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Livingstone's Second Expedition — The Mouths of the Zambesi — Kebrabasa Rapids — 
Murcliison Cataracts — -EfTects of Rain — Lake Shirwa — Shire Marshes — Manganja 
and its People — Discovery of Lake Nyassa ... ... ... ... ... ... 2G1 


Off to Kongone — Return to Tette — Journey Westward — Kebrabasa Rapids and Chicova — 
Arrive at Zumbo — The Batoka — Victoria Falls and Garden Island — The Makololo — 
Livingstone Revisits Linyanti — Down again to Tette and the Kongone ... ... 279 


Arrival of the Pioneer — Bishop Mackenzie and his Mission — Death of Bishop Mackenzie 
and Mr. Curnup — Lake Nyassa and its People — Arrival and Death of Mrs. Living- 
stone — Tlie Rovunia — The Expedition withdrawn — Livingstone's Voyage to Bombay, 
and Return to England ... ... ,.. ... ... ... ... ... ... 303 


Livingstone's Third Visit to Africa — Arrival at Zanzibar — Re ascends the Rovuma — 
Horrors of the Slave Trader's Track — The Waiyau Country and People — Lake Nyassa 
Revisited — Reaches the Loangwa — End of 1866 ... .,, ... ... ... 327 


The New Year — Pushes for the Chambeze — Chitapangwa and his People — Course for Lake 
Tanganyika — Arrives at the Lake — Report reaches England of the Murder of Living- 
stone on the Coast of Lake Nyassa, in 1866 — Search Expedition of Mr. Young — News 
of Livingstone's Safety — Meanwhile he Visits Lake Moero — Arrives at Casembe's 
Town — Second Visit to Moero — Close of 1867 ... ... ... ... ... ... 345 


New Year's Day — Further Exploration of Lake jSIoero — Ascent of the Rua Mountains — 
Return to Casembis — Lake Bangweolo — Earthen Sponges — Cataracts of the Kalon- 
gosi — The Imbozhwa — End of 1868 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 361 


Beginning of 1869 — Dangerous Illness — Arrives at Tanganyika — Reaches Ujiji — Explores 
Manyuenia — 1870 — The Soko — Continued Illness — Detention at Bambarre — Ivory — 
Strange Diseases — Sufferings of Slaves ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 371 




The Year 1871 — Detention at Bambarre — Reaches the Lualaha — Life at Nyangwe — The 
Bakuss — Slaughter of Women by the Arabs — Returns to Ujiji — Arrival of Mr. 
Stanley — Livingstone nnd Stanley Visit Unyanyembe — Stanley leaves to Return to 
England ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3S5 


Livingstone's Second Letter to ^Ir. Bennett — Stay at Unyanyembe — Further Explora- 
tions — Rounds Iho South End of Tanganyika — Crosses Bangweolo — Returns North to 
Ilala — Prolonged Aflliction and Death — Homeward IMarch with the "Master's" 
Body — Arrival nf the Body in England — Funeral in Westminster Abbey — National 
Respect and Honour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 417 


Livingstone Congo Expedition under Lieutenant Grandy — Livingstone East Coast Aid 
Expedition — Lieutenant Cameron's Journey from Unyanyembe to Ujiji — Explora- 
tion of Lake Tanganyika — From Tanganyika to the West Coast and Home ... ... 4-47 


The " Daily Telegraph " and " New York Herald " Expedition — Stanley's Departure — 

Zanzibar — A Slave Dhow — Organisation of the Expedition ... ... .... ... 471 


March from Bagamoyo to Jlpwapwa — Through Northern Ugogo — Country of Urimi — Death 
of Edward Pocock — Conflict with the Waturu — Iramba — Arrival at Lake Victoria 
Ny.->nza — Exploration of the Lake — Visit to Mtesa, King of Uganda — Mtesa's Conver- 
sion to Islamism — Desire for Christian Teachers — Interview between Colonel de Belle- 
fonds and Stanley — Stanley's Departure from Uganda — Lake Victoria Nyanza an 
Inland Sea — Missionary Response to Mtesa's Invitation ... ... 487 


Stanley and Tippu-Tib — Consultation with Mr. Pocock — Starting of the Expedition — 
Launching of the " Lady Alice" — Sickness in the Camp — Parting between the Zanibari 
and the Arabs ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... 545 


The Great Jlysterious River — The Stanley Falls — Making Canoes — Leaving the " Lady 
Alice " — On the March — Difficulty of obtaining Food — Welcome Supplies — Arrival at 
San Paulo de Loando ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 558 




Expedition to the Congo — Founding of Vivi— Making Roads and Erecting Houses — Isangila 

to Manyanga — Founding of Leopoldville ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 573 


Christmas Day at Iboko — Sacrifice of Slaves — Acting as Peace-maker — Arrival at Tukunga^ 

Duke Town 587 


Return from Africa — Accepts the Command of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition — Sails 

again for Africa — Arrival at Cairo ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 595 


Zanzibar — Sailing up the Congo River — Disembarking — Stanley Pool — On the Upper Congo 

— The Camp of the Rear-Guard ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 601 


Stanley leaves for Lake Albert — Gives Major Barttelot Instructions — Eighty-three Days' 
March — No News of the Rear-Guard — Tippu-Tib — Murder of Major Barttelot — Death 
of Mr. Jameson ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 615 


Stanley ISIaking Ready for the March Forward — Letter to Sir William Mackinnon — Story 

of his Movements since June 28, 1887 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 62.3 


Continuation of Stanley's Narrative — Indecision of Emin Pasha — Sufferings on the March — 

Arrival at Unyampaka ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... ... 636 


The March to the Coast — Arrival at Mslala — Summarising Casualties — Arrival at Bagamoyo 

— Zanzibar — Cairo — Arrival in England ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 650 



Progress of Christian Missions in South Africa — Moravian Church — London Mis- 
sionarij Socio tij — Wcsleyan Missions — Church Missionary/ Socict// — Other 

Speaking of his earlier discoveries, Dr. Livingstone said, nearly twenty 
years ago, " Tlio end of the gcograpliical feat is but the beginning of 
the missionary enterprise." It should ever be so. Commerce and science 
have tlieir claims ; but just in projiortion as nations and tribes of men are 
brought under our influence, we should seek to confer upon them the blessings 
of Christianit}". We intend, thei'efore, before entering more fully upon tlie 
discoveries of modern travellers in the regions of Southern and Central Africa 
lying beyond our colonial settlements, to glance at the efibits of Christian 
men to plant the gospel in those settlements, and to point out some of the 
blessed results by which those efforts have been crowned. During the early 
ages of the Christian era, Africa had her churches, her colleges, her reposi- 
tories of science and learning, her Cyprian and other bishops of apostolic 
renown, and her noble army of martyrs ; but now the pall hangs over her 
wide-spread domains, and the millions of her population ore in a state of 
spiritual death. Christendom has been enriched by her gold, her drugs, her 
ivory, her cattle and corn, the bodies and souls of her people ; and what, up 
to a few years back, has been her recompense ? A few crucifixes planted 
around her shores, guarded by the military fort and the roar of cannon. Had 
it not been for the zeal and compassion of Christian men in these later times 
scarcely a ray of heavenly light would have reached the millions of Africa, 
sitting in darkness and the shadow of death. As it is, however, various sec- 
tions of the church of Christ have vied with one another in their earnest and 
self-denying labours to spread the blessings of the Christian religion through 
our African colonies and the regions beyond. 

The small, but brave and noble band of Christians, known as the Mora- 
vians, or United Brethren, were the first to send out men to seek the salva- 
tion of the people of South Africa. The circumstances under which their 
first missionary, George Schmidt, was sent forth, and his subsequent history, 
is well known to all interested in mission work. But we cannot forbear 
quoting here the words in which th ; venerable Dr. Moffatt makes honourable 



mention of this servant of tlic Lord : — '• In July, 1730, Gcorgo Sclunidt, 
witli somctliing of that great zeal which liiod the bosom ot' Egedc, the ]no- 
necr of the mission to Greenland, loft his native country for that of the Hot- 
tentots, lie was the first who, commissioned by the King of kings, stood in 
the Vale of Grace (Genadenal), at tliat time known by the name of Bavian's 
Kloof (the Glen of Baboons), and directed the degraded, oppressed, ignorant, 
despised, and, so far as life eternal is concerned, the outcast Hottentots, to 
the Lamb of God, wlio tasted death for theni. It is impossible to travcrso 
the glen, as the writer has done, or sit under the great jjcar-trce which that 
devoted missionary planted with his own hands, without feeling something 
like a holy envy of so distinguished a person in the missionary band. When 
we remember tliat actions receive their weight from the circumstances under 
wliich they have been called forth, how exalted a glory must such an one as 
George Schmidt possess in the heavenly world, where one star differeth from 
another star in glory, compared with the great majority in the present day, 
who have doors opened to them, and a host of examples before them, with 
the zeal and pra3-crs of the whole Christian Church to animate and support 
them. Though he could only address the Hottentots througli an interpreter, 
bis early efforts wore crowned with success, and the attendance at the first 
Hottentot school ever founded rapidly increased. The Hottentots, with all 
their reported ignorance and apathy, justly regarded him with sentiments of 
unfeigned love and admiration; and so evidently was the gospel made tho 
power of God that, in the course of a few years, he was able to add a num- 
ber of converts to the church of the first-born." 

The mission commenced by the Moravians so far prospered that, in 1799, 
there was built a large church, capable of holding fifteen thousand persons. 
At that period there were twelve hundred and thirty-four inhabitants in 
Bavian's Kloof, of whom three hundred and four were members of the con- 
gregation, whose temporal condition was greatly improved. Induced by tlie 
example of the brethren, they diligently cultivated tlieir fields and gardens. 
In 1800, a body of missionaries arriving, they were received about a rnile 
from the village by the natives, who joined in hymns of praise to God who 
had thus graciously supplied their spirituid wants. A large and connnodious 
school-house was erected in 1814, and thus the brethren were enabled more 
effectually to educate the young. In 1815, the Rev. C. J. Latrobe, Secretary 
to the Moravian Church in England, was sent on a visit of inspection to Africa, 
to ascertain the practicability of erecting a new station. This was accordingly 
established in the district of the Witte River, on the confines of Caffraria, at 
the distance of a fortnight's journey from their original sphere of labour. To 
it the name of Enon was given ; and it was soon occupied by a band of faith- 
ful missionaries. Other stations have, from time to time, been formed as 
circumstances required and means afforded. 


These settlements in South Africa have frequently been visited by travel- 
lers, who have highly extolled the neatness, order, and comfort, which reigned 
in them all. As it may be interesting to some of our readers to know the 
way in which the Moravian missionaries spend tlieir time in their stations, 
we quote the words of Mr. Pringle, in reference to Enon: — '' At six o'clock 
in the morning, the missionaries and their families are summoned together 
by the ringing of a large bell, suspended in front of the mission-house. The 
matin hymn is then sung, and a text of Scripture read for all to meditate 
upon during the day ; and after drinking a single cup of coffee, they sepa- 
rate to pursue their respective occupations. At eiglit o'clock the bell re-as- 
sembles them to a substantial breakfast, consisting of fisli, fruit, eggs, and 
cold meat, each person commonly drinking a single glass of wine. This 
meal, as well as the others, is preceded and followed by a short hymn, by 
way of grace, in which all the company join. As soon as breakfast is over, 
they retire to their separate apartments for meditation or devotion, till nine 
o'clock, when the active labours of the day are again resumed, and continued 
till noon. At twelve o'clock precisely the bell is again rung ; labour is inter- 
rupted ; the school is dismissed ; and the brethren and their families assemble 
in the dining-hall to the mid-day meal. The dishes are sometimes numerous, 
especially I presume, Avhcn they have visitors ; but the greater part consist 
of fruit and vegetables of their own cultivation, variously dressed. The meal 
is enlivened with cheerful conversation, and is closed with the customary 
hymn of thanksgiving. All then rise and retire, to occupy or amuse them- 
selves as each may be inclined. At two o'clock, a cup of tea or coffee is 
drank, and all proceed again with alacrit}' to their various occupations, which 
are prosecuted till six. This latter hour concludes the labours of the day ; 
the sound of the hammer is stilled, and the brethren assemble once more at 
the evening meal, which consists of light viands, and is soon over. After 
supper they adjourn to the church, when a portion of Scripture is briefly 
explained, or a homily delivered, either to tlie v/hole Hottentot congregation, 
or to one of the several sections in which the people are classed, agreeably 
to the progress they may have attained in knowledge and piety. All then 
retire to rest, with an appearance of satisfaction, such as may be naturally 
imagined to result from the habitual ])ractice of industry and temperance, 
unembittered by worldly cpres, and hallowed by the consciousness of having 
devoted their mental and bodily fliculties to the glory of God and the good 
of man." 

The same traveller also mentions the churchyard at this settlement : — 
" Situate at some little distance from tlie village, yet not far from the house 
of worshiji, and kept as neat as a pleasure garden, the burial-ground of Enon 
formed a pleasing contrast to the solitary graves heaped with a few loose 
stones, or the neglected or dilapidated churchyards usually met with in the 


colony. Tlio funeral service, too, of the Moravians is very solenm ami 
impressive. And still more solemn must bo tlic yearly celebration of their 
service on Easter morn, ^lien the whole population of the settlement is con- 
gregated in the burial ground, to listen to an appropriate discourse from tho 
most venerable of their pastors, accompanied by an allccting commemoration 
of such of their friends and relatives as may have died within the year, and 
followed by hymns and anthems sun<j by theu* united voices amidst the ashes 
of their kindred." *' 

At the end of 1840, the United Brethren had in Soutli Africa seven 
stations, forty-five missionaries, and four thousand seven hundred and thirty- 
nine converts belonging to the Hottentot, Caffre, Tambookie, and Fingoe 
tribes, of whom about thirteen hundred were communicants. The most 
recent accounts still sj^eak hopefully of their establishments, as being gene- 
rally in a flourishing condition. Brother Kunick, writing from Elim, August 
18, 1874, says: — " In my last letter I believe I told you about the repairs 
that we intended carrying out in the church. In February, a suflicient quantity 
of sea-shells was carted from the shore, and from these lime was prepared. 
We had five or six masons at work each day, and as many helpers, the latter 
being volunteers. When the church had been got into order and whitewashed, 
our people asked permission to perform the same operation on the school, 
that its shabby condition might not be too noticeable, by contrast, at tho 
coming jubilee. This was more than we had expected, and, of course, tho 
request was granted. The inside walls of tho church also received a new 
coating of paint, and 15rother Ilickel put the organ in good order. All 
expenses have been covered by voluntary subscriptions and tlie collections at 
the jubilee, leaving a surplus of £5. Tlio members seemed much pleased 
with the improvements made, and on several occasions cxjiressed their 
gratitude to us for our share in the work. Wc have also great cause for thank- 
fulness for the manner in which the celebration of the jubilee passed olF. 
Guests appeared from all quarters in no less than eightj^-four vehicles of 
every description, and the liberal hospitality with which they were welcomed 
in spite of the hard times, exceeded even tho German conception of this 
virtue. The celebration was of such a nature as to give us great encourage- 
ment for the future." 

Another of these missionaries, Br. Meyer, writing in May, 1874, from 
Entumasi, says : — " The change of heart that had taken place in some of our 
Pondos began to have effect in their outward appearance. The women soon 
earned sufficient to buy for themselves, first skirts and then dresses. Many 
of them have now Sunday-clothes as well as week-day suits, and one female 
has as many as four dresses. The men also now go about in decent aj^pai-el. 
Two more announced themselves as candidates, but in their case I feared 
insincerity of purpose. Having received the moue}' due to them for their 


work, they immediately procured clothes with it. Not long afterwards their 
wives brought me a number of bundles of firewood, and on my inquiring as 
to the price, one of them said — ' We do not want payment, Ave bring this wood 
out of gratitude.' Tiius my suspicion was put to sliamc. I am glad to say 
that all the Pondosare now jjropcrly clothed. The old Caffre, who was form- 
erly so much addicted to drunkenness, now meekly sits at the feet of Jesus. 
It is a gladdening sight when the thirty-two candidates assemble for instruc- 
tion or public worship, some of them from a distance of twelve miles, and many 
a song of thanks and praise rises from my heart to the Lord for permitting 
me to sec so great fruits of my labours." Writing some months later, the 
same missionary says : — " The Lord's blessing continues. Our new church 
is soon to be oj^ened for services; another on Ludidi's land will soon be com- 
menced, after which one on the banks of the Tinana Avill have to follow. 
Many Sutus attend the services at Eutumasi, and on the Tinana, their lan- 
guage being used in church and school. Among the newly-awakened natives 
is the principal (and now the only) wife of the chieftain Zibi ; she has re- 
quested to be enrolled and instructed with tlie other candidates for baptism. 
The work grows in depth as well as in breadth ; my own heart is warmed 
and stirred up ; and my lips overflow with the praises of Him who has won- 
derfully increased the children of the desolate." 

Some of the most successful eflorts for the evangelisation of Africa have 
been made by the agents of the London Missionary Society. The first eftbrts 
of this Society were directed, in 1795, to the islands of the Pacific, in which 
its missionaries have, after a long period of toil, witnessed the most signal 
triumphs of the gospel, amongst tribes of bai'barians and cannibals, which it 
has ever fallen to the province of history to record. The attention of the 
Society was next directed to the vast and important field of Southern Africa. 
The first missionaries sent out were Dr. John Tlieodore Van dcr Kemp, the 
son of a pious minister of the Dutch Reformed Church at Rotterdam, and 
Messrs Kicherer and Edmonds. Like all successful evangelists. Dr. Van dcr 
Kemp was a man of extraordinary energy. He was fifty years of age before 
he set sail for Africa. Missions were then a novelty, and no missionary move- 
ment had yet proceeded from the Netherlands. But tlie perusal of one of the 
records of the London Missionary Society produced such an impression on Van 
der Kemp's mind that he made an offer of his services to that Society. Full of 
Christian elasticity, and enthusiastically devoted to the race whose welfare 
he sought, he shrank from no danger, and toil and hardship he rather seemed 
to invite. During his sojourn in London, passing a brick-lield, it struck him 
that a great boon might be conferred on the Hottentots by teaching them to 
build better houses, in order to which it would first be needful to teach them 
the art of brick-making, t- Accordingly he sought leave to join the labourers, 
and for some weeks the venerable apprentice sweltered among the brick-kilns. 


lightening liis labour by tlio thought of Africa. And when lie anivoJ among 
the people of his choice, ho consecrated himself to their service, with the 
ardour of a lover and tho zeal of an apostle. Undismayed by their oflcnsivo 
habits, he took up his abode in tho midst of them, and often without any 
European comfort — sometimes without hat, or shoes, or stockings — he not 
only taught their children and preached to them the gospel, but labouring 
with his own hands, he showed them how by their own industry they might 
support themselves; and, as if in defiance of the prejudices of his Dutch com- 
patriots, he threw in his lot entirely with these scorned outcasts by taking a 
Hottentot woman for his wife. lie was a man of exalted genius and learning. 
He had mingled with courtiers. He had been an alumnus of tho Universities 
of Leyden and Edinburgh. He had obtained jilaudits for his remarkable 
progress in literature, in philosophy, divinity, jihysic, and tho military art. 
He was not only a profound student in ancient languages, but in many of tho 
modern European tongues, even to that of the Highlanders of Scotland, and 
had distinguished himself in tho armies of his earthly sovereign. Yet this 
man, constrained by the love of Christ, could cheerfully lay aside all his 
honours, mingle with savages, bear their sneers and contumely, condescend 
to serve the meanest of his troublesome guests, take tho axe, the sickle, the 
spade, and tho mattock, lie down on the place where dogs repose, and spend 
nights with his couch drenched with rain, the cold wind bringing liis fragile 
house about his ears. Though annoyed by the nightly visits of hungry 
hyenas, though counselled to wander about in quest of lost cattle, and exposed 
to the caprice of those ■whose characters were stains on human nature, whis- 
perings occasionally reaching his ears that murderous plans were in progi'ess 
for his destruction, he calmly proceeded with his benevolent eflorts ; and to 
secure his object would stoop with the meekness of wisdom to i;)lease and pro- 
pitiate those rude and ■\va}ward children of the desert whom he sought to 

When the labours of the Doctor and his colleagues were beginning to 
tell on the Hottentots, the Dutch farmers took alarm. They feared that, 
with the progress of instruction, they would lose the services of these jioor 
savages, whom they had hitherto treated very much as beasts of burden ; and 
their representations were producing such an efiect on the respectable Dutch 
governor, Janssen, that he imposed very inconvenient restrictions on the 
operations of tho mission. FoVtunately, at this period (1806), tho colony 
passed into tho hands of the English ; and under the protection of Sir David 
Baird the mission so prospered that, in 1810, the settlement at Bcthclsdorp 
contained nearly a thousand inhabitants, all receiving Christian instruction. 
Mats and baskets were made in considerable quantities and sold in the sur- 
rounding country. Salt was also manufactured, and bartered for wheat ; and 
b}- sawing, soap -boiling, and wood-cutting:, the peojile exerted themselves for 


nn independent maintenance. Dr. Van der Kcniji, wlio supported himself as 
a missionary, with scarcely any charge to the Society, spent nearly a thou- 
sand pounds of his patrimony in the purchase of slaves; and his representa- 
tions to Lord Caledon were the first in a series of movements on boluilf of the 
oppressed aborigines which, in 1828, ended in their obtaining rights and pri- 
vileges in all respects equal to those of the Dutch and English settlers. lie 
died in 1811 ; and althou<.'h his own exertions wore not crowned with the im- 
mediate and signal success which has attended some other labourers, he may 
AvcU be regarded as one of the greatest modern benefactors of Southern 

In March, 1813, the Rev. John Campbell arrived at Bethelsdorp, having 
been deputed by the Society to visit their settlements in Soutli Africa, and to 
consider the best localities for new ones. Tlic following year, a remarkable 
revival of religion took place there. So intent were numbers in seeking sal- 
vation that Mr. Read and his fellow-labourers had scarcely time to take food ; 
and often the fields might be seen covered with j^cople pouring out their 
hearts to God in prayer. Old and young were alike subjects of this gracious 
influence ; and, in the course of a year, upwards of three hundred souls were 
added to the Church. Accosted by the gracious accents of the gospel, the 
poor abject Hottentots began to rejoice in the hope full of immortality, and 
astonished their old taskmasters by their intelligence and industry. Under 
the fostering wing of Christian missions, they congregated into little villages; 
and the following description of one of these near Algoa Bay, from the pen of 
Mr. Pringle, testifies to the effect the gospel had produced: — "I came in 
sight of the village as the sun was setting. The smoke of the fires just lighted 
to cook the evening meal of the home-coming herdsmen was curling calmly 
in the serene evening air. The bleating of flocks returning to the fold, the 
lowing of the kine to meet their young, and other pleasant sounds, recalling 
all the pastoral associations of a Scottish glen, gave a very agreeable eflect to 
my iirst view of this missionary village. ^Vllen 1 entered the place, however, 
all associations connected with the rural scenery of Europe were at once dis- 
])cllcd. The groups of woolly-haired, swarthy-complexioned natives, many 
of them still dressed in the old sheepskin mantle — the swarms of half-naked 
children — the hovels of mud or reeds — the long-legged, large-boned cattle — 
the broad-tailed African sheep, with hair instead of wool — the uncouth jib- 
bcring sounds of the Hottentot language — these, and a hundred traits of wild 
and foreign character, made me feel that I was far from the glens of Cheviot 
— that I was at length in the land of the Hottentot. Afterwards I attended 
the evening service of the missionary in the rustic chapel. The place was 
occupied by a very considerable number of the inhabitants of the village. 
Their demeanour w'as attentive and devout ; and their singing of the mission- 
ary hymns singularly pleasing and harmonious. Even among the rudest of 


tlic people there was an aspect of civility and decent respect — of quietude 
and sober-mindedness, which evinced that they were habitually under the 
control of far other ])rinciplcs than tlioso wliicli regulate the movements of 
other savage men. They appeared to be in general a respectable and reli- 
gious native j)easantry." 

Amone: the noble men who have laboured in Southern Africa, in connec- 
tion with the London Missionary Society, we must make special mention of 
Kobert MoiVat and liis still more renowned son-in law, David Livingstone. 
When Robert MoiTat, with the consent of his pious Scotch parents, left his 
gardening and set sail for the Cape of Good Hope, on the last day of October, 
181G, ho was only twenty years of age. But ho was a mature man in self- 
])ossession and in Christian faith ; and these arc the main qualities required 
in missionary enterprise. His first battle was not with the heathen, but with 
the British Governor, who was loath to give his sanction to missionaries pro- 
ceeding outside the Cape colony, as it was feared that, through want of dis- 
cretion, they would get the tribes of the interior into broils and mi.sunder- 
standings. Permission being at length granted him, he set out for the Oiange 
River, to try to convert the notorious Africaner, who had made his name a 
terror by his maraudings and murders. On the way, Moffat preached to the 
Hottentots, wherever he could get op^iortunity. On all hands he was warned 
against approaching Africaner. One old motherly lady, wiping the tear from 
her eye, bade him farewell, saying, " Had you been an old man, it would 
have been nothing, for you would soon have died, whether or no, but you are 
young, and going to bo eaten up by that monster!" But he and his i)arty 
went on — over desert j^lains, where sometimes the oxen would sink down 
in the sand from their fatigue, and where the want of water was a terrible 
infliction, and over rocky mountains, where the exposure to the scorching 
lieat of the hot season was like to induce fever every moment. Africaner's 
welcome was not warm ; and Moiiat was obliged to deal with the remorseless 
chief and his blood-thirsty peoiile as best he might. He dealt with them 
wisely, and won a victory which is memorable. He was not unfrequently in 
sore straits for his daily food ; but he only found himself the more disposed 
for meditation. He wandered, and taught, and preached, without fixltcring, 
for years. Often it seemed to him as if he was beating the air ; and his heart 
sank. It was lucky for him that he had many resources. He could put his 
hand to anything ; and that gained him respect from the Namaqua men more 
than his learning. " My dear old mother," he tells us himself, "to keep me 
out of mischief in the long winter evenings, taught me to knit and to sew. 
When I would tell her I meant to be a man, she would say, ' Lad, j-e diuna 
ken whaur your lot may be cast.' She was right ; for I have often had 
occasion to use the needle since." 

At length the blessing came j Africaner himself was the first convert. 


Tlic cliangc that came over the chief was marvellous. The wild Namaqua 
warrior was gentle as a child. And he was very solicitous for the temporal 
welfare of his friends — intently watchful that tlie missionary should want for 
nothing that he or his people could give him. The man who hitherto had 
only had one ambition — to lead his peoi:)le to war and plunder, now directed 
them to build a house for the missionary, made him a present of cows, regu- 
larly attended the services, was assiduous in the study of the Scriptures, and 
sincerely mourned over his past life. His love for Moffat was deep and abid- 
ing ; and on one occasion, he nursed him through the delirium of a bilious 
fever. Mr. Moffat having to visit Cape Town, he projDOsed that Africaner 
should accompany him. "The good man," Moffat says, "looked at mc 
again and again, gravely asking whether I were in earnest, and seemed fain 
to ask if I were in my senses too ; adding, with great fervour, ' I had thought 
you loved me, and do you advise mc to go to the Government to be hung up 
as a spectacle of public justice ? Do you not know that I am an outlaw, and 
that one thousand rix-dollars have been offered for my poor head ?' These 
difliculties I endeavoured to remove, by assuring him that the results would 
be most satisfactory to himself as well as to the Governor of the Cape. Here 
Africaner exhibited his lively faith in the gracious promises of God, by rcpl\-- 
ing, * I shall deliberate, and roll my way uj^on the Lord ; I know he will 
not leave me.' " 

^ By many it was thought impossible tliat sucli a man as this African Piob 
Roy — a freebooter, an outlaw, and a man of blood — could ever become a 
mcok, docile, and affectionate follower of the Lamb of God. Speaking of 
their journey to Cape Town, Mr. Moffat says, " Some of the worthy peoi)le 
on the borders of the colony congratulated me on returning alive, having 
often heard, as they said, that I had been long since murdered by Africaner. 
Much wonder was exjiressed at my narrow escape from such a monster of- 
cruelty. While some would scarcely credit my idcntit}', my testimony as 
to the entire reformation of Africaner's character, and his conversion, was 
discarded as the effusicjn of a frenzied brain. At one farm a novel scene 
exhibited the state of feeling respecting Africaner and myself, and likewise 
displayed tlie power of Divine grace under peculiar circumstances. It was 
necessar}', from the scarcity of water, to call at such houses as lay in our 
road. Tlie farmer referred to was a good man in the best sense of the word ;-. 
and he and his wife had both shown me kindness on my way to Namaqua 
Land. On approaching the house, which was on an eminence, I directed mv 
men to take the waggon to the valley below, while I walked toward the 
house. The farmer, seeing a stranger, came slowly down the descent to 
meet me. When within a few yards, I addressed him in the usual way, and. 
stretching out my hand, expressed my pleasure at seeing him again. He put 
his hand behind him, and asked me, rather wildly, who I was. I replied 


that I was MolTat, expressing my wonder that he should have forgotten inc. 
' Moffat !' he rejoined in a faltering voice ; ' it is your ghost !' and moved 
some steps backwards. * I am no ghost !' ' Don't conic near me !' ho exclaimed, 
' you have been long murdered by Africaner.' ' But I am no ghost !' I said, 
feeling my hands, as if to convince him and myself too, of my materiality ; 
but his alarm only increased. ' Everybod}- says you were murdered, and a 
man told me he had seen your bones;' and ho continued to gaze at me to the 
no small astonishment of the good wife aud cliildien who were standing at 
the door, as also to that of my people, who were looking on from the waggon 
below. At Icngtii he extended his trembling hand, saying, ' When did you 
rise from the dead ?' 

" As he feared my presence would ahum Jiis wife wo bent our steps 
towards the waggon, and Africaner was the subject of our conversation. I 
gave him in a few words my views of his present character, saying, ' lie is 
now a truly good man.' To which he replied, ' I can believe almost any- 
thing you say, but tliat I cannot credit. There are seven wondei's in the 
world; tlmt would be the eighth.' I appealed to the displays of Divine 
grace iu a Paul, a Manasseh, and referred to his own experience. He 
leplied, these were another description of men ; but that Africaner was one 
of the accursed sons of Ham," enumerating some of the atrocities of which he 
had been guilty. By this time we were standing witli Africaner at our feet, 
on whoso countenance sat a smile, well knowing the prejudices of some of the 
farmers. The farmer closed the conversation by saying, Avith much earnest- 
ness, ' Well, if what you asscit be true respecting that man I have only one 
wish, and that is, to see him before I die ; and when you I'eturn, as sure as 
the sun is over our heads, I will go with you to see him, though he killed my 
own uncle.' I was not before aware of this fact, and now felt some hesita- 
tion whether to discover to him the object of his wonder ; but knowing the 
sincerity of the farmer, and the goodness of his disposition, I said, ' This 
is Africaner.' He started back, looking intensely at the man, as if he had 
dropped from the clouds. ' Are you Africaner ?' he exclaimed. He arose, 
doffed his old hat, and making a polite bow, answered, ' I am.' The farmer 
seemed thunder-struck, but when, by a few questions, he had assured himselt 
of the fact that the former bugbear of the border stood before him, now meek 
and lamb-like in his whole deportment, he lifted up his eyes and exclaimed, 
' God, what a miracle of thy power! what cannot thy grace accomplish!' 
Tlie kind farmer and his no less hospitable wife, now abundantly supplied 
our wants ; but we hastffined our departure, lest the intelligence might get 
abroad that Africaner was with me, and bring unpleasant visitors." 

The closing scene of Africaner's life was most beautiful. When he found 
his end approaching, he called all the people together, after the example of 
Joshua, and gave them diiectious as to their future conduct. " We are not," 


said ho, " what wc were — savages, but men professing to be taught accord- 
ing to the gospel. Let us then do accordingly. Live peaceably with all 
men, if possible ; and, if impossible, consult those who are placed over you 
before you engage in anything, liemain together as you have done since I 
knew you. Then, when the Directors think fit to send you a missionary, 
you may be ready to receive him. Behave to any teacher you may have 
sent as one sent of God, as I have great hope that God will bless you in this 
respect when I am gone to heaven. I feel that I love God, and that lie has 
done much for me, of which I am totally unworthy. My former life is stained 
with blood ; but Jesus Christ has pardoned me, and I am going to heaven. 
Oh I beware of falling into the same evils into which I have led you fre- 
quently ; but seek God, and He will be found of you to direct j-ou." 

Whilst Moffat and Africaner were at the Cape, it was proposed that the 
former should not return to Namaqua Land, but should proceed to the Bechu- 
ana country, and found a mission there. To this Africaner consented, as he 
had some hopes of removing, with his jieople, to a district not far distant, 
from whence Moffat now proposed to settle. So the missionary, with his 
newly -married wife, set forth for the new country, much strengthened by his 
success with Africaner and his people, and encouraged by the thought, that 
the station he was about to occupy was one of the foremost posts in heathen 
soil, and that beyond it there were regions thickly populated by races who 
had never seen the face of a white man, and to whom Christianity, and its 
attendant blessings, were as yet unknown. The missionary soon found it 
hard work with the Bcchuanas ; for though the chief had desired that a reli- 
gious teacher should be sent among his people, it soon became evident that 
they had more notion of trading and bartering than of hearing about the 
gospel. When they found that Moffat had no goods, they were disposed to 
yoke the oxen to his waggons and send him back again. He was often in 
great trouble. At last he faced the chief and his attendants — said they 
might do with him as they would, but he would not leave their country. " Our 
hearts are with you," he said; " you may shed my blood, or you may burn 
our dwelling, but I know that you will not touch my wife or children. My 
decision is made — I do not leave your country." Now then," he proceeded, 
" if you will, drive your spears to my heart; and when you have slain me, 
my companions will know that it is time for them to depart." " Those men," 
said the chief, turning to the attendants, " must have ten lives. When they 
are so fearless of death, there must be something in immortality." From 
this time the hearts of the people began to turn to the truth. Moffat showed 
them that he hud no interests apart from theirs. The self-sacrificing conduct 
of the missionaries so moved the chief, that he aided them in the laying out 
of the new station at Kuruman, which -was for so long Mr. Moflat's head- 


From Kuruman, Jfoffat made many journeys. lie visited Makaba, king^ 
of the liauangketsi, some two hundred miles furtlier north, and was received 
wit]i favour. News of his great work was soon carried far into tlic interior. 
A very notable event was the appearance of two messengers from tlie ]\Iata- 
bcle king, Moselekatsc, Avho wished to know more of the work of the white 
men. This potentate ruled a large portion of the territory now known as the 
Trans Vaal l\opublic, was a great warrior, and a terror to all the surrounding 
tribes. MofTat received these ambassadors with great kindness, and showed 
them as much of civilised appliances as he could. Owing to some risk they 
ran from the tribe avIiosc territory they must pass on their return home, he 
himself accompanied them on their way. Having gone so far with them they 
urged that he should go on and sec the king; and so at last he agreed to do. 
Mosolekatse took kindl}' to the missionary, and showed himself capable of 
gratitude. Placing his hand on the missionary's shoulder one day, he ad- 
dressed him by tlie title of "Father," saying, "You have made my heart as 
white as milk. I cease not to wonder at the love of a stranger. You never 
saw me before, but you love me more than my own people." Moffat did not 
leave until he had got the king's consent that a mission should be established 
there. In 1832, Moffat had completed his translation into Sechuana of the 
Gospel of Luke. lie went to the Cape, and got liberty to use the oflicial 
press. lie "setup" the matter with his own hands, and was soon able to 
return in triumph to the station with copies of Luke's Gospel and his own 
hymns. By 18-40, the translation of the New Testament was completed ; and 
before 1843 thousands of copies had been distributed, Moffat having super- 
intended the printing in London, during a short visit home. 

At this point Moffat's story gets interlaced with that of Livingstone. 
David Livingstone was born at Blantyre, in Lanarkshire, in the year 1813. 
At the age of ten he went to work in a cotton-factory, and for many years was 
engaged as an operative. An evening school fui'nished him with the oppor- 
tunity of acquiring some knowledge of Latin and Greek ; and after attending 
a course of medicine at Glasgow University, and the theological lectures of 
the late Dr. "Wardlaw, he offered himself to the London Missionary Society, 
by whom he was ordained in 1840. In the summer of that year he landed on 
the shores of South Africa. Circumstances made him acquainted with Moffat, 
whose daughter he subsequently married. Moffat was then permanently 
attached to Kuruman station, at that time the most distant outpost of the 
missionaries ; but Livingstone at once penetrated two hundred miles further 
north, as far as Kolobeng, animated by a desire to carry the blessings of 
Christianity into the densely populated, but mysterious regions of the African 
interior. While Livingstone Avas wandering among the Bakwains, in retire- 
ment at Lepeloli, or labouring at Kolobeng, Moffat was pushing on with his 
translation of the Old Testament, amid ill health and much loss of strengtli. 


He worked -R-itliout a pause, for the cause of the gospel was prospering, and 
each fresh proof of its power was with him only an incentive to effort. 

In ISIO, Livingstone resolved to leave Kolobcng, the station he was then 
occupying, and push his way further into the interior. Taking, therefore, 
a northerly direction, and pursuing it for about three hundred miles, and at 
no slight suffering to themselves and their cattle, from the difficulty of the 
road and the want of water, they were not less suri:)rised than delighted, on 
emerging, at the end of a month, from a dreary region, the principal produc- 
tions in which were the camel-thorn and other characteristic growths of tlie 
African desert, to find themselves upon the banks of the Zouga, a noble and 
exquisitely beautiful river, flowing south-east, richly fringed Avith fruit-bear- 
ing and other trees, some of them of gigantic growth, and new to our 
travellers. Received with a frank, and evidently cordial welcome from the 
liayeiye, the natives of tl;e soil, and learning from them that the Zouga 
flowed out of the Lake N'gami, which was still three hundred miles distant, 
Livingstone, while his waggon slowly followed the windings of tlie stream, 
embarked in a rude native canoe, hollowed out of the trunk of a tree, and, 
paddled by these inland sailors, he proceeded up the Zouga, calling, on liis 
way, at many of tlie villages which nestled in the broad belt of reeds, or 
amongst the limestone rocks which form its margin. As he advanced, the 
stream flowed wider and deeper, and the missionary's heart expanded with 
the liope that it would prove one of the highways through which Christianit\' 
and its attendants, civilisation and commerce, might find a free course into 
the hithoito inaccessible interior of Africa. He pursued his way until ho 
reached the much-desired Lake N'gami, and looked across its broad waters 
to a shoreless expanse in one direction, and to the dim outlino of the distant 
coast in another, with the hallowed joy of a missionary discoverer. In the 
following year, accompanied by his wife and family, and by Sechele, tlio 
chief of the Bakwains, Livingstone paid his second visit to this newly-dis- 
covered region ; but this time his leading design of reaching the country of 
Scbituane was frustrated by tlic unexpected prevalence of marsh-fever, and 
of the venomous fly called " tsetse," so destructive of cattle. Having acquired 
such knowledge of the district as to satisfy him that neither would afford a 
salubrious centre for a new mission, and as sickness began to prevail among 
his part)^, he was reluctantly compelled to return to his station, and again 
to postpone the accomplishment of his object. 

In the spring of 1851, Livingstone once more left Kolobcng for the north. 
Hoping and believing that he would be able pcrnuinently to remain and 
labour in the remote, yet populous region he had discovered, he took with 
him again his wife and their little ones, prepared, as some might have 
regarded it, to bury himself and his family in the very depths of African 
solitudes and saYagi.•^m. It was a noble venture — Christian hen^ism in one of 


its sublimcst forms. At lengtli they reached Linyanti. Here Sebituane 
received them -with the greatest kindness; and proposed to bring their wag- 
gons across the Chobc, in his canoos, that they might be placed beyond tlio 
reach of the marauding Matabele. It was impossible not to see the unbonndod 
delight which the chief felt in the presence of liis visitors, or to question the 
intensity of his desire for the residence of a missionary amongst his people. 
Long before daylight, he was by Livingstone's fire, relating the adventures 
and disasters of his eventful history. For many years lie had been anxious 
for intercourse with Europeans ; and, with tliis view, had sent large presents 
to chiefs residing at a distance, to induce them to promote this object. On 
ihe day after Livingstone's arrival he conducted religious services amongst 
the people. These proved tlie last as well as the first at which Sebituane 
was present ; and upon this account the missionary looked back upon them 
with mingled feelings of sorrow and satisfaction, for, just as the chief began 
to see the accomplishment of his long-cherished desire, he was seized with 
pneumonia, and in a fortnight expired. Livingstone felt his loss severely ; 
but the people gathered round him, and said, "Do not leave us; though 
Sebituane is dead, his children remain ; and you must treat them as you 
would have treated him." The country at which he had now arrived pre- 
sented, for hundreds of miles, a dead level, interlaced by a perfect labyrinth 
of rivers, with their countless tributaries, and numerous entering and re-entci'- 
ing branches. But after a residence of two months, Livingstone was con- 
vinced, that though rich and fertile in an extraordinary degree, the periodical 
rise of its numerous streams, and the prevalence of the destructive " tsetse, " 
formed fatal objections to it as a missionary centre. 

It was during his stay here, that Livingstone first visited that magnificent 
stream whose course to the Mozambique Channel he subsequently traced. In 
different parts of its course, it bears the name of Secheke, Leeambye, and 
Zambesi. "Who can describe the missionary's joy in thus finding what he 
then believed, and has since proved to be, the key of Southern and Central 
Africa ! Deep as was the interest he felt in the scenery now spread out before 
him, that interest was chiefly concentrated ujoon the inhabitants of this fino 
region. Having obtained so auspicious an introduction to them, he resolved 
to cultivate their acquaintance, in the belief that the gospel, with its accom- 
panying power and results, would make them a great and prosperous i^eoplo. 
Filled with these purjjoses, his heart swelling M'ith large anticipations and 
generous designs, he once more retraced his steps, partly over the weary way 
he had previously traced, and jiartly upon the Tamunacle and the Zouga, 
rejoicing as one who findeth great s2)oil. 

On reaching the latter river, Livingstone thus refers to the future, under 
date October 1, 1851 :- — "You will see by the accompanying sketch what an 
immense region God lias in his Providence opened un I 


iliink it ■will be impossible to make a fail" commencement, unless I can sccxxre 
two years devoid of family cares. It has occurred to me that as we must send 
our children to England soon, it will be no great additional expense to send 
them now along with their mother. Tiiis arrangement would enable me to 
proceed alone, and devote abuut two, or perhaps three years to this new 
region. To orphanise my children will be like tearing out my bowels ; but 
when I can find time to write fully, 3'ou will perceive it is the only Avay, 
except giving up the region altogether. When we consider the multitudes 
which, in the providence of God, have been brought to light in the country of 
Sebituane — the probability that, in our eflorts to evangelise, we shall put a 
stop to the slave-trade in a large region, and by means of the highway into the 
north which we have discovered, bring unknown nations within the sympathies 
of the Christian world, if I were to choose my lot, it would be to reduce this new 
language, translate the Bible into it, and be the means of forming a church. 
Let this be accomplished, I think I could then lay down and die contented." 
In God's providence this was tlie beginning of Livingstone's explorations ; we 
must now leave him, to be dealt with more at large in his character as a tra- 
veller, in a subsequent part of the wcn'k, and return to the Avork of Moffat. 

That the reports of Moffat's good work had ah-eady travelled far into 
the unknown countries, was proved by the fact that, while Livingstone was 
on the Zambesi, he learned from the natives there that the English had come 
to Moselekatse, and told him that it was wrong to tight and kill ; and that 
since the English had come he had sent out his men, not to kill and plunder, 
but to collect tribute of cloth and money. There can be no doubt that this 
rumour, spreading further inland, prepared the way for Livingstone's extra- 
ordinary journeys. And whilst Livingstone was thus engaged, Moffat was 
planning how to help him. His health had suffered from the close applica- 
tion, continued now through years, to the translation of the Scriptures. Ho 
was urged to return to England for a time. Instead, he resolved to recruit 
himself by a trip to the Limpopo district, several days' journey to the north 
of Kolobeng, where Jloselekatse and his people had settled when they were 
driven from their old quarters. He was kindly received by the king, now 
grievously ill of dropsy, and, after some time, obtained permission to preach 
to the people. He also prescribed for the king's ailment, and secured his 
interest in Livingstone's travels, getting him to forward men with letters and 
supplies to Linyanti, on the Ciiobe River, two or three hundred miles to the 
north, which letters and supplies, as we know, were received by Livingstone 
from the Makololo people, who had taken them in charge, nearly a year after- 
wards. Livingstone's visit to England, in 1850, had the effect of wondrously 
reviving the interest in African missions; and the London Society resolved 
to establish missions among the Matabele and Makololo. Naturall}' Moffat 
was overjoyed at receiving this news. It was what he had for forty years 


been workiii;:^ for. His translation of tlic Scriptures into the Sccliuana tongue 
— dialects of which, not varying much from each other, are sjioken over ahnost 
the whole of South Africa as far as the Equator — could now be cast abroad 
to do its work. The undertaking liad been a very tr3'ing one in the circum- 
stances, and MofFat's health had suffered from the close application which 
for many j-cars had been required from him. But now the task was finished 
— a task which of itself would have been enough to give to Moffat a place 
among the greatest of human benefactors, even had ho not been the adventu- 
rous missionary he was. 

The great missionary himself has given us a very remarkable instance of 
the power of the Scriptures over the heathen mind — an instance which forms 
quite a romantic episode. " In one of my early journeys," ho says, " Avith 
some of my companions, we came to a heathen village on the banks of the 
Orange River, between Namaqua Land and the Griqua countr3\ We had 
travelled far, and were hungry, thirsty, and fatigued. From the fear of being 
exposed to lions, we preferred remaining at the village to proceeding during 
the night. The people at the village rather roughly directed us to halt at a 
distance. We asked water, but they would not supply it. I offered the 
three or four buttons which still remained on my jacket for a little milk ; this 
also was refused. We had the prospect of another hungry night, at a distance 
from water, though within sight of the river. We found it difficult to recon- 
cile ourselves to our lot ; for, in addition to repeated rebuffs, the manners 
of the villagers excited our suspicion. When twilight drew on, a woman 
approached from the heights beyond which the village lay. She bore on her 
head a bundle of wood, and had a vessel of milk in her hand. The latter, 
without opening her lips, she handed to us, laid down the wood, and returned 
to the village. A second time she approached, with a cooking vessel on her 
head, and a leg of mutton in one hand, and water in the other. She sat down 
without saying a word, prepared the fire, and put on the meat. We asked 
her again and again who she was. She remained silent till affectionately 
entreated to give us a reason for such unlooked-for kindness to strangers. 
The solitary tear stole down her sable cheek when she replied, 'I love Him 
whose servants you are ; and surely it is my duty to give you a cup of cold 
water in His name ; my heart is full, therefore I cannot speak the joy I feel 
to see you in this out-of-the-way place.'" She was a lonely disciple indeed, 
and her only means of keeping the spiritual life awake within her was a cop)' 
of the Dutch New Testament, Avhich she had got years before, Avheu in a 
missionary school, previous to removing with her relatives far up the country. 

Realising the great opportunity that was now given to spread the 
gospel in the interior, Moffat declined to seek the rest he so much needed ; 
and in spite of the risks of African travel and his advanced years, resolved 
to visit his old friend Mosclckatse again, in order to further the proposed 

CHASING T H [ s 1 l! I C 11 


settlement of missionaries. He was this time received with great enthusiasm, 
both by king and people ; they had been longing for another visit from him. 
The king was willing to receive the teachers, if Moffat would only stay with 
them ; but when he found that this was impracticable, he consented to receive 
them on any condition. It was during this visit that Moffat's influence with 
Mosclekatse was so clearly shown by his obtaining the release of Macheng, 
the son of the late king of the Baniangwatos. Macheng's father had been 
killed in an engagement, and the child had been taken prisoner some time 
afterwards, when ho was under the care of the Bcchuana chief, Sechele. lie 
had been so bereft for several years. Moffat accompanied him to his own 
country. There were great rejoicings over the deliverance of the young 
chief. " Is it not through the love of God that Machenji: is amon": us to- 
day?" said Sechele. "A stranger, one of a nation — wiio of you knows its 
distance from us? — he makes himself, one of us, enters the lion's abode, and 
brings out to us our own blood." One of the Matabele, who had accompanied 
Moffat and Macheng, now assured the assembled multitude that Moselekatse 
desired nothing but to live in amity with them. Sechele and his people were 
overjoyed to hear such words from the representative of a tribe which, though 
distant from them, had been, till now, a terror to them both by night and 
by day. 

Moffat now proceeded to Cape Town to meet Livingstone, who was on 
his way to the Zambesi. They had not seen each other for six years. And 
the joy of the meeting may bo imagined. But Livingstone's halt was short. 
He proceeded on his great expedition ; and in a few months more Moffat was 
once again at Cape Town, welcoming the new missionaries, among whom was 
his own son. At Kuruman they divided into two bands. One party went 
under charge of Mr. Helmore, who had been for many years stationed at 
Likatloug, northwards to the land of Makulolo ; the other went forward, in 
the care of Mr. Moffat, to Moselekatse's country, where they were not only 
received kindly, but met with a sort of triumphal reception. Thus auspici- 
ously the missionaries reached the settlement of Matabele. This mission has 
been very successful. Mosclekatse died some years after its commencement ; 
but his successor, Lobengole, is as favourably disposed towards the mission- 
aries as he was. The Makololo mission, however, did not fare so well. A 
series of misfortunes awaited it, the story of which has been told very graphic- 
ally by the Rev. John Mackenzie in his volume, " Ten Years North of the 
Orange River." We must turn to him and his companions for a little space. 

It had been one of the inducements to the establishment of these missions 
that the chief of the Makololo had agreed with Livingstone to shift from 
the swamps of Linyanti to the north bank of the Zambesi, on missionaries 
being settled amongst them ; whilst, at the same time, it was believed that 
Moffat's influence with ^loseltkatse was so strong as to be trusted to induce 


liiiii to desist from any kind of armed interference witli the Makololo. !Mr. 
Mackenzie, and the appointed brethren to this settlement, anticipated diffi- 
culty in the accomplishment of the plan (for the removal of a tribe is a 
hard matter, even tlioiigli the chief has promised), just as they looked forward 
to many sufferings in tlieir journey ; and, indeed, it is doubtful -whetlicr tlioy 
■would have been brave enougli to have set out at all, had it not been that 
Livingstone had promised to meet them at Linyantl and to make them known 
to (he people. The journey proved trying beyond all their expectations. Tlicy 
had their due share of disai:)pointments and hindrances between Cape Town 
and Kui-uman ; but the last stage was little short of being only a succession 
of misfortunes. Through Bushman's Land, wliere, on more tlian one occa- 
sion, the track was lost, tliey proceeded slowly ; now waiting for guides, now 
in terror of lions, now delayed by the breaking of waggon-wheels, the sinking 
of the waggons in the sand, or the w\ant of water. " I had to exercise my 
skill as a waggon-mender," says Mr. Mackenzie. " I had to put in a false 
nave in one of the wheels, -which, with my materials, Avas a most diflicult 
undertaking. A shoemaker, or a cabinet-maker, making and inserting a sot 
of false teeth, would be in a position somewliat analogous to mine." Now 
and then, owing to the fact that, in some districts in the hot season, there may 
be no water for hundreds of miles, the party had frequently to take indirect 
roads. Often there were difficulties witli the guides. Tlicy would disappear 
in search of water for themselves at the most critical i:)oints, and all that was 
then left for the party was simply to unyoke the oxen and take such rest as 
they could. When they reached the Zougu, they were warned against pro- 
ceeding towards Linyanti because of the tsetse ; and they were tokl tliat all 
the teachers who had gone last year to Makololo were dead save one. There 
was now therefore nothing for it but that the missionaries should turn their 
backs on Linyanti. They preached in various villages on tlieir way, and, at 
length reached Kuruman, glad to find themselves once more in a Christian 

Just when another journey to Makololo Land was being meditated by Mr. 
Mackenzie, the news reached Kuruman of the chief's death. There was a 
contest for the chieftainship, and much bloodshed followed. Tlie tribe was 
so decimated by internecine strife, that it soon became a prey to their weaker 
neighbours, who had formerly been jieriodically despoiled by it, and who now 
united to put an end to the existence of the common enemj-. Mackenzie 
then settled at Shosliong, the capital of the Bamangwatos country, on the 
borders of the Kalihari Desert; and continued to labour here, Avith short 
intervals of absence, during wliich he was engaged elsewhere, until 1870, 
when he returned to England. After a brief season of repose he went back 
to the scene of his many toils, and is still patiently pursuing his arduous 
work. Speaking of his success, ho sa}-^ — " I am persuaded, that the new 


religion has taken such root at Shoshong as that, with a supply of Christian 
literature, it would not readily disappear, even if left to itself." 

As for Moffat, Kuruman was with him henceforth but a centre for many 
and varied points of interest. His son, Mr. Jolm Moffiit, who camo to Kuru- 
man to act as his fatlicr's assistant in preaching and printing, tells how his 
father, thougli then threescore and ten, shared with him the labour of riding 
to distant villages to preach or hold prayer-meetings. But the untiring energy 
of the noble veteran could not hold out for ever; and in 1870, he returned to 
England, after a service in the most trying jiortions of the missionary field, 
extending over ujjwards of fifty years. Looking back over his life, it seems a 
very marvellous one. lie himself can suuunarisc the result of his labours 
and that of his brother missionaries thus :— " Christianity has already accom- 
plished much. When first I went to Kuruman scarcely an individual could 
go beyond. Now they travel in safety as far as tlie Zambesi. Then we were 
strangers, and they could not understand us. "We were treated with indig- 
nity as the outcasts of society, who, driven from among our own race, took 
refuge with them. Bearing in remembrance what our Saviour underwent, 
we persevered, and much success has rewarded our efi"orts. Now it is safe to 
traverse any part of the country, and traders travel far beyond Kuruman 
without fear of molestation. Formerly men of one native tribe could not 
travel through another's territory, and wars were frequent. Where one 
station was scarce!}" tolerated, now there are several. Very prosperous is our 
advanced station with the Matebele, who, I quite expect, will one day become 
a great nation. They sternly obey their own laws ; and I have noticed that 
when men of fixed jirinciples become convinced of the truth of Christianity^ 
they hold firmly to the faitli and are not lightly shaken." At present the 
London Missionary Society has about thirty hZuropean missionaries labouring 
in South Africa, besides a number of native teachers, and, though they have 
to complain of many discouragements, they yet rejoice that their labour is 
not in vain. 

In the year 181-i, the "Wesleyan Missionary Society began to take its 
share in the evangelisation of Southern Africa, when the Rev. J. M'Kenny 
was sent out as the first missionary. He arrived in Cape Town on the 7th 
of August; but such was the jealousy of the Government authorities at that, 
period that he was not allowed to open his commission, or to preach in the 
colony, although he produced credentials of tlic most satisfactory character. 
He was therefore instructed by tlie Missionary Committee to proceed to 
Ceylon. They were not disjDosed, however, to relinquish their efl'orts for 
the spiritual welfare of the degraded tribes of Southern Africa, in conse- 
quence of the comparative failure of their first experiment, and next ap- 
pointed the Rev. Bai-nabas Shaw to attempt the commencement of a mission 
to the Cape colony. On his arrival at Cape Town, in 1815, he presented 


liis crcilentials to the governor, but met with no better success than his predo- 
cessoi-. His excellency declined to give him permission to preach in Capo 
Town, on the ground that the English and the Dutch colonists were provided 
with ministers, whilst the owners of slaves were unwilling to have them 
religiously instructed, c Mr. Shaw naively says, "Having been refused the 
sanction of the governor, I was resolved what to do, and commenced without 
it on the following Sabbath. My congregations at first were chiefly composed 
of pious soldiers; and it was in a room hired by them that I first preached 
Christ and Him crucified in South Africa." 

Although it would ajopear that the Government authorities took no 
notice for the time being of this infringement of their regulations, yet the 
spirit of prejudice against missionary efibrts prevailed among the colonists to 
such an extent, that Mr. Shaw was much discouraged, as he saw little pro- 
spect of good in Cape Towm. Under these circumstances ho longed for an 
opening to preach the gospel to the heathen in the interior, where he would 
not be subject to the annoyances and hindrances which he exjierienced in the 
colony. At length an opportunity was afforded of engaging in this enter- 
prise. One of the agents of the London Missionary Society came to Cajoe 
Town from Great Namaqua Land on a visit, and he made such representations 
of the openings for missionary labour in that country, that Mr. Shaw and his 
wife resolved to accompany him on his return, according to his kind invitation. 
Leaving Cape Town, the missionary party had pursued their toilsome journey 
for nearly a month, and had crossed tlic Elephant River, when, by a remark- 
able providence, Mr. Shaw found an opening for a suitable sphere of labour. 
He actually met with tlie chief of Little Namaqua Land, accompanied by 
four men, on his way to Cape Town to seek for a Christian teacher. Having 
heard his affecting story, and being deeply impressed with the fact that the 
finger of God was pointing in the direction in which he ought to go, the mis- 
sionary agreed to accompany the chief to his mountain home, and to take up 
his abode with him and his people. About three weeks afterwards, they 
reached Lily Fountain, the principal home of the tribe of Little Namaquas ; 
and the foundation of an interesting mission was laid, which, from that day 
to this, has continued to exercise a most beneficial influence on all around. 

- On reaching the end of their journey, and outspanning for the night, a 
council was held by the chief and some of his head men respecting the arrival 
of the missionary, when they all entreated him to remain with them, and pro- 
mised to assist him in every possible way. He, therefore, immediately opened 
his commission by proclaiming the glad tidings of salvation, and by teaching 
both old and young the elements of religion, and the use of letters. It was 
trying work, and required much patience ; but labour, jirayer, faith, perse- 
verance, were eventually rewarded with success. A number of children and 
young people learned to read with tolerable facility ; and a native church 


■was formed of faithful members, who were fi credit to tlieir religious profcs- 
Eion. At the same time the civilising influences of Cl'.ristianity were brought 
to bear upon the people ; and, from year to year, their temporal condition 
was materially improved, Wliilst the missionary was thus endeavouring to 
instruct the people, he had to labour hard at intervals to build a house to live 
in, and a humble sanctuary for the worship of God. In the accomi)lishment 
of these undertakings many difficulties had to be overcome. The people, 
althoudi willins: to assist, had never been accustomed to continuous labour, 
and ludicrous scenes were witnessed in the progress of the work. When the 
buildings were ready for the roofs, no trees fit for timber could be found 
within a day's journey of the station ; but when they arrived at the place, 
the missionary produced for the first time his cross-cut saw, himself working 
at one end and a Namaqua at the otlier. Great was the joy of the people on 
beholding the result, and they could scarcely be restrained from cutting more 
timber than was required, on account of tlicir delight at witnessing the per- 
formance of the instrument as one tree after another fell to the ground. Nor 
were their delight and surprise the less on seeing the first plough set to work, 
which the missionary had made cldcfly withhis own hands. The old chief 
stood upon a hill for some time in mute astonishment. At length he called 
to his councillors, at a short distance, saying, "Come and sec the strange 
thing. Look how it tears up tlie ground with its iron mouth ! If it goes on 
so all the day, it will do more work tlian ten wives ! " Hitherto the work of 
tilling the ground had been left to the women and slaves ; but the introduction 
of the gospel into the country was destined to mark a new era in agricultural 
pursuits, as well as in the moral condition of the people. Mr. Shaw had 
taken with him to Africa a few garden seeds, the rai)id growth of whicli 
amused the natives very much ; but wlien they saw the use to whicli the let- 
tuce and other salads were appropriated, they laughed heartily, saying, " If 
the missionary and his wife can eat grass, they need never starve ! " 

Wlien the mission Avas fully organised, Mr. Shaw required assistance, 
and, in 1818, the Rev. E. Edwards was sent out from England to join him. 
On his arrival at Capo Town, as there was no waggon to convey him and his 
bao-gage to the scene of his future labours, he performed the journey, a 
distance of nearly four hundred miles, on liorseback — a feat which gave good 
i)romise that he was made of the true missionary metal, which was amply 
verified in after years. Scarcely any of the natives understood either Dutch 
or English, and the missionaiy had to preach tln-ough the medium of an 
interpreter ; but now all the services arc conducted in the Dutch language, 
which is generally understood both by old and young, whilst a few aro 
gradually becoming acquainted with English. A brief account of one or two 
visits paid to this interesting station in recent years, will give some idea of 
the progress that has been made. Speaking of a visit in tlie month of July, 


1853, the Rev. W. Moister, says — "After a toilsome journey through the wil- 
derness, we arrived at Bethel, on Friday, the 1-itIi, and were glad to find that 
the resident missionary, the Rev. J. A. Bailie, and the people of the station, 
had already removed to the Undervcldt for the winter months. Saturday 
was spent in conversing with jMr. Bailie and a few of the head men on various 
matters pertaining to the religious and temporal interests of the institution, 
the result of which was very satisfactory. Towards evening, a number of 
natives arrived at the station from distant places, some in waggons and others 
on horseback, to be ready for the services of the Sabbath. At an early hour 
on Sunday morning, we were awoke by the singing of the natives, who had 
already assembled in the adjoining chapel to hold their usual prayer-meeting. 
"We immediately arose, and joined them in their devotions. The prayers 
were offered partly in Dutch, and jjartly in Namaqua; and, although wo 
could not understand all that was said, their supplications were apparently 
so fervent and so sincere, that we felt it good to be there. At ten o'clock 
the writer preached to an attentive congregation, of about two hundred 
Kamaquas, Mr. Bailie kindly intei'preting. There was an evident manifesta- 
tion of Divine influence, and it was a season long to be remembered." 

The same gentleman paid a second visit to this station, in the month of 
October, 1855, and under more favourable circumstances for more thoroughly 
examining its condition. The people had just completed the erection of a 
beautiful new chapel, capable of accommodating six hundred persons, built of 
stone, in the Gothic style of architecture, at a cost of about £1000 ; and yet 
it had been erected by their united efforts and contributions, without any 
foreign aid, with the exception of the gift of the pulpit by a few friends in 
Cape Town. It is a striking monument of the genius, zeal, and liberality of 
both the missionary and his flock, as well as a tangible proof of the progress 
of religion and civilisation among a people whom the gospel has raised from 
a state of the deepest moral degradation. The new chaj^jcl was filled with a 
congregation of deeply-attentive and well-dressed natives; and at the first of 
the opening services the collection amounted to £16, 4s., although money is 
but little used in that country. One hundred and eighty-four persons were 
found united in church fellowship, and three hundred scholars are attending 
the mission schools. Abundant evidences also appeared of material progress 
and improvement in the temporal affairs of the people. About seven hun- 
dred acres of land had been brought under cultivation ; and the natives 
belonging to the institution owned about one hundred ploughs, thirty wag- 
gons, two thousand five hundred horned cattle, four hundred horses, and 
seven thousand sheep and goats. The good work of civilisation and reli- 
gious instruction has also been extended to Norap, Kaauewgoed, Vlekte, 
Roodebergs, Kloof, and other out-statious, with much advantage to tho 


In the year 1825, the way for the extension of the work to Great Nama- 
qua Land seemed to open. The Rev. W. Threlfall, accompanied by two 
native teachers, started thitliev on a journe}- of observation. They were 
mounted on oxen, after the fashion of the country, and travelled without 
molestation till they had got two or three days' journey beyond the Orange 
River. At this point they came in contact with troublesome wandering 
tribes of Bushmen. Although they had with them a few goods for barter, 
tliey sufl'ercd much for want of food, the people being unfriendly and unwil- 
ling to supjily them. They obtained a guide at a certain Bushman's village; 
but ho and his companions formed a plot for the destruction of the whole 
mission party, that they miglit take possession of their effects. The follow- 
ing night, while Mr. Threlfall and his companions were sleeping under a bush 
as usual, without the slightest apprehension of danger, their foes came upon 
them, and murdered them in cold blood. And although the principal culjjrit 
was afterwards apprehended, tried, condenuied, and executed for his crime, 
the sad disaster cast a gloom over the mission cause, and put an end, for the 
time, to any further attempts to establish a mission to the north of the 
Orange River. In 1832, however, the way seemed to open once more, and 
a mission was started, which has been continued, witli various fluctuations, to 
the present time. 

The Weslcyan Methodists have a considerable number of missionai'ies, 
and some thousands of converts in tlie eastern province of the Cape colony. 
They began their labours in 1820, and have continued them ever since, 
seeking to benefit both the settlers and the native tribes. The Rev. W. Shaw 
was honoured to labour in that part of the country, for nearly fifty years, 
with remarkable success. The Rev. S. Kay was also among the success- 
ful workers in this field. He describes, in his " History of Mission Work in 
Caflfraria," a missionary meeting, at which seven native chiefs, together with a 
immbcr of civil and militar}^ ofiicers from the colony, were jiresent. On this 
occasion all the chiefs spoke with ardour and eloquence in favour of the 
Christian religion— the " Great "Word," as they emphatically called it, and 
expressed their full conviction tliat tlic labours of the missionaries, independ- 
ently of their spiritual benefits, had tended greatly to promote the peace and 
prosperity of their country. The various stations of Wesleyville, Mount 
Coke, Butterworth, New Morley, Clarkebury, Buntingville, Sliawbury, Pal- 
merton, form a continuous chain from Graliam's Town to Natal ; and the 
Christian traveller may now prosecute his journey from the one extremity to 
the other in perfect safety, and receive a welcome greeting, and tlie rites of 
hospitality, at many a smiling home in the wilderness through wliich he is 
obliged to pass, which was not the case in former times. Every one of the 
mission stations is an as}-lum for the oppressed and afflicted, as well as a 
school of Christ, in which may be learned the lessons of His love j and every 


niissioiinry i.s a friend of the persecuted outcast. Often has the life of tlie 
poor doomed victim been spared at tlie intercession of the man of God ; and 
many a time has the homeless fup^itive found shelter in tlie " city of rcfuf;^e." 
It is a ])lcasing fact that Christian schools for the instruction of the rising 
generation have been established in connection with each station, where 
many have been taught the word of God for themselves ; and it is a still 
more pleasing fact that thousands have found forgiveness for their sins, and 
everlasting life. 

Far away in the Bcchuana country, something has been done also by Wes- 
leyan missionaries. In the year 1822, they made their first attempt to plant 
the standard of the cross in that region ; and, although it partly failed at the 
commencement, in consequence of the sickness of the missionaries and the 
unsettled state of the country, it was afterwards renewed with more favour- 
able results. Remnants of various scattered tribes have, from time to time, 
gathered around the missionaries, and, through their influence, have settled 
down and become a comparatively prosperous and happy 2oeoi;)lo. A town 
has gradually grown up, which now contains a population of ten thousand 
— probably the largest assemblage of natives in one spot in any part of 
Southern Africa. 

In the colony of Natal the AVcsleyan missionaries arc laborious and suc- 
cessful. At Mariizburg, at D"Urban, at Ladysniith, at Verulam, at Unihlali, 
and other places, they conduct services for the benefit of the English, and also 
the natives. One feature of their work in Natal is peculiarly interesting — we 
allude to the Mission to the Indian Coolies settled there. To meet the alleged 
demand for continuous labour on the sugar, cofl'ee, and other estates, several 
shiploads of Coolies were imported to the colony some years ago, to the num- 
ber of six or seven thousand. These were collected from almost every town 
of our Indian Emi)iie, and spoke no fewer than ten different languages. Two 
missionaries are constantly engaged in itinerating among the estates where 
these Coolies are located, preaching to them in their own tongue Christ and 
llim crucified at eighty different places, the extremes of which are one hun- 
dred miles apart. While the work of the "Wcsleyan Missionary Society in 
Natal is of this mixed character, it must be remembered that its jirime object 
is the evangelisation of the native Zoolas. Before we take leave of the efforts 
of this Society in Southern Africa, we may just glance at the aggregate statis- 
tical results of the past half century, so far as they can be tabulated. There 
are seventy missionaries preaching the gos2:)el in the A'crnacular tongues of 
the people to whom they minister ; eleven thousand five hundred and twenty- 
four church members of different nations and tribes of 2)eo2)lo ; and twelve 
thousand three hundred and forty-three scholars receiving instruction in the 
mission schools. It is a note-worthy fact also that the Holy Scriptures, hymn- 
books, catechisms, and other religious publications, have been translated into 


five or six different languages, by the missionaries, for the use of the natives. 
Some of these languages had never been written when they undertook the 
task of reducing them to a grammatical form. To the Rev. W. B. Boyce 
belongs the honour of compiling the first Caffre grammar, and of unravelling 
the intricacies of one of the most difficult languages of Southern Africa. 

The Oxford and Cambridge Central African Mission in connection with 
the Church of England deserves a jilace in our chapter on mission work in 
Southern and Central Africa. The geographical discoveries of Dr. Living- 
stone, when told by himself on his visit to this country in 1856, awakened a 
profound and wide-spread interest. The unaffected and simple bearing of the 
great traveller, the evident high principles of the man, the resolute will, and 
calm, conscious, self-possessed power that had carried him through the toils 
and perils of his sixteen years' African research, opened all hearts to his 
story. It had its side of interest for every one and for every class. For the 
scientific, in the fresh materials it contributed to the geography of the great 
terra incognito ; for the merchant, in the new regions it threw ojDcn to his 
enterprise, and the highway of waters it revealed for the exchanges of com- 
merce ; for the curious, in the narrative of strange adventures and hair- 
breadth escapes, in regions and amongst tribes hitherto unknown ; and lastly, 
and chiefly, for the Christian philanthropist, from the fresh hopes it inspired of 
penetrating the solid darkness of the Central African continent, and striking 
an eflfectual blow at its accursed traffic in its own children. Livingstone knew 
how to turn the position he had gained to the account of the cause for which 
his geographical researches had been prosecuted. He carried out his noble 
maxim, which we quoted at the beginning of this chapter. With a mind 
thoroughly unsectarian, he ap2)ealed to all sections of the Church, and alike 
to Episcopalians and Nonconformists. His visit to Cambridge about a year 
after his return was amongst the most remarkable events of his home life. 
His reception was an ovation. His lecture on the occasion closed witli words 
that could not be forgotten in an assembly composed at once of the gi-ave and 
reflective, and of the impressive, ardent, and enterprising minds of the Uni- 
versity. " I'll go back," said he, " to Africa to try to make an open path for 
commerce and Christianity. Do you carry out the work which I have begun. 
I leave it with you." 

The seed which Livingstone sowed in that lecture ripened slowly. A 
dead lull succeeded the storm of enthusiasm, and Livingstone and his Africans 
seemed forgotten. He was not however to be altogether disappointed. There 
was labouring among the Caffrcs at the time an earnest devoted man, Charles 
Frederick Mackenzie by name, who had taken a high place in Canibridge 
University, and who had gone out some time before to preach among the 
heathen the unsearchable riches of Christ. The energy and zeal of Mac- 
kenzie were apostolic. In his wilderness home at Umhlali, in the Caflre school, 



or in the midst of the Cafl're village, and the native infant churches, he found 
scope for his simple, earnest. Christian faith and woi-k. There, as he rejoiced 
in the abundance of his congenial labour, and thought of the brief twelve 
hours of the Sabbath day on which it had mainly to be wrought, he wrote 
home — "My only regret is, that I cannot make more of my Sunday than 
what I do. I wish I could say, like Joshua, ' Sun, stand thou still.' " The 
labours for whicli he would thus have stayed the too rapid sun, his sister has 
chronicled. It is a roll of service, the bare reading of which is enough to 
quicken all Christian labourers to greater diligence. " His Sunday labours," 
she says, " are very intense. He has short early CafFre prayers, then breakfast 
at half-past seven. Full service at the camp for the soldiers at nine. It is 
about two miles off. As soon as he comes back the congregation is assembling 
here, and his horse is saddled for him to mount as soon as the service is over. 
He has another service at Mount Moreland, about sixteen miles off, at three P. M. 
In coming here he pointed out the spot where his horse always knows he 
may walk instead of trotting, to allow him to eat his dinner of sandwiches. 
This ride in the hot sun is very knocking-up, both for him and his horse, 
lie told us he was in similar circumstances to Elijah, as the brook he used to 
drink from was now dried up. Uis horse is again ready for him when this 
service is over, and he rides to Verulam, either four or six miles, where he has 
service at six p. m. He goes to sup with a kind Dutch lady, and spends the 

night with Mr. . This is Monday, and it is getting dark, and he has 

not returned, and he tells us perhaps he may not always return home till 
Tuesday, but do parish visiting work at that end of his parish while he is 

The missionary labours, and the brief residence of Mackenzie in South 
Africa, were abruptly closed by his proceeding to England, in prosecution of 
arrangements for the appointment of a Missionary Bishop to the Zoola 
country. The Oxford and Cambridge Mission, which had been slowly organ- 
ising since the period of Livingstone's visit, had received a fresh imjDulse at 
the time of Mackenzie's return. An enthusiastic meeting had been addressed 
at Cambridge by Mr. Gladstone, Sir George Grey, and the Bishop of Oxford ; 
the Society had been constituted, and its objects defined. The field chosen 
was South Central Africa ; and the object of the mission announced to be 
the establishment of one or two more stations as centres of Christianity and 
civilisation. With the Christian instruction of the natives, there Avas to be 
kept specially in view the promotion of agriculture, lawful commerce, and 
ultimate extirpation of the slave-trade. The mission was cast after the 
conception of those early mission monasteries to which England and Germany 
owed their Christianity and first lessons in civilisation, only free from their 
monastic restraints. It Avas to be a settlement practically to illustrate 
Christian life, and from whence, as a centre, to spread Christian truth. Six 


clergymen, with a hishop at their head ; a physician, surgeon, or medical 
practitioner, and artificers skilled in building, husbandry, and especiall}^ in 
the cotton plant, were to constitute, at the starting, the missionary staff. For 
ways and means the Society proposed to raise £20,000 to meet the cost of 
establishing the mission, and to guarantee, for five years, a subscription of 
£2,000 per annam for its annual support. The scheme was planned on a 
scale worthy of the Universities ; and if the ultimate choice of a location had 
corresponded with the sagacity of the preliminary arrangements, its brief 
history would have presented a less discouraging record of failure. Tlie most 
anxious of the preliminary steps was the selection of a leader for the enter- 
prise. The difficulty was being keenly felt, when i\Iuckcnzie, re-appearing at 
Cambridge like one, as it was said, who had dropped from the clouds, was 
at once recognised as the man to head the mission. As a distinguished fellow 
of Caius College, and a favourite with all classes of the University, he pos- 
sessed no slight recommendations for the leadership of a mission to which it 
was desired, from the first, to attach a distinctively academic character. His 
personal character, in its strength of will and energy of purpose, his child- 
like faith, and gentle qualities of heart, were well known. Three years of 
Afi-ican residence and missionary training, had added practical experience to 
his natural and Christian qualifications ; while his tall, robust, manly form, 
developed into increased strength during the years of his absence, presented 
the model of the physical power before which savage natives instinctively 
bow, and that promised endurance in conflict with the fever-shocks and 
sustained hardshijjs of an African wilderness settlement. No sooner was his 
return known, than the invitation was given him to occupy the position of 
leader in the new enterprise. He had been in the gallery of the Senate 
House, in company with some friends, on the occasion of the enthusiastic 
meeting at which the organisation of the Society had been arranged, and 
in harmony with his calmer tone of mind, had remarked to one of them, 
" I am afraid of this ; most great works of this kind have been carried on by 
one or two men in a quieter way, and have had a more humble beginning." 
If he did not share in the excitement of the meeting, he felt all the more 
profoundly the claims of the new mission, and, when summoned to its head, 
a brief season sufficed for his decision. 

Mackenzie accepted the leadership of the mission, and sailed for Africa. 
At Cape Town, he was consecrated " Bishop of the Mission to the Tribes 
dwelling in the Neighbourhood of the Lake Nyanza and the River Shire." By 
arrangements with Dr. Livingstone, the missionary party was conveyed up 
the Zambesi and Shire in the small steamer which the Government had 
placed at the connnand of the traveller. Eight weeks were spent in a voyage 
of two hundred miles — the strength of the streams, the sharp bends of these 
rivers, the sand-banks and other imlookcd-for difficulties, retarding their 


progress. During his ascent of the Shire, Mackenzie wrote — " My hands are 
sore and cramped with hauling cables, and handling chains and anchors. The 
fact is, that we have been aground as many hours as we have been afloat, 
and the last stick has been the most troublesome of all." The emergencies 
of the voyage brought out the finest traits of the bishop's character. Living- 
stone was in admiration of the man, and speaks in the highest terms in his 
letters of the period of his character, and fitness for the enterprise. The 
termination of the river voyage at Chibisa was the commencement of an 
arduous land exi)loration. A settlement on the higli lands, under the wing 
of some friendly chief, had still to be sought out, and Livingstone, for a fort- 
night, accompanied them in the search. A powerful aggressive tribe, the 
Aiawa, were in progress of overrunning that part of the country, settling on 
the lands they wrested from the feebler occuj^ants, and disposing of the 
conquered tribes to the Portuguese slave-dealers. The chief of one of the 
assailed and weaker tribes, who had been known to Livingstone on his former 
visit, earnestly urged the settlement of the mission party in his territory, in 
the hope, as it afterwards appeared, of their assisting him against his encroach- 
ing and powerful enemy. 

The country thus chosen for the mission settlement presented many of 
the grander features of the Alpine African region. From a hill, which be- 
came the favourite resort of the members of the mission when their day's 
work was over, the eye wandered over a vast plain, covered with luxuriant 
vegetation, broken occasionally by sharp conical heights, and skirted on all 
sides with lofty mountains. To the north, Zomba, with its flat, table-like 
top, rose to the elevation of eight thousand feet ; Chiradzuro, to the south- 
west, with its gray peaks, shot uj) far above the clouds ; while, in a third 
direction, the Milanji mountains were jailed majestically, range on range. 
The general temperature of the station, from its elevation, was not greater 
than that of a fine June day in England, but unfortunately it was situated 
below the level of the surrounding country, literally " in a hole." It seems 
to have been chosen more for its capabilities as a place of defence in the 
event of attack, than from its sanitary virtues. It lay along the semicircular 
bend of a stream from which rose high banks, surrounded by a dense wood, 
and was approachable from the land side only by a narrow pathway, through 
trees and brushwood, in front of which a stockade could very easily be run 
from one bank of the river to the other. But, from its low position, the air 
was confined, and notwithstanding that the locality was four thousand feet 
above the level of the sea, it was rendered unhealthy by the noxious exhala- 
tions arising from the river. It was sixty miles from Chibisa, the station on 
the Shire, from which all their supplies had to be drafted over a hill country, 
and with no other means of transjiort than the back of the negro. AVorse 
than all, it was in the heart of a region distracted by the Portuguese slave- 


dealers, and kept in ceaseless alarms from the hostile and formidable Ajawa 
tribes. They had scarcely taken possession of their station, when an embassy 
from the surrounding Manganja chiefs implored their aid against the depre- 
dations of the Ajawa, jjillaging their crops, desolating their villages, and car- 
rying away their wives and children, to be sold to the Portuguese slave- 
dealers. The position of the mission was a perplexing one, and Mackenzie 
hardly knew what reply to give to the urgent calls of the assailed chiefs. At 
length, he resolved to comply with their request. The purity of his inten- 
tion is transparent, whatever opinion may be formed of the wisdom of his 
judgment in connection with the interests of the mission. That he might 
mitigate the horrors of war, and turn its evil to good, he bound the Man- 
ganja, as a condition of his help, that they should abstain in the future from 
all slave-dealing, and reserve to himself the sole disposal of prisonei's. 

It was at the close of a day's pursuit of the Ajawas, when the mission 
party re-assembled in the village, exhausted and foot-sore, that the bishop 
came in, carrying a boy on his shoulder, whom he had jiicked up early in the 
afternoon of the engagementj and along with him Charles, his black servant, 
carrying a child, which had been found at the door of the hut of a deserted 
village. The child was sickly, and by the time the village was reached it 
was deadly cold. Mackenzie took him into his own hut, wrajiped him in a 
blanket, and tried, though in vain, to administer some brandy. lie baptised 
the little African, and laid him by his side all night, that he might watch 
him, and repeat his attem])ts to administer some cordial. But in spite of his 
kind nursing, in the morning the child died. The bishop had given him his 
own name, Charles, and as he laid his remains in the grave which the chief 
had assigned as a burning place, he read over this first baptised of the mission 
the funeral service. In these acts of kindness to the children of an enemy, 
a new lesson was taught to the African tribes. The boy carried on the 
bishop's shoulder, and the sick child laid by his side, were the sermon they 
needed, and the good bishop could not have preached a more impressive one 
to his savage flock. It was not allowed to Bishop Mackenzie to mature the 
plan of his mission settlement, or, in despair of success, to transfer its opera- 
tions to another field. His strength was soon prostrated by severe succes- 
sive attacks of fever. B}- an unfortunate accident, his canoe had been upset, 
and his store of quinine and packet of medicine for combating fever swept 
away. No substitutes were at hand, and nothing could be procured to sus- 
tain the strength which the fever Avas striking down. He consequently fell 
a victim to its power, and died in the midst of his work. 

The history of the mission subsequent to the death of Mackenzie may be 
told in a few sentences. The natural unhealthincss of the settlement quickly 
drained the strength of the European members. Even the natives sank under 
the fever air of its low position, fifty having died within the first twelve or 


eiglitccn months. From the distracted state of tlie country, the most scanty 
supplies of provisions were with difficulty obtained, the greatest scarcity at 
times prevailed, and the -whole party was reduced to subsist upon pumpkins 
and unripe green fruit. When it was at length determined to abandon the 
station and settle at C'hibisa, the heat of the new settlement was found to be 
intolerable. Mr. Scudamore, one of the clergy who accompanied the bishop, 
sank under an attack of fever. Dr. Dickinson, the medical adviser of the 
mission, died from the same cause some months after ; while Mr. Rowley, one 
of the clergy, had to undertake a journey across the country to Tete in the 
capacity of commissary, for the purchase of sheejj and goats, to keep alive his 
all but famishing brethren. Before the new bishop arrived, other two of the 
members were so ill that the medical officer of Dr. Livingstone's expedition 
had advised, as the only chance of saving their lives, that they should leave 
the country, while a third soon after sailed for England, leaving the mission 
stripped of all but one or two of the original staff. On the arrival of Bishop 
Tozer with fresh auxiliaries, it was decided to abandon Chibisa, to break up 
the colony of released slaves, retaining only the orphan boys, and to remove 
the mission to a high mountain, the Morambala, about two miles nearer the 
coast. Even this latter scheme was abandoned, and the entire mission on the 
Zambesi and Shire broken up. Whatever the future of the Universities Mis- 
sion may be it is imjoossible to say ; but if it have no other story to tell than 
the life of its first bishop, its work will not have been in vain. The lecord 
of his simple self-dedication, noble unselfishness, heroism without display, 
cheerfulness under all trials, and singular union of feminine gentleness with 
calm energy of will, and loving, unfaltering submission to duty, will yet 
summon many a soldier to the mission ranks, prepared to follow in self-sacri- 
ficing love the footsteps of Charles Frederick Mackenzie. Our Universities 
have been slow to move in this great work of Christian missions ; but the later 
they have entered the field, the larger the volume of experience that lies 
before them ; and who should be abler to read, mark, and inwax-dly digest its 
many lessons for the practical guidance of their own enterprise ? The track 
upon which they have entered is studded with lights, and, not less helpful to 
their course, it is strewn with wrecks. The Christian community does not 
presume too much when it looks for their making a wise use of both. 

In 1821 two missionaries, Messrs Thomson and Bennie, went out to South 
Africa from Glasgow, under the direction of what was then called the Glasgow 
Missionary Society, with the view of commencing a mission in Caffraria. They 
were afterwards followed, from time to time, by other missionaries, and several 
stations were established by them among the Caffres. For several years, they 
had to encounter, however, great difficulties, partly from the indifferent and 
stupid character of the people, and partly from the unhappy disturbances 
which preva^ed between the Caffres and the British Government. The situ- 


ation of the missionaries was at once difficult and perilous. Flushed with 
success, or whetted by revenge, the CaflEres would not bear to be sjioken to ; 
and when the British troops began to scour the country, and burn their kraals, 
and seize their cattle, and make reprisals, they became excited almost to fury, 
and charged the missionaries with being their enemies, because they did not 
prevent the devastations of the soldiers. The missionaries stopped in the coun- 
try as long as they could ; but they were, at length, obliged to escape for 
their lives. Parties of soldiers were sent to protect them on their way to the 
English camp, and they afterwards escorted them to Graliara's Town. In 
leaving CaflFraria they sustained very heavy losses. Much of their property 
they were compelled to leave behind them ; much of it they were obliged to 
cast away on the road, that the waggons might not bo impeded on their 
journey. Mr. Chalmers saved little more than a Bible. Tlieir private losses 
were estimated at nearly a thousand pounds ; and the ^^ublic pro^Derty lost or 
destroyed, upwards of seven hundred and fifty pounds. In the latter part of 
1835, peace was restored to the country, and they returned to the scenes of 
their work. The mission i^remises at Chumie and Burnshill, though not 
destroyed, they found in a very dilapidated and ruinous condition. Doors 
and windows were broken, furniture of every description was carried away, 
the printing-press and types wore destroyed, the gardens were laid waste, and 
fragments of books and papers were lying scattered on the ground. At 
Lovedale and Pirrie, the desolation was still more complete. Most of the 
houses were burnt or otherwise reduced to a heap of ruins. 

The missionaries, after their return, set themselves to re^iair their 
dilapidated and ruined houses. They supplied the people witli food ; paid 
them for their work with goats, spades, picks, seed-corn, and other useful 
articles, deeming it their duty to make a vigorous effort to convince them 
that, by a little exertion, they might save themselves from famine without 
having recourse, and that in vain, to the rainmaker. The missionaries also 
resumed their accustomed labours among them ; and everj-thing, by degrees, 
assumed much the same aspect as before the war. Schools were established 
for imparting general instruction to the youth of both sexes, and also for 
teaching the girls sewing, first by the wives of the missionaries, and after- 
wards by female teachers sent out from this country. At most of the stations 
many of the Caffres had been baptised ; but the converts generally laboured 
under many imperfections. They had also to bear much from the opposition 
and reproaches of their countrymen, and often from their nearest relatives, 
and in their own dwellings. They were looked on by the heathen Caffres as 
men who had become mad, and who had foolishly renounced the customs 
and manners of their fathers. The native teachers, in particular, were fre- 
quently hooted and laughed at, when endeavouring to set before their 
countrymen the truths of religion. Tlie teacher of one school was debarred 


from making his usual visits to the neighbouring kraals, and the children 
were not allowed a footpath to the school, because a child belonging to the 
head man of the district had died, and it was said the teacher had killed it 
with his prayers. Another of tlie teachers was prevented for a time from 
visiting some krauls, because he dressed in European clothing, thereby giving 
proof of his disposition to bewitch the people, and especially the children. 
The mother of a family was charged with killing her clxildren since she began 
to pray and serve God. It was said that she had obtained such power as to 
rule the lightning, and be able to infuse poison into them. Her own people 
shunned her, and a piece of charmed wood was stuck up in every hut to ward 
off the power she had acquired over the electric fluid. Indeed, there pre- 
vailed in Caffraria great dread and mistrust of missionaries. Their stations 
were regarded by many as branch establishments of the Colonial Government, 
for the wholesale murder of the natives, and for despoiling them of theii 
country. The jealousy of the Caffres was also, in some instances, raised to 
a great height by the prevalence of disease in the country, and by the 
mortality which it occasioned, even though the missionaries sought to 
alleviate the calamity by supj^lying them with medicine. " The most 
unfounded tales," writes Mr. Ross, the missionary at Pirrie, " are in circula- 
tion among the people. It is said Mr. Laing brought the measles here in a 
red handkerchief \ that he wrote to me that he had killed many at the 
Keiskamma, and that I must kill the people here ; that Mr, Chalmers wrote 
me, that he had killed many at Chumie, and that I must do so here ; that I 
have smeared all the seats in the church with the measles, and that I am killing 
the people." 

In April, 1846, the British Government declared war against certain of 
the Caffre chiefs. It was no longer safe for the missionaries to remain in 
Caffraria; they therefore retired, with many of their converts, into the 
colony. The mission stations were all broken ujj. Chumie, including the 
churcli and other mission property, was burned to the ground ; Bui*nshill was 
also destroyed by fire; Pirrie was greatly injured; and Lovedale was con- 
verted into a gari'ison for the English troops. Though the Caffres gained, in 
the first instance some considerable advantages over the English forces, yet 
afterwards, tlie tide of war, as might have been foreseen, turned against 
them ; their spirit was broken, and after some months, they were glad again 
to sue for peace. The several stations were once more resumed by the 
missionaries, and brighter days were anticipated ; but this proved a fallacious 
hope. In December, 1850, hostilities again broke out between the English 
and the Caffres. This was a more terrible war than any that had j^receded 
It, and was of nmch longer continuance. It spread far and wide, and the 
devastations committed by both parties were fearful. All the mission 
stations were again broken up ; nearly all the missionaries retired further 


into the colony, some of them amidst circumstances of great difficulty and 
danger; and the converts were for the most part scattered. Thus, in the 
course of fifteen years, war had broken out three times between tlie Caflfres 
and the English, and was attended, on each occasion, by tlie breaking up of 
the mission and the destruction of the stations, including a large amount of 
property. Subsequently the work was resumed, and has been carried on 
with comparative success from that day to this. 

The Paris Society for Evangelical Missions was instituted in September, 
1827. Among the measures which it early adopted was the establishment of 
a College for the education of young men as missionaries ; and as a result of 
this, it was some years before it was in circumstances to undertake active ope- 
rations among the heathen. In July, 1829, the Rev. Messrs Bisseux, Lemue, 
and Holland, the first missionaries of the Society, sailed for South Africa. 
M. Bisseux settled in Wagenmaker Valley, about thirty miles from Cape Town, 
among the descendants of the French refugees and their slaves ; but Messrs 
Lemue and Holland proceeded into the interior, for the purpose of selecting a 
suitable station among one or other of the native tribes. After visiting vari- 
ous parts of the country, they ultimately settled at a place called Motito, in 
the Bechuana country. Other missionaries were afterwards sent out from 
time to time, and vai-ious stations established. These stations extended over 
a wide tract of country, and were generally remote from each other. Some 
of them, as may naturally be supposed, were more prosperous than others ; 
but yet the success of the mission was, on the whole, highly pleasing. The 
congregations were considerable ; numbers of the natives were baptised, many 
of whom were also admitted as communicants. The influence of the mission 
extended far beyond the stations, and was felt in a great part of the sur- 
rounding country. Polygamy and circumcision were disappearing, though 
many still kejjt up these practices, and it seemed as if it would be more diffi- 
cult to get rid of them than of most others of their customs. Many gave 
pleasing evidence of piety, and were zealous to make known the gospel to 
their countrymen. Schools were also established at the various stations, and 
were attended by considerable numbers of the natives, both old and young. 
Tlie wives of the missionaries rendered valuable service in the work of educa- 
tion, by superintending the schools for females ; by teaching both old and 
young to read ; by inculcating on them habits of order, economy, and pro- 
priety, and by giving them the first notions of the management and training 
of infants. 

The missionaries translated into the Sechuana language the Book of 
Psalms and the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and John. They also printed 
schoolbooks, a catechism, a collection of hymns and prayers, and short tracts 
on the chief doctrines and duties of religion. One of their number, M. Cas- 
salis, also published a wo)k, entitled Studies of the Sechuana Language, con- 



taining a grammar and a collection of Sechuana poetry, with the view of 
showing the genius of the language and the character of the people wlio 
speak it. The people under the care of the missionaries made considerable 
advances in some of the more common and necessary arts of civilised life. 
Many of them built themselves convenient houses — some of them of stone — 
instead of their old smoky, unhealthy huts. In place of the skins of animals, 
which they used to throw over their bodies, the men adopted in part the 
European dress, while the women who had learned to sew made decent 
clothes for themselves and their daughters. Tliough they were previously 
not simply a pastoral people, but cultivated millet and other produce, yet now 
their husbandry was considerably extended. They obtained ploughs and 
other agricultural implements, and man)' of them occupied themselves in the 
culture of corn, whicli they sold to the Dutch farmers for cattle, clothing, 
soap, salt, and other useful articles. Vaccination also was introduced amongst 
them ; and we trust that it may check in future the frightful ravages which 
smallpox was accustomed to make among them. It was singularly pleasing, 
on leaving deserts where the eye sought in vain for a few huts, or for the 
sight of a human being, to come suddenly on a beautiful hill, crowned with 
buildings, which were found, on a nearer approach, to form even a populous 
town. It was like an oasis in the desert, and the traveller contemplated, 
with admiration and delight, its groups of habitations, its church and its 
school-house, its gardens and its fields, its flocks and its herds — the whole 
furnishing a striking example of the influence of Christian missions in im- 
proving the condition of the most savage tribes. The missionary stations, 
however, suffered in common with other parts of the country from the depre- 
dations which the native ti'ibes carried on against each other, and the people 
were led sometimes to remove with their cattle to distant parts. Of late 
years, the state of the country has been more settled, and the missionaries 
have been able to pursue their work under more favourable circumstances. 

The Rhenish Missionary Society was constituted in 1828, by the union 
of three previous existing associations at Elberfeld, Barmen, and Cologne ; 
and they were soon after joined by other associations in the Rhenish Pro- 
vinces and in Westphalia. The seat of the Society is Barmen, and it derives 
its support chiefly from the territory between the Rhine and the Maase. In 
July, 1829, Messrs J. G. Leipoldt, G. A. Zahn, Pr. D. Luchhoff, and Theo- 
bald Von Wurmb, sailed from London for the Cape of Good Hope, with the 
view of establishing a mission in South Africa. These were the first mis- 
sionaries of the Society ; but they were afterwards followed by others, and 
numerous stations were formed by them, both within and beyond the colony. 
Some of them settled not only among the Namaquas, but in Damaraland, 
north of the tropic of Capricorn. In 1851, the numbers who had been baptised 
at the various stations since the commencement of the mission, amounted to 


four thousand three hundred and forty ; and the communicants were then 
one thousand six hundred and forty-seven. 

In October, 1833, the Berlin Missionary Society was formed, and com- 
menced its foreign operations, by sending four missionaries to South Africa. 
These were afterwards followed by others, and a number of stations were 
formed in the Cape colony, Caffraria, the Bechuana country, and Port Natal 
colony. In 1845, the Rev. Mr. Scholtz, who, with four other missionai'ies, 
had lately arrived in South Africa, was murdered by two CaflFres, when on 
the way to the scene of their future labours. They had just entered the Cape 
territory, and had outspanued for the night. Their men, among whom was 
a servant of Mr. Shepstone, one of the Methodist missionaries, slept round 
the fire, they themselves remaining in the waggon. About one o'clock in the 
morning, the violent barking of their dogs led them to suppose that a hyena 
was prowling around them ; but on some of the men advancing, two Caffres 
sprung out of the bush and attacked them. Mr. Shepstone's servant was 
stabbed with an assagai ; and on Mr. Scholtz, and another of the missionaries, 
named Kropp, opening the curtain of the waggon, and looking out to ascer- 
tain the cause of the noir^, the former received a stab from an assagai in the 
stomach. They drew back, and Scholtz pulled out the weapon. The wound, 
they thought, was not deej). Their men having run to several neighbouring 
waggons for heljj, the Caffres in the meanwhile made off. A surgeon having 
been obtained from Fort Peddie, he dressed Mr. Scholtz's wound, and it was 
proposed to remove him to the Wesleyan missionary station ; but his suffer- 
ings were too great to allow him to proceed far. His lips grew cold ; he 
became unable to swallow ; and shortly after, he expired. The dead body 
of the sei'vant was found in the bush, and the remains of both were, on the 
following day, committed to the grave. 

Six missionaries sailed from Boston, in the United States, in December 
1834, under the auspices of the American Board for Foreign Missions, for the 
Cai)e of Good Hoi^c, with a view to missionary oj^erations in the Zoola coun- 
try, half of them to labour in the interior, and half on the coast, at Port Natal 
or its vicinity. On their arrival at the Cape, three of them, Messrs Lindley, 
Wilson, and Venable, proceeded by way of Griqua Town and Kuruman to 
Mosika, where the French missionaries had begun a station a few 3-ears before 
among the Baharutsi ; they were soon, however, compelled to leave the coun- 
try, and to join their brethren, Messrs Champion, Grout, and Adams, at Port 
Natal. The progress of this mission appeared for some years to be encoui-ag- 
ing ; but, as tlie character of the Zoolas developed itself, the difficulties of 
their conversion became more manifest. One which met the missionarj- on 
the threshold of his labours, was their deep ignorance. It seems scarcely 
possible to cast even one ray of light into minds so darkened and perverted 
l)y sin. This was especially true of the female sex, whose condition, both 


temporal and spiritual, seemed almost beyond the reach of improvement. Aa 
the Zoolas obtained some knowledge of the nature and requirements of the 
gospel, they appeared to become more settled in their conviction that it was 
not the religion for them, and more resolved not to receive it. Their conduct 
was characterised, not so much by hostility, as by stupid indifference, though 
instances were not wanting of their showing the most determined and invete- 
rate opposition. 

Nor were the misssionaries without their difficulties and dangers of ano- 
ther kind. Mr. Butler having occasion to go to Amahlongwa, to make some 
arrangements for the preservation of the house and premises, until he sliould 
be able to remove thither, had to pass the river Umkomazi ; but, on coming 
to it, there being no natives at hand to manage the boat, he ventured to cross 
on horseback, though it was then deep and turbid. As he got over safely, 
when he returned the next day, he again ventured into the river in the same 
manner. When about two-thirds of the way across, his horse suddenly kicked 
and plunged, as if to disengage himself from his rider ; and the next moment, 
a crocodile seized Mr. Butler's thigh with his horrible jaws. The river at this 
place is about one hundred and fifty yards wide, if measured at right angles 
to the current, but from the point at which one enters, to that which he comes 
out, is three times as broad. The river at high tide, and when it is not swol- 
len, is from four to eight or ten feet deej}, and on each side the banks are 
skirted with high banks and reeds. Mr. Butler, when he felt the sliarp teeth 
of the crocodile, clung to the mane of his horse with a deathlike hold. 
Instantly he was dragged from the saddle, and both he and the horse were 
floundering in the water, often dragged entirely under it, and rapidly going 
down the stream. At first the crocodile drew them again into the middle of 
tlie water ; but at last the horse gained shallow water, and approached the 
shore. As soon as he was within reach, natives ran to his assistance, and 
beat off" the crocodile with spears and clubs. 

Mr. Butler was pierced with five deep gashes, and had lost much blood. 
He had left all his clothes, except his shirt and coat, on the opposite shore, 
with a native, who was to follow him ; but when the struggle commenced, the 
native returned, and durst not venture into the water again. It was now 
dark, and without clothes, and weak from loss of blood, he had seven miles 
to ride before he could reach the nearest missionary station. He borrowed a 
blanket from a native, and, after two hours' riding, he succeeded in reaching 
it more dead than alive. His horse also was terribly mangled; a foot square 
of the flesh and skin was torn from his flanks. The animal, it was supposed, 
first seized the horse, and when shaken off, caught Mr. Butler, first below the 
knee, and then by the thigh. There were five or six wounds, from two to 
four inches long, and from one half to two and a half inches wide. For eight 
or ten days he seemed to recover as fast as could be expected ; but he was 


then seized with fever, which threatened to be fatal. There was a tendenc}- 
to lock-jaw. He, however, recovered so far, as to be able to return to his 

In 1838, James Backhouse and George W. Walker, two members of tlio 
Society of Friends, visited South Africa, and {prosecuted their pious and bene- 
volent labours among all classes of the population. In the course of their 
extensive journeyings they visited the stations of most of the Missionary 
Societies to which we have referred, although they were scattered over a vast 
extent of country, and often at a great distance from one another. By the 
missionaries of the vai'ious denominations they were received in the most 
friendly manner, and every facility was given them, and assistance afforded, 
in addressing the people under their care. Though their addresses were not 
free from the peculiarities of Friends, yet their declarations concerning the 
way of salvation through Jesus Christ were such as to show the substantial 
unity of all Evangelical Christians. 

There is only one other missionary effort in Soutli Africa to be noticed — 
that of the Norwegian Missionary Society. This Society was ijistituted iu 
1842, and sent its missionaries to the Zoolas in Natal. An estate was bought 
near Maritzburg, for a station called Uitkompst. It is an interesting fact, 
that the printing press has been introduced among several of the tribes of 
South Africa — one among the Bcchuanas, in connection with the London 
Mission ; one iu the Basuto countx'y, in connection with the Paris Society ; 
one belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists ; and another in the Zoola coun- 
try, belonging to the American Board. Of the Sechuana language we have 
two grammars; of the Caffre language, two; and translations of various 
books in both languages. It is estimated that upwards of twenty thousand 
natives are regular accredited members of the various Christian churches — 
admitted to the communion of the Lord's table ; that there arc about twentj'- 
fivo thousand children in attendance at the various schools within and be- 
yond the colonies ; and that, at least, one hundred thousand of the people, 
old and young, may be regarded as more or less won over to Christianity. 
These are results for which all Christians and philanthropists will give 

One great obstacle to the success of missionary operations, is the conduct 
of Europeans who disgrace the Christian name. In many cases all that the 
natives learn from Europeans ai'e their vices. In his " Four Years in Southern 
Africa," Lieutenant Rose says, s^ieaking of Gaika — " It did not strike me 
that the savage tribes arc improved by their intercoui\sc with us. Gaika, the 
neighbouring chief, dressed in an old regimental jacket, was in the hut with 
his twenty-five wives ; and it was not without interest that I looked on one 
of whom Barrow had prognosticated so highly. He was then nineteen ; he 
is now fifty ; and melancholy is the change that has taken place in the 


interval. The English have given him their protection, and with it theii 
vices ; and he is a sunk and degraded being — a wretched savage, despised 
and suspected by his tribe, continually intoxicated, and ever ready to sell 
his wives for brandy. Such are the fruits of our protection ! Such have ever 
been the effects on the savage of the kindness of the civilised. If we find 
them simple and trusting, we leave them treacherous; if we find them 
temperate, wc leave them drunkards ; and, in after years, a plea for their 
destruction is founded on the very vices they have learned from us." 

Wo shall close this chapter with testimonies from one or two comjietent 
and independent witnesses as to the character of the missionaries, and the 
value of their labours in South Africa. Mr. Thompson, who was eight years 
a resident of the Cape, and who, during that time, travelled much in the 
interior, and who was neither a missionary, nor connected with any mis- 
sionary society, bears the following testimony to the character and results 
of missionary labour there : — " Having now visited the whole of the mis- 
sionary stations in Southern Africa, it may not be improper to express, in 
a few words, the opinion I have formed regarding them. The usual objec- 
tions against them are, that the generality of the missionaries are a fanatical 
class of men, more earnest to inculcate the peculiar dogmas of their different 
sects than to instruct the barbarous tribes in the arts of civilisation ; that 
most of them are vulgar and uninformed ; many of them injudicious ; some 
of them immoral; and, finall}^, that their exertions, whether to civilise or 
Christianise the natives, have not, hitherto, been followed by any commen- 
surate results. Now, my observations have led me to form a very different 
conclusion. It is no doubt true, that the missionaries labouring among the 
tribes of the interior, are generally persons of limited education, most of 
them having originall}' been common mechanics ; but it seems very doubtful 
whether men of more refined and cultivated minds would bo better adapted 
to meet the plain capacities of unintellectual barbarians ; and were such 
teachers ever so preferable, where could they be procured ? On the whole, 
the missionaries I have been acquainted with in South Africa, appear to me 
generall}- well adapted for such service. Most of them are men of good, 
plain understanding, and industrious habits, zealously interested in the success 
of theii- labours, cordially attached to the natives, and Avilling to encounter, 
for their improvement, toil, danger, and privation. A few instances, in a 
long course of years, of indiscreet, or indolent, or immoral persons having 
been found among the missionaries, proves nothing against the general 
respectability of their characters, or the utility of their exertions. Imperfec- 
tion will be found wherever human agents are employed. But such unfavour- 
able exceptions are rare ; while among them many persons of sujjerior 
ability, and even science, are to be found ; and I may safel}^ affirm that, at 
every missionary station I have visited, instruction in the arts of civilised 


life, and in the knowledge of pure and practical religion, go hand in hand. 
It is true that, among the more savage tribes of Bushmen, Korannas, and 
Bechuanas, the progress of the missions has hitherto been exceedingly slow 
and circumscribed. But persons who have visited these tribes, and are best 
qualified to appreciate the difficulties to be surmounted in instructing and 
civilising them, will, if they are not led away by prejudice, be far more 
disposed to admire the exemplary fortitude, patience, and perseverance of the 
missionaries, than to speak of them with contempt and contumely. 

" These devoted men are found in the remotest deserts, accompanying the 
wild and wandering savages from place to place, destitute of almost every 
comfort, and at times without even the necessaries of life. Some of them 
have, without murnmring, spent their whole lives in such service. Let those 
who consider missions as idle, or unavailing, visit Gnadenthal, Bethels-dorp, 
Theopolis, the Caffre stations, Griqua Town, Kamiesberg, etc; let them view 
what has been effected at these institutions for tribes of the natives, oppressed, 
neglected, or despised, by every other class of men of Christian name, and, if 
they do not find all accomplished which the world had perhaps too sanguinely 
anticipated, let them fairly weigh the obstacles that have been encountered, 
before they venture to jDronounce an unfavourable decision. For my own 
part, utterly unconnected as I am with missionaries or Missionary Societies of 
any description, I cannot, in candour and justice, withhold from them my 
humble meed of ^applause for their labours in Southern Africa. They have, 
Avitliout question, been in this country not only the devoted teachers of our 
holy religion to the heathen tribes, but also the indefatigable pioneers of dis- 
covery and civilisation. Nor is their character unappreciated by the natives. 
Averse as they still arc, in many places, to receive a religion, the doctrines 
of which are too pure and benevolent to be congenial to hearts dej^raved by 
selfish and vindictive passions, they are yet everywhere friendly to the mis- 
sionaries, eagerly invite them to reside in their territories, and consult them 
in all their emergencies. Such is the impression which the disinterestedness, 
patience, and kindness of the missionaries have, after long years of labour 
and difliculty, decidedly made even upon the wildest and fiercest of the South 
African tribes with whom they have come in contact ; and this favourable 
impression, where more has not yet been achieved, is of itself a most im^jortant 
step towards full and ultimate success." 

•' I have seen," says Mr. Chapman, in his " Travels in the Interior of 
Africa," a great deal of missionaries and missionary life, and have every 
reason to sym])athise with them. Their labours are difficult; their trials 
many ; their earthly reward a bare subsistence. I believe that the real 
causes of dislike to the missionaries in South Africa are the avarice of trade, 
and jealousy of the influence they possess, and the check they are ujion those 
who would like to exercise an arbitrary and unjust authority over the natives. 


The missionaries are a class of men, generally speaking, so irreproachable, 
that the scandals of the unjjrinciplod cannot affect them with well-thinking 
men, nor do their characters require any further defence from me." Lord 
Napier, the Governor of Madras, said a year or two ago, in a speech before a 
large public assembly, " I must express my deep sense of the importance of 
missions as a general civilising agency in the south of India." This is the 
testimony of all right-minded men concerning the effect of Christian missiona 
throughout the entire heathen world. 


Livingstone goes dotvn to the Cape — Journegs from thence into the Interior — Reaches 
Linganti — Ascends the Leeamhge and the Leeba — Visits Shinte — Arrives at 

TN April, 1852, Livingstone went down to Cape Town, being the first time 
A during eleven years that he had visited the scenes of civilization. Having 
placed his family on board a ship bound for England, and promised to rejoia 
them in two years, he parted from them, as it subsequently proved, for nearly 
five years. He then started, in the beginning of June, from Cape Town, on 
a journey which extended from the southern extremity of the continent to 
St. Paul do Loanda, the capital of Angola, on the west coast, and thence 
across South Central Africa, in an oblique direction, to Kilimane, in 
Eastern Africa ; and which lasted four years. He proceeded by waggon ; 
his route to the north lying near the centre of the cone-shaped mass of land 
which constitutes the promontory of the Cape. The parts of the colony 
through which he passed were of sterile aspect. The landscape was uninviting ; 
the hills, destitute of trees, were of a dark-brown colour, and the scanty vege- 
tation on the plains gave the country a most desert appearance. When first 
taken possession of, these parts are said to have been covered with a coating 
of grass, but that has disappeared with the antelopes which fed upon it, and 
a crop of mesembryanthemums and crassula.s occupies its place. 

'• It is curious to observe how, in nature, organisations the most dissimilar 
arc mutually dependent on each other for their perjjetuation. Here tho 
original grasses were dependent for dissemination on the grass-feeding animals, 
which scattered the seeds. When, by the death of the antelopes, no fresh 
sowing was made, the African droughts proved too much fortius form of vege- 
tation. But even this contingency was foreseen by the Omniscient one ; for, 
as we may now observe in the Kalahari Desert, another family of plants, the 
mesembryanthemums, stood ready to neutralise the aridity which must other- 
wise have followed. This family of plants possesses seed-vessels which re- 
main firmly shut on their contents while the soil is hot and dry, and thus 
preserve the vegetative power intact during the highest heat of the torrid sun; 
but when rain falls, the seed-vessel opens and sheds its contents just when 
there is tho greatest probability of their vegetating. In other plants heat 
and drought cause tlie seed-vessels to burst, and shed their charge. One of 



this I'amily is edible ; another possesses a tuberous root, which may be eaten 
raw ; and all are furnished with thick fleshy leaves, having pores capable of 
imbibing and retaining moisture from a very dry atmo.spliere and soil, so 
that, if a leaf is broken during a period of tlie greatest drought, it shows 
abundant circulating sap. The plants of this family are found much farther 
north, but the great abundance of the grasses prevents them from making any 
show. Tiicre, however, they stand, ready to fill up any gap which may 
occur in the present prevailing vegetation ; and should the grasses disappear, 
animal life would not necessarily be destroyed, because a reserve supply, 
equivalent to a fresh act of creative power, has been provided. 

" One of this family is so coloured as to blond in well with the hue of 
the soil and stones around it ; and a gri/llus of the same colour feeds on it. In 
the case of the insect, the peculiar colour is given as compensation for the 
deficiency of the power of motion, to enable it to elude the notice of birds. 
The continuation of the species is here the end in view. In the case of the 
jjlants the same device is adopted for a sort of double end — viz., perpetuation 
of the plants, by hiding it from animals, with the view that ultimately its 
extensive appearance will sustain that race. As this new vegetation is better 
adajDted for sheep and goats in a dry country than grass, the Boors supplant 
the latter by imitating the process by which gramnivorous antelojDes have 
so abundantly disseminated the seed of grasses. A few waggon-loads of 
mesembryauthemum-plants, in seed, are brought to a farm covered with a 
scanty crop of coarse grass, and placed on a spot to which the sheep have 
access in the evenings. As they eat a little every night, the seeds are di'opped 
over the grazing grounds, in this simple way, with a regularity which could 
not be matched except at the cost of an immense amount of labour. The 
place becomes in the course of a few years a sheej) farm, as these animals 
thrive on such herbage. As already mentioned, some plants of this famil}' 
are furnished with an additional contrivance for withstanding droughts — viz., 
oblong tubers, which, buried deep enough beneath the soil for complete 
protection from the scorching sun, serve as reservoirs of sap and nutriment 
during those rainless periods which recur perpetually in even the most 
favoured spots of Africa." 

In proceeding from Cape Town to Kuruman, Livingstone met with 
obstacles and misadventures which, at the time, proved trying to his ardent 
spirit, but in which he subsequently recognised the finger of God, for it was 
during this detention that the Trans-Vaal Boors made a nmrderous attack on 
tlie Bakwains, solely because their chief, Sechele, an admirable Christian 
man, would not become their vassal, or secure for them a monopoly of the 
trafiic in ivory by prohibiting English traders from passing through his country 
to the north. Ascribing this assertion of his undoubted right to the influence 
of Livingstone, these ruthless men resolved to wreak their vengeance upon 


the missionary, and made no secret of their murderous design. Having, 
therefore, desolated tlie native location at Kolobeng, and killed sixty of the 
Bakwains, they hastened to the mission-house. On reaching the spot, the 
commandant repeatedly expressed his disappointment at not capturing Living- 
stone, and his determination to have his head. This design having been 
frustrated, they proceeded to appropriate or wantonly destroy his property. 
Distressed as he was by these sad events, the following passage shows the 
Christian estimate he had formed of them, and the important influence they 
exerted upon his subsequent proceedings : — " The determination of the Boors 
makes me more resolved than ever to open up a new way to the interior ; and 
the experience of that kind Providence which prevented me from falling into 
the hands of those who would, at least, have sadly crippled my efforts, 
encourages me to hope that God graciously intends to make further use of 
me. The losses we have sustained amount to upwards of £300. We shall 
move the more lightly now that we can put all our goods into one waggon." 

After some detention at Kuruman, Livingstone proceeded in a N.N.W. 
direction across the desert towards Linyanti, the capital of the Makololo, 
though by a different route from that taken on previous joui-neys, in order to 
avoid the tsetse. This new path brought him into a densely-wooded coun- 
try, where, to his great surprise, he found vines growing luxuriantly, and 
3'ielding clusters of dark-purple grapes. " The necessity," says tlie traveller, 
" of making a new path very much increased our toil ; we were, however, 
rewarded with a sight we had not enjoyed the year before — namel}^, large 
patches of grape-bearing vines. Here they stood before my eyes ; but the 
sight was so entirely unexpected that I stood some time gazing at the clus- 
ters of grapes with which they were loaded, with no more thought of pluck- 
ing than if I had been beholding them in a dream. The Bushmen know 
and cat them ; but they are not well-flavoured on account of the great astrin- 
gency of the seeds, which are, in shape and size, like split jjeas. The ele- 
p'liants are fond of the fruit, plant, and root alike." It was a weary journey 
both for man and beast, as the grass was from eight to ten feet high, and 
our traveller was compelled to perform the double duty of driver and road- 
maker; "having," as ho tells us, " either the axe or the whip in hand all 
day long till we came to lat. 18° 4"." hi this point he found himself approach- 
ing the Chobe ; but the state of things now differed widely from that which 
existed on his former visit. Then the waters were at their lowest point, and 
flowed in their ordinary channels, but now the country was flooded. 

One evening he fell in with some Bushmen, from whom he learnt the 
method by which they poison the arrows they use in the chase and in war. 
" Our friends hero," he says, '' showed me the poison which they use on 
these occasions. It is the entrails of a caterpillar called N'gwa, half an inch 
long. They squeeze out these, and ulace tlieni all round the bottom of the 


barb, and allow the poison to dry in the sun. They are very careful in 
cleaning their nails after working with it, as a small portion introduced into 
a scratch acts like morbid matter in dissection wounds. The agony is so 
great that the person cuts himself, calls for his mother's breast, as if ho were 
returned in idea to his childhood again, or flies from human habitations a 
raging maniac. The effects on the lion are equally terrible. He is heard 
moaning in distress, and becomes furious, biting the trees and ground in 

" As the I3ushmcn have the reputation of curing the wounds of this 
poison, I asked how this was effected. They said that they administer the 
caterpillar itself in combination with fat ; they rub fat into the wound, saying 
that ' the N'gwa wants fat, and when it does not find it in the body, kills 
the man ; we give it what it wants, and it is content' — a reason which will 
commend itself to the enlightened among ourselves. The poison more gene- 
rally employed is the milky juice of the tree Euphorbia (E. arborescens). 
This is particularly obnoxious to the equine race. When a quantity is mixed 
with the water of a pond a whole herd ol' zebras will fall dead with the effects 
of the poison before they have moved away two miles. It does not, however, 
kill oxen or men. On them it acts as a drastic purgative only. This substance 
is used all over the country, though in some cases the venom of serpents and 
a certain bulb, Amaryllis toxic-aria, are added, in order to increase the virulence. 
Father Pedro, a Jesuit, who lived at Zumbo, made a balsam, containing a 
immber of plants and castor oil, as a remedy for poisoned arrow-wounds. It 
is probable that he derived his knowledge from the natives as I did, and that 
the reputed efficacy of the balsam is owing to its fatty constituent. In cases 
of the bites of serpents, a small key ought to be pressed dovm firmly on the 
wound, the orifice of the key being applied to the juncture ; until a cupping- 
glass can be got from one of the natives. A watch-key pressed firmly on the 
point stung by a scorpion extracts the poison ; and a mixture of fat and oil, 
and ipecacuanha, relieves the pain." 

The difficulties of the journey were now increased by the sudden illness 
of all the attendants save one lad. Our traveller had therefore to work his 
way to Linyanti almost unassisted, being compelled to leave invalids and 
waggon behind. But he had a brave heart, and went forward. Having, 
with some difficulty, crossed the smallest of these streams, he and his com- 
panions reached the Sanshurch, half-a-mile broad, and abounding with hippo- 
potami. Embarking in a small pontoon, which he had brought witii him 
from Cape Town, he proceeded across the flooded country in search of the 
Chobe. After " splashing," as he terms it, " through twenty miles of an inun- 
dated plain," he climbed some high trees, and was gladdened by a sight of the 
much-desired river ; but, on approaching it, he found it a broad chevaux-de- 
frise of papyrus, reeds, and other aquatic plants, interlaced with a ci-eepcr 


resembling the convolvulus, which rendered the Chobe almost unapproachable. 
"It was not the reeds alone," he says, "we had to pass through ; a peculiar 
seiTated grass, which at certain angles cuts the hands like a razor, was mingled 
witli the reed, and the climbing convolvulus, with stalks which felt as strong as 
wliipcord, bound the mass together. We felt like ^jigmics in it, and often 
tlie only way we could get on was by both of us leaning against a part, and 
bending it down till we could stand ujDon it. The perspiration streamed off 
our bodies, and as the sun rose high, there being no ventilation among the 
reeds, the heat was stifling, and the water, which was up to the knees, felt 
agreeably refreshing. After some hours' toil we reached one of the islands. 
Here we met an old friend, the bramble-bush. My strong moleskins were 
quite worn through at the knees, and the leather trousers of my companion 
were torn, and his legs bleeding. Tearing my handkerchief in two, I tied the 
pieces round my knees, and then encountered another difficulty. We were 
still forty or fifty yards from the clear water, but now we were opposed by 
great masses of papyrus, which are like palms in miniature, eight or ten feet 
high, and an inch and a half in diameter. These were laced together by twin- 
ing convolvulus, so strongly, that the weight of both of us could not make 
■way into the clear water." 

Three days were thus spent among that mass of reeds ; but, though 
constantly wading, and wet up to the middle, he slept soundly at night ; and 
on the fourth day was rewarded by reaching the river, and launching tlie 
j)ontoon upon its bosom. Joyfully embarking in this frail craft, they paddled 
down the Chobe about twenty miles, when they arrived at a village of the 
Makololo. The natives stood aghast at this apparition. Intrenched, as they 
supposed, by their rivers, they believed themselves unapproachable. Living- 
stone's sudden arrival, therefore, was a great marvel to them, and the 
achievement greatly exalted him in their eyes. "He has dropped anaongus," 
they exclaimed, " from the clouds, yet came riding on the back of a hippo- 
potamus (the pontoon). We JIakololo thought no one could cross the Chobe 
without our knowledge, but here lie drops among us like a bird." In the 
course of a few days, some of the head men of the Makololo came down 
from Linyanti, with a large party of Barotse, to take the traveller and his 
party across the river. This they did in tine style, swimming and diving 
among the oxen more like alligators than men ; and taking the waggons to 
pieces, and carrying them across on a number of canoes lashed together. 
They were now in the midst of friends ; so, going about thirty miles to the 
north, to avoid the still flooded lands on the north of the Chobe, tiiey turned 
westwards towards Linyanti. 

The welcome Livingstone received at Linyanti was such as is given to 
their highest chief. The whole population turned out en masse to see the 
waggons in motion. Sekeletu, the son, and in consequence of his sister's 


abdication, sufcessor of Subituaiio, then only ninctccu years of age, was 
especially delighted. " I have now got another father," ho said, " instead 
of Sebituanc." The court lierald, an old man who occupied the post also in 
Sebituane's time, stood up, and after some antics, such as leaping, and shout- 
ing at the lop of his voice, roared out some adulatory sentences, as " Don't 
I see the white man ? Don't I see the comrade of Sebituanc ? Don't I see 
the father of Sebituane ?" The people generally shared this feeling. The 
idea seemed universal, that, with a missionary, some great, indefinite good 
had arrived. Many expected to be elevated at once to a condition equal to 
that of the Bakwains and inhabitants of Kuruman, of which they had 
received very exaggerated accounts ; othei's imagined that they would very 
soon be transformed into civilised men, possessing the clothes, horses, arms, 
waggons, etc., of Europeans. We cannot enter into all the details of this 
visit to Linyanti. There were some circumstances, however, which deserve 
notice. There was a pretender to the chieftainship, from whose designs 
Sekeletu apprehended danger ; and the sequel showed that there were solid 
reasons for this fear. Having positively prohibited the sale of children, 
Sekeletu's rival clandestinely brought a slave-trading party of Mambari into 
iiis dominions, and received from them as a reward a small cannon. Armed 
with this formidable instrument of death, and now confident of wresting the 
power from its rightful possessor, he came to the place where Sekeletu and 
Livingstone were, having arranged with his followers that, while holding a 
conference with the chief, they should, at a given signal, ham-string Iiim 
with a battle-axe. Without being aware of the conspiracy, the presence of 
Livingstone, as he walked by the side of Sekeletu, proved the means of frus- 
trating it; and some of the conspirators during the same evening disclosed it 
to the chief, who, satisfied with the guilt of the pretender, ordered his imme- 
diate execution. 

It was a source of no ordinary satisfaction to Livingstone that his j^re- 
seuce and influence at Linyanti efi"ectually frustrated the purpose of others 
who had come from the west to purchase slaves, and some of whom, hearing 
that he had crossed the Chobe, fled back to their countiy with jjrecijDitation. 
He also succeeded in restraining the Makalolo from attacking a stockade in 
the valley of the Barotse, within which some slave-traders had entrenched 
themselves, and the consequences of which attack must have proved fatal to 
many. Shortly after his return to Linyanti he was attacked by fever, when 
his hosts exhibited the interest they felt for him by paying him every atten- 
tion in their power. " Anxious," he says, " to ascertain whether the natives 
possessed the knowledge of any remedy of which we were ignorant, I 
requested the assistance of one of Sekeletu's doctors. He put some roots 
into a pot with water, and, when it was boiling, placed it on a spot beneath 
a blanket, thrown around both me and it. This produced no immediate- 


eflfect ; he tlien got a small bundle of different kinds of medicinal woods, and, 
burning them in a potsherd nearly to ashes, used the smoke and hot vapour 
arising from them as an auxiliary to the otiier, in causing perspiration. I 
fondly hoped that they had a more patent remedy than our own medicines 
afford ; but, after being otewed in their vapour baths, smoked like a red her- 
ring over green twigs, and charmed secundem artcm^ I concluded that I could 
cure the fever more quickly than they can." He soon discovered that his 
own remedies of a wet sheet and quinine were more successful than the 
smoke and vapour baths emploj'ed by the natives. 

Having recovered from his fever, Livingstone, accompanied by Sekeletu 
and about one hundred and sixty attendants, mostly young men, associates 
of the chief, set out for Sesheke. The intermediate country was perfectly 
flat, except patches elevated a few feet only above the surrounding level. 
There were also numerous mounds, the work of termites., gigantic structures, 
in which often the wild date trees were seen growing. The party looked 
exceedingly picturesque as, the ostrich-feathers of the men waving in the 
air, they wound in a long line in and out among the mounds. Some wore 
red tunics, or variously-coloured prints, and their heads were adoi-ned with 
the white end of ox-tails or caps made of lions' manes. The nobles walked 
with a small club of rhinoceros-horn in their hands, their servants carrying 
shields, while the ordinary men bore burdens, and the battle-axe men, who 
had their own shields on their arms, were employed as messengers, often hav- 
ing to run an immense distance. Livingstone and Sekeletu had each a little 
gipsy tent in which they slept. In some villages, the mice ran over their 
faces and disturbed their sleep, or hungry prowling dogs would eat their shoes 
and leave only the soles. At such times, they got the loan of a hut. The 
best sort of Makololo huts consist of three circular walls, with small holes as 
doors, each similar to that in a dog-house ; and it is necessary to bend down 
the body to get in, even when on all-fours. The roof is formed of reeds or 
straight sticks, in shape like a Chinaman's hat, bound tirndy together with 
circular bands, which are lashed with the strong inner baik of the mimosa- 
tree. Whsn all prepared except the thatch it is lifted on to the circular wall, 
the rim resting on a circle of poles, between each of which the third wall is 
built. The voof is thatched with fine grass, and sewed with the same material 
as the lashings ; and, as it projects far beyond the wall, and reaches within. 
four feet of the ground, the shade is the best to be found in the country. 
These huts are very cool in the hottest day, but are close in the niglit. 

Reaching the village of Katonga, above Sesheke, on the banks of the 
Leeambye, some time was spent there in collecting canoes. During this 
delay, Livingstone visited the country north of the village, where he saw 
great numbers of buffaloes, zebras, elands, and a beautiful small antelope, 
called the Uawjane. " This antelope stands about eighteen inches high, is very 


graceful in its niovemonts, and utters a cry of alarm not unlilce that of the 
domestic fowl ; it is of a brownish-rod colour on the sides and back, with the 
belly and lower part of the tail white; it is very timid, but the maternal 
aflection that the little thing bears to its young will often induce it to offer 
battle even to a man approaching it. When the young one is too tender to 
run about with the dam, she puts one foot on the prominence about the 
seventh cervical vertebra, or withers, the instinct of the young enables it to 
understand that it is now required to kneel down, and to remain quite still 
till it hears the bleating of its dam. If you see an otherwise gregarious she 
antelope separated from the herd, and going alone anywhere, you may be 
sure she has laid her little one to sleep in some cosy spot. The colour of the 
hair in the young is better adapted for assimilating it with the ground than 
that of the older animals, which do not need to be screened from the obser- 
vation of birds of j^rcy." 

A sufficient number of canoes being at length collected, Livingstone and 
his party commenced the ascent of the river. Although the rude children of 
nature who dwelt there could but imperfectly estimate the importance to them 
and to future generations of the object of their visitor, they regarded all his 
movements with extraordinary interest. Upon the banks of the noble stream 
many of them were gathered, watching with extravagant gesticulations and 
discordant cries, the fleet which rendezvoused upon its waters. There, 
beneath the bright sky of the tro23ics, thirty-three canoes, manned by one 
hundred and sixty rowers, were awaiting the signal for their departure. Our 
traveller having had the choice of this fleet, selected one twenty inches in 
width and thirty-four feet long, with six experienced and athletic rowers. 
Though the river rolled down in ample volume against them, no sooner was 
the word of command given, than they swept through it at a rate which 
showed that the skill and strength of these inland mariners were more than 
equal to the force. 

As they proceeded up the river, Livingstone was filled with admiration 
at its magnificence and beauty. " It is often," he writes, " more than a mile 
broad, and adorned with numerous islands, of from three to five miles in 
length. These, and the banks too, are covered with forests, and most of the 
trees on the brink of the water send down roots from their branches like the 
banian. The islands at a little distance seemed rounded masses of sylvan 
vegetation of various hues, reclining on the bosom of the glorious stream. 
The beauty of the scene is greatly increased by the date palm and lofty 
palmyra towering over the rest, and casting their feathery foliage against a 
cloudless sky. The banks are rocky and undulating, and many villages of 
the Banyeti, a poor, but industrious people, are situated upon both of them. 
They are expert hunters of hippopotami and other animals, and cultivate 
grain extensively." 


SpeakiTig of the population of this district, Livingstone says, " The 
majority of the real Makololo have been cut off by fever. Those who remain 
are a mere fragment of the people who came to the nortli with Sebituane. 
Migrating from a very healthy climate in the south, they were more subject 
to the febrile diseases of the valle}^ in whicli we found them, than the black 
tribes they conquered. In comparison with the Barotse, Batoka, and Banyeti, 
the Makololo have a sickly hue. Tliey are of a light-brownish yellow colour, 
while the tribes referred to are very dark, with a slight tinge of olive. The 
whole of the coloured tribes consider that beauty and fairness are asso- 
ciated, and women long for children of light colour so much, that they some- 
times chew the bark of a certain tree in hopes of producing that eflfect. To 
my eye the dark colour is much more agreeable than tlie tavi^ny hue of the 
half-caste, which that of the Makololo ladies closely resembles. The women 
generally escaped the fever, but they are less fruitful than formerly, and, 
to their complaint of being undervalued on account of the disproportion of the 
sexes, they now add their regrets at the want of children, of whom they are 
all excessively fond. 

" The Makololo women work but little. Indeed the families of tliat nation 
are spread over the country, one or two only in each village, as the lords of 
the land. They all have lordship over great numbers of subjected tribes, 
who pass by the general name Makalaka, and who are forced to render cer- 
tain services, and to aid in tilling the soil ; but each has his own land under 
cultivation, and otherwise lives nearly independent. They are proud to be 
called Makololo, but the other term is often used in reproach, as betokening 
inferiority. This species of servitude may be turned serfdom, as it has to be 
rendered in consequence of subjection by force of arms, but it is necessarily 
very mild. It is so easy for any one who is unkindly treated to make his 
escape to other tribes, that the Makololo are compelled to treat them, to a 
great extent, rather as children than slaves. Some master's, who fail from 
defect of temper or disposition to secure the affections of the conquered 
people frequently find themselves left without a single servant, in consequence 
of the absence and impossibility of enforcing a fugitive slave law, and the 
readiness with Avhich those who are themselves subjected assist the fugitives 
across the rivers in canoes. The ]\Iakololo ladies aic liberal in their presents 
of milk and other food, and seldom require to labour, except in the way of 
beautifying their huts and court-yards. They drink large quantities of boy- 
aloa, or o-alo, the buza of the Arabs, which, being made of the grain called 
holcus sorghum, or " durasaifi," in a minute state of subdivision, is very nutri- 
tious, and gives that pluuqjness of form which is considered beautiful. They 
dislike being seen at their potations by persons of the opposite sex. They 
cut their woolly hair quite short, and delight in having the whole i)erson 
shining with butter. Their dress is a kilt reaching to tlie knees; its material 


is ox-liido, made as soft as cloth. It is not ungraceful. A soft skin mantle 
is thrown across the shoiilclors when the lady is unemployed, but when 
engaged in any sort of labour she throws this aside, and works in tho kilt 
alone. The ornaments most coveted are large brass anklets as thick as the 
little finger, and armlets of both brass and ivor}-, the latter often an inch 
broad. The rings are so heavy that the ankles are often blistered by tho 
weight pressing down ; but it is tho fashion, boi'ne as magnanimously as tight 
shoes among ourselves. Strings of beads are hung around the neck, and the 
fashionable colours being light green and pink, a trader could get almost any 
thing ho chose for beads of these colours. 

" Tiic Makololo are in the habit of shaving off a little from one side of 
the horns of their cattle when still growing, in order to make them curve 
in that direction, and assume fantastic shapes. The stranger the curvature, 
the more handsome the ox is considered to be, and the longer this ornament 
of the cattle-pen is spared to beautify the herd. This is a very ancient 
custom in Africa, for the tributary tribes of Ethiopia are seen on some of the 
most ancient Egyptian monuments bringing contorted-horned cattle into 

" All are remarkably fond of their cattle, and spend much time in orna- 
menting and adorning tliem. Some are branded all over with a hot knife, 
so as to cause a permanent discolouration of the hair, in lines like the bands 
on the hide of a zebra. Pieces of skin two or three inches long and broad 
are detached, and allowed to heal in a dependent position around the head— 
a strange style of ornament ; indeed, it is difficult to conceive in what their 
notion of beauty consists. The women have somewhat the same ideas with 
ourselves of what constitutes comeliness. They came frequently and asked 
for the looking-glass ; and the remarks they made while I was engaged in 
reading, and apparently not attending to them, on first seeing themselves 
therein, were amusingly ridiculous. ' Is that me ?' ' What a big mouth I 
have !' ' My ears are as big as pumpkin leaves.' ' I have no chin at all ! Or, 
' I should have been pretty, but am spoiled by these high cheek bones.' ' See 
how my head shoots up in the middle !' laughing vociferously all the time at 
their own jokes. They readily perceive any defect in each other, and give 
nick-names accordingly. One man came alone to have a quiet gaze at his 
own features once, when he thought I was asleep : after twisting his mouth 
about in various directions, he remarked to himself, ' People say I am ugly, 
and how very ugly I am indeed.' 

" The Makololo use all the skins of their oxen for making either mantles 
or shields. For the former, the hide is stretched out by means of pegs, and 
dried. Ten or a dozen men then collect round it with small adzes, wliich, 
whtn sharpened with an iron bodkin, are capable of shaving off the substance 
of the skin on the fleshy side until it is quite thin ; when sufficiently thin, a 


quantit}' of brain is smeared over it, and some thick milk. Then an instru- 
ment made of a number of iron spikes tied round a piece of wood, so that the 
points only project beyond it, is applied to it in a carding fashion, until tlie 
fibres of the bulk of it are quite loose. Alilk or butter is applied to it again, 
and it forms a garment nearly as soft as cloth. 

" The shields are made of hides partially dried in the sun, and. then 
beaten with hammers until they are stiff and dry. Two broad belts of a dif- 
ferently-coloured skin are sewed into them longitudinally, and sticks inserted 
to make them rigid and not liable to bend easily. The shield is a great pro- 
tection in their way of fighting with spears, but they also trust largely to 
their agility in sjjringing aside from the coming javelin. The shield assists 
when so many spears are thrown that it is impossible not to receive some of 
them. Their spears are light javelins, and, judging from what I have seen 
them do in elephant-hunting, I believe, when they have room to make a run 
and discliarge them with the aid of the jerk of stopping, they can throw 
between forty and fifty yards. They give them an upward direction in the 
discharge, so that they come down on the object with accelerated force. I 
saw a man who in battle had received one in the shin ; the excitement of the 
moment prevented his feeling any pain ; but, when the battle was over, the 
blade was found to have split the bone, and became so impacted, in the cleft 
that no force could extract it. It was necessary to take an axe and press the 
split bone asunder before the weapon could be taken out." 

Amidst the beautiful scenery of the Leeambye, Livingstone pursued his 
course on the first day, about fifty miles. Not far, however, above the 
starting place, the bed of the river began to be rocky, forming a succession 
of rapids and cataracts up to hit. 16°, two of which are dangerous. North of 
this point the river passed through the country of the Barotse, which stretches 
about one hundred miles north and south, and is bounded by two ranges of 
hills which bend away from the river N.N.E. and N.N.W., until they are 
from twenty to thirty miles apart. The intervening country is annually 
overflowed, but, as the waters never rise above ten feet, the natives have 
formed numerous mounds, upon which they build their villages and pasture 
their cattle. The capital of this country, called Naliele, and containing 
about a thousand inhabitants, stands upon one of these artificial elevations. 
At the time of Livingstone's visit, the stream ran low, and the valley was 
covered with coarse succulent grasses twelve feet high, and as thick as a 
man's thumb, upon which he saw in every direction large herds of cattle 
grazing. On visiting the higher lands, which form the boundaries of the 
valley, he found them covered with trees and gardens, which the industrious 
natives had filled with sugar-cane, sweet potato, manioc, yam, bananas, 
millet, etc. On the lower grounds, wlien the waters retire, they raise largo 
quantities of maize and CaflVe corn. These productions, with abundance of 


milk and fisli, give to the Burotse country great celebrity as a land of plenty. 
But, alas ! it is also a land of death. 

The previously unknown region thx'ough which we have now been 
tracking our traveller's course, like a large jjortion of the country watered by 
the same noble river, abounds with game. Eighty-one buffaloes defiled in 
slow procession before the fire of the travellers one evening within gunshot, 
and herds of splendid elands stood at two hundred yards' distance, without 
showing signs of fear. Lions, too, approached and roared at thorn. One 
night, as they were sleeping on the summit of a large sand-bank a lion 
appeared on the opposite shore, who amused himself for hours by roaring as 
loudly as he could. The river was too broad for a ball to reach him, and he 
walked off without suffering for his impertinence. Wherever the game 
abounds, these animals exist in proportionate numbers. Birds are in great 
numbers on the river, and the sand-martins never leave it. 

A party of Arabs from Zanzibar were in the country at this time ; and 
two of them visited Livingstone at his camp. " They were quite as dark as 
the Makoldlo," he says, " but, having their heads shaved I could not compare 
their hair with that of the inhabitants of the country. When we were about 
to leave they came to bid adieu, but I asked them to stay and help us to eat 
our ox. As they had scruples about eating an animal not blooded in their 
own way, I gained their goodwill by saying, I was quite of their opinion as 
to getting rid of the blood, and gave them two legs of an animal slaughtered 
by themselves. They professed the greatest detestation of the Portuguese, 
because they eat pigs ; and dislike the English, because they thrash them for 
selling slaves." On parti)]g with his Arab friends, Livingstone visited the 
town of Ma-Sekeletu, or the mother of Sekeletu, where, as it was the first 
visit the king had paid to this part of his dominions, he was received with 
every appearance of joy. The head men of each village presented oxen, 
milk, and beer, more than could be devoured. The people usually show their 
joy, and work off their excitement in dances and songs. The dance consists 
of the men standing nearly naked in a circle, with clubs or small battle-axes 
in their hands, and each roaring at the loudest pitch of his voice, while they 
simultaneously lift one leg, stamp heavily twice with it, then lift the other and 
give one stamp with that; this is the only movement in common. Tlie arms 
and head are thrown about also in eveiy direction ; and all this time the roar- 
ing is kejjt up with the utmost possible vigour ; the continued stamping makes 
a cloud of dust ascend, and they leave a deep ring in the ground where they 
have stood. The women stand by, clapping their hands, and occasionally 
one advances into the circle, composed of a huudred men, makes a few move- 
ments and then retires. 

Returning down the stream at a rapid rate, Livingstone, Sekeletu, and 
their party, soon reached Linyanti. " I had been," remarks our traveller, 


*' during a nine weeks' tour, in closer contact with heathenism than I had ever 
been before ; and though all, including the chief, were as kind and attentive 
to me as possible, and there was no want of food (oxen being slaughtered 
daily, sometimes ten at a time, more than sufficient for the wants of all), yet 
to endure the dancing, roaring, and singing, the jesting, anecdotes, grumbling, 
quarrelling, and murdering, of these children of nature, seemed more like a 
severe penance than anything I had before met with in the course of my 
missionary duties. I took thence a more intense disgust at heathenism than 
I had before, and formed a greatly elevated opinion of the latent effects of mis- 
sions in the south, among tribes which are reported to have been as savage 
as the Makololo. The indirect benefits, which to a casual observer lie beneath 
the surface and are inappreciable, in reference to the probable wide diffusion 
of Christianity at some future time, are worth all the money and labour that 
have been expended to produce them."' 

On resuming his temporary residence at Linyanti, Livingstone did what 
he could for the instruction of the Makololo. Amongst other things, he 
endeavoured to induce some of them to learn to read. But this acquisition 
appeared to them something supernatural. Long and profound, therefore, 
were the solemn deliberations held to consider the proposal. At length it 
was resolved that the experiment should be tried. Sekeletu's father-in-law 
and his step-father were, therefore, appointed to acquire the marvellous art, 
that, should any evil consequences result from it, their experience might 
serve as a beacon to others. Although this plan showed the extreme of 
African caution, these two pupils applied themselves so vigorously to the 
task, that they, and others who followed their example, mastered the alphabet 
perfectly in a single day. 

Sekeletu and his followers agreed with Livingstone as to the desirableness 
of his proposed expedition to the west, and took great pains to assist him in 
the undertaking. Having ascertained the best route to Loanda, and made 
all the preparations in his power for a journey so difficult and adventurous, 
he only waited until the commencement of the rains would enable him to 
proceed up the river. This period having arrived, on the tenth of November 
1853, he bade farewell to the chief and people at Linyanti, with whom he 
had now sojourned so long, and from whom he had received so much kind- 
ness, and set out towards the north. As the natives who had accompanied 
him from the Kuruman had suffered severely from fever, he deemed it 
necessary for their safety to send them back to that station. But he had no 
lack of willing and efficient attendants, as twenty-seven of the Barotse Avcro 
ready to accompany him. These men were not hired, but sent to enable 
him to accomplish an object as much desired by the chief and most of his 
people, as by Livingstone himself. They were eager to obtain free and 
profitable trade with white men ; and this desire of theirs coincided exactl}' 


wit!, his own conviction, tliat no permanent elevation of a people can be 
effected without coninicrce. What he tliouglit and how he felt at tliis period, 
the following extract from one of his letters will best show: — " I am ngain. 
through God's mercy and kindness, quite recovered from fever. I think 1 
am rid of intermittent, too, and if spared will impart some knowledge of 
Christ to many who never before heard his blessed name. There are many 
and large tribes in the direction in whicli we go, all sitting in darkness and 
the shadow of death. I hope God will, in mercy, permit me to establish the 
gospel somewhere in this region, and that I may live to see the double influ- 
ence of the spirit of commerce and Christianity employed to stay the bitter 
fountain of African miser}'." 

On the lltli of November, 1853, he left the town of Linjanti, accompa- 
nied by Sekeletu and his principal men, to embark on the Chobe. The spot 
of embarkation was the identical island where he met Sebituane, first known 
as the island of Maunku. " The Chobe is much infested by hijjpopotanii; and 
as certain elderly males are expelled the herd, they become soured in their 
temper, and so misanthroj^ic as to attack every canoe that passes near them. 
The herd is never dangerous, except when a canoe passes into the midst of it 
when all are asleep, and some of them may strike the canoe in terror. To 
avoid this, it is generally recommended to travel by day near the bank, and 
by night in the middle of the stream. As a rule, these animals flee at the 
approach of man. The ' solitaires,' however, frequent certain localities well 
known to the inhabitants on the banks, and, like the rogue elephants, are 
extremely dangerous." The part of the river called Zabesa, or Zabenza, the 
travellers found spread out like a little lake, surrounded on all sides by 
dense masses of tall reeds. The river below that, is always one hundred or 
one hundred and twenty yards broad, deep, and never dries up so much as to 
become fordable. At certain parts, where the partial absence of reeds affords 
a view of the opj^osite banks, the Makololo have placed villages of observation 
against their enemies, the Matebele. The banks of the Chobe, like those of 
the Zouga, are of soft calcareous tufa, and the river has cut out for itself a 
deep, perpendicular-sided bed. 

Among the trees on the banks of the river are various light-green- 
coloured acacias, the S2)lendid motsintsela, and evergreen cyjjress-shajDcd 
motsouri. The motsintsela is a very lofty tree, yielding a wood of which 
good canoes are made ; the fruit is nutritious and good, but, like many wild 
fruits of the country, the fleshy parts require to be enlarged by cultivation, 
as it is nearly all stone. The motsouri bears beautiful pink-coloured plums, 
which are chiefly used to form a pleasant acid drink. The course of the river 
is so extremely tortuous that it carries the voyager on it to all points of the 
compass evei'v dozen miles. It took Livingstone and his men forty-two hours 
and a half, paddling at the rate of five miles an hour, to go from Lin^anti to 


tlie confluence of the Cliobe and the Lecarnbye. After spending one niglit at 
the Makololo village on Mparia, they left tlie Chobe, and turning round 
began to ascend the Leeauibye, reacliing, on the nineteenth, the town of 

There is no stated day of rest in any part of this country, except the 
day after tlie appeai-ance of the new moon, and the people then refrain only 
from going to their gardens. A curious custoai, not to be found among the 
Bechuanas, prevails among the black tribes beyond them. They watch most 
eagerly for the first glimjDse of the new moon, and, when they perceive the 
faint outline after the sun has set deep in the west, they utter a loud shout 
of " Kua !" and vociferate prayers to it. Livingstone gave many public 
addresses to the people of Seslieke ; the congregations often amounting to 
between five and six hundred souls. They were always very attentive ; 
sometimes putting sensible questions on the subjects brought before them, at 
other times introducing the most frivolous nonsense, immediately after hear- 
ing the most solemn truths. 

Their progress up the Leeambye was rather slow, which was caused, to a 
great extent, by waiting opposite different villages for supplies of food. The 
villages of the Banyeti contributed large quantities of mosibe, a bright-i'ed 
bean, yielded by a large tree. The pulp which encloses the seed is not much 
thicker than a red wafer, and is the portion used. It requires the addition 
of honey to render it at all palatable. Here they found several fi-eah varieties 
of fruit. One, resembling a large yellow orange, and yielding, in tlie rind 
and \n\ys, a portion of nux vomica. The pulp between the pips is the part 
eaten, and it is of a pleasant juicy nature, having a sweet acidulous taste. A 
nmch better fruit is the mobola, which bears, around a large stone, as much 
of the fleshy part as the common date. It is sweet, and has the flavour of 
strawberries, with a touch of nauseousness. The most delicious fruit of all is 
the maniosho, or " mother of morning." It is about the size of a walnut, and, 
unlike most of the other uncultivated fe-uits, has a seed no larger than that of 
a date. The fleshy part is juicy, and somewhat like the cashew-api)le, with 
a pleasant acidity added. 

Among the forest trees which line the banks of the rocky parts of the 
Leeambye, several new birds were observed. Some are musical, and the 
songs are pleasant in contrast with the harsh voice of the little green, yellow- 
shouldered parrots of the country. There are also great numbers of jet- 
black weavers, with a yellowish-brown band on the shoulders. " Here we 
saw," says Livingstone, "for the first time, a jiretty little bird, coloured 
dark-blue, except the wings and tail, which were of a chocolate hue. From 
the tail two feathers are prolonged beyond the rest six inches. Also little 
birds, coloured white and black, of great vivacity, and always in conii)anies 
of six or eight together, and various others. From want of books of reference, 


I could not decide whether they were actually new to science. Francolins 
and guinea-fowl abound along the banks ; and on every dead tree and piece 
of rock may be seen one or two species of the web-footed Plotus, darter, or 
snake-bird. They sit most of the day sunning themselves over the stream, 
sometimes standing erect, with their wings outstretched ; occasionally they may 
be seen engaged in fisliing by diving, and, as they swim about, their bodies ar« 
so much submerged, that hardly anything appears above the water but their 
necks. Their chief time of feeding is by night, and, as the sun declines, they 
may be seen in flocks flying from their roosting-placcs to the fishing grounds. 
This is a most difficult bird to catch when disabled. It is thoroughly expert 
in diving — goes down so adroitly, and comes up again in the most unlikely 
places, that the people, though most skilful in the management of the canoes, 
can rarely secure them. The rump of the darter is remarkably prolonged, 
and capable of being bent, so as to act both as a rudder in swimming, and as 
a lever to lift the bird high enough out of the water to give free scope to its 
wings. It can rise at will from the water by means of this appendage. 

" The fine fish-hawk, with white head and neck and reddish-chocolate- 
coloured body, may also frequently be seen perched on the trees, and fish 
are often found dead, which have fallen victims to its talons. One most 
frequently seen in this condition is itself a destroyer of fish. It is a stout- 
bodied fish, about fifteen or eighteen inches long, of a liglit-yellow colour, and 
gaily ornamented with stripes and spots. It has a most im^iosing array of 
sharp, conical teeth outside the lips — objects of dread to the fishermen, for it 
can use them efi"ectually. One, which we picked up dead, had killed itself 
by swallowing ano*^^her fish, which, though too large for its stomach and 
throat, could not be disgorged. This fish-hawk generally kills more prey 
than it can devour. It eats a portion of the back of the fish, and leaves the 
rest for the Barotse, who often had a race across the river when they saw an 
abandoned morsel lying on the opposite sand-banks. The hawk is, however, 
not alwaj's so generous ; for, as I myself was a witness on the Zouga, it 
sometimes plunders the purse of the pelican. Soaring over head, and seeing 
this large, stupid bird fishing beneath, it watches till a fine fish is safe in the 
pelican's jiouch ; then descending, not quickly, but with considerable noise of 
win"-, the pelican looks up to see what is the matter ; and, as the hawk comes 
near, he supposes that he is about to be killed, and roars out ' Murder !' The 
opening of his mouth enables the hawk to whisk the fish out of the pouch, 
upon wliich the pelican does not fly away, but commences fishing again ; the 
frio'ht having probably made him forget he ever had anything in his purse." 

On the 30th of November, Livingstone reached Gonye Falls. No rain 
had fallen, so it was excessively hot. The trees had put on their gayest dress, 
and many flowers adorned the landscape ; yet the heat made all the leaves 
droop and look languid. The atmosphei'e was oppres.sive, botli in cloud and 


sunsliiiic, so that all the travellers felt great lassitude. The men, however, 
paddled away most vigorously; the Barotse, being a tribe of boatmen, have 
deeply- developed chests and shoulders. The falls of Gonye have not been 
made by wearing back, like those of Niagara, but arc of a fissure form. Fcr 
many miles below, the river is confined in a narrow space of not more than 
one hundred yards wide. The water goes boiling along, and gives the idea 
of great masses of it rolling over and over, so that even the most expert swim- 
mer would find it difficult to keep on tlio surface. The liver rises at this 
part, when in flood, fifty or sixty feet in perpendicular height. The islands 
above the lalls are covered with beautiful foliage, and the scenery altogether 
is of the loveliest character. The people of every village treated them most 
libcrall}', presenting, besides oxen, butter, milk, and meal, more than they 
could stow away in their canoes. At Libonta they were detained for days 
together, collecting contributions of fat and butter, according to the orders of 
Sekeletu, as presents to the Balonda chiefs. Libonta is the last town of tho 
Makololo ; when they left it, therefore, they had only a few cattle-stations and 
an outlying hamlet in front, and then an uninhabited border country till 
they came to Londa. After they had gone thirty or forty miles above Libonta, 
Livingstone sent an explanatory message to the chief resident westward, called 
Makoma. This caused them some delay ; but as they w'ere loaded ^\ ith pre- 
sents of food from the Makololo, and the wild animals were in enormous herds, 
they fared sumptuousl}-. 

" We spent a Sunday," says Livingstone, "on our way up to the con- 
fluence of the Leeba and Leeambye. Ilains had fallen here before wc came, 
and the woods had put on their gayest hue. Flowers of great beauty and 
curious forms grow everj'where ; they are unlike those in the south, and so 
arc tho trees. Many of the forest-tree leaves are palmated and largely 
developed ; the trunks are covered with lichens, and the abundance of ferns 
which appear in the Tvoods, shows wc are in a more humid climate than any 
to the .scuth of the Uarotse valley. The ground begins to swarm with insect 
life ; and in the cool, jjleasant mornings, the welkin rings -with the singing of 
birds, Avhich is not so delightful as the notes of birds at home, because I have 
not been familiar with them from infancy. The notes here, however, strike 
tho mind by their loudness and variety, as the wellings forth from joyous 
hearts, of praise to llim who fills them with overflowing gladness. All of us 
rise early to enjoy the luscious balmy air of the morning. We then havo 
worship ; but amidst all the beauty and loveliness with which we are sur- 
rounded, there is still a feeling of want in the soul in viewing one's poor com- 
panions, and hearing bitter impure words jarring on the car in the perfection 
of the scenes of nature, and a longing that both their hearts and ours might 
bo brought into harmony with the Great Father of Spirits. I pointed out, in 
as usual tlic simplest words I could employ, the remedy which God has pre- 


scntcd to us, in tlio inexpressibly precious gift of His own Son, on whom tho 
Lord ' laid the iniquity of us all.' "' 

On the 27th of December, Livingstone reached the confluence of tho 
Leeba and Lceambye ; and now began to ascend the former river, directing 
his course north-west towards Loanda in Angola. The water of the Leeba 
he found of a dark colour, flowing placidly, and receiving numbers of small 
rivulets from both sides. lie passed trees covered with a profusion of the 
freshest foliage, and that seemed planted in groups of such pleasant and 
graceful outline, that art could give no additional charm. The grass, which 
had been burned off and was growing again after tho rains, was short and 
green, and all the scenery was like that of a carefully-tended gentleman's 
park. There were many beautiful flowers, and plenty of honey in the woods. 
One tree in flower brought the pleasant fragrance of hawthorn-hedges back 
to memory ; its leaves, flowers, perfume, and fruit, resembled those of the 
hawthorn, only the flowers were as large as dog-roses, and the "haws" like 
boys' marbles. The climbing jjlants displayed great vigour of growth. The 
maroro was abundant in many parts ; it is a small bush, with a yellow, whole- 
some fruit, sweet in taste, and full of seeds, like the custard-apple. 

" On the 2Sth," our traveller says, " wo slept at a spot on the riglit bank, 
from which had just emerged two broods of alligators. Wc had seen many 
young ones as we came up, so this seems to be their time of coming forth from 
their nests, for we saw them sunning themselves on sandbanks in company 
with the old ones. We made our fire in one of the deserted nests, which 
were strewed all over with the broken shells. At tho Zouga we saw sixty 
eggs taken out of one such nest alone. They were about the size of those of 
a goose, only the eggs of the alligator are of the same diameter at both ends; 
and the white shell is partially elastic, from having a strong internal mem- 
brane and but little lime in its composition. The distance from the water 
was about ten feet, and there were evidences of the same place having been 
used for a similar purpose in former years. A broad path led up from the 
water to the nest ; and the dam, it was said by my companions, after deposit- 
ing the eggs, covers them up, and returns afterwards to assist the young out 
of their place of confinement and out of the g^^<^. She leads them to the edge 
of the water, and then leaves them to catch small fish for themselves. Assist- 
ance to come forth seems necessary, for here, besides the tough membrane of 
the shell, they had four inches of earth upon them, but they do not require 
immediate aid for food, because they retain a portion of yolk, equal to that 
of a hen's egg, in a membrane in the abdomen, as a stock of nutriment while 
only beginning independent existence by catching fish. Fish is the principal 
food of both small and large, and they are much assisted in catching them by 
their broad scaly tails. 

" Sometimes an alligator, viewing a man in the water from the opposite 


bank, rushes across the stream with wonderful agility, as is seen by the hif^h 
ripple he makes on the surface, caused by his rapid motion at the bottom; 
but, in general, they act by stealth, sinking midcrneath as soon as they see 
man. They seldom leave the water to catch prey, but often come out by 
day to enjoy the pleasure of basking in the sun. In walking along the 
banks of the Zouga once, a small one, about three feet long, made a dash at 
my feet, and caused me to rush quickly in another direction ; but this is 
unusual, for I never heard of a similar case. A wounded leche, chased into 
any of the lagoons in the Barotse valley, or a man or dog going in for the 
purj^ose of bringing out a dead one, is almost sure to be seized, tliough the 
alligators may not apjoear on the surface. When emplo^^ed in looking out 
for food they keep out of sight ; they fish chiefly by night. When eating, 
they make a loud champing noise, which, when once heard, is never for- 
gotten. The young, which had come out of the nests where we spent the 
night, did not api)ear wary ; they were about ten inches long, with yellow 
eyes, and pupil merely a perpendicular slit. They were all marked with 
transverse stripes of pale-green and brown, half an inch broad. When 
speared, they bit the weapon savagely, though their teeth were but partially 
developed, uttering at the same time a sharp bark, like that of a whelp when 
it first begins to use its voice. I could not ascertain whether the dam devours 
them, as reported, or whether the ichneumon has the same reputation here as 
in EgyjDt. Probably the Barotse and Bayeiye would not look upon it as a 
benefactor ; they j^i'efer to eat the eggs themselves, and be their own ichneu- 
mons. The white of the egg does not coagulate, but the yolk does, and this 
is the only part eaten. 

" As the population increases the alligators will decrease, for their nests 
will be oftcner found ; the principal check on their inordinate multiplication 
seems to be man. They are more savage, and commit more mischief in the 
Leeambye than in any other river. After dancing long in the moonlight 
nights, young men run down to the water to wash oft' the dust, and cool 
themselves before going to bed, and are thus often carried away. One won- 
ders they are not afraid ; but the fact is, they have as little sense of danger 
impending over them as the hare has when not actually pursued by the 
hound ; and in rencontres, in which they escape, they had not time to be 
afraid, and only laugh at the circumstance afterwards." 

In due time, the party reached the Balonda country, and received, 
among other visits, one from a chieftainess, called Manenko, a tall strajjping 
woman, covered with ornaments, and smeared over with fat and red ochre as 
a protection against the weather. She invited them to visit her uncle Sliintc, 
the chief of the country. On the lllh of January, 1854, they set out in the 
midst of a heavy drizzling mist, conducted by the lady, who proceceded in 
the lighest marching order, and at a pace that few of the men could keep up 


^vitll. III atlmivatiou of licr pedestrian powers tlicy every now and then 
remarkoil — " Muncnko is a soldier." Some of the people in her train carried 
sliiclds composed of reeds, of a square form, five feet long and tlircc broad. 
Witli these, and armed with broad swords and quivers full of iron-lioaded 
arrows, they looked somewhat ferocious. Jlost of tlic party were glad when, 
at length, the chicftainess halted on the banks of a stream, and preparations 
were made for their night's lodging. 

Tlic farther north they travelled the more dense became the forests ; 
and they were oftener in the deep gloom than in open sunlight. No passage 
existed on either side of the narrow patli made by the axe. Large climbing 
plants entwined themselves around the trunks and branches of gigantic trees 
like boa-constrictors. As it was the rainy season, great quantities of mush- 
rooms were met with, some of them as large as the crown of a hat. The 
edible ones, which were white, were eagerly devoured ; while of those not edible 
some were of a brilliant red and others light blue. There was considerable 
pleasure, in spite of rain and fever, in this new scenery. The deeii gloom 
contrasted strongly with the shadclcss glare of the Kalahari. Every now 
and tlien they emerged from the gloom into a pretty little valley. The num- 
ber of small villages seemed about equal to the number of valleys. When 
they decided to remain for the night at any village, the inhabitants lent them 
the roofs of their huts, which in form resemble those of the Makololo, ami 
can be taken off the walls at pleasure. They lifted them off, and when 
Livingstone's party had propped them up with stakes, they Avere safely 
housed for the night. Every one who came to salute Manenko or Living- 
stone, rubbed the upper parts of the arms and chest witii ashes ; and tliosc 
who wisJied to show more profound reverence to tlicm, put some also on the 

After detaining them several days on the journey, Manenko accom- 
panied them on foot to Shinte's town. The chief's place of audience was 
ornamented by two graceful banian trees, beneath one of which he sat on a 
throne covered with a sort of leopard's skin. He wore a cliecked shirt and 
a kih of scarlet baize, edged with green, numerous ornaments covering his 
arms and legs, while on his head was a helmet of beads, crowned with a 
great bunch of goose feathers. Close to him sat three lads, with large 
sheaves of arrows over their shoulders. Livingstone took his seat under the 
shade of a tree opposite to the chief, while the spokesman of the party, who 
had accompanied them, walking backwards and forwards, gave, in a loud voice, 
an account of the traveller and his connection with the Makololo. Behind 
Shinto sat about a hundred women., clothed in their best, which happened to 
be a profusion of red baize. His chief wife, one of the Matebelo, sat in front, 
with a cuiious red cap on her head. During the intervals between the speeches, 
these ladies burst forth into a sort of plaintive ditty ; every now and then 


they expressed approbation by clapping their hands, and Liugliing to different 

The i^arty was entertained by a band of musicians, consisting of three 
drummers and four i^erformers on tlio " marimba," a species of piano. " The 
drums are neatly carved from the trunk of a tree, and have a small hole in 
the side covered with a bit of spider's web ; the ends are covered with tlic 
skin of an antelope pegged on ; and when they wisli to tighten it they hold 
it to the fire to make it contract ; the instruments are beaten with the hands. 
The marimba consists of two bars of wood placed side by side, sometimes 
quite straight, at others bent round so as to resemble half the tire of a carriage 
wheel ; across these are placed about fifteen wooden keys, each of whicli is 
two or three inches broad, and fifteen or eighteen inches long ; their thick- 
ness is regulated according to the deejjness of the note required, each of the 
keys having a calabash beneath ; from the upper part of eacJi, a portion is cut 
off to enable them to embrace the bars, and form hollow sounding-boards to 
the keys, which also are of diftercnt sizes, according to the note required ; 
and little drum sticks elicit the music. Kapidii,y of execution seems much 
admired among them, and the music is pleasant to the ear. In Angola, the 
Portuguese use the marimba in their dances." 

After nine speakers had concluded their orations, Shinto stood up, and 
so did all the people. He had maintained true African dignity of manner all 
the wliile, but scarcely over took his eyes off Livingstone for a moment. 
About a thousand ])eoplc were j^resent, and three hundred soldiers. The 
next da}', our traveller met Shinte by appointment, for the purpose of hold- 
ing a friendly interview. The chief seemed in good humour, and said he 
had expected yesterday " that a man who came from the gods, would have 
approached and talked to him. The remark confirmed Livingstone's belief that 
a frank, open, fearless manner, is the most winning with all these Africans." 
One night Shinte sent for his visitor and presented him Avith a slave girl of 
about ten years old, wishing him to accept her as a token of his regard. Tho 
chief was greatly surprised to find his proffered gift respectfully declined. 
He was most anxious to sec the pictures of the magic lantern which Living- 
stone carried with him ; and gathered a great crowd of his principal men, and 
court beauties, to witness the exhibition. The first picture exhibited was 
Abraham about to slaughter his son Isaac; it was as large as life, and the 
uplifted knife was in the act of striking tho lad : the Balonda men remarked 
that the picture was nmch more like a god than the things of wood or clay 
they worshipped. Livingstone explained that this man was the iirst of a race 
to whom God had given the Bible, and that among his children our Saviour 
api)eared. The ladies listened with silent awe ; but, when he moved the slide, 
the uplifted dagger moving towards them, they thought it was to be sheathed 
in their bodies instead of Isaac's, and oiV they rushed helter-skelter, tumbling 


pell-mell over each other, and, in sinte of all entreaties, refusing to return. 
Shinte, however, sat bravely through the whole, and afterwards examined the 
instrument with interest. It was the only mode of instruction of which a 
repetition was requested ; and the people came long distances, for the express 
purpose of seeing the objects and hearing the explanations. 

Before leaving Shinte to prosecute his journey, the chief presented the 
traveller with a shell, on which he set the greatest value, observing — "There, 
now, you have a proof of my affection." These shells, as marks of distinction, 
arc so highly valued that two of them will purchase a slave and live elephants' 
tusks, worth ten pounds. Tiie chief also provided a guide, to conduct the 
party to the territory of the next chief, Katema, He gave them, too, an 
abundant supply of food ; and, sending eight men to assist in carrying the 
luggage, wislied them a prosj^erous journey. They had now to quit the 
canoes and proceed on ox-back, taking a northerly direction. The morning 
after their departure they had a fine range of green hills on tlicir right, and 
were informed that they were rather thickly inhabited by the people of Shinto, 
who worked in iron, tlie ore of which abounded in the neigldjourhood. Every 
valley contained a village of twenty or thirty huts, each hut having its garden 
of manioc, or cassava, which here is looked upon as the staff of life. Very 
little labour is required for its cultivation. The plant grows to a height of 
six feet, and every part of it is useful ; the leaves may be cooked as a vege- 
table. TJie roots are from three to four inches in diameter, and from twelve 
to eighteen inches long. There are two varieties of manioc ; one sweet and 
wholesome, the other bitter and containing poison, which tlie natives extract 
by a process of j^artial decomposition. 

In the deep, dark forests, near each village, they found idols intended to 
represent the human head, or a lion, or a crooked stick smeared with medi- 
cine, or simply a small pot of medicine in a little shed ; while, in the darker 
recesses, they met witli human faces cut in the bark of trees, the outlines of 
which, with tlie beards, closely resembled those seen on Egyjjtian monuments. 
Frequent cuts were made on the trees all along the path, and offerings of 
small pieces of manioc roots, or ears of maize, were placed on branches. It 
Bcemed as if the minds of the people were ever in doubt and dread in these 
gloomy recesses of the forest, and that they were striving to proijitiate, by 
their oflferings, some superior beings residing there. 

The dress of the Jialonda men consists of the softened skins of small 
animals, as the jackal or wild cat, hung before and behind from a girdle round 
the loins. They ])ave a remarkable custom for cementing friendship. Taking 
their seats opposite one to the other, with a vessel of beer by the side of each, 
they clasp hands, 'i'hey then make cuts on their hands, the pits of their 
stomachs, their foreheads, and right cheeks. The point of a blade of grass 
is then pressed against the cuts, and afterwards each man washes it in his 


own pot of beer; exchanging pots, tlic contents are drunk, so tliat eacli man 
drinks the blood of the other. Thus they consider that they become blood 
relations, and are bound in every possible way to assist each other. 

After several days' journe}'ing, the travellers reached the town of Katema, 
a powerful chief of that district. The morning after their arrival, they had 
a formal presentation, and found Katema seated on a sort of throne, witli 
about three hundred men on the ground around, and thirty women, who were 
said to be his wives, close beliind him. The main body of tlie people were 
seated in a semicircle, at a distance of fifty yards. Each party had its own 
head man stationed at a little distance in front, and, when beckoned by the 
chief, came near him as councillors. The chief's head was ornamented with 
a helmet of beads and feathers. He had on a snutf-brown coat, with a broad 
band of tinsel down the arms ; and carried in bis hand a large bunch of gnus' 
tails tied together. They were glad to get away from Katema. Several of 
the jjarty had suffered from fever ; and Livingstone himself had eaten nothing 
in consequence of the disease for two days ; and, instead of sleep, the 
whole of the nights were employed in incessant drinking of water. Katema 
sent guides to accompany them on their journey, who stayed with them 
till they reached, on the 24th of February, the villages under the chieftainship 
of Katendc. 

They had now reached the latitude of Loanda ; and hencefoi'th their 
course was westerly. The rains continued, and Livingstone suffered much 
from having to sleep on the wet ground. lie was constantly drenched with 
such showers as compelled him to deposit his chronometer watch (so essential 
to his observations), in his arm-pit, while his lower extremities were wetted 
twice or thrice daily in crossing marshy streams. Night after night, he had 
to stretch himself in his damp clothes upon the saturated ground, suffering 
from fever, which deprived him of rest, undermined his strength, and ren- 
dered the labour of each succeeding day more difficult. 

The westerly course they were now taking brought them among people 
who are frequently visited by the Mambari, as slave-dealers. Tliey found 
that the idea of buying and selling took the place of giving for friendship; 
and as Livingstone had nothing with which to purchase food except a parcel 
of beads which he had preserved for worse times, he began to fear greater 
suffering from hunger than they had yet endured. The peoi)lu here demanded 
gunpowder for everything. Next to that, English calico was in great demand, 
and so were beads ; but money was of no value Avhatever, trade being carried 
on by barter alone. On tiie 27t]i, they reached a part of the Ilivcr Kusiii, a 
n.ost beautiful river, and very much like the Clyde in Scotland. The slope 
of the valley down to the stream is about live hundred yards, and finely 
wooded. It is, ])erhaps, one hundred yards broad, and was winding slowly 
irom fcide to side in the beautiful green glen, in a course to the north and 


north-east. In both the directions from wliicli it came and to whicli it went, 
it seemed to be alternately embowered in sylvan vegetation, or ; icli meadows 
covered with tall grass. 

"Wliilo at the ford of the Kasai," says Livingstone, "we were subjected 
to a trick of which wo were forewarned by the peoj^le of Sliinte. A knife had 
been dropped by one of Kangcnke's people in order to entrap my men ; it 
was jHit down, near our encampment, as if lost, the owner in the meantime 
watching till one of my men picked it up. Nothing was said until our party 
was divided, one half on this, and the other on that bank of the river. Tiicn 
the charge was made to me that one of my men had stolen a knife. Certain 
of my people's honest)', I desired the man, who was making a great noise, to 
search the luggage for it ; the unlucky lad who had taken the bait, then came 
forward and confessed that he had the knife in a basket, which was already 
taken over the river. When it was returned, the owner would not receive ic 
back inilcss accompanied with a fine. The lad offered beads, but these were 
refused with scorn. A shell hanging round his neck, similar to that which 
Shinto had given me, was the object demanded, and the victim of the trick, 
as we all knew it to be, was obliged to part with his costly ornament. I could 
not save him from the loss, as all had been forewarned ; and it is the uni- 
versal custom among the Makololo, and many other tribes, to show whatever 
Ihey may find to the chief person of the company, and make a sort of offer 
of it to him. This lad ought to have done so to me ; the rest of the party 
always observed this custom. I felt anno3-ed at the imposition, but the order 
we invariably followed in crossing a river forced me to submit. The head of 
the ])arty remained to be ferried over last ; so, if I had not come to terms, I 
would have been, as I always was in crossing rivers which we could not swim, 
comi^letely in the power of the enemy. It was but rarely we could get a 
lioadman so witless as to cross a river with us, and remain on the opposite 
bank in a convenient position to be seized as a hostage, in case of my being 

Thus, as they approached the civilised settlements, they found the habits 
of the people changed much for the woi'se; tricks of all sorts were j^layed to 
detain them and obtain tribute ; the guides also tried to impose on them. The 
native tribes bordering on the Portuguese province of Angola had become so 
demoralised by contact with Europeans, and their connection with the slave- 
trade, that it was with no small difficulty and danger Livingstone was able 
to proceed. Payments were demanded upon the most frivolous pretences, 
and both he and the ^Makololo were forced to part with every thing tiiey could 
dispense with, even to their clothes, in payment for food, fines, and ferries; 
and after they had parted with them all, rapacious mobs still surrounded 
lliem, demanding Avhat they had not to give and threatening A-iolcncc on 
tlieir refusal. 



Tlic following extract from one of Iii.s letters will illustrate his circum- 
stances in this j^ai't of his journey: — "Never did I endure such drenchings ; 
and all the streams being swollen, we had to ford many, the water flowing 
on the rustic bridges waist deep. Others we crossed by sticking to the oxen 
the best way we could, and a few wc made a regular swim of. My Barotse — 
for with them alone I travelled — did not know I could swim, and the first 
Inoad stream we came to excited their fears on my account. ' Now, hold on 
iast by the tail. Dcn't let go.' I intended to follow the injunction, but tail 
and all went so deep I thought it better to strike out alone for the bank, and 
just as I reached it I was greatly gratified to sec a universal rush had been 
made for my rescue. Their clothes were all floating down the stream, and 
two of them reached me breathless with the exertion they had made. If we 
could march I got on ver}- well ; 1 don't care much for fatigue ; but when 
compelled to stand still by pouring rains, then fever laid hold with his strong 
pangs on my inner man, and lying in a little gipsy tent, with e\ erything 
damp or wet, was sore against the grain. 

"As wc approached the Portuguese settlements the people became worse, 
and at last, instead of gifts of food, "\\ e were offered knocks on the head. 
The Chiboque, for instance, are most outrageous blackguards ; we were spend- 
ing a Sunday on Peace Society principles, when a whole tribe surrounded us, 
fully armed with guns, arrows, spears, and short swords. They were all 
vociferating and brandishing their weapons simultaneously. I sat down, and 
asked the chief to do the same, and then demanding silence, requested to 
know what was the matter. Our crime consisted in one of oui* men, when 
spitting, allowing a small drop of saliva to drop on lliem. I replied, if the 
chief could seriously say such was a crime, I was willing to pay a fine. (On 
such frivolous pretexts we had often to i)ay enormous fines.) He accepted 
one, but his warriors rejected it, and demanded one after another, until, by 
demanding one of our number to be sold as a slave, we saw their intention 
was regular 2:)lunder, and armed ourselves for the worst. They feared my 
arms alone; indeed, wo were as a company unprepared for fighting; but, 
armed as Ave were, not a man of chiefs or councillors would have escaped the 
first onset. We determined to let them shed the first drop of blood, and sat 
looking at them in all their heathenish shouting. This resolute bearing 
made them more reasonable, so they accepted an ox, and gave us two or 
three pounds of the flesh, to show that they were of a generous disposition 
after all. We were often so treated, and at last no passage allowed us through 
a town or village without paying for it. I paid away nearly all I had — 
oxen for provisions, riding clothes, razors, spoons, etc." 

Continuing their W. N. W. course, they met many parties of native 
traders, each carrying some pieces of cloth and salt, with a few beads to 
barter for bees-wax. They were all armed with Portuguese guns, and had 



cartridges, \\\\\\ iron balls. On the 30th of March, they came to a suddca 
descent from the high land, indented by deep, narrow valleys, over whicli 
they had lately been travelling. It was generally so steep, that it could only 
be descended at particular points, and even then Livingstone was obliged to 
dismount from his ox, though so weak that he had to bo led by his com- 
panions, to i^event liis toppling over in walking down. Below them lay tho 
valley of the Quango. It is about a luindrcd miles broad, clothed with dark 
forest, cxcejjt where the light-green grass covers meadow lands on tho 
Quango, which here and there glances out in the sun, as it wends its way 
to the north. The o])posito side of this great valley appears like a range of 
lofty mountains, and the descent into it about a milo, which, measured per- 
pendicularly, may bo from a thousand to twelve hundred feet. As they 
emerged fi-om the gloomy forests of Londa, this magnificent prospect filled 
their hearts with joy. There they met with tho bamboo, as thick as a man's 
arm, and many new trees. They rested beside a small stream, and their 
hunger being severe, from having lived on manioc for many days, they slaugh- 
tered one of their four remaining oxen. On the-4th of April, they reached 
the banks of the Quango, a river one hundred and fifty yards wide, and 
very deep, flowing among extensive meadows, clothed with gigantic grass 
and reeds, and in a direction nearly north. 

The chief of the district — a young man, who wore his hair in tlic 
shajx) of a cone, bound round with white and coloured thread — on thcii' 
refusing to pay him an extortionate demand, ordered his people not to ferry 
them across the river, and actually oi^cned fire on them. '' At this juncture 
a half-caste Portuguese, a sergeant of militia, Cypriano Di Abrcu, arrived, 
and obtaining ferrymen, they crossed over into the territor}^ of the Bangala, 
who are subject to the Portuguese. They had some time before rebelled, and 
troops were now stationed among thcni, Cypriano being in command of a 
jiarty of men. Next morning he jn-ovidcd a delicious breakfast for his guest, 
and fed the Jlakololo with i)umpkins and maize, and supplied them with 
farina for their journey to Kasenge, without even hinting at payment. 

" The natives, though they long have had intercourse with the Portu- 
guese, are ignorant and superstitious in the extrei:ie. Many parts of the 
country are low and marshy, and they suffer greatly from fever. Of the 
use of medicine they have no notion, their only remedies being charms 
and cui)ping. The latter operation is performed with a small horn, whicili 
has a little hole in tho ujipcr end. The broad end is placed on the flesh, 
when the operator sucks through the hole ; as the flesh rises, he gashes it with 
a knife, then replaces the horn and sucks again, till finally he introduces a 
piece of wax into his mouth, to stop up the hole, when the horn is left to 
allow the blood to gush into it." 

After three days pretty hard travelling through the long gi*ass. Living- 



stone and his pfirty rcnchcd Kascngo, tlic fartlicst inland station of the 
Portuguese in Western Africa. They crossed several streams running into 
the Quango ; and as the grass rose about two feet over their heads, it gene- 
rally obstructed their view of the adjacent country, and sometimes hung over 
the path, making one side of the body -wet with dew every morning, or when 
it rained, keeping them wet during the whole day. Kasenge is composed of 
thirty or forty traders' houses, scattered about without any regularit}-. All 
the traders are officers in the militia, and many of them have become rich. 
Although Livingstone told them that he Mas a Protestant minister, they 
treated him with the greatest kindness and hospitality. As they were the 
first white men the travellers had come to, they sold the tusks belonging to 
Sekeletu, which had been brought to test the difference of prices in the Mako- 
lolo and the white men's country. The result was highly satisfactory to the 
Makololo, as the Portuguese give much larger prices for ivory than can 
possibly be given by traders from the Cape. Two muskets, three small 
barrels of gunpowder, English calico and baize sufficient to clothe the whole 
party, with large bunches of beads, all for one tusk, rejoiced tlie hearts of 
those who had been accustomed to give two tusks for one gun. With another 
tusk they procured calico, whiqli is here the chief currency, to pay their 
way down to the coast. The remaining two were sold for money to purchase 
a horse for Sckcletu at Loanda. 

They had yet about three hundred miles to traverse before they coultl 
reach the coast. Tlie merchants of Kasenge furnished Livingstone with 
letters of introduction to their friends at Loanda, and with a black militia 
corporal as a guide. He was a native cf Ambaca, and, like nearly all the 
inhabitants of that district, known by the name of Anibakistas, could both 
read and write. Ho had, however, the usual vices produced by slavery ; and 
took care to cheat those Avhom he Avas sent to guide and j^rotect. They 
found sleeping-places provided for travellers on the road about ten miles 
apart; and a constant stream of people going and coming from the coast, 
carrying goods, cither on the head, or on one shoulder, in a sort of basket. 
fT-'riio first comers took possession of the sleeping-places, those arriving last 
having to make liuts with long grass for themselves. Women then came from 
their villages with baskets of manioc meal, yams, garlic, and other roots, for 
sale. As Livingstone had su])plied himself with calico at Kasenge, he was 
able to purchase whatever he needed. 

On entering the district of Ambaca, the travellers found the landscape 
enlivened by the appearance of lofty mountains in the distance, the grass 
comparatively short, and the whole country looking gay and verdant. Every- 
where there were signs of great fertility. Large numbers of cattle existed 
on the pastures, which Averc well watered by flowing streams. The com- 
mandant of Ambaca, Avsenio de Carpo, welcomed I^ivingstone most cordi- 


ally, recommended ■wine for liis debility, and gave liini tlio first glass ho li;id 
taken in Africa. ' " AVlien sleeping in the house of the commandant," ho 
sa}s, " an insect, well known in the southern country by the name Tampan, 
bit my foot. It is a kind of tick, and cliooscs by preference the parts 
between the finders or toes for inflictinsr its bite. It is seen from the size 
of a pin's head to that of a pea, and is common in all the native huts in this 
country. It sucks the blood until quite full, and is tlien of a dark-blue 
colour, and its skin so tough and yielding, that it is impossible to burst it by 
any amount of squeezing with the lingers. I had felt the effect of its bite in 
former years, and eschewed all native huts ever after; but, as I was here 
again assailed in a Euroj)ean house, I shall detail the effects of the bite. 
These arc, a tingling sensation of mingled pain and itching, Avhich com- 
mences ascending the limb until the i)oison imbibed reaches the lilidomeii, 
■where it soon causes violent vomiting and purging. Where these effects do 
not follow, as we found afterwards at Tete, fever sets in ; and I was assured 
by intelligent Portuguese there, that death has sometimes been the result of 
this fever. The only inconvenience I afterwards suffered from this bite, was 
the continuance of the tingling sensation in the point bitten for about a 

Sunday, the lith of Ma}', was spent at Cabinda, situated in a beautiful 
glen, and surrounded by ])lantations of bananas and manioc. The country 
became more and more picturesque the farther they proceeded west. In a 
day or two they entered upon a Avild-looking mountainous di;?tl"ict, called 
Golungo Alto. The hills were bedecked with trees of various luies; tower- 
ing among them the graceful palm, which yields the oil of commerce and 
])alm-wine. Here Livingstone was kindly received by the commandant, 
Lieutenant Antonio Canto e Castro, a young man, whose kindness and hos- 
pitality overflowed towards the traveller. A few days' rest with this young 
man enabled him to regain much of his strength. He was quite shut in 
among green hills, many of which were cultivated up to their tops with 
manioc, coffee, cotton, ground-nuts, bananas, pine-apioles, guavas, papaws, 
custard-apples, pitangas, and jambos, fruits brought from South America. 

On the 24th of May, they left Golungo Alto. As they proceeded, they 
jiasscd several streams and cascades, and through forests of gigantic timber. 
Numbers of carpenters were converting the lofty trees which grew around 
into planks, from which they made small chests, which they sold at Cam- 
bondo. AVhen furnished with hinges, lock, and key — all of their own manu- 
facture — one costs only a shilling and eightpencc. Livingstone's men were 
so delighted with them that they carried several of them on their heads all 
the way to Linyanti. At Trombeta, the commandant had his garden orna- 
mented with rows cf trees, with pine-apples and flowers growing between 
them. A few years ago, he had purchased an estate for £16, on Avhich ho 


IkuI how a coffee plantation, and all sorts of fruit-trees and gi'apc-vines, 
besides grain and vegetables growing, as also a cotton plantation. All kinds 
of food ■were here remarkably cheap. 

The aspect of the country row gradually changed. The nearer they 
approached the sea, tl.e more level and unfiuitful the country became. Tlio 
grandeur and beauty of the natural scenery were left behind. " Farther on," 
says our traveller, " we left the mountainous country, and, as wo descended 
towards the west coast, saw the land assuming a more sterile, uninviting 
aspect. On our right ran the river Senza, which, nearer the sea, takes the 
name of Bongo. It is about fifty yards broad, and navigable for canoes. The 
low plains adjacent to its banks arc protected from inundation by embank- 
ments, and the population is entirely occupied in raising food and fruits for 
exportation to Loanda by means of canoes. The banks arc infested by 
myriads of the most ferocious mosquitoes lever met. Not one of our party 
could get a snatch of sleep. I was taken into the house of a Portuguese, but 
was soon glad to make my escape, and lie across the j^ath on the lee side of 
the fire, where the smoke blew over my body. My host wondered at my 
want of taste, and I at his want of feeling, for, to our astonishment, he, and 
the other inhabitants, had actually become used to what was at least equal 
to a nail through the heel of one's boot, or the tooth-ache." 

They were now drawing near the coast ; and as they gradually approached 
it, Livingstone's companions were somewhat alarmed. "When they first saw 
the sea they looked at it, stretching away out to the distant horizon, with 
wondering awe. Describing their feelings afterwards, they said: — "We 
marched along with our father, believing that what our forefathers had told 
us was true, that the world has no end ; but all at once the world said to us, 
' I am finished ; there is no more of me ! ' " They were afraid of being kid- 
napped; and then they were apprehensive of want and hunger. But their 
white leader assured them, that nothing should happen save what happened 
to himself ; that as thcj' had stood by each other hitherto, so they would stand 
by each other to the last. 

The westward journey was now over. On the 31st of May, 1854, 
Livingstone and his Makololo entered the city of Loanda. From the time 
he had ccme within Portuguese influence and rule, his journey had been com- 
paratively pleasant. Through the kind and valued aid of the Portuguese 
settler he happily met at Quango, he and his party had been safely escorted 
to Kascnge. From this point ho was treated with unbounded kindness and 
hospitality by the Portuguese authorities, and by the pojoulation generally, 
until ho reached Loanda. J And it was a merciful thing that he was thus 
treated, for so extreme Avere bis sufi'erings towards tho termination of his 
journey, from repeated attacks of fever, and from dysentery, that ho could 
not sit upon his ox longer than ten minutes at a time ; and when ho entered 


tlio mucli-desired city, he was reduced almost to a skeleton. Here, however, 
warm-hearted friends awaited him,, the most valuable of whom was Edmund 
Gabriel, Esq., Her Majesty's Commissioner at Loanda, and the only English- 
man in the place. By him, he and his twenty-seven companions were most 
generously received. " I shall never forget," he says " tlie delicious j^leasuro 
of lying down on his bed after sleeping six months on the ground ; nor the 
unwearied attention and kindness, through a long sickness, wliich Mr. Gabriel 
invariably showed. ]\ray God reward him ! " 


Livinr/stonc and ilic Itlaliololo at Loanda — Return Journoj — Reach Liivjanti — 
Departure for Kilimanc — Victoria Falls — Native Tribes — Animals — Tcfe and 
its Vicinity — Descent of the Zambesi — Arrival at Kilimanc. 

'* QT PAUL DE LOANDA has been a very considerable city, but is now in 
y^ a state of decay. It contains about twelve thousand inhabitants, most 
of "whom are peojile of colour. There are various evidences of its former mag- 
nificence, esjjecially two cathedrals, one of which, once a Jesuit college, is 
now converted into a workshop; and in passing the other Livingstone saw with 
sorrow a number of oxen feeding within its stately walls. Three forts continue 
in a good state of repair. Many lai'ge stone houses are to be found. The 
palace of the governor and government offices are commodious structures ; 
but nearly all the houses of the native inhabitants are of wattle and daub. 
Trees are planted all over tlic town for the sake of shade ; and the cit}' pre- 
sents an imposing ajipearance from the sea. It is provided with an effective 
police ; and the custom-house department is extremely well managed. All 
parties agree in representing the Portuguese authorities as botli polite and 
obliging; and, if ever any inconvenience is felt by strangers visiting the 
port, it must be considered the fault of the system, not of the men. 

" The harbour is formed by the low sandy island of Loanda, which is 
inhabited by about one thousand three hundred souls, upwards of six hundred 
of whom are industrious native fishermen, who supply the city with abund- 
ance of good fish daily. The space between it and the mainland, on which 
the city is built, is the station for ships. When a high south-west wind blows, 
the waves of the ocean dash over part of the island, and, driving large quan- 
tities of sand before them, gradually fill up the harbour. Great quantities of 
soil are also washed in the rainy season from the heights above the city, so 
that the port, which once contained water sufficient to float the largest ships 
close to the custom-house, is now at low water dry. Tlie ships are compelled 
to anclior about a mile north of their old station. Nearly all the water con- 
sumed in Loanda is brought from the river Bengo by means of launches, the 
only supply that the city affords being from some deep wells of slightly brack- 
ish water ; unsuccessful attempts have been made by different governors to 
finish a canal which the Dutch, while in possession of Loanda during tho 


seven years preceding- 1G48, had begun, to bring water from tlic livcr Coanza 
to the citv.'' 

At the time of Livingstone's visit, there was not a single Eiiglisli mer- 
chant at Loanda, and only two Americans. This was the more remarkable, 
as nearly all tlie commerce was carried on by means of English calico 
brought via Lisbon. Several English houses attempted to establish a trado 
about 1845, and accepted bills on Rio do Janeiro in payment for their goods, 
but tlio increased activity of English cruisers had such an effect upon the 
mercantile houses of that city, that most of tliem failed. The Englith mer- 
chants lost alL " The Portuguese home government," says Livingstone, 
" has not generally received the credit for sincerity in suppressing the slave- 
trade whicli I conceive to be its due. La 1839 my friend, Ih-. Gabriel, saw 
tliirtj'-sevcn slave-ships lying in this harbour, waiting- for their cargoes, undi r 
tlie protection of the guns of the forts. At that time slavers had to wait many 
months at a time for a human freight, and a certain sum per head was paid 
to tlie government for all that were exported. The duties derived from the 
exportation of slaves far exceeded tliose from other commerce, and, by agree- 
ing to the suppression of this profitable traffic, the government actually sacri- 
ficed the chief part of the cx2)ort revenue since that period. However, the 
revenue from lawful commerce has very much exceeded that on slaves. The 
intentions of the Portuguese home government, however good, cannot be 
fully carried out under the present system. The pay of the officers is so very 
small that tliey are nearly all obliged to engage in trade ; and owing to the 
lucrative nature of the slave-trade, the temptation to engage in it is so power- 
ful tliat the pliilanthropic statesmen of Lisbon need hardly expect to have 
their lunnane and enli<>htened views carried out." 

Many days elapsed, after Livingstone's arrival at Loanda, before he 
recovered from tlie fatigue and sufferings he had endured. His complaint 
having been caused by long deprivation of proper food, and exposure to 
malarious influences, he became much more reduced than ever, even while 
enjoying rest. All the time he was watched over with the most generous 
s}mpathy by his kind host. The Portuguese Bishop of Angola, and numerous 
other gentlemen, called on him and tendered their services. Her Majesty's 
sliip "Polyphemus" coming in, the surgeon, Mr. Cockin, aflforded him the 
medical assistance he so much required ; and on the 14th of June he was 
sufficiently recovered to call on the bishop, attended by his Makololo fol- 
lowers. They had all been dressed in new rcbes of striped cotton cloth, 
and red caps, presented by Mr. Gabriel. The bishop, acting as head of the 
provisional government, received them in form, and gave them permission 
to come to Loanda and trade as often as they wished, with which they were 
greatly pleased. The Makololo gazed with astonishment on every thing they 
saw around them ; especially on the large stone houses and churches, having 


never before seen a building larger than a hut. When invited on board shij), 
they hesitated through fear of being kidnapped ; but when their leader told 
them that if they entertained the least suspicion of foul play they need not 
go, they felt re-assured, and nearly the whole party went. Pointing to the 
sailors, Livingstone said — " Now, these are all my countrymen, sent by our 
Queen for the purpose of putting down the trade of those that buy and sell 
black men." They replied — " Truly they are just like you ; " and all their 
fears vanished. The sailors received them just the same as they would have 
been received by the Makololo, handing them a share of the bread and beef 
they had for dinner. They were allowed to fire ofi" a cannon, at which they 
were greatly pleased, especially when they were told that it was with that 
the slave-trade was put down. 

We have now traced the missionary traveller through a scries of explor- 
atory journeys of vast extent and almost inajDjjrcciable importance ; and had 
he been an ordinary man, he would, at this point, have terminated his toils 
and dangers. But this was not his design. Though his past sufi"erings had 
been severe, and he was now lying emaciated upon a sick-bed ; though he 
had been separated from his family for more than two weary years, and the 
tempting ojiportunity of speedily rejoining them in England was presented 
to hini, he nevertheless resolved to retrace his steps to Linyanti, and, having 
rested there for a season, to commence new cxjilorations towards the east. 
Two principal inducements led him to this determination — first, he felt that 
his honour as an Englishman and a Christian missionary was pledged to do 
his utmost to convey back to their country the confiding people who had 
accompanied him to Loanda, and who had faithfully fulfilled their engagement 
with himself. This motive would have sufticed ; but there were other consider- 
ations which shut him up to this course. He had not yet secured the great object 
of all his previous labours. That object, as we have seen, was to open from 
the coast a pathwa}^ into the heart of Africa for commerce and Christianity. 
Such a pathway, indeed, he had now discovered ; but it was one so beset with 
difliculty and danger, as to preclude the hope that, by its means, the future 
elevation and happiness of the people whom it was his aim to benefit would 
be secured. He felt, therefore, that his work was not done, and he prepared 
to press back, through hcstile tribes and pestilential swamps, that, if possible, 
he might attain the summit of his sacred ambition. " I feel," he writes, " that 
the work to which I set myself is only half accomplisheil. The way out to the- 
eastern coast may be less difficult than I have found that to the west. If I 
succeed we shall, at least, have a choice. I intend, God helping me, to go 
down the Zambesi or Leeambyo to Kilimane. If I cannot succeed I shall 
return to Loanda, and thence embark for England." 

These were the j^lans and purposes which largely occupied Livingstone's 

thou"hts during his constrained sojourn at Loanda. 15ut many weeks of 

J j^ 


suffering passed, crc he could prepare for the great achievement upon which 
liis heart was set. Jfeanwhile, his native conipauions patiently awaited his 
recovery. During this detention, however, they had enough to engage their 
thoughts and time in the new world by which tliey were surrounded. 

Wishing to take back to their country some of the wonderful and valu- 
able articles they saw at Loanda, they employed themselves in going into 
Ihe country and cutting firewood, which they sold to the inhabitants of the 
town. They sallied forth at ccck-crowing in the mornings, and by daylight 
reached the uncultivated parts of the adjacent country, collected a bundle of 
firewood, and returned to the city. It was then divided into smaller fagots; 
and as they gave larger quantities than the regular wood-carriers, they found 
no difliculty in selling, and soon established a brisk trade. Mr. Gabriel also 
found tliem employment in imloading a collier at sixpence a daj-. Tliey 
continued at this work for upwards of a month, and nothing could exceed their 
astonishment at the vast amount of cargo one ship contained. At last they 
gave it up in despair, having laboured, as they expressed it, every day from 
sunrise to sunset for a moon and a half, unloading, as quickly as they could, 
" stones that burn," and were tired out, still leaving plenty in her. With the 
money thus obtained they j^urchascd clothing, beads, and other articles to 
carry home with them. In selecting calicoes they were well able to judge of the 
.best, and chose such j^ieces as appeared the strongest, without reference to 
colour. These references to Livingstone's simple-minded attendants must 
not be concluded without a quotation from one of his letters, which states a 
fact equally honourable to them and to him. " Though compelled," he writes, 
" to part with their hard-won earnings in Loanda for food, on our waj'^ home, 
I never heard a murmur. The report they gave of the expedition, both iu 
public and i)rivate, and their very kind expressions towards myself, were 
sufficiently flattering." 

We cannot stay longer with our traveller on the west coast than to state 
that what he saw there led him to form a very high estimate of the extreme 
beauty and fertility of the country, and satisfied him that, under proper 
cultivation, few regions would prove more productive than tho province of 
Angola. Here he found that the Mocha coffee, some seeds of which had 
many years since been introduced there by the Jesuits, had so propagated 
itself as to spread three hundred miles from the coast, where he met with it 
growing wild. Its cultivation is so simple, and its productiveness so great, 
that any one witli ordinary energy, by merely clearing away the bush, could, 
in a short time, raise large crops and amass a fortune. While at Loanda he 
also visited several extinct convents and dilapidated churches, with other traces 
of a bygone period. His strength being now recruited, he prepared for hia 
departure, greatly refreshed by the unbounded kindness he had received, and 
elate with the purpose and the prospect of the mighty achievement still before 


liiui. He supplied liiraself with ammunition and beads, and a stock of clotli, 
and lie gave each of his men a musket. He also purchased a horse for 
Sekeletu. The bishop furnished him with twenty carriers, and sent forward 
orders to the commandants of the districts to the east to render him every 
assistance. The merchants sent a present to Sekeletu, consisting of specimens 
of all their articles of trade, aad two donkeys, that the breed might be intro- 
duced into his country, as the tsetse cannot kill those beasts of burden. His 
friends of the "Philomel'' fitted him out also with a new tent, and, on the 
20tli of September, ISoi, he and his party left Loanda, escorted by Mr. 
Gabriel, who, from his unwearied attentions and liberality to his men, had 
become endeared to all their hearts. 

The party passed round by sea to the mouth of the river Bengo. Ascend- 
ing this river, they went through the district in which stand the ruins of the 
convent of St. Antonio ; thence into Icollo-i-Bcngo, so named from having been 
the residence of a former native king. Mr. Gabriel now returned to Loanda, 
and Livingstone and his party proceeded to Golungo Alto ; from which place 
he made a short excursion into some of the neighbouring districts, celebrated 
for their coffee ^^l^iitations. On his return, he found several of his men 
suffering from fever, while one of them had gone out of his mind, who, how- 
ever speedily recovered. While waiting for the recovery of his men, he 
A'isitcd the deserted convent of St. Hilarion, at Baugo, situated in a magni- 
ficent valley, and now the residence of the Sova, or chief Bango, who still 
holds a place of authority under the Portuguese. The horse which the 
governor had kindly presented for Sekeletu was now seized with inflammation, 
and afterwards died on its journey. 

On the lltli of December the travellers proceeded on their way to 
Ambaca. Owing to the weakness of the men who had been sick, they were 
able to march but short distances. The whole country looked fresh and green 
after recent rains, and everything so cheering, that they could not but won- 
der to find it so feverish. Leaving Ambaca, they crossed the Lucalla, and 
turned toward the south, in order to visit the famous rocks of Puugo Andongo. 
" The fort of Pungo Andongo is situated in tbe midst of a group of curious 
columnar-shaped rocks, each of which is upwards of three hundred feet in 
height. They are composed of conglomerate, made up of a great variety of 
rounded pieces in a matrix of dark-red sandstone. They rest on a thick 
stratum of this last rock, with very few of the pebbles in its substance. On 
this a fossil palm has been found, and if of the same age as those on the 
eastern side of the continent on whicli similar palms now lie, there may be 
coal underneath this, as well as under that at Tete. The gigantic pillars of 
Pungo Andongo have been formed by a current of the sea coming from the 
S. S. E,, for, seen from the top, they appear arranged in that direction, and 
must have withstood the surges of thc» ocean at a period of our world's his- 


toiy, Avlicn the relations of land and sea were totally dift'crent from what they 
are now. The imbedded pieces in the conglomerate are of gneiss, clay shale, 
mica and sandstone schists, trap, and porphyry, most of which are largo 
enough to give the whole the appearance of being the only remaining ves- 
tiges of vast primeval banks of shingle. Several little streams run amongst 
these rocks, and in the central part of the pillars stands the village, com- 
pletely environed by well nigh inaccessible rocks. 

"In former times the Portuguese imagined that tliis place was particu- 
larly unhealthy, and banishment to the black rocks of Pungo Andongo was 
thought by their judges to be a much severer sentence than transportation to 
any part of the coast ; but this district is now well known to be the most 
healtliy part of Angola. The water is remarkably pure, the soil is light, and 
the country open and undulating, with a general slo^^e down towards the 
Coanza, a few miles distant. That river is the southern boundary of the 
Portuguese, and beyond, to the S. and S. W., we see the high mountains of 
the Libollo. On tlie S. E. we have also a mountainous country, inhabited 
by tlie Kinibonda or Ambonda, who are said to be a very brave and independ- 
ent people, but hospitable and fair in tlieir dealings. They are rich in cattle, 
and their country produces much bees-wax, which is carefully collected, and 
brought to the Portuguese, with whom they have always been on good terms." 

Livingstone left Pungo Andongo on the 1st of January, 1855. His patli 
lay along the right bank of the Coanza. On reaching the confluence of the 
Lombe, he left the river, and proceeded to the village of Malange. Leaving he passed quickly, without deviation, along the path by which ho 
had come. He daily met long lines of carriers bearing large square masses 
of bees-wax, each about a hundred pounds' weight, and numbers of elejjhants' 
tusks, the property of Angolese merchants. Many natives were also proceed- 
ing to the coast on their own account, carrying bees-wax, ivory, and sweet 
oil. They appeared to travel in perfect security; and at different parts of tbo 
road, he purchased fowls from them at a jDcnny each. The Makololo were 
now able to boast over the natives of these parts, who had endeavoured to 
frighten them on their way down, because they had actually entered ships, 
while these natives had only seen them at a distance. They Avei'e more than 
ever attentive to their leader, and assiduous in their endeavours to make him 

So far eastward as the authority of the Portuguese extended, our traveller 
was able, slowly indeed, and with many interruptions, but yet with compa- 
rative case and safety, to pursue his coui'se to Kasenge. But, unlike those 
travellers who are satisfied with a superficial survey of the regions thi-ough 
ivhich they pass, he ascertained and recorded, as he went along, the latitude 
and longitude of its many points, so as to make the way of those who suc- 
ceeded him perfectly plaMT. He corrected tlie miq^s of Angola and its adjoin- 


iiig districts, which, framed more upon native reports thau astronomical 
observation, proved to be singularly crrcneous. He fixed all the rivers he could 
])Ossibly trace, and settled the confluence of their principal branches, and 
left no important place without fixing its position. These invaluable labours, 
however, with the numerous detours which he made from the direct path to 
places not previously visited, and the additional observations he was con- 
stantly taking, greatly retarded his progress. 

On the 28th of February, they reached the banks of the Quango, where 
they were again received by C}priano. He acted with his wonted kindness, 
though, unfortunately, drinking had got him so deeply into debt, that he 
was obliged to kee}! out of the way of his creditors. Crossing the Quango, 
they passed on without visiting their friend of the conical head-dress, to the 
residence of some Ambakistas, who had crossed the river in order to secure 
the first chances of trade in wax. These Ambakistas, or half-caste Portu- 
guese, are famed for their love of learning, and are keen traders ; and, as 
they write a peculiarly fine hand, they are generally cmploj^ed as clerks— 
sometimes being called the Jews of Angola. The Bashinje, in whose 
country they now were, seem to possess more of the low negro character 
and physiognomy than either the lialonda or Basongo. '* Their colour," 
says Livingstone, " is generally dirty black, foreheads low and compressed, 
noses flat and much expanded laterally, though this is owing partly to the 
alae spreading over the cheeks, by the custom of inserting bits of sticks or 
reeds in the se2itum ; tlicir teeth are deformed by being filed to points; their 
lips are lai-gc. They make a nearer approach to a general negro appearance 
than any tribes I met." At one of their villages the head man attacked the 
(ravellcrs, and a large body rushed upon them as the}' were j^assing through 
11 forest, and fired upon them. Livingstone's coolness and courage, however, 
were more than a match for them, and they soon quietly returned home. 

The travellers crossed the Loajima on the 30tli of Ajiril. The ijeople 
in these parts seemed more slender in form, and their colour a lighter olive 
than any they had before met. " They elaborately dress their hair in a 
number of ways. It naturally hangs down on their shoulders in large masses, 
which, with their general features, give them a strong resemblance to the 
ancient Egyptians. Some of them twist their hair into a number of small 
cords, which they stretch out to a hoop encircling the head, giving it the 
resemblance of the glory seen in pictures round the head of the Virgin ^lary. 
Others adorn their heads with ornaments of woven hair and hide, to wliich 
they occasionally suspend the tails of buffaloes. A third fashion is to weave 
the hair on pieces of hide, in the form of bufialo horns, projecting on cither 
side of the head. The young men twine their hair in the foim of a single 
horn, projecting over their forehead in front. They frequently tattoo their 
bodies, producing a variety of figures, in the form of stars. Although their 


heads nrc thus ehiboratcly drcssctl, their bodies arc ahnost destitute of 

After crossing two small streams, they reached Cabango, a village situ- 
ated on the banks of the Chihombo. The country was becoming more 
densely peopled as they proceeded, yet its population was nothing coinpared 
with what it could easily sustain. Provisions Avere so plentiful and cheap that a. 
fowl and a basJcot of meal were sold for a yard and a half of very inferior 
cotton-cluth, worth not more than three pence. The chief vegetable food is 
manioc and lotsa meal. Those contain a very large proportion of starcli, 
and when eaten alone for any length of time, produce most distressing heart- 
burn and weakness of vision. "When these starchy substances, however, are 
eaten along •with a proportion of ground-nuts, which contain a considerable 
quantity of oil, no injurious efl'ects follow. Cabango is the dwelling place of 
Muanzanza, one of Blatiamvo's subordinate chiefs. The population consists 
partly of natives, and partly of half-caste Portuguese from Ambaca, agents 
for the Kasengc traders. The cold in the mornings was now severe to the 
feelings, the thermometer ranging from 58° to 60", though, when protected, 
sometimes standing as high as 64°; at six a.m., when the sun is well up, the 
thermometer, in the shade, rises to 80°, and in the evenings it is about 78°. 
Leaving Cabango, they crossed several little streams running into the Chi- 
hombo on their left, and in one of them saw, for the first time in Africa, tree 
ferns. The trunk was about four feet high, and ten inclies in diameter. 
They also saw grass trees of two varieties, Avhich, in damp localities, had 
attained the height of forty feet. On crossing the Chihombo, about twelve 
miles above Cabango, they found it waist-deep and rapid. As soon as they 
got away from the track of the slave-traders, the more kindly spirit of the 
southern I'alonda appeared, and generally they were well received at the 

On their arrival at the Kasai, most extortionate demands were made b}^ 
Kawawa, an imijortant personage in these parts, as the toll for crossing that 
river. A bullock, a gun, and a man, were the lowest terms upon which Living- 
stone and his party could be fen-ied over to the east bank. " Very well,'' 
said Livingstone, in the calmest possible manner, " I am sorry for it. What 
will you do with me ?" " I can't say," replied the chief, "you must give me 
all you have got." Meanwhile, as the day was advancing, the chief, aware 
that, without canoes, it would be impossible for the travellers to get across, 
secretly ordered his people to convey them all away. Without, however, 
giving the wily savage reason to suppose that his design had been discovered, 
one of the party, while apparently looking with easy indifference in another 
direction, was carefully watching one of the canoes into a distant creek of the 
river, for, as it was supposed, beyond their reach. Night now gathered around 
them, the chief and the people returned to their tents, and when all was dark- 


ncss and silence, some of the Makololo, guided by their keen-eyed companion, 
stcaltliily tracked their way to the creek where tlie canoe was hidden ; and, 
•\vlien the morning dawned, the extortioner, witli mortification and rage, found 
his captives free and far beyond his reach, though his canoe had been safely 

After leaving tlie Kasai, they entered upon tlie vast level jjlains wliich 
they had formerly found in a flooded condition. TIio water on tliem was not 
yet dried up, but remained in certain hollow spots. Hero they saw vultures 
floating in the air. Jet-black larks, with yellow shoulders, enlivened the 
mornings with tlicir songs. " While passing across the interminable plains," 
writes our traveller, " the eye rests with pleasure on a small flower, which 
exists in such immbers as to give its own hue to the ground. One broad band 
of yellow stretches across our path. On looking at the flowers which formed 
this golden carpet, we saw every A-arlety of that colour, from the palest lemon 
to the ricliest orange. Crossing a hundred yai'ds of this, we came upon ano- 
ther broad band of the same flower, but blue, and this colour is varied, from 
the lightest tint to daik-bluc, and even purple. I had before observed the 
same flower possessing diff"erent colours in dilTerent parts of the country, and 
once, a great number of liver-coloured flowers, which elsewhere were yellow. 
Even the colour of the birds changed with the district wc passed through ; 
but never before did I see such a marked change, as from yellow to blue, 
repeated again ai:d again on the same plain. Another beautiful plant attracted 
my attention so strongly on those plains, that I dismounted to examine it. To 
my great delight, I found it to bo an old home acquaintance, a species of 
Drosera, closely resembling our own sun-dew [Droscra Auf/lia). The flower- 
stalk never attains a height of more than two or three inclies, and the leaves 
arc covered with reddish hairs, each of which has a drop of clammy fluid at 
its tip, making the whole ai:)pcar as if spangled over with small diamonds. I 
noticed it first in the moi-ning, and imagined the appearance was caused by 
the sun shining on drops of dew; but, as it continued to maintain its brilliancy 
during the heat of the day, I proceeded to investigate the cause of its beauty, 
and found that tho points of the hairs exuded pure liquid, in, apparently, 
capsules of clear glutinous matter. They were thus like dewdrops preserved 
from evaporation. The clammy fluid is intended to entrap insects, which, 
dying on the leaf, probably yield nutriment to the plant." 

Soon after crossing the Ivasai, Livingstone left behind him every un- 
friendly native, and, to use his own words, was " at home, received with 
enthusiasm at all the different towns and villages througli which we passed, 
and wanted for nothing the people had to give. Still," he remarks, " the 
Africans are all deeply imbued with the spirit of trade. Wo found great 
difficulty in getting past many villages ; every artifice was employed to detain 
us that we might purchase our suppers from them." On the 11th of June, 


tlioy reached the collection of straggling villages under the cliieftainsliip of 
Katcnia, and wore thankful to see old familiar faces again. The chief and 
Ills peoj)lc manifested the greatest kindness; and assured them of all the 
friendly assistance he could give them on their journey. On departing from 
Livingstone's presence, he mounted on the shoulders of his spokesman, as 
the most dignified mode of retiring. The spokesman being a slender man, 
and the cliief six feet high, and stout in proportion, there would have been a 
break down, had he not been accustomed to it. 

On reaching the town of Sliinte, they received a hearty welcome from 
this friendly old man, and abundant provisions of the best he had. On 
hearing the report of the journey, and receiving a piece of cotton cloth about 
two Aards square, he said, " These ]\Iambari cheat us by bringing little pieces 
onl}' ; but the next time you pass I shall send men with you, to trade for me 
in Loanda." After leaving with him a number of jilants, among which were 
orange, cashew, custard, apple, and fig-ti'ees, with coffee, acacias, and papaws, 
(o be planted out in the enclosure of one of his principal men, the travellers 
left him on the sixth of Jul}', and proceeded by their former path to the 
village of his sister Nyamoana. From her they received the loan of five 
small canoes, and, also, one of those they had left there before, to pi'oceed 
down the Lceba. The Makololo purchased also a number of small canoes 
capable of carrying only two jijcrsons, from the Balonda. The price paid 
was a string of beads equal to the length of the canoe. 

A short distance below the confluence of the Leeba and Lecambye, they 
met a number of hunters belonging to the tribe called Mambowe, who had 
with them dried flesh of hippopotami, buffaloes and alligators. " The}' stalk 
the animals by using the stratagem of a cajD made of the skin of a leche's or 
poku's head, having the horns still attached, and another made so as to repre- 
sent the upper white part of the crane called jabiru, with its long neck and 
beak above. With these on, they crawl through the grass ; they can easily 
put up their heads so far as to see their prey without being recognised until 
they are within bow shot. They joined our party," says Livingstone, " and 
on the following day discovered a hijipopotamus dead, wliich they had pre- 
viously wounded. This was the first feast of flesh my men had enjoj-ed, for, 
though the game was wonderfully abundant, I had quite got out of the way 
of shooting, and missed perpetually. Once I went with a determination of 
getting so close that I should not miss a zebra. We went along one of the 
branches that stretch out from the river in a small canoe, and two men, 
stooping down as low as they could, j^addlcd it slowly along to an open space 
near to a herd of zebras and pokus. Peering over the edge of the canoe, 
the open space seemed like a i^atch of wet ground, such as is often seen on 
the banks of a river, made smooth as the resting place of alligators. When 
we came within a few yards of it, we found, by the precipitate plunging of 


the reptile, that this Avas a lariic aUigator itself. Although I had been most 
careful to approach near enough, I unfortunately only broke the hind leg of 
a zebra. My two men pursued it, but the loss of a hind leg does not prevent 
this animal from a gallop. 

" As I walked slowly after the men on an extensive plain covered with 
a great crop of grass, which was laid by its own weight, I observed that a 
.solitary buffalo, disturbed by others of my own party, was coming to me at 
a gallop. I glanced around, but the only tree on the plain was a hundred 
}-arcls off, and there was no escape elsewhere. I therefore cocked my rifle, 
with the intention of giving him a steady shot in the forehead, when he should 
come within three or four yards of mo. The thought flashed across my 
mind, ' "W hat if your gun misses fire ?' I placed it to my shoulder as ho came 
on at full speed, and that is tremendous, though generally he is a lumbering- 
looking animal in his pace. A small bush, and a bunch of grass fifteen yards 
off, made him swerve a little, and exposed his shoulder. I just heard the ball 
crack there as I fell flat on my face. The pain must have made him renounce 
his i^urpose, for he bounded close past me on to the water, where he was 
found dead. In expressing my thankfulness to God among my men, they 
Avere much offended with, themselves for not being present to shield me from 
this danger." 

Our travellers reached the town of Libonta on July 27th ; and were 
welcomed by tlie warmest demonstrations of joy, the women coming forth to 
meet them, with dancing and singing. They were looked upon as men risen 
from the dead, the diviners having pronounced them to have perished long 
ago. They were conducted to the kotla, or house of assembl}', where Pitsane, 
one of the Makololo, delivered a long speech, describing the journey and the 
kind Avay in which they had been received at Loanda, especially by Mr. 
Gabriel. The next day Livingstone held a religious service, when his Mako- 
lolo braves, ai'rayed in their red caps, and white suits of European clothing, 
attended. During the service they all sat with their guns over their shoulders 
and excited the unbounded admiration of the women and children. He 
addressed them all on the goodness of God in preserving them from all the 
dangers of strange tribes and disease. The men of Libonta gave them two 
fine oxen for slaughter, and the women sui:)plicd them abundantly with milk, 
meal, and butter. Strangers came flocking from a distance, and seldom 
empty-handed. As they proceeded down the Barotse valley, they were 
cver}'whero received in the same cordial manner. 

They parted with their kind Libonta friends on the 31st of July, and on 
the 1st of August reached Naliele. There they remained a fortnight. " I 
left Naliele," says Livingstone, " on the 13th of August, and when proceeding 
along the shore at mid-day, a hi2>po2)otamus struck the canoe with her fore- 
head, lifting one-half of it quite out of the water, so as nearly to overturn it. 



The force of the butt she gave, tilted Mashauana cut into the river ; tlie rest 
of us sprang to the shore, which was only about ten yards off. Glancing 
back, I saw her conic to the surface a short way off, and look to the canoe, 
as if to see if she had done much mischief. It was a female, whose young 
one had been speared the day before. No damage was done, except wetting 
person and goods. This is so unusual an occurrence, Avlien the precaution is 
taken to coast along the shore, that my men exclaimecl, ' Is the beast mad ?* 
There were eight of us in the canoe at the time, and the shake it received 
shows the immense power of this animal in the water." 

Resting for a few days at Sesheke, they proceeded to Linyanti, where 
the waggon and everything that was left in it in November, 1853, was found 
perfectly safe. A grand meeting was called to receive the traveller's report, 
and tlic articles which had been sent as presents by the governor and mer- 
chants of Loanda. The presents gave immense satisfaction ; and on Sunday, 
Sekeletu made his appearance at church in his uniform, which attracted 
universal attention. Prior to this, Livingstone was a most extraordinaiy 
personage in the eyes of the Makololo ; but now he was more exalted than 
ever. They expressed great satisfiictiou at the route which had been opened 
up, and projooscd moving to the Barotse valley, that they might be nearer 
the great market. The unhealthiness of the climate, however, was justly 
considered a great drawback to the scheme. It was arranged that another 
party should go down to Loanda with a load of ivory ; and Livingstone after- 
wards heard that they arrived there in safety. It nmst have been a great 
satisfaction to him to feel that he had thus opened out a way to the enterprise 
of these industrious and intelligent people. 

Livingstone now began to make arrangements for performing his adven- 
turous journey to the East Coast. He resolved not to remain at Linyanti 
longer than necessary ; still nearly two months elapsed before he could leave. 
The preparations needful for such a journey were considerable ; besides he 
was advised to wait till the rains had i'alkn and cooled the ground ; and as it 
was near the end of September, and clouds were collecting, it was expected 
that they would soon commence. The heat was excessive ; the thermometer, 
even in the shade of the waggon, stood at 100°, and if unprotected, rose to 110° j 
during the night it sank to 70°. Tliough comj)cllcd to wait so long, the mis- 
sionary traveller was not idle ; he was fully occupied in attending to the sick, 
and in preaching the gospel. His notes, made during the time, abound with 
descrijjtions of the habits and customs of the people. His conclusion as to 
their character was " that they are just a strange mixture of good and evil, 
as men are everywhere else." The children strongly resemble in many respects 
those of other nations. " They haA'C merry times, especially in the cool ol 
the evening. One of their games consists of a little girl being carried on tho 
shoulders of two others. She sits with outstretched arms as the}' walk about 


with licr, and all the rest clap their hands, and, stopping- before each hut, sing 
pretty airs, some beating time on their skii-ts of cow-skin, and others making 
a curious humming sound between the songs. Excepting this and the skip- 
I^ing rope, the play of the girls consists in imitating the serious work of their 
mothers — building little huts, making small pots and cooking, pounding corn 
in miniature mortars, or hoeing tiny gardens. The bo}-s play with small 
spears and shields, oi- bows and arrows, or make little cattle-pens and cattle 
in clay, often showing much ingenuity in tlieir imitations of the animals, 
especially of their horns." 

The reports made by Livingstone's companions to Loanda were so 
favourable, and the desire to find a jjassage to the east coast so strong, that 
as soon as he announced his intention of proceeding eastward, numerous 
volunteers offered their services to accompany him. lie selected from among 
them a hundred and fourteen men ; and Sekelctu appointed two as leaders of 
the company, one of whom had frequently travelled along the banks of the 
Zambesi, and spoke the various dialects of the people residing on them, and 
was, moreover, a man of sound judgment and prudence, and rendered great 
service to the expedition. All being now ready, on the 3rd of November, 
Livingstone bade adieu to his friends at Linyanti; and, acompanicd by 
Sekeletu and about two hundred followers, set out on his eastward journey. 
They had scarcely started before a terrible storm burst upon them in all its 
fury. At times the lightning S2)read over the sky, forming eight or ten 
branches, like those of a gigantic tree. The light was such, although other- 
wise the night was dark, that the whole country was distinctly visible. The 
horses trembled, cried out, turning round to search for each other; while the 
thunder crashed with tremendous roars, and the rain fell in torrents. At last, 
they ])erceived a fire, left by some previous travellers, in the distance, and 
turned aside to rest by it. They were wet and cold ; and Livingstone's 
baggage having gone on before, he had to lie down on the cold ground, when 
Sekeletu kindly covered him with his own blanket, remaining himself Avithout 
shelter. The act was only one of man}-, illustrating the generous nature of 
this African cliief. 

After bidding farewell to Sekeletu, Livingstone and his companions 
sailed down the river to its confluence with the Chobo. lie intended from 
here to strike across the countr)'- to the north-cast, in order to reach the 
northern bank of the Zambesi. But he resolved, first of all, to visit the Falls 
of Victoria, called by the natives Mozioatunya, or more anciently, Shongwc. 
The following description of these falls is from the pen of our traveller him- 
self: — "After twenty minutes' sail from Kalai, we came in sight, for the first 
time, of the columns of vapour, aj)propriatL'ly called ' smoke,' rising at a dis- 
tance of five or six miles, exactly as when large tracts of grass are burned in 
Africa. Five columns now arose, and bending in the direction of the wind. 


iliey seemed placed against a low ridge covered with trees ; the tops of the 
columns at this distance appeared to mingle with the clouds. They were 
white below, and higher up became dark, so as to simulate smoke very closely. 
The who](! scone was beautiful ; the banks and islands dotted over the river 
are adorned Avith sA'lvan vegetation of great variety of colour and form. At 
the period of our visit several trees were spangled over with blossoms. Trees 
have each their own physiognomy. There, towering over all, stands the 
great burly baobab, each of whose enormous arms would form the trunk of a 
large tree, besides groups of graceful palms, which, with their feathery-shaped 
leaves depicted on the sky, lend their beauty to the scene. As a hieroglyphic 
they always mean ' far from home,' for one can never get over their foreign 
air in a jiicture or landscajjc. The silvery mohonono, which in the tropics is 
in form like the cedar of Lebanon, stands in pleasing contrast with the dark 
colour of the motsouri, whose cypress-form is dotted over at present with its 
pleasant scarlet fruit. Some trees resemble the great spreading oak, others 
assume the character of our own elms and chestnuts ; but no one can imagine 
the beauty of the view from anything witnessed in England. It had never 
been seen before by European eyes ; but scenes so lovely must have been 
gazed upon by angels in their flight. The only want felt, is that of mountains 
in the background. The falls are bounded on three sides by ridges three hun- 
dred or four hundred feet in height, which are covered with forest, with the red 
soil appearing among the trees. 

" When about half a mile from the falls, I left the canoe by which we had 
come down thus fai", and embarked in a lighter one, with men well acquainted 
with the rapids, who, by passing down the centre of the stream in the eddies 
and still i)laces caused by many jutting rocks, brought me to an island situated 
in the middle of the river, and on the edge of the lip over which the water 
rolls. In coming hither, there was danger of being swept down by the streams 
which rushed along on each side of the island ; but the river was now low, 
and we sailed where it is totally impossible to go when the water is high. 
But though we had readied the island, and were within a few yards of the 
spot, a view from which would solve the whole jjroblem, I believe that no one 
could perceive where the vast body of water went ; it seemed to lose itself in 
the earth, the opposite lip of the fissure into which it disaj^peared being only 
eighty feet distant. At least I did not comprehend it until, creeping with awe 
to the verge, I peered down into a large rent which had been made from bank 
to bank of the broad Zambesi, and saw that a stream of a thousand yards 
broad leajied down a hundred feet, and then became suddenly compressed 
into a space of fifteen or twenty yards. 

" The entire falls arc simply a crack made in a hard basaltic rock from the 
right to the left bank of the Zambesi, and then prolonged from the left bank 
away through thirty or forty miles of hills. If one imagines the Thames filled 


wilh low tree-covered liills immediately beyond Gravoscnd ; the bed of black 
basaltic rock instead of London mud ; and a fissure made therein from one end 
of the tunnel to the other, down through the keystones of the arcli, and pro- 
longed from the left end of the tunnel through tliirty miles of hills; the 
pathway being a hundred feet down from the bed of the river instead of what 
it is, with the lips of the fissure from eighty to one hundred feet apart ; then 
fancy the Thames leaping bodily into the gulf, and forced there to change its 
direction, and flow from the right to the left bank, and then rush boiling and 
roaring through the hills — he may have some idea of what takes place at this, 
the most wonderful sight 1 had witnessed in Africa. In looking down into th.o 
fissure on the right of the island, one sees nothing but a dense white cloud, 
which, at the time we visited the sjDot, had two bright rainbows on it. (Tho 
sun was on the meridian, and the declination about equal to the latitude of 
the place.) Fi-om this cloud rushed up a great jet of vapour exactly like 
steam, and it mounted two hundred or three hundred feet high ; there con- 
densing, it changed its hue to that of dark smoke, and came back in a 
constant shower, which soon wetted us to the skin. This sliower falls chiefly 
on the opposite si.'c of the fissure ; and a few yards back from the lip, there 
stands a straight hedge of evergreen trees, whose leaves are always wet. 
From their roots a number of little rills run back into the gulf; but as they 
flow down the steep wall there, the column of vapour, in its ascent, licks 
them up clean off the rock, and away they mount again. They are constantly 
running down, but never reach the bottom. 

"On the left of the island we see the water at the bottom, a white rolling 
mass, moving away to the prolongation of the fissure, which branches off near 
the left bank of the river. A piece of the rock has fallen off a spot on the 
left of the island, and juts out from the water below, and from it I judged 
the distance which the water falls to be about one hundred feet. The walls of 
this gigantic crack are perjiendicular, and composed of one homogeneous mass 
of rock. The edge of that side over which the water falls, is worn off two oi- 
three feet, and pieces have fallen away, so as to give it somewhat of a serrated 
appearance. That over which the water does not fall, is quite straight, 
except at the left corner, m here a rent aj)pears, and a piece seems inclined to 
fall off. Upon the whole, it is nearly in the state in which it was left at the 
period of its formation. The rock is dark-brown in colour, except about ten 
feet from the bottom, which is discoloured by the annual rise of the water to 
that or a greater height. On the left side of the island we have a good view 
of the mass of water which causes one of the columns of vapour to ascend, as 
it leaps quite clear of the rock, and forms a thick unbroken lleecc all the way 
to the bottom. Its whiteness gave the idea of snow, a sight I had not seen 
for many a day. As it broke into (if I may use the term) pieces of water, 
all rushing on in the same direction, each gave off several rays of foam, 


cxactl}- as bits of steel, when burnt in oxygen gas, give ofi' ni3-s of sparks. 
'J'lio 6uow-"wliitc sheet seemed like myriads of small comets rusliing on in ono 
direction, each of which left behind its nucleus rays of foam. 1 never saw 
the aj^pcarauce referred to noticed elsewhere. It seemed to be the effect of 
the mass of water leaping at once clear of the rock, and but slowly breaking 
up into spray." 

Having feasted his eyes long on what he considered the most wonderful 
sight he had beheld in Africa, Livingstone returned to Kalai, from whicli, 
bidding Sekelctu a final farewell, ho set off northward to Kelono, through a 
beautiful countr}-, on the 20th of November. Travelling in the north-east 
direction for about one hundred and forty miles, he rejoined the Zambesi at 
its confluence with the Kafuc. At the point which our traveller had now 
attained, the junction of the two rivers, he came upon a fine range of hilb, 
stretching along the east bank of the Kafue, far away to the north. By 
means of the boiling point of water (for he did not possess an aneroid baro- 
meter), he ascertained that the elevation which almost imperceptibly he had 
now attained, was four thousand feet above the level of the sea. The dis- 
covery was an important one, and connecting it with his previous observa- 
tions of another ridge on the continent, of about the same height, one of 
the loftiest points of which is occupied by Lake Dilolo, he was irresistibly 
led to the concluslou, that the centre of Africa was an extended hollow, 
flanked by those two ridges, and that into the basin thus formed number- 
less streams flowed from these watersheds, which emptied themselves into 
the Zambesi. 

Here, too, at the junction of the Kafue with the Zambesi, the vegetation 
differs from that which characterises the lowlands about Linyanti and 
Sesheke ; but the most important fact is, that this is the commencement of a 
healthy district, stretching eastward to Tete. Of all his discoveries up to 
that time, Livingstone regarded this with the deepest interest, for he saw at 
once how pregnant it was with momentous consequences to the countless 
myriads of Africa. It was, moreover, the great object of whicli, through 
nearly six years of jorivation, toil, and suffering, he had been in quest. On 
the western ridge, indeed, he had traversed a district both salubrious and 
productive ; but the difficulty of reaching it from the coast rendered it an 
unfit centre for missionary enterprise. But it was otherwise with the region 
lie had now reached. Though he had not yet traced the Zambesi to the 
ocean, his inquiries and his reasonings on the point warranted the conclusion, 
that it would furnish a comparatively easy pathway into the interior. Filled 
with gladness and hope, and within sight of the noble stream, whose broad 
bright waters, winding through the rich exjDandcd valley on his right, im- 
parted life and loveliness to the scenery, while it nourished countless multi- 
iudes of creatures, called wild by us, but scarcely meriting that name in the 


regions they have so abundantly peopled and so long possessed, our ti-aveller 
pursued his elevated and pleasant path, 

Tlie high ground over which Livingstone now journeyed was the region 
in v.'hich, after their migration from the south, the Makololo first settled, 
having subdued the negro races, the previous possessors of the soil, since 
amalgamated with their conquerors. Here, the fatal fever which had decim- 
ated them since they sought a refuge among the reedy valleys and malarious 
swamps of the Cliobc and the Scshcke, was scarcely known ; and to this 
favoured district would they joyfully return, could they do so with safety. 
But this was prevented by the vicinity of the Matebele, who people the 
country to the south of the Zambesi. Our traveller clearly saw, however, 
that if he and his family could dwell amongst the Makololo, they might re- 
occupy this sjjlcndid region in secui'ity, as Moselekatse w^ould never make 
war upon a people with whom dwelt a daughter of his friend Moffat. 

Ranges of hills ran parallel with the Zambesi, and were about fifteen 
miles apart; those on the north approaching nearest the rivei". "The in- 
habitants on that side are the Batonga, those on the south side are the Banyai. 
The hills abound in buffaloes, and elephants are numerous, and many are 
killed by the people on both banks. They erect stages on high trees over- 
hanging the paths by which the elephants come, and then use a large spear 
with a- handle nearly as thick as a man's wrist, and four or five feet long. 
When the animal comes beneath they throw the sjiear, and if it enters be- 
tween the ribs above, as the blade is at least twenty inches long by two 
broad, the motion of the handle, as it is aided by knocking against the trees, 
makes frightful gashes within, and soon causes death. Tlicy kill them also 
by means of a spear, inserted in a beam of wood, which, being suspended on 
the branch of a tree by a cord attached to a latch fastened in the path, and 
intended to be struck by the animal's foot, leads to the fall of the beam, and, 
the spear being poisoned, causes death in a few hours." Livingstone was 
struck with the fact that, as soon as he came between these ranges of hills, 
flanking the Zambesi, the rains felt warm. The thermometer stood at sunrise 
at from 82° to 86° ; at midday, in the coolest shade, namely, in a little tent, 
under a shady tree, at 96° to 98° ; and at sunset it was 86°. This was ditlcreut 
from anything ho had experienced in the interior, the rains there always 
bringing down the mercury to 72° or even 68°. 

*' Each village we passed," says Livingstone, " furnished us with a couple 
of men to take us to the next. They were useful in showing us the parts 
least covered with jungle. When we came near a village, \vc saw men, 
women, and children, employed in weeding their gardens, they being great 
agiiculturists. Most of the men are muscular, and have large ploughmen 
hands. Their colour is the same admixture, from very dark to light-olive, 
that we saw in Loanda. Though all have thick lips nnd fiat noses, only the 


more degraded of the population possess the ugly negro physiognomy. Tliey 
mark themselves by a line of little raised cicatrices, each of which is a quarter 
of an inch long ; they extend from the tip of the nose to the root of the hair 
on the forehead. The women here arc in the habit of piercing the upper 
liji, and gradually enlarging the orifice until Ihcy can insert a shell. The lip 
then a2:)pears drawn out beyond the perpendicular of the nose, and gives 
them a most ungainly aspect." Rings are sometimes inserted in these 
orifices ; tlie commonest arc made of bamboo, but others are of ivory or 
metal. When the wearer tries to smile, the contraction of the muscles turns 
the ring upwards, so that its upper edge comes in front of the eyes, the nose 
appearing through the middle, while the whole front teeth are exposed by 
the motion, exhibiting the way in which they have been clipped to resemble 
the fangs of a cat or crocodile. 

As the game was abundant and Livingstone's party very large, he had 
still to supply their wants with the gun, and slaughtered the oxen only when 
unsuccessful in hunting. He always entered into friendly relations with the 
head men of the different villages, and found no difficulty in obtaining grain 
and otlier food. One man gave him a basin full of rice, and when wished to 
sell some more, he asked in return for a slave. This was the first symptom 
of the slave-trade our travellers met on this side of the country. Selolo, one 
of these village chiefs, instead of receiving them in a friendly way, considered 
them as his enemies ; and, having summoned his followers, prejiarcd for an 
attack. The reason of his acting in this manner was soon afterwards dis- 
covered. It appeared that an Italian, named Simoens, had married the 
daughter of a chief living north of Tete. Arming a party of fifty slaves with 
guns, he had ascended the river in a canoe from Tete, and attacked several 
inhabited islands beyond Makaba, taking large numbers of prisoners and mucli 
ivory. As he descended again with his booty, his party was dispersed, and he 
himself was killed while attempting to escajje on foot. Selole imagined that 
the doctor was another Italian, hence lus alarm, and unfriendly reception. 
Mburuma, another chief of the same tribe, who had on a previous occasion 
plundered a party of traders bringing English goods from Mozambique, laid 
a plan to plunder our travellers by separating them ; but Livingstone, sus- 
jiecting treachery, kept them well together. 

On tlie 14th of January 1856, Livingstone and his party reached the 
confluence of tlie Loangwa and the Zambesi. Here he met with the first 
traces of Europeans ; but they were traces merely, memorials of a by-gone 
age. They consisted of some ruins of an old and long-deserted Portuguese 
town, called Zumbo. The situation was well chosen, with lofty hills in tlie 
rear, and a view of the two rivers in front. On one side of the church, which 
stood in the midst of the ruins, lay a broken bell, with the letters I. 11. S. 
and a cross. Formerly tliis was the most westerly occupation of that nation ; 


but for many years the tide of civilisation, wliicli liad risen so far, has receded 
to the cast, andTcte has taken its place. Speaking of tlio situation of Zumbo, 
Livingstone remarks, that " the merchants, as they sat beneath the verandahs 
in front of their houses, had a magnificent view of the two rivers at their con- 
fluence — of their church at the angle, and of all the gardens they had on 
both sides of the rivers. In these they cultivated wheat without irrigation, 
acd, as the Portuguese assert, of a grain twice the size of that at Tete. From 
the guides we learnt that the inhabitants had r.ot imbibed much idea of 
Christianit}-, for they used the same term for the church bell, which they did 
for a diviner's drum." Then giving utterance to the purpose which lay 
dearest to his heart, he says, " It seemed such a pity that the imjoortant fact 
of the existence of the two healthy ridges which I had discovered, should not 
have become known in Christendom, for a refutation would thereby have been 
given to the idea that Africa is not open to the Gospel. But I read that Jesus 
said, ' All ])owcr is given unto me in heaven and on earth : go ye, therefore, 
and teach ail nations ; . . . . and lo, Iain with you alway, even unto the end 
of the toovld^ I took this as His word of honoui", and then went out to take 
observations for latitude and longitude." 

When our traveller left the Loangwa, he thought he had got rid of the 
hills ; but he found that some still remained, though five or six miles from the 
river. Two riding oxen had been already killed by tsetse and the hills ; and 
when the one that he now rode failed also, ho was forced to march on foot. 
"The bush being very dense and high," ho says, "we were going along 
among the trees, when three builalocs, which we had unconsciously passed 
above the wind, thought that they were surrounded by men, and dashed 
through our line. IVIy ox set ofi' at a gallop, and when I could manage io 
glance back, I saw one of the men uj) in the air about five feet above a buffalo, 
Avhich was tearing along with a stream of blood running down his flank. 
When I got back to the poor fellow, I found that he had lighted on his face, 
and, though he had been carried on the horns of the buftalo about twenty 
yards before getting the final toss, the skin was not pierced nor a bone broken. 
AVhen the beasts ajipeared, he had thrown down his load and stabbed one in 
the side. It turned suddenly ujion him, and before he could use a tree for 
defence, carried him off. We shampooed him well, and then went on, and in 
about a week he was able to engage in the hunt again." 

Soon after this they found that they were approaching the European 
settlements, for one morning a person came to meet them who had on a jacket 
and hat. From him they understood that the Portuguese settlement of Tete 
was on the other bank of the river, and that the inhabitants had been engaged 
in war with the natives for some time past. This was disagreeable news, as 
Livingstone wished to be at peace with both parties. He found himself under 
peculiarly trying circumstances. He was no longer where the people tiiought 



a " missionary was not a thinG: to bo killed," but among tribes strange to hira 
us he was to them. Navigation was somewhat diflicult, partly through the 
scarcity of canoes, and partly in consequence of the rapids in this part of the 
Zambesi. Lions also were favoured and all but deified creatures ; for the 
natives would not kill them, and, although they could not trust themselves 
to their clemency by night, and therefore slept in trees; by day, ■when any- 
where in sight, they would approach them, though at a respectful distance, 
clapping their hands in token of veneration. And to complete the sum of our 
traveller's discomfort, he was now without an ox. It will not appear won- 
derful, therefore, and especially if wo recall the treatment he had received 
from the natives of the west, when he reached a similar position relatively to 
the Portuguese settlement on the opposite coast, that he should deem it 
necessary to proceed with caution, almost amounting to stealth, in order to 
avoid collision with the ferocious and formidable bands who roamed uncon- 
trolled over this region. " It was not likely," he writes, "I should know 
our course well, for the country there is covered with shingle and gravel, 
bushes, trees, and grass, and we were often without path, skulking out of the 
way of villages where we were expected to pay after the purse was empty. 
It was excessively hot and steamy ; the eyes had always to be fixed on the 
ground to avoid being tripped. After that, I say, let those who delight in 
pedestrianism enjoy themselves. It is good for obesity, but for me, who had 
become as lean as a lath, the only good I saw in it was to enable an honest 
sort of fellow to realise completely the idea of the treadmill." 

On his first coming into contact with the natives of this district they 
mistook Livingstone for a Portuguese, and would have attacked his party 
had they not been undeceived. As they approached the village of Mpeude, 
that chief sent out his people to inquire who the travellers were. The mes- 
sengers, on drawing near, uttered strange cries, and waved some bright red 
substance towards the strangers. Having lighted a fire, they threw charms 
into it and hastened away, uttering fearful screams, believing that they 
should thus frighten the travellers, and render them powerless. The Mako- 
lolo, however, laughed at their threats ; but Livingstone, fully believing that 
a skirmish would take place, ordered an ox to be killed, to feast his men and 
increase their courage. Mpende's whole tribe w'as assembled at about the 
distance of about half a mile ; and every now and then a few came about 
Livingstone and his party as spies, and would answer no questions. To two 
of these he handed a leg of the ox on which his people were feasting, and 
desired them to take it to their chief. After waiting a considerable time in 
suspense, two old men made their appearance, and said they had come to 
inquire who he was. When he told them that he was an Englishman, and 
showed them his hair and white skin, they said, " We never saw skin so 
white as that. Ah ! you must be one of the tribe that loves (literally, has 


heart to) the black man." Finally the chief himself ajopeared, and expressing 
liis regret that he had not known sooner who they were, ultimately enabled 
them to cross the rivci'. 

Proceeding on their journey, they met, on the 11th February, somo 
native traders, and, as many of his men were in a state of nudity, Living- 
stone bought some American calico with two small tusks, and distributed it 
amongst the most needy. He now came to the Zingesi, a sand rivulet in 
flood, and thus describes the attempt to cross it: — "It was sixty or seventy 
yards wide, and waist-deep. Like all these sand-rivers, it is for the most 
part dry ; but by digging down a few feet, water is to be found, which is 
percolating along the bed on a stratum of clay. This is the phenomenon 
which is dignified by the name of a ' river flowing under ground.' In trying 
to ford this I felt thousands of particles of coarse sand striking my legs, and 
the slight disturbance of our footsteps caused deep holes to be made in the 
bed. The water, wliich is almost always very rapid in them, dug out the 
sand beneath our feet in a second or two, and we were all sinking by that 
means so deep, that we were glad to relinquish the attempt to ford it before 
we got half way over ; the oxen were carried away down the Zambesi. These 
sand-rivers remove vast masses of disintegrated rock before it is tine enough 
to form soil. The man who preceded me was only thigh-deep, but the dis- 
turbance caused by his feet made it breast-deep for me." 

They found they had now reached a country where the game-laws were 
strictly enforced. " The lands of each chief are very well defined, the 
boundaries being usually marked by rivulets, great numbers of which flow 
into the Zambesi from both banks; and, if an elephant is wounded on one 
man's land, and dies on that of another, the under-half of the carcase is 
claimed by the lord of the soil ; and so stringent is the law, that the hunter 
cannot begin at once to cut up his own elephant, but must send notice to the 
lord of the soil on which it lies, and wait until that personage sends one 
authorised to see a fair partition made. If the hunter should begin to cut 
up before the agent of the landowner arrives, he is liable to lose both the 
tusks and all the flesh. The hind-leg of a bufialo must always be given to 
the man on whose land the animal was grazing, and a still larger quantity of 
the eland, which here, and everywhere else in the country, is esteemed right 
royal food." The Makololo having killed an elephant, they had to send back 
a considerable distance to give information to the person in charge of the 
district, the owner himself living near the Zambesi. Their messenger re- 
turned with a basket of corn, a fowl, and a few strings of beads, a thank- 
oflbring to them for having killed it. The tusk of the side on which the 
elephant fell, belonged to the owner, while the upper was the prize of the 
sportsman. Had they begun to cut up the animal before receiving permis- 
sion they would have lost the whole. The men feasted on their half of the 


carcase, and for two nights an immense number of liyenas collected round, 
uttering their loud laugliter. 

" The people here build their huts in gardens on higli stages. This i* 
necessary on account of danger from the spotted hyena, which is said to bo 
very fierce, and also as a protection against lions and cleiihacts. The hyen:i 
is a very cowardly animal, but frequently apj^roaches persons lying asleep, and 
makes an ugly gash on the face. Children, too, arc sometimes carried oil"; 
for, though he is so cowardly that the human voice will make him run away 
at once, yet, when his teeth are in the flesh, he holds on, and shows amazing- 
power of jaw. Leg-bones of oxen, from which the natives have extracted 
the marrow and everything eatable, are by this animal crunched up with the 
greatest of case, which he apparently etl'ccts by turning them round in his 
teeth till they are in a suitable position for being split." The sun was now 
so excessively hot that ten or twelve miles a day were a good march for both 
Livingstone and his men ; and it was not the length of tlie marches, but con- 
tinuing day after day to perform the same distance, that was so fatiguing. 
They found great numbers of wild grape-vines growing in this quarter. So 
many of the vines had run across the little footpath they followed, that they 
had to be constantly on the watch to avoid being tripped. 

The people who inhabit this part of the country are known as the Banyai ; 
their government is a sort of feudal republicanism. They elect their chief, 
and choose the son of the deceased chief's sister in preference to his own off- 
spring. When dissatisfied with one candidate, they even go to a distant tribe 
for a successor, who is usually of the family of the late chief, a brother, or a 
sister's son, but never his own sou or daughter. " A great many of the Banyai 
are of a light coffee-and-milk colour, and indeed this colour is considered 
handsome througliout the whole country — a fair complexion being as much a 
test of beauty with them as with us. As they draw out their hair into small 
cords afoot in length, and entwine the inner bark of a certain tree round each 
separate cord, and dye this substance of a reddish colour, many of them put 
me in mind of the ancient Egyptians. The great mass of dressed hair which 
they possess reaches to the shoulders, but, when they intend to travel, they 
draw it up to a bunch, and tie it on the top of the head. They are cleanly 
in their habits." The favourite weapon with them is a large axe, which they 
cany over the shoulder, and whicli is chiefly used for hamstringing the ele- 
phant, in the same way as tlie Hamran Arab uses his sword. The Banyai, 
however, steals on the animal unawares, while the Hamran hunter attacks it 
wdien it is rushing in chase of one of his comrades, who gallops on ahead on 
a well- trained steed. 

Debilitated as he now was, and most anxious for a resting place, Living- 
stone could not pass from Zumbo to Tete without fixing the position of many 
places lying in his route. At length he arrived within eight miles of the latter 


town, ■wliere he knew he should meet with a liearty welcome and some of the 
comforts of that civilisation to which ho liad been so long a stranger. But so 
exhausted was he, that he could proceed no farther ; and, though ever}' per- 
suasive was urged by his companions to induce him to make one moreettbrtto 
attain the goal now in view, he was unable to rise from the ground for that 
purpose. Intelligence, however, had reached the ears of the Portuguese gover- 
nor of that place of his proximit}- to it, and, with great consideration, he sent 
"the materials of a civilised breakfast." Hajipily, though our traveller had 
lost his strength, there was no failure of apjietite ; he, therefore, did justice 
to Portuguese hospitalit}', and, with the exception of the bed in which he slept 
at Loanda, after l3ing six months on the damp ground, he never I'ealiscd more 
refreshment than from this welcome meal. Indeed, it so renewed his strength 
as to enable him, without any further sense of fatigue, at once to push on and 
complete the journey. He says, " I walked the last eight miles without the 
least feeling of weariness, although the path was so rough that one of the 
officers remarked to me, ' Tliis is enough to tear a man's life out of him.' " 

Livingstone reached Tete on the morning of March the 3rd, 1850. He 
was most kindly received by the Commandant, Major Sicard, who did every- 
thing in his power to restore the traveller from his emaciated condition ; and, 
liaving ascertained that the season would not permit him safely to sail down 
the unhealthy delta of the Zambesi, Livingstone gratefully accepted the prof- 
fered hospitality of his kind host, and for a time took up his abode in tiiis 
place. " The village of Tete is built on a long slope down to the river, tlie 
fort being close to the water. The rock beneath is grey sandstone, and has 
the appearance of being crushed away from the river ; the strata have thus a 
(Tijiled form. The hollow between each crease is a street, tiie houses being 
t upon the projecting fold. The rocks at the top of the slope are nmch 
gher than the fort, and of course completely command it. There is then a 
argc valley, and beyond that an oblong hill, called Karueira. Tlie whole of 
adjacent country is rocky and broken, but every available spot is under 
cultivation. The stone houses in Tete are cemented with mud instead of lime, 
and thatched with reeds and grass ; the rains having washed out the mud 
between the stones, give all the houses a rough, untidy appearance. There 
are about thirty European houses, the rest are native, and of wattle and daub. 
A wall about ten feet high is intended to enclose the village, but most of the 
native inhabitants prefer to live on different spots outside. There are about 
twelve hundred huts in all, whicli, with European houseliolds, would give a 
population of about four thousand five hundred souls. Only a small propt)rtion 
of these, however, live on the spot ; the majority are engaged in agricultural 
operations in tlie adjacent country." 

Wliile at Tete, Livingstone was neither unobservant nor idle. One thing 
particularly struck and ever affected him — the noble river, so long the com- 


panioii of liis travel, lierc, in a narrow part of it, one tliousnnd yards broad, 
and capable of bearing fleets and merchandise up to the ports of the interior, 
flowing from hence three hundred miles idly towards the ocean. As he sur- 
veyed tlie region around him, he ascertained that Tete stood in the centre of 
an extensive coal-field, two seams of which (one of them fifty-eight inches 
thick) he discovered in the bank of a river, which here falls into the Zambesi. 
At another place, named Chicova, he found two other seams. It was reported 
that silver was also obtained here ; but this statement he was unable to verify. 
It had, however, long been known tliat a large gold-producing district (which 
partly surrounded the coal-field) formerly yielded as much as a hundred and 
thirty pounds weight a year, but was now comparatively unproductive and 
inefficiently worked. The precious metal has hitherto only been sought for 
on the surface, Avhere, however, in some districts, it is found in pieces as large 
as grains of wheat. Iron also, and a quality equal to the finest produced in 
Sweden, is abundant here, and is so tough and fibrous, that Livingstone says 
he has repeatedly seen the sjiear-heads of the natives, when they have been 
hurled against the impenetrable crania of hippopotami, coiled round like the 
proboscis of a butterfly, and then beat out again with stones into their previous 
state without the slightest injur}'. 

Besides the vegetable j^roductions found here, in common with other dis- 
tricts through which the traveller had passed, we may mention, as amongst 
the most important of those that are either peculiar to the locality, or very 
abundant in it, senna and cinchona. There are also numerous fibrous plants, 
and a species of cotton, which grows wild in great abundance, and which, 
under proper cultivation would doubtless yield a good return of capital and 
labour. Sugar and indigo, moreover, are indigenous to the country, and 
might be raised to almost any extent. The Makololo had no idea of the fact, 
that the cane with which they were so familiar could be made to yield its 
crystallised sweets ; and Sokeletu, anxious to secure this, had intrusted our 
traveller with a large number of elephants' tusks with which to purchase the 
required machinery. In addition to the mineral and vegetable wealth of the 
regions through which Livingstone travelled, he mentions bees-wax, and says 
that, on passing through the country, the traveller is constantly addressed by 
the inviting note of the honey bird, calling him to follow it to the nests of 
the bee, but that the natives, while rifling the comb of its sweets, tlirow 
away the wax, which might become an article of profitable commerce. 

As soon as Livingstone had recovered his strength, and the season per- 
mitted, he prepared to resume his journey to the coast. He found it neces- 
sary, however, to leave most of his men at Tete, and Major Sicard liberally 
gave them a portion of land that they might cultivate it, supplying them in 
the meantime with corn. He also allowed the young men to go out and 
hunt elephants with his servants, that they might j^urchase goods with the 


ivory and dry meat, to take back witli tlicm on returning to their own houses. 
Sixteen of them our traveller retained as a crew, to conve}^ him down the 
river to Kilimane. He left Tote on the 22nd of April, and arrived at Sonna 
on the 27th. Ho had thought the state of Tcte quite lamentable, but that of 
Senna was ten times worse. The village .stands on the right bank of the 
Zambesi. There are many reedy islands in front of it, and there is much bush 
in the adjacent country. The soil is fertile ; but the village, being in a state 
of ruin, and having several pools of stagnant water, is very unhealthy. The 
most pleasant sight witnessed here was the negroes building boats, after the 
European model, without any one to superintend their operations. They had 
been instructed by a European master, and had perfected themselves in the 
art. Some of the Makololo accepted employment here to carry government 
goods in canoes up to Tete, and were much pleased at getting the work ; the 
rest, at their own earnest request, accompanied Livingstone to Kilimane. 
He reached this village on the 20th of May, 1850, when it wanted but a few 
days of being four years since he started from Cape Town. 

In approaching the coast, he fixed the position of Senna, and every other 
important point on his way ; and ascertained the fact that Kilimane, instead 
of standing at one of the mouths of the Zambesi, as previously believed, 
stood upon an insignificant stream, while the navigable extreme of that river 
was further south. At Kilimane, he was received into the house of Colonel 
Nuncs, one of the best men in the country, and there most hospitably enter- 
tained. Referring to the kindness he thus received from various friends, he 
says: — " One of the discoveries I have made is, that there are vast numbers 
of good people in the world, and I do most devoutly tender my unfeigned 
thanks to that Gracious One who mercifully watched over me in every posi- 
tion, and influenced the hearts of both black and white to regard me with 

As a severe famine had existed in the neighbourhood of Kilimane, and 
food was very scarce, our traveller advised the Makololo who had accompanied 
him down to the sea, to go back to Tete as soon as possible, and await his 
return from England. I'hough they still earnestly wished to accompany 
him, because Sekeletu had advised them not to part with him till they had 
reached Ma-Robert, as they called Mrs. Livingstone, and brought her back 
Avith them, yet, acting under the counsel of their leader, they consented to 
return. With the smaller tusks he had in his possession, he purchased calico 
and brass wire, and sent the former back as clothing to those who remained 
at Tete. The remaining twenty tusks he deposited with Culonel Nunes, in 
order that, should he be prevented from revisiting the country, it might not 
be supposed that he had made away with Sekeletu's ivory. Ho instructed 
Colonel Nuncs, in case of his death, to sell the tusks and deliver the proceeds 
to his men ; but he intended, if his life bhuuld be 2)rolonged, to purchase the 


goods ordered by Sekelctu in England with his own money, and pay himself 
out of the price of the ivory. 

" Tlie village of Kiliman3 stands on a great mud bank, and is sur- 
rounded by extensive swamps and rice-grounds. The banks of tlio river are 
lined with mangrove-bushes, the roots of which, and the slimy banks on 
which they grow, are alternately exposed to the sun. It is almost needless 
to say that Kilimane is very unhealthy. A man of plethoric temperament is 
sure to get fever ; and, concerning a stout i)erson, one may hear the remark, 
'All! he will not live long, he is sure to die.'" After Livingstone had 
waited about six weeks at this unhealthy spot, H.M. Brig " Frolic " arrived 
off Kilimane and he went on board, accomjDanicd by Sekwebu, one of his 
companions from Linyanti, whom he agreed to take to England. 

On the 12tli of July, the " Frolic" sailed for Mauritius. Poor Sekwebu 
was greatly excited by the sight and motion of the sea. When they first put 
off to the ship, at Kilimane, the sea was running high, and, as the boat rose 
and sunk with every billow, he turned to Livingstone, and with a look and 
tone indicative of no ordinary excitement, not unmixed with alarm, said, '"Is 
this the way 3-ou go ?" Though repeatedly assured that they were approach^ 
ing the ship, he often renewed the question. As they were entering the har- 
bour of St. Louis on the 12th of August, the sight of a steamer, which came 
out to tow the brig into harbour, so affected him, that during the night he 
became insane, and threatened to drown himself. By gentle treatment, he 
became calmer, and Livingstone tried to get him on shore, but he refused to 
go. In the evening he grew more violent, and after attempting to spear one 
of the crew, he leaped overboard, and pulling himself hand under hand 
by the chain cable, disappeared. His body was never found. After remain- 
ing at the Mauritius till he had recovered from the effects of his African fever, 
our traveller sailed by way of the Red Sea for England, and arrived on the 
12th of December, 1856. Already, he had accomplished more than any- 
previous traveller in Africa ; but it was only a small part of what he after- 
wards achieved. 

CH APT Ell lY. 

Discoveries of Captain SpcJcc — His Expedition to the Somali Countnj — Ueturns to 
Enfjland — Joins Captain Burton in an Expedition to the Mountains oj the Moon — 
Thci/ reach Zanzibar — Cross to Kaole — Arrive at Kazeh — Illness of Burton — 
Sight of the Tanganijika Lake and Mountains of the Moon. — Goes no the Lalcc 
to Ujiji — Crosses the Lake — Bcturns to UJiJi — Discovers Lake Nyanza — 
Mcjoins Burton at Kazch — They arrive in England. 

rUPTAIN JOHN BANNING SPEKE, the son of a gentleman of property 
^ in England, was an officer in the Indian army, and had taken part under 
Lord Gougli in several of the battles which have made the British name feared 
in the East. At various intervals, during leave of absence from his military 
duties, he had travelled in the Himalaya Mountains, as well as through otlicr 
parts of India and in Thibet, for the purpose of collecting specimens of the 
fauna of those countries to form a museum in his father's house. These jour- 
neys fostered his natural love of travel and adventure ; and while thus occu- 
pied he resolved, as soon as he could obtain furlough, to go to Africa, intending 
to visit the Mountains of the Moon, and descend the Nile, "At the end of 
ten years' service, on obtaining furlough, hearing that an expedition was to 
be sent by the Indian Government, under the command of Lieutenant Burton, 
to explore the Somali country, a large tract lying due south of Aden, and 
separated from the Arabian coast by the Gulf of Aden, he offered his services 
and was accepted. Two other Indian officers, Lieutenants Stroyan and Heme, 
also joined the expedition. The Somali arc Mohammedans, descendants of 
Arabs who have married with Negroes. They are a savage, treachei-ous race, 
noted for their cheating and lying propensities ; in figure tall, slender, light, 
and agile, scarcely darker than Arabs, with thin lips and noses, but woolly- 
heads like Negroes. Their ancestors, having taken possession of the country, 
drove out its former Christian inhabitants, who retreated northward. Cara- 
vans, however, pass through their country to their only jjort and chief 
market, Berbera, which at the time of the fair is crowded with people, though 
entirely deserted for the rest of the year. 

*' It was proposed that the expedition should follow the route of these 

1 o 


caravans, or accompan}' one of tliein, and thus penetrate through the coun- 
try into tlic interior. Considerable time was spent in making excursions 
for short distances, during which Spoke shot a large number of wild animals; 
but unfortunately the ahhan, or petty chief, who undertook to be his protector 
and guide, proved to be a great rascal, and cheated and deceived him in every 
possible way. The Somali are keen and cunning sportsmen, and have various 
methods of killing elephants, ostriches, and gazelles. They fearlessly attack 
an elephant on foot, one man only being mounted on a horse, who gallops in 
front, and while the animal pursues him, the others run in and hamstring 
him with their knives. Ostriches are caught by tlirowing down poison at the 
spots were they feed. The Somali also hunt them on the backs of their hai"dy 
little ponies. The ostrich is a shy bird, and is so blind at night that it can- 
not feed. A Somali knowing this, providing himself with provisions for two 
or three days, sets off in search of them ; showing himself to tlie ostriches, he 
is discovered, but takes care to keep at a distance. Tliey stalk off, and he 
follows at the same rate, but never approaches sufficiently near to scare them. 
At nio^ht the birds, unable to see, stop, but cannot feed. He, meantime, rests 
and feeds with his pony, resuming tiic chase the following day. He follows the 
birds in the same way as at first, they, from constant fasting, becoming weaker, 
till, after the second or third day, he is able to ride in among them, and knock 
them down in succession, 

" The party had at length secured, after considerable trouble, the camels 
and horses they requii'cd, and were encamped at Berbera, which was com- 
pletely deserted by its inhabitants, when they were surprised at night by a 
large band of robbers. Lieutenant Stroyan was killed, and Speke was made 
prisoner and desperately wounded, but, springing to his feet just as a robber 
was about to run him through with his spear, he knocked over his assailant 
with his hands, though bound together, and made his escape to the sea-shore, 
to which the rest of the party had already fled. They were here taken on 
board a vessel, which had providentially put in the day before, and in her 
returned to Aden." Such was the disastrous termination of Speko's first 
expedition to Africa ; nevertheless, on his arrival in England, he again volun- 
teered to accompany Lieutenant Burton on an expedition to survey that part 
of the centre of Africa, in the neighbourhood of the Mountains of the Moon, 
where an enormous lake, equal in size to the Caspian Sea, was supposed to 
exist. Having obtained the necessary equipments in the scientific and other 
departments in England and India durhig 1856, tliey set sail from Bombay 
on the 3rd of December of that year, for Zanzibar, on board the H.E.I. C. 
Sloop of War, " Elphinstonc." They were warndy welcomed at Zanzibar by the 
British Consul, Colonel Hamerton ; and were also well received by the Sultan 
j\Iajid. As their arrival was during the dry season, they were unable, im- 
mediately, to commence their journey, and therefore they spent some lima 


in visiting different parts of tlie coast. They left Zanzibar at the end of June, 
1857, in a vessel of war, lent by Sultan Majid, to convey them across to 
Kaolc, a village on the mainland, a little soutli of the Kingani River. Their 
caravan consisted of an Arab, called Sheikh Said, wlio was the Ra*;-cafila, or 
head of the caravan; some Belooch soldiers, lent them by the sultan; some 
porters of the Wanyanmczi tribe, negroes, who inhabit a large portion of 
Central Africa, and a host of donkeys, for riding and carrying their spare 
kit. Besides these, they hired a number of slaves, to carry muskets in the 
manner of guards, as well as to do odd jobs. They had also their private 
servants, Valentine and Gaotano, Goa men, who spoke Hindostanee, and a 
clever little liberated black slave, called Bombay, wlio had been captured 
from his native jjhice to the east of Lake Nyanza, and sold to an Arab mer- 
chant, by whom he was taken to India. At the death of this master, he 
obtained his liberty, and made his way to Zanzibar. Here he engaged in the 
service of the sultan, and was so employed, till he transferred himself to 

Leaving Kaole, the expedition passed through a low hilly tract of coast- 
line, diversified with flats and terraces, well-peopled and cultivated, and rich 
in tree-forests and rich tropical vegetation. After travelling about one hun- 
dred and ten miles, they came to the first great elevation of Eastern Africa, 
a hilly district, about ninety miles broad, and composed chiefly of gi'anite 
and sandstone. It is occupied by the Wasagara tribe — a people who live 
in lightly-constructed conical huts of grass and wicker-work, tend cattle, 
and cultivate extensively, when not disturbed by the slave-hunters, who live 
nearer the coast. On descending the western side of the hilly district, they 
found an elevated plateau of rather poor land, extending westward for two 
hundred miles, and of an average altitude of from two thousand five hun- 
dred to four thousand feet. Here live the Wagogo and the Wanyamuezi 
tribes, in huts of a very civilised aj^pearance, and far more comfortable than 
those possessed by any other interior clans. The men arc industrious, occu- 
pying their time mostly in tralficing with the coast, or tilling ground and 
tending cattle ; while many of them are rope-makers, smiths, weavers, and 
carpenters. At Kazeh, an Arab depot, in the country of the latter tribe, 
their porters took their discharge, and dispersed to their homes. After wait- 
ing a month or so reforming their caravan, they proceeded westwards in 
the height of the monsoon, and passed through a highly cultivated coun- 
try, wliich, by determining with the thermometer the temperature at which 
water boiled, Speke found gradually declined as they proceeded, and in a hun- 
dred and forty-five miles made a remarkable descent of eighteen hundred teot. 
In this region, rice, sugar-cane, and all Indian productions, grow in great pro- 
fusion, and the people weave their cotton into loin cloths. After travelling- 
along this decline about one hundred and fifty miles, they began to ascend at 


the eastern liorn of a large crcsccnt-sliapcd mass of mountains ovcrlianging tlio 
iiortliern half of Lake Tanganyika. 

Their line of march, about six hundred rectilinear geographical miles, had 
been nearly due west from Zanzibar. Speke's condition was by this timo 
distressing in the extreme, and his disappointment bitter, after toiling through 
so many miles of savage life, all the time emaciated by divers sicknesses, and 
weakened by great privations of food and rest, to find, on approaching tho 
object of his ambition, nothing but mist and glare before his eyes. From the 
mountain crest, the Tanganyika Lake could be seen in all its glory by every 
body but himself. The fact was that fevers, and the influence of a vertical 
sun, had so reduced his system that inflammation, caught by sleeping on tho 
ground in the rainy season, attacked his eyes, brought on an almost total 
blindness, and rendered every object before him enclouded as by a misty 
veil. Descending the western slopes of the hill, they soon arrived at the 
margin of the lake, and hired a canoe at a village called Ukaranga, to take 
them to Ujiji. Speke describes the Tanganyika Lake as lying batween 3' 
and 8° south latitude, and in 29° east longitude, three hundred miles long, 
from thirty to forty feet broad in the centre, but tapering towards each end. 
It is sunk into the lap of the surrounding mountains, and drains all their 
waters into its bosom. Its waters are very sweet, and abound with a great 
variety of delicious fish. Numerous tribes of the true Negro breed thickly 
inhabit its shores, amongst which the most conspicuous arc the Wubeiubo 
cannibals. The port Speke and his party finally arrived at was Kawele, a 
small village in the Ujiji district, the chief of which they found unfriendly 
and unreasonable, who made them pay a heavy price for his protection. 

Their first object on arrival was to get boats for the survey of the lake ; 
but this they found a difiicult task. The border tribes were all at war with 
one another ; and the small canoes were liable to be driven ashore by the 
slightest storm, and were of such limited capacity as to be of small service in 
carrying supplies. The sailors therefore would not undertake an extended 
voyage. At lengtli, Speke and a motley crew set out, on the 3rd of March, 
1858, in a long narrow canoe, hollowed out of the trunk of a single tree, leav- 
ing Burton behind, who was too ill to move. Almost inunediately after start- 
ing, a storm came on, while they were encamped on the shore of the lake, 
waiting for some of the party who were behind to come up. All next day 
the storm continued. Even the hippopotami, to judge by the frequency of 
their snorts and grunts, as they indulged in their devastating excursions 
among the crops, seemed angry at the uimsual severity of the weather. On 
the 5th, the sea subsided, they re-loaded their boat, and proceeded on their 

Speke thus describes the arrangement of himself and the crew in the 
boat : — " To pack so many men togethei', Avith material, in so small a place 


as the canoe affords, seems a difficulty almost insurmountable. Still it is 
effected. I litter down amidships, with my bedding spread on reeds, in so 
short a compass that my legs keep slipping off and dangling in the bilge- 
water. The cook and bailsman sit on the first bar, facing me ; and behind 
them, to the stern, one-half of the sailors sit in couples ; whilst on the first 
bar behind me are Bombay and one Belooch, and beyond them to the bow, 
also in couples, the remaining crew. The captain takes post in the bows, 
and all hands on both sides paddle in stroke together. Fuel, cooking appa- 
ratus, food, bag and baggage, are thrown promiscuously under the seats. 
But the sailors' blankets, in the shape of grass matting, are placed on the bars 
to render the sitting soft. Once all properly arranged, the seventeen pad- 
dles dash off with vigour, and, steering southwards, we soon cross the mouth 
of the Ruche." 

They paddled on all night, and in the morning landed in a secluded 
nook, familiar to the men, for the purpose of having breakfast. Soon there 
was a busy scene. Some collecting fuel, others preparing their fishing-rods 
and nets, others searching for fungi (a favourite food), others kindling the 
fires, and others arranging the cooking-pots. The cook-boy got into trouble, 
by dipping his pot in the sea for water, greatly to the annoyance of the natives, 
who declared that the dregs from it would excite the appetites of the croco- 
diles, who would be sure to follow and, perhaps, board the boat. The sailors 
here have as great an aversion to being followed by a crocodile as British sailors 
have to be followed by a shark. After breakfast a cry of alarm arose, and 
all fled to the boat. Then breathless silence followed ; and one after ano- 
ther, they leaped on shore again, and stealthily moved and crept among the 
bushes, till at last a single man was pounced upon, with an arrow poised in 
his hand. He was one of eiijht or ten men of a tribe whom the sailors 
declared to be the general jiluuderers of honest navigators. They therefore 
seized his weapons, broke them and let him go ; though some of the crew 
advocated his death, and others proposed that the whole party should bo 
chased down and slaughtered. The sailors then returned to the canoe, each 
boasting his part in this adventurous exploit. Starting again on their voyage, 
they gained the mouth of the i\Ialagarazi, the largest river on the eastern 
shore of the lake. Here tall aquatic reeds diversified the surface ; and croco- 
diles and hippopotami abounded, the latter grunting and snorting, as though 
much vexed at this intrusion on their privacy. 

The deep blue waters of the lake contrasted with the verdure of the 
vegetation and the large brown rocks along the coast, and formed everywhere 
an object of innnense attraction. On the morning of the 8th, they reached a 
group of islands on the western shore of the lake, three only of which were 
inhabited ; and a watch-boat belonging to Sultan Kasanga, the reigning chief 
of the group, challenged them and asked their mission. When they landed. 


the islanders, receiving intelligence of their arrival, came down the liill of 
which the island is formed in great numbers, and held a market; but as Speko 
•was unprovided with what they wanted, little business could be done. The chief 
desideratum was flesh of fisli or beast, next salt, then tobacco — in fact, any- 
thing but what he had brought as market money — cloth and glass beads. The 
day passed in rest and idleness ; and at night tliero was a violent storm. 
When the storm subsided, a host of small black beetles appeared, evidently 
attracted by the glimmer of the candle, which had been lit to re-arrange the 
tent and its furniture. It seemed hopeless to try to brush them off the clothes 
or bedding. They crawled up our traveller's sleeves and into his hair, and 
down his back and legs. One of them penetrated his ear, and the result was 
mest disastrous. " What to do," he says, " I knew not. Neither tobacco, 
oil, nor salt, could be found; I therefore tried melted butter; that failing, I 
apjilied the point of a penknife to his back, which did more harm than good ; 
for though a few thrusts kept him quiet, the point also wounded my ear so 
badl}^ that inflammation set in; severe suppuration took place, and all the facial 
glands, extending from that point down to the point of the shoulder, became 
contorted and drawn aside, and a string of bubos decorated the whole length 
of that region. It was the most painful thing I ever remember to have 
endured ; but more annoying still, I could not open my mouth for several days, 
and had to feed on broth alone. For many months the tumour made me 
almost deaf, and ate a hole between that orifice and the nose, so that when I 
blew it, my ear whistled so audibly that those who heard it laughed. Six 
or seven months after this accident happened, bits of the beetle, a leg, a wing^ 
or parts of its body, came away in the wax. It was not altogether an unmixed 
evil, for the excitement occasioned by the beetle's operations acted towards 
my blindness as a counter-irritant, by drawing the inflammation away from my 
eyes. Indeed, it operated far better than any other artificial appliance." 

Kivira, where Spekewasnow eucami^ed, is the largest island of the groap, 
and consists of a massive, irregularly- shaped hill, about five miles long, by 
two or three broad. The mainland immediately west is a promontory at the 
southern end of the Uguhha mountains. '* The population is considerable, and 
they live in mushroom huts, situated on the high flats and easier slopes, where 
they cultivate manioc, sweet potato, maize, millet, various kinds of pulse, 
and all the common vegetables in general use about the country. Poultry 
abounds in the villages. The dress of the jjeople is simple, consisting of small 
black monkey-skins, cat-skins, and the furs of any vermin they can get. 
These are tucked under a waist-strap, and, according to the number they 
possess, go completely or only half-way round the body, the animals' heads 
hanging in front, and the tails always depending gracefully below. These 
monkeys are easily captured when the maize is ripe, by a number of people 
stealthily staking small square nets in contiguous line all round the fields 


which these animals may be occupied in robbing, and then, witli screams and 
yells, flinging sticks and stones, the hunters rush upon the affrighted thieves 
till, in their hurry and confusion to escape, they become irretrievably entan- 
gled in the meshes. But few of these islanders carry spear or bow, thouglx I 
imagine all possess them." 

Early on the morning of the 10th, they quitted Kivira, and paddled to 
the little island of Kabizia, reaching the famous fish-market there, just in time 
to breakfast on a fresh-caught fish, the celebrated sinja — a large, ugly black- 
backed monster, with white belly, small fins, and long barbs, but no scales. 
In appearance it is a sluggish ground-fish ; and though immoderately and 
-grossly fat, yet it is highly esteemed by the natives. There is only one village, 
■of twenty small huts, on the island. The inhabitants are chiefly fishermen, who 
live on their spoils, and dispose of what they cannot consume to the neighbour- 
ing islanders and the villagers on the mainland. The following day, Speke 
and. his party re-embarked, and after paddling for about an hour and a half, 
arrived at the island of Kasenge, the place of his destination. Here Sheikh 
Ilaaied, with many attendants, and a host of natives, was waiting to receive 
him. This Arab merchant lived in a house built of good, substantial walla of 
mud, and roofed with rafters and brushwood, the rooms being conveniently 
partitioned off to separate his wife and other belongings, with an ante-room 
for general business. His object in coming to this remote district was to 
2)urchase ivory, slaves, and other commodities. His reception of our travel- 
ler was most generous and hospitable. 

The island of Kasenge is about one mile long, a narrow high ridge of land 
lying nearly due north and south, devoid of trees, and only partly cultivated. 
T^he population is considerably more than that of the other ports. They are 
extremely filthy in their habits, very inquisitive, and, from having no indus- 
trial occupations, will stand for hours together, watching any strange object. 
In appearance, they are not much unlike the Caffre. The women are better 
dressed than the men, having a cloth round the body, fastened under the 
ai-nis, and reaching below the knees, and generally beads, brass necklaces, or 
other ornaments ; while the latter only wear a single goat-skin, slung game- 
bag fashion over the shoulder, or, when they possess it, a short cloth, tied 
kilt- fashion round the waist. " The mothers of these savage people," says 
Speke, " have infinitely less affection than many savage beasts of my acquaint- 
ance. I have seen a mother bear, galled by constant fire, obstinately meet 
her death, by repeatedly returning under a shower of bullets, endeavouring 
to rescue her young from the grasp of intruding men. But here, for a simple 
loin cloth or two, human mothers eagerly exchange their little offspring, 
delivering them into perpetual bondage to my Belooch soldiers." Speke 
found — what all African travellers have found — that the great curse of that 
land is slavery. The true prosperity of Africa will commence only with the 


cessation of the traHic in liuman flosli. Let this bo entirely suppressed, anJ 
tlie country -will soon ^-ickl a hundredfold moi-e than it has ever yet done. 

Speke took his final departure from Kivira on the morning of the 27th 
and crossed the broad lake again in fourteen liours, two of them, aa before, 
being spent in smoking and rest. Tlie following day ho started early up the 
coast ; but before noon was obliged to put in amongst some reeds opposite tlie 
Luguvu River, as the wind, rain, and waves, had very nearly swamped tho 
boat, and drenched them all from head to foot. IIo j^itched the tent in tho 
canoe, to protect himself from the storm, but it only served to keep the wind 
from blowing on his wet clothes and giving him a chill, for wave after wave 
washed over the gunwale, and kept him constantly drenched. Three miser- 
able hours were passed in this fashion ; for there was no place to land in, and 
they could not venture forward. In the afternoon the sea abated, and they 
pursued their voyage. They arrived at UjijL by breakfast-time on the 31st, 
and found Cajitain Burton somewhat recovered. Thus ended Speke's first 
independent travel in Central Africa. 

Burton was still suffering much, yet as it was necessary tliat they should 
proceed at once with the investigation of the lake, he could not endure to be 
left behind. It was therefore settled that the party should go in two canoes — 
Burton, with Kannina, the chief who had some commercial transactions with 
the Sultan of Uvira, in a very large one, paddled by forty men ; and Speke 
in anotlicr, much smaller. After arriving, however, at Uvira, nothing could 
induce Kannina to take them to the river at the end of the lake, although they 
could have accomplished the distance in six hours. His reason was, that the 
people resident there and his own people were hostile to each other. They 
learnt here, from the son of the Sultan of Uvira, that a large river, called Rusizi, 
drained the high mountains encircling the immediate north, and discharged 
its waters into the lake. On coming up the lake, they travelled the first half 
up the east coast, then crossed over to the end of a long island, called Ubwari, 
made for the western shore, and coasted up it to Uvira. It was very amus- 
ing to see the two canoes racing together. The naked savages were never 
tired of testing their respective strengths ; and dashing up the water whenever 
they succeeded in coming near each other, delighted in drenching the travel- 
lers with the spray. Returning to Ujiji, after a rather protracted sojourn at 
Uvira, occasioned by Kannina's not completing his work so quickly as had 
been anticipated, they found their stock of beads and cloth, which had been 
left in charge of Sheikh Said, reduced so greatly, that they felt very anxious 
about their future movements. Just at this crisis, however, by great good 
fortune, some supplies were brought to them by an Arab, called Moliinna, an 
old friend whom they had left at Kazeh, and who had now followed them to 
Ujiji, to trade in ivory. This timely supply Avas one of the many strokes of 
good luck which befell them upon their journey. Speke's health was now much 


improved, and carrying Burton, avIio was still unable to walk; in a hammock, he 
soon set out for Ujiji, in search of a lake said by the Arabs to be both broader 
and longer than Tanganyika, and to which they gave the name of Ukcrewe, 
but which the negroes merely called Nyanza, or the lake. The weather was 
very fine, and they marched rapidly across the eastern horn of the mountains 
back to tlic ferry on the Malagarazi. Thej^ reached this river early in June ; 
and, after crossing it, they hurried along, and reached Kazeh towards the end 
of that month. Here they were hospitably received by Sheikh Snay, the 
principal Arab merchant of the depot, and who, on their former visit, was the 
first to tell them of the Nyanza, or, as he called it, the unknown sea. Ho 
had travelled up its western flank to Kibuga, the capital of the kingdom of 
Uganda. His statements were corroborated by a Hindi merchant, called Musa, 
who also gave an interesting description of the country northward of the 
line, and the rivers which flowed out of the lake. 

On the 9th of July, Speke, leaving Buiton behind, left Kazeh, with his 
caravan, to explore Northern Unyamuczi, and discover Lake Nyanza, which 
he supposed was the fountain-head of the Nile. The caravan consisted of a 
Kirangozi, or leader, twenty P;igazls, ten Belooches as guard, Bombay, Mabruk, 
and Gaetano, escorting a kit sufficient for six weeks. The first day or two 
the journey was rendered unpleasant, both by the character of the road, and 
the discontent and grumbling of several members of the caravan. On the 
third day, they passed two Wasukumas caravans, one of ivory, destined for 
the coast, and the other conveying cattle to the Unyanyembe markets. 
Though the country through which they passed, was. wild and uninhabited, 
they saw no game but a troop of zebras, which were so wild that they could 
not get near them. 

" UiJ to this point the villages, as is the case in all central Unyamuczi, 
are built on the most luxurious principles. They form a large hollow square, 
the walls of which are their huts, ranged on all sides of it in a sort of street 
consisting of two walls, the breadth of an ordinary room, which is partitioned 
off to a convenient size by interior walls, of the same earth-construction as 
the exterior ones, as our Sepoys' lines are made in India. The roof is flat, and 
serves as a store place for keeping sticks to burn, drying grain, pumpkins, mush- 
rooms, or any vegetables they may have. Most of these compartments contain 
the families of the villagers, together with their poultry, brewing utensils, 
cooking ajiparatus, stores of grain, and anything they possess. The remainder 
contain their flocks and herds, principally goats and cows, for sheep do not 
breed well in the country, and their flesh is not much approved of by the 
people. What few sheep there are appear to be an offshoot from the Persian 
stock. They have a scraggy appearance, and show but the slightest signs 
of the fat-rumped proportions of their ancestors. The cows, unlike the noble 
Tanganyika ones, are small and short-horned, and of various colours. They 


cany a liunip like tlio Braliminy bull, but give very little milk. In front of 
nearly every house you see large slabs of granite — the stones on which the 
jowari is ground by women, who, kneeling before them, rub the grain down 
to flour with a smaller stone, which they hold with both hands at once. Tlius, 
rubbing and grinding away, their bodies sway monotonously to and fro, 
while they cheer the time by singing and droning in cadence to tlic motion 
of their bodies." 

Towards the close of their day's journey, on the 12th, a laughable scene 
took place between our traveller's caravan and an ivory caravan of Wasu- 
kumas. As they apjjroached each other from opposite directions, the two 
leaders slowly advanced, marching in front, their heads awry, their eyes 
steadfastly fixed on each other, their bodies held motionless and strictly poised, 
like rams preparing for a fight. All at once they rushed in with their heads 
down, and kcj^t butting one another till one gave way. The rest of the cara- 
van then commenced a general melee. Speke, in his ignorance would have 
attempted to separate the contending parties, but, as they were all black 
together, he found it impossible to distinguish friend from foe. Stoi:)25ing to 
laugh at his excitement, they assured him that it was only a common custom 
of the country when two strange caravan-leaders meet, and each doubts who 
should take the supremacy in choice of side. In a minute or two they all 
separated amid loud laughter, and each went his way. On the morrow, Speke 
and his party entered a district governed by a sultana. She was the first 
and only female whom he had seen in that position, though she succeeded to 
it after the custom of the country. In the evening she sent a message to the 
traveller, having heard of his approach, to request the pleasure of his company 
at her house the next day. He wished to be allowed to go and see her at 
once ; but the messenger replied that it would be impossible to reach her 
abode till after dark, and she would not have the pleasure of seeing him suf- 
ficiently well. The visit was thei'efore to be in the morning ; and in the 
morning it took i^lace. 

After a walk of twelve miles, without breakfast, he had the satisfaction of 
seeing the palisadoed royal abode. On entering the yard, he found it full of 
cows, which were being milked at mid-day ; but though he had tasted nothing, 
he was not able to get a drop. The negroes at once began beating a couple 
of large drums, half as tall as themselves, made something like a beer-barrel, 
covered on the top with a cow-skin stretched tightly over. This drumming, 
which was an announcement of their an-ival and a mark of royal respect, 
lasted about ten minutes, when a body of slaves appeared, and requested the 
strangers to follow them. They were led through various passages into the 
centre of the sultana's establishment. A cow-skin was sjiread, and a wooden 
Btool set for Speke, that he might sit upon it, having his suite squatted in a 
circle around him. The lad3''s-maid first ajjpeared. She was lame and dirty. 


but her happy-looking face encouraged the hungry and thirsty traveller to ask 
for eijgs and milk. These provisions were speedily procured, and devoured 
with greediness. The maid, having retired, now re-ajDpeared, bringing with 
her her mistress, a short, stumpy old dame, over whose head at least sixty 
summers nmst have passed. Her nose was short, squat, and flabby at the 
end, and her eyes were bald of brows and lashes ; but her face beamed with 
smiles, and her manner was full of energy. Her dress was an old coloured 
cloth, dirtier even than her maid's, " The large joints of all her fingers were 
bound with small copper wire, her legs staggered under an immense accumu- 
lation of anklets made of brass wire wound round elephant's tail or zebra's 
hair ; her arms were decorated with huge solid brass rings, and from other thin 
brass wire bracelets depended a gi-eat assortment of wooden, brazen, horn, 
and ivory ornaments, cut in every shape of talismanic peculiarity." 

Squatting down by the traveller's side her royal highness at once shook 
hands with him, and then began to examine every part of his clothing — his 
shoes, his overalls, his waistcoat, moi'e particularly the buttons, and then his 
coat. She so much admired this latter garment, that she wished he would 
jiresent it to her that she might wear it herself. She then declared his hands 
to be as soft as a child's, and likened his hair to a lion's mane. After this, 
she Avithdrawinto her jDrivacy, and Speke retraced his steps, a good five hour's 
walk. Proceeding on his journey, he came to the district of Msalala. At 
this place he witnessed the odd operation of brother-making. It consists in 
the two men desirous of a blood-tie being seated face to face on a cow's hide, 
with their legs stretched out as wide to the front as their length will permit, 
one pair overlapping the other. They then place their bows and arrows 
across their thighs, and each holds a leaf ; at the same time a third person, 
holding a pot of oil or butter, makes an incision above their knees, and 
requires each to put his blood on the other's leaf, and mix a little oil with it, 
when each anoints himself with the brother-salve. This operation over, the 
two brothers bawl forth the names and extent of their relatives, and swear 
by the blood to protect the other till death. Tlie cattle of this district sur- 
passed anything our traveller had seen in Africa. Large droves, tended by 
a few men each, were to be seen in every direction over the extensive plains, 
and at niyht every village was filled with them. The cultivation also was as 
abundant as the cattle were numerous, and the climate was delightful. The 
evenings and the mornings were particularly serene, but the middle of the 
day, though pleasant in a hut, was too warm to be agreeable under hard 

By the 30th of the month, the caravan had reached a point from which, 
about four miles beyond, a sheet of water was discerned, which ultimately 
])rovcd to bo a creek, and the most southern point of the great Nyanza. Here 
the country had a mixed and large population of smiths, agriculturists, and 


lievdsmcn, residing in the flats and depressions ■which lie between the scattered 
little hills. During the rainy season, when the lake swells, and the country 
becomes super-saturated, the inundations are so great that all travelling is sus- 
pended. Following down the creek, which, gradually increasing in breadth 
as it extended northwards, became very considerable in its dimensions, they 
saw many little islands, well-wooded elevations, standing boldly out of the 
waters, which, together with the hill-dotted country around afForded a most 
agreeable prospect. Their tract lay partly tln'ough jungly depressions, where 
they saw ostriches, florlkans, and small antelopes, and j^artly between small 
hills, the valleys of which were thickly inhabited by both agricultural and 
pastoral people. 

On the 3rd of August, the caravan, after quitting Isamiro, began wind- 
ing up a long but gradually-inclined hill, until it reached the summit, when 
the vast expanse of the pale-blue waters of the Nyanza suddenly burst upon 
the traveller's gaze. " It was early morning," he says. " The distant sea- 
line of the north horizon was defined in the calm atmosphere between the north 
and west points of the compass ; but even this did not afford me any idea of 
the breadth of the lake, as an archipelago of islands, eacli consisting of a single 
hill, rising to a height of two or three hundred feet above the water, inter- 
sected the line of vision to the left; wliile, on the right the western horn cf the 
Ukerewe Island cut off any further view of its distant waters to the eastward 
cf north. A sheet of water — an elbow of the sea, however, at the base of the 
low range on which I stood, extended far away to the eastward, to where, in the 
dim distance, a hummock-like elevation of the mainland marked what I under- 
stood to be the south and east angle of the lake. The large and important 
islands of Ukerewe and Mzita, distant about twenty or thirty miles, formed 
the visible north shore of this firth. The name of the former of these islands 
was familiar to us as that by whicli this long-desired lake was usually known. 
It is reported b}^ the natives to be of no great extent; and though of no con- 
siderable elevation, I could discover several spurs stretching down to the 
water's edge from its central ridge of hills. The other island, Mzita, is of 
greater elevation, of a hog-backed shape, but being more distant, its i)hysical 
features were not so disticctly visible. 

" In consequence of the northern islands before mentioned obstructing the 
view, the western shore of the lake could not be defined ; a series of low hill- 
tops extended in this direction as far as the eye could reach ; while below me, 
at no great distance, was the debouchure of the creek, which enters the lake 
from the south, and along the banks of which my last three days' journey had 
led me. This view Avas one which, even in a well-known and explored coun- 
try, Avould have arrested the traveller by its peaceful beauty. The islands, 
each swelling in a gentle slope to a rounded summit, clothed with wood 
between the rugged, angular, closely-croppin^j rocks of granite, seemed mil'- 


rored in ilic calm surface of the lake, on which I hero and tlicrc detected a 
small black speck, the tiny canoe of some Muanza fisherman. On the gently 
shelving plain below, me, blue smoke curled about the trees, wliich here and 
there partially concealed villages and hamlets, their brown thatched roofs con- 
trasting witli the cmcrald-grccn of the beautiful v:iilk-bush, the coral branches 
of whicli cluster in such j^rofusion round the cottages, and form alleys and 
hedgerows about the villages as ornamental as any garden-shrub in England. 
But tlic pleasure of the mere view vanished in the jjresenco of those more 
intense and exciting emotions which are called up by the consideration of the 
commercial and geographical importance of the i^rospect before me. I no 
longer felt any doubt that the lake at my feet gave birtli to that interesting 
river, the source of which has been the subject of so much speculation, and 
the object of so many explorers,"* 

Having named the magnificent sheet of water Victoria Nyanza, after our 
gracious sovereign, Speke descended to Muanza, on the shores of the lake, 
having altogether performed a journey of two liundred and twenty-six miles 
from Kazch. Ilei^e he was kindly treated by the sultan of the village, and by 
an Arab merchant, named ]\ransur, who had retainers belonging to the country, 
who knew much about the lake, and were of very great assistance. The next 
morning, taking a walk of three miles along the shores of the lake, accom- 
panied by Slansur and a native, the greatest traveller of the place, he ascended 
u hill wlicnce he could obtain a good view across the expanse of water spread 
out before him. Several islands were seen, but some so far off as scarcely 
to be distinguishal)Ie. Facing to the west-north-west was an unbroken 
sea horizon, and he calculated tliat tlie breadth of the lake was over a hundred 
miles. Tlic native, when asked its length, faced to the north, and began 
nodding his head at it, at tlie same time lie kept tlirowing forward his right 
hand, and, making repeated snaps with his fingei's, endeavoured to indicate 
something immeasurable ; and added, that nobody knew, but he thought it 
probably extended to the end of the world. Speke proposed crossing the 
lake to the island of Ukercwe ; but both the Sultan Mahaya and jMansur dis- 
suaded him from making the attempt, and, as boats were not obtainable, he 
was compelled to give up his design. Having gained all the information ho 
could, and regretting that he was unable to extend his explorations, he bade 
the sultan and his Arab friend adieu, and on the Cth of August commenced 
his return journey. 

" The fauna of this countrj^," ho says, " is most disappointing. Nearly 
all the animals that exist here, are also to be found in the south of Africa, 

* In this conclusion Spckc was wrong. It has since bcon proved, by the later discoveries of Baker 
and Livingstone, that Lake Nyanza is only one, and the kast considerable of the Sources of the Whito 


where tlioy range in far greater numbci-s. But then we must remember that 
B caravan route usually takes the more fertile and prosperous tracks, and that 
many animals might be found in the recesses of the forest not far off, although 
there are so few on the line. Tlie elephants are finer here than in any part 
of the world, and have been known, I hear, to carry tusks exceeding live 
hundred pounds the pair in weight. The principal wild animals besides these 
are the lion, leopard, hyena, fox, jiig, Cape buffalo, gnu, kudu, harte-beest, 
pallah, steinboc, and the little niadoka, or sultana gazella. The giraffe, zebra, 
quagga, rhinoceros, and hippopotamus, are very common. The game-birds 
are the bustard, florikan, guinea-fowl, partridge, quail, snipe, various geese 
and ducks, and a very dark-coloured rock-pigeon or sand-grouse. The birds 
in general have very tame plumage, and are much more scarce, generally 
speaking, than one finds in most other countries." The inhabitants of these 
districts arc mostly agricultural ; and when a stranger comes among them, 
they at once hail his advent as a good omen, and allow him to do and see 
whatever he likes. They desire his settling amongst them, appreciate the 
benefits of commerce and civilisation, and are not suspicious, like the plunder- 
ing pastorals, of every one coming towards them with evil intentions. 

Our traveller left the low land on the 9th, and rose to the higher ground, 
where he had just gained a sight of the waters of the Nyanza, and now took 
his final view. He left the place with great regret, disappointed at not being 
able to i^ush his investigations further northwards ; this feeling, however, was 
not shared by his black attendants, the Beloochcs and the lazy Pagazis, who 
were in much better humour on the return journey, as they were now going 
home, and, since the country was well stocked with cattle, they could obtain 
as much meat as was required. Travelling through the Nindo wilderness, 
they were very much excited at the quantity of game they saw. Troops of 
zebras, the quagga, and giraffe, several varieties of antelopes roaming about 
in large herds, a buffalo, and one ostrich, were the chief visible tenants of 
this wild ; but, though the party tried their best, they failed to kill any. 
Ci'ossing a second wilderness to Kahama, they found the houses completely 
destitute of all domestic articles and commodities ; and on asking the peojjle 
the reason, they said they were afraid of the plundering Wamandas, and 
that they only came there during the day to look after their crops, retiring 
at night to a distant j)lace of safe retreat in the jungles, where they stored all 
their goods and chattels. The country was full of sweet springs ; no unplea- 
sant exhalations polluted the atmosphere ; there were no extremes of tempe- 
rature ; and wholesome food was everywhere obtainable. Flies and mosquitoes 
are scarcely known, and the tsetse of the south nowhere exists. "Of diseases," 
says Spoke, " the more common are remittent and intermittent fevers, and 
these are the most important ones to avoid, since they bring so many bad 
effects after them. In the first place, they attack the brain, and often deprive 


one of one's senses. Tlien there is no rallying from the weakness they pro- 
duce. A little attack, -which one would only laugh at in India, prostrates 
you for a week or more, and this weakness brings on other disorders — cramp, 
for instance, of the most painful kind, very often follows. When lying in 
bed, my toes have sometimes curled round and looked me in the face ; at 
other times, when I have put my hand behind my back, it has stuck there 
luitil, Avith the other hand, I have seized the contracted muscles, and warmed 
the part aficcted with the natural heat, till, relaxation taking place, I was able 
to get it back." 

Ou their arrival at Senagongo, they had a triumphal entry, which con- 
sisted of a sham fight. Spears were flourished, thrust, and withdrawn ; arrows 
were pointed, huge shields were held up for protection, sticks and stones flew 
like hail ; then there was a slight retreat, then another advance, bodies sway- 
ing here and bodies swaying there, until at length the whole fore-ground was 
a mass of moving objects, all springs and hops, like an army of frogs advanc- 
ing to a pond, after the first burst of rain. Their great principle in warfare 
appeared to be, that no one should bo still. As the imaginary slain fell, they 
were immediately trampled down and knelt upon, and repeatedly hacked 
with knives, whilst the slayer continued to show his savage wrath, by worry- 
ing his supposed victim with all the angry energy which dogs display when 
fighting. A similar scene was enacted a day or two after at Mgogwa. At 
this latter place, pombc-brewing is the chief occujiation of the women, and is 
as regular as the revolution of day and night, and the drinking of it just 
as constant. " It is made of bajeri and jowari (common millets), and is at 
first prepared by malting in the same way as we do barley ; then they range 
a double street of sticks, usually in the middle of the village, fill a number of 
pots with these grains mixed in water, which they place in continuous line 
down the street of sticks, and, setting fire to the whole at once, boil away 
until the mess is fit to put aside for refining ; this they then do, leaving the 
pots standing three da3's, when fermentation takes place and the liquor is fit 
to drink. It has the strength of labourer's beer, and both sexes drink it alike. 
This fermented beverage resembles pig-wash, but is said to bo so palatable 
and satisfying — for the dregs and all arc drunk together — that many entirely 
subsist upon it. It is a great help to the slave-masters, for without it they could 
get nobody to till their ground ; and when the slaves are required to turn 
the earth, the master always sits in judgment with lordly dignity, generally 
under a tree, watching to see who becomes entitled to a drop." 

On the evening of the 25th of August, under the influence of a cool night 
and a bright full moon, our traveller entered Kazch. As the caravan, according 
to its usual march of single file, moved along the serpentine foot-path which 
led to the place, firing muskets and singing "the return," the villagers — men, 
women, and children — came running out, piercing the air with loud shrill noises, 


accompanied with the luUabooiiig which, once heard, can uever be mistaken. 
The crowd was composed in groat part of rehitivcs of those who composed 
the caravan. The Arabs, one and all, came forth to meet them, and escort 
Speke into their depot. Their congratulations were extremely warm, for 
they had been anxious for the safety of the caravan, in consequence of sundry 
rumours abroad concerning the war-party which lay in its track. Captain 
Burton, wlio had remained at Kazeh, was greatly restored in health, and had 
everything about him in a high state of jjreparation for the journey home- 
wards. They set ofF, therefore, together for Zanzibar, whence they shortly 
afterwards returned to England. Tims ended Speke's second expedition to 




Speke's Third Expedition — Accompanied hij Captain Grant he arrives at Zanzibar — 
Organisation of the Expedition — Tliey reach Uzaramo — Usarjara — Ujojo — 
Unyamuezi and the People — Troubles in Uzinza — Driven hack to Kazeh — Push 
on to Usui — Leave the Inhospitable Districts. 

ON the 27tli of April, ISGO, Captain Speke started on the third expedition, 
which was avowedly for the purpose of proving that the Lake Victoria 
Nyanza, which he had discovered in 1858, was the source of the Nile. He 
was accomjiaiiied by Cuj)tain Grant, an old Indian brother-officer. The expe- 
dition was undertaken with the help of Government, and granted at the 
earnest solicitation of the Geographical Society. They sailed from Ports- 
tnouth in the new steam frigate, "Forte," and arrived at the Cape of Good 
Hope on the 4th of July. Here Sir George Grey, the Governor of the 
Colony, who had been an old explorer himself, manifested a warm and intel- 
ligent interest in the objects of the cxjiedition. On the IGth of July, they 
eailed in the screw steam corvette, " Brisk," for Zanzibar; and after touching 
at East London, Dclagoa Ba}', and Slozambique, arrived at Zanzibar on the 
17th of August. After spending some time in collecting a sufficient band of 
suitable followers, they left Zanzibar in a corvette placed at their disposal by 
the sultan, and crossed over to Bagamoj'O on the mainland, on the 25th of 
September. Their party consisted, in addition to themselves, of ten men of 
the Cape Mounted Rifles, who were Hottentots ; Sheikh Said, the leader of 
•Spcke's former caravan, who was appointed to that post again; five old black 
sailors, who spoke Hindostanee ; Bombay, Spcke's former attendant, intcr- 
|)rcter, and factotum ; a party of seventy-five Wanguanas, emancipated from 
slavery ; and one hundred negro porters. The two chief men, besides Said, 
vcrc Bombay and Baraka, who connnanded the Zanzibar men. Fifty car- 
Jbines were distributed among the elder men of the party, and the sheikh was 
armed with a double-barrelled rifle, given to him by Captain Speke. The 
sultan also sent, as a guard of honour, twenty-five Beloochs, with an officer 
to escort them as far as Uzaramo, the country of the Wazaramo. Tlicy had 
also twelve mules to carry ammunition, asses for the sick, and twenty-two 

The procession, which commenced its march on the 2nd of October, was 



in this fashion : — " Tlie kirangozi or leader, with a load on liis shoulder, led 
the way, flag in hand, followed by the pagazis, carrying spears or bows and 
arrows in their hands, and bearing their share of the baggage, in the shape 
either of bolstcr-sliapcd loads of cloth and beads covered with matting, each 
tied into the fork of a three pronged-stick, or else coils of brass or copper-wire, 
tied in even weights to each end of sticks, which they laid on the shoulder ; 
then helter-skelter came the Wanguana, carrying carbines in their hands, and 
boxes, bundles, tents, cooking-pots— all the miscellaneous pvoi)erty on their 
heads ; next the Hottentots, dragging the refractory mules, with annuunition- 
boxes, but very lightly, to save the animals for the future; and finally. Sheikh 
Said and the Belooch escort; while the goats, sick women, and stragglers, 
brouoht up the rear. From first to last, some of the sick Hottentots rode the 
hospital donkeys, allowing the negroes to tug their animals; for the smallest 
ailment threw them broadcast on their backs." 

Speke thus describes the process of camp-forming, and the daily occupa- 
tion of Grant, himself, and their private servants: — "After traversing fields 
of grass well clothed with green trees, we arrived at the little settlement of 
Bomani, where a camp was formed, and everybody fairly appointed to his jilacc. 
The process of camp forming would be thus : — Sheikh Said, with Bombay 
under him, issues cloths to the men for rations at the rate of one-fourth load 
a-day (about fifteen pounds), amongst one hundred and sixty five ; the Hotten- 
tots cook our dinners and their own, or else lie rolling on the ground over- 
come with Tatigue ; the Beloochs are supposed to guard the camp, but prefer 
gossip and brightening their arms. Some men are told off to look after the 
mules, donkeys, and goats, whilst out grazing; the rest have to pack the kit, 
pitch our tents, cut boughs for our huts and for fencing in the camp — a thing 
rarely done, by the by. After cooking, when the night has set in, the ever- 
lasting dance begins, attended with clapping of hands and jingling small bells 
strapped to the leg. The whole being accompanied by a constant repetition 
of senseless words, which stand in place of the song to the negroes ; for song 
they have none, being mentally incapacitated for musical composition, though 
as timists they are not to be surpassed. 

"What remains to be told is the daily occupation of Captain Grant, my- 
self, and our private servants. Beginning at the foot :— Rahan, a very peppery 
little negro, who had served in a British man-of-war at the taking of Rangoon, 
was my vallet ; and Baraka, who had been trained much in the same manner, 
but had seen engagements at Mooltan, was Captain Grant's. They both knew 
Hindostanee ; but while Rahan's services at sea had been short, Baraka had 
served nearly all his life with Englishmen — was the smartest and most intelli- 
gent negro I ever saw — was invaluable to Colonel Rigby as a detector of slave- 
traders, and enjoyed his confidence so completely that he said, on parting with 
him, that he did not know where he should be able to find another man to fill 


his post. These two men had now charge of our tents and personal kit, 
while Baraka was considered the general of the "Wanguana forces, and Rahan 
a captain of ten. 

" My first occupation was to map the country. Tliis is done hy timing 
the rate of march with a watch, taking compass-bearings along the road, or on 
any conspicuous marks — as, for instance, hills of it, and by noting the water- 
shed — in short, all topographical objects. On arrival in camp, ever}'- day came 
the ascertaining, by boiling a thermometer, of the altitude of the station 
above the sea-level ; of the latitude of the station by the meridian altitude of 
a star taken with a sextant ; and of the compass variatioii by azimuth. Occa- 
sionall}', there was the fixing of certain crucial stations, at intervals of sixty 
miles or so, by lunar observations, or distances of the moon, either from the 
sun, or from certain given stars, for determining the longitude, by which the 
original-timed course can be drawn out with certainty on the map by propor- 
tion. Should a date be lost, you can always discover it by taking a lunar 
distance and comparing it with the Nautical Almanac, by noting the time 
when a star passes the meridian, if your watch is right, or by observing the 
phases of the moon, or her rising or setting, as compared with the Nautical 
Almanac. The rest of my work, besides sketching and keeping a diary, which 
was the most troublesome of all, consisted in making geological and zoological 
collections. With Captain Grant rested the botanical collections and ther- 
mometrical registers. He also boiled one of the thermometers, kept the rain- 
gauge, and undertook the photography ; but after a time I sent the instrument* 
back, considering this work too severe for the climate, and he tried instead 
sketching with water-colours. The rest of our day went in breakfasting after 
the march was over — a pipe, to prepare us for rummaging the fields and vil- 
lages, to discover their contents for scientific purposes — dinner close to sunset, 
and tea and pipe before turning in at night." 

They were now in Uzaramo, a country without hills, well covered with 
trees and large grasses, which, in the rainy season, are too thick, tall, and 
green, to be pleasant, though in the dry season, after the grasses have been 
burnt, it is agreeable enough. The villages are not large or nmuerous, but 
widely spread, consisting generally of conical grass huts, while others are 
gable-ended, after the coast-fashion ; a small collection of ten or twenty com- 
prising one village. The Warazamo, who people the district, are strictly 
agriculturists, having no cows, and but few goats. They are short and thick- 
set, and their nature tends to be boisterous. Nowhere in the interior are natives 
so well clad. They dress up their hair in fanciful styles, smear their bodies 
with clay, and adorn themselves with shells and other ornaments. They 
always keep their bows and arrows, which form their natural weapons, in 
excellent order, the latter well poisoned, and carried in quivers nicely carved. 
They i^rofess to be the subjects of the Sultan of Zanzibar ; but often act with 


an indcpoiidcncc of all authority. They demand tribute of travellers, always 
demanding more than they expect to get, and generally using threats as a 
means of extortion, not disdaining to commit robbery, when they can, by 
open violence. Spckc says, that the result of experience is, that, ardent as 
the traveller is to sec the interior of Africa, no sooner has lie dealings with 
the natives, than his whole thoughts tend to discovering some road where ho 
wont be molested, or a short cut, but long march, to get over the ground. 
Tlic men of this district have one good quality, not very general in Africa — 
they treat the women with much attention — among otlier things dressing their 
hair for them, and escorting them to the water, lest any harm should bcfal 

On the I4th of October, the expedition reached Kidunda, from which, on 
the following day, the Bcloocli escort was sent back, with all tlie specimens 
of natural history collected on the way for the Royal Geographical Society. 
Proceeding along the Kingani River, they reached the country of Usagara, a 
district of hills and valleys, and exhibiting manifold traces of volcanic action. 
Granite and other igneous rocks are expoi-cd in many places in the shape of 
massive blocks ; while the hill-ranges are covered in the upper part with 
sandstone, and in the bottom with alluvial cla}'. Wliere the hill tops and 
sides arc not cultivated, they are well covered with bush and small trees, 
amongst which the bamboo is conspicuous ; whilst the bottoms, having a deeper 
and richer soil, produce large fig-trees of exceeding Ijcauty, and various trees 
of other kinds. Cultivation M'ould thrive abundantly, if wars and slave-hunts 
did not disturb the industry of the people. The inhabitants are jioor, meagre- 
looking wretches, dingy in colour, spiritless, and sh}*. They generally fly to 
the hill-tops as soon as the noise of the advancing caravan is heard, and so 
much ground have they, from previous experience, to fear treachery, that no 
persuasions will bring them down again, ^yhilst passing through tliis dis- 
trict. Grant was seized with fever ; and, although restored for the time, it 
kept recurring every fortnight until the journey ended. On the 30th, they 
reached the first settlements of Mbuiga, from which could be seen a curious 
blue mountain, standing up like a giant overlooking the rest of the liills. The 
scenery here formed a strong and very pleasing contrast to any they had scc;i 
since leaving the coast. The valleys, watered by little brooks, were far 
richer and 2>i'cttier than the high lands above, being lined with fine trees ami 
evergreen shrubs ; while the general state of prosperity was sucli, tliat the 
people could afford, even at this late season of the year, to turn tlicir corn 
into malt, to brew beer for sale ; and goats and fowls were plentiful in the 

After leaving the valley district, and marching for some time over 
elevated ground, covered with small trees and a rich variety of joretty bulbous 
flowers, they reached the habitations of Muhanda. No sooner did tlie poor 


villagers espy tlicni than tlicy imincdiatcly dispersed in the jungles. By dint 
of great persuasion, however, they were induced to sell the travellers pro- 
A'isions, though at a monstrous rate. The scenery through wdiich the caravan 
now 2)asscd was most interesting, with every A'ariety of hill, plateau, and 
ravine, wild and prettily wooded ; but they saw nothing of the people. Liko 
frightened rats, as soon as they caught the sound of the strangers' advancing 
march, thoy buried themselves in the jungles, carrying off their grain Avith 
them. Towards sunset on the 8th, they arrived at New Mbumi, a fertile 
place, h'ing at the foot of a cluster of steep hills ; and, as this was reported 
to be the only place where they could h\iy corn until they reached Ugogo, a 
space of a hundred and forty miles, they pitched camp for three days to lay in 
supplies for icn. The chief of the jjlace was very aflable, said he had often 
been to Zanzibar, and would do anything they desired to help theai. lie 
knew the power of the English, and that they were opposed to slavery, the 
terrible effects of which had led him to abandon Old Mbumi, and come to 
reside here. 

By the 22nd of the month, they had left the hilly Usagara range quite 
behind them, and reached the more level lands of the interior. Ugogo, the 
region of country on which they had now entered, lies under the lee side of 
the Usagara hills, and is compai-atively sterile and wild in its appearance. 
Granite here and there crops through the surface. There are numerous 
acacias, and largo prairies of gi-ass. Immediately after the rainy season, the 
country looks jjleasant enough ; but it is brown and desert-looking during 
the rest of the year. Tlio appearance of the people is somewhat in keeping 
with that of the country. " The men, indeed, are never seen without their 
usual arms — the spear, the shield, and the assagai. They live in flat-topped, 
square, tcmbe villages, wherever sj^rings of water are found, keep cattle in 
jjlcnty, and farm enough generally to supply not only their own wants, but 
those of the thousands who annually pass in caravans. They arc cxti'cmely 
fond of ornaments, the most common of which is an ugly tube of the gourd 
thrust through the lower lobe of the ear. Their colour is a soft ruddy brown, 
Avith a slight infusion of black, not unlike that of a rich i)lum. Impulsive by 
nature, and exceedingly avaricious, they pester travellers beyond all concep- 
tion, by thronging the road, jeering, quizzing, and j)ointing at them ; and, 
in camp, by intrusively forcing their way into the midst of the kit, and even 
into the stranger's tent. Caravans, in consequence, never enter their villages, 
but camp outside, generally under the big, gouty-limbed trees ; encircling 
their entire canq) with a ring-fence of thorns to prevent any sudden attack." 
Water was so scarce that they had to pay for it the same price as for the 
beer of the country ; and cows, goats, shcej'), and fowls, were all selling at 
high rates. 


While encamping at Kanycnye, tlic}-^ heard that there were some bicornia 
rhincceros in the neighbourhood. Being informed that the best time to 
find them was the night, when they came to visit certain j^ools not far off, 
SiJcke, with a guide, and two boys, each carrying a rifle, set out at ten o'clock, 
to arrive at the place before the rising of the full moon. While waiting, the 
moon at midnight arose, and shed her light on the desolate scene ; the guide 
took fright, and bolted. Presently, a noble animal cautiously descended 
towards the water. Speke approached within eighty yards of him, when, 
seeing that the moon shone full on his flank, he raised himself upright, and 
planted a bullet behind his left shoulder, and thus killed his first rhinoceros. 
After waiting a Cvouple of hours longer, two more approached in the same 
stealthy, fidgety way as the first. lie at once planted a ball in the larger 
one, and brought him round with a roar, and was about to give liim a second 
shot, when he found that the boys who were carrying the second rifle had 
made off in terror, and were scrambling like monkeys up a tree. Fortunately 
for Speke, the beast turned to the right-about, and made off also. The next 
morning the parties of the expedition and the native Wagogo gathered around 
the carcass of the rhinoceros like vultures. "A more savage, filthy, disgust- 
ing, but at the same time grotesque scene than that which followed, cannot 
be conceived. All fell to work, armed with swords, spears, knives, hatchets — 
cutting and slashing, thumping and bawling, fighting and tearing, tumbling 
and wrestling, up to their knees in filth and blood in the middle of the carcass. 
When a tempting morsel fell to the possession of any one, a stronger neigh- 
bour would seize and bear off the prize, in triumph. All right was now a 
matter of pure might, and lucky it was that it did not end in a fight between 
■our men and the villagers. Tiicse might be afterwards seen, one by one, 
covered with blood, scampering home each with his spoil — a piece of tripe, 
or liver, or lights, or whatever else it might have been his fortune to get off 

On their arrival at Khoko, the last district in Ugogo, which they reached 
on the 6th of December, the whole of the inhabitants, imagining that their 
visit was one of revenge, because the Wagogo had attacked and plundered 
an Arab camp a year ago, turned out to oppose them. As soon, however, 
as the mistake was discovered, they allowed the travellers to pass on, and 
encamp in the outskirts of the wilderness. Here they halted three days, 
which time was employed in obtaining fresh men in place of the sick, in laying 
in provisions, in settling the hongo, and in sport. Speke describes an animated 
scene which occurred here in connection with buftalo-stalking. He espied a 
large herd feeding. " They were quite unconscious," he says, "of my aj^proach, 
so I took a shot at a cow, and wounded her ; then, after reloading, put a ball 
in a bull, and staggered him also. This caused great confusion among them ; 
imt as none of the animals knew where the shots came from, they simply shifted 


in a fidget}' manner, allowing me to kill the first cow, and even firo a fourth 
shot, which sickened the great bull, and induced him to walk off, leaving the 
herd to their fate, who, considerably puzzled, began moving off also. 

" I now called up the boys, and determined on following the herd down 
before either skinning the dead cow or following the bull, who I knew could 
not go far. Their footprints being well defined in the moist sandy soil, we 
soon found the herd again ; but as they now knew they were pursued, they ' 
kejjt moving on in short runs at a time, when, occasionally gaining glimpses 
of their large dark bodies as they forced through the bush, I repeated my 
shots and struck a good number, some more and some less severely. This 
was very provoking ; for all of them being stern shots were not likely to kill, 
and the jungle was so thick I could not get a front view of them. Presently, 
however, one with her hind leg broken pulled up on a white ant-hill, and toss- 
ing her horns came down with a charge the instant I showed myself close to 
her. One crack of the rifle rolled her over, and gave me free scope to improve 
the bag, which was very soon done ; for, on following the spool's, the traces 
of blood led us up to another one as lame as the last. He then got a second 
bullet in the flank, and, after hobbling a little, evaded our sight and threw 
himself into a bush, where we no sooner arrived, than he plunged headlong at 
us from the ambush, just, and only just, giving me time to present my small 
40-gauge Lancaster. 

" It was a most ridiculous scene. Suliman by my side, with the instinct 
of a monkey, made a violent sj^ring and swung himself by a bough imme- 
diately over the beast, whilst Faraj bolted away and left me single-gunned to 
liolish him off. There was only one course to pursue, for in one instant more 
he would have been into me ; so, quick as thought, I fired the gun, and, as 
luck would have it, my bullet, after passing tlirough the edge of one of his 
horns, stuck in the spine of his neck, and rolled him over at my feet as dead 
as a rabbit." He now went in search of another, and fired, but without effect. 
" The great beast, from the thicket on the o])posite side, charged down like 
a mad bull, full of ferocity — as ugly an antagonist as ever I saw, for the front 
of his head was all shielded with born. A small mound fortunately stood 
between us, and as he rounded it, I jumped to one side and let fly at his 
flank, but without the effect of stopping him ; for, as quick as thought, the 
huge monster was at my feet, battling with the impalpable smoke of my gun, 
which fortunately hung so thick on the ground at the height of his liead that 
he could not see me, though I was so close that I might, luid I been i)ossessed 
of a hatchet, have chopped ofi" his head. This was a predicament which looked 
very ugly, for my boys had both bolted, taking with them my guns ; but 
suddenly the beast, evidently regarding the smoke as a phantom which could 
not be mastered, turned round in a bustle, to my intense relief, and galloped 
ofi' at full speed, as if scared by some terrible apparition." 


All along, tlic travellers had difficulties Avith their attendants. These 
difficulties now increased. Intrigues were originated and fostered by the 
native cliiefs ; many decamped, and there was the greatest trouble in getting: 
tlieir places su])plied. Thefts were perpetrated by the runaways ; and it 
became necessary to inflict severe punishment on one or two who were detected, 
in the hope of striking fear into the rest. It sometimes seeiiied as if supplies 
of food would fail. The weather towards the close of the year was at times 
most unpropitious, rain lasting for a fortnight together. The journey through 
tlie Avilderness was very dreary. Altogctlier British courage, endurance, per- 
severance, and patience, were put to the test. Thus closed the year 1860, 

Grant and Speke spent the New Year's Day of 18G1 at Jiwa La Mkoa, 
or Round Rock — a village occupied by a few Wakimbu settlers, who, by their 
quiet, domestic manners, made them feel as thougli they were well out of the 
wood. Provisions Averc now obtained by sending men to distant villages , 
and they were able to supply the camp with their guns, killing rhinoceros, 
wild boar, antelojie, and zebras. On the 9th of January, having bought 
two donkeys, and engaged several men, they left Round Rock and resumed 
their march. On tlie 23rd, they reached the largo and fertile district o£ 
Unyanyembe, the centre of Unyamuezi — the land of the Moon, within five 
miles of Kazeh. Their losses uj) to this date were as follow : — One Hottentot, 
dead and five returned ; one freeman sent back with the Hottentots, and one 
flogged and turned off; twenty-five of Sultan Majid's gardeners deserted; 
ninety-eight of the original Wanyamuezi porters deserted ; twelve mules and 
three donkeys dead. Besides which, half their property had been stolen ; 
Avhilst the travelling exj:)enses had been unprecedented, in consequence of the 
severity of the famine throughout the whole length of the march. 

Unyanmczi is nearly as large as England, and very similar in shape. It 
ranges from three to four thousand feet above the sea-level — a high plateau, 
studded with small outcropping hills of granite, between which, in the valleys, 
there are numerous fertilising springs of fresh water. In some parts are 
found sandstone and rich iron-ore. The people, called Wanyamuezi, are 
generally industrious ; they cultivate extensively, making cloth of cotton in 
their own looms, smelt iron and work it up very expertly, build tembe houses 
to live in over a large portion of their countiy, sometimes living in grass huts, 
and keep large flocks and herds. They are among the greatest traders in 
Africa. Their physical appearance is not very prepossessing, " though many 
of their men are handsome and their women pretty ; neither are they well 
dressed or well armed, being wanting in pluck and gallantry. Their women, 
generally, are better dressed than the men. Cloths fastened round under the 
arm are their national costume, along with a necklace of beads, large brass- 
or copper wire armlets, and a profusion of tlieir circles, called Sambo, made 
of the giraffe's tail-hairs bound round by the thinnest iron or coi^per wire % 


whilst tlio men at liomowcar loin-clotlis, but in the field, or wliilst travelling-, 
simply hang a goat-skin over their shoulders, exposing at least three-fourths 
of their body in a rather indecorous manner. In all other respects they orna- 
ment themselves like the women, only, instead of a long coil of wire wound up 
the arm, they content themselves with having massive rings of copper or 
brass on the wrist ; and they carry for arms a spear and bows and arrows-^ 
All extract more or less their lower incisors, and cut a V between their two 
upper incisors. The whole tribe are des^Dcratc smokers, and greatly given to 

On the 24th, escorted by Spcke's old Arab friend IMusa, who had come 
out to meet them, they marched into Kazeh. Here Musa treated them Avith 
the utmost courtesy and hosjiitality ; and begged they would reside witli him, 
until they could find men to carry their 2)roperty on to Karague. They 
found hei-e also Sheikh Snay, who, with other Arab merchants, came at onco 
to call on them ; and from whom they learnt that fierce hostilities existed 
between the Arabs and the natives throughout the district. Snay said that 
he had an army of four hundred slaves prepared to march against one of the 
chiefs, who was constantly attacking and robbing the caravans. Some timo 
was necessarily sjient at Kazeh, in making preparations for their onward 
journey ; the two travellers employing themselves in gaining all the inform- 
ation they could concerning the country. 

After waiting for nearly two months at Kazeh, the travellers set out on 
the 17th of March, and on the 24th, entered the rich district of Mininga, 
where the gingerbread-palm grows abundantly. Sirboko, an ivory merchant, 
the greatest man in the district, received them, and gave them a good hut to 
live in. Here they learnt that the continued hostilities between the Arabs and 
the natives, rendered their journeying ver}' perilous. The Hottentots, too, 
continued to suffer so much from sickness that, as the only hope of saving 
their lives, it was necessary to send them back to Zanzibar. Si^eke thercforfe 
found it necessary to return to Kazeh, which he reached on the 2nd of May, 
leaving Grant, who was ill, behind at Mininga. Eeturning however, to Min- 
inga, on the 15th, he was rejoiced to see Grant recovered. During his absence, 
three villagers had been attacked by two lions ; two of them had escaped, but 
the third was seized as ho was plunging into his hut, and was dragged off by 
the animals and devoured. The travellers' difficulties daily increased. Musa 
did not keep faith with them. Porters could not be obtained. A leader was 
at last secured, whose name was Ungurue, or the pig — who had taken several 
caravans to Karague, and knew all the languages well ; but unfortunately he 
afterwards ])roved himself to be what his name betokened — a very obstinate 
and stupid fellow. They had the poor consolation of knowing that tliey had 
companions in adversity, A large Arab caravan following tliem, could not 



advance for want of men. They told Speke that it was the first time they 
had como on that line, and they deeply regretted it ; for they had lost five 
thousand dollars' worth of beads, by their porters running away with their 
loads, and. now they did not know how to proceed. 

At length having obtained a part of the number he required, a camp was 
formed at a place called Phunze, where Grant, with Bombay to attend on him, 
remained in charge of part of the baggage, while Speke, with Unguruo as his 
guide, and Baraka as his attendant, pushed on ahead. The chiefs of every 
district through which they passed demanded hongo or tribute, without pay- 
ment of which they could not move forward. Tliis caused numberless pro- 
voking delays, as the chiefs were seldom satisfied with what was ofi"ered them. 
We gather from their experience some knowledge of the difficulties of an 
African traveller. It is not only the caprices and disloyalty of his attendants 
that he has to encounter, he is subjected to numberless forced detentions on 
the route by the chiefs of the countries through which he has to pass. The 
hongo, or transit-tax — or blackmail, which is imposed by these despots on 
every traveller, is a cause of endless annoyance and delay. No sooner does 
any one of these petty chiefs become aware of the approach of a travelling 
party, then he forthwith considers how much he can make out of such an ojDpor- 
tunity for plunder. Nor is it possible to evade this constantly-recuri'ing tax. 
If a travelling party should beti-ay an intention to pass by, instead of through, 
the territory of some black king, its leader speedily receives an invitation, 
which is to be interpreted as a command, to the palace ; and if he should ven- 
ture to decline the proff"ered attention, his portei'S and escort would speedil}' 
be assailed by a flight of arrows, from some well-arranged ambush, and he 
would find, his further progress barred by a body of armed men. 

On the 9th of June, Speke reached Msalala, a district governed by a 
chief called Myonga, notorious for his extortions and infamous conduct, in 
consequence of which no Arabs would jDass that way. The inhabitants tui-ned 
out and fired their arrows at the strangers, and the war-drums were beat in 
every village. Myonga demanded his tribute, and wished to see Speke, as 
he had never yet seen a white man. Speke declined pei'sonally attending on 
the chief, but sent Baraka to arrange the hongo. Baraka amused hiuisclf for 
some hours, firing off volleys of ammunition, and it was not till evening that 
the palace drums announced that the hongo had been settled. Speke imme- 
diately gave orders to commence the march; but two cows had been stolen 
from the caravan, and the men declared that they would not proceed without 
getting them back. Our traveller knew that if he remained, more tax would 
be demanded ; as soon, therefore, as the cows were found he shot them, and 
gave them to the villagers. This raised a mutiny among his men ; the leader 
would not show the way, nor would a single porter lift his load. Myonga 
learning that there was dissension in the camp, immediately increased his 


demands, and fresh tribute had to be paid. Ultimately the caravan was able 
to make a fresh start. For the first few miles they passed through villages ; 
after that there was a long tract of jungle, inhabited chiefly by antelopes and 
rhinoceros, and wilder in appearance than most parts of Unyamuczi. In this 
jungle they crossed the boundary-line between the great country of the 
Moon and the kingdom of Uzinza. 

Uzinza, the country which they now entered, they found ruled by two 
"Wahuma chieftains, of Abyssinian descent. "The dress of the Wahuma is 
very simple, composed chiefly of cow-hide tanned black, a few magic orna- 
ments and charms, brass or copper bracelets, and immense numbers of sambo 
for stockings, which look very awkward on their long legs. They smear them- 
selves with rancid butter instead of macassar, and are, in consequence, very 
off"ensive to all but the negro, who seems, rather than otherwise, to enjoy a 
sharp nose-tickler. For arms, they carry both bow and spear ; more generally 
the latter. Tiie Wazinza in the southern parts are so much like the Wanyam- 
uezi, as not to require any special notice ; but in the north, where the country 
is more hilly, they are mucli more energetic and actively built. All alike 
live in grass-hut villages, fenced round by bomas in the south, but open iu 
the north. Their country rises in high rolls, increasing in altitude as it 
approaches the Mountains of the Moon." Our travellers had to encounter here 
greater difficulties than at any previous part of the journey. Ungurue, or 
the pig, continued his obstinacy and malicious tricks ; they were heavily taxed, 
too, and robbed at every step. Their porters refused to advance, declaring 
that they should be murdered, as the Watuta, their great enemies, were out 
on a foray, and would be sure to meet with them. These Watuta, they said, 
were desperate fellows, who had invaded their country and killed their wives 
and children, and had despoiled them of everything they held dear. As a 
proof that they were afraid to encounter them, they finally ran away and hid 
themselves. Baraka also showed the white feather, and feared to proceed. 

Speke, however, put on a bold front, and declared that he would return 
to Kazeh, and collect a sufllcient number of men, who would not be afraid to 
accompany him to Usui. Without any delay, he put his plan into execution. 
Leaving Grant behind, he set out for Kazeh ; and though suflbriug himself 
severely from a cough which troubled him by day, and would not allow him 
to lie or sleep on either side at night, he reached Kazeh on the 2nd of July. 
After much bother and many disappointments, he got two men as guides — 
one named Bui, a very small creature, with very high pretensions — the other, 
a steady olil traveller, named Nasib. These two guides, both of whom knew 
all the chiefs and languages up to and including Uganda, promised him faith- 
fully that they would go on to Usui, and bring back a sufficient number of 
porters for Grant and himself to go on together. 


Makaka, one of the cliiefs of Uzinza, proved liimself ono of the most arro- 
gant and insolent of the native rulers the travellers encountered, lie demanded 
as his due a royal salute from the escort, which was accordingly drawn up 
in line to fire a volley in his honour. " I never felt so degraded," says 
Speko, " as when I complied, and gave the word of command as he approached 
my tent." He was by no moans awed by this militaiy display, but made 
some remarks not very comi:)limcutary on the jjcrformance of the men. Ilis 
attendants all fawned upon him, and snapped their fingers at him whenever 
he sneezed. He examined Speke's guns, clothes, and everything ho had ; 
and begged for them in the most importunate manner. The bull's-eye lan- 
tern he coveted so much that Speke had to pretend the hottest anger to stop 
his importunities. He begged hard for lucifer-matches to aid him in his 
magical rites ; but Avas quieted by the gift of a pair of slijipers, into which 
he had unceremoniously thrust his feet. From him, however, Speke obtained 
the first authentic geographical information respecting the existence of tho 
Baringa Lake, supposed to be connected with the Victoria Nyanza. 

On the 5th of July, Speke left Kazoh once more for the north. March- 
ing slowly, as his men kept falling sick, he did not reach Grant again until 
the 11th. As they could not obtain a sufficient number of fresh i^ortci's to 
carry on their baggage, he was obliged to part from Grant once more, and 
urge his way forward. On entei'ing the district under the rule of Lumeresi, 
that chief insisted on his coming to his village, as he wished very much to 
sec a white man. Though our traveller knew what the invitation meant, and 
would gladly have declined it, he was bound to comply. Lumeresi was not 
in when he arrived, but on his return, at night, he beat all his drums to cele- 
brate the event, and fired a musket ; in reply to which Speke fired three 
shots. Like all his royal brethren, though he pretended to be very kind, ho 
soon began to beg for everything he saw. That very niglit, Speko was taken 
alarmingly ill. '-The same night," he says, "whilst sitting out to make 
astronomical observations, I became deadly cold, so much so, that the instant 
I had taken the star, to fix my position, I turned into bed, but could not get 
up again ; for the cough that had stuck to me for a month then became so 
violent, heightened by fever succeeding the cold fit, that before the next 
morning I was so reduced I could not stand. For the last month, too, I had 
not been able to sleep on either side, as interior pressure, caused by doing so, 
provoked the cough ; but now I had, in addition, to be propped in position 
to get any repose whatever. The symptoms, altogether, were rather alarm- 
ing, for the heart felt inflamed and ready to burst, pricking and twinging 
with every breath, which was exceedingly aggravated by constant coughing, 
when streams of phlegm and bile were ejected. The left arm felt half para- 
lysed, the left nostril was choked with mucus, and on the centre of the left 
shoulder-blade I felt a pain as if some one was branding me with a hot iron j 


and, in addition, I repeatedly felt severe pains — rather paroxysms of fearful 
twinges, in the sjileen, liver, and lungs." 

lie felt that his only chance of recovering from this severe illness was 
change of air. He therefore resolved to proceed on his journey, and ordered 
his men to prepare a hammock, in which he might be carried. Although he 
liad already given the chief a number of presents, by way of hongo, no sooner 
did he begin to talk of proceeding than Lumeresi attempted to hinder him, 
and declared he could not bear the idea of his white friend going to die in the 
jungle. His real object, however, was to get a robe, which Speke had deter- 
mined not to give him. Nevertheless, so persistent was the chief, that, rather 
than be detained, Speke presented him with the only one which he had j^re- 
scrved for the great chief Rumanika, into whose country he was about to 
lirocccd. Scarcely had the greedy prince received it, before he insisted on a 
further tribute — exactly double what had been previously given him. Tlic 
traveller again yielded, and presented a number of brass-wire bracelets, six- 
teen cloths, and a hundred necklaces of coral beads, whicli were to pay for 
Grant as well as himself. He paid them down on tlie spot ; the drums beat 
the "satisfaction;" and, with a mind much relieved, he ordered the march. 

But now arose a fresh difficulty. Just as they were about to march, the 
two guides, Bui and Nasib, were not to be found. The shock nearly killed 
him. He had walked all the way to Kazeh and back again for these men; 
Iiad treated them kindly and paid them well ; and yet they chose to desert. 
In the weak state of his body and mind, he cried over the matter like a child. 
Ileie now for a season longer he was compelled to stop. On the 13th of 
August, a caravan arrived from Karngue. One of the porters in it was an old 
acquaintance, of half- Arab breed. Like the rest of the porters in the caravan 
he wore a shirt of fig-tree bark, called mbugu ; and he informed Speke that 
the people about the equator all wore this kind of covering, and made it up 
of numerous pieces of bark sewn together, which they stripped from the trees 
after cutting once round the trunk above and below, and then once more 
down the tree from the upper to the lower circular cutting. The way they 
softened the bark, to make it like cloth, was by immersion in water, and a 
good strong application of a mill-headed mallet, which ribbed it like corduroy. 
The operation of barking the trees did not kill them, because if the wound 
was well-covered over while fresh with plantain-leaves, shoots grew down 
from above, and a new bark came all over it. 

All this time, the two travellers were separated from each other — Grant, 
in the jungles, near Jlyonga's village ; and Speke, who had gone on in 
advance, detained by Lumeresi. At midnight, on the IGtli of September, 
while lying in a fearfully weak condition, reduced to almost a skeleton, 
Speke was startled out of his sleep, by hearing the hurried tramp of sevei-al 
Eicn. They proved to be Grant's porters, who, in short excited sentences, 


told him tluit they had left Grant standing under a tree witli nothing but a 
gun in liis hand ; that his Wanguana jjorters had been either killed or driven 
away, having been attacked by Myonga's men, who had fallen upon the cara- 
van, and shot, speared, and plundered the whole of it. The next day, Sj^eko 
received from Grant the following letter, narrating the whole of his catas- 
trophes : — 

In the Jungles, near Myonga's, 
16M Sept., 1861. 

" My Dear Speke — The caravan was attacked, plundered, and the men 
driven to the winds, while marching this morning into Myonga's country. 
Awaking at cock-crow, I roused the camp, all anxious to rejoin you ; and 
■while the loads were being packed, my attention was drawn to an angry 
discussion between the head men and seven or eight armed fellows sent by 
Sultan Myonga, to insist on my putting up for the day in his village. They 
were summarily told that as you had already made him a present, he need 
not expect a visit from mc. Adhering, I doubt not, to their master's instruc- 
tions, they officiously constituted themselves our guides till we chose to strike 
off their path, when, quickly heading our party, they stopped the way, 
planted their spears, and dared our advance ! 

" This menace made us firmer in our determination, and we swept past 
the spears. After we had marched unmolested for some seven miles, a loud 
yelping from the woods excited our attention, and a sudden rush was made 
upon us by, say two hundred men, who came down seemingly in great glee» 
In an instant, at the caravan's centre, they fastened upon the poor porters. 
The struggle was short; and -with the threat of an arrow or spear at their 
breasts, men were robbed of their cloths and ornaments, loads were yielded 
and run away with before resistance could be organised ; only three men of a 
hundred stood by me, the others, whose only thought was their lives, fled 
into the woods, where I went shouting for them. One man, little Rahau — 
rip as he is — stood with cocked gun, defending his load against five savages, 
with uplifted spears. No one else could be seen. Two or three were reported 
killed ; some were wounded. Beads, boxes, cloths, etc., lay strewed about the 
woods. In fact, I felt wrecked. My attempt to go and demand redress from 
the sultan was resisted, and, in utter desjjair, I seated myself among a mass 
of rascals jeering round me, and insolent after the success of the day. Several 
were dressed in the very cloths, etc., they had stolen from my men. In the 
afternoon, about fifteen men and loads were brought me, with a message 
from the sultan, that the attack had been a mistake of his subjects — that one 
man had had a hand cut off for it, and that all the property would be restored I 
Yours sincerely, "J. W. Grant." 

After numerous and great annoyances, the two travellers were again 
united. On the 26th, Speke was writing a letter to Grant, giving him in- 


structions liow to proceed, and urging liim to resist the begging appeals of the 
scoundrels who were attemping to bleed him on all sides, when, to his inex- 
pressible delight, Grant himself walked into the camp ; and then they had a 
good laugh over all their misfortunes. With their united forces they now set 
out once moi'e on their journey. On the 8th of October, they halted at 
Muamba. Before them now lay a wilderness of five marches' duration ; and as 
the few villages that once lined it had all been depopulated by the Sorombo 
people and the Watuta, they had to lay in a large store of provisions. The next 
day, instead of the constantly-recurring outcrops of granite, as in Unyamuezi, 
wdth valleys between, they saw only two lines of small hills, a good way 
off; whilst the ground over which they travelled, instead of being confined. 
like a valley, rose in long high swells of sandstone formation, covered with 
small forest-trees, among which flowers like primroses, only very much larger, 
and mostly of a jiink colour, were frequently met with. On the 19th, they 
entered the province of Usui ; and here they had to suff'er from the chief of 
the province, Suwaroi-a, and his officers, the same injustice as they had expe- 
rienced all tlirough their journey. Niglit after night, their camp was attacked 
by thieves. One night, as Speke was sitting out with his sextant observing 
the stars, to fix his position, a party of these marauders accosted two of the 
"women of the camp, and ran away with their clothes. He now resolved to shoot 
any of them who came near ; and that night one was shot, who turned out 
to bo a magician, and was thought till then to be invulnerable. He was 
tracked by his blood, and died afterwards of his wound. The next day some 
of Speke's men were lured into the huts of the natives by an invitation to 
dinner ; but when they got them inside, they stripped them naked, and let 
them go again. After tliis another thief was shot dead, and two wounded. 
In addition to all this, Bombay and Baraka, the two most reliable servants of 
the travellers, gave them, by their misconduct, much trouble. 

Usui was a most convulsed-looking country, of well-rounded hills, com- 
jiosed of sandstone. In all the parts not under cultivation they were covered 
with bushwood. The little grass-hut villages were unfenced, and were hidden 
in large fields of plantains. Cattle were numerous, kept by the Wahuma, 
who would not sell milk to the strangers, because they ate fowls, and a bean 
called maharague. In this province they were detained nearly a month. On 
the 15lh of November, they found themselves approacliing its end. The 
population was thinly scattered in small groups of grass huts, where the scrub 
jungle had been cleared away. On the road they passed cairns, to which 
every passer-by contributed a stone. It struck Speke as curious that he should 
find these cairns in the first country they entered governed by the Wahuma, 
as he formerly saw the same thing in the Somali country, which, doubtless, 
in earlier days, was governed by a branch of the Abyssinians. The following 
day, they entered a fine forest. " Wc wended on through it," says Speke, 


" at a stiff pace, until we arrived at the liead of a deep valley, called Lolmgati, 
which was so beautiful wc instantly pulled up to admire it. Deep down its 
well-wooded side below us was a stream, of most inviting aspect for a trout- 
fishcr, flowing towards the N3-anza. Just beyond it the valley was clothed 
with fine trees and luxuriant vegetation of all descriptions, amongst which was 
conspicuous the pretty pandana palm, and rich gardens of plantains ; whilst 
thistles of extraordinary size, and wild indigo, were the more common weeds. 
^'Jic land beyond that again rolled back in high undulations, over which, in 
the far distance, wc could sec a line of cones, red and bare on their tops, 
guttered down with white streaks, looking for all the world like recent vol- 
canoes ; and in the far back-ground, rising higher tlian all, were the ric!i 
grassy hills of Karaguc and Kishakka. On resuming our march, a bird, called 
khongota, flew across our path ; seeing which, old Nasib, beaming with joy 
in his superstitious belief, cried out with delight, * Ah, look at that good omen! 
— Now our journey will be sure to be prosperous !' After fording the stream, 
wc sat down to rest, and were visited by all the inhabitants, who were more 
naked than any people we had yet seen." 

From this valley they rose over a stony hill to the settlement of Vihembe, 
the last on the Usui frontier. The next day they passed out of Usui, and 
entered on the border-land — a district uninhabited, and considered neutral — 
which separates that country from Karague. Gradually descending from the 
spur which separates the Lohugati valley from the bed of the Lake of Urigi, 
the track led them first through a pleasant meadow, and then through a pas- 
sage between the cones they had seen from the heights above Lohugati, where 
a new geological formation attracted Sjicke's notice. He describes it thus : — 
" From the green slopes of the hill, set up at a slant, as if the central line of 
pressure on the dome top had weighed on the inside plates, protruded soft slabs 
of argillaceous sandstone, whose laminae presented a boef-sandwich appearance, 
puce or purple alternating with creamy-wliite. Quartz, and otlicr igneous 
rocks, were also scattered about, lying like superficial accumulations in the 
dips at the fcot of the hills, and red sardstonc conglomerates clearly indicated 
the presence of iron. The soil itself looked rich and red, not unlike our own 
fine country of Devon." They had now left for a time their trials and sor- 
rows behind. 


Kuragiic — RinnaniJca and his Court — History of the Wahnma — TJijanda — Court 
Ceremonies and Life — Dqiarture from Uganda Jor the Nile. 

AFTER having passed through several countries, in all of wliich our travel- 
lers were more or less plundered by the chiefs, who refused to order 
their drums to " beat the satisfaction," and release them from their virtual 
imprisonment, until they had not only exhausted their patience, but provoked 
an attitude of defiance, a remarkable contrast now presented itself to the con- 
duct to which they had hitherto been subjected. It was as great a change as 
could well be imagined. To their utter astonishment, they now reached a 
country conspicuous for the humanity, hospitality, and what may be justly 
termed good breeding, of both its sovereign and people. The territory of the 
king of Karague is situated in an elevated region two degrees south of the 
equator, to the west of the Victoria Nj-anza, but separated from it by a small 
intervening kingdom. This prince, hearing of the approach of white travel- 
lers, sent officers with maces, the insignia of authority, which commanded 
universal respect, to welcome the strangers to his kingdom, and to escort 
them witli all honour to his palace. Kachuchu, the chief officer of tho escort, 
informed them that the village autliorities were everywhere instructed to 
supply them with food at the king's expense, as there were no taxes gathered 
from strangers in the kingdom of Karague. 

The country was hilly and picturesque, wild but verdant, dotted hero 
and there on the higher slopes with thick bush of acacias, the haunts of both 
the wliite and black rhinoceros, whilst, in the valley, herds of hartebecsts 
and line cattle roamed about. The further they proceeded in this country 
the bettor they liked it ; and the village chiefs were so civil that they could 
do what the}' liked. Game was very plentiful. Small antelopes occasionally 
sprang up from the grass. On several occasions the rhinoceros were so nume- 
rous and imprudent as to contest the right of the road witli them, and Speko 
shot the first white rhinoceros he had ever seen. Sparrows were so abundant 
that the people, to save themselves from starvation, were obliged to grow a 
bitter corn, which the birds disliked. A beautiful lake which they espied, was 
at first supposed to bo a portion of the Nyanza ; but, on finding it a separate 



slicet of water, Spoke gave it the name of Little "Windermere, because Grant 
thought it looked so like our English lake of that name. They now attained 
the height of between five and six thousand feet, and thence descended to the 
Rozoka valley, and pitched their tents in the village. Kachuchu here told 
them he had orders to precede them, and jirepare the king for their coming, 
as he wished to know what place they would prefer to live at — the Arab depot 
at Kufro, on the direct line to Uganda, in his palace with himself, or outside 
his enclosures. 

King Rumanika, though a barbarian, was a model of good manners and 
good taste, and, in the truest sense of the word, a gentleman, ruling his people 
with justice, mingled, perhaps, with a little African severity. Speke thus 
describes the first introduction of himself and his fellow traveller to this 
monarch : — " To do ro3'al honours to the king of this charming land, I ordered 
my men to lay down their loads and fire a volley. This was no sooner 
done than, as we went to the palace gate, we received an invitation to come 
in at once, for the king wished to see us before attending to anything else. 
Now, leaving our traps outside, both Grant and myself, attended by Bombay 
and a few of the seniors of my Wanguaua, entered the vestibule, and, walking 
through extensive enclosures, studded with huts of kingly dimensions, were 
escorted to a peut-roofed baraza, which the Arabs had built as a sort of govern- 
ment office, where the king might conduct his state aff'airs. 

" Here, as we entered, we saw sitting cross-legged on the ground Ru- 
manika, the king, and his brother, Nnanaji, both of them men of noble 
appearance and size. The king was plainly dressed in an Arab's black choga, 
and wore, for ornament, dress stockings of rich-colom'ed beads, and neatly- 
worked wrists of coj^pei". Nnanaji, being a doctor of very high preteusionsj 
in addition to a check-cloth wrapped round him, was covered with charms. 
At their sides lay huge pipes of black-clay. In their rear, squatting quiet as 
mice, were all the king's sons, some six or seven lads, who wore leathern 
middle-coverings, and little dream-charms tied under their chins. The first, 
greetings of the king were warm and affecting, and in an instant we both 
felt and saw we were in the company of men who were as unlike as they 
could be to the common order of the natives of the surrounding districts. 
They had fine oval faces, large eyes, and high noses, denoting the best blood 
of Abyssinia. Having shaken hands in true English style, which is the 
peculiar custom of the men of this country, the ever-smiliiig Rumanika 
begged us to be seated on the ground opposite to him, and at once wished to 
know what we thought of Karague, for it had struck him his mountains were 
the finest in the world ; and the lake, too, did we not admire it ? Then 
laughing, he inquired — for he knew all the story — what we thought of 
Suwarora, and tlie reception we had met with in Usui. Wlien this was ex- 
plained to him, I showed him that it was for the interest of his own kingdom 


to keep a check on Suwarora, whose exorbitant taxations prevented the Arabs 
from coming to see him, and bringing things from all parts of the world. He 
made inquiries for the purpose of knowing how we found our way all over 
the world ; for, on the former exi)edition, a letter had come to him for Musa, 
who no sooner read it than he said I had called him, and he must leave, as I 
was bound to Ujiji. 

" This, of course, led to a long story, describing the world, the propor- 
tions of land and water, and the j^ower of ships, Avhich conveyed even ele- 
phants and rhinoceros — in fact, all the animals in the world — to fill our 
menageries at home, etc., etc. ; as well as the strange announcement that we 
lived to the northward, and had only come this way because his friend Musa 
had assured me, without doubt, that he would give us the road on through 
Uganda. Time flew like magic, the king's mind was so quick and inquiring ; 
but as the day was wasting away, he generously gave us our option to choose 
a place for our residence in or out of his palace, and allowed us time to select 
one. "We found the view overlooking the lake to be so charming, that we 
preferred camping outside, and set our men at once to work cutting sticks 
and long grass to erect themselves sheds. 

" One of the princes — for the king ordered them all to be constantly in 
attendance on us — hapjjening to see me sit on an iron chair, rushed back to 
his father and told him about it. This set all the royals in the palace in a 
state of high wonder, and ended by my getting a summons to show off the 
white man sitting on his throne ; for of course I could only be, as all of them 
called me, a king of great dignit}^, to indulge in such state. Rather reluct- 
antly I did as I was bid, and allowed myself once more to be dragged into 
court. Rumanika, as gentle as ever, then burst into a fresh tit of merriment, 
and after making sundry enlightened remarks of inquiry, which of course 
were responded to with the greatest satisfaction, finished off by saying, with 
a very expressive shake of the head, * Oh, these Wazungu, these Wazungu ! 
they know and do everything 1' " 

Spoke now informed the king that they had not been able to get a drop 
of milk for love or money ; and wished to know what motive the Wahuma 
had for withholding it. He referred to the superstitious fears of which he had 
heard — that any one who ate the flesh of pigs, fish, or fowls, or the bean called 
maharaguo, if he tasted their milk or butter, would destroy their cattle. The 
king said, that it was only the poor who thought so, and ho would set apart 
one of his cows expressly for their use. All their wants were now abundantly 
supplied, for the king gave orders to his officers throughout the country to 
bring in supplies fur them. The cold winds which prevailed here were found 
trying to the men who had come up from the coast ; they all shivered greatly, 
and suspected, in their ignorance, that they must be drawing near to England, 
the only cold place they had ever heard of. 


Tlic morning' after his first introduction to the king-, Spekc called on him, 
taking his revolver, as ho knew lie had expressed a strong wish to sec it. As 
he was greatly struck with it, and said he had never seen such a thing in his 
life, he was desired to accept it as a gift. They then adjourned to his private 
hut, which was kept in a state of surprising neatness. The roof was supported 
b}' several clean poles, to which he had fastened a large assortment of spears 
of excellent workmanship. A large standing-screen, of fine straw-plait work, 
in elegant devices, partitioned off one part of the room ; and on the opposite 
side, as mere ornaments, were placed a number of grapnels, and small models 
of cows, made in iron, for his amusement, by the Arabs at Kufi'o. 

On another visit, Speke told the king that if he would send two of his 
children Viith him to England, he would have them instructed there ; for he 
admired his race, and believed them to have sprung from the Abyssinians, 
who were friends of the English ; they were Christians, he said, like ourselves, 
find hadtheWahuma not lost their knowledge of God, they Avould be so also. 
A long theological and historical discussion followed, Avliich so pleased tho 
king, that he said he would be delighted if Spcke would take two of his sons 
to England. He then incpiired what could induce them to leave their country 
and travel, when the traveller replied, that they had had their fill of tho 
luxuries of life, and that their great delight was to observe and admire the 
beauties of creation ; but it was es2Decially their wish to pa}^ a visit to the 
kings of Africa, and in particular his majesty. lie then promised that he 
would supply them with boats, to convey them over the lake with musicians 
to jjlay before them. 

" In the afternoon," says Spekc " as I had heard from Musa, that the wives 
of the kings and princes were fattened to such an extent that they could not 
stand upright, I paid m}- respects to Wazczeru, the king's eldest brother — who, 
having been born before his father ascended his throne, did not come in the line of 
succession — with the hope of being able to see for myself the truth of the storj-. 
There was no mistake about it. On entering the hut I found the old man 
and his chief wife, sitting side by side on a bench of earth strewed over with 
grass, and partitioned like stalls for sleeping apartments, whilst in front of 
them were placed numerous wooden pots of milk, and hanging from the poles 
that supported the beehive-shaped hut, a large collection of bows six feet in 
length, whilst below them were tied an even larger collection of spears, inter- 
mixed with a goodly assortment of heavy-headed assages. I was struck with no 
small surprise at the way he received me, as well as with the extraordinary 
dimensions, yet pleasing beauty, of the immoderately fat fair one, his wife. 
She could not rise; and so largo were her arms that, between the joints, the 
flesh hung down like large, loose-stufted puddings. Then in came their 
children, all models of the Abyssinian type of beauty, and as polite in their 
manners as thorough-bred gentlemen. They had heard of my picture-books 


from the king, and all wished to sec tlicm ; -wliicli they no sooner did, to tlicir 
infinite delight, especially when they recognised any of the animals, than the 
subject was turned by m}' inquiring what they did with so many nillk-pots. 
This was easily explained by Wazczeru himself, who, pointing to his wife, 
said, ' This is all the j^roduct of those pots : from early youth upwards wo keep 
those pots to their mouths, as it is the fashion at court to have very fat wives.' " 
Rumanika was delighted with the liberal jDresents he received, above all 
with a coat of handsome scarlet broad-cloth, the finest thing, ho said, he had 
ever seen. He confessed that ho was alarmed beyond raeasurt?, when he heard 
the travellers were coming to visit him, thinking they might prove some fear- 
ful monsters that were not quite human; but now he was extremely delighted 
with what he saw of them. lie told them they might visit every part of his 
country; that a messenger should be sent at once to the king of Uganda to 
inform him of their iutention to visit him, with his own favourable report of 
them ; and that, when the time arrived for them to proceed to that country, 
ho would escort them to the boundary. Altogether Rumanika was the most 
intelligent and best-looking ruler the travellers met with in Africa. He had 
nothing of the African in his appearance, except that his hair was short and 
woolly. He was quite six feet two inches in height, and the expression of his 
countenance was mild and open. He was fully clothed in a robe made of 
small antelope-skins and another of dark cloth, always carrying, when walk- 
ino-, a lono- staffin his hand. His four sons were favourable specimens of their 
race, especially the eldest, named Chunderah. He was somewhat of a dandy, 
beins: more neat about his lion-sldn covers and ornaments than his brothers. 
From the tuft of wool left unshaven on the crown of his head to his waist he 
was bare, except where his arms and neck were decorated with charmed horns, 
strips of otter-skin, shells, and bands of wool. He was fond of introducing 
Friz, Speke's head man, into the palace, that he might amuse his sisters with 
his guitar, and in return the sisters, brothers, and followers, would sing Kara- 
gue music. The youngest son was the greatest favourite, and on one occa- 
sion, the travellers having presented him with a pair of white kid gloves, were 
nmcli amused with the dignified way in which he walked off, having coaxed 
them on to his fingers. 

Contrary to the usual African custom, Rumanika was singularly abste- 
mious, living almost entirely on milk and the juice of boiled beef. Although 
the people were generally excessively fond of plantain wine or beer, the pea- 
sants especially drinking it in large quantities, the king scarcely ever touched 
it, and had never been known to be intoxicated. He was not only king, but 
priest and prophet also; indeed, his elevation to the tin-one was due, as his 
friends asserted, to supernatural agency. After the death of his father, his two 
brothers and he claimed the throne. Their pretensions were to bo settled by 
an ordeal. They possessed a small magic drum, and, it being placed on tho 


ground, lie who could lift it was to take the crown. Ili.s brothers were unable 
to stir it, though exerting all their strength, but Rumanika raised it witli his 
little finger. This test, however, not satisfying the chiefs, they insisted on 
Rumanika going through another trial. He was seated on the ground, and 
it was believed that, if he was the appointed king, the portion of soil on which 
he sat would rise up in the air, but if not, it would collapse, and he would bo 
dashed to pieces. According to the belief of his subjects, no sooner had 
Rumanika taken his seat, than he was raised into the sky, and was therefore 
acknowledged king. One of the most curious customs which Rumanika holds, 
in his character of high jjricst, is his New-Moon Levee, which takes place every 
month, for the purpose of ascertaining the loyalty of his subjects. Speke gives 
the following interesting description of the ceremony as he saw it performed : — 

" In the afternoon, Rumanika invited Grant and myself to witness his 
New-Moon Levee, a ceremony which takes place every mouth with a view of 
ascertaining how many of his subjects are loyal. On entering his palace 
enclosure, the first thing we saw was a blaue boc's horn, stuffed full of magic 
powder, with very imposing effect, by Kyengo, and stuck in the ground, with 
its mouth pointing in the direction of Rogero. In the second court, we found 
tliirty-five drums ranged on the ground, with so many drummers stand- 
ing behind them, and a knot of young princes and officers of high dignity wait- 
ing to escort us into the third enclosure, where, in his principal hut, we found 
Rumanika squatting on the ground, half-concealed by the portal, but showing 
his smiling face to welcome us in. His head was got \x^ with a tiara of beads, 
from the centre of which, directly over the forehead, stood a plume of red 
feathers, and encircling the lower face with a fine large white beard, set in a 
stock or band of beads. We were beckoned to squat alongside Nnanaji, the 
master of ceremonies, and a large group of high officials outside the porch. 
The thirty-five drums all struck up together in very good harmony; and 
-when their deafening noise was over, a smaller baud of hand-drums and reed 
instruments was ordered in to amuse us. 

" This second jjerformance over, from want of breath only, district officers, 
one by one, came advancing on tip-toe, then pausing, contorting and quiver- 
ing their bodies, advancing again with a springing gait and outspread arms, 
which they moved as if they wished to force them out of their joints, in all 
of which actions they held drum-sticks or twigs in their hands, swore with a 
maniacal voice an oath of their loyalty and devotion to their king, backed 
by the expression of a hope that he would cut off their heads if they ever 
turned from his enemies, and then, kneeling before him, they held out their 
sticks that he might touch them. With a constant reiteration of these scenes 
— the saluting at one time, the music at another — interrupted only once by a 
number of girls dancing something like a rough Highland fling, whilst the 
little band played, the day's ceremonies ended." 


Civilised as the country is in some respects, marriage is a matter of bar- 
ter between the father and the intended husband, the former receiving cows, 
slaves, sheep, for his daughter. Should, however, a bride not approve of her 
husband, she can regain her liberty, by returning the marriage gifts. The 
cliief ceremony at marriages consists in tying up tlie bride in a skin, blackened 
all over, and carrying her, with a noisy procession, to her husband. The chief 
object of the ladies is to get as fat as jDossible ; and, in consequence of their 
peculiar constitution, or from the nutritiousncss of their food, many of them 
succeed wonderfully well. Five of Rumanika's wives were so enormous that 
they were unable to enter the door of any ordinary hut, or move about with- 
out being supported by a jierson on either side. One of his sisters-in-law was 
of even still greater proportions. Speke measured her, with the following 
results : — Round her arm, one foot eleven inches; chest, four feet four inches; 
thigh, two feet seven inches ; calf, one foot eight inches ; height, five feet 
eight inches. Meanwhile the daughter, a girl of sixteen, sat before them, 
sucking at a milk pot, on which the father kej^t her at work, by holding a 
rod in his hand ; for, as fattening is the first duty of fashionable female life, 
it must be duly enforced by the rod if necessary. The features of the damsel 
were lovelj^, but her body was as round as a ball. The women turn their 
obesity to good account ; for, in exchanging food for beads, it is usual to 
purcliase a certain quantity of food, which shall be paid for by a belt of beads 
that will go round the waist ; therefore, the women being on an average twice 
as large round the waist as those of other districts, food practically rises a 
hundred per cent in price. Notwithstanding their fatness their features retain 
much beauty, the face being oval, and the eyes fine and intelligent. Tlie 
higher class of women wear cow-skin petticoats, and a wrapper of black cloth, 
. with which they envelope their whole bodies, merely allowing one hand to 
be seen. 

Rumanika, like great men in other countries, had his private band. The 
instruments were of a somewhat ju'imitive chaiactcr. Tlie most common are 
the drums, which vary greatly in size ; one hung to the slioulder is about four 
feet long, and a foot wide, and is ])layed with the fingers, like the Indian tom- 
tom. The drums used at the New-Moon Levee are of the same shape, but very 
much larger. The war-drum was beaten by women ; and at its sound the men 
rush to arms, and rejjair to their several quarters. There are also several 
stringed instruments. One of tliesc was played by an old woman ; it had seven 
notes, one of which was a perfect scale ; another, which had three strings, 
was played by a man ; tliey were a full, liarmonious chord. A third, formed 
of dark wood, in the shape of a tray, had three crosses in the bottom, and 
was laced with one string seven or eight times over bridges at either end. 
They have two wind instruments, one resembling a flageolet, and another a 
bugle. The latter is composed of several pieces of gourd, fitted one into 


another, in telescope fasliion, and is covered -witli cow-skin. The royal band 
was composed of sixteen men, fourteen of whom had bugles, and the other two 
liand-drums. On the march they form in three ranks, the drummers being 
in tiic rear, swaying their bodies in time to the music, while the leader 
advances with a curiously active stej), touching the ground alternately with 
each knee. When tlie king rested on a march, or when out hunting, they 
also jjlaycd before him while he sat on the ground and smoked his pipe. The 
king sent the best player to be foiuid to entertain his guests. The man 
entered, dressed in a strange costume, having a wild and excited look. After 
resting his spear against the roof of the hut, he took his instrument from under 
his arm and began playing, his wild yet gentle music and words attracting a 
number of admirers. It was about a favourite dog, and for days afterwards 
the joeoplc sang that dog song. 

Although Rumanika displayed great intelligence in his inquiries relat- 
ing to the European world and its wonders, yet the childishness of the African 
character was characteristically shown in eagerness for toys. He was tran- 
sported with delight at a " jumping-jack," which Cajjtain Grant had made for 
the amusement of his children, appro2)riated it to himself, and wished one 
made as large as life. He begged, above all things, that he might be supplied 
from England with an American clock, in the form of a man, made to wind 
up behind, and with eyes rolling at every beat of the pendulum. He wanted 
also a "jack-in-the-box," a china milk-pot in the form of a cow, cari'iages and 
horses, and — a railway. Having avowed that he had no idea of a God or a 
future state, he was jiressed to state what advantage he expected from sacri- 
ficing a cow yearly at his father's grave. He laughingly replied that he did 
not know, but hoped to be favoured with better crojjs if he did so. He also 
placed pombc and grain, he said, before a large stone on the hill-side, although 
it could not eat or make any use of it. No one in Africa, as far as he knew, 
doubted the use of magic and sj^ells. 

The travellers were not only allowed to move about the country as they 
liked, the king also sent his sons to attend on them, that they might enjoy 
such sport as was to be found. They heard of no elephants in the district ; 
harte-beests, rhinoceros, and hippopotami, were common. Several varieties 
of anteloj^e and the mountain gazelle were seen bounding over the hills, and 
pigs abounded in the low grounds. One day Captain Grant saw two harte- 
beests engaged in a desperate combat, and halting calmly between each 
round to breathe. He could hear, even at a considerable distance, the force of 
every butt as their heads met, and as they fell on their knees, the impetus of 
the attack sending tlieir bushy tails over their backs, till, one becoming the 
victor, chased the other out of the herd. 

Describing one of their hunting excui"sions, S^oeke says — " On the 9th, 
I went out shooting, as Rumanika, with his usual politeness, on hearing my 


desire (o kill some rhinoceros, ordered his sons to conduct the field for me. 
Off we started by sunrise to the bottom of the hills overlooking the head of the 
little Windermere Lake. On arrival at the scene of action — a thicket of 
acacia shrubs — all the men in the neigbourhood were assembled to beat. Tak- 
ing post ni3-self, by a direction in the most likely place to catch a sight of 
the animals, the day's Avork began by the beaters driving the covers in my 
direction. In a very short time, a fine male was discovered making towards 
me, but not knowing exactly where he should bolt to. While he was in this 
perplexity, I stole along between the bushes, and caught sight of him stand- 
ing as if anchored by the side of a tree, and gave him a broadsider with Llis- 
sett, which, too much for his constitution to stand, sent him off trotting, till, 
exhausted by bleeding, he lay down to die, and allowed me to give him a 

" In a minute or two afterwards, the good young princes, attracted by 
the sound of the gun, came to see what was done. Their surprise knew no 
bounds ; they could scarcely believe what they saw ; and then, on recovering, 
with the spirit of true gentlemen, they seized both my hands, congratulating 
mo on the magnitude of my success, and joointed out, as an example of it, a 
bystander who showed fearful scars, both on his abdomen and the blade of 
his shoulder, who, they declared, had been run through by one of these animals. 
It was, therefore, wonderful to them, they observed, with what calmness I 
went up to such formidable beasts. 

" Just at this time a distant cry Avas heard, that another rhinoceros was 
concealed in a thicket, and off we set to pursue her. Arriving at the place 
mentioned, I settled at once I would enter, with only two spare men carrying 
guns, for the acacia thorns were so thick that the only tracks into the thicket 
were runs made by these animals. Leading myself, bending down to steal 
in, I tracked up a run till half way through cover, when suddenly before me, 
like a pig from a hole, a large female, with her young one behind her, came 
straight down Avhoof-whoofing upon me. In this awkward fix I forced myself 
to one side, though pricked all over with thorns in doing so, and gave her one 
in the head, which knocked her out of my path, and induced her, for safety, to 
make for the ojjen, where I followed her down and gave her another. She 
then took to the hills and crossed over a spur, when, following after her, in 
another dense thicket, near the head of a glen, I came upon three, who so 
soon sighted me, that all in line they charged down my way. Fortunately at 
the time my gun-bearers were with me ; so, jumijing to one side, I struck 
them all three in turn. One of them dropped dead a little way on; but iho 
others only pulled up when they ax-rived at the bottom. To please mj-self, 
now I had done quite enough, but, as the princes would have it, Iwentonwitli 
the chase. As one of the two, I could see, had one of his fore-legs broken, I 
■went at the sounder one and gave him another shot, which simply induced him 



to walk over the lower end of (he hill. Tlien tnrninj^ to the last one, which 
could not escape, I asked the Wanyanibo to polish him off with their spears and 
arrows, that I. might see their mode of sport. As we moved to tlie animal, he 
kept charging with such impetuous f ui-y, they could not go into him ; so I gave 
him a second ball, which brought him to anchor. In this helpless state the 
men set at him in earnest, and a more barbarous finale I never did witness. 
Every man sent his spear, assagai, or arrow, into his sides, until, completely 
exhausted, he sank like a jDorcupine covered Avith quills. The day's sport 
was now ended, so I went home to breakfast, leaving instructions that the 
heads should be cut ofl' and sent to the king, as a trophy of what the white 
man could do. 

" The next day, whoi I called on Rumanika, the spoils were brought 
into court, and in utter astonishment he said — ' Well, this must have been 
done with something more jiotent than powder, for ncitlier the Arabs nor 
Nnanaji, although they talk of their shooting powers, could have accomplished 
such a great feat as this. It is no wonder the English ai'e the greatest men in 
the world.' " 

The year 18G1 closed and 1862 commenced, finding our travellers still 
the guests of this polite, enlightened, and generous king. On Christmas day, 
hearing that it was the custom of the English to celebrate the birth of our 
Saviour with a good dinner of beef, he sent them an ox. Tlie new year was 
ushered in by the most exciting intelligence. News arrived which induced 
them to believe that Mr. Petherick was on his road up the Nile, endeavouring 
to reach them. Eumanika was highly delighted to hear this, since he was 
especially anxious that white men should visit his country from the north. 
On the night of January the Gth, as there was a partial eclipse of the moon, 
all the "Wanguana marclied up and down from Rumanika's to Nnanaji's huts, 
singing and beating their tin cooking-pots to frighten off the S2)irit of the sun 
from consuming entirely the chief object of reverence, the moon. At length, 
after nearly two months' residence with Rumanika, the sound of the Uganda 
drum called them to begin their journey to that country. Maula, a royal 
officer, with a large escort of smartly-dressed men, women, and boys, leading 
their dogs and playing their reeds, announced that their king had sent them 
to call the strangers. Maula said that his master had heard that the white 
men wxre coming to be his guests, and was delighted at the prospect ; and had 
told his oflicers to supply them with everything they wanted whilst passing 
through the country, and that there woidd be notliing to pay. 

There was now onl}' one difficulty. Grant was worse, without hope of 
recovery for at least one or two months. To get on as fast as possible was 
the only chance of ever bringing the journey to a successful issue ; the onlj 
course open for the travellers was once more to separate, Speke going for- 
ward, and Grant remaining till his healtli was better, in care of Rumanika. 


Spoke, liaving made all arrangements for his departure, went to the palace to 
bid adieu to Rumanika, who forthwith appointed Rozaro, one of his officers, 
to accompany him wherever lie went in Uganda, to bring him safely back 
again ; the king never supposing that it would be possible for him to go north 
ii'om Uganda. 

Before accomjianying Captain Speke to Uganda, we may advert briefly to 
his theory and account of the Wahuma, who so largely people and govern this 
part of the African continent. He is of opinion that they are an offshoot 
■of the Abyssinian stock. They differ in feature and in character from the 
simple negro type, although there has been a considerable intermixture of 
races. Speke says that he founds his theory on the traditions of the several 
l^eoples, as checked by his own observation of what he saw when sojourning 
among them. It appears to him impossible to believe, judging from their 
physical appearance, that they can be of any other race than the semi- 
Shem-Hamitic of Ethiopia. 

The story of the Wahuma nations is quaint and characteristic. Here is 
that of Uganda. Many genei'ations ago, a great kingdom of negroes, ruled 
by Wahuma chiefs, was established in the country now divided among 
Karague, Uganda, and Unyoro. That portion which bordered Lake Nyanza, 
and is now called Uganda, was considered as the garden of the whole, and 
the agriculturists who tilled it, were treated as slaves. Then a man named 
Kimera, himself a Wahuma, who was also a great hunter, happened to fre- 
quent, for his sport, tlie Nile, near its outflow from the Nyanza. The negro 
natives flocked to him in crowds, to share the game he killed, and he became 
so popular that they ended by making him their king. They said their own 
sovereign lived far off, and was of no use to them. If any one sent him a 
cow as a tributary jDrcsent, the way to his palace was so long that the cow 
had time to have a calf on the road, and the calf had time to grow into a 
•cow and to have a calf of its own. They were therefore determined to 
establish a separate kingdom. Kimera became a powerful and magnificent 
king, and formed the kingdom of Uganda. He built himself a large enclosure 
of fine huts as a palace, and collected an enormous harem to fill them. Ho 
made higliways across the country ; built boats for war purposes on the lake, 
organised an army ; legislated on ceremonies, behaviour, and dress ; and super- 
intended hygiene so closely, that no house could be built in his country ^vithout 
its necessary appendages for cleanliness. In short, he was a model king, and 
established an order of tilings which has continued to the present day, through 
seven generations of successors, with little change. He was embalmed when 
he died, his memory is venerated, and his hunting outfit, the dog and the 
spear, continue to bo tlie armorial insignia of Uganda. 

By Ills large establishment of wives, Kimera left, at his death, a consider- 
able number of sons and daughters. The boj-s were sumptuously housed and 


fed, iind when they grew up were royally wived; but they were strictly watched 
and kept asunder, lest they should intrig-ue. They chose from the number 
the one whom they thought best suited for the government of the country 
to be king. They were all to enjoy life until the prince-elect should arrive 
at the age of discretion and be crowned, when all but two of the princes would 
be burnt to death. The two being reserved in case of accident as long as the 
king wanted brother companions, when one would be banished to Unyoro, and 
the other pensioned, with suitable possessions, in Uganda, By this measure, 
the mother of the king became queen-dowager. She kept up a j^alace, only 
little inferior to her son's ; possessed large estates; guarded him in the govern- 
ment of the country ; and remained, until the end of his minority, the virtual 
ruler of tlie land. Under this strict system of artificial selection, the people 
have been well ruled in theinvay, and the three Wahuma kings, as Speke saw 
them, were every one of them more tlian six feet high. 

Uganda is described as a most surprising country, in the order, neatness, 
civility, and politeness of its inhabitants. Its monarch's reign is, however, a 
reign of terror. It is an established custom that there should be one execution 
daily, Tlie ceremonies and rules of precedence of the court are minutely 
defined, and are exacted under penalty of death. The first among the digni- 
taries of state is the lady who had the good fortune to have cut the umbilical 
cord at the king's birth. After her, follow the queen's sister and tlic king's 
barber. Then come governors of pi-ovinces, and naval and military com- 
manders ; then the guardian of the king's sisters, the executioners first and 
second class, and the superintendents of tombs ; then the brewer and the cook. 
In a lower grade arc juvenile pages, to look after the women, and to run on 
errands ; they are killed if they dare to walk. In addition to these, is an eflec- 
tive band of musicians — drummers, pea-gourd rattlers, flute-players, players 
on wooden harmonicons and lap-harps, besides others wlio sing accompani- 
ments, and others who whistle on their fingers. 

Every person of distinction must attend court as constantly as possible, 
or his estates and wives arc liable to be utterly confiscated, lie must bo 
decorously dressed in a sort of toga, made of mbugu, or the pounded bark of 
the fig-tree ; neglect of this may ensure the loss of his head — certainly a heavy 
fine. These bark cloaks are beautifully made, and look like the best corduroy; 
they are worn under robes of small antelope skins sewn together with the best 
art of the furrier. Every courtier's language must be elegant, and his deport- 
ment modelled upon established custom. Even the king is not free ; Walmma 
taste exacts that whenever he walks he should imitate the gait of a vigilant 
lion, by ramping with his legs and turning from side to side. When ho 
accepts a present from a man, or orders a man a whipping, the favoured 
individual must return thanks for the condescending attention, by floundering 
flat on the ground, and whining like a haj^ipy dog. Levees are held on most 


days in the palace, which is a vast enclosure full of life. It occupies the brow 
of a hill, and consists of gigantic grass huts, beautifully thatched. The ground 
is strewn with mats and Avitli rushes in patterns, and is kept with scrupulous 
care. Half-gorged vultures wheel over it, looking out for victims hurried 
aside to execution. The three or four hundred wives of the king inhabit the 

There is plenty to do at the court-levees, in real work and in ceremony. 
Orders are given, punishments are adjudged, presents are received. Military 
commanders bring in the cattle and jilunder they have taken; artisans bring 
their pieces of workmanship ; and, as Kimera, the first king, established a 
menagerie, hunters iDi'oduce rare animals, dead and alive. ''The master of 
the hunt," says Speke, '* exposes his spoils — such as antelopes, cats, porcupines, 
curious rats, etc., all caught in nets, and placed in baskets — zebra, lion, and 
buffalo skins being added. The fishermen bring their spoils ; also the gar- 
dcncis. The cutlers show knives and forks made of iron, inlaid with brass 
and copper ; the furriers, most beautifully-sewn patchwork of antelopes' skins ; 
tlie habit maker, sheets of mbugu bark-cloth ; the blacksmith, spears ; the maker 
of shields, his productions, and so forth ; but nothing is given witliout rub- 
bing it down, then rubbing tlic face, and going through a long form of salut- 
ation for the gracious favour the king has shown in accepting it." When 
sitting in court holding a levee, the king invariably has in attendance several 
women, Wabandwa, evil-eye averters, or sorcerers. They talk in feigned 
voices, raised to a shrillness almost amounting to a scream. They wear dried 
lizards on tlieir heads, small goat-skin aprons trimmed with little bells, dimi- 
nutive shields and spears ; and their functions in attendance are to administer 
cups of marwa, or plantain-wine. 

No one dare stand before the king whilst he is either standing still or 
sitting ; but must approach him with downcast eyes and bended knees, and 
kneel or sit when arrived. To touch his throne or clothes, even by accident, 
or to look upon his women, is certain deatli. An officer observed to salute 
infornuilly is ordered for execution, when everybody near him rises in an 
instant, the drums beat, drowning his cries, and the victim of carelessness 
is dragged off, bound by cords, by a dozen men at once. Another man, 
perhaps, exposes an inch of naked leg whilst squatting, or has his mbugu 
tied contrary to regulations, and is condemned to the same fate. Strict as 
is the discipline of the exterior court, that of the interior is no less severe. 
The pages all wear turbans of cord made from aloe fibres ; and should a wifo 
connnit a trifling indiscretion, either by word or deed, she is condemned to 
execution on the spot, bound by the pages, and dragged out. "WHien the king 
is tired of a levee, he rises, spear in hand, and leading his dog, walks oflf 
without a word or comment, leaving his company, like dogs, to take care oi 


His majesty has, however, some days for peace and enjoyment. On the 
first ai^pcarancc of the new moon every month, he shuts liimself up for two 
or three days, to attend to his religious ceremonies. He possesses a collection 
of magic horns, which at such times he arranges and contemplates, and 
thereby communicates with a spirit who lives di3ep in tlie waters of the 
Nyanza. He also indulges in the interpretation of dreams. He has his pil- 
grimages, too ; spends occasionally a fortnight yachting on the lake ; and at 
other times goes out on special excursions of pleasure with his numerous 

On the 10th of Januar}-, 1862, Speke crossed over the Weranhanje spur, 
and put up with the Arabs at Kufro. Here, for the first time in this part of 
the world, he found good English peas growing. The next day he encamped 
at Luandalo. On the 12th, he entered the rich plantain gardens of Kisalio. 
At this ])lace, all the people were in a constant state of intoxication, drinking 
pombe all day and all niglit. He now descended from the Mountains of the 
Moon, and crossed a long alluvial plain to the settlement of Kitangule, where 
Rumanika keeps thousands upon thousands of cows. Formerly, tlie dense 
green forests which grow in swampy places about this plain, were said to have 
been stocked by vast herds of elephants ; but since the increase of tlie ivory 
trade, these animals have been driven off to the distant hills. On the 16th, ho 
reached the Kitangule River, which falls into the west side of the Victoria 
Nyanza. It was only after a long contest with the superstitious boatmen that 
they allowed him to cross in tlieir canoe with his shoes on, as they thought 
the vessel would either upset, or else the river would dry up, in consequence 
of their Neptune taking offence at him. It was about eighty yards broad, 
was sunk down a considerable depth below the surface of the land, and was 
so deep that it could not be poled by the canoe-men ; while it runs at a velo- 
citv of from three to four knots an hour. 

The country, as they marched on, was a perfect garden of plantains; the 
soil was surpassingly rich ; and as fast as the people sowed, tlicy were sure of 
a crop without much trouble. Everywhere the huts and the gardens were 
in excellent order. The banks of the river, and the neighbouring forests, were 
alive with antelopes, principally harte-beests. On the 24th, they came to a 
village, where they were compelled to stay two or three days, and wliere 
drumming, singing, screaming, yelling, and dancing, went on the wliole time, 
night and day, to drive the phepo, or devil, away. An old man and woman, 
smeared with white mud, and holding pots of pombe in their laps, sat in front 
of a hut, whilst other peojile kept constantly bringing them baskets full of 
plaintain-squash, and more pots of pombe. Hundreds of people were collected 
in the court-yard, all perfectly drunk, and making the most terrific uproar. 
Mtesa, the king of Uganda, now sent messengers, urging the white man to 
make haste and come to him ; and Speke sent back to Grant, earnestly press- 


ing liim to follow on, if he jDossibly could, as lie had little doubt that they 
would be able to proceed across the country to the northward. 

Speaking of the country through which they passed On the 31st, our tra- 
veller says — "After crossing more of those abominable rush-drains, whilst in 
sight of tlio Victoria Nyanza, we ascended the most beautiful hills, covered with 
verdure of all descriptions. At Meruka, where I put up, there resided some 
grandees, the chief of Avhom was the king's aunt. She sent me a goat, a hen, 
a basket of eggs, and some plantains, in return for which I sent her a wire and 
some beads. I felt inclined to stop here a month, everything was so pleasant. 
The temperature was perfect. The roads, as indeed they were everywhere, 
were as broad as our coach- roads, cut through the long gx'asscs, straight over 
the hills and down through the woods in the dells — a strange contrast to the 
wretched tracks in all the adjacent countries. The huts were kept so clean 
and neat, not a fault could be found with them — the gardens the same. 
Wherever I strolled I saw nothing but richness, and what ought to be wealth. 
The whole land was a picture of quiescent beauty, with a boundless sea in 
the background. Looking over the hills, it struck the fancy at once that at 
one period the Avholc land must have been at a uniform level with their pre- 
sent tops, but that, by the constant denudation it w'as subjected to by fre- 
quent rains, it had been cut down and sloped into those beautiful hills and 
dales which now so much pleased the eye; for there were none of those quartz 
dykes I had seen protruding through the same kind of aqueous formations in 
Usui and Karague ; nor were there any other sorts of volcanic disturbance to 
distort the calm quiet asjpect of the scene. From this, the country being all 
hill and dale, with miry rush -drains in the bottoms, I walked, carrying my 
shoes and stockings in my hands, nearly all the way." 

The rush-drains were so numerous that many of the men suffered fever 
from having so frequently to cross them. When they descended into the 
Katonga valley, where, from what the Arabs had told him, Speke expected to 
find a magnificent broad sheet of water, there was such a succession of them, 
divided one from the other by islands, that it took him two hours, with his 
clothes tucked up under his arms, to get through them all ; and many of them 
were so matted with Aveeds, that his feet sank down as though he were in a 
bog. The Waganda said that, at certain seasons of the year, these drains were 
all so flooded that no one could ford them ; though, strangely enough, they were 
always lowest when most rain fell in Uganda. No one could account for this 
singular fact. 

After much wcaiy travelling, Speke reached the neighbourhood of the 
palace of Mtesa, king of Uganda, on the 19th of February. He says it was 
a magnificent sight. The whole hill was covered with gigantic huts, such as 
he had never seen in Africa before. lie expressed his wish to go at once to 
the palace ; but the king's officers said this was against all rule and order. 


*' Draw up your men," said they, ''' and fire your guns off, to let the king know 
you are here. Wo will then show you your residence, and to morrow you 
will doubtless be sent for." He was then shown some dirty huts for his 
cccommodation, similar to those appropriated to the Arabs when tliey visited 
the place. In his indignation, he declared that, unless better quarters wero 
provided for him, he would return ; but the officer in attendance entreated him 
not to be so hasty, as the king did not yet know him ; when lie came to know 
who and what he was things would be different. 

The next day the king sent his pages of honour to announce his intention 
of holding a levee in Speke's honour. "I prepared," he says, " for my first 
presentation at court, attired in my best, though I cut a poor figure in com- 
parison with the display of tlic dressy "Waganda. They wore neat bark 
cloaks, resembling the best yellow corduroy cloth, crimp and well set, as if 
stiffened with starch, and over that, as upper-cloaks, a patchwork of small 
antelo^ie skins, which I observed were sewn together as well as any English 
glovers could have pieced them ; whilst their head-dresses, generally, v/ere 
abrus turbans, set off with highly-polished boar-tusks, sfick-cliarms, seeds, 
beads, or shells ; and on their necks, arms, and ankles, they wore other charms 
of wood, or small horns stuffed with magic powder, and fastened on by strings, 
generally covered with snake-skin. The palace or entrance quite surprised 
me by its extraordinary dimensions, and the neatness with which it was kept. 
The whole brow and sides of the hill on which we stood wero covered with 
gigantic grass huts, thatched as neatly as so many heads dressed by a London 
barber, and fenced all round with the tall yellowreedsof the common Uganda 
tiger-grass; whilst within the enclosure, the lines of huts wero joined together, 
or partitioned off into courts, with walls of the same grass. At each gate as 
we passed, officers on duty opened and shut it for us, jingling the big bells 
which are hung upon them, as they sometimes are at shoi^-doors, to jjrc- 
vcnt silent, stealthy entrance. 

" The first court passed, I was even more surprised to find the unusual cere- 
monies that awaited me. There courtiers of high dignity stepped forward to 
greet me, dressed in the most scrupulously neat fashion. Men, women, bulls, 
dogs, and goats, wero led about by strings ; cocks and hens were carried in 
men's arms ; and little pages, with rope-turbans, rushed about convcj-ing mes- 
sages, as if their lives depended on their swiftness, every one holding his 
skin-cloak tightly round him, lest his naked legs might by accident be shown." 

Our traveller was now desired, by the chief officers in waiting, to sit 
down on the ground outside, in the sun, with his servants, till the pleasure of 
his majesty was known as to seeing him. Considering this an act of discour- 
tes}'-, he refused to comjjly. After waiting five minutes, as the king did not 
appear, he thought it right to walk home again, giving Bombay directions to 
leave his present on the ground. Soon after, however, Bombay was requested 


to follow hlni, with tlio information that he might bring his own chair, as tho 
king was ai.xious to show him every respect, althougli no one but the monarch 
was allowed in Uganda to sit on an artificial scat. It was intimated to him 
that he would be expected to comply witli the usual custom of prostration on 
presentation ; but, following the example of Lord Amherst at the Court of 
Pekin, he declined to bo received unless in a manner comformablc to the 
usages of his own country, and this point of etiquette was graciously 

lie goes on to say — "After relurniug to the second tier of Imts from 
■^•hlch I had retired, everybody appeared to be in a hurried, confused state of 
excitement, not knowing what to make out of so unprecedented an exhibition 
of temper. In the most polite manner, the officers in waiting begged mo to 
bo seated on my iron stool, which I had brought with me, whilst others hur- 
ried in to announce my arrival. But for a few minutes only I was kept in 
suspense, when a band of music, the musicians wearing on tlieir backs long- 
haired goat-skins, passed me, dancing as they went along, like bears in a fair, 
imd playing on reed instruments, worked out with pretty beads in various pat- 
terns, from whicli depended leopard-cat skins, the time being regulated by 
Ihc beating of long hand-drums. 

" The mighty king was now reported to be sitting on his throne in the 
state hut of the third tier. I advanced, hat in hand, with my guard of honour 
following, formed in 'open ranks,' who, in their turn, were followed by tho 
bearers carrying the present. I did not walk straight up to him, as if to shako 
hands, but went outside tho ranks of a three-sided square of squatting Wakungu, 
all habited in skins, mostly cow-skins ; some few of whom had, in addition, 
Icopard-cat skins girt round from tho waist, the sign of i-oyal blood. Here I 
Avas desired to halt and sit in the glaring sun ; so I donned my hat, mounted 
my umbrella, a phenomenon which set them all a-wondcring and laughing, 
ordered the guard to close ranks, and sat gazing at tlic novel spectacle. A 
more theatrical sight I never saw. The king, a good-looking, well figured, 
tall young man of twenty-five, was sitting on a red blanket spread upon a 
square platform of royal grass, encased in tiger-grass reeds, scrupulously well- 
dressed in a new mbugu. The hair of his head was cut short, excepting on 
the top, where it was combed up into a high ridge, running from stem to 
.•item like a cock's comb. On his nock was a very neat ornament, a large ring, 
of beautifully-worked small beads, forming elegant patterns by their various 
colours. On one arm was another bead ornament, prettily devised ; and on 
the other a wooden charm, tied by a string covered with snake-skin. On every 
finger and every toe he had alternately brass and copper rings; and above 
the ankles, half way up to the calf, a stockir:g of very pretty beads. Every- 
thing was light, neat, and elegant in its way ; not a fault could be found witli 
the taste of his ' getting up.' For a handkerchief he held a well-fuldcd pieco 


of bark, and a piece of gold-cnibroiclered silk, which he constantly employed 
to hide his large mouth when laughing, or to wipe it after a drink of plan- 
tain-wine, of which he took constant and copious draughts from neat little 
gourd cups, administered by his ladies-in-waiting, who were at once his 
sisters and wives, A white dog, spear, shield, and woman, the Uganda cog- 
nisance, ^^■cre by his side, as also a knot of staff officers, with whom ho kept 
up a brisk conversation on one side ; and on the other was a band of Wich- 
wezi, or lady-sorcerers. 

" I was now asked to draw nearer within the hollow square of squatters, 
where leo2)ard-skins were strewed ujDon the ground, and a large copper kettle- 
drum, surmounted witli brass bells on arching wires, along with two other 
smaller drums covered with cowrie-shells, and beads of colour worked into 
patterns, were placed. I now longed to open conversation, but knew not the 
language, and no one near me dai-ed speak, or even lift his head, from fear of 
being accused of eyeing the women ; so the king and myself sat staring at 
one another for full an hour — I mute, but he pointing and remarking with 
those around him on the novelty of my guard and general appearance, and 
even requiring to see my hat lifted, the umbrella shut and opened, and the 
guards face about and show off their red cloaks j for such wonders had never 
been seen in Uganda." 

At length his majesty got up, and walked away through the enclosure, 
into the fourth tier of huts. His gait, in retiring, was intended to be very 
majestic, and to represent the step of a lion ; but the outward sweep of the 
legs looked only like a ludicrous waddle. He quickly i-eturned from his 
breakfast, of which he had gone to partake, and Speke was again invited in, 
with his men. He found the king standing on a red blanket, talking and 
laughing to a hundred or more of his admiring wives, who were squatting 
on the ground outside, in two groups. Mtesa then entered into conversation 
with the traveller, but it was kept up with difficulty, as every answer had to 
be passed through the interpreter, and then delivered to the king's cliiof 
officer, and frequently another question was asked before the other was 
answered. The most important business had reference to ojiening up a pas- 
sage across the country. 

After a considerable lapse of time, Speke obtained a residence at what 
was considered the " west end " of the royal city. It was in a garden in 
view of the palace, so that he could hear the constant music, and see the 
throngs of people going to and fro. Having selected the best hut for him- 
self, and given the other to his three officers, he ordered his men to build 
barracks for themselves, in the form of a street, from his hut to the main 
road. He could now visit the palace with more ease, and obtained better 
opportunities for seeing the king and endeavouring to gain the important 
ends he had in view. Speke won the royal favour by his medical skill, blis- 


tering and doctoring the king to liis great delight. He managed, at the 
same time, to keep up his own dignit)'-, by refusing to render improper sub- 
mission, or to receive any treatment other than was due to the representa- 
tive of the British nation. 

The young king's character was a mixture of childish frivolity and 
uncontrollable passion. It is a singular illustration of the state of society in 
this portion of Africa, tliat no regular provision was made by the king for 
the maintenance of his visitors. They were not even allowed to purchase 
provisions for their daily wants ; but were told to help themselves from 
■whatever Uganda contained. Speke was thus placed under the painful alter- 
native, either of starving himself or his men, or of sanctioning acts which 
appeared to him like the plunder of a helpless population. The politeness of 
this young barbarian king was often exhibited in striking contrast to his 
ferocity. He even showed himself capable of friendship, and came. to treat 
his guest with generositj" and affection. Speke taught him to shoot, and 
under his guidance he became a skilful sportsman. Taking his first lessons 
on cows in the palace enclosure, he was able at length to bring down vul- 
tures on the wing. The possession of fire-arms seems to have almost de- 
prived him of reason. At one of his levees, he loaded a carbine with his 
own hands, and, giving it to a joage, told him to go out and shoot a man in 
the outer court, which was no sooner done than the boy returned to announce 
his success with a smile of glee, such as might be reilected in the face of a 
boy who had just roljbed a bird's nest, or caught a trout. On sending a 
bullet from aWhitworth rifle through sixteen of the country shields, arranged 
behind each other, a great idea was suddenly generated in the barbarian 
mind. " I shall not go to war again," he said, addressing his attendants, 
"with bows and arrows; I must have guns." 

Savage life has probably never been seen in all its fantastical phases and 
terrible realities more completely than during the compulsory residence of 
Spoke at the court of Uganda. In the midst of revelry, and while apparently 
at the height of enjoyment, he would, in a fit of sudden caprice, order a young 
and beautiful wife for instant execution. During an excursion to the Lake 
Nyanza, in which the king was accompanied by Speke, and as usual by a 
choice selection of his wives, a scene of this kind transjnred. Having crossed 
over to a woody island some distance from the shore, the party sat down to 
a repast. They then took a walk among the trees, the ladies apparently enjoy- 
ing themselves and picking fruit, till unhappily, one of the most attractive of 
tlicm plucked a fruit and offered it to the king, thinking, probably, to please 
him. He took it, however, as a dreadful offence; and, declaring that it was 
the first time a woman had had the audacity to offer him food, ordered the 
pages to lead her off to execution. No sooner had the words been uttered than 
they rushed at her like a pack of beagles, slipping off their cord turbans and 


throwing the ropes round her liuibs. She, indignant at being touched, attempted 
to beat them off, but was soon overcome and dragged away, calling on Speko 
for help and protection. The other women clasped the king rovmd the legs, 
imploring him to pardon their unhap])y sister. His only reply Avas to bela- 
bour the miserable victim with a thick stick. Speke had carefully abstained 
hitherto from interfering with any of the king's acts of arbitrary cruelty. On 
hearing, however, his own name imploringly pronounced, his English blood 
was up ; and, rushing to the tyrant, he stayed his uplifted arm, and demanded 
the poor creature's life. lie, of course, ran a great risk of losing his own ; but 
the novelty of the event seemed to tickle the capricious chief, and he at once 
ordered the woman to bo released. 

After he had been some time in the palace, he obtained an introduction 
to the queen-dowager; and thus he describes it: — " To call upon the queen- 
mother respectfully, as it was the opening visit, I took, besides the medicine- 
chest, a i:)resent of eight brass and co^jpcr wires, thirty blue-egg beads, one- 
bundle of diminutive beads, and sixteen cubits of chintz, a small guard, and 
my throne of royal grass. The palace to be visited lay half a mile beyond 
the king's, but the high road to it was forbidden me, as it is considered un- 
courteous to pass the king's gate without going in. So after winding through 
back-gardens, I struck upon the high road close to her majesty's, where 
everything looked like the royal palace on a miniature scale. The outer 
enclosures and courts were fenced with tiger-grass ; and the huts, thougli 
neither so numerous nor so large, were constructed after the same fashion as 
the king's. Guards also kept the doors, on which large bells were hung to 
give alarm, and ofHcers in waiting watched tlie throne-rooms. All tlie huts 
were full of women, save those kept as waiting-rooms, where drums and 
harmoniums were placed for amusement. On first entering, I was required 
to sit in a waiting-hut till my arrival was announced ; but that did not take 
long, as the queen was prcjiared to receive me ; and being of a more affable 
disposition than her son, she held rather a levee of amusement than a stiff 
court of show. I entered the throne-hut as the gate of that court was thrown 
open, with my hat off, but umbrella held over my head, and walked straight 
towards her, till ordered to sit upon my bundle of grass. 

"Her majcst}^ — fat, fair, and forty-five — was sitting, plainly garbed in 
mbugu, upon a carpet spread upon the ground, witliin a curtain of mbugu, 
her elbow resting on a pillow of the same bark material; the only ornaments 
on the person being an abrus necklace, and a piece of mbugu tied round her 
head, whilst a folding looking-glass, much the worse for wear, stood open by 
lier side. An iron rod like a spit, witli a cup on the top, cliargedwith magic 
powder, and other magic wands, were placed before the entrance ; and within 
llie room four Mabandwa sorceresses or devil-drivers, fantastically dressed, 
and a mass of other women, formed the company. For a short while we sat 


at a distance, cxclumgiiig inquiring glances at one another, when the women 
were dismissed, and a band of music, with a court full of Wakungu, waa 
ordered in to change the scene. I also got orders to draw near and sit front- 
ing her within the hut. Ponibc, the best in Uganda, was then drunk by the 
queen, and handed to me and to all the high officers about her, when she 
smoked her jiipe, and bade me smoke mine. The musicians, dressed in long- 
haired Usoga goat-skins, were now ordered to strike up, which they did with 
their bodies swaying or dancing like bears in a fair. A great variety of 
drums were then beat, and I was asked if I could distinguish their different 

The queen-dowager, like her royal son, required doctoring ; and the 
effects of Spcke's physic astonished her beyond measure. He had many 
opi^ortunities of seeing her ; and so completely won her regard that she in- 
sisted on presenting him with various presents, among others a couple of 
wives, greatly to his annoyance. She was a jovial and intelligent personage, 
fond of pombe and fun. On one occasion our travellei", when introduced, found 
her surrounded by her ministers, when a large wooden trough was brought 
in, and filled with the favourite beverage. The queen put her head in and 
drank like a i:)ig from it, her ministers following her example. Musicians and 
dancers were then introduced, exhibiting their long, shaggy, goat-skin jackets, 
sometimes dancing upright, at others bending or striking the ground with 
their heels like horn-pipe dancers. 

Spcke's stay at the palace of Uganda, was prolonged from month to 
month, much to his disappointment and a\moyance, as he wanted to bo push- 
ing on towards Nyanza and the Nile. On the 1st of April, Spoke stayed at 
home all day, because the king and queen had set it apart for looking at and 
arranging their magical horns. This was something like an inquiry into the 
ecclesiastical condition of the country, while, at the same time, it was a reli- 
gious ceremony, and, as such, was aj^propriate to the first day after the new 
moon appears. The king was much pleased with a portrait Speko made of 
him, but was still more delighted with some European clothes with which ho 
was presented. He soon dressed himself in his new garments. The legs of 
the trousers, as well as the sleeves of the waistcoat, were much too short, so 
that his black feet and hands stuck out at the extremities as an organ-player's 
nionkey's do, while the cock's comb on his head ^^'cveuted a fez cap, which ho 
wore, from sitting properly. 

Ono day towards the end of May, Speke had an opportunity of seeing 
something like a military review. A battalion of the king's army arrived 
before the palace, under the command of Congow, his chief officer. The king 
came out with spear and shield in hand, and took post in front of the enclo- 
sure, encircled by his staff, all squatting. His troops were divided into thrco 
companies, each containing about two hundred men. After passing in singlo 



flic at a long- trot, they re-fornicd at the otlicr end of tho square. Nothing 
conceivable could be more -wild or fantastic than the sight which ensued. 
The men, nearly naked, with goat or cat-skins depending from their girdles, 
and smeared with wai--colours according to tho taste of each individual, one- 
half of the body red or black, the other blue, in irregular order ; as, for instance, 
one leg would be red, the other black, whilst the other part would be the 
opposite colours, and so with the chest and arms. Each man carried two 
spears and one shield, held as if approaching an enemy. They thus moved in 
three lines of simjile rank and fde, at iifteen or twenty paces asunder, with 
the same high action and elongated step, the ground leg only being bent to 
give their strides the greater force. The captains of each company followed, 
even more fantastically dre.sscd. The great Congow, with his long, white- 
haired goat-skins, liddle-sluiped leather shield, tufted with white hair at all 
six extremities, bands of long hair tied below the knees, and the helmet 
covered with rich beads of several colours, surmounted with a plume of crim- 
fon feathers, from the centre of which rose a stem, tufted with goat-hair. 
Finally, the senior officers came charging at their king, making violent pro- 
testations of faith and honesty, for which they were applauded. The parade 
then broke uji, and all went home. 

Speke was now looking forward to the arrival of Grant. On the 27th of 
May, guns in the distance announced his coming ; and, in a short time, the 
two travellers once more joined company. Speke says, " I was only too 
rejoiced to see that Grant could limj) about a bit, and was able to laugh over 
the picturesque and amusing account he gave me of his own rough travels." 
Forthwith the travellers began to make arrangements for proceeding to 
Unyoro, a country governed by a chief named Kamrasi, a man of despicable 
character, and considered merciless and cruel, even among African poten- 
tates, scattering death and torture around at the mere whim of the moment ; 
while he was inhospitable, covetous, and grasping, yet too cowardly to declare 
war against the king of the Waganda, who had deprived him of portions of his 
dominions. The "Waganda people were therefore very unwilling to escort the 
travellers into his territory ; and Congow declared that, if compelled to go, he 
was a dead man, for he was well known, as he had once led an army past 
Kamrasi's palace, and back again. Speke's great object was to reach tho spot 
where he supposed the lake flowed out of Lake Nyanza, and proceed down 
the stream in boats ; but the fleet-admiral put a veto ou this plan, on the 
pretext that dangerous shallows impeded the navigation. Tiie only course 
Avhich then remained was to proceed by land to the banks of the supposed 
river, and then ascend to its point of departure from the lake. Ou the 28th 
of June, news came that white men were at Gani, inquiring for the travel- 
lers. Speke consequently informed the king, that all he required was a 
large escort to accompany them through Usogo and Kidi to Gani, as further 


delay in communicating with Petherick and bis companions at Gani might 
frustrate the chance of opening the Nile trade with Uganda. 

In answer to this request, the king said that he would assemble all his 
officers in the morning and consult with them on the matter, as he wished to 
further the travellers' views ; but when the next day came, although they 
waited upon him, they could not obtain any audience. The following da}', 
as it was the time of the new moon, he spent in private, paying his devotions 
with his magic horns. While he was in the midst of his worship, hail fell 
with great violence, and lightning burnt down one of the palace huts ; this 
was regarded as ominous of appi'oaching evil. On the 1st of July, the tra- 
vellers called by appointment on the quecn-dowager. As usual, she kept 
them waiting some time, then appeared sitting by an open gate, and invited 
them to approach. They then entered into conversation with her naajesty, 
and endeavoured to secure her influence in favour of their speedy departure 
from Uganda. She promised to send a message to the king concerning the 
matter. In a day or two after, she fulfilled her promise, and, at last, they 
obtained the royal consent to leave the country. 

A few days before leaving, Speke and Grant called together on the king, 
and presented him with a Lancaster rifle, an iron chain, and some ammuni- 
tion; and thanked him for the favour he had done them by granting them the 
road through Unyoro. Turning to Speke, he said, "So you really wish to 
go." Speke said. Yes; he had not seen his home for a long time; he had 
enjoyed his royal hosjntality much ; but he now wished to return to his own 
country. The king then asked them what provision they wanted ; and when 
Grant replied that they would not be long in Uganda, and as it was not the 
custom of Englishmen, when they went visiting, to carry anything away with 
them, five cows and five goats would be sufficient for their needs, he said, 
"Well, I wish to give you much, but you won't have it." On their way 
home, one of the king's favourite women overtook them, walking, with her 
hands clasjDcd at the back of her head, to execution, crying in the most pitiful 
manner. A man was preceding her, but did not touch her; for she loved to 
obey the orders of her king voluntarily, and, in consequence of previous attach- 
ment, was permitted, as a mark of distinction, to walk free. 

The day of departure from Uganda at length arrived. 13y the 7th of 
July, all the arrangements for their journey were made. The king presented 
them with a herd of sixty cows, fourteen goats, ten loads of butter, a load of 
coffee and tobacco, for their provisions ; and one hundred sheets of mbugu, 
as clothes for the men. " Early in the morning," says Speke, "the king- 
bade us come to him to say farewell. Wii^hing to leave behind a favourable 
impression, I instantly complied. On the breast of my coat I suspended the 
necklace the queen had given me, as well as my knife, and my medals. I 
talked with him in as friendly and flattering a manner as I could, dwelling 


on his shooting, tlio pleasant cruising on the lake, and our sundry pic-nics, as 
"well as tlie grand prospect thei'e was now of opening tlic country to trade, by 
which his guns, the best in the world, would be fed with powder, and other 
small matters of a like nature ; to which he replied with great feeling and 
good taste. We then all rose, with an English bow, jilacing the hand on the 
heart whilst saying adieu ; and there was a complete uniformity in the cere- 
monial, for whatever I did, Mtesa, in an instant, mimicked with tlio instinct 
of a monkey." They now exchanged their final farewells ; the king retired 
to his harem, and the travellers proceeded on their way. 


The Northern Slopes of Africa — Isamla Rapids — Ripon Falls — Uwjoro — Kamrasl 
and his Court — 3Iarch to 3Iadi — 3Icciing with Baker and with Pcthcrick — 
Return to England, 

OUR travellers now commenced their march down tlio northern slopes of 
Africa, escorted by a band of Waganda troops, under the command of a 
young chief, called Kasoro, or the cat. After a march of five days, the whole- 
distance accomplished being thirty miles from the capital, through a fine 
hilly country, with jungles and rich cultivation alternating, they reached a 
place whicli, in consequence of what afterwards happened there, tliey called 
Kari. A halt of some days was necessary at this j^lace, wdien one of Speke's 
men, named Kai'i, was induced to accompany some of the Waganda escort on. 
a plundering excursion. The inhabitants rushed out ; the "Waganda men took 
to fliglit and escaped. Kari, whose gun was unloaded, stood still, pointing 
it at the natives, who, however, speared him to death, and left him. From 
this circumstance the place was called Kari. On the 18th, as Grant's \cq 
was considered too weak for travelling fast, the travellers took counsel 
together, and altered their plans. It was arranged that Grant should go to 
Kanirasi's direct, with the property, cattle, and women, taking Speke's letters 
and a map for immediate despatch to Petherick at Gani, whilst Speke should 
go up the river to its source or exit from the lake, and come down again, navi- 
gating as far as practicable. 

On the lOtli, they started all together ; but, after the third mile. Grant 
turned west, to join the high road to Kanirasi's, whilst Speke went east for 
Urondogani, crossing the Luajerri, a large rush-drain three miles broad, ford- 
able nearly to the right bank, where they had to ferry in boats, and the cows 
to be swam over with men holding on to their tails. It took no less than two 
hours to cross, mosquitoes in myriads biting their bare backs and legs all the 
while. On the right bank they found the country covered with a most invit- 
ing jungle for sport, with intermediate lays of fine grazing grass. Such is 
the nature of the country all the way to Urondogani, except in some favoured 
spots, kept as tidily as in any part of Uganda, where plantains grow in tlie 
utmost luxuriance. From want of proper guides, they lost their way continu- 
ally, so that they did not reach the boat-station on the river until the morning 
of the 21st. 



" Here at last," exclaims Spoke, " I stood on tlie brink of the Nile ! j\Iost 
beautiful was the scene. Nothing could surpass it ! It was the very perfection 
of the kind of cfl'ect aimed at in a hiyhly-kept park ; with a magnificent 
stream from six to seven hundred yards wide, dotted with islets and rocks, 
the former occupied by fishermcn.'s huts, the latter by sterns and crocodiles 
basking in the sun ; flowing between fine high grassy banks, witli rich trees 
and plantains in the back ground, where herds of the nsunnu and harte-beest 
could be seen grazing, while the hippopotami were snorting in the water, and 
florikan and guinea-fowl rising at our feet. Unfortunately, the chief district 
ofHcer, Mlondo, was from home, but we took possession of his huts — clean, 
extensive, and tidily kept — facing the river, and felt as if a residence here 
would do one good. 

"We were now confronting Usoga, a countiy which may be said to be 
the very counterpart of Uganda, in its richness and beauty. Here the peo- 
ple use such iron-headed spears with short handles, that, on seeing one to- 
day, my people remarked that they were better fitted for digging potatoes 
than piercing men. Elephants, as we had seen by their devastations during 
the last two marches, were very numerous in the neighbourhood. Lions were 
also described as very numerous and destructive to human life. Antelopes 
were common in the jungle ; and the hippopotami, though frequenters of the 
plantain-garden and constantly heard, were seldom seen on land." Here was 
shot a remarkable specimen of the goatsucker (named afterwards by Dr. 
Sclater, Cosmctonm Sjickii) ; its peculiarity being the exceeding length of 
some of its feathers floating out far beyond the rest in both wings. The 
seventh pen feathers are double the length of the ordinaries, the eighth double 
that of the seventh, and the ninth twenty inches long. 

Marching up the left bank of the river, at a considerable distance from 
the water, Speke came to the Isamba Rapids. The officer of the district, 
having refreshed them with a dish of plantain-squash and dried fish, and 
some pombe, accompanied them to see the nearest falls of the river — extremely 
beautiful, but very confined. The water ran deep between its banks, which 
were covered with fine grass, soft cloudy acacias, and festoons of lilac con- 
volvuli ; whilst here and there, where the land had slipped above the rapids, 
bai'ed places of red earth could be seen, like that of Devonshire ; there, too, 
the waters, im2:)eded by a natural dam, looked like a huge mill-pond, sullen 
and dark, in which two crocodiles, laving about, were looking out for jarey. 
From the high banks, as you look down, you see a line of sloping wooded 
islets lying across the stream ; these divide its waters, and, by interrupting 
them, cause at once both dam and rapids. Altogether, the scene is fairy- 
like, wild, and romantic in the extreme. 

Continuing their journey, they readied, on the 28tli, the Ripon Falls. 
•' We were well rewarded," Speke says, " for the ' stones,' as the Waganda 


call the falls, was by far the most interesting sight I had seen in Africa. 
Everybody ran (o see them at once, though the marcli had been long and 
fati"-uing, and even my sketch-book was called into play. Though beauti- 
ful, the scene was not exactly what I had expected ; for the broail surface of 
the lake was shut out from view by a spur of hill, and the falls, above twelve 
feet deep, and four to five hundred feet broad, were broken by rocks. Still, 
it was a sight that attracted one to it for hours — the roar of waters, the 
thousands of passenger-fish, leaping at the falls with all their might — the 
Wasoga and Waganda fishermen coming out in boats, and taking post on 
all the rocks with rod and hook — hippopotami and crocodiles lying sleepily 
on the water — the ferry at work above the falls, and cattle driven down to 
drink at the margin of the lake — made, in all, with the pretty nature of the 
country — small hills, grassy-topped, with trees in the folds, and gardens on 
the lower slopes, as interesting a picture as one could wish to see." Our 
traveller spent two or three days in this delightful neighbourhood, and 
christened the " stones" Ripon Falls, after the nobleman who jjresided over 
the Iio}al Geographical Society when his expedition was got up. Here he 
had arrived at what he considered the source of tlic Nile — that is, the point 
from where it makes its exit from the Victoria Nyanza. 

He now returned to Urondogani, which he reached on the 5th of August. 
There was a difficulty in obtaining boats to continue thejourncy. At length, 
witli five boats of five planks each, tied togetlicr and caulked with mbugu 
rags, he started on the voyage to reach Kamrasi's palace in Unyoro ; taking 
with him twelve Wanguana, Kasoro and his page followers, a small crew, 
goats, dogs, and kit, besides grain and dried meat ; but how many days it 
would take nobody knew. The river bore at once the cliaracter of river and 
lake, clear in the centre, but fringed on both sides in most places with tall 
rushes, above which the green banks sloped back like park-lauds. The idle 
crew paddled slowly, amusing themselves by sometimes dashing forwards, and 
then resting. On the 14th they crossed the frontier line ; and then both sides 
of the river, Usoga as Avell as Unyoro, belonged to Kamrasi. They had 
not proceeded far when they saw an enormous canoe, full of well-dressed and 
armed men, ap2)roacliing them. It turned, as if those on board were afraid, 
and Speke's party gave chase. At length, however, it tuinied again, and the 
shore was soon lined with armed men, threatening the expedition with de- 
struction. Another canoe now appeared. It was getting dark ; and the only 
hope of escaping seemed by retreating. Speke ordered his fleet to keep 
together, promising ammunition to the men if they would fight. One of the 
boats, however, got near shore, and was caught by grajipling hooks. When 
those on board found their lives endangered, they fired at their assailants, who 
immediately fled, leaving one of their number killed and one wounded j and 
Speke and his party were allowed to retreat unmolested. 


After proceeding up the river some distance, Spoke deterniined to con- 
tinue the journey by lajid, following the track Grant had taken. Two or 
three days were spent wandering about without guides, trying to keep Grant's 
track after leaving them ; crossing at first a line of small hills, then traversing 
grass and jungle, like the dak of India. Plantain-gardens were frequently 
met, and tlie people seemed hospitably inclined. Buffaloes were about, but 
the villagers cautioned them not to shoot them, as they wei'c held to bo sacred 
animals. Grant's camp was reached on the 20th, and that very day a mes- 
senger arrived from Kamrasi, saying that he would be glad to see them ; and 
so the following morning the march was ordered for Unyoro. Once more 
they passed the frontier, and the country changed greatly for the worse. 
The first march from this to the capital was a picture of the entire way — an 
interminable forest of small trees, bush, and tall grass, with scanty villages, 
low huts, and dirty-looking people clad in skins ; the plantain, sweet potato, 
sesamum, and millet, forming the chief edibles, besides goats and fowls. No 
hills, except a few scattered cones, disturbed the level surface of the land, and 
no pretty views cheered the eye. Uganda was entirely left behind ; they 
were increasing the distance fi-om the equator and the rain-attracting inlluences 
of the Mountains of the Moon, and vegetation proportionately decreased. 

At the first place where they halted, the Wanyoro, who are as squalid- 
looking as the \Vanyamuezi, and almost as badly-dressed, came about them 
to hawk ivory ornaments, brass and copper twisted wristlets, tobacco, and 
salt, which they exchanged for cowries, with which they purchase cows from 
the Waganda. At several places the natives ran off as they approached, 
believing them to be cannibals ; and in one instance, they supposed that the 
iron boxes, which the porters carried on their shoulders, each contained a 
couple of white dwarfs, which were allowed to fly oft' and eat peoi^lo. 

Their march on the 2nd of September was only of two hours' duration. 
On their arrival at the end, they heard that elephants had been seen close by. 
" Grant and I," says Speke, " then prepared our guns, and found a herd of 
about a hundred feeding yy^on a plain of long grass, dotted here and tlierc by 
small mounds crowned with shrub. The animals ajipeared to be all females, 
much smaller than the Indian breed ; yet, though ten were fired at, none were 
killed, and only one made an attempt to charge. I was with the little twin 
Manua at the time, when, stealing along under cover of the high grass, I got 
close to the batch and fii*ed at the largest, which sent her round roaring. The 
whole of them then, greatly alarmed, packed together, and began snifiing 
the air with their uplifted trunks, till, ascertaining by the smell of the powder 
that their enemy was in front of them, they rolled up their trunks, and came 
close to the spot where I was lying under a mound. My scent was then strik- 
ing across them ; they pulled up short, lifted their heads high, and looked 
down sideways on us. This was a bad job. I could not get a 211'oper front 


shot at the boss of any of them, and if I luid waited an instant we should both 
have been picked up or trodden to death ; so I let fly at their tennjles, and 
instead of killing, sent the whole of them rushing away at a much faster pace 
than they came. After this I gave up, because I never could separate the 
ones I had wounded from the rest, and thought it cruel to go on damaging 


On the 8th, Kamrasi sent for them to visit his palace ; and the following 
day they set out for it. Passing the last bit of jungle, they sighted the Kidi 
liills, and, in a sea of swampy grass, they stood in front of, and overlooked the 
king's 2)alace, on a low tongue of land between the Kafu and Victoria Nile 
rivers. It was a dumpy, large hut, surrounded by a host of smaller ones, and 
the worst royal residence they had seen since leaving Uzinza. Some dirty 
huts were offered to Spcke for residence, but he insisted on being lodged in 
the palace. They were kept however, waiting several days, till Speke sent to 
say, that if the king did not wish to see the white men, they would j^roceed on 
their journey to Gani. This had the desired effect. Kamrasi sent immediately 
to say that he was busily engaged decorating his i)alace to give them a trium- 
phant reception, for ho was anxious to pay them more respect than anybody 
who had ever visited him before. He would not hear of their leaving the 
country without seeing him. The next day they were summoned to attend 
liis levee; and, in their usual style, the Union Jack floating above their heads, 
and leading the way, they set out to attend on his majesty. At the ferry, 
three shots were fired, when, titepping into large canoes, they all went across 
the Kafu together, and found, to their surprise, a small hut built for the 
recejition, low down on the opposite bank, where no strange eyes could soo 

Here is a description of the interview: — " Within this, sitting on a low 
wooden stool placed ujion a double matting of skins — cows' below and leopards' 
above, on an elevated jilatform of grass, was the great king Kanu'asi, looking, 
enshrouded in his mbugu dress, for all the world like a pope in state — cahu 
and actionless. One bracelet of fine-twisted brass wire adorned his left wrist, 
and his hair, half an inch long, was worked up into small pcpper-corn-liko 
knobs, by rubbing the hand circularly over the crown of the head. His eyes 
were long, face narrow, and nose prominent, after the true fashion of his 
breed. And though a iinely-made man, considerably above six feet high, he 
was not so large asRumanika. A cow-skin, stretched out and fastened to the 
roof, acted as a canopy to prevent dust falling, and a curtain of mbugu con- 
cealed the lower parts of the hut, in front of which, on both sides of the king, 
sat about a dozen head men. 

" This was all. We entered and took seats on our own iron stools, whilst 
liombay placed all the presents upon the ground before the throne. As uo 
greetings were exchanged, and all at first remained as silent as death, I com- 


meiiccd, after asking about his health, by saying I had joui'ncyed six long 
years, by the African computation of five months in the year, for the pleasure 
of this meeting. The purpose of my coming was to ascertain whetlier his 
majesty would like to trade with our country, exchanging ivory for articles 
of Euro])ean manufacture; as, should he do so, merchants would come hero 
in the same way as they went from Zanzibar to Karague. Kamrasi, in a very 
quiet mild manner, instead of answering the question, told us of the absurd 
stories he had heard fi'om the Waganda, said he did not believe them, else his 
rivers, deprived of their fountains, would have run dry, and he thought, if wo 
did cat hills and the tender j^arts of mankind, we should have had enough to 
satisfy our appetites before we reached Unyoro. Now, however, he was glad 
to see that, although our hair was straight and our faces white, we still pos- 
sessed hands and feet like other men." 

Kannasi was as eager to obtain gifts as any of the other chiefs, and, 
having heard of their chronometer, which they had been observed using, he 
was especially desirous to possess it, believing it to be some magic instrument, 
and the means by which the travellers guided themselves about the country. 
Sjjeke told him that it was not his guide, but a time-keeper, made for the pur- 
pose of knowing at what time to eat his dinner. lie told him it was the only 
one he possessed ; that if he would jiatiently wait, he would send him up one 
on his arrival at Gani. The king, however, was too eager to possess the won- 
derful instrument to consent to wait ; and so the watch, gold chain and all, 
went into his possession. 

One morning, soon after, they were informed that the king was about to 
pay them a visit. Accordingly they made their room as smart as possible for 
his reception — hanging it round with maps, horns, and skins of animals, and 
placing a large box, covered with a red blanket, as a throne for him to sit upon. 
Their guard of honour fired three shots on his aj^proach, and the travellers 
received him, hat in hand, and, leading the way, showed him in. As soon as 
he entered, he began to beg, wanting everything he saw — first, their gauze 
mosquito curtains, then an iron camp-bed, next the sextant and thermometer. 
When some books of birds and animals were shown him he wanted them, and 
was much surprised when he found that he could not fleece them of every- 

Another morning they found that their rain-gauge had been removed, so 
they sent to say that they wislied a magician to come at once and institute a 
search for it. The magician soon came. An old man, nearly blind, dressed in 
strips of old leather fastened to the waist, and carrying in one hand a cow's horn 
primed with magic powder, carefully covered on the mouth with leather, from 
which dangled an iron bell. The old creature jingled the bell, entered their 
hut, squatted on his hands, looked first at one, then at the other — inquired 
what the missing things were like, grunted, moved his skinny arm round his 


liead, as if desirous of catching- air from all four sides of the hut, then dashed 
the accumulated air on the heaa of his horn, smelt it to see if all was going 
right, jingled the Lell again close to nis car, and grunted his satisfaction ; the 
missing articles must ho f ounci. To carry out the incantation more eflfectually, 
ho-\vever, all my men were sent for to sit in the ojoen before the hut, when 
the old doctor rose, shaking- niie liorn and tinkling the bell close to his ear 
He then, confronting one of ihemen, dashed the horn forward, as if intending 
to strike him on the face, then smelt the head, then dashed at another, and 
so on, till he became satisfied that Speke's men were not the thieves. He 
then walked into Grant's hut, inspected that, and finally went to the place 
where the bottle had been kept. There he walked about the grass with his 
arm uji, and jingling the bell to his ear, first on one side, then on the other, 
till the track of a hyena gave him the clue, and in two or three more steps he 
found it. A hyena had carried it into the grass and dropped it, he said. 
liut Speke knew that the king had taken it, and sent it back by the hands 
of his magician. 

Kamarasi was a thorough tyrant, and, at the same time, an infamous 
coward. He kejDt up a most complete system of espionage, by which he knew 
everything going forward in the country. His guards, in order that they 
miglit be attached 1o his person, were allowed to j^lunder at will the rest of 
his unfortunate subjects, \vho, if they oflendcd him, were put to death with- 
out mercy. If an officer failed to give him information, he was executed, or 
J laced in the shoe- — an instrument of torture not unlike the stocks. It con- 
sists of a heavy log of wood, with an oblong slit through it ; the feet are 
placed in the slit, and a peg is then driven through the log between the 
ankles, to as to hold them tightly. Frequently the executioner drives the 
peg against the ankles, when the pain is so excessive that the victim gene- 
rally dies through exhaustion. The king conducts all business himself, 
awarding punishments and seeing tliem carried out. The most severe instru- 
ment of torture is a knob-stick, s]iari)ciied at the back like that used in 
Uganda for breaking a man's neck before he was tlirown into the Nyanza. 
His sisters were not allowed to marry ; they lived and died virgins in the 
palace. Their only occupation in life consisted in drinking milk, of which 
each one consumed the produce daily of from ten to twenty cows, and hence 
they became so inordinately fat that they could not walk. AVIien they wished 
t-j go outside the hut, it required eight men to lift any of them on a litter. 
The brothers, too, were not allowed to go out of the king's reach. This con- 
finement of the palace family was considered a state necessity, as a preven- 
tive to civil wars, in the same way as the destruction of the Uganda princes, 
after a certain season, is thought necessary for the preservation of peace there. 

The following curious customs in connection with the birtli of twins, 
will be read with interest: — "1 was told," says Speke, "how a negro 


•woman, who bore twins that died, now keeps two small pots in her house, 
as effigies of the children, into which she milks herself every evening, and 
will conliiiue to do so five months, fulfilling the time appointed by nature 
for suckling children, lest the spirits of the dead should persecute her. The 
twins were not buried, as ordinary people are buried, underground, but 
placed in an earthenware pot, such as the Wanyoro used for holding ponibe. 
They were taken to the jungle and placed by a tree, with the pot turned 
mouth downwards. Manua, one of my men, who is a twin, said, in Nguru, 
one of the sister provinces to Unyanyembe, twins are ordered to be killed 
and thrown into water the moment they are born, lest droughts and famines, 
or floods, should oppress the land. Should any one attempt to conceal 
twins, the whole family would be murdered by the chief; but, though a 
great traveller, this is the only instance of such brutality Manua had ever 
witnessed in any country. 

"In the province of Unyanyembe, if a twin or twins die, they aio 
"thrown into water for the same reason as in Nguru ; but, as their numbers 
increase the size of the familj-, their birth is hailed with delight. Still there 
is a source of fear there in connection with twins, as I have seen myself; 
for, when one dies, the mother ties a little gourd to her neck as a proxy, 
and puts into it a trifle of everything which she gives tlie living child, lest 
the jealousy of the dead spirit should torment her. Further, on the death 
of the child, she smears herself with butter and ashes, and runs frantically 
about, tearing her hair, and bewailing piteously; whilst the men of the 
place use towards her the foulest language, ajiparently as if in abuse of her 
person, but, in reality, to frighten away the demons who have robbed her 

On the 29tli of October, Speke presented Kamrasi with a Bible, explain- 
ing all he fancied he knew about the origin and present condition of the 
Wahuma branch of the Ethiopians, in which account the king was greatly 
interested. He then began counting the leaves of the book, an amusement 
that every negro who gets hold of a book indulges in ; and, concluding in his 
mind that each page or leaf represented one year of time since the bcgimiing 
of the creation, continued his labour till one quarter of the way through, and 
then only shut the book on being told that, if he desired to ascertain the 
number more closely, he could count the words. 

The travellers were now in some anxiety about Bombay, whom they had 
sent forward to Gani six weeks before, with a letter for Petherick, and to 
make arrangements for their proceeding thither themselves. At length, on 
the 1st of November, he arrived in high glee, with his atteudants, dressed in 
cotton jumpers and drawers — presents given them by Petherick'a outpost. 
Petlieriek himself was not there. The journc}- to and fro was performed in 
thirteen days' actual travelling, the rest of the time being frittered away by 



the guides. Two hundred Turks, Speke was informed, were .stationed at 
Gani, and their commander had orders to wait for Spoke, without any limit 
as to time until he should arrive, when Petherick's name would be pointed 
out to him cut on a tree. The Turks were all armed with elephant-guns, and 
had killed, sixteen elephants. Petlierick had gone down the river, eight days' 
journey, but was expected to return shortly. 

Receiving this intelligence. Spoke sent a farewell present to Kamrasi, 
accompanied by a request to leave his country. The king, however, covetous 
and never satisfied, instead of returning thanks and granting the leave asked 
for, insisted on having something more, and even begged for the rings which 
he saw on Grant's fingers, but without success. At last he promised to give 
them a parting interview, and to send a large escort to accompany them to 
Petherick's boats. They had been kept the whole time of their stay in 
Unyoro almost as prisoners, without being allowed by the suspicious king to 
move about the neighbourhood, while no one had been permitted to visit 
them. They were, therefore, thankful when, at last, they persuaded the 
savage monarch to allow them to take their departure. Canoes had been 
provided, and, on the 9th of November, they embarked in one of them on the 
river Kufu. Crowds were collected on the banks to see them dejDart. After 
going a short distance, they emerged from the Kafu, and found themselves 
on what at first appeared a long lake, but which, was, in reality, the Victoria 
Nile, down which they floated to the falls of Karuma. 

The river was in some places two hundred yards broad, while in otliers 
it spread to a thousand. Both sides were fringed with the huge papyrus 
rush. The left one was low and swamp)-, whilst the right one, in wdiich the 
Kidi peoi)lc and Wanzoro occasionally hunt, rose from the water in a gently 
sloping bank, covered with trees and beautiful convolvuli, which hung in fes- 
toons. Floating islands, composed of rush, grass, and ferns, were conti- 
nually in motion, working their way slowly down the stream, which ran at 
the rate of a mile an hour. On the third day, a strong breeze coming on, 
these floating islands melted away, or were driven on shore. The travellers 
landed every evening to sleep, having to push their way between a wide belt 
of reeds, rushes, and convolvuli. The king having given his ollicers direc- 
tions to supi)ly them with food, they had some exciting chases after canoes. 
No sooner was one overtaken than their "NVangoro escort robbed her of bark, 
cloth, liquor, beads, spears, and everything on board, the poor owners being 
utterly helpless. 

Pursuing their journey partly by boat, and partly on land, they reached, 
on the 19th, the Karuma Palls. Ncaring the falls, " the ground," says Speke, 
" on the line was highly cultivated, and intersected by a. deep ravine of running 
water, whose sundry branches made the surface very irregular. The sand-paper 
tree, whose leaves resemble a cat's tongue in roughncts, and whicli is used in 


Uganda for polishing their clubs and spear handles, was conspicuous ; but at 
llie end of the journey only, was there anything of much interest to be seen. 
Tlicre suddenly, in a deep ravine of one hundred yai-ds below us, the foinncrly 
placid river, up which vessels of moderate size might steam two or tlirco 
abreast, was now changed into a turbulent torrent. Beyond lay tlio land of 
Kidi, a forest of mimosa trees, rising gently away from the water in soft 
clouds of green. This, the governor of the place, Kija, described as a sport- 
ing-field, where elepliants, hippopotami, and buffalo, are hunted by the occu- 
pants on both sides of the river. The elcpliant is killed with a new kind of 
spear, with a double-edged blade a yard long, and a handle, which, weighted 
in any way most easy, is pear-shaped. With these instruments some men 
climb into trees and wait for the herd to jwss, whilst others drive them under. 
The hippopotami, however, are not hunted, but snared with lunda, tlie com- 
mon tripping-trap with spike-drop, which is placed in the runs of this animal. 
"The Karuma Falls, if such they maybe called, arc a mere sluice or 
rush of water between high syenitic stones, falling in a long slope down a 
ten-feet drop. There are others of minor importance, and one within ear- 
sound, down the river, said to be grand. The name given to these falls arose 
from the absurd belief that Karuma, tlie agent or familiar of a certain great 
spirit, placed the stones that break the waters in the river, and, for so doing, 
was applauded by his master, Avho, to reward his services by an appropriate 
distinction, allowed the stones to be called Karuma." 

They were still in the territories of Kamrasi. The governor of tlie dis- 
trict, a great man, who sits on a throne only a little inferior to the king's, 
called upon them with a present, and said that he thought the white men 
were flocking this way to retake their lost country ; for tradition recorded 
that the Wahuma were once half-black and half-Avhite, with half the hair 
straight and the other half curly ; and how was this to be accounted for, 
unless the country fcrmerly belonged to white men with straight hair, but 
was subsequently taken by black men. Before starting to cross tlie Kidi 
wilderness, some of their party sacrificed two kids, one on either side of the 
river, flaying them with one long cut each down their breasts and bellies ; the 
animals were then spread eagle-fashion on the grass, that the travellers might 
step over them and obtain a prosperous journey. They continued tlicir march 
through the wilderness for some days. At first they had to toil through 
dreadful swamps, but, at length, they found themselves unexpectedly stand- 
ing on the edge of a jjlateau, on the west of which, for an interminable dis- 
tance, the country opened out before them Elephants and buflaloes were 
seen, and their guide, to make the journey propitious, plucked a twig, 
strijjped off its leaves, and, waving it up the line of march and muttering 
some unintelligible words to himself, broke it in two and threw portions on 
cither side of the path. 


On the 29tli they reached a collection of conical huts on the ridge of a 
small chain of granitic hills lying north-west. This was Koki in Gani. As 
they approached the southern extremity of this chain, knots of naked men, 
perched like monkeys on the granite blocks, were anxiously watching their 
arrival. A messenger was sent to Chongi, the governor, who despatched the 
principal people in the place to welcome the strangers. These people, covered 
with war paint, and looking something like clowns in a fair, rushed down the 
hill with their spears full tilt, and, performing various evolutions, conducted 
them to the governor. Chongi received them most cordially, and, taking a 
white hen by one leg, swayed it to and fro close to the ground in front of 
them ; and then took a gourd of pombe, and with a little twig sprinkled tlie 
contents all over them. He then retired to the Uganda, or magic house, 
sprinkled pombe over it ; and, finally, spreading a cow-skin under a tree, 
bade them sit down on it, and presented them with a bowl of pombe. 

These people were entirely naked, their sole dress consisting of bead, 
iron, or brass ornaments, with some feathers or cowrie-beads on the head. 
Their hair was dressed in the most fantastic fashion ; and, like the Kidi peo- 
ple, they carried diminutive stools to sit upon wherever they went. Their habi- 
tat extends from Koki to the Asua river. Their villages are com230sed of 
little conical huts of grass, on a frame-work of bamboo raised above low mud 
walls. Each village appoints its own chief. The granitic hills, like those of 
Unyamuezi, are extremely pretty, and clad with trees, contrasting strangely 
with the grassy downs of indefinite extent around. 

From the Gani 25eople, the travellers, witliout any visible change, passed 
into the country of Madi, who dress in the same naked fashion as their neigh- 
bours, and use bows and arrows. Their villages were all surrounded with 
fences, and the country, in its general aspect, resembled that of the Northern 
Unyamuezi. On the 3rd of December, having pushed on in spite of the 
friendly attempts made to detain them, they came in sight of what they sup- 
posed to be Petherick's outpost. They hastened on, when they saw three 
large flags heading a military procession, which marched out of the camp 
with drums and fifes playing. The travellers halted, and allowed theui to 
draw near, when a very black man, named I\rahamed, in full Egyptian regi- 
mentals, with a curved sword, hastened from the head of his regiment (a 
ragamufliii mixture of Nubians, Egyptians, and slaves of all sorts, about two 
hundred in number), and throwing himself into Speke's arms, began to hug 
and kiss him. Speko asked him who was his master ? " Petrik," was tlie reply. 
" And where is Pethcrick now?" "Oh, he is coming," " IIow is it you 
have not got English colours, then ?" " The colours are Debono's." " Wlio 
is Debono?" "The same as Petrik, but come along into my camp, and let 
us talk it out there." Mahamed then led them to his huts, situated in a village 
uauKxl Faloro, kept exactly in the same order as that of the natives. Giving 


thcin two beds to sit upon, ho ordered las wives to advanca on their knoes 
and give tliem coffee, whilst some of his men brought poinbe, aad prepared 
a dinner of bread and honey and mutton. 

Their host, Mahamed, was little better than a land-pirate, who jjlundcred 
and shot down the natives without compunction. Among his troops there was 
not one true Turk; they were adventurers, born from negro stock in the 
most southern Egyptian dominions. They were all married to the women 
of the country, whom they had dressed in clotlis and beads. " Their children 
were many, with a prospect of more. Temporary marriages however, were 
more common than others ; as, in addition to their slaves, they hired the 
daughters of the villagers, who remained with them whilst they were trading 
there, but went back to their parents when they marclied to Gondokoro. 
Thev had also many hundreds of cattle, which it was said they had plundered 
from the natives, and now used for food, or to exchange for ivory, or other 
purposes. The scenery and situation were perfect for health and beauty. 
The settlement lay at the foot of small, well-wooded granitic hills, even pret- 
tier than the outcrops of Unyamuczi, and was iutersectod by clear streams." 

Mahamed, like the native chiefs, wished to detain the travellers ; being 
desirous that they and their party miglit guard his camp, while ho went off 
on an expedition. He succeeded, by depriving them of their porters, and 
then marched out with his army — drums and fifes playing, colours flying, a 
hundred guns firing, officers riding, some on donkeys, others on cows. Spoke 
afterwards learnt that Chongl, of Koki, had invited Mahamed to fight against 
an enemy of his, in whose territories immense stores of ivory were said to 
be buried, and the people had an endless number of cattle. On the last day 
of the year, Mahamed and his triumphant army, after having burned down 
and plundered three villages, returned laden with ivory, and driving in five 
slave girls, and thirty head of cattle. Two or three days afterwards, another 
specimen of Turkish barbarity came under Speke's notice. Tiie head man 
of a village arrived with a large tusk of ivory, to ransom his daughter with ; 
for she was one of those seized as a slave on this recent expedition. For- 
tunately for him, it had been considered by the Turks wise to keep on good 
terms with so influential a man, and therefore, on receiving the tusk, Mahamed 
gave back the damsel, adding a cow to seal tlieir frieudship. 

Weai'y of Mahamed's procrastination, Spekc, on the- 11th of January, 
18G3, started forward himself, telling the Turk he would wait for him at 
the next place, provided he did not delay more than one day. Their march 
led them over long rolling downs of grass ; and after going ten miles, they 
came to a village named Panyoro, where they tarried for the night. At 
first the villagers, thinking they were Turks, ran off with their cattle and 
what stores they could carry ; but, after finding out who they were, they 
returned again, and gave them a good reception. The next day the van- 


guard of Maliamed's pnrty came up, and said they had orders to march on 
Avitli Speke as far as Apuddo, where all were to stop for Maliamed. Tiicre 
was a certain tree near Apuddo, wliich was marked by an Englishman two 
years ago, and this Mahamed thought would keep them amused. The next 
march brought them to Paira, a collection of villages within sight of the 
Nile. In appearance it was a noble stream, flowing on a flat bed from west 
to east ; and immediately beyond it was tlie Kuku Hills, rising up to a height 
of two thousand feet above the river. Tiie next day they arrived at Jaifi, 
a group of huts close to a deej) nullah which drains the central portions of 
Eastern Madi. At this place the Turks killed a crocodile, and ate him on 
the spot, much to the disgust of Speke's men. 

When they reached Apuddo, Speke at once went to see the tree said to 
liave been cut by an Englishman some lime before. There, sure enough, 
was a mark, something like the letters M. J., on its bark, but not distinct 
enough to be ascertained, because tlic bark had healed up. When they reached 
Gondokoro, they learnt that the individual who liad thus left his mark was 
an Italian, named Miani, who had gone further up the Nile than any one 
else, but who returned, because he was alarmed at the accounts the people 
gave of the countries to the southwai'd, and he did not like the prospect of 
liaving to remain a whole rainy season with Maliamed at Faloro. They took 
up their quarters in the village as usual ; but the Turks remained outside, and 
carried ofi" all the tops of tlie villagers' huts to make a camp for themselves. 
There seemed nothing but misery in the place. Food was so scarce that the 
villagers souglit for wild berries and fruits ; whilst the Turks stole their cook- 
ing-pots, and helped themselves out of their lialf-lilled bins — a small reserve 
store to last up to the far-distant harvest. Speke and Grant, however, pro- 
vided for themselves by shooting antelopes and other game. On the 31st, 
jMahamed overtook them, and commenced to arrange for the marcli onwards. 
" Tliis, however, was no easy matter, for the Turks alone required six Imn- 
dred porters — half that number to carry their ivory, and the other half to 
carry their beds and bedding ; whilst from fifty to sixty men was the most 
a village had to spare, and all the village chiefs were at enmity with one 
another. The plan adopted by JIahamed was, to summon the heads of all 
the villages to come to him, failing which, he would seize all their belongings. 
Then, having once got them together, he ordered them all to furnish him with 
so many porters a-head, saying he demanded it of them, for the great govern- 
ment's property could not be left on the ground. Their separate interests 
must now be sacrificed, and their feuds suspended ; and if he heard, on his 
return again, that one village had taken advantage of the other's weakness 
caused by their employment in his service, he would then not spare his bullets 
— so they might look out for themselves." 

On the 1st of February, they struck on the Nile, where it was running 


like a fine Highland stream between the gneiss and mica-schist hills of 
Kuku, and followed it down to near where the Asua river joined it. Here 
they left it again as it arched round by tlio west, and forded the A.sua river, 
a stifl' rocky stream, deep enougli to reach tlie breast when waded, but not 
very broad. On the 13th, they arrived at Marsan, in tlic Bari country. The 
whole company now was a thousand strong. Speke wished btill to put up in 
the native villages, but Mahamed so terrified all his men, by saying the Bari 
would kill them in the night if they did not all sleep together in one large 
camji, that ho was obliged to submit. The country was undulating and very 
prettily wooded. Villages were numerous ; but as they passed them the inha- 
bitants all fled, save a few men bolder than the rest. Both night and morn- 
ing the Turks beat their drums ; and whenever they stopped to eat, they 
sacked the villages. 

At Doro, which they reached on the 14th, the natives turned out with their 
arms, and war drums were beaten as a sign that they intended to attack the 
camp. The Turks grew somewhat alarmed at this, and, as darkness began to 
set in, sent out jJtitrols in addition to their nightly watches. The natives 
tried to steal into the camp, but were soon frightened off by the patrols cock- 
ing their guns. Seeing themselves defeated in this attempt, they collected 
in hundreds in front of the camp, set fire to the grass, and marching up and 
down, brandishing the burning grass in their hands, howled like demons, and 
swore they would annihilate tlieir enemies in the morning. 

The next morning, Speke and Grant walked in to Gondokoro, where 
Mahamed, after firing a salute, took them to see a Circassian merchant, named 
Kurshid Aglia. Walking down the bank of the river, where a line of vessels 
was moored, and a brick-built house represented the late Austrian Mission 
establishment, they saw hurrying towards them the form of an Englishman, 
who, for one moment, they believed to be Petherick ; greatly to tlieir delight, 
they found themselves shaking hands with Mr., now Sir Samuel Baker, who 
had bravely come out in search of them. A little boy of his establishment 
had reported their arrival, and he in an instant came out to welcome them. 
"What joy this was," says Speke, "I can hardly tell. We could not talk 
fast enough, so overwhelmed were we both to meet again. Of course we wci'e 
his guests in a moment, and learned everything that could be told. I now 
first heard of the death of H. R. H. the Prince Consort, which made me reflect 
on the insjDiring words he made use of in compliment to myself, when I Avas 
introduced to him by Sir Roderick Murchison a short while before leaving 
Enaland. Then there was the terrible war in America, and other events of a 
less startling nature, which came on us all by surprise, as years had now 
passed since we had received news from the civilised world." 

The travellers waited at Gondokoro till the 26th, when they proceeded 
down the Kile, in Baker's boats (which he kindly lent them while he and his 


devoted uifc continued their journey southward,) to Khartoum. Before leav- 
ing Gondokoro, tlic travellers found Petherick, who ofiered Spekean explana- 
tion why he had failed in fulfilling his engagement to meet him, but which, 
liowcver, Sj^eke considered unsatisfactory. He had gone away on a trading 
expedition, and had made no attempt to succour his friends. 

The voyage down the Nile to Khartoum took from the 26th of February 
to the 30th of March, and was performed in a diabcah, the usual Nile boat ; 
the after-part being covered with a deck, on which was built a comfortable 
poop-cabin. They were hospitably entertained by Ali Bey, and by a num- 
ber of European and Turkish inhabitants. " Among other interesting places 
they visited at Khartoum was a Coptic church. In the centre was a desk, 
at which a man Avas reading aloud to a number of other persons wearing- 
large turbans, their shoes placed on one side, and several children, all sitting 
on a carpet, listening devoutly. On the walls were draperies and pictures of 
the Saviour ; and within a doorway was a high altar, covered with a cloth, 
marked with the figure of a cross. The service was in Arabic. A handsome 
old man entered, bearing a staff surmounted by a golden cross. After kneel- 
ing at the altar ho invited the strangers to his house to have coffee. Grant 
says that he never saw a finer face than that of this venerable Copt — Gabriel 
by name — who was at the head of the Coptic church at Khartoum."' 

They left Khartoum on the 15th of April, and continued their journey 
down to Berber by water. Here they landed, and had a fatiguing camel 
ride across the desert to a place called Korosko, whence they continued 
by water to Cairo. At Cairo, they called by invitation on the Viceroy at his 
Khoda Island palace, and were much gratified with the reception ; for, after 
hearing their story with marked intelligence, he most graciously offered to 
help in any other undertaking which would assist to open up and develop 
the interior of Africa. Here, they had to part from their " faithful children," 
for whose services they had no furtlicr occasion, and whom they had taken 
so far from their own country. Spekc had thcni all photographed, lie next 
appointed Bombay their captain, and gave him three photograjihs of all the 
eighteen men, and three more of the four women, to give one each to the 
British Consuls at Suez, Aden, and Zanzibar, by which they might be recog- 
nised. He also gave them increased wages, equal to three years' pay each, 
by orders on Zanzibar, which was one in addition to their time of service ; an 
order for a freeman's garden to be 2)urchased for them at Zanzibar ; and 
another order that each one should receive ten dollars dowry-money as soon 
as he could find a wife. Ultimately, after many adventures, they all reached 
their destination. 

The two brave men, whose adventures we have thus far followed, in a 
journey that involved a walk of thirteen hundred miles through the equatorial 
regions of Africa, embarked fur England, on the -Ith of June, on board the 

IfiS S7\-LVL/n' A XI) AFRICA. 

" Pera," and landed safely on their native shores, after an absence of eleven 
liundrcd and forty-six dajs. Captain Speke's friends shortly afterwards had 
to mourn liis nntinicly death, from his <;nn accidentally going off while out 
shooting. His gallant companion, now Colonel Grant, still survives. Although 
not, as he supposed, the discoverer of the remotest source of the Nile, Spoke 
was undoubtedly the first European who saw the Victoria Nyanza ; wliile the 
adventurous and dangerous journey he and Grant performed together entitles 
tliom to take place in the first rank of African travellers. They opened up 
an extensive and rich district hitherto totally unknown, which it is hoped will 
in a few years be enriched with the blessings of Christianit}' and civilization. 


Sir Samuel and LaJ/j Balccr — Their Arrival in Ejjjpi — Cross the. Nubian Desert — 
Berber — The Atbara — Cassala — Arab Tribes of Nubia — Junction of the Settite 
with the Atbara — The Abyssinian Frontier. 

IN Marcli, 18G1, Samuel, then Mr. Baker, a private English gentleman, aided 
by no public resources, prompted by no public bodies, started in the exer- 
cise of his own discretion to attempt the solution of a problem which had baf- 
fled ages. He says — " In March, 1861, I commenced an expedition to dis- 
cover the sources of the Nile, witli the hope of meeting the East African 
expedition of Captains Spoke and Grant, that had been sent by the English 
Government from the south, via Zanzibar, for that object. I had not the pre- 
sum2)tion to publish my intention, as the sources of the Nile had hitherto 
defied all explorers, but I had inwardly determined to accomplish this difficult 
task, or to die in the attempt." 

As we have already seen, Mr. Baker met Speke and Grant almost at the 
outset of his journey, the subordinate motive, therefore, of afibrding help to 
them, ceased, but his greater object still lay before him. With a manliness 
of spirit equal to his own, they instantly placed at his disposal the results of 
their own explorations, and urged him to pursue the great task of perfecting 
what they had well begun. He had already devoted several years to the 
hardiest feats of a great hunter and a keen shot in the jungles of Ceylon and 
the highlands of Abyssinia, which had nerved his frame and quickened his 
oye. To these qualifications he added two years of patient preparation for 
his great attempt — the acquisition of the power of scientific observation and 
the Arabic language — the purchase and adaptation of all the /;;«/6V7'rt/ necessary 
for so protracted a campaign, and the attenq)t to discipline a numerous band of 
followers. To the plots and treachery of these beings, who repeatedly broke 
out in ojjcn mutiny, and threatened him more than once with abandonment 
and death, he opposed an iron and conunanding will, which at last moulded 
even these rreatures to obey him. This moral authority was backed by a 
strength of arm that never failed to crush tlie oflcnder by a timely blow, and 
to punish every insult and infraction of discipline. Yet in a land where blood 
is poured out like Avater, where inhunum tortures are rutldessly inflicted by 
the strong on the weak, and where every man who is not a slave himself is 


seeking to enslave some one else, Mr. Baker allowed no deed of violence lo 
be committed which he could prevent ; he rescued numberless victims from 
the lash of their tormentcrs, and, by a judicious and open-handed liberality, 
he taught the natives the unknown lesson, that an Englishman is not to bo 
served by slaves, but by the fidelity of those whom he is ready to reward for 
their iabour. 

One trait remains, and it is the most singular incident in tliis remarkable 
narrative, which gives to the journey of Mr. Baker an unparalleled interest. 
Through these regions where no white woman had ever been seen, through 
these tribes where woman is degraded by the grossest sensuality to bo some- 
thing below the beast of burden and the household drudge, he was accom- 
panied by his wife. This lady, born of a good Hungarian family, and married 
at an early age to the companion of her adventurous life, possessing uncom- 
mon personal attractions, and still in the bloom of j'outh, not only shai-ed with 
her husband all the perils of this expedition, but by her quiet imperturbable 
courage, her tact and activity, contributed most powerfully to its success. On 
more tiian one occasion she said or did the thing that conquered the difliculty. 
And above all, the presence, in the midst of whole races to whom the idea of 
marriage in our sense of the term is unknown, of the one wife of the white 
man, so ennobled this pair of travellers, and distinguished it so effectually 
from the marauding columns of ivory traders and mau-stealers, that even the 
savao-es of the White Nile acknowledged her influence. 

Baker, accompanied by bis wife, left Cairo on the loth of April, and 
sailed up the Nile to Korosko, reaching there in twenty-six days. Tiiey starteil 
thence on camels across the Nubian deserts, a most fatiguing journey, through 
a wilderness of scorching sand and glowing basalt-rocks — the simoom being 
in full force, and the thermometer in the shade by the water-skins, standing 
at 114° Fahrenheit. "A few hours from Korosko," Baker says, " the misery 
of the scene surpassed description. Glowing like a furnace, the vast extent 
of yellow sand stretched to the horizon. Rows of broken hills, all of volcanic 
origin, broke the flat plain. Conical tumuli of volcanic slag here and there 
rose to the height of several hundred feet, and in the far distance resembled 
the pyramids of Lower Egypt — doubtless they were the models for that 
ancient and everlasting architecture ; hills of black basalt jutted out from the 
barren base of sand, and the molten air quivered on the overheated surface of 
the fearful desert. 11-4° Fahr. in the shade under the water skins; 137° in 
the sun. Noiselessly the spongy tread of the camels crept along the sand — 
the only sound was the rattle of some loosely secured baggage of their packs. 
The Arab drivers followed silently at intervals, and hour by hour we struck 
deeper into the solitude of the Nubian desert. 

"We entered a dead level plain of orange-coloured sand, surrounded by 
pyramidical hills j the surface was strewn with objects resembling cannon shot 


and grape of all sizes from a 32-poun(ler downwards — the sjiot looked like 
the old battle-field of some infernal region; rocks glowing with heat — not a 
vestige of vegetation — barren, withering desolation. The slow rocking step 
of the camels was most irksome, and, despite the heat, I dismounted to examine 
the Satanic bombs and cannon shot. Many of them were perfectly round as 
"though cast in a mould, others were egg-shaped, and all were hollow. With 
some difficulty I broke them, and found tliem to contain a briglit red sand ; 
they were, in fact, volcanic bombs that had been formed by tlie ejection of 
molten lava to a great height from active volcanoes ; tliese had become globu- 
lar in falling, and, having cooled before they reached the earth, tlicy retained 
their forms as hard spherical bodies, precisely resembling cannon shot. 
The exterior was brown, and appeared to be rich iu iron. The smaller speci- 
mens were the more perfect spheres, as they had cooled quickly, but many of 
the heavier masses had evidently reached the earth when only half solidified, 
and had collajised on falling. The sandy plain was covered with such ves- 
tiges of volcanic action, and the infernal bombs lay as imperishable relics of 
a hail-storm such as may have destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah. 

" Passing through this wretched solitude, Ave entered upon a scene of 
surpassing desolation. Far as the eye could reach were waves like a stormy 
sea, grey cold-looking waves in the burning heat; but no drop of water; it 
ajipeared as though a sudden curse had turned a raging sea to stone. The 
simoom blew over this horrible wilderness and drifted the hot sand into the 
crevices of the rocks, and the camels drooped their heads before the suffocat- 
ing wind ; but still the caravan noiselessly crept along over the rocky undula- 
tions, until the stormy sea was passed; once more we were upon a boundless 
plain of sand and pebbles. Here every now and then we discovered withered 
melons fCucumis colcoijnlhis) ; the leaves had long since disappeared and the 
shrivelled stalks were brittle as glass. They proved that even the desert had a 
season of life, however short ; but the desert fruits were bitter. So intensely 
bitter was the dry white inlu-ior of these melons, that it exactly resembled 
quinine in taste ; when rubb^^d between the fingers, it became a fine white 
jiowdor. The Arabs use this medicinally ; a small piece placed in a cup of 
milk, and allowed to stand for a few hours, rendered the draught a strong 
aperient. The sun — that relentless persecutor of the desert traveller, sank 
behind the western hills, and the long-wished-for night arrived ; cool, delicious 
night ! The thermometer 78° Fahr., a difference of 36° between the shade of 

After a march of two days, the travellers reached Moorahd, or, " the 
bitter well." "This," says Baker, "is a mournful si)ot, well known to the 
tired and thirsty camel, the hope of reaching which has urged him, fainting 
on his weary way, to drink one draught before he dies ; this is the camel's 
grave. Situated half way between Korosko and Abou Hammed, the well of 


Mooralid is in an extinct crater, surrounded upon all sides but one by pre- 
cipitous cliffs about three hundred feet high. The bottom is a dead flat, and 
fi)rms a valley of sand, about two hundred and fifty yards wide. In tliis 
bosom of a crater, salt and bitter water is found at a depth of only six feet 
from the surface. To this our tired camels frantically rushed upon being 
unloaded. The valley was a valley of dry bones. Innumerable skeletons 
of camels lay in all directions ; the ships of the desert tlius stranded on their 
vo3-age. Withered hea2;)s of parched skin and bone lay here and there, in the 
distinct forms in which the camels had gasped their last; the dry desert air 
had converted the hide into a cofHn. There were no flics here, thus there 
were no worms to devour the carcases, but the usual sextons were the crows, 
altliough sometimes too few to perform their office. Tlicsc were perched upon 
the overhanging cliffs ; but no sooner had our overworked camels taken their 
long draught and laid down exhausted on the sand, than by common consent 
they descended from their high places and walked round and round each 
tired beast. 

"As many wretched animals sinij)ly crawl to this spot and die, the crows, 
from long exjierience and constant practice, can form a jjretty correct diag- 
nosis upon the case of a sick camel ; they had evidently paid a jjrofessional 
visit to my caravan, and wei'e especially attentive in studying the case of one 
particular camel that was in a very weakly condition and had stretched itself 
full length upon the sand ; nor would they leave it until it was driven forward." 
Throughout the route from Korosko, Baker counted the skeletons of camels at 
about eight per mile, with the exception of the immediate neighbourhood of 
Moorahd, where they were double tliat number. In some places six or eight 
were together in a heap ; and yet the Bishareen Arabs who were with our 
travellers performed the entire journey on foot. 

On the 23rd of Ma}', the party readied Abou Hammed. Tlie ver}' sight 
of the Nile was delightful, after the dreadful desert through wliich tliey had 
passed. Having taken a day's rest, they started again. Their route lay 
along the margin of the Nile ; marching one day ten hours, another fifteen, 
another, through Mrs. Baker's illness, only five. Tlie intensity of the heat 
may be judged from two brief extracts: — " May 2^th. The simoom is fearful, 
and t'^e heat is so intense that it was impossible to draw the gun cases out of 
their leather covers, which it was necessary to cut open. AH woodwork is 
warped ; ivorj'-knife handles are split ; paper breaks when crunched in the 
hand, and the very maiTOw seems to be dried out of the bones by this hor- 
rible simoom. One of our camels fell down to die." — " 3Ia>/ '30/h. The 
extreme dryness of the air induces an extraordinary amount of electricity in 
the hair, and in all woollen materials. A Scotch jjlaid laid upon a blanket 
for a few hours adhei-es to it, and upon being roughl}' withdrawn by night a 
sheet of flame is produced, accompanied by tolerably loud reports." 


The following day, about 9.30 a.m., they reached Berber, a considerablo 
town on the Nile, lying on the regular caravan route between Cairo and 
Khartoum, Here Baker, finding his need of a knowledge of Arabic, resolved 
to devote a year to the study of that language, and to spend the time in the 
comparatively known regions to the north of Abyssinia, and exploring the 
various confluences of the Blue Nile. 

At Berber, they were kindly received by Ilalleem Effendi, the ex gover- 
nor, who gave them permission to pitch their tents in his gardens close to the 
Nile. The spot had been reclaimed from the sandy waste ; and, irrigated by 
numerous water-wheels, had been transformed into a fruitful garden, thickly 
planted with lofty date-groves and shady citron and lemou-trees, in which 
countless birds sang their varied notes. In this charming jjlacc, they received 
visits from their host and the governor, as well as from other persons of note 
and official position, all of whom expressed their astonishment when they 
heard the travellers' intention of i;)rocccding to the head of tlic Nile, and 
endeavoured to dissuade them from what was imagined to be so dangerous and 
absurd an enterprise. Their host sent them daily presents of fruit ; and Mrs. 
Baker, her husband having been requested jireviously to withdraw, was visited 
one evening by a number of ladies so gaily dressed in silks of tlie brightest 
dyes of yellow, blue, and scarlet, that no bouquet of flowers could have been 
more gaudy. At this pleasant spot tliey spent about a week ; and then, on 
the lltli of June, attended by a guard of Turkish soldiers, who were to act 
in the double capacity of escort and servants, they left Berber, and their explor- 
ations began. 

Their dragoman was called Mahomet — a man who was of a mcst angry 
disposition, and very conceited — who spoke very bad English — and who, 
although he was almost black, declared his colour was light-brown. Their 
principal guide was named Achmet. Tliey left Berber at sunset, mounted 
upon donkeys ; while their Turkish attendants rude upon excellent drome- 
daries. Their way lay parallel with the Nile, and was marked by a fringe 
of bush and mimosa along the border of the desert. There was no object 
particularly noteworthy, and no sound but that of the bleating goats driven 
homeward by the Arab boys, and the sharp cry of the desert sand-grouse as 
they came in flocks to drink in the river. On the journey they frequently 
passed the Asclcpias gigantca. Baker had frequeritly seen this plant in Ceylon, 
where the native doctors use it medicinally ; but here it was ignored, except 
for the produce of a beautiful silky down, which is used for stuffing cushions 
and pillows. This vegetable silk is contained in a soft pod about the size of 
an orange. Both the leaves and the stem of this 2)lant emit a highly poisonous 
milk, that exudes from the bark when cut or bruised, the least drop of which, 
should it come in contact with the eye, will cause total blindness. Although 
the poisonous qualities of the plant cause it to be shunned by all other animals, 


yet goats greedily devour it, and suffer no harm. The wood is extremely liglit, 
and is frequently tied into faggots, and used by the Arabs as a sujiport while 
swimming in lieu of cork. 

In two days they reached the junction of the Atbara river with the Nile. 
Here, crossing a broad surface of white sand, which at that season formed the 
dry bed of the river, they encamped near a plantation of water-melons, with 
which they refreshed themselves and their tired donkeys. Tiie Atbara was 
here never less than four hundred yards in width, while in many places this 
breadth was much exceeded. Its banks were from twenty-five to thirty feet 
deep ; these had evidently been overflowed during floods ; but at the j^resent 
time not only was it partially dry, but so clear was the sandy bed, that 
the reflection of the sun was unbearable. Tiie dome-palm grew in great 
numbers upon its banks. This tree is of great service to the Arabs. The 
leaves supply them with excellent material for mats and roj^es ; while the 
fruit, which grows in dense clusters, numbering several hundreds, of the size 
of an orange, is used both for man and beast, and is the chief support of both 
when in times of drought and scarcity the supply of corn has failed. It is 
hard and uninviting to the teeth ; but the Arabs pound it between stones, and 
thus detach the edible portion in the form of a resinous powder, which is either 
eaten raw, or boiled into delicious porridge, with milk ; this has a strong 
flavour of gingerbread. The rind of the nut which produces this powder is 
about a quarter of an inch thick, and covers a strong shell, which contains a 
nut of vegetable ivory, about the size of a large walnut. These nuts are soaked 
in water for about twenty-four hours, after which they are heaped in largo 
piles ujjon a fire until nearly dry and thoroughly steamed ; then they are 
broken into small pieces, and form excellent food for cattle. 

The travellers pursued their way along the banks of the river for some 
days, stopping by the side of the pools which still remained. Many of these 
pools were of great size and depth, and were full of crocodiles, hij:)popotami, 
turtles, and large fish of various kinds. Gazelles, h3'enas, wild asses, and the 
flocks of the Arabs, were obliged to resort to these crowded drinkiug-places. 
Innumerable birds of every variety were glad to escajje from the burning 
desert and take up their abode in the poor but welcome bushes that fringe 
the Atbara river. Baker was able, in consequence of the abundance of game, 
to keep the whole camp well supi^lied with meat. At CoUodabad, a place about 
a hundred and sixty miles, or seven days' march from the Nile junction, they 
pitched their tents among a large concourse of Bisharecn Arabs, who had con- 
gregated there with their flocks and herds. Hex'e Baker was introduced for 
the first time to the hippopotamus, and had the satisfaction of killing two. The 
dead monsters were quickly surrounded by Arabs, who hauled them on shore, 
and on receiving permission to take the meat, were soon at work with a hun- 
dred kniveS; fighting to obtain the most delicate moi'sels. He and his wife 


breakfasted that morning' on hippopotamus flesh, which was destined to be 
their g:cneral food during their journey among the Ab^-ssinian tributaries 
of the Nile. 

Here he had an interesting adventure with a turtle, which he thus 
records: — "In a short time I had caught a respectable dish offish, but hither- 
to no monster had paid me the slightest attention ; accordingly I changed my 
bait, and upon a powerful hook, fitted upon treble-twisted wire, I fastened an 
enticing strip of boulti. The bait was about four ounces, and glistened like 
silver ; the water was tolerably clear, but not too bright, and with such an 
attraction, I exjjcctcd something heavy. My float was a large-sized pike-float 
for live bait, and this civilised sign had been only a few minutes in the wild 
waters of the Atbara, when, bob ! and away it went ! I had a very large 
reel, with nearly three hundred yards of line that had been specially made 
for monsters; down went the top of my rod as though a grindstone was sus- 
pended on it, and, as I recovered itsjwsition, away went the line, and the reel 
revolved, not with the sudden dash of a spirited fish, but with the steady 
determined pull of a trotting horse. What on earth have I got hold of? In 
a few minutes about a hundred yards of line were out, and as thcci'eature was 
steadily, l)ut slowly, travelling down the centre of the channel, I determined 
to cry halt, if possible, as my tackle was extremely strong, and my rod was 
a single bamboo. Accordingly, I put on a powerful strain, which was replied 
to by a sullen tug, a shake, and again my rod was pulled suddenly down to 
the water's edge. At length, after the roughest handling, I began to reel in 
slack line, as my unknown friend had doubled in upon me, and upon once 
more putting severe pressure upon him or her, as it might be, I perceived a 
great swirl in the wafer about twenty yards from the rod. The tackle would 
bear anything, and I strained so heavily upon my adversary that I soon 
reduced our distance ; but the water was exceedingly deep, the bank pi'e- 
cijntous, and he was still invisible. 

" At length, after much tugging and counter tugging, he began to show. 
Eagerly I gazed into the water to examine my new acquaintance, when I 
made out something below, in shape between a coach- wheel and a sponging 
bath ; in a few more moments I brought to the surface an enormous turtle, 
well hooked. I felt like the old lady who won an elephant in a lottery ; that 
I had him was certain, but what was I to do with my prize ! It was at tho 
least a hundred pounds' weight, and the bank was steep and covered with 
bushes ; thus, it was impossible to land the monster that now tugged and 
dived, with the determination of the grindstone, that his first pull had sug- 
gested. Once I attempted the gaff, but the trusty weapon that had landed 
many a fish in Scotland, broke in the hard shell of the turtle, and I was lielp- 
less. My Arab now came to my assistance, and at once terminated the 
struggle. Seizing the line with both hands, utterly regardless of all rcmon- 


strancc (wliicli, being in English, ho did not understand), he quickly hauled 
our turtle to the surface, and held it, struggling and gnashing its jaws, closj 
to the steep bank. * In a few moments the line slackened, and the turtle 
disappeared. The fight was over ! The sharp horny jaws had bitten through 
treble-twisted brass wire as clean as though cut by shears. My visions of 
turtle-soup had faded." 

Disappointed in turtle-fishing, he went out in the evening gazelle-shoot- 
ing, and returned with five fine buck-gaaelles. " These beautiful creatures," 
he says, "so exactly resemble the colour of the sandy deserts which they 
inhabit, that they are most diflicult to distinguish, and their extreme 
renders stalking ujjon foot very uncertain. I accordingly employed an Arab 
to lead a camel, under cover of which I could generally manage to approach 
within a hundred yards. A buck-gazelle weighs from sixty to seventy 
pounds, and is the perfeciion of muscular development. No person who has 
seen the gazelles in confinement in a tenipei-ate climate can form an idea of 
the beauty of the animal in its native desert. Born in the scorching sun, 
nursed on the burning sand of the treeless and shadowless wilderness, the 
gazelle is among the antelope tribe, as the Arab horse is among its brethren, 
the high-bred and superlative beauty of the race. The skin is as sleek as 
satin, of a colour difficult to describe, as it varies between the highest mauve 
and yellowish-brown ; the belly is snow-white ; the legs, from the knee down- 
wards, are also white, and are as fino as though carved from ivory ; the hoof 
is beautifully shaped, and tapers to a sharp point ; the head of the buck is 
ornamented by gracefully-curved annulated horns, perfectly black, and gene- 
rall}' from nine to twelve inches long in the bend ; the eye is the well- known 
perfection — the full, large, soft, and jet-black eye of the gazelle. 

" Although the desert apjiears incapable of supporting animal life, there 
■are in the undulating surface numerous shallow sandy ravines, in which are 
tufts of a herbage so coarse, that, as a source of nourishment, it would be 
valueless to a domestic animal ; nevertheless, upon this dry and wiry sub- 
stance the delicate gazelles subsist ; and, although they never fatten, they 
are exceedingly fleshy and in excellent condition. Entirely free from fat, 
and nevertheless a mass of muscle and sinew, the gazelle is the fastest of the 
antelope tribe. Proud of its strengtli, and confident in its agility, it will 
generally bound perpendicularly four or five feet from the ground several 
times before it starts at full speed, as though to test the quality of its sinews 
before the race. The Arabs course theii with grey-hounds, and sometimes 
they are caught by running several days at the same time; but this result 
is from the folly of the gazelle, who, at first, distances his pursuers like the 
wind ; but, secure in its speed, it halts and faces the dogs, exhausting itself 
by bounding exultingly in the air ; in the meantime the grey-hounds are 
closing up, and diminishing the chance of escape. As a rule, notwithstanding 


tins absurdity of the gazelle, it has the best of the race, and the grey-hounds 
return crest-fallen and beaten. Altogether it is the most beautiful specimen 
of game that exists, far too lovely and harmless to bo hunted and killed for 
the mere love of sport. But when dinner depends upon the rifle, beauty is 
no protection ; accordingly, throughout our desert march, we lived upon 
gazelles, and I am sony to confess that I became very expert at stalking these 
wary little animals. The flesh, although tolerably good, has a slight flavour 
of musk ; this is not peculiar to the gazelle, as the odour is common to muse 
of the small varieties of antelopes." 

On the 23rd of June, they were nearly suflbcated by a whirlwind that 
buried everything in the tents several inches in dust. The heat was intense ; 
the night, however, was cool and pleasant. About lialf-past eight, as Baker 
lay asleep, he fancied that he heard a rumbling like distant thunder. The 
low uninterrupted roll increased in volume, till presently a confusion of voices 
arose from the Arabs' camp, as his men rushed through the darkness shouting, 
*' The river ! the river !" Mahomet explained that the river was coming down, 
and that the supposed distant sound was the approach of water. Many of 
the people who had been sleeping on the clean sand of the river's bed, wore 
quickly awakened by the Arabs, who rushed down the steep bank to save the 
skulls of two hippopotami which were exposed to dr}-. The sound of tlie 
torrent, as it rushed by amid the darkness, and the men, dripping with wet, 
dragging their heavy burdens up the bank, told that the great event had 
occurred — that the river had arrived like a thief in the night. The next morn- 
ing, instead of the barren sheet of clear white sand, with a fringe of withered 
bush and trees upon its borders, cutting the yellow expanse of desert, a mag- 
nificent stream, the noble Atbara river, flowed by, some hundred yards i;i 
width, and from fifteen to twenty feet in depth. Not a drop of rain ha I 
fallen ; but the current gave the traveller a clue to one portion of the Nile 
mystery. The rains were pouring down in Abyssinia — these were sources of 
the Nile. 

The tracks of wild asses had been frequent, but hitherto Baker had not 
seen the animals, as their drinking hour was at night; however, on the morn- 
ing of June the 29th, he saw three of these beautiful creatures — an ass, a 
female, and a foal, *' They were," he says, " about half a mile distant when 
first observed, and upon our approach to within half that distance they halted 
and faced about ; they were evidently on their return to the desert from tlie 
river. Those who have seen donkeys in their civilised state have no concep- 
tion of the beauty of the wild and original animal. Far from the jjassive and 
subdued appearance of the English ass, the animal in its native desert is tlio 
perfection of activity and courage : there is a higli-bred tone in the deport- 
ment, a high-actioned step when it trots freely over the rocks and sand, with 
the fipecd of a horse when it gallops over the boundless desert. No animal 



is more difficult of approacli ; and, although they are frequently captured by 
the Arabs, those taken are invariably the foals, which are ridden down by 
fast dromedaries, while tlic mothers escape. 

" The colour of the wild ass is a reddish cream, tinged with the shade 
most prevalent of the ground that it inhabits; thus it much resembles tho 
sand of tlie desert. I wished to obtain a specimen, and accordingly I exerted 
my uttermost knowledge of stalking to obtain a sliot at the male. After at 
least an Iiour and a half I succeeded in obtaining a long shot with a single 
rifle, wliich passed through tlio shoulder, and I secured my first and last 
donkey. It was with extreme regret, that I saw my beautiful prize in the last 
gasp, and I resolved rever to fire another sliot at one of its race. This fine 
specimen was in excellent condition, although the miserable pasturage of the 
desert is confined to the wiry herbage of withered bush ; of this the stomach 
was full, chewed into morsels like chopped reeds. The height of this male 
ass was between thirteen and fourteen liands ; the shoulder was far more 
sloping than that of the domestic ass ; the hoofs were remarkable for their 
size — they were wide, firm, and as broad as those of a horse of fifteen hands. 
I skinned this animal carefully, and the Arabs divided the flesh among tliem, 
while Hadji Achmet selected a choice piece for our own dinner. At the close 
cf our marcli that evening, the morsel of wild ass was cooked in the form of 
rissoles ; the flavour resembled beef, but it was extremely tough." 

On the 30th of June, they reached Gozerajup, a large village on the south 
bank of the Atbara, and about two hundred and twenty miles from tlie junc- 
tion of that river with the Nile. Here they remained for a few days to rest 
the donke}'s, and to engage fresh camels. Their route uow was to change. 
Hitherto they had followed the course of the Atbara ; now they were to leave 
that river on their right, and travel south-east about ninety miles to Cassala, 
the capital of the Taka country, on the confines of Abyssinia. Having pro- 
cured fresh camels, they started on the 5th of July. In a short time they 
came to where the desert ceased ; and no longer travelled upon sand and 
stones, but stood upon a fertile loam, rendered soapy and adhesive by a recent 
shower. They passed the limits of the Bishareen Arabs, and entered upon the 
country of the Hadendowa tribe. As they approached the wells of Soojalup, 
they passed several large villages surrounded by fenced gardens of cotton and 
tobacco, both of which throve exceedingly. Every village possessed a series 
of wells, with a simple contrivance for watering their cattle. 

From Gozerajup to Cassala the entire country is a dead flat, without a 
solitary tree large enough to shade a full-sized tent. The land is fertile, and 
the Arabs grow cotton sufficient for the manufacture of their cloths. They 
weave these themselves, the weaver sitting in a hole excavated in the ground 
before his rude loom, shaded by a rough thatch about ten feet square, sup- 
ported upon poles. The quality of cotton is the same as that of Lower Egypt, 


ond the cloths, thougli coarse, are remarkably soft. When they came within 
twenty-five miles of Cassala, tliey found the country in many jjlaces flooded; 
and Mrs. Baker was seized with a sudden and severe attack of fever. Ono 
evening several hundreds of Arabs arrived at their camp; and "no sooner 
was the bustle of arrangement comj^leted, than a grey old man stepped for- 
ward, and, responding to his call, every man of the hundreds present, formed 
in line, three or four decj). At once there was total silence, disturbed only 
by the crackling of the fires, or by the cry of a child ; and with faces turned 
to the east, in attitudes of profound devotion, the wild but fervent followers 
of Mahomet repeated their evening prayer." The next morning, Mrs. Baker 
had another attack of fever, and was obliged to rest for several liours under a 
tree, on a bed of dry sand, until the paroxysm passed. 

The next place at which they arrived was Cassala, a walled town, sur- 
rounded by a ditch and flanking towers, situated on the confines of the Taka 
country, and containing about eight thousand inhabitants, exclusive of troops. 
The houses and walls were of unburnt brick, smeared witli clay and cow dung. 
They had ridden about seven hundred and ten miles from Korosko, six hun- 
dred and thirty of which had been tlirougli scorching deserts during the hot- 
test season ; they were, therefore, thankful to exchange the Intense heat of 
the tent for a solid roof, and to rest for a short time In the picturesque coun- 
try of Taka. The bazaar here was poor, the articles for sale being of low 
price, and adapted to the wants of the Arabs who flock to the place. After 
a few days' halt at Cassala, they continued their march, bearing due west 
towards the Atbara. The country was an improvement on that through 
which they had passed ; there were larger trees and vast plains of young grass, 
while herds of antelopes and gazelles offered abundant sport. No sooner had 
Baker shot one of these animals, tlian he heard a rushing sound like a strong 
wind, and down came a vulture with Its wings collapsed, falling from an 
immense height direct to Its prey. Before he was able to fasten the animal 
on the back of his camel, a number of vultures were sitting upon the ground 
at a few yards distance, while others were arriving every minute; though 
before he fired, not one was in sight. 

In sixteen hours' actual marching from Cassala, they reached the valley 
of the Atbara. At the spot where they encamped the river was about three 
hundred yards wide, about the thickness of pea-soup, and of a very dark 
colour. In the stream, and on the oozy banks, were numerous crocodiles ; 
they were of two kinds, one of a dark-brown colour, and much shorter and 
thicker in proportion than the other, which grows to an iuimenso length, and 
is generally of a pale-greenish colour. The Arabs assert that the dark-coloured 
thick-bodied species is more to be dreaded than the other. Crossing the river^ 
they pitched their tents at the village of Goorashee, and waited for fresh 


After leaving Goorasheo, they found themselves upon the vast table-land 
that stretclies from the Atbara to the Nile. Here the country was dotted 
with bushes, the hooked-thorn mimosas, in the young glory of their green 
leaf, tcmi)ting the hungry camels. " Unless a riding-camel is perfectly trained, 
it is the most tiresome animal to ride after the first green leaves appear; 
every busli tempts it from the path, and it is a perpetual figlit between the 
rider and his beast throughout the journey." This Mr. Baker learnt by expe- 
rience. " A magnificent specimen of akittar," he says, " with a wide-spread- 
ing head, in the young glory of gi'een leaf, tempted my hungry camel during 
our march ; it was determined to procure a mouthful, and I was equally 
determined that it should keep to tlie straight jiatli, and avoid the attraction 
of the green food. After some strong remonstrance upon my part, tlio per- 
verse beast shook its ugly head, gave a roar, and started off in full trot straight 
at the thorny bush. I had not the slightest control over the animal, and in 
a few seconds it charged the busli with the mad intention of rushing either 
through or beneath it. To my disgust, I perceived that tlie wide-spreading 
branches were only just sufficiently high to jDcrmit the back of the camel to 
pass underneath. There was no time for further consideration ; we charged 
the bush ; I held my head doubled up between my arms, and the next moment 
I was on my back, half stunned by the falL The camel-saddle lay upon the 
ground, my rifle, that had been slung behind, my coffee-pot, the water-skin 
burst, and a host of other impedimenta^ lay around me in all directions ; worst 
of all, my beautiful gold repeater lay at some distance from me, rendered 
entirely useless. I was as nearly naked as I could be ; a few rags held 
together, but my shirt was gone, with tlic exception of some shreds that 
adhered to my arms. I was, of course, streaming with blood, and looked 
much more as though I had been clawed by a leopard, than as having simply 
charged a bush. The camel had fallen down with the shock after I had been 
swept oft' by the thorny branches. To this day I have the marks of the 

In the course of their journey, they arrived at the camp of the great 
Sheikh Achmet Abou Sinn, to whom Baker had a letter of introduction. 
Having sent it forward by Mahomet, in a short time the sheikh appeared, 
attended by several of his principal people. As he ajjproached through the 
green mimosas, mounted on a beautiful snow-white dromedary, his appearance 
was remarkably dignified and venerable. He was about six feet three inches 
high, with immense broad shoulders and chest ; and, although, upwards of eighty 
years of age, was as erect as a lance, lie had an arched nose, with eyes like an 
eagle, beneath large, shaggy, but perfectly white eyebrows ; while a beard as 
white as snow, of great thickness, descended below the middle of the breast. 
He wore a large white turban, and a white cashmere robe reaching from the 
tliroat to the ankles. Altogether he was the perfect picture of a desert patri- 


nrcli. With tlic most generous hospitality, he insisted on the travellers 
iircompanying him to his camp, and would listen to no excuses. Ordering 
]\hiliomet to have their haggage re-packed, he requested them to mount two 
superb white dromedaries, with saddle-cloths of blue Persian sheepskins ; and 
thus tbey accompanied their venerable host, followed by his wild and splen- 
didly-mounted attendants. Declining Abou Sinn's invitation to spend two 
or three months at his camp, until travelling would be feasible farther south, 
the rainy season by that time being ovei", our travellers resolved to journey to 
tlie village of Sofi, about seventy-eight miles distant, where they purposed 
for a time to take up their abode. 

From Korosko to this point Baker had passed tlirough several Arab 
tribes — the Bedouins, Bisliareens, Hadendowas, Ilallongas, and now he was 
among the Shookeriyahs, one of the most powerful, and over which Abou Sinn 
ruled. On the west of them were the Jalyns, and to the south, near Sofi, the 
Dabainas. Tlie customs of all the Arab tribes are nearly similar, one of their 
distinctions being in tlic mode of dressing the hair. A Bisharecn Arab wears 
his hair in hundreds of minute plaits, which hang down to his shoulders, sur- 
mounted by a circular bushy top-knot upon the crown, about the size of a 
large breakfast cup, from the base of which the plaits descend. The great 
desire with all the tribes, except the Jaiyn, is to have a vast quantity- of hair, 
arranged in their own peculiar fashion, and covered with fat. A dandy will put 
at least half a pound of fat or butter on his head at once. Abou Sinn used 
daily, outside and in, two pounds of melted butter. Slieep's fat is what is most 
esteemed for hair-dressing. 

The women bestow great attention on perfumery, various kinds of which 
ore brought by the travelling native merchants from Cairo. Oil of roses, oil 
of sandal- wood, an essence from the blossom of a species of mimosa, essence 
of nmsk, and oil of cloves, arc most in demand. They use a hot air-bath for 
the purpose of scenting both their pers^ons and their clothes ; and suspend from 
their necks a (cw pieces of the dried glands of the musk cat. In the Somali 
tribe, and that of the Nuehr, they use a pigment for turning the colour of the 
liair red. When an Arab lady's toilette is complete, her head is a little larger 
than the largest-sized English mop, and her perfume is something between 
the aroma of a perfumer's shop and the monkey-house at the Zoological 

Altliough the tope or robe, loosely but gracefully arranged around the 
body, appears to be the whole of the costuuie, the women wear beneath this 
garment a thin blue cotton cloth, tightly bound round the loins, which de- 
scends to a little above the knee ; beneath tliis is the last garment, the raliat, 
which is the only clothing of young girls. The Arab girls are remarkably 
good-looking till they become mothers. They generally nuirry at the age of 
thirteen or fourteen, but often earlier. Concubinage is not considered a breach 


of morality ; neither is it regarded by the legitimate wives with jealousy. 
The Arabs arc essentially a nomadic race, therefore their customs are what 
they were thousands of years ago. In the absence of a fixed home, without 
a city, or even a village that is permanent, there can be no change of custom. 
The unchangeable features of the Nile regions, and the unchangeable manners 
and customs of the people who inhabit them, invest that part of the world 
■with a strange fascination. 

On the 25th of July, Mr. and Mrs. Baker left the camp of Abou Sinn, 
and in a few rapid marches arrived at Tomat, the commencement of the 
Dabainas. Atalan Wat Said, the sheikh of that tribe, gave them a most cor- 
dial reception; and, upon learning their plans, begged them to remain through 
the rainy season at Tomat. Wiien he found tliey were resolved to proceed 
on their way the next morning, he j^romised them every assistance, and 
offered to act as their guide. Here the grand river Scttite, which is the 
principal stream of Abyssinia, forms a junction with the Atbara. They had 
now come to the western frontier of Abyssinia, but since the annexation of 
the Nubian provinces to Egypt, there has been no safety for life or property 
upon the frontier ; thus a large tract of country, actually forming a portion of 
Abyssinia, is unin]ial)ited. 


Residence in So/i — Aggageers^ or Ilamran Stvord Hunters — Leave Sofi — End oj the 
Raiwj Season — Katariff — Hunting Large Game. 

ON the 29th of July, the travellers reached Sofi — a small village of about 
tliirty straw huts, situated near the banks of the Atbara, on a plateau of 
about twenty acres, bordered on either side by two deep ravines, while below 
the steep cliff in front of the place flows the river. They were met b}- tlie 
sheikh of the village, and by a German who had been a resident there for 
some years. The name of this man was Florian ; he was a stone-mason by 
trade, and had come out attaclied to the Austrian Mission at Khartoum, but, 
preferring a freer life, had become a great hunter. lie had built himself a 
small circular stone-house, with a roof thatched according to Arab fashion ; 
it was the only stone building in the country. This man was delighted to 
see Europeans, esjiccially as they were convei'sant with his language. Subse- 
quently, Baker engaged him as a hunter, and took his black servant, Richarn, 
into his emjiloy ; he also engaged a former companion of Florian, one Johanu 
ischmidt, to act as his lieutenant in his proposed White Nile expedition. 
Unfortunately Florian was soon after killed by a lion. The animal had been 
wounded by a Tokroori hunter, one of his servants, and was under a bush 
licking the wound. Florian fired at him, and missed ; the lion immediately 
crouched for a spring, Florian fired his remaining barrel ; the ball merely grazed 
the lion, who almost in the same instant bounded forward, and struck him upon 
the head with a fearful blow of the paw, at the same time it seized him by 
the throat. The Toki-oori hunter, instead of Hying from the danger, placed the 
muzzle of his rifle to the lion's ear, and blew its brains out on the body of 
bis master. The German had been struck dead, and great diiliculty was 
found in extracting the claws of the lion, which had penetrated the skull. 

Baker had two or three huts built on a pleasant spot just outside Sofi, 
and passed a season of enjoyment there for some time, lie found an abundance 
of sport, sometimes catching enormous fish ; at other times shooting birds to 
supply his larder; but more frequently hunting elephants, rhinoceros, girafi'es, 
and other large game. Before his arrival at Sofi lie had heard of tlie llamrans, 
who are described as the most extraordinary hunters in the world. They 


Iniiit and kill all wild animals, from the antelope to the elephant, with no 
other weapon tlian the sword. Four of these ag-gageers, as they are also called, 
ore more than a match for the most savage elephant. He had intended taking 
Rome of these men with him during his exploration of the Abyssinian rivers, 
and his intentions having become known, a party waited on him to engage 
fhcir services. 

The Hamrans are distinguished from the otlior Arab tribes by an extra 
length of hair, worn parted down the centre, and arranged in long curls ; in 
other respects there is no perceptible difference in tlieir appearance. They are 
armed, as are all others, with swords and shields ; the latter being circular, 
and generally formed by rhinoceros hide. The style of the shield, and the 
material of which it is made, differs among the several Arab tribes, but 
the form of the sword is invariably the same. The blade is long and straight, 
two-edged, with a simple cross handle, having no other guard for the hand 
than the plain bar, which, at right angles with the hilt, forms the cross. All 
these blades are made at Sollingen, and are exported to Egypt for the trade 
of the interior. The only respect in which the swords of the aggageers differ 
from those in general use, is that they are bound with cord very closely frouv 
the guard, for about nine inches along the blade, to enable them to bo 
grasped by the right liand, while the hilt is held by the left ; the weapon is 
thus converted into a two-handed sword. 

" In a long conversation with these men," says Baker, '' I found a 
corroboration of all that I had previously heard of their exploits, and they 
described the various methods of killing the elephant with the sword. Those 
hunters who could not afford to jourchase horses hunted on foot, in parties not 
exceeding two persons. Their method waste follow the tracks of an elephant, 
so as to arrive at their game between the hours of 10 a.m. and noon, at which 
time the animal is cither asleep or extremely listless, and easy to approach. 
Should they discover the animal asleep, one of the hunters would creep steal- 
thily towards the head, and with one blow sever the trunk while stretched 
upon the ground ; in which case, the elephant would start upon his feet, 
while the hunters escaped in the confusion of the moment. The trunk severed 
Avould cause a haemorrhage sufficient to ensure the death of the elepliant with- 
in about an hour. On the other hand, should the animal be awake upon their 
arrival, it would be impossible to approach the trunk ; in such a case, they 
would creep uj) from behind, and give a tremendous cut at the back sinew 
of the hind leg, about a foot above the heel. Such a blow would disable tho 
elephant at once, and would render comi^aratively easy a second cut to the 
remaining leg; the arteries being divided, the animal would quickly bleed to 
death. These were the methods adopted by poor hunters, until, by tlie sale of 
ivory, they could purchase horses for the higher branch of the art. 

" Provided with horses, the party of hunters should not exceed four. 


They start before daybreak, and ride slowly throughout the country in search 
of elephants, generally keeping along the course of a river until they come 
upon the tracks where a herd or single elephant may have drunk during the 
night. When once upon the tracks, they follow fast towards the retreating 
game. The ele2)hants may be twenty miles distant, but it matters little to 
the aggageers. At length they discover them, and the hunt begins. The 
first step is to single out the bull with the largest tusks ; this is the commence- 
ment of the fight. After a short hunt, the elephant turns upon his pursuers, 
who scatter and fly from his headlong charge until he gives up the pursuit^, 
he at length turns to bay when again pressed by the hunters. It is the duty 
of one man in particular to ride up close to the head of the elephant, and thus 
to absorb its attention upon himself. This ensures a desperate charge. The 
greatest coolness and dexterity arc then required by the hunter, who now. 
the hunted^ must so adapt the speed of his horse to the pace of the elephant, 
that the enraged beast gains in the race until it almost reaches the tail of the 
horse. In this manner the race continues. 

" In the meantime, two hunters gallop up behind the elephant, unseen 
by the animal, whose attention is completely directed to the horse almost 
M'ithin his grasp. With extreme agility, when close to the heels of the ele- 
phant, one of the hunters, while at fall speed, springs to the ground with his 
drawn sword, as his companion seizes tlie bridle, and with one dexterous two- 
handed blow he severs the back sinew. He immediately jumps out of the 
way and remounts his horse; but if the blow is successful, the elephant be- 
comes disabled by the first prcs:>ure of its foot ujoon the ground ; the enormous 
weio"ht of the animal dislocates the joint, and it is rendered helpless. The 
hunter who has hitherto led the eh^phant immediately turns, and, riding to 
within a few feet of the trunk, he induces the animal to attempt another charge. 
This, clumsily made, affords an easy opportunity for the aggageers behind to 
slash the sinew of the remaining leg, and the inmiensc brute is reduced to a 
stand-still ; it dies of loss of blood in a short time — thus positiveli/ killed hij one 
man tviih tivo strolcea of the sword .'" 

Baker accompanied these hunters on numerous expeditions, and witnessed 
with admiration their wonderful courage and dexterity. He grew thoroughly 
tired, however, of Sofi ; and, after spending three months there, determined 
to cross with his party to the other side of the Atbara, and camp there. On 
the 15th of September, they crossed the river, Mrs. Baker performing the 
voyage on a raft formed of her husband's large circular sponging bath, su})- 
ported by eight inflated skins secured to the bedstead, the whole towed over 
by hunters swimming in front. Shortly after they had completed their camp 
a heavy shower of rain fell ; and this proved to be the lust of the season. 
From tliat moment tlie burning sun ra[)id]y dried up, not only the soil, but 
all vegetation. The grass soon began to turn yellow, and by the end of 



Octobei' there was not a green spot to be seen. The climate now was cxceed- 
iiiii:ly unhealthy ; the camp, however, hud no invalids save Mahomet, who 
had on one occasion so gorged himself with half-putrid fish, that he nearly 

Their life in camp was charminoly independent. They were upon 
Aln-ssinian territory, but it was uninhabited, and no one interfered with 
them. Much of the time was spent in fishing, some of the fish weighing 
ujjwards of seventy pounds, and of fine flavour. Troops of baboons were 
numerous, being forced to the river in dry weather for water. These afforded 
much amusement. "It is very amusing to watch the great male baboons 
stalking majestically along, followed by a large herd of all ages, the mothers 
carrying their little ones upon their backs, the latter with a regular jockey 
seat riding most comfortably, while at other times they relieve the monotony 
of the jwsition by sprawling at full length, and holding on by their motheri>' 
back hair. Suddenly a sharp-eyed young ajDc discovers a bush well covered 
with berries, and his greedy munching being quickl}- observed, a general 
rush of youngsters takes place, and much squabbling for the best places 
ensues among the boj-s. This ends in great uproar, when down comes a 
great male, who cufls one, pulls another by the hair, bites another on the 
hind quarters just as he thinks he has escaped, drags back a would-be deserter 
by the tail, and shakes him thoroughly, and thus he shortly restores order, 
preventing all further disputes by sitting under the bush, and quietly enjoy- 
ing the berries himself. 

On the 22nd of November, they prepared for their departure. It was 
necessary to go from Wat el Negur, their present halting-place, to KataritT, 
to engage men. Upon their arrival there, they were hospitably received by 
a Greek merchant. The town was a miserable place, composed simply of 
the usual straw huts of the Arabs. In the bazaar here are Manchester goods, 
all kinds of perfumery, glass beads, cowrie shells, various hardware articles 
of German manufacture, looking-glasses, slippers and sandals, camel ropes 
and bells, butter, groceries of all kinds, and saddlery. Camels, cuttle, and 
donkeys, are also exposed for sale. Obtaining the necessary number of men, 
they left Kutariff and returned to Wat el Negur. On the 17th of December 
they left Wat el Negur for Geera on the Settite, where they bivouacked on 
the sandy bed of the river. Exactly opposite were extensive encampments of 
the Ilamrans, who were congregated in thousands between this point and the 
Atbara junction. 

The first day of the New year (18G2) was set apart to the sports of the field. 
With four gun-bearers, and two camels, both of which carried water, a power- 
ful body of hunters started in search of elephants. The immediate neigh- 
bourhood was a perfect exhibition of gum arabic-bearing mimosas. The gum 
was in perfection, and the finest quality abounded in beautiful amber-coloured 


masses ujoon the stems and branches, varying from tlie size of a nutmeg to 
that of an orange. They gathered a large quantity, but threw it away again, 
to follow, in a most exciting but unsuccessful chase, two rliinocerop. Moving 
on, they encamped at a spot, known to the Arabs as Delladilla, and beyond 
M'hich no European had ever been. Through this romantic wilderness, the 
Settite flowed on a clear and beautiful stream, sometimes contracted between 
clifts to a width of a hundred yards, at others stretching to three times that 
distance. The hippopotami were in great numbers ; many were lying beneath 
the shady trees upon the banks, and splashed into the water on the approach 
of the travellers ; others were basking in large herds upon the shallows ; while 
the 3'oung calves, supported upon the backs of their mothers, sailed about upon 
their animated rafts in perfect security. The plentifulness of this large game 
furnished ojiportunity for the most adventurous sport, as the following descrip- 
tion proves : — 

" A little before sunrise I accompanied the howarlis, or hippopotamus 
hunters, for a day's sport. There were numbers of hippos in this part of the 
river, and we were not long before we found a herd. The hunters failed in 
several attempts to harpoon them, but they succeeded in stalking a crocodile 
after a most peculiar fashion. This large beast was lying upon a sandbank 
on the opposite margin of the river, close to a bed of rushes. 

" The howartis, having studied the wind, ascended for about a quarter 
of a mile, and then swam across the river, harpoon in liand. The two men 
reached the opposite bank, beneath which tiiey alterjiately waded or swam 
down flie stream towards the spot upon which the crocodile was lying. Thus 
advancing under cover of the steep bank, or floating with the stream in deep 
places, and crawling like crocodiles across the shallows, the two hunters at length 
arrived at the bank of rushes on the other side of which the monster was bask- 
ing asleep upon the sand. They were now about waist-deep, and they kept 
close to the rushes, with their harpoons raised, ready to cast, the moment the}' 
should pass the rush-bed and come in view of the crocodile. Thus steadily 
advancing, they had just arrived at the corner within about eight yards of the 
crocodile, wlicn the creature either saw them, or obtained their wind; in an 
instant it rushed to the water; at the same moment, the two harpoons were 
launched with great rapidity by the hunters. One glanced obliquely from 
the scales; the other stuck fairly in the tough hide, and the iron, detached 
from the bamboo, held fast, while tlie ambatch float, runnini; on the surface 
of the water, marked the course of the re^jtilo beneath. 

" The hunters chose a convenient place and recrossed the stream to our 
side, apparently not heeding the crocodile more than wo should fear a pike 
when bathing in England. They would not waste their time by securing 
the crocodile at present, as they wished to kill a hippopotanms ; the float 
would mark the position, and they would be certain to find it later. Wo 


accordinf^ly continued our search for hippopotami. These animals appeared 
to be on the qui vive, and, as the hunters once more failed in an attempt, I 
made a clean shot behind the car of one and killed her dead. At length wc 
arrived at a large pool in which were several sandbanks covered with rushes, 
and many rocky islands. Among these rocks was a herd of hippopotami, con- 
sisting of an old bull and several cows ; a young hippo was standing, like an 
ugly Httlc statue, on a protruding rock, while another infant stood upon its 
mother's back tliat listlessly floated on the water. 

" This was an admirable place for the hunters. They desired mo to lie 
down, and then crept into the jungle out of view of the river ; I presently 
observed them stealthily descending the dry bed about two hundred paces 
above the spot where the hippos were basking behind the rocks. They 
entered the river, and swam down the centre of the stream towards the rock. 
This was highly exciting — the hippos were quite unconscious of the approach- 
ing danger, as, steadily and rapidly, the hunters floated down the strong cur- 
rent ; they ncared the rock, and both heads disajipearcd as they purposely 
sank out of view ; in a few seconds later they re-appeared at the edge of the 
rock upon which the J^oung hippo stood. It would be difficult to say which 
started first, the astonished young hippo into the water, or the harpoons from 
the hands of the howartis ! It was the affair of a moment ; the hunters dived 
directly they had hurled the harjioons, and, swimming for some distance under 
water, they came to the surface, and liastened to the shore lest an infuriated 
hippopotamus should follow them. One harpoon had missed^; the other had 
fixed the bull of the herd, at which it had been surely aimed. This was 
grand sport ! The bull Avas in the greatest fury, and rose to the surface, 
snorting and blowing in his impotent rage ; but as the ambatch float was 
exceedingly large, and this naturally accompanied his movements, he tried 
to escape from his imaginary persecutor, and dived constantly, only to find 
Iiis pertinacious attendant close to him on regaining the surface. Tliis was 
not to last long ; the howartis were in earnest, and they at once called their 
party, who, with two of the aggageers, Abou Do and Suleiman, were near 
at hand ; these men arrived with long ropes that form a portion of the outfit 
for hippo hunting. 

" Tiie whole party halted on the edge of the river, while two men swam 
across with one end of the rope. Upon gaining the opposite bank, I observed 
that a second rope was made fast to the middle of the main line ; thus upon 
our side we held the ends of two ropes, while on the opposite side they had 
only one; accordingly, the point of junction of the two ropes in the centre 
foi'mcd an acute angle. The object of this was soon practically explained. 
Two men upon our side now each held a rope, and one of these walked about 
ten yards before the other. Upon both sides of the river the people now 
advanced, dragging the rope on the surface of the water until they reached 


the ambatch float that was swimminj^ to and fro, according to the movements 
of the liippopotamus below. By a dexterous jerk of the main line, the float 
was now placed between the two ropes, and it was immediately secured in 
the acute angle by bringing together the ends of these ropes on our side. 

" The men on the opposite bank now dropped their line, and our men 
hauled in upon the ambatch float that was held fast between the ropes. Thus 
cleverly made sure, we quickly brought a strain ujoon the hippo, and, although 
I have had some experience in handling big fish, I never knew one pull so 
lustily as the amphibious animal that we now alternately coaxed and bullied, 
lie sprang out of the water, and gnashed his huge jaws, snorted with tremen- 
dous rage, and lashed the river into foam; he then dived and foolishh- 
approached us beneath the water. We quickly gathered in the slack line, and 
took a round turn upon a largo rock, Avithin a few feet of the river. The 
hippo now rose to the surface, about ten yards from the hunters, and, jumping 
half out of the water, he snapped his great jaws together, endeavouring to 
catch the rope, but at the same instant two harjjoons were launched into his 
side. Disdaining retreat, and maddened with rage, the furious animal charged 
from the depths of the river, and, gaining a footing, he reared his bulky form 
from the surface, came boldly upon the sandbank, and attacked the hunters 
open-mouthed. He little knew his enemy ; they were not the men to fear a pair 
of gaping jaws, armed with a deadly array of tusks ; but half a dozen lances 
were hurled at him, some entering his mouth from a distance of five or six 
paces, at the san^.e time several men threw handfuls of sand into his enormous 
ayes. This baffled him more than the lauces; he crunched them between his 
powerful jaws like straws, but he was beaten by the sand, and, shaking his 
huge head, he retreated to the river. During his sally upon the shore, two 
of the hunters had secured the ropes of the harpoons that had been fastened 
in his body just before his charge ; he was now fixed with three of these 
deadly instruments, but suddenly one rope gave way, having been bitten 
through by the enraged beast, who was still beneath the water. 

" Immediately after this he appeared on the surface, and, without a 
moment's hesitation, he once more charged furiously from the water straight 
at the hunters, with his huge mouth open to such an extent that he could have 
accommodated two inside passengers. Suleiman was wild witli delight, and 
springing forward lance in hand, he drove it against the head of the formid- 
able animal, bat without effect. At the same time Abou Do met the hip])o 
sword in hand, reminding mo of Perseus slaying the sea-monster that would 
devour Andromeda, but the sword made a harmless gash, and the lance, already 
blunted against the rock, refused to penetrate the rough hide ; once more 
handfuls of sand were j'clted upon his face, and again repulsed by this blind- 
ing attack, he was forced to retire to his deep hole and wash it from his eyes. 
Six times during the fight the valiant bull hippo quitted his watery fortress 


and cliargcd resolutely at his pursuers ; lie had broken several of their lancna 
in his jaws, other lances had been hurled, and, falling upon the rock, they 
•were blunted, and would not penetrate. The fight had continued for three 
hours, and the sun was about to set, accordingly the hujiters begged me to 
give him the coup He grace., as they had hauled him close to the shore, and 
they feared he would sever the rope with his teeth. I waited for a good 
opportunity, when he boldly raised his head from the water about tlirce 
yards from the riflo, and a bullet from the little Fletcher between the eyes 
closed the last act. This sjiot was not far from the pyramidical hill beneath 
which I had fixed our camp, to which I returned after an amusing day's- 
sport." The following day the howartis secured the crocodile. 

Out of the many descriptions of exciting sport, we select one or two 
more : — " The whole day passed fruitlessly ; I had crept through the thickest 
thoi'ns in vain. Having abundance of meat, I had refused the most tempting 
shots at buffaloes and large antelopes, as I had devoted myself exclusively to 
lions. I was much disappointed, as the evening had arrived without a r-liot 
having been fired ; and as the sun had nearly set, I wandered slowly towards 
home. Passing through alternate open glades of a few yards width, hemmed 
in on all sides by thick jungle, I was carelessly carrying my rifle upon my 
shoulder, as I pushed my way through the opposing thorns, when a sudden 
roar, just before me, at once brought the rifle upon full cock, and I saw a 
magnificent lion standing in the middle of the glade, about ten yards from 
me ; he had been lying on the ground, and had started to his feet upon hear- 
ing me approach through the jungle. For an instant he stood in an attitude 
of attention, as we were hardly visible ; but at the same moment I took a 
quick but sure shot with the little Fletcher. He gave a convuls^ive bound,, 
but rolled over backwards ; before he could recover himself, I fired the left- 
hand barrel. It was a glorious sight. I had advanced a few steps into tho 
glade, and Hassan had quickly handed me a spare rifle, while Taher Noor 
stood by me sword in hand. 

" The lion in the greatest fury, with his shaggy mane bristled in the air^ 
roared with death-like growls, as open-mouthed he endeavoured to charge 
upon us ; but he dragged his hind-quarters on the ground, and I saw imme- 
diately that the little Fletcher had broken his spine. In his tremendous 
exertions to attack, he rolled over and over, gnashing his horrible jaws, and 
tearing holes in the sandy ground at each blow of his tremendous paws that 
would have crushed a man's skull like an egg-shell. Seeing that he was liors- 
de-comhat, I took it coolly, as it was already dusk; and the lion having rolled 
into a dark and thick bush, I thought it would be advisable to defer the final 
attack, as he would be dead before morning. 

" On the following morning, before sunrise, I started with nearly all my 

77 UK TING THE L 1 OX. 1 9 1 

people; nntl a powerful camel, Avitli the intention of bringing the lion homo 
entire. I rode my horse Tetel, who had frequently shown great courage, 
nnd I wished to prove whether he would advance to the body of a lion. Upon 
arrival near the spotwliichwc supposed to have been the scene of the encoun- 
ter, we were rather puzzled, as there was nothing to distinguish the locality ; 
one place exactly resembled another, as the country was flat and sand}", 
interspersed with thick jungle of green nabbuk ; we accordingly spread out 
to beat for the lion. Presently Hadji AH cried out — * There he lies, dead I 
and I immediately rode up to the spot, together with the people. A tremen- 
dous roar greeted us, as the lion started to his fore-feet, and with his beauti- 
ful mane erect, and his great hazel eyes flashing fire, he gave a succession of 
deep short roars, and challenged us to fight. This was a grand picture; he 
looked like a true lord of the forest; but I pitied the poor brute, as he was 
helpless, and although the spirit was game to the last, his strength was para- 
lysed by a broken back. 

"It was a glorious opportunity for the horse. At the fiist unexpected 
roar, tlic camel had bolted with its rider; tlie horse had for a moment started 
on one side, and the men had scattered; but in an instant I had reined Tetel 
up, and I now rode straight towards the lion, which courted the encounter 
about twenty paces distant. I halted exactly opposite tlie noble-looking 
beast, who, seeing me in advance of the party, increased his rage, and growled 
deeply, fixing his glance upon the horse. 1 now petted Tetel on the neck, 
and spoke to him coaxingly ; he gazed intently at the lion, erected his mane 
and snorted, but showed no signs of retreat. ' Bravo ! old boy !' I said, and 
encouraging him by caressing his neck witli my hand, I touched his flank 
gently with my heel ; I let him just feel my hand upon the rein, and with a 
* Come along, old lad,' Tetel slowly, but resolutely advanced step by step 
towards the infuriated lion, that greeted him with crntinued growls. The 
horse several times snorted loudly and stared fixedly at the terrible face before 
him ; but as I constantly patted and coaxed Iiini, he did not refuse to advance. 
I checked him when about six yards from the lion. 

" Tliis would have been a magnificent picture, as the horse, with an 
astonishing courage, faced the lion at bay ; both animals kept their eyes fixed 
upon each other, the one beaming with rage, the other with cool determina- 
tion. This was enough. I dropped the reins upon his neck; it was a signal 
that Tetel perfectly understood, and ho stood firm as a rock, for he knew that 
I was about to fire. 1 took aim at the head of the glorious but distressed lion, 
nnd a bullet from tlie little Fletcher dropped him dead. Tctcl never flinched 
at a shot. I now dismounted, and having petted and coaxed the horse, I 
led him up to the body of the lion, which I also patted, and then gave my 
hand to the horse to smell. He snorted once or twice, and as I released my 
hold of the reins, and left him entirely free, he slowly lowered his head, and 


snijSfed the mane of Ihe dead liou : he then turned a few paces upon one side, 
and commenced eating the withered grass beneath the nabbuk buslies. My 
Arabs were perfectly dcHghted with this extraordinary instance of courage 
exhibited by the horse. I had known that the beast was disabled, but Tetel 
had advanced boldly towards the angry jaws of a lion that appeared about to 
spring. The camel was now brought to the spot and blindfolded, while we 
endeavoured to get the lion upon its buck. As tlic camel knelt, it required 
the united exertions of eight men, including myself, to raise the ponderous 
animal, and to secure it across the saddle. 

"Although so active and cat-like in its movements, a full-grown lion 
weighs about five hundred and fifty pounds. Having secured it wo shortly 
arrived in camp ; the coiqj d? ceil was beautiful, as the camel entered the 
enclosure with the shaggy head and massive paws of the dead lion hanging 
upon one flank, while the tail nearly descended to the ground upon the oppo- 
site side. It was laid at full length before my wife, to whom the claws were 
dedicated as a trophy to be worn round the neck as a talisman. Not only 
are the claws prized by the Arabs, but the moustache of the lion is carefully 
preserved and sewn in a leather envelope, to bo worn as an amulet : such a 
chai-m is sujjposed to j^rotcct the wearer from the attacks of wild animals." 

On another occasion, a large bull elephant was discovered drinking. The 
country around was partly woody, and the ground strewed with fragments 
of rocks, ill adapted for riding. The elephant had made a desperate charge, 
scattering the hunters in all directions, and very nearly overtaking Mr. Baker. 
The animal then retreated into a stronghold composed of rocks and uneven 
ground, with a few small leafless trees growing in it. " Here the elephant 
stood facing the party like a statue, not moving a muscle beyond the qu'ck 
and restless action of the eyes, which were watching on all sides. Two of 
the aggageers getting into its rear by a wide circuit, two others, one of whom 
was the renowned Rodur Sherrif, mounted on a thoroughly-trained bay mare, 
rode slowly towards the animal. Coolly the mare advanced towards her waiy 
antagonist until about- nine yards of its head. The elephant never moved. 
Not a word was spoken. The perfect stillness was at length broken by a snort 
from the mare, who gazed intently at the elephant, as though watching for 
:he moment of attack. Rodur coolly sat with his eyes fixed upon those of the 

" With a shrill scream the enormous creature then suddenly dashed on 
him like an avalanche. Round went the mare as though upon a i^ivot, away 
over rocks and stones, fljdng like a gazelle, with the monkey-like form of 
Rodur Sherrif leaning forward and looking over his left shoulder as the ele- 
phant rushed after him. For a moment it appeared as if the mare must be 
caught. Had she stumbled all would have been lost, but she gained in the 
race after a few quick bounding strides, and Rodur, still looking behind hiui. 


kept his distance, so close, however, to the creature, that its outstretched 
trunk was within a few feet of tlie mare's tail, 

"The two aggagecrs who had ke2:it in the rear, now dashed forward 
close to the hind quarters of the furious elephant, who, maddened with the 
excitement, heeded nothing but Rodur and his mare. When close to the tail 
of the elephant, the sword of one of the aggageers flaslied from its slieath 
as, grasping his trusty blade, he leaped nimbly to the ground, while his 
companion caught the reins of his horse. Two or three bounds on foot, with 
the sword clutched in both hands, and he was close behind the elephant. A 
bright glance shone like lightning as the sun struck on the descending steel. 
This was followed by a dull crack, the sword cutting through skin and sinew, 
and sinking deep into the bone, about twelve inches above the foot. At the 
next stride, the elephant halted dead short in the midst of his tremendous 
charge. The aggagecr who had struck the blow, vaulted into the saddle 
with his naked sword in hand. At the same moment Rodur turned shaq) 
rc-and, and, again facing tlie elephant, stooped quickly from the saddle, to 
pick up from the ground a handful of dirt, which he threw into the face of 
the vicious animal, that once more attempted to rush upon him. It was 
impossible ; tlic foot was dislocated, and turned up in front like an old shoe. 
In an instant the other aggagecr leaped to the ground, and again the sharj) 
sword slashed the remaining leg. The great bull-elephant could not move I 
The first cut with the sword had utterly disabled it ; the second was its death- 
blow ; the arteries of the leg were divided, and the blood spouted in jets 
from the wounds. We were obliged to return immediately to our distant 
camp, and the hunters resolved to accompany their camels to tlie spot upon 
the following day. We turned our horses' heads, and rode direct towards 
home, which we did not reach until nearly midnight, having ridden upwards 
of sixty miles during the day." 

The hunting of these men was beautiful ; and it was diillcult to decide 
which most to admire, the coolness and courage of him who led tiie elephant, 
or the extraordinary skill and activity of the aggahr who dealt the fatal blow. 
The following day, the hunters started with camels and sacks to where they 
left the dead elepliant, but returned at night thoroughly disgusted. Some of 
the natives had been before them, probably attracted to the carcase by the 
cloud of vultures that had gathered in the air. Nothing remained but tho 
bones and skull, the flesli and the ivory had been stolen. Tlie tracks of a 
great number of men were left upon the ground, and the aggageers were for- 
tunate to return without an attack from overwhelming numbers. 

These hunting excursions sometimes exposed them to danger from other 
animals than those of which they were in pursuit. Baker tells us how on one 
occasion he determined to watch for elephants, as their tracks were numerous 
throughout the bed of the river. His wife and two gun-bearers accompanied 



him, and they sat bcliind an immense tree tliat grew on llic bank, exactly 
above tlie drinking-placc. He watclied for liour.s, until he and his men fell 
asleep. His Avife alone was awake, and a sudden tug at his f^lecve attracted 
his attention. The moon was bright, and she had heard a noise among the 
branches of the tree above them ; there were no leaves, so that he quickly 
observed some large animal ujoon a thick bough. The men awoke and 
declared it was a baboon ; but he knew this to be impossible, as the baboon 
is never solitary. He was just jirejDaring to firo, when down jumped a largo 
leopard within a few feet of them, and vanislied before he had time to shoot. 
It must have caught scent of the party, and quietly ascended the tree to recon- 
noitre. Another night he received an audacious visit. He was asleeii in his 
tent, when ho was suddenly awakened by a slight pull at his sleeve, which 
was always the signal of his wife if anything was wrong. She whispered 
that a hyena had been Avitliin the tent, but that it had just bolted out, as 
these animals are so wary that they detect the slightest movement or noise. 
As a rule, he never shot at hyenas, but, as he feared it might cat their saddles, 
he just lay in bed with his rifle to hisslioulder, pointed towards the tent-door, 
through which the moon was shining brightly. In a few minutes a grey- 
looking object stood like an apparition at the entrance, peering into the tent 
to see if all was right before it entered. Ho touched the trigger, and tlie 
hyena fell dead, v/ith the bullet through its head. It was a regular veteran, 
as the body was covered with old scars frora continual conflicts with other 


The River Roijan — Counbj of Mck Kimimir — Valtuycs — Gallahat — The ToJ:rooris 
— Hirers Rahad and Dliuler — Arrival at Khartoum. 

HAVING explored the Scttitc into tliG gorge of the mountain chain of 
Abyssinia, Baker turned south, and, at a distance of twelve miles, 
reached the River Royan. During the rainy season, this river is a terrilic 
torrent, and supplies a large body of water to the Settite ; but it runs dry 
almost immediately upon the cessation of the rains. Descending the bank, 
the travellers arrived at the margin of the river, and continued their course 
up the stream along the sandy bed, which formed an excellent road. They 
camped in a forest of the largest trees they had as yet seen in Africa, and 
joined themselves to a joart}^ of hunters who were scouring the country for 
game. After hunting and exploring for some days in company with this 
party, IJakcr determined to follow the bed of the Ivoyan to its junction with 
the Settite. He started at daybreak, and, after a long march, arrived at the 
spot. The entire course of the Royan was extremely rapid, but, at this ex- 
tremity, it entered a rock}' pass between two hills, and leapt, in a succession 
of grand falls, into a circular basin of about four hundred yards diameter. 
This peculiar basin was surrounded by high cliffs, covered with trees ; to the 
left was an island, formed by a rock about sixty feet high ; and at the foot 
was a deep and narrow gorge, through which tlie Settite River made its exit 
from the circle. From this point he traversed the country in all directions, 
penetrating, upon one occasion, into the very heart of the Base, half-way 
between the Settite and the River Gash, lie visited the country of Mek 
NInunur, a powerful chief, whose stronghold was upon a lofty table mountain, 
about five thousand feet high. Continuing his journey in a south-westerly 
direction, he passed through a country ornamented by extensive cultivation, 
and numerous villages, till he came to the junction of the two great rivers, 
Angrab and Salaam. In this beautiful country he remained from the 29th 
of ]\Iarch to the 14th April, during which time he was always in the saddle, 
or on foot. 

While hunting he had frequent opportunities of watching the habits of 
the vulture and other birds of ])rey. " Throughout all the countries." he 


remarks, " tliat I had traversed, these birds were in enormous numbers. A 
question has been frequently discussed whether the vulture is directed to his 
prey by the sense of smell, or by keenness of vision ; I have paid much 
attention to their habits, and, although, there can be no question that their 
power of scent is great, I feel convinced that all birds of prey are attracted 
to their food principally by their acuteness of sight. If a vulture were blind, 
it would starve ; but were the nostrils plugged up with some foreign substance, 
to destroy its power of smell, it would not materially interfere Avith its usual 
mode of hunting. If birds of prey trusted to their nostrils, they would keep 
as near the ground as possible, like the caVrion crow, which I believe is the 
exception which proves the rule. It is an astounding sight to Avitness the 
sudden arrival of vultures at the death of an animal when a few momenta 
before not a bird has been in sight in the cloudless sky. 

" I have frequently lain down beneath a bush, after having shot an 
animal, to watch the arrival of various species of birds in regular succession. 
They invariably appear in the following order: — No. 1, tlie black and white 
crow ; this knowing individual is most industrious in seeking for his food, 
and is gencrall}^ to be seen either perched upon rocks, or upon trees; I 
believe ho trusts much to his sense of smell, as he is never far from the 
ground, at the same time he keeps a vigilant look-out with a vciy sharp pair 
of eyes. No. 2, is the common buzzard ; this bird, so well known for its 
extreme daring, is omnipresent, and trusts generally to sight, as it will stooj) 
at a piece of red cloth in mistake for flesh ; thus proving that it depends 
more upon vision than smell. No. 3, is the red-faced small vulture. No. 4, 
is the large bare-throated vulture. No, 5, the marabou stork, sometimes 
accompanied by the adjutant." 

" When employed in watching the habits of these birds, it is interesting 
to make the experiment of concealing a dead animal beneath a dense bush. 
This I have frequently done ; in which case the vultures never find it unless 
they have witnessed its death ; if so, they will already have pounced in their 
descent while you have been engaged in concealing the body ; they will then, 
upon near approach, discover it by the smell. But, if an animal is killed in 
thick ffrass, eijrht or ten feet high, the vultures will seldom discover it. I 
have frequently known the bodies of large animals, such as elephants and 
buffaloes, to lie for days beneath the shade of the dense nabbuk bushes, 
unattended by a single vulture ; whereas, if visible, they would have been 
visited by these birds in thousands. Vultures and the marabou stork fly at 
enormous altitudes. I believe that every species keeps to its own particular 
elevation, and that the atmosphere contains regular strata of birds of prey, who, 
invisible to the human eye at their enormous height, are constantly resting 
upon their wide-spread wings, and soaring in circles, watching with telescopic 
sight the world beneath. 


*'If an animal bo skinned, the red surface will attract the vultures in an 
instant ; this proves tliat their sight, and not tlieir scent, has been attracted 
by an object that suggests blood. I have frequently watched them wlien I 
liave shot an animal, and my people have commenced the process of skinnin"-. 
At first, not a bird has been in sight, as I have lain on my back and gazed 
into the spotless blue sky; but hardly has the skin been half withdrawn, 
than specks have appeared in the heavens, rajiidly increasing. ' Caw, caw,' 
has been heard several times from the neighbouring bushes; the buzzards 
Iiavo swept down close to my people, and have snatclied a morsel of clotted 
blood from the ground. The specks have increased to winged creatures, at 
tlie great height resembling flies, when presently a rusliing sound behind me, 
like a whirlwind, has been followed by the pounce of a red-faced vulture, 
tliat has fallen from the heavens in haste with closed wings, to the bloody 
feast, followed quickly by many of his brethren. The sky has become alive 
with black specks in the far-distant blue, with wings hurrying from all quar- 
ters. At length a coronet of steady, soaring vultures, forms a wide circle far 
above, as they hesitate to descend, but continue to revolve around the object 
of attraction. The great bare-necked vulture suddenly appears. 

"The animal has been skinned, and the required flesh secured by the 
men ; we withdraw a hundred 2)aces from the scene. A general rush and 
descent takes place ; hundreds of hungry beaks are tearing at the oftal. 
The great bare-necked vulture claims respect among the crowd; but another 
form has appeared in the blue sky, and rapidly descends. A pair of long 
ungainly legs, hanging down beneath the enormous wings, now touch the 
ground, and Abou Seen (father of the teeth or beak — the Arab name for the 
marabou) has arrived, and ho stalks proudly towards the crowds, jjocking 
his way with his long bill through the struggling vultures, and swallowing 
the lion's share of the repast. Abou Seen — last, but not least — had arrived 
from the highest region, while others had the advantage of the start. This 
bird is very numerous through the whole tributaries of Abyssinia, and may 
generally be seen perched upon the rocks of the waterside, watching for 
small fish, or any reptile that may chance to come within his reach. The 
well-known feathers are situated in a plume beneath the tail." 

On the afternoon of the Hth of April, Mr. and Mrs. Baker quitted their 
ramping ground, and in a few days reached Gallabat, the frontier market- 
town of Abyssinia, in the bottom of a valley surrounded by hills. The day 
of their arrival was market-day, and crowds of people were in and about the 
town. As the party descended the hill and arrived on the scene below, with 
their nine camels heavily laden, with the heads and horns of a multitude of 
different beasts, they were beset by the throng, who were curious to know 
whence so strange a caravan had come. Among their visitors was an Abys- 
binian merchant — an agreeable and well-informed man, who had been to 


Paris and London, and spoke French and Eng-lish. The principiil trade of 
Galhibat is in cotton, coffee, bees-wax, and hides; it is the great centre of 
commerce between Abyssinia and the Egyptian provinces. Hero they nict 
an Italian merchant from Khartoum, ■who had come to purchase coffee and 
bees-wax. Two German missionaries arrived also soon after, on their way 
to preach the gospel in Abyssinia; one of them having, for his special object, 
the conversion of the Abyssinian Jews to Christianity. 

In Gallabat and the neighbourhood, there is a large colony of the Tok- 
rooris, whose ancestors were natives of Darfur, converted to the Jlahom- 
niedan faith after the conquest of Northern Africa by the Arabs. The colon}- 
Avas first formed by pilgrims to Mecca, and has rapidly increased in the same 
manner. As the number of settlers multijjlicd, j^ermission was granted by 
the King of Abyssinia that they should occupy this portion of his territory, 
upon payment of taxes as his subjects. The Tokrooris are a fine, powerful 
race, very black, and of the negro type. They are great drunkards, very 
quarrelsome, and bad servants ; but when they work for themselves, arc 
exceedingly industrious. They are very independent. They have culti- 
vated cotton to a considerable extent, notwithstanding tlie double taxes 
enforced by both Abyssinians and Egyptians ; and keep their gardens with 
extreme neatness. They inhabit a district about ioxiy miles long, and num- 
ber about twenty thousand. They arm themselves with lances of various 
patterns ; their favourite weapon being a horrible instrument, barbed wdth a 
diabolical intention, as it can neither be withdrawn nor pushed completely 
through the body, but, if once in the flesh, there it must remain. Another 
curious weapon used by them, is the trombash, somewhat resembling the 
Australian boomerang. It is a piece of flat, hard wood, about two feet in 
length, the end of which turns sharply at an angle of about 30°. They 
throw this with great dextcrit)-, and inflict severe wounds with the hard ami 
sharp edge; but, unlike the boomerang, the weapon does not return to the 
thrower. The w'omen are very powerful, but very plain. They are good 
workers, rarely idle, and remarkably clean. 

Several slave merchants had their establishments at Gallabat. They 
were arranged under large tents made of matting, and contained many j-oung 
girls of extreme beauty, ranging from nine to seventeen years of age. Their 
features were delicately formed, of a rich brown tint, with eyes like those of 
the gazelle. They were natives of the Galla, on the borders of Abyssinia, 
from which country they were brought by the Abyssinian traders to be sold 
for the Turkish harems. .. They are very elegant and graceful in form ; the 
hands and feet are exquisitely delicate ; the nose aquiline, with lai-ge and 
finely-shaped nostrils ; the hair black and glossy, reaching to about the 
middle of the back, but rather coarse in texture. They are remarkably quick 
at learning ; px'oud and high-spirited ; but most captivating in their manners. 


and very affectionate and true. Several Europeans of \ng^\\ standing at Khar- 
toum have married tlicsc Ab3'ssinian giils, and have invariably found them 
devoted and faithful wives. The price of one of these beauties of nature at 
Gallabat was from twenty-five to forty dollars. 

From Gallabat our travellers pushed on to the River liahad. At the place 

Avhcrc they struck ujxm it, it did not exceed eighty or ninety yards in breadth. 

Its banks are in many places perpendicular, and are about forty-five feet 

above the bed. Tliis river flows through rich alluvial soil ; the course is 

extremely circuitous ; it is free from rocks and shoals ; the stream is gentle, 

and admirabl}^ adapted for small steamers. On the IGth of May, they 

arrived at the river Binder, a river similar to the Rahad, but larger, the 

average breadth being about a hundred and ten yards. The banks are about 

fifty feet high. It is very deej) in some 2ilaces, though the bed in other parts 

is almo^;t dry ; and the many trunks of fallen trees are serious obstacles to 

navigation. They continued their journey along tlic banks of the Binder for 

.some days, when they made a direct cut across the flat country to cross the 

Kahad, and reacli Abou Harraz on the Blue Nile. 

" Buring the march," says Baker, ''over a portion of the country that 
had been cleared by burning, we met a remarkably curious hunting-party. 
A number of the common black and white stork were hunting for grasshoppers 
and other insects, but mounted on the back of each stork was a large copper- 
coloured fly-catcher, which, perched like a rider on his liortc, kept a bright 
look-out for insects, which, from its elevated position, it could easily discover 
upon the ground. I watched them for some time ; whenever the storks ])er- 
ceived a grasshopper or other winged insect, they chased them on foot, but, if 
they missed their game, the fly-catchers darted from their backs and flew 
after the insects like falcons, catching them in their beaks, and then returning 
to their steeds, to look out for another opportunity." 

On the 23rd of May they arrived at the Kahad, close to its junction with 
the Blue Nile. Upon arrival at Abou Harraz, four miles to the north of the 
junction of the two rivers, they had marched two hundred and eighty miles 
from Gallabat. They were now about one hundred and fifteen miles from 
Khartoum, and stood upon the banks of the magnificent Blue Nile — the last 
of the Abyssinian affluents. At Abou Harraz, Baker discharged his camels, 
and endeavoured to engage a boat to convey Mrs. Baker and himself and 
party to Khartoum, intending thus to avoid the dusty and uninteresting ride 
of upwards of a hundred miles along the flat banks of the river. There was 
not, however, a vessel of any kind to be seen, except one miserable affair, for 
which the owner demanded fourteen hundred piastres for a passage. He 
accordingly procured fresh camels, and started, intending to march as rapidly 
as ])ossible. It was intensely hot, and whenever they felt a breeze it wa.s 
accompanied by a sufl'ocating dust; but the sight of the broad river was cool 


Rnd rcfrcsliino:. During the dry season the Blue Nile is clear, and its broad 
surface reflects tlie colour of the blue sky — hence tlie appellation; but at that 
time it is extremely shallow, and in many places is fordable at a depth of 
three feet. 

Throughout the route from Abou Harraz to Kliartoum there is no object of 
interest; it is the same vast flat, decreasing rapidly in fertility until it mingles 
with the desert; and once more, as our travellers journej'ed to the nortli, they 
left the fertile lands behind, and entered upon sterility. The glare of barren 
plains, and the heat of the summer's sun, Avere fearful. On the 11th of June, 
they arrived opposite to Khartoum. As the morning sun shone upon the 
capital of the Soudan provinces, they were delighted with the view ; the 
groves of date-trees shaded the numerous buildings, contrasting their dark- 
green foliage with the many coloured houses on the margin of the beautiful 
river ; long lines of vessels and masts gave life to the scene, and they felt that 
once more, after twelve months of utterly wild life, they had reached civilis- 
ation. Crossing in the large ferry-boat which plied regularly to the town on 
the south bank, they landed at Khartoum, and, having climbed up the steep 
bank, inquired the way to the British Consulate. In the centre of a long 
mud wall, ventilated by frameless windows, they perceived a large archway, 
with closed doors ; above this entrance was a shield, with a device that glad- 
dened their eyes — there was the British lion, and the unicorn ! This was 
the English Consulate. Mr. Petherick, the consul, had started from Khartoum 
in the preceding March, expecting to meet Speke and Grant in the upper 
portion of the Nile regions, on their road from Zanzibar, and had begged Mx". 
Baker to occupy some rooms in the Consulate during his absence. 

]\[r. Baker gives an amusing account of the state of matters within the 
English Consulate, which was more like a menagerie than a civilised Euro- 
pean's house. " We entered," he says, " a large courtyard, and wore imme- 
diately received by two ostriches that came to meet us. These birds enter- 
tained us by an impromptu race, as hard as they could go round the court- 
yard, as though performing in a circus. When this little divertissement was 
(inishi'il wo turned to the right, and were shown by a servant up a flight of 
steps into a large airy room, that was to be our residence, which, being well 
protected from the sun, was cool and agreeable. Shortly after our arrival, 
a vessel arrived from Mr. Petherick's party with unfavourable accounts. 
They had started too late in the season, owing to some difficulties in pro- 
curing boats ; and the change of the wind to the south, with violent rain, had 
caused great suffering, and had retarded their progress. This same boat 
had brought two leopards that were to be sent to England : these animals 
were led into the courtyard, and, having been secured by chains, they 
formed a valuable addition to the menagerie, which consisted of two wild 
boars, two leopards, one hyena, two ostriches, and a cynoccplialus^ or dog- 


faced baboon, ■who won my lieai't by taking an especial fancy to me, because 
I had a beard like his master. 

"Although I take a great interest in wild animals, I confess to having 
an objection to sleep in the Zoological Gardens should all the wild beasts be 
turned loose. I do not believe that even the Secretary of tliat learned Society 
would volunteer to sleep with the lions ; but as tlie leopards of tlie Khartoum 
Consulate constantly broke their chains, and attacked the dogs and a cow ; 
and as the hyena occasionally got loose, and tlie wild boars destroyed their 
mud wall, and nearly killed one of my Tokrooris during the night, by carv- 
ing him like a scored leg of pork with their tusks — the fact of sleeping in 
the ojjen air in (he verandah, with the simple protection of a mosquito-net- 
ting-, was full of pleasant excitement, and was a piquante entertainment that 
prevented a reaction of ennui after twelve months passed in constant watch- 
fulness. The shield over the Consulate door, with the lion and the unicorn, 
was but a sign of the life within ; as the grand picture outside the showman's 
wagon may exemplify the nature of his exhibition. I enjoyed myself ex- 
tremely with these creatures, especially when the ostriches invited them- 
selves to tea, and swallowed our slices of water-melons and the greater por- 
tion of the bread from the table a few moments before we were seated. 
These birds appeared to enjoy life amazingly: one kind of food was as sweet 
as another. They attacked a basket of white porcelain beads that had been 
returned by Mr. Petherick's men, and swallowed them in great numbers in 
mistake for dhurra, until they were driven off: they were the scavengers of 
the court3'ard, that consumed the dung of the camels and horses, together 
with all other impurities." 

For some months they resided at Khartoum, as it was necessary to make 
extensive preparations for the White Nile expedition, and to await the arrival 
of the north wind, which would enable them to start early in December. 
Upon their first arrival in Khartoum, from 11th June until early in October, 
the heat was very oppressive, the thermometer seldom below 95" Fahr. in the 
shade, and frequently 100°, while the nights were 82' Fahr. In the winter, 
the temperature was agreeable, the shade 80% the night C2' Falir But the 
chilliness of the north wind was exceedingly dangerous, as the sudden gusts 
checked perspiration and produced various maladies, more cspeciall}- fever. 
They had been extremely fortunate, for although exposed for more than a 
year in the burning sun, they had had remarkably good health, with the 
exception of one severe attack wliicli Mrs. Baker had at Sofi. 

The first portion of their ta.-k was completed. They had visited all the 
Kile tributaries of Abyssinia — the Atbara, Suttite, Salaam, Angrab, Kaliad, 
Dinder, and the great Blue Kile, that had been traced to its source by Bruce. 
The diflicult task still lay before them, of penetrating the unknown regions in 
the distant south, to discover the White Kile source. Speke and Grant were 



ou their road fvom Zanzibar, making their way across untrodden ground, 
towards Gondokoro. Petherick's expedition to assist them had met with mis- 
fortune, and been greatly delayed ; and Mr. Baker therefore hoped to reacli 
the equator, and perhaps to meet the Zanzibar explorers somewhere about 
the sources of the Nile. 


Khartoum — The White Nile Trade — Departure from Khartoum — The Shillooks — • 
Sobat River— Bahr El Gazal — Hative Tribes — Arrival at Gondokoro — Meet- 
ing with Speke and Grant. 

KHARTOUM is the capital of the Soudan provinces, and is situated iu lat. 
15° 29', on the point of land forming the angle between the White and 
Blue Niles at their junction. It has a population of thirty thousand inhabit- 
ants. The dwellings are mostly huts of sun-burnt bricks. It extends over a 
flat hardly above the level of the river at liigh water, and is occasionally 
flooded. It has neither drains nor cesspools ; the streets are full of all sorts 
of nuisances, and abound in offensive smells. It is impossible to imagine a 
more wretched, filthy, and unhealthy spot. There are some respectable 
houses, occui)icd by tlic traders of the country ; a few of whom are French, 
German, and Italian. The general population is made up of Greeks, Copts, 
Syrians, Armenians, Turks, Arabs, and Egyptians. In spite of its unhealthx- 
ucss, it is the general emporium for the trade of the Soudan, from which the 
productions of the country, such as ivory, liides, senna, gum arable, and bees- 
wax, are transported to Lower Egypt. These exports are all natural pro- 
ductions ; and have nothing in them to exhibit or promote the industry or 
cajjacity of the natives of the Soudan. 

Khartoum lives on what is called the White Nile trade. " Without the 
White Nile trade," says Baker, " Khartoum would almost cease to exist ; and 
that trade is kidna2)ping and murder. The character of the Khartoumers 
needs no further comment. The amount of ivory brought down from the White 
Nile is a mere bagatelle as an cxj)ort, the annual value being £40,000. The 
people for the most part engaged in the nefarious traffic of the White Nile 
are Syrians, Copts, Turks, Circassians, and some few Europeans. So closely 
connected with the difliculties of my cxj)odition is that accursed slave-trade, 
that the so-called ivory trade of the White Nile requires an explanation. 

'' Throughout the Soudan money is exceedingly scarce, and the rate of 
interest exorbitant, varying, according to the securities, from thirty-six to 
eighty per cent. ; this fact proves general poverty and dishonesty, and acts as 
a preventive to all improvement. So higli and fatal a rate deters all honest 
enterprise, and the country nmst lie in ruin under such a system. The wild 


f])eculator borrows upon such terms, to rise suddenly like a rocket, or to fall 
like its exhausted stick. Thus, honest enterprise being impossible, dislionesty 
takes the lead, and a successful expedition to the "White Nile is supposed to 
overcome all charges. There are two classes of White Nile traders, the one 
possessing capital, the other being penniless adventurers ; the same system 
of operations is pursued by both, but that of the former will bo evident fx'om 
the description of the latter. 

"A man witliout means forms an expedition, and borrows money for 
this purpose at 100 per cent, after this fashion. He agrees to repay tlie lender 
in ivory at one half its market value. Having obtained the required sum, he 
hires several vessels, and engages from one hundred to three hundred men, 
composed of Arabs and runaway villains from distant countries, who have 
found an asylum from justice in the obscurity of Khartoum. He purchases 
guns and large quantities of ammunition for his men, together with a few hun- 
dred pounds of glass beads. The piratical expedition being complete, he 
pays his men five months' wages in advance, at the rate of forty-live piastres 
(nine shillings) per month, and agrees to give them eighty piastres per month 
for any joeriod exceeding the five months advanced. His men receive their 
advance partly in cash and partly in cotton stuffs for clothes, at an exorbitant 
price. Every man has a strip of paper, upon which is written by the clerk 
of the expedition the amount he has received, both in goods and money; and 
this paper he must produce at the final settlement, 

" The vessels sail about December, and on arrival at the desired locality, 
the party disembark and proceed into the interior, until they arrive at the 
village of some negro chief, with whom they establish an intimacy. Charmed 
with his new friends, the power of whose weapons he acknowledges, the negro 
chief does not neglect the opportunity of seeking their alliance to attack a 
hostile neighbour. Marching throughout the night, guided by their negro 
liosts, they bivouac within an hour's march of the unsuspecting village doomed 
to an attack, about half an hour before break of day. The time ariives, and 
quietl}' surrounding the village while its occupants are still sleeping, they 
lire the grass Imts in all directions, and pour volleys of musketry through the 
fiaming thatch. Panic-stricken, the unfortunate victims rush from their burn- 
ing dwellings, and the men are shot down like pheasants in a battue, while 
the women and children, bewildered in the danger and confusion, are kid- 
napped and secured. The herds of cattle, still within their kraal or ' zareeba,' 
are easily disposed of, and are driven ofi' witli great rejoicing, as the prize of 
victor}-. The women and children are then fastened together, the former 
secured by an instrument called a sheba, made of a forked pole, the neck of 
the prisoner fitting into the fork, secured by a cross piece lashed behind, 
while the wrists, brought together in advance of the body, are tied to the pole. 
The children are then fastened bv their necks with a roi^e attaclied to the 


women, and thus form a living cliain, in which order thoy are marcliedto tho 
head-qu-'.rters in compsny with the captured herds. 

" Tliis is tho commencement of business ; should there bo ivory in any 
of tlio huts not destroyed by the fire, it is appropriated ; a general plunder 
takes place. The traders' party dig up the floors of tho huts, to search for 
ii'on hoes, which are generally thus concealed, as the greatest treasure of tho 
negroes; <he granaries are overturned and wantonly destroyed, and the hands 
are cut off the bodies of the slain, tho more easily to detach the copper or 
iron bracelets that are usually worn. With this booty, the traders return to 
their negro ally ; they have thrashed and discomfited his enemy, which 
delights him ; they present him with thirty or forty head of cattle, which 
intoxicates him with joy, and a present of a pretty little captive girl, of about 
fourteen, com2:)letes his happiness. 

" But business is only commenced. The negro covets cattle, and tho 
trader has now captured, perhaps, two thousand head. They are to be liad 
for ivory, and shortly the tusks ajipcar. Ivory is daily brought into camp 
in exchange for cattle, a tusk for a cow, according to size — a 2n'oritable busi- 
ness, as the cows have cost nothing. The trade proves brisk, but still thero 
remain some little customs to be observed — some sliglit formalities, well 
understood by the White Nile trade. The slaves, and two-thirds of tho 
cajitured cattle, belong to tlie trader, but his men claim, as their perquisite, 
one-third of the stolen animals. These having been divided, the slaves aro 
put up to public auction among the men, who purchase such as they require ; 
the amount being entered on the papers (serki) of the purchasers, to bo 
reckoned against their wages. To avoid the exposure, should the document 
fall into tho hands of the government or European consuls, the amount is 
not entered as for tho purchase of a slave, but is divided for fictitious sup- 
plies. Thus, should a slave be purchased for one thousand piastres, that 
amount woidd appear on the document somewhat as follows: — 

"Soap ;")() Piastres 

Tarboash (caj)) 100 

Araki oOO 

Shoes 200 

Cotton cloth loO 



" The slaves sold to the men aro constantly being changed and resold 
among themselves; but should tho relatives of the kidnapped women and 
children wish to ransom them, the trader takes them from his men, cancels 
the amount of purchase, and restores them to their relations for a certain 


number of elephants' tuslcs, as may bo agreed upon. Should any slave 
attempt to escape, she is punished either by brutal nuggiug, or shot, or 
hanged, as a warning to others. An attack, or razzia, such as described, 
generally leads to a quarrel with the negro ally, who, in his turn, is murdered 
and plundered by the trader — his women and children naturally becoming 
slaves. A good season for a party of a hundred and fifty men should pro- 
duce about two hundred cantars (twenty thousand lbs.) of ivory, valued at 
Khartoum at four thousand pounds. The men being paid in slaves, the 
wages should be «//, and there should bo a surplus of four or five hundred 
slaves for the trader's own profit — worth, on an average, five to six pounds 

" The boats are accordingly packed with a human cargo, and a portion 
of the trader's men accompany them to the Soudan, while the remainder 
of the party form a camp or settlement in the country they have adopted, 
and industriously plunder, massacre, and en.slave, until their master's return 
with boats from Khartoum in the following season, by which time they are 
.sui^posed to have a cargo of slaves and ivory ready for shipment. The busi- 
ness thus thoroughly established, the slaves are lauded at various points 
within a few days' journey of Khartoum, at which places are agents, or 
purchasers, waiting to receive them with dollars prepared for cash payments. 
The purchasers and dealers are, for the most part, Arabs. The slaves are 
then marched across the country to diflercnt places ; many to Sennaar, whei'e 
they are sold to other dealers, who sell them to the Arabs and Turks. Others 
are taken immense distances to ports on the Red Sea, Souakim, and Masowa, 
there to be shipped for Arabia and Persia. Many are sent to Cairo; and, in 
fact, they are disseminated throughout the slave-dealing East, the White Nile 
being the great nursery for the supply. The amiable trader returns from the 
White Nile to Khartoum ; hands over to his creditor sufficient ivory to liquidate 
the original loan of £1,000, and, already a man of capital, he commences as 
an independent trader." 

Such was the White Nile trade when Baker prepared to start from Khar- 
toum on his expedition to the Nile sources. The place was a nest of slave- 
traders, who looked with jealous eyes upon every stranger venturing within 
the precincts of their holy land, sacred, as Mr. Baker observes, to slaver)' 
and to every abomination and villany that man can commit. The Turkish 
officers pretended to discountenance slavery ; yet every house was full of 
slaves, and Egyptian officers received part of their pay in slaves. The autho- 
rities, therefore, looked upon the proposed exploration of the White Nile by 
a European traveller as likely to interfere with their perquisites, and so threw 
every obstacle in his way. As the government of Soudan refused to comply 
with his request for an escort of properly-trained soldiers, the only men he 
could get were the miserable cut-throats of Khartoum, who had been accus- 


tomcd all tlieir lives to murder and robbery in the White Nile trade. On tho 
18t!i December, 18G2, Thursday, one of tlie most lucky da}-^ for starting, 
according to Arab superstition, Mr. Baker and his "wife left Khartoum. 
Tiiree vessels had been engaged, and were laden with large quantities of 
stores, with four hundred bushels of corn, and twenty-nine transport animals, 
camels, horses, and donkeys. Their party consisted of ninety-six souls, 
including Johann Schmidt and the faithful black, Ricliarn, and fifty-nine 
M'cll-armcd men. 

On the 30th, poor Johann Schmidt, who was ill at starting, departed this 
life. Mr. Baker's entry concerning his death is very touching: — " ijOth Doc. 
Johann is in a dying state, but sensible ; all his hopes, poor fellow, of saving 
money in my service, and returning to Bavaria, are past. I sat l)y his bed 
for some hours ; there was not a ray of hope ; he could speak with difficulty, 
and the flies walked across his glazed eyeballs without his knoAvledge. 
Gently bathing his face and hands, I asked him if I could deliver any mes- 
sage to his relatives. Ho faintly uttered, 'I am prepared to die; I have 
neither parents or relations; but there is one — she' — . lie faltered; he 
could not finish his sentence; but his dying thoughts were with one he 
loved — far, far away from this wild and miseral)lo land, his spirit was trans- 
ported to his native village, and to the object that made life dear to him." 

New Year's day, 18G3, saw them at the village of Mahomed Her, in the 
Shillook country. The Shillooks are the largest and most powerful black 
tribe on the banks of tho Wliite Nile. They ai-e wealthy, and possess 
immense herds of cattle. Their dwellings are mud-huts, thatched, having 
a very small entrance, looking at a distance like rows of button mushrooms. 
They navigate the river on their raft-like canoes, formed of the arabatch- 
wood, which is so light that they can very easil}^ carry their vessels about. 
The ambatch-tree is about the thickness of a man's waist, and tapers to a 
point; it is therefore easily cut down; and several of them being lashed 
])arallel to each other, and the ends tied together, the raft is made. 

Tho voyagers reached the junction of the Sobat with the Nile on Jan. 
3rd. This river is not more than a hundred and twenty yards in breadth; 
its stream is about two miles and a half an hour. The quality of the water 
is superior, and suggests a mountain origin. Within a few days' sail of the 
junction it divides into seven branches, all shallow, and with a rapid cunent. 
At the junction the depth is from twenty -six to twenty-eight feet. Gliding 
along tlie dead water of the White Nile, they came to the V>w\\v el Gazal. 
The junction of this river with the Nile has the appearance of a lake about 
three miles long by one broad. There is no stream from the Bahr el Gazal, 
and it has the appearance of a backwater formed by the Nile. The water is 
perfectly clear and dead. It extends due west for a great distance, and is a 
system of marshes, stagnant water overgrown by rushes and ambatch-wood, 



through which a channel requires to bo cleared to permit the passage of a 

As they ascended the Nile, the general appearance of th.e banks of the 
river was uninteresting in the extreme. Sometimes they could sec nothing 
but vast marshes, and at others an immense expanse of sandy desert, with 
huge ant-hills ten feet high rising above them. They stopped on tlic 13tli, 
near a village on the right bank, and here they saw the first natives. Thoy 
belonged to the Nuchr tribe. They were most unearthly-looking, naked as 
they came into the world. Even the young women were destitute of clotliing, 
though the married had a fringe made of grass round their loins. The men 
wove heavy coils of beads about their necks, two heavy bracelets of ivory on 
the upper portions of their arms, copper rings upon the wrists, and a horrible 
kind of bracelet of massive iron, armed with spikes about an inch in length, 
like leopards' claws. The women perforate the upper lip, and wear an orna- 
ment about four inches long of beads upon an iron wire, which projects like 
the horn of a rhinoceros. To show the use of the spiked iron bracelet, the 
chief exhibited his wife's arms and back, covered with jagged scars. The 
men are tall and powerful, armed with lances. They carry pipes that con- 
tain nearly a quarter of a pound of tobacco, in which, when they have no 
tobacco, they smoke simple charcoal, the carbonic acid gas of which produces 
a slight feeling of intoxication that delights them. The chief's forehead was 
tattooed in horizontal lines, and the hair was drawn back from the face. 

At the Zareeba, or station of a White Nile trader, named Binder, an 
Austrian subject, they were visited by the chief of the Kytch tribe and his 
daughter, a giil of about sixteen, better-looking than most of her race. The 
father wore a leopard-skin across his siioulder, and a skull-cap of white beads, 
Avith a crest of white ostrich feathers. This was his entire clothing. The 
daughter's clothing consisted only of a piece of dressed hide hanging over 
one shoulder, evidently more for ornament than use. The men, though tall, 
were wretchedl}' thin ; the children were mere skeletons ; and the whole tribe 
appeared thoroughly starved. Their misery is beyond description. They 
will not kill their cattle, nor taste meat, unless an animal dies of sickness. 
They will not work, existing only upon rats, lizards, snakes, and such fish as 
they can spear. They will spend hours in digging out field-mice from their 
burrows. They devour both the skins and bones of dead animals ; pounding 
the bones between stones till they are reduced to powder, and then boiling 
them into a kind of porridge. In every herd of cattle, they have a sacred 
bull, who is supposed to have an influence over the prosperity of the rest. 
Plis horns are ornamented with tufts of feathers, and frequently with small 
bells, and he invariably leads the great herd to pasture. 

Passing Aboukooka, the establishment of a French trader, and the 
Austrian mission-station of St. Croix, they arrived, on the 30th, at the country 


ON A I I 11 [ R 


of the Shir tribe. The men of this tribe arm themselves with well-made 
ebony clubs, two lances, a bow (always strunji-), and a bundle of arrows; 
their hands are completely full of weapons ; and they carry a neatly-made 
miniature stool slung upon their backs, in addition to an immense pipe. " The 
women carry their cliildrcn very conveniently in a skin, slung from their 
shoulders across the back, and secured by a thong round the waist; in this 
the young savage sits delightfully. The huts throughout all tribes are cir- 
cular, with entrances so low that the natives creep both in and out on their 
hands and knees. The men wear tufts of cocks' feathers on the crown of the 
head ; and the favourite attitude, when standing, is on one leg while leanin"- 
on a spear, the foot of the raised leg resting on the inside of tlie other knee. 
Their arrows are about three feet long, without feathers, and pointed with 
hard wood instead of iron, that metal being scarce among the Shir tribe. The 
most valuable article of barter for tliis tribe is tlic iron hoe generally used 
among the White Nile negroes. The finery most prized by the women are 
polished iron-anklets, which they wear in such numbers that they reach 
nearly half way up the calf of the leg : the tinkling of these rings is con- 
sidered to be very enticinc-- but the sound reminds one of the clanking of 
convicts' fetters." The women are very clever in making baskets and mats 
of the leaf of the dome-palm, and girdles and necklaces of minute pieces of 
mussel-shells, threaded upon the hair of the girallu's tail. They gather the 
ripe pods of the lotus, and, grinding the seed into flour, make it into a knid of 

After a most uninteresting and wearisome voj-age, our travellers reached 
Gondckoro. Here Baker found a number of men belonging to the various 
traders, wjio looked upon him with the greatest suspicion. They would not 
believe that his object was simply travel and discovery, but regarded him 
as a spy upon their nefarious ivory business and slave-liuiiting. He found 
Gondokoro a great improvement upon the interminable marshes through 
which lie had been sjuiling. Formerly it was a mission-station, and the ruins 
of the brick establishment and church still remain, together with the wreck 
of what was once a garden. Now, however, a few miserable grass huts are 
all that give the place a name. The climate is hot and unhealthy, and it is 
merely occupied about two months in the year as a station by the ivory 

As Baker heard that a party were expected there from the interior with 
ivory in a few days, he determined to await their arrival, in the hope tluit 
their porters would be ready to carry his baggage. He housed his corn, and 
gave an order to deliver one-half to Speke and Grant, should tliey arrive 
during his absence in the interior ; as ho thought they might arrive by some 
route without his knowledge, while he was penetrating south. Wliilc waiting 
for the party from the interior, he rode about the neighbourhood, studying 



the place and people. " The native dwellings," he saj-s, " are the perfection 
of cleanliness; tlie domicile of each family is surrounded by a licdgc of the 
impenetrable euphorbia, and the interior of the enclosure generally consists 
(if a yard neatly plastered with a cement of ashes, cow-dung, and sand. Upon 
this cicanly-swcpt surface are one or more huts, surrounded by granaries of 
neat wicker-work, thatched, resting upon raised platforms. The huts havo 
projecting roofs in order to atfcrd a shade, and the entrance is usually about 
two feet higl:. 

" When a member of the family dies he is buried in the yard ; a few ox- 
horns and skulls are suspended on a jjole above the spot, while the top of the 
pole is ornamented with a bunch of cocks' feathers. Every man carries his 
weapons, pipe, and stool, the whole (except the stool) being held between his 
less when standing. These natives of Gondokoro arc the 13ari : the men are 
well grown, the women arc not prepossessing, but the negro type of thick lips 
and flat nose is wanting; their features arc good, and the woolly hair alone 
denotes the trace of negro blood. They arc tattooed upon the stomach, sides, 
and back so closely, that it has the appearance of a broad belt of fish-scales, 
n;ore especially w hen they are rubbed with red ochre, which is the prevailing 
Hishion. This pigment is made of a peculiar clay, rich in oxide of iron, 
wliich, when burnt, is reduced to powder, and then formed into lumps like 
pieces of soap ; both sexes anoint themselves with this ochre, formed into a 
paste by the admixture of grease, giving themselves the appearance of new 
red bricks. The cnly hair upon their persons is a small tuft upon the crown 
of the head, in which they stick one or more feathers. The women are 
generally free from hair, their heads being shaved. They wear a neat little 
lappet, about six inches long, of beads, or of small iron rings, worked like a 
coat of mail, in lieu of a fig-leaf, and the usual tail of fine shreds of leather 
or twine, sjoun from indigenous cotton, pendant behind. Both the lappet and 
tail are fastened on a belt which is worn round the loins, like those in the 
Shir tribe; thus, the toilette is comijleted at once. It would be highly useful, 
could they only wag their tails to whisk off the flies, which are torments in 
this country." 

"The cattle are very small ; the goats and sheep are quite Lilliputian, 
but they generally give three at a birth, and thus multiply quickly-. The 
people of the country were formerly friendly, but the Khartoumers pillage 
and murder them at discretion in all directions ; thus, in revenge, they will 
shoot a poisoned arrow at a stranger unless he is powerfully escorted. The 
effect of the ^^oison used for the arrow-heads is very extraordinary. A man 
came to me for medical aid ; five months ago he had been wounded by a 
poisoned arrow in the leg, below the calf, and the entire foot had been eaten 
away by the action of the poison. The bone rotted through just above the 
ankle, and the foot dropped off. The most violent poison is the produce of 


the root of a tree, whose milky juice yields a resin that is smeared upon the 
arrow. It is brought from a great distance, from some country far west of 
Gondokoro. The juice of the species of euphorbia, common in these coun- 
tries, is also used for poisoning arrows. Boiled to the consistence of tar, it 
it is then smeared upon the blade. The action of the poison is to corrode 
the flesh, which loses its fibre, and drops away like jelly, after severe inflam- 
mation and swelling." 

" The arrows are barbed with diabolical ingenuity ; some are arranged 
with poisoned heads that fit into sockets ; these detach from the arrow on an 
attcmj^t to withdraw them ; thus the barbed blade, thickly smeared with 
poison, remains in the wound, and before it can be cut out, the poison is 
absorbed into the system. Fortunately, the natives are bad archers. The 
bows are invariably made of the male bamboo, and are kept perpetually 
strung ; they are cxceedingl}'- stiff, but not very elastic, and the arrows are 
devoid of feathers, being simple reeds or other light wood, about three feet 
long, and slightly knobbed at the base as a hold for the finger and thumb; the 
string is never drawn with the two fore-fingers, as in most countries, but is 
simply pulled by holding the arrow between the middle joint of the fore- 
finger and the thumb. A stiff bow drawn in this manner has very little 
power ; accordingly, the extreme range seldom exceeds a hundred and ten 

Gondokoro was a perfect hell — a mere colony of cut-throats. The 
Egyptians might easily have sent a few oflicers and two or three hundred 
men from Khartoum to form a military government, and thus impede the 
slave-trade ; but a bribe from the traders to the authorities was sufficient to 
ensure an uninterrupted asylum for any amount of villany. The camps were 
full of slaves, and the Bari natives assured Mr. Baker that there was a large 
depot of slaves in the interior, belonging to the traders, that would be marched 
to Gondolcoro for shipment a few hours after his departure. He Avas looked 
upon as a stumbling-block to the trade. Several attemj^ts were made to shoot 
him, and a boy was killed, by a shot from the shore, on board his vessel. His 
men were immediately tampered with by the traders, and signs of discontent 
soon appeared among them. They declared that they had not enough of 
meat, and requested to be allowed to make a razzia upon the cattle of the 
natives, that they might procure oxen. This demand being refused, they 
became more insolent, and, accordingly, Mr. 13aker ordered the ringleader, 
an Arab, to be seized, and to receive twenty-five lashes. Upon Saat, his 
vakeel, advancing to seize him, there was a general mutiny. Many of the men 
threw down their guns, and, taking up .sticks, rushed to the Arab's rescue. 
Mr. Baker, on this, sprang forward, sent the leader by a blow of his fist into 
their midst, and then, grasping him by the throat, called to Saat for a rope 
to bind him. The men, still intent on their object, surrounded Mr. Baker, 


■when his wife, hinding from tlie vessel, inado her way to the spot. Ilcr sudden 
jippearancc caused tlie mutineers to hesitate, when Wr. Baker, seizing tlio 
moment of indecision, shouted to the drunimcr-boy to beat the drum, and 
then ordered the men to fall in. Two-thirds obeyed, and formed in line, 
while the remainder retreated with their ringleader. At this critical mo- 
ment Mrs. Baker implored her husband to forgive the mutineer, if he would 
kiss his hand and beg his pardon. This compromise completely won tho 
men, who now called upon their ringleader to apologise, and all would b3 
right. This he did, and Baker, having made tlicm rather a bitter speed i, 
dismissed them. It was now, however, apparent that his escort would give 
him more trouble than the open hostility of the native tribes. 

A few days afterwards, on the loth of February, guns were heard in 
the distance, and news came that two white men had arrived from the sea ! 
They proved to be S^Jeke and Grant, who had just come from tho Victoria 
Nyanza. Bolh looked travel-worn. Siickc was excessively lean, but in reality 
in good condition. Grant's garments were well-nigli worn out; but both of 
them had that fire in the eye which showed the spirit that had led the-u 
through many dangers. They wished to leave Gondokoro as soon as pos- 
sible, but delayed their departure until tho moon should be in a position for 
an observation for determining the latitude. Tlie travellers had much plea- 
sant talk together; Speke and Grant relating what they had discovered, and 
■what they thought remained to be done, and giving to Baker all the help in 
their po^wer ; and Baker congratulating them on their achievements, and 
expressing a hope that he might be able to complete the -n'ork. On the 20th 
of February', Mr. and Mrs. Petherick arrived, with their people and ivor}-, 
at Gondokoro, from the Niambara, a trading station seventy miles to the 
west, and were surprised to see so large a party of English in so desolate a 
spot. Six days afterwards, Speke and Grant sailed. " Our hearts," sa\ s 
Baker, "were too full to say more than a short, ' God bless you !' They had 
won their victory ; my ■work lay all before me. I watched their boat until it 
turned the corner, and wished them, in my heart, all honour for their great 
achievement. I trusted to sustain the name they had won for English perse- 
verance, and I looked forward to meeting them again in dear old England, 
■fl-hen I should have completed the M'ork we had so warmly planned together." 


Further Sta>/ at GomM-oro — ^1 Plot among the Khartoum Escort — Start from Gon- 
dokoro — Pass through Tollogo and Ellgria — Tlic Latookas — Camels and Ele- 
phants — Enter tlie Ohbo Country. 

AFTER the departure of Spoke and Grant, Baker moved his tent to the 
liigh ground above the river ; the efifluvium from the filth of some tliou- 
sands of people was disgusting, and fever was prevalent in all quarters. His 
animals were all healthy ; " but the donkej^s and camels," he says, " were 
attacked by a bird, about the size of a thrush, which caused them great un- 
easiness. The bird is a greenish-brown colour, with a powerful red beak, 
and excessively strong claws. It is a perfect pest to the animals, and positively 
eats them into holes. The original object of the bird in settling upon the 
animal is to search for vermin, but it is not contented with the mere insects, 
and industriously jiccks holes in all parts of the animal, more especially on 
the back. A wound once established, adds to the attraction, and the unfor- 
tunate animal is so pestered that it has no time to eat. I was obliged to hire 
some little boys to watch the donkeys, and to drive off these plagues ; but so 
determined and bold were the birds, that I have constantly seen them run 
under the body of the donkey, clinging to the belly with their feet, and thus 
retreating to the opposite side of the animal when chased by the watch-boys. 
In a few days my animals were full of wounds, excepting the horses, whose 
long tails were effectual whisks." 

Notwithstanding the lesson Baker's men had received, they still exhibited 
a nuitinous disposition, and in every way neglected their duties. The don- 
keys and camels were allowed to stray, were daily missing, and recovered with 
difliculty : the lu"-s.age was overrun with white ants instead of being attended 
to every morning; the men absented themselves without leave, and were 
constantly in the camps of the different traders. Happily for him, he had 
among his attendants a little black boy, named Saat, who, having been 
brought as a slave from the interior, had been for a time in the Austrian 
mission, from Avhich, with many otlier slaves, he was fnially turned away. Ho 
used to describe his capture as a child very vividly. He was about six years 
old, minding his father's goats, when he was stolen by the Baggara Arabs. 
He was forcibly seized and thrust into a large gum sack, and slung upon the 


back of a camel. Upon screauiiiig for help, the sack was opened and an Arab 
threatened him -svith a knife should ho make the slightest noise. Thus 
quieted, he was carried liundreds of n:ilcs through Kordofan to Dongola on 
the Kile, at ■which place he was sold to slave-dealers, and taken to Cairo to be 
sold to the Egyptian government as a drummer-boy. Being too young, ho 
was rejected. He then escaped from his master, and having heard from 
another boy of the Austrian mission at Cairo, he sought and found an asylum 
there. After he was turned out from that mission, because the authorities deter- 
mined to be rid of all the children they had received on account of the appa- 
rent in)possibiIity of improving them, he heard of Mr. and Mrs. Baker, and 
making his way to their house, threw himself at the lady's feet and implored 
to be allowed to follow them. Hearing at the mission tliat he was superior to 
his companions, they accepted him into their service. From that time he 
considered himself as belonging entirely to Mrs. Baker, and to serve her was 
his greatest jn-ide. She, in return, instructed him in general knowledge and 
the Christian reh'uion. 

Through this young Saat, Mr. Baker heard of a plot, on the part of his 
€Scort, to desert him, and to fire at him should he attempt to disarm them. 
The result of his discovery is thus given: — " One morning I had returned 
to the tent after having, as usual, inspected the transport animals, when I 
observed Mrs. Baker looking extraordinarily pale, and immediately upon 
my arrival she gave orders for the presence of the vakeel (headman). There 
was something in her manner so different to her usual calm, that I was utterlj^ 
bewildered when I heard her question the vakeel, ' Whether the men were 
willing to march ?' ' Perfectly ready,' was the reply. * Then order tliem to 
strike the tent, and load the animals; M'e stai't this moment.' The man 
aj^peared somewhat confused, but not more than I. Something was evidently 
on foot, but what I could not conjecture. The vakeel wavered, and to my 
astonishment I heard the accusation made against him, that, * during the 
night, the whole of the escort had mutinously conspired to desert me, with 
my arms and ammunition that were in their hands, and to fire simultaneously 
at me should I attempt to disarm them.' At first this charge was indignantly 
denied, until the boy Saat manfully stepped forward, and declared that the 
conspiracy was entered into by the whole of the escort, and that both he 
and Eicharn, knowing that mutin}^ was intended, had listened purposely to 
the conversation during the night ; at day-break, the boy had reported tho 
fact to his mistress. Mutiny, robbery, and murder, were thus deliberately 

" I immediately ordered an angarep (trayelling bedstead) to be placed 
outside the tent under a large tree ; upon this I laid five double-barrelled 
guns, loaded with buck-shot, a revolver, and naked sabre as sharp as a razor. 
A sixth rifle I kejDt in my hands while I sat upon the angarejj, with Hicham 


and Saat, both with doublc-barrolleil guns, behind ine. Fonncily, I had 
6upi)Hcd each of my men with a piece of Mackintosh waterproof, to be tied 
over the locks of their guns during the march. I now ordered the drum to 
be beat, and all the men to form in line in marching order, with their locks 
iied tip in the u'aterproof. I requested Mrs. Baker to stand behind me, and to 
point out anjr man who should attempt to uncover his lock, when I should 
give the order to lay down their arms. The act of uncovering the locks 
would prove his intention, in which event I intended to slioot him imme- 
diately, and take my chance with the- rest of the conspirators. 

" Upon assembling in line, I ordered them immediately to lay down 
their arms. This, with insolent looks of defiance, they refused to do. ' Down 
with your guns this moment,' I shouted, ' sons of dogs !' And at the sharp 
click of the locks, as I quickly cocked the rifle that I held in my hands, the 
cowardly mutineers widened their line, and wavered. Some retreated a few 
paces to the rear ; others sat down, and laid their guns on the ground; while 
the remainder slowly dispersed, and sat in twos, or singly, under tlie various 
trees about eighty paces distant. Taking advantage of their indecision, I 
immediately rose and ordered my vakeel and Richarn to disarm them as they 
were thus scattered. 'Foreseeing that the time had arrived for actual physical 
force, the cowards capitulated, agreeing to give up their arms and amnmni- 
tion if I Avould give them their written discharge. I disarmed them imme- 
diately, and the vakeel having written a discharge for the fifteen men present, 
I wrote upon each paper the word mutineer, above my signature. None of 
them being able to read, and this being written in English, tliey unconsciously 
carried the evidence of their own guilt, which I resolved to punish, should I 
ever find them on my return to Khartoum. 

" The boy Saat and Richarn now assured me that the men had intended 
to fire at me, but that they were frightened at seeing us thus prepared, but 
that I must not expect one man of the Dongolowas to be any more faithful 
than the Jalyns. I ordered the vakeel to hunt up tlie men, and to bring me 
their guns, threatening that if they refused I would shoot any man that I found 
with one of my guns in his hands. There was no time for mild measures. 
I had only Saat (a mere child), and Richarn, upon whom I could depend ; 
and I resolved with them alone to accompany Mahommed's people to the 
interior, and to trust to good fortune for a chance of proceeding." 

All, however, seemed in vain ; nearly the whole of the escort deserted, tak- 
ing service with the traders, and the party was reduced to a very small band of 
faithful adherents. A party of traders who had lately arrived from Latooka 
and were about to return, not only refused to allow the travellers to accom- 
pany them, but declared their intention of forcibly driving them back, should 
they attempt to advance by their route. Baker was utterly helpless; lor Inin- 
eelf personally he had no anxiety, but the fact of Mrs. Baker being with him 


was a source of much concern. He dared not think of ber position in tho 
event of his death among savages such as those around her. These thoughts 
M'cre shared by her; but she, knowing her husband had resolved to succeed, 
never once hinted an advice for retreat. A plan was formed to make a dash 
through the Bari tribe on swift dromedaries, but it proved to be impracticable. 
The faithful Saat soon discovered another plot hatched by some of the dis- 
aflccted escort who still hung about the place : — They Avcrc to consent to 
ruarch forward, with the intention of deserting Baker at the station of a 
trader named Chenooda, seven days' march from Goudokoro, in the Latooka 
country, Avhose men were like themselves Dongolowas ; here they were to 
mutiny and desert with their arms and ammunition, and shoot Baker should he 
attempt to disarm them. 

Nothing remained but to leave Gondokoro on a venture, to march east- 
ward through the mountains of Ellyria to the Latooka country, and to attach 
the small European party by force or bribery to a band of Turkish traders 
who were about to march into the interior in search of ivory, although Ibrahim, 
the chief of the gang, had previously refused to have anything to do with tho 
iLuropean ti-avellers. Resolved to accomplish tlieir purpose, and with daunt- 
less courage Mr. and Mrs. Baker started without a guide on this most unpro- 
mising adventure. "The day arrived," he says, "for the departure of 
Koorshid's people. They commenced firing their usual signals ; the drums 
beat ; the Turkish ensign led the way ; and they marched at 2 o'clock p.m., 
sending a polite message, daring vae to follow them. 

" I immediately ordered the tent to be struck, the luggage to be arranged, 
the animals to be collected, and everything to be ready for the march. 
Richarn and Saat were in high spirits ; even my unwilling men were obliged 
to work, and by 7 r.ii. we were all ready. The camels were too heavily 
loaded, carrying about seven hundred pounds each. The doidceys were also 
overloaded, but there was no help for it. Mrs. Baker was well mounted on 
my good old Abyssinian hunter, ' Tctel,' and was carrying several leather 
bags slung to the pommel, while I was equally loaded upon my horse ' Filfil ;' 
in fact, we were all carrying as much as we could stow. 

"We had neither guide, nor interpreter. Not one native was procurable, 
all being under the influence of the traders, who had determined to render 
our advance utterly impossible, by preventing the natives from assisting us. 
All had been threatened, and we, perfectly helpless, commenced the desperate 
journey in darkness about an hour after sunset. ' AVhere shall we go ?' said 
the men, just as the order was given to start. ' Wlio can travel without a 
guide ? No one knows the road.' The moon was up, and the mountain of 
Belignan was distinctly visible, about ten miles distant. Knowing that the 
route lay on the east side of that mountain, I led the way, Mrs. Baker riding 
by my side, and the British flag following close behind us as a guide for the 


caravan of heavily-laden camels and donkeys. "Wo shook hands warmly with 
Dr. Murie, who had come to see us off, and thus we started on our march iu 
Central Africa on the 2Gth of March, 18G3." 

After a silent march of two hours, they saw the watch-fires of the trader'* 
party blazing in the distance. As they passed tliem they were roughly 
challenged by their sentries, and told not to remain in the neighbourhood. 
Accordingly they passed on for about half a mile in advance, and bivouacked 
on some rising ground above a slight hollow, in which they found water. The 
next morning was clear, and the mountain of 13clignan, three or four miles- 
distant, was a fine object to direct their course. They started early, and 
pushed on as fast as they could, hoping to reach Ellyria before the trader's 
party could arrive, and poison the minds of the people there against them. 
The men refused at first to load the camels, but at length reluctantly complied. 
They had not gone far, led by a Bari guide, engaged at Belignan, when. 
Ihey were joined by two Latookas, mIio at once undertook to conduct thenx 
the whole way to Latooka, about ninety miles distant. The country wa* 
exceedingly difficult to pass through, especially for the camels, being full oF. 
thick thorny jungles ; and at last they were compelled to lighten tlie loads o£ 
both camels and donkeys, leaving much valuable merchandise and provision 
on the road, before they could proceed at all. 

When they reached the eminence that looks down upon the valley of Tol- 
logo, the view was extremely ])icturesque. An abrupt wall of grey granite roso 
on the east side of the valley to a height of about a thousand feet: from this 
perpendicular wall huge blocks had fallen, strewing the base with a confused 
mass of granite lumps ten to forty feet in diameter; and among these luitural 
fortresses of disjointed masses were numerous villages. The bottom of the- 
valley was a meadow, in which grew several enormous fig-trees by the side 
of a sluggish, and in some places, stagnant brook. The valley was not more 
than half a mile wide, and was also Availed in by mountains on the west^ 
having the appearance of a vast street. Here some five or six hundred natives 
gathered around them ; and one, a curiously ugly, humped-back dwarf, ad-- 
dressed them in broken Arabic. He acted as interpreter, and insisted that 
Mrs. Baker was Mr. Baker's son. The chief proved to be a man the travellers 
had seen at Gondokoro, and to whom they had shown kindness. He reccivel 
them cordially, and brought them a present of native beer, honey, and ivory. 

They were now within six miles of Ellyria. Starting afresh on their 
journey, they threaded their way through a diflicult pass. The mountain- 
of Ellyria, between two and three thousand feet high, rose abruptly on tiieir 
left, while the base was entirely choked with enormous fragments of grey 
granite. The path was not only thus obstructed, but was broken by deep 
ravines; and to increase the difficulties, many trees and bushes were growin'^ 
from the interstices of the rocks, and the loads became jammed between thenv 



A-ftcr turning a sharp angle of the mountain, tlic}- reached a si)ot whence 
they commanded a lovely view. The valley of EUjria was about four hun- 
dred feet below, at about a mile distant. Beautiful mountains, some two or 
three thousand feet high, of grey granite, walled in the narrow vale; while 
the landscape of forest and plains was bounded at about fifty or sixty miles 
distance to the cast by the blue mountains of Latooka. The whole country 
was a series of natural forts, occupied by a large populatif)n. 

In spite of his forced march. Baker found that the Turkish trading party 
had kept up with him, and were likcl}^ to enter EUyria before him. Just at 
the entrance to the place they passed him. As they were passing, Mrs. Baker 
advised her husband to call Ibrahim, the leader, and make another attempt to 
secure his friendship. He hearkened to the suggestion ; and, assisted by the 
clever and earnest pleadings of Mrs. Baker, he succeeded in winning Ibrahim 
over, and inducing him to render him all the assistance in his powei\ The 
success of this measure our traveller gave entirely to his wife ; for he says had 
he been alone, he would have been too proud to have sought the friendship 
of tlie sullen trader, and the moment on which success depended would have 
been lost. 

No sooner did they reach Ellyria than crowds of natives issued from the 
palisaded villages on the mountain, and gathered round them. They were 
entirely naked, and precisely the same as the Bari. Their chief, Legge, was 
among them, who received a present from Ibrahim of a large red cotton shirt, 
and assumed an air of great importance. He immediately began to ask Baker 
for the tribute he expected to receive as *' black mail" for the right of entree 
into his country. He had a most villanous countenance — ferocity, avarice, 
and sensuality, being stamped upon it in every part ; and all his conduct corre- 
sponded with his appearance. His formation of head was similar to that of 
the rest of the tribe. The Bari, and the tribes of Tollogo and Ellyria, have 
generally bullet-shaped heads, low foreheads, skulls heavy behind the ears 
and above the nape of the neck ; altogether their appearance is excessively 
brutal, and they are armed with bows six feet long, and arrows horribly 
barbed and poisoned. Legge is a large trader in ivory, sending iron hoes, 
which they make in his country, into the Bari and Galla countries, to pur- 
chase it. He then exchanges it with the Turks for cattle. Although he sells 
it so dear that he demands twenty cows for a large tusk, it is a convenient 
station for the traders, as, being near to Gondokoro, there is very little trouble 
in delivering the ivory on ship-boai'd. 

On the 30th of March, they started from Ellyria. As they journeyed, 
Ibrahim, in conversation, confirmed the report of Saat as to the intended 
mutiny and desertion of Baker's men as soon as they reached Latooka. When 
they arrived at the Kanieti river, although there had been no rain, the stream 
was very rapid, and up to the girths of the horses at the ford. The banks 


were abrupt and about fifteen feet deep, tlio bed, between forty and fifty 
yards wide. The stream emptied itself into the Sobat, and so passed into 
the Nile. Having scrambled up the bank, they crossed a field of dhurra, and 
camo to the village of Wakkala. Here, they found about seven hundred 
houses, strongly protected by palisades, formed of the hard iron wood of the 
country. Around the jDalisades was a hedge of impervious tliorns, growing to 
a height of about twenty feet. The entrance was a curious archway, about 
ten feet deep, formed of the palisades ; the whole of the village thus fenced 
is situated in the midst of a sj)leudid forest of large timbers. The inluibit- 
ants are governed by an independent chief, and are great hunters ; and Baker 
was able, in the immediate neighbourhood, to enjoy his favourite sport. 
Ooing due east, they came to Latome, one of the principal places of Latooka, 
and strongly palisaded, like Wakkala. Hero, they found an ivory, or slave- 
trading party, under the leadership of one Mahommed Iler, and here, at 
length, the mutiny broke out of which Baker had more than once been 
warned. By his presence of mind, tact, and fearless courage, just at the 
right moment, he entirely defeated tlio mutineers, and frustrated their plot, 
though some of them deserted to Mahonnned Her. When he heard of their 
desertion, he exclaimed, in the hearing of his own men, and Ibraliim's party, 
" Inshallah, the vultures shall pick their bones !" and as they believed firmly 
in the cftect of curses, their superstitious fears were immediately excited. 

The country was now very beautiful. They were at the base of the 
Lafeet mountain, which rose abruptly on tlieir left to the height of about three 
thousand feet. The course of the valley was from south-east to north-west, 
about forty miles long by eighteen miles wide ; the flat bottom was diversified 
by woods, thick jungles, open jilains, and forest. The south side of the val- 
ley was bounded by a higli range of mountains, rising to six or seven thou- 
sand feet above the general level of Latooka, while the extreme end was 
almost blocked by a noble but isolated mountain of about five thousand feet. 
The road was sandy but firm, and they travelled with ease. Continuing their 
march, they came to Tarrangolle, the chief town of Latooka, at which point 
was the station of Ibrahim. They had marched thirteen miles from Latome, 
the station of Mahommed Her, at which jjlacc Baker's men had deserted him, 
and they were now a hundred and one miles from Gondokoro. Crowds of 
people surrounded them, amazed to see camels, and people with a white 

" The Latookas," says Baker, " are the finest savages I have over seen. 
I measured a number of tliem as they happened to enter my tent, and allowing 
two inches for the thickness of their felt helmets, the average height was o feet 
11^ inches. Not only are they tall, but they possess a wonderful muscular 
development, having beautifully proportioned legs and arms ; and, although 
extremely powerful, they are never fleshy or corpulent. The fornuitiou of 


licad and general physiognomy is totally different from all other tribes that T 
have met "with in the neighbourhood of the White Kilo. They have hiyh 
foreheads, laige eyes, rather high cheek-bones, mouths not very large, well- 
t^hapcd, and the lips rather full. They have all a remarkably pleasing cast oi 
countenance, and are a great contrast to the other tribes in civility of manner. 
Altogether their appearance denotes a Galla origin, and it is most probable 
that, at some former period, an invasion by the Gallas of this country origi- 
nated the settlement of the Latockas. 

" They arc a tine, frank and wsirliko race. Far from being the nioroso 
set of savages that I had hitherto seen, they Avere excessively merry, and 
always ready for cither a laugh or a fight. The town of Tarrangolle con- 
tained about three thousand houses, and was not only surrounded by iron- 
wood palisades, but every house was individually fortified by a little stock- 
aded courtyard. The cattle were kept in large kraals in various parts of tho 
town, and were most carefully attended to, fires being lit every night to pro- 
tect them from flies; and high platforms, in three tiers, were erected in 
many places, upon which sentinels watched both day and night to give the 
alarm in case of danger. The cattle are the wealth of the country ; and so 
rich are the Latookas in oxen, that the natives are ever on the watch, fearing 
the attacks of the adjacent tribes. 

" The houses of the Latookas arc generally bell-shaped, while others 
are precisely like huge candle-extinguishers, about twenty-five feet high. 
The roofs are neatly thatched, at an angle of about 75°, resting upon a cir- 
cular wall about four feet high ; thus the roof forms a cap descending to 
within two feet and a half of the ground. The door-way is only two feet 
and two inches high, thus an entrance must be effected upon all-fours. Tim 
interior is remarkably clean, but dark, as the architects have no idea of 
windows. The town of Tarrangolle is arranged with several entrances, in 
the shape of low archways through the paHsades : they are closed at night 
by large branches of the hooked thorn of the kittur bush (a species of 
mimosa). The principal street is broad, but all the otliers are studiously 
arranged to admit of only one cow, in single file, between high stockades \ 
thus, in the event of an attack, these narrow passages could be easilj- de- 
fended, and it would be impossible to drive off their immense herds of cattle 
unless by the main street. The large cattle kraals are accordingly arranged 
in various quarters in connection with the great road, and tlio entrance of 
each kraal is a small archway in the strong iron-wood fence, sufficiently 
wide to admit one ox at a time. Suspended from the arch is a bell, formed 
of the shell of the Dolape palm-nut, against which every animal must strike 
either its horns or back on entrance. Every tinkling of the bell announces 
the jiassage of an ox into the kraal, and they are thus counted every evening 
■when brought home from pasture. 


"I had noticed, during the march from Latome, that the vicinity of 
CTcry town was announced by hca2)s of human remains. Bones and skulls 
formed a Golgotha within a quarter of a mile from every village. Some of 
these were in earthenware pots, generally broken; others lay strewn here and 
there; wliile a heap in the centre sliowed that some form had originally been 
preserved in their disposition. This was explained by an extraordinary 
custom most rigidly observed by the Latookas. Should a man bo killed in 
battle the body is allowed to remain where it fell, and is devoured by the 
vulfuros and hyenas ; but should ho die«a natural death, he or she is buried 
in a shallow grave witliin a few feet of his own door in tlie little courtyard 
which surrounds each dwelling. Funeral dances are then kept up in memory 
of the dead for several weeks; at tlie expiration of which time, the body 
being sufTicicntly dccomjiosed, is exhumed. The bones are cleaned, and are 
deposited in an earthenware jar, and carried to a spot near the town, which 
is regarded as the cemetery, I observed that they were not particular iu 
regarding the spot as sacred, as signs of nuisances were present even upon 
the bones, that in civilised countries would have been regarded as an insult. 

" There is little difficulty in describing the toilet of the natives — that ot 
the men being simplified by the sole covering of the head, the body being 
entirely nude. It is curious to observe amongst these wild savages the con- 
summate vanity displayed in their head-dresses. Every tribe has a distinct 
and unchanging fashion for dressing the hair; and so elaborate is the coij'urc 
that hair-dressing is reduced to a science. European ladies would be startled 
at the fact, that to perfect the coiffure of a man, requires a period of from eight 
to ten years ! However tedious the operation, the result is extraordinary. 
The Latookas wear most exquit^ite helmets, all of which arc formed of their 
own hair, and, are, of course, fixtures. At first sight it appears incredible, 
but a minute examination shows the wonderful perseverance of years in pro- 
ducing what must be highly inconvenient. The thick, crisp avooI is woven 
with fine twine, formed from the bark of a tree, until it presents a thick net- 
M-ork of felt. As the hair grows through this matted substance it is subjected 
to the same process, until, in the course of years, a compact substance is 
formed like a strong felt, about an inch and a half thick, that has been trained 
into the shape of a helmet. A strong rim, of about two inches deep, is formed 
by sewing it together with thread ; and the front part of the helmet is pro- 
tected by a piece of polished copper; while a piece of the same metal, shaped 
like the half of a bishop's mitre, and about a foot in length, forms the crest. 
The framework of the helmet being at length completed, it must be perfected 
by an arrangement of beads, should the owner of the head be sufficiently rich 
to indulge in the coveted distinction. Tlic most in fashion arc the red and 
the blue porcelain, about the size of small peas. These are sewn on the sur- 
face of the felt, and so beautifully arrcngcd in sections of blue and red tliat 


the entire helmet appears to be formed of beads ; and the handsome crest of 
polished copper, surmounted by ostrich plumes, gives a most dignified and 
martial appearance to this elaborate head-dress. No helmet is supposed to be 
complete -without a row of cowrie shells stitched around the riui, so as to form 
a solid edge. 

" The Latookas have neither bows nor arrows, their weapons consisting 
of the lance, a powerful iron-headed mace, a long-bladed knife or sword, and 
an ugly iron bracelet, armed with knife-blades about four inches long, by 
half an inch broad ; the latter is used to strike with if disarmed, and to tear 
with when wrestling with an enemy. Their shields are either of buffa- 
loes' hide, or of giraffes', the latter being highly jmzcd as excessively tough, 
although light, and thus combining the two requisite qualities of a good 
shield ; they are usually about four feet six inches long, by two feet wide, 
and are the largest I have seen. Altogether, everything in Latooka looks 
like figrhtinff. 

" Although the men devote so much attention to their head-dress, the 
women are extremely simj^le. It is a curious fact, that while the men are 
remarkably handsome, the women are exceedingly plain : they are immense 
creatures, few being under five feet seven inches in height, with prodigious 
limbs. Their superior strength to that of other tribes may be seen in the 
size of their water jars, which are nearly double as large as any I have seen 
elsewhere, containing about ten gallons ; in these, they fetch water from the 
stream about a mile distant from the town. They grind the corn, fetch the 
water, gather firewood, cement the floors, cook the food, and propagate the 
race ; but they are mere servants, and, as such, are valuable. The price of a 
good-looking, strong young wife, who could carry a heavy jar of water, 
would be ten cows." 

While waiting at Tarrangollc, they heard of a terrible disaster which 
befel the party of Mahommed Her. Under his command, a party of one 
hundred and ten armed men, in addition to three hundred natives, had made 
a razzia upon a certain village among the mountains for slaves and cattle. 
Having succeeded in burning the village and capturing a number of slaves, 
they were re-ascending the mountain to secure another herd of cattle, of 
which they had received information, when they were attacked by a large 
body of Latookas, lying in ambush among the rocks on the mountain side. 
In vain the Turks fought ; every bullet aimed at a Latooka struck a rock, 
while rocks, stones, and lances, were hurled at them from all sides and from 
above. Compelled to retreat, they were seized with a panic, and took to 
flight. Hemmed in by their foes, who showered lances and stones on their 
heads, they fled down the rocky and perpendicular ravines. Ignorant of the 
country, they mistook their road, and came to a precipice, from whicli there 
was no retreat. The Latookas, with screams and yells closed around them, 


and thrust them forward to the very verge of a precipice five hundred feet 
high. Over it they were driven, hurled to destruction by the mass of savages 
pressing onward. A few fouglit to the last; but all were at last forced over 
the edge of the cliff, and met the just reward of their atrocities. No quarter 
had been given, and upwards of two hundred of the natives, who had joined 
the slave-hunters in the attack, had fallen with them. Mahommed Her had 
not accompanied his party, and therefore escaped ; but he was utterly ruined. 

The result of this terrible catastro2:)hc was highly beneficial to Baker, as 
the mutineers and deserters from his jiarty were amongst those destroyed. 
"Where are the men who deserted me?" he asked of those who still remained 
with him. Without speaking, they brought two of his guns, covered with clot- 
ted blood, mixed with sand, that had been found on the Fccne of destruction. 
Their owners' names were known to him by the marks on the stocks; and he 
mentioned them. " Are they all dead ?" he asked. " All dead," the men 
replied. " Food for the vultures !" he observed; " better for them had they 
remained with me and done their duty." He had before told his men that 
the vultures would pick the bones of the deserters ; and this seemed to them 
a fulfilment of his words. From that moment an extraordinary change took 
place in the manner, both of his own jjcople, and those of Ibrahim, towards 
him. They regarded him with veneration and awe. Unhappily, however, 
the Latookas exhibited a change for the worse. The Turks, as usual, insulted 
their women, and treated the natives with the greatest brutality, and, had he 
not exercised much caution and vigilance, both his own party and Ibrahim's 
would, in all probability, have been entirely cut off. 

Ibrahim had been compelled to go back to Gondokoro for ammunition, 
and Baker waited at TarrangoUe for his return. The day after Ibrahim's 
departure, the Turks seized some jars of water by force from the women, on 
their return from the stream. A roAv ensued, and ended by one of the women 
being shamefully maltreated ; and a Latooka, who came to her assistance, was 
severely beaten. This was repeated again and again, until the natives re- 
solved to jninish the ofiendcrs. They removed all the women and childr^'ii to 
the mountains, about two miles distant, and prepared for a regular battle. 
Baker saw they would make no distinction between him and his party and 
the Turks, and that they Avould all sufl'cr together. Gaining information of 
the intention of the natives, he took command of the Turks, and, with his own 
men, showed so bold a front, that the natives saw clearly that there was little 
chance of their being able to carry their purpose of destroying tlie strangers 
into execution. Their chief, Commoro, had an interview with Baker, the 
result of which was, that he agreed to persuade his people to abandon their 
intention, and to act in a peaceable manner. 

The Turks were much alarmed at what had transpired, and behaved better, 
though they threatened that, when Ibrahim arrived with reinforcements and 


ammunition, tliey would have tlicir revenge. After this, Baker moved his 
camp to a secure position some distance from the town, near a stream of water. 
Here he formed a garden, and lived in a far more independent way than 
before. Thus he separated himself as much as possible from the Turks, whose 
presence was certain to create enmity. Although he was willing to purchase 
idl supplies with either beads or copper bracelets, he found it was impossible 
to procure meat. The natives refused to sell either cattle or goats. Not 
iess than ten thousand head of catttle passed his camp every morning as they 
were driven to the town from pasturage, yet he could not obtain a steak. 
Milk was cheap and abundant; corn was plentiful; but fowls were scarce, and 
vegetables were unknown. In this latter article he provided for himself, by 
•sowing his garden with onions, cabbages, and radishes. Fortunately there 
•^'as an abundance of small game in the shape of wild ducks, pigeons, doves ; 
and a great variety of birds, such as herons, cranes, and si^oonbills. He fre- 
quently sliot ten or twelve ducks, and as many cranes, before breakfast. Not 
only were the ducks and geese to him what the quails were to the Israelites 
an ihe desert, but they enabled him to make presents to the natives that 
a.ssurcd them of his goodwill 

The dreadfully low state of morality prevailing among the natives, was 
exhibited in a variety of ways. On one occasion Adda, one of their chiefs, 
■came to him and requested him to assist in attacking a village, for the pur- 
3:)0se of ])rocuring some iron hoes which he wanted. He asked the chief, 
nvhether it was in an enemy's country? "Oh, no!" was the reply; "it is 
■close here, but the people are rather rebellious, and it will do them good to 
Mil a few. If 3'ou are afraid, I will ask the Turks to do it." " Human 
Gialure," writes Baker in his journal, " viewed in its crude state, as pictured 
among African savages, is quite on a level with that of the brute, and not to 
^e compared with the noble character of the dog. There is neither gratitude, 
pity, love, nor self-denial ; no idea of duty — no religion ; but covetousness, 
ingratitude, selfishness, and cruelty. All are thieves, idle, envious, and ready 
(to rob and enslave their weaker neighbours." On the west shore of the White 
Kile there are tribes even more ferocious than those to the east of Gondokoro. 
One of the traders described the Makkarikas as "remarkably good peo- 
g)lc, but possessing a peculiar taste for dogs and human flesh. They accom- 
j^anied tlie trading party in their razzias, and invariably ate the bodies of 
the slain. The traders complained that they were bad associates, as thev 
insisted upon killing and eating the children which the party wished to 
secure. Their custom was to catch a child by its ankles, and dash its head 
against the ground. Thus killed, they opened the abdomen, extracted the 
stomach and intestines; and tying the two ankles to the neck, they carried 
ihe body by slinging it over the shoulder, and thus returned to camp, where 
tliey divided it by quartering, and boiled it in a large pot.'' 


Shortly after tlie encounter in which Ibrahim's party was defeated, a 
funeral dance took place in honour of the natives who had been slain. The 
dancers were grotesquely got up. I-Zach man had about a dozen ostrich fea- 
thers in his helmet, a leopard or monkc3--skin hung from his shoulders, while 
a large iron belt was strapped to his loins, like a woman's bustle. This ho 
rang during the dance, by jerking the hinder part of his body in the most 
absurd manner. All the time a hubbub was kept up by the shouting of the 
crowd, the blowing of horns, and the bleating of seven nojaras, or drums, all 
of difiercnt notes, while each dancer also blew an antelope's horn suspended 
round his neck, the sound partaking of the braying of a donke}^ and the 
screeching of an owl. Meantime crowds of men rushed round and round, 
brandishing their lances and iron-headed maces, following a leader, Avho 
headed them, dancing backwards. The women outside danced at a slower 
pace, screaming a wild and inharmonious chant, while bej-ond them a strino- 
of young girls and children beat time with their feet, and jingled numerous 
iron rings which adorned their ankles. One woman attended ui^on the men, 
running tlu-ough the crowd with a gourd fall of wood-ashes, handfuls of 
which she showered over their heads, powdering them like millers. Though 
the leader among the women was immensely fat, she kept ujj the pace to the 
last, quite unconscious of her genei'al appearance. 

During one of Bakers interviews with the chief Commoro, their conver- 
sation was siiddcnly terminated by one of Baker's men running into the tent 
with the bad news that one of the camels had dropped down and was dying. 
*' The report," says Baker, " was too true. He was poisoned by a well-known 
j)lant that he had been caught in the act of eating. In a few hours he died. 
There is no more stupid animal than the camel. Nature has implanted in 
most animals an instinctive knowledge of the plants suitable for food, and 
they generally avoid those that are poisonous ; but the camel will cat indis- 
criminately everything that is green ; and, if in a country where the jjlant 
exists, that is well known by the Arabs as the ' camel-poison,' watchers must 
always accompany the animals while grazing. The most fatal plant is a 
creeper, very succulent, and so beautifully green, that its dense foliage is 
most attractive to the stupid victim. The stomach of the camel is very subject 
to inflammation, which is rapidly fatal. I have frequently seen them, after 
several days of sharp desert marching, arrive in good pasture, and die, with- 
in a few hours, of inflammation caused by repletion. It is extraordinary how 
they can exist upon the driest, and apparently the most un-nutritious food. 
When other animals are starving, the camel manages to pick up a subsistence, 
eating the ends of barren, leafless twigs, the dried sticks of certain shrubs, 
and the tough dry paper-like substance of the dome-palm, about as succulent 
a breakfast as would be a green umbrella ar.d a Times newspaper. With in- 
tense greediness the camel, although a hermit in simplicity of fare in hard 



times, feeds voraciously when in abundant pasture, always seeking the 
greenest shrubs. The poison-bush becomes a fatal bait. 

" The camel is by no means well understood in Europe. Far from being 
the docile and patient animal generally described, it is quite the reverse, and 
the males are frequently dangerous. They are exceedingly perverse, and are, 
as before described, excessively stupid. For the great deserts they are 
wonderfully adapted, and without them it would be impossible to cross certain 
tracts of country for want of water. Exaggerated accounts have been written 
respecting the length of time that a camel can travel without drinking. The 
period that the animal can subsist without sufferering from thirst depends 
entirely upon the season and the quality of food. Precisely as in Europe 
sheep reqTiirc but little water when fed upon turnips, so does the camel exist 
almost without drinking during the rainy season, when pastured upon succulent 
and dewy herbage. During the hottest season, when green herbage ceases to 
grow in the countries inhabited by camels, they are led to water every alternate 
day, thus they are su^iposed to drink eveiy forty-eight hours ; but when upon 
the march across deserts, where no water exists, they are expected to carry 
a load of five to six hundred pounds, and to march twenty-five miles per daj 
for three days, without drinking, but to be watered on the fourth day. Thus 
a camel should drink the evening before a start, and he will carry his load one 
hundred miles without the necessity of drinking — not, however, without 
suffering from thirst. On the third day's march, during the hot simoom, the 
camel should drink if possible ; but he can endure the fourth day. 

" This peculiarity of constitution enables the camel to overcome obstacles 
of nature that would otherwise be insurmountable. Not only can he travel 
over the scorching sand of the withering deserts , but he never seeks the 
shade. When released from his burden he kneels by his load in the burning 
sand, and luxuriates in the glare of a sun that drives all other beasts to shelter. 
The peculiar spongy formation of the foot renders the camel exceedingly sure, 
although it is usual to believe that it is only adapted for flat, sandy plains. 
I have travelled over mountains so precipitous that no domestic animal but 
the camel could have accomplished the task with a load. This capability is 
rot shared generally by the race, but by a breed belonging to the Hadendowa 
Arabs, between the Red sea and Taka. The average value of a baggage 
camel is fifteen dollars, but a good Hygeen, or riding dromedary, is worth 
from fifty to a hundred and fifty dollars. He is supposed to travel fifty miles 
a day, and to continue this pace for five days, carrying only his rider and a 
small water-skin or girba. His action should be so easy that his long ambling 
trot should produce that peculiar movement adoj^ted by a nurse when hush- 
ing a child to sleep upon her knee." 

Baker frequently joined the Latookas in elephant-hunting. " The 
natives of Central Africa generally hunt the elei^hant for the sake of the flesh, 


and prior to the commencement of the "White Nile trade by tlie Arabs, and 
the discovery of the Upper White Nile to the 5° N. lat. by tlie expedition sent 
by Mehemet Pasha, the tusks were considered as worthless, and were 
treated as bones. The death of an elci:)hant proves a splendid affair for the 
natives, as it supplies flesh for an enormous number of people; also fat, which 
is the great desire of all savages, for internal and external jjurposes. Tliere 
are various methods of killing them. Pitfalls are the most common, but the 
wary old bulls are seldom caught in this manner. The position chosen for the 
pit is in the vicinity of a drinking-place. Should an elephant fall through the 
deceitful surface, it is impossible for him to extricate himself. If one animal 
be thus caught, a sudden panic seizes the rest of the herd, and in their hasty 
retreat one or more fall into some of the numerous jjits in the neighbourhood. 
Once helpless in the jiits, they are easily killed with lances. 

"The great elephant hunting season is in January, when the high prairies 
are parched and reduced to straw. At such a time, should a large herd of 
animals be discovered, the natives of the entire district collect together to the 
number of perhaps a thousand men ; surrounding the ele2)hants, by embracing 
a considerable tract of country, they fire the grass at a given signal. In a 
few minutes the unconscious elephants are surrounded by a circle of fire, 
which, however distant, must eventually close iu ujion them. The men 
advance with the fire, which rages to a height of twenty or thirty feet. At 
length the elephants, alarmed by the volumes of smoke and the roaring of 
the flames, mingled with the shouts of the hunters, attemjjt an escape. They 
are hemmed in on every side — wherever they rush, they are met by an 
impassable barrier of flames and smoke, so stifling, that they are forced to 
retreat. ]\Ieanwhile, the fatal circle is decreasing ; buffaloes and antelopes, 
likewise doomed to a horrible fate, crowd panic-stricken to the centxc of the 
encircled ring, and the raging fire sweeps over all. Burnt, and blinded by 
fire and smoke, the animals are now attacked by the savage crowd of hunters, 
excited by the helplessness of the unfortunate elephants thus miserably sacri- 
ficed, and they fall under countless spears. 

"The next method of hunting is perfectly legitimate. Should many 
elephants be in the neighbourhood, the natives post about a hundred men in 
as many large trees ; these men arc armed Avith heavy lances specially adapted 
to the sport, with blades about eighteen inches long and three inches 
broad. The elephants are driven by a great number of men towards the 
trees in which the spearmen are posted, and those that pass sufficiently near 
arc speared between the shoulders. The spear being driven deep into the 
animal, creates a frightful wound, as the tough handle, striking against the 
intervening branches of trees acts as a lever, and works the long blade of the 
spear within the elephant, cutting to such an extent that he soon drops from, 


" The best and only really great elephant hunters of the Wliito Nile are 
the Bagara Arabs, These men hunt on horseback, and kill the elephant ia 
fair fight with their S2)ears. The lance is about fourteen feet long, of male 
bamboo ; the blade is about fourteen inches long by nearly three inches broad : 
this is as sharp as a razor. Two men, thus armed and mounted, form the 
liunting party. Should they discover a herd, they ride uj) to the finest tusker 
and single him from the others. One man now leads the way, and the elc- 
j)hant, findinghimself pressed, immediately charges the horse. There is much 
art required in leading the elephant, who follows the horse with great deter- 
Hiination, and the rider adapts his pace so as to keep his horse so near the 
elephant that his attention is entirely absorbed with the hope of catching him. 
The other hunter should by this time have followed close to the elei^hant's 
lieels, and, dismounting when at full gallop, with wonderful dexterit}', he 
j)lunges his spear with both hands into the elephant about two feet below the 
junction of the tail, and with all his force he drives the spear about eight feet 
into his abdomen, and withdraws it immediately. Should he be successful 
in his stab, he remounts his horse and flies, or does his best to escape on foot, 
should he not have time to mount, as the elephant generally turns to pursue 
liim. His comrade immediately turns his horse, and, dashing at the elephant, 
in his turn dismounts, and drives his lance deep into his intestines. Generally, 
if the first thrust is scientifically given, the bowels protrude to such an extent 
that the elephant is at once disabled." 

As soon as practicable, Ibrahim returned from Gondokoro, bringing 
'with him a large supply of ammunition. Tlie object of Mr. Baker was con- 
stantly to work round to the south-west, and so regain the Nile valley. At 
length a native of the Obbo country arrived at Latooka, and, under his guid- 
ance, the party set out, on the 2nd of May, 1863, to cross the chain of moun- 
tains which bound the Latooka vallc3^ Tliere was no other i>ath than tlie 
native track, which led over a range of low granite rocks, forming a ridge 
about four hundred feet high. It was with the greatest difficulty that the 
loaded donkeys could be hoisted over the numerous blocks of granite that 
formed an irregular flight of steps, like the ascent of a pyramid. However, 
they persevered. At length the great ascent was to be made ; and for two 
iiours they toiled up a steej} zig-zag pass. The air was most invigorating ; 
Ijeautiful wild flowers, some of which were very fragrant, ornamented the 
ioute, and innumerable wild grape-vines hung in festoons from tree to tree. 
In addition to the wild flowers, Avere numerous fruits — all good, especially a 
variety of custard apple, and a full-flavoured yellow plum. Tlie grapes were 
in most promising bunches, not unri2)e. AVhen they reached the summit of 
the pass, they were about two thousand five hundred feet above the Latooka 
valley. The scenery was very fine. To the cast and soutli-east, tliere were 
masses of high mountains i while to the west and south, were vast tracts of 


park-like country, of intense green. All around were mountain peaks, oi» 
each of which ^Yas a village, the position being evidently chosen for greater 

After a march of about twelve miles from the top of the pass, they 
arrived at the chief village of Obbo. They were now forty miles S.W. of 
Tarrangolle. The vegetation of Obbo, and the whole of the west side of 
the mountain range, is different from that upon the east side. The soil is 
exceedingly rich, producing an abundance of Guinea grass, with which tlie 
2)lains are covered. The country produces nine varieties of yams. Thero 
arc many good wild fruits. Ground-nuts are also abundant in the forests. 
Tobacco grows to an extraordinary size, and a fine quality of flax grows 
wild. Baker had never smoked till his arrival in Obbo, but, having suffered 
nmch from fever, and the country being excessively damp, he commenced 
with Obbo \)\])cs and tobacco. 

" The natives of Obbo are entirel}' different to the Latookas, both in 
language and ajipearance. They are not quite naked, excejjt when they aro 
going to war, on which occasion they are painted in stripes of red and yel- 
low ; but their usual covering is the skin of an anteloj^e or goat, slung like ;> 
mantle across the shoulders. Their faces are well formed, with peculiarly 
fine-shaped noses. Tlie head-dress of the Obbo is remarkably neat, the 
woolly hair being matted, and worked with thread into a flat form, like ti 
beaver's tail, and bound with a fine edge of raw hide, to keep it in shape. 
This, like the head-dress of Latooka, requires many years to complete. 
Although the men of Obbo wear a skin slung across their shoulders and 
loins, the women are almost naked, and, instead of wearing the leather aproa 
and tail of the Latookas, they are contented with a slight fringe of leather 
shreds, about four inches long by two broad, suspended from a belt. Some- 
of the Obbo women were very pretty. The caste of feature was entirely 
different to that of the Latookas ; and a striking peculiarity was displayed in 
the finely-arched noses of many of the natives, which strongly reniinded ona 
of Somauli tribes. It was impossible to conjecture their origin, as tliey had 
neither traditions nor ideas of their past history." 

Katchiba, the chief of Obbo, came with several of his head men to meet 
the strangers. lie was an extraordinary -looking man, about fifty-eight or 
sixty years of ago ; but, far from possessing the dignity usually bi'loaging 
to a grey head, he acted the buffoon for their amusement, and might havo 
been a clown in a pantomime. A violent storm of wind and rain which had 
been raging, and which had soaked every one, having cleared away, the 
nogaras were ordered to be beaten, and the entertaining old chief determined 
upon a grand dance. Pipes and flutes were soon heard gathering from all 
quarters ; horns brayed ; and numbers of men and women began to collect 
in crowds, while Katchiba, in a state of excitement, gave orders for the cuter- 


tainment. About one liundred men formed a circle ; each man held in his 
left hand a small cup-shaped drum, formed of hollow wood, one end oi\ly 
being perforated, and this was covered with the skin of the elephant's ear, 
tightly stretched. In the centre of the circle was the chief dancer, who wore, 
suspended from his shoulders, an immense drum, also covered with the ele- 
phant's ear. The dance commenced by all singing remarkably well a wild 
but agreeable tune in chorus, the big drum directing the time, and the whole 
of tlae little drums striking at certain periods witli such admirable precision, 
that the effect was that of a single instrument. The dancing was most vigor- 
ous, and far su^jerior to anything that Mr. Baker had seen among either Arabs 
or savages, the figures varying continually, and ending in a -"grand gallop" 
in double circles, at a tremendous pace, the inner ring revolving iu a contrary 
direction to the outer : the effect of this was most excellent. 

The domestic establishment of Katchiba was very large. He kept a 
certain number of wives in each of his villages ; thus, when he made a jour- 
ney through his territory, he was always at home. He had no fewer than 
one hundred and sixteen children living, and every one of his villages was 
governed by one of his sons ; thus the entire government was a family affair. 
One poor woman came to Baker in great distress, complaining that the cliicf 
was very cruel to her because she had no children ; and said, she was sure 
^thc white man possessed some charm that could raise her to the standard of the 
other wives. The traveller could not get rid of her until he gave her the 
first pill that came to hand in his medicine-chest, and with that she went 
away contented. 


Life in Ohbo — Return to LatooJca — Visit Ohio again — Arrival at Shooa — Umjoro 
— 3Irs. Baker receives a Sun- Stroke — Discovery of the Albert J^yanza — 
Voyage on the Lake — The Murchison Falls. 

THE Obbo people never asked for presents ; iu this respect they wero a 
great imi)rovenient on the Latookas. Their old chief, Katchiba, was 
more like a clown than a king. He was regarded as a great sorcerer and 
pain-maker, and thus had great power over his subjects. He was exceed- 
ingly civil to our travellers, and proud that they had j^aid him a visit. Dur- 
ing an excursion which Baker made to the country of Farajoke, he left Mrs. 
Baker in Katchiba's care ; and when he returned, he found that the chief had 
f idly honoured the confidence placed in him. Blrs. Baker gave him an excel- 
lent character ; he had taken the greatest care of her ; had placed some of 
his own sons as sentries over her hut, both by day and night ; and provided 
fat sheep and fowls, and beer, for a feast of welcome on Baker's return. 

A curious custom was observed by the chief of Farajoke on Baker's 
arrival at that jjlace. He was met by the chief and several of the people 
leading a goat, Avhich was presented to him as an offering, close to the feet 
of his horse. The chief carried a fowl, holding it by the legs, with its head 
downwards ; he approached the horse, and stroked his fore-feet with the fowl, 
and then made a circle around him by dragging it upon the ground. Mr. 
Baker's own feet were then stroked with the fowl in the same manner as 
those of the horse, and he was requested to stoop, so that the bird might bo 
waved around his head. This completed, it was also waved around the 
horse's head ; and then the knife put an end to its troubles, and it was handed 
to one of Baker's men. 

Not being able to proceed south, our traveller determined to return to 
liis head-quarters at Latooka, and to wait for the dry season. He had made 
the reconnaisance to Farajoke, and saw his way clear for the future, provided 
his animals should remain in good condition. On the 21st of May, therolore, 
he started for Latooka in company with Ibrahim and his men, who wei'e 
thoroughly sick of the Obbo climate. Before leaving, a ceremony had to be 
performed by Katchiba. His brother was to act as guide, and was to receive 


power to control the elements as deputy-magician during the journey. With 
great solemnity Katchiba broke a branch from a tree, upon the leaves of 
■which he spat in several places. This branch, thus blessed with holy water, 
was upon the ground, and a fowl Avas dragged around it by tlic chief ; 
the horses were then operated on precisely in the same manner as had been 
enacted at Farajoke. This ceremony conijjleted, ho handed the branch to 
liis brother, who received it Avith mucli gravity, in addition to a magic 
wliislle of antcloiic's horn that he suspended from his neck. All the natives 
wore Avhistles similar in appearance, by the use of which they considered 
they cither drew the rain, or drove it away, as they desired. 

On their arrival at Latookn, they found everything in much the same 
condition as they left it. But the day after tlicir arrival, a series of disasters 
began, comjjrising the death of two of Mr. Baker's horses, besides several 
camels and donkeys ; Mrs. Baker's illness of gastric fever, and his own illness 
from daily attacks of ague ; and the breaking out of the small-jiox among the 
Turks. Among tlie natives of Obbo, who had accompanied them to Latooka, 
was a man named Wani, who had formerly travelled far to the south. This 
man had been engaged as their guide and interpreter. From him Mr. Baker 
got his first real clue to the Albert Nyanza. lie thus notes it in his journal 
of the 2Cth of May, 1SC3: — " I have had a long examination of Wani, the 
guide and interpreter, respecting the country of Magungo. According to his 
description, Magungo is situated on a lake so large that no one knows its 
limits. Its breadth is such, that, if you journey two days east and the same 
distar;ce west, there is no land visible in either quarter, while, to the south^ 
its direction is utterly unknown. Large vessels arrive at Magungo from dis- 
tant and unknown parts, bringing cowrie-shells and beads in exchange for 
Ivor}'. Upon these vessels white men have been seen. 

" His description of distance places Magungo on about the 2° N. lat. 
The lake can be no other than the Nyanza, which, if the position of Magungo 
be correct, extends much further north than Speke had supposed. The ' white 
men' must be Arab traders who bring cowries from Zanziljar. I shall take 
the first opportunity to push for Magungo. I examined another native who 
had been to Magungo to purchase cowrie-shells. He says that a white man 
formerly arrived there annually, and brought a donkey Avith him in a boat , 
that he disembarked his donkey and rode about the country, dealing with the 
natives, and bartering cowries and brass-coil bracelets." 

This information Avas the first clue, as Ave have said, to the facts thatr 
Baker subsequently established, and the account of the white men (Arabs, 
being simply broAvn, are called AA'hite men by the blacks of these countries)' 
arriving at Magungo, was confirmed by the peojile of that country twelve 
months after he obtained this vague information at Latooka. On the 30th of 
May, at Comruoro's instigation, the Turks attacked the neighbouring town o£- 


Kayala ; but the Latookas fought so well, that they found it impossible io 
capture the place, and were driven back, carrying off, however, the cattle oET 
the natives. In consequence of the abominable conduct of the Turks, whicl»>. 
so irritated the natives that an attack from them was daily expected, it became- 
dangerous for the party to remain any longer in Latooka. 

On the 23rd of June, they started again for Obbo. Their joint partlcsL 
consisted of about three hundred men. On arrival at the base of the motniv 
tains, instead of crossing them as before, they skirted the chain to the north- 
west, and then rounding through a natural gap, they ascended gradually, 
towards the south. On the fifth day they were within twelve miles of Obbo^ 
and bivouacked on a large mass of granite on the side of a hill, forming aa . 
inclining plateau of about an acre. Here, while the natives were clearing the 
grass, they came upon an immense puff-adder, five feet four inches in length, 
and above fifteen inches in girth. The tail was, as usual in poisonous snakes^ .. 
extremely blunt, and the head perfectly flat, and about two inches and a half 
broad. He had eight teeth, and five poison fangs, the two most prominent 
being nearly an inch in length. Baker immediately pinned his head to tha 
ground, and severed it with one blow with his hunting-knife. He says he was 
the most horrid monster he had ever experienced. As he stooped to skin liim,, 
a thunder storm began, and he looked so Satanic with his flat head, and i 
minute cold grey c3-es, and scaly hide, with the liglitning flashing, and th<? ■ 
thunder roaring around him, that all the bystanders were horrified. 

The Obbo country was now a land of starvation. The natives refuscdl 
to supply i)rovision for beads; nor would they barter anything unless ir*. 
exchange for flesh. Here was literally nothing to eat except tullaboon, a- 
small bitter grain used by the natives in lieu of corn. Both iMr. Baker ani^ 
his wife were excessively ill with bilious fever, and neither could assist tho 
other. The old chief, Katcliiba, hearing that tliey were dying, came to charm 
them with some magic spell. He found them lying helpless, and immediately 
procured a small branch of a tree, and, filling his mouth with water, squirtccl 
it over the leaves and about the floor of the hut; ho then waved the brancli/ 
around their heads, and completed his ceremony by sticking it in the thatcit 
above the doorway ; he told them they would now get better, an 1, perfectly 
.satisfied, took his leave. The hut was swarming with rats and white ants, the-, 
former racing over tlieir bodies during the night. Now and again a siiaka- 
wouldbesecngliding within the thatch, having taken shelter from the pouring^ 
rain. The small-pox was raging throughout the countr}', and the natives were-, 
dying like flics in winter. Innumerable flies appeared, including the tsetse^ 
and in a few weeks the donkeys had no hair left, cither on their cars or legs;,- 
they drooped and died one by one. At length Baker's last horse died. Flics by- 
<lay, rats and innumerable bugs by night, heavy dew. daily rain, and Impoin>- 
trable rceki;iggrass, rendered Obbo a prison about as disagreeable ascuuliexist^ 



Mr. and Mrs. Baker recovered slowly, and were able, on the 30th of 
August, to make a morning call upon old Katcluba, by his express desire. 
Subsequently, however, they had frequent relapses. Under Oct. 17th he thus 
writes, describing the progress of the African fever: — " I expect an attack of 
fever to-morrow or next day, as I understand, from constant and painful 
cxjjcrienccs, every stejD of tliis insidious disease. For some days one feels a 
certain uneasiness of spirits diflicult to explain; no peculiar symptom is 
observed until a day or two before the attack, when great lassitude is felt, 
with a desire to sleep. Rheumatic pains in the loins, back, and joints of the 
limbs, are accompanied by a sense of great weakness. A cold lit comes on 
very quickly ; this is so severe that it ahnost immediately affects the stomach, 
producing painful vomiting, with severe retching. Tiie eyes are heavy and 
painful, the head hot and aching, the extremities pale and cold, pulse very 
weak, and about fifty-six beats per n.inute ; the action of the heart distress- 
ingly weak, with total prostration of strength. This shivering and vomiting 
continues for about two hours, attended with great difficulty of brcatliing. 
The hot stage then comes on, the retching still continuing, with the difficulty 
of breathing, intense weakness, and restlessness for about an hour and a half, 
which, should the remedies be successful, terminate in profuse perspiration 
and sleep. The attack ends, leaving the stomach in a dreadful state of weak- 
ness. The fever is remittent, the attack returning almost at the same hour 
every two days, and reducing the patient rapidly to a mere skeleton ; the 
stomach refuses to act, and death ensues. Any severe action of the mind, such 
as grief or anger, is almost certain to be succeeded by fever in this country. 
My stock of quinine is reduced to a few grains, and my work lies before me ; 
my cattle are all dead. We are both weakened by repeated fever, and tra- 
velling must be on foot." 

Thus, for mouths, they dragged on a miserable existence at Obbo. Baker 
was heartily sick of the expedition, yet determined to succeed in his object, 
or die in the attempt. His stock of quinine was exhausted. Porters were 
hard to be procured. In the weak state of his wife and himself, travelling on 
foot was impossible. He therefore purchased and trained three oxen in lieu 
of horses, and named them '' Beef," " Steaks," and " Suet." " Beef" was at 
first a noble beast ; but having lost his condition, through being bitten by the 
flies, his name was changed to " Bones." During the nine or ten months 
that the travellers had been in connection with Ibrahim and his party, tliey 
had succeeded in acquiring very great influence over them. The kindness of 
Mrs. Baker, and her husband's good sense and firmness, had created so favour- 
able an impression on the minds of both Turks and natives, that they were 
always referred to as umpires in every dispute. 

On the 5th of January, 18G4, they renewed their march, with one hun- 
dred followers from the Turkish party, in the direction of Unyoro, the king- 


dom lying ou the east bank of the great lake. The services of these men were 
obtained by guaranteeing to their leader Ibrahim ten thousand pounds' weight 
of ivory — a pledge which was eventually redeemed more than threefuKl, 
Mrs. Baker rode her ox ; but his animal being shy, was driven for about a mile 
with the others to accustom him to the crowd, whereupon he bolted into the 
high grass with the saddle upon his back, and was never seen again. Baker, 
therefore, had to walk, in his weak state, about twenty-six miles before he was 
able to obtain another ox to carry him. After some days' march, they came 
to the river Asua. At the spot where they struck it, it was a hundred and 
twenty paces broad, and from the bed to the top of the perpendicular banks, 
was about fifteen feet. Tlic bed was nmch obstructed by rocks. It forms 
the great drain of the country, all its waters flowing into the Nile ; but during 
the dry months it is most insignificant. Pursuing their journey they reached 
Shooa, a lovely place. A fine granite mountain ascended in one block in a 
sheer precipice for about eight hundred feet from its base, perfectly abrupt 
on the eastern side, while the other portions of the mountain were covered 
with forest trees, and picturesquely dotted over with villages. This country 
formed a natural j^ark, well watered by numerous rivulets, ornamented with 
fine timber, and interspersed with numerous rocks of granite, which, from a 
distance, produced the effect of ruined castles. 

The altitude of Shooa was above a hundred feet higher than the Asua 
River. They Avere now about twelve miles south of Faloro. There was no 
great chief at Shooa. Each village had a separate headman. It was * a land 
flowing with milk and honey.' Fowls, butter, goats, were in abundance, and 
ridiculously cheaj:). The cultivation of the country was very superior ; and 
large crops of sesame were grown and carefully harvested. Two days after 
their arrival here, all their Obbo porters absconded. They had heard that 
the destination was Kamrasi'a country, and as they feared that monarch, they 
determined to make an early retreat. Others were i:)rocured, and, on the ISth 
of January, they left Shooa. The pure air of that country had invigorated 
them, and they enjo3cd the excitement of pushing on into unknown lands. 
Eight miles of jjleasant marching brought them to the village of Fatiko, situ- 
ated upon a splendid plateau of rock upon elevated ground, with beautiful 
granite cliffs, bordering a level table-land of fine grass that would have formed 
a race-course. Tlie high rocks were covered with natives, perched upon the 
outline like a flock of ravens. 

The natives soon assembled round the travellers, and insisted ou a per- 
sonal introduction. As each one was introduced, he performed the salaam of 
his country, by seizing both hands of Baker, and raising his arms three times 
to their full stretch above his head. The fatigue of this ceremony, gone 
through with about one hundred Fatikos, was rather more than could be 
endured. And as they saw masses of natives streaming down the rocks, hurry- 


ing to be infroducod, tlicy mounted tlicir oxen, and with aching slioulders 
Lade adieu to Fallko. Descending tlic hill, tlicy entered upon a totally dis- 
tinct country — an interminable sea of prairies, covering to the horizon a series 
of gentle undulations, inclining from east to west. There were no trees except 
the dolape-])alms ; these were scattered at long intervals in the bright yellow 
suifacc of high grass. On the fourth day they left the prairies, and entered 
a noble forest. From an elevated position in the forest, they saw, on the 
morning of January 22nd, a cloud of fog hanging in a distant valley, which 
betokened the presence of the Somerset River, or Victoria "White Nile. 

While in Obbo, a slave-woman, named Bacheeta, who knew Arabic, had 
given Baker much information concerning Kamrasi's country, from which she 
had come ; he therefore had engaged her as interpreter and guide. She, how- 
ever, had no desire to return to her own country, and endeavoured to mislead 
them, by taking them to the country of Kionga, an enemy of Kamrasi. She 
so far succeeded, although Baker suspected her for some time, that, when they 
reached Somerset River, they found they were in Rionga's territory. It was 
fortunate for Mr. Baker that he detected her treachery in good time. Uad 
the news reached Kamrasi that he was in Rionga's country, all chance of his 
travelling in Unyoro would have been cut off. Tlicy now started forKaruma. 
Nothing could exceed the beauty of the march. Their course was through 
the forest, parallel with the river, which roared beneath them on their right 
in a succession of rapids and falls between high cliffs, covered with groves of 
bananas and varieties of palms. The river was about a hundred and fifty yards 
wide ; the clifls on the south side were higher than those upon the noi-th, 
being about a hundred and fifty feet above the river. At length, they 
ajiproached the Karuma Falls, close to the village of Atada. 

The heights were crowded with natives, Kamrasi's people. A number 
of them soon crossed the river in a canoe to within a parleying distance, w-heu 
the woman Bacheeta, as directed, explained that Sickch brother had arrived 
from his country to j^ay Kamrasi a visit, and had brought him valuable pre- 
sents. Kamrasi's people, however, showed considerable suspicion on seeing 
so many strangers, till Baker appeared dressed in a suit of tweed, something 
similar to that Speke had worn, and they saw the resemblance of the beard 
and general complexion. They then at once manifested their welcome, by 
dancing and gesticulating with their lances and shields in the most extravagant 
manner. Baker and his party were, notwithstanding, not allowed to cross 
till j^ermission was obtained from Kamrasi. Persuasions and threats were 
alike vain. Several of the head men explained to them, that the Turkish 
party Speke and Grant had met at Faloro, had afterwards represented them- 
selves as friends of these travellers, and had been welcomed by Kamrasi's 
people as such, and had repaid the hospitality shown them, by plundering 
and massacreing their hosts. They, therefore, now suspected all strangers. 


Tlio cautious and cowardly Kamrasi, having licard of their arrival in 
his country, sent messengers to interview them. lie sent also his brother 
to personate himself; and for some time Baker treated witli this brother, 
thinking he Avas treating with Kann-asi. This man's begging disposition and 
powers were quite equal to those of the king; and he would have deprived 
Baker of all ho possessed, had ho been foolish enough to listen to his solici- 
tations. He even proposed, in the coolest manner possible, that Mrs. Baker 
should be left with him, when her husband went on to the lake. This was 
more than Baker could stand ; so drawing his revolver quietly, he held it 
within two feet of his chest, and looking at him with undisguised contempt, 
told him that, if he dared to repeat the insult, he would shoot him on the spot. 
Ultimately this man became more friendly, and gave orders to his people to 
assist the stranger, granting him also permission to proceed westward to the 
lake he was so anxious to visit. 

A few women having been supplied to carry his luggage, he and his wife, 
with their small party of attendants, at length set out. Tlie country was a 
vast flat of grass land, interspersed with small villages and patches of sweet 
potatoes. For about two miles, they continued on the bank of the Kafoor 
River ; the women who carried the luggage were straggling in disorder, and 
the few men had as much as they could do in keeping them together. On 
approaching a village of considerable size, about six hundred strangely dressed 
men rushed out with lances and shields, screaming and yelling as if about to 
attack them. Baker's men thought they were about to be slaughtered, and 
entreated him to tire upon the strange assemblage. lie knew, however, that 
they were mistaken ; and that instead of having any hostile intentions, they 
had simply come out on parade, and to indulge in a succession of sham fights. 
They were dressed either in leopard or white monkey skins, with cows' tails 
strapped on behind, and two antelope horns fixed on their heads, while their 
chins were ornamented with false beards, made of the bushy ends of cows' 
tails. It turned out that they were a native escort, furnished by Kamrasi's 
orders to accompany them to the lake. Both Mr. and Mrs. Baker, however, 
jirefcrrcd their room to their company ; and managed in a short time to get 
rid of them. 

Baker's troubles seemed as if they were now going to culminate in tho 
threatened loss of his beloved and brave wife. Their track lay along the 
right bank of the Kafoor Biver, to avoid the marshes on the opposite shore, 
and it became necessary to cross the stream to regain the westerly course. 
"The stream," he says, " was in the centre of a nuirsh, and although deep, 
it was so covered with thickly-matted water-grass and other aquatic plants, 
that a natural floating bridge was established by a carpet of weeds about two 
feet thick ; upon this waving and unsteady surface the men ran quickly across, 
sinking mcreb- to the ankles, although beneath the tough vegetation thcro 


was deep water. It was equally impossible to ride or to bo carried over this 
treaclicrous surface ; thus I led the way, and begged Mrs. Baker to follow mo 
on foot as quickly as possible, precisely in my track. The river was about 
eighty yards wide, and I had scared}^ conn:)loted a fourth of the distance, and 
looked back to see if my wife followed close to mc, when I was horrified to 
sec her standing on one spot, sinking gradually through the weeds, while her 
face was distorted and pcrfcctl}^ purple. Almost as soon as I perceived her, 
she fell, as though shot dead. In an instant I was by her side; and with the 
assistance of eight or ten of my men, who were fortunately close to me, I 
di-agged her like a cor2:)se through the yielding vegetation, and ujj to our 
waists we scrambled across to the other side, just keeping her head above the 
water : to have carried her would have been impossible, as we should all have 
sunk together through the weeds. I laid her under a tree, and bathed her 
head and face with water, as for the moment I thought she had fainted ; but 
she lay perfectly insensible, as though dead, with teeth and hands firmly 
clenched, and her eyes open but fixed. It was a coup de soleil. 

" Many of the porters had gone on ahead with the baggage ; and I started 
off a man in haste to recall an angarep, on which to carry her, and also for a 
bag with a change of clothes, as we had dragged her through the river. It 
was in vain I rubbed her heart, and the black women rubbed her feet, to 
endeavour to restoi'e animation. At lengtli tlie litter came, and after chang- 
ing her clothes, she was carried mournfully forward as a corpse. Constantly 
we had to halt and support her head, as a painful rattling in the throat beto- 
kened suffocation. At length we reached a village, and halted for the night. 
I laid her carefully in a miserable hut, and watched beside her. I opened 
her clenched teeth with a small wooden wedge, and inserted a wet rag, upon 
which I drop23ed water to moisten her tongue, which was dry as fur. 

" There was nothing to eat in this spot. My wife had never stirred 
since she fell by the covj) de soleil, and merely respired about five times in a 
minute. It was impossible to remain ; the people would have starved. She 
was laid gently upon her litter, and we started forward on our funeral course. 
I was ill and broken-hearted, and I followed by her side through the long 
day's march, over wild park-lands and streams, with thick forest and deej) 
marshy bottoms — over undulating hills, and through valleys of tall papyrus 
rushes, which, as we brushed through them on our melancholy way, waved 
over the litter like the black plumes of a hearse. We halted at a village, and 
again the night was passed in watching. I was wet, and coated with mud 
from the swampy marsh, and shivered with ague ; but the cold within was 
greater than all. Once more the march. Though weak and ill, and for two 
nights without a moment's sleej), I felt no fatigue, but mechanically followed 
by the side of the litter, as though in a dream. The same wild country, diver- 
sified with marsh and forest. 


" Again wc halted. The niglit came, and I sat by licr side in a miser- 
able hut, with the feeble lamp flickering, while she lay as in deatli. She had 
never moved a muscle since she fell. My i^eoplo slept. I was alone, and no 
sound broke the stillness of the night. It was past four o'clock. I had passed 
the night in rcphicing wet cloths upon her head, and moistening her lips. 
The morning broke ; my lamp had just burnt out, and, cramped with the 
night's watching, I rose from my low seat, and seeing that she lay in the 
same unaltered state, I went to the door of the hut to breathe one gasp of the 
fresh morning air. I was watching the first red streak that heralded the 
rising sun, when I was startled by the words, ' Thank God,' faintly uttered 
behind me. Suddenly she had awoke from her torpor, and with a heart over- 
flowing I went to her bedside. Her eyes were full of madness 1 She spoke, 
but the brain was gone. 

" I will not inflict a description of the terrible trial of seven days of brain 
fever, with its attendant horrors. For seven nights I had not slept, and although 
as weak as a reed, I had marched by the side of her litter. Nature could 
resist no longer. We reached a village one evening ; she had been in violent 
convulsions successively — it was all but over. I laid her down on her litter 
within a hut, covered her with a Scotch plaid, and I fell upon my mat insen- 
sible, worn out with sorrow and fatigue. My men put a new handle to the 
pickaxe that evening, and sought for a dry spot to dig her grave ! The sun 
had risen when I woke. I had slept, and, horrified as the idea flashed upon 
me that she must be dead, and that I had not been with her, I started up. 
She lay upon her bed, pale as marble, and with that calm serenity that the 
features assume when the cares of life no longer act upon the mind, and tlie 
body rests in death. The dreadful thought bowed me down ; but as I gazed 
upon her in fear, her chest gently heaved, not witli the convulsive throbs of 
fever, but naturally. She was asleep ; and when at a sudden noise she oi^ened 
her eyes, they were calm and clear. She was saved! When not a ray of 
hope remained, God alone knows what helped us. The gratitude of that 
moment I will not attempt to describe." They rested for two days, iMrs. 
Baker taking nourishment, and gradually regaining her strength ; and then 
by easy stages they pursued their journey. 

13aker was now approaching the great object of his search, and was des- 
tined soon to reach the chief source of the Nile. On the 13th of .March, his 
guide Kabonga told him that they would be able to wash in the lake by noon. 
That night he hardly slept. For years he and his wife had hoped, and i)raycd, 
and striven through all kinds of difficulties, in sickness, starvation, and fatigue, 
to reach the long-liiddcn source of tlie ancient and far-famed river; and when 
it had ajjpcared impossible, they had both determined to die upon the road 
rather than return defeated. Now the prize was witiiin their grasp. 13aker 
pliall describe the discovery in his own words : — 


*■'■ 2 he lAth March. — TIic sun liud not risen wlicn I was spurring my ox 
•taftcr the guide, who, having been promised a double handful of beads on 

sin-ival at the lake, had caught the enthusiasm of the moment. The day 
•Ijroke beautifully clear, and having crossed a deep valley between the hills, 

'vvc toiled up the opposite slope. I hurried to the summit. The glory of our 
:jnize suddenly burst before me! There, like a sea of quicksilver, lay far 
= l)eneatli the grand expanse of water — a boundless sea horizon on the south 

■ and south-west, glittering in the noon-day sun; and on the west, at fifty or 

• sixty miles distance, blue mountains rose from the bosom of the lake to a 
height of about seven thousand feet above its level. 

" It is impossible to describe the triumjjh of that moment. Here was 

• the reward for all our labour — for the years of tenacity with which we had 
toiled through Africa. England had won the sources of the Nile ! Long 
before I reached this spot, I had arranged to give three cheers with all our 

1 men, in English style, in honour of the discovery, but now that I looked down 

• -upon the great inland sea, lying nestled in the very heart of Africa, and 
diought how vainly mankind had sought these sources throughout so many 

■■ ages, and reflected that I had been the humble instrument permitted to 

■ tmravel this portion of the great mystery, when so many greater than I had 
'■ failed — I felt too serious to vent my feelings in vain cheers for victory, and 

I sincerely thanked God for having guided and supported us through all 

• clangers to the good end. I was about one thousand five hundred feet above 
' the lake, and I looked down from the steep granite clilT upon those welcome 
'"waters — ujDon that vast reservoir which nourished Egypt and brought fertility 

■ where all was wilderness — upon that great source so long hidden from man- 
^ kind — that source of bounty and of blessing to millions of human beings ; and 

• as one of the greatest objects in nature, I determined to honour it with a 
. great name. As an imperishable memorial of one loved and mourned by our 
: gracious Queen, and deplored by every Englishman, I called this great lake 

'• The Albert Nyanza.' The Victoria and the Albert lakes are the two sources 

• of the Nile. 

" The zigzag path to descend to the lake was so steep and dangerous, 
" that we were forced to leave our oxen with a guide, who was to take them to 
. Magungo, and wait for our arrival. We conmienced the descent of the steep 

■ pass on fcot. I led the wa}-, grasping a stout bamboo. My wife, in extreme 
•weakness, tottered down the pass, supporting herself upon my shoulder, and 

stopping to rest every twenty paces. After a toilsome descent of about two 

• Lours, weak with years of fever, but, for the moment, strengthened by success, 
'•*ve gained the level plain below the cliff. A walk of about a mile through 
! Hat sandy meadows of fine turf, interspersed with trees and bush, brought us 

to the water's edge. The waves were rolling upon a white pebbly beach : I 
ijushcd into the lake, and, thirsty with heat and fatigue, with a heart full of 


gratitude, I drank deeply from the sources of the Nile. Within a quarter of 
•a mile of the lake, was a fishinj? village named Vacovia, in which we now 
established ourselves. Everj'tliing smelt of fish, and everything looked like 
tisliing — not the 'gentle art' of England, with rod and fly, but harpoons were 
leaning against the huts, and lines, almost as thick as the little finger, were 
lianging up to dry, to which were attached iron hooks, of a size tliat said 
ximch for the monsters of the Albert Lake. On entering the hut, I found a 
prodigious quantit}' of tackle ; the lines were beautifully made of the fibre of 
the plantain stem, and were exceedingly clastic, and well adapted to withstand 
the first rush of a heavy fish ; the hooks were very coarse, but well barbed, 
and varied in size from two to six inches. A number of harpoons and floats 
for hippopotami were arranged in good order, and the iout ensemble of the hut 
showed that the owner was a sportsman." 

" The harpoons for hippopotami were precisely the same pattern as those 
•used by the Ilamran Arabs on tlie Taka frontier of Abyssinia, having a nar- 
row blade of three quarters of an inch in width, with only one barb. The 
rope fitted to the harpoon was beautifully made of plantain fibre, and the 
float was a huge piece of ambatch wood, about fifteen inches in diameter. 
They speared the hippopotamus from canoes, and these large floats were 
necessary to be easily distinguished in the rough waters of the lake. My 
men were perfectly astounded at the appearance of the lake. The journey 
liad been so long, and hoj;e deferred had so completely sickened their hearts, 
that they had long since disbelieved in the existence of the lake, and they 
Avere persuaded that I was leading them to the sea. They now looked at 
ihc lake with amazement. Two of them had already seen the sea at Alex- 
andria, and they unhesitatingly declared that this was the sea, but that it 
-was not salt." 

Vacovia was a miserable place. The soil was so impregnated with salt, 
Ihat cultivation was impossible ; and in consequence of its damp and hot 
position the whole party suffered from fever. The latitude of the village 
•was 1° 15' N., and longitude 30° 50' E. Our travellers were now to turn 
their faces towards the south, and every day's journey would bring them 
r.earer home. After a delay of eight days at tliis wretched spot, waiting for 
canoes which had been j^iomised, two were brought. Tlicy were merely 
liollowed-out trunks of trees, the largest being thirty-two feet long. The 
other, which Baker selected for himself, his wife, and their personal attend- 
ants, was twenty-six feet long. ' In this he fitted u}) a cabin for his wife, 
-wliich was both rain and sun-proof. Each canoe had four rowers, two at 
cither end. Their paddles were beautifully shaped, hewn from one piece of 
wood, the blade being rather wider than that of an ordinary sj)ade, but con- 
cave in the inner side, so as to give the rower a great hold upon the water. 
With a few fowls and fishes on board, the party started in good spirits. The 



rowers paddled bravely, and although heavily laden, they went along at the 
rate of four miles on hour, directing their course northward, towards the part 
out of Avliich the Nile was supposed to flow. 

The first day's vo3-ago was delightful, the lake Avas calm, and the scenery 
lovely. At times the mountains on the west coast could not be seen, and 
the lake appeared of indefinite width. Sometimes they passed dii'ectly under 
precipitous cliffs of fifteen hundred feet in height, rising abruptly out of the 
water. These rocks are all jirimitivc, frequently of granite and gneiss, and 
mixed in many places with red porphyr3\ From their deep clefts evergreens 
of every tint appeared ; and wherever a rivulet ran, it was shaded by the 
graceful and feathery wild date. The waters swarmed with hippopotami 
and crocodiles ; but to avoid delay. Baker suppressed his sporting propensi- 
ties, and left them unhurt. 

But even here the expedition had its perils. After the fii'st day, tlie 
boatmen desei'ted. Not to be defeated, however, our traveller induced his 
own people to take to the j^addles, but he found it almost impossible to teach 
them how to use them. Pie fitted a paddle to his own boat to serve as a rud- 
der, but the men in the larger boat neglected to carry out his instructions. 
While he was at work, a tremendous storm of rain came down. His own 
canoe being ready, he started, when, as he was about to cross from one head- 
land to another, he saw the larger canoe spinning round and round, the crew 
having no notion of guiding her. Fortunately it was calm, and, on reaching 
the shore, he induced several natives to serve as his crew, while others went 
off in their own boats to assist the men in the large canoe. They now began, 
to cross a deep bay about eight miles wide, and had gained the centre, when 
a tremendous storm came on from the south-west, and threatened to over- 
whelm them. Enormous waves broke over Baker's canoe, as it tore along 
before the gale with a large Scotch plaid for a sail. Down came the rain in 
torrents, while the wind swept over the surface with terrific force, nothing 
being discernible except the high cliffs looming in the distance. The canoe 
shipped much water, which was quickly baled out. Had this not been done, 
it would inevitably have been swamped. Everj^hing was soaked except the 
gunj^owder, which was in canisters ; and although the distance to the shore 
was not great, it seemed impossible to reach it, and uncertain whether they 
could land on it, if reached. The boatmen paddled energetically, and at last 
a beach was seen ahead. As they were making for it, a wave struck the 
canoe, washing over her. Just then the men jumped out, and, though they 
were rolled over, they succeeded in lauding all safely, and hauling the boat 
up the beach. The other canoe also, and the crew, got safe to shore. 

There was a village not far from where they landed ; but they could 
procure nothing to eat, except a few dried fisli, that, not having been salted, were 
rather high in their flavour. On the following morning they were detained 


by bad weather, as a heavy sea was still running, and they were determined 
not to risk their canoes in another gale. It was a beautiful neighbourhood,, 
enlivened by a magnificent waterfall, that fell about a thousand feet from the 
mountains, as the Kaugiri River emptied itself into the lake in a splendid 
volume of water. The next day the lake was calm, and they started early. 
The monotony of the voyage was broken by the presence of several fine 
herds of elephants, consisting entirely of bulls. Baker counted fourteen 
of these grand animals, all with large tusks, bathing together in a small lake 
beneath the mountains, having a communication with the mainland through 
a sandy beach. It was a scene in harmony with the solitude of the Nile 
sources — the wilderness of rocks and forest, the Blue Mountains in the dis- 
tance, and the great fountain of nature adorned with the mighty beasts of 
Africa ; the elephants in undisturbed grandeur, and hippopotami dis2)orting 
their huge forms in the great parent of the Egyptian river. 

Thus they proceeded for thirteen days, coasting the east shore of the lake, 
which gradually narrowed to a breadth of from fifteen to twenty miles. The 
shore of the lake, as they paddled along it, was thinl}' inhabited, and the 
people very inhospitable, till they reached a place called Eppigoya. Even 
here, the inhabitants refused to sell any of their goats, though they willingly 
parted with fowls, at the rate of about two hundred and fifty for a shilling. 
Eggs were bought in baskets, containing several hundreds ; but Baker signi- 
ficantly says they were all poultry. At each village, the voyagers changed 
their boatmen, none being willing to go beyond the village next them. This 
was very annoying, and occasioned constant delays. 

" On the thirteenth day," says Baker, " we found ourselves at the end of 
the lake voyage. The lake, at this point, was between fifteen and twenty 
miles across, and the appearance of the country to the north was that of a 
delta. The shores upon either side were choked with vast banks of reeds, 
and as the canoe skirted the edge of that upon the east coast, we could find 
no bottom with a bamboo of twenty-five feet in length, although the floating 
mass appeared like terra firma. On the west, were mountains of about four 
thousand feet above the lake level, a continuation of the chain that formed 
the western shore from the south ; these mountains decreased in height 
towards the north, in which direction the lake terminated in a broad valley 
of reeds. 

" We were told that we had arrived at Magungo, and that this was the 
spot where the boats invariably crossed from Malegga, on the western shore, 
to Kamrasi's country. The boatman proposed that we should land upon the 
floating vegetation, as that would be a short cut to the village or town of 
Magungo ; but as the swell of the water against the abrupt raft of reeds 
threatened to swamp the canoe, I preferred coasting until wc should discover 
a good landing-place. After skirting the floating reeds for about a mile, we 


turned sharp to the east, and entered a broad channel of water bounded on 
cither side by the everlasting reeds. Tliis we were informed was the em- 
bouchure of the Somerset River from the Victoria Nyanza. Tiie same river 
that we had crossed at Karuma, boiling and tearing along its rocky course, 
now entered the Nyanza, as dead water! I could not understand this; there 
was not the slightest current; tho channel was about half a mile wide, and I 
could hardly convince myself that this was not an arm of the lake branchin"- 
to the east. After searching for some time for a lar.ding place among tho 
wonderful banks of reeds, we discovered a passage that had evidentlj- been 
used as an approach by canoes, but so narrow that one large canoe could with 
difficulty be dragged through, all the men walking through tlie mud and 
reeds and towing with their utmost strength. Several hundred paces of tliis 
tedious work brought us through the rushes into open water, about eight feet 
deep, opposite to a clear rocky shore. We heard voices for some time while 
obscured on the other side of the rushes, and avc now found a number of 
natives, who had arrived to meet us with the chief of JIagungo and our guide, 
Rabonga, whom we had sent in advance with the riding oxen from Vacovia. 
The water was extremely shallow near the shore, and the natives ruslied in 
and dragged the canoes by sheer force over the mud to the land. We had 
been so entirely hidden while on the lake on the other side of the reed bank, 
that we had been unable to see the eastern or Magungo shore ; we now found 
ourselves in a delightful spot, beneath the shade of several enormous trees on 
a rapid incline to the town of Magungo, about a mile distant, on an elevated 

The chief of Magungo, and a large number of natives, were on the shore 
"waiting for them, having brought them down a plentiful supply of goats, 
fowls, eggs, and fresh butter. Proceeding on foot to the height on which 
Magungo stands, they thence enjoyed a magnificent view, not only over the 
lake, but to the north, towards the point where its waters flow into the Nile, 
and where they saw its exit jjlain enough. It was Baker's great desire to 
descend the Nile in canoes, from the spot where it left the lake to the cataracts 
in the Madi country, and thence to march direct, with only guns and ammu- 
nition, to Gondokoro. He found, however, that this was a plan which it was 
impossible to carry out. Before he could return from ]\Iagungo to the canoes, 
he was laid prostrate with fever, and most of his men were also in a suffering 
state. But he had heard of a magnificent waterfall uji Somerset River, and 
resolved to visit it. They accordingly started in search, and when they had 
got about eighteen miles above Magungo, they perceived a slight current. 
<jtradually the river narrowed to about a hundred and eighty yards, and now, 
when the men ceased working their paddles, the roar of water could be dis- 
tinctly heard. As they proceeded, the roar became louder. The sand-banks 
on the sides of the river were crowded with crocodiles ; they lay like logs of 

THE M U RGB 1 SON FA LLS. 04 -, 

tiniLcr close fogcthcr, and upon one bank alone, Mr. Baker counted no fewer 
than twenty-seven. 

Reacliing a deserted village, the crew at first refused to proceed further, 
Lut, on our traveller explairing that he merely wished to see the falls, they 
})addled up the stream, which was now strong against them. Upon rounding 
a point, a magnificent sight burst upon them. On side of the river 
were beautifully-wooded clifi'rf, rising abruptly to a height about three hundred 
feet, rocks jutting out from the intensely green foliage, while, rushing through 
a gap which cleft the rock before them, was the river, contracted from a grand 
stream, and pent up in a narrow gorge scarcely fifty 3'ards wide. Roaring 
fiercely through the rock-bound joass, it plunged in one leap of about a hun- 
dred and twenty feet, perpendicularly into the dark abyss below ; the snow- 
white sheet of water contrasting superbly with the dark cliff that walled the 
river, while the graceful palms of the tropics, and wild plantains, perfected 
the beauty of the scene. This was the greatest waterfall of the Somerset or 
Victoria Nile ; and, in honour of the distinguished President of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, Baker named it the Murchison Falls. The appearance of 
tiie Somerset River, as it reached the Albert Lake, was very perplexing to 
him at first. The broad channel of dead water was in singular contrast with 
the fine flowing, brawling river he had crossed below the Karuma Falls; and 
he could not believe it was the same stream. The guide and the natives 
lau"-hed at his unbelief, and declared that it was dead water for a considerable 
distance from the junction with the lake, but that a great waterfall rushed 
down the mountain, and that beyond that fall the river was merely a succes- 
sion of cataracts throughout the entire distance of six days' march to Karuma 
Falls. All this was now ascertained to be true. 

The boatmen, having been promised a present of beads to induce them 
TO approach the fall as near as possihle, succeeded in bringing the canoo 
within about three hundred yards of the base, but the power of the current 
and the whirlpools in the river, rendered it impossible to proceed farther. 
The crocodiles slowly crept into the water as the canoe approached then^ ; all^ 
excepting one, an immense fellow, who lagged lazily behind, and immediately 
dropped dead as a bullet from Baker's rifle struck him in the brain. The 
boatmen were so alarmed at the unexpected report of the rifle, that they 
immediately dropped into the body of the canoe, one of them losing hi* 
paddle. Nothing would induce them to attend to the boat, as a second shot 
had been fired at the crocodile as a "quietus," and they did not know how 
often the alarming noise would be repeated. The result was, that they were 
at the mercy of the stream, and the canoe was whisked round by the eddy 
and carried against a thick bank of high reeds. 

They had scarcely touched the reedy bank when a tremendous commo- 
tion took place among the rushes, and in an instant a great bull hippopotamus 


charged the canoe, and striking the bottom, with a severe shock lifted it half 
out of the water. The natives who were in the bottom of the boat yelled 
with terror, not knowing whether the shock was in any way connected with 
the report of the rifle. The monster who had excited all this alarm soon 
made his exit, and sank too rapidly to permit a shot. Crocodile heads of 
enormous size were on all sides appearing and vanishing rapidly, as they 
rose to survey the intruders : at one time they counted eighteen upon the 
surface. Having recovered the lost 2)addle, which had floated some consider- 
able distance down the rapid current. Baker prevailed upon the boatmen to 
keep the canoe steady while he sketched the scene before them ; after which 
they drifted down to the landing place, and spent the night amid the ruins 
of some deserted huts. 


Tlie Island of Faiooan — Confined in the Cuuntnj — EumrasPs Tactics — Fareivell to 
Kainrasi's Territory — Arrival at Shooa — The Lira Tribe — Attack lij the Bait 
Tribe — Reach Gondokoro — Vojjage down the Nile to Khartoum — From Khar- 
toum to Berber — Departure from Africa. 

HAVING made a sketch of the Murchison Falls, Baker bade adieu to the 
navigation of the hdcc and river of Central Africa. Clouds had threat- 
ened rain, and down it came. By the next morning, however, it passed away, 
and as the future travelling was to be on land, the riding oxen were called into 
use. It was soon found that they had been so bitten by the tsetse-fly as to 
be in a wretched condition, and not likely to live. Baker was obliged to 
walk, although he was excessively weak. They continued along the Somer- 
set, crossing many ravines and torrents, until they turned suddenl}^ down to 
the left, and arriving at the bank were transported to an island called Patooan, 
that was the residence of a chief. This island was about half a mile long by 
one hundred and fifty yards wide, and was one of the numerous masses of 
rocks that choke the river between the Karuma and the Murchison Falls. 
The rock was entirely of grey granite, from the clefts of which beautiful 
forest trees grew so thickly that the entire island was in shade. Once they 
were safely landed on the island of Patooan, their guide and all their carriers 
deserted them, so that they were i)risoners, without knowing how they could 
leave the spot. 

It was now the 8th of April, and the boats on which they depended for 
their return to civilisation would quit Gondokoro. It was therefore of the 
utmost importance that they should set out at once, and take a direct routo 
through the Shooa country. The natives, with their usual cunning, ofi'ered 
io convey them to Shooa, provided they paid them beads in advance ; but 
Baker discovered, in good time, tliat they simply meant to land tlieni on tho 
north side of the river in an uninhabited wilderness, and leave tiiem there to 
die of hunger. Baker's own men were 111, as well as Mrs. Baker and himself, 
and there was a great scarcity of provisions. AVar was going on in the country 
to tho east, Patooan being in the hands of Kamrusi's enemies. It was on 
this account that no Unyoro porters could be found. At length they got 


fcnicd over to tlic mainland. Ilcrc they might have starved, had they not 
found, in a half-destroyed village, a granary of tullaboon seed, -which, altliough 
mouldy and bitter, was a great prize. This tliey ground into corn, and boiled 
with two or three varieties of wild plants. They were not able to obtain a 
morsel of animal food, and tea and coffee were things of tlic past, the very 
memory of which made their mouths water. They found a species of wild 
thyme growing in the jungles, and this, when boiled, formed a tolerable sub- 
stitute for tea ; sometimes they procured a little wild honey, with which to 
sweeten it, and this they considered a great luxury. 

This wretched fare, in their exhausted state from fever and the general 
effects of the climate, so completely disabled them, that, for nearly two 
months, Mrs. Baker lay helpless on one angarop, and lie upon the other. 
Neither of them could walk. They were worn to perfect skeletons. They 
had now given up all liope of reaching Gondokoro, and felt sure they would 
die on the desolate spot wliere they were. Baker wrote instructions in his 
journal, in case of death, and told his headman to be sure and deliver liis 
maps, observations, and papers, to the English Consul at Khartoum. After 
more tlian two months of this wretchedness, it became evident that sometliing 
must be done. He sent his headman, and a native as a guide, witli instruc- 
tions to go direct to Kamrasi, and tell him that he felt much insulted by hi^v 
conduct, desiring him to send at once fifty men to convey him to his royal 
presence. The object, it appeared, of Kamrasi in tlms leaving them, was to 
obtain their assistance against his enemies. Baker instructed his headman 
to say that, if the king wished to enter into an alliance with him, he must 
have a personal interview. This measure succeeded ; and presently Rabonga,. 
the guide, who had previously deserted the party, made his appearance, 
having been ordered to convey them to Kamrasi's camp. He gave tliem a 
thin ox that Kamrasi had sent to 6ui:>ply their present need. On the follow- 
ing morning. Baker and his wife were carried in their litters by a number of 
men. The ox had been killed, the wliole party had revelled in good food^ 
and a sufficient supply for the journey was taken by the men. 

The country through which they passed was like a vast park, overgrown 
with immense grass. Every day the jiorters bolted, and they were left 
deserted at the charred ruins of various villages that had been plundered by 
Kamrasi's enemies. It poured with rain ; there was no cover, as all the huts 
had been burnt, and tliey liad repeated attacks of fever. After several days 
of slow marching, they arrived one morning at a deserted camp, of about 
three thousand huts, whicli were just being ignited by several natives. Tlils. 
had been Kamrasi's head-quarters, which lie had quitted, and, according to 
native custom, it was to be destroyed by fire. It was reported that he iiad 
removed to another position, Avitliiu an hour's march, and had constructed a 
new camp. Tiie neighbourhood was a mass of extensive plantain groves and 


burnt villages, but every plantain-tree had been cut through the middle, and 
recklessly destroyed, by Kamrasi's foes, who had retired on the advance of 
his army. In sjnte of their weak state they continued their journey, till, 
at length, they came to a village called Kisoona, where they found ten of 
the Turks of Ibrahim's party, who had been left by him as hostages with 
Kamrasi, while he returned to Gondokoro. These Turks received them with 
every mark of respect, and with manifestations of delight and wonder at 
their having performed so difficult a journey. A hut was built for their recep- 
tion ; and an ox, killed by the Turks, was prepared as a feast for their people. 

Baker now learnt that he had never yet seen the real Kamrasi, and that 
the person who had previously introduced himself as such, was only that 
chief's brother. He was greatly annoyed at the deception which had been 
practised upon him, but had no way of helping himself. The real Kamrasi 
now notified his readiness to receive the traveller, who, attiring himself in a 
Highland costume, which by some inconceivable chance he had still in his 
portmanteau, suddenly appeared to the eyes of the astounded natives in 
the heroic garb of a Scottish chief. A general shout of exclamation arose 
from the assembled crowd ; and taking his seat upon an aiigarep, he was 
immediately shouldered by a number of men, and, attended by ten of his 
people as escort, he was carried towards the cam}) of the great Kamrasi. 

In about half an hour they arrived at the camp. It was composed of 
grass huts, extended over a large extent of ground, and the approach was 
perfectly black with the throng that crowded to meet the stranger. AVomen, 
children, dogs, and men, all thronged at the entrance of the street that led 
to the king's residence. Entering through a narrow passage. Baker found 
himself in the presence of the actual king of Unyoro, the true Kamra^LU. At 
first the king received him coldly — hardly condescended to look at him. 
Baker, determined not to humble himself like the attendants around, who 
were crawling on their hands and knees to the monarch's feet, and touching 
the ground with their forehead, took his seat upon his stool, which he had 
ordered one of his men to carry with him. Not a word passed between 
Kamrasi and himself for about five minutes, during which time the king 
eyed him most attentively, and made various remarks to the chiefs who were 
present. At length the king spoke, and conversation began. Immediately 
he began to beg, wanting the Highland dress. He informed Baker that he 
had made arrangements for his remaining at Kisoona, and ordei'ed flour, 
plantain beer, and a goat, to be forwarded thitiier as presents. 

As now all hope of reaching Gondokoro in time for the boats had gone, 
Mr. Baker yielded to necessity, and prepared to make himself at home. He 
had a comfortable hut built, surrounded by a courtyard, with an open shed, 
in which he and his wife could sjjcnd the best hours of the day. Kamrasi 
sent him a cow, wliich gave plenty of milk, and every second day they were 



enabled to make a small cheese, about tlio size of a six-pound cannon shot. 
Every Avcek also he sent them an ox, and a quantity of flour for themselves 
and peo2)lo, so that the whole party soon grew fat. Tliey used the milk 
native fashion, never drinking it until curdled. Taken in this form, it will 
agree with the most delicate stomach, whereas, if used fresh in largo quan- 
tities, it induces biliousness. In hot climates, milk curdles in two or three 
hours, if placed in a vessel that has jireviously contained sour milk. Wlien 
curdled, it should be well beaten together until it assumes the ajjpearance of 
cream ; in this state, if seasoned with a little salt, it is most nourishing, and 
easy of digestion. 

Baker says, '' Although the fever had so comjjletely taken possession of 
me, that I was subject to an attack almost daily, the milk fattened me 
extremely, and kept up my strength, which otherwise must have failed. 
The change from starvation to good food, produced a marvellous effect. 
Curious as it may apjDcar, although we were in a land of plantains, the ripe 
fruit was in the greatest scarcity. The natives invariably eat them unripe, 
the green fruit, when boiled, being a fair substitute for potatoes ; the ripo 
plantains were used for brewing jolantain cider ; but they were never eaten. 
The method of cider-making was simple. The fruit was buried in a deep 
hole and covered with straw and earth ; at the expiration of about eight 
days, the green plantains, thus interred, had become ripe ; they were then 
peeled and pulped within a large wooden trough resembling a canoe ; this 
was filled with water, and the pulp being well mashed and stirred, it was left 
to ferment two days, after which time it was fit to drink. 

" Throughout the country of Unyoro, plantains in various forms were 
the staple article of food, ujjon which the inhabitants placed more deiDcndence 
than upon all other ci'ops. T)ie green plantains were not only used as 2:)otatoes, 
but when peeled they were cut in thin slices and dried in the sun until crisp ; 
in this state they were stored in the granaries, and when required for use they 
were boiled into a pulp and made into a palatable soup or stew. Flour of 
jilantains was remarkably good ; this was made by grinding the fruit when 
dried as described; it was then, as usual with all other articles in that country, 
most beautifully packed in long narrow parcels, either formed of plantain bark 
or of the white interior of rushes worked into mats. This bark served as 
brown paper, but had the advantage of being water-proof. The fibre of the 
plantain formed both thread and cord, thus the principal requirements of the 
natives were supplied by this most useful tree. The natives were exceedingly 
clever in working braid from the plantain fibre, which was of so fine, a texture 
that it had the appearance of a hair-chain ; nor could the difference be de- 
tected without a close examination. Small bags netted with the same twine 
were most delicate ; and in all that was produced in Unyoro, there was a 
remarkably good taste displayed in the manufacture." 


The natives were as clever and as cunning in their bargains as sonio 
European tradesmen. Every morning, shortly after sunrise, men might bo 
heard crying their wares thus: — "Tobacco, tobacco; two packets going 
cither for beads or salt!" "Salt to exchange for lanco heads!" "Coffee, 
coffee, going cheap for red beads I" " Butter for five red beads a lump !" A 
dealer brought Mr. Baker one day a lump of butter, about the size of a cocoa- 
nut, wrapi)ed up carefully in a plantain leaf, with only the point at the top 
exposed. He tasted from the exposed part, and approving the flavour, pur- 
chased. He was fairly cheated, as the butter dealer had. packed some old 
butter under the leaf, and placed a small piece of fresh and sweet on the top 
as a tasting point. As retailers, they took great jDains to divide everything 
into minimum packets, which they sold for a few beads, always declaring 
that they had. only one j^acket to dispose of, but immediately producing 
another when that was sold. 

The travellers were compelled to spend several months at Kisoona, during 
which time, in spite of rest and good food, they suffered much from fever. 
They were continually troubled by Kamrasi sending messengers to request 
their appearance before him ; but they excused themselves for non-attendance, 
on the ground of their weak state. He then sent a messenger one day to say 
that he should pay them a visit the following morning, and the following 
morning, attended by a numerous retinue, he came. At once he began to 
beg for everything he saw — watch, rifle, looking-glass, chair, beads, gunpow- 
der, surgical instruments, combs, and medicines of all kinds. Some things 
were given him, but others were positively refused. At his special request, 
he received a dose of tartar-emetic, as he said he had been suffering from a 
headache. He took it on his return home in the evening, and the next morn- 
ing, Baker heard that he had considered himself poisoned by it, but was now 

From that day, the travellers received no supplies from the king. Baker 
had refused to mix himself up with his quarrels, though he promised, that if 
Fowooka and Rionga, Kamrasi's enemies, attempted to invade the country 
while he remained in it, he would be most hajipy to lend the king his aid to 
repel them. This was not enough for him ; and consequently ho was affronted. 
The weeks passed slowly at Kisoona. At length their stay was cut short, in 
consequence of the invasion of the country by Fowooka's people, accom- 
panied by a hundred and fifty Turks belonging to the trading party that had 
attacked Kamrasi the preceding year. Kamrasi proposed at once taking to 
flight; but Baker promised to hoist the flag of England, and to place the 
country under British protection. He then sent a message to Mahomnied, the 
headman of the Turkish party, warning him, that should a shot be fired by 
any of his people, he would be hanged ; and ordering them at once to quit 
the country, lie also informed him, that he had ])romised all the ivory to 


Ibrahim, so that, contrary to the rules of tlie traders, they were trespassing 
in the territory. 

This letter had its due effect. Mahommed deserted his allies, and plun- 
dered them of their cattle and slaves. Kamrasi ordered general rejoicings, 
killed a number of oxen and distributed them among his people, and intoxi- 
cated half the country with presents of plantain-cider. Forthwith, he fell 
with his troops on Fowooka and his people, and cut them to pieces, while the 
Avomen and children were brought away as captives. A number of old women, 
wlio could not walk sufficiently fast to keep up wdth their victors during tlie 
return march, were killed on the road, by being beaten on the back of the 
nock with a club. The younger women who were spared were, for the most 
part, remarkably good looking, of soft and pleasing expression, dark-brown 
complexion, fine noses, woolly liair, and good figures. One woman had a 
most beautiful child, a boy, about twelve months old. 

At length, on the 20th of September, Ibrahim returned from Gondokoro, 
bringing with liim 'OaQ post from England. The letters were of very old date, 
none under two years, with the exception of one from Speke. For a whole 
day, the travellers revelled in the luxury of letters and newspapers. Ibrahim 
also brouglit a piece of coarse cotton cloth, of Arab manufacture, which Baker 
used for clotlies for himself, and a piece of cotton print for a dress for Mrs. 
Baker, besides honey, rice, and coffee. He made some presents, too, to 
ivamrasi, which, in addition to the defeat of his enemies, put liim in excel- 
lent humour. 

About the middle of November, the Turkish traders having collected a 
large sujoply of ivory, were ready to return to Shooa ; and Mr. Baker, thank- 
ful to leave the wretched country in which he had now spent ten months, 
took his leave of Kamrasi, and commenced the return journe}' with his allies. 
The quantity of ivory was so great, that they required seven hundred 2)orters 
to carry both tusks and provisions for the five days' march through an uninha- 
bited country. This large quantity of ivory was the promised recompense to 
the Turkish escort, which alone secured their fidelity, and enabled Mr. Baker 
to efiect his return. The entire party, including women and children, amounted 
to about a thousand people. On the break of day of November 17th, they 
stai'ted. After the first day's march, they quitted the forest and entered upon 
the great prairies. From some elevated points in the route they could dis- 
tinctly see the outline of the mountains running from the Albert Lake to the 
north, on the west bank of the Nile, although they were about sixty miles 

On the fifth day's march from the Victoria Nile, they arrived at Shooa ; 
the change was delightful after the wet and dense vegetation of Unj'oro ; the 
country was dry, and the grass short and of good quality. They took pos- 
session of a camp which had been prepared for them ; huts were built for the 


interpreters and servants, and quite a mansion for Mr. and Jlrs. Laker them- 
selves. The native women crowded to tlie camp in the evening to welcome 
Mrs. Baker home, and to dance in honour of her return. Several montlis 
were passed at Shooa, during which time Baker ramhled about the neighbour- 
hood, made duplicates of his maps, gathered information, and endeavoured to 
turn his stay to the best account. The Turks had discovered a new country 
called Lira, about thirty miles from Shooa; the natives were reported as 
friendly, and their country was said to be wonderfully fertile, and very rich 
in ivory. The people " were the same t3'pe as the !Madi, but wore their hair 
in a diflferent form ; this was Avovon into a thick felt, wliich covered tlie 
shoulders, and extended as low ujDon the back as the shoulder-blade. They 
were not particular about wearing false hair, but were happy to receive sub- 
scriptions fi'om any source ; in case of death the hair of the deceased was imme- 
diately cut off and shared among his friends, to be added to their felt. "When 
in full dress (the men being naked) this mass of felt was plastered thickly 
with a bluish clay, so as to form an even surface ; this was eleborately worked 
with the point of a thorn, so as to resemble the cuttings of a file ; white jjipo- 
clay was then arranged in patterns on the surface, while an ornament, made 
of either an antelo^je's or giraffe's sinew, was stuck in the extremity, and 
turned up for about a foot in length. This when dry was as stiff as horn, 
and the tip was ornamented with a tuft of fur — the tip of a leopard's tail 
being highly prized." 

The hour of deliverance from their long sojourn in Central Africa was at 
hand. It was the month of February, 1SG5, and the boats would be at 
Gondokoro. The day arrived for their departure from Shooa ; and they turned 
their backs fairly to tlie south. For several days they travelled througli most 
beautiful park-like lands, the verdant grass sometimes diversified by splendid 
tamarind trees, the dark foliage of which afforded shelter for great numbers 
of the brilliant yellow-breasted pigeon. Ascending a rocky mountain by u 
stony and difficult pass, they found, upon arrival at the summit, that they 
were about eight hundred feet above the Nile, whicli lay in front at about 
two miles distance, and they lialted to enjoy the magniliccnt view. Hero 
was the grand old river, fresh from its great source, the Albert Lake. They 
could discern its course for about twenty miles, and distinctly trace the lino 
of mountains on the west bank, tliat they had seen at about sixty miles dis- 
tance, when on the route fromKaruma to Sliooa. Exactly opposite the sum- 
mit of the pass from which they now scanned the country, rose the precipitous 
mountain known as Gebel Kookoo, which rose to a height of about two thou- 
sand five hundred feet above the level of the Nile. They were now on the 
track by which Speke and Grant had returned. Descending the pass through 
a thorny jungle, liiey arrived at the river, and turning suddenly to the north, 
followed its course for about a mile, and t])en bivouacked for the eveniiig. 


When they came to the Asua River, about a quarter of a mile above its 
junction with the Nile, they were able to cross it on foot, the water in the 
deepest part reaching only to the middle of the thigh. Like other mountain 
torrents, it is formidable during the rains, but exhausted in the dry season. 
The crossing of this river was a signal of extra precaution in the arrangement 
of their march, as they had entered the territory of the ever hostile Bari tribe, 
and had been already warned that they could not pass to Gondokoro with- 
out being attacked. In a short time the attack was made, and thus Baker 
describes it : — " In these ravines grew dense thickets of bamboos. Having 
no native guide, but trusting solely to the trader's people, who had travelled 
frequently by this route, we lost the path, and shortly became entangled 
amongst the numerous ravines. At length we passed a village, around which 
were assembled a number of natives. Having regained the route, we observed 
the natives appearing in various directions, and as quickly disappearing, only 
to gather in our front in increased numbers. Their movements exciting 
suspicion, in a country where every man was an enemy, our party closed 
together. We threw out an advance guard — ten men on either flank — the 
porters' ammunition and effects in the centre ; while about ten men brought 
up the real". Before us lay two low rocky hills covered with trees, high grass 
and bushwood, in which I distinctly observed the bright-red forms of natives 
painted according to the custom of the Bari tribe. 

" We were evidently in for a. fight. The path lay in a gorge between, 
the low rocky hills in advance. My wife dismounted from her ox, and 
walked at the head of our party with me, Saat following behind, with the 
gun that he usually carried, while the men drove several riding-oxen in the 
centre. Hardly had we entered the pass, when whiz went an arrow over 
our heads. This was the signal for a repeated discharge. The natives ran 
among the rocks with the agility of monkeys, and showed a considerable 
amount of daring in standing within about eighty yards from the ridge, and 
taking steady shots at us with their jDoisoned arrows. The flanking parties 
now opened fire, and what with the bad shooting of both the escort and the 
native archers, no one was wounded on either side for the first ten minutes. 
The rattle of musketry, and the wild appearance of the naked vermilion- 
coloured savages, as they leapt along the craggy ridge, twanging their bows 
at us with evil, but ineff"ectual intent, was a charming picture of African life 
and manners. 

" Fortunately the branches of numerous trees and intervening clumps of 
bamboo, frustrated the good intentions of the arrows, as they glanced from 
their aim; and although some fell among our party, we were as yet unscathed. 
One of the enemy, who was most probably a chief, distinguished himself in 
particular, by advancing to within about fifty yards, and, standing on a rock, 
he deliberately shot five or six arrows, all of which missed their mark; the 


men dodged them as they arrived in their uncertain flight: the speed of the 
arrows was so inferior, owing to the stiflfness of the bows, tliat nothing was 
easier than to evade them. Any halt was unnecessary. We continued our 
march through the gorge, tlie men kecjjing up an unremitting fire, until we 
entered upon a tract of high grass and forest. This being perfectly dry, it 
would have been easy to set it on fire, as the enemy were to leeward ; but 
although the rustling in tlic grass betokened the presence of a great number 
of men, they were invisible. In a few minutes we emerged in a clearing, 
where corn had been planted. This was a favourable position for a decisive 
attack upon the natives, who now closed up. Throwing out skirmishers, with 
orders that tliey had to cover themselves behind the trunks of trees, the Baris 
were driven back. One was now shot through the body and fell ; but reco- 
vering, he ran witli his comrades, and fell dead after a few yards. What 
casualties had occurred during the passage of the gorge, I cannot say, but 
the enemy were now utterly discomfited." 

The following night, however, the travellers' camp was surrounded, and 
poisoned arrows stealthily shot into it. In the morning, one of the natives 
who had ventured nearer than the rest, and been fired at, was found killed. 
His bow Avas in his hand, and two or three arrows were lying by his side. 
When they searched the camp for arrows, they picked up four others in 
various places, some within a few feet of their beds, and all horribly barbed 
and poisoned, that had been shot into the camj:) gateway. This was the last 
attack during their journey. Henceforth they marched well. The country 
Avas generally poor, but beautifully diversified with large trees, the tamarind 
predominating. In a few days they sighted the mountain of Belignian ; then 
they had a splendid view of the Ellyria Mountain, and of the distant cone, 
Gebel el Assul, between Ellyria and Obbo. At Icngtli, one day Saat exclaimed, 
" I sec the masts of the vessels !" They were approaching Gondokoro. On 
their arrival, they saw the Turkish flag emerge from the jjlace, and a number 
of the trader's people came to meet them, and fire salutes of welcome. 

Dismounting from their tired oxen, their first inquiry was concerning 
boats and letters. To their dismay, there were neither boats, letters, supplies, 
nor any intelligence of friends or the civilised world. All the people at Khar- 
toum had either given them up as dead, or thought they niiglit have gone to 
Zanzibar ; the former was the prevailing opinion. They discovered at last 
that three boats had arrived from Khartoum — one diahbiah and two noggors 
— although no one had been sent for them. The trading parties were in great 
consternation because the report had reached them that the Egyptian autho- 
rities were about to suppress the slave-trade, and that four steamers had 
arrived at Khartoum for that purpose; thus three thousand slaves then assem- 
bled at Gondokoro would be utterly worthless. Tidings also had come up 
that tlie plague was raging at Khartoum ; and, indeed, many belonging to 


the crews of the boats which had arrived had died on the passage. It tlicn 
broke out at Gondokoro, and the victims among the natives were dragged to 
the edge of the cliff and thrown into the river. Taking advantage of the 
state of affairs, Baker contracted for the dialibiah for four thousand piastres 
(£-10), and having fumigated it, set out for Khartoum. Silently and easily 
they floated down the stream. The endless marshes, that looked so wretched 
when they ascended, looked pleasent now as they passed them on their way 
down. Baker had time to write his letters, and to look back on the results of 
the last few years. He varied his literary occupation with antelope-shooting. 

They had not yet escaped all their dangers. When they came to the 
junction of Bahr el Gazal, and turned sharp to the east, they came to an 
extraordinary obstruction, which had dammed up the river since their pas- 
sage up in 18G3. The natui-o of the obstruction is thus described : — " There 
was considerable danger in the descent of the river upon nearing this pecu- 
liar dam, as the stream plunged below it by a subterranean channel, witli a 
rush like a cataract. A large diahbiah, laden with ivory, had been carried 
beneath the dam on her descent from Gondokoro in the previous year, and 
had never been seen afterwards. I ordered the reis to have the anchor in 
readiness, and two powerful hawsers ; should we arrive in the evening, he 
was to secure the vessel to the bank, and not to attempt the passage through 
the canal until the following morning. We anchored about half a mile above 
the dam. This part of the Nile is boundless marsh, portions of which were 
at this season terra firma. The river ran from west to east; the south bank 
was actual ground covered with mimosas, but to the north and west the fiat 
marsh covered with high weeds was interminable. 

"At daybreak we manned the oars and floated down the rapid stream. 
In a few minutes we heard the rush of water, and we saw the dam stretching 
across the river before us. The marsh being firm, our men immediately 
jumped out on the left bank and manned the hawsers — one fastened from the 
stern, the other from the bow ; this arrangement prevented the boat from 
turning broadside on to the dam, by which accident the shipwrecked diahbiah 
had been lost. As we approached the dam I perceived the canal or ditch that 
had been cut by the crews of the vessels that had ascended the river ; it was 
about ten feet wide, and would barely allow the passage of our dialibiah. 
This canal was already choked with masses of floating vegetation and natural 
rafts of reeds and mud that the river carried with it, the accumulation of 
which had originally formed the dam. Having secured the vessel, by carrying 
out an anchor astern and burying it in the marsh, while a rope fastened from 
the bow to the high reeds kept her stern to the stream, all hands jumped into 
the canal and commenced dragging at the entangled masses of weeds, reeds, 
ambatch wood, grass, and mud, that had choked the entrance. Half a day 
was thus passed, at the expiration of which time we towed our vessel safely 


into the ditcli, where she Ip.y out of danger. It was necessary to discharge 
all cargo from the boat, in order to reduce her draught of water. This tedious 
operation completed, and many bushels of corn being piled upon mats spread 
upon the reeds beaten fiat, we endeavound to push her along the canal. 
Although the obstruction was annoying, it was a most interesting object. 

" The river had suddenly disappeared ; there Avas apparently an end to 
the White Nile. The dam was about three-quarters of a mile wide ; it was 
l)erfectly firm, and was already overgrown with high reeds and grass, thus 
forming a continuation of the surrounding country. Many of the traders' 
people had died of the plague at this spot duiing the delay of some weeks in 
cutting the canal ; the graves of these dead were upon the dam. The bottom 
of the canal that had been cut through the dam was perfectly firm, composed 
of sand, mud, and interwoven decaying vegetation. The river arrived with 
great force at the abrupt edge of the obstruction, bringing with it all kinds of 
trash and large floating islands. None of these objects hitched against the 
edge, but the instant they struck they dived under and disappeared. It was in 
this manner that the vessel had been lost — having missed the narrow entrance 
to the canal, she had struck the dam stern on ; the force of the current imme- 
diately turned her broadside against the obstruction ; the floating islands and 
masses of vegetation brought down by the river were heaped against her, and 
heeling over on her side she was sucked bodily under and carried beneath the 
dam ; her ci'cw had time to save themselves by leaping upon the firm barrier 
that had wrecked their ship. The boatmen told me that dead hippopotami 
have been found on the other side, that had been carried under the dam and 
drowned. Two days' hard work from morning till night brought us through 
the canal, and we once more found ourselves on the open Nile on the other 
side of the dam." 

Unhappily the plague, as might have been expected, broke out on 
board, and several of their people died ; among the number, their faithful 
little servant, Saat, the loss of whom they deeply deplored. A few miles from 
the spot where they buried Saat, a head wind delaj-ed them several days. 
Losing patience. Baker engaged camels from the Arabs; and riding the whole 
day, they reached Khartoum, about half an hour after sunset, on the 5th of 
May, I860. On the following morning, they were welcomed by the entire 
European population of Khartoum, and kindly ofi"ercd a house by !M. Lom- 
brosio, the manager of the Kluirtoum branch of the Oriental and Egyptian 
Trading Company. Here they heard tlie sad intelligence of the death of 
Captain Speke. They were obliged to remain at this place two months. The 
Blue Nile was so low that even the noggors, drawing three feet of water, could 
not descend the river. A cattle and camel plague that had prevailed for two 
years had destroyed all the camels. No corn could be procured. Tliere was 
a famine in the cit}- — neither fodder for animals, nor food for man. Tlio 



plague had run such riot among the population, that out of four thousand 
liltick troops only a remnant of four hundred remained alive. It had been 
introduced by the slaves landed from two vessels which had been captured, 
nnd in which it had broken out. These vessels contained upwards of eight 
hundred and fifty human beings; and nothing could be more dreadful than the 
condition in which these unhappy beings wei'o put on shore. The women had 
afterwards been distributed among the soldiers, and, in consequence, the 
pestilence had been disseminated throughout the place. 

During the time the travellers remained at Khartcum, the heat was 
intense, and the place was visited by a dust-storm, which, in a few minutes, 
produced an actual pitchy darkness. At first, there was no wind, and when 
it came, it did not come with the violence that might have been expected. So 
intense was the darkness, that they tried in vain to distinguish their hands 
placed close before their eyes ; not even an outline could be seen. This lasted 
for upwards of twenty minutes, and then rapidly passed away. The Nile 
had now risen sufficiently to enable them to make the passage of the cataracts 
between Khartoum and Berber ; and on the 30th of June, they took leave of 
their friends — sailing, the following morning, for Berber. On approaching 
the fine basalt hills, through which the river passes during its course from 
Khartoum, they were surprised to see the great Nile contracted to a trifling 
width of from eighty to a hundred and twenty yards. Walled by high cliffs 
cf basalt upon either side, the vast volume of the Nile flows grandly through 
this romantic pass, the water boiling up in curling eddies, showing what 
rocky obstructions exist in its profound depths below. 

Their voyage was very nearly terminated at the passage of the cataracts. 
As it was Baker's last trial, he shall relate it himself: — " Many skeletons of 
wrecked vessels lay upon the rocks in various places ; as we were flying along 
in full sail before a heavy gale of wind, descending a cataract, we struck 
upon a sandbank — fortunately, not upon a rock, or we should have gone to 
pieces like a glass bottle. The tremendous force of the stream, running at 
the rate of about ten or twelve miles per hour, immediately drove the vessel 
broadside upon the bank. About sixty yards below us was a ridge of rocks, 
upon which it ajjpeared certain that we must be driven, should we quit the 
bank upon which we were stranded. The reis and crew, as usual, in such 
cases, lost their heads. I emptied a large waterjDroof portmanteau, and tied 
it together with ropes, so as to form a life-buoy for my wife and Richarn, 
neither of whom could swim ; the maps, journals, and observations, I packed 
in an iron box, which I fastened with a tow line to the portmanteau. It 
appeared that we were to wind uj) the expedition with shipwreck, and thus 
lose my entire collection of hunting spoils. Having completed the prepara- 
tions for escape, I took command of the vessel, and silenced the chattering 


"My first order was to lay out an anchor up stream. This was done: 
the water Avas shallow, and the great weight of the anchor, carried on the 
shoulders of two men, enabled them to resist the current, and to wade hip- 
deep about forty yards up the stream upon the sandbank. Thus secured, I 
ordered the crew to haul upon the cable. The great force of the current 
bearing upon the broadside of the vessel, while her head was anchored up 
stream, bore her gradually round. All hands were now employed in clearing 
away the sand, and deepening a passage : loosening the sand with their hands 
and feet, the powerful rapids carried it away. For five hours we remained 
in this position, the boat cracking and half-filled with water; however, we 
stopped the leak caused by the strain upon her timbers, and having, after 
much labour, cleared a channel in the narrow sandbank, the moment arrived 
to slip the cable, hoist the sail, and trust to the heavy gale of wind from the 
west to clear the rocks, that lay within a few yards of us to the north. ' Let 
go I ' and all being prepared, the sail was loosened, and filling in the strong 
gale with a loud report, the head of the vessel swung round with the force 
of wind and stream. 

"Away we flew! For an instant we grated on some bard substance; we 
stood upon the deck, watching the rocks exactly before us, with the rapids 
roaring loudly around our boat as she rushed upon wliat looked like certain 
destruction. Another moment, and wo passed within a few inches of the 
rocks within the boiling surf. Hurrah, wo arc all right ! We swept by the 
danger, and flew along the rapids, hurrying towards old England." 

On reaching Berber, they quitted the Nile, and crossed the desert to 
Souakim over the Red Sea, where they found a steamer to convey them to 
Suez. From Suez they proceeded to Cairo, where they left the faitliful 
Richarn and his wife in a comfortable situation, as servants at Shepherd's 
Hotel, and Baker had the satisfaction of hearing tluit the Royal Geographical 
Society had awarded him the Victoria Gold ]\Icdal, a proof that his exertions 
had been duly appreciated. On his arrival in England, ho received the 
honour of knighthood. These honours were well deserved ; for ho had con- 
ferred additional lustre on English discovery ; lie had approached nearer than 
any other traveller to the solution of that great mystery of the Nile, wliich 
had been the wonder of ages ; and he had accomplished this grand object by 
his own sole resources, alone and unaccompanied by any European, except 
the intrepid lady, who was the worthy mate of such a husband. 

The results of his expedition to ethnography, the interests of trade, and 
the prospects of civilisation, are not without importance. None of the results, 
however, arc more remarkable than the decisive confirmation given to the 
theory propounded by Sir Roderick Jlurciiison in 1852— more than ten years 
before any European had reached this region, as to the geological formation 
of Equatorial Africa. No portion of the globe bears such undoubted marks of 


the highest antiquity. All tlio rocks are priniitivc. This vast plateau, four 
thousand feet above the sea, has never been submerged, nor does it appear to 
have undergone any change, either by volcanic or by aqueous action. This 
fact is one of the most curious and important made in our time to geological 
science ; and in the Anniversary Address to the Royal Geographical Society, 
delivered on the 28th of Ma}', 18GG, Sir Roderick referred to the subject 
in the following terms : — 

" On former occasions I have directed your siDCcial attention to the strik- 
ing phenomenon of tlie long sj'stem of water-basins, lakes, and rivers, flowing 
there, which prevails in the elevated plateau-ground of Central Africa. Many 
of the bodies of water lie, so far as we know, in shallow depressions, the edges 
of which extend into marshy lands. Now, the Albert Nyanza of Baker is a 
striking contrast to all such lakes ; for this enormous body of water, estimated 
to be about as long as Scotland, is a deep excavation in hard granitic and 
other crystalline rocks. Looking at the simplicity and antiquity of the geolo- 
logical structure of Central Africa, it is this result of the exploration of Mr. 
Baker, or this jDrofound excavation in hard rock, which has most interested 
me, and must, I am sure, interest all my brother geologists as well as physical 
geographers. For, if this great depression in hard rocks be not due, as I 
think, either to original conformation, or to some of the great movements to 
which those rocks may have been subjected, how else are we to account for 
its existence ? I have previously shown, from the absence of all marine deposits 
of tertiar}' and detrltal age, that Central Africa has not been submerged in 
any of those geological periods during which we have such visible and clear 
proofs of great subsidences, elevations, and deimdations in other quarters of 
the globe. Hence we cannot look to the sea as a denuding power in Central 
Africa. Still more impossible is it to seek in the existence of former glaciers 
an excavative power; for here, under the equator, not only can no such 
phenomenon ever have occurred, but even if the application of such a theory 
were possible, it would be set aside by the fact of the entire absence in Cen- 
tral Africa of any of those moraines or transjDorted debris whicli were the 
invariable accompaniments of glaciers, or the erratic blocks transported by 
former icebergs. In short, Central Africa presents no existing natural agent 
which, if it operated for millions of years, could have excavated the hollow in 
which the great Albert Nyanza lies." 


Livingstone^ s Second Expedition — The 3IoutJis of the Zambesi — Kehrabasa liamds — 
Ilurchison Cataracts — Effects of Rain — Lake Shirwa — Skiro Marshes — 3Ian- 
gauja and its Fcople — Disccvery of Lake Nyassa. 

AFTPjR Dr. Livingstone's return from Africa in 1856, he spent rather more 
than a year in England; and then, on the lOtli of March, 1858, he set 
out again, on board Her Majesty's Steamer " Pearl," at the head of a Govern- 
ment expedition for the jjurpose of exploring the Zambesi and the neighbour- 
ing regions. He was accompanied by his brother Charles, Dr. Kirk, Mr. 
Thornton, and Mr. Baines. Mrs. Livingstone joined him after he had been 
some time in the interior. At a fare-\vell Livingstone Festival, which was held 
in the Frcemasuu's Tavern, London, on the 18th of February, under the pre- 
sidency of Sir Roderick Murchison, the great traveller thus expressed his own 
purposes and views in relation to the expedition he was about to lead to 
Africa: — "I expect to find for myself no largo fortune in that country, nor 
do I expect to explore any large i:)ortions of a ne^v country ; but I do hope 
to find in that part of the country which I have partially explored, a pathway 
by means of the River Zambesi, which may lead to highlands where Euroi^cans 
may form a healthful settlement, and where, by oioeuing up communication 
and establishing commercial intercourse with the natives of Africa, they may 
slowly, but not the less surely, imjjart to the people of that country the know- 
ledge and the inestimable blessings of Christianity. 

" The success — if I may call it success — which has attended my former 
efforts to open up the country, mainly depended upon my entering into the 
feelings and the wishes of the })co})le of the interior of Africa. I found that 
tlic tribes in the interior of that country were just as anxious to have a path 
to the seaboard as I was to open a communication with the interior, and I 
am quite certain of obtaining the co-operation of those tribes in ni}- next 
expedition. Should I succeed in my endeavour — should we be able to open 
a communication advantageous to ourselves with the natives of the interior of 
Africa, it would be our duty to confer upon them those great benefits of Cln-is- 
tianity which have been bestowed upon ourselves. Let us not make the i^ame 
mistake in Africa as we have done in Lidia, but let us take to that country 
our Christianity with us. 


'' I confess that I am not sanguine enougli to hope for any speedy result 
from this expedition, but I am sanguine as to its ultimate result. I feci con- 
vinced that if we can establish a system of free labour in Africa, it will have 
a most decided influence upon slavery throughout the world. Success, how- 
ever, under Providence, depends upon us as Englishmen. I look upon English- 
men as perhaps the most freedom-loving people in the world, and I think that 
the kindly feeling which has been displayed towards mo slncj my return to 
my native land, has arisen from the belief that my efforts might at some future 
time tend to put an end to the odious traffic in slaves. England has, unfor- 
tunately, been compelled to obtain cotton and other raw material from slave 
states, and has thus been the mainstay and support of slavery in America. 
Surely, then, it follows that, if we can succeed in obtaining the raw material 
from other sources than from the slave States of America, we would strike a 
heavy blow at the system of slavery itself. I do not wish, any more than 
my friend, Sir Roderick, to arouse expectations in connection with this expe- 
dition which may never be realised, but what I want to do is to get in the 
thin end of the wedge, and then leave it to be driven home by English energy 
and English spirit." 

In sending the traveller out, the purposes and views of the British 
Goverment were in sympathy with his own. " The main object of the Zam- 
besi expedition," he says, in the narrative of the exjjedition, after his return, 
" as our instructions from Her Majesty's Government explicitly stated, was 
to- extend the knowledge already attained of the geography and mineral and 
agricultural resources of Eastern and Central Africa — to improve our acquaint- 
ance with the inhabitants, and endeavour to engage them to ajjply themselves 
to industrial pursuits, and to the cultivation of their lands, with a view to the 
production of raw material to be exported to England in return for British 
manufactures ; and it was hoj^ed that, by encouraging the natives to occupy 
themselves in the development of the resources of the country, a considerable 
advance might be made towards the extinction of the slave-trade, as they 
would not be long in discovering that the former would eventually be a more 
certain source of profit than the latter The expedition was sent in accord- 
ance with the settled policy of the English Government ; and the Earl of 
Clarendon, being then at the head of the Foreign Ofiice, the Mission was 
organised under his immediate care. When a change of Government ensued, 
we experienced the same generous countenance and symjjathy from the Earl 
of Malmesbury, as we had joreviously received from Lord Clai'endon ; and, on 
the accession of Earl Russell to the high ofiice he has so long filled, we were 
always favoured with equally ready attention and the same prompt assistance. 
Thus the conviction was produced that our work embodied the principles, 
not of any one party, but of the hearts of the statesmen and of the jjeoplc of 
England generally." 


The expedition proceeded to the Cape ; and, after enjoying the generous 
hospitality of friends there, and receiving on board Mr. Francis Skead, R. N., 
as surveyor, they reached the East Coast in the following May. Their first 
object was to explore the Zambesi, its mouths and tributaries, with a view to 
their being used as highways for commerce and Christianity to pass into tlie 
vast interior of Africa. The real mouths of the Zambesi were little known, 
as the Portuguese Government had represented the Killimane as the only 
navigable outlet of the river. This was done to induce Englisli cruisers 
employed in the suppression of the slave-trade to watch the false mouth, 
while slaves were quietly shipped from the true one; and this deception was 
propagated, even after the publication of Livingstone's discoveries, in a map 
published by the Portuguese colonial minister. The small steamer, called the 
" Ma-Robert," in compliment to Mrs. Livingstone, which was provided by the 
Government for the navigation of the river, was put together and launched; 
and four inlets or mouths, known severally as the Milambe, the Luabo, the 
Timbwe, and the Kongone, each of them superior to the Killimane, were 
discovered and examined. The Kongone was selected by the expedition for 
their purpose, as the most navigable. 

As they steamed up the channel, the few natives whom they saw 
retreated in terror at their approach, and concealed themselves in the man- 
grove thickets which grew on either side of the river. In the grassy glades 
bullaloes, wart-hogs, and antelopes, were abundant, so that, in a few hours, 
meat enough was obtained to supply a score of men for several days. " The 
first twenty miles of the Kongone," says Livingstone, " are enclosed in man- 
grove jungle; some of the trees are ornamented with orchilla weed, which 
appears never to have been gathered. Huge fei-ns, palm bushes, and occa- 
sionally wild date-palms, peer out in the forest, which consists of diflercut 
species of mangroves ; the bushes of bright yellow, though scarcely edible 
fruit, contrasting prettily with the graceful green leaves. In some sjiots the 
Milola, an umbrageous hibiscus, with large yellowish flowers, grows in masses 
along the bank. Its bark is made into cordage, and is especially valuable for 
the manufacture of ropes attached to harpoons for killing the hippopotamus. 
The Pandanus or screw-palm, from which sugar-bags are made in the Mauri- 
tius, also appears. We find too u few guava and lime-trees growing wild, but 
the natives claim the crops. The dark woods resound with the lively and 
exultant song of the king-hunter {Halcyon striolata), as he sits perched on high 
among the trees. As the steamer moves on through the winding channel a 
pretty little heron, or bright kingfisher, darts out in alarm from the edge of 
the bank, flies on ahead a short distance, and settles quietly down, to bo 
again frightened off in a few seconds as we approach. The magnificent fish- 
hawk {IlaUdus vocifcr), sits on the top of a mangrove-tree, digesting his morn- 
ing meal of fresh fish, and is clearly unwilling to stir until the imuiiucnce of 


tlio danger compels liim at last to spread Lis great wings for flight. The 
glossy ibis, acute of ear to a remarkable degree, hears from afar the unwonted 
sound of the paddles, and, springing from the mud where his family has been 
quietly feasting, is off, screaming out his loud and defiant Ila ! ha ! ha ! long 
before the danger is near. 

"The mangroves are now left behind, and are succeeded by vast level 
plains of rich dark soil, covered with gigantic grasses, so tall that they tower 
over one's head, and render hunting impossible. Beginning in July, the 
grass is burned off every year after it has become dry. These fires prevent 
the growth of any great amount of timber, as only a few trees from among 
the more hardy kinds, such as the Borassus-palm and lignum-vitiB, can live 
through the sea of fire which annually roars across the plains. Several native 
Imts now peep out from the bananas and cocoa-palms on the right bank; they 
stand on piles a few feet above the low damp ground, and their owners enter 
them by means of ladders. The soil is wonderfully rich, and the gardens 
are really excellent. Rice is cultivated largely ; sweet potatoes, j^umpkius, 
tomatoes, cabbages, onions, (shalots) peas, a little cotton, and sugar-cane, are 
also raised." The natives were eager traders, and came off in light canoes, 
Avith every kind of fruit and food they possessed; a few brought honey and 
bees-wax, which arc found in quantities in the mangrove forests. As the 
ships steamed up, many anxious sellers ran along the bank, holding ujd fowls, 
baskets of rice and meal, and shouting " Malonda, malonda" — "things for 
sale ;" while others followed in canoes, which they sent through the water with 
great velocity, by means of short broad-bladed paddles. 

After they had proceeded up the river about forty miles from the bar, it 
was found that the " Pearl's" draught was too great; they therefore landed 
the goods she had brought out for the expedition on a grassy island, and 
that vessel sailed for Ceylon, leaving the " Ma-Robert" to jDursue her course 
alone. At Mazaro, the mouth of a creek communicating with the Killimane, 
the expedition heard that the Portuguese were at war with a half-caste, named 
Mariano, who had built a stockade near the mouth of the Sliire, and held 
possession of all the intermediate country. lie was a keen slave-hunter, and 
kept a large number of men, well armed with muskets. He had been in the 
habit of sending out his armed bands on slave-hunting expeditions among 
the helpless tribes to the north-west, selling the victims at Killimane, where 
they were shipped as free emigrants to the French island of Bourbon. As 
long as the robberies and murders were restricted to the natives at a distance, 
the Portuguese did not interfere, but when he began to carry off and murder 
the people near them, they thought it time to j^ut a stop to his proceedings. 
They spoke of him as a rare monster of inhumanity. He used to spear his 
captives with his own hands, to make his name dreaded; and it is said that, 
on one occasion, he killed in this manner forty poor wretches placed in a row 


before him. Having gone down to Killimane to arrange with tlie governor, 
or, in other words, to bribe him, he was put in prison, and sent for trial to 
Mozambique The war, however, was continued under liis brotlicr Bonga, 
and had stopped all trade on the river. 

The expedition first came into contact with the rebels, as they were 
called, on tlic lotli of June. Tlicy appeared as a crowd of well-armed and 
fantastically- dressed people under the trees at Mazaro. On Livingstone and 
his friends csclaiming that they were English, some at once came on board 
and called to those on shore to lay aside their arms. A li'tlo later, the expe- 
dition witnessed a battle between Bonga and the Portuguese ; and Living- 
stone, on landing to pay his respects to several of his old friends who had 
treated him kindly on the occasion of his former appearance among them, 
found himself in the sickening smell and among the mutilated bodies of the 
slain. The governor was ill of fever, and Livingstone was requested to con- 
vey him to Shupanga. Just as he gave his assent, the rebels renewed the? 
fight, and the balls began to whistle about in all directions. After vainly 
trying to get some one to assist the sick ma«i down to the steamer, our tra- 
veller himself half-supported and half-carried him ; and afterward, by his 
skilful treatment, restored him to health. 

"For sixty or seventy miles before reaching Mazaro, the scenery is tame 
and uninteresting. On either hand is a dreary uninhabited expanse, of the 
same level grassy plains, with merely a few trees to relieve the j^ainful mono- 
tony. The round green toji of the stately palm-tree looks, at a distance, 
when its grey trunk cannot be seen, as though hung in mid-air. Many flocks 
of busy sand-martins, which here, and as far south as the Orange River, do 
not migrate, have perforated the banks two or three feet horizontally, in order 
to place their nests at the ends, and are now chasing on restless wing the 
myriads of tropical insects. The broad river has many low islands, on which, 
arc seen various kinds of waterfowl, such as geese, spoonbills, herons, and 
flamingoes. Ivepulsive crocodiles, as with o2)en jaws they sleep and bask in 
the sun on the low banks, soon catch the sound of the revolving paddles, and 
glide quietly into the stream. The hippopotamus, having selected some still 
reach of the river to spend the day, rises from the bottom, where he has been 
enjoying his morning bath after the labours of the night on shore, blows a 
puff of sju-ay out of his nostrils, shakes the water out of his ears, puts his 
enormous snout up and yawns, sounding a loud alarm to the rest of the herd, 
with notes as of a monster bassoon." 

'I'he Mokundu-kundu tree abounds in the forests of Shupanga ; its bri<>ht 
yellow wood makes good boat-masts, and yields a strong bitter medicine for 
fever. The Gunda-tree attains to an innnensc size; its timber is hard, rather 
cross-grained, with masses of silica dejiosited in its substance. At Shupanga, 
a one-storied house, standing on the prettiest site on the river, possesses a 



melancholy interest, from having been associated in a most mom-nful manner 
with the history of two English expeditions. Mr. Kirkpatrick died here of 
fever, in 1826; and here, in 18G2, the beloved wife of Dr. Livingstone died 
of the same fatal disease. Both are buried under a large Baobab-tree, a 
hundred yards cast of the house. Here, the expedition obtained African 
ebony and lignum-vit£e for fuel, for the steamer. Caoutchouc, and calumba 
root were found in abundance, while indigo propagated itself in large quan 
titles close to the banks of the river. 

On the 17th of August, they started for Tctte. The navigation was 
rather difficult, and it was soon found out that the " Ma-Robert" was a failure. 
Her furnaces were badly constructed, she lacked jjower, and from other 
causes was ill-adajjted for the work before hei*. It took hours to get up steam, 
and she went so slowly that the heavily-laden native canoes passed up the 
river more rapidly than she did. She, consequentl}', soon obtained the name 
of the " Asthmatic." At Shamoara, just below the confluence of tlie Shire, 
they landed to wood. They found a small forest-tree, a species of poly- 
gala, growing at this place abundantly. Its beautiful clusters of sweet-scented 
flowers perfume the air with a rich fragrance ; its seeds produce a fine drying 
oil, and the bark of the smaller branches yields a fibre finer and stronger 
than flax, with which the natives make their nets for fishing. Bonga, with 
some of his principal men, visited the travellers, and assured them of their 
friendly feelings, proving the sincerity of the assurance by sending them 
a present of rice. 

"When they were within six miles of Seima, they anchored the steamer, 
and walked up to the Portuguese settlement on foot. " The narrow winding 
footpath, along which they had to march in Indian file, lay through gardens 
and patches of M'ood, the loftiest trees being thorny acacias. The sky was 
cloudy, the air cool and pleasant, and the little birds, in the gladness of their 
hearts, poured forth sweet strange songs, which, though equal to those of the 
singing birds at home on a spring morning, yet seemed, somehow, as if in a 
foreign tongue. They met many natives on the road. Most of the men were 
armed with spears, bows and arrows, or old Tower muskets ; the women had 
short-handled hoes, and were going to work in the gardens ; they stepped 
aside to let the strangers pass, and saluted them politely, the men bowing 
and scraping, and the women, even with heavy loads on their heads, cm'tsey- 
ing — a curtsey from bare legs is startling." 

Beyond Pita lies the little island of Nyamotobsi, where they met a small 
fugitive tribe of hippopotamus hunters. They were all busy at work. They 
form a separate people, and rarely — the women, it is said, never — intermarry 
with any other tribe. They go out frequently on long expeditions, taking in 
their canoes their wives and children, cooking-pots, and sleeping-mats. They 
are rather comely in their personal appearance, having a vcr}^ black smooth 


ekiii, and never disfiguring themselves with the frightful ornaments of some 
of the other tribes. On the 18th of September, the " Ma-Robert" anchored 
in the stream off Tette, and Livingstone went ashore in the boat. No sooner 
did the Makololo, whom he liad left there, recognise him, than they rushed to 
the water's edge in frantic joy to give liim welcome. Tlicy listened in sadness 
to the story of poor Sckwcbu, who died at the Mauritius on his way to Eng- 
land; and then they told how tliirty of their own number had died of small- 
pox, and six had been put to death by Bonga. 

The Portuguese at Tetto kept numerous slaves, but, as a rule, were very 
kind to them ; but the half-castes were cruel slave-holders. Livingstone 
quotes a saying of a humane Portuguese, which indicates the reputation 
they bear — " God made white men, and God made black men ; but the devil 
made half-castes." Africans, gcnerall}', are very superstitious ; but those in 
and about Tette are pre-eminently so. Belonging to many different tribes, all 
the rays of the separate superstitions converge here into one focus. They 
believe in numerous sj^irits dwelling in the air, and earth, and water ; and 
seek to propitiate them by offerings of meat and drink. They worship the 
serpent, and hang up liideous little images in the huts of the sick and dying. 
The native medical profession is well represented. In addition to the general 
practitioners, who know something of the nature and power of certain medi 
cines, there are others who devote themselves to some speciality. There is 
the elephant doctor, who prepares a medicine which the elephant-hunter 
considers indispensable to success ; the crocodile-doctor, who sells a charm 
which is believed to possess the power of protecting its owner from croco- 
diles ; the dice-doctor, or diviner, whose business is to discover thieves ; gun- 
doctors, who sell tlic medicine which professes to luakc good marksmen ; raiu- 
doctors, and others too numerous to mention. 

Having heard of the Kebrabasa Rapids, the expedition resolved to make 
a shoit examination of them. They seized the opportunity of the Zambo.ii 
being unusually low, to endeavour toascertain their character while uncoverctl 
by the water. Speaking of these rapids, in his letters to the Government, Liv- 
ingstone says — " They were not seen by me in 185G, and, strange as it may 
aj)pear, no one else could be found who could give an account of any part 
except the commencement, about thirty miles above this. The only person 
who had possessed curiosity enough to ascend a few miles, described it as a 
number of detached rocks jutting out across the stream, rendering the channel 
tortuous and dangerous. A mountain called Panda Mokua (Copper Mountain) 
a mass of marble at the top, and containing joints of the green carbonic coi)j)er, 
stretches out towards the range of hills on the eastern bank, so as to narrow 
the river to sixty or eighty yards. This is tlie commencement of Kebrabasa. 
Wo went about four miles beyond Panda Mokua, in the little steamer, and 
soon saw that the difliculty is caused by the Zambesi being confined byniouu- 


fains to a bed scarcely a quarter of a mile broad. Tliisbcd, perceived from a 
lioiglit, appears covered witli huge blocks of rock, interspersed with great 
rounded boulders. Large patches of the underlying reck, which is porph)-ry, 
and various mctamorphic masses huddled together in wild confusion, are also 
seen on the surface ; and winding from side to side in this upper bed there is 
a deep narrow gorge, in which, when we were steaming up, the usual call of 
the man at the lead was, * No bottom at ton fathoms.' Though the perpen- 
dicular sides of the channel are generally of hard porphyry or S3'cnite, they 
are ground into deep pot-holes, and drilled into numerous vertical grooves 
similar to those in Eastern wells, where the draw-rope has been in use for ages : 
these show the wearing power of the water when the river is full. The 
breadth of this channel Avas from thirty to sixty yards, and its walls at low 
\-.ater from fifty to eighty feet high. At six or seven points are rocky islands 
in it, which divide the water into two or three channels for short distances." 

Finding it impossible to take steamer farther, the party started overland^ 
by a frightfully-rough path among rocky hills, where no shade was to be 
found. At last their guides declared that they could go no further; the sur- 
face of the ground was so hot that the feet of the Makololo men became 
blistered. The travellers, however, pushed on, clambering up and down the 
heated blccks, at a pace not exceeding a mile an hour. Passing around a 
steep i^romontory, they beheld the river at their feet, the channel jammed in 
between two mountains with perpendicular sides, and less than fifty 3'ards 
wide. Here is the cataract of Morumbwa, a sloping fall of twenty feet in a 
distance of thirty j-ards. When, however, the river rises upwards of eighty 
feet pcipcndicularl}', as it docs in the rain}^ season, the cataract may be 
jiassed in boats. Returning to Tette, Livingstone wrote to the English 
Government, informing them that it was impossible to take the "Ma-Robert" 
through the Kcbrabasa Rapids, and requesting that a more suitable vessel for 
the ascent of the river should be sent out. In the meantime, he determined 
on asccndin"- the Shire, which falls into the Zambesi about a hundred miles 
i";om its mouth, Tho Portugi:::o couid give no information about it, except 
that years a^o, an'expedition of thirty had attempted to ascerd it, but had to 
turn bacK on account 01 the impcnetraoie masses of duck-weed which grew in 
its bed and floated in shoals on its surface. The natives on its banks were 
leportcd to be treacherous, thievish, and bloodthirsty; and nothing but dis- 
aster was predicted as the end of such a fool-hardy expedition. 

It was now Christmas, and the difference between the season in Africa 
and in Europe, especially "Northern Europe, is so great and strange, that the 
following description of an African Christmas reads like a romance from some 
fairy-land: — "At the end of the hot season," says our traveller, "everything 
is dry and dusty ; the atmosphere is loaded with blue haze, and very sultr}-. 
After the rains begin, the face of the country changes with surprising rapidity 


for the better. Though M-e have not the moist hothouse-like atmosphere of 
the west coast, fresh green herbage quickly springs up over the hills ami dales 
so lately parched and brown. Tlio air becomes cleared of the suioky-looking 
haze, and one sees to great distances with ease ; the landscape is bathed in a 
perfect flood of light, and a delighted sense of freshness is given from every- 
thing in the morning before the glare of noon overpowers the eye. On asking 
one of the Bechuanas once, what he understood by the word used for ' holiness' 
(boitsepho) he answered, ' When copious showers have descended during the 
night, and all the earth and leaves and cattle arc washed clean, and the sun- 
rising shows a drop of dew on every blade of grass, and the air breathes fresh, 
that is holiness.' The young foliage of several trees, more especially on the 
highlandy, comes out brown, pale-red, or pink, like the hues of autumual leaves 
in England ; and as the leaves increase in size they change to a jdeasant fresh 
light-green ; bright-white, scarlet, pink, and yellow flowers, are everywhere ; 
and some few of dark crimson, like those of the kigelia, give warmth of colour- 
ing to nature's garden. Many trees, sucli as the scarlet erythrina, attract the 
eye by the beauty of their blossoms. The white, full bloom of the baobab, 
coming at times before the rains, and the small and delicate flowers of other 
trees, grouj^ed into rich clusters, deck the forest. 

" Myriads of wild bees are busy from morning till night. Some of the 
acacias possess a peculiar attraction for one species of beetle ; while the palm 
allures others to congregate on its ample leaves. Insects of all sorts arc now 
in full force ; brilliant butterflies flit from flower to flower, and, with the 
charming little sun-bii'ds, wdiich represent the humming birds of America and 
the West Indies, never seem to tire. Multitudes of ants a^e hard at work 
hunting for food, or bearing it home in triun ph. The winter birds of pas- 
sage, such as the yellow wagtail and blue drongo shrikes, have all gone, and 
other kinds have come ; the brown kite, with his piping like a boatswain's 
whistle, the spotted cuckoo, with a call like ' pula,' and the roller and horn-bill, 
with their loud high notes, are occasionally distinctly heard, though gene- 
rally this harsher music is half drowned in the volume of sweet sounds poured 
forth from many a throbbing throat, which makes an African Christmas seem 
like an English May. Some of the birds of the weaver kind have laid aside 
their winter garments of a sober brown, and appear in a gay summer dress of 
scarlet and jet black ; others have passed from green to bright-yellow, with 
patches like black velvet. The brisk little cock-whydah bird, with u pink 
bill, after assuming his sununcr garb of black and Avhite, has graceful plumes 
attached to his new coat; his flnery, as some believe, is to please at least seven 
lien-birds, with which ho is said to live. 

" Birds of song are not entirely confined to villages; but they have in 
Africa so often been observed to congregate around villages, as to produce the 
impression that song and beauty may have been intended to please the ear and 


eye of man, for it is only when ^vc approach the haunts of men that we know 
that the time of the singing of hirds is come. We onco thought tliat the littlo 
creatures were attracted to man only by grain and water, till we saw deserted 
villages, the people all swept off by slavery, with grain standing by running 
.streams, but no birds. A rcd-throatcd black weaver-bird comes in flocks a 
little later, wearing a long train of magnificent plumes, wliicli seem to bo 
greatly in his way when working for his dinner among the long grass. A 
goatsucker or night-jar [Cometornis vcviliariiis), only ten inches long from head 
to tail, also attracts tlie eye in November by a couple of foatlicrs twenty-six 
inches long in the middle of each wing, the ninth and tenth from the outside. 
They give a slow wavy motion to the wings, and evidently retard his flight, 
for at other times he flies so quick that no boy can hit him with a stone. The 
natives can kill a hare by throwing a club, and make good running shots, but 
no one ever struck a night-jar in common dress, though in tlie evening twilight 
they settle close to one's feet. What may be the object of the flight of the 
male bird being retarded we cannot tell. The males alone possess these fea- 
thers, and only for a time. 

" It appears strange to have Christmas come in such a cheerful bright 
season as this ; one can hardly recognise it in summer dress, with singing 
birds, springing corn, and flowery plains, instead of in the winter robes of 
bygone days, when the keen bracing air, and ground clad in a mantle of snow, 
made the cozy fireside meeting-place of families doubly comfortable." 

The expedition's first trip up the Shire was in January, 1859. For the 
first twentj'-five miles, a considerable quantity of duck-weed came floating 
down the river ; though not sufficient to interrupt navigation with canoes, or 
any other craft. The natives, as they passed, collected in large numbers in 
their villages, armed with bows and poisoned arrows, threatening to attack 
them. At the village of a chief called Tingane, as many as five hundred 
natives collected together, and ordered them to stop. Livingstone, however, 
went on shore, and explained to the cliief that they had not come, either to 
take slaves, or to fight, but that they simply wished to open up a path by 
which his countrymen could ascend to purchase cotton, and anything else 
they had to sell, except slaves. On this Tingane became friendly at once. 

After steaming up a hundred miles in straight line, although the wind- 
ings of the river had fully doubled that distance, they found the further pro- 
gress of the steamer arrested by a series of magnificent cataracts, known ta 
the natives as those of the- Mamvira, but named by the exploring party, after 
Sir Roderick Murchison, "The Murchison." They were prevented from 
making any observations here, although they remained two or three days, in 
consequence of continued rain ; and, after sending presents to one or two of 
the chiefs, they returned at a rapid rate down the river to Tette. In their 
descent, the hippopotami always speedily got out of their way ; but the croco- 


dilcs sometimes rushed at the steamer with great velocity, apparently think- 
ing that she was some huge animal swimming down the stream. 

They started on a second trip up tlio Shire in the middle of March, and 
now found the natives friendly, and ready to sell tliem rice, fowls, corn, and 
whatever else they had. Chibisa, the chief of a village about ten miles below 
tlie Murchison cataracts, a remarkable shrewd man, and tlic most intelligent 
chief in those parts, entered into friendly relations witli them. He was a 
firm believer in the Divine right of kings. " lie was an ordinary man, he 
said, when his father died, and left him the cliieftainship; but directly he 
succeeded to the high office, he was conscious of power passing into his head 
and down his back ; he felt it enter, and knew that he was a chief, clothed 
with authority, and possessed of wisdom ; and people then began to fear and 
reverence him." 

Leaving the steamer opposite Chibisa's village, Drs. Livingstone and Kirk, 
with a number of the Makololo, proceeded on foot in a northerly direction to 
Lake Shirwa. The natives turned out from their villages in a hostile manner, 
and sounded notes of defiance on their drums ; they came at last, however, to 
understand and appreciate the friendly intentions of the strangers. Through 
the ignorance of their guides, they were led far out of the right way, and 
sometimes had to guess at the path for themselves. Their perseverance was 
ultimately rewarded; and, on the 18th of April, they discovered a consider- 
able body of water, containing leeches, fish, crocodiles, and hippopotami. It 
has no outlet, and probably, on that account, is slightly brackish. It has a 
number of hilly islands rising out of it, and several streams flowing into it ; 
and is surrounded by lofty mountains, some of them, on the eastern shore, 
ei"ht tliousand feet hiah. With its broad, blue waters, and the waves dash- 
ing on some parts of its shore, it looked to the travellers like an arm of the 
sea. The surrounding country is beautiful, and clothed with rich vegetation. 
Livingstone made frequent inquiries among the people, with the view of 
ascertaining if they had ever been visited by white men before, and was inva- 
riably answered in the negative. lie therefore claimed for Dr. Kirk and 
himself the discovery of Lake Shirwa, 

On the 23rd of June, they returned to Tette, and thence, after the 
steamer had undergone some repairs, proceeded to the Kongonc, to seek pro- 
visions from one of Her Majesty's cruisers. Having received a supply from 
the " Persian," and exchanged their Kroomen, who were found useless for 
land journeys, for a crew picked out from the ]\Iakololo, who soon learned to 
work the ship, and who, besides being good travellers, could cut wood, and 
rctjuired only native food, they began their return voyage up the Zambesi. 
Frequent showers fell, and, the vessel being leaky, the cabin was constantly 
flooded, both from above and from below. Many of the botanical specimens 
that luid been collected witli great labour, and carefully prepared, were 


thus destroyed, and the foundation of much subsequent fever was at this 
time laid. 

Another trip up the Shire was performed in the middle of August, the 
object being', to become better acquainted with the people, and to make 
another and longer journey on foot to the north of Lake Shirwa, in search of 
Lake Nyassa, of which they had already received some information. The 
Shire, though narrower than the Zambesi, is deeper, and more easy of navi- 
gation. The valley which it drains is bounded by wooded hills on both sides. 
One of them, a detached mountain, called Morambala, or " the lofty watcli- 
tower,'' is four thousand feet higli, and about seven miles long. A small 
village is perched about half-way up its side, where the people have a different 
climate and vegetation from those of the plains. On the plain, near the north 
end, is a hot fountain. It bubbles out of the earth, clear as crystal, at two 
points, a few yards ajoart from each other, and sends off a fine flowing stream 
of hot water. The travellers found the temperature to be 174° Fahr,, and 
they boiled an g^.^ in it at about the usual time. It deposits on the stones 
an incrustation which smells of sul2:)hur. About a hundred feet off, the mud 
is as hot as can be borne by the body. In taking a bath there, it makes the 
body perfectly clean, and none of the mud adheres. 

The Shire beyond Moi-ambala winds through an extensive marsh. There 
are abundant marks of large game. Two pythons were observed coiled to- 
gether among the branches of a large tree, and were both shot. The larger 
of the two, a female, was ten feet long. As the steamer passed on, they saw 
many gardens of maize, pumpkins, and tobacco, fringing the marshy banks; 
these gardens belong to natives of the hills, who come down and raise a crop 
on 2:)arts at other times flooded. On their way up, they examined a lagoon, 
called " the Lake of Mud," in which the lotus grows; and numbers of men 
Avere filling their canoes with tlie root ; when roasted or boiled, it resembles 
our chestnuts, and is extensively used as food. As the wretched little steamer 
could not carry all the men needed for this lengthened vo}'age, they were 
compelled to put some of them in boats, and tow them astern. At the village 
of Mboma, where the people raised large quantities of rice, and were eager 
traders, they were entertained by a native musician, who played several 
quaint tunes on a kind of one-stringed fiddle, accompanying the music with 
some wild songs. As he threatened to serenade them all niglit, he was asked 
if he would not perish from cold, tlie thermometer liaving fallen to 47". 
"Oh no," he replied, " I shall spend the night with my white comrades in the 
big canoe ; I have often heard of the white men, but have never seen them till 
now, and I must sing and play well to them." A small jjiece of cloth, how- 
ever, bought him off, and he left on good terms with the strangers and with 

A number of hip2:)opotamus traps were seen on both banks of the river. 

I I II ■! I I "11— llN|l|PP I H|ll| IWI— I I Ijl ( l|l" II tHii't-lP'^-U.i**!- BIBl I I iM^ 



The aiiiuial feeds on grass only ; its enormous lip acting like a mowing 
machine, and forming a i;)ath as it feeds. Over these paths the natives con- 
struct a trap, consisting of a heavy beam, five or six feet long, with a spear- 
head at one end covered with poison. This weapon is hung to a forked polo 
by a rope which leads across the patli, and is hold by a catch, set free as the 
animal treads upon it. " One got frightened by the ship, as she was steaming 
close to the bank. In its eager huny to escape it rushed on shore, and ran 
directly under a trap, when down came tlie heavy beam on its back, driving 
the poisoned spear-head a foot deep into its liesh. In its agony it plunged 
back into the river, to die in a few hours, and afterwards furnished a feast for 
the natives. The poison on the spear-head docs not affect the meat, except 
the part around the wound, and that is thrown away." 

Tlie steamer now leaked worse than ever, and the cabin was scarcely 
habitable. The floor was always wet, and had to be mopped many times a 
day. Mosquitoes abounded, the ship's cabin becoming a favourite breeding- 
2)lace for them ; so that the voyagers had both ship-bred and shore-bred 
bloodsuckei's. Going on, they came to Nyanja Mukulu, or the elephant- 
marsh. Here they counted eight hundred elephants in sight at once : tliey 
had chosen a stronghold where no hunter could get near them, for the 
swamps. At the first glimpse of the steamer they took to flight ; but a fine 
young one was caught alive, as he was climbing up the bank to follow his 
retreating luotlier. As the men were holding his trunk over the gunwale, 
while the vessel steamed from the bank, a brave Makololo elephant hunter 
drew his knife across it, in a sort of hunting frenzy, and from the force of 
instinct and habit. Though the wound was skilfully sewn up, the breathing 
prevented the cut from healing, and, unfortunatel}', the young animal died in 
a few days from loss of blood. 

*' Tlie Shire marshes sujiport prodigious numbers of many kinds of 
water-fowl. An hour at the mast-head unfolds novel views of life in an African 
marsh. Near the edge, and on the branches of some favourite tree, rest scores 
of plotuses and cormorants, which stretch their snake-like necks, and in nmte 
amazement turn one eye and then another towards the approaching monster. 
13y-and-bye the tin)id ones begin to fly off", or take headers into the stream; 
but a few of the bolder, or more com])osed, remain, only taking the precautioa 
to spread their wings ready for instant fliglit. The pretty ardettu {^Utiwlius 
l/uOulcus), of a light-yellow colour when at rest, but seemingly of a pure white 
when flying, takes wing and sweeps across the green grass in largo numbers, 
often showing us where buffaloes and elephants are, by perching on their backs. 
Flocks of ducks, of which the kind called ' Soriri' {Dcndrocygna pcrsonata) is 
most abundant, being night-feeders, meditate quietly by the small lagoons, 
until startled by the noise of the steam machinery. I'clicans glide over the 
water, catching fish, while the Scopus {Scopus umbrctta) and large herons peer 



intently into pools. The large black and white spur-winged goose (a constant 
marauder of native gardens) springs up, and circles round to find out what 
the disturbance can be, and then settles down again with a splash. 

" Hundreds of Linongolos (^Anadomus lamclUgenis) rise on the wing from 
the clumps of reeds, or low trees (the EscJunomcna, from wliicli pith hats are 
made), on which they build in colonies, and are speedily high in mid-air. 
Charming little red and yellow weavers (Floccida) remind one of butterflies, as 
they fly in and out of the tall grass, or hang to the mouths of their pendant 
nests, chattering briskly to their mates within. These weavers seem to have 
' cock nests,' built with only a roof, and a perch beneath, with a doorway on 
each side. The natives say they are made to protect the bird from the rain. 
Though her husband is very attentive, we have seen the hen-bird tearing her 
mate's nest to pieces, but why we cannot tell. Kites and vultures are busy 
overhead, beating the ground for their repast of carrion ; and the solemn- 
looking, stately-stepping Marabout, with a taste for dead fish, or men, stalks 
slowly along the almost stagnant channels. Some men are standing in canoes, 
on the weed-covered ponds, spearing fish, while others are punting over the 
small intersecting streams, to examine their sunken fish-baskets. Towards 
evening hundreds of pretty little hawks {^Erythropus vespertinus) are seen flying 
in a southerly direction, and feeding on dragon-flies and locusts. They come, 
apparently, from resting on the palm-trees during the heat of the day. 
Flocks of scissor-bills [Rhyncops) are then also on the wing, and in search of 
food, ploughing the water with their lower mandibles, which are nearly half 
an inch longer than the upper ones. 

" At the north-eastern end of the marsh, and about three miles from .the 
river, commences a great forest of palm-trees {^Borassiis ^Ihiopmii). It extends 
many miles, and at one point comes close to the river. The grey trunks and 
green tops of this immense mass of trees give a pleasing tone of colour to the 
view. The mountain-range, which rises close behind the palms, is generally 
of a cheerful green, and has many trees, with patches of a lighter tint among 
them, as if spots of land had once been cultivated. The sharp angular rocks 
and dells on its sides have the appearance of a huge crystal broken j and this 
is so often the case in Africa, that one can guess pretty nearly at sight, 
whether a range is of the old crystalline rocks or not. The Borassus, though 
not an oil-bearing palm, is a useful tree. The fibrous pulp round the large 
nuts, is of a sweet fruity taste, and is eaten by men and elejihants. The 
natives bury the nuts until the kernels begin to sprout ; when dug up and 
broken, the inside resembles coarse potatoes, and is prized in times of scarcity 
as nutritious food. During several months of the year, palm-wine, or sura, 
is obtained in large quantities ; when fresh it is a pleasant drink, somewhat 
like champagne, and not at all intoxicating, though, after standing a few 
hours, it becomes highly so. Sticks, a foot long, are driven into notches in the 


hard outside of the tree — the inside being soft or hollow — to serve as a ladder; 
the top of the fruit-shoot is cut of, and the sap, pouring out at the fresh 
•wound, is caught in an earthen pot, which is hung at the point. A thin slice 
is taken off the end, to open the pores, and make the juice flow every time 
the owner ascends to empty tlie pot. Temporary huts are erected in the 
forest, and men and boys remain by their respective trees day and night, the 
nuts, fish, and wine, being their sole food. The Portuguese use the palm- wine 
as yeast, and it makes bread so light, that it melts in the mouth like froth." 

Beyond the marshes the country was liighei-, and the population nmch 
greater. In many places the soil is saline, and the natives procure large 
quantities of salt, by mixing the earth with water in a pot with a small hole 
in it, and then evaporating the liquid, which runs through, in the sun. The 
cotton grown on this saline soil was found to be of larger and finer staple than 
elsewhere. When the party arrived at Chibisa's village, they saw two of the 
men cleaning, sorting, spinning, and weaving cotton. This was a sight they 
often saw in the villages on the Shire ; and as cotton of an excellent quality 
can be grown there to any extent, if legitimate commerce could be substi- 
tuted for slavery, the district might become thriving and populous. 

On the 28th of August, Livingstone and his three white companions, 
accompanied by two guides and thirty-six Makololo men, left the vessel in 
charge of the rest of the jjarty, and started in search of Lake Xyassa. Cross- 
ing the valley in a north-easterly direction, an hour's march brought them to 
the foot of the Manganja hills, up which lay their toilsome road. As they rose, 
vegetation changed ; bamboos and various new trees and jalants appeared. 
Looking back from a height of a thousand feet, the beautiful country extend- 
ing for many miles, with the Shire flowing through it, excited their admiration ; 
while, as they approached the summit of the range, innumerable valleys opened 
out to their admiring gaze, and majestic mountains reared their heads in all 
directions. The natives on the road were uniformly kind, and were very 
anxious to trade. As soon as they found that the strangers would pay for 
their provisions in cotton cloth, women and girls were set to grind and pound 
meal, and all the men and boys were seen chasing screaming fowls through 
every village. The headman of one village brought some meal and peas for 
sale ; a fathom of blue cloth was got out, when the ^Makololo headman, thinking 
a portion was enough, was proceeding to tear it. On this, the native remarked 
that it was a pity to cut such a nice dress for his wife, and he would rather 
bring more meal. " All right," said the Makolulo; " but look, the clotli is very 
wide, so sec that the basket which carries the meal be wide too, and add a 
cock to make the meal, taste nicely." 

Among the hill-tribes women arc treated as if they were inferior animals, 
but in the upper part of the Shire valley they arc held in great respect. In 
one district a lady, named Nyango, exercises rule. The headman of one of 


licr villages always consulted his wife before concluding a bargain, and was 
evidently influenced by her opinion. On entering a village, the travellers 
went to the loalo, or place of palaver, under the shade of lofty trees, where 
mats of split reeds or bamboo were usually spread for them to sit upon. The 
guides then told the men who miglit be there, Avho the strangers were, and 
what their object was. This information was then carried to the chief, who, 
sooner or later, made his appearance, and business began. 

"The Manganja, who inhabit this district, arc an industrious race; and 
in addition to working in iron, cotton, and basket-making, they cultivate the 
soil extensively. All the people of a village turn out to labour in the fields. 
It is no uncommon thing to see men, women, and children, hard at work, with 
the baby lying close by beneath a shady bush. When a new piece of wood- 
land is to be cleared, they proceed exactly as farmers do in America. The 
trees are cut down with their little axes of soft native iron; trunks and 
branches are piled up and burnt, and the ashes spread on the soil. The corn 
is planted among the standing stumjDs which are left to rot. If grass land is 
to be brought under cultivation, as much tall grass as the labourer can con- 
veniently lay hold of is collected together and tied into a knot. He tlicu 
strikes his hoe round the tufts to sever the roots, and, leaving all standing, 
proceeds until the whole ground assumes the appearance of a field covered 
with little shocks of corn in harvest. A short time before the rains begin, 
these grass shocks are collected in small heaps, covered with earth, and burnt, 
the ashes and burnt soil being used to fertilize the ground. Large crops of 
the mapira, or Eg^'ptian dura, are raised, with millet, beans, and ground 
nuts ; also patches of 3'ams, rice, pumpkins, cucumbers, cassava, sweet pota- 
toes, tobacco, and hemp or bang. Maize is grown all the year round. Cotton 
is cultivated at almost every village. 

In preparing the cotton for use, "it is first carefully separated from the 
seed by the fingers, or by an iron roller, on a little block of wood, and rove 
out into long soft bands without twist. Then it receives its first twist on the 
spindle, and becomes about the thickness of coarse candle-wick ; after being 
taken oflf and wound into a large ball, it is given the final hard twist, and 
spun into a firm cop on the spindle again ; all the jirocesses being painfully 
slow. Iron ore is dug out of the hills, and its manufacture is the staple trade 
of the southern highlands. Each village has its own smelting-house, its char- 
coal burners, and blacksmiths. They make good axes, spears, needles, arrow- 
heads, bracelets and anklets. In villages near Lake Shirwa and elsewhere, 
the inhabitants enter pretty largely into the manufacture of crockery or 
pottery, making by hand all sorts of cooking, water, and grain pots, which 
they ornament with 2)lumbago, found in the hills. Some find employment in 
weaving neat baskets from split bamboos, and others collect the fibre of the 
buaze, which grows abundantly on the hills, and make it into fish-nets. These 


llicy either use themselves, or exchange with the fishermen on the river or 
lakes for dried fish and salt. A great deal of native trade is carried on be- 
tween the villages, by means of barter in tobacco, salt, dried fish, skins, and 

"Many of the men arc intelligent-looking, with well-shaped heads, 
agreeable faces, and high foreheads. They take a good deal of pride in the 
arrangement of their hair : the varieties of stjdc are endless. One trains his 
long locks till they take the admired form of the buffalo's horns; others prefer 
to let their hair hang in a thick coil down their backs, like that animal's tail ; 
while another wears it in twisted cords, which, stiffened by fillets of the inner 
bark of a tree, wound specially round each curl, radiate from the head in all 
directions. Some have it hanging all around the sliouldci's in large masses ; 
others shave it oft' altogether. Many shave part of it into ornamental figures, 
in which the fancy of tiie barber crops out conspicuously. Both sexes adorn 
the body extravagantly, wearing rings on their fingers and thumbs, besides 
tlu-oatlcts, bracelets, and anklets of brass, copper or iron." The women of 
these regions all wear the j^ciclc, or lip-ring. An old chief, when asked wliy 
such things were worn, replied — "For beauty; men have beards and whiskers, 
women have none. What kind of creature would a woman be without 
whiskers and without tho pclck P' 

"The Manganja are not a sober people; they brew large quantities of 
beer, and like it well. Having no hops, or other means of checking ferment- 
ation, they are obliged to drink the whole brew in a few days, or it becomes 
unfit for use. Great merry-makings take place on these occasions, and drink- 
ing, drumming, and dancing, continue day and night, till the beer is gone. 
Tlie superstitious ordeal, by di'inking the poisonous inuave, obtains credit 
here; and when a person is suspected of crime, this ordeal is resorted to. If 
titc stomach rejects the poison the accused is pronounced innocent; but if it is 
retained, guilt is believed to be demonstrated. Death is inflicted on those 
found guilty of witchcraft by this ordeal. Tlie women wail for the dead two 
days. Whatever beer is in tlic house of the deceased, is poured out on the 
ground with the meal, and all cooking and water-pots arc broken, as being of 
no further use. Both men and women wear signs of mourning for tlieir dead 
relatives. These consist of narrow strips of the palm-leaf wound round the 
head, the arms, legs, neck, and breasts, and worn till they drop off from 
decay." Tiicy very rarely wash, and arc consequently very dirty; and, as 
nn'ght be expected skin, diseases are common. They bclievo in a Sui)rome 
licing, and in a future state; but where or in what condition the spirit of the 
dead exist, they do not know, as although the dead, they say, sometimes 
return to the living, and appear to them in their dreams, tlicy never tell t!iem 
how they fare, or whitlicr they have gone. 

When the travellers, as they calculated, were about a day'a march fiom 


Lake Nyassa, the chief of llie village assured them positively that no lake 
had ever been heard of there, and that tlic River Shire stretched on, as they 
saw it, to a distance of two months, and then came out between two rocks, 
which towered to the skies. The Makololo looked blank at this intelligence. 
The party, however, journeyed on, and discovered the lake, on the IGth of 
September, 1859. The travellers were now visited by the chief of a village 
near tlie confluence of the lake and the river, Avho invited them to form 
their camp under a magnificent banyan-tree, of which he seemed proud, and 
among the roots of which, twisted into the shape of a gigantic arm-chair, 
four of the party slejit. This chief told them that a slave-party, led by 
Arabs, was encamped near at hand ; and in the evening half-a-dozen of the 
leaders, a villainous-looking set of fellows, armed with long muskets, brought 
several young children for sale, but, when they learnt that the travellers were 
English, they showed signs of fear, and during the night decamped. 
Livingstone's stay at the lake was necessarily short. The joeoplo in whose 
country they were showed some susjjicion of their object, and he wisely 
judged that the best plan for allaying any suspicion was to pay a hasty visit 
and then leave for a while. Besides, any indiscretion on the part of those 
left in charge of the ship might have proved fatal to the character of the 


Off to Kongonc — Rclurn to Tetlc — Journey Westward — Kchrahasa Tiapiils ar.d 
Chicova — Arrive at Zumho — The Batoka — Victoria Falls and Garden Island — 
The Mahololo — Livingstone revisits Linganti — Down again to Tette and the 

LIVINGSTONE auil Lis party, after a land-journey of forty days, retui-ned 
to their shij}, on the 6tli of October, 1859, in a very exhausted condition. 
They were reduced to this state, not so much from the ordinary fatigue of 
travel, as from a sort of poisoning through eating so much of the cassava root. 
One kind of this root is known to be poisonous in its raw state, but when 
twice boiled, and strained off, the evil is destroyed. Their cook, however, in 
his ignorance, boiled it as he would meat, allowing it to stand on the firo, until 
the water had become absorbed and boiled away. This method did not expel 
the jioisonous projiertics ; and it was only after it had been tried with various 
mixtures, and the whole party had suffered for days from its effects, that the 
cause was discovered. 

From the Shire, Dr. Kirk and Mr. Rae, the engineer, set off with guides 
to go across the country to Tette, a distance of about one hundred miles. 
They suffered greatly from the heat and from want of water; wliile the tsetse 
abounded. There was little or no shade from the sun, and the heat was so 
great that their salt j^ork melted away till nothing was left but the fibre of 
the meat. When they arrived at Tette, the two Englishmen were almost 
dead. They found that the steamer with the other members of the expedition 
had arrived there before them, and as the vessel leaked worse than ever, and 
it was necessary to beach her for repairs, had gone down to Kongone. As 
the steamer passed the Elephant Marsh, they saw nine vast herds of elephants, 
forming sometimes a line two miles long. They were supplied at Kongone 
with stores from Her Majesty's ship " Lynx ;" but, unfortunately, one of the 
boats conveying them was swamped in crossing the bar to enter the river, 
and the mail bags, with despatches from Government, and letters from friends 
at home, were lost. One can understand Livingstone's feelings as he says — 
" The loss of the mail-bags, containing Government dcspatciies and our friends' 
letters for the past year, was felt severely, as wo were on the point of starting 
on an expedition into the interior, which might require eight or nine months; 
and twenty months is a weary time to be without news of friends and family." 


After returning to Tette, wliei'e they sta3-ed some time, enjoying the 
liospitality of the Portuguese merchants, Livingstone and his companions, 
before proceeding inland to visit the Makololo country, sailed down the 
Zambesi ■with IMr. Rae, who was about to return to England to superintend 
the construction of a vessel that was to supersede the " Ma-Robert," that 
wretched craft being of no further use for the jjurposes for -which she was 
intended. On the 31st of December they reached Shujoanga, where they had 
to remain eight days, awaiting the arrival of cotton cloth from Killimane. 
Frequent rains now fell, and the river rose considerably ; their jjrogrcss back 
was so distressingly slow that they did not reach Tettc again until tlie 2nd of 
February, 18C0. After this trip, the steamer broke down completely ; she 
was therefore laid alongside the island of Kanyimbe, opposite Tette; and 
before starting for the country of the Makololo, Livingstone obtained a small 
plot of land, to form a garden for the two English sailors who were to remain 
in chai'ge of her during his absence. Several days were spent in busy jire- 
paration for the westward journey; the cloth, beads, and brass wire, for tlie 
trip, were sewn up in old canvas, and each package had the bearer's name 
printed on it. The Makololo were paid for their services in connection v/ith 
the expedition, and all who had come down with Livingstone from the inte- 
rior rec sived a present of cloth and ornaments, in order to protect them from 
the greater cold of their own country, and to show them that they had not 
come in vain. As many of them had taken up with other women, they did 
not leave willingly, and before the party had reached Kebrabasa Rapids, 
ihirty of them had deserted. Several of them had earned a good deal dur- 
in?' their stay at Tette, while Livingstone was absent in England; but unfor- 
tunately they had picked up a good many of the bad habits of the resident 
population, and had squandered all their earnings. 

On the 15th of May, the party started from the village where the Mako- 
lolo had dwelt. They commenced, for a certain number of days, with short 
marches, walking gently until broken in to travel. In order to escape the 
exactions of the Lauyai tribes, who live chiefly on the right bank of the 
river, and were said to levy heavy fines on travellers, they crossed over and 
proceeded up the left bank. Stopping one afternoon at a Kebrabasa vil- 
lage, a man appeared, who pretended that he was ^ pondoro — that is, that he 
could change himself into a lion whenever he chose, a statement fully believed 
by his countrymen. Sometimes the imidoro hunts for the benefit of the 
villagers, when his wife takes him some medicine which enables hiui to change 
himself back into a man. He then announces what game has been killed, 
and the villagers go into the forest to bring it home. The people believe also 
that the souls of departed chiefs enter into lions. One night, a buffalo having 
been killed, a lion came close to the camj), when the Makololo declared that 
he was a ;pondoro, and told him that he ought to be ashamed of himself for 


trying to steal the meat of strangers. The lion, however, disregarding their 
addresses, only roared louder than ever, thougli he wisely kei^t outside the 
bright circle of the camp-fires. A little strychnine was placed on a piece of 
meat and thrown to him, after which he took lils departure, and was never 

again seen. 

After fording tlie rapid Luia, they left their former path on the banks of 
tlie Zambesi, and struck off in a north-west direction. Their route wound uj) 
a valley along a small mountain stream, which was nearly dry, and tlien 
crossed the rocky spurs of gome lofty hills. The people were poor; the men 
spent a good deal of their time in hunting, having little ground on the hill- 
side suitable for gardens, and but little certainty of reaping what might be 
sown in the valleys. That evening they slept in a little village near Sindabwe, 
and breakfasted next morning under green wild date-palms, beside the fine 
flowing stream which runs through the charming valley of Zibah. Proceed- 
ing south-west up this lovely valley, in about an hour's time they reached 
Sandia's village. The chief himself was said to be absent hunting; but his 
peojjlo showed great civility. " The inhabitants of Zibah are Badema, and 
a wealthier class," says Livingstone, " than those we have I'ecently passed, 
with more cloth, ornaments, food and luxuries. Fowls, eggs, sugar-canes, 
sweet-potatoes, ground-nuts, turmeric, tomatoes, chillies, rice, raapira (holcus 
sorghiiiii), and maize, were cffjred for sale in large quantities. The mapira 
may be called the corn of the country. It is known as Caffre and Guinea 
corn, in the south and west ; as dura in Egypt, and badjery in India ; the 
grain is round and white, or reddish-white, about the size of the hemp-seed 
given to canaries. Several hundred grains form a massive ear, on a stalk as 
thick as an oi'dinary walking staff, and from eight to eighteen feet high. 
Tobacco, hemp, and cotton, were also cultivated, as indeed, they are by all 
the people in Kebrabasa. In nearly every village here, as in the Manganja 
hills, men are engaged in spinning and weaving cotton of excellent quality." 

Near this village of Sandia, six of the Makololo shot a cow ele2)hant. 
The men were wild with excitement, and danced round the fallen queen of 
the forest with exultant shouts and songs. " The cutting up of an elephant 
is quite a unique spectacle. The men stand round the animal in dead silence, 
while the chief of tlie travelling party declares that, according to ancient law, 
the head and right hind-leg belong to him who killed the beast — that is, to 
him who inflicted the first wound; the left leg to him who delivered the 
second, or first touched the animal after it fell. The meat around the eye to 
the English, or chief of the travellers, and different parts to the headmen of 
the fires, or groups, of which the camp is composed ; not forgetting to enjoin 
the preservation of the fat and bowels for a second distribution. His oration 
finished, the natives soon become excited, and scream wihlly, as they cut 
away at the carcase with a score of spears, whose long handles quiver in the 



air above their lieads. Tlieir cxciteniont becomes momentarily more and 
more intense, and reaches the cuhninatinir point when, as denoted by a roar 
of gas, the huge mass is laid fairly open. Some jump inside, and roll about 
there in their eagerness to seize the precious fat, while others run off, scream- 
ing, with pieces of the bloody meat, throw it on the grass, and run back for 
more ; all keep talking and shouting at the utmost pitch of their voices. 
Sometimes two or three, regardless of all laws, seize the same piece of meat 
and have a brief fight of words over it. Occasionally an agonized yell bursts 
forth, and a native emerges out of the moving mass of dead elephant and 
wriggling humanity, with his hand badly cut by the spear of his excited 
friend and neighbour; this requires a rag and some soothing words to prevent 
bad blood. In an incredible short time tons of meat are cut up, and placed 
in separate heaps around." 

The fore-foot of the elephant killed by the Makololo, Livingstone and 
his white companions had cooked for themselves after the native fashion. A 
fire is made in a large hole dug in the ground ; and, when this hole is tho- 
roughly heated, the foot is placed in it, and covered over with the hot ashes 
and soil, and another fire made above the whole and kept burning for several 
hours. Thus cooked, the foot is found delicious. It is a wliitish mass, 
slightly gelatinous, and sweet, like marrow. A long march, to prevent bilious- 
ness, is a wise precaution after a meal of elephant's foot. Elephant's trunk 
and tongue too are good, when properly cooked ; Ijut all the other parts are 
tough and unsavoury. 

Passing Kebrabasa, the travellers enjoyed the magnificent mountain 
scenery in this neighbourhood. "The remainder of the Kebrabasa path, on 
to Chicova, was close to the compressed and rocky river. Ranges of lofty, 
tree-covered mountains, with deep narrow valleys, in which are dry water- 
courses or flowing rivulets, stretch from the north-west, and are prolonged on 
thio opposite side of the river in a south-easterly direction. Looking back, 
tlie mountain scenery in Kebrabasa was magnificent ; conspicuous from their 
form and stcej) sides, are the two gigantic portals of the cataract; the vasi 
forests still wore their many brilliant autuamal-culoured tints of green, yellow, 
red, purple, and broA\ u, thrown into relief by the grey bark of the trunks in 
the background. Among these variegated trees were some consjjicuous for 
their now livery of fresh light-green leaves, r.s though the winter of others 
was their spring. The bright sunshine in these mountain forests, and the 
ever-changing forms of the cloud-shadows gliding over portions of the surface, 
added fresh charms to scenes already surpassingly beautiful." From v?hat 
Livingstone saw of the Kebrabasa rock and rapids, it appeared to him evi- 
dent that the}' must always form a barrier to navigation at the ordinary 
low water of the river ; but the rise of the water in this gorge being as much 
as eighty feet perpendicularly, he concluded that a steamer might be taken 


up at high flood, when all the rapids are smootlied over. The most formid- 
able cataract in it, Morunibwa, has only about twenty feet of fall in a distance 
of thirty yards, and it must entirely disappear when the water stands ci<rhty 
feet higher. Tlie old chief Sandia, moreover, told tliem that in Hood Kebra- 
basa became quite smooth, and he had often seen it so. 

They emerged from the Kebrabasa hills into the Chicova plains on the 
7th of June. The cold nights caused some of the men to cough badly, and 
colds in Africa almost invariably become fever. At Chicova, the Zambesi 
suddenly expands and assumes the size and appearance it has at Totte. Near 
this point they found a large seam of coal exposed in the left bank. Occasion- 
ally they met with native ti'avellers. " Those on a long journey carry with 
them a sleeping-mat and wooden pillow, cooking-pot and bag of meal, pipe 
and tobacco-pouch, a knife, bow and arrows, and two small sticks, of from 
two to three feet in length, for making fire, when obliged to sleep away from 
human habitations. Dry wood is always abundant, and they get fire by the 
following method. A notch is cut in one of the sticks, which, with a close- 
grained outside, has a small core of pith, and this notched stick is laid hori- 
zontally on a knife-blade on the ground ; the operator squatting, places his 
great toes on each end to keep all steady, and taking the other wand, which 
is of very hard wood, cut to a blunt point, fits it into the notch at right angles ; 
the upright wand is made to spin rapidly backwards and forwards between 
the pahns of the hands, drill fashion, and at the same time is pressed down- 
wards ; the friction, in the course of a minute or so, ignites portions of the 
pith of the notched stick, which, rolling over like live charcoal on to the 
knife-blade, are lifted into a handful of fine grass, and carefully blown, by 
waviner backwards and forwards in the air. It is hard work for the hands to 
procure fire by this process, as the vigorous drilling and downward pressure 
requisite soon blister soft palms." 

The weather was excellent for camping, the route well known, and game 
abundant; so that travelling was very pleasant. Flocks of guinea-fowl and 
other birds, were met with daily; and, as they were in good condition, the 
party enjoyed a variety of flesh meat. In camping, the men by turns cut grass 
for the beds of the three Englislnuon — Dr. Livingstone being placed in the 
middle, Dr. Kirk on tlie right, and Charles Livingstone on the left. Tiicir 
bags, revolvers, and rifles, were placed near their beds, and a fire was kindled 
near their feet. On these grass beds, with their rugs drawn over them, tiie 
three Englishmen slept soundly under some giant tree, througli whose branches, 
when awake, they could look up to the starry and moon-lit sky. A dozen 
fires were kindled in the camp nightly. The attendants slept between mats 
of palm leaves, which were sown together round three sides of the squar*., one 
being left open to enable the man to crawl in between llie two. These sleeping 
bags ovjuiiihasy as they arc called, when all were all asleep, had the appearance of 


sacks strewn round about the camp-fires. When food was plenty, there was 
no lack of amusement in the camp. The men sat round the camp-fires talk- 
ing and singing till far into the night. 

About five in the morning, or as soon as dawn, the camp was astir. 
The Europeans took a cup of tea and a piece of biscuit. The blankets were 
folded and stowed away in bags. ^\\g fumbas and cooking-pots were fastened 
to each end of the carrying-sticks, which were borne on the shoulders. Before 
sunrise all were on the march. At nine, breakfast was prepared at a con- 
venient spot. There was a short rest in the middle of the day; and early in 
the afternoon they pitched their camp, when two or more went off hunting, 
more as a matter of necessity than pleasure. Their rate of progress was about 
two and a half miles an hour as the crow flics, and their daily march lasted 
about six hours. With this easy marching, the natives, after some da3's, 
began to complain of fatigue, even when well fed with fresh meat; and 
Livingstone's experience was, that they lacked the stamina and endurance of 
the white men, although travelling in their own country. 

The Chicova plains are extremely fertile, and formerly supported a large 
population ; but desolating wars and slavery had swept away most of the 
inhabitants. The chief of one of the Chicova villages brought the travellers 
food and drink, and expressed himself towards them in the kindest terms. 
Generally the unsophisticated natives were afraid of them. The moment a 
child saw them he would take to his heels in an agony of terror. The mother 
would rush out of her hut, alarmed by the child's cries, and then dart back 
again at the first glimpse of the fearful apparition. Dogs turned tail, and 
scoured off in dismay ; and hens, abandoning their chickens, fled screaming 
to the tops of the houses. They found themselves held up to little naughty 
children, as objects of which to be afraid, while the mammas exclaimed — 
" Be good now, or I shall call the white man to bite you." Crossing the 
stream Nyamatarara, they passed from Chicova into a region of sandstone 
rocks. About Sinjere, Tette grey sandstone was common, fossil wood upon 
it, and coal lying beneath. They halted here a couple of days, and exa- 
mined the coal produced, astonishing the natives by showing them that the 
black stones would bui'n. 

Their camp on the Sinjere stood under a wide-spreading wild fig-tree. 
"The soil," says Livingstone, " teemed with white ants, whose clay tunnels, 
formed to screen them from the eyes of birds, thread over the ground, up the 
trunks of trees, and along the branches, from which the little architect clears 
away all rotten or dead wood. Very often the exact shape of branches is 
left on tunnels on the ground, and not a bit of the wood inside. The first 
night we passed here these destructive insects ate through our grass-beds, and 
attacked our blankets, and certain large red-headed ones even bit our flesh. 
On some days not a single white ant is to bo seen abroad ; and on others, and 


during certain hours, they appear out of doors in myriads, and work wiih 
extraordinary zeal and energy in carrying bits of dried grass down to tliuir 
nests. During these busy reai)ing fits, the lizards and birds have a good 
time of it, and enjoy a rich feast at the expense of thousands of hapless work- 
men; and, when they swarm, they arc caught in countless numbers by the 
natives, and their roasted bodies are sj^oken of in an unctuous manner, as 
resembling grains of soft rice fried in delicious fresh oil. 

" A strong marauding party of large black ants attacked a nest of white 
ones near the camp. As the contest took place beneath the surface, we could 
not see the order of the battle ; but it soon became apparent that the blacks 
had gained the day, and sacked the white town, for they returned in triumph, 
bearing off the eggs, and choice bits of the bodies of the vanquished. A gift, 
analogous to that of language, has not been withheld from ants ; if part of 
their building is destroyed, an official is seen coming out to examine the 
damage, and, after a careful survey of the ruins, he chirrups a few clear and 
distinct notes, and a crowd of workers begin at once to repair the breach. 
When the work is completed, another order is given, and the workmen retire, 
as will appear on removing the soft freshly-built portion. We tried to sleep 
one rainy night in a native hut, but could not, because of attacks by the fight- 
ing battalions of a very small species of formica, not more than one-sixteentli 
of an inch in length. It soon became obvious that they were under regular 
discipline, and even atteniijting to carry out the skilful plans and stratagems 
of some eminent leader. Our hands and necks were the first objects of attack. 
Large bodies of these little pests were massed in silence round the point to 
be assaidtcd. We couhl hear the sharp shrill word of command two or three 
times repeated, though, until then, we had not believed in the vocal power of 
an ant ; the instant after we felt the storming hosts range over head and neck, 
biting the tender skin, clinging with a death-grip to the hair, and parting 
witli their jaws, rather tlian quit their hold. On our lying down again, in the 
hope of their having been driven oft', no sooner was the light out, and all still, 
than the manoeuvre was repeated. Clear and audible orders were issued, and 
the assault renewed. It was as hard to sleep in that hut, as in the trenches 
before Sebastopol. 

" The white ant, being a vegetable feeder, devours articles of vegetable 
origin only, and leather, which, by tanning, is imbued with a vegetable 
Havour. ' A man may be rich to-day and poor to-morrow from the ravages 
of white ants,' said a Portuguese merchant. ' If he gets sick, and unable to 
look after his goods, his slaves neglect them, and they are soon destroyed by 
these insects!' The reddish ant, in the west called drivers, crossed our path 
daily, in solid columns an inch wide, and never did the pugnacity of either 
nuin or beast exceed theirs. It is a suflicicnt cause of war if you (iidy approach 
them, even by accident. Some turn out of the ranks and stand with open 


mandibles, or, charging with extended jaws, bite with savage ferocit}'. When 
hunting, we lighted among them too often ; while we were intent on the 
game, and without a thought of ants, they quietly covered us from head to 
foot, then all began to bite at the same instant ; seizing a piece of the skin 
witli their powerful pincers, they twisted themselves round with it, as if deter- 
mined to tear it out. Their bites are so terribly sharp that the bravest must 
run, and then strip to pick cfF those that still cling with their hooked jaws, as 
with steel forceps. This kind abound in damp places, and is usually met with 
on the banks of streams. We have not heard of their actually killing any ani- 
mal except the python, and that only when gorged and quite lethargic, but 
they soon clear away any dead animal matter. This appears to be their princi- 
pal food, and their use in the economy of nature is clearly in the scavenger 

The travellers started from the SInjere on the 12t]i of June, and passed 
through a district, where they found the women accustomed to transact busi- 
ness for themselves. They accompanied the men into camp, sold their own 
wares, and seemed to be both fair traders, and modest, sensible persons. 
They did not come quite up to the women on the mountains near Kilimanjaro, 
who, it is said, do all tne trading, have regular markets, and will on no 
account allow a man to enter the market-jjlace. On the 20th they encamped 
at a spot where Livingstone, on his journey from the west to the east coast, 
was formerly menaced by a chief called Mpende ; he found out, however, that 
Livingstone belonged to a people that loved the black man, and his conduct 
changed from enmity to kindness. On the 23rd, they entered the village of 
a chief named Pangola. In exchange for the food they needed, he demanded 
a rifle, and refused to trade on any other terms. Tw^o of the young men 
belonging to the expedition had gone out, however, and shot a fine waterbuck, 
and the jDrovision market came down to the lowest figure. They were now 
independent of the greedy savage, who w^as intensely mortified at seeing them 
depart without his having traded with them in any way. On the 26th they 
breakfasted at Zumbo, on the left bank of the Loangwa, and crossed the river 
in the evening. They remained here a day, and continued their journey on 
the 28th. Game was extremely abundant, and there were many lions. Leav- 
ing the river, they proceeded up the valley which leads to the Mohano pass. 
Here they felt the nights cold, and on the 30th they found the thermometer 
was as low as 39° at sunrise. On account of the severe illness of Dr. Kirk, 
they remained here two days, when they again joined the Zambesi. They 
slept on the night of the 6th of July on the left bank of the Chongwe, a river 
fiowing into the Zambesi, and twenty yards wide. The next day, as they 
were passing through a dense thorn jungle, they got separated from one 
another ; and a rhinoceros, with angry snort, dashed at Livingstone as he 
stooped to pick up a specimen of the wild fruit morula ; he was fortunate^ 


enough, however, to make his escape. Hitherto, he had usually gone unarmed ; 
but he always carried arms afterwards. 

All the way between Ziimbo and the Victoria Falls, game of all kinds 
was so abundant, that the native attendants became quite fat, and very 
fastidious at last in their choice of what they would eat ; rejecting antelope, 
and preferring buffalo-flesh and guinea-fowl. Everywhere the natives were 
\ ospitablc, and their fcai-less bearing told that the country was beyond the 
reach of the infamous slave-traders. Families were frequently met, march- 
ing in single file. The man at the head carrying little, if anything, save his 
weapons ; his wives and children following with their household gooda. These 
natives always come in for a portion of the white men's meat. Around the 
foot of the great wild fig-tree of audience — the public meeting-place of every 
village, or suspended from its branches, were collections of buffalo and ante- 
lope horns and skulls, the troiDhies of the chase. The one thing in the way 
of food which they lacked in this part of the country was vegetables. Now 
and then they obtained a supply of sweet potatoes, for which they were thcmk- 
ful beyond the power of expression. 

On the 11th of July, they were ferried over the Kafuc, a river that 
reminded them a little of the Shire, and flowing between steep banks, with 
fertile land on both sides. They were now in the Bawe country. The peo- 
ple are of Batoka origin, and belong to the same tribe as several of the men 
who left Linyanti with Livingstone. They were told that Moselekatse's chief 
town was a month's distance (or three hundred miles) from where they were ; 
and that the English had come to him, and taught him it was wrong to kill 
people ; and that now he sent out his men to collect and sell ivory. Tiii.-: 
report referred to the arrival of Dr. Moffat, who had visited Moselckatsc, and 
established a mission among his jjeople. Leaving the bank of the Zambesi 
for a time, they travelled through the Batoka highlands, where thoy found 
the air bracing and beneficial. Although the country was fertile, it was thinly 
populated, Sebituane and Moselekatse having ravaged it in their numerous 

The following interesting account of the Batoka country and its people 
IS from the pen of Mr. Gluirles Livingstone : — " The country of the Batoka, 
in Central Afiica, lies between the 25th and 2!»tli degrees of east longitude, 
and the IGth and 18th of south latitude. It has the River Kafuc on the north, 
the Zambesi on the east and south, and extends west till it touches the bw 
fever-itlains of the \\\\vr Majeela, near Sesheke. Vtwi a few years since these 
extensive healthy highlands were Avell peopled by the Batoka ; numerous 
herds of cattle furnished abundance of milk, and the rich soil largely repaid 
the labour of the husbandman. Now, enormous herds of buffaloes, elephants, 
antelopes, zebras, etc., fatte'i on the excellent ])asture which formerly sup- 
ported nndtitudes of cattle, and not a human being is to be seen. We travelled 


from Monday morning to late in the Saturday afternoon (from Tluibacheu to 
within twent}^ miles of Victoria Falls) without meeting a single person, 
though constantly passing the ruined sites of Batoka villages. These people 
were driven out of this, the choicest portion of their noble country, by the 
invasion of Sebituane. Many were killed, and the survivors, except those 
around the falls, j^lundered of their cattle, fled to the banks of the Zambesi, 
and to the rugged hills of Mataba. Scarcely, however, had the conquerors 
settled down to enjoy their ill-gotten riches when they themselves were 
attacked by small-pox ; and, as soon as its ravages had ceased, the fighting 
Matabele compelled them to abandon the country, and seek refuge amidst 
the fever-swamjis of Linyanti. 

" The Batoka have a mild and pleasant expression of countenance, and 
are easily distinguished from the other Africans by the singular fashion of 
wearing no upper front teeth, all persons of both sexes having them knocked 
out in early life. They seem never to have been a fighting race, but to 
have lived at jieace among themselves, and on good terms with their neigh- 
bours. While passing through tlieir country we observed one day a large 
cairn. Our guide favoured us with the following account of it : — ' Once on a 
time the ancients were going to fight another tribe ; they halted here and sat 
down. After a long consultation they came to the unanimous conclusion 
that, instead of jjrocceding to fight and kill their neighbours, and perchance 
getting themselves killed, it would be more like men to raise this heap of 
stones as their earnest protest against what the other tribe had done, which 
fhey accordingly did, and then returned quietly home again.' But, although 
the Batoka appear never to have had much stomach for fighting with men, 
they are remarkably brave hunters of buffaloes and elephants. They rush 
fearlessly close up to these formidable animals, and kill them with their heavy 
spears. The Banyai, who have long levied black-mail from all Portuguese 
traders, were amazed at the daring bravery of the Batoka in coming at once 
to close quarters with the elephant and desj^atching him. They had never 
seen the like before. Does it require one kind of bravery to fight with men, 
and another and different sort to fight with the fiercest animals ? It seems 
that men may have the one kind in an eminent degree, and yet be witliout 
the other. 

"The Batoka having lived at peace for ages, had evidently attained to 
a degree of civilization very much in advance of any other tribe we have yet 
discovered. They planted and cultivated fndt-trces. Nowhere else has this 
been the case, not even among the tribes which have been in contact with the 
Portuguese for two hundred years, and have seen and tasted mangoes, oranges, 
etc. etc. The natives round Senna and Tette will on no account plant the 
stone of mango. They are firm believers in a superstition, that ' if any one 
plants a mango, he will die soon afterwards.' In and around the Batoka 


villages some of the most valuable timber trees have besn allowed to stand, 
but every worthless tree has been cut down and rooted out, and the best of 
the various fruit-trees of the country have becjn carefully planted and pre- 
served, and also a few trees from whose seeds they extracted oil. We saw 
fruit-trees which had been planted in regular rows, the trunks being about 
three feet in diameter, also grand old Motsakiri fruit-trees still bearing abun- 
dantly, which had certainly seen a hundred summers. Two of the ancient 
Batoka once travelled as far as the river Loangwa. There they saw the 
nuissan-tree in fruit, carried some all the way back to the Great Falls, and 
planted them. Two of the trees are still standing, the only ones of the kind 
in all that region. 

" They made a near approach to the custom of even the most refined 
nations in having permanent graveyai'ds, either on the sides of sacred hills, 
or under the shady fig-trees near the villages. They reverenced the tombs 
of their ancestors, and erected monuments of the costliest ivory at the head 
of the grave, and often even entirely enclosed it with the choicest ivory. 
Other tribes on the Zambesi throw the body into the river, to be devoured 
by alligators, or, sewing it in a mat, i)lace it on the branches of the baobab, 
or cast it into some gloomy, solitary spot, overgrown with thorns and noxious 
weeds, to be devoured by the foul hyena. But the Batoka reverentl)- buried 
their dead, and regarded the ground as sacred to their memories. Near the 
confluence of the Kafue, the chief, accompanied by some of his headmen, 
came to our sleeping-place with a present; their foreheads were marked with 
white flour, and there was an unusual seriousness in their demeanour. 

"We were informed that, shortly before our arrival, they had been accused 
of witchcraft. Conscious of innocence they accepted the terrible ordeal, or 
offered to drink the poisoned muuvi. For this purpose they made a journey 
to the sacred hill where reposed the bodies of their ancestors, and, after a 
solemn appeal to the unseen spirits of their fathers to judge of the innocence 
of these their children, drank the muavi, vomited, and were therefore declared 
to be ' Not guilty.' They believed in the immortality of the soul, and that. 
the souls of their ancestors knew what they were doing, and were pleased or 
not accordingly. The owners of a large canoe refused to sell it because it 
belonged to the spirits of their fathers, who helped them in killing the hippo- 

" Some of the Batoka chiefs must have had a good deal of enterprise. 
The lands of one in the western part of the country lay on the Zambesi, 
which protected him on the south; on the east and north was an impassable 
reedy marsh, filled with water all the year round, leaving only his west border 
unjjrotected and open to invasion, lie conceived the bold project of digging 
a broad and deep canal, nearly a mile in length, from the west end of this 
reedj- river to the Zambesi — and actuall}- carried it into execution — thus 



forruin<^ a large island, on which his cattle grazed in safety, and his corn 
ripened from j'car io^ year, secure from all marauders. Another chief, Avho 
died a number of years ago, believed tliat he had discovered a remedy for 
tsetse-bitten cattle. His son showed us the plant, which was new to our 
botanist, and likewise told us how the medicine was prepared. The bai'k of 
the root is dried, and — what will be especially palatable to our homceopathist 
friends — a dozen tsetse are caught, dried, and ground with the bark to a fine 
powder. The mixture is administered internally, and the cattle are also smoked, 
by burning the rest of the jilant under them. The treatment is continued 
some weeks, as often as symptoms of the poison show themselves. This, he 
frankly said, will not cure all the bitten cattle, for cattle, and men too, die in 
■■^pite of medicine ; but should a herd by accident stray into a tsetse district 
and get bitten, by this medicine of Kampakanipa, his father, some of them 
could be saved, while without it all would be sure to die. 

" A remarkably prominent feature in the Batoka character is their en- 
larged hospitality. No stranger is ever allowed to suffer hunger. They inva- 
riably sent to our sleeping-places large presents of the finest white meal, with 
fat capons to give it a relish, and great pots of beer to comfort our hearts, 
with pumpkins, beans, and tobacco ; so that, as they said, we ' should not 
sleep hungry or thirsty !' In travelling from the Kafue to Sinamanes, we 
often passed several villages in the course of a day's march. In the evening, 
deputations arrived from those villages at which we could not sleep, with 
liberal presents of food. It evidently pained them to have strangers pass them 
without j^artaking of their hospitality. Rejieatedly were we hailed from huts, 
asked to wait a moment and drink a little beer, which they brought with 

" When we halted for the night, it was no uncommon thing for these 
IDeople to jjrepare our camp. Entirely of their own accord, some with their 
hoes quickly smoothed the ground for our beds ; others brought bundles of 
grass and spread it carefully over the spot ; some, with their small axes, 
speedily made a brush-fence round to shield us from the wind ; and if, as 
occasionally happened, the water was a little distant, others hastened and 
brought a pot or two of water to cook our food with, and also firewood. 
They are an industrious people, and very fond of agriculture. For hours at 
a time have w^e marched through unbroken corn-fields of nearly a mile in 
width. They erect numerous granaries for the reception of the grain, which 
give their villages the appearance of being unusually large ; and when the 
water of the Zambesi has subsided, they place the grain, tied up in bundles 
of grass, well plastered over with clay, on low sand islands, as a protection 
against the attacks of marauding mice and men. 

"Owing to the ravages of the weevil, the native corn can hardly be 
preserved until the following crop comes in. However largely they ma}- 


cultiviitc, and abundant the harvest, it must all bo consumed the same year 
in which it is grown. This may account for their making so much of it into 
beer. The beer they brew is not the sour and intoxicating kind found among 
other tribes, but sweet, and highly nutritious, witli only a slight degree of 
acidity to render it a pleasant drink. We never saw a single case of intoxi- 
cation among them, though all drank great quantities of beer. They were 
all plump, and in good condition. Both men and boys were eager to work 
for very small pay. Our men could hire any number of them to carry their 
burdens for a few beads a-day, or a bit of cloth. The miserly and extra- 
dirty cook had an old pair of trousers some of us had given him, and which 
he had long worn himself. With one of the decayed legs of his trousers, he 
hired a man to carry his heavy load a whole day ; a second man carried it 
the next day for the other leg ; and what remained of the old trousers, minus 
the buttons, procured the labour of another man for the third day. 

" A peculiar order of men is established among them, the order of tlic 
Endah Pezes (Go-Nakeds). The badge of this order, as the name suggests, 
consists in the entire absence of the slightest shred of clothing. They arc 
in the state in which Adam is reported to have been before his invention of 
the fig-leaf apparel. We began to see members of this order about two days 
above the junction of the Kafue; two or three might be seen in a village. 
The numbers steadily increased, until in a very short time every man and 
boy wore a badge of the Endah Pezcs. The chief of one of the first villages, 
a noble, generous fellow, was one, as were likewise two or three of his men. 
In the afternoon he visited us in the full dress of his order — viz., a tobacco- 
pipe, nothing else whatever, the stem about two feet long, wound round with 
polished iron. He gave us a liberal present. Early next morning he came, 
accompanied by his wife and daughter, witli two large pots of beer, in order 
that we might refresh ourselves before starting. Both the women, as cornel}' 
and modest-looking as we have seen in Africa, were well clothed and adorned. 

" The women, in fact, arc all well clothed, and have many ornaments. 
Some wear tin ear-rings till round the ear; no fewer than nine olten in each ear. 
There was nothing to indicate that they had the slightest idea of there being 
anything peculiar in the no-drcss-at-all-style of their order. They rub their 
bodies with red ochre. Some plait a fillet two inches wide, of the inner bark 
of trees, shave the wool ofi" the lower part of the head to an inch above the 
ear, tie this fillet on, having rubbed it and the wool which is left with the red 
ochre mixed in oil. It gives them the appearance of having on a neat forage- 
cap. This, with s(mic strings of beads, a little polished iron wire round the 
arms, the never-failing pipe, and a small pair of tongs to litt up a coal to 
light it with, constitute all the clothing the most dandified Endah Peze ever 

" They raise immense quantities of tobacco on the banks of tiie Zambesi 


in tlic winter months, and are, perhaps, the most inveterate smokers in the 
world. The pipe is seldom out of their hands. They are as polite smokers 
as any ever found in a railway carriage. When they came with a present, 
although it was their own country, before lighting their pipes, they asked if 
we had any objections to their smoking beside us, which of course, contrary 
to railway travellers, we never had. They have invented a novel mode of 
.smoking, which may interest those who are fond of the weed at home. They 
take a whiff, puff out the grosser smoke, then, by a sudden inhalation before 
all is out, contrivo to catch, as they say, and swallow the pure spirit of the 
tobacco, its real essence, wliich common smokers lose entirely. Their tobacco 
is said to be very strong ; it is certainly very cheap ; a few strings of beads 
M'ill purchase as much as will last any reasonable smoker half a year. Their 
government, whatever it may have been formerly, is now that of separate 
and independent chiefs." 

On the 4th of August, Livingstone and his party reached Moachcmba, 
the first of the Batoka villages owing allegiance to Sekeletu, and could dis- 
tinctly see with the naked eye, in the extensive valley spread out before them, 
the columns of vapour rising from the Victoria Falls, though upwards of 
twenty miles distant. They learned that, thi-ough the failure of corn crops, 
great scarcity and much hunger prevailed from Sesheke to Linyanti. Reports 
of domestic trouble connected with the families of some of the men who had 
accompanied Livingstone to the coast, and were now returning, and sad in- 
telligence concerning the attempt certain missionaries bad made to plant the 
gospel at Linyanti, now came to their ears. Several of the missionaries and 
their native attendants from Kuruman, had succumbed to the fever, and the 
survivors had been compelled to retire. They remained a day with the old 
Batoka chief, Moshobotwane, the stoutest man they had seen in Africa. He 
had a large herd of cattle, and a tract of fine pasture-land on the beautiful 
stream Lekone. They now met several of the real Makololo ; they are lighter 
in colour than the other tribes, being of a rich warm-brown ; and they speak 
in a slow, deliberate manner, distinctly pronouncing every word. Among 
others, they found Pitsane, who had accompanied Livingstone to St. Paul de 

The expedition marched, on the 9th, eight miles to see the Victoria Falls. 
The Makololo name of tbese falls is Mosi-oa-tunya, which means smoke- 
sounding. Their more ancient name was Chongwe, or the place of the rain- 
bow. " We embarked," says our traveller, "in canoes, belonging to Tuba 
Mokoro, 'smasher of canoes,' an ominous name; but he alone, it seemsj knew 
the medicine which insures one against shipwreck in the rajjids above the 
falls. For some miles the river was smooth and tranquil, and we glided 
pleasantly over water clear as crystal and past lovely islands densely covered 
with a tropical vegetation. Noticeable among the many trees were the loftv 


Hyphsene and Eorassus jjalnis ; the gractl'ul wild date-palm, with its fruit in 
golden clusters, and the umbrageous Mokononga, of cypress furui, with its 
dark green leaves and scarlet fruit. Many flowers peeped out near the water's 
edge, some entirely new to us, and others, as the convolvulus, old acquaint- 
ances. But our attention was quickly called from the charming islands to 
the dangerous rapids, downi which Tuba might unintentionally shoot us. To 
confess the truth, the very ugly aspect of these roaring rapids could scarcel}- 
fail to cause some uneasiness in the minds of new-comers. It is only when 
the river is very low, as it was now, that any one durst venture to the island 
to which we were bound. If any one went during the period of flood, and 
fortunately hit the island, he would be obliged to remain there till the water 
subsided again, if he lived so long. Both hippopotami and elephants have 
been known to be swept over the falls, and of course smashed to pulp. 

" Before entering the race of waters, we were requested not to speak, as 
our talking might diminish the virtue of the medicine ; and no one with such 
boiling eddying rapids before his eyes, would think of disobeying the orders 
of a ' canoc-sniashor.' It soon became evident that there was sound sense in 
this request of Tuba's, although the reason assigned was not unlike that of 
the canoe-man from Sesheke, who begged one of our party not to whistle, 
because whistling made the wind come. It was the duty of the man at the 
bow to look out ahead for the proper course, and when he saw a rock or snag 
to call out to the steersman. Tuba doubtless thought that talking on board 
might divert the attention of his steersman at a time when the neglect of an 
order, or a slight mistake, would be sure to spill us all into the chafing river. 
There were i^laces were the utmost exertions of both men had to be put forth 
in order to force the canoe to the only safe part of the rapid, and to prevent 
it from sweeping down broadside on, where in a twinkling we should have 
found ourselves floundering among the plotuses and cormorants, which were 
engaged in diving for their breakfast of small fish. At times it seemed as if 
nothing could save us from dashing in our headlong race against the rocks 
which, now that the river was low, jutted out of the water; but just at the 
very nick of time, Tuba passed the word to the steersman, and then witli 
ready pole turned the canoe a little aside, and we glided swiftly jnvst tiie 
threatened danger. 

" Never was a canoe more admirably managed. Once only did the medi- 
cine seem to have lost something of its eflicacy. We were driving swiftly- 
down; a black rock, over which the white foam flew, lay directly in our path ; 
the polo was planted against it as readily as ever, but it slipped, just as Tuba 
put forth his strength to turn the bow olf. Wo struck hartl, anil were half-full 
of water in a moment. Tuba recovered himself as speedily, .shoved oft' the 
bow, and shot the canoe into a still shallow place, to bail out the water. Here 
we were given to understand that it was not the medicine which was at fault ; 


that had lost none of its virtue ; the accident was entirely owing to Tuba hav- 
ing started without his breakfast. Need it be said we never let Tuba go 
without that meal again. We landed at the head of Garden Island, which is 
situated near tho middle of the river and on the lip of the falls. On reach- 
ing that lip, and peering over the giddy height, the wondrous and unique 
character of the magnificent cascade at once burst upon us. 

" It is rather a hopeless task to endeavour to convey an idea of it in 
words, since, as was remarked on the spot, an accomplished painter, even by 
a number of views, could but impart a faint impression of the glorious scene. 
The probable mode of its formation may perhaps Jielp to the conception of its 
peculiar shape. Niagara has been formed by a wearing back of the rock over 
which the river falls ; and, during a long course of ages, it has gradually 
receded, and left a broad, deep, and pretty straight trough in front. It goes 
on wearing back daily, and may yet discharge the lakes from which its river 
— the St. Lawrence — flows. But the Victoria Falls have been formed by a 
crack right across the river, in the hard, black, basaltic rock which there 
formed tlie bed of the Zambesi. The lips of the crack are still quite sharp, 
save about three feet of the edge over which the river rolls. The walls go 
sheer down from the lips without any projecting crag, or symptom of stratifi- 
cation or dislocation. When the mighty rift occurred, no change of level 
took place in the two parts of the bed of the river thus rent asunder, conse- 
quently, in coming down the river to Grarden Island, the water suddenly 
disappears, and we see the opposite side of the cleft, with grass and trees 
growing where once the river ran, on the same level as that part of its bed on 
which we sail. The first crack is, in length, a few yards more than the 
breadth of the Zambesi, which by measurement we found to a be little over 
1860 yards, but this number we resolved to retain as indicating the year in 
which the fall was for the first time carefully examined. The main stream 
here runs nearly north and south, and the cleft across it is nearly east and west. 
The depth of the rift was measured by lowering a line, to the end of which a 
few bullets and a foot of white cotton cloth were tied. One of us lay with 
his head over a projecting crag, and watched the descending calico till, after 
his companions had paid out 310 feet, the weight rested on a sloping projec- 
tion, probably 50 feet from the water below, the actual bottom being still 
further down. The white cloth now appeared the size of a crown piece. On 
measuring the width of this deep cleft by sextant, it was found at Garden 
Island, its narrowest part, to be 80 yards, and at its broadest somewhat more. 
Into this chasm, of twice the depth of Niagara Fall, the river, a full mile wide, 
rolls with a deafening roar ) and this is ]\Ios-ioa-tunya, or the Victoria Falls. 

" Looking from Garden Island, down to the bottom of the abyss, nearly 
half a mile of water, which has fallen over that portion of the falls to our 
right, or west of our point of view, is seen collected in a narrow channel 


t-\veiity or thirty yards wide, and flowing at exactly riglit angles to its pre- 
vious course, to our left; while the other half, or that which fell over the 
eastern jjortion of the falls, is seen in the left of the narrow channel below, 
coming towards our right. Both waters unite midway, in a fearful boiling 
whirlijool, and find an outlet by a ci-ack situated at right angles to the fissure 
of the falls. This outlet is about eleven hundred and seventy yards from 
the western end of the chasm, and some six hundred from its eastern end : 
the Avhirlpool is at its commencement. Tlic Zambesi, now apparently not 
more than twenty or thirty yards wide, rushes and surges south, through the 
narrow escape-channel for one hundred and thirty yards, then enters a second 
chasm somewhat deeper, and nearly parallel with the first. Abandoning the 
bottom of the eastern half of this second chasm to the growth of large trees, 
it turns shar^ily off to the west, and forms a promontory, with the escape- 
channel at its point, of eleven hundred and seventy yards long, and four 
hundred and sixteen yards broad at the base. After reaching this base, the 
river runs abruptly round the head of another promontory, and flows away 
to the east, in a third chasm, then glides round a third promontory, much 
narrower than the rest, and away back to the west, in a fourth chasm ; and wc 
could see in the distance that it appeared to round still another promontory, 
ard bend once more in another chasm towards the east. In this gigantic, 
zigzag, yet narrow trough, the rocks are all so sharply cut and angular, that the 
idea at once arises that the hard basaltic trap must have been riven into its 
present shape by a force acting from beneath, and this probably took place 
when the ancient inland seas were let off by similar fissures nearer the ocean. 

" The land beyond, or on the south of the falls, retains, as already 
rertarked, the same level as before the rent was made. It is as if the trough 
below Kiagara were bent right and left several times before it reached the 
railway bridge. The land in the supposed bends being of the same height as 
that above the fall, would give standing-jjlaccs, or points of view, of the same 
nature as that from the railway-bridge, but the nearest would be only eighty 
yards, instead of two miles (the distance to the bridge) from the face of the 
cascade. The tops of the ])romontories are in general flat, smooth, and studded 
with trees. The first, with its base on the east, is at one place so narrow, that 
ii would be dangerous to walk to its extremity. On the second, however, we 
found a broad rhinoceros path and a hut; but, unless the builder were a 
hermit, with a pet rhinoceros, wc cannot conceive what beast or man ever 
went there for. On reaching the apex of this second eastern promontory wo 
saw the great river, of a deep sea-green colour, now sorely compressed, gliding 
away, at least four hundred feet below us. 

" Garden Island, when the river is low, commands the best view of the 
Great Fall chasm, as also of the promontory opposite, with its grove of largo 
evergreen trees, and brilliant rainbows of three-quarters of a circle, two, three 


and sometimes even four in number, resting on the face of the vast perpendicular 
rock, du vvn which tiny streams are always running, to be swept back again by 
the upward rushing vapour. But as, at Niagara, one has to go over to the 
Canadian shore to see the chief wonder — the Great Horseshoe Fall — so here wo 
have to cross over to Moselekatse's side of the promontory of evergreens, for 
the best view of the principal falls of Mosi-oa-tunya. Beginning, thei'efore, 
at the base of this promontory, and facing the cataract, at the west end of 
the chasm, there is, first, a fall of thirty-six yards in breadth, and of course, 
as they all are, upwards of three hundred and ten feet in depth. Then Boa- 
ruka, a small island, intervenes, and next comes a great fall, with a breadth 
of five hundred and seventy-three yards; a projecting rock separates this 
from a second grand fall of three hundred and twenty-five yards broad ; in 
all, uj)wards of nine hundred yards of perennial falls. Further east stands 
Garden Island ; then, as the river was at its lowest, came a good deal of the 
bare rock of its bed, with a score of narrow falls, which, at the time of flood, 
constitute one enormous cascade of nearly another half-mile. Near the east 
end of the chasm are two larger falls, but they are nothing at low water com- 
pared to those between the islands. The whole body of water rolls over, 
quite unbroken; but, after a descent of ten or more feet, the entire mass sud- 
denly becomes like a huge sheet of driven snow. Pieces of water leap off" it 
in the form of comets, with tails streaming behind, till the whole snowy sheet 
becomes myriads of rushing, leaping, aqueous comets." 

Garden Island, and another island further west, also on the lip of the 
falls, were used by the ancient Batoka chiefs as saci'ed spots, set apart for 
divine worship. The ground for a number of miles above the falls is strewn 
with agates ; but the fires, which burn off the grass every year, have injured 
most of those on the surface. At the falls, Livingstone met an Englishman, 
a Mr. Baldwin from Natal, who had succeeded in reaching them, guided only 
by his pocket-compass. As he was being ferried over to the north side of the 
river, he jumped in and swam ashore. " If," said Mashotlane, who ferried 
him over, " he had been devoured by one of the crocodiles which abound 
there, the English would have blamed us for his death. He nearly inflicted 
a great injury upon us, thei'efore, we said, he must pay a fine ;" and, as the 
gentleman had nothing with which to pay, they were taking care of him till 
his waggon, which was two days distant, should arrive, that he might pay 
them in beads. Leaving the falls, the party marched up the river and crossed 
the Lekone at its confluence, about eight miles above the Island Kalai. They 
spent Sunday, the 12th, at the village of Molele, an old Batoka cliief, who 
boasted in having formerly been a great favourite with Sebituaue. The next 
day they met a party from Sokeletu, who was now at Sesheke. Ou reaching 
Sesheke, Livingstone found that Sekeletu was suflfering from leprosy, and 
had withdrawn himself from the sight of his people. A long-continued 


drouglit had almost deslroyed the crops, and the country was suffering from 
a partial famine. The illness, and consequent inactivity of Sekcletu, had 
furnished occasion for, and indeed tempted, chiefs and headmen at a distance 
to do as they liked ; and too often had they been induced to oppress their 
immediate dependants, and plunder neighbouring and friendly tribes. 

An unbroken stream of visitors poured in upon Livingstone the day after 
his arrival at Sesheke, to pay him their respects, and to tell him what had 
befallen them during his absence. They were all much depressed. Sekeletu, 
believing himself bewitched, had slain a number of his chief men, together 
with their families ; subjected and friendly tribes at a distance were revolting ; 
famine was upon them; and the power of the Makololo was passing away. 
Sekeletu was found .sitting in a covered waggon, which was surrounded by a 
high wall of close-set reeds. His face was slightly disfigured by the thicken- 
ing and discolouration of the skin where the leprosy had passed over it. The 
doctors of his own tribe had failed to cure him, and a female doctor of the 
I\Ianyeti tribe was now trying her skill. After some difficulty she allowed 
Dr. Kirk and Livingstone to operate upon the patient, and under their treat- 
ment he was greatly benefited. Though it was a time of great scarcity, the 
chief treated the travellei's with much hospitality. Two horses that Living- 
stone had left there in 1853 were still alive, notwithstanding hard usage and 
perpetual hunting ; this the natives attributed to the fact that the Englishmen 
loved the Makololo. 

Sekeletu was delighted with the several articles the travellers had brought 
for him. When informed that a sugar-mill and other bulky and heavy goods 
had been left at Tette, but would probably be sent up as far as the falls by 
a powerful steamer, though they could be conveyed no farther, he asked, 
with a charming simplicity, if a cannon could not blow away the falls, so as 
to allow the vessel to come up to Sesheke. Livingstone says that the Makololo 
were by far the most intelligent and enterprising of the African tribes that he 
had met. The practice of polygamy among them, though designed to in- 
crease, really tended to diminish the tribe. Although the men indulge freely 
in smoking bang, or Indian hemp, they do not like their wives to follow their 
example ; some women, however, do smoke it secretly, and the practice causes 
a disease known by a minute eruption on the skin, quite incurable unless the 
habit be abandoned. The chief receives the hump and ribs of every ox 
slaughtered by his people, and tribute of corn, beer, honey, wild fruits, hoes, 
paddles, and canoes, from the Barotse, Manyeti, Matlotlora, and other sub- 
ject tribes. The principal revenue, however, is dcrivcil from ivory. Tlie 
ancient costume of the Makololo consisted of the skiu of some animal, worn 
round and below the loins, and in cold weather a kaross, or skin mantle, was 
thrown over the shoulders. The kaross is now laid aside, and the young men 
of fashion wear a monkey-jacket and a skin round the hips ; but no trousers. 



waistcoat, or shirt. The river and lake tribes arc in general very cleanly, 
bathing several times a day. Tlie Makololo women use water rather spar- 
ingly, rubbing themselves with melted butter instead ; this keeps off para- 
sites, but gives tlicir clotlies a rancid odour. 

" The children have merry times, especially in the cool of the evening. 
One of their games consists of a little girl being carried on the shoulders of 
two others. She sits with outstretched arms as they walk about with her, 
and all the rest clap their hands, and stopping before each hut sing pretty airs, 
some beating time on their little kilts of cowskin, others making a curious 
humming sound between the songs. Excepting this and the skipping-rope, 
the play of the girls consists in imitation of the serious work of their mothers, 
building little huts, making small j^ots, and cooking, pounding corn in minia- 
ature mortars, or hoeing tiny gardens. The bo3's play with spears of reeds, 
pointed with wood, and small shields, or bows and arrows ; or amuse them- 
selves in making little cattle-pens, or in moulding cattle in clay: they show 
great ingenuity in the imitation of various-shaped horns. Some, too, are said 
to use slings, but, as soon as they can watch the goats or calves, they are sent 
to the field. Tselane, one of the ladies, on observing Dr. Livingstone noting 
observations on the wet and dry bulb thermometers, thought that he too was 
engaged in play ; for, on receiving no reply to her question, which waa rather 
difficult to answer, as the native tongue has no scientific terms, she said, with 
I'oguish glee, ' Poor thing, ^^laying like a little child !' " 

Two packages, containing letters and newspapers from Kuruman, were 
lying at Linyanti, and a messenger was sent for them. He returned with 
only one (the other being too heavy for him), on the seventh day, having 
travelled two hundred and forty miles. As Livingstone wished to get some 
more medicine and papers out of the waggon he had left at Linyanti, in 1853, 
he determined to proceed there himself. On his arrival, he found everything 
as safe as when he left it seven years before. The supply of medicine he 
had left was untouched, and it was a melancholy reflection that Mr. Ilelmore, 
the missionary, and the other members of the mission, should have died there, 
with the medicines they needed lying within a hundred yards of their en- 
campment. Taking with him a supply of this medicine, Livingstone re- 
turned towards Sesheke. During his stay there, he was accustomed to teach 
the people the truths of the Christian religion. On the last occasion of hold- 
ing Divine service with them, they were invited to converse about the sub- 
ject on which they had been addressed — that subject being the future state. 
They answered that they did not wish to offend the speaker, but they could 
not believe that all the dead would rise again. " Can tliose," said they, 
"who have been killed in the field and devoured by vultures, or those who 
have been eaten by the hyenas or lions, or those who have been tossed into 
the river, and eaten by more than one crocodile— can they all be raised to 


life ?" They were told that a leaden bullet could be changed into a salt 
(acetate of lead), wliich could be as completely dissolved in water as our 
bodies in the stomachs of animals, and then re-converted into lead ; or that 
the bullet could be transformed into tlie red and white paint wliich coloured 
the waggons, and again re-converted into the original lead; and that if men 
could do so much, how more could be done by the Creator of all ! They were 
also told that Christians believed in a resurrection, not because they under- 
stood it, but because God declared it in His Book. The reference to the 
Book and its Author told more powerfully on the native mind than the clever- 
ness of the illustration. 

Livingstone and his friends left Sesheke on the 17th of September, 1860, 
Leshore, Pitsane, and other natives, accompanying them. Messengers were 
sent with them to bring the merchandise left at Tettc, and a supply of medi- 
cine for Sekeletu, who by this time was nearly cured of his leprosy. That 
evening they slept on the left bank of the Majcele, after having had all the 
men ferried across. An ox was slaughtered, and the next morning not an 
ounce remained. In this river, a beautiful silvery fish, with reddish fins, 
abounds; some of the larger ones weighing fifteen or twenty pounds each. 
Its teeth arc exposed, and so arrayed that, when they meet, the edges cut a 
hook like nippers. The Ngwesi, as this fish is called, is very ravenous; "it 
often gulps down the Konokono, a fish armed with serrated bones, more than 
an inch in length in the pectoral and dorsal fins, which, fitting into a notch 
at the roots, can be put by the fish on full cock, or straight out : they can- 
not be folded down, without its will, and even break in resisting. The 
name ' Konokono,' elbow-elbow, is given it from a resemblance its extended 
fins are supposed to bear to a man's elbows stuck from his body. It often 
performs the little trick of cocking its fins in the stomach of the Ngwesi^ and 
the elbows piercing its enemy's sides, he is frequently found floating dead. 
The fin-bones seem to have an acrid secretion on them, for the wound they 
make is excessively painful. The Konokono barks distinctly when landed 
with the hook." 

Passing the Victoria Falls on the 27th, they reached the Kalorao, and 
encamped there on the 1st of October; and found the weather much warmer 
than when they crossed that stream in August. On the 5th, they rested at 
the village of Simariango. The bellows of the blacksmith here arrested 
their attention ; they consisted of two wooden vessels, like a lady's band-box, 
the upper ends of which were covered with leather, and looked something 
like tlio heads of drums, except that the leather bagged in the centre. They 
were fitted with long nozzles, through which the air was driven by working 
the loose covering of the tops up and down by means of a small piece of wood 
attached to their centres. The following day they arrived at the islet called 
Chilombo, belonging to Sinamane, the ablest and most energetic of the Batoka 


chiefs. His people cultivate large quantities of tobacco, which they manu- 
facture into balls for the JIakololo market. Twenty balls, weighing about 
three-quarters of a pound each, they sell for a hoe. They passed, on the r3th, 
through a wild, liilly country, with fine wooded scenery on both sides, but a 
thin population. 

Below the junction of the Kafue with the Zambesi, they met, on the 24tli, 
a half-caste ivory hunter, named Sequasha, who, along with a large number 
of armed slaves, had been hunting elephants. He told them that his men had 
killed two hundred and ten elephants during their trip. This man was an 
unscrupulous villain. Only a short time before this, he had entered into a 
conspiracy to kill a chief near Zumbo; and with, a party of picked men, armed 
with loaded muskets, he had visited the unsuspecting chief, received his hos- 
pitality, and then shot him and twenty of his people in cold blood. At the 
Mburuma Rapids, the Makololo displayed great presence of mind and courage. 
While passing the most dangerous of the rapids, the canoes filled with water, 
and were in danger of being swamped, when of course the whole party must 
have perished. Without a moment's hesitation, two men leaped out of each 
of the canoes, and ordered a Batoka man to do the same, as " the white men 
must be saved." " I cannot swim," said the Batoka man. " Jump out then, 
and hold on to the canoe," which he instantly did. Swimming alongside, 
they guided the canoes down the swift current to the foot of the rapid, and 
then ran them ashore to bail them out. Although the scenery of this pass 
reminded the travellers of Kebrabasa, yet they felt it was much inferior to 

They arrived at Zumbo on the 1st of November. On the 4t]i, there were 
several thunderstorms, and the Zambesi rose several inches, and became 
highly discoloured. Crocodiles abounded. In the Kakolole narrows, one of 
these reptiles seized a water-buck, which had been wounded by a shot, and 
dragged it into the river. The poor animal made a desperate resistance, and 
hauling the crocodile several yards, tore itself out of its jaws. To escape the 
hunter, the water-buck jumped into the river, and was swimming across, when 
another crocodile gave chase, but a ball soon sent him to the bottom. At the 
east end of Chicova, they entered Kebrabasa Rapids, and soon found the 
navigation both difficult and dangerous. Dr. Kirk's canoe was swamped, 
the occupants scrambling ashore with difficulty ; but unfortunately a chrono- 
meter, a barometer, his notes of the journey, and various botanical drawings 
of the fruit-trees of the interior, were lost. They had now to leave the river, 
and proceed on foot. On their way, they met two large trading parties of 
Tette slaves travelling to Zumbo, leading, to be sold for ivory, a number of 
Mauganja women, with ropes round their necks, and all made fast to one long 

On the 23rd of November, they arrived safely at Tette, after being absent 


a little more than six months. The two English sailors whom they had left 
in charge of the steamer, had behaved themselves well, and were in excellent 
health. Their gardening had been a failure. A hi2:)popotamus paid the 
garden a visit one night, and destroyed their vegetables ; the sheep they had 
broke into their cotton plantation, when it was in flower, and ate it all ; the 
crocodiles devoured their sheep; two monkeys they kept ate all the eggs their 
fowls laid ; and the natives stole their fowls. They Avere pretty successful in 
bargaining with the natives for food. Their purchases were all made on 
board the steamer ; and when more was demanded than tlie market price, 
they brought a chameleon out of the cabin, an animal of which the natives 
have a mortal dread. This settled the matter in a moment ; for the moment 
the exorbitant traders saw the creature, they sprang overboard and were 

As tlie Zambesi was unusually low, they remained at Tette till it rose a 
little ; and then left on December the 3rd, for the Kongone. They found it 
hard work to keep the steamer afloat ; and on the morning of the 21st she 
grounded on a sandbank and filled. It was imi^ossible to empty her, or to 
get her off. During the night the river rose, and all that was visible of her 
the next day was about six feet of her two masts. Most of the property that 
was on board was saved ; and the party encamped on the island of Ciiumba, 
where they spent the Christmas Day. Having obtained canoes from Senna, 
they reached that jilace on the 27th, and were hospitably entertained once 
more by Senhor Ferrao. On the 4th of January, 18G1, they reached the 
Ivougone ; and found that the Portuguese had erected during their absence a 
custom-house there, and also a hut for a black lance-corpond and three men. 
They took up their quarters in the custom-house — a small square floorlcss hut 
of mangrove stakes, overlaid with reeds. Here, while waiting for a ship, they 
had leisure to read the newspapers and periodicals they found in the mail 
which was waiting their arrival at Tette, and several of which were a year 
and a half old. 

Their provisions began to fail ; and towards the end of the month, they 
had only left a little hard biscuit and a few ounces of sugar. Tliey wore able, 
however, to use roasted niapira as a tolerable substitute for cofl'ee ; and fresh 
meat they obtained from their antelope preserves on a large island made by 
a creek between the Kongone and East Luabo. From drinking the brackish 
Avatcr, and eating the fresh pasturage, which is saline near the coast, tlieilcsh 
of the antelopes was sweeter and more tender than in the interior, where it is 
dry and tough. The eggs of the pelican and turtle, too, were found in great 
abundance, also several varieties of fish ; and thus they were able to supply 
their daily wants. They were in the midst of a focus of decaying vegetation, 
and nothing was so much to be dreaded as inactivity. They had therefore 
to find what exercise and anmsement they could. Among other curiosities 


they observed in their wanderings, was the blenny-fisli, wliich hurried across 
the surface of the water, when it was alarmed, in a series of leaps. " It may 
be considered amphibious, as it lives as much out of the water as in it, and 
its most busy time is low water. Then it appears on the sand or mud, near 
the little pools left by the retiring tide; it raises itself on its pectoral fins into 
something like a standing attitude, and with its large projecting eyes keeps 
a sharp look-out for the light-coloured fly, on which it feeds. Should the fly 
alight at too great a distance for even a second leap, tlie blenny moves slowl}'' 
towards it like a cat to its prey, or like a jumping spider; and, as soon as it 
gets within two or three inches of the insect, by a sudden spring contrives to 
pop its underset mouth directly over the unlucky victim." 

They found that the muddy ground under the mangrove-trees swarmed 
with myriads of soldier-crabs ; they discovered also a larger species of crab 
tliat was musical. They seemed to sing in concert, and to imitate the song- 
birds of the groves. The wart-hogs were fond of these large sound-j^roducing 
crabs, digging them out of the muddy swamps during the night, and devour- 
ing them. The various kinds of mangrove furnished an interesting and in- 
structive study. One kind stood at ebb-tide, on its fantastic roots high above 
the ground ; while at flood-tide, the trunk seemed as if planted on the surface 
of the water. The seeds of another kind are formed like arrow-heads, and, 
in falling, are by their own weight shot into the soft ground, and self-planted. 
They saw the natives pounding the woody stems of a poisonous climbing- 
plant, and hanging it up in bundles. Having staked off a jjortion of water 
with bushes to prevent the exit of the fish that were in it, the poisonous 
plants were placed in the water, and either killed the fish or stu23ified them, so 
that they were easily secured. The poison is said to be injurious to man if 
the water is drunk ; but not when the fish is cooked. During their stay on 
the coast, in siDite of all their care, they had some touches of fever; the 
natives they had brought down with them from the interior suffering almost 
as much as they suffered themselves. 


Arrival of the Pioneer — Bishop Maclccnzic and his Mission — Death of Bishop Jftc- 
kemie and Mr. Burrup — Lake Nijassa and its People — Arrival and Death of 
Mrs. Livingstone — The Roviima — The Expedition withdraivn — Livingstone'' s 
Voyage to Bombay, and Return to England. 

/^N the 31st of January, 1861, their new sliip, tlie '' Pioneer," arrive'! from 
" England, and anchored outside the bar ; but owing to the stormy state 
of the weather, she did not venture in till the 4th of February, At the same 
time two of H. M. cruisers arrived, bringing Bishop Mackenzie, and the 
Oxford and Cambridge Mission, to the tribes of the Shire and Lake Nyassa. 
The Mission consisted of six Englishmen, and five coloured men from the 
Cape; and as Dr. Livingstone and his party were under orders to explore the 
Eovuma, about two hundred miles to the north of the Zambesi, and beyond 
Portuguese territory, they scarcely knew what to do with them. Bishop 
Mackenzie wished himself and his party to be conveyed at once to Chibisa's 
village on the Shire, and left there; but Livingstone feared that, as they had 
no medical attendant, they might meet the fate of Mr Hclmore and his party 
at Linyanti. At length it was arranged that the Bishop should proceed in 
the "Lyra" to Johanna, and there leave the other members of the Mission, 
while he himself should accompany Livingstone up the Rovuma, to ascertain 
whether the country round its head-waters was a suitable place for a settle- 

The "Pioneer" anchored in the mouth of the Rovuma on the Soth of 
February. Unlike most African rivers, this one has a magnificent bay, and 
DO bar. They waited for the Bishop till the 9th of March; and on his arrival 
proceeded up the river. The scenery on the lower part of the Rovuma is 
superior to that on the Zambesi. Eight miles from the mouth the mangroves 
are left behind, and a beautiful range of well-wooded hills crowns each bank. 
A tree resembling African blackwood, of finer grain than ebony, grows in. 
abundance, and to a large size. The few people that wore seen were of 
Arab breed, and did not appear to be in good circumstances. Though the 
current of the Rovuma was as strong as that of the Zambesi, the volume 
of water was very much less. They sailed up the river for thirty miles, but 
were compelled to return, as the river was rapidly falling in volume, and 
they were afraitl that the ship might ground altogether, and have to lie 


there until the next season. They touched at Mohilla, one of the Conioro 
Islands, on their return, where they found a mixed race of Arabs, Africans, 
and natives of Madagascar. From them they went over to Johanna for 
their friends; sojourned a few days at the Comoro Islands, and then sailed 
for the Kongone mouth of the Zambesi, and passed up the Shire. 

The " Pioneer" was a very superior vessel, and, excepting her draught 
of water, well suited for the purpose she was intended to serve. Her great 
draught, however, occasioned a great deal of trouble and much loss of time. 
Had she drawn but three feet she could have run up and down the river at 
any time in the year; but, as it was, having once passed up over a few shal- 
low banks, it was impossible to take her down again until the river rose in 
December. In hauling her over the shallow places, BishojJ Mackenzie and 
some of his party were ever ready and ever anxious to lend a hand, and 
worked as hard as any on board. On reaching Chibisa's village, they heard 
that there was war in the Manganja country, and that the slave-trade was 
going on briskly. Having hired as many men to carry the Bishop's goods 
up to the hills as were willing to go, they started for the highlands, on the 
15th of July, to show the Bishop the country, which, from its situation and 
coolness, was most suitable for a station. 

They halted the next forenoon at the village of Mbame, to obtain new 
carriers, as Chibisa's men did not choose to go further. After resting a 
little while, Mbame told them that a slave party, on its way to Tette, would 
soon pass through the village. They resolved, at all risk, to do their pre- 
sent duty in putting a stop to the abominable evil, which was following on 
the footsteps of their discoveries. And this is how they acted: — -" A few 
minutes after Mbame had spoken to us, the slave-party, a long line of man- 
acled men, women, and children, came wending their way round the hill 
and into the valley, on the side of which the village stood. The black 
drivers, armed with muskets, and bedecked with various articles of finery, 
marched jauntily in the front, middle, and rear of the line ; some of them 
blowing exultant notes out of long tin horns. They seemed to feel that 
they were doing a very noble thing, and might proudly march with an air of 
triumph. But the instant the fellows caught a glimpse of the English, 
they darted off like mad into the forest; so fast, indeed, that we caught but a 
glimpse of their red caps and the soles of their feet. The chief of the party 
alone remained; and he, from being in front, had his hand tightly grasped 
by a Makololo ! He proved to be a well-known slave of the late Command- 
ant at Tette, and for some time our own attendant while there. On asking 
him how he olitained these captives, he replied, he had bought them; but on 
our inquiring of the people themselves all, save four, said they had been 
captured in war. While this inquiry was going on, he bolted too, 

" The cajitives knelt down, and, in their wa3^ of expressing thanks, 


clapped their hands with great energy. Tliey were thus left entirely on our 
hands, and knives were soon busy at work cutting the women and children 
loose. It was more difficult to cut the men adrift, as each had his neck in the 
fork of a stout stick, six or seven feet long, and kept in by an iron rod, which 
was riveted at both ends across the throat. With a saw, luckily in the Bishop's 
baggage, one by one the men were sawn out into freedom. The women, on 
being told to take the meal they were carrying and cook breakfast for 
themselves and the cliildren, seemed to consider the news too good to be true ; 
but after a little coaxing went at it with alacrity, and made a capital fire by 
which to boil their pots with the slave-sticks and bonds, their old acquaint- 
ances through many a sad night and weary day. Many were mere children, 
about five years of age and under. One little boy, with the simplicity of 
childhood, said to our men, ' The others tied and starved us, you cut the 
roi:es and tell us to eat; what sort of people are you? — Where do you come 
from ?' Two of the women had been shot the day before for attempting to 
untie the thongs. This, the rest were told, was to prevent them from attempt- 
ing to escajie. One woman had her infant's brains knocked out, because 
she could not cany her load and it. And a man was despatched with an 
axe, because he had broken down with fatigue. Self-interest would have set 
a watch over the whole rather than commit murder; but in this traffic we 
invariably find self-interest overcome by contempt of human life and by 

" The Bishop was not present at this scene, having gone to bathe in a 
little stream below the village; but on his return he warmly approved of 
what had been done; he at first had doubts, but now felt that, had he been 
present, he would have joined us in tlie good work. Logic is out of place 
when the question with a true-hearted man is, whether his brotlier-man is to 
be saved or not. Eighty-four, chiefly women and children, were liberated ; 
and on being told that they were now free, and might go where they pleased, 
or remain with us, they all chose to stay; and the Bisliop wisely attached 
them to his miss^ion, to be educated as members of a Christian family. In 
this way a great difliculty in the commencement of a mission was overcome. 
Years are usually required before confidence is so far instilled into the natives' 
mind as to induce them, young or old, to submit to the guidance of strangers 
professing to be actuated by motives the reverse of worldly wisdom, and in- 
culcating customs strange and unknown to them and their fathers." 

The good work thus begun was carried on. Eight other slaves were 
freed in a hamlet on tlieir path. Dr. Kirk and four Makololo followed a 
party of traders with a hundred more, but they succeeded in making clear 
off to Tette. Between fifty and sixty others were liberated in a few days 
after, and most of them, being entirely naked, were clothed. Jlonths after- 
wards, at Tette, some merchants who were engaged in the slave-trade spoke 


to Dr Livingstone of the governor's liberating slaves. His answer was, that 
he had liberated several groups of slaves in the Manganja country; and this 
was all that passed in regard to the matter. 

Bishop Mackenzie having decided to settle at Magomero, it was thought 
desirable to prevent the country from being dejoopulated by the Ajawa chief, 
who was now waging war with the Manganja, and carrying off all the peopls 
he could obtain to sell them for slaves. The party, therefore, determined to 
visit him, and endeavour to persuade him to abandon war and kidnapping, 
and turn the energies of himself and his jieople to more peaceful pursuits. 
They came ujDon the Ajawa just as they were in the act of sacking and burn- 
ing a number of villages; and the}'^ heard the shouts of the marauders min- 
gling with the wail of the Manganja women lamenting over their slain. 

After engaging with the Bishop in fervent prayer, they sought an inter- 
view with the Ajawa; but owing to a misunderstanding, unwittingly occa- 
sioned by some expressions of the Manganja, they thought Livingstone and 
his companions had come to fight, and therefore would not listen to them. 
In a short time the Ajawa formed themselves into a body, and began to 
shoot poisoned arrows at them, until they were reluctantly compelled, in self- 
defence to fire upon their assailants, who fled, shouting back that they would 
follow and kill them while they slept. This was the first time Livingstone 
had ever been attacked by the natives, or come into collision with them; and 
he and his friends grieved to think that their efforts at conciliation had failed, 
and that reluctantly they had been compelled to adopt a course which would 
tend to frustrate their great purpose, and expose them to misunderstanding 
and misrepresentation. 

It was proposed by Mackenzie that they should at once follow the tri- 
umphant Ajawa, and drive them out of the countrj', and liberate the captives 
they might have in their possession. This proposal commended itself to all 
except Livingstone, who saw clearly what would be the result of a Christian 
missionary adopting such a step; and he cautioned them not to interfere by 
force, under any circumstances, in any of these wars, even though .the Man- 
ganja in their extremity sought their aid. " You will be oppressed," said he, 
" by their importunities; but do not interfere in native quarrels. " With 
this advice, Livingstone left the Bishop and his mission, and returned to the 
ship, to prepare for his journey to Lake Nyassa. 

In an earlier part of this work we have given a brief account of Bishop 
Mackenzie's mission ; but the following summary of the fate of the leaders 
of the mission, and the proceedings of Captain AVilson and Dr. Kirk, in tak- 
ing Miss Mackenzie, Mrs. Burrup, and Mr. Hawkins, to the mission station on 
the Shire, will be read with melancholy interest : — " At Shupanga, about ten 
miles from Mozzaro, the 'Pioneer,' it was found, could proceed no further. 
There was, therefore, no alternative but to prosecute the remainder of the 


journey in the two boats, which were provisioned for ten days ; and as it was 
sujjposed that their destination might be reached in four, the project did not 
look very formidable. When we mention that, instead of four, twelve days 
elapsed ere the boats made the junction of the Rua River, sixty miles from 
their journey's end, and that, during this period, the ladies were in open 
boats, exposed to all the extremes of a fearfully unwholesome atmosphere, to 
the thousand insect-plagues which literally render existence almost unbearable, 
and that the crews were, man after man, struck down by insidious disease, it 
will be readily understood how wretched was their situation, and how heavily 
those in charge felt their responsibility. 

"At this part of the river it was that the Bishop and Mr. Burrup were 
expected to be in readiness to receive them. But the natives would not give 
any information; and Captain Wilson, knowing that provisions would be 
needed by the 'Gorgon,' sent one of the two boats back down the river on a 
foraging expedition, while he pushed up with the other to leave the ladies at 
Chibisa. The crew of the former suffered terribly from fever on their way, 
and indeed, from all accounts, were most miraculously preserved, especially 
as provisions and medicine were all used up ; and of stimulants, there were 
none. Captain Wilson, in his boat, went on safely enough to Chibisa, the 
nearest spot to the mission station; there, he left the ladies in charge of the 
doctor, and tried to get overland with Dr. Kirk and four men, but when 
within two days' march of the place he was attacked by fever, which had 
nearly proved fatal. Dr. Kirk had even looked out for a place in which to 
bury him. Dr. Kirk too was struck down, but most providentially a messen- 
ger, who liad been despatched forward, returned with some of the mission 
party. This may be said to have saved them from death. Then it was that 
Cajitain Wilson and Dr. Kirk first learned the disastrous news which has 
shocked and saddened so many. The natives at Rua had known of it, but 
had kept silence, fearing lest they should bo suspected of having caused the 
deaths of the Bishop and Mr. Burrup, by witchcraft. One night, indeed, the 
boat in which were Miss Mackenzie and Mrs. Burrup had anchored within a 
hundred yards of the Bishop's grave. 

"On the 14th of February, 1862, it was known at the station, by the 
arrival there of one of the Makololo, wlio reported the Bishop's death, and 
intimated the approach of Mr. Burrup, who was carried on some rough 
branches of trees by two Makololo, but so shrunk and ill as to bo scarcely 
recognisable. From Mr. Burrup it was gathered that, after leaving the station 
on January 3rd, the Bishop and he had slept five nights on the road ; that, at 
Chibisa, they obtained a small canoe with some men, who paddled thennlowu 
to the island of Malo. Unfortunately, they wore upset, got wet through, and, 
worst of all, lost a case in the water, containing clothes, powder, and medi- 
cine. At first they were well received by chief Cliikangi. Tiic had 


an attack of low fever, which soon gained ground on a constitution which, 
thougli naturally strong, had been weakened by exposure and suffering. It 
soon became evident that he was sinking fast, as his speech was wandering, 
and ho was perfectly helpless. The same afternoon, on the other side of the 
river, in a secluded spot, under a large tree, Mr. Burrup was reverently read- 
ing the burial service, in the dim twilight, over his lost leader, with no one 
near to share his affliction, save the Makololo who had dug the grave. 

" On tlie next day, Mr. Burruj) prepared to return to the station. No- 
thing but death was before him. Leaving a letter for Dr. Livingstone, he 
journeyed on to Chibisa. Thence to the station he was carried, being too 
weak to walk. From the 14th of February, the day of his arrival, hopes of 
his recovery were entertained for a short time ; but ere long diarrhoea added 
to his weakness, and the fever was aggravated by the want of pi-ojier nourish- 
ing food. On the morning of the 22nd he breathed his last ; and on Sunday, 
the following da}', he was buried near the station. Neither Miss Mackenzie, 
Mrs. Burrup, nor Mr. Hawkins, ever reached the station ; they returned to 
the Cape in H.M.'s ship 'Gorgon.'" 

Drs. Livingstone and Kirk, and Mr. Charles Livingstone, started for 
Nyassa, on August 6tli, 1861. They were attended by a white sailor and a 
score of natives, and carried with them a light four-oared gig. They found 
no difficulty in hiring people to carry the boat from village to village, along 
the path past the forty miles of the Murchison Cataracts. A cubic of cotton 
cloth a day was considered by the natives high wages, and more than twice 
the number of men they required eagerly offered themselves on those terms. 
The possession of a boat by the party, and tlieir consequent independence of 
canoes, had a powerful effect in making the inhabitants on both sides of the 
river extremely civil and obliging. They found a wonderful contrast between 
neighbouring villages. Some were prosperous and happy, others poor and 
miserable. To avoid marauding parties of the Ajawa, on the left bank of the 
Shire, they kept on the right side, coasting the shore of the lake Pamalombc, 
while the land party walked by the bank. The unhealthiness of this lake, 
however, and the immediate neighbourhood, soon constrained them to seek a 
freer and healthier atmosjjhere. 

" We hastened," says Livingstone, " from tliis sicklj^spot, trying to take 
the attentions of the mosquitoes as hints to seek more pleasant quarters on the 
healthy shores of Lake N3'asssa ; and when we sailed into it, on the 2nd of 
September, we felt refreshed by the great coolness of the air off this large 
body of water. The depth was the first point of interest. This is indicated 
by the colour of the water, which, on a belt along tlie shore, varying from a 
quarter to half a mile in breadth, is light green, and this is met by the deep 
blue or indigo tint of the Indian Ocean, which is the colour of the great body 
of Nyassa. We found the Upper Shire from nine to fifteen feet in depth; 


but skirting the western side of the lake, about a niilo from the shore the 
water deepened from nine to fifteen fathoms ; then, as we rounded the grand 
mountainous promontory, which we named Gape Maclear, after our excellent 
friend, the Astronomer Royal at the Cape of Good Hope, wc could get no 
bottom witli our lead-lino of thirty-five fathoms. We pulled along the 
western shore, which was a succession of bays, and found tliat, where the 
bottom was sandy near the beach, and to a mile out, the depth varied 
from six to fourteen fathoms. In a rocky bay, about latitude 11° 40', we had 
soundings at one hundred fathoms, though outside the same bay wc found 
none with a fishing-line of one hundred and sixteen fathoms ; but this cast 
was unsatisfactory, as the line broke in coming up. According to our present 
knowledge, a shiii could anchor only near the shore. 

" Looking back to the southern end of LakeNyassa, the arm from which 
the Shire flows was found to be about thirty miles long, and from ten to 
twelve broad. Rounding Cape Maclear, and looking to the south-west, we 
have another arm, which stretches some eighteen miles southward, and is 
from six to twelve miles in breadth. These arms give the southern end a 
forked appearance, and with the help of a little imagination it may be likened 
to the 'boot-shape' of Italy. The narrowest part is about the ankle, eighteen 
or twenty miles. From this it widens to the north, and in the upper third 
or fourth it is fifty or sixty miles broad. The length is over two hundred 
miles. The direction in which it lies is as near as possible due north and 
south. Nothing of the great bend to the west, shown in all the previous 
maps, could be detected by either compass or chronometer, and the watch 
we used was an excellent one. The season of the year was very unfavour- 
able. The * smokes ' filled the air with an impenetrable haze, and the 
equinoctial gales made it impossible for us to cross to the eastern side. When 
ive caught a glimpse of the sun rising from behind the mountains to the east, 
we made sketches and bearings of them at different latitudes, whicli enabled 
us to secure approximate measurements of the width. Tlicse agreed with 
the times taken by the natives at the different crossing-places — as Tsenga, 
and Molamba. . About the beginning of the upper third the lake is crossed 
by taking advantage of the island Chizumai-a, which name, in the native 
tongue, means the ' ending ;' further north they go round the end instead, 
though that takes several days. 

" The lake appeared to be surrounded by mountains, but it was after- 
wards found that these beautiful tree-covered heiglits were, on the west, only 
the edges of high table-lands. Like all narrow seas encircled by high lands, 
it is visited by sudden and tremendous storms. We were on it in September 
and October, perhaps the stormiest season of the year, and were repeatedly 
detained by gales. At times, while sailing pleasantly over the blue water 
with a gentle breeze, suddenly, and without any warning, was heard the 


sound of a coming storm, roaring on with crowds of angry waves in its wake. 
We were cauglit one morning with the sea breaking all around us, and, 
unable either to advance or recede, anchored a mile from sliore, in seven 
fathomsi. The furious surf on the beach would have shivered our slender 
boat to atoms, had we tried to land. The waves most dreaded came rolling 
on in threes, with their crests, driven into spray, streaming behind them. A 
short lull followed each triple charge. Had one of these white-maned seas 
struck our frail bark nothing could have saved us, for they came on with 
resistless force ; seaward, in shore, and on either side of us, tliey broke in 
foam, but we escaped. For six weary hours we faced those terrible trios, 
any one of which might have been cai-rying the end of our expedition in its 
hoary head. A low, dark, detached, oddly-shaped cloud came slowly from 
the mountains, and hung for hours directly over our heads. A flock of night- 
jars (^Comctoniis vexillarius), which on no other occasion come out by day, 
soared above us in the gale, like birds of evil omen. Our black crew became 
sea-sick-, and unable to sit up or keep the boat's head to the sea. The natives 
and our laud-party stood on the high cliffs looking at us and exclaiming, as 
the waves seemed to swallow up the boat, ' They are lost! they are all dead!' 
When at last the gale moderated, and we got safely ashore, they saluted us 
warmly, as after a long absence. From this time we trusted implicitly to 
the opinions of our seaman, John Neil, who, having been a fisherman on the 
coast of Ireland, understood boating on a stormy coast, and by his advice we 
often sat cowering on the land for days together, waiting for the surf to go 
down. He had never seen such waves before. We had to beach the boat 
every night to save her from being swamped at anchor ; and did we not 
believe the gales to be peculiar to one season of the year, would call Nyassa 
the ' Lake of Storms.' 

" Lake Nyassa receives no great affluents from the west. The five 
rivers we observed in jjassing did not at this time appear to bring in as much 
water as the Shire was carrying out. They were from fifteen to thirty yards 
wide, and some too deep to ford; but the evaporation must be very consider- 
able. These streams, with others of about the same size from the mountains 
on the east and north, when swollen by the rains, may be sufiicient to account 
for the rise in the lake without any large river. The natives nearest the 
northern end denied the existence of a large river there, though at one time it 
seemed necessary to account for the Shire's perennial flow. Distinct white 
marks on the rocks showed that, for some time during the rainy season, the 
water of the lake is three feet above the point to which it falls towards the 
close of the dry period of the year. The rains begin here in November, and 
the permanent rise of the Shire does not take place till January. The west- 
ern side of Lake Nyassa, with the exception of the great harbour to the west 
of Cape Maclear, is, as has been said before, a succession of small bays of 


nearly similar form, each having an open sandy beach and pebbly shore, and 
being separated from its neighbour by a rocky headland, with detached rocks 
extending some distance out to sea. The great south-western bay referred to 
would form a magnificent harbour, the only really good one we saw to tlie 

" The land immediately adjacent to the lake is low and fertile, though 
in some places marshy, and tenanted by large flocks of ducks, geese, herons, 
crowned cranes, and other birds. In the soutlicrn part we have sometimes 
ten or a dozen miles of rich plains, bordered bv what seem hi""-!! rantjes of 
well-wooded hills, running nearly parallel with the lake. Northwards the 
mountains become loftier, and present some magnificent views, range tower- 
ing beyond range, until the dim, lofty outlines, projected against the sky, 
bound the prospect. Still further north the plain becomes more narrow, until 
near where we turned, it disappears altogether, and the mountains rise 
abruptly out of the lake, forming the north-east boundary of what was de- 
scribed to us as an extensive table-land, well suited for pasturage and agricul- 
ture, and now only partially occupied by a tribe of Zulus, who came from 
the south some years ago. These people own large herds of cattle, and are 
constantly increasing in numbers by annexing other tribes. 

" Never before in Africa have we seen anything like the dense popula- 
tion on the shores of Lake Nyassa. In the southern part, there was an 
almost unbroken chain of villages. On the beach of well nigh every little 
sandy bay, dark crowds were standing, gazing at the novel sight of a boat 
under sail; and wherever we landed we were surrounded in a few seconds by 
hundreds of men, M'omenj and children, who hastened to have a stare at the 
* chirombo' (wild animals). To see the animals feed, was the greatest attrac- 
tion ; never did the Zoological Society's lions or monkeys draw more sight- 
seers than we did. Indeed, we equalled the hij)popotamus on his first arrival 
among the civilised on the banks of the Thames. The wondering nmltitude 
crowded round us at meal times and formed a thicket of dark bodies, all looking 
on, apparently, with the deepest interest ; but they good-naturedly kept each 
other to a line we made on the sand, and left us room to dine. They were 
civil upon the whole. Twice they went the length of lifting up the edge of 
our sail, which we used us a tent, as boys do the curtains of travelling men- 
ageries at home. They named us indeed ' chirombo,' which means only the 
wild animals that may be eaten, but they had no idea that we understood 
their meaning. No fines were levied on us, nor dues demanded. At one 
village only they were impudent, but they were 'elevated' by beer. They 
cultivate the soil pretty extensively, and grow large quantities of rice and 
sweet potatoes, as well as maize, mapire, and millet. In the north, however, 
cassava is the staple product, which, with fish kept till the flavour is high, 
constitutes the main support of the inhabitants. During a portion of the year. 


the northern dwellers on the lake have a harvest which furnishes a sinsular 
sort of food. As wc approached our limit in that direction, clouds, as of smoke 
rising from miles of burning grass, were observed bending in a south-easterly- 
direction, and we thought that the unseen land on the opposite side was clos- 
ing in, and that we were near the end of the lake. But next morning we 
sailed through one of the clouds on our own side, and discovered that it was 
neither smoke nor haze, but countless millions of minute midges, called 
'kungo' (a cloud or fog). They filled the air to an immense height, and 
swarmed ujDon the water, too light to sink in it. Eyes and mouth had to be 
kept closed while passing through this living cloud ; they struck upon the 
face like fine drifting snow. Thousands lay in the boat when she emerged 
from the cloud of midges. The peojile gather these minute insects by night, 
and boil them into thick cakes, to be used as a relish — millions of midges in 
a cake. A kungo cake, an inch thick and as large as the blue bonnet of a 
Scotch ploughman, was otiered to us ; it was very dark in colour, and tasted 
not unlike caviare, or salted locusts. 

" Abundance of excellent fish are found in the lake, and nearly all were 
new to us. The mpasa, or sanjika, found by Dr. Kirk to be a kind of carp, 
was running up the rivers to spawn, like our salmon at home. The largest 
we saw was one two feet in length. It is a splendid fish, and the best we 
have ever eaten in Africa. They were ascending the rivers in August and 
September, and furnished active and profitable employment to many fisher- 
men, who did not mind their being out of season. Weirs were constructed 
full of sluices, in each of which was set a largo basket-trap, through whose 
single tortuous opening the fish, once in, has but small chance of cscajie. A 
short distance below the weir, nets are stretched across from bank to bank, 
so that it seemed a marvel how the most sagacious sanjika could get up at 
all without being taken. Possibly a passage up the river is found at night; 
and this is not the country of Sundays or close times for either men or fish. 
The lake fish are caught chiefly in nets, although men, and even women 
with babies on their backs, are occasionally seen fishing from the rocks with 

The first impression a stranger would receive of the Lake Nyassa men 
is, that they are lazy. During the day you see them lying fast asleep under 
the trees along the shore, as if they had nothing to do, or did not care to do 
anything ; but when you come to know the facts of the case, you will find 
that these morning sleepers have been working hard most part of the night. 
They begin to bestir themselves in the afternoon, preparing their nets and 
lines, and canoes, for their night's work. They paddle off in the evening to 
the fishing stations, and then, through the greater part of the night, they are 
dragging their nets. It is evident, from the quantity of native cotton cloth 
worn, that many of the people must be employed in the cultivation of cotton, 


niid in preparing it for use. Tlicy are not handsome ; the women especially 
arc very plain, and universally wear tlic pclele, or lip-ornament. All the 
natives are tattooed from head to foot, the figures being characteristic of the 
tribes, and varying with them. In character and disposition tliey are very 
much like other people — good, bad, and indiiVercnt. " It miglit be only a 
coincidence," says Livingstone, " but we never suflfered from impudence, 
loss of property, or were endangered, unless among people familiar with 

"Some of the burying-grounds are very well arranged, and well cared for. 
This was TiOticcd at Chitanda, and more particularly at a village on the 
southern shore of the fine harbour at Cape Maclcar. Wide and neat paths 
were made in the burying-ground on its eastern and southern sides. A grand 
old lig-tree stood at the north-east corner, and its wide-.«prcading branches 
threw tlieir kindly shade on the last resting-place of the dead. Several other 
magnificent trees grew around the hallowed spot. Mounds were raised, as 
they are at homo, but all lay north and soutli, the heads appai-ently nortli. 
The graves of the sexes were distinguished by the various implements which 
the buried dead had used in their various eniploymcnts during life; but they 
were all broken, as if to be employed no more. A piece of fishing-net and a 
broken paddle told that a fisherman slept beneath that sod. Tlic graves of 
the women had the wooden mortar, and the heavy jjestle used in pounding 
the corn, and the basket in which the meal is sifted, while all had numerous 
broken calabashes, and pots arranged around them. The ideathat the future 
life is like the present does not appear to prevail; yet a banana-tree had been 
carefully planted at the head of several of the graves, and, if not merely for 
ornament, tlic fruit might be considered an ofl'cring to tliosc who still possess 
human tastes." 

As Livingstone pursued his explorations, he found, oji the northern part 
of the lake, that the people were more savage and lawless. Tiie Mazitu liv- 
ing on the highlands were accustomed suddenly to invade the villages on the 
plains, and pillage and destroy them. The travellers fell in with these peo- 
ple on more occasions tiian one, and liad several illustrations of their blood- 
thirsty character. There were numerous elephants on the borders of the lake, 
and liippopotami swarmed in the creeks and lagoons. On the 17lii of October, 
they were detained by a storm at the mouth of the Kaombe, and were visited 
by several men belonging to an Arab who had been fourteen years in the 
interior. They hud just brought down ivory, malachite, copper rings, and 
slaves, to exchange for elotli at the lake. The slave-trade was carried on at 
tlie lake with great vigour. Two enterprising Arabs had built a dliow, and 
were running her, crowded with slaves, regularly across the lake. They were 
infori\ied, on the best authority, tliat nineteen thousand slaves from the Xyassa 
coHiitry passed annually through tlie custom-Iiouse at Zanzibar 



Their exploration of Lake Nyassa extended from the 2nd of September 
to the 27th of October, 1861 ; and, as they had spent or lost most of their 
goods, they found it necessary to return to the ship. As they were descend- 
ing the Shire, they found a number of Manganja families who liad been 
driven from their homes by the Ajawa, concealed in tlie broad belt of papyrus 
round the lakelet Pamalombe. The papyrus grew so tliickly, that when beat 
down it supported their small temporary huts, though, wlicn they walked 
from one hut to another, it bent bencatli their feet. Between them and tlie 
land there was a dense and impenetrable forest of the papyrus, and no one 
passing by on the same side would ever have suspected that human beings 
lived tliere. A few miles below this small lake is the last of the great slave- 
crossings. At a i^lace called Movunguti, a young man came in great state to 
have a look at them. He walked under a large umbrella, and was followed 
by five young women gaily dressed. One carried his pipe ; another his bow 
and arrows; a third his battle-axe; a fourth one of his robes, while the last 
was ready to take his umbrella when he felt tired, lie sat and looked at tlie 
strangers for a few minutes, the young ladies kneeling behind him, and then 
retired. Opposite to this place, Livingstone had met on his first trip a middle- 
aged woman of considerable intelligence, from whom he received his first 
definite information concerning Lake Nyassa. She was the only Manganja 
woman he had ever met who was ashamed of wearing \k\Q pdele^ or lip-ring. 
Wlien they left the river, to avoid the cataracts, crowds of carriers offered 
their services to convey the boat and their baggage. They found that the vil- 
lage at the foot of the cataracts had increased in size and prosperity since 
they passed it on their way up. They could not understand this, until tliey 
discovered that the place had become a crossing for the slaves whom the Por- 
tuguese agents were carrying to Tette, because they were afraid to take them 
across nearer to where the ship lay, about seven miles off. 

The party reached the ship on the 8tli of November, 1861, in a weak 
condition, having suffered mucli from hunger. The next day heavy rains 
began, and continued several days, so that the river rose rapidly, and became 
highly discoloured. On the 14th, Bishop Mackenzie came down to the ship, 
with some of the "Pioneer's" men who had been left at Magomero for the 
benefit of their health ; and on the same day Livingstone and he parted, 
never to meet on earth again. The rains now ceased, and tlie river fell, even 
more rapidly than it had risen. Twenty miles below Chibisa's, a shoal im- 
peded their further progress, and they had to remain there five weeks, till 
the permanent rise of tlie river. Here, the first death occurred in the expedi- 
tion. Towards the close of December, the rains became pretty general, and 
by the beginning of January, 1862, the Shire was in flood. On the 11th of 
January, they entered the Zambesi, and steamed down towards the coast, 
taking the side on which they had come up ; but, as it sometimes does, the 


cliiinncl had been changed to the other side during the summer, and they soon 
grounded. At length, they anchored at the Great Luabo moutli of the 
Zambesi; choosing this spot, because wood was much more easily obtained 
there than at the Kongone. On the 30th, II.M.S. "Gorgon" arrived, towing 
the brig which brought Mrs. Livingstone, Miss Mackenzie, and Mrs. Burrup ; 
the former had come out to join her husband, while the others were on 
their way to join their friends at Magomero, where they arrived, as wo have 
already seen, too late to see their friends alive. The brig also brought the 
twenty-four sections of a new iron steamer intended for the navigation of 
Lake Nyassa. 

The "Pioneer" steamed up the river with the party, and a portion of 
the sections of the newly-arrived steamer, on the 10th of February; but her 
progress was so distressingly slow, in consequence of the current, and the 
machinery having been allowed to get out of order, that Livingstone and his 
friends determined to land and put the sections of the "Lady Nyassa" — the 
name given to the new steamer — together at Shupanga, while Captain Wilson 
and others went forward with the mission party in the gig of the "Gorgon." 
Captain Wilson arrived at Shupanga on the 11th of March ; on the luth, the 
"Pioneer" .steamed with the gallant officers down to the Kongone; and on 
April the 4th, he left for the Cape in command of his ship, taking all, e.xcept 
one of the mission party, who had come with him in January. 

During Livingstone's subsequent detention at Shupanga, ho proceeded 
as far up the Shire as the Upper Cataracts, and saw wiiat wretchedness pre- 
vailed in the country. Instead of the dense population living in peace and 
plenty which he first found there, only a few scattered fragments were left, 
almost destroyed by famine and slave-hunting. Disease prevailed univer- 
sally. On the 7th of April, there was only one man in connection with the 
expedition fit for duty. About the middle of the month, Mrs. Livingstone was 
prostrated by fever; and notwithstanding that she received every attention 
which afl'ection and skill could render, she died on the 27th, and was buried 
on the following day under the shade of a great baobab-tree, the Rev. James 
Stewart, a minister of the Free Church of Scotland, reading the burial service. 
The brave seamen of the " Gorgon" mounted guard for several nights over 
her last resting-place. There she quietly sleep.'*, waiting the morning of the 
resurrection to life eternal. 

The "Pioneer" made several trips to the Kongone, and returned with 
the last load of the " Lady Nyassa " on the 12th of June. On the 23rd, the 
new steamer, having been put together, was launched in the presence of a 
large asscmbhigc of natives, who had come from far and near to witness the 
sight. They could not bilitve that a ship of ircn would Hoat, and when they 
saw her glide gracefully into the water, and float like one of their own canoes, 
their astonishment was unbounded. The figure-head, which was the head 


and bust of a female, was regarded by tlicm as a woiulcrful work of art. As 
it would be impossible to sail up the river until December, Livingstone and 
his friends proceeded in the " Pioneer" to Jolianna, to obtain a supply of 
provisions and other requisites, and some oxen to carry the sections of the 
" Lady Nyassa " past the Murchison Cataracts. Mr. Lumlcy, IL M. Consul 
at Jolianna, did all in his power to further their views, and gave them six of 
his own ti-ained oxen from his sugar plantation. On leaving Johanna and 
their oxen for a time, H. M, S. " Orestes " towed them thence to the mouth 
of the Rovuma, at the beginning of September. Livingstone was anxious to 
explore this river, as he was still of opinion that a better way to Lake Nyassa 
might be found by ascending it. His hopes, however, were doomed to dis- 
appointment. It was found to contain a smaller volume of water than many 
of the tributaries of the Zambesi. Shallows were numerous; and ninety miles 
from its mouth, a series of cataracts arrested the explorers, and there was 
nothing for it but to return. 

In the following letter to Sir Roderick Murchison, Livingstone gives an ' 
interesting account of the Rovuma, and the difficulties connected with its 
navigation: — "The bed of the river is about three-quarters of a mile wide. 
It is flanked by a well-wooded table-land, which looks like ranges of hills, 
five hundred feet high. Sometimes the spvu-s of the highland come close to 
the water, but generally there is a mile of level alluvial soil between them 
and the bank. So few people appeared at first, it looked like a ' land to let;' 
but, having walked up the edge of the i^lateau, considerable cultivation was 
met with, though, to make a garden, a great mass of brushwood must be 
cleared away. The women and children tied ; but calling to a man not to 
be afraid, he asked if I had any objection to 'liquor with him,' and brought a 
CUJ3 of native beer. There are many new trees on the slo2;)cs, i^lenty of ebony 
in some j^laces, and thickets of brushwood. The whole scenery had a light- 
gray appearance, dotted over with masses of green trees, which precede the 
others in putting on new foliage, for this may be called our winter. Other 
trees showed their young leaves brownish-red, but soon all will be gloriously 
green. Further n-p we came to numerous villages, perched on sandbanks in 
the river. They had villages on shore, too, and plenty of grain stored away 
in the woods. They did not fear for their victuals, but were afraid of being 
stolen themselves. We joassed through them all right, civilly declining an 
invitation to land at a village wliere two human heads had been cut off. A 
lot of these river-pilots then followed us, till there was only a narrow passage 
under a high bank, and there let drive their arrows at us. We stopped and 
expostulated with them for a long time, then got them to one of the boats, 
and explained to them how easily we could drive them off with our rifles and 
revolvers, but we wished to be friends, and gave about thirty yards of calico 
in presents in proof of friendship. All this time we were within forty yards 

THE ROW MA. 317 

of a considerable number of them, armed with muskets and bows, on the liigli 

" On parting, as we thought, on friendly terms, and moving on, we 
received a volley of musket-balls and arrows, four bullet-holes being made in 
my sail; but finding that we, instead of running away, returned the fire, 
tlicy took to their heels, and left tlic conviction that these are the border 
ruffians who at various i^oints 2)rcseiit obstacles to African exploration — men- 
stealers, in fact, who care no more for human life than that respectable party 
in London who stuffed the ' Pioneer's ' life-buoys with old straw instead of 
cork. It was sore against the grain to pay away that calico; it was sub- 
mitting to be robbed for the sake of i:)eace. It camiot be called 'black mail, 
for that implies the rendering of imjjortant service by Arabs; nor is it 'custom 
dues.' It is robbery perpetrated by any one who has a traveller or trader in 
liis power, and, when tamely submitted to, increases in amount till wood, 
water, grass, and every conceivable subject of offence, is made occasion for a 
fine. On our return we passed quietly through them all, and j^robably the 
next English boat will be respected. Beyond these Makonde all were friendly 
and civil, laying down their arms before they came near us. Much trade is 
carried on by means of canoes, and we had the comiiany of seven of these 
small craft for three days. They bring rice and grain down to purchase salt. 
Wlicn about sixty miles up, the table-land mentioned above retires, and we 
have an immense plain, with detached granite rocks and hills dotted over. 
Some rocks tlien a})pear in the river, and at last, at our turning-point, the 
bed is all rocky masses, four or five feet high, with the water rushing through 
by numerous channels. The canoes go througli with ease, and we might 
have taken the boats up also, but we were told that further up the channels 
were nnich narrower, and there was a high degree of probability tliat we 
should get them smashed in coming down. 

" We were on part of the slave-route from the Lake Nyassa to Quiloa 
(Ivilwa), about thirty miles below the station of Ndonde, where that ruute 
(grosses the liovuma, and a little further from the coniluence of the Lieude, 
which, arising from the hill on the east of the Lake Nyassa, flows into the 
Rovuma It is said to be very large, with reeds and aquatic plants growing 
in it, but at this time only ankle-deep. It contains no rocks till near its 
sources on the mountains, and between it and the lake the distance is reported 
to require between two and three days. At the cataracts, where we turned, 
there is no rock on the shore, as on tlie Zambesi, at Kebrabasa, and Mur- 
chison's Cataracts. The land is perfectly smootli, and, as far as we could sec, 
the country has the same flat appearance, with only a few detached iiilI.-». 
The tsetse is met with all along the liovuma, and the people have no cattle 
in consequence. Tliey produce largo quantities of oil-yielding seeds, as the 
sesame, or gcrzclin, and have hives placed on the trees every few miles. Wo 


never saw ebony of equal size to what we met on tliis river ; and as to its 
navigability, as the mark at which water stands for many months is three 
feet above what it is now, and it is now said to be a cubit lower than usual, 
I have no doubt that a vessel, drawing when loaded about eighteen inches, 
would run with ease during many months of the year. Should English trade 
be established on the Lake Nyassa, Englishmen will make this their outlet 
rather than pay dues to the Portuguese. 

" We return to put our ships on Nyassa by the Sliire, because there we 
have the friendship of all the people, except that of tlie slave-hunters. Form- 
ei'ly we found the Shire people far more hostile than are the Makonde of 
Rovuma; but now they have confidence in us, and we in them. To leave 
them now would be to open the country for tlie slave-hunters to pursue their 
calling therein, and we should be obliged to go through the whole process of 
gaining a people's confidence again. It may seem to some persons weak to 
feel a chord vibrating to the dust of her who rests on the banks of the Zam- 
besi, and thinking that the path thereby is consecrated by her remains. We 
go back to Johanna and Zambesi in a few da)^s. Kind regards to Lady Mur- 
chison, and believe me ever affectionately j'ours." 

Livingstone and his companions returned to the " Pioneer" on the 9th 
of October, and put to sea on the 18th. They touched at Johanna, obtained 
a crew of Johanna men, and their oxen, and sailed for the Zambesi. TJieir 
fuel failed, however, before they reached it, and they had to run into Killi- 
mane for wood. About the end of November, they entered the Zambesi, and 
found it unusually low, so that they did not go up to Shupanga till the 19th 
of December. In January, 1863, the "Pioneer" steamed up the Sliire, with 
the " Lady Nyassa" in tow, and they soon came upon traces of the whole- 
sale ravages of the notorious and cruel Mariano. " The survivors of a small 
hamlet, at the foot of Morambala, were in a state of starvation, having lost 
their food by one of his marauding parties. The women were in the fields 
collecting insects, roots, wild fruits, and whatever could be eaten, in order to 
drag on their lives, if possible, till the next crop should be ripe. Two canoes 
passed them, that had been robbed by Mariano's band of everything they had 
in them ; the owners were gathering palm-nuts for their subsistence. They 
wore palm-leaf aprons, as the robbers had stripped them of their clothing and 
ornaments. Dead bodies floated past them daily, and in the morning the 
paddles had to be cleared of corpses, caught by the floats during the night. 
For scores of miles the entire population of the valley was swejjt away by 
this savage Mariano, the great Portuguese slave-agent. It made the heart 
ache to see the wide-spread desolation ; the river-banks, once so populous, all 
silent ; the villages burnt down, and an oppressive stillness reigning where 
formerly crowds of eager sellers appeaired with the various products of their 
industry. Here and there might be seen, on the bank, a small dreary deserted 


shed, where had sat, day after day, a starving fisherman, until the rising 
waters drove tlie fish from their wonted haunts, and left him to die. Tingane 
nad been defeated; his jjeoplo had been killed, kidnapped, and forced to flee 
from their villages. There Avere a few wretched survivors in one village ; 
but the majority of the population was dead. The sight and smell of dead 
bodies was everywhere. Many skeletons lay beside the path where, in their 
weakness, they had fallen and expired. Ghastly living forms of boys and 
girls, Avitli dull, dead eyes, were crouching beside some of the huts. A few 
more miserable days of their terrible hunger, and they would be with the 

During their detention on the shallow j)art of the river in March, Mr. 
Thornton, who had left them in 1859, to join Baron van der Decken in a sur- 
vey of the Kilmanjaro mountains, rejoined them. He had assisted in the 
ascent of the highest member of this mountain-range to a height of fourteen 
thousand feet, discovering at the same time that the height above the level 
of the sea of the highest j^eak, was twenty thousand feet. These mountains, 
above eight thousand feet, are covered with perpetual snow. Mr. Thornton's pre- 
sent mission was to examine the geology of the district in the neighbourhood 
of the cataracts; but, before he had well begun his arduous labours, he was 
attacked with fever and dysentery, which terminated fatally on the 21st of 
April, 1863. He was buried on the 22nd, near a large tree, on the right 
bank of the Shire, about five hundred yards from the lowest of the Murchison 

Livingstone, believing that, if it were possible to get a steamer on Lake 
Nyassa, he could put a check on the slavers from the east coast, unscrewed 
the "Lady Nyassa" at a livulet just below the first cataract, and began to 
make a road over the tliirty or forty miles of land portage, by which to carry 
her up piecemeal. While they were busy making this road. Dr. Kirk and 
Mr. Charles Livingstone, after repeated attacks of fever and dysentery, were 
compelled to leave for England ; the noble leader himself still remaining at 
his post, though he also had had a severe attack of fever. After a few 
miles of road were comjileted, they resolved to seek provisions by going in a 
boat up the Shire, above tlie cataracts, to the tribes at the foot of Lake 
Nyassa, who were not vet assailed by the Ajawa. This attempt, however, 
failed. A striking instance of the wonderful power of the human constitu- 
tion to repair itself came at this time under their notice. Ou the 'Jthof June, 
a canoe came floating down empty, and soon after a woman was seen swim- 
ming near the other side, about two hundred yards distant. The native crew 
manned the boat, and rescued her ; when brought on board, she was fouml 
to have an arrow-head, eight or ten inches lung, in her back, below the ribs, 
and slanting ujt through the diaphragm and left lung, towards the heart — she 
had been shot fr^m behind, stooping. Air was coming out of the wound. 


unci, there being but an inch of the baibcJ arrow-head visible, it was tliought 
better not to run the risk of her dying under the operation needful for its 
removal. She was therefore carried to her hut. Ikit one of her relatives 
immediately cut out the arrow and jiart of the lung; and she not only be- 
•camc well, but strong. On the 1st of July, they heard the phenomenon, 
which Moflat and other travellers have noticed, of thunder with a clear sky. 
That night several loud peals of thunder awoke them; the moon was sliiiiing 
brightly, and not a cloud to be seen. All the natives remarked on the clear- 
ness of the sky at the time, and next morning, they said, " We thought it 
was God." 

The following day, on Livingstone's return to the "Pioneer" from the 
unsuccessful attempt to get to the lake, he found a despatch from E irl 
Kusscll, containing instructions for the withdrawal of the expedition. As it 
was impossible to take the "Pioneer" down to the sea till the Hoods of 
December, he determined again on a journey to the neighbourhood of Lake 
Nyassa, selecting five of the Makololo men, who had settled near Ciiibisas's, 
and several of the Johanna men and natives on the spot, making in all twenty 
native assistants, to accompany him. In attempting to ascend the cataracts, 
one of the boats, with valuable stores in it, was lost, through the foolish con- 
duct of some of the Zambesi men, who were desirous of showing that they 
could manage her better than the Makololo. As a punishment, these Zambesi 
men were sent back to the ship for provisions, cloth, and beads ; and on their 
return had to carry, during the eiTsuing journey, as heavy loads as they could. 

Livingstone resolved to go on foot ; and on the 19th of August, he and 
his companions were fairly on the march. His object was to get away to the 
N. N. W., proceed parallel with the lake, but at a considerable distance west 
of it; visit Lake Moelo, and collect further information about the slave-trade. 
They passed through a tract of country' covered with mopane trees, where 
the hard-baked soil refused to let the usual thick crops of grass grow. 
Many flowers were in blossom along their path ; the euphorbia, baobab, and 
caparidacoous trees, were in full bloom. On the 2Gth, they had attained a con- 
siderable altitude, " as was evident from the change in the vegetation. The 
masuko-tree, with its large hard leaves, never met with in the lowlands, was 
here covered with unripe fruit — fine rhododendrons — the trees (Coesalplnoic}, 
with pinnated leaves, from which bark cloth is made — tho molompi (Ptcro- 
carpus), which, when wounded, exudes large quantities of a red juice, so 
astringent that it might answer the purpose of kino, and furnishes a wood as 
elastic and \vj\\\. as ash, from which the native paddles are made. These 
trees, with everlasting flowers, shaped like daisies and ferns, betokened an ele- 
vated habitat, and the boiling-point of water showed that their altitude was 
two thousand five hundred feet above the sea." As they pursued their 
way they came close u^J to a range of mountains, the most prominent peak 



of which was a great, bare, rounded block of granite. Far to tlieir right 
extended a long green wooded country, rising gradually up to a ridge, orna- 
mented with several detached mountains, which bounded the Shire vallev. 
To the north, in front of them, lay a valley thirty miles in length, with 
combinations of open f<M'est, sloping woodland, grassy lawns, and massive 
clumps of dark grass foliage along the running streams, that formed as beau- 
tiful a landscape as could be seen on the Thames. 

The travellers were well received, after their intentions were made known. 
In many places they were at first received with coldness, and the inhabitants 
were in daily fear of a slave-stealing raid being made upon them, and natu- 
rally looked with suspicion on an armed party, headed by a white man ; but, 
as tliey proceeded, the great bulk of the inhabitants of the districts through 
which they passed showed them great kindness. Again and again Living- 
stone had proofs, both in what he saw and what he heard, that the native 
tribes in the interior, who have not suffered from the introduction of the slave- 
trade, are comparatively industrious and happy. It was a pleasant sight to 
.see men, women, and children, preparing the ground for their crops; or clear- 
ing the crojis of weeds, which were carefully gathered and burned, as in Eng- 
land ; or grinding their corn in the stone mill, which " consists of a block of 
granite, or mica schist, fifteen or eighteen inches square, and four or six inches 
•thick, Avith a piece of quartz or other hard rock, about the size of half a brick, 
one side of which has a coarse surface, and fits into a concave hollow in the 
large and stationary stone. The work-woman kneeling, grasps this u])pcr 
stone with both hands, and works it backwards and forwards in the hollow 
of the lower stone, in the same way as a baker manipulates his dough, when 
pressing and pushing it from him. The weight of the person is brought to 
bear on the moveable stone ; and while it is pressed and pushed forwards and 
backwards, one hand supplies every now and then a little grain, to be thus 
bruised, and then ground, in the lower stone, which is jdaccd on the slope, so 
that the meal, when ground, falls on to a skin or mat spread for the purpose. 
Before being ground, the corn is pounded in a large wooden mortar, exactly 
similar to the method of the ancient Egyptians. The pestle is about six feet 
long, and four inches in thickness. By this process the husk is removed from 
the grain." 

The greatest luxury with the people was beer, of which they drank largely, 
often inviting their neighbours to visit them, and share in their jollification. 
A connnon mode of praising ihn cxcelleucy of the beer was to say that the 
taste reached right to the back of the neck. The laugh of the women was 
brimful of mirth — no simpering ?mile, nor senseless loud guflaw, but a merry, 
ringing laugli, the sound of which did the heart good. If, at his first intro- 
duction to a chief, Livingstone observed a joyous twinkle of the eye accom- 
pany his laugh, he always set him down as a good fellow, and was never dis- 



appointed in him afterwards. Everywhere he was struck with little touches 
of human nature, which told him that blacks and whites, in their natural 
ways, were very much the same. Sleeping outside a hut, but near enough to 
hear Avhat passed in the interior of it, he heard a native woman commence to 
grind in the dark, about two o'clock in tlie morning. " Ma," said her little 
daugliter, "why grind in the dark?" After telling her to go to sleep, she 
said, " I grind meal to buy a cloth from the strangers, which will make you 
a little lady." 

The jnirty reached Kota-kota Bay on tlie 10th of September. "At Kota- 
kota Bay," says Livingstone, in an account of his journey which he wrote to 
Sir Roderick Murchison, "we found two Arab traders busily engaged in 
transporting slaves across the lake by means of their boats; they were also 
building a dhow to sujiply the place of one which was said to have been 
Avrecked. These men said that they had now fifteen hundred souls in their 
village, and we saw tens of thousands of people in the vicinity who had fled 
thither for jjrotectioii. Every disturbance amongst the native ti-ibes benefits 
the slave-trader. They were paying one fathom of calico, value one shilling, 
for a boy, and two fathoms for a good-looking girl. Yet, profitable as it may 
seem, the purchase of slaves would not jjay, were it not foi' the value of their 
services as carriers of the ivory conveyed to the coast by the merchants. A 
trader with twenty slaves has to expend at least the price of one per day 
for their sustenance; it is the joint ivory and slave-trade which alone renders 
the speculation profitable. It was the knowledge that I was Avorking towards 
undermining the slave-trade of Mozambique and Iboe by buying up the ivoiy, 
that caused all their obstructive jDOVver. I trust that operations in the interior 
under a more able leader, will not be lost sight of, for these will do more to 
stop the slave-trade than all the cruisers on the ocean. 

"Kota-kota Bay, which is formed by a sandy spit running out and pro- 
tecting the harbour from the east wind, is the crossing-place for nearly all the 
slaves that go to Kilvva, Iboe, and Mozambique. A few are taken down to 
the end of the lake, and for cheajmess cross the Shire ; but at Kota-kota lies 
the great slave-route to Katanga, Cazembe, &c. The Babisa are the principal 
traders; the Mauganja are the cultivators of the soil. The Arabs were very 
civil when we arrived, and came forth to meet us, and presented us with rice, 
meal, and sugar-cane. Amongst other presents they made us was a j^iece of 

"After leaving Kota-kota, we proceeded due west. In three days we 
ascended the plateau, the eastern side of which has the appearance of a i-ange 
of mountains. The long ascent, adorned with hill and dale and running 
streams, fringed with evergreen trees, was very beautiful to the eye, but the 
steejj walk was toilsome, causing us to halt frequently to take breath. The 
heights have a delicious but peculiarly piercing air ; it seemed to go through 


us. Five Slmpanga men, who had been accustomed all their lives to the 
malaria of the Zambesi Delta, were quite prostrated by that whicli, to mc, was 
exhilarating and bracing-. We travelled about ninety miles due west on the 
great Babisa, Katanga, and Cazembe slave-route, and then turned to the 
north-west. Tlie country is level, but the boiling-point showed a slope in the 
direction we were going. The edge of the plateau is three thousand four hun- 
dred and forty feet above the sea-level. 

" As we were travelling in the direction whence a great deal of ivory is 
drawn by the traders on the slave-route, hindrances of various kinds were put 
in our way. The European food we had brought with us was expended ; the 
people refused to sell us food, and dysentery came back on us in force. 
Moreover, our time was now expired. I was under explicit orders not to 
undertake any long journey, but to have the " Pioneer" down to the sea by 
the earliest flood. As the steward and myself were obliged to try our best 
during the limited time at our disposal, it may be worth mentioning that we 
travelled six hundred and sixty geographical miles in fifty-five travelling 
days, averaging twelve miles per day in straight lines. The actual distance 
along the wavy, uj)-and-down paths we had travelled, was of course much 
greater. The new leaves on the trees of the j^lateau were coming out fresh and 
green, and of various other hues, when we were there; and on reaching the 
ship, on the 31st of October, we found all, except the evergreen ones by 
streams, as bare of leaves as in mid-winter." 

On their arrival at the ship, they were delighted and thankful to find all 
those whom they had left in her in good health. The steward, after having 
performed his part in the march right bravel}', rejoined his comrades stronger 
than he had ever been before. The first fortnight after their return to the 
ship Avas cm])loved in resting. The muscles of their limbs were as hard as 
boards, and not an ounce of fat existed on any part of the body. About 
the middle of December, the}' heard that Bishop Tozer, who had come out 
as Bishop Mackenzie's successor, had determined to leave the country. In a 
letter to Admiral "Washington, Livingstone thus refers to the matter: — "Tiie 
Mission of the Universities has been a sore disappointment to me, but on 
public grounds alone, for it formed no part of my expedition. Before I left 
the Zambesi, I heard from Bishop Tozer, the successor to Bishop Mackenzie, 
that ho had determined to leave the country as early in the present year 
(1804) as ])ossible. lie selected the top of an uninhabited mountain — Moram- 
bala, at the mouth of the Shire — for his mission-station. Fancy a mission- 
station on the top of Ben Nevis ! It is an isolated hill in the middle of a 
generally flat country ; consoqueiitly all the clouds collect around the summit, 
and the constant showers and fogs at certain times make the missionaries run, 
to avoid being drenched, into the huts. Unlike the lirst, the second party has 
been quite useless; they never went near any population that could bo taught, 


and arc now about to run awa}- altogether. Wishing to be strictly accurate 
as to the incredible fact of a missionary bishop without a flock, I made minute 
inquiry, and found that on the mountain there were three native huts at one 
spot, four at another, and nine at a third ; but none, except the first three, 
■within easy access of the station. Twenty-five boys whom we liberated, and 
gave to the late Bishop Mackenzie, were very unwillingly received by his 
successor, although without them he would have had no natives Avhatcver to 
teach. lie wished to abandon certain poor women and children who were 
attached to the mission by Bishop Mackenzie, but Mr. Waller refused to 
coni])ly with his proposal, and preferred to resign his connection with the 
mission. The Bishop is off before mo. I take the boys and children (forty 
in number) whom he wished to abandon, and send them myself to the Cape. 
Having once liberated them, I felt in honour bound to see them secure from 
a return into slaver}-, and am sure that the gentlemen who sent out the mis- 
sion would have done the same." 

On the lOtli of January, 18G4, the Shire suddenly rose several feet, and 
Livingstone started at once for f\ic ocean. In order to keep steerage way on 
the " Pioneer," they had to go quicker than the stream, and unfortunately 
carried away her rudder In passing suddenly round a bank. The delay re- 
quired for the repairs prevented their reaching Morambala till the 2nd of 
February. After a hurried visit to Sennn, they proceeded down to the mouth 
of the Zambesi, and were fortunate in meeting on the 13th with H.M.S. 
"Orestes." She was joined next day by H.M.S. "Ariel." The "Orestes" 
took the "Pioneer," and the "Ariel" the "Lady Nyassa" in tow, for Mozam- 
bique. During the voyage to Mozambique, they encountered a terrible 
storm; but through God's providence and good scanianshlj), they escaped 
without loss of life, or much damage. Captain Chapman of the "Ariel," 
and his officers, pronounced the "Lady Nyassa" to be the finest little sea- 
boat thev had ever seen. 

Tlic "Pioneer" was delivered over to the Government ofiicials at Mozam- 
bique; but Livingstone determined to proceed in the "Lady Nyassa" to 
Bombay, and sell her there. On the 16tli of April, they steamed out from 
jMozambique, and, the currents being in their favour, in a week they reached 
Zanzibar. On the 30th, they started for Bombay, a voyage of two thousand 
five hundred miles, which they acconqjlished in safety, arriving there on the 
13th of June. The heroic explorer himself acted as navigator, his crew 
consisting of three Europeans, seven native Z;imbesi men, and two boys. 
Considering that the three European members of his crew were laid aside for 
a month each, and his native Zambesi men had to be taught the duties of the 
ship, and that the "Lady Nyassa" was a tiny little craft, constructed for lake 
and river navigation, the feat of sailing her across tlie Indian Ocean was 
not the least marvellous of the many daiing undertakings Livingstone sue- 


ccssfully cnrricJ tliroui;li. WIicii tlioy steamed into the harbour of Bombay, 
the vessel was so small that no one noticed their arrival. Yet such was the 
modesty of the man, that tliis astounding feat in scaniansliip did not strike 
him as being anything wondci'ful. 

Writin;^' from Bomlwy to his friend Sir Roderick, lie speaks tlms of the 
voyage, and of his disappointment as to the recall of the expedition before 
greater results had been secured: — "We arrived at Bombay on the 13th inst., 
after a joassagc of forty-four days from Zanzibar. From Zanzibar wo ci'cj)t 
along the African coast, in order to profit by a current of at least a hundred 
miles a day. If Solomon's ships went as far south as Sofala, as some sup- 
pose, they could not have done it during the south-west monsoon against such 
a current. We went along beautifully till we got past the line; we then fell 
in with calms, which continued altogether for twenty-four days and a half. 
Tlie soa was as smooth as glass; and, as we had but one stoker, we could not 
steam more than nine or ten hours at a time. By patience and perseverance, 
we have, at length, accomplished our voyage of two thousand five hundred 
miles, but now I feel at as great a loss as ever. I came here to sell my 
steamer, but Avith this comes the idea of abandoning Africa before accom- 
plishing something against the slave-trade; the thought of it makes me feel 
as though I could not lie in peace in my grave, with all the evils I know so 
well going on unchecked. AVhat makes it doubly galling is, that while the 
policy of our Government has, to a very gratifying extent, been successful 
on the West coast, all eftbrts on the East coast have been rendered inclVectual 
by a scanty Portuguete convict population. The same measures have been 
in operation here, the same expense and the same dangers, the same heroic 
services have been performed by Iler Majesty's cruisers, and yet all in vain. 
The Zambesi country is to be shut up now more closely than ever, and, un- 
less we have an English settlement somewhere on the mainland, beyond the 
so-called dominions of the Portuguese, all repressive measures will continue 

"I would willingly have gone up some of the other rivers with my 
steamer, instead of coming here, but I had only three white men witli me — a 
stoker, a sailor, and a carpenter, and seven natives of the Zambesi. The 
stoker and the sailor had both severe attacks of illness on the way, and it 
would have been imprudent to have ascended an unexplored river so short- 
handed. Could I have entered the Juba, it would have been not so much to 
explore the river, as to set in train operations by merchants and others which 
sliould eventually work out the destruction of the slave-trade." 

Entrusting the two native boys, who were about sixteen years of age, and 
called respectively Wekotani and Chumah, to Dr. Wilson, of Bombay, to be 
educated, Livingstone left India, and arrivetl in England, in July, 18tU. lie 
devoted himself to the preparation of a narrative of his recent travels for 


the press, and to the consideration of plans for further efiforts to ameliorate 
the condition of the natives of Central Africa. He felt certain that no help 
could be calculated on from the Portuguese Government, which, in spite of 
the utter valuelcssness of its possessions on the east coast of Africa, seemed to 
wink at the devastation and depopulation of the country by slave dealers, 
and threw every obstacle in the way of any one anxious to acquire information 
regarding the tribes bordering on their territory, and the possible introduction 
of legitimate commerce amongst them. The only hope for Africa, as it ap- 
peared to him, was the action which an enlightened and aroused public opinion 
in this country would adopt and sustain. All who have paid any attention 
to the subject, and watched the course of events during the last few years, 
must concur in the sound judgment of the heroic traveller. For every mani- 
festation of the growth and quickening of principle in favour of universal 
freedom, without regard to country or race, we thank Him who has made of 
one blood all nations of the earth. 


Livingstone's Third Visit to Africa — Arrival at Zanzibar — Ee-asccnds the Tlovuma — 
Ilorrcrs of the Slave-Trader^ s Track — The Waiijau Coinitrjf and People — 
Lake Nyassa He-visited — Beaches the Loanrfwa — End of ISGG. 

ON Livingstone's arrival in England in 18G-1, the discoveries of Spcke and 
Grant were attracting universal interest ; and soon after, those of Baker 
strengthened the desire to know yet more of a country whicli liad for ages 
been a mystery to the civilised world, but which was gradually becoming 
more familiar. The centre of the vast African continent had been a great 
blank on the map ; it had been assumed to be a vast sandy desert ; but now, 
lakes, hill ranges, rivers, extensive and populous settlements, were fast filling 
the blank up. Livingstone's discoveries in the south, and those of his con- 
temporary explorers farther to the north, had proved beyond all dispute that 
the centre of Africa was peopled by tribes who were capable, if the abomin- 
able slave-trade was suppressed, and legitimate commerce with civilised 
nations introduced amongst them, of great mental, social, and religious ele- 

All the efforts of modern explorers, however, still left a vast tract of 
country of which little or nothing reliable was known. Some questioned 
Spoke's conclusion that he had traced the Nile to its great source, when he 
watched it flowing a noble stream from, the Victoria Nyanza Luke, and 
thought that Tanganyika, and not Nyanza, was the source of the mighty 
river. There was a general desire to know something of the unknown coun- 
try between lakes Tanganyika and Nyassa ; and all eyes turned to one nu^n 
as the man who bhould endeavour to unlock the secret. After his laborious 
exertions during the preceding six years, Livingstone naturally looked for- 
ward to a period of rest ; but henceforward there was to be no rest for him 
this side tlie grave. Sir Roderick Murchison waited upon him, to convey 
the opinion of the Royal Geographical Society, that another expedition ought 
to be sent into the heart of Africa to solve the problem of the water-shed 
between the Nyassa and the Tanganyika, and to ask him to recommend n 
suitable man to take such cxjiedition in charge. He recommended a man, 
who, however, when applied to, declined. On this gentleman's refusal, Sir 


Roderick prevailed on Livingstone himself to go. Two thousand pounds 
Avero subscribed for the expedition. Mr. Young, a friend of Livingstone's at 
College, furnislied one thousand ; the Government gave five hundred ; and 
the Royal Geographical Society subscribed a like sum. As Livingstone, when 
ho reached Bombay, sold the "Lady Nyassa" steamer, and placed tlic amount 
he recf^ived (two thousand pounds) in bank, to bo drawn upon by him for 
the expenses of the expedition, he actually subscribed one-half the entire sum 
he believed he had at his disposal at starting. Montlis after he had passed 
into the interior of Africa, the banker with whom he had deposited the money 
became bankrupt, and the whole sum was lost. Lord John Russell renewed 
Livingstone's appointment as II. M. Consul to the tribes in the interior of 
Africa, and tlms gave to his mission a semi-official character. 

Livingstone left England on the 4th of August, 1805, for Paris. From 
Paris he went to Bombay ; and, after a passage of twenty-three days from 
Bombay, arrived at Zanzibar on the 28th of January, 18GG. Visiting the 
slave-market there, he found about three hundred slaves, most of whom had 
been brought from Lake Nyassa and the Shire River. As they were hawked 
about for sale, their teeth were examined, the cloth around them was lifted 
uji to examine their lower limbs, and a stick thrown to a distance, tliat in 
fetching it they miglit exhibit their paces. After being detained for some 
time at Zanzibar, Livingstone started on the 19th of March, on board the 
'•Penguin," for the Rovuma River. He had with him thirty-six men, including 
Sepoys, Johaunas, Nassick boys, Shupangas, and Waiyaus. lie had also 
six camels, three buffaloes, and a calf, two mules, and four donkeys; and a 
dhow for the carriage of the animals. The spirit in which the great traveller 
set out may be learnt from the following entry in his diary, made on the day 
of departure : — " 19/A March. We stait this morning at 10. a.m. I trust that 
the Most High may prosi^er me in this work, granting me influence in the 
eyes of the heathen, and helping me to make my intercourse beneficial to 

They reached Rovuma Bay on the 22nd, but found it impossible to land 
there safely. The mouth of the river had quite changed from wliat it was 
when Livingstone first visited it. They went, therefore, to Mikindany, 
which lies only about twenty-five miles to the north of Rovuma, and is a 
good landing-place, and the finest port on the coast. Here the traveller and 
his party landed, and the " Penguin" left them. He found the people, who 
are chiefly half-caste Arabs, very civil. Under date of March 2Gth, he thus 
writes of the eflect of travel — African travel esijccially : — " Now that I am on 
the point of starting on another trip into Africa, I feel quite exhilarated; 
when one travels with the specific object of ameliorating the condition of the 
natives, every act becomes ennobled. Whether exchanging the customary 
civilities on arriving at a village, accepting a night's lodging, purcliasing food 

MJKL\I)Ai\Y. 520 

for tlic party, lusking for infonaation, or answcrinf^ polite African inquiries 
as to our objects in travelling', avc begin to spread a knowledge of that people 
by Avhose agency their land will yet become enlightened and freed from 
the slave-trade. The mere animal pleasure of ti'avelling in a wild unexplored" 
country is very great. When on lands of a couple of thousand feet elevation,, 
brisk exercise imparts elasticity to the muscles, fresh and healthy blood cir- 
culates through the brain, the mind works well, the eye is clear, the step 
is firm, and a day's exertion always makes the evening's repose thoroughly 
enjoyable. We liave usually also the stimulus of remote chances of danger, 
cither from beasts or men. Our sympathies arc drawn out towards our hum- 
ble hardy companions by a community of interests, and, it may be, of perils, 
which make us all friends. Nothing but the most pitiable i)uer!lity would 
lead any manly heart to make their inferiority a theme for self-exaltation; 
however, that is often done, as if with the vague idea that we can, by mag- 
nifying their deficiencies, demonstrate our immaculate perfections. The 
eflcct of travel on a man whose heart is in the right jjlace, is that the mind is 
made more self-reliant; it becomes more confident of its own resources — there 
is greater j^-esencc of mind. The body is soon well knit ; t