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1 






STARK'S 

GUIDE-BOOK AND HISTORY 



OF 



TRINIDAD 



INCLUDING 

TOBAGO, GRANADA, AND ST. VINCENT; ALSO A 

TRIP UP THE ORINOCO AND A DESCRIPTION 

OF THE GREAT VENEZUELAN 

PITCH LAKE 

CONTAINING 

A DESCRIPTION OF EVERYTHING RELATING TO 

THESE PLACES THAT WOULD BE OF INTEREST 

TO TOURISTS AND RESIDENTS 



iFullg Illustratelr 

WITH MAPS, ENGRAVINGS, AND PHOTO-PRINTS 

BY 

JAMES H. STARK 



BOSTON 

JAMES H. STARK, PUBLISHER 

31 Milk Street 

LONDON 
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & COMPANY, Limited 



Copyright, 1897 
By JAMES H. STARK 



SUmpton 3Pre8S 

Printers and Binders^ Norwood y Mass, 

IK S, A. 



PREFACE. 



nY object in writing this book is to bring to the 
notice of those unacquainted with Trinidad some 
of the many attractions to be found there, how to reach 
the island, its resources and productions, a brief history 
of its discovery and settlement, thus forming a complete 
index and guide for visitors and tourists to all points of 
interest in Trinidad. Some of the chapters were written 
in Trinidad, amid the beautiful scenes they describe. As 
for the rest, the author is under obligations to various 
works from which he obtained much valuable informa- 
tion, especially from "The History of Trinidad," by 
L. M. Frasier; "A Sketch of the Island of Trinidad," 
written for the Chicago World's Fair, by Henry J. Clark ; 
and the " Mirror Almanack " of Trinidad, and W. G. 
MacFarland. The author has also endeavored, by the 
aid of maps and numerous reproductions of photographs, 
to present the best illustrated work ever published on 
Trinidad. The photographs for this purpose were fur- 
nished by Felix Morin, W. A. Dunn, L. Placide & Co., 
and L. F. Sellier. 








CONTENTS. 



Chapter I. 



PAGB 



Discovery and settlement of Trinidad. — Discovered 
by Columbus. — Settlement by the Spaniards. — 
Captured by Sir Walter Raleigh. — Colonized by 
the French. — Conquered by the British. — Gen- 
eral Picton's Rule. — Governor Woodford. — Lord 
Harris* Rule. — Governor Hamilton ... 3 

Chapter II. 

How to reach Trinidad. — Cost of living. — Con- 
veyances. — Steamship lines. — Current money. — 
Cab regulations. — Fares by distance. — Fares 
by time. — Hotels and boarding-houses. — Cost 
of travelling . . . . . . .25 

Chapter III. 

Port-of-Spain. — Great fire of 1808. — Great fire of 
1895. — New buildings. — Streets and squares. — 
Governor's residence. — Botanical gardens. — 
Public buildings. — Borough council. — Public 
Library. — Victoria Institute and Museum. — The 
press. — Amusements and recreations . . > 3^ 



vi CONTENTS. 

Chapter IV. 

PAGB 

San Fernando. — St. Joseph. — Arima and Princes' 
town. — Description of the route. — Coolie 
silversmith. — Mud volcano . . . •54 

Chapter V. 

Inhabitants. — Aborigines. — Spanish and French. — 
Negroes. — Chinese and East Indians. — Intro- 
duction of Coolies. — Benefit of Coolie immigra- 
tion. — What would result from negro rule. — 
Peculiar characteristics of the East Indians. — Caste 
distinction. — Physical appearance of the East 
Indians. — Domestic life of the coolie. — Vene- 
zuelans ........ 70 

Chapter VI. 

Government. — Froude on home rule in Trinidad. — 
Negro rule in the United States .... 84 

Chapter VII. 

Climate and scenery. — Mountains and valleys. — 
Waterfalls 93 

Chapter VIII. 

Commerce and agriculture. — Sugar industry. — 
Cocoa plantations. — Opportunities for starting 
plantations. — Other industries . . - •103 



CONTENTS, vii 

Chapter IX. 

PAGE 

Pitch lake. — Description of the route. — Appear- 
ance of the lake. — Discovery of the Pitch lake. — 
Commercial value of the asphalt . . . • 1 1 5 

Chapter X. 

A trip up the Orinoco. — Description of the 
Orinoco — Ciudad Bolivar. — Venezuela. — Mac- 
areo river. — The Upper Orinoco. — Inhabitants. 
— Government . . . . . . .122 

Chapter XI. 

The great Venezuelan Pitch lake. — Its discovery 
and development. — How to reach there . .140 

Chapier XII. 

Tobago. — Settled by the English. — Description 
of the island. — Government. — Grenada. — St. 
George. — The Caribs. — Productions. — St. Vin- 
cent. — Kingston. — Volcano. — Carib war. — 
Defeat of the Caribs . . . . .151 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 



Harbor of Port-of-Spain . . . Frontispiece 

Columbus Statue, Columbus Square . Facing 5 

Avenue of Palms, . ** 9 

Residential Street, Port-of-Spain . . ** 13 

St. Ann's Road ** 17 

Private Residence ** 21 

Map showing Steamer Route . . . ** 27 

Port-of-Spain •* 33 

Colonial Hospital *♦ 37 

Brunswick Square ** 39 

Entrance to Governor's Residence . . ♦* 41 

Governor's Residence . . . . . »* 43 

Police Barrack *• 45 

Roman Catholic Cathedral . . . ** 47 

Trinity Church ** 49 

Entrance to Trinity Church . . . ** 53 

Entrance to Country Residence, Santa Cruz ** 55 

St. Joseph's ** 57 

Map of Trinidad . . . . . . ** 61 

High Street, San Fernando . . ** 65 

Newly Arrived Coolies . . . . «• 73 

Hindu Priests ** 77 



IX 



ILLUSTRA TI0N6, 



Coolie Belle 

Coolie Man and Wife .... 

Coolie Family 

Road and River of Caura . 

Blue Basin Waterfall .... 

Government Building .... 

Queen's Royal College 

Coolies in Cane Field .... 

Trinidad Pitch Lake — A Soft Spot . 

GUAYAGUAYARE OiL WeLLS 

Indian Woman, Macareo River . 

Carib Indian 

Indian Graves, Macareo River . 

Old Spanish Cathedral, Bolivar 

Lagoon in Rear of Bolivar . 

Principal Business Street, Bolivar 

Suburbs of Bolivar .... 

Map of Delta of the Orinoco 

Country Residence, Bolivar 

Shipping Pitch from the Deposit 

Terminus of Railway, Pitch Lake, Venezuela 

St. George, Grenada .... 

Fruits of Grenada .... 

St. Vincent 



PAGB 

Facing 79 
81 

83 

97 

99 

30 

35 
107 

117 

I2J 

123 
125 
127 
129 

131 

133 

135 
136 

139 

149 

159 
165 

167 



STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

AND 

HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 



CHAPTER I. 

DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF THE ISLAND. 

Trinidad is best known in the United States in 
connection with the asphalt used in paving the 
streets of nearly all the large cities of the country, 
which is obtained from the Pitch Lake in this 
island. Its name and location, however, have 
lately been confounded with that of the small, 
uninhabited, rocky island of Trinidade, off the 
coast of Brazil, since the controversy arose between 
that country and England concerning its ownership. 

Trinidad was discovered by Columbus on his 
third voyage of discovery. It was then he dis- 
covered the continent of America without knowing 
the fact, all his past discoveries having been islands. 

This lovely island is situated about io° north of 
the equator, between the 6 ist and Sid degrees, west 
longitude, in the southern part of the Caribbean 
Sea. It is only separated from the Venezuelan 
coast of South America bv the Gulf of Paria, and 
the narrow passages or channels of the Bocas. It 
is the largest of the British West India Islands, 



4 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

except Jamaica, being about fifty-five miles long 
and forty broad, with an area of 1,750 square miles 
of territory. 

DISCOVERY BY COLUMBUS. 

Trinity Sunday, in the year 1498, fell on the last 
day of July. On that day there was not more than 
one cask of sweet water remaining in each of the 
six leaky ships of Columbus. The parching heat 
had opened the seams of his vessels; they were 
momentarily in danger of sinking: and much need 
there was to steer to a harbor where they might be 
careened and recalked, where provisions might be 
procured and the water-casks might be refilled. 
The distress of the mariners was pitiful ; day after 
day had passed, and still no land appeared in sight. 
In his anxiety, the admiral made a vow to name 
the first country he should discover in honor of the 
Holy Trinity, if he were shown the blessed land 
that day. 

About mid-day a sailor at the mast-head of the 
admiral's own ship beheld dimly the summit of 
three mountains rising above the horizon. On 
nearer approach Columbus discovered that the 
three great hills were united at the base, thus 
figuring to his mind the " Three in One ; " he 
was reminded of his vow, and accordingly gave to 
the island the name of " La Trinidad," by which it 
is known until this day. The ships of Columbus 
entered the Gulf of Paria from the south, passing 
through the Serpents' Mouths, for so are called 
the channels between Trinidad and the mainland. 
Tarrying a few days at the island of the three 



AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD, 5 

mountains, the squadron sailed away through the 
Dragons' Mouths to the sea again, and Colon con- 
tinued on his voyage of discovery. Prior to this, 
the island had borne the Indian name of " lere," 
or land of humming birds. The natives held these 
little creatures in the greatest veneration, and would 
on no account allow them to be injured or de- 
stroyed. 

Since Columbus' day, many sea-faring heroes 
have entered the Gulf of Paria, but none of them 
half so grand and famous as the one-armed, one- 
eyed sailor-man who passed through Boca de 
Navios, on June 7, 1805, in the frigate Victory, 
one of a fleet of thirteen sail that had chased twenty- 
eight French and Spanish war-ships from the 
Straits of Gibraltar to the Caribbean Sea. 

SETTLEMENT BY THE SPANIARDS. 

" Had Nelson," says a writer, in prophetic 
strain, " found the hostile squadron under the lee 
of Trinidad, the mouths of the Orinoco would now 
be as famous in naval history as the Delta of the 
Nile." Not finding his enemies at Trinidad, he 
sought them at Martinique, whence they retreated 
like flying-fish before a hunting-shark. He had 
hoped to fight them where Rodney destroyed the 
fleet of Count de Grasse ; but the allied navy 
escaped to sea, and so he hunted them back to 
the Mediterranean, overtook them at Trafalgar, 
won a hundred monuments, and died, leaving 
England an all but broken-hearted nation. 

For more than thirty years after the discovery 
of the island, no formal attempt to take possession 



6 STAjRK'S guide BOOK 

of it by force of arms was made by Spain. About 
the end of that period, Don Antonio Sedeno, then 
holding the office of Royal Treasurer of Porto Rico, 
proceeded to Spain, and obtained a license for the 
conquest of Trinidad, the King at the same time 
appointing him, by letters patent. Governor and 
Captain-General of the island. 

Returning to Porto Rico, he completed his 
preparations, and sailed for Trinidad early in the 
year 1530. On their arrival, Sedeno and his fol- 
lowers were well received by the native Indians, 
whom he at first treated with consideration and 
justice, and so for a time all went well. Sedeno 
improved this short period of peace by building 
a fort, and otherwise preparing to defend himself 
and his followers against any treachery on the part 
of the Indians. From various causes, the Span- 
iards soon began to be harsh and exacting. This 
treatment the Indians resented, and on the Span- 
iards attempting to use force, they became exas- 
perated and fighting began — fighting which lasted 
all through the period of Sedeno's rule, and con- 
tinued intermittingly for many years after. Before 
long, his own followers also became discontented 
and rebellious, their insubordination amounting 
sometimes to open rebellion against his authority. 

After a precarious occupation of the island for 
a period of about ten years, during which he ex- 
perienced many vicissitudes of fortune, being often 
reduced to great straits and exposed to imminent 
danger, Sedeno died — poisoned, it is alleged, by a 
female slave — while on a visit to the neighboring 
mainland. From the death of Sedeno, in 1540, 



AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD. 7 

little or nothing of an authentic nature is known 
of the history of Trinidad until the arrival, in 1 584, 
of Don Antonio de Berrio y Oruna, an honest and 
upright man of great energy and firmness of char- 
acter. Don Antonio de Berrio, although holding 
no direct appointment from the Spanish Crown, 
appears to have considered that he had been 
specially appointed by the Captain-General of New 
Grenada (the famous Gonzalo Ximenes de Que- 
sada) to prosecute the search for, and conquest of, 
the fabled El Dorado. As this was believed to be 
situated in the province of Guiana, he had ample 
authority to select Trinidad as the base of his 
operations. With this object in view, he obtained 
reinforcements from Margarita and Cumana, and 
with their aid, succeeded in subduing many of the 
Indian tribes who had resisted his predecessor, and 
so secured a tolerably strong footing in the island. 

CAPTURED BY SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 

Finding that, from its situation on the shore of 
the Gulf of Paria, the town of Puerto de los His- 
panoles (Port-of-Spain) was constantly exposed to 
attacks from the corsairs who infested the Gulf, he 
decided to build another town some six miles in- 
land. The site chosen, on rising ground two miles 
above the junction of the St. Joseph and Caroni 
rivers, was well adapted for the purpose. To this 
town De Berrio gave the name of San Jose de 
Oruna, making it at the same time the capital, a 
position which it continued to hold till within a few 
years of the capture of the island by the British. 

For some years previous to this date and for 



8 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

many years afterwards, owing to the wide-spread 
opinion that El Dorado, with its golden city of 
Manoa, was to be found somewhere in the near 
vicinity of the great river Orinoco, many expedi- 
tions in search of this grand prize touched at 
Trinidad, and it was during the occupation of the 
island by De Berrio that one of these, commanded 
by Sir Walter Raleigh, entered the Gulf of Paria. 
Sir Walter had, in the previous year, sent out 
Captain Widdhon with the object of obtaining 
information respecting El Dorado. During his 
stay in the island, eight of his crew, who had been 
induced by the Indians to accompany them on a 
deer hunt, were never again heard of, the Indians 
alleging that they had been killed by a party of 
Spanish soldiers posted in ambush. Whatever 
representations Widdhon may have made to De 
Berrio, he does not appear to have taken any steps 
either to discover the murderers of his men or to 
bring them to punishment. But the sequel will 
show how soon the avenger appeared on the scene, 
and how savage and merciless was his retaliation. 
Sir Walter Raleigh entered the Gulf on the 2 2d 
of March, 1595, and soon after came to anchor 
off Puerto de los Hispanoles. De Berrio, who 
had received Captain Widdhon with every show of 
friendliness, and granted him permission to obtain 
the water and other supplies he stated he was in 
need of, extended to Sir Walter a most favorable 
reception. At the same time, it is evident that he 
suspected the intentions of the English, for he sent 
to Margarita and Cumana, asking for immediate 
reinforcements. Notwithstanding his favorable 



AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD. 9 

reception and his apparent good faith with the 
Spaniards, Sir Walter entered into secret commu- 
nication with the Indians, and after obtaining full 
information as to the route to San Jose (where 
De Berrio was then staying), the small number of 
soldiers in the island, and other matters, he decided 
to attack De Berrio and his town. Taking advan- 
tage of a favorable opportunity, he surprised the 
guard of Port-of-Spain in the evening, and, having 
put the soldiers to the sword, he sent forth Captain 
Colfield with sixty men to attack San Jose, follow- 
ing, himself soon after with forty more. The town 
was taken at daybreak, and set on fire at the request 
of the Indians, De Berrio being made prisoner 
while fighting bravely at the head of his men. 

Sir Walter then returned to Port-of-Spain, bring- 
ing with him De Berrio and one of his lieutenants 
as prisoners. In view of the plea that this other- 
wise totally unjustifiable attack was made in order 
to punish the Spaniards for the alleged murder, in 
the previous year, of the eight men of Widdhon's 
crew, it is only fair to state that Sir Walter admits 
himself that the only evidence he had against the 
Spaniards was that of an Indian Cacique, who was 
one of their bitterest enemies, and who, at the risk 
of his life, went on board Raleigh's vessel in order 
to incite him to attack them. Raleigh doubtless 
felt the weakness of any plea resting on such evi- 
dence, and he therefore fell back on the necessities 
of his position. 

He says : " To depart 400 or 500 miles from my 
ships, and leave a garrison in my back, interested 
in the same enterprise, which daily expected 



lo STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

supplies from Spain, I should have savoured very 
much of an ass/' Having, as we have seen, sum- 
marily disposed of the "garrison in his back," 
Raleigh now set out on what was the real object 
of the expedition, namely, the search for the 
El Dorado. He took De Berrio with him, doubt- 
less in the hope of obtaining from him valuable 
information in regard to the wonderful land of 
gold, in the existence of which they both seem to 
have had implicit faith. This expedition, like all 
the others, ended in failure, and Sir Walter with 
his prisoners returned to Trinidad. 

When Sir Walter left the island to return to 
Europe, De Berrio was released, and again re- 
sumed the governorship. Being, however, still 
firmly bent on the discovery and conquest of 
El Dorado, he decided to place one of his lieu- 
tenants in command of Trinidad, and to take up 
his residence at San Tome on the mainland, as 
being a better position from which to prosecute 
his life-long purpose. After many failures and 
misfortunes, there he died — disappointed, if not 
broken-hearted. 

The belief in El Dorado, with its golden city of 
Manoa, does not seem to have been much affected 
by the failure of Raleigh or the death of the brave 
but unfortunate De Berrio. Other expeditions 
followed, and towards the end of 1617 Sir Walter 
Raleigh again returned to Trinidad. Entering the 
Gulf by the Serpents' Mouth (Boca de la Sierpe) or 
southern passage, he brought his ships to anchor 
under Punta de los Gallos at the southwestern 
extremity of the island, from which an expedition 



AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD. 1 1 

under command of Sir Lawrence Keymis was 
despatched to attack the Spanish town of San 
Tome. The town was taken by storm after a 
stubborn resistance, and the expedition ascended 
the Orinoco, in the hope of finding provisions and 
discovering gold. Finding neither, they rowed 
down the river and returned to Trinidad, where 
Sir Lawrence Keymis was so scornfully received 
by Raleigh that he committed suicide. With the 
failure of this expedition and its tragic sequel, the 
long-continued search for El Dorado may be said 
to have come to an end, and the whole story of 
its existence was in a few years relegated to the 
realm of myths and fables. 

Strange though it may appear, this phantom 
land of golden promise which had been the day- 
dream of Sir Walter Raleigh and the many other 
adventurous spirits of the sixteenth century, and 
which, like a golden "will-o'-the-wisp," had allured 
so many to endure- hardship, danger, and often 
cruel death in its pursuit, has, in our days, proved 
to be a reality. The Indians' stories of the lake 
with the golden sands, on whose banks stood the 
fabled city of Manoa with its untold stores of gold, 
and which the Spaniards located in the province 
of Guiana, have received singular confirmation by 
the discovery some thirty years ago of the rich 
and valuable gold mines of Caratal in Venezuelan 
Guiana, by the subsequent discovery of gold in 
both Dutch and French Guiana, and again, quite 
recently, by the discovery in British Guiana of 
a gold district which promises to equal, if not 
exceed, the famous Caratal district in its wealth 
of precious metal. 



12 STAI^K^S GUIDE BOOK 

The history of Trinidad, during the two hundred 
years that elapsed between the death of De Berrio 
and its capture by the British, presents few features 
likely to prove interesting to general readers. 

In addition to being successively attacked by 
the Dutch in 1640, the British under Sir Tobias 
Bridges in 1672, and the French under Marquis 
de Maintenon in 1677, the island suffered severely 
from the frequent raids of roving adventurers, 
who, although described as buccaneers, were in 
reaUty little better than pirates. Although Trini- 
dad as a Spanish colony was so unfortunate, and 
its population had so dwindled that, in 1773, there 
were in the whole island only 162 male adults, 
exclusive of slaves and Indians, and the total 
revenue was ^221, or less than 48 pounds sterling. 

COLONIZED BY THE FRENCH. 

In 1778, a French colonist resident in Grenada, 
M. Roume de St. Laurent, paid a visit to Trini- 
dad, and was so struck with its many and great 
natural resources, and the extraordinary fertility 
of its soil, that he decided not only to settle in the 
island himself, of which he gave an earnest by the 
immediate purchase of land at Diego Martin, but 
to do all he could to induce his countrymen and 
others to follow his example. He drew up a 
liberal scheme of colonization, which, after many 
difficulties and delays, was approved by the Court 
of Spain; and a new Cedula of Colonization was 
signed at Madrid on the 24th of November, 1783. 

This Cedula was brought to Trinidad by one 
who was destined to be the last of its long line 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. . 13 

of Spanish Governors. Don Jose Maria Chacon, 
appointed some rime previously Governor and 
Captain General of the island, arrived in Septem- 
ber, 1784. He was, to use the words of another, 
" a man of ability and educarion, honorable, philan- 
thropic and intelligent, but wanting in decision 
and strength of mmd." He spoke both French 
and English, and was, in all respects, specially well 
qualified to carry into execution the scheme of St. 
Laurent; and he lost no rime in doing so. The 
Cedula, translated into French and English, was 
published soon after his arrival, and copies circulated 
in the neighboring English and French colonies. 

The real colonizarion of the island dates from 
the promulgarion of this Cedula, the success of 
which is shown by the fact that, during the five 
years, 1784— 1789, the popularion had increased 
from 1,000 to 10,422. The large majority of 
these immigrants were of French descent, so that 
the island, although still a Spanish possession, 
soon became virtually French in popularion. A 
further increase to the French element in the popu- 
lation took place in 1793, due to a considerable 
immigration from San Domingo, caused by the 
terrible events that occurred there in June of that 
year. These new comers, if not all Royalists fur 
sang^ were all staunch upholders of Monarchical 
government. A year or two later, on the capture 
of the French islands by the British forces, another 
addition to the French element was caused by the 
arrival of immigrants from those islands, nearly all 
of whom were Republicans of the most pronounced 
character. And thus it happened that a colony 



14 • STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

which had never belonged to France became largely 
peopled by persons of French descent, many of 
them holding diametrically opposite political views. 
To this hostility of opinions may be traced much 
of the turbulence and excitement, and many of 
the actual disturbances, which marked the closing 
years of the British rule in the island. 

Governor Chacon reorganized the whole adminis- 
tration of the colony. Royal decrees were issued, 
reducing the duties on various kinds of goods, 
and making permanent privileges which had been 
granted for a limited time only. Encouraged by 
the success of the Cedula, and anxious to promote 
in every way the welfare and prosperity of the 
largely increasing numbers over whom he ruled, 
Governor Chacon was busily engaged in schemes 
of further advancement and improvement, when 
he learned of the somewhat sudden but not unex- 
pected approach of that expedition which was to 
result in the transfer of the island from the Span- 
ish to the British Crown. 

CONQUERED BY THE BRITISH. 

This expedition consisted of a British fleet of 
seven ships of the line, and thirteen smaller vessels, 
under command of Admiral Harvey, having on 
board General Sir Ralph Abercromby with a 
land force of nearly 8,000 men. While it must 
be admitted that Governor Chacon had made no 
defensive preparations, yet it is not easy to see 
what defence was possible. To meet the power- 
ful armament of the British, Chacon had under 
his command barely 500 regular Spanish troops. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 15 

It is true that a Spanish squadron of four ships of 
the line, and a frigate, under command of Admiral 
Ruiz de Apodaca, was anchored in Chaguaramas 
Bay; but the crews of these vessels had been greatly 
reduced by sickness and death. The British fleet 
entered the Gulf of Paria in the afternoon of the 
1 6th of February, 1797, and took up a position so 
as to prevent the escape of the Spanish squadron. 
Admiral Apodaca immediately assembled a Coun- 
cil of War of the captains of the vessels under his 
command, and it was unanimously agreed that as 
escape was impossible in the face of so vastly 
superior a force, the ships should be burned rather 
than allowed to fall into the hands of the enemy. 
The crews were landed during the evening, and 
shortly after midnight the ships were set on fire 
and burned fiercely until almost daybreak. One 
line of battle-ship, the San Damaso, was captured, 
the flames having been extinguished by the crews 
of two of the British ships. 

During the forenoon the British troops were 
landed, and advanced upon Port-of-Spain. The 
only show of resistance was at a point about two 
miles outside the town, where a few shots were 
exchanged with a party of Spanish troops sent out 
to reconnoitre. The British troops continued their 
march, and, passing to the north of the town, took 
up a commanding position on the Laventille hills. 
At eight o'clock in the evening. Sir Ralph Aber- 
cromby sent an officer with a flag of truce to the 
Spanish headquarters. This officer was instructed 
to point out the superiority of the British forces 
and the impossibility of resistance, and to oflfer 



i6 STAI^K'S GUIDE BOOK 

Governor Chacon an honorable capitulation. A 
conference was held next morning when the terms 
of surrender were agreed upon, and before the 
close of the day, i8th of February, 1797, the 
capitulation was signed, the Spanish troops laid 
down their arms, and the island became a British 
possession. 

About two months after the capitulation, Sir 
Ralph Abercromby left the colony, leaving as 
Governor and Captain-General thereof his aide-de- 
camp, Lieutenant-Colonel Picton. The responsi- 
bilities and difficulties of the position, to which 
Colonel Picton was thus appointed, were such as 
would have deterred any man of less firmness of 
character from accepting it. Not only was the 
island a conquered country, with a population 
almost entirely alien, but that population was 
composed of a motley aggregation of different races 
and nationalities, divided into hostile sections ■« — 
all more or less dominated by the strong national 
antipathies and violent political animosities of the 
period. 

GENERAL PICTOn's RULE. 

Such were the people over which Picton was 
called to rule, and among whom he was instructed 
" to execute Spanish law as well as he could, and 
do justice according to his conscience." But Pic- 
ton was one of those men whom no dangers daunt, 
and whose energy and determination overcome all 
difficulties ; and, with all that firmness which so 
marked a feature of his character, he set to work 
to bring order out of chaos, and to compel respect 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 17 

for, and obedience to, the existing law — such as it 
was. Although, like all the military men of the 
time, a strict and stern disciplinarian, he was never- 
theless an energetic and able administrator, and his 
government of the colony, under most trying and 
difficult circumstances, during six of the stormiest 
years of its history, if marked by acts of stern but 
needed repression and punishment, was also dis- 
tinguished by great administrative ability. The 
population of the colony, when he assumed the 
government in 1797, was 17,643 ; when he left, in 
1803, it had increased to 29,154, while the exports 
of sugar, then as now, the staple product of the 
island, had increased from 75,177 cwts. to 142,982 
cwts. 

To attempt a description, however brief, of the 
troubles that occurred just before Picton left Trini- 
dad, of his subsequent trial, of his ultimate acquittal, 
of his heroic bravery during the Peninsular cam- 
paign, and of his death on the field of Waterloo, 
" while gloriously leading his division to a charge 
with bayonets,*' would be to go far beyond the 
scope of the present sketch. Nor is it possible to 
do more than notice very briefly the leading events 
which have marked the administration of the more 
prominent of Picton's successors. 

During the ten years immediately following Pic- 
ton's administration, the colony continued to be 
governed by military men. At the end of that 
period, however, the whole aspect of international 
aflfairs in Europe had so changed as to permit of, 
if indeed it did not suggest, some deviation from 
the strictly military system of government hitherto 



1 8 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

existing in the West Indian colonies ; while the 
condition and circumstances of Trinidad were such 
as to call for an able and progressive civil adminis- 
tration, rather than a strong military one. 

GOVERNOR WOODFORD. 

Under these circumstances, the selection of Sir 
Ralph James Woodford, Baronet, to be the first 
civilian Governor of the colony, was alike fortunate 
for it and creditable to the Home Government. 
Sir Ralph arrived on the 14th of June, 18 13, and 
at once took over the governor from his prede- 
cessor. General Monroe. He belonged to a good 
old English family, was graceful and dignified in 
person, and, although somewhat haughty in man- 
ner, was always accessible and ready to receive all 
who wished to see him. Young, active and ener- 
getic, he accepted nothing at second-hand, but went 
everywhere, saw everything, and made his own 
enquiries. In this way he not only obtained a 
personal knowledge of the different districts of the 
island and their various wants, but also made him- 
self acquainted with the views and feelings of all 
classes of the inhabitants. Under his administration 
the colony underwent a complete transformation. 
By his own exemplary life and character, as well 
as by precept and counsel, he did much to raise 
the social and moral tone of the community. He 
brought all schools under Government supervision 
and control, and issued a code of "Rules for 
Schools" which, for conciseness and brevity as 
well as in several other particulars, might well serve 
as a model for the educationists of the present 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 19 

day. He encouraged agriculture, stimulated com- 
merce, and greatly improved both the internal and 
external means of communication. It is to his 
taste and foresight that Port-of-Spain owes the 
width and regularity of its streets as well as its two 
beautiful squares. He laid the foundation stones 
of the Roman Catholic Cathedral, the Anglican 
(Trinity) Cathedral, and the Roman Catholic 
Church of St. Joseph, all of which he had the 
satisfaction of seeing completed during his term 
of government. It is to him also that the colony is 
indebted for the formation of the Botanic Gardens 
at St. Ann's — now considered one of the sights 
of the colony. 

There is one fact connected with the period of 
Sir Ralph Woodford's government that, perhaps 
more than any other, shows the progressive spirit 
that animated him, viz.: the formation, in 18 17, 
of the "Trinidad Steamboat Company." The 
company was stated to be "under the patronage of 
His Excellency the Governor and the illustrious 
Board of Cabildo," and both the Board and His 
Excellency became shareholders. Although to a 
large extent a commercial venture — all the principal 
merchantile firms being shareholders — yet, to the 
encouragement and support of Sir Ralph, is due, 
in great measure, the ultimate success of the under- 
taking, resulting as it did in the building of the 
steamer Woodford, which began to ply between 
Port-of-Spain and San Fernando on the 20th of 
December, 18 18. This fact is all the more note- 
worthy, seeing that not only was the Woodford 
the first steamer to ply in West Indian waters. 



20 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

but that her first trip in the Gulf of Paria was 
made only six years after Henry Bell's Comet had 
begun to ply on the Clyde, and within three years 
of the first appearance of a steamer on the Thames. 
Sir Ralph Woodford left for England, on sick 
leave, in April, 1828, but did not reach his desti- 
nation, having died at sea on the i6th of May. 

LORD HARRIS* RULE. 

Eighteen years afterwards, on the 22d of May, 
1846, Lord Harris arrived as Governor of the 
colony. During these eighteen years, the emanci- 
pation of the slaves throughout the British West 
Indian colonies had taken place, an event which, 
as is well known, was followed by an immediate 
scarcity of labor and a consequent depression in the 
sugar industry throughout these colonies. Trini- 
dad, owing to the comparatively small number of 
its laboring population, and to the almost unlimited 
field for squatting aflforded by its thousands of acres 
of virgin soil, suflTered more severely than any of 
the neighboring islands from the eflfects of this 
want oflabor. 

It was indeed fortunate for Trinidad that at such 
a time the government had been intrusted to one 
whose great ability was more than equal to the 
situation — critical and well-nigh desperate though 
it was — whose confidence in the great natural 
resources and wonderful capabilities of the colony 
never wavered, and whose high position, as a peer 
of the realm, gave such weight to his opinions as 
to make them almost invariably all-powerful at 
the Colonial Office. Lord Harris, as has already 



STAJ^K'S GUIDE BOOK 21 

been seen, fully realized the critical position of 
affairs; and, although the remedy proposed by 
him — Indian immigration — had been suggested 
many years previously, and had actually been com- 
menced before his arrival, still it is to his persistent 
efforts that the colony owes the inauguration of 
that improved system of Indian immigration, which, 
with the modifications suggested by later experience, 
has been continued up to the present time. 

A system which involved the transport of immi- 
grants from such a distance was naturally a costly 
one, particularly at the outset, and it was only by 
Lord Harris' all-powerful advocacy and the un- 
flagging zeal of the then Attorney-General, the 
late Charles William Warner, that the difficult 
task of providing ways and means to carry out the 
scheme was at length successfully accomplished. 
Whatever differences of opinion may now exist in 
regard to the further continuation of Indian immi- 
gration, there can be no doubt as to the necessity 
which called it into existence, or the undoubted 
benefit it has proved to the colony. 

It is not, however, in connection with immi- 
gration alone that Lord Harris will always be 
remembered as one of Trinidad's best and ablest 
Governors. He left many other mementos of 
the deep interest he took in the material and moral 
welfare of the colony, and of the marked ability 
and success of his administration of its affairs 
during seven years of great depression, com- 
mercial as well as agricultural. He was the first 
to introduce an organized system of primary 
education. 



22 AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 

It is to Lord Harris that the colony owes the 
introduction of municipal institutions similar to 
those existing in the mother country, as well as 
the division of the island into countie3, ward unions, 
and wards, and the inauguration of the ward sys- 
tem of local government, under which each ward 
raised its own revenue by levying rates, etc., while 
the expenditure was controlled by a Board of 
Auditors elected annually by the rate-payers. 
The ward system has since undergone many and 
sweeping changes, and, as at present existing, can 
scarcely be said to be more than a shadow of its 
former self, or of local government, properly so 
called. 

GOVERNOR HAMILTON. 

Thirteen years after Lord Harris had left the 
colony, Sir Arthur Hamilton Gordon, then Gov- 
ernor of New Brunswick, was appointed to the 
governorship of Trinidad. Sir Arthur arrived in 
the colony on the 9th of November, 1866, and 
although his administration was a short one, lasting 
only till June, 1870, it was one of great activity 
and marked progress. Of the many important 
measures introduced during his administration, the 
one by which, more than any other, his name is 
inseparably linked with the history of Trinidad, 
is the Crown Lands' Ordinance, passed in October, 
1868. By this enactment he threw open the Crown 
lands of the colony, the natural result of which 
was the increase both of revenue and cultivation 
— an increase which, with all its other benefits, 
both to the Government and the people, has been 



AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD, 23 

more or less steadily maintained ever since. Al- 
though this measure was strongly opposed at the 
time, still such have been the wonderful results 
accruing from it, that even its bitterest opponents 
now readily admit the greater wisdom and clearer 
foresight that induced Sir Arthur to carry it through 
in the face of much opposition.. 

Of Sir Arthur's numerous successors, the ma- 
jority held office for short periods only, the two 
longest administrations having been those of Sir 
Henry Turner Irving (i 874— 1 8 80) and Sir William 
Robinson (1885— 1 891). The former remodelled 
and improved several branches of the Public Ser- 
vice, established the Volunteer Force, and further 
amended the system of primary education, first 
introduced by Lord Harris, and subsequently 
amended by Sir Arthur Gordon. The latter took 
a marked interest in the development of the agri- 
cultural resources of the colony, established Dis- 
trict Agricultural Boards with a Central Board 
meeting in Port-of-Spain, and by exhibitions, 
prizes, and other means, endeavored to stimulate 
agriculture generally, and to encourage the culti- 
vation of a greater variety of products. He estab- 
lished a fortnightly steam service round the island, 
thereby greatly facilitating communication with 
the outlying districts. Sir William must also be 
credited with largely increasing the revenue, and 
that without any addition to the burdens of the 
tax-payers ; for, notwithstanding the wide differ- 
ences of opinion that exist as to his policy in regard 
to the Pitch Lake, the fact remains, that when he 
assumed the government, in 1885, the total annual 



24 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

revenue derived from that valuable Crown property 
was only 1,574 pounds ; whereas, when he left the 
colony, in 1 891, it was no less than 31,988 ; while 
in the past year (1892) it amounted to 37,232 
pounds, or within 434 pounds of the total charge, 
on account of the public debt. The granting of 
" The Concession," under which this large revenue 
has accrued, was as bitterly opposed as Sir Arthur 
Gordon's Crown Lands' Ordinance ; but it is more 
than probable that, in this case also, the results 
will, before long, bring home conviction even to 
the fiercest of the anti-monopolists. 

Sir Frederick Napier Broome assumed the 
government of this island on the 19th of August, 
1 89 1. He has shown himself intimately ac- 
quainted with the future development of the 
colony ; his views and opinions were equally as 
liberal as those of his predecessors. He has 
endeavored in every way to induce an " increasing 
occupation of the island," by the extension of the 
railway service, and other means. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 25 



CHAPTER II. 

HOW TO REACH TRINIDAD ; COST OF LIVING, 

CONVEYANCES, ETC. 

One of the first questions that will arise to a 
person intending to go to Trinidad is. How shall 
we get there — what are the ways and means of 
reaching the island ? We will, therefore, give a 
statement with regard to the different line of 
steamers that run with more or less regularity to 
Trinidad, from Europe and America. 

STEAMSHIP LINES. 

The most direct line from the United States is 
the " Trinidad Line," from New York to Trini- 
dad and Grenada. There is also from New York 
the Quebec Steamship Co. and the Royal Dutch 
West India Mail. From the Dominion of Canada 
there is Pickford and Black's Line, sailing from 
Halifax via Burmuda and the Caribbee Islands. 

There are more steamers from Europe than from 
America. There is the Royal Mail Steam Packet 
Company, sailing from Southampton via Barbador, 
St. Lucia and Grenada. The " London Direct " 
Line, sailing from London, calling at Dartmouth 
for passengers. West India and Pacific Steamship 
Company, sailing from Liverpool ; Harrison Line, 
also from Liverpool ; Clyde Steamship Company, 
from Glasgow direct to Trinidad. From France 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 27 

is the " Compagnie Generale Transatlantique," 
sailing from St. Nazaire, Havre, Bordeaux, and 
Marseilles, via Martinique, St. Lucia, and South 
American ports. 

Single fare from United States and Canada 
^60 and upwards, return ^100 and more accord- 
ing to steamer and location of room. From 
Europe single fare is ^100, and return ^175 and 
upwards. For further information the intending 
tourist will consult the advertisements in the back 
part of this book, or write to the steamship 
companies. 

CURRENT MONEY. 

Travellers before leaving England or the 
States should obtain a letter of credit, which can 
be drawn on at all the West Indian branches of 
the Colonial Bank. This will be advisable, as 
each British colony has its own notes, which are 
not, as a rule, cashed at par except in that par- 
ticular colony. English gold and Bank of Eng- 
land notes are acceptable at par everywhere. 
American gold is at 2 per cent, discount, and 
bank notes can be passed only at a great discount. 

CONVEYANCE. 

If a person intends to make a stay of two or 
three months, it would be well to purchase a sec- 
ond-hand buggy and harness before starting. In 
the fall of the year they can be obtained very 
cheap, and the freight and duty on same are not 
high. If they are bought right the owner can 
sell them for twice as much as they cost. A 
pony can be bought for ^100, and if he is well 



28 STAEK'S GUIDE BOOK 

taken care of he will do good service and will 
fetch a fair price when sold. Carriage hire is 
very costly in Trinidad, ^5 being charged for an 
ordinary drive, and unless you own your outfit 
you will be hampered at every movement, and 
will have to hire or borrow continually if you 
intend to see all there is to be seen in Trin- 
idad. Most of the private houses of any size 
are provided with stabling. The following are 

the 

« 

CAB REGULATIONS, PORT-OF-SPAIN. 

Fares to be paid for any Hackney Carriage hired in 
Port'Of-Spain^ or within one mile thereof. 

FARES BY DISTANCE. 

For any distance not exceeding one miky one 
shilling ; and for every quarter of a mile beyond, 
three pence. Between 8 P.M. and 6 A.M. the 
charges are half as much more. 

FARES BY TIME. 

For any time not exceeding one hour^ four shil- 
lings ; and for every subsequent quarter of an 
hour, nine pence. Between 8 P.M. and 6 A.M. 
the charge is four shillings for the first hour, and 
one shilling for every subsequent quarter of an 
hour. 

Fares to be paid according to distance or time, 
at the option of the hirer, expressed at the com- 
mencement of the hiring; if not otherwise ex- 
pressed, the fare to be paid by distance. Provided 
that no driver shall be compelled to hire his 
carriage for a time fare between the hours of 



AND HISTOR V OF TRINIDAD. 29 

8 P.M. and 6 A.M. When more than two 
persons shall be carried inside a carriage drawn 
by one horse only, a sixpence extra is charged 
for each person above the number. Two children 
under ten years shall be considered as one adult. 
When more than two persons are carried inside 
a hackney carriage with more luggage than can 
be taken inside, rour pence extra must be paid for 
each package carried outside. Any agreement to 
pay more than the legal fare is not binding, and 
sums paid beyond the usual fare may be recovered. 
The driver may not charge more than the 
sum agreed upon. A driver is bound under 
penalty to keep any engagement he may make, 
but he may demand a reasonable sum as a deposit 
from hirers requiring him to wait, over the fare 
to which he is entitled, and is subject to penalty 
if he refuse to wait, or if he go away before the 
expiry of the time for which the deposit shall be 
sufficient compensation, or if he refuse to account 
for such deposit. If the hirer refuse to pay the 
fare, or for any damage, or any compensation for 
loss of time, he may be committed to prison. 
The number of every carriage, and the number 
of persoQs to be carried therein, is to be marked 
on each carriage ; and the driver shall, if required 
by hirer, carry this number of persons, or any 
less number. No driver shall demand or receive 
any sum by way of back fare for the return of 
the carriage from the place where discharged. 
When the driver, to be paid according to dis- 
tance, shall be required by the hirer to stop for 
fifteen minutes, or for any longer time, he may 



30 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

demand a further sum of six pence for every 
fifteen minutes that he shall have been stopped. 

HOTEL AND BOARDING— HOUSES. 

Formerly Trinidad was very badly sup- 
plied with hotels, so that travellers hesitated 
to come here when not actually compelled by 
business. There has, however, been a great 
change in this respect. The Queen Park 
Hotel, opposite the Savanna, built in 1893, is 
one of the very best hotels in the West Indies. 
It contains all the modern conveniences ; the 
situation is delightful and the charge reasonable — 
from $2 to ^3 per day. There is also the " Ice 
House," in King street, and the comfortable 
Family Hotel adjoining it, and the American 
Hotel, a spacious building opposite the post- 
office, in Vincent street. There are some very 
respectable boarding-houses, where a lady or 
gentleman may obtain lower rates, but of course 
the style of living and the surroundings are more 
homely. Most of the best hotels have the tele- 
phone attached, are furnished with excellent 
baths, and all conveniences and comforts which 
tend to make life easy. The cost of living in 
Trinidad is about the same as in the other British 
West Indian Islands. Servants' wages are some- 
what higher than in Barbados ; as a rule the 
domestics find their own food. Cooks' wages 
are $6 to |8 per month ; female butler ^5 to 5S8, 
and if a male ^3 more; groom ^10 to ^12. A 
pleasant six-roomed house in town costs about 
^30 a month. Rents vary from ^30 to ^60, 
according to size of house. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 31 

COSTS OF TRAVELLING. 

At a cost of ^150, visitors can visit St. 
Thomas, Santa Cruz, Antigua, St. Kitts, Mar- 
tinique, Dominica, Guadeloupe, St. Lucia, Bar- 
bados, Demerara, Trinidad, and other islands, 
besides having ample time at his disposal to 
make a trip up the Orinoco. 

For four months, during our severest winter 
weather, he can wander among these islands, 
living on board of steamers all the time, costing 
about the same as staying at a hotel, only paying 
extra when he goes on shore; and coming home, 
after evading at least one winter, at a cost some- 
what less than ^2.50 per day; while his mind 
will be opened and his intelligence improved by 
the sight of wonders, all the descriptions of which 
fail to give an idea of their brilliancy and beauty. 
Go, then, you who are in pursuit of pleasure, 
health, or game, and on your return you will 
never regret having taken the advice here given. 



32 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 



CHAPTER III. 

PORT— OF— SPAIN. 

Port-of-Spain, the capital of Trinidad, is pleas- 
antly situated on a semicircular and almost level 
plain, at the north-east corner of the Gulf of 
Paria. 

It is admittedly one of the finest cities in the 
West Indies, but the level nature of its site pre- 
vents it from being seen to any advantage from 
the harbor, while, owing to the large number of 
trees in the various squares and around the 
houses, the view from the neighboring hills 
shows more of the foliage by which it is every- 
where shaded than of the city itself. 

GREAT FIRE OF 1808. 

On the 24th of March, 1808, the then existing 
town, said to have been the second in point or 
size in the British West Indies, was almost com- 
pletely destroyed by fire. With the exception of 
a few stone buildings covered with tiles, all the 
houses were built of wood and covered with 
shingles or thatch. Under such circumstances, 
and occurring as it did in the middle of the dry 
season, it is not surprising that the conflagration 
was as rapid as it was widespread. All the public 
buildings, nearly all the stores, and four hundred 



AND HISTOR V OF TRINIDAD. 33 

and thirty-five dwelling-houses were, in a few 
hours, reduced to smoking ruins. Thousands 
were utterly ruined, and hundreds reduced to 
absolute beggary. Nearly five thousand persons 
were rendered homeless, and, to add to the misery 
of the situation, a second and still more appalling 
calamity threatened to follow on the heels of the 
first. The entire stock of American and other 
provisions, on which the people mainly depended 
for food, having been consumed in the general 
conflagration, famine stared them in the face. 
This terrible sequel to the burning of the town 
was, however, prevented by the prompt, if some- 
what high-handed, action of the Admiral on the 
station, who, in obedience to the dictates of 
humanity, which he evidently considered a higher 
authority than that of " My Lords," gave orders 
to the captains of his cruisers to board all vessels 
arriving in West Indian waters and oblige those 
loaded with provisions to proceed to Trinidad, 
without regard to their original port of destina- 
tion. Other and immediate assistance came from 
different quarters. Vessels had been despatched 
to the neighboring colonies to purchase provi- 
sions, and these soon returned bringing not only 
the much-needed supplies of food, but also liberal 
gifts both of money and provisions for* the relief 
of the poorer sufferers. Parliament voted 50,000 
pounds, the Governor, Brigadier-General Hislop, 
gave 1,000 pounds, and General Picton nobly 
contributed 4,000 pounds — a sum which had 
been presented to him by the colonists in token 
of their appreciation and approval of his admin- 



34 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

istration. This latter sum was declined. One 
result of this dire calamity was the enactment of 
a law forbidding the erection or covering of build- 
ings with inflammable material. 

To the enactment above referred to, and to the 
good taste, energy, and personal care and attention 
of Sir Ralph Woodford, the Port-of-Spain of to- 
day is indebted for its proud position among West 
Indian cities. 

GREAT FIRE OF 1895. 

On Monday, March 4, 1895, Port-of-Spain 
was again visited with a destructive conflagration 
which destroyed two and a half million dollars' 
worth of property in the very heart of the busi- 
ness portion of the city. At half-past four o'clock 
in the afternoon, when the stores were all closed 
to allow the clerks to see a cricket match being 
played on the Queen's Park Savanna, between 
all Trinidad and an English eleven, flames burst 
out in the store of Messrs. James Todd & Son 
(the Trinidad Arcade) on Frederick street, and 
quickly the whole structure was wrapped in flames. 
A strong easterly wind fanned the fire, and the 
darting tongues of flame leaped high, sending out 
showers of sparks which caught the adjoining 
buildings. The flames spread with lightning 
rapidity up and down Frederick street on both 
sides, and attacking Queen, King, Chacon, and 
Henry streets. The spacious stores filled with 
the finest wares from every quarter of the globe 
were laid low, and splendid blocks of buildings 
filled with thousands of pounds' worth of goods 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 35 

were in the twinkling of an eye nothing but 
ashes. 

The local fire-brigade was small and inefficient, 
and they had only a small hand-engine. They 
could do nothing to stay the onward rush of the 
destroyer. Moreover the crowd that had col- 
lected choked the streets and prevented them 
from working to advantage. Then came unex- 
pected help. An English and three Ameri- 
can ships of war happened to be in the harbor, 
and these sent men ashore to help save the town. 
From H.M.S. " Buzzard " came 50 blue-jackets, 
and from the United States cruisers came 200 
sailors and 50 marines under command of Lieu- 
tenant-Commander Swift, Lieutenant Roper, of 
the " New York," Lieutenant Webb, of the 
" Cincinnati," and Lieutenant Boyer, of the " Ral- 
eigh." Where discipline had previously been lack- 
ing, these men, with their admirable naval train- 
ing, restored order, and effective and concentrated 
work was done. The marines in a trice had 
driven away the crowd, while the sailors set to 
work to attack the flames from five different 
points. There seemed to be very little water 
available, and so buildings had to be destroyed. 
They were either torn down, or blown up with 
explosive powder and gun cotton. Their ef- 
forts were aided by the wind changing, and after 
a time the fire was held in check, but not until 
the two most important blocks in the city had 
been laid waste. At 10.30 P.M. the fire was 
gotten under sufficient control to allow the naval 
men to return to their ships. 



36 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

The fire was a magnificent sight. The flames 
illuminated the heavens for many miles around, 
and buildings went down like packs of cards. 
What the origin of the fire was has never been 
ascertained. It is a mystery, and a mystery it 
will likely remain. 

There is no doubt that it was due to the naval 
men that the whole city was saved from destruc- 
tion. The " Port-of-Spain Gazette,'' the chief 
exponent of public opinion, thus speaks of their 
work : " The men did splendid service, and it is 
due to them that the conflagration did not devas- 
tate ten times the area it did." His Excellency 
the Governor, Sir Frederick Napier Broome, ad- 
dressed letters to Commander Farquharson, R.N., 
of H. M.S. "Buzzard," Rear Admiral R. W. 
Meade, commanding U.S. Naval Force, North 
Atlantic Station, expressing his acknowledg- 
ments of the services rendered. In the latter 
letter he spoke as follows : " The large body of 
men which you sent ashore, under Lieutenant- 
Commander Swift and other officers, worked most 
gallantly and admirably in situations often of 
considerable danger, and it is greatly owing to 
their indefatigable exertions that the fire was not 
more extensive than it was, and that much valu- 
able property was saved. It will be my pleas- 
ing duty to report in this sense to Her Majesty's 
Government." 

Though there was such a large amount of 
destruction done by the fire, and the merchants 
of the city sustained heavy losses, it is gratifying 
to know that none of the poor quarters of the 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 37 

city were burned, nor was there that consequent 
misery and starvation which so frequently fol- 
low such large conflagrations. There was about 
350,000 pounds' worth of insurance upon the 
buildings and stocks destroyed, and the merchants 
were in a pretty fair position to rebuild. 

Since this fire a new style of architecture has 
been adopted, a steam fire-engine procured, and 
the fire brigade trained to^ greater efficiency ; 
and though there were in 1896 two big fires 
on Frederick street, they were not allowed to 
spread in either case beyond the walls of a single 
building. 

NEW BUILDINGS. 

As a consequence of the fire, a new and much 
more handsome Frederick street has arisen, and 
the wealth that was there before the fire has very 
materially increased. Port-of-Spain can boast of 
handsome public buildings, and it can also boast 
of emporiums of commerce that would do credit 
to a European or American metropolis. On 
both sides of Frederick street, and facing Marine 
square, are the ornate glass fronts of spacious 
departmental stores, with shelves lined with staple 
goods in all lines of merchandise, and with the 
latest novelties that make their appearance in the 
old or new world. And the competition between 
these merchants is so keen that prices are as low 
as they are anywhere in the world. New blood 
is always coming into the business life of Trini- 
dad, and the colony is in close touch with all 
parts of the globe, and readily assimilates to itself 
new ideas. The colonists are always on the 



38 STACK'S GUIDE BOOK 

move, frequently going " home/' as they term a 
trip to Europe, to get the latest tips in their 
various lines of business. 

The architecture of these large bazaars is 
worthy of a special description, for it is pretty, 
substantial, light and airy, and fairly fire-proof. 
They are iron-framed buildings, with stone and 
concrete outside walls, and are two-storied, with 
what are called lantern roofs of iron and glass. 
The first story is one immense compartment, 
and the second is really a gallery with a broad 
well, through which the light, shining through 
the blue glazing of the lantern roof, sheds a soft 
radiance over the whole store. The second story 
and the roof are supported by ornamental iron 
columns capped with Corinthian or composite 
capitals. The fronts are decorated with large 
plate-glass windows, overshadowed by light iron 
galleries, and as these extend in one long line 
down the whole length of Frederick street on 
both sides, it gives the thoroughfare a handsome 
appearance. Plate-glass fronts, iron galleries, 
and lantern roofs succeeding one another make 
the tout ensemble most harmonious. 

These stores are conducted on the same lines 
as metropolitan establishments. Messrs. Smith 
Bros, have, for instance, four stores (the Bonanza, 
Golden Boot, etc.), wherein they sell dry goods, 
men's furnishings, household goods, boots and 
shoes, hardware, furniture, etc., both wholesale 
and retail. The Caledonian House (Goodwille 
& Wilson, Ltd.), Miller's Stores, Wilson's, Ltd., 
Maillard's Dry Goods and Curio Departments, 



. ^-itw^^^^^^/'l 






l:i 





AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 39 

the Trinidad Arcade (James Todd & Son), the 
Bon Marche (I. Pereira & Sons), and Glendin- 
ning & Hendy are all large establishments 
employing large staffs of clerks, and doing a big 
business in supplying the wants not only of the 
colony, but also, to some extent, of the neighbor- 
ing republic of Venezuela. 

The merchants of Port-of-Spain are aggressive 
men of business, and their activity and push 
would not suffer by comparison with that of 
those in larger spheres. Moreover, any one who 
thinks that Trinidad is a place where the most 
you do is to try and kill time, and where the 
people go in for siestas lasting about three hours 
in the middle of the day, should disabuse him- 
self of that idea at once. You have only to see 
the way they boom cheap sales and resort to the 
latest advertising devices, the way in which 
the clerks hustle from seven in the morning to 
five at night, taking a quarter of an hour at noon 
for breakfast in a room provided for the purpose 
in the store, to know that Trinidad people have 
considerable " goaheaditiveness." 

STREETS AND SQUARES. 

Arriving in the colony when the new town 
was just beginning to rise on the ruins of the 
old after the fire of 1808, Sir Ralph Woodford 
threw his whole heart into the work of laying 
out streets, regulating buildings, reserving open 
spaces, — in a word, doing all he possibly could 
to assure not only the safety and symmetry of 
the new town, but also the comfort and health 



40 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 



\ 



of its inhabitants. To him, as has already been 
stated, Port-of-Spain owes not only the width 
and regularity of its streets, — most of them 
being from thirty to forty-five feet, and all 
running either due north and south or due east 
and west, thus intersecting each other at right 
angles, — but also its two great " lungs " or 
" breathing spaces," Marine square and Bruns- 
wick square. The former, an avenue or walk 
rather than a square, is situated in the northern 
part of the city, extending across its entire 
breadth from the St. Vincent's wharf to the Dry 
river. This beautiful avenue is about a hundred 
feet wide, and is shaded by rows of noble forest- 
trees planted on either side. The latter, a " true " 
square, but smaller in size, is a cool and shady 
spot near the centre of the city. It was formerly 
known as the " Place d'Armes," but this, it is 
said, was a popular corruption of a still older 
designation — " Place des Ames," a name it 
received from having been the scene of a sangui- 
nary encounter between two tribes of Indians. 
In the middle of this square is a handsome 
bronze fountain, the gift of the late Gregor 
Turnbull, a well-known merchant and estate 
proprietor, long connected with the colony. 
These old-established squares are not, however, 
the only " lungs " of the city ; there are several 
other squares of more recent formation, while to 
the north is the beautiful park known as " The 
Savanna " or " Queen's park," and containing 
over two hundred acres of almost level pasture 
or meadow-land, enriched by a belt of large 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 41 

umbrageous trees, — a home-park which royalty 
itself might envy, and which Kingsley describes 
as " a public park and race ground such as neither 
London nor Paris can boast." 

governor's residence, botanical gardens. 

On the other side of this beautiful park, and 
only separated from it by the road or drive that 
encircles it, are the Governor's residence (St. 
Anne's) and the Botanical Gardens. 

The residence — a palace on 3. small scale — 
was erected in 1875, ^^ ^^e Indian model, from 
designs by Mr. Ferguson. It is built of dressed 
native limestone, and cost between 40,000 and 
50,000 pounds. It has a fine entrance with a 
lofty hall, from which the grand staircase leads 
to the upper story, occupied by the Governor's 
private apartments. 

On the lower floor are the large and splendid 
reception-room and drawing-room, as also dining- 
room, billiard-room, etc. The Botanical Gardens, 
which have justly become one of the sights 
of Trinidad, were established during the ad- 
ministration of Sir Ralph Woodford, circa 1 8 1 8- 
1820, under the direction of Mr. D. Lockhart. 
In 1846 Mr. Lockhart was succeeded by Mr. 
Purdie, under whose direction, and with the ever- 
ready aid and encouragement of Lord Harris, 
the Gardens were greatly improved and their area 
considerably extended. Mr. Purdie died in 1857, 
and was buried in the lovely " God's acre " within 
the grounds, now known as " The Cemetery." 
His successors were Dr. Herman Cruger, 1857 



42 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

to 1864, and Mr. Henry Prestoe, 1864 to 1886, 
both of whom did much to increase the reputa- 
tion of the Gardens. The present superintendent, 
Mr. J. H. Hart, F.L.S., formerly of Jamaica, 
was appointed in March, 1887. 

While it is quite true that none but a botanist 
can fully realize all the riches of the world of 
plant-life represented in these Gardens, yet to 
every lover of nature, whether versed or unversed 
in botanical science, they present an endless suc- 
cession of new and beautiful forms, ranging from 
the most delicate mosses and tiny film-ferns to 
the stately palms and giant forest-trees, a field for 
contemplation and study as wide as it is wonder- 
ful. Even the. visitor blind to all the charms of 
nature — and "if such there be, go mark him 
well " — cannot fail to derive pleasure from an 
early morning ramble through these Gardens, 
their shady walks and groves being, especially at 
that time, deliciously cool, while the air is made 
fragrant by the perfume of flower and blossom, 
and the morning breeze is laden with the aroma 
from the nutmeg and other spice trees. 

Among some of the more striking features of 
the Gardens may be noticed several specimens of 
the Amherstia nohilis^ the tallest, nearly 50 feet 
high, being annually covered with numbers of its 
peculiar and beautiful flowers ; the Poui trees, 
Tecoma serratifolia and Texoma spectahilis^ per- 
haps the most striking of the forest giants, their 
towering stems carrying, when in flower, what 
looks like one huge bouquet of golden-yellow 
flowers ; the Traveller's tree, Urania speciosa, — 



44 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

among the topmost branches of which it produces 
annually its panicles of greenish flowers/* 

There is one view in the Gardens which no 
visitor should miss. Near the centre of the 
grounds is an eminence about 30 feet in height, 
on the top of which is a cosey kiosk or summer- 
house — if such a term may be used in this land 
of never-ending summer ; and although the hill 
is a little steep, yet the view from this quiet and 
beautiful spot amply repays the climb. Behind 
tower the densely wooded hills 1,000 feet high ; 
below lie the beautiful Gardens, or rather such 
glimpses of them as can be seen through the 
dense mass of green foliage formed by the tree- 
tops ; while directly in front the beautiful sa- 
vanna, with its wide extent of greensward and its 
many noble trees, stretches away till it meets the 
outlines of the city in the distance — the outlines 
only, for little else save the church-spires and 
the house-tops stands out clear among the mass 
of foliage ; to the east the view is closed by an- 
other spur of the northern hills, its slopes 
wooded to the very peak, while to the west the 
eye rests on a scene that is as picturesque as it is 
impressive. 

In the foreground is the St. Clair pasture and 
the Rifle Range, another green strip of meadow- 
land, while beyond are seen the deep-blue waters 
of the ever-placid Gulf of Paria, the beautiful 
" Five Islands," looking like green specks on 
the blue expanse, and far away mid the mist 
on the western horizon the shadowy outlines of 
the Venezuelan mountains. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 45 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

The city possesses a large number of public 
buildings of great architectural beauty. Pre- 
eminent among these are the Government Build- 
ing, between St. Vincent street and Brunswick 
square, popularly known as the ^Red House. 
This building is considered one of the finest in 
the West Indies, and is built on the site of the 
" Red House," destroyed by the mob during the 
riot in 1903. Besides containing the Courts of 
Justice and Council Hall, it contains the offices 
of the Governor, and other offices connected 
with the government. The Queen's Royal 
College, on the west side of the Queen's Park, 
is another beautiful building, also the Roman 
Catholic Cathedral, situated at the eastern end of 
Marine square, and the Anglican Cathedral 
(formerly Trinity Church), to the south of 
Brunswick square, both of which are really fine 
buildings and reflect great credit on the architect, 
Mr. P. Reinagle, from whose designs and under 
whose personal superintendence they were both 
built. The Colonial Hospital, designed by Mr. 
Samuel, a native of the island, although of quite 
a different style of architecture, is an equally fine 
building. The Police Barracks, a more recent 
erection, in the Italian Gothic style, and built of 
native limestone, is a massive and imposing struct- 
ure. Among the other public buildings of more 
or less elegant design, there is one deserving of 
particular mention, the beautiful Roman Catholic 
church known as " The Church of the Sacred 
Heart." It is built in the early English Gothic 
style, and the most perfect symmetry and harmony 



46 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

are preserved in every detail of the structure, as 
well as in all the internal fittings and decorations. 

It is undoubtedly one of the most elegant 
and artistic of the churches of Port-of-Spain, of 
which, it may perhaps be well to add, there are 
quite a number. The city proper — that is, within 
the municipal metes and bounds as laid down 
some forty years ago — contains about 35,000 
inhabitants ; but taking in the eastern and western 
suburbs, which lie just outside the city limits, 
and are included within its bounds as defined by 
the new Municipal Ordinance, the population is 
between 45,000 and 50,000. The city is well 
supplied with water of excellent quality from two 
reservoirs, the larger one situated in the Maraval 
valley as already mentioned, and the smaller in 
the St. Anne's valley. 

The principal places of business, the bank, 
the stores, and all the larger shops, as well as 
the government offices, the law courts, the post- 
office, town hall, public library, etc., are situated 
in the southern part of the city. The merchants, 
officials, and leading citizens generally, reside in 
the northern part of the city or in the suburbs, 
so that on Sundays, and after business hours on 
week-days, the southern part of the city is 
almost as quiet and deserted as the " city " part 
of London. 

Many of the villa residences in the town and 
suburbs are models of tasteful architecture, and 
are made still more attractive by the trees, shrubs, 
and flowers amidst which they are all but hidden 
from view. 



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ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL, MARINE SQUARE. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 47 

BOROUGH COUNCIL. 

For municipal purposes the town is divided 
into five wards, each electing three councillors, 
who form the council, formerly called the town 
council, but since 1853 the borough council. 
The mayor is elected by the councillors, one- 
third of whom retire annually. The qualification 
for electors is the occupancy of a house rated at 
a rental of not less than twenty pounds, while 
that of a councillor is ownership of real property 
assessed on an annual value of fifty pounds, or 
tenancy of property assessed on an annual rental 
of seventy-five pounds sterling. The annual 
rental value of the house property within borough 
bounds, according to the assessment of 1892, was 
161,985 pounds, but this is exclusive of all 
public buildings, churches, and schools. The 
municipal revenue for 1892 amounted to 17,039 
pounds, while the expenditure, including that 
from loans, was 28,331 pounds. The debenture 
debt of the city on 31st of December, 1892, 
amounted to 40,933 pounds. The care of the 
streets, of which there are over thirty miles 
within the borough bounds, is one of the heaviest 
items of municipal expenditure, especially in the 
wet season, when the heavy rains wash away the 
road metal to an enormous extent. The streets 
are, however, well looked after and kept in 
excellent order, any damage being quickly re- 
paired. 

There are three public markets, — the Eastern, 
Western, and Southern Markets, — all the prop- 
erty of the municipality, which, in addition to 



48 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

other city property, is also the owner of " The 
Cocal " at MayarOj — the finest cocoanut estate 
in the island, — and of the small islands of 
Monos, Huevos, Chacachacare, and Patos. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY, VICTORIA INSTITUTE AND 

MUSEUM. 

Among the local institutions of Port-of-Spain 
are the Public Library and the Victoria Institute 
and Museum. The former was founded in 1851 
under the administration of Lord Harris, and 
contains about 20,000 volumes. It is under the 
management of fifteen members, of whom six 
are nominated by His Excellency the Governor 
and two by the Borough Council of Port-of- 
Spain, the other members being elected annually 
by the subscribers. It is supported by an annual 
grant of 400 pounds from the Colonial Govern- 
ment, one of 100 pounds from the Borough 
Council of Port-of-Spain, and the subscriptions 
of members, which in 1892 amounted to 152 
pounds. The subscription is 12 shillings per 
annum, payable in advance, yearly, quarterly, or 
monthly. There is a free reading-room con- 
nected with it. The new Library building in 
Brunswick square was opened in 1902. The 
reading room is well supplied with foreign journals 
and periodicals. The Library is open daily from 
8 A.M. to 9 P.M., and strangers visiting the 
colony will meet with every attention from the 
courteous secretary and librarian. Miss M. Hart. 

The Victoria Institute and Museum, founded 
in commemoration of her Majesty's Jubilee, was 




TRIXITY CHLIRCH, 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 49 

opened on 17th September, 1892. It contains 
the nucleus of what will no doubt in time become a 
museum worthy of the colony. Among some of 
its more interesting contents are a fine collection 
of stuffed birds, representative of the ornithology 
of the island, presented to the colony by the late 
Dr. Leotaud ; a very fine and valuable collection 
of shells, the gift of the widow of the late Robert 
William Keate, who was governor of the colony 
from 1857 to 1864; an interesting collection of 
reptiles and insects presented by the late Dr. 
Court ; and many minor collections and specimens. 
The Institute is the headquarters of the Central 
African Board, and also the meeting-place of the 
Medical Council, the Scientific Association, the 
Field Naturalists' Club, and the Literary Asso- 
ciation. 

In former years Trinidad possessed one of the 
best militia forces in the West Indies. It con- 
sisted of a troop of light dragoons, a troop of 
hussars, a brigade of artillery, three regiments of 
foot, and three corps of mounted chasseurs, eight 
district companies, and two battalions ; the whole 
kept up with strict military discipline. This fine 
body of citizen soldiers, numbering about 3,000 
of all ranks, was disbanded in 1839. ^^ ^^ 
present time, although the colony has not as large 
a body of men under arms, it can still boast of 
a well-drilled and efficient volunteer force, con- 
sisting of three troops of cavalry, two batteries of 
field artillery, and six companies of infantry, the 
total strength of the force being about 550 of all 
rank. 



50 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

Among local corporate companies and enter- 
prises are the Tramway Company, the Telephone 
Company, the Building and Loan Association, 
the Crop Advance and Discount Company, an 
ice factory (The West Indian Ice and Refriger- 
ating Company, limited), a soap factory, and a 
tannery. 

THE PRESS. 

Trinidad is blessed with a free and untram- 
melled, and with an active, up-to-date press. 
The first paper in the colony was started on 
August I, 1799, by Mr. Gallagher, and was 
called the " Trinidad Weekly Courant." Dur- 
ing the early days of the press, there was a very 
strict censorship, and those in authority held the 
reins very tightly over the heads of the poor 
editors, and if they attempted to kick over the 
traces they were pulled up with a jerk. The 
proofs of the articles had to be submitted to the 
Governor or his deputy, and if there was any- 
thing of which he did not approve he struck it 
out. Sometimes the erring editor would be 
sent to jail, or, if he did not wish to resort to 
such extreme measures, the Governor would 
graciously send down to borrow the handle of 
the press, which was an official notification to 
suspend publication during the time that His 
Excellency wished to continue the enforced loan. 
These little official attentions, such as borrowing 
the press and inviting the editor to partake of 
the Government's hospitality for a time, extended 
until Governor Woodford's time, in 18 13. 

The chief moulder of public opinion in Trini- 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 51 

dad is the " Port-of-Spain Gazette," a six-page, 
penny daily paper, and, judging it from the 
point of view of price, editorial opinion, news 
catering, and advertising patronage, it has no supe- 
rior in the West Indies. Mr. T. R. N. Laughlin 
purchased it in 1874 from Mr. H. J. Clark, 
the present Superintendent of the government 
printing-office. It was then a small weekly 
paper, selling for twenty cents a copy. Mr. 
Laughlin built it up through successive enlarge- 
ments, greater frequency of issue, diminished 
price, and growing circulation, and it is now a 
power in the colony. It has been issued daily 
for the last 15 years, and is printed by electricity. 
The director of its policy is Mr. T. R. N. 
Laughlin, who is a thorough newspaper man. 
The late editorial writer, Mr. L. M. Fraser, 
was a talented writer and the author of a valuable 
and elaborate " History of Trinidad,*' published 
by the Government. The paper was established 
in 1825 by Mr. J. H. Mills, and it has therefore 
the prestige of age to add to its influence. 
During its seventy-two years of life, it has been 
published almost continuously, there being 
breaks of only a month or two at a time. 
The paper is one of the leaders of reform 
sentiment in the colony, and is helping with all 
its might and main to bring the day when the 
franchise will be extended to the people of the 
colony. 

The other papers are the " Mirror," a 
penny paper, published daily except Sundays, 
and the *•* Pioneer," one penny, a weekly 



52 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

political paper ; the " Catholic News/' a weekly ; 
and " El Pasellon Venezolano/' a bi-weekly 
Spanish paper. 

AMUSEMENTS AND RECREATIONS. 

Port-of-Spain is well supplied with the means 
for recreation and amusement. There are pleas- 
ant drives and cycling routes all about ; there is 
the balmy trip by steamer to the islands in the 
gulf, where a delicious bath may be enjoyed ; there 
is a variety of evening amusements in the way of 
entertainments by local dramatic clubs, orches- 
tras and church organizations, dramatic and 
operatic performances by occasional travelling 
companies, and public and private dances, balls, 
and dinners galore. On the broad Queen's Park 
Savanna there are sports of every kind in prog- 
ress every Saturday, cricket, golf, polo, football, 
etc. There are two flourishing golf-clubs in the 
colony, chief of which is the St. Andrew's Golf 
Club, and there are dozens of cricket clubs, where 
French and English Creoles, Englishmen, Scotch- 
men, blacks and colored men, Germans, Vene- 
zuelans, Hindoos, and even Chinamen meet in 
friendly rivalry with the willow. Then there 
is horse-racing, yacht-racing, etc., there being sev- 
eral jockey organizations and two aquatic clubs. 

The head and front of the sporting life of the 
community is the Queen's Park Cricket Club, which 
is established on beautiful and spacious grounds 
at St. James, a mile or so from town, in one of 
the suburbs and on the tram line. The grounds, 
which cover ten acres, were opened in the fall of 




ENTRANCl-: TO TRINITN CWVU-CW. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 53 

1896, and they wiU compare very favorably with 
the homes of the metropolitan athletic clubs of 
the great centres. Some $3,000 was expended 
in relaying the cricket ground, and there are three 
large and handsome pavilions, and stands for 
spectators. A bicycle track, three laps to the 
mile, is to be laid, and a gymnasium erected, and 
a boat-house built on the shore near by, and the 
total expenditure will, it is expected, amount to 
folly 13,000. 

There are two lines of tram cars,*both starting 
from opposite the railway station on the wharf, 
one proceeding in a north-westerly direction, pass- 
ing up St. Vincent street, and along Tragarete 
road, and stopping at the top of Tranquillity 
boulevard near the south-west corner of the sa- 
vanna ; the other proceeding in a north-easterly 
direction, passing up Frederick street, along Park 
street into St. Ann's road, and stopping at the 
north-east corner of the savanna, in the near 
vicinity of Government House and the Botanical 
Gardens. The cars run regularly every twenty 
minutes, with occasional extra ones at shorter 
intervals. 

The town is also well supplied with cabs, and 
hackney carriages can be hired by the hour or 
day. Communication by telephone is general 
throughout the city, all the principal places of 
business, the public offices, as well as numbers of 
private residences, being connected with the Tel- 
ephone Exchange. 



54 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 



CHAPTER IV. 

SAN FERNANDO, ST. JOSEPH, ARIMA, AND PRINCES* 

TOWN. 

San Fernando is distant from Port-of-Spain 
about forty-two miles, and is the second largest 
town of the colony. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE ROUTE. 

It is reached by rail from Port-of-Spain, and 
the route passes through a very interesting coun- 
try. The first object noticed after leaving Port- 
of-Spain is a plain white stone building on a hill. 
This is the government magazine for the storing 
of gunpowder, dynamite, ammunition, and other 
explosives and inflammable commodities, which 
the public are allowed to keep in limited quanti- 
ties. The quarries at the foot of the hills are 
worked by gangs of convicts, and furnish good 
material for road-making. High upon the hill 
is the little Church of our Lady of Laventille, a 
landmark for many miles ; near to it is Fort Pic- 
ton. The estate of Laventille belongs to Messrs. 
Turnbull ; the manager's house on the hill stands 
alone in its glory in a magnificent situation, the 
views from which are far-reaching. 

Mr. Andre Blazini's Barataria plantation is on 
the left just before coming to the village of San 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 55 

Juan. This village is situated about half a mile 
back from the track, and said to be older than 
St. Joseph's, and the inhabitants, in spite of its 
Droximity to the town, are very primitive in their 
labits. To the right of the San Juan railway 
station are seen five iron chimneys ; these are the 
works of the Colonial Company's El Socorro, 
where the system known as that of Fryer'^s Patent 
Concreter is in use. The road to the left leads 
to the lovely Santa Cruz valley. Rolling over 
the iron bridge, a glimpse is caught of the Roman 
Catholic church between the trees. 

On the right is the Aranjuez estate, also be- 
longing to Mr. A. Blazini ; it is considered very 
fertile. Besides its steam power, it can be also 
worked by a water wheel ; the odd-looking gutter 
which is seen supplies the motive power. A 
large building has been recently constructed for 
a complete vacuum pan plant. 

A little further on is a curious circular-shaped 
house, the original factory of the old St. Clair 
estate, where the mill was worked by cattle. The 
building near it, fenced in with iron railings, is 
the hospital for coolies. The crossing known as 
Le Vivier gap, just where the line curves, was 
the scene of one of the few serious accidents that 
have occurred since the formation of the railway. 
St. Joseph's District Hospital is seen on the left, 
near the railway station. 

Valsayn, the next estate on the right, belong- 
ing to Mr. P. Giuseppi, is a historic spot. The 
residence, though old, is certainly, from its asso- 
ciations, one of the most interesting places in the 



56 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

colony. In the drawing-room was signed by 
Don Chacon the Capitulation Treaty by which 
Trinidad became a British possession. Sir 
Ralph Abercrombie and Admiral Harvey were 
the two representatives of England on the occa- 
sion, and amongst those present was a certain 
Don Jose Mayan, who, as Teniente de Justicia 
Mayor of San Jose de Oruna, was an important 
functionary. The portraits of this gentleman, 
his wife and daughter, adorn the drawing-room 
now as they did nearly a hundred years ago, and 
Mr. Giuseppi points to these interesting heir- 
looms with justifiable pride. In 1525, when Sir 
Walter Raleigh steered his boats up the Caroni, 
landed his men, and set fire to St. Joseph, he 
marched through what is the Valsayn Orchard. 
This orchard contains all kinds of rare tropical 
fruit-trees, such as litchi, wang-pi, lokatu, from 
far-olF quarters of the globe. Qne rare specimen 
planted by Don Mayan is said to be the only 
one of the kind on the island. A few of the 
trees have been planted by royal hands ; thus 
two fine young palmistes were planted by the 
two English princes, sons of the Prince of Wales, 
when they were here in the " Bacchante " in 
1 88 1, and a couple of Portugal orange-trees in 
1886 by the Count and Countess de Bardi, a 
delicate compliment to the latter, who is a prin- 
cess of the House of Braganza. 

ST. JOSEPH. 

St. Joseph, which for many years was the 
Spanish capital, was founded about 1584 by Don 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 57 

Antonio de Berrio y Oruna, one of the first con- 
quistadores. It is beautifully situated on the 
rising ground at the foot of the northern ridge of 
hills. The Roman Catholic church, the only 
one in town, is a lofty edifice accommodating six 
hundred people. The foundation stone was laid 
by the energetic Sir Ralph Woodford in 1815. 
The fine stained-glass window representing the 
Holy Family was presented by the late Mrs. 
Bernard; the two smaller ones of SS. John and 
Andrew, by the late Mgr. Orsini. This hard- 
working priest, who was of noble Corsican birth, 
has a monument, with well-executed bust, to his 
memory on the south side of the chancel. In 
the church choir are buried Mgr. Nicolas Ger- 
vais de la Bride and his two chaplains, Franciscan 
monks, all of whom were killed by the Indians 
in 1733. In the churchyard are several curious 
old tombs which will bear inspection. 

The oldest society in the island is one con- 
nected with this church ; it still retains its Spanish 
name, " Soci^dad de Santissima Hermanidad," 
founded by Don Antonio de Berrio in 1644. 
Some of its records, which are carefully kept, 
date back far into the last century. Beyond the 
church is a savanna, where the barracks formerly 
stood, the main buildings being on the left of the 
road, the parade ground and stables on the right. 
In 1838 a serious mutiny broke out amongst the 
negro troops then stationed there, which was 
quelled only by considerable loss of life. Three 
of the ringleaders were sentenced to death, and 
were shot almost exactly where the convent now 



58 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

stands, at the east end of the savanna. A railed 
enclosure marks the graves of several English 
officers. 

From St. Joseph the railroad branches off in 
two directions ; one branch runs south to San 
Fernando, and the other east to Arima, which is 
the only other town besides Port-of-Spain and 
San Fernando that enjoys municipal government, 
which was granted by Royal Charter, Aug. i, 
1888. It is situated on the right bank of the 
Arima river sixteen miles from Port-of-Spain. 
The road from St. Joseph to Arima passes 
through some of the finest estates on the island ; 
from the estate of El Dorado, which is passed on 
the left, there runs a bridle-path which leads to 
one of Trinidad's most lovely valleys. To come 
to the island on pleasure and not ride up the 
Cura valley would be a great mistake. The 
luxuriant tropical vegetation, with its giant trees, 
gorgeous shrubs, fantastic creepers, and dainty 
Ferns lining the hillsides ; the deliciously cool 
and sparkling stream, now meandering gently 
along, then rushing down a miniature rapid, 
tumbling over huge bowlders and suddenly turn- 
ing round corners, — all gratify and charm the 
senses. There is another attraction in this 
vicinity that is not generally known ; in fact, so 
little is known of some parts of Trinidad that it 
was only in March, 1880, that Mr. L. J. Lange, 
surveyor, discovered one of the most beautiful 
waterfalls on the island. After riding about 
seven miles from El Dorado plantation, and fol- 
lowing a trail through the virgin forest for about 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 59 

a mile and a half, the traveller is rewarded with 
the sight of a splendid cascade, with a fall of about 
three hundred and fifty feet, with a far greater 
volume of water than thatot Maracas, and form- 
ing a basin of clear cold water at the foot, in which 
the bathing is superb. 

ARIMA. 

Arima was once the principal Indian settle- 
ment on the island. Being gradually driven 
eastward from the haunts of civilization, they 
left Tacarigua and Arouca to congregate round the 
heights of Arima, where the Capuchin monks 
established a mission, and which continued in 
charge of a priest, or padre ^ and Corregidor^ or mag- 
istrate, until after the British occupation, when 
they were placed under the Corregidor alone. 
The Indians enjoyed a sort of municipal govern- 
ment of their own ; each head of a family had 
his own allotment or conuco. They were treated 
as minors, and were governed by a code of rules 
which would at the present day be considered 
more suited for the management of school chil- 
dren than for the regulation of an able-bodied 
community owning and cultivating their own 
lands. The settlement, however, did not thrive, 
notwithstanding all this paternal care, and the 
aboriginal Indian race, which in 1783 had been 
reduced to 2,000, gradually dwindled away, and 
has now ceased to exist as a separate race. 
Joseph, the historian, attributes the gradual ex- 
tinction or absorption of the Indian race to the 
following cause. He says : " The Indian men. 



6o STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

since they are obliged to live in society, choose 
mates of other races, and the women do the 
same ; hence out of every seven children born of 
an Indian mother during the last thirty years 
there are scarcely two of pure blood." The 
festival of Santa Rosa, the patron saint of the 
mission, was in olden times a gala da^ with the 
Indians, and retained some of its ancient splendor 
even down to a comparatively recent period. 
Dancing, sports, and games were publicly held 
in Lord Harris's square, the inhabitants of the 
surrounding districts coming sometimes a long 
distance to take part in their gayeties. Even the 
Governor with his staff honored the proceedings 
with his presence. Now all is changed. Although 
the day is observed as a holiday, yet how differ- 
ent is the celebration ! The Indians with their 
newly elected king and queen, their dances and 
their sports, have long since passed away, and the 
principal and only public amusements of the day 
are the annual races, which have of recent years 
become quite an important event in the local 
sporting calendar. 

Arima, however, is fast coming into impor- 
tance. It is in the centre of one of the largest 
cocoa districts of the colony. It occupies a pict- 
uresque site at the foot of the northern range of 
mountains, and is well laid out, its streets being 
wide like those of Port-of-Spain, intersecting each 
other at right angles, with a plaza or square in the 
centre. The Arima Savanna, on which is the 
grand stand and where the annual races are held, 
is of good size. On the west side of the savanna 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 6i 

are the District Hospital and doctor's residence; 
at the north-east corner, the market. On Lord 
Harris's square is the stone Roman Catholic 
church ; on one side of the church is the pres- 
bytery, and on the other the convent school, 
while on the opposite side of the square are the 
Police Station and the Government School for 
Girls, that for the boys being near the Episcopal 
church. The different objects of interest on the 
line of the railway between Port-of-Spain and St. 
Joseph junction have been already described in 
the first part of this chapter. It will be necessary 
to take up the journey only from the point where 
the line branches off at St. Joseph. Here it 
turns off sharply and runs in a southerly direc- 
tion, leaving St. Augustin estate on the left ; after 
crossing the iron bridge over the Caroni the sta- 
tion is reached, which is named, like the district, 
after the river. Parties desiring alligator-shoot- 
ing frequently have their boats sent from town 
up the Caroni to meet them here or at the adja- 
cent estate of McLeod Plain. Still better sport, 
however, is to be obtained at a small lake about 
two miles inland known as Bejucal. Here alli- 
gators, wild birds, and the peculiar armor-coated 
cascadoura are found in quantities. Leaving the 
Caroni station on the right, the Wilderness plan- 
tation is passed, then comes the Mon Plaisir 
estate situated opposite the Cunupia station. 
This part of the country is becoming famous for 
the cultivation of tobacco and limes. The site 
for the little Episcopal chapel at Cunupia was 
given by a wealthy heathen coolie living here. 



62 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

The next station is Chaguanas. A village is 
gradually growing up in this neighborhood, and 
the forest and high woods in this vicinity are worth 
seeing; the railway passes through unopened 
lands, the huge trees, with their burden of para- 
sites, not having yet succumbed to the woodman's 
axe. The next station is Carapichaima ; near this 
village is the Orange Field plantation, where the 
Ramie Fibre Company have commenced opera- 
tions with about 150,000 plants. This gives 
promise of being the foundation of a flourishing 
and lucrative industry, the fibre working up 
splendidly, making textures of various degrees of 
strength and durability, from coarse sacking to 
fine damask. Mr. John Cummings, who is the 
largest resident proprietor in the island, and one 
of the most liberally disposed, owns a , series of 
estates, extending a distance of fully seven miles 
from Carapichaima. A part of this property is 
as yet uncultivated, and is, to all appearance, high 
woods, but is tenanted by a herd of wild cattle. 
Some years ago about fifteen head of cattle es- 
caped from Felicite estate, Chaguanas, and took 
to the woods. There is now not less than three 
hundred of them, and noble beasts some of them 
are. Occasionally, sportsmen and hunters come 
across a drove of them, when they immediately 
stampede. The next station is Couva, which is a 
fast-growing, flourishing district, comprising the 
villages of Exchange, California, Spring, and 
Freeport. Here in a cluster are the post-oflice, 
wardens, and savings-bank office, a Roman Cath- 
olic church and school, and police-station ; there 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 63 

is also, a short distance away, a new Presbyterian 
church and school, and the beautiful Episcopal 
church of St. Andrew. The train then passes 
over the muddy Couva river by the longest iron 
bridge on the island. 

California station is then passed and Claxton's 
Bay station reached ; on the left after leaving the 
latter station is the Plaisance estate ; here is one 
of the most interesting curiosities in the island, 
— two thermal springs. A bath-house has been 
erected covering two spacious concrete baths. 
The clear spring-water, apparently like any other 
till you become aware of its warmth, flows di- 
rectly into the baths from the hillside, in just 
such a stream as might be poured from a bucket. 
The temperature of the water is 100° to 105° 
Fahrenheit. Bathing here is particularly pleas- 
ant and soothing after the first strangeness of the 
unusual warmth has subsided. As these baths 
are private property, permission must be ob- 
tained to use same from the owner or manager 
of the estate. 

Rolling over the viaduct, near which is the 
government school, the Roman Catholic church 
Pointe a Pierre is seen on the hill, commanding 
a fine view. At Marbella junction passengers 
going towards Princes' Town change to the 
Guaracara railway, which here branches oflF. Pur- 
suing our course to San Fernando, the Guara- 
cara river is crossed and a good view of the gulf 
obtained on the right, and Marbella works 
owned by Mr. A. P. Marryat on the opposite 
eminence. The pastures with their trees dotted 



64 STABK'S GUIDE BOOK 

about appear like an English park. As the 
gulf is approached, quantities of pelicans are 
seen flying busily about searching for their prey ; 
sometimes they swoop down straight as an arrow 
for the unwary fish they have spotted during 
their flight. The white egrets, too, look very 
pretty wading through the shallow water or 
stalking along the muddy banks. Passing an 
abandoned estate and skirting the Naparima hill, 
we arrive at San Fernando de Naparima, as it 
was originally named. 

SAN FERNANDO. 

The town was founded a few years before the 
British occupation by Governor Chacon. It 
soon had a market in a square called Plaza de 
San Carlos, its church cemetery, and rest-house 
for travellers called " Casa Real." In 1818 the 
old town was completely destroyed by a large 
fire. 

High street, the chief business thoroughfare, 
contains a number of well arranged, amply 
stocked stores. Harris promenade is the centre 
of a number of public institutions ; near here are 
the hospital, market, the Presbyterian, Episco- 
palian, Roman Catholic, Methodist, and Baptist 
churches, police barracks, fire-brigade station, 
town hall, and convent. 

A large proportion of the inhabitants of San 
Fernando are coolies. The houses of these 
people are small and lightly built, and furnish- 
ing the best of them involves but little expendi- 
ture ; there is no glass in the windows, there are 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 65 

no chimneys, all the cooking being done out- 
doors ; no beds, tables, or chairs. The inmates 
sleep on the floor, eat the few morsels of their 
scanty meals while seated on their heels, cuddling 
around a few jugs and dishes of the rudest earth- 
enware set in the middle of the room. A recent 
writer, describing the coolies at San Fernando, 
says : 

COOLIE SILVERSMITH. 

" I was much entertained and interested in 
watching a coolie man at work, squatting on his 
heels in the open doorway of a wrecked and dis- 
jointed shanty. He was bending over an earth- 
enware furnace, in size and shape resembling a 
top-hat, beside which there were a block of wood 
(twelve or fifteen inches square, overlaid with a 
fragment of iron boiler-plate half an inch in 
thickness) which served as an anvil, and a 
few rude tools ; these, with the flower-pot fur- 
nace, completed the outfit of a Hindu silversmith, 
for of that craft was the object of my curiosity. 
The implements of this artificer's profession were 
ancient and worn, cumbersome and unwieldy ; 
nevertheless, he plied his trade with no little 
skill, and what he lacked in conveniences and 
ingenuity he made up for by perseverance and 
diligence. 

" One of my companions, having made a bar- 
gain with the smith, handed him three English 
florins which he desired to have manufactured into 
one bangle of the choicest East Indian design and 
workmanship. 

"The coolie man heated the coins, cut them into 



66 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

narrow pieces, of which he welded the ends to- 
gether, using hammer and anvil, thus making a 
bar four or five inches long, and, as I remember, 
two or three lines in width and thickness. Cover- 
ing one end of this strip of metal with damp 
clay to protect his fingers from the heat, the 
bangle-maker stuck the silver into the diminu- 
tive charcoal fire, which he set aglow by blowing 
through a tube similar in appearance to a glass- 
blower's pipe. When the metal was at a dull- 
red heat he beat it soundly, forging it round and 
smooth to the diameter of telegraph wire ; then, 
carefully bending it in a circle, joined the two 
ends, welding them together neatly and with de- 
spatch. This done, and the joint having been 
covered with a rough mass of hot silver fashioned 
into a ball of the size of a small cherry, the 
Hindu held out the half-finished trinket for our 
inspection and approval. He next smoothed and 
polished the surface of the ball by hammering ; 
then he graved and stamped it with various dies, 
cutting simple, conventional patterns of irregular 
design. 

" Next, having selected a small silver serpent 
from an assortment of ready-made devices and 
charms which he kept in a cocoanut shell, he 
plunged it into the fire, and blew through his 
blow-pipe until the cobra became blood-red. 
Pinching the reptile's tail between two bits of 
moist clay, the Hindu drew it from the fire and, 
before it lost its angry hue, deftly corkscrewed 
the emblem of immortality around the wire of 
the bangle in four complete coils, all the time 



AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD, 67 

tapping the snake here and there gently with his 
mallet, in this way fastening it securely in its 
place. Plunging the ornament into a calabash 
of cocoanut oil, he waited until the serpent ceased 
hissing, and the Indian bracelet was then ready 
to be clasped on the wrist of whomsoever my 
gallant gentleman had in his mind when he 
round it in his heart to give the order for it. 

" The jeweller handed the bangle to my friend, 
and requested the payment of three shillings ; 
one for business he explained, tapping himself 
significantly on the breast-bone, and two for her, 
indicating the coiled serpent. He thus gave us 
to understand that he charged two shillings for 
the silver of which the coiling reptile was made, 
and one shilling only for business ; that is, for the 
time and labor expended in the manufacture of 
the trinket. 

" The price was reasonable enough, for at nine 
shillings the bangle would have been cheap, even 
if the metal in her (the serpent) had been of base 
alloy, and we had no reason to believe it was not 
of sterling silver ; moreover, we knew that the 
wire of the ornament contained the six shillings' 
worth of British coin which my companion had 
supplied from his own pocket." 

princes' town. 

Princes' Town, formerly known as the mission 
of Savanna Grande, is another of the old Indian 
missions. It is a pretty and thriving township 
situated about eight miles east of San Fernando. 
Its change of name was made in 1880, in honor 



6S STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

of the visit of the two sons of the Prince of 
Wales. It can be reached easily either by the 
Cipero tramway, which conveniently connects 
High street with the heart of Princes' Town, or 
by the railway, changing to the Guaracara line at 
Marbella junction. A far pleasanter way, how- 
ever, of seeing the Naparima country is to ride or 
drive there, going by the north road and return- 
ing by the south. Carriages can be obtained at 
San Fernando. 

The great attraction of Princes' Town is the 
Mud volcano. This has always been an object 
of interest to visitors, though many have been 
disappointed at its tame appearance. It consists 
of a flat bare mud-circle of about a hundred 
yards in diameter, dotted here and there with 
conical mounds of from one to three feet in 
height, the summit of these forming tiny craters 
from which ooze bubbles of muddy water. 

On Feb. 3, 1887, about five o'clock in the 
morning, the residents of this neighborhood were 
alarmed by a terrible roaring and rumbling sound 
which seemed to issue from the adjacent woods. 
This continued for about thirty seconds, then sud- 
denly ceased, and on the proprietor of the Hin- 
dustan estate hastening to the Mud volcano, he 
found that an eruption had just taken place, and 
had caused the surface to rise four or five feet 
above its former height, and increased the area 
fully half as much again. Several dry trunks 
and branches of trees, and a few even of the 
growing ones which had originally skirted the 
mud, were now embedded in it. There appeared 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 69 

to have been a series of explosions following each 
other in rapid succession, the weight of the sec- 
ond load or mud vomited forth causing the first 
to bulge out, the third having a similar effect on 
the second, and so on, giving the whole a strati- 
fied appearance. The path approaching the 
scene was rent in several places, the fissures 
being from four to six inches wide at the top. 
The negroes call this place " The Devil's Wood- 
yard," and do not like it at all. " Too much jum- 
bies," they say. The water is slightly brackish 
in flavor, and at times emits a smell suggestive of 
asphalt. Some persons suppose it to be con- 
nected in some manner with the Pitch lake. On 
analysis the water is found to contain common 
salt iodine with traces of carbonate of lime. 
There are other " salses " in the island, a very 
large one at Cedros, another at Montserrat, and 
a small one on a cacao estate in Caroni. 



70 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 



CHAPTER V. 

INHABITANTS. 

Trinidad contains the greatest mixture of races 
it is possible to find anywhere ; in no part of 
the globe of equal size is such a diversity of races 
and nationalities found as in this colony. 

ABORIGINES. 

When Columbus discovered Trinidad it was 
peopled by a race of Indians with fairer com- 
plexions than any he had hitherto seen, people 
of good stature, well made, and very graceful 
bearing, with much smooth hair. They be- 
longed to that portion of the Indian race whom 
the Spaniards called Caribs, or man-eaters ; they 
had come from Guiana on the mainland, and had 
conquered all the Lesser Antilles as far as St. 
Thomas, and destroyed the peaceable inhabitants, 
as the Spaniards soon did on the Greater An- 
tilles. 

Of all the islands inhabited by the Caribs Trini- 
dad was the first one occupied by the Spaniards, 
and here as on the other Caribbee Islands they 
found a more warlike race to deal with than the 
natives of the Bahamas and the Greater Antilles. 
In common, however, with all the Indian races 



AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD, 7 1 

of the New World, they suffered ruthlessly at the 
hands of the invaders. Many were stolen and 
carried as slaves to the other Spanish possessions, 
numbers fell in the incessant conflicts with the 
Spaniards, and still greater numbers were carried 
off by diseases introduced by the whites, until, 
1783, the total Indian population numbered only 
2,032. At the date of the capitulation that 
number had declined to 1,082, and thirty years 
later to barely 700. At the present time, the 
only representatives of the original possessors of 
the soil are a few scattered families of more or 
less mixed descent. 

SPANISH AND FRENCH. 

Previously to the passing of the Cedula in 
1783, which led to the emigration of the French 
to Trinidad from St. Domingo, Martinique, and 
Guadeloupe, the Spanish population, including 
whites and negroes, amounted to only 1,000. 
After the promulgation of the Cedula, the popu- 
lation in a few years increased to 12,000, so that 
Trinidad, although a Spanish possession, had be- 
come in 1786 almost entirely French in popu- 
lation. In that year the Cabildo or government 
of Port-of-Spain was composed of seven French- 
men, two Spaniards, and one Irishman. This is 
the reason why French is spoken much more in 
Trinidad than Spanish. 

The population at this time and after the 
conquest of the island by the British was still 
further augmented by the importation of African 
slaves. 



72 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

NEGROES. 

This section of the population is fast dying 
out. Of 8,0 1 o natives of Africa returned in the 
census of 1851, only 2,055 remained in 1891, 
more than half of whom were over sixty years of 
age, so that in a few decades this once important 
section of the population will become a thing of 
the past. About one-half of the population 
of Trinidad is of African descent, including many 
from other British West Indies, principally from 
Barbados. 

CHINESE AND EAST INDIANS. 

Nearly one-third of the population are from 
the East Indies or of East Indian descent. The 
remaining one-sixth consists of whites and their 
descendants of British, French, Spanish, Portu- 
guese, Corsican, and Venezuelan extraction, tOr 
gether with about 1,000 Chinese, imported at 
first as laborers, but who, not taking kindly to 
estate work, have developed into shopkeepers, 
gardeners, and servants. Most of them appear 
to do well, and many have amassed considerable 
wealth. The Chinese, unlike the East Indians, 
have intermarried freely among the negro or col- 
ored women, and their descendants are being 
gradually merged in the general population. 
Very few East Indians have intermarried except 
with their own countrywomen, including in that 
term females born in the colony, or Indian 
parents. This may be accounted for from the 
fact that the East Indian coolies bring their 
women with them, whereas the Chinese do not. 



I 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 73 

and also on account of the caste system that 
exists among the former. After the abolition of 
slavery it was found to be impossible to get the 
negroes to work on the sugar plantations where 
they had been employed while slaves. Either 
the sugar colonies had to be abandoned or a 
fresh supply of labor obtained. The remedy 
was the importing of coolies, or laborers (which 
is the meaning of the word), from India and 
China, but principally from the former country. 

INTRODUCTION OF COOLIES. 

In 1839 ^^ British government appointed 
emigration agents at Calcutta to superintend and 
regulate the exportation, under certain well-de- 
fined and carefully considered restrictions, of all 
able-bodied coolies who were desirous of cross- 
ing the sea in search of work they could not find 
to do at home. On their arrival in the colonies 
the immigrants are inspected by the health officers, 
and none are permitted to land in either Trinidad 
or Demerara until they have bound themselves 
to work for a term of years on plantations to 
which they are assigned by the government. In 
making this allotment great care is exercised not 
to separate families or friends, and in the event 
of the marriage of a coolie woman at any time 
during her indentured term she follows her hus- 
band to the place of his employment. Planters 
who desire to receive the services of these field 
hands are obliged to execute a contract with the 
colonial authorities, agreeing to provide food, 
clothing, suitable lodging, and medical attendance 



74 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

for their laborers. The coolies are compelled to 
labor six working days of seven and a half hours 
each in every week, receiving about thirteen cents 
for every day they faithfully perform their task. 
At first an equal number of coolie men and 
women were imported to the colonies, but in 1 840 
the proportion of women was reduced to one- 
third of the whole number of men. In 1844 the 
indentured term of service, which until then was 
three years, was extended to five years, and it was 
provided that in all subsequent indentures there 
should be inserted a clause guaranteeing to all 
Hindoos who desired to return home at the end 
of their term a free passage to India. In 1853 
the law was further amended to permit the coolies 
to reindenture themselves for a second term of 
five years, or, if disposed, to commute any part of 
their unfulfilled contract by the repayment of a 
proportionate part of their indenture fee. 

The colonial government reserves the right to 
remove the laborers from any plantation where 
they are badly treated, and reindenture them to 
more humane employers. Any coolie who re- 
fuses to work is fined a day's pay for each and 
every day he neglects to perform his bounden 
duty ; and all these laborers are indentured to the 
plantation and not to the planter, so that changes 
in the ownership of plantations are not neces- 
sarily attended, nor often followed, by the removal 
of the coolies, who go with the land, as did the 
Russian serf before the day of his emancipation. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 75 



BENEFIT OF COOLIE IMMIGRATION. 

The benefits that have accrued from Indian 
immigration have been twofold : it has benefited 
the colony both directly and indirectly, while the 
immigrants have also derived many and solid 
advantages from it, which may be judged from 
the fact that at the end of 1892 their agricult- 
ural holdings amounted to an aggregate of over 
40,000 acres, while of a total or ;;^i 57,769 
deposited in the government savings banks, 
£h6{]\(i were coolie deposits, and this was in 
addition to savings amounting to ^124,290 
carried back to India by the immigrants who re- 
turned during the ten years 1883 to 1892, as 
well as a further sum of ^^"19,8x7 remitted during 
the same period to their friends in India, making 
a total of no less than ^144,107. Since the im- 
portation of the coolies, commerce has taken 
wonderful strides, the export of sugar has in- 
creased fivefold and that of cocoa threefold, yet 
notwithstanding this favorable showing of the 
great importance that the coolie element is to 
the colony, there is a strong opposition by the 
colored and negro part of the community against 
its continuance; they fear the* Indian on account 
of his great industry and frugality. 

WHAT WOULD RESULT FROM NEGRO RULE. 

If it were not for the coolie population in Trini- 
dad and Demerara, the large estates would be 
abandoned by the white cultivators, and they would 
fall gradually into the bush or the hands of a 



76 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

negro population who are invincibly idle and will 
not do a stroke more work than will provide them 
a bare subsistence. The Trinidad negro will not 
work on the sugar estates ; the laborers other than 
coolies are from Barbados, that being the only- 
island where they do work, as they are compelled 
to do so or starve ; for Barbados is over-popu- 
lated, and there is not any wild land for them to 
squat on, every foot of land being under cul- 
tivation. Therefore if coolie immigration is 
stopped and the labor supply dependent upon 
the negroes, Trinidad will return to a state of 
savagery as bad as San Domingo or Hayti, 
What motive have the negroes for work ? 
Clothes except for display are cumbersome and 
inconvenient in such a climate. No artistic tastes 
have been developed among them. The shelter 
of a few palm branches is quite as useful as the 
grandest mansion. As to food, a plantain or 
mango eaten in the open air suffices. They have 
coffee, cocoa, and sugar at hand, and as to liq- 
uors, new rum has hitherto held the palm over 
champagnes, clarets, and all expensive European 
products. Why, then, should they work ? 
Nature provides them with all they want. In 
some few generations, perhaps, they may recog- 
nize class distinction, but unfortunately the 
leaning of the negro raCe is back to barbarism, 
and ir the white element in these islands dis- 
appears, then hats and clothes will disappear 
also, and the natural man reappear. One great 
incentive to work among Europeans is the main- 
tenance of a certain position or rank, and a 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 77 

desire to uphold the family. The negro has none 
of this. He is, so to speak, his own ancestor. 
He has no family pride. Whether he has be- 
come rich and can ride in a carriage, or remains 
Eoor and walks about with a breech cloth only, 
e claims equal respect and attention from his 
fellows. All are alike, the sons and daughters 
of slaves, and the negro with irreproachable hat 
and dress vvill chat with, as an equal, the negro 
without any. The great difficulty that presents 
itself to those who hope to excite emulation, and 
so stimulate activity, in the negro population is 
this total want of family or class pride. 

PECULIAR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EAST 

INDIANS. 

All this is reversed with the East Indians. They 
congregate by themselves, avoiding as much as 
possible the society of all mankind but their own 
countrymen. They number about 80,000, or one- 
third of the population. They may be classed 
as Hindoos, Mohammedans, and Christians. 

The Hindoos form by far the largest section, 
and are divided into a number of castes. Here is 
where the great difference lies between them and 
the negroes. The East Indian goes to the other 
extreme. Brahminism, with its elaborate system 
of priesthood, castes, and mystic rites, attained its 
full sacerdotal force about seven hundred years be- 
fore the Christian era. Of all castes the Brahmin 
is preeminent. The next in order is Kshatriya, 
comprising the principal families and military ; 
then the Vaisiya, or persons engaged in commer- 



78 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

cial or agricultural pursuits ; Sudra, or servants, 
is the lowest, although these classes are capable 
of an almost infinite number of subdivisions or 
grades, as for example the Chamars, or workers in 
leather, who are esteemed the lowest of the Sudras, 
since they mutilate the hide of the sacred ox. 
Some are thought so unworthy as not to be ad- 
mitted into even the meanest of the above classes ; 
such are called pariahs or outcasts. The distinc- 
tions are not easily defined by the uninitiated, but 
they are none the less carefully observed, and the 
smallest infringement is a deadly sin. Different 
castes cannot intermarry, and should hold scarcely 
the slightest intercourse one with the other, a de- 
gree of exclusiveness which the haughty Brah- 
mins carry to such an excess that the mere 
shadow of a Sudra cast upon their food will con- 
taminate it. 

CASTE DISTINCTIONS. 

There is no doubt that Hindoos coming to 
colonies like Trinidad, far away from the land of 
their birth, would like to lessen the burden of 
caste, but this they neither dare nor can do ; the 
mere fact of crossing the ocean plunges any man, 
whether Brahmin or Sudra, into depths of degra- 
dation, though the relative distance between them 
remains the same. This is an important point, 
for the general impression is that all castes sink to 
the same level, which is by no means the case; 
they fall an equal distance, but the one still con- 
tinues to be immeasurably the superior of the 
other. In the case of the agricultural laborer 
the " sceptre of the maharaja Brahmin dwindles 




COOLIE BtULY.. 



to the :ns:z=i^ii-*:t :•:' l :.:it :jlz.i. t. : .* l ** 
same he tjls i. i^m^z Z-^r. t" t: tirtr .: l* i * 
looks, poir £i " t rLi" :»t v- 1:. :^.rr-*"" -.f-:^ 
upon his -r.ftriiri .r. iiLrTi^. 

2I1C1 i.ne ^ii^nni*- ,* r. « r i tt. zt r. ' 't'*'t "i 1 1 r~i l.- • l 
and Hos-rir.. thr tis : f-i r_f ::' .- . - v -. >:- - . - 

are the 2Tt:a:tri: Zir-z-t^r. T*.t ?.-.- - '-- -*- 
part do nor rrvfrtr.it --.tr.. - _: - t-t -r: r* - 
them as ho!y .-r.rr. : i'lt-. ft- :-= l-~ ; : :-t -■ - : -■ 
ingofthe " Mir.i:." V -.: v :-- - r" ^ . • * ". 

but the Sur.r.:* tvre:-: '. .". " -t 1.= 1 :.-:_-• 
than a peace.T.iktr. 

PHYSICAL Arrl.-.? -. • :i •- " 1-7 . - 

Phvs:ca'.>r t'-.t F-2^=: T- :i- :-' t ■ -. 

shaped, with rt^j^.i,^ :fi*--t- 1-: --1;;-- - : 
hair; some havt :-.. -ri-i-. .•-.-•■ -. -l.'^ 
and imper:£;S : txitr : :r. : . . ■ r :'.t ■ 1 - ■ " t * 1 " 
appearance as L-rirt-ir.- — - :i:* *'■■ 
to the Aryan Tzzt. ir'^rr. v -.:.-. ^ . r. - *- : -:l ' 1 
descended. 

Many of the -a orr.tr. I't vt- -t:i-* *- 
following descript: or. :yi rtit-: ' '*-:' ' L" 

a good idea of this tytt ,:' ri.- 

along the shady side o: i v.; :-.- i.- . * - '•'^•.^ 
overtook a young gir.. I ^ '. . - . ' '= ■: : '^' ' ■; 
her had I not s.acktntl .'.'.; ^1- •'-,' ^ i" 
within a few steps or .'.tr. i' - • '- •: ' ^' ' .'• 
measuring my paces a::' r.j' . * . ^- •. - ' • ' 
the unknown wavfartr — r-: :•:'••- -' '-* 
proper distance — to st-uy :.r. - i^ :::..:•- ' .' 



AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD. 79 

to the insignificance of a hoe handle/' but all the 
same he has a certain dignity to keep up, and he 
looks, poor as he may be, with haughty disdain 
upon his inferiors in caste. 

The two chief Mussulman sects are the Shiahs 
and the Sunnis. The former reverence Hassan 
and Hosein, the two sons of Ali in whose honor 
are the greatest festivals. The Sunnis for their 
part do not reverence them, but merely recognize 
them as holy men ; both sects anticipate the com- 
ing of the " Mahdi," who will set right all wrongs 
and restore peace and happiness to the universe, 
but the Sunnis expect him more as a conqueror 
than a peacemaker. 

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE OF EAST INDIANS. 

Physically the East Indian coolie is well 
shaped, with regular features and straight black 
hair ; some have full beards, others mustaches 
and imperials ; except in color they have the same 
appearance as Europeans — in fact, they belong 
to the Aryan race, from which all Europeans are 
descended. 

Many of the women are very beautiful. The 
following description by a recent writer will give 
a good idea of this type of beauty : " Strolling 
along the shady side of a wide and busy street, I 
overtook a young girl. I should have passed 
her had I not slackened my gait when I came 
within a few steps of her, and, walking softly, 
measuring my paces with hers, followed behind 
the unknown wayfarer — respectfully and at a 
proper distance — to study and admire her cos- 



8o STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

tume, which was so neatly fitted to her slight and . 
charming figure, so tastefiilly disposed, draped in 
such dainty folds and graceful gatherings, that 
the wearer of it made a most attractive picture. 
" Her little feet were bare ; nevertheless, she 
trod firmly, stepping lightly, with graceful poise. 
From time to time the maiden' stopped to gaze 
into the shop-windows, viewing with eager, spark- 
ling eyes the wonders so attractive to her. 
When she halted thus to feast her eyes, I passed 
ahead of her ; then, halting, waited till she, in 
turn, passed me again. In this way I was en- 
abled to inspect, with approving criticism, the 
object of my admiration, from tip to toe, and 
from every point of view. In time, I made a 
mental catalogue of her appearance from which 
an ingenious artist could paint a full-length pict- 
ure of her. I noticed that her teeth were regular 
and white, mouth small and regular, lips full and 
pouting ; head gracefully poised, face oval, Gre- 
cian in type ; nose delicate, straight, finely, 
chiselled ; ears small, well shaped, and well put 
on ; hair glossy, raven-black, straight and long, 
braided carefully with dexterous fingers, and tied 
at the ends with orange ribbons ; hands small 
and covered with rings ; and now, alas ! I must 
confess this Aryan kinswoman of mine was as 
brown as any coolie on the island, and all her 
East Indian sisters are as dusky as richest rose- 
wood, as brown and dark as rarest mahogany. 
She was not a daughter of Ham nor a child of 
Shem, but, like myself, a descendant of Father 
Japhet, a pure-blooded Hindoo, albeit of low 




COOLIE MAN AND W\7t. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 8i 

caste. Except for her sable color, she might 
have served for a study of a Caucasian beauty, for 
the model of a Grecian Psyche, an Italian conta- 
dina, a Gretchen, an English boarding-school 
miss, a freshwoman of Vassar." 

The coolies are happy and contented in Trini- 
dad. They save money, and many of them do 
not return home when their time is out, but stay 
where they are, buy land, or go into trade. The 
negro affects to look down upon them and regard 
them as inferiors, because they are in bondage as 
they themselves were once. The coolie, however, 
knows his position, he is proud of his ancestry 
and the ancient civilization of his race. His an- 
cestors were the most highly civilized people on 
the earth at a time when the white man, clothed 
in skins, dwelt in caves and battled for his very 
existence with the wild beasts, with only a club 
fpr a weapon. 

DOMESTIC LIFE OF THE COOLIE. 

The coolie will not intermarry with the 
African, and as there are not as many women 
brought with them from India as formerly, 
these women are tempted occasionally into in- 
fidelities, and would be tempted more often, 
but a lapse in virtue is so fearfully avenged. 
There is but one serious crime prevalent in the 
colony, and that is committed by the East Indian 
who with one sweep of his machete beheads his 
wife if she proves unfaithful to him. Such a case 
as this is unknown among the negro population, 
as very few of them are bound by the marriage 



82 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

tie. In fact, the negro woman does not care to be 
married, for her husband obliges her to work for 
him while he remains in idleness ; but if she is not 
married, then he has to work to support the 
family and treat her kindly or she will leave 
him. This is shown by the statistics. About 
seventy per cent, of the births in the colony are 
illegitimate. 

VENEZUELANS. 

Port-of-Spain always swarms with expatriated 
Venezuelan generals of all sorts and kinds, mostly 
impecunious and ready to accept a dollar or a 
dinner from any one disposed to offer either of 
these articles, while they retain all the pride and 
dignity of heroes fallen from high estate. Here 
they wait until some bolder spirit makes a new pro- 
nunciamento, when they hurry eagerly to fall like 
vultures on their poor native country, plunder- 
ing everywhere, and murdering without remorse 
any unfortunates of the other party who may 
chance to fall into their hands. If the venture 
succeeds, then they become an everlasting drag 
on the new government, claiming rewards for 
services never rendered, often obtaining grants 
and concessions ruinous to all trade ; or if the 
venture fails, either the leader having come to 
some private understanding with the government, 
by which he is to be paid to retire and desert his 
followers, or by some other general making some 
private arrangement to betray his leader and all 
the rest, — then, in either of these cases, the sur- 
vivors return to their lair in Trinidad to await a 
more fortunate opportunity. There is, however. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 83 

another ciass of Venezuelans in Trinidad that is 
an honor to the colony. I refer to the merchants 
and planters of Venezuela that have been obliged 
to leave that country on account of the insecurity 
that exists there in regard to life and property, 
and who have taken up their residence perma- 
nently in Trinidad. 



84 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 



CHAPTER VI. 

GOVERNMENT. 

The government of Trinidad is vested in a 
Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legisla- 
tive Council, all of whom are nominated by the 
Crown. The Governor ranks as Commander- 
in-Chief and Vice- Admiral and receives a salary 
of jCSjOOO. His private secretary and aid-de- 
camp ranks as captain. 

The Executive Council consists of the Gover- 
nor, who is the President, and the Colonial 
Secretary, Attorney-General, Auditor-General, 
Commandant of the Local Forces, and two 
appointed members. 

The Legislative Council consists of the 
Governor, who is President, Commandant of 
the Local Forces, Attorney- General, Solicitor- 
General, Auditor-General, Director of Public 
Works, Surgeon-General, Protector of Immi- 
grants, Receiver-General, and Collector of Cus- 
toms. There are also eleven unofficial members 
appointed from the diffisrent districts of the island 
which they represent. 

FROUDE ON HOME RULE IN TRINIDAD. 

To say anything concerning the government 
of Trinidad is touching on a very tender subject 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 85 

on which the inhabitants are very sensitive. I 
am reminded of this by the storm of abuse that 
broke over the devoted head of James Anthony 
Froude, the well-known historian, when he pub- 
lished in his book ^ the opinions he held on this 
subject. He said in part : " The popular ora- 
tors, the newspaper writers, and some of the 
leading merchants in Port-of-Spain had dis- 
covered that they were living under what they 
called ' a degrading tyranny.' They had no 
grievances, or none that they alleged, beyond 
the general one that they had no control over 
the finance. They very naturally desired that the 
lucrative government appointments for which 
the colony paid should be distributed among 
themselves. 

" But why, it may be asked, should not Trin- 
idad govern itself as well as Tasmania or New 
Zealand ? Why not Jamaica, why not all the 
West Indian islands ? I will answer by another 
question. Do we wish these islands to remain a 
part of the British empire } Are they of any 
use to us, or have we the responsibilities con- 
nected with them, of which we are not entitled to 
divest ourselves ? A government elected by the 
majority of the people (and no one would think 
of setting up constitutions on any other basis) 
reflects from the nature of things the character of 
the electors. All these islands tend to become 
partitioned into black peasant proprietaries. In 
Grenada the process is almost complete. In 
Trinidad it is rapidly advancing. No one can 



1 (( 



The English in the West Indies." 



i 



86 STAI^K'S GUIDE BOOK 

stop it. No one ought to wish to stop it. But 
the ownership of freeholds is one thing, and 
political power is another. The blacks depend 
for the progress they are capable of making on 
the presence of a white community among them ; 
and although it is undesirable or impossible for 
the blacks to be ruled by the minority of the 
white residents, it is equally undesirable and 
equally impossible that the whites should be 
ruled by them. The relative numbers of the two 
races being what they are, responsible govern- 
ment in Trinidad means government by a black 
parliament and a black ministry. The negro 
voters might elect to begin with their half-caste 
attorneys, or such whites (the most disreputable 
of their color) as would court their suffrages. 
But the black does not love the mulatto, and 
despises the white man who consents to be his 
servant. He has no grievances. He is not 
naturally a politician, and if left alone with his 
own patch of land will never trouble to look 
further. But he knows what has happened in 
San Domingo. He has heard that his race is 
already in full possession of the finest of all the 
islands. If he has any thoughts or any hopes 
about the matter, it is that it may be with the 
rest of them as it has been with San Domingo ; 
and if you force the power into his hands, you 
must expect him to use it. Under the constitu- 
tion which you might set up, whites and blacks 
would be nominally equal, but from the enor- 
mous preponderance of numbers the equality 
would be only in name, and such English people, 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 87 

at least, as would be really of any value would 
refuse to remain in a false and intolerable posi- 
tion. 

" Already the English population of Trinidad 
is dwindling away under the uncertainties of their 
future position. Complete the work ; set up a 
constitution with a black prime minister and a 
black legislature, and they will withdraw of 
themselves before they are compelled to go. 
Spaniards and French might be tempted by 
advantages of trade to remain in Port-of-Spain, 
as a few are still to be found in Hayti. They, 
it is possible, might in time recover and reassert 
their supremacy. Englishmen have the world 
open to them, and will prefer lands where they 
can live under less degrading conditions. In 
Hayti, the black republic allows no white man 
to hold land in freehold. The blacks elsewhere, 
with the same opportunities, will develop the 
same aspirations. In the Pacific colonies self- 
government is a natural right ; the colonists are 
a part of ourselves, and have as complete a claim 
to the management of their own affairs as we 
have to the management of ours. The less we 
interfere with them, the more heartily they iden- 
tify themselves with us. But if we choose, 
besides, to indulge our ambition with an empire, 
if we determine to keep attached to our domin- 
ions countries which, like the East Indies, have 
been conquered by the sword, countries, like the 
West Indies, which, however acquired, are occu- 
pied by races enormously outnumbering us, 
many of whom do not speak our language, are 



88 STAjRK'S guide BOOK 

not connected with us by sentiment, and not 
visibly connected by interest, with whom our 
own people will not intermarry or hold social 
intercourse, but keep aloof from, as superior 
from inferior, — to impose on such countries 
forms of self-government at which we ourselves 
have but lately arrived, to put it in the power of 
these overwhelming numbers to shake us off if 
they please, and to assume that, when our real 
motive has been only to save ourselves trouble, 
they will be warmed into active loyalty by grati- 
tude for the confidence which we pretend to 
place in thern, is to try an experiment which we 
have not the slightest right to expect to be suc- 
cessful, and which, if it fails, is fatal.'* 

NEGRO RULE IN THE UNITED STATES. 

This view of Mr. Froude's is a correct one. 
The experiment has been tried in the Southern 
States, the result of which is fully set forth by 
the writer in a recent publication.^ The great 
Civil War in the United States ended in 1865, 
and the Confederacy lay crushed and dead. 
Before admitting the lately revolted States into 
the Union again, a bill was introduced into Con- 
gress for the extension of the suffrage to the 
negroes in the late Confederate States. The bill 
was passed in March, 1867, in spite of President 
Johnson's veto, and the President was impeached. 
Now, indeed, the Southern States were about to 
pay dearly for their attempt at independence, 

* Stark's *' History and Guide of Barbados and the Caribbee 
Islands." 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 89 

They had fought, and poured forth blood and 
treasure ; they had been beaten, and they had 
submitted, but they were not forgiven. Hence- 
forth, for a season, the blacks, ignorant, super- 
stitious, and corrupt, were to enslave them. A 
solid South was created ; and the United States, 
united only in name, became practically two 
nations. 

Here was the outcome, the ripe, perfected fruit 
of the boasted civilization of the South after two 
hundred years of experience. A white commu- 
nity had gradually risen from small beginnings, 
till it grew into wealth, culture, and refinement, 
and became accomplished in all the arts of civili- 
zation ; had successfully asserted its resistance to 
unjust laws by deeds of conspicuous valor ; had 
achieved liberty and independence, and distin- 
guished itself in the councils of the nation by 
orators and statesmen worthy of any age and 
nation, and had just passed through a sectional 
war in which it had poured out its blood and 
treasure like water. Such a community was 
reduced to this wretched condition, for eight 
years lying prostrate in the dust, ruled over by 
Africans but half civilized, gathered from the 
ranks of its servile population, presenting such 
a picture of corruption, extravagance, and legis- 
lative wickedness as never prevailed elsewhere 
outside of Hayti. 

After eight years the bitter feeling in the North 
towards the South gradually changed, and new 
questions arose that divided the solid Republican 
majority. Hayes, the Republican candidate for 



90 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

President, promised that if he was elected he 
would remove the troops from the South. Here 
was the South's opportunity at last, as it held the 
balance of power. They trusted Hayes, and 
gave him their electoral votes. He was as good 
as his word ; the troops were removed. Federal 
interference in State affairs ceased. United 
States bayonets could no longer support the 
negro in his constitutional rights. The Anglo- 
Saxon reasserted his authority to rule, and from 
that day a " Solid South " has existed. It has 
created a political feeling that occupies the first 
place in the heart of every Southern white man, 
that feeling in itself a political creed, stronger 
than the creed of Republican or Democrat, and 
it may be thus formulated : " You have freed our 
slaves, and, far from regretting, we rejoice in what 
you have done. Without properly consulting 
us, you have given those ex-slaves the suffrage 
and civil rights. There you greatly erred. 
While we will admit that some negroes and col- 
ored persons are fit to exercise the suffrage, we 
are of opinion that the vast majority of them are 
incapable of it, either for their own welfare or to 
the benefit of the white people among whom they 
live, and to the general advantage of the nation. 
Apart from this opinion of ours, and quite 
regardless of the question whether that opinion 
be sound or not, we are steadfastly determined 
never to submit to any form, direct or indirect, 
of negro government. We have experienced 
this form of government, and we intend, there- 
fore, to risk no more of it. The negroes in 



AND HISTOR V OF TRINIDAD, 91 

some places may be more numerous than the 
whites ; it must make no difference ; the white 
must rule, no matter at what cost. You shall 
never again, while we exist, compel us to relin- 
quish this determination ; we would rather die at 
once. Our view does not, it may be, accord 
with the principles of your XVth Amendment to 
the Constitution, but it accords with our idea of 
what is necessary for our social comfort and 
security, and we intend to steadfastly adhere to 
it, even if it should cost in blood, and treasure, 
and everything we hold dear." 

The above position is one upon which the 
whites of the South are practically unanimous. 
The white who does not believe in it above all 
else is regarded as a traitor and an outcast. It is 
a position of danger, for if not an open, it is a 
covert, hostility to the spirit of the laws of the 
Union. It really amounts to this : the 10,000,000 
negroes and colored people in the South are 
denied the rights and privileges guaranteed them 
by the Constitution ; they are deprived of their 
political rights by fraud, force, and intimidation. 
And, strange to say, even the most respected (and, 
in ordinary dealings, upright) white people of the 
South will admit this fact, and, stranger still, very 
many honorable citizens of the North, Republi- 
cans as well as Democrats, do not hesitate to 
declare, " If I were a Southerner I should act as 
the Southern white men do." 

Hitherto, the negro has, upon the whole, 
meekly submitted to this illegal deprivation of 
his rights. Can he be expected to submit for- 



92 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

ever, or will he some day attempt by force to 
seize that to which he is by law entitled ? Should 
he ever do so, there will be a scene of horror such 
as the South never witnessed in the darkest days 
of the War of Secession. This question hangs 
like a black pall over the South ; it is but seldom 
referred to publicly, although occasionally it 
shows itself, as for instance in the recent Vene- 
zuelan dispute with Great Britain. An editorial 
appeared in the Memphis " Commercial Appeal," 
which says : " The negroes were a source of 
strength to the South in the War of the Rebel- 
lion, but they would be an element of weakness 
there now. Then the negroes tilled the soil, 
raised food for the armies, and protected the 
families of the fighting men. The condition is 
so much changed that the new generation is a 
source of constant apprehension and terror even 
in times of peace. Southern men would fear to 
leave their families tinprotected if war became 
flagrant. It would require as much force to keep 
the negroes under control as the South could 
spare for military purposes." From the fore- 
going account of negro rule it will be seen that it 
is not a desirable thing for Trinidad to experi- 
ment with, that with the mixed population it 
contains it is much better that it should remain a 
Crown colony. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 93 



CHAPTER VII. 

CLIMATE AND SCENERY. 

Columbus, in relating the discovery of Trini- 
dad to Ferdinand and Isabella, dwells on " the 
stately groves of palm trees and luxuriant forests 
which swept down to the seaside, with fountains 
and running streams beneath the shade ; " and 
on " the softness and purity of the climate, and 
the verdure, freshness, and sweetness of the 
country, which appeared to him to equal the de- 
lights of early spring in the beautiful province of 
Valencia in Spain." 

The climate of Trinidad while inter-tropical is 
at the same time insular, and is therefore much 
cooler and more uniform than that of a conti- 
nental country under the same conditions as to 
altitude and latitude. 

The natural physical formation of the island, 
divided as it is into two great parallel valleys run- 
ning almost due east and west, tends also to mod- 
ify its climatic condition. The mean temperature 
varies from 76 degrees during the cool season to 
79 in the hot season. In the evenings and 
mornings of the cooler seasons the temperature 
seldom exceeds from 66 degrees to 68. The 
transition from daylight to darkness, although, 
as in all tropical countries, a rapid one, is not so 



94 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

sudden as is generally supposed. There is a 
perceptible though very short twilight, darkening 
into night as the last rays of the setting sun fade 
away on the western horizon. With the close of 
the day there is a marked change in the tempera- 
ture ; the heat and glare of the day give way to a 
delicious coolness, often made more refreshing by 
the soft blowing of the evening breeze. Then 
comes what Kingsley calls " the long balmy 
night," to be in turn succeeded by daybreak and 
sunrise. These latter have been graphically de- 
scribed by a well-known traveller : 

" A little before five o'clock the first glimmer 
of light becomes perceptible ; it slowly becomes 
lighter, and then increases so rapidly that in 
about an hour it seems full daylight. For a 
short time this changes very little in character ; 
when suddenly the sun's rim appears above the 
horizon, decking the dew-laden foliage with glit- 
tering gems, sending gleams of golden light far 
into the woods, and waking up all nature into 
life and activity. The early morning possesses 
a charm and a beauty that can never be forgotten ; 
all nature seems refreshed and strengthened by 
the coolness and moisture of the past night. 
The temperature is the most delicious conceiv- 
able. The slight chill of early dawn, which was 
itself agreeable, is succeeded by an invigorating 
warmth, and the intense sunshine lights up the 
glorious vegetation of the tropics and realizes all 
that the magic art of the painter or the glowing 
words of the poet have pictured as their ideas of 
terrestrial beauty." 



AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD. 95 

The climate of Trinidad has often been recom- 
mended as being particularly favorable to persons 
suffering from the milder forms of pulmonary 
affections ; and that it is so is clearly shown by 
the number of well-authenticated instances in 
which young persons who had left their homes in 
colder climates, with more or less marked symp- 
toms of one or other of that numerous class of 
ailments popularly called " chest complaints," 
have not only recovered their health in Trinidad, 
but continued in the full enjoyment of it during 
many years' residence, and in not a few instances 
until, at a ripe old age, they have been laid to 
rest beneath the palms in the land of their 
adoption. 

Although the scenery of Trinidad presents 
none of that imposing grandeur which is derived 
from altitude or vastness, it possesses a natural 
charm and sylvan beauty that is all its own. 
Foliage and flowers of unrivalled beauty and 
endless variety everywhere adorn the landscape 
in such rich and rare profusion as almost to 
baffle description. So much so, indeed, that even 
Kingsley was forced to confess that "In the 
presence of such forms and such coloring one 
becomes painfully sensible of the poverty of the 
words, and of the futility, therefore, of all word- 
painting." 

MOUNTAINS AND VALLEYS. 

The mountains, or rather hills, of Trinidad, — 
for, as has been already stated, with the excep- 
tion of a few isolated peaks none of the ranges 
rise much above 700 to 1,000 feet, — although 



96 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

neither "rugged nor " grand/' are singularly- 
picturesque. Their slopes, covered to the very 
summit with luxuriant forest growth, appear, 
when seen from a distance, like one vast sea of 
wavy woodland, presenting in the clear atmos- 
phere and bright sunlight an ever-changing 
diversity of shade and coloring, varying from 
the lightest of greens to the deepest of russet 
browns, lit up every here and there by dense 
clusters of bright yellow or blazing crimson tree- 
flowers, making the whole prospect more like a 
scene in fairyland than a natural landscape, — 
even in the tropics. It is, however, in the val- 
leys that lie between those mountain spurs and 
ranges that the real gems of Trinidad scenery are 
to be found. Through these valleys meander 
the crystal-clear streams described by Columbus 
as " fountains and running streams beneath 
the shade." These streams, rising high up in the 
mountains, flow through the valleys with all 
the wanton waywardness so characteristic of 
mountain streams everywhere : twisting and turn- 
ing hither and thither at their own sweet will, now 
rushing with tumultuous din through some narrow 
gorge, anon widening out, until, " with scarce a 
depth at all, they gently ripple o'er their pebbly 
bed." In their general characteristics they so 
closely resemble the " burns " so dear to all Scot- 
tish hearts as at once to recall the well-known lines: 

** Here, foaming down the shelvy rocks. 
In twisting strength I rin ; 
There, high my boiling torrent smokes. 
Wild -roaring o'er a linn." 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 97 

Nor does the similarity end here : the " bonny 
bower/' the " shady nooks/' are all reproduced 
with striking exactness — only with tropical 
surroundings and under a tropical sun, the latter, 
however, only making all the more refreshing 
the delicious coolness of their shade. Such a 
bamboo-embowered scene is shown in our illus- 
tration of a view in Caura valley. This view 
brings out with great clearness and minuteness 
the sylvan beauty of the spot, and gives an ex- 
cellent idea of the valley scenery of the island 
generally ; but the real charm and chief attraction 
of all tropical scenery — the ever-changing light 
and shade, the rich coloring and endless variety 
of leaf and flower — cannot be portrayed by pen 
or pencil ; to be fully appreciated they must be 
seen, but seen once they can never be forgotten. 

But the Caura valley, while undoubtedly one 
of the loveliest in the island, has many compeers 
in beauty and diversity of scenery. Of these the 
St. Ann's and Maraval valleys are within walking 
distance of Port-of-Spain. Both possess many 
natural beauties ; and the latter, in addition to the 
rich adornments of nature, has in the reservoir 
and its beautiful site " a sweet, quiet spot " that 
has become a regular Mecca for visitors to the 
island. It is indeed a lovely spot, with 
the densely wooded hills in the background, the 
large expanse of clear, bright water shaded by an 
environment of gracefully arched bamboos and 
surrounded by quite a unique collection of ferns, 
crotons, oleanders, and other ornamental shrubs. 
At the head of this valley is the Silla, or Saddle, 



98 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

a depression in the ridge of hills dividing it from 
the Santa Cruz valley, over which the road passes 
at a height of six hundred and twenty-eight feet, 
both the ascent and descent being somewhat 
steep. On the other side of the Saddle lies the 
Santa Cruz valley, watered by a stream of the 
same name, and one of the oldest and most noted 
of the cocoa districts of the island, containing, 
among many other splendid properties, the well- 
known estates San Antonio, La Pastora, and 
Soconusco. 

Only two other of the many, and all equally 
beautiful, valleys that nestle among the mountain 
ranges of Trinidad can be noticed within the 
limits of this sketch, — the Diego Martin and the 
Maracas valleys. In the former, at a distance of 
about nine miles from Port-of-Spain, is situated 
the Cascade and Blue Basin. The Cascade is one 
of the most picturesque waterfalls in the island. 
It is formed by the junction high up in the 
mountains of several small streamlets, whose 
united waters, after several intermediate descents, 
here fall into the valley below, the basin at the 
foot of the fall being known as the Blue Basin. 
The water of the fall is highly translucent, and 
this may perhaps account for the bluish tint it 
presents in the basin, especially on a bright and 
cloudless day. 

The Maracas valley, like that of Santa Cruz, 
is one of the great cocoa districts ; and as the 
visitor rides or drives along the winding road he 
will see cocoa estates to both right and left of 
him, — and splendid estates, too, for the soil of 




BLUE UASIN WATERFALL. 



AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD. 99 

these " vega lands '* is of unsurpassed fertility. 
Before reaching the head of the valley the river 
has to be crossed some six or seven times. At 
most of these " crossings/' or fords, the stream 
is but a rippling brook ; but at others, though 
neither deep nor dangerous (except when " down," 
/.<?., in flood), it asserts its right to a passage, — 
huge boulders notwithstanding, — and rushes 
onward fuming and foaming around these ob- 
structions in true mountain-torrent style. 

In ascending the valley the scenery on every 
side is equally attractive and varied. In front 
towers Tucutche, the highest peak in the island, 
while every turn of the winding road brings into 
view fresh natural beauties and more picturesque 
scenes : here the eye is charmed by the light and 
shade playing fitfully over the wooded hillside ; 
there it catches a glimpse of some lovely bower, 
shaded by forest giants, their forms reflected in 
the clear stream that, flowing on its way, " mur- 
murs sweet tales of love and joy and constancy.'* 

WATERFALLS. 

The great sight of the valley is, however, the 
Chorro, or Cascade. This fall, three hundred and 
forty feet in height and distant about thirteen miles 
from Port-of-Spain, forms the subject of illustra- 
tion facing this page. 

To attempt to describe the Cascade, admittedly 
the most picturesque of all Western Indian 
waterfalls, would be more than presumption on 
the part of the writer, seeing that even so great a 
master of word-painting as Kingsley preferred to 



loo STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

fall back on the description written many years 
before by that ripe scholar and enthusiastic 
botanist, Herman Cruger. 

Before reproducing that glowing word-picture, 
the writer ventures to lay before his readers the 
following extract from a description of another 
fall: 

" The rocks of the rift close to the heart of the 
fall are bare and lifeless, but at the entrance 
they are bespread with moss and flowers ; while 
the whole reaches are covered with the film fern, 
the Hymenophyllum Wilsoniy which no one can 
get at, and only the clear-sighted can distinguish 
from moss. 

"The water here is perfectly colorless, — pure, 
limpid, unstained, — which splashes merrily at 
your feet and flies daintily, all refined to spray, 
into your face as you scramble up the wet rocks 
and front the whispering naiad shrouded behind 
her long white veil/' 

This description, especially the latter part of 
it, cannot fail vividly to recall to the mind of any 
one who had visited the Maracas Cascade the 
whole scene as it comes into view from the valley 
below. 

Cruger, with all that intense love of nature 
born of close communion and deep study, thus 
describes the approach to the fall : " To reach 
the Chorro, or Cascade, you strike to the right 
into a ^ path ' that brings you first to a cocoa 
plantation, through a few rice or maize fields, 
and then you enter the shade of the virgin forest. 
Thousands of interesting objects now attract 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. loi 

your attention : here the wonderful Norantea or 
the resplendent Calycophyllum, a Tabernanion- 
tana or a Faramea filling the air afar off with the 
fragrance of their blossoms ; there a graceful 
Heliconia winking at you from out some dark 
ravine. That shrubbery above is composed of a 
species of Bohmeria, or Ardisia, and that scarlet 
flower belongs to our native Aphelandra. 

" Nearer to us, and low down below our feet, 
that rich panicle of flowers belongs to Begonia ; 
and here, also, is an assemblage of Ferns of the 
genera Asplenium, Hymenophyllum, and Tri- 
chomanes, as well as of Hepatica and Mosses. 
But what are these yellow and purple flowers 
hanging over our heads } They are Bignonia 
and Mucunas — creepers, straying from afar, 
which have selected this spot, where they may, 
under the influence of the sun's beams, propagate 
their race." 

Of the fall, he says : 

" Here it is, opposite to you, — a grand specta- 
cle indeed. From a perpendicular wall of solid 
rock of more than three hundred feet, down rushes 
a stream of water, splitting in the air, and produc- 
ing a constant shower, which renders this lovely 
spot singularly and deliciously cool. Nearly the 
whole extent of this natural wall is covered with 
plants, among which you can easily discern num- 
bers of Ferns and Mosses, two species of Pitcairnia, 
with beautiful red flowers, some Aroids, various 
Nettles, and here and there a Begonia. How dif- 
ferent such a spot would look in cold Europe. 
Below, in the midst of a never-failing drizzle, 



I02 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

grow luxuriant Ardisias, Aroids, Ferns, Costas, 
Heliconias, Centropogons, Hydrocotyles, Cype- 
roids, and Grasses of various genera, Tradescan- 
tias and Commelynas, Billbergias, and, occasion- 
ally, a few small Rubiacaea and Melastomacea." 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 103 



CHAPTER VIII. 

COMMERCE, AGRICULTURE, AND OTHER INDUSTRIES. 

The geographical position of Trinidad prom- 
ises to the colony a commercial development 
in the future as great as, if not even greater than, 
its agricultural. Standing like a geographical sen- 
tinel at the entrance to one of the greatest water- 
ways of the world, it must sooner or later become 
a great commercial centre. ^ 

Sir Thomas Picton, the first British Governor 
of the island, a man of great shrewdness and fore- 
sight, and a military commander of no mean 
reputation, was so convinced of its importance, 
both from a strategic and commercial point of 
view, that during the period between the capitula- 
tion and the final cession of the island to Britain 
by the treaty of Amiens he repeatedly urged its 
retention, stating, ^^ it would be extremely unpoli- 
tic to restore it to Spain on any terms or for any 
equivalent^ But Picton was not the only one 
who thus early realized the full value and im- 
portance of Trinidad. The great Napoleon, 
then First Consul, has left on record a document 
that shows how well he understood the advan- 
tageous position of the island, and its value to the 
British Crown. In a letter written in August, 
1 801, to the French Plenipotentiary in London, 



I04 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

after instructing him firmly to oppose any pro- 
posal for the cession of the island to Great 
Britain, he adds : " Trinidad, from its position, 
would not only afford a means of defence for the 
English colonies, but also of attack on the Span- 
ish mainland. Its acquisition would, in other 
respects, be of immeasurable importance to the 
British Government." Nor does Napoleon stand 
alone among the great men of the period in his 
estimate of the value of the colony. That calm, 
thoughtful, and most practical of statesmen, Mr. 
Canning, in introducing his well-known motion 
in regard to Trinidad, spoke eloquently in favor 
of making the island a strong naval and military 
station, and a sanatorium for the British troops 
in the West Indies, while at the same time he 
pointed out, with much force and clearness, that 
from its geographical position it ought to be the 
emporium of the trade of South America. 

So impressed was Trinidad's first British Gov- 
ernor with the idea of making the island the 
great entrepot of the Orinoco and its tributaries, 
that he did not hesitate to propose a plan of 
armed interference in the affairs of the neighbor- 
ing Spanish Provinces, in which there were 
already signs of that growing spirit of resistance 
to the Spanish yoke which was to culminate in 
the protracted but ultimately successful struggle 
for independence which ended in the battle of 
Carabobo, fought June 24, 1821, when Bolivar 
defeated La Torre with a loss of six thousand 
men, which victory was principally due to the 
intrepidity and firmness displayed by the English 
and Irish volunteer contingent. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 105 

Picton's proposals were not acted upon, and in 
the ever-shifting current of events we find him, 
a few years later, bravely fighting side by side 
with the troops of the very nation against whose 
South American Provinces those hostile pro- 
posals were made. There is, however, a force 
more powerful even than that of armed battalion, 
— the spirit of commercial enterprise, which, it 
is hoped, will, before long, bring the whole trade 
of New Granada and of the rich and fertile coun- 
tries lying between the Andes and the Atlantic by 
way of the Meta, the Rio Negro, the Casanare, 
the Apure, and a hundred other streams down 
the broad bosom of the Orinoco into the Gulf 
of Paria.. Trinidad will then become a second 
Liverpool. 

SUGAR INDUSTRY. 

In Trinidad, as in all the West Indian colonies, 
sugar has been, and still continues to be, the 
principal product. Here, however, it is not, as 
in the other colonies, the one great staple ; nor 
was it even the first in the field, for cocoa had 
been cultivated for a century or more before the 
first sugar-estate was established. Although 
sugar-cane was indigenous to this as well as 
other West Indian islands, three species of which 
are to be found growing wild in the uncultivated 
parts of the island, yet the sugar-cane generally 
cultivated here is, however, an exotic, known as 
Tahiti cane, and was introduced from Martinique 
in 1782, by M. St.-H. Begorrat. The first 
sugar estate was established by M. Picot de 
Lapey rouse in 1787 ; and from that time up to 



io6 STAEK'S GUIDE BOOK 

the date of the capture of the island by the 
British the cultivation of the sugar-cane increased 
slowly but steadily. The British occupation 
gave a great impetus to the sugar industry, and 
cultivation was so rapidly extended that within 
the next few years the exports of sugar were 
more than doubled. 

From that time down to emancipation the 
sugar industry continued to advance and prosper. 
Then came the crisis, the same as all the British 
West Indian islands experienced except Barba- 
dos, — the refusal of the negroes to work. Then 
the exports declined, but with the advent of 
coolie immigration the industry began to revive, 
and in a few years not only regained its former 
position, but advanced far beyond it, the exports 
rising from ii,ooo tons in 1840 to 54,000 tons 
in 1880. In the meantime another and darker 
cloud than any that had yet overshadowed the 
great staple product was gathering on the hori- 
zon. The production of beet sugar, stimulated 
by a system of bounties, had increased enormously, 
and both England and the United States were 
flooded with it. The result, long foreseen, of 
this unfair competition turned out far more dis- 
astrous than could have been possibly antici- 
pated. Every one knew that a fall in prices was 
inevitable, and that the fall was likely to be a 
heavy one ; but few, if any, anticipated that the 
decline in price would reach a figure at which 
neither beet nor cane sugar could be produced. 
In consequence of this unprecedented fall in the 
value of their chief product, a wave of com- 



AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD, 107 

mercial and agricultural depression passed over 
the West Indian colonies, bringing many of them 
to the verge of ruin. 

That Trinidad, although by no means exempt 
from the general effects of the crisis, was yet able 
not only to weather it, but to make steady prog- 
ress all the time, is due to two causes : first, and 
chiefly, to the fact that in its second staple, cocoa, 
the colony possessed a sheet anchor of which no 
other West Indian colony could boast; and, 
secondly, to the fact that for some time previ- 
ously many estate proprietors had been gradually 
introducing improved machinery, and were already 
making or preparing to make a higher grade of 
sugar. The advance then begun in the direction 
of improved modes of manufacture has been 
steadily continued, the result being that vacuum- 
pan sugar forms three-fourths of the crop at the 
present time. Under all these circumstances, it 
is alike creditable to the owners of sugar estates, 
and to those directly in charge of them, that the 
sugar industry of the colony has, so far, been able 
to hold its own, and to be now, apparently, in a 
fair way to do better still. There is yet, how- 
ever, much to be done before the position of the 
industry can be considered as secure. Experi- 
ments are being made in the Botanical Gardens to 
produce improved varieties of sugar-cane. It is 
claimed that a species has been discovered that 
will produce twenty-five per cent, more saccharine 
matter than the cane now in use. If this is the 
case, it will more than make up the difference of 
the bounty paid on the beet sugar. The cultiva- 



io8 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

tion of the sugar-cane is almost entirely carried 
on by coolie labor ; very few Trinidad negroes 
work as laborers on the sugar estates, the laborers, 
other than coolies, being chiefly negroes from the 
neighboring West Indian islands, many of whom, 
like the Irish reapers in England and Scotland, 
come here only for the crop season, returning to 
their homes at its close. 

COCOA PLANTATIONS. 

Cocoa, or more properly " cacao,'* the second 
staple product of the island, bids fair to equal if 
not exceed its rival, sugar ; for while, as already 
stated, the former only holds its own, the latter 
has in recent years advanced by giant strides. 
This is clearly shown by the exports, which have 
risen from 29,900 cwts. in 1840 to 98,210 
cwts. in 1880, while the exports during the last 
few years have averaged no less than 225,000 
cwts. 

There is reason to believe that cocoa is in- 
digenous to Trinidad and the northern part of 
South America. It has been exported from 
Trinidad from a very early period of the Spanish 
occupation, and has always been held in high 
repute. 

In 1725 the entire cocoa cultivation was 
destroyed by some species of disease or blight. 
What was the exact nature of this disease it is 
impossible at this distance of time to determine. 
There is, however, ample testimony as to the 
general ruin that was occasioned by it. Of all 
West Indian cultivation, cocoa is undoubtedly 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 109 

the one best suited for natives of colder climates. 
Europeans cannot work in the open fields under 
a tropical sun. In this case the cocoa tree itself, 
of some twenty feet in height, and affording with 
its thick foliage a grateful shade from the blaze 
of the sun, is again shaded in its turn by the 
Bois immortel^ whose protecting services have 
justly obtained for it among the South Ameri- 
cans the appellation "L^ Madre del CacaOy* for it is 
necessary to protect the cocoa tree from the sun. 
It will thrive only in the shade. The weeding 
of the soil, picking of the pods, husking them, 
and carrying the produce to the drying-house, — 
in short, the whole of the agricultural operations 
and all but the last stages of the manufacturing 
process, — are carried on under this impervious 
and ever verdant canopy. The air is gently agi- 
tated and refreshed by the river or mountain stream 
upon whose banks these plantations are invariably 
established. Here, under this double shade, the 
white man feels himself as in his native climate. 
On a cocoa estate he can do something more 
than merely superintend and give directions : he 
can take an active part in all the operations, 
aiding with his hands as well as his head in the 
general working of the property ; and if he be 
active and intelligent he will find his own exer- 
tions, whether he be working for himself or for 
another, in addition to the direct benefit they may 
produce, will indirectly do immense good by 
infusing energy and activity into all those em- 
ployed under him. 



no STAI^K'S GUIDE BOOK 



OPPORTUNITIES FOR STARTING PLANTATIONS. 

In view of the fact that inquiries are often 
made as to whether there is any opening in the 
colony for active young men possessed of only a 
limited amount or capital and anxious to find an 
occupation as well as an investment, it may not 
be out of place to mention that there are three 
ways in which intending settlers can become cocoa 
proprietors : First, by the purchase of Crown 
land and the clearing and planting up of the 
same under their own supervision. Second, by 
the purchase of Crown land and the employment 
of " contractors," who clear the land and plant it 
up with cocoa, receiving as payment all the wood 
cut down and the free use of the land to plant 
provisions for their own use and benefit for a fixed 
term, generally five years, at the end of which 
time they give up the land, receiving one shil- 
ling for each cocoa tree. Third, by the purchase 
either of several small estates or of one such 
bordering on Crown lands, so that it can be 
gradually extended according to the means of 
the purchaser. The first method entails the 
immediate outlay of further capital for the erec- 
tion of at least a temporary dwelling and the 
payment of wood-cutters and other laborers 
employed ; and the capital so invested must 
remain dormant for some time, as the cocoa tree, 
although beginning to bear in the fourth or fifth 
year, does not come into full bearing till some 
years later. Some return is, however, obtained 
from the land during that time : plantain shoots 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. iii 

and corn (maize) are planted in order to shade 
the young cocoa trees, and the returns from 
these two crops help to defray the expenses of 
the first two or three years. The timber cut 
on the land is also more or less valuable, either 
for firewood or for building and other purposes. 
The second method is only to be recommended 
where the purchaser can find some profitable 
means of employing his time during the five 
years of the contractor's occupation. A combi- 
nation of these two methods has been found 
to work well, part of the estate only being given 
out to contractors. 

The third plan is by far the simplest and best 
where suitable properties can be obtained. In 
this way many of the smaller properties which 
were purchased from the Crown, from ten to 
twenty years ago, and gradually cleared and 
planted up in cocoa, have of late years been 
bought up by larger capitalists, at very remuner- 
ative prices to the original purchasers, and have 
either been formed into larger estates or in- 
creased by the purchase of adjoining Crown 
lands. 

The cocoa-palm grows luxuriantly all along 
the sandy shore of the southern and eastern 
coasts of the island, and its cultivation, although 
the simplest of agricultural industries of the 
colony, is far from being the least profitable. 
For persons of small capital there are few if any 
investments less troublesome or more profitable 
than the cocoanut estate. That the industry is 
a profitable one is abundantly proved by the 



112 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

large increase in the cultivation, as shown by the 
quantity of cocoanuts exported. 

OTHER INDUSTRIES. 

The most important manufactured article in 
the colony is the world-wide known Angostura 
Bitters. This article was originally manufactured 
by the inventor and founder of the firm, Dr. J. 
G. B. Siegert, at Angostura, Venezuela, from 
which it derives its name. Dr. Siegert died in 
1870, and the manufacture was carried on at An- 
gostura by his two eldest sons until 1875, when, 
through the exactions of the Venezuelan govern- 
ment and the uncertainty of protection to life and 
property, they removed to Trinidad and estab- 
lished their factory in Port-of-Spain, where it has 
been carried on ever since. Messrs. Siegert have 
gradually extended their factory until it now 
occupies a large block of buildings with a frontage 
on both George street and Nelson street. The 
exports of Angostura Bitters, which for the first 
five years after the transfer of the manufacture to 
this colony only averaged 19,000 gallons per 
annum, have for the past five years averaged 
60,000 gallons — a striking proof, were any 
needed, of the purity and excellence of these 
celebrated Bitters, which have now become one 
of the manufactures of Trinidad. 

Of the minor agricultural products of the 
colony, coflFee is perhaps the most important. 
The coflFee plant thrives well and bears abun- 
dantly in every part of the colony, yet the quantity 
produced is not even suflicient to meet the home 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 113 

consumption. Of late years, however^ coffee has 
been receiving more attention, and the area under 
cultivation has been considerably enlarged. The 
fact that the beans can now be profitably shipped 
"in the parchment" is likely to give a further 
stimulus to this industry. The quality of Trini- 
dad coffee is equal to any produced either in the 
East or West Indies. The soil of certain dis- 
tricts of the colony is admirably adapted to the 
growth of tobacco, and samples grown in the dis- 
trict of Siparia have been pronounced by compe- 
tent judges to be second only to the finest 
Havana. As yet, however, the cultivation is 
confined to a few patches scattered here and 
there throughout the colony, but principally in 
the above-named district. 

Cotton was, in former times, extensively culti- 
vated and formed a considerable item of export, 
and Trinidad cotton is said to have been of 
superior quality and to have commanded high 
prices. The cotton plantations were, however, 
subsequently abandoned for the more profitable 
cultivation of the sugar-cane. 

Indigo was also, at one time, an article of ex- 
port; but now, although the plant grows wild 
throughout the colony, all the indigo used locally 
is imported. 

Indian corn, or maize, thrives well in even 
the poorer lands, while in the richer soils the yield 
is higher than in Europe or America. It is, 
however, only cultivated to a limited extent, the 
large local consumption being principally sup- 
plied by imports from the United States. Rice 
grows well in almost every part of tK^ ^.oVovcvj ^\5cv^ 



114 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

average yield being from six to seven barrels per 
acre. The area planted in rice has been gradually 
increasing, and the annual crop is now consider- 
able, and affects to some extent the sale of East 
Indian rice, of which, however, the quantity im- 
ported is still very large. There is a sufficient 
quantity of land, well adapted to this cultivation 
and almost useless for any other purpose, to pro- 
duce all the rice required for home consumption, 
but this desirable result is not likely to be attained 
for very many years to come. 

The soil of Trinidad is so highly fertile, and 
so diversified in its nature, as to render the island 
capable of growing successfully not only every 
vegetable product of the tropics, but also many 
of those of more temperate regions. In addition 
to sugar, cocoa, and the other products already 
mentioned, tropical fruit-trees of every kind grow 
luxuriantly, and fruit abundantly; and all tropical 
vegetables or roots, whether exotic or indigenous, 
such as plantains, yams>cush-cush, sweet potatoes, 
tanias, ochroes, etc., grow readily, require little 
care, and are generally highly productive ; while 
many non-tropical vegetables, such as cabbage, 
turnips, carrot, beet-root, etc., can, with a little 
care and attention, be brought to almost as great 
perfection as in Europe or America. 

The forests of the colony abound in valuable 
timber, but up to now little or no effort has been 
made to develop this source of wealth. At 
present the exports of timber, other than fire- 
wood, are confined to occasional small shipments 
of cedar or locust boards, chiefly to the other 
West Indian colonies. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 115 



CHAPTER IX. 

PITCH LAKE DESCRIPTION OF THE ROUTE. 

Pitch lake is reached from Port-of-Spain by 
steamer, which runs there several times each week, 
touching at all the intervening ports. The trip 
is very interesting. After leaving Port-of-Spain, 
the northern range of mountains is seen extend- 
ing towards Venezuela, appearing to be connected 
with that country. About two miles from the 
town the Caroni river is passed, the largest stream 
in the island, being twenty-eight miles in length ; 
its banks are the haunts of the alligator, igua- 
nas, and other saurians. For about ten miles 
the shores are a continuous mangrove swamp. 
Chaguanas is then reached, named after the river. 
Here is a landing-place on the Felcite estate ; next 
comes Claxton's bay, where there is a good jetty 
thirteen hundred feet long. OfFPointe \ Pierre is 
a greater depth of water than at any other of the 
west coast. The mouth of the Guaracara river is 
then passed, and the pretty little town of San 
Fernando is reached. The next stopping-place 
of the steamer is off the village of St. Mary's, 
where the steamer will pick up or drop passen- 
gers. From this village a road runs to the 
famous Siparia mission. Here in the very 
heart of the forest is a Roman Catholic church 



ii6 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

with an image of the Virgin said to be endowed 
with extraordinary virtues. Tradition says that 
this statue was picked up by the Spaniards in the 
depths of the forest ; it remained here for some 
time, and was removed to Oropouche church. 
It made no stay there, however, for on the 
morning after its arrival it was found to have 
mysteriously disappeared during the night, and 
on search being instituted it was discovered in the 
precise spot of the forest where it first appeared. 
To the superstitious Spaniards this was clearly 
a sign from heaven. Accordingly, in 1758 a 
church was erected and a mission established con- 
ducted by the Aragonese Capuchin monks. La 
Divina Pastora, as the image is called, is richly 
dressed and bedecked with valuable jewelry, the 
offerings of pious pilgrims. 

Beyond St. Mary's are some high woods in 
which there is good hunting, especially for deer. 
There are also several villages — Delhi, Fyabad, 
and Barrackpore, inhabited chiefly by free coolies 
engaged in raising rice and ground provisions. 
There are also two African villages in this section, 
Yarraba and Krooman. After passing Roussillac 
swamp, and Point Sable, which probably receives 
its name from the black mangroves lining the 
shores, — beyond this is Point La Brea, so called 
from a Spanish word meaning pitch. Here a 
fine jetty is built out for a long distance into the 
water, for the shipping of asphalt. From the pier 
extending inland for about a mile, at a height of 
about fifteen feet, is an endless chain of buckets 
in which the pitch is brought from the lake and 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 117 

deposited in the hold of the vessel lying along- 
side of the wharf, — a great saving over the former 
method of bringing it in carts and loading it into 
boats through the surf. The overflow of pitch 
from th« lake has flowed down to the shore, and the 
deposit is visible on the beach from the steamer. 
On the ocean end of the pier, in a delightfully cool 
and pleasant situation, are the dwelling-house and 
oflice of the Barber Asphalt Company. 

APPEARANCE OF THE LAKE. 

" Trinidad Asphalt " is a name that of late 
years has become well known in the United 
States, since the Barber Asphalt Company has 
used this material for paving the streets in the 
principal cities. The Pitch lake, from whence 
this asphalt is obtained, has been considered as 
one of the natural wonders of the world. The 
photographic print of it, which is shown here, is 
an exact reproduction, true to nature in every de- 
tail, and from which the reader can form a more 
correct idea of this wonderful natural phenome- 
non than from any written description, however 
clear or minute. Indeed, it is scarcely possible 
to give any description of the Pitch lake that 
would convey a correct idea of its actual appear- 
ance. It is stretched out like a plateau, more or 
less circular, having an area of from ninety to one 
hundred acres, the whole surface seamed and 
scarred by deep fissures filled with water. The 
general surface of the lake is not, even during the 
heat of the day, softer or more yielding than an 
ordinary asphalt pavement under a summer's sun. 



ii8 , STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

In certain places, however, it is much softer, and 
no doubt there are spots where, if a man stayed 
long enough, he would be slowly engulfed ; for in 
the centre of the lake, where the pitch comes up 
from the earth, the lightest footstep leaves an 
impression, and you feel yourself almost imper- 
ceptibly sinking, unless you continue constantly 
in motion. Here and there liquid pitch may be 
observed oozing out ; you may handle it without 
sticking to the fingers. The best time to come 
to the Pitch lake is in the early morning while 
it is cool, otherwise the heat of the sun is so 
attracted by the black ground as to make the 
whole atmosphere oppressive. Of course, to pay 
a morning visit you must go to San Fernando by 
rail or steamer the day before, and take a small 
boat to La Brea as early as you can rise, before 
daybreak if possible. It has been estimated that 
the lake contains four million five hundred thou- 
sand tons of asphalt. This has proved to be a ver- 
itable mine of wealth to the colony. The yearly 
revenue from same pays the total charge of the 
interest on the whole public debt of the colony. 

DISCOVERY OF THE PITCH LAKE. 

Sir Walter Raleigh, who entered the gulf by 
the southern Bocas, states that in coasting along 
the western shores of the island he found a large 
quantity of pitch of superior quality with which 
he caused his vessels to be newly payed. 

Subsequent experiments prove that Sir Walter 
must have mixed the pitch with a large quantity 
of grease or other unctuous matter before using 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 119 

it for such a purpose. In any case he appears to 
have succeeded, and thus to have been the first 
to turn the product of the lake to a profitable use. 
In this he was more fortunate than many of the 
subsequent experimenters. Early in this century 
Sir Alexander Cochrane conveyed to England two 
shiploads of pitch from the lake for the purpose 
of pitching or " paying " the ships of the navy, 
but on examination it was found to require the 
admixture of too large a quantity of oil to render 
it applicable to such a purpose. Sir Ralph Wood- 
ford, being anxious to have a beacon placed on 
the tower of Trinity Church, gas made from the 
pitch was used in the experiment, and burnt 
brightly and steadily, and no doubt but the bea- 
con would have become a permanent institution, 
but the idea had to be given up, owing to the 
intolerable stench given off by the gas. Many 
years after an able and enthusiastic American 
scientist succeeded in making excellent illuminat- 
ing gas from the pitch, but unfortunately the cost 
of production was too great to permit of its be- 
coming a commercial success. Lubricating oils of 
good quality have also from time to time been 
made from the pitch, but none of them proved 
successful from a business point of view. Nor 
do the first attempts to export the crude asphalt 
to Europe and the United States for paving pur- 
poses appear to have been more fortunate. In- 
deed, it is only within the past twenty years that 
Trinidad asphalt can be said to have obtained its 
long-expected commercial value in the markets of 
the world. 



I20 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 



COMMERCIAL VALUE OF THE ASPHALT. 

No sooner had Trinidad asphalt become a 
regular marketable product with a recognized 
market value, than the Pitch lake, hitherto 
neglected and even despised on account of the 
repeated failures, became the cynosure of all eyes. 
It would be entirely beyond the scope of this 
work to attempt to describe the different events 
that led up to the granting of the existing con- 
cession. Suffice it to say that the Government 
have granted to the Trinidad Asphalt Com- 
pany, Limited, the exclusive right to dig, work, 
search for, and win pitch, asphaltum, etc., from 
the Pitch lake for a term of forty-two years from 
the 1st of February, 1888. The terms on which 
this concession is held are shortly as follows : A 
minimum annual export of forty-six thousand tons 
of asphaltum for the first twenty-one years, thus 
securing to the colony an annual minimum reve- 
nue of ^15,333 ; an annual minimum export for 
the second twenty-one years of thirty thousand 
tons, securing an annual minimum revenue to the 
colony of ^10,000; or a total minimum of ^525,- 
000 for the forty-two years. 

The granting of the concession at the time was 
bitterly opposed, opinions on the subject were 
widely divided, but the results so far have been 
far more satisfactory than was even anticipated 
when the concession was granted. 

The increased revenue from asphalt that has 
accrued to the colony since granting of the con- 
cession has been very large. In the five years 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 121 

previous to it, 1883 to 1887, the total revenue 
accruing to the colony from asphalt was only 
^14,196 : in the five years subsequent to the con- 
cession, 1888 to 1892, it has been ^141,268. 
The revenue for the year 1905 was ^43,197; 
twenty years ago it was ^855. Since 1898 the 
concession or lease of the Pitch lake has been 
the property of the New Trinidad Lake Asphalt 
Company, of London, to whom the jetty and 
works at La Brea belong. 

MINERAL OIL. 

For many years the oil deposits of Trinidad 
have attracted attention, but until recently explo- 
rations have been confined^to the surface. Now 
several borings of consideiable depth have been 
made by a Canadian Company in the Guayagua- 
yare district. Oil of first-rate quality has been 
found, containing a much larger proportion of 
naphtha than the oils found exposed on the sur- 
face. A recent report by the Government 
Geologist confirms the expectation of large 
deposits of this oil in Trinidad. 



122 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 



CHAPTER X. 

A TRIP UP THE ORINOCO DESCRIPTION OF THE 

ORINOCO CIUDAD BOLIVAR VENEZUELA. 

One of the most delightful excursions from 
Trinidad is atrip up the Orinoco as far as Bolivar. 
It is something to be remembered, and will never 
be forgotten. It is exceedingly interesting and 
well worth the time consumed in taking it. 

The steamer " Bolivar '' that runs up the river 
is an American-built side-wheel steamer, with all 
the cabins on deck and fitted up especially for use 
in a hot country, and is capable of steaming sixteen 
or eighteen miles per hour, with a very small 
draught of water. She formerly belonged to an 
American company, but when the Venezuelan 
government closed the Macareo river (an estuary 
of the Orinoco that cuts off several hundred 
miles and is much safer for light-draught boats 
than the entrance of the Orinoco), she was sold 
to a Venezuelan company that held the " conces- 
sion " to use the Macareo, and of which it is said 
President Crespo is the principal owner. The 
time occupied by the journey is two days and 
nights each way, and three days at Bolivar. As 
there are no accommodations there for travellers, 
arrangements should be made with the steam- 
boat company for staying aboard while at Bolivar. 
The steamer makes two trips per month, and 




INDIAN WOMEN, MAC^UUO U.WY3- 



AND HISTOR V OF TRINIDAD, 1 23 

before embarking it is necessary to procure a pass- 
port and produce a list of the baggage, signed by 
the Venezuelan consul. 

MACAREO RIVER. 

The steamer leaves Port-of Spain at six P«M. 
and crosses the Gulf of Para, and arrives at the 
bar at the mouth of the Macareo river at day- 
break. The first thing that will strike the 
traveller after leaving British waters will be the 
sudden transforming of the deck hands into Ven- 
ezuelan soldiers, all armed with repeating rifles. 
They accompany the steamer on every trip, to 
prevent her from being seized by revolutionists, 
and robbed of the gold which she takes aboard 
at the town of Las Tablas. 

The channel is from one to two miles in width, 
while down to the water's edge are the heavy pri- 
meval forests. At intervals openings occur where 
lawn-like banks of grass run down to the water's 
edge, dotted here and there with trees, many 
covered with blossoms. At other places the man- 
groves hang heavy over the water, extending 
their roots from their branches, like the banyan 
trees, of which they are a species. While looking 
through their dark foliage the still water can 
be seen extending far away, terminating in dis- 
mal swamps through which roam the jaguar or 
South American tiger, puma, tapirs, ocelots, and 
innumerable monkeys, at their own sweet will. 
Flamingoes, storks, and cranes stalk about, of 
varied and beautiful colors; parrots and macaws 
fly overhead, while ducks, swans, and water-fowl 



124 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

of all sorts are being constantly seen. Snakes 
of all varieties are met with, including the great 
pythons upward of fifty feet in length and as 
large round as a man's body ; while caymans, 
electric eels, and fish of carnivorous propensities 
swarm in the water. It seems the paradise of 
wild beasts. The jaguar will stop drinking or the 
tapir look up from browsing on the grass, and 
the monkey pause in swinging from tree to tree, 
as the boats hurry noisily by, while the drowsy 
alligator or manatee floats lazily on, his head half 
out of water, until perhaps a conical bullet from 
a Winchester rifle or from a revolver, which every 
one carries, rouses him to a knowledge that it is 
not good to trust too much to mankind. 

As the day goes by, the steamer passes through 
miles and miles of this beautiful tropical scenery, 
every succeeding bend opening up new beauties. 
Here islands clothed in verdure, there the banks 
closing together so that the steamers almost pass 
under the branches of overhanging trees, then 
widening out till the shores seem to recede almost 
from view ; and all under a burning, glistening 
sun, while the river, with its dark-brown water, 
runs on without a ripple. All noises cease, the 
very air quivers with the heat, and the passengers 
loll in their chairs or hammocks under the awn- 
ing on the forward part of the upper deck, where 
the motion of the boat produces a grateful breeze ; 
drinking cooled iced drinks brought to them 
from the bar by the accommodating steward. 
With the evening comes a renewal of the wild 
beasts' cries, the bowlings of the monkeys, and 




CARIB INDIAN. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 125 

the screams of the birds. Then a great darkness 
immediately succeeds the setting of the sun, for 
there is no twilight in the tropics, and the steamer 
beats on her way amid a gloom penetrable only 
by the experienced eye of the pilot. Through 
this vast solitude no human foot treads, except 
that of the wild Indian, who lives precisely as 
his forefathers did when Columbus discovered 
his country. Their clothing consists only of an 
apron six or eight inches square fastened around 
their loins, a necklace of wild beasts' teeth, and 
sometimes a head-dress of feathers ; they are 
armed with the bow and arrows, spear and war- 
club ; their canoes are made out of single logs 
burnt and scraped, with shell or stone imple- 
ments, into form; their houses are merely poles 
stuck into the ground on the banks of the river, 
and covered with thatch of palm leaves. Such 
was the first sight we had presented to us of the 
native Indians, on the first morning after leaving 
Trinidad, as we passed through the Macareo 
river, about half-way between the Gulf of Para 
and the Orinoco. Several Indians paddled out to 
meet the steamer, in their canoes, shouting and 
gesticulating, while the women and children ran 
out of their huts to the shore to look at us. 
These Indians are harmless, and live principally 
by fishing, and are very grateful for any tin can or 
empty bottles thrown to them from the steamer. 
They are of Carib descent, and were formerly 
much more numerous ; but the cruelties practised 
upon them by the Spaniards and Venezuelans 
have driven them away, or at least mu.ch further 



126 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

into the woods. Even of late years, the govern- 
ment of Venezuela — if the parties in power can 
be called a government — have levied taxes on 
the Indians which they knew they were unable to 
pay, then sent out soldiers to bring them in and 
make them work on the goverrtment plantations 
without pay, which is only another form of 
slavery. 

These villages have about four or five acres of 
cleared land around them, on which they grow 
corn, plantain, and yams, sufficient with the fish 
and game they catch to keep them. Those that 
came off in their canoes seemed fat and well. If 
any one dies he is wrapped up in strips of fibre, 
then put into his hammock, and suspended as far 
from the ground as possible between two posts. 
Such a burial-place we passed and obtained a 
photograph of it which we have reproduced in 
this work. Several Indian villages are passed 
similar to the first one, and then the first white 
settlement is approached. This proves to be a 
single hut varying but little from the Indian ones, 
except it is partly enclosed by walls made of mud 
baked in the sun. The children, too, have some- 
thing on, while some garments hang in the sun to 
dry, and the garden shows a little more variety — 
some sugar canes, a pawpaw tree, and several 
cocoanuts. All these are signs of civilization, but 
the canoe, and general dirt and squalor, and color 
too, are very much the same. Leaving this 
lonely squatter we push on, and presently on the 
right bank we come in sight of a more preten- 
tious abode. This is a small sugar plantation. 




INDIAN GRAVES, MA.CM<¥.0 \UNV.'*.. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 127 

We see the primitive appliances for crushing the 
cane, and the open boiling-house, where, in large 
iron pans, the juice is boiled and evaporated 
until a coarse brown product is obtained. The 
residue is converted into rum, in a still some- 
thing like a teakettle. A Trinidad or Demerara 
planter would recoil with horror from this primi- 
tive mode of manufacture, but it answers the 
owner's purpose well enough ; he has no competi- 
tion to put up with, and it affords a good example 
what extreme protection will do for a country. 
Sugar, coffee, cocoa, salt, cotton, and many other 
articles are absolutely prohibited from entering 
Venezuela. The result is that sugar sells for 
thirty cents per pound, salt ten cent, etc. 

THE ORINOCO. 

Houses and plantations now become more 
numerous until Barrancas is reached, a straggling 
village with a large corral or pen, capable of 
holding three or four hundred head of cattle, 
from which they are shipped and carried by this 
vessel on her return voyage to Trinidad, for the 
supply of beef to that island. 

After leaving Barrancas the river changes its 
aspect, for now we are on the Orinoco. It is 
much wider, huge stony bluffs appear, the land 
is more open, while in the distance appear the 
mountains of Guiana, a low spur or branch of 
the Andes. Now, turning a sharp corner, a vast 
sheet of water is opened up, at the lower end of 
which in the distance appears a fortress. This is 
where the famous fort was built by Sir Walter 



128 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

Raleigh, when that bold buccaneer forced his way 
up the Orinoco and proceeded to search for the 
land of El Dorado among the possessions of the 
Spaniards. Curiously enough, Raleigh and his 
followers, according to all traditions, must, in their 
attempted passage through the country, have 
actually passed over the spot where the greatest 
quantities of gold are now produced — the wonder- 
fully rich mine of El Callao. Raleigh mentions 
frequently that he saw gold embedded in white 
quartz, and it is singular that it is white quartz 
which produces the most gold at that mine, 
whereas in other mines the gold-bearing lodes are 
blue. It was this expedition which eventually, 
through the cowardice of James I. and his fear of 
the Spaniard, lost Raleigh his head. The proud 
viceroy of South America never forgot or forgave 
the blow inflicted on his prestige and power by 
the bold Englishman, and Raleigh's blood was 
needed to quiet the fears and satisfy the pride of 
the Spaniard whom he so often defeated. Pass- 
ing Raleigh's fort, the small town of Las Tablas 
is reached, on the river bank, at which persons 
visiting the mines generally disembark, a process 
attended with some difficulty unless you have pre- 
viously been to Bolivar and obtained a permit. 

CIUDAD BOLIVAR. 

The next important stopping-place is Ciudad 
Bolivar, or, as it was formerly called, " Angos- 
tura.'' This city is the capital of the State of 
Bolivar, which comprises about one-half of the 
land-area of Venezuela, and contains a population 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 129 

of about ten thousand. The city is built upon a 
hill of solid rock, and commands an extensive 
view of the Orinoco and the wide-stretching 
plains on both sides of the river. The streets run 
at right angles and parallel to the Orinoco, but are 
very steep and poorly paved. It contains a 
cathedral, — being the see of a bishop, — built in 
the time of the Spanish colonists. There is also a 
large and spacious government house, in which 
a fine collection of documents relating to the his- 
tory of this section of the country is kept in 
excellent order. A federal college of the first class, 
with a eood library, and under the direction of a 
staff of teachers, gives instruction to about one 
hundred and twenty-eight boys, who receive a 
good liberal education. A public square well kept, 
in which is a fine statue of the liberator Bolivar, 
stands on a handsome pedestal. This was the 
first monument erected in honor of the hero of the 
country in Venezuela, the man who sacrificed all 
his large fortune to effect the liberation of Span- 
ish America, and received so little recognition 
from an ungrateful country that when he died his 
friends had to pay the expenses of his burial. 
There is also a market place, very poorly sup- 
plied; two hospitals, one for men and one for 
women ; a theatre 'Well patronized, a Masonic 
lodge, a Roman Catholic and Protestant ceme- 
tery. The principal street, where the stores of 
the merchants are, faces and runs parallel to the 
river ; between it and the water a long line of 
trees has been planted, affording a much-desired 
shelter during the heat of the day, which here is 



I30 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

very great. If it were not for the breeze which 
blows up the river regularly every day it would 
be unbearable ; no human being could stand it. 
The thermometer ranges from ninety-six to one 
hundred and twelve during the middle of the day 
It is said there that at the creation, after the six 
days were over, the devil stole a mean advantage 
during the Sunday's rest and threw up Ciudad 
Bolivar as an outpost. Inland behind the town 
is a large lagoon which is dry when the river 
is low. Almost all the houses are of the old 
Spanish type, one story or at most two high, 
with flat terraced roofs and windows heavily 
barred ; generally whitewashed, with a dado or 
border up to about three feet from the ground, 
of some bright color. The little yards or gar- 
dens behind, without which no Spanish house is 
complete, have been brought into cultivation by 
earth brought in baskets from long distances. 

All the houses have large projecting balconies 
supported on posts, under which the pavement 
of the street runs, thus affording some shelter to 
the passenger. There are no walks or drives 
except up and down the principal street, by the 
riverside ; all the country around is one dreary 
desert, either swamp or lagoon or sandy savanna, 
where only coarse grass can grow. The place 
is not unhealthy, it is merely hot. The bare 
black rock on which it stands gets almost red hot 
at noon, and never at any time gets cool. The 
women of the better class are seldom seen except 
at early mass, about four A.M. It is considered 
highly improper to visit ladies of a family except 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 131 

in the presence of their husbands or fathers, in 
fact, any lady who receives a call from a gentleman 
friend, or was known to be alone with him, forfeits 
her reputation. If a young man wants to see a 
young lady he asks for her father and sees her 
only in his presence, or with some duenna sitting 
by her side. 

THE UPPER ORINOCO. 

The Orinoco here is very narrow, and a spur 
of the same rock on which the town is built juts 
far out into the river and renders navigation very 
unsafe, while the narrowness of the channel enables 
the town to command the waterway. The river 
here is about eight hundred and fifty yards wide, 
and right in the middle of the mighty stream rises 
the immense rock called " Piedra del Medio," 
surmounted by a large cross. It is never over- 
flowed by the great annual rise of the river, which 
may be calculated at about seventy feet, and 
serves as an excellent meter to gauge the rise of 
the Orinoco. The river begins to rise in the 
month of March, from the melting of the snow 
in the Andes, and continues rising until August, 
when it is at its highest; it then commences to 
fall until February, in which month it is always 
lowest. 

The head waters of this river have never yet 
been reached, though several parties have at- 
tempted to get there. The vast forests and 
plains in which it rises are peopled by Indians 
never yet subdued, and who will permit no white 
man or stranger to intrude on their territory. 



132 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

With the tribes occupying this part of the country 
remains the secret or the Worari poison ; with it 
they smear arrows as well as their other warlike 
implements, and a scratch means death without 
remedy. These tribes have a habit of serving a 
sort of notice on any traveller trying to pen- 
etrate their country. If he retires on receipt of 
it, all is well, and he is not moldsted by them. 
If, after receiving it, he perseveres and tries to go 
forward, an implacable and unseen enemy dogs 
his every step ; by day and by night he is attacked ; 
from every tree, from every bush, a poisoned 
arrow flies, till at last, worn out and exhausted 
by this continual strife, he and his party fall a 
prey to their ferocious enemies. 

There are no wharves on the Orinoco. The 
great rise and fall of the river renders the erec- 
tion of them nearly impossible. When the river 
is high the difficulties of unloading vessels are not 
so great, as they lie alongside of the river-bank 
and discharge from the deck thereon ; but when 
low the steepness of the immense sand-bank 
which exists in front of the city makes the use of 
carts quite out of the question, and renders the 
work of unloading not only expensive but very 
long. The cargo has to be carried on men's 
shoulders from the brink of the river to the 
Custom House, and at the rate of twelve cents 
per one hundred and twenty pounds. The dis- 
tance from Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, to this city 
by the channel of the Macareo is about four 
hundred and fifty miles, and this is as far up the 
river as steamers can ascend when the river is 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 133 

low. When the river is high it is entirely differ- 
ent : steamers can go thousands of miles into the 
interior, even to the Amazon. The Orinoco forms 
the highway of communication of the whole re- 
public, uniting as it does the northern as well as 
the southern part, and with its tributaries forms a 
network of internal navigation unrivalled in any 
other country on the face of the globe. It flows 
through thousands of miles of virgin forest 
teeming with the most precious woods, through 
vast territories abounding in varied and innumer- 
able tropical productions, through immense plains 
on which numerous herds of cattle roam, through 
soils of the richest fertility, through different 
zones of great heat, a genial spring-like tempera- 
ture, and extreme cold. Indeed, it may be said 
with truth that the Orinoco is the key to the 
whole of the vast continent of South America. 
By the Rio Negro it is joined to the Amazon, thus 
rendering Brazil accessible to steamers from the 
coasts of Venezuela. It requires no stretch of 
the imagination to suppose that the commerce 
which will some day be developed by means of 
this noble river will unquestionably be of vast 
importance. 

INHABITANTS. GOVERNMENT. 

Before that, however, the country will have to 
be peopled with another race different from that 
now inhabiting it. It is not under the dominion 
of the white race ; two-thirds of the people are 
of mixed Indian and Spanish descent, the other 
third of white, negro, and all three races together. 



134 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

There is not more than one per cent, of pure 
whites in Venezuela, and of those many are new- 
* comers, — English, American, German, and Cor- 
sican. Crespo, the President of the republic, is 
one-half negro, the balance white and Indian. 
The Venezuelan of white and Indian blood con- 
siders himself superior to one with negro blood. 
The worst combination is a peculiar mixture called 
Zamboes, the descendants of Africans and Ind- 
ians, which has produced a breed which in Vene- 
zuela is looked on as singularly ferocious ; and 
out of ten crimes committed, at least eight are at- 
tributed, and with reason, to Zamboes. During 
the wars they have proved the most cruel and 
blood-thirsty of all troops, neither taking nor 
giving quarter, and have fairly outrivalled in that 
respect the Llaneros or cowboys of the plains, to 
which class Crespo belongs. 

The constant changes of presidents or dictators, 
and consequently the very unsettled condition of 
the country and insecurity of property, have 
been the great drawbacks to the prosperity of 
Venezuela. It would seem that the Latin races 
were incapable of self-government. When a 
ruler once obtains power, it is difficult to dis- 
possess him with anything short of a revolution. 
Gusman Blanco had a longer lease of power 
and had a firmer hold on the people than any of 
their former presidents. By an article in the 
constitution, the President was only elected for 
two years, and the same person could not hold 
two consecutive terms of office. Therefore be- 
tween Blanco's presidentships there has been a 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 135 

succession of warming-pans as it were, he return- 
ing to power as soon as the law permitted, and 
the retiring Presidents falling back into their 
native obscurity ; but each one while in power 
did all he could to fill his own pockets, and 
those of the needy set of adventurers who sur- 
rounded him. Blanco's last dummy was An- 
dreas Palacio, who was overturned by Crespo 
and his cowboys, who upset this order of things. 
When Crespo got into power he had the consti- 
tution changed so as to give him a longer lease 
of power. Blanco retired to Paris and is living 
in a palace there with ^20,000,000 which he 
obtained from " concessions," and Palacio ditto * 
with ^2,000,000. 

When Bolivar freed Venezuela he gave, as the 
only reward possible, the land and trade of 
the country to those who had freed it. All 
the generals applied for something, — grants of 
land, special powers to trade, etc. For instance. 
Tonka beans grow wild in certain districts, and 
used to be collected by the natives and brought 
down to the merchants at Bolivar, who bought 
them up and shipped them to the United States, 
making a considerable profit ; and a large trade 
was done in them, which gave employment 
to a great number of people. However, one 
general, scenting plunder, applied and got a 
" concession " to gather, sell, or export Tonka 
beans. The merchants of Bolivar, seeing a very 
considerable trade slipping from their grasp, met 
and presented a respectful petition to the Presi- 
dent, asking him to abolish this concession, on 



136 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

the ground that it was a great injury to trade. 
The Governor of Bolivar called a meeting of the 
merchants who had signed the memorial, which 
they all attended, except one wary old fox, who 
suddenly became unwell and went down to Trin- 
idad for his health. On reaching the govern- 
ment house they were informed that the President 
had read their memorial, that he considered it 
inimical to the government, and that he, the 
Governor, was directed to give them a fortnight's 
confinement in prison to reconsider the matter ; 
and imprisoned they accordingly were. No 
further memorial reached the President from 
them. A German house in Bolivar paid a large 
sum yearly to the concession holder, obtained 
the privilege of collecting and exporting all the 
Tonka beans. The people who collected them 
had to pay for leave to do so, they must bring 
them to this house, which buys at its own price. 
Crespo owns many concessions, — gold mines, 
the use of the Macareo river, which really means 
the navigation of the Orinoco, the sale of butter 
and milk in Caracas from his own farm, and the 
shipping of cattle to Trinidad, etc. By the time 
he is dispossessed of his office he will retire with 
as much wealth as his predecessors, 'and then the 
country will have to go through the process of 
being robbed by another set of cormorants.* 
How a State gifted with one of the best codes of 
law in existence could, through the utter deprav- 
ity, greed, and cruelty of successive chiefs, have 

"^ Since the above was written Crespo has been killed, and another 
dictator is now in his place. 



138 AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD. 

fallen into its present state is not within the scope 
of this chapter to say. Foreigners who have 
made loans to the government are openly 
laughed at and their claims derided. Negotia- 
tions with such a government are utterly useless. 
Diplomacy is powerless with men who, while 
stickling for the point of honor, lie without 
scruple and cheat whenever it serves their pur- 
pose. Without arms, or men to use them, all 
their defences in ruins, and relying solely on the 
forbearance of their victims, they talk and 
swagger with the insolence of a first-class power. 
The only way justice can be obtained by for- 
eigners is through the presence of a gunboat at 
Laguyar ; then all that is required is granted with- 
out a murmur. Trinidad is a constant source of 
irritation to Venezuela, as it affords a harbor for 
smugglers and revolutionists. Blanco and Crespo 
both started from here on their expeditions, 
and while the island by its position at the 
mouth of the Orinoco should command a great 
trade with Venezuela, it is hampered and ob- 
structed by the Venezuelan government, which 
imposes an extra ad valorem duty of thirty per 
cent, on whatever comes from or through Trini- 
dad. This policy causes an immense amount 
of smuggling of goods through Trinidad into 
Venezuela, aided by the connivance of the Ven- 
ezuelan custom-house officers. It is estimated 
that not one-tenth part of the duties is collected 
by the government. 

The State of Bolivar, or Guiana as it was for- 
merly called, is separated from the rest of the 



STARK'S GUIDE BOOK t$9 

republic by the Orinoco. This vast r^ion is 
as large as France, and comprises one-half of 
Venezuela, and contains a population of only 
about 50,000, only two inhabitants to the square 
mile, while the island of Barbados contains 1,200 
to the square mile, and Trinidad, although but 
one-tenth inhabited, contains a population five 
times greater than this great wilderness which has 
been inhabited since 1575. 



^s%\ 




I40 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE GREAT VENEZUELAN PITCH LAKE ITS DIS- 
COVERY AND DEVELOPMENT. 

To a person visiting Trinidad, and having 
time to spare, it would be a mistake to go away 
without visiting one of the greatest natural 
curiosities of the world. This is the newly- 
discovered Pitch lake in Venezuela. It is sit- 
uated in the interior of the State of Bermu- 
dez, on the westerly side of the Gulf of Paria, 
opposite the Island of Trinidad. It can be 
reached in a steamer of the New York & Ber- 
mudez Company that goes weekly from Port-of- 
Spain to Guanoco. It takes a day and night to 
make the trip, each way. If a person desires to 
go hunting, no better place can be reached from 
Trinidad. Here will be found primeval for- 
ests which abound with game of all descriptions, 
jaguars, peccaries, monkeys, turkeys, macaws, 
ibis, parrots, etc., and in the rivers fish of all 
kinds, manatees and alligators. This wonderful 
Pitch lake is one thousand acres in extent, and 
as it is incessantly, though imperceptibly, in mo- 
tion it may well be called inexhaustible. 

A brief description of its discovery and devel- 
opment may prove of interest to the reader. 
During Gusman Blanco's administration an Eng- 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 141 

lishman was granted the concession of all the 
natural products of the State of Bermudez, and 
a company was organized in the United States, 
under the name of the " New York & Bermudez 
Company/' for the purpose of developing the 
same. The company at first confined itself to 
the exporting of the products of the forest, prin- 
cipally timber. This, however, not proving re- 
munerative, and the Indians reporting the exist- 
ence of a vast deposit of asphalt in the interior, 
it was determined to send a competent person to 
explore the country, and examine into the genu- 
ineness of the reputed Pitch lake. Mr. A. H. 
Carner, a civil engineer then in the employ of 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, a man well 
versed in the development of such enterprises, 
was the person selected for the undertaking, 
and, as future results showed, no better selection 
could possibly have been made. The writer 
met Mr. Carner in Port-of-Spain while obtaining 
material for this work, and was kindly invited by 
him to visit this wonderful pitch deposit. It was 
during this visit that the information contained 
in this chapter was obtained from this pioneer of 
Venezuelan forests. 

In the early part of 1887 Mr. Carner arrived 
in Venezuela. After diligent inquiry and search 
he fully ascertained that such a deposit existed, 
but that it was only locally known to the Ind- 
ians and half-breeds in that region. The only 
known approach was by way of a small river, 
known as the Guariquen river, having its source 
some thirty-six miles inland among the hills, 



142 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

near a little village of the same name, reached 
by the company's steamer " Mercedes." A 
guide was obtained here who led the exploring 
party over a trail which traversed dense virgin 
forests, swamps, and mountains, and which ended 
at what is now known as the Great Bermudez 
Pitch lake. Here was found a vast deposit of 
asphalt, ninety-five per cent, pure; in some 
places liquid, in others hard and brittle ; this 
latter is known to the trade as "glance pitch,*' 
from which varnishes and paints are made. The 
larger portion of the lake was of the same 
consistency and appearance as the Trinidad 
Pitch lake, intersected with pools of water, and 
in some places with great gas-bubbles as large as 
a small-sized hut. In one place was found the 
remains of a tiger whose feet having been caught 
in the soft pitch had starved to death. Here 
and there were clumps of bushes and grass grow- 
ing out of the hard pitch, appearing like islands 
in the lake; in one of these was found the lair 
of a tiger or some other large wild beast. 

The lake is about two miles across in its 
widest part, and is bounded on the north by the 
mountain just crossed, and surrounded on all 
other sides by vast wildernesses of swamp and 
forest. 

As viewed from the mountains this wide ex- 
panse of asphalt seemed to extend for miles in 
all directions, its limits reaching beyond the vision 
and fading into the horizon. 

Some two months were spent in looking over 
this natural wonder, with a view of ascertaining 



AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD. 143 

the feasibility of bringing it into commercial uses ; 
during this time a few shipments were also 
made, being carried over the mountains on the 
backs of donkeys to the shipping place ; from 
there put on board the steamer " Mercedes " 
and sent to Trinidad, where it was transshipped to 
the larger steamers plying between Port-of-Spain 
and New York. After careful consideration Mr. 
Carner reported to the company that the devel- 
opment of this wonderful and valuable deposit for 
commercial purposes was impracticable, owing to 
the many physical and natural difficulties which 
beset it on every side : a bar at the mouth of 
the Guariquen river, with a silted bottom, which 
never could be kept dredged, and with only a 
depth of thirteen feet at high water ; a very 
crooked river, with soft embankments and 
a muddy bottom which low tide left high and 
dry for more than a mile from the landing 
place ; and a winding trail over swamp, hill, 
and mountain, alternately, for a distance of 
about twelve miles. 

The c6nstruction of necessary facilities for trans- 
porting the asphalt would have cost at least half 
a million dollars, and would not then have been 
complete, by reason of there not being sufficient 
water for ocean-going vessels. 

On some of the various journeys over the 
mountains, however, a bluish streak in the atmos- 
phere was noticed far to the south of the asphalt 
lake, just hovering over tree-tops ; this gave the 
hope that one or more waterways might exist 
in that locality. Preparations were immediately 



144 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

made to test and prove the possibility of this new 
approach from the south. The old trail was 
retraced, from the north, to the large and open 
surface of the glistening pitch lake three-quarters 
of a mile from its outer edge; its geographical 
position was ascertained by nautical observation. 

Returning to the port where the steamer 
" Mercedes " was anchored, the exploring party 
again started out on what proved to be a suc- 
cessful though laborious expedition. 

Leaving the Ciuariqucn river they steamed 
«ver the " Maturin bar," which contains an 
abundance of water throughout, into the San 
Juan river — a second (Orinoco without its dan- 
gers. They navigated this river for many miles, 
to " Paraie," a little settlement which nestles at 
the foot of" Buen Pasteur Mountain," or " Moun- 
tain of the Cjood Shepherd," whose sides rise 
almost perpendicularly from the river's edge to 
a great height. 

From the summit of this mountain the ex- 
plorers took another observation, and found that 
they must retrace their steps and seek an en- 
trance into the interior by means of one of 
the many small canons or branches of the San 
Juan. 

Procuring the services of Brito, a little Vene- 
zuelan pilot, who has since been identified with 
much of the pioneer life of Ciuanoco, the party 
returned some thirty miles to a tributary on the 
right hand, now known as the " Ciuanoco river," 
and which the Indians of the section said led 
to a great lake of asphalt. 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 145 

Into this river they turned and steamed slowly 
on, sounding carefully with lead and line, until 
arriving at the base or a chain of hills,, and find- 
ing farther navigation difficult and dangerous, the 
anchor was dropped. Here was found the first 
high ground since entering the river. It was 
occupied by an Indian family, and was the future 
site of Guanoco settlement. From the Guar- 
auno Indian of this place it was ascertained that 
a great lake of pitch existed not far away, where 
they went to catch small fish found in the 
pools of water which collects in the fissures of 
the pitch. The pitch itself they use for their 
canoes and arrows. 

They also said that the moriche palm was found 
in great abundance, from the fibre of which they 
make their hammocks, and from the sap and 
fruit of which they make an intoxicating bever- 
age. The temiche palm, used by them as a 
covering for their huts, was also said to abound. 
The time required to reach the lake, or the 
distance, they did not know. 

With this meagre information the first expe- 
dition started out, headed by Mr. Carner with 
an assistant engineer, four Indian guides, Brito 
the pilot, and a young interpreter. Leaving the 
steamer they rowed on in a small row-boat until 
they reached a narrow canon, or branch of the 
main river; into this they turned and stopped 
at a narrow opening, where they landed and con- 
tinued their journey on foot, following the guides, 
who, in addition to the lunch-baskets, each 
carried a " machete " or cutlass, with which to cut 



146 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

away the low underbrush, which seemed almost 
impenetrable. The mangrove trees, with their 
twisted roots, formed formidable barriers, while 
their leafy branches were so dense that the sun 
could barely penetrate. Over the grotesque, 
twisted mangrove roots they climbed, many 
times sinking to the waist in the soft, black 
mud which is found along the lowlands. After 
what seemed miles of travel they were apparently 
no nearer the object of their search. The guides 
became exhausted by the constant struggle to 
drag themselves out of the black mud into 
which they sank at every step. It was noticed 
also that they examined most carefully the trunk 
of each tree passed, and now and then one of 
the younger ones would climb one of the larger 
trees, to sight the surrounding country. 

The day was far spent, and darkness was 
settling over the swamps, when the guides ac- 
knowledged that they had lost the trail, marked 
by notches cut in the trunks of the trees. 
To continue would be useless, and to attempt to 
find the trail just lost would be equally so, for 
the shades of night gather very quickly in the 
tropical forests. 

A little farther on, however, was a fallen man- 
grove tree whose twisted and distorted roots 
formed natural seats, beneath and around which 
were deep pools of muddy water. Upon this 
they climbed, and resigned themselves to the 
horrors of a night in a tropical forest and swamp. 
The Indians made a camp-fire, to keep away not 
only mosquitoes and sandflies, but tigers and 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 147 

snakes, which were said to abound. To add to 
their misery, the rain soon came down in 
torrents, and the bright light of the camp-fire 
soon grew dimmer and dimmer, until at last they 
were left in total darkness, perched upon the 
roots of the mangrove, and wishing most heartily 
that pitch had never been heard of. 

Fortunately the darkest nights pass, and dawn 
seems all the brighter, and the first streak of 
daylight was gladly welcomed by this little 
party. 

Finding the Indians were completely lost, it 
was decided to find the way back to the steamer, 
if possible, and send to the Indian village, not 
far distant, for one of the older Indians, and 
start out afresh. 

The next trial was successful, and when the 
direct trail was opened the distance was found to 
be infinitely shorter and far more practical. 

The title to the whole of the lake property 
was then obtained in fee-simple, and in 1888 the 
initial steps were taken toward locating the little 
settlement now known throughout the shipping 
world as Guanoco. Clearings were made in the 
dense jungle, houses constructed for the laborers, 
a temporary jetty made for landing machinery 
and provisions, and the line opened and surveyed 
from the lake to the jetty. 

The cutting of a trail through the dense swamp 
was only the commencement of the many diffi- 
culties to be overcome ; to be appreciated, the rail- 
road through this tropical swamp must be seen. 
Many months were spent in cutting down the jun- 



148 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

gle and the great giants of the forest ; the Indians 
cut away the brush and scrub, and the Vene- 
zuelans and negroes felled the trees. Numer- 
ous trips had to be made to Trinidad for negroes 
and supplies. The negroes soon tired of hard 
work in the swamp, where they were certain to 
have the fever in a very short time. When the 
roadway was cleared, then came the most difficult 
task of all — the building of a solid road-bed for 
a distance of over five miles. 

In 1890 a vigorous start was made, suffering 
frequent interruptions from scarcity of labor, want 
of food, and fever ravages ; but the Yankee 
courage never failed, and the work of laying the 
rails still progressed until the close of '90, when 
the last length of rails reached the pitch lake, 
five and three-tenths miles distant from the ship- 
ping wharf, over rivers, through one continuous 
jungle of tropical growth and dismal swamp. 

These first years of pioneer life were full of 
thrilling incidents. Tigers abounded, and now 
and then would pay a nocturnal visit to the stock- 
yard and help themselves to a chicken or young 
pig. Emboldened by their repeated successes, one 
entered too close to the camp one night, and paid 
the penalty of death. Snakes of all descriptions 
were most plentiful, and many narrow escapes 
did they have from these ugly reptiles. Coiled 
among the green leaves of the low-hanging 
branches of the mangrove tree, they could not 
be detected, but a splash in the water, one dark 
night, of a boa constrictor proved to the occu- 
pants of the passing row-boat that they had just 



AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 149 

escaped what would have proved a very disa- 
greeable embrace. 

Centipedes and tarantulas abounded, the lat- 
ter being most dreaded from its propensity to 
hide itself in the crown of a hat or the folds of a 
coat which had not been constantly in use. 

The red howling monkeys swung among the 
branches of the trees, and their bowlings made 
the early morning hours most doleful ; but the 
whistle of the locomotives and steamers has 
driven them farther back into the woods, for the 
monkey does not like civilization any better than 
did Juancito the Guarauno, who, with his family, 
had lived in the quiet solitude of that wilder- 
ness, content with fishing in the rivers or hunt- 
ing with his dogs the game of the mountains, but 
who at the first glimpse of the pale-faces, who 
intruded themselves on their domain, silently 
filled their long baskets with their chinchorros 
and hastily fled through the dense underbrush to 
the banks of the river, and stealthily paddled 
away in their canoes, leaving their thatched hut, 
with embers smoking on the rude stone fireplace, 
deserted. 

Once or twice only, since his departure, has 
Juancito brought his squaw and children to view, 
from afar, their old camping-ground ; but all is 
changed, and nothing remains of his old home 
but the lime and mango trees, which, to-day, cast 
their shades and bear their fruits for strangers. 
Probably in the depths of their stolid natures 
was a feeling akin to the heart-aches felt by more 
civilized individuals when they also have realized 



150 STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 

the changes in the old home wrought by time 
and absence. 

The development of this pitch lake, and the 
bringing of the asphalt into the market, has been 
a work requiring" the greatest possible physical 
endurance and determination, and the successful 
conclusion is entirely due to the skilful manage- 
ment and untiring zeal and enterprise of Mr. 
Carner. Guanoco, the Pitch lake settlement, 
owes its existence, name, and present state of 
thrift and activity to him and his wife, who has 
shared his toils and privations in this wilderness 
for the past ten years. 

The facilities are such that a vessel can now be 
loaded in one day. A visit to this lake on the 
company's steamer will amply repay the visitor. 
It will be a trip unequalled in the world, never 
to be forgotten. 



STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 151 



CHAPTER XII. 

TOBAGO, GRENADA, AND ST. VINCENT. 

Persons visiting Trinidad and Barbados will 
find it greatly to their advantage to visit Tobago, 
Grenada, and St. Vincent. As Tobago is con- 
nected politically with Trinidad, steam commu- 
nication with Port-of-Spain is frequent and good. 
The Royal Mail Steamers run every two weeks 
between Barbados and Demerara, touching at 
Grenada and St. Vincent. The tourist will have 
sufficient time to go ashore for a drive or walk 
about the islands, and see most of the sights, or 
can stay several days on one of the islands while 
the steamer proceeds to Demerara and return. 

TOBAGO. 

The first island met with after leaving Trini- 
dad is Tobago. This is the island where DeFoe 
in his story located Robinson Crusoe, and Trini- 
dad the island from whence the cannibal savages 
came. 

Tobago is situated a little over 1 8 miles from 
Trinidad. It is 26 miles in length and 7 or 8 
miles wide; its area is 114 square miles, contain- 
ing about 73,3 13 acres. Its geological formation, 
like all the Caribbee Islands, is principally vol- 
canic. Its physical aspect is picturesquely irreg- 
ular, consisting mainly of alternate ridges and 



152 AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 

valleys running from the main ridge down to the 
sea. The leeward end, however, is flat and of coral 
formation, and has less of a rainfall and scantier 
supply of water than the windward end. The 
main ridge occupies the centre of the island for 
about two-thirds of its length, is covered with high 
woods (which form the " Rain Reserve ") that, in 
order to attract and retain the rainfall, are never 
allowed to be cut down. At Pigeon hill the 
ridge attains the elevation of 1,900 feet from sea 
level, and is considered the highest point in the 
island. About one-third of the total acreage 
consists of primeval forest, about one-third of 
second-growth wood which has overgrown what 
was once cleared ground, and the remainder of 
more or less cultivated lands. It is supposed 
that Columbus discovered Tobago in 1498, on 
his fourth voyage, when he discovered Grenada 
and Trinidad. But the only trace of his discov- 
ery seems to consist of the statement that the 
name Tobago or Tabago was bestowed on the 
island by him on account of the fanciful resem- 
blance of its shape to that of a pipe so called by 
the Indians, which they smoked tobacco in. 

SETTLED BY THE ENGLISH. 

The authentic history of Tobago appears to 
begin in 1580, by the hoisting of the English flag 
by some enterprising English sailors. Then from 
1608, when King James I. claimed it, down to 
1803, it became the debatable land of the West 
Indies — a bone of contention between the British, 
Courlanders, Dutch, and French by turns, with 



STAI^K'S GUIDE BOOK 153 

occasional visits from Spaniards, Caribs, and 
Yankees. When in June^ 1803, it finally passed 
under the British flag, it was doubtless the most 
heavily fortified island in the West Indies ; for, 
in addition to the guns of Fort George at Scar- 
borough, there are still to be seen at every four 
to six miles round the island, in the most com- 
manding positions, the remains of abandoned bat- 
teries or two to three guns each, with the guns 
still mounted, or lying about in all possible stages 
of rust and decadence. Besides them, the only 
souvenirs of those stirring times are a few old 
tombs, with illegible inscriptions, on the north 
side of the island, supposed to be the relics of 
the Courlanders and Dutch who settled there ; 
the French names of some streets in Scarborough ; 
and the admirably engineered roads the French 
laid out all round and across the island, which 
have been so carefully looked after by us that the 
greater part of them are now impassable and over- 
grown with forest ; and the quaint old-time scrap 
of history that in 1662 Mynheer Adrian Lamp- 
sius, of Flushing, procured letters patent from 
Louis XIV. creating him Baron de Tabagie, which 
title, along with those of the Italian duchies of 
Mantua and Monteferrato, was claimed not long 
ago by Madame Ann Groom-Napier, the present 
or recent owner of Merchiston estate in St. Paul's 
parish. During those times (i 608-1 803) Tobago 
was the scene of several naval battles. In 1666 
Admiral Sir John Harnian defeated the combined 
Dutch and French fleets which had rendezvoused 
there. In 1677 a French squadron under Count 



154 A^I> HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 

D'Estrees fought the Dutch ships and batteries 
in Courland bay from daybreak till sundowti^ 
D'Estrees' ship, the " Gloriem," of seventy guns, 
being blown up and two others stranded, but 
Mynheer Binks and his " dour Dutch dogs " 
were victorious, although with the loss of several 
ships. However, later in the same year D'Estr&s 
came back with a strong force and captured the 
island, killing Binks with most of his officers, 
and sending three hundred Dutch prisoners to 
France. Early in 1778 the United States equipped 
a squadron composed of two ships, three brigs, 
and a schooner, with the intention of capturing 
Tobago, but they were met by Captain Vincent 
in the " Yarmouth," of sixty guns, some leagues 
to windward of Barbados, who in a short engage- 
ment blew up one of their ships, the " Randolph," 
of thirty-six guns and three hundred and fifteen 
men, while the rest of their squadron, " with a vast 
deal of discretion," made their escape in a more 
or less damaged state. Tobago can show a very 
pretty list of land engagements too — about ten. 
But the one she has most reason to remember and 
be proud of was the most gallant and protracted 
defence made by the colonists led by LieuL-Gov. 
George Ferguson in 178 1, against a strong 
French force, under the Marquis de Buille, which 
captured the island. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLAND. 

Tobago is well watered by streams rising In the 
Main ridge. In most of the valleys they are 
large enough to drive machinery. Most of those 



STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 155 

in the Windward district were utilized in that 
way before the introduction of steam-engines, and 
would now again with improved water-wheels give 
cheaper and better service than steam. None of 
the streams are now navigable, but there are indi- 
cations that in the last century some of the Wind- 
ward streams took boats or punts up as far as a 
mile and a half from the sea. The island is well 
supplied with shipping bays, among which may 
be named the magnificent and capacious harbor 
of Man-o'-War bay (or, as it is called in the old 
maps, Manowa bay), which is almost the shape of 
a horseshoe, and about four miles across at the 
widest part. In war time it used to be the ren- 
dezvous where the sugar and other merchant 
ships collected to meei the frigates and other 
men-o'-war that convoyed them to their destined 
British ports. In one corner of it there is a creek 
called Pirates' bay, which the buccaneers of old 
are said to have frequented for the purpose of 
careening their vessels, and to lie in wait for 
Spanish vessels bound home from the mouth of 
the Orinoco ; and, as might be expected, stories of 
their having buried immense treasure there are 
current in the vicinity. All round the coast lie 
valuable fishing-banks, one of which, the Great 
Guinea bank, lies off the mouth of Man-o'-War 
bay and stretches nearly half the way to Barbados. 
These banks, if properly worked, are capable of 
supplying most of the West Indies with cured fish 
of a much superior quality to the imported article. 
On and near the Boocoo and other coral reefs are 
to be found the sponges, conchs, and sea-slugs 



156 AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 

{Halothurid)y etc., which in other tropical waters 
are valuable articles of trade ; and a legend that 
is well worth verifying states that the mother-o'- 
pearl shell is also found in these localities. The 
well-known red (bank) snapper is the great 
bank fish, and among the numerous other valu- 
able edible sea-fish are the various other kinds of 
snappers, mackerel, and cavali, balahou, jack, 
kingfish, grouper, blackjack, mullet, besides 
several sorts of turtles. 

The value of muscovado sugar has steadily 
decreased since 1 834, so that from about eighty 
estates then cultivating it, the number is to-day 
reduced to about half a dozen, and its total ex- 
tinction appears not far off. Cocoanuts are now 
largely planted in the Sandy point district, and 
to Windward several large cocoa estates are com- 
ing into existence, along with a considerable 
number of small holdings which are planting up 
cocoa and coffee. The price of land has de- 
creased from £^2 5s. per acre in 1780 to ten shil- 
lings per acre at the present time. The only 
hurricanes on record occurred in August, 1790, 
1 83 1, and October, 1 847, which latter is estimated 
to have done about ^^ 150,000 worth of damage. 

GOVERNMENT. 

In 1764 King George III. gave an elective 
constitution to the colony, consisting of a Legis- 
lative Council and an Assembly. This existed 
with very little change down to 1874, when by a 
local act one Legislative Assembly was established 
in place of the two Chambers. But in 1876 the 



STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 157 

Legislative Assembly passed an Act abolishing 
itself, and was succeeded in 1877 by a Crown 
colony establishment of the ordinary type. In 
1889 Tobago was annexed to the government of 
Trinidad, but was given an elective Financial 
Board which manages the revenue of the island. 

The population, according to the census of 
1 891, was 18,353. The island is about the 
healthiest in the West Indies, only one serious 
epidemic being on record, in the end of 1820. 
There are no large swamps to form malaria 
magazines, and the average rainfall is about 65.90 
inches, and average temperature about 8 1 degrees 
Fahrenheit. Tobago is well adapted for stock- 
raising, both on account of its luxuriant pastures 
and its freedom from vampire bats and the various 
insects which are so troublesome to cattle in 
Trinidad and elsewhere ; sheep also thrive well 
usually, but are subject (the negroes say) to an 
epidemic disease which is very fatal about every 
three years. There are a few snakes to be found, 
but no poisonous ones. There are several vari- 
eties of lizards, and some small alligators in the 
larger streams. According to the late Mr. Kirk's 
list, there are one hundred and forty-eight species 
of birds found in the island, inclusive of the 
" cockrico " (Ortalida ruficauda)^ a game bird of 
the pheasant tribe which is absent from Trinidad ; 
the wild animals are, with some few exceptions, 
notably that of the lappe (Clogenys paca)y the 
same as those found in Trinidad. In the streams 
the " mountain mullet " takes the fly like trout, 
in suitable weather. 



15S AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 

The first landscape and seascape artist who 
comes to the West Indies in search of fresh pros- 
pects ought to inspect Tobago. There is more 
variety of hill and dale, forest and stream, islands, 
bays, coral reefs, palm-trees and sunsets, to the 
square mile than in all the rest of the West Indies 
put together. There is a site for a sanitarium on 
Telescope hill that has no peer in the tropics for 
fresh air, sea breezes, and scenery. A perfectly 
unique experience of the aesthetic kind may be 
obtained by any one who will take the trouble 
to sail at dawn into Man-o'-War bay, when the 
cogwood and other Tecomas are in bloom, and 
all the ridges bounding that immense horseshoe 
are clothed in gorgeous vestments of green and 
gold all the way from Rose point to Obiman 
point. Every little puff of the breeze will en- 
velop him in viewless clouds of a magnificent, 
perfect, and quite indescribable scent. 

GRENADA. 

Grenada is about 96 miles north of Trinidad. 
It is about 21 miles in length and 12 miles in 
breadth, and contains a population of about 76,- 
000. The island is of volcanic origin, abound- 
ing in streams, mineral and other springs. There 
are lakes in the mountain, and a volcanic crater 
not wholly quiescent. Among the hills are 
delightful valleys and beautiful scenery ; but the 
especial value of Grenada to Great Britain is its 
deep and land-locked harbor, the finest in all the 
West Indies. The entrance to the harbor of St. 
George is hid amid a confusion of crags and 



STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 159 

precipices where no one could guess there was a 
refuge for even the smallest fishing-boat. The 
sight of it conjures up the spirits of the pirates 
who in olden times devastated the Spanish main. 
At the entrance to the harbor, on the northern 
side of it, extending along the crest of a bold 
promontory, are the well-pre§erved walls and 
battlements of an old fortification, a stronghold 
constructed by the French, and afterwards 
strengthened by their successors, the British, 
whose soldiers and sailors have, except at short 
intervals, kept watch and ward over it for a 
century and a half. On three sides of the harbor 
wooded hills rise till they pass into mountains ; 
on the fourth is the castle with its slopes and 
buttresses, the church and town beyond it, and 
everywhere luxuriant tropical forest-trees over- 
hanging the violet-colored water. 

ST. GEORGE. 

The town of St. George contains a population 
of five thousand, who have builded their quaint 
habitations under the crest, on one side of the 
submerged crater that forms the harbor. The 
houses extend upwards over a high ridge, a rocky 
isthmus that connects the promontory, on the 
summit of which is Fort George, with the inland 
heights called Hospital hill. The thorough- 
fares, climbing at right angles to the wharf, 
ascend a steep grade, and the dwellings on the 
streets parallel to the sea-wall overtop those in 
front of them. On the ^crest of the hill stands 
the parish church, commanding an extensive 



i6o AND HIS TOR Y OF TRINIDAD. 

view over the harbor on one side, and on the 
other far out to sea. The promontory on which 
is Fort St. George, when viewed from Hospital 
hill, resembles Monaco in miniature. The fort, 
once strong and well garrisoned, is now left in 
the keeping of a few militiamen. The cannon, of 
ancient make, have nearly all been dismounted ; 
the few remaining are rusty and time-worn. The 
ditch enclosing the fortress is filled with rubbish 
and choked with weeds, the parapet is broken 
down in places, and the face of bastion, ravelin, 
and curtain-wall are moss-grown and hidden by 
beautiful shrubbery. Landward from the fort 
the town spreads out like a map. Behind the 
houses rise Richmond heights, along the brow 
of which extends a line of fortifications of great 
size, connected, it is said, with Fort St. George 
by an underground gallery spacious enough to 
permit the passage of troops. Half-way up the 
slope, between the town and the fortress, stands 
Government House, surrounded by a garden 
and commanding a magnificent view. The 
building is an attractive-looking country mansion, 
substantially built and charming in all its sur- 
roundings, and occupied by the Governor of the 
Windward Islands. 

THE CARIBS. 

Before the coming of the French, an old his- 
torian says : " The natives were gentle and mild 
in their manners, had many villages where they 
lived pleasantly and without disturbance. They 
were a hospitable race, and supplied strangers 



STARK'S GUIDE BOOK i6i 

that came near their coast with the bread of their 
country (cassava). They readily bartered their 
possessions for such trinkets as were offered to 
them." According to Du Tertre, an adventurous 
priest, Du Parquet, the Governor of Martinique, 
gave the Caribs some knives, hatchets, and a 
large quantity of glass beads, besides two bottles 
of brandy for the chief himself, and thus proudly 
boasts the reverend father : " The island was 
fairly ceded by the natives themselves to the 
Frenth nation in lawful purchase." 

The Caribs did not long remain in ignorance 
of the treachery practised upon them by the 
French, whereby they had been defrauded of their 
birthright and deprived of the land of their an- 
cestors. They protested against the iniquitous 
bargains into the making of which they had been 
betrayed ; but they appealed in vain to their rapa- 
cious and unjust invaders, and when driven to 
desperation they declared war, eight months after 
the arrival of Europeans on their island. A 
fearful struggle ensued. On the northwesterly 
part of the island is a rugged promontory called 
Morne des Sauteurs — the Place of the Leapers. 
Here Du Parquet found a band of about one 
hundred Caribs, escaped from the indiscriminate 
massacre by the French, who sought to drive 
them from the island. The white men fell upon 
the savages, killed such as made any resistance 
or effort to defend themselves, put nearly one- 
half of the band to the sword, and drove the rest 
to the verge of the precipice. There the Caribs 
made a last desperate stand. They were again 



i62 AND HISTOR Y OF TRINIDAD. 

overpowered, and the last remnant threw them- 
selves headlong down the clifF, preferring to be 
dashed to pieces on the rocks or to perish miser- 
ably in the sea, to being taken alive and sold into 
slavery by their relentless foemen. 

Among other atrocities of which the historian 
Du Tertre makes mention is the story of a Carib 
girl, twelve or thirteen years of age, who was 
taken prisoner and claimed by two French 
officers as their individual share of the booty. 
Their dispute led to blows, and the quarrel be- 
ing taken up by their respective commands, and 
the discipline of the camp being disturbed, a third 
officer, for the sake of peace and quietness, ended 
the matter by shooting the girl through the head. 
When the Caribs, save and excepting a few who 
escaped to inaccessible mountain strongholds, 
had been put to the sword, the white men 
rooted up their plantations, burnt their villages, 
and returned to Martinique to sing Te Deum 
over the success of their crusade, chanting masses 
for the souls of their victims, who, according 
to Du Tertre, were slain for the glory of God 
and his church. Thus perished the Caribs of 
Grenada. By these methods of warfare a jewel 
was added to the crown of France. The new 
owners soon fell into dispute over the division 
of the spoils. A civil war ensued, which raged 
with great fury for several years. Peace was 
ultimately restored, and the colony flourished 
under French rule for more than a century, until 
1762, when it was captured by the English, who, 
by the terms of a treaty made at the end of the 



STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 163 

following year, were confirmed in the possession 
of it. It was, however, retaken by the French in 
1779, and they continued to hold it till 1783, 
when it was finally ceded to Great Britain by the 
treaty of Amiens. 

PRODUCTIONS. 

The soil of Grenada is very fertile. The princi- 
pal product is cocoa, the soil and climate being 
particularly favorable to its growth and perfect 
development. Its cultivation is increasing rapidly ; 
year by year land is cleared and laid out in 
groves. Large quantities of fruit are also grown. 
Grenada is, beyond doubt, the great fruit-produc- 
ing island of the Caribbees. Oranges, mangoes, 
pineapples, and bananas grow there better than in 
any other place. Among the other products are 
sugar, rum, coffee, and cotton. The whites, who 
during slavery times were a wealthy and thriving 
community, have now nearly all left Grenada. 
Not more than five hundred English remain. 
They have sold their estates to the negroes for what 
they could get for them. The free blacks have 
bought them, and about eight thousand negro 
families share the soil between them. It has be- 
come an island of peasant proprietors, and is now 
the ideal country of modern social reformers. 
The conditions are never likely to arise again 
to bring back a European population. Under 
the wise and just rule of England, and the 
laws administered by English officials, the 
negroes will do fairly well, but if left to them- 
selves they would in a generation or two relapse 




FRUITS OS t.MSlMJK 



STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 165 

into savages, the same as has occurred in Hayti. 
This tranformation is going on in nearly all the 
West India Islands, whether under English, 
French, Dutch, Danish, or Spanish rule, but no- 
where else is there a better example shown than 
in Grenada. In fact, from the writer's personal 
observation, it would seem that a large portion of 
America was destined never to be occupied by the 
white race. That section situated between thirty- 
two degrees north latitude and thirty degrees 
south latitude, bounded northerly by the Gulf 
States and southerly by Chili, Argentina, and 
Uruguay will be forever occupied by the colored 
races, except in the mountain regions, where there 
is a cold climate. During the past fifty years 
the colored races in this section have increased 
out of all proportion when compared with the 
whites; in the portion within the tropics the 
whites have greatly decreased. The best example 
of this is the case of Barbados. Ligon, the histo- 
rian, informs us that when he visited there in 
1647 there were 50,000 whites and about double 
that number of negroes. Two hundred and fifty 
years have passed, and the whites number but 
1 5,000 and the negro and colored 1 85,000. This 
condition also exisits on the mainland. For exam- 
ple, it is stated that of the population of Venezuela 
but one per cent, is white. The only republics 
that have made any progress since they obtained 
their independence are the white republics of 
Chili, Argentina, and Uruguay. Many of the 
others can scarcely claim to be civilized states. 



i66 AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 



ST. VINCENT. 

This island is 68 miles north-west from Gre- 
nada, and is about 95 miles west of Barbados. 
It is 25 miles in length and 12 in breadth, com- 
prising an area of 132 square miles and a popula- 
tion of about 42,000. On approaching the island 
there are no outlying islands or rocks, no jagged 
cliffs or jutting promontories, but springing at 
once out from the sea, every angle sharp and 
clear-cut, the island presents the appearance of 
a huge opaque crystal. Though twenty-five miles 
in length, St. Vincent appears so small that one 
might fancy he could row around it in an hour 
or two. 

KINGSTON. 

Kingston, the capital of the island, is situated 
upon a bay open to the west and south-west, deep 
and spacious enough to float a navy. A sandy 
beach curves from headland to headland, and 
upon the northern promontory, six hundred feet 
above the bay, is perched a fort with massive 
walls, now used as a lighthouse and signal station. * 
A jetty aflFords a landing-place from the steam- 
ers, fronting which and the sea is the police 
station, a fine large building of stone, the best 
public building on the island. A broad street 
borders the bay, and two more run parallel to it 
farther back, until the bordering amphitheatre of 
hills prevents further building. Streets intersect 
these at right angles and end at the base line of 
the hills, save three or four which traverse the 
valleys to estates among the mountains, and two 



STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 167 

that ascend the hills and extend around either 
shore to windward and leeward. Valleys run 
up from the bay far into the mountains, and the 
various spurs of hills increase in height as they 
recede from shore, so Kingston and its bay are 
half encircled by a range of hills and mountains 
above and around whose summits clouds contin- 
ually play. 

The highest peak is Morne St. Andrew ; rising 
to the east of it and commanding the town is a 
high steep hill known as Dorsetshire heights, 
crested by a ruined fort. The sunset view from 
here is superb. Conspicuous are the royal palms. 
One house is encircled by them — a white house 
with bright-red roof. They raise themselves 
erect in clumps of a score or more, in rows like 
white pillars with dark-green caps, and stand in 
relief upon all the hills. A mile from town is an 
avenue of seventy, which, though its symmetry 
is marred by the loss of some by hurricanes, is 
still a beautiful sight. Three miles from town, 
one mile from the palm avenue in Arno's vale, is 
a noted mineral spring. From a hole six inches in 
diameter gushes out a volume of water impreg- 
nated with salts that give it value as a medicinal 
drink. It is equal in strength and beneficial 
effects to any water from the spas of Europe. 
It is stated that the water is more strongly im- 
pregnated, and that the flow is stronger, on the 
coming of the full moon. Water bottled at that 
time will sometimes break the strongest case. 

The coast along the entire western shore is 
picturesque in the extreme, with volcanic rocks 



i68 AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 

worn into caves, beautiful bays and broad valleys. 
Near Cumberland is an arched rock which bears 
the appellation of " Hafey's Breeches," and in 
the valley is a huge clifF or columnar basalt, both 
of which are interesting to view. 

VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS. 

Twice within a century St. Vincent has 
suffered from terrible volcanic eruptions. In 
1 812 the Soufriere, that towered above 
and overlooked the Richmond plantation, 
burst forth upon the island with terrible 
force. This eruption, which seemed to relieve 
a pressure upon the earth's crust, extending 
from Caracas to the Mississippi valley, was 
most disastrous in its effects, having covered 
the whole island with ashes, pumice, and scoriae, 
destroyed many lives, and ruined several estates. 
It lasted three days, commencing on or near that 
fatal day in 18 12 when Caracas was destroyed, 
and ten thousand souls perished in a moment of 
time. 

Ashes from this volcano descended upon Bar- 
bados, ninety-five miles to windward^ on the 
first day of May, 1 8 1 2, when the north-east trade 
wind was in all its force. Enormous quantities of 
ashes obscured the atmosphere above the island, 
and covered the ground with a thick layer. It 
is therefore certain that the dihris was hurled, by 
the force of the eruption, above the moving sheet 
of the trade wind into an aerial river proceeding in 
a contrary direction. Since that terrible outburst 
the volcano remained inactive till May, 1902, 



STARICS GUIDE BOOK 169 

when it showed signs of activity, commencing 
on that fatal day that destroyed St. Pierre, with 
its 3 5,000 inhabitants, on the island of Martinique. 
At 7 A.M. on Wednesday, the 7th of May, 
the enormous mass of water in the lake of the 
old crater, which had fallen into the volcano, was 
ejected in the form of super-heated steam in a 
gaseous condition. The mountain heaved and 
laboured to rid itself of the burning mass of lava 
heaving and tossing below. A vast body of 
ashes, steam and smoke ascended many miles; 
tremendous detonations followed one another so 
rapidly that they seemed to merge into a con- 
tinuous roar. At Barbados the ground again was 
covered with a thick layer of ashes. The super- 
heated steam, rivers of molten lava, and showers 
of red-hot stones caused a loss of 2,000 lives. 

CARIB WAR. 

In St. Vincent and Dominica reside the only 
remaining Caribs north of South America. To 
the ethnologist the Caribs of St. Vincent present 
an attractive subject for study, for there is among 
them a people formed by the union of two distinct 
races, the American and Ethiopian. They are 
called " Black Caribs " to distinguish them from 
the typical or " Yellow Caribs." Tradition is to 
the effect that the Caribs attacked and burned a 
Spanish ship in the sixteenth century, and took 
its freight of slaves to live among them ; another 
version, that a slaver was wrecked near St. Vin- 
cent and the Africans escaping joined the Caribs. 
The Yellow Caribs received them as friends, 
but eventually the negroes possessed themselves 



170 AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD, 

of the best lands, and drove their benefactors to 
the most worthless. Having intermarried with 
the Yellow Caribs, they departed from the negro 
type in a few years. They now form a small 
community on the north-western shore of St. 
Vincent, at a place called Morne Ronde. In a 
valley of the Caribbean side of St. Vincent is a 
large rock covered with incised figures which 
are undoubtedly of great antiquity. The central 
figure is a face enclosed in a triangle ; it seems 
to resemble rude aboriginal representation of the 
sun. It is conjectured that this was a sacrificial 
stone used by the Caribs or their predecessors 
the Arawaks, and this statement would seem to 
be confirmed by the various channels leading 
from the attendant satellites to the central figure. 
A few miles below is another and smaller rock 
having carved upon it a face surrounded by 
scroll work. In British Guiana, the home of the 
Caribs, there are numerous sculptured rocks of a 
similar character. 

There are but a few families of the pure Caribs 
remaining in St. Vincent, and only a few of the 
older men and women can speak the original 
language. In a few years the Carib tongue, as 
spoken by these insular people, will be a thing of 
the past, of which there exists but an imperfect 
record. 

The Caribs fought bravely for their independ- 
ence, and St. Vincent was the last of the Carib- 
bees to come under the rule of the white man. In 
1772, the best part of the Carib lands having 
been seized, the Indians commenced hostilities^ 



STARK'S GUIDE BOOK 171 

but soon came to terms. Six years later, insti- 
gated and aided by the French from Martinique, 
they revolted. Soon the entire island was in 
French possession without much bloodshed. In 
1784 the island was restored to Great Britain by 
the treaty of Versailles. Incited by the French 
republicans in 1795, the Caribs again revolted, 
defeated the troops sent against them, and 
swarmed upon the heights above the town. By 
the opportune arrival of soldiers from Barbados 
they were driven back, but again assembled, and 
a fight ensued, in which the British were at first 
beaten, but finally, by aid of large reinforce- 
ments, the Caribs were defeated. 

Thus the war went on with varying fortunes 
for a year and a half. At one time, having been 
driven from Orvia, a point on the north-east side 
of the island, the Caribs executed a masterly re- 
treat over the volcano to the Caribbean coast and 
committed great ravages. A party sent against 
them there was defeated. In all their battles they 
showed consummate skill and great bravery, seiz- 
ing upon the most advantageous positions, forti- 
fying them, and holding them to the last. 

DEFEAT OF THE CARIBS. 

General Abercrombie was at last sent against 
them, with four thousand men, fresh from his 
capture of St. Lucia. He pushed the French and 
Caribs so hard that they were obliged to sur- 
render. The French and colored officers and 
soldiers were released on parole, with the privi- 
lege of returning to their own island ; but the 



172 AND HISTORY OF TRINIDAD. 

poor Caribs, thus abandoned, were allowed only 
unconditional surrender. Refusing these terms, 
most of them fled to the mountains, and in the 
dense forests found shelter for a long time, defeat- 
ing several detachments of troops sent against 
them. 

Deprived of crops and all provisions, such as 
a successful foray could obtain, they were gradu- 
ally gathered in, by use of force and by the ne- 
cessities of their situation, until of men, women, 
and children nearly five thousand were captured. 
These were removed to the small island, Balli- 
ceaux, off the coast of St. Vincent, deprived of 
canoes and arms, and kept there for months. 

In 1797 they were all carried to the island of 
Ruatan, off the coast of British Honduras. In 
1 805 the few remaining Caribs were pardoned, and 
a tract of two hundred and fifty acres near Morne 
Ronde was granted them. Here the majority of 
the Indians have lived in peace ever since. 

The chief products of St. Vincent are sugar, 
molasses, rum, arrowroot, cocoa, coflfee, and 
cotton, but, like nearly all West India Islands, 
since the abolition of slavery its prosperity has 
steadily decreased. There are now less than two 
thousand white people here, and upward of forty 
thousand negroes and coolies. The whites are 
constantly decreasing. After the negro was 
freed he refused to work, and his place was filled 
by indentured Portuguese laborers from Madeira 
and the Azores. In 1846 two thousand four 
hundred came, and they proved a valuable acqui- 
sition to the island. In 1861 coolie immigration 
from India commenced. 



;i 



motel 



PORT-OF-SPAIN 
TRINIDAD, B. W. L 



'T^HIS hotel has lately been completed, and it 
-** is fitted up in the most luxurious style. 
The house is thoroughly equipped with all mod- 
ern conveniences and improvements, including 

Electric Lights Shower^ Spray and Plunge 

^^ Baths ^^ 



A complete system of sewerage from Hotel to 
Gulf of Paria. Position of Hotel is unequalled, 
being upon the Savannah, facing the Governor's 
residence and the northern range of hills in the 
background. 

^rms: ifrom $2*50 upwards per ba^* 

For further particulars apply to 

THE MANAGER, 

Queen's Park Hotel, 

Port-of-Spain, Trinidad. 



Ice House Hotel 

66. 68, 70 MARINE SQUARE 
PORT-OF-SPAIN 



^^$^^$ ^^$q^9 



This Hotel, situated in the most accessible 
part of the city, recently enlarged, in connection 
with the Ice Establishment, offers to the public 
and visitors to the Island a spacious, cool and 
respectable resort, where ladies and gendemen 
can be comfortably accommodated. The Hotel 
is provided with numerous baths, electric bells, 
lights, and all necessary requisites. 

Special arrangement made as to length of 
time parties may remain. 

Cuisine and Liquors of the Very Best 
TERMS MODERATE 

CRONEY & CO., Proprietors 



Whether in 
High-Class 
Goods or 

Ordinary 
Goods 

Beet Vftlne fa Always 
Obtainable at 

Maillard's 



It fa tine we cater tor ooe Bed 
all— Tbe rich and the poor— 
Those who spend Dollars and 
those who spend Cents, 

But Maillard's 

wonld impTesa npou tbe 
ladles and gentlemen of 
thfa bland that Nowhere 
BIhb 1b to be obtained 

Hi^h-Class Goods 

For either sex tban la sold 
every day at 

The Cash Store 

And what is more, tbe same 
Goods oan't be bought else- 
where at the price. 




Value Nowhere 

Uke Maillard's 



CURIO 

Department 

Thfa department fa stocked 



BHjn), CIHU, r-LUK HUlt WIIIUJ 

Coral, Allleators, Snakes, Fish 
Scale, Shell and Beatern Work, 
Mimo 'a Seed & Spanish Bayo- 
net, Native Dolla, Lace Bark 
Work In Dozleys, Fane and 
Lamp Bbodes. 

Leopartt Wooil, Shark and 
Wbalebone WalUog SUck* 



AN INSPECTION RESPECTFULLY SOUCITED 
THE CASH STORE MICHAEL P. MAILLARD 



The BONANZA 

Smith Bros. & Co. 

Import and Export Merchants 

INSURANCE & COMMERCIAL 

AGENTS. 

3 Frederick St 10 & 12 Chacon St. 

and 60 Marine Sq. 

Entrances on three principal streets. 



The Largest and Most Varied Stock of 

FANCY and STAPLE DRY GOODS 

in the West Indies. 
Boots and Shoes 

Ladies' and Gents' Complete Outfits 

for 
HOME OR COLONIAL USE 

Ready-Made and Made-to-Order Clothing 

HARDWARE & SHIP CHANDLERY. 

Colonial Produce bought for export 

Highest market prices paid for 

COCOA, COFFEE, COPRA, HIDES & DEER 

SKINS, ETC. 



Branches in Arima, Princestown and 
Sangre-Grande 

SMITH BROTHERS (SL CO 



BOODWILLE & WILSON, Limited 

THE CALEDONIAN HOUSE 

General Importers 
AND Merchants 

Wholesale and Retail 

Wno Street - iPort-of-Spain ^ ZTrinibab 

High class dry goods Latest fashions 

LIST OF DEPARTMENTS 

FANCY Department, which includes all kinds of ready-made and 
price goods for JLadies and Children, of the finest qualities, direct from 
the best houses in England, France, Germany, the United States, etc. 

household Department contains Irish and French Linens, Table- 
cloths, Curtains, Cretonnes, and all kinds of artistic materials for deco- 
rations, etc. 

GENTLEMEN'S Department contains every requisite for Men, 
Youths and Boys. 

BOOT Department contains a very large assortment of the finest 
Boots, Shoes, Slippers, etc. ; of English, French, Austrian and American 
makes for Ladies, Gents, Girls, Youths, Boys and Infants. All shapes, and 
wide and narrow fittings. 

TAILORING Department is under the charge of a first-class home 
cutter. All descriptions of Garments made for^Cients and I^adies. 

MILLINERY Department has always a fine show of trimmed and 
untrimmed millinery from the best French and English houses, for Ladies 
and Children. 

HOUSE-FURNISHING AND WARE Departments contain everv- 
thing for completely furnishing iDining, Drawing and Bedroom, Hall, 
(Gallery and Kitchen. 

TRAVELLERS' REQUISITES. This department has a full stock of 
Trunks, Canisters, Bags. Fitted and Unfitted Hold-alls, Satchels, etc. 
Highland Plaids, Travelling and Railway, Rugs in Seal, Plush, Wool and 
Fancy Materials. 

SILVER, ELECTRO PLATE AND FANCY ORNAMENT Depart- 
ment. There is always a very pretty show of very handsome articles for 
presents, etc., on view. 

SADDLERY Department has a full stock of Riding and Driving 
Harness — single and double sets — and stable requisites. 

GROCERY Department always contains a fresh supply of the latest 
delicacies and niceties. 

WHOLESALE. This Department has always a splendid stock of 
well-selected, salable goods. 

CIGARS, TOBACCOS AND CIGARETTES. The best Havana Cigars 
and a large variety of Tobaccos and Cigarettes always on hand. 

PERFUMES, TOILET REQUISITES, NICNACKS AND SMALL- 
WARE Department has an endless variety of useful, ornamental and 
necessary articles. 



Rust, Trowbridge & Co. 



Nos. 3 and 4 Chacon Street, 
PORT-OF-SPAIN J« J« J« J« 



General flUetcbants anb 
SbippinQ Boents 



WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 



American and Canadian Food Stuffs 

Newfoundland and Nova Scotian Fish, 

Etc., Etc. 

J^ J^ Jr^ V^ Jr^ Jr^ t2r^ J^ t2r^ J^ J^ J^ J^ JF^ iSr^ Jr^ Jr^ JF^ JF^ JF^ ^^ ^^ IgF^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

SHIPPERS OF 

SUGAR, COCOA, COKERNUTS 



aiii 



Molasses 



Agents For 
l^OM A. CAMERON, Ltd., Glasgow 

GEO. YOUNGER & SONS, Brewers, Alloa 

JOHN JEFFREY & CO., Brewers, Ediabnrgh 
NORWICH UNION FIRE INSURANCE, etc 



Cable Address "Randolph,** Polt-of-Spam 
AB G Codes, 4th and 5th Editions, Lieber's Code, Western Union 



BttQoetuta JSittete 

REGISTERED IN ALL COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD 

Awarded the Highest Distinction and Most Honorable Men- 
tion at the Exhibitions of 

London, Paris, Vienna, Pliiladelpliia, Santiago de Cliile, 
Sydney, Melbourne, New Zealand, New York, Am- 
sterdam, Calcutta, New Orleans, St. John (Canada), 

Kimberley (South Africa), Jamaica, Chicago 

and Bordeaux 

Analyzed and Highly Praised and Recommended by Leading Chemists 
and Members of the Medical Profession of Berlin, Liondon, Phila- 
delphia, &c., «&c. 

DEPOTS TO BE FOUND IN ALL THE VARIOUS 
COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD 

Sold by all Respectable Grocers, Wine and Liquor Dealers 

Hotel and Restaurant Keepers 



Every bottle is enveloped in a label or wrapper with Directions for 

Use in Four Languages printed thereon, with a f ac-simile of the Signature 
of the Inventor, as snoMm on the opposite page between both sides of the 
Medal of Merit obtained at Vienna. 

DR. J. G. B. SIEGERT AND SONS, formerly of Angostura, and 
since 1875 removed to PORT-OF-SPAIN, TRINIDAD, B.^V. I., are the 
Sole Manufacturers of the Genuine and 'World-Renowned "ANGOS- 
TURA BITTERS," discovered by the late DR. SIEGERT in ANGOS- 
TURA in 1824, but FIRST EXPORTED in 1830, from which date this 
manufacture may be said to have commenced, the Bitters becoming 
known from the place of their origin as "ANGOSTURA BITTERS." 
The name of the town of ANGOSTURA was in 1846 changed to that 
of CIUDAD BOLIVAR, which it still retains. 



Dr. J. G. B. Siegert & Sons 

Port-of-Spain Trinidad, B. W. I, 



^^HJ^^^^H 


l^-'nmsii' 



COMPANIA D£ 

VAPORES del ORINOCO 



Capital B|s 3,000,000 

Under contract with the Venezuelan Government 
for the conveyance of mails. 

Dalton ®. Co. 

General Agents 
Ciudad Bolivar, Venezul a, and Trinidad 

The s.s. MANZANARES sails FORTNIGHTLY to La Guayra 
from Ciudad Bolivar and vice versa. The s.s. DELTA sails 
Fortnlgrhtly from Ciudad Bolivar to Port-of- Spain and connects 
with the Steamers of the Royal Mail Company. 

THE UP RIVER STEAIVIERS 

Apure, Alianza, Guanare, Arauca, Heroe, Orinoco. 
Socorro, Masparro, Forzosa, Morganito, La Verdad 

And the sloop ALLVA navigate on the Orinoco and Its 
Tributaries, the "Apure," "Portuguesa/' "Masparro" and 
"Arauca" and also by the "Meta" to Columbia, where tranship- 
ments via Ciudad Bolivar are effected to and from all parts of 
the world. Tourists arriving at Trinidad may spend a delightful 
week viewing the grandeur of the Orinoco, on a trip to Ciudad 
Bolivar by our spacious and comfortable steamer 

^ DELTA ^ 
Good Hotel Accomfnodation 

At Ciudad Bolivar on the American plan at $2.00 per day 

CIUDAD BOLIVAR AND ITS VICI.NITY 
VERY HEALTHY 
Climate Dry — No Dew or Mosquitoes 



For Further Particulars Apply to 

JoHn WHarton 

Agent 
ST. VINCENT STREET . PORT OF SPAIN 



Ellis GreU ^ Co. 

Shipping and General 
Commission Merchants 

Shippers of 
VENEZUELAN AND LOCAL PRODUCTS. 

COAL IMPORTERS 

Steamers bunkered with Cardiff and American Steam 

Coal day or night. 

STEAMSHIP AGENTS & BROKERS. 
SHIP CHANDLERS. 

Correspondents of THE NATIONAL BOARD OF 
MARINE UNDERWRITERS OF NEW YORK. 

Agents for THE SCOTTISH UNION & NATION- 
AL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 

TKe Trinidad Dock and 

Engineering Co.» Ltd. 

ENGINEERS AND SHIPBUILDERS. 

Proprietors of FLOATING GRAVING DOCK AT 

TRINIDAD. 

Length of Dock 375 feet, extreme width 65 feet. 
Capacity 4000 Tons. Repairs of every descrip- 
tion to steamers and other vessels executed 
with despatch and at moderate prices. 

LONDON OFFICE, 37 Old Jewry, E. C. 

ELLIS GRELL ® CO., Managers, Trinidad, W. L 



w. c. Koss er Co- 



T^B Colonial Dispensary 




WI)olesate and '^f ^ 
oe Retail Droggt^ts. 



Cor. of ©tteen and rrederids 3treets. 

PORT-OP-3PAm. ' 



« 



The Trinidad 
Line of Steamers 

CARRYING THE MAILS BETWEEN NEW 
YORK and GRENADA, TRINADAD, TOBAGO 
AND aUDAD BOLIVAR. 

The First-Class Full-Powered Steamships 

"MARACAS" 3500 Tons 

GRENADA" 3000 Tons 

MARAVAL" 3000 Tons 

Having excellent accommiodation for passengers, sail 
regular about every 10 days, between New York and 
Grenada and Trinidad, making regular connection in 
Trinidad with steamers for Tobago and Ciudad Bo- 
livar. 

Port of Spain, Trinidad, B. W. I., is a favorite 
resort for tourists or those lequiring to escape the 
rigors of the winter in the U. S. The Queen's Park 
Hotel at Port of Spain is the finest Hotel in the West 
Indies. 

RATES OF PASSAGE 

To Grenada and Trinidad 

Single Fare $50 Return Fare $92*50 

These Rates Include Meak and Stateroom Berths 

For further information and dates of sailing apply to 

The Trinidad Shipping and Trading Co.^ Ltd. 

29 Broadway, New York and Port of Spain, Trinidad* B.W. I. 
MARTIN DEAN & CO., Agents, St. Georget, Grenada, B.W.I. 



"WARD LINE ROUTE" 

(New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Co.) 

BETWEEN 

NEW YORK a«^ NASSAU a^' CUBA ^MEXICO, 



.S. MORRO CASTI.K, 7,m 
" HAVANA, rA 

MONTEREY 

VIGIIj^NClA, 

ORIZABA. 



S.S. SEGUBANCA 



S.S. MATANZAS, 
S.S. SANTIAGO, 



a' 




Finest and Largest Steamships Sailing from 
New York to other than European Ports. 

REGULAR SAILINGS TO 

NASSAU, 

THE GEM OF THE ANTILLES, 

And to Havanat Santiago, Genfuegos^ Cuba ; 

ALSO 

Progreso, Vera Cruz and Tampico, Mexico. 

Descriptive matter, Qjiarterly Sailings, and fnll particulars 

jaMES B. waRD ^ eo.. 

General Agents, 
90.96 WALL STREET, NEW YOSSL CXV^ . 



THE HAMILTONaf 



Is the largest, finest, most complete and best hotel in the 
Bermudas, or in the West Indies. 

The house is of stone throughout, with fireproof walla 
and partitions. It is provided with every improvement and 
convenience, including the only passenger elevator in Ber- 
muda. The greatest care has been taken to make the sani- 
tary arrangements perfect in every respect. The mildness of 
the climate renders artificial heat really unnecessary ; but in 
order that the most delicate may suffer no inconvenience, 
even in stormy weather, the dining-room and halls are pro- 
vided with steam pipes, and a considerable number of desir- 
able rooms are furnished with fireplaces. 

The grounds are extensive and beautifully laid out, and 
are filled with many varieties of exquisite flowers the entire 
winter. The elevation is the highest in the city, thus insur- 
ing dryness and perfect drainage, and also commanding a 
delightful view of the city, the surrounding country, the 
harbor, shipping, forts and adjacent islands. Tennis and 
croquet grounds are provided for the amusement of the 
guests. 

An excellent orchestra has been engaged and will give 
daily morning concerts during the season, and will play each 
evening for dancing. 

The hotel is open for the reception of guests from De- 
cember until May, and no pains will be spared in making the 
table and service equal to that of the best houses in less 
isolated parts of the world. 



Fat terms aad lurtlier inform^tiop arolv to 



A. C BROOKS, Manager. 



%\% 



%%% 






mi 








illL 



CONDUCTED ON THE AMERICAN PLAN* 



^^His Hotel is the largest and most elegant in the 
city of Kingston, and its grounds are well laid out and 
filled with beautiful tropical plants. From its position on 
the shore it commands extensive views of the Harbor and 
Port Royal in the distance, with cool delightful breezes 
blowing from off the water constantly during the hottest 
part of the day. 

It is provided with all modern conveniences. Electric 
Lights and Bells m all the rooms, Fresh Water Baths, 
Billiard Tables, Fine Bar, Reading Room, Ball Room, 
Livery and other conveniences. 

The tables are supplied with all the delicacies of the 
season, the cooking is the best on the island and the 
attendance excellent. 

For terms, circulars and any further information address 



MANAGER, 

Myrtle Bank, Kingston, Jamaica. 



— HOTEL — 
TITCHFIELD 



PORT ANTONIO 
JAMAICA, B.W.I. 



The Largest and Finest Resort Hotel in the 
West Indies. American Plan. Location Un- 
surpassed in the World. Facilities for Riding, 
Driving, Automobiling,Boating, Fishing, Tennis, 
and all Outdoor Sports and Recreations. Sea 
Bathing Unqualled anywhere. Opens for the 
Tourist Season of 1906-7, on Monday, De- 
cember 24th. 

AINSLIE & GRABOW, Managers 
BostonOf fice:2 TOCommonwealthAve 



TH E .111111111111111111.. 

ATLAS LINE SERVICE 

OF THE 

HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE 

WEEKLY SAILINGS TO AND FROM 

JAHAICA, HAYTI, COLOMBIA, NICARAGUA, AND 
COSTA RICA, maintained by the Steamships 

Sarnia, Sibiria, Altai, Alene, Alleghany, Adiron- 
dack, Valencia, Flandria, £te. 

Special Cruise of 23 days for Tourists, Weekly from New 
York to New York, with stopover privileges, limited to two weeks 
at each Port, touching at Kingston, Savanilla, Carthagena and 
Port Limon. Cost including berth and meals, $125«00. 
If desired, a cruise to Haytian Ports may be taken instead. 



(Branb ^nnuaf ICOinUt CtuiBtB 

DURING JANUARY, FEBRUARY and MARCH 

TO 

JVassau, Bermuda, the West Indies', 
and the Spanish Main, 

Trips varying in duration from 19 to 28 clays, and 
Costing $125 and upward, including Berth and Meals. 
Ample time allowed at each port of call to visit all 
points of interest. 

APPLY TO THE 

HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE, 

35-37 Broadway, New York 1 159 Randolph Street, Chicago } 

1229 Walnut Street, Philadelphia } 901 Olive Street, St. Louis 1 

Capt. W. P. FORWOOD, Gen'l Agt., Kingston, Jam. 



New York and West Indies Line 



THE A I IRON STEAMSHIPS 



S.S, PRETORIA, 3,300 Tons, 
S.S. PARIMA, 3,000 Tons, 

S.S. KORONA, 3,000 TONS, 

S.S. FONTABELLE, 2,700 Tons, 
S.S. CARIBBEE, 2,000 Tons. 

SPLENDID ACCOMMODATIONS AND ALL MODERN COMFORTS. 

Leave NEW YORK for ST, THOMAS, ST, CROIX, ST. KITTS, 

ANTIGUA, DOMINICA, MARTINIQUE, ST. LUCIA, 

BARBADOS, and DEMERARA every ten days. 



ST. LAWRENCE LINE, 

THE A1 TWIN SCREW STEAMSHIP 

CAMPANA, , . . . 1,700 TOIVS, 

With Electric Lights and All Modern Comforts, 
Leaves Montreal every Alternate Monday for . . 

FIOTOXJ, 3sr.s., 

Calling at Quebec, Father Point, Oaspe, Perce, Orand River, 
SummerBide, and Gharlottetown. 

Through Tickets issued to Halifax, N.S., St. John, N.B., Portland, 
Boston, New York, etc. 

Connect with Steamers and Railroads for all parts of the British 
P*rovinces and the United States, and at Halifax with Steamers for 
Newfoundland and New York. 



FOB FURTHER PARTICULARS APPLY TO 

QUEBEC STEAMSHIP COMPANY, 

Quebec and New York* 

THOMAS COOK & SONS, PASSENGER AGENTS. A. E, OUTERBRIOGE & CO., AGENTS. 

261 Broadway, New York. 39 Broadway, New York, 

ARTHUR AHERN, Secretary, QUEBEC. 



THE NEW- 



PRINCESS HOTEL. 

HAMILTON, BERMUDA. 



This new and commodious hotel, built in 
1884, entirely of wood (making it the most 
comfortable house on the Island), will be open 
for the reception of guests from 

^DECEMBER TO MAY.I> 

It is modern in all its appointments. 
Hot and cold water; fresh and salt water baths. 
Electric bells and gas throughout. Over 400 
feet of broad piazza overlooking harbor and 
surrounding country. Finest location in Ber- 
muda. 

With recent additions, steam heat has 
been introduced, and the hotel now has accom- 
modations for two hundred guests. 



For Terms, Circulars, and any further Information, address 



N. S. HOWE, 



PROCESS HOTEL, liUL'TOI, Braffijtsu 



Constant Spring Hotel 



I 

THIS Hotel is situated six miles from Kingston, and 
is connected with it by electric cars. It is nearly 
six hundred feet above sea level. The climate at the 
hotel is excellent, open to the sea breezes during the 
day, and at night to the land wind from the moun- 
tains. The temperature averages about 75**. 

The hotel was built and furnished with a view to the 
accommodation of visitors from the North, whose com- 
fort is studied in every direction. 

The drawing, dining, and other rooms on the ground 
floor are spacious, while the bedrooms upstairs are large 
and well ventilated, all of them having an open view of 
the surrounding scenery. 

A magnificent swimming bath, with shower and smaller 
baths, forms one of the attractions of the hotel. 

From a hygienic point of view the hotel is perfect. 
It also contains all modern conveniences. 

For terms, circulars, and further information address 



MANAGER. 



Stark*s Illustrated Bermuda Guide 

Two hundred pages, profusely illustrated with Maps and Photo- 
Prints, xamo, $x.6o, post-paid. 

' A most exhaustive book on Bermuda. Mr. J. H. Stark spent several seasons.in 
Bermuda fcr the express purpose of collecting material for a history and guide-book, 
and nothing is omitted or overlooked which the invalid or traveller for pleasure will 
wish to know." — Boston Transcript. 



"The ' Illustrated Bermuda Guide.' written by Mr. James H. Stark, of this dty, 
is the latest book on the Bermuda Islands. It contains twenty-four artistic photo- 
prints, besides several handy maps of the islands, which will be of much convenience 
to the tourist who seeks rest and pleasure in the miniature continent, 700 miles from 
New York. 

" The text of the volume treats of the historv, inhabitants, climate, agriculture, 
geology, government and military and naval establishments of Bermuda describing 
m an entertaining fashion the most noticeable features of the island, and furm'.shing 
a brief sketch of life in Bermuda from the original settlement until to-day." — Boston 
Herald. 

Stark's History and Guide 

Iii!^ BAHAMA ISLANDS 

Fully illustrated with Maps, Photo-Prints and Wood-Cuts, 

umo, $x.6o, post-pfdd. 

"I have read your Book on the Bahamas with great care and interest, and can 
confidently speak of it as the most trustworthy account of the G>lony that has yet 
been published." 

Sir Ambrose Shea, 

Governor of the Bahamas. 



*' Your book has exceeded my expectations; you have filled up a gap in the historv 
of the English Empire, especially in the history of our colonies, that deserve the 
encomiums of every Englishman, aye, and of every American who reads your book. 
The colonists of the Bahamas owe you a debt that they can never fully repay." 

G. C. Caicplejohn, 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, Bahamas. 

Stark's History and Guide to Barbados 

And the CARIBBEE ISLANDS 

Two hundred and twenty pages profusely illustrated with 
Maps and Photo-Prints, xamo, $x.6o, post-paid. 

" Mr. Tames H. Stark visited these islands and derived his information at first 
hand He has given a brief history of their discovery and settlement, and also an 
account of the manners and ciLstoms of the inhabitants, which is superior to that of 
any other work on the subject. The book is richlv supplied with half-tone illustra- 
tions, which give a capital idea of the buildings the localities, and the people through- 
out these tropica! islands. 

" rhe information is practical, and the volume will be highly prized by those who 
have interests in these islands or have occasion to visit them. Mr. Stark has done 
much to lift them into notoriety by his careful, accurate, and instructive work." — 
Boston Herald. 

FOR SALE BY 

James H. Stark, Publisher, 31 Milk St. Boston 

Sampson, Low, Marston & Go., Limited^ La^^jss^ 



==THE ROYAL MAIL= 

STEAM PACKET COMPANY 

iNcoMromTco ar naviti. chirtch ib3s 

NEW YORK WEST INDIES 

SOUTHAMPTON 




Between NEW YORK and 

Jamaica, Limon, Colon. Cartagena, 5avanllla, LaOuayra. 
Trinidad, Barbados, Cherbourg and Southampton, con- 
necting at Barhadua with Company's Services to Demerara, 
Leeward and Windwai-d Islands, etc. 

The Mun Line Stearaprs are of 6,000 tone, with magnificent 
passenger accommodations and fitted with all modern conveniences 
to ensure comfort in the Tropica. 

Special Winter Tours in tlie Carribbean; also around 
Soath America in connection with the li. M. S. P. Brazil and 
Argentine Service. 

THE ROYAL MAIL STEAM PACKET COMPANY 

18 MOOROATE STREET, LONDON 

JAriAICA— R. H. 5. P.. KINGSTON 

BARBADOS— R. M S. P.. BRIDflBTOWN 

TRINIDAD— R. M. S. P., PT. OF SPAIN 

NEW YORK, U. 5. A. 

SANDERSON & SON, General Agents 

22 STATE STREET 



PICKFORD & BLACK'S 

Steamship Company 



IL.imi'fcecl. 

St. JOHN, N. B. 

BETWEEN 

HALIFAX, N. S. 

AND 

West India Islands and Demerara. 

steamers *' Ocamo," '* Oruro," " Orinoco/' " Dahome," 
sail every two weeks for Demerara, calling at Ber- 
muda, St. Kitts, Antigua, Montserrat, Dominica. St. 
Lucia, Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada, Trinidad, 
and every four weeks at Grenada, and Tobago. 

The above trip occupies about six lillUTCD CYOIIDQinil 
weeks and malces a delightful Iff IH I Lll CAuUnOIUni 



HALIFAX & WEST INDIA STEAMSHIP GO. Limited 

*Ihe STEAMSHIP "BETA" 

Leaves Halifax, N. S., on the 15th of every month for 
Kingston, Jamaica, calling at Bermuda and Turk's 
Island, going and returning. 



TK.. t-.^ -..^jj- THREE WEEKS EXCURSION. 

All the above boats have superior accommodations for passengers* 
electric lights, bells and fans, deck cabins, and large 

promenade decks. 



All information on application 
to Assents thrQughout 
the Islands, or to 



PICKFORD & BLACK, 

Managing Owners, HALIFAX, N. S. 

Or THOS. COOK & SONS, 261 Broadway, New York. 



TO JAMAICA DIRECT 

BY 

Steamers of the Inited Fruit Co. 

CARRYING THE U. S. IfAIL. 
SAILING FROM 

Long Wharf, Boston ; 

Pier 1, North River, New York; 

Pier 5, North Wharres, Philadelphia ; 
Bowley's Wharf, Baltimore, 

For Port Antonio, Jamaica, Weekly. 

These steamers are fitted with superior accommodations for passen- 
gers ; cabins are on main deck, and located forward of engines, thus 
securing light and air free from disagreeable odors. 

DISTANCE TO PORT ANTONIO, JAMAICA. 

From Boston 1,600 miles 

New York 1,420 

Philadelphia 1,390 

Baltimore 1,350 

Which is covered in from four to five days. 

At Port Antonio passengers can be accommodated at the New 
Hotel ^^TiTCHFiELD," the most attractive and comfortable house in 
the West Indies. 

Excellent communication from Port Antonio by land or water with 
all parts of the Island. 

The Company also run excellent Hotel Cottages at Bowden, near the 
famed Hot Sulphur Springs at Bath, which are a specific for Rheuma- 
tism. 

For particulars apply to 

UNITED FRUIT COHPANY, 

Addresses as above. 






Marine Hotel 



Barbados, West Indies 






THE finest health resort m the tropics, situated on 
the fairest isle in all the Southern seas, in a 
land of perpetual summer, where frost, fogs, or 
mists are unknown ; the average temperature is 75 
to 80 degrees. 

The Hotel is about two miles from the steamer 
landing, with street car connection. It is built of 
limestone, walls 33 inches thick, building 360 feet 
long, with two wings. It contains 260 apartments. 
The rotrnis are light and airy and have a splendid 
sea-view. The sea-bathing is the finest in the world, 
the temperature of which is suitable for the most deli- 
cate invalid, also private fresh-water baths, douche and 
shower, in the hotel. 

A fine stable is connected with the Hotel. Horses 

for riding and carriages furnished at moderate cost. 

TERMS $2.50 TO $4 PER It A Y 

POMEROY HOTEL CO., PROPRIETORS. 

Barbados, West Indies. 

AGENTS; 

QUEBEC S. S. CO., 29 Broadway, N. Y., or 

THOS. COOK & SON, Broadway, New York. 

BOOTH S. S. Co., 90 Gold St., N. Y. 



^he Bermuda Islands 
and West Indies 



The Quebec Steamship Co., (Ltd.) 

This Company, incorporated in 1867, has by diligence and 
care for the safety and comfort of the traveling public, secured 
a most enviable reputation. 

The Company has held many successive contracts for carry- 
ing the mail to and from New York and Bermuda. 

The increasing popularity of the Bermudas, on account of 
the healthful and equable climate, frost being unknown and 
malaria impossible, has given the Company such assurances of 
success as to warrant their constructing the elegant twin-screw 
steamship "BERMUDIAN," 5500 tons, thnt runs weekly trips 
during the season between New York and Bermuda, making the 
trip under 48 hours. 

This vessel is fitted out with special reference to the Bermuda 
trade, has electric lights, marble baths, and all the modern im- 
provements and facilities for a safe, speedy and enjoyable voy- 
age. The large, well -furnished cabins are in every way adapted 
to the necessities and comfort of the traveler. 

These Islands are now in cable communication with the 
United States and Europe. 

The Hamilton Hotel has been greatly enlarged and re-fitted, 
and "The Princess." a fine Hotel, has been built by the Bermuda 
Hotel Company, Limited, which, with numerous smaller houses, 
afford ample accommodation. 



FOR VTEST INDIES 

ST. THOMAS, ST. CROIX, ST. KITT'S, ANTIGUA, GUADE- 
LOUPE, DOMINICA, MARTINIQUE, ST. LUCIA, BARBADOES, 
AND DEMERARA 

Steamers, with first-ciass passenger accommodation, electric 

light and all modern comforts, leave New York for the 

above Islands every ten days. 

To Tourists and Invalids wishing to escape the severity of 
our northern winter climate, no more attractive places could 
be found than are embraced in the above routes. 

For full particulars, time tables and pamphlets descriptive 
of the routes apply to 



A. £• Otiterbridge <Sl Co., Agents 

29 Broadway, New YorK 

rh08. Cook & Son's Ticket Agencies In United States and Canada. 
ARTHUR AH EARN, Secretary Quebec S.S. Company, QUEBEC. 



Stark's Illustrated Histories 

AND 

Guides to the West Indies 

SIX VOLUMES, $1.50 PER VOLUME NET 

It is now more than a century since a series of works of this de- 
scription was published on the West Indies — McKinnen*s in 1804 
and Bryan Edwards' in 1797. The large number of tourists visit- 
ing the West Indies every winter, and the acquiring of tropical 
possessions by this country, have caused the public to take a greater 
interest in and to seek for information concerning these beautiful 
islands lying so near our shores. The author has spent the past 
twenty winters among these islands, and has incorporated in each 
book from twenty-five to fifty Photo-Prints from negatives taken by 
him, printed on plate paper, besides many rare and valuable maps. 
Each book contains a .description of everything on or about the 
islands, concerning which the public may desire information, in- 
ckiding History, Inhabitants Climate, Agriculture, Geology, Govern- 
ment and Resources. The set consists of six volumes, each com- 
plete within itself. Jamaica, Trinidad, British Guiana, Bahamas, 
Bermuda, Barbados and Caribbee Islands. 

Every library should contain these volumes as works of reference 
and text-books. The following list of libraries who have purchased 
them is referred to as to their value and reliability: 

Massachusetts State Library. Watertown Public Library. 

Harvard College Library. Winthrop Public Library. 

Boston Athenaeum Library. Waltham Public Library. 

Boston Public Library. Beverly Public Library. 

Cambridge Public Library. Arlington Public Library, 

Brookline Public Library. Lowell Public Library. 

Somerville Public Library. Lynn Public Library. 

Marblehead Public Library. Hyde Park Public Library. 

Newton Public Library. Bridgeport Public Library. 

Wobum Public Library. Hartford Public Library. 

Military Information Division, War Department, Washington. 

New England Historic Genealogical Society. 

Parliamentary Library, Ottawa, Canada. 



OPINIONS OF THE PRESS 



From the London "Spectator." 

Mr. James H. Stark in his series of histories of, and guides to, 
the West Indies has assumed the role of a modem Hakluyt to in- 
tending voyagers to the islands. He gives a clear account of their 
present state, their climate, season, and "natural commodities,'" 
and useful information as to steamers and hotels. But to this is 
added a well edited and illustrated history of each island, or group 
of islands, which brings the present into vivid relation with the past. 
Each of the books is interesting and suggestive and complete in it- 
self, the present political and commercial prospects of the dififerent 
colonies being especially well set out. After following Mr. Stark, 
who writes both with knowledge and enthusiasm, from island to 
island, our personal choice would fall on Trinidad as the centre and 
headquarters of a visit to the West Indies. It is accessible, not ex- 
pensive, and makes an admirable centre for further voyages. — 
London Spectator, Aug. 6, 1898. 

From the Jamaica " News." 

Jamaica has not been without literature descriptive of her charms, 
but there is no book which pays her so eloquent a tribute as Stark's 
"History and Guide to Jamaica." It is a handsome volume and 
one which cannot be absent from any well-equipped West Indian 
bookshelf. Mr. Stark hails from Boston, but the works which he 
will leave behind will associate him more closely with the jewels of 
the Caribbean Sea. Few better than he have appreciated to the 
full the dazzUng beauties of the West Indies, and few have pictured 
them with such graphic force. Mr. Stark has not been content with 
skilled word-pictures in his portrayal of Jamaica. The volume is 
made beautiful' by fifty-six exquisite full-page photographic repro- 
ductions. These must have added very materially to the expense of 
production, but they serve to render the book by far the best-illus- 
trated work the island has ever possessed. There are also a map of 
the West Indies, a detailed map of Jamaica, and a street plan of 
Kingston, all specially engraved for the "Guide." 

The work which Mr. Stark has completed is one that the govern- 
ment of Jamaica might have undertaken in an earnest effort to 
benefit the island, but it could not have done it so well, nor would its 
labors have been free from the suspicion of prejudice. Mr. Stark is 
a stranger, an American, whose unqualified praise is not biased by 
consideration of patriotism; and his work is likely to prove so potent 
a factor in the working out of the island's salvation that the govern- 
ment could do no more beneficent act than to make a present of a 
copy of the work to every public library throughout the English- 
speaking world. 

The book is full of interest from cover to cover. From the open- 
ing chapter to the last there is much to instruct, and the writing is 
of such excellence that we never wearied. There are in all nineteen 
chapters to the work, and the book has been handsomely printed, 
bound, and illustrated. — Neijus, Jamaica. 



Prom the ** Scotsman." 

Winter travellers from the States, and even from the United 
Kingdom, are beginning to make resort in the islands of the 
Caribbean Sea and on the neighbouring coast of South 
America, and they find much to repay them for their trouble. 
To meet the desire for information of such as make their way to 
Demerara and Berbice, Mr. J. H. Stark, of Boston, U.S., has 
published a ** Guide Book and History of British Guiana," pre- 
pared by himself and by Mr. James Rodway, wherein is con- 
tained ** a description of everything relating to the Colony which 
would be of interest to tourists and residents respecting its 
history, inhabitants, climate, agriculture, geology, gold-mining, 
government, and resources." No more compendious account 
than this could be given of the contents of a useful and well- 
arranged little work, which is profusely illustrated with photo- 
prints, engravings, and maps. — Scotsman^ May J2, j8g8. 

Prom the Jamaica **Qleaner." 

Although Mr. Stark has modestly termed his work a " Guide 
to Jamaica," there is so much of interest contained in the book in 
the ways of the people, customs, habits, appearances, the state 
of the colony, the condition of life, and a whole variety of topics 
concerned with the inner life of the colony, that the book par- 
takes more of the romantic than the prosaic. It is a curious and 
happy conglomeration of facts, history, romance, and opinion. 
It has all the excellences of an up-to-date compendious guide- 
book, with none of its failings. Indeed, the stranger in America 
or England who has never seen or heard of Jamaica will pursue 
the ** Guide" with pleasure. And what more can be said of a 
guide-book ? 

Mr. Stark kept his eyes wide open when he was in Jamaica, and 
contrived to see as much in a few months as the majority of people 
see in years. But it would be absurd for us to enter into detail 
with respect to the contents of the ** Guide." Suffice it to say that 
descriptions are afforded of the main roads through the island, 
of the Bag Walk and along to Castleton, of the towns and villages 
along the coast, of the hotels and the travelling facilities, — in fine, 
all the host of inquiries which the tourist and even the residents 
are obliged to make are amply met in this, publication. The 
author does not pretend to literary effort, but nevertheless there 
is a certain charm in the direct expression of the beauties and 
wonders of ** The Gem of the Antilles," as he calls Jamaica, 
which must appeal to all readers. 

The ** Guide " is finely printed, and well bound and with the illus- 
trations it really makes the book one of the finest publications on 
Jamaica yet sent out, and we can only say that in our opinion 
Mr. Stark has done an immense service to Jamaica. — Gleaner^ 
Jamaica. 

For sale by 

JAMES H. STARK, 

31 Milk street, Boston* 
SAMPSON, LOV^ MARSTON & COMPANY, Limited. 

London* 



Stark*s Illustrated Bermuda Guide 

Tviro hundred pages, profusely illustrated with Maps and Photo- 
Prints, xamo, $x^, post-paid. 

* A most exhaustive book on Bermuda. Mr. J. H. Stark s^nt several seasons In 
Bermuda for the express purpose of collecting material for a mstory and guide-book, 
and nothing is omitted or overlooked which the invaUd or traveller for pleasure will 
wish to know." — Boston Transcript. 



"The 'Illustrated Bermuda Guide,' written by Mr. James H. Stark, of this dty, 
is the latest book on the Bermuda Islands. It contains twenty-four artistic photo- 
prints, besides several handy maps of the islands, which will be of much convenience 
to the tourist who seeks rest and pleasure in the miniature continent, 700 miles from 
New York. 

" The text of the volume treats of the history, inhabitants, climate, agriculture, 
geology, government and military and naval establishments of Bermuda, describing 
in an entertaining fashion the most noticeable features of the island, and furnishing 
a brief sketch of hfc in Bermuda from the original settlement until to-day." — Boston 
Herald. 

Stark's History and Guide 

Iii?^ BAHAMA ISLANDS 

Fully illustrated with Maps, Photo-Prints and Wood-Cuts, 

xsmo, $1.60, post-paid. 

"I have read your Book on the Bahamas with great care and interest, and can 
confidently speak of it as the most trustworthy account of the Colony that has yet 
been pubhshed." 

Sir Ambrose Shea, 

Governor of the Bahamas. 



"Your book has exceeded my expectations; you have filled up a gap in the history 
of the English Empire, especially in the history of our colonies, that deserve the 
encomiums of every Englishman, aye, and of every American who reads your book. 
The colonists of the Bahamas owe you a debt that they can never fully repay." 

G. C. Camplejohn. 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, Bahamas. 

Stark's History and Guide to Barbados 

And the CARIBBEE ISLANDS 

Two hundred and twent}r pages profusely illustrated with 
Maps and Photo-Prints, xamo, $1.60, post-paid. 

•' Mr. Tames H. Stark visited these islands and derived his information at first 
hand He has given a brief history of their discovery and settlement, and also an 
account of the manners and customs of the inhabitants, which is superior to that of 
any other work on the subject. The book is richly supplied with half-tone illustra- 
tions, which give a capital idea of the buildings, the localities, and the people through- 
out these tropica! islands. 

" The information is practical, and the volume will be highly prized by those who 
have interests in these islands or have occasion to visit them. Mr. Stark has done 
much to lift them into notoriety by his careful, accurate, and instructive work." — 
Boston Herald. 

FOR SALE BY 

James H. Stark, Publisher, 31 Milk St. Boston 

Sampson, Low, Marston & Go., Limited, London 



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