiiders Ui lieu uf brick rAeinia^ woa tlien 

ETnTidwl for iirid "liw to suiqivnil the pramt bnrk Rt<'iniiig 
r imii nid* frum tliu Ixiitum, up Ihe ahaft, U> truM bMiiiii) 
at tlic top of vgU. and to vxcuvutp ttnd 6x tho ca.^1 iron 
i^urb viih iitlftruil fUngox. aaA to projirrl; p»c\t and bolt 
the tunc tngnthitr willi itud <«mciit, and ^J oirrjr thrai 
down Ihrmigfa the upper Mikd nod drivu ih'> Iowit «od 
firaly iuio the clftT. und fj coiicn.*lc bcliiud tht uppor 
rjlinder n-llh gnitfi and icmitit, (k> u to i^nm a foolmK 
for llie lower Meinin^r mul fur NMppiofr «it ih* water, and 
U> provido aJl rpnuirvJ mnl^rinls nl t7 2». M. pW liniwHl 
fivjt, I hnre Mid iLat tbt- xtciniuir Lad tu be i»u{i)iurl<.-d 
fr»ni fAUintr into ih<i sand l«!ow. Thin wha dcitit' \iy H^ing 
i>!i|>i<onA of dm under llic brickwork, and Mipiiirtiii^ it 
wiiii fuur IJiii. rodii to two rfnuuK U--am« lunju llii- mi-iiLh 
of ih«w«U (kooK'tlmas th^K iron vuclw are put toother 
in chcMi [HiyT*, vix., ia vcctiuni', in oitJvr tv vrt them down 
IlitwclH. To kif)i the (Tlindfrn pliuni) fu^ir Tin, by'J^iti. 
lultetu wirn used. SOfl. tlinie wen.- Rx«il to tli>< lower 
part of tfa« atciniiiff. which, whfn RsihI, tormvd a fmnv for 
iht fijrlinden to idiatt tlttuujrli. The first i.')-liiidc'r wm u<jw 
lowered to the hMUm, and th«o propcrlj- put to^'ihtT, and 
iIm^i sni'Diir was added on tho tnp of tlie niu- ju.-'t Itiwetvd, 
aw) Our juiiit* on tlic flaiijrea made f(<iaA. uud the othi-n 
w«r« added, which made up JOft. of rntn iron c'ar)>iii^ bi>forv 
tlie frxcaralion wa« procc^cd with. In ihis way tlu.- tnw 
dircdlftn of Mi* rrlinden vaa RiAininiiii;<l. and the miUM 
dcM-'end^d into it« plaoe aa thi> vi-'uvnling <>g. rnlher, borinir 
wa* lurried ita. ThU borinff w;i> ii<iii<- witli n Ift. lOiti. 
uuir<>rt whi^'li was madv lu work ju->t wiiliiu the cylinder*. 
Here ea-'h time tbc augt'r v»k wtihdnwn thf lylinder* 
wnuE'l H-tl.Li- <li>wti rni iin nvcrtkfr<> iif about ?iii. nl Ou-b 
drawtufr-uj) uf tlie au|.-vr. The ntrHlum uf itaiid wa> abuiit 
3>lft dt<ep, whicb, bad it Ixyn a qiiickn-iud atratitni, the 
diRicully would not Uiiv biiii jfrmtiT. Viii'u tli<! Klratoiu 
of naiul was cm through hanl mottled diy waa itift wiib. 
where Ibe i.-}lii>ders wcn- with a heavy dolly limdy beddcii, 
wliiob pn.'vcut«d th« Miid water fvrcinET lU war into tbo 
w^. now the water, whieh had abood abow tnc top of 
the aatfl. wai punipt^ »ul. and the well remained dry, 
wli«D boring rimmenr^iil wilh a 10{)n. nugrr (iiuili-ad of 
tlK- I'.'iti.. which wu* t<ri|ni>aUy mei;tioued iii the pi<ecin- 
catioD) and carried forward to th« chalk. Aftvr una an 
Sin. pipe wax tixM, and left standing Cft. np into tho well. 
Tliiit well yii-'ldcd about SOO KnUona per bonir, and tiic 
fyUturiag i» a. sectioD of th« well: — 

8kT10!(. Pf. 

Y«1)'!W clay ami ([ntvd ... 30 

BluerUy ' .- lOO 

Mottled clay 19 

Dark loamr Mnd and wiLfer 18 

Hard moltled cluy and aaiid without Wftter 17 

Dark naiiid with little watgr ,„ ... S4 

liaid flint 1 

Chalk at 


DtMtaoeeof bottom of ^m^'k nhaft In tnirfacc ... 163 

Iliotanoo fnrni tiiji of iron •■yliiider to fiiirf«oe 139 

Distniiw; ftMUi huttwm of iiim rylhvdrr lii siurfueo 170 

DiAtitni'o fiUBi bottom of ir"a i^jKiif; <« nurfiioo... 230 

t>iHtaiM« from top of cnmn-r pipuijr to fturfaea ... 220 

ItUtnme from iHiltoui oi Kipjier piping to surface 'J-)9 

When boring tliniuRb ehalk will the nua^r. th* ntdw of 
the ekalk nt^'etwarily lieiTiuiti hanlrncd, and >f it i-i puwiible 
to pump cmt ihu water »> fanl a» it enn nin into the w-rll, 
it iri" y ■■- •' ■ *> Tuflml effect of ftvcing the »id« of Ojw 
bu: If writer will be likely to percolate 

tbiv "1 the bore hole. 

WIndla&MS and Buckets. 

Thnn*andji iif ynint ago the RtiTii>iiiM oM^d Ihe windlaiw 
for nU«liiif bui'kets of waUT Ivjth wells. The lainpl* 
windlanA i^ fluswn at fig. 815, and in thi' pnwenl anrc ta 
loo well kiv^wn to n-fjiiire cxpliuiation. I Miall thcrcfora 
pruceed to Fl^. "!'&, which ia an eit^rariug of Wamtr't 

Total depth 370 

improved well wiiidlaas. with well corcr complete. TLia 
modification of the wimlliiM hr ougwbccb i9 for the simple 
purpUM! of gaintng |uiwvr, wtiieli were alvi wi-tl known 
to iliv OR'eka and KonLanri, atid ereii ihe I'ainpeiani 
uuiployi.-d iLuigwlMHibf and p'nionn. This p4ylff of rai^ig 
vaUT from deep wHLt Ih no duubt an Kimph' a method M 
can be drrvi^ed, and a luttliod whieh will nr> doubt be 
eonlinuiH] until donniHlay. No iloiiltt tb'> abf.ive machine 
la at p«rfeut a wiiiilhiM lut ovvf eaii Iw dtaignvd. itji 
tnaduukical parts being lliat of pBtfeutiua. 




Hot Springs- 

The temptrnturf nf wjit.« fmiu wulU mttiik to innrctTC' 
mt Ibv MM of nbuut luT for tivvty lOOtt. b^w Umi Ibul of 
thfi ccMutani Kinperaturc. 

Ilut nja-'ijif* mxv lo be fnund in mitnr purl* nf Ihc glolw, 
«iii|>«nally in volcmiic] cuunlHtv. lUfl u fi-w i-xUt wiLli •■((itnl 
Tiguur where Ifao ground in nut Mibjti'ie'l to iiiierRAl 
commotioD, mad wliiob nuj Iw-. lUKnimted (or th^'Ugb nhmo 
lontl diiilnoktiMi of atnta, &«. Tbe deupedt njinn^ lukv« 

die sreatttit iiniuuiit r<f Itmt, tuid will nftrn ipiHli out 
babUing nnd txrilin^' toTTYiitr^ full of niioorkl mhI gMemiA 
iugrrdiiuitn. mirh lu xiilLa. irnu, biliinii'ii, &«.-. 

Tilt' sprint; whloli mipiiUcn tlic Kiti[f'« Batb, nt Batli, 
hftK o toiDprmhin' (if 11.' F^., whUflt tfaofleot Orenae, lu 
Ltii!li™i| imvri » tt;mperftture of ISO'. 

Wo Kin now pracwd to that whicli iti mot« Intensling 
to ih» plumbvr, «ii., bin pump irork for Water Work. 



The pomp i» r. hydranlic mnpliinr iitr ntiajn^ v»tfr hjr 
nauMof Mtmimpbcrir prFKiui^. or lijr oUtrmUv liUiiif,' or 
fonini? ii Willi » bupkpc, pui-ttin. or iMinivnlnnt tneniin, 
Thfisp mnchJiK-E an? very wotKitrfiil It.' pfjpl" wlw hIwitxo 
their KotinD fi>r the fir>t tiin«, nnd nianr u maa Iiax lo»i his 
bead over tbMG simple inachiuM. Nrtiriv .lU tJiiiik thi^y c«n 
on •omothinff now out iif th^ni, but no uju>, it'itiiioir fn'xb 
(■ to be found — ttliK-k nnd |n>run, t^m: fan, iMickri, rnm. 
BL-nw, air or ncsra Li all itav go imu will be. Ii it \-4>ry 
imc«rtain by wtiom or irbcn ir wiw mvtnt«i. !^oini- iu«^lw 
it t() Ctcjiibinii, fif Alrxutidria, 2'11 R.G. wbilnt others ancril* 
it to DniMBK. W« hart>, howov«r. vtirr gnod nuMuoo for 
btrUaviug tliHt till- pump w-n» Viiowii Ut tW nacivnt 
E^Tplbin.^ Amim^ M>m<- r,( thi- Tn<Kl>-m inttreuitln^ die- 
fiomuo iu tilt- Ktr>'[>liu]i iii'jiiuint-ut.- -nere boUom, irbirh 
miMt h«*e bp^n wnrkm] irilh '-Isi k>. miilplum] in tlii- ti>iub 
of 'Xliebo*, niid wVi'ili b(-ar tliu ii'iitu' •>( Tbothmen III. . a 
Pfaatunh, ^ad i-tirilMni'-rar^* with Mom.'*. Then H^r'id'jtut 
(IrfiiirMifn Snii l>liii'>t>. \''rl. I., pntp- :il, Clm I. figj writi-;* 
alujut ibi- B'tnTiinliiv! I.iiji;iv whuw- tvii[|ilvr ftan iirrjciiiiil at 
tW Hm-knmitii'- fnn/T', "'S-rinK tli> •iiiilh'ii tn-n hcUf**", 
be iiifcrrcil thcv wtiv tli« two wind.-." 

The two h<-lli)W» w«n' fiir th-' ptiT]»o* r.f iriving a f-on- 
tinii'>u* bttiNt. as our iloubic tM.-liiiv pun)|M. For mir piirl. 
I N-lic'Vi' that pnmpit tucd for watvr hare been kuowti iit 
Wat 3.000 Jl.■ur^, 

Trea Pumpt. 

Thf< old nvtlii^l u( nLiLin^ aiiH l-nriiiur ihv andi-nt tn-c 

Einipx, wliioli to ihiia (liii i> iiiuoh pr.n liiHil in the W^-nt ■■( 
n|,'iiind, Ice, xanj laUirvi nianr of lov render)!. Fur thii 

Ki?r to the pttuailiulator or frainc, ^'lJc. 77 V. It ia fruta 

tho pmntioal work of 0. Grejrorj-, D.D . 1807, and ia n 

^'—ne c t dravfiii^,' .tT » (nine mudi tiaed b^ my late rndi- 

■■ w41 "inki-r, Ik'-., of St. John't". WorewMw. and 

, » ■dt-o and other pmupa iim to hf mvd in 

'looaalrauL thai and the adjolninif ivmnlicn. 

t constant aw for orpr fifty yenrt, and ! 

■e fnune u> utill luod hy tha h>iu u( the 

abon', who /tro now lirinif in Hcrefordahira, when? woodro 
pijui|in art- bUk) very well kiinUTi. 

This kind of camaon^ fRiiiiv ww aUo wed for maViiiir tko 
•'- wtttpr-iripro. maur of which may to this day be awn 
ill thf yard uf iho Wwt MIddloKX I'limpibg Kngiiic 
Sttitinn nt lIninniE'rutiilh. 

Thr inrthul of U-rinu tbr- nUivc Im*» will 1* plain. The 
angr rod" II iin- Ki-ncmlly. hIwd at work, «!• iJi liiis oim, 
•"> (nr mn rptrardh Init^ or rti-iprtK-iitinn motion, a fixLuru, 
iitthi'ii^rh iiiad"^ t.1 ran uji^ii llii- i,'ni')Vi^ wljtti M, atui tho 
tr(-e FK mode lo inovn ii])nTi Uio i^arhngv or fnuni- B, whwh 
trBrrti iijNin the V'Khapvd riuuicr-wlit'cls hi u V-*hit|i^] 
(inxiTo txii'kwitrda aiid forwanU. Sut-li uii>ti'.'i> 
to tlic carriajre frnm tho vheelff i. and fKim tt> 
aitic and rnrd E E, wfaii-h p«»M>HoiYr pull-yn iil i.:. 
tbt' 1u«'cr frama, and tw-k to (lie [op frmiir, us Khon-n Ml 1} 
uml K. Of coiuiM-, il will t-n«ily I-.- •<vti that n«ii>(iK-iitiriK 
itiotiuii may bu giTcu to tbn nn^j- rtxln, an alw ft the lop 
frame, ana that. rmdM- iht' t-iri-un».*t«n'.»s, tli« rods nrfnmp 
inu>r, movt- in a iru'- ■tniii.'lit linr with i-«'-h otbi-r, •ivl if 
thi- aiigi-r null, nre uiiidf t" rim upon jfro'JieJ wlituls or 
ruiiwt*- ill « ii«iil :<trai?iii luit^ wiih thf tt-nirt' •>! ilio trw-^, 
it (ollowr- that lli<> tn^r- i»iii>t he l<»r<il truly lhtiiu>rti.>Ht. At 
timen the lairiii); is txuiimni't'd by hm boring n vuiall liule 
with Ml) iirdi»»ry hit auger, aft^ whii-h a ditforent rixn\ 
and tnppr )iu {>* uaed to enlarui? tb<> )*m. Of nour^c, ax the 
boring i>itk-,i-<1h, the tiv*- i^ w<>rk'-<i tjuit^bward^and fonrirds 
to i-lear the Irfirins^ or thij*- (ruiii Ih.- U.rt-. In the abOf« 
<-iirri-»pi- fratiif. )k'at«r, >tNim, or hoi-«r {viwrr may !» tued. 

Siinic jiipi-lwinrD, and wi-Il ^iukc^! do not um- * t-Hrriage 
fraroe, but xiuiply Hx thf tree in an tibligiM' dirvinitni, iv 
(but th'.' wi^i^hc Lif ttii> bnriiig ntAa will torm^ the aii^vT 
(rhrwar^i They une •' Htraddlc otrala " for Uie nappoM of 
lliu ix.irtiix rmbi ; but this method reqainw iminh prartirv 
for gm<l work, as thi- i-ipo ia apt to hu bored out uf iht- 
tnui Ui».- or twntrc of the tics. Of caarac. thic kind of 

boring ifl ouJy duuv by hand. The vnda sn ■hafi'x) ^ ^ 

into ciu-b otber bf in*><uiD •jf a <.onc-«hsp«d fnsideand uut- 
)>i(lc lUlt^T, or ntii«rwim>. and in uith » Hiaunrr thai, wh^n 

the two ar*- imt t*>gelh»r thi-y Jit etutlly, »> »howii at t^. 
780, or if the fit bi> not perfoct, luain, aenMut, and low amy 
bw empluyod. 



The tree pomps ore made of elm and oak — the latter ia 
the bettor. £ldier is also used. 

When oak is used, for the flnt two or three months the 
water has a very nsuseoufl taste, owing to tiie iron stain 
getting into it. Hony a score times have I had to pnmp 
wells cuy to rid them of this kind of water, bat aft«r they 
are once rig^bt sach pomps are by far the beet, in a sanitary 
point of view. 

Wells should be properly ventilated when wood pumps 
are used to prevent the wood becoming mUdowed, which 
sets up a serious kind of rot in the wood work, especially 
in coft wood, suob as deal. 

When the tree pnmp is bored too green, and fixed 
exposed to the snn and wind, it will split and crack, some- 
timen With cracks as mach as 18in. long and Jin. wide. 
When such is the case, and you are called in to repair same, 


FlO. 781, 

yoo must first dry the place, then paint it, and with a good 
putty-knife fill the crack with stiff red and white lead, 

Slaatering it well over the crack ; then get a piece of sheet 
ad long enough for the crack and about 2in. wider, and 
with some lin. clout nails nail the lead over the crack. ThiH 
is known as pump -stopping, and is one of the first jobs the 
plumber's apprentice has to do in my part of the country. 

It may be asked, why wooden pumps still continue to be 
made. The answer is that in many parts of the country 
leaden pipes are objected to on account of the material ; 
and, for my part, 1 say that I prefer wood or stone, 
especially for some kinds of water. 
jPor tbe Sxinff oS the tree pump, see Fig. 781. Aistho 
bottom trco, which raits apon the bottvm of the well ; the 

holes shown at A are the blast holes leading to the bored 
part. At C is the oone joint, made watertight. Upon 
the upper end of the tree, as at £, is fixed tJbe olack or 
lower valve, which in this case is nailed in the top part of the 
bottom tree. The wood-seating or face part of the valve 
requires to be nicely faced true, so that the leather may' 
shut down fairly upon its seating, in order to prevent ttie 
water mnning back into the bottom. There are manv 
different methods of forming these clacks or valves, whi(^ 
will be seen throughout this work (see Figs. 783, 783, 784, 
786, 786, 787. 789, 790, 791, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 798, 
799, 820, and 823, ^c), but the one hero shown at E, Fig. 
781, is the oldest (known as the bellows olaok ; the name 
clack is taken from the peculiar noise which the bellows 
clack makes), and is still in use in many part« of the West 
of England. The great objection to them is, that when- 
ever the leather is worn out, tho top part, or tree, has to be 
lifted^not at all a pleasant job to do. When this top is 
off, simply with a oold chisel knock out the dout nails F, 
and take off the clack; bat do not damage the face or 
seating of the valve. Kext, with a suitable sized piece of 
good tanned sole leather, ^in. or more in thickness, with all 
the fleshy part ground off, which is done by rubbing it 
with water upon a pieos <^ sandstone, or other such Uke 


Fia. Tea. 

Fio. 7S3, 

surface, until tho flcwliy part is all worn off, make the clack 
as shown at Figa. 782 and 783 ; but before you can do so, 
yoo will require tho lead clack, which is made as follows ; — 

Load Clacks. 

These clacks are cast in a two-sided mould (see Figs. 
24 and 26, Vol. I., and for a full size clack, see F^g. 2o). 
C is the clack : rivet is the ^rt which holds the ctack upon 
the leather ; also see i-icef , Fig. 782, which illustrates the 
rivet turned over the leather. For a plan of this clack, see 
A, B, C, D, Fig. 783. 

Having the clack cast, cut the leather to tho sine of yoiur 
clack seating, and rivet the clack on as shown at Fig. 782 ; 
then, in the case of the tree piunp, Fig. 781, it must be 
nuled on the seating formed ou the top of the bottom tree, 
great care being taken not to let the rivet bo too much 
spread ao as to prevent tho leather from shutting down fair 
over the whole of the seating. Also, see that the leather is 
not too large to work up against the barrel of the pump. 
There should be a clear space of 4-in. all round, except 
where the nails come at clout nails, Fig. 783. 

Pump Buckets, " Sucker Boxes," and F 

We have seen ho^ *- *- **•- loathored clack 
fashioned wood ' '•% meth 



be »e>:-D, &«, fwr e<xiRi|i|p, tlio wooil mwkrr bo*, H, FiK- J**- 
IlliH box cut! bo uaod with tha tn^' putnp or otliirwiae, iiikI 
it linUy lmflii-r«il in thi- folktwing manner :—C lit u t>imf> 
of l«Bt3>i-r Ihexliane ol E. F, Ci, EI. J, Vitc. TKtf, tbi-n liLjr it 
fpnt Ibc hohj iu Uto box. "wl witli a *cribtir ur peiiL-it frutri 
bfllov, maA tha Idathvr nil ruutid ttii.' hole- ; lift tho Wthor 
off, and pridk the oentra of tlu> holo -, next cui Uiii hulc fur 
the Tint, but let it fit miikUin^ wvll. llien place tha ImiI 

Km. Tt)4. 

dack ujinn tho mibudc part <A the leather, niid n-iih tho 
tiwt Ihrxu^li, ]>]aiw thL' bftrk of the liMid f[itc\'k upon niim^- 
thiiiK hanl. hnc'li n« an iiitiI. inin wcitftit. orlari^ ntiiiM, 
ntiil ium thci rlvpL nimi nnil triii', lu ulionn ftt tig. 782. 
Tbcrivtft, If propurly tunioil. will LXimriil, iiiiJ m) lit ilw 
Imtber tightly. A". B, — -</*raj/ii p»l the jl,-th tub t/ Us 
UalAtr Anenwirti* to Jit iivrf Hir imliitf, or, it •ilhtf trorrfi, 
in/A th( gnit or imtMlh tult itpnaic/t. AH bitfkei Iralkfrn 
inn li* jinh nitf Jlj'at to rut tufuintt lltn fiarrrt. Having 
lumfd thd rivot, mst tiiltn u fiiw (."x"! dunt ii«ih<, for J^iii. 
itiul Sin ■tiii'ki-ri lin. lonjf, .^IlJ wilh n fiiiP Imi.Juwl biire 
t)ie hoI<-n Ibmii^'li U\v ItMttbt.^r, tmt iiitii llio w>>im1, thi'Ot 
imII the li-.-itliiT iin to thi* niinddrr Uti. uh Hbuwit ut Fi|;. ^S'•^, 
«ul nt F. Fig. "Hi. AbttJ nee Fljf. .39. 

Towing or Comontlnfi "Sucker Soxos." 

Next ia urilcr Ls tho fixing the (<>v- Mimd the- suclrer 
hax : thtH IA vrry Hiinply liutir, but ixiuiritiif fivmt cnto. 
It is doiii- tu< fuUuw* : — Tiilo.' a liuudful of tow, i-ima ynm, 
Of flni. ill* lnn),ir» th" IwtUT, and lmii(( tho pnilx Ia poiiitfi 
u tbduu^i j'ou wuro piiiiK I" Uirt'iul tli'- i-yc of u nivillr, 
UUK' vi'nip it niL'c and tnie but tieht ruimd ilio cnatn! of 
tho box. QA at A. Ki^. ZHa. Ia-I it bul^' in tint oonlfv 
*■ •hown. and with miino tint! twiui? tie it round. Hi<n 
Taur low IK not nv^Kivl or Ukimp. tior too haife or 
to I'M-r-T tiw piini|i barTvl, iiur u>d ntuJI w oa tv 

Pump Hookt. 

Now jrou ntiutrB u tmiiip lii«ik. Thin ia nv)1 ilhi^ilraled 
«l Fign. 9 and 8, Vol, I il ic thy Ui»i'r hth'w f.T ncivwiiiK 
into till- lend i-hiuk.Mohow-nmF. Fi>,-. 786, A,B,C.E,F, 
Fi)fii. S luid 1>. iUiLttmli- tbt' f>ai'ker honk, the end of vluch 
ia pojuwd IhrouKh the huU' iii tht- Haokcr buXt a> «h<-ti in 
th« iiot of Mltinif or dntwioif tho Rockvr Iwx. 

Sucker Boxes Chitting op Setting). 

Now M lie jwoi-w-d III (is ihi- Mtckrr Imx itito llw piimp 
banvl. Ml ut A, E, Fifjr. Ttuc. Firat ilirow n |iulful of dvuQ 
vattv dowu llie pump ti-> wnKh out all grit, Ac. frriit Ibc 
bnnvl : Ibm takt- :■ nmuU Udlrfiil (if mutton nti^t uiid 
muki' it iHiiliiig hot; |iliii'<* xhe siii'kr'r lajx. ("i^, *Sii, iipiiii 
tti" Rooi', aii<l huld it thrTc l^'twiH'H tbi.' tvr^. Nitw Ikkc 
ihn HUckcT hook ami iwn-w it inrn the hip of tho riack, not 
too fur. bill; iu«t f.tiffi>iciit Xa carry it. Be careful not to 
Wu t«o iniicli iju iioi' nicb' with thn "miekrr h«ik" when 
■Mivwiofir ihc wri'w iiitii tho r'ni'V, i>r thf \h>x will oTurtiini, 
and Uif! <liiun'<'»i an' ihat llic puiul <it tho wirw will bixjik 
or ruu into jonr f<H>t. Now tnkr> thr nunkitr hi>uk uud 
wMkcT in your left tuuid, and Ibv hot nuct in jiiiu- riu;ht 
hadd, and |iiiur it oi-i>r tbi> b)w, at tbe ■dniif limi- liiniiiiK 
tlu> "•iir-ki« liox" roiiuil to pruvimt the- fal nuiuiu>r un 
thf low, tut Jtfiv tJw fal tf Ou UAlktr and fntt t-f the 
ciatk. W)ii-n ynu h«v^ [■•lUivd in im iuui--b MvyX n» tlw 
fa«np will ubnurb, torn tln> KtU'krr ilrin-nw>ril)> und 'vin-fiilljr 

[mt iL iiitiv its pbin-. sh -tliiiiiMi at A, Fii;. TH<i ; lbi.-ii |>nw« 
t dou'u , thin will prevent the box Ciuiuu^ round ; duw 
tjiuckly uiwTi'W Ibr pump hook, pnl! it uH^ inni tho 



hocik. mid with thd Hut pirt A. Via. 9, kniiok fho "tHrkcT 
Imix down with, miv, tliti-c i>hnrp bli>wi> ; thin will fiA ijui 
■ncki-r Ihii, ubi]< iht' fat or oi-mi'til w hot, iiiid tho i>un)|l 
ia ready for thf putting in of tlit' bucluit, 

Tlierp are oihpr kiiul^ of om-kor Ikixcm im\' B. A. 0, 
V\K. 787). B i« ■ brow «urkvr box with liftinif Kpur ur 
bow for thf! pump hook. A in Ihe ■onut kind of Uun|£, hut 
with diSurvut groovw. 

UiOtliCT wIvauUK^ ill u«Iux ihe^ "racber lioxn«"i it w 
^at Uwy may be cMnrntml iulu the cvnv uf tl>i- Ixirrvl, ur 
t»idnv^. Whtn thr Utit U duti«, It k grncnUj in the 
nuinnrr a» kbowu at E, F, Fi)(. 788, and M lollows :— Fiml 
nneu ibe vsd of th« ■uclion pipo, an at A, wid<^ rm>u){h lu 
jta/ait the ralva A, thiu tin tlw vnlve auil n'tji^ n tnfi-joint 
** irAfH-ii j)f S; lii'xt pn'panr the foot <■<{ thp banwl iw 
*aawa, and wipe tb<' Juiat (f. F, buZ take can not to melt 

the xi\Atr on th<> tnridi*. The proper wajr to do thittiM to 
wipo tlx* inniM" joint «rilh a cnarMrr Mtldrr than the outM' 
jttnil, lilt- Jiiniipr nf wliit-h will ivajitin- a ktw"!"^ hrnit to 
rn^lt it. Of coiirnp. tht- fi)iiiKlh> can W rviulilr boulml up 
iiv wlial irt rallitl n "b"rt b<M>k '.tt- Hf <\"%lr^ lin^^», A. B, 
Fi>r- H), i>lit <if tin' hiirri-I whrn n<>|iiin<<l fur r<-fMin>, nr 
tI>eM> vft1vi«i amy Iw Ii<k>1»^ up or n't w illi a luxik attuehad 
t" apu'rat of utriinfC "Irinit, c^pwiany in d(><tp well*. 

Wlicii wWiiub' tlicw- viKcK Hf' Unit tlu' ypitidk' if) lon^ 
rnnii*.')), and thiii iiw briil^n' Ia irrll ogmti ooiu'- Unified tii 
nllnw tbr '-iid i.if Ihc npiiuil^ tn <iri>p i-ruuly iulu Uif brid)^. 
Altli'iiix^i ihf-iv viilrcK Bif very fcr*><l nod haadjr, there 
ia au ulnt-cti'^n lu tht'tr um- in miuiv punpa udIcm judici- 
oady wlix.-tiid, rut., Inivi.' t-nDiitcb in tlM< vatfr waj thftj 
mIiduIi) biT twin.' tht^ hiva iif rlif [ii]H>ii. If lh« lift ia tm 
irniit, ibe vidirt>, wb^n tiw punifi ui wutlu'd <juii'kl}-, jionpit 
Kju hit:li. 00 much at 6in. to Tin., md durinir itti dMocikt 
■UnwH t^K- watJT to baf'k. tbrrrby to a Rertnin devrat 
Aji»i1ii]>r tb<- utM-fid rff«!t. «f ttu' .itmkn of tlin pump, wbMi 
is not w) madi tbp caw with tbe cbvdi valve D, fly. 787. 

Chemical Worha, Valves, and Pumps, — 
Perraau s Rubber Con« Valves and Bucket. 

ThcMt vah-M nir illiiMfntod at Tig*. 7(19 and 790. Thcj 
an* tuadr bf iudianibto-r. and nfb-r ihi- nuuinrr of tlw 
Dalund valvr* »f the lii<art. 'nH>f bi(> t^pwiaXij anitod 


'*^*' I 

Ku. :tio. 



fur ccitein work «xeoatod lo dMNDkul workii, nod «UnJ 
very w«U. Fig. 191 in >. fieotioa tif the biuiltDt Iq mutch 
the rubbni vh]v«. Of ooiuw, it will lyi mtdily w«n that 
tbo taIvi] m»y bo wrannM] lirlwfvn tbe fliuigtia of «d iron 
or other pump, ati B shown Iwlow. 



Ffn n« 

S:UluAtnbr« Hw ftbovo rnlvcfixiH] bctirMn (lie 
iatB. C, Fig. ',Vi. AIm »ee EIk 7^7- 

Chamber, Tall-Pipe, and Ralief and Retaining 


Tl* lail-piiie ^-slvw, n« illiiJ(lT:tt'<i] nt. A, B, C, nnd E, 
FSk- 794. aro viiU-rafurfixiuK *>ii thi- inii-iiiiii piw; in fiiot. 
tbey taawer the hiuii« punuae as tbo suukn'T VHltc, and nro 
nothing mon> nor lew itinii »uK^ritnt''« (nr the nu'ker 
valve oc box. Tbo old nrh^il .if jilumbeni wet* very fond 
of nmng th^«e valves u]xiii iticir pum^i jiiirtiiiti pipe*. 
e>ip«dally in plat?rii whftv theru wiiH » k'tit; lfiJK<h t*f 
hmKontal pipi-, fny :iOfi. to Atift, liurird in the gruiuid, 
etc, !ii Huh pli»i'« it i» «iiut«.' ;iH wt'll to UN.' cnr. The 
plnrc fur H»ina; in uboiit ''ft. di>«"Ti th«i wi'!!. l«t wlitre 
8Uph vxlveii arv fixi^ ilic ^iiitip will WL<rk a Uttl« bardw 
«r hoarier on srcouiit c4 the weight of the valvi^ and thv 
vttra frioticii at the waliT through tbn additional valvfr. 
The rcvvMin why ibc?* Talves ar« used on Ibe nuiliim i§ 

nivr^nt ihe litji or swkw valve rci-^idne thf bta\-j kLiri 
*1l which tuk<is place in \'nin Ir'niftliH of pipi.'* wlieu 
Ha <it tiib pump in wurk'id aud iiW])[ ttjo quicUj 

from the band atnko on to the hack i4ro)ir, or. In other 
w>Hfd^, from thf down cirokp to th-? up atroke. It i« 
ii^rlain tbnt wbcn vjtur ia mpiwtrtvil l^ ibc aimrjtphent, 
i>rwb»t in pTn-T^ 11 T known %» li-inn Iti-ld up by tbi- <'Iark, 
that « priniul riicuum i" »J-ily 'renKHl in bLiitt l^nfflliB. 
viz.. if tlm wiikT iit anratixl "ndii-niy. Take n<)(i<v'--the 
9tn)kea in niiinpiiiK' '"^ knnwn to i>iiinp-miik<T^ and Iiimm 
iiA " hand ui' " biuik " itlnwe, aiui alM> an *' furwurtl" or 
'■ha«k " atmko. or an "in" or "nut" strnko, wbethnr tho 
fodi are worhtiiK in » hurimiiud. vbliijtio, or vertical 
ptwiifion. Borne pliimbfrft will nay '* up AtrJce" or "down 
nlTiike" : (bin will tinnwcr wh^ii tho nid* do tint ti-^ivi- a 
roi'lcitiK motinn, nr whrti &X'tl in a Lori/onlii! j)i.''.ili.)n for 
remjirtHJttlu(rBit^'n ; but. ihi' reifuhr pump-hand in known 
towy "h«[id" or'*baak" stroke. Th(>Mterm«ai«B)aciu««d 
iu >ibiLftiti>f tinrinif n mtnrr ninti..Ri. 

ThtMe lail-vdvim are ofti-it fixed upon thi- rtjuii^ niniiiH 
to n>lio\-e tha val^-e uu the outlet of Idq barry^l, or to Item 
th^ fvinotant. wriitlitnf the water otf the HUiRinft-lmx and 
}in\g li-iiKthi u( pipi>!i. Tbirr an! Ihcii known !■¥ the name 
of iwtaiiiiiiK i'alv(w, A. Via '''t. i* tl»* unlinary tail- 

ralvc ; B i» the retaininff valve : C is a •wrtioD : V i" knovm 
a» tli0 foot-valvr ; K u a rvlaifiiiitf or tail-falvi^, linvinsjtbe 
plat? for taldn([ out the valvu K for repnira. Ice. Tliiii 
■rronKVUiWl often tavn a l<it uf truubU nnd hiMvy woik 
in puBiBif tha frfpw apart wh«o the valvea require to bs 
leathered, &a. 

Flanite Lenth«ra and Valves. 

These laitlicfn arc iUui-tntTod ai Fi({tt. ll'i and 799, Um 
tatter of which ia ranvos, ftfr luit wa^T, ice, epcrialty mado 
and fold by braaalini»lt«n.pump-ma]icn, &o. Bjrncning 

¥tu. 7K. 

to Fir. A. viDbo w«n nRopfte : tha Imtlior between 
thi» flange furma the " "irfcir \i»Ivi'" B, fur a plan lit 
which aee A, Fig. 796. Vfbai uarkiug thcM leath«ta«.-«&^ 


Bor VATSB cupru rAvna mm tmcKwn. 

tltriLTKE' UOt WATKfl IHimW. 

nuak tin viUvo ur flnt pnrt «« f>>tluw>>:~Willi tlio ouni- 
ft— r atrikf the rin:V H I J K, and wiUi Thn pompniM-A 
BN llwj KTi' *e(, ilividi! lliu nircte tiilo ux cqmtl piirta, Imii 
uf •rL!''li urri m[uirv(l fur tlu> hiiitfn A ; ix'Xl, r-ut tfai.' Ii'ili* 
B. WhlTi ruUitiK 'Jilt (,lii.iH- Iiiitlii-rK L"«iti lOiouIil ho tuk<!tL 
to cut tbc upeo part C iiii'^ aiid >'Iouii, ur u-u>>. Of imtn^. 
jroamnefDlxTUiatwhciiil4-Hcribm^'»i('ki:Tb<>x^ IcxplAiiini 
DOW to tnat Um' IcaUirr, Iij rubl>iuj|( uS nil lli<- llii>li}' ^uui 
For Ruikiii)f cup katlien, ««» pump cup lewttuT makiUK- 

Earthonware Pumps and Feather Ouido 
Sucker Valves. 

Id vhnnical worlw imd curl bni whit injmjiii it h a rammom 
tfciiiK ki mw "•lu^kcr" ntid (itlicr vuh-t-H ii ■ vine fen Uiemd 
(pai£«, nieh u illuntnttrd ot Cj. K, Fi(;. 707 ; P in x pliin 

of th* Tslrp. T]i« fpwUior t' mitut, of Mntrw, <7xtoiul 
«nwH« thff nilw {wioiip'. miil lij no doiti^ it bUickii iii> Hm 
beft part uf thf kiiiii'. ofCiii to iLo (m'ul iuii<lrn»r-i? oi tti'* 
Hni<l tji hi- jnimiwl. llmDy r<>nKinirt4.>(l wah-r vulws are 
ufb-ii )uall(^ witii tlH'ir vdIti-h tliin tJiaw, TItc w>>rl[in^ 
mrix iif tliin pump will In- pxpUincul fiirllii'r cm. *>f ttnirw, 
in t4wi wrtlicimnn; piun]<, tlii« oliMpud TuUe raunot be w.>1l 

Pump Buckets and Handles. (ShFI?. 784.) 

Of liii*»o iht-ro an- vArirttu kiinU, Th* Hlmplnrt., ami th« 

•DejKiKTallv tim<J uh>^ut I»iiiloti, i>^ tluit ■liuwn ut L P K, 

.'V /»/. £>/* /Ac rwt>lM-t f..r Ihi' Ax\nff nt th« Icftlher. 

K-hlcb Mbunlcl bvout bnck sbout ^iiv. to a Jin., wttli m ]tige 
u at O, Pi^. 'HI. Thfl mlibct m the bucket cn^cnvvhiir, 
Fi^. 7R4, IH rut nitlm- too miirli ^uu-h nt the lioUom ; it 
■hiiuld b)t morv Ukv thiit nhown at B, Ti^. HOS. K in the 
watjnii; tor llio I'Inck, n plan of whkh Im »bun-n at N, 
Tig. 781. A. B, C, D, &o.. Fig. 781, u iHa luindlo uid 
biirkol-riid, iiuitabli> tor ltu> abovi> burki-t. And icriMrnill/ 
nuuii' with It liMr«TMg« of 5 air fi to 1 : ave Fi^. 7til, xbumy 
patnp ffiimna nnd liiblni. Thc> mMhtid t>f fixing tb« buelwt 
upon Uie Wd in ua foUown :— Al P. Pijr. 781. will bo aeat 
A hftle bored thnrnjirh the ealid wood. Tak<> ihr l-iirkn-rad 
nnd mcnMiin* it]»ii tho w>lul pmrt of th<- bui-lcrl. frum P tu K 
thf xxwL diHtuiioc fnim tlie mIhiuMlt at K, niid tbc ryv ol 
bm'ket'Fod fi'r tlw key F, (■> w-wlj^ the bui_'krt flnuly upuu 
the buokE^nHl. Next iiuikc Oto end of tiic biiok«t-rod 
ml hiA, and piiHli U;l- nnmi- tbniiiKli tbr bak- iti tW biii<k«t, 
anil witlidrnwitijf it n» iitiirkly :ui piNwiMo, bo ■■ not Ut 
bnru tbo h'.>lo tixi ]ikrm''> Uiijn lit tho rod cool, afhr vhtch 
fix ihf bu( k<-t fVitnlr ni^ti tlu> hhI. ThiH i* Aarus hy fint 
pW'iiiif uti iriiii Hraii]ii?r uudor the koj. tlicii with a wnlm- 
M)iBpo<r flcit iplit iiMtnp-kc^, Nocfa %» nhawn at I>, Fig. 7^7) 

VHK na. 

Flu. T!lO. 

■i3rii't-ii into tin* «yi'. «* nbown nt F, Fikr. 781 (al*» hoc tJift 
rvd mid tuuki-t u) UbiMrai-^l i!4>ini)1i-tf nt H.H, t. Fiu:. SOJ), 
wedire thr pump-baikrt tirmii' wpi>n tbc puinp-rwl. iift«r 
wluL-h turn ihi' fiid» irf llii.' Vi-y ruuiid in fonh ii iiiutinor 
that it ninni'l • -■ nitrb lb>- i 

lutrrvl. Alv >' nf ilii'i>)il ' 

far ntongh. hi< a- u'l (•' k ruoJi the \iarr 

■ pump 
-■■*» in 




Leatharind Buckets. 

ynil U* tlark «n firat. 

Wlicn IcftUicrinfr wnodim burlki?tM for piunps. t])C Icnthcr 
Ah(iu]d bo of thi< beet ivtc Iciitticr Ktul cut nliuut \\'a\. to 
liin. wide, nnrl long moDKh lii g^n txtuiid tlw hurliit iiii^l 
lap fmm jiii. to Jiii. Tb« iiottnm oiiIiimIl' (xl^ BhouM U- 
pared off th? oat<>r iriilti iif tlio tiHiili-cr fur nlmut ^in. up fur 
tbo luilinifi lIiu l^Uuwtt tliO uail> tu ntauil Ijiiuk an wiuhii 
Ht FifT' TS^ : tl>o cndu of the lfvith«r HfaouM aI-h) he tntitl 
down w) tbat thpy will fold otpt r«ili nJ.hfr witVimit f»-iiiff 
rlumiijr, iw nt W^ Fitf. 806. Wlaii iiHiiiii)! tlit kiitln>r mi 
•e« that it ^\s prKjvrly ; first, it «bnnlil. ■Khm\ «tivtcbed nni, 
appew a littlo (in ibo riirvT', %ei nilow for thi? tnper of Ihe 
miRltot. Tim Hivlij Nub; nf tlie IruUiiT niuxt bo outaide. 
Bei^in to nuU im by fint drivlii)j; & nnil nboul ilin middl* of 
tho iMlher nod c^i^rr jlu. ur nu until it \% iiiul(<d un, u« ■! 
Qi I'ip. 80n, Tt wiJl be an w<>11 if yon hniv throti);li IIK' 
ImtliGJ^ and kbout Jiii. into thf wikjJI, with e. fiac. Tt^tuid- 
pnioted bnuUwl, U<fon> piiitinK' Tour ro^i/wr noiU in, 
tho Ivii^th ui wUii'li will vurjr ui'i'drifinK tu lliv i>izi- uf ibo 
buckol ; a 3in. buL^ct will require jlo. Dnib, and n 3in. 
buTcl «-il1 tAkp oitlr n Sjin. niiml bucket in utfotMrnufnU. 
Stimntxmf* Ifm biic-knt Ifinlhcr wiU Iw.' Iiio itrnall, i( f«i, rut 
tho lealh^T a llttlv on Iho Kpl^y Ui t-mitio it to upL>n it HtlJi-. 
Whon tmdcT pn.'MiiLRi (lk<.- viit niusi U- duiiu mj m tu allow 
the iiwthiT to iiprn nnd vet Rt tho i^Hun i>( tho borrd. Out 
it u aliDini iu ihe pku at W, Fig. t)U4. 

Short Buckets. 

Hwo arf iniK^li tMxl in l[i(> Wcxt of Rns^lnnd iind In 
mailjproviiit-iul iLiwnHniid vjilairen Lbrou;;houl thi: i^mntry. 
For lni« kind "f lnn'k.-t «*• V, i'ijr. TSI, iilno Wg. 7WI. 
Q, I. is itiu wwd bucket, wbeKiiii ibt- k-nthtr A bt nailed ; 
£ the puiup-rud. 1'hr< bnrkpt in nttnchml i>i 1i\e puDip-md 
ncuu en thti two forkii V J K, known ao th<> lniiffDCt ; 
1 la faat«tu<l with rivelo. mfowk. ur otlm Hptirskiits an 
nt I. Thi" kind of bncVpl it gi'>"<inl!y tint*! in wuod 
pump— iu fart, I have nvvt-r put tltt: l>nji wm)d liiicJtut, 
na diDvn at LP, Fig'. i!t4. Uito wmm)^ ptunpH. W« 
grartally toki' the old one out, and aend il to tW wood 
tumenio haVL- uuf madi- fo iiu ttnni. Ixt'aitM'then' nn- no taany 
difTerent sixn in llic boiv of thew? piiropH. uwi njf ti) ulht and 
tsar, ysxt, wi! Itnm thv bruM or inin-nit^Iiil pump biu-kot, 
as flluNlrab-d at K and F, Tin- '^3. Th.^^w tnjtLki-t.t xin-w 
on to tho end of the pttniji-rud u.t h and F. Htf G, Fii^'. KdO j 
kuch puinp>roda am, rut a rulti, nuub' nf copwr. Thoy 
work through a ■toffliitcbox, an nbuwu at M, Fi^. 840, the 
una end ban^ screwed into tliu pump buchot at f r, whilnt 
the ath«r la noiiiii<rti^l willi tbr- C'vir at Y. U. Fi^ 7'J9. 
ia the caji l«ailii'r. and fi, Pig. 7iJ6, ia a (iiiilh-d cup 
bgcfcct, aiutable for hot water. 

Hydraulics, or Atmosphei*io Jack, or "Suction 
Pump"; Action of. Also Alp Chamber*. 

lift 11" now pxaniini; tho thoory of puinpu (o.ncntUv. 

WrittTB up to the prosont tiinu have iMM-ninl tfiat all 
puinpH urn birth piwiumatio nod hydmulic ; Imt when thrj 
«V that al! punipn an- >o, tli« nawirticin t.- lu.t iiiirrtt. 
wuicb oiin Ixi prrjvpij br tho (-xh mi nut ion "f Fijj. ''■''^. "f ici 
fiwl, any pump wbuM \ian\'l is iiubmn-trcd iiburv the buehtt 
lino. At tho Kun« tinw, I eiitirelT witu-ur with tbonn who 
hay«t wrilvn ■■ whoever nnderxbuid.* the uoi-. will bi- iil no 
k>« to undiT^land th<' oUii-r." Without m>iii» knitwlt<Hgp 
nf th« nninnn of ]ineuiuaueji, it la next lo liupi«aible Im 
•'and hydratdifx. It will b« nooonarjr fnr ms to 
'ifiacnt of pmninuiiica to enaUa yvu to imdeMtsmd 

the priiicipk- uf the " «uotiaii-p<tanf." I nae th<.- word 
fHrtion bcoaiiae it U anircraaUj' moenlDod by plninbcTB, 
and it if rommnn amnnf^ them to ml! « jwck-pnmp n 
•' ttuc-Liuu-puuip.'' anil turi tftii. In fart, it la TWy nircly 
that you nirvt wilb apiKiip -a-itbout a anotlon>p{pe in wmo 
wluiiK' <iv (t>nu. AH Jaok and pliitunt-pitntiw, aim moel of 
thfl hft-piirapw, have ii *' BUi^iion-pipi>." Thfi torn, 
" iniction, ' in rvliition to <>H imni|», ia >rc'nG rally aiiwptMl 
Ktid euatniunly umkI l>y jiltunbnv ; hvuce thv ranaOB why 
I we it. 

Experimental Pump. 

Fni. BOO. 

X, Fig. 800, i* the aw^on-uipe Ie*diii)f to the aouroe ot 
water supply. H is the aocaer-ialTc openinir upwanU, 
so callod Mcatiw thit woEtfht of tho wttt^r rrmn hdow 
alwnyn trnda, an it were, lo suck thj* \a.\vp tlimuifli ita 
•H.-utJn^. or it iimi tw thi? wutrr nboTc t>'niliuK to fore*- it 
iipiin iu iraljnir. W i" tlw wurkintf barrel, nn eallMl 
biwviitop thin ifl thii chamber wbcivin tho bucknt G i^ miula 
to work. I i" the outlet vntev wrvy. licaJin^ rithrr lo a 
Clock or Kponf. and nfti-r into a i intam, or olherwiac. ITwni 
■he u]iiH.-r jiHi-l of tliin waUT way. nt V, is a Talre-Mftlnf, 
ot cuur!«, i-peidntf tipwanLi. Oiio uf the tail tsIvcb, 
.^, It, Fi, or C. Fiif. THI, will anawer hero; but aa ynu 
pni^TTi^'ct you may find that for lb* rtai ai'ljoii of till* 
pump, the Tftlve U not rvqiiintd, an io thp Csvau with that 
■ hown ill Fix- ^^'^ > but noUi tho dilfpreiire in Fl^'. BIO, 
Uie rifliiMr muin v&lro musl bo used Himply bci-auiie ibtTe 
ia no valrc in the biinlurt, w, n« la the ea^e hen; plunK«r. 
Q, FSfT. BOO, in an air cbanilier, whieh *houId hn ni loatt 
iMi liini-H the i-jipacity uf the workiiijit In-rrt-I, or rjf tlie walii 
Uftgd at each «tnpk«. But for my part I go further, and 



mikr til? Mm rif Ibe nlr obarab«r la yropa/iKn to the 
iK-itrhl f>f l)i'< rolunin i>( vrMer lifiod. ui lh« bij^brr it is 
liftal the moiv will ihr Air wiUthi be eompRMMl, ft* 

Air Chambers Explained. 

SimMiMi the wr-cbAtntier la tw full nf ittr. Nmr, mppoM 
It totm pumped liidf -ftill of w&tor : il loilutr* tlmt th« uir 
hua been oorapnwwd to onv-liKlf of it* original bulk . uni], 
tfacrafon, ita aprins in Iwloe ■» KKat iw at flnt. uid will 
i«i4m. « column of water in piDponifin. }I«Ttt the pw ni ia 
of Oio >ir in the wntcr. and iiit^mnl jMirtti of th» nlr 
(ihaniber. will br, mr. Ifilb. vu Uic Hiuun: iuch, anil wQl 
fau rqiuil Ian ir<^ »»y tnat a 30fL oolumn of water will equal 
Ifilb. per nqxtarti inoh) W tbo prcuwan' nt the bottom of a 
ftnlurnii of wntir 'Mitt, in hni;^L Ftic inir w<irlc thii in 
pni'rtiw will bt- qiiiw noar vaQOglt, but for more Etmmnlo 
work Mw boediniiH, "Atmoqi^unc Preaaan and 8i>«ufiv 
<;r»rity of Water," alao tee '• Pntmm of Water per 
SipuuK Inch"; " Hjdtwrtatioal Paradox." Ac, Kow, 
•xippnae tbe air la be noinpmw>d to two-thinla at itn 
anginal bulk, ilw Hprinj; will W llinv liinva aw powerful «« 
it wwiitilnt. aadvrill fun.-<.' tliewiiter twioo IGltt., or aolb., 
to tiio aquan) incb, or up a pipn ooft,, known aa two 
atmo»p]iciT«a. Comprtaa mc iiir to nnv-f-iuriU. Uirn Uu; 
wator will riw thre* atmcMiiliena, or 90fL. and mj on, 
aooondiag to Um following table : — 





llelfht •!( 







ie pl)w. 

01 air. 
























= ■ ■ 









= ■ 












If jou fxumtno tbc but ftffum in tlu< tJililc, ya\i will 
Mw Ihnt tb<' nir 1a Aomnmawd into a vRrj ^mnll nviui'. 
Nuw, tlu^ uMtful etT«ct of the air in the ehniiiln'r i* nvfuMid 
ia H mininiiiin, ninn-limtlm nf i\» rapncity hcins filled witli 
walur. Now, Id uiaku tbe air t-liauVr work u-itfa propor 
eftwC, nnrc air \a rorinired within it — whicli air, in neli^, 
fomu a ■^nnhioii, w)ii»i' ■-lantiiatT' nnrviintn the Kuddm 
atnduM, jdrkx, or bluwn (kunwri a» llu- mtlliu^) iipun tbr 
bucket, valvea, and njdp" of i.iio pip.-s <.ir ynimp. The 
following nt«lhod i» the nne 1 eomo tw^nly-firt \-enrvitgn 
adoptdl, null I b«li>?vp tluit I waa thi- lint t» dA vo. 
Harinu tbe water within the riaiug nwin, aud the piunp 
pyponjr uhargvd. opva the eock C, Fijc. SOO, and [mmp air 
fnto tAe alT chaaiber: or from a Htup-oock. mj*. at TT, 
Fi>r. SOO. or at A. ¥%«. 801, pump tho air-efaumlwrfntl of 
air: whr>n ttir rliamlmr ii> full, thi> air will bnbblr thinujjcb 
the riaiug luuiu, uml if yun du not look out It will blow all 
the water out of the liUng main, tliciefon pump alawljr 
aod leave off when jmi think you have enongb. The 
pump will now not onlj work witli a more oontiiuiouo flow. 
Mt if worked by band and lover, it will work eiMier. Of 
oonm. mmnlj bvcawv the cushion of air is ineiea^ed 
(thoiij^ unoL-r the |iiu«uiu of the oahimn of water within 
the pipMl to it» original mae. Stx " Bxpansiab of Air and 
Om tj HMt. " 

ConcuaatoA In PIp«» <Prev«nt«d]. 

Id long KK-tion or ri»iag naiaa, eapoeiallT with 
.bairal puinpw, owing to tho oonttBual etoppuitA-fl and'' 
m-i>tarting waU>r otdiimnf iIm oi>ni-ua«ion iaver^ imtii-oildr, 
and may alwajH bo ato|)pi<d hy the u«e o( tbe air vhiunbcx. 

rio, «Ji. 

"nieRo air cliumben are notbinir nioro '>r leMi tlwn 
vi^m-l*. often hnviiiK ftirrnd <if the nning main ttrmi 
niiir the lioltoiii, an lit S, Tim. ^'"' • '"• '" "lliiir WdindAi 
hnving u'k ciiiHet whatever, iriore than on(y<Uiini o( the 
diuuct4T of tbe riidug luain aboro ibt bottom. Su^ 
the riiing main, R, to be 3in., then itt end may he Im: 
to within lin. of the bottom. Sit in fMrn/H lilt Ihat 
Fh/. KOO lal't nirr that (An fipr Jim n»t ivmt a^aitut Ikr t, 
a/ tht tlh'' irAm (Ar rfi/i'« it itp, othorwbw tlu- pump 
work eircedinglr hatd, an Mcoont oS tbe great frietioai 
of the wati^r when puMring through a partially cUmo 
aiwrtiirc. X, Fijf. MOil, ia the rnckinK atandardi wbirj 
o^lloWH the handle to t>e lifcctl. and whldi, if not mova 
upon tlio joint Z und P, would prerait the handlo 
worked. Tbirt is a cheap kind of puinp-gvarinfir. bat 
•o good art the ordinHry lift purop gear, tOiown nt Vi. 
R42. R.j«, &o. Now. wippniwi the harml W, K« MO, ti 
full "f filter, ae ithowu oy the wat«r liiit», aud tlu- iHiiiom 
valve fi to l>e holding it up, the bucket litA the Mden of I 
hUTfl ijiiite tnilr, and nolire thu, thut the gn-nti-r 
pnrH(un< upon tlie bitcket the lighter will it fit thi- nidts 
the banvd, nhnply bpunnM the bucket has nn oiilnidn e4i«i' 
of eUnit leather, which expands latomllr with tlie pn 
fiYim aho-ve. The outer edgee of lhi.'< U'Athcr am 'digb 
hcvilli-H. ax Nhown at A, Jng. 7B8- In thi^ wntrc of 
bucki-t. Fig- BOO, ui llm 6iip-valve K, wliiidi ojmtiib ii])w; 
and nllow" the bucket to dc^rend freely. (>n pulUng 
bucket up, the fljip-ralrc J K inntxnily cloee*. and the 
leather expands bAoauae tlie weight of the mibinin of w 
above thi> bucket haa hern liflf.'d i>ff that lielow ; and 
tlir valve B waa perfeutly idiii^il, cir a Htnn-eoek wiped 
the HUedon-Eripe, and (^iwod, then' would ueu be a 
parting oi the water below and tlio bm-ket. Suppoee 
to be one faidi of wat^r below thi> biirket and th" top ' 
valw B, and that the bni^ket t« lifted 9iii.. then 
wunld be an empty spsoe of the Din. Thin i« a truly enplT' 
Kwux!, void of all matter or air, luid U called a vacamb. 
Now. let go the handle of the pump : the liut-kit will lli 
go bark, but n-ill the wmiua atiJi fie in the barn'l of t 
pump? The nn^wer i». YceJ U will now idtow iUeJ 
at I. below the outlet valfe : and the water that waa 
tbe point 1, will, by grarilAlion, fall baek upon tbe bucket.^ 
Open the eiKk H, and what will be the- ctfi^t? Air «-ill 
ruah into the barrel to till up the empty N]ini<e or vaouiim. 
But,KiipiH-«', instead of opening tho rock II, the 
h/id brvrn opiinpd below the bucket, would the air t) 
niikhcd in and ij]«-iiih1 the Ha|»vaKe K ^ Vt» ! Ni 
otf the ooi.-ke, and agMtu fill Lbv barrel h* liefore, 






tofliff the '• buctiini'pipo " (wWrh invn nol exited i'tt.— 
i or 6ft. would •Hit. l-m-r; rliniil. Now pull np thf> hiidK^ 
Mill )i»utl»-r var-uiiiit u pnnlm-cd. Tile Uip rnlvi- V will 
prnvciit dio wdWfT OT air rplurniiig. •n'l y>u """v ""* wart 
the butikoi frwly up itnd cttwii ihv bnrrpl i'ou know 
tluit when the mck }[ wn^ opcnt"! th.-it IIh- nir rsclivt) 
intA tbe burel. Now, |i1mi»; tli<_- riA of tfa« "ffuctloti- 
pipe," dty, 2 cir 3ft. liam. into w»Ut. anil opeu Uie 
«um>M«<l t*jp-oook on the Miction- i*iiw, Tbp "<»n"pqiKTKyi 
wul be tliiit WI1T4T will nif^ up tiia suutivn-|npc 
inobwd of ntr. Rut. wh;-? Simple hrtvkiiflf the end 
of ttii? !<tu-lLi]ti IK <:<uT«rOd witb -mti^, und ii<j fur ctiii ((vl 
iat'i U« pii>? by rewwn Uiot iho wawr u thTii !ind thr air 
or ft-iiiwplicri' ip not strctDg enough or of aiiffinient weight 
It) |l^jI thruu^li tlic w»trr. (Shimld the* p'p" h" to"* ^^ff^ 
ioT the wsW h) »i«w ll*?lf in th« bnifol. perh«p« .-i f<>w 
etrc4»^ of the hjiiidlf will " fetch " it ; or, for ibo [nirp"»« 
of Ulufttmting thit lurtjon, n imutlt OoBipo. pipL* 111117 ^ 
iu«d, wIhjbc li-DK''h ut m iiniportiaii lo the mii« (if ttio 
ljnrn«l.) Now theijurrel is full of wiiter, lut aUw the wiintino* 
i'lpf, opva thu wck F, tiiid lur will rtuih iu, ami ullow thu 
KCudiDB' vsWr wjtliin liw otictlon-plpi^ to desceDd. Biif 
why? oimplj beoaune the Hir is allowed to prwM with thp 
NUiifi fnrw nn thn nutituv ol the higbirst pnitit of thn WNtrr 
huid« tliA "suvtii,'ii-piu;" mi on (ha vuUid*. Tuni thu 
rack F tiff again, atul V-ngtheu th« t<iurti<m-])ipo to 31ft., 
and let the water h* "rlixicti" (whi(^ in an ordinal^ 

Eliimb«r'i> Tihrano) rortimliy t.hiit diaEnnco. [^imp «w»iy im 
ffurv. ^o wiit^r CIU1 bo obtAiiivI. But whrF Tou dkvq 
the vacuum a^ bcfora, when the ■' auRtion-|Npc " stop'Oock 
wan t.urucd r.tT. tmd the wat^r U standing in th« mictiim- 
pip"-, nnil witliin !ft. or bO of thfl barrt'l or v»lvr B. 'ITiiji 
u whut in kiMiwu as the pomp being out of draught. Tu 
pru\x' thi», fthiit oft UM ucfuR-metitiuned imaginary 
" mirtioii "-pip"' iiloi>-n>irk, whow dinliuirio friiin the vulve 
B in, B»y. Mt.; iel F be ftied 3fl. frum the v«t>-e B : wpi'ii 
the cock TP, aud roii wiU find « slight rush of air enter the 
9xk, after which th« ooluiuu of wutor raojs unt ; but not 
with the kind of cock flhnwn ut F, )K-o> thi> trorJc 
■nawom iho pur)iuM< of a [-iAtvni tu a bnn>iiiRtt'r. siid 
pnnjiitH till? oir witering ouly to the degr-pc of one cnminnn 
•tmonulivrr. An ordinnry ground-to llib-c<K^k, iia ut C, 
will admit tho atr. (Noiire.— It. often happcnjitbaC m»i, 
a plumber, hare to titni off tbi) wiit^'r finni a L-istem wnoa» 
pipw are OHvd vertimlly, and »> ■mitigiHl thul tlmy ohntdd 
draui thmiMilnM vmpty). You niro uiT the itup-cuck near 
tlu' rJirt*!m, and open Uie Wb-outJc Ivlow, whioh. if of the 
wrew-down kind. Hdcb as th>- KuliiiTiiiu, firight'jn. or 
the diaphntgoi pattern ax at F, t)i>? whIt will bi-. by the 
atmospheric premurc, b(.'M up to the Ixifjiht of 30 to 3vlft. 
ahffro the cock : but should tluTO btr n oninmon gruiuid-in 
oock on a highor lc»d, tlii^ the highiwt ttvk. if npentd. 
will allow air ti> eiitnr the pil«^'. anil the watttr inipftMUtM 
within the pipe to f»Il lo th" oiM-k belnw. yon linve seen 
that the wHtiT will only rinc up the suutlon-pipo I" ihr 
hrifibl of ,10 or 33ft. TiVhy i» this ;- I intwt my tlmt it wuuld 
not run- till, wen- it not f.trce«i np, Von know that when 
you had a rBciiiim in thr l:>urri.<I tlK- air rushed iniu ic on 
opening tho nocks H and C Tliou thi-ro wiui a proof that 
thnm niuiil be pr%«sure upon tbo outer side of the pomp 
barrel. Ttii* prwwum in at, nil tiinrs prvmitig ujini every 
part of th'j wvrld'i" mrfai* tu tho extent of aV-ut l-Jlb. to 
ihe Miuim incji, mor^^or lew. Tliis atmo^phTio proBBnre 
mu fairly ritijainofl nt Fig, 2H6, "'Hn- J'rinoiplo of 
Sphimagti in Irapa," anil ahutild Ik- thumu^hly miuitand. 

Expansion of Air or Oas by Heat. 

■I* on the Hubjeet of air it wiU Iw as well to 
■xpanda or eontrnctj lilw omM other suLatauews, 

Convrrt Pahr. drg. into GenL dag.; tbon, as KSMB 
oKpand glitd part of their Tolumo at 0" C. for erary 
inaroan of J" C, it is (mdont that 273 roluraea erf a gu 
tonanurcd at 0' C, whm In-atod ('> 

r C. will booomo 274 toI. = '273 + ,J, of 273) 
S*C. „ 275 „ = (273 + ,i, of 27S) 

30'C. „ ao3 „ = (27a + ^"j of 27a) 

With ri'gtml tii thn pTMsurv, the rolome of a gaa b 
imerm-ly an the prviuQiv whii-h it sustains, if iha Imn- 
pi^ratuw rcnutin the same. Thiw, aupi^vo lOIJ vi.U. o( a 
lfa.1 aro nioiu(UTT->l olf at iho slnndiird letup, and prcaauru 
(u* C and 7d}nuu. bar.] and it in nQC|uixvd to nnd tho 
voluau occupied by thv gaji when tha prsMUiu is nduoid 
to 7<')0inin,, the tomp. Tomaining the aane. lite volaine 
will )■! inverwiy pruuurtiiinal tu Iha jmnoro: 730 : 760 
' 100 : ,1: = 104 1 v(4ti. at 730mm. (2) Then Es ao gcnoral 
law remiAiag tho oxpoDUoa of liquids, as all lit^uids 
fxpand alftonmtlj. 

"Suction" Pipes (Length of)- 

I told r<ni that by roamn of th« vacnnm 30 or 33ft, of 
water had rlM-u in llii* " imotioB "-pipe. Kow, tetUc that it 
was 30ft.. and iliat orenr foot in heiirhe is equal ta Jib. 
in wHgbt on a Mtanre inch ; it follows, therefore, that 3Ufl. 
will equal I&lb. ; thin, tlie iit,in<wphLTriu prciwiirv, in, witli thn 
^i>fl. oolomn, tnily balanced, and the consM^ueo*.* is that no 
higher eau thv water be forml up within the '* snctioti "- 
pipe of a pump by aimpli' external ur atnio«pherio 
piresun?. It should bo borne in mind that the further Ha 
piimp is HxnX riTticnlly Cram the stirfan of the water, the 
niLiTD slugKJ^ly will thv airpnaa the water up tlie" auelfoii" - 
pipe ; eoU!«iiucntIy It is best to fix the hiirrel within l& or 
l»ft. of thr wafer. I rarely <rxurod lOft. I had belter 
liRTT ruui.irk that harijn.intal diKtanom art) not taken intu 
(^jiiKiderstian with ■tmo'pberii' preasures, or with the aetion 
of thi; atraonihcric ptiuip, or with vertiral height of the 
"auotiflD " -pipeof a pmnp, as this tdndof piirap may be nuuli- 
to draw miles boriionlAliy, provided the larrel dues not. in 
hcitflit. (tinned tli>! litnitinl dixtancr of ^Oft. But it would 
be by far better to Ulc the water l» this heiiflit and then let 
il find its Wei br gmritatiDn. as t)i<: HUrting and stopping 
of tjkc eoiumii of water in li'>ng Ii>nigthH ct hohzmtlMi piping 
Tujuireji muuh (vroa tu put it into at-tiou, f ta-, auddeiuy. 

The Lift Pump rAotlon of.) 

We now kn<iw t.hi> antioii of tba atmospheric pump ; let 
UsptOL-cod toexamiui; the action of the lift pump. For 
tliia purpose Ice us ag^in refiT l» ^g. »ua. Kuppoae tlie 
barrel to be nuite full of wat<T up to the vnlre V . let thia 
valve bu flxol down on it* Keating, nr, nay, {mrfnc.tly elmed ; 
push up tho handle 0. this will iaua: the bucket tu dascwnd 
' und the ralvo J K tu i^-n. Now. pult the handle down, 
j and Che rain- J K ckMm*, and rim will Iniid tlie wholn thing 
I will not move. It It hj* rigid as a puat. Why i* Siiuuly 
' because thu cup leather fita truly, tbo bucket valve tignt, 
and that thojn is no outlet above. It is no uw tTJittg to 
oomprcas water ; in faiit, yon may luiy tliat with thtx bind 
of timi it is one of the impossibilities vt tv>mpress water. 
Bome idoa <'f this iiiuy be galhvrcd when I inform my 
readcm that under the oommuu atmcit^heric prcnsun otf 
ISlb, to the square inch, wiilrr ha« be>:n iliininivtod in btdk 
only to ftbotit ia purt» in ono mtllinn, mid that under the 
enonnous pcensure of IS.OOOlbia. to the i*iuare im-li, it was 
only oompnsBod by about iV of its vulume. ThiA cxi>cri- 
ment was trinl in a l>ronxe solid (last and bored 3in. tnlie. 
KiD- tiii>k, and WHS rvnt in halvoa by this euormoua pre*- 
sure, yet with all this, water is exceedingly eUstk- when 




'niijf b^lV ibe mao thilt w« onitiot rvry ruQj corntirMB 
vmifT. we mnrt iinTidi> ui outlet Wure wp am wort tht> 
IiumUo of the jmmit. Tig. 800. Open the valve V sod the 
mrk I' ; tlw< {)utu[> heing worknl, the wiiUir vill floir tip, 
•od out of tb« coiA U. which uuir dua>>, kImi clnM ta<- 
ristDiT ButB T with m vtnp-euok, the wvtur will mw rive iu 
the air chaniboT Mcontibtr m it w ooiuprewwl wilhin thn 
cJuudImT, and fts nhnwn in tltc uhle. 

Of wunw. hf cuiit'iiiuiiiK tho action of pumping, gnat 
pnnuro wUl be ao'iimnlnlixl in Ute sit (thamber, ana, in 
latt. it will bunt if prt^i-viltJ ^itli. But now «pn tlu- 
Rtupi^trii on tbr^ rioinj^ main, anil the prMMin of the air 
UD tho •nirfiu.i' i<f Um water wilt caoM tlio inter to Heund 
Id piwi*riy thi- uuD» w»jr u the air doea when prmitDg- 
nptm Ibc Mirfacv of the water in a well, and when the air 
i» ralie*^ or cxbauatrd in thf Kucti<m-[iipc of a pump. 

You ba*v a^ai *>•>" of tin- importatit iwu <if wt^ air 
dHUnbcr. Tbi-rr i* anutlier (nvat rwmi far iU tue. It 
ia BKMt mfwtial in all dn<-cDir)iiu> : without it wt> Hbould 
not g^t tlutl Tc^Urit^ In thr jet, in fact, tbo jot would be 
a «>Dllnnati:in of junii*: but, by tha OM of the air 
chamber, there i» a coti>tADt pn-^wun' mainlaiuMl, and ttii» 
fCtrcAtlw decind offeet uf a evtititiuoux otrmini. It ia nt 
UnuM iwod on "stiction"-|)ip«a, mm; Fig. 802, and aa nwir 
the baml of the pomp a« conTP4iictit. 

rtn. sot, 

ISg. 801 OtiiatrMea dtflecent air chnmhen*, whieh are 
irvDetally niiLdu at eoppcr. A B C ih w Motion, D aii 
«tevatloa, F O ia an olevrntion ol unu K«>oTaUji- lued for 
fln-enirinoaoii bwud ship. A la the ittl*^, 11 n pipo onninit 
towitmn a fewincliea of the bottom, C ibe outlet. Bui. 
a» a matter of cfnuw, it in not nmeamry that tbo fijMs It 
■botild [WW through tji« toi> of the ch.tnihicr, htit maf rout'' 
oS M at A. or na at M. Hg- «29 ; m.r in it nl nil iipooaaarj- 
that th« outlet should bu lit •Ninu^.-liou wicii thu air 
obainbcT. For n fuitbrr exptatwlinii iif the air chumber. 
Me "■iu('Liu>i"-|^]KKani.liuiiinii, FifT- s D'J, iil«o Fi?. (ill, &e. 
tty hnviii;; rlinw-n luiil itluj-trattil llii' tbt-^n-lirnl nnA prn^- 
tioal working uf tliw pum[), yoit will now bt- in n jxMittuu 
Ht foltow tac, atep b^ slop, tbr^m^h Uit.- ronuiininK portimi 
of pump-work, whirb will r"f[Qir.! your partimliir study. 
hin«niu(-h a« it i* my iiit^ntiun to <>\|ilain tbonniKlily all 
the priut.'i]ial piirta of ihv 'UtTi.TiiU [lunipH u^il for the 
Tarioua diLMc^ of work whlth I havo met with duriuK 
thu hurt. ftiHy-fire itairs ; after iib>h. ToU will lift ilUo to 
aelent puropa and fitting* miitJiblu fur aity (1am of work 
which may bo miuirvd— a gnat deaaeratum to the 

Tree and Lesd Pumpa. 

SatnetJiau* It happt^nn tltut the tmi purip U only uaed in 
pini-pi wlM-n? it in t>xpiir«<l to Very fMUgh, frofty WTOtlurr, or 
wht-n- tbi- liwil pump i« likely to get atolcn. In thia naw!, 
the lop<trve m Wnvl of (be pninp in mnibi on uMial. aiMJ 
let dinm bto the aarth, Ry, 3 or itt., Ui kevp it vtcady. 

Thm a laaden pipe Ja langei] to Uw aida «r ' 
nod laki?n a abort way In a huriaoalvl dfaevtlaiL 
through the crown of the wall and dnwn to the wktsr (or I 
wrnie caam, the lead pipn it imly imoI for the horfaaonta' 
pari of the work] ; but tuke core to harp the pipo laid 
with a good fall towanla Um woU, ao tbnt it will empty 
iteelf when nquirod. If otherwlM left, the ooofined air 
lying within tlie pipas tonna a tmp anmctinu-A known as 
a pockets which will Iv difficult to ronoro. SiMh a pocket 
luajr he aeen at P or E . Fig. MKi . In Mii^b r«in> fix a ititalninit 
I'r cail-Talre on the -'Baotktu"-pip« In the w«U. aa ahuwu 
at tall valve, Fig. W^. fVluin trao and lead (lunip woric hjive 
ta be done, ta£i> Mtre to make the flange lane cam 
ft«r nailing, »o that it may be pofectly air-tl{^t to 
trm. If tba hocinntal diataaoo or depth bv gnat, a con 
aidenblo ooncnMlan, when th^ pmop is <iui<'kly workn 
will takenlaoe; ttten uaaa Nuction or vaouum lur-i^hiKnlK^.. 
Hxcd aa atKtwn at Pig. i^O'J, uud a« noar aa poaaiUe to tbe 
tree ur baml of thu yianp, seuFiga. 611, 8Uui)dS13. 

Air Pocket* or Trap* In Suction Pipes 

Wh«n Riingn Miction nr J.*i-k pump havinj; U'nji hrn^tl 
uf horizontal pipe. ttn?a( i-ari' ohuuld bu lAkcii It lis it 
Riich a manner that kt will fall tnwariL) the will, 
without air pockets or traps, aa iUujttrHted at P^g. 8U3, . 





Pw. KB. 

whi<Ji majln andoratood fmm lh<^' tollowintr- A la 
ht-nil iif tht anotlon pipe, which ia thr highest point. Kti 
folinw thin lii>e of pipo to K (f. It la clear that when ; 
tint work Uh> pump to nrvt entire, that you munt put 
IntQ lh<; bnrrvl of tJio piunp. und thrn thp ,iir bet<r<«ii 
watrr in the bonvl and tin.' wuler u-llhiii tin; weU in 
fiii«L Von work nwnr nt tho pump hiindlc, anil piinipi 
-iifHi'iciit air lu allow the wittier frvira the trill l^> rua- 1 
(•end nt A, wkon il p>i« onr in a ■nuiU dritiSliug I 
lUid niiu dowu the vucliun tw H U , at the aaniu tutu 



MiftiAti pinr not bctna filled iriih tbe mntiiiiff wmtori the 
nit fniiu K liult* bade hi A. iind c\cry Uiav Um: bMndla U 
wwkt^, this Rtr nitin {r«m A t<> E, itnd >K"ii> breaks 
throiurh llio vhUt (iiK'-^iti [MMHtntf lu Al. aa iko wirtei 
iIkwiuIlh ibeU oul in U^e liue u( pipe hcnrcrii A luul £. 

In tame caae> you cnn |fvt nrt-r this lijr nnliicij)); the d)ei< 
of tlu niotion ptp* Intwveii U mul A m> u lo utiuu tlk« 
wnter to flow T«ry repi'Uy ihrouKh th» pipi-x ■■> a» not tu 
Allow tha nir to nturu. Or M ouivn, yuu C4u niaiiiitfu tliix 
by UkinK vmr (iiii-k ntrnk^.-i, and iiki> *i nuinvvprj- Ftiul(l>>ii 
MiabrlMK of Uk- haiuUu, MjiecuLlly iht up>>>lr<ilcc, g^-t tiu- 
Huolioii pipe ufi<v fHlnl lip. But if jron uMnuut uMiugtH tu 
do this, utcn fix a fuut vkIvu as at M Inlvw the tritur 
Icrvd, Mill Kx u hIiuii. 1i-iik>1i of pipe nnd stopcook m at J, 
Bud KU the Huolinn until the wiitiT ntiu> mit nt the nonhs— 
the pump trill Uiifi work |uup«lj ; but b« mm to haw n 
good foot riUitt, Kod a Ib«ai>ufrh1y (tknI m><.'k al K : cr, 
wfaiit b <4)Mp«r, and I think, prrbatx ht-tun, wipe on u 
l(n. txwk-bon or frmili>, luiO srrew Cii a tfovd iruD jduif 
with n<d Icud . but Ih- ixirv tlint thr iiipn J in pc<Tnotljr 
futt nf wiitn- whLti tbo Nlopc-jt-k h lun>M off, or tbo phag 
mtivitmI ill. This in of tho gnatcst impoctanoe. 

Hai>u>tiiiiw thv Mootiun pipe is Iitid in the tn-tKih without 
tlM> ImuK rvxsH to ilK fnll, oltmL fKllin^ finl oaa viijr i1m»i 
tbo oCber, lu Khovra by tlii> dotted lium. Wbeu Uiia to thci 
CAWr, it w very difiicult to lunum Ibe air, and tlu plumber, 
if he ma/ bo <Mllad hf that name» ii|fhtlx got* the tmak fur 
hi" lOavcmlinnn. 

Tlw nU)V« diiitfnin '» >i *kcl«h u( a piunp n-hiili I tiXMl 
32 vfKn a\ro at Wjlloy Court fur tbo Aojrl iff DiuUif, and 
«l]wh workM Tf-ry wt'll. 

Siinii n^o wIird onllMl in tii i^aniiiio u triunp flor 
iSr. KMiipMii, III (hi> Viramxv, ■Hloke Laiy. IIcTeTtinwMii*, 
I itoi mvr thiH iiir i<in -ki't dilbfolty by phu.'inK a llitp rvXn 
(■urh n- in nkiiwH nt R, Vi)C- lit), on tlio xUi'ition pipe 
IN-Hr wlit4v tlit^ pipe bet^init tu mu Itai-k, my at T in tM 
«r<4vl HVi^iOTi ; llii" pivVi-ntH the w:iti-r IxiltiuK Ini'kwaida, 
and ahw prvvcnlt chu nir bviu riaiiiK tu tliu hiu^kef point 
of th« miction, bat n>i>' miiHt bi> iiik<.ii tx> Ax it the rifht 
wny up. Of iwurw. K in thi» •■.«<■ iiiit«i Ui iti* Irtp Ui 
allow uui valvf to diH», and Kn-nt cun- ch'iiiM 1>f- takt-ii to 
wlcei ■ latif^-wiioufcb pump barrel tu wi<!I till up tht< horv 
of tlu fluotion pipo at anA stroku •>£ thr puuip. Thn <iuti; 
of t)u> netkin pipe iihottld b^ " at b!ik->T. nitfhiUf the 
dianvtor or uiie-fnuitli tlic iirva uf thi> burFrl," but wilh 
Um F!g. B03, thi> »uo uf «ijoticni fnim thi' "top cock to the 

InTTel ahaald nnt rxoe-xl otip-Udnl tlw ntu oT thv Iwrn-I— 
vi2,,> Sin. baml ahmild haw a |tn. pipe; tind vnn iu 
•Jnw «uaK I >.bon]d reduoo it to oii«' - fourth —ria., trhifit the 
d iata a ee betwcr^ niop cork and luirT»l i> mvitt. 

I shonld alnij nUib- that tt thi< noixV- uf thf> pump ia 
Ii»<-<1 \ie\ -w thv top of tliB Utiil whcru tliv stop eodt b 
wii<ed <in, that the dilRmlty of clciiring the air -will be 
jfiimtar, hikI In thi» i!(uo th« biu-k<-i should bn taken oiit 
uiul the bairel plug-jfwl, »o •» to h«Jd the water faat-k 
wbiUt tbo Huctioti pipf b Hll«i. whirh, when once 
doiip. thi- atop ootik nr plnjr muM l*r tonii.'d lefon tJi* 
plug in the bnml b rcino»ed: othowiBe the wot^r vill 
run out and again Wve the air pookeU 

Lead "Jack "•Pump. 

In many f-jxuitry nhdjM, plnRilaTu bavn to make up thvit 
own ]«ad ptimpA fmni n rtratKlit lunffth uf pump barrel a> 
fiJIowa:— tflko a Iruftth of, aay, Sin. or 4in. pomp bsnti, 

rtu. Mi. 

Fin. 9M. 

Pw. dOS. 

thni Mw off about 2ft. 6in., and with a dnsMer Iwat th» 
oooe-nliapcd nui-knr^bui koJ La tbn nlMpn iihnwn al A, PItr. 
M4. Tbo n>n<- h ttenerally tnidc fnxu tb« xhuulivr to the 




riu, ma. 

rii>, en. 

no. MM. 



lliiH tninff thi< nam that wei OKiinut vrry <';iiiil5 oomtiroM 
watrr, we muat providr im nutlet beforct wo van wiirk the 
handln of tho pump. Fiff. 800. Opcm thi> valvo V snd tho 
ififtk V ; tho pump btiiijf wiirkod, tlie wiitor will flow up, 
and out of the cook U, which now oIum), hIw cIdm tn<' 
rininv main T with h Hbip-oook, tho water will now Am in 
tlwiltr ch«nlM>r HooonliTift m it i* ooinpn-iUK.<d within tho 
ohnmbn, and m nhown in tho tnhlu. 

Of ouurno, by ointinuinK tlii> action <it piimpinfT, KToat 

Jinumro will lit' aniuniiiktt'd in th>i air cTiamlwr, atidi in 
act, it will burnt if pnici'pdcid witli. Hut now opt-n tl»' 
HU)p-co(ii[ on tiwi rialiiK main, and tho nmwura of th« air 
on thv Niirraco of tho wutt<r will rauM tlio water U> awoiul 
In prtxrtwly tho wamo way an tlitt air <loofi when pm»nin|r 
upon tho pturfatM- of tho waU>r in a wi'tl, and when tho air 
ia rdievni or txhauatod in thn Hui)tion-})i|)o of a ])unin. 

You htivo iwytn ono of the important umm oI thti iiir 
ohamtwr. Thcru in anolhor ifrv^t reawin for iU une. It 
ia moat onNiitinl in ail flro-cuK>no« : without it wo ahould 
not (pit that regularity in the jot, in fact, tlio jot would bi' 
a continuation of jumpx; hut, by tho um> of tho air 
ohaimbfir, thoro iit a oonKtant pn-wnro maintained, and thin 
(fivoa tho doairod offoot of a oontinuotM Htrcaro. It ia at 
Umea uaod on "aaoUon "-pipox, moo Fig. 80'J, and aa near 
the baml of tho pump aa oonTooieut. 


Fig. 80t UluatrateM difforont air rhomborK, which am 
irraenilly mado of ouppor. A B C ia a nention, I) an 
elevation, F ia aa elovatinn of ono gcnorallv uaed for 
flre>ntfnneH on board Hhlp. A la thn inlot, II a pipe oominir 
to within a few Inohea of Uii< iHittom, tlio ouUot. But. 
aa a matter of oourw. It ia not riOMwinry that tho pipi> It 
ahould jHuw through lh« top of tlw i<humlHir, but may oonir 
off aa at A. or as at H, V^ff. H'JU ; nor in It at all ncooaaaiy 
that the outlut ahould bo in i'<iniuvtiiiii with tho air 
ohambor. For a further oxplanatiim of the air cihambor, 
Nee"tnu>tion"-pipo«andnialna,Flfr, HO-J, iiUi I'Ik.HH, &o. 
Hy havinfc idiown and illtwtratod tlio thoi)r«tical and prac- 
tioal working of the pump, you will now bo In a poaiUon 
to follow mi>, iitf^p by Htop, through tho rornaininK portion 
of pnm]>.wi)rk, whinh wAl niiuin) your partitmlar atndy, 
iniinmui-h aa it in my int^-ntiim to oxpialn thoronjrhly ail 
thn prini'i{)al pnrta of thf difforoiit jiumpa uand for the 
variniia cIomwh of work which I have mot with during 
the liMt thirty-ltvn riikrH ; aftt-r which, you will he nblo tu 
Hflftit pumpn and nttingit nnitiibln for any claaa of work 
whiiih may bo rctjulrvd— a groat dotddoratum to tho 

Trae and Lead Pumpt. 

Somotim*-!! it hii]>pi<nH that tho tron pump ia only uaed in 
pla>«M whcro it in vximmiiI to very n)ugb, fronty WMther, nr 
whoro tho ImuI pump in likoly to got Btt)Uin. In thia oMo. 
the ton-tnw or imrrol of tho pumj) ia madii aa UNual, and 
■ ■ • III ■* ■■ May, 3 or 4ft., to kwp it steady. 

Thon a leaden pi[)o ia flanged bi tho nido or otlicrwiMO, 
and taken a abort way in a horizontal dlrootion, and 
through tho crown of tho well and down to tho wator (or in 
Nomo i'aM<M, tho load pipe ia imly uaod for tho horiaotita' 
]>art of tho work] ; but tako oaro to havo tho nipo hUd 
with A good fall towarda tho woU, no that it wAl ompty 
itaulf whoa n<<tuin>d. If othorwiae li>ft, tho mmflnod air 
lying within the pipoa forma a trap wnnotinkcN known oh 
n itocki't. which will )n< difficult to romovo. Huch a pocket 
may Im M>onatForK,Fig. 80:). In MUnhcaaonflxarotHlning 
■>r t«il-valvi> on tho " HUctiou"-piii« in the woll, oa nhowu 
at tail valvo, l^lg. HIIJ. When troo and lend jwmp work have 
to be done, tako oaru to mako tho flango largo enough 
for nailing, no that it may Iio perfontly air-tight to tho 
tri<o, if the horixontal lUatanra or dupth bo gnmt, n oon- 
Midcrablo oDncuaalon, when thn pump ia quickly worked, 
will take plane ; thnii uao a auction or vacuum alr-ohamhcr 
flxod an iiAowii at Fig. HO'i, and aa near aa puaaible to the 
troe or banvl of tho pump, aeoFlga. itll, tllSaadSlS. 

Alp Pookat* OP Tpftpt In Suction Plp«i. 

When fixing a auction or Jack punip having long Icngtha 
of horiiontal pijM', gn-at can' Mhnuld lai taken to fix it in 
aiich a manner ttiat it will fall towanla tlio wi'll, and 
without air pookota or trmpa, ua illuatratod at Fig. b03, and 

Fni. 803. 

whiiili may bo nndnmtood from tho following. A ia tho 
iK'nil of the auction pipe, which ia thn highcat point. Now 
follow tliiM lino tif i>ii>n to K (1. It ia nlcar that when you 
flrxt work tlio pump to got water, that you tiuiat juit water 
into the liarrel of tiio pumn, and then Uin air botwocQ tlio 
wilier in U>» bam'l and tiio wnti'r within thn well i* eon- 
flnod. You work awav at tho pump handlo, and miinp out 
nufliciont air to allow the watur fntm thn wuU U' nw to tim 
lamd at A, when it jiopa ovur in a nnall drihtiUng IkmIt. 
and runa down tho auoUun to S U ; at thv muuo tuuo {tau 

Mv-tinB fip Ml biteK tiki mUk As mniM mtMl lb' 
■k fruA K boatt bwk to A. aad anrj ttM tt« budb i* 
wackod. Ikb ftir r«iik tram A to E. aud ufkhi ljn«k> 
lllKHUfc tb» wmtor (unbi p — u^ to A<, u i1m> ntrt 
iftmUimU (wt la ^ Um ol pipe l»«>«n> A u4 iL 

la MM* flMM joa uaa sttt vrv (Ma by ivdadiqr tfan aur 
ti Ifaa wotion ftp* l«(«H)ti O and A m MtontiiV U>* 
vmtar ba low W7 r«pdlr tbiDOtfl) tW pipM «• m» boI lu 
alknr tb* *b to noon. Ur nt nuMm. joa on npungt Oil* 
^ ulday rrrf qald Mnbci^ ud Ube bv kbaj Ttij ««Aini 
MiilrhfM (rf the haadlK, dfaoUlf Ai ap ■ini><. gnl ihc 
MKtkMB piM Mww fp«4 op. Bat tf *oa laoaiAiMUiMB bi 
4b «Ua, tton fts « kot T«lnr u »i X Mdw IW watar 
Ind, aad 1U a Aott Wacdi at yipt and •topoixft m at J. 
aad fill Um) Midiaii utdfl tW water ra&> oitt at tbo iiwitt 
ihe panp will tbMi wuck prajwAr , but Lb burt to ham m 
gout Inrt '•vlv*. «a4 « t£nr>N«t«i7 unod mmk at K ; «r, 
^at te ebvptr, aai I tliiak, |ntaH Inltar, vtpe lai ■ 
Ua. Mofe-bn* Or fcrralr. nr--* — ~- Hi a gn4 mn pluf 
wU lal Ivd j lait W m. pi» J U pM««Ur 

Mlaf anUeraiam ll<^ •t'l- : 'ii »ff. or tJw |4t||[ 

ia- tlhi- '"V- 

Ik . 'r^^trh witboal 

ft»lM«l«0Md bi tU tall. L<Ct«l UU11 w»7 dirfi 

lfc««lM-. mAovm In tlw 4altod Uar- .i* u tL. 

eaMi, b y varjr dUkuIt to map** Ike *u . m.^-^ ...- |i1vbW, 
If WnajrWcalU ^ thai aana, ri^Uljr «iito tbn aak &s 
Uai ilmrMillaM^ 

Tim >t»ir dtittmni ia u akHah irf • mum|i wblrl) 1 fttad 
K vmr* >K<> >■ W)iW c^.urt f<*' iJto Aut -f nudlrr, and 

lua^ ;v«r« ajTi «lH-t< ii«DL-d in bi naatin** a jaimn Inr 

'. KMapHNi, at Uv Vif-antr^, Stakf Lw^, UaMortUHrt, 

'»•«■ Ifaiaafa- jxK^H <)i<ni<iliT I'jr |m«ia|C a (bp valrc 

B> ■■ Aun at E. Ki)f. 'vt.. oa Aa MaMioo {■)}*- 

tlw ntot tegina b> ran bark, mt at T lu iIm- 

<iv ; lk» |avraate Ibp water lailluiir iBiiwank. 

, al»j itn wmi b t tbm air b<aa linag to Uw liiffLaT puint 

Uv ncdoB. but Gar> WM la lafan to &« it tlie riirht 

m. 0( oaaiM. £ ■• tlw uaw aiua b« ilw top to 

r m valvir to vbae, b«1 gtial aua Auald tw takta to 

• ■ lary mmwij^ paoip buttd to mU CU np Ok lam 

dHaaewafJpB «l tM^ atnA* uf tlMpwnp. TVab* 

dw MOtka yffc t^ooU b* " at laut tau>-lulf tlw 

■•tor er «n»-laiirtk llta una of tba faam4," hal wltb 

> fl|r. MS. tba liK «4 ■aottw ftaaa tW rtup ack tt> thr 


Til., a aia. banri ab^akl Imt« a lia. pipa; and rtrm I 
mmke mmm I abuiM fMaot it to omn'tamrth—ns., wbaa tl 
•livtaww bvtwwB "Ipp rvik aad lan^J l* irtraL 

I dmild alM itair tlMt H tb<t aiiccW »( lb« pmp b' 
txad bd <w tiM to|* of tiia VMtd wlwa t^ aim «wfc b 
wifad uci. thai IW dtflraltj at ckartsr tka afr will ba 
lIMatar, aad in tUa oM tlw budtrt alwaU t^ takoi oat 
Wkd ibe baffvl planMl, ao a* to boU the wabw bM^ 
wbOM tho MWtioQ 1^ ia bni>ir filM, wbW^ wbM 1 
dOMu tla. miM vxi fw pfatff ■»!».< hp twMd ktea 
pla«r M tba hunt m nmimd ; trtbvwm tk« nter 
roa wot aad mgida iMira iba dr paohM. 

L«ad "Jack ".Pump. 

la aiaax fntatn abApa, plamton hava to tmk» m tbdr 
owa laad pun]* btaa a rtnt|rbt Uiftb cd pinn Unri m 
fcaknrar-trfca l«i«th of. wj. Sia. or iia. poiap barnl. 


ibrn WW otf aboal Sb. fin., and wttb a diriMr tml lb* 
no aa Jiapad itodtir bm tad to lim ahapF abown at A. 1*% 
M4. Tba aoor ia gmmtUy Btt>lr hwoi ibr *b<iaUir to uir 








cihI 4in. to J)\n. laaif, but for thia «« tim of *-Biu>t)oii 
nipi^H" further Ml, as this vill Imvo KnneUdiig 1o do vitli 
uui Imgth of Itir rttni; lut Uiat ym mar make it neam Ut 
tlu- nntflft of n<[itB«. Xexl pT«<paiv Ine noit^Ce ; thia U 
wndv M folluws : —Take a pitir nf l^in. ui 2in. pm> 
uoofdinf to the idnt of the ' ' aiKiiuu-piiH! " (or tM.-tU'r nwl, 
if one <ijBC Inr)r<-T pipir be uaadj, and vine it into Lh« bumJ 
(Ut kIuiwh at I), Ktul at about 9iii. frotii tlio lop. 'Vh» flntigv 
K is wiped on, or ii l^nu] tumnl ovnr. tw ynu chunv; ii^'xt 
trip« on tho ^xi»K Aauhi.*^ C aiul F, Fi^f. ^04, and the laid 
work in (»mitlnt.>d. Xfiit ia the lixinjf ; biit brforo pi»- 
CLinluif; willi ihi*. let XII Mt.- whiit kindiif jack-pvnnp* 
tuv ttf be macip, Fnr tlii« n-'ior to FIk. SOB. whtcxi in ii tuuiu- 
maAa "jack" mountnl oti a plank with tacks ns at Sf, iind 
-will ba readily oiukntood as wo pioc^cd with tho wnrk. 
Fig. 410 ia the kind of pump uivd itbiiuL Uil' HuburlM nf 
XfOodcm. It has a nut-bam-i. tii}7jcEi>, and n mn]p«TiiuitiiiK 
or wpilatluiir head as ahown ut L, aud wliich iwiuch the 
flow of water to be mom contintiiiiui than wh^it tb<r ii(ixxlf> 
I* hranohod dirrvt iotii Uic lumtl, aM shown At D, Fik- '^O-t. 

London<made Lead "JBok ' Pumps. 

Ill London, and fiv about twenty milix iimund, load 

Cri^oi nrc nuulr nmtlur to that lihdwu at K>^ NOT. vi''.., 
nil, licwl, auil noMile, oa«t •pparutrly niul burnt i-r 
Doldravil up. The fonnOT, if doim by a inideMiiau, U-ing 
mudi thD t)Mt 1 but I have moulds for Mating thi> 1u( in 
unn pieiM'. 

At FJK- 808 may h? *r*T\ the nmrMary iniu work for 
Filch puiupM. und Fik- R09 mt A aod 1(, the wnrnJ hwkpt 
and mii'kfT lio* wKli'h i» ubiijUj «.nt wit, when oixlivrini; 
tlu'w jiuitipi fTiiiii th<- li-Ni] nivn linnfj". Illit t.i tiiukc Hiuv- 
of hniiiijf tlu'lot <N)inpl"toit U btnt loonier ImkI pURipswitli 
liuti Work biwkft and tuiokcr bus, eitlwr liiitlwtiMl or imt 

Making up Lead Pumpi. 

In Pip. BIO, M in th.- nfiMk, and N the banvl : thew 
purtfl im cnMt in iruu or ffiMi-iiutii] mid <>lhi.-r nUiit-iip 
tiii'iiM)! with Hiiurtitly tip-r viTr*, IhL'ii Ki>ldt-rod up hh 
fulKiWfl : — Sta! tLu iiu-idu of the' front L of tlio i-Jimptmiatiny 
hud. Xest cnt tlic bolo whcm n:qiur>;d for tlic ti»i:tli*. 
leaving an iifh or »o of mom for the wiiti r to ntaiMi in ihi- 
head, and fit thn nox^li' in up li> tliu nhv-iildpr V : Iheu [nke 
It out and Bhavo thvinade purC of the hnlii witliiit tlicfaiwd, 
I {in. all round : niter whioh. wnl th<- inf>idi' piirt of tli<.' 
tinnle, and Nl«i(r a dean fmt vtui of jMkpi^ into 
lbs end V (but with it* end quite U'vel nitfi thr IkiVj 
vS the DO"!", iind nhnvi.' niund tlu' oiiUidi- d(iw:i (u tiin 
■bonldor, after whii-li fix it tuul wildiT it into thi' hmA hv 
BiakinKa tlan^' joint. Nr-xt tit tlv Imrrol intti th« h<?nil. 
•oil and*ha*« it, Miy, fri>ni 1 jiit. t» I Jin. nil nuiiHl ; ni*xt 
eoU the oubFJdv pnrt '>i thi.- Wnvl ■ti>'tildc-r itt X, in.i], by 
tilaolnif tho head iipnidi- driwn, y»u lau ruadily solder ilio 
jboml on to it. winn tin- piunp i» readv fnr lixinir, or ferr 
thv «uctian to Ini ninldirrd »o. A'oti.r, t.tii- lop of ihi- bami 
•hould protnidt' Uirou;(li the butlom of thf Lend, wiy lin. ; 
tlUB pnvfOita bitj>- of brick, gravel, tiv., itvm <■> rvndily 
fallia^ down the hnml. Tlii^ gare line to the iutrodiictian 
of llw head tu lead jiu^k pump;-, flr^t done 1iy my old friwi, 
Mr. Ijaagvare, plnnibvr, nlioiit Uh' voir 1!^.>I. Tlir bivul i» 
M timaa iiuid« round, and at iithor tiiui-v with round fcuiit 
and Alt hack, ao that it L-an bo fixed witli mn. as at X. 
Ftv. 8U4, otfaiaat a poxt nr plank, i\» nhowii at A, Fig. BIT. 
f lri^ttm<<. the plnnk fnr sutniorli tnav t»' &xm1 in a ■■hoc lu ul 
URST, Fiff. W0,ora«at K.Fi|f. btl4. or U-t into tbv^iirth; 
or it nuiy ha fixed agaiiutt a wail with a handk- workiutr 

from tltn lock of a plaivk, lu nt K. fiff. BIT- The fixing 
of thfinp piiiniK, wli«ii expoH«d. ix Mib^ii-t to thicv ctilit— 
namely, the fnmt tif winter, tfapft. »nd the pomihility of 
chUdraii piittinff thinp> into thr baml ; )>iit wlien tixoil aa 

PiJL mo. 

nt Fi)f. 817, it can W midcc-d wfrJi wtwl, felt, &r., and is 
priitfxHo'l frciu tlivft . A b«tit nux»le prevent* tlie childtvn 
puttiiiff ■tfiiii'* into thi> lumJ. SootsUBUa iron ciuw* uror 
the lead, or braiut nponts ant uaod to prereiit thi^ vf 

■'Suction" and Rising Main Pipes (Size of.) 

It i" importnnt that the " suction " and riMii^' Iimin pipe 
i^oulil l«? 'if II xnfKi-innt diiim-'trr M allow lii" wuHir V> pa™ 
without unduf frici-ioa ; fur in»', •iipjio^ tbi' liurml 0, 
Vig. 810, to be 4iii. dlaiiifler, and t1ii.< fiii('Uuii-pi{iH K In be 
lin.. by working the handle it will be pliiin that the wnt^T 
wh«n TUUMiafT through thn lin. mintion ppt- will tmrul lit 
timm latJtT ihiui thr<>u|fh thu 4iu.. eihI nt the «xpt>nMi of 
itn^ltBU labour, which i* luili'ly ejinxxl by frirtifin, mognifnta, 
&c. Thiai«»pt lo V' 'ivi-rl(>oV<d by iiiiH.1 w^U'u plinuU-ni, 
but it ia of more imporiaiioo tiiiin iu i^-nonUly puppoMjd, 
CRpooiany in lon^ longthn nf pipe. In pnirtiw it may ho 
oboerved that thi- pitnipn which work liniitcft on the bund 
ant thfl trwpMmpa, Why!* Simplv benain* thi-ir ttore in 
of n Iaivi>r dtainet«r, and ns n rulv tfiu buukrt is nut too far 
from the imrfa«> of Ui>' wmt«r withiti thii well. 

Aa before Mud ni^arly !ill ntic-tion-pipM and rinin^ iiiaiiM 
nhonld bo at UoAt nnn lutlf diiimpt4'r, nr onn-foiirth tlip 
atea of the barn's ; that in to iiay, a 3in. Ikiiti-! kboulil have 
a ons and a half inoh suction pijv, uud if of a y<it>- Iudi' 



lengUi, thin miction pipe nhoutd bo Urinr, or 2in. Ut 
ooUBtvrtMlikDiyi thn ofTr^t ^if HUrlintr <uid oioivpiiiff cif Uu' 
ir«ter, which in jJnin. \I loii LituHiilcr Ibnt l£i- inilt4' will 
move lilQWpr in a iMiy pijw thnn in ■ krimII oho. nx- (lant'.' 
mlo hold* KMxl fur dimblc-iictiiiif puiD[»i, bm cuoh buml 
loraea or dravA the itaU^t at diSen^nt uitcrTnL«, or, in othor 
word*, iiltem«t4'1v. 

Z hare nfiinea to, aiiil ex]iln!n«I ihtt uw-, ciic, awl 
aotioD of, Uic air-chaiuWr. awl naly bavv to f»y tliat 
whenerer a Riidd>>n jnk in felt upon tbi! k^tr. or n 
ohatti-rin^ or fhiimpin>r iint^ ii to da Ik^rd vithln llit.- 
|M|>«> c>f u [luup. i«lj(Ttbi.'r it lie on the auL'tioo or riuuf^ 
muD, an uirThiiinl'>T i* n>ij-i tired, and nf Ku9i"ii>nt am 4u 
pcevent tbii, wliicli la dii(.> to iht^ Dudi]<.-u kt^ipplit)! of tbo 
adraocdnir ooluniii »( wnttrr at Mx-h hand or liAi Icfltralte of 
tbe panp ; tfaia i» not iu> murli f«lt in wbeol or frame 
IHunpii, Out actMnt being rvvular. Should tliGr<' bt an atr* 
ebiaaber fixed, tntl th>yii thb chattt-rinir notM; hfard, ic !i> 
nrat^ certain that it i« in the WTonif pliu'^. or out of ntdtr. 
Tha air-(ihambrr nhonlil (r' fixvil an hl-ut (■■ tfat piutij) im 
po w nMe : it maj b« ih&t the chamber ix full of wnur bj 
niaauD of tlw air cwapiotr thioiurti u pinh-ilir, iic., in iliv 
material or it may ho raurtci] hv bud bntidni^. Kolderin^, ke. 
or perhaps, &j) I oiiue found uiii- lu tho well, «otii(> 200 ft. di>(^, 
at Fiiirfii.'ld Iloiiap, 1loni>«'y,iii-)irI<nnd<iu,li:(rd upHidrdowii. 
Tlii* lultvr puiup t-ii>in;f nuiin, olttKnijfli u fniitii- oi' ikbi<tfl 
pump, wa^ a coatiimu.! nuiKann'. on iiocuuut uf il* burTtinjf. 
Ilio IjimlDn ithirahiT who tixcii {bo piunp had for mimi- 
inuiitbK A rr-f^liir n'painn); jub. I w^'< uaoled in. anil ut 
oniw, oudi««uveKtig'th'i.'cliattt'riii^, conclnded thiit tliere wiu 
no oir-chaatbcT ; t»ut, tU' my vn.ut siirvriiw. tLvm mmu ! I 
btquirvd if it livlcfM), iin an nir-ehiuulMfr If ItMilcy will dian- 
tlicwBtor niimiDK duwn th(>aidift.unleiwt)ie Wk i^in tin.' dip- 
pipn, whichi«HtboU)MindcJwxicw>itaonot)iiitil-i«ii»t. Then- 
WM no l(Ht)iafrc. I know HonwtliLDfi w«» tbRiiiK. ;iuJ down 
t wfflt. Thf air-ebanvhor waa of the ahapo sh.iwn at V, 
Kig. sol ; bill tbi-oiii- -lii.wn at Tl, i-V-f^^'- '• "'« "•"«* 
blii'lj tu Ik> futinil fiinl u]H)di' dawiL, niinply buaiiutu tlin 
lop in the 1ar)p>«t. and many Lnndon pliinilwT». tliougli 
fxccllnit roof and donrt Imnd*, laki' it f'lr i.T»ntal that tliio 
ifi t^f> iKittiini, and ar>fiii- Uic point that tb<^ water Hbonld 
niu fniiii U to A. t>ii wi-ouul of the l»pH.'r, which at fin>t 
■ijthi uritinH rrry rpawinnhlo. A irinipld niiitlsud of WHwr- 
tainiiiK n-ht-tbur tJiv air cbunlwr is ulnirircd i>r not i»i by 
Kiiinding it, or by pricking aaniall long Iiolr (on tho topf, 
hiy with thr rnd i>f n r itrpimtftr'H nharp uhlaol, or the point 
of a peti knifu ur fiiu! bruibiwl. Thia I did, and ftiiiRa the 
lUr-cIuLlnher to bo full uf Kntj>r. Thn itir-riuini1ii-f wiu L-ut 
out, wbi-n. iaat4»adof i\x\t wiitir ruiuiiiiK out, it rtiuiainod 
full, wbirh at onoe ahowi-d that tho air-chamber wan fixed 
" wronjif way about." if yon tiirti t.Iic air-cbitmii^r ABO, 
Pifl. 801, uprido dawn, 3M>u will itra tliat Uie -wnlur cauuot 
vetaway, becauK th« dip pipe holdait »p. ■Whim you gvl 
u» cjlindrical-ihupod air-eluunbor, um iibiiwii at X Z, F^^. 
KOI, inati^ of itib coiilool, you cjux di^tinpaiidi the top 
Iran Ibe bottom, by pouriii); a little water into it, or liy 
jmiuair a alick down tlK> (mt> vml, whvu you will fuel ilic 
«tnd of the dip-pipe. Tlie dip ia alvsjR the aaau an tlui 
dip of the D-lmp. 

Aip-Chamber "Suction Pumps," also known at 
"Cifttern Pumpa." 

IW. 811 ID a iwctinn nf thia pump, and Fif[ fll'i ia an 
<>1«ratioD. J i* the vacuum airHsbatuber and otatem, 
wlwnrin U fixi<d Ibe barrel B and bucket. In ttu air- 
tdiBinberF. I in thr tiiV, vrhi^rrrin wnrkft thr bnr.kct rod. 
vhich alao (on topi wi>rk.-< tbniuyb u .-il.DilliiL^ box K. The 
tube 1 K prpt-niiLn llio air in top air-ehiLnilxar A from 
wofkiniiC i>ut ut thv stuffing box. Thvai.'tiuu UasfoUowii:— 

On mtaiiifr thr handle tbe mokjns' standard N gvnt wty, 
and the eonnn tiii^ '^ ^ prvTiiila any lateral alrain trvai 
b>Tin^ put upon the piKlun or Iniub't'rod wH^iR the buck«t-rifd 
iliwncndis nnd 'iii ific down rtroke tin- bucket aw^^-nds and 
brinifn with it the w'ai<:T out of the li^Wrn J wlthonL any 
recoil in the nn<utian pl]v, no matter Ikiw ijiiirkly it way Ii4 
worked, or if the druiiyht bo ju»t within ihn Iniiii (.f, aay, 
!26ft., thv HUnuitphcrii: |irti>«iin? ijuickly, or if iu a loDtf 
draught, alowly prcaai-s iliu water up into the datem J, and 
by tlio linw the bu'krl in down afrain plenty more mater it.' 
in the dstera, ad that thin ci>lem in a rvady rarana of pre* 
v<-n!iDg tbe suction pipe fnnn kii^king or uhattaiinK- Of 
"mr"o, th«> air>ebninbi>r A I auHwvre its omal purpose, 
bliDuld tlia pump u«>uIq Ik< Kt^ppod up and a riiitng main 
RxeA on at A, or A hose fixed on at M, for gaideti or othrr 


fla. ftU. 

Parallel Motion Qear. 

In the F^ipi, Hit and 812 ia nhown a Kiin)ili^ OMsna of 
prududn^ a jiarallcl or pvivendloular etrok« auits^le for 
paini> t-tkIk : J. bving a nxea atandarl juiutrd at I^, and 
wliich alliiwi UiL nuking Htundard N to more vithont 
atraiu being thrown on the piaton rod of the pomp. 

Continuous " Primod" Pump*. 

This pump ia illustnted at Fi^r. SI3, tho Irattom of Ilia 
hiarrvl hrta n vntw, whieh di]i> Into an outer cjEnder, whiuh 
is nuppIiMl with watL'r from near itn ^)pedM>at the flubgo 
on the righc. Hoppoae the pump %^lI«• ti> lot by. and thw 
HUctiniL and Huliig main to be cmptv. an the water falla ut 
the bottom clack ao will the air folloM-. but ivt kioq oa it 
paMr-9 throngh thii* valve, it will then quickly bubble 
tbrxtiigli tbo watirr contained In the outer cthaniber. and ao 
allow the water in the auction pipe to fall, and of noon aa 
this is all out, the wati.T contained in tlie outur ehainler 
Mia baok, and pert o^pun voca Into the pump baml for 
the bucket to dip into, and Qiiu the pmnp ia oontimMUidy 
primpd : a brttxr arraDgvmaat of these pumpn la bo be rten 
at Fig>. 83S and eS2. 



■ — H-.T^'SJ- 

vm. Bia. 
Foul Air in Wet)«, and Afp Pumps. 

BefoR rou tntcr aiy wi-U be careful lo />*r»iiittfs/ oxnminD 
the Mtnc far the pnwnw of fold air, tnvt ii« otii*, (or you 
oaDtutt hr- Um •'iirvfiil wttli y»iir '>wii lifi- : htiiiilrttU of inrn 
bK«« luait Ui<-ir livM in wi'lln llamu)tK ti-uotiiiK <u uUtiini. 
RriiwinWr that wirllx whidi bavi< bocTi ffnind ti> xapixirt llfev 
MMi IwurafurwardN hnvc Ixiti (uutid to dentni^ It )>,v HHUian 
of the preamce nf carbonio n.nid g»d , and eaporioUj romantwr 
it !■ abiioliiMx neMMirf bi tout fur Ihiit fotil nir ut nil tiiii«* 
vkitn jrmt bmrv ooauiioii lo lUMiovnr » «r«ll. 

A nuiD ii a fo(d to nioh ImmmUddi; intn bin )rrav« \*y 
itMrnaHag into • npncc filtod with niHKinici add, a iru 
which cutBol imppoK life, n>>r (-an it heicm, ImtltwiQ 
MDdllier the ■troujf««( nnimal ia t)i«<«<<rld. Alwaj- a lowor 
H li^btvd bUtow nanillo ta tlm wittf^ tir nistrlr m iH'fntv 
jDu doMMaid iiiU MDf w«U ; If tbo cauiUe tjunis, y«u ara 
lafa; i^ HA^, rfo H«4, M/WK «ity fviiiiilfrvilt/tn, vt<nU\n- doim 
nnUl uin dnullrniid trokchrroiiH tiii'my i* drivrii out or 
vlttarad miTftj, wliioh in diinu an futlowH, vie., bjr lowurinfi 

•ajrdilny to cuim hr«t. w u to mt«fy tho sir, or In- 
Uowini* air (nun u bluwuifr-ituuliim- : a Snl nl« bk>w«r & 
ahovm «1 Fitf. il3, and in liidit to ciarrj* obmit, aivl ran W 
uwd with Dio ordiunr7 j iu. rublwr tubinit, w aiiollivr 
Uover, but fltfl limes the ezpi>iu«, awl no IwWt. ia abomi 
ftl Fi|f. KI4: or hf tho nw> of it gai> and hot vat^r, or 
Uackmnilli'ii jnrlal^lr (<irgt>, or to blow diitni a lot □( in>n, 
india-rabber, or ijtber pipc«, and whic4 tua»t reach dowu 

10 til* water, or nouly. B-mmtiniia tb« riainK duuiu (not 
having tall or (ibutiDer-valrea) btv made luw oi for ihiit 
fUimprn^ down frt>sL air. Tliia in dtme by Axin^ a ball 
ctop-onrk upoik th« muin [liiM' bNir the barrM, or jiwl- attirv 
Uio retniiiiuK riilvp, with n t'inc luitdiutt tu th« aurface uf 
tho inter in the well. Such iKall-eadn, if we nay um 
the term, arr! hn<t wnrk'tl vith roda rcaditap from top to 
boltiiiti. 11* hIiowii nt A, Fi;;. 7'i. Of cimntu. lijr uWuMttif 

11 rubber hoiw on ibr outlet of tho nmin, and hy vininpiiig nir 
dovra tlio nmin in liu-in'iiimiitiUi.'H, ihu fuiil aic will nouit 
minirle with ihc tn-^ air luid ruto to Uic sorfaoa, whcii tlio 
Mn£e will bnn. 

Wall Windlass. 

aUateePig. 1222, iwf <irtfi->/(<c>i. [Mfthntitei fur I'lnmicrM.) 

It nay he SAkal, "IlownTn I lofrM down a wetlP" Yon 
atwnld bu let dowii hy tbi- mid uf n wieidlan*, nad wo<nid up 
npOQ a ropn anrh ni «hQir(i nt sofh, I-'ij^. Rl '>. 

rin. t,u 


Two nan take tho irlndlAH*, nnn nti ca/ili aide. Tbr- 
other handle !r not ihovm on the wheel, l.til tlint: da«« not 
fdiniify. Hit acnuui tho uuni.K wiili thf min- ln-twinm yowr 
l*g», auil «t (!i»*, iiuljl vmi un- mmJ to liic work, with n 
|rfo«i of naith «ml orer ihi? risrht nhooliler roimd tlw njoe 
and under the Mt unnpit. and iiwny ynu jfii ftrandlr to lh« 
bottom HlaKv. U you faitv« nr^Tir lioii Ipt down bvfon, you 
will ham MUDS Toiir p«cBlinr fe<-lini{ii an you domnd, and 
wfll be full ei wooilMVi^iit a* to wbctlior' the hrirkwork u 
taie t ore the ataiEea nfc i and wfll anything fidl ^ la it a 
way down ! SuppOM that th* rope nliuutil luriak. nr thraw 
on the top abonul iuirid«rnUy lot gn thr winoliw \ Theu yoa 
wnnd<>r if ihero in ajiy funi olr in llio wvll. All this ia 
ninointi thmiiifh your mind of you fin-t go down. Hhall I 
fsOoflf Tlinn, If a very difp well, you muy aeo that Ihit 
briekwork i> winding, and iJie cJianiwa am, that ynu will 
any to yminaOf, " Thw ia not a sole wcH/* Piirham thm' 
are a few hrioka out in idaoaa, or that you may ha in n 
daogaroua well ; tUau you will, trotn the firat inomeut of 



-ymiT javnt, irbh Tonndf an top ignm. All thin will 
[)M» tlir<xi^)> vfMir mind* md tU« In ttl^ very tiling, if jou 
krr in laife nnd tniBl>' tuRi'it bmnds, tlint yuu mtut f«r)^t, 
for it miljmnkenjvit inorenwrou*. ttml nndor tbe tollucwe 
of vwOi wntrfapd foclingH, mm faavo Imn known to fntnt 
Lind full Aff, 4J) thoujrli f<)*>l Ktr wiu hi th« vt^ll. A pluiiil«T 
^hiui DO rtK'ht to enter a well if he bna an ideu IhnI lie i-Diiuot 
tbe finrt horrnrm i>f wvll woric, moiv wuMtrijillT if it ba 
I danyeniu well. For vxamnlc KonuitiinvK yuo will lutve 
D duaoBtid AOft. or IWft., uid tluvn valk alno? a headlnf^ 
prrliap) AOft. or tl)Ofl.,orrvnu I.OOtfl. (in tiii»liitt«rciaaeit ia 
wim' 10 Milk iniothor shaft, tJum tlip hmding' tiiunly raqnSnid 
pfw thovuedoti tii]]o tolay ID), then ftv down ■uothervell 
crtiKpA hf tnc Muiie mpo piuaag nndcr and orer, 
pntlpj- whcclx, kc). the Mcuml wrll Iwuig 
rr 'iiift., or M>tni;1 tiOM vvun 50(t. or lOOfl. de«|h 
I aro ibA wdin vi-h<''r(rin the dAUgcr Kan, Mtd jrot, Kfler 
a little vhiV. you Ihh-uiiic thoron^ly at hoffl« in mieh 
vcIIk. It nninimt <'(ii>nilnni:« nml gninl >kill tn Buldny 
^,|in>)i«r vxuuiiiatiiw uul pifiuinitioiw evisy tiins jroo ent^r 
SonMrtlBiEH il hnppeus tJutt jnii wnric off taddt^Di fitnn 
[irtiigv tu *tmep. fee. Whon ^nc-'h i* thi> ci>-«. (ako caro that 
Ton fix tiw) TadiUT unWy. and tJiat iho xu^m u>-» louMit, fin- 
It la not at all an luiiNMiimoiL (r.vtimnco tu find liin Btairm >if 
old wells, and, indci^l, in miin)* new wells, not pri)pivly 
vpntiiHlcxt, to find tJw tirjihiT tviltcn thn>tigh a kind »f 
Biild<-w or w"-t !>)(. and f<ir mirh tiiiiU-n- to 10*0 "fay unilt-r 
. oiw'« fet. lo U»B hoTTur and diimuty erf thu pi«T*on den- 
|c*iiding-. My advioc la, wrvvr to d«se«nd into n w<iU fnno 
n^ to nUifT^ on laddoro. uiilrw }roii arc quite certain Uiat 
« aUKMare ■afr'. I alia nniteud that all fAtigvn ^mild 
[^ of lion, yTBiiiir. or (run-metal. Sw-h ftApn will bi> 
^iiutntod an we pn^wd wiili our deco-well pumps ; bat 
Eoce entcrhijT npou thL-i it will bo uat to cxpliin the 
npler kinds of piunpa to fix. 

Fixing Jack or Suotlon Pump. 

ft will now procM'il with ibi- Riioft of ll»r "jarkor 

Sod -pump." Aj^in n-in to Fi|f. 810. H<*e yon have 

till' wi-Il «r ISfl. dttTi, with on*> itagc. oc xhown at W. 
In iklx i-a4>i thri ■•UfC*^ iv nti oak ninnk hav 'Mix. by l>in. 
wide, bavin); n Ixili' Uirfl, and a litlli* i-uiiiit«-r-Mink mi 
tho top aidr ; the holo hIil'uM [WO" ibniojfh thr rpotn-, lial 
iiMimr to oiir end ihin thr othtr. hbt 8tii. fiom the brick- 
work. Niiw [■ix-iKitt- yowr rui.tiun-pipe for iiailtiig n Work 
of oalc. nav Oai- i-ituirf or muud. itiid 13iti. I< •lift, having 
onc Miii (Oiaprd w* lAowii at onk hliwk, Fig. KIO, l>i eiitwt 
tJir end of the Biu-lion ; tlivn Iwn- a quantity of jbi. or tin- 
•* lihat hols " muiid Ihi- liitlom of the pipi', aa abowi at 
falaM IwJtv. Bon< PiiuiiKb of Ihcni. If vim hare a '2io. 
pipr, Iww many iiii- hfli-* will you^n.'qtiirel' Ajwwer, 10. 
Hti'^iL-r you have a 3:n. lioV, and tlie •••luiin' of i bi-ing 4, 
villi Miiiin- )hi' Jill, ntultiplird by >. wbiirh U|iialN 10. 
*rhcn Uin- half iLN luHiiy iiitnin. nml your ))HOiii will work 
nu<i<T, b<«aui>c in (ho M Imlt'" tbi" friction will hr ■ixti-ni 
'.iiiM-D lu great ait tJimugh the 'liv, pi|K'. 

Siuiu' piunibi-r*, iriKtiiid of ui-in^r tturM iJoal-bolefl, Btmply 
rut tbrvi'ir fiiiir ImiffciiU with tli>i> chipping knifo ; thrMo 
iHtiea alliiw iiiu thiny to g?t out irf thn bam-l inti* thv wrll. 
ahonld It fall in wboi npain. an' guingoii. Ar. 'fhiw, in 
■onv cif^f. *n»won« better, thouirh blu*1-liok-» nrv i^vncntUy 
iiw-d. Thn blork hhould not iw filial \wffiVf tbc pipe fa put 
Ihrvuirh tl(4^hoIei inthn ntngi- ; il" n"l fix yotirhlork before 
yonr blast Iwlr* are Imre-l, or ibtIhim ■mnl! Inf« of Wd 
will pet into tbi> piiw and TOiinnt K- gi't out, and whlrb 
will w.*k up and intorfcrc with tlic nuflker valves a/>tion. 

Thir flniigi-* may t«" cart, or if too nimdi trouble to cai4, 
-qt up«n a {iwce m your vuction-pipa for tbo fiun^p. Say 

th« ]4pc hi Sin., ihim yotir pirrp of pipe for the SnnpfR Sin. 
iimg, hiid with till' ibippiiig kuifi- >-ut it down, nml nfli-r 
thin, with ihr' tuni]>iti dnvru tfanuigh. tin.- piiiv nf ]iipi.< is 
mnilv (ija-tifil. Flatten it <Mit. nnd tlion cm or hunt, with 
a rwl-boi plumUug-inm. or olberwiw, a hiilu thmtigh llu- 
ocntiv, large cnoo^ to alip over the auction-ijipe. Now, 

I- iu«. 81* 
villi a niw* of *a).h-rtir<i fnn.i the knot, aa ahown at Fig. 
8I«. nuilciiig two liulf-hitvhi--, and slip tbcin over tho end 
of thp jdpe an kIidwu. Bnug thr cniti togvlber, and with 
the l.mK.'Ht end fomi oii-^ half-hitcli (whii-h is really unly 
ono of tlio former hiti-lw-!., it> ■hnwn at 1. 2. 3. 4. Rg. il6] 
over the rod. Hiy uImxiI I2in. down the lend i>I[h- ; tlteti 
wiUi UiP aid of uiie niiui on top of tin- n-ell bohiintf up lb* 
|Mpe you untcrtbo well. Now Nlip ibe pnil uf tb»- •mciioa* 
pipo thtnogfa the oak abtffe, and with ixipfwr nutlH uall uaj 
the hli«-k on the auctimi ns lAown at Fig. KIO. then lower ' 
it soil nljp tbn Ituid flanp- owr ii^i pnd, then turn tin- flange 
otrw fur a taft joint (i»e Pi^. 140, l-iO. anil I6lj. |^( a ni«> 
wad of pnpor or.-«mielhiiig to Mull into tho iripe. Next 
pnrpaiT the i-iint A. Fig. KID, .rf the pump t<jt an nniki- 
hatiili-d urotbrr jnint, 11* ><h»wn iit Fig. 122, and wijii' on 
the Wigll: A 111 F n-ady f'T fixing thr pum]>, fhi' ii»«!l' uf 
which «bouldnvr<'xiTrd aft. in lu-igbt. Krubdn- Oii'gmtmd. 
The buck ahnuU In- Hiol agiiiiinl a wall, or if uo wall la 
iimrflx itnpright, and make the flange juini V.', Fig. 810; 
hut takii earu lliat no lend aliaring" >it othtr haid aiiUtOlic 
gilt into the pipen. It ia now nudy fur the i-aipcaln- 
luaku and fix tiia fnuue to, aa shown at Fi^f. 617. 

Wood Work or Framee ter Pump*. 

The Kuiqwrla. A, B. arc, my :iin. deiU or oiher (inih*'r, 
hard wwal In ho«t (oak), Ifl di>wn intJi Ihp gimnd, and 
having piexien or gnmrm pwt out tn reoe^vw ibo head, as at 
E to U, and F In J, tbiw nupjiirrto the pump and nt^^iliea 
it: the bock in m-xt nailed on, and thm felt, ftc . put in 
Bgouut frmi, and then tho fmni ix fiml. from thi> iinit/I« 
upwarda with waww*. or aouuitiiun a dimr is n«wl. Slunild 
thwe bo no rtgulating head, then tin- (lungiv F C, Fig. «Ui, 
fit into the KHjovM E. a. F. J, Fig. SIT. wblrb krt-pa tKe 
■ •umii uitright and ateady. Tlv aliA K, an alau Uie luJc B 
for the fover and pin, may Ni pn^iwred licfdnt tlie frame is 
Used : but ■■nrt' uiunt b<^ takiin to Hi thit lerer (Jot in it" 
proper poaitiou to work t>i« bucket-rvd. Flunb over the 
iwntreof the burr»l- SoinetiiOM tb««e Ja-k pump hmkift- 
tvAk anr worked with a rod and aling. a<i fdiown at Fig. 
819, but witli tbt stay or guide fljud on pknk. 



I lurvo alrwdr emlaJned bow to wt tho «i«li»r-box. anA 
the vuioiukbiaii of pump buokotK. Souo plumlxin amy 
a-Jc, WhM Ja the UM of th« M^.k aiiA pipes, F. C. II. 
Fi}^. 8t0? Th« niDinrcr in. to nlluw tlie witlcr t<i luii ttx-k 
into tt>n wvll itaring the wintor. Thcrw «n- miuij wkvo to 
fret over lliU diflioultj [m>u Fi|i. 8'iOI, her« the bookui 
itoTnea dovn on thfl spit F, whirh tilts tho valve whon 
rrfiairod. Now Ruppohe i^verjthiiiic tn In- fiiiisliwl, nitil 
vihIm' mi]uiied hi Hin punip : 5«>ii will liuv-» t^rxl to fill Llm 
beiFTvl will) dean wuter, nod tiuicklr woric tLo hmiUc, aud 

Fi-i. M7 

in a moment or m ynii will fe^l thi? bandit) lo work n Utile 
^mviM' uid hpNvirr. nrttl tlii- wulor in ■(<«ti running out of 
tli« aiHiut or uui'lv. Kit-p u|i Uio pumjiitVK' fur n iiiitiiiU' 
or two : Uib vrJU brui»; luiv Miiall Hul>i>luu<?« up tnmi thi- 
Buokpr-box, which bv ifTcidtmt amy hav» got there. Of 
rourac, nothing xliould !«' tlriTr. hut ik^ntftimnt it hnppnti* 
that Uien* in Now atup [jiiiii|)Jiik. mid ii<>lii% wliHbrr thi- 
w«t«r ilribbliM a \niig tiiw nfU'r tho jiuntpiiig hiut ccniu:^, 
II it tUMf. It w Mini to be " rinrht." If nut, " tliu micktr- 

Repairing Pumps. 

BoOMlfalnfc i» under tlic V4lv^, the hox taajr niU W pm> 
parlf eementsd in. nr tijv viilvc i* buJ, tlii' tivtUtt^r iimjr Iw 
■ fana an«, or ba1f-a>do/»ii ntWr thjngk. Somctliing in thff 
matter: die pump "Iikh* water," "it miw buck." In 
thi« t*i*. lAko out tho biifkpt, pot the pnnip hook, E, F, 
A, U, i'ig*. 8 ftiM 9. "crcw the wfcw into thi' lokd ctack. ajt 
•liown «l Fijt- "f*-''- Now tlii» uliu-k will nut innvv, boeaUDu 
it haa been prvin-riy mt, ^>r minevu^} m. If it i.-* Iqimc. it 
ia bad netting, I>t rea<>o» of not N-iiij^ pn>pi'rU kuouki-l 
■liiwn, or not Mtt(Kci«ut fat i>r taw nM-d, nml n-ill nuaiy bo 
puUtnl lip. Or, periiap«, the lentlici' hiw not bovn jirxjpvrly 
saiM on the endin'-box. If tho latter in tho uuw tbmi 
tb* daok irill ho Vocm', if i>o it in cacily dnin-ii : it -will 
1)e loose In tiie bolUiiu uf thi.- banvl, and tht- niii-krr or 
pwup-hook niu»t Iw Tiiipd rarffiiJlj-, nr yon m»y tijKtil 
ifaa mw rf ibr widw-r-lx'X. Alwuj-ji Uy fur thi* by pti^hin^ 
ibe point of the Ku>ak<<r-hi)uk lightly over thi- f m of thi^ 
elaok. Ptrhape all will >>c firm; if iw> «tpip the hcpmt 
into thi! dark, Horew tt li^hliy in, and dci not m-tvyr Iht- 
n>d ruuud witliuut pmwiiiK wvll uti the tup, tiL>r tuo for 
If it i^ bald to draw, the cW-k is nailed on properly, and 
requires n krttlofn) of hot water poured into the bnm-1 ; 

hsU fill tba faaml and let it ataad for a few uiniilM. 
Now pull tho clack ap«n, let th« beat ptrt of the water 
mn book, and diut it again : thi« alluwa tho water to run 
ihniogh, and vrumi up ih« mutton Auot or other oument. 
Now pull (he iluf^k up. Gl«nendly tin- box aud all will 
oomo, an it <dir>nl<l, together, but at tbaM tho olaok Mfuea 
away fruia Uil- bux : if *o, aft<^ the obMik i» gvt up, oa 
befiin> directed, pni the pump hook can-fully through Ifac 
hotc ill the mtrk>'r Ixti, until tlic hunch or bonk ia tielow 
the b('tti<m of Ibo box, an shown iit C, K, F, Fig. 9. Now 
^ivc a guod pnll. and the thing iv up ; but iierhaiw It 
won't cumv : then gM a piece of dog-chain, or a strong 
pierc of ptnf-liMird. an<i Ihrt-juUc it ttmrngh tho cje H, and 
pnj» up the hiHib with tlic aid uf lh« handle «r lever of 
tho pump, or t<uhatitute a lover a^ Ixut joa caa. "Die box 
ia now up, and pi-rhap« it i* fmind that n Intup of brick, 
a pinon of M>ld<'r. or sumtrthiug, m bruiight up with it, or 
that th« faw of the box or k-ather U bail, or flue uothinff 
is foutid. If EO, take a puil uf water and euddeuly empty 
tho lot down tho purap ; thi> will wunh any umidl atuET 
through the blosl-iiDlen and tntc (hi' will. T aIwayn'>do 
thin IwfoTfl I apt n >iuck#ir<hox, e«peCT«lly Ju .'i now pump 
Hvt hailing a lail-ralrf. Ni^iw, an bvforc oxplotiLcd (at 
niicker>boxert, fitting and aettiag; h-ad cisrka, pump 
bucketa, &c.], pn?pan> j^oiir clnck and ducker-boxi th«n 
■wt it again, anil hx thr pnciip^bui'-knt, tilt up the pump- 
barrel M'iih clean wat«r, aud "fotoh the water." I( !■ 
now aU right, iiml the pump " htliff uatn." meaning that 
the pHmn i» "eonnd. ' Pertiapit aomrthing ohm ia the 
ntatti-T. for aft«r "Bhc" hiiti nliiud (or aw hour we have 
(o pump fur a minute or so before ihv water oomea, and at 
first it li all fruth, or vn a fvam. " 8hv draw* air," that 
in. thf^to JK a pinhole tti the Huction.pipe. or tb<> jjnlnt A, 
F^g. KlU. iH bad. pcrtuipH porous. U tne t<uck F It uM«i, 
|ierhupi*. it ia there : whabnvrr it in, it moxt be found. For 
thiK puri>uw, the irrouiid nni^t be Ktripi>ed oil thi; p>P^> 
and rlii> wrll iiniM.ven>d. If Ihp piiw is an nld one niort 
Ukel.v till' i-honiu«l» Juld in tb<- i-arlli linvf ■piitiii h"lo" into 
th» Inad, or twi.inty uUmr tluiign ninj- !"■ wrun^. Tbr jiin 
or iiii-'hole, huwuver, niunt be f juiid aud wddfrtsl up, ui- a 
now ■aiclion<pipt3 fixud. 

A* yiiii priM'i-iil with thi* ditfri-i-nt etajMcn of punipn, ynn 
will iiioro rpwlily u tide rot mid the repuirM which w in I'ono 
quilt' naturally to yon ; hpniH' why I plao: su uiniiy kiiidx 
of |nuDp» before my yi>unti n^JwUr, for, though I Hiiy mi, 
I do not expect yon will ever wi' n ijtuirti^r of thf pnrop* 
I ahow, bucaujK! it will luvolvo alijioiit a Uftituue tu count 
aeruaa anoh a vurirtjr. 

Tube Well and Pump, or Abya&lnian Pump. 

ThiA kind uf pnnij) waa luui-h omhI by ihtt EiigliiJj 
aoldicni during the Aby^innian wtir, bmce the name, 
Figit. SIH an- iliuatrntitma <^f thcae pnmjM, nhi.wiug (be 
.auction A. E, F, driven into a water-bcimiig ■Iruta at 
A, D. E : il wifl be plain tliat if you drlvii the tube 
ft, F, K, A, through thi' «oil, .ki-,, hh pxplaimv! in Ihc 
giHihih'ii'a.l wiKxlcul, Fig. 771 or "TJ, or into n wut«'r- 
liearinir ntrutiim, nn nhown, you i-an pump np tlie wu'it 
iu duo )<rop<jrtioi] to tbt^ nioL^lun- of thi.- iiuid ntniui at the 
hla«t-buleA, und that by continual pumping tho rannim 
|nodtu«d by the auction will cnu«c tli<< wairr Iu ll-.w 
tjjwardu tixf blurt -h<jli-ii- Surh in thn runntmrHnn of rhe 
tiibe-uifllx. 1 luiiy add that, howivi-r iim-lii] thew.- wHIs 
may hare boen found in timofi of war, &c., yon mast uiil 
at all timet eijin-t nurh wrlU M yifld tluit plentiful 
whieh can bi- oblaitied from the digging of a pmp rly*. 
eoafltraeted wHI, nor can you expert thrw! kind* <if piiiujM 
will woilc with tho nnw caan that tl>e '■ iai'k [iiiuip 

dne« whoa fixed in an ordinary well f^uujily 

becfiuue in the tuhc-piunp jou are tm lhr> 









rta*. sia. 

be minMKiifuUjr ilrivm thrDugli tlu> clinUc, brralrmg Ihruugh 
tli« flinU irhkifa 10117 ubntnn;! Its puuifo dowuwiud ; but 
whdB nek ur vtuop in reaehed nnd uu Go be ]ii(>rcrd, ^Mcml 
tneiina dI drilUnir tuw to Ix^ pr>it-id»I for it. mnn 
caminjc upon rock ur ilonv, ibe biwt pixn t>> tn pull ii[i tha 
tuhai ntiil trf in Mi'ith^r opot ; thb appliw hIwj whan devp 
In-dti of day an- dri<ron into, fur it in hotter to pull op 
the CobM UM go a little dlMAixyt off uid tott agMtn, u in 
inanj cum hy so dobtf water will lie fuund. 

inivrnpted proMuni of the utnuHpliuTe for ut^tanoe, and 
vhicli w hlnuend by ita poBiibg tbiunglL tlui diffenmt strata 
of ibii Mulfa htion it can gM to thr water ticar tbe 
biaat-hoV', mid to wkiih la 11 gruut extra t tlif tulieiri'll 
owvn itA ■uiinw of Bupplj. I hsvci »hi>wn two pumjin, llir 
tallwt liBTing a clack cWn^inn d«ur at butt'MD, lfa« other 
or abort pattpm tx^in); a nliorl vritl<^ buml. 

Abyssinian Tube Well Driving. 

Iir) u I'll tut orrlinnrily uard i* nut ilileuded for 

or piHd (itouo fouEidatioiiit, but it ia oapKbU' 

tety bud and ivrnpoct loil*, uid canaLn 


Fraa. 819. 

Driving Tube Wells. 

G^ncmll/ BiMViking two mm am tuMMsarj for tfa* work, 
but OH a rule plf-uij^ of bacidK ai* to ho fonad wil^g to 
■uudot in tlii> u:UitiA»n work of ohtatoin^ drinkmg water 
by w.-U«. TU.; tuU-". kc„ at Rg*. 819 too WBll!fiti«tnit« 
ibo work tu iicftd further comment, fiXMptiDjr jiut ib« 
tralini:^! poini*. The "dainp" Kliuuld bo nmlv flxfld 
Upon the tut». and l-hi> iilidin); rnH fixed for ffuidmg tlie 
monkey or <triviiig wi-tftbt. whii-h bitter in generally 
actuatM by ropm runoia); ov<^r the puUry* a* ■biivn, and 
with n moTCtncnt of my .>ft. or fift.. aooordinff lo tlte 
■lentL. hiirdneiw uf tin* jfTound, At*. One nian IioMh tbe 
tubft just fof a alart, tL« otliec wotka Uw uioakoy or 



ntli«r In^anent nnrvwotr^ for driving tlw CUb^. Caie 
■hoold be bOu-ti l» Hx tlie tutie pi>r|mriiculiirly. HoviuK 
dw tabo Axed pltimb nod lu suiinl bj iiwlf both rji-h 
work nwajr at thr Hririnir. «nil If cUinr" be ased tu dimjf 
tiic i>i[>eH tbor kUduIiI Iw lixwipiied niid n-ttxril Abmii tvarv 
'iff.., and thf piilkvB inljiinti>il ■coonliiiKlj'. If Ihe graniitl 
bn vary Imtil il will W fuuiuL b<->t lo nx \hf rlnni[« til-ont 
IHiii. or lenA Irifin tlic irrouDil. 01 coune yon ilrivr «wuy 
At thAM^ tiibM and po loo^hon thi^ b^ Kcrcnrlusr uthux 
oil until tho work in fiiiialii^ ; niul Ulcv c«n- t)ie JLiiut» nro 
raadt' <)uite souud iji you iiciiifrpM with the ilriviiig'- Tnkv 
fnjqwnl tenia vtth a pluitiiiiK tur itic wntiT, hjkI when 
tJiv Cube jn drivm into tnn nruh.T lii^arinrf Atmtum, tbc pump 

kIuiuIiI be ti]i|i1icil ».H ■.liiiwii a1 Fif-n. HIS. 0( rT^irwo ynu 
will require to prixiei joiir pump in tlic- iinijutl unr by 
throwlniT ■ litU^■ wiilrr luty tlio Imrn-l. Yuu 111H7 iM-rimie 
impatient nnt tioi' job, ifpfxtiiiUy If the Hlratntn bn n cIimd 
ur Aomprutt 0110. Tbi- puitip laoM bo wrltoii tjulclily tind 
witli idiort Mtmltrv at iirot. 

Tho wutCT lit firil i* )ni.<r>> or Imm muddy, aonvrdia^ Ui 
thvDHtareof tliL> elratnm, but by itcwly pumpuiij it will 
fn ttmn rir-xr up mul ho tif for iiw-. 

Sljould ttii' ffiiiiiiiil Ilirou^'b «lii4-li llii> tul« bn* Ixvli 
drivi-ii pxiivu of Miii'b II rlnytiy nr mmdy iijitum »« tn (uid 
itii way tliroutfb the pcrfunili^il lube to nny i-sii-ot, h> ibat 
Then thp pump ti* pnt on, the wHtrr i-nimol pcnrtrntc 
thrciii^b tlio nci'iiiiiitbilion in the tiilic. it ti> ncirwukiy ti> tiw 
till! Miisll i-li'urin}(-iiul tulipji. A nuHirimit tmiiiber of tliow 
mniit b« HorowcHl lo^rftlitr to tviuAi lo the Kiivmi of the wrll 
tub*. The rt-ducing Hoi:ktt haf to bo Htrvwf*! on to tbi 
upper end of ttio miihU iulxn, htid tht pump In i>i:n-iv-t"L 
into tbia ■ockrt. Tlii* done, tliv wutpr wtimli hnn bi^ii 
jioaniil dowi) tho wpll tube will by di:')rrvcn moiiti-ti Uii' 
viirth, wbivib cuii bi> inuupvd u]> Llimuirli tho huikII tube, 
whilo frcnh wiit4'r t-- bving ponwfl d<i»ii tho well tuba : 
until, by tlii* nit«as. aU tL« earth which bim ucciiniiiliitnl 
in Ilia tnbn hkn beoa dwuwd »uc. Wb'-ti tliiii hu* bt«Ti 
■ooomplished, the vnall tubes van be witlidrawn, nud tlie 
iwmp uviny been wnwod on to the weLl tabe, tho mil 

To tuL-ilitftti- litlttiff tlio wtJI tnbp, for tli« piupoM of 
«li-tining it out, n funnel in uwd, nliicb 0111 be ncreivpd on 
to the well tube. 

Il mifht »if€< liKppcn that th>- well tit)ie may hnro b(>eo 
driven Utruueh the wstcr-beiiring •trottun ; sfaould ihia 
flcvur, the wwl tube can In nadily dmwn up to llie nrat^r 
■tntom H^n. 

In drivinK tht- ttibo, f>1ioalil nxk be met witli, or front 
Uijr other caiii^ it is fi^iitid iiiy<i--'vuiry to itithdniw, this tnHy 
bv nooompliahed by tMtouin^ tlir '■kiiip to thv lube m few 
iti^heii tmm the grouod, and by itpplytii); a Itmr at radi 
Bidv. ndM il A »hnrt diatAnoc, lowering tli<? rliimp nf Irr ench 
mioccmve lift. Aoothrr pbin uf wiUidrnwiiif^ the tubn in 
to put the monkoy ou the pipe t>ie revi>n(> way to what it 
ie vhsn driviiiit ttie w«'ll, and then fiUfU-D tbo pUmp on 
the tnbo also llio rerorefr wiiy. nbotit oni' foot ahovf tht 
monkey. A nuin on canli aido pulls up th'' inonkf'y nffitiiiat 
tlie olamp. and drirfs it npwiim "Ut of lh(> (ground . itIimii 
all the tutjca mi? willidrawn thi-r may U- ri-drivcai in 
auother opol. In withdrawiuK we tubce, each lengtli 
ma«t 1>e UDBCTPWcd an it in raiitpd. 

In Mnne rery nolid ntrata it in ntcfMary, in ordirr to 
open up the w8ti>r-w»y tn rh-n well tiihe, to nao a foroe- 
]Mitnp iin the lop vf the tubi', nnd by tordntf wnlcr down 
uudiv KTOat preeeuiv the strata will bt: funi-d. and vntrr 
oumunnlcatioiw openrd to the woU tubi^ : aud wliou wni^T 
llowi fn-ely down tint tubr vritliout fnrr-inH', tin- ojwration 
ia f^urmlly iximplete. Thii appIit-Htiiin of the fon-e-pmrip 
tn aloi of jfTwil "Tvice whpn Uif wcU may be in a " iwt 
of day. in thi^ imniadlalM rininitr of wnt^r ; for by foniing 
mter down, a water-wiy ia oprtiMl to the wabT- bearing 
■tralum, and a good wpU is thics obtained. 

Cheap Pump*. 
Cottage or Iron JncK-Pump. and Tilt Sucker-Box 
VrIvos. for Places exposed to Frost, Theft. &C 

For thi» kind of ptimp rrfrr to Piy, 8W, with aad without 
toalun){ nbnidard. This jiump is 11M.1) ini nopuuiit of itn 
ohmptRv*. o;»v'lnlly by f(nnleui.-r>i. II10 ti);iire on the right 
in rbesper than that od the Itrft which hiu a ivckin); cir 

irioa KW. 

)^a. ML 



vilinitinif vljiD'lurd J, wlui^li u liiu>^ nt L, K . l)ir^ tiumj)- 
rod wgrV» thnmjrfi n h*iU> in thn top, h> tluit. rhildran 
ranootnnt xtnnno, &«., in tko barrel. E (h tlie stivtUm- 
pifv, F th<> tilt-valvp fnr Pinpt^^ Lho twrr^l in winter, 
whii^h cftii Iw flxod <fpr-n by Inwrripg tlw bnoket to tiw 
iHittmn of ihi) iMrnil in aurb n nuuiiDTT tliot tbe bottom of 
tlw; liiuJcLl will real upon tho spiir F of ihe v»lv». Th» i» 
wry haady in tbr vinu-r. Tbo |nunp in wmred dtrwB 
opnii plankK, i>^.. ili n-t N. Fi}f. K'Jl is th« mniA flliM o( 
nuiii)), but fittod «ritb a Hucker box, naS loagm in th« body 
lor wiurto and alleys. 

Overhandffd Actlan Pump*. 

Hkbo pumpi are inMdo bj J. Fell k Cu., for fixloff io 
plwes wh«re UiiC urdinaiy pnnip bnndl" fnuuor- bo wnrWt. 
or whar* it nx>uid bo m tbu way, ico J^. &i'2. Th««tt 

n«. at!!. 

pUTHpa tnnv be had to fix un a wall aa Hhowo, or tlio body 
may be lu'nt Fige, 821, tl'iS, ice. 

Full^aiud Iron Pump, with aooawlble Suokar-Sox 

In thio ptimp, 'P'ifc 823, Iti to Iw «<ti a valTe bnx B. 
rovL-nxi b_v II yWie K, and w)ii<.'h in vary cuDV(<iiji?iit wbm 
npairing th<> itiir-k«T>riilTe. The biickrt, iw titiiT ho an-a, 
wwrk» witliiii til' b»m:l A, itnd h*i> a lourr ntp^c. SiicJ: 
)nutnw arp handy where tliiM« u much koocliiiiK about, but 
fuv iiiitl fur fliiit«T work im uneinitil "f lliti fn»i. Of r*nir«p, 
♦K.. amnr [iiuiiu timy bf fitted wilh iraUrit fiiwl dirwl uiidiT 
*nvket. Sm'li ralvvH arv ihinni nt, N nnd M iii thp 
'tram. Thcpe ralr -• H^v^l Ittwreu flaam'*- 

• A rocker-box n _ a« at N. 

rin. »1S. 

Party-Wall or Double-Handle Pumps, 

Tbw*' )ttiiu{w itn- uw-d for donWo dwC'lliiij.'-liiu*** 
baring party- wiillft, the pump boiiiif built ia the briclfsork 
and hiiving KwinjfinfT limidlpti on «wh «dff, »• idinwn at 
C D, Fijf. H-il. Thp »|ii.ut «f tJia pimp. A, Fik. 8i6, nin» 
inlo a Knd of HlidiHii di»h, or troti^li B, Fig. M&, th« 
Ix'ttvm pari vf whicfa bu ii partitiun, and twt) (-onipartiiieBt* 
with nozslcD an lihown at D, F ; ihlit KlidlnK lUflb roceptaola 
rc«ita upon the bri<tkwoi-k or wall G. nud in wwknl as 
fnllcrWH. SiippiMp till- tii'n|ili> on tin- I) wih- of thn wall 
require walor, tlic oUdt- B in ri^lit tijr the water to run from 
the nonJe into the slide, and hi>m thaica into the oompart- 

Fiu. in- 

intmt C, nnd nut nt T). Ilut mmMMv that wat«r im wautcd 
iu th« poiiii«rt4ui-ut E. Uit-n tt»- «li.l<' It rinwf, with the 
band, b« piilldd by the linndle K over tb? |KirtitiijD, mt thai 
ths idldi' limy Linpty into tlie oompartniivt E, wbra ttio 
water nill nm t.ui at the .itxriit Y. Of courw it ia uot 
aiweMUiry that the well should Iw midrr the wall, but may 
lieatanr dLrfann' awav, lu Bhnmi nt Fig, 810, 823 ; au^ 
when, if deep, it »iiii«t Iw w<irk>.il by rodit, Ac, to be ber^- 
■iflm'XTilained, mid furwhiih »ee E, F, G.H.and H,}<,0. 
I'. Q, Fl|f. 888. k<:. 



floating Pole Pumps; Fixing Iron Pumps; 
Wood 8tAg«*. 

For thit clOM of puni]> retet to F U, Tigf>. 826 aod S27. 
pjt» F, (or actuAtlug the buikct S>, tad wUl bo nwdlly 

ria. fisa. 

udenUxxl fnam the illnhtmii'in nml llip follnving dcMtrip- 
ttetu Mont uf tlic uld wuudco inuu|M luid thcM flmtaij; 

A, Fig. 836, Lt ih<> Ktninor or blut^faolw, wbkh muxt Iw 
Kxcd iipMti » ^wi Aijlid (oosdiLtiim. tmloM) otherwiflO fixed 
upon »(»>:«'«, or itt the- top of the well, which is (Wimclimwi 
done by >'iiltm); twn scmicirruliir !ii.!i-« in twii 6in. liy liiti. 
tir 1 liti. |iiri«i uf liml«r. nud by fixing; thi> tlaii)^- G iif the 
pump, »«« ut r, K({, 82", butnceD tLow timbers [for thin 
we AB, CD. Fig. a2»]. Vtm (.ui)j«.i- iili l.i hfl ^Tn-wcd 
totir(>l]ier. «n illiutrnlMl ia Uio above disfrraiun, thD butUnn 
or Ixirrcl part beinft Kiipptirtnl or nt^uulipri liy llic Aai^ 0, 
a pUii of w-hirh in shdnii nl Fiw 818; A *C in ihe cuuiu 
•MfR) and B 1> tho clip blook, whi<^h in bolted to tba main 
Btogc flritli tli« tmlts A. (J. 0, IJ. Thoro it- on iidTitnUK« in 
iuIr^ mth HtdgM aa tlumc : thn alugu in nut woiikfuod far 
boring a Inrfto holo t.bmuuh the i^cwtrv <>f the ii-i><<d, and 
another i* Itint ilicy holiT the pi)".* iia tirui iti> yuu ma; 
duKH Id K-R'n- thu bluulc ta tbo main i«tafcc. Of couno, 
Mich dtagtw rmr bn of iron or ifUii-tuMHl. Hnvinp pvrry- 
tiling in tlic wull ri^lit, mat prurido thi: puin|i-pi>t(', which 


nliimld }» ni kuul from l|tn. lo 2iti. diameter, made uf oak, 
or uthcr (food Liotinir mafaniid. Fiwt^^ th- fgrkx of Ibc 
inunp-r<.>d to tin- pnU:. il« >i1iowu at E, Vig. 8-je, iiud Uy the 
muskflt AX at I, J, I*!^. TVS ; and aim tho roupling at II Ut 
the punip hnndle. It iiutjr hnpprii IhrU «» exim iMmpHit^ 
will w Trtjuirwd li> fonnBTl two or uvitv polm tojp-ihpr, nr 
Lhin may bi> d'KDC with twi> itim. tilotra with tho polo 
bolted between Ihrm. Karinif tlic fut thr ex^rt len^h, 
and the niirkiT b<ix flxrd, pnxved to invn thf finrt pule, 
thtm the iioxt in Ixjltctl cm. niuil th^ nciit. until tht- dmircd 
Ivagth in obtsilird. Now imtir Hituu wittxr intn thi> piiTiiji 
ttoawvA the buudli-, a* before expUiunl in jmk-piui)|iH. 
Thft pumritij^ at lir»t will han^ rciy hearf on iho hniid, 
and niDtt likely I'nck thn handle, biit aa tht wat^r riM^* np 
thft puDiJi, iKi tin- nxln will flctat, and the wlml*- tliiuji 
IxHxiiiie Ittriit oil the hand. Stii.'h piinpn (cmrnillj wotk 
lightly, nud will lant a lont; tiiriA; hut. if wilt rr-ndily Im* 
Mi-n that tluT luiiiniA throw nritcr abuvt iLt- IiuiiiUh- ; but 
hfiiipilv we fill' «ilh !iniilJi'-r kii il. Siirh n piiiiip I itiinij> 
Hud lixwl thirty yvim ago ttt HiiiiyxT Hill, mid if A]wiimtvd 
at Fi^. »'i3. itftv U a load pump bum'l rvHchiuir fn<m>| 
bultuni btagv C to tho top. Of criunr, thi' ordinitry ilackl 
■iirJi?r box may Iw iuk<ci in coDJonr.tiun witli tliia tniekvt ' 
and floatiiifr pol«. It in uaail; repaired aud wirk* widi 
freedom, dthcr frum a fnmo ur any of tfau htuidli'H lo bQ i 
hcmtftrr nifriTwl to. 8« Fto. 8«8. 877. SM. ftc Thto^ 
pump. Kij,'. B'J'.fc, is known by lae name of a lift luid furwf- 
pnnip ; and is an «xsinpl« nf dning away with thp miog 
main -cliirk ur vain*, anil w<«i1ck like a lia-vr migiTic pump. 
Now it Is lime Ui tiinsitlcr what will bo thu pret^ure u|)oa 
tho Hidca (if thi^ barrel and bn<'kr-i of punip^ In thin case 
mrppim' thri witII tn lip a il«Y out- ; thi-n ymi miml ii^' a 
jm)up-l.-iim'l of fiiiit'ibl* "i/e for rhp tiwy wiirking. and tli* 
matcriak of proprr thit^knraH tt> witlu-laud tlii' prrtHun.-. 
Take into arooiint tho height n( Ihn pity or riNing mainJ 
which in uarriwl abuvt.- the lop of the wi4l, bMatev lliia, a* 
a matter u( oourvo, add« extra prennm to tha water witbin 
tlio puxup-bom-I. 



C U 


rio. an. 

PreftButw Table for Pumps and elao for Atmospheric 
Pressure and Weight or Water per tquarg Inch- 

Tbi- TiTMBtiTQ at Ifilb. tv the vquiitv iDi;h nuiy bv uudvr- 

Mo-*! mnn tho follnwin^ nlniplo llluAttntioii, hnt, tor riiit 

iMirtKiK' wi! will lAf 15 lb. &titko«pheric hiuaIh d 'iOH. 

■ai lA water, trnta farther "ii. Sjippoup yim hnvn m 

v-tlv lit). Nimro W st I), Fife. fiM, uiul n N|uiiru 

•mill in or otfaenruG) ntado to lit air and wat«r- 

tiiir tnbc : no«r my thnt l.hi* sqniuv wi^lit 

' 161t>. nu B. U:t from A, tu B, be SUft. 

Noir fin lltia pipe with water, ttad the wvi^l at B will 
juBt btlniM the onlami) nf wirtor. ITerp the 161b. irciglit 
la a.lKi halancMl br the oolunm of wnUir. 8uiipu<« iho 
ww'irht to be lib., tbi-n only lib. ppB^nurr tnthin tlw rabe 
» nqoiml to buoy up tu« wc-lxfac. >'uw Bup[KH»e that 
initeed of a ennsre tube wn om a round oiil>, tLo ana tl 
wliieb u HHAllar than th« squnrr. \^'hKt iriti be the 
atmovpheric ]imKun- (iiuppoiiiiig it tu be lAlb. tu the Mioare 
iaoli) npon ma lln. oircour pipe, oot taking dcdnaih into 




6ee IM^fe ZM. 

¥w. 831. 

cotuddnntion ? The miottct L», nfnarly ISlb, TbeT«^Ire, a 
ronnd I21K wriffht; anti/i* rmjiilnM in a cirrolnr p«]» to 
withialAiid llif Iftll*. lo thr wffnaiT irifh pipu : or, in olhiT 
wordu, wiiwK^t tbnUittum ol tliTwujd pipe with the l>tii)"ni 
of the ■qnari! oiiv, und llib muori iMb. wdirht, and ihe 
roiiml rilh. weight will Atatta at one water lerd. Till* 
beitiff tb(i ffivl^ it i* tnny to tiud Oia dilftwenoQ betweeu Ibe 
Mqiiam AiidLlHicinttif, at liMut, D<«rvaough for osr porpcNW. 

Circlet Bnd Squaree, Relatlonthip of. 

Tho foUuwinir an luinplo ru1» for doinv tliis:— 

Rule I. IfuUipIy lialf (he din-iuuferetiL-o by half the 
dijunvt^T fnr Iho Ann, ilk for rxninplc, nippcwc thn piimp 
to bo It tin., My lliv tdmimfvniuM.- \* 12iu, (fur a uumr 
calciiUtioii say r.Jlin.), half of which ia Gin,, this multi- 
plkd by b«U tint diiimctor, whirh i.-i Sin., will give I2in., 
the areaueur (.■imuK'b fur t]ii* jnirpjM!. 

Another mora pri'dw role is tQ inoltii^ the w]«an o( 
the dinitirtor by '"HA* for thp ftn^». 

Ray, rmiffhlj" "jicaldti;!, tluit tin- an-a of a 4in. pump- 
bucket: ia l'2in,, that a rolamn of witter ha* to tv lifted tn 
th? hdKht of llOfl.. and Oiat tlio prvMsurp feqiiircd ia 30lb. 
lit tlto wiiiare inch : licm we bavp 1<> multiply the I2in. by 
30!b., vnich will lie «jiial to 360ll>. Hcrp vim nxjiiiro a 
dead lift vi IIBOlb., !■> i>nr tinthiiig' n[ fricticni (it in tlilii 
ftirrtion, &«., which nuiki< It never ■-tinie out iu praotiiw), 
before you oan oTeroomo the nMatance of the ooliunn uf 
wntff', or. in other wnrda, lift the biioket. Thr nrdinarr 
h^vtrafte uf a pmnp-handlt ia fnmi 5 or 6 to 1, and 
the pnwer rxi-riiwl iinon the handle 'rf a jnimp by an or- 
dionry werkinif nmn w X^\h., Uiatiii ty ^ay. if he l> to w«A 
fMiimimuls/, «41l not lixceed 'jaib. jw*«mrv on the handle. 
Nnw multiply the "Mh. by 6 timen the lever, nod wo 
got l&O lb., tiot half ruuugb t<> wiirk the ptUB^ 



RwIiluc Uif cildnui of tratar to 30R., or, fnr u\it |niFpoM, 
tn l->lb. ta Ui<> siiiara inoh; Uivu I2iii. W-inir tlic iqwov 
n4 th« ptimj>-^)n'^ltnt, mnldplj du* IJtb. bjr Uut ar«K of 
^M* piuiip-hifki'l. iiunicly. I'Jiu : Wrc wl' |c«t l(«l<ll>. 
lUa will iit< ijiiilp rnniipli fur nny tnoti U> lift, aiiA 
Lou miK'h fur t»mtiiii|iuui n^tkiiiK (•' mwl /•* rrntfmhntW 
tMat jMtMp* itn MWitfif ait tl-tu ^ hnttd, e>t4 it i* hirt trhtrt 
tkr hanl tfnli *tuni<t m), bikiiiif (rlrtion into TOTmidrmtion : 
thwi it ffillimn thmi it would fx.- )im!|«.vi for u* U' fi« n. liii. 
|niiiip tiOft. de«p, and to cxpoot on^ mni) t<> wurk it. 

Selecting the Size* or Pump BnrrQis for djITercnt 
Heads of Water. 

lu order tlint t}u> pump »bull wurk ^^b^^. i> prupcr-NUfl 
Iwirrel miwl W tf\fx-tr^ iind cniiiLoTcd. Tlii" tln^nry <if tliin 
■M rt|4ain>-() ubuvc, but, tlie folluwlii); tali!«n wall he (iiitiKl 
Ui*<ful. 11J1 I liiivp wiirhoil thp table nut ■uil.tiilo fur wtill* of 
diffurmt dcptlu tv bv wwtkcd by mi unllimrv |!iuiip*Ic>LT vt 
Hlmat S bt I. Somii inmp-tnBlwrH irivo thu luvciu^iv uk 
uuly £ tu I. It nhauld btt obwrrLtl (Kitt (lii^ fiicn uf the 
iMrrrbi nhiiuld iii'»tir cicwd thtme ni\ira fur ilio mliuini of 
WHter, but ratlipr under. Yon will noliw thut tlie dejitli of 
m well is not 111! thnt i* to be aiottdurcd, but fnna tlia wntor- 
IdycI til thr wr-U tr> thn riaaa of Ibi diteAaryt. Of oounie, 
p(-r{»iidi('ular ur t«itiau brifrlit only, i* to b« tkkmt intu 
onuaidt-mion, WTO imd axfiqit tlwfriotian uid mouitiituui, 
tint UtUT i4 irUdijdiiys aulmixirtantptuiiiipump* wtirki(.<d 
br band and Icrpm^. mpcHally tliow not hnvinK nir- 
cuwnhcr«. In fac-t, n> niitr'n in tbiit thn cnm', timt I liuvc 
uu inuiij' ix-'iiLxiimi u'orktil t)i« onUunry jtu^k jiimip vrJIliMUt 
tliB iiiu?ker-viilvp over cIumdk nft<-r it linn rmiis opmcd until 
tlio pump in lit nwt. The ohom- <if tlil* !«■, tlut llio ^rat^r 
hod adt flViBclenc timft ta Mop, and thcrrf.4v iimmhi thmi^li 
tho pipm in n onRtinnonu rtrenm. Thu caii ^«rT nurily hn 
doB* wilh pumpii bavin^ kinff Inn^fUi* (if liinixoiitat iinitliuu. 
Should jou like to xpe tbooamc thing', wurk thohiindiD with 
TPfy Abort fltmkcv. and rcjy tiidckly, like *» manv unituhL-Hj 
tliMnoiiinDtiHu o1 ibe wiit^r Vmyk* up the bu. W-nurker, 
And the Kiuldeii Minlr.-b tioiiix i|iiii'A('i' miil fi^UT Uwn 1^6 
ditwniiK i~r>iiirui of wiitcr, thf tmilii't.indvti Bj^in l-Iobi'h. 
Aiul yuiir ix'n-i-r in iipiiu upplivd t>j lift tlno wulcr onwun) 
tluTiiigh Inr pnnip mid pip<«i. 

fhiii hciii^ Ml wi- will tmvr for Biriring at Ila tnoinr>ntA, 
HiiiijHwclbiit ai'oliiiiin «f water '20ft. luuf(, weighing IOODih., 
tu K' iii'.'tiDtf Ai thi' mte "f 1 0ft. per ■ncond, Ami by h vaIvu 
iartanlly r>t"p|>c<I. tbi» would airuc n Mow in proportion to 
tbii ii)i<ivi> wi-iffbt of wabT muliipliiil by its speed ptur 
urvnd; nud ituiiuit bo olwcrr^l thiil roii muHt inakA jour 
CAknlstiuD nroordiu^ tu tL<' lawwuf mecliatiiiui ; foroiam- 
ide, U tho wldfily at a body be n>|)n<«cntt>d by 5, and Jte 
wrii^t by C, ittt ninmftttnni will hn .10, atid «i on, whitih 
will oxputin the cinck aImvu nut ctoMU||; in Umc. 

Atmotpherlo Pressure, and Specific Gravity 
of Water. 

Alaa tbi? weiiihl nf watir 


lir?r f 

one lacdi wiiuu*-. I have alwnyi hvU\ 

a vrrtionl pipe 
llinl the aIiiio- 
■plien cxi-m a prewui« of l-i'lb. tv tbe M|unn> inch, 
bocanee thin ia llie Enfrliidi Niandiird. And Miy ftfTAfai 
fur tonwiiii-no! wtk:* tbal a 30ft. vuluiun ntiuires lAlb. 
to baUntv It. Thiti we jiliinib*ni penrmlly work t'l; but 
Mlthougfa vt vroA to thin nde, it Ik not nuitJicnintieally 
mnvet, thou^b it In mry iniitable fur ineiiliO cvleulatiqinf^ 
and may be naid to be noAr enough for niir piiTpnnr. The 
Trnl tliiri)! in an fnllnwn: fiM'mmiit workiu^r we luunt firnl 
»tudy (fur atuirnipberio pump*) the denwty "f tbn ilijnid And 
state uf the bart>ineter. Say that !( nuw xlniid'' at 30in., 
the RaI weight of atmonpherr li I lib VHtx. t Mitne wonld fro 
nearer and auy U'^ilb. uti tbe iM],uara imiu Xov ebffnU 

it rUo or full one inob, what will be tlw diffen-nw in 
weight? The Mbwpt ia THo*. T/n- irriyAf of lit tenUr ptr 
tyuorr iiftt ant foot Aifft. '{"hii" heiiiK the fiuTt, let im Mtp- 

(iciHe that wi' have a oiimiiitiii jai^k pumji which ha« [>> niiju' 
iqiiiti wbone Bpeeifie gravity i* 1-:; tn the height of l-lft ; 
lei the AreA wf tlie btn-ket be Sin., mid tht- lever 3ft.. wilb 
A piiwer of 12 timcw, tieing' at lean twiee the »rdliiiir>' 
power— whAt will he the niuwer^ 4lb, ISiox. lint tbii, 
niretr of working in tii) pnuticod use to tho juumU'r, unUnw 
(t Ik Tor exiiiiiiiialion fnirptiaei. 

I£xsuuupthe lir^>t ptinip in Uie Uible. Here i" a T^tn. 
pump, whii^h in liftinif water lOft. jil dn- nite nt '2,\SH 
y^lllniin fxr huur, expending ft veiirht uf lltllb. 'Jin. h)>rh '2'i 
tiin«*evi>ry minute. Vciw tnWr tlicfiu'Lfijnirein thn table, auil 
yi.iii will H'e lliAt llu' oiilcr bits to lie lilleil l<'>ivrt., eiiiinf 
'jiU-'utly a ■ntuiUer piiinp-biii.-ket niiist tie umxI. Thu i\i|iiin~4 
1111)1* p"iwiT III wiin* Ibe piirnp thim wnn ivi-f^MnxTv for the 
Hin. piitnp. 'riwi 'Jiii. pnnLp-linrri'l re([iiirwi u |M>nier t>f 
"<l3lb. ; but Tiotiei' uhiitnii xniirmoiiH p^iwer a 7^<o. pump 
would rcipiite fvr n well "f Oiin di-jilh- im U-» thuti ■2,80Slb. 
(hco tublc uf dbmcli'-T of puiupn), uud if wurkedat tbentuii*; 

r. J. 

turiiz'a ri.'iip 


uni tier 





iitlt} III 

IlA nil 





IiKiu. at t-'inlnikn 


' ? 


per iiihiAtv. 


"jf ^ 




















■1.33 2 














191 heavy 







































































31 oxac4 



























1 98 heavy 





































191 luary 






























I. '10 









1-5 i 



190 bear J 












Hdght from 

Lbs. per 

M. in. at 

ISlia. to the 

DuvBTBB or Fuxps. 





30ft. oalimm. 

2 inoh 

2^ inch 

3 inch 

3^ inch 

4 inch 

4} inch 

6 inch 

6^ inch 





























































































122. :16 






















































































































6 inch 

6J inch 

7 inch 

7i inch ■ 

8 inch 

9 inch 

10 inch 

12 inch 





































































































, 100 










' ■ no, ■ 







I 3028.58 



■ 120 







, 3303.91 



, -ISO 







■ 3579.24 



' 140 










■ 160 








































IBO ' 





, 3632.70 





200 ' 










Tite as the one on the first line of table^namdy, 25 strokes 
per mimite, it would only throw up the same quanti^ of 
WKter; that is, with a 9in. stroke, 2,158 gallons, and with a 
12in. stroke, 2,877 ^onh. 

I think I have said sufficient on this subject to enable my 

readers to know and thoroughly understand what sized 

pomp to select under the nuuiy difFerent heads of water, 

ud in Buoh pump work as the plumber is required to 

vndertake, aaa shall conclude this part by gi^-ing two tables 

''"iwing the power required to work a pump from 2iii. bore 

''^forwella taagii 'H. to 200ft. deep; aW 

it tfaa tqtiMn 'uh sized barrel; this 

table is also handy for ascertaining the pressure per square 
inch on vertical lengths of piping. 

Water Weight and Capacity Notes. 

Acnbio foot of soft water weighs 62'42olbs., and ood* 
tains 6-2355 [approximately 6^] gallons ; 1 gallon of such 
water weighs lOlbs., and contains 277274 cubic inches. 
Gallons x 0'16 = cutnc feet. I ton of water = 35'9 cubio 
feet = 224 gallons ; 1 owt. of water = 1 '8 cubic feet = 
11-2 gallons. Each quarter-inch of rain-fall gives 13 
gallons on every 100 supnfidal feet of area. 



Wkter, Weight of. 

Before ezammixg the water pressure table it will oot be 
oat of place for me to draw f onr attentioD to an easy, and 
simple method for oalotdatmg water preesure, per square 
inoD ; first remember that a oubic foot of ordinary oold 
water is generally taken to weigh. l,000ozs. Kow on the 
base of a square foot there are 144 square inches, therefore, 
if you divide the l,OOUoza. of water by ths 144 this will 
give you the exact weight of one vertical foot, whose base is 
lin. square, and which is 6}}, or 7oz. nearly. 

Uiample : 

144)1,000(6^, or 7 neM-ly. 


H-8 = H 

For the area of pumps or pipes see Pipe Area Table. 

Table of Lengths and working strength of lead pipes. 
Also see Xjead pipes, Strength of (m Town Water 8u|^t). 

I shall now Dere continue my table on the streugtn of 
lead pipes of large sizes, hut for the smaller sizes see page 
36 (Table of Lengths and Working Strength of Lead Pipes) . 
This table will give ^ou tlie strength cd lead pipe suitable 
for pump-work at different depths, &o., and ia the result of 
practical observation, and or long ai^ careful watching 
whilst at work, experimentalising, &o., and consequently 
may he relied upon by the workman. Take notice, tliese 
pipes are made of soft Bpaniah lead, the harder the lead the 
greater the strength, and teeted when quite cold, and have 
not been subjected to powerful jars, but simply tested under 
a powerful force-pump. I should here remark, then, when 
fitting up pumps in wells, &o., it is not at all necessary 
that uie pipes should be of uniform thickness throughout 
the lengui, but th^ may be worked as in the table. If no 
air-chamber is used, use two extra substances to contpensate 
for the jars, &c. A table of caet iron pipee for pumps, &c. , 
may bo seen under the head of Lron Pipes, Strength of. 
Weights, Thickness, &o. 

Hydrostatic Paradox. 

I may here observe that I have made lead pipes ^ia. 
thick for conveying sulphuric acid where there was only 
20ft. pressure, and in the year 1890 fixed over one mile of 
such at Morfu workn, Swansea, the sizee were Sin. diameter 
and in 10ft. lengths, weight of each length SJcwts. Also 
a quantity of Ijm. pipe, Jin. thick for file acid injectors, 
&c., so that the tbicicneM of lead pipes must not always bo 
governed by the pressure. Having explained what is meant 
by the tSllw. to me square inch atmospheric pressure, also 
what constitutes water pressure per square incti ; there yet 
remains something to be explained, and that is, why is It 
that we get such enormous weights upon our pump-buckets 
and yet the rising mains are not haLf the size of the pum]^- 
barrels. This can be explained l^ the following experi- 
ment : Let A D, Fig. B3t, be a lin. square pipe 30ft, high, 
filled witlt water, here, according to our former calciilaUoDB 
(of ilb. to equal 1ft oolimin of water), we Rhould get ISlbs. 
to toe square inch, but let the top of tho bellows B, E, F, 
be equal to 144 square inches, what pressure would there 
be exerted upon tUe whole of ^is bellows top f 

The answer is simply 15 x 144 = 2,160. 
. Here it is evident tliat it is not the axe of the pipes 
which glvee tlie pressure per square inch on a given sized 
pnmp-bucket, but the vertical bdght simply, because the 
nature of fluids is to press equally in all directions, that is, 
the water presses upon the bottom, aides and top with equal 
force save the diflerenoe in the vertical hdght a tJie water, 
whidi in this ease need not be taken into conaideratiim. 

Lead Pciip-Ptps Tablb, EUn fob PBBBsmzs racat IOfe. 

TO 550ft. OB FBOX 5lB. TO 27Sia. TO THX SttUULZ IhCH. 











n - 




e b 






V, tJ 



Of . 









































80 f 



































































































































































































Pressure on Close Tanks. 

The pressure on tho sides of a boUer or hot water close 
tank, is in this manner calculated, and the strength of such 
tanks must bo in strict accordance with the statical water 
in the vent or air pipe, whioh is too often by the plumber 

Fixing Lift and Force Pumps. 

Having endained the pump table and the weight or 
substance of kad pipe, for wells of different depths, &c. 
we will proceed with the fixing of the lead lift and force- 
pump, Kg. 829. 

First fix the stage 0, which ma" ~ -^ two nieces 

ot oak quartering, say tin. br 



shown St F]g. mi3 (tV lAtlrr mttUrrlal b ntnch tho best for 
ditrabtlih') then Ax Uio *iii'tiuQ-[iipp' tm the bnrrel, And 
[in;piirv tM bottom for the Onngv joint D. Fkhi it IIiruu^K 
the Ind floiuv, to rvot upini Uio top of Hue enifv, which if 
of iim Bhoiiin imvc tvo parocti of brovn pBpcr or putts bmnl 
to keep thr I«i<l ftun^ uiT the colil itxKi (Liirinj; the boUm*- 
^_ ing. Aftvt thin ukii tliu liiunl awnj, aiid uIIqw th« lend 

^P ihave to not upon tho iitan ; tbcD flx the accond t^ge H, 
■ vliHii abonld not cxoeod Int. 6in., aext turn another fluiigo 
B jtifaic oTcr Uic lead collar, And m^c the joint M, utid m) on 
lutl>«toj>. Whnn im Uic liut>itii»n, oant I, ■ bnuiiii jaliil 
fnr the nnnfj m&in inuBl b« wiia.'j uu tuthc btm^I. "Wke 
can tbut «panaf Midor do twt cutua through thu bnirrl, 
M> u to pnveot the (ne pm^j^ g of dio bndcct. Now open 

^^^^^^Klf thi^ hsTTrl at R, &iid taft the top orrr tbolnd 
^^^^^^^Hrait'li pJiDuId be j ill. to (ill. iLii^k, mill Sin. largar 

Next t«lu) the HtufButf-box uud fliui|{e. Fiff. 831. ikoil u»- 
icroir the top of thp nimgc K. iind tin tho m1(^ <if ir. : after 
«h(oh tlz it (\uiU- rt-ntnJ Jind Initit upriglU with the IwittpI. 
and Mlder it with the top uf tJia pump baind to tlio fluogc 


■3 . 

Km. bSS. 

na. 6Si. 

t'lu iX,. 

• at L B, Fig. 839, or, instead of rhLx Rtuifinf^-box, 

vhown in Ki^. B29. Rnothtrr kind Icnnwn am the I^tth )itiiffiim;< 

lux, aa Bhiiwii nt Fi|[. BlU, ituir 1h- iiwd. Tliui Inji has u 

wirciit at T. Fi^. 83A, inat^iul <if thp Hangv vcrpn-Kknaim 

»» KEiOwv, «M> " •"'■" 1 91. Of '»Brw. a« may !» 

63<}, an b is luwd instead a< a tcmv 

dnrctr. Tli« next thing requind la bo done in to fix thu 
•Dcit^r lx>x E, Fi^. 8V8, atidavt tho bucket fixnl rm to tlic 
punip [ulo. On lJ>c top uf ttn pump n>lo ia tinted a yi«i.< 
«f)-«ip*i ix^por f\>d, L, »w Fig. H38, woich worka through 


tho ftuffinff-box. This nd k goieraUT sold iritli the 
rtafflnff-boz pnipprly mnvwA, and vith adjiurfiibk raoneo- 
lion nitta A B, to hold the bow cuon^rtiun, a« itbown at 
L K, Figr- 82S, a»d ahu at E, Fig. 897. You ataat Bt tho 

£i1e CO) the pontp-ivd with wrewnd, forked iroiu, u ran 
d at N, aJn at E, Tig. 7t>8 nutl »2a. Of murae the 
puinp-rud, Fi{f. !!29, mar bo worked with a lewr handle on 

Pill. 8S7- 

plaiik, aa fbowu at Fikm. 8S9, 890, Ae., or witb the oom* 
pciwating wheel 3, whinh TDtnte<i an a nhink, aa ahown in 
Ki^. 8'i9, or otherwi)w. Tbp t/ip tif Uie bow connection 
workii tiiiuujib » ^"idi'i V, whiuli kt«]M it prrrM-iuliuular, 
and pnrvcTit" the otmpor rod getting bent ; tftiit wiH bo 
further vxplutncd in Pump Rigging and Fixing. It ma^ 
be notiocd at Ct. Fi»;, K'i9, that thia wh«J haA a balanct^- 
WMght, which ma; he lundi:' ciH(.-lly U.v hnlf or tu whully 
bnlanna tha nuliimn of wntir, pump-nidi>, frr., and tiy tlio 
naeof auohan amngcinLMil il will be pliilu that a regular 
MWinging, pnmning motioD may be obtained. At I N mar 
be AMn an air^ohamUT, iind it ik mtti^ iniportjint that thui 
pomp ■honld llaw one fixtrl i-illirr at fl, trr I. Wlicu Uw 
^■00 ia nleoled as it Bhauld be. at O, and tho chamber ia 
Mprr dotted Itniv, it. will be «emi thn.t this barrel pawnw 
lliMu^ti the air-veosel, and n-ticn ■utli '» tho oaae liu. bole* 
ar oIiitK feiyr moHgh ahoold be borvd oil round tfas bamt as 
•howa at N. nut luora than Sin. up, or abovT the bottom <A 
the air-TesBol, tuid l^e oare tliat the Toiiu-b ed|f«A of tlie 
ho1«M oaivwd V/f the boring nre token otf uif> iuMdo of tlio 
bftirel, otherwiac Uiuy will prwvimt thi- pimidii^ of the 
biiohrt. It is » good plaii to bu]^' out the ban«l here a 
little which will allow the buokol to nue the holm without 
rabbiDg agniobt them. Of coiino Uie top and bottom of 
the nir-ebambrr muMt ha jinrperly mldored to the pipe. 
Thia air>cliambcr to drawn large in prinportioii, bMauac tho 
Uurel of the pump in made to paaa through it, aud wbi<!h 
. of oouiw groatlr reduces its capacity, IhaC la to wjr, so far 
U9 the DDcial enot of tho air-spaoo is ooncemed. 




flu eM. 

Hanging Pumps. 

SiippOMe it is MquimI tu &c n dup 
iiT«U ]>utnp, wiv son. deep, witiunit 
vnt«ri:i|c tliv w*ull, rui<l wht-rv h ' rmotion 
pine' votild ivDt act, this w d(>nr> tm 
foHowi— ««• Kjar. 8»8. 'ITtc h.irrtl A 
», liy til*" hid uf tmD pi)<a<, Inldoirii to 
ruoi itpuun RoodKiLidfotiiidHtiuiiiDth«> 
both m of tEo wdU : but if Uiiw tuituiot 
be obluliicd, it roa; be onnuig. Of 
(iQuriC, it in Cbco itufipurtc^ hy »<uitAbl« 
Ktajv. &c., it Uicto]>, and tli<2 t';>p piui 
A nuidf f^^ond. Whra mieh fmmpH an 
need, Uikt care ihal the pipo (iron, 
fljppor, or bmiw] ii*rd ijt utronp, mid lu 
larini iw ii> iiwvwiiry fur (Ik- miiiiKirt 
of tJic bwrr porU, iind for the frc€ 
Working of trio pump-rridc, which 
(iliiiiitd ijiiL >'iriia<d Jin. .\ 2iii. vriiuu'liU 
imu hIi'uiu iKirrel, ur Hulid-ilrHwii tlikk 
bruirs Lubp, ni]] do for Uic pipiu^r. 
Tnu inn niyv M^Iwit a buirtl Miitabl* 
fur tlio ivurk . for which tee tatile, and 
for the oLtP of.pipM me Suction ukU 
Bwiuy Udiii Fipm. Tbotandl idiuuld 
b« doubk' tho aUmetcrof the HUotkni 
pipe, and work it» fmllowD. Let the 
iuT> of tbn rixinK nuiLn piir, B, Pijr. 
83S, afl^r dediictinjf the areii of ilit- 
pniDp Twb, tx2 l^in. lu tLo mctiou 
pipe tnbk, Wf (iud tlint h Uiu. VJU 
»uit II 3iu, rnmn>-bBrrtl. D, Fijf. 838, 
»boiil(l be uuH niw : und nntirii that 
n 3iii. biim.'l in titv ujrrvut m/mI pump 
for a 6Uft. well. Soinctitiuw tbo riaiti^ 
RDiin ia tbe Mine siM M tht bural ul 
thvwnfitn; tlion th* bucket and claok 
diLU bu wfthdiawn without pulling up 
the barrel. 

Thi- tiiin^n^ piimpn wv mikdc lu 
It varitfly uf patteruK hy MoMrs. 

abaft lalnM two beuinss, liai Iiaa (lu wdscbl of the roda 

dnngltnif I'ti it« tin« «im1, whilat that Id Kg. 8&5 baa tlio 

Shallow Well Wheel Pump, Framo Pump, Friction 
Wheels and Ball Bearings. 

Thia, Fi|r. K39, ia one which is natnetimen luwd when the 
W«lt ii> «hallow, and maj be iwed with advantage for 
platfiii>r witliio ii buildinit or outbuumr, thi* xiutl'^a ninniiijtr 
ncnizoii tally to tbc woU; by aduptinkr this frntaa when 
pnuitioahle. a muu vno work in cjnif<:>rr, and the ropain 
can be done without opciiinir thu well. Tbn Frame Pump 
wwkti imuti 4>uiiicr tbnii a Wheol Fump fixijd ujxin a iilank 
witli only ono shaft bcarinji, aimply booaUBO ui the latter 
there ia a Idnd of twiitt on the )>Tm«ws pin, or hole, of the 
wheel IfiirUiiii. eiamiije Fijf. H:i9). Here we »ce the wheel 
!■ working truly upon a pin. but the pump rod teodjt to 
poll tbo whole iowanis the fn»it, and tbc booriiitf in upon 
the top end a! Uie piu, and uti tfao imdcrvlde at the bank. 
td aar aothing of tendings alwaya to pull a^tiAt the front 
part, or head of tbe pin. The mne ii[)])lifM In the wheel 
in Fi{c. 95S. nnd alw.> Fiji- 96^1 but not tifurly iv iiiudi in 
>V' ^70. Xutiie the dLtforcnce In Ft(f. £71 ; hare the 

wui|Lrht equally diviilcHl ujuin <be twn liearinKv. All theaa 
nppnrtMitly iualiniificvint-Wkiui^liltb points in lltneheoOBM 
u bitf lot when a man ha« to work itwuy at thia gtindiDgr 
job for a day or ao Uwelhf r. and cvorythin^ to make the 
puRip go eaity ahould be oludiud. 1 har» litt«d wheel 
puTn[n with nxloH to run between friclionul wbcele and 
rollurs: I hitve nhio fltlod thoui to rim between baU 
beuriugn with good re.<>ulta. 

Jack or Plunge Pumps. 

It freqiiently happciu In the ooiuitry that (ho intelligent 
workUiK plunibiT in iwUoil upon to amuig^ and fii wane 
Himplii and i-Am/i hiuid-nade pump that will tlirow water 
out of a cellar, (juarry eutting, over and idiout a fann-yan! 
or garden, tu u el^eot datcrn, ic. The following ia one of 
the bovt Slid nuMt tdmple that he CJin make up, kc Fig, 810. 
This itt a piece of, say 4in. pump lianvl, tapcmd at O to 
rocdve tbo nucker : into thin, about '2in. above the mioker 
IvanbhajiieoeDf 'Jin. Iwd pli<c, oaat J, then inako the «!r- 
Uuunber in rixo to ten tima the tiuantity of water to be 
pninpnt at each otroke : mt it wok a Iflin. 9trok(?. and a 4i&. 
ptunp. th(5U tJiu niee for tiie tur<i]liiinilinr ididuld ba 2&in. 
long by 8Id. diameter. A pjeee of Oin. pump horrel of 
fuituble toQ^rth will answer thia porpoae. Otot Uie ond uf 
the 2in. i>i|ie Z. put a itoitt Inad Aim, W, and tafl m'i>r the 
L-nd of thr< 2in. pipe to mcL'ivi- a dbmrt '.'in. xnindle ralre, aa 
■howii nt I, Fig. n40, and wipp the Id) ''■■o W 

theovwrO on (o tlii> diiu:. and p* 
now wipe on the suction pipe I, aafi 

Pi; MPS. 


tbo sooWt 7. 1*n>fmrt> the burhot nr pliuiifnr B, wbicli Is 
oothitgr niuN tLau u sulld ruuiid blouk Jiu. tetw tltitn the 
bam), hflviiig n niimn md vhii'h nhould ho jointed nexr 
Uto hiirkr-t >j> al A iinii K, >ni1 witJi two hnrk«t liutthcni A 
lujil D. fUnl on llin top aiid ruiiud tlif? biiHoin, or tbpue 
buokcts way b» as sbown, l.wa urdiiinry Nolid nip 1e«tlirn> 
ahowQ at G, Fig. 709. and butt«tl tuirrtlinr tw at A, D. 
Fig-. B(0. The artJAii fa aa followit : Upon tb<^ tluuyrnt of 
the }»ttloM tbri nir or iraler betwmrti D mid E bcouin«« 
pTTwoxl upon, and H ii* forrod ui) thn pipe J, K, wbeb tbe 
vniro K opevs, tiui \i\:Qa Utc daim Htroku of the IuumUs hmag 
tnlicn the vnlrc K <'1ohm to pnrcnt the wmtcr nmntD^ bat^, 
and wliich diajwn.'M-* with the atuftinjt box to the lift puuip, 
I^. 800. Here is ii place wbrrx- the rnlrr K muot bo uiud. 

Vow «b«a tbia dotm atnike of the lundle U taken t\u> 
ri^Mi A riaea, and liaidN to pnxliux; a pnrtiiil vacuum, and 
ike eztnnal atmaiphcrv fortv* v-at<ur up tlia auotJon pipe. 
andthniu^bUit>mlvi>Kiiil(illi«b»rr(>1. when EngHinolraw. 
Fix tltia pump ua n>u did thp jn'-k-puiiiu, Fi^. 944, 808. 
Uid 810, ur as l>aBt you i^an. Of (^ou^wt. m thla Fip. 810, n 
wbe>J may hn wn^id. Yon will fiud that W wmtiTiuiil 
plimpinir, the hhU:!' in »pt to till up tlic haiml ntid ovvr- 
how ; it in tbcrpfor* nisi:T«wry to Rx an oferftijw Jiip" a" I't 
P. and oarrj tL" *«iiic oiit*id*! the woodwork, li the pump 
iaaoplnved lliut it wiU Iw atfcctMl bjr thn front in -ninln, 
Ax a ecxic ant] piiiing a.-> at T. trhich anttwi-rs two purfiOM!*. 
vij!,. for 1 ha IhutpI and mi^^tinii pip"'. Btii5 in much n«-it*r 
Ibim two (i>ck« , thn witii^r iii bam*) iiln«7« uliwr^na tho 
ixKk wliitli pnvtnmi it druH-intr air by tip pIuiT- Theiv 
■bould aW be tliL' cook O, the litrfa-r nho'iiM nlvnys he fixt-d 
"W lo got wiit<T, and alm> to fiajity tbr ]>ipi'ii nncl air 
-_ At linK« ™it a joint in th« pump rod at A Uk«- 


Thill pump ;Fi*f. H*l) w the wpU known lift-pnnip, and 
in pwicrallT (tsed ngaiiuit tho wall Dt'ar i^>ullcfi««, mnkii, 
una in wnali houHs , fto., and In um^ an n unctiDn pimp far 
tho MuCory, iiad othtr piirpcmos, abo aaa punip to lift 
water into ciali^m.1 fur watnri^oMla, Intlw, hot-witt«r 
cutems, &c. Tlie ui-liuii of tliiii pump ic oxactijf Ul<' Kame 
aa that at Ftff. 800, the only diflt.'renoo bcintr that in Fir. 
H41, tlw piston rod ia made to work with >riii^'> and rod, 
and lOinif instead of a rvx^cing »t«ndar<i, and tlwt thia 

Flu. Ml. 

laznl of the Itftpnmpiaof hrnwior ^nmetal, flaeA«1& 
mfat and boll» to • nlank, and ibv pLuik fixed I7 loo; lidto 
and nniA tn thr wall. Aj) tbJH pump i^ In gT«i:-Tal uac. and 
i>" by a (tUiiri* nt the diiiKTrtm it may hi' seen how to fix 
it, I nhall, aftur wliat I liitvi: nuid ati piunp-wnrlc, only hiiTv 
to point out tfaose partJ< which r<xttur« penodkul ru;iairiuh'. 
ana explain the miininT of doing iL U 7011 inll now 
uxamino Fig. H4'I jmii may nutim that this pump ii> fiiiad 
aa ahowu, with an air-rhamber (km Air>tiham)ifr), thoiiKl' 
this is not idwiiya tlu! cum, biit tli« rising ini>ia in at time« 
-nipMl on to the bop of thn oiiambcir-box, M. .VIwatk ict 
the riniuj^ luaiD pipo he b^nt with an easy bond, lu sfniwo, 
■I » better tn get ui« ffiinur ntf fur mpninitic tho valveal M. 
Wben tbe alr-ciuuubtrr !• not fIxM you wiu fitid lliv main 
often bmrtinir. and hi vn\l n<quir^ t-oat^tant uttiniion far 
repain: aerontUr. tho air-nhaniix-r not being fisHl. you 
will vtry likrly find ibi* cupiw-r pump-rud (o fTi-t brokriii. 
'ITiirdlT. tlie h?avy tlmmpmil bai^k waw'r Hpoii tht- valves 
[It M will oauao tho vulre U*tlirr«- Vj wi-ar nwav qiuciker 
than whun th^< air ohumber t* flsi'd. Fourtnly. Iho 
pumping vofl will be iiiu"h harder Fifthly, Ihrrc viU 
ofif-n bf an unptniwinl raltling nuiitr within tb« rieing 
main, evptwially if of a long lioriwntid lentrtfa. 



RepaiiSng Uft-Pumpa. 

To repnir Ihc Imith^r*, unacmr tha ncnv on the top 
Aan^ lift tiie Raiive uid liniiif umin, iind rrOratbor u 
Mom directed. Here, whan lifting the riitng main, yan 
will find the benefit of tbin pipe hciag bent iu tJie mitun^ 
baton) d«0orib«d. Nvxt ia the luckuT vnlw Q - thia in attrai 
00)7 lOin. or 12]ii. from tii* floor; it la no dm to anacrew 
tUs, thinVing to puTl tlm |»pe and flftng« on one 
~ «ii)c for rp • loth pri rig - 

'liiAl') So.vou must ^ to work 
(iiffpTTiitly. 1^tk«oatthc< 
■Uuir pin G, »t Din rod, 
and it nmy oftra b» lie* 
i«MU7 to iinnPiTW tho 
iruido xpindJr ^>r rod. 
on PKMTw till- top.and care- 
folly tiiki'iiiit tlioliucki'i. 
fiut Ju iiotbeuil oruther- 
■. '■-■ iTijiiTP tlwr copper 
I 1 ■! rod. Next lake 
(li- liiirn'l off llie plsiik, 
iiiid nwnyfmin tVn"fl«ngT> 

'^ Q; >"i* "'*> ""W l^- 
li'ftthvr uiid reAx as W- 
forc. Nutnoc, rctot fix 
H lifl-jm«i» thni (lin-« 
nnt itlli>w III I^ing takm 
iitf Uio plniik /r«'(i /A'- 
Jnn', : whiiii* they nn- 
I nrrrwnl on from Iwhuid 
^r ''fy **""<'■' bo tnkirn nil 
Se -hoiild llic cucVer Iw ii" 
jiittdrmnlied, unlenathi' 
|ilikuk aurl p>ini[i t-iiri bi' 
r*>ni'ivo(l bixlily. Allrr 
n-p«ir)iijt thv val»r>«_iil- 
n'.ij> fllJ tho bwJTvl b«'- 
full putting ill the 
tiii''k'-1 : ^Ll CMtlllot 
(itJi«rwtM> K''^ wutifr into 
Ihv himl 10 priiuo. fftoli, 
or HUck ihu WKtiTf frrm 
the well. 

Vm. Ml 

Pump Screw Dog Wrench. 
It often hAppeiM that & rink or lomi'thiii^ in fixHl EKAinst 

mmp tCRKW 


D B, at Ml angla of i&', nr nt ridbt MglM. ft will \» plain 
that ■ ttonw nisj- b« lunied wilfain a 9017 narrow or Itraitod 
Kpuce, and vlicm a mttow wrench or screw-drirer would be 
or im u-ie whatever. For cany repairiB^ pimpM Me A, ¥ig. 
8tiO ; such openinjpi are mado od paaijn bn al Fig. B24, las. 

Cottage, Iron, or Oftrden Lift Pump, with Rocking 
or Vibrating Standard. 

Tliid pump la Uliutntcd al Fi». Hl-l. It in rhmp, bat it 
is not fit for bard work, nor wm it tie fotinrt laatinc (yoa 
will nltio find tVcup iMilhi^nt wear outqtiickly), alUMnigh 
in ooTtaiD MtunlicniK il will h* found very handy. It i« 
mada ap as fcinowt: M in the plunk, A an iron bnrkct 
whcncm w M>en to rMt the pmu]- awl onctioD, Or lower 
flanftt^, and iijxin whirJi in fonoed the nuckeT valva Mmting, 
over whii-^i Btd Uie nuoknr vuItc Itulhcr : and atJLisflUad 

rii>. H). 

the pniAp barrd, and in each a position tbnt you canuot ^t 
the iH'i«wdn\-eir to torn out l.ha ]niiiip-wrew», F, L, tor 
rcrpuin. Wlum wwb i> the caae, you will lequire a punp 
■oraw dor-wmuih ; tbU tool is nothiny moio tluin Iwu 
pieetM of V". «4«el platce A, B, C. I) and F^ F, <i, U, Fig. 
iM3, fi»rd or wi'hlKl on tu ■ flut linr, E. M shown. IJy the 
flxiBft (if th<- platen so nhnnii, the "Mj* in the hmAm of tlu! 
parewa uoa b« got ut and thw w-rv«- luilunivd. Of courw if 
llw pfaitoa, F. U, nr« at an onj^lc of my iij", and tho plat«, 

the mction ^pc, at timw oomiMtnl with a not and lining, 
tir nnicm. Thr piiit|» rod L Q iit worked on a vihmtinr 
ntandanlJ: and tbepiatou rodiHalKonwdeto work tliiMujfh 
a Btufflng-boi. On tho Ttmtxlu, O, U Axed an air-chauiher, 
F, for UM1 when tiii> pump t« to be uwd a* n lift pump : and 
in RDcb MiNen the cap, E, in iwed a» a flop cap if> preretit. 
wntrr ninniiiR' nut iit the iiiixdo. 

Of coiinw, ihe rinlui^ luaiii pipes or hoee may be iKnrwed 
on to lh(' cud of the ciozule itiiitend of being taken (iff tho 
top (if t.hf nir-e-hiimlxTt nt 1', nr iti many iit,ln-r wni-x. The 
UiCcnial jMrt of tlii->H liunvln. i* itt liniett Uued wiili a bnaa 
or Gopp<.T tube, which pr('ventj> the cup l(»aUi«r wearing ottt 
•<0 c^airkW ni n-ill be found to he tho oaan when rubbing 
agaiwA tlie injii ImiitvI. 8ueh tube fa ooueuted with hut 
man and ■1111I: nn il rfinciitjng cih:\m into Moket« or boMwa. 

Jook-Pumpe with Ouide* and Sling*. 

It HonietlmeM Impp^on that n jack-pump having wrj 
mueh Vixirk ia tltl< d with (niides ;ui(] rlinu Wli>-ti nuoh u 
the fitM:, nny of thftfurmur rmLt (itid nlinpi wil' "••-—■—; byj 
the imi! I [irufur fur li-ftd |iiiiii{i wUuil nhoW" 
8tl9, and whkh la u* ■itnpla an luiy ; bat 



]V!rhi|M tlut idiowa at Fiff. 84^ U iwt i;w<d u uiy. The 

f itt. Mb. 

1, and, OA nwf 1w kcd, Jh allwliril In thtf pump- 
ed bolow tbv nxl-ffuide, and nocdA no farther ducriptioo. 

Beer Englnoe. 

\V'hi]Kt KT nra tipon the ttahjeet of Rcwkin? SlaniUrds, 
vif., ft>r nnvluniiK n [mrtUl jinTiilM mnliun Iotk« jaiitiin or 
imiu]! ituli", 1 will iiitrJiluLi- aiKiOirr kiiiii mui-h uaeil in th« 
iioprr>i«rin>'wi:<rk, und which i« Ultiptratt-i] ni A J. Fib, 84fl; 
nnd lu t'ViTT itmntiy |iluii)l>cr htm mi-n or Iw* to So with 
the repium and ttsinp- ol tlir-so minijH. th^^ marc b the 
reuoii why I now intrndm-p il to hit nulice. It in the fint 
irt«p townrdji tlui sxplntiBtinn nf tiiv vibrkting lercr, for 
wmcjl Bce FiK. 869. 

)Fiy. Sis ifl the bMr-«rig4iis nnap, to which every 
AWEMT AhniiM fci\f hiH particolor ettcntion, not D«c«ni«rilf 
iM* Ita roiitt^tn bill fur Hxing and ropuin*. Tli«ra in no 
kind of piini^! inorp d(.-IicAtc Han tho becr^eiigine, aod Dodp 
gctA km ntttMiHon from the pltimber. Thiipump-rad. oa 
may 1m.' Nnn), wnriai im a ijiuulraiit, A J 0- Tbolnnir being' 
hinKfvl Bt A cRitaoa tli© rod ti> i«ll up nearly fltraij^fa^ owing 
to Uic lcT^■r pirt, A. J, bdag made to work at n^ht lughni 
with tlif pump rcid ivhm at half atmko. It in ry>iipl«d by a 
jmut at K. it hprc further vnlnnca the liahiltly ul the rod 
Iniii;! Iiriit. iinlnw ihc piimji-liiicket getx too high, nnd 
ih«r»l)y Kticbi hi the l>>ti •.•( tjic harrvl, wlunv tho buer han 
foRvd round the iiiMd«, then the rhaiuwi arc that thu 
hnckot will dtiik up. and if main forM< is owd to pnith tho 
liamlle and red* hiick, Ihny hrnd, nnd rmjuiru the altirtition 
of thf pliiuiher ti\ put in ut'u ithIr. 

Tluitv aro uthor unda of rocking or vibrating standiirdx, 
ut can be aeen on tho rl^hi hiind oidn of Fi^. H17. There 
are alao atandarda conipoBcd of u Hpriiig, which ribnto 
without joiint. 

Plumb«i^6 Popce-Pump. 

Far thin, and for the Bake of ouopUioi^, I wiQ refei yon 
to a diagram of tho wrll-knnwn pliunhpr'n for^—pump, 
wUcb evory ptunilvr h^m hud to do with, mvii for which 
(aoo Fig. S17}. Tho dia^nua on the rig'ht hand -tide i- ttiat 

tn geoHiat 
Rtood. l^ 
an tha ^ 




Pole and plunger- Pump. 

Th<> pnle H&d plun^n--piim{M> ui* cvnfniUr need where b 
very lasch prt-wtuiT u n-.juir«Ml. nnh nx bniirr f<^». Srr. 
Tlurir ooiuimKitiim diffcn. from luir of tdc loniitiT iiiuiip*. 
us tany be m.-«d I)T nUmacv to the Vi^. ft^H. U is uie KheU 
of liuf pump. All thv nonipf bi-f[>rv oxpluiiicd Iinrv had r 
horrfl wlnrrfn wi» naae to work a riip or bupltft-lf stiuir ; 
but in IbiH jiiuiip imiubstilute J, whith ix nitvply n Inilj 
liitnp'l [ailc nr iMiniffiT, trIiirJi hrvvh Wiring %>t tlt« pump- 
barrvl. uud nliii-h vurk<i thrwutrh a BtiiRlitK bo.x, sb<>tm iu 
Fl^, Kl* and »49. «r da hewe shown, through the cup- 
leathw Q, (iiwl bt-lwwn llnngi>:i K. It iii»y tw ooUcfd 
tbnt thv Mdt« of tlie [lulm aimwer to Uie uup-btttber 
Tirrdn ly the muuo aa the f'idt.'e of thi.' butrol to thv pttnp- 
Wtkci. I mAj mention thnt tlii* Icinil »t mp-liMthor wait 
hmkI in th* nhl pnmpM nt Yark-lniililingo vrMtrT'ivurkii, daW 

il wilLbe Mm that the plimRvr or pole worin Ifanmiffi 
•tiiffing-box Q. havinK lt<atb(>r wMbnv, *iid hemp or other 
jNukbg, which in auKwod down with tlie gbati D, and 

riu. MS. 

iinMl'll>. nnd in in priiK'ipIc r^nctljr tha nidip im thaw 

lU^ Kram»h in the hyflrmili*: prcw. 

AJIcT wlmt i liui'i' mill iipfni the iiriiicipW (if piiinp- 
trork. llii« plntignr pmiip will Im- rviulilv iitidiTKtiiui. lU 
actioii b> as (■jllyws : On mining the pluiijicer J, it d'w*^ Ihi* 
UDtlet valvo K. iind i>pm» Iht: HUi?tion-Tiilw 0, ut thi' Hikmc 
tuna drawn waU-r thnrugh A. and into lim ith^ll C. On t\n' 
dmnmt of the pltmtrer, thL' viiliv V i-lnaLti, and Ihi- nutfr 
awModa ihfi pipr- I' : valvu K i.' furtml «]>i^ii, aud tli<r liijuid 
forrcd fnioi thu HhcU iiitn the ritiinir mnin, and mo ou 
■llirnuiti'lT. For wry lii^'h I'rewnin! thi>v vnlvcw luv 
irnmiitl in met^I f>'iit)i<tn'<l or Hpiudli' viilvuw, iw iUudlmtnl 
a( K F, FifT' ^1^' Mi)n> will lie Miid mi the pluD^rcT-piimp 
whon wr oonie tu pn«H«. 

Plunger and Feed<Puntps. 

For thi" kiml iiI piiinp refw to Fijr. B59. It is l3i<- one 
(fOK'niJij' wlwled for feeding' boilem, nnd may be juicd (or 
many oiher purpi"^"*, »wsU w iu voda-water work*, 
machinery, hydmulii: ytt^t**, kc. Thew valrea an of the 
fMlhtr-Kuidi- K«n-Tiietal clain. tind of nonrwo arr gmimd in. 
The bottoni ilun^ K ia vn^w^ ou tu m plnuk. uiiil thi' 
pip«<i Lokon whtrr ni^uiri^.l, 'ilif mirrioii KhoiilH lU'ver 
exceed Gft. nr lUft. in 1<rnirth, 3ft. will Ix- <jiii(c Iuhk 
BDou([b if woiked very rapidly. On rufi-n;uui to thin putnp 

whii:^ anvw^n innttwd at n rnp-Wlhw, aa in l^g. 84S. 
Now let iin etuiiely extimlno the vup-lvuther and th« KluffliiK 
lilts with u viyw \t> tindiu^ out which i* the hftter. 

Pump Stufnng Box Packing. 

In tlif HluffiiL^-boi the ^l:iiid D muxt tie k*>pt tifrbt down 
U])OTi tlie pni'.kinif. TliU piii-kiii^ <•• notbini; iiuit* nnr ]»w> 
than a (innnllly of tfn-'iK'd litingi, which iii pot iul^i tlin tiux 
tm fol]o«-«: FiM for w>l(l wjilcr work, t ut two ^nkI leather 
WMheTH, th« dinmi-tt-r of U>i< liox, niul tc fit tlie pliiiij|ciT 
ti^tly ; now ifct murh> (iioid ntriUKbt bi-niii iir oiiiiiiynni, 
Hicffii-iiijit in igdiuil.itT tn liH thi- Ihix, pull the i.^iidA lo a 
tnjior, and dip It into hojuc hut lulluw, nc/ Imilimj, tuki' it out 
und Ifit ull the tnupltiH (itt mn o#, then pull the erlaaid D 
iknd nest tlio plun^rer. almiit ihr«e jMrtji of the way up ; 
perbiiiw thi'old pnekiti^ will rMinu- willi it, if uot, with a 
■iiitrililr tinit, Hltnrp, Iml roimd pijiutt.'d tool, pl<>k it out, 
aUvT which tiiUo ihc' prupiin-d hump, which if by tliiH time 
mid and the fat Mt< Nnw he'gin, m>t. ahi^nt fiiii. (nnn the 
t-nd (if thi- hrmp. trt wrap it n>un"l tW nliin^T. I<ri)i}{ ur 
wrap tho fboi-t end of tlii' lienip up tlio ]'luuft"'r, iinil in mit'h 
■ nmnni'r tbni. tlip <nid i-iirjmit work lliniiijjb tht- IcallHn' 
wruihtT and ititii tin* nlicll of the piimp. \ow. wilh ii iin. 
or other i>ii[1/)blo hliint-ii>~>lnt(-d. )fan)fL— nluijH-d UfA, puiOi 
tho litgnp down intu thr box, and wnip tbf n'niHiml.-r Ti>iitld 
thp pliingrer. put on the Iwilbi-r wimhiT. uhi'di Khi.nild fit 
thfl pintijcrr i{u\fr light, tlien put on the ij^lund, and Mn>w it 
down, i»il hill fun ti^ht, or yim will nhJ.-rt likrlv NjuLr/o all 
the fnt ont of yonr hrmp. Hcrt'w tin- ylmul down mdy 
auffld-C-iit t() niako Itn- pui^kin^ wiiti-r-ti((lit. If Rfniut^ loo 
tight, the frietion will be in pmporlinn all the ifrvaler. It 
i> the friction which in ao much ii){i(iii«t thi> eluae of pump. 
Now. if jTJii opiin refer to Fig. S»», yoii will lh«r»> w* that 
the frietiot) on the cup>)nnith«r lo onlv in prupiutioii to thn 
piVMure on the piunp. It clowe ngatnftt the pluuKvc bv tlio 
itid nf tbi' Hiiii] pn-iuure, und if tlu-ra !a no prawur** wlthiu 
the fthell of the puiii):!. Ilico' will lie do prewouv '■(.tt 
leather to tho "ide" uf tb" pltuigvr. Tlii- 
l)c the fact witli the Bti'""* *"** iat oi' 




tlglttij anttwtA dawn, it ranabut no unta wont nwnv. which 
im Mime mm* It doM qnidkly. Tbe ran-lMtluir wiU U*t iit 
ln«C tliiM oi four lot- of ptctdiig, ana th« pump will work 
■uufa nraer. Tou irill pwliBpi uk, Why nm tu tM^g' 
box it kU f The uuwer !• thai tfa« IpnllMrr will not alwHya 
rait yoor Alan* of work : fur inxtauoe. It <riU not Rdt bot 
-waiet. li«nttMO by tho host it wton gpu poculiccU but n 
noia wbIm it wilt Inat fur jeus without AtCeatlao, tIji., for 
«cdiauy poinpa. 

SuctionlftBS Pumpk and Coat Pit Pumps. 

Aftvf Hlial «■<■ hare Menaff>titffing<>r|«ukiii9-l>dxe«, and 
eap-lvAth'Ti lULHwcrioR tfaejr purpuoe. H may b« MkM if «rv 
BUinot duprii-r with thnin altofrctW. In scow iiurtmMB w« 
ran. Sm llic pumjw. Fik^. H3H and ftSO. ThMe arc a cbwof 
poinpa wIk'tviir tki piukiiig-liox ur nuclJini'pipe in rvqnlred, 
and althi-iiftli n<>t mu<-li kjtuwn to t)i» mndMti iilumbcr, tlw 
btter OKine^ially, w«re well kuvwii ftmr or fivi- hundred 
ynr* a^, and vnn twrd at tlii; crl«l)mt«d wator-wotka at 

Kl.). S6i), 

Murli, and at PwtNeuf, a Fr«icb wa1ct-w"rks of nbom 
tlw oatao inaffnltnd<>, cUan. nnd datt'. na our oritfina] wiiU-r- 
wufiu erMtM at London Brid^. Ilnrc a niorti «f juiprr 
OTW th« lino M. N, W> oover the linrcr biirrel. Tlio iimuiJ- 
barn-1, A. U then to lie mvn iiiul in a cii)t«m ; the bucket 
ki ndnfersed, and tbe rod workinn: tivm below la aotual^ 
^ 'i tin! vilmning-lerrr, F, O. and the pump- 
1 be "ten that if itio valve. C, be aJm 

mlmienied, that on pullinir down the bucket ita oladi will 
<-]<cu, and that tbo watur fpiio the valve Uj tho borkat. 
Iicin^ belciw the Wei of tbe water in the cijdetii, in not 
roquuvd to lip utibeld by the pxlemal almoapberic prxwiure, 
-ltd, thiTi'forB, tbrrt' in not tliat whioh in kiinmi in pump- 
work na a Miction -pipe, The advuiiiu^v of uniutf tbij< kind 
vf iiionp. ia that ligrhi pipea may be niwd for pumps miUv 
d^p, wtkioli will ntaiUlv ov "cni from what foUowa. fl'idte 
the paper o9 the liue UL N.) Happom the ridnjf main to 
be ], 000ft. long, you will aocofding to tho half ptnuid per 
•quare iuob lo the wrtieal fool, harv a pnMiiin ol SOUlb. to 
the aqnare innb on the boltaa {dpe. Now Ic irill be plain 
that if you hnvi: trn auoh eialwna, and ton aueh pspea aa 
that in llie illuHtrati><a. and that if thi:«> ten eiotenis un 
aupriied hna one bottom t-ljrtrai, the prmumrv an each iiip<> 
vilfonly be one-tmtb of tlio t.ltOUfl.. and eo on, acooiJinK 
u you fix the eiatenui. Of oonmo to gain tlii* nli^nrt, 
puapa o( any other olaaa may bo uaed. nwh a« nm lift- 
pumpa. or jn«c and plungtr, Ac. At J, Fig. ft^O. but bo 
M>en Bitut^tiini and Hft-punip, whi^h wfll mte at IrAot oiio 
cutem. borjiune you may huvc ■20ft. of auotiou anil, nay, 
Attft. to 80ft. of riaing-inatn. Bach pumpa mz* muoh iiaed 
ia mliiea, Ac. 

Continuout Action Lift and Piuniar Pump, 

Thix pump ia a kind of doiil>]e<A£ling, and ia doMgned 
for the purptMv of throwing a morn oontiimooa utmin than 
ran bo urown l.y any of tliu fonuvr unee. Thtj action of 
thia pump will fc r[ttilily uudcmtood by reftirenoo to Fig. 
851. O la the bnn^l in whirh the bu-iikct, F, aa alwi tbo 

r>u. BEi. 

plnaveTi '■ I" made to work. Tnln notioe, and yna will 
me Uat tbe water ia made to riae up tbe main pipe at the 
band and baekalrakoot the pump a* follown. Ktippow the 
plunger to bo baU th« ann of thi^ pump- bucket, it foltoiwa 



thnt hf miaing tli^ bni^ket, ttw wtit-^T. u ifl usdaI, foUfms, 
Mil) llml ttie wali-r iu front in urg^il orwnnl »p tlir luim't, 
Koi into t)>o riiiiiig<nuun ; lint 4t Oio wum- tiuii', thn 
planner u iroliiif out of tbl^ bvim-I. and coiiHt.>c|nimtly leM 
yiiiUT liacA up Ui* muig-main, thereby muking iwani for 
vater M the oxtenl of t£o exact nxo uf thft nliingcr onl^. 
£inw giv« a b«cli ntiakv, and down goM the pluosur vritlua 
the buRvI, utd ftgain dupUma wnuir op into tao ximig- 
maia, in exact prapoitioa to ihc am or bulk of tlio plunnnr, 
M> ihnt witter iM mul« to poaa thnagh. tho ludng-niein at 
botl) liand and biurk atn)ke. Of ooutho, in Fig. 8A1, a cvp 
Imtbor, u ot Q, Fig- 848, majr bo uwd butaad of lli« 

Double-Acting Contlnuout Pump. 

Tliin rmmp is inuotnilml ml Fig-". So2 and Sfi.'i. and dlfftT* 
fruiu nil thn fonigtnn^ pTimpo, thuuith ni [iriiiLnplciliM Tnixrli 
aboint tbo laaue na the jack uzid pliuigv pump, Pig. HW, 

petpendietdar with tho riainir-niMa. Wh^n fixing theao 
pm^M horiumtalljr lit thonM that tkcnat^ will Im- at tof 
(I^. IU3) JMi tlml the ralnw iriU Kbut when fixi'd in th« 
horizoDta] positinn, Q R (Ki^. 8M) ia th* bow for -Mintivet' 
ing tbo pump-p^ to tba wofktng loinr. &o. ¥ig, MS ia aa 

IUb dumWc-aftJnfl pnnin i* winplj (mr bam'l, wKnw wi>rk 
boxacAIr double of alt iljo forntroing, hAvinp n plunger nr 
nirtoiii D, -worlting within: and to tlio pvimp-r«d. C, wi> 
namaatulting-hox, K, Ii; also, it will )f mrn thnC the 
ponip hiu> fuur \"^Ivi'«, two itUela, or « notion- valvM, B, K, 
and two outlets. I, F. A is the «uotiun-pipe. uud N tlic 


Tho aotiiru 'm as follow*. (]ii puUiuff up t\ic pi-.luD, th<- 
valvM, B and F, r1om>, whiUt the watirr ahnrp lhr> piston 
raetdfm pranmrv, wbit^li tJiini upiio llii- vbItDi I| aitd tlw 
vater ia loroed Into the jviog-inain ; at the eaine tiino E, 
tff KMon of thf* tniPtion, al»o opt-tu* at the Mine time aw I, 
and allowK timii wattir to riae intu the bomd of t]ii> pwup. 
Jfaw give tlie bai'k stroke to thp pomp- plunder, xnd (rif> 
Tiltvn. & I, will cloHc, and B F will uputi NuiitltiiiK<oiu>lj. 
and M oo a]t<>niat«lr. Xution, I hare here agiiiii rc'f«rT<>d 
jroa tu hand aiid bade ftrohe. as thtit pump t« Mten fixed to 
thnt the bucket-md will Tvr.ipriiralv in n honmmtal. itutti-Hd 
of a pcrpvodJcular diivr'tiuii, lliu vufliuti. A, being fliwl 
dircet over the pipe loading nto the well, aad tbo outlul 

flu. hM. 

elornlion of tbi« pump, aiid which wnD iIIiiRlrat^a Qm 
fiiiU)cv» at B E F. it'-, uud whii-h takes ni«rt for rvlentiwr- 
ing thf> TalrpA. ThiK ptnnp in largely iii^ in fim m^nra 
and xhip-puiDiM. .Mm for htriwjng piir|io*M. The a^on 
uf thin piunp in Hiv muiie a.« tltat in tlu.> duuliltr -notion waato 
|irevenl«T. [Fig*. C41 nnd 04:2.] A« lb.- Snclton Fig. iW 
w now fixed it in n nonUuuouH primed pump. 

Fire Engine and Ship-Pumpa— Qundruple Action. 

Fig. 864 ill a welional nlrviiliitn nf n quadruplr acliim 
idiip-pump, or «nii' r.n|Nil>V of doiu^ tb« wtirk of four 
barreu— jujtt doulile lliat of Fi^. 8'>'2- It will bo s«m (hat 
in the pump there an two bamls A, K, ouu fixed above 
the othct, anrl in nurh a mann'-r that niilr oaf pump- rod ia 
required tu work tlio two piMoRx. jilimgiTo. or double 
Ijiickots. ()n th" oppoidt^) t»an of Iht- Imm'i ia fixed two 
I()ii(.'it«diniU cxti-rjinl •'hanl^er^. or wnu-r <.'1uidti«Ih, L, H 
isoo B. ilg. 8A6j and having inU't und outlet- vol vm 
I. (J. M!, N, whioh.inmititj, arftUfithingmorethnn tboaeat 
R, E, F, I, Fig. 852 ; but iu the dia^in «.)* nr* the two 
difllinfit barrels, workiug into and only liflititfono double wt 
of Tiilro«, wliix^h miuA hr lurgr^ to eompt^tiMitu for the extra 
fri<'tioi!. Tln-TT inTf two fttulliTig-boxi?n to overoome. and 
ih4> liiiutii p>~iiiit« "iiinc muttil tn-i>o when' thoj ahould nnlj 
■•iFjnc otirx", wbieli i» on atwouut of the very ahoft stroke (Ind 
whidi, of conrac, mtglit bo oltotnl to a looger uno) bvtwcen 
ir and T. 

The hvnA, V, forma rm atr-i^hnmbor, which ninj In.' ex* 
tended to any fiise though shown hnrr Kniolt. Tlic utiifHng- 
Iwxcs Toquin to bo kfiiit >uny«ni op Tcrj- tight. whir>1i 
meona more frirtiHin. With thin anitiiKiTmrut too nmnli 
labour ia rminircd to work the pump. Worit thn npindle 
atuffing-bnxoH a little- loom. Tlie aotton of tliia pump in aa 
foUowH : — Ttuik the wheel to ranite tho hiirJtPl tn ajan^id ; 
this nloses the valves I and N, nfli>r wliiih thf outlet valve 
M op«08 to alloir tlko wat«r to get into t^ hee** -^ -t — <ahcr 




Of main pipe: bat at tho tanur moimmt thnt il openi. no 
■1m doM llie eih-tioD -viils-e O, to rnHov fn-*li w»Ut to i-ntfr 
thaponpL Oirc a bm-M Nri^'kr. luid O M nil) diur ami 
I N uprn, nntl ho od. Of niuTM-, thin ]iiim{> ruiii l» worked 
by tU'.xm i>r otltor jwwet, u in aUwia firv vnx>nM, 4«. 

Fig. 855 ia ui cktvation of tbo *bkip-pump Ftp. 8A4, 
wlikii Utustnted the tvo bandln*, and also ue how ackI 

f IV. 9b6. 

fennch-pipe E ; it •liowa tJio apondU- ntuffing-boi, tlie Tftlvo 
diMini P (J, nnr! tiir triml>r.iH'k II - ntui it alnt nhnwii nni> 
m'.'Uinl (>f fixiuir <lio }'iun|> lx-lw«eii two iita,VK mode- ullfa 
uu«rU!riii)t, J(ii. Ilvtunt (ur n inunwnt la Fi^- K-'* : nitp|tunc 
IM pump til b« out of ordpr, nad Uutt ivi n-nter tan l>o 
(iblraod. WlvtilunUlxr fint dime uiukr ■ticli oiivmu- 
•laacMf Tlw Hmrcr h, Exialne the vuoker-valvefl t. 
lor AM of tfaem ia slmoat eerlatD lo be ont of order, which 
■nnr nWi nmder tltu atlitr uM-lnm, iinlnM th« uuUitI viiltfii 
utiil *lufflnK-boxes nrv pi-rfwtlv ti};bl. Tlii-i vulve iiiiiiti 
Iboi bv (filher vkKned out ur ivlttitduind. But BUinxwv )<'» 
IkKTe plmt; of iratn* In tlio btimb. Mid tlutt Uw pomp 
tluom «t tbo k*ni] or bMJc atroke unljr. Wbnt i» liicti boar 
diniP^ T1u> ■Minrrr tM, If it tlimm iWy at tbt* hnud 
vxtunine lliv uutlvt-rslrv un ttio btti^k vtroVo, fat it 
to be out of ordor. It tUowa tlu water to " ji|r"— 
V M the pliingrr worin up and down In tho baml. m 
tho wunc witer kem p^en with tlie plun^r^ : atid wfa; "r 
Simplf biBag— Ih* oatln-vii!rc allown tlir fm> piMnng of 
Ihit WBtor bttilnwda and lurwiinlH. nuiI m> diXMi uot utwwer 
Ita purpooe. vix., to atop tb» vnter ruiDiu^ ba«k i&ta the 
ham. [t is powlbl«. bnt imt very probnblrt, thikt botli 
iiull«t*nilv«« nutj- be out uf odIit at »iir tiini'. Shoukl 
•Wiha boiTOTt^r, w the r-aaw, tJio otliv'l will be tlmt there 
cmnnot be snj* vaUrr puin)ivd, bccauno thv iiietoii* will throw 
rhc wtttur boi'Ji. i<> ntippljr tlte navurHO utroke of the [iluo^r. 

nod TOO vOt be apt to think that one of tba Sttkar-Tolvea 
im nut of onin. Now. to df-t^nnino irbettsr It hs tbo top 
Viiln-H nr not, o|n!i) tlx? miuUI triol-codc B, PllT- ^^'> U 
water flnw* out. the bntlam vslvM »re aannd, nnd the two 
Um. or oatlct valvw out of order. Whatorer rAr« to the 
vnivf. of^on in thiit pump also wteta to the daable-actua 
pump, Fip. H!f>. 

DiaphpBgm Pumps. 

Thb kind of piunp ta illuxtrated at Vig. Mi. A ta th« 
chamber, with njin^ to hold the India^rabbor diaphtmgin 
K, and th«t KiiiTbou^Tidre B. with tbe outlet-TalTO E. The 
ooCioii Ea iw follows : — i^Il up the ptunp or chamber A with 
initer ; ohm tha pipe E up to the valve F, and work the 
haadk ; thki will soon prodooB the tieoeBeorr vsvuam ta the 

This pimp mar bn mnde to wtwk without tlie valve E bj- 
hradng * rnlva in the diaphragm that will t^ien outwards. 

fta UO. 


Bellows Pumps. 

Tbesp nn my old kind of ponijw and nre HhowB at 
H I J, fig. 357. Alt tb:il i« tuNxwanr i* an InU^ and an 
outlt-t'Vidve, OS In the l«ad-bumlng bellowa. Fig. iMl. Tlu> 
pipes ohould be fixed npon the bnuam board, aiul the top 
may be worki^ b^ any meubanicol coatriiraiiM. TIm closet 
rvgolntor is of this class. 

D«ep Well Pump-Wopk and Rigging. 

W« bavp now Ar«n nnLrlf all the rnrlouii kinds of nonpa 
whiiih tbi- urdiuarj plumber luu> lo du with. I wiH, 
Uioiv4or(>, proiM!>ed witli our diimv-well work, mch wt Is 
illUBtnt«l at Fin. 958, wu] «xpbiin many of th«< difivnmt 
mo^ods of riygisK them ap, suitahlc for the nrioun kinds 
of jmmp-work wtuoh tho ooantry idumbcr hoa to necule, 
aooording to his distriot, Jtc. Fin>t, Irt iw examine the 
wdII whmin th« pump has to be fixed, as tit FI){. 8A8. 
This is a well of, so^, 20ft. to the stofro B. upcm which 
m>ts the bonrd .\ : Is F, the rising main : D U the aui^ou 
pipe which ia, mv. Hfl. long; K ia the mllrr fruidc ; H I. 
the pomp rodn : M tbn plunk ; P ths {T^idc, whiib in somt- 
cxum is not rviiutivd ; tJgerv ia also a W^LHixo-Pm on titv 
left. Ben: tho whole is expond to vfav, and is very almpk' 
to undf-rstaiul, and is one <n tho rfmplMt methods of deep 
wall punp fixing, oad lu^re two views i.rc iihown of Sxivg 
the pump and risiBC main. left and rig n hunded. 

I shall now tntrooooD !•■ your iiotiLY atiotluT mrthod of 
work, Knd a lltthi ImpmrGmont upon the Fitf. bit, Jnvt 


rapktncd. Fw (htx rHiir to Vifc. MO. H<>n> tb^ puni]> Li 

(Jur nMigc malti. In ttiiii wv harp thp pipe MimxirtM Oil 
fill- !<I)i|^t> vitti II llRiiifn joint, itnd iiImi an air rliiiiiibirr cm 
Ui'" rWiiK iniuii Hi V, w« Imvi- ii!»o an «iiiptyitig focli n* 
vlionti lit X. Thme. tliuutrh ilioy m»T ■??««• Irat aliglifr | 
inipPoviTnciiw, arc of arone iiiility, whVh mil he expUdned 
im wi- procn-d. But I Uiink I luavr rou My, Wlinl do va- 
want udth all thii parfi|ihemftlik for h in>tl only 2Dft. Hcvp, 
tts » donunoti jikck-puiBp would do Llip worlc^ (jiiit« tnio, 





' . 







ffid II v 



HI ft 




.1 \ 

hut nnticr, In thp ntmmpr mcmtfa ^ mtar In . 
<iub»idv>, or. nitrr yon hn.v«r niimiNl, «y, for "haU U 
:I]A wiitor in Itiwi-ntl. »uv. ilt. ur AH., hu that a j«dt-_ 
tniuld Iw twpltw* tor nufli wort, mid ihfrcfor* aDother 
faOfX \mi lucd. TIw Ik*!- kinil tor jour jiuqiiiw will !)• 
Iifl-patn)>, iu< Khitwii atFi)n<. 860,l»6l,$Si, uid 863. 
fully examiiH' Uiific pump-biim>l« nnd ecuiot that vl 
i-ou tniT thinW tigml iiuitaUlf In jour |>rir«>, unci for tbn job. 
fijr. Bi'l if t>iui{ily tli« mrae Viad of inimp'barrvl bk tbnt 
flxfd u]xjn t)i<? plank at Fig. 8ll, tho diSmnoo heiag thai 
tliu latter hiw lag" on thr- iitdc of the ImutfI for Mounng to 



Lift Pump Barrolfl. (Al» aue Fi^- 81^0 

I'M. saOL 

rtu. an 

Fw. «B. 

Kiu. MS. 

till pUok, whirli, if iiwd fnr deep-irell worlc, mm>t Ixi 
•euuTvly fiK(.<d wiOi <.<oui^h •rrewn, &c,. to the otdtiH af th«i 
ata^m. BH OH tbo fnmt of tbcr ittiifp> B i>nd A. Fitr. SA4. 
-whilxt Fig- K(]2 hiu> the liifcs no the boCton), aa xhown at B* 
Pi|{ Ktil . lu tlun lull«r fiKuro the pump hun to be lAkcn to 
paK«» lo 4>iiiui)i[ii> or trpnir tliv vtuvi!^ ; but Un- vaht-s in 
Fig. 800 nuiy bo i-tiuniuM or T^iuiEivd frvm the doom AorO. 
In all olliLT n'Kpt'fW tbcHc pump^ aru ozactly ihu Himi;. 
* my jnrt, I lUvoiiId nw Fijr- stiO. 

' wiU now jih-wriil wilh l>ic fixing-. Tliw lirri thiiijr 
wluil will Ijc tine Jtliul Wgbt that tLu 

wa tor han to he lifted^ ITie wkU, taltiti^' ihv nutwiiltnicof 
thti wnlor into [<r<tt«i(lrr»ticin, w, mi^, Mfl. dtvp, but It dooa 
not rat livro. The watur hiw< tu m Ufl«<d to a oiatcm, wjr, 
30fL above tbo gronnd level, thna maldjig in all GUft. I 
mny hi<iy! ranuirk that nil piinip* aiioukt bo rutary an at tba 
left. FJK. MH. if thi^y uiv liifii' routtiuuxBdj wnrictn), wtp^rinllv 
fgr deeji welii. The piuup in to U> wonted bj n inau with 
aa ordiniiry pamp U-vcr, w« ihowu ut ft 8, ^gr. b ^S bimI k£9, 
iph<i'«> Wf rfttrr- IK f. t« 1, The qm^tinn now li, irlial ■ivM 
bnnvl wtJl be pcupL-r fur jrou lu aeUct m> thiiE }ii> nuv work 
TO»ilj- niid fotitiniiQiiiiW f Turn to tto pump tutiin. and 
L-ou»ull (Ik- coluiuB uf f^-vt ui dO ; }u!rv you wiu imd titatiii 
the n^xt oolumn the lixo cf th^ barrel mitAblr for a lift of 
BOfl.. Id he wnrkod by tme mnn. «-ill be Sin. di-imetOT ; bijl 
notice tlmt tbii> ii> ()■<■ vtry uut>i(ln i.<f Om *va\^\ mid rvuiiiiVQ 
Mlb. OS the lover to work thn pump, not tiiklii^ irn^»\ 
Into con.'<ldrTation.- nnft nnd^r the cimuiiirtAtxe that (bin 
miteil pump U tot> larKi- for criTn a ■tning mnn ; it «-iII br 
qnito aa w^ll, thi>rrfura, io eoiioiilt tho uiunp iiibk- afMl'lo 
eeln^t tlio next fitc mutllcr, iiniiit;lj:, 'iiia. btirrcl. Onii 
jlAin. barrel a column uf va.UT 60ft. in bright (mt WftTSik 
nuSBSCBB TiBLH) will cxert a. prwiBuro on Ihe biwket uf 




12T)b., or £6Ib. 1(bw thxn UiaI nii tlip .lin, biicki-t. \ow 
divide the 127 hy Wiv WiTSBe of 6 ii> 1, nnd yo« Bud we 
only huTc tu exort a pr»«urc of 2llb. upoD tlu> liandle, 
vbrn the piunp i* »atd to wittk liyhl on the hand. 

Aft'T m^iatl hiive mid, ytt« way select from tin- Inhlo 
H IwirrpI Hiiitnble for ii wrll of any depth. Hiil an we 
pruiTXiJ nc kliall luive to >iw vihrBtiug iiud vtWr tJonipuuDil 
lercmge, and wliidi wtU linvc Io be worked and taken into 
mnaidr^ration with the jnimp table. The next thing to 
mtmidi-r ii> Ui« vin- and ■nbNbuirr- ol tbr trad )<!;>", aititiible 
foCthepmit|>,audulKu(urlhe proav'treuf CUfl. ut, ttay, 901b. 



to thfl Miuw bid.. (ttoe^TmbU! and UoffUi of WwW 
SuvnathW Load Pipe*.) Here wr hnv.- «'21Ib. ponn hmel. 
iindhtOltlicdiiMnetar will *>" the ■"t' i'>r tbepiiKsi ; ttirrrfore, 
n Uin pif "" "^ '^''*' '*"" *^'' ■'"^'"^' ""° "■'"K """"■ 
Now ttini to tl"' uiWo and liwk '*« '.il'''- l"«np. ""^ "> ','"; 
Mivnd coltrnin wiU b.- found liin. pnc; then m th» iWtd 
.«lun.i. nin your vye dowu to flo wh..^ .n«i.M GOft. «>l«mn 
of wnUT. on 1h« aune iiJiw "> ""«• ("urtn ouaumn will U^ 
•MO lilC flflWV 42. whici mi»«u« Umt Ibn wil»tiunif of tbi- 
afpe Aonld be 42lb. to tlio l^Tt. m luugtli, known m the 
ulda M ft l«msrth of No. Forty-twMi. 

Sow ihmt wo iia*''^ *!"> "'"^ "' borwl. auil nlxo tbe wwgfct 
or'mbMtance uf lead pipe. *" ""'J' jwvpun- to fix tlio boml. 
Fint •rtUo « tij tho «l>i't for Hw «t»({r wU.oIi, m thw cam, 
ii oanpuMd of two laoow of gwd oak.mmM ihe propor 
Wfrth t7lFo tliiough the bnrkwurk. Mid. *y. ftui- Or^. 
tbiclc bj 9fti. widv. First g«t the bwk rtu^> A. K^. MS. 
(„, .«.xt the fiwt B, or if y?",*'''oo«^r Kx OM pincc of 
timbpf, with tJ»»untioiipipphoIoE borod through lliecentpc. 

... . . .1. ij« .iiiirc C nftor which, with, wnoo good 


E?"r^„'^ 'IM"".^ ' ihLr& *!«> ■.hown Qt Fig. SaO. i. 

Axed whvu the rods »n, but uo^iW tKatjrmi itx tho rtn^ BL 
Fi|;. 858, BO that the radii »itl play t)irougb t)i4- CAntM of 
the bole, which titfl tr plumb ufnV tim MH-tuni -pipe bnV. 
niid Au un nil im thi- wrDU. If iron itsgvs urv to U- uib<I. 
Huaib mn those iliown at Titn- 832 nnd 833, rup^iully ih" 
Litt«r Bhone, lu ehowii at A B G. Fig;. 83:1. miiA bs cemented 
into tho lirii-kwnrk, and tbo nidn Jf the etA;;** Mt^d down 
il|ioa thoakoF«. Sauii-i-timm it will bi.>Uwt ti> fi* jrour ■di^'". 
■> Ibftt the pipe mid k-Js will work nt the btiok and front of 
tb« Btago, wt Mhonii at Fig. N6i>. With suck Stapm, aorup- 
tinuM, jounayhavetouMiudonrfli^nifiMiihownat E. F, G. 
Fig. 8SG. The Fifr un tho riglit ■how« round huxd rollern, 
whtUt tluil. on thip left nhnn-H boUow lollen. "Hmmi im 
ooUtid woml Ktiitn^ rullrn. but ora often iwnl for the {nm 
MM(W, nud arp bult«d Ou thn side, ivx nhown at E F, Ft(f. 
Mio, nnd llii> pipe clipped to th« fnwt lu at K. 

The hnn^I niny tiuw he fixi-d, whiib iaduntp ivftt'r Um Mic- 
tion- iji|Bi u BMildnrcd on to tiie txil-pipe. Th* method of fil- 
ing tho hftn«l in by LxjICiit)^ tbulu)j;a down upwa iho Flam' i" 
^■ic'h II muDner that thi' plnton or hucket^rod tnity wt-rk 
quit*- uprlKbt within the buire! ; for tlii» purpuK. let full a. 
i-fiitTt ]ibiiii)>-bub t.bniiiftli thft Kbtgm above nod U> n-ntm 
itantf , h-ikI [iliiiiib over iin} ixoUv oil th^ mppcr piuii|>'nid 
K, Fi^. 8 19. «M thut tbo wholfl tloc of rod.'- m»v oo nuid" lu 
wotk pluinb. HnMD^ thn hnml iHiod, Kuort lui iiir 
(ihiutit>er. Now eoidcr on j-our ftir chumbiT lo tliu cbniuixr 
of tho pMiiin, iir, ftrnt wildi?r n piiv* of rixintf mniii ua uk 
ntiowB at Fijt 8^9. and tJx the ttir vbuDbcr by rra'aiu of n 
laft or flange joint ss at FigB. 8M or BtfS, nod continue lh« 
riain^ luatEL to the dstom, i>r wherp you roquirfi it. 

Take uotiw that you t-iioiild biivei tomu tneansof etupt>-hig 

tho pp<« in OUJK' uf froHt. Th1« tnity be done tm ihawn m 

tilt; Fis. KG7, and vrlui:b in uothing luotv th&ii a tiuuplAj 

ball-oo^ A aoldcnM intii Iho rising niahi BC, and w-nt4cnd 

by todd and n himdlu G H. The boM poaition for thii* mc\ 

4 tw low (li>wTi th'- nmin as pai«lb]e, but not below a tad or 

ulh(<r vidve. if t(»fd ut W. Fig. 8fi9, it wilt (runbk- you toi 

4'Spcl Ihv fuiil air by tiluwiuK duwu thu nuiiii. pi|ii' fnjin thV'' 

•:-oak X, or by t'l""'"!; the hose orer the muuth or uud of the 

min^ mun. 





Aut ruxp. 

Fio. tm. 

Four Alp in Werts. 
{Alt«*n Fifi. 814.) 

Kow we are ragagod npoo tho fixing orrapatra, hMV will 
bo * gDud nppoTttiiiity to intradiioi! tlic foul air pu]n|tt. 

Tlinv arv nuuiy wujk of vloaiiii}; foul air rroim wvlla; 
and kArinir fiufforoil ihruni^h this, the plitmlwr'H ilead^ 
ntoiii,r, I frrl nlinij^H nti lh>T light with it, und Iibtg DMOC 
laimj kiiiiln u( triiitliiiiiEi to Imltlv willi it. aiul hftv» K{nUti 
■bown yon ill Fitf. 867 bow to [rot xiil of it. Simplofin, 
hdjiii^ v{ ni1>l>tT plawd uii tliu wmd uouk i>r on ttie 1111100 in 
All TDu m)iiin if ih>) blowor pnmp he naed, either at tbcMi 
nw^iiiHw will alnr tlio moxt tn^arliprouni uir in a fow 
minulw fnim i<tm wvlk; but bu sure Chat it i* tint hj 
jour lowering a u([hted dip tallow candle. Fi?. 847 ■«. 
idto, veiT fTood to nipply cool air into a w«U or othur cJoao 
platw whilRt the wncnuui i» duiiw biit work. ThorD am 
otlMT nwthodji of doaring foul air mmi woUs, luofa ms with 
Blacking lima oud ch«mivu]s, wbiflh alnorb carbtmlo add, 
tut 4» mt uti t/tmt,J»r yw are KMX4ijf tt«r m/t tcith «mA. 

Wftpning.Pipes and Pump Fixing Gearinf— Mn^ntMf. 

A iio. waming-piixi !«•«? ■flTAitJUNa-Pu'E. Fiir. 858) 
■hooldlw fixed (rom tfw tup of the cirU-rn to the puuiii- 
IhibiHi' (m •hovn), and in nuch a nutimrr that it will v'ivo 
wnniinK when thr nst«m i« filli-d, can- l>">iiig tmkra to lix 
it aa tluit it will drain itaoU dry, and aa a pcotACtiuu 

aeainiit fmrt. for if thl* i» no . done, hourB nf fruiOiwa 
IiShhit will often tai« place at tiniM wht-u the warning 
pipn ia fru/uii. UttvjTijf tlin ptimp-banrl and pi|)<* 
properly flsed, tbq nvst thiu^ to do i« to nt the 
«xact lentrtll of tlw rwds. Thw i" doon a* foQowa: — 
I>ut the lever (jnite down, nn <diown in Tig. BAS. and pidl 
np the ooi>])tr pump-rod, K, and burkeG the full hofght, or 
IIS far as il will ooinn. Kow push it down Sin. into tho 
bnmO, or piwl the port or oiitfi* hole, and lake the exact 
length, or von may lift the pump tiuidla right up a* far a» 
it will go. tliiii piMh tho piimp Duekot quite down into the 
hiirnti and pull il up »af lin, tmin the bottom of tho bntrel. 
and liinu lake tku esaut l(?n|{th. Uf the two plans the 
latter is the bottiir, beoauae then it i^ t«ii Uj one if the 
bucket liHither ever oomei> to within 2in. of the port or 
{Ritlirt hole, or touchis tlw bottom *alrc. Hariftp the 
oxaet leoirth, make lh»- toAa nnd wiuplinjf* aocorfliiielT ; 
thoTipe boat iaatened to the pump-rod tiym»in- of th.- 
bow cMttuetion. m ahown at B, Fig. SOO, uul al»o aw bow 
aaaaeotion at K, Fig, f-Al. B0 mn and aorew the 
coupling- tl((h*. "" that til" b-'P nut doea not work off or 
hcrnmo unMrr^cl, oOwrw iw the abort trarel of Wt motion 
will, br rcoMA of the sudden tako up or dt-noent. brwtfc or 
hniid the copper rud. I'orhapa a prerention aKaiot tliia i* 
|]ie B]aU«d key < onnnatiuii an ahowu at J, H, Fig- !*tll| 
whid should he titJ with enpperwimto tho rod by paariiig 
the otipper wire thivutth tLoliDlein the key, m* J, rigHBI, 
nod round the rod ; or u tapir split key may b« uocd, iw 
shown at l''t^- 78T. 



Wheel-pufnpBwlth Vlbrattng LeverB. 

We ROW oomtt U) that eUu of pmsp which In ^'enanllT' 
used fur d«ep wcUn, iiABielT, the whi^'l pomp (ww Fig. 
8681. It RUif \m M^rA, \Vh'iit w the ubl' of the wh(«l. dMH 
H giTw power, or what ? The ati»wcr i» nioiply thu, thai ibn 
A/ wheel iato nu>l:d<'ycMt to continnnlly put jour work iiili>. 
ami when the work u'rumI rc<iuiivd, it girw it out at th'> 
truuint rHiuuvd, thun vim are enabled to eonunnally pull 
and pusb (amard at thf Laodle or wluwt, which s^nin 
gxn» it up nt Mch up stroke, chuM mtrulailng thr work 
as required at the altcmaiire intorriib. A furthor 
Mplaaatiao of thia flr wheel i* that it in an ac- 
eomitUtor gf power, '^liiw jroa gaiu do pownr, xtill 
the worii tieia^ man uniform It Appears mwh uuier 
to do. Nor do Tou k^ui auythinx in pnwrr with rednung 
co^ whnnliL 'Hii'Y ^implv vtmbla rim to uac a largiv 
larrel, aiul mt n-duon tue atooiint of Mr-tiim ol tho 
imp jMthen, Bluffinif boMs, kc, tliow l*ina lei" in 
proportion wHb the sizv of tha barttlA. Id Um, Fi^. 8Q<), 

tb» bund and atUpM u* fixed in lh» nune nknaar ■» thorn 
exalainod In Hff. «49, but, beanp worked ^ a wb«xd, ^o 
rooB vQl he aiada to away two nocb. For etampte, 
mpnoae th/- Icnnh of (he (rank to be fiin., then th<- tiatb 
of toa erank w^l bo liiio., that mewia that the tup of tbu 
rod win away thin dUtanm. To nnFnxtiiK< thiH we we wbat 
U known w a vibratLug Iwvr. 5. Tin. 868, bett«r 
undMstood fron th(> illn»trati(>n. Fig. HiiV. In Fiff. 86B. 
the path of tl)«- iTiuik R i» riruwn as nt B T S W. Now 
HUppoao thi' path from B l>> S tu be l^iln. -thia in whnl ia 
known aa a 13in. throw— it will bv rl^r that the tup part 
tit thie omnectinj; rod C muwt rock I2in., that is, aen^tt 
(ram B to S, and if thiB go^ down to the pump baml it 
trill runk ai the atuffins-box in [ffoportioa to the length of 
nump-rodfl. Tbo rackiiitf of the pump-rod ia an erll wUch 
M wonderfully roduoed by the uite of tho long vibrating 

ne. we. 

« I M ... 





IcTcr O, FS(t. 86B. For tho purponc of owr arpimcnl, 
umnnrt. tho pnil P of Ihp ooaneotin^ md ju*t E-iii. fn>m the 
rivft ur (iptndli' P «>f tin: vlbmtlnf; lever: aaj that it ia 
connect^ at 2. and plumb ava the epindlc F. Now turn 
the emnk I) A. which in 6in. limg', thi* will muee the 
vibrating rtd tu work fruin 1 to '2, thnl la. tliL- fiiu. Bnt, 
instead of making the oanne«liun at 2. «>' I'miiirrt on to 
the vibnttiu^ rod at D. Now turn ih(,' <muik A B ow n^und. 
The Dtlicr und of the oonncoCin^ rod D being caimeotod un 
the vilimting lev« will mcivc thp I'iin,, hot will be kept at 
a di*t4LEi(X' fnini th« HpimUv F, and will only be allownd to 
rock beiwwn tlie npiioe from C to T. and no on In pmpnrtioa 
to thir lerer, tw that the lonK^* ihv vihratinff loviT ^i, FIk, 
tltiH, the bottnr. Of ooutm, the punp rod J in <ujnneoted to 
this lervr at K. 




Weir Rods, fto. 

Dnlliae hola'i in the vlbratJup UiTCr. ThU must Focrivn 
•liio Btli'ulidD iu (vJcT (o gvl ILp right Irntftli of puriip 
■tniiti Itmportattt), iir jnu nuv Sad thfi lot torn uji, nr tlic> 
rwlit )»itt, when dw pump b &n<t put iiiiu adiuu. 

It vrill be Mvn tlint UiQ Icrcrngv of the pump toat bo 
n^ikMl or iiicrraMvl nci^nling <i« thr hnlo:* atr clrillr<t. 
SupIniM' iLc wcU-rixl J, FiK' ^''^i t" bi- outinLirtfil at K, tlw 
ftrofcv uf th<> pump miinl U> toug<or ; but if si L iio much 
lb« vluiTtirr. How R-rvno tko order, aiid put tlii* oon- 
noatiB^ rod nn tii tiif^ hole L, toA the vell<rad on to thv 
Itolft D, iJir conitcctiDg foAk will then c*u<(t the well-roda 
to take a iiitiuh tiinifrr ntrokp, itud in duu prupurtiun to tlio 
dUtamwe in diat&tm hetweoo ii\« oentrrin^ of the two rods 
D, F, Mid thio MiitKi F. 

Parallel Motion Slings. 

lu F'm. 870 («1i!)ili in fixed bjr MiiekiDfr behind plAok), 
tbo ding is iDiLdo to work pofallcl. The ding hbbuxa to 

eli«i1}r iLe rod by rra»0D ibnt it worios dote up to tho ah«fl 
ut llif fly wbwl, uud m> pmrvnlH it fnun nioviag atilj In n 
pcrrpeodicular dlrtM'lion. Tt In not nt nil notriuMry tlint tJii' 
oonnectiii); ri.a] Htivuld be joiiit«d lit-liiw tbu *tiiy «jn, a* 
■hown, UN tbi« miij bo oontuvled nborc, nnd ihert-bj' « 
loUKVi «oiuieotiii]{ rad lued, vhioh irould hv bnticr for tlio 
mouiaiikal aotinn, m dicra ircuM not be thi- ntnituiit nf 
(rtntion Kgiunttt the Ride* of tiut ^ida vyv or nidej of tbe 

lliiB puiop i» mode in * firat^rate 6tyl« 1^ Ketan. Foil, 
utd if a Tory haudjr pump fnr many pofpoena. It is alao 
flxed mx A jtodMital, iva &t H, R, Ftg^. 868, 890, and alco at 
Fi(f. 811 1. 

The Rod Guide and Sling Gearing.— Fig*. 871, &T2, 
S73. 874, 875, 869. 8»», and S90. 

Wc han hsd the action of the Tibnitiiip levcn ; k-i \u 
now Rxanlae tLo rod guide and diag ifnuinp. fnr whicb 
»ee l-1fn>. 82B. Stl, tMS, 8fi8. tn Fi)f. K;|. ve N>e the mroe 
kind uf crink-mDiilm i^vrn at R, nit iit R, I'ift. 8<58, but 
the (ithereDd uf the uHinertinff rod iu Fi^f- STI isouuuvute'I 
tu a juiut ou ttiG iliuK at B. For aD enluged riev of thtK, 
•CO rip. N72. A ij< tlic jruidft (rvniTttlly acTcwod on tbo 
(iliinli. aud pluiub over the piiinp-nid. B tit the >ling and 
guide }(iin(>piii. K Is tbn ipiidr-Tod, and V tbe uling, and 
<unu(i"liui; rod P. [twill liemvn tliuL if tlivornidc ft, and 
top end of ronuvctiuK rud travel in a circle or nath, lay, of 
lOin., the other end bcln^' jninUHl ut I'. tiiunI, by reitMn of 
tbu rod and jniidi.-, work uiily iu uii iipn>,'lit(iTiH'rpoiidirailnr 
direotioii. The en>uk i» nuw iu tlie ml of pulling the 
punp-Tod tu Uii' right,' ur vtliorwiau puithiii^ it dowu, and 

1 10. fcTU 

Fto: VU' 



r '.'"' 


pIuniHior-bluolra, vritli inuuiiatul boariogv 
f(ifTtii-nill,v nuKlc for Uin. jotinuila, a nide rifvr 
of wluuli 19 illiutrntod ut Fiif. 876. U, F!g. 
ST-**! npreMntd tbs tionnocting^ mli, (4>ii|iEine, 
■od biuhai or bnuwec fur Aulun ruiLtid tfac 
mak. to ttiis fict of grarinR:, the pliuumer- 
bl<»kii itrf iwrf-wd down iijinn ii wcuxl fmme, 
It, Q, 4c., Iwr Imrw- miiiI uUirr piiww ; but 
tba iMMe kind of tiling ii ofu<n (tone upon ■ 
emat-iron frnniv. m illiulnitcd ut i, 6, 7| 8. 
Figl. ftT7 and 922. 

Catt-lron Frames. 

lltmc bann in mailo kuimUc lor niagUi, doubU, or 
tntblfl ttmnr cmtiks. Tlia fmini* at Fig. KiT In A tnblr- 
tbmir. with fiimpdiind fnttr. TTio Imnillo 2, nud fiywbeel 
(niib* llwt fur tt r<^u«>ii. Iit^rt-uftar to U- pxp!.»iii«3, th» 
luutdlow ftn> ill thin tljujirrju iJiowu u-TotiKly> wm Fi|r. 8S1), 
■WHbuwn lix('*l tiiKjn » counbirahaftS, luid wnrltBAfaUava: 
Bu|n}AN0 till- iv>iiTit<'r>hnft to han* a pinion or ranaU wtiMl, 
wmowiiHt U, Fiif. S'9, luriuK, (4ty,tvri.iity twth, Imvee.or 
oofffl, and wtii-b runs iuUi u targ? Hpnr-wboel 6, flxttd on 
th» omnkaJmft a (Piit. ^77)- Nov, mipnnoo Ihi* Iaticc '<pur- 
whcel to littrc TJU t*>eth ot witr-, liun Un.- ti«ii[Ili! nfi tiimw 
TOand, iukI the rr;inlt« will mnkp one revoluticiii, lii-inu wi- 
my tlikt tbi' [nitiii- i.i ^«n^l for nix lu ntic, whirh lb ti 
BvnenI tliioK to do far easy wurkintr. Kow tnm l-ark to 
ihtf. sap. Thin IcTf r w u«>i(iliT Riinie 1 Gin. to IHiu, lonif,-, 
Uia to tlio iKujiurtiiin nf thr nidiuK »c Uimw of tlip rntnk. 
SuppoMi ihp piimp-i'Tkiik topi'i- mOju. Htniku, tlwt ik, iL4jiu. 
craiik. atul tlir liiuidic Icvcmim' t" be IStn.. bero tlie lover- 
mite U i)iulti)illi>d foor tnnn<. or fuitr ta orii'. Rht imppomt 
Ibi: i-raiilt (•■ Ih' a lOiii. tlirov. Ikr-n tli<- Ii'v<.-m^<i- in uk IK tn 
10. Htil "iippiiiK" tlin Ipvmijti* 111 Im' ir>iii. mid llir ■■miik 
<ia., wr tlw tliT'iw Sin., llioa tli>- k'li'i-n;" u-ill util) l-c fdiir 
tu ouc. uul if a man pul« i'Ah. on ihi.> bnndlo, wlticb ho 

Tin. 87». 

obotdd do, yon jii>t tbp USlb, multiptiml by four ^ 1001b. 
Now niter 1«> titr- 917. Yon mw tbut tbe wbwln wen> 
ge&rcd for six In one, and thai thp I^'vcmjfP ou the h&iuDp 
orur tiie crank wbi> four tu one. Put Ibr two top-tbi-r, and 
wbitt powor d" yoM ^p-t up-m "ni- "1 tbr rudn. Kiipjw.Hiiiii^ the 
vtbuT tg be uway'f Kirsl, bv tb" wincb yim jpiiiind fniir 
(iniM li6lb. := lOO, tlivn, with ihc lo^ 3-0U K»iu "ix timw, 
wliirb niHkiK » tntJil of 60O ihin^ or SOOlb. , which power 
wQl, roiiKbly ^pcnkluK' work a 3bi. pump Ht k d«ptfa of 
nbnut lUnft,, or n Ain. iit 7()ft.. or tbivc 2^is. piun|M *i • 
depth of 90 ft, t^iipprwing the burkctn to br drBiHnif nil at 
oivoo, two iHit iif lli(! ihnv ]iiuupM tn tiT' Klwara on uw lift, 
the fiOOlh. will work two ^in. pimiTM nt n drritb nf 70ft. 
Li;t u« further duinino ibio d(.«p will fnuiit< (Fij;. jl'T). or 
It treble throw cranki-d fnunc. wjt}i ^dtw, ^rnido-ndB. 
nnd uluifn [iM lUiown at S. 10, mul 12), cmmcctod flloM to 
th<( rrnnka, wliir.fa I tinrtimlikrlr ubjent to, bMaUK Ifa^ 
rwjujn* iMiiiHtnut alt«"nt{oTi for oilinp, &r,, or th*y will hi' 
Turr uo»r ; thoy ninkv ft kind of i-<i-utlnv uoumi or wmtid 
whirh w' vwy i!l<«jnT«ib!i». w f*y iiHjtblng of the extra 
lul'xtT wliii li ii r'Qiifhod liy friLliim. 

In Vi^i. S71) t)ir vilimlini; Icvrix, H and I. an iiMid, Mid 
will, if iimdi- \iiUK eiii>iit;h. niliiit' tht-frM'tWi trinniiniiRiim, 
»ud tiiiu^ tIiq HcIl-rcKU tuulmmt tipunUhi) wilbuoeho' 



m»y br w<Ti, altki'UBli thrj artr '4 tiro rtutiiict MUcra*. 
ilcif it ma^ 1m) oa waU tri mrati'in that (ULhuofcfa xtte above 
fraiBra haw two nr thrpo crniikB, it due* not OBtea— rOy 
fuUuw Uint nil tlM> IuhtoIk un alwmjw to b* tiwd wt anoo. 
It ta on ettJj iuitU«r to lUMuniieci one or Iwu of tbtm, iod 
wort with tli0 adxr ; id tKrt, mb ii wUii i w l. It li Hf^MonV 
oliMcc, Tbero am maay ototbadii of gifanag pump* aocoid> 
nw to vircumMtaoom. Pur innbaun-, tli«i» mm •halluw veQa 
mlch abovo grouDil have a lunir verdoal rMnx nuiR, 
perbniB fnto tiro to thnm biitidrrd (<^t in Iwight: Mn tbo 
MUTDlit can be fixed ahcivf gniundat 13 and H (Ki|^. B7T^ 
lifnaiue the ruidrw ore cluw to Lb« vrauks. Anatber riwtbui 
In (hat whinti ia iihDwn in ttw diagniB {Vlg. 180), nr m 
tuttj other wAj-ii. Soe Hg. BMj a&s Rfk 8B1 ud &39. 

The Square Fram« fof Boarding Round, Ito. 

At Fir. 881 m aa iUaatnttoB of the tqiiarp trmtan imitaUe 
for btMiding igunl and oandlg in tLv wcU. It [• an i " 

riu. sao. 

In *M« frame tbo pininn* vhM>l U may he wen, wi &l»o the 
laiK" Kpnr-whiwj ; bjr reason u( it* bcinir a Kidi? view Dir 
oranlu »iv ii"t i" !"• i«pn, hnt hj I'«kiiiK nt tho tvrn Inumw 
[ir^tM «Ti lan^] !(;<»^ tl^ wh'ik uf Uu! wurlduK i>arta n>qiiii*-d 

Pi.>, SMI. 

fiwhiotiKl frame but a wry irml one, and miawer* two 
jmjpMM, Altboiigla it ia abowv wilbont compgaad pog 
irheda, tbej aiv aftm uai^ iiprin thin franw. 

ITie wotuid ua« of thi* fnuni' in, Uiat tho oranin nttd vbnft 
may be mntV'TMl from ihf< timniitr*, and > pcopTly jtiomaled 
ilnim widi nipa flxod for mininif i>r Iiiin'ring' tlie wurkuaa, 
ta iiiHjt Aim ttjt Up trtlkwl ktmlvti/ Am Ann' i^iiiMt M« wayi* 



Covered In Clroulai' Framoa (tee Pig. 88fl). 

Thin IN h fmovf miirh iimiI for publifl veUs, and imj bo 
M<i>u ill tliL' old xquiLmi of l»ijL]r>it, knd in lOKiiy biwtm xad 
«-ilU)(i>ti Uiroughiiat the igtitit^. The &unmwut]( la 
tonavd iw Hbuwn bjr tlio tide rtuiauds, and tbe tm btmt or 
out in piMKM to the riikpp. TV fljrrhMil gamnOy works 
iBMdc, and the linndiM fixcA cm thn Hpindle and jfliimslH ofl 

lIoriLKT. UDG at Orvmch End, Ui Hax daj, n jiubliu woU, 
vluoh I hiiva pcnannllj^ ropurad many UaiM. 

Pump Counters and Indicators. 

l.ariuK <^x])luiQ«d tbe ai'lii'i) *'f the rotiirv pump, it will 
be IW wqU, befan I prooved further, to oxpliiiti ihv twllMtot 
oronmU-r. rnrtJiicnrfrtrto Pig. HSIL Thu iiintraiiuiiit ia f ur 
the piirpoM uf rrcmrdinK tbi- number t>f xtroktM or Tovolatiram 
w)ui:hftpiiiDphiuin«cl4>. Thc«(> rouDtera tm funtnUj fixed 
on tbe punipiufc mauliinrry in wnrkliouMi", jiuli>, JEc.fortho 
porpoBu at rooDidiuir the iLmoimt ol work doug by th^m; 
nantw tii do kik^K work. Thoy mar bo attanhed Ui the 
TibnoDi; len>r nr nluoft, iw nlxivru at B, Piff. 883. E u tlio 
connartjoa, which in Ibw <'4jje in Miinply an wx^ntrir, anil 
wbkb is nuttiiug mum than a i.-ircuuir pliito ur wbeol uut 

Fki. set. 

fairlj oentnd, and fixed u|i<jn tlu duft vLaro it in mada 
to mow abont a centre of iniMirin, aa Aanti m. the ahoft 
at C. Round tkin plate or imc<<ntH^ vrhetA ut RxoJ a buop 
which eneUj lita ihn JiUtA ur whml, ntid tn thin lunp ia 
fixed tho mnnnotiiitt rod II, wtiLh Ut kIm eoDDeutcd to the 
lererof the cuuntttr ut at I. It majbo iMGn that aa the 
abaft P, 0. n-volroB. m wiUjUiR i^mmtrir. and by nawnn iif 
it tii<l loitig rmtreid U|)ni)'t]i(r *lmf(, it will oaiue tlte 
0(.iui(n(iu>{ rud ttiraoveinabatikwiinlaudforwani ditwitton, 
wbicb will be in due prriportion tn ihn thmw of the 
eoDottHa, vis., thnni^ a cpnoo ojuul to tbu ditfemiDB iu 
tba oontniug vt tbe ^atc nr n.-lin<l upcm the shaft. Siippuao 
the oountsr to be fixed ui ph<i«i'u. sud ull to stand at soro. 
Nowfrfv^nina tvmfiundlliciii'tcx J will iudicale 9. Another 
liim will brintr It la 0, and R will Tppintn 1, and so on. 
1 for eV4*ry t«n tAimfi. Nuw Hti|tjiunu tlm nbitft ti> In wnrknl 
for one lumr at tbe raUi uf In rcvDlutionn por miiiuU-. tlilji, 
when nmltjplieil by SO, fo^w 1,600 pi.-r iKiur, and thu^ 
number will b« nffbtared u» Hh'-wn on tho mAax. for two 
liouTA 3,OtfO, andasan. Wh<^ Thr< fourth fl}riireluu<iniii>?at«d 
». then the fifth fi^rutewill rrf,H"trr I, wbicli mav Im lO.OnO, 
•d Ml on. B"* —■—.((, it tit stand at aay ^C,5U2, and that 

it ifi T«qutred la eoBinenM- pampiiig, and that it ia required 
tv Ih> KnoVB iriwi quantity of work haii been dona aft4!r 
(mi) hanr'« ]VUDipIofr : »t 25 nt^jke* per minute, been you 
will get anothiM- ].nuO. added tJi tfav SO.rrS:^, whluli will 
mi^ the iii(fiMt^r bUikI ut. ss.ii.-J2. But rappoBC it ia 
laquimi tn know tbr arn-mul of work dune in nny inter- 
Duoialv tinie, ur after a lontr turn nf puni}iinir, i^y tliat IIm 
regiirter before the cnmnionrrmrnt of the work utood at 
ll8.i:>3S. and that aft<T tbe wiirk in done it atwd at 97.011, 
here, if yuu dcdw-t tli« funnt^^r Blandint; fix^rra from the 
lalt^M- you will have a balance (if B,'Ji9 — the amoiinl. tA 
work duno. So tbut widi (Uuh au appaiutw no dwating 
eso take pUoo. 

Pm. mt. 

Thew (vnintvni lu* made by Ueaiini. Bailer to Tarioaa 
pnttcnM. Piir, 9At JlluMtntaa ii roand uim nndr by MeWR. 
BuUey, which iu fixed eimilariy ta thai shown at Fig- 883. 



Water Depth Indicators, op Proving Deptha 

of Wat«r. 

_ Somciimm Uti? amount of labour u aaccrtoincd by BttUcy'ii 
(ittn|ile TDCibrMi of law«riD^ a lino and plnminct into iha 
ynttr, Ui ttc tiuw much tbt «r*ter haa men lowoitid witliin 
a ){ivi-n linu.-, <ir Iiy tlH> pntujiiiit; into » tank wbnfv n flimt 
or otber ixjotfiiiuicui taui be uiviL 

Id plBTM w)um floats oannot be emptored BaQ«7'e pntctit 
pomttnAtic Inductor raajr be \ued, as ^nwn til Fiji. HHS. 
Tills ooiimhIji of ai) uidirJiUir j»{nc«l lo a luiul of dJviiiff \^]1 
\'v tncniiM o( ■ HiuaU-iiizuI wutpu. or mbbor tube. Tim 
bell In iiluocil ut tbo boUom of Uw rMorvuii in wUch luM 
t» bo moodured thn dqilh of tlic liiimd. TtiG air oeotalned 
in thd boll otunot ettmpe, mid 1» Uifnfore mcw^ or 1ms 
m(n]irewod vownliog tu ths deptli vt tlw tit|ui<l. This 
ownpnMKiun Ih traiutnittcd from the bell ta the bvUoitar 
throiif^h tbtt tubo. to Iud^ dMnccc*, corroctlr sud innbm- 
tiinroualT. Tho titomirv nr lb« baixl fo tti*i (liiil, Fij^- ^^6, 
hlwvwH the doiilb uf tbv liquor in fcvl. or anj^ vaiiiitloDs 
ill tfaf' It'vcl tbnt may tau plac«. The action vt Uio 
••TcU-Tiiie" i/i not iDt«rftfi>d wilh.rilb'-r by tevart- fnwbt 
or exrcemvo auumu-r bmt. 'ITii- iininlt tutw is nevor ilnirffcd 
up, tui nothtog btkt air puaMv ihmu^b it; no lii^uid aui 
«ver gfA Inside if tbe tubr-<i htp wund. 

Fto. MS. 

Tim t\>.]Ah Indicator ran bo «aipkif«d to {udioato tLu 
depth <it wut^r in variotu* iilaooi at cms and thr msic ttntc. 
it only bt'tii^ uMwwarv to 'oonncct oinall branoh tub<?n >rii 
tbonuiin tabi*, otw bell lioiiig' ■nfliHiiit fur twenty or luun- 
dialx, wliich may tnlu- tlir> funii of tbut sJiowu nt i'ig. fl8fi, 
or that shown nl Fiif. ^st\. 

MTwn fixing t\\<^*e vnAivntnn the following nilw Hhould 
ho oliwriml :— Fin"! find twt if tberc urt niiy Ifstkagem at 
Lhe joiot with tha tudioator, or in tho length of tlw jdpo 

Fiu. aea. 

itoelf. Fill tho tVMTvtttrwith liquid nod plunin tha snd 
of tb« pipi^ tu tbo bottom, the indicator will then Im- 
mediatelv rot^inter maiB ntnubor ur olluir, and at Uiat it 
flgTit to rcnuun. Xf ufti-r about Hv« nuniiti» it doM not 
work bacik, yon may cundudo thut tlwrv aro tio loakagm, 
aui that the amjaratiu if in gurid wnrldc^ order. 

Can shoidd be tnkim tu b^l tbe boll and pipe drop 
rerticnlly into the water, und thcu tbi.i indiratwr wiU at 
onea Roister the bcight or depth uf thi- liquid. To 
Moertain when (^iiitcmii are full or tsapty, :fioiits, vorkia^ 
gleotric, or otliio' alunnn, ar« alw> oatA. 

Tasting the Pressure of Water on Pipe*, 
Matns, Ac. 

Some times it will 
hnpptqi tbat rtiu nuty 
rwiuiru to know the 
ptTflBiire of -wutcr in a 
pipo, and you Ntntiot 
maaBiixtt tlm vciiiual 
hdgbt. In Fii^'b raiMs 
you oau i^uploy a 
proamire gauge, aa 
»howu at f^g. 887; 
nioh KSujm are tnado 
by MiMfn. Bailey, to 
ffive tho preMure in 
fi.wrt ami iMKiubi cm 
Uii i>aui(.< dUL 

Kic. WT. 



Horizontal or Rocking Shafting, Ac, for Distant 
W«liS, &0. 

W<i now <<(inio to horiiontnl Hh&fuDS for <Wp and other 
wpIU, fur vrhuh tore tJ> Fig. 88». A u iho ordinuy wA 
fir irou rtag«, ujxm which the pinnp-tmrrcl ui iwrawed or 
bo)l4>d : 1) tlie bow coupling : ti, ihe roller girder ; D, the 
pump-rod)) nnrrit^ tap to B, trliir.h iin> (xmnorted lu if 
U> i£e vibnlJiiK k-vtr, i:i:. At tliin juiut E U a cnok 
forxnL<d rm the hon&intal ghaftiiijf, wliirh works or TOckn on 
two iW moTrt pjiuntnrr Monbt, w ■! >*, G : »nd at tbo otbcr 
end b uniither cnuik, wliich intut be bnut ovtr od tlio 
•Mill' ud", a* at E. otberwitto tfao haod-vtRike wLU give 
ibe back-Mruko to the puop, unkea otltorwiMi armngvd. 

KQ- L,Kntllafltt«dright, and will work iiTopoly; w 

WDtald the rodJ, lif it wore not tar llui ntA ^iiig, thm^omt 
do nut fit It. 

TiuM iJtaft iihould run upon npri)t)it roUrrf or ru&ncn, as 
•iha«ii at O, P. At 1, 2,|3, auiy Ui :«(m ou <<iUart{ud now oi 
the crank Q, fur conncctniv du) mdnrQeatiny bboft ta the 

Siuiip-Kid which nutaca tnnugh Uip rollor guides at 8. 
oiuodmM tho rod £ Q ii eaimeeted ta m Tibnting Invmr, 
wbirh at tunan ia fixed on tb« atAge at 8, more aspmUly 
whcii the well b a shallow oiu, and fhm tho Uvcr to tlw 
pump-nd with bow-key conneotdcm orntherwiae. Althmigh 
I have, for canreaictioo aak«, tdiowo both thme homaolal 
roda abort) Kround, T«t' tlunr am Tory nftvn to Imi found in 
walla trtaa S^Mt. to ihOit. befow the aitifaov ; and wlivu, in 
roty daagBTOiM weUa, such work baa lu bu done, ktimI can 
»faaud be taken to aiMcnla it io a good, i>r>iiDd, and nib- 
■tantaal nauner : and the gmtaat can ehoold bo toka to 

Fm, eS8. 

Tbe flmnk H is fitted to tliv (iMiDo«tJiifr rod I »{ thf band]^ 
bf BHiaas of the giiidc-rod and oliu).' : Lh<.- latter t>f wtiich. 
In thiiKiM', ii> ulti-rlj iih-1i'i». ntid will in rlinrt Ipti^rtba of 
uiuiip roiU. iw -hou-ii fi>'i]i H to J. vn\y i>n'vv»( the rnnk 
H from wciUalinK, tliiit 'v if thn (cuide flbi the cycanjthlD^ 
Uke properly ; aimplT li.'<im>"> th<- orank 0Millat«d. and th* 
piidi' in 111 pn.'Vt'Dt llii- rod froiri ■■niii^tiK'. But notifir ibr 
ditffrvti(4- >i Iho piiii]>>hinidl< K. I4. M II»r(> tli<-')intidlt- » 
■wutj'<oiiil diri'i-t into tlw trauked Itarlnmlal cliaft at V, 
al*» iIk> Jiiift l" cmnkvdif J)f. hjt with an iiinritrbt rnuik 
and which in agaia t ^ *" » the TfL-i)irDt-uUtig ahaft 

fii vxLii I I iili^ mnnM«. and plummn boxes in a Btrolght 
Iin<-, •■'• itirii itii- shiiftiuK rniiDiil. tiiud or bite the udes uf 
idi? bruw.'*, At. Thy fiillowinK in a gotxl nde to adnpt : 
Wlii'ti ymi hiivf a Job of tlus kind, grt all your l)l'«k» or 
dcepcta in fur the I'ollotv, pliiinmuT IJ<H<bi, rraukK, 
&c., and lii; thrm in jumtiim, Uien pla«- tlie rode on 
tbcn, and oannrcl •■vt^rrthitiK' yini ma ti> work imiiwtbljr. 
Hub boni the holw hn tlw tmlls or («rttwi> to wrew 
down, and fit ti>c btuakK without u idoi-c. Yuu ant 
th«n nure ti> faav« the rud-> and #hjiftin|f In work witfaont 
jfiindir^g or biting thp Khiiftindr- Such Icvrnt (ir |nunp- 
liaudln an flzad iiu to tbc plank, a* *howii at. Figv. 889 
and K90. The 1att«T id a very t>ini)ilp nK-thm) of fixing Iho 
l(-v<T ihmuirh Ibf fdnnk, and silm- th<' gnide K. TLcaa 
plaiikii an' cjftrn iniirti!*^ into a plonk or alw^wr nrer the 
«r«ll, ur L>U](*rwi)« let into an litiii idini>, oji ahowu at K, X, K, 
Fig. 8<», aad at S, T, }{. Fig. BOO. 



Compound Handles top Pumpa. 

Soonetitnn ompouiut Wvcr hnndlca will hare to bo lunl 
lor plaodH Ktirii iia bn-wiTm' biiiltm, wuUir out*, and «ucb 
Uke, ot (or pUcee wherv the wfMut of a jaiik or motion 
p«Bp la fivv or tax toot abovB tho WdL of tlw fnnwd. For 
ar:^nient wt.k«, or la ahoir wfaM i* meatkt bj thli, refiv ti> 
S^ff. 822. Suppow • baudl« or lerer to be fulrntmcd al 
tbe Mrtragal (i. hnU way op tho Vidjaf tbr pump, mid 
tho buuuQ J cu be Bttacltoa by Unkii or odi^rwiBw t4> the 
flivt hnsdlf-. it irtll bf< plain tbaE on aetiutjng the lower 
hnndli- tlint thi- upnit handle will bo worlmd, thiia ronbling 
yuu t(i uw! Ml (Miliary jank pump, whm uthcrwiau jou 
wvuld haw Co lue it lift or pluogei pump. 

Distance Pumpa. 

SoootitDOB it will bappea that j-oo wHl want to gtt 
wtAer from a long diilMico that ron onnnol Mch il hy 
KtRKiqihrric pnwiure uwinif to thn wvel of tlm wat^'r bninff 
"oiilxf •Imiighti " when looh Is (he oaae jou caii WL'rk 
with Uiti fuUvwiug nuthoda : — 9appoM a well to be LfOO 

riQ. toi. 

fanlii ctiittimt fmm a bounr, (ukI, ttjr. 34ft. b&low. Let 
A,B, C,Z. Y. Fi;f. 801, bo tliepluiifj7?r-piin)nhHnvl without ». 
Kootioii'Titlvv. lu this bonvl ia k d'luUu cup le&ther 
pluigur A Rnd B. D, R i^ tlu" tail pipe leaAini; to the 
Dotton of tho hiU. &c. Thi' dutj of the pJun|reT at thi- up 
irtiTik«, in, if the well bo 34ft., to dnw the wiitrr «■ for uj> 
thvBug4Hm»ircii» poHiblt. aay tivm 30ft. to 24ft. L«t E 


be tfaft oith«r end of tb«> tail [rine bnnrhed lata luolhKr IrmA 
buralIj,K ; witliin IliU M-mnd burvl, At F, O, U a «rtd|^' 
Dlonger, 13 3, but luituut^l hy watvr mily. which I 
am danominatfld mj hTdnalJc «0tusttn? plimgcr. TUi 
plungor, haidsg a. otip lothcr F, im the liutlom, in frt« Ift. 
nuiVB apwarda, aiid uivordiBjC •» tbi? wat«c iJi foTtwd fmni 
till' plunmiT-piinip A, II. I>'l tj bo the outlet from thn 
M-uotid barrul ioiu a bnuurh tbIw pipo O ; below thi« bniiok 
pipe ia flxMa taU-ralre, T,U,V, na the raMkm-pipe V,V.r 
AlxiTe tho branch pipe ia aiiutber tail or cbaniber-val' 
tJ. R, fijinl [ID thi' riainy maiti pipf 9. H in a Stn. at 
cap aiid iKtvw, for )a-ttiii)r booch* to thu wvlrhtcd h 
avtualiiii; jpltuiiter. The ution will be Kuilr and 
and ia oa followa ;— Fimt takr off the oip ana screw M. 
all tbo pipvw cnaiKvit^ with llw pump, saj, bf b1m> 
out thi' pluimrer A, B, and pouring water down the 
until alt nrv quit* full. Next put the cap on, ud flQ mf^ 
the bturel A, B, C, then put the pluMRftv in. At th 
dawnwanl Ktri^ko thu waIot within the Wrrel A, fi wilt ii 
forct^ duwuwuid^, which in ita turn will lift the w«%htc4' 
hrdraulic plun^-rF, 0. H. 1. J. ThiH will nUi lift the wolor 
alHivo the piatim ihrouuh the bnucli pine O, aud cIma 
Hiictioii-i-iilrp ir, nnil ihvn opni the mitli't vnlt-e tj, w^i 
the wat»r wUl run up tlio rvun^ nkoin [^jv S. Nnw, IM it: 
houdto V, bo lifted. Thyi will ivliuve lIm! water IkIow tti 
hjdmiillo phingwr. to rhp oxl/mt of, way, 24ft. ; when ih^ 
hydra ulic pluiifp^, butng w<-igli t«l to (ivrnume the r^anminintf 
few fiN't, writi fall, ami tlie two plungen ootnbiDed will 
eauM the pump to work. Of t<Qune, it then foUowi, that 
if ihsK two pfungen ai't propi>rty. ttiA anTfit of the handle 
will canno the vnlve if, to cfxtc, and the iturtkin- voire 17* 
will opeu, and allow the vral«T tat bn bn^ced up llx? pi: 
•iqiin] to the ordiuary alnioiipherio ivewurv. If 
hydnuliu ii'.-ti'<n piston be wciifht^l to the eolumu of 
betwoen F. iiud A. tht-n the pinton A mnxt bn liftod in. 
proimrtiun tu tlie w(-i/fht<if llin watr* within tl«i xicliou- 
pipo V, X. I hIioiiI'I adil ihnt the b)-draulia aotion plnogor 
inuBt he w«i)jrht«d *uflicicat to allow for frictioo, and a nir 
oltowiuaoe for putting- th« witter into a nodcoatoly qidek 
motion. [ main tlte plun^r, F, O, of elm ; only on* ct^ 
leather ia nwnwuy, the biittorn imi<, hn^auao thn |itunger 
oup loatbev D doea the work of tin.' uii<.* at G. The wd|^ 
w velghta ore mode of aolid lead, about thn>e timee ae loo; 
00 they ore wide, and nay be put bi at the cap M. I>ut n>. 
until the barrel L, K b full-of water. To take them out m 
a pmnp-m-niw, |or fix > op at tlio bottom of tho barTrl. 
\Vhen win^htiu^- tliu iiluu^vr, F, G. il mu«t be burne t 
lulnd tliat yuu must allnw for tbo diftetwe of Its wugl 
when in wiitrr to thiit when out ; or, in otbiY word*, ai 
OcoordiiiK' C(] tlto rulmi of liydnjrtntica, the pluiiK^r bclni 
imniorMed in the water will not eM)n.J« w nooh i>o*er ' 
exootly clio wd^ht of the amount of wator which 
displnocit. The cup lonthor F, munt never be lower tlion 
thftt hIiowii lo int«n-upc Uiii iiJirt wat«r way 4. 

Tlie |niMip, big. 802, 1* aoniGwhat diiferpiit from th 
*liow^ lit Fin. sfll. Tlii* pump, whirh I ll»^'v uImi invtw 
for an AniiTicnn deiipwwU,dow not di-]K'ud uihui the wuKfai 
pluu^'rfoT filling tne banrel Mt., tIk- Mirikmi}. Il in \-(47 
■im[iU>. ntirt nnyonu hanog a klLowlMljfo of pump work om^ 
Rx il. I[ workri an filWwn: -Thr top barrwl i* valre-i 
luati : ti'iw by tiimiD^ thu Imudlf of tlio wlw^J, lh« doubl^ 
action ptiitip biiokxt tint wnda the wator oii« way thnmiih 
Un' ImiTi'l, itiid thuii aiiothiir. Stippoee the cpunetlioK ryl Ui 
bejuKtouLfao backfitroktf (vix,, jfoinR downwatd»i. TKfai 
fopecfl the plungvr bucket nnd tht.- wiiUt frum the bottom 
part of the Domd, and thniUKh thn hack KranxK riiit and 
inlu thn nntuntinv aeoond barrel J, and mi wiiidti the 
DxtnulinK uluugvr huokot dowuw.irda. and with it the punp 
rod N, which in itn turn fotv^^i tlio pnnip bucket oown. 
Kow, «uppom the hnuiilk- to be ItuTii-d mi aa to jrivn tbr 
hand or up Htnikf tn thn top hurkvt : thin fim>e« Ihi* water 
fmni above the bucket iu lliu top InnT'l and down thv Ituto 


nvon Pipx to tiui ■Rtuatini.' 
nrwcond barrel «t K, ami 
MfoKM tlu) plungrer btu>' 
ki:t up, which al«> bringa 
ii]> l)w piuup Tud uid pumit 
Inwket, wbich, of oourw. 
BBUaM ihn mttrr to Aoir np 
Ihtt rJMD]; main to Mir 
rrHHinil pluTf . It i« 

i>l<t'iiiii?i Ihttl tluM pump rony 
I'll inurkod at Hiiy dutanoe 
thniu|;h tbo luxn and 
luoc wxiDXK Pim. nnil 

K tiinr he auule to anr 
siw, uud thftvl.y ronip-mnd 

rwtr m»jf lno al>l>iniMl. 
hnve fixed four of theae 
fluinM. and think that thov 
iM liifi fiiily four ovpr (ixra. 
'rhu njH-rd for «'nrkui>r liiu 
. Limp iihoitkl lU't ex(W«d 
-t> »lrok<n> per miiiutr. Ol 
■ .ur«n iJit-rr an' r«ri(itirt 
ii.'ltioiU fiir flxiiift iiiii'li a 
I uiiiii JM here iliiuiU'utod, 
whivli can In vnrivd to 
i«ult i^ircninMtannoM. It Iti 
•It the better to tflke n 
fin. pipn vi'^ j/f/i rnct nff 
Uio n»lu)f njuim ai nlx^ut K, 
to th<> bottrfm r-f Ihc brtrr^i 
K. fn ki-cp it aiippticl wiUi 
wiit«i to nbout 10 tpelt prr 
ui'-nuir; Vig. 79* inu»t bo 
HamI ou ciio mKin abovo 
tb« ^in. snppljr jiipo. Jt« 
piirticular ai>uut tutiUuK 
iho tnp on t«i BUpply only 
tin- 10 iqwt* an Uk* puuip 
M-iIl lahArviAt b» taJbnif 
too iiiiixh wnt«r frou toa 
Hrin^f nutin. 

Double snd Treble Lilt-pump Barrels. 

Wr have upon tiow Uf fls many of the onliriMry pnmi « 
now iumnI, but. thrn; in utill k'ft Ui Ih^ n:(plniui-d the dunl'ln 
and tn>hU> Uim-lii. I>-t ii- t'XHiaine Ft|f. 893, Tbin U Hi'- 
duuUa bumil, witli tail \mxa oiiil cliiuubor-way B, nod with 

dtaaber-box und ports, E, lut mAjr bo aeen. The jMnnp- 
itxtd am kfiynd on, ao ahowii bf tlu> koTii at ¥ and K, and 
the bamla nervmA down upon ths pump >ta{[* by Uio Iur* 
B, fto. Tha me-tliod of flxinff la ptooJadj the muiio oa id 
filing u Dop-barrd pump. All tlMt baa to bo dims is to llx 

rio. SH. 


tJie b»mtlji nprufat, aAd kc^ tlia wt-ll-ml* In a-ork plumb 
QVOT the vikU of tba bucket of piiiD|i-T<>ln. at th« wuav tiiii« 
kiKp the wvU-rvd» quite atnugut, uud tnxi to wurk up and 


V\'.i. «uo. 

dovn, and vritlioiit ton munb play to oaasc too tinduo vibn- 
lion. Taki! <nte that thtv pump hur^kpt* do nut biunp 
Bi^iaat tbo bottom or tiip (if the IkhtcIh b^ the (tank throw- 
inir or liftisf; i--- '' ■'> it "(K'tw i*' dirpinp' too f«r into thp 
Wnwl. "B" • iiLim t<t the rut-f Uid down un the 

M^ttiti inRtiv pitmi« iIUh nwtj b« amidrd> 

Thtf 'L^t biivr- btvn mado c0DC«nuik^ the 

dvul I thi> trcLile turrvV 

riu, 8W. 

vi«ry ntiriDir. Il nUo fuUow« that, in conHmu^nuc (rf llio 
U'Utfth uf liic »tuBmir-lx>x uid stuffliitr. that uiv plvttgvr in 
kt-ft ucirig'ht, aikI, by it'' wnrltinf* on thut Innj; nnrfiuK, that 
thf! KTiiul Upon 1\k paiikiii>r i-i rr-'iluocd tir) n imuttciuni, nud 
(•onwwiuenllv irmv Iw? tvisini^lM dinvt wiUiniit giu(lo-n>di>, 
ete., to llic liHfulli' <jf thi- prnnit as "liywii. If tliiit )>1iiiitrcr 
ami liiii'.lei*t piiinii nr«> tiiMl iilnnilfift. dtiwn tho wi-ll, miH 
Uic fraiiiii uiiil wtiecl. Pi^iia. Sl'G or B'JT, iiaod. Ute pump will 
vrirk eojnor, tMH-aiiiw tlin aiih' iir Intpnl frirtiim in Hgwii 
. bj rowuu of Ui9 TibrntiiiK tvd*. 

Deep Woll Iron Pump with Flywheel and 

Compenaating Head, having AirChamber 

and Nozzle for Hom. 

This wrj haudj^ pump is illufltnit<<d at Fiff. Kflt, n 
from whiit tioon naid nbont thr "hip pntnp TFigA. 85 
and BfiS] itn j":(itni will Im mitdily uiiilrrstind- Tliin piimj 
if! iiic<x]x<uuvL', aiiil in initilc lui fulluwH :^Up(m the Ina 
'■tngv A rwt tho fluugi.^ vt the pump ; thia eta^ utoadu 
t-hc pipe nii'l pum^-banvl, anil provtit)1« tiiftn kwi 
nljiiiit in ihr wiJl wlulot the top Btaffe takes the ddwn 
thniHt of Ui4> pomp, thn top jmrt nf «-)iir>h in Ixiltcil down «q 
tho top «]Mpcw, tt» at S. Th'' crunk »i't4ou if firtvltviy iK 
Nunt> OH in Fi^. S21, i>itrcptiii>f tlukt in thia Agiiiv (K9l 
iLcro is no frado or jfttidr-nxl roquirtJ. and it "^ " 
■nriinil nir-r.hiiTiilrr whiiih P'ik'. K.^-t has nut, t>ut w' 
KIKfkcn uf <li.«iiribiDg Lhat Bguni. 




HKvinjr now ilewribod tlw varimu Idndu of piiin|iK vhicli 
Uh! plniDlwr hna to fit up, mr work will not b« t<o«ipU't« 
n-itbuuL »LoiriD}r nnd ■ic«i^'nln^ the U«?fiU methods of 
working iiarh ptunpM. There uro huntlrcda of different 
mvthulii of wurldtiif pumpti, frmii tli« hiuitt at nmn to (be 
tion^ of lui osk. by wmd>iniU, stream, eUnni, unN. nil. or 
prtrolciiin vnpnrnt. or eveu a pump can bo wurkid \>y tbi.' 
bjrdrmulic nun (mw Fig. 9.S7). Firwt let uh fxamiau tlic 
iroU-kiunmiDeaiu v( tlui wKtcr-irLwl. 

WAter Wheels (Overshot). 







na. (m 

For ttw loMhud of filing, rvfer to FUr- S99. H«n, st 
A, E, r, C, willbsKDniinoYeivboi walor-vliiw], worked by 
the ntcr Bowing down thomccZ, U. Tho (ihaftotnttinMr' 
jnimp fninic u in tlu» oum nonneclad dinv:! im to thu iiliKft 
or «x1q of thn KAt«r-wlteci] u diowu ut M . 'ITie i>no end uf 
thin wbi-o) uikM s bonring up<m tlio tuindnnl of Iho 
frnmn ah at 0, the ntli<rr rrid nf Hit whod aluift or 
itti[ipart«d npon « Hx£.d »taiidnni. whi^h fnny be nw 
of utmio, lirirkwrk, or itthmrUR, mid iJia ^AfoM 
fixw! tv niynvp iIh- kiuiI ail*r, II vfill 1* pl«ln t« 
ifant if tbc wnbT-whcel ix tume'l with a Nuirv-lLiit 
irAl«r. luid \\\f iihnft M, N of the pump cutmii 
direct, ur willi mullipljitig or (liiiiiiiihliiiiK 
, Ac., tbnt the |HUnp imut of tteccwdtj' l> 
Uttlo akiU ie nxiuind in Gxiug «uch a du 

thnt i« nqoired when Oxed w iUiutimtcd, is U>keepib«llD« 
of shafting H. K ia n dinct line, and li^vel, and tha wsler- 
vhcal voU up out of th« Mil waUv K, or %x Inutc an thnt 
the Imttom of tin:' whc«l ivnnuol toui-li or truil th« waato or 
tail wti,ti.-r nt tbrt l)uLbini of thn wbml. In fixing the ^kml 
rai-f, brinK the- end B piunt iho i-cucro of the wLut^, and In 
HUi'ti u nutnner thiit ikc water will fill up the bucket, and 
olwityit trtul 111 iiirii tho wli««>l :» Llliij>rmt«'l hy the kttow 
betwuvu A Mid K Th>: whcvl mot* iHwd not \k a eK|nare 
tmugh— a pipe gumni^d by a Htopcuck {>r valve may be 
luod : hut mo Above kind of race in goncmllj nacA, boinuRf , 
with this, th» watnr iqirviulB out intii n thin biywr, and filhi 
Up the buclw^ better. 

In wmo auoa, then the ra«< is vury quick, it will bo 
neoaomj to At a praatork. or diverging boartl in front, 
ntoh BA IB ahowii al B. FJ^- ^01, oiul alsurh an uiigl(> tliat 
it will oautw th*! wal«r to pl'j downwurd*. tuiri into the 
bui^kcts ; but with this kind of wheol. Fig. S99, the niou 
flhonld nnt ham toonuteh fall, or be too quick, Tinr shotild 
thi> whM'l trii^-cl too font. Three feet per Mwond ia a fair 
■prod for nil ovmntiot whmla. Whim wiirkrd mnch faid4ir 
or jiUiwvr. it in a Hljrii that the proper aiuount of work in not 
heinjr done 

If Uio wheel! ore vftty large, aay. froni 2Mt. to aoft., 
then ttipy mnr be worked at double thp abuvn ipecid. But 
for iny part, for all ovcnkut wlitmlf, 1 pwfwr the 3ft,, aud 
ncvDT to excMxl ift. per wooiid : aud t.hie thecrr is 
thfiFoughly borne out by the following ob«<omn«w. 
That, in mtrC/iin pn>poriii>ii. tlicalnwiT abixly bygraTitatioB 
deeocnda vbeu acting u|hw, my, the entvnutl rim of a 
walor-whoel, the longer will tliat force bo npnit npoD H, 
and Ih^ grmtri will iw tUe effect. Thin id predoeljr the 
ca«e with fh«- w:it«r in tlui buckptii of the water-whael. 
For ciample, miiipose th^ iwlooitT of thn iitniun or Iho 
falling Ijoiiy tti Ix) I6fl. jxjt wixaai, luid ih'.' wheel to bo 
travelling at tliin apfM, it in cridcnt that no work is being 
done, ami IT tbo wh<.«l he. loaded nith work equal to the 
powtv of the utri-Hm, then it would not novo at all ; but 
let it mow ut tliv rate of 3ft. per second, and the best work 
oun bo obtained. 

It will U- pvidi>iiL that if you can get, «ay. ti n gallona 
nor niiiiut« fnini u Kpriiig or oCiur itoiirce, and that thu fall 
DB, my, ^ft,, chut you can with an ovtrshot wbn>l, lui i11uji> 
tnitcd ai FiK- S1>0, and with pumpa. t&iMi a good portion of 
the waliTT expanded to the nnio height, because wnen water 
deMyrnda from n.ny level to il lowi^r onr, it« wrightdnring 
the du*r<Mit may Iv nHrd a* a numtianical ageiil. and Uii<ra- 
foro — the djjuDetcr of the ovcnhot being nearly equal to 
the dtlfcrenct.' of the lerabi of the water,- the wherl will, 
of oonuMitj (Mivn and oxnrpt friction, Ac.), HK<.-rl a jiowi-r 
or foree aeourdingly. For arnment, Mty tltat tht loaa 
oocadoned hy friction. &c. , ia 90 nor wot. (thus allowing a 
vei^- wiiln nuirgin^, then roa will be able to miMoSO per 

'railarheijfht of 3fl., 

-^ 4wnt., or ODD 

.., and w <ju 

I from a 
(ith from 

JCO of dii. 

.<tb. which. 

i. Now 

uid thia 



cent., or on*' 




Rag Wheel or Sprocket. 

It will M>miifiinnii li.i{>]^n tlijil jciU will nut. Iw nMn Ln fls 
nil OYtTKlii'l wlw'^l f'lr wiiiil. ^'t noun, ftr. WTiou thw ia Un- 
cwv, null iho fiLl] L<iMuQd<!nib1c, a kiud olcbuu wnUr-whc^l 
■U17 bti workod. 11ii» iit kuown lu thn ra^ or Kprochd 

Flo. wo. 

wjiwl. Via. HOO, und wLwi unly «. vwy limited iiiiiuiUty of 
waUt in abUunNblv, il wiUlx'fiiiiiicl ■■xMcdiiiK^- i<«ririoa<kble. 

ThivapDantuaounMstH nimiily nf twiiMidli.«>irtliaiiis R, Q, 
nwdv to DKlLff aver n kind ••) t^uitliod vrbuel M. L, K. ur u 
vlwel harlns piiu or ftpurs, whti li At Into the tbaiiui a« 
tliOMof w«t^ctr1w)luhiunH, and At<-Adit:d itt tl)i- bottom by n 
Uxy whr*l N, r, with th., I.U. krt» J. B, D, W, E, F, O, H, I, 
*■).. »nd whioti ini»y In- u( any iunt*.'r)«l, thi>ii((h I pr^fpr 
liffht ^lTiinizi<d I'tiflt imn. ntoiit |iii. ur w iti thirkii''>» . 
Thf Kiw of th(jw ViMcVct* murt lio in pruporliou f tit- full. 
Ui(! BHpply of wml«r, luid Itio o-mLiiiiit of work M'tjuJicd t'< 
he d'liiK 

Tin; itvti'iii i» ii" folWwn : — Tlic wiitw runt fnmi h tiiji nr 
Bpout M »1 A. Inr/i Lhfi bucket B, D, &<;. At lin>t. in t.vrd<-i 
toiitarttticiiiiKhiiM^. it i« iiLfj.*i"nry topnlll thin biiuTtct down 
nnd tillnw si)cithi?r to fill, llicn anuLlLOr. ivnd m> <>ii until th? 
waUir wStlibi llii' liuirVrt* tina luviuiiulated 11 wiiiglil Kufli- 
mat to ovtTi-oroc tho rc3»tiiiicc wf llm punn) r-r uf the 
irdftlil "T liwl u< br movfid «n thn whM M, L. K, or if 
prrfcrrwl tin- wut)c may bu Inkt'D oW ihii- U;:t whivl N, T'. 
Xliid d-nnfi tbi' wai»>r will roiifinur !■■ filt llir' liu«-hi*tH. wliicli. 
when tln-y d(.-WCIi>t to K, O. will fuipty thfni"elTi»i ; nnd in 
pNiportiun tu till- rato of flUing. ho will bo the spvod of tho 
my whctl. 

Vfhtm dw (all In conaidaniblp, Uii» kind of wIk<v1 nuiy be 
laadft it a mnoh kiwflr mlu tlian any uth^T kind nf wntor- 
wIinI, and lllx a vory fiimplr, ''1"^> andlaattiiff ■piMrsliw 
for vorldu)^ kll kitidn uf punim, TliiMC oluutiii and hiirksta 
T11.1T bomnElf' to work oliliquvry. Badi es down the ndv uf a 
hill, il-. 

ITiia muDlilue, whpn rpveriwd in iMtJin, i« mnch asod 
hy Mwcr foutrnctora, tto.. for ralKinj; wiil«r havin;; 
ruldiinli, &<!., in it, and wbcn mirh i« tlio citae. ita uttlou 
muat be that <if tb« umit uf [niwor; or it raiiat b« driven 
inrtvHd of it bcinir tlic jmiwot' obtolner, alnillar to the 
NORA pmnp. whirh •«. Aim wo ".rnacph's well." 

nieri- are otlur kiwbi uf wIici-J« wbii-li Cho nlnmlirr ban 
ti> fix fiir wiirkiii)f hii pumjia. TIk-w.' itro tne brcuBl or 
uudenbot whec-U, nnd althoajjcli I Iibvd miiplod tluon 
together, they arc iror]trd iiomRV-hnt ditfcrcotly from c»ch 
01 hw. 

Tldn brviLNt wivn'! in illi]*tn1-i>d nt Fip. tHOt, and will be 
readily nnrl<?Tetrj»Hl, Hen) ihu water, inM^-nd of tiu|iui)riiiff 
uu thi- t»p iwrt of thi' nhccl, niectd it iibout oite-Uiira m 
thiP wny lip, iiH rJiiiwTi i»l K, L, tj. The rate F la built to 
the Kftnifi L-oioiurju uHiitn- an tltp radiiiM of tliu whoul itMrlf, 
nnd in mai.h n tnniiiii'r tbat ihi* side* aball be p&rnllol to the 
uxlTvino vlruuiofun^nn of tho *^ithor purt« of thi> float boards, 
S, T, ftc. The floul hnardd way be iviiiplcd tajTCtbor, and no 
atmngthtTRpd. with ihe two uuturedifwuf tlie wht^^l. a* at 
I, S, &c.,iuuImi benwdetobold tb« vatmrithom allowinff 
it the ehai)o« of nudilng^ part tho lidea of thi- fluAt^ and tba 
vhU. When tliia ia the coae, tho watn u impHaoned to tho 

Via Jtu, 

wbcel. and ila inv^nl otfcH llirtvby itK-rwiwid. It will bo 
Koa that in thin wheel the wbolit fnrin' of the waU-r, fmin 
the hl^hf^t iiaint E of the oiitntncu in the ritrrmc tail 
watfiT at I{, oitn bo Likd : and, at flnit ftlanon, oti« would 
nii1.)irft,lty HiippoM! thiit thin rtuli of wnher would make ibis 
whwl (uoti- pnwerfiil tbim the< ovrrKliut wbotjl. But thia ia 
by no nmns tb« cB*f--far from it. Tlif bn^iiAt wheel ia 
vimfly inferior Ui tVin ovornhot whwl, h\ toBHouof tho want* 
of wiitur wliiL-li nubei uul tlir flontu, l,n nay notbinR of tlio 
ilift'cr. itc« in tho hpif{lit or fnll dI ilio water, nnd (ithcr 
dffi'ctf which only nbow tliutnci-lvcii in pnotioe. It will he 
found tbut ill thia whe<.'1, for the Munoumonntof work done, 
!>'> o'lnipnrcd with the ovrr^hul whrv], that noarly dotiblo 
the nunntily nf wnlor will Ih- nmaoniM. Itiit aa the ai-tiuB 
<■( tiiin wheel ditlor* rruni Uie oviTaliot wliocl, it will at 
onn; Iw wen in order to irct at itx power it will \tn nm^OMiarjr 
to iidiipt annthw method of eomuiilAtiim. ifere, in Pi|t. 
ll'Ol, at K, ihe watiir ia mininHi Iji Hnw wilJi tw mneti 
reWity as piMbh', and to atrike the flimla witli an impotua 
ttjuul to tloit of the ralovity and woii;ht of the wat^r tn il« 
descent. To onnpule th<! effoer, or powii^r of the wiitor 
playin); uu n liriMtitt whml, it. in uci-iiMiirv in' fint placo 
lo Inuiw' ri^al vrliuity nf tho w.i(*-r inifiiiiKiiiff upon the 
ttoiilK. alnu tlH> i|iiiiiitily of water wlijfb plsy^ iipoa them, 
the iizo of whpol, 4c. The 1ir(.>a«l wboel, nl timcui, rnnct 
tday lit Ik dilfcrciit npccd to thut'of the orcmhol. The 



iter fihAuld tnvpl aooordtn^ to lime, but tlw bniut whot-l 

uuld trscr-I in ])m]><iiiir-ii t» tin' viWitj' of thi^ wai'T. 

ntc of thin vrbi'i-l nhiiiiltl he uiit'-thiril lu oiii--litilf lllnl 

wtilcr. yor t'xnriipl.B, Kuppii*.' tb>' vrliwitv i-i lli" 

la be 2<>ft. pur M'ouitd. Uum tba wli'iul ikoiild be 

'totmvd, »j, 7(t- or lOft. per aeoond. and m oa 


may add tbnt thi> diiT«r<mno lii-ttr«(«i Um bnniit wbfL-l 
•nd the undmsljut wbtvl in aliuwu nt (be dotted !inc^ 
Y. V. X And W, whi<t)i ^iU ahnn tiie ymtvT Mtrikcc Uui 
fluitt* undLT llir; Ixjdy nf tin? wbii?!, iHwl, in fiiiit. bjr Wliy at 
B fortlier explanatitm, tlu' iuid«niluit wbo-l ia oue thil 
BWy bo woriiM by lidal uction, as did tb^ nld wutpr w«rlcH 
of London, at tha oripuat London Bridge: or, fmiTi a 
■treNO, or irichout any piin:r[>tibk- Lmd «f irnl'^r, uve and 
flsc^t ibo Tcliwity of tbn wntor itHclf, and of ill wal"r- 
wIvmiIh tbo uiidiTalwt wbovl in, bu far as reg«rd« iM puwor, 
of OiD lt«at raluo. 

The Turbine. 

Thi« ia anotlier form nf watCT-whwl, vhic.h may 1» 
irorknl in a linrizDiitid [Hiiiitiim or iitbirwiNi.', niid tn puint 
of fwrt in tho walcr-wbwl [lorfwt.-d (mI*o «eo ItARK^Jt'K 
Uux, Fiu-. n-i), 

Thr-rr «r«- many makcrti of Ihis ufl(4iil moclilne, but I 
almll only abnu- toii thmv tif thf V-at tnakcr of Iho day. 
and whioh I wlnidder mait suitable for pnmp dnvin^ 
purpdw.*, und tnw you a fi'W liinta rrfra'^li'iK iJi'''' tliwjry, 
iM'lt^atiun, andmann)i(i^mr!nt. 

'I'hp tiirlpiut:, whioli wiiH tint brcvti)-bl into pnuninenoo, 
if not iiivcnlixl, )iy riiiirii.'yiuii. abimt tln« year 1823, ia 
a p^fwk-d fom <>f watcr-irhecl. 

The great diffi-^-m* l)rtwifn a tiirbinp and n water- whwl 
i«, tluit in a tiu-biciL- tbf riiviutuni ■lui' tu a uduiuti of watiT 
id uar<l in tumintr " Knuttl whc«l at a high aptHtl, wbfTviui 
In a waiL-r-whi-ol llif vralrr nmnly falln into tin- Iniclceta 
of tho vhMl and tum» it niiind tiy 'ixn w<>fj;;]it. 

Thencflrmt tolhc«:riijtrui>uwiitxL--wbM'l ia tho (tllUItD, 
■luda by Oilliprt (lilkpn iV: tV).. Ltd., and nhowu at 
OIRARl>, Fitf. 902. PUl« I, and for the dowrtptlon of 
-vrbich T rAnnnt do b«(t«r than upjiend chat of tho makom, 
■wbo but: — WlifH llic fill] of walr i« Tory bijjh th<' 
poripbei'y of u (urbitic- wtiiH'I niital muve at u vn-rv liiffli 
■jHwcl, nud if Ui".> Ti'volviinj whfL'l ift Kubmergfid, theTv i" 
iHinie ]nm iif jmw-vr in frii-tiDii of the wIhjpI covctb uKaiuKt 
ttie vatfr. Again, if the wheel Im nf rin nmall a diaiiioter 
Ki to wlmit of an arTunjieinpnl by wliidi it redoiwn tho 
vruttT all ix>iind, llir HtM^ of Iho axiw miMt bo rvry biitli, 
nrobuUr Inconvvnic-ntly no. It ia, clii.>twf'>n.-, in oa«e of a 
Ugh fall. noceMary to make a whoct of siich diamotfT aw 
to suit thi' rqu-cA of tho nni». mid lo ooimtrih-t it in aiicJi 
R ntaiutvr that it nw-d not rrcwivp ihr triitiT nil nmnd, mid 
vaed not niQ subiucrfftM) act diUM the VOKTKX, Fiir. D02. 
P]At« t. The tiniAHIJ turbine him no pr>-K.niri.i V*-twiyii 
fhc (fuidn l>tadi;H and whixil, and im tlit> water eiitiTV tlii- 
ibnoltrta with no prtaauro, it in frvc'ly dt>viut<>d by tbom, 
■nd takoa a connw quite indcpcndeiit of thoir ahaM. 

l%e action of tho imter nprni tho whiwl di-jmnaa nn tbo 
an^fi tliroii^h wliidi cttdl iMrticIo la dfriatcd whilitt frii'lv 
0nwing ov(T thti tiiukofa, and a* llww Inttcr are not fiilt. 
KbMe a nu dintiirbawx' of tJi« autivn us tUvy pa«« in front 
of or awsy from the jote. 

It will be Bc-n that thovatur nttt'n through the vaUf. 
and pwiw* dimtly intci n iliatrilinlinf^ cJiamlirrr, fmrn which 
jl ji>t« on to tlio biii'ki-tf of ihc n'lit.(.'1 tJirou|{h grate* 
Dr porfx, vnryintr in uiunbor aoconlintf to cin^unBtaacsB. 
*•"»«» there ia only tmf port tt oiin V rwluwil in rixf whm 
ia •ottRf-, or K-M piiirer rcqulrul, and whrnt. an U 
* the caap, 1hi>ro a||^A)|Bj porta, a niAliiient 

nurnlwr of them may bo naed to salt the requiroBiinita of 
tho moment. 

Thtr arraiif^iiTiit by vrhii-h lli.' ixiWi-r i» rwiu*^ is caaily 
worked i-ilbtT by Inti't or pivi-rtiur. 

K&viuj; K*n th ■ (iirml, we will now examlw* th« 
priociph'H of tho \'OIt'rKX turbine, and for thii) I will 
rvfrryou V> (tilbfi-t Uilki'i & Co.'t>nuk.-hini'andd<'JK'riptitiii. 
SKt-TiOM A, ViK- lH)'i, riate 2, tvpTv-wntii tho *orf4U 
pivsfun* jT-aotion turbtnn with mvcr rpmoved. and BtJi- 
VATIOM B ihowa t)ui lurbiuo omnplctir, m usually placed 
nl the bottom of tlio fall : A li the revolving whn-1 keywl 
on to thi- idiaft O ; H, .ini- of thi- Rwido bliMloM ; IJ. tbo bcU 
onuikii and abaltii >Dnii«.-tiii)T ttwi (ruidi- IJjiilm with tha 
nutAido hell crinkn and oouplinj^ rud* K : V. Ihi; j^ido 
bliule g«ar: O, tb« bnickct and scravr for mi«in^ tho pivot 
(tho pirnt cJiDnnt hn nam in thiji Nkntdi, »c*i (i. O io th* 
SPIRAL VORTBX) ; U, th« wheel ooi-vr ; I, tho «upply 
pini^ by which thi.' wator ooten the oaae. 

rho'vaKTEX.bytbraevnriviis impromnonU, pOH«c«M4 
Ipwit advnntagnt ovrr itlbcr turhiui-H, Inaamudi aa (far luai 
of W8t«T In reduoed In a nuntinnin by tho oae of theao 
nffnlatlDg bladoa, and tho powor ia obtain'^ with a «towcr 
TolocitT of wattv cffivtcd by the pMuliar balandn^ of the 
oMitrifttjral forou of tin.' water iu Ibt- tovuivuijf whetl ai^imtt 
tbo nroMiim du*> to half the h«ad. mi tliat only onv-hnlf of 
tha fall or hgad ifompli'yrd in K'^'inv vuloolCy Iu tb« water, 
thn Dtlier half acilnir nlmply in tJio condition of fluid 
pmaaure, liotioe the velocity irf the Wfit.-r in no part of it« 
force oxoeeda that dnit ti> tnu'-iinlf of tbr full, luui the loas 
from thu fluid friutiiiu and aKi'ation of the water in thua 
materially leaa than in uther tiirbiucs >vhoro tho walvr 
is requincd to not at nini-h hiehiT volocilicm 

It will tH< an'n tlint fruni Uii^ prinuiplc of iujectiOD of the 
wator from wiilmut loward* th» i:>:nfre. then reaulta 
another saving of ctfoct, Mnor it admits of tho u«i of Iook 
and wiclNfi.>rmnl rhnnncUi, by whit^h the watoT ia made 
gradually and nKularly to ruuvorga in uaaniiig from the 
outer chamber (whctv it in mmpumtiTi'iy at real) to tho 
pifint of ontmncx.- to the wlieul ihamber, vthen^ it* vt-locity 
jihoulil fu> th(- grfiit«t. 

Tho niivMulage of the** Minvwrgent ihannel" for tho 
transniiioiiiii of watitr with a minimtun luw* of eff«ct, a» 
comuarvd with t>hi>rt paaaagea, Bueh as are generally 
oninloyivl ia otbor turbiuM. ia well known. 

Fium the anmo prinoiriU of injii-tii'in towanla tho ocatK, 
thotw in an aouorilanoe bt.'tw««n IJm velocitiea of sU parts 
of tho moving wheel, and thy pro|ior voloritios of U>n 
water in its paaaigfl betwoOD thi.' pointa of vuLranue and 

It abould olao bu bunio in mind that nrbon tbt- wntxT ha.-* 
ita greatest velonity it ia ailmittixl tn thn oimiuifereuLw u( 
llio vhoi'l, whioh IM tJio most ra)>idly moving part, and 
whi-)i it has, an far ss jK»sible. imparted its power to Ihu 
whi-nl it L'avi'« ^it the luntrikl portion or axis, whii'Ji has 
she h-axt Eiioliiiii ; nuinuwr, t\ua wator bviiig luadv t^i 
impinge npon the outer draumferenoc of tho Wnixtl, muet* 
liardly any lona tiatu impaet. 

It will be uotioed that thne gnidi: blatles are made 
morahlo upon gudg«oiit>ur cantras near their pnlnia, molitni 
bciiwiinptirtod to them nmultaooooely by n bund whuvl, 
wliid] eau he pburcd in any position uasilr aonoaaibla, and 
Ity a vi>ry aliKht Tiiiitinn of th«B0 guide blades, tho orifir«S 
imty be o|>i*n<--d i>f eoutriu^ted at pleannre, hdA are thua tnadu 
to mit any qiiiuitity of wattT whiih it iniky be neoeasary 
or d(«irahle to use. Tho fultuwing imif <rtunt oonditianB 
of ef&Meiit appbiation -if the water arv fulfilled :—Fin»t, 
the ohannels are I'f » gTadiially con»'*ir''"t fomi. SoixOTdlr, 
tho walor ia unint*.Trunled iu ita coiirfo, and t-iittva tba 
wheel ehamber from tho narmweol part of the cliannel, 
and, oonsM]uently. att ins lis maximnTit reloolty at the 
|Mtint (if uiipltmliiin. Thirdly, tho water is admitled 
ii|iLally to till' wbolu eircuiiirenniee of tba whoal- 


PI.ATE 3. 


Fiu. 90S. 

In miinv niimitinri" iln'ftminjfwmerit of tlio VORTKX, lut 
at VORTEX ami WKLL. Kiif. M2. Ilatu 2. may te 
adoptMl witli fTTvat iiilvADtdp^, Thun thr\ wtirvl itiny bo 
plaood ml aiiy li<-iKl>t l'» tiiim Ifift. iiliuvir tht; tiiil rui-i-. 
the fdU liplnw the whwl liuLnf;: rendwpd itvailiible hj what 
win 1h) boM kti'>wii na dr«tr or hucUuii pipno, diiN-vndiiiif 
frtMD th« centnl diHRliu-ifr oriAiv« Into ttio tall>w«t«r. 

Thi* VOBTKX Ami WF.LL urTAiipTtnrtit illiidlrAtM 
tkn mipnly pij» I til the tiirLitie (K, J, lii'iriK the uulli4i> 
whicb utiaulil Iw ooutiuuM \x\itv xhv mirfaiH- oi ibw trnler 
in tlio toil-ntd-), wbioh premiu Uiesc ixi»e ar mtcUon pipe* 

fraiD fw retdily eiiiptyinji tlrnnwhroi. Of coiiitu], . 
pipes may bo bum duwu on aalKnktnQiil. tn'll. or at 
wiM>. ti In ono of the trlAndn throniirh vhuh the nhal 
JtuMtt. Li« thi! puUojrorrrojfwhw-I fniiii vrliii-li Uir power 
U iAkt-n for driving the pump. 

WHEEL PLAN in Pi|r. 902. Plate 2, Tliw iUuitratw. 
a INirtiitu of 111* vortM n-volvtejf wbcwl. mid the (i.rm cif 
tb« voinn. some of which do not exlrtid to iho rfalrtl 
oriiioB. TVm ohjptit ill im millcin^ Uii'iu in tli^t tJiiry tnny 
not too tiiiiL-li fill up Ibe contTiwU^d iwirt of the X^iSMgi'v, 
ami tkus impode the lluw of the ' 





The -whttiA ifi coRBtntctod oKber of KtceL or at roQod 
bfWM (tb« lutrr for >tinAU itixr-Jt), uid u tli« vtutM Ma thtio 
bo tnade very murh Lhiniicr t>ian of cast notal, their number 
aui b« iDtTvaMt). and perfect koouracy' in the I'lmatun' 
wvtmi. Honcv tbo wslcr ciilon) tlio whvcl witli 1cm 
iatemiptioti, nnd mum tfaroagh more exnotlj in the 
dirMt{(Mi iDtim^ed uaas. is the CAM where the v»at* are of 
gTMtvr thirkneM, and fo»«ir in nnmbm-. 

Hvm TanM B(« fiitd no caob iM* of a i>Iecl or br«»i 
plate, hErin^ a bon ia the centre lo awun; it npim tho 
Mh«ft,aDd dines or covero. in irlikhnrrleftdrcntArnpenin^H 
tbronuli which the wntvr pniwo after il hM duue its wurk . 
thoe half the watw Ji iliwharged on ««ch «idi> of the <rhec! 

Here U will be juM u well to otmpHra tbe dotitilu and 
aingle Tort«x wb«l : Ihia ia ehaulj shown at WHKKL*, 
Pitr. 903. VUt- 3- 

Tbe cfMeiidAl diffcrciMu betwcon the aiogle aad double 
TortttS wheel tiirbiDes is, that in the focnKr the WKtvr is 
diMshATgcd from on* tiie of thfi wheel only, the wlie»l of 
tiw iJn^ vortex bdn^, In fact, half of that uf Uti> double, 
tb« oantnplate of the latter nmnna tba ti^ aonr of the 
fonBar. "no yaitmt gaidtr blades altwt tba wftter on to 
iha sinirle wht«l in prMaely the nine mamur «a they do in 
the double vortex. 

^>ia Mnate vortox tturliinii !■ rarr wpll nutlod to roRdiiini 
and low Ub, w sbown at PIXKD 31NOLE VUKTKX. 
T\g. 903, IHale 3, where a conaidfrnble bodjr of wutrr » to 
he dealt with, and when it in (tesiial>le to hare the borUfU) 
left drj wbra the head of tbe water is *hiit off : and aa the 
water is onlj dlwhamd below tba wbwl, pau-t of the full 
mnr be ntiHaod bjr a oiug or nootlun pipe. 

From what has been written on the development of the 
OiDciV nirtex turbine, it will bo tet-ti at a gUncr tbnt it in 
cne uf tltn mniit iinofnl mitchinm fur driviii}; iiumpi, luid tli« 
tim^ modes of Hxio?. as shown at FIXED SINGLK 
VORTEX, and ah» that afaown ul the PtX£D IX)17Bt.E 
VOBTSX, reader it aa tdinple as poMiMe: and any 
Ofdinarr pittmber aliuuld be aUe to nx it, or take it to 
jitvm m OBJH* of repairs. 

I have frivcn thM) two drawing the fomtr in part 
farklnrork and part woodwork, to bIuiw Iba nmplieitjr of 
11m anangmni^t. 

Hsra b aiinplj a ■ircani nwD fmon above rii;bt into the 
siofle wbt^ turbuie. where tho water flow* thnxigb the 
Ttirtax whaal to ths tail water chunbo' briow. Hen, aho. 
Is shown the lem- airangnnent for brteginv m the bdon- 
ssenlioned pivotod spin^ of tho wheal sbcHud it bcoome 

I mjkj also add thnt thin irpituUe worka u|»& UfroniB'TttK, 
and lafirktttM iijwif b^ the wal«r in vfairb it ts plaeed. 
Of ODorae, the wondwuik in fmot in niutially cnl awar to 
■howthafainjf of the tvrKne, whflst the FIXED DOUBLE 
TORTEX turbine UlustnlM the water bain? hrvattbt inm 
above, and throng ths strsint* on top. and doim a pipe 
Into the doutila tiimne, and needa no rurther dvaoriptioD. 

1 may here nmark that turbinea are madi^to raise water 
froB walls, and fae d afBtr th« niannar o( that shown at 
VORTEX and WELL, bat the fan or tnrUne h«U acta in 
(ha mane way lo fiiat which I hare atacody described. 
The tnrbina being than th« uaer of the power in at w w l of Ihe 
gfrcr. with the pulley L re^vrved, and It k nsnally driven 
by steam, or om it can be driven by a sooandary turhfaw , 
in which otse the streama in th« pipe I J would be rtvetaed. 

"Dm uahna of this turbine Lay it down thai the 
■Cataaey of tbrir tnrhiBe is foosd to ba *A pn- oent., but as 
it ia not aaay fcr anyona who h« not had (inetka in tliia 
partlndw affBaatioa of water power to judge with oett^aty 

how hut to ajnily It, or what daw of tnrUao la use, 
they ncctoiaaaa that, whm powibln, an anfriniyr, who is 
air«u*lanied to fixing tivliinm, shonid bn aflcKd I<i nria the 
Mte. Tbey liiy eKfiwiii] stn-iw im tho rmiut tliHt lIm- pipe* 
brinnrinit tno water {u tho turbiiio B]i'>iild be kept Inriio, so 
that the epted of the wat«r rthall tv>l eirtni] .tfl. or 1ft. ptir 
»eoand, aahivh KpeetlN of Bow involve coiiadervlJe luu of 
working heM, Thny nUo giro tho following example :— 
If a pt|ie H tbiiunniul fii.-t l'iti;f, with it hundred foot fall, it 
Tin. in dlamrter. and the iinautiiy of water Hoiiipg 
through it be 100 cnbio fMI p«r minute, tho opwKd is SfL 
wr necund. The pieanin- at thr bultum of iho pipn is 
•ISlbe. to the square indi when no water is passintr, but 
when 100 vubiv fn-t per minuto is ftowtnv taroiiKn. the 
preHsure is reduced to 33 Jibs, per miuare inuu ; this Is oq^aal 
to a loss of 23ft. head, and they would thm nooRameud 
a 9m. pipe, if it was important to tnako Iho most use of 
tlio wilvr power. Hie loa» would then be under 7ft., or 
only 7 per cvnt. instead of 23 per oeot. 

They have also gtrcn tho foUowing rules for the gutdauee 
of thoee abroad rr()airin)( IbHr turbines, in aaoertaining 
the quantity of wat«r rsiiuirsd to prodneo a given power 
to tbelr Iwcinea nnder a ffivm fall, or nw rrrtrf. 

The height of the fall in fest midtipUed by the number 
of niliic fc«t of watrr arsilablD per minute, divided by 70A, 
will K^nt tho actnal JVraJvHorM>Powar. The ho nw- power 
required malttpUed by 706, and divided by the huight of 
tho fall in feet, will give Ao ninnb«.<r irf cubic feel of water 
required per minute. When tho available quantity of 
wain-, and thu roquinte horwi-powcr are dvlenalned, tho 
horse-power multiplied by 706 and divided by the quantity 
of water ia cuUo loot per minute, will irive the haight 
of fall in feet that will bo required tn prnduno the hoiac- 

One other tropoctant point is, when torbiiMiS an wanted 
la out of the waqr, monntninoaa, nUnJag, or other diatiiels, 
great difBcnlty is heqtHntly- ezptcienoM in die tnnait) 
owing to the wieigM of the vuious part*. To obriate 
thb M msitii. Gitkce & Co. make largo turbine* in parts, 
not exeeading for tho hcavinrt piaeo 3D<Hba., so that each 
pieoB be curried separately oa tha baok of a bone, 
eamcl, or rank. The ooet of transport OTar rough mouu- 
tains, Ac. is thus very much reduoed; but it would Iw 
well if Hut workman or engiaear slated the largMtt 
wci^l that could bo canJed. 

Fire Engines. Garden PtimfM. Act. 

Tha Fire Engine appears to bo of very remote dat*. 
No douK it was nsuu br tho Babykmlans and anoimt 
Bofnaas, for we road of "The bydmolio duums ot 
Ganymede neatly rmDing Cmar and bis soMieie at 
Alexandria." AjkI aa a met well rocorded, ApoUodotns 
or ViteuviuB employed foroins pumps as Are an gines 

£N the ^iritalit of Hann], TbM very nro and oxoead- 
gly old and inteccatlng woA oontaina an aoooant and 
au illustration of an ERTfi^an Ire engine made in the 
•miiHl rviitiiry b<4ora the Christian era, not po vmj mai^ 
unlikv that ehuwa at Pig. ffOS, except that the Egyptian 
eagine does aot run upon wheek, toe priadple and the 
mode of wovUng being exaetlv that of Ptg. 90tt, with 
double laver, valna and air cfaamtwr, but wltlxntl any how-. 
I win now give you a d t aeriptlon of those made at the 
pnaent day. 




Efwry plumber, iind other inlcUiitrnl workman, sh'tuld 
hiirp B (hinMUffh Wivrkiijn? "* n>u^h-built fir<"*uKii»*> 
pump*, undafttr wlint him lirtiii <«iiJ »h*jiit lli* preceding 
pinps, rfpcdslly upon Fitc^ **''2 «ui<l RS*- thi» oiiuw of 
pnnip will be rentli)}' unduKilnod. I flJill (hi-nrloro only 
tfipLaiii mid ilUmirnta n fi-w of thp Ix-el-workiJ pumps of 
H»»-«n(fiii«" that «re, or ahrtnlil l*, kf pt rciidy (or Bcr^'ico 
Ml •T«7 funuboOM, (nil!, Imililpr'n yunl. iT nuiimiftn. W« 
will bd|[(u w!tb an ilhi^lnitidii nf n rcTy nniply inude hnivt 
pittiigw pump, Pi|r. 903. Il will br- ivoti tbat Ihia duublo 

no. MS*. 

aotioD pump in ruuIv lo nUnd In a puU. tub. or othwrniiw. 
whiUtrhiTiKhl orWt hand hold* iha how, tli*t I'lhor is 
Fiifmt,'«l iu pumpiri);, 'IIk' wotiT p«"iw^ under the /<■«'( 
riYiflJlfrti iitniiinT A (which in MJinutitiiisii fixed inli> n tank), 
iinii upiiitu iliebai-wl II, which fnnus iikind of iiir-thiiMit*r 
RH woll SA Iwiml. Thii" kind of ptinip. uUhf^uph not ihix 
derijn'-i""'"'l"'dliiini Me^fT*. lUywardTrlw* Cn. Tlie 
mr-Ouid u( it']>iiiriii(ir Ihi- pump in by unnrn-witiff tlic ftntiirp* 
and lvl*»'h".triiiK tbi' vjilviB ur )n'i"din|f tliriii iu I'ifC 90;iA. 
ifl n aiiniliir kiiid vi foiw jminp, but tixetl uinri « Bti.nd 

havinut a l^vcr and MMtion bn« tn plam tnta a ]Wtl or 
oiherwioe. Flir. uoi i« m prindpk nuulis aftiv tbi; >tylc nf 
the ordiDary j>liuiHi'>pninp, a* iUuatntMi at Vig. 840. Il 
thrown wat4-r tnui Uin tubi- Q, which arta aa an ab- 
ctiuuloT, and fmni tlmtv to the Imiicli or immzIo at E. 

^iiirrally lixnl wicjiin a Uwk. liki- ihnt i^nwn nt Vig. 958, 
AH ia alMk Fift. 90'i, whi.-h in. a* far lu rtf^nl* tbo action of 
Ihf ptifiip. vKHi^Lly th'' Kwmv u Fitf. 601. ti)i> onlr diffrrrniv 
bciti^ tliat the water iu Tig. 90') nun ex off th(- t4<p witli 
unin^nnl jcuntx inRl<-iui uf how. whiLit m tb<' firrnicr, Fig, 
UDl, it comeit uH gt the siUv, anil Ihnjiigh a boae. 

Barrow Pump. 

Fig. 907 ia an ordinjiry ealla^ or olbar pomp, with 
inMwd (uul h«M> to fit nnsxle. (Sw h'ign. 640. S44, 1154, 
Ad., &o., all of which may bv iiiiiiply Hxvi ujxm a frarw 
runninir au two wheohi.] H«rc ia nae i>( the Qbi»p«4, r wt 
iMi^ftil, mill irttw.tivr Iir«!-iti>fiiici' thnt it ia powrililr to i Ae. 
ami (•hoiild {n-Jouiid rmdgjirr nif al all timn on iMnty fnmi 
thniiifrhiiiit th4> i^nuntrj, and the farm laliuurera tiiiiKlit to 
work it, -Ay, vnw a Dumth. and keep it in wvriiing ords. 
A f-woud leather Mtvtititi iir valvn tdiniild nlwayn hf with a 
npitnncr tiiil on to tin- nide of the bnrrow. ntid a ddMu of 
loallief ur utliiDr bui-krt* lillid with wiilrr nlwiirn InhI iipm 
lh»BhsftMurhaodb?H of tin- Itoituw n-adj fir iitxrant tiw. 
Of mum, in the i^-inter linio, when tKiSl in al,out. the 
btUTow tdinuld Ua ki-pt Jt>-. Turn to Ih^ punip la>'l» and 
let ua He what ijuaiitity uf watvr cuu bu llir:]Wn, uy, 30fl. 


hiffh in one hour, when the pum\i i» woiked by one 
man. A tin, pump at r 9iii. ftrokr 25 p"r na«u*«. 
will thn.w 9.^9 pilhwui. N..W Mim m Fiir 9(IS Hcr« 
ia a ver» itininU hut (rmwl imil (."ScrMliitiflr ix'werful 
flre-cnrine uf tWrlaw of the imth (■■-niury, «>"1 <onn«rly 
kfpt in niihwlmlti or in old \mT\*\i chnn'hv^, and M 
ijiiim tiv thf town "liiT III wnno out wf tlw way plaec. 
Thin piigin* ■■ fistd uiMrHftfrftnT! to run nii fyiir wheeli. 
1) U thv nmtitMu B-hiih -in-wc on the Lio'tom or '«''*» 
tbo BQction valve, Thw wati'i in thun drawn to th« haml 






Wtu. MT. 

t or J «{lli A f>lHtifd>r A* rh/iwa at B, D, A, Fig. fi'lO. It 
i» iben f')ix'«l lr>>iii Uif lairrel Uin>ugli « vnlnr, awl into 
tJiv ur L'b&mbvr IJ, Fi^. 90&, vid fn>iii tbenre Into tliD bow 
■nd tfamuKb lh« bntooh. Htm tho \p'rvr, N, P. N, u 
rapparted ny tlv tiilcmni on thn ii>p nf tb>^ air otiAnilicr, 
Mid oin be worluxi by four orsix iniii <>» mu^h ctid nf Iho 
lMV«r, MMT fira— tbnl in, flvu nii^i to mah pump, utiil Uii< 
beig^t tMl Uk vmlvT lisa 1u be lifted K miv, '2S(t. Hero 
m ouutd wnrk an F<iu. piiiop, nn<l hsvo jiowirr to .[{laro. 
A*«ininf; IImI th« )i'v«>nigi- ix oix to mir, ntKl twiiitj.fivo 
iLruVrH |>>-r mitiulauf Uin. i>tr<>ke, woiihiill ktA about 'i,4&i 
plloDB l«ic(*, or '1,909 frtUunH p^r huitr <nit of thU liltl" 
«i»t if oiilf t" bo nii>H() half iIik hciirl'N v" nmld 
,_bltt (bin iiiuuiiity wiUi tlin wiine amount of labiiiir, 
ing plenty for frii-tion, Ac. 

lm|iiprtuit.--'Bo nan to hum pinnty iif Kurtum luiii other 
bun, «Bd it iboidd be aln-nya kvpt ta Ruod wutUuk onktr. 
(8m Imrartioiu for t[oM>.j 

B«far« wtt ){o itnj fiirthrr <m tbia mginc, it will ht- M 
well Id i]««ribr Ni-WKliain'o. of Clotb Fair, I^niluti. uit«r- 
•MtiBK trials, wblcb U'gan ntMiiit tlio y««r 1710. llisfirFt 
pMtflBt dnlm IT'il, Ni>. tW, and *>ii« of hi* iiiffiiMM cmu bo 
Men ftt the Patent Miii«um. 8i^uth Kr-nninj^tiM. Tht? 
woridni^ amiigmienl of bia ll'l.'i [Kileiil wan with a 
avfrmont niul Irt'i-n. 8ti«no of bit rnfriiira «rr« hIm) flilnl 
with fiaiC rnttdbM, nnl llie i^iifiiu^ wIki-Ih wrae ({iiiiTallf 
made out of aulid biot-ka of wood, Tnllu-'r low, &im1 when 
HDrh MiifiiKW wiTP r(i{iiin!d tn gii an^ diitlunrn tlMiy •»■»> 
wrantM or. iru]|in(. 

Sfffwaluiin had » rainiieUtor, one Fowkc, of Wappiajti 
Londoo. Fowkp'atm jriti« worked withnot a rnolc ami wbMrl or 
chain, and nintwqunntly vnt mon- liki; the diiiff riiui Fiir. UtiS : 
but Puukp'i* ma^biiin wsn ntit up tu the riM>, Hiri-nglh, anil 
otfaL'T poJBti^ Mcmsary to producr tbo bwt rt^aultji in 
throwing wat«r j«tB. and It approrf from the Vuirrrnf 
Ma^aufir of 172'*. titc /HiUjf Jumiial. and tbo /JUi/y /Wf, 
that ibcKp ri*«b> niaib- ln-t* ru In whn>f> i-i>iriiH' rimki )|^ir«^ 
tlM l«wt nwull*. Fu«k>> cbnlb'tiilfd yvwuhiiiii lu plaj hia 
tnyiiH ■cHJniit htm ut Bridcwdl H<wpita], iti tbeprtmcvof 
Ibe EatI of !k«mdalr, l^ird Oavni. Ltinl ilowtr, ftnd the 
aoTpmon, wIm-ii Alderman PaKDD Kavi- i>ut llintNcimlinnr- 
mifiiM' lArrifd a miii-b cUnei atn^m and itovt'ral )iinU 
flirt btrr diitJincv. 

iliiwnviY, Kowkfl BKiiiii cballoBRrd a wsifvr. Nowaham 
prnpinnl !■• plajT inli> a bni4c or vevlr^ iwbirh bo noTcr dkl 
brfun' tbat t\u\ :, uki tlti-y that mtiUl pl.iy tin- ffttnUat 
qnantily al lli" ifri^i*nt dixtitiif^i- m-ru lo win . Thia wax in 
0reTj Wiiy aimi'iilde l-> ibp ni«tii</randL lu trt'furo aitrsud to, 
wUcb was rcfiuod, axui Uft to thu prajHT judgoa lu dodde. 

rn. flMt. 

bill lliiiididni>tsc«mafiT««hlA to Fowko'n pariy. Nevabnm 
npltnl, "Thnt bn dia not aen any accsniim tu Irnubli- iLrir 
Aieudo, when he had proposed a way wbcn-by an (rid 
woman might b« a judgfi," and to ncttlv th« tualtcr. 
«balItllf^■•l piiwkf? t4> [ilay hist, NowAbam'a eni^iw. airalunt 
that uf F<n«'kL''ii i)rt>r tin' Oramliiipp'T »t Ihf Ufiyiil 
Kichiin^. Now IIh' tiru-abiipiH-r <>n thi- R>>Tnl Kicbaiiir" 
(iJiit old Im^ditiirl Wfla lASft. liiifh. Tbia NiFWHliam dkl, 
vhirh wini'd t<) A^lllt' fnr «rer the quaillim KewahaiM 
MTJMJ Fowkr'" Firr Efi)nii''- 

On th«i riglit'band «il<' will l» i<«<mi a ikiiniltir vurktd 
engine, hut with the hjttidlp miidfi to wt>rk arnw* th« bid, 
niiS with a tiuik that inaj b« niipfiUed with buvheU, ft«. 

Modern Manual Fire Engine. 

Thiaduiof fttr i^ii- -tolhr l»fb nmiury, and 

ia thv vlatwtt ft lli< iiii' uui^ite, Tbia niniiii«l 

•■niri'ii' kaii d>>ne gixid ncrTtvc, and Itaa brvn bn)U|[Ut lu 
pt-rfwVUMi by Mi-ww, MtrtyWcalhcr. who liini out largti 

Jinaiitilim, and have takpn many (fuU and oiImt mvdala 
or deal^ and woriauuMbip tliereou 

The >■ Squire" Fire Engine. 

Tli<« bullur of thia rngine it ([cn»rally arr«n»»^ for 
bnruing i:"<»I, l>nt for wuod wbMJ norcnMry, which may 
!*■ lilt up by tlu- eitgine itn^lf, aiid itla-ian may l»e rained In 
till- workilip prvHBun in fifteen niinulut. I'bo la^nv 
(■!«• Fig. ffltl) IH no idmidt in conhtnicllon ibal It nwy Im 
workod liy a fann labtMircr of tttdinary intulligmev. It 
liiJiy U' quii:kly lakvn U' (atnulcada, ur la neisbbtiurin^; 
caUtea LU com <^ fire. 



valve and coppor feed cmnMttio&s ooatploto; sbo fitted 
with i«fi)ty inlvM, uiid «I1 naxmmxj fitting. 

Till' pump ii tr«rtii»], fitted (o the fntme in frin>t nf 
hoUcr, uid drinin by meani <rf « loose Uver .iml rmnk nuL 
and connuotinf: rod woirlda^ off exmak *>h«ft, urntuffi.'a tu 
bo nmdilj put in nul oat of gt^ bj rcnLUTing h bolt. 

rm^. . 











*^ fa 





— - — —Elsw*. 


Fuap ia o( frtra-motal, mv4 bu ui impnTed doiible-a«da^ 
aowiKement, bjr which » continiiooa Bow of iraUs u 
atcadilf nuuiilAined, uul i> ki arranfrvd an Ut bs oujlj 
aciVBMhlr- iar cWniiip aod csniniBattiMi. Il ia i.'ii|«ililv ut 
delivurinK I'-^O gatlvns p«i' miuule, utid ifi litted with 
rkpacioua poluhcd copper bdcuoti and d«lircTf air tiwmU 
aud 'ill ntfv-ivaxj Ktliun. 

llnf xii^nit w fitted with B cnwk ihoTt mhI tuned 
flywbii-«!, K> that a belt gild bw put on to drive muhimiiy 
when Uio pomp ia out of gnar. It Iim a inngla cylinder, 
■ltd i« litted Ingrihi-r with Mteid roda aiid boltn. Au 
efficient RtivBtnur ia kIdo pmvidod. 

The on^infl aiul boOer an iitiLtl ou a vtrcin^ iimii fnune. 
Btoved with fan>« BtRtoben, and pro^-ideil iritJi t>iuik<>i' in 
front for cnnyinK biMv, tools, &c., all mounted on hori- 
zomtal «t««! *)iriii!ir< ii front aiul fvaft with wnught iruu 
(nreoarriago uud hitch wood «pokc whralo. 

At the prceant momitnt Loudon j» cotmidLTod to bo well 
Mippliod with Jir«t<idaM« firw imgiiii<<i, I'o.nnhlii nf ihtnwinf; 
tuiu of watvr pur miriuto to tbo hiniicot »tvry uf any 
privata dweUiu)^, and the? dcaigii of tbew ^.'tij^M surpafieoa 
tCKj in the world : in fact, our cDginm an aiipplicd to all 
other nountrim, whi<^h will (firn my leadem a (^tiDnil idtm 
of what wi> are doing in the tOth c«Btiuy. 

BtfPT to diaffTum. Fi^. 911. Uere wv bars flw views of 
the WYirk of tliis "Sqnint" ^n-. ctigino, which ne^ds no 
lurlber expUnation to tho practk-ul plumber ; but for the 
infomintinn of th« cuTioUM, 1 will iwy thnt tho top lot ia 
mippwvd Co Ik- vnxaifivd pumivim wnlor to lupplr ■ 
naonoQ w)ien tba water supply to the wiitcr-wLevI B ij 
iiuufGcient dnnog tiioc^ of drought, &o. 

Tha aaeund part of our pii^tura illuMtratm the " Squire " 
viiftin'^ where it lh buHily driviDg at C llie ff«ar at a df«p 
well piunp. It can t^*tt bo cmpU<ynl to diira a oeatrii- 
ueaI puiup, and will in thin way lift 600 gallmifl par 
miuute I'Ju. high, and is thua suilublt- fur diHUunir ur Ini- 
gatinff purpOMe- It iaalaoengagvilnt CdriviniradyDaiBO, 
^indui^ cap(itri4]ity. and, h« may bo »«iii abova at D, 
when) it la rattltnff round a eirciilar aaw, or Instoad of a 
circuW aaw it may bd employod to drivo a thmdiiu^ 
iiinphioo, or n chall cutlius or turnip chopping machin'); 
in fiu:t, the toaohiue tau w vmA iot wore* uf purpoate 
upon a form, even from dra^g-Lnir a plongb to tho watcriiig 
orxwilllnjtd"wnof tnvn, pluntii, uri^^tion, r:mptying ponoN 
anildniuiin;!. &c..und witutciut bea tiiura uiiiMiflntit iniuhtu* 
than that in which it in ongagod on at the Iivit pni t of our 
dintfrain, wb<.T« it ii umd^ it* utmont Htniu^fth in iu 
natural capacity. I need not biMv gu into the incchouiral 
deliiilH of onginmn' work, aa the phirabor who ma^ bo 
callnd in t» uiidurtake KUtih repaint. Sir,, alunild engaipD 

auuUHod warkujcD (or the job, and he »liou1d be very 
lary about modJlinff with auch hi);b>«LBM machinee, for 
by hie fnUrferenoe with nuch, uiUcha h« \a well vcnnl in 
medionic*. and b capable of propurly working and other- 
wise handling, my, a mntal turutug lallin and metal 
pliuiiuK Riaomne^ I say it would servo hira rl^bt if ho 
oainc Iu grief ovtr auch foolhatdinCM ; for tho LiiKinrN 
■uid pumpeof tiiesw machinas ant liltoil wiidi stich lirrfat 
iiioety that ev«u a turn of a ecrew (uuUwa il be ii atidfiu^ 
or pucUiig nut, and eometimee thoo) may oauM iniduc 
looMoncM or additional (Hotton, which wotiM altngethi-r 
intrrfcru with iUt wurldlig. Of cuurau, I mid awara that 
we have toany Rn^linh plumbon (such ua Mr. Juin» 
PuUdu, juniur) who are vifjy fair uU-ronnd ougincers and 
%.Vbn* : in tact, in my own workshop, I horn tralnr^ one 
to do all aorta of fitting work in eoDii.ecti'jn with tbL> 
maldnjr uf my lead trap, and othi-r hiRh<t-liuu> tnmilda, 
anil l4uid trap hydraulic preasvo; nud thia iudividuAl ia 
wdII ablo and vftvci dooa work tbo lathv and planing 
machine. But eren these meii would biok twice hffor« 
Ihov uitdrrtook to pull to l»nooa, or otlierwlac meddle with, 
IL bigh-cliun atram tire mgine. 



Flr« Engine Ho«e NoxzIm. 

B&lSOIt ilta SiML£L)i. 

nwjjow JKT iiowui. 



^.•4iw — ■^■•.^^ 

A ■}■ 

it e 



fir* SS^^flfiing ^ipantiuk It aliODld iti mido b> aa 
exfti.-t form, well-iiniiMirttoiied, aud acccrdiiiK to tht; height 
«ni) Mio of jet, and toe »vaUable ungMiiir Wiind it. 

According to thd ordinnry pnicUt«, a vtrvau t^tUi poMJut; 
LhmuKb n hix^' i>f, wT. 'J^io. (UuDeteriB rcducfKl to kbout 
l|iu. % Out BRA-NCH iiiul XOZKLK Aiul at A. Fi^. Q12, 
Mid tb« noixlo li Ciirrii.'M ihi* nrJuntiun jiA furtlicr to nuv 
Kile iioc«MUT for the wurk, ur lu K«t tho biMt poAsible 
fltnaiD hjr Tcaiudii^ m a.t B (to a ccrtaiti limit 1 ihe aisB of 
tlie tiuxm. Il«huii]il liDiloTio niUi a frratluiv], «uj-, and 
•moothonrw, till it nmv™ aL atioul C, Pijf. '112, thmi with 
tlio woWk of the LmniU y'iiiv frmn A to nboat 1), slmig-ht 
or pantlld (mrio nutkori iTiako thix juiniUul piut oh l-^ni^ im 
tli« rliameter of Ih^^ imtU-t of tlx.- Ti'^szlc onlji, when ll 
•Innilil ■JtfAf/yau</yiW(ru%i-x{iauil itself I'jithnfi to diikiiii'U-r 
to abuQt F, IwuvIuK u litllo U^v m at K, with ati cxt4>niitl 
lip or projection, not dibtoIjt for the protoolion gf tb« but* 
ft^iiml iriiK-iitntiijiiM. hut A.Ha protMitioii and to throw otf 
ttxiy iiiduLH-J I'arrrul of air cuiiM.'d br Ihr iiinuiTi)^ nlnvim to 
Irnil i n ut tin- bank ot tb<> Ktivam iw tt Ivaro* tliv uuzxie. 

This ii> iittbi'f kui| Kirtuiit. w nil jet Htrcatna. mori! or IftM, 
a^^ inti:rfirc<l witli by thin inilucod current of air, aitd 
which tt'uil* Ii> c:n.'ii^' » p»IJa1 yiu-utitii, nnd to dia.g 
Ihe tail end of thn *troain. With rsK""^^ *" tin- i\tli part 
expanding of the noziili:. thiHii not paid much attention 
to br fin» nnginp ninkini, tlit-y profpmn(r to kiwp the 
tio;i2l« (njiu C to r pwtfeilly parallel, in tmli-r to compact 
Ifavrtreuo and pn^uul apresuiiiK. 

Thvahnpfrof tbtwnoi«h-«h»jibiMii|ir»ttyTrellrxbau»t»'ct, 
biit fiir i>n« nf the nii»t nOiable abapon, I ndct you to 
tho ]irv^tini1 <,'X]>uriin<-ntM of Mr. U llerrrw«aUiL<r, about 
the yrar 1^33. mIulv vrhkb tiiuL- fw ulturativnt) uf any voloo 
IniVT b<«on made 

Ut. M. Ui^nywunther'asurniMaraaTS, " A« En^Uali fii» 
(Migadw uw luMe at a nuixiiuom diuMter of 2luu.,an4 

tLo hnuuliliQM Id uiw uro ooIt ftbout llins. ditmrtcr «t 
tho top. ft nilo'TM that ttar.xlc* of a 1>r^ sic« hiivA 
uocflssarilr to be rouHtrnct«d vitli duo rt-jptnl t<i thmv 
fauta, ana cannot bo llionr^itirallj n<vnrat(' in rvtiurd to 
form. Thu whulv ut tbe n:ducti(7n luu to take place fnun 

" If. for inittanco, iho »i/c of the bori^ b« 1 Jin., thrrnluo* 
(tun of nroa ia only uli^hl, irh(<roa« if tho bore ia lin., the 
rodiiRtifln in tu ^lli of thu unw vf the btvach ppc top. 
MaiiifKHlly in two nosxifa of about the mmc. length tbo 
n>dii(?Tiv>ii I'ltDtiut bccarricd out with, thcoreticully, Hgnal 
wititifactory nwidla." 

It mnnotbo doubted that lArpenoEsloau vtll oa mall 
onca aw uf tiio bwtt phapc tar fire hripudi* piiriicWH. dne 
regard beinK MumiiliTiil to thi- cmidiUoiip. menliunrd abort-, 
▼ia., fixed aizi'^ of brand) [>i|«! tijH ; and thi»di9li?iilty rould 
only bo p)t ovfT by cnrryinif dinorvnt uor-xlv* and how ot 
la^cr dlajBotun, which in inndvisible n.i)d cumbenuiine. 

Some of those nonlce. hnwfivfir, air- modi'' from 1 jin. to 
2jln. itiliorc, and for a aiuifta xt mam only, iindtba employ* 
Dii'tit of H 1 }in bmm'h pipe, trnuld Iw nwdaia, and largiir 
BizoH must be lutd v-ith liirgur nniipliugs and hoM. 

Going hack to thi: ijuunliun <if Lho noxili> iibnpp, it iniMt 
1)0 nlvayn tionin in niiud that tltp rvductiiai ahould bo 
tfradual from ihi- h'mi to the crlindrioal purt of the nomtle, 
and thu i:on«l jtarl should not liniith abruptly or with a 
KtttaR cAgf, nnd the length of Ihi- «.ylinJrii'nri)B.H nhontd 
bo bI h-oiit titia diami>t)>r long, for thin re&iKtn : that the 
MtivAui uuty b» ohapcd or pnimwd piTfect^y smooth and 
rjund and into a Bjlid atnam. which cannot ruuily 
brnak up intit a «nniy. iw dopn the ntreeLiu isauiug fium a 
tAp«rc<d jDt, whioti Inttrr Ux>n« to liri<:Lk up ■■ acton a* it 
raa?luiii t.b» iitTiio<iphi>r)>. th(><>i(emnl wiillnvf wutvr having 
bven ngilat«il by undue fri'^ttun cauM3d bj- the iiharp fdge 
of the ootte, uid thi-do oxtcmal wnlN ur(<, ao to ap«ttk, fIow to 
that in tba internal, and in a ouuipli:1o Npiutung oondition. 


































Wat^r Pr«i»up» for Hove Noizlv*. 

TlepKHuni ratuired aiyi-vntnry lu tliniw vtTtwtiva ^tniMmii 
la diffrmit ilubtnoew will be fuiiiul of iiiiporUmce, nnd Ibe 
fullowiDK ^U Kivt' ■'■L appPDsiiriaUi mnilt fonliiTiTDtit #!(" 
nozzleo. aHnnmin^' the prtrMiirD to W ilinvt olf ttiti pump 
inl<' thv li«»>-, iitiil a frou way 'iUn. aiiiuuCii hu»e Ubul, 
wit))iiul a lot iif IknnrU, nod IHOft- in lon^h. 

Vi'« will t«kc 11^ l|iii., thu medium nizod avxxi<\ u* tbv 
one pnifeiral, to commmcA with. If ott a hydrant the 
prqjMitioa will be k little groatcr. 

Ijin. NoBSLB. 

TMlOil HcuAt in fmt 

nMmnUI I^otttnoc in fuvt 


i'KKMirr <>n Nox^lr. Ihn. pfT oq, tneh 
PraMira on Pump, ILn. jicr kj. indi 

IJin. N'oxKLK. 

Tcrtinnl HeJKht in feet 

IlarisuDlAl DidmiM in frat 
Gallotis pn- minuto .. 
PreMtm fin "Sor-itlc, Wm. pnr *q. inch 
I'rcBBuro on Piimp, Ihw per kj, inch 

I (in. Koccut. 

i in hot 

j__ — _ , — DoeinfMt 


Pmwun!aaI>fozx1«i, lb*, per hij. inch 

ftwBOre on Fiunp, lb». pur »q. iucb 

lie. NozziK. 

Verttcal H^ijflit in fort 

Hnri/otilAl nintaiiw iii fcwt 
Gallunii pi'r iiiiniito ., 
i'rewurt' ua Ncuxic, llw. prr*q. inch 
Prremm on Pump, Iba. per »q. Inch 

jin. NoszLB. 

Vertjeal Hf»i|i-ht in foet 

Ilnri/oiilAl lltHiaiica ia fc«t 
tiiUIiiUB pitr ininiiliT .. 
rrewaroon No/clv,)bH, i>ersi|. hirh 
PnmMTe on Pump, tlie. p>yr m^. iouh 

|in NrazLB. 

Vf^wil Hoiirhtln fMt 

HomvnUil IHiriAQM) in fcot 

OaUooa pia- niinnto 

LBMkanouNozxk, \i». pervq.inob 
'VnMuie OB Pump, lb«. per mi. iiuib 


















































100 i 
















Spreading Nozzles. 


TbMe wo uiuneraus. Tb*> FtiinplvMt in thL> 
' 8PEEADER. tbe dnwins of whii;h f^xpLiinfi itself. 

TV Star KNIFK Sprcador is Another form, which abo 
cxpliunii ilMilf . 

Ttie Cone Spreadtr. 

SmwtiinaN an inTcrted Ctme ia lund iiirt«ad gf tbo 
"" '"i tlw Cuoc Spcradgr, 

The Ball Spreader. 

Thit is a spreader mtx^h aliout lliu mme aliAyv ria tbo Star 
KNIFR BpiTiiulfir, hnt ha^Tiiif; n «Ri(»ith bird India •rtibher 
ur i)th):r liaU [gqiuilttr fu Um buxki-l jvt iu Fimntain Jeu), 
whicli. owiiiK to tbe ahnpe of Lhf- nox/le, the w&t^r tenda, 
8u to Hpcak, tty upcn aa doM tho wind from » trampci, 
and thi* rlinuiiiff (if Lbai wal<T tn tha idiltw nf tlut Imll rono 
naturaUj' tvnos to split uptbe wtn-aio in tbe centre, pnttlns 
tbs RiuToiniding air, both inadp und ontaidc. into rapid 
motiaa, and thiia tendit t« fotm n partial vacaum in thr 
eentn of the iaeida atieani, a.nd to keep tlie ball drivtoK 
towmds the oeotn. [S«o Itidla Rubwr xnd otfavr bnlu, 
fttonm jet*. Ae.) 

Ball Speed to create a Vacuum through Air. 

Of L'uuntti. I am well awatf of how ftuA a bod^ iQiist 
iravvl tliroii^^h tti« air tn rTVAto ii vai-aum brJiind iL 
Tljwirtflittillj* iipcakiiii{, tliv vcliN'itj' wuidd have i/\ be iiltoat 
9IR milee per huur. Imt. praclii'ally Rueakintr, it ia 460 
iiulcs. ThPtheorcticalveKxitj-of tho air tJiat will flow into n 
VNCuuin, if whntly onnbirtnirtfnl, i» tX17'4fl- per wh-ohiI, 
wbtW ill praDtiLv it in only 4-'>2 61ft. It will be plain that 
tho bull, drif-iaBT towards the centra of tho issiuu^ streum 
(end onf<^ 1.h« ball Ix-ing therr^J, thn internal walb> of tho 
atroain (at tbe periphfcy of tho ballj ir-tvmaae, and &!t 
the balla npin aa the wal^ liu>h«a in at th" liark of Iho ball 
at a hiKli qnwd, and *o kiirp« it driving oKainnt the 
oentro point, wblnh hu ibc Iciutt raniManco. wbiW, owing 
to the w*t«r beerking on th^ biirk nirtof tbo tiJtll, jtboootaee 
•cntt«red, and, «■ otirfa, thn wliolu nutur Ktn-nni heconies 
agitated, and a spray ia tbe reanlt. 

Fire Hoae. 

Too moeb attention cannot be piud to Are boae, for, if 
aUeired Vt ha nin over or olhcrwiw) beoone Injuied, the t-vU 
may not ll■^ dL-miren'd jiutl at th« time, and when this 
iiupurtaut p&ri ix n-rjuirwl, it in tbeit thcreisth*' fulling off, 
ana many a hiiiliiinjr hu bn>ii totally wnM:Jii>d tbruuf^thia 
unf'^nixvca oatuxiroidie. 

Again, it in not imly netoal violenoo brought about by 
Ibe wboel tyrva of Iho vdliielc, biit tlion- arr other roawmu 
for injury, otm ia that the Iiobb in rtrv ollt'ii not ptwpcrly 
eared for after it^ bi'luK In iwe, often boing thrown into 
tho bunker or intu rotav mit-of-tho-wny placi', wbeiv it Iim 
fur months to^tli«r nitl) v»Wt tli(V«in, initt^'iid lA br-lng 
ulwuyit nicely rolled up to hu taken Ut itH ptatjon or other 
dcatlnatinn, and tb<.'ni pn>prrly hunt; by mir end uf tlio 
euupliniT to drain out, iiud otherwlae properly loukod after ; 
nna oan> abotiM hu tiikea that it doee not bccomo hturl and 
perinbod for tlie w*Tit. of a littln oiling, and other valiublo, 
thotig'h iinulU, ntlitiLi'iiui. 

Thare is another way in which hono often becotnoa 
injured, by putting ezceesiTe pnmire thi-mon by having 
An int^TiiwdiatA cock or talre on the outlet end. The 
prewure abaiild be governed by a Talve, asatK, Fig. 1.0'!7, 
or u at Fig. 1,079, or if tho cogine bo used with a oam. 
then the pmvnro thoDld be regntatedi tn tbo onlJet sido of 
the pump ; in feet, Duder no oanditkou afaonld Ifaeni be a 
o(Mk between the nox^ end theboee, when unto' veiy high 

Rotary Pumpa. {AUa ov TW^nm.) 

Of theee there arc a great varietr (soo Fig. 913). 
Hare, at A. it will hn ulnnrYDd that tbe inuir mtlloped 
whuel eonlaina four rollera. wliiob^day between tbe slota in 
the soullgped whcot and tlio penphBTT of the eyliudrkel 
ehambrr. The action is at follows: By giving motiaD to 



rM M 

the handle B, or to tlio «h«ol 0, thA MalkiiiMl roller wImmI 
will nv6]««, tlivrcby miiTTiiiif tha rollei*, which, ouniiw 
past dio niolum p(»-t-}u>l>>, cniwe njwitikl vmgiuun mm 
loren thr wn'cr up the ririn^ nuin. TImtc porapa tiMijr ht 
rnriorf tc iiuit cirrumnuuicm. Kod u their luuae w legion. 
Mtd the pluiuW Luvtuir liille to Au witli thcnt. it i» uuC 
iHHUMiiji t» fnrtbor oxpliiiti in thi* wuric, om be abunld duw 
be able tu tliiiik for hiiuvclf about pump work. 

CtiRln Pump*. (Sm ¥ig. 918.) 

71k-t« Are a rsrie^ of di^n pnmn. The priticiple \» 
nckrlr that of tho np wheel nrr<?nvd. Br taming- bade 
tu Fig. 91)1), fbDil itnaffitiiiifc the htukri F. C, II to bo 
dipiUDH into Iht! waUT, and tlin whtwl K to miikv pru^fRwa 
fTOtn L to M. it will bs nlajn that audi na appcntaa ransC 
hiing the K'n.twr from bolow in thw backtrbi ud diacfaargv 
thanuelTM into a mitable tnmgfa at th« t<^, m at Tig. ttlft. 

Ttt^a pampa an rny much lued for bringing wal«r out. 
of wtt axoamtlona, for Hwora. ieup cuttingv, and Knch-lilro 
plaooB. Thef arc cxoccdln^^lj hundy in plncw whom 
ahiiiglM and mi^h-likc, oron to brirkbtits. nhcuiiil. 

Anolhi^r kind of chuiti p-iiinp in to pintv diMs on xn 
oiidlf-n* chiiii], tho ujjwocd portion of wbidi paows through 
fto upritrbt tabo. 

Pumps for Testing Purposes. 

Tt nftrn hnpjHtn* that a plumber rmuiroH to toot hla 
valTM or oiNiks fur iH)uti(IneM. M;r wnrlc i^n pnnnp* will, 
therefore, not bo ooonplBto witbonl n-ftTrncn to tho imm: 
S«cb an appanlos ia tbown at Tig. 911, and bjr mnful 
vxawlBBtloii ytm will aoe thkt alnont any u ra wuro oaa \m 
pal uk to tho vairo or oook, which maj bo ftxed iw afaovn 



fAcvI valvo bj & Knnr, wbicli kn-p* tbv valw ilown 
upon a Boitnblc innttiif; of kaditr, Uiruu|,'h wlioli pnrwcH 
tlio pipe fruiu the pump. After what I hiiTo ami mi 
ptimpv, Kuah a due as is addwii in this Ki^. iritl bw clewly 
undontood, ms iii rrnlity itn Bftiiin w tho mimi kn «t 
Fig 903 : Init tbla pN*LuK ■>' f<<ntiiJ)r pump, Fl^"- 9H, 
hu a putou ur plutigvr of vrry Bmatl diuncior, tvtm as 
■imI) ss, Mt}-. n wjiinrv half im-h. Nnw, siiiipnnin^ mich 
an npparutuH t(> Iid iti jour jiuRBviwiiuit, itod it to nqiured lo 
koow what prmsHTe juii cuu put p«r square hub upon tbc 
cock. Say the Irrcr i» Sft., tli« fvlcnun 'iia.. lurr wc 
hare a mnltinlloatioti of thirty tttni*. N'lw, siipi»iHin;; 
lUO Iba. wvi^nl to K- put ou ttio eud uf the lover. })etv joii 
tiarc Ihirl)- timrii 100 lbs. (.1,000 Hip.) tm'winft upcjn t.hii 
piaton (ir jiIiinjfiT, whicli, m hcfora lUiio. is half un inch 
nquun- am, aud. an lliutv are fmu- half inchea in tlio uuti 
(■quari' iiiili, it will ho plain thiit you will havci p*r square 
iaoti pnamitT' to ti>ii1(:]Hy Uio thirty UH) )ba. I>y funr, which 
l^quBls iini' himdrMl uuti Iwcaty lOU \hn.. or say I'J.OOO lbs. 
to tho aquiuv iadi Thin appnrataa is supplicsl with wat«r 
from tho ciatvru abovu, ur in luiy «thur way. 

Boiler and Tank Test«p«. 

ThJA eloM u[ tc»U!T is fihovn at f\(f. 91ft, aud vill bo 
readily uiidemtood. 


rtii. mi'. 
Both o( the aboTC pumps may ho had fruui Ucasra. BaUuy - 

HydrauJlc Lifts and PreaaeB. 

T««i harp wyn what enormuuM pn-muro oiii hi.- olilaintil 
by Iho Iwci fun-to'iitifr liinfrr'im*. Wp will now ncf? whal 
I be ddiw by the byilratiUo jjixi*. which, for simnlidty'a 
D, I havu dragnet Tur. Die. Hi>r«, nt C, B. I.. K. is 
itace pump, thn pinton of wbinh ia, say. for nimplc 
oalml&tiicm a aaVe, on» M|uiir<r inch, Uie Unrra^ of linnifle, 
multiplied hy rix, aay, <i|-2 lt«. Now, mv the ruDii, N, (o 
be wjual lo m m|iiiLre inches. l\m, iniilliplied by 672, 
lfi»*B a lift ' " 'be., or nvcr 13 tonn lift. HI<ro. in 

ihis finplo he «o*ri what etianamut power nufti 

bo obtttinoil ^nrr. 



ssrsa LBS 







Vltf. »10. 

Cupping Leathers foi* Pumps. 

Vou may Tcuniiv lo make a cup leather fur tho bucJcet 
Jli Fig. 817. This you cso do ■» nhown at Fi|f- 917. & 
in simply au in>& riuK uboul tb" m/v iiud lU-plh yoiL nqulrc 
as a cup loatb^'T, L ia the leather, K the pluK, the Aame 
nzc as Ihe ring, bar tli« thickntMos of tho lealhar. S a 






Pin. ;>I7 


iwTpw, nctiiatol bv fi uut iLndemeatb, and woriting thnragh 
H bulo in ihu hiiiul] fir othrrwiw. 

llaTing got the leaihwr tlie rigM aubslaoce and fii«e. 
vvlleocdK it. aud fix it us i^huwn. and K-row. orothorwiao 
prwB it Into the aodtet. nod let it xrand til] dry ; tiKin trim 
off the cdgw, and vou bare tli4.< cup Icathrr. 

Thefw nip Lrnlfiprn nxv liJtiiidly cupped up with tho 
latbe, H being a L-lii<.-k. K. n plug to fon.-e tl» Wthctr ^ac 
ititw till.' chock with tho back eejitrr, rhni the iHirphui 
leather <ian bn ttimmrd off with a cutting ("xd wlnUi fho 
latho wvolvtto, but, a« cteryono baa nut k lathe, tho i^g. 



Itiie taw«r. Tbo wiodmai itacK ia oF the irbwl typff. SS^ft. 

|iD difttnptcr, Knd fonwe «at«r 2,000 yurdi liurizontallr to & 
Bci^kt of 'i'.'3ft. [nio • 0fi,O(IO pvlliin roMTvoir — two cUvb' 
work. Tfaia mudmiU hui a fuundaliun 46ft. iiquw. lliai 
fTxini>ir(irk r^ts iipnn «ight pinn, one at Mvh rorner, uid 
onu uador tbe ovKiro u( mi«L, oiilu. Fur tho Anl l'J5f(. of 
the lower, Hk Iramio);: cnnsjstd of Iwary yellow piac, 
harinfl: Oin. wjhuyi Btrato At «Mti comer jiost, uid bin. by 
lOln. fur llio M-nlni anlumiut, »U bmoed toother by hniiTy 
timbKi, 'nuJTo Id about nix totuof iruuwurk ia 


th* frnmewoirk alocw. Th*r« »t* k miinber nf fllgbt« or 
ftorio* fiom 13ft. Ut Ifift. hi|{k, cgaDiretiKl by a lUucaN. 
Then is ut cfuy acocM to tbo top, wlikh U iOtt. nquare. 

Thix in ono of the bMt winamilla for ordinary pump 
wurk, tMiilnblc! for rabin^ wntcr l&Oft. hi^fa abovn tbo l)iti<I 
nf thi) wutor in llio w«lt. It ia nuilatite for wat'-r Mipply to 
nuiisioiie. •^i>tiit4^, fnmui, &c> : also appUcablo for dnutu^. 

Tim piimjiH ran be plnred in the mpporbi, or down tho 
Wi?ll, bdl .ilwajN wiUiiu Uii' drttu^bl of tbe wat«r. 

Th^ rlaiu <if pnmp to be unci should be of the mntiniioiu 
prinivd t'laiw. 

The jreucral height from ground lar«l to osntro of Mtil, 
is 10ft. to 50ft. 

A Ho. I, with 3in. pnmp, and IRft. to th» «<eatr« of 
Asil from (ground, with an nvrrnxg oifrht daya' wwk, and « 
hn.vtv of fgiirtcfu milea per honr, ahoiuil throw 260 gaUoiM 
lOOft. high per bflur, 

A Ko. 'i, with a Sin. immp, and 17ft. nnnlrr fmm Ihe 
ground, will throw 'JAO gnllotui loOlt. high |wr huur. 

A Ko. 2, with a 4m. punip, wilt raiao 400 g 
IWh. high [iirbour. 

8toriiiC(i ttkiiba should have n L'a]>acily of tit Icut aix 

darn' ru'linliniptlOIi. 

MfiihiH. UayuruttI Tj-I-t will gwuatiU*' thifl work. 

Thwc wmdnnlls lari' auu-mittlu nitlety nxifing. acU* 
faring tho wiiul, and hand n.'gulnliug' npparntUH. 

I luay add that ufleu windmill pumpn nrr nloo flttad 
with bnnm g<:ar Ut Work tho i^ump when th<.- wiud t* not 
aiifilcicut ; aW tlivjr are fittvd for band work, mm shown. 

Electric Pumpt. 




n«. V3>. 

flu, vtl. 

IV- 921 iUuittratm a svt of pumpi* workwl hy eleotrioity, 
and nro Trry iiarfnl fn placm when? a ^le%m or gaa mgiue 
oannut br (rinpluynl. 

If you haw the «levtrie wir« ui,<ccMHiry for liKhtiu^ 
p urp ow w numinif by j our hooce or pnmiaa, all you want 
la a conneetloii. and lou hare what power you T«>iulro 
wheut'tiT you likr. H»n.- U anatbiT atroog wove by- 
Mca»n>. Ilaynuiil TyVr 



Stationary St«am Engine Driven Pumpa, 

Vig~ 93- i* AD iihiaLraiiiiii ii( a m^ nf tlirw tlimw iniin|>a, 
■bowiniT U>o cuu{>nii|{ iirrtiJ<ir>;nK-iilJ> vt BfcMrv. Tjwr. 
Then U, with tbia Amnt^iuvnt, n Siwhwl, wlikh k«epfi 
tbp work BtMidr Bad ncgriiliir. no niaticr wbvthct joa work 
OOF. Iwu, or tliTr« Imitt-U at our timr. Th« ImitdIs, »» 
ima tw Mvn, aiv bolted witfa long nd» or bulta doim upon 
Che BtaiRi tni tndcr pu-t ol toe pninpi by nitaUc la^ 
Dmrthetopof thebanvlH. 

On tbe ngfat-hand aide of Piff. G22 in tu !>« Men n 
decidad improTenMnl in dp*^ w«l! putnp*. doMgned to meet 
the nqitireiiinitji uf fluciimtiuK Wirliu vf water in wrik. 
amunar or wiatcr. In this piin of the diagnm you will 
Nao tho workinr buret* ninng li«low th f aU gt; yon vill 
alao My. the hmght nf Lhn wat«r nt HIGHB^ WATER 
I>BVKL, and, aa » aUo abown. the latreat wat«r level. 
This mclbud of fixing paapa allows tha phnobBr Iw pui 
Di>w <rBp lAachent or Tuvm whan, the pump baAnlit Mtv 
below line vaUt. and will U> well OMCtvwod and «p> 
pnciat«d by th» irorkiaan. 

Pumping Station Engtnet. 

Tss WosTHtmiTtMt Siaui Pnu*. 

The TalTO motion ia the pro* 
minent aiid diattfiiniiahin^ p«eu- 
liarily of th« Wnrthintftim punp- 
Tu ii it owea ita ocMD|&te oxvinp- 
tfam ftom doIm or ooneaaaira 
notion. Two ateaio pvinp* (neo 
anetion aud wlevation, Vifn. 033 
and 9'27a) *i« placed dda by aide 
forming one miu>Line. and «o cum- 
blnod aa to lut tv<:i|mH»lty qiiob 
the alaam vaKe* ul eadi other. 
TIm one pinton lutu to give *t*win 
te the other after whkh It flniihna 
Ub own atmin!, and waitH for ita 
valvo to be utod upon before it 
oaa renew iU mutiou. Tliia pauao 
altowa all the Ruter ralm to aeat 
qolotly, and mnowii erorythiBg 
nka hiipOi ftrw t <■( motion. 

At oao or the othor of the nleam valTM mwt be always 

r, there eaa be wt d«iul point. Tho pnmp \», (harrfore, 
y« ready to ntarl wbi-n tltu nimtn m lulmittod, and ia 
mamgad by the rimplu opoing aud dhuttiug of liio thiottlfl 

In ita appUmtion tn Nteam numpa for anlinory An-Tic«, 
aaweUaato water work* Ptigiiui* nf l»i>')*t ulnas, a onm- 
Uaatkai of nliabiUty. with i>couoniy iu rirst ooet, and 
in nraniDir mtntuMt. in attoiitod, not roaSiKd liy any other 
tyno iif iiiiiupiiiir iiiachiitery. 

It i* rl.iiiDHl tiint thin inarbinti l» dintinifiiiRliiid for fcm^t 
■implic'ilj aiid Ntrviitcth orvutiHtrDetiuii, liaviupr few niiitiug 
part#, with im> handi mutiuuB, aud not Bubjecl to frBctorv or 
other daraugvmtmt. 

in the amnifomcot lit the Wurtliinf^im Kl«un pump, 
arnoial car* Iim bat.<u taken to have tht* parta osjilly m^cm- 
■ndo for i iwpuctiuu or rvpain. All tlM moving pioooa bri»K 
mtitt to tfaugo. tlu^ ean be roadtly renewed. 

Ad-lnl Ut Un d unildlity. the ■iiiooth and noiaeleM action 
ol the Worthinglim «iriim punip makra it pmffrahlu rni 
mauv Ein]iiiriaiit tervkok. whcri- iIh* jnr •>! h aiii4fl« oylhidtT 
(>r onink and fivwbeel pump* would bo ubjoctiuiiBb]*] or 
d irtnii'liYti. 

11>r Muvinaful npplir.atiuli uf » pumpdcp^^daniUcb ■»» 
Ita prt>pi<r m-ira-tUni from among many pRttema diffanng 
fmiu »>tnli ntitcr in riao, pmiwrtion, material, and gonaral 

The following nTv liv e^sntial polata lo snaly when 
aboat tn adopt lbi« in>|inrtant (tlaw M P*>*P = — 

lit,— Towhul ■■rvirr ia it lo Iw applied F 

Slid. — Tbei|aality (rf tbi.> liquid to b« pomped, whether 
suit, (mfa, add, d-.-ar ur unity ; and whetlwr it it tw be 
pumped oold or but. When hoi water la to be puniwd, the 
diffiiniliy of Ufling it by raetion iiMteaaM with tide hem- 
peratara. It ohonld tlmnt fon t Im> airanged bo flow into the 
pump ubambn. if *u hot aa lo raptirlae whca the prwiiiw 
of the atmofpbcR ie ninaval. 

3n).- To what A>^A( la the water to be lifted by «MertM, 
and what is the lengtii and diameter of the aaetioo and 
dianhargip pipoa ?" 

4tb. - Of wliat iBAterial ia the metioo pipe, and what i* 
ita geopral arrangeraoit aa regards othw pluoa leading into 

it, Af . f 

Ath.— To what hoigfat, or against what pn e au re Is the 
wat«r lo Iw pumped f ^^ 

nth.— What ia the greatest qnan- 
titT of water needed per hour Y 

'th. — What prsaanre of uleam t* 

Vui. ■tat. 

Wbeu calciilnLiag tht- cnpaoitr *>l lUu WuHhlngton 
pump, rcrocmbcT that It b(V)twod<]uule-actIiippIi)ngon*,Bnd, 
clutrt-foro, four times that of a aingto-aeting jiump of the 
auDo aim. 

Viu. tniA. 



The QloMTatira, TIf ■ 923, U & HnHiDnitt \ir-v <■'{ •nx- ftidt^ 
or balf of a WurtUngloa DIkIi pn-AUit^ nUnut iiuiii)i ttl 
vrdiiiary conMtmctintt. Ib< obji^t in l<> nliihii i1)i> )j[rcul 
xiuiplirity <rf it* inttritir «miiiitt'nw.*«t. twiHtniillj- tlinl |>fv- 
Uimng U> UiAitbutm vnlrc. 

Hiia valnr, u nuij he w.-m Nt K, to «i ordinitrj "tide 
vb1v«>, wnrkiDg unin a ftnl fnoo u*nr iKirt* <>r u|imitiKf<- 
ItB Bimplicity oitii dumbility, in cnotriMi with sii}- ulhw 
form of tfteom rxlvr, nro well known. Althmik'li nununiiui 
ftttonpta huvt' Wm nia>k lo iiuiienM-tle it, it olill nukinUinN 
ite p|n(!« on luooniutiven and otijcr fomix 'if tii^)) {jrcxmii-v 
milk inHfines. No mnttiir hnw l<>ii^ llio i^i^i^i' iniiy oIjUkI 
injicttv«,s diilc niKr will not riu>i or mlticrv lu it* tvai.tnid 
is it1w»y» PWidy M Stan when re-qnirfd. No walfr tan 
ooUvct 111 ltd e»vitie" lo pr<«lurt^ tmuhlo by fneiinji- In a 
mird, it may Ix- iiJlixl iw i-iuijil'wl wiid iinjnl n-Iiiil>li' Blcntu 
«alvc )inovrn to «Q)^c«n. 

In tilt' 'U'orthlngtou cn^inp till' mntioii of thiH vatva ■» 
pn.>li)i.¥<l bj- n vibniUnp iimi, iwwn nt F, whirh i>wing« 
tbruugfa tliv «'hr)l(^ li!U|fUL of ihtf Mtruke, witb luu]; ftnil oiiiy 
IcTcragr^. Ar the moving purte am alwKj'B jo cooUot. tnb 
blow iuMrpAnblt; from thr^ tjipprt K^rNfm ijt avoidrd. Kran 
the truitiitti of Uiti wt'U-kivnii'ii tcoeiitriti upiin cniiik I'utontw 
ii nut OuBiiHtralilci lo ihio f>.>r riKula-ritte frirtiaii amJ ihini- 

Yoii iibotild nW dirrrt your Rrtcntifiii tii thr nimnjff niMil 
of Iho donblo'-nirtiiiK ]>Iuii),Tr, iiluiwu at B, wliii'li liifTcTs 
fmm nil our previous puimw. tltrrt^ tlio nUti-iii tn innn' Ilk*' 
B cylinder wurkin); UiitHigli it <|i-cp uit'tiillir' paikiiiK nnu< 
bt'iYtl tnun acAumti^fil, hc-inj; ii,dtli<'ri^liLMti« tioriuljiiiit4i)j|<i. 
Biitli tlie nuK iiud tbr plnii^'Vi' run l)e (inickty tnkm i>ul. 
and i^ilbrr rrtitt^'il nr I'li'.hiiiiK'd for iir>w mit^n ;il KTimll ('nut ; 
and if it U> drvlivd at nuy tiun' (o •■Iihuk'' I1j'> |.jrii|ii>rtiuu< 
btrtwonn the steam pistone aud pumpe. ii ptHUirer of m'Eeic- 
whAt larfcpr mm. or decrcued t.^ nny Hinitlli^r diamctrr, imiii 
bo ir«ilily ■tibatttiit4<d. Aorxai't ijnipurLiuun Wlwi'tui ihH 
puwvr uuO work iLre alwayK d^^irdbli-, if nut nocMfwory, thi* 
IS a vtry import-int adv&ntsiw. 

'riiin .■^y>l1l^t of n'^iii'u-iii tit tho workiii)^ pirtn liim l>cen 
jirvred by lutig ezperieuco to !» tlio l<!ii«t (fX|Mmiiii'H nnil 
luovt saiiid'iMtorT tor ordiuaiy woik. Tte plun^rer Is 
lovated mane iuoau abuvo thf sucliim vuIvok, t<> form a 
mibt^ing ubainlier, iiilu which nay frafigit Kutiatanee roar 
fall bekiw Ifao w^^nring Burfiuies. lliii eniiblon it t-n work 
longrr wilhcml rrnewnl tbun tLo iiamil fomi of piitmi pump, 
«m>ccIaUy in watvr ooutalulut; K^Jt or othir Mitid uiiiU-r-al. 
The W&Usr c&totv the pump from the Baotion rlianthcT C, 
through the Buotibn vu]v<--«, then pim»f!» imrtly jin-iirjd nnd 
partly by the end <jf tliu pluii>pT, thrmiH'b the riniiiK uutin 
valri^ ii(<nrly in & straight counK', into the di'liii-ry 
cbanibtT D, ihiu tmvcrMnjjr n very <tir*Ti imi] umpli; vat4.'r 
way. Thn bottiim and tap fiiutt^ fnmir<h a ln-gt- un-ii f>ir 
thn accommodation of tlie vhIvdh. T1ii-m- imuHiNt of ncvt'nil 
mnall iliKCM of niblH?T. or othiFr ■iiitAbln miitn'riiil, rmy ti> 
etamitte, and in«xjm;ui>tvf tu rvpluuv. 

As before iiaid. Fijr- 9'23 only shiw:* half of tho niiif'hiiw>, 
but, by <-inniining tho i^l^vtttiuii. P'i(f. 9'J3i.. tbo trhoV. or 
ain>aT'<ut, Iwii pumpi and vtviun cylind"r« vuu ho obt«r*t«d. 
I I'hyc flxc<l umny L<f tbt-ti tiumpn in thi-miml mid «thi-r 
work*, nnd the iptaulity of iViciu fluppHi-d In ilIukhI. if oot 
■|iul<.>. a f^uarautn' a* Ui tlinir pi'rr»niiaiii'i> nnd <|iinlity i.if 
workiriJiiiKliip : for whi'ii it i* iimiwii ihiii iil tin- jinm-tit 
nRiiiii-iil tbo tntjil daily capri<-ity of th>> WurOiin^fton 
pampiuif t-fnfiii»=> nn wat«T work wcrvico is elo«ie on tbrw 
trillion gallons, it is miutlhiiiif tu wnmuit <mn in myiniiC 
Ihal Ibia t'ompany !■ ono nf, if not tlie flrvil pijuiii riinki'tii 
in the worlil. And it uiuat not h- lost Hjflil of Uiat thi-SL- 
|iimpfl aro not only far ordiitirr WIll^^ piinipinir. ln;l, art- 
rondc tor pampinK air. midn. siid for ^'I'uciiil ulii!ini<'«] 
works Worlt, and uUii fur hi-ary liydrniilic lift*, \i'., Jiml 1 
baT» never luivwu oik- that 1m> not jpvvn (fvuml aaliit- 

This aloani pump, Fi^^. U?3&, is a i>|iJfiN)ld pieNr of 
nixrhaniMiii, uiorh iiH>d nt I'*IVC pumping i>liitii.iDs. It ia 
uiadv Vy <hp Piri! Appliuim' oiiojiaay, lo any uistiuiludtt, 
and is * troo>l piiH^- 1.( byilmollr engrniwrin^. 


Water Motors. 

FifT- ^i^ illuatratM a WoHhiu^on water motor 
KKiall aUei. The larger t>Lze"> ditffr i<on]dd6nMy ia gvownl 

ThwM uiochinr* nn> dn^trnM to lie dri^-en hy watft 
pnawin; itiiit«i»il nf Mltiuii. Id Ihtfir oon*tnifHon ihry do 
iiid differ matorially froni tlit> onlinnry WortJiiiif(1»n •liwm 
pump, enomt thai tli«driviu)i rytitKlvra ar«> |>roTiil«d with 
porta and puttonv aiiltahlo for wator praentirv. 

Fio. fact, 

Thoyirfl ext^njqvcly ns«l In tho at-rvioc of aiippjTfnff' 
houBo tnnko with wntcr. where Ihf pri^e-ure in the 
sli-M^t id hi)t AuHii-icitl in ibo-lf to till tbi- t^nkn. In KuA 
ruMs n (Attain prii|iitrti<iu nf ilii.' w.-iiur frutn |]ii> main ia 
iiMvl ti> drivo Chd motor and lift ii tinalliT prop >rtion to iho 

Thiyjr arc «niRtru^t<^ of pifiporiifmM *nilHbV for any ^i 
cnndifjonx nf w>rvioi>, mill }iati> bo»ii l>uiU c-f large sixO'^H 
(ia liable of loimilyiiJjf t.iwn* or cities with water. In the ^| 
larger ulzum tSiv liriviiif.' cylinder valwsi sre JMiUnocd. * 

In di'Mi^iiig luotorM for no/ i^iren work, the following 
■louditions bIihijIiI lie ktiiiwn : — 

lot.— inj4" Lt'iLrhl to whiuh (he wtiliT in to bv elevated, 

■ — '"''* P' 
under whi'oh like wat<>r to hp u*i<i] in drivini^ thu nodiine 

it« quiuitU)-, iiud thi- oi^e of conncctint; pipes, 
'ind. — The pn.vaure ptt M| iiioh. or hoad in iHt. 

will nntor tko rylinditra, and thr> ij^iuintity tJiot OWI bo 

:ird. — Whother the ksidi.' wnt«r that ia to he used in 
dririnK th« mtklor i* to lie pumped, or water from nnolhcr 


When tlmee data ]in> fnriii«[ii il. W Urlhington IXWtaBi 
wla^l^ for t^uy •orvi'-'u cnu bfi 




taar of Sibbb er Wateb Hotons- 



K < ] K 12 





yW JrvifUMlr Ik* mam, gift (A* Mmmrttr of l^ien- C^li n4*rt «nit 
Ptmt/H'if CglinJtr*. anut Imflh vf Slrvkt ; atto tn Jty'retm-i, 

Useful Hints and Faets- 

To Bx ComnTTiirj TW Mfjcoby. 

One {mjwrinl Nmlltm = a77'274 cubic inctwf. 

OiU( imjwrinl K'>""<i = '"^ ctibiu foot. 

One impiTiaJ t(ulloa -^ 10 lb*, 

OiMj I'libio iiifjl uf vAt>?r = 'OiCOT lb. 

Ono cubic (.Ki( «if wnb-r ■= CW iin|MTuI 2>ll<!e:^ 

One cubic 1lm4 uf WBt<!t =^ S.!! i^wt. 

lino pniind of wntw ■= 2("i; ruble IdcIks.. 

Oiip )>uiui<l -jf wiiLcr = '10 impi'rijil ifsllgQ. 

One cm. of water = 1-8 mibic fftot. 

Oii« Icn iif water =^ 3-V!>«ubi>i: f<«t. 

Out! ton (>f wniar -^ i'l\ iiapdriiil giLllon*. 

A cotiinw of watvr 1ft. hii;h luic u [iKaituro at biiso of 

'4^1 lb. per aqoare lui li. 
A prcA^uitt iif I lb. pur nqunro incii ~ a cului&a 3'3I 

fetit \»^\i. 

Frlctional Losa In PIpat. 


Kmrtifht pipe ItlOfi. lon^ will cut di>wti tlie hand and 
wind Um flow aa (oUows, in ponndt prtvHr*: — 

an the miiiarp inch frnm I to iSO fec4. and by ravmin^ Ilia 
vrAot fruin Ibn. tu fvul, <utn \» wen at a iHano*. 

Theoretical Water Preiaure Table per S«^uare Inch. 

For tliriHi! thill riinnm raiililf rnli-ulAlf, anil for ijuick 
- »h« fuUowtiiff worked out labk tA thn pivi!*me 

SI 5 



B a u 

















2S 1.-, 






















3 16 






84 03 


















3 -41) 










31 18 






















A '20 


3-i 4a 








32 Ifi 








33 35 




87 93 


















7 38 


34 65 


61 -Jit 












8 22 






90 10 














63 67 






311 8-J 








37 25 














10 82 
























12 12 


. -i^Vi 








39 '86 


67 14 














10 72 


















68 87 






4'J 01 


fi'J 31 






4-J 43 
















43 -ill 








43-; A 








44 18 


























72 77 








73 ^o 








73' 64 
















74 oO 

■J 35 





47 04 


74 '.14 




























32 OS 










49 »1 


7; 10 






iiV J4 








































52 -4 1 
















53 --'8 


80 57 








Bl 00 

















Bonds and Lom of Head. 

Tho RviiUiUM? •■fftrrcd liy )h<iii1« in obaniielA or pi]>M lo 
tiw Bow ot water is oaodd«n1)l(i, and them tin: naay 
■MtbodH of calculnlinp the Lom, tiid tho folluTio^ in 
B ci d ino ro'g, w m tatAoA :■— 

A s head in ineliM, to ororcomo rAristonoo. 

I' = vdocJtT in inohiw, per amoiid. 
S K linn of angle. 
X = ORffilwr of bonda. 

- a Itj-dnmlio nieui dcpib of |iIjmi. 

Lom of hMd eniMrd hy Wndi* nhmild br in your caI- 
cuUtiona tiln^n or iledtut^d from Uhi h«ad, and tba 
tBlovlBtlons then roade with tho reduced bead. 

Tablet and Quostlonaon PIpos, WcIIb, Pumpe, 
Power, &o. 

>*ow that we hare B«ue thn>ii|rb th« (oregoln? pre- 

fisralOT^ work, whioh uan frivt-ii inj n-udcra a mnaral 
nudght inla Uw adenoe and art at the pomp, t will give, 
befuru proMiedinif further, a few taUes and rule* auitabla 
torphunbptu' mirk. 

Tho foUuwiux ruU« and tables wUl at tiiuM bv funnd 
nsefol to tho workings plumber: and, in order to nuk'O 
tliDin oa aiinple a* ]K)MJblc. I will Ite^io by cxt>bL(iiii)g tb« 
law iif fa11iu|t iHidim, ii)iii*h, if undimbMid, will ouablo ihv 
workirtan to caluululc the fluM' uf wiiter throui^h plpea 'by 
gnritation. I ehall ulfid ^vci ralca firr iitttxTtaining tlm 
iiniciiint nf friciiuti, »r l-nw of hpiul nl itiiU^r, wlico runuiiif; 
Uin>UKli luij^ iii]]en mid Iwiidn; iIjh uu-thod of cji]<:u1atiiiK' 
lliv arnwimi of wntor n pump will throw; powor rr<|iiirc«l 
to work it, ant] swh Ukv. Dut it idioiild bu dljituietlj' 
tuuIiTHtoDd that. Hiiiiptioitr is the great thing ninied at. and 
tbcn'furr in miiir (taACM Irir plain tiffurea will iiof. noAWcr 
ftJT ihuoroticj] wurk, but iti iill uaaca it will aiuiwiir owry 
puriJo»e for tlie practical plumber. 


Or the law of falling Imdins which Hirt-(im« th<> Sow nf 
water wbm fal1i»tc<hi\)itiih pinoBfaW for«iieti>ni plpw). — 
TImi iiluinlKir, iit order that be may toll the quantily of 
nal<:r which will flow through a Mintion pi|)C. i>r from a 
• IstFTR tlirmigh u trivMi xiii^ pil>" into a w.i;., Ac, in a 
Kiviv tiiuo, nhuulil luake hinjiwlf tJiwuitghlv acquainted 
with the foUowiug mlM of gTariUitiun or atLmcliva. or 
law of falling bodiM, 

FallfniE Bodiet. 

A Ijody falliiiK from a hoight will, spproximatoly tipeak- 
inv, fall left, in tlic fir-t Bvcimd of tiiuv ; but in rvulity it 
f«!U lOft. lin., which \»tu^ in practleu la not takMi into 
ooaaidtfTiitaaii. Siiy, I lift, in the first eroonil of time, it 
will, ID tilt- »w<ond wcoiul, fall thn-n linifw tlii« diatoncn — 
riJt,, -18fl. : flra timua 16ft. in Uiu tliinl necoiid; wvun 
time* that in th" fourth second, and so ua: tta velocity 
inrrwuiiaft duriuK fV-'t? tuocos-iirc Kflond U tho odd 
uumbrn run— via,, I, .1, A, T, 9, II, i:<, 16, Itc, Uir n^HiilL 
of which will bv fuuud iu the following table :— 

Lawr* of Falling Bodies: 

^'imout ralllDC 

la •Hood*. 

1 aeoond. 

SsKoada. I 










Space hltBD 


16 feot, 
64 .. 



57 B 





Hpan fallen 

ilirou(ti InlMt 


« „ 

8(1 „ 

111 ,. 

144 „ 

U« .. 

20lt ., 

24(1 ., 

■Hi ,. 

3(M .. 


ai theaiKl 

oT tii« tin* p«t 

■end (I. 

64 „ 

M ,. 

199 „ 

180 .. 

1S2 .. 

"« „ 

ExpUimtioii for wurkiiinf thii ahm-c tahlua. — For u«r 
pUTjKiw, mid for nimpHcity'ii wiko, aiippune we have a 
perfoctly »lr»ight line of vortical pipinu- 16ft. high; now 
drop a bullet throntfh tbut pipe and without tonrhiitg ibi 
ndoH. What will bo the velodty a«nuiveil ul ihf innl of 
the find aoucmd ? For anawvr turn to tho table, coluinu 4, 

Bnla for workiap. — Multiply the iiqnnro root of thf 
fadght by 8 ; this give* the velocity acquired per oecoud 

Cxamp9«.~v' Ifl = 4 X 8 = 32f t. por Noond. Sw 
oohimn 4 . 

(JuoMtion.— If a body of watortokn X aecooda in falling, 
wbiit will 1* the Yolottity of the wator t 

Itule. — Uultiply UiB time by 32 ; thin givp* the relooity. 

Kxamtilc— 2 1 aa = Mh. persecoud, Soo ool)imii 4, 
n.-cond Ime. 

Wo have M>en that a body will fiitl In the aeoondaecondof 
liinr nt t.ho Ditu of G4ft. ]jot us rovorie Uu* — The volodty 
t(j bt- 84fl. {M-r kcmntd, find the lime of it* falling. 

Kido— Divide the veloiHiy by 32. 

Esiimplo. — II I ~ 32 = a BctKtnda. 

(jiii'fltidti.^ — ir It Ivnly IaIcivi ,1 m^^nds tn fall, find the 
■i|MK'e fulled tbi-ough in tht.- InHt npt-i>tid uf titiio. 

Kul«. — Mulliiily the MiiMid* by 2. find thin pniducrt by 
16. iiiid fruui thin priMluiit di.'dui.'t IS; Lhid givoa thu ttpaM 
inWim through in the laat iioooad. 

Kianplc— 3 . 'i = fi « 16 -* 9fl — 1« = tMt. 

To fiiid tlio tyit<.-ii fiilk-u tlirough tluriug th« S loeondA of 

RhIo.— Squure the seconda and multiply by 16 ; thia 
givM Ibe iipuoe fallen through. 

Depth of Welle found by Falling Bodice In Tim*. 

Exomplff.— Tho oqiiare of 3 =- « : thia multipliod by la 
ginxa mii, — i1j« apiuin fallen tiirongh in the S aeoonda, 
ThiM ie a very baiuly rule for aiH^iHainitig 1b« doptb uf 
walta and hvight uf huitdingB, fto., withoutuitual nMsanii). 

To flud tlie time of faUibfr. 

Qiiotinn. — 'Ybf height of a falling body being 14411., 
how VniK i)> it falling F 

Rule.— Divide the height by 16, ttod the eqnore root of 
thin will givo the time in second*. 

ExanniV — 141ft. ^. 10 ^ 9, and the tuiuare rout of 
9 = 3, the number of KcrKwIii in fnlling. 





Flow or Water by Gravitation. 

To find (he qiintilitjr iif %aU>r thnt will flow by mri- 
tatiun lkruu);li a. Kivini ni/i'it fiiiic in h f(iven tinto ; emm ft 
)>i(ie not to lie titk^n iiilo itittiiitVnitiiiti, Imt wiirkr<l by tin' 
Jihovr mlr. wlii'li iii n.'wlitv In mi iippiMxiiiintlnti. Smonth- 
biind ptjHA, of roiinw. vil) dolivL-r » Wgur pnjportiuu xtt 
wnt«c ihiMi thoM Iturin^ n>U);li xurftuxM. 

Qlu* Pipes and FHctFon of Water. 

A ffliui* pIpG bavjng ()]« Rnme bora as wt ordinajy iron 
(m<>, will deuTor mumdonbly morv wuur in a tfiv^tii tiatc. 
An ordlnnrj iMtli'ii [^pe muAt bn the nH^iuni^d pipe U) bo 
tiikcn into oomridonUJon 

QooHtiim. —Say Ui« lioigbt to bo 313ft. und tLo pjpo a 
'Jm., CJmo cmo hour. 

Ewniple.— v" 3« — X 8 •= 18ft. prr acoond x 3,8D0 
acconds per hour -^ 172,900 4- 3 = o7,6O0Tita. of watwrpcr 
boar; Ln«*itiK Ihrtu &7.dOO^'d»- of Sin- pipv, wbut ia iU 

Rule. — iSijiifin' the diamoter of the piiw in inrhc*, and 
miiltipty by Iha Tnnbi in Irn^tth ; ilivi<l« Ltiia pmflurt by 10, 
whia-b will Ki*u il>v ooiit«ut IQ gallous. 



glflllons prr hour. 

If rtxiuirod jwr miniitr, diridn by tO, luiil if p<»r wirond, 
divide tnc last qwtiout by SO utfain . TIuih. :;.1,0<0 KiLllnn- 
per hour ia 384 ga'^^u^ P^r minuto, und 'ii t^Uoos per 

I may hi-n' menliou tluit an itUu>ranoe of ID per uenL ia 
At tinn rondo tnr lovn hy frirtiuii : but Ihi* ^tnuitlj depntds 
npm UiQ vliiso ul pip'.*, iukI. if ritpiirr*! in iiiiuuts dwtluliH 
' be calculated by the followiiijf ratca : ~ 

Id tJ>ne nil(M> d <= diameter of pipe In luohea. 

L = leuKth In yanla. 

H •= bead of wntcr In feet. 

G = gnllona {wr ukuiiito. 
Then, «){«]», Umrc ia tint luaa uf bend br bends, 
jitD(rti(MW, or brvoubw, &o.. th« bitt«r I'^pi.vIaUy, whicb 
nniM great Dddtw, man oepeolftUj wbcu the jiuiotinik^ an 
made at ri^bt uiglaa. 


Capacity of Plpas, Pumps, &0. 

Qucation. — WTuiL am tlio contents of a pipo of giten 
bote and k-ngtb, Bay. 2in. bore and 24ft. lonv r 

Hub', Kqiihra tbo diametor of the pipo m incbcA, and 
multiply by Ibo yanli* in tnogth, and dirblo th« product by 
^ 10, wbJLb will give tbeoontvniain galluua. 

■ Ezaniplv.— 2 x 3 » 4 x B larde (or tbc 24ft.} ^ 33 -f 

■ 10 ^ 31 gallutui. 

^1 Having now Men the rnlcsuf gmvitntion nud aanerUiined 
^B tba quantity of wat^r which will npnmxliiu>«>ly flow by 
^T gnrt^^ ihniugh dUfcrtint tuftl pjpv#. I nitl givi' a rulo for 
^aximatdv ueoertiiialng the qiianUty of winter which 
ittfervDt tuMa will deliver per hour. 

Pump Table (Computation of). 

Quest ion. ^ What iraiotint of wiitT ia gnlkniB will a 
pump whoM> barrel in, Miy, 3gn. Lu diiLinat«r, with a lOin. 
i4rulcr, worknd 30 tiinoi per minuio, givo (theoretlvallj) per 

Rule— Sqnnro the diameter of the boml in inobea, and 
multiply thi» liythrlengtJi of tho stroke in indiea, uulagBiii 
mu]liii>lj by tb» number i>f utrokea p«r miiinte, aad also 
multiply by 60, the iniunKv per hour, now divide tlio 
mwduct by 31^3, and the quotiant will he tho gallons 
ocUvtmd per honr. 

Example.— Square of 3 ™ 9 k 10 = 90- Now, 90 x 
3t) ^ 2TM K 60 =- -jjj— * 458 gala, per hour. 

{For poKtr to wvrk the aivn, wf Boru Aiwr.) 

Pump Barrel Proportions. 

To find tlii> Mizo flf liam'l rcqtiirMl to raiwi a rcrtjiin 
number of K^Ucna per hour with a lOin, Mruke, worked 30 
tiinn per miuatv. :}u.pp(»a ISasieO gallonfi aji> to bo 
rai««d per h«mr. 

Role. — Multiply thu number of gnllonn by SJiS and 
divide by 60, then divide thia quotient by the number of 
ito)be« per miDiito, say 30, and aKain oy llw Uiigth uf 
thestralln, whieh la, say, lOiti.. uid tlio nr]tuir« tout uf this 
liL«t quotimt gives tbo aize of barrel. 

Raamnln.— 1K.-15-464I x S&3 4- 60 4- SO -i- 10 — 35-999il, 
iiiiil v'3*9*541 = fi, oeitrly. 

Horn we get n number, but it in not practlr.allj corrent 
for lift or ja<>k pumpn aa naiially fixed, for the lumplo 
nuiHin that rtip leathort leak, or, m othrr wnrdii, let by a 
ei-rldlu purlirni of the water lietweon llio ai<I<;» of the cup 
leather and harrrl, to say nothing of thn w&t<T which often 
pn^acs tlici bnrkot I'lA'k. The loea of wnl4.-r pumped per 
uiinutc will bi' in pnjpurtJuu to the ti];htti<-*ii oi llio bncjEet 
with (he eidce iiF the bnrrol, kc. For thia it ia naual t> 
maku RJi allowanee of fruin 10 to IA pnr cent., which 
reducna the qaantjty of n-ater which wnuld ixt delivered 
i)0(.-urding1y. It alionld bo notod that if the pump backet 
flta the barnd au Uiat an vnitft jntucw, it muBt i>f neooaidty 
bv vo^ tight, and thcu ihi'rv wvuld fa^ a outudd«Table loaa 
of peircr oy nauuuMmiry friotiun. 

Horse Power, Pump Power, or the Power required 
to work a Pump. 

It (diould bo tint ot all known what a bom.|..n(.'r 
■igttifiea. Tbiit i»fnlon)aied from a powerful full-grown 
hone ; ho ahould, when fresh, be able lo raiMi, by aiutabln 
minJiinnry, 33,00Dlh. ton h'CJght uf Ift. in ont> minute of 
liiuo wheawaUihtg in a atroight Hue upon the btvol ground, 
l<ut wben going np a hill he oannot da (he uburi' HRiimnt 
uf wiirk by, KBy,ordiniuilyi>penking. about three -fifthH of the 
qurLiility ; but an honiea do uot walk tn a stmight line when 
turuing a pump, it may be niacin] when docc the horao exert 
if) Htrcnuth to tj>ft l^e^t adrnntag* wbm doing ciieolar 
work. From tiperit-UL* tLo cirefc should not br Iwn tJuin 
4nft. in dinmeli-r, mid if tho dmle be reduced to half, 
unuicly. 20fi., tht^ borvi-'a powur will bo rodueed two-fifths 
of theabo^'e33,0Q0lb. 

(jne^tion.— Kniso 4110 galliwia uer minuto to a h«ight of 
'ihfl., what pnw«r will bi) mnuirwl ^ 

Hule. — Miittinly the wvigtit tif water, which is lOlb. to 
the gallon, in Iba, deliveivd per minute br the heijrht to 
wkicJi it I* r.ii*^! In fiv-t, and divide the proiuot by 3,1.000, 
und the quotient ia the bone-power. 



Example.— 400 x 10 x 28 -^ 33,000 = 3-39 h.p. (For 
prefBura to tho square inch on pump bucket and capacity of 
barrel, ooo examples.) But although these figurefl are here 
as 3'39 h.p., it would bo impossible for three horeee to do 
au3rthing like this amount of work in pumping water, even 
though they may bo working in a 40ft. circle, for the 
Rinple reason that in all pumps there is a certain amount 
of Miction, and this friotion in practice becomes a scrions 
item. Generally speaking, you may take it for granted 
that it will amount to at least from 20 to 25 per cent : 
besides, a horse, like men, does not want to be always 
exerting its maximum power, nor would a good owner 
allow Buoh to be done. 

Pump Labour. 

The following table at sight gives the number of gallonu 
which may be raised by a man, ass, or horse to tho height 
of 1ft. in one miiiute of time with the ordinary pumpe, 
according to certain durations of work in hours, from four 
to ten hours a day, and ia tho result of practical work. 
For increased heij^hta divide tho number ot gallons 1^ the 
additional height in feet. 

Taslb (Bboibtsbsd). 

No. of hours 
at work. 

From I to 4 
., „ 6 
., „ 6 

It •! " 


No. of gcola. 



No. erf gall. 


Man with 


No. of gala. 



Han with 

So. of gals. 


For the neoessaty sized barrel, see Pump Table (Computa- 
tion of). 

Manual Power Pumps and Qearlng. 

We have seen what one horse- power signifies, and know 
Uie neoosaaiy quantity of power required to work a pump 
of a given size, whoso duty it is to Uft water to a given 
height. Tho average strength of on ordinary labouring 
man is about ono-eightii (uiough some writers say one- 
flfthj the strength of a horse — viz., ho can raise 4,1 25tb. 
1ft. nigh per minute. That is to say, eight powerful men 
pulling at their best advtmtago can equal the strength of a 
good horae, and can accomplish the same amount of work ; 
but take notice that the horse worked under the best 
advantage, so should tho man. The horse works best when 
pulling in a straight level line, and is equal to twenty-seven 
men when pulling in a line with the horizon. 

A man exerts the grcutcttstrength when pulling upwards 
from the height of hi" knee, as in pulling from the knees 
npwaide to the level of his hips, as when pulling the winch 
of an ordinary wheel pump, and he exerts the least power 
when he ia pushing horizontally from about his own height. 
Soppoee a man when turning a winch to be able to exert 
26m. oontinuously the day through, if he has a mate 
turning the winch in the oppoaite aide, that is to say, each 
to poU and path alternately, as with the frame shown at 
Kg. 881. where from Q to about &ame high the man does 
the best amount of work ; and take notice of the difference 
of the winohea 1 and 2 in Fig. 877, where they are there 
panN)sely shown wrongly to illoatrate this example, but may 
euily be arranged as moae in Fig. 855. 

1^ two men when working the frame Fig. SSI, can 
niM 60lb. iiurtekd of 60, or 101b. more than when the 

handles are as shown at Ftg. 877, because in Fig. 381 at 
the weakest point of the one man is the strongest point of 
the other, so much so that an advantage of lOlb. is gained, 
and the men work more comfortably. Of course, I am 
speaking here of work appertaining to that done by horse 
and man when pumping witli ordinary every-day pomps, 
and for the man the work done will be greater if a 
proport'onately balanced flywheel, to counteract ibe weight 
of tlie pump rods, &a., be used. Or where a flywheel is 
not employed, put ttus balance at the end of the pump 
lever, or handle. Or this may be done by a balanced lever 
and weight fiiod uu the stage or guide stage, ho as to puU 
up the rods, &c., and assist the working generally. Or a 
weighted chain and pulley wheel may be lued. 

Pump Oearing {alto lee above). 

Tho mode of ascertaining the proportions suitable for 
pump gearing is as follows : see Fig. 838. K is the 
handlo of tho lever, J the leverage, which is, say, 16in. 
long. Now suppose tho crank (see A, Fig. 883) to be a 4in. 
or an Sin. throw, then the leverage will be four to one, 
and if a man should put, say, 25ib. power upon the handle, 
you would get 25 x 4 timcs^lOOlbs. on tho ciank. Now 
take into consideration the cog wheels. Say that the 
pinion, or small wheel M, Fig. S79, has 20 cogs working 
into the large spur wheel N, which has, say, 120 cogs: 
here is a ditfcrcnce of 100 — viz., it has six times as many 
cogs as the pinion wheel, and therefore yon gain in power 
six times, ami this added to tho power gained by the crank 
and lever will be oh follows r 

Example.— Lever power "iSlbs. x 4=100 x 6=6001bB. ; 
therefore, when 25lb8. in exerted on the handle K we get a 
pull on the pump rod of GOOIbs., bar, say, 10 per cent, for 
friction, Ac. Of course, the number of cogs in the frame, 
Fig, 879, are shown in smaller numbers than those quoted 
in the example, and may be varied to suit circum- 
stances, or an extra two or three wheels muy be employed, 
which, of course, entirely depends upon circumstances, the 
power of which may be computed by the rule laid down ; 
size of wheels and number of cogs to bo of the same pro- 

Question. — To find the proportions of lovers and wheels 
of a frame suitable for luting, say, 7001bs. weight on a 
pump- rod. 

Rule. — First obtain the work to be done, which is, in thla 
case, say, 7001b8. Next multiply this by the radius of the 
driver pinion or wheel H, Fig. 679, and the crank in 
inches, and divide the product by the power in lbs. (this 
power is that which you apply on the hamdle). Now divide 
the quotient by the length of the winch in inofaea, and the 
reniilt is die radius of the largo spur wheel N in inofac«. 

Example. — (OOlbs. x 2in., the radius of pinion wheel 
^ l,400lbs. X 6in., the length of crank, = 7,000, and 
7,000 4 25, the power in lbs. on handle, -i- 16, tho length of 
winch, r^ njin., tho radius for tho wheel N. 

Overshot Water Wheel Power. 

^Vhon calculating the power which you can get from a 
stream, &o., upon a water wheel, measure the depth from 
the surface of the water to the centre of the orifice of 
dischai^. and extract Uie square root of the depth, which, 
multiplied by 6-4, gives the velocirt' • 4. Now 

multiply this by the area of the mout> id ttit 

gives the amount of water which • ■^- 

When this is known the height ai 
together with the power to be gi 



£xuiipl«. — Say tbat 1,000 gallnnH, ur lO.OODltiH. nf 
wtlttr u fluwine or enipiTiiiir it«-W inlo ilw wbiijl per 
bniir. nn^ tii&c the (all is Lii. Hck va got SU.OUOIIm. uf 
putriT HO Urn whcfl per liour, wliiiih. thi-orrtiiMilIy Kpe«]E* 
ing, MiJI luiwi 60,O0OIU. uf wuU-r 1(1. tii(;h, or lO.UOOltM. 
6(i. bij[b( aB>l K cm but «« the whaA neirer cctn be 
eKfiocted to b'iva oat Uid umo omotiul uf work tbai ii 
reoriT(«, A Imr nllowtcn miuit be inado for friolinn, A:c., 
»[id ia pntetin) 700 mM wifslj Tookon the Iobs to t>o nt 
Icaut 2 J per C«Dt., tbcragb miuh mghianni my oiia>wvctil^i. 

^0.-1,000 tri^ui X lOlbti. = IO,DOOIb». X OU. 
•aCCI.OOOlbB. tMwer roretvcd per hour, leoa S& per uuut. 
f»r (ricliou ^ 4£,0001b« muwd lit. per hunr. If jicr 
ULinutc, tltTidv by 90. 

Pipe Area In Square Inchea oF Round Pipes and 
Pump &apr«l3 iReglstcred). 

(ALj Eteo rHiqiUoeiDeiit of Wa(er in Tunipe, Fipot, kr.) 








Inch** of 


•In rip* I 




3 It] 

4 '90S 






38 <80 


"niis tnhlv i> iMcfiil in tlralinif nt n glnooo (he (jitiititit^or 
tiiimber nl utiuaro iuchoo ctiut'kiiiiud iu 11 pi|>ti or pump- 
tNunvlfnTm {in. tn Sliri., wtuh, bj cftkulaiuig the ndirlit 
ur perpendkiilnr lift of thn wilier in fc«t, n'ckaniiig lib. tu 
2ft,, nr hr Ibt* iiiotw lux-nratv rule bpfore irinliitiu^ {mi? 
W<d)riit oi W«t"»r. *c.l, will giv-« the uumWr of lbs. 
imjuirod to poll iip tbi- ba "Icct, ur otbenrim to lift the 
[ vertical oolamn of wM«r, whoso baao is any of the Abovo 

Hiis tnljln will »\to bo fimtid oxcMdingly tunfut t<i 
plumbora uud t(u»&tieT* wlti>ii laylug down taaxtia for 
BQpplpnK * trivcn tiumbtr of bntickra. For >rguin«nt, my 
It UrMilunil U> lix oi^'htj |in. pipoa tliroughnnt n liiiiMina, 
whnt will be tlia *uc of the mam {'ijw to mjuhI in buro ihm 
niitnbrr of otnall pijws P 

Rulo.— 80 X -110, tbu area of tbo (in. pipr«, ^ 8-8in. 
aqiuuc, then look In the right-hand noliimn for th« nutnod 
figaro oootAiuiug the«e niunbcr of (iquarc iuchu. mud Hut 
wiU give tha Bint cif Iho main i>ip» r<x[iitrtHl. 

Ofooane, thoBaincru1eappiJ«>twhi'iiHui]pljt)j);u.iiiuubcr 
of cotlAffM with water : but iu all* thci ctti]HiiiBb>-d Liiul 
und friHtitm niiiat Iw tii.k('n into ronniib tni.inn, fi>t t\>v fii>it 
bnuiob woold rewjiv-j the fiiU jinn^nn* >.>{ ilii> wiitcr, uid tbe 
lut uoo its ininiiDUin lii-nd, luidi of coiuv^', the main pipe 
miijit he nl inter\-nl.'> rvduted prupurtionntcl/ tu tho number 
«f j«t« takes oA. 

Pipe Proportional Scale. 

Thia in«fninH-nt cotuiikl* of h piwe of rinc or pardbonrd 

• diape uf tbe abuvc, tt» vliuwn, cut into Loches, if., 

'if euorsG, niual be lorifD enough to do the work 

ibe jttjM- K to be £iii., and L -Din. in dinmotflr, 
itoAbrinvh pipt- J, and it being roiuift.'d U> 

finii tha j>ttipr-T dJiiriiut'T fiir ihe Iimii' It pipo, IVowi^ willi 
tbo M'uUi iiK followiii : Fr'vm n 011 tlic diviHiDnul r<dgv Iw 4t 
ott the otlicir, draw a Uik' uh r^niwn I>y t!ie dnbtcd Iin«, ana 
tbtt length of (hi)) lint', mutMuiad with the mitiw K^le (>'iB., 
■^in.), will be Lbi> li'iigth hr tltodiaiDi-I<>r<if tii« briiucih pip", 
«hU'h will be CJiu : but Hupixi!^ ilm pipe J to be Tbo tcivtra 
firjs pipo df, my, Clin., dolivcTing inl<iFi6in. ontW,u«Bt 
K. and it Li n^uir-nl to Iciinw what ni.hi-r Him pipe J wUI 
f^i.pply, anal L. Fur thin, t ale Ih'.' divisional point fiuu 


th« edgn as a eentre, with thp fijin. radiui dmcribe an aro, 
oulting tbo outer dividod odftv, and t)i« number which Uw 
])oict i)f tho coinpaMca eiita will show the diameter of tlio 
pin^ miDinid. This will bo on tho divisional ttno 4}in, 

Thn inlliiwing in a Kiniplo UtbJp iinitiiblo for ardiuary 
idiuuliiiig work aiji] ^':u'liltin|j[', whii^li givuA Iba niiniba* of 
tiraiLcbcs which may Iw tak>;n vll pipt-a of variqu« diomttnti 
mngiug from |iii. Crnncli pi£>c ta ',>\u., anil luaiii pi pea from 
^in. tu ilia. 

P. J. Oavies' Branch Pipe and Main Table 

Dlwnatcr o( Brvocb Pipe*. 







14 io. 

9 III. 




Ifi 4 



«6. U 

4 2 

Gl 10 

7 4 1 


1 00 •!& 

11 6 3 


144 36 

IG S 4 


2&fi 64 

38j IC 7 




■taO 100 


•Ih 11 






61& H4' 64 

3fi| 16 





1614 2fi6 114 

04 28 


10 . 7 ' * 



161>lt 400| 1171 100 44 



10 12 ' B 


3 6 


Snlo for ootDpttttsK tbe mimbvaf biudiwwUebiMU 
main ^pe will supply. lCiiiti|i^tb«iquraoi(thedfRiHter 
of Uia main pip* xa vgldfaa, and divlda hy Q>a tJinnwhfr of 
branch nipvH in olghtb*. 

Say that it in miaircd tu inipply a bnilding with 3£fi 
Jin. gnj> plpni or fnnnlaln jet», what i-lt« Riiiin pipe will 
you ro<|uirv!' Fur lhi« look in lbi> li.'ft-hAiirl c>Ouinti uf 
tsblr fiV tl^'' nuRihor 3uO, and anfouiU' U> this, in tho main 
pipe euluuin, will be found the nun.* uf main piiK> rctjuiri.'d. 



Ifow, BuppcwD yo« hnvv Hi Jin. pipe*, 14 Jin. pilf*. 7 
|ln. pipea, 4 jiit. pliH*'<, t fir. jnpe, w)intri/« nwiu pipe 
will you require to Mipplj Uipin bmrchw? 
Rule.— 01 iui. pijun ^ 61 riglitliB, 

10 iln. ,, — <H „ 
J iin. ., — 63 ,, 
< l!n. M '-' 64 ., 
1 Jin „ ■" SC ti 

TotJil ,291 ,, 
Hcn>«vhavoK total of 201 el^litht. wliiol),MnFrdlTidedby 
M, giT^<4'390BdrriitoriiifliM. vrliich. by referring buck to 
tlir UMi' (if jiiiM: nm! immp liiim-l itrrns, yriil jjiivi" y<"i the 
t'ijxt of the loaiii pipe r«iiiireil — vl/., iUu. 

Olsplacoment of Water in Pump Barpela lain, 
long, in gallons. 

Al«-i for plnfc, bnl to he multiplied In i'^t nrivinima to 
Iheir vnri'itinfi-njttlis. [TlieoretJwilly.iitily nllow 10 pw wnl. 
formwxpoaf WA^^vrpdiit rtip Inntlien, pistons, and Nipb like i 








in liictiii 

S<i. Inoti. 


tu inche*. 

Sn, tjioh- 



4 8^ 





103 8 



















3 am 





7(1 SB 







2 747 


2 ■105 




2 161 





60 « 







I -908 











S3- 16 

1 433 
















10 (13 





























Tbew pnntpe are exc«>dinjrly useful for contnietorB, or 
for ptncMi wh*ro Iaiw qiinntirjeji of woIct arc raquirod to 
Iw fmnijittl in the leoat iHiHaiblc timn, 

?nii, — 'Hipy are ex<ie«l!iigly iiwful wbon extinuat aCotiiii 
would bo B niuKuuoD. 

3rd. — They have no working' purtK. excepting jurt the 

4Ui, — Thoy run W ui*««d in out nf the way plaon wbetv 
It would he dlHiiTult to apply iiiiy tfthiT eln«s of pump or 

6th. Th<<y cin b« nmdo to forc« trattr lo lUmoftt atiy 
hciuht, duiiLTndcnl upon tb« nmi<iirr' id the builer. 

Tll0 imLKiinvler, Fig. 92o, ecimtiiitn at u ■ttiKlv (KPitintr 
oalM ttui body, whic^ in eompowd of ivro cUaiabeni (AA) 
jnfakod hUo w iddi', with taporinir nccW bent tonardA 
Mfih olber, and aurmouBtod by nnuthtr ctuiin^ cullnd thn 
iMCk (J) arraralcly Rtiid ncd hnlbul t" il, iii ivhieh tbu two 

CmgM tcniiiuult.' ill a t'vitiiu'jti Mvtiin uliambor, wLuro tLii 
U valvo (I) is fitted so as tt> be eupublo of osdlUtion 
bctiTMu (ioat« fanned in the jiinct.irjn. DovnwardA, tbd 
ohanvbt^m (AA) iltv connt-cted witb tlip Kuction piMVMt^ (0), 
frbcreiii iIlo inlet or •ucCion valrea [EK) are arruitfcd. A, 
ditoLiir^u DhamlMa, oonuiioa to boLh chiunbun, and ]aaiSag 

to tlie dinehnrpe pine ui hIho pmviiU-d, and lliiit aim nontaina 
ono or tiro valvw (r F), nfcordinit to the p'lrixxw to bo ful* 
fllW by Uio pump. The air-ehambor (B) rnmrnnnioatH 
with the unction. The ntiutioit mid din^tMri^- eliAiuben are> 
r.lniird by cnrvj* jHH) aiviiriit«Iy fitted w thn oistJetB liy 
plaij«d JuiiilM, iiti-i Toudily nmvri.'d wboii nnc«i>" t^ the 
vn]vos ia r^iitrod; in iht* larger RizeH bnitd liokv am 
proriHori in tncw eorers (00) tire jfi'Trl* wbteh rnntrol 
iho uinoutit of ()iiPiii«(( of thnviilvn (KK)- Small air<cooka 
lire nerewed into tbo cylicdoot and nir eh umber, for tma aa 
will bo faen-oftrr duatribod. Thuw niv ibo tp.-ue'tal outline* 

of thn onn!<tni>nrinri of the appantasji aadlhflf tm 
for Lliu unilerHt.-itidioK' <>f llie iwtiiro of tta tmnslfoaa. 

Tho Tiiinip Ii>-iii),' Hllod with nator, cither by poorinj^ 
wuier iIievukIi tbp pluir liule in tho cbambcr ^m As 
eleYRlioii. Flif. 927), or by dmwin^ tlio charge, a« eau 
Tendily be Hniie. i« retwfv for -aork. Stvant bttinK 
aihnitlrd tlmiugh tho atoam pipe (K) fby opeuin^ to a 
•mall extent thtt otop-ralva) paaaue down that ddc of tlio 
■tcniD iii.<ck 14-11011 ii left open to it l>y tlio portion of tho 
^to■Ul ball, miLd preaua upon tlic emajl aurfaoo of water in 
tho diunbor vhic^ ta expoMd to it, J*jira*ts •' KifAw^ my 



afitmtiaa, ntul, (toni^tTifltitly. wiUi but vtny titi|fht mndviiM- 
UOB, nnil (Irivini; it tliniufch Uil- djjwliftrgp niMsinff siii) 
rnlv ttitit thr< riirinf^-iQaiit. 

Tint moDML'iil tliril tho luv^I of the wnUir ii svt low an Uie 
borixoatal oriGrf wfaicJi Icnilji ta tlif< iliiiahiir)^, tbv ■toiun 
Uovm tbtvuKli ^'itb ^'i-tuin unotmt uf duhncvo, siul bein^f 
f bfougbt ioto iniimatu oniitnct witli th(? ^rat'T hi tlic [)ip»<) 
1i<M<lin^ tt> till' iliH'liiiri^i 4:hauib<ir, «» ttttfiiHlMHfiini toml/rua- 
ti9n takft fitiuf, and h vuciiiiin ia ii) cotiiin)ii«iiefl ho rmpulltr 
fomtMl ill the jimt vmptletl iThniober thut the aU>iUD bsll js 
puUod ovtT into llio M«l tipiHwitc U> thut whUh it hul 
oooupled during tho ent[it}-iii)f of the rbimtbei', claniti); lU 

Xtaj Ml to Mit thnin by tlin Kmall nti t tlia L Qm f>e»t offcvt nwy 
tw pmJucwL Tlie aclUni uf tbt.- Mofaa biill ix <«r4ain, aiu 
no m-ilter linw loug tJio pump mny baro lic«-n ftttindiii]^, it 
will nlArt lu Kaiti lU <lry nUum in nilniifV'J. 

The Nttmni lial), if uitni msde inxt; wr-un: ilmtlf mkI it« 
■Iritis trne, a* It firix in if* ir>/ at ovt*ry fitfx)ki>, k> tbat no 
part uf its aurfam fnlls tirioc iu Bur^raBion upon ilin wnt. 

Fig. 9*26 iiboVB the [mWnieter with fliMiMt.' lalvt-n, nnJ 
l^if. 1127 ia Ml tleTatioo of thu pukonietia'. 




- --\ -\i\-\ -'■ 









Flu. Ii-.'u. 

' orifloA and provnntinictbo further ndmUriop of ■tawn. 
Kg tho vacuum to b<^- coiii|>1('b>i : water rtuhM in 
iiinnedial4!ly thmaifh tbr Hiintioii pii^'i lifting the iaM 
Tuivs r£]. and nutdly KI1« ibt- ubaiubi^r (A) agi^, ICatton 
niv now >n euurtiy the Muac sUt« ia th« Booood dutmber ait 
they vntn in tbn firM c^banilicr whon fhc deftrrijitlon 
comnitfDortl, Wid the tiaint nwultji tiiiiiu). Tliv rbanxt: i> xi 
rapid Uiat, cTf n tritiiiiat an nir Teaael on the dciliverj'. but 
Iiil]i> uunae ia viaIIjU- Iu tbe lb>w <jf wntar, and tbu »troaiii 
it. VDuer fiivminitilc oirciun^ttuicta. vfiry iioarly oontiunouii. 
Ail-ri'ik- are inlrfluf/xl to prevent tl«t Um rapid tilling of 
Iho chimbi-rn ou low liTCa atul fur olbrr i>ur|>uwii, and u 
nry IHUo iiractioe will enablo any iiu-lutW wutkmun or 

JlO. DZT. 

The adTUtww autmerttod a« bdonging ^prcially Iu 
tlio ptdaomMer bilta ^artaUHjr, ito ability to niaa eaad, 
&C., witlunit injury, its nnali rijto niid ooat and mnnal 
haudinem, «U] naturally auKgcct its adonticm, and hav^ 
already eatabUalwd Ita K|intataaii for tho alww nurpcMs. 

Tho nnnesM woodcut, Fi^. B28, fdiove tto way in 
wliiob it i-nii be moid esNily aot to work, iiii'l it will \tt> 
aridant that at n iwy «nij«II rxpminn it run l)t lowtn-d nn 
tlio wator in tlio indaTatlon, wrll, or cdlfpfdiuii ia 
lowered: adilitlonnl leu^ths of riiinir-roain K-injc udOod nbovi- an rcquiiMl. By its n»c in tJiia way coDtnu-tora 
have in miiiiy iiiHtnniiiui liciii cnuliliil to ovcrcoine dilficnltioa 
wbiob, wflb olhi^ kindg of puinpa, seemed u]>u|>rTahl(i. 




Veialy Drerjatut in the trade haa at one titno or a&otlur 
bad a tiint nt fotiaUin oonatrnottun : in fnct, nrfirtf crery 
flxita\>rT'ii njipmiitioe hoj got* in fur itucib Uuriti^* liic nppri4)- 
lioctltlp. Alany IngienkiUB d«vio» bavo l«oii irou^'tt uut 
))T ku<.-b mtm u Honint«, Horn, and tJm liko, lon^f iMfuro Uie 
Uhn^ttian tTA, an.'l pnniinid.tit.'), witti h^ilnintntii'-'t, iittgt'ljr 
ll|fur« in tbeir worlu U> eoiuitruL't artitioiul fotuiUimt iu the 
Bttapeof an turreuel. wsPlif. 043. jVmuidw the foimtiiiii di&bi 
Fiy. 931. to be ploecd uii tbu pipe iit G, Fi|f . 913, and • 
(unnll Jet flsed to play intu thU diob nnd«r air prv^Mure, 
ben- you can quicalF oontttrui't n (ounlnin which wiU play 
for a timo or until tiie air or w;il«r in f^Khauiiitd. Should 
it lie nir. tliiii add aii air pump [« aimpli' cup loathcr uaQod 
oa a w-i>od plunin^r will anev«r} on at C. aud pump aOK 
air inii> ttin vrurl. utiH tb>fnaittain taolTafpiii] till thv water 
ia alluiit. TlifTi K-t tLu wat«r run back, lifiaiiuitableitop- 
oook and pipe, or by a Uttk nnpla outttriraacv the wMt« 
water may be nrmntrM to nin baok Into thir air cbambor u 
Hcro'ii fuuntnin doM : and by tlua the mitti^m of a eolanm 
of w Bier ts tniniwiitt*^ to another ri)Innin by the intar> 
puutigD of a budy iif air betwwn the Iwu. Tin calnmn of 
tho water comj^neee» tlio air on thd wat«r tnirfaos of a 
luwvr cbftmber, and thia air ia transinitted to tho chamber 
abovst and th«non upon tliu nirfnm ut Iba water, wbicb 
caiuas tliv water to tun up a auilable pipv U> a J«t, 






Vhi. IKKl. 

Th«r» la oaa thing wbivb I wiitfa In (ruard tlM> yonnnc 
plumber ayainiri, and ibia ia, the ebwiabtu)^ of a atUy idea 
■bout nolcln^ water ran or nwvo at ita own tooord. m.. 
to caaao a fcviintain, wntorwhivl. (to., to work, by n«ing the 
moot wnt^r ornr axu\ hvit aj^ain, or bv »ttunii<1niK wbut ii 

iwnoa perpetual ouutiuQ. Iwritotliia, b«auM> nvarly all 

tnyyonnger brethren aronMrt Ukdyat one tiniA or another 
U> full into this mobile, riz., before h« l» thorouglily master 
of the prinoiplfiA nf mr«hnDi>ra. In a wurd, il must be boms 




v^a. laiA. 

Flit (SIR. 


rw. vet. 
in mind, whatavrr norca as an nirent or a motive powrr, 
that no niatt«t of it»olf am poiwdbly be mode U> Huift ita 
poeltion without tome oaaae for api^Jed form. 

Fountain JetK. 

ThA ji'la ■» at ImportADre. and ibora nre oa\y & fuw 
ILnt i-Mti tiiuk«< thoM to my niitiBfiii-tiiin. Fig. ilSO U an 
UIiiMratiuli <>f tlio Wiilu>( jpt and Imll, ii v<4',v pretty WTftiifce- 
tiMnt (ur n wiudvw, or utlicr pliuxw vborc pao|tt(> trimli] Im 
l^iOjr lo stand Iv look on, for louw ot ihn uiUua wlUvIi tliin 
txitl cuU ATv miuYttlloua. 

FiK- KlU io Uu- ronvolrulHa jft, aiml fig 93tBiaftd 
Jet : both ai* i-wjf inrttr jvU. 

Ffg. 932 w t]]i: Biu-WtmUornaatiuuiiprtnUw fountain, 
fur lavns, &i:., and in a mry tatereBllnir jet, Mp^i-'iAll;- im 
cmiiitrjr pUiAii, n-lii>i« I havr aio-ii prtiplc «r>niI('hU|{ wlutt 

iiinkca it fnvntvi-, 

Fijr. 933 IB the patv&t Oriental iwol»iiiK lawn ep 
iini) fountain jot, a ootDpMt and ahpup HpriuUvr, 
will throv tli« wator oV(7 a rlrrutiu' area up 
ill iliutUL-t«r, at-conliDji 1<i ihn premiure. It dutlnbate* 
ujitiT very evenly iivur thit ground, and in aiiotliur of 
intL-nvtinfr wliirling Hpplianctm. 

All these jeta are obtainable Iroan Hcans. Tj'lor ft 




Fountain Vasos. 

There ttm th<nu«nd« vt diiTun.-iit mmyv to nutko n f-iuntaiii 
fntra a wniplo jet to thut ehown on the Ipft-hitiHl eidc <i( 
Fitf. H'M. whiob i« ft )>plttnditl pionc of 7i>rkmiiiiAhi|i hy 
Hvmni. NffWtoD, ChainU-r» & Lo., aud nu>y be hud iruiii 
S'21fi. botutn liaaLn Ui »nj dinnietor. 

Tliia fuuntHtn cjui tK> tittnt mitli jabi to ptny out u( tbo 
<]»Lpl]in muutbii, and Iti n variot.v ii( other waya. Tar iho 
buHt ruaulU of jet« far faODtaiiiB. ■i'U Hrc Lngisc Noulca. 

Fig. 934, oD tli« rig'lit-hand itidii, illuxlrnti-Jt n. i-oty 
hiiKUoiiiv vMn, ngadebyUocan, Ni.-»-b)D,CliurnlwiH & Co., 
■ad may hm lued for s small wiudow or ball fuiuiUin. 
TliopipcncAn bcbron^bt np throuf^li thp MmCroof tho vjme, 
and tb« oiwrflow standuiK wa«t« perforated, Kt that &di 
luu; uot paw awsy tfarough the vane pipv. 

Flttlng-up Fountains. 
In fitting foantafna of Inr^o or simdl nrr*, tbtn b 
nutliLn^ 1*1 e({ual leaden pim-n lor idl Imiiicht-n, lit<r.iuM jrou 
ooQ Uiod thum to anj angle, wbich is of gnat Impurtiuioo 

in dinwtiny tbo Jet, and them arc nlwajN Ura matn point* 
tu ki3cp Ui vi«w. First, the nm) of lbt> tiipe*. wbldi 
ohouU )m larm anou^h to prantnt low of head uf lliv water 
iniK TaWw. Uravltaliim, fcc), but for fuuiitaiD wiB-k ullow 
LABaB margins. Say yoa ha\o a fomitaia with liasiD 'JOfl_ 
lilnTiit't'T. nnil yoii miiuiro to put in a qtuuitity of jin. 
JotN t> {jIuv tuwnrdn tiie I'l-ntm, bcrv in a |irao(i(.-nl illus* 
Cratiou. 'lti«re an* throe diuen jeta from ii oia. pi{v ntuad 
the uutcr pnrt of the hi»in, with lin. Inad pipot iibuut 
I'iin. tu 18in. tuug. with a prnpcrly oonstrucU-d cwna 
obapwl lin, to Jin. aerowed hrniw jpL Thin, with fiOft. 
head of wiitiT, ntinwrr* tltv purpotie, hnt talii; parLiindar 
ourp to havo a lull way Ihivuxhwut the length of pipe*. 
and if tbo main h'l ut a long li^ngth, say orcr imo mile, 
that it should bo lar^r in proportion lo lix- kTigth. 

Thi* "H^oiid iHiiut tu kcvfi wfll in your mind it to nako 
all hcuda to a v«ry eiuiy augltv Avuid aU clboWD, and, 
vheiv you t^al). lut thu waler aiU.T the pijiLti Ihrougb a cnno 
alinpod niiratli ur inloE ; even tbv jM pipM will tw all tlu> 
hotUtr if the iidot fviTule ho of a itiaL' iiliapo, sajr fniB 
ijin. to lin. 

Hydraulic Llfta. 

It will be PTpect«d of me lo give an iaaigLt into the 

Eiuciplu of hydraulic lift*, of whir^ them nro various 
nd*, hnt If inv rutdc'r bun i-urvfullr raid rniil atucUtKl tbo 
dvMoriptioa and Fig. 910. he will rwiwire no .further 
aiiarHtancc lo undoretiuid tbu priiiciplu of tiio lift. Fig. 93^. 
llvro, in tliix figurv, tliK ram, explained in Fig. 916, il 

no- »S7 






Kimpljr exteiulrd in Imfrtli to nilt the h^trbt al lbs tifti 
Fig*. dSS. Oil tlic rifrlit-lund udtr of tlw figtin oaa be eoea 
Uw rops vbirh v.ti)Bt«« the vaUtr ralrff, xiiitAble for 
tnniiaif on iir uff tix- wmb'r ta thti hydraolii^ uTiintW. 
Tll» lift or *ftp* '.an b* Imlnnml hy ii hnlanre weiabt witli 
■ npo pUHinii vvct n Riiit<il>U- jmUey »* «li>iyrii ut Uio top (d 

tfl- tt^lTP, 

F'm'. VM U iiu iltuiitntioii of a lift woikiug wid ropu 
nixl pnlW", whii-h arf (Ktuvted by K i>bnrt nun or [liKtuD iii 
rlu'l»i!t'pin, iin<l I'lr ptaw» wburo Ibo buriiitf to rinh ll;« 
nun cjrliatk-i oumoL m aQownl. 

Dinner Lifts. 

Via. 037 i^wTt a din- 
nrr lift: nW n mnnll 
Uft mitnblc for giuiKl 

Th« Accumulator. 

Flir. B39 illiulratett 
«n otK-nmnUtor. I may 
ttot rtmuk tb»t wtut 
Ibv lly«lir«1 ia to tbu 
«itgjnr, HI Uh> Aocmnti- 
huir U ki Ui« pivM ur 
bft, HSTDHnd oxcppt ibHt 
titv flvwlxtil U i'(i]iai(lu 
uf vicrlitifT a muliitrn 
ftiir^, wliilft tb>' nwH- 
ni'ilutJir cx<jrtii uu txini- 
jmin^t (i>n>.', t'^'x^^'^*' 
iiinl BCL'Uiuiilutud lit 
"■Uric" linw-Ji, uikI 
nliimi.ll wbi-a IniBV. 
In odkcr wnrdi, the ito- 
nunnlntor i< ii mi-ivr^ 
of power ,cflbL'f-wiw (tftvu 
krt when trtwk i* not 
belBvdoDo, wblob yovret 
am bo roulily given op 
•t any Inbtrrnl ot lime 
Ii «ui bo aaeii tliKt ttiin 
1« simpl; A cylinder to 
vbkb ■ |>iiw eu) ba 
■ItMhed ni tho boM near 
th« bottom llMiig«, or kt 
any otlMv point. Tb« 
lintt" **' wvi^iu on the 
to]i ooa bo kddrd to miit 
ciniuiBiitaiKM. Or, in- 
fltmd ol tboae nnK*> 
ttaj^iin^ cm Iw toado 
iu nun we r tite ptiiTMWe 
of the wolghtA. aiiLb a« 
old brluk*, Mlonv, wmU-c, 

Hydraulic Drain Pipe and Joint Tester. 

You hava Bcon the macblno for tcatlDfr cock*. Tig. DM. 
1 vtU DOW bring hr^oro joiiT notice » drain |>ipo lMl«r, 
wt>^ will bci nuidily umli-rxlood hj ttit- diafrram, t^. 939. 

YY.* pip« joint tivUr ii> nbown at i^itc. 940. Tills !■ 
•imply Iwit dlKii w tittm of rubber, nj shown in lh« 
Mcti/m, uid at rorb end of t)i« Joint. TlioMe rin^ kro, by 
meuu of tht- MTOir on toip. pK^ncd. wbkb musea lb«m to 
Kipand U'i'rallj', aiiil iii^iuiixl thi^ xiiliwiif thi.>pi|H^: vnU-r 
i* than fiwofd (r<wii llw.' uwi piiin]> Ui aiij h'ivi'ii prvimurv, 
ami to ibo julut cut be pruvid Kilbont flUisg Uu.' pipes. 

Tilt. 941 illnstrnbv n wntiT>w&y pinf of Mtlid nitibrr, O. 
tbo Utli>r <^ whioh bciHR nnnprnwd l»tw«wn tbo diwa K 
nnd 11 iiy miaiu of n toipw actuated 1ir th« plpo C, will 
(ofTO a Tcry rclinblo pluK for plugfnn^ plpM, whllA 
tbruni;li tbn [-ipe C water may be fonxd. 

rtu. ME. 

Pig. 9t2 ifl a iMltint solid xtop plu^ or flro ]>1<)X 'o^ 
pingging fir* main pipe*, and U uadTul Ua ttio aboTO 




*if-.icnnir »pp!in.tu« is tho invention (or, 

r^^Un- ^upcoTed upon by Montp.lhw, M,d 

",J h^i-: sime after tliis impn.voment the 

-,^..BV^«Jbt* pliin.t«r «t Bmtol «nd It 

'!. ^^« W many timcB r«-.nv.i.fcd by 

~' .ILf^tfU of i" glo>«. and h.iK undor- 

- ■ ^11^.11 unta tho iHBt year «r «o. 

^^■" ^t Jv%n.t*rly ui.<lcr«t.-«l, or wl.y Ihe 
•- -'■ *' ^;!1 ».4cIo.*d; but can b<! now 
■ "T^-^^"^ tbo'foUowing. l>o 
' '" JfTw-r th*t of velocity, mertia 

- "* »f^4nrthe latter being caiued 
-**"■'■ H^ -:lrtfcilT of the wator when 

^ r iJ -^-liiii*: •>«> b««,l»« l'<«° 
■" ^ iowui ia wy proccdiug work 

■ -. . .* ilMirinir water from 

" '*" ^^i«uB.iDii*t hare heard a 
^aal in the pipea, which 


' '""T^^^jwe- beeauM whoa 

-''* * ""^^ith A little fall Bar 

^•^r™* t^ier obUined. 

—^ jni fc»™ff » fall 

— "^^ j< vatw equala, 

• ■"** TSVl"»«^ * Tefoci^ 

■**• "" ^lr3 -if W»* "•"" 

^ «« timilar to 0, 

'^„«i« with tho 

Tf "^-. . «» inrtantly 

~T_i-" w *• Wt. per 

■^ ' ^^ win be 30. 

^ Tatar par 

eufiicicDt to prodnco n partial vacuum ; tlicn tho wnck' 
valve in the rum insfaintly dropi in weight equal to ISlhs. 
to tho oquaro inch, pluH tho weight of tho valve. It nhould 
also be homo in mini that tho water within the trunk of 
tho ram, Bt the momeot when the waate valve cluMcti, in 
eomprcMMl more at the woiite valve than in any other part 
of the trunk, 8o that the spring or elasticity of tho water 
within tlie trunk fri^ca itn rcpulM dimini shingly, and in 
ratio iiceonlintr aa the moleculcH are comprcsMcd betwceu 
the inlet and the outlet of the ram. 

Ik-fiiru departing f mm this Huhjrct, I nhoitld now con- 
tinue to explain why this noise i^« uenrd on 1i<ng h-ngthn i-f 
auction pipuH. and more eiipecinlly in groitr.d-in full-way 
HtiipcockM. 'ITiiw reiiuires some further explanation, 
yon can have an air chamber Hxed on the end of the entrain e 
Hide of the pipe, near the stoix-ook. yet the chattering -lomid 
will bo beard. Thin ia due to the fact thnt Uicre an> two 
wayitto produce tliia, one Iteiiigdue tothe before -mentioned 
cauHo, and tho other tu tlic doaing of a valve brAiiid a 
column of water, whieh dix.'.'t not, like the ram method, 
inatuntly cause the iM>lunin of water to stop in its forward 
motion, but producea a jvLrtiul vacuum, in length (and 
intensity, of courac, only to ita maiimum] aceurding b> 
the weight of the water when in motion, together with the 
amount of fall. 

It is not gonerally known that even atcam, when under 
pressure, will, when passing through vers- long lengths of 
pipe, and when suddenly arrcstod, make the same chatter- 
ing noiao as the water doea when suddenly arreat«d ! ! ! 
AlHO see the account of the Water Hammer. 

8pllt Pipes. 

It is a oommon thing with us plumbers to find i^pes tplit 
or burst, more eapecisUy the riaing maina of pumps when 
worked without air chamberH, and it ia through autli 
occurrenoea that we are indebted for the invention of the 
hydraolio ram. 

The plumber before spoken of was engaged at a hospital 
in Bristol to fix some piping, which was of a long 
length ; tho up was of the ordinary' groDod-in plug cock 
pattern, which turned very eaaily. The act m quickly 
turning it off arreatcd tho water instantly, and by reaaon 
of tho momentum produced by the weight of the water, 
combined with its velocitv, cauaed the pipes to split or buntt, 
and we an told that in tnis caac this phenomenon oconnvd 
nearly every time tho tap was turned ofl. (Had a screw- 
down cock bean used this would not have happened, 
bcoauae then the water would have been arroatud nlowly, 
on-ing to the crutch of tho key bting turned Heccral tinea 
boforo tho cock was closed.) However, aftor several 
attompta to remedy this evil, hut without avail, the plumber 
■oldcrcd a amall pipe liehind the cock a« nt B, fig. 9ii, and 
carried the other end back to the top of the cistern, when 
every time tlio cock was uaed the water ruahcd back with 
vidlenoo. It ocr»irrr«l to the plumU'r tu nsrry the pipe to 
a high level, atill tho wat*'r mimnt'M up, and ho being 
drtMmined ti> invcatigate the mutter, ami to find out how 
kigh the wat«-r would rise, carricil the pipe to the top of 
the huildinP eiateru waa pnivided, and there 

(applied w^ nit trouble or cxpcnsi', us in the 




■pparoUiH u«n at Fig. 913. A U the pine truro w»ter 
mpply ri»l4>rii, C the V jurteiinn iir bmimli, I tbfl oook, and 
B, V. E. F, li, (J, tbo rcturu pipe or mLnif mult. 

After what haa Wii ■;snlaincd, it will bo trident to all 
that if Iho Wftt«r iii A. ft )« juit into nuiti<>ii. kih) then 
Inatontly ATTr«tn], it will slrike ti bli>vr un thf her <if (lin 
cock, aiidoii the KtsiuUnR- waIop in the retiini pipo'C. with 
a f»rcr «|ii>l to llio w«lt{ht lUid utDmciitnin (wniTUti'd hv 
the Tclwity of Uie rutming fitream. The latt^n nt fiuna 
Mow ™n be ( by rifi-rcncc to the law of mniapn- 
tatn in uny treatisu un luochuiiirB, itlno in my IVoHOim 
THb]« iHsfore rofoTTfld tn, mid nu»5 be clearly uudcrelond 
from tho following. Supi»mf the height pI ifie L'tihimo of 
wttter tu be 60ft., and tho area of tho pipr t^ tn- onr wciusro 
Inch : here siippowi a foot cnhimn of wtit«r, trhunc baao iH 
tmt> mianTv Sui'h, U) be miiul to Jib. iu weight ; thoa vn 
evi frum tho 00ft. oolumn aolhs. tn tho squnr« inch at St« 
OMB, w M B, Fig-. S13. Tlieae fi^fura are aimplj put in 

Fill wx 

Ind nonabera for crriiTcnietic^ of calt'iilitltou, ami fi>r 
thow not well up In fliaiiTsi, an i« tho c.-w" wilh innnj of 
my beat ft^w-wurkmcn. Nuw. snppow thiH wAU-r tu be 
put In nuitlMi, and to bare attained a relocltjr nf, aar, 
2l)ft. pOT nKOni Now let the water I* Anililrnljr arrealw. 
iUiil what ia tliB conmiiutincs! P A blr>«r will bo struck oa 
ths iXK'k k«>y, tind on tno et«tioniiry wntflr in tho bnttoni 
of tho rvttiTU BJpa C, of il wri^ht nut )e<m than 30lbij., 
inullipliod bjr tLc rclonlty, uhii h wit) f<i-aaX lot aa small a 
inndiiuc the mormuiiH weight of riOOlla, ; iilao uUuw fur 
th<> Im^h (if thn piiw or trunk nf tbu mm. Thp longrr 
thiw la, till) heAvirr will ha the bb>n-. In accordanTO with tho 
lawa uf mMJuinica. Tliis 6001b«. will auddeiily put the 
wholo of tho walM" within the pipn (• iiitu rapid motion, 
and atriko up tlie t.iIvo E, Fi^f. 943, when wnk'r will be 
InJMtad from the pipe C into the uir i^hnmb^ L. I'ltr. 9i:i : 
AIM thfai injection for«^o will in due time crattUTCMi tho air 
witliin Lhi! air chamber, when tho air. oa at L, in its turn 
will wifilj and rpgut.trly prea^ upini the inirfsoe of the 
ttnnding wiiUt L, and k> cauw it tu gradunlly riae in Iha 
tidnff main pipe F G, and to a ^ren height nbartt tim 
aouroc of mipply A. 

Koncic^rho preMum of wnlnr within thf rining main 
O nuut nover exewd per aquare inch tho bfoM- atruok yvt 
aqoste laob nt the waste ralve, or, of tonas, none wiU 
SBlar the air chamber, thoogh tho ram naj oontinao to 

PulM Valves for W«t«p Ram*. 

Now, auppoao that Inatoad of ths tnp J bdns nao<l, wa 
DdO « jwilf-TiftiTig vnlvo f. Iflg. 944. [These hula aivnoi 
the bcM kind 'inii-it vMlvrH.) Hero it will bopUln that 
tho arrrHt of tho water iniiHt ho Inatantanoona. and a better 
ctfcct ctai Im produced. This ta Moatgolfier'a ram, and n 

improrvmcnt np™ TIVTiitfburat'ii. und Ihohatl C in really 
\i>a VG17 lifr>, n t(\ fipcnk. of Iho maehiui!, a^ il (nuM-a it lo 
work indepcoildnLly and inrawaantly without atlention. 
Thf parta of Ibis m^iehlnQ will be readily tindcretood !i\»m 
thi. tullTjwinR dcacription :— A, ia tho trunk of the r.tai 
leadinff f rom tbr. w>iin\:of nnpply : B, tho body of tho ram: 
C, the I)Mt, fiv>t, pidA^, or waHto Tiilvo, wbirh will rr^iaira 
yonr Mrt)<.'ular iittitntinn.and will be explaiuedfurtbbron, 
Mail faoi groat iuiportauuo; J, in tho air chamber, retain- 
ing or asDonHioo liilTe, which ahouM Im made •uffifieiilly 
wide, and nut to lift tcM hiKh ; L. ia tho air ehamlwr ; and 
M, thi. riring main. There ahould ho n boad vnlvo S or»r 
Ibe mouth cif tho trunk at W, to atop Hit) ram wht-n not 
nnntod to work. I mny ho oxuatwl for dwelling on thia 
b'llijeel Ml mach, but I e.nnnot paan It until I ffrl that I 
httvo cxhauAtcd it t<a tho benefit of niy youugiu- reader. 

Tho Action of the Ram. 

Tlio Ri-ti"n in im follow* :— Open tho howd ralw 8, W, 
I'lg. 914, the water will then, with a reloritr due f> ths 
height of tho fall, run down Lhi.- trunk »* di'iwii lir thft 
iLrrowa, when thia water will oka play ronnd (hf "iifw of 
tho ball and cause it to riao with a jerk und ■luldtnily 
aiTMt the water in tha body erf tho ram. Tlun thn water 
will, by reaaon of ita n<cquirod VE-I'icily and very ouddi^n 
arrest, givr a fiir.--u t«i (iH jiarUi i>f tbi' \uK.iy of tho mm, nnd 
oonse<]^u« tho valve J will lutw rai>vu upwitrda with ■ 
mumentuin egua) to iho weight und velocity of ihu water. 
Xow ynu will notire that at the moment when thi- waat« 
mlvo'c cIoiw«, tbE^ro in a kind of blow atruelc. a drive, and a 
mgnrgitatjci'ii. and an iniinonao inr'T><juio nf preaKurfi on the 
luwor iiitrnial pai1j> of iho nmi. Thia imrooaud preaaure 
Uftathe air tbtimb^ ralrc J.anddrlvoa aqaantit; of water 
thioiigh it" acating into tho air idiamber or ooahlon, and 
beforo thia volvo J la |K>ntiTc]y cloaod a rnvtf (at tho polas 



TRlvr, mill 11 Utiuhlif.y Id tiiiiili]rii ,i viK'uinii) fn,jii tlm 
clmtiriry, or ntlnTwiwi, uf l.ln- wnt.r in l|i,> inink tiiViiiir 
plofw, wlii(-li limy in- HMiHlifl l,y tin- fjiU of |li<i viilvr J, itnil 
Ul»f pirticiiliir iiDticc tlinl wIh'h iIiIh rci.iL m in iliIjoei 
(whHi ifi iiiuini-iitjiry) it tiutU In cniitc n imrtinl vitnium 
ffor proof, HI! Siiiftiiin Vnlv iiii'iiiiiil.) nl, On- fiut ..f ih,. 
waftt! viilvo U. wliiiili, <if ccHirr-.', iiiuiiii-iiliirily rrlii'vi'H (li« 
lower part (if tlio mm nl the iiii<-n>itl j-nhMin-^'finil (he wilvi- 
(', whcH it fa!ln, iiikI hIIown tlm wiili-r l<i inrinn nin i.i wiu<t(> 
when the valvu Hi'tH iM iN-fnn-, imufwinlly, J Imvn liiJ 
Krihetl thin in im Niniplc u faHliinii im jHiH^iiilM, mnl pihiiiiliL 
wItik my prnuticfil n-iulcn who wiH)] to Ihiudik viT.-Mfl iin 
tho (frouii<l«ork of tiutm iiini'tiiniH tu mrilc- » iiKHiil miti 
for thenuiC'lvur* tu follows :-I>'t A H, Kifr. iiiii, Ui ji ji^.c,. 
of Iin. or Ijin.Ieiid piim, orn jiiffUM.f inmkirn-i. Tiikf iiti 
ordinary ijin. flat-fm-«l ni.iiiillu vulvi. amJI tmliltT it in 
ffjMiifrfMFoi toapicco of, Miiy, 2Mii. or :)iii. iiiji'i alMnil ^lin. 
UiUfr, aiid wipe too trunk A B iiit(i thu Ixiltoni of dm J.lin, 
or 3in. pints and the othnr end into u liHlcni ; h'l llHiHpinillc 
of tin- valve point upward. Thiw 1 jin. pijii' will Iw ikll the 
\vtU.'t if luitf obliquely, any at an i-iiHy iiii«li . Wniuw' vmi 
want a certain length of pipe in nil ram wurk. Now'tilj 
thv pine quite full, next knock the valve down w) iiHhuipcij 
it. aiM you will bid that you it-ill liavu a liy{lriiu1ii; rum, 
whii'h will (imtiaue in action, but, of (viutw, duiiiK u'l 
wwk. Now branch a Jin, pipe as at B, Vig, D-l.'i, and mi 
atr i-haniU>r with valve as at £, with pip« jin at O, iiiid 
lhi'« HU with water an before, and if tho pipe V- of tKily 
* «hi>rl li-u>rth, Haj- att shown in dia^fram. yon will And thtit 
lht« manli' valve will not puhute, cimply l>oraiiN<.' tbi' wiitiT 
mill iivnv it»i'If timr»»adi]y into the air cbiiml>cr, and tlio 
vlivao'ttv of the air thennii preventti tho pul«o Viil ve Htrikinp 
wtbh '■iitH%'it-rit fori'o tit ouiiho a recoil (iieu acruunt uf 
'*4itintti« V il»v\ l'«t li^ a ftojNtK'k on thopipe Ht O aud 
>liw(> ii. ib.-ii lUl npi^ iM'fon-, and work the outlet vatra 
^^^^ I liti ti> 1 iiiit' until the air in Ibo air ehaiiibcr bccomcH 
■ .Mu|>)tsM^I. ilii'u ti<» wilt And your model rum once 
■iiit\ ,,'i>iiiiiit> HiikluK Now open your Rtopc'ork jupt n 
'tuli, Mt>l *•■<• »i't tiihl the niiu to Nquirt ^viitii'r. Now 

•4i»i '|sti<i>fi ■!. .i<i>l vou will find, at acM-ttaiii point, 

'Ui- >M>H If .^mi-«' »fiViii>;, *liirh will at onee prove that 

I, 'II. <>i .'iiiit III iiiihi' ilie luai'hino work, muxt have n 

.■■ , '1 111. 1.1.1 .'i nusdi .■! pii'wuH' in lh(i air i-Imjuber to 

, . 'k., i 'It . \ !>' t.1^'ld.'tlll'l' lo the fall Kit water from 

'• i('» \ '■ ■■'''■> Hvilmin sourv'e, w (w to pet, 

>.'> I S... '\ii'. ■.t"\.\\ is'iir attention to, a [urtiot 
1 ■.■,-... 1.-..1 H tth- N itte to o|«>u. 

'i ... 's V..' -I'lt ».' i.tmn'l do without bnrinfr Iho 

I It '•111, <-it i.'rtivtioM. thiH question will 

'' '- "''S "■ 'hi- (act that the wntcr in 

■'■..■ i ,. ..ii .'I I'nv i« o{ ini«tt<^r weiffht 

. I ]. '>><...ttL t\'i- tte-iKht U>iiitr Cakflit 

' ■ ..1. . . u. ■!.!.■ i>tyi>\ niolli'u and nui- 

'■■ ■ .! '.', siul, MuK iH>. il if", 

' ' . ■ . ■■ , 11x1 \'i iri>ii in motaon, 

' . I I I'li'io iht«. di«,iiiiiHi(.'t tho 

• I '- ' . . . . ; ii K iuh> iW Ah i^f a 

:*.' h.sfcl -'t water A. R. 

' . . ■ .... Yn.' fch*- IkW i>( wnlor, 

', . ^'M >H.i,t «.:«> (rv lit with 

^ ■ U ....>.».,. -■ >■. H' p'i liMipie 

wviiIunU UmiI 

1. ...v 'v>«t4.viiigi th(i 
.... ,..„.;.. &w< 

Brief Deact^lption of the Action of the Run. 

liifcr (i. >'i^. Hi. Suppotio a stroke !hu JTut Ukn 
]Aiicf :uiil 111.' ludl C i.'loBod, J is open, bat odIt for u 
iii"ii4iit, Tur llio HirikinfT power of iLo water at ^ ii mmm 
H"""''.'"*'! Ihfii tlip. jiri'^Mire abiiTC in the air cbamberqiudlr 
]iri'iin'fi .1111, (li[« valvi", which kivoh the fonuET a buknn 
iiiii|Lini, ji'^i-tiiij,' iij yri^fii the water back np A. whiA 
o'M'illiiijjHi ^iJirliiillv a-.+Lstw and causes a partial racuTun to 
tiike i>l'H'r ill C. no iLiit by tlifi atmospheric prcMuie tai 
lln' wi'i;.'!it uf ilii. vitlii' it quickly faUw nud ia iiL-^mntlT 
ii-iiil>' liir iniJiiliiT ^rrokp, wJiich quickly- tiikni plict': 
iiKiii" Dm wdiur is fluiij; back, tho valve J npeo* at iV 
piimi' linii' ihu n.;nii-^-itu.tion takes p] ore, PtUf anisialbir 
litllu I'lii'kwjiti-r frmii tlio Hir chamter. the partial vacuum 
iiK-nin furniiii, iiniL <■!• u nicking or ^xcLllating movement i» 
ki'jit lip Imtwetn the ivatiT tn the trunk A and the watrf 
lii'lwri'ti, F rind fh:it iu the iiir vi-mscI, th« water in thn 
Iniiik Ijikifii,- nhr.rt »rnikc«. wbil«t that pt F, J, take* luog 
fi1riiki->. 'I'lii-i-i-. i« ni> qui-'lion now in my uind "but that 
Ihu I'liitLMi,' iiiilI .'peiiiiiy uf tho waste valve is dua tu thu 
iiIhivu e^iiliiiintiun. 

Yon will iiotiii'furiliiiTimthatrHp_':Lk of n ncoondarv air 
cliiLniliiir !!■- -ii N, M, ivr :is iit F, Fip. OH. also Ethown iu 
UriintHi'llii''" liiijiruVLil Jit F, Fig. ai5. Thin wcood air 
i.)iii]iihcr tisiln tit l^--*rn ihu violBnco of impajct. beraiuc 
then the wiitir hiw n l;iiiil nf cuahion 1o partially Mriko 
jiHaiinut, iiirtwid nf il-i siriking ita whole for« Bg-ainsi 
T'gii iiieriil. 

I Hlitill iLiiw priHirvd Vi espliiiii the shifting valvie, h* 
iiMiiiiff iL vi-ry oil] ilinwi'u^-- I'rom ilio liiiiidM of ^ontgolfier. 
(ii illuitlnito thL'> rami-, i>ut audi n r^n woiJcl nut ba tpmLi 

The Gnirtir:^, ValVQ nnd Secondary Air Vessels- 

Thih Miiftlnn^ v;ilvt' in fnc thn piirp<i-t' of niipplying- Invb 
air into fUe uir chmiiin-i' at ciub pulse nr itroko of the 
ram. Tin? wnifliTig vnhv i^ dimply a MHiill huloorapcrturp, 
He at P, Fig. OIS, uf cupiUury bor^. In home rams thix ij> 
left entirely open. It ivill also be nntiet*! Ui^it in Ihia rani 
thcra is asecoiidair ebnmlicr F within (he liir^re one 0, 
and thai tho bent or foot vnlvo C ie uf tbexpitidlo kind. 
The UBC uf Ibc Miiftio^ vnlvc a.nd tllO fliTiin*! nir rhiimlitT 
will be rvadily iindenttoocl iTom the fullowio^r ilcw.'riptiiiu. 

SuppiiHo iliu wn(er to bu nnuiiag doo-u thu irunk A, nnl 
tho beat valvu C to give uno pulao agnioMt tho acaSinp Q '• 
tho water will th^u ursro itwU forward throug'li (!r?^fcpdy 
D and strike iiiraioKt E (vrhic:h ig. badly arran^rcd — it "h^ifl^ 
be of an cany luTid : but sunh van Moutpillaer'"! riuiit nii^ 
up Into tho air chamber F; at the Mimo iii..4iiii)t (]j,i< 
momentum of tho water caniwsa a parTinl vnciinni to titlm 
plane at K (thi§ pmren that there In ii pnrtiul viU'iiiiiii 
fomiod by tliB roirurjritBtiQ", ;>nd establisbcM niy ili^irv nf^ 
ilH acllun], Qud to draw in air at the paHeaife or cnpilfur' 
tubo P. Tho air iu the amiilltT nir ciiambcr F in iim 
rdnindatice, or in other words, thia air fhamber is not d.J 
largrc, thcrtjforo the volven J J are not jerked ojion M-illi 
mach '\io1eiico oh whh tho ra]vo J in Fi^. 944. Yon fauV 
«Kvn that n Niniill qniiiitity of nir con bo oiiifUHl tbriiii|tl{._ 
tlio npi-rturc P nnd into the wntcr. This air. it mij,-!!!,; w?** 
► npposed, would return, but it cannot, and forlhiarcai.'-ipeOn. 
limt part of the wiiter fsdls back, aud instantly fills up- )>o1Ab 
Hmiilf bore or tube, nud tho air beins; U^htor tlmimtb^ 
wnliT, it nacendii to ib(^ lop. and at eaiih puino thii) r^ toji^ 

SHvHion of fresh nir cntrrH (hroug-h the vulven J J^ ii.tli 
indit itn way into the larKCr air chambor H. when ib !„ jwiyBa 
i«>«l« u|ion tho ' '■iaTciT'neotsiuiTy, buciiii."'^ «ths 




■Ir cti.AiiitHT, whOD it i* fii]l ol air, i« of mii'^h mom Titltie 
ttiaii whtii oulj liiilf fu!!. or lu iiliunrn at Fijt- M*- ThiWn 
]• iiUn iiiiolhor rwu-iri «l>j' noiiii* iiinkcrs u»e the neonnil sir 
•.'LoihUt : tin.- fvrvti uf ihu tbuiops upun lliv fiMXiB d( tho 
vulre In gnslly ditnlninhod, thereby rradciing tliara mom 

Ntiw Ihml t haw oxpbiiKif! tlt« real •clinri of thi^ ram. 
let tu eiMQoiu Ui« bwt furuu UiKt it bLuuIiI Iw nudo tv, 


Tlist abovn at Vig. M6 is unqaaatioiuitjlj biul, innHmuch 
Ha 111* wnUT in by thr nitnu^muH Hhnrp ittigVn miu-h r^hcHiktal 
before it can atrikv ur lift open tlia uir obajubtr or ih« 
womiditiif vulrs. Fiff. 911 in bctlur, liat the rmitid ball 
lor ft foot TAh'f) rmderfl it Icai jfcrfrinL itiim it oihnrwiM 
Wiitilii bf. Now liim tn ]''ig. 940. TbU run fans n npindle 
bi«t valvfl C, nnd tiru sir cJiuRibiTK witli iprin^ Mui/tinf 
tnUt, wtitcb la fonucd n-llh a klud u( boul. »]»iiig just 

■bor« th» tmnk pipe inint and mta,v A. TbJa ram in a verj 

Cod OCM), ihouffb >iBcv tho dahi uf ila lautiufacCuro raniB 
w b««i murh improved. I will, howuvfT, MpcAk nf Ihia 
LoDK, «■< I flml it fuino tLirtr jrconi ago n«iit Bromf iinl, to 
Ijlcrvforil'liirr', aiul wn>t« of it aWit tlw yvnr Ifl09 iu tlio 

unmylut ridt t« Bnmfard. which v.t» tmrntj-firo 
^Mn afW. t waa oariouii to wo this riim. aud found it 
mtrithi^ vxaotljr u I left il, mivo and except a faw dow 

foot luid chamber valrctt. 'llii» mm ii novnokiag tlurtf- 
flv« edrokes ucr minuto, and in the auno time expends 
iiUxit 33ft. of w-utcr in lifting about l^cublaft. to SSft. 
ill iK-i^lit- 

V\%. 917 Ifi an cloTatioii of n run haring- the «irond»ry 
nir chamber and saift holo at ^t alsu a duor D for 
■'xaminin^ tJit- nir clinnibiT vaiv« ; it also ahowa Uio riaing 
main pipe ulwu uS the top of air dunber. 

FID. M7. 

Koit let uBoxaiTiiDo Haiuton'a lam, Fift- 9*8, Thial* 
a Her ti III) 111 vltivntioii of a ram inndu by an Am<^riran firm. 
and altbuu^h a patoat baa \iwa takon oat for tho cup 
leather air chamber valrv, O, tho ordinary clnrk ralvo is 
being usod. Bnt tbcro la amtlher claim, which la (or 
an additional Loiid valTo, D, L, which ia niippuMid -to 
prcvout tbo rocuil of walvr in tho trutili, nrid facilitate 

n«. tu. 

tho working of tho ram. For my nrt, I bdl to B«a any 
adTautafi^ ^nod by tho uite of this rnlro, but, oo the 
coatriiry. it in a hin'irnnee to the frco flowinK <>f tho 
wftt^r into the bivly uf tbo mm. IWrc in one goixl fc*turo 
in this nm : ttio umbr tide »t tho fwit ii rouffked, 
whoivliy Uiu wulttr ovonui to tako a better hold «i tho 



valTs than in PisB. 9t5 and 016. ThiR diagram alBO 
illuBtrates the metnod of fixing lead pipes with nnions, 
aB at R and M ; not to be recommended on the trunk, as 
it irorks looee. 

For the moment, one would think that the back chock 
valve, D, Fig. 918, would prevent the recoil giving the 
required vacnnm to tho waete valve ; but this is not bo, 
AS the Talve D cannot fall quick enongh to prevent it. 

Take notice that the air cnamber, L, Fig. 948, is nearly 
foil of water, and it Bhonld be horo remarked that by 
reason of so much water being there the ram is not doing 
its duty, because the injection water given at each stroke 
of the ram receives a dead rOBistanco in the shape of a 
mass of dead or standing water, whereas tho air chamber 
in ¥\g. 946 is nearly empty of water, and Uie injected 
wat«r IB received into this air chamber with, comparatively 
Bpeaking, nothing to impede its progroBS. Say that the 
water is injected with a force of GUDlba. to the square 
inch, and that it is received from the injection pipe into 
an empty air chamber only having compressed air, to, say, 
about 2(Htft. column of water, then, according to our 
fntmer favourite calculations of 1ft. column to equal 
}lb. to the square inch, it only meotfl with an elastic 
letisbutoe of lOOlbs. to the square inch, leaving a margin 
ei SOOlba. to the square inch, savo and except the 
ffwilional part required for opening tho air chamber 

following explanation. When the water flows into the 
body of the ram, and through tho beat valve F, and 
having acquired Bufficient velocity, it closes the foot valve. 
Its momentum forces up the air chambor valvo O, at the 
same time tho water lurrcs tho piston D np into tho 
cylinder C ; when the recoil, caused by tho sudden closing 
of the foot valve, takes place, the spring at the top of the 
piaton D torceB back the piston, thns asBiBting the recoil 
in producing the partial vacuum, and making the waste 
valve more certain in actiim, and tho ram less liable to 

Jno. uw. 

I may hero mention that I have fixe<l many of Blake's 
rams in different parts of the country, and have never 
had better workers ; they do tbcir duty, are strong and 
not olumsy, and are not liable to stop by inattention, 
which ia one had fault with most other makers' rams. 

Ramt without Air Chambei^ 

Xext examine Fig. 951. This, another of Blake's isms, 
is made to work without tho ubo of the air chamber, a 
plunger, E, being subetituted in its stead, which ia held 
down by the springs H, H, and tho croaa lever J. It will 
bo phun that when the ram is put into action, that as the 
«-at(>r riBea from the body of the nun into the pipe D and 
B, that at eveiy pulse which the foot valve C makes, the 
momentum of the water will be felt vpon the bottom of 
tho piston E. whioh will cause the piaton to jig or rise 
with a Hpring at each stroko of the ram. It also foDowB 
tliat tnt> pixton E must riee in its cvlinder aooariing to the 
pntwure upon its lowvr (ace. and will rise in the same 
jirv>p(>rtion as it do«» in the oniinarT anraimulatOT — in fiaeL 
this is nothing moiv than the aocnmolalor, the piiudple ol 
which I apnlit^ to the ram in tbe year 1870 ; and ia the 
vmr 1871, m ono of my patents shown, the ptatoo wotked 
trum otf tht> rising main, to make the ram itif-aoting. I 
Also fi>und it, wWn no air chamber wms en^loyBd. to voHe 
noisily, and I dist-arded it for mylenr amnganeBt. If yoa 
further ezaxaino this diajnam. ng. 951. yon will there nsd 
that lh<^ |ii»t«i» £ actm as an air chamber : but the sides ol 
ihU large pblmi an> not wtt easUy k«pt watetti^t, and 
the wkwfai p»rt>c»wia not act satJArtotilr. Byrafa ' 
' X WQ' W s««a mr air dtamber and 


loading •ccomulator. irhii^h I dm^^, and with mjr 
iRwed tBdicslor punip I pliu-n) twfnrr « rtiininitt«r nt tlu' 
aooictjr ot Art'H nxinia in flm ream IST'i Mnd 1373. It will 
nadilT be ueen tliat wilh tUit iiir ihsiubor and wK-londing 
MwonuUtor tho uwful effort <>( un airvewi.-l in n-tniartl, 
u ia sIm Um s^ox •>( tbo ptKLUm maintttuu>d. uid the 
pliitou wUl be luadca wilh wbUt in exHct pn)(>oilten to tW 
prOMim of tho water within thn ri«tpg mntn. For ati 
ezamplo. plaw tlio fUnEv W, Fitf. 9A6, o^-cr Hi- flonife G. 
Fig. 9AI, and put thn ram iato ocrton. The water irUl 

tlicn nm up tliv pi)iu V. and into tbo air Dbajnbi.>r nccumu- 
lAtor, wht-n, an it riMA in Uin riKinir main, bo it wHll alnn 
into the aeciiuiulAtor. and tti will the weight of (he wiiU-r 
tend to loacl thi' HCdimDlutir down. Ilrrv, ia thi* iliniiraiii, 
tlui wator cannot lycaw) butwM-ii tlii- ptntoii aud i'\'tiiidvr by 
TtMKoa (it the cup leaUier Q Iwtin^, I)t tho prcsinri' of the 
wattT, furced againnt the nidi.'n of thi' hfillnw iitntoii V. 
Having apon tint action uf thlA air clintabpr and ielf-IundinK 
aocumiUaloT In oonjuaotion with uater ramo, ti'^xt. tiini lo 

rig. w2. 

DavieB'9 Self-Starting and Stopping Rama. 

fia. DiL 

B«foTo I explain furth«r, I maj- be aHawed to date thai 
I am tflUll^ dinint^rw^tMi in ihr mannfartiire nf tiny t»t- 
licitlnr ruuiB. hKviiij^ tii'tirad frcin Iho mntiiirartiirTDir 
ilfipnrtniont of vntcT mmci iu th>? yotr IfiT*). 

In tliin diitKriiDi trill ho «rm a ram workvd hy my 
acniRiiilator aimntrfirifnt, and vith tvo injc«1inn pijtM 
K. M, iiTid rnWat 1', L. F ia tho aeoumulator, aniirirnii); 
lh« uur])uaiB <il Ml air cbambnr, An. ; J th* tmnk, and A 
'he body of Ibe nun ; W, tho rlaiujf sniuti ; B, the bt;at 
valrp. irhicb cannot work when the acmmoIntoT ia under 
an «xtr» pmnure. ranard by tbo cloaing of tha liall und 
o1h«r oodu or valvaa on tlie tiaing main. 

Rama with Doubie-Foot Valvei. 

Thin kind of ram t« illuatratcd at. Pig. 9A3. Tha paiia 
ar« M follow* : — A fai the aockct for reoelviug tliu *[iij(Ot 
vnd of thv trunk ; C, the flangg for flxinff tlw vsItc plsto 

Cm. 963. 

onr Oh body ; B. O, are th» beat ralras ; D, tfas outlet 
or Haino- main, and O the air chnnibCT. 

I fail to an? any ailTiuitnirv by thn UM of two waulo 
TidvM, bat, OB the oontrarr, think that the Affect is not ao 
good a« with tho lingle tmto. 

lnJ«ctlon Rams. 

It la a OoaUDOn ixx'unvacfl to nmke a ram to miM water 
from a vail deqrar or from a tower WpI than Uic ooima 
and ontbtof tb* tnpply whieli is rrijuiroil to work tits ram. 
Snell nuna are aomMiinca used in ijuarhcB, T«Uarr, &«., 
find at* iiliifltratod at I'Ng. 9ol. A ii Ihc inlot trunk or 
supply pipo ttixa th« luiKd ur iiiuicn of ■ujiplt'. Thw wat«r 
rnnii through thia nim, and gathcnt round toe back of tho 
waste v^vi' D, whiih cauiM tbv valve to cioao, aa in ttic 
ranta, Figs, 944 and 94A, but with thia diffDmncci : (but 
inttond in tho body of wut«r Ix-iitK iii frout of the heat 
ralvo D, it ia In tbla caiw bcliind it, and, cimwqumtly, 
instead of giviu^ a thr^t iipon ihn lonnr part of tna 
tmnl:, it tendii to inck, or, marc proper^ ajvnkldng, to 
create a [xirlla! vuLUum. for exittnpio r •Tippow* tho 
weight uf tb« column of wntcr from M to thi.' liorixontal 
pipe R to b<- ftlb. tn llin ttquan: Incli. and the wo-tcr to guin 
Ik vi-locity of 20ft., bmv wi- get tho 6lh. miiltinliod by 20, 
which equukls lOOttn., and tho momi'nliim will im lOUlfaa. t>* 
the niuarg inch. Now, auppgao, for the nke of an iUn- 
tion, tho well to be 30(t. deep, and that vatorr 
bo Buokcd up, the vacuom prosrare cequirad i 

tothf aqiuuv inoh. Here tSlbn. (rom tb« IOOIIm. learM 
iStbt, u K luq'lut, wttiob will vmj well malw np for 
snf ActtcA, Ai'.. in Ibp nrrAagvniL-ub'. I Mid HOfl. dMip, 

Ki(» u&t. 

bat It nual be mnonbered that you ouutot work w&t«r by 
vumnm latisfacborUf at thtH durtimce, ncpro oApMinlly if 
^nu hiivc- vftlirtw nbo to lift, a* nt 0. Abont 15ft. kliould bo 
Ihn Uiiiit to lift watiir «n above. 

Sa«!i rnniii luny also lie tnadv to tluow wat«r U W«U U lo 
drjtw it, by londrthcnin^ 
the tninic A, AtLil by 
pladuK Mn nir 'cliainber 
with valve. n« abowit 
by die doiUNlUm* nl Q. 
Id fart, tb« various 
HllrruLiouB knd iDi'lhudB 
ot w*irlcitttf tin' mm nrv 
lv>tfi'>n, ktia cftii oiilr bu 
warkml uut ■r(M>mLnfr 
t» the kind iif wutb 
rciiuirul tu be iluuo, 
ntiil b)- Ui? workniBR 

N.E. — linkn muo 
thftt yoii put the watar 
and air in Ibi' mAahino 
vKMt, at Hlibwn, or it 
will not Atari work. 

ruL aha. 

Cl«an a.iKi Dirty Water Rama. 

FtK. 9filA Dlulfubw Fyfo'e doublr ai:1)on mm. woridn^ 
mneh aboal tlw oaune an Pi^. 964, Imt with « •pnng in 
Ikii iif llw weltf)iU-d ilLtpbrafnu- 

'ITh? riniuK miuii ui ciinnpoted on the tnp nntun on ibe 
rigtit (if the riktn, an in Fig. OMa, ur to a M^aratw air 

Tho inwpr TinioD i* for Ihe KutUoD pi]>e, or it im v bappoi 
tliat tho pure wnler muy Tin hail trimi a hi|;lM<r \i'yv\ Itian 
thin ubiim, which, in such cw, will be Dnm' ib^ womc fur 
beiuK m> ; in fac:, it will enable /o« to diepcttiw with tba 
dinpliDipin wm; ht ur i^rintf . 

ThiA kind of rani in iu«d fur the pnrpcwa of i 

clt^ii wnlcir hy mriiTm iif a dirty wat«r,Toran I 

which ">c Fig. II3A. D i« tho ftunge for rannrrlinff lk«' 
Irunk. E tJu- Iwidy of the rum. I Ihc boiit viilvt-. H Ihr 
air chjimbcT viiWi-, ti thn tntHimry nnuf^ mmin imtiKtUwiing 
from fJir sir cIiiuiiUt T BuppcMe u difie of metal bo 
pliiLMl Iwlwivn thn fliio(K« n» ut C, thdi this mii«hiQe will 
do the work of nil myliuiiry rum, But IH thin pipe be- open, 
Mid tiiu ralfo way l.J Q <iUw«l n» shown, wilh ibr Mop. 
cock a, or otlD-miMt, and let W iu th.- wntor chfcoiWr b« a 
think and wti;-ht«l indinmblM^r dinphnigm to cover over 
thf) wntvrway in the body, bent duwrrwarda, a> abown 
al V, Now, let tbit chamlrr 7, be full of wnt«r. 
ftjt niao tlif jiipiw Y and AB, aud Jet tb« i«i» Y 
Imre a valvw cipeniiiK itily tho cfaambtT K. and on 
the lop (jf Ih" •iptuinir 7. Kl an outlet valve hu fi«cd 
UH Bhowu, to open npwnrdfi and iuUi tbo rining main A^ . 
rf and AH are the snifLinK hntra, m B|ii>hi>H nf in Fiji. iMI, 
4r. Supptumnlt to l*- us i!*i»i'rili«l, mid iho Miucharmj 
with wat»r ; let tbe ri*iii^ inoia pipe S he provided witS a 
•li-pwck AG, to conm-nl the rixinjf main AH, to the 
air cbainWr T, .ir ruhcrwise. 'Ihi« will in?c«i»itai« only 
niif^ rifting inaiu aud unc »ir i-biitiiberi but aautbvr rising 
HLiiin niid air vi-wu-]. AD, miiy bo employed. IjcI tlte 
titui be put to wuik; tlio puL-'t' vulva riatu ii|tainid tbo 
•laolJU^. and the velo(iity i)f ihi- wuIct awiagt ouwatd. aad 
would ouo— '• •« riaa through the waterway G, bol it 





by rmMni of the stopMtck a. It Hwinf^ oniriiTd to 
» undereide of the diBphrfl^pn V and W. wlin h in tlmvli^ 
; qpwaid*, and by rviuou of tlUa ujiwurd luori'inntit, it 
fbcoN Mit the water from tb(< water cbumlM^r. tbruu^li 
the valTD K. thrcnwli thr.' jiijM AB And rrtlvc AH int> 
tiio airohMnbn- AI). nnd mlu tliL> riamt; iiiuin ; Ihon thr 
ndvo Z c^ooM, »ud tht- wut«T ia tbe body nf tlw rnm bt-inu 
nieued firm proMiire by Ka»on of the U-nt ralvt^ (j|^<i-uin(t. 
Ibc wrigbtod diapbrAfm filb) hnfk. Uic inkt valvo V 
upeoii, nod luara water ia drawn into or ciilnrn tbc water 
ooambvr. When thia n Aotw tb« water in the trunk U 
UfgMJi Klarta into mulion, and •ouu, bj iie ivcceloratwl motion, 
cMa» a <>ertaui in«rtla, and iho bMt valrc I ia atpdn mrricd 
fiwward, whicli, briug amlilculy ■bippiJ, oaawe th« wat«r 
ia tbo body to again urKV fi/rward, wbcn it* mompntum 
npalu oatutw the rubier diu|itiru|^ V atul W to rutv, uiid 
si> uu altamaloly. 

Hero you may Bc«i tliat tlm diiijihrng'iri valra Vi KaWj 
aeia aa the yjungw D iii Fig. ftoO, »ud jot- doom double 

th« Toloeity and weight of tbn waler witbiu tho body gf 
the ram. Thp pi*t(in D having rt<c^TD<l an upward UOV 
••r thmst, it 1« at uuc? cLiinmuui4.-ut(^ to tlic pietoo or 
bucket loatbrr E, whirh to il« turn f aiym lh» witt^rr nnward 
thrangti the air cbambrT valve Ki. and *■> ou itilo (he air 
rbiunber IJ, and up the piuc L. (Notn-c— ThttTimpi.Tplaoe 
f«r tliim piiitim I) it at tlio end of tlw body Z, wtiwru it 
will ^vo tfau beat eSvct.} 

Siphon Rame. 

The Biphon ram. Fig, ^'i'. i« very rmrrty mndp, nnd, ia 
fwit, tlirm !■ not Rne plutnbet iu a tliouoaud who has nm-h 
ODfl; but aflttr tlit> uiowled^ yon liare now obtained 
by wofking oa thi: fonigoing raiiM, yoii will bo easily 


Nnw rnn bav« rmii that by meana of a diaplinigni the 
ram uia tw nuidvto pump wb diffuremt flidtl to that by wliirli 
it 18 worked. Instead of tuing a rliitphrngin a bni^kot 'ir 
phingvr Ruiy bf KniployMi- for thin nlir Ui Blukv'ii ruiu. 
Ff^. BAA. In thin riiin tnnv bo seen at. I> a large* piaton 
working; witLiii tlii- i;riiDOcr C. whi'ih is bnuiolwd on 
the t<.'p of the body of ttie ram. At the other end nf Ott 
pfalon ml, and at K, in a pisUin or cop biii-knt working 
Upwatdn. An Mdargisl rii-wnf tliinpii^im iitul riip Icjithi-r 
ia akown at KK and DI). On the top of thu iiinton ia 
flxid a aprititr F, to ftifi tha downwara motiou to ^U cup 
liiathcr or i^atun. Thin drawH thn wnbr up the aiifition 
pipe I, Klkd op«'ti< the valri.' K ^»< in Ihu onliii.iry pluu^-vr 
JHitnp. Now Irt thi' foot vaItii M cl-mn, ,1* in tbp ordiriiiry 
mannw i l!he iui>r1iK of thv water bt-uig oitward, the wiiIct' 
Ifikw Um bond of ih« pialim D with a momunttun li^ual to 


plitt-rw irktmi Um oadituirT nm otnnnt hf fixi-A : for 
inNlsiMW, in plaoM where lh» Ion}; hv A m*r Ih let ilown 
Uito » dwo i'Bvit; too awkwud to nx tlie or^inaiT nun, 
or IB broolm irhiui an tikclr to b« floodoil, fte., imd vbnv 
th« ram loot v»lvo would b* atopped by lh« wri^ht of 
water nbortt it, ftc. ScnnetiiiiM a mDH-lcmiltlr uvmg in 
piping may be vff«C(«d hj its Utw m fnUowa. HappOM (1m 
tiuid or apnny of water lo bo on tlio «ide of « hlu. utd a 
houK cIoM tA the spring, and thnt tfae wiit«r tn rf?qair<yl t/i 
ba devftt«i to the tDp uf the hoiisT Niiw •uppfuw Hi'* full 
tn ba eft., hot in nn)i>T t<) get IhtH Aft. yuu will h«n> 
to ffo « (Unlaniw of AOO yard*. Der« you can taiii? the trunk 
A, Fig. Si'. 600 yardii away, and fix lli«i Vxlj: R and the 
■MUtleK C at tbo 'priiig or wvll, niKt «» mtf tbi' '>(I0 y-iid* 
of riaiiiitmHiu. 

Tbe actiim in tM feUawR : Harltig fillod up Ibe traiik nntl 
body, aa alsu iJii- pipo R and I> (which may hp ilnno liy 
optauiig tb* acrow cap Y). lot thp nra br ptit into ontinn. 
"tbt beat valradoiM. aad wut«r ia inJKtod up 
the ebambec pipi> D, and throngh tba 
vi\rc?i; itth«n nam np tho riainx niAJn X, 
a* in Ibe ordinary ram. But hy Uain inrllimii 
cif workloff tbori' b n great low of tbe uwful 
cflcct uf tbe watvr. beoaoM tbe maaKOtniD 
nf tbr watT in thr trook A. by raawm rf 
thr ahut uS ralve B iDlcrveaing. haa DO 
^<<c4 upon lh» injeotitiD ptM D, but is 
wvrkfd BUDply by tbt> wvitrht of water witliln 
tim Hhoft W C of thr Bipbun. Kaw, to get 
orvr tluB dimoulty, and tu take adTantaKO of 
tbi! wnffht of wnt«r in tbn kmg lag of tbn 
■iphtjn, I barp iiiveiiU.-d a HUction nod force 
pump ram. whicb la iltuattated at F. and 
which will be readily anderetood from tbe 
foUuwing deacriptinti. SnppciiMt tha wuter in 
tbi> tnuu A to he put ittto npid motino, 
■ad the beat ralrp B to coddcnly cIom ait 
In the ordinary ram. Nmw mippoAC Ihf^ |^pe ' 

B l(> hv brani^hnl va to 'Am trunk aa at t^. 
and l.hnt O in an eloetio diapbnigni, piatun, 
or cup Icatbiv, which ia, or tnay be, attached 
iDTccr B, or otbsrwlae to the handle of a pumc aa 
before Mid. SuppuM the pHl"c valri> TJ Xt> aulaenly 
arrest lJ>f ■iMlomu nf wulwr, tlia weight of tlic wuter 
in the truuk A will wud to create a pirtial viiniiuin ; 
Bad in proportion lo tho rolociiy ana wuight of the 
wat«r, an will the dinrilira^ Q ihoto inwHrdu, and »o 
work th« levttr II, wlucli, lieing jmiit«i lit .1 with tht fcli'irt 
alottod lavtrc K, will raian thn puiEi]i pinli.iu L, wht-n the 
effect of thu monifutum o{ the wstw witliin Uie tmnk 
is pnat, BO will the weight K bring bock tiiu 1evi-r H, aud 
with it the diaphragm, and tui nn altwnately. It will he 

Elain that by Ihiii raetliuj water may be rMitod tji imy 
iHeht required. Tbis diaphragm amuigenimit luuy lie 
nnoe to gin an outward lhru»t Instead of au inward 
Bclion, and may 1* finxl at BW. Fig. 'JA2. 

Thvrv aliuuld be n vwk on tbe uutlet tniuk at about A, 
and this outlet dip or trap itacll to prvvent tho trunk t'xi 
Modily Mnptyiog it*clf when not in iwc. T ia the plug to 
fill tmuk A, ic., with water. 

Uanng dcacribcd aodonlaiiied the diSotot nune oud 
their action, 1 will prooeod to show one or two fixud, and 
dcaeribr thu mudi-e uf fixing, &c. I iD;iy firat mrntitm 
that water rama, like all other enginea, cannot do work of 
tlicir uwn accord, but will bo dopcudent upon sonie ot thu 
prime nuiring cl^mcnte. let thn power famti fnxD when it 
may. Tbercforc. the useful cHi-ct of thi« anparBtiiB vUl 
bo gDV«nii!il hy .i ntr'ain fomn, gcnnrnlnl in una coae by B 
rumjiug aitcvui or uf water, and delemilnnble bv the 
waiJ-iaowa Jaws jf mechanics. The aiiupUcity oi the 

operation rf thia n)a^>titM haa bees tbe neatkB ol tianuildatf 
aa one or the mnot tuMtitifid pbUoaophio iBBtnuncnta wlwiii 
baa hilherl') figuml in the pagna uf anr writnr on natotal 
pbiliHiiphy iiii'l hydranlloe; and ita durobiUty aad aita- 
plicity rvndrra it deddcdlr one iff the meet iianurtaat and 
vahiable aelf-aniing machine* yet developed fur raiatng 
water. THa hydraulic maehin« !■ eapeciaOy uau'iU fur 
f DTRing wati*r wbero Urge qoanlitieB can bo oUowed to xxat 
to wa«t« 

Directions for Ordering Rama. 

Pirnt, B^ate the amount of the fall of water in feet and 
iuehira, which you can obtain bydnmming up or othenrin : 
Bocoiid. tbo nmotiDt nf water you have running to woata 
ptr minute ; thtnl, Ihf ht-ight In which yim roquiie tbe 
water lifted in the rising ninin ; fmirth, the antoant of 
water you uniy n.tpiitv nieiil in the lA bui>r«: fllth, tbo 
horbtoatal diataoro of piping roqHirMl. 


Firt. BU. 

Of eourae, aa Ln all eaaue whora long length* of idpe are 
wnA (oapecioUy when of sinalt bore), nictiou muet Mtahen 
iiit'i'i r (ma i deration, 

I generally nllow f.n- riidng moin pipea from )iD. to lin. 
barn, Ift, piraaare for evwy 100 ynids of piping, that ik M 
Bay, If the rialng miiin ho I.OOO varda long I allow 10ft. 
extra pnMMUW, or hih., Mm/ m. 'ptr/ooi. at hifamtatri, H 
tkt tt{Hitre tireA exlm nti Iht mr/nrr of llit v,tittr in tkt «r 
rhHiiihtr, t<i«von'<iiiii!tltr' friftlLiM In puehpipoa. Of oonraK. 
thnrp .in- iilw'iya cerUlu i.trcninifltnnrra which mual \x al 
tiincii lakru inlu cimeideratluti. If IW pipea be 14 in. to 
^in.. I only allow half this nniount. dimply hecanae then is 
nut the aiwne amount of fri<:tiun proponionally' (per qoaii- 
tity of water pHtBodI in large {ripesaa in the amallnr one, 
the fi'i<?tioD beuig in exact jtroportion to the aiae of bet«. 
Mt rAtif^ ia. alwaya nae pipe* large eoong^i for tbewtwk. 

Li't UN go hack to the fall, and examiiu) what la neliMJly 
opoeaaary to get a c«rUin required amoiint of work. Suae 
will say that if they bod a hisad of. ear. lOft., Ibor wobU 
make u«o of the whole, not having lo lift the water bmv 
than Wit, I may aay tluit a faFl of Ifift. is ample to throw 
uno-fuurtj*utli of thewaU-r expCTidod lo u beigm of ItOfl., 
and I may add that It U qniU- poealble to Axa rsm under 
a hmid uf 10ft. nnd yet get no nuiro work thou from under 
B aft. or (Ift. hirad. 

It thh> bp tJie flue, there muat of aaoeaaity bo a lot of 
navlata wearaa^iHK_an aa Ul-proportienod ram. Diia 
Mng ao, Uj^^r IndrnK-nt d the plumber to <d«( 

a nini wyj^^^K V Ida fall, to that the w«ai- a^ 



t««r of tliti manliitia insjr Ut in alriiH |nnpoor1iun to the 
KBouut cf work done, lud Uie ecwitomf In kwptng tliuma 
la npHtr will bo in Moordun. 

In onln- that my roftdtni m»y iwlcnlAte wliat fall ia 
n<iaii«d lu Mtrcl}- work a nm to drivt- vrntsr trt n givra 
lieigti, 1 ftppeiiii the following :— Abixiit oni'-nuvwiilii part 
of wo wmhtr fxpondod con he mfoly nuiKtl to a bel^'bt of 
at leaat fire tiitiM that of tin- fall Crtiiil wbtrn tho mm woi'kr 
w«ll ii> much aa i^tKht liiiiL-H). tlut in to luif . i>iip]><)a(i th<- 
futl to bo Ml, thfii inii'-wvcntli [iurt i>f thn water csiiirKW 
nuij be nLii><.^. wliirh will equal ouw-nvvcDth p^rt to ii 
hdghtof U^ifC, an beforo wild, yoncanjfpt mort, butthiv 
is aafp lorkuuiiiir. Ami. furthrr, 1 may hdil that one- 
fuvirtn-ntL psrc (>f tlji' watiT i-njwnJieii niaj he riii*pd li> n 
bf^gbl of Uii tliiim that iif the fitll. aad ho od in pt<>])orlIon. 
Tu moke thia quite clear, ao tbnl nomiBiuii1cr>(t4Ui(liii|f mny 
nrv4>. I irill (five nnother OhuitrDtiiiu ua follo>ra .— If thio 
nun 1m tilncLd lunlitr a bead, «tv. of Sft of wnti-r upmi tlm 
mink, then for every Bcren giJloiii dmwn fr.Mii the hend 
one BriU)o& may, and i^oald bo arnt ihrou^fb Iho HainKruHLU 
to u iMTiMTht uf ■-'Ml., or half a gallou to the hcighl of Anft. ; 
or, witli a lOft. fall, for «Tory fonitepn pillonH rxpcndcd 

TiM alxivi; iM a table of tha mxh of pipM uaod in ooo- 
nwtion irith diQ«rent nakera' raioa, MCOlding to (be 
quantity of wut«r obtaiuahte. 

Uf ratuHMi, tl>» quantity rniaod will bv, a* hcfon •tnltxl, 
tu otriot acvonlauou with tlio quaolitT cuusumod. Mid the 
hui^fat of tho fall : aud 1 niay add that if the foil be not 
very gitrtt, and tha wntt-r nimply weak, then • miirh larycr 
truiilc may h« iu«l with lulvuiita^i!. AIjH), I niuy add. 
tfaat whmv a groat fall can be obtAiu*;d, tho rnni may he 04 
a KtualltT Mzo tbaii ibaae &xod undrr low hcadi* of water, 
that in to nay. aiippoM a brook tii h^ fnmifihing 9 fpillona 
per miniilc. with a fall of, aay, tOft.. mid you >iai> a No. & 
ram In niiiu- ■ ifivi'ii i(iinntitj- ; th»ri, uhniild yor fall Im 
uiily, Kay, .ift. or ifl.. luv u No. 6 ur 7 rum fur ohlaitiing 
(hf< wtine qunniity, and briTik, wjir. or dani up nroordinirly. 
If the mipply of wati-r in aixindnnt, niiii a Inrjn^ Mipply fa 
nquired, thvii ill iiuiay iuataii«» it will fa<! brut to til two 
naa, so that nliUat the oiui in Ktojipt^d for n.'pair>. kv., 
the oth«r may b« k<>pt at irork, or may 1m> workt^l 
l»K«llhn', One ri»ng main will ntmnrr. rvpt«tal]y if a 
puLT at ohHk vnlrM, n» stkomt at B, Fi^. 791. nix uaed to 
pievant the water baokiiig' on tadi othw s air cbainbur. 

Hydraullo Ram at Work. 

Tbc> hydraulic ram, aa illuatratvd, aat up, and in action 
at PiK- 958. i» ahown fur uiw purpow vxpoaed, bat ahould 
be well protfloted from Che froat. It ia an exo«Ueot rsn, 
and wiUwork in strictacootdance with what [ harvwHtfaa 
OB aingle>a«)ti(Hi rania. 

The diagram, Fig. 9EB, la Blnk^'a (vlehrated doiible- 
actlun miu, a« Axed for thrnwioir wntir tu grcnt bri^ta, 
and uiu) which n'ill anawer to what I hara writtm, and 
llluatnt«d at fi)f*. 950 luid ttfiG, which aticdi^ no fur- 
thBC doaoriptiot), e:ic«ptiii^ thikt theM nmui an? mude to 
tlirow w«t«r -ijOft., ami tho (rihcra to fonw wait- r to the 
enormous height of i,fiuuil. Fign. 9-17 and 9K miiybii bad 
ftvrtti MfSiini. Ila3rwanl Tyltr 4 Oo. 

Thtiir No. I ram, with l^in. trunk and |in. rtfiiig niaiu, 
will, when the bll is not leea than one in tMi, deliver from 
3Qi> ^lont to SUO irnlloiiN in 2t houtK. (This cxpnamiea, 
onr ill tfu, nimply nn-ana thai for a rinin^ main whow 
hnKbt ia. Hay, oOft., a fall (or ihi: trunk ahuiud b« obtained 
of .Mt., and no on in proportion,) 

TLuir No. 2 nuu, witli 2in. trunk and liu. tif'mg main, 
will deli VAT MOll to I ,-iOO frallons in i* houTH. Thedr No. 3, 
wilJi ^^in. trunk and llin. rimng niain, will dHirer I.SOO 
to '1,600 gallona i and tlii-ir Nu, 1, witli :iiij. trunk and 2in. 
riaing main, will deUvtr 3.000 to -l.OOO gallons in the 'il 
tumni,and ut tha expcnditnra of wntt^&un 8 to I2|(ullum! 
tn aaa nined, whioh. of <i«>UT«r, will be aMordIng to tb« 
h«i^bt of delivery fupe, &«. 

AtthoTigb I hnv* writtpn t>o munh In favonr of tbia 
mni.-hini.''. of uounu I do not idmii la )mi>ly tliat wu have no 
btrtUr. or, AH far aa water itt Minoriraed, no mora econninioal 
■nfwhin<w for raiAing it, that i* to aay, wAnvon/jr tt Itmilrd 
jiutnliti/ txm U ublitinrd, or ia niiCHHary fur (be wurkiiiK of 
the machine itaelf, bevniiite if «« oonie to thut p<jnt, there 
in no machine cqaal to the onrMhut water whcvl, ahowii at 
Fig. S^O, Init what 1 wiali U> imply ia tfaia: that thL> nun 
la, of all >n at«r luaehiuea, thv uiuit aimple. and will anuwer 
every purpuee in plaov when largv quaatitieo of walt-r 
mny be had to run to wnato. 

The mm will work pretty wril under an ISin. bead of 
water; yet, Hfc* th« watiir wliii-l, thegrvaler thp lall. nnil 
the b«4t«r the aupply of uatvr applied, the more wutrr can 
be ihiDi^'n. and. of toureo. tho morv powrrfnl will he tho 
narhini:, though, be it nndcntood. ibat it in qnit<i piMinble 
to have too yrrat a /nfl, and therefore the fall ahoidd he 
only in dnu proportion In thn rwininctMOta of tlto Diaihiiu-, 
or that the right «itvd raui anonM be wlectvl '■■' •!■•> 
partieiiUr fall of water. 

The relative proportion between the wat«r •"■ ■ 
that waatod, ia entirely dependant upon the C 



BUpplj, that b to aay, from the top of the trunk ss at S to 
the foot valve C, Fig. 944, and tlie height to which the 
water is required to be raiaed. 

A fair idea of the amount of work to be done by these 
machines may be gathered from the following series of 
tests on some of Uessn. W. W. Fyfe's ramn, FigB. 949 and 
964a, the oorreotneas of which ia attested by Ui. Baldwin 
Latham, C.E., F.O.8., &o. 

Test 1. 

Size of drive pipe, 3in. ; size of ralve, 3in. ; length of 
drive pipe, 53ft. FaU = 6-88ft. (5ft. lOin.) Lift = 
437'8ft. — indioated by pressure gauge ^^ 7S'4 times 
the faU. 

Tbst 2. 

Size of drive pipe. Sin. ; size of valve, Sin. ; length of 
drive pipe, 63ft. Fall =e'04ft. (6ft. ^in.) Lift = 49ft. 
Quantity used in driving ^ 3 gMe. m 16 seconds = 12 
gflllapermin. Quantity raised =3 galls, in 110 seconda 
^ l'6iJ6 galls, per min. 
.■.Work= 1-636 X 42=68712 „„, „ ,. _, 


Test 3. 
Size of drive pipe. Sin. ; size of valve. Sin. ; length of 
drive pipe, 53ft. Fall = 1-230;. (14|in.} Lift = leift. 
—indicated by pressure gauge = 130-B times the tail. 
Trar 4. 
Size of drive pipe. Sin ; size of valve, Sin. ; length of 
drive ppe, 63ft. Fall = l-lOft. (Ujin.) Lift = 43ft. 
Quantity used for dri^-ing =' 3 galls, in 17 seoonds :=10'69 
per min. Quantity raised = 3 galls, in 933 seconds = 
•193 per min. 

.-. Work= 193 X 42= 8106 „_ ^ ^, ^ . 
Power=lT783 x iT9= 12^31 =e31e»BCtive duty. 

Teot 6 
Size of drive pipe. Sin. ; size of valve. Sin. ; length of 
drive pipe, 63ft, B, Pattern. — Pumping Ram. Fill = 
6-07ft. (6ft. iiinO lift = 349-6ft.— indicated by 
pressure gauge = 68-9 times the &U. 
Test 6. 
Size of drive [upe. Sin. ; size of valve, Sin. ; length of 
drive pipe, 63ft. Fdl = 6-04ft. Lift = 42ft. Quantity 
used in driving = S galls, in 13 seconds ^ 13-S4 per min. 
Quantity raised (separate spring water) 3 galla. in 131 
seconds ^ 1 "37 per min. 
.-. Work= l-37'< 42 = 67-64 


Double Acting Ram, Fig. 9641. 

Test 7. 

Size of drive pipe, 3in. ; size of valve. Sin. ; length of 
drive pipe, 63ft. C Pattern. —Double Acting Bam. 
(Driving and Spring Water delivered in eqoal portions.) 
Fall = 6-04ft. Lift = 42ft. Quantity used in driving 
3 galls, in 13 seconds ^ 13'84 per min. Quantity raised 
3 galls, in 105 seconds = 1-714 per min. 
.-. Work= W14x 42 = 71988 _,, „ .. . ^ 
Power = r4^ X 6^= 8"8769="811 effective duty. 

NoTK. — InTe8t82and4 the water raised is added to that 
used as having been expended. In Test 6 there is no loss 
whatever of the spring water raised ; whilst in Test 7 
half the quantity is added to power. 

You will observe that alt these drives or trunks were 
63ft, long and Sin. diameter. The valves were 3in. 
diameter entire, only the strokes altered. 

No rules can exactly apply to this matter ; but the 
quantities given in the table are based on the height bong 
^ght times the faU. If the height is greater, the machine 
most be larger ; if lees, a smaller ram will do. The drive 
{upe is, of oonrse, the trunk pipe. 

Dipeotlone for Fixing a Ram. 

First tlie length of the trunk dionld be at least 16 time* 
as long aa the »11 of the water supply. Say yon have 2ft. 
fall, then the trunk should be 32ft., tnou^ some makers, 
under certain oircumstaaoes, fix their rams to work 
vrith trunks not more than half this length, but tor getting 
the full Dower out of a ram then the 16ft. trunk to 2ft. 
faJl works veiy well. 

The ram must be fixed aa shown at Fig. 968, imoD a 
good solid foundation of concrete having a good oak 
frame, or better, a good thick stone, say 6in. to 12in. 
thick, dependent upon the size of the ram, and to stand 
out 12in. beyond the faoe or bed of the ram. The stone 
should have holes driUed through for strong bolts, so that 
the lot can be finnly screwed together. It is quite as well 
if the bod stone be fixed before the concrete ia properly 
set, and in such a manner that the stone shall bed itseU 
well into the concrete with a layer of I2in- all round the 
sides of the stone, and let the stone bed three parts of its 
thiokneas into the concrete. 

The bed stone most he fixed at a level e« that the -waste 
wat«r shall have the full benefit of the fall, but it must be 
also fixed at such a level that the waste valve will always 
work out of the tail water. Take particular care that the 
bed stone is fixed perfectly level, and take care when 
building the house for the ram, as at Fig. 969, that it is 
large enough ; leave 2ft. 6in. to 3ft. apace all roood the 
ram, and build it f roet-proof. 

The strainer, if one be used on the inlet of the trunk, 
should be fixed so that it can be got at for cleaning, and 
oat of the way of frost. 

Fix the trunk valve in a manner easy to get at. It is as 
well to fix an air cock in the middle or thereaboute of the 
trunk to let out. the air should the reaervoir become etaptr, 
and the trunk fixed in such a position that the confined air 
can escape. Be sure and make the trunk sound to theram ; 
this ia very miportant, or the same may soon become leaky, 
and the ram *nll stop or become refractory, requiring a let 
of attention. Some people fix a stopcock or a ohec^ Talve 
near the air chamber on the rising main, as at Q, H, Kg. 
951, to keep the water up when the air chamber vain is 
being renewed, &o. It is also a good jdao to fix aa 
emptjring cock on the rising main tor draining' it wIhii 
repairs, Ac, are required; it also enablea you to emn^ Ute 
pipes during frost, &c. Gauge cocks fixed heie sad Vttn 
ou the main wilt ^ways be useful to aaoertsio whe&er tba 
ram is at work or not. 

A draw-off cock fixed at the bottom of the air ohamhar 
is useful to empty the same, and is adviaaUe, and also 
another at a higher level to let in air is at tames asefoL 

General Management. 

Sometimes when your ram is firatt started it «iD not 
make another stroke ; in this case keep w<riing fiie polss 
or waste valve up and down with the nand, foot, or *• best 
you can, and you may have to do this nntil you liSTe got 
sufficient water into the air chamber and pipes to givs a 
certain pressure. 

A stopcock on the main, at about J, Fig. 950, wfll gw d y 
assist in generating pressure quickly, iridoh mqr lit 
opened gradually as the pressure innresMa. At odMr tfasi 
the air chamber may be luU of water ; in ttis osae tbe ISM 
makes mure noise, and will beat aaidnr. Bin fln walw 
must be removed, then weak *> ** *»■ * —■ injliinsil 

and it should work pv vat watt 

satisfactorily if tlw r ^^ Ink. 

the quantity of w* rik 

If the waste f!- ■b 



tlw bi«t<ni(niliii«c4 dvfixit will Anw itmll. If {XNwibln, 
never M iW aiiiinlr vnur ;a:<''t M»w Um nH-utti i>f thr 
trublt, or air will he <lniwti nii<l ittiip Uit^ r«ui. Wlieii 
RtfippinR' tbn ram. 't i» quite hk vr-U to Klop it nt thf wbhIi* 
«slvr, luilf** it l>'! fit rrjMiM. If iiit be wilbiii tlif imiilt, 
tbo rum -will go upon (ltd nnd 8tArt«, hmtin)^ quirklj- jml 
tiken riowljr, nnd. ftii^vhow, tliin U a sut* h^ <>f nir. If 
▼on bare nu air omtIc' tlira buti) down tlin wiut*^ riUve for ii 
irw niiiitit^ ; thU imir IPH tlio vratcT iiit'> a tiafficinnt ni«li 
t« Wiiw th" uir out. If liiU will not (1« it, clml Iho truntt 
ralre atid taka oft lli^ wast* «-a1w: thfii lil w^lw run 
Ihroii^h. nnd ~ii>fii VHlt't>. It nhoulil thi-ii tv ri^lit, 

Bn Mim ihat the- mift hnln \\t naf he iimnI) ik ■Iw«}'i> 
rl«ar of llie tiiil wali.'r, or it will bu tux-V-m-. 

If the watw from the ru>inji- miiin bo dcliven?d m • spnrt 
nr irrpjrnlnr j>t, tlm air rhambpr i* not largo pnoiig'h, or it 
ha* liiu niueli wa'vr in it. A mttliu;t in tho riKitiji' in'tin t« 
rniiiu^ hv ill" aborc fault*. 

lite n:iiiihi-T of bmt« pw mLnuto can b* royulntwi bj the 
nmuuiit of lilt yoa jriri' the »'n«f<« tuUt, Tho ((imttT tli" 
lift the nlnn-fT tbi> wurkiuff, but Iho Atronger the }»t of 
wator mit into tlM air duinber. (Sea my cxpcrinMiiiUt 
vith tba boat valrc.) 

Hydraulic Rum a«at VrIvq Exp8Plm«nts and 
Cheaoly made Ram. 

I hari* FxperimoatallBed upon thti beat valv« in all 
maimM* of w-tiya, boUl laige and nuinll, and tud ^rvut 
varuitiuna Uii>refrc>a), aooordin^ In i-cirtam cntiditiotta. 


tt •■ uij- 

A 1b-«1 v«1v»> Hhonld Iw froo to n'-t (olwrdily —mftd t>ii it» 

iMAtiiur. and ibJ wi'lifbt »nd lift jiiilidouclr amiiixed, 

•eoardUiif to tbu Li-n;ftJi of thv drinv pipe, aud Iwad of 

waUu-. 1 will not trouble yim lo rvad thv batch of 
vx(>iiruufnt<t whit^h 1 hare bcwu on for tbi^ litnt twenty 
yearx and from which lirck'. i>i- Botbinx may be ifainud, 
mrm- tli.»n I hiivt> here dt>lituutlnl, but will uticiw you nty 
aiiii]i1t BifH-rimfnUil miu, wUcli III ciioh lliat avary 
appivntice pluiubrr mn osperhnootiiluo with for hioiMtU. ' 
tfim of all get a I llii. to tin. Trduoing aodcet, aa shown 
at O. Fif:. 9S9'. auif tin the larger eud. Then ffrt a Hin. 
or Ilia. k|>inille rnlxir, Hhnwn at I, gronnd in with iwt too 
mni^h tiipnr : lec the tipittdle hf uuule in such a mnnner 
that tbi- valwi will work, at Icaflt. I in. ^trok^- Now 
Milder this »pindli> vitlvi; wiih its hi-ad dowiiwnnln iutu the 
iiir](i> rnil of the rt-durinif Kii-kct. an nt K. iind in fwA 
a war that the Talvo will have frwdium to work, and tba 
centra of the rnlu- to hv as near tho rentre of the i-nrkM 
fl" poH-ible, M oa to i«ni« ijt the wiifor way. Nunt 
■rnw the aicket i>u to a ith'irt M»y Uvid B. unci ihty b^-nd 
oil to .1 Un; *■> nt C, and fix a ebort pi«e of iron jiijie, aa at 

D. or D iiiity bo a bit of Iralknorki'd round, or a bit of lead 
soldcnyl im to n jnVro of iruii pil*, and strrw a lin. unimi, 
Fig. 973, thenHu, or a pinv nt iin. iixHi pipe into the tee, 
a» at A, when for yunr ex]><->rimuu(« you may run this to 
■uy Ivngtb, or you cao loEke your length up with a coU of 
liu. pipe, itntdered no to tha union or A. E ia the end 
of a load- burner > finger japf, «>!d«TrKd en to I) and F, the 
knd.bnmrr'ii jiit. Ilnrf in ttin wbole tbiu^ coni'ilvl^, 

Liet thu other i-uil of tin; piiH' A go into a tub of water, 
wlion bright is, say. .^fi., aud whicli may t>o kept nearly 
oonalant by n ball tap or olhotwine, and jou hare an 
(Tsporiruautal ram, which ciua b« ooDvarlfd into a very 
Ho^ful aod nhilosophieal niAidtlna, Mpccially if yuu put a 
valvu into uic pipe D. to answer lui a ratnjning volfe, and 
carry your pip); Ut any dmiml plaiv ; in on-'h a case make 
U a 2in. pi|M>. to n fuirinh Itruglb. and luitig dciwn thf pip* 

E, an Kbuwn by tlin doCleal linen, which will atiiLwer M iin 
air vueael, but thin b not ru(iuin<d for xtmplc Diperiinantal 
purpoam. Aasuiain^ now nil to )»■ nuub- u» >.h«wt\ : fill up 
the pipoa u bo>it you ran, nnd p»i>h dtiwn the bent valva H 
for a Uron or two, whim thr wiitrr will U'gni to flow, and 
the best taK-o in a second or fj will clufH.'. tmd if thrni ia 
no air in th* p^pn, and F very Hnudl. or better for a ntart, 
n«arly doaed, yon will finil if tbn valro il i« all nght, will 
fall tuck, and water will run when il will again cluM), and 
•0 oil in tiiii(>, prciportioniillv, witli a length of trunk, or 
drivo pipv A. nnd licigbt of wnlrr. and thv length i4 
th« Btroke of the beat Talvu, viz., from .1 lo L. 

It is not abvolutrly »(>iviiitiiry that the diivv pi^ hhould 
bavoa rpgtilur nlautuig fall, aa it niay Iw niiulo tii run along 
tho ground, or even a little uphill, providing you gut 
the fall, nor ia it ulNKiluldy nooeasury to fix the bMt valve 
exactly iat^ upwanla, am It will work in atm.Mit any position 
to naarly the liunzontal line, but ii pnferublj fiseil upri^t 
by moat firma. 

Kow avNiunt ovurything to bo mada aa su^tmtod, and 
which will owt but very httle, eopeclaUy If a ooil of, my, 
No. 4511m. lend 1 in. piiw be nned, as i( ■■an be u*od fur other 
pttrpcici:M. Thr height of th« valve ia resnhited by Iho 
waalier« L, nod the following should bn Uie reaultji. but 
which will vary witli the leaMl di&eienco in liae ol valve, 
K'ngUi of ■Imki\ bright nf fill, Inngtli of pi]*. ■niai>l]in«>M 
• '{ \>\y, aii't evi'[i IvirouieCricuI ]ir<:r«aui-i< . iu fai-l. Tbi> (■mitio 
[ii->v4]m''iit of thu bent valve, imder ocriAin conditions, is 
jKtst all MiiKK'ptiiin. The following arr iiome of it* nntJce. 

A^^iimitig you tu have a Stitt. Itngtb of drivu piji', and 
jiiit. alirtiiiK it. Tbo vhIto, tindnr irtniii oonditjouti, may 
lit' luailfi tu K'til vprj* flowly, tbru it will iuonMuw in vpcvd, 
and go at a rare pac«, when all at onw it will awume 
a tnnob slower pace, nnd yon think it xr.ii)pr>l, when .>9 it 
■tarta again, rrnr likely to aettlti diiwn U\ "Qv rrg-nlar rata 
for a limi' . then ultura its rate, jtiiit aa rboniih tl 
water parted in the middlo of the pipe*, v^ -^ 

rocutun at tbia jvunt, which I bcUere it d» 



This kIm) happens la drivo pipes raryiag from three to 
four hundred feet long, vhen the blow in such pipes at 
time* it enormous, and nomctunee enough to bloir off the 
•oldurod-ou valve from the socket. 

I ma; hero remuk that of all the experiments, including 
the bactcrioKopiQ examination, tbat I have met with for 
thiH work, there ia none to equal the funnj and intricate 
movementHol this valve, which, by examinatioQ of the table, 
and which is exactlv what has taken place, an intelligent 
nader should readilj dimoTer. I don't wonder that no 
other record of this extraordinary philosophical instniment, 
the licat valvr , and the h^'draulio ram, has never been 
befitn< workcv. out or published. It is astonishing the 
amount of ignorance shown by aaaumingly good engineers 
on this quextion. Everjono, without exception, laid it 
down eith<v that the valve dropped of its own weight, or 
byiKinie uukoown cause, until some yearK ago I experi- 
mentalised and discovered its true action, viz., the 
elasticity and regurgitation of the water itself, forming a 
partial vacuum below the valve, and thus causing its fall, 
whioh idea was Be%-erely ridiouled by many know-alls in 
trade joumHis, but whioh subject now is a settled point, 
«ven by those who thought fit to sneer when t fint 
expieuod my views upon the subject. 

Water-hammflPin Steam Plp««.— Boiler Explotlons. 

Bpfore we leave the subject of the hydraulic rams let us 
examine the curious phenomenon of the water-hammer, 
whioh will instruct the ingenious. 

The aotion familiarly known as ' ' water-hammer ' ' had 
hMO long known to the plumber, hot-water and steam 
fitter, aira especially to the engineer who has had muoh to 
do wiUk steam p«iwer (such as laundry and brew-honse), 
and its singular effM'ta nad been often observed and oom- 
men led upon. 

When a pipe is filled with steam, and then has 
intntduoed into it a quantity of cold water, or when a pipe, 
ttarlf cold, and cuotainiug oold water, even in enudl 
qnaatitiea, and without pressure, has steam from a pl^ 
open pipe turned into it, the tint contart of the two floida 
is Mi.»mpanied by a sudden ixtndmsation. which causes a 
idtan> snapping setios of quick blows to be strook, usually 
at tM pcdnt of entraniv: and sometimes a succession dF 
MK^ blows occur, which are the heavier as the pipe is 
lai^, and may l>i> startUug. and, undw cwtain con- 
ditions, dangentus. 

It is not qait» a nettled point as w what action takes 
l^aiv in all ntaes, or what c<.iiidi lions arv most favourable 
to ihv devt'liipatcut ot iho tmuenduus pressures which are 
oftien piodwvd, IVrfaap^ ibf actiiui is as follows : — 

Ihft steam, at entran-.v, p«sN.'it over, or comes in cuntact 
with the surfatv ot the i.>>M watw standing in the pipe. 
CVwdenMtitw ixvur*. at Aist verr slowly, but piwomitly 
mure quickly, and then *■.> rapidly that the surfar^ itt 
tMtttacl belvM-n the twv> fluids is l«viken, and cuudrasati^v 
is v'i<mi>k4is) with a suddenaew tbat prvaluom a vacuum. 
Tb(- water sunouadiu^ this vacuum is next pn^jected 
viukttlly fnva all sid<ei into tlu« vacoou* spa^v, aitd 
ctowang it. strikM ui>ou the surfaw stuitHUidinir it As 
water » wry (^UslK- aitd mtisrir inCMupressiMe. the hkiw 
thas struck ts liki- that of a mJmJ buly. ual the intensity of 
Ihe leauhing prvMHUv i* the icrvateras thedistaiwv through 
vhkA the poititw vvf suifaiv attacked v-an yi>^ is Inv. In 
this manner eni>ra»i>us premurv» are ^mnetimc" pnducvd. 
^TUs is th« v-auM ci many of our terrible and unexpUiaed 
huiW «x|<k,>Mon» whik-h iia|i)«Ni during tb>p tim« wWm m> , 
wck » beiBj doott and wben the,''-* is iMrf.) I 

In some cases it seems certain that such prossnres may 
be caused at points in the pipe far from either end, and 
from the point of entranoe of the steam. For example, a 
pipe may lie in a nearly or tjuite horizontal line, and if not 
fully drained, may contain a considerable quantity of 
water lying in the lower portion, while tbn steam may flow 
in above it The passage of this steam along the nirfaoe 
of the water may cause a disturbance of this water, and 
being gradually increased as the flow of steam becomes 
more lapid, may finally cause a break in the surfaoe 
of the water, which disturbance may produce more 
rapid oondensatiou and still further agitate the mass, 
until condensation occurs with such rapidity that a 
vacuum is funned at the point of greatest action. Tlie 
next reeult is the rushing of steam from both directions 
towards this pcnnt, carrying with it, as it goc«, 
masses of water which, coining from opposite direiSions 
with enormous velocity, meet at the intennediate sp^t at 
which the condensation has been most r^iid, and being 
stopped by instant collision, produces a pressure which may 
onlyhave as its limit the strength of the pipe. 

Where pipes are not burst by this action, it ia common 
to see them sprung and twisted out of line, torn from their 
oonneotions, and, when a succession of shocks oocnr, as is 
often the case, the whole line writhes and jumps length- 
wise to an extent that is sufficiently serious to oanae wdl- 
grounded alarm. 

Four lengths of Sin. pipe had been split by this acticn, 
and it was desired to ascertain whetiier tliey remained, in 
their injured oondition, Rtrong enon^ to bear die ordinary 
steam pressure of the line from which they were taken. 
This never rose to above fifty or sixty pounds per aqnan 
inch. They were therefore subjected, in a proving- 
machine, to gradually increasing preesnim until the already 
fractured parts were still further injured, the repain, or 
rather the patching having been carefully done in sntdi a 
way that they were not slTengthenod by iL mda was 
done by putting on soft patches alimg the line of die ^it, 
and securing them by bcdts which were set in die Use a the 
split. The patches thus served as amfle atop-vidTeSi 
preventing the exit of the water throngfa toe biaa£. 

li\Jeotore ppoduoed fram the Water-hammar 

We have seen the effect of water and ifana eoung 
in contact with endi other. Tliis was what originaltf 
opened up a great industry in the mmvtaetBamg of 

I am not here going to give an account of the working 
of theee artictes, but only just draw yonr attention dierela, 
and to pmnt out to yon tbat the water nun is not Uie 
only phQcei^ical instrament which the plumber has to 
do with, but the abore instramenta will require to be 
studied tiefore he can claim to be perfect in hia trade. 
These the plumber will be called upon to Ax in the 
chMuical vrurk*. on boanl ship, and other pUcee, aoch as 
gadvx>rk!^ imlphate of ammonia plants, ke., and yon will 
he expected Ut know the class of tools best snited to your 
job. auul the best way and positiun to fix them. 

In nHtr selection the foUowing ralei dKmUi be 
observed: — 

^l-' Oiwt and ivli»huity. 

^i.' Nittunal cvet of fixing. 

3.' The Mv«m pi^v sfav>uU he as ikort and atniglit ai 
pomibte. anil the stvam votive fixed near. 

,4.1 Rk'w rteam through the apparatm b sf b i e pntting on 
U,w MirtiuM. Bad keep the sactico as Ami m eoimitkni. 
Tb^ •- nn to think aboi* ktee yen eooM 

di- =1^ wiQ be nan into ia dne time. 



F. J. Datiis'b Fnotioal Experiments, for showinj; the alteration in niunbei'of beats onder different circumiitaiictw. 

EXPBBIHENT No. I. Iin. Leu> Fipi. 


lydte'lh Ol 

van Btir» 





(jlralce of 

per 31) 




Beil VbItc. 


Jet IhnnrD. 

al Jet. 

ft. In. 

ft In. 

I Kit. 




6 6 






6 6 




Blank p^ 


6 6 






S 6 





S 6 





6 6 






5 6 






fi 6 






fi 6 






fi 6 






6 6 



Blank {rfpe. 


6 G 





Blank pipe. 


3 6 





Blank pipe. 


3 6 






4 10 




Blank pipe. 


4 10 






4 10 






4 10 



Beat ooe stroke only and stopped. 


4 10 






2 10 






2 10 




Would not work with jet. 


2 10 


Blank pipe- 


2 10 





6 4 





6 4 





fi 4 




Flnctnated in numbOT of beats. Enatio in ill 


fi 4 




beats. Sometimes verr alow and then fast ; 
altering ita boat irreguWlf . 


fi 4 




Height unknown.bntTery high; intoqiute a ppray. 


6 4 




Ditto, OS above. 


fi 4 





Ditto, ditto. 


fi 4 



Blank pipe. 








6 D 





The water in trunk regargitat«d or rabounded 

fuUr 6in. and repulsed the hand at the inlet 

of uie trunk or drire pipe. It could also be 

1 seen running or swinging back for 6in. at 






I the beat Tolve. Blank pipe. 
This was 80, 90, and then 3d beats. Blank pipe. 














3 torts 

Fluctuated in number of beats. 






Begurgitated fully 9in. 







When the valve was working opiigltt Uu baft' 
water prevented the regnrntatuiF 
bat by just tilting the valva M 







rip'ht the water oould be soea t 

\ fully Gin. 




10 a 

SO o 
30 O 

» o 

30 fr 
30 O 
M <* 

** 2 
»• 1 
•• S 

a* • 
»• • 

*• ? 

«* • 
» • 

JIV • 
>v * 














1« u 
1« b 


HtnAn of 

pra BO 



Dm; Vilfe. 


Jti thrawn. 

n. In. 




No oppaTfnt regut-tfitalion wtMl Ulkright, tul 

1 A 





htrongly seen when HlaDbed- 








JNo perceptible mgurgitadon, but Blautuig din. 
1 rirsw BAefc. 





1 Each of tli«t<! i^ts ceroid be diRtmclly seen, and if 






' finp:r wiia hold jiutt over the jet it felt like 
( thtf point lA A nec(Ue penotrating. 






This "VW with th« beat v«lre akniiiig', iHi«n 
I there A'aa abost 12ui, rogurgatariim. 






3 i 





Jot M high to be onlniDwn. 

3 4 




! 3 4 





Witli large jot wonld not work. 




B'^gurgitatiaa 12iiL 













— _ 

3 4 



Coiud<l«rAble water loss, 



Onlf iaiA.1- three ta four fltrolK^fl and Elopped. 






1 3 



Only inado fi>ur or fire strokes and stopped. 

1 3 








Will not vork vith Inr^er jet. 

r S U 



Will not work witih a larger jet tluui ^ftli in. 











Wm BOt woii Willi jet aboTo A.*b in. 





• » U 













z n 









n « 



Would not work with jet larger than ^|^th in. 






StopiH'd afttfr twentr-rii bniti ; no perceptibja 
\ pressure at JM. 

J » 





3 * 














( t 




Wdtkcd Mtif \ tiunata and (topped. 

i *t 





Would uot woil witb. jet lArg«r thAS it|tli iiL- 

St V 





i » 





4 * 










& « 





t « 




& « 




fr « 




fr « 






— - 


} •* 




> V 



z « 



— = 


3 « 










X V 




S tt 




Will TMl -work viA nvOer jsL 

3 V 




4 « 




1 • " 









Leuiith o( 

ValYc Haaij 


of Je», 



Xtrakn of 

per 30 




Bnb Valvi;. 


Jab Ih/nwD. 

TL In. 



6 V 

4 D 





Will not wnrk with jet. 

R C 

1 11 






i a 





6 f| 

% Q 
















1 8 

3 Q 









("With beat v;i1vb nearly torizcmtal, worked very 

1 iTTCgalnr. 

2 fl 

■3 9 






3 4 





2 n 

3 4 





2 1 

3 ■! 






:?, ■) 






3 4 







3 4 






:t 4 






S 4 





3 4 






3 4 






Z 1 





Wi^rlcijd vpiy irrogTilnr, 

3 n 

■i 4 





Would not work vntk jot. 


.■J I 





2 6 





2 6 





Yerj irTegnlOT in nction. 


2 5 





3 a 

2 5 





3 4 




3 4 

a r> 





TleRtirreErfl»r,wi*liaiin't'(Liei, iftcJt; tint.taelt. 

3 4 

2 fi 





Ditto, as aba^e. 

3 4 

2 n 




Ditto, ditt». 

4 2 

] '1 




\ 2 

] ■; 





i 2 

1 fi 




1 2 

1 r, 





_ ■ 

5 2 




« 2 






Two boats Bod etopa. 

6 2 






6 2 






5 2 




5 2 






Boat twice only. 

S 2 






B-iat three tiniefl only. 

6 2 

! D 





Vi;ry i*gtilar heat. 

fi 2 

! f) 





"Will rot -*-ork with jetB. ■ 

4 10 

f) 6 



4 10 



'riioralwt'.'LncijJupand down but would noinloee. 

1 Tho cnuse ijf Iht! vftlve 1 wilicig iva» owib^f tft the 

4 10 

1) B 





' viklTi^ gi^'iiK 'liuwn Io the roduccd part uf tho 
1 Bo^tet at li, Fiff. 95y». 

* 10 





Worked only three beata. 

4 10 

II (I 




4 ID 





4 10 







D 4 




Beat irre^Iarly. 

Bjkabm. — By altering the fall when the beat valve was at work, by gradually hfting the valve ptrt of tht I 
the beat becomea slower and tiloAver till it ceaaes heating, and according to the height lifted. 






Ltncth ot 

iUnVe or 

Tru nk. 

nn: VaiTs. 

(t. in. 



I neb. 

30 (1 



























































































































10 D 



















10 1* 















10 III 


10 n 







Va1*» Bwti 

pet 90 


J«t tbwm. 







No apparent re(?iir;{itBti(in when upriglit, bat 
elrunglf Been when fdnuted. 







fyo perceptible regurgitation, but «tBigtLEig aiia. 
dmiF bock. 




1 Each of th««e joU caalA be dintinotl^ neen, And if 
finger wa.* lield jimt orer thfl jet it felt lika 




1 ihB point of ft awdle ponetrating. 




1 Thia woe with tlis beat vfelTs danting, when 

1 there wit» about 12ia. rej^nrgitA'i'ini. 







Jet eo high to bo tmkuown. 


. . 





With large jet would sot work. 



EcgutgitatioD l^n. 











Couidderabk wfttur losn. 


Only made tbreo to four &tri>k« smJ stopped, 




Ooly jnndi' four oi fiv6 Atrokw and stopped. 





"Will not work with Iftrger jet. 


"Will not work with a. larger jet than ^th. in. 






IVill not work witli jot above JxOl in. 


— - 


. - 














Would n»t ftark vith jet larger than ^lifth in. 


Stoppo.l lifter tn-enty-six beats; nu ptfcoptiblB 
prc«9tm at jet. 















'Wo^k^d only } mlniito and stopped. 


■ — 

Wuuld not vc-arli with jet laiv<--r Uuui jifQi in. 






























. . 




Very Imygiilat beat, and Btopped sereMil tioiAi. 













— ; 




WQl not work with emallei jot. 


— ■ 












LEDglli rl 

Valve Beat! 


of Jet. 




ritrukf or 

per 30 




Bijtt Valve, 


Jet thromi. 

It. in. 

FL In. 


6 U 





Will not work with jet. 








4 fl 






1 fl 






4 fl 






4 fl 




1 6 




. — . 







( With beat valve nearly horizontal, worked very 
( inegnlar. 


i 3 






:t 4 





1 A 





2 n 

•f "1 






" 4 






H ^ 






". -t 






:i 4 






pi 4 






:t 4 






:t 4 






?, \ 




Worked very irre^fular. 


■i 4 




Would not work with jet. 


,') ^ 






'J 6 





2 5 


— ■ 


Very irregulu in action. 


3 6 




' 3 

2 5 




3 4 




■ 3 A 





BeatirregTilar,withakind('ttick, tack; tick, tack. 

1 3 4 

2 r» 




Ditto, as above. 

3 4 





Ditto, ditto. 

' 4 2 

I '^ 



4 2 

I : 




4 2 

1 n 



4 2 

1 ft 




- ' 

5 2 

1 f> 


■ — 

1 6 2 





Two beats and stops. 

I S 2 

1 fl 



[ fi 2 

I n 



1 .i 2 




■ 62 





Beat twice only. 

I J^ 2 



■ - 


Beat three times only. 

\ ft LI 






Very regular beat. 

'Will not work with jeta, ■ ■ 

I 6 2 

: fl 




■ « 10 

It 6 




|4 10 

It 6 




The valve (l.inced up and down bntwould not close. 


1 The cause of the valve heating was owingf to the 

■« 10 

It a 





' valve ^ing down to the reduced part o( the 
( aocket at K, Fig. 969*. 


A 10 






Worked only three beats. 

^^t iD 






jfl 10 






« 10 






'■ ^ 




— ' 


Boat irregularly. 

-By altering the fall when the beat valve was at work, by gradually lifting the valve part of the pipe, 
the beat becomes slower and slower till it ceascB beating, and according; to the height lifted. 



Experiments- Water -hammer. 

Pirn Nn. 1.— This xilpc was split wour ono cwi. tvr ft 
di^uee o( 15in., alimg the line of the weld. Vfhm plawd 
lathe pniviiiir-mupliiiie, it bore Uie ii)>^li(^ iwt-sfture uutU 
it ntttuned aa intcurily of 40l)lbii. per "^min' i(ii>h. 
whxn tlitr opiit middtn)}- cxt«Kl«d Rbuul li'ii ui Jiv« ; tliu 
piiMiuro niuld no longer be kopt up, and ibc test 

Thf pljxt wftB Ibvn taken to a pipo.i-ultinft nuwliuu', nnd 
lliBiiijuwd pftit cut oil. It wiui ilifin ngnin suhjectoj lu 
nrewmtrc. It l"'rp a pivsnuro of l.lOOllw. per w(Hiir« inch— 
am bi^evt thut it waa coiivwiiont or PimfomRTj to apply to 
tbttt Sbc— iind wn» takcm out nouiiil. 

Pipe No. 2.— Thin lonirlb wm enured for n distance of 
15in. along the linn of tlic in-ld, uot far from the middlo of 
iti length. The nw.-k had opened » littk. nnd tbn pipn 
WW ailehUr bulp^d. ThiapiocohoroSOOlba, anil thou gnvu 
way, ui« fnkctiire ftxtcndud Juut etioatrli to lot cff thu 

Ac thu opponto wd uf the iripe wm imothrr nplit, Sin. Ju 
I«r>|^}i. Tne part )usl fractured wil.i tut off, and the 
runiuiniuK portiou ii((iiin mibj^iUtd to Che wntor prcaniro. 
Thin time it bom l.OGUIba. per fFquurr inch, whi^n the 
crack wu ittiirt«d and ran about lilin. It buKsn Wking, 
and ahowcd pUinly Cus ullvcl of the pressure nt about 

This wu> au utiukuallf.iatawatiDK it]wcimcn, a« the pipe 
bmt btwu bultr^d coDndtnUr bj tbb watcr-bamiDttr al(jii){ 
the line ot thu tlin. crack. The pretwun afivrmuda hunw, 
Iherefurt', womod tn be likely to bv a fair laeaattn of that 
produr«d origiunllr hy the watw-haniincr. Such bulging 
at waa hen »•««■ hvtat iM-'cum at timiHl nrrwrnri'"- Thu 
neir brmk did nul follow the wold, but rati inw^larly, mid 
appafontly ibdiffarantly. thron^'h weltl or Holid ux^ii. 

Pipe No. 3.— Thin lMiK*b waanplit ftiradiAta&ivnf 72in . 
the end ftf iho Ijn-ak bcitip about 3ft- from tho i-nJ of lh« 
pipe. It Muitained a pn<twiin< of ^.'iOlbu. Thu xouud part 
(if thQ [npe was tbcn tated up tho l,<)iOlba. without 

ripe Nil. <.-Thia piece waa iiplit, like tlje liuit. jud Ur 
jU'<t atKiut t))c nnmt CXtrat» waa tj<i!t«d eiinilarly, aitd gave 
may at .lOOlha. per aquon inch, 

Allol tlii*pipe waa Kin. pi^, |iti. ttii<-k. iiiiJ made with 
ihv uxual funiiof lap-wpM^ joint. The wi'hbi wure nul 
always perfcvt, ae U pmlMihly ihr fart with nil miih {npc*: 
bill this pipe, bntl-woldi-'d, wimlJ hn*ir Immc *«>ry much 
hijth'-r iin-MLirm than t-ho«t to whieb it wna Hubjeated in 
iin.liiuiry wuik liy thi^ nfi'^im rirrlod on tho Uue. It oannot 
he iiDHurtcd thiit ihuMS lt.'ti>,tlut of pip« did not apUt under 
prt?wnrc« ht* thun ihot^.- to wbvli tbfv were aftt-rwardit 
Kutijiwtrcl, »■ it. Js v ry prmcihlp that tlin tint hlow ntay 
bare found a weak part in tie pipu, and the xplk may, in 
NtDocoKv, Lave vxtcuded to Htronpor portiona. Neror- 
theloM, it ia poaribie that thia woa not the coao in all 
titfltaneea, for iu one com at leoNt— that of thn Sin. crack, 
whirh wna accompatiiMl by a decided hv^ge in the pip"— 
(hi' watvr prctoun', nl the test, was, at least appioxl- 
inutcly, equal to, and vt^ri* liknly t^ hnro estTcdedi thorn 
obtainnl at the lal«r teal!. It Hferiui very certain that ve 
may eun»idRr it mi pmi-cn that the prewure produced by 
wm«r-h«nmi«r b ofi.m t-uormnufly in ozonw of that 
familiar to tu in ihe u^o nf ^S-Ain, and it haa lu many 
castn rxrcirdai I.UOOIIm. par ai)uani iucbi-^B'^ then, 
ei'iduut that it ia not often Kota to codciuliito i^pini iflpaiii^if 
th«si} tremendous i)troa««e by wel|rbtatid thickui-** of nelol. 
but thiit nc imiat n>ly principillv, if not tiolrly, ii;^oi ecm- 
pttttii? and ei-rtain drainage »( the p'l^ ot »11 ti""*'* .^ik" 
only meauB of nafely baudUug Nt«Mn iu luu^ pi|><^'», 
(MMwially aa one now eotida^ Into uae Iu the hejtii . 
eiticft by fiUiiai, kd tfatouf^ the atrceta in unduiyri.-:!) 

Thrr fiu'ti h«re pnuented have oomethiug of a revi-Uiii 
nnd puKHWi iinuHUol inicn-iit and importanm to a worbmil 
using slmm under such cunditioux tui art; hini K'fi^rrvd l>' 
II is a faet, which bos long b«jn w,>ll known, ibat thm\ 
8nddenty prcidiu'rd pn-vunvi uni oFl'.-n \rrv gri^t, a: 
oi3i.*a''iiiual1y Heriaus nud luiuelimtw fata) aui uleiita due 
thiH •■niiM- ; but that tb^eo atrenee aro ottvn aa grt«t oa ii 
heru iudicactid hiui probably bees liule roallMd. 

AIM see Hoatjng Water by Steam and Injeotor aa «^ 
lYovcnlutivo to Water Hoiouier. 




I have now como to that nart of my work wbleh wlU 
tr~Bt upciu the naler suppliej by private tspriTi^, i^'hUt 
oourKii. and mntcrf^omiwnU'N. Siwh mippliet .in- jftUTiilly 
oblauiL-d from ■priii(f', rivorn. ntrrunm, n't'lln, mid nuch ILkL- 
plaices, itoinelimei lilt«-n?d thn>iigh filter hnd*. a* firol 
■upinwcd to bt nd<.)pl4.ti by th*; CheUca WaU-r WurVn 
C(wipany in I82H, and lli«n miuKlHtinK of fr^iin ISln. to 
24in. of fine sAud rcatiug on two or tlir^e foct of cnarHo 
grarvl grftfliiiiltiig in slip from that of ii Mplit jwii tu the 
iu« of a h<4i*i> vfftc- Alao mm Filtvn in Vol. I. 

In Mdcr to form some idea of tho origin of thla watv 
aupplv it will bo neeee^Ary to give a biicf outUne of 
aqnntlnota of uld, hccaum Ui«y wi'rc in nskBtunue hundreds, 
or even Ihouaauda ot years before thi.*y wer« adnpt«d in 
England. Thu rulna of tbo aquedools oonatructi'd with Ihv 
supply from tho Nile and ulao in Palutiae, to the reign of 

Kititf Soluiuou. the remalna of wUoh are to be aeen to 
excite admirution. SomeofthMO extended at least 

forty to Mxty niilM of coTored atoiw ohaands, by meu 
iiri':id(.-4 uriT wide and deep TaUejit, ovcn throngh tni 
niiliM through the mild niOK, and terminnl.iug iubu ttiarj 
or ivHTToirs of tlw snow material. Theeu awiuedutt* 
knciwn by diffioronl notDee, auch as Aqua Appia, . 
Maiiiit. Aqna Julia, Aqua Tcpiiln, Aquu Virgina, 
t'lnudia, Ar. As hcforo remarked, numf of thr«i? 
ruuuiuK through uhonuda, and over ns raiinv ii» b 
dozen hitrh arobes. one tibow tha other, ri^uvt fi 
often to a height of from lOft. M 160ft, 

Till! aiiURcluut of New -Aiiio was mnatructcd npn 
lmiioH4 sf-ricM of »r<<tM4 C} tnilen in If^igth ; ma 
1 00ft, hiith. 

Aquu Hartiu was 38 mUoii lon^, and had 7,000 




Fluicalii, wo «« told. h»d nn abundkac* of iMths and 
(ounUdus, wid evury l)oiiw in /empnal* hml watvr, uim* 
ikut Teyonoohnd ma W)uwluct ftum which tvrty huuao wnw 
wrll Kuppli^l bjr leaden pipea, aIso IirtArl^iia, with iu 
thuuiHiuU 'jf houae*. ksd wabv pipoa. »■ wi^ hnvp to-day. 
AqiicdacU were 6rat in thin conntr; oonirtnictod in tlio 

Cr 1T60. bj tbo Dulcc •>( Bridi^ater. at Barton Biidce 
al, 39ft. above ihi' ■ur(ac<> of the river Xrwell. It 
•-urtniala of thrto frnhr*. Ihr npun of tho middle on* htiag 
A3ft. Mnny partii of Sjrria iHiDtain aqnadoot reoiaina. 
Ayttvduct ivriiuui* »tv alao to b« -^^ii at lyre, iindmibtedly 
built I.DOOrearH kcfon the Christian em. TctvolxNuit 
of Ihr aiitipfpniKl in:>iKniA^-i*nt frorlt of ibe New Klv^T, dair 
nbnut !I6]J, but tlux wii» n xiiiiple aqueduct or uiiifoitn 
tati'il, wlilcli, in^'lend uf bijldlv iiit-siu/ ovrr valloyd aud 
Ihnniigh hiUiilaadid tti'' olHcn Tlnniftii ninilnil<tl it rrnwln 
nnd (■n"-p« iiDakr-liki- imk» out <if llu" waj . ftiid tlie wuiuli^r 
lo Bie ill uoi« EntfUitli ikxiiiIi.' rnuld inxko w^ niiii')) fiia< of a 
mrson Uko Uu^li Myitd'h'^ii. <.'>.TlAiul)r, tlirrv wtut no iikill 
oic^jrcd in hU vork, <v>mt>iirt^l with the talcntA of the 
eBgiiieera ovt^r Lliou-uiiiii.* i.!! yours hcf»r<> Myilddton was 
boni It would betinwome to wurry vnu upimtbeMoiKimit 
TiaducU nnd eanali,»o that wo will come a little nearer 
bamn and soe irltat hu be«m done, b;r wny of eopfdybff 
wat«r through Ipadfn and iron paprit. Tlic tormtr 
tVnuuindii, whiUt t!ii« Inttw are only lituulmla of yearn uhl. 

CK-od wntvr, our cliief •'bj>'<:t of rew«arrh waa then, aa ia 
now, of vital impurtanw. und Ih*- quality m quo ot the fint 
things that ovoo a navngn look* nut fikr when eetlUng in a 
pew oohiny. 

Vow, thia part ttl Euglaiid, Li>ndan (and by far not the 
oldest name of which wo know aaytliiag of about thia vHy). 
vaa originally int4)rMct«t bj many itrvama or email rirnletn 
III the moat inttteatinfr^'baraob.-r. which we an* warmnlad tn 
ttinldoff wvreof the piirml typo, On thi> hniikii of th<»(i 
RTolvta the people naturally culleclfid. and in due lime 
(ormed their hnhttatioBa, and made the then nplendid 
mratal and pure tidal River ThanMaaooBTonifTnt, higtia-ay, 
TUm rivmr would ^'nnhln thorn t<i arnd (tlii-y biuuK fC"*'' 
bunt«r» tlivir nkiuit, ivory, and other goMa away. It 
■ttnid aUo enable them in rrtom lo bring naceuary store* 
Eur tbeir ciODauRiptioii, ntiil in dui! time tbej formed tow* 
path* on thean ttanka. Luli^r the place became ooloniMd, 
ind Iherefora the atreama not licing pmtin-tnd honun* 
bnkd : nooomily oallinfc f»r the nauiu (o be oovervd over 
xr filled up, and, ad ia nov, roads were formed above tbero 

In Ibeir plaeei. 

London Water and P«ople. 

We will n"w aeff what r>>i*iirdfl wt- hav^ at thia Ifoudnn, 
the flr>d 1 (tud i>. tlmt the naiiii' of Londnti wh* first 
Jfew Troy fur many agvn ; but thia at laat bneiune 
'., and oallvd TrinovitDt, olau Trinortulee. Wbeu 
of CaaHibcUaum, eamo here, the acknowhx^ed 
part of the town waa on the ttttrrm' and KantiA 
; when he ebtaimd tin vovanment be aUf ted over 
Middleacx tide, whwe he DBlIt what ia, ar what was 
11 known ait. London Wall, with towont and gate*- He 
•fi rhnnsfit) the nanin to Cnar. 

Liid or Liidii'Towu. After thin another ehange of name 
plauf, when it was called Caer-Londou, aud afbrr it 
,]lOen cotuinrirtit by fnri-i^firii, lh<iy i^hiragi-d tlm iiamn 
Loodreda, wliirh aii^iifien a fable a tolled with 
1, ridieuloua impoambilitiea, whioh is now «calt<«ied 
iriad*. Honco the uae of the old and than wuni*uiit 
tlu) Ocifln aa a doviou to tbo Citj. We learn a lut 
Londoa from the eclebmted JnJius Oicaar'a direct 
H» aar* : " I mot with many diffiroltii-a iu 
— )ir. oecwdinied partly by the great deptli uf the water 
kwn by the A'tp^. wudi prevented thdr uccqm to tlie 

ebflre; and partly fay the heavy anMnr whocvwitb tbe 
aoldiere wens loaded, whioh randerad them Incapable of 
eufm^BV ^>^ ''■<! waves and the emany al the aatue time, 
eepecjally in a jvlaoo to whii-h they wen* entiro ■truoseta. 
U b(-rau the firitona, either by remaining on the land, or 
adrandng a abort way. they wuld oonunodiooalr throw 
tbelt darU and bodily advanoe with tlu^r ravalry to prevent 
the eofimy from huiding." 

Bat enough of thin, and W lu prooewl with uur water 
work ontil mora faiatovy ia required to expound the law 
relating to watamnnoe, epringa and canduita. 

Alinr>at from the Brat settlement of the ancient Briton*, 
and up to abont 200 yeaia atl^r the time of WUliau the 
ConiiuiTur, the City of London waa aupplfed with water 
by four rivera. Flmt, in order, Irt un lake that of I^ang 
Bourne (or atrfaui), which ran d'>»ii or through the City, 
Htipplying thn miit pnrt, nnd Ihrnujich u-hnt i* now Imowu 
an Penchurvh Stn,«t.'l nnd Lombard Street : thi* turned at 
St. ICary Woolnoth, paMcddiwn Sbnrclxiuruo LAtm, aud 
on to Ui9 TbamcM. 'llita took ite name from tho long 
atewling length thereof. I nwy flrat here remark tfaat 1 
ahall only now ttcalLce the eondtiita, tco., and give 
expliealtua after 


Walbroke waa a hnumn, an-ralled from the Loudon 
Wall, whirJi it entered, aud wiw lUco thr; former, but 
Walbniok waa where now Broad Street m. It pasiw^ through 
Tbrogmorloti Street, then in front of Lothbui-y Old Churdt, 
nnd about the ceiitre of tlm praaoiit mad ; it then turned 
rvKind n«ir St, Mildred'* CViurt, theu thnjugh Walbnwk, 
mid frotii ttiere into thuThami'S. Ttud supplied the WMt 
pari of the City. 


There wa* the River of WoU«, Turuuiill Slr«am Vi known 
on aceount of the walerwhaola thea'in then flKed for 
working pump*), lietter known nti Fioni l)jkr. whiiih ran 
down what ia now known as Fairiu^uu Stn«t, but iiri 
the Fleet Strvet Mde, and paamog Fleet Strtwt to the 
Thamea. Tbia at ooe ttme wm a nmguISoent large brook 
ef pure water. 


Thm there wha the Old Bonme, now kmwa aa Ilnlbom, 
a very pmlific plaro for apringa, aUa abiiiiii'liii,^ Kattou 
Gardiat. The Old Bimmo bml ite risn aud counm frvm 
what ia now Uvlburu Biira aud Haltun Garden. It flowed 
to tho Rivflr of Wella, noar Holbom Brid^, now the 

There wan Buyawator Bourtw, Rivrtr lira, the Wandir, 
tho Breut, Lea in Kent, and the Karen Airer, Deptfofd 
(which waa 60 yanU wide). 

The Wiaoombc Park Vanbtirgb, near Orecnwicli I'ark. 
This waa about SOO yards from Mace HiU, 

Battvrara had a powvrfnl atronm which worked flour 
mills, and mn by Sleford HonaiT. 


Beaidea all thnae bonmea there wero a luge nnmber of 
cpringfl or wella. such aa Bagnaggc Wclla, on the aite 
when ClarkonwriU Polioa Court now ataiida. 


Than ia no oltl wnll on the aonth by aniith-eaiit part i 
the garden, which wna there bafur« the aiiuar<? waa fonof 
Then ia now plonty of good water thetoin, wUoh Ibq ^ 
for tbo wstertng of tho goMim tA r!D»> &K3 . 



Tberf was also one cm the nortii by noitli-eflst rade of the 
square. Pumpe vere oloac to the thiIh, and the soath mde 
pump remains intaot. I see the cabmen oocasionslly use it 
tor their wash-leathers; they say it is softer than the 
ordinary wat«r' company's supply, which appears strange, 
oousiderin^ it to be a natural spring. 


Holy Well rose just oa the nortJk side, and about half 
way up what is now called Holywell Street, Strand, or 
between St, Clement's Dane and NeircsBtle Street. 

There was Clement's Well, which was on the green, 
is front of the present new Bankruptcy Buildings, and 
where the old nouses, which were pulled down for the 

Jiresent new green, stood. Sadler's Wells in 1750 was a 
armhonse with wells of splendid drinking water by 
the side, surrounded with poplars and elm trees, the wells 
being a kind of square potul with wooden rails all round. 


The Strand w^ is now covered over, hut still remains 
with water therein. This is situated about the centre of 
the road and about the middle of the wall of St. Mary-Io- 
Stiand. There is a tablet in the church wall which runs 
thus : The pomp well is XIX. ft. south from this stone and 
VHI. frtmi the surface. Its diameter Til., and depth 
XXVIII. ft. Reopened and a pump erected Anno Domini 
XDCCOVU. WtUiam Hohnes, Thomas Harper, Church- 


His ires once a popular place of amusement, from 
iriiich White Conduit derives its name. It was built about 
1641 at the bat^ of 10, Penton Street, at the comer of 
Edward 8ti«et. This conduit supplied Carthosian Friars. 
Tluie WW also a small conduit at the back of White 
Gtmduit Gardens, near Warren Street, where Huntingdon 
the ^wudier, known as the " Sinner saved," used to take 
gieat interest in it to keep it clean, &c., mixing his 
fii— iiiinat with Oodlinoes. 

Then was also, up to within this last thirty years, 
Clerk's Wdl, or Clerkenwell, when I knew it. It was 
ooibed sqoue with a kind of bard Bath stone, and was 
litniitftnl just outside (he laila on the west end part of the 
Ambjvi, with a pnblic-houae right opposite, where the 
Wl-rinnt nsed to meet. The said church took its name 
hoM Ois veil, before the Parish (Church) Clerks' 
Camamj mi' chartered, somewhere about the date 
ItWT ThW oompsny of Amen Clerks made a rule of 
■dMnyearly, andtoplaysomepartof scriptnral 
'' vn w pio- in the year 1390. July 18th, the 
aaS IteiKi Clerks of London played interludes 
'Vdl which was near Clerk's Well, and the 
J^^^^^im flueedays together, when Bichard 11. 
^3 ^s (^Mt ■■il nwaf nobles were present. Also 
jlH tn Henry IV.'b time, they played at 
~ ~ '«Udi lasted eight days, their subject 
" irf dM Worid, when many nobles and 
Wh^ plays were not acted, there 
^ML vUoh *^ *^**^ place at St. 
^&WWdl WH at Smithfleld, by the 
I, TI^s w also what was called 
the west of Smith- 
*^|| Wag * noted place for 

to the parish 

dlM to the pansn 
- •■«, irelf 

well, square, cnrbed with stone, and called Dame Annis 
the Clear, and not far from it, westward, was another clear 
water well, known as Perilous, because youths used to get 
into it to bathe and were often drowned. The wells before 
recited were shallow wells. St. Panoras Wells were about 
400 yards on the eonth side of St. Pancras Old Choich. 
These wells had pumps, and the water was supposed to be 
a cure for everything. 

regent's park water. 

This is a sheet of water 1,200 yards long, and about 140 
yards in the widest part, with a T shaped branch of about 
4fi0 yards. There are nx islands therein. There is also 
the Princes Reservoir, a sheet of water 600 yards long, by 
90 yards wide. 


This is 120 yards long by 50 yards wide, one of tlie moat 
splendid positions for a reservoir in the suburbs of London. 

ST. John's wood reservoir. 

These are four in number, the largest hang 70 yards by 
20 yards ; their situation is near the Barracks. 


These form a nice little stream tmd conduit at Kilbnm 
Wells, 130 yards long and 30 yar«ja wide. Another one is 
by Kilbum Bridge, 80 yards by 20 yards. These used to 
empty into the Bayswater Rivulet, and partly formed The 
Ty bourn. 


These ponds were eight in number, some maoh larger 
than others. Some still exist, but are not in use for 
domestic purposes. 


This is in the Sfrand, London, opposite Kewcaatle Street. 
This bath is about 60 yards down the lane on the east side, 
and under a little old. fashioned looking hou»e, which 
htanda between two large and newly-bmlt warehouses. 
The house has iron rails in front, and about 5ft. of area, 
having an iron gate, with steps down and an old-fashioned 
door. -This old building seems to have escaped the notice 
of most London historians, and therefore very little is 
known of it. I am informed that it was bnut in the 
time of Titus, but I should prefer to say Julias Cnsar. 
The ground upon which it stands was, if not now, belong- 
ing to iho Danvera of Swithland, Leicestershire. 

Having descended from the gate, and through the door- 
way four or five steps, you paMs an arched passage, more 
like a cellar than anything else, and on the wft is a 
doorway which leads you into a vaulted chamber 16ft. in 
length, 9ft. wide. The well or bath top, like a swimming 
bath, is level with the floor. This is I3ft. long, 6ft. wide, 
and 4ft. 6in, deep. The water is supplied by a sprinff, 
doubtless in conjunction or of the same veins as the old 
r^pring of Holywell Street, which was about 150 yards due 
north by north-east of this spot. The water is beautifully 
clear and good for drinking purposes, and runs at the rate 
of about 2, 68S gallons per day. There is also under die 
eamo roof a splendid white marble bath, said to be bnilt by 
the Earl of Esaex (it Hbould be here noticed that £ssex 
Street is juat by, wnere the Earl lived when in London) 
about the year 1588. The water seems to rise from the 
bottom of the upper bath or well, from where it appears 
the marble bath has its supply. It is curious that neither 
the sewer along the Strand, which is above, nor tlM 
ft Railway close by, and some SQft. bdov this level^ 
wed with these springs. 




ThU wBii tMtiit Bonate with two gable ends aO Ktaae, md 
Ui«TO wa« «n exwUuDt supply which nui ooiund«mbly to 
WMito BO Utp M 18''5, It vnM vtiry uiwh likn Kjiik Hmirj- 
Vm.'a ooDdiiit Kt KvuniiBrtoii, havio); sbgnt im pani« 
kind at supply. Thers are iiwi springs brnUiiiuMitiitlha 
fout of llw Hand hitla brtWMm Uiwi-nwieh and Woolwich, 
which fluw lu^ruMi Uto m~nbM nnd ttito tlie Thamea. 


Thttm wore iit (URiim]: Strt«Ht, St iCatthfiw'ft, Bethiiol 
Green, mid weru v4 au •- i»l)a|M> 80 lar-l. /rj-n «lbow to wvch 
point. The pvndi won LlOyartif by IW. Thv tiinnlV-r 
on« wiH 40 TiLTdt hy 30, olcjw lo :iiiul>eth litniot, Old 
Bvtltnal Oruou Riiul 


Thia was near lie Jewi" Biirinl Urouud, between White- 
Dhapd and Htle End OU Town. 


The situation af tlii» M cloan to Mill HUI Ifciad near th* 
canal lock. Ita shaps vt tlmt of an ovaX, 80 y^ida by 10 


Them was a b«auttful aliMi of water 160 yards by 60 
varda, by the nd« of RaBnia Lam", at &» fnrthor tmd o£ 
bieltn^y Road. 


Mvre waaa l)Tely piece of wstor 150 yards by 100 yardji, 
calkxl thv Fiah Pood. Amithnr twti .ihrata of water wo At 
thfi Uovo Bow near Ibe Oaa Li^ht Workv, one 170 yatda 
by ISO yards, and another 160 yurda by 100 yard*. 


Thifl Tni nau- tlu- Old Liad BliUa. and waa J (JO yanlfl by 
M yardn, 


7%i» w*a nrar tho Imrial gmond, St.. Ltiko'a, at tho bnrtk 
of UiB hutpital, hntwcvu Balilurm SItfvI and Olil 84reoL 
It waa a splendid aheft of wal^r M yards by 30 yaiie. 

BAVSWATRR, queen's road conduit, rORMERLV 

Hen fltood a apli-ndid crystal »hoet of drinlting wntfr, 
wbieb bod it« aonrMt of anpply from tHr apringn thordn. 
Ita ritnalioti waM 1120 y.inlB north fruni (br: rtiU nf the 
I\<-n*inii(ton Gordonv, and 30 yards froia the roid alon^- 
ti'lc. Th'i axa of this shoot wu 90 yorda from point to 
poiiit, and 3& janla conjM tho miildlc. 


Ttda waaaitnited TO yards fr-iiu IVLersbur^L Ilnce, and 
3S0 yards from Bladunan'o Luno. Thin wao a ahL-ot of 
fjivn water W j-aids long mid 'iO ynrA* vndc. 


pDada uortli of Hi>llsj)d kitrv'.'t. n«ar 
lo. or lOOyarda from Honiton Struct, 
and botwpion Hfjlland Htreot and Pitt Street. Tho lorgtat 
wa» '>0 yard* \oiig by 1 ymnU viiili- ; tho emalloal 30 yorda 
bj 30 yarda, of ^uod druikintT watvr. 


Thiit waa & iMtnd of pura wator. liiO yards by 16 yarda. 
whii'li Huujilieii (Joro Hoiiae and Lho grounds, it., whwra 
nnw *(H.'mi I>owth«T Iiudgai. 


This ia one of th* oldest historic rPsidentjo« in K<m- 
ain^ton, if nnt in I/mdon, and haa boon wfll Mipplii-d wilb 
wittrr nt nattir^l npriii)CH auitahlft fur Mit'li a building'. I 
uiny remark that l*iia old f:ihri<.- laktw its oanio from thf> 
tin't Earl of Holltind, who was bohca/lrd in 16(9. 

In Lhi^ old kiTob-n. whidi is now diauwd and more likt^ a 
baru for aiw, u^ lo Iw a <pl«ndid spring, and there woru 
a lot of otlwr little ones on tho nortlt-eaat ada of the 
tmllding, whioh nippli^v] th'> old looatt and on the aoatli 
ciitrani^o mde u-ttd lo he a fountain ohiae to the stepped 
bridge and cnjunnup. 

Thaw ipiinKa oiwd to flow down m tha wget aids of llto 
house and into thft old Ajji ponds below Addison Bond. 
where they emptied themsdres into the erode I boliorc 
Uiia hmuM) now drriTM it« wabpr froni tba wntnr company'a 

Od tlie north "f Holland Huuso are other mansion*, 
which, bf^oro thn w»t«r company osiatoi, 'jbtained th^ir 
water from the aane Tatiia. 


One of. If not, tho largest, waa situated at tho t>aok of 
Blytho Liiac. Icnown an tho Otoan. about 440 yards by :iOO 
yajda, and v«ry dt-rp in some places. Thia was quilo self 
iiiipporting. 'i'he \vat«r waa veiy dear, hut bml a ix'niy 
twanir, probably owing bi tlw Bid(;hbouruif{ mar»he« 
whioh nwn alongside of the creek, which creek then nn 
n'onvnida nf the pre»fnt Addison Kond Htiitim, thSD « 


amilli. Vilien I knew it forty yeura a(fo 
to drink, but, 1att<?rly it has woome a bathing plnro for 
do^. and in therefore n nuiMneo to the iH-ifrhbouthuod ; 
thvre ia a nirong talk of dlllnf it up. It is about 33 jurds 
«y 20 yards. 

This ia oppoailothft Sorcn Ntara, Staroli OreMi, Hnuiini-r- 
lilb. Vi'iien I knew it forty yeura airo the water wna Rt 


Hum was a ap1<rndid liltla stroam of good drinkio» water 
forty TMn hga, but, likr ruiarly all tho others, has bot^n 
niiuod and tovcrwi up, Tliii ran by the aide of Starnf<trd 
Bruok Old Cuflngi*, at that spot gHF« the buuTidury 
liuo butwucu CluBwiuk n:id Hairuneramitb. The said old 
cottaxa and groond (a'uoul a qinrtcr of an acroj ia atlU 
supplied bf a purop and well WBl«:r of gmat pUT:ty. 


From about ivhtre tho cedars ate, down to the District 
liiiilwfBy Station, wiia n ton^ narrow pimd of gnod watvr 
fifly yiMrs ugu. now built on. Fulbiun al out; time, bko 
Bi-cntfurd nnd other plaeoi in the vall«y of the Tbamea, 
^\tt noted 'or iii>iny ovorflowing artceinn and other wells. 
'I'Uin i* aiT.i-intfd fur iti fhn nntunti welU, tluil there baa 
at (■[](.- liiiic or otbvr. b«f«ii a diiilurbiini-« in the strataa, and 
tho faot tljat the \evo\ of tho ground nliottt tho Thuturs 
vallr-y is oonstdoiahty lowor than the pnintA P T, Fig. I'i : 
liul lu time raad^^^nsml depru-saiuu of tho wator lovol 
ia Ir^oioa V/^K^^^'^'t which will Iw proved from tha 

fM± Ifet m UOC tfc* tMlk water tn tb^ Citr w«lU stood at 
IWmilThliAvalH'Mvfc. The dm««Mion of duiUt vmtor in 
■W Cm wI^yaB ■araaled to (in l8<o; Mfi .Unuahow- 
^C awfRMitB imMdeme of tap «rat«r itt tlw niU-u(2(t. 

CManoa. ICor Ana tliUnBt with th'-ohalk water alone, 
«Ihm sn odMT MNticM c4 rxcclkal. water which lay 
HMMK tfa» wai. Wii snrel, and mb gBomMy to be 
iHafvas a tmmBer af day, while mod ia often u the 
rftoli M, le^ UdiWd betwMS two Uyvt* of Imporvimu 
matmM. kv.wa u anriaMcmu drift depooit See the 
IteiFOaMSO »id GTudJT.Fig. «39a. F or .T 

rr a 



f ra. tviJi. 

wenU be the place tor takiiiif in tbe water, the anwont of 
whtd> wooild depend upua the Riperfldal ena of aand, 
iUagJea, end ettier pn^nama *ttb«taace, and the amouDt (if 
•Of) of ^tamimm tlul najr etnpljr tbereiD. Here juu **e 
A* warn wvold, like that tbro*^ the cfaalJc, seturelly 
r«a to the laweet kml, oftaa rwnin^ into gr«at ehaans ur 
^vae, ^ at Q. aod findiiy an notlet an at ^ : hat nhnuld 
lUa aatlet be cloaed er bead «p. thtvu^li argilUmiun drift 
IB T or IC. then, br wmiaag or borinir, ib? v^sVr would 
tiaa mfi to thu Icrrl, when you B«i «rhat U Icoown a« an 
artMian wrll, fion a atrcam of water otlter th»o chalk 
watir. But it najBo happen. aaoFtm itwill, 'utt^annMl 
galj |D • tew faet tliroiyth a byer of cUjr tut at J, and if 
y«a n a linla dlrtaaoe awaj, aa at H, jou will f^n a 
M^aittecol n^ffy is Ibe lupe of a foontam. liVheruv'cr 
jmm pt thia water fknm, oae tUnif ta alaioet c«rtain, thut 
da aalpenr can otdy be equal to the intaldBg. Fur argu- 
■aat'a^x; in tfaeae landopriRfpn, a* ihtij mn mmoiini^ii 
v^tL tmm^ng yott hare aa area uf. imy, ten act«a, 
wkaaaa ma-waMr lalls. and roa i^et thio qnutti^ lata 
ifea Waaa-^amliaaed aanfer. lien wouM Im a mlendid 
— p^jri>iHel»ri*ey.» huuBK aud untbuuMs. atid a lake 
^KftdHV titim Mtaaai nuuiui^ u> waatc. ao waH some 
. the naighbouihood of Bajvwntcr and 
m. Batp nppoM four tea aerea to be 

^ ■■! Ab walK to be, aa u in thin caae, can^t 

w ^^^mmA a^te^ii lata Mwen, can joo expect your 

^^mtt9 the aewera and the uadeTxruund 

tew fiM*' harao with Ibme natural 

A vilk «H a«A the other thcr ara, aa a 

H^ TW alnve ean be to-dar illustrated 

1^ ^mm V ar^tirl oa the aontfaem slope* 

ite «Uk U estnuiely narrow 

aa wtf^ hat «p abem and ovrtli 

HUl. aamethiB^ tiki 

ikhnad^. This apex ia 

call oappnl with 

kadu wuU II bout 

ifhl water flows, 

■a^ and *o th<' 

^^ water lit 


earl's court lank, mow earl's court. 

Here wa« a aphmdid pood of water, from which the farm 
'whiob etood woere Ben'x O^tnt Statiim now Btaiida', irai 
Huppiiod, and alio £arl'« Court Hvuap, but which waa on 
the opporite nde of the road. Thia farm waa known aa 
Ubdot IIoiuu Farm. 


Unr> was a re»rrotr with ita natanl apriaga, whieh 
wn« HitnNtnd 80 yard* froiu Bromplon Ruad and near 
Walnut Walk, and nearly opjiaalle the bottom fit Eail's 
CiMUt R^vad. It was 120 yaida lo«g by 25 yards wide, 
■lid aa(>i>lied the UMfuion with ita nrooMiary water. 



ThU condait waa altaated half-way bctveon Old Cram* 
well Houan ^whioh alood when the louth^weat part of the 
Saath Ketuungtoa If uaemn now atanda] and the pu Mje 
hoaae known aa tbo "Hoop and Toy," It supplf 
whole of the water to Cmmwc 11 Huuae and iu bofoi 
t may hen reauu-k tLal nuiny havu triod to find thli 
eooiduil out, ioclniling tiw Kmisin^^hin hiJitoriani, LyKM 
and mkner, and the oollwtur Luftio- 


This conduit waa oo the weat aide of Stoane Street, near 
Charlotte Ob«ta«M aad Cbnpel Bow. It waa aoont 3M 
yaidi down SloKne Street from the Knirhtehrtdga aod* 
aod too yaida on the wnat of the atTvet It* aiae waa 1 10 
Titrdii by M yatda. Some people thooylit that ihia wm 
icd by loae natoral oittkt from Hrdn Park Poola, now 
callod the Serpentine, whieh to tola day loaea Urge 
iiiianliticn of water, althoa^ there arc natural mriagt 
ihetwin, but which are mon taarardi tb» head. I have 
alao beeu told that there are oo aptiuKs in the Serpentine, 
but thia ia fake, aa I haTs seen many thenin more thaa 
onoe or twiM. Bnaidea, tfaoae springa ean be Mt if yon 
explore the SM-pentine 1^ awimming, the water hang «a_ 
ilitfnvBt t«m|KTBlare. 


Tilia waa 50 yardii from Leader Street and 2M yard* 
from Karlbotvngh Road, (%eJjKa. It was five-aided, and 
tia siae waa 60 yard* by 40 yards 


This waa In the playgnmnd for die Woatminater ariialarB. 
Dou^laa Street. Kooheater Bow. It wa* 100 yards loag 
by 30 yards nrToas the oentre. It wma tbe abape of a 
n4^t-anf[lt.<d triangle, aa though nide to fit in the flomer 
of the square. 


This waa near TVvndle I«ne. It waa 320 yards fiy 
170 yaida at one aad, and SO yards at the otliar. 


Thi. rwcrroir wan 3S0 yard* from Wolworth RtMid, aivl 
Manor Row and Harford l^at^ at the 
FUroe. It waa 120 yards long and 



DO yuida vidf, harln^r k sin«ll island mm! thr«e pcoj«c(ioBS, 
Uiio tbivc I'Dnrh'a niMoa ; tti fact, it luwd Id be toniMn 
the kiAnoy nolntu Me. Tlitn wan amrtlMr tlw exKOt 
aha|w nf n kidnAj cIom br. tliifi wu 80 jrsidfl fton cad to 
«ad, and 'iO jardft a> mM the cmtrc. 


Tliiii waa ■ttiuttt'd Al) Tardii from LntnlMiUi Walk, and 
A) yard* frutn the buriul (frtjt.ud. It waa iSit. [n di*inet«r. 
Roe there an Urg« qnutitica at mttr, wMA ran bo 
M«n hy tbc HMulcr taliins n walk roiiiul. 
Cnydon. Uitcbam. Sydtmham, (>tuilH:TirelI, Porkhun 
Bye, and UNirly all round th« aouth of London, bim been 
not«d lor it« apriugB. and to prove tli« proliftc nature or 
abunda-nco of nonui of thent iipringa, it will ba- i>iifl]rif*nt 
to record Uiat tbo tiprinj{« of th« wuUi »iil« of PM-kham 
Hto Ctitnmon at ooo time fmned nn iinp-jftant portion of 
thfl Grand Surrey Cnnal mipplr. 

Alu! for uianj of the old flpniij(» and Cilr 

IvKirava, witb myitlal Htnum*. and Die Citv welU? 

Tboy, }ij proccw of time, enoroaclimntt of 

biiildinjr% and hmfibtnnlng of the ground, ore 

' nearly all goni^, and tho Londoner fore*d to n^k 

^ft n-ntur iibmnrhfirf^ Tbn first jmrf at tbia lo»k iiluno 

■ nlxiut tbc tlmu of Kinv Henry III., dnte 1:!:!7, 

Tbn it vm» KTuitcd Unt Ihv oilizpna nnd tboir 

anoooawni, by nnr Uillwirt. do Satifiml, t>n nt Hhrrty 

to mavey wati>r fmm Trhuni mlo tlif City. Tl;" 

maynr nnd otTHnn.i'Niilty of tbf (.'ily. tbi ritixiMii nt 

the rime bviii^ pirliafly dirprivitl of ibrir mipplifti, 

were ndad la avail tlieniMtlvM u( tliu alteration. 

TaVSWaTKR conduit (ORIGINAI-l. 

Buynuaror Clondutt baa for nuiny y^rs ticr>n of 
)rmt iiitfrVHt ti> tho cdtiannii of I»iidoti, owiu;; tti 
ibelr p-ieitiuna teiuK m> verv oW'ure, not oiit> of 
the hitirarian* hiivinif d^c-me^ it nMDHnry to ])olut 


out their rxacl TKnitinna : in fnnt, tbcre ia no hiHb>rr 
which call lie dF)H*iidiKl upon for tbo Mme, ntid it 
baa givim tni.> jin enillens Kmoiiiit nf trnnliln to 
discover thdr nul p^witiona, ivlilufa, lui(>pily, tbero 
la aow DO (]iKwtton about. 

Lead PI pea. 

VmUr wiu allMBpt**! to bo brought through rix-inrh 
kwilra iHpw, rjwt in Flotland, which pip^ proTpd a 
tho rort*n pondiii-m of tho 

S' British plombcn ; much of thia waa nnd buml, an 
own at I^FT. 0S9a, whlbt ochiT pontoui w«ie noldt^ml. 
Th««r pipM were in t«i feet longtlu, bmng eoonectcd with 
wi^ed and overroHl joinia of rxiTcttcnl nhapc, mnny of 
which I hate seen, 

In all, iktm vrere about four mllee of this piw nuidv, 
and rhu tspeuae of tho undvrtakin^ wim jmrtially bunMi 
by the principal citisena. Thne pipcfl emptinl tbenuvlrt^ 
into roticluila or lead dat^aa, many encaned witlilu ntouw 
bialdiuir". muoh after th» atyla of th« old Ujndait House, 
Fig. DMo [of which mon uob), tad Tig. 9i9o, aUo 

■uterial (an account of which will b« bcroinaffr ahown]. 
vUcli. happily , waa difvarrmd in timi.'. Tlu- ui|tet> 
WOK tlitD maoe from cast ihvvt lead, balf-an-iuch tniok, 

Vig». 1,399. t,4l>R. 1,413, and 1.428. The first of tboee 
ooaduita WHS Mtuiit«l fnim Puddinirluu (u JanM Hod. at 
a diatancd of ■2,HD.'> y&rda ; the next, from James Bed on 
th« Hill to Mewsgnte. waa fi6l ynrda; and from Uinriig-alii 
tu the oruw in Cbnniwidu wa> 2,6(32 yards. 

Th() history of the Ittllcr conduit ik very amueiiiK, for 
it ia laid that on the «afo dtOircry of Quoon iMihol 
[wifoflf Kintr Kd^anl II.]. In th<' year i:t12, of a eon. 
wbo provtyl nftrruiirdn tu \je King I'M ward III., Llia 
cuTiduit in Oi<?iip instead of numinii voter, «-ai> made 
to Ttrn with wino, and all wan wolr.omd to pnrtakc of 
tho same. 

The groateiit of thew conduits wo* «[KTt4i(! on Weat 
Chnip, tliiit ia bo my, tbo cpjm in Cheap, in tfati yi^at 1395. 
Henry Waloa bein^ the mayor, when afterwards theao 
condi^ti were inoreaeod to about twenty. 

The cwwa in CQiiiap onndutt waa iiIuhk tn tho old r.hurvh 
of St. Miohael'a, Wewt Cheap, whore, on the ulntre «rine 
day, was fixed a pavUiun, which woe parliully Ln Ui« middle 
of the Btrr«t, whitn a lariro vat of wine wan placed, and 
all pniHWTH were invited k> drink. 

JotiiL I'opn. It tinrlh^ir, of tli« (^ty, by hU will dxttk] Um 
lll}k of Mur, I-t^f, ifiivv to llm miiynr, rliaiaU-tUiii, ai' 
commonalty nf Lutulun for ever, properly enough to kei 
the couduita in good repair. Id the yoar 1401, tho Tms 



Bpoti Cornliai lad ■ efafam MpfUel ligr Ifaw water, m 
tnal Ibe pipe* wrtv farlhCT #ilinidid, ui4 •p'inta tbm 
eallod "li".««« of Ibe ir»lrr" were pUetd abwit Hillinif*- 
Mto ud PamI'b Wharf, and I7 8t. GOes' Cbimli WilfaouL, 
Ortpplegato : thia waa alMOl Uw 71W If'Ja. Water iraa 
alw WWt w ytJ tQ Naw)[at* Gaol and Lodpale. in 1182. 
Bj'tfaa-bjro, it la wry lntc«»tln|{ Ui know ihut tbn Toima, 
lieCore-naaed, on Corahill, wan a prv>'m, whii-fa tb^ had 
no b(4t«- oae fcr ih^t to cmirrrt tt intn a waur daUm or 
oonduU annJied Inrn tha TYBOIBN PII'ES, anl on 

im. MVD. 

<■» 4d« tha« WM flrgotad a cafn vith a pair t*f eUx-kg 
om H, for pniilditf vrliat waa thm onllr>d * nijrht 
waTkcra" (Vrawlinp driinlcardn of itll tiUawn). Ut^thrr 
will) a pitW)' fur pa^iiiK l>wk rhfaling Inkr-r* iinrl 
Uuoviab millMv. Out, In Krdrr llmt I moLy tuinif iJiv 
biitorio part! in. and tbo law app<>rt»ni)iiR to ihie ^iilijfs^t, 
it will Sa neoemafy to takv one distriol of fai«t'>hi' nole 
iDto fionaldorBtion, and, Iharefom, w-v will aelUv apon 


Kauringlou appcan lo Iiaw had a Roud tlmp of in 
if umn Br* uTtbiii^ to buut of, for it avcnu to lu 

had aetm In all, prrfcafa no hetb>r naaiui for liariag 
twaytil front oti« to aavm, tbaa lh«> old woinui'a Mvibr 
llial ihm ia ''lank nndar th» odil nunihrr," nnd itic 
[■jlluwinie i» tbe medlej-:— Flni it waa Clia»M. llteu 
CThetwnitim (*ee Damad^ff B*ak), after Cbe»m«ttuia. than 
Keiuilnn«, tlien KinaiDtiuw, then Kfttainlona. and finaUf 
K g n w in fftoii . 

Her« iber appeared to have moat mpnfi water, and W 
thia ia now mM* tA the raoet (aahionabV. ^et 000 rtt ibv 
nUeat, partu of IjoiHlon, and a plsre whwrh hefoiMt 
qDaattut ii U> Le n-lted upon for iU hi«lurk ajirtiitfii and 
watar mipply, I dt-^m it Ber«<aMvr to rr«ord th« foOowing 
facta, whiill) haw taken nw a ooiuidenbk' tinMand rtxMciM 
to flail ap, hManao of the masy abanrd laka wfaicli naro 
btMi rfonnled !•▼ w^H-known hUtonntl writ^n, all nf 
which have douill*** ci>pi«d vt drawn vn utkD anutbcr'a 
ttnaKinatioo \ and it it thiw wnlrm tlinl hare ratiMd na 
Bucb an enomoiu ammitil uf trondlo tu nndo their knariah 
work, and to Bad llxi >i~tnnl ojxtii or Kitm whara Ibaat 
wtHk, rirerv, |jaum«a, uad conduilH »t'wd. 

W)i«n the thioriHb Soxona were iuTtt«d to mfaxi thin 
ihm tmiiblcd telnnd th«ir n,w tiko ralui* tn«n>uf and 
ointlaiimtrd \hr. hhiui'. Thia wa« aUmt tbn tudt UK. 
I*iirt« of tlje fionqiiured oounlry werv di*id«<l by the 
inivrul which was worth duninir. and tfacoe ihiim 
wi-rf a^rain diridi>d and aub-divUicd hj and lUitoiigBt the 
(iiii^fii, who hod put thcnuielrra under Monmaud, and bj 
thaaa inaam enrh tri)x -mho was then wnrthjr of poiiliaa 
bad fonw aort vi initrpiiul'Tiiop- 

Tbe gTcatn aban^wldmi would eourttitatft rui^ or 
oouiit4M. Now tb(^ wholo armjr waa mint likelj- aub- 
dividrd into ImmU of I.IID tann «arJi. Ilie portiiin 
of Inurl, H|>niifc>. aii'l rivrni aai^unvd M tlMaa Mvaral 
faHiiliiw tiLini^tituC«d what waskouwnafi ao tnaiiy trythtn^ 
hundrrNU, uiiil trthrnfcit [c\t thowtando, hnndrvi1i<. uiid t«iui}, 
«i< |j tiiidi^r il» own parldi-ruian or acknowlcdg»d Kiipcrior. 
Tlio lands, ririjiH, and apriuffii which tell U* thu 
firi^rinal auoccMful waniora in the first allotmenta, najr 
he ragaided bh boelanil IhookUmli, mimI wrn- piMfwwd 
by thna familiva on u>u>iiliuuH fnv rmm all t-muinliirancea, 
Mtva and exrcpt llw^ ohliiraHoD to tb» ooinmiinity itaell; 
bodand va« trul}- alludial. viz., the tolnliiy of it waa in 
the propriftor, aod deaceodcd to Ua children. 

Sonn attrr the Nonaun Coaquo«t filatr 106^} the« 
allodial pnipriiRlim mdffnnl tbnir pimnMiioiia into the 
hande of the king, or aome other uobl«iuitii, oooditionally 
uf roctivin^ thera back, nndn- cotiditionH known aa Feudal 
fwrriee, thiin obtaining th^ nrvrMury prnt«utiou of tfavii 
ImhiI.iiI pnj[*rty, Sui-li w*i> tin- diHtribution made by 
WilliiUTi tlii> Conqueror, and this Cbaneoi llanur waa 
HllniiM lo tbo BiMbup vf Cmurianer, whidi appeara in Ik 
irrorx! of ])Miu<M-duy. th«re to be held off ia, hy one 
AiititY-y dii Vi-n.". one of the vhieftaina. 

Now ilii* tancl nf Atibn-y iln Vcnr in rated, via., ptfl 
dati«tjreld for t«u hidea (a hide of land ia 120 actm) ; Iha 
land ia aatimated at ten oaramlea (otM aan>n«t«t u what 
otdy one pbiugh can caltivat«), of wfaioh fotir uamiwiei 
an> in demeauv . rtllntie (riUa|ttn] haTing* five plongihs. 
Twelve %'illaiiB. uach havini; one rod (or yaid biiMl) and 
six with thn* virfcatM or roda {a rir^tj^ in one <iiiar1«r 
cifahido). Till! prinit haahalf a virKate: there air tlion 
>9V«n bondamen or nerfx. 

Twc oanicatM of ttiuturc for the oattle of the kiwn; 
paana^ (nma and fon'iit, food) for 200 aa-iuc, and thn« 
ni^mtaof Tineyanla. In tlm whole ibin wan wnrlb, whtdi 
allutted, £(1; but it intrHaiwd loilO iu Kjuu Edward L'» 
time, who held the nuiiior, and had power to aoU it. 

Ton have seen how thia and otbur manors mme into 

thehnri*- ■-' ■-T^t■^itlals : you will nbn mrw gwora aw what 

a" '^i-' '>^k Icodn ap to. It in |i> ab^nr yott wlul 

r ' IxiuhU-u duttn. It was laid down a» a 

<ad obhgatign when thoae laada wen alloMed, that 




everj Undawner should protect nil ii]pringe, mta eaante, 
boarnM, (xnidiuU, &tid wpIIm nnd itm fnc acr<^M to bin 
nmgbbour. Mid lnt«-uIliTw at Krmd ninirt, fur ■ iitiflici«nt 
supulflo hte waol«, »ft«r Uie owner bad wourcd enougli 
for nnuslf : and it U nioet stringcnlly lud doiro ibut nny 
ntift who Histurba tbew wat«-r munw. Mprin^ or vrt-ll», 
in ptu'l'T of fiendiiih txlck*. tlie {Muahjr of wbi<^ u to ba 
Jl^i"t to dtmth. (See Kceoont uf Aw«m to Landa.) 

Now, Bs Loadoa incrcdswl in po]iuliLtiuii . \\* bffnro 
ihown, Ihfl iMtoroI springN of KrnMiigton and I'oddiiiKtnn 
Iwcaino of fj^reat vuloe. aut onlv for the auuplf of tbi^ir 
omi ptopl«, wbo were conapcllwl by t)i» law bebre rodtud 
(o eMJal In supplyini; lluiir neiKliuouni, whluh is proved 
br the fallowiog tuxoiint: but thia will neoceutate 
•iMwiiijii nim or two niore sk«t<ib(-H, und for tho pr^eent 

Bupoiv I lusp «»■«■ ■ few hiindn^l yiiiiJi. b«l will iwirtiallj- 
U this laiiM hcivaftRr on the SprinKu and CoiidititA rif 
Putdington and Burxwsfa^. 

A mnditil wiw built iibimt thn ynr \h\h \rj iCioK 
Ucnry VIII., miiil bi be h biitb, bviill fgr CjtiiKii Kli/ubt-tTi 
when s child. ]l» •dtiiiition was at the t>a»t tiid of Km- 
Nftw Bttrr&rk^. Ju.'it inniilr t.h«< fitrtbcr brirk wall 

1871. And a powder nuitfwne built to its esMA rixo na the 
old footings. It W about 12fc. byUfl. taqitarv, aud about 
Kft. to lOft. ia biri^ht. FIk- S-'^'-Ik ia a mprvintntjilion of 
IliB iiuudo, but thv wutaide of the roof was tiiai[il.v tliul of 
fuur ntrlee in noUd brickwork. This raodutt r>r bath waa 
Auppuodbya Sin. leaden i^pe, «» (uui tw xfx-n w1icm the 
wat«r runH in. This pipe <-ijiiiii> fruiu s natural xpriuK-, 
whii-h waa by Uie nidt* uf tbi^ kitt'hcn irsrdvu, aiul nefir tti« 
yardcn wall, and Fig. 9&ffr is on viact rcpntwuUlion of 

CM. sewB. 

OB the rifflrt and 130 j-ordx tniro Silver Street, ^\&^ 
tbroUj^ the pauagv-. vLc., from Silnr StniTt townni* tbn 
AUmw. X hia old r^c wm Jtaookod down about tiu> jwu: 

m. OMr. 

tb«lben coT«K<d-in ffpring. tt ia an Ptmneoiu iilvn that 
KinifT Hrnr*' VI II- ot-ciipifd Rrniiinfrlon PaliH'e. I 
d^tulit wbftlier bo waa ^vtr in it; bn cvrtjihiljr Bergr 
WM owner our even 'K'l'upicr. It was mit ocetipicd by 
royvttr until WilUam II I. puroha«pd whttt wiu tli«ii ktiown 
an N'ltliti^haiii Hiiuw> from tho Carl uf N<>lti[iH~hnni, uti 
tb* *.'jdi Marrh, lfiS9. Th*" biiildinp- w«j> n wry iJd <im- 
at that tiint", bu' Willinni J 11 , iimde wmic irmud ultomliuiiK. 
Hr iM'iiiitifuUy laid out ^tlioiijch io Diiii-h fiuhtnnl tlti- 
jitliiuiiIh, nnd i^rrrlnl tbrvr fnnulaiuH im tb« Mjutb Kiilu uf 
the I*n1acr>. Oni- uf tbtan fdiintaiim WAti eit«at«(I about 
li;n ytirds from the roiul, w«tof tb« ijpiidoiu: annther alx-ul 
iwciity yardK frnm Entsiagton Rotw), or at thi> M)utb-w<-^t 
mrniT of tbc f^&rdcnii. witli a grmnd on« n«ir Ihe t>utt><ni uf 
thti jjfiinliiti nmr tba rtmd, luxl ri^bl in frtml uf thi' niiddli- 
part of the Pitlace. These fauutalns wcr« tiuuplii^l fruui 
ih>ii (Aflk in Fig. ll&9o. So mncb for the niur!h-tHlh««l-irf 
K(Tiain^iwPidne«b«iTig thi>ro*idAnr«nf Kiii^lfiTtirTi* VI i I. 
liut tre wilt now srv wlial KiuK llc'nirv VUl. rvalli' did ilu. 
null givo bira thff i-nilit of liiiililiiig ing- 959l. 

Jiiot Ijrliiw wliurv lliu in>udui( or beUl atood. ia «L oM 
rcd-brlcik hoiiM>, and it ia Eaid Co be the bonae whu» 
Aniir Dalryn livn!. wbirb I ham good reaMiiH (o bebvvo 
WIU Hmry Vlll.'a KemdiiKtun Iiuititf. Thw old hcnitv io 
aaid tu hate Iweo at one time siippliod with ytwWt Irum 
thn befon-minitionod conduit. Tho old bvuse refcired to. 
now i^\n»Aj atAiida about iHOft. bnck fn^tn the road, and 
iskeptquitrprirate; il atauda nejct door Lu Tlutckeray'a old 

Biitrr 'VTII. beio^ MiMd rmnaned] of the Vaiior 
of Clii-Inrn ivnd Kranmgton. hallt a MpWidid muuHiim iu 
CliMEBfa, and Huppliwl tliia, hia new building, with wat^r 
Oiruii^'b :)(n. tqimrr •>iMi'i\<d-np leaden pipeo, with wip^il 
yAul^ fr)m i:bt< bcforo-mcntioofed hathoroonduit. Tlime 
ppoa rnu throii)(h iho principal part of the moor (thi« 
\mj\ luid jiiid alHiTc! Lh<- old barrarka wna Ihi-n knirwn an 
1Jif> Hix>r) and acniaa the Keuaingtou Head, by De Vec« 
Giirdcn^, and nwey to Clu^M* Fboe. 

In the; yerir IQ.'iT the before*iiMntton«l houac in Chelaca 
Place, with all ita appurleuancea. ioi^ludinK thn CMtn* 
i!iin<Iuit, wiim handed over to Williuiti L<:>nl DouglE>i 
and bin wife Auuf, Dudivco of Uuuiiltou, to Charlee 
Cheync, E(>q., whose son, WiUiiun L(s4 Cltayiw, aold it 
in UI2 to ijjr Hana Slooiio [which may boeeea fiotn a hSi 
tiled in Cbouuery in LTD:!, by Lord Cheyue, ag&inat th* 



Dike ei BwvtDrt, v1n(<h pcuwodisRi were raoew«d bf 
Bir HniM tOtmt la 1716]. It appMn tlut tha Branfort 
IkuilT, ilio TKMMaMM of otfaa Mrg« pirmiMM tn that 
■eieW MUi hooa, uiil fai w t rly tku pnmrtr c4 Sir Arthur 
Ckofm, hiA mamawd ovneiridi] of 1d« CIwImik omduit, 
■whtrh vu M bjr ihe Mmdnit at Kanmi^toa. Not ntiafied 
with oil ikiN. thry tJuwataiMd to drnriTe Lord Cbmw of 
litw WntAt tltoivuf, bat ihe Lont Chancellor decrm] 
(Ortobcr the llih. 7 0«o. I.) : "Tbat tborifrbt i» tU muiI 
mtertrf tbe Cfariaw oandiut ma iwlad in the plaindfl" 


into tbe dcfmdaat** boiuo, until the pbuntiff'a htmm aai 
ganbtM warn wiMMil imAit rommmptiM tmppli^d ; * and 
notlci' tliw, that tbs plainliS mw wititlnl to tlM WMta 
wnt4?r. The defcndaat was ordered to do all rep^r*, ud 
tbi> cl«(itiin;r of the iwtB^, water enaimm, txAdinta at 
Kendng^taa, and aim Uut main pip^ frnm ICi-^vuntc^'A u> 
GhelaM eoadiiit, Hitd tine piiwa and cin'^nw in \he name, 
fjrrpl lbf> iHpi' i-nnvBt-inji wator (luni th* luvidutt in 
Kiii;r'>» RuTul to tbc pUiutlA'N buivo, wbicb waft afdend 
lo be rppnired by the plaintitf. 

The banae, wliiob vaa a(«upi«d bj 
tbw BUwp of WindMi«t(a', purrhaard 
br tbe Dvkv of HamiltoD, waa ^ao 
Bupplied from this iModah. TIkw af» 
the nativiiil pninta or rivhta wUeh 
w«re well iiutU-nttucjd tm Une Roma- 
mml of (mail water works, walar 
counw^, unrin^ tit., and bold pood 
to this (Ujr, cxc*TptiD(( tbe dqiilal 


HvtvTv I clew?, and to •timgtbcn 

itiij {Hilnt, I will apiirad ABotlMr 

1'- ''mill of thmtf public property 

' ' T>, whk-li tniik pUop ■! tfa* 

niTK "f <bii>ntitiify : at llip Haaw 

:i win Reord ih« whcraUMila 

notnbbi Sbqiti'-nl'H MeM Caa- 

rhia wait Hitiutfil »t Haaipatead 

^IcMdiiwB, at lb« Month •WMtMV 

«f ibr riUaf?P. noar Cbunh 

Rtiw, l>ut no tbe eai4mt ndi' of tlie 

Bckbt lbn« lay an old ounduit or 

•bvpbi>nl'a wall, whnv Toa cvMld ban> 

a dtiak of potv watvr free of cbar^, 

artuch aCreaa doubtloai had nn 

thooaanda of yam. asd had aoMdiad 

tha inhahllanta and poor paopla lor 

acw past. So raueh th»y thoit^t nf 

tUa widl that Ihry i.To te«tcd it wHb 

aa aich. a&d nwad tho back nut wirh 

nub) ; bat >B oatBBO of tine uii* uurli 

"'■'"•K^ ■rtrwiH. tn a nprlain i-iu>&i. 

' ooaftMatlad. n<x ihis time W 

-^ iter eampaBy. hot hy U>rd 

!' .Miitvu^, wh" win liviiiK olow 

' 1- I ri-l wh" iIpwvdiIv J to tluvtiiib 

' tiiik ntnoat to rtop 

iTDBi obtabiiiip no 

•v^ w«U; a mty 

.' uF i-r-r™ 

-^ . -<' indignaliun, 

t.' (bK xncVmaxK down 

I vh:D th«y tooktba 

1' to a ronrt nf law, 

« . aocoiAw to tbe 

- - --vmagunat Lord 

1 '■ ttw well K- 

k. aandpcatwd. 


mattM^ aaol old. . 

Ibr hiUowtay bria; an t-xmrt:— 'Tbv arth a w Aaddad 
at>oY« ami afoaul by the arc-ra ttarl fotae a vondnit hsad 
to a Uaatilnl (fna^. the «f>M>&c avantr of th« fluid. wUoh 
yi*Ua amml Mva a dar. \* bttl^ ibcoo tfcaa £rf3kd watrr.' 
It n pMa thai twh a wamctm «( awtr *»•*•( ^''" 
b«<r» of mat i«Iw la llM Uahimii : tat apiot ttm iht», 
1 asa ialonMd thai a (pw af tW poor p aoffc Bad« a Unag 
<lha>gh. pntMUr, a anudy <m* by carryiti^ and mLI- 
tir laifcila of w* wBltr at a pmt vnfa- Of conrm 
r-Tvtn'Ov knowtut aatthbttr ^ stBlV*^ knows that il i* 

' - riiifciin - '" " '■ ' 








Wr kMve m>v ettiati to tli« tiioxl dJllicTilt pMrt of the wnler 
mjiplf t" Hiithiiilii'aW, ■lU'itiK' I" till' imiiwiiu' aiiumnt of 
Kini|>lr JouniuliKlif rublii'li tliiil Iiud Ikh^u iiriiiltn) ilivrfiu, 
wlijoh nu> btt-ii iniiph uvordijii.'. at;i) more like futtl<.« rJinn 
bintorir fact», »»en by w<>iilil-1» (nMuriniin, 

Tbcra M|)p>«rH to Ixr nunietliiriK fiiM-iiislinK iilmut ttipct? 
old BiiyswaUr CuuduiU to Uie jvunittllKtic wurlJ, bcvttUM 
tlMty havo tippored hitluTto to hKre Iicvd nblo to concort 
rwidiibl^ mittti'i', wliinh thry I'otild ni)| hinturirAlly 
olitAJn. Nutr I jlnttt^r mrivli that no one \iat ib'vt^ liiiTinK- 
UbMt. thirty or tnrty ycnri M«ii\-^bitiic in thr Irmln, 


■Hftiqf ll^ttlUr up vritli the ojft pltmifrt, utA ivittcrnnrkm' 
du^iMUi.' JuB jiiiDing ai* uuc/m; monb^nt. niicl uIk) ivu- 
KniliDft witli mombrraol th« •wrem] inorituHniui of whirli 
I Mil It iwniVr, nKild powDtlv liavti luiy i^hAnei! of 
BArprUimin^ the wheivMtMnitA oj tliese once important 


I wiil now ]ininl. out thp rrrini-iiml [itaoo fnnn «vhi>ri* llw 
irnU.T nut to Tyljouni<'. Wo will tn-xt rxuuiini.' iJiiii par- 
ti4:a]sr ooiiiluit lii-od. i'ne. OVSr iV a (.'crreot Tvprmcntation 
of tliLs old npniig, of irhii'h there itl-m ttrvertH in tliia 
quArtw. Tluf ftxiu-i ■[mt of thin or tlii' tnvjintit one wn« 
.itboat the middle of CViudtiit Plncv. abuni nix yurjv ou 
the eolith cddc, juMt vfai?n> tbi' ufw bnildiu^ mnr 
Htaiwl, and rioi'i? to Njirin^ f.'otta^cvH, now Icinivm lu Spring 
Pl»«?, ill Spring Sire*!. To fiLaho it iiuitu plain Mul niMj 
to fln^, it i* ji»t at th« luu^k of I'rnnl tStT«et U«tn>|>oUtaii 
RnUvriiy StiiiJon; but wh«ii ibi- Grand Junelitni Water 
Vr'orka raiervoin<, irhcTfl now Mtaudii Talbot Sfftiare, trf-ro 
•leotrofMl, thii old InndiiiRifc was rilao ranovod, ntid wAhiug 
now mttaiiM but tiit> bcfonuitumtioiKNl Sprtng Uittegco. 


IfoncB.— lliedo nariu>H must not he oonfuaMl, rut., Pad- 
dington to 'lybourDn : I'addiii^on md Londuii : ltnyf<- 
watAT Coadiiit ; a> thny wem tlinw unparatx nti'l iliolinct 
fOiti«ea, or bcaatlful HpriiiKH, in the hune foroAt of Pad- 
dinirton, which uamo is not to ba foand in Uonn'odaT 

The eiat-L pi^iliuu of itio onginal Piulillnglnti iind London 
Cnndiiit wnH iit lh<> lirurlc of tbo ^l. <ieor»e't> hurbl )froiiud, 

iTHwaUt Road. Tliewi ^p^iIlf^" used to overflow tlit» 
id. and run doan hy tlie north Ai<lo of tlu^ Oxfrnl 
toad, now llaymvntcr ItoiuJ. iiud itnpty iuto ttm Wwl 
Buwrne. Hltc, i]iit« nlH>ul 1200, ttiu City of London pcopli-, 
who had noikoued oud iiImi ouuvi-rti^d llio Htixuiii* 
RWaf , wtm orivon to their wita' eudJi lo know liow t» M>cure 
a (food whiiJcoumn Hupply ui wiili-r, 'I'lu-y (iiti<>tnii."lnl h 
conduit huune, wbich waa wupportrd by llm Cuq>jn»lii)ii uf 
IxNulun, tu pTMtirvv larite "priugq. Anyone waijtiii)flOK.-<.' 
inuh a Hftf-iiiir nhonld tako rhc tnkin duwti to Midhnm in 
Sum-y. and eiuiiiinc Iht Huvc-i] ■priiiK', nrsr tin- g'linnorkii, 
whirJiuaboiitiinisl t»t,lii'nlil Baynwntt-rinpiiHly, andgivi^ 
nhtKit qiiuricr tlic <)iiiiiiliiy of till' BayHWut«' H[>rinK' : and 
xbotdd y«n fiH'l dixpoMfd to exumineatqirin^of rxm^tmuinit- 
tuib- mid piiritv. thiTf io .mp nt Kiwt lUalliciK iw Kiiit, wtiii-h 
riiiiHi:li.i>4'li.i]-!j)itUti!iiii^('hiin'h,tlii'>i|>riiighi>.'ii1 U'ing about 
tlinwquHrtxH of ii liiili- up ju tho filldli. Tluvo sprilllpi 1 
xboiilil n.Tuiiitiiii-'id aiiruiiu to L>xail)init, aa alt the writing in 
tht^ world oan not dcembe thciu^cneof mcb iDtrrrxtii)^ plaoM. 

Tho or-fi.aal I'addington Conduit ban bi-«ij dr<-Jidfnllr 
auirepTUH^iti-d, for in ntaiir work" of aiitlioril.y it )■ 
dIatincUy laid down " thiit ll alTi'tdi^l a pli-utiful iiupply of 
water IvLindoti." Tliv cprinv did yJiiUI iii»n- than they 
MMulathHr jApl* hirarry by bait to lUir iilenrnni^ emtdntt, 
ihtir pipcB bt:ili|t only Bin., and owinff to th« long distauov, 

sad bMnfT tnlcTeeptad at thi* nxrvnir at the north 
Md(< of [liforil Ktrt<-t, tlii*ydid iint avnil ttM^ntMilvea of the 
full ainoiiol of watjer wliia^li thrf>n piiHw wuuld liiivo rairrinl 
hwl Uit.-vlM<en noiilin wu»ly mnnurUii fti>iu Paddln^fton lu the 
City, which would havH n«ifd h« ii frphun witit ti long I««^; 
HI fact, the Gil). rii]x> ronniug full bon would hatv tiilirn 
an iiiu<-li iu> a I2in. inpo ooiild lioro doUviiTul fnitu thr 
r-cnduil hrad into tbo int«rmiiin« rfindiilt, owing to ibe 
titdt.' full of the lint length of eondult pipei. Thin U provid 
by the fart that they, in a sliurt time aftorwardii, miughl 
powit* to ooniilntot a accond run of pipcn, of whitb, more 

We read that there waa an overploa bom tIjIm original 
<-oiiduil tic,-!'.l. wbidi helped to Rupply the then pooU in 
Hvd<> I'lirk. I havo aliHldr ahown you Ibp jiinitioii anil 
Bn*K«detiWof revoralof IheCity comliiilB iliat wervmipplittl 
by ihiilSiu. pipe.iuid »■ tlii:n'i)'ninnlt(Tijf aoinoycarFitoNparo 
Ix-forr ruiything furilior woa done bv pr<i\-i>linga brtter, or to 
11140 nuiuy liinioriann' ivordit nti tottw- pn'M-ul tiinr. "tliat it 
iilt'iidHi a fifrnlif III Kaj)\Ay In fmiiiliiii " [thi> itiilivKare mine), 
I will giv yiJH u gt'Dtinil'iutliui- of ibi- witi-ronf Dayvwatt'r, 
whiib are Munt-what inHTfwtiiig, not that I write from Ihln 
[■lint, by finy mociiix, hot f<ir the pnrpnwi of OM-fnluem to 
guiuil niy rcadi'ra ngitinot l}ie faltai-y uf iliniig wivk twin> 
over, of wbiiL'b thi« Bay«water ivunluit wan a fair exaiD|iliP. 
Alw to iuatruet the yuunK Tcadvr to teach hl§ coBlaBuin not 
ti)irpait Uieir nutnral HpitngH and w^lU in ih(t fntutr, for 
iiad tliia lu'L-n tnufibl by our fart-fnlbL-m uf tlid [ilumbiug 
tmdn, London to-iiiiy, to a great p«tPHt would liare been 
luu'^b )x!tl<T off fur the nrwann fluid uf life. 

I rfDinHcGd iluit I Bare a matter of moui ynara to 
ftpare, nnd pn^rr tn giw- you n petirmi ontlinpof the watont 
tA BoyKwaliT iirighiiuurliuod, hut tnu«t hi^ tii hi- nxcuurd 
if I iiloiuM 'iviuf ralbiT ni-ar to nktideiu iLuien on ihiH 
aubiflct witho<il ftmt bringing fiirward thci F4>ran(l lint> of 
^tt^a pipi:n from Ihit/mtittr to supply thn City ; tm ai-noinit of 
wliirb I wiU Kive afttrr I hare liiitiiliHd vritJi Ken>iii)<Lon. 
It would III*, jNU'hnpii, irkacunn In my rvidnr if I »iop[N<l 
liulf-way ou tlie road of my acisouut of the giuvnU WHtvr 
Bupply about the Bayawater and Keuaington neiirU- 

Kiiuiid about berv wltb luaiiy otbrr aprlng* and liutirnrni 
wliicb run W^lho 'ide of toe road". MpcriaJly Choee ubuut 
whc-ru now Wi-atbonme TvmuM m built. There, also. 
boumo- mn by the aide of Craren Road, Elina Ijtiu', now 
cnllod KlmB Jlewa, where Dearly ull theiv upringn uud 
boumciK, rvm thiwo from tlin nttighbourhuud of lliinitwteMi, 
tstt, and it »tioiihl be remembered that thia ww n uonme 
of no Bmall ma^tude, the head of which otlginatfld from 
the natural apnngs oE ilompatcwt and Kdgwure, and alao 
ciiuvpyed down the j^rtater nart uf thuraiu wat<T. whii'h. 
If you confer the dxo of tbcee two plaoes, will give 
1^ a fair id«u of the azo of (he ittmuu in wet wmtni-r. 
Tlii!fio two Btmuna met about -KiQ yarda alioat Kilbum 
Bridge, and ran ilowu tbo buuiidnry line uf WillKMii-u 
parijOi, whitib wan LIktti knciwn by tlin iinmi' of Bariiwalt>r 
rivuloc It thi>n tumi^d. ruund at the Mi^id. througn what 
waa known nti tlid fourt£«i) n<.'ren, tinder th-i- Canal, thioa under 
Tlnrrow Hiinil, nnd fnr mm-n llttlo diHtanto wiut covared 
ovL-r, and out agiiiu at RiLEdci|(b Sttitt : llini on Ibe eiist 
dido uf EUua Ijuio, and UDdiT the Oxford Koud into iiyde 
p4irk Punda, wbii'h wiir itflrrwnnlH conv'trtnl into the 
prnv'iit foMii of iiUf lung Hhe<!l tif wuf<-r. 

T'leri* i* Hmu'lbiiig not gi-iiiTully undi<T>1iind about 
tbia uvighbourliiAiil uf KpringM, Ihiii luimH rireni fuc 
Bayttwatcr, fifty yearn ago, was lo the then ^at citiaena 
whnt Itrighlon. BiiniNgnU?', or Ynnnontfa i« to the eitiMdU 
uf Lutidoii uf til!.- luiNiiiit diiy. All luiiund l!rairrn Hill 
now railed Craven Street, even an far up an BUek Liut 
Laop, whiob ia now Quoaii'a Bvad, ahra LcinalM 
Terraee. and aa far down aa Oheato'a yaHcna. when naw 
etandft Lanc4Utlat Gale, w«re uuthin^ luore nor kr* 




n«i««tinu grmitida, wlMm> nil Vinilti nf NpartM w«ro ptaflucd — 
biJlDQn ■mnto, and hul-Ii like. Tbc«u CbeeM gsnloiis wprn 
a wriM of tna mrdcoB. eunUiir to tbom no* pxiHtina at 
Ki'w. and about the vinnity of Miunptnn Conrt. I Sntn 
■ai>l tlist tliiTi' w<-r<- all MirU <i( miiur* pnw'liH«l iit)uut tliiH 
ni'iKl>I">")'t<'"'<^- i'^) tiiiixt >lwi.'11 niKiii ihi*, tliat thrav WHa 
Miiiut oxroUciit trc'iit tIfbiuK prtivuHti.1 aU-iit llicm pnrln. 
Il<n? IN B pTW>( 111 thf purit}' of tht water, WbiUiii! yaa vtry 
t»niy but ffimd trout in inferior walcr. 

Thrre wwrp nUn twn> otrrlWit ■wiinniiiig bathii of n 
trip«nid nlMpa, nCMrtr oppa>it« iko putnt wtier« tli>? 
3ecpentfne muntAig engine tunr Ktivnils, lvi>ft. from the 
B«T«wat«r RoAd, h<<*wn Bnjimitrt' Ilnrc Mnd Uniim I'liicc, 
■IM mppliitl fnini Ihi- upriiittit juM abuvi'. 

Fada!ntfli>u, i)iiyNw»l«r, ami Kqnmn^an, a* ymi httvti 
Bttn. have b«ii iKilixt for the purity uf tlioir w«t4tn>. but llii« 
IN not all, for thi>r hAvi> been rery much noted for their 
m-iMFrmlMprio^ or wpHh. 

'11if>iv vmrv rlti(l;r)>r!tt4i wrlln ; aim in tbi« nfig1il>ni>r- 
hvvl lay, nlmul linlf-wny liutweni BayKwau-r Roud nud 
tiw Bouud Fond, a wi'll, liavinfj: a pump, wImmi wat^-r van 
(TtrM.'diufily " ininy." TIhtc wim anotliiCT well of i> 
minrml rhnrJ^tT kimwii ns Saint Atrnm' WpU, wtiii-li 
pluwl juMt OD tbo enA Md« of llie Duyawaler puiuj^i^ 
^tuijon, in a lino with the Kons aoat that is thciv at the 
pr(«ent tnoc. and waa about tvahre yanU on tiiv mt\ith 
(if the Mint. TliiH w«U won nliout Hit, Mjuara biabii)ti<, liui^ 
with atone, having two At«|Mi to ^ down, and at tlie bii'k 
iif the well mis iv kIooc door, which oncnod into n kind of 
Mliwi-huiUtAnk. which wu tho rondnit )i^nd, frnm whenoo 
tlw «alvr flciweil to the dipping w<*U. Tlit« well waa m 
Rim^h npjwnintixl ntmnt Ihirty yon irinrfi. tliat I hnrr h*^ 
nn inauy an Iwunly iic-iKhbouhiiK M-rvauta wiutiiiK t)iL-tr 
turn to ^ a can fiill of thia prvotoiiB water ; and to nhnw 
how it WON xon^bl tiHn, ibom water rollortora muld only 
l(t< it by £n>L DbtiiiiiinK * tloket, whirh waa only 1u lui 
o1)lalnc*l tliToiiftb tht park rantr^r, <ir flumo ■uch tndiridMtil. 
TbcTU ttre only a ifv |K»pli.- Ml that know anytliiuir uf 
this ircU. Howorer, I, by "honcf, found Oeorge John 
WilaoQ, Bkt, an old geuttcninn of lh« nM^bbooriiood, 
from whom I hart- rwy^vnl uwful eoaflmiatioa thorvaa, 
and tnfoTTDBtioD rupocting the ndgbbosrhood getunlly. 

ST. govor's well. 

The hirtoiT of thia well e*n be traced, at leturt. Vi the titno 
of Qoeen Anne, when it wan oiinply a pond Imlf n* long 
a« liio oomiiarntiyely new Round Puml in to-ditv. Tliin in 
■itoatcd a litdp ou the right of the tTcinil w«tk, bctwM-u 
Kcnilagtan High Rocd nnd KrnNtnslAn Pnlnoe. It in 
BOnk about four or fire Iwi- ilowu into tlw' gmund, with 
abniestepa to go down to n dry tjottoni, wlicreln U a waale 
ttongh and dndn. Whan tloea thia natural dmin go to ? 
and i* the real apring now ronntng thrntin at mrae 
unknown »pot P UMnembor, there are Mill aoorM of aurw of 
liiijfl hIkiuI here nndniinsd artiilciBllr, and where doe* the 
:<Oin. per nnnnni of rain water go^ Thi?f« arc {ion roils 
tnuiul the top |iurt. 

When the Routid Pmid wim i-ropticd to mnke it a uniform 
depth of about '2ft. Gin. to lift dii-p nil ikvi-r, and >■ ii 
premitatiro agninat dniwnin>r ku nkHtiMg miinhiin, to the 
great «iarjirii>r uf thv know-nil inluibitouiN. who thought 
IUb wia a onturul Nnring, at one timr, found it 
MtreamlrMi, and abmiott^ly dry, nn it n-uiHiui'd after Ibr 
ueu-mary alterotioiui wen- idin|ilpt«l, the xjiroit; liaving 
ceaaod, a pcroolatiou fmm ibr Kwuud Fund, tilltiwl ihrnogfi 
Hand, rooiUted. To MiU^y iho wifthcs of the jutmiln. and 
otben, who ootmlantly rinit tihit piirt of the gftrdniN. n 
water oompony'a pipe waa laid uu to Lhin old, Imt tbon 
exheuated apvin^, whicdi, iuirtead i.if Hnwiitg. lut of old, now 
hu to be obtatned by pneauro with ihv tliumb. Tlify fthe 
gardna peojile) olao axed another gratiiu^ iiilUr fountain 

on the apex of the iMuth bank, and war lli» Hound E^>ud, 
jnrt befbiv eoming to Queen Victorin's etalae, wluch !• on 
the left. 

In the flnme diatriot a well won aunk .-ind bored in all to 
a depth of 2-iiift . and when the clmlk wa» tdinrh)*] th» 
wntrr niiti' with ifrnnt rapiditT to within TOft. of the lup. 
Thfrc iip|>eiirx to bt' ii fault in tlie oludk Mrata. as 
ahowm at W, Fiir. 5>.^!>a, for when the ortenian wr-U whirh 
Nupplit'd thi> fiiiiiitji.)iii> WAN Ixired. they had to go SOOlt., 
yet tbe dintaiiL'u ticlweeii the two wclla ia not more than 
about 300 yard*. 


Aa before Ninted. the* were fnpplird partially I7 Ihr 
Wo»t Bourne ; but ihfre wiu auolhi-r Ntrfuun m-birh 'mnM- 
froio I'ltddinplon (ireen. Them two Nln-iiinx joined it 
Itayiicater Road, ran through the ponds, nnd eniptied it 
Kiughtabridge and twirled about until thoy rwiohed (be 
ThaniM. The<« poovda also nwd to Etupply the weateni 
mrt (if lAiiidon, until a complaint was iiuujn by the kiiur'a 
keeper of deer, who petitioned KiiiK Cbarlce I. to dt»- 
continue tfa^ §ap{ily to TjoiulDa. which lie did, But, 
although the Kiipply wax iliNfontinu'^l t<j the wertem part 
of lh«> City of Loiidou, ihity tnaiixK"' t" ■«ipi>ly the llouaee 
of F&rlinineTil and Uovenuiiuiit liiiiMingN, iiui ulto Wvet- 
luiiwtM Abhey with the Ix-it of Ihr ptirk Fpriogd, and the 
Lanixl, OA Inti' as IRIK, wiid : " t>rink t-\vry morning of 
Ibeve Miring-,'* showing, cvcu at tliat time, the higbfet 
niedical papiir whh in faroor of theni. 

In the year 1 730. Queen Caroline inatmcted a Mr. Withera 

to form tht> •eieml pnndii or p.vilN ttnd ipring* lD-tw>'eii 
Bayowntor uod lln' liritlj^, ■! thn wiutli i-ud o( ilu> Si-r|B<n- 
tiue. into oue continuous Hbeet. Itiit no the HNinptlead 
Bniok liegan to fall olf, through the digging of Hewer«, fte., 
and otlirrwii« Iii'^intintr eniil«minninl, it wim deeniwl 
]iru<]rnt [u imrch fi>r other Hiiiin*t.-N. whttn a well un thn 
we»t aide of the ItayKwabr Itrtnil: wv Niink by a Ur 
Couhwn, who wi.-nt d';wu Z\)Ott, hi-fore he found what he 
eamddeied a ^uRtdeni Nupply. 

There alao u«ed to l-e n g<HMl drinking apring nnr Ihe 
outlet of tho BorptwtjiiK, wliBrn the Druidiral or potato- 
«luip»d atone now stand*, and. by the larkiu); Jiireuitow, 
known oe Stonehenge, Itiic thia u duue iiwnv with, an ia 
Aim the 'lid oondnit Lhnt iti one- lime rapplted WMtminater, 
nnd the rmly tiling tlint ia now left u a kiod uf Kjuare 
marble pillar mimnnient shout Iti. equiire n.nd 5ft. high, 
nitualnl abintt !tO yorde nortli from the Bilddlc arvh of the 
bridge and at ihis extreme bottom end vS the t^rp^n. 
tine, near EnlghtAhriilg^, with the foltowing iueoripiiou 
themm: — 


Wia OBAKTED TO Twx ABBitY ov wxenctimiEn, 


ETWjLRn liiK mMfKaNfiR. mic irxxoa wu> umirim) 


U a nxAD A«n OKionai. rowrtsx or warm 

WEBK riuGsxavioi n> the aubxt 
ay TiXT. cn»itTFJi or onrKV kukaheiu i* 1560. 

There Ih olao uuotber old InndmiLrk uf ilj»« I'onduiln 
Nitualed eloec to the nula and nnor Ihe end of the IunI 
houm fnim Knighlahridgfl giniiK tiiwarda Ilydc Park 
Corner. Thin i-urioiin-l(>okiii|{ old nunii' ■Iruelun?, with 
door iu front, if an old will, within which in lite ciNtcni. 
It W1W olio the pUec whcro at ixie tiiao Mood a wiodmlU, 




unA a UUlfi furtber frum llm«, tii Uik wrat, wb» a waUr> 
wbeoli IfOib Bwd for i>uinpiTi^ piir[iiisi<», nnd nbrmt thiH 

ruwd to bo a elnioo door v.ilvo or cock frmi tlu- 
^■miinr, vtiirli. ivfbT the now line of pipAs waa nuule, 
wHa flxnl int the (-tint xiilu of tba old noonuuicnl, whf-re tll« 
• ifpeii I'firt srch uuw oUtn^s. 

Tli« Si.Tpctitiiie to thia day lupplit* a jmtUuu uf 
Buekiu$hiuu I'alooc finiuiidB and th« Qreen Farlc oraa- 
Rumtal watrr, rucI cleaiwwg water only for the llouBr* 
uf FarlianHint, Ao. Thn mpplr fmin tli» Svrpmtint' in 
nearljr vppoaitQ th« before* awntuned aquart- marble pUbir 
monttmcnt, and now tokea ita oovtae uron tho Rotten iUnr 
to Marble Anh, mtdw I'iocndLll^ Bnul, and entcra thr 
Oimm Ptkrk un tbu loll of the WeUington Statue, uc wbat U 
aow known aa OonHtitution Hill, when tfavrv is a necrrui]-. 
wbidi roMrivec it« wMtnr fr*im Oranpc Sttwt. The Scrpm- 
tinp ]iiipn liaa a nn-k jiiat al tliii aiiiit. Thia Serpentine 
|Hpv ia cmtintuvl towatiLi liifkiiiKhAm i'niam on the 
tnat iddr, and tlumcc to ncnr Hit' eontb aiilo uf St. Jamw'a 
I'alan^. It Ih*^ {rnoftwmir'wImtiliaKitniillyarnMfl tbo Park, 
Mill uiuIlt tlie umauuiiital wuttm tu tlii.^ ii-.l.iiiil . uiidt-r tlie 
wat«T ajiain and Mtn>n by llu? cuniOTiif t.lia l*'i>r<'i(i:n (llfine, 
up Dowuiur 9tnwt, and to tlia Huuxn' 'if Parlianutit, 
vncre it tiren up thrMi^h a firu nozzle 30 or 40ft., thia 
puuit )itiu}( fully GOft. bolow tbe waber hi tbo Mcrpontinc. 
Brnii''K>w fniin thiH [up> nvipplv a lot ol pnhlit' nffica tritb 
o^can*itii{ wilier o/ili/. The Houn* of Parllatu<>ut, tb"? 
Admiralty, the Treasury, the Uiik. of Bucclvufh't— and 
ft\iyn UroTo't, t.hi- fi"hini">n}(rr'i" chop rifffat oppiwitii thi- 
Ailminhy aiul Biifkiri>(li"in I'abwf — tlio };at<.'-ke«pei'a 
huu.K«, ami wli^u required tlie Serwiitiiip, &r,, nrv nil 
suppUrd with (InnUititi wnUr fivin Mie Trafslffar S<iuan< 
natM-wiwka, Onuiifi* Stn-'-t Well, whkb is an ariouan 
w«U, before «[H>ki-u uf. u( .'iMfl. d<-pth, 

llim nro a tpi-ni riiimtir of prniili' »iul piirtly jitiblir 
wcIId funk auU almut Lutidim fur xupplyiiitr ■luniw, 
prirute bouaea, and tlniM, wberr it roniee ranch cbenjier and 
wore reliable in qunlity thnu thnl ijbtiLiii<.il fmnt t-nao of 
tJw wat«r ooiiipaniiw. 

Tbera wvtv alau a biivii number of «\>lla and apriiifcs at 
Kenfdnpton Omri'l Pits, wliich wore ratnatf^d at tbe top 
Md of rhitii'li Slrrrl.. rtiiil t" atxiut biilf -way l-clwivn ctic 
'jTnttinK Hi'l ""-d Kiii»iiijfUin Huaniii. Tli-en- wun anullit-r 
8liL> Bpriiii; ill tlii< Wild«>rne><s, that is a plnco iiititat^ 
hctwM-n itir Iiiiy>-wut4,T Ruod and Ketixinii^u Polaon, r<t at 
tiM> now gT*fa at tbe bui^k at l'hli>L-L< OantimA, and in a line 
witli tlib east side of llie Kc-iiaiugtuu I'niiite. 


To Ibiii day tliirre are imnnvil niirilijrii of watiir at 
KenaiDgton I'lilat-i', nnc 1«iTi|; in tK<! ftiiniiiiif t;Tvi«nd. 
Tbero i» aooicivr in tho paaMi^ i^t the cntruiirt< of tbe 
State aparnneniti. bouaricMper'a rMiflcnm-, onr in the 
boaramtHt of Itie i*ala«e, and aeveral otb«n doan at band. 
Bill remnlly Ilf- .li^nnT-r tbniigbt ttK^y ahontd nut uw? tho 
welia for doine«Lic piu-])<K>iii, 

About 1730 there wh crednl a tnwi-r im tbr u~raF euil 
■idAof tbe i>lilTHni«,..tlil iillliOHl in 'I '>>ie wilh lllM i.iiltli^^ti, 
or perb«]» n U.'lU-r dv><'ri]<ti<jii ■•t mciasumnciiit will bo 
atilem yarda fmoi Paliice ilunltiis Bond ruiN, iinil Misty 
Tsnla froni tlir <«rii(^r uf tbe Mjuth bitutuliiry wall of 
No l.'t Palaiie Uardeii*, whirl) givt-a the rxtipt iipitt. 11iia 
old tower waa colled the Wnti-'i- and B«ll Tuwer, of whieh 
Fijr. 9.^'Jii IB tho vlevatioii. Tbe tank wafi wood, lend 
llnLil. and fixrd on a lino wilb tbr* flrnt at.iinfdn^ Mnrae at 
A, B wiiii the orertlow ut V. Q. tbe B«U T>.>wer, whieh 
waa uned in I'ftsr of fir* only. Thin water townr wan 
•uppliiil by i>iini)j», till' well <jf wlu''h wax atuiut 20ft. 
deep with im. «f water, iintl Mtuatod bi-twccii the first two 
ehn-, or about (iftivn yanU from Ibe I'nlare Liarclena Itoad 
and vtMbl yardu towan!* ll>r IVIj«'i». im the left Jipntig out 
ot raloui.' U'inliiiH Kujdl, iwwurdi) and iu a Hue wttli tbe 

rntnuiMt ffRta Into Krn>in|ctan OoflMia, wlwn Frine«M 
[pjiilaeV nlndio u»w alitmlK. Th>-T'- wiu> nlao a well within 
ibo I'lilMinir, and n pump Htlixl tip for t-niiTin^ncii^. 

Fijf. U.SOii in !i ^'pn'M-iitiitiou of a well, piuiip. and (■■iiiola, 
whieb wan rrtftml by Mr. linnloii, ii pimiil«>r of Urg« 
pmctirv ill llii^h Street, KnifUiKtos. about Hi30, wlio put 
down tlie orijritwl i>uiiips to eu|^]r die tank abnwn above, 
wbi<^^h lank partially fed tbe houjir hcloniring to-^or, 
at loaal, tbat wbi<-h wa» foriuerly u>>ed by — Kinff Honry 
Vni., and wnji nfterwnrda iimtl by WitUr.n) ni.,lu ati]>ply, 
vr portly supply, Kett«ini;tutt Fuliu.r. and. m belnro 
refemd to, tJie foimtflina. Aft.:r tliiii. it wa-i aiml to 
•mpplj- tin- Walor and Bell Tower. Tbe puiujH and 
uuieluuery ibeiti i>bi>wn ant of a later diitc, bv Wamor'a 
«/a tirm. ' The Water Towwr, Fi^. 9Wd. was built ozprtwuly 
Asrainat the ravagm of lire on tb« Palace, and Iu BU|i]ily 
tho tttirth nidi.' of Hi^i Strt-et with water. The beighl i>f 
tbe Huid Lower beiu([ aa tolluwi : - 

n. la. 
Hfifrbl of tlie lulddle towi-r to tliu atuna HUet ... i6 3 
Abore tbe atone fUlet (o tbe Ivp 3 S 

H«J|*t'of the middle lower i9 11 

Uei(fht of tbe ontaldu turreta above the middle 

tower .,, ... 10 7 

Ueig'bt of tbe outaide tnrreta 10 G 

I may nay that I piTsi>niilly fixed up n Mruilai' ptH« of 
work at Little Sutton Huuite, near Tunihant OrMu, about 
the y«ar l^&i. for TIr. Clayton. 

Water Wheels and WIndmlllfi. 

At one time the Ketisuit^t/'U Palace wui^ HUpplied with 
water pumped Iiy a water whj'cl. and after thtfi hy a wind- 
mill fixrd 111 tbr Biij*BWiitiT BrmA, umr tbe hf(kl of the 
SerpCQliue. but when ibo Ch«le*Ti Walerwrk" ntartod 
huainean, (ni ivjuNiiliTitioii of biitiff ullowi'd to draw 
Their iiupplii.|> fnmi tbi' llydn- I'^rk [KkalH ami hpring»>, they 
wont in reliini 1^ "upply Kitiwiuiftoji Piila«ie ami l" keep 
tho Round PfUid full uf water. Hot when tin- walera of 
Bayawater fell wVirt, and boeamt^ nomewbat p"l!iiU«d. the 
Chebwa WaU'rwurk* i'iiiii.piiuv waa rompeliod f lake tbejr 
aupply trom tbo Tbaio.*. iini'l with »nMi water ihe Ken- 
dngtou Palace was. and i» to thin dny. aiipplivd. The 
Serpentine WKt«r aupply iu duo ooume fell ■Imrl, mid lienoe 
the Herpenline aHi-t>(an well, whicb. altbouKb ifuuk and 
borul into the elialk. givia WAler of an inferior quality, 
uwin^ to Uip i]iii)ntity of wat.^ from the now polluted 
•-Iiriiiiri) findtntr way therein botweeu th« earth and brick- 
work, and oth^rwife. 

At tbio Bnyiw.ilcr pumping elation ihrio ar» two 
30 hinto-iiiiwrV liriun piuuiiiug enirines. I have bad 
Kreul diflieulty iu obtaining pondinarpruofii, owing to the 
ofticioBs potiMinen ntntioncd on duty at, tbn K<-n>intrtoD 
I'alaMi, who witn- most insulting', for no pHr[)uae wliat- 
rv«r, and h aeri^eatit, lirbind my ba*k, even wetil out 
of hill wav to tell Mr. Junox, the (f*n«ral forvfiian of worka 
at ttiL' I'lilacf, whoni I had aakcd ti few iiupMioii" relatire 
tuilv to tlii« work (who. ao luiual, kiH.*w i vt'tytldnjr, but 
proved uld women'* i hati, ni>t to hare aii>lhiii? to du u'ilh 
me. Tbi* ic not Ibe lirnt litue that thnw innipid uoudeMrrtpta 
have hitwlfrt-d with tbe pn'irrt*a of tliii< work, and it 
wiiuld bo much moir to Ibnr ervdit if they did tbvir duly 
when) it i« n-quinil 

Tlio before -in en tion-ml punipn wwk a.-* follows: -One 
pumpa the water fivm thv *ell dini-ri into the KiiumI Pond 
and alao into ■ amall raaertoir (rvm which t!ie oilier en- 
piiinpa by a ocntrifnyal pomp 1" Mipplr Oi" f"MnU 
Tliey work ten hunm per day, Vi -1. t 

whipb day tbrae founiafu* are suj ^vate. 

tbn llounil Prmd. Of cour^', thi' w ■?-. ■■. U"-^ iuunta* 
g«ies to nupi'ly tbe Sorpcmtiae. 




Thi> wHI water tn-n- is more powerful thsm aay iith^r in 
Ihe kiii;rdiiiii. cx(<(']it Clioltrahaiij. wliich i^ coiiaiilprttbly 
■tiniiRT-r. ll«*rf llip wci^lit of wilU in 6I> fimiiiR In tW 
nouiid i-f wnU'f, wliilfit tluit of AcUm t<uiilaiiui H frruinn 
In Utc ]iiiuiid. Tlicr« nrc ttbo sgao gvoi Bpritigi aboat 
Juiliti^, anil rsprctnlly Hanwtll. 



These bflnngrd to the HampHlMtd Watcrworkn. arnd are 
of coondonililr «nuuiHint in K'-nwixid. Tin* Kpntigii w«ro 
held bytraapundpr thtiClly of Loudmi, atul fii]]|>lii.'d imttn 
of tli« Tottniluim Conrt Bgul in Vi)6. 

TtioN workH i!onKiitt«<l ct three '^frinM and puntM ft>r 
miring tb'i «Bti>r by wiudmiil*. wliieli w«rv aitiu.twl m tlm 
liplda iipar Piirtlanil It:vi>I. Thprv were two Othw puiugiA 
wurkod by tbo ivjiiuhuil M*wt-r al Ti>na Coffw Buuxe. 
8l. Hiirtiii'B uid Harlborn LuaN, Stnuid, with tbr«n nuiin 
pipM, Gin. tmi Tin. borr, thrrcfr^ni, vrbkh niipiilit-d tbu 
iMftliboaHiood al ■ rental or tax, n-Licli praHU lb«5 divided 

I may haro romark tli&t neither tba Hiphgale nor 
llampiitead I^nniU, wbi>-li yielil ^9,863 gnllona daily, arv 
nuw uaed f<u- doniMtlc purpuH«. 

Wooden Pumpa. 

Tb^ lfi«t of th« woH)di?n pomps in London Iminm lo m« 
WM KichI iu l.')7C. in a woll dug Hit. Hcva; ita situatiuu 
WBJt ill tb« pariab of 8u Aialtww, Liinti Strcrt Wanj, at 
itMCotnfV m Ittmi; Ktrcrt, bill, cnriotuly, dtia ptiuip uuly 
lanUid twvaly-fiiur jenn. by ruuiwu vf ita n>ttin)c, on 
anivinnl of the wrJl not hctnj< property Tcntllateil. It wua 
tiakM) up, antl a Inuloii one tixcd in ita pl»o6. 

The Analysis of KeniinBton Watdr 
In Ihu tMirinli bi>okfi it ia rwonlnl Shot the niberal 
■nrin^ Bou wtII hmiw, wbjoh stnM] at the N<iltin}i Hill 
HooM, ao late aa tho year 14S8, were nitaxl ■! l-'»>. 
In tb» iolIowiuET roar tbcy were owned by Dr. Wrigbt 
and partnm. In 17S(I. Mr. Tuwd bnd poMOMion, 
and in thill, a Mr. Rnid wa« «H.'u[iJfr. Tim wvlU fur 
many yciLm wtm of cniyddemble reaort, and l>r. Allcu, In 
I7U, nnulyrvd tlu) water, and thi« in bow ho di-acrilxw it : 
" Two quarts hiid fifty arftltift of r-artb in It— li^fbt. lisafy, 
anil $Tcy~ wbii'h <li>-lil1ii] viiif^ir tvn>ii)^bt (attoil) u|iu]i, 
Uvo water bujlitl uji, hnd tnniiy M'luuiticral purtiuloe iu it . 
The salt Wbb aoft. iiri<l niuty U> nhoot intu ftjniriw; tb'- 
litifiiB flat. ai;d nmoily n^t |ioiulul. Tbe Mit Ricll«d uul 
oaay, as R|imiri noltii, but hor« n {fcHxl hmt hihI hnd ■ mui.'b 
RTMUtr quntitJIy of turlli iu it, wiw biinl oii li%r UmKiM.-, uiid 
aid nwt abuw a KUni till ticariv boitcd up. Tbi^ a&lt did 
nut trouble a hoIuUoti nf tinit Hilvrr in "pirit of nitrn, whirh, 
in a loii^ time prwipilated, and ao quidc and Wife, as with 
aaa aalt, do it ajipcarad a. bigh alkali, oretaocNtus and 

Monro alao irpeaki) of a Kensington aprtn^ aa containing 
a nnl<i»r«imM (itanbtr salt, with a portion of «ca natt. 

Oni-b a njirir;; won abnt lucd iik a pubtir Inith, ntid wjih 
■dttiHlod nearly uppoalte tlto Kiitliwuii- iiiid Wb«-1, Kvu- 
Ktuyluu. It was a "prin^ prcotly auiight iiftcr. 

The London Conduit* {nrntinut^), 

Or the SecQud Conduit, dal« 1-132. 

Hw ffnoad, which baF been eo muoh mitcd up and cou- 
ftMd linth dw orl^HAl, i>f ihrw t>prin>ra wiu> nitiinta in tbti 
pariA of Pftddingloii, at SayawaliT. and owii«it by thn 
AUwt of WMtminiitpr. ll» granted libib^ri Large, for ttio 

LHtiKOBB of London, « head of land. b)^>ther with all the 
apriuffH tborMn : iliin Und aniouutfd tj 't\i p«rch(« in 
Imuth nud uni- iu bri'adLh, mu) l» pri'tvut it hHTiiniiii|Cth«ir 
frm^iulil thi>v werv lii puy "n Ibe fuimt uf St. Pinter a 
ywirly I'ctitiil of two peppercorim. 

There wen: Kreral nprJn^ iipou thin apot nf land, ont' 
wna rituatad 4W)ft. duo w™l of tho •■■■ntrf uf SprioK Slrert 
and between Wmthounie Torrni'v kud Citnuc'JHtifr Ti-mw*. 
Tbe otIuT, a larirv unv, wa< nituntcd upon the Uum land. 
Iwt l$fi yaida frcim tbi- prcncnt [wirk raibt ortir the 
Wwt Honnir and oppiwiK^ Uio |iiLiii]itntc •Nation nt the httid 
of the Si-i-«.iitiut<, liut VMS yiinln N S.K. (if thr numpintf 
KtnUnn. 'I h«t> -.piiiiifii and conduit briutn have been tlje 
ini-'ttiui whcn-by laitoy iitreotB d«rirc Ihoir oamOi to wit| 
Spriuij Place, Spring Strwt, Spring (Jultame, Condnit 
I'lnro. OntiHuit Hewn, Loarluu Btnv:-!'. and a lual of other 
uMtiiu iiri- idl r.lo»* upon thu apiit, ami though tbw» are 
juli»1iiui)t« tlicri- eiiflity yvar' uf nir« and unwanl*. 
and Hriii)! tlu>n> all thnr lifetinie. uat one could glre 
lilt any idm of tho exact position of tbeao conduita, 
although I liaiTL- boon hunliii^t Ibtnn up for at leaab 
Lba Ib4 fiTe yeanH. Some would nay, " Uh I it moat 
have boen at Spring Plaoo," othont would say Conduit 
Uewa, orhrr.i in Taltmt SQiiari', wlir-ra tliu old Grand 
Junction Itewrvoiiii atmid. cjUivrx wiiuld «ay at Weet 
Buuruo or Tybourati Itrook, which pn^duoea a fair 
nu*dl«y in oats'* notnu. Yuu we the uu of thia reeorroir 
wOrN 20 poruhea in length and one in breadth, and to prevart 
it frtim l>nM>miHg freeJiold th« citiieua had to pay to the 
Ablmt iif W'tMiUnuiBlfr h ysarly mntal nf Iwo pifpuBrronia 
atthpf.'nrt of St. IMer. lU'rc tbvy attain tritsf. but in 
vuin, thf fnrvignrr to cast the pip:», and Honry VI. 
authoriiu^ tbp mayor and citiwn^, by writ iif tbo Prisy 
Sivil, hi boy I yd touM or 200 futlion uf laud fur Ibis uudeT' 
tukiuir wbi^'ti wa* not half enuogh. Tb« K ng olao 
Kavr> ordvrx for the authorities to pnM plumbera and 
ulruurer^ to iiiako by hand labour the pipes, and to w<>ik 
at thi' iiuderlAking nr luyinu: thrro in poaitioii, and. nn th«ir 
nifuaal, Lu traiiHpurt tliunkwlvrn (wluRh many had not the 
ninanab'i from the cnuulrj-, or to be impriaoiMd in Uie 
Stato priaou duriutf ilio wholu term uf which tho work 
rcmauied unflDlahed. 

Boyswater Coniluit Lead Pipes. 

Theae pipt'> wtn.- uf '^u., Sin.. 4tii.. .'titi., Oiu., 7iu., and 
Bio. Imro, rnailr inaa I'llbn, Xf :t2H>* t.) tin- f'*>t nujirr, ami 
in loft. leuKtlLH, havinif wind burnt juin'n :!in. widu, a» 
chown at A in ihi.* wmid^ut, ^ig. ll.'iQn. S n>prcB--uta the 
Nnnd, anil H U ili* witid h"nrilit fnp kwpiiij; tin- lutnd up. 
Tlic- half w'Bid mandril bLiiiwr tJiuwn al WUOU for ifie 
purpou! Iff iiniutr h-at Hiuid. thtw nuking the mpa U^t«r, 
urn), by lint drawing ibv half mandril (toporcd on the aand 
■idu), thi' annil roHivr to ^•.•t cint. 

Vou have nM-ii tbv p(«itii>ii uf tbo apringa, bnt ther^ ia 
niiotlicr thing tu bu nhown, nud thai is the i»bn|)v uf uiio of 
tlio building* whitib wa* uxrd To pniluft TJi.o muiilli uf the 
pipCMfriJui bring iiiti-rfvn.-d wiili bv uialiciouH ur iiiti?liicvotta 
raMiali, wbik al Krj«t iiivd Ui in«>ld]p Lhi> inl«>t nf thaae 
plpna, by thniwiiig mlid bvtiitv and Hiiall aiiiuiala therein, 
which ublhI to eboku or jiartly chukc it up. alao lo 
pn-vimt the wclln iwiiig atirnd up. TbmbuildkngiHtbnwii 
III Fig. 9-ii9i\ whii-li wiia iif BlniDg built Btunu work wilb 
iriiii pUttvI diijir ill fnjut. The )t*«d(>u pip^ w«-re down 
ih. below l\w wnti-T level, aod the tank itM-lf wu« curbed 
witti atonf^ rurbing optn at the battom- The Kpringyidded 
nbout 'AM galluns per nuiiiitt.'- The pipe wait a lin. one. 
Nt>w. taking tlio fall aa lirift., and tlto frirliiiii ol iho woter 
tbruugli ihix.'o iiiilm of piiK-. you will tliun be al>le to ae* 
what atnount of water (.'oiild ty^drawn, BOMuning that evftry 
tap on tbcw pip«-M t>^ 1"^ opon. not taking bfuda into cnn- 
Hiiieiation, nod twu of Ihi- aprtiigM b;dng connected to furni 
ono conduit bead by auitabte culverts. 









Tlwi conduit in th« Vfo-l Cheap mi by St. PauVa Q«to. 
«l)out th« y*or ma. This wa» nwWtvd, nw\ ..»•■ UunMftod 
mmto WM ^wit^-J I'V the wmmim ocruatil fui' (Ik- rebniltl- 
iiur ami wpairiug of thw othrr cu«uiuit«. TbU W PHt Clump 
founUln or ftommit wiw ileelroyed br tlie Fii-c nf IjondoD, 
bul it w«» n«»« properly finiitbol. These c.niwlttiUb*«»aia 
■ anuanoe from Ui« gmtlw-ring' of partiw ul eerviog mwi 
■nd aervsat gWn, -who iwcU to piirley awl eMiulsl tltu tf««» 
folk. Tfacy wouU stick tker« all day wlUi the prnffaBional 
w»tofH)amcrB (Btrooy bMlOty men), wb" mipi'liwl the rirh 
neiafabuuriKMxI -with. tnMit, and whii wt«e intlii'iM'iuwble to 
the oitumiB in Uionu daj-s. l)ut this voa not ull, for Ihv 
chiinuiii«» (•wwps) patnitiiwcJ Hie-o "^onduita, and were 
kiiowD to barrir'niie tbH-m with tlipir bm-mia. wailiniir im 
hire, and ouo jctraUr kLuJ of hijitoriau. Xcd W >rd. iu 1700, 
static, " Ac'juuirvTHnn, wx'miir so luiuiy black attendanU 
willing at the t\<mv Imvol " (conduit), " t«»ok it to be one 
of Old Nick's tcnmnents." 

Ilik wai Hi|)pli«l from th« findoltH of Miiryloboup wid 
the overflow fmra the Holy Wrila i:.f St, Cb'iBe«l'§ and St. 
Bridgwt'8. aod i«uplL« did xny tbul St. Hridirrf* Well 
wart dninol at ibf limn rjf ihf Korfinatiou b)u)i|uet of 
Hmrjre IV. In 1368 the jx-i^iik- uf Flwl St«*l, it w naid. 
T««ei*«d moro water Ihau th«y wanbJ from lli«w woduit 
pipn, io fB«t, 10 mncb no, tbnl Un-lr cellar* wwf iifua in- 
undated: upon whioli com pl.t int. uiui U- mitinfr Ihcm, thti;r 
wemt eompniMted, by a priviKiw ot i-r.*tiiiK' » HmiiU 
tiondnit houoe oppo«lt« John Witlwonb'a h'm»« and tlie 
lioww uf the Hiiiiup <if Salisbiiry, now fialiabury Court. 
But it BPonw that nome of tbv iiili&bitAnti WM» not 
flltiif<M with t)ii«, (or it i" rvcurded that in 147S aii 
inhabitant was detected tapplntT the vi»iduit |>ii>M fnr bi» 
own we, and (or tlii» vilIaiii'Mi» offennt' h'l wa*. otnbvlUahod 
with a bMdift&r iu ihe >>hn.pi^ uf a aniv, bki- thtr t<i[i of Pi^. 
mfPO, and, headed by tli« lywii-oriur. witJi iwll and mac* 
in hand, who cried out how tlio rulprit triwi U< ml> the 
cati)t«n«. Hb waa aUu followed by a ycllini/ cnjwd. who, 
aa aaual. to ^to thvio apurt, |)elt<il tin? i>tfimitc<r with 
fottcn tig^ durintr the inarch thniuKb ami hIiouI. tticCity, 
which ptrnalty waa coneidLTod a jiiMl puniMlimfnt, inntt-iui. 
Ml waa the usual thing, uf bc-ing Ito^gtHl Ia> diMtli. 


Thla wan rtwUv at the l«tU>ni ftf Ludjfate Hill, ami 
•noted by Wllliani EB«til.'M'» piwuluw about the rt^AT 
1478. Thv mam (tviitleman nUo built tlie ivudiiit 
atandard In Ald^nniuibury, then utt^d to point mit 
nnuHinuirntM fr^jnt Uihdun ia>i did tliti Mt«iui at Cauiioii 
Street). Thi^latu-r tuuduil wm ori|finftlly nuppUed with 
Tybounif! wiit*.-r. 

. There waa annthor ataiulanl (Miudnit irwti'd in ttt-- yoar 
ISS'J, at thi^ eaat end at Conihill, at ita iuiu-tion with 
Uraoechuivb Street. This «l».i awnw to havo bem u 
mcasiiriuir p.isc, probably fur the eaatemrra, and wo an* 
told tiinl J'oter W-irrin. tho I,ondwn Bridmi Watcrworki 
cngiiM^r. huill thii Kitd fitandanl. And auppllcd it trttn the 
Ticnity <>( St. Ma^u* Ohunh. 

The wDduil or fuuntaiu in Urnfw Strict wun wwteO. 
in 1491. 

Tho conduit at Holbom CroM« waa cmAei in 14M. 

The one in Lamb'a Cunduil Street (whiTwiI the naine of 
Lantb'n Conduit Street) was «wt«t by tlie boundm diitv 
of William Lamb, date 1577. Lamb also built a v^mduit 
at Hulboni Bridgin, it ia aaid. at a 4»at of £1 ,Son, and gave 
penuiMioa to tbo poorjwople^ aapedally women, to cany 
water thorrfrom and sell it to (be rieh. Ho alr.o gn,v« th<-n. 
ViU paila foe lhi« purpoM. 

Thr little f^jnduit by the Stock Market wan built ia 1600. 
dmiitnitnl at tbi- timn of the Vitv nf Ijondon, bat aince 
n.-buitt, utd waa called the Fair Puuntaiu ur C-unduit, on 
nccoiint of ita ricboeaA and beauty. 

Tho condnit nt UiabofMigate wan built in lfil3. 

Thn windoit or fountain Htrnini^t C«>li<tnitti Stn>*( at 
Ij:indcQ Wall wax en^ted in liii. 

ThocsHiduit at Ald^tte Wtthont waa built by the «lt)xenfl 
nf Loikdon, and aup]ilinl by Lhi; Iluckncv cvindulta (of whkh 
more auiin) iu 1635, -wliidb pruvnl it untxaniuu by the water 
oarricriH, when it wa* remored ii>to a side eourt. 

Ho conduit at Lolhbunr and in Cultman Street, and 
near to the churi^h, waa built in 1616. 

Duwfrate conduit waa napplicd witL Tliame* water, and 
buUtin 1968. 


There were a wrait niimber of foontalna anrl public wpUm 
bc»id<» thew. which wore a kind of wati-r mark, aliuoot 
wornbipped, in fact, no miii'h no that thej- w*A to make an 
annual rx(rur*iini nrouud tljein. Iiuoded by the Lord Maym 
and biH trit>e, and wurelupfol penona, or dlren manters 
and wnrdcni, who nsed t" rid« on faonwback around theM 
bnunibi, nfti-r whii^li tlK'y thuiiKlit prupcr tu hrenkfaiit or 
lunt-'b, iJieopby with tlie haniera uutU they had killul a 
hare, Pnddinvton thut beiny part of Middlesex foreaU 
They would tnon bant dinner at their bnnnuoting houac, 
wbieb waa sitimted on the north aide of tJifurd Street, 
near 8tnttf<ird Place, whitn mmu' anricnl oondiiit» beloneing 
to tlte CHlv cf Liniduu wi-re. TIivho werv nxwt beautiiolly 
liullt, ana the City offltiire used to frmjuantly riait tluao 
pUcea, wbicb wore puilcd down in 1737, and the eonduita 
arcbpd over, whi'ii lliry wrrn r(.-f(tu.nd KUiie few rears ago 
by the Uraud .hini^tioii Water Wotka }i«upl«, wUvM 
engineer, Alusundra Fruder, Euq., told me ud July 26lh 
(the day I wrote thin) tliat u> make the place mon 
aafe he oaueed theut to be fillnl up. 


After theoA Afficcra had dinrd they would indidse ia 
fus buiitiiiK the remainder uf the day. I idiould tfamk a 

Ctty liffiirr day's work. Hnwerer, there !■ no queanoii 
. what tliia wa* pracliHed ut the time, and we read in 
the historic records tJiat Harper, the Lord Itfuyor, did socli 
n n)und ou Scpli'inlR-r ISth, 16*12, when hi\ nft«T such 
a dny'ii work, r«Ie tbruti^h Ijuudun to bin bouHi, tht-n in 
LtiinlutrJ Sttc^'t. Ak before MtJttMt, it was death to aayoa^ 
apoilia^ or dcfaciu^ thrau fountaius. 


We have atH-n iiuwr nJino^l euou^^h of IIhtw uid fuuntninn, 

or uuudiUt temuoRl", and the Laws relat n(t Iherel'i, but let 

ua eea what vn* doue with thuxv tliat dar<:tl to iMnflatulo, 

Kir rtbjp hilt ni-iKhbi)iir gfnng ta and from the Taamee (oir 

tblH JII'M'iMUH fluid. 

The citixena [HLTtlj eupiiliod Lb«niaelnHi with watvr by 
fetcbins it IhniuKfa liinra and walka, which led to thia 
watcmidu uf ruriuiin watxln. But, iu time, aome uf tlu) 
owneTH tbmight tliey eiiuld do an tliey Itknd, and went ao 
f.'ir a* to pftop up tlie»e walk*; and wduM Kutfcr none tu 
pasii nor repodB without pnyin^ a duty fur the rljrhl-ftf-way. 
The eitiMtis, in the time of b/iward 111., indur*^ 
thf mayttr, nldunuou, und CDtuuKmnltr, In H-e tutu tlm 
mutter. An iuquiMtioii wna made, and several of the 
wards were swam to make dlliireut eutjtury into tluiMt 
trriavanec3>. <if all poriiunii who bntuifht in preaemcnta of 
tbt»e annuyamvi. and the fullowin>c are the resulta. 

That in the llow(rati> Ward, .\muiRtaree Lane, where 
wa« (iiit.'ven.'etedaoonvt.-nieiil bridal', the iu)i|xMed adjulniiuf 
landlord (one John Wcstonl thuutriit lit to slop, by bnildini; 
a shop, to the nnnoyaneo aimI iuojuvmiencc of the aur- 
rDundiu(f inhabitanta. 



Tlten wen nimilar (xvurmuws in Wi>lf!>l»iM>. BrMask- 
[wM m Klili(-gAtv, WindeiigtMlane. aiul aLsti in 1 ' Miimilimf 
•H >^ which uuiMtices were m-tified to giTt the oei^bonn i 
)Dw-l[llknr right-of-way. 

IbtikcrniUi^, Doweainte. Here they the wi ppni wd 
ivmwTBi had thought fit to bnild rguiDiu bnoaes and oat- 
aC^mi, which were filthy, and interfered with the risfau of 
dM |M!<fble in pawting' ; tnia was recti&ed. 

tuy Wharf ng'ht-uf' way wait re-estabti^hed. as aLio were 
ISb'fwlanf!, Dakmprlase. BeTjtatefllane. Sttcke«laiie, finde- 
luvr, and Dorkinmlane. 

In Vintry Ward, ^TntriwiUne ^where there wa« a 
t/nAfii-). 8pit4'lMfrlAne, Cunii-entrie«Iane, and Xi<l«^LiRe. were 
nrtliUfl by \h:uh( re-estaMished. 

'Hum ill (juuunLith Ward the key qoaj . called Qaeen- 
bith, wbloli was, at one time, a common war to a rlaiset ic 
tbifMH duyH, kniiwn as Jake. This key. WiUtam Fitz Raae 
d«t Itlitht', wiinted, for itx nse, six marks per aonom. and 
whieh wiiM rJK'hb'd to the conunonen. | 

A liiiif ill Ht. Miohaerfi. Queeobitb. wa<i stupoed : >a waa 
tbti key, lalliid Salt ^Miarf , and a bridire. cslkil CaiKT]dr» 
Bridffn, in Timbrehithe : and Ruse de Rienn. oy^tennonger. 
WKa over-n>aohinft bv way of taking money of the prior 
wonitm that washod their clothes in the Thames, nr fetched 
wat4!r fliorefrum by pasrang his grounds ; all o( which were 
nxaitlod. I 

In Raton§lane, in the aforesaid parinfa. the abbot of Lesnes 
madii a pnle (vnctowd eertain grounds to prevent acccM to 
the river), which was torn down, and their rights rectified 
or re-eatablishcd. 

Lokkingelono was let for a sum per annam, which 
renting was an injusticv, and injurious to the commonalty ; 
this viiM knocked on the head. 

Aniitlier lano between the tenement of Earl Har«haU, 
and Waltnr Oladvyne, vtn; by jakes, considered a naisanci; 
tu tlie commoiuilty, vho patronised this walk for the 
puriXHN) iif fetching witter, whii-h jakes, the before- 
iiiuntioiml ]Mi(iplo, or lutidlordit, were compelled to keep 
wholfMiniu, NO iks not to he otTensive to the pedeHtrian 
wat4<r- carrier. A lane, called Fish Wharf, where Simon 
de Twliilium took tolls, was done away with. 

Tlicru wore scorcH of other lanes and right-of-ways to the 
watttr-Hiilu by laiidtords interfered with ; hut this intcr- 
ten-uMi WHH held to be invalid, and the rights of the people 
haiiiiilr maintained. 

We \wvv Minn now quite sufficient of the law and position 
(if tlitt cuuiliiitjH, and the mads leading Ut the water mpply, 
I will now proixied to examine other sources thereou. 


In Henry VIII. 'a time, that ix to Hsy, in 1S<4, the 
eorporatioii of London waa allowed, by Art of Parliament, 
to obtain good and wholesome wat4^r thniiigh pi]M-N from 
vilUgfH, or other lands, within a circuit of tivo miles from the 
City stone in Cannon Street. 

He hIki] gave ordera that tLcy mnr enter anyono's ground 
not eiicliNtetl by walls of ntoue, brick, or li<!<lge, am) l-o dig 
pilK, trenchoH and dishes, to etect hi'HdH (n-si-rvoirn), lay 
pi|H-H, and make vaults, suHpiralN, ki:. Anil in thi- year 
1A46 a taw was pnnaecl, by whicli those who dcstmytd 
ounduit hcad£ end pipes, wtro put to dtvith. 


The history of thene is as follows:— By charter of 
inoorporHtion, dated May hth . 1 OMI. then) was an 
Ant empowering Dr. Sublift'c, Di'an of Kx'-t^rr. to Het 
on foot a project for building King Jiiinr-a' College, 
of whicli Prince Henry wa!< a jtiiiloiiR friend. The 
King endowed it with the revcrHinn of certain lands at 
Chelsea, laid the first stone, giivr timlnr from Windsor 
t'orust, and by un Act cuijxiwcrtd theiii to convey water 

fp.B nsi^kan- PiHUa. W t w e e M Lmk Bridge. 6* which 
pnrpiiiie th«y wer« aUuwed to dig a rt^ni.-fa not excvnlitig 
Klfc. in hn'ailth. enct engiiKi^ or water wheels. <^ien 
gmonds, and U mmlm •mubdu tar aoffljiag tbe City of 
JLondon, at a rental to Eaiae a paawiait a^wmmt for 

PLL-MBERS' C0JIPA3IY {April Xlthy l6ll). 
W<> hate now arrired at the tiiM of the eonpletioo 
of the PlmubeRi' Company ICIi:. wlwn Uiey were doing 
gruwi work. This old •.■ompaBy's antecedent* Mem to have 
b*-.nn pc*<ty enriy. the •xoinaiKea of which date back fium 
Eilwuii IIL.abtoi I:i30: aBd.aeeocdingTowbat I can glean. 
at rfai^ date U4i) fron old O^le boi/b. oar Plimber** 
S>:ietT being the oUest in England}, they had a pretty 
rough time of it : for. altboagh they were ooosidered an 
indepewlent body, they were not by^ Aeir own maatent. 
as is pcoTcd by the fact of them berng fveaaed to woc^ on 
the plumbing job of tbe building and — -^"p of tbe ivtiond 
'Baynwater or Paddingti» eoadait, which wait in fall swing 
about this time. One wonld think that work would 
hare been pretty plentiU. rooaidarag the fuM they made 
of what they considered to be an injnstiee. Xij others 
dabbling in toe trade : for. accm ^ ny to their aorount of the 
wwdiag of their ordinance " that no one in tbe tikde <d 
plumbers shall meldle with works touching auch trades, 
except by the ament of tbe best and moit billed mai in 
the trade, te«tifying that he knows bow well and lawfolly 
to do his work, so t^t the !«id trade may not he Mandalind, 
or the commonalty damaged and deceind by folks who do not 
know their trade." Here waa a pretty st^te of thinga, and 
a fair specimen of society rules : Waa it jaaloBST ? 
Although a man was legilinLitely apfnenticed to the traoe, 
and might hare been a fimt-cliM workman, he most be 
recognised as one of them, before they wonld admit him, 
under the plea that the trade may not be aeandaliaed. I 
don't like this pi :a. Here is another bit. " No amvoitice 
be taken who is greatly disfigured in any part of nis body, 
whereby the honour of the City, or the h<»e>ty of the 
craft, shall in any way be emblemiahed." I mmder if 
they thought a boy di^-filfured by baring on his baok a 
birtiimark. Here is a little bit more. " Tliat all appren- 
tices be kept indoors in all suspicious times and seaitoos, so 
that they may not use any uidawf ul games, oooiqiationa, or 
minrule to the dishonour and rebuke of the good folks (rf 
the craft." How about keeping in a London qipnatioe in 
those days f Was this possible^ or are they fairy tales which 
are told about the rollicking. ungoTemable, ahaU I aay 
ungodly, Londonapprenticeoftboee old time*, when wean 
told that no man, woman, or child, was safe againat tbe 
ravngefi of theee demons f 

There is u heap more of sucb recorded nonsenae, but the 
above in sufiicient to show the state of the trade in those 
days, yet there is row enough with some buaybodiea 
liccauHe we have mle.H in our modem Plambera' Sooietiea, 
whereby our men simply stick out for their kgitiinata 
wage according to the custrict. 

I hero record it tbat. for hundreds of yeara. this old 
Flumbcra' Company, although a practioal sooiety at one 
time, dwindled down to an entirely non-praotioal 
body of gentlemen, of whom I have nothing to ooaaplain, 
except tbe mixrepreaentatiun of title, itnd vho, instead 
of >M<ing a recognised trade union of thoronghly [nmotical 
plumbers only, were looked upon more aa a socdety of 
nien^hnntH, who had no pretentions to Ibo plumbing toade. 
JuHt bofure George Sliuw, Exq., C.C., and practioal 
liliimlwr, took the tnastership in hand [date about 1884), I 
awked tbo plumbers of England to form a meeting or 
congress at the Health Exhibition, Soutii EeosingtoB, 
to inquire into the status of the trade, whioh tbe Flomheia' 
Comp,-in.v, but only through the interoesdon of t^eir master, 
George Shaw iniixed in. 





t ironld hete trniork that no udd nIioiiM hkro • ri|^t to 

ha n^T w'MM into »»cli n <v>miMn^ at pliunben aor other 
tnccbanical, oliemii-'iil, or art MuMHitr*, itnd to ownfr *b n 
fuU-Uuooued member, nnlrtu h'l- Iihh n IlioroitKli ltiu>irliilx« 
(i( th« wurictng of Hucli tnule or [irufexHioii ; ami I for tiu*.' 
would vnfoTM the ruk tb^t no one Bh;>uM »ifAf/« or be io 
utjway miu^ up in a bndo nr wKiHy itimplj lui n Kkihw 
head. T1>W. it ijioulil b« rfmtriulM>rvil, rvfrm ti> all lj-ni)« 
socittaM — wunUpful or otherwiao. Nnr >>lii>iilil nnynui* l>i> 
alloTMt Ui trade ui or undtrr a fitl*--' title, fcxpvtijilly niioli kh 
■AiiitftTj etijriiii*r», B9 per o#nt. nf irliiim t.i-dii^ arc tnidiu*; 
uiidiT thin ditsiitfiil tilli- : iiuil nutrw thnw HO yi't cfin. nt 
tlitwe }K.i>[ite In Loudon htq fnlnnlT r<^r<.-w>uiiii^' tliAiiiw-lwii 
nn M^boanlpt us priMiliirail jiluiiilwrx. vthu knctw nuUiiiiir 
nlM>ut tbr trailf, but are thanbU)^)il7 outaidon. moro Ibaii 
liaU iif wliurti were not brought up in Ui« buildintt inuU. 
Vol tbe«e wi>ple worw and ncurp* hmvt apu|j«(l roiti»rnv 
tion. whicu if thrj r-annot [ri't frum tlie Cuinmitteo uf the 
B«<KwtraliuTi Scbtine, ^^t worthli'^ mrtificitlox fMm quni-k 
BSuitsriADn or pinite nii'ieti»><, of whiiti t am Horry to 
raoord tLviv arv tairv tluin oni.' in Loiiiliiti. 

KvMy wiinl which I tipuke to the l]iouii»iid» of plumlKTS 
in the InternAtionnl Hiivlth KxhibitJim, N-til nL Boiitb 
Kennngtim, Londiiu, ii> Iba yunr IHHt, aliould I<v ilninuutHl 
iotu tbv oarn uf the approutioe plmnVr, lu fulliin-* (tlii* 
t« a BWomoopyof tliQTerbDtiin»lior!lluuidii<ittA| :• ".So fur 
aa onr nnitAiy plninbinp i^ conccniod, health nnd lifo 
ju« in m mwiKiiR- di-jM-nJciit upon llic vstnbliiOiniiwt of a 
MetiopolibiEi Boanl of Eiiiminm of pluMiU.-r>' ■xiirlc. 
What do we find i Wo litul hliuikniuitbo, irouiuouiren-, 
<^arpciit<w, tiri«kUym>, lim-ndrapers uudcrtaVore, 
[niiili^pi, kIi'''^'^, <-'ui>]M'n4iuithii. tinkers, nvr, aad tirtm 
tlio IritTolling M'iiitinnt-KriiiderH, ■cl.tinff tliiMOitelirra down 
a« i<lutiitHn«>, tu any nolliinir of th« fold of bnildera' uterlta 
which nuine in hi ttwell mil the lot. 

" This ti>-iii)i(>o,yoiLii>c<nl not hminrpriiicul tlint Uir puldii! 
ani 11 rniibittrn'd «fmiTi»'- >i>, aud whii put tlw^ reiil pluiiiltpr 
in a fttlae poBitioii. They, the ]nihlie, doii't know lli'u thr-y 
arc bt'itiir yullrd by a pink of outi<idcn ])iHiff»«iuK t*> Iw 
abli' U< undort/ikir naiiitury work , liiid, moTurivttr, van yoa 
WMOfW that l)ir |iuMtL' have lir^ld tlH'niw.'Irui «j luiifh nlmtf 
fraoi ernn thmp who ar" r^pnttln rif doing ffml nurk. Id 
xhort, I wiy liint the pulilit have, tLruutfli the i(lio»niiiaI>!i- 
way iu whii'h ih<-ir plninlierti' work has iM'en >^-uiii]>od. ju>t 
groandaof iiairipliiiitr. iiud i]ii1i'«* wi: pniv<- iiLii--i'lki?H iu thin 
am aaOKi uf lu-dny to U- in ri-iil e>ini*^t t<> ■-nljiMinli 
etamlneiv aH to who afe fit. nnA iiuiilitfxl wnrknnni, uiid Io 
appoint rwd plunilx'jn for rxuinimrrn. w« ewumii •.•K|M."t to 
K-intaliliHh a hmlUiy jHi^iLLiiii for the qiiikUdcd |ilunit)cr. 
Iliia beiiiff ^u^, uutf or uevtr is (he time thn.t wr !>h(>n)il 
iMHitir oumelTi* to altiir from tmti ii> (toiHl p]ttnil>«rH' u'-.irk, 
aad to eHtabliah iii uvory dialiioi « tiiialifleu cKiiniiner uith 
power to inspect all plumberti' work. iitu\ wi i'iindi.-iuu tht.- 
works uf tho tiiikiriiig iiittiidi rii. In the tir^it phire. I 
would au^ntnrt tbnl a boanl of llioroii^lily quiilitii-<l I'laeheni, 
Rtd here I tipeak loud, priiotical— yea. pnicticiil and 
theoretii^ ji1uiiiI*t* aa examtnrr.t. wfaiiii Hbould be 
tvlaMiiihnl at Hip Wiimhipful Cwiiiinuy of Plumlwrn ; but 
which buiard Khvuld be vailed tho Ati'tropulttiiii Ikiitnl uf 

"Their duty nhmild he to oxiuniuo candidates wUhingto 
Wnonic rpxi''t'r«'<lplu«il)fni. 

" Til"' nw^lhr-d of eK»ininatir-n ahoiild bo Igr pra«t!<uil STid 
tb««rcti(.Ml duinutiiFtnitiuiw. Lut tho candidate— be who 
rrcr hn miiy ho ohnnld hnre aDoh worlt to do aa would 
proTc wIiHliVr hf be a pliimhi-r i.r not, 

■' Kor .iittiiniKnl'n wiiin \if "boiild W- nlil« to work dluct- 
lead, Biwli u* iH gvuc-nilly found about roof«. He xhmild In- 
able to work pipe* Id a good pmcticol nianiier ; be a gu(>d 
joint mnkcT nod know how to make hitt own mlder: nuike 
mngh drawing*, ami hureaunodkiKiwIedgcof lbcncocaaAt7 
waltT woika' ^Ctingn of the be«t and *rcU tn<4 daaa. 

■* Ra ahoald bo able to aaawer qnentiana mbitlvo tn 
•onitAlioii, but not to awag on a Mtnitnry vngineei'. but to 
kick all the before -nieutiunud blacklrfipi found nniigatlug 
to ilieiiisi'lrca (his tiile. 

" He ahould lie alilu to anawor qncstioTw relative to whjr 
he ifl cxeegtin^f hid work in tho way ho i» doing it, and to 
make dntwiii^ of it when duuo. Mty uf a aanilary job 
Qomplplo. Hn idinuld nUo bn ImU"? aa to making arrange- 
mentJi: to wit, lot Ulm »liow aad smngo a lii-r of dofH>u 
with proper veniilatioa. and a ayatem of boiiM and HCUtlit 
dniinage. How ho wi>ubl amkiiici' hi* rinttrnn. Intb*. 
Iav>ilurifii. uud l:>vnt.iry wi>iti*, and aifb lilct^ with iiuitabli* 
materials. He ■botiid uL^o lie rible to i-h"w hy pbm aitd 
I •It' VII tion. and liiy down a liiw of dmiuagr »howin>r pnipcr 
juintiiig, diiixinni-fjtiuii, iitul rvntilntitm, and whi*n hi' has 
navwvl iu thehe ■tihje^.'li give him a c«i'titli.-»(*! mid n>giHt«r 
liim no a qualified wuikmnn. who sfaaald be eligibLo fur 
holding the [N»lti<1n uf n i|nnlifioil in.ipeittor of piuinhrni* 

*' Ne»t oonimi tlie eitlalj1i>hing of diatriet nit and n en. Id 
the fimt jilaw I would like to give you my viewa n>!ipoctitig 
their work, which ahunld be lui foUowM. Tlieir pcMaticin 
ahtiiild he directly tinder (he distriet anrreyor or engineer 
counccled with tim {nriah, hut in nn wny ihould Itifl 
Mirveyor dletace to the plunder iiutpw-fir about Iii« wurk, 
hut whenever a point of ditference between the two, if 
A dutv traiir point, it nhould hi- xcttied ty the Mctrnpolitan 
Buant of PlmnlH^n. Thi- nauilary jj) inaprctor ■ woric 
fhonJd be to exaiaine plans and npeeifleAtioiiH of sanitary 
idiuiilang genemlly. which ahoidd be lodged by the anrhiteet 
with thf ntiher pfana of new bulldingH or otlitrra-iae : he 
abould n-]»irt thv oatrecUieaa or olhemw! oi Mwh (dann Iu 
tho surveyor, and if mich planaarvmitdnin atrir.t Mrrt~>nlanne 
taaM nilc« of ««uh4iryand wat^T-wurkM* pluuiiiiug' to be 
hei«afti>r dlarosaed (nee Vol. I.). The work should In* 
Allrjwfid to pmetvxl, and the phinibing exaniiuer ijioiild ha 
riigiigiil undnr t)io wiid nurvtiyor Iu visit and itiii|iaDt Ilia 
wvrk "hll-l jiTMgrtfwinii, and if fui h norks ««? tint ln-Iug 
rarrie I out in *m-t a'-rvirdanir to th'' pUn-f and "ivdlimtionji 
ttMlgvii. tbrii ihi' |>linn)iing >-xaiiiin(-r'n duty wil h • to rf|iiiit 
sut'li din'repiLiiuy Iu the aurveyur, wbute duly will )«.■ to 
inuHt Lijiun tho work lieing cxncutod in *triiit amordaiKW 
nil-li the lodged )iliin>> and »poei^'alians. Iu caae of alura* 
tioTiH in the huiitiLry or wn(er anan^'in/vito of any dwelling 
hnuw. fantiiry, wnii-lMU>»*, i^r other biiilditigri, ]Filnna nitd 

nprt-ilii.-itiLiiis iif Hiudt jLlti'nitiunn Hliiiiild hv |ijd^n<I fur 

npjiruval, and wljen appiurvd of ithoiild eonie under the 
Mkino ro«trirl.ioni> aa tnoM* of a new boilding. In eoxe 
of any compJaiiit CAuaed hy defectJTe plumbing, Uie 
pliinibiiiff t:'iuiniiier shonld have power to t-tttrr aUL-h 

SimiiiiM-ii, mid (londi'mii hucIi wiirka aa am found to ha 
iiuliy, and to niaki; Kui-h plaiiH and apcoifleaticns aa are 
un^-Miuiry. The plumbing' exaininer may ha engogrd at a 
M'l-i-kly wilnry, -'iiid nil uiiiilon' itisiasitorx ■hould be pranlioAl 
and ct-TiilWaifd pUitiibiTii. For 1 have bad my eye upun 
ihcao «ii-n now in ortloe fur aome years pssn. 

" I now nnh("<iTnlingly Hiy that Ihriwi men an' in the 
wrciii)^ plwi-, being inJ»-uanKil, aud, as a rufc. tuLally un- 
qualiAml fur the very iin]K'rti>nt [mnition whii^h tbey faUely 
hold. I H'ally qwak frvm my own kor>wIiiI^i-, mid a« thie 
largi) building iaoia^n toall— andrfpLtoally tu all iutereitted 
ill •Miiitury M-ii-nce. eiiKinerr*. mrveynn, and anhitecls, of 
whiidt I Hie niAoy birfant mf>~-l ht-n-witli I'faatlrrngH any 
one to ■.■onlnullut, timl, if so, let biiu apeak out Iminediatoly 
he betiis luiy word which he (.tin dLsprT>rD. Now, I'm 
gofnu- to hit har'l. and T l^]<■1lk of my own knuwletlge, that 
by fur tile gri'nLtT [lurtiou uf thi-m are uivii put into tiiirir 
{■■■itinn Hirijily tlirough thp iiitertwt which itnnwvnip ha* in 
■.'■inuix'tioti with our vivtrii's, fte. Wliat aro tlie gT«'ater 
part of tbei* Bo-ealled sanitary iiiapertorap Stm|jr oW 
M>tdicn). men worked into poaition by the rveominoM 
of NOiiMi uld Hildier, ruch aa a adooel or fBOaioA «<( 



tiflli-iT wild lias iiiflneiHi* in tin- diKt riut. To pnivi- lliifi, Imik iit 

tliotH> of (ttir pmipdi, Kt'tiHiii^rbiti, wlicrc thfy liuvr more timu 

iiiii) tir two old HoliliiTH, niid. ti^kiii, liMik nt llntnnu'r^tiith, 

wlicro t1i(-re in cvi'ii ii rclinil pt-nHiiincd iiDliifiniiu riiiil iiIm) 

u n>tin.<il tli-tii'tivv. (Slmiiiv, uml u]iiiliiui<i.>.) Ah, but lliiHi.i 

luit tho wtirrn ot it, thiiw irmn, wc have (riven tlicni ii gvid 

pi-iiHiiiu. yi't tlioy i-ome tni ti> tlit* iMirinh taking big wiigen, 

Miitl tiftcr a littlti while they aro ag^iin potidiuried utf. 

^Elliutitet lOiKnu', iL&d tk))iilau!ie.) I will tAl you munv- 

thitiK Wflxt'liiiK i^nittiry iiisju'cttiTOhi]) an ]inii'tiHed imt 

tk huiidivit luileK fn>tn thin 1)iuldiii};. A hnuHO vnn tilt«d 

willi thiiruiigtily pKxl 101b. dranni leiidc-u t<>il {Hpcd, guinv 

(Wwii tilt* iiwidf of ,tbe lumm', which wen' in a t'lipitjil 

iviu)itii>ii. but iwvor iin>iH>rly made goxl to the dniin, un it 

•houht lu»vi' Uvii, with Fortlnnd ei'iut'iit ; the i-oiiseiiut-nco 

witH tliiit H Htink iin>.-« and infuHted the whole of the liouxe. 

'llio ss»i*itary in)>]xH'tor wiw m-nt fur, who, in hi« turn, 

^x^^>n>ll»^•»>*l•'d ii wt'll-kuowii inninioii^n'r Ut the hotixe oinitr 

it> i-kiitto iind M't iimtten riglit. The H;tniturv iupi)it.tiir 

y,.,.l ,' out Hii olulHinilo n'lMirt it^ fuUowa : Taki' down 

i,>tv>*'Ut U^d H>)1 jiiiN' iind Hx it liii. >'U8t-in>n ono outsidi-, 

with ttio u^tuil loHtr )Mnij)hi'nmliu of diw-outitfctiiig uttiitc.-', 

^,. Ai firtav was (jivcu in to do thu work, which anii>u»ti'd 

•\i £7>. t*ui tho hoiiM' owner <^iultl not quito underftaiid 

•hiK. *^ ^^"^ li^*^*^' '*'■"' huilt by uiie of the liont tmd lur^rt-^t 

itfti- tu IxW'.t'.ii, and »o inont-y wiis itpitnit therrun, mi ho 

.^wuicht ttui*' lijrt" '"' '*"' niiittor ln-fon- jirott'ediiig. I was. 

■iMivloi^'' v'atlod n)<>>ii Ihi' M-oni< In niiiko nn pxainiiiatiou 

tuU 'u <t*v > iviiv in. whii'h 1 did. Tlie ]iri<.-e for juitting 

icrrthit'K ■^■)f"t *'*^ • '*< *'" "x^" i^'i) I''l^^ *»" '^ t<>>od on 

■a* -iM* -' *'^^ i>nvt(«l, anil oidv roiiuiml n Iit(Ii> ceiueiit tti 

-i^dw :bv •.x'UiKX'tkiii l<('(W(<fn iht< fotit of tlie ruil pi]ii.' and 

1^ ^jMiti. Vvt the vthoU* of thin o.tiiitiil I'liuuliin^r wits I'ou- 

n^iirr' ^uil>ly [Iii\>«i)rh the work of tho Ivii-khtytT. 

u> ." H^ir MMHi Mul llrittlfiucii, thi-i in niit tht! firt>t, MViiud. 

r • aini ' »**'' *'>>^''' ^ ''■'**' >'hivkt<d tlinx- dixAilli'd Mnitiir)- 

,^l^^^^^n,t^ itvim i-ullitiK do* II (^>i>d work for tlio wke of 

avtf wliLKtHi aiid fcim'ioH : autl whivi the public nrv 

:£tw^w W uuitL-t^iaml what ii> liost ftv thi>ir own 

,ML 'bM ibtf« . fv>r ihc lutinii yxy or tht'TvatoiutK, 

^*^^„ -u»««Miichi> iww.-tk-«t uk-n to rxuuine the Muitarr 
...4 'brtf i'UM'*. Utaw will not be the ali^hlei-t 
(i^r u> at ^.MMl'iixfc a Moti\>]mlitau aikl IVivincLil 
1*1 iiMiwrr >^f pluuiN'nt' work in vvcrj- vx-strv 
NMuMr> iu->Mvi(ir is now t>?:ablit>)ii>I. 
.uwt.-vudii>whvltollM>followiiihr: Firstly, 
II Hwir r '"-— Kmi«I of IVut'tical riuiiilvr*. 
aM» jmmJ 'm m titf Wvirahiplul t.\witiMuy 
.kk ■*. vtuttUb«IU IahuIou. Seixmdly. 
.'w 'w ■(■nk-ucklly f\)Uiuii« |iIuuiU>r». 
I-m^ikni i>iuiMt«ujr, KuA to irive, to 
I v'wi'Ufii'Mtv mud TVtri»tratii>n. 
i^Mttif; IkM h> tloU v>tthv as a 
- -"!-*" 1^ w^vfc; hut if ho 
M -MJbwwl lk> )init-tiw uor in 
MiMHji ^ UMtiiwily. nifm^n-. 
\m •.^MtwliMii w i-arryiit); 
a tmmik iMMMR w to who i» 
ivJtf Mii'h work, 
h* feh<Id svu'h a 
,^~ -<i^^^^«Maii^M.. nil<4]i. ilukt. if 

_>■ ^^WMMteaiHaitafaBL tt yivv iw-ial 

I'll-. ^■■^b>.«K. as w yaciiuM of 

ilUMqx nMHMHiH^lte '««« Wnd 

Alt 1 '^^^»=«i^a^B.BMnL «-^ 

on fiiKl 
of ubii 
Kini; cini 
fh-i-Hii. ] 
>'ori-:i(, ut 


wurk. Such Ixmrds (tlrMtly) should be afliliatod witli an 
eHtublirthf^l Mctnijiolitan tioard ; (itcoondly] it idmuld lunnst 
of tnkined plumberrt. " 

Tliin wtix M-coniled, and tho chairman put it to the vote, 
which waH curried nnuuiuioualy- And I am pleuiied to say 
that the thing in iu>w estabh^hing itaelf. The board of 
exumiaecs being at work ever taam. 

First Public Machine Pumps. 

In the year 156^ the first public uiachitie puinps were 
umed iu London. Thoy were erected on the River Thamen. 
noar old London Bridge, by a Oorman engim-cr nam*^ 
Peter Maurice, Tbew puin]« were of the fonre pump cla>s. 
!H'ven inches in bore, havinfr a thirty-inch Ktruke. woikitl 
by an undernhot wheel, which wait turned by the tidal 
current and afterwurdi phii-cd under one. and later on, 
two of the urvheit of the old Bridge. The water was 
rniaed l^ilft. I nhuulil May that about two yoiiia before 
the ubtive work wax commenced, another eiighieer. ivhow 
uume WMN RusHol, pn>^Mis>-d to brin)< water to Ijondon fnnn 
Iflcworth — viz., the Hiver Vxbriiipe — to tho North of 

Iti Benx Bnlmer, an English gentlemnn, undertook 
to nupply it HiiudI tlistrii-t of tho City with Thames water, 
to In- r.ticed by four large pump^ worked by horaea. 

Other pumpc were workeil hy hontes. 

NewcMiiie'^ Hteuiu engine was, in the year 1787, erected 
ueiir London Bridge. This wai) ]iurtially a* a Hecurity 
aguin.-^t tire when the w;iterwh(i.-l> did not Wiirit, -nd during 
the turn of the tide. 


These wttrks were stzirted by Thomas Xealt* in 1 669, and 
raited water by borse-pi>wer. About >750 a ateam engine 
wati intrtklueea, and replaced by a new one bj Bolton and 
WatiB in the rear 1774. which pumped at the rate of Wi 
galluua per minute, or 730,3'20 gallons per day of fourteen 
houre— the lime worked. 


Walter B<Try nank this woU, in the Sun Fields, 
whii'h is »a)d t<.> l<e "impregnated with tulphur, ntriol, 
stt<ol and antimony.*' The water was alao used to obtain 
calico priuterii* a-iltH, t>> tii thoir uoloun. AJao it wsa u«ei 
for mi^cinal pur]>o«es. 

Water Companies and the Public. 

A w^itiT comjiHuy wa» ineorrorated in the rettr 169L to 
supply Vork Buildings with Thameo water. 

Water ixmijunie^ ?<orm to Lave been guing on pietty 
I>nv*p«!r\-u«'.y o*cr sin.v- They have (^aiiuBd Acta of 
I'arhanivUt which at« u>it >aTi!>faeiory~in iaol, the public 
;ind nia;iy of thi'K> eom]iatiiea are nearly always at linger- 
he tds. :titil not without jimt grviunds on the' pan of the 
fi'mior. To K'lrin wiiii. the exmipauitv' charges are. by 
»iu»' |'«\'ple. cor,-; '.ervd monstivuiCy high, ixnsidering whal 
ti-is iirtx-ssity of '.-.fe o >t» !«• dtlner. The money, no lom' 
?.-iy. is with iu<'-C of iV.e-e lompunie:* lavishly Aiuandercil 
l>\ civcting nut'h'.ut'ry. which often i« of a mere experi* 
lueiitil ch\tra.'ter. h is at»> publicly alleged that aume 
i\>n)paiiit-s give th.ii-st:;.:-' iijvn thou?anda of pouudit fif 
pumping maobiii-Tv. which, cu the rpar of the ntomeui, 
ihcy ivn-i-ier in:-.« rz^::: improve men bt, but which, thew 
l^v'p'.f *;ty. iiiort . ;:t-.-. '.i-.m •,;■•. titm,- i>ut to be a omplete 
wht:i' I'.cphAit:. 1';;: bow »:v'u: the East LimdMi Water 
I'.'uipAiiy Ivif-c %'".'p *:\i wl\:i m.'nt^y was required to 
c\E>r:il ihcir work- ;>- u'.i^: :Le p-.±l>^c ({■•oiaoil a or bo 
agv> '■ I wotfld Mvud a I .': v.-. *v nk'-uoy. and dii away with 
t> >•«» aK'uudr%i wi:h diir pings, the latter of 

■ iKter-^iJ.. '.ump* of wood driven into 





■ mkut, to «aj notliin^ mhoal tint wrebrfeed i)«plli nf « 
km) qwuitity of thew pipes. wUdi kto only « foot or 
fti^tecn iiicfaes below groimd, md treoxa «ih1 beoomo 
clc^gvd ihth iw from tifftit bi fi>urt«en WM'ln at a 
ativtefa. M won tlie <iaM thin winter, [t>0>5, whm the l-oh- 
Btunen* water van oqt off tor thiM Mriod, diuI who hud to 

Et tlicir diiiiy ■upplj' I7 oft«n ttmug from a quui-tef to 
If « mile Ant nt their waj. BerioM all thiB, tba water 
floroptinitw an aupposnl to Ki\fi n coiMtont inippl)r by nn 
Act wbioli thrtjr ohlHined in ttin yonr 1871, T«t hsr« in ISItfi 
it in not ni«r LMnijtletvd, ex*3ept by the Oraad Jonolion 

I may hpn bUlU" tlint thrm nppeanta bo a getitml naHtj 
f«o1ing betwvcii the twpeciaOj- ariHtocratic— p»l>Iii> nitil 
the water cnnftjiauicM }[uiierally, whirh U brought ftbout by 
the tonacT not uii'IerKtanilingthplatlrr'anilm. TlKiyhave 
an iile« Ihiit l)i« water o>jin(Niiiiv<* aro n>ui)M-Il«'I to mipplj' 
them with water under any oouditiouH, providinir thpj- piiy 
tho water tnti>, and the fouowin^ will g\Tf you a fair idea 
u( thtr i^<intunc of the publm in thin mnttrr ; but 
yoii will M^- the wat«r C'OinpNo''^^ lia«t? ht<1d thmr own 
tbintiiiboutlbemew.altlKmgiiniuohtaiitulixvl l-yn i<Ki'k»f 
half-tSKghluiahalf-radrtiipidmiffii-atid-cotlar^. ut jH'ity 
poUee-oomtlawycn, who do moirhartu than good for tlwir 
elimbi, nttd I munt my that many of tlif po1iite>c(turt 
aag1*lnt«8 an: n« bad fur aUowiiig piiUio time to bo 
wwted in sueh ridiruloiuiiaJta : — 

"At the NrwinctoQ F«atry Hall, Hajur-n«tioiiit T)r 
Owi»<rj' Snilt lu-ld nn mqiiiry, on bnhiilf of the IdX'al 
(iloTt'nintcul Board, iiilo I'luujiljiiitK ninilo by rewUiit* in 
Southwark, A<i.. a^faiuBt the IftmbotU Wawr Company tii 
cnancntinn with llw wippty of walcr during th* late froft. 

" Mr. Uarton Stnitli., liiim«t«T, nppi';inil for the 
nemorialiiitH and Uie N>-'wiiit:rtiiii Vmhtv. and Mr li. 
Wilkin)^ Mxiretiiry at tho Lomhoth \V'attr C-mtipnuy, 
appoarrd for th<- Company. 

'' TIm! itit?ini>ri>'1 . iiKkiiiff litr Iho imiuirv. wui N«iit frtnn 
the Nationul MoLi'I Dwelllii^ii CiuipBii'y nt Sniithwark, 
wbuae Owpllinjrt «rr wiid to ba tnhnhit^l by li.OOO jwrTHJtii.. 

"Mr. Wilhiitfu'Ulined ilmt thi- mPmoriul vra« invalid, 
as the d^atorit? diit not pnv walrr nite^ n* rwjiiir^^ri by 
the nh aectiun of tlin Art, rlKtm b<-iuK' a xnti^inl Ct.mtrii(-t 
betwren tht> Lambeth Oniijuuy and tho NatioDiI ^loflel 
DwtS^ag* Corapmiy. 

"The Iniipe^tor: I nhait lako a nnU; of your objection, 
bat propoM to lake any evidenoe timn nay be in (mppnrt 
of tfie mtimorinl. 

'• Edward Pearce Lohnuuin. of 4. ScovcU Rood, South- 
warh, a foreman in the employ of r.hc National Hedel 
DwcllintT" l_V>iiipatir, then "lated that thu wntcr mipivty to 
the dwelling* fnilnl fram Janunry to tho iniil<l)o id April, 
and thp teuanta wore nctttally wllhiml watt-r fojin the 
middlu of January to ih<^ raiddlo of Fi-briiar>-. The 
liiuu1>Ptb Ciiropikiiy diil ii»it tend wiktor nmnd by oarl.', 
luutber did they etviit i>laiiilpi|>ea. 

" Hmry Huwniau, amithrr m^moHuliiit, aim gRradotailii 
ah(nttthedet«:tivoMinply during the fn)«t. and Maid that 
the iMddenta wem witlumt. wntir for aljout in wi-i-ka. 

"Mr. G. HinMicks. the minoyor t" fhn pnrivh of St. 
Oi»l]gvthc*MiLrtyr. Southwarlt, waid (hat tlwi-e were 
uiuaeroiui (xmipIainU) rereiriHl diiritiK' the frost as to tho 
defectiTe Mipplr. He hiul ciujiplaiiii-d of the innufKoient 
aupply of ■taiiil piju^ in hi* •tintriit., mid thv Lanilx.'Ul 
Oomnany incrviiMxl Oil- iinmlipr. 

** In aiHwsr to Mr. Wjlkins, witniiSH naid ho only knvw 
ofoneeawof amain btirntinir in ttiv Tnwriwnd Road — 
whii-h wan laid at a di-plh >if 'ill. Din. lielow tin- MiKat-ii. 

■' Dr. FTi3(l«nck Waldo, nitilieal cifB^mr «f hijalth to |.h« 
St. Qwn.'v-the.Harlyr Voi'try, ntritv^l thiit the Mo<U'l 
DwcIliDgR were rendered lu un Inimiiilary condition by thi- 

in«i>fficieDt supply of water for flunhing purpoiea. 
"A menoonal from Falmouth Chnuibcn. N'01 


Rcadt wn Uien de«U with. In their oomptaiot the 
manoriaUMi said tlMj- vtn all too wMk fnm iaAoenjta to 
canr heavy polla <A inter ttaai the Btandpiiws daring the 
frr>Bl, and thry had therefore t» pay for it oeiag earned to 
thnn. Two of IIm> iii|fnatorii^ Raid tha rmidenlii wire 
without water for nine weeka. 

'* Mr. inikiBs, on behalf of the Lamhoth (kimpany. 
comtendod tJio nirmoriat waa infonual, a* the »iguatorie« 
did not puy water mtiM. 

■' Jlr. John I'iokeriag, manajcer of the Palatinate 
DwuIHnifr, Xuw Kant Road, naid they had ^ Uooiu of 
buildings with tiOO tcnante. I>unn)i the fuMt thera were 
ninny oimptainbi iih to the water au^iply. and wt-enil 
trojinta left in mmsoquenoe of the defective Hij^ly, 

■•Thfl ini]uiry waa T.h«n brought to a cloae, General 
Sc'ott inliiudtin^ that he might find it n(«wiwiry to re-optm 
it lit fiotn" fuliirv dote. 

"T]ie Inoprvtor aim held an inquiry into CLimplaittta 
made agniiiat thoRouthwarkiuid Vauxbitll WuUtt Comjiauy, 
whi«h temiinutwi . " 

" At thf WobI, London Pi*!!!* Conrt. on the 3Iit MaTi 
■in upiilii-iitiiin wii« inndc by n wU'itor" [who widcntly 
did not ri-ad ilic nil*'s rri>p>'rly] "on behalf of the orriipirr 
'■f ;i hoii.r- in lliirli Stret-t. Ai-tim, for a !-aiiiiui(JIIii n;fnin>L 
tht- l.lninil Jiiiii^liiin Wntrr Wnrku Company, for failing la 
Hiipply walf<r. lifntHU'') Ihttt hlHe'iocil'itfiiiuily, ciiHsittitig 
of nine pn'rMjiih had bc<.-n without a Biipply 0in<-o the '2Hth 
of Fobruarj'. Tho family had been depending on tho 
kindoo^ of tho nei^hbount for wnlor. He pnidiirrd a 
reci'ipt for thn wat^n- rnte wp to Lacly-dny quarter. 

" Mr. Korw iiiquin.-d tht- reiuoii, and wax informed by 
the o(;cupier thilt ho knew of none execnt the want, of 
(vininvlion. The ocxTipier also Alated thai there wan « hur»l 
of the jiipcK, bii! tbrre wan not iiny fn«t in them at the 
prcacTii liniM, Ifo wiiK niti^i iinxJoua fur a oupply, av hia 
Inmily <:ouhl not live without water. 

"Mr, HofM^ gnint«l 11 niiuimnnit." 

[Here tliu truant wan at fault. Hvidionld hare repaired 
bin pipex.] 

*' On the following dn^ at the sune conrt, a nneation of 
FHinK' itnitortaoRA wat tauyt*] iH'fnrr- Mr. Lane, Q.C.,a«lo 
the i"i«(.'r of the Qrand Junetiun Wntrr Worbi Company 
til i-hiirgo fi:>r water which was not auppliixl tluwigb a 
rooter U"t working owini; to the tutc froet." (^The neter 
being the property of the Water Workn Compuny, wbme 
duty it wu« to keep it in order. But hum the fnnt i-1au«e 
coium ill. And wan thn tiiHix or the pipe» thereto or 
therefrom otic of order 1* I abould «;«rtainJy nay the latter. 
tind niui'b the latter.] "A gentleman in bii.-<inrtia applinl 
to the maginlmti' for hii« ndviee. Ho ntutad Ilmt Itu- 
■Upp'y wwH by meter (wbieh wan not working), but the 
CaniiHUiy hnd Hp[)1i<-d for the full amount. 

" Mr. Lane MtLid he wa* afmid it wna no a&fiTer, im Uie 
Company were entitled to rJuirgo in ailvnn**. It wuuld 1« 
anothc-rqiK^iili'in if tho pipca were laid In Huch a nny an tn 
be oaxily fnizm. Tbf- njiplirant, in oxplanattoii, aald the 
meter waa outsiile, and nut under hin eontrol. 

" Mr. I^no inquirvl how tho applicant ntit^ainml wnler. 

" The ap|>Uraut naid hia mno went to a Htandpipr, but 
for wine time he wan without water altogether. He uppUiw) 
twiue to the Company, and reeoired a formal nriticc that 
tho complaint would be atteiMled to, but notidug waa done. 

" Mr. Lane «ui.d it waan new quoation, and tue upplieaut 
might try- it. tn granting the aiiKntuODH ho aaffgested to 
the applieunt to call a witnem who would be Bbw^to flhaw 
that tliG defect is tlie meter uuld be remedied by the 

'■ Un Monday, among the aeveral apriUcaDta who waited 
nptin Mr. JUiiie. (jC. vnu ■ housdioiaer. whi> enmplaJnod 
oi Iho action of the Water CompRiir cutting ofT the aiipply 
that morning. He stated that nv did not nNxave any notice 
uutil the supply waa cut off. Ha waa now without water< 



|(U»rri'«] Vj 'L*-. ff.AiT.V.rkV: t(.a* 'i.'fvr'- hwl U«ti « I^akaife iri 
U** jfijyjsr f'/» w«fi* •*».•■ Tf.^'.MiTi^'i'k wti^ wirllvyjuinT^l 

" In %T.'WT */. Mr. Jjt!.'-. tr.<r kfij'ii'Vint •«i'l k*! hmA n'lt 
J**!*! tJ^ n'*- (of •r," '. irri-'t '(rjArVT. Mr. L^w^ r*;inArkM 
ih«t un>-' Om k|ipit':ari' f/^)'] '.L': ni'«ri''y L« 'auM not tr>:t 
wsVrr. K'.'f'ff*: ^': "«i'i h*vi: wa^VrT hr Triu-t pay or t«D4«;r 
th-. r>»>'- 

I'jT « l*r«ka/«: ;r. tt.'- [/II'-^ 'I'lVi'l"; til*! h'lll-*-. 

■' Mr. Ixi.'.. nl't-^ .'fikiur "t iJ.'- •"*'i'iri- in th*- Aft, 
•«i'l. w.'ir'ttiiy ''< »t.'- ai'i-ii" a/i' '^ -tsit'-rn'rut t>i*r <'.'<>inif4riy 
Ij*'J lx.-h«v*yl III » tyr»i>rii'.«l nuiti'i'r. hrjt TiTifi>rtu>uit'-Iy h»r 
wii>iti*tii. 11'; wa* ii'.t ifitirli'! ti> a -iii^ilv '>f w»t<T 
until h': lia'l t/tt'l'-r'r] •h': TH*': i.'n('iriiiii«t>:)y uwit-r 
KTWitii'tr •*9Xum. if tii'f: w«> « liAk*-^:. thi iiiipli':aut H-'fiil'I 
li«»'r bi f-t it rijrht " 

■ Thi* ftMM*! bi tt<it>iiiiir. AU'i'Kr^ W«t(T '>jni[isiiie>, tL*: 

I'niAu: Mri'l t)i" l»nr]'ill 'Vl'ltltJ O'liri'ril] 

I will ii'it in«'ili \'>ii by »p)tifn^ vhat yju vriald think 
tb" (Hit/'mtc "f nil Uiii twnAiW-. wmh : xiiffiic it t'> fay that 
thi- WMUir itiirtjinnH:' ''iii t^t^ii'l a I'lt in'jr'; 'if rucli (jiiibbliiiH' 
fi'iiimnM!. Itiit \fiw aii/iut tfi* p^tr j«'<>()l'; whoan; thi- r>ntl 
■iiffffn-m in th': '-««^ !' if l«ii<lt'ir<lM will tak>; ii[ii>ii ihttii- 
v\vm the 'Aiiln of k'if^iiii|rlh<-M: j>':'i|iIi;'h tittioffa ill HUcL U 
IliniHy 'viTi'liti'iii, aii'l riiniiiiitf tn jinttilnKinu^ Utry^nt 
inxUmA of tfinic tfi n trifi'l, wiumJ, <:»iiiin'in><.-ijM; pnurfical 
plumber fiir lulvif- (itnd I ''Initii thut th'-re ftrc mich. 
mlth'iuKli »•)«>« jcsfjidi: nay nanty wnla atf tut im, hii'-L imi. H 
JOB have It Hoti, wh'tiH ulittJi-iinorr in th<: nof. put tiitn t<i 
eithw the (Jhuii'li tfi \ii:cmi''- m jfarwiii, or tii tht? iiliimltiDK 
tnule ti( rank tt-< ipliimlM.'r !>, I "ly it mitvn htm n;fl)t if Im 
io.*«i fvery teiiwit. [Ala" «»■« Hacknny Iliiyal OmuniiiiUKii 
on Water Supply.] 

HaTitiff rpad thd tuniffiinff i'l'-an of tho wnb/r compauien 
And public, I will now rw^iti: Clauw ■*">3, CJiap, 17, «f tho 
WattTWorkH* Act fur April nm, 1817. ALw twc Vol. I. 
of thin work fur tho Watwwork" Ant. 

Owners op Occupiers entitled to demand a 
Supply of Water for domestic purposes. 

" LIII, Erery owner and oociifnisr rif any dwellinir 
hutiw ur part of dwelling huuHO within th>^ liinita of tliia 
!>tw<'isl M't fball. when ho haa liiid Muh coiiimunicatiou 
piuM iw aforesaid, aud paid r.r tcnileR.-d tho water rat* in 
iwpevt tb»>rt<uf. a'^-urdinff tu tlic pniviHioua of thiit and the 
auMiiid Ai-E. be entitled "to di-mami and nx^-ivo frr.m tlie 
iuidtfrtatlti<n> a wiflk-iwnt supply of waU-r for hia domctitio 

^Kltive the wonla "laid au.h pipCM and oompliod with 
ihia .Vot." 

VIbm "w l"liiua»' 7-. whore it providca for thu tcnaiit» to 
[«iy ih« «Mtrr rwle to thw hotK« owner, who ia reMponfiblu 
:o'iho wster.viupany. . , -, ■ i » i. -^ ■ 

lltrw in rli«w two flauM.><t wl the Watorworka Act it w 
i^-iiMilv itnniiUnl that tU.« inxupier U entitlod to hia nupply 
■I watv. .^vA kttbv luttdliinl lo pay the rate. 

wiMt nr« tlw W»t«r Companlea afraid ofP 

N,^ Wim»m HumfT «>»»» imi«l«J. ou May 2lRt, 1895, 

■iur i«w lwa'»«*»tf liiwwHl :w»*wWy w* the propnetow 

-. Mtv Umm HhUhwa. WMUfWi>rk». There wax a Kood 

.t^hwwr> .,M*.u.»aw».-t 'iiwit.viit. waadw-W 

-r.. ..«Hi.»tM*>«ifW«tvLlM< l..W»»i»».V»iuty Council, that 

... Im4 tutrniwm .«»»* "»lt» ''^'f ''" inwafrr of the 

inihM^ i-t <!«< inMtwvMtMi water i%tiiiuuueti, and 

-.. iAm- iMti i H ^ ^ iw ••« •• • !-»'*'<■ l*" *»" '""^'n ••«««'P\ny- 

•-i inirtTf'miwiiMi iiM — ''vNUtl. vuoniuue, nueu 

it w'.nld (yiD<^ Uf an *itd h<- di-l art kEi^w. ^o! =i ^t skab- 
*im» it wat ij>iit>^ f>-rT>in th.»t tfcrroiE tbie aifOicc -yt the 
C'lan'y '.'omfil th^y wen «'"'" 'f _»■ mnlr-.tei ta a Litr 
amount of ''O't^. it wai! a most '>C'j-^:t^:'C;ib!e pRK«<^im^. 
Th'rT had I'* pay ih* p*ri«hei> ab>itt £io,>» a yT*r in r^tea. 
^t thw would *«* that it WB« a-A all ff^fc tliey ip-t •"it '»( 
w*'*r. Their '■loellent depaiy cLurmxa 'Mr. &T^ilc->i», 
M.I'. I did all h(- r-.>uld to ppotwr tteir int^rv^u ia Parlia- 
merit, and t'> pT*:v^-nt mij>;hic^ l^ir.^ d.-=:<> rh«ra. and he 
'tht; rhairmani hojr^ that thc'T miirht sptt •:-ai •>( it beRer 
than ihfy thought for. The mod-.-n wa» iecoikl«d br Mr. 
E. lt'>Tiln'iiti. 31. P.. the dfputr cLiurmaii. aad iicreed to 
nnanimoiinly without diivuMti'.'D. The diiidend luTinir 
b";*n d'^^r'arcd the me-tine wa* madL' *peci^. wl^n. -jo the 
motion of the chairman, ^^-onded br Mr. Bi.-ulnoi#. a 
r^^-^liition anthori.-iiii; tbe dire<.'t>'ri to raiae £440.000 
d'rVnttire H'lck for the purpose* of the pfff^ysed new worke, 
in auch pxrtionn a<i they thmk fit, was apptored. 

H« Kaid that Ihoy bod lately fixed two new engines and 
Ixiilerx at WiUoDden. They were nesring complMion. and 
he hoped thev would fooh be in working order. Tbe ilin. 
main from »hephenl> fiunh Green to Harrow Rood— a 
KTVat work executed at heSTy coet— had been laid and 
Imaight into uae. Tho oTorhMul syvTem of unloading coal 
at the wrirkit at Hanimentmith had aI«o been oompleted, 
and had fully otfet.-tcd the anticipated lunng in working Tbr-y had also entCTed into contracts with 
McxarH. John ^Vird & Son^ for the conKtmction of four 
ft'-raxc roaorvoini, of a total rapacity of 3<M> milhon gallooa, 
•m the land it-contly ar<iuired at Baraon. and giiod |-pigrws 
I )iad already been made with the wor^. and for laying in 
varioiu [larta of the dii'trict (<overal iier\ice maina, tendered 
n'T'fwiary by the increasing uumhiT of houaeti and by the 
f.'xtenwon of tho nyftcm of oonMant xupplr. and it waa 
h<>po<l thoHc maina would be completed and available for 
tlic rc<|uircrai.<ntH of the approaching auomier anpply. A 
contract had alw> been made for the erection of^a triple 
expannion Worthuigton engine at Hampton, to replace the 
litnt remaining Bull engine, and, among other advantages, 
an evoiunuy in fuel would be one of the reaulia of ifaiit 
change. In order to carry out ihoNC new worka additiooal 
capital would be required. The number of new suppliea 
laid on during the half-year was 3^3, makjog a total of 
TK,740. This increane wa« lees than usual, owing to tho 
CXI ojttionally Hcvere and long-continaed froitt during the 
early monthH of tlic year, and this had aliw prevented the 
UHiul progrcM being made with the extenuon of the 
conNtant u])ply, only '2,265 additional houaea having been 
changed from the intcmuttont system. 

Water Companies, the Public and the London 
County Council, together with the Press. 

Copy f nnu tho Kenrtuff/on Xetet : — 

" There in no quention but what there it a joat irritation 
folt at present againitt the companien on aocount of their 
failure to provide water— a failure which is tho sabject of 
a IjfK^al Goveniiiicnt Board enquiry, the first Hitting of 
which wHB held at Wandsworth on the Tueoday " (the 9th 
day of April, 1 R95 — this ie mine) " on which the discuasion 
at the Council took plaoe. On the result of that enqwry 
the price that ought in reason to be paid for tho worlcHV 
th<: Hcveral water companies will to a vei^ large extenl' 
tlopend." (Some people aay .£30,000,000, wtihit others sav 
the cost wUl be £50,000,000. This ia mine.) "The 
Wandsworth consumeni were hoard on Tuesday. They 
had deplorable tales to relate. One of them, who paid £15 % 
in water rate and had u faniily househtdd of nineteen 
peraons, woe whoUr or partly withoat water for aix weeka, 
was told flr>' '*mm his house were fnien, then 

thut the ia wtn frozen, then that the com- 



nunkiiitioti pEpe from tlie nuiin wiw trottia ; mid after gnat 
iroiibt<> &Qd Pijwoeo to the rou-iuiDiT in mrraligftling the 
trtith ti( tlf>w< mnHom nwwrtiuuH. fi>iuiii tht- ■.■'.■lumiiDictttioii 
[lipn tvux*m <jii the <'r>in|Ktiiy*ii miIii of thn iit"i|»-«:ii«k cuiinwilM 
iritb hilt hou«>. The uiaiti wiw ditir. bui do BiAiid-pi|>e 
WB« pat up. Anotlit^r wu watertMH for ivfvm yri«]iit, and 
the auitn wan Ittm thnn ■ tntA and ■ hnlf hrlow tht^ iiirfiii-iv 
Anothnr had no wtttor for five vret-kn. niul th« c'niiimuy'n 
piprw had biirvt in frf-rcral placcw. It is nnJif foir t" iiHd 
that iho water cumpuDy ha* Mill to bn lii^itnl, and that 
Asm attd other witamM haT6 not jnt bM:n rntfin <^xaminM. 
On Hie other aide it ia to be obterved that n comcnlion hiu 
been raiard that the dnnpanM an iTB]H>iiml>lt^ ticit 'inly (nr 
the BuiDS, but aloe (c>cni(rary tu the (f^iKnt iui!J[v:<i>iup) (or 
tttt Catalan nication pip«fl laid bv or uii brhalf of ib'^ 
owtirrs; Ijitjuuw " (Ihrre it in Uiil ilnwii in tin* Art oi 
1871, Ihikt ttii' iwnipaiiivi' hnvo lu »■.■•■, awl tht-y ^hunld, 
thai orcry pipe iaid for the rouvi'yanoo of i>r in t.'oiiu"vt[oii 
with wat«r nupplicd by thf compon^ nhidi, whim Inid in 
opra rruund, be laid at tisixt L'fL flin. bi.'low thi- Rurfim-. 
and MOall Iq pveoy «ipoH>d situntum lx> iiri>)>-' :>uaiii»' 
UMelTttet of fruM. Sro Nc 10. t*\it^ 271. v<'l. I i "tui-timi 
2t of tlie watt^r mmpanivM' rr-cntUtionn. pvoMt) in 1!>7'J. U^h 
It down that thi'j uru biinltn/ tipcin nil jni'ti'^i, nud tho 
OonipanioH arr tho prinoipnl parlin n>iic>'rit'><t. Whrl)ic-r 
this vonat met idiL o( the n'jfulntimf* ii tit;uU)- iic-iirnt* w* 
an tumble to bbjt. The <|iiGHtiuii i:ould bi' d^it'idixL only by 
a Cbun of Law, Tf tbr ut'impanifx aiv jrriiitlT mxfvtiwilbLi; 
with the owners and Ihnw whii n<;l iiiiiler tJiciii for tho 
OOniniUlticatinn niixa bcio); I.iid 'iitt. tu'low tlm nurfnrn in 
opan fcnmiid anil wiRit pn-iifTly pwltt^twl iiKuiuHi fro*i iu 
expooed fiittiatious, thi^ nvrnera would, indeed, have no 
ri|^t ot action ft^unal tho coni|nmi'». Bat the Inltcr 
rould not i-tpi>i:t to raontvv Iha aainp ■iini fur maiiiK which 
w«rv, llinnigb ihi-lr uwd fault, imjiruiRTly uouikc with 
tha donMrtic an^'ico pipee, as thoy w.iidd reocivc (or maiiLs 
IbfteOBDOi'iiiiiw (tf vrhioh IkkI Ihm-ti |irii[irrly timkivl iiftiY. 
The case uf tlit' inaiiua (hptiiH>lvf> in .if a much muff M-'iiuuit 
oharacrlrr. Wticm (huT hnvv Ikhiii Impropcilv laid at too 
MuuU 8 di^iih, thi'V will hiivi- to Ik> biid over OKvin, and 
thiaoitg'hl lo lv> iDHisto'l oii u'tn'thtr thr^ <:oinpantn4 an nr 
aw not liiiiijfht <mC hy thp (' Any freneral ordtrt 
ouinpL'lttii); llii- rt-]«_viiiit of ihn nuuTiB would thniw im 
tlirrir piwiujw(>r», wliimvi.-i Ibi.'t Miii;Ll bw, im eaonuoim 
axpeuK', Hud would ab^i raiu:' qitratiotiJi wilh virtrii-^ whi'-h 
had altt-ird thp level of Uie iMiidn «i iw to liriiijj the iiiuht- 
lying wiitci' mniiiK iii^in:r ihi- ourfau* (ban Lho pniwrrib^l 
'M. Sin. An uur ctMitenipomry Lombm trnnrku, tli« 
priDripal nucta which tlit> ruinpaiiK-ii haru to aoll to the 
CounMr Comril conoista of ih" network of miutis and pi^it 
•pnwdlhmilf^ciit I/Midon. Thi- nwilt nf lite prawnt iit- 
TcatiKalioua may tht-refon.- lunLt-rially affivt tha prior) whJL-h 
will l« paid fur thf tiTidortakin||p>, Tin; other aa«vU aro 
the work^ by wHob the winter i» euUoctvd, filtond, and 

bKnugltt to the metropolis. In tnUntr tbeae ever, howerer, 
tbo mligalioo of pn>v-i<UD^ ii pro|ior xnpply fnr the tBcroas- 
iB(r area and ptpulatUvn of [>^>udoTi wouid aUi bi> a.«nuued : 
Bud Ihnt. of L-uunr, i'»iiK>M the (jueklion whal in the viilnn of 
lhpM> wiirl(«, RfA. ocxixidcn*'! ax mpri} crmHtriU'tiim*, but 
n-^tfaTdvd aH hurduiwd with ihc; ul»jvv oblimliuu, whit^ 
may, aiid alm^uMerUinly will, iiiTulrc the oxpoixlitureof 
Ltr^fT addition 1 1 4iini~ \r> tap and utiliM' ndditiiiiiiil ammea 
iif Biipply. Hhnn'b')idi'ni fp'nj vote* lit tbtir uiiniial or 
bientualmeetiii^r-. They arc oonaeqaently n-^ponsible for 
the acta of the dicectom vhan they eiipport In t^wt; 
iinb-TW. imlftil, the- dircctora am guiit* of fraud. Whfr«> 
thi^y bnne iLrxjuiencHl tu uuuun bdiuLf iUi'^lly laid, or bavci 
absorbed thfiroapitalin lir^e dividends whenj it ought t" 
have bMn iMod in obtAinlng additional suppUi^, thr^j- may 
titid little more awarded tii them than wbiit thry may 
CAttmiilDr to be a merely nominal amount," 

How to Deal with the London Water Question. 

If I wcpp adced (which is not Ulioly) Ihe In'-tl ihina to do 
with rofjfard 1,o thn mipply nf wiit/ir for Loudtiii. X Bhould 
oettaitdy 8ay. lake the Imll by its homn, and valini the 
whab> wat(-r RompuiiitBi' griod workable plant, li-aviiift nut 
ihe old iLtid uirit to iuvIom matiTiul, whether il Iv oniriiiea, 
Ixnietv. roaerroirR, fillarbeda, piiiM. valriw .t orhirr niock. 
Then, aft^er a fair valuation, and tu ^rrxul fiiith lo tlw' cuu< 
[Hi:iif« fur ihcir I('p;iLimiit('ri|ihts, whinli, iboiilil they rafnae 
|(t iMxvpt, set to vfoj-k (irbilHC wurk i* rt' r(Ty ovarm and 
nivn atarving for want of it), and bnnff quite an indc- 
ponduit and mnAtant ^npply of puro water for dieieliu 
pur|XKiis, and abai whiUt ninTgitiK the miLin*, nnd lo itaro 
two (fmiiuil iiiN'tiliiK". II Hiitijity of M-U'WiiiHr f'lr niiid wni«r- 
mil Hnd luUh*, with propenyeunatmctod miiu prjieis luarkrd 
to dliftlnu'ihili nnii front the other an'l niiininK •nw by lide ; 
wliii'ti I Hin i.'prlniu ouiild lie dtin'- at ItiiiK ami. for ntu 
iini> hiindml ycuirs U> roine tluin ahilly-shallying abont. I 
K|H>ke of briii^ritiK a mm- water nupply to [jondvn fur mid 
waterings, batJiH, &€>., And would urg^ that this be done, for 
thi^ri! ia iKi dtnibt the waler-carta in iMiniu parta uf Louduu 
tm- :i rani uiiuiuiil of wnlt'r— niom thnii is <>vim dreamt of, 
even Ity the «'iH*rwork?i coinpauies' jx^ople tlkaOKli'eai #or 
what witli the wood pHTetnont wopbintT "id pnatfrdjr road 
switliiiif duriiifc the tii^Iit, and tho rnortnnii* amount of 
waale attended, wbifli runa down tin- M>it*erH, is mn* 
ndembly more in thta port of the piirinh of Kviinng't^in 
tlian the a^piily to all thn hou«tw put topotber in the 
nei^hbourfaoud. the wij-id pavenif'iil ^A\\^ aiitiiAlly Awltlrd 
down nif^tly, I alioiild rrrvinini.'iiil thu water riwuinuiieo 
to all anudKainati? in thi^ uiidirttakm^, and the }<ib pciiild bo 
done in no iime, aa you have only kuI to gu down tu about 
the Xiire for tho aupply. 


* encnnoiui aupply of water required for thiH gigantic 
town is beyond o(>nci.'pt]oti : in fiict. it tin- xuiiplir* of all the 
■uurcra wera brought together afler filtration It would 
fonii a majftUfioent river. 

Tmi han aacn bow the nuibhlln^ haa iHH-n gninjr on with 
he pnbliOi tho pma, and the wnlur comuttuic*, but np to 
'the pTMent it ha* lintn nn rx fnirtr affiiir. for the watj.>r 
(vnnpiiniea will not ahow tluir h.-iuila until thv tune whrn 
tnuip* lira wanted, and I for my ]mrt, aa u totally 
dhdniereHted perwm, commend them for «o doing, capocaaUy 
•ftffit the Beat IdJiidou livinj; rvfui<tKl tlio gtnut of money 

whii^h vtuf tame little time ago naked ftir and rctiuirTd trt 
extend thnir stjiragn boda. I aball now pIs'W before my 
tmdera table«, im,, idiu^riiiK what Ihe Wiiter io:npanicBD( 
I>mdon are doittg. together with biblea ahuwlng Ut« purltjr 
of their water, both from a cheniioal an! b^icteriologlcnl 
point of virw, and Icare thn matlrr nntirely in th4 hamla 
of my r«jutera, aa I, in wntiuu Ibla woTii, ahoitld'atil 
eiprvw tiNi RtroiiR ii view on either ndc. lieoaoae there 
will bo no uhaneo to reply, Nhould 1 hit cither tiAn maf« 
than ther may like. ^Uao aee Londoa Wattir Saimly 
from WalcM, Eiuit LondonandHaoknef Water Iuquir>',a:c. 



We will now see something about what this water qnestion means to London, aad as the East London is now 
unquestioDablf the greatest provider, we will take that flrat in order. 


East Loxdon. Filten, 33} Acres. Reservoir Storage 6I6,CO0,OOO galls., for IS'l days. 


Dally average 

Supply 111 



number of 


Supply In 

per head. 

Domeatic supply 

^/ aupplled 
HO"-*- afZe. 

Average Daily Supply, 
for Domeatlc and other Furpcses. 

M*™"*. ^ Month. B^^ 







38 -,39 








Kew Siveb. FOters, 16J Arres Reservoir Storage 168,100,000 galls., only for 4-8 days. 













SouTBWABK AiTD Vaitxhall. Filters, 26J Acres. Reservoir Storage 40,000,000 galls., for 1-7 days 






196 6-71 


!0 13 




Lahbeth. Filters, 12 Acres. Reservoir Storage 128,000,000 galls., for 6-4 diiy s. 





39 16 


6-24 Juno 





Orahd JuKcnoiT. 

Filters, 17} Acres. Reservoir Storage 64,600,000 galls, for 3-5 days. 













■West Hiddzeskx. 

Filters, 16 Acres. Reservoir Storage 117,600,000 galls., for 6-7 days. 













Ebnt. Fumpa direct from Wells into Uains only. 





26 50 








Grsuba. Ell 

ters, 6} Acres. Reservoir Storage 140,000,000 galls., for 14-7 days. 
















Totals, showing the increases from 1881 to 1893. 










Different BoiirvaB of vatm- Bupply to Lmdon for tlie 
jttt ndmg 1893 : — 


rh«jiMw 3;.76s.:m7.a;« 

Lem 19,115Jft9,U8 

Spring* uid W*1U 13,4<4.346,7ai* 

Fuada 63,4A0,I8&* 

|»r ccDt. 


60, 3B:, 183.746 

Tbe pDpalstion of hoodoa. ftpitroxim&tdr, wliich Uio 
(ngtt wnMr corapnuiva an wiDp<lU>d to eappVi 1^'3 : — 


K«et London 

Ni"w Rivrr 

Suuthwarli aod Vanxhvll 


Wuit MiddlfHX. 


Grfttid JnactHm 



778.9 1« 



27 0,973 


Dsiljr KnpplT, Gull«. 








How Ytirk- 





670 fpillB. tach livnd per day. 









a, 800 








Apnaxiniitc iret^r eupplj' to onallcr toma per ohIi pBimri : UnncUlU!, fiO galk. ; Cbiuoga, Sydney, and Boflala, 
~ ; llanbarg, 13. 

Drinking Water. 

Ti> ttiiiw wliii an- nt>t A-itisftpd with the wbUo- we pet 
fur LiMulun ut tliv prvHciii time, \vt llicni K" Ui Witlm or 
to the Lnko dintrifit, Miy Wiudpnni'ri-, or oThi^r hwJi tiIiuvh 
for * nmml kiipply uf ilrinkin^ wnUr. Thin wnuld lie 
M>Ine1^iElK tike u. suiiply HIcL-ly lo Iniit, hiuI cquUL muijii 
bv d»ni>, HOW work is alack. 

TliL' WBtvr deliTvrcd br tho right t)rind|Ml compHiioi 
In LuBdon la a|t|wllln|if tn the imltiitutctd; In fiirt, tfao 
■lOCKint i« bcjuiid tijiiucplion . tlii> tulal aliiiijr httppty hciiiK 
190,^33,379 Kiillua>, fur tlir daily i-niiaiiTn|Ki(in uf 5.37.). fiSO 
or khvw 3S' J6 (sUoiui per bnd. And 'i3& tnillinui per houiu.', 
all of which water u deTirod from the Thnmes, tfao Lea, 
tb« Lea Valley, Uw cliulk fr)nn«li<wi wolln. fttid tlw I'had- 
wpll Spniij^ uut cuuutinK Ibu Punda lit Hampatcad and 
HighKato, which, rowhly qtenking, wcnild amciugt to 
'Ziv.tii (pUloau mora for \ht twaQty-fonr houm; an thai 
you nay form aoine rasual ilea of the yearly amount 
jNiniiwd 1>T, I wou't My the lln>t. wroiid, uor thiril, but 
will takfi tlir fuiirth compaoy'H n-tnm* fiir it, tlia Lamlwth, 
whoM retsmi may be iLrririid at. 

AtBOfAitiK to my tahtt for 1893. which ia quito an 
ineonoaiVBhbi mimoin', 1 will ptit it iaUi a kind nf rirrr 
lOft. al<to aud 3ft. deep. Hvn wv mt a aanal uf drink- 
tag walcr 8.DH0 mUna long, auouer aluoBt incredible 

The New Rivar taken u fairRv ([uaiitily frum the Chad- 
waP Kpriotfa. Ttey have alao frwin twflvo to Rltrrn 
artaaian wdlii o( vanoaa nxea, raryinff fr<>'n alvxil IJiii. 
to Z4tn. boTV, all on tbo north eiclo of London. Tbe Eaet 
Londou Conpaoy baa four wclln. TI10 Kent about n 
dojten. 11»> SouUiaark nod Vauxball, Utn Woat HiddlcM-i 
and Oiaiid JoiMtioti draw their waUT from th(> Thiiniiw nl 
Plampuni, whilst tbo Lambeth and Chr)iH'B dmnr nt Wi^t 
Holawy. and tiu! Kant Li^ndon from Bunbury and the 
Birer Lea. 

Tho Thames ha* nn trm of about 3, JOO pqnain mile* of 
wahT-bcaring utraia, whctv raJu wator can fait upon the 
MTth bo a.>Mliit in !>Mppl,mfr ihr Tbaaea abova Tedcunffton 
Ukoka. w1iU>t the Rtvcf Lea, above thi? highei>t point of tlift 
East London Watcraurka' intaki.-, haa only about £UU 

Rain Clouda, How Formod. 

Gmcrnlly, rold windit bluvrin^ afrninitt warm morintaina, 
or warm moist lur. The niui»ture oontaiiuid in thii warm air 
i» iiiiiiiediatitly <x>ndonii«I, firat inio a tiloud, tbco Into rain. 
At Table Day and T»blv Mountuiu may bo soon a good 
illuftriiiion of thi*. Wheii the Bonth-anAt wind Wnwn nvcr 
llie mountain. It oom^ to tbo edge of tbe i^Iilf. whtrv it 
mi.ttn tbe warm niout air that in conntantly Hung from 
the buy. Hnre in dii>oiii(«.d » pooattiot aupply of nearly 
pure water, ■which not only i-upiilica tbo 4.').O0U inhabilanta, 
but alao niuocvooB vefwla wbnh put in there for w«t«r. 
There, aometiinaa, tJw rloutlo nrv no heavy Ibut the lop 
of tbe mountain cannot be ncfa; this 19' known n» tbe 
"■prvading of tho table oIoUi," and iJiuu look out for 
baa weather. 

Water and lc« formed In Cavee and Caverns, 

Not fur from Orenburg, Riu<>ia. the extcronl aunum-r 
air ia niL-t with at 90' in thn «hivd«>, but tbo cavea an» ao 
inteoaely cold that their roofa hotiir willi idcica, wfaieh 
drip nlniiiat pure water on the flour, and afraio frwzo. 
But in the winter the 'urtu (liiuipprani. Dud the people 
Ibf-n UvD comfarttkhly wit bin thnw cavcrna. VAiy 
ia thif^.'l BtrriLiuw th<i rnc.'a ncr^ir nt the butlom of tM 
h>ll<x^k fi)mit'tl I'f (^-imuio, whrrv iho cvaporatiun pndaMB 
raid, and this oypeiun hill is travenxvl by ainnnaiM 
ohannclA eontainmg moiaturr, nnd in tbe auumer Ibaa 
cnrrvnta of air ruabing tlinitigb tlin i-aritira evaporate 
the water, which beoomn colder. 

Here the denally of tbe water ia iscrcuert and ainbi 
luwor and lower, and the moro it dceoondi the colder il 
t>eoamee, and when the bottom of tbe oa<n> ia musbrd it 
ia cold unouf^b to fr«px«, and tho bnltm- Iho externitl vir 
tfaa colder will bt> th« I'sve. Why? Stmplv because the 
e^aporntiuii ia moro npid or Intenae, In the win1«r 
aeason the at^llon miiat hn tfao rererM-. Similar ice cana 
may Ikn found in nuiny ulher ]i«rta, eapecially in 




Rain Statistics. 

Having bmh tlui number of i^uiuv inDcs of oartli to give 
or to wwixt t1i« Kiipplj of tbA ThameB, w« will mo About 
vihat iiuntiliU' ni water nc ftlinulil hn iihl« to frnt fCT yoftr 
at the faWfimng cnlviilktionit. An inoli at rain falliii|[ on a 
nrfBoo of oa« Hquara mile vDl k>'o yo'^ 16,000.000 gitlknti 
of water, and asrou hiirc 3,&00iwiuun>inil«-stoai«iat ur (or 
ibe Buppiv to the Th»nii>3, you hfre get fi 5,000,00 O.OOU 
gullnn^ voich on bpiUK iiiultip]i>>d hj '22, tlic livi*t niuiblc 
■vcn(^ anoimt of nunfiill, wo nrriro nt tlut planning 
anomt of l^32,0Ol).O0i),000 fcaUons tor the Tbamw alone. 
Tittn you have the I>?a, whose ititoke area ii flOO aquiiRi 
nul«i; tttiK irill prodiiM nnothi^ US, 000,000,000 gaUouii, 
nod tio two toiwtlivt- briuKs wp the very rMpcctablie sum 
of l,40ei,QOO,OUU,0OU gallom [tmc thvumud four himdiT<d 
and ej^ht trillion gaUoaii), and taking a aquare mile at Ihi. 
d«ep to wmich 140,200.000 ponndn. equal bs 72,200 
tonii, wtiioh multipli«d hytfap 4.0:t0 M|DArr! miW vqtudN 
288,000, OOO ton", and aKnin luultivlltxl by thi> Tiin. (tbe 
d«ntb of water for the year), wv got 0.33d,<)OO,DOO toni) (six 
ttuliooe tbi-M hanilml and tliLrtr-nix nitllion« of Uini>). 
But 700 tnii<rt not fxptfol to get this aianniu^ amount of 
w«t«r iutu llie riv«n, aa a [in>p«r alluwanoo mnat ba mad* 
for eTaTKirstion , which is ozplaiiwd iu another part of my 
writinga [refer tj>jiage86a), vhtow I liaTc said ilw eTapom- 
tKm in nqua] U> tbc rainfall on a /rf* aurfoM, but na thew 
lAnd« draw the Wil«ir, nnd amiiitcd hy ftruvitation, bt^low tlu- 
vurfaDC>, it roinaiuii u« Iijinii"r tn^, nwing to the jnroMt^v (if 
the gmondi whea 70a get in time abt/iit Uirvr-fvurtlui into 
jour river. 

Tha mean daily flow down tlwt TbanuM in tho dn««t 
■•■Mtw at Tcddinictun Wutr b about SOO million xiilloaa, 
aad Iho (inantltrabatractad duly br tho motropolitun water 
companim can bo seen by the Tahltw, but ttio masitDum 
(luautitv which lh<-»o wat*!r (JMniiiiuit-B are iiJlowod to Ifikc 
by the Thuniv* Ciw»erv,inoy peoplo, *o., in the twtmty-four 
boun ii 130 niilli'-ii gnlloim. 

Now, mippfiHiuir wi' nhoiitd have, Hay, six nflstha' dry 
wMther, vii., withuut any r»iu. a casual obncrvcir iranid 
my thi'n a wat<'r fammo wnxild bv tho rmult ; bat thia ia 
Dotao, for the fullowinir ruwon. You hav« already wen 
that we hav« 3, .^01) nquare miles abore tlie ThaniM where 
rain water fall* : now thix watrr pcD^tnLt^vi on what ta 
known ax ptirmvablr foruialiun-i, whtuh foundatioo or 
bottom it clayt or otlior imT'C'riionf^ inatcrinl, and tUp drUai- 
tioa t4 tlie water by the <^n\i^n^ uf chalk rvatliifr «bove acta 
na an cnomoua ntVAr-failiiij; rrHon'olr, whirh oolitoa, 
ric, chalk, aand, and nvTel, roeeire the wator middlin).* 
raptdlv, but yinlda it lUowly to the bnnkH and buttuiu ul 
the rivvr, and Ihus thoujfh we maybe raooth* wiDmut rain, 
\hti liver Htill Aowh ; and indeed it ia only when theiw oulitti 
bed* are fnlly rhnrirwi, or bring fhargw tno rapidly, thai 
we nro tmublnl wiOi fluiHbi, imdljitioe greater impurities 
of tho wnU-r afttr floode xliiin ginicnUly. 

The trihatnry Htnuuaa in the Kravid, Mt»d, iiud chalk 
<li«tn(it aro almoitt nnknoa-n to tlie ordinary reader, but 
fonn an importaal item Id tho Thairti^ wut^r Hnpplv. 

yow the gmt taUdnir or twa<ldlin)C ijuiHliim a'lout the 
water rompanic of to>day {leaving out i^asualtJee of frost, 
ovL'T7L\iiiti[lniii'(^ of sowa^n', and nuch-like. tho latter of 
wliirli will ^x' IrimtM hereafter) by th» nvitafu- wnnld-bc 
ln<.'oD]e i*. Should wv have an fxiv-ptiuiiallj dry sununer, 
where arc wo to gvt our water from ? But this is really 
not tliP quertion, and it in a subjwt whirti I* not, ercn hy 
MMn« of nty felliiw wurknii'n, whii nhoulil know biHter, 
ffcuerally luideratood. The real qiiettttoii is n mattpr of 
etotagfi, and proper and adequate pumpiug inHirhiti>T>', 
with the jdumbtnff trndn to uutiiit in iriviiiK atttiiiion and 
reotifyioK' b" uumii? wik^tr (the phmibor* 1 nin WAn-anti>fl 
in saying nould anve fully Dne-eigUtb tln> daily «iiiply), and 
tlw FatCT companiM to ainaltfnualit and at oiiov mn about tu 

bTiu){ uasea^water fram tho Norn for our wtreeta and baths. 
Thin is what I wkh to aec. 
Water storage, as before md, forms a moM inporlant 

Earb in the mpply to I^mdon. not only for drr Rumnfffv, 
nt also during frejieti or Manny t*.-asoD*, for you nnuri 
know that the tino of takiiw water into tho Trmnoin 
•houhl be when U k in good cooditiou, vis., brif^ht and 
rloan, of whioh we otily g«t on the avem^ 'iW days, and 
iiboin annthrr 50 day* moderately disM)nqrc<d, and the rtat 
of llip yiiLT, \it.. C5 daj-n, in, 011 lh« avtfrage, elwptiunaliv 
tnrbid and muddy ; and. It must be remcoberra, that if 
you take water in on th«e mnddy ■nmnii, that your filter 
beds and cbemlool inqairitlea will oe In sooordanc^. 

Pcrhap4 it has not oocnrred to you to eiamini* my 
LiMidon W'atrr Omupaniso' Supply Table fur Ihv- anxiunt of 
slarage. Tliere yrni will mo the Eart London with thiit 
ftlS million gallona, whilat the New Uiver, whif:h is nearly 
mt lanre, han- vrry litth* morr thun one iinarter. IVnc, the 
New lliTor do not de]M>iid u^mn Oiif Tlintue*; but ihey can- 
not (luwilbrmt thc'Rire]- Lea water, which tht.>y ffi-t from the 
river near W'nn^, in Hertfordshire, and nnivey by a canal, 
or init, into Sir Hugh Uyddoltuii'a roundalmul canal known 
a« Ihfi Now Kiver, and into whiih the Oiddwan 9pring> 
and a lot of the artnaan wells' water mt mixevl uit lieiaTe 
thflv TVBch London. The other romiwnics an amllady 
aitnatrd, e»MTrtiii« the Kent, which. I siiiwosc, arebe*(er 
oS than all tliL' iiUicra, av Ihry talco theim firathand fma 
the d)alk beds, the reiy life ot the London waler-besiing 

Theae amut miiitt not \tr roruadeiod a« the only shvds 
Thicb tbeso water toiiiiinnitH ImTi-, lor they have amongst 
thaoi fully firn hiirilrnf iK-roa of dnpoMt rrMTroim, btMOHi 
a quantity of othiT rc^irvwint (uU yf filtfrvd water, below 
II14 filtering medium. For inatanee. though I have givto 
Ijunbeth credit for having twelve acres of iUtere, ft mu>t 
not be oonsidend that thin rr^roMnta by any means the 
extent of their filters, ur the 128 mtllknt gallons to be the 
outaide limit of their supply, for theao people (and many 
others in proportion] have HftJ sfi*. of miMiamce reeervoirf 
and 31 acres of filler beds at Thnines Ditton. Tbey take 
20 railUon ^Ilotia of water per day frrnn ihn Tliameo al 
West Moleeey, where they have two leeerroim buldiuK I2i 
mOUoii gallons. At thia ptaoe, Weet Ifolese^, the water is 
(wnaidPTrtl to hi* very^ood, from where it rune to the 
filter hed» at Thame* IKtton, by gravitation, and pasaen 
thran feet of coante gravel, one foot of sbeUs, aod three 
feet of sand. They have, nt this latter tiIboo, engines 
amonnting to 2,^20 bortMspower, eaneMe a pmnning 30 
milUnti gnltona of water per day, at Uw expeuse of 30,000 
Ion* of coal i)nr year. 

We have seen that they can pomp 30 milUon radkuut is ■ 
Kingle day, and when It ia nndentood that the London 
dally average water aupply is near enongb for ?00 nullion 
gallon*, and that this wtnJd till u rrnHrvoir 50ft, Wide, 
IQfl. dnnp, and aver twelve ndka 1oq|c. It is eomethtnc 
to think about, motv Mpocially when one calln into wind 
the fact that this water u distributed thiMUgh J,(HH) luQen 
nf mnina, varj-ing in aixe fnini .'tin. tn ISin. iu dianivter, 
ami that tliua' arc 1,331 miles of otneta under the oonsLant 
supply, or 'i pnr eont. ot the h'>uiv«, atwl that thcvie wat«r 
oompanire' di«trictA extend fmcn SunlMirrou llti' wmt ol 
Loiiaun to Qmmhithe nn the eaxt, and fmrn I.ViyTlmi 011 
the Kiuth to Waltliain Abbvy un the north, thv ana of 
which oontains at least between Ave and idx aiilUosa of 
people, besldea ItiuidRidH of thooeanda of honoe nnd eutU«. 
Averagdy speaHnj^, we get M per ernl. of thn water from 
thn ThamnF, 30pOT('*'ut. from the River Lea, and IS per 
(V-rii. fr»m well" and springs; but if fhia b wannd 
aoL'urately eutiitidl my table. Roughly speakinB'. it tt 
gmirnilly understood, and tic one un earth, r ■" 

ntiind with the water oompanies, can tell d«.< 
thirty-two guUinu of wator pvr day it uwd bgr cse* 





in KWl About Loodon, and I Tory much qnmtion wbfitli£r 
twmitf ((allanfi uv UyiliumUt^ nitA b}" eo^b pnrwm, And if 
onopanl, on tlit> ^verafcD, per ncli ]ivmau in cwruuiuud in an 
naboikd oondilloii for dtiuldnK pnfpo«v«, this leRrw a 
blf luAT^, fur biibii, wbicb uu-y lie vaCely takon at not 
mora Ifaui toil ^1^ bathx to vren bnndmd hoiuee, to tfa» 
pTn*t aluuno uixl diftgnuw of the Loii'lix) builtLcr*. 

It will DOW bo tinia tii caaniiiw where tJin Riutl London 
get tlicit rarii/tu itupi lie* bvm. I have nid tltat tb^ it«t 
iL ■iipply irtan tbo Riv^ L?ii ; wdl. thia iit oIdsc to Cbing- 
focd Hu). TbtwnkT thru |fritvitAli'f< iiiU> immrnncMrttUufc 
t«alt»,ha»iti({nc9tpiu!ity ufmiii- uiiUii'ii >riillijii!i. Tiiry haw 
kI» obaUt wellit At ('htnKfnnI, WnltlukinKU'ir, Wahham 
Abbey, Lea BridjuTo, and ali") tuko i<iu million khUodi' |K-r 
day f roiD tb« Tbiuni'M al Sunbury. 


I dom't wonder thst the Kwt Lmdnn Water Works 
Uanipanj ntittght tJte Tlianiei iw h taore n-linblu mmroa far 
tboir Btipi'ly, <''>ii''"l'-'riug ihe ermtii? (Iciw of the Lm: for 
wbatdo we &id in the tublvi' lu JaRuary, tborw is 190 
niillitm gftlloni nmnin^ ; La Fobruary. 280 iiUUion gallons : 
wfajlut in Hophnnber, tbe Unvo when, must waatod, it Ik 
down to -'lO miltinin gallons, and n in>-nn arrrn;ff! of ntNiiit 
109 millioii gAlluDB : so tbat if tlio Now Kiirer «bou1d tiikv, 
we will Niy, I Q million ^Ioua ii day. and the East London, 
wfaicb they want now. 10 million, lii-ro i» thn whole of the 
water far tho St>pti-tntHTr nonih i iind thi* umtiaivs a vrrr 
prave ptnnt, and <n>o wK[i::b kIiokIiI I>b nt onne reotifi«d by 
frc«b rrontd of oa^li for now and cupacriouN Htonign tobot- 
voita, by book or by m>ok. <iW mU or tea-utter/^ nad 
•PobirfiM. ni* u iAb tkin<j Hi 40. It hiui bccn Hftid. and by 
Tory bi^rb anthorilv. that thn Nrw Ritc.t luii Kant Ijondou 
Walrr Co(uiHiniL*-s t» »ti|)ply Ihi^ir diitriciu in lh« four 
raor«asin djieat moolba, reciuirv as much a* 86 milliou 
Ifallotw daUy, wbicb smuium a very Ncn^nw rupcct, oon- 
aiderlDR thnt thcixi nm'JjmillUMts ut ptiople ill tli«9 Kftxt and 
Korth of Lundun whiuh should be suppli^ from the hem 
and the water stored in the uoidirgruutu rwHsrvuiis. 


It mufit be mniAmbend that the vat«r eompoaies cannat 
expect to have all Ibis avnilahlr wnU^r. as Ote Lcs Con- 
moj poopln rMuira 'Ik tuilliiius ot >inlliiii!i daily tu work 
'loua duriujr July, August, and Septvmbttr. 

Natural Re«ei*volra and Filtration. 

Tha Thames Valley b a componition ar>d oaarimBcrstiOD 
of dcpovteof gnri-t.und. nud InHm. !%• bonJE* and tha 
■lopns of tlw riror atv, in tiUon, of ramaidarabla di^ptb. 
Pur thin take ii trip (rum Hamjtter«taiitfa to Uaidonbosd, 
when you will have a cbikn>:<o hi im.' Tham<« Dilton and 
UoinK-y : and, if you could wnik bolow the tartb, you 
woidd flnd at loast ISO aquare iuiIm ut luilunil wnh-r rt.wr> 
Tolrs all actiDK nior« or less as natural flllcr*- 

Tber remive land watn- frum t^M hiiflm nulnts, and 
also tbo wnUw trutn the flootl*. the witi^r of tbo latt<ir 
befiig ^lUy cbarg«d with mtul ; and wlmn thn tcna of 
tbouMuids of aoras are covixrvd by tltuvi- Hcm^w, ooHont tlM< 
nmd therefrom to nirioh iho jxutnr^. and «o tbi- wuior 
beoMnM filb>Tad. When tho river i» tow purd water 
potm back into tlio riTor in nbnndBn<;<^ 


Ilirrv has Ivnii a icood 1"^ »' npiriL |niL into llib *ubJMtt 

" lat*", • ' '' "« that #*Tet!il wn(»-i ■ H— 'iTp 

worlc, ur i.'oiltf-linjf >■ ■ i^ 

__ , , < with <>p(-a joints, imd y 

the river water lu tli? nittiintl Tmrrl 

wfaarr a nntuml fillmltun of tlw waler i i . : . <, 

iri to ■ k£nd of Mimp nr :i>uili> t>"wmnr, i-)i.< ' irl.uH' , 

k^betirMd JuBCliuo, E«i"t lutulou, Lninbvtii, Chelsea, 

Southwark, and yauzhall arc tJio ooRipaDioa, and, u simple 
iM this looks, from u down to ej^teea millioB fpdloiis of 
wntor oncli is now collected in this maotier daily. Donbt- 
li'wi. you will tay that these diatiJbutiBg pipes is ooune of 
time will bonrnne fouled by the dirty watir, and themfore 
fTu^ginli in action, and would bo very diSicult t^ cleanse. 
Qmt« riifbt ; but mioh pxpnrMnonl anffinni^m .191 Sir. Frasac 
of tlur Grand Juuotiou Is not to be bamtrd in this manner. 
Ho has, to get. ovei- this point, ndoptod another plan 
by oxtmeting; the nurfui^ mil aad pnkvi-l to a depth of 
M>vcTid feel over th(> int«udeil natural filtiT and pla4!iii|t 
ihrnHni ■ luyvr ot sand from twulvr to oighlivii innhtw 
thick, whicheoUeota tbe uriiKtipal deposits u|>ouit« suifacoi 
this can be easily tifted aaa outed away, m that tho 
natural Rltnr is ponietnal to the made wolls. From 
what I have said ana SLL'iwn by Fig 9.59a, the subject will 
bo oaaly undsKtood. Thia ie one way of auustin^ to 
giTc a daily supply In London of the n^.iirrd I£2>n26,704 
j^ttUuuM, or thL-nMijaiitu u( (limicnlui wutrr, to suy uathiii){ 
uf the other 36,000,6''^ Kallons for non-doniestic purposes. 
And sumuthiiig of thia und must be adoptiid, ooudaoTinit 
the aTem^ y^'V fnereaw! in demand, whkh the fol- 
lowibk- table llluNtralvs. Kt.'mcnibn. on tbi- uvcra)^, wl- 
lake itiiily from ihn Thanii'-n 103.4i.>f>,SlO gaLlcno, and from 
llie Lva 62,371.230 itallons, and 31,096.170 ff»llon« fruui 
springs and wells, hesidsd the Highfrate and Uampstead 
supply of 99,863 ^loru* for non-domt^stic purponrs. 

Ean LonDDH W.^te!B Wooju. 


Dallf npplx. 

lii,uoaM oa 
|ite*(oaB jBsr. 

No atuo«iH*Mp' 

ylleil BoiMtuiUjr 



33.841^.813 440,173 
36.146.631 1 — 
49,868,228 1 344,247 

Nbw Hitkb. 



37,346, 8IHI 






IK.S-MJJlf) 386,124 
22.139,(H>3 1,083,0«8 
28,371,130 1 S.183,18& 









Oajin) JoKtUM. 


16,427 .A14 
















8.899, »■; I 
1 1,393.701 





« Stift If 





ThenboreisnotiiU wUdtbutobeooneide'rcd; forfrom 
SO to 3D per ocnt. in addition irHl bo Kquind to bo wldod 
tA th6 dllly Aupplj durin>r jmlongwd drought i>r fimt 
After tfap ouuKtaot mtpplj ia giren, oitleM the following be 
■irictly ob«i«r»ml : — 

Conatant Supply. 

Speaking of tho eocutaut i<up;iU', t!iM« U iiu (luabt hut 
wluit tbi* t» ihii boat war to Hupply vntivr to tninu. I)nt 
tltl« noceantHtci ■ Uioruuvbly wvll-oCMuttmuivd fyntcoi of 
fittingB, Bad perindioal lioiuie ta boiue cxamlnAttoa or 
innwvtioa br ■ <itui1ift»(l imd reoof^laed wnt«rworln nuui, 
lUM the istuliliiiliTnt-iit (if bwarj fln«« cm lb* vKtor vnurtvr, 
to ine\'ent vHivl woxte. And when the fittiiipi uv properlj 
DOltBtruDt«<J. with pi-uperciflU'rnA>fv, and thopeoplvodncatca 
la ■pprmn.ti- Hie niivntitnfri'x "t thin L-nnataiit Mipply, I 
Tvrlly Vlicvo it trill b©tht;tliwi>t-»t iutlialouftnui, Biitk-I 
UM linvi! a eVBtna whereby the couFunu<r cau at all times, 
wititi:^' or HiimntT, onMif i>nffii'i-Mit wntir for milinary 
iLnd tlrinkiitfc j«ir|iOM'.><. Tlitf hevt way Ui i.-nnun^ Uuh U Iij 
re-iDodet Ih^ pipi^ within the bou>>«4, by lixing flr»t the 
luda* n ttwl Ib^ni will bo & i^dtml fmll fruin the oict4irn 
towaida the fltopci>ck, and a dnlninif viftn or oouk to allow 
tho dend water to dmin out in timn of fr<>«t. 'lli«r« "hoiild 
aliio bu n wTcnnd atojiriirlc nt^nmr la th^ niiiin, i3i1Iik1 thi' 
main atopoook, and h drinkitijf dmvr-olf [>i[n) »iid ouok fixed 
b9twmi the two siopcouks. Tlic !i(ivuiitji)n> uf thew codes 
«illl)eread{lynp]>rc<'i'iii!id in thowintr, iiHthn xocumd Htop- 
eock, wbii^b Ki"-"«riL-< UiL* upper cwtunn, can be i^lownl ilu J 
theemptjnng uT dni.tiiiiig cook t>p»n«l, «> thitt. thin nmiii 
i-nnuul fn.'vii' : wltilut lliu ilrinkinx w drxw-iilf iwt-k tiud 
pi|K.', vrhl<<fa in (t^noTaUy lii the bitai'uu.'ut purt of tiui house, 
nan bo well piwtfctod by fttr&w. &e., witlmut bcinff an »y*- 
*oro. Tlio ]ii|X'>< fnim tlm i-tHtri-no Hbaiilil iilw] 1m: liita to 
empty thonjiclnM iiyHt«niatkaUy, and wheru pipvti tiro really 
of iiMMUt7 bound to be kept AUkI. itncb pipcx Khoidd 
fwolro proper attaotion againnt froMt ; ami nn one pIioiiM 
ba alhtwod to fix any pi[M» mMinrr or n-mUr uuIvhn fully 
im>l«ct«d aKaiaat frost i and the wiit«rw<irke cnnipitnio«' 
pDopIs ahould bo fadd reipoanblo fi>r kimIl pruTUiiin* brin;; 
jtfonerly oarHed out ; and anyono interfering with tho pip^s 
*o uiii^ or by oddiii),' thereto without Ute company'* 
conxoDt, i>1ii>uM Iw) p[iiii»liriil witli d'reat mvaciiy. 

N.B. Wli'Uti*iH'ti,kiux'jf tilt' ubi>%'estopQooka care Bhonld 
be taken to flx them bo thaft the whola of the water can 
dwH mil, YLC, all iH'rnw •downs nhciiild lici lixnci upright "r 
wilii tliv Hpiiidlv lowarda the earth, ur tho [vTUniL- tu whfil, 
i* now ^(tnorally the practice- Tbltt is of vital tinportanw 
for fruHty Mowmn. 

Cistorns and Constant Supply. 

Tho miJ<oii why I would huvc <^t«ras iu a houw i« to 
neet tho roqulrumcnta of tho oxoowlva drain uiwn tho 
o(mipom<<B' pipca bctwam wvan and twelrc in the morning. 
aorl an n proviisiun iijnunut accldi^nU and ropnim. Rlt«ratioii«, 
Sw... ill the »tTf^l iiiaiu'i, (or it -would hv au •.'Ktraordiaary 
«Sair if thcro nh^nld not be jwmc littlo mutu-r fmiulriTig aa 
oooanoaal ahul down, and ht^ro in the advantage of tho 
ebtmui. Now, the«e oiHtem* may ba iibJKlnl to, aa a 
aonrce of stagnated wiilor, aod oollootor* of i>ediini>iit<i. 
Hut thia \m no fault of the oUteni, but a fault {if any) of 
tittme whii ti.<c them, by maktojT thrm too lur^', or <>f tlKiM* 
who look nflw thnm. Thrwt- i-iiitnm* shou.ld huri." A 
imriodlcal iii»|X-ctiuTL fntm whnt I would call th4> wiiti.-r< 
workn' impn-'ior, who should leave ordon wIiku r(Kjuln|il 
Utr d#ti?Tn di'AnMing'. Another way to g^ over this 
luwuinni dilliciOly of titflfn^ted or dirty water is to Ax 
ttmtnmi 'tf >bt' f<bitp» I'f air vi>«>i>li<.. KLmiUr tol'iga. SOI ntR, 
Wi, "T Mi. Tliv«e n<xd wt bi- inudo very larite, nod 
iMtid bo fixed in V^ oallar, or ia any out-of -tlie-wuy place. 

a aoifaUa valve «dtb rtralner ta front beiniT fixed, to 
pvffveat iho mUUr nnnio); bark into the tnains. If rack 
rMermin bA flxed oan> Hlinuld txt taken to ptxivido a iduiee 
valrain the bottom tu dntw off all Mcdiiiieuliiiy matter 
at intarvala. {Al«o mx CyUikden for Coofcfant Sopply)' 


Some wonld aay, But what a tremendoos and powerfal 
air obanbor or vc«el yon would ret|aiT« to withatand tho 
following Iirej«iir«9. The Kaat London hare to keep • 
pri-Miir>: of toft, iibove the leret of parement nmrmt h> the 
point <if mtpply ; thi' Xaw liivrr SOt>ft. nhovf Trinity hi^- 
water mark, or 70fi. above tho pavuuiLitt oppu«il« tltc house 
wupplicd: tho Southwark and vanxhall inn»>t maintain a 
watcrr prpwuro of loOft'. ; tht> Weat S£iddUiH-x 200tt. above 
Trinity hiuh-water murk; the Chebea, (o ihv jMrta where 
tlivir "npplr is cotulant. have to naintahi a invtmurc of 1 16ft. 
above Trinity hish-intuir mark ; thr (tn\n(l .Innrtion 150ft. 
above Trinity hufh-wattTUBu-k; tltp Kent Comiwny muat 
mnintain a head of 180ft. ; th« l«mbeth l&gft. above 
Trinity hi^li-watur mark. 


Tixa Eust IjomloR ai« providinji their vustouent within 
th* uetropolitaa area (hikI a Imya [tortion of their oxiza- 
metropoUtan area) with a constant supply. 


Thp Orand Jiiniitioii Water Company have voluntarily 
IntTuduevd tli<> (.iwoliuit supply tu llivir viutMnvra who ant 
»ituatod in thu parish of St. Jaraee'a, Wf^min^twr, bouiKW 
on thi^ Wft>t iif Bcgeiit Street, ea>t <«f I'oltiiid Street oul 
Windmill Sln-pt, north <if Oxfoni Wlnvt, and Mnitfa of 
I'ieoadilly ; nlw in the puriaL of Maryk'Vjiie, bvtwoca 
Oxfiird iitn>fit and Edirwan Koad; also wml of Qaeea'e 
Bood. Itnyn water, and PiuUliniflon; and part of Krtuii&irtoa, 
Cliiswick, Arlon. Kdliiu^, Uaiiwelt, laltt worth, T« ickenhoia, 
Hn«lMn, lirititl'trd, nna Hounslnw. 


The Kent Waiar OonqpiuLV Bxiride a oongtaiil ropply 
to the wholo of Bt. MuVa, Voolwleh, Bt Pkul'a, and ato 
M. Ntrahoba. Deptfonl. St. Hnry, Rotberhitha, St. Alphega, 
Orontwi^, SC.Miiry'H, liewiiJiam, St. Otlua', Camburwiw, 
^t. Maraaret'a, Lev TKc^C). Eltbam, and aeotloua o( th« 
iMunty olttriotfl, of ShortlaiidH iu the pari^ of Borkcnham, 
Hartford, St^tne, the Gray Viklley, Swauacoiobe. Eilth, 
Ilramley, Chi)>leliur»t, Haym, Cambotoogfa, Eestou, Sid- 
cup, &c., on ibd Kmlinh ■ulc of tli» wat*T- 


The Iiombeth Company arc givinfr a oDnirtant mippty 
from New Tark R/hm), dnim Itrixton tliU to WnliT l^M-, 
iind to Home Hill, and the oonMlmii mipiily diKirivts are 
within the pariahcfl uf Lambvth, NtwinjLMon, SLnnthnm, 
Tooting, CAinberwoU, ChriHtohitrc-.b, St. (niirgi' tlie Uaityr, 
Olapham, Wnndnworth, Battcnea, St. Saviuur's, Ber- 


Tbt New "RivoT Tompany are K^Wng oonxlnnt sajtpl} 
iilHiut thcpiirinhe«of ShuTvditch. Eilmontoii. Stuki>Ni>wuir- 
ujii. Hurnsey, TnUrubiim, St. John**, Havknor. St, I.iikn ». 
Middlesex. Ulurkeuwcll, St. Pouoras, CrlppleKutv Withool 
[whicli is iu Ibo City of London^. St. Goorge'n, Blnoma- 
tnu-y. 8t. Cilcrt'la-tbe- Fluid". J*!. Or.irgo thf Uartrr. 
Libt-rty of Siiffrrm Hill, Oray's Inn, Fiirnivnl'a Inn, St. 
Andn'wV, llolborn. HoUowny, Highgate, Ooliny Hatch, 
Wood Ureeu, ka., tx. 





Th* Soutiiwiirk mwl V'luxluiU Compauj ure (living cfin- 
ttmnt •uppLy rouml .St, Muryu, Ninrin^rton. St. Ornrjo* llie 
Uutjrr, Soittliwnrk, St. Suviuur'x, Soutliwurk, St. UnryX 
I.iimtH'th. 8t, Olave's, UorMlvdown, St. Qilct,', CumhcT- 
weU, 8l- Mury'it. IkmmndM'j-, WinihU^lon, St. Mary 
Mngdnlxn, BMincmdiwy, 8(. PiulX Deiilf<inJ, SL MHrj-'», 
KoUiM-hWie, St. Mary'f, Datttruw, All 8«iiit»\ W»u(l»- 
vordi, Holy Trinity, Cbipluun, uiul Futuuy. 


Tin: Wrat Sliddksrii Water Cotajmnj jriro conatAnt 
HWpply to aany of Ihp plari?* in UarTlplxm?, which 
Iny bolwt'Cii Liswn Orjro nml Kiljjtwaro nu-itl, Clcvi-Iand 
Street, iramiwtmd Rnsd, Tottmhain Court RooA, 
Kauiiigton, Folham, ftnd llnnm^minitli. 

Tho Oener>al Dimcntlont of the London 

The taflfriutiKlc of tli««e wnt»r tonipnnies ia etiormouii. 
The o^gregstP MU-fscg arpn of 93 i>ul>Mtling Kscrvoin tttr 
nnlilU'iTd wuttr i», at luist. 500 i»erM, wltJi a Atoruge 
nnjiucitv o! tifiirlr cue and a hnlt Irtlliun Kulloiut, aud 
K atons^ r.f HH*iwd TTati* for nhnat 2'20 fitilTi.iii ^lloui, 
wluoli LB hdd in Iwtwvir.i 60 mid 70 rrwrvoiiv, 66 ut wliiuh 
tin oorcTcd. Th<iv areulcMe on'iu,0(JU bydrauts. and nearly 
121 flh«r beds. 

Thvreuv 190 pumping onginfiN of nbont 26.,0&0 honv< 

TlieEu*L«ndanhavorwviitly n.-qutred 222 arrtisof liuid 
tor nterroin, tu hold uiitiltiTnl unttrr, bt-oidnt 10 ni^r>-* nf 
privBti* riviT tir pjir.iil, Tlnj tutal r-aiiocity u( tlia trnvrvuira 
fLiid iho I'linul will h^ alxxil 920 million galloiu, vJ wbiah 
ti'JD iniUi<.>ii gnllmiH jj^svitato t > tho 6\Um of Loa Bridfiv. 
TliM hav« otJiiT Lu^ wnrkj at WalUuiJiiittf>w. 

lito Weit Afiddlciarx are malciti^ f'jur new abirojco 
rmcrroirs nl, Iliirnoo, of iiiinwiniui inBi^iiiliidB, iininvjy, 
capacity SHO inilUuu {citlUmfl, TLity uru abouL tu jiumhaNi-. 
or have iUn>ady [nircliaeed from Uia ^rniiid Junrt'nii 
Oonipany a Mn1r» roacrrtiir »t .'ilK«it-Hp- Elill. which hnl.U 
rix milliun ^^lunx, lii>^bU«r wiUi Oif' '2i\i\. muiu. 

The Urand Junation liavw n WVir-hington puiujdn^ 
enffine at Humpfon, Tni>i.n(r thivv uiiUivn RnllonH in 
!i4 noun; th^y huv^ aim large irorkft at Brentilipd. 

The Now Hivi-t liiivc iiitinL>u(>o prniii'*", niid have j'u*t 
iltlol op a new Wnrtliin^m itngiito of '160 hon^^poyrcT ut 
IIomHev. IwgidcH (urtluir oulitr);oiiiL-nta of thtdr river, uid 
widntin? the bri3(rflw. 

Tho Ciinit>ot)i Imve jint fitt<il iip n Wortliriirloii cn>)^in« 
wliivh at vvvry duuhlu rtroku punipa 310 Kidhm*, and arc 
nuking ((oad profr^iM with new tUt«n at Thunm Dillon, 
henidm haviiiKJust laid a SGiiu main from Moloney to 
Ibcrir flllivni at l^nnirit Dition. 

The SouI^wbHc aud Vumxhall Company are about to 
Utilise tti« Stroatliam wl'U. uad havo fjxcd appropiint« 
Otcinu lh*m vrithln the last twdro montho. 

'Tba Cbftlwa Cumpttny Uav« just laid a 'iMn. imun. tJiir* 
aud a niutrtrr nu!'« Iranc, in supply thoir rvwrroir at 
Putm-y Ilv-uth, fwin r^UTufurd ItrUVv, FiillLain. 

An tiiA Lundoii water oompaniott have oxttrndcd thdr 

jmu during Uie la«t two jcan. and taking tbctu tO),'ether, 

Pfogr haw nuiiufrad Id lay 72 mile* uf new Kiiiiply pirns 

anrai^fC from ![iB. to36iiL diaRi«t«r,aotlint,lakiii^'nU lutti 

-inqnUioa, vtm^^m, an protrrNfing. Tho wat4>r 

<aitt g€D- ^^deepeaing thoir nuiiiis sgaLiut 


Thi? followia^ an> Ib^ numlirrit whith eadi oumpuiy haa, 
to any DOtbing of fire plug*, wliiub am about on* in every 
bundred yunU. 

East tondoij 2,22J, Now Hirer SOU. Wwit Hiddlftws 
2iiO, Graiid Jiitioriun 900, Kmt ;o, Lambeth ISO, 
Soutbwark 4U0, Uhi'hea 160. 

Turbid Water; or. better. Muddy Water. 

ICuddy water may hiTv li> be dnuik in Monie part* of 
the world, and will not hurt yim half mi ifturh an wnno nf 
the clear water of oar tiven. Of couree, if you tiiku 
the oommaii diotlnnary deJtnition of the word " turbid.'" it 
alludM tn foul PsImneouM matter, and ^fMy nlliidn to filthy 
<-lwLr water, but thin ■■ nol what injreiw rally underntuod 
by water drinkon m ttulijd wattr. WaUw frutu wcUb ecm- 
tAiuiug cbalk are eaoly nude turbid by boiUiif. oupcrrially 
if a littlo mdn or even any otlLM' alkali be added. Eviai 
the streanu of tbo A]]jine glacinn am turbid t^noitgh to 
pnx-mt ono wong trough a 4iii. diametvr UtlOc, 
whioh i* mueb wone En tiisM of floodo. The bcxt way to 
get rid of (bin ta in «ettlin{r binkfi, for if it \m allowed to 
gel Into the tSlterR it will in a aljort time c-hoko your filter 
material at thf nurfiuw. 

Stinking Water, by soms people called TurUd 
Water. [^£»mi JfiVm-OryoniMU.] 

Filt'.Ted Dud, much moro so, tnSltercd water Ir apt 
F(«pecially b hot vtatbeiO to a«iuln), by atandina'. a fniul, 
uupleOMut udour. membUnjf that of the farm-hfiLiui 
piiiid*, wlii>re no apringa or utrvaron exiat, and to a delicate 
poluto ia uiu«t oneuaive, even If ni>t dotoutod by tho 
clfaetory nervea. Now tbia tante or f^lour la dun to the 
fnr:t that thn water i« oontaminatfd with romty cbemica), 
but. more ofti-n Lhi; j(THwt]i in it tif imcroMnnii; fgnnil of 
aiiimtil life. Uip ep>w or gcTiM of wblcb it ia muply 
ridi(^u1(viiit U) Uiok l<ir witliour. the snufitaiico of a powerfid 
mieroMnpe. and, tvc^n tbon, wilbouL a (Wrtain Mnnnnt uf 
bacteriowo^cknoa'lMlge;infact.Ih&veM«iipi'xl omdytical 
<:'hemi*t« nt, work, mii? sgninit 1hi> othrr, ami th»tr remits 
liarii varied frum 10 pec cent. h> 2S por cetit. wilh the Eams 
water nrd instruinent. Vny in tfalr' ? Simply Iioaaum the 
nrwln, ^]■>l^^^, egg", or gvmiN nro wi iiiHnitnlj- Kmall that it 
iiiakaoiit itn[v>»iljlDtiii'Tdludel)i»nillntitiiig(ruim thpnirinto 
your work ; and when eueh in the rnt-s jhe water Im often 
urcditod witb a lurgur auioiujt of aninmlcTulin tbio it 
abould be. 

To prove tbla take a dtah of pure water and expo*e it to 
tho common warm atmoaphom and aun for a few days, and 
In a very vbort tiiiie tin.' water wQl ^» full of auimuleulip, 
known aa rotifers. Many nf thcK are, at tiitiea, lnrg« 
'-nrmgh to bpaeen, but nnly jn*t «oen. by the nakdd eye, 
They appear to b« alwayn Htruga^ing agaiiiiit I'avb olbvr. 
cspccJaOy wben one doafi gets tnixed wi^ another, henco 
ono KAun whv I hare ejtllod them hcrbiroToiu and 
cnmirnmnit dtirilK, for they appear tu Iito on enrh other. 
But tbe 4]uei«lion ia, What do they And to live on {n 
the diBtiUed water? TVuo, -wo know that thi'y rtre fond of 
vivt^Mc, t-wh ui it in, or Bay the very minute iiortiooa of 
tliL' variuu* HuhAtani^es whieh arc diMolvod in IIir water 
and incapabin of Iwmg arjuiratcd from it by mechaniL-&I 
menus, ur dlatil^ol water after losing expowd Vf the 
atiiin§pbere ; and that ihey, like all auimal Ufo, an; fonnd 
simultaneously crontod by thn anthor of Natnre, or at ono 
and llti- Koini.- liinn, iiad in every part of the animal kin^- 
Oom. Many an.< the way-) to produce Htinking wator. 
Take an vrdlnorA- aquurium. whow lioltom i« oomed 
with wa'>hed pohlilrii and ^'tud, plant tbereia a f^prl^ of 
Uloroug:hly wnafaed HiiluMnn SanuueMhu^ Ai^Mk^xik ^n 



Anaekar'u (water-weed), and in a week or bo after add a 
Toung flah, or other water anim&la, both will grow, but 
keep the water onchaDged, the fiah will die, whilst the 
weed will in time fill the aqnarium, and even if you 
constantly change the water toe fish will die. This is 
exactly what takes place if filtered water is stored too long 
iu opeu t-oserroirs, and proves my assertion that filtered 
wat«r shuuld be u^ed as quickly as possible after filtration, 
and that storage reservoirs should be simply used for 
storing the water and getting it clear by selllemmt and 
ready for filtration. 

In point of fact, the general drinking water of Ijondon 
will not keep, owing to the above contaminatioQ ; but, of 
course, if it were possible to get perfectly pure water, it 
would keep for ever, for then, shonid any germ, spore, or 
seed get tnerein, the water would contain nothing for it to 
feed upon ; 

Water, the Gnat, and how Water gets 


Just 80, bnt how about such things as the otmmioQ insects, 
say the ordinary gnat, who lays her eggs in a maaa on the 
surface of speoiaUy selected good water, the eggs of whi(^ 
would readily sink if separated out, but owing to a glutinous 
substance the whole mass is held together, shaped like a 
boat, and practically unsinkable, until the grub is formed. 
Tt'ia grub then leaves the egg and at once commences to 
Bivim about at an extraordinary rate head downwards and 
with ite tail in the air. The tail contains a spiracle through 
which the breathing is carried on. First we had the egg, 
then the glutinous substance, next the insect, and for the 
fourth stage (third, really] we get the nymph or a kind of 
chrysalis, a beautiful creature wrapped in a kind of veil, 
which insect floats iu our water, near the surface, the tail 
of which is its rudder, and two terminal organs itspaddteii; 
whilst the back of the gnai is really in the air, through 
which organ it seems to breath. Next we get in our water 
the ohryralis-caee, though empty yet it is a substanue in 
which animal life existed ; it floats at first, then breaks up, 
and mingles with the water we have to drink. This is only 

one way out of thousands in which this necessity of life 
becomes contaminated. 

The Quality of Water, 

We will now examine the London water for its puii^, 
and the following table will give an approximate return 
before and after filtration, which requires but little 

By observing the top line of the Chemical and Propor- 
tional Table figures yon wiQ see a tremendous jump 
between January, February, and Uarch. There is also a 
sudden shoot up in October, also see September and 
November, but nothing like that of February. This in 
accounted for in the Volume Table for February, when we 
had tremendous floods all up the Biver Thames, and they 
seem to have bad it pretty fair^ in the Biver xJea, where 
they get 280 million gsUons daily over the weir, and a 
greater amount of rainmll during Febraary than any other 
month in the year. The table, being so simple, can bo 
readily undesstood by people outside the trade. 

By observing the Biver Thames, also the lUver Lea, in 
the January, Febraary, and March Tables for the Solids in 
the 100,000 FartK, yon will find during this fiooding time 
the greatest amount of deposits, which is the reverse of 
that of thn East Tendon deep wells, which during April, 
May, June, July, and September is the greatest, whilst 
jhe ammonia in the water of the Thames and River Lea is 
greatest in the month of January. But in the Tottenham 
wells the greatest amount of ammonia is in December, 
April, March, February, and January, whilst the lime in 
the Tlkames water is greater in January and March, but in 
the Biver Lea in January, Febmaiy, October, and 
December. The chaUc and time from the Thames water 
appeam to be in January, and in the deep wells of Kent 
and Tottenham in January and December, The carbon 
abounds in the Thames water more in Februazy and 
March than any other month. This is owi>)g to the 
excessive flooding. It is also the same in the Tottenham 
deep wells. 


Chemical and Froportaonal Quantity of Organic Elements in Baw or Unfiltered London Water. Taking as tiw 
starting point, and without organic matter. The takings being the ISth of each month of 1893. 

j Jan. 





June. [July. 




Nov. 1 Dec. 

± namcB nailer at xiampujU' l 
Organic Elements 3-0 





4 7 i 4-S 






Wdght of Solid Matter in 100,000 


parte of Water unfiltered ... 3350 





27-0 |26-50 






Thames Water after Filtration iu 

London 3'0 





2 5 2 2 






LeaWater (Raw) at Angel B/wd... j *-7 





4-4 j 3-0 






East Ixmdon, Weight of Solids 


in 100,000 parto 39-70 



31 -.50 


28-25 26-dO 

26 26 





Lea „ „ „ 33-25 





32-60 31-85 



33 45 


34 -SO 

„ Water after Filtration in 

London 30 












New lUver Water (Raw) j 25 












„ after Filtration in : 

London ... 1 1*6 












Weiqht 07 Solid Hattxs nr 100,000 fabts or thb Watbb. 

Kent, Deep Wells Water 40-50 l+l-O Ul-50 "' 

EastLoDdon, Deep Welle Water... ,28-26 |28-50 1290 

"-10 [4016 ,39-0 
[39-0 129-0 


139-50 137-25 :55-60 
[29-15 »9-26 28-60 





AwiTnonm in Th&mes Water, asSl- 
„ „ Lea Biver „ 
„ atTottonbam, Deep Wells 









Aug. ' 


Oct. 1 

Nov. j 














lliBines Water, HordnaBa, Gar- 
bcnwte of Lime, 1 deg. = 1 p art 
in 100,000 parts of Thame3 Water 


Kent, Deep Wells 

Tottenbam, Deep Wella 


HAaDHBS rsox Lm um Chals. 




19^4 '20-0 

21-G |22-6 

270 ]27-0 

230 !22^4 














22 5 



ThamM Water, West IhGddleaex... 

„ „ Lambeth 

Lea, Bast Loodoo 


Deep Wells at Tottenham 

Ko^ Deep Wells 

Oroinic Casbom ir 



•120| -310 











































■065; -065 





















NrrsooBH (NnuiTiB um Nrrarnta) 1 past ik 100,000. 

Iltames Water, West Middlesex. 

„ „ Lambeth... 

Birer Lea, East London ... 


Kent, Deep Wells 

TTiMn— Water, Lambeth ... 
„ ,, Wert Middlesex. 

Lea, East London 

Kev Hirer 

^ot, Deep Wells 

nmnea Water, Grand Junction... 
„ ,. West Middleeex... 

Lea, East London 


Kent, Deep Wells 

'Ruunea Water, Grand Junction... 

„ „ Lambeth 

„ „ West Middlesex ... 

Lea Water, East London 


gent. Deep Wells 

; -330 












































1 -446 











Oao&iac NiTBooEiT 1 past nr 100,000. 













































NiTBOOKM 1 PABT IK 100,000. 


1 -310 























































Chlobimb 1 


IN 100,000. 


1^7 1-7 




1 6 





























2 3 

2 1 





































I h»Te dengned the above Table to save space. The results are from my praotioal observations doxing the 12 months of 1893. 

MIOFOb«8 and Feven, or Cholera Baolllua. 

The eoltivatlon of these devils appears to be favonrable 
ia river water ; in fact so mnoh so that during the year 
1693 the average in the Thames water amounted in number 
of microbes, and in a oabio centimetre was 5,000, and the 
maximom 66,000 in the Lea. It is well known that these 
oholma germs an propagated by the agency of river water. 

Tlte maladf seems to come to England from abroad, and 
eqMOiallT from rivers that empty direct into the sea, 
having nd}l atnams, more espemally should the river be a 
Mirigttila oae. 

First the workman becomes affected with this beot«rial 
imparity, generally by oossnming portions of the water 
which to hun appeals bright, sweet, and good, and when 
he is once so affected this zymotic poison germ clings, gener- 
ally till grim death overtakes the sufferer, or, if not death, 
the sufferer does not exactly know what is the matter with 
him, but goes in for a rert amongst his pals, often not of a 
very quiet character, but to pubhc-houses where they go in 
for their beer, and often drink out of the same veseet, 
glasses, &a., and In a few days the whole place is a hot> 
bed of typhoid or other fever ; often ''He whole town beoonM 
a place of obolenuo dejections. 




VolnniM of WaUr In Million 

Uilloni dntirn d»lly 

per roontU during the year 1893. 




U. Gftlli. 

J&D. ... 



Feb. ... 






Ua7 ... 





June ... 



July ... 






Sept. ... 



Oct. ... 



Nov. ... 



fieo. ... 



M. Oalla 


'3 e = 


3 ^ 


M. oaliB. 













'J E 

Z «! 

U. Galla. 






.5 n 


I ill. iitep 


lllorabm in one Cubic Centltnetre of Water. 



From iavestigationB ot the highest importanoe, and 
from a hygienic point of view, it has beea proved over and 
over again that our rivers are in a great measure reepon- 
aible fur all bacteriological fevers. 

This being bo it is of the utmost importanoe that a strict 
watch be kept upon the conditiou of the river water, and 
especially the fUter beds belonging to the various water 
DOmpauies, for a great deal depends upon the condition in 
which they aie kept. 

They must be kept clean, save and except the too often 
removing of the nidus, which uLust be carefully avoided, 
and is of vital importanoe ; the filtered water storage 
reservoin should be kept covered over and as cod as 
possible, for these living devils do not like darkness nor 
especially the cold, and will not then multiply, especially 
if the wateir be near the freezing point. 

They doubtless feed upon bad or stinking air, and 
readily float therein : butwearenowdealjngwith our water, 
and to tiiis let us keep. To prove that tiiese devils prefer 
the warmth and light let us examine the water in the open 
Thames, eepeciallv in warm weather, say about the height 
of the summer, wnen as many as 14,000 microbes have been 
found in a cubic centimetre of water. Kext take water 
abstracted from natural gravel and sand filters. There was 
an average of 5,000 in the open Thames water but only 
about 100 per cubio centimetre at the most in the water 
pumped from the wells of the natural filters of the same 
neighbourhood, snd it is often mnch better than the open 
river water, even after filtration and ^ssed through the 
companies' pi^. [For this refer to the Table of Microbes.] 
Of course, if sewage is allowed to fall into the river, 
as is the ease of the outfall at Hertford, which tells so hard 
on the Lea, the water below the outfall will of necessity 
be polluted more with bacterial germs. 

^tration appears to be the only practical way of dealing 
wittt these microbes, by way of removing them ; perhaps 
I had better say catching them. 


The average percentage of these microbes removed may 
I>a aaetul to you ioi examiuatioas, &c. The East IjOQdo:> 

1,0 Ofl 

;£5 «s 















I Londnn, 
I at 
I Old Ford. 





11,600 i 

[«a, Eait 

Old Fotd. 











sand filters average 24in. thick, and one' square foot will 
pass about 1-3 gallon per hour, and on the average will 
remove fully 90 per cent, of these devils. 


The New River sand filters average 20in. deep, and will 
filter 2-3 gallons per square foot in the hour. (This 
amount above the £a?t London is owing to the depth of 
water above the sand, the state and closenese of the 
sand, and the difference in the thioknesB.) Their average 
percentage of devils removed is 9880. 


The Southwark and Vanxhall Company's Altera average 
29in. thick, and filter at a rate per square foot of 1-5 gallon 
per hour, at the same time removiug 98 per cent, of the 


The Grand Junction Company's filters average 21in. 
thick, and -will pass 2-2 gallons to the sqoara foot per 
hour, and remove on the average 97 per oeat. of the deviu. 


The West Middlesex Company's sand alters average 
30in. thick, and pass 1-3 gallon per square foot per hour, 
and remove from 98 to 99 per cent, of uie devila. 


The Chelsea Company's sand fitters average 48iii. thick, 
and filter 1 '70 ^dlon per square foot per hour, and remove 
on an iLverage 98 per cent, of the devils. 


The Lambeth Company's sand filtem average 32io. thick, 
and filter about 2 gallons per square foot per hour, and 
remove 98 per cent. oi. tJie oavils. 



Ttid Knot WaU-T CoRipanj ohtain their wat«t fron tho 
r^iiw •>! till- i-JuiIk ««lb, Ktiil du not lujuira fUtcn, and 
■TV uol tuut'h Uvublud witli thme dcvtln ; in futi In tb« 
fliMt tvo tno&ilwof IK93 (her^ wen nut ngn than two 
niflmbnt per wilik^ o«wlinii-tr«. 

Il muitt luit !■• nnuiilpivi) r.hiit tlie iMXit Itllrrfl nro in 
immnl»n(N* with tbe thi('1(iM>iui of tbo ouil (khi tfa* Xrw 
Ki<o-. \Vu>t Mi<lillin>ox. and Cbclwxt). Aluoh droenda 
apcii ibe rcffuUr rato of th«! warfcin^. Filbm Bbaola not 
br >UiiwT<i Ui rin iiko >>ieve», but tho vatcr dtnutd 
ItrMloaHy mmk tliruv^li abt>ut 4111 . per buur, vii. , 
i'l tpMaoB ]«r B(|uiLrG foot, and not fasuv. I hnre tm> 
in BIT eud'D which girt capital multa at this ntv: 
tnrti>tliD-fajr, front muat iMnror get to the •nuul tai thv ta|> 
of ifae 81t«v«. 

Hw oonditiun of tho aurfacv of tho mod has a lot to do 
WiUi itsntta: for aitcr the acum or thin Htni U tonmvl 
on tlu* Mirfaco of tho Mud the tiller works bettor than 
biFftnv it it furtnod. Thiin fnrnw d kiiid of uist to harboHT 
tho d«vil«, aiwl abould bo iitrotulljr prenerrod, k> hmu 
MS the Muuo will last clean, of ootuw oonaittcnt with 
mfldcnt uuuo of wator throu^ the aand ; and mat 
care moat be tahun. wbon you Mirap^ urcleao off tbebiaore* 
■pok«a-«f, »nw partly [inpcTvioii*. Kcum nr nidtia, to cara- 
fnllj vxnniinu tlio wntvr »lu-n IIlc Rlti-r i» rMhaiyod : 
in met, aa a rule, it ia beat to pump the water over »K]aiii 
for a tine or two. and onljr baro a few incline, mt 3in., 
of WBtnr Ifin^ upon the >iatid for a few dajta, the Mttacn 
of tb« filter ivnialnlng full. When the souni cannot 
nadily be obtaincdi troni, say. a Ro«>d or aoinothiiiK of the 
kind, nboat two dt three gialnii nor gallon uf Umo or 
alum mixMl witli the filter vmh^T axMm^Ain paaMd over thi- 
filter beda, and allowed to wltle for u few day, wiU aoon 
pat your filtt-r in iicvud wurkinff onler. 

Usefulness of Floods. 

It io all vriy wt-U fur mjidi- piujiln ti> talk about the 

Bconvmitaiiie of AimhIh, hm yon t>vo our wali-r HUpply to 

^ndnn at timpe, Ui a H'^-ai mwwnro, dojicDda on thwe 

though it bfinga with it inyriada of nucrobes: 

theae Bouds arr to llfo Loudonera at lioHa Kodwnids, 

ean tbe fnreiKneni Id Kumn partx of tho world tfot on 

tbont thi-ni. Tnko the NUi?, tor iu«taii«i, which bogin* 

111 Jnno and iif fniin 2 ift. to VKft. deeper in Aufpitt, 

when it AoimU the TAtley* ol Egi pt tiir about twelve niiliw 

wid«. Ttie Euphrates riwea licitwe<?u Uarch aud Juuo to 

12ft., and ooveiB tlie Bobytoninn plalna. 

Oftra waa and rivfia, >uob um tho Brahmapootra 
(botinded hy the Uimolayiwl, tho [>ir1u. Ac, in nf tbo 
llooding oharoolcr. Tlie miHi, or nilt. dtinwiiL"! 011 laud ia 
nf ifioat importauee from no agricultiirnl point of view. 
For initanco. India dcpondo fnr tbe fertility ol the wmntry 
upuD tbo ailt prccipitatod hy thu annunl iatmdiitioiin, tor 
Ihf hlnh b'liiln jii'Id eTup* only e«erv four or fivo yieara, 
vbikt llie tlifxUil landk yi«Id iwn^uniully, the inud tituilght 
the Aimdw hi-jn^— waU-r. 1} poroL'nt.; Tcg«tahlc raatlM-, 
pereont,; niunateof iiotaah, J per c^Tit.; oarhonalo of 
I ^ per cent. ; phoepnato of lime, j |jer C4->nL ; oxidn 
of irva, B pC'r cent.; alumina, S pvr cent.; and Htlex, 
Is per ociit. The high laiidi hare out 1 pvr cvut. of cnr- 
ikte, which os'<e« in tbe dlt La aacribea to tbo fertility 
he luwiv lauda. 
When- ihws tho water from tlwi Dra<I R™ (wltirh ban 
liTiav cnatun tfkenon) ko, ooneidorinfc Oivf* is no 
■eeivaUe ontlet, and that tho River Jordan daily ponn 
Furth MI milliunK and niiKty tbooMuul titn/t of watfr, to 
Riiy nothing nf rainfall oollfvtod i AllnwiuK fur eTaporatiun 
erv mitsi bo a tnOMlidova leakage wjint>wberv. Is it 
iveb up to UH bjr w^* vt spcngB t Qulalnly, wo hare 

atM-h spring na Winifred's well, whifh flown iit tlix rat 
(if 1?0 tnoii per tniiiutt' ; but thin ia iif nirx> ooi'urnilu 
■he Hivor Jordan alone would anppiy nbout forty melt ' 
wcUs, HO. an I havo said, Wboe does ths water fmm the 
Oowl HpA fr,>f 

&pnii){ii thiit lluw fr:int tlut lintriituiio nwioa doposdt TSKt 
(iaautitie« of oaleiir.*oua tulft una wbxUa. Other s|>riBfpi 
ocpodit nilicn. 

Tlif ourTiu'e ni the ginlw is aimply land and water ; hnt 
i^ is uutgvnoraUy known lli:nt then- aretliree parts of walori 
to one ta land. Thi' wnur ix. ehemieolly ipoaltinff, nuultg 
up of diiht patu of oxyifi-u and one ul byan»g6n ; or hy 
volume. Olio of oiygrn nod two of hvdlVifrfn, and 
pnwieMKW hit<b priwcr id ibrmical tuium ami ileo-tinpiiHition, 
iiud ooeuixliuK to Htiiiu*|)lirrM [irvsmre. It iin tsliointoJ 
thai the Borfaoc of the aisi ia l>^U miUinn bqnam milos, 
and taking tho eorfaoe of the whole srloho at 197 mJ Uiow 
milra, the diflrrenco will he reodilT scyrn. Nor is it 
IteneraUy known that if tha whole of the water oonid bo 
upresd to on equal depth Dv«r tbe iavo of the globe that it 
wonldboaht)ut two mllm thick or divp. 

Tlie fttvatcst <hr]ith nf the neu L* generally admitled Ut 
bn about rqanl tu Hw highest ntoiiiilains, or about four 
inilcM; Ibe avfraite iU>ptb in, nr. about Uiroo miW, andj 
ihereioie eontauia abont 450 niluona of cnbio nOoB of 
S'tS.OOO mQlion milea nf tho wbelo fHobc- 

Tbe Padflo Oueau cuvrva 'H toillion uileH, and is fonr 
nilee deep. It owva ihi nune tn it* tranqiiilhty, as the 
smnlltmt vi.wk-1 can rido it •v«iuvlr> It is a sni of i-ornl*. 

Thi* Attuttii" Oi<eui has 2A mimoa ulW, with a H])L«itic 
gmrily of 1 9285. 

Tlif Indinn iVran, 14 nulHnn irilca. 

TbeMvditerTanoan. I millign miles, with a apeolflegmritf 
of I-Q2S3. 

Tbo Block Sen, 170,000 mflta, with a spedfic gravitr 
ut I (11418. 

The lUllic Sea has ITS.OOO mllra. 

The Korth 9c*. 160,000 miles. 

The Houtbon Oeean to :W •<& miUlonil mllei. 

Hen wat«r nuttains, generally awaking, from 34 lo 
4 nnr r«'nt. nf salt. It* ipivifii! gmvity is lOfS. 

The Di«d Sua upcrlRe gravity k I'ill. 

Tho omnponent parts tnay bo gcnrrnlly taken to bo 
water, muriatii^ aeiif, aiilphiiric acid, nitiicnil nikidi, lime, and 
niiigiioUA. Our iiilnnd sea water ia somewhat different. 
It eontaina in 1.000 parts— aalt 2A, sulphate of soda 3'3, 
ULuriuto of maKui-aia 4*3, and murluto of lime 0*8. 

The bittemeea of salt water ia ody at the aurfaoo. 

Salt Mia water fiMKA at 2Sy t'nhr. 


8iimi< pwiiihi inity Miy, Whi'm haro ull IheMnilirmlBi^millS 
front F TIus is an unkiiown qiir-ntion. We must maember 
that wo an only witliiu u wry xhcrl diiituneu of what was 
onoe a (laid ina«« or hnil ai tire, and whoao iummh i^mtniun 
(.'heiuieals we kui.iw nnlbing nr a', l<ia"l vt-rv HhIp iibifiit. and 
if an ostrich egg should r«pn.neul the cunlj, thi' nhoU of the 
r-g([ would bo too thiok to reprewmt the oikrth's rmM, nimn 
wluch all thia wnttir is Ma*pnnde<l. This iQirll is cnMknl ifi 
pluses, and water gciA loo uour tlio wamt quorlero, and is 
■eut up odddlinv sharp in the shape of ge^rwrs. (Seo the 
fnmtiffiuwVt and Qvysoni, (.■ootiuui'd.) 

Qsytsra. Ttl<rmal Sprlnss. Gas Springs, 
and Volcanoes. 

The inoroiwe of terrostrial heat ia well illoatrated M 
dfMwnd into the earth, oud may be lakiru tii he at 
rate of 1" for every 60ft. of strata ntt'reed heyaid KH 
frou the surfaoo. lu tvuikI Bumlntn. VoV. ^Uk \)£ua 



Icmpemtare at the imrftwe of lir earth u aO", At the 
depui of one nilo, my, IftSJ"! at two uiilm 241°, aud at 
I three tniliM, ZSdl". 

For our i>iirpoae we will wij" a ^'T'^' ^ t*" milo* i" 
35<y*. IIi>Te we hnrit :iS^ nlxnve tli(> boiling poinL wliiiJt, U 
thin wat«r ws* oonUined in a Htonm boiler, would piwluoe 
B pnauuv of iSlbA. to tlu> tNiofin inub— xuitKbla for low 
promuro boilers ; and. it the water <^aiiu) fmin a dj!|ith of 
thrw miloa, ws itbould ftet atcaiD havings & pnMnro of 
130llw. to tLe MiuRra iDoli. 

Now tlio natuTftl hot HprlnRs czivtinfr In mHoua part* of 
ourglob«, i«mA from itntAtho depth of whiuh one wonld bo 
wamntsdinaariuvklioald oorrMpond witii tbc t«mpcn>tuK 
d tb« w&tcr. U tAC tomporaturo of tLo wat«r isntiuK from 
ffiich springs could bo taken to be the aame as that of tho 
ttai^'Tiutr from whJoh it baa riftcn, auoh toniporaturo nbould, 
approximately, mre tba daptlt of tbo nwtrvoir ; but jrau 
jnuHt mnvniHrr tLat thia water baa to paM through ccrtaiu 
ctiata which taui Mnatuntly to ^vcrcttno tho lvtupcnitun:>, 
htil how much dMrcaso takes plaoa iw one ia ia a puiiitiiu 
to dpfini". 

Agab, tuppow thia heat to 1m ooming fratn a df<pt]i n{ 
thrfr] miln. U is jiiat pomiblu that thia livnt tiiav not hv h\ 
a liqnid fi^mi. It nia^ he. that of a gas, or naid only, 
nierotui^ thi: upper [firlinrm of tho earth's prurt, iind omnitiK' 
■n ooutant with fl>«iin« ai wuli'.r, wbldi ia hurled forwiiixl 
H wator ft-oiu a atMiu iiijeiit<-ir. 

UttiiBsl apiini^ appear, in s>mui plaoofl, to bo ooinplotvlj 
indf^prndMit of tho utratn nndn- whwh thejr riaa. Ttify do 
mil cxcltuiit-cly prcvAiil Iii Tuluatiic rc^oufl. Tho hultOht 
porraaneni ipringK di«oo>vcired aro thnm at onixidrnLlili! 
aifitaaoufcom Tvlcanom- ARuaBCaUeoteadelaaTriucli(<rsH, 
between Piurto Cbbvllo ana Hew Valuoda, la Vuauzucln. 
South Anerioa, liad a tompwoturo of tBl)% Iseiud throngli 
a atratmn of granita. AgwM CatDangiUas, near Ooa- 
niuiuato, in Mtxloo, hod a t«nppr™twro of 205i'. Tlien. 
a£oanlini;> to tho aMunmtian thai 1° fur urury fiOit. is ritrbt, 
wo get thi^ao last-nanuvl thermal springs from a di-ptii of 
nni^j two ini]i!i», but Uio doopcr or hotter th-- Hjirinpx aiv. 
the more cnratio will ho the now, whUiit Uiuae, nuiJi an Uik 

8Rth Springs. 

Bath Rprings watwr, wbiuh In at tliu hot Iinth 117^, or of 
niodcsato t^perature, are v*ry cuimtint- Ni-ither dorn 
thia emmtB-ttay belong to tho vrtLlcr itib-lf only, but iilao to 
ita chumiml onnii'tiBitinn, which roriM tery oonBiderahl^ 
with, or acM^iu); to tho rtrvrci's of heat : Iinrl tUerff la 
another thin^ vhiiJi nhuuhl bo diktitiotly uiidcntuod, thai 
thirmial apiinip wllhia cartaiu Umlts. of wr tiom 101>° to 
IW", havo Bovvr bum known tliTiiu;,'hout Euvpe Cu Oavo 
undcr^rono tho aKghtcat Change in tli/<ir tcmpcnture or 
olismiuit aoatyxli, whilst tiia bott>-r onoa v-ODtaiQ in solution 
VsryinK propcrtious uf mliitimJ inatii^r. Fur HrtriitnDnL'a 
eako toko tho NiiringH of Jjos Triiiohcnis, which, in 1800, 
had » tinnpi-mtun! of 191}% but in IKi it Wiu fnund to 
have a Iwtiiperutiirp of 20Q J , or a riiw in tliO ttTmi)i.-ni.turio of 
l'I~ in twoDly-tbn« ycaia. It ia retnaTkable titnx nirinff*. 
whn.t<-rfir be tht-ir tompomtur*, tba MMular pi.Tiiuitiutii,y 
iiLtirly always attcnda tnon, and the fouutains of Groove. 
whit I'l flowod thuuMinda of years ago, to- day How in tho same 
pluw^K Knuinoa Rirer, which nun in S^mpliuliw L^k'H, 
after flowing diwippeand, but again Bjirung up out of 
the dncli\ity of the taonntain chain, utiout nix iii!U-« vmHi 
of Argoa. Herodotwi, the hiatorian. nuiilioTui thiH cprin},'. 
whioh to-day iwuea fnni the same sIoim^ of th^ mniintain. 

The Temple nf ApoUii at Di'Ipbi hud a tifurunj tn 
the oeatn of the hnildiut; which gav« intnTnittent 
vapour, anpnoaed to prouaed from tho Oasaotia Wdl, 
aear by. This vapour wa* of an tntoxleatlng chararu^r. 
n'Mth. aowrding to the chtaooa, nado the Prieab 

Tythiu drank, and whim in ihis ■tat<^ tltn onioln was 
iiinraltc^l, uiid the wuHx alw then lUten-d trere snppoHd 
to be a rerclation of their iifA. 

Curinnsly, CasNotiA Well still e-xista, bnt ia now knowB 
lui St. yicltoloji. 

There are plenty of th«eo olasah) fonniaina and thonnal 
tiwin^ about Motmt Panuuatta, Ptnmi at Cotintb, and 
.£den«u on the coast of Eaboca iiMir Chalcia. 

It u atnutge to find Iheae raniiga to rtntnin with th<dr 
BablvrraneanwateraiUKihatigwfor 3,0O0y«ar*, inaooonti^r 
m povnibirly Mabjuot to muui rlolent earthquakes na thoae 
lif^ore- mentioned. 

AootlivT example of a natural J-l iTaw is at Lillcn, near 
Caluls, bon?d iti 1124, or nearly dgfat ountoriva a|po, 
aunplylng the i>nmc> quantity of water. 

1 have said that it vidy bo that thflso foitntai&a, grjttn, 
or wtwtpvOT ynu like tn term ihptn, atv [Jiiibahly oiUM-d hy 
|tiLm<B coiniujc in owitiu't with tln-tirt-a, chRNua, See., mhi- 
tainin^r water, hot I will now, ia onla: to aabstaiitint« 
thid. dHini^atT' a few snch aketiasw. 

\'iiri<>uH g»-^m an ejoded In enonnona qaantitiea fron 
tlio lower regiona in many parta of tho ghibc. Btaair, of 
fourw, much stronm^r and larger than olhwa. Soaatimet 
iho gas camea in tJie form of onrburettcd hydrogen (iUn' 
ruination gas), whii-b 15 la^g^Iy1l•cd at Ilo-lun^, la China, 
It in ulinj ii»pd in tbr city of Khiii»g»T»clie«. 

Then, aj^uiu, thvn> nre ahundnnt inMnntvii of sraMoas 
ejeotlonit, tiviii tho iiilnlor of tho oarth, of carboatc n^, 
whioh hnrobncn rumtin;r through itavdnAfor thoiunndiaf 
Miitiirii^ b«fur« atiiiiial oiatti^ cotild hare tM'on CTMtod. 
Thpaa fiMrans nnd litrivinm wittii nolhin^r tnori' narlr»a than 
iho connnuuii'iitina iM-tweeii the txtrrinr aiitl tntvrior of 
tMl globe, and you may be siire thai thu« tlsaotva wna 
moio nuineTOtiK and i-Apiirririiin than they are at the present 
tim«. 'Flam qualiliw of tlw gtu^H ^hioh were tbeo piteu oO 
were tcit ditTer^nt to those giv«n off to-day, and jou tnny 
bo Bure tliit iIioto wb« a large ijuautity of aoueuua vapoux 
ulwarn auapendcd in the air, which accountea for the ^n- 
bt-rat'tvuKotatdou of thow tinics. Tbi«, toafMlain eatoit, 
WNViants lur th» nwt furrHts of uli, which, beinK fAMaliMd, 
Kupply us to-day with inexhauatible etotea of nuaeral and 
other foci. 

Kpoaldng of thin, there ia an oil apriuj? at Baku, ealled 
Aaaadouhij-oiT. whii-h b giving sonMtthiiig like 6,000,000 
galtoiiti of nil per day, and aaid to be worth £3,500 a day. 

Till) poxli^iuus volumea of oarbouio add supplied outf 
pnipoHis ac this early period, by entcriag into combiiuclon 
with lime, which prodtiofd the marhles, which are 
notliing more thau rarbonato of lime, which la Dearly half 
curhouic acid. 

Air IN ren<lorcd very ddeterious by goMt and vaponrt 
generated in tlie earth. 

In a c«rtain valley in tho iaiand of .7ava, carhooic a^ is 
throwu tmi in sut'li (junutitiiHi that no animal can misi 
then, nor do birds livo when flying low through the ait 

Then there arc the Tolcunoo* whiuh eject hot mud, the 
wrthqiLalcefi, the uibUTtanenn thunder, and the ejvoiioa of 
lofly juta of Soma, which buvo buen known to Uaw to *v 
gniat abeighc as to be seen at a dlstanos of twenty-foor 
Riihis, tor three honrs togeUner. They would thro foil 
bucJc to ihroR Inot, and Ihni blaxa away for twouty ho«Ti% 
when ap woold oomc euormons Ininpa of rook and quaatitiea 
of hut mud, which havo pnxluraa soob places aa Monte 
Zibio, near Stunirrla, in the Duchy of Hodtrna, and Iho 
Salne. ni^ar Otrgemta, in Sicily. 

Ruck fragincntx, micb an tlioiw whirh wtte ejeolnl by 
Jolnnali, are to be seen acatUrtil aiuund thv former. 

Tbo 8ahw has wutinuad ia the seoondary rUIo of a«llTf^ 
JTdil?*"* ;ean, eomdating of cono-ahapod nonnds from 
*t. high, harinc; srttnll cralon at thn mimnut of the 
h oontain watt^r, from which gaa is dlMUgagedj 






bat notiee, tlw mud tlutt Is ejected hvm titme voIommm is 
caU. SwnetiiBM theso gaaeous erapliooH uro aUcmlcNl villi 

MidentUo noise, and gr>va di&^nt kinds of ^okh at 

rioua intcrralit, iN>ni«UiD«a carbonic »cid, other timoa 
Ittufreo, and thnt bjdrogon, irhich in often mixed with 

Other <nteni, irKfaih are of a siDn enomtio cliaraotcr 
in tbt-ir Kubtt^rmDeaD force, will disripl ln6 floor of the 
(Tutvr l>v hiinuiiiig holao ur flMUtee Uiet^in, mid t3iuii a 
•stauautuoaUua witli the Uciuid At*. whirJi fUte dto wild 
«hdl of Ihe «arth, when aCoam aad auld xu» will bo eJMlad 
hk Taat ((UAntitiM. after which It Is followed bj i^tad 
Mflonie and mi hot Blonee or fmementH of rock, whidi 
wQi be foUowcd hy torrents uf carthr iiioanik-itnvut matter 
of paMtf fufrion, known as lava, and bore wo hate what is 
termed an active Toloano. 

Ilieiv are nevuml diatinctstagiiiiof Ih^in rali'anoM, nearly 
all of whkh laoN or leM interfere with wat«r supply. 

Submarine Springs. Diving for Drinking Water. 

It in not g;meraUT Ihou^lit of, thnt tiim ore upriiin of 
fi«*h water ereo boulnfir up Ui the 1x>tLou of Uti^ nvtn 
and cvea aeait. 

Aliitiif till! IVrxiiin Gtilf thorp is n tnwit of coimtiy, perhaps 
Ihi- bot.t«!it te^'itm <if tbi- ciirlli. Tin' lurid iii rurely 
rvfn>)ih*<d lij- riiu, yel tbi* p]ac« ih popiilalcl, niid wnt«ted 
by muBOrvuK frwu watar wariugK ; and, Hinitinre, thoac 
■pria^ are at the bottom of ilto wa, when tltL' froKh water 
ia obtained by dirinv, aa fuUowH : — 

Hm diin-r Bibi with a rumiHiniuii in a luMt. I[o titkoa » 
Iriad of bag, preferabl)' miuli.- uf i^mt "kiu; thin hi wiudn 
r>iuk1 his ana. holding the mouth of tho hag dosed. With 
the diflcnga^rod hand hothrowa a hetiry xiAno overbnnn]. 
which ia attached to a Uilo ; the ntone id alluwi-vl to full tu 
the bottom, ho mnkea good the line tn his boat, aud then 
joiapa OTcrboard and puUa hinuelt to tho bottom, linda Uh- 
C{Hng, holds the maath of hia bag: om the mouth of th<^ 

r'ng, the bo^ filla, and up both eome, he holding together 
uoolh of the tMig, and ia tjiiir-kly pidlod into tho boat 
by hla ooiufiaDioi]. 

TLrao uphngn tranil tho bnwpls of the earth for a roatt«r 
of Wveral hundred mili^n. Sotno nay (ire hiindrrd, whibl 
otbeia aajr aiz bmidr«<d nuli.->i distaut. 

Amorioan Aqueduct. 

I wtQ Just draw yuur attention to the AmcricKs water 
eupply for New Yorii, whit.-h they had in worhing enlHT an 
far Mck aa 1842, and han- iiirr(ihf«d it arr-ording to the 
growth of the dty ; m tli»l th'^y are cut by any moaaa 
bohind other ooitntrioH, ulUioug^h their place is of eom- 
parallwly new eiriliwitiou. 

Take iha Cn^ton aiin-tluot, which wa« commenced in 
1831 and complrktl in 1842, at a coat of »,61&fl00 dolhira. 

'nus lenf^ of thin mjuuduet in 4i>^ milen, 33 of whioh aro 
built of stone, brick, and cement, anibed bdow and aboro, 
harinp a capaeity for dinohar^nn); at leaat 8& million 
tpUIona prr diy. It iw lairtinl over the Bariem River by 
pipaalaid ujKiti IA Hruhee, of which Mven are 50ft. span, 
und v'l^ht of 80ft. Fptm. 

This bnd^ in 1 14ft. iihnvo low wrtt<T ninrk. 

At tluf pLuv whore thvCruton dainiii roni-t mated, thn wat«r 
of th" ori-^k wan 3Jlft. lower than the hoad of wst«r. hut by 
ff[.<Ui(; f iirtfavT up the liriw a dam of leas height would have 
iLiae, but a certain niaount of water .lupply arra would 
have l)Mn lo«t. 'llic How of wnler at thi' ilaiu avera^ftn 
muth about thr Kime an oiir llivet* !.«■. wiy fiO to (M 
mlllioo ffallona a diiy ; but the miuimtim U 27 loillluii 
fnllonB. Tbe water is held batk by the creek data for 
■hiiut six mtlea. fonniDg- in ir.wlf a largo roMn-oir of at 
Ibat 100 aorea, known lu Crotuu Luke. Tha capacity of 

thla tw^ervoir, down to «. p<rint whoro tho wati-r would 
oua*« to flow into the BiiuctliLi.t below, la about 000 million 
t;allDa<<, indepondent of thu rcvei-rinj rcMrToirw in the city 
ihcn built, oa{>able of cnntuiniuji l.^D tnilticiQ gallons mora 
whan full, whiuh to^thar uilurued a ruiKirv» supply of 750 
pallooa for seaaODS of extreme drought. Btvide^ all thia , 
in ease of great noceMtty, other atrouras can bo readily 
turned inlothf^ Croton rirArabore the rcaervoirs or direet 
into the uqueduet. So that you see the Americans, aa far 
baek an 1$4'2, provided a far better Kupply to their city 
tlurn we huro nC the preeent nomieiit t« thi.- lurtrest city in 
the world : and these AmMioana have not boon alow to 
keep up their watl^r supply proportionally to thoKniwthof 
thoiroapilal, which now exoeoda 190,000,000 galloas per 

SpHng and Well Water of England delivered 
in Cftlais. 

This it|>]M:ir!i eiirirnui, but why ahould it not be, oonndeiinft 
that th» l>>tiiim of the Channel is formed npen che follow- 
iu^ ; First thvnj u> a layer uf chalk marl im]>vn'ious to 
water, then one of peensamd, porans and oftpable of utiirA- 
tioD. and then an undxrlyinji^ layer of impcrviotts dar. The 
n.Tidur chiy nam imm KlmiI ami SuaaaS beneath the Cbtinnel 
l(j t'-ulain, the wattr in the CHlais wella oomiug frum raiu 
which fell ou thi) lulls of tho suutti of Euglund. 

East London Water Supply and Local Board 
Inquiry at Hacltney Royal Commtvaion. 

[Fiam (Mohtr \*t lo tht dth, <Htititirr, ISft'i.) 

Tu tho Srat place wo will speak of the East Londoa 
Water Wurk* Company, and take Uueo people as aa 
illustration of one case, whioh boa bioiu;fat about an un- 
noucmary aimiiint of (lownright twaddle, and. I i>s.y, an 
alarmluf: nmniint of uanenMsoiy iU-fevltni; thnm(fli 
iniuieprgM'D bii tiitiis . 

I hare aaid thtt a ron^tnnC «npply rriuiicd f<->r tho Eaat , 
Loudon Wutw Works Conipiuiy mujit be iimridul with 
proper storage. 

By Giamtuin^ other porta of this work yoa will boo that 
Ihe Eaflt Tjondon Watw Workii Oimpany depends ^roady 
upon the RiverLeaforlta supply. That the Rirer Leagready 
finotunbes. That In times of itbomis it is apt to, should tl)S 
loiul be eaturated with watCTi which, by-Uic-bye. haa nut 
boon the caas all thia spring and summer (for I bare had ' 
this fmm Mr. Corhir, who r<-i<nr.«-tit^ tin? Jahi CSonaerTamoy 
Board during the Huckniry Royal Coimuls^on on the Waler 
Iiiquirv} 3)c>™iinn flomlwl, .ind ihi« in ilu' Tery worst time 
forlAkiUK ^uf^r iuti) rttoraxv itnurvoirs on ueuuontoftho 
amount of both aninial and Toenlable sufasLanoe brought 
down with Ihe Htrcama. (See tftnlea.) 

IJoiv, thii \x\i\^ mi, aud the lucreaaa of popuhitiun and 
tho extraoTdiuary amount of waste of wateiTwhichia takhi|[ 
pbioe, touvUier with the drought of thu early part of tha 
seAMWi, this Company had an intiufiiiiiuat uEiiiunt of atora^ 
or mervoirs. The eoD^eEju'^iico i* tliii — that they were 
oompetled to rsdnoo their EUpj>Iy to a suitl«r of two to 
three hours pnr day (or a week ur so. 

Tho conaoqueooe has been this— that tho houao-ownen, 
to HQvn cxp)>nac>, havo thoroughly ignored patems, under 
the plea that ther are Insaidtury. The eonwequenoe is thai 
thesf poor people had not any memns ot pnriding them- 
selves with tho neeessaiy minply. liut thir matter don not 
mt here, there being an luiuureurtcut ut woriL 

Ncurly evmrbody ssvms, tlimiigh ignoranoei to be 
agaitijit the Qjinpauy, hocause they were powsrioes to 
vrapple with thv enonnous waste and ahortiicea of water 
from tho Lea. In fact, nearly the whole of the East 
Loiulati people attzibuCed this shortneas of water to Ical^ 
mains, and Btabbonmese or aasmsasgeBtent of their voi^ 

andHr. Bt)«ii, their finginMT. I tnuAl mv, hna hnm moat 
QtmWPnafuUy Ul-tuwd for tltat whtrli he lirta mil tli^ alijfhbMt 
ocntiol ov«t. Wby ? Simply bcoaaw three or four jrewm 
tffo he Bftw what was coniog, tud tb« Dsmaty to iacreuc 
the attumgo capadtr of their nwrrolT*. Anil th« 0(iin|MUiy 
applied til 1X93 and 1691 la Patlia.uiiCTil for gmtiita of uouej, 
and* Dill tDeiinpair<<Ttfa«in toilnKii. Ttiiii Biltwuaoppiueil 
by tbo Luiid(<ii Ctniiilv Ocuuictl uikI Co. Tbey duniiiUjT 
ntfuned to NBDOtioti tLs miNins nt cai}Itiil (or tho uoir 
storage aod pnmpia^ woikis n-hicli, hii>fl thn Bill paonM), 
Ifaa nanr rMorTairn wi>uM huri- l^wn ariiilitble l>y Un- timi' 
lbs Kuvlly ooDUiTfd, to tLo exicot of QOO milliiiD giiUmm, 
nod a tuv pompinf uppanitaB for [luiniiiiiK tliixv inilll'in 
pillfHu daUf ; M tlul you hco If tlio BtU Iind not been 
rejneteil tbnrc would havo be«n no dcRoiciuiy. Aod more 
than Lbi», had tiif* hmuK-'^ownori iiot liuri; dunu awHV vrith 
ihair oiitvnus or built bou«(« wIlhuutoititenM, «Tra tliauK^ 
the ffstcf vu aout>«, I mily bvlipvo tliat tliocv would hurc 
been no troubU 

8ufiu> nifty turn round and ray (which, luifortunnlcly foff 
tlio consuinera, they huTo), " Itut viiitcmii an> in*imtiiry, 
and not atKiimry under iJio cunMant supply.'* Then, I 
My, thftj- Iinuw nothidv of what they aro talking iibont : 
fur it io iiiipoMiblii to ftlwaya hare water in yntir hoiiMt if 
yon Ujivp h" riBlnro. For uw tiueof ropuirn, uddiUoiw ami 
bniukiiKui loiut t>oine, iind during thiH jwriiid when? aro 
yaui — forthfltimv tixa«lly iu tliu pooitlou that tliv Bint 
l<nnliriiKtn> havt- b«»«*n. 

Thtti r^n it lip mid ihnt you can nuikti aure of A oontitaal 
aupfdy witliuul oi»ternHf 

(h4icTTk:r, fnim a mnitory ptrint of rivvr. liavc boeu iiuul« 
and pnttmtdl I'VAraul ovftr ft|r<iiii for aL Iva^ thislafit2d 
ycara, ibuA doitj); awny with lbt» first poHion of iJir-or^L- 
incnl, T1i(irp arc vli>*> tatilm, witli pt^xw uimiitft din^'t ojf 
the main*, witi or wiihuut bull-t'ocltB (what wo call liigli- 
pnasnre tankHj, proridod with s [irv>per ttuutinic bull. Tuuiid 
rttUHOr, or ntht^r nir>Talra in ih^ir lop. which tantcN may he 
fixed beluw ^luuiid, ur nliovi:. nr tp any oiit*<)f-tlii>>wny 
place, and may Irnhnd tit «uilii!)l<i diniMisi'inii. in- Fi^. l.OHU. 

There iirv olhw (nultit known ai the AVatcr jlC^^K. '^hich 
wiU atand ularniing nivMumi. and nrrviM the wnse 
piirivMr : y<4 wc am tola that these taiilu are insanitary 
liy Uioae who wn« agnioat the Onnpany. But the Com- 
pany happmicd to htivo quilB a* rcunblM witnt^nnM. Piir 
nurtaneo— Or. DudAeld. vii.'c-lVwidmt of the Soeiety of 
ItadlMl Offlom of Health, and M.-diatil OEBrar to Kuuanff- 
ton, wbo oould ace no obj^tiun to the uae of dat«ma if 
pnptrtg krpt. Aod be reefrmmeudcd their \ac. nod wu^ 
Mtr])riiiGd at their being aboUahi'd uuywherc. Thoru wviv 
many other audi wimoiuea pr««eat ready to eotiflrm tho 

Of (viire", d»totaa. like vx-errthinir oIup, n-qnim lo lirt 
looksd after, and ill placva wIutv thvy will iioi luok Hflvr 
theac ciMema, then put tfav urdiHary roiuid, doHod-up. 
oimnlatinjr tankit in tVir uttiid. There i« bo patanc to be 
fcarcd, uiA, ax boTure iiaid. auch hiLve bceu In Tue for many 
jcum {Mat. and I know of nn place wbcTS they have nnt 
(pvou im-at wilisfuvtion. A» lo the i-Ioaot aupply, duriiiK 
iho tiniH riio wiittir itiuy be cut off for a few liours Idt tiio 
poople throw Ihcir dirty wiiUTilowTi. mul thcrr (.unnul be 
niiy harm for n, few h^ium ■buiild Uii.' wittier happen tu Ijl' 
turned off Ifarongh nniivi>idnbl« circnin«rAni'i>». whinh ia 
bound looocarotwomunally. and those who arftixj huy iii 
do this aro not of much worth to tlie living. 

Tho 81iattor«d Mains Bubble Inqufry. 

Thctv was a irreat deal Mud by Iho eninni>'?r fnr thi< 
Lond(»t Coonty Council and otbcn about tin.-, lu bn diit<L' 
lo tofm then, ahattcred mains of the Eaat Loudun \l*aUT 
Worka Companr, which guca in my miud to proro thiit 
there waa eometitJag iu tlie buckipuuud nf thia ntfatr ; f»r 

ht" difllinrtly -aid thut with tlii-<o pipro or mnina anmcthing 
(if BD piMptioniil rhsr/icUir wwurrwl, mmuiu^f the pmat. 
I'Mi« of wutrr tlK'n.-bT u^ Iu at 1o»at the rod of Jum^ ; whiUt 
the vhicf oifrincer, Mr. Bryan, disti&fitlr said, thfougb hia 
omniMl, Mr. IVmlicr, Q.C*. that the whole c^ Ibcir mntna 
woiti rfiKiin-d in Ii»ndon iy (A# 8(A of April, and iu Ibe 
rtmntry dj"lricl» h/ lht\9lh of Apr*i, wbiidn'oul J b*pri>vcii 
by voui'li'TH for t>p^ii)f the eround plncpd in tho Imndc ot 
the Tetrtrit-H, In faii. Mr. llr3-an ridii'uI'Hl iht idL« of 
HhHikTrcd tnoiiiH. which bo miluUntinlnl by the Toiiph<;r 
prtiofB, and iitlrnnitr<d tlin »ntjn> ahurtnewi of wutcr fur 
June. July, and AiiKu*t tn tltti djvuKht in, tho Loa V'Uvy, 
wbk^ for the firiit »ix laiiiitha waa iinproccdimtcd in bk 14 
year*' rxjteririii^"'. The rnmfall for the first aix months and 
B half l«iiiy only 6in., mid nulo Mny 26lli nil the re»ervoira 
wpro full and fivcrflowiiiif, but from liiat time (u'Arn 'A# 
piyt» *f*r* ali ri iinirrd), tiwy /ftl raptifty day (y day HHfil lit 
JiiA tffJ'iMt, viiii-n tlu-y were compeltnl lo cut off at nitrht 
far nn arcrage pcrioil of nine hount for ontr tw«>thirda of 
the Cirnipany'a nin*. The ntlirr Ihird waa not cut off 
beoause of the fire maintt. Tho How ol tbe Lon began to 
decrmuw on the 2Gth of ATiiy, wh^n it wna ten millioa 
(nllona IflM (VII the prcviiiiia dny ; nn th» SAth tt waa 
43.li09,n»0 galliitiv. During,' llic Ti'i.iuTh (d Jiinu the daily 
arnrajt" lluw w-a» (inlv 24,^)110,000 ir:ill(ni», nf irbirh tlicLna 
Oonserviiiiiy wun biiUtUd (u tiiko .^.IdO.OtiO h'allona. After 
June SVth Uio How was (<mher decrea'>pl to 'X'i millloo 
g-illnna daily. (>n Jniy 1£th th« esrricr to Iho ronaumcn 
WAA rediiua) to thirw houn a day, Atts ttrvrrvXT* bnnK 
tintc tin ally empty. The serrip-a of tliree hours p?r day 
tantod till 28lli of July, ur jtiat a fortni;^t. It wiw thvn 
increaaod to nix hoars ii day. nnd atand pipes were ercted. 
On Au;ruat lOth it wu* furthrr iiu-rpa»cif to cIo»ok hoiint 
pvr day, luid t'viduiitly made (.vuiitaut aj^aiu on the 8tb of 
There was uu truth that a Klinrt scrvioe was given tn any 


IVmtri-a were jmt up, asking PonwinirralLninoiniw their 
naL-'r ujt tniicli uu posiiible, t^getliuT writh 17 i.i>')0 h.mdbiU 
imtido", and uilvtfrtuementa in tto (UKlrim piiji'rs, 

Tliviuiiount of water pumped per bead for laoh day was 
aij fottow-i : — 

The wwk ending July h\h. 40 K*Ilonp> : July ISlli. 99 
galliiOK ; July litth, %'i Kutlona : July 'tttb. It H'nllona i:H« 
mlmmum rvitobed) -, Autmat 2iid. 32 gaUou)! ; Au^^ust 9th, 
£3 gallons: August ICth, 3:i gaUons: Augu«t ^Srd. 3G 
gallons ; AuguHt 30tb, 36 gnllona, 

Ht<, the engineer, emphatically denied that the loav "( 
wHtor wns tmoogh ahatteml miios. and unributed tho 
iwarcitj- to thi^ failure of the Ui^-er L<^4. dun to drought, 
and beiU}r barr.-d by not tuiving tlie tiecunat^' Purliiimenlary 
grant simght for, whirh wua opponed by the London 
County roiiiicil, f<ir ninhi»;i tlie ueeessury slorags rewr- 
ruirs und manbinery. which would faaTc enabled diem to 
have tided over wli'at bo had forosoen, the shortncaa of 
water, yi-ar* piwl. 

Mr- Bryan was neverply crose-PTaniined by Mr Ba1t<'<trJ 
BnwTi. O.C, for llio uuhlic, and Mr. Frwmuii for Ihcj 
London County Coiuteil. and also by ih(«e aptwirliig »nl 
behalf of the dlSereDt vestrica, but which cTideuco euulo] 
not Im< shaken. 

Quantity of Water used by eaoh Person Daity.j 

The following i.i luy eTperleneo : Thai what i* suffit^ki 
for ono honse la totaUy iiindoqnate for another. I 
niiiiilicr IJjrBc IU iiw, twck, thr(H'. 

FinlJy— Tiik»> what Im called a fIraUclass houac ; anjKtf 
wvrti iu family and two w:>rvauu. \ 

Such oonfUtiterM, when un tho constant syxtem, uae m- 
niore water than when the intermitteut euppff is girvn, j 
f.illiiwa :— • 



The tnojler ia tike morning mnst bsTc liis hmth. H«n> 
[ go m tbiitf Ki>II<ii»>. Say tluit cmlr Imir out of tlifl mvta 
' Sjee ouo bitli per day. Heiv to l^tfia wiUi b 120 ^ttllouf . 
vfajnh in the xmnnicr ia often doubled. 

Thr rJiiHcln, tit) llir av(-r>){r<. are Qiwd, In Aiut Uiroiighoiir. 

thv biKunf. tv'W K (la^. Hnd the handle in pulled imicntUj- 

Iwfnro nnd afler uw, whicb represettta. tn hij- (hi? ]on«^ 

iBiffltt gnlkoiM for Uio four pooplo caclit or ouotbor ci|rbc 


Sltanld Ih^rc be ft apraj bath, whinh is now becominj^ 
Kmeral in UrK* Immmm, tne Mnuunt of wat«r lULcd 'will be 
double for bxlb purposM. 

Cookiit); ukI for culinnry purpowM, At leut, on the 
ercTnire, tltrr<> ^IIaiu la requiri^ lot cacth jit-rMta, laaking 
■nnilwr twelve gal 'on*. 

Water for bod nxan purpoHux, RV(.'rBiro ono gallaii aaah 
porsuo. WalJ!r for wtuthin^ flo<m«, or ooruhbinp {mfpofm, 
nraai^ the niiiiunnm (jMautil.r two gallons nor duy for 
mch pcrsioii, wbir.h bnngH iih np to I7CI g.iIIonH for 
four i>:^plv, wliicii in liii' Biiuirtiw tiino, when i-vpiiiiiK balbi 
an) r«(i<tuwl. brio^TB ue up to 'iOG fnilloiu, which. divideJ 
bjr foort you hurc 7^ pnlloiui to each ponton, to say nothing 
■bout waste, f^rdi.-u !>u]i|>lieB, Ac. 

llieaie are itpms whirb hare come niider my pcraunnl 
aMiiN miay jrVBre pant, imd at tbo pniTiit time. 

The Poorer ClasB of Houses. 

Tini of all it the body wtwhing, nM|uiriii^ tbrm gnllonM 
for emtrii ponton per Any. 

CloMta — attUl (piUviu. 

Uictello ptirpoM-i- two Knllnnn. 

Iiinon watihni^- four ^nllnnn. 

HniMU iwrnbhiiif; tttxA ddrl wnrh — ono gsllon. 

Thia ia tlt« Wet tlH^y (ion do with b> keep ifaemtblvescJoau. 

Here it amoantA to IS ^nlloiii per ^neh pcnrm. 

Tbla I liiiii' It-Ttli-il hy ini-trr in Kly I'l^<>>, Kiu}fi'1a[id, ao 
1u back an 1873: alwi at thu MixU-t Ijutl^'iag Hou««, 
Hint Strmtt, Borough, ao late as 1^0, nod in many plac9» 

The WAHle, if only a Ma. pipe. Iflt to rnn full bore one 
' vill u>« up 4110 tfiillniis. and ha« imouutt'd to a* mud) 
M,"'"'- " •-- - *■ '-'li'iiiifht, Wrinifa tip ruoiiinjf for 

1 uiiu>. There ia a jirwvaVut idea 
:iiat if K dniin ahould hnpptn to 
thiit II mjiiinti ttit-'^iii^, and thMie people thLnk 
liiig i.'f «■ itiitic t.ficir Ir.fw to run full bot* for boura aud 

»tt, j'fK, and nigbt< upon nifchtx tugvtlii^. wliilut, in 
Vr, aiii^h atinka aru pouriuK from (be eewer iutu their 
timr^ fir ihr v^niii of proprr trapping, io. 
Ali>i;li I ' i!:,L [lumry ainmiiit of vrontc take* plflM 
VOj; f-iiatv vi-.t}>';r by ||H-o»Ie Utarin^ their to ruu 
^t am! day fur wni'kn towetiM-r, thi'V ktiowiiifr thn.t wli-^n 
^nr ruoii throU).'li tb« piivn the wutcr fivui thu ntn.i!t 
JM*** will bo of sufficient t^mperntniv to prrTenl thoir 
^^^ from IrcfKitiji. nil. I 1 hi*vc cunsultrd (Jio water work* 
' of my tivitibbourhood. and olhvr \i\aw*, a» to wbut 
iUik wtuld be their loss of water frnm thi.- mrtinnlar 
and 1 am nwured that it haa amounted to, at loott, 
^■U of the ordinary aopply. 

pimiddle claaa hdno- ran b<> very w«11 token on the 

M eoming bvtwi^.ii tbu twj. This I have t«sl«d 

lovera^n. wil.bont bavinp the nU^hteat regard 

ting between thr r^omtomar jind the wat«T worka 

, nor liari! I thi' faiiitrat inti-nwt on tirbnlf of nirluT, 

in the iiiter*«it«i of juntice, fur, ntthouKli I bave 

II up ua nnyoiiL' should do when tho fncte aru brau^ht 

_Utfht, It abnald lie known t])itt I am mi/ ntou uiU/r 

■Err, and. thort-foiv. quite iudojirndc-ot and di!iinl<.'re!it«d 

lADythidfi ooDiHM'ten din'<:tlr or indtnxrlly witli th« 

' cora|mile«, Ihoir Rt(jiLK>, iLartti, or pi-o^v i-ouui.*otcd 

>«TiU), or their outuumurv. 

Qarden Water Supplies and Waste. 

The amount of wanti- which govo on in lininit of dmn^r^jt 
for what I* known oa garden Hupplioi la boyoud 'jonwption. 
The water ia timally Inid on in good fnit^i that the 
rcni'^inkiir will Uae it jndii'joUfly, and ncoonlinx' tit about the 
rite of the garden and fi\n^» buutc*, m* the amount of wnlc* 
rnv i* oharuvd. But afior everything haa qoietvd down 
and all forjfotlcn, excepting liit* oolWtion of rate*, you 
may go to the book part of aomo of the houaei, and I could 
mention doiteBO about thia tutrticular nrighltourlKHxl who 
hare, ainoo tbo putting on, lutmdnood the lawn nprioklar, 
Figa. ti2 and 91)3, also nuall fonntsinfi, which latt«r are 
■Uowod to run week in and week out diirini; the Hummcr 
time. Now refer to the ]awn (prinklir, Fig. il^2. 

Tbta wiU only play vtLt over a certain area when the 
(in. pipo in full on. 

The founuin plnya for a cinorter of im hour In poch 
pkce, often a much lougor tim£-, t^podally if forgotten, 
nnd Bay on h. good fixed lawn it riqinrvx tpn nhift*. Here 
is 1,000 gallons or mow mt day. ^ay it ia u-kmI ihnv ditya 
a. week. Thb will equal 3.000 galloua. Say one out of 
ton houan hiia auoh ajiparatna. If tro \* 300 gnllouA to bo 
aildcil to tluT Giinaumcr'fi nuanlity, and ihut i» one of tfao 
places out tif dojtena beadw-a, which ia tiuiea of dnmght 
pluj'a an important part in Iha (ihortncM of the wutcr supply. 

Builders' and Painters' Water Supply. 

It in not gpnerally known that thia amounts in one ymr 
', to at Ec-ust 1 00 guUvuii pgr house of nveu rooms, and so uu 
in proportion to the hIim of the huuae. 

As a rule mast of ihis waU-r is l.-tken in the dry scasun, 
anil «■ wo have at Icvut 000,000 hmuwK, it nifui* a tiioe 
Utile drop, which is sonrcely ever Uioughi about. 

London Water Supply and the Details of the 

Welsh Scheme. 
114,000,000 GiLLOHS ta s&to to bk PBOcrrsaBix rnu Day. 

The London OMiiity Otunoll haii onthoriaed its Water 
Conunitlee to expend £'i,dOO in niakiDganrvcysandot)l«in- 
ing other infarmaiJon with rmniaot to the aohenw fur 
obtaining a water eupplr from Wale4. In the Qrst plaee 
the Conimittco Tinted the site of the jvopotwd LLugom 
rdscrvoLr. The supply to tlmt rwiervoir would lie miunly 
derived from tho u{ijK-r part of the Unk valley by conduita, 
whidi would Hkirt the hills at an altiliidn that would Ivare 
the lowir and more populous portloua of the valley entirely 
untuntihed. The wntcr from tfaoae uphuid drainage ureas, 
121,000 aoreein extent, inrJtiding thodiatrlot of tb) Blaek 
ICountaiua lying ea»twan1 of the town of Bremu. would l>e 
led by nooduits for the aupply of li'md^m into a larws reeer- 
voir, whidi couid be eoononuoally ii>rm«d uu tho Bt« of an 
existing idudlow lake railed Llangorfa. Ilu) top water 
lev<.-l of the lake, aft^r )>eiiig raised !>3ft.. would he otidfth. 
aboTo the sen, and ii.M arvn wunld be iiMovased Irvm about 
i^A to 2, HOP aaiM, bcdag fire mlloi lonfr by one tnile and a 
half broad. Tbe ormtonta would bo anont 38,000 miltiua 
gallons, and the dam lu rt-ljiin tlmt mnrmoti* quantity of 
water would be only 130ft. in height u« an extrome, and of 
oompantive shtnt lungth. Of tho purity of the water 
that would fill thin rcMerroIr, tho Commitioo irpcsUc in high 
terms. The eonatrootiou of this rewrvoir would involve 
the diTmiiion of a portion of the Mid-WalcB> and Bmym 
nnd UcTlhyr Bailwava near their Juuetion at Talyllj-u ; but 
that direreioti could be ensily etfeoted, with advantage to 
thrt milwaya. After tnakhig dedtictions for dry years, 
evaporation, uud torn ptasat ion, a supply of l8'i,0{IO,000 
galtona a day oould, it H said, be obtmnsd from that source, 
"From this reiwrvoir," the Comniittev say. " tho main 
sqaodnct would conuneooe and curry water to London^ 



IXTO^ joitird Mt ». di*tiince of mboit Mvcn mUtm trtan 
I.1iuK^r«0 W tilt- iTJbiibirlod which would Huw in from th« 
northwnrd.' Thcj- point oat ih&t nuib ol tlii propwod 
tp«rrrriin woiiltl rirnituin IHR dayii' Atnmi^. Xoxt wba 
vUitnt th« tHwrvotr in tin- Tnwy *»II«f ilirtriL't, from whif-h 
wiitor TOuId bo opoductod tij- mijRJi" tit a lunnpl 4\ milni 
lon^, inlo ■ rowmijr ^unpoHcd lo be ooustru'-ied »i Uw 
riviT Vrfon. •hniit a mile abore the village of LlanyniB. It 
WAV at tliin point that th« Mooikd gn^t bniTH-.h of the 
wJipnii> Wduld In hicjit«d. IliRm waa an ftr^lfebV druiiiHf^ 
wa of imiif 1)7 .000 •one ruaidng up to altittidw uf fmw 
l.TdOft. to i.OOCft. above tho MB. A dam ttfrnM-* ;hu river 
IfMft. in <«xlr«m(> hrlirtit vmiM form a lake ?,6iU acres in 
ftna, the top wnter of whbh « ould bo HOMt. oboro th« Mo 
level, and waold contnin 31.090 inilKoii gallona. lliat 
]altf vmild (ortn. Mrlih tbn inlaiul which It woiild c<nit»{ii. a 
me»t pietuTi^wjiip obji'ct Lti ih« luiidHcapo, it hainnir a 
Mirpontinci nonm' nf ornr tax mit« in Wfrth, with thrrx 
brandiM to tlia norlhwurd frifn threo-qimrtere tii oin- 
mitn and a half in Im^th. In thin ch^d aW a divt^ndoii 
(rf ihe Central "WaW ltjiil«-oy wonld hi iwjuircd. In 
nddilimi 1u the nnluml drabiiigc> ar<^ uf tho rivor Yrfoii, 
Ui« drainage from l'»,B(10 ncTM erf thx Upper 'rnny 
ondd bfl ppurpd iiilw tin? Yx1*m rcwrrwiir by divtTiini; 
the Hair of tho Rimr Towy aa abeiidj nvnticmcd. i'rfoi 
thcMO t«ro areoa on th« towy nod the Trfon a mipj>1y ni 
13.S millinn cnllnna a day vua avivEliiHe !<«■ IjWidor. nfti* 
making' Htviid aUii"''>[i''e'" for drj ywirs, cxKiipi^aiitifai to 
tho KUvr Vrfon, and th* propti pniportioa ot (rmi'tittitti'ii. 
In Ihfl ^-alloy of tho Mtr, « tributary ot thp Wye- (how 
nbiout thn tmipli! Uvtnuc un tliL- luiuVi of this WYB Eivcr, 
day llpn-iftrrl, irbirb I* Tory riiort of wBlfw now in fhr 
■iiinm'T tim??i— thpTo waP on Bvn'IuliI" drutna^ an'ii "f 
1 7,0('0 arK*>, t>itiiat(Kl abavo an luljiilnible fitA fur a rcmrvoir 
of «iU iiCTCH in cxleiit, tho top irM«r of which would bn 
70(lft. ahcrt-o *nt Jpvcl. Tlii» dminnffn an^n itri noniKHiivl nf 
rodot of the npnor and lovrur mhirtiiTi livrl^-ti, wkh i-cri'tin 
intcrpnlatMl volcank bcd^. and -vrauld givo n (■apply. nfltY 
dry jroara, ovaporation ftinl rwntmiMtidn hnd lux-n a]tr>wf<] 
(or, cl IB milliaB vallunaaday. At a »j.ii; ubjiit fuur 
miles above Rbayawr theie vnu a ronarknbly good rite of 
about litOWt Bflni, the wholo of which in ctumpowd of Uio 
iftvtrr ftitnrinn bcdn of tho I.landovory aeries. It ran up to 
gr(«t iiltitudw uf uver ■J.SOOfl. on tho nlopenof Wytiiimmon. 
A rpdorvoir bartnir nnumkof 900iu!nHi<!oiiMbocatiiitruntul. 
Itaoxtremo Itmcik would be H^iuUee. with an cxtrvcuc 
hmodlh (^ about half a ini1<>. Tha dun would bo about 
ISOft. in height, and thfi rnpAcity of the Tff^TvMT lOtAflO 
millvm fpUlonw. Friim ilmt reaervoir, after providiixK 
for dry }-oan, vvanoruiion nod conip«nRation, n. supplv of 
nbutit IS nulUoti guloiuf ii dny c>>uld lHT*ib(ainnl fiirlMJU'liin. 
Tlie lart inBfiefitiou waa tlut of the Ithon Valipy. At a 
point about a milo above the village of VntrKdrnny. thcro 
waaan avsUabla dntinage ansa uf iJi,l)0& airi-K, running up 

to altitudea of from l,aOO to l,&oafb ahon th« ««. A 
nnu?rvoir rould bo coustmoled of about MO acna in uxtfnt. 
H'hioh n'oiiM contain about li.OOD million gsllona. and gfrv 
a ftiipply of :tT miUtoii galloiM lUilr for Ixiiulun. Frum tlic- 
•aurmt indimtod, a total of i\'-i milliini giilluiu a dny roiild 
boohbunL-d. Thou, in the opinion of tlw (>)ii>aiittef, th« 
achoine nppc-ant to aflord tho piwprot of a pure and plenti- 
ful Kupply. On the queMdoa of potfty, howcn-r. thcj 
proprMC to take further ovidooce. Jleanwhile they ore 
enaployinfr wvenl euginBera <m the mawpyn, and tb^ 
pnonian tho Cooncil further infonnatioii at tho rnilloat 
paaitihie opportuiuLy. Tho Cr>mmitlM' nibnit no rvcon- 
TDondatiou^ but in eoneliiaion tlw^- amy that "Ono of the 
0Av«iit«gM of the aeheine ia that it may be cnrried out by 
iiutaliuRitA, md that, BamnuDg tlio preaent Mrtirec* of 
Pupply to !» Biainfnfnij, a enpplcmeotary e-jirply of purer 
nnd raopp wbolewiiie wattT may bo obtjunid front Wa!»» 
mSEuiitnl for the n'qniri>n>pnw of London forty yeant haw*, 
Bt p. ooht lit I'V, Ef at all, cxt'ccding thai which would bo in- 
cunvl 1 y tlip foiTiintloo uE KscrvQln in the lliamrM Valley." 

Anf>th<Tp(vmgi™pli In tliofumo OiinniiUw-'a r«>pcjci will 
aak lltf Ciniiuil to eimclKin on HLjiinclitiirr' o( £35 thai ha* 
ViTfTi innmrd in riiinwit.iiTi witbuiti;rtiiii(*ipir^i>ian»inatiiiia 
bf the ituor 9itii}H^iil4>d umttcra iu Loudon wator, thera 
cx&miuatloaHhaTingbocnaBdenakoB "to tu to ditfcnMitinte 
DK. fir n« poa4bto llu TUiocui amoUer ormniaroii, cupec-i^Iy 
tlf }Micttria." 

Tbo I'ailiAOiontjiry Oo'imitl-i; will submit a report with 
n-fiTtaiue to the WaW (Tnuwfer) Billfl, which, on the Mi 
July, IHOri, in vif-w of tho difiaobiHon of Parlianteuty the 
Camii'il doi?idod tu Hiui-M-nd unlil tii-xt jinwiaa. TLn Com* 
rrritlro riilimit tbc following recommendatioti :— " That, 
■Vxlring ibiit tlir xitpply of water in the atstTDpolu and ihf 
turrouudii.g cluitHi:t-< Mtiutilil be in the baooH of a puhlio 
aiithnritjr, mid n-itb a riow to a oomplote agn-cucnt with 
nil pnrti(w ctitioxmod ovi^ tho ontira ares aiipiillcd, the 
p-ininril do invito H.M. Gkivonmont dlh^-r to doal with the 
question thmft^hrefl at to appoint a Royal OimnkiMioo to 
dono."- Mr. Stoftrt, M-T.. lii« givco notice that he will 
move, nnd that Mr. HtiKiimou Wixnl (Cliainiuui of 'he 
Committoe} will Kccond. thi,* nmondniL'ot: — "That tlw ^b 
for the ittinhnMe of thu Londcm Water Compantoe ho nn>> 
eeedod with." 

A reoommiMidatinn wan «iilitnit(t>d b^ tbe ParlianMiutaiy 
Gommitleo, in roEonuioe to the eight Wat'ir Rills pojiuotsa 
by the CouueQ in the lairt Beaaiou ot Farliaiii«tit, iluB the 
donaoil invir/i the Oovenknent either to deal with Ac 
qiunttoii of wiit'ir mipply ihrm^lrm nr trt iippoint a Royal 
CutumituLim. Mr. Btuurt, M.E*., itiured m an iimimdinent 
that tho 1lill< for the pun'haso of tbe nodertakiuge of the 
Loudon water couipaoiev bo priH-vi^vd with. After a 
debate, in the eoune of wfaioh Lord Farrer opiioaed the 
iimendmentt it wae rojeoted hy 6iio&9 votes. TIm dot»l« 
wjut then adjuomed. 



Ovfayi''^''fl)e tolrent power of water, it in nov^v niut 
irtdl b« ■bite of piuity. tboogh unqocetiraDbly rain water 
ia uMrer ttiia dtate thtm any other. Thia class of wat^r ia 
gimer»11y mixnl with ntmuMpberin air, to llii^ extent uf 
about 2) por cent. There an> vnrioiifi m^thiida of getting 
the air out of wnter, but th? one I pn.-f«r is by boiling in a 
retort lutM to a pnoamatio npparatui>, whioh may 
readily be ondentoDd by leferenM to J. J. OriRlnV Qate- 
logue, or to almost any wnric on Ohpmiatry. Try RoMue's 
w Blmcjua'a " £hniieiit«ry Chiiuistry." 

Should yon muqieot tho pn^mw of any of tbo iollnlw 

in yonr water, and have no cbomwol look to woilc with! 
the ft)1lowing mr-ihodn wiU be oiwful and nwot intexeoting 
ia your spara ereningx. 


Carbonic arid not combined with a iMse. or combined in 
rxcvNt, ''■fin b' diacovrrri'l aw foUowa. 1 . lime water Docaakns 
u urc<cipitiili< wJiihln wiib rfFervesMDee la bydnddofto 
acid. i. The infusion uf litttiua ia nAdniad, but the nd 
colui diaappeors^ and ooa be natored by oddii^ 





aum of the miiimHl water. 3. 'Alifin bodied it haet the 
(impcrty f>f mi'iciiinir (ho infuaiim »f iitniu*. 

lliunnl vidi. if jntHBitt unruinbiiunl in mtftT, girt wi 
infiioioa (if litiuiu & pernuiuQut r«d, no nutter if tw water 
tUM bwu builod. 

Smcnov 1. 

Wnter ooutuiiinfT Uiin cmi be dieting) liabed with Uit< 
following. 1. I)y m pemilitu- odour, 1. U mlilcDnlitiniiH 
fitt:«douiilj-. It bUoluuu Lend iwl Ya\>cr, uid predpiltthw 
nitnto of ailvir, lirovn orhIa(;k. 


AlhaUno uul oartby oarbouatctt uutj bfi di»tiii^LjiIied M 
folluwtk. 1. Bran infaninn of tiirmorio, or with tnnaeric 
to*t pspor. wSloh i» nndnrnd bruwu or n nxhUab brown 
Nworaing to tlui qiuntit)'. 3. Pnpcr Atainod with Brazil 
WMul, or U) inftMon of this, will bo rendottd blue: but 
nul« thai tiiii' i» aW> i>mduu.Hl br alkalioia and lauthj- 
(urbcuiAtc*. 3. LitiDQM [laper t«ddpiiod by vinegar in 
■ntCond to it» origiuiil colutir. 4. If Uumo chnn^fM W 
fugioioui witb tbo~ alkali, took out for annnonLa, irU^h 
jrcMi mn nMly discover trith the Ncador toit for ommonift 
(litoufHi uxne»clingl]rdelicKti>), whirJi any guod cbrmiit will 
nuk« for you. 

Ai.KAi.[r.s (kixed). 

TImw exitt iu wai<T, luid oMUision a preoiptditu with 
moiiBtv or cUcrido nftce bmnir boiled. ViMBtik alkali onn 
1)0 dbtingolsbod by th« muJl. It oui oIm bo Bren with 
llu) Hbove tesl if you distil a portiou of the watnr. 


TlM'io mny be ot*cnri)il by prci^iptt«tii>n by butlinK the 
water, exLwjit tlui curlxinatc of iu(||^(m>u, wlutth ouia only 
be i«wipltatod Lnipcrfcotly. 


ThtJi CAn be diaeovcnMl by tiuctuiv of Dutgalla, whiuli 
[nve* water nontnining' ircm it pnrplo or bWk K>lour. If 
tbp linoliuo Has no effect uj^u the wutvr uftor botlitiif 
{Ilipugli it ooloon it bcfcm] tlio iron ij in n stato of 

The fullowiug ore uaoful hint*. I. A riulet in()icfttc« aii , 
«ll(aJinii carbcinvte or eartbir niH. Dvrk piirpli> indionto^ i 
otbcT nlkaUiie Mltd. Pur]iliim indtcutoK i<iilpburi,'ttcd hydrc- 
Itfa gM. >Vlutiah and then tdaok iadioatea BiUphAt« oi 
linw. 'J. 11l4^ potoMtum forrooyaaida will occaaion a kind 
of blue prefijjiute iu tlia watm' cootaiuiiig iron. If iin 
aUnili bo {tTiNiODi, tbo bliio precipitate doea not appoar 
ntiam th« alkali in AitunU'd with lui add. 

Poiaonoua Metals. 

tian an Tarioue kindit rrf polHaooOR mcftala wliinh at 
Unea eaotatninato onr wnt<Tr, but I sIiaI] only tr«at upon 
tliO HU moot cytmtDun, niuiu'lv, iron, Wd, xinr, rnppcir, 
arMvia nnd barium, anil *liall Iny futrilciiliir •Iren upun 
]mi1, na It tonoM nn imp^nat ilc?iii in this antilm» of 
water, and no annlyai.^ trf drinkinir wm'r in perfort without 
*'-*-'-- iar this parti<-ulnr tii«:ta1. Ltnd iinOrrfroc* nu 
in a dry atmoiiphrrn. ntr wen whnn tt^nlM np in 
of piitv water, oun^iinlly rf thii wut^-r had Ut-ti 
• iuti«Ir botlvd to BSp«l all nir, and under sut;li raws tho 
•al will retain ita hhUiimry for an indeAnito poriod: but 
If tfXpwed ti> tJie iiuiLi^l ncliiin of air and pur« water it 
will bt ouimkly niibjwt to a pt'wcrfnt corroBJon, Hnd boponoe 
o^rdlxM at llifl surfiici-, and lli«» itn oxidv of lend ib 
fcOBvd, wUich ia ivadUy disHolved by thu wat«r; thin 

MdutioB readily abaorbM carbonfe ai:id, a flint of hydratod 
o»ycnrbonftl« .if Irad (PbO. HO + PbO. COl) iadepMJt«d 
in dJlty arales ; tlioa a irvA portion of oiidc ia JmtuA, 
whioh again in diuolnd by the wihtor, aod mi it, the water, 
boooniM poiaoDMi. But von mmit Iw nnrtiotdar to noti<« 
the rJrcnmatanoBa wbitb uaji produced tuia, namBly, that of 

fMfV WHtOT. 

Ther« are variouH Idnds of miiu minh u Halpbatrc, 
fdiofiphatM. and carbonat«ii in wat«r, which modlAu all 
thin, f r4 nthcn, auch ancblLiridni aiul tittrait«, will tacreaee 
tin- rMpidify of tJm rnrniaion, 

All osiilV of kitd i« acanely Mlublu in wat«r whlcb 
Ctmlain aulphntw, the phoaphatcji, and the oarbowiteo. 

Bieaibonato of Ihnc la nmurkablp for tko prea<^rv:itiva 
inBnpace whieh it ««rta on lead, Ihnw »prin^ wnic t^ vrry 
rarely act upon tho metal to iiny dnnffpronn nxtmt, and 
hence one r«a«on why I have n^eumwi-ndrd n gumj t^onx of 
hot lime wuah to be put on all leaden elalcnia, uwd (or 
the Blirt-iiKf of water for drinkirid purpoMa, vdtloh fornia 
a tllu of inaoluble (.'arbonate of lead upon tho Hurtaco 
which protects the ne'al hmwith from furrhiT injury. 

I'ortiMpH Home of Dty btetlir<->n may <>bj^-t tu tiuanuing 
1 Loirwork ow-r with limo wbiIi. Let that bv how it m«y. it 
i»of gtvat inipDrt&iii-v iu Jt» wiuitary baarlnjp, and «u«;h 
bcdnff the eaao, whctlier it oSeudd th« ey« or not, it ahatild 
ba oone. 

Rain watrr u at timei ooUerted for hoowihuld purjtoBeR, 
and prrat am nauat bo obeorred to aacertain wiiotli^-r this 
w«tt>r In Hiifficiently impure toprovnit nrtion upon the lend, 
if such bo uanl for iho (riaterutt, whi<r)i lunr be aaoartahtod 
by /idilinp n dnip of eolourlivai »iiTphido of anuntioiani tO 
a IHirti^in of thi- water i»ik^>ti initn llio cistorn after a few 
dayV Htaudiug, tb« loDBvr the better. Tlio wator «hou)d 
bo bold in a amaU oyUndDr atanding upon a white aurfocv ; 
dionld thorn be any Imd the walvr will diirken, if not 
tl will remain Tinaifectod ; and it would be qulto aa woU ta two oylinden, one to contain water with the trot, the 
other tu contain the sample without tho t««<t. If wry 
minutj) pnrtiiinii of lend iir>- there, slowly evnponitu the 
water to about a hntidmlth part, when your t<wt will 
be onti hniidriHl tini(>*i morv powvHul, 

iVnotlHT w«y of teeti-g whether there he any action 
of rain »al(T on Icsil U. by cleaning two flrip« of tho 
itK'lal with n khave bouk, and leam on* pirfix^tly clean, tlw 
othtn- allow to tjimiBh of itadf; p!aoc the twv in two 
Imikerv of witter, and leave thom to utAnd for a we«lc or en : 
tlieu lako a flaak (a ohild's feeding bottle will anawer}, and 
put two or threw littio bita of tmtpiiilf of iron tlu-nnn, Kod 
a aolutioD of mx of walur and ono nt lMn<M^nt^3ted oulpbuHc 
acid, whi^^h will generate aulnhunrltiMil hydroxna guc 
Now witli iL Kmiill tube pcrfeetly clf^an (a small tube of 
jllaa* on to the end of tlie mbhcr nf the f'vdiag boltlo, 
the bottle ahnald berorke-l and Ihe unly unllntnt the tube], 
nouri^y a few bublilm of tho Biilphwett«d hydrogm 
gaH into the bottom of the bcalcvrn eontaining the water, 
a/ltf lie nttlallie Uadu u-ithirauii, and notico the diffomiM 
in the eoliiiir of thn liqiiida. If there 1« none, got a third 
bcnkrr of tho riiu wiitet befoin it has puwiDa into the 
ciBttni, ttnd ooraparu tim thrco. 8hi>uld then be no 
difference, te«t nil tho wnton with a colourkiut mtlpliidi* of 
nnimoniuni, luid iilm> with ti nalutian of colourod MilplJdo 
(jf nmninniiiiu. It you can find no ehaiigu ym may nfm'^Bt 
rely that lliere be uo lead prvse&t ; but if yoii i^hotdd 
ilii^oovft tnunee of !(tad you mnrt Tintlrm it, and nlno 
get tho amount, which ia dune by drujiping two or three 
drcipa of acetic tu'\A into >h»iit a hundr^-il cubiu oenti- 
mmea of wutvr, and nbout (ivu cubiu centimetres vA tlu> 
wilutico of the iietore-meatloned aulphurrttcd bydrojgvn. 
Vou wilt h«re discover a tint, which can bu tyimpriml 
by fonnipg nn artificial Mmph> miwle by aildlng a ku'ivu 
({unntity of Bolation of •nltit of Wad U> una buodnd eubio 
centimctiva lA dietillod water. 

Diatolvtt 0'831 icnun of crjritalliMd normiU nngKc of leoil 
in a litre of pure -vmtor. Thi* will pnxluiw a. Bolution 
coiiUtimnir OOOOl gnun of mAUllin lead in lUO.MO pwtK of 
walor, wluuli wu uuw csll UK>NT»ndflniiolution, uod whl<-h, 
if divliled by the umpli^t funa at 10, tliu nnmbcr of L'ubio 
UGntiinotm nooded to pruducw tliv ciiuct txdoui, or tint; 
u cbo wmplo for oomparuon of the pure vratcr. 

Tbete mn Htme hI(« of Imd which nrf^ NC«m>ly ftoliible in 
jNiro mitar, namely, Ihn hydn>l«l <>xycarI>ODA.t« of Icttd : 
tbiii wUl Otily talw up lii pure whU-V ono part in four 
aulUoM, or about one nzdetn of it vnui fvt ftmlloa. 

Otido of lead in HoluUoti and in aoludon of di«tilled 
water, nj four or tlve ffruiua to tho gnllon, bAOOmrs fillad 
with «1)^ orjriitalif of tho hydniind oxj-onrbaiutLe when 
exuMcd tu thu air, uwin^ to t£e Bbsorplidn uf larbQalo wdd, 
■nil in a few hoan tbo wat«r will not coutain thp motAl in 
Boliilioii to ■ ({TiwtoT extent thnn (m« four mitliuDtli [inrt. 

Watvr, if Iiif^T clnirK«<l wilh«arboato acid, nay, lu-ver- 
tbelMa, dluolrB lend to « dangerom extont, uwiotr to tbo 
aalubility of ths corbotialo of leadinaxooHol earbonic aaid; 
btit wbcoi wmlj>r is thus imprei^ttled with the laod and !a 
buileil. tbe ga* ia cxpellecl ami the carbonato anbttidaa. 

Lfud ie rtpiily <x>rtxKlvd wbcii in aouMot with wot 
HiilTihnttf of limi.-, a> thftl it should nut bfi bronifbtiu contuct 
wiUi damp ittueoo or pIa»tor : in fact, so bad wa« n ranc of 
thin kind, that tbo wh(>l« of tbu limd paraffin tAnki at the 
AUiintiv ^Vbarf, Bow Comnion, many i>f wbirh «rB Kwnty 
to eighty feet loiif;, tw><nty to thirty feet wide, and from 
N){ht»ea to twenty foot dMp, I biid to rclinc aftnr tho^ hud 
bfivo down onlv about ton year*. The firm trho iirii;iiiallr 
llued them haa Rceiinid witti iron naita th« aidM ati'l mufn 
to a wooden wed^ dtlvea into the comoo, atid "uvi.Tvd the 
ho-iil* with It patch burnt all round. Ine crnioxiui-noa was 
tltif, tltat tliL- tfinlu, bciuir undut^roiuid without unr mean* 
of vmtilation, conim«noed HWeatin^ b^wMu Ibn Ennd and 
tlw (tuoou wall , wlwro thero wm every obaace for ch]orid»« 
and nitrites, owlnfr to the tM-t thai tbiA wu the iito of an 
oldchcmioul worica, thooldbrirknof whtrh worofnllof tat'h 
chemioaU, which hriokH tkw! ffriituul in n tnortar uiilL 
and oaed for the rtucra. Then iliuio were the iron nuil*, 
whidi at once would nccaunt for tho wrro^on, which vma 
cironit'lv biui fnr bftlf-an-inch to one inoh all round. 
Why f Simply bet^auso the nv^iatttm thnxivli the swcAtin^. 
the irnn, una tbo Imd, then! wait a aplondid nouplvt Met up. 
tind tbo wondur to nie '» that tbe lunka lantea to long nn 
they did. Anyone -within? to rm the rtfort of Kurh work 
arewrlcimi- Ui mamiitd lu-ima of Uii?«p**iincn*»fiii''h I hnvo 
hem, by wrilinn mo for an apTMiiiluient, Thin vim n ioli 
of ftbout £0,0(10 thr^ntrh the piiinih>.<r*« wnnt of knuw1ud)(t) 
vt the droumatauoui cuuuoctwl with the tnulu. 

Iron and L«&d. 

Now we nwv ua tho point of the nomviioR of lead, it will 
be well to dmw your attention to ualatod rum* nf lead 
water tank loakaf^, which wona to huve pn^xhtd n minibi^ 
of people who have aeen thin corrcwion, and who, thuu^b 
ohemiila, h&vo bovu uuabhi to trace the ciiuse ; and im itn 
riampli? of such I deon it projier to iwoni thr followinjf 
whlrh i* tAkcn frjm tho piiKc« of tho Siiiin^^ ll^aucj Club, 
inMitiitiil !S7!). Tli« Anmul Munliiift wliifh iritx tioM nt 
tbo itorol lUite!, Nifrwit'h, Mny 23nd. IftSO. tmtfirnl, 
Mr. John Bidgixid, B.St.. F.L.S. : Viff.PrfndmU, Mr. J. 
B. Brldginiiti, F.L.ft.. F.E.S,. Mr. T. 3. Brr<*c Mr. F. If. 
EUingham, Str. A, W. Prestou. F.R. MM. Sc«~., Mr. T J. 
Bixon, Mr. ft. W. rtting" 7\>^ai»i-, Mr. Edwanl Conipr: 
Hiinerur^ Hrrrr'nrif, Mr. W. A, Kiclu^aon, Wi. Trinity 
Street, Norwich-. Cammiiiff, Mr. Frod. Eci^. Mr. A. E. 
Col, Mr. Thomaa Allen, Mr. J. Do Curie Smith. Jua., 
Mr. 0. Chri-b^ber DnriKi, Mr. i. H. .Stii^y, M.K.C.S. : 
JfwrmU Cvmmtlttt Tbu Frwidt-ut, Thv Svr'*^''-*'^ Kr. 

Thomas S. Breeie, Kr. Joaea Oarnir, Mr. F. H. 
Klliutrhatn, Mr. S. W. CuioK. 

Thnv arc about 100 ntccnMrn, of which a Inr^ nnmber 
w."i« present. 

Attur tiilkiiix nbout what they hod di>D<> tliirio); the year 
at dllferent utoiitbly mcirtinira en hi(Jo>rfciil, phyMoal. 
natbonntical and aatroBonioal, gaolo^en], <:bointi'at, 
nioteimtla^oal, and literary oabiteta, to nay nethinv of little 
odda and eudii, suLh an the CDrnrlaliiNi of Structun wilh 
Function, a« lUuxtratod by a De^ul >'oule : A Cbnntor im 
Evolution, by Mr. .T . Bidir~<ud ; Setting ef the Clock, Savinir 
Regard lo theUnifomiSundardof MiBasniingTtmcby the 
ItoTcrmd J. Freetoii, M. A 

r)ioiipbcirfwi<Ron of Antnialii, Hhnirin^ Uio ^Unking Flu!- 
nuiui^uou a« iba Eniimiiim uf Li^fbt by Anlmul OrganiMn. 
by Mr. T. Irwin Oiiou. 

Motion, afbirSbntring ilnw the Frietion of tboxe parto of 
bonea which riay ut^u each other waa kaaencd b)- inoasa 
of s ooTOT of BmeolJt oanikfe, lubrieated irith a Tieokl 
albnminouii mibetAnee called Synovia, by Mr. Donald Do 
Day.M.B., F.R.C.8. 

Jeaniti« Bark, by Mr. Edward Corder. 
Sleep and Dreanus wlucb was a very intetwting F*P**> 
by Doctor Barton. 

The MicKMoopieal Evening. The nreaideot read a paper 
on TliR R<nmdnctiv» Org^na of HnaiU. I'be (i'TXurAi^ i>f a 
Crii-ket ana Oockinach, which waa a ruoat digimlit-e iwiwa-, 
by J. B. Bridfminn, F.L.8. 

Mr. Edward ('order, on the Boll AniraalcniK ; f>llaw<il 
up liy Aiiteouw aud Ton^n of InvactJi, tir Mr. T. J. 

Mr. H. A. Kiii^, cheuilBl, of 88, Ezchunm Stxvel, 
Norwiub, hhnwed a wft.lon of Coal from N^woualle, 
pontainine gbudulnr vell^ ; olau Feni Spone, laki^u fron 
Coal, anil a ■pooitnsn of PomI Wood front California, 
■howini; the cuuifiToiLK atructine uf the wood. He alw 
dmoribcd and exhibited a section of a Meteorite, contuainit 
tluid caviti<«. 

R^-pruduedciuof an Ei't,by Mr.Tbimuu. Southwell. F.Z.8. 
Ifiimnn Blood Crywlab. bv J. H. SUry, .M-K.C S. 
Thr Frwpulei'jn uf VtwacU by Wind, from a 8cioDtifie 
Point of View, al«i IV-firihiiijtr tbe Principle* of Floatation, 
by Mr. G. Christopher Diivif". 
Oliam, be W. A. Nirholi-iii. 

Wellatuujlt <>tis Burner and Buifuhttor*, ttfod fat Gao 
Works, by Mr. R. A. Pank: and a quantitT of other 
-vritiiilirn< .iubj(r)-tn, nuftti iw IClBCtricily, Luntcra MicriMnipiie 
Work, Nul«a on a ThiindurNiumi, ico., ic. 

Tbew illuatratioiiB ni\> only to Hhuw ihnt thi-re are men of 
ttdcnt onnGctcd with thin iuntitutiun, yet whcm it came to 
the Rubjent of lead and vattT piixw, tbr^ werr ncwnewhat a* 
1 hare aoen handredn b<'forr, piufiled, thou^ Mr. KinR 
^ipplotl with thia aubject boltiv than any cbumiat or 
inetullurKU't thut I have seen or heard at. 

After a quantity of letten paning between ua npon the 
follnwiti},' aulijcfits, Mr. Kititf ia dMoribtd on pago l&etf 
llicir nuuunl n-p-jrt, oa fulluwa :— 

"Mr. U. A. Kiu;r. in dewribitut hit laTesdgatien into 
the cfiuM of A pooiiiiar eorrrMion (^ aorne \caA wat^r pipe. 
exhibits by Mr. Bri<l;;niuu at an earlier inisetinjr, et^td 
— ' That tlie Iriid piiwi in nneetion had been uaed for con- 
voyiiijf Nurwioh Water worka water for about twenty 
yrArs, at tho end of whi^h time portiona (aoveral inch» in 
ii'Dgih} wi-ro found riddled with minote holea »( /,lh to 
Jtli iif nn ini'b in diami-lrr, tho p<H<iilinrity twiutr tnut kIm' 
nolo«comiiirii,r'iNl fmm tbo iiiitde ■>( llie pii"*. awl in nio«t 
caseB had bun>t tbrotibrli tbe wall, tbo Inlcmil prvofi-.ire 
(prentmnbly of th'.- water in tho pipe, alkxit Aiilba. to tt>o 
nquare iiith in HiH^rhaia, wlien it waa Isiil^ having flrvt 
tiauaed the thin wall to project out warda, lomuag liUla 
prwninouun vinible on thu outer enrfaeo. 
"■lb waa ftvldontly prtttei j»pf, ftod the walls wen* 








mnc^ thiimer Uiui thoM of pipes allowod to bo laid hot, 
being 0017' ith of an inch thick for h pipi' of Jin bon-. Hud 
it been umq tor conrcfinfj^ towage mntb^r there would bavD 
been no^difficoltr in findinii a cautie for the liolois but bh it 
had been oied lor Nonrich Water AVorks water only the 
obum vu more obecure, and mufit obviously lie in some 
impniitf introduced into the pipe, either in its manufactiiro 
or oj accidmt afterwards. 

" ' In order to preecnt to the meeting a probable nolutinn 
of tbe quealion, Mr. King expluinod the mnniifiicture of 
iMd fnnn ita ores {and exhibited Hpecimenit^, drawing 
attention to the stages in the process atwhioh impuritieK 
might enter. 

'"The TariouB proceflses of manufncture of lund pipe 
were next explained in detail, ttpecimi'nn l>eiiig nhown, mid it 
-wna pointed ont that in ^rM^rYJ/ii/jcjr, in which iho steel nn-e 
«u used to regulate the bore, a potisiblc impurity would l>o 
cfensed by minute snculefl, or iron, adhering to tho roro 
and beccnning embedded in the inntr xurfacu of the moltiit 
lead at it -wm forced through tho prens. 

" * Faniiigon to the use of the pipe, attention wiis drawn to 
Hie fact that, in oonnecting lend oenice pipe with iruii 
tcaina, a brass fcrrole wns often attiichcd to a hole iu tho 
main, and to this the lead pipe was noldored. This wns doiio 
to wparate the iron and tho fend, and thus prLVciit tlic wcll- 
ksown galvanio ootion that would occur in the prcM-nai of 
air and mtnstnre, if they wore in direct cuiitiu-t. liut h<To 
ooeun another possibility. In drilling the iron maiiiH 
minnte paitioles of iron might ' (they do, nnd lii)iM]n>'lH of 
thouaanas of them) * fall into thi>m, and ttftcr the ctm- 
necHon witb the service pipe wan made those pttrtit^lcs 
nialitbedriTeBby the force of the water into th<)kii[lpi])0, 
and being sharp uid hard mi^ht catch in the lt<itd ami M.-t 
ttp the action it was intended to avoid. ThiM iiction of in>ii 
in caasingthe corroHioii of lead may be well ultxvr^-ed in 
tbA caae of iron nails exposetl to tho action ot air and 
muiature in lead roofs and ciHtcnm. Spetiimons of load and 
iniD nails &om tanks and cintems in which this action had 
•ztannTalj occurred were shdwn, kindly i-ontritintf.-'l by 
Jb. P. J. Davien. M.S.A. (of London;. In the case 'if imr 
lead pipe die holes were ntiarly all Klle<I with a reddi-h- 
jallow Bubstanco. easily powdered, and found on aniilyxis 
toeonnat of salts of lead, together with traCfM 'if iriiii in 
aWT hole, no iron being foimd in any other ixirli'in of tho 
pipe, iim thus being suggested as the !-iinrc! (if iniM-hief. 

'"As the text bookaon i-lKmiMri- throw v-ry little li^Iit 
on the subject, and aa several iira'ti'ral pluin>x-rs wlm wen; 
oonan h ed irere nnablo to ^'ivo any (-x^ilanation ' [I 
maj heiB remark that an advert {•''mei it .'ipiN.-iirt'd in 
MM cr two of tho leading biiililiii<r and rhirtiiienl trade 
Joamala o£fering a sabstantial rt.-wunl lo any one giving a 
aatiahurtimr solution to this qne'-tiriii, whith was rinly 
anavored br myself. I bt^g the 'mty oik! to n-jily would 
not take Uie reward, aa of all mj writings for 1r:i']>; 
jonmala and otherwise I wouM not, upon any iMnsiderati'rn, 
oo it for moner, nor shall I by any w»y ■iV'/rV- repaid half 
tin amieT which this work ha- eotit to jtnjdii'.-e, it U-ing :t 
WOllc of love to benefit my fcll'iw-wirkmen, as up to ll.e 
pKsent raoawnt 1 bavc *<pc-nt ovtr £7.000 in •■it|<>TiRieti;>, 
OaTdling, Handling, entrra^-ing^. print in;r. and-u'h )ik<; on 
thaworkj, 'Mipertnienti?w*^rei^rf'irmMlt(,tryandde"Twiiiie 
how &r ndnnte partiiile* 'if in.n in f^-'n'-nt with I'url inA-r 
water, charged with air and ear)-it.i': vid irir^. w.tiM 
effect the oxidaTion of th'-leif], tb'- '!illi".1:y !■•:::■/ to 
tudarstaiid how irrm, wLi'.b ii- •';;.'l."!v e'l— tp,.j..,*;«ive '«, 
lead, should cui<^ the oxidaTi'm "I :• fl. •:•',•■•'.>.'.}■ ;>fvr 
metallic ouitact is d<-»<r'.y»l i.y ti.i- f<.rtr.i*:'>;i '>! ^ fi-. t ' f 
oxide of iron lift «<*ii rh'; l»'« n.'.-a!-. ■.:''•- -r.- -jt.w:.'. 
aetioa the iron was iir^t uxl-Wnri ;i^d ■>.• .'u. -tn- n'.nt- 
wards oxidiiied by the oxid"; 'A iron f rrr.-d. \- t i/.^-'-r 
of fact, it was fonnd that if I**/! i:.- •*;.:■;, nr^" y-i.!''.' '.• ■ 
of iron were imbedded wa- •■.i;''.s.'J '.; t.r »;.'! jii-. ■.■:■.:•■. i;i 

a few wookM, the surface nf the li-ad in the neighUiurhtHNl 
of the iron boeiinu' i-oattil with oxide of IiikI ns well as 
oxide of ir(>n. In one exiieriment a nail wiin ImiNely tlxeil 
in a pieot> of lend pipe ihkI allownl to n-iniiiii in water for 
throe weeks, after which the imil was ri'inoiinl and the leml 
retiinied to Iho water. At the end of anoller month the 
hole niitdo by Iho nail was neavly lilh<)l wifh n ]iiii-ty iiiMish 
yellow niaHH, which, on Ia>inir cnrefiiUy ninoviil inn) ilis- 
eolved in aoetie acid, gave 1« it Hlliliibln h'nl eviilenee of tlie 
prosenee of lead in consider able i|iiiinlity. mid this lead 
pipowasonly attai-kiil just when- the oxiileof iroiifnmi llu- 
nail had lin>t aci-iiniulHtctl. In tiiiotlier cssn Iwi) piii-cti iif 
lead were jilai-rtl in se]«irato lots of water, one ]>ie<t' with 
a few ])oinlH uf iron nail atbtchial and the otln-r wilboul. 
After a fiiw weeks tlio water was teste*!, and tht< i|ii(iiilil,v 
of lead found in tho water cimtiiiiiing the eniiibiiiation of 
iron and Icail was much greati-r than in that containing the 
lead alone. This N(«niH to show that, there is a jsiNsildlity 
uf an hydrnt4il oxide uf tnm lH-tiig fiiniieil, hiLdiiig to iho 
oxidation of tho h'lul with which it may Ihi in nintaet (in 
presence of moist air, or iniiiHTscfl in waUT ronltiining dis- 
solvod air), thu Wd absorbing oxygiii fnim thi- oxiib'of iron 
which, in its turn, reabsorbs oxygen from the air, anil if 
minute particles of iron wcro intrisliiecd into itiir lesdiiijst 
this action may have pnslnccd th<> Imli'S, the laiiw uf which 
is in questiiin, more especiallly if the pi|Mi wiis not cjiii- 
stantly full of wntcr, 

"'As bearing on the /(((■( of tlio ca]uiliility of iron lo pm- 
iluco this etl'0"-t, Icttors were read friini Mr. 1'. J. llavics, 
M.K A., anil niitlior of a sliiiiihird work 'in plumbing, in 
which it waNHtiLte<l from Mr. llavicH'sown (ii|M>rienirti thril 
piirtielcs of iron, so niinntj> as to ewujie ilelei'tion liy 
onliiiary means wei^ often diM.ovonil In tlie ojMrrnlion of 
trad htiiHiH'/.' [I slioiild here remark tliaf. often tlie leml 
burner meeta with tlieso imjiuritii.s, usiH-iinlly in iiiiritrhl 
burning, which caiis<-s hini to Ihm- 11 "(fniii tT Isisil. Ifo 
seeHabrigbt sumetbing, and very nearly alwiiys laki-s it to 
1h' a I'it of dirt, which, if it does not llv oil', Itc digs it mil 
with the jHiint of the sbavrli'sih. If a iniin in a g'ssl, 
ciireful lead burner, yon cun tell when be niecl^i piicb by a 
little irre;/uliirity of tin- burning, but m.t by the work 
from an inferior worknian'n rcuni. ] ' 'I'liat he had known 
tbem to »i)iM! the dirsiriictimi of leicl if (ii|i)im-i1 to nioist 
air Small as tbcy wcf). lie nUo i-liiliil llmt when 'ril'le 
of iron was foimri] cm li-id,oxiil;ition of tin: lent! eririliniii.<l 
ni long Hs nioiht air was jiicent, even tbiiii(rli flic irun 
which K't u]i tb'! action uen; r(..nioi cij . Amiin;.'<-I oilier 

thinu-s, in (iinn(!<:ti'>ri with de>-tliii'li'fn <if l'-:i'], il UJi'. 
nicnlioniHl 'iin the inilborily 'if Kirby iiiid Sjieine'ii 
}:i-i'iii'--liHi<l , ibut tho b'lli.f! with wlii''b I<-iid ii> f'n.i.linii-i 
ri'l'il';d. lire 'iiiiwd by th'^ birvie of a (''.li-'.jjti.|i.ii» jupcit 
iriilliiliniii haj'iliii', in the Hi.njii'li irf Hhi<li ]i';el i>- ••fliin 
f'.iind. It iittacks iIit lir r;iftcis of him'f, iiii'l da- tiei-n 
known, ul.eii iirriv:*! .''t ll.e irfTrfi-ct i-inle. m ,,ti\ii u, i-ltc I 

il- e-i'iijH-, I'l |M-rf'fl .iti: tb'; I'lii't witb wlii':h I}.'- ti'.Oi!'.('i|i 

JH COVlM-ii." ■' 

Tii'-M; an. otli'.T w;i-. ~ in v. I.j' b iif'jnit! 'if ir'»ti -nl rtn'.'i ■ 
and n\-ti if^hi-r m'rtiil- -jfl intd li:;id. '^iic. 1 ■!,<:* 1.1;;;, , i>- ;ib 

foll'.wi. : 'rin: \i::tA tii-.'.i- of •^iii,lukri-i: 'itf ''•'.',••• n*| t.y t(.i- 
(,M li.:»l il.-riliTi- fnnn nil ^oH- >.( tru'l'i;- 'Il.irV (iO'l tl.i .r 
w.iy t'l tl;».. r'-V'rrlj"-r:iV/ry fnrna":, wl.'rt-' t'l l» ^ifce ll.'.-ln 
t'.'.i'lijy fi-ii.«;' wjtl.'.ot niii'l. 'liiy, 4-»i;i}j iron i>- fbf'.ii.o 
iriK. ii.': furnii'T. ■*)..■)• I'>',ii,i-- n.'it'-l «i)|i t).': ;<m'1 
'I'J.'r ]•• ''■ '.•■. !.',» ':iiti*' 1 [.i.';'j!''J of '.'iit-I i.j. ''. •;.;:• ^•'■r' 
li'it.f '.1 '■:•: >' !i >'.it.': a •*;!;.■ mi'I; 'i.i- m-1 Lot .. .:■:. m.', -.■ii- 
^'.'.- ■'■•■•'. 1', 1 1 J.'. wil./.'.ol; ai.y ii '*/'».;.' ''» Ko ■.■.!': '.' •: U.- *' ". 
!i- *'i \,r.;.-j -.y ■(.' i'.ii-.:^!, "i-. *-it.-- f r .- 1. •..•:..■■'.:. 
'-• T*'-..'!;. 'J '■■ ' HI'.;.'- ' ! ". '. jf,/ fy'^fi. --.t •' ','..."..■; - '■ 

t.,'r 1. kiifji.i.-,; 'j.(. .ij],;,.;./ jj. • \,' ^!i ■,■:.■ i:.ti: i*:.<7. 
•.'.^ '.■i'...^.-j '.- ■;■..'.": Vi f'.rt.'j •:.<: ;..,•■■. ■■:.. ..■'■■.: >:■ :. y,}f* 
■^•j V, 1;.", ;:>;It;.*.i' j-..*, -.f •},■: .•■.■.n j:.... _ ... . '.'.iv il\*: fa 



lato a cRln of Deta] unit rulled oitt. And Uma It !* w<e>U 
flxod, BO thftt monul «ti» onnnol hr any pnM-e<'soii diwover 
it nnioMi by tbo bloirpipo or llio 'tctimi of n luilvoiit miirli 
»• irnter. Lestd pipu» Hm «ijii:tljr tbo saiiM. Ui« ucltuii 
taking plare wltcn tlin Tnoiotarv in, Cavt th^t lend i* 
not ul to futfur frvin (ba»ciiii|>uritic«. Inxwuk', fir<t uf nil. 
ttw iBAd miMl be tlioroBfrfalr piod to get ^kmI Hb^eti. 
Hemadlj, tlie l«*d ia. m a rule, rirgio kail. 'Iliinlh-. tlto 
nkillvd «fn of u, Iviwl outer, if n praclicul ]>lunibi.-r ((Vim (■ 
im^trttHit 4U ^r)*i AiM Awn alitui/irt4 to kr eiut Ay <!»i^ m»U 
Mmrert to ik* ffrtnl Atrimmt amd mandai of tkt Inut iUvff ) 
Tho ihtllod plumber nbcet load caater iHlI detent tbo least 
bit of foraiirn Bul«taiK<r in hi* load pan. itiid Hkiin it o3 — 
la flMlta <M«t AnKi Wc) (tntafironr nx ttvircaktinniiti^ tlmn 
Tott naa evnr i>xp<"'t tnillod to gA. Fourtbly, In okiit iiJmcl 
uiad tli« lijchtvr fliil)at»D«es alvaya Br awa^ b«foT« thoj^ 
Rtrik« doim th« mwI nnd inb> tb« fiint Tmii, and >■ twire 
toara iklniinnd befuro aooh l«ml ia uaed. Liuicl)', aiinh 
deatnutlon of lead by iron is sot kuo«-ii la mst alujet lead. 
rientr of roofs aro bi be found t«-o or thrm hiindrod t«u« 
nlil which I irotild rL»llpu;f« nn.vonc to prulum one tet of 
Knell metal pocked, aa ia tlio oaaa with tlio injlled l«ad. 

Ono fnoiQ oanw of dastructtoD of load. Sodio fuor or 
five yonra n^o I iraa called upon I7 Mraara. R«t«y and 
Kiu, tlip weU-kauwn rhortli hiiUder* of Ciunbridge, to 
exaiaini< and rcfMnl upnn tho csiivr of thp rapid dacajr of 
thalMldlUt ouToritiK t)j« ruof of Jtwiu Oal]cgc Chapol, 
Ounbriidgv, oao of ihe noted b«at pteoea of Brilaah uchi- 
lecbm in Gog'tniid. r hnil no intimation tJint many 
. wianUxta nml iin'-1iit<« t<, jil iiiiibern. kc, bad In-Oh r«U«l to 
oxandac tlii" inipnnaiit Hitjij. 1 tomid t.1ii> hmd work 
SXtereally ae trvml iia tivw, w«-Il IiU'l, uud «Ti-rytJiinir 
Kwwared all ri^bt; Imtou Mr. Kilt, juBinr, turnlup u]i 
URpndaaf uneor twoof thn ^aT■, foiiml tboh-ful in a Mate 
■if rapid decay, and, Imikiii^ iirmiiid. ruuld mil find the 
ali)fhC<?st rpAMm extcnLHUr. It ocomrwl lo ro«, aa paMJns 
roiiiitt tbi- narrow stonA fFnlloriiw inKido tbo cfaapol, and 
eaiwniilly ji car tbo roof, thiit them WA-t a alight hdmII of 
antphiir, whic^li I at Urn linte took UtUa uotJoo of, owing to 
tbi) *iw:t thai most of tio« kinil of pla»«, wb«i high or 
lip aloft, aro, aa a nik. tcimcwhut Htuily. But tho upper 
tv)rinn« of m%i-h hrily pIiuiM .nhnuld nul bo info^ted with th* 
nkiur uf till' lower 'i«Kiooa, and nothina wiva loft tor mo but 
to cudg«l what little brain wna dolwd out to ma na a 
plumbor—and I miwt coufeaa that I foronoawlBbodanelf 
out of thd job Art«r Mue llttlo tiaui I agwht thoarht of 
thn Milpliur aiofll, and went rtmking abont Itiroiiffn tbc 
galloriffa, which aro by nu niiniiia plt-aa-int pliice>« for h 
•ciantifio pursuit. 8tin the sulphur smoll xriiH-iningm'aiul 
fltnmger. Tbetl it oatno to my Lum (rumeiulwr tbiiv wwa 
«Hily twoof aa), to csamioit thf ihinkiifBi of luiitt-rtal he- 
twMn tho laad uud tbo itivido of thr ro^r. which waa 
boanlod, the Jninuof whi<^b worDaoiunliltlfrdiiitiam apnrl. 
Bat not tho alJidrhtoMt elinnco of Ti.>utilatiun bt^Iwwn tbi 
Irod nml thn woivlwork. exF(>ntJnff iu(o the chapi'l, waieh, 
aa bi-fiire Haid, v»i> oxvt^iMngiy itCuffv. foncvon'^nFt. down. 
In faL't, it wa" bndly vitni«d — thall I any vMililalion? 
Tlcrci I cnnxi<ler«l vanillalion. A thrmsht fltni'ik me a*. 
(iiK-r ; but where waa tbo iiocMnary watnr to coino f rum In 
pTiidu'« thp flietniojl nctinn with ibt' (ni"e»ol the int'-rior ? 
Thi" ilid not ruiuiro imirli rva^'uin^t; it. wan formpil n» 
foIloWH ;— Kitrbt iindomeath waa n 1»r^ atoro bcuti.'d wUb 
ooke. wilb the Movp bnving nvrcfyioif jrilU, whiob no doubt 
produrrd n Hjilitiilid boat. This mae directly np, flonring 
with it the bivitjeal earbniiio and olhar gaaea cmna fnMn 
the bodloi of thi? pwplv, U> any nutb!ni{ fnm what oanio 
from thii -tori' itanlf. The-w (?»**■ and boat, rapidlj- 
awimilinK w.muihin« alifiut 100ft. hi^h. tlio beat nlayinff 
on Ibo under anrface of tlm Utu) ii]^;nfit tho roltler or 
external atnMWiphvrc. rapidly iinniiuu'd mndmiNitioii tu 
aupply the dmcmmij Uqiud, and thi< cvn^oquonw was tlm 
fwork requiced to be bdd «Ttry ft w years. 

Tbo vril boinir at onoa ntntaJJod by proper fvntilatioa, 
aad kwT'lng the load a good distaitoe away fmn the rail- 
ing, and the lead Uid upon soft bair felt, therowill lie mi 
further cnum of ooitiptiiint for manr yeura to mni*^ Vrt 
you see Ituw eaay it ti to g^ wuric aon<>, «hi<ih ia of a Bm 
olaM chantrbor, yat, by an ovetKiifhi gf nrrungvment ol 
what would beoallcd uUnor pomta, tlic work iB,aa thiawa*. 
condemued, bv those who bavu to puy lor it, aa uuMiatttjaaly 
axjwnjgvo and inailetjuat*. 


l^Uo tM SaiU of AjtjuT.] 

CoppoT may he t«tiinatMl aimilnrly to that of tend but 
for tito aolntionn. To gire nunpariaoiu), a«e a aolnliuu 
haviug -0001 gramuf uotallir copper to one cubic oenti- 
tnol<v. Tbia i» madfl by dti«olTinK '39'^'^ iKTrant of 
cn,'Kt«lliiiod anlpliata of ouppor to one litre of pare water. 


Aa a rule thii i* fbnnd aa birarhonatc. and flonts near 
or on tli« ■urfai.'e of the ci]it«m. in n film of cutrbonaba 
whiofa muat he collented and liented on 11 plstinam fudL 
yodce vhathor tho wlatiJe matter dieappeare. if so, and a 
rb^ddue ia Ifrft, it abonU romain whilxt not yrtlow ; hot 00 
Moling, if it be jdnc, it will be white, ur«riy alwaj-d fowad 
in now idno cintirm*, al*o galvaniMd oiMia. 


Symbol Aa: &imhininB;wfiBht 75: density of raponr I AO. 
This ia ■omirtiuK'* found irt thu ]aiilut4Hl water* ol maiin- 
fnoturinu; or Riinin>f ■!ii<ln''lM . altoaomi'Liuiee !□ vcty nuiU 
quantiticA in nuiicral <(]>ring«. Two fxnnpouDds of annuo 
and oxyiccn are known: (1) Amnii^ triuxid*-, A*iUi: 
(2,1 Aiaeiiic petituiide, AmOt. Oaeu^tbudof iiM-vrL-iiniuff 
the preaeoro of nnwnic! i« to pa*« a ounvut of Mtlpliurellod 
hydrotfon gu« into the »ui>|iwted »>1utJon, wbm, if 
aneniona iirid >« nrvaput, it will u<.-rasio:i thii> appcaranoe 
of a Htic yrlliiw wunr through tbr- liouid. which will Imto 
U.11 Hctiuti L>n pbi'-iiliitte of soda. TiihL Bubiitancv, how- 
evor, may provpul tlic onlour fnnnin>i, altbongb nneiiknia 
add bo actwlly ouutuiuod in Ihi- Hululiun : whensurliia 
the oaae a few dropH of ri^ry dilute pun uitiie acid will 
iuimnlintely prodocv it. 

Tbo fnllon-inir i» imnmnoiidod by Doctor ManxFt :— To 
ihp fUMH.'ciod tlnid. preriooAiy filtered, add tint > lltUa 
dilute mlrii- add, Mud afterwacda uilnite of ailvor, till it 
hIiiiU i-<-iih- tu pti)ducw wax piKtipitatJ'. ''"'" i-"--".''.- iirid 
l>eiTi)f ibii^ roiaored, whllat tko arBeni" tnd 

in wbalovor state) icmaiu in the fi" 1 ■ t> of 

nnunfmia witt itintantly pntcuro tiu? Tell^'W prti i|ul*te in 
\\s nhn mete rial it- fono. It 1* iie-wuiary )>> wld iUat a 
■ufHeiffiit quantity of anuaonin maybe '>■ ' ' siitutale 

uuy exofiw of nitne aold tho MilatiOB n> Should 

there be pri'Meiit oouimon nalt wiiera ib< ...--■• L^.t ia uwd. 
the nitrir arid will rpl^in tho anmiooa a^id in nolution, 
wliilot the ehloHdv i>f oilvvr win be prKijitlntm], and mua^ 
bo scpttralvd by tbc filter: tbe addition of ajiimoala will 
then determine tbfl dccornxwipiiion of tho nitiat^-of ^ihor, 
nnd nitrate of ammonia, and afMnile of ailver will be 
formed. An exoeaa of ammonia ow^ht In bo amidnl, bnt 
•hoiild it inadrertnotly be added, it may be aeutlwliMxl by 
a frcsb poriioa of lutriii acid, DaBti«ui'ly nddad, which wiU 
I*- ii^iii, ttip r.^LiTT"'*'"*'""'^ ff th" arKTuitoof BilT«. Both 
t t'liua ahiiuld be miichdOnledL 

I I 1 iif ar»enite of Kilver aro a> 

f<4jyff - 

.f (w. If, after bring w«D waalnri in 

tHonnl to atund in au open t w al. it 

a brviva colour; bsl H Aoaa aal, 



like oitrAto of iiilrer, lieoonio Uftck ou cuQlitiuiii{f the 

II iariMdily minblo in diint« nitric acid; ita]«(>tli»olv« 

I midiay kkximi »f HinnioTiin at thr tmininnt of itA iana^- 

foD ; but aftrr it Iuk tici.-u hi|ki[;iIi.<0 ond driiil, it i» nii 

• MeiMJhly snluble ill aiunionia. If a ttmiiU i|iiHtility 

. I pKrijiitiito bp tixnowl t(' tiM IiorI u[ il hiuaII npiril 

Map i>o a iinwt "t liimtiUted |>!atiri.-i, a »-h;to emoki' nntcn 

feini itsnndinctalUoilccr i>>miLiii« »ltn<'hcil ti>l.hc iilaltiiiiiit. 

Th» rudiK-tiim nf tho rilvffr, in tbc fiinn uf u glubnlQ, is 

till moro diKduct nud utrikliiK U n UtUo e!irbonfu«oii> 

•tier bu nusacl witii the pnx:ipibttcM nnd tliB blowpiiw 

Whi-ti t]>L< }'t>lluw jiroci[)it:ttc, etK-lijsnl in a tiibo, i* 
csp.'wd to the heat ol a lamp, the while nmukv ooudciiiw^ 
ta 1)i'< portion nf tho tube, in nuauto ootokodral cr^lal» uf 
ti'WHiou* tt"Jd. 

If both the nilvpr and ralpbur*tt«d hydromn ooociit in 
idicntinif ihv ]ii<»nicv of tho poiwriiuiurtniMnc, doimmq- 
nUe doabt cau be entertained nwptytiln^ it. 

Fortha nrnr* rci"cnt to»t^ouwilI rc<tuirc ivn apparatu*. 
when the amrnic will be vanlj detectod bjr what la known 
BA Jdanh'a teit. 

Arsenic and Hydrogen. 

(Cbntion to Lead Buroen aiul Exporimentaliata.} 

Etjinbol AsHa, eambining wviffht 78, denaity 39. 
laiok out when jou pit eiiienionntinK witli nrflruio and 
for tlie abora, or the moit deadly ^as. It i" 
I, hut pnmoasos n teckl uduur of frarlic Ont- 
■null bubble of thiH pnra gaA killod itA dimoTerer, Qrlilon.. 
by inhiitalion. 

"nii* cimtpoiind corrvxpondi) to phospboivttcd hydrugm. 

and anuQouia in funned hy duwuponhiif no aQoy of 

ai«pnicaad zinc wicb Ettlphurie acid. Ab the plumber liaa, 

[»oro than any otbc-r in>lividunl iu the chemical wockn. to do 

' Tnlfa the /reui'mtiuu uf hvdrogBa f^aa from zinc, •ulphurin 

acid, and water, he abonid bo eareful ncrer lo l>riu{{ the 

Uow {ripe noKT hi» fuoe (a habit which manr l«id burncra 

■ practiw), Ifa Hw afniplc nxvacm that tlw lead burner nuiy by 

[«httnoc g&i aciuaa auxne siu^ containing aneuic, ur he may 

[W oommllad to use unknown water whioh nay ooiit lin 

icu snenlo. 

Arftenlc and Sulphur. 

I nr« thr«ic ati^phidra <if Ar»mi>c : aTSeaio dlsnlphid'', 
Tliia occun unturally aa realifar; trunlpbidi;, 
ki^S], iilno fniind in nntiire aa orpini>>nt, and penta- 
Hulpliiile, .^«^i. Ori'immt can be iib;aiiii.>d by npudinir 
Mdphuroned hydmj^) gaa threog'h the »ci<l aiilutiAn <ii 
tilt.' <M4-n«j>nndiiig oxiile, wliua it la precipitated a» a yelluw 

Here the anvni^i HnlpMdcB form with the aulphldM of the 
alkaline metal ixtnip->iinda having the aanw aualofry to Uie 
triKidphidm imd {■Tutaaiilphuln that nnfmiim nnd anmale* 
do to I1m> triuxido :>iid iwutuxidv. In y/taX ul fai't ih^Hf 
cnuFpunndB are aoibini; tnoro aor les than aulphur eialte, 
I the aracnit<-« and anenatea being oxyailta, an>1 thii' ia why 
^tlwjr ate called ew/jnlkrBenitt* aM ««i^anenait», tUtii 

JU;S, + 3K,S » 2K,Aifl, : 
A9,Oj + 3K,0 = ^K.AsO,. 

The nrewiKK of very lnin^t^ tme« of ar»f>nlr pan be 
defaetnl wilb certiun'ly by tolutioti* prp'ipiljit''d u 
mphidi'-, by tlip niil nf iiii!j>hnrrtUil hyilm)t<ni. TliiJi 
nHilUde when dried and fnied fu a teat* tube, and with 

a inixtinv of putaaiiura eynuide and iDdiuni oubonate, 
yields « ring of^mclalllo aneulc. 

On heating, thia ini?tal ta nxidiwd to trioxide, which i» 
dopoaiti:*! Iti little rietobiHlral cryslatn. Thcae obDold bo- 
lituUxl with water, which will tbi-n yield a mlution, and ft| 
briiifht ^mm pr»i'ipitBt« with Miliition^of ooppw, at 
VL britfhi ytllow on<' with nrutrnt n\wt kCLU. Jji laol 
thnre are many ways of dutoi-tinj: tliiii Tvitaon, such oi 
Ber3>'liti», Krvwniuii, lU-tniault, Mitwhcriich, Otb^, and 
cDpeciallr Clark'* up)iiinitiiM-H, inMrly all "f wlitcfa ar 
suppoaed U> he improveiuontH ou Marah a appaiatna. Tlics 
i« one good poiat about Cbrk's araeoio appaiataa, Fllf<J 
!>.^9n, and that la when thu araenif is looked for 1 
Manh'a prooeea, the ingradieata inrarinlily i.-oiitain ar^gati 
matter, iniicb aft«i eaa«M on eieendrc fruthiiiR during ll 
experiment ; but in I'rofeatw Clark's apparntTiK the iirwidn 
•epamlMi u« follows :— The bottle part fur pri'iMriii)^ the 
hydrogen a»n is sbown at A ; tbe three bent tube* or 
roecitcni 0. C, P, an eoanwciH by small K-nl tubus of 
glaaa through oorka. Kow wc wiD eall the bottle A the 
nydrogeo aa geoeratin^ ninehiue, thu lumps of zino being 
abown at Dm bottom, mid the gna in prorared by hydro* 
ohlM^e aeld not slrongvr tliaa 12° (a ap. gr, lOS) i in 
B tube you put a solution of caustic soda ; anl into C a 
BolutaOD of RTigar of lead ; and a aolntioQ of nitiato of aUnr 
into the last, ur D. 

BlAaan'a Ananlc Aptaniiu. Clakx'd Anoalc Apparatva 

ViQ. oma. 

Having th« hydrogen mts running through the whole of 
tht> tuhe.1 frir n fi-.w miniilrs, the nnteni<'»l liijuoc must be 
slowly pourvil tbniuKh Mie fuourl iutu the generator, 
whirfi altons the frothing to (ro oa vigoroualy. bat 
without daiuiiKV, and tho unwuionrtted hyiu^wto uuivUy 
paaseathraugh Q, C, D. In B, impuntieK, eiich oa fnuphnr- 
ottod hydrogen, is deposited. G. is to eatcli tbo ioipRritiea 
whioii B allowii ta poaa. Tliiit ilfj^iiiin upon wliflthnr ynvi 
have tiio mueb ;^Derating force In lie ^enemtwr wliieh 
must work nlowly. In I) is thrown down mstallie lilrcr, 
tind tbe :inti^nii^ romains in the solution. 

Aflt.'r tbu g^etteralor hna eeaHed to generate jras tbe 
firiutnir ]ii:|U"r fiiu;rbt in O is lJii«"t with piim liydrofhloric 
oe'd, iJiIh will ihrovr ihiwn nil l)iO cif'-KH uf tlio itilver. 

Tbo liquor is t.fipii flUiTwl, atlfrrwurds il iw «i.nporutedto 
dryniwi, nnd the pniilu> t will Im pnre arw^ioiis ai-id, whteh 
i-aii be teetod by the mvani I have already doottfibtd. 


Kraporate the water dnwn bi a mininiam and aoidnlata 
the naine with hydroeliloric itcid, und, if ncvetwary, filler it 
and tost with a solution of gypsum. 

Hardness of Water fTemporarlly) 

Some water eoiitain* a vuni)idvri.tb1e amount of carhoB) 
of llnio, CiiCo; — , lime atone, Jtiv, whi^-h, being di»««)l»i 
oaanoC bo nmoTcd by the ptJoe»of tiltratioD. But tk 




be to a coDsiderable extent by boiling):, when it depoRita a 
oruat of calcium carbonate, owin» to the escape of the 
oarboaio acid. This cruRtation, found on the aides of 
boilers, may be avoided by adding' to the water a small 
portion of »al-ammoiuac, soluble calcium cbloride, and 
volatile ammonium carbonate being formed. 

Hard water, with diaBolved carbonate, can bo softened 
by adding lime, suspended in tlie water in such quantity 
that the excesB of carbonio add ia neutralised. 

Water Permanentfy Hard. 

Calcium sulphate, CaSOi. 

This occurs in nature as a mineral, known as AnkydriU, 
and combined with 2H,0, as aelcnite, gypsum, or 
alabaster. It is soluble in 400 parts of water, and in 
spring water is a very common impurity, which (rives 
the water permanent hardneBS, because it cannot be re- 
moved by boiling. 

Such water curdles soap and prevents easy wanhing. 
Water with lime is not good for tea or coffee making. It 
also is said to increase the liability of the populataon to 
calcareous diseases of the kidneys and bladder. Perhaps 
you will say that lime is u^ful in the animal organism 
by way of making bone; true, but was it ordered by 
nature for us to take too laige a quantity in our water, 
and ia the crude form of calcium carbonate roughly into 
oar bodies for bone making. Certainly not . this we should 
get from the milk and ttesh of animals and the outer parts 
of grain of cereals. However, be this as it may, such 
water caw be softened down by alkali. From my private 
point of '.'icw, I do not set so much strain aa my brother 
science gossips do upon luatcr contaminated wiUi a little 
lime or what is known aa good wholesome sound rook, or 
spring water ; providing it is tasteless and clear, I care 
not how rough it is to drink. In point of fact, I waa 
reared amongst such water, and my parents, and their 
parents before them, at the same place, and am happy to 
say that there was never known to be any disease through- 
out the family. 

The late Doctor Clark, of Aberdeen, is credited with 
beit^ the inventor of bringing lime into water oontaining 
carbonate of lime and magnesia, held in solution by excess 
of carbonic a<nd. The lime, of course, unites with an 
excess of carbonic acid, which forma carbonate of lime, so 
that an insoluble carbonate thus formed, and the carbonate 
of lime and magnesia will be thrown out of solution and 
deposited by abstracting the solvent. But you will notice 
that when water owes its hardness to sulphate of lime or 
sulphate of magnesia this cannot be so softened. Doctor 
Clark said, to soften temporarily hard water, or water 
which can bo softened by boiling, that one ounce of quick- 
lime will aoft^n "00 gallons of water, which should bo 
slacked in a little of the water and thrown through a water 
pot hose into the cistern. Aftor three hours it will bo 
olear enough for washing, and after tnelve for drmking. 


Should there bo sulphuric acid in the water, a precipitate 
will bo the renult with the following saline solutions : — 

1. Chloride, nitrate, or acetate tA barium. 

2. „ ,, ,, strontium. 

3. ,, ,, ., calcium. 

4. Nitrate or acetate of lead. 

The muriate or chloride of bariiun is capable of detecting 
Bidph\trio acid uncombined to the millionth part of the 
water. Acetateof lead oomes next. The chlorioee are moro 
powerful than the nitrates. Calcareous salts are the least 

Take note that all these indicate smaller portions of 

uncomMned anljAurio add than when combioed with a 

Tou can render barium chloride a certain test for 
sulphuric add by the following precautions: — 1. The 
chloride must be diluted. 2. The alkalies or alkaline 
carbonates, if the water contains any, must be previously 
aaturated with hydrochloric add. 3. The predpitate most 
be insoluble in hydroohlorio acid. 4. Should boracic add 
be suspected, strontium chloride will have to be tried, 
which IB not predpitated 1^ borado add. fi. Hydro- 
snlphurets precipitate barytic solutions ; their presence 
can be easily discovered by their stink. 

This is discovered in water by nitiate of silver ; it gives 
a white predpitate or a cloud in the water. The following 
is a certain test: — 1. The alkalies or carbonates most Im 
saturated with nitric add. 2. should any sulphuric add 
be present, it must be first removed by means <x nitrate of 
bnrytes. 3. The precipitate must be insoluble in nitric 

This is detected with acetate of lead. It forms a 
precipitate insoluble in acetic add. But to render the test 
more certain, the alkalies and earths must bo previously 
saturated with acetic acid, and the sulphuric and hydro- 
chloric adds removed by means of aoetate of strontiam and 
acetate of silver. 

DARIUM {conlinuei^. 

This is detected by the insoluble white predpitate 
which it forma with diluted sulphuric add. 


These can be detected by means of oxalic Boid, which 
will occasion a white predpitate in the water, oontaining 
ever BO small portions of this earth. To make sure, should 
any mineral acids be present, it must be previously satoiated 
with alkali. Should baiytes be present, these must 
previously be removed by sulphnrio add. Magneda is 
predpitated by oxalic acid very slowly, but it predpi- 
t&tes lime instantly. 


Alumina and magnesiaare detected asfoUowa. Ammnnja 
(which should be pure} will throw down each, yet no otlier 
earth, provided carbonic add has been previously separated 
by boiling and a mineral alkali. Limo water only pred|n- 
tates these two earths, but carbonic acid most have been 
previously removed, as also the sulphuric add, by means of 
nitrate of barytes. 

If mixed with magnesia can be separated, if predpitated 
together by boiling the predpitate in pure potaas. This 
dissolves the alumina and leaves the magneda, and the 
predpitate maybedisBolved in hydroohlerio add predpitated 
by means of an alkaline carbonate, dried bv about 100; 
degrees of heat. It should then be exposed to ue action of 
hydrochloric acid dilated, which will disaolve the magnen^ 
without affecting the alumina. 


The presence of this can be detected by evaporatir.vj 
water and re-dissolving the precipitate ia oydrra I 
acid, when the silica will be undissolved. nt 

These are a few well-tried analysoa, which V(\ «mhw 
tised when I waa at South Kenaingttm HoBem'iJraf^ 
need no chemical plant to work oat, asd 1(^^ mm 





9(;rnox '1. 

Wabtn whict uotttniii *> mucli foreign mutter M tn h»w 
•.Miuible taste, aadadpriil'^l action ou tbi^ aiiiiiml i-nmuinv, 
■re called muMnl. ThL-ir t«iut)onttui9 vaHw from ihat of 
tko «tnu>sjAen>. U almost a boiling luut; und uoounluig no 
it ■■ lugbtir or ]ow«t, thcjr have rAvetveil tlie ilenominacion i 
gf tfitrmtl, awl «»Ul aprtuga. It is not our bunneM W 
eBquin.' iu f Uic rviuuW ouitaos of tho KiDurksblr plit-nanMnim 
irf hot apriuj^ but tbat it most d«pmd mt th<^ nattint of th/! 
sbmts ma iratm tmTtne, (nun tlunr boutc« to tho spot 
wlmaea tbvjr inuo, U obvious. 

SlOTlOX 3. 

His raMancea hithOTto found in mini>rti1 vrmtvniu*;— 

Oxyprm Botnub aoul. 

NitTOjrm Sulplnumu add. 

Ciu-buuic aiud Silica, 

8a]phiu«tttd bj- dmgniii Soda . 

Si^fkvta uf Koda, auuDunia, litue, Diagnona, almnliut, 
poUMs, irou aud uopper. 
NilfMlf of potAftm, timo nnd iiU|^«isia. 
/fjNfroeJUorafMof pot4uuM, KHltt, tuuujuma, Unie, maguMtin, 
aluioioft, mangsome and Xmtvx*. 

C^riwilfi of potuMii stHUii ituiguiMlia, lime, anmuuiia 
and Iron. 
Jtyi(rD»tiljihHrtU cf Hoda aod liinc. 

S-MormU of aoda, and nmall portiaua of rtyftaile and 
irtuj labKlaaflui. 

6Bono3i i. 

Sntrogmt and oxymo aro not found in wntvn of ii hlali 
mpomtnro. nor tu«Uttvr oven b. cold flpringw. wUob bold 
ItTdnMOlphurvta In ulntion. 

'stoat mUm fxmlVTi a muall portion yf carbonic arid , it 
alKntnd* portinnlaTlf in tita apMrklifttf wiiU^ni, aa tliOM of 
SdUer and Pymout, wlilob omtaUi uiauy tiniea tfaeir tiulk 
erf that piB. 

A Hrm-ll. or la*t« of rol-t^u «gg*> indicates thfi prownM of 
•ulpLurotlnl bvdnig»u,urotahydio«iIphurel. aulphuRxus 
mAa la found in sotn* wvters in tba n«ghbonrliood of 

Boradc arid anrim In Mine of the Itnlian lokm. 

filial is oo(itnin«d iii tbo vmien of tine Genen tad 

rinun in Icvlnnd, it: thiMi! nf (Wtubiid, and in aom^ 

Soda in the GoyMn and at Bykmn. 
Ilie Mitt of mopl frMiacnt oooiiirvnoo in mincnil wnlcn* 
on tlw nilpbaboa, hTdrochlontea aud carbonates of «oda, 
litDD and magnctda, and curbonute of invn. TIio throe luit 
catbonatca an* gmcmll/ hrld io »olution by eftrbonic arid. 
Hjdrilchlanitt aud >iul]i]iut(- uf lUiutmiiin, ■ntphnti! uf inm, 
alum, and aulpliato of ixipptr, tlie ullriitpi of gutawa niul 
^ lima, aad banui, aro rnixily foiuid iu them. The threw flrat, 
'iko milphuroua add, belong Ui mjhm^ of thi-m in tlio noigh- 
kourbood of Tolcnnoes ; eulphat« of lopuer to lliiwe whiuh 
low tliruiigli Imdn of (sijiiHr pyriljui. nnd biirsx to somii of 
1ie hikw gf Indiu and Italv. 
NtUvw of uiaguc^ia, Tiydioclilorate aud carliciDate of 
_ DtAMa, nnd ciirboiiatn of itmmaniA nro of still rarer occnr- 
I teuoe, i(, iudi'iil, rrer fuuud iu uiim-ral watprii : iitid, 
altlioii^i Thf^iUhn faun nniuoiiiitwcl, tl>e uxlalvuco of tlio 
bydruchlorntc of Ururttt uud iDuntranowi aud I>r. 'Withering 
that of tbc hydnMhlurata of aluinlna in Mine of tbeu, tli^ 
oecam^ of t&o Btatcnieot is extrcinielj qneationabla. 

SsonoM S. 

A minf>rai wator rm nerpr Mttitatn nil Uio f(mf[Dtng 
nil bHtaii<x-> tnirr-IIirr, a» mxar of thfJli luiituiLllr d^'mntpoitn 
i«i Ji iithrT ; tbiiH. Ibi! Hiib-fia riv niH li- of h>^(1ii in iiiixiDipatible 
writh ill*' Mil^luil«i!>, nitrate*', uiul h5i]i-iM<h!(irAi4->> "f limp and 
iniigiK'aiH : ludcvd inurv tbon cigbl iugivdi<jnt.i tuv M:ldwTu 
found in tbo wimQ iratcr, nor doeti it often ooutoin a largo 
quHutitj of anj ime of Uwm. 

Bkctios 6. 

Miu<Ta] waters nity be oonTOnimtly divided into four 
rIaNwiv, acoordiu); to Iha iogiedieut by which th«ir 
proportlea arc ehidly inflocnoed : namely, hopatic, scidulous, 
ferrugiDou», Hud itoiino ; aad aonietinifM uiixwl clamee mnst 
bo ndmituxJ . 

Tbo iialuiv of u wutor, aad moat of the BubsUn<^e« it 
oontainA, may gcnctnlly be aHoeitaincd by aijnpln trioLi , if 
a inttr oontatn 

A. Suli>liHrrttnt iyitrofftn irilfiaui a k^irituJpiiurtt, it Will 
hnvo the amell of rotten egg«, and precipitate solutions of 
load hUnk. but it Iomm both tlivM proportie* by lolug 

B. A AgJnmiipJtiirH » attended with the same am^U u 
sulpbutetted hydn>g«n, but weakar ; it ahw prednitutea , 
eolatioDB (cT leoiil Uack ; but livnt doen not deatroy either of 
tlieas nmpcitlefl. 

0. Caiimit tttitl. — Watcra nrntaiuing ihin ran an acidn- 
loua, and aometraiM nparUing; Ua-y rvildai litmus faintif 
whom tnoh, but boiling deatroys tfaat pniperty, and di»> 
engagofl a gaa, whlob, pebmnI into limv water, oeeaaJona a ^ 
jinoipilate of oorboiiate of lime, wiluble with eflterveaoenos . 
in very diluto nitric aoid. 

D. S'llpttiln form n-ith nitiat« or barium tthlorida a 
whtt£ precipitiitu, iuKfUuit iu an excess of acid. 

E. t'hiaridta ]in^uce a white flocculpnt prvcipitato with 
mtn>i■^ uf ailvcr. initoliiblo io nilrir uoid, hut Mltitilo in 

F. Car^MoU* if intfirttn, Sim*, or irtin.^Wiibni con- ' 
tadning thcae salts beuimo turbid by boiling ; thu earbonia 
MKud which holds those «>iibt>t«jicea in Aolutlon b«dng drtrcn 
off. if thu prwoipitato Iw white, probably no metallic 
oxide i» ptwout. 

G. CarboMtt «/ iron ; with the rwent water pruadate o( 
ixitAMn givM< a bliif preolMtate, and tinetura of gaUe • 
iiiir^ito uiiu, which, by ataniuiiK expo«d to the air. bmomea 
Itauk. If the n-ntar be boiled a yeUuwiih ted prvcipital* 
is thrown down, uad tbv preceding tests oean to pnxluoe 
unr eflMt. on it. 

H. SulphaU of itwn.— The aot^ of pntasiate el potaoaa j 
>r gaUe, is not suvponded by boiling the water. I 

1. CarhtutU o/nxta, or pataua, — If a water oonlatn nlhar 
nf theae nlknUM it will turn i>yTup of rloLna green after 
lioiog boiled, nt luuit whtm snlHciently oanoentniled, and if 
thiol filt(fn>J, niid an ai-id be pound into the clcnr fluid, 
t-'arlwuie lu-id gaa will be giocn off. though perhnpa ii may 
be neocoBoiy to heat tho wiitcr lu render it eridimt, aa, u . 
the oau^onatc bu in vury initiutf quantity, tbo gxia may l4l\ 
rwtninvd in aoluUon by the mid fliiid. 

K. [V/iwiWH Mfd. —Oxalate of niuniouin throws down a 
white iirH-ipjtata from tbo nuent wuier, if any enit, irith 
huac 01 lime, bo prpseut ; hut if the wnter rontnin only 
carbonate of limn Uut t«*t will ha^-o no ctfcet aftiit builuig : 
with nil tho oChora Iht) effrat is poriDftnent. 

L. MafKtmvt taiu, not MiwiiiofM.—Boil and filter 
n-atiM , aud let it r,ocl ; to the dear liquid add bi -oarbot 
of animoiiia ; tUtcr, if neoooauy, and boil aguin. If 
«u]phiLle or hydrocldnrnte of magnceia. be pr*erat tl 
t««ind bmllug will produce a aeooud ureripitatu ; or, aft 
the fai-cttrbcinntc, Instead of boiling, aod pboa^te of wdft,^ 
which will throw down a prootpltnte of tac ammonia* 
magnesian phcwphatc \ if Hub precii^itabe \m vsAum^ >a 

SI 4 


flubfd'lc to the )>ottuin of tho Itaein. nnd it be rubbed with 
the iMiiut of a )e\Hiiii nui with nonii- furi'e, tracnx will be loft 
iin tlie glBMt not etuuly efl'ucc'd. Pure timiumiiii qIho rcudcTx 
Holutiutui uf tiui>nii:-HUii iwltH turbiil. 

M. Aluiiiiiioiu taltt, — Ammouiu throws dnwii h bulky 
Vi-IutinouH prei^ipitutc, wduble both in nidphuric acid, und 
ill cauHtic potafwfii, which contractu oxireniely un drying, 
and craclcH lu nil directiimn. If h few dropB of a itolution 
of piitaHM. Ix; itddc-d to the acid tiulutiou, octohedral cryetals 
of alum will be- obtained, by bIqw evapDration. 

N. Nallt of cupper. — Aimuonia givex the water a blue 
tinife ; and a ]>la(e of iron immertted in it in very Roon 
cuven-d it'ith a uoat of copper. 

O. AmiaoHiiual talti, not earbotiatti. — A water containing 
thuHc ttalt« IcavoH a rettidutun after evaporation, which 
evulveit the puiigi'iit odour of amiuoiiia on teing mixed with 
quick lime. 

F. Hulphurout acid. — Watero holdiu|; this acid In solution 
bsvu generally tlic Hmell of burning nulphur ; they redden 
litmtiM, and depoMJt Hulphur by t)ic nntion of sulphuretted 
hydnigeii. When diatilled they yield an add product, 
which, if n<!Utr&IiKcd by soda, and exposed to the air, 
acquires the proj>LTty of gi»ing a precipitate with nitrate of 
baryta insoluble in nitric acid. 

Q. Carbonate uf ammonia. — These waters yield an alkaline 
prfxluct by diHtillatiou. 

B. Nitrata. — If a solution of poto-taa be poured into tho 
wnUx, till no further precipitate falls dawn, and the Uquor 
Hlt^Tcd and oraporatcd, a residuum will be obtained which 
rcintillatc-M when thrown on buruing coal, like nitte. 

When the substances contained in a mineral water are 
in very minut« quantity, it mity be ni««wary to c^itieentrate 
it ixmsidc-ntbly by evapfrution, to render uio effect of tho 
nftfl^ents sensible. 

Section 7. 

Only A small number of the preliminary trials enumerated 
abore viU )ie necensaTr to aitcertain tho nature of any par- 
umlar water. The following method in uf general appUca- 
li'« It ctinsists in first collecting the gases, and next the 
itiil matter contained in tho water: the latter is then to 
V £nkd into three portions ; the fint eontains all the 
iaiK*=«^ Tvry sulublf in water : tho second, those siiluble 
i iJT>£i-; : and the third, those insoluble in both. Thus, 
in -cunrite Msoplicatt-d analysis, is reiulercd Hinq>1e and 

To Collect the Qaees. 

Sectiox 8. 

Wur-itf intta=iTr..>l^i;-iv«andojjvfH, adapt a bent tube 
■o \ -faac will ill ;*<t *iih water ; pass the end of the tube 
.^ A -»r ^lil 'f Off- i^Tvrted oi-er mercury, and heat the 
ui t viiis *»i »'l 'l"** tfs i« evolved. A little 
-w.w-nm. T *-*i*. ^h-^'iM bppwed "P into the jar 
,«.»■ -nr^-wMiw »^'»' ''■r s»ilphurettt.'d hydrugen tho 
_«.-»*- .'..i-nn Hir -i* alVali must not be introduced 

ir^ ■•» -^- - -•*^'^ •■' '** '"^r ^ "f^^^Tw- T 

JZ ■„t«wii«i-i">''-' ■■■ •viMwtuw *vr ftxhi would be hable to 

T-i,. » „.,«•« . «*■ .vi!«***. if left long in eonfact 

■^'^T^ '•ti,.«« •^1*. -t-uMm-i sli* whi'V of these gases, 

.«^,.«-.«.^ ^™M^rf*.*-«H^ 5- iftrtfniinrdby analysis. 

Xi*,-; .-«■»- ^-i.--- "««»*'• *' »** "y*''*' ^'^ 

.i-wH» «*•',' tk>tt matrass 
,.K' Mt-lwN, ^Miipt a glnsH 
.u. '. .>.-tw "1 <■ /wr. i.-oiKi»!uiHg u 
... «^iuM UuimIw. lint thnnigh 

bent tube, whose opposite extremity must bo immon«d in 
writer. Fill three -fourths of the matrass witii the mineral 
water, seuure all the joints with cement or lutf , and heat it 
gmduiiUy till it Uiils, and continue the ebulliriou till the 
whole (if the gus has pa.-«Ned over into the alkaline liquor. 
The carbonic ai:id will fir^t unite with the ammonia, and 
the carbonate thus fonnod will thon decompose the hydro- 
ehlorate of lime, and a precipitate of carbonate of lime will 
fall down. This must l>e carefully collected and dried, and 
from its weight that of tho carbonic acid, and couseqamtly 
its volume is obtained: 100 ports of carbonate of lime 
indicate 43'7 parts of carbonic aeid, and 100 cubic inches of 
the gas weigh at tlie mean bmiporature and pressure 46 AT 
grs. The objection to this method is the enonnuus quantity 
of water required to afford a sufficient portion of c&rbonate 
of lime. Very accurate results may be obtained, by simply 
receiving the gas over mercury, if the process be carefully 
conducted : in that case a pint of the water, and even less 
will be sufficient. If the water contain any carbonate it is 
probable that they may be in the state of hi -carbonates, 
especially if the water contain uncombined carbonic acid ; 
and since these give off half their acid at 212°, part of the 
gas may be derived from that tiouFcc. This wiu be ascer- 
tained by- comparing tho quantity of carbonic acid gas 
evolved, with that of the carbonate obtained in the course 
of annlysis : the bi-carbonatea contain twice as much car- 
bonic acid as the carbonates. If the water contain sul- 
f>hurous acid add a little acetate of lime before it is heated ; 
it would otherwise be pnrtly volatilized, and a portion of 
insoluble sulphitu of lime be mixed with the carbonate. 

Section 10. 

The quantity of aiilphu retted hiidrogen may be ascertained 
by a similar process, substituting acetate of lead for the 
niiinioniu and iiydrocliloratc of liiur ; sulphuret of lead will 
bo fomied and i>recipitate in block flukes ; but the carbonic 
acid, if any, will wmnin free : 100 parts of sulphuret of 
lead contain 86'G uf b'ud and 13*4 of sulphur, and 100 cubic 
iu(^hes of sulphuretted hydrogen gtis<, at mean pressure and 
temperature, weigh 3G gntins ; It is easy, tlierefore. from 
the weight of the suljihuret to find the quantity <rf gas. 
The hydroBuIphu rets give oH' sidphuretted hydnigen by heat, 
but it is easily kno«-n if a water contain oxljf sulphuretted 
hydrogen, by its not exhaling the peculiar fetid odour of 
Uiat gas, on adding hydro<-liloric add to a portion of it, 
that has been boih-el ; whereas, if a hydrosulpauret bo pre- 
sent, it will be abundantly Aensiblc. 

TTie two proircssos just dcsi'rilied, must of neoessity be 
adopted, when n water contains both carbonic actd, and 
Bulphurettf^ hydrogen ; but if it ntmtains only one of them, 
it is more Himplo to till foiir-tiftliH of a fla^ Tvith it, and 
ndupt a tient tube to its neck, which must pass under a 
mert'urinl jar, and Itoil the water for two or three minute*; 
all the air and carbonic acid, or suphuretted hydrogen, 
with a small jiortion of water, will pass into the jar, and 
being measured, may l)e sejiarated by caustic potassft, 
which will absorb the acid gas, but have no action on the 
commun air. The condensed aqueous vapour will indeed 
retain a small portion of the carbonic add, or sulphuretted 
hydrogen, of which it will Imj easy to take account ; for 
water at the meim Iwrometrical pres.sure, and temperature 
of 68° Fahrenheit, dissolves a volume of carbonic acid equal 
to itself in bulk ; and under the same pressure, and at a 
temperature of b'l", it dissolves three times its volume of 
sulphuretted hydrogen. Agitate the water in the jar, 
therefore, as the may be, with the proper quantity of 
either gas, and from the whole quantity which pure water 
would dissolve, under the same circumstances, deduct that 
actually absorlied ; the difference will indicate the quantity 
already held in solution by the condensed vapour. 



Sbttioh II 

XnlpAtirvm ariii i» very nmly fuuwl in niitiuml vatvnt ; 
hiit tf titt^ «-illi, it iniixt Ik ^1nvc^t<^d by chlorino intu 
■ulgiliiiriL- iiriil. I'tviMiiitMiiil bv iiitntto of liurto. Mid Lh<* 
nil}iliiile colliyiti^, wtuiliol. ilritil. :iiiil uiklriiuN). 100 pari b 
of tbii mIi ivprcnvnt •*')< of mlptiuniu^ ftirid by wpi|{hl : 
If R ymter akii rvtiibkin Hulpliuriu acid, or a KtUplmtv, a 
•econd ].H>rli<tn. In w}3i(;li ti'^ dilnrlns ha» been ftddcd, mutt 
llkrs'iaiT Ih- trvu'.cd wLtli iiitntU- i-f (Mkryta, nud tlipurdfchl of 
Otti ]trt^\»taxo ddiHclivl fntii IIia fcirmar. H>0 jiurtH ul 
Aiil|ihale ot baryUi coutaln H of Hulphuriu a^-id. 

Sscnox 13. 

Sithfarin>*iittf of Bmihoniit is ii» wlduni (aaad in mtnenl 
wuU-ra nt «ulphtin>n* ncid. IM qtuatity iniij- be rp««rt»iu»l 
bj- (lintillinK u [mrliiiii uf llio wattfr, oiuiletuiin;,' tlie vapour 
ill ft rvwivt-r ointA^niTig ;i Hnle hviircblnhc ucid, anil 
pvHpgtntiikir tlic li<iui<l l<i dryiit-**. The itauHtily of hj-dro- 
ehliirnu- of untcuuia oliuUied, will )rive tJuii of the ear- 
bonntt : 100 pirla of tho foniK-r indicuU; 73^ of the lulb-r. 

SeiMPatlon of the Solid Ingpedlenta. 
Snotiok t:i. 

It dtc n-alcr oonain • b^r^-Bttlpborot, tbo mode of 
opomting will b& diffcnmt. 

Bvapiirala a nifficient lufruurftd qiuuititjr of this wntor, 
ill ft liiiiinl copper reaw), until it i» rwlucedtosbout a nlul ; 
tltcm Usiisfcr itio DODwntral'Vd luinid to k ponxJAiu uiaii 
(talcing- r.irv to KCnvpe off luiy luliil matter that may adhcro 
ttj Uw MtUs of till* ooppiT vcfaci, anti tn rioM it with dia- 
tillad iriitoi), and (unitinuu thi' pvii|Hinibon to 4trj-t>(>wt. 
Baring tlius ubtuiiied two ur itirw Luudiwi jfruiiu uf Uiu 
rcaidnuin, piut-cied ua folluwa: — 

Bnmos 11. 

A. Boil n oertain quantity (100 gnioM for insta&oo), pre- 
viuuHly wdl drit-d ut a ttiupeTuturv not cxooodiug 21'^". 
trith seven or eight timf-s ita weight f>( diAtUled wmter, fnr 

IM few iniiiulc*, uiid if lut'l.iiil. filt<'r tbo liquid: wiwb llie 
flllir, nud tlryniid irvi^rb ibi? iiiaoSiibW mnttiT mnaitiiiit,' 
VD il. 

B. Kruponito tho aqaeoiiii mlutinn to drynase ; weij^h the 
n^idiiutii, and dtgctit it in Nnoi)<-MUTc portinim lA nlcnibol. 
iif llic .-jwt-ifia KTSvity of -SiS, witJi h jfrntli- hi-al : filter 
t]»i> liijimr, RRdwnon Ibi- filtrr rppe«tptUy wJtb nltioliol: 
I'Vajv-'nitt? llie Kpitil itrul dr>' oiid Wfiifh the rvniduum. 

The Hxtil inpn-ditavfr viill thus lie sowiratai into thnw 
puriiiitia. Their luituro and Uio incitna ot M>lwrAtiDg ttunn, 
i)iu>l Duw be i?i)iiiuilvr<Kl. 

C. The ioMiluble ponlan may oontoin tho mrbonRCn of 
llme.uMifUMn.iindinin.miipbLic of lime find silica. IXaaolT* 
tl:e nrboiuilri iii a vtrj- nliglif. t-dH^wi uf wmk hydnxibloric 
n^'id, hmI Mrj'vrate ihe uiidiMolri^ iiortioii by the Alter. 
Tu the filtonKl 1ii)iiid add Arft a conaifiunblc excou of acid, 
and thun lunnonin t» pni-ijillat/t the nxidf. of imn. ihr. 
wi-igfal of wliii^, when drit<l luid ifpiiteil. will ^ve that of 
Ux- larlKinate of itun. Nnxt. nild mtii^ju-lHiiiati- \il M>da In 
the auuDiniiacal liquur, ivLidi will throw dimii tlie liinu 
and taUtfDeuia in iJie stato of carboantev: they uiilac bo 
eoUeclod nnd WAAheil, rinivmcil into Kiilnlmtin, iind f>cpa- 
t*ted aa nieutiumil ; liieir wtttjbtn will iiiaii'iit'i tliL- yiuimty 
of thinr bum n-«|ieutively, nnd vonwqueuily that of vuch 
of (bifvarbutiatVK. 

The Bulpliate ot lime, and the nEUca, may be separated 
hy MibcariMjiiat« of potoma and hydiocfaloric add. The 
alkali will decompM' lh« Bulphftto of limo, and tha and 
dixaolTe tbo carbuuate, wMith U formed, wbiJiit tlw alUo* 

will n-main iiutouchcit. The «duliate of lltnti may than 1w 
n>]iruduL-od, by aK^iu wpnnlinj^ liieearlh by Hub-catbctiat* 
(it potama. or pida. and lorubiutiitr tlie iirw-i^wtnta witJi 
MilpbuHo mid, 

l>. Tho hydroithlorAlMand nitmtes of liiiu.- and naffaeata, 
Rodn, hydriMiilriburel. of Mxla, b>-(lrochlorati> of ammonia, 
»ud cunitnini salt, niri (liootilyeiilMlannai, aoliiUoinalodwl, 
Ukely to be iirt.<>M!ut in ti uuncnd water : and of the two 
Inttor lUoohol diMKlrex lint a Ti-ry tmiall qunntily. !-$odn, 
which, a* well tw liyrlTi>L'hl<jrate uf anuiMinin, in iif rcry rara 
(iQCUiTenoe in miuenil wat«n, is innimpatiblo with inaK- 
ntoisn and oaI«aivou« sa]t», and witli hydrochlorati> of 
l i roin Q iii a ; m> that it can only he found in the alnoholia 
solution, aBsoelaCod with the h.vdrochloratc or faydn- 
sulphuret of aoda ; oott«oqiiuntly, whoa a miiiDnil water 
mnuius DO indphiin.'tC(xl hydronn, which i« alwAyii eaiily 
known, and la mo.nt fre(pii^tl<r tho cnae. the s>»tiuii aoluble 
in alculiol will itfubnWy «iin«t only of tb« Drdroelilomlea 
and tiilmt'-ji ot limn and ningiieNiu, and hvilrt>dil'.>rato of 
mkU. IH*Nolr« lbs Noliii in wster, and add an vxoisa of 
Baboarbonnto of ammonia, to prcdpitato tho lime and 
magnet ]n tho tut« of carbonate*, wliilat their ntTuia wiU 
nmain in aolution. e(nnbtn*d with the ammnnia. A ■nail 
portion of nia^etia will probably nmain nul piveipilttvd; 
lOMpnrate which, add D little puosphorie acid: an lintne. 
diate iirccijijtadoii of ammonia •mngn»inn pboapbate will 
onsuo. Tho Mrbonatea and uhovphatm iniiat bo cK>ltr<:ted 
im tejmraU ftltr-ra and w»h«d. &aA. tho >iuantJtie« uf limo 
and U)Bfra«ida of Ihe carbouatot woocioinod by oiilphuria 
Bcid, and tJiat of the magnerfa, oontainod f& tho shoqihata, 
by oaldnaHon. I to parta of eakdncd plioaphato of maicnMiia 
uoutaiu 40 uf inagneaia. N<Mit «raponte the liquid cnn- 
taining the ooniiuon ull, t)M faydroelilurato, nitrate, nud 
oarboualo of anuiuinia that waa added in exeaM, to diynen, 
and tutniduoe the nnidnun into a amall ivtort, front tlia 
nock of whioh a bonl. tube miwt pua undor, and Hho to the 
top ijf a nxciifwr full of, and inverted over merouiy. Heat 
the tv-toK i^cudunlly ; thu iiitnlo of ammunin will be 
deoampowd into water and oxldo of niCrdg«D, and th>- ^lut 
(i<illerU«l in the nx-eivci'. and, since aa much wt» will 
re-eiii«i' the retort on coulinfc, an wna expelled by Uio hi-at, 
what remaitis in the re<%iver will uiu'lly ixpruaent tlut 
quantity of oxido of iiitrogen, nbould the tempt^ratutv and 
pretiure not to havi> rurii^ during tho upunttion. When 
the nitmte uf amiiioiiii tH cuiupl«L«ly dMajuipoed, that la 
when iii> nion* fpoi in disongaged, tlie retort utuit bo broktiu, 
and the bj-drwhlunitea ot Huda and amuuius collecti'd. 
Weigh and calcine them at a low nd heat, In a plittiiia or 
kilvcr e-nicible, to drive ufl the vtilatile «lt, whoae quantity 
will be indiL'atHi by the weight lout in tho operation; 
which, deducts! fr<>iu ihi' whol'V weight, teavea that of tbo 
(iriniuun nit. Ttu' 'luaiitilr of add in Uic hydrochloratM 
of lime and mnffiioMia will tAeu U> aorcrtAincd from that of 
tho hydrochtonitu of auitnoiiia, and Ihe vulunie of uiidn uf 
nitrugcD will giro tJi« quantity of the nitrin acid. 

Tbero in a radioal «fror In thia analyuK, in the mcthud 
directed for aacertaininK the prupurtifin of the nitiatwa, by 
dcviiinpoMug the nitrak of ammonia by boat. When a 
laixturv uf nitrate and hrdrochlurato of ammonia is axpgaed 
ill n tnlurt to a beat au^iont to deoompune tlie nitrate, n 
mutual action taken place betwe«n the two salts, and a 
gaaeoits mixture, containing a \a.T^ qiuuility»f rblnrine, i* 
obtnine'i ; a« in evident, both from its peetiltar uduur, from 
Ita Hvtiou oil mcrcnry, and (rum it>t power tu diwhante 
vegetable eubura. I havo not csAiniiioa th« oompo»it' 
ihr gni crolved. hnt it ia ckar that the aoid ul the 1 
rhlnrnte must In dp«im|Kw«>d, atiid couaeqtunt3y the 
dffectiie. Did ita dc«uinpo»iUou iwt take placv, it 
Iw difficult to ]krarent some of the hydrooblueate '' 
volatiliirod in t)i« operation, 

PerhapH the following ncbenin may fat 
praotioaule for ilie aualy>ii> uf the compi'uiid 



To the Bolation of the hydrochlorates and nitrates of lime 
iiud magneaia, and hydrochlorate of soda, add cautioiwly, 
drop by drop, acetate of silver, until no further precipitate 
ensues, avoiding as much as possible anv exoees of the 
precipitant. The whole of the dydrochlonc acid will thus 
be sepiirated, and there will remain in solution the acetates 
of lime, magTiesia, and >-oda, and the nitrates of lime and 
magnesia. Evaporate to dryness by a Rentle heat, taking 
care not to decompose the acetates by too high a temperature. 
Digest the dry mass in rather lew tlian twice its wcightof 
cold alcohol of the specific gravity at least of '850, or 
better if even 820. This will diaeoWe the acetates and 
nitrates of lime and magnesia, and leave the acetate of tioda. 
Decant off the alcoholic solutions, wash the residuum with 
freeh alcohol, and add the washings to the decanted portion. 
The acetate of soda may then be converted into subcarbonato 
by a red heat, and weighed. 

Diatil off the alcohol from the dissoh'ei salts, redissolve 
them in water, and to the solution add subcarbonate of 
potaeaa, avoiding unnecessary excess : this will throw down 
the lime and magnesia in the state of carbonates, and leave 
in solution acetate end nitrate of potassa and a small portion 
of oarbonate of potasna. Separate thspredpitate, evaporate 
tiie solution again to dryness, and boil the residuum in 
alcohol of -820, which will dissolve the acetate of potassa, 
and leave the nitrate and sub-carbonate. Separate the 
spirituous solution, and distil it to dryness, and convert the 
sub-carbonate of potassa into acetate, by pure weak acetic 
acid. A repetition of tlie action of (dcohol, of the same 
specific gTUvity as the former, will then separate the acetate, 
and the nitrate of potassa will be left insulated. By the 
first process wo get chloride of silver, from whence the 
whole quantity of hydrochloric acid is obtained; by the 
second sub-carbonate of soda, which denotes the quantity 
of acid in the hydrochlorate of soda : by the third, the 
carbonates of lime and magnesia, whence we learn the 
weight of those bases ; and trom the n-eight of the nitrate 
of potaaaa of the last process, we find the quantity of nitric 
acid. From these data the proportions of the several salts 
in the mixture may be estimated. 

100 chloride of silver are equivalent to 25-46 hydrochloric add 
lUO nitrate of potassa ,, ,, 52*88 nitric acid 
100 subcarbonate of soda ,, 1 10- common salt 

or ,, 68-7 hydroohlorio acid 

100 carbonate of lime ,, ,, 66- lime 
100 carbonate of magnesia ,, 47' magneda 

The quantities of lime and magnesia, which saturate 
equal portions of hydrochloric and nitrio acids, are given 

From these several data, and from the quantitiea of lime 
and magnesia, whicli are alreiidy known, it will not be 
difficult to estimate the respective proportions of the 
calcareous and magnesian hydrochtorates and nitrates. 
100 ports of nitric acid saturate S2'5 lime 

,, ,, I, 3G-5 magnesia 

100 parts of hydrochloric acid saturate lO'J- lime 
,, ,, ,, ,, 72'3 magnesia 

100 parts of hydrochlorate of ammonia contain 51 hydro- 
chlorio acid, 100 cubic inches of oxide of nitrogen weigh 
46126 grains; and 100 parts by weight, of toe oxide, 
indicate 12317 parts of nitric acid. 

Instt-ad of treating the whole solution (after the separa- 
tion of the lime and magnesia, by sub -carbonate of 
ammonia) in the manner just mentioned, a moiety of it may 
be submitted to a different process, as follows : — 

Digest the solution, freed from the carbonate of ammonia 
by boihng, on phosphate of silver in excess: chloride of 
silver, and phosphates of soda and anunonia will be formed. 
The two last Milts will remam in solution, with the nitrate 
of ammonia ; but the chloride of silver, with the excess of 
phosphate of silver, fall down. 

Nitric acid will take up the latter, and leave the chloride, 
whose weight may then be ascertained. Next pour sub- 
carbonate of soda mto the filtered liquor, in order to convert 
the phosphate and nitrate of ammonia into phosphate and 
nitrate of soda ; then evaporate to dryness, and heat the 
residuum vrith alcohol of the specific gravity of -S50, 
which will dissolve the nitrate of soda, but have no action 
on the other salts. The quantity of dry nitrate of soda will 
give that of the nitric acid, and the quantity of chloride of 
silver that of the hydrochloric acid of the hydrochlorates of 
soda, lime and magnesia ; and since the quantity of common 
silt, and consequeutly that of its acid, is already known by 
the firet process, deducting the latter from the whole 

auantity of hydrochloric acid, the quantity of the acid of 
10 hydrochlorates of lime and magnesia is obtained. 
By thus vaiying the processes, the quantities of the nitric 
and hydroohlorio acids are obtained in different ways, and 
the results, if they harmonise, entitled to the greater 

Ssonov IS. 

The substances soluble in water only are more numraons 
than the preceding; they amount to thirteen, namely, the 
sulphates of soda, magnesia, ammonia, iron and copper, 
and alum ; nitrate of potassa, the hydrochlorates of potaaea 
and soda ; the sub-borate of soda and boracio acid. 

Although common salt has been classed with the sub- 
stances soluble in alcohol, it is necessary to place it also 
with those insoluble in that agent, which takes up so small 
a portion that it commonly makes part of both classes. 

Nitrate of potassa is distinguished from all the rest by 
Bointitlating when thrown on red hot obarcool ; boracio add 
by the beautiful green colour it imparts to the flame of 
burning alcohol : and alum by ammonia throwing down its 
alumina. The form of the crystals of sulphate m soda is a 
six-sided prism, with dihedral Biiminlts; that of nitn, a 
six-sided prism, teiminafed byeix-sided pyramids. Botmoo 
acid crystallises in thin hexagonal plates, aad alnm in 
regular octohedra. 


The sulphates of magneida, ammonia, iron, and copper, 
and the hydrochlorates and carbonates ca potassa and soda 
are known by Uie oharactera already desorihed at Section 8. 
Sulphate of soda, nitrate of potassa, boiaoia odd, and alum, 
by solution in -water and crystallisataon, and borax by 
sulphuric acid preolmtating boracic acid, form a cou' 
ccntrated solution of tiiat salt. 

Sectioh 17. 

The sidphatea of ommoma, iron and copper, alum, nitrate, 
hydrochlorate and carbonate of potassa, borax and bcnscic 
acid, are very rarely found in mineral waters, and carbonate 
of soda or potassa is incompatible with sulphate ui copper 
and free borado aoid. Thus the sulphates of soda and 
magnesia, common salt and carbonate of soda, aze almost 
the only substances of this class likely to bo met with; 
moreover, only three of them can exist together, for 
sulphate of magnesia and f»rbonate of soda mutoally 
decompose each other. 

SsoTioy 18. 

Suppose, first, there be no sulphate of magaeda in the 
water ; treat the mixture with successive portions of aloohol 
of the specific gravity of -875, which will dissolve oil the 
common salt ; then, adding acetic acid to the sulphate and 
carbonate of soda, the latter will be converted into an 
acetate, soluble in alcohol, and thus easily separated from 
the sulphate — the quantity of acetate will givo that of the 



SunrtOM 10. 

Seeondlv, nuppow them be no cwrboiute of i«da prawui ; 
tbci AMI 4ttll in ti> hi rwparatrd. an bpfotv. b)- utrotiol ; then 
(itB«j|vt) tlw rMiHlMuni ill w.iItT iiikI add lutriimt chkiridi- 
tiU it prodniyw lui (urtbrr tuvt-ipiLsli*. txkinx K^^^t 
CUV ncit to wld it In oxomb. The «uIpbat«B of ooda acJ 
nuiKisu wiU be deeompowi], inwolublc aulphutc of hnrium 
wfiT fnll <ln*-n. >inil tli<> hyilnwhlontti.'tt of ftoda and magacna 
rentaiD in w^lutitiu. Evupunl« tlio lif^aid to dlTnet*. uid 
oaldnp tlw iv>iiiduuin in ii pbtinA crtictbl* at a red liMt. 
Ttie hj-dirachl(}ruto gf magiiMia will tliiu bo deprived ojf iu 
of-id, and iho. i<omman salt lUT be AGfNUUted ttota xhn 
tnaffufMtt hy wsl«<r. 100 n«rU of Fommon Milt niv ocjiiivn- 
]«9it to S3'25 of soda. Pram tbv uuiuitiliw uf i-kU and 

aoif Um woi^fat of tliti salphtiric add from that of tli<! 
biilphato uf Iwriam. 

Sscnoit 20. 

If • minoml wKWr onntain a L^drofialpliuivt — the h^m- 
HdlpliurvL IN iiev«r pa», It w alwajs moro or biM 

A. Collect tliv ^iMi^ M •tsUxl at Section 8- 

B. Th<> cnrbonati>A of Umo and uagnoda, tbo mlpliat« of 
limi^, and tlu Ailii-u must nL<o be aeparntod bv the ntnal 
mrthodK. except that it in better to eraporaie Itie wnlcr in 
a nUAVt than in u ImmId, to prevent the action of the air od 
the hf droealphuret. 

0. To aM"Prtain the quastitjr of the h]rdro»»lpbiiret (or, 
num propnrlj', MilgiliunittMl hrdroMilphun^ti inTroducci the 
waterr into a (uliiiUle'l rvtnrt, hniring' n tubo uf Mafattr littod 
to thu tubuluiv, uud a cuiiimuii tubo to it4 neck , whixfa muni 
|MM Into a iiuA oontatiunff acetato of tc«d : puor noetic 
aoid intu the vater thronf b Iba tube of mfc^ty, and heat it 
gradaally till it b(a]ii. "nioliydruiiilpliurct will be d«uani* 
pOMsd : iu xulpburotted hydroLren mil (mm into the flaak 
and p«<adiu-« Bulphurct of luiwl. niul the Milpbur that was 
milMl irith ll»- bjYlnunlpliuret will he prMiptoited. Trcma 
the weijfht uf llir Hulj>biirel icc obtain Uiat of tho aulnhur- 
t>tl«d b^dm^n, nml fmm rhi> vnittht uf the latter and the 
•ulphur, tbut of the HutpLuri'iied hjdnMolpfaurvt. 

It wfiold be bettor, and it in Bonwtimw pomiblo, to dctar- 
nini? thr^ iinuiiiity of tin- hrwot thi^ milphtiR'tttfd hydro. 
pmlphiirpl m a dinu^t uuii>iit-r. tliiiu tu deduoa it from tbe 
freiK'bt of tho nulphurelted hydrog'jn atiti tlu.- milpbur, 
{Muti^itlarl.v aA the latter in difllcniH t<j toUi-ct. 

This piwfwi miiijiowit th<^ wat*r to contain no friw 
Hul|]&LUHt(xl hyilntKt'u : if that he ttu- vaw, which will t(c 
knowu by its anuill, it mnat TirNt bi- driven off by a K«utlti 

tnii fif load fonbiiu: with l.yir of eulphur. and 16 of 
Milfitiitr with one of hydro^n. Th<> Milphitretted hydn>' 
*iilphiin'l« i'liTdraffiiivtte<i ■nlpbnrula/ are prubablj fonutd 
jf iwu titJ>mxi(^ Bi^pbur, one of hydrogen, and ont* of boM ; 
thuH, if it )m> the siilphurettt!^ hjdnMulpbiuvt of «oda (or 
n»un> iirrjji»<rlT of •odium), it* cnuipiMitiaii would be aodiiun 
22. «a]ph\tr 30, bydroKvii 1 = 53. 

D. 'Hm' quantltj- of carbonate of soda may bo d<i(«ni>tncd 
bjr a aimiluT procMS. After Njilinp the watur, to tlirow 
^wn tbn inaoliiUo oarbonalMi, filti-'r and trMt it with 
bjrdriicblorio atdd, in an appttratiu likn thut nu-ntiunud. 
^ntaininir a solution of aininoiiia and hj'drucblorale of 
Unw. in the inaanM* then dirtiutod : from the wfi^it of tin' 
carbonate of linia that of thfr aUtaliii'' >^It will h^ dcduci^d. 
lOfl parta of onrhonntn of lime are wiuimlpnt to 1U5-6 f>arlA 
ct rab-t'iirUinato of lunlu. deprived of iw vraier liy u. rwl 
beat, aiul to 16« parts of tbo crrataUiiwd bi^carbouatt-. 

K. It fi-iiiain* to oonfidcr how the other Hub»lanoee are to 

b)> ■■•jamtiil. If t^rbomto uf mda be pnw^nt, tbo wat«r 

can coatnin bendea onlv the oarbonnl<«> of lintn and niaK- 

, nlioBi bjdroaalt^urvt of wda, and othtir ull« with 

baae of tliai alkalL In that caw add an exopwr of Bcetjftj 
Mid and frn|Kiml» to dnpiMV, oatclnc the rr-idnnm at 
rM heat, nJIii»o m utur on it, and filter tho lii|uor. Tbe M>d_ 
of th& carionat^' am) bydn«iil]iiinret. and ilto otfarr caita 
fg«nm1ly onlv Md|>lint«< and hydto«ld>init« of nods) will bo 


To tlie solution add aub-carbonate of ammonia to ranrcn 
the acida comoletely into sob-mrhoiialp, and boil the liiiukl ■ 
to drtTi> off Uir rxmnt of tin- rolntilu cariioiuiU, and ui« ' 
|>nM»Ml to aacerlaiii the qnantitiiiM of sn salt and Midphn' 
of Hoda, by aloobol ana aoelio acid, an dirwLcd. At thai 
«am« time the qmintitj of luwtate ratutt U- aaccrtained-i 
which wilt rive that of the mxIa, and tbe quanlit)a« cs 
carboDio oarid and aolphonptled hydrogitm those of the 
hydioaujphiuvt and mb-carbotiate. 

F, If no carbonat^ of mda be prMcml, a niinnnl wat«r 
may cnntain, in addition to the muwitani^oii nMiitiooMl in tho 
last immgraph, t!iPRulplutte«,hYdrx>hI'mit(7< anduittatuiof f 
liinp and uaffonin. Iu this caac iKilatc it with an cicpm 
of i-lilurida of mercury (oaknnel), winch will dc^rompow div 
h)-dro(Ri]phTirct and an inaolubie black eulphurat of mervury, 
and hydixioblonlc uf Ifano or noda, accordrnv aa Uic aulphu- 
mted hydrogwi waa uidted Iu one or tiUer of thoae two ' 
baaea, wul bo fonned. To nompJcte the aaalfilA, obmsrva 
tbe diraeliana eoatainrd in thr S<yt)o<nfl 13. et Mf. ; but, 
from the quanta^ of hydruchloratc ubtainxd. miut be 
deducted that whwh ariiiea frnrn tho action of the hydro- 
Kiill>baret on the ehlorlde of im<if ury. For thin purpoM 
take a tmA portiDn of tbe wator, add nitric acid, and boil 
it to expel the *u1phltrrttl^d hydm^o ; thcu filtn- aiid dn>p 
in on eioeaa of mdptiatu of itilvor. A* a Bulplutttf aiay be 
]m-wnt thin in proferiible to ultratv ^if vilwr. The wnfht 
of tliooliloridoof Htlver that will ba formed will in(li<-nt« 
the root quautity of tli<> until o<>iitainr«l in tho wator. »ht-nr« 
tluitariHnir front tbo cakmiul luuv !«■ prtimnlrd. Sin<:« thu 
■am of tli» two qnniitii.iiH hnw boen ffivui by the flrtt 
axporinKut, and tbo (lumiiity of uf-iA daivcd friitn tho 
ehlorido id nloo known. Uil' quantity of ba^e whicli aaiiirat«B 
it ia likewW obtaiuMi, Tho iiunntity of bvdroKulpburat 
will likewi»e be found fruiu iho luuuit data, a» it is the result 
of the union of that baee wiiii tbo oulphurettod hydn^mi. 

Sktiox 31. 

In all case* it m right in the first instance to devote a 
portion of the water to an titquirv into the nature of Ita 
contenia before the more perfoct analyeia ia nndertakco. 

In addition to the prccoditi)! directionB in thia woric, an 
exumple uf tlie actual aualyiiia of a mineral water, canuot 
fail to be extremely tuetiil to tbo studt-nt in ihin intriiMls 
aud difficult part uf our vubjcol. And I know umc boltv* 
calculated for the imrjinae than tho ingonioiiN mid KU-ttrat* 
ono of the celebrated Batli watur, by thu lalo Ur. lUuliard 
Phillip*, in whioh it will bo spen how aUeutiToly Ifao 
phenomena produced by tlui dlAcrent reagents muat be 
obaorrod, and hav cautioiuly the infercnee<« they a]ipenr to 
lead to, adopted. 

Anatyala of the Hot Springe at Bath. 

The future of tito oonntry roand Bath, and other local 
drcumstanoei. have bu^n bo fully dnnrilml by tlxwi who 
haw ^rpn nhenucal eaamin^itiooi ..f the wAl^r« of tliv hot 
■•IirinK* at that place, that any furito-r ilotwnptiun H|»pean 

As to tho caoAe of tht^ heat of thf^ao mvrin^. we bare mi 
few data from whti-h tu rawon, that I shall tiol nffcr even 
a oinjecture on the subjeoi. 

ThoBo waters bavo been frequently analysed. Hey have 
merited tho attention they bare nK-aivcti. not only from 
th<?ir early and estenslre emnloyiURnt to tho euro uf 
dieeosm, but also on account of some peuuliar obaugw tO 



whioh iliey axe subject. Of tiheao the explanatioiiH have 
been ho various as to show tliut they require atill further 

Of the xenNible properties exhibited by these vatore the 
mOHt remarkable is their high temporatuFe, the dogree of 
which varicH oouwderably at their ditforeiit sources. At 
the hot buth it is 117°; at the king's bath 11 ■J" : and at 
the oroBs bath 109°. This statement doen not exactly agree 
with vhat has bosn usually given as their temperatare. 
These results were obtained by pumping the water upon 
the bulb of a thermometer till the mercury ceased to rise. 
Their taste is metallic, but not bt'Onglyor disagreeably so; 
this haa not been universaUy allowed : but if they are 
drank hot, this impression is readily distinguishable. 

Their Kpccific gravity Is 1002 at each of the springs ; 
and BM the effects produced by chemical tests are also 
perfectly similar, thev may be considered as derived from 
one Hource, the tcmperatiire varying by their more or lose 
nircuitous passa^v to the surface. For the purpose of 
uiialvsis the water of the king's bath has been usually 
■•mployod ; and although it doos not appear to be a matter 
of muoh importance, I have followed the usual practice. 

Before the experiments made upon the water are related, 
it vitl bo neceHMiry to state those employed to ascertain 
the ]>n>portiO'i of the gas, which riso^ in great quantity 
thniugh the water in the king's bath. 

This gns is pi'rfoctly free from smell. 

A. 8oin(i of till! gas was rcc^oived into a jar. A lighted 
taper put into it was immnliatoly extinguished. 

Ji. l{o(».>ivod into lime water, it caiisid an immediate 

C Tinaturo of litmus suffered no change of colour by 
ngitatiim with the gas. 

D. The colour of dilute tiucturo of turmeric and tincture 
fif gi^'l" 'tras doxtroyed by it. 

From the*! otfei^tH the gas appears to consist principally 
4it nitrogon gas with a small inrtion of carbonio add gas. 
To owMirtiiln the iiuantity of each, and whether any 
(ixyguii gus was prescut, the following experiments were 
|M<rtonHiid : — 

K. One hundred meaHures of the gas were strongly 
ngitatod with barytcs water in a graduated tube. A 
eonsiderable proolpitat« was deposited, and five measures 
w<m) nbitorboa. 

F. Uno measure of deutoxide of nitrogen was added to on 
<m|Uh1 i^iiatititv of the gas in an eudiometer in the water 
ainHUutuH, 'I he mixed gasus underwent no alteration of 
eolournor diminutirin of volume. 

(1. One hundred meitsurcs of the gas which had been 
dejirivod of i-(irb«»iic ncid by liuryics water were submitted 
to till) wtidii of Holutiiiii of protomuriate of iron im> 
|in<Diittti!d with deutoxide of nitrogen. No absorption took 

Tills gnu, thcrefiire, consists of — 

('iirlHiuii: acid giiH ... fi 

Ni^rojfcn giis 95 


I now pmoecded to try wlinther the water held either of 
thi'iM) gitni'H in solution. 

H. Tun ounces of the water which had been cooled in a 
Wfll-closed Ixittlo, were put into a vewel furnished with a 
hi-iit tube ; the wiiler wus boiled for about twenty minutes, 
mid Uio gas cvolvtHl from the water and the air of the tube, 
uxoept a cpuiiitity too small to be oftimaied, were received 
in a graduat^N] jar over mercury. Solution of potash ab- 
sorbed thnx'-fourtliH of an in<^ of this gas, which was 
carbonio uuid. 

I. Tlio unabNorI>ed gas was transferred to the w^ter 
Bjipanitun, and tried iu the usual way with deutoxide of 

nitrogen. The mean result of comparative experiments upon 
it and atmospheric air showed that it was merely the air of 
the vessel, and that no nitrogen gas was held in solution 
by the water. 

As ton ounces of the water gave '75 of an inch of carbonic 
acid, one quart would furnish '2*4. This quantity b not 
quite exact, it being scarcely possible to obtain the whole of 
the carbonic acid by ebullition. 

Effects of Atmospherio Air and Reagents. 

K. Some of the water, while hot, having been exposed iu 
a vessel of broad surface to the atmosphere, afforded in a 
few hours a small quantity of a white prccipitato ; but water 
which hod been cooled in a close vessel remained per- 
fectly transparent after sever^ weeks' exposure to the air. 

The reagents added to ^e water while hot, and the 
effects produced by them, were the following : — 

L. Acetate of lead — a perfectly white precipitate. 

M. Tincture of litmus — no alteration of colour. 

N. Tincture of tunueric— no change indicatiDg the 
presenoe of uncombined alkali ; its colour inmieo^tely 

O. Lime water — a white precipitate. 

P. Potash— a white precipitate. 

Q. Carbonate of potash — a white precipitate. 

R. Some of the water was boil«l with a little nitric 
acid—potash added to this gave no jprecipitate. 

8. Oxalate of ammonia— a precipitate. 

T. Nitrate of barytes — a precipitate insoluble in nitric 

V. Nitrate of silver — a white precipitate insoluble in 
nitric acid. 

V. Solution of sulphuretted hydrogen — no precipitate nor 
change of colour ; the water became very slightly turbid. 

W. Prussiate of potash— no immediate effect : after 
some weeks the water became slightly green. 

X. Tincture of gulls — immediately a peach-bloeaom red 
colour, and very soon a precipitate trtiiob became durk 
purple by exposure to the air. 

All the above effects are also produced after the water 
has been cooled, excepting that the colour of tjnoture of 
turmerio is not then destroyed, and, under some circum- 
stances, no red colour occurs upon the additiort of tincture 
of galls. 

Y. A quantity of the water was evaporated to dryness, 
and distilled water added to the residuum. Nitrate of lime 
iwurcd into the solution afforded a crystalline precipitate 
in a few hours, indicating the presenoe of on alkaline 

I shall now state the inferences to ho deduced from these 

Carbonic acid exists in this water (B, !e!). A considerable 
portion of it escapes at the high tcmperalure at which the 
water ii obtained, its evolution occasioning ihepredpilation 
of some substance which it held in solution (K]. 

From experiment (L) it is evident that no sulphuretted 
hydrogen gas is present. 

As no alteration of colour is effected upon tincture of 
litmus by the carbonic acid (M), it is evident that this ooid 
is present only in suffioient quantity to dissolve the sub- 
stance precipitated by its evolution. 

The destruction of the colour of tincture of turmeric (N) 
is clearly occasioned by the gas during its passage through 
the water (D). 

The effect produced in experiment (0) is owing to the 
formation of carbonate of lime, and the preoipiiation of it 
and of the substance previously dissolvid by carbonic 
acid (K). 

A part of the precipitate obtained by addingpotash (F) 
must have been similar to that of experiment (ID, and to a 
portion ' timent (0), produced iu (P) and (0) 



hj DmnUnlnir Ibv vclveiit cutbtmlA aeld inwciKl at ftspentlir 
h«B ID «xpcrimi>nt {K;. Tbo prwipitJilB vaa oirbOBatf^ i3 
HmD, or i>f ni«^>-»in, or both. 

Aa rarliij' trarlKmntBit art' not |in:wipiUl)li' tiy ■Ikitluii- 
c«rl■oaate^ ifa« pn-i.-i^icalo /t'rnied I15 curlwiiate ot pobiali 
(Q) tntlicktn the promtioe of mjiuu other e-irtby hiIL 

From expi^inont (R) it. Appi'Aiii lliiit tin altiininit nor 
nagnttiii (■xisU in lliu wnlt-r, itiiil Ihut llii- pn!Ct|iitat« 
al)tuino4 in I'lpprinwiii iK) »'■* (uirhon:tt« nf linH', 

Exporiiuvnt (81 (iHtumuDM tlio nruHMicu at Uiuu. 

Experiment (T) akows that anlphiuio MOd oxists In tti« 

Thr rffrat prcxlurod bj' nitrato of xiLror (O] minlu from 
Hu! luitim of bydrocUono acid. 

An no mctAllie oiid« iliiwoverftblp 'bj sulphuretted 
hjilrogwi iriui nupeottd, ih" apprttrmtinei it produot^ (V) 
wiw sutipoMd to b* ilerired Cruia it* ftution upou caibonato 
of liinc. Tiua vroa ■«c«ttaitiod to be the caaa b^ diieL-t 

An th« pruMHte of potiuli L-tnplnvoi) iu expctrinmit (W) 
MJiitaiiui nxide of iron as one of its oonstitnetits, it was 
bnAgSanl Uut tlie slijitlit grconncw whiob wm u>inuiic<d hy 
lbs WKtcT ml^ht bo ocGs.^jutifvt by tho neOaa of the itarhonio 
•Aid, BOtwittifltaudiD^ ita holdinir i-Arbon&tA of liine in 
aolution, Llii>4ifl«th«niig' nnnily prixliifnl hy thcHppliRHlina 
of the stronger aoIiU. A wuikU qunuiily of tbe triple 
rmnw'itn wu therefora added to « suIutioD of carbunate of 
mm in CArbmln add : nftrr n rnnttdcmblr timn it iir<iuir«l 
ft grtea. colour, t^tuMy nimiliu- to that obtw^rved ui 
Mfmitnent (W). Dr, Fslnioer b»«, in(le«d, stated that a 
bine culuur is lu bv ubtaiiwd by tlu- action of pruMato of 
poCaab upon the water : but, ah it did nut cx-tut till niter 
the addition of stilphuricaoidi it is evident tJiat this offoot 
wu* produced by ihti iuAmn of tlici acid upon the oxide of 
iron <}{ the pnumUu. 

Althoutrh the preaenoe of oxIdA of Inn is nnt at all 
tadkiati'd )>y prutMiat« of potAsh (probably on acoonat of 
the >>in«IIii(:ui of il« qnantitv), v«it it i« nridunt fnun tho 
uctiim of Uiictnr« of galls (Xj Utst a iiiimiti! portion of it 
actually i'si>l« in the wnb^r : tho li^ht colour of ths nraenl 
pm.-ijiitiitf<, and it-t hetMmiaf; dnrktir Hy cnntaet iriUi atmoa- 
^enc air, iih<>H'iii)|> tbnt it is in tlic Htale of pruloxtdr. 
In iiinkiu({ llii* Hxprrimnnl it in nHpiifiito to as* a very 
miall qiinnliiy uf tlu> tiuctutu of iralbi ; for, it miLoh mora 
tliaa five drops of it are added to one oimce of th« irat«r, 
no Indloatlim of nxidrr of in>n ix pnidii'vrd, tbo wal^-r 
bemtnin^ of a [i>cht rrddliH bniwii I'litour, and atfo-rdiiiK 
no pm'i|)itat<>. An excosa of UiIh tiiictiiie roncta upon the 
oonipuiuul uf vrjretablo mutt<.T and oxido of iron su cam- 

Eletely a^ to prcront the apjiearauras rcodllf pvHcflled 
y n niuitll ([OButity. 
F(v«ti tlte iri'll-known Uws nf cheiniiwl alBnity It is 
vridont lii'it tho ox(de of iroci in coiubincd with curbuoia 
add ; tliio coinpoand luidertrolng somo curioiis obanges, 
which haTl^ oMaAlonol miu'h diacnaaioii. 

It has been observed tbst on« ot Uiv moat aoUn t«ita 
of uxid* uf iim doas not iu this wnUr produce any 
appearance of Its presenea : and the slitrht mxHallio taate 
wfaiob it oonunuDtentes orbm Imi luid fniOi him bnmi 
luuintiood by aome analyst-, 'iliis ttuttv ta IihI by • <>olinf{. 
ereii iu weU-atopped bottles ; iiud cvory mutlnHi whioh I 
hare iriod \i> Kstore it has b^-n iinitmtvwsfHl . It hus also 
liecn tni-ntionivl that tho aoliou of tiiiL-turu uf )fiilb ia in 
aome tatacii IiMt: and tliis fncl hns ihs'ilnodwI miich dis- 
ousaion rsspenting th^ oxide uf irrjii. Thy fuUowinir 
vxporinieots wUI show under what dr^iimiitancw tJds 

OOCIU*: — 

d, .itmnt line pint of tbo watnr wns axpisad, white hot, 
to the atannsiihen> in a vetnd of bruad siirfaoe. After it 
bad r»maiu«l Hboat sixt«oo hours, • stnoll qaantit; of 
cnHwuate of liinfi waa dopodted by thu 6i«lutiaa of 
cartxiok acid gna. Tho precipitate was perfectly white. 

aiid luid not the sIlKhle^ appcaran'x.' of i>outainiiifr oiJde 
of iron. To thi>< wittrr tinrturo of ^al!s vrtv* added without 
otMNtiiiidiliijr thi^ li'iut nllr'nitiOB of ivitiiiir. 

A. Am tiio i{Uantily of oxide of inm in thi' water is 
vvidoutly rxttwnwly small, it maybe imagined that it was 
pmoipitatcd witli the earlxnaU uf lime, Iml ot(wpod 
obseiVation from tl^o mlnntoneM nf tho (|itantity. To 
ohviftlo this obiertion, soiuo of the wnttfr wuh cluitvly 
■tiippni til a viid for fuur or fivn days: upnii i<xnin>niiliijin 
ii Ko* foiuid to poaseaii It« ttaoaptuvncy purfvctly, nud 
without baring anovdad any T)nci|dtate t to m>om« of rhia 
tincture of nils waa added wiihont producing the slijrht«st 
iiidioalion of oxide ot iron. 

e. Some of th« water, which hud been cooled so aa to 
retain ita traDsparoncy. waa heated to its original tnn- 
porotnre ; tinctun: of galls waa tlinn oddtal, bnl without 
pmdiuiiiig any effect. 

The fads uxbilntcd iii npeiimenta (^) aad >) hire been' 
long kikuwu, and bavn given rise to an idea Uiat the fron 
is volatjtiscd. Althuuvh this opinion is ineou^tible with 
facta alniady mnntioned. y?t it nuy not bo siuiss to show 
more partioularty thut it Is uoiii)>l«-toly vminooHs. .As it 
oantwt be imagined that the temperature of the water la 
■nffidait to TDlatiliso mpre oxido of iron, tho existence of 
sMDe BobsAanoe capublu of cairiinK >l "S mtud havo beanj 
supposed. That muriatic acid and iniirlaTe of aonnonlfti 

tPiwHi-ss thia power at high tempDraltinM is well knuwOt 
'ul no muriate of ammonia is pr«aent, nor U any mnriatio 
acid, except iu combtuatioo. Hydro^i'U gna ia said also 
to be capaola of ralatiliidng iron ; Imt i.he gas evolved frum 
the water has been shown tu consist of uUrc^n gas and a 
small quantity of oorixndD add gaa, and to theae gaaea, 
eitiicr aeparate or combined, no soeh power has ever been 
attributed. If. buwi-rer, tlirr rt-nlly puswisM it in this 
instauce, Ui(<y most be regarded as tho ridveut of tliu iron, 
and the effoct produced upon tiaatura of galls must be 
d^iivnl frrrm the gua dillused in anuill qnaitttticii through 
tho water. If thiH be tliu case, tho apjiltmliun uf ui» 
conmDtrnCi'vl wiliitioii uf iron should prtNlii<« a much tnorv 1 
dl^tiuci oifeci upon thw tincture ; but Jl has been nhown 
(D) that the gus deetntya the colour of dnotiire of gaits 
itw4«*d of inircasing It, which would lio tlie effect if it 
oontainad uxidi' of itim. 

it. About one galloo of the water wua put into a reaaal of ] 
considerablD d«<pth< of which it oocupied abont two-thirdai 
It was slightly evovered, and rengainett about twrntyfburj 
huurs. It then retained its power of attordiiqr a peseb- 
hlomsom oolonmi pm-Jpitalo with tUQotnre of galla (X) In a 
very eousLd«-rable degruc. 

It is remurkable that in thia experiment the rviult okoold 
bare |nx>ved ao diffi.irent fnmi that obtained in one whei«^ 
tho oruujiiatannes wen similar, vxevpting onlv tlM> form of " 
the veaael uod the quantity of the wutev. >\^vu tliu wuIcf ' 
waa exposed with u broad surfaoe. tinotore of gnlla ahowi^ 
no autiim on it («) ; but in thMriijie, <'Viin after eight hours* 
lo^iT expimure, it d#t««t*d oxide of iron, 

rr^m uuh cimumstaoDe I bogau to suspect thul sobh* 
uliangc wa» p^dncod by the nbani^itioii of oxy^ren, and that | 
il hat) nut pn>duc«d the some eBixl in this lu m tJw fomuir 
nxpcrimvnC on aooonnt of the quantity of the wa(«c siid 
depth uf the veaael. Thero appeared, however, a strong ' 
fact aKnin.4t thiti iiuppt^tdtton, vix., that iron ia more cnsilf | 
d^itcotod when highly oxidisod, whernas tlw cuutrary nffcot' 
was in this nam piuumiMl. 

To try the etfect nf atiuospherie air, tho fulluffistf 
expurimunta wurw performed : — 

t. A small <]uantitr of tlio water was enclosed, w 
hot. ill a wcll-stoppe<l i^l, with abont one-foittaib $ 
roliiiiio uf iitiniuiptinric air. After four dnys tht 1 
ivmaiued u-ifoctly traiamarcut, bu) the nd^liti-iu of titt. 
of galls did out afford the oUgbteHt appeaxanee tit 
ooataining iron. 



/. Another portion at the miter mu kept for tiio Bame 
length of timr in h iYcll-fiti>ii{Mtl xiiil, bnt ^thout any nir, 
I'xcept such US the wnter h>'Ul in solution. Tincture of 
fpillR (Hviu(iii»(<d exHi'tlj the Minio iippearanee of iron in tltia 
tuj in thi- water when fn-sh nml h'tl fX), 

Thnt tlie action of tinotnra of gi^l» in lost by the 
abttorption of the oxygen of &tmof>pherio air ia proved by 
the folloiwinK experiment : — 

y, A third quantity of the water was enclosed, with 
the usual preuaution, in a rial, about one-half of which 
was occupied by the ga« evolved from the water in the 
bath, which has been fihown to contain no oxygen gas. 
After four days, tincture of galls was added to it, and gave 
the same appearanors of oxide of iron as occur in its 
application to the fresh hot wat<T, 

Having thus anecrtained the effect of oxygen in prevent- 
ing the notion of tincture of galls upon oxide of iron, it 
remained to bo shown in what manner this is effected. I 
imagined it might be produced by increasing the power of 
oombination of the oxide of iron so as to admit of its acting 
upon the earthy contents of the water and forming com- 
pounds, the strong affinity of the oonstituents of which 
prevented the action of the tincture of gaUs, With a view 
to asoertain how far this supposition was correct, I 
examined the effects produced by adding carbonate of time, 
dissolved by carbonic add, to solution of sulphate of iron 
to which tincture of galls had been previously added ; and 
althoug^i it will appear, by the following experiments, that 
the alterations produced upon the oxide of iron in the 
water are oauned by the carbonate of lime it contains, it 
will also be found that they are not effected in the way I 
had supposed. 

A very dilute solution of protosulphate of iron was 
pvvparviL The quantity of oxide of iron contained in it 
was M> mnall as scarcely to afford any alteration of colour 
wt*Ni tincture of galls was added to it ; but upon pouring 
^tlntiiw of carbonate of hme into it after tinotnre of galls 
Wl t<r<en added, a deep red colour was almost inatan- 
t.MMNHwly produced. 

\tiV>ti)rti this fact did not immediately appear likely to 
^■Nv lh<> diflioulties attendant upon the water in question, 
>i.-t I* <trs« Miflioiently striking to merit an examination by 
H fc.*» »«»**«!i the carbonate of lime produced this effect, and 
'.L «ti.*t vvftpwt it might be employed in rendering tincture 
,■4 ^.«.'^'» * iwt>4V aeti\'e reagent. 

\Vv^ (h(i uth>ntion I boiled some crystallised sulphate 
■ 1 .u>*» t>» *U^^h^^^ (ill nearly the whole of the persulphate 
,».»*, ••iK*'-»Kst The remaining quantity being extremely 
,n,»'t. I <f> »'l vswMtW the iron in this solution as entirely 
.",» .h.- j-ov ^'* i»«v*>\ide. The sulphate, insoluble in 
.■.,■^1.1. **-*■. sU«5\vd in water, and the quantity of the 

lit ..«*u*iMvst vw a (rivon portion of the solution was 
.1,1 i.f»H>' ''^ *«fc»»«; thi> KVfrage of two experiments. 

', fi. ..«,. vt.wsv \«i ihU *«lution, containing about ji^th 

. . n'H 4 Hv'*^'^**(# «**>"'"' '"""*"™*^ 8*^^ ^*'*'*^*'^- 

lU--'' v.i.''«*'v' *W »»>**' apiH'aranoo indicated by the 

„ . :i ..v.iK> ^4 w\*» iu a vwy slight degree. The 

,'..,., I .\.l'..v.t 'u.»v.W«A V? '*W ahhorption of the oxygen 

'\., ' i' .i.mfcrt^ \J lh«i jmilution was treated with 

. .-, ^ y ■'■kOt V l«ith» Wm«' wiUmit was immediately 

' , I , " i 1., t\ lu.uuk' i-^uiKw o( iiWHxide of iron which 

;,,l ,, 1 ih * M>«u .i tW •UxdwU. The intensity of 

\, . \.V ..U..'l>i«.^v^.*•^^^.vlh*«'tl^wofatal0^phe^Jc 

it i.ll I'. " "■"' 

. „ . . ^?K ,..>w\v4*x( into iMToxide. 

■ ; V\u u-tt *iUksl l»« "»>" ouiieo of a dilute 

, . , i Kuw »su*u»»i«»r *Nmt lidth of a 

;,. .(,, n.*tki,M %i\|\>«'inw>nl». Area purple 

, >. .1, ...tA mw***>(.v. w»« immediately 

.'"fh' '.f- .Al'""»"- **^ »v»'^v»»«». ™>pl<>yii« only 

...I I 

distinct red purple was immediately produced by the action 
of the tincture of galls. 

»'. To one onnce of a solution of carbonate of lime, 
containing j^Joth of a grain of oxide of iron, prosnate of 
potash was added ; but it did not produce any indication 
of having acted upon the oxide of iron. 

I now prepared a solution of persulphate of iron by 
treating the pratosulphate with nitric acid in a red heat. 
The quantity of oxide which the solution contained was as 
in the former case ascertained. The experiments made 
with this were as follow : — 

n. One ounce of a solution ot persulphate of iron, con- 
•^"oing iinnjth of a grain Gt oxide, was treated with 
tincture of galls. The usual indications of its action upon 
oxide of iron were presented. 

0. The addition of prussiate of potash to an equal 
quantityof the solution inunediatetyoccasionedablue colour. 
p. Tincture of galls was added to one ounce of a dilute 
solution of carbonate of lime containing idggth of a grain 
of the peroxide of iron. Slight indications of its action 
upon the oxide were produced, bnt the colonr was scarcely 
mora intense than that effected by jssb*^ o^ '• e^^^ of 
protoxide in similar ciroiunstoncee. Mo effect whatever 
was produced by infusion of galls upon ^g^th of agraia 
of peroxide in one ounce of solution of carbonate of lime. 
The colour produced when carbonate of lime and tincture 
of galls are added to the peroxide is reddish purple, similar 
to that occasioned by their action inton the protoxide. 

g. To one oiuice of [i solution of carbonate of lime, con- 
taining, as in the last experiment, m'lnth of a grain of 
peroxide of iron, prussiate of potash was added. Not the 
lightest blue colour was produced. When carbonate of 
lime was thus added to the solution of peroxide of iron, I 
found that it was capable of preventing the action of 
prussiate of potash u]x>n ^joth of a grain. 

From these experimonta it is evident that carbonate of 
lime possesses, in a very great degree, the power of inoreaB- 
ing the action of tincture of galls upon protoxide of iron ; 
while, on the contrarv, it diminishes its power in detecting 
peroxide of iron, and is, moreover, capable of preventing 
the action of prussiate of potash, to a certain extent 

The application of these experiments to the oircumstaiUMB 
of the water in question is obvious. It has been shown 
that it contains carbonate of lime ; and that the poww of 
tincture of sralls to detect the oxide of iron it contains is 
completely lost by the absorption of oxygen. The follow- 
ing experiment was made with the intention of trying 
whether this effect of slow oxidisoment might be imitated. 
I*. Tincture of galls is, as has been seen, capable of 
acting upon innrvth of a grain of protoxide of ir<m iu one 
ounce of solution of carbonate of lime (/). A portion of 
sulphate of iron, containing ^Buoth of a grain of protoxide, 
was dissolved in one ounce of dilute solution of carbonate 
of lime, and was kept in contact, with about one-four^ of 
its volume of atm'ispheric air, during twenty-four hours. 
At the end of that time the solution remained perfectly 
transparent, nor had any predpitation occurred in it. But 
the addition of tincture of galls did not oooaaion the 
slightest appearance of having acted npon the oxide of iron. 
In this experiment the loss of power of tincture of galls is 
much more speedily effected than in the Sath water. This 
is evidently owing to the atmospheric air contained in the 
distilled water employed, whereas no oxygen gas is present 
in the Bath water. 

When carbonate of lime is added to sulphate of iron it is 
well known that double decompositiou takes place, the iron 
being thus combined with the carbonic acid instead of the 
sulphuric. Having found that tincture of galls, in several 
instances, actii much more readily upon carbcmates than 
sulphates, I imagined that the carbonate of lime produced 
its effect in this way. To ascertain whe^er tliis suppon- 
tion was correct, I mode the following experiment : — 






«. A qtuntity of the ulotion of piotMDlphn.tA of irmt, 

mu dooonwoMtl bj c«rbuiiiit» »f potuh ; wirboiuc neid gns 
VIM jMatMl thraagfa wat^r is wfaidi the wnxlivd (.«rbcmaU 
of iron wiu tlifluiM^, iind Ut midia uf the lllUrred oolottoD 
ttnctiiri' of )rall> waa added ; but, iiwtMul of thu mldi»h 
purplv ouluur cflii'tcd br th» itcrtioti of narbuntibt uf line 
wpaa sa^ate of iioa ui'd tinvture of gnOa (i) stul [/)• tbe 
MM»1 deop blue nolour wba produocd. 

f. Ona-teuUi of tbe qiitintitf of carboiuito &t iron em- 
ployed iu thp Innl niptrriniiuU WMa diwioNRl iu a wilutioii of 
ennonatu uf Uiuu C(| iu tueaaiire to tbe Wt eoliition. To 
QiiA tinotore of ralte was nddod. The rodtlitth purple 
ooiour wu iiDiDrduitrlv jiivKliii^d, ami froin \t» inurnsily it 
WW oridvnt Ui»t uirbii»alu of Itnis hwl iocreAM^ tbe powin- 
ot tJnettin uf buUb as uuch ia omplOTliig ibo mrbonatc- •>• 
tLo BUlpbittA of iron. 

It may bo oanoliuloil, ftuiu lh«i« experiiueulfl, Lliat the 
•ffeoti pntduced by vtuh^n^U' ot lime wre not sltrilmtiiblii 
to the DcUTtTslotj uf liiu viilt'b^lv of irju iuto a i.-arljimate ; 
KJid I bavo found thitt alkalies and their aarbon«tea possne* 
tlie peculiar power of incroasin^ the matii*! aSinity and 
Mction bettroMi liurtnn^ uf ^Ola mid protuxido of iniu. 

I D«st vxaniiiiMl tbe aalia pruduc«d by eTsporatiii^ th« 
vatcr and cn-et&Uisatiuii. 

m. A qaaniity of the venter waa evnpomtMl to drynwi. 
Th« rnndiiiuu wa* trL-atiMl with diAtilli^ water aa Iudk lui 
llial Siiid rii]itiuiii?<l to dixiolve any portion of it. TLiix 
iwlatioo WBfl aguiQ vviipoiatwl, nnd upon cuoliur yielded n 
ooiundcnkblo qnanti^ uf ai-ioutur crystala. Toeee were 
axain dtaaolTcd in ivctiUcd water : and to a part of the 
flolatioa Dttrato of barrtoa wna addad, whidi occaaionod n 
OOpioua pKvipltale. "the Mine eftmit waa produoed by 
oxalate of aratnoiua : but aiumonia cau§od no pmnpitatiuu. 
Thr«<' ciyatals wrtn thrrrfnrv r-iilphaU: of liinc By further 
•raporalutii tbn nulutiiKi afforiled oubi-c cr> *laln of eouinion 
■alt sod prismativ crv^tnls of Hiilphfito of itiKia. 

Tha next objvct to ^ attjiiuvd wua Uiu wught of tliu 
total qoADtity id the varioiu BDb«taD»>H li«ld iu wtlntlon br 
a givvn portion, of the water. Tliia liaa been girou irttn 
ooDrtd<>rat>1o rartatjou, by ditl'urvnt luiiilyalH, iw will appoar 
b; tliG foUoirluK fltAteuivot, from a quart uf tlic water 

Dr. Lucaa ubtalocd 33) Kialiu of dry rcuduum. 
Dr. Chsrtton ,, 31 „ „ 

Ur. ralixiiiiT ,, 17* ,. „ 

Dr. Gibbtu. „ 23} „ 

To a<connt for tlio mat diffcrmoe of thMo rosulta, Dr. 
Banndiaa haa auppuatKl tLat the water vanut at diffarcnt 
times, or that thv mudunm hnn hvea dried with varioiu 
dc^roca of heat. I havo aHUunuinud ihv quantitj of tlw 
OMitcnta of the watot savcral times during about Mgrhteen 
BiuiithB,wiihoiit obACrvinfc any other rariarion in ttaweiKbt 
than ia ttnnvuidablti in exiieripiRnt. In ■iijinoTt uf UiIh 
olaiitTatiaB, it may }n> remarked iliat I fuund Ua apeclfta 
gntvity cxactJy aa ntatcd br lir. Falontii^i . 

Tt in Maroely pobabLe tjhiat the rraulia of any of tbew 
uialynM wece obtained hy dryio}; tbe nj^Uuiua tit a lower 
tamponitarc thutt 213", ur nt a greater than a nd boat. 
Kow I And that one quart nf tl)ii wat«r, wcijrhing SO troy 
muioea 172 ^raina. at tho tempiTatuTv of Gi", ipves S'i 
Bminaof rw>iduitin drinl at 312": wh«ii tlieheat of aaimd- 
nih i» erniilojinl, 30 format art- olitainwl; and at a rvd 
hoat, 'iS grains. Thu ^rrcateet rarUtioii afforded by thcee 
tnetlioda ix fotir OTnjnx. wlutr ;«» from mymie (Mum, which it 
is diflicnlt to ei.|naiii. tbu eslrmnc ditfervnna of tbtr ■•xperi* 
nenta a)>ove int«<) ix 10^ t^rain^. Whun a red heat ia 
QOployod, a part <jf tbe Iciw h ovcaeiont.'d by tho dccompor 
riUco of tbe earbonale of lime ; for watt- r txiuivd upon the 
raiiduuin tunut tnnnorio paper of a ceddtsli •brown colour. 
The greater part of the ronduum ij perfectly white ; th« 

portion depMat«d at the npp«r part ol the ntaael ia, bow. 
ever, alightljr ^rejlah, bat nut at all appealing aa if ooknmd 
by oxid« of iron. I suapaoted that It ml4dit be ooeadoaad 
by aubmiacieuiui niatt«r: to aMvrtain wb(^bor this was the 
case, the fnllowioff experiment waa mado : 

r. Four pinta of (he water were evaporated to djyncMt in 
a irturt, and thn nwidnuai hcrilad wtih about flvo ooBcea ^ 
aloohul. Tbe fllt«r^ aduion Udt, on cvaponlion. H 3 
^rai&H of a relbvtdi eoloared sabAntca. A part of this 
waa ditaolred in water, aad afforded a oo|Houa wLitti prv 
cipitata with nitrate uf (diver, tut did not giTo any with 
animouia or with carbonate gf aromoiiia: euinnioa nit wiui 
tharefuR) the only ono diwolvcd by the AlcohoL 

K*. To tbe romttinin^ portion of the Mliue maw oolour- 
leaa aiilpLuric acid was added. By heating, tLo ucid 
aoqnirwl a dark browD colour, ei-idently derived fnciia (ta 
action npon earlxnianooiia nutltcr. Iliio rxpnrimcut did not 
appear conolnxive, an (wo cauaea of t-rror might have 
rsi>ti>d, —a xniall quantity- (if nlcobol waa probably d<.«ocu- 
poaod by tbo actluD of the Malta upou it. or aonui of the 
ooofBrva which is found in Uie wnter tnlybt have Mcapcd 
notion pnoviooa to I'viiponition. I hid n-rtiurar. thcn-furc, 
to other meaD*. Mr. Ktiwaii, in hi* "Tivaii-w on the 
Analyaia of Mineral \Vat*iB."jnve«u iiivthcd for awc-rtaimng 
the pnwcniw and quantity of extractive natCGr riropoiwd by 
Weatnunb, which conAAta in preripilatiDg the chlorine 
salta by nitrate of lead, and uftn-wardn tho oxtractiv« 
inatlor bv nttmtii <>f nlvpr. It is impowJMe to codwIvs 
any method uu>r« oumplvtulT fttUacmu tbao tlUit ; for 
•Xtraclivo matter ia *a readily prwIpitatM by nitrntr of 
load M by nitnito of silver : and allbou^b c'unuuuii mUI 
ia decomposed by nitrati.' of Inid, eblnridf uf Iwid t>eiug a 
■all nf oonnodtTittile aolubilitr, the aubavcjutnit nddilion of 
uiirutoofsilvvr would decompow it, and afford a prcdpitnle 
contiiftini^ of chloride iti iilvi-r wilhmit noy oxtrui^livo 

The powor of Bulphiirio acid in detecting earbonaeeoaii 
matter U vitraniuly gnwt : i ^ qth of n (rrain of iugsr was 
diHAuIvcd in fonr ounces of wat«r : totliia eohition atiout 
iini' iiiincw of sulphtirio add waa added : it was ihvn boiled 
till iitnrlr llitf wnolit of lli« wutor wax pvapomled, and the 
arici had aequin:d a very di»tim;t bn>wu culour. 

Tho following experiment waa now made : 

X. A quantity of aiilpliurin acid waa added Io one quart 
of water perfix-tly trauitpateiit, and fr«w fnim heterogoneotu 
matto'. Thv mixluFo wa« cvftp...rBted nearly lo dryneM io 
aretort, and the aulphurio acid mmaiiird perfectly ooloorlcn- 
The water, therefore, contatna no cartioniu-mua matter. 

The KUbatttDCca contained in the wulrr. aa i>lion-n W tho 
furegotnfC aiperimenta, an; otrLonate if litnc, osiue of 
tton, ntlpbate of Ums, oommou mil, and Mdphato of wda. 
Tbe prottDco of tfaeae oompoandi* has he«ii univerMitly 
aUowed; but that aiHon wn.* ruintained in tli« water «aa 
diaoovered by Dr. GibbeH. To End tin.- cjuantity of eaob of 
Iheao, thn fnllow-ina luethods wew employed: 

jr. A quart nt the wutvr wa« craporated to drynaM i> a 
plafota (rruri)>U-t tlii- rmcidutim. dried in a itand heat, 
wdghfd lliiriy itniinH. Tliia waa boiled, nith eooooerin; 
porUoiia uf dialiited wator, till it ceased to aflotd a pre- 
cipitate with lUtnte of barytor. The acrlution was Uisn 
dirtdwl into thrM oqnal quantitim. 

r. Tu one of tluiw portions nitrate of silver woi addod U 
long as pfvciwlUiUuu took pUco, and distilled water waa 
iwurvd upon the precipitate till It came awity quite puiv. 
Tbe dhloridc of nilver thus obliiiiLti wan wrighcd after 

A. The pra-ond quanUtj' waa trcntod with oxalate of 
amnMuin whilv il eoutiiiui^ to pruduoe any ct1e<Tt. The 
preuipilatcd oxalate of limp was woahed, dried, and wi-.i^hdt. 
0. To the remntuinjf juirt of tbn solution nilniie of 
Ivn-tva was adiled till it i-ea«ed 1j) produi^o any prKipilaUl ' 
and the sulphate of borytoa ohtaiued by ita action i 



w«i|flu!d, After waMag and drying, u in the foimer 

'.'. Tito rMiduum, iualnbls In water, weighed, when 
dried, two vi^itw; nitric aoid added to it diBsolred 17 
tfrniiM. Ttiia Molutiun atfurded no precipitate with potash, 
bnt a oopiMtw ooe with uxalate of ammoDia : it was there- 
lim nitrato i>f linw obtuiitod by the decompotution of the 


Jj, Tl«j0'3 of Hfrrain lef t by the nibio acid wu diHaolved 
W jMjtaMb, and prMsipitateil from it bv ohlorldo of ammoDia. 
TliiA iintAintnUi wan not again soluble in nitrio acid, and 
wail cOTiBiMiuuiitly itllica. 

Another quart uf the water was treated in the same way. 
Tu aroid i>n)Uxity, I iliall ittate the quantity of each 
pTw;tpitat« afforded by one-third of a quart multiplied by 
three, and miike tlio ref^ulsito oaloulation from the moan of 
the two exiHiriincntii. 

Exp. I. Exp. II. Mean. 

Re«idnom 30" 30" 30- grains. 

Chloride of rilTcr... 16-2 162 16-2 „ 

Oxalate of lime ... IS'S H'T 18- „ 

Snlphate of barytes 366 36'9 36-7 „ 

Canmnateof limo... 1'7 1'6 1'6 m 

SiUcs 0-3 0-4 0-36 „ 

According to Dr. Otbbei, a quart of the water affords 
nearly 4 graina of ailioa when treated in the method I have 
described. Thinking It probable that a portion of it might 
be taken up by the action of the salts during their solution 
in water, I tried whether any larger quantity could be 
obtained by the following method : — 

E. A quart of the water was evaporated to dryness in a 
phttina crucible. The residuum was repeatedly treated 
■with nitric acid in a red heat ; the soluble parts were again 
ndtasolved in distilled water, and the portion inaoluble in 
it. when dried, weighed 04 of a gram. This agreeing 
t-xacUy with the last experiment, I shall cousider it as the 
iitiantity of silica affoided by a quart of the water. This 
vxmriment was several times repeated, with very little 
varUHon in the weight of the result, but was sometimes 
vvtdi<ntlr coloured by oxide of iron, which was separated 
fh>«H th'o silica, and its nature ascertained by the usual 

'1\> Rwl tlii> quantity of oxide of iron contamed in the 
ttat»r, th» ftdlowing means were employed ; — 

f. T» a quantity of the hot water Uncture of galls was 
•vXAvA tu th*' rwiuinite proportion. The water measured 
whvtt wil tlj pint*. The precipitate obtained was separated 
b.V iUv Rllt'l- »l»d dried. The precipitate and filter were 
kkuit t>uri><<d hidfthcr in a platina crucible, and the carbon- 
mnn-uu uwtlor I'f tlio filter, and that combined with the 
Umi, wviv dlwiilMitwl by the application of a red heat. The 
ivalduuitt wit" tfipu treiitwl with nitrio acid, in order com- 
ltUilvl» ht I'^lilliw tilt' 'nm. It was then boiled with acetic 
4Mil U> Uhu W tlw liiui- preiipitated with the oxide of iron 
Ui Ihu Ui»>lHtv i-r (0*11"- *"d afterwards with potash, to 
ilW'Uw My\ "ilWa wbiph 'the filter might have fumishod. 
■riti. ikUuttiiiUiK -tiUlanw was evidently peroxide of iron, 
■tiiil influWloJof agrain. , ,. . , 

I, 'iTii. lt4(iti>«»H<ri«wiit was repeated, shgbtly varying 
tlix i.ii-lliml 'Itin Inn' <>( galls was added, as before, to a 
iiiumtilK i>l i\w hot water, measuring after it had cooled 
(Vi |iitiU Villi pnnipitatp was suffered to subaide, and 
lli'i rtiilut umiwl I'lr until only a small quantity remained. 
I'l,!.. H>t« gViiimiHlwl. and iho residuum, treated with mtnc 
.y 1.1 III .1 iixl lui.ll, w,.lMliwl(lfiof agrain. Bomg exposed 
ll•^ <|i<llii>.il » III.'*H>iis matter it became magnetic, .liMiuUi'il 1" inditH'lilorlo lU'id, except A t(i of a grain, 
nlit'lt .iciii'iuitl li' W "ilioii. derived from the water>(.iiiiil |ii..l.iuiii llii> jiiwipitate formed by tmoture of 
Ifilli. VL. luili.n liltini •ofwUnii atrorded a blue precipitate 
Wit It i<hii)i)m't|i III tH'lHsh, ti 4 w«n) theroforo oxide of iron. 

Aooording to the experiment {F\ one (}nart of the water 
affords '0421 of a grain of oxide of iron, and by the 
second -0463, giving a mean of -0442 ; but the iron in the 
water is in tiie state of protoxide; and as the peroxide 
consists of 66-5 protoxide, and 7-6 oxygen, -0142 will give 
'0397, the quantity of protoxide of iron in one quart of 
the water. 

16'2 of chloride of silver indicate 6'6 of oconmon aalt. 

18 of oxalate of lime are produced by 18'6 ol sulphate 
of lime. 

IS'6 of sulphate of lime afford 32 of sulphate of barytes, 
which subtracted from 36-7, the whole quantity of 
sulphate of barytes obtained, leave 4-7 for the sulphate 
of barytes formed by the sulphate of soda, equivalent 
to 2-8. 

One quart of water therefore contains — 

Carbonic acid gas 2'4 inches 

Snlphate of lime . . . 


Common salt .... 

6-8 „ 

Sulphate of soda ... 

... 2-8 „ 

Carbonate of lime ... 

1-6 „ 


0-4 „ 

Oxide of iron 






Estimating the sulphate of soda in tiie cnstallised etst^ 
one pint of the water contains nearly as followB : — 

Carbonioacid 11 inch 

Sulphate of lime 9$ grains 

Common salt... 3i*, 

Sulphate of soda 3^ 

Carbonatflof limo ^ 

Bilioa A 

Oxideofiron ,'j 

SatmoH 22. 

Dr. Hnnay has lately published, in the 8th vol. of the 
"Transactions of theSoyal Sooietyof Edinburgh, "a general 
formula for the analysis of mineral water, founded on die 
idea that the salts obtained from them by evaporation are 
not necessarily those which existed in the water, but that 
"the concentration by evaporation must in many rasen 
change the state of combination, and that they may be fre- 
quently products of the operation, tuiA. not the original 
ingredients." He considers that the state of combination 
in which the component parts of salts, their acids and 
bases, may exist in a mineral water, may be contemplated 
under two views : first, that they may be in simultaneous 
combination, " the whole acids being neutralised by the 
whole bases; "—secondly, as constituting Unary com- 
pounds, and that in this case the combinations are those 
which form the most soluble salts, their separation in less 
soluble compounds, on evaporation, arising from the influ- 
ence of the force of cohesion. He proposes, therefore, to 
obtain separately all the acids and all the bases of the saline 
ingredients, and then to calculate from these data, the 
quantities of the respective salts they may be suppoend to 
give rise to, considered as binary compounds of the greatest 
solubility, and existing independent of each other. 

This method could hardly have been adopted a few years 
since from the very imperfect knowledge then poss^aed of 
the composition of the salts; but the great number of 
accurate analyses of those bodies which have since been 
made, and the establishment of the Atomic Theory, demon- 
■tr-*^' ~matant and definite ratio of the combinationa 

'«ve removed the difflooltieB that here- 


Th« metltod proponed by Tlr. Mnrmv U u fal)nw«: — 
" Rodniw tite witl«r by rruppratiiui lu Inr iw cati tie dune 
witbuat (wcaidonlDff uty t^usiblc preaijiiuittuti or ciyHtal- 
luation; thl«, byUu) concmtmUon, rcndoringtbv oporu- 
Uan >if the rmjfNiM to l» cmptAVAd man rerlaln mil 
com|iitrta. It aUiii Tviuorott aiij frer* cartiunii' ni-id. 

" Add to Uw wriicr thiw ciinrFiiiniU'd, n witiinitnl solu* 
tion (rf d&lorido of buytw, a* loDit m koypreolpfUt* la 
pri)(1iw«i], takinft oora to aroid ftoding an bxcms. By r 
prrvunui experinivnt. !©t it be awwitninwl whotbcT thi« pri'. 
oipilnt^ ntfprvrncw" nr not with dilHlrd bydrochlorio add, 
and wbolher it id euttrely di«)MlT»l. If Ic 1», tlio prcciiii- 
late is of oonno cirbotiKto of barj-tM. tlio wci^rbt of -which 
when it Ih tirini givt tV>» qiinntity of cnrhottir ticid; 100 
imion "untiuuiTiK 22 of Mcid. If It dm^ uot «ff(«rr«>i>e h li 
eulpbatc of Inr^'tes, tho weight of which, iu Uko toaimar, 

E'rctt tho quantity of flntptiurin mcid ; lOil gDiiiu driM it n 
w rod hmt conlninin^ iX i>f stid. If it etfc-rvi-Aiv and in 
partinUy dijaoh'od, It miisists Vmth nl curbo-nnt* nnd oiil- 
pb&te. To aKCTtiiin the prvporiiuni uf thv«v let Ihv prMl- 
pltatA bs dried At n h«iit ti iittl« Infcrifiv tu redness, and 
n-ei|rbed; lhi>n nuliinit it Ui thaaotionofdihilod hydrochlorio 
acid ; aft<-r (hii wiudi it ttith wnlnr, and ilry it hy a aimSar 
liottt; its wiifht will ki^'V the (luanlity u( sulphitts, and 
Ibo loas of might that of ths onrlHiiisle of borytvs. 

" Br this opcrntion the carlxmio and siilphtirln anidji an 
OTitirrfy rMWivi-d, iind Ihi.' wholi? anils in llie water ftru oou- 
TCTlvd iiito oblrirideM. it rfnnniiis, th^rvfore. Unit to 
diMuver and mtimatv the quiiatitiM of tho baew pre«.<nl. 
Mid thm tn complcrto the uulyaiit, to fiiul the iiuantity of 
bydioGhkHic acid originally contAinod, Add to thu clwir 
liqunrn Hatnrnl><<l sohition of uxni.iti' cif ammiinin us Ion)' 
MMiy lorbid )i);pc«ranc« la produut-d. Tiiv lioic will hu 
thmwa down in the stntc! of oialnto. Thi« pncipitiitu 
bcinKWAAhcd, nuy hodrifd: but uh it rjitiiwrt he ctpo-iw) in 
a tA litnt withntit dM't)miM.'iiiliun, it can Rcaiwlv bu 
IvougLt tu nny iinirnnn stnto of drrnt-M with nuAini'Dt 
aociiia^j to admiluf tlM>quiinttty of Uiae ht-iutf uetimaH4 
fioni m wriffht. It iri th«T«fon> to be cKldned vith a 
li»w red h*Ht,l>y which it U fwnvcrt*"! inlit rjirhonnto of 
line, lOd graiita nf which .im cpii Talent Iu ■II! of liini.'. But 
aa a portion of carbr>nlc nrid nuiT bo oxpoll'^i), if iho hunt In 
rnJArd tn<^ high, or n little wnlor ivtainM if it in not hlj^h 
enou4;h, il in pro|iiT U> eimvcrt tl into lulphnla by nddin^c 
Knltifaiiric Hoi(l ill Hli^ht eicem, and th?n cspoMng to a lull 
r«a hcmt. Th<! dry Hulphnto of lime vtH Nsnaln. 100 Kralus 
of which (>ontain 41 •& c4 linw*. The only sonrce of wnjr i" 
whif-h lhi» alpp of the nnalysia ia liable, i* thiit whirh will 
ariiu^ if mnro harytiM hiui litinn uawl in Um fiiat opfralion 
thrin wiiK neveMiiii'y to iirwlpltate th^ ^nlphiirio nnd 
carlxjnic adds. It will bo thrown down in tliu cXatvt of oxti- 
Uloi-if liiirytfH, iiiid )ii-criEiv<rr(iHl intA<nrbanat«andmlphtiU>, 
and thii- give the niiiRinriit propiirtion iif Hmo too inr^. 
Tliin in ol'Tiiucd, of coitrw, hy tiikin(r catt' Id avuiil uainff au 
excwuf K'lrytc. Toroudt-r thu opiJcatiou of ilie oKatnti? 
uf anniinniik h* pr-rfMit aa jxMsihlo in prf^cipiliitiiijf lhi< linir, 
th« watCT *lH)uId lio i>-iMiider«My rwiticod Inr nvapomtion, 
taVin^rvHrrtoavi.'idniiyH^inimiii'ii of any of ita Ingredient*. 

"'rh'tnext stop i« to prwipittilo (lie niairii'P'ia ; add tvlliu 
diMvrliquurpoun'doff ttmTtnepri>ripitiili<>tnif iho oxalate of 
lime Iii'.it(>(] In 1(10', mid tl ni-niwlry. rulucwl by cinparation, 
a piditttriit <if oarWiiiTi- i.if H III iitd Ilia ; iiiid iiiiinrdialnly drt>p 
i» a MTyiiig MliiUon of phowplK'ri"' nrid. tr iilHiipbat* of 
aiiimnoia, continuing ^hu nddiiiim with ireeh portions, if 
tuTivwirT, of rnrbonuto of amniunin. so as to pnacfrv an 
tts<«M ur animoidrt in th" liquor luilrmifa* any prw-ipilntioii in 
produi^. Lul llii' ]'n".ii'itait'lw wacbwl . whuii dri'*l by u 
hr<at nol rxmnUntf lUO', it la tho phosphntciif innniuiiw auA 
muj-'iiinia <iniliUMing 0-19 of thw isinh ; hut it in bt-ttcr 
for thB unke of a<!r«mny, to convert it into phLispliatc of 
luatrni-viii liy (nhiiiatlon tor an hr>ur at n rod hwit : 10(1 
gnuna tlieu coutalu 10 oit magiMNa. 

"Kvapomtl^ Iho liqacn* n>mainiii); after lliti pn>cod)nfr 
oporalionii to drynovi, and oxpoMi the dry niaas (o hvAt tv> 
lonff ns nu; vapount exhale, mlBiiiK it lownnli* the end to_ 
mloMB. nifl rasidnal matter ia ohlori<lt> of Mxla, IQO gnt 
of which air muinJtiat to J3*3 of mxlii, and 4i>-7 of bydr. 
cUorioiund. It tauut,buwm'rr.tohprnni>id<'7n) opcMsanJyi 
thoc|nantllyi>f chlundQofrodacoutiiiuedin thi> water: fori, 
portion uf wyla may linru bcvn pmcnt aborc that eoinbin<>d 
with hydrorhlDrir ai*id, unilMl, lor «san)plp. with porlionn of 
wilpliiirir or ■.arboniu noid. If with caiivmr nvid iln nlkalina 
[iniprrtiea luuNt. Im «vid4'iit in thv rfic^n; w.'iier, at leaati 
wbi.'ii rwliicod by crupumtioii, hy the tvet of tumu-rii; psper*J 
and frum thi- nntura of tho analyii^, ihiii, in Ih» [imgn 
of it, or mtbfr in th« (ir«l ntpp. thai of the rt^iimval 
tbcM auida by tbo chlorido uf barytci>, would bu (.-ombia 
with hydiwinlorio acid. It doH> not thmfrnvr givo thi 
original ((uantity of that acid, but it give* the ((iiantity' 
(if aofJa, niloo itu poriiun of thin hoae baa hv^m nti«traGt<Hl, 
find none introditcei). 

" Tboqaanlity of hydrochloric acil may have bsai«ither] 
ffreatCT or leas than Uiat In the chlnriito of aoda obtained. 
If tho quantity of soda existinitiu Lhi: watL-rcxooadodwhat 
the ] ropnTtion of hydmrhlfrio acid could neutraliaOi this 
eiceai of Boda IteioK combhjod with aiiluhurio or oarboaio 
acid ; then, ia the ntnoval of these acMa hjr ehlartd« (^ 
harytca, hydronhlorioacid would bo substituted. whEch wwild 
remain in tho nUte of liiluride of nuda ; and if ihe ix""i''''y 
considtwinl an an original ingn<di«nt werv vsliniatvd fcoin 
the quiuitity of tliia aalt obtained, it wonld be irfnled toOi 
hi^b. Or If.on the otberlusd, more hydmchloric acid exitited.1 
in tho walrr than what the sodn pi-eneut nxitd nniiialii^r 
th<: I'XccM liuinK ninibinrd with the c)t^i>r 1in>i.». lime or,^'^ia, Tiien, *a m tlie proi.>««s by wliicb thoM corlha u«| 
pn^cipilmt.'d, this portion of the aaid would be cantbinnd'l 
with ammimia, ami nftiTwards di««ip«ted in (be chlorids ' 
of aiuiiinnia ; if tho oriiciuil quanlily wwro infernH front 
the wrifiFht of tho cl.loride of Hoda obtained, it would ho 
dtatvd too low. 

"To find the real qtiantity ihercfore, another Mop ia 
necctMirj - calimnic directly the cjuatitiiy of hydrORhlorio 
acid in a giwii jmrtion of thn water, hv iibfrtricUDg any] 
HulphuriQ or carbonic mid by uitnito of Imrytea, and then 
pTMipitnliu^ the faydroDbloric axid by Tiilntie of ftilver or 
■atrato nf Inad. The nral quantity will thus Ixi dcl«riiiined 
wllh p^rfoL-t*t>os, und itiL' n-suH will form a check on 
thnotlH-r »ii>j>« of thi.ianBlT>i*,ns it will lead (o thodocrolion 
of any error in ikv ostiuinto of the other ingredients: for 
when ihu quantity is thus found, the qnontitim of tbcMj 
niiuL liei^r that pmpurtiori to it which will corra»pond wilb 
the *lule of nvitlrHliantiiin. 

" Thus, by the«e uioihudii. tho dUEeroDt aotda and tho 
dilTcront baH«ii lUQ iliacoi'crrd, and their quantiiiu deter- 
mined. And the reaulta of thn annlvos bm^ bo f>taled ia 1 
thrvo miiilc* ,— 1st, Ibo quanlicira of* the acida and bMiM. 
'Jadly. Tb«i qiiantitjini ul iho liinary compnunda oa in- 
terred from 'he priuiiplo. that tho mo»t Miliiblu oonpanadfl 
ara tbo ingmlii'iitn . wlueh will have at the aunc time the 
adranlaiiceof oxhiliiiinir ihc mokt .-letiTe compontioo whkh 
can be aasigned, and Li<i]ce of best accouuUn^ fir any 
mcdioiBal poworv the waiors may pofaecs. And ardly, 
the quaatitieflof the l>i nary compounds, such a« (bey an 
obtained by evaporation, or any other direct analytic 

" With n.')ianl (<> other uiTTOdients cither not naline, or 
more mrely present, it will In getioml bo prcferahio, when 
their presence has be<-n inrficaled by llie eiapU>ym«nt of 
Il^Ia, or by ropiulbi orcurring in the analyHJs itrelf, not tu 
combine the InvifHi^'ittiun tu dlscovtir thvm with tbo 
guneral procflss above dci^ribed, but to oponttc on atpintfti 

tKirtlona of tho wati-r, and (o msho the nnoessar^ nllowiuMo 
or Ibeir qiiantilint in enlimnltn); the other ingrrdienta> , 
The qnaiility of ir^n, for exautple, In a girao 



of tlie water,' may be found by the most sppropristfi 
method. Hilica wiU also be discovered by the gelatinous 
cansistence it gives on evaporation, and funning a residue 
ioNoIable in acids, bat diasolred by a solution of potash. 
Alumina may be discovered in the preliminary appli- 
cation of tests, by the water giving a precipitate with car- 
bonate of ammonia, which is not soluble, or is only par- 
tially soluble in weak distilled vinegar, but is dissolved 
by boiling in a solution of potash, or by its pre- 
cipitation from the water sufficiently evaporated by succin- 
ate of soda ; or in conductiDg the process itself, it will 
remain in solution after the precipitation of the lime by 
the oxalic acid, and be detected by the turbid appearance 
produced on the addition of the carbonate of ammonia 
previooN to the addition of the phosphoric acid to discover 
the magnolia. Its quantity may then be estimated from 
its precipitation by carbonate of ammonia, or by other 
motliods usually employed. Silica will alw be precipitated 
In the same stage of the process ; its separation from the 
olaroina may be effected oy submitting the precipitates, 
thoroughly dried, to the action of diluted sulphuric acid. 
Potash, when present, which is rerp seldom to be looked 
for, will remam at the end, in the state of chloride of 
potash. Chloride of platina will detect its presence, and 
the chloride of potash may be separated by crystalliaation 
from the chloride of soda. 

" There is another mode in whioh part of the analysis 
may be conducted, whioh although perhaps a little less 
accurate than that which forms the preceding formula, is 
simple and easy of execution, and may hence occasionally 
be admitted ad a, variation of the process ; the outline 
ot which, therefore, I may briefly state. 

" The water being partiallv evaporated, and the 
milphurio and carbonio acids, if they are present, being 
removed by the addition ot chloride of bastes, and the 
conversion of the whole salts into chlorides effected in a 
manner already described ; the liquor may be evaporated 
to dryness, avoiding an excess of heat, by which the 
chloride of magnesia, if present, might be decomposed : 
then add to the dry mass six times its weight of rectified 
alcohol (of the specific gravity of at least '835) and estate 
them oocasionally during twenty-four hours, without 
applying heat The chloride of lime and magnesia will 
^os be dissolved, while any chloride of soda will remain 
undissolved. To remove the former more completely, when 
the solution is poured off, add to the rewidue about twice 
itd w^ght of ^e same alcohol, and allow them to stand for 
wime hours, agitating frequently. And when this liquor is 
fH>iired off, wash tne undissolved matter with a small 
|M)rtion of alcohol, which add to the former liquors. 

■■ Althuttgh chloride of soda by itself is insoluble, or 
lii^iHy so, in alcohol of this strength, yet when submitted 
tt> it* iM'tion along with chloride of lime or of magnesia, a 
Itlllpt'f tt ii* dissjlved. To guard against error from this 
||)t>n^(i«rc i>rap«>rate or distil the alcoholic solution to dry- 
^hm, niwt nitbtiiit the dry, again, to the action of alcohol 
tn MWtlWiluautitr than before; any chloride of soda which 
tfjvX t'*'^' iliKMilvt-d will now remain undissolved, and may 
tv «whl^( l<> ttiv other portion ; or at least any quantity of 
1% 4tfMitvwl muHt W extremely minute. A slight trace of 
..htv*^ >'f t^*>**' *"" "' int^gnesia may adhere to the chloride 
,4 -v^Uu ''Ut whvit H sufficient quantity of alcohol has been 
• •♦ml^'^^'' *'*'' nimwUty in soaroely appreciable; and the 
uivl>^^v4tt4« IniiH thme two oiroumntuicee counteract each 
itlwti ****** •*' '*' "•*"* *" *r"^ ^^ result more nearly 

Ii^^4LH>t<«k> tbt< ali^ul uf the solution, of draw it off 
I, ,iia,l'>ll<*'-*>"'' ^'" *^** imiid matter add sulphuric acid, 
'! ,fcj ii' vvi**'' ^l"' wUiilw hydrochloric acid ; and expose the 
. .|T*>o ^' ** '*^''** Hp|>rvHuhiug torednosH, to remove any 
.'^U'-.i '** *ttliJ»u>tk» aiud. By lixiviation with a small 
i'^Uwi <>I «*tWt'i tbtf sulphate of magnesia will bo 

dissolved, the sulphate of lime remaining undissolved, 
and the quantities of each, after exposure to a low red 
heat, will give the proportions of lime and magnesia. 
The quantity of soda will be found from the weight of the 
chloride of soda heated to redness ; and the quantities of 
the acids will be dotermined in the same manner as in the 
general formnla, 

"This method is equally proper to discover other 
ingredients which are more rarely present in mineral 
waters. Thus alumina will remain in Ute state of sulphate 
of alumina along with the sulphate of nmgueda, and may 
be detected by precipitation by bicarbonate of ammonia. 
Silica will remain with the chloride of soda after the 
action of the alcohol, imd will be obtained on dissolving 
that salt in wat^r. And iron will be discovered by the 
colour it will give to the concentrated liquors, or the dry 
residues, in one or other of the steps of the operation." 

Dr. Murray obtains the quantity of gases a water may 
contain, by processes similar to those detailed in the 
preceding pages. If. llienard remarks of Dr. Murray's 
method, that it is certainly good, bat not in his opinion 
preferable to the one previously stated ; which presents 
all the advantages of Dr. Murray's, since it equally 
enables us to obtain separately the quantities of the 
different acids and bases ; and it is even more generally 
applicable to all cases. 


This is generally found in sewage, a thing which must, of 
coarse, be at all times kept clear of drinking water. The 
chlorine is produced from common salt, and tlie liquid 
excrement of animals, and I cannot do better than refer 
you to the tables of the Rivers' Foliation CommisHtoners, 
which from about 600 analyses the following ia recorded : — 

In 100,000 parts of rain water, '22 parts; for upland 
surface water, in 100,000 parts, 1-13 ; for deep wdl water, 
per 100,000 parts, 5- 11, which is very very strong in chlorine, 
and fully cent, per cent, more than I have found, excepting 
in very rare oocurrences (but one thing should be nodcea that 
they do not give what they consider the depth of a deep 
well. What is considered a deep well in the trade is nothing 
less than 60ft., the general impression being amongst us 
from 60ft. to 300ft. deep.) For spring water they say for 
100,000 parts, 2-49. 

Now this chlorine, which may come from cattle and 
other animals in small proportions, has many chances of 
getting into what we should term surface wells, which 
would naturally by the rain get washed out of the air and 
soil, and anytlung above 1 per cent, of chlorine in 100,000 
parts of water should be rejected as suspicious ; but when 
you get up to 6 per cent, you must be most carefully on 
the alert for sewage, or middens, or water nlosets, as human 
nrino contains 6^0 parts of chlorine, or 824 parts of eodio 
chloride in 100,000 parts. These portions, you must quite 
understand, are only applicable to places away from the 
sea, and away from salt-bearing strata, and if close to &e 
sea-side, little or no notice should be taken of this, except 
you have a strong suaptcion of sewage, whidj may 
be easily discovered by looking for ammonia and othra 
chemicals before referred to. 

To determinate chlorine, place a hundred c.o. of the water 
into a flask, and stand it un a white f^eet of papw. Then 
add a quarter of a centimetre of yellow potassio ohromate 
(or a fifth of the chlorine test], drop by drop, untO the 
liquor turns a faint red. The chromate of surer givee a 
deep orange red, which may be estimated aooorain^y, 
which, when tried a few times, you will be able to arrive at 
with great accuracy. 

I should mention tliat chromate and chloride of silver are 

b^"' '*> water, and notice that you will not get 

luanently ftwmed until the last trace 



of thft oUorino is ptvri ptUtAd h^ thn bOtcf. By oannuln^ 
thiU of diSeivut Blr«ii^Ui-tiqiuda ill A aecood or third llaak, 
Ibo qtuBtitiea will be tsaajiy obtaiiutblv. 

8e« W&t«p. 

Sea water, wbicli miay bo consiiloroit aa a tnio miiwrel 
vAtor. liAi bpcti niulfMil hy nuxny cliemUu, wlitiw oipeci- 
tmiiiL* pmvo thbt tlut cleineate of the s*lu jt mntains uv 
■odii, Iiiu» aiii] lUHi^netiia. aikL aulphiiric and tij-ilmr-hloric 
«ci(l«. 'rhi.>«e f!*w siibHtJuiLiMi by iheir ODtiiliinatiotiN nnv 
ca|Kililo nf fonniuR ^x. Ha1t«. but It is not probablu tb«i 
tlietr exittt altuf^Dtlter in flolndoii. 

Il« ttint no It tn-iy, tbo following aro tho rcaiiUti nf ttio 
nxiffl nH'QQt aiialyiMft. 

UU. BoullUtt Lajfran^, and Vo^l. obtained fmm 
101) luirta uf the (Kit water talwD OMr BaTonnti, in ttic 
Gulf (il Oaswmj'^ 

Soaaalt 2-510 

Urdrochlorato «f magiuuda 9-2KI 

SutpliMu of matfnoaia 0*^78 

(JarbiniAl«s of wne Mill nui^eaia 0020 

Sulpluitoof Unio 0*019 

CarWioadd ... 0*023 


Di. Uurrajr'a analynui of the witt«r of tliu Firth of 
Forth g«7«, in a hnndrad portM — 

Lime 0-040 t^ mlt 2-470 

Migaroia ... O-SOZ Ujrdroebli). mng. 0-9l» 

Soda l-318orSwph. of ma^neeiji Vll2 

Sulphuri'' ueid .., O'lfl" Halpli. of llmo ... O"09" 

HTdrochtonc aoid I !( I" 

— — 3-1)91 


Ooniiderin^ thnt th« \nnnrj oiuijmiuuiLi fiinti«l in n 
dilute solutliMi, luutit bo thoao vliitli nro movt «t)I<]bk, lit* 
Bupposoi tho 1011 piiirta d aou wator auulywd coat&in — 

Scot Milt '-'■180 

Bydnwhlomto of laafinciia 0'48i! 

Brdrtfcklurato of litiK 0*U78 

Siuphale of Boda ... 0-JfiU 

3 DM 

Dr. Murray alin f»und cArbonic add in eea vntor, but 
he du«H tiut Hilinit oifbi-r coTlionnU^ »f liino W carbonnto 
of ma^ovia, bomtuv tbo tiruciiiitale by mlmte uf bttrrtii 
gKVfl no offcrveaconco with a«ida Ho ouiiooivcs the 
oarbooatee to arLao fnmi llio dotxpiupuutiim uf the hydru* 
I ahlflratoaof Ibaonndnuij^oiiia.intbepritoOBaof orapanuian 

Sulphur and Sulphurous Titles. 

Ah tb« |>luiub(.'T Ln vciyiDiiob eiiKne'>d in thn tnaniifaoUirf 
of i:b«iii[«i pbuitH fi]r milking' niilphiirii; ucid, ■u)pliat« of 
ainnionia, «tilt>balv of c)'>j>|Krr, tLmV au>.'Ii likv, i:liHlitlt>Mi if 
he ii» not fairly well up iii chomiHtry, b''. iik 1 hurr w.<<>n 
ntnv of my hrrtliir^, i.t n little fo^fpid by tliu niiKiiiiii^ uf 
llift difftmiit I'tumucul l«tm». Botuutimt* nil of which bp ia 
apt to I1UX up as onfl and th" iuini>' thiti^'; and, lu hf 

Jiiubablv tbinlcH hoia too luucb udtaiKul iu Hit to tfo iu 
or a o^otM? of ohoiniaUy, tho folloving will bo ttaefut 
at tiuMw; — 

8ULd'ilUl{^ wbi.'n cKitnbiueil with oxygon, produce* an 

Xow thb add Till be in two Htab-.4 uf Baturation. baviug 
■littf^mit pTQipmlioM. To utidc4^[Aiid thin it wilT be rcqiUAilo 
1o follow oU tbo aaliiui oompouud* of thnMn tw<> acidji, and 

b> mr parlicatar attentiOD to tbo aolphur in it« ditvot 
vcnniuilitmH witb mrtba, alkwlJaa, and niHtaU. 

I^ere aro fire t«nniuatioiiB for diatiaKiuahing these llt-e 
Mtatm of tli« Niuio prinapal. 

laL — Sulphuric acid in eiitphiir in tbo utmoM dcgrro of 
raturHtiiiD vritli uxy^eu. Tbo purer tbo mtlphur tbo 
brUf-r th" ■nlpbiirin acid for lead boming purpoaes. 

2ud. — SulpDBTuttii mwl U suljihur miitiM with a Miul]<!r 
jtmpartion oj oxygun. 

Srd.^^ulphate ia tbo fpjnenc namo of nil lh« aoltii 
IfiimnA by >iilphurio anid, kudIi hh Hulpluti) of iic^pnr, 
ftulpbale of zinc, uulpbale of auimoma. und ao on. 

4th.— riulphiio. This is tho name of salts tomipd by tliu 
fttilphiimii* s^'id. 

.'■th.' AulphuM. T1ii*isthtfuaDu-of all theooinlunBiloiiii 
uf stilphur n'>t aoidutous. 

OARBUN. When carbno is oombined with oxypni it is 
kn»wn iw oarbimiu add, und ooBMstH of Iwu <if usyKm nud 
one of oarbou. ^VhMl oiydiaed to form mils with bmtM 
of wtb> molal or alkali, t£an it is known as enrhuunto <>f 
iron, or oarhonato of potash, or carbonat* of Unu^. au'l if 
combitied with OKygi-u it lH.>oomea with icon, carhnret 
of iron. 

Solta an alway* dijttiugiushvd by two rnunM, dcnotini; 
dtber the basa or the acid, aa foUowa : — 

ftiilphato of sodn is a coanbination of anlphoric add and 
HoJa ; aulphatn »f iron ta aimply a nrnnpoand like tbo 
former of aulplimrle sold and iron ; niuriata of soda is a 
oonipotuid of tauriatiL' acid and mda: atidt Kotiee ^u, 
that all Hiilt.B rimipiiBnd (if adds fndlnp in ota, UaTB Uw 
termipaliun iir, iuatuad uf *U, at foUowa :— 


Sulpliurio arid, a Btrona acid. 

SulpltiirooH aeid, a won! onri. 

Salpliuret uf iron, sulphur and irofl- 

I^'t-oxido of Hulphnr in the flirt d*gTW. 

P/^-vxiiiv, Uti- n'fl'jud d(r|;rOO. 

rnf-oiide, the third d«gr««. 

iVi-oiide, many ^egrcM. 

8idphii/r in tL« tait at Mulphiiii> aotd. 

Ridphrte, tbe salt of aulpburona aold. 

i)i-salphat«, tha salt in doablo qoantity. 

//^/ki-NulplinrouB add'-tcw oiygvu tbao Bulphurotu 
acid [1 lo ::.) 

//y;»'>BuIphiiria acid — lew than culphurio. 

Analysis or Tin and Lead. 

Intmdnfle a certain quantity, ttny, 100 ^niiis iif tbo 
nlloy into a maUMsa, add six or auvon tiniOB itn wei^tit uf 
itiire nitrin aciil, uf tin itponifiojnaTity of 1*36, ami oxn>iK> 
it to a beat padnally ruued. wh«D the metallic pnnict'-H 
huTo disappevad. and the aold c<eucs to (five off [iitnius 
gaa, it must b« evaporated tn drynAw. water pmircd on the 
reaiduum, and tbe whole thrown on a Rlter and waahed, till 
tbe wasfaiaifiB [which miut bo added to tho filtcrad eolutlon) 
no lonifnr mltWn litinna, nor an blnolHnod by sulphuretted 
hydrogen. The peroxide uf tio rtsnuunisK wi tbe fil(«r 
)nti>t thrn lie dried and i^atr.ineil, and '.21-4 per 
otrut. for the usyf[un, Ita Wvinbl xivvt Xiiv quantity uf tin 
in the alloy. 

Itcdiico thf tiltt-red liqnor by rraporntion, and prMnpitab) 
by KulpliiUf uf Mida ; cullact tlio anlphatiT of l<iiad, wat4i, 
dry, and wei|^h iU one hundred of muphateofleadovntaUut 
<]8 1 of lead. 

Analysis of Plumbat^' Solder. 

Plumlim' mldtTr, which contain* two [larbi of load anA 
on<! ])art of tin, mny l>e aualyved like tbe ])r«oodiuK alloy ; 
but if any copper bo pnwent, us is often the case, an 
additiooal operation is neneMOiy. After the lead has hMii 



Beparated, sub-carbonate of potaasa or soda muRt be addotl 
to the soiution to throw down the copper in tlte stitte 
of Hull -carbonate, whicb a rod heat will convert into oxide, 
from whose weight that of the metal ia deducted. 

Lead and Antimony, Analysis of. 

Aa antimony is a favourite thing by nnprincipled 
people to lighten plumbers' solder, the following analysis 
will be useful for detecting it. 

This analysis for the antimony with lead may be made 
preciHcly as that of tlie alloy of tin and lead, deductin;if 
265 per cent, for the oxygen of the deutoxide of antimony, 
but another analysis is required to separate the tin and 
antimony, in couAequonce of the antimony carrying a large 
quantity of oxide of tin down with it, 

The proportion of antimony in the alloy must be pretty 
nearly ascertained by a previous experiment on five parts 
of the :illoy, and one hundred of tin fused together, lami- 
nated and treated with hydrochloric acid ; the undissolved 
portion will indicate pretty nearly the quantity of antimony. 
The alloy is then fused with such a portion of tin that tliis 
metal may be to the former as 20 to 1, including the tin 
in the alloy. The addition of tho tin must be made with 
some care that the combination of the metals may be 
petfeot. M. Chaudet places them wrapped in paper in a 
unall orodble, covers them with charcoal powder, and 
fuses them under the muffle of a cupelling furnace. The 
button when cold is cleaned and laminated, cut into pieces, 
■nd fused again as before ; and this operation is roi^eated 
a third time, but without laminating the button, with a 
piece of paper placed between the metal and the charcoal 
powder, tlie button may bo perfectly homogeneous. 

The new alloy is then to be rolled into a thin plate, cut 
into pieces, ana boiled in a flask, with an excess of pure 
liTdroohlorioacidof the speoifio gravity of ri9fortwo hours 
mad a half at least. The whole of the tin will be dissolved, 
bnt the antimony remains untouched. Tho solution is 
tiuo to be dilated with distilled wator, and the insoluble 
■attflr oollected on a filter ; its weight will be exactly that 
of tke antimony in the alloy. The lead contained in tho 
■Uoj must be lamioated iriuk giest oaro, as that metal adds 
istoHBdy to its brittleneea. The quantity of lead may be 
■— rtsJBifl hj tnating a portion of the alloy with nitric 
mI^ nd fndpitating the lead by sulphuric add. 

TJM CHI also MulySB an alloy of tin and bismuth in the 
r, bnt in tliis ease it is beti»r to use nitrio acid, 
I ihs Uannth and leaves the tin. 

•oldtp (Plumb«p«') and zrno. 

Ztno out of Plumbera' Solder. 

fts OT S c ncB of zinc to be in your 

it to work short or brittle, it may 

tr SBittl»oi™S & II^B sulphur in, 

■IwUapb Tbm with some red hot 

fla tif, Mfldent to-wdl oover it, and 

nHwUMilis iiTsii liiiiii fii BO. The 

"V • riM lAOrt the Ted hot cools 

* ^jw«diikititallrigfat, and 

^hw. dWUn^i and let it 

I -I r,BBBSlBto'eyery 

i^^ too cold, 



Next redissolve this by tie potassic iodide you put aside, 
and then with greal care add more solution of mercuric 
chloride till after stirring a slight precipitate remains 

Now add to this made liquid 150 grams of potassic 
hydrate dissolved in sufficient distilled water to make the 
whole up to one litre, which most be allowed to settle. 
Then decant off all the clear yellow liquid into a suitable 
bottle, with a good ground-in glass stopper, when it is ready 
for use at any time. N.B, — I have some which is in finrt- 
class order made by Mr, Foltwell, of Hammersmith Road, 
BO long back as the year 1879, which I would not take any 
money for, it being so vciy sensitive. 

Ammonia Chloride Test. 

This standard solution is made by dissolving 1*5735 
gram of pure dry ammonic chloride in one litre of distilled 

Dilute I CO. of this strong solution to one litre. Ton 
will then have 1 Co. ^ in strength of 00005 gram NHs. 

Sodio Carbonate Test. 

For an hour or so strongly heat to dry (but not to fuse it) 
the carbonate, and preserve it in a suitable small but wide- 
mouthed bottle, having n ground-in stopper. 

Water without Ammonia. 
To prove this, known distilled water should be agsjn 
distilled {but good water may be employed) with sodic 
carbonate ; but reject the distillate till it ceases to react 
with Ncssler test ; but stop tho distillation when the retort 
liquid is reduced to une-inxth of its original bulk. 

Nitrates and Nitrites Test. 

Sodio Hydrate. — Solution of sodio hydrate 10 per cent., 
freed from nitrates by dissolving 100 sq. cm. of aluminium 
foil in a litre, and then well and Hharply boil the liquid in 
a porcelain basin to evaporate one-third, then make up the 
original quantity with ^«r« distilled water. 

Pumiee Tett. 

Take some peces }in. or so square, and heat the same for 
an hour or so, and put them into a glass stoppered bottle- 

ffj/droeklorie Acid Tat. 

Should there be any ammonia, say three drops, this must 
be rectified from sulphuric acid. 

Estimation of Chlorine Test. 

Silver solution. Dissolve 2-3944 grams of argentic 
nitrate in one litre of pure water. This should be measured 
out in a burette divided into tenths of a c.c. 

Potassic Chromate Soiution. 

From a dropping tube deliver a strong solntioD of pure 
neutral chromate free from chlorine. 

Standard Soap Solution. 

This suhitiou Khould be miule a little too strong, and 
allowed tu stond a day or two before using. Take 40 
parte of dry potassic carbonate and 150 of lead planter 
(Emplustrum Flumbi, B.P.), and well mix in a pounding 
basin or mortar. Stir this thorouglily with methylated 
spirit, and set it aside for about ten hours ; filter and wash 
with more methylated spirit. You can tell the strength by 
ftdding 50 c.c. of the calcic chloride solution ; go about tiaa 
M though determining hardness. With alcohol and watar 
te W} »-~*>- 11-26 CO. are required to mi^ a 




pgnnntMBt ltiUi«r with SO «.«. of wtutiaa of oildc 

AM thti mtor in sneb qaantitloa m to nake a pnjvclion 
of water ta f be spirit aa one is to two. 

Water Samples [CotUtlion o/). 

np^atioii of awilTBin^ 
bidng tuuBl earafiu iu 

13ut tedinoM i>n>l trimhlumaii 
valor ahonld warnuil yuu ii 
ting^ tho nainploB. 

I iittt Uikc 'Kul^ that which i* bir Mid Kiuatv, wbidi I 
knitwn unpnneiplad peaple la da, when the wmtcr of a 
or Hprifijr h«A u«n m qnMtion, for if yttn do, muat 
\\y j^uu will ^ct (In^jiped mi fn>m nnoUtOT nnaljmc, what 
t tiiiiy U- nocifj«arT to itvll in n third, and tho cxpnue of 
MbL' 1<>1 full upou yoii or yoor clidfil. 

Tnkn nix ttfip WiiiiJiiwUTr iiuiiri Ixittlm with ktouoiI- 
ill otviipvn. Tulre two uf Uiom a* they ivn- to the water, 
A from half to thrvo parte flll ihnn, t>y dipniiig llio 
Itle into the wittor, k> r.hnt y<nt ndnwtt grX Uio wntcr 
lJi« nuTfa<^-, iH>r fniiu thL< bitLtiiiu. Tli'jruuuhlf Wiuh 
J>crttlw : then fill them tn witliiii, n^iy. liii. nf thn 
,por. With wmo k\v-mi wa^liL""! wiwli Iwtthw, or citllao, 
tie UM sto[qien down, iitid Mi\i tho btrinsx. S'ust write 
two Inheht with the laaatc of Ihu nprin^, well, la wberrirrr 
gtft t]M walor friMn. Sitt clown tho huut luul dny of 
mcmtb wlum ooUeotwl, and hj wh-imt witiie«m<d. I'Laoe 
Ibe hottlcs in a rool, dark placo, and bv oimfid not Ui 
i-tpMC tbran to th<- ti^ht. 

P(M' tluvu nui^LifMivv dnyM do tbtB, but ut dtfferiMit houn ; 
wty iJio fimt in tnkeii at II ii.m., m-xt niirl>i)aY, iwtt -t {i.m., 
aiid liibt'l ikcuurditiktly. Swiil ihri>' mm'pIwi to lh«' itnalyrt 
' tm * JP^ **"*'' I'rotoAHorI'mnklin, nfThe Yew.-. It<-ii^t«. 
ntoalle&t), aud n-tain thrc« y•'urv^lf. or, hctii^, dcjmiit 
nm nttvf hnttlp* into letfo kpi^iiig- in csuu: of diximtv. 
I Shuulil tliM viiiwr bo I'oiiiuiiiiy'H woI'T, '-ntl in tbf twrn- 

ny, and lot lb<>ni know wKil yim ani up to, and |io nunr 
iko Uio Min)>1<ii dimt "tf lln- supply, or, fflMjH-rly .■<p>3ik- 
inK, lh« ciRitnimtc-utiuii pip'*, biil nut iMfore a f«w Kiillonii 
bavo niii l^) wiuh.', w that you gvt wator without Ivitd >ir 
nudii'^ irun. 

SliDiiH It Iw piimp-WAtrr, t.hoti Work ibi U'foiv. hiir. k<«p 
Lbi- uiuii|) fpiiiiK ftirtbrcu iir fmir ruitioCt-H l>t<fon' Ihu Honiiilo 
in tJMen din?ot into tho boltlpj", iind •ti-nild it Iw n lundlffnl'it 
pump, invitee hiui to wiiiit^Nx thu (tiKfrntioEi. IU*tuoiiibvr 
this, that cvt-ryihin(f I'liniu^'ted with tlibi ofifrntian miiBt In? 
M ni|)uliiiMty ckan, and if from u draw well, nc« that thi- 
chJiiii. wirv, orropu i* not riutly or dirty. 

Wlwn vending In wat«r to tho miiuyst, aay whnt you 
mpoi:t. aa fuUowi ; — 


(-"liMoimI work* pollutiou. 


Tin, iiippiT, Ivitd, &.C. 

Tk-n.-n\m tho diHttture of well (mm uMfpool druio, or 

Dv|th and lUumotor vt well. 

CliuH of puinp. 

8oi], and itiib-.ioil, ami the stratim inln which the veO ifl 
•niik. ami whiiC wat«r you pKpr<;t il to be, and the Ruotoa* 
tiou iu tlw dvptii of the water, uinlvr mid fuiniuer. 

If from HtPMUna or tivon, rtato the Iimd or aoarve, aad 
tho di4tiui<v : und if tlioKtrrtunmD»tIiru<ighraui^ woodod 
laud, or if uib>-T Mmn:iT. auifity thuruin. 

Alx] Btnt« if yon knuw unything aa tn whothw anintaln 
««n anlk tlirou^i or into tho atroaiiL, TSU ii viay hnpur- 
iant for ths aramonlft. row dooff, fte. 

The xlnitum f n^ni vrhi'b tbo aprin^ imoei). 

Slutc wbi^thiT yoii h-ivi- taken the wntrrdit»t:tor indirect 
iroiD the K[iriTii;. nnd if tho liitt«r. try ainl nlitu k^ =■ Mlnpla 
iniin lb" lieud. thoutch thit> mny r.K'in: douhlo ospvtiH'. 

It IH only fair to NLy Unit you niiiat not on any UTOUdt 

i-x|>nnt to arrive at natiafiutaKT rMaltn rnrti] you have hiul 
wtnur yr«ri of pTWitico ia this OAputment. 

But if you are fai^enioaily ioainod thia ia the mu*t in'.iT- 
eritin^ of all aaanM* to flll np your apnra avvnings nm] xl'l 
lima, bnoauno ytm cui find tw^metlilng fr««h at all ihnttv. 
If yoa do ^ at it, in lit il with a will, and it will then 
ra^f yun, though not from a laimotary jiniiit uf rivw, for 
it «>m» vrrj' expmiaivo, c^wcially by the tinm yon hara 
Ixmifbt « good niiomaoopo. ohaDUcaT balanoe, and a few 
morp indtnieBwblw. It will bo all tha botlor if yon can gel 
a good uld gnuid-dod to ponhaM thcae fnr yon, an tlicy 
g<>oeraUy hare aonic caah to ipaiv juMt befom iinittiiiu fur 
till' tii-it. world, and he will ba asmcially gviiemua if you 
tvll hiiD that with the miarowope, if a fondotu (about n i'.t 
one. for a duller io a tnmblc), you will lit' iiblu to lull htm 
all ftboat the di'vtLa, tuft only thnt hns plag^iieil hiio in ttits 
world but in thawcrtd to come. Aivl il i* astauialunB b->w 
befwvolont he will be (n^rm% ■/ yr/H kninr all aiaut it ai 
4>'r^), nnd he will call jron mirh a v«ry clever and most 
prvaitiag yniin^ miiB. 

Now, v'rti h.«riEig jn»t begnn to frvl !uti:<rMt«d in this 

Eart (il the w>irk, |hiII away ut the old methods which I 
Hregin-n. Then aeinl to ltlr?.'m. .Spnn. my publifhetv, 
for I>r. LanoAxt'^r'n, niM Geucj^e E l)iivi«, G^E,, Ac, At, 
al«o Onrpi'iitiy'N work on ihn mirTuwopf, Konstie'ii 
■'Chi-mistry." Profeawr Praiikkrury " Watpr Analvaiii," 
alwi piTiiy PrsiiUund'H book, and alag Qoxw'a workn on 
" MicD-Orifanhuni in Water," and yon will waat oolbing 
mum tint n fpw toob nnd praeltet Iu know all abont walor, 
ojifcblly if ymi tonihln in bead fin*. 

Miopo -Organ isms, and Sartltary Science. 
(•■f/M wv Jfiriv^ a»ii Fettr Jlaeillu», i»'l mlt« Siinktnf JTatey.) 

I have beforo spoken of ntlcmbtM, or faT«r*idiDbira 
bAL-iUiiH (mw heading), and bow they oJfoot the aulnial 
b'n^rdiiia. I have um said that than derila comn from 
ftm« nnl up our rivera, alu that they i-«ii h& tilt«rnl oat ly 
'pmim liltration. I will, tberefora, now ithow yoa a littl^ 
niniv iibr>ut thiitn. 

Fig. ^btj ia an engraving of ntiorobca, &o., I have 
K-Tauged for thia work. 




no. KM. 

h, pig. n5M, is llio eyclops qtuulrioomhi. 

Thin activu i3nilun> mMtrvi with ttn f«Fl>jnwii a 
t>ml ill UiiournntiidiTiK wai<-r, wlii<4i draws iidnntD and 
and enn ita own young, to ile mouth Ui >io tlcvotuvd- 



If, arc the Ures. Them aiv nbcnit ^th of an Innli lunK-, 
hnvlnfc runiii and • liMd nwuUiu^ tbe htutmii litrurc, 
whirh tboj- ihrov shont n a nuut extnusdinaty maunt-vr, 
lu if In mnnic tbe nctioiu of tJis mtxit tamnltiunu hunan 

K. U Uip ffTQ^ of thu ohaneleon Hy. Thw (nkabiUtil 
of tlie wnUr mu^ bo wm with the nnkM <'yc, IIm 
peeoUarlty 1b the liut joint of iu Uil, whuli in tippM 
vrith a beautifTil cromi of fimthers, liki- Uit iIuuImd or u 
Hinni*s«TOgo pnace, which ii best koti whun tho chnmoloon 

Srab eotnw to th* •nrfin, iliraja tail tipiirrmMi, luid 
10 inoiBcat tbo tip rewhn the olr, it* nlunit<i instanlly 
Opnt Into a Idnd of ennc or fnnnel, imm whirh all moiitiire 
ia iwmtlj axoladed. Tho watn- Ui>ni Mtanda pvfectly 
1«r«l wilti the l>rim. The animal ihen ranaJm iitationBry, 
hoaddownvnnl', {h<^ mddenly the tipa of the plwnecun-i: 
JnwaTdtt Idwarila i-ach othrr, Hnhmcin;; ii p1obal« nf, 
and awny the i;:ri:'*tiir« u'ri^ifleti into t)it- iU']itltfi, with ill 
Wd vt nir glittcriag behind it. If yoa witJi to uw it 
through a ginw, um ono from 36 to 50 dmm«tcra. 

N. Th« vibrio mtnil't ■**' i» t-'"' "<'' "f "orornitiiig frram 
each nthpT, and dtawtnir out a pro(»p]iMiuii.i filatnmt In 
lonn their iwugnd flagoUu. Thin is niiignifiud ta i.tOO 

T. The ni^lcua riridin. TIui in oflou found in 
prridigimi* ntunhpni, whirh givm thr trat^r n groen pea 
mvp colour. It* giiu'ral uppcHrninw (ml«r thu micrueoapo 
(» thnt of n rod ep«ck or lumt. with an flkmgalnd kind of 
tail nt tint otbn-. 'ITtfia rm «poc in fuppMcd to Im< the «;e. 
but. if L-nrffullv walnbod, jrou will linil thin apot tu ^xtand 
anr the rent of tlie body. 

B- ThoN arv wmo of tbo more typical fonao of micra- 
orga&ln&B. aa seen under the miRronnope. Monororpitt, 
whicth is pathoireaic to man, dom, honwa, Bliuep. tuwU. 
rabbit*, Inc. Thmy caow swt^ungs giad ulcei^ They 
an mafnufied 6A0 limm. 

E. Cilialod cell,, magnified 600 timm. 

V. Hpidrr nrJl. or mitrilJitin or Aidntir! ohtiliTA bacillus, 
Rin>ruilied TOO tiuitn. Sw cholera ))nf IIIilk. 

A. Tha typbttid bs^os aurrouiidod by the flB»i-lIik iir 
IwMmioUoii urnraiw. TIda an»tura is maipuflfid I.IUU 
times. See dowrripcion of typhoid liadllui. 

F. n. H. This is bacillnH MubtillM or bay baoiUiui. It 
in not patbuf^enio, and is fimnd in hiiv infusions, water, nir, 
fiiHxw, and putrid liq^uide. It ti> li n 'ifim, and onu-lbinl 
ita lentttb broud. tuid ^own iuto long threads. 

C. 'Hiiii Ifl fii-'itHporiuin mowhntinn, mngnified SOD 
tame*. Tina is found iti wnUtr. fomiiuK I'trtr** Kr^'niimb 
white idimy niussni>, h.intrii'K iDoim liki> ito innny rnKs from 
th« vutlet of cocks, iMini'tiiiu;)! ha%'ijip a pciln pink and 
brownish ool our. It in aho found on turbinfH nud watfr 
wbnils, and fcU bctwern tbe whrcU of Hie mill. TIjcv 
avetaga fram 6 to 14 /( lunft, to I or 1^ ^ brtxtd. If thf*t> 
spores are dried and preserved, thev will, afl«r four ur 
Std months lying by, still |rrow. "tlf-y are palbogcmc, 
even to iri'g*, and, wh«n Mniuhoil, givu nn itit«Dsi'lr 
strnng aramntjc Muell, wbioU will pnidum hwdnohv if 
iniislvd, th(> 'iduur bHng of a musty proditotion. 

It IS within my rc-c/ill.^ctinn thatthcivt mirirobM harp Iiwii 
brODgbt by saiiitiirijiun ariJ i>Hiit m-imilintn pmfuitioritlT' 
lieluTv tho watei drinker's uutioe, and it is n subject nbjcij 
tlivtiUl bo wvU t!'jujrht aroi by evory onif pn-ifeesiuit to be 
water catOTcra, or by ibiwo linvine to do wit^i thi^ supply of 
wMfir. whether it beby acuiuiouu driiur-urrll, Hpriii^, puiu)). 
or ritiT, and m> oni> sbonld allow binmelf to draw npoa Ids 
imagination Uiat bv has Uio «Ughb«*t right to wurruut Liin 
Ut oliwiBg biina^ sa a sanitary engineer undl he knon-n 
nAt welTall about tho broodin^f , imltiTatinjr, and lolling of 
nicrc or badlliu gtntut- 

Liolng txiad to oxplain all abont fmnentallon, and d«ad 
vaaat ondeTToinir dwuinpusitioti. Ub told uf< th^t whidi 
Ua gnndfatliera' knew, tliat our wnten von uonlamlaUad 

•in|>]jbydMoaipo»ilionof rrgvtntiEfniul aniaiul aubatasoM. 
Thatby nurilrinking Ihormf. w«. iu luru, would sova ba* 
oome putrrfaotiw bodies, ke., whirl) do^ia was broken 
down by thi^ lamented latnU. IV^t'-nr, whn jirorod that 
tbo pmcr-<« of f«nn>i'nl.iliiiu wiw uiiii<«l by th" litiitf 
or^iiiajn*. wliicb wiTp thn oanf^ of all xriuoiic dlaeawt. 
I'nstffur, ui.< niay t>Ky, i;avi! us » pu>1i otf tb" dirinfr plaak 
into A wide rea. foil of linnjf organisms. Ho oprnvd tho 
cym of the mnli«al men, and ttdd tho ssnilary eoffinoera tu» 
to what xyiuutio diseaawf undnubtndly ani, and plainly 
■ihau-ed how Asiatic cholura and Q'phoid fever arv to bo 
ooiuin It n listed. 

At tm thiTv WAS a certain amount of cmpirici'nn about 
it; but, nincc this, w« havo lux'^^bnl Ihv gvrm theory of 
disHua, and tliiu. by working away, our water bai^irial 
and liy|{Ieni« kllowl•^lg«^ hns spread throughout the land, 
and BOW estatiliahiTil iha A,B,C of mtnitaiy snenoe. 

Thnn wo hav« D<7i'lcr K'jch. He has giroii a Ruod \uAjf- 
ing hand by tho uubliontiun of his work on Bacleclolo^eel 
Science, and muiui iutproird ihenapcrtof «-at«r supply aoA 
sanitary knowledge. 

That we hava two otlirrn, -vho am ihh:cti<I to none in this 
department. First we will mk-.- G. Fniuklnnd. wbutr woik 
is wvll up to date in tlm chcuiiiuil portion. Then thorn is 
Ferry FViinkland , whoso work on Buoro-Oiyaninu ia not 
to bo initd'-iir, and a work wbirli should bs ni the hands of 
nriny li^.-iuliiir and mmntrr baoteriolujrial. 

Now, Mil fiir iu> rvKards thoao barillua taierabes, tliaae an 
the miuuli' dcvik I i-annfit tfllenit<'. Some wmild say— 
"They ninst eouiB in tbcnirP" Vca; t}]<>y Hi>st in thu air, 
and tlieiy name from, and cause piitr^cd vegrtJiblo and 
animal matter. Th«y gel iuU' ihu wnl^r, owl vwn the 
rain niinot fall in eoroa parts wiilioat btdng contaminated 
with tlu>m, c^poi^iAlly on nil soils where planla ^nrow, and 
on wbieb luiiiuiiil Itfn vxisls. Were it not Inr thnw devils 
our mitk would not ^o sour, oggs would ramalti fiv«h, meat 
woultl not bonomo tainted, bruMl remain sweot and witboat 
mouldineaa ; anlraids and vrgetahlen would siinptj dry up 
and uo't atiuk. 

Micro Gcrma and their Names. 

l£o«t of iiur drinking water r^ontiuns a larso army nf 
miorobea, which flght other germs till dmth, whiNi otherwise 
wo may swallow olive : and I hare heard it said by mrtne 
Utnt Uican dnviU an oseftil to health. lint 1 nm not the 
uiiQ to »ay those who oooquir wo shuuld prutii't, but g'ivo 
mo tha water wbioh ia ftee from any odo class of tbeee 

Oiw, bauHluM subtiiis, is found in tho Ktonuohs and lotas- 
IJnes of oxou and other herbivoTousanimalM, and is by some 
pwplo b<'liorcd to uasiat in digesting their i^joA. llierc is 
alM tJie borUliis m/» ivunmunis, na uniformly exists in 
litiman beiogH, jterfurmin^ an .inalogntu pfRcii. But w^iat 
ulH>ut biicillus nntbrariK 'i Tlufl b found tu sheep ; h ia olao 
found aimmmt wool sorlen>, which brings tin largo lumps on 
the foco and itthi-T partit uf tho Ixtdy. lWl«ar otitalaed 
t}i*Hii> devils in biMtb. TIkwo devils aiv also found In oadi- 
invnU in the bottom of welb. 

I do nut know how deep thwr' devils go, but know that 
tile Kent Wulcr Wurka wrlU K«t very few. I alw know 
that yi)u (ill nut <iiii3 them in liiQ I'Jr gf nioutitainititn diit- 
tri'ts, »ay 2,000 W^\ in hiigbl. 

Koub's euiuinit MpiriUiuti, Thltiiji thedeiilfif the Ainatlo 
cholera. wbt>h m fL^undin the dejecta 'jf -holent patienta, 
and iu ibi.- (i-nli iutMttiutI (HmtcntM uf rimlera Mjrpae, and 
oiRies in iiir aui utttfr. Tliis is of a very peciuinr and 
daiigvnjuii kind. It suvmii to oliog togi^ther, and fonas 
it«elf inb> a kind of semi-rirdc. after tlwi etyle of ,Uie oou- 
MiDant S, tbo twa euda bavins three or more threads in tlw 
shntHr of a itirlcsTrow .. Hiia devil ia very motile. 

TIh- to-ni'nil ■vnip*> ^ntisdlsesse an as foDows: — 

A. gvnural fevliug i % diiUa and ooldnoM nhich 




glr« tt •hlnrinfToffMt. punf in th» bcomla wllb niniblinff 
MUodM, i^praM^oo, K&d luixivlj iiUiut li)i- fl'iiunc]!, wiu 
wren purgfog mmetitRee »«xiinpiini(yi with vooiiUn;;, at 
othor tiinm gmil; Ihimt, with tlui ]niUf mnull mid wvak : 
InHtiritTt y»ll<>«^li 'kin or sj^m, bittirr bu>tu Iti tbe month 
BMil difllk'-' «f food, (ulnem u the pit of the »t«nue1i to- 
gether n-ith pnwnm.'. L-romp tinil rumbliuif. Whoa Fnch U 
tttc •^w, uwl clmlen suipeoted, tou should luw no tlnut tn 
ptnti).' tu a wadieal man. OMuphor u gvtod lo oury about 
with jrua in vholont m-aHoiuL 

Typhus or Typhoid Bacillus. 
[SmUIu* Typhi .'IbdoMiiiiiln.) 

Thii is (ouiul ill tiiv bluud. (ncaa and orina, ani1 otlivr 
praducta of tbo bunuib orgutu, and, u its auiu? itDpUt3>, 
&liray>t in trphoid pnti<Mit:>. 

Thin ilnvil in iil*u ftiund ta air nnd wat«r. It ia a alinrt 
plomp kiud of bacillus, mniuled at the ^ndn, ami ihreo 
toaioa u lun^ UA it is bruad, K^ucrally (ouuil witbuul v^na- 
jmj in thd tiwur*. It In inotitn. imH 1ul« attai^Ml to both 
■Idea and euda iiuinenui!! ciliu. niiil^-Tuw-^^buniiantlTintuiUt. 

Tb4a» d«viU uppiar to )»> of vitrinu* gnulcn, luiil jiniducn 
wtiat ia caUvd, w)i<-'u in ii" uill'li»t furtu. lyplioid ivvtft, 
viiioh in a slow or nervoik-< fewr, «'bi<^li may tri un iuuTuus- 
i»^ Ijil il bconmm nuUignant, whi^ it4 tnu! und ginu^ml 
ap])1ii'Hti<in in tyi4itu, wbii-h bnii^^H un debility nitb n 
trntdeaoy of the fliiida to pntmfuctioD. It in distiiigniiJuid 
(ran oinvr favon by ttio wi.^ktuM uf the pulM and great 
anM*TBtion of tttnugth, uud \mngi with it pitins tu tho 
hoiid. back aud limb*: hciatnnddcyncMnfthcHKbi ; oxlrenis 
■nKiitiit Biul UidUy deprtaniou : tliiral. oanettpntioo, and 
delirium. Bui ouou^b of itii", or I Khali b<' vi«y anon 
fantlght in iM " nuniik doctor, to whidi 1 liave nn pre- 

Baeterium Lai-tiii AjrruKOiioa.— Thi« in fi;iiiiil in the 
intoatiitBl tmot of [iniiiialM, luul a! tmipln fnl willt niilk, and 
then-iofv fliiliUvn iirv- tBpeoi4my \iii\j\v lo Iw infwt«fl with 
thG>M|ffVm«. IncaMMof pnaumiLtaria, thaurini;ii'iitt«okod. 
liija ia OQO uf ttiC dtrrfb whit^fa ii Uiv oaiKWof ^7)hoidf«V4.>r. 
Thay an found in paiia. ^ncrally Kid(< by aidt- : tjn-y >t!ao 
group togodier in Irrpyawr hcaiu. Tbuir hIi;]{>« ih nutne- 
irhat Wke ahurt nnbi, and very p^luiup. 

■Pfvit^tw VideiiriH.— Thi* IB n kind of uligrhtly b>-ut biirillu*, 
aonuilhiti^ of a aiiakc-liko tlimut : rory inotib-, and bafi 
kiiint p.ilin. It iafuunil in putri-fyiujjawitnril xutwtanocs, alw 
til urine, and (fivca oil n tokening odntir »[ pulMuuUon. 

Bactcdiuin TholmidAam (a found in u^ilvr. o&ualit^ 
lyphoiil hVf^r, aI.^i tn tho inte«tiaitl trant of hi'altliy pMrplo. 

It in alnu fiiuu'l in bl-iHid. 

ILu^illoH rroli-iw PIuuri-jMH-ru. — Tliin i« foujul bi atnsaoia 
of wuttir voEiUiiuiutf dead ratvcioM, nnd givm an iiifmtioofi 
fur<-rixh it'ttTToit to poitpla who butht' in Much contaminntod 
water. It i> aim fiiiinil in fowU Mnffcring ftoia diwoae. 
Thii K^nnrBl ap]H^«nLit<:o i* auiuevlint «hort and tbiok, 
niuitded ut iJit) Gudi; tfacy rn >sl-ly i^> in iKiim, uml an pru- 
viil«<d with numorauiiiilliji, Tlu'y tiTf uImi tnotile. 

Itiuulliiii (■( HuuM.' SL'ptiiraeuiiu.—Tbis id fijund in dmin 
waI«T. II n<H>Ttibl><a a jonall whitiah irloud, not nioliUt, and 
occur* in pain. 

Ba«lllua Brevia. — This b alt« found in drain valor, 
mimctbing after tho above 

BacilliiH OapiuInltiB in iilaci found in dmiii wat«r. This 
bnotllua ia of a iM(!-Uk>.' fitrm, lujtu^wh^t «Uiptir:d, ;ind in 
at tiraiM found joinod cud to cud undu«wd in a unp^iilv, uol 

BaciUua uf IVtuniu.— Thia ii> found in air, vator. and in 
put fiMin teluniin wuuiKt*. Ttiix is U kind nf atrui^cht 
btKilliu with 'i\H nida rvoudod. and uovun lu luu|{ thrvadn 
and aaiDctiinM idni^y. It liaa been fonad fatal tn hoiscf'. 
dierp, and do^. 

Pir9lniaUlrabI1iR.~-Th[a ia foatwl in p«i In- fyiuR animal 

Protena Zi:<nkeri.— Thin in abo found in putrofyin^ animal 
aubalanoai, aud anoiiffst onfimtatiM found in water. 

Ba4'iUaa HuproKimnB. — TliU !■ found in the prmpimUon 
from SetU and if inouutatcd into the knpt« iind pl^nnl, 
oavitJM of rsbbita, Ac punU(?nt inflammatlou vriU caitw tbsl 
■utinuila to dJa. 

Baoillua Cbman.— Thui in found in Miratri'. perhnpij 
tbo moct GOtnnura baollliia in such mattur. It in of a ihorL 
plump, oval iibapa with rounded etula, rory motile, and 
frconencty found in paira. 

Micrcwowna Biakra.— Tbi» ia found in air and watrri 
aVr in pur and Mroiu !!(udatiou«. The gtiaxml appmr* 
aa<* la that it i^ mtctwI with a capaulo, and when lying 
aide by aid^ have the itppoarunce of naraeust. 

Vnu'tftablp nmtti-T when iu a BlAt« uf docnmpoHition Ih not 
^•nerallv erediteil with, wt in tbn caw, being swarmwl with 
bacilli, Shaving fid-likc fonua of rorioiia dimcnwrnw, 
whlili am found in nearly vrny pond aud open olream, 
and although they prodnco dueompoaition, tpvn to that 
wati-r no ndaur. 

Tht>TO are luirvobM of iinlitiary <lc«nnpOMttoii whicb, if 
allowvd to got Uuwn uao'a tbruiLt in too larg« mimlHTiitoba 
doitroyod by tha nentiona of tfaa diKmtive orgiuiH, <:iiuM 
the food to daoompoie In the atomach or in tho buwols 
(Wfum roar.hiny thev woiild hsvoalnngrr timelnmoltiply), 
and in so doing would prodiutL- acutci diarrbms. and othfr 
digntivo diatnTltajwea ; and ni]i0ciallv no iJuiuld (iw! be 
axuoned to heat, and Ihi-n oold. <« if the fuod be of iia 
inaigMlitde charvter. 

Othermiorob(McxiBtthatpo«acaHapnw<Tofaludng nattier 
whSi'k no limgOT li«aa, bnt «lill reuAiua in tbi> living tiasuea 
of human bvUi(rM end other aniinala, and ultiinntriy caiix* 
the brmkinif up of the uui.Tuacopiu striuturv •>( the cinniipw, 

JiMvivmg and rcaidnring thiin inoapable of diachargiiig the 
unrlirmti uf life. 

Tbeeo reqaire no eKplanution from ino ; iiaiflicr il to aay, 
thoy am known u diaaaao i[vnnii, auoh a« tho mienmfnu or 
laeUnuH at anuill-pox, the bajiilli of typhoid fever, of 
dipbllieria, of glandcm, and Ifao i«pirilliun of Artiatio nbulont, 
■uid alao of (itmaiiniiitiim. 

Tb«M! dorlU, aa I hare abo in other parts of my writings 
r4>ferred to, pBM dtruclly from uuo individual lo auvthor of | 
tliir H|ic«ica which ttiUT aHaoL They appaar to bo moea, 
uriginally entMndvnd t>y the onlinary nii('i»bi'n of decern- 
poaitioD, whtob appear tn adapt MmtuieU-Mi to apeciol ' 
euoditiona, but whieu uiiuuled for itnj UnKth irf tiiae with 
the mlotabea of dsoo>niH4>ii.ion, wilt bt kiili'd oil, uiiieainliy 
if oxpoaod to li^fat and nir 

Liiubt and air appmr t-i lio ili'lnnirntul tn tho i&ii~roti«4 
uf OToiuary vegetable aud unimal drvoinpuialiiiii, wlucb dia 
otf when than) ia uuthiujr utoru to llvu upon, by such niatlGT 
bcouming oxidiaed. 

It ia alwi a foot tbiit thrrv luv uoro nilRmliM in Hood- 
vor-Btflrilo wut«"r huumioii, wliirh ia one reawtn why wultx 
ahould nc\'«r ho taken Into u rotwrvoir durinu- flund I'tae^, 

Ba]^ running strottm*^ (bore I l>ar Hoixl r«ii«tnti;i dnntrriy 
xvmniie inatlpr* of ii palliriguiiic kuul, or, at huul., hu wnoli 
Hu, that the uuat minute mioroacopio tnajwetinn of the water 
has foiled to diaoovor ■ single palJiogvmo gum. 

Bacterial Standard Purity of Water. 

A Lundivd miuroUs per oubic ccntinotn is, in Lundc" 
contad«v<d to be the reoognlaed teat of ptaotioal boo' 
purity of the wat«r. 

Lt ntuat 1h< renieniUiq^ that thero are rariouii m 
oouuuuuiiuitinii ibow orguai)«n» to <UlTi-r\-ut aubstfc 
Soni^ will fAy thiit Ihi^y ornie fniui had air, sewage, di< 
iu^ water, and fur tbi: wiiul uf driolmig WktO*, and 



down in n very arhitrn.ry nuiiini-r, lliftt nciLr'.y h.11 iiiFi'^Ttiiuin 
ditii-fiht<» nf the UTTOtiiic hind ciiniR from si st'Jiri-iiy of wiiUr, 
and I have known mnny- miilicai offltM*» prejudiced iu this 
matter, wto, I unheaitatitig^ly aay, without the sliyhteBt 
legitiinuUF reusoQ, pick out Blaortriiessgf vmter.or water stored 
in (jimteniH iKreiieniUy, an tie <'.aufle wl zynrntio dL«i4!>e^, ^lnd 
they have lioldiy a.'SBoi-ted that tlifl.w zymotid -clii^eiitttiH hiiV'p 
put up ibe deaUi rate to an ulnrjiiiiig- eitetit iu the very 
vauic week miH begjaainf^ with the iin'i«' 'Inij, tbiit the Haxt 
Luiidwu Wut^T Worift Compiuiy fa-ile<L to mtiBfy il fnw of 
their cuOBiimon for thia partiuiiliir liay — and notLue thw day 
iiud week'—when they happened to be on the curistant 
pupplj. TVii.t'rt'a8 Huothor iu«lic^il miin of e^putl Rtandinp 
pPoVfld tliHt tho Wtt-ter J<upp'3' li-'id nothiiif^ whatever tn do 
with the infet'tiouM diseiise. How o!>iiid tiivy [I'Mwibly Imt'C 
ft'ver ill this pitrtituitir apot, owinp to » Jt'w noiir«, aot ctx 
iioors' shorluoss, the Sftmn day that ttia wAt«r rtupply Wd.-i 
reduiMid to throe hoiurH, iiiHt«ud of bemg on tweoty-four 
liourF F 

Tliirt diiLrrhiml diHsaw) Eiappeuetl ut the time to bo very 
pftviiWt in LoDtl^jiU. Thew complfiiTst-i were rtouaunBl, and 
mUiinly occa^ont^d by high tc'Oipeni.tiirc!, and Ijij[idc>Ii i;0!A- 
pareJ ((ivourably with the provinces und in l»rga btwoa 
TrheKi Ik oonntant viMcr wiipply was giTen, 

Speaking- of tliese xymotic dLdeiiMxi one thing; \s certain, 
that during the early part of this aimuner we lind 
tremendoiw Htonne — thouyh the wa1*-r does not nlwayH get 
dirwit iiUa our rivera. owiuy to iwr-.-i.ilatiou , bh was the c^m} 
irith shartaea-iof water thLs yisar.w-ith lb« Rivar Tbaiii«niiid 
Iicn — the wE'ither hiui hImi tu'eii, t'Kee&Hively hot, and wh<^ti 
HiusU M iiu^ CHse tb^ biLcU-tial geriDM am ulwuyB prevalent in 
tho Fiir. Tliey nr^ brought down in our ruin wu.ter, Hnd mt 
tlepoMit<,-d, iinu a.n in well known, thrive moro iu poor popu- 
l&bbtl uf confinci] u(^iglib<mrhood.'« than in iiei(j; 
of the riuh and niore open, or nJ^ibu^ioUs partM, whorC the 
g«rm9 becijrae more readily oiidiaed. Here is UJiotherwuy 
%*'hereby the puorer tlftw of people suffer from tbwe fat»l 
falling oT^nismn, 

People of the lower workin;^ rbuM a,r&niitu Hilly oompeUed 
to be out iu these xyniotic Btorciu. Thtrir 'clubhitiii; often 
beconies. 9i.tnrAt^ ; th& civtbing bein^ of a vu^tiihle kinil, 
is It breeding place for theHehfrnu^, and the heat of Cliu body 
in mostfiivournblt^ for their riropajjutiou. Thisfwptior people, 
ttjicciiilly fhildrta, take eold, when these g-QtniH lia,Vc every 
Opportunity t« infe«t, aueurdinK to their pirticnlar fl:inn, 
the iijtamal purt^ of the bi.wiy, uwd this is thu ruasori why 
thia particular riiw in the death mte toiik place. 

Of eourap, I wm in favour af plenty uf water at all timefl, 
bat htiiriH thiatubu muiiut'i.itiiMli' Sicn.ply by Kinple ntorage. 

Divisibility oF Microbes and Chemicals, 
Tliiti work will not allow lao, for wiLiit of apuoe, to tcacli 
youiilwenticfh port of what 1 lould^ii.ii4iud, 
chemicnhi, and Huch liko. Thr^refore, I rec^ouLmenii you t<3 
well atudy the woricH I have iklreailj' named, and I iihall 
Gunclode this portioD of the work by uhowing how to arrive; 
ut eoQatin^ of miiTobcd, and a'k.'ertiiitiiii^ Htre>ni;ftha of 
diiferent j'hi'niiLalu, which is imily done if MUtHoiuut rMirc 
be UKcd, though at tirst xig'lit thi-t miiy Bt^ein an ulanniug 
tasAs. to oouut 100,(100 mi<:rob?M in half a oubio inch of 
crater, m^ny of whidi are not the milliooth part of an ineh 
long. But nothing IS wonderful except to the igiiorant.. 
beuaune, ttcieutiti'G wonders nre, like everything else, built 

upon tOJUUttf fH^ts or prilleipluN. 

Wo will Ufce one c.c, whli'h ie taken ut twenty drwps 
of wat4^-r. and »ay it \c contaiaLnated with lll,irOO niien>lK;.-i. 
Now twko tiii.'se 10.0l>0iuiurobe9,and put them into 101) c.ii, 
of abwilut^ly pure wst?r, aud divide theiie 100 c.c. into 
ten absolutely puru sterilised (est tnbe^ (I should here 
reiMnrk thut aterili^tiuu ui^uifles in thin baoteriid work 
baking of the titties in an apparatiie, which may bo had 
from Me&sra, Griffin ^]& 3ou«, or uiiy hucteriologiwu tastru- 

raimt laakcr}, whfflifiiMh teat tube will contain 500 microbes. 
Now lake on^ uf thc^w test tabes containing the 500 
microbeH, and in tlie luime way dilute this tost tube liquor 
with 100 parts of pui\i water, and divide this again with 
your tept tubes, whidi will bring your microbes down to a 
miniuium, according &a you choose to work, some working 
one wny iind Home iiaother. The liquor at last being 
brought to a eeratiinptre, a portion of this liquor can be 
brouo-ht under « <iounting frame, known aa Wolifhu gels', 
whiiJa ean 'le hm3 from any bacteriological instrument maker, 

TbiH in qiiit« bufBoioiit to give you a general inright as to 
the counting, aud for the further process, of ourse, vou 
must »*ek tliL' works I have already named, which are nearly 
^juartor the smo (if thia work itself. 

Cht'mical ciiliiiilnt.ions and a:vtaying are carried out in n 
flimilur mnmier, often by dilution, whilst at other times by 
distill ation. 

Useful Hints and Facts— rontiniwrf. 

I ewt. water = W-'l imperial galls. 

I litre of water ^ ■'I'L imperial gall. 

1 litre of water ^ Gl 028028 cubic inches. 

1 litre of wuter ^ -0353 cubic foot. 

1 cubic metre of water ^s 222 imperial galls. 

1 *ubic metre of wator = 1308 cubic yard. 

I (lubic metra of wiiter = 61028 cubic inches. 

1 eubic metre of wiit<.'r = 35-31 cubic feet, 

1 cubic metro of wut*)r ^= 20 cwts. approximately. 

A column of water I tnstre high= 1*13 lb. per square inch. 

A cubio iniJi of 2in:> iircast iron weighs 4' 16 ozs. 

A cutnc inch of oop^xir, 5 ozs. 

A eubio iueh of silver, 6 ozs. 

A cubifi iueh of teitd, 6<^ oza. 

A ou-bic inch of gold. 10^ ozs. 

A cnbie. incii of platinum, 1 1 -285 ozs. 

English Long Measure. 

This is token from the pendulum, 391393 inches at 
London, which vibrates seconds; and one mile of 1,760 
yarde S» equal to Hil&-833 such pendulums. 

An inch k •'^2fi^h ai the pendulum. 

The amAlleflt aneoMirawe have is a hair's breadth of 48 
toaniuch. [Oautaon. — There&remanymoro than 48 human 
hairs to the inch.) I have just measured a lady's and also 
u man'ii hair, and found it to be ] {g part of a millimetre. 

jln inch i[< divided mCo 12 lines, by the plumber, into 

Xn d««inial diidsiona the eighth of an inch ia -0125, and 
an inch is tlie 0-D8Jt3 of a foot. 

A fathom in 6 feet, taken Arom a 6ft. man wading. 

A mile is 1,760 yardti (English). 

Weights and Measures used in Volumetrlo 
Analysis, &o. 

At tbe present time three different units of measure- 
ineut aro in iLao amnnir't Eugliith cheminLs. 

Tbelirst iw thfl C'Shtiiiietre cube, called cubic eentimetro 
(c.c] ; about 20 drops of water or 1,000 c.c. to a litre. 

The XLXund in the (imetn., or the measure of 10 English 
gniiinf id wawr at fi2" fahr. 

The thir<l ui the aeptein., which contains 7 English grains 
of water at 62° Fahr. 

The above two in'oasiires are used in conjunction with a 
ve^el marked to Luld 1,000 of each of these measures ue in 
the litre abdve. 

Therf w an Act of Parliament rendering pcnuiaaive the 
u«e of the metric system of weights and measures. 

The kiloHTum ia said to be equivalent to 15432-3487 
British graiua. 

The litre to ba equiralont to 1-076077 Briti»'> -*-* '^ 
the Utrc = to 0-6fl7932 of a British imper 



The anmber of cubic inches in a pint ia 34-6S925, or 
277*274 cubic inches per ^llon. 

The number of ^r&inaiu a pound is 7,000, and the oumber 
j{ gniim of wat«r in a pint is 8,750. 

U jou therefore deduce the following equivalents: — 
15432-3487 -r 7,000 = 2-20462125 imperial pounds in a 

1-76077 x 8,750 =-. 154067376 grains of irater in a litre. 

15406-7375 4- 7,000 = 2-2009625 poundsofwaterinalitre. 

A gramme (or gram, aa it la spelt in the Act of Parlia- 

ment] in the 1,000th part of a kilogram, and a c.c. is the 
1,000th part of ft litre. 

A gram weighs against metals 154323487 English grains. 

A cubic centimetre of water contains 15-4067376 Eugiinh 
grains ; or a difference betweeu metal and water of 
0-0256112 English grain. 

A cubic foot of water = 62-321 lbs. of water, or 
997-137 ounoea, usually taken as 1,000 ounces. 

A hogshead is 54 imperial gallons of beer measure, also 
water ; or 540 lbs., plus the caalc. 


With Diameters, Circumferences, Areas, and Volume Displacements in Gallons per foot of Travel up to 50in. 

LIQUID AND OTHER MEASURES. {See also Vtefiil Hinii and Faeig, pai/e 443.) 




ment in 


mcElt in 










of Pipe. 




pet Fool of 

of Pipe 



per fool of 

of Pipe. 





A inch 




36- 12 



62 inches 








12 „ 




63 „ 







12i „ 

39 27 



64 „ 







13 „ 




65 „ 







13i „ 


143 13 


56 „ 


2463 01 




u » 




57 „ 






14i ., 




58 „ 






15 „ 




59 „ 



1 .. 1 




16* „ 




60 „ 






16" „ 




61 „ 






lOi ,. 

51 '83 



62 „ 






n „ 




63 „ 






■07 63 

ivi „ 



i 0-389 

64 „ 







IH „ 




65 „ 







I8i .. 




66 „ 







19 „ 




67 „ 



2 „ 




19i „ 


298 64 


68 „ 







20 „ 




69 „ 







21 „ 




70 „ 







2^ „ 

69- U 



71 „ 








23 „ 




72 „ 








24 „ 




73 „ 








25 „ 




74 „ 








26 „ 




75 „ 



3 » 




27 „ 




76 „ 



3 „ 




28 „ 




7" i> 



3; „ 




29 „ 




78 ., 



3 „ 




30 „ 




79 „ 



, * .. 




ai „ 




80 ,, 



*i •' 




32 „ 




81 „ 



4 „ 




33 „ 




82 „ 


5281- 02 

*J » 




34 „ 




83 „ 



5 „ 




35 „ 



41 562 

84 „ 



5i „ 




36 „ 




85 „ 



fiV „ 




37 „ 



40 448 

86 „ 



n „ 




38 „ 




87 „ 



« ,. 




39 ., 




88 „ 


6082- 13 

6i „ 


30 679 


40 „ 




89 „ 



H „ 




41 ., 




90 „ 



6| .. 



1 545 

42 .„ 




91 ,, 



7 ,. 

21 991 



43 „ 




92 ,, 



7i „ 

' 23-562 



44 „ 




93 „ 



8 „ 

25 132 



45 „ 




94 „ 


6939 79 

H ,. 

26 703 



46 „ 




95 „ 



9 „ 




47 „ 




96 „ 



9i „ 




48 ,, 




97 „ 

304 73 


»o' „ 



3 393 

49 „ 




98 „ 



"i .. 



50 „ 




99 „ 






51 „ 




100 „ 





Suggested Equivalents or Metrlo and BPlttsh 
Weights and Monsurcs. 

I dtop of Mid Water aometioMB ia ukeo ta = I gr^n. 

I Knun = lA'ISa pntin*. 

I CO- — 'it lepUYiia. _ ^5■i gr»ia* of ivittvr. SamC' 
tiaiea 20 drops are tak«i u giw co. far miurabe work. 

1 kilogmm => IJMOO- gniUM = 2-2 nTOirdtipoii lb:*. 

r litre =s 21000' iept«at*. ^^ 2'2 ileai^illuiiii. 

1 M>pt«tu, =» '454540 i-.c. 

1 diKa){nlloo -~ 494'&46 d.c. =^ I lb. of wutvr. 

1 gailoa -m tM5-4S ox. = 4A15*6 litro,-. ^ 10 llw. of 
va(«r, or token u noeb. 

I a«!«[n. s' -MSSAl C.C. 

I fluid drai^m = 54-0ST3 Kvai^ =■ <'8I3& aoptMua, = 
i-mn ex. 

I uiiaim ^ '1*1 1 4Q ^rain of vratcr. 

:iO rwt-, «t the pnmnt timr, io 1 ton of IvaiI. 

IS) owe. = 1 fuildvrof lead iu Loiulnn. 

2L KWt. = 1 foddar ui It^ad iu ihv Kortb. 

A weig^b of It-nd wiu, br t':'lwnn1 I., lUH lb«. 

A wnifb of ieail, by Sliitute 'J, Urory VI,, 'a 'iH Ibn. 

A clove of lead i*, Bim'i' lU-ory VI, "a tln»^, 7 lbs. latiio 
tiiur of King Edwurd 1. it vm 8 tin. X.B.-Tbu uld 
tn>d« weivbt fiir UmI him Im'^u loat for itbimt HiJO jt'ara. and 
Wfta fuund hy niyself ju Ilit> jetir mOI, after tvrt'utf yoam' 
•caroli «t ititTi^'nt iiitrrvnlH. 

Ab ■omcticni.-* yi^u will be cttlli'd upos hy cleotridaiw. 
ohemista, ke., to work from tho Fmirli inciLsiimacntK, un 
itwi^ht Ui the MRir utiiiuld U* knim'ii by f-vi-ry plambt^r. for 
I Lave found it rerji uirkwunl, wLeu, oa I wiu suildeulj' 

i^llivl iip^in tn milkff iMriA ni-^iiiniilAtors nud [.bit«n for 
(iliiHric HtutS)^' or i«x«iniiary bal tiirii-n name v«ir< ainvr, 
wlinn tbs ensiiieer, a li«nuiui, ujU tav llio plut«e wen to be 
BO Quuy miniiiwtnM thick, h naaj* cnttimctnw uid^. nud 
MR m&nj dcdBietTW long^, vhiuh wbm qiiitv Iu me uiitn* 
UlliffibU and Itirew me into a perf«t tng. Howpv«r. 1 
grripoLl my wny nut of it without beinK iiiitiowl, and you 
mmj bo mire I nry coou mwlo mjsolf acquainted irith the 
folloving : — 

1 mtltimetra 
1 cmUmetre 
1 deuimMro 
I mctTR 
1 dtMutmetre 
1 h«ctt>tntttT» 
L kilcftuvtn 
I myrioinetre 
1 firo 
1 Kturu 

O-oaa370(> Euglisti facbof. 




343 70-79 

10;6-11I4 »quu« fMt. 
3S-3171 cnihie Engli ill feet. 

Xkvw nuHuturcuioDU nwjr be brought iota Boglish 
m^Murr* lui frillow* : — 

Dividu tliip diviniblu bj Vi fur f««t, HC fiir yanlM, or 63,300 
for luilpii, Tho myriomctrv in 1^-3138 miles. 

Tliv L-uatiiuutrc n'^^ &e., i.r., 2M oontiint'tres nmrljr to 
tho inrh, and the millimetre b«in^ a UnOi nf tlutt i< ^5*4 
tnilliiniTtTn) to un inob. n number t(i Iw rt^uiumU-Ttiit if joa 
wiah ti> line tbi-* Freucb ■yiiteiii, wblc-b I muiit tay in ttuy to 
our BViiviii, 

I tnny lubl tliat y<iu citn get tho Freooh rule* at tho rtile 
rjukt-r, given in thu work. 


Cast Iron Pipes. 

PutB OP TS8 WoBcnca HrRxxom op Cast Isow Pipki, 
Weioiiw xsd THicnrcsa. 

I haro anid nnffirimt upon tlte aouroo of Hu> London 
water wupply, and will uuw giro Jiu.t»f«wbiiit« rtwiwcting 
the naiiu. I will aasaniQ that mj rcadora an> tbaroufrlilf 
ac4iiain:i>il wilb rnit-imn straet water maiu*. wbi^k niv 
mad« frum 2in. upwards. Tbi> 2in. urv luudu in 4ft. 
lunjfiiiB, wbichmajlMhAdof various thiokneiatwauitahic for 
ditfentnt hcoda of water, of wbidi the foUawiu^ loblfi will 
irira the randar a gmnrat idea :.— 



HmiI or uratcr. 

H«mI o( watsr, 

HMd of W4ler, 





-1 HW 

6 a 


ttoA. ovt ta. lb 


qi. Itti 


rwt V- I*! 




1 19 ' 



1 30 


1 23 




3 3 


a 7 


'i 11 




3 21 



U 9 


1 9 




1 1 15 



1 24 


1 s u 




1 3 5 



3 21 


2 19 




2 1 S 



1 is 


2 S 6 




2 3 8 




3 2 4 




A 1 10 



2 22 


4 14 




8 3 17 



I T 


£ 14 




4 2 10 : 





8 4 




6 3 6 



2 6 


7 3 11 




B 6 1 



1 -1 


11 I 9 

Tbt fftmigtli d( tht nutetial to rvaUt Intemal prearare la 
not all tluit ia reqtitr»d for RttMl water maina, but 70a 
ilhoitld oonaidor that thu pipTM Mboald bo of a aufBoteiitly 
■uhatantial chanctvr, and dtin|i P4iiJUgb Lild to b<>ar the 
pTKHiuro from th« trafflo along the roada; uad ultltougfa 
water pipoe mar bo of tho abova thioknBua, yet thcj are 
Hetdom of n niitiana 0)trlfnft«, owing to the faet that Ae 
niiiuldi?r. nht<ii fixing Iha ooree. vaty nldou can gnaiantae 
that tliii com tdioll oe perfectly oentnJ. For ioManre, a 
pipi! whuM) HnhitanM in auppoant to he Jin. thick of UintioiM 
inll be fttuntl to he |iii-, or even lin. uu onv nidc, and i'm. 
Ill {in. on thr' othvr. Then again, aometiinM tlie pitwo wOl, 
lhi>ngh uutM-ii or olfaerwiw aodc4«otable, vnni whoii the 
nnwuro la put npon da pipes, bo found to eonuin blow 
faolea— i.«.. themetAl will boniongT. Infactv I hare Men 
Ibeao pipes broken, after limy hare ftcra aubjvoted to alntml 
rrvrjr onticoivable l(«it, tnni out after Kiiue Tuais in use |o 
cauae no unj of Irviiblv. Oflcn thcMj apon g y bolaa wfll 
run half way rtinnd the pipea. 

It nboiild br bomc in mind that it will be bent to apni-ifir 
tlu) wiTiKht of pjpn mlhin- than tlii> tliirlmMse*, and 
leave a foil' niHTjf iu inr tlii- vurintiKiin. a^ Ibn founil^r ia not 
uxpwtnl tu vuBl the ozsct weight, tbi^rfifort.' allow a marTin 
of, eay, between 3 and 5 per nvtiu 


The beet way of jolutiiig pinea ia bj eaoUriitc with spun 
j-am and niuning with laaa. Oonemltj tl^ eaulkiiig 
mom ix for, wiy. Siti- jupt-ji nbout )in., nod from Uiii, to 
loin, jwpes ,*,iu. 10 jiii., uiid uN illutlratvil rtt thu joint in 



Fig. 940. The followia(f table will give you a general 
idea of this : — 

Fbopobtioss op Joints on Ieos Waxes Pipk 

DIk metal 

Ol pt]HH. 








Depth or 





Deplb fof 
(.he Leid 



1 ucliee. 


Load alLowtHl, 

191 WHt« 

•nd Work, 







With regard to the cost of layiug, this rariea with the 
amount of labour for digging the tronobes and the cost of 
labour in different looahtiea ; bat the prices on the average 
maj be roughly calculated as follows in and about ue 
aoburbs (^London, macadam road, and 2ft. fliu. to top 
of pipes: — 


2in. 1/0 
24ia. 1/1 
3in. 1/2 

4in. 1/3 
5„ 1/5 
6,. 1/7 

7in. I/IO 
8„ 2/1 

lOin. 3/4 
11„ 3/11 
12.. </6 

Iron Pipe Jointings, and Prices of. 

The following is taken from one of loy old day books of 
a job whioh I £d ten years ago, near Salisbury, and will 
aerre to gire an idea as to the number of men for carrying 
out the job where the length of piping is stated together 
with the sizes; — 

"Soft road ground. Trenchers' time: 16 men getting 
out trench and flUing in, including lifting in ^pea, totu 
length, 3,320 yards of 4in,, 27 days each. The jomts were 
made by two first-rate jointers. They made 30 per day 
each man, but the fire ana lead-pot were attended to by a 
boy. Span yam Jib, to a joint. "Lead for jointing will 
ran on t&e avenige lib. to the inch — that is, a 6in. pipe will 
take 61b. of lead ; but this depends upon tho jointer. 
Some men will use half as much again as others, and then 
have bad work. The secret of jointing is to properlv ram 
np the spun yam true and even, so that tlie lead will form 
a true ring. Then the lead should be run not too sparingly 
nor too fiul, but just enough to fill the socket flush ; for if 
you have too much you cannot drive it home on account of 
a flange forming round the joint, and if not suffii^ent then 
you ^11 split Uke socket with the end of your caulking 

Sometimes the ends of the pipes are fitted sa at the 
union in Fig. 964, and ground together, then pulled ap 
with two or more strong bolts and nuts with lugs, especially 
used for the London hydraulic mains for water power, 
Ufia, Ac. 

Thtoretigu. Stbenoth of Lead Pipes. 



In. 1 




WelBbt , 






per (oot. par iq. in. 

1 iQ llM. 


per tooL 

per lu. In. 

















































1 -17 



The tearing strength of lead pipes was 2,1591b, per 
square inch, uid of lead-enoased pipe 3,769lb. per square 
inch. — Kiykaldji't ExpwimenU. 

For this we will also take our calculations from Barlow's 
rule, which runs as follows, taking the cohettvs streng^th 
of drawn lead at 2,T46lb. per sqnare inch : — 

T = l-L-J 

R + P 

S - P 

P = 

S = 






T) X P 

Inirtiioh S = 
P = 

R = 
T = 


the cohesive strength of the 

metal per square inch, 
the internal pressure per square 

inch, in the same terms as 

the radius of the inside of the 

pipe ill inohes. 
the thickneas of the metal in 


The above is Barlow's mle for thick pipes, but for thick 
pipes such as those which the plumber has generally to do 
with, and in order to provide adequate strength Uiere is 
nothing to equal practdoal testing ; but for our purpose we 
will adopt the following hard and fast rule, which takes 
the form below : — 

= {^ 

In which 



the diameter of the pipe in 

the safe bead of water in feet, 
the thicknew of metal in 


The following table can be obtained, therefore, frtnn 
Barlow's rule, where we take the cohesive strength of ttie 
lead at 2,7451b. to the square inch, which is man dinot 
experiment on lead ; and as lead pipes are prened with 
various kinds of te/t and hard lead and to various wtdgfats 
(see my Practical Lead Pipt Tatted Table on page 3fl] to m^' 
the different heads of water, and taking an orduary tMH 
alure and the medium weights, deducting the thtwIuM 
therefrom, the foDowing table will be found in whioh 
safe working pressure is by some engineers (thoagh tj 
too much) taken at one-tenth of the bursting strain. lb 
here again remark that there is nothing but real ptmol 
and the qualities of lead to be depended upon in 



lead pipen, no nuittflr haw carefully worked out tfaporeti- 
■■iilly : — 

Diameter of Pipo j i" i |" 

Weight of Pipe, lb«. pes 

fout |l'33l-47 

Safe Pressure in feet of | 

water I 232 183 











See alio Lead Pipe Working Strength of Piimp Table. 

Br comparing this table with tho table of weight, and 
working Mtrength of lead pipes on page 3G, it will bo seen 
that the ^in. pipe, Ko. 2U, in my practical workintr table is 
below the table above, about 32ft. ; but the ^i"-* ^o. 22, \s 
200ft. in my tabic on paire 3G, whiUt that in the above table 
ia 183ft., stiowing u ditference of only 17 between the 
practical an<l theoretical ; but if you examine tho inch, 
No. 42, in the practical table, and compare it with the inch 
in the theoretical tabic, you will there see a wide margin, 
the theoretical being 51ft. above that of the practical table ; 
■nd on examination of 1 jin., No. 62, in the practical table, 
•nd comparing it with that of tho l.jin. in tho theoretical 
table, a difference of 98ft. will be seen ; and in the IMn. a 
difference will be seen of 1 10ft., tho theoretical table being 
tkU much lower ; and the 2in. varies to the alarming 
■monnt of 184ft., tho theoretical table being this much 
below the practical working table, which I can only account 
for by allowing, in these luge pipes, the working pressure 
to be t^cn at one-tenth the bursting strain. So much for 
the tUokneaaee of the walls, and their resisting power. 

Welgtits of Pipes and Castings. 

The ireight of pipes and cylindors is often required by 
the surveyor and engineer. The rule to find the weight in 
nounds ia to subtract the square of the inside diameter 
In iiLOhea from the square of tho outer diameter in inches. 
lEultiply the losalt ny 7-4 and divide by 3. Multiply 
Uatlf by the lengtli of the pipe in foot. The weight of 
eutoiga maj be determined ttius : — Multiply the width in 
ouutar inonea by tlie thioknese in eighths of an inch, and 
UTid* 1L» prodnot by 10 ; then mnltipiv the result by the 
Imgth in feet. For wrought iron add Vcr to the result. 
TUt outinga and bars are of constant requirement, and 
their Wright can be foond by the simple rule of multi- 
■lylBf the width in inohee by the thickness in inches, and 
\f Mm iMtgth in feeti and thim for cast iron by 3f , and for 
mM^bl WHi si. TaUsa of theee weights will be found in 
hMtbooK; bi^ the dmplloi^ of the above rules 
to all Ihoee who are in frequent want of 

dm Water Pipes. 

neCwntwiapply to towns, &c., wooden 

' ae ia dkown at Hg. 780, and even 

' ~ >of the United States, where 

Am old wooden water mains 

IT ■■eelinfsflliirj' results. 

alloyed in England 

attiolea were first 

I wUeh went in use in 

I flanges, which, 

I publiahed in 

r water, water 

^iiMk. Mdh, V wood; the 

of iron 



length is usually about that of the iron pipes," I have seen 
these pipes, boUi in iron and earthenware, and the descrip- 
tion is exact. The earth pipes were made thinner than 
those of our day, and are more of the shape of a cone, and 
without collars. To make their joints thoroughly water- 
tight they tised Roman cement, also tow and pitch, and for 
heavy pressures they used hot resin and mutton suet, 
with tow : and an excellent j'cint was mode. We boast of 
our drainpipe jointing ; but where are joints now to be 
found on drainwork made better than those of eighty years 

I have said that the joints on the iron pipes of 1803 had 
flanges ; but tho spigot, or socket joint, was well known at 
that date, for nearly all the wood or tree pipes had spigot 
joints. Some were made by driving one end into the other, 
whilst others were made exactly as we make ours at the 
present time— with spun yam and lead— except that the 
front part of the male end was made to fit, cone-shaped, 
into the socketed end, as shown at B, Fig. 780. The outer 
part of the female end was made slightly tapering, and 
stout iron rings, C, E, were driven np, to tighten the outer 
part on to the lead and yam. The lead could not get oat, 
no matter what pressure was pot behind it, owing to the 
fact that the male end of the joint was cone-shaped : in 
fact, the stronger the pressure the tighter the joint 
became ; the wpun yam being presi^d against the lead 
prevented the escape of water. I may state that Fig. 780 
irt a similar drawing of an old joint, which I found 
whilst cutting a drain for St. Margaret's Church, Loth- 
bnry, London, in the year 1879 ; it was about 9ft. down 
from the level of tho roadway. 

One thing is quite certain, that tho gas companies had 
to pay the piper at the commencement of their work — 
date about 1813— for we read that they had to pay from 
£18 to £20 per ton for cast-iron piping, which to-day is 
but little more than one-quarter the price. In France the 
gas companies at first [owing to the price of cast iron) 
used tinned sheet iron, riveted op, the thickness being 
about No. 16 gauge plate. The pipes had a coating of 
tar and a layer of asphalte, and some say titat these 
pipes have lasted from thirty to thirty-flve years. 

Sepvice Pipes from Street Mains. 

AUo aee Building Supplies. 

For Irtm Pipe Work we Sot Water and Gat Fitting Work. 

In laying these mains one uniform method should be 
adopted. They are, or should be laid, if regulated by the 
r^ulations of the Water Works Act of 1871, at a depth of 
2tt. 6in., and out of the reach of the frost; but I say 
3ft. 6in. to 4ft., to be properly oat of the way of the faxwt. 

It is always advisable when the ground has to be opened 
to apply to the water company, as in many parts they do 
it themselves ; whilst in other districts the plumber has to 
^t it done. When the latter is the case the plumber 
in>-ariably has to apply to tho vestry or local board 
authorities for a license for breaking up the road. 

In Kensington we huvc to deposit a sum of £l to defray 
the expenxe. After the work is completed, and all made 
good to the satisfaction of the authorities, the balanoe is 

Lead Pipes. 

There are but few good even lead pipe makers. The first 
two in my opinion are Meavs: F. A. Clark & Son. of 
Hammersmith, aud Mr. Chatterton, of King's Cross, 
whos' -ory largely used. 

' toored hot enough to prevent oold 

H n heat of load so ae to withataod 



tbp Lum pin u^'xinsL »i<y upliltinjr ff 'xul pivawnl liil^, 
whii'h nti'iul'l alwuj-i' \w irjirtnl n» worlKlnm : alMi luolt out 
for breakinjf pijic wlii-o U-iidiii[r ►uob rfittcii etuff, 

Th^ liiaii pii^fl used for ttii^ kind 'rf wurk an: ircnoraUy 
■up[riioil in oaibi, ah vhown nt ^V', Fine. 9(10. Th« siite of 

Fm. WW, 

th^tciKl pipostobevMddebcnilitcipaBllioeniniMiiiy. Sodm- 
will hnvi' II MTtldn iiKo of pipt- wttL s tisrtain fuhfltttiw. 
wIlLIhI (itbcM du n<tt trouliUt thitnwlrsn miicti in iVin imitttr. 
Th» Now River. Knit LhuiIdu, W-il MiiliHwirK, I,iiilU'I1i. 
nnd ■ fow iiikar wuUt tMUnpuult'!*. iiifcirod n 1l"»!1 pij>o 
ncocinUnK to tht- W*t«r OutnprtnioH' Act of 1S7I. ')f tnr 
followin)^ Hutwlaiiuo, v'tt. :— 

Wel()il dF Lrxl 
PteDMter flpft In Iba. t«r 
Incbw. Lln*al Ysjil. 
,..„i.,„,., ^ 




i 12 

1} Ifl 

Lead Pipe, Burftting Strain or 

On pa^ 36. VoL I,. I grave « imrkin^ lahle of the 
■trcntftit of loud pipe, ^hicti I for yenta hnvp i)-«ot. (iml hiL* 
ptovoo ■atucfaetorj'. I liavi? al*u kIy«ii Burluw'a ruin oniie 
woiUng Ptronirth of lowl pipes. [5w TbtuivUcal 3tivii(^ 
of Lead PipuB.) 

Brats Worik— PorrulM. 

The old cIass '.>f driviuiT fiindc it nhoit-i] at A. Fiic. 901 , 
wMoh W*» nm-d wp till the yf(ir ISTO. 

It liiul Hitiiplv u Utu.'a liijteiiiiK' tid<^t end- rotiKb lllcdmvni 
tndfivi- into the irixxleii or iron pipi*, aftir hariag mtult- 
iIh> plumlierV Joiiit ■>» thv uiiiti-t cuil 

Viu. oat. 

B, "Fig. 941. in i^ rtnttjilit ^•K.-n-trcd M oiie «iid) fnTiilv, 
for KMnriDg Into Ifan Ircm nuLino. 

Titf franilc htmhI •><■ ll>r New River, East Loodub, nod r 
fuw utl)i<r GuiuiKtuiin iiboul I^oailon, in Khown nt V. U, T, 
Fi^. i^O. 'Vhxt is 8iiup]y s bent ferrnlo Krvwcd nt A. 
Fiif. 960, to jin., (in., jin., or other size gas thread, but 
shunld be- acwved woll taM'ring, iw Ihftt it will tinffatr n ap 
(Ur it entcnt tLi.- tupped hula in tho main, ftr. B in iln? nut. 
til mtrvw thr lining K in to the bond D, The Unitig E ta 
Holdered on to tlw kod pip. lut shown Kt C, G, Fig. MO. 
Ac S, T, V, V ia nbovig n ferrtil« for in>n h*rrcl wfewod 
»t V. Old drivinf; fermlM w«» lued bvfore tita aenw 
(rrndc wiui itindiitvd- 

Ft'>. on. 

Fiffa. 963 and 901 vbow ti kind of Ktop<valt« tervlOi 
suitnhlo fi>r ohnUintf oft tke ira,tcr. A Ifl die valvA. 
nnd J till' ■eutiiiKi *-' hs ih<^ iiuion niit and B tbe Hning:, B 
(hL- wrew fur working' thi< viilrp. iind I'' thi' tup. In thia 
Talrc it may hv H'-vn llial Uiu wutvr luis ovory ehauoo of 
pMving N^wiwu the screw Mid tho top, bat on oloseljr 

Kio. uw. 

ciunimngthediagTBin it will tf< HMO that usder the enp 
U flxed iL uuithnr wudior. and far turning' Up the top |KUt m 
■he Taiv« tight Hgit)u»t thin wiuh«r all dbaacnaof a br-juMi 
urn atflppcd. If you clowly csanuiM Ihv vod of tbe Liiiinji 
ut Q. Vig;. wa, and thnt at A. Fig. 964. yoa will aee Ibat 
lUc' end uf llit- lininLT protrude* into tbc union, wtiicJk will 

fir»T<-nt, a .lo'id di»r hpinij plarfd b«'[w«^ tb« rnd uf tlui 
ininjiaud Iht; end uf iKv tinimi. Now *iBmlno (', Fig. 
\)62 : hen yon will aev that tho «nd of the lining ia flat and 
)>titts tip ogninst tbe md of th*- .ii-rrw^d part of tl» femile 
nod will wlniit of a lentluT wmthi^r lietoK' placed between 
tltei end of tbe lining nnd 'the end of tho fearnle or noion : 
Irtil »uppo«c instvad of this I(«llK-r wanher that a jJaln 
di>w of iiMtlhir he. iinM. it will b^ plain that no valor oaa 
jiaaa, and aboulil tliL- preHiun- be loo strong a oopper coin 
nuiT h* platiod at tlii> Imck of Ilii' ImlliM' Ui atrauglJiiTii it. 
Tiua ia a v«rj' guud plun fur culling off tbe water. I liaT* 



riD. Hi. 

In II 

pipr. -. 


mtvttniiag U' U. ii 
the yeiir 1X07, ui 

laU«r km r.f^nuDool 
«re <^«i>t in tiirgr*. 
M hidf. 8FVt*m] wf 

bkt betWMO tllMll tu h: ; 

made bf llit- ]Hitl<-r*. I'liin. 
on* end t>«n'ijg iilw&j> made 


tte nd of th* tiniiie oat off 
stf tbe water, iaatead »f 
Tilw A. Wg. W2, <w, •" 
«TVw fMTBlo A, B, aed 
^ « valTp-acrwir fomilu 
^^1, wbkh is ptntrotod 
^J* by 31t«n J Tjlor 

ul l)u> l«t« Mr 
Water Worin. 
^ Wwt Mi>t- 

•^mX (bo utiifln 


^ «lhNiop 
. thfl 

wiaue nowB, w that a aniBll t«e apanmT iw~^ u: tua<.'rtcdia, 
it throogfa tbo holfi in top cap, nnd t)i« plnK valva n 
Bcrewed down nr opened »» T(;qniK»<J. Tli top esp.l^wmi 
pro(«ctui|; the plug valvo fa-oiB grit and dut. pct^'eota th« 

riu. DOB. 

ri'wd up loo bigli. Tbtwe fumilva 
. k' liw uains uodcr pcvntuv aa nl 



(«w nlto Tig. 070.) 

Mnlns (Tapping). 
I will now flxptnin and illiiKtnits on* or t«o of Uie 
nmiJcet mctliods vf tapt>itiu' <li>- niHiu*. 

Hmiuff tit* groMnd open dtymn (o Uw nuin, rad the 
wtttpnvorin' imn on Um job (wlio mmonUj' nbont Ijcindoa 
ion Ck worlEt, eammvtiM ue wrvk mi foUom. Sa; tlno 
lio)(^ is to Im drilled »a Hhown at Fi?. Oti7. 

The mftiii lieir.fir I'nipty. put on ihc oliunt^ K-iMoitf (A# Mp 
<fri//iiif armngi-nfHi, tw iihowa in Flff. D6H, and drill lliis 
hole : iifbfiriinlii lap li with s niitM>l«-B«^ fpui thnmd 
Up. It trill not Alvarn bn Danmu^ to im iba duop itnd 
bloclc »H ■Ikc^wii at F%. 9afl, «» onlj ooe Ar tira water 
•virapHuiai in tiuixlciii r«|aira thi* mrraugnnenl, sod wbera 
Kunh in in foroo, Uiey luually miful out the oluDp alfwidy 

I'li.. Mt. 

Tapplnfi Maint (without Driiring). 

SowtiniM It ha|iprnA that jnn will not Viwt AxiWmg 
taekle to Inp tlii> inutn willi. In iituili comsi, rem will bn 
nMo tu iln tliii job witfa n ili.-ininnd -pointed tool or rbtftel— 
ami tliiTK »n> auiny niitTi wlm pn-frr to cut thair hiil«ti thia 
wnv to that of hairing' tint Inmbilu at oiriing ah»ut thi> 
drilling Inrklo : but it miuit Ym raiieitib«n«l tiiat y-Ji miwt 
k«o]> yuur diunoud [xitiit Ut a tpj-A cluipu anil t^liarp, nnd, 
vbca cuttini; the biil«. k<> trrn<1ually rtitlinir nil nini») in 
« clrelo to about tbo siic of ihc huk-, (fnui. uin: l«:iti^ Lulten 
not tuatnkti too henry hlowa, wtiicli wniild rplit or titber- 
wiM iujuw the main. Afler yon Uiivi; tfaun out th« bold, 
it miut bv ramed touud aud tapped a« before. 

Tapping Water Mains under* Presaure. 

Tma aystefD of tapiuiij; tliv innino, which allows of dhi 
faok» aad the ecHmeotloiM to ht mndc. notwith«tnndlng: Iht 
pRMtin) bfdngfiill on, i« uf ^-at vnluo in towna or vHtet 
plarwa wlii-iv Lin- <ihullinj^ down would liMuaretuenoo 
uMtanfacturwni Aud the like, and wUl ba nPritlj Olldanlowl 

Kio. MT. 


boB dw Mlmrinfc •l«wti{riion nnil Uliutrvtitm. Brown'o 
P Mwi Femdn ; wlo miuuri, Hvwim. J- Tyioi ii Sodh, 



I* 'A 

fin. 96a. 

Far orditiAr)- malnfl thn fciruk* nre Mipplind witli i-lipa, 
wliirh ottvinU- Ihe nccMBJtv of M'ntwiRg or Mppin^ uio 
mitin, itothiuK ivqiiirinjf b> ho done VmC driUiiiff it hulo In 
thr iiiuia. 

Tlia incthivl ■>( att:uthin^ a orrvicc pi[w is )im fullown: — 

By iiifaiin uf tlie uaiiitl Entclict tiriion nitil a driU, abapiai 
fts bIi'iwii lit A. Hk- ff-S, n rccPM U b-inil iu tlie top of tfae 
pi|>);, nr i>lu>firn nt B. tttc worlcmnn cnwiujj t.) ban ob sooa 
Ks Ihc point nf till- drill prick* thr w«l^r. 

Tb« foclt luiil rJiji iiiv lli'.u ]'lai.t>i] in jKHiLioti iind mMun-d 
bj tigliUiiiujt tht' ':lil> by th'' two nuW afid liy nerwwiiiK 
uo feiTulv in tbo di[i, k juiut bviup miule bf tho kiM 
«iiAh«r C : r>r the joint nay ht- mridtt wil-h liiitiiirr packing 
liL-twocil till dip iiiilI mniii pi[M, nml Uiu forrulu ««r*.'Wi:il 
firmly rotti tho ••lip im with tlic fiHiitm-y »rrew fomilp. 

Till- I'll) >4 the cock, witlj the vnWe iind it* i^ndla, iut 
thmi rvinuvtil, ubiI tlw ilrill ]{tii<li' li i«ilh drill E nr« flxi^i 
Ju their p1»c«^ ; tlio i.ui|i &ii>l lining ure rt^iiHivM fmnn Uiti 

Ctk'l uf tliv Dovii, atii] tho cLuuiloyr C tuiil ]Auk Q MB 
nirnl on in ihHr Ahiiul, lu Hb(iv.-n in (he diajrraiii. 

TliC drill F l- llii'ii (urcul duwn Kud tliu holo drill<xl 
riKhl through i • miuiU »U'*tuRi nf vrntvr In at th>'- mudi- liinv 
■Ilowvd Uf ncty.- by tlv pctuock H tu curry uwuy tliL- iiun 
boring • 

Tho drill B i* nowwithdiMWn into the poditioii nhnwiv in 
Flk- 968, snd thp p1ti|( G i> irrown] lumu-, lu nIxiwii. 

Tlte we^w u( wat^'r Ivl ik l^"" pn-vmitctli tbn drilt 
j^lik D, »u) now be taki-u ii way uud ttv top of tbv cmk K, 
and permanent vuliv L, put on a/< rdjiiwii iu Fig. 96Ta. 

The pluj{ tJ, i* thwi withdrawn wttbia the cluuiiber F, 
mad llit-piinuancat v»]r« L.hariuijbeMiacrewod downupvii 

the font M. llie chiiratpor F with it« plnir O. ran he rrmorrd. 

and Ihr ciiii aod Uninif, N, 0. Fi«- M". Twplai<«l, mid tho 
Inyitifc uf Uw itCT»-i(* pro<*oded with. 

'Il will thus l**cen ih«t the-whiilp pnx^cw) ia rety nJlBpIe, 
and» no iurthi-r uiiitirutu* tii.-ui tht^ (nt«i*> D aud F, 
which, of DDurao, tarn lor ua lodc^niic duidIhw of noolca. 

Auv fonn of flUp auy bo umxL: the Idnd abown «l 
Figa/wi^l^ and Q69 la vcrjr atroug and chHp, ooiwiatillg of 

_^-71_.- . 

gulvaninod nroaa>bar, and flat bimd bmmtfa tlM [dpo 
lmtilnntiii|;iii two |ia. acniwi) akkbuwii. 

Where b(iwi.f . an at F^g. W7. are nart on tlw pipos, 
orwtii-ro a Mittic^iciit tbicktu-aa of RtFtnl <-xiata tnnublofr 
pruTHTT diiptli nf wmw Ihmnd ti> In* ubtahi^ without 
L'ntircly jioiictnitiug the pipe, it in ubriDns chat clijis m« 
not miiiired. 

Oaxt-inin licll covf>r«, P. an; provided as Hfcown in 
Fijr- 067. 

TfaeMi atond on the pipv, and do not tauc^ cilhflr tho 
rwk "f the clip, Olid lhu» ill* vwik ia vlBMtu&Uy protected 
fruiii injury. 

When.' iliL- tiiAiiii) aro det^p. it ia a good plan to CIUT7 Op 
a piMr iif 2iii. ^m pips t<> UL-nr the mail aurfnoo, oorcrlnff 
it with tht^ujip R. 

ThL-n. at auy timv, with ttii.' aid uf a lonu kcr, tho walrr 
niay bo nhut titf, without the utccJN^ty of aigging down to 
th(- iciaiu. 

Fig. 97U il)u«init(a UcMn. Stono t Oa.'c nutiiod of 




topping the mam under pressure of water. The following 
ig the description : — 

One of its principal features is the introduction into the 
patent fen-nlee lued in connection with it of a ping valve, 
the object of which is to close the oonimunication between 
the inlet and ontletof fcrrulee, while it is being attached to 
the main. When the ferrule is fixed to the main, and 
connections attached, the internal plug or valve is nii«ed, 
so opening np a free communication between the inlet and 
ontlet of lerriile, and allowing the water to pass into the 
service pipee. 

The appaiatna is of the mmpleet, and 7et the most 
perfect Dxid, and althooj^ exoeeoinglv strong, it is very 
portable. The saddle piece B, is made so as to be used 
with different saddle packing pieces A made suitable for 
different diameters of main pipes, so that one saddle piece 
oan be need with various sizes ot main pipes hj simply 
changing the packing piece A at itB underside. 

Direction* for Using the Apparatus. 

To drill snd tap the hole in main nnder pressure : —Place 
the packing piece A, on the pipe over the point where the 
oonmotian is required to be made, the jomt between the 
packing {deoe and pipe being made b^ gieosed felt or other 
aaitsble material, ^x the saddle piece B, in position hy 
means of the chain C ; place in position the steel slide D, 
with the hole in the same over tiie spot in main, where the 
eonnection is to be made. Insert the spindle £, with drill 
tap attached in boss on saddle piece, having at topa cup 
Ifathnr to prevent leakage, slip the internal sleeve F (also 
fitted wiUi cap leather, which sleeve transmits the feed 
to drill) over spindle, and screw the outer deeve G, with 
*— "TT-g BOrew H, and screw pin I, (slackened ont) on to 
»iHw pfaoe. Plaoe the double ratchet K, in position, and 
tjght w screw pin I, insert the pin giving right-hand 
^MHK hs pawl of ratchet, and oommenoe to drill, tightening 
^■ ■ cro fing screw H, when necessary to get feed on drill. 
«%«« driO is throng the main and commencing to tap, 
kw Ac tcnw H, tightened continoonaly, and the tap will 
«un Amtk «t its proper speed. Withdraw tap and drill 
)F nvennf pia in pawl of^ ratchet, thus giving loft-hand 
K doee slide D, remove drill tap from socket 
1 nplaoe same when fixing tin. and l^in. 
^ >f a SRww«d ping H . which projects below spindle 
*» wUcii plug is screwed the lower part of 

._ sb 1> containing plug valve (see illustration 

'^a«. 9" Wm ftnag 4in. and }m. ferrules the socket N 
i. wsik 4hr Wr fait «■ same being soiewed to bottom of 
T-y Y H»£ w W«vr part screwed over lower part of 
.^p«r-«i-^lit. ,:ii«*lV>-9Uandg66.) 

»jte-H»ah «<A ttww altat'hments is again inserted as 
iMPi£ -mNit IJbt riUto D is withdrawn from covering 
»* «M m y rf W<l«v the lower i>art of ferrule is 
tav A« Vw V; MMUU Df the spindle and ratchet 
«^ WVfw iKia ta dune, the whole of the 
kM^ 4- -»^i»^ W^i«^ the hitwr pari of patent 
„ I .^.»*wl>J^ iW ii^w valve ra main, 
■'^fi^ ..^M ^M 4t i&» 1«««1^ having the cap scretred 
^TVti* <<«»««£ ^ l» ¥«'* ^'^ mua, and the service 
-''*^ j.--^" 1* MclAM ■*< VAM^ i& the ordinary way, 
-«'*: .,^)a,rik 4h • Oi wwMfc ft«^ valm is unscrewed by a 
- '-^^ ,^^ ^jj rr-j Mm^ ^'^or y«\>>K>twa on top ol plug or 

V ^^*-. •* H-*" *•''- ^''^ »»«1 "7*. "»d we 'or 

■!?^^, ^ V vv*-*x«>i^ t^kv ;**i ^« »lher pipw together, 

"-* **SC. . .-v -vli ^3 »**«*> ^ »>» ■akbg ol a joint, 

^- '-'-^jirK V- '*?***'«** '^ Mwwiu-^ haw to bo 

taken apart. These unions are very numerous in design, 
some having round entrance ends whilst oUieis have 

Fia. 973. 

square, wlueh prevents the female end turning when the 
nut C, Fig. 972, is being turned. 

Hose Unions. 
These unions ore shown at Figs. 974 and 975, and are 

KIO. Vn. FlO. 976. 

largely used tn fire-engine work, garden supplies, brewery 
work, &o. 

Barrel Union, one end for Lead. 

This union is illustrated at Fig. 978, luid is for the 
purpose of connecting lead to iron pipe, such as a stout 
piece of {in. or lin. to the hot water supply to baths, &c. 

Barrel Union. — Male Thread. 

This is illustrated at Fig. 973, and is used, as at Y, W, 
Fig. 1,578, &C., instead of the connector M, E, Z, Fig. 

Barrel Union (ordinary) with Female Screw. 
This is illustrated at Fig. 978. A, B, are the two ends 
screwed Inside to suit the screwed ends of the pipes. The 

Flo. 978. 

end B of this union (nnder a pinch) may be tanned and 
soldered on a lead [ape. Tin the tiaiDg up to tlie ilicnilder 



tH«r tba onUide Bciewed part : bat Vlg. 979, which is ■ 
xtTDnK unioD of good aliApv, shoald ba amd whnv prioo 
will allow. 

Barrel Union with Square* on tho LlnlnKfl 
with Female Screw. 

Tills it Bbown at E, F. Tia. 077. and u far tLtt ^nipon 
ol Mmwlng an tlw- lintit^n mih the Mrew irreoob, Htttead 
of uaiiig Ui« g»M lunga, which ore Apt to cut end merk tlM 
oabodv of tho Utiiiig«. 

Fid. BTO. 

Pig. 978 id M foTTuIn fnr ■rnrving' on ts iron p*P^< Uid 
tvT ranking fnxid iron to W&il vilhout Um put and linin». 

UDtaoB with iiAago moi fly uut on for iron, ilxtv, ur vlnvr 
teaks where the cisten i» required to dnin Iteelt dry. 

Fii;. iwi, 

riti. «ei. 

Thtt diagTAmc, Figs. 980 end 081, need bo finthcf 


Union Joints. 

It win Kmetiincii ba|ii>fa Ibut yim will bQ roqidrod to 
rrpeir » leed pipo when tbo w&tcr cuaot be qtiite turned 

of^ utd tlut jDQ Monot OM iMld«t; tmdee BOob ciroum< 
atmnom » onion of aoma dnMiiptioD moet be uiwd— for ntob 
refer to F!|;, 962. A. ie a oono^aheped mcliat ; E. b Idnd of 
aenwed lump, with en est«siuUjr square lining:, the tasadfi 
of wfaic-h fila ttii^ pip^i "'"^ proauM it npon tb« ooDO-thii|Md 
mcket ; D, the nut, la mudu wa iJ»c>im, to Rrip tbn iMtd fair 
OD to it, simiUrly as at £. Sqw exuuine tha elovatioo 


F, Ct, H, I, J, Fiff. 9a3. Hun jrou wiD mt that bj op<>iuBg 
the endii of the ppoe, and placing the ootM>>abepbd aoeket 
A botwmn tbeon. and bj aoicwing the two auta together, 
that for tamporaij wuik a aonnd joint may bo mndo. 

no. 961 

fin. MS. 

Fig. 9S4 is the aamc kind of thiag, but the tm^ nod ia 
aorewed for ir«>ii. FIk- 9Bi i* the almratioii of 1^^^. 384. 

Thov urv Tarioua kiiula of thioaa eon&eotiona, ooapIiiit<ai 
or tiniona in the tn&rkel. Utoee above deacribod are vny 

no. W6. 

Tig. 9M iUtutmtefl tho turn pin twed for opcul 
■Dds of tho pipe luttable for the anion. Vig. 9S1. 

Figa. 6S7 and 9HH iiliuitnto Koaara. Stanza ml 
loed nad iron pipca; tlio ecRravlnKa enleftt Ihe. 
after what haa bees written about Fig. 983. 



tig*. 989 aiul 090 illuKtrato the tbova nnioo joint, botli njuulo to foqain: mny fiulbcr ilc«cri[i4ioH after tlw previoua 


mdii for Ipad. 


nu, iMt. 



Fin. MS. 

fm. km. 

Raring expUiiMd iinA illuatraUxl tha variwiu kJDils nf 
nniMu UM fomilw, tho nmt in order BhouLd b<; tbi< Atop 
ooeki or vahra. 

Stop Coeks and Valve*. 

{Al»« m Bn H'altr H'orl, Q<fAi <md I'ulcn, smd ChtH 
Wmttr Sipplf.) 

In tbc HiairruB, Vig. 98D, nuiy be wini tbo mcihod 
of ninnhii; n main : K, 6. £h i" 1)if liii)rll) of Uii- lead pifw ; 
B> An ordiuATjr irruundon HUip cnrk with rroloh 'kfj, and 
Moan way wipid on tlie l^-ad pipe. Thi« cook » well 
illnittrahil at Fig. Mi. 

Pig. Mfl la a round wny iil^ .?<irl(. li.iving a tow Itcj. 
Fig*. Uei, W2, fl93, and 994 illuinbi anion jointa axida goodolaaa for plnc-c> wbmt k hu tonlanil, p<vhKp«, 
baving tbe euda u( tlio pipro butted togeUiiT, mmI are Iwi fur tvnutjt youra witotiut attention, tfccauao joa can put a 

Kio. too. 



Iw of iron and mth like to tnm it, tbtu flvttiiuc n gawxiT 
len-cr&g«, mml n madr mmns nf turning the key, luiij 
wkicb, when hit, >hoiiw bavc Uh vruya of tho koy etnugfat 
and tni« to the inlet. 

Fi«. 9e&. 

I'lii. i»0. 

no. wT. 

FIr. Dft7 fl]»»txs.t«<> tbe ruuad way Htup oook fritli Kiuan 
bfladixl kaj, for places irbcre it ib twquirfyt Ia noe a key or 
Rpuiiifr for tuniinX' It "1*0 hua a onion at ono end — a 
very lisody appuii£iKiifc>rdiMutiii(.-ctiiig and wuuuctiiig. 

Otand Cooka. 

FifT- 9BS IDuMralm ch« rIbivI cock, uinilar totliat nbown 
at Tig. &U : hut Fi^. !>9S hoa 1«-a uuione, whtcli bHow Ibv 

'Mek to be btkrn ont fur rpp*iinv Ice. 

\, Thww cocltB ju* ■uitiibli- fur u very lienrr pivcMUv, and. 
where the oook aft«r much ttirnintr. ■■ likKly to lr«k ; thu 
of all Stop c-ucka I know of for d«po»i1crii'». kvt Iwcnt; or 
tUlty yoan otandinir *till. I lUnk. if pr>j|)crly Rmdc, u 
tho bMt. Xoiirr tljitt I sAV for ulAp corka wkinh Ktnnd 
rtill for loD.ff paritNl* t»gcUiL-r, aiul thiiL tboy muat be of 

flr«L<oljiM patteni nnd makfi, and tmtni up to, my, 200lb«. 
tu th« dquitro inch, 

ng. DM. 

Gland Cock Packing. 

Whna paokinR a gland cook take out thp loAlhcr wnshfir. 
and all tho old pnckinfc ; Ibvn irilli nitnii fciitxV bcntp 
and mi>ltvd Romiaa tjilluV, pack tht? eoc^k wIlW liomp Inid 
ewmly round, but d'> not fvcvvr Jt down Uk> heavily. 

Fur othor Mnd^ of ittnp rnr-kii («vi from Figa. Al'i to 62S). 
8h* also Klobnlar valv«'H. Lib cudm, tbIyob aod both work, 
riuiM TnltMt, hydrnnla, (cc. It Tnnet be tM>tod that •••mo 
■water ooinpaaies anforoo a diffvn.'al clu«e, gsnorally of tha 

flit. OM. 

valvfl kind, snob as ia ahairn at F%. 999. Thia in knomt 
aa tbe Botb^rhatn psttom, and la guod (iw bmg oa tbo 
l««th«r wnaher laatu; m» fur aa nitranla tbr utop rurk, and ia 
ilonomUy euily tuniod, but aa tbe puiMt^e tlinmirb thia 
cook has so nasT ehnrp oornora (»w w-ti™, Figd. 618 and 
I,OU), it grtatfy add« to the ptiwi-r rmimifid Ut force tbo 
water from tfae amin into the uouae, nua I for one ahould 
certainly not nao it that ia, if I should h»To to pump the 
water. 'If a valve c»><;k mujit he uacd, thou tho water 
I'omponii-s ahoukl. for their own snkHi only. um> ono which 
liaa a »itrHight walcr-wsy throngb it, ilk ahown at Fie. 52-1. 
Thia lUan applira to ImU valrae. I maj add that su^ ball 
Talreaaro nude. 

Stop Valve Fixing Wrong Way 4tK>ut. 

It ia i|uiti> poaaiblo to fix Ibo Botherhum rook the wt 
way ahirut— tlmt in. tn mako thn inlet thr c,atl«t {eee Vig^ 
&18, ta.). A, is lhi< iulvt ; dioald you make B, tho InM, 
tha foroA of tho water will bo npon Hui ralTc, and ot<D- 
aeqneutly will Ivnd Ut keep it ckaod. In aaob oaaee iht 
lOck Mi>>i4fii hi rtvrrtrd ; but UiR diffii^ulty mar lie ||bl <>i 
by BokU-iiniit thu juiig)N-r (thv *alvi.-) to tae vpiodle. But 
riuch an ixxnurenee takca place, kevp it to joamHi and bw 
from the obtb of th*- wntur mmpnny : thmt^b In potnt 
law thny eiirin»t mnki? you alter it, booauoe tl>c ouek U i 
the aorew dowu Idod, and the Avt aajra nothing aa 



irlietber tl» tsIto thoald bn & fixed nr a Ioom one. Tln^-tng 
fin^ thn mUijioucJe, Mfl that it ui well duwti iind fiinl oul of 
^0 war of tbo front, ubI in Hocb a jiiisiiuiu thai it ia 
aoHsnuei uid ntu bt ciivily ^vt at for Kloaitioring. which 
ta gvacnllj rrqikii«d to be dono whan the plunilKT mute 
U> turn off UiD wttt«r, cs^pcttiftllf shoald th« iwre hftro stood 
wlthgot tnmitig fw u f<!w jeus. 

Repairing V&lves and Cooks. 

To npMT valva cocb jrou miut u>a your own diacrotioD, 
Cor Uwra am rarloiu Unda acOQrding to tbo nalcBn, eaoh 
go* coDBilcring biH ova tfa<- bmt, I ntA^ bora nmBrk that 
canahoold be txkeii with rhn unHcrowmg iu)d Mrowine, 
a« oftea Oum> article* tt^t mora injunr from thtt ruujcn 
plntnbAr lit ftro miuiitas thau thoy Jv from Ihelr nB.tiinil 
WMU'ftndlMU' iu five ycotni. A plumber wW knowe Lib 
buniK«aBki)ultl ho ubli; to rvleather and ntpode any kind of 
valve covk; tmt. of couno, heianot expocLcd tu i^riuil-iti 
ooftka> tbough a plniubor who can do «n«h work will bo 
coiuddi>t«d an cxcm^aglj tit«(ul maa in oouutr; jJaou. 

Oook GrindlniE-ln. 

To g[«t a general iUAight into Htich worlc, nnd in order 
Uiat the pUimber mny juHgn K""t f.T»uiid-iu i-itcka, llur fol- 
lowlufT may be wOTtti iiutii.iuB : — Finrt, iborotk is rjwt — 
Kome with pot metal. y'lX., witK ii ccrluiu otuouat uf IvtuI In 
the miituni, jnt^ niifni>i6nt to make thn mvUil mftish tar 
BTinding-in. Thn bamd or abeU i*. (or Jin. to (in. cti<-kH, 
placed in a viee hariitg obuapa of 1««d, arvr wbicli i.i fticd 
a nut in the offiling to rteoiTfl tha one end of a borioz Imr, 
from 6ft. t> 6ft. long, having a aerow at ona end, and from 
din. tu i:!in. lonfr, tuiniethiu^ like a long wrow (rvr a oon- 
neetor. At the otbor em\ nf thin bcirioK bar in a »tevl 
oontre point, Kimilar i» tihape to tb« point or ond of a i^ntn) 
piinrh, tho boring bar hann; na vn for receiviiiK a l«vt-r. 
niuiilnr to the IfTcr of a. riw. fnr tka ■parpoea of tiglitcnin>f 
duwn tb« barinfr bar. HflviiifC tbi« npg^d up. «n<i tb; 
shall of tlio (XK'k fixtd in ib<> vicn, plni?? n four.Hjiiiiru bun-t 
in the ahell. tha b<a*er ba<rtukT four rny trulg lapped up or 
ground patfeoU}' atraig'bt edges, made to the exact UptT uf 
the ihell or key of the eock. Such taper ia about one in 
aix ; if a groator tapur thi; luiy will hrod U> work up, and 
if lea* taper It will be too apt to Jam itwLf. On thn to^) 
part of tiie borer there ia fitted a ttqniiru for a kty or tap 
wrench. anJ on tlm top, and t,nily in iho centre of the 
boffr, tlD'rc it K ivniru hole tu tvccire tbe ond of the 
faoEiiurb&r, tbe lattor iii whinh in to kwp Uie but«r duwn 
1o the fihell of tlw cock wliiUt tlie borer ia being tnrned : 
bhoH by tttming thin aharp cutting borer, uodur prMtore 
from tha boiiug bar, tliri 1>nrt'r l» on turning mad* to 
deeoend, and m it bunw th« (•hell trrily tbruughout. After 
tlua borer baa been aout to the roquirvd diatancc to 
tboruugbly olean out tbe nhell. nnnthrr borer In nMd. bat 
thtB barer linn tn ba xtRadii'il by n»»iM of a kind of hnlf- 
toaud boxwood >rpUutii nr packing, placed on the tuAm nf 
the borem in mob a mann'rr that unly a little portion of the 
cutting edgoa arn to he mtcti. Thi.i puta a Sniiih on to the 
bnritig, and tbe nhi-ll i« rt>sd)- for grinding-in. -Lai^r 
rind oook nhella, or b»di«p, nre bonx! or "did" tiul in 
the lathe «M^ key*. Tin:*" aiv ti\e<) between the oentrea 
of tha lathe, and ant turned down to the cone of the oook 
body or abell. cart' bciu)f rr^qtiircd to got the right bitl, 
and tbnt thn k'>y h" tumi-d tru« and wtlhoni ruiK«. Of 
• aneh wvrk i;< li>Ht done with a Klidc r>vt, Rzed In Ihr 
-•ook ooiM. 7o proro whothvr the cwue ia truv. 
• lino down the ahoU of the oook when tiTing 

the \xj, wxA tfaU wOl tcU you whether the koy has au 
eqoal bearing. After Che key b turned, Bcreir the bottom, 
and file up tho Mjuaro for the bottoming nut waaher. 

Aftvr tniH la duoD^pntparo for tii« grinding-in. Tbia ia 
dono aa follows : — Placo the keyed tho cook iu tbe vloo 
odewayH, and with tbe eock body pbued between two hol- 
lowed oat atidn, aotnething like the ahapo of a roIUng pin, 
in two halvee, held together witli two bwtd rings, place tha 
aholt of tba oook on to Ch« k»y, and with aome " uolkyj" 
wtiii^ ia a kind el loam, wetted to about iha eooaistanBy of 
clott«d cream, placed on the ker, give the abell a good ipiB 
round. Thia worka tho "mnlloy" all o»er the *»—■•«■• 

nnrfibona of the key. Then with uo banda at each end m 
the wok stioke preaa lightly for^«a^l, and give it a Luru or 
two bftckwarda and forwarda occaaiunally with a iluiriiiidi 
kind of H j'Tk. pulling tliP nheU o^ the key ; then adding 
a Uttli.- Kpillle to the key [«piltlo iathoU'l kunwU lubrieaat 
for oook grinding) aa a Uibrioant for the - lauUey." gteat 
car« boing taken not to get it too dry, and to attend to the 
pullinif <^ tba afaeil in a kind of jeridng manner. Aa 
vx [tlaiiied, kiwp grinding antil the key abowe that it kton 
<it nrrj/ pvtHi, or bottvr, ■ little bara at top and bottom, 
whioh iuu«t be oantfnUy watched for. Look ont for the 
"ringa," which will appear about tbe Wnltf -way of the 
oook, proving that you liave grit, whioh must be 
nmovea, and when Mwn, stop grinding, and wipe 
the "mnHey" away. Ctrind the key and fdtall quite 
smooth, after which groaae the key with a Ijtllo good 
tullow luuidlc. Next maka yonr bottoming nut waaner, 
whioh may be faced up by vauauin it t^i revidro in the 
Utbe, and by holding a amaotli die againat it when remlr- 
ing. Tho ooek Im now pnt together, and again placed 
liotwoun tlici uniUtBi of tfia lathe, and thif bottom of the 
«hell tnr»«d true and flnlsbed. Sometime the bottom of 
tho ahetl is turned truv on an old koy bofan tlie grinding 
ia di'ine. 

Si.<iiii!Liini?B. when iLe " muUer " cnnnot be oblitiued. the 
dirt front the trough of a grinditonc ia used for rnck or 
valve irriniling, wbii>h, if quite eliNLn, nm^wrra rrry well : 
but you mu-il not ho toi> heavy with it, ui-ing; plenty of 
Mpittlc for Iiitiricaling, 

Emnr^' in of no u«n for ftret-rat* oiKk grinding. The 
above is the meth'od of work aa proetlaod by my own ooek 
ftniahen at my late vorkfl at King's Otobb Patent Valve 
Worka, and na praotiaed by the beat Birmingham nnd 
I/»vlutt co<^ fiaiali«Ta. 

Of iviuno. tho brighteoiDg' up of oooka ie done by filing 
up drat with a rontni or *' baatard " cut file, tbeu with a 
line oBP, and thEn burnished. Aft4.-r thi* tliey are rlcaned 
witti brickdust aail oil, and then puliHli«d with briokduat 
and hat. 

[f uuii-iimes the BiiisbingofahcU iiuttorucweksamfiuiiJicd 
in u pule Utho. 

Cteaning and Polishing Brass and other Cocks. 

Mix Hfiin/i hrickdust or rmrry p*>wd(?r in oil, and rub Uio 
covkx wi'U all iivi-r with ttiiii, and, with eomo Inng iilipR of 
carrot li"t, polish with dry powder. It will make thp 
cooln Hiipoar ilh quite; new, but do not get any of tbe 
powder into tho boorlnga of cbo oocka or raJTOB. 

Jainmcd Cock Kuys. 

Homclamca yon will find n plu^ of a cock jammed or aei 
ui thn idiell ; thrt lemil; knock on the t(ip of tho key will 
often d(j it. Whvu sueh is the oa*v, luiaoivw tlie buttum* 
imr nut, lerol with the bottom of the ping norow thread, 
and with a Wd dnmmy ligbtlv tap it upwards. If it will 
uuL muvu, judt 4iiic:kly wann the s^cll su that the key doca 





DOt get hot (pot « little pu»ffia i^n the pluflT), luid tzj lo 
turn tlia krjr, but di> uut (fu liku a bull at s post aod wnncli 
:ill the crutch Use for cruic)i kvy oo^ks s uf ^as 
laafga of suitablo Bize, und after a fittlo Iraublc 70U will 
nuwt likfilj grl it to hidtc ; thtn tAlu^ it out and tAjlinr it, 
raflz, end antitlu:r job !■ dimt' ; liul Buiuotime* y>iu will 
fasve to cat it out and fU » DtMV cook, na you mi^lit he%-o 
bnxed or ekiiuifid the Tgrldng puM of the cock bj 
tonioo, to. 

Draw-ofT Cocks, and Testing Same. 

I Bbell nov nbov joa e few of the eorbt in general sm, 
Ukd jou must Aoleot thoeu uio«t suitablo for tout work, 
lakiDjn; larxi l&at jrou alwara Mloct thntm w^hicli will turn 
without jiuujM or work ifntty. To tMnp^Tary twrt a POck 
ihut it off and KUok at the inlet; if it han^ to your lip for 
a tinw) witbniit anyugxi of givingrwayit will do. Orotind- 
in oooks mey also be teated by [uokin^ a sninll bUddex or 
little <m the one end, nay, at thp ■inmt, and by hard oon- 
bououii blowing at the otlivr cud, try !■> blow thnxij^h 
the oonk HufBdeitt air to buntt the bladder, or to cauae it Ui 
beoome largo like a coap bubbla> Thi<'k noapy water and 
air from a ((iindiiirpiuiipiti an axoellent tt-Ht : or by pltuing' 
the 000k ill a pail of hot water and nnti^r a preMnr« of air, 
whiofa uiroiui DO obtainixl fruma Uyast km^rth of empty lend 
ptpo hiving Ji ''nliimn nf v^iUt pnnian^ at ihn ntner end 
W (mm n pump. 

I hrtve uow «ai(t HiiHtnicnt nlioiit tiu! milking; and the 
judfrinir of ouoks, I will thorvfvrv uow explain tlunr uam 
•sd oaioee. 

Plain Shank, R.B. (Riveted Bottom). 

V\g. I.OOOilluKtiBteo miP cif tho old lunko bilt oocka, Tbe 
pluif at the bottom ia rivcbnl ovrr. whii-h prevoutx It boiut^ 
takoii out or otherwise intGrferod with, nna ia anitablo fur 

no. 1,00a 

plaoBH wliere the cock would be apt to bo uniimwed and 
stolen. 'Ildfl i* the olaaa of caA Bade 1,000 yeani a^^, 
except the frill rouud ite note. 

I aald "1,000 yeanagD"faioiieof my iHtnrMwmio little 
time ago, and was laaghcd at by thn kuowaHa oil ahonting 
out that thoy did not cn«t tiu-kt thtv, nrd that «ock-Qaating> 
«raa of modem dale, within AOO ycarx, and Kocli-liko 
twaddle. Of natuM, I km w that snolieookana Figit. 1,000a 
and 1 ,0009 w^tto caM hy tho loidonC RomaiM. Ilnw about 
Vitruviu* Lfiviuff onlvn that vvery main pipe Itiat naiisn) 
through the street ahoold bafe a gOTemin^ main eoek t 

Uow about IIuAier ia /liaii Xf t'.. writing ou valvoa? 

" Tonchad vJtb a weralkar, tin dooni nntold ; 
S«lf-oloud behind bM shut ibe nlnecf told." 

He«e h a proof that not only eooka wen naed, but aUo 
Mlf<clanng ?alvGa. 

fm. t,iMu. 

nn. l,DODa. 

Bib Cooka, 8.B. (Screwed Bottom). 

Fig. 1,001 illustrat«a a plain oonk. having u ttcrew at the 
botlotn of t)in key for tightening up or gnnind-in at any 
time ahuutd it leak. Tkio to a groat impruvomeot over the 

Ki>i. t.OOl. 

TiT(!tcd liottnn pings, and the cost in so v«ry little nxtre that 
it diould alwaya be uxed wbtrn and where required. 

Squaro Shank Qlb Cooks. 

FlU. i.oo>. 

Kg. 1,003 illuatraUa a equaro idumk bib mok. It • 
be had with rireted or eawed bottoou. Thu um «. 



iqusrc <liank ctrrk wm lo tsublts tbe cock to be diangfl 
witbvut mnking » jaint bo(nn> Ui» «mw bo«> cvck ciimn 
Into luw, which wiui 4I0110 on (ollowa : — 

SappDBD fou to bav« a squftre eockn to St tho out«r part 
ol tho ooek ahaak. Now warni tho objutk of the ooek ami 
•Mtly wrap wnmi tow round tho name, and with the aquaiw 
boMugiiOD U, Fig. 13, make tho boa* hot. than nwltaoino 
roalD aod mirttda met, and poor th» itu tho tiiwud part of 
tba oook to aatnratc it ; pull out tho bcHuimg iroa and pr«a 
tho ahnok or the ooek into Uie wjoket and hnlil it (innlf 
tham until it u not, nod the job is dooo To tJiku it out 
wunn It with hot water, or an Iwat you can. Of oourw, thia 
boas and' aqnare ahank should bo rou^h left fmm n i^ood 
ooaraa file. Tbis oock waa in ow io the thirtceLth oenturjr- 

BlbCoak».S.B. andS.B. [Screw Bottom and Scn<w Bon). 

Tig. 1 ,003 illuatratea » aorow bottom and anrow bcma lab 
cook. TLu boaa, burtoud of boing Mvare. aa m Vig- 1.002. 
faa» a, wiy, j[a. tialrenal aanw lor Iron pipe tkruul 
aud for rctowid({ iuto a bOM with a waiibLT. Tli<: acrowocl 

Put. i,oin. 

Hliank oook ma; bo had without Uio nerewod boas. It ia 
tioii L-alli'd S.l. (acrewerf for iron*. If ycm noline the 
IMWBof tln(i.if:ookr..Fijtx. 1,000, l.OIH, 1.002, and I,0U3, you 
will M-p thnl tlioy arn i)( iLkiud of >ic|uarii, and Iiiiv^iBprDJiMi- 
tion OD tlie top of the noee ; thii" la kituwu aa the frill oowid 
cook. Sm the diffoRiioo in the abupc of thu noac at Fig. 
1,004 ; this ia a plain nooed ooek. 

Full Way CockB. 

tig. 1,0M i« « fall wny cick. Thoio In a diflercaoc 
betwom o. full way cock anil a round way : the fnlJ mj 

f lu. 1.001. 

ooedi ban tho way cIunffatM up Ihc ulirll of tho rock, iitt 
abowR nt fig. t,004, wlitNt the ruuud way oock has iU 

bore full Ki/i* uid <iult<> mnnd thrangfa tbe fcer. or a« roand 
a« t])« ahanlc of th« oock (aee Fig. 997), and. aa a mlv, ia a 
much atrongor patlom than vquan way oock*. 

Bow Key Cock*. 

This cook ia iUustratMl at FSg<. £12 and 1,00«. tt ia 
OMid in plaocs where the oork cannot be tamed by the 

hnn'l, pithor through Its Iieiiif^ too lat^ or too tigbt. The 
can ho had S/B. titid 8.B. Ktcw bottom and aarow boM) < 
ft,l. iiurcwcd for iron pipoj. 

HoHzontat Bib Oook*. 

Tboae ore showQ at Fig. 1 . 006, and ar« oaod for bntlcr'a 
pantiy or other kinlra whera the lid of tho tiak ts apt to 

tlu. I.UOO. 

: down u^n the upri^t poek. Thiw mcka may bo 
left ur ni^hb haniii.^. Fig. l.ODG jl 


hud left ur ri|^hb Fig. l.')l>G yuu will tierouivo to 

bo a horixontal ri{{ht*faandcd cook, 8.B. and iJ.B. 


Fig. 1,007 is a left-handed S,B. and S.B. horifOBtal hot 
watPr cock, with hrnse apuiiui'r ; Imt Imt wstfir rnrku ar* 
<if1rn used fur o)li) tnitcr, for, itH a rulo, Ihoy aio tbo boat 
<■■» ' Iw M:n,'n\^l up tighter for higher fCBBvntJ 




Fl(r. 1,006 is ui illtulntUoo of tli» hoiinntal eook vilh- 
oot flpsnoer, somAtiniM aaed tar b«U enokn, xni, whtn 
■adi u the COM, «huuld be kuightad, r'lz.. a )(Ui put in the 
plug, ktld the Bb«>tl of tho conk being oat nuurtcr wny, w 
I that Ulu will iinly turn quarter wttjr. vblcoprevoiu tbo 
' Wl from undf^rlocking or dromung ita^. The knightage 
]m ahowa Kt C, Fig. l,Wi. 

Vig. 1,DI2 jifl S.R.ond S.B. nprightlwlD Mok ; jiiuI 
Fig. 1,013 b an nm cook, formtrlr uaed forlavatarj baaiuit. 

Wn. I,«M. 

Fm>. 1,ixW, 

rco. 1,01ft. 

Fi^. 1,008 IB nS.S. unA S-lt. hibnouk with apuinar. 

Pit,-' 1.010 i* a •hell pattern full war S.B. and S.B. bib 
cock with spanner. 

I nuif htirc roiiinrk tUnt theae aro thA IWflt puttAm oooka 
lor but wutfir, liaviag • larlh'in preuurv, ana may be bad 

Lavatory Basin Ground-in Cooks.* 


fm. t.i)ll. 

Fix. 1,011 )• t S.B. and S.B. horixontal rigttt-handecl 
bMUi ooek. 

Flo. l.ti!^ 

Fio. I.OIS. 

Alto ase Hot Water Corks, aa there nro a great variety 
of then. 

Valve Cooks. 

These oodn arc ahoim at I'tgs. 1,014 and 1,016. It 
will be fum that tlio watvr^wa^ throuKb tli(> rock i^ 
olofpod by a valve, an ahown bj the aootiun, Fig 1,014. 
ThE»o nlvm arc Imthunid or rubbered on their cli>ting 
faoo, vhiob iQiwt be rcncwwl <-Tory thrive or four years, 

rni. i.Dit. 

Pm. I^OU. 

aooordlnir it> th« amount of (trit or dirt in tliv wmter, i 
elan of irork. or the uao of the cnck. 
1'^. I.OIft i» a ahcU paUrm acrcw-dovrk Vki^udL%^ 



(wrowi-d fur inn ptiw), whikt F}g. 1,016 ub nhell pattoni 
Krew-doiTQ Irib cock S.B. (kkw Umw), udFig. 1,017 b a 
plain Hliank sad bod; wnir-dovii bib eook, often nude 
thtw for cltwjnf , Ac. 

Fig. 1,019 M a plain iluuilc, k1>o it square bow, baU-toni 
Bcnv-dowD bib eodt, a Mctioa of irhkb ia givtn at 
Fig. 61 ». 

Flu. i,u]e. 

VlO. t.017. 

irio. iiiuK. 

Fig'. I,fllR is a wrew-Jown ntopcock, plnin onds, tlie 
HOtiou of wliioh id shown at Pig A18. Pnr othvr kii^Hof 
Stop ooote, eno poKfleSlO, 211, luid 212, Vol 1., nLw Hot 
Water Wor)C &o- 

Vm. 1,010. 

tin. t.u.BX 

Fip. 1 ,020 i» the (tamo ttunur S.I. (Kmvd for iron], and 
Fiu. 1 .02 1 ia Uto mno kind <n ooclc irilb loof ocrav mad fl|- 
Dvt lot K^nnring into tfao aidn of the eutcm, iiitdi m> Jate 



nr irno, or for buikni if nibbeir with wira be iiaod for the 
valve. Tbrre srv hImo KpecJnl wnalinv uow mid by loud 
and bnati cu-rcliantii for hot w>tcr. 

Shut'OfT Fop RepaiHng Vslv«i. 

AtPlff. 1,021 vill beiMa a T«ry isriiuIuum ammfrnw^nt 
in tho bou and atumk of the nock for temporarilr «hultiu^ 
off tlic inipplj wbeu the t*1t« ia required to be reUathered. 

BiightoD pattoni cock, ¥ig. 1,022, there iaahat trap leatlwr. ■ 
I mM,y Mj UiMn bib or atop valvw uo mailo in liuoy 


difftNnt wan. sotm baring am iMtiien, oUicn plug* 
(aee (aLemie*! VoIym, aoo Cntfai't} to doae ths vmt«r*wajs. 

Duplex V&lvM. 

vnt. i,cai. 

Kli. l,Wi, 

You, by ainminini; tlio bow, wbJob i« Ln i«otion, will tlun 
aN tbat tbo un^-rvwioK ot Ui« oock brio^ ihe dlw Tin 
■gab)i4 tho front, ukI ho tbo «I<i»^tod alota in tbn sbatili 
tad of till' ccck an> nu longer expoaed to Ihe valnr, imd 
00ONM|iiHitly thn wstnr-w«]r nlnand. 

TU> imnuc^h ofU-r the principle of tho tubaitli([miri'n>l>Dn 
flodi tnontinned on pap' ^^^' Ewbank'H "HjilmulinA," 
wliicb iAim btkck to DcMrnbcr, 1841, and ttnuUr iu aotifm 
to the tobv Ull valrc, FSfr. 1,018. 

Brighton PatUm Bib Valve. 

This ia shmvD nt Fifr. I.n^?. It ia very nmilar in actiaii 
to Iks RAthRrliuin pAttt^m tiih vaItc, ii^pt thni ocith ¥if. 
1,011 tbete is a atuSo^-bos ruuiul tbci^uidlD, whitotin wo 

Kw 1,064. 

ThcM mlvn oro illustruti."! at Tig*, 1,023 and 1,024, 
(uid wtiU illuatmlo tlia method ol ftxints & ^«l.t<& ^t -i^^v^ 



for shuttlD^ off the initer irhilrt the main valve is being 
repaired. Also see Fi^. 1,021, which may be had bib, etop, 
or ball TolTeii. 

rio. ifiiA. 

Horizontal Bib Valves. 

ThMe, u may be aeeai at Fig. 1,025, can be had left or 
right handed, and need no farther desoription. 

Dl&phiwjm Valve Cook. 

This cook is shown at Fig. 1,026, and is a Talre largely 
manofactured bv Messrs. Lambert. The section of the 
oock will be nnderstood by refwenoe to Fig, 1,030, which 
in tliis case has two diaphragms instead of one. The 

Fia. I,OS& 

diaphragm in Fig. 1,026 is fixed between two flangeshaving 
the centre attached to the epindle, as at Fig. 1,030. This 
oock, Fig. 1,026, also iUuatratea a hoae union fixed on its 
end for shampooing, or a garden supply. Also see Hot 
Water Cooks. 

Waete Preventer Cooke. 
The "Waste Not." 

There are a large number of these cocks in the market, 
and by very far tiae larger quantity are utterly useteM, and 
tlierenre I shall only give one or two which liave stood the 
teat of time and work. 

I will therefore (.-ommence with the " Waste Not " valve, 
Fig. 1,027, made by Meesrs. J. Tylor & Sons, whioh will 
be readily understood from the following deacription : — 

A, Fig. 1,027, ia the inlet of t^ valve; H, the reive 

seating ; K, the valve ; F, the piston made to fit into the 

. <^inder O ; this cylinder is attached to and actuated by the 

spindle 8. The ouier parts of the cook are much about the 

same as those desoribea at Figs. 1,014, 1,015, and 1,016. 

The action is as follows : — Suppose &b piston valve, F, K, 
to be down upon tlie valve seating H ; on turning down 
the cylinder G, which is of quick thread, into the cook, 
it fbioee the water from between the top of the cvltnder and 
the top of the piston valve, the cylinder then will be down. 
Nov qoieldjr tnro top the cylinder ; this, bv reason that the 
jiMaa rmlfv is iBa& to airly fit, will take the ralTe np 

with it when the water will mn, but as the piston valve 
is free to deeeend by water getting above the piston it will 
do so, and will shut off the water, notwithstanding the 
actuating cylinder to remain np, and if the piston be a little 
way out of the cylinder under a strong stream ; even though 
the cock be fixed upside down. 

tia. 1,0S7. 

Fig. 1028 is the same thing, but working with a 
diaphragm top instead of a stu&^-box ; the arrows show 

Pio- 1,028. 

the water-way. &e Waste Preventer Valves for Attaching 

t" ^ -* Pipes, Figs. 681, 662. 663, and ata."Waato 

^■!». 4W, 637, 638, fto. 



OloLphPogni Waste Proventor Valves. 

Tliu> i» Mtt»n. Lambert's tiiIt«, which csu be reodUy 
nndtTstood {ram tlio fullowit)g-;~E, Fi-^. l.Vii, u m 
R«ibl« diaplirugm ftiod lielwoon two flao^eA, tbe 
middlw put of whiii ut attAcLod Ut the nuuUs K ; 

rw. i^m 

. i» aDotfacr floxiblo dinphngm fixed b«t>rM>a two 
' fluuM and metiag alwi m a valvii. Betwmn thoao two 
diwimgiiN is an enalonod mce fLIl<xt with mter. and 
hsnnff « maaU miw psaas^ C. Xov th« ralre U cio«>d. 
B;f turning up the liABdIe I it bringn up tlia top diauhrajfiti , 
tbia, hy IhQ — mIItim. ot Urn wut«r puwiipi ^whicb csu bo 


tijr tbp Krrev ]■'. Fill. 1.O30, ud O, Tig. 1,029), 
I up tbn liiwDt dia[ihnifrm and opcon tho vmlr« P, when 
r ia allowed td ran i but tJic wslor hmq MrooUtes 
ongfa the MnnJl nuangn and afpiin into Ui« ipM* 
twBcu th/t two displtntfina, aud ao the vslro Li Iaw«T«d 
Is^aliialoaad. (Aw FiKa. A62, MS, 638, «30, ibo.) 
J'oD wiU BM thai Ih* Mtnsttnff prbuiplo of thin valrs is 
th* di'placaiiunit of the walor nr Indurcd mmmt, fonv, 
or nuotluu, «nd themfotv that of Fig. liO'^T, wbUb ntaj be 
of inauawtabl* Taxistiuu. 

The Suottep Waste Prevention Cook. 

Kdowu aa th« Frugal ValrOt sIm an tfa« Triton Valve, it 
bein^ 11)7 old tnida nama and trade mak {scf dutoido at 
bindtnv). As J. Tritnn fifiriirM in wveral ploMo in this 
worit, I thould My that it i» an uLd diaoMd aMnimod name, ] 
used bv mjrsolf jean ajr^ i<i duitiiiifuisb the brara from 
tho looa drparttnctit, aad to prorent jealoB^, as plumbon 
thought I hod iii> ri](ht Ut hans two trades. 

— ja. 

fin. i.on. 

Tbi» ralre ia in anlioa that aliowu at Tim. 618 aod iSUA 
ftc., and will be rmdilf undentsod hjr m«n>iu<e to thosi] 
figuros; the diffunmce \matf that this valve, Flff, 1,031,1 
hiuiaoun l«iith«irat Iheend of tho Kpindti* for a< 
It will lie readilj tmdtmituijd tliat hy drawing i)p tb* 
xaindlo it will alw draw up tho i-iip Ie<iLib>>r, and (bat if a| 
diapluaBiii be fixed belwcvu the (l)uivc*a thai it will fuUui 
tb^aap loatbsr: s&d ahotild th^ diaphragm not iviverth*' 
ralve leat am in Fig. I.0!::9, water will run ; bat an there Is 
a Kiniillbolc) in tb« diniihraf^iiiit admit* water and gradually 
deaoenda, aad k> b^d covera tho ralvQ aesliuK. Bat thu 1 
Jooa not rest bsie, the cap Italher i» mado of indiarabber,( 
aadaalt is pteased dawn upon [ht> flat dupliratrrn montli 
downwatds ao it ripauijti laterally, and mj fantm a boy'i 
•tutkv, which on itp WtikC rniMid brinipi op the diaplira|;nH 
(w tnnt « piftoH inlif, om In Tijt. 1,027), and liulds it thecH 
for a given time, when it is mlaaml ; then tJb« diaphngiM 
•l^ly deacenda and again onren the vilIto •caliuK- 

8clf-Cl0«lng OP Spring Valve Cock. 

ThM« an> hcoim of Mlt-«Ioaing ralv^ii in tlw marketi 
therefore I will }ast Oliwtrate aue or two uf such. For 
this SCO F^g. 1,032. This la known aa the aftixig ruin, 

fit. IfiU. 

laifT^ Bsod foe wash baaiaa- It Is a valv^ eloninfc with 
the slnam, and is lasiatod with a noall spiral aimug, 
SometimM this valve Is made to elose iduwly by leeanH of » 1 
cap leather, to retard its apeed, aomethiuK Ukc that sbowi 
at K. Fig. MS, which may be had at Muva. J. Tyl^ 
and Soofi. The SRjf-'-lo^ti]; uprinir vatvo is dm abovn 
Fig. l.lHS.nlso at PULL. FV. 1,494, aadalso ia BBunnal _ 
■vdioii. Pig. LMOn, which iltuotrah^ the cylinder bdor* 
the val*e uir rrtniding the tioeang uf the valve and U 
panvai ooacwaioa. 



Ball Cocka and Batls. 

Wfl noir Mine to U»t piut nf our vnric whfTA thfi 
wntcr discharge* into tanks, and reqain-^ very ponivulur 
Kttontiim. fnr withoot cnra the ploisber tmb ball oockt 
will be ulwayit in troul^*. Xou 1i>td mob th* dif- 
femt hisdii of Mb oocbt, nod now knnv what a plain 
or ■qUKTo FJiaaked W)dc is, alao what S.B,, S.B. nuMiia. 
Now mtmr to Tig. 1 ,00S, this Ifl a trcound-lD screw bottom 
and Mrew Uiui luill cock, whioh had to oncwur itM puipoM 
ontil the boll taIta wm inrontod. 'Wh^^n fixing a nil 
oock fix it in Bocb a buuiilvt tbut when the ball is down 

mtHti/iutUTtrt diiit kiHiw how to do thi». 1, however, wlB 
now pnbliafa tliti suu^MMud necrvt to tbo raider. Oct a 
pail of hot inux ana pnah tho ball into It ; if Iho boll it 
un»f>iinil »r not oirtight, the air witLiu tha ball will 
vKpniid uud bubblo out, tluToby putting tho wster Into 
moliira, which Is a phia pn>oi that the l^U ia not sound; 
it oan thi'D be tarnM about near tho darfaci> of thi> wal«r, 
and b^ oonttnaally turning it tonod and brinf-in^ tht; 
dofoetavs part to the Uin you omt find th« oxoot Fpot tk 
letkafTB fw repoiriuK. Ttiis shouU be ptMtliwd bjr ornr 
wamnan, cepodally in ptaeea vhen a odling or two h 
liable to be wash«d awajr bj the dnwDiag of a water b^. 


Ball Valves. 

Of nil the fittings canaept«l with plnmbinff, thsrs is 
noiin uf HO miir.h impnrtanM* as the aeWtion i>f on dBoienl 
and good ball valvo. Thii< Rhonld racoira thir most oorofol 
ath'uLiun of the plumber, for a ball rahw snltablo for one 
mssuK wotdd be for oaothnr utterly uaelMa. I will, 
tbetefon, show and dmcribo s few suitable for evcvy cIsm 
ot work. The idm)<l«it known is that iUiutntsd at 
rig. 1,035. Thid vaivti is miltable (or low presmros, and 


PIO. ].03t. 

it win not look itae'lf back, namely, bond the tieiu of the 
kail st I'tg. 1,038, iu siioh a iiiaun«r that thit (metro of tho 
ball will alwavi hang 3iu. or lis. on the ououl or uutitt 
nde of the ball oook, dbtdt on &a abank tide, or the ball 
will bo inoUned to drown itself, or to rise the wiong way, 
nomrly. townrtla the aide or vuil uf (lie cisleni inntviid of 
iiutwardn. Ajmthnr inijiortaiit puint Is to fix it in BUoh (l 
otsnncr that It will Hhut uQ thu wuter at tho prupor lerol, 
wbieh is iia. or Sin. bolaw the nkonth of tae waste or 
OWfflow pipe. Be suro nevor to iuk a ball oook unltsH it 
is Imighted, to prevent the pluH tunun^ mom than the 
quaitar torn. 

Water Bails, and Teattng Them. 

There ore vaiious kinds of water ballx. F%. 1,031 i* n 
pVHscd'Up bnll: Fitr- I.OSli id a plain ordinary ball : Uu.' 
sleBiN or InviT piLrt are best made of copper, as also tbc 
bdl itself : for I'tieiijinew sine, glnss, and ovod wood is used 
toe making thc«a water batb. Som<> plumbem like tlte 
hand-wotltml or boat>np bail, whilst otheis like tlip 
Spini^up shell ; sntJi can be bought in the two halves 
oallsd snetis, having "swedgea,'' and are soldeied togetJi«r 
at tbeso awedgte, as shown at "Bin. 1,033 and 1,031. 
Of oouiae, thHo water balls am fitted on tho ball nooks tf 
filing out the eye of tho at«in with an Sin. square fi1«. 
Ftmh tliom bora with th«> thiimhn for their anbutonce. 

Tasting Water SaMs. 

Tnr few plmiibprs Ammt Amp to tost a water ball, tin; 
% thuuaand, nor ena is than one iu a buiidra<J 

no. t/a&. 

is simply n pliiin disu D, <»Tered bra rubber diaphragm R, 
and lit'ld atniinst its seating by Oie spindle and kmr ¥. 
J. is tho cap fur taking off for nnainn^ thin ralTo, Ac. 
TMi vniro, if tho Mating is redoced lo a amnll bore. 
Hoy ^tn., in uxocetUngly good for feed cisterns to boiWn. 
This valve has been made to an endless nninber of dlffunol 
pathimis and to vnrlous shapes, many of which have been 
patented, but an> not ho good as the original pattern. 

Feed Cistern Valves. 

Thin valve is Ulustrated at Flir. 1,036, vhit^h b a sectios 
showing Ihn valve nhut oS, and Fig. 1,0:17 the sectum 
showing the valve when open. It will readily be seen 
th»it tliis valve has no parts whereby tho ball can nMsibh 
^t stank up, and ao raodend luelesH. ThiA kind of ball 
valve is also the best Und for relianM to fM>d nstenui to 
boilers. Soinetiinos tkia ralvn in madn with two forks at G, 
but I ]n«fvr only utm, to paM thruugh the i-i^ntru of the 
spladJo D (the i>loc uf vhidi b showii at W. Fig. 1,03«), 
which, I think, is ntueh bettor than two forks, 
bw-auM) wbi*n two furkn are oflcd the ono may be a littlo 
behind or not k'vel mtb the other, and would tlieroby 
cause tho spindla to bo presettl all on ono rid?, th^'rcl^ 
rauning the tsIto to let by; but when the lever of the 
fork is made as shown at Q. K, the Eorii presses in the 
eentve of ihi6 lever and so punhes tho valve fairly ngniniit 
its seating. Tho fork may be rounded, as sliowo st E, 
to work ag^nst tho flat part of the a^adle ; or which is 




iitill better, tiio end of iht fork nuj be panlli-J to work 
through ■ rouDdM Ixwriti;^ in Iha apJudQe, mm alMtwn at 
8, T. «ad W. and In aueh • suuui«r that the foric, whan 
oftting ordonn; tlu valve, win ahvajs praM aniaat tlw 
nniM of the spinillo. I Ahr»7« have tlii» feed nkum boll 
tnada wItt Un. to hm. hoJa Mating, wbidi is a donbln 
waari^ icuiwt loalcRgM, tn. Shmild tha ralre nut U- 
tniidB to xnut dead off, the irnter vHl alwaja l>e drippioi:, 
mkai an oTerAcw pln^ be fixed (wUeb diDold nlwufK 
1w done), and there u liliely to be a nnJNtniw. 

Fin- ball ralvea fix«d, «ee tlie Cbtoro, Viga. 609, 610, 
«£0, Ac. 

Fixing 8aM Valves. 

Wlieu fixing Uie ball valvM, aee that tlio pil)e* are well 

^mdiod ont bpftim dcnwing on tljo ball Talw, and that 

I uv no lead ahuviiiiM ur dirt under tbo M«tliiK befon 

'yen leare it, im booIi will cauat; tlie valren to let bjr tine 


Compound Lever Pattern Ball Valve. 

Kg. 1.039 in in (rleTBtitin of one of iliw* fuiU tu1»-«i, tuA 

FiK- t>C<0 a Mvt'un. It will tw men that K in fimply » 

r-dLio Olid L a valve, whidi Li hold up to ib> m^tinif by 

^tfio Mhort l«vpr D. and. by tbp pin R and r^oimpr-tiu;; 

ik U, in cnnnrrtrd to tbo Itrnv Ivvw at F ; (> i* the pin or 

ffukrvim uf the luug l«ror H ; H U the Rpiodlc for Icfn^pinx 

¥jhe valve L peipcndioidar to the buc of the nentinff : nod 

pK the imthemX ipudcf working middling tight viu^n the 

^Undrr A, P. ft i» thn {ilao i^ the Home. 

The notion in rtii f nllowH : — The n-st«r enian at V, paaaOT 

OD and tlitougii tL« Kuting ; but wbcu tbe vain u uloBod 

itf abowB, the walat b upheld uxxndiits to the power put 
apoB the baU and leren F. H. 

no. t,(mi. 
Oaotioik. — ^Whnn fixing nr pxandoint; this va]v» 

Eiill up tlie bull with inucb fi>roo, or you will » 
uttom lever or out the valve ntbber, and eo t 
valvo umiIgiw. 


TtlU valre in ■ oini«ncn wbnt tha wain- b ccnutxiitlr cm, 
u it ix tif all vslrtw tlii' Ivoiftvt Auttln? off, the 'iang Vi'cr 
h&vitig furthtT to trarcl in prc^mrtion tn tha rlofiing of ihe 
vmlr« thAD Uie lenir of nof oUmt Ml valvv. 

Singing Ball Valves. 

Am a rule kU bull rnlves are ma4e with the baUa too 
MBftU, or not tatBxdpntiy \ong hi tlw lever, or tbut thv tbIto 
u iwuIa to work loo Ioom. \Mird mieh U the ooaft, thej 
«n apt to cAoMi a humiuiog^ aoiae, or quit« & mni^ : 
wbtti UiU oocuiw, nltvr th« btill or liTvr, or tiglitcni tlio 
TiJTe. Toil nuvor hvor thiit wUb ttucli boll r»irt» m ^«ru 
atFiff. 1,DI». 

Stanhope Lever Ball Valve. 

ThJa U w«ll iUoatnited at R, K. Fi^. 1 .08A {Uor-tw. TjIot 
•ad Soqb). It u b kiod of lever wliicb ;:«□« iwwi'r *.« th« 
proMorti (if wat^r lacroitic*. viz., ne wotild be tno caao in or 

l-ig. IMH iUiutrstc* th« Falenl BuU Valre, ItarUig n 
squan abank lor MmcntiD^ into a ■qunrv boas. 

EqulDtoPlum Ball Valve*. 

Tlien at« nriouN kin<l« »( eqiiililirinm Imll rnlrw ; pomo 
aro very ounple, whilst otlunv are of a moHt corapll(»t«d 
alnn, utd often withont nnjr admntagv. IKor my |)ut, I 
thnrougbljr nndoiae the wonbi wlin^h Ur. Uuir, tbn lata 
engiiiMr to t)ie New Kirer Wnt^rworku, uiioe >aid to lae, 
wfaon in coiimo of cunveiwtion, nbout nrhiuli kind of ball 
ralvcit wMvt tlio Imt ta adopt. Hto wnrd* vrm: "I like 
^onr ball valve, tk* 'Croydon.' for the iiuupl« reaaun tbat 
with it TOO hare only OR » cfaatirr of Innlcnpe; vbeivas, in 
uuMt otltimt o( tkia rAm*, XhKtf an- twu opoiin^ ; " 
mocminiT that with the olius of ball ralTv, Figa. 1,044, Ax., 
tkcre i* a i^hAncc of licnkagi' at II, and alao at A, J. 

Tiw Fiff. l,04t rei>ni»eiit!i bj iwctiou tlin Iwll valvs known 
OS Meexn. Lambert r, and Fi^. 1 ,04.1 ia an olttvatioa of tba 
•utno. 1870,oniic<oountvf ita}iriwaiid«ifflplioitT, 
very ext«ng)rely nafid, and nonitels of a rap leather at B, 

no. \flt\. 

no. ijMt 

nrar the dead point of a crank : or, inatead of this, a turn 
may be lined. Thti "mm" or oocontric ooCioo is more 
■iiitabla fur low pmwure work. 

Safety Bail Valve. 

This ball valve Is ii compuimd Ien.<r ball valve, tlio valvo 
(if whieh ia similar to that tliown ut I. L, Flif. 1,040, the 
lutvanta^o U^ng, in Fiff. 3,041, thnt the wotw doen not 
Rplutlvr about fmin cumiuy in wnlart witli lliu Itiver lU) it 
dontlnFi?. 1,040. The ball in Fig. 1,041 ie preyed up 
and i« Tcry atmn^. 

TTmi b«ll lalve, Fir. I.OJJ, in nitnilar in i!«niilmi:tuin tn 
FiK- 1,0-11, the diJTi'rvnre tuning that the valvir in puidnl 
with fcnthciw nnd dora unt prulmde (hniuzh the H'alinK. 
It ha*. nW. a -hiftld, n* nl I'ATKifT SAKliTV, tn prormt 
any wali'r •fputliuff nut in frfint. Fur a «ii-tiou of thia 
ralve, us* thp ci«tptn with th* valre fixed at Fig. O'iH. 

Tbis ball ralvo I ili-HJifncd nu'I innO': by IboiiNLudh lu the 
ynam 1B70 ut I!t7(>. when the second lenv was diaptsuod 
[With: that Uie valw went by the namo of the Croydon 
^-" Vnlvp, iw nt B, Fig. 1,042. The oluipa i« now Knnc- 

D, rio. \JM 

Fig. 1,044, working within a trul^ bored cylinder. On the 
top cap leathvr iit a tOott^d ^nido for BnldinR: the cup 
loatbor and Bpindle, and for k>M-|>)ii^ thi> valve perpendieular 
with the Taira Mating, and fur actuating the voire aud 

¥ta. i.iHl. 

i-np IsathtT : it alao mma tor tha rod to pnu tliroujth, 
nnd tu b4i ftilcrumod, as iihowii at E. The action ie as 
(oUowa:— On depreaainff the Iavit, th<t eup ttatfacT and 
ralve J di.'foend from Uke sealing, when, uf oounv, tlte 
M-atar U allowed to nin paat th« aeating. Now let the iwll 



float sad riao. ThiM will aotuntv the valve and so bring It 
■p to ^nn againH tJw wal«r. asd finalljr a^iiut the 
wwripg, and tlw water will be shut off. At the name tunc 
that thtt water in {>rf«(iiiifr a|r>ttii«t ftie rairo au it is agaiuitt 
H)v iin'lL-niidi.* iif ilii- cuj) ip«iWr, which ttintls to pasb 
npwnriia, aod by roiMoo of tho cap leather and valro with 
xhc i»|>iiidlc bcin^ oiitiplcd lo^tluit so that as the wat^-r 
Imiin to fArcv> llio valv<t awa^, It doM the mp tcnihpr, aud 
na tli« Miic of lliL- »«ntiiitf la. <tr altuulil be. of tbn sanw 
bur<> II" th" nylinili-r uf the nip Inatker, so ¥fiil the fof«c o( 
ihv wiit^'r be equuUftcd, aiul tbo whulv wwght of tlw tw< 
be hold in cfinfiMo upon tba fionnaotlng tpuidlc of the 
TalvL' and cap Irathcr. In Ihia vidv« aa now nuulD there 

Ball Valvos to close with the Stream. 

For thU kind of valvo. we Fig. 1,047. Thia valve hn* 
ita aeating- aet Inwarrf, and the vulve i« alluwud townrk 
qnito dear, and to I«av<i tlw wntor- way foU^opeu uiul fro«, 
w^iicliia not tho caw in Flfi. l.Oll and 1,016 ; bidden tbU. 
then is Buotlior soud faatore In ihla ralvf. 'ITw vslva 
Itfttnx Bpwkida allowa anjr amall pieiwa of dirt niid attoia 
to paoa (rc«lf , and therofora in not 90 lilcelj to be put out 

Pli}. l.MS. 

f-ziiits a fCTvut evil, and odo which maj bo very i-ftHily 

rM4ifi«d. at lc«st, in thn largrr tim. It MnaixtB of the 

jwaii Q btiuK li^t too aliarp by thfi borer wh^n borinK 

not tCa Qylindcr part: for the cup Wlhar, wbiiib abntdd 

b« oaaod VB with a suitablo cuttiii){ tool, auL'ti u» a ulanii^m' 

or ripper. Another evil TOnaiale of Ao ueiuilly wn' 

narrow niaee rriand the aidH of the valve and ths outlet A 

nf the valvie acatin^. n«n! tho dirt, ko., accumulAtca, aud 

riuiDut wnah awny ; but If thla aniro were, at laaat, |in. to 

^. dear, thor tb^ valve woulil have a batter obauoa to 

. 'vorfc, and chr dirt, Ac, to p«H away. Thia Ib emeoimHj 

[ Uw (taae with almuwt all makers of the Croydon Ball Valve, 

[«iid ia more ofton to be foond in other kind* thwi not. 

jftuplD will Dotirivo tho vhItv niffidont roum. 

I CliRios.— When tukhie thia valve out for rt^n, &<!., 

[ ha careful not to force the cup leather bach with main 

ftnw, aa It will cutoh in the W4tir*w«y Q, and thfrohy get 

Ita cdifM «ut and npuUt. When U la found to hang, try 

and puah it back with theead of tbo plinn, Ac, or macrew 

thf valvf off tho apindle, and take the enp leather the 

otbur way ; then, whtai out. lake a Nharp-ed^f«d mamar, or 

^liatteri a amitll ripper (a brasa finisher a laths tool), aiwl 

away ili« nbarp oilgea rmud th« Gd|^ of tbe inlet 

[ tnitcr-way Q : th^'n tlia cup Wtber will freely paat in 

l>«ithcr direction. For the biilL voire, Fig. 1,044, Axtdf Ite 

Oiatara, Fi^. (HO. 

Fki. t,(H&. 

FSjif. 1,016 ia the iianit.> kind of valve, but worked from 
'Iwlow, aa at K, G. and ia uaually used in vtrj largo tonka 
for railway tn^ginm, itc. 

Fio. J.M7. 

of order by inch eahaUncei. There i» one evil in thiit ball 
valve. By maon of Itn clnnng with the stream, it i* apl 
to be pilind np loo auddfiulv. and mt (uiiimt it grF-At rnneiM- 
aion in the jiipca, wm m tb^ nydranli'? mm, thouKh tbi" act 
of inflidvert^noe woold not hnpjwn with can-fnl men, and, 
aa a nU«, thia vnlve works exoeedinely will. AIm> ace 
Fig. W. 

Movable Tube 8«Atln^ Equilibrium Valves. 

Thie valve. Ro;. 1,048. UinadrtbyMei«a,fJno»tJin»rim«i. 
alao by Mewra. Btone and Co.. and othur weJl-knowo braaa 
ftnlfihera, and will l>i> n-atdily nnderrtnod. B ia the tabo, 
having a «eat fDnotd on itn opp<T edge. wMoh shntt 
against the rul>ber D. Round the side nf this alidlnp tube 
ia ftiod a enp loaMii^r K, which prcvrnte the water from 
pasain^ the Midr« of the tnlif and vnlve. Thn aolion ia «> 
followa;— On lowatring the lever I. it betDirouupIed to thv 
tube at L, it taki's down tho tuba when the reatinf comee 
below the flaetl rnbbcr D, and th« water ^s allowed bo run 

Pm 1,01s. 

down the tiihe and oat at K. Komf^times tho vidrc D ia 
made in niu'h a nineiuer that it. in fm- Ui more (ipwiinlMi 
juid can im I'.irricd upon thv tnhe aealiiig, whiidi, by lYnvon 
uf ilii upward iiiov«nii-ut, will prevent iho rubber from 
being oat shonld the lever be pultM np too high : but un 
ited(«r!ont it oannt^t follow the tube post a n-rtain mark, 
which if wpll iiho»Ti at Fig 1146. For repairing lhip> vulvo. 
Fig. 1,0.18, tiuierew the t'>p C. take out tbo valve D, ana 
iuM'rt the ntw rubber 9/ tfit Mine tJtieJtHtu. lljis valvo. aa 
far AH bi-ing proof againat tho rifocta of dirt, fto., ia verj 
{luod, and may be conaiderrd a true equilibrium. 



Horizontal Ball Valvoi. 

TImm ban Tftlvc«, u-^rti proprrlj/ mtiU, >n» oxnwiimglj 

good, and wbtu tbo ralro i« mnde to upen ii« |iTDporwidtli, 

•ad Uw body Urge onati^ round Uie outlet of the tsIto 

mmtiag h, tig. I.OfO, the ^t, lead skaTin^ ftc, o&a be 

iMthor «stt be tnkm off abd tbo npindlv wfthdmwn, of 

oounc prmriding tl>e itrter ia ua^rrwad. &c. tfg. 1,051 
ia a oonw boa* and En nn olovtitiKii i4 VtK- I ■('49 vaJv*, 
whtoli will at aiAx enable m; roadns at once to wlmt 
thiAr.laM I'f taIto. 

¥\g. l.UA^ iUuHlxalM tlw valve, Fig. 1,049, iiuid»i 
tb« larg» flang*. 

KfO, I.M9. 

»aahed out, and will biU dirc<?t throngb the outlet. This 
ralro, wbioL itt wrvwod for iron, is balanood by the pr<>(u>iirp 
)f vator boin^ alluwod to pam ibronj^b a tmall hole I 
jrillad (ip thu iiitiiid]«. and allowed to fr'^t at the end of th« 
pinlofi, aa ■liuwn at II. when) it ia prcv»nt«d from paasinjir 
ant by thn rnp O, and trcna u'dtiii^ bi^wrcn tho iiidiTN of 
Uio oyliiwlor by Out vtip Ipatb-T iv. To repair this Tnlvo, 
iiiD[it]r unmrow the Antigo F and rt-rubbcr the ralve. 
The cup leather, it tAe Utt muUt rskm, oaii h<v rMnoTod by 
taktnn •lot the atiiall aerew Q, and allowio^f Iha aptndle Ut 
(all out. Fig. l.O.'iO ix n plain nhank. 

Samp makiTi nuike thv apiudlo la auoh a tsaoncr that Ic 
will Dot Aidtnil of hetiig so easily nAen out, see Fig. l.OftO. 

riB. l.OK. 

Hw vnido at G i« drawn wronslT ; thia part 
pabotlU be on tbo fiaugn F. Ttaia alM ahowa 

kindly nuido ralro, tborc hrias no room for dirt to fret oat. 
bn aunh ia the oiiac. a forked acrcwdrivcr niiisl be 
Mnployed to turn the eup kalbcr nut off ; thvn Uio cnp 

no. iMxc. 

Thia ra]»», Fig. 1,053, ia (o bo ee«n in wwtion kl 
rig. 8215, working witli a nap leoUicr in a Vina of thimble, 
whiolt pnwervoa tbo cop leather from injury, &c. ; or, at 
othor tioiM, It M mado wtthnnt th« oup iMther, and 
depcndit u^ion the wator ball tot okpdag. I nada t^ae In 
rary larg« quaatltia ia lilZ. 

Balt-loM Stand-pipe Clctorn Supply Valves. 

By retemnee to Fi?. f.2R. Vf.l I., jon ran jw« my palmt 
ralre worked by a ilinphniKm and ooluntn ol water aa 
fi>ilnwa : — Bappoae th«- nLain pijin to lio full of water, and 
the tut«ru onipiy, thu foreo of wnlw will tone Dp llif 



diipbt«|{u 79, u>d ao opm U» ralrn 81 bj Ibc preaiara 
In Uw vtttnd-pipv ^3. 

Afmuxui thd tttnk no«r ti> he full up lo the moutb of the 
plpo 85. Now, the hydroRtatital weight in this p^ ta 
«K{u&1, uidceapMtofoicc •.•u tL«uud(<r>iirU' of tbn <lI^M)r•i^1n 
'9, nnd tbp ntKin furua or m«iiiin) fmm llie inaju prMninff 
upon thu pixttin 7S, as in Fltrx. 1,040 and 1,0J0, thp viiire 
8U, Fig. fiSK, cUmcb by the <y}uilibrium of tho wxUr: bat 
U noon u tbo wtitrr iri tlif tank gcta bdaw the nu^>utb nf 
th« M«nd<pipe 86, prvwura in itirsiii exorciMid ii)>nn tlie 
uadennde of the dWphngni, whtdh ngnin opmut thir viilv<> 
80, ud 80 rapcato Ittdf. 

Th« menini; of tbo vnire dewndi grMtljr upon the 
'b<»ght of the wftWr in tho nfatnd-pipe, nml vhotiii^ tb« 
iDiiath part vt this stai»l-pipo i* nrmutn^ no thftt il will 
fill iUu-lf At Mbih.actiim. Of couriN), the wiktcr cH>lainii 
pi[)o R3 luid 86 oui be token uy height to got tho opomni; 
or closing nctioii. 

Hydrostatic Ball Valv«, Fig. I,063&. 

T1ii» ii> tliir ioTODtiuii of the U(« Hr- (r«nTK« Jtmniugt, 
«Bd one thiit will work under Ti'ty liiwh pn-eniro with (ha 
|«BiKU«at nomblo hall, 'llii^ urtinti h us f<-1!»wii: Tint, 
thn liUk badl mt thi^ iul(.-t in a vnlri' ajmung k^aiimI tlio 
praHure, and at the ntJipr piuI of tho spindle t* nnnthpr 
vatvv, which c/'ifri ntfuiniit (lic^ i>rt-««iirv , C is h <',vlind('r, 
whmnn wnrks tht- loiiat- piaMn viilve. It will bo eccn thnt 
whdu ih* inlPl kdirII boll nilvr i» ojii>n thnt wali^r (ft^t* np 
t}M! biittnw ■pitidliT pipe mid into tiit- rytiutUr C, Aud prviuMi 
tlie cup-UiLtlti-red pitiun wit