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George Fr^^xklvx Willev 



-'t".' 2 1 904 

[CLASS XZ-c. No. 



77/^ Heuitzemann Preis, Boston, Jfass. 


Clic fVlmiorp 


ZUt pioneer i^crrlcrs 

ZUt j-irst of ttic Ocncranons of .^tatc !3uiltifrs\ 

^mo, 'fearing: pauglit inir Ooti, ilaiD. UnDcr 

Dininr Dircrnon anti CMcssing. itic 

.i^rcnr: f-ounDarion of a fair §- 

iViigtun Commonlucalrh 


An Outline of New Hampshire History i 


Education in New Hampshire 6° 

james h. fassett, b.a. 

Ecclesiastical 97 

JOHN aldex. 

Agriculture OF New Hampshire ii3 

nahum j. bachelder. 
The Bench and Bar of New Hampshire i34 


Notes on the Medical Profession of New Hampshire 151 


New Hampshire Savings Banks 172 


Industrial New Hampshire 1S2 

g. a. cheney. 
Commercial New Hampshire ^93 




Nahum J. Bachelder 201 

Edward Nathan Pearson 


Jacob H. Gallinger . . 


Henry E. Burnliam . . 


AVinston Churchill . . 


Chester B. Jordan . . 


Frank West Rollins . . 


George A. Ranisdi-11 . . 


Rt. Rev. Denis M. Bradle\ 


John B. Smith .... 



Hiram A. Tuttle 223 

Frank P. Carpenter 225 

Mary Baker G. Eddy .... 227 

Moody Currier 243 

Mrs. Moody Currier 245 

Augustus D. Ayling 247 

General Charles Williams . . . 248 

Henry M. Baker 250 

Charles E. Stnniels 252 

Reuben H. Chenev 256 


Benjamin Fr.inklin Prescott 
Rt. Rev. William Woodrutf .Nil, 


John M. Hunt 

Frank S. Strceter 

Colonel William S. Pillsbury. 
Cdonel Francis W. Parker . 
Charles Robert Corning . 

Horace P. Watts 

Mary Alice Watts 
Henry French Hollis . 

John H. Albin 

John Hosley 

Alice M. M. Chesley, M.D. 
Chancey Adams, M.D. . 
Charles H. Sawyer 
Jane Elizabeth Hoyt, M.D. 
Charles T. Means .... 
Harry Gene Sargent . .. 
Eugene F. McQue^^ten. M.D. 

Jimes E. Klock 

Orlando B. Douglas, M.D. 

John McLane 

Channing Folsum 

Roger G. Sullivan 

Hermon K. Sherburne, D.O. , 

.\lonzo Elliott 

Durham College 

Charles Francis Piper . . . . 
Ferdinand A. Stillings, M.D. 
Rev. D. C. Babcock, D.D. 
William Henry Weed Hinds 


Charles Rumford Walker . 
Joseph E. A Lanouette, M.D. 

John C. French 

Rev. Lorin Webster 

Allen N. Clapp 

Charles E. Tilton 

William Jewett Tucker . . 
Frank W. Grafton, M.D. . 
George H. Perkins' Memorial . 

George H. Perkins 

William R. Clough 

Edward H. Clough 

Augustus H. Stark 

Frederick W. Doring .... 
William H. Rollins ..... 
M. E. Kean, M.D". V" 





























Ira Joslin Prouty, M.D. 
William H. Xute, M.D. 
F. S. Towle, .M.D. 
E. L. Glick. .....[ 

Henry DeWolfe Carvelle, M.D. 
Emil Custer, M.D. . . . . ^"3 

Edward L. Custer ,§0 

Joshua Gilman Hall ,32 

William Laurence Foster 
William T. Cass . 
Elmer D. Goodwin . 
Charles A. Busiel . . 
Cyrus A. Sulloway . 
Louis Ashton Thorp 
Eli Edwin Graves, M.D. 
Nathaniel Everett ^rartin . 
Henry Robinson .... 
Horatio K. Libbey . 
Lydia A. Scott .... 
John H. Xeal. M.D. . 
Captain David Wadsworth 

Edson Hill 

Nathaniel White .... 
J'>seph P. Chatel .... 
George M. Clough . . 
Mrs. Mary F. Berry . 

John Gault 

Daniel J. Daley ^,^ 

Wallace D. Lovell ^^^ 

Sherman E. Burroughs . ... 44- 

J. Homer Edgerley ^^5 

George A. Marden . . . 
Daniel Walton Gould . 
Charles E. Sleeper .... 
Thomas Fellows Clifford 
Edward Giles Leach 
Frederick E. Potter, >LD. 
Anson Colby .\lexander, >LD 
Charles S. Collins .... 
John N. >rcClintock . . 
Alfred Randall Evans . 

John J. Donahue 

John H. Roberts 

Edwin G. Eastman ^v;. 













Ebenezer Learned. M.D. 

John Willey ,g'- 

Ira H. .A.dams, M D ^So 

Samuel B. Tarrante ^g[ 


George Franklyn Willey 



JuSge or Probau, Merrim^k Cnm, : A/.,>;- e'' &«■«'.', 19°3 
TF " good uine needs 10 bush," so it may be said that a good 
Tbool needs no preface. And yet, the some, hat umque 
in and purpose of this volume merit a br.ef mtroduCory. 
S a e Builders is not only a carefully prepared biography of New 
Hampshire men. but it presents the political, and edu- 
"a iX hTstory- of our State as .ell. Fe,v works of ,h,s charac- 
eh been prepared with greater care and discrnnn,at,on than 
StaeBu.lders Each chapter is the finished producfon of a 
!Sr es eciallv competent and adapted .0 trea, the parl.cula 
:Sct signed hint, thereby g.ving to the work a character and 
aXrity decidedly unusual. Furthermore, the fe - 
:^ es o \he book\orm a convenient, authentic .and exceedmgly 
Xable collection of reference, and supplies a d.sfnCve want 
in the personal history of the State. Acceptable as State Budd- 
ers is a. he present time, its value and usefulness are cenam 
:: i^crle wi^ every year and form an important par. of New 

""-^^^^^^-^ New Hampshire biographical-his^ 
toH rundertaking conceived and completed by New 
„en, and dedicated to those sons of the State, ^"ng o^de^d 
whose achievements have done so much " ;-';^ '^^^Z;"' 
State the sturdv and prosperous Commonwealth that she .s. 
fsXavs pleasant to commend a book; but when a book, as .n 
Ills h,?.ance, possesses positive merits of an endurmg nature then 
commendation becomes a most agreeable duty. 


An Outline of New Hampshire History 


Editor of State- r.tpas 

Tohn ^vlasnn. the territorial proprietor of New Hamp- 
shire was the promoter of its earhest settlements. His 
efforts contemplated the establishment ot a great man- 
orial estate of which he and his successors were to be 
the actual and titular heads. This design failed even- 
tually not because ^lason and those who succeededto 
his rights and adopted his plans were not powerlul, 
per^in^ent and well sustained by the home government 
but because that stvle and theory of proprietorship and 
the form of government upon which it was, from the very 
nature of things, dependent, could not thrive,— indeed 
could not survive under the conditions which developed 
in New England. . . 

This colonv occupied a unique position from 1O2-, 
the vear when Thomson's indenture was drawn and the 
fir'^t' settlement definitelv planned, to 1641-1643. ^vhen 
the four towns, Portsmouth, Dover, Hampton and 
Exeter each an independent democracy, became, by 
their own choice, constituent parts of ]\Iassachusetts. 
This was the f^rst union with the Bay colony. It was 



coiulitional on certain ini[)ortant privileges and guar- 
antees, accorded to the four towns by the Massachusetts 
General Court. The time of this' union, 1641-1679, 
constitutes the second period of New Hampshire his- 
tory. It is in a large measure identical with that of 
Massachusetts Bay. The :Masonian heirs succeeded in 
1679, by influences exerted upon the home government 
in England, in the establishment of a separate province 
for the four frontier towns, then occupying a little 
break m the wilderness along the coast line and a few- 
miles into the interior between ^^lassachusetts bav and 
the territory of Maine. 

John Cutt, a man of the people, was the first presi- 
dent. He died in 16S1, and was succeeded bv his 
deputy. Richard \\'aldron. Under a new commission. 
Edward Cranfield held office from 1682 to 16S6. his 
deputy, Walter Barefoote, having been the acting Gover- 
nor in the latter part of the period. 

The four towns were made a part of the Dominion 
ot Xew England in 16S6. This government, under 
Dudley and Andros, with its concomitants of abolished 
provincial legislatures and other measures absolutely 
abhorrent to the political sense of a large majoritv o'f 
the people oi Xew England, survived only three rears. 
The four Xew Hampshire towns, from the spring of 
1689 to the closing half of the winter of 1689-90, gov- 
erned themselves in the independent democratic fashion 
of the first period of their historv-. 
_ A second union with Massachusetts Bay was then ef- 
fected, and continued during a period of two vears. In 
1692 a province government by royal commission was re- 
established over the four towns. The course of events, 
with this unpretentious province, moved on through 
much adversity to the time of the achievement of a po- 
sition and potency among the American dependencies of 
the mother country, in which, eighty-three vears later. 


it was able to demand independence and join in a suc- 
cessful defiance of the imperial power of England. 

The intervening- governments between 1692 and 1775 
were administered by Samuel Allen, Governor, with 
John Usher, John Hinckes and William Partridge, 
Lieutenant or acting Governors, 1692- 1699; the Earl 
of Bellomont with William Partridge, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, 1699-1702, the Governor dying in 1701; Joseph 
Dudley, Governor, with William Partridge, John Usher 
and George Vaughan, Lieutenant Governors, 1702- 
1716 (Eliseus Buegess having been appointed Governor 
in 1715, but declining the office); Samuel Shute, 
Governor, with George Vaughan and John Wentworth, 
Lieutenant Governors, 17 16-1728; William Burnet, gov- 
ernor, with John Wentworth, Lieutenant Governor, 
1 728- 1 729; Jonathan Belcher, Governor, with John 
Wentworth and David Dunbar, Lieutenant Governors, 
1 730- 1 741; Benning Wentworth, Governor, with John 
Temple, Lieutenant Governor, 1 741-1767; John Went- 
worth, Governor, with John Temple, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, 1767-1775. 

Between 1675 and 1762, the people of New Hamp- 
shire participated in six wars against the French and 
Indians, aggregating thirty-eight years. 

The politics of New Hampshire in the Colonial 
period largely related to those persistent and irrepres- 
sible subjects, the Masonian title and the boundary line 
against ^lassachusetts. 


One of the memorable events in the term of office 
of John Wentworth, the last provincial governor, was 
the founding of Dartmouth College. The charter was 
issued in 1769, and the beginning effected from which 
a securely established and most beneficent institution has 



developed. Whatever may be said of the efforts of 
the Earl of Dartmouth, Gov. Wentworth and others in 
behalf of the infant institution, — and for this the pub- 
lic will ever remain under great obligations to them, — 
the undisputed title of Founder must be accorded to 
Eleazer Wheelock. If a tablet of honor for our state 
builders shall ever be erected, there can be no dissent 
when the name of Dartmouth's first president is ac- 
corded high place in such a symposium. It will be 
within the province of the historian of . education m 
New Hampshire to give Dartmouth college its deserved 
setting in the further extension of this work. , The suc- 
cession of presidents, Eleazer Wheelock, 1769, John 
Wheelock, 1779, Francis Brown, 181 5, Daniel Dana, 
1820, Bennett Tyler, 1822, Nathan Lord, 1828, Asa 
Dodge Smith, 1863, Samuel Colcord Bartlett, 1877, 
William Jewett Tucker, 1893, presents a group of hon- 
ored names, and the mention of each suggests noble ef- 
fort and achievement in the cause of education, humanity 
and progress under the highest standards. Webster, 
Choate, Chase, and Stevens are enrolled with the son.s 
of Dartmouth who, now constituting a loyal fraternity, 
rejoice together in the present strength and widening 
and deepening potency of their alma mater in her mis- 
sion of moulding men for the leadership of men. 


The people of New Hampshire entered upon the 
active stages of a national movement for independence 
with deliberation and with unanimity. Perhaps no one 
of the colonies was so free of the so-called loyalist ele- 
ment as was this. The "association test" put every 
man to the book, either for or against the common 
cause. The record of signatures in nearly all the towns 
is preser\-ed and the names of those who dissented or 



refused to take a position constitute a very meagre list. 
The population of this colony in 1775 was only 82,200. 
In the province militia establishment were thirteen regi- 
ments of foot and one regiment of cavalry, besides 
special organizations of cadets and of artillery. As 
only t^^■elve or thirteen years had intervened between the 
last French and Indian war and the inauguration of 
forcible measures on the part of isew Hampshire by the 
seizure of Fort \\'illiara and ]\Iary at Portsoiouth in 

1774, it was in accordance with the necessities of the 
case, under the operation of existing military law, that 
a large part of the body of the organized militia and a 
still larger part of the officers were veterans who had 
thoroughly learned the science of war in that intensely 
practical school of seven years duration, in which they 
were associated with the best officers and soldiers of 
England, and were opposed to the flower of the army of 

The capture of the powder and ammunition of Fort 
W'illiam and Alary, under the leadership of John Lang- 
don and John Sullivan, was the first overt act of resistance 
in which organized force was aggressively employed 
against a military organization or garrison of the mother 
countrr in New Hampshire, and possibly in either of the 
colonies, upon the inauguration of the American Revolu- 
tion."^ The powder taken on this occasion later supplied 
the patriot army assembled around Boston, and becam,e 
an indispensable and historic factor in the battle of 
Bunker Hill. 

The provincial assembly was continued in New 
Hampshire until Governor \\'entworth's departure in 

1775. A succession of conventions, beginning July 21, 
1774, finally resulted in the formal organization of a 
legislative body on a full rq:)resentation of the people, 
and with a definite purpose of establishing a new state 
government. The importance and activity of the old 



assembly diminished as that of the successive conventions 
was augmented. 

The passing- of the royal authority in the province 
was-w^ith very little commotion and comparatively no 
manifestation of violence. The convention which met 
m July, 1775, ordered a reorganization of the militia, 
and in 1777 the number of regiments had been in- 
creased to seventeen. The number of men enrolled 
was 16,710, and this comprised practically all resi- 
dents of military age in the state. In 1775 three 
regiments were formed and put under command re- 
spectively of John Stark, James Reed and Enoch 
Poor. The first two regiments were actual partici- 
pants in the battle of Bunker Hill, so-called, and consti- 
tuted more than one-half of all the Americans actually 
engaged, and a little later Poor's regiment joined the 
army assembled near Boston. John Sullivan was also 
a participant in that campaign under commission from 
Congress as brigadier general. Timothy Bedel had a 
regiment in Canada, recruited largely from New Hamp- 
shire. Thirty-tliree companies under Col. Wingate 
were guarding the sea coast. Two companies of one 
and a part of another were formed from volunteers 
out of the New Hampshire regiments in Washington's 
army and accompanied Arnold through Maine to Que- 
bec. Coos and the Connecticut valley were 'also 
guarded, and thirty-one companies were raised and sent 
to take the place of the Connecticut men who declined to 
remain longer in the siege of Boston. Col. Potter 
called attention to the action of the Committee of Safety 
m January, 1776, making John Waldron colonel and 
Petef Coffin major of a regiment, the rolls of which are 
not preserved. It may have been one which served at 
Winter Hill. Presumably more than five thousand men 
of this state were in the field in 1775. 

In 1776 it was the same story of practical and un- 



flinching- loyalty to the cause. Upon the successful con- 
clusion of ihe siege of Boston, March 17, 1776, Sulli- 
van took command of the army in Canada, which by 
reason of defeat, sickness, want of supplies, want 01 
support and the arrival of large fleets and armies from 
England, was in a perilous situation; indeed it might 
perhaps be more correctly described as desperate. Sulli- 
van with the aid of reinforcements sent from Wash- 
ington's army, including the three New Hampshire 
reoiments under Stark, Poor and James Reed, with dis- 
tinguished good conduct, brought off the entire army 
with comparatively small loss, besides commanding in 
several well planned engagements with the enemy. 
The three regiments of the continental line were strength- 
ened and continued. Returning from the Canadian 
campaign, which relieved the northern army operating 
in the provinces, the New Hampshire regiments of the 
line were variously employed in the defence of Ticon- 
deroga and the neighboring strategic points. Here 
dysentery, small pox and putrid fever raged among the 
troops, and it is estimated that one-third oi the New 
Hampshire men died of these diseases m 1776. Sulli- 
van now a Major General, in recognition of his services 
in the Canadian campaign, had important command in 
the ill-fated battle of Long Island, and was there taken 
prisoner. After a comparatively brief detention he 
was exchanged. It does not appear that these regi- 
ments participated in the battles about New York or in 
the operations that culminated in putting Howes Army 
on one side and Washington's on the other at the Dela- 
ware River in the winter of 1776-7. They dis in- 
guished themselves at Princeton and Trenton, it is 
sometimes asserted that Stark himself suggested the 
Trenton attack. It certainly had all the characteristics 
of his instinctive grasp of military opportunity, and his 
unerring directness and celerity in execution. Bedel 



raised a new regiment in the second year of the war 
which operated in Canada: Pierce Long- transferred his 
regiment from the coast defences to Ticonderoga ; 
four additional regiments reinforced the patriot amiy 
operating: in various divisions of the war area later 
in the year, viz.: \\\inan's and A\'ingate's in Tuly 
and AugTist: Tash's and BaldAV-ins in September, 
and Oilman's in December. Tlie last tAvo named of 
these regiments remained with Washington's armv till 
the spring- of 1777. Thus it appears that in the'vear 
of the Declaration of Independence the state had at least 
nine full regiments in the tield. 

in ^777' the contributions cyi Xew Hampshire m 
men and material reached high water mark. In May 
large bodies of organized volunteers from the reg-iments 
of Ashley, Baldwin, Chase, Xidiols, Hale. "^loore. 
A\'ebster. Stickney and :Morey responded to urgent calls 
for reinforcements for Ticonderoga and the campaign 
against Bm-goyne. ^ 

The Xew Hampshire regiments in the continental 
hne continued in the serv-ice. and were distinguished for 
good conduct at Saratoga and at other important en^ge- 
ments and critical points. A more particular descriptfon 
of the sequence of events in the Saratoga campaign may 
be required to obv-iate confusion in the mind of the 
reader as to the progress of affairs at this jimcture. 

The two important engagements were on September 
19 and October 7. Botli were on Freeman's farm" Bemis" 
Heights. It was the second battle that was decisive 
ot the tate of Burgo>-ne. The surrender took place at 
the Heights of Saratoga, at a place now caUed Schuvler- 
ville. The army laid down their arms within the old 
-Fort Hardy." built in the French War at a point on the 
c^posite side of the Fishk-ill from SchuvIen-iUe Thi^ 
was the place to which Burgov-ne had retreated imme- 
diately atter his defeat at the second banle of Freeman'c 


farm. His army was occupied two nights and a day in 
this movement. Schuylerville is about ten miles distant 
from the scene of the battles at Freeman's farm. 

In the first battle the Xew Hampshire troops engaged 
were the Xew Hampshire brigade under General Poor 
and a detachment of infantry, sometimes described as 
riflemen, under ]Major Henry Dearborn, about three 
hundred in number, consisting of men of Long's regi- 
ment, detachments of other militia, and Whitcomb's 
Rangers. Dearborn co-operated with ]\Iorgan in the re- 
pulse of Frazer's attack. Wilkinson says, "The stress 
of the action on our part was l)orne by ^Morgan's regi- 
ment and Poor's brigade." He should have coupled 
Dearborn's corps with ^Morgan's regiment in this con- 
nection. Judge Nesmith, in his article.' "New Hamp- 
shire at Saratoga," gives statistics indicating that about 
half the man engaged, possibly more than half, were 
from New Hampshire, and of the losses on the part of 
the Americans, killed, Avounded and missing, returned 
by Wilkinson as 321, 161, or more than half, must be 
credited to the New Hampshire organizations. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Coburn of Scammell's regiment and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Adams of Reid's regiment were 
among the large number of valuable men and officers 
which the state lost in this engagement. 

In the second battle. October 7th, the New Hampshire 
men were again engaged in the most important fighting, 
and once more earned the highest commendation for their 
sturdy heroism. Again their losses were heavy, another 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Samuel Connor of Whipple's brigade, 
being included in the number. There are no adequate 
returns of the losses in this battle. It is recorded that 
"when Cilley first became engaged, so many of his men 
fell in twenty minutes that he could save himself only by 
falling back' on reinforcements. With these the regi- 
ment went into the fight again with great spirit and 



fought till night. Colonel Scammell fearlessly led his 
regiment where the fight was hottest." Marked changes 
had occurred at the beginning of the year in the 
command of these organizations. The promotion of 
Col. Poor at the instance of General and Congress- 
man Folsom to be brigadier (thus passing by Stark) 
had caused a vacancy in his regiment (the second) and 
at the same time had given such offence to Col. Stark 
that he resigned from the army. James Reed had be- 
come blind and left the service. The second regi- 
ment now became the third and the third the sec- 
ond. The first retained its number. Joseph Cilley 
became colonel of the first, Nathan Hale of the second 
and Alexander Scammell of the third. Hale was taken 
prisoner at Hubbardton and George Reid became 
colonel and so continued till 1781. Langdon's clarion 
call to the New Hampshire Assembly and the conjuring 
with the name of Stark to raise a brigade to be thrown 
athwart the Burgoyne invasion is now such familiar 
history that it should be supererogation even to outline 
it to New Hampshire readers. 

Stark's brigade at Bennington, consisting of the 
regiments of Cols. Thomas Stickney, jMoses Nichols 
and David Hobart, struck the blow which decided the 
fate of Burgoyne's invasion. When Stark's men were 
approaching the end of their famous campaign and re- 
turning to their farms and their harvests, Whipple's 
brigade and the new bodies of volunteers gathered by 
Stark were forwarded with promptitude and energy 
for reinforcement of the northern army under Gates. 
With Gen. Wliipple, or Gen. Stark were Drake's, Moor's, 
Evans', Bellows', Moulton's, Chase's, Welch's and Ger- 
rish's regiments. Gen. Bayley of Vermont (nominally 
New York) certifies to the service of a regiment in his 
brigade under command of Col. David Webster of Ply- 
mouth. This probably refers to Chase's regiment. 


which was composed of parts of Webster's, Morey's 
and Hobart's miUtia regiments —Webster rankmg 
as Heutenant-colonel in the last named mihtia regi- 
ment Sloans Orford Company and Hutchms Haver- 
hill Company were probably in the Vermont^ regi- 
mental organizations. Ashley's, Bellows', Hales and 
Morey's Connecticut Valley militia regiments contri- 
buted contingents of volunteers to reinforce Gates and 
complete the investment of Burgoyne. John Langdon 
led a company of volunteers to Saratoga of wliich the 
captain was destined to be the first presiding officer of 
the United States Senate, and the first lieutenant a 
United States Senator, while nine others who were men 
of conspicuous standing and commissioned officers in 
other organizations, served as privates in the same 
company. Stark, upon his return with fresh and liberal 
contributions of New Hampshire men for the conclud- 
ing movements against Burgoyne's army of invasion 
with that unerring sense of correct strategy which 
seemed instinctive, placed himself with two thousand 
men in Burgoyne's rear, held Fort Edward and all the 
fords below, and closed the only avenue of escape of 
which that commander might avail himself. It was the 
information that such a force under Stark had accom- 
plished this manoeuvre that compelled Burgoyne to his 
decision to capitulate. 

This year as usual the Coos country and the sea coast 
were guarded by New Hampshire men. Senter's bat- 
talion was sent to the relief of Rhode Island. 

Late in 1777, Col. Timothy Bedel raised a new con- 
tinental regiment which was intended for Canadian or 
frontier service. It was discharged in March, 1778. 

Subsequently in the same year Col. Bedel raised his 
fourth regiment, which was eventually discontinued by 
vote of Congress. 

The winter of 1777-17/8 ^o^^d the New Hampshire 


men of the continental line at Valley Forge and a bri- 
gade under Whipple in Rhode Island, where Genera! 
Sullivan conducted a campaign which, though in a 
measure unsuccessful, was in every way creditable to 
that commander. 

Gen. Whipple's colonels were Nathaniel Peabody, 
brigade adjutant, Stephen Evans, volunteer aid, Moses 
Nichols, Moses Kelley, Jacob Gale, Enoch Hale, Joshua 
Wingate and (lieutenant colonel) Stephen Peabody. 
John Langdon, James Hackett and \\'illiam Gardner, 
all prominent Portsmouth men, were respectively Cap- 
tain, Lieutenant and Ensign of a company of Light 
Horse serving with the brigade. 

The New Hampshire brigade under Poor served 
with distinguished valor at Monmouth. In 1779, Gen. 
Poor and the New Hampshire regiments in the same 
brigade participated in the campaign under Gen. Sulli- 
van against the Six Nations and here again displayed 
their soldierly proficiency and veteran courage and en- 

In the spring of 1779, New Hampshire sent a regi- 
ment under Colonel Hercules Alooney for service in 
Rhode Island. 

The next year the state contributed two additional 
regiments for special service beyond its boundaries, one 
under Col. Moses Nichols and one under Col. Thomas 
Bartlett, while the continental regiments served in New 
York and New Jersey, in which second named state 
Gen. Poor died honored and lamented by the young 
nation he had served so well. 

In 1 78 1, a part of the New Hampshire contingent in 
the continental line remained in New York while the 
remainder took important duty in the Virginia cam- 
paign which culminated in the surrender of Cornwallis. 
Here died the brave and accomplished Scammell, then 
adjutant General of Washington's army. Col. Daniel 


Reynolds organized a new regiment in 1781, which 
served at Albany or in that region in the northern depart- 
ment until discharged in November. 

The New Hampshire regiments of the Contmental 
Line continued in service under Washington to the end. 
Henry Dearborn in 1781 succeeded to the command 
of the third regiment. He was in later years Secretary 
of War under President Jefferson and senior major-gen- 
eral of the army in 181 2. 

The Cedars and Hubbardton are the only two pomts 
in the revolutionary period at which the historians of 
New Hampshire are held up for explanation or apology. 
It is not improbalDle that of the upwards of sixteen 
thousand men in New Hampshire then capable of bear- 
ing arms, practically every one was at one time or an- 
other in the period of war in the active service, and 
many of them multiplying terms of service through re- 
peated enlistments. In that seven years of struggle, no 
armed enemy in visible organization crossed the boun- 
daries of the Granite State. 

Nathaniel Folsom was made a major-general m the 
State service and was at different periods a delegate in 
the Continental Congress. His military services were 
principally confined to affairs of organization after the 
first few months of the war. 

Congress after Bennington hastened to make the 
amende honorable to Stark. They accorded him their 
formal thanks and made him a brigadier-general. He 
participated with his characteristic ability in the battle of 
Springfield in New^ Jersey in June, 1780. He held 
commands consonant with his rank and his principal- 
services were of great value in the northern department 
which was assigned to him after Saratoga, and which 
with periods oi duty with Washington in the central 
department, with Gates in Rhode Island and recruiting 
services in New Hampshire occupied his attention largely 



till independence was achieved. He was then breveted 
a major-general as an expression of the esteem in which 
he was held by the representatives of the people. 

Sullivan closed his distinguished career with the 
thanks of Congress for his successful campaign against 
the Six Nations in 1779, in which, as already written, 
the New Hampshire line regiments were an important 

He had distinguished himself most conspicuously in 
the two Rhode Island campaigns, the relief of the army 
in Canada, the campaign of 1779, in all of which he had 
independent command; and his loyalty, heroic spirit 
and superior military ability were well proven at the 
siege of Boston, the battles of Long Island, Trenton, 
Princeton, Brandywine and Germantown. 

He continued in the public service his share of the 
time as did Langdon, Whipple, Bartlett and Livermore, 
as a conspicuously useful member of the Continental 


The large extent of frontier which surrounded the 
New Hampshire settlements on three sides, and which 
had been protected by the people themselves, — every 
generation in a period of a hundred years having had 
one or two French and Indian wars, — had caused the 
essential elements of the best soldiers of Ranger service 
to be hereditary w^th the men of this province. In 
1775, several companies of "Rangers" of similar or- 
•ganization and training to those of Rogers in the last 
French and Indian war, were raised and despatched to. 
Canada under Bedel. After the termination of the 
operations in Canada in 1775 and 1776, which Pro- 
fessor Justin H. Smith in the Century Magazine aptly 
describes as the "Prelude of the Revolution," a 



large area was open to raids by Canadians, Tories 
and Indians, by way of the wilderness region which 
is now northern A'ermont, also by the Connecticut 
Valley and the Androscoggin region. Bedel's third 
and fourth regiments and, after the discontinuance 
of Bedel's fourth regiment in the summer of 1779, 
Hazen's Continental regiment, occupied the Connecti- 
cut \^alley in force. Thus a most important pro- 
ducing region and granary was quite effectually secured 
from guerilla incursions. Besides these regiments 
was the battalion of Maj. Benj. Whitcomb, a partisan 
leader of a career which is replete with startling ad- 
venture and singular exemption from military misfor- 
tune and failure, which was in continuous employmenr, 
and many other companies and scouts raised for special 
duty and for limited periods. Among the ranger 
captains or commanding lieutenants were Joshua Heath, 
Jeremiah Eames, Nathan Caswell, Ebenezer ^^'ebster 
(father of the great expounder of the constitution), 
David Woodworth, Samuel Atkinson, Josiah Russell, 
George Aldrich, Nathan Taylor, Samuel Paine, Eph- 
raim Stone, Samuel Runnels, Thomas Simpson, Jonah 
Chapman, Joseph Hutchins, Peter Stearns, Jacob Smith, 
Jonathan Smith, James Osgood, Ezekiel Walker, Philip 
Page, John x\dams, Elijah Dinsmore, Thomas Nichols, 
Peter Kimball, Absalom Peters, John House, James 
Ladd, and James Blake. The operations of the com- 
panies of rangers doing scouting duty between the arm- 
ies, or garrison service at the frontier outposts, were 
usually directed by and the immediate business of the 
commissariat committed to such prominent men of 
the vicinity as Col. John Hurd of Haverhill, Col. Joseph 
Whipple of Jeft'erson (then Dartmouth), Col. Israel 
Morey of Orford and Col. Charles Johnston of Haverhill. 


The v>r;'ver~:or of c-i~ ^ is 5rj"jed 'The Ozsn- 
:n -JA-^'r ire had 2n ^nzj aixi issry. and wben 

id: re e^ ~^-' "rs. 

^-^•ices :f the _ :f S^e^. End cum 


M nnsd GmjCZLTj DeDarc 

Tesse. iTi: 





vessels were fitted out, and did the enemy much in- 
jury, under the command of the noted and gallant 
sailors of Portsmouth. Some of these "armed vessels,' 
and their commanders, were as follows : 

The Enterprise, Thomas Palmer. 

jMcClary, Robert Parker, (Thomas Darling.) 

General' SulH van. (Thomas :Manning.) 

General ^vlifflin, Daniel McXiel. 

Rambler, Thomas Manning. 

Pluto. John Hill. 

Humbird, Samuel Rice. 

Fortime, John IMendum. 

Bellona, Thomas Manning. 

Adventure, Kinsman Peverly. 

Marquis of Kildare, Thomas Palmer. 

Portsmouth, frigate built, Robert Parker. 

Hampden, frigate built, Thomas Pickering." 

Paul Jones, though he was a \'irginia planter at the 
beginning of the war, may fairly be regarded as a Xew 
Hampshire sailor. His "Ranger" sailed from Ports- 
mouth and many of the most efficient men and officers 
under his command on the ^"Ranger" and the "Richard" 
were of this State. It now transpires that George 
Roberts, who threw the grenades into the Serapis, amid- 
ships, and exploded her magazines, was a Xew Hamp- 
shire sailor. In a recent number of the Granite Monthly 
is an interesting sketch of Seaman Roberts by his 
grandson. Col. Charles H. Roberts. Gen. ^^'hipple, 
Coi. Hackett, John Langdon and other Xew Hampshire 
leaders were actively engaged at different periods in 
fitting out ships of war at Portsmouth. The services 
of these men were invaluable. It is a desideratum long 
recognized in Xew Hampshire history that her part in 
the naval wars of the colonial, revolutionary and state 
periods has never been accorded seasonable or adequate 


treatment. In Biiell's recent Life of Paul Jones; in the 
Centennial History of the Navy Yard at Portsmouth 
by Furness; in the History of the A'avy Yard at Ports- 
mouth by Preble; in the Correspondence of Commodore 
Perkins; and in the printed proceedings on the occasion 
of the dedication of his statue at Concord, ghmpses at 
the abundance of material available to this purpose are 


In almost the entire continuance of the war the ad- 
ministrators of the New Hampshire government were 
embarrassed by a serious defection which existed in the 
western part of the state, and particularly in Grafton 
county. \\'hile the state was maintaining a revolu- 
tionary attitude towards the mother country, a revolt 
against the authority of the state itself was a serious 
and persistent internal condition. This state of affairs 
involved a refusal of many of the towns to participate 
in state governmental affairs. These towns were 
all in the Connecticut river valley or in that 
vicinity. A number of the leading men in these towns 
were from Connecticut, and their ideas of government 
were naturally in accordance with their education and 
experience in the commonwealth from which they had 

Hanover, with its college and faculty, which consti- 
tuted a Connecticut colony of itself, was the intellectual 
centre for this movement which took substantial form 
early in 1776. 

The form of government adopted for the time be- 
ing by the fifth Provincial congress was not acceptable 
to the majority of the people in the towns now con- 
stituting the western part of Grafton county. Col. 
Hurd and Lt. Col. Chas. Johnston, however, were not 


partisans of the views which generally prevailed on 
this subject in their vicinity. Col. Morey and Col. 
Bedel were conspicuous among the opposers of the 
party in power in the so-called Exeter government. The 
group of towns which included Gunthwait on the north 
and Lebanon on the south in Grafton county, organized 
themselves by town groups and local committees for 
the management of civil and military affairs, and 
formally declined to recognize the new state government 
of New Hampshire. It will not be found useful to 
pursue the history of this controversy at length in this 
connection. It may be remembered, however, that the 
Independents of the Connecticut Valley manoeuvred 
with skill and persistence to accomplish such a union of 
Vermont towns with New Hampshire as promised 
either to augment the influence of the western part of 
the state and to diminish in a corresponding degree the 
political power which the eastern section had acquired, 
or severing themselves from New Hampshire to join 
with the proposed state of Vermont or New Connecti- 
cut under more favorable conditions than they could 
expect from New Hampshire. At two periods between 
1776 and the close of the war, that is to say, in 1778 
and 1 78 1 -2, these towns were in active union with Ver- 
mont so far as the formal action of both parties could 
accomplish such a result. 


Briefly stated, the contention of the New Connecti- 
cut party was that upon the dissolution of political rela- 
tions between the colonies and the mother country, and 
more especially in respect to the territory in contro- 
versy l^etween New York and New Hampshire, the 
towns, being the political units and the original source 
of political authority, were invested with the right to 



determine for themselves the question whether to accord 
allegiance to the one or the other of the disputing states 
or whether to erect themselves into a state independent 
of the mandate of any other association of towns or 
communities formed for purposes of government. 
They urged that inasmuch as the New Hampshire con- 
stitution of 1776 had never been submitted to the people 
or to the towns for ratification and had been accepted 
by a part of the towns only, it was operative only upon 
such as had elected to ratify its provisions. The pro- 
testing towns took care not to do any act which could be 
construed as a ratification of that form of government 
in the six years from early in 1776 to 1782. Their 
argument was presented in the controversial and offi- 
cial literature of that time with great skill and effective- 
ness. They succeeded in making themselves felt as 
a political force to be reckoned wath by three estab- 
lished states, and the Continental Congress, as well as 
the prospective commonwealth of Vermont. 


The Civil Government of New Hampshire from the 
time of the departure of Gov. Wentworth to the or- 
ganization of a new form of government in June, 1784, 
under the constitution of 1783, was purely legislative. 
The constitution of 1776, the first adopted by either of 
the thirteen states, was a very brief instrument and 
evidently intended to be temporary, or as it was offi- 
cially stated at the time, "to continue during the present 
unhappy and unnatural contest with Great Britain." 
It was promulgated and adopted by the fifth convention, 
chosen in the latter part of 1775, and it was never sub- 
mitted to or formally ratified by the people. It pro- 
vided for a council or senate of twelve members, to be 
elected for the first year by the house of representatives 


and after that by the people. These councillors were 
chosen according to population^ but with a recognition 
of county boundaries, so that a councillor, with rare 
exceptions, represented no county but the one in which 
he lived. A president of the council or senate was 
chosen by that body, the senior senator to preside in his 
absence. The president of the senate or council was, 
of course, always a member of that body. The legis- 
lature appointed the general and field officers of the 
militia and the officers of the state regiments and other 
state organizations in active service, — certain rights of 
election or nomination of company officers by the com- 
panies being recognized. The legislature appointed the 
judges of the court, but each court could appoint its 
own clerk. The legislature administered the executive 
business of the state. In periods when the legislature 
was not in session, those interims were carefully pro- 
vided for by the constitution of a committee of safety 
which enabled the legislative body to keep control of all 
affairs and have its own members in constant control 
of all vacation business. Meshech Weare was, how- 
ever, continuously president of the council and presi- 
dent or chairman of the Committee of Safety. Thus it 
was that this able, devoted and unassuming patriot be- 
came the "war governor" of New Hampshire in the 
"time that tried men's souls." The legislature chose 
the delegates to the continental congress. There was 
no occasion under this form of government for state 
election for any purpose. The counties elected the 
councillors, the register of deeds and the county treas- 
urer by popular vote. All other county officers were 
appointed by the legislature. There was no such work- 
ing' principle as incompatibility in office holding. 
Meshech Weare, president from January, 1776, to 
June, 1784, was also a considerable part of the time 
chief justice and colonel of his regiment in the 


militia. It is evident from the fact that a differ- 
ent form of government under a new constitution 
proposed in 1778 was rejected that the temporary gov- 
ernment was satisfactory to the majority of the people. 
It was the manifestation of a sharp reaction against 
the former method of colonial government. 

Among the most valuable men in the government of 
the Re\olutionary period were ]\Ieshech \\^eare, John 
Langdon, John Dudley, Josiah Bartlett, ^latthew^ Thorn- 
ton. \Mlliam Whipple, Nathaniel Folsom, Ebenezer 
Thompson, John Hurd, Samuel Ashley, Nicholas Oilman, 
George King Atkinson, Timothy ^^'alker, Jr., John Went- 
worth, Benjamin Bellows, Moses Nichols, Charles John- 
ston, Timothy Farrar, Enoch Hale, Francis Worcester, 
George Frost, Jacob Abbott, Thomas Sparhawk, Moses 
Dow, Francis Blood, John [NlcCleary, Samuel Hunt, 
George Gains, Nathaniel S. Prentice, Paul Dudley Sar- 
gent, Otis Baker, Benjamin Barker, Thomas Bartlett, 
John Calfe, Jonathan Blanchard, \\'yseman Claggett, 
Samuel Cutts, Levi Dearborn, Richard Downing, 
Stephen Evans, John Giddings, Benjamin Giles, David 
Gilman, \\'oodbury Langdon, John Taylor Gilman, Jo- 
seph Gilman, Samuel Gilman, Samuel Hobart, Jonathan 
Lovewell, Pierce Long, Hercules ]\Iooney, Israel ]\Iorey, 
Josiah ^loulton, Thomas Odiorne, ^Matthew Patten, 
Samuel Patten, Nathaniel Peabody, Samuel Philbrick, 
John Pickering, Ebenezer Potter, Ephraim Robinson, 
John- Smith, Christopher Toppan, John Webster, John 
Wentworth, Jr., Robert Wilson, Phillips White, Joseph 
Whipple and John Hale. 

It is a noteworthy fact that the record does not indi- 
cate that John Stark was the incumbent of any civil office 
whatever unless it might have been some town fmiction 
or that he may have held a commission as justice of the 

The list of men chosen by the New Hampshire Legisla- 


ture to be representatives in the Continental Congresses 
contains many historic names. It is probable that not all 
of these delegates were in actual attendance. As mdi- 
cated bv the record they were : 

John Sullivan. Nathaniel Folsom, Josiah Bartlett, Wil- 
liam Whipple, Matthew Thornton, John Langdon, Sam- 
uel Ashlev, George King Atkinson, Benjamin Bellows, 
Jonathan Blanchard, Moses Dow, Abiel Foster, George 
Frost John Tavlor Gilman, Woodbury Langdon, Samuel 
Livermore. Nathaniel Peabody, Ebenezer Thompson, 
Timothy Walker, Jr., John Wentworth, Jr., Benjanun 
West, Phillips White, Pierce Long, Elisha Payne, 
Nicholas Gilman, John Pickering, John Sparhawk and 
Paine Wingate. 

Bartlett, Whipple and Thornton were the ones who liad 
the exceptional opportunity and distinction of havmg 
been signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

The chief justices of the superior court in the war pe- 
riod were Jvleshech Weare, who had been educated for the 
mmistrv, but who had a long experience as a judge of the 
province, and Samuel Livermore, an able lawyer and dis- 
tinguished statesman. 

The associate justices were Leverett Hubbard, lawyer; 
Mathew Thornton, physician; John Wentworth, Sr., law- 
yer; W^oodburv Langdon, merchant; Josiah Bartlett, 
physician, and William Whipple, merchant. 

These will be recognized as men who were conspicu- 
ous in other important branches of the public service. 
The courts at times were not open at all and until late ir. 
the progress of revolutionary events there was no demand 
for the services of judges and juries. There seemed to 
be scant opportunity for law suits between man and man, 
while an 'all-absorbing international contest was con- 
trolling every effort and every resource of individual and 




The leaders in the Revohition naturally became the 
leaders in civil affairs upon the settlement of a permanent 
government. The first period under the constitution of 
1783 will be included between the beginning of the new 
government in June, 1784, and the government under 
the amended constitution in 1793. 

Bv general consent the patriot Weare became president 
of the state and served from June, 1784, to June, 1785. 
This closed a career of remarkable purity, usefulness and 
conspicuous success. President Weare's war administra- 
tion was in the most trying epoch through which the 
state has ever passed. No student of New Hampshire 
histor}' should pass by the storj^ of the life of this man 
with superficial examination. The most adequate ac- 
count of this service yet presented is to be found in tlie 
biography by Hon. Ezra S. Stearns in the proceedings of 
the New Hampshire Society of the Sons of the American 

When Meshech Weare passed from the sphere of 
political activity the not unfriendly rivalry of John Lang- 
don and John Sullivan for the honors of state became the 
most interesting feature of New Hampshire politics. 
Langdon succeeded Weare for one term; Sullivan suc- 
ceeded Langdon for two terms. Langdon was again 
elected in 1788, and Sullivan was returned to office in 
1789. Josiah Bartlett took office in 1790, serving tliree 
terms in succession. He was the last to hold the title 
of president. 

Meanwhile the federal convention of 1787, of which 
John Langdon and Nicholas Gilman were the New 
Hampshire members, had formulated a constitution for 
the United States of America. The consent of nine states 
was required for its ratification. This constitution be- 
came the organic law of the new nation by its ratification 



on the part of New Hampshire, the ninth state, in June; 

Under this new federal government John Langdon and 
Paine Wingate became senators in the winter of 1788-9, 
while Nicholas Oilman, Samuel Livermore and Abiel 
Foster were the first representatives in congress elected 
by this state. John Sullivan was appointed as the first 
district judge of New Hampshire by President Washing- 
ton in the ensuing year. Pie was at the same time presi- 
dent of the state and held both offices until the end of his 
term as president in June, 1790. 

Senator Langdon, who was president of the state for 
the year 1788-9, resigned this office January 22, 1789, 
to take his seat in the senate. John Pickering then suc- 
ceeded to the office as president of the state, and was the 
incumbent of it until the following June. This fact is 
often overlooked in tables of official succession and in 
political histories of the state. 

The contest over the adoption of the federal constitu- 
tion was the most important subject before the people in 
this period. Debt and paper money disturbed and de- 
ranged the business affairs of the new state and were the 
causes of great distress among the people. 

The disaffected elements were upon the verge of rebel- 
lion in 1786 and surrounded the assembled legislature in 
a clamorous mob. This uprising was successfully quelled 
under the discreet management of President Sullivan, — 
a display of military force being made under the com- 
mand of the veteran, Cilley. 


If the political standards of a free people may be fairly 
judged at any given time by the character of the chief 
magistrates whom they select, it may be said of New 
Hampshire that in no other period does this test respond 



as it does in that under review. In point of character and 
abiHty the list of governors in these twenty-three years is 
striking and conspicuous. It inckides Josiah Bartlett, one 
term; John Taylor Oilman, fourteen terms; John Lang- 
don, six terms; Jeremiah Smith, one term, and William 
Plumer, one term. 

Among the senators in congress were Samuel Liver- 
more. Nicholas Oilman, William Plumer, John Langdon 
and Jeremiah jMason. Samuel Livermore, Nicholas Oil- 
man, Jeremiah Smith, Thomas W. Thompson, Oeorge 
Sullivan, Charles H. Atherton and Daniel Webster were 
among the representatives in congress. 

It was in this period that the prestige of service in the 
Revolution continued many of the old leaders in the high- 
est prominence in the state. 

At the same time a later generation of politicians of 
transcendent ability was developing such statesmen- jur- 
ists as William Plumer, Jeremiah Smith, Jeremiah Mason 
and Daniel Webster,, and the national service of Webster 
and Mason were not more useful to the state than were 
the achievements of Jeremiah Smith in the reform and 
construction of a system of jurisprudence, and what 
Plumer accomplished in the reforms of the political sys- 
tem embodied in the constitution of 1792, and in other 
lines of political effort, notably that which resulted finally 
in the Toleration Act of 18 19. This was a period of as- 
cendency of the Federalists in this state the greater part 
of the time, but the not infrequent successes of Langdon 
and Plumer in contesting the governorship and the fatal 
mistakes of the party in its war policy and its alliance 
with the standing order in ecclesiastical affairs fore- 
shadowed the sure approach of its complete and perma- 
nent failure as a political power. 

The Anti-Federalists, then known as Republicans — the 
Jefferson party of that day — controlled the state govern- 
ment in whole or in part from 1804 to 1812, Jeremiah 



Smith having for a single term broken in on the succes- 
sion as governor in 1809. 

The court system had remained without material 
change, as far as the court of last resort was concerned, 
both in the province and state from 1699 ^o 181 3. In 
these later years the Federalists having recovered control 
of the legislature and re-elected John Taylor Gilman, 
abolished the existing judicial system and reorganized the 
courts. This added fuel to the flames of opposition and 
added to the causes which were effectual in the final 
downfall of the party in 1816. 

Many important institutions had been established in the 
state between the close of the Revolutionary War and the 
termination of the War of 181 2. One hundred and forty- 
two library associations were incorporated; sixteen acad- 
emies, including Phillips or Exeter, were founded; the 
medical school at Hanover had its beginning in 1798; a 
Grand Lodge of Free Masons was organized in 1789 with 
General John Sullivan as Grand Master; the New Hamp- 
shire Medical Society had its inception in 1791; Concord 
became the permanent capital in 1807, and the State's 
Prison in that city was begun in 181 1. 

The same period was one in which a marked transition 
was to be observed in ecclesiastical affairs. Universalism 
was first preached in New Hampshire in 1773, and Meth- 
odism in the last decade of the same century. Baptists 
in their several divisions were of course of a much earlier 
sectarian development, but they did not develop consid- 
erable strength in New Hampshire until the period fol- 
lowing the Revolution. 

In the colony and Province periods the Congregational 
order had maintained its ascendency as practically a state 
church, the town ministers having been elected by the 
people and supported by public taxation. 

At the close of the period under consideration, all de- 
nominations had gathered increased members and influ- 



ence and were on the eve of a contest of great importance 
in the ecclesiastical history of the state. 

THE WAR OF 1812. 

The second war with England was not in accord with 
the political views of the Federalists. While its prosecu- 
tion was directed nationally by a Republican administra- 
tion, in New Hampshire a Federalist governor held office 
and administered its military affairs in the last two years 
in which hostilities were continued. 

Governor Plumer was in full accord with the war pol- 
icy of the Madison administration. Portsmouth was 
fortified and garrisoned early in the war by troops 
under command of Major Bassett, and later by very 
large levies from time to time from the militia of the 
state. Captain Mahurin was posted at Stewarts- 
town with a company to protect the frontier. 
Major John McNeil of New Hampshire distinguished 
himself at the Battle of Chippewa. General Eleazer 
Wheelock Ripley, a native of Hanover, was prominent 
at the Battle of Niagara and in other important lines of 
duty in this war. It was to him that Miller, another illus- 
trious New Hampshire soldier, replied to the inquiry, 
"Can you storm that battery?" "Til try, sir." At the 
Battle of Fort Erie, also, where McNeil and Miller added 
to their martial laurels, another New Hampshire soldier. 
Major John W. Weeks of Lancaster, was the peer of the 
others in courage and conduct. Moody Bedel was an- 
other conspicuous New Hampshire soldier of this war. 
Gen. John Chandler was a well-known officer of New 
Hampshire nativity. As has already been stated, Henry 
Dearborn, formerly a distinguished New Hampshire sol- 
dier of the Revolution, was in the early part of this war 
the senior Major-General. On the sea, moreover. New 
Hampshire sailors in many battles maintained the pres- 



tige which has always accompanied the seamen of the 
Granite State. 

EVENTS FROM 1816 TO 1855. 

The overthrow of the Federahst party in 1816 was an 
irretrievable disaster to that historic organization. With 
the exception of the temporary trinmph resulting in the 
choice of Anthony Colby, Whig, as governor in 1846, 
the Jeffersonian Republicans, later to be known as Dem- 
ocrats, elected every governor until their power was over- 
thrown by the American party, more commonly styled 
"the know-nothing party," under a secret organization in 
1855. It will be recalled that from 1824 to 1834 the 
principal factions in the Democratic party were desig- 
nated as Jackson men and Adams men. 

The astute political managers who had compassed the 
defeat of the Federalists in 1816, built the party founda- 
tions for permanency as well as strength and utility. 

Sectarian animosities when confused with party pol- 
itics are not easily eradicated. 

The agitation for what is known in the history of this 
state as religious toleration was formally begun in the 
legislature in 181 5. The so-called Toleration Act did not 
become a law until 18 19. Meanwhile the conflict before 
the people and in the legislature was strenuous and often- 
times intensely acrimonious. The Rev. Dan Young, a 
minister of the Methodist denomination, who introduced 
the first bill looking towards this reform in the senate in 
181 5, was re-elected from term to term until the passage 
of the act was accomplished. He was a leading exponent 
of this cause. His life, written by W. P. Strickland, con- 
tains an interesting account of this controversy. In the 
house, Ichabod Bartlett of Portsmouth and Dr. Thomas 
Whipple of Wentworth were the champions of the Toler- 
ation jMeasures. Mr. Henry Hubbard of Charlestown 



was an advocate of the existing system. Mr. Barstow in 
his history of New Hampshire gives a very ample resume 
of the debates in the House. 

Contrary to the predictions and convictions of the op- 
ponents of these changes in the law of the State relating 
to town taxation and town control in church affairs, the 
results were advantageous to the Congregationalists as 
well as to other denominations. 

Contemporary with the occurrences already recounted 
was the attempt to amend the charter of Dartmouth col- 
lege by state authority for the purpose of reorganizing 
the government of the institution. This legislation was 
the result of the controversy between factions in the town 
and college at Hanover. ''•' 

Their petitions to the Legislature for interference in- 
volved far-reaching results. 

The Dartmouth college case has become a landmark in 
federal jurisprudence. 

Incidentally it served to make prominent and bring into 
the view of the whole country the fact that there was at 
the bar of New Hampshire and on the bench of her high- 
est court a group of lawyers whose learning and forensic 
ability could not be surpassed at that day in the entire 
length and breadth of the Union. 

The "era of good feeling," which intervened between 
the War of 1812 and the organization of the Whig party 
in 1832, was a period in which personal politics predom- 
inated in all directions. From that date the Whigs by de- 
grees developed strength sufficient at intervals seriously 
to threaten Democratic ascendancy in the state. Their 
activity and method were especially manifest in the cam- 
paigns of 1839 and 1840, when Gen. James Wilson made 
his phenomenal runs for the governorship. 

The rapid declination of the \\'hig party after the Mex- 

* Address of President Tucker before the N. H. State Board 
Association, John Marshall Day. Vol. I, Proceedings, p. 360. 


ican War resulted from causes in some respects similar 
to those which militated against the Federalists after the 
War of 1812-15. 

In 1826 occurred the Anti-Masonic uprising. This 
affair drifted into politics, and, as a party issue for a time, 
commanded serious attention. The movement did not, 
however, acquire in this state the momentum which it had 
in Vermont, where a state government was elected on an 
Anti-j\Iasonic platform. 

The Democracy of New Hampshire for a long series 
of years was regarded as the Democracy of Andrew 
Jackson and Isaac Hill. The state was a Jacksonian 
Gibraltar. It is said that Gov. Hill was a potent member 
of the president's "'kitchen cabinet." 

However the fact may be on that point, the manage- 
ment of the New Hampshire leaders always successfully 
met the practical test that "nothing succeeds like success." 

It is conceded that Gov. Hill exercised great influence 
in national affairs. The plan of a national convention to 
nominate candidates for president and vice-president to 
supersede the old method of nominations by a congres- 
sional caucus is attributed tO' him. Another remarkable 
political fact related to Jackson's administration is the 
number and prominence of the New Hampshire stock in 
his cabinet. Lewis Cass, a native of Exeter, was Secre- 
tary of War from 1831 to 1833. Amos Kendall, a native 
of Nashua, was Postmaster-General from 1835 to 1837. 
Levi Woodbury, a native of Francestown, was Secre- 
tary of the Navy from 183 1 to 1833, and Associate 
justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in 
1845, ^^^^^ ^t times was regarded as nluch more than a 
presidential possibility. He died in 185 1, Nathan 
Clifford, a native of Rumney, another Jacksonian 
Democrat of the New ITampshire stock, Attorney- 
General under Polk in 1846, was appointed to the 
Supreme court in 1857. Gen. Cass, who had the 



Democratic nomination for the Presidency in 1848, 
closed his distinguished public career as Secretary of 
State under President Buchanan. In all this period to 
the time of his death in 1852, stood Webster, another 
son of New Hampshire, without an equal in his assem- 
blage of talents and attainments as a jurist, as an orator 
and as a statesman among his contemporaries. At the 
same time, moreover, a new generation of sons of the 
Granite state were coming to place, power and promi- 
nence in the national arena. 

Of New Hampshire senators the names of Franklin 
Pierce, Samuel Bell, Levi Woodbury, Isaac Hill, Charles 
G. Atherton, John P. Plale, Henry Hubbard and John S. 
Wells are easily recalled as statesmen of national reputa- 
tion. As representatives from other states in the senate 
who were senators before 1855, and eventually were 
recognized as statesmen of the first class, were Wm. Pitt 
Fessenden and John A. Dix, both natives of Boscawen, 
and Salmon P. Chase, a native of Cornish. Horace 
Greeley, a native of Amherst, was already a controlling 
force in journalism which was moving the minds of 
men in every northern state. 

Among the political diversions of this period which 
gave the Democracy of this state no little concern was the 
Independent Democracy in 1842, 1843, i844- It made a 
division of the party forces on the question of the measure 
of power that was to be conceded to railroads and other 
corporations in their acts of incorporation. The party 
had righted itself from this jolt when another indepen- 
dent movement confronted the organization in 1846 and 
1847. This was really important and far-reaching. It 
involved the slavery question and enabled the Whigs and 
Free Soilers to effect a successful coalition and choose a 
senator of the United States. 

The contest of New Hampshire brought Franklin 
Pierce and John P. Hale more directly and more prom- 



inently than ever before into the Hght of national pub- 
licity, and from this time on both were recognized as na- 
tional leaders destined tO' assume the most important rolls 
in the great national drama that was impending. 

There were in this period, however, important social 
and reformatory agitations in progress through which 
permanent and valuable results were evolved. 

One of these movements was in the line of temperance 
reform, and the other was directed against the institution 
of slavery. The efforts in favor of the first of these 
causes was primarily by means of associations designed 
for the education of the people and reform by the forces 
of argument and reason, and later by organization of 
such societies as the Washingtonians and the Sons of 
Temperance. The anti-slavery movement found many in- 
tensely earnest and devoted adherents. They were so 
uncompromising in their propaganda that many of the 
best people in the State of a less aggressive cast of mind 
regarded them as genuine fanatics. 

Doubtless the results of these agitations were more 
varied and far reaching than those who were the con- 
temporaries of the apostles of anti-slavery realized. 

N. P. Rogers, Abby Kelley, Stephen S. Foster, Parker 
Pillsbury and others w^ere co-workers whose efforts in 
the cause which they regarded as paramount over all 
other social and moral issues, are the subjects of Mr. 
Pillsbury's history, "The Acts of the Anti-Slavery Apos- 
tles." They were reinforced on the New Hampshire 
platforms by Garrison, Thompson, Fred Douglass and 
Harriet Martineau in public speeches and in newspaper 
arguments and by the Hutchinsons by their even more 
effective singing of anti-slavery songs. 

"The Herald of Freedom" was an influential party 
newspaper which was maintained by the Abolitionists for 
many years. A political organization was effected after 
a few years of continuance of this agitation, but its lead- 



ers did not put the party to the test of such a radical 
declaration of principles as the unconditional Atx)lition-- 
ists demanded. 

The free soil vote first appeared in the candidacy of 
Daniel Hoit for Go\-ernor in 1841, and it continued to be 
a factor of more or less importance until 1856. 

Attention has now been called to the existence of opin- 
ions and influences which were tending unmistakably 
towards a political revolution in Xew Hampshire. 

In the latter part of this period the long continued 
discussion of the temperance question and the develop- 
ment of a conviction with the people that the subject 
must be treated in a more effectual way than had before 
been attempted and by a new system of liquor laws were 
what preceded and eventually took practical form in the 
prohibitory law of 1855. 

The militia, which had formerly reached a high degree 
of efficiency and had been so maintained for more than 
one hundred years, had now fallen into decadence. In the 
time of the Indian wars, the war of the Revolution and 
the war of 181 2, ever}- citizen of New Hampshire was a 
trained soldier, and these were the men who fought the 
battles of their country- and gave the world a new nation. 

A new and greater struggle was impending. Webster 
saw it and foretold it in prophetic speech. 

The military system of the state instead of being re- 
formed was abolished. 

The Mexican \Var, 1846- 1848, was prosecuted at a 
scene of operations so far distant that New Hampshire 
was less affected by it than it had been by any other. 
either of the colonies or of the republic. Nevertheless 
it responded with spirit to the calls of the president and 
promptly forwarded its quota. Franklin Pierce was made 
a brigadier general and participated in Scott's campaign. 
Several New Hampshire men who were afterwards prom- 
inent in the Union armies from 1861 to 186^, began 


a military career in ]\Iexico. Among these may be 
mentioned George Bowers, Lieut.-Colonel of the 13th 
Regiment; Thomas J. \\'hipple, Colonel of the 4th; 
Joseph H. Potter, Colonel of the 12th and Brigadier- 
General of the regular army; Jesse A. Gove, Colonel of 
the 22d Massachusetts; John Bedel, Colonel of the 3d 
New Hampshire and Brevet Brigadier-General; John H. 
Jackson, Colonel of the 3d regiment; George Thom, Gen- 
eral in the same war; E. A. Kimball, Lieutenant-Colonel 
of Hawkins' Zouaves, and Thomas P. Pierce, who was 
appointed Colonel of the 2d New Hampshire, but de- 
clined the command. Major \\'illiam Wallace Bliss was 
Assistant Adjutant General to Gen. Taylor, Charles F. 
Low of Concord, Theodore F. Rowe of Portsmouth, 
Daniel Batchelder of Benton and Xoah E. Smith of Gil- 
manton served in various capacities in the Mexican War, 

Lieut.-Col. Benj. K. Pierce, a brother of the president, 
was a very prominent officer in the Seminole War. He 
died in the regular arm}' from the effects of disease in- 
curred in. Florida, 

Xo revision of the constitution through the instrumen- 
tality of a delegate convention was undertaken after 1791 
until 1850. The convention then assembled was an ag- 
gregation of men distinguished in various walks of life, 
and Franklin Pierce was made the presiding officer. 
The changes accomplished were limited in number, but 
important, progressive and beneficial at the three points 
of amendment on which ratification by the people was 

The contemporary historical literature of this period 
comprises the periodical publications of the Xew Hamp- 
shire Historical Society (founded in 1823) ; the historical 
magazine of Farmer & IMoore, begun in 182 1; the X^'ev/ 
Hampshire Repository, edited by \Mlliam Cogswell, 
1845-1847, the Farmers' Monthly Visitor, 1852-1854, 



and the Granite Farmer and Monthly Visitor, 1854- 1855, 
conducted by Chandler E. Potter. 

Whiton's History of New Hampshire, published in 
1834, supposedly to a certain extent in the interest of the 
Whig party, was followed by Barstow's in 1842, in which 
is disclosed a quite distinct Democratic predilection. 
Both, however, are very creditable works. John Farmer's 
revision of Belknap's History also appeared in 1831. 

The debates in the convention of 1850 were reported 
in full, but there is no publication of them except in the 
contemporary files of the New Hampshire Patriot. 

Industrial movements destined to be of vast importance 
to the state were taking form and resulting in local es- 
tablishments at various points in these years. 

In 1835 the first railroads were chartered, less than 
seventy years ago. 

The great cotton manufacturing industry which has 
now for so long a time been the backbone of the state's 
industrial stability and prosperity, was established in the 
first half of the century just ended. 

When the Democracy entered into pow'er in 1816 they 
imitated the precedent their opponents established in 
1813, abolishing the existing system of courts and dis- 
persing the judges who held office under it. It is tO' their 
credit, however, that the court of which William M. 
Richardson was. the chief justice and Samuel Bell and 
Levi Woodbury the associates, and those who succeeded 
them in regular sequence till the termination of the Demo- 
cratic regime in 1855, were of conspicuous learning, char- 
acter and judicial ability. 

The chief justices from the beginning of the state gov- 
ernment of 1784 had been Samuel Livermore, Josiah 
Bartlett, John Pickering, Simeon Olcott, Jeremiah Smith, 
Arthur Livermore, William M. Richardson, Joel Parker, 
John J. Gilchrist and Andrew S. Woods. 

The existing political parties were now (1854) honey- 



combed with disaffection and discordant opinions within 
the party hnes by reason of the introduction of new issues, 
some of which, as for instance the temperance question 
and the subject of slavery, involved vital moral consider- 

The American party, which marked a sharp reaction 
from the anti-secret society ideas of the Anti-Masonry 
epoch, was organized under esoteric forms, and all of its 
successes were achieved under the black domino. The 
principal issue which it ostensibly presented wasafictitious 
one. The threatened danger of domination of American 
institutions and American affairs by the Pope of Rome 
was preposterous. 

Nevertheless this party of mushroom growth and brief 
existence sensed the purpose of thousands of discontented 
partisans to rearrange their political alliances and to 
emerge from this great political chrysalis in an absolutely 
new political attire. 

This was the end of the period of political ascendency 
accorded between 1816 and 1855 to the democracy of 
New Hampshire. 


It was among the decrees of destiny that the presidency 
for once at least should come to New Hampshire. It 
was necessarily ordered, moreover, that this event should 
transpire before New York had become an indispensable 
factor in presidential contests; before Indiana had be- 
come pivotal; before Illinois had become an imperial com- 
monwealth; and before the stars of Ohio had preempted 
the zenith. 

From 1848 to 1872 the sons of New Hampshire were 
to be reckoned with in every cjuadrennial disposal of the 
candidacies for this great office. Cass, nominated by 



the Democrats in 1848, was defeated only by a mischance, 
possibly an accident, possibly by means not justifiable. 

As the campaign of 1852 approached, Webster's 
friends made an active canvass for him and for the first 
time his candidacy was openly and positively avowed. It 
is one of those unaccountable eccentricities of national 
politics, occasionally and too often recurring-, that a party 
that might make a Webster president should be content 
with a ^^' illiam Henry Harrison, a Taylor, or a Scott. 

Levi Woodbury was under serious consideration as a 
possible Democratic candidate, but his death in 1851 
closed the book. 

John P. Hale was chosen to lead the forlorn hope of the 
Free-soilers in 1852. This candidacy contained no ele- 
ment of personal retaliation upon either of the great par- 
ties, as did that of Van Buren in 1848. It cast a side- 
light upon the situation and tendencies in politics at that 
time, of which few of the contemporary politicians were 
wise enough to take advantage or warning. 

Although Webster and Cass still stood at the forefront 
among the statesmen of their time, it was to be General 
Pierce's triumph and New Hampshire's opportunity. 
The president was to be one who was not only a son of 
the soil, but a life-long resident upon it. He was elected 
by an overwhelming majority. Only a few of the lead- 
ers in public thought and public action realized as did 
Webster the actual volcanic condition of the politics of 
that period. Mr. Pierce's administration was indeed to 
conduct national affairs very near to the end of that 
epoch. The portents of the coming conflict overshad- 
owed all the plans, devices and efforts of statecraft. 
President Pierce's official family — Marcy, Guthrie, Mc- 
Clelland, Davis, Dobbin, Campbell, and Gushing — was 
one of the ablest, best organized, most harmonious, and 
most homogeneous American cabinets ever assembled, 
and it had the unique distinction of unbroken continu- 



ance during a full presidential term. It was the policy 
of the party, of which this administration was of neces- 
sity the representative and exponent, and the conditions 
of its political environment from 1853 tO' 1857, and not 
any fault or failure of the president in adhering to that 
policy, however, unwise and impossible it may have ap-- 
peared in the light of subsequent history, that rendered 
his re-nomination impossible. Franklin Pierce adminis- 
tered his great office with statesmanlike tact and acumen, 
with notable and unfailing dignity and courtesy, and with 
loyalty to the principles of the party by whose sufifrages 
he had been elevated to the chief magistracy. It was in 
obedience to the dictates of party expediency, and not in 
exemplification of the courage of political faith and pur- 
pose, on the part of the Democracy of 1856, that James 
Buchanan was made the party nominee instead of Frank- 
lin Pierce. 

In this period. Chase, Hale and Greeley had already 
become recognized as statesmen of presidential propor- 
tions. Chase's candidacy for the Republican nomination 
in i860 and 1864, and for that of the Democracy in 1868, 
were, in each instance, so formidable that, though unsuc- 
cessful, they were of far-reaching influence in national 

The candidacy of Horace Greeley by nomination of 
the liberal Republicans in 1872, with such a relatively 
unimportant associate as B. Gratz Brown, may have been 
impolitic. The ratification of those nominations by the 
national Democracy was surprising and of course tem- 
porarily disastrous to the party. It was, however, a 
change of front in line of battle, and all the chances inci- 
dent to such a movement w^^re necessarily taken by those 
party leaders who were convinced that no other course 
was open to them. It was a shifting of all the aHgnment 
absolutely prerequisite to the contest which was opened 
under the leadership of Mr. Tilden in 1876. 



The one opportunity which was presented to General 
Butler, and by the acceptance of which he might have 
reached the presidency, was closed to him when he de- 
clined to accept the nomination for the vice-presidency, 
which it is generally conceded was at one time at his dis- 
posal, on the Lincoln ticket in 1864. His attempt to 
obtain a controlling position in the Democratic conven- 
tion of 1884 and his subsequent flank movement against 
the party which had nominated ]\Ir. Cleveland, both mis- 
carried, but his attempt to compass by indirection the 
election of 'Sir. Blaine through his own candidacy as the 
nominee of the so-called People's party was too nearly 
successful to be regarded in any other light than as an 
important episode in a most remarkable presidential cam- 

Henry ^\'ilson had fairly entered upon the last stages 
of a successful progress to the presidency when he was 
made vice-president at the second Grant election in 1872. 
This peerless organizer was then the natural, if not the 
inevitable, heir to the succession. Had he lived it was 
hardly among the possibilities that he could fail to be 
nominated and elected to the presidency in 1876 or 1880, 
or for both the terms to which ]\Ir. Hayes and Sir. Gar- 
field were chosen. 

Zachariah Chandler was regarded as an important fac- 
tor in the disposition of the presidency, and his candi- 
dacy, until his death in 1879. was attracting an influential 

In the cabinets of the war period the treasury portfolio 
was successively in the hands of John A. Dix, in the last 
days of the Buchanan administration in 1861, and Salmon 
P. Chase and \\'illiam Pitt Fessenden, at the beginning 
of a Republican regime, until the end of the administra- 
tion of ■Mr. Lincoln. The conduct of this department by 
these three sons of Xew Hampshire constitutes the mosc 



important chapter in the financial history of the Ameri- 
can goA^ernment. 

In the second term of President Grant, Zachariah 
Chandler held the office of Secretary of the Interior, Amos 
T. Akerman that of Attorney-General, and Marshall 
Jewell that of Postmaster-General. With William E. 
Chandler's service as Secretary in an important transition 
period in the history of the American navy and in con- 
nection with the inauguration of far-reaching measures 
for the development of an adequate American war marine 
in the temi of President Arthur, the past record of New 
Hampshire men in the cabinet is concluded. 

Zachariah Chandler and William E. Chandler are also 
regarded as the Warwicks of the presidential complica- 
tions and conditions which obtained in the contest be- 
tween Mr. Tilden and Mr. Hayes in 1876, and their 
timely, skilful and strenuous measures are now generally 
regarded as being the decisive factors in the course of 
events which resulted in the inauguration of Mr. Hayes 
as president. 

With the passing of the old school of statesmen of New 
Hampshire nativity, of presidential aspirations and presi- 
dential measure, twenty years ago, the State has been 
practically out of presidential politics as it is related to 
personal candidacies. The latter representatives of the 
virile stock of the Granite State are evidently attracted 
from the domain of national and local politics to more 
important and promising financial, commercial and mate ■ 
rial opportunities in the world's work. In this field well- 
informed observers readily recall the forceful and suc- 
cessful personalities of James F. Joy, Edward Tuck, 
Austin Corbin. Charles W. Pillsbury, John C. Pillsbury. 
Thomas W. Pierce, Frank Jones, Hiram N. Turner, 
Charles P. Clark, Ezekiel A. Straw, Joseph Stickney, 
Stilson Hutchins and "Long" John Went worth. 

Some time ago. Senator Hoar, in the Forum, discussed 



the question whether the United States Senate, in point 
of average abihty, had degenerated, comparing it, as it 
was constituted at the time of his writing, with its mem- 
bership fifty or seventy-five years ago. Mr. Charles R. 
JNIiller, in a reply in the same magazine, made the remark 
pertinent then to his purpose and pertinent now to these 
comments, ''That were Webster living in these days he 
would neither be in the Senate nor in debt." 

EVENTS FROM 1856 TO 1866.* 

The Republican party was organized in New Hamp- 
shire in 1856. It stood in full strength and stature at 
the beginning of the long course which it was destined 
to run, — the yet undetermined period of control which it 
was to hold, — in the affairs of the state. 

Pursuing the established methods of political warfare 
it emphasized the fact of its assumption of political power 
by abolishing the existing court system and the creation 
of a new one supposedly more consonant with the 
changed conditions in political and public affairs. 

The precedent was repeated by the Democracy in 1874 
and by the Republicans again in 1876. Twice in the 
intervening years the court systems have been radically 
reversed when changes in party ascendency were not coin- 
cident, — first in 1859 and last in 1891. 

The chief justices since 1855 have been Ira Perley, 
Samuel Dana Bell, Henry A. Bellows, Jonathan E. Sar- 
gent, Edmund L. Gushing, Charles Doe, Alonzo P. Car- 

* Hon. William E. Chandler, whose active cafeer in New Hampshire 
politics extends back over a period of at least sixty years, and who is still 
vigorous and potential in national and state affairs, is contemporary with 
the entire life of the existing Republican party. He has supplemented 
constant and intimate connection with law, politics, journalism and legisla- 
tion in his native state with a record of forceful influence and distinguished 
standing and service in the domain of national affairs such as has been 
accorded to no other of his New Hampshire contemporaries since Franklin 
Pierce and John P. Hale attained their primacy. 



penter, Lewis W. Clark, Isaac N. Blodgett and Frank 
N. Parsons. 

Since 1855 the chief justice of the circuit or superior 
courts existing at three periods have been Jonathan Kit- 
tredge, Wm. L. Foster and Robert M. Wallace. 

The approaching war betw^een the states was at this 
time imminent. It affected the course of events in all 
directions. The representatives of New Hampshire in the 
national congress in the period of the later discussions 
which culminated in the war were of a superior order of 

Included in the list are Isaac Hill, Levi Woodbury, 
Franklin Pierce, Henry Hubbard, Harry Hibbard, Amos 
Tuck, John P. Hale, James Bell, Oilman Marston, Mason 
W. Tappan and Daniel Clark. 

In the history of the first New Hampshire regiment a 
chapter will be found on the subject of "The relation of 
New Hampshire men to the events which culminated 
in the War of the Rebellion," by William F. Whitcher. 
It is a treatment of this theme which could not here be 
improved upon, and therefore it need not be attempted. 
Any subject that is already well treated is sufficiently 

The opposition to Lincoln and Hamlin in New Hamp- 
shire in i860 was divided into three factions, although 
one candidate and his associate would have needed all 
the votes that were available. 

The state administration wdien Sumter fell was con- 
fronted by a difficult situation. President Lincoln had 
called for a regiment of New Hampshire men for three 
months' service. There was no emergency war fund in 
the New Hampshire treasury, no efficient existing militia 
system and no legislature in session. The Governor, how- 
ever, procured the means of equipping the regiment upon 
his own credit and the credit of patriotic banks and indi- 
viduals, and Congressman Tappan, who was given the 



colonelcy, had the first New Hampshire regiment in the 
field before the legislature was assembled. 

In the intervening war period Ichotod Goodwin, Na- 
thaniel S. Berry and Joseph A. Gilmore were the war 
governors. Frederic Smyth, sometimes erroneously des- 
ignated as a war governor, was not inaugurated as Chief 
Magistrate until June, 1865, when the war had been con- 

Seventeen full regiments of infantry were sent into the 
service from New Hampshire. Col. Kent's regiment (the 
seventeenth), which was nearly filled, was not mustered. 
A large part of the men raised for it by its organizer 
were assigned to other regiments. The remaining part 
was consolidated ^^•ith the veteran secoiid regiment. 

The state also contril)uted a battalion of cavalry, after- 
wards augmented to a regiment, three companies of sharp 
shooters, a battery of light artillery and a regiment of 
heavy artillery. Besides these it furnished a liberal num- 
ber of sailors for the navy. 

As has been observed by the writer in another connec- 
tion, perhaps the most remarkable feature of the history 
of New Hampshire in relation to the war for the union, 
is disclosed in the following statement : — 

"In the war period sons of New Hampshire moved in 
important spheres of national influence. Only a few of 
the names on that remarkable list need be recalled to give 
point to this observation. In the United States Senate, 
Henry Wilson, native of Farmington, was chairman of 
the committee on military affairs; John P. Hale, native 
of Rochester, chairman of the committee on naval affairs; 
William Pitt Fessenden, native of Boscawen, chairman of 
the committee on finance and appropriations; James W. 
Grimes, native of Deering, chairman of the committee 
on the District of Columbia; Zachariah Chandler, native 
of Bedford, chairman of the committee on commerce; and 
Daniel Clark, native of Stratham, chairman of the com- 



mittee on claims. Salmon P. Chase, native of Cornish, 
was Secretary of the Treasury and author of the finan- 
cial legislation which produced the sinews of war. Horace 
Greeley, native of Amherst, was the greatest intellectual 
force in the journalism of that time. Charles A. Dana, 
native of Hinsdale, was assistant secretary of war, and 
known as "the eves of the war department." John A. 
Dix, native of Boscawen, Benjannn F. Butler, native of 
Deerfield, John G. Foster, native of Whitefleld, one of 
the defenders of Sumter, and Fitz-John Porter, native of 
Portsmouth, whose historic fight for the vindication of his 
good name and soldierly reputation, as admirable in its 
courage and persistencv as it was successful in the result, 
were major-generals. '^V alter Kittredge, native of Mer- 
rimack, wrote 'Tenting on the Old Camp Ground.' 
Charles Carleton Coffin, native of Boscawen, the war cor- 
respondent, wrote the histories of the war which are 
most read by the youth of the land. 

"The lives of these men, written and unwritten, consti- 
tute a part of the history of the period of strong agita- 
tion, civil war. and reconstruction so important and exten- 
sive' that it is appreciated only by those who have made 
the most profound study of the events which they influ- 
enced. Several of thera were distinguished contributors 
of elaborate works devoted to the history of their time." 
While it is conceded that New Hampshire contributed 
no great leader in the war for the Union who could fairly 
be assigned to the class with Grant, Sherman, Sheridan 
and Thomas, it can be asserted with absolute confidence 
that every New Hampshire regiment was composed of 
a superior class of citizen soldiers, and that every regi- 
ment was led by patriotic, brave and capable commanders. 
"Nearly all these regiments have performed the patri- 
otic duty 'since the war^of publishing elaborate regimental 
histories. These books record the fact that Ladd, the 
first man who fell in the sixth Massachusetts in Baltimore, 



was a son of New Hampshire; that the fifth regiment 
lost more men in battle tl^an any other infantry regiment 
in the Union army; that the seventh lost more officers in 
a single engagement (Fort Wagner) than any other in- 
fantry regiment in the Union army; that the men of the 
twelfth and thirteenth regiments were the first organized 
bodies to enter Richmond; that the percentage of loss b}'' 
the twelfth was greater than that of the fifth; that the 
losses of the ninth and sixteenth from exposure and other 
causes place the debt due to them for devotion and sacri- 
fice among the first in the fateful catalogue; that the 
other regiments exhibit records of singular distinction, 
according to their opportunities in the service; and they 
prove that, relating to ever}^ one of these organizations, 
there is most valuable historical material which renders 
their publications indispensable to any measurably com- 
plete collection of Americana. 

"Indeed, so abundant is the information available to the 
student of this series of histories, so great is its value, and 
so striking is the lesson of good citizenship and patriotism 
it teaches, that indifference to it is discreditable to the 
system under which our youth are passing from the 
period of scholastic instruction to the active duties and 
responsibilities of pri\-ate business or public service. 

"It is not an unimportant consideration that the histo- 
rians of these events were the actors in them. Every pass- 
age in the narratives is a statement of fact under the light 
and guidance of actual experience, but with a modest and 
cautious reserve which excludes that over-coloring of im- 
agination and exaggeration that often mars the pages of 

" A wonderful man was this Cassar, 
Who could both write and fight, and in both was equally skillful." 



PROGRESS FROM 1866 TO 1903. 

With the exception of the brief interval of war with 
Spain in 1898, the opportunities of the people of New 
Hampshire have been those which only a long period of 
peace can afford. 

In the administration of Gov. George A. Ramsdell the 
state furnished its quota for the last foreign war. This 
was a full regiment of three battalions commanded by Col. 
Robert H. Rolfe. It was assigned to the concentration 
camp at Chickamauga, served for a period of six months 
and returned without having been afforded an opportunity 
to test its quality at the front of battle. There is no doubt 
that had the coveted post of honor Ijeen granted to these 
men as it was to the New Hampshire-born leader of the 
"Rough Riders" at Santiago (Gen. Leonard Wood), 
they also would have demonstrated what the traditions 
and tutelage of Stark, Miller and Cross mean for the 
military spirit which will now and hereafter bear aloft 
the standards of the state and the Union. 

This regiment was equipped and sent to the southern 
rendezvous upon the responsibility assumed by the exec- 
utive department very much in accordance with the 
precedent set in 1861. 

Sometime this experience in such a critical emergency 
as a call for troops in the face of imminent national neces- 
sity will suggest to the legislature the importance of a 
permanent provision of law under which the executive 
may act effectively and promptly without assuming the 
personal pecuniary responsibility involved in the equip- 
ment of a regiment for immediate duty or the expense of 
a special session of the legislature. 

At this time there is promise of national aid to the 
National Guard of the state, and an apparent certainty 
that the New Hampshire military system already entitled 
to commendation for its efficiency will deserve to rank 



with the most approved mihtary estabhshments in the 

The brigade now in command of Gen. Jason H. Tolles 
consists of two three-battahon regiments of infantry, a 
company of cavah-y and a battery of artillery with a total 
strength of twelve hundred and forty-five men and one 
hundred and ten officers. 

The story of New Hampshire in the last half century 
is one of great industrial prosperity and progress. The 
details and proofs of this advancement of the state along 
the lines of its individual industries are the subjects of 
dry statistical demonstration. Agriculture has waited 
long for the coming of its share in the material tri- 
umphs of industry and enterprise. The wide-spread de- 
velopment of the vast and varied resources of the con- 
tinent has at length produced a stimulating and beneficial 
effect upon eastern agriculture. 

The present status of this industry as compared with 
previous decades cannot be accurately determined until 
the latest statistics gathered by the federal census are 

The business of farming sufi'ered seriously from ad- 
verse conditions which it encountered after the change 
of values which accompanied the resumption of specie 
payments and the falling off of war prices, the influx of 
low-priced meats and cereals from the west, the increas- 
ing tendency of farmers' boys and girls to cjuit the ances- 
tral occupation for other and supposedly more profitable 
or more inviting employments, and the deterioration of 
farm lands in productive capacity. 

On the other hand, the improvement of transportation 
facilities, the introduction of more scientific methods of 
agriculture, the social and industrial organizations of 
farmers, technical education in this calling and the 
secondary effects of such technical education, the special- 
ization and concentration of farm labor and investment 


upon the treatment of those classes of Hve stock and 
products against which outside competition is not disas- 
trous, and the growth of new and larger demands for 
local farm products by the summer hotels, the lumbermen 
and the increasing population of the manufacturing cen- 
tres in convenient access to the several farm districts have 
combined with other influences to set the tide of business 
prosperity again in strong current in favor of this indus- 

tr>'- ' ^ , - 

It has transpired that the largest increase in prices now 
paid for the ordinary necessities of life are for farm 
products. This condition is happily affording farmers 
a substantial advantage, and its beneficial effects are not 
only advancing the interests of those actually engaged in 
agriculture, but are also promoting the general prosperity 
which is al^^■ays intimately related to the business of cul- 
tivating the soil — that basic occupation upon which all 
sound industrial progress and business stability is estab- 
lished and is dependent. 

These far-reaching changes in social, educational, and 
industrial conditions in this State, as related immediately 
to agriculture, have not been wrought out without well 
directed sagacious, patient, timely, and disinterested ef- 
fort on the part of representative and patriotic farmers. 
The industrial history of the years intervening since the 
end of the war for the Union discloses the activity and 
achievements of a band of devoted, tireless, intelligent 
and progressive laborers in this direction. The results of 
their efforts through organization have been what state 
laws and the agencies of government could never do for 
those engaged in the business of agriculture. A con- 
spicuous member of this group, Xahum J. Bachelder, has 
for twenty years or more been a stimulating, organizing, 
and directing force in the advancement of these under- 
takings and in the accomplishment of beneficent results. 
His influence long ago* passed beyond the boundaries of 



the state. It augurs well for the business side of agri- 
culture as well as its social and educational relations that 
such an organizer, leader and conservator has unre- 
servedly devoted himself and the best years of his life to 
this cause. 

The political history of the state since the war for the 
Union is replete with interesting events and incidents. 
Until 1896, with the exception of a significant and with 
many of its participants a permanent revolt from the Re- 
publican party in 1872, political alignments had been very 
strictly maintained and political contests had usually had 
more or less of the hazard of uncertainty. Not infre- 
quently the Democracy succeeded in electing a member of 
Congress while they were always represented in the state 
senate, and it was only in rare instances that they failed 
to have an executive councillor in the state administration. 
Indeed, in both 1871 and 1874, by controlling the legis- 
lature, they elected a governor. The governors of the 
state since the organization of the Republican party have 
usually been of other callings than that of the law. Four 
of the modern incumbents of the office, though educated 
to that profession, had retired from active practice and 
engaged in other pursuits at the time of their election to 
the governorship. 

In a period of forty-five years Hon. Chester B. Jordan 
is the only governor who at the same time continued in ac- 
tive practice in the legal profession. In the same period the 
majority of the senators and members in Congress were 
lawyers. In four congresses, however, the 48th, 49th, 
50th and 51st, it happened that nO' lawyer was elected 
to the house from this state. It is another singular fact 
that the recent election of a member of congress for a fifth 
successive term is without precedent in New Hampshire. 
Indeed, three terms have seldom been accorded to a rep- 
resentative. The senators have been dealt with in a 
similar fashion until recent years. Senator Chandler 



passed the limit and Senator Gallinger has had the ex- 
traordinary experience of elections to three full terms. Of 
course the interests of the state have suffered the penalty 
in a representation in a great number of congresses by 
men usually of a superior order of ability and special 
fitness for the service but laboring constantly at disad- 
vantage by reason of the superior power and prestige 
acquired by representatives from other states in long con- 
tinued re-elections. 

The legislature became biennial and the senate was in- 
creased to twenty-four members, while the term of the 
governor and other state officers was extended to two 
years in 1878 as a result of constitutional amendments 
emanating from the convention of 1876. 

The legislative history of the post-bellum years is in- 
teresting and important. 

Gilman Marston and Harry Bingham, by reason of 
their towering intellectual ability, rugged honesty and 
persistent devotion to the business of legislation, are 
rightfully termed the "great commoners" in the general 
court of New Hampshire. 

Three constitutional conventions have occurred since 
the amendments of 1850, one in 1876, one in 1889 
and one in 1902. Of the first Hon. Daniel Clark was 
president, of the second Hon. Chas. H. Bell, and of the 
third Gen. Frank S. Streeter. The amendments which 
resulted from these conventions were with a few notable 
exceptions such as did not accomplish radical changes in 
the organic law. 

Manufacturing has been largely increased since 1866 
in the variety of the plants and in the value of the product. 
The Amoskeag continues to hold its rank as the largest 
single establishment for the manufacture of cotton goods 
in the world. The New Hampshire lumber mills at Berlin 
and Lincoln have been developed and improved in recent 
years until they are among the most extensive and the 



best equipped in the United States. The business of 
manufacturing wood pulp in this state represents the 
hig-hest degree of modern progress in that industry, and 
a ^•ast investment of capital. The manufacture of shoes, 
hosiery and woollens in this period has assumed strikingly 
large proportions in New Hampshire. The catalogue of 
minor manufacturing industries that are well established 
and profitable is extensive and suggestive of the proba- 
bility of greater de\'elopment in many existing lines of 
manufacturing enterprise, and many yet to be inaugur- 

The state is becoming the home and place of sojourn 
of thousands of those who are seeking recreation and 
location in a region of the most beautiful climate and the 
grandest ocean and mountain scenery on the eastern side 
of the national domain. 

Recent statistics of this business exhibit an investment 
of $10,442,352 in the state. The help employed in 1899 
was 12,354, with wages of $539,901. Two hundred and 
four towns were entertaining summer tourists and so- 
journers. More than twenty thousand of these people 
occupied cottages in 1899. They were also patronizing 
several hundred hotels and one thousand six hundred and 
twenty-four farm houses. The volume of this business 
estimated by cash receipts from 'it in 1899 was nearly 
seven million of dollars. 

It is not within the province of this epitome to enter 
into the limitless extensions of ecclesiastical and educa- 
tional statistics. The later history of religion and educa- 
tion in this state may be summarized and condensed, for 
the present purpose, into a few statements. In the cities 
and large centres of population the provisions for educa- 
tion of youth and for religious worship and religious 
teaching are such as afford superior privileges. In the 
remote and partially depopulated towns people ha\-e not 
kept up the rate of progress in respect to church exten- 



sion and educational opportunities that is apparent in 
the more wealthy and populous districts. Ihis is inevi- 
table under existing conditions and methods. It is within 
the power of each religious denomination to remedy this 
state of affairs for itself as regards the present disparity 
in the maintenance of religious teaching, institutions and 
organizations in dift'erent localities. The state must re- 
form its system of local congestion of school expendi- 
tures and provide a common school education, first class 
in every respect, to the completion of the grammar grade, 
where all the youth of school age in any school district 
can have just as complete common school opportunities as 
their fellows who happen to haA'e been born in a large 
town or a prosperous city. 

The light of the sun and the free air are the property 
of everybody everywhere and in perfect equality of privi- 
lege and possession. To a certain extent on a similar 
prmciple of equality and freedom, reasonable and ade- 
quate educational opportunities and wholesome religious 
and moral teaching should be ensured in every locality so 
that the young everywhere within the limits of school 
age may have a fair start in education and morals. The 
two weak places in our educational scheme are in the 
poverty of school privileges in numerous localities and 
the absence outside the cities of intelligent, capable and 
systematic supervision of the schools according to a plan 
by which the entire state would be divided into super- 
vision districts and a trained professional educator placed 
in charge of each district. 

New Hampshire has not been such a field as some 
other localities have been to attract great preachers to 
service within her borders. A study of the biographical 
data relative to the native ministry collected by Rev. N. 
F. Carter, however, discloses a surprisingly large num- 
ber of preachers and teachers who have gone out from 
the parishes of this state and engaged in relig"ious work 



in all sections of this country and abroad in all parts of 
the field of general missions. At the extremes of a cen- 
tury the distinguished careers of Samuel Langdon and 
Nathan Lord will be observed, — one going from this 
state to the presidency of Harvard and the other coming 
from another state to the presidency of Dartmouth, — 
both great lights in theology, education and political 
science. The list of men eminent in the church who are 
natives of New Hampshire is indeed remarkable. In 
that roll will be found the names of Benjamin Randall, 
founder of the Free Baptist denomination; Hosea Bal- 
lon, founder of modern Universalism; Carlton Chase, 
Philander Chase, and William Bell White Howe, Bishops 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church; Osmoh C. Baker, 
Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church; Alonzo A. 
Miner, theologian, college president, and reformer; 
James Freeman Clarke, preacher and author; Samuel 
C. Bartlett, author and educator; and Francis Brown, 
eminent in theological instruction and as a religious au- 

The Right Rev. Denis M. Bradley, Roman Catholic 
Bishop of Manchester, and the Right Rev. William 
Woodruff Niles, Protestant Episcopal Bishop of New- 
Hampshire, are both distinguished prelates and adminis- 
trators, whose labors have been marked by material and 
spiritual progress and achievement in contemporary epis- 
copacies covering unusually long periods. 

Theological education has not been neglected in the 
past in this state. Both the Baptist and the Free Baptist 
denominations have had at different times theological 
seminaries at New Hampton. The Biblical Institute at 
Concord was the nucleus from which the theological de- 
partment of Boston University was developed, as the 
New Hampton school was transferred to Lewiston to 
constitute the theological department at Bates College. 



A theological seminary of good repute was maintained 
many years at Gilmanton by the Congregationalists. 

The college of St. Anselm at Manchester, established 
in recent years, has taken high rank as an educational 
institution of the youth between the high schools and the 
academies and the post graduate professional schools. 

Dartmouth since the conclusion of the administration 
of Nathan -Lord has more than doubled its resources, its 
buildings and its corps of instructors. The most con- 
spicuous and perhaps the most important addition to its 
departments is the Tuck post-graduate school designed 
foi the higher special education of men intending to en- 
gage in those lines of business which are not included or 
provided for in the ordinary professional schools. 

The Normal School at Plymouth is permanently estab- 
lished and supported by the state on constantly progres- 
sive methods and increasing financial and instructional 
provisions for its work. It stands well in line with the 
better class of institutions of its kind. 

The local high schools in most of the large towns and 
smaller cities have been established since the war with 
facilities of instruction and curriculum to cover the aca- 
demic courses and those required for admission to college. 

The state library, a model institution of its kind, with 
every modern equipment appropriate to an institution of 
its standing in the domain of library progress, and more 
than two hundred local free libraries are no inconsiderable 
re-enforcement of the educational system. Indeed, a free 
library is now within the reach of every citizen and every 
youth of the state. 

The College of Agriculture and Mechanic arts, at first 
established at Hanover upon a federal foundation, in the 
administration of President Smith, but re-established at 
Durham by act of the legislature prior to the administra- 
tion of President Murkland, and known as the State Col- 
lege, has been the beneficiary of a large endowment by 



Benj. Thompson and liberal aid from the state. It has 
every prospect of phenomenal prosperity and usefulness, 
as its resources are organized, directed and concentrated 
upon that de[Dartment of education which was within the 
design of congress and its later benefactor in the pro- 
vision of the financial foundations. 

Among the more influential exponents of journalism, 
who have been identified with the newspapers of the state 
past and present may be mentioned Isaac Hill, Nathaniel 
P. Rogers, George G. Fogg, Asa IMcFarland, John B. 
Clarke, William E. Chandler and Orrin C. Moore. 

In the more national field of this fourth profession, 
beyond question the primate was Horace Greeley. 
Commanding position has also been held by a number of 
other sons of New Hampshire in journalistic labor and 
entei-prise. While there are many who are doubtless 
entitled tO' mention in this class, it certainly is not permis- 
sible to omit the mention of Charles A. Dana, I'lic Sun, 
New York; Charles G. Green, Tlie Boston Post; Stilson 
Hutchins, Tlic Washington Post; Horace White, The 
New York Evening Post; and Charles R. Miller, The 
New York Times. 

Charles Carleton Coffin, Thomas W. Knox, and Franl: 
B. Sanborn have attained to positions in the highest ranks 
of able and successful nev/spaper correspondents. 

There are many noted New Hampshire names which 
are familiar in other fields of journalistic achievement, 
besides those which are or have been identified with the 
great metropolitan daily newspapers. 

In this list are John A. Dix, James T. Field, Jeremiah 
E. Rankin, B. P. Shillaber ("Mrs. Partington"). Alonzo 
H. Quint, Moses A. Dow, John \\'entworth ("Long 
John"), Harris M. Plaisted, Enoch M. Pingree, Nathan- 
iel Green, Thomas B. Aldrich, Edwin D. Mead, Francis 
Ambrose Eastman, George B. James, Nelson Ebenezer 
Cobleigh, John B. Bouton, Thomas G. Fessenden, Na- 



tlianiel A. Haven, Georg-e W. Kendall, John Farmer, 
Jacob Bailey Moore, O. W. B. Peabody, J. V. B. Smith, 
Baron Stowe. 

A nnmber of talented women, natives of the state, 
have been contributors to various newspapers and other 
periodicals as well as to the general literature of their 
time, prominent in this category being Sarah J. Hale, 
Eliza B. Lee, Sarah Towne Martin, Constance F. Wool- 
son, Edna Dean Proctor and Sarah Orne Jewett. 

Since the business of railroading was inaugurated in 
this state less than seventy years ago its growth has kept 
in ecjual step with the development of commerical re- 
cjuirements. The present mileage, 1 190 30-100 miles 
of main track and 521 92-100 of sidings is greater in 
proportion to wealth and population than in the case 
of any other New England state. The three stages of 
construction, competition and consolidation have been 
well illustrated in New Hampshire. From 1870 to 
1890 intervened a period of railroad war which di- 
vided the people as partisans of one railroad system 
or the other, and this allegiance resembled in many waj^s 
the fealty which men have accorded to political par- 
ties. Since industrial peace ensued after the termination 
of the wars of the rival railroad corporations, and a single 
system has been developed and perfected, all the other 
industries of the state have felt the impetus and had the 
benefits of enlarged and highly organized railroad facili- 
ties, the extension of railroad lines, the marked reduc- 
tion of rates, both in passenger and freight service, and 
innumerable administrative reforms. 

The activities and organizations into which the people 
of the state have entered in the time of this generation art 
indeed worthy of more extended review than can be given 
the subject in this connection. For the promotion of 
state industries, the Board of Agriculture, though of ear- 
lier establishment, has in recent years been so organized. 



directed and supplied by increased state support that it 
has become a most efficient stimukis to the cause which 
it is intended to subserve. 

Ancillary to the work of the Board of Agriculture is 
that of the Cattle Commission and the commissioners of 
veterinary examination. 

The Board of Charities and Correction is a progressive 
and useful organization which has accomplished impor- 
tant results in reform of pre-existing systems and time- 
worn methods relating to the public care, custody and 
management of prisoners, the dependent poor, and other 
wards of the State. 

The insane asylum, now known as the state hospital, 
was established in 1838 and has been supported in part 
by private benefactions and in part by state appropria- 
tions with constantly increasing capacity for meeting the 
purposes for which it was instituted. 

On parallel lines of state aid in the industrial .develop- 
ment of the state, the Forestry Commissioners, the Labor 
Bureau, the Inspector of Steamboats and the Fish and 
Game Commission are well equipped for efficient public 

The Industrial School at Manchester and the recently 
established school at Laconia are designed to accomplish 
educational results for special classes which could not 
properly be within the scope of the common schools or 
any other method of instruction. 

The Bank Commissioners, the Insurance Commissioners 
and the Railroad Commissioners having certain advisory, 
investigating and directory functions, are intermediaries 
between the people and three classes of corporations. 

In the department of conservation of the public health 
and of preventive medicine, the State Board of Public 
Health with a well equipped and well directed central 
office and working station, is fulfilling an important mis- 
sion at the capital and throughout the state. With this 



departinent, in classification, the various boards of medi- 
cal examination,— the Boards of Registration in the dif- 
ferent schools of the medical profession,— of registration 
in dentistry and registration in pharmacy may be also 
mentioned/ To this division of the public service the 
state bacteriological laboratory is assigned as well as the 
bureau of vital statistics. 

The Soldiers' Home at Tilton and the Veterans' Camp 
at Weirs are both visible monuments of the state's appre- 
ciation of -Svhat they were and what they did" who gave 
service and imperilled life m camp and battle. 

The Grand Army of the Republic, the Veterans' Asso- 
ciation, the Woman's Relief Corps, the Sons of Veterans, 
and many other patriotic and historic associations are 
serving beneficent purposes and keeping bright the mili- 
tary spirit and the memory of a heroic past, and makmg 
sure the perpetuation of that love of state and country 
which renders impossible no lal>or and no sacrifice when 
freemen shall again be summoned to the nation's defence. 

The State of New Hampshire is to-day abreast of all 
the commonwealths of the Union in the advancing civili- 
zation of the age. Her progress and her prosperity are 
upon sure foundations. There are no omens of evil in her 
future except those which a self-reliant and progressive 
people may confront with courage and confidence. 



Bv James H. Fassett, B.A, 



From the first settlement by David Thompson at Pan- 
naway, in 1623, until the union of New Hampshire with 
Massachusetts eighteen years later there is no record that 
any form of education was provided for the youth of the 
colony; but after the union, the small settlements at 
Hampton, Portsmouth, Dover and Exeter came under 
the excellent school laws of Massachusetts. 

The most important of these laws was enacted in 1647, 
and the characteristic way in which the Puritan fore- 
fathers were wont to look for and strive to intercept the 
machinations of Satan, even in educational matters, is 
most clearly brought out in the preamble of this law. "It 
being one chief e project of that old deluder, Sathan, to 
keep men from the knowledge of the scriptures, as in 
former times, keeping them in an unknowne tongue, so in 
these latter times, by perswading them from the use of 
tongues, so that at least, the true sence and meaning of 
the originall might be clouded with false glosses of saint 
seeming deceivers; and that learning may not be buried 
in the grave of our forefathers in church and common- 
wealth, the Lord assisting our endeavors : 

"It is therefore ordered by this Courte and authority 



thereof, that every towneshipp within this jurisdiction, 
after that the Lord hath increased them to the number 
of fifty howsholders, shall then forthwith appointe one 
within theire towne, to teach all such children as shall 
resort to him, to write and read; whose wages shall be 
paid either by the parents or masters of such children, or 
by the inhabitants in generall, by w-ay of supplye, as the 
major parte of these who order the prudentials of the 
towne shall appointe : provided, that those who send 
theire children, bee not oppressed by paying much more 
than they can have them taught for in other townes. 

"And it is further ordered. That where any towne shall 
increase to the number of one hundred families or hows- 
holders, they shall sett up a grammar schoole, the masters 
thereof, being able to instruct youths so far as they may 
bee fitted for the university : and if any towne neglect 
the performance hereof, above one yeare, then every such 
towne shall pay five pounds per annum, to the next such 
schoole, till they shall performe this order." 

At this tinie each of the settlements at Dover and at 
Exeter, certainly, had a man with experience in teaching 
since the records of Massachusetts Colony show that 
Philemon Purmont and Daniel Maud had taught schools 
in Boston for several years. Subsequently both of these 
men moved to New Hampshire, Purmont going into 
voluntary exile with Wheelwright in 1638, while Maud 
w^as called to become the minister at Dover in 1642. 

A little later the following items are found in the 
records at Dover : 

"At a Publicke towne meiting hilled the last of August 
(1656) Charles Buckher chosen by voet A Schoellmaster 
for this towne," and in 1658, "It is agreed by ye select 
men together with ye Towne that twenty pounds per 
annum shall be yearly raysed for the Mayntenance of a 
schoolmaster in the Towne of Dover : — That is to say for 
the teachinge of all the children within the Towneship of 



Dover, the said Scholemaster haveing the preveleges of 
all strangers out of the Towneship. The sd master also 
teach to read, write, cast a Compt, and Latine, as the 
parents shall require. "" 

An early and an active interest was taken also in the 
higher education. Harvard College, which was the only 
institution where young men could be properly trained 
for the ministry, was aided by voluntary contributions. 

The amount recommended to be raised for this purpose 
was "One peck of corn or twleve pence money or other 
commodity, of every family, that so the college may have 
some considerable yearly healp towards their occasions."* 
Moreover in 1669 the towns of Portsmouth, Dover and 
Exeter granted an annual subscription of one hundred 
two pounds for seven years toward the support of the 
college. In presenting this amount the colonists sent the 
following address to the General Court of Alassachusetts : 
"Though we have articled with yourselves for exemption 
from public charges, yet we have never articled with God 
and our own consciences for exemption from gratitude; 
which to demonstrate, while we were studying, the loud 
groans of the sinking college in its present low estate 
came to our ears; the relieving of which we account a 
good work for the house of our God, and needful for the 
perpetuating of knowledge both civil and religious, 
among us, and our posterity after us." 

All of the towns in New Hampshire did not take kindly 
to the compulsory law in regard to the keeping of the 
common school. Even in Portsmouth as late as 1697 
there was a dissenting vote against raising "thirtey 
pounds mony pr anum for sd scollmasters sallery," signed 
by twenty-one citizens of Portsmouth; and the following 
year the town disputed a bill of fifty shillings incurred 
by the teacher for a schoolroom.f Doubtless their reasons 
were the same as those expressed by a minorit}' report in 

* Bouton. t Brewster. 



the tOAvn of Croydon several years later, in which it was 
contended "that to be obliged to pay money for the tuition 
of other peoples' children, or even our own, is unjust, 
tyrannical, and oppressive. Some individuals in the same 
town even went so far as to refuse to pay their school 
taxes except by process of law. It is to the credit of the 
majority of the New Hampshire people, however, that in 
spite of this active opposition, some of which was, and 
is still, to be found in all communities, public schools were 
insisted upon and maintained. 

During the troublesome period between 1679 and 1692 
in which New Hampshire had been separated from Mas- 
sachusetts, again united by petition of the people, and 
again separated by action of the crown, little was done 
for education. Indeed the fact that, out of three hun- 
dred seventy-four signers of a petition presented to the 
Court of ]\Iassachusetts in 1690 for protection against 
the Indians, nearly twenty-five per cent were obliged to 
make their marks would indicate a lack rather than an 
abundance of educational privileges. 

The germs of education, however, were strongly im- 
planted in the majority of our New Hampshire citizens. 
In fact the first year after their separation from the Bay 
Colony (1693) the following law was passed: '"It is 
enacted and ordained, that for the building and repair- 
ing of meeting houses, minister's houses, schoolhouses, 
and allowing a salary to a schoolmaster in each town 
within this Province, the selectmen, in the respective 
towns, shall raise money by an equal rate and assessment 
upon the inhabitants — and every town within this Prov- 
ince (Dover only excepted during the war) shall from 
and after the publication hereof, provide a school- 
master for the supply of the town, on penalty of 
ten pounds; and for neglect thereof, to be paid, one half 
to their majesties, and the other half to the poor of the 



The next important law relating to education was 
passed in 17 19. It compelled every town having more 
than hftv householders to hire a schoolmaster to teach the 
youth to read and write, and \\ here the town numbered 
one hundred householders a grammar school was also to 
be kept by "some discreet person of good conversation, 
well instructed in the tongues." The selectmen were to 
hire the schoolmaster and were to levy a tax upon the 
inhabitants in order to pay his salan.-. The penalty for 
the neglect of this law was twenty pounds which was to 
go "towards the support of schools within the province, 
where there may be most need."' 

In 1 72 1 because of the general neglect to provide 
grammar schools it was found necessary to hold the 
selectmen personally responsible. The law provided 
that "if any town or parish is destitute of a grammar 
school for the space of one momh the selectmen shall for- 
feit and pav out of their own estates the sum of twenty 
poimds, to be applied towards the defraying the charges 
of the province. " 

In some of the frontier towns the law relating to 
grammar schools worked rather a hardship, especially 
upon the selectmen, and several instances are on record 
wnere petitions were granted excusing these newly settled 
parishes from the grammar school condition; but in no 
instance was any town or parish excused from keeping 
a school for reading and writing, "to which all towns of 
fifty families were obliged." 

The vast majority of the towns, however, did not come 
under either one of the above laws and in most of these 
small scattered hamlets all the "schooling" which the 
children received was obtained from their fathers and 
mothers at home. 

In the first settlements near ^Massachusetts most of the 
early teachers were men and a great many were college 
graduates. It has been said that in the town of Hamp- 



ton, one of the earliest to be settled, all the masters 
previous to the Revolutionary ^^'ar were college bred. 
Dov. .* however, disputes this fact, but admits that the 
great majority had had liberal training. 

The dame schools were usually taught in the summer 
and were for the smaller children and the girls. The 
boys at this time were getting in the hay and assisting 
their fathers. The women who had charge of the 
summer schools were expected to teach the girls sewing 
and knitting as well as spelhng and reading. Arithmetic 
was considered entirely supertiuous for girls and in fact 
it was very little taught even in the winter schools which 
the boys attended. Frequently the maiden ladies who 
taught these "marm"" schools earned something more than 
their school wages by spinning between school terms for 
the family with whom they boarded. They sometimes 
earned as much as fifty cents per week by this means. 

About the year 1720 the infltience of the Scotch-Irish 
settlers, who came to this colony in large numbers and 
settled in Londonderry and the surrounding towns, began 
to be felt. They were all people of thrift and intelli- 
gence. One of the direct descendants! of this hardy race 
writes as follows : 'Tt has been said that the Scotch in 
Ireland had better schools than the common people in 
England had at the same time. Of three hundred and 
thirteen who signed the celebrated 'Memorial to Gov. 
Shute' ('Mar. 26, 1718) three hundred and six signed 
their names in a legible and generally handsome hand. 

■'Twelve of the signers were graduates of the univer- 
sity. Most of these men came to Am.erica, and they were 
fair samples of the intelligent, capable, and well-informed 
Scotch people, that sought these shores. They and their 
descendants were set on education, religion and liberty. 
It is said that every Scotch settler coming to this town, J 
whether born be3'ond the water or in some older New 

* Town History of Hampton. ^ W. R. Cochrane. 1 Antrim. 



England settlement, had a fair common school educa- 
tion for those times." 

The other settlers were quick to appreciate the intelli- 
trence and broader education of these Scotch-Irish emi- 
grants and soon there was a goodly sprinkling of "Macs 
and other broad Scotch names in the list of schoolmasters 
throughout the colony. This led not only to the spread- 
ing of the Scottish education but also to the proverbial 
Scottish wit. A story is told of a certain "Master" 
Russell who one winter had charge of a school in Chester. 
One day Master Russell called upon a boy in one of his 
classes to read a list of some of the proper names in the 
Old Testament. The lad, not being well skilled in the 
proper pronunciation of the old worthies, was making 
somewhat hard work of his task, in fact it is to be feared 
that if the old worthies had been present in person they 
themselves would scarcely have recognized their names, 
when the master said, "Stop, stop, Elijah ! You bring 
tears to my eyes, for you are calling the names of my 
old friends in Ireland." 

Something of the repute in which the Scotch-Irish 
schoolteachers were held may be found in the following : 
At one time a Dr. Hoit was master of a school in Weare. 
During the morning session the school was visited by the 
chairman of the selectmen together with a Scotch-Irish 
schoolmaster named Donovan. The town's chief magis- 
trate proceeded to ask Dr. Hoit for his credentials, saying 
that he was anxious to have a teacher who understood 
English grammar. When the dignitaries had departed 
one of the older boys asked the master what the word 
credentials m.eant. The master, turning upon him with 
a frown, said: "I don't know and I don't care, but I 
suppose it is some Eatin word Donovan put into his 

Fortunately we have quite an accurate picture pre- 
served to us of a typical Scotch-Irish schoolmaster in the 



person of ''Master Kirby," who had taught school in 
Portsmouth, and v/ho afterwards settled at Barnstead.* 
"He was middle-aged, thickset, rather short; his hat, 
three-cornered, buttoned. His shoes were of heavy leather, 
high cut, and a large sized button of steel on the instep. 
His coat was rather of the long-jacket style with massive 
pockets outside, and 3 standing collar. His breeches 
buckled snug at the knee, were of corduroy, his stockings 
long and inclined to the snuff color. His vest was of vast 
proportions, buttoned snug at the neck, and made of black 
and white wool. Snugly ensconced was his 'bull's eye' 
under its righthand fold. His three-cornered hat much of 
the time covered the glistening baldness of his pate while 
liis frosted locks gathered and tied in the rear hung in a 
graceful queue, ornamenting the collar of his coat upon 
his spacious round shoulders. His pleasant and graceful 
bearing bespoke the truthfulness of his early training, and 
his dialect indicated a nationality of which he was always 

The first structures used for schools were made of 
logs and were extremely crude affairs. The only ap- 
paratus necessary were a firqilace for warmth, hewn 
benches for the children, and a rough table for the master, 
A little later, when sawmills became plentiful, framed 
buildings with their rude covering of boards and shingles 
began to replace the log schoolhouse. 

A most interesting picture of this type of schoolhouse 
is given in the History of Chester, N, H.f ''The house 
was fifteen by sixteen feet, six feet stud. The outside 
boarding was 'feather-edged'; the walls on the inside 
were ceiled; a loose floor overhead; the door opened into 
the room and was furnished with a wooden latch and 
string. There were at first three windows of nine panes 
each, but afterwards another was added. At first there 
were on a part of three sides, writing benches, composed 

* Town History of Barnstead. t Benjamin Chase. 



of planks some fifteen or eighteen inches wide, one edge 
supported against the walls of the house, the other by 
legs inserted in auger-holes. For seats, slabs with legs 
were used. The writers, of course, sat with their backs 
to the teacher. 

"Inside of the writers' seats were smaller ones for the 
younger urchins. The 'Master' had a chair and a pine 
table in the center, and 'Master Russell' swayed a scepter 
in the form of a hickory switch long enough to reach 
every scholar in the house. There was a brick chimney, 
with a wooden mantel-piece in one corner of the house, 
which so far counteracted the laws of nature that the 
smoke came down into the house, instead of rising. 
Green wood was used, which was out in the snow until 
wanted, so that it took a considerable part of the forenoon 
before the house was warm, the scholars rubbing their 
eyes meanwhile on account of the smoke. By this time 
the mantel-piece was on fire, and some one must get snow 
and quench it." 

Another picture is painted of a schoolhouse in Littleton 
of a later period.* "The desks, if we examine them, will 
have, hollowed out upon their upper side, coarse images 
of Indian fights, canal boats, tomahawks, fox and geese 
and checker boards, miniature river systems, and many a 
cut and hack, made in the mere exuberance of youthful 
spirits, without any apparent design. A look at the walls 
reveals to us the stucco work of spit-balls and paper quids^ 
fired at flies or imaginary targets, by mischievous boys, 
and places, too, bare of plaster and whitewash, where 
some ball or ink bottle has struck in the absence of the 

In some towns where the families were widely scat- 
tered and large, and families in those days were almost 
always large, the schoolmaster and the school would move 
from one section to another. An interesting account of a 

* Town History of Littleton. 



school of this kind is found in Lancaster.* "There were 
at least twenty children in this district of school age, and 
they lived nearly twO' miles apart. The school would 
commence in a room at Coffin Moore's, where there were 
twelve children, but some of them were away. Reading, 
writing and arithmetic were taught. The school would 
continue at Moore's two or three weeks, or what was his 
proportion of the time, determined by the number of pu- 
pils, when it would be announced that the school would 
move. The time having arrived for moving, the larger 
boys would take the benches (which were made of slabs, 
wnth sticks set in auger-holes for legs) upon their sleds, 
and go to J. W. Brackett's, where there were ten children. 
A room would be vacated and the benches moved in. A 
table on which to write would be borrowed, or rudely 
constructed of pine boards, and the school opened again. 
The teacher boarded with the family until their propor- 
tion of the time" was filled out. Then the school would 
make another move to J. B. Week's and from there 
to ]\Tr. Bucknam's, from whence it next would go to 
Abiel Lovejoy's and round out its terms." These mov- 
ing schools were common to all towns before school- 
houses were erected. 

Beside teaching the pupils to improve their minds, the 
teachers were supposed by precept and example to teach 
"manners" and good behavior. It is said that Master 
Abraham Perkins as he approached the schoolhouse 
dressed in his broad-tailed coat, velvet breeches with sil- 
ver buckles at the knee, and with a large ivory-headed 
cane in his hand, always saluted the children by grace- 
fully removing his three-cornered cocked hat on entering 
. the schoolroom. It was proper also for the pupils as he 
•approached to form in two lines from the schoolroom 
door, the girls on one side and the boys on the other, ar- 
ranged according to their ages. First came the salute by 

* Town History of Lancaster. 



Master Perkins, the three-cornered hat being held in his 
hand as he marched in review between the Hnes; the boys' 
caps were doffed in a twinkhng and the girls made deep 
courtesies, as he passed. The children were counter- 
marched into the schoolhouse behind him. About nine 
o'clock in the morning the school began. First the small 
children read from the New England Primer and recited 
the catechism, which it contained. Then the larger pupils 
were given the Psalter and the Bible from which some 
read glibly and fluently, while others drawled and stum- 
bled through the passages in a manner wonderful to 

In some instances the more advanced pupils were al- 
lowed to bring from home any reader or book which they 
might chance to possess. These older pupils sat upon 
the benches in the back part of the room and read around 
one after another; the teacher, meantime, pretended to 
listen, but, having no book, the exercise was tiresome in 
the extreme and the criticisms usually lacking. An ac- 
count of this kind of exercise is given by ^liss Rankin of 
Littleton : "The monotony of such a dull exercise often 
threw our master into a profound slumber, and I remem- 
ber, one time, I, and another mischievous girl, tried to 
see how hard we could punch our sleeping pedagogue 
without awaking him. He was so moderate in returning 
to consciousness that we had ample time to return to our 
books with the most intense application, leaving him in 
entire ignorance as to where the ones were who would 
presume to disturb his pleasant dreams."' 

The reading was followed by arithmetic taught by the 
teacher orally or by rote, as it was called. Usually the 
rules were written out on pieces of birch bark or on scraps 
of paper if any pupil was so fortunate as to possess them, 
and then memorized. After the arithmetic came recess, 
and it is needless to say that the decorum of the boys on 



their entrance to school was not maintained on their exit 
at recess time. 

The sports of those early times, indulged in at recess 
and at the noon intermission, were not so very different 
from those of the children of to-day. As one of the early 
chroniclers has put it : "They had 'pizen gool,' or goal, 
tag-, snap the whip, high-spy, 'eny, meny, mony, mi' ; the 
larger boys 'rasseled,' at arms length, side holts and 
backs, and lifted at stiff heels. At a later day when school 
kept in autumn or in winter they snowballed, slid down 
hill or skated on the glare ice." 

After recess came the writing lesson, for which it was 
the duty of the teacher not only to "set the copy" in the 
writing books, but also to make and mend the pens for 
the pupils' use. These pens were made of quills plucked 
from the wings of geese, and considerable skill and expe- 
rience were needful to make a serviceable article. To 
make or mend a score or so of pens each day was some- 
thing of a task. Occasionally pens were made from quills 
which had been boiled in oil. They were much superior 
to the common pens and were called "Dutch quills." The 
latter were not commonly used since they must be brought 
from Boston or Newburyport. 

After the writing lesson came the spelling which was 
entirely oral and was usually conducted by choosing sides 
and spelling down. The best speller in the school was a 
noted personage, and in choosing sides he was always the 
first to be called. Sometimes school districts would unite 
for a spelling match and great glory awaited the boy or 
girl who came off victor and brought honor to his or her 

The spelling of words was always done by syllable; 
each syllable was spelled, pronounced, then the next syl- 
lable was spelled, pronounced, then both were pronounced 
together, the same method being followed throughout the 
word. When a word like Constantinople was spelled in 



this wav it took considerable time and not a little breath. 

Frequent mention is found of singing schools con- 
ducted by some master of the art, and usually held in the 
evening in a schoolhouse centrally located. These sing- 
ing schools were largely attended by the young men and 
women of the entire township, and to escort the young 
maids to and from the singing school was not the least 
of its attractions. One system of singing in vogue at the 
time was invented by Mr. Tufts, minister of the church 
in Xewbur}-. His book was published in 1712 and con- 
tained twenty-eight tunes with rules for singing the same. 
His "svstem" was to print on the staff the first letters of 
the Italian syllables instead of notes, thus d would stand 
for do. r for re. m for mi. etc. It is said that this method 
became ven- popular. At any rate, whatever scheme was 
used was much better than singing by rote, as the people 
usually did, whereby "'the melodies underwent many 
transformations.'' Rev. Mr. \\'alter5, evidently a man 
of some htmior and with not a little knowledge of music, 
hands down to us the folloA\"ing accoimt of chorus sing- 
ing in the early times : "Singing sounds like five hundred 
different tunes roared out at the same time. The singers 
often are two words apart, producing noises so hideous 
and disorderly as is bad beyond expression. The notes 
are prolonged so that J myself h.ave twice in one note 
paused to take breatli." 

The rules of behavior were very accurately laid down 
and woe betide the youth who thoughtlessly or recklessly 
disobeyed them. The ways of punishment were exceed- 
ingly varied and ingenious: even the ordinary- "black 
strap" had its variations as will be shown later. Indeed 
much of the school time was consumed not to say wasted 
in violent exercise, participated in both by the teacher and 
pupil. Among the milder forms of punishment was "sit- 
ting on nothing" or "on the top end of an old-fashioned 
elm bark seat chair, turned down." Again the pupil 


would be compelled to bold out horizontally a heavy 
book. Stooping- down to hold a nail or peg in the 
floor, "with an occasional smart rap on the rear," to keep 
the culprit from bending his knees, standing in the corner 
and sitting with the girls were also very mild forms of 

]\Iaster Hogg, one of the earliest teachers in Sutton, 
emplo}-ed a unique form of punishment which he called 
"horseing," and an appropriate term it was. The modus 
operandi was as follows : As soon as a boy w^as caught 
misbehaving he was promptly called into the floor. It 
was usually not long before two other youngsters were 
ready to keep number one company. The requisite num- 
ber now having been obtained, the "circus" began. The 
first ofl^ender was made to get down on his hands and 
knees, number two must mount on his back, while a third 
culprit was compelled to whip them soundly around the 
room. This punishment was made perfectly fair, since 
the boys were obliged to "swap" places until each had 
taken his turn at "v.'hipping once and being whipped 

It was not all fun for the teachers in those early 
schools. Often the larger boys would combine forces, 
boldly advance upon the master, and if successful in their 
onslaught, they would carry him forth from the school- 
house and boldly pitch him into a snowdrift or duck him 
in some nearby creek. It required a man with some nerve 
to take a school where his predecessors had been severally 
and in turn ejected in this manner. John Gillett on com- 
ing to a school of this kind in one of the New Hampshire 
towns started the morning services after the pupils had 
assembled by striding back and forth through the school- 
room several times; then, turning suddenly, he said with 
a voice which made the windows rattle, "Boys, if you 
don't behave I'll lick you, then if you don't behave I will 
follow you home and lick your parents." 



It is told also of Master Richard x\dams, who taught 
the Sugar Hill district in Weare, that he had in his school 
as many as twenty strapping boys, each one of whom was 
over six feet tall. One day, at a preconcerted signal, they 
all arose and marched in single file around the room. As 
the foremost boy passed the fireplace, he seized a burning 
branch from the hearth and shouted to his followers, 
"Shoulder firelock!" But at that point Master Adams 
took a hand in the afifair and ordered "Ground firelock! 
consarn ye." At the same instant he gave the leader a 
blow which stretched him at full length on the floor. It 
is said that no better ordered school was ever taught in 
that district than the one taught by IMaster Adams. 

Some of the punishments seemed needlessly cruel and 
unnecessary, but it must be remembered that corporal 
punishment was part of the spirit of the times. The 
parents knew that they had received thrashings when they 
went to school, and it seemed to them in some indefinable 
way a necessary though painful part of the child's educa- 
tion. Doubtless the wisdom of Solomon was often quoted 
in relation to the need of not sparing the rod. A certain 
Master Thurston, who taught for many years in Bos- 
cawen, was a noted disciplinarian, and when in those 
days a master was noted for "discipline" you may be sure 
that he deserved it. It is related that Master Thurston 
had as one of his instruments a black leather strap, made 
in two pieces with sheet lead stitched between them. On 
one end of this strap he had punched four holes and on 
the other five. His mode of procedure was this: Hold- 
ing the strap in full view of the trembling youngster, he 
would ask, "Which will you have, four holes or five?" 
If the boy said four the master would reply, "For fear of 
making a mistake I will give you both." It was a current 
remark in West Salisbury, where Thurston taught several 
terms, "that the surrounding farms never would have 



been cleared of birches if Master Thurston had not been 
employed so- long as a teacher." 

McDuffee in his ''History of Rochester" speaks of 
a one-armed schoolmaster, a veteran of the Revolution, 
who was a noted wielder of the birch and rod; the 
strength of his lost arm seeming to supplement the muscle 
of the one remaining. His name. Tanner, seemed pecu- 
liarly appropriate; the boys, indeed, deeming it the most 
fitting thing about him. His successor, Master Orne, 
was said to have been remarkable, in fact unique, in the 
way in which he dealt out punishment. "He flogged 
singly, and by classes, and by the whole school; just as 
ofiicers review their soldiers, by squads, by companies, 
by battalions and by regiments." It was of no use for the 
boys to rebel, they obtained little sympathy at home. The 
parents considered that it was what they had received 
when they went to school, "and what was good enough 
for them was good enough for the children." It is 
strange how history repeats itself even in educational 

There is preserved among the writings of Master Jacob 
N. Knapp, who taught school more than one hundred 
years ago, an accurate picture of the school life oi that 
time. The account runs as follows : "In the winter of my 
17th year, I received an invitation to teach school for 
three months in Loudon, near Concord, N. H. A school- 
master's wages were at that time $6 a month and board. 
My school consisted of about 40 pupils. It was composed 
of both sexes and all ages. Most of the children under 
10 years of age wore leather aprons, reaching from their 
chins to their ankles. These aprons, after being worn a 
little time, became striped and shining with bean porridge, 
which in winter made the principal food of the children. 
Many of the little girls took snuff; it was the fashion. 

"In my school I had often used signals instead of 
words. The exercises in reading and spelling for the day 



were about to commence. I. as usual gave with the ferule 
one tap upon the table. The first class came out from 
their desks on to the open floor, and stood in a line. On 
receiving a slight sign, the head pupil read; then the next, 
and so on to the last. At receiving a bow from their 
teacher, each one bowed or courtesied and returned noise- 
lessly to his or her desk. Two raps upon the table called 
up the second class, who were exercised and dismissed in 
the same manner. Three raps called up the third class. 
This division closed the exercises. The school was dis- 

"The people there and then considered it a privilege to 
board the schoolmaster. To accommodate them, I 
boarded in 13 different families, and thus became inti- 
mately acquainted with every individual in the district. 
The price of board was 4 shillings and 6 pence a 
week. Lived well ; fat beef and pork, lambs and poultry, 
in their seasons; butter, honey and drop cakes abounded; 
coffee, tea and cream were liberally supplied." 

As seen from Master Knapp's account a schoolmaster's 
wages were about six dollars a month. Sometimes they 
ran as low as four dollars per month, and in some in- 
stances the master was not paid in money at all, but 
drew his salary in so many bushels of grain, wheat or 
rye, as the case might be. The town of Bath voted one 
year to raise sixty bushels of wheat for the support of 
the school. In fact this item of raising grain to be used 
for school purposes is frequently met with in town 
records. The use of grain for money at a time when 
specie was very scarce and when the country was overrun 
with paper money, whose value was almost nothing, is 
not surprising. Good grain could always be exchanged 
for the necessities of life and its value as a medium of 
exchange w-as more or less fixed. 

The two foUow^ing receipts not only show instances of 
this kind of payment, but also indicate the relative value 



placed upon the master's teaching as compared with that 
of the marm's teaching. 

March 21, 1792. 
Then my son Robert Hogg, received seventeen bushels 
of Rie from Simon Kezar of Sutton which was due to 
me for teaching schooHng two months in Sutton. 

Per me. 

Robert Hogg. 

Methuen, Feb. i, 1791. 
Received of Jacob INIastin and Hezekiah Parker six 
bushels of Rye, it being in full for my keeping school for 
them and others last fall six weeks. 

Lydia Parker. 

It must not be thought that this was all the money the 
teacher lived upon during the year. The schools were 
generally so arranged in the different neighborhoods that 
they would begin one after another. The master could 
thus travel from one district to the next and be pretty 
constantly supplied with a school. 

In addition to the funds raised directly for the support 
of the schools there was usually a little revenue from 
the "town lot." In all grants of township made by the 
Masonian Proprietors, by Massachusetts and by John 
Wentworth II, one lot or share, generally about one 
hundred acres, of the land, was set aside for the use of 
schools. This was usually done also' by other governors. 
Frequent mention is made of this school lot or lots in 
dift'erent town records; in some instances it was voted to 
lease the land and to use the money for the support of 
schools. Other towns appropriated the land for public 
purposes and occasionally the lot was sold. The town of 
Rochester, March 12, 1749, "Voted that the selectmen 
of this town let out the school lot to those that will give 
the most for it for the present year. And the rent tO' be 
combarted to the towns youce." 



Besides the methods above indicated for raising school 
money, in the very earHest schools it was the custom 
"that every man should bring two feet of wood for each 
scholar that he sent to school," and "that every man 
should chop his own wood that he brings to the school- 
house." Later, however, this custom changed somewhat, 
and the task of furnishing the school firewood was gen- 
erally set up at auction and struck off to the lowest bidder. 
It was sometimes bid in by a man who had a quantity of 
cheap wood which he wished to get rid of and who ac- 
cordingly determined to dispose of it to the schools for 
the boys to work up. The amount was not stipulated, 
the agreement usually being that as much wood would be 
hauled as was necessary. A certain Abner Hoit was fur- 
nishing brown ash, and poor at that, to a school in the 
central part of the state, much to the disgust of the boys. 
Finally, when there were but three more days tO' the 
close of school, Abner drew a cord of ash and said that 
it must last the term out. The large boys determined not 
to be dictated to as to the quantity of wood even if they 
were obliged to accept the quality, and cut and burned 
the entire cord in one day. The pitch fried out of the 
pine knots in the ceiling, but at sundown not a stick of 
wood remained, and Hoit was obliged to haul another 

In the same neighborhood lived a certain ]\Ioses 
Mudgett, an easy-going individual, who found it less 
troublesome to borrow wood from the schoolhouse pile, 
already chopped by the boys, than to chop his own wood. 
The larger boys soon suspected who was taking such an 
interest in their wood pile, and they determined to fix 
the old gentleman. Accordingly they bored holes in a 
few of the larger sticks, filled them with powder and 
drove in a tightly fitting wooden plug-. This scheme 
worked to perfection. Moses got some of the loaded 
sticks that very night and put them on his fire under a 



boiling pot. When the explosion came it is said that "the 
pot shot up through the great chimney flue into the clear 
sky and landed in the field over behind the barn." The 
lesson was thoroughly taught and the schoolhouse wood 
was thereafter untouched. 

The burning of such quantities of wood during the 
term naturally caused an accumulation of ashes. These 
ashes were not then used for fertilizer, but were consid- 
ered of value by the housewives for making soft soap and 
also in the manufacture of potash. It was a long estab- 
lished custom in many of the New Hampshire schools 
for the big boys who had worked up the wood to have 
the ashes. These, sorrowful to state, were sold to buy 
rum with which to celebrate the last day of school. When 
we consider that it was customary for boys to attend 
school until they were twenty-two or twenty-three years 
old and oftentimes older, this custom does not seem so 
surprising, particularly as the use of New England rum 
was so common. The way in which the use of "spirits" 
was looked upon is seen in the following anecdote. 

It seems that one day while "Good Mother Winslow" 
was visiting a country school in Northfield, through some 
accident, the fore stick, back log and all came rolling 
down out of the fireplace onto the broad hearth. The 
room instantly filled with smoke, and before matters 
could be "set to rights" again, there being no shovel and 
tongs, pupils and all were nearly suffocated. Mother 
Winslow, so the story goes, with great indignation ex- 
claimed, "It were better to sell the ashes for shovel and 
tongs than to buy rum for the scholars." She was 
silenced at once by a voter present, who replied, "Let 'um 
have their rum — let 'um have it. It'll do tbem as much 
good as salt does sheep once in a while." And so the 
ashes did not go for shovel and tongs. 

The district school as it existed in our forefathers' 
time differed but little from many of the country schools 



in existence to-day. The "'master," however, has been 
displaced and the master's daughter reigns in his stead. 

There were many undeniable advantages in the old- 
fashioned district school, particularly for the bright boys 
and girls. They listened daily to the instruction of all the 
classes from the primer to the Latin grammar, and they 
unconsciously absorbed in a few terms a working knowl- 
edge of subjects which would have taken a much longer 
period to obtain under the graded system so universal 
at present. On the other hand, the pupils of average 
or mediocre ability labored under a distinct disadvantage 
in the old-time schools as compared with those of to-day. 
This was a direct result of the multiplicity of classes, the 
brief recitation period, the impossibility of individual help 
in the ungraded school and the absence of these disadvan- 
tages in the graded schools. 



Among the New Hampshire academies, Phillips Exe- 
ter, Appleton, Atkinson, Gilmanton, Haverhill and Fran- 
cestown are the only ones now in existence which have 
passed the century mark. The followmg brief descrip- 
tions of these six must stand for all. Their purpose was 
alike, their standards were practically the same and the 
results achieved, while not always equal in amount, 
always tended toward the same high ideals. 

Phillips Exeter, the first academy to be founded in 
New Hampshire, was started at Exeter through the mu- 
nificence of Dr. John Phillips. From the incorporation 
of the academy in 1781 to his death fourteen years later 
his bequests amounted tO' about sixty thousand dollars in 
all. Thus the first academy in New Hampshire became 



also for its time one of the most heavily endowed. The 
first building was of small dimensions with four school- 
rooms, all of which were not finished. There was no regu- 
lar course of study, each pupil taking up such branches 
as he was found competent to follow; indeed, as late 
as 1/88 there were but two pupils in the school who^ had 
sufficiently mastered reading and spelling to enter into the 
"mysteries of Latin.'' In 1797, however, a certificate 
was granted Lewis Cass, the future statesman, in which 
it was stated that he had acquired "the principles of 
English, French, Latin and Greek languages, geography, 
arithmetic and practical geometry; that he had made very 
valuable progress in the study of rhetoric, history, natu- 
ral and moral philosophy, logic, astronomy and natural 
law." This would indicate that the curriculum had been 
much extended and the standard raised. Again in 1808 
and in 1818 the course of study was enlarged and at the 
latter date a rigid line was drawn between the English 
and classical departments. During the early years of the 
academy all pupils were required to spend five or six 
hours each day in the schoolroom, where both the study 
and recitation work were done in the presence of a 
teacher; but in 1858 this custom was abolished and the 
pupils were required to be present only for recitation. 
The aim of the academy from the beginning has been to 
develop manliness and self reliance on the part of its 
pupils, and the long list of honored names among its 
alumni shows how well this object has been attained. 
No school in New England at the present time can boast 
a wider or more enviable reputation. 

Eight years after the founding of Phillips Exeter 
Academy the people of New Ipswich decided to establish 
a school where the branches of the higher education could 
be taught to better advantage than in the town grammar 
schools. Mr. John Hubbard was elected the first teacher 
at a salary of sixty pounds per year. Almost from the 



start the academy was self supporting. In 1789 a fund 
was collected by subscription for the erection of an acad- 
emy building, and it was completed in the same year. 
The school at the present time has but few pupils, but 
during the many years of its existence its influence has 
been felt with peculiar force throughout that section of 
the state. 

Atkinson Academy, one of the few established during 
the eighteenth century, was incorporated in 1791. The 
first building was burned in 1802, but it was quickly 
erected again the following year, the greater part of the 
expense being borne by the people of Atkinson. In view 
of their misfortune a grant was made by the legislature 
to raise by lottery the amount of two thousand dollars, 
the proceeds to go to the academy. A grant was also 
made of half a township of land in Coos County, but 
through some mismanagement neither the lottery nor the 
grant of land amounted to a great deal. Nevertheless 
the academy flourished and up to 1850 it had numbered 
among its graduates nearly two thousand students. At 
the present time, in common with so many other acade- 
mies, its students are few and its influence proportion- 
ately lessened. 

At Gilmanton in 1792 a committee appointed for the 
purpose reported "that the establishment of an academy 
would be useful to the inhabitants and beneficial to the 
public." Accordingly under an act of the legislature the 
academy was incorporated in 1794. Its first teacher was 
Peter L. Folsom, who acted as principal for six years. In 
January, 1808, the academy building was burned to the 
ground, but within five weeks after the fire the frame of 
a new building was erected in its place. This school has 
always taken high rank among the academies of the state. 
A large number of young men have been fitted for col- 
lege, many of whom have proved themselves strong in the 
afifairs of the nation. In 1833 a theological department 



was established in connection with Gilmanton Academy, 
and many clergymen have here received a thorough theo- 
logical training. 

In 1/93 the settlers of Haverhill decided to establish 
an academy. A building was erected and the institution 
incorporated in 1794. Its object as set forth in the char- 
ter was "to promote religion, purity, virtue and morality, 
and for teaching the youth in English, Latin, and Greek 
languages; in writing, music and the art of speaicing; 
in geography, logic, geometry, mathematics, and such 
other branches of science as opportunity may present and 
the teachers shall order and direct." A list of the sub- 
jects taught in Haverhill Academy serve as an example 
of the curricula of other academies at this time. The 
first academy building was burnt in 1814 and it was voted 
to rebuild with stone. Through varying periods of pros- 
perity and adversity the Haverhill Academy has come 
down to the present time. 

The spring of 1801 saw the beginning of the Frances- 
town Academy. Its first teacher was Alexander Dustin, 
a college bred man, a graduate of Dartmouth in 1799. 
For several years the academy continued under his effi- 
cient management. From the beginning the school was a 
success. In 18 18 a new building was constructed of 
brick. Although the school had been in operation since 
1801 it was not incorporated until 1819. From that time 
down to the present there are found in a list of its teach- 
ers and graduates some of New Hampshire's greatest 
names. "Among its students have been one President 
of the United States; two United States Senators; many 
members of Congress; Judges, from Police Court to the 
United States Supreme Court; one Major-General in the 
Union Army; and a great number of Professors, Tutors, 
Ministers, Physicians, Missionaries, Governors and lead- 
ers in every department of learning and enterprise." 

The limitations of this article are such that it is im- 



possible to enter into a lengthy description of the one 
hundred thirty New Hampshire academies, the majority 
of which have sprung- into life, performed nobly the 
duties for which they were intended and have passed to 
the end of an honorable and useful existence. 

The town and city high schools are direct descendants 
of the old-fashioned academy. As education became 
more common it was made possible for the cities and 
even the small towns to procure men and women of suit- 
able learning and experience to teach the higher branches 
at a moderate cost. Thus the young people were able 
to obtain an academic training at home. At the present 
time there are many such high schools which send out 
each year pupils well ecpiipped in the academic branches 
of education. 



Dartmouth College had its beginning as a school for 
Indian boys, established by Eleazor Wheelock in 1755 
at Lebanon, Connecticut. Wheelock's original idea in 
founding this school was to educate the American In- 
dian, but very soon he enlarged upon this idea and admit- 
ted American boys, with the understanding that they 
would later become missionaries among the Indian 
tribes. Ten years after the founding of the school, Dr. 
Wheelock sent an Indian named Occum, a graduate of 
his school, to England, where he addressed immense au- 
diences and succeeded in raising funds to the amount of 
eleven thousand pounds. Governor John \Ventworth of 
New Hampshire in 1770 offered Dr. Wheelock an exten- 
sive grant of land in New Hampshire if he would move 
his school to that province, and he also promised a most 
liberal charter for the college, which it was Wheel- 



ock's ambition to found. A site for the institution was 
finally selected at Hanover, and after overcoming almost 
insuperable obstacles, the actual scholastic life of the 
college began. The first class was graduated August 28, 
1 77 1, and consisted of four students. Governor John 
Wentworth driving all the way from Portsmouth in order 
to be present at the ceremony. 

The Dartmouth jMedical School began with a course 
of lectures given by Dr. Nathan Smith, a graduate of 
Harvard Medical School, in 1790. The following year 
the medicaJ department was formally accepted by the 
trustees of Dartmouth College, and the same year a class 
of four students was graduated, each receiving the degree 
of M. B. 

From such small beginnings has the present Dart- 
mouth College sprung. It ranks among the oldest of the 
American colleges, and it has established for itself a repu- 
tation of which ever}' New Hampshire citizen may be 
justly proud. 

In 1866 a school for agriculture was started under the 
title of "The New Hampshire College of Agriculture and 
the Mechanic Arts." It was organized with a board of 
nine trustees; five were appointed by the Governor and 
Council and four by the trustees of Dartmouth College. 
By act of Congress, New Hampshire was entitled to one 
hundred fifty thousand acres of land scrip, the sale of 
which amounted to about eighty thousand dollars. 
This sum was invested in six per cent bonds, none of it 
being available for the erection of buildings. The college 
was first located in Hanover, where it was more or less 
closely associated with Dartmouth College, not entirely 
to its advantage. 

The real prosperity of the college began upon its re- 
moval from Hanover to Durham, when it fell heir to the 
Benjamin Thompson estate, amounting in all to nearly 
five hundred thousand dollars. Beautiful and spacious 



buildings were erected, mechanical, physical and chemical 
laboratories were thoroughly equipped, in fact, every con- 
venience was supplied for a college of mechanic arts 
according to modern ideas. 

The Thayer School of Civil Engineering was founded 
by General Sylvanus Thayer of the United States Army. 
In 1867 he gave seventy thousand dollars as a fund for 
the school and established conditions which made it prac- 
tically a post graduate institution. Its requirements for 
graduation are probably more severe than those of any 
other school of a similar kind, and its graduates are 
looked upon by the profession as men thoroughly quali- 
fied in all departments of civil engineering. 

In 1870 an act passed the legislature for the establish- 
ment of a Normal School, a board of trustees to be 
appointed by the Governor and Council. The school was 
finally located at Plymouth. At first it labored under a 
great disadvantage by not receiving pecuniary aid from 
the state, the expenses of the school being met by tuition 
collected from the pupils. It was not until 1875 that 
the state made a sufficient appropriation for the school to 
be declared free to its students. 

In 1878 the appropriation was only three thousand 
dollars, but, as the efficiency and the needs of the school 
have become more apparent, it has been gradually in- 
creased until the state at present grants twenty-five thou- 
sand dollars a year toward the expenses of the school. 
From the beginning the town of Plymouth gave over its 
children into the hands of the trustees of the Normal 
School for a model and a practice school. At the present 
time the Normal School, which numbers over one hun- 
dred fifty pupils, is in a very flourishing condition. 
The large and commodious building erected in 1890 for 
recitation purposes, etc., as well as the dormitory build- 
ing, w^hich at the time of their erection were deemed suffi- 
ciently large for years to come, have already been out- 



groAvn, and the school bids fair under proper financial 
conditions to b 
New Ensfland. 

conditions to become one of the largest normal schools in 



In 1789 the general court of New Hampshire repealed 
all previous laws in regard to the common schools and 
started anew on the basis of taxing all the inhabitants of 
the several towns except non-residents, on the polls and 
real estate at the rate of five pounds for every twenty 
shillings that each town paid to the support of the state. 
The first year it was in operation this tax amounted 
throughout the entire state to nearly five thousand 
pounds, and the law read "that the money thus raised to 
be expended for the sole purpose of keeping an English 
Grammar School, or schools for teaching reading, writ- 
ing, and arithmetic; but in each shire or half shire town, 
the school kept shall be a grammar school for the purpose 
of teaching the Latin, and Greek languages, as well as the 
aforesaid branches." The above law also required that 
each candidate for a school should bring letters regarding 
his qualifications from some well-known teacher, minis- 
ter, principal of academy or president of a college. 

The selectmen were held responsible for collecting the 
full amount thus assessed for school purposes. The idea 
of compelling each town to provide at least a certain defi- 
nite amount for school purposes was found to be a great 
improvement over the old methods, and in 1791 the 
amount was increased from five pounds on every twenty 
shillings of the state assessment to seven pounds ten 
shillings. This law stood in force until 1805, when a law 
of far-reaching importance was passed enabling towns 
to divide into school districts, the districts to raise money 


bv taxation for the purpose of building and repairing 
schoolhouses. This law produced the desired effect, and 
a great many schoolhouses were erected under its pro- 
^-isions. It is interesting to note that in some towns a 
vote was passed to di\-ide the to^^-nship into ""squadrons" 
instead of districts. Just where this term squadron origi- 
nated is not clear, imless it was taken from the militan.- 

The location of the district school was often the source 
of endless quarrels, although generally a compromise was 
agreed upon so that all pupils would have to travel about 
the same distance, which accounts for finding school- 
houses perched in the most out of the way and unlocked 
for places, with sometimes not a single farmhouse in 

In 1807 a fourth law was passed raising the school 
rate to sevent\- dollars for even- dollar of the state tax. 
the money to be expended for teacliing reading, ^^-riting 
and aritlmietic. and at the same time annulling the law 
that required a school to be held in shire and half shire 
towns in which Latin and Greek were to be taught. 
^^^lether this was because the general court deemed that 
the elevai academies now in existence were amply suffi- 
cient to take care of such students as ^^^shed to taste the 
higher education, or whether it was believed tliat greater 
general good would come to the state by the expenditure 
of the entire amoimt for the betterment of the common 
schools, is not known. It is certainly true, however, that 
from this time academies took the place of the old gram- 
mar schools and flourished in great numbers. 

The effect these academies have wTOught upon the 
to^^•ns in which they were located is hard to measure. 
They have brought an air of culture and an appreciation 
of educational \-alues to homes which without the aca- 
demic influence would have been without mental or moral 
uplift- The day of the academy may be past, but its 



influence is not past, and it will last so long as the town 
forms the unit of New England life. 

The school law of 1807, which, indirectly, was so 
effective in the establishment of academies, was followed 
a year later by a law containing a clause in regard to the 
supervision of schools, which is the first official mention 
we have in the New Hampshire records that there was 
deemed any need of such supervision. The law read that 
the towns should appoint a committee of three or more 
persons who^ should inspect the schools annually in "a 
manner wdiich they might judge most conducive to the 
progress of literature, morality and religion." This law 
also increased the number of branches to be taught, and 
beside reading, writing and arithmetic, English grammar 
and geography were added. School mistresses, however, 
were allowed to do away with arithmetic and geography, 
and "in place thereof to substitute such other branches 
as are deemed necessary for female education." 

In 1812 the state established a literary fund. This 
was done for the sole purpose of founding a state college. 
The funds were to be raised by taxing each year the bank- 
ing corporations throughout the state one-half of one per 
cent on their actual capital stock. In 1828 the idea of 
founding a college was abandoned, and the funds then 
available, amounting to sixty-four thousand dollars, were 
distributed to the different towns according to their ap- 
portionment of the public taxes. The money was to go 
toward the support of the public schools, and it was in 
addition to the amount required by law. In 1848 the 
basis of distribution was changed, and up to the present 
time it has been made upon the relative number of chil- 
dren attending two weeks or more in the several towns 
during the year.* 

In 1827 the legislature passed a law the spirit of which 

* The present law (1902) is identical, except that the tax is levied on 
banking funds held by nonresidents. 



remains active even to the present time. It accurately 
defined how the town should he divided into districts, 
and laid down provisions regarding the authority of 
school districts and their officers. It also proportioned 
the money to each school district. The qualifications for 
teachers were raised and the law required all pupils to be 
provided with books, either by parents or guardians, or 
at the public expense in case of the needy. A superin- 
tending school committee were also to- be appointed an- 
nually, whO' w^ere to visit all the schools in their respective 
towns at least twice a year, determine upon the proper 
text books and aid the teacher to maintain a full and 
regular attendance. 

In addition to the above mentioned duties this superin- 
tending committee were to make an annual report stating 
the time each school had rim, the names of the teachers, 
the whole number of pupils between four and fourteen 
that had not attended school and the number between 
fourteen and twenty-one who could not read and write. 
The only difficulty with this law was the fact that there 
was no provision for collecting the statistics from the 
several towns into one report. 

In 1829 a law was passed that each school district, ex- 
cept in the town of Portsmouth, for which special laws 
had been passed, should appoint a committee not greater 
than three which should be called the prudential commit- 
tee. This committee was supposed to have charge of the 
school moneys. They called the district school meetings, 
selected teachers, furnished fuel for the schoolhouses, 
attended to the minor repairs, and made such report to 
the superintending committee as would be of assistance 
to them in their work. By the law of 1833 the superin- 
tending committees were practically done away with and 
all of their powers were assumed by the prudential com- 

The rate of assessment had steadily increased by vari- 



ous acts of the legislature. In 1840 it was one hundred 
dollars for every dollar pf the public tax. In 1852 it was 
one hundred thirty-five dollars, in 1853 ^^ was one hun- 
dred iifty dollars, in 1854 it was one hundred seventy-five 
dollars, in 1855 two hundred dollars, and in 1870 twO' 
hundred fifty dollars.* A town was not restricted to the 
sum thus raised, but could add to the amount as much as 
it pleased. About 1840 the advantages of graded schools 
began to appear, and the men interested in educational 
matters throughout the state strove tO' get some law upon 
the statute books which would enable the New Hampshire 
schools to take advantage of the graded system. Accord- 
ingly in 1840 an act was passed allowing a school to^ be 
graded wdien the pupils should number fifty or more, 
and the most progressive towns were quick to avail them- 
selves of this privilege. In 1845 the authority was given 
to "any two or more contiguous school districts in any 
town or towns in this state to associate together and form 
a union for the purpose of establishing and maintaining 
a high school or schools for the instruction of the older 
and more advanced scholars belonging to the associated 

In 1846 a state commissioner of common schools was 
appointed whose duty compelled him ''to spend at least 
tw^enty weeks in the different counties of the state for 
the purpose of promoting, by inquiries, addresses and 
other means, the cause of education." He was also re- 
quired to make an annual report from the statistics which 
the committees of the several towns were obliged to fur- 
nish. Two years later the "Somersworth Act" was 
passed, which allowed school districts, independent of the 
town, to raise money for the maintenance of high schools. 
The effect of this law was far reaching, and many dis- 
tricts took advantage of its provisions and founded high 

* In 1902 the rate is six hundred dollars. 



The exact status of the town superintending committee 
is a difficult one to define. From 1827 until 1848 their 
duties ranged from having entire control of the schools 
to being merely an advisory body. In fact, as has been 
noted, between 1833 and 1846 the superintending com- 
mittee could be dispensed with entirely if the town so 
desired. In 1859 a bill was passed somewhat enlarging 
the duties of the superintending committee, although in 
all important points it was identical with the law of 1827. 
They were to select and dismiss teachers, prescribe rules 
of conduct for the pupils, decide what text books should 
be used and also the courses of study to be followed. Each 
teacher was to be supplied with a register, and the com-. 
mittee were obliged at the end of the year to summarize 
and return to the state officer certain statistics from the 

The first law restricting the employment of children 
in manufacturing establishments was passed in 1848. 
Since this time the law has been greatly strengthened by 
enactment at various sessions of the legislature. At pres- 
ent it is such that no child under fourteen can be em- 
ployed while the schools are in session; no child between 
fourteen and sixteen years old can be employed unless he 
can read and write in English; and no child between six- 
teen and twenty-one shall be employed who cannot read 
and write in English, unless he is a regular attendant 
upon the evening schools while they are in session, such 
evening schools to be established in manufacturing towns 
upon petition signed by 5 per cent of the legal voters. 

In 1850 the office of the state commissioner of common 
schools was abolished, and in its place a board of county 
school commissioners was appointed, the board to elect 
its own secretary, who was to prepare statistics and re- 
ports. It was the duty of this county board to recom- 
mend books, methods of instruction, rules of discipline, 
etc. Each commissioner w^as obliged to spend at least 



one day in each town of his district at some time during 
the year. He was also obliged to take charge of county in- 
stitutions, which were becoming popular, and for their 
time served an excellent purpose. This board of county 
school commissioners continued until 1867, when it was 
discontinued, and again one man was placed at the head 
of the educational affairs of the state. This officer was 
now termed the superintendent of public instruction, and 
he with the governor and council constituted the State 
Board of Education. 

In 1868 a bill w^as passed requiring each county to hold 
a teacher's institute annually at the expense of the state. 
This law, followed closely by one passed in 1870 estab- 
lishing a State Normal School, marks a period of decided 
awakening to the needs of educational improvement, and 
aside from a slight setback in 1874, when the state failed 
to make any appropriation for institutes and did away 
for a short time with a state superintendent, the progress 
in educational matters has been steady if not rapid. 

The district system, which at the time of its inception, 
had proved useful to the educational interest of the state, 
was abolished and the town was again made the unit; 
and as was the case previous to 1805, all the schools in 
the town w'ere placed in charge of one board of educa- 
tion. This law, however, did not apply to such districts 
as had availed themselves of the "Somersworth Act," and 
had formed special districts. The boards of education 
were to consist of three members each and they were 
elected at the annual town meeting, each member to hold 
office for three years. This "town district" act made the 
length of the school year uniform, gave the same advan- 
tages to all children living in the town, which had been 
impossible under the old law, equalized the burdens of 
taxation and in many other ways improved the educa- 
tional condition. 

In 1895 a law was passed looking toward the state 



certification of all teachers. The law as passed, however, 
has amounted to but httle, since it placed no oblig-ation 
upon school boards to engage certificated teachers only. 
A law was also passed requiring school boards to appoint 
some agent to take an annual census of the children of 
school age. The same year a law was enacted allowing 
two or more towns to unite and hire a superintendent of 
schools. Very little was done, however, under this pro- 
vision, but four years later the state agreed to pay half 
of the superintendent's salary where towns united for the 
purpose of hiring a skilled supervisor. With this induce- 
ment many such supervisory districts have been formed. 
This law bids fair to become one of far-reaching impor- 
tance. The employment of a person well skilled in the 
needs of the schools to take the place of town boards 
cannot be otherwise than beneficial to the schools. At the 
same session a law was passed giving state aid for the 
support of schools in the poorer towns. The sum thus 
given amounts to about twenty thousand dollars annually. 
In 1 90 1 the legislature passed a most excellent law by 
which all towns not having a high school were obliged 
to pay the tuition to some town which did maintain a high 
school of such pupils as were fitted to enter. It was also 
arranged for the state to aid the towns upon which the 
above would work a hardship. 

Deductions have recently been drawn, from the fact 
that New Hampshire's place, according to the ratio of 
illiteracy, has fallen considerably in the last thirty years, 
that the schools of to-day would suffer by comparison 
with those of thirty years ago. Careful examination into 
the history of education in our state, however, will show 
that this deduction is entirely without foundation. Take, 
for instance, the State Superintendent's report for 1870, 
in which he says : "One-half the schools in the state 
average less than twelve pupils; the average, including 
city and village schools, is only eighteen. The average 



attendance of pupils was only two-thirds the total num- 
ber; that is, one-third of the school money was absolutely 
thrown away in consequence of the number absent from 
school. A decrease in the amount of money expended 
for schools, and in the number of weeks of school, is 
reported, because the dog tax was not available this 

Comparing this state of things with those of to-day, 
there is absolutely no question but that the pupils in the 
common schools of the state are infinitely better off now 
than then. It would appear that the real cause of the 
apparent increase in illiteracy is due primarily to the 
large influx during the last thirty years of a French 
speaking population, whose percentage of illiteracy is far 
greater than that of the native Americans. Moreover, 
these French people have brought intO' our midst parochial 
schools where emphasis is placed upon the teaching of 
their native tongue, and it is doubtless true that many 
times in census taking the inability to read and write in 
English has been accepted as prima facie evidence that 
the person was illiterate, when, if the inquiry had been 
more thorough, the person would have been found per- 
fectly competent to read and write in French. 

The ability and professional zeal of the teachers in New 
Hampshire is evidenced in many ways. While their 
salaries have l>een exceedingly small, the quality of 
teaching has been altogether out of proportion to the 
amount received. In 1853 at a time when the state re- 
fused all aid in holding teachers' institutes, the teachers 
not being willing to forego the inspiration of such meet- 
ings, have maintained since that time and paid for out 
of their meagre salaries a state teacher's association 
which has met each year for the discussion of educational 

To give a true history of the education of the state is 
impossible, since it would be necessary to trace the im- 



press made upon the minds of each individual child by 
his or iier teacher through the time in which education 
has been in progress. The teacher is the unit of educa- 
tional value; obviously his work cannot be weighed and 
measured. ''It is said that Jupiter on one occasion made 
a proclamation that he Avould crown the person with im- 
mortality, who had done the most good, and been the 
greatest blessing to his fellow-men. The competitors were 
numerous; the warrior, the statesman, the sculptor and 
painter, the musican and benevolent, all pressed their 
claims. But Jupiter seeing an old gray-headed, sage 
looking man standing far behind the rest, and apparently 
taking no active part in the matter, asked him what made 
him look so smiling? "Ah!" the old man said: ''it 
amuses me, since all these competitors were once my pu- 
pils." "Crown him," said Jupiter, "and seat him at my 
right hand." 



By John Alden 

Staunch and large was the ship Mary and John of the 
VVinthrop fleet which left Plymouth, England, early in 
the spring of 1630, carrying one hundred and forty pas- 
sengers, "godly families and people," led by their two 
ministers, and bound for the shores of Massachusetts Bay. 
Ten years had passed away since the Pilgrim Fathers 
had landed in midwinter on the bleak, inhospitable shores 
of that smaller bay to the south, since then immortalized 
and revered by the name "Plymouth," and there under 
circumstances and conditions in severity and discourage- 
ments unparalleled in history, had successfully set up a 
commonwealth "in the name of God." 

While the Puritans under John Winthrop were not 
Pilgrims, the Pilgrims were essentially, if not wholly, 
Puritans, and therefore the coming of this larger band 
to so near a point as Massachusetts Bay greatly strength- 
ened and raised the hopes of the original colony. The 
people of both settlements had the same object in view, 
the upbuilding of a religious community. They each de- 
sired to attain the grace of God by devotion to duty. 
This was the cardinal principle of their lives; all else 
was subservient to this purpose. Their material pros- 
perity and welfare and the gain of worldly power and 
wealth, were all of secondary consideration, even if 
thought of these were ever entertained. Their belief in 
individual responsibility to divine law was of the intensest 



nature and to win souls to Christ and to advance the 
interests of the kingdom of God in their reahn was their 
daily (not alone weekly) concern. The Puritan accepted 
the New Covenant in the fullest measure but he never 
ceased to be an Old Testament or Old Covenant Christian. 
He observed the teachings of the entire Bible, conform- 
ing to what it taught and commanded and not seeking 
to cause the book to conform to his views. His religion 
was rigid, exacting and non-compromising. The teach- 
ings of Christ were to him of a non-elastic, inflexible 
character and if at this day he seems to have been un- 
necessarily austere and unbending it must be remembered 
that in his so living he believed he was fulfilling the 
divine injunction. He was sturdy, steadfast, useful and 
true. His whole life centred in his religion. For that 
he lived and toiled, timing his every act and thought, as 
thoitgh it was his last upon earth. Above all he moved 
with a heart filled with gratitude to God for unnumbered 
blessings, even though his daily path was one of thorns 
and tribulations and hardships. One of the Winthrop 
party on the ship Mary and John wrote of the voyage : 
"So we came by the good hand of the Lord through the 
deeps comfortabl}^. having preaching and expounding of 
the Word of God every day." 

The Bible of the Puritan was opened every day. He 
had a family altar and his worship there was sincere, open 
and heartfelt, and never perfunctory. There was a daily 
heart searching and a constant prayer for strength to 
resist the will of the flesh. Like the children of Israel 
they were sustained by a steadfast confidence in an over- 
ruling Providence. Loyalty to God, to his neighbor, and 
to the civil law were characteristics of the Puritan life. 
Material expediency played no part in his being, if it 
to the least degree questioned the integrity of his religious 

It is a notable fact that both the Pilgrims and the 



\\'inthrop Puritans, by which last statement is meant 
that "Godly assembly of men and women" who made 
the first settlement at Boston, were already organized into 
church and town bodies at the time of their arrival in 
New England, and the custom of gathering a church was 
a common one when a new settlement had been decided 
upon, not waiting for its actual consummation. 

The early Puritans and other denominations called an 
organized body of worshippers a ''church" and the build- 
ing for religious services a "meeting house." Thus the 
early New England records are replete with dates at 
which such and such a church was "gathered." 

The religious creed or church polity of the Puritans 
did not disappear with the passing of the first generation 
of settlers but rather did it wax stronger, more aggressive 
and just as devout as the work laid down by the fathers 
was taken up by the children of another generation. 
Still another fact should be kept in mind as a study of 
the Puritan and his ways is pursued, and it is that New- 
England came to be peopled throughout its whole domain 
practically by the descendants of those who reached its 
shores in the years between 1620 and 1660 or thereabouts. 
New England in the first century or more after the 
Pilgrim settlement at Plymouth had no special attraction 
to the non-Puritan emigrant and the comparatively few 
of this class that did come returned for the most part to 
the land from whence they had come, presumably not 
caring to live the sturdy and energetic life enjoined upon 
all by the uncompromising Puritan, whose religious creed 
was not of the "easy" type. 

The real peopling and development of New England 
as a geographical whole was by a race native to the land 
and this fact has its historical counterpart by the grow- 
ing up in the Wilderness of a new generation of Israelites 
to take possession of the land of Canaan. What is espe- 
cially significant alxDut that generation of the children of 




Israel that grew up in the Wilderness was their develop- 
ment, physically and intellectually, under conditions radi- 
cally different from those of their fathers in the land of 
Egypt. First, their foods were not at all like those of 
Egypt, but, under divine direction, such as were calculated 
to build aright every element of the body. They ate 
no unclean thing, no adulterated food passed their lips, 
but everything they ate w^as natural in its organization. 
They thus became physically robust, strong and vigorous. 
The forty years in the Wilderness was a period of pre- 
paration under a, new regime, new conditions, and a new 
creed, as respects the relationship of man to his Maker. 

Strikingly similar to the record of those whom Moses 
led up out of the land of bondage is that of the Pilgrims 
and Puritans of New England. Once established upon 
New England soil they began to subsist upon the foods 
common to the land. Their habitations w-ere wholly dif- 
ferent from those of the mother country and the one 
occupation of the great mass was farming. The country 
which they had settled was commonly referred to in 
speech and in the written word as the "New^ Canaan," 
the "New" English Canaan," and the "New England 

The larger part of a century w-as needed to bring the 
population of all New England up to one hundred thou- 
sand souls. In 1676, or exactly fifty years after the land- 
ing at Plymouth,, New Plampshire contained four thou- 
sand people located principally in the coast region. Upon 
the organization of the colonies of New Plymouth and 
Massachusetts Bay in 1691 into the province of Massa- 
chusetts it contained a total of seventy-one thousand 
people, the settlements extending from the coast to the 
Connecticut river. Connecticut and Rhode Island were 
the next most populous colonies in New England, while 
Maine and New Hampshire were about even as respects 
the number of their inhabitants down to the opening of 


the eighteenth century, when New Hampshire received 
through successive decades a most vakiable overflow of 
population from Massachusetts and Connecticut and 3 
most vital gain in quantity and quality by the coming of 
the Scotch-Irish to that portion of the state called in 
state history Nutiield. 

As the Pilgrims declared in the compact entered into 
and signed without dissent or hesitation in the cabin of 
the Mayflower that the purpose of the undertaking, — that 
is the founding of the colony at Plymouth, — "was for ye 
glorie of God and advancement of ye Christian faith," 
that declaration of purpose was the keynote and con- 
trolling motive of the successive generations for at least 
two and a third centuries. The Puritan idea of morality 
and religion and the Puritan Sabbath remained inviolate 
during all this time of New England history and as there 
was a continuous moving westward into new and unex- 
plored territory by her sons and daughters they carried 
these principles and planted them in the great West and 
North-West and thereby made possible the fact that there 
is to-day one and only one United States of America. 

Especially is it true that down to the second half of 
the nineteenth century New Hampshire was a home of the 
Pilgrim and Puritan descendant, speakmg of the state 
as a whole. The faith of the church of the Scotch-Irish 
descendant was scarcely dissimilar to the original Ortho- 
dox flrst planted on the shores at Plymouth, Boston and 
Salem and the founders of the Presbyterian creed in New 
Hampshire came hither for exactly the same purpose as 
did the first Puritans. Born of the church which the 
Pilgrim Fathers had gathered ere reaching the shores 
of the "New Canaan/' Avas that greatest of all things in 
the modern record of the human race,— Constitutional 
Liberty, and as they gathered together churches, through- 
out New England they likewise planted school houses 
and the extent to which the Puritan and his descendants 


have taxed themselves for the cause of popular education 
has no parallel in history. 

Notwithstanding the historical truths that the first few 
settlements in New Hampshire were made for trade and 
commercial gain to the neglect of religion in general, 
and that here and there about the state were settlements 
without churches, the fact prevails that as colony, prov- 
ince, and state, New Hampshire has ever been a commu- 
nity in which the church and schoolhouse were funda- 
mental factors of its life. No less have her people in every 
generation been known for mental alertness and activity 
and a disposition for intellectual speculation, progress, 
and investigation. Taking the state as a whole her first 
settlers came within her borders with a well defined pur- 
pose which was to advance the Christian faith by spiritual 
living and this purpose was adhered to down to a remote 
time even if it is not in the opening years of the twentieth 
century. The founding of a settlement was practically 
coeval with the gathering of a churcli and the formal 
organization of each was inaugurated by a season of 
fasting, humiliation, and prayer as an invocation for 
Divine guidance and blessing. The whole town was in 
those early days the congregation and tlie ultimate deci- 
sion and final decrees were vested with the whole congre- 
gation. The ministry was the selected guide of the 
church and town but not the master in any sense. In- 
dividual favor with God as a reward for obedience and 
fidelity was no less believed in than was individual re- 
sponsibility to Omnipotence. 

The first colonists in what is now New Hampshire 
were the mere agents or representatives of commercial 
interests in England. The establishment of a trading post 
or commercial community was the sole or at least princi- 
pal motive. The object in view was to get the maximum 
measure of wealth out of the holdings v,-ithout thought of 
the general common \\eal. As this was the domi- 


nant idea it became the dominant characteristic, for 
u community takes on the characteristics of its people 
every time/ Commercialism in itself lacks a founda- 
tion' \t its best it is a characteristic of a charac- 
teristic that furnishes a stable and secure under- 
pinnin^c from ^vhich it can arise, expand, and m- 
crease in all directions. Commerce and trade were 
almost immediate factors in the Plymouth settlement and 
so continued with a singular constancy, but it was ever 
held as secondary to that primary purpose of building 
a commonwealth dedicated to religion and morality. 

The settlements on the banks of the Piscataqua had 
among its leaders and first comers two brothers, Edward 
and William Hilton; both were able and good men and 
the inference seems to be justified that they were represen- 
tative merchants of their time. Nearly a century passed 
ere the settlements in all the Piscataqua region took on 
a very vigorous life and made marked progress m gain 
of population and material substance. Ten years passed 
away before the first meeting house m New Hampshire, 
at Dover, was built and when forty-seven years had been 
counted from the date of that first settlement m 1623 
Dover Exeter and Hampton, alone in all the colony had 
settled ministers. The close of the eighteenth century 
saw only fiye Congregational churches and the fifth of 
these was in Dunstable, now Nashua. By 1638 Ports- 
mouth had an Episcopal chapel with its settled 
rector, but it was not until 1640 that regular pro- 
vision was made for the support of an orthodox 
ministry in the town and still another seventeen 
years passed before the construction of a meet- 
ing house began, and a minister, Joshua Moodey, was 
called to become a settled pastor. The building of the 
meeting house and the calling of the minister appears 
to have quickened the spiritual life of the community 
for it is recorded that the town ordered a cage to be 



made wherein to punish those attendants upon rehgious 
service who might fall asleep, chew tobacco, or be guilty 
of any" form of misdemeanor. But in spite of the de- 
cision to call a pastor and build a meeting house it yet 
required thirteen years to successfully gather a church 
and to formally ordain Mr. Moodey. This first church 
in Portsmouth became the Old North Church of historic 
fame. One of its pastors, Samuel Langdon, became 
president of Harvard, and Rev. Dr. Stiles, though never 
formally ordained pastor of the church, became president 
of Yale. 

Coeval with the settlement at Portsmouth was that at 
Dover and it was likewise by the Hiltons. In 1633 a 
number of families of the Puritan faith took up their 
abode in the town under the patronage of Lords Say and 
Brooke. The ne\v emigrants, as a condition of their 
settlement, had been furnished a minister of their own 
faith and with their landing was perhaps the real begin- 
ning of the ecclesiastical history of New Hampshire. 
The first pastor of the little flock was William Leveridge. 
The second pastor was George Burdett, who soon after 
his ordination was elected governor of the colony. The 
third spiritual leader of the pioneer band was Hanserd 
Knollys, under whose direction and eft'ort the church in 
Dover was gathered in 1638, fifteen years after the settle- 
ment by the Hiltons and five years after the coming 
of the Puritan families through the influence and aid 
of Lords Say and Brooke. Upon the political union 
of New Hampshire with Massachusetts in 1641 the 
ecclesiastical authorities at Boston aided in the direction 
of the Dover church and in the person of Daniel Maud 
sent them a minister who became popular and successful. 
During his pastorate the original log meeting house gave 
way, in 1653, to a more pretentious structure, of the 
following accepted plan : ''forty foote longe, twenty six 
foote wide, sixteen foote studd, with six windows, two 



doores fitt for such a house, with a tile covering, and to 
flanck all the walls, with glass and nails for it." 

A portion at least of the original settlers of the town 
of Hampton went there as a regularly organized church. 
This was in 1638 and the Congregational church in that 
town is the oldest in the state. The first pastor of this 
pioneer church was the Rev. Stephen Bachiler, whose 
descendants for generations have been a power in the 
up-building of the material and spiritual interests of 
every one of the six New England states. Mr. Bachiler 
had reached the Psalmist's limit of life at the time of his 
settlement in Hampton, a fact that forcibly illustrates 
the sturdy self forgetfulness and heroic devotion to 
Divine will of the first builders of the New England 
Canaan. After leaving Hampton Mr. Bachiler in course of 
time returned to England, where he died a centenarian. 

Still another church of special and great historic in- 
terest in New Hampshire is that one gathered or or- 
ganized in Exeter, likewise in 1638. The prime mover 
in its formation was John Wheelwright, said to have 
been a classmate of Oliver Cromwell in Cambridge Uni- 
versity, England. Boston was his first home in America 
and there he united with the church of the Puritans. He 
was a man of genuine ability and decided individuality. 
He was a brother-in-law of \\'illiam Hutchinson whose 
wife, Ann Hutchinson, was the founder of antinomianism 
in New England. A sermon preached by Wheelwright 
caused him to be banished from the colony of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. He, with a small number of adherents, 
went to New Hampshire and he purchased from the abori- 
gines a vast tract of land lying between the Merrimac 
and Piscataqua Rivers. He founded the town of Exeter 
and formed there a church. Scarcely four years elapsed 
after these events when the whole of New Hampshire 
came under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, and as the 
sentence of banishment still hung over Mr. Wheelwright 



he was compelled to seek yet another home, which he did 
in Wells, Ma'ine. After a brief stay in Maine the 
sentence imposed upon him was removed by the General 
Court of ^lassachusetts, when he received a call to preach 
in Hampton, which he accepted. 

In 1685 what is now the First Congregational church 
in Nasliua, was organized, the fifth in number in the 
sixty-two years since the making of the first settlement 
at Piscataqua. To people living in the twentieth century 
this seems like slow progress, but all circumstances con- 
sidered, it was rapid development, indeed, as those condi- 
tions are studied and weighed the wonder is that the little 
bands of first comers should have been able to overcome 
the long and trying list of difficulties, perplexities, and 
trials which in time they did. No great steamships then 
came freighted with the surplus population of the Old 
World as now they do daily. The region all about was 
then a trackless \\ilderness, the abode of wild animals 
and worse wild men. But there was growing up a new 
race of men and women native to the land and putting 
on those national traits and characteristics that was to 
make a distinct class. Yet again, ere the close of the 
second decade of tlie eighteenth century came the advance 
guard of what proved a mighty element in the popula- 
tion of New Hampshire, New England and all the colo- 
nies, — the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians who settled the 
southern central portion of the state. 

Between these Presbyterians from the north of Ireland 
and the Puritans there was a close community of interest 
as respects their religious creeds and professions. In 
truth the terms were simply interchangeable. Both 
sought religious liberty and the advancement of the 
Christian faith. \Mienever they elected to build a home 
and community success followed the effort. Education 
came in with morality and religion and material pros- 
perity was as a matter of course. Londonderry and all 



its adjacent territory that was within the original grants 
to the sturdy, rugged, steadfast, and progressive Scotch- 
Irish was speedily transformed from a wilderness into a 
region of magnificent estates, of spacious homesteads, 
and of benign influences. The spirit of the Scotch-Irish 
permeated every nook and corner of the state and crossed 
the line into Massachusetts. The church which the first 
comers gathered as their first duty performed in their 
Nutfield home is still intact and it has been as the mother 
to many another church organization throughout the 
length and breadth of the land. 

That first church gathered by the Scotch-Irish in that 
locality originally called Nutfield, built its first meeting 
house in that portion of its grant since called Derry, or to 
be more precise in the village of East Derry. The 
original company consisted of sixteen families and as 
soon as they had arrived in the region of their proposed 
new home they held a service of prayer in a little field 
on Westrunning brook. The very next day the emi- 
grants again assembled, this time on the shore of Lake 
Tsienneto or Beaver pond, and listened to- the preaching 
of the Word by Rev. James McGregoire, the spiritual 
leader of the little flock. His text was Isaiah 32 :2 : 
"And a man shall be as an hiding place from the wind, 
and a covert from the tempest; as rivers of waters m a 
dry place, as the shadow of a rock in a weary land." 

An old account describes Mr. McGregoire as a man 
of "distinguished talents" and judging from the works 
accomplished by the members of his flock this description 
may be given with singular appropriateness to them all, 
for great indeed was what they wrought. 

Without unnecessary delay the sixteen families or- 
ganized themselves into a church and called Mr. Mc- 
Gregoire to be their pastor and thus came into being the 
first Presbyterian church organized in New England. No 
Presbytery was then existent in New England but this 



did not deter these determined and Godly pioneers from 
ecclesiastical organization. Mr. McGregoire preached 
his own installation sermon. He received the people as 
his pastoral charge and they received him as their pastor. 
His text on the occasion of his installation was from 
Ezekiel 37 :26 : ''Moreover I will make a covenant of 
peace with them; it shall be an everlasting covenant with 
them : and I will place them and multiply them : and 
will set my sanctuary in the midst of them forever more." 

Never were scriptural words more appropriately 
selected and the Divine assurance as spoken by the 
prophet of old never failed them or their children. They 
had come from scenes of a cruel and unjust war, and of 
bitter, relentless persecution. In their new home they 
found a covenant of peace, good will and liberty of con- 
science Avhich has thus far continued. They grew in 
number and great has been the strength and blessings 
of their children in all the generations since. The sanc- 
tuary was planted in their midst and it has been as a 
beacon untO' the feet of their posterity to this day. 

The growth of the Presbyterian colony in London- 
derry was with marked rapidity. Only four years after 
the colony had gathered its first church there w'ere present 
on the occasion of a communion service twO' hundred 
and thirty persons. At the communion season of 1732, 
thirteen years after the organization of the church, six 
hundred communicants were present, a very considerable 
community in itself for those early years of New England 
development. Nor was the strength of the Scotch-Irish 
settlement in New Hampshire designated by numbers 
alone. It had quality as well as cjuantity and every 
man among them was a true state builder. The entire 
state felt the quickening influence of their example and 
enterprise in the work of creating and directing a material 

With the opening of the eighteenth century township 



p-rants began to be made xvith greatly increased rapidity 
and continued unabated throughout the entire hundred 
years and down into the nineteenth century, and the 
worthy character of the people who made the successive 
township settlements was what gave to New Hampshire 
its secure and strong foundation upon which there arose 
the abiding superstructure of a magnificent common- 

As Higginson says of ^lassachusetts so likewise was 
New Hampshire "a plantation of religion and not of 
trade." New Hampshire profited throughout the eigh- 
teenth century bv a long continued overflow of popula- 
tion from Covmecticut and ^lassachusetts, but New 
Hampshire well repaid the benefits of this immigration, 
and in kind, by sending the descendants of these early 
pioneers out into other states of the Union during practi- 
cally all the decades of the nineteenth century. Especially 
has' Massachusetts been benefited in all her varied mate- 
rial interests bv the influx of the strong, well-bred and 
resourceful sons and daughters of New Hampshire dur- 
ing the past fiftv vears. 

People of the Quaker or Friends faith were early m 
the state and in New Hampshire as well as in Massa- 
chusetts proved a thorn in the religious flesh of the early 
Puritans. • As a sect they have never been of any con- 
siderable number in New Hampshire. 

As respects denominational strength the Baptists have 
always ranked second after the Congregationalists in New 
Hampshire. Their first church in the state was gathered 
in the town of Newton in 1755 and it is still in existence 
and at this writing (1903) h^s nearly reached its sesqui- 
centennial. The first pastor of this Newton church was 
Rev Walter Powers, whose pastorate continued for 
nearly forty years. In 1855 services commemorative of 
the one hundredth anniversary of the organization of the 
church were held. The sermon on the occasion was 



preached bv Rev. O. Aver of Claremont, pastor of one 
of the largest churches of the denomination at that time 
in the state. 

Some authorities, however, state thai the church or- 
ganized at Dover in 1638 was essentially Baptist in its 
doctrinal creed. Its first pastor. Hanserd Knollys,-upon 
his return to England became prominently identified with 
the denomination and continued for the remainder of his 
life a notable disciple of the creed and church. 

Once the Baptists had obtained a foothold in Xew 
Hampshire, their gro^^-th was strong and rapid. The 
denomination was a mighty force in the settlement of the 
state during the eighteenth century, its members braving 
the dangers and enduring the hardships of pioneer life to 
an extent only second to that of the descendants of the 
Puritans themselves. 

From the time of the organization of the little church 
in Xe\\'ton to the close of the same century the Baptists 
had in the state a total of twenty-five churches, and of 
course all supported by the voluntary contributions of its 

In 1780 was gathered in Xew Durham the first Free 
Will Baptist church in X'ew Hampshire, and according 
to some writers and ecclesiastical authorities, the first of 
the denomination in the country. The first pastor of this 
X'ew Durham church was Rev. Benjamin Randall, who 
was born in the town of Xew Castle in 1749. In his 
boyhood and early manhood life he followed the occu- 
pation of sailmaker. As a child he was deeply religpious 
and throughout his was a saintly career. At first he 
identified himself with the Congregationalists, but in 
1775 he united with the general or regular Baptists at 
X^ew Castle. On April 5. 1780, he was ordained as an 
evangelist at X'ew Durham, where he had gathered his 
little flock of Free \\"\\\ Baptists. He died at the age of 
fiftv-nine. October 22. 1808. 


There was that in the idea of the Free \\'iU Baptist 
creed that has from the first down tO' the present appealed 
with a pecuHar force to tlie people of all Northern New 
England and the INIaritime Provinces. In Maine, New 
Hampshire and A^ermont the denomination is especially 
strong. At the close of the nineteenth century the Free 
Will Baptists had a grand total of one hundred churches, 
ninety-three ordained and eight licensed ministers, a 
church property valued at near a half a million dollars and 
some eight thousand church members. 

As early as 1797 there was returned to the New Eng- 
land conference a list of ninety-two members of a Metho- 
dist Episcopal church in Chesterfield. By the year 1800 
the denomination had in the state one hundred and 
seventy-one members and three travelling or circuit 

The growth of Methodism throughout the nineteenth 
century in the state was healthy, strong and full of char- 
acter. It early established a conference seminary in what 
is now Tilton, and this seminary became a decided fac- 
tor in the educational life of the state. At the close of the 
last century the New Hampshire conference had a total 
of nearly fourteen thousand church members divided 
among one hundred and thirty-five churches. 

The history of the Protestant Episcopal church in New 
Hampshire is practically coeval with the settlement of the 
state. An Episcopal chapel was built aljout 1634 in 
Portsmouth with Rev. Richard Gibson as rector. The 
present diocese of New Hampshire has for its bishop 
Right Reverend William W. Niles, D. D. 

As early as 1782 that religious body known by the 
name of Shakers made their appearance in New Hamp- 
shire and a church-state was formed under the leadership 
of Elder Job Bishop. For more than a century they have 
maintained their organization in the state and have made 
themselves known for good works throughout the coun- 



try. In this year of 1903 they have two societies in the 
state, one at Canterbury and a second at Enfield. 

It was in Portsmouth also that the first Universalist 
society was organized and this in 1781. There are in 
1903 a total of twenty-eight parishes in the state, em- 
bracing all told some fifteen hundred families. 

The people of New Hampshire who hold to the Uni- 
tarian faith, while not large in number, include many 
among its most representative families. Unitarian 
church bodies are in Manchester, Concord, Walpole, An- 
dover, Nashua, Portsmouth, Dover and elsewhere. 

There are in New Plampshire twenty-five churches of 
the Christian or Church of Christ faith. These are di- 
vided into two conferences. These are the Rockingham 
having sixteen churches, and the Merrimack with nine 
organizations and both conferences hold annual sessions. 

The state of New Hampshire in itself constitutes a 
diocese of the Roman Catholic Church, and is presided 
over by the Right Reverend Denis M. Bradley, D. D., 
with St. Joseph's at Alanchester as the cathedral church. 
There are in the diocese more than one hundred thou- 
sand adherents of this faith, and above one hundred 
ordained members of the priesthood. The churches of 
the diocese are scattered throughout the length and 
breadth of the state and many among them rank with 
the largest and finest church edifices in New Hampshire. 

Belonging to the diocese is the college of St. Anselms, 
and various high schools for boys and for girls. ]\It. St. 
Mary's is a widely known boarding-school for young 
women. There are also in the diocese six orphan asy- 
lums, four hospitals, four homes for aged women and 
five for working girls. There are nearly four hundred 
sisters of the different orders and some seventy brothers 
employed in fostering and extending charitable, religious 
and educational work throughout the state. 



By Nahum J. Bachelder 

The state of New Hampshire, in common with other 
New England states, was known in early times as an 
agricultural state, the cultivation of the soil and the 
growing and feeding of crops constituting the leading 
industry of her people. This condition of affairs existed 
from the time of the earliest white settlements until the 
development of the great natural water powers of the 
state for manufacturing purposes during the second half 
of the nineteenth century. This in turn is being followed 
by increased interest and activity in agricultural matters 
and better facilities in rural sections which causes us to 
treat the subject by periods, the exact duration of which 
cannot be definitely fixed owing to the difference in the 
date of settlement in different sections of the state. 

I St. The period from the settlement by white people, 
which marked the beginning of agriculture in the state, 
to the subduing of the forest and the clearing of farming 
lands which may be known as the period of construction. 

2nd. The period from the ending of the first to the 
time of the marked deterioration of the soil which may 
be known as the period of natural production. 

3rd. The period from the ending of the second to the 
present time which may be known as the period of read- 

The first period would end in the central portion of the 
state about 1800, but earlier in the southern and later in 



the northern sections. The second period would extend 
from the close of the first to about 1875, and the third 
period from the close of the second. This outline of our 
purpose will make clear our meaning in this brief consid- 
eration of the history of the agriculture of New Hamp- 


There is no evidence that the red men who occupied 
the territory known as New Hampshire practised agri- 
culture to any appreciable extent. They obtained their 
supply of food and clothing by hunting and fishing, with 
an occasional plot of maize or Indian corn cultivated in 
the rudest manner by the faithful squaw whose lord and 
master considered it beneath his dignity to engage in any- 
thing so suggestive of labor. These feeble attempts to 
grow corn and a few herbs were so rare, and the results 
so meagre, that there is nothing in it worthy of the name 
of agriculture, and the advent of the white man to the 
hillsides and valleys of the state marked the beginning of 
the industry. The pioneers who settled upon the farms 
of New Hampshire were a sturdy race of people of great 
physical endurance and strong mental endowment. They 
were imbued with a resolute spirit and stimulated to ac- 
tivity by the one desire to dig from the soil an honest 
livelihood for themselves and their families. All else was 
subordinate to this, and they entered upon their task with 
remarkable fortitude and courage. The first settlers of 
the farms in the southern part of the state were descend- 
ants of the Puritan families who came to this country for 
high and noble purposes, and their descendants in turn 
gradually pushed back into the forest and cleared the land 
of wood, fenced it, and made farms. The journey to the 
place selected for the rough cabin home was frequently 
made over a trail marked only by spotted trees, with the 
family and all the household effects carried on horseback. 



Perhaps a site had been selected and a rude log cabin pre- 
viously erected in the wilderness which formed the nu- 
cleus of the young pioneer's home. Acre after acre of 
the virgin forest yielded to the sturdy blows of the 
pioneer's axe, the felled trees were reduced to ashes, and 
the land sowed to rye, the crop from which was to furnish 
sustenance for the family. 

The young wife cooked the meals, raised a family of 
children, kept the cabin in order and the wild animals 
away, while her husband was vigorously at work clearing 
the land for a farm. Later, rocks were removed and the 
vast network of stone walls that gridiron the farms of the 
state were built. As the children grew up they were able 
to render much assistance, and a pioneer farmer with half 
a dozen sturdy boys and girls helping to fell and burn 
trees, dig rocks and stumps, build walls and fences and 
seed the land to grass was no uncommon sight. As the 
children reached manhood and womanhoood they pushed 
back still further into the forest and cleared farms and 
built cabins for their homes. In the course of time the 
cabins gave way to frame buildings as the typical two- 
story houses with big chimneys in the centre were built, 
barns were erected, and cattle, sheep, hogs and horses kept 
to eat the fodder which began to grow upon the cleared 
land and which furnished milk, butter, beef, pork and 
wool for the food and raiment of the family. Beef and 
pork were salted in the fall for the year's supply, wool 
was carded, spun and woven upon the farm and made 
into clothing for the family, the products of the farm 
yielding the entire supply in both these directions. Lit- 
tle or nothing was bought or sold and there was no desire 
to do either. A little later the farmer made a trip to 
Portsmouth in the fall of each year with a pair of horses 
in a pung, requiring from one to two weeks' time, carry- 
ing to market surplus products from the farm and bring- 
ing back such supplies for the winter as his disposition 



craved and his improved financial condition seemed to 
allow. As the farms were developed roads began to be 
improved. Schoolhouses were erected and schools es- 
tablished, churches built and religious services held, 
attended by about all the people. 

The close of the first period in our division was marked 
by a feeling of great satisfaction and contentment among 
the people. Their labor was severe both in the house and 
upon the land, but they were happy. Their wants were 
few and easih^ supplied. The soil of the farm was fertile 
from the accumulations of centuries and the ashes from 
burning the heavy growth of wood and timber, yielded 
abundant crops. Fields of grain were grown with great 
success, and fruit began to be given attention. The live 
stock increased in number and value annually. The large 
houses were filled with large families of rugged, healthy 
children. The people had but little knowledge of what 
was transpiring beyond the vision from their own farm, 
but were prosperous, contented and happy to an extent 
that it would be difficult to exceed at any period in any 
part of the world. This was the condition of New 
Hampshire agriculture at the close of the first period, 
varying in date in difterent localities but existing with 
remarkable uniformity in all sections of the state. 


The period of greatest activity among the farmers of 
New Hampshire and the period of greatest supremacy of 
agriculture in the affairs of the state may very properly 
be termed the period of natural production occurring 
during the first half or more of the nineteenth century. 
'J'he soil of the fields and pastures had been recently 
cleared of its forest growth and was filled with plant food. 
This was true even of the hilltops, where live stock found 
excellent grazing and where farm buildings, long since 



gone to decay leaving hardly a trace of existence, shel- 
tered large families of contented people, the soil fur- 
nishing a living that met their requirements. As the pro- 
duction of the farm increased and the population multi- 
plied, various industries were established to provide 
things that increased incomes allowed, and to make things 
previously made in the home. Dams were built across 
the streams and the water power utilized in carding, spin- 
ning and weaving for surrounding farmers, work w^hich 
had been previously done by hand in the farmhouse. 
Tanneries were built to tan the hides taken from the 
farmers' animals, and shoemakers' shops built to make 
the boots and shoes for the farmers' families, which had 
previously been done by the itinerant cobbler. Sawmills 
were erected to saw the lumber used in building and re- 
pairing farm buildings, and grist mills established for 
grinding the farmers' grain. As the farmers progressed 
there was a demand for blacksmith shops in which to 
have oxen and horses shod, clock makers' shops in which 
to make and repair clocks and watches, and carriage 
shops in which to build and repair wagons, all of which 
vrere established, affording employment for part of the 
people a portion of the time. Farming was generally 
carried on to some extent with these various trades which 
were worked in the less busy season on the farm. In 
.those days the minister even was expected to till the soil . 
and often was the leading farmer in the township. Stores 
were opened to supply the people wnth groceries, rum and 
tobacco as their income allowed. In many instances these 
shops, mills and tanneries were scattered over the town- 
ship upon convenient streams or located near the farmers 
which they were to serve. Generalh' the store was 
located near one or more of these industries and, 
Avith the meeting-house and a school house, comprised 
the country village of three-quarters of a century 
ago.. The farms continued to yield abundant crops 



for many years without any return of fertility, for nature 
had been filling the storehouse with plant food for centu- 
ries, and it scarcely occurred to any one that the soil 
would not continue to produce bountiful crops for an 
indefinite period without any restoration of fertilit}-. This 
great production of surplus crops induced the building of 
better roads or "turnpikes," as the main roads were 
called, in order to send such surplus products to a market, 
and in 1837 the first steam railroad was built in the state. 
These means of communication with the outside world 
were the beginning of a new era in Xew Hampshire agri- 
culture. The farmers were stimulated to even greater ac- 
tivity, and with the rude implements of husbandry and 
great muscular effort coaxed from the soil abundant 
crops, which found their way to a distant market. The old 
time exclusiveness and independence of the town by 
which everj-thing needed for food, raiment or shelter was 
produced within the town limits, gave way to a system of 
broader proportions, and the little industries we have 
named beside the streams and in the centres of popula- 
tion supplying the wants of the people became extinct. 
The farmers' boots, clothes and wagons, which were first 
made upon the farm, then in the little neighborhood fac- 
tories, were made by improved machiner}- and skilled 
labor in distant mills and factories. Under the stimulus 
of the demand for farm products unknown to the pioneer 
fanners, the pastures were covered with stock and the 
fields used for growing* crops with no regard for the fer- 
tility removed, and in many instances the operation be- 
came but little more than the transfer of valuable elements 
of the soil into cash through the medium of farm products 
and labor. The money thus received went to pay for 
expensive living which the new conditions had offered, 
to improve the farm buildings, fences and stock, or was 
deposited in the savings bank to be referred to in later 
years as evidence of the prosperity of agriculture during 



this period, ^^'hatever use may have been made of the 
money, it represented a portion of the value of the farm 
taken from the soil, and labor of the hardest kind in secur- 
ing it. 

The agriculture of New Hampshire suffered greatly 
during this period on account of the vast number of 
young men and women of good mental endowment and 
great physical strength, both qualities being inherited 
from ancestors of the most exemplary type, that went 
from the farm homes of the state to develop the West, 
or to occupy responsible positions in New England manu- 
facturing cities. These young people possessed the exact 
qualities needed in their adopted fields of labor and, while 
they contributed much to the welfare of the localities to 
which they went and in many instances improved their 
own financial condition by the change, the rural sections 
of New Hampshire suffered by their departure, and many 
good New Hampshire farms became abandoned thereby. 
When the aged father and mother who had made a suc- 
cess of the farm and surrounded their farm home with 
all the comforts that an intense love for it could suggest 
and their scanty means provide, passed away the sons and 
daughters were established in homes elsewhere and the 
farm became abandoned or passed into the hands of 
people with only temporary interest in it or in the town 
in which they had located. The most valuable production 
of New Hampshire farms have been the boys and girls 
sent into the world who have developed into men and 
women of influence and fame at home and abroad. Their 
success has been made possible by inherited qualities of 
heart, mind and body which were developed through early 
experiences in farm life and the high moral atmosphere 
of the Qiristian farm home. The New Hampshire farms 
are entitled to the credit of a noble production in this 
respect. Another serious loss was experienced by the 
agricultural interests of the state in the great number of 

119 . 


brave boys who went from the farms to fight for our 
country in the Civil War. From 1861 to 1865 there 
was a constant depletion of the farmers' ranks to recruit 
the ranks of the nation's defenders. This influence 
reached beyond the bare number that went to the front, 
for in many cases homes were made desolate and the inter- 
est of those remaining was more with the brave boys 
that were on the field of battle than upon the fields of the 
farm where, in a half-hearted way, the aged father and 
anxious brothers were trying to grow crops. Farm ma- 
chinery had not come into general use at that time, and 
the great scarcity of farm help, coupled with the sorrow 
and despondency in the farmer's family, placed a serious 
obstacle in the farmer's path notwithstanding the high 
prices that artificially prevailed. But little thought was 
given to sustaining the fertility of the soil, and the crops 
produced were sent to market with seemingly rich 

Recognizing the necessity for the diffusion of knowledge 
upon the science of agriculture, which recognition was in 
part based upon the fact that the soil by continual crop- 
ping was becoming exhausted of plant food, and the fur- 
ther fact that a nation's prosperity depended in an eminent 
degree upon a prosperous agriculture within its limits, 
the Congress of the United States in 1862 provided for 
the establishment of Colleges of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts in the several states, said institutions to be 
under the direction of the respective states. The legis- 
lature of New Hampshire provided for the establish- 
ment of the New Hampshire institution under this act 
at Hanover in connection with Dartmouth College, where 
it remained with varying degrees of success until, through 
the operation of a bequest made by Benjamin Thompson 
of Durham, the college was removed from Hanover and 
established at Durham in 1891. In connection with the 
experiment station established by the go^•ernment by act 


of congress in 1887, the institution at Durham will come 
into the possession of the Thompson legacy in 1910, 
when an annual income of about $100,000 a year will 
be received. This will make it possible to- provide such 
instruction in agriculture and mechanic arts as will be 
of great benefit in promoting the agricultural and indus- 
trial interests of the state. In 1870 the legislature of 
New Hampshire established a State Board of Agricul- 
ture, composed of one citizen of each county, appointed 
by the Governor, the duty of which is to> promote the 
interests of the various branches of agriculture by the 
diffusion of information and arousing an interest among 
the people therein. This is attempted through the hold- 
ing of institutes for public discussion, the issuing of 
reports, and the encouragement of dairy, horticultural 
and other societies and exhibitions. 

In 1873 the Order known as the Grange of the Patrons 
of Husbandr)^ was established in the state for promoting 
the interests of agriculture in general. The first organiza- 
tion was made at Exeter, August 19, 1873, known as Gil- 
man Grange, No. i, with eighteen charter members. The 
State Grange was organized at Manchester, December 
2^, 1873, with fifteen subordinate Granges represented. 
The Grange seemed to come into existence at a very 
opportune time, for the period immediately following 
the close of the Civil War was as discouraging for farm- 
ers as any in the history of the state. The farm lands, 
both cultivated land and permanent pasture, showed 
marked appearance of deterioration in fertility, from a 
long term of exhausted cropping, which was about the 
beginning of the recognition by the farmers of the fact 
that such a course must result in soil deterioration. The 
inflated prices prevailing during the Civil War upon all 
property began to disappear, and the farmer who wanted 
to sell his farm found that not only was the price of his 
surplus farm products sent to market reduced about fifty 


per cent, but the value of his farm also had begun to be 
depreciated. The rapid development of manufacturing 
had made such demand for labor, and so advanced the 
price of it, that it was beyond profitable employment upon 
the farm under methods previously followed in its man- 
agement. The development of the various industrial, 
commercial and transportation interests of the state had 
been so great that the positions occupied by the farmers 
a generation earlier as leaders in town and state affairs 
had been largely assumed by the representatives of other 
industries. These various reasons made the advent of 
the Grange and other agencies for promoting the inter- 
ests of agriculture of great and timely importance. The 
agricultural interests of New Hampshire reached their 
greatest supremacy about 1850, although not their great- 
est magnitude until later. The total value of fami prop- 
erty reached the highest point in 1870. as the following 
table from the United States Census will show. Number 
I shows acres in farms; 2, average size of farms; 3, total 
value of farm property; 4, total value of lands, improve- 
ments and buildinsfs. 





1900 . 

. . 3,609,864 




IS90 . 





1880 . 

• •3.721,173 




1870 . 


121. 7 



i860 . 





1850 . 





This table shows that the intrinsic value (the gold 
value) of farm property was greater in 1870, though the 
deterioration since has not been marked. 


The present may properly be called the period of re- 
adjustment in the agriculture of New Hampshire. The 


condition of the industry during the two former periods 
was in keeping with surrounding conditions and adapted 
to the necessities of the farmers of the respective periods 
as we have ah^eady pointed out. The new conditions 
called for more expensive living, including luxuries in the 
farmer's home unknown a generation before, driving 
horses with style and speed and carriages of the latest and 
most fashionable design in the place of the farm horse 
and thoroughbrace wagon, broadcloth in the place of 
"homespun" and dainty fabrics of foreign manufacture 
in place of home-made goods in the wearing apparel 
of the farmer and his family. Daily papers and the stand- 
ard magazines were found upon the farmers' tables in 
place of the one publication which brought him his news 
and politics weekly. The society formerly limited to the 
farmer's turn in boarding the district school teacher his 
proportion of the term measured by the number of schol- 
ars sent to school, the semi-annual visits of the seamstress 
to doi the family sewing, with an occasional apple-paring 
bee, husking or surprise party, had been superseded by 
participation in the leading society events of the town and 
state. The changes had been made necessary by similar 
changes in the mode of living adopted by people engaged 
in other industries which had come into existence in the 
natural course of the deA^-elopment of the country and the 
prosperity of which had allowed. In the re-adjustment of 
agriculture to meet existing conditions at home and 
abroad the New Hampshire farmer has made available 
the use of improved machinery, the teachings of advanced 
agricultural science, intelligent forestry, demands of local 
markets, the improved means of communication and 
transportation, the advantages offered by the development 
of the summer boarding and summer home industries and 
the educational and social influence of the farmers' or- 
ganization known as the Grange. 

The use of farm machinery is one of the most potent 



agents in the re-ad jusmieut prcnress. In fact, it may be 
stated \v-ith cenainty that land not suited to the use of 
machinery- can no longer be profitably cultivated and 
should be devoted to some other purpose than the grow- 
ing of culti\*ated crc^s. The first improved machinery" 
to make its appearance w"as the mowing madiine by which 
the farmer rides over his field and with a pair of horses 
cuts as much grass without fatigue as five rugged men 
could cut \N*ith tlie hand sc}-the and an additional man to 
spread the swathe. The rake, tedder and fork operated 
by horse power followed soon, completing the machiner}- 
for hai' harvesting. The reaper and self-binder were in- 
troduced about the same time, and the com harvesting 
machine a little later. For tlie pulverization and culti\-ation 
of the soil we have the sulk}- plough, \-arious improved 
harrows, culti\-ators and weeders that move immeise 
quantities of soil in a brief time, making ilie wood«i 
plougii and spike tooth harrow of a couple generations 
ago seem absurd for this purpose. Seed sowers have 
come into use by which one man will sow or plant more 
seed than ten men can sow or plant by hand and do it 
infinitdy better, ^^'hen we add to these dain.- utaisils by 
which the farmer separates the fat from the milk while 
the mei are milking. ha\-ing the cream ready to be sent 
to the butter factor}-, and the skim milk ready for feeding 
the calves and pigs immediately, or if desired, the use of 
machines by whidi the buner can be s^jarated from the 
milk dired: and served upon the breakfast table the same 
morning, we have some idea of the extent to which ma- 
chinery- enters into the afltairs of re-adjusted agriculture. 
The silo which has come into use w-ithin a few years for 
the storage of green crops is quire properly termed a ma- 
chine and CHie which the up-to-date farmer cannot afford 
to be without whatever the character of his soil or the 
kind of stock fed upon his farm. 

Xext in importance to improved farm machinery in the 



re-adjustment of New Hampshire agriculture comes the 
appHcation of the teachings of agricultural science as 
evolved from experiments by scientists and students of 
soils and of animal and plant growth. This includes the 
manipulation of the soil by machinery in such manner as 
to make available plant food already existing in the soil 
in unavailable form, the growing of crops that have the 
power of extracting valuable plant food from the subsoil 
and from the atmosphere depositing it in the soil in con- 
dition to be available by growing plants, the rotation of 
crops by which certain crops that draw nourishment from 
different depths of soil succeed each other in intelligent 
and well-considered rotation, the purchase of such ele- 
ments of fertility as are needed to replace those carried 
away in crops in the most economical form and from the 
cheapest sources, the fertilizing value of the different 
crops when fed to animals and the manure applied to the 
soil from which the crop was taken, the ability to success- 
fully combat the fungus diseases and insect pests that 
attack all kinds of plants and to successfully treat the 
diseases to which farm animals are subject, to harvest and 
market crops in the most economical manner and in the 
most profitable form. These are some of the things that 
the successful farmer of to-day must know and practise 
and which are included under the broad name of agricul- 
tural science. This science is being promoted during the 
entire period of re-adjustment by the agricultural press, 
the agricultural college and experiment station, farmers' 
institutes and the Grange. 

The practice of intelligent forestry which includes the 
planting of seed and the setting of trees, the proper thin- 
ning and trimming of the growth, the harvesting of the 
crop when ripe, leaving the young growth, and the pro- 
tection of trees from forest fires, are matters of great im- 
portance in the production of one of our most valuable 
crops. When we consider the fact that of the 5,763,200 



acres of territory comprised within the Hmits of the state 
of Xew Hampshire, 3.455,088 acres are unimproved land, 
mostly forests, the value of the annual product of which 
exceeds Si 2,000,000, giving emploj-ment in round num- 
bers to 10,000 people and paying in wages over S3. 000.- 
000 annually, we get some conception of the extent to 
which forestr}- enters into Xew Hampshire agriculture. 
Cutting and marketing forest products has been an im- 
portant industr}- upon Xew Hampshire farms during this 
period and the money received therefor has been an im- 
portant factor in enabling many farmers to supply them- 
selves and families with the comforts and luxuries with 
which the farm homes of the state universally abound. 
Vast areas of land located upon the tops of hills and on 
the sides of mountains remote from railroad, which under 
early conditions were profitably cultivated and furnished 
homes for large families and food and raiment to meet 
their needs, are now wisely devoted to the growth of 
wood and timber and in many instances paying the owner 
a higher rate of interest upon the money invested than 
could be obtained elsewhere. X'ew uses for wood and 
timber are yearly found, and the early marketing of the 
crop which many of those uses allow, renders the grow- 
ing of wood and timber under favorable conditions one 
of the most profitable industries of X'ew Hampshire 
farms, objectionable only to the person who is unwilling 
to wait twenty-five or thirty years for the production of a 
crop. It makes a long term investment, but one in which 
the principal and interest are sure when placed with good 
judgment and cared for in an intelligent manner. 

The improved means of communication and transpor- 
tation eliminating the barriers between country and city 
life are having marked eft'ect in the great re-adjustment 
process. The establishment of rural mail deliver}-, the 
rural telephone, and the building of trolley lines from 
pDpulous centres into rural districts, carn.-ing the farmers 



and the farmer's produce to town and carrying the city 
residents to the farmer's home for rest, recreation and 
pleasure, for which they are wihing to pay a hheral sum, 
is opening up the financial and social advantages of the 
farm as could be done in no other way. It is relieving 
farm life of its isolation, inducing the farmer to eliminate 
some of the drudgery by adopting more business and sys- 
tematic methods, and is affording social culture in the 
farmer's home, the lack of which caused the young people 
to leave the farm as the desire for social enjoyment de- 
veloped in the process of evolution from pioneer to twen- 
tieth century life. The telephone enables the family to 
keep in touch with the people of the town and enables the 
farmer to keep informed in regard to any sudden change 
in the market or probable change in the weather. The 
rural mail delivery brings the daily paper, brings and car- 
ries the business, social and literary correspondence and 
leads the farmer to consider himself in touch with the 
aft'airs of the town, state and nation, thereby increasing 
his feeling of responsibility and promoting a desire to 
act the part of a good citizen. The trolley line takes the 
farmer and his family to town after a busy day upon the 
farm, to attend meetings of various kinds, the theatre, or 
to do shopping and returns them to their home for a mere 
trifle in the way of fare. The sections of the state reached 
by these utilities are assuming an unprecedented appear- 
ance of thrift and prosperity, and as other sections are 
included within the reach of these agencies the re-adjust- 
ment will be still further aided and promoted. 

The growth of manufacturing and the consequent de- 
velopment O'i cities and villages composed of people en- 
gaged in that industry, or to serve the needs of those so 
engaged, has created local markets of great value to agri- 
culture and to supply these has been the aim of a large 
number of prosperous farmers. The production of per- 
ishable products that must be delivered in fresh condition 



has engrossed the leading attention of such fanners and 
contributed to the development of intensive system of 
fanning by which one acre produces a crop of greater 
cash value tliaji ten acres under the system of general 
farming once practised here. About fifty creameries have 
been established within this period, manufacturing over 
$2,000,000 worth of butter annually, in addition to which 
twenty carloads of milk are daily sent to the Boston mar- 
ket from the New Hampshire fanns. The growing of 
apples has become a leading state industry, increasing 
from an insignificant matter thirty years ago to an indus- 
try of great proportions, furnishing the best of fruit for 
the apple markets of the world. The g-arden, fniit, dairy 
and poultry products of the state have more than taken 
the place of the decline in the production of wheat, oats 
and other grain crops and render tlie present annual value 
of the fann productions of the state the greatest in its 

The development of the summer boarding and summer 
home interests has had marked eft'ect in the movement 
under consideration. In 1880 the Xew Hampshire legis- 
lature made provision for calling attention to the advan- 
tages offered by the abandoned fanns of the state for 
people seeking country places, either for health, pleasure 
or fanning purposes. This \\-as the beginning of a sys- 
tematic movement for attracting people to the niral towns 
oi the state. The ofticial in charge of the work well said, 
and his statements are tnie to-day, that no more fertile 
soil e:xists anywhere. The rich, alluvial soil of the Con- 
necticut ^'alley. producing magnificent crops of gxass, 
grain and tobacco; tlie fertile intervale farms along the 
Merrimac River and its tributaries; the ridi soil of tlie 
once heavily wooded hillsides and valleys in all sections 
of the state, easily cultivated and retentive of moisture 
and fertility in sucli a degree as to command wonder and 
admiration; the apple orchards producing fniit that 


has gained a world-wide reputation for its superior flavor 
and keeping qualities; the private dairies and creameries, 
producing butter that was awarded the highest prize at 
the World's Fair in Chicago, both on account of the skill 
of our people in its manufacture and the feed, water and 
atmosphere that produced milk of exceptional purity and 
gave the most delicate aroma to the butter; the markets 
for milk in the half hundred thrifty manufacturing cities 
and villages, in the fifty creameries, and the milk trains 
to Boston daily; the summer hotels and boarding houses, 
numbering about 2,500, with a capacity for 60,000 people, 
accommodating- during the summer season three times 
this number of different people, leaving $8,000,000 an- 
nually in our state; the healthful climate which attracts 
these people and the charming scenery which interests 
them; the half thousand lakes and ponds of sparkling 
purity and seductive tranquility, affording rare enjoy- 
ment for sportsmen; the half hundred grand mountains 
with their densely wooded ravines in which flow a thou- 
sand sparkling streams; the exceptional railroad facilities 
by which the people of the state are favored with railroad 
service which in low rates, freight and passenger service 
and train connections is unexcelled in any section of the 
country affording no greater volume of business to its rail- 
road corporations; the low tax rate made possible by the 
economy of the state in its expenditures and the annual 
reduction of the state debt, a similar course entirely liqui- 
dating the debt in the immediate future and even now 
enabling the state tax to be more than paid by taxes 
assessed upon corporations, the individual taxes being 
no more than is needed for local expenditures which are 
within the power of towns to regulate; and above all, the 
religious, educational and social opportunities where 
thrifty churches, unexcelled schools, and social clubs and 
organizations beyond number, all affording advantages 
peculiar to New Hampshire and rendering the rural sec- 



tion of the state especially desirable for the home seeker, 
either for rest, recreation or to engage in the healthful 
occupation of tilling the soil. These were some of the 
reasons urged for locating in New Hampshire, and so 
forcibly were they presented that over three hundred 
farms were reoccupied during the first year. The eft'orts 
have been continued from year to year, until the number 
of vacant farms has been greatly reduced. The latest 
figures compiled show eight hundred and forty-nine 
farms occupied as summer homes upon which more than 
$2,000,000 has been invested by the recent purchasers in 
permanent improvements. This movement is destined 
to extend in the future. 

The observance of Old Home \\'eek has been a potent 
factor in arousing interest in the old homesteads of New 
Hampshire. Many an instance could be quoted of a son 
of the town, or a former resident, who, returning for the 
reunion day, is surprised at the beauty of the spots he 
revisits and the flood of memories they recall. Thinking 
the matter over, he concludes that after all there is no 
better place in the world to live than in New Hampshire, 
and the best part of New Hampshire is his old town. 
So he buys the old place of his family, where his father 
and his grandfather, and often times, generations back of 
them, li^•ed and worked and died. He repairs and paints 
and enlarges the old buildings and builds new ones. He 
enriches the impoverished soil and farms the land in 
accordance with modern scientific methods. He plants 
shade trees and fruit trees and illustrates practical for- 
estry to a greater or less extent. Perhaps he grows small 
fruits; perhaps he makes premium butter; perhaps he 
raises fast horses; perhaps he paints pictures or models 
statues or writes books. 

The late Austin Corbin came back to the country 
where he was born, bought farm after farm and estab- 
lished the Blue ]Mountain Forest Park an object of 



interest and instruction to visitors from all parts of the 
globe. Within its wire fences are enclosed 25,000 acres 
of field and forest, and there is additional land outside. 
To obtain control of this property required the transfer 
of 375 land titles, the price paid ranging from $1 to $25 
an acre. Altogether the cost of the park has been close 
upon a million dollars; the expense of its maintenance, 
too, is considerable. The superintendent of the estate has 
a staff of twenty-five keepers — fifty at certain seasons — 
and the entire twenty-seven miles of fence is patrolled 
twice a week. Fourteen wild boar, imported from the 
Black Forest of Germany at a cost of $1,000, have in- 
creased and multiplied wath such rapidity that no one 
knows how many herds there are in the park. The 
twenty-five head of buffalo^ have grown to one hundred; 
the fourteen moose, to another hundred; a herd of one 
hundred and forty elk, to a thousand; and one hundred 
and twenty-four deer, to more than twelve hundred. 

A sketch of the development of agriculture in New 
Hampshire and of the agencies contributing to such de- 
velopment would be deficient without prominent reference 
to the work of the Grange. Formed upon the principle 
of fraternity and aiming to advance the interests of hus- 
bandry by increasing the intelligence of those engag'ed 
therein, the Grange appeals with force to people inter- 
ested in the welfare of the state through the development 
of its fundamental industry. Upon the introduction of 
the organization in the state in 1873 it met with oppo- 
sition, but its affairs have been directed with such con- 
servatism and with so little taint of partisan politics as to 
dispel all antagonism and allow it to take its place as an 
important educational agency and a valiant champion 
of the interests of rural New Hampshire. Its grand work 
in affording a means of social enjoyment, mental devel- 
opment and moral reform among the rural people of New 



Hampshire, together with the dissemination of practical 
informaj:ion in agricultural matters, entitle the Grange 
to a high and honorable position among the state build- 
ers. The influence of the organization in Xew Hamp- 
shire through its 25,000 members and 7,000 meetings 
held annually in promoting a more progressive agricul- 
ture and more intelligent citizenship, is leaving a mark 
upon the affairs of the state that makes unnecessary' any 
other record of its work and renders null and void any 
attempt to magnify its mission. The future historian 
of New Hampshire will give the Grange much credit for 
its broad influence in promoting various interests of im- 
portance to the welfare of the state as well as to the 
welfare of agriculture. 

In concluding this epitome of the agriculture of New 
Hampshire we cannot refrain from expressing our belief 
that the rural sections of the state offer greater induce- 
ments to those people looking for an opportunity to 
establish a home than can be found elsewhere, reasons 
for which we have already stated. People who desire to 
gain a livelihood by cultivation of the soil will also find 
upon the farms of New Hampshire an opportunity to 
cultivate much or little, intensively or extensively, with 
as profitable returns as similar effort will yield elsewhere 
and amid far greater advantages than in many sections 
of our country. The more general this opinion, the better 
will it be for those people at present located among our 
hills, for those looking for a place in which to locate and 
for the state itself. There should be no hesitancy or 
delay in promulgating the fact, at home and abroad, that 
the re-adjustment process in the agriculture of New 
Hampshire is well imder way and already showing good 
results. The diversified resources of New Hampshire and 
their expected development will make it improbable that 
agriculture will ever again become the leading industry 



of the state, but with wise action on the part of those in 
position to aid it, stimulated by a just appreciation of its 
possibihties and of its relative importance as a state m- 
dustry upon the state s prosperity, we expect to see prog- 
ress made in this direction in the near future far in excess 
of any in the past to which we have referred. 



By Hosea W. Parker 

To give a full and accurate history of the Bench and 
Bar of New Hampshire and their influence upon the 
institutions of the state from the earliest time to the pres- 
ent, would require more space than is allotted to this arti- 
cle. It must, therefore, be .understood that only the 
salient points of the subject will be considered. 

Prior to the adoption of the State Constitution in 1783, 
the law was not administered with that degree of learn- 
ing and accuracy which has characterized the profession 
since that time. There were some able lawyers and judges 
during the time of the provincial government. Ninety 
years elapsed from the time of the appointment of Richard 
]\Iartyn as the first chief justice of the Supreme Court 
of Judicature in 1693 to the time the constitution was 
adopted, and during this period there were about forty 
members of the Court. ^lany of these judges never 
received any legal education, but received their appoint- 
ment on account of their influence in the community and 
because they were men of affairs. Their loyalty to the 
mother country was also an important factor that entered 
into their tenure of office, and largely controlled their 
official life and character. There were, however, notable 
exceptions, and among them may be mentioned Meshech 
\\'eare, who was an educated man, a graduate of Har^-ard 
college, and for thirty-five years a judge of the Court. 



He administered the law in a manner that reflected great 
credit upon himself, and his administration gave universal 
satisfaction. He was a judge at a period in the history of 
the province when a sentiment for liberty and indepen- 
dence moved the hearts and minds of the people, and 
when revolution was the war cry. He was in full sym- 
pathy with the American cause, and a patriot who had the 
confidence of the people. There was also^ jMatthew Thorn- 
ton, who was appointed a judge in 1776, and held that 
position for six years. He was a man of uncommon in- 
telligence, and took a deep interest in the revolutionary 
movement and was in full accord with the people who 
were then struggling for independence, and active in pro- 
moting their cause. He was a delegate to the Continental 
Congress, and a signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence; a man of great influence in his day, whO' labored 
with much zeal to throw off the yoke of oppression and 
establish a republican form of government. He took an 
active part in preparing a constitution for the new state 
government, was honest and upright in his judicial 
career, and died honored and respected by the entire com- 

There were many men of marked character connected 
with the Bench and Bar during this period, but many of 
them were not learned in the law. Samuel Livermore 
was a man of this character. His name is intimately 
connected with New Hampshire history. He was chief 
justice of the Supreme Court for eight years, and prac- 
tised his profession in Portsmouth, Londonderry and 
Holderness, N. H. Notwithstanding the fact that Liver- 
more was never regarded as a learned lawyer, Dartmouth 
College conferred the degree of LL. D. upon him in 1792. 
He was appointed by the General Court to the Continen- 
tal Congress to support and enforce the claim of New 
Hampshire to the so-called New Hampshire Grants 
during that exciting controversy. He was not only a 



Judge and a lawyer, but he was a statesman, and was a 
member of both branches of Congress and one who 
exerted the widest inliuence in his day in state and nation. 
He had great wiU power, and was a man of excellent 
judgment, which enabled him to perform his judicial 
duties without much regard to precedents or text books. 
The lawyers of his time criticized him, but this had little 
effect upon his conduct as a judge, and he decided cases 
according to his own sense of justice. He had a long 
and eventful career. 

Josiah Bartlett was another judge of marked ability 
and prominence. He was appointed a judge in 1792, 
and held the court with distinguished ability. Xot only 
this, but he was a statesman and an earnest patriot. He 
took an active part in all the measures that led up to the 
Wrv of the Revolution. He was a delegate to the Con- 
tinental Congress and one of the sigiiers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence from Xew Hampshire. His great 
ability placed him in the front rank, and he rendered the 
cause of liberty great service. He was a man of unblem- 
ished honor and integrity, and his memory is held in high 

John Pickering, LL. D., was another judge who made 
his mark and was an important factor in the administra- 
tion of justice. He was Chief Justice from 1790 to 1795, 
and afterwards was appointed United States district 
judge for the district of Xew Hampshire. He w"as a 
lav.yer of distinction and a very able jiu'ist. He was a 
representative in the assembly of the provincial govern- 
ment, and was there a leader who exerted a great influ- 
ence. In 1787 he was a delegate to the Con\-ention held 
for the purpose of forming a constitution of the United 
States, and also a member of the X'ew Hampshire con- 
vention held in 1788 to ratify the United States constitu- 
don, and used all of his great power and will in favor 



of its adoption. He was also active in revising the con- 
stitution of New Hampshire. 

About the time the state constitution w'as adopted, and 
for some years aftpr, there appeared a large number of 
great lawyers who performed valuable services for the 
state and for their profession, and they have left names 
and reputations of which the state may justly be proud. 
They seem tO' have been especially prepared for the great 
work assigned them. As w^e look over this period of 
our state's history, we can but admire the brilliant array 
of legal minds at this time connected with the jurispru- 
dence of the state. Names that at once present them- 
selves are Jeremiah Smith, Daniel Webster, Jeremiah 
Mason and Ichabod Bartlett. 

Judge Smith was Chief Justice from 1802 to 1809, and 
again from 181 3 to 181 6. He was educated at Harvard 
and Rutgers colleges, was a man of great learning, and 
no man in his time did so much as he to place the judic- 
iary of the state on an independent basis, and give to it 
a standing and character that commanded the respect and 
confidence of the people. Judge Smith was not only a 
great scholar and judge, but he was a statesman, and gave 
his best efforts to aid and strengthen the cause of liberty. 
He was a thorough patriot, and his whole heart was filled 
with the spirit of the times. He was with General Stark 
at Bennington, was elected to Congress in 1790, and 
occupied a seat in that body for six years. It is said that 
he was an intimate friend of Washington and visited him 
at Mount Vernon. He was elected governor of the state, 
but this office was not agreeable to him, and he held it 
only one year. 

Daniel Webster regarded him as an able lawyer and 
judge, and often expressed his great admiration for Judge 
Smith's legal talents. Tn the famous Dartmouth College 
case (so called) he took an active part, and there, as else- 
where, displayed his great learning and legal ability. 



. ^-1^ -V '. -c lcr.__ :i OUT SI2.IC g'CV'r' z'". 

the lawverf - s were active in directing a:. 

: . " ~ : r of the state goverri m cni^ and 

^r;_: --;^.: .- ._; : : --------•— for the ''— "--'^. 

therein. Tbev in ft: -of sr ^r 

r " T 7 '. ' ' :'. was over, 

i_^ -•;_-; c:c :; ■ . :' " " *'- 'e«[al 

prT'fessioTi. to take tro thr nes 

of dnzer- . 

It rta:> - 

the w^T 

»ta.ic was succcssiiLlIv 

— ,^. ...c *.'_•. 

"ise and sa 

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before ren>:'^-ing^ lo 
year- :' ' rt -^ ' 

one I 

i> ^ 

:;> uaHiQi. w ec'Sier. 

^" - '--1 practised 

- ; ; . r^ :his State 

When he was twenty-four 

r' -- -'- ': ~ : - "T'end 

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m: career ne e: 

-e rare qnaiines 

can Bar. ii 
' ' r^e case 




Jeremiah ]Mason and Judge Jeremiah Smith were con- 
temporaries of Webster, and each had an exalted opinion 
of the legal abilities of the other, and often expressed it. 
While the name of Webster stands out first among the 
lawyers of his time, and while no other character has 
left so deep an impress upon the state and nation, still 
there was at least one other name that still stands out 
in bold relief in New Hampshire, and that is the name 
of Jeremiah ]\Iason. ^Nlany regarded ^Mason as fully 
equal to Webster as a constitutional lawyer, and he gave 
to the law and to the state the force of his wonderful 
power of intellect. 

The Bench and Bar at this time began to take a more 
independent stand, and insisted with all the power it 
possessed that the legislative, judicial and executive 
departments of the state government should be entirely 
separate and distinct. There were other great lawyers 
at this time, who were active, as lawyers and as leaders, 
in the state government. Among them should be men- 
tioned Ichabod Bartlett, William Plummer and Levi 

Levi W^oodbury, LL. D., was a judge from 1816 to 
1823. He graduated at Dartmouth College in 1809, and 
ir( 1823 was elected Governor, and in 1825, United States 
Senator, to which office he was again elected in 1841. 
He was appointed by Gen. Jackson Secretary of the Navy 
and later of the treasury. He was offered the position of 
ambassador to the Court of St. James, but this he de- 
clined, and was then appointed one of the justices of the 
Supreme Court of the United States. Those who had 
occasion to practise in his court called him an ideal judge, 
who had all the characteristics of a model jurist, and re- 
flected great honor upon his state. 

The New Hampshire Bar was at this time distinguished 
for its ability. Besides those already mentioned, there 
were the Sullivans, Benjamin West, Arthur Livermore, 



Governor Hubbard, Ezekiel Webster, James Bell and 
many other lawyers of state and national reputation. 
Such were the men who not only laid the foundation of 
the state government, but who in a large measure Txiilt 
the superstructure. 

Judge William M. Richardson opened up a new chap- 
ter in the history of the jurisprudence of the state. He 
was Chief Justice from 1816 to 1838, and did as much 
to shape and mould the judiciary as any other man. No 
cases which had been decided by the highest court in the 
state had been printed and reported before his day. He 
brought order out of chaos, and reduced the practice of 
the law to a science. During his long service he rendered 
a large number of important decisions. His opinion in 
the Dartmouth College case was regarded at the time and 
to-day as a great contribution to the legal literature of 
that period. He was a great student and was familiar 
with several ancient and modern languages. 

Since the days of Chief Justice Richardson there have 
been published seventy volumes of the decisions of the 
court of last resort, and in these volumes is found a wide 
range of subjects, fully discussed and considered, so that 
the New Hampshire Law Reports stand to-day as a mon- 
ument of labor, learning and fidelity of the judges who 
have occupied the bench. These rqDorts are in all the well 
selected law libraries of the land, and have been quoted 
and referred to 1>y lawyers and jurists in all the states 
of the Union. It has often been said by jurists that these 
decisions are regarded by the courts as among the highest 
and best authorities extant, and as the years come and go 
they lose none of their value and importance. 

While Judge Richardson did a noble work for the 
profession, and brought the law and practice up to a much 
higher and better standard, many of the judges who 
followed him have taken a high rank in the profession. 
Andrew S. Wood, LL. D., was a contemporary of Judge 



Richardson, and in some respects was considered his 
equal. He was a judge for fifteen years, and discharged 
the duties of his office tO' the entire satisfaction of alL 
He had a brilhant career, and his opinions stand out in 
the reports as models, and have always commanded the 
respect of the bar. ' 

By the casual observer it may be considered that the 
lawyers and judges who took such an active part in the 
formation of the state government and whO' administered 
its laws during the first fifty years after the adoption of 
the state constitution, were superior to those who' have 
come after them, but one who gives the subject more 
careful study and consideration will arrive at a different 
conclusion. When we study the life and character of 
such jurists as Joel Parker, John J. Gilchrist, Samuel D. 
Bell, Ira Perley, Henry A. Bellows, W. S. Ladd, Charles 
Doe and Alonzo P. Carpenter, all of whom have lived 
since the days of Judge Richardson, we are led to believe 
that the standard has been elevated instead of being 
lowered. All of these held the office of Chief Justice, 
except Judge Ladd. 

Judge Joel Parker has had few equals. Everything 
connected with his professional life was done in the most 
brilliant and satisfactory manner. He was an ornament 
to the profession, and closed his career as judge in 1848, 
when he was appointed Royall professor in the Harvard 
law school. He performed all of the duties of that 
responsible position in a manner highly creditable to him- 
self and tO' the institution with which he was connected. 
He occupied this position for twenty years, and the 
profession in New Hampshire has always been proud of 
Joel Parker, and regarded him as a model judge and a 
lawyer of unblemished character. 

John J. Gilchrist was Judge Parker's contemporary, 
and the more his judicial career is examined and his 



Ira Perl^ Tiei a great sm^i^st. 
qtslities ;f a gnear jxhige. 
bet ai rises irascToie: still. _.; . ; 

Ji-spedallj kind and c:«5t5: cerate !•:• the 7 , TT^- 

:rL E- C:.^ : :^ i_ ; : „.. _: ..i :i the at^lest 

and oarest of tze ~cg"e5 'i\n-z- have graced the Xew 

traiioo. of tlie la-^ :i Xew Harrrr^nire. He r^ 

ties tBce to face cs the br;«ad grccmd of right and justfce. 
By many he is regsncei as the ablest jurist of n»f€rtt 

tbc ablest j-sdges. Many of ins den^c-ns are regarded 
as the best type of jtKJi ci a' wisdjoi and reaS'>riiLr- ari 

are prepared yriib. great ca--" -- ' 'r^nnng. 

These jttrists "wb:» hare 1 . . . icins. in pam drrring 

to the besicii- bet die praciiSEng .a."Ryer is 5.?» innrnaiely 
cxmnecied vrith the j-fge : 

to separate tseEi- Ttiiges ^ .z. ;:. -__-: _-. -.- .__.'- 

mc^iy til* secure tiie highest and liest resdts in the a^iniiiiis- 
trazivs. of jtistice. It vroold be very emberrassing for 

an;- ~-^~''rrr of tx.- ~~ .--—.y th^-t pr'siiics wh^en 

cc 7 anr cc : :_ of the bar. In met. 


judges as a rule hold their places through the influence 
and by the co-operation of the bar. 

Fifty years ago cases were tried in court very differ- 
ently from the course now adopted. In the early days 
lawyers took more liberties in examining witnesses and 
addressing juries than they do to-day. Then it was quite 
common to go outside the record and to make statements 
and refer tO' matters and things wholly irrelevant, and 
discuss many subjects not involved in the trial of the 
cause. To-day the supreme court would set aside a verdict 
for such a course of procedure, and this is well under- 
stood by the profession. Counsel have been taught to 
adhere strictly to the evidence in the case. This makes 
the practice of the law much more accurate and satisfac- 
tory. In brief, nothing is allowed to be considered but 
the facts brought out in evidence, and the law applicable 
to these particular facts. In this way the results are more 
satisfactory, and justice is surer and more likely to be 
obtained than by the earlier methods. It has been thought 
by some that the modern method is too restrictive, and 
that advocates have lost much of their influence and 
power by being held too closely to this rule. While 
to-day the advocate may not have that unlimited sway 
that he exercised in former times, and then often to the 
prejudice of exact justice, still there is ample room at 
the present time for the exercise of those high qualities 
of mind and heart that gives to the orator a marvellous 
power over his hearers. The office of the advocate has 
always been regarded by the profession as of the highest 
importance. Only a few of the leading lawyers can be 
personally referred to in this paper, but any history of 
the Bench and Bar in New Hampshire would be very 
unsatisfactory without mentioning the names of some of 
the leading practitioners and advocates. ]\Iany of those 
who have been referred to as judges were active lawyers, 


ha5*e h 


rse <L>L€i^e-^>3S «? TSBSirT 



.r-^ "V:^ 

ae 2. ssT-c^ •!:«: JEWTers zal acrsjcziES c^ fiieai: ppcrrr- 

V*lj5l2I ?ry! i: 

nsei raese- ^resi: im%€^~ 


le iz5»: — :£ — s"e c 

He "^^25 5. Zjiz*!^ sscre'CSie- sad 

_;_ - _ -^riDn:i n- : 


1852 was triumphantly elected president of the United 
States. President Pierce was severely criticized during 
his administration, and it was claimed that he was in 
sympathy with the pro-slavery party of the South. This 
was at a time when party spirit was at a high mark, and 
the passions and prejudices of political parties were un- 
duly excited and aroused. That he loved his country 
and was a patriot no one can doubt. 

The name of John Sullivan brings to mind one who 
was a tower of strength in the administration of the crim- 
inal law of the state. He was for many years Attorney 
General, and in the trial of criminals rendered the state 
valuable service. All of his efforts were in behalf of 
justice, and he never insisted upon a conviction unless 
the evidence fully warranted such a result. In his ad- 
dresses to the jury he was earnest, logical and eloquent, 
and when he brought all the force of his intellectual 
power against the respondent at the bar, escape seemed 

There are many more lawyers whose influence and 
whose merits might be set forth if space allowed. Such 
names as Daniel M. Christie, George W. Morrison, John 
H. George, William P. Wheeler, Edmund Burke, Ed- 
mund L. Gushing, Gilnian Marston, Mason W. Tappan 
and Harry Bingham. These were men who belonged 
to a recent period, and were all celebrated not only as 
lawyers, but were distinguished for their valiant service 
to the state, to their countr}^ and to their fellow men. 

The name of Harry Bingham is known by every mem- 
ber of the bar in the state. He was great in every depart- 
ment of life. Had he lived in the days of Daniel Web- 
ster and Jeremiah Mason his reputation would not have 
suffered in comparison with theirs. He was a pillar in 
support of the temple of justice. While we admire the 
brilliant advocate, and are charmed by his eloquence, he 
is not always the most useful member of the profession. 



The honest, quiet., hard-working la^^•}■er in his office, often 
best serves his fellow men. He has their confidence; they 
feel that their varied interests are safe in his keeping. 
It was declared by the Roman Emperors that if the law- 
yer performed his duty aright, he was as much a benefac- 
tor of mankind as the warrior upon the field of battle 
who saved his coimtr}- from defeat and ruin. Who can 
estimate the great responsibility of the lawyer as he 
stands in a Court of Justice as an advocate when the 
life of a fellow citizen is being weighed in the balance. 
It should be remembered that the duties of the lawyer 
are not strictly confined to the courts, and the practice of 
his profession. He is, and always has been, active in all 
the duties of citizenship. The cause of education has ever 
found in him a friend and supporter. The community' 
is ever looking to him for counsel and advice in all public 
and private enterprises. He is truly a public servant, 
and when we realize how varied are his duties, how wide 
his influence, and how great are his opportunities to sene 
the public, no one can doubt the exalted character of the 
profession. He stands as a sentinel to guard the people's 
interest and to protect them against approaching danger. 
In legislative bodies in this country as well as in popular 
assemblies, the majorit}* rules. This is a fundamental 
principle of our government. \\'hile all admit that this is 
the best rule that can be promulgated for the government 
of such bodies, stiU there is and always has been some 
danger in its operation, and nothing has contributed 
more to hold majorities in check and prevent wild and 
extravagant action, than the consen^ative influence of the 
legal mind. Thus it will be seen how important it is 
that la^^'yers should be in the forefront in all legislative 
bodies. Oiu" state has always recognized this, and we 
find in the first and second provincial congresses, held at 
Exeter in 1774 and in 1775, that the controlling influence 
then and there was the action of the few lawyers who 



were members of those bodies. The same is true in all 
the constitutional conventions from 1778 to the last one 
in 1889. By referring to some statistics compiled by the 
Hon. J. H. Benton and given in an address of much 
merit and importance before the Southern New Hamp- 
shire bar association in 1894, he states: "Of the speak- 
ers in the House of Representatives in N. H., from 
1 79 1 to 1894, fifty of the sixty-two who have occupied 
that position were lawyers, and of the presidents of the 
senate, thirty-four of the seventy-five were of this pro- 
fession." We shall find that this rule holds good in the 
office of governor and other state officials. The same is 
also true in the election of senators and representatives 
in congress and even in the election of presidents of the 
United States. In short, lawyers have always guarded 
every department of government, and this is acknowl- 
edged to be true by all classes, and not only is it for the 
best good of the people, but absolutely necessary for the 
safety and security of the government. Every depart- 
ment of the state government has been shaped and con- 
trolled by the legal profession. While the number of 
lawyers in the legislature has not always been great, they 
have at all times directed its action to a very large ex- 
tent. The judiciary committee of the house has been the 
controlling influence and the lawyers of this committee 
have always carefully investigated all measures of im- 
portance before giving them a favorable report. It would 
be impracticable for any class of legislators to do this 
work unless they had received a legal education. This 
committee has at all times held a firm grasp upon all legis- 
lative action. All acts of any public interest have invari- 
ably been examined by them. A legislature without the 
guiding hand of the lawyers would be like a ship at sea 
without a chart or compass. Legislation should be a 
healthy public sentiment fashioned and moulded into law. 
Sir Edward Coke tells us, "Reason is the life of the law, 



and law is the perfection of reason," and it requires the 
most critical analysis and sound judgmoit to work out 
the various problems and put them into proper -shape for 
the best good of the people. Xo one who is not trained 
in the law and has not learned the art of discrimina- 
tion is competent to perform this task. Ours being a gov- 
ernment of law, it would be impossible to administer it 
without those skilled in this science. 

The laws are not only made, but they are executed by 
this class of men. They have laid aside the duties of 
the advocate and the making of briefs, and put on the 
robe of justice, still they are lawyers, ^^*e might ask with 
Ci(^ro, *^\Miat is so king like, so munificent as to bestow 
help on those who supplicate our aid? to raise the op- 
pressed and save our fellow citizens from peril and Dre- 
sene them to the state?" 

Lawyers by their education and by their habit of 
thought and action, naturally become consen^ative, and 
adhere to fundamental principles : hence they are slow to 
change, but cling to fundamental truths. They adhere 
to organic law and constitutional guarantees. In this 
lies the safety- of the state and nation, for they are 
anchored to something that is reliable, and are unmoved 
when danger threatens the state. It is the law}-er who 
stands at the helm ever ready to guide the "ship of state" 
through the storm. 

The life, libert}% and property* of the individual are 
placed in the care and custody of the law\-er, and if he is 
true to his profession, they are sacredly and securely cared 
for. Xot only this, the great interests of state and nation 
are in his keeping. He is also called upon to care for and 
consider those more delicate relations of domestic life. 
which are constantly pressing upon him. More than this, 
he has always been ready to answer the call of country 
"when grim-%-isaged war' is seen throughout the land. 
Many of the active and prominent lawyers in Xew Hamp- 


shire left their practice and went to the front during the 
War of the Revolution and during the War of the Rebel- 
lion, and there, as elsewhere, maintained the honor and 
integrity of the nation. 

Proud as we should be of the name and fame of the 
New Hampshire Bench and Bar for what it has been in 
the past, we believe that it is still an honor to the state, 
and that the profession has made progress during the last 
twenty-five years. The rules of Court now require that 
all students shall be examined by a competent committee, 
and they must pass a rigid examination before they can 
be admitted to practice at the bar. The bar has been 
elevated by this means, and attorneys are very much bet- 
ter prepared than ever before. 

This, briefly, is what has been done by the Bench and 
Bar of New Hampshire. The work accomplished makes 
a bright page in the history of the state. Its motto is, 
*Tiat justicia ruat coelum." Each and every member of 
the bar ought to be deeply impressed with the dignity and 
greatness of his calling. It is a noble profession, and no 
one but an active member can realize the great responsi- 
bility which is assumed by those who belong to it. The 
lawyer has not only his own personal cares and duties, 
but he must bear the burdens of his clients, and keep 
constantly in mind their interests and their welfare in all 
the complicated matters committed to his keeping, and 
this involves study and anxious thought. 

Nowhere has the profession attained a prouder or more 
honorable position than in New Hampshire. From the 
earliest times in her history it has been celebrated for its 
high character and learning. Let it be guarded and pro- 
tected with a jealous eye and it will continue to be in the 
future as it has been in the past, the great conservator of 
state and nation. 

No class of men has ever been more ready to sound the 
praises of the "Old Granite State" than her lawyers. 



Their love and affection for her hills and valleys have 
been made manifest throughout her history. They have 
championed her cause wherever and whenever an oppor- 
tunity has been presented, and have always been loyal 
to all of her interests. On the other hand, the state has 
placed her best interests in their keeping, and crowned 
them with her highest honors. 

''Of law there can be no less acknowledged, than that 
her seat is the bosom of God, her voice the harmony of 
the world.'"' 

XoTE. — For some of the facts in this paper the author is indebted to 
the late Hon. Charles H. Bell, in his admirable work entitled "The Bench 
and Bar of New Hampshire." 



By Irving A. Watson, A.M., M.D. 

No class of men has a cleaner record, or has done more 
for the upbuilding of the state from the earliest Colonial 
period to the present time than the medical profession. 
History shows that our physicians have not only stood in 
the front rank of their profession, but that, through all 
the struggles and vicissitudes of the Comrnonwealth from 
its very planting to the twentieth century, they have been 
among the leaders, whether in war or peace, serving with 
a loyalty and patriotism unchallenged and unexcelled. 

The little colony which began the building of the 
state of New Hampshire at Strawberry Bank, in 1623, 
struggled with all the hardships incident to- the severest 
of pioneer life, without a physician for eight years, when, 
in 1 63 1, with the new impetus which was given the 
colony by the arrival of some fifty men and twenty-two 
women, came Dr. Renald Fernald, the first physician to 
settle in the Province of New Hampshire and the second 
in New England, Dr. Samuel Fuller, more frequently 
designated as Deacon Samuel Fuller, who came over in 
the "Mayflower" and settled at Plymouth Colony, being 
the first. It is an interesting fact that under such circum- 
stances a regularly educated physician should have set- 
tled with this little colony; and to what extent its future 
was due to his guiding presence cannot be shown, but it 
is among the probabilities that its successful career was 
largely shaped by him. 


Dr. Fernald was born in Bristol, England, July 6, 
1595, He is said to have resigned a position in the Eng- 
lish navy to come to America, and, sailing in the "War- 
wick," arrived at Strawberry Bank July 4, 1631. That 
he was a man of ability, and that he served the colony 
to which he had joined himself with honor and fidelity, 
is evident from the few records left of his career. He 
was captain of a military company; Grand Juror in 1643; 
Town Recorder, 1654- 1656; was Trial Justice of the 
Peace, Recorder of Deeds, Surveyor and Commissioner, 
and Clerk of Portsmouth at the time of his death, Octo- 
ber 6, 1656. 

The name of Strawberry Bank was changed to Ports- 
mouth through the efforts of Dr. Fernald, in a petition 
which he w4th four others presented to the General 
Court in May, .1653, giving for a reason that the name 
of Strawberry Bank was "accidentally so called by reason 
of the bank of strawberries that was found in this place, 
and now your petitioners' humble desire is to have it 
called Portsmouth, being a name most suitable for this 
place, it being at the river's mouth, and a good harbor 
as any in the land." 

The first coronor's inquest held in Xew Hampshire 
was in January, 1655, by a jury of twelve men, under the 
direction of Dr. Fernald, who certifies that the said jury 
returned the following verdict: 

'■'Wee whose names are subscribed doe testifie how wee 
found Thomas Tuttell, the son of John Tuttell by the 
stump of a tree which he had newly fallin upon another 
limb of the other tree rebounding back and fell upon him. 
which was the cause of his death as wee consider : this 
was found the last day of the last ]March." 

After the death of Dr. Fernald, in 1656, I find no 
evidence of there having been any regular physician in 
the colony, or province, for many years, the next, per- 
haps, being \\^alter Barefoote, who lived at Newcastle as 



early as 1660, but who seemed almost wholly engaged in 
politics, although he was a physician. He was Counsel- 
lor in 1682, and Chief Magistrate of the province in 1685. 
He died in 1688. 

The second practising physician in the Province was 
probably John Fletcher, who lived in Portsmouth, was ad- 
mitted freeman in 1669. He was one of the nine found- 
ers of the first church in Portsmouth, in 1671. He died 
September 5, 1695. 

Perhaps the next in order !o be designated as a phy- 
sician was John Buss, who was also a minister, and who 
settled at Dover in the Oyster River Parish, now Dur- 
ham, in 1684. He practised medicine and preached from 
that date to 17 18, when he retired. 

The practice of medicine at this time, as well as for 
many years afterward, was to a considerable extent in the 
hands of the ministers, who added this accomplishment 
to their chosen labor of saving souls, maintaining intact 
their inelastic and unyielding dogmas, exercising a cen- 
sorship over the words and actions of their parishioners, 
standing guard against heresy and at all points fighting 
the devil with a few, but to them, all of the legitimate and 
sanctified weapons of religious warfare. To them medical 
science was as positive and as circumscribed as their 
theology. A limited knowledge of anatomy, and less 
of physiology, with the most empirical doctrine of thera- 
peutics constituted a sufficient medical education. There 
was no pathology, no chemistry, no microscopic investi- 
gations, no post-mortem examinations to verify diag- 
nosis, no clinical thermometers, stethoscopes, ophthalmo- 
scopes, etc., in fact, little beyond prayer; venesection, 
emetics, and cathartics, which were the chief and con- 
stant reliance of the practitioner, to which all forms of 
disease, or the patient, succumbed. Green (History of 
Medicine in Massachusetts) says that ''the ministers were 
expert in phlebotomy and they were wont to bleed and 



pray in all severe cases." The text-books taught that 
bleeding was in nearly all diseases the first thing to be 
res-iTted to. and in plethoric persons repeated bleedings 
were often recorded- So universally was this operation 
believed in as a remedial procedure and as a preventive 
of disease :aine a ver\- general practice among 

the well : . _ . .-..:.: least e\'er\- spring. Barbers often 
perfc-rmed this operation as well as extracted teeth. 
Emetics wer -eat favor, applicable to almost 

ever}- pr'-- . ..c .„„:.' Cathartics were used to an 

aJrist .: extent- With this heroic and appalling 

rent a patient, if he were fortu- 
--.-^.. .:. must have been fore^-er after in 

: as to ■ td him. 

7 vr rext physician of note in the Province was Dr. 
Tj-ir.iii PacKer, who b^;an practice in Portsmouth about 
1687, and remained there imtil his death in 1724. Dr. 
Packer was bom in Portsmouth, England, educated as 
a surgeoo in London, came to this cotmtry when a young 
man. and after residing a short time in Salem, Mass., 
ermanently in Portsmouth. He was a man of 
. . ^ce and in high favor, most of the time, with 

: . ovenmient. The General Court of Xew 

} : as held at his house at one time. He also 

V, ..- ...t^ for entertaining the royal guests that visited 
the province: was influential in the community, and so 
7: by the governor as to be included in the 
re... tr.-.c c...Lnieat of several towns.* He also held 
several military and ci\'ic ofiices. 

Perhaps the next physicians in chronological order 
were Dr. Thomas Aiden and Dr. Jonathan Crosbee, who 
were in Dover as early as 171 7 and 1718 respectively. 

Dr. Joseph Peirce, who was quite a prominent and able 
physi-'- :'-' 'r'-- '•me. b^an practice in Portsmouth, 

*i-tT ; . i, . i -^t::r cf Dr. Packer by the anthor in Granile 


probably about the time of Dr. Packer's death, in 1724. 
He was in successful practice in that place until January 
T7, 1749, at which time he died of small pox. Dr. Peirce, 
in 1744, was commissioned "Surgeon Gen. of ye N. 
Hampshire Troops and Naval Forces," in which capacity 
he served the province well. 

Dr. John Ross was a physician of some note in Ports- 
mouth, and was practising in that place as late as 1747. 
He was one of the incorporators of Barrington, in 1722, 
and of Kingswood, in 1737. Pie practised medicine for 
many years in Portsmouth. 

Although Exeter was settled in 1638, as far as can be 
ascertained no physician located there until about 17 18 or 
1720, although it is not supposed that during this entire 
period the town was without some one vvho practised the 
healing art, though perhaps in special cases medical aid 
may have been received from Portsmouth. Dr. Thomas 
Dean, who was born in Boston, November 28, 1694, 
began practising in Exeter between about the dates above 
stated, and followed his profession there until his death 
in 1768. In official capacity he served as selectman of 
the town, and was captain and afterwards major in the 
Militia. He was one of the proprietors of the town of 

The next physician to settle in that town was Dr. 
Josiah Oilman, who was bom in Exeter Febrtiary 25, 
1710, and died January i, 1793. He was an able medical 
practitioner, a man of considerable education and good 
business capacity; was loyal to the colony and served the 
province well. 

From, his time to the Revolutionary period, the fol- 
lowing physicians, some of whose names will be forever 
perpetuated in the history of the colony, were engaged in 
the practice of medicine in Exeter: Dudley Odlin, 
Robert Oilman, Eliphalet Hale, John Giddings, John 
Odlin, Nathaniel Oilman, Caleb O. Adams, John Lam- 



son, Joseph Tilton, Samuel Teimey and Xathaniel Pea- 
body. Evidently all these physidans were men of 
imusual abilit}- and patriotism, and did more or less ser- 
\-ice for the Province and for the cotmtr}-. Dr. Gidding-s 
was selectman, rq)re5entative, commanded a company 
in the Re^'-olution, and was nominated a candidate to the 
G)ntinental O^ngress, but modestly declined. Dr. Adams 
sened in the Revolution as Surgeon of Col. Poore's 
7 Jrd Xew Hampshire Regiment: Dr. Lamson was noted 
: : r ids eventful life, which from the time of his coming 
of age was largely de\'oted to the sen-ice of his country-, 
serA'ing as surgeon's mate under Col. Xathaniel Mesene ; 
was captured by the Indians after the surrender of Mont- 
calm; held a prisoner by the French in ^lontreal, was ran- 
somed, finally exchanged, and sent to England, where, 
ha^■ing attracted the attention of Gen. Edward Wolfe, 
father of the future captor of Quebec, he was appointed 
Siu'geon's Mate in the Kings regiment, tmder Wolfe's 
command. Two years later, he returned to Exeter, subse- 
quently served as stu-geon in another regiment. Dr. 
To5q)h Tilton served as Surgeon on board the '"Pri- 
vateer'' during the Revolution. Dr. Xathaniel Peabody 
became an eminent physician, and also a man of note, 
having 5er\-ed as Adjutant-General of the Militia of the 
state; a dd^ate to the Continental Congress; a member 
of the State Legi?iarure,and Major-General of the !Militia. 
Dr. Tenne}-, from the breaking out of the Revolution, 
entered the army, was present in season to assist the 
wounded at Bunker Hill. At the dose of the war he re- 
turned to Exeter and continued the practice of his pro- 

The physidans of Dover, from the time ot Dr, Cros- 
bee, about 1718, down to the Revolutionan.- War, were 
Samuel Merrow, Thomas Miller, Cheney Smith, Moses 
Carr, Moses Howe, Ebenezer X'oyes, Ezra Green and 
Sir.:uel Wigglesworth, all of whom, s-j far as can be 



learned, were able and reputable men, some of whom 
served the Province in a military or a political capacity. 

Dr. Miller was appointed surgeon of a New Hamp- 
shire regiment under Colonel Moore, in the Louisburg ex- 
pedition, in 1745: but I find no record of his accepting 
the appointment. 

Dr. Smith was assistant surgeon of a New Hampshire 
regiment in 1759. 

Dr. Moses Carr, in addition to his medical practice, was 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas from 1776 to 1784, 
and was also a charter member of the New Hampshire 
Medical Society. 

Dr. Ezra Green was born June 17, 1746 O. S.; grad- 
uated from Harvard College in 1765; settled in Dover as 
physician in 1767; immediately following the battle of 
Bunker Hill he joined a New Hampshire regiment under 
Colonel Reed as surgeon, and serv-ed until the winter of 
1776; in 1 777, was commissioned Surgeon of the war ship 
"Ranger" under command of Capt. John Paul Jones, 
sailed for France in November of that year, and was in 
the engagement with the "Drake"; sailed again as Sur- 
geon of the "Ranger" two years later, and in 1780 as Sur- 
geon of the "Alexander," serving in that capacity until 
1 78 1, when his Revolutionary service ended. He was 
the first postmaster of Dover, and held the office several 
years. He was a member of the State Convention in 
1778, which adopted the Constitution of the United 
States, and was one of the founders of the New Hamp- 
shire Medical Society. 

Dr. Samuel Wigglesworth was born April 25, 1734, 
and graduated from Harvard College in 1752. He was 
Surgeon in Colonel Waldron's regiment in 1775-1776; 
Surgeon in Colonel Wingate's regiment in 1776-17^7. 

Among the early physicians of Portsmouth were Na- 
thaniel Rogers, Nathaniel Sargent, Clement Jackson, Hall 
Jackson, Joshua Brackett, and Ammi R. Cutter. 



All of the above were men of distinction and some of 

Dr. Nathaniel Rogers was born in 1700; graduated 
from Harvard College in 1717. Among his civil services 
was that of Representative to the Legislature and Speaker 
of the House. 

Dr. Nathaniel Sargent graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege in 17 1 7. He was a practitioner of renown. 

Dr. Clement Jackson was one of the most eminent 
physicians of Portsmouth for many years. His practice 
was extensive. He died in 1788, at the age of 83. 

Dr. Hall Jackson, a son of Dr. Clement Jackson, was 
born in Portsmouth about 1739; completed his medical 
education in the hospitals of London, and afterwards 
became distinguished in his profession. Several hospitals 
for inoculating smallpox were placed in his charge. He 
received an honorary degree of ^l. D. from Harvard; was 
one of the charter members of the Xew Hampshire ]\Ied- 
ical Society. He was an ardent patriot, taking personal 
command of an artillery company having three brass 

Dr. Joshua Brackett was born in Greenland INIay, 1733; 
graduated from Harvard College in 1752. He first stud- 
ied theology, afterwards medicine. His ability as a physi- 
cian was recognized to the extent that he was made an 
honorary member of the Massachusetts Medical Society 
in 1783, and received an honorary degree from Harvard 
in 1792. He was first Vice President of the New Hamp- 
shire Medical Society, and in 1793 was elected its presi- 
dent. He had the largest medical library in the state, 
consisting of one hundred and forty volumes, which he 
presented to the New Hampshire Medical Society. He 
was appointed judge of the ^Maritime Court for this state 
at the time of the Revolution, and held that ofifice until the 
duties of it were transferred to the District Court. He 
died in 1802. 



Dr. Ammi R. Cutter was born in 1735; graduated from 
Harvard College in 1752. After the completion of his 
medical studies he was appointed surgeon of a regiment 
raised to oppose the French and Indians, and continued 
with his regiment on the frontier until they were or- 
dered to Cape Breton. He was at the capture of Louis- 
burg in 1758. He was invited to accept the office of 
Consul under the Royal Government, but declined because 
it would interfere with his professional duties. In 1777, 
he assumed charge of the medical dq^artment of the 
Northern army, with which he remained until the sur- 
render of General Burgoyne. He was delegate to the 
Convention that formed the Constitution of New Hamp- 
shire. He was several years president of the New Hamp- 
shire Medical Society. 

During this early period there resided at Kingston 
Drs. Thomas Green, Amos Gale and Josiah Bartlett. 

Thomas Green and Amos Gale were both distinguished 
in their profession, as indeed was the Gale famih', on 
account of the number of physicians bearing that name. 

Josiah Bartlett was not only a distinguished practi- 
tioner of medicine, but was even more distinguished as 
a statesman, whose first thought was the welfare of 
the province and the state. He was born in Kingston 
in 1729, and at the age of twenty-one began in 
Kingston, where he became one of the foremost prac- 
titioners of the state. He was the founder of the 
New Hampshire Medical Society, which received its 
charter through his efforts in 1791. In public and 
political life he exerted a great influence for the welfare 
of the state, first appearing in public as a representa- 
tive to the legislature of the province of New Hamp- 
shire. He was a member of the committee of safety; 
was chosen one of the delegates to the general con- 
gress in Philadelphia in 1744, but declined election; 
the following year he was appointed to command a 



regiment by the first provincial congress, of which 
Dr. Matthew Thornton was president; the same year he 
was chosen to the continental congress, and was re- 
elected the following year and signed the Declaration of 
Independence; in 1779, was appointed chief justice of 
the court of common pleas; in 1782, was promoted to be 
justice of the superior court, and in 1788, made chief jus- 
tice of the state. He also served as president of New 
Hampshire, and afterwards was elected first governor. 
He was a great man, far-sighted, and thoroughly trusted 
by the people. His influence for the welfare of the state 
was second to no man living during that trying period. 

Ebenezer Thompson of Durham, born in 1737 O. S., 
through civil preferment, left the practice of medicine 
for the service of the state and country. He was a man 
of marked ability, and rose step by step through various 
official positions to that of judge of the superior court. 
During the Revolutionary period he held the three im- 
portant offices of councillor, member of the committee of 
safety, and secretary of state. In 1778, he was chosen 
representative to the continental congress. He held the 
position of special justice of the superior court, clerk of 
the court of common pleas, representative to the general 
court, justice of the inferior court of common pleas, and, 
finally, justice of the superior court. He was one of the 
presidential electors when Washington was chosen 

In Londonderry' there resided another physician of note, 
and a patriot whose name, like that of Josiah Bartlett, 
will be forever perpetuated in the history of the country, 
IMatthew Thornton, New Hampshire's other signer of 
the Declaration of Independence. He was bom in Ire- 
land about 1 7 14; came to this country when an infant; 
received an academical education; studied medicine and 
commenced practice in Londonderry, where he acquired 
an extensive and well merited reputation as a physician 



and surgeon as well as the distinction of being an ag- 
gressive and public-spirited patriot. Dr. Thornton par- 
ticipated in the perils of the expedition against Louis- 
burg as surgeon of the New Hampshire division of the 
army. At the beginning of the Revolutionary War he 
held the rank of colonel in the militia. He was also 
commissioned justice of the peace under the administra- 
tion of Benning Wentworth. In 1775, when the British 
government was dissolved and the provincial government 
formed for temporary purposes, he was appointed first 
president. In T776, he was elected Speaker of the general 
assembly, and was appointed by the house of representa- 
tives a delegate to represent the state of New Hampshire 
in congress. The same year he was appointed judge of 
the superior court of New Hampshire, which ofifice he 
held till 1782. He had previously received the appomt- 
ment of chief justice of the court of common pleas. 
After the close of the Revolution, he served as a member 
of the general court, and also as a member of the senate. 

Dr. Isaac Thom was one of the earlier distinguished 
physicians of the state. Born at Windham in 1746; com- 
menced practice in that town, but later removed to Lon- 
donderry. He was prominent in public affairs. Aside 
from minor offices, he was a member of the committee of 
safety during the Revolution; was justice of the peace, 
and the first postmaster of Londonderry, and one of the 
charter members of the New Hampshire Medical Society. 

Another physician who did much for the independence 
oi the country was Henry Dearborn, who was born in 
Hampton in 1751, and settled in Nottingham as a physi- 
cian in 1772. Upon the news of the Battle of Lexington 
he marched with sixty volunteers to the scene of action; 
on the seventeenth of June he marched tO' Bunker Hill 
with his company under Stark, and fought most bravely 
under the eye of that general. In September he joined 
Arnold's expedition through the wilds of Maine and 



Canada. In the assault on Quebec he was taken prisoner; 
was exchanged in ]\Iarch, 1777, and appointed Major in 
Scanneh's regiment; he was in the battle of Stillwater and 
Saratoga, and fought with such ability as to be noticed in 
orders by General Gates. He was with General Sullivan 
in his expedition against the Indians in 1799, and was 
in Yorktown at the surrender of Cornwallis. After the 
war he settled in Maine, where he was marshal by ap- 
pointment of W^ashington. He was a member of Con- 
gress two terms; secretary of war under Jefferson; col- 
lector of the port of Boston; in 1812 was appointed major 
general in the army of the United States, was captured 
at York in Canada, and Fort George at the mouth of the 
Niagara; he was recalled in July, 1813, put in command 
of the Military District of New York City; in 1822 he 
was appointed by President Monroe, Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to Portugal. 

Dr. Moses Nichols, another physician prominent in 
civil and military life, commenced the practice of medi- 
cine in Amherst about 1761; served as representative to 
the general court; took an active interest in the popular 
cause, and in 1776 was appointed colonel of the Fifth 
regiment. He commanded the right wing of Stark's 
army at Bennington. In 1778 he was with General Sul- 
livan in Rhode Island; two years later was in command 
of the regiment at West Point at the time of Arnold's 
treason. At the close of the war he was appointed Brig- 
adier-General of the Fourth Brigade of the New Hamp- 
shire militia. He held the office of register of deeds for 
Hillsborough County for several years. 

Rev. James Scales, who practised medicine as well as 
preached, was undoubtedly the first practitioner in the 
territory now embraced by Merrimack County. He re- 
sided in Canterbury, but his practice extended to Hcp- 
kinton, Rumford, and other towns. 

Dr. Ezra Carter was probably the first physician to 



settle ill Concord, locating there in 1740. He was an able 
physician and a man of fine character, and of great be- 

The limits of this article will not permit biographical 
references to many other physicians whose influence was 
strongly felt in their respective communities during the 
more trying period in the history of the province and of 
the state; but enough has been shown already to indicate 
the immense influence that was exerted for the public 
good on the part of the medical protcssion. We must, 
however, make mere mention of a few others, among 
which was ^Villiam Cogswell, of Atkinson, who rendered 
service as a surgeon during the Revolution, 

Benjamin Page, who was born in Kingston in 1742; 
a heroic surgeon, who was present at Bunker Hill, Ticon- 
deroga, Bennington, etc. At the Battle of Bennington 
he took command of a company after its captain was dis- 
abled, and won especial commendation for his bravery. 

William Page practised many years in Charlestown; 
served as colonel of the Militia; member of the general 
court and state senator. 

Samuel Tenney, who was a brave and accomplished 
physician of Exeter, and who, when the war broke out, 
.hastened to Bunker Hill and arrived in season to assist 
the wounded. He served as surgeon in the Revolution, 
and was present at the surrender of Burgoyne and Corn- 
wallis. He was a member of the convention for forming 
the state constitution in 1791; in 1793 was appointed 
judge of probate for Rockingham county, which posi- 
tion he held till 1800 when he was elected to congress 
and served three terms. He was a member of various 
scientific and literary societies, and contributed valuable 
articles to the press in favor of the Federal constitution, 
in 1788. 

George Sparhawk graduated at Harvard in 1777, and 
settled at Walpole. He was a man recognized for his 



ability in that section of the state. He was twice stare 

These, and many others who ought to be named but 
cannot be here, btit reference to whom may be found in 
scmie of our local histories, were foremost among the 
men who defended the sparse settlements of the province 
against the relentless savages as well as disease, and who 
largely shaped the destinies of the state. The interest 
and influence which was exerted by the medical profes- 
sion in its tr}-ing provincial period and early statehood 
have never abated, nor has the profession lessened its in- 
terest or its influence in the welfare of the commonwealth, 
even to the present time. As state btiilders, the medical 
profession must, as shown bj^ history, hold a rank second 
to that of no other. It would be a gisrantic task to sfo over 
the histon.- of Xew Hampshire from the Revolution to 
the present time, and show to what extent members of 
the medical profession have figured in the evoits that 
have transpired. There is no ci^-il or political office, prob- 
ably, that has not been held by physicians, from a justice 
of the peace to a United States senator. The State legis- 
lattu^e always has representatives from the medical pro- 
fession; ntunerous physicians have been elected to the 
United States Congress; three, Josiah Bartlett, Da^-id L. 
Morrill, and Xoah 2klartin, have been governors of the 
state; many have sened their state and country" in a mil- 
itary c^)acity. 

During the provincial period, the great majority of the 
practitioners of medicine were deSdait in professional 
education, through lack of opportunity, and there was but 
httle general intelligence among the people regarding 
medical matters, with perhaps a few exceptions, ana 
these indeed were notable. The early practitioner ob- 
tained his medical knowledge from reading a limited 
number of medical works, from the standpoint of to-day 
crude and rudimentan.-, and a few months" obser\-ation of 



disease and its treatment under the tutorship of a prac- 
tising- physician. There were some who did not serve this 
superficial term of study and observation, but with very 
limited and doubtful knowledge secured from one or two 
books, assumed the title of "Dr." with a conscientious 
belief that they were performing a public duty as well as 
a humanitarian service. Nevertheless, the doctor was a 
man of great consequence in the community, second only 
to the minister. This exalted and dignified position m 
the estimation of the people probably arose, not so much 
from his medical attainments as from the fact that he was 
usually a man of great strength of character, interested 
in all public aftairs, and a natural leader. This is evi- 
denced by the large number of eminent men of that pe- 
riod who were from the ranks of the profession. "A 
man godly and forward to do much good, being much 
missed after his death," the epitaph which Bradford gave 
to Dr. Samuel Fuller, the first physician to come to New 
England, was true of many of the earlier physicians of 
New Hampshire. 

In personal appearance the old time doctor was con- 
spicuous. His dress also indicated the importance of his 
position in the community. He wore a deep, broad- 
skirted frock coat, long established by custom, and it 
was generally ornamented with various trimmings, occa- 
sionally with gold lace; a long waistcoat, deep-pocketed 
with loose swinging flaps, hung over breeches or small 
clothes; hose, buckle shoes, frills and cuffs, neck-bands, 
and rufifled shirt front; a felt hat, generally three-cor- 
nered, completed the dress. 

His cocked hat, full wig, and ever-present cane were 
awe-inspiring, to say nothing of his saddle bags, stuffed 
with strange and nauseating drugs which he lavishly 
dispensed to his patients. 

Carriages were almost unknown before the Revolution. 



Travelling was accomplished on horseback, the doctor 
carr}"ing his medicines in saddle bags. 

During the colonial and provincial period, the fees or 
charsres for medical senices were exceedinglv low, and 
the physicians were pooriy paid, as the early settlers had 
practically nothing with which to pay their bills except 
the produce of their farms. The Day Book of the dis- 
tinguished signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
Dr. Tosiah Bartlett, kept when he was in the practice of 
medicine, between 1765 and 1768, embracing 312 pages, 
nearly all in his own handwriting, presents many entries 
that are interesting, instructive, and ver}- unique from our 
present standpoint. He received all sorts of produce to 
pay the small amoimts charged for services rendered. 
Credits of '"oats," ''merchantable boards," "pig pork,'' 
"hog's fat," as well as about all other kinds of farm 
produce. Sometimes he took a note, seldom cash. 

It may be said that, following the Revolution and those 
tr^-ing times in which the public interest was centred al- 
most solely in civil, political and militar}* affairs, medical 
men foimd time and opportunity to turn their attention 
to the development of the profession itself. 

In 1791, through the efforts of Tosiah Bartlett. then 
governor of the state, the Xew Hampshire Medical So- 
ciety was chartered, being the fourth state in the imion 
to form a medical 50ciet\% New Jersey, Delaware, and 
Massachusetts preceding Xew Hampshire in making an 
organization of this kind. 

Its charter members consisted of nineteen physicians, 
noted for their ability.- and interest in public affairs, most 
of whom ha^■e been mentioned above. 

' The first meeting of this society was held May 4. 1791. 
at Exeter. Ten of its charter members were present, 
among whom may be mentioned John Rogers, of Ph-m- 
outh. who made the journey through the forest on horse- 
back, and which attendance required several days, to say 



nothing about the physical hardship attendant on such 
a trip. 

This society, aUhough its meetings were small in its 
earlier days, and sometimes there was no quorum pres-- 
ent, through the efforts of a few determined and energetic 
physicians, it never lost its organization, and has grown 
to be a large and strong association, the annual transac- 
tions of which now constitute a volume of nearly 400 
pages. Its records are intact and well preserved from 
the date of its first meeting to the present time. In its 
ranks have been a great majority of the best educated and 
most reputable physicians of the state, many of whom 
have left a proud and enviable record in their profession, 
as well as in civil life. 

The New Hampshire Medical Society, in its devotion 
to the interests of the profession, organized district so- 
cieties, two oi which, called the "Eastern" and the "West- 
ern," being organized in 1792. The Centre District Med- 
ical Society was constituted in 1807; the Strafford Dis- 
trict Medical Society, in 181 1; the Western District Med- 
ical Society, in 1815; the Southern District Medical So- 
ciety, in 1 8 16; Grafton County District Medical Society, 
in 1820; the Eastern District Medical Society reorgan- 
ized in 1823; the Rockingham County Society organ- 
ized in 1824; Manchester Medical Society, in 1840; Car- 
roll County Society, in 1848, and numerous local medical 
societies from time to time since. The Portsmouth 
Medical Association was incorporated in 18 19; the White 
Mountains Medical Society in 1821; the Connecticut 
River Valley Medical Association in 1876. 

The New Hampshire Homeopathic Society was char- 
tered in 1852, and the New Hampshire Botanic Society, 
chartered in 1848, changed to New Hampshire Eclectic 
Society in 1881, still maintain their organizations. 

Prior to the Revolution, there were but two medical 
schools in this country, the Medical Department of the 



University of Pennsylvania, founded in 1764, and a med- 
ical school established in New York in 1768, and which 
was abandoned within a few years. 

The Harvard Medical School was established in 1783, 
following which was the founding of the medical depart- 
ment of Dartmouth College by Dr. Nathaniel Smith, in 
1797, during which year he delivered, unassisted, a course 
of medical lectures in Dartmouth Hall. The following 
year he was assisted by Dr. Lyman Spaulding, who lec- 
tured on chemistry. During the first twelve years of the 
school's existence, forty-five men received the degree 
of M. B. At this period the school was without funds, and 
was supported by the fees paid by the students; but Dr. 
Smith received from the college for apparatus, chemi- 
cals, etc., about $600 during that period. In 1803 the 
legislature appropriated $600 for the same purpose. In 
1809, the legislature appropriated $3,450 for the erec- 
tion of a medical school building, and in 181 2 a further 
sum of about $1,200 to complete the payment of the 
building. Up to this time the great work of establishing 
a medical school for the State of New Hampshire de- 
volved chiefly, in fact almost entirely, upon Dr. Smith, 
and it was through his constant and laborious efforts in 
behalf of medical education that this undertaking became 
a success. So marked was his executive ability in this 
particular work that, in 181 2, he was called to New 
Haven, Connecticut, to establish a Yale Medical School, 
and he severed connection from Dartmouth two years 

Among the earlier instructors in the Dartmouth medi- 
cal school was Dr. Cyrus Perkins, who became Professor 
of anatomy and surgery in 18 10. He was succeeded by 
Usher Parsons in 1819. In 18 14 Reuben D. Muzzey 
succeeded Nathan Smith in the chair of theory and prac- 
tice. Among other earlier instructors was Daniel Oliver, 



John Delamater, Rufus Graves, and James Freeman 

The list of instructors who have held chairs of profes- 
sorships since the earlier days of the institution, contains 
names of many able physicians and surgeons, too many 
to even mention in this article. It is a matter of history 
that this school has kept pace with the scientific advance- 
ment of medicine, and to-day stands as one of the most 
reputable medical colleges in the country, a fact in which 
not only the medical profession but the people of New 
Hampshire should take pride. 

Among some who became famous as surgeons we must 
mention Dr. Nathan Smith, who was born in 1762 and 
died in 1828. He began practice in 1787 at Cornish; 
afterwards attended the medical department of Harvard, 
and received the degree of M. D. in 1790. Four years 
later he visited some of the European hospitals. His 
interest in medical education has already been mentioned, 
in the founding of Dartmouth, Yale and Bowdoin medi- 
cal schools. Dr. Smith was famous in surgery, in origi- 
nating new methods in operations. He performed many 
difficult operations, some of which were to him entirely 

Reuben D. Muzzey was born in 1780, and died in 1866. 
He was a pupil of Dr. Nathan Smith. He held a profes- 
sorship in the Dartmouth medical school for many years, 
as well as in some other medical schools, while professor- 
ships were tendered him from several prominent schools 
of medicine. He founded the Miami medical school of 
Cincinnati. One surgical operation which gave him great 
fame both at home and abroad was the successful ligation 
of both carotid arteries. He was a bold and successful 
operator, and as such was duly recognized. He received 
the honorary degree of A. M. from Harvard, and LL. D. 
from Dartmouth. 

Amos Twitchell was another of New Hampshire's 



famous surgeons. He was born in Dublin in 1781. and 
died in Keene in 1850. He was a man of strong indi- 
vidual opinions, abhorred intemperance, was abstemious 
in his diet, and a bold and highly successful surgeon. He 
perfomied the operation of tying the right carotid artery 
successfully in 1807, eight months prior to the celebrated 
case of Sir Ashley Cooper, who was often, though erro- 
neously, credited with priority in this operation. 

AMlliam Perry of Exeter was another prominent New 
Hampshire surgeon, who was born in 1788 and died in 
1887, — almost a centenarian. He may be said, also, to 
have been the founder of the Xew Hampshire Asylum 
for the Insane. 

Charles A. Cheever. Josiah Crosby. Dixi Crosby. Wil- 
liam Buck, E. R. Peaslee, Thomas R. Crosby, Alonzo 
F. Carr. Albert H. Crosby. Alpheus B. Crosby, George 
A. Crosby and many others might be named who have 
achieved reputations as surgeons. 

For obvious reasons we shall not mention the many 
able physicians and skilful surgeons which are found in 
the medical profession in Xew Hampshire to-day. They 
are well known and honored in their respective communi- 
ties. In no profession, science, or art, has there been so 
great progress made in recent years as in medicine. The 
old theories of the origin of disease have been displaced 
by the discovery of the true cause of many maladies that 
aftlict mankind. The germ theory, which has been 
proven beyond all controversy, has led to the scientific 
management of such diseases not only for the cure of the 
patient, but for the protection of the country. We. know 
the particular gerni or parasitic fungus which causes 
consumption, the plague, leprosy, cholera, malaria, diph- 
theria. t\-phoid fever, and numerous oiber diseases: and 
knowing these facts, the profession, with the aid of the 
state in the sanitary administration of affairs, is able to 
cope with many of these diseases so successfully as to 



render such epidemics as frequently decimated entire 
communities in olden times, impossible. 

In the domain of surgery the advancement would seem 
to be greater, if possible. By reason of modern antisep- 
tics, the surgeon is able to perform with comparatively 
little danger to the patient, the most brilliant operations, 
such as once would not have been tolerated, and would 
have been in almost every instance fatal. Scientific ap- 
paratus of the most delicate kind has been devised as an 
aid in the diagnosis of disease, aside from the marvellous 
revelations of the microscope, and to surgery is being 
applied the astonishing revelations of the X ray, as well 
as the most ingenious mechanical instruments and meth- 
ods, for the saving of life and limb. The crowning of 
Edward VII., after his recovery from an operation that 
once would have been fatal, was the coronation of modem 
antiseptic surgery. 

There is little danger of saying too much to the honor 
of the medical profession of New Hampshire in any of 
the functions of life, social, civil, military and profes- 
sional. It has been tried by severest tests from the re- 
motest colonial period to the present time, and has ever 
been found a solid phalanx, with its front in the line of 
duty, in whatever capacity that may have been; and, as 
builders of our rugged commonwealth, the profession 
has a record upon which nothing but praise and honor can 
be bestowed. 


Bv James O. Lvford 

Seven years after the first savings bank was chartered 
in this country two were incorix)rated in New Hamp- 
shire. The Portsmouth Savings Bank of Portsmouth 
and the Savings Bank of the County of Strafford at 
Dover are the ninth and tenth savings banks in the United 
States in chronological order of incorporation. They 
are now in their eightieth year and are among the large 
and prosperous savings banks of New England. The 
legislative records contain meagre accounts of their birth 
and the newspapers of the day were silent on the subject 
of their organization. As early as 1819 an attempt was 
made to secure a charter of a savings banks at Ports- 
mouth, a petition for that purpose being presented to the 
legislature from the citizens of that town, then the most 
important town of the state. A bill was later introduced 
embodying the prayer of the petition, and, while it passed 
the house of representatives without opposition, it was 
defeated in the senate. Interest in the subject does not 
appear to have been very marked, as four years elapsed 
before another attempt was made to secure a charter. 
At the session of the legislature in 1823 a second petition 
for a savings bank at Portsmouth was presented. The 
bill prepared in response to this petition passed both 
houses and was signed by the governor without occasion- 
ing any public discussion. At the same session the Sav- 
ings Bank of the County of Strafiford was chartered upon 


petition of citizens of Dover, Somersworth and other 

The same motive which elsewhere early in the nine- 
teenth century prompted the organization of savings 
banks stimulated philanthropic and public-spirited citizens 
of New Hampshire to this worthy undertaking. It was 
to prevent the spread of pauperism by inducing me- 
chanics, operatives in factories and others to lay by in 
time of business prosperity and active employment some 
part of their earnings for accumulation against a time of 
adversity. As set forth in one of the early petitions to 
the New Hampshire legislature, the petitioners say that 
they "are of opinion that the prevention of pauperism is 
a duty more incumbent on society than relieving it, — that 
it is a greater benefit to individuals and to the commu- 
nity." Being a philanthropic movement, the chartering 
of savings banks had only to overcome the scepticism of 
their success to secure legislative action, and little was 
it dreamed by even the projectors that savings banks were 
ever to become an important factor in the business world 
and that from the accumulations of wage earners would 
come capital for the development of the state and for the 
promotion of enterprises in the West, then an unknown 
and uninhabited country. 

No safeguards were thrown around these institutions, 
the provisions of the charters being very general in their 
character. The management was left untrammeled to the 
trustees, who were expected to care for the funds placed 
in their charge without compensation as a duty they owed 
to their less experienced fellow-citizens. It was years 
afterwards before intelligent supervision was exercised 
over savings banks, and for nearly three-quarters o^f a 
century little restriction was placed upon the character of 
their investments. It was nearly forty years after these 
first New Hampshire savings banks w"ere chartered be- 
fore the total deposits of the savings banks of the state 



equalled the present deposits of the Strafford County 
Savings Bank. The increase in these institutions and their 
growth in deposits were slow for half a centur}-, and it 
was after the Civil \\'ar before their value was fully ap- 
preciated by the people. In 1850 there were but twelve 
savings banks in the state and one million six hundred 
thousand dollars in deposits distributed among thirteen 
thousand depositors, or one depositor to about every 
twenty-five inhabitants. To-day the ratio of depositors 
to inhabitants is about one in three, and the total de- 
posits in all savings institutions of the state is $54,621,- 

The first savings banks were mutual savings banks in 
which the depositors alone shared in whatever profits 
were made from the investments of their funds. The in- 
corporators annually chose a board of trustees, to whom 
was committed the management of the bank. The first 
charters were perpetual. After ten years some charters 
were limited to twenty years, to be renewed upon expira- 
tion by the legislature, but the practice was not uniform, 
and in 1883 the legislature made all charters of savings 
banks perpetual. In 1871 a new class of savings banks 
known as ''guaranty savings banks'' began to be char- 
tered. These provided for a permanent guaranty fund 
which was owned by the guaranty fund holders who were 
the stockholders of the bank. This gtiaranty fund must 
always equal 10 per cent of the deposits, and, if at any 
time it became impaired by losses, must be made up by 
the stockholders or the bank closed. The management of 
these guaranty savings banks was in the hands of the 
stockholders, who chose the trustees and who divided 
among themselves all profits above a rate of interest guar- 
anteed to the depositors. This rate of interest to be paid 
to the depositors was fixed in the charters. In the mutual 
savings banks there is no guaranteed rate of interest, the 
trustees determining the annual or semi-annual dividends 



and voting extra dividends occasionally from any accu- 
mulated surplus. In 1885 a charter was granted for the 
New Hampshire Trust Company, the beginning of a 
series of charters for similar institutions called trust com- 
panies, banking companies, loan and banking companies, 
etc., the general character of whose provisions was broad 
and indefinite. A claim was successfully made that these 
charters authorize the transaction of a savings bank busi- 
ness in connection with the other business of the com- 
pany. In 1 89 1 they were given recognition as savings 
institutions by the legislature enacting a law requiring 
them to create a separate department of their savings de- 
posits and making that department amenable to the sav- 
ings bank laws. 

Thus the state of New Hampshire has at the present 
time mutual savings banks, guaranty savings banks, and 
the savings bank departments of trust companies. There 
are forty-five mutual savings banks, nine guaranty sav- 
ings banks and seven trust companies with savings bank 
departments. The deposits of this last class are $2,650,- 

The history of the growth of the savings banks of New 
Hampshire is richer in experience than that of savings 
banks in some other New England States, owing 
to the fact that for years there was little restraint 
placed upon the trustees, and until well into the eighties 
the state supervision was but little more than the moral 
influence exerted by the bank commissioners. As regards 
the integrity of savings bank officials. New Hampshire 
will compare most favorably with any other state, the 
defalcations of trusted officers being very rare. The 
troubles of the savings banks have arisen mainly from 
unfortunate investments and lack of intelligent manage- 
ment. The third savings bank chartered in the state, 
that at Exeter, was the first to get into difficulty. It was 
chartered in 1828, and thirteen years later, owing to its 



'" "_" ''" ':""": ~'^. '-'"' ': ! -fjC'iC to lIiZ'z'^' ^'~-~. 

..-.,. -'.'. trustees t: : -- . 

pcssessiC'Ci of me b t^nk" and ck>s€ tip its attairs, b*iT ^e 

-.-T -^ -'- ,; lie Zxeter Z'- ■ '": ■" " ict by the 

legislamre in 1847 directing' : _ . . . _ -" c-f the 

state, o-r discotraty banks to make an p j^Tm ai e:: : n 

of "'"r -'-ings banks, and trocn this """"" - ' -. iie 
c: - -ers made reports or these . - i first 

to the legislature and afterwards to the gryvemor and 

C-'" - ' These examir ' - ' ere for a long time merelj 

f: : -he rtare '^•^■' -'.v engrossed the attention 

oi tne con' :-:e were superseded by na- 

tional bamc: ~-:—^ -■--. --'- ' / ar. Savings bank officers 
for many years regarded the work of the commissioners^ 
st^jerficial as it was, as an unnecessary interference with 
dieir btisiness. The comn::"- " ':-' -'-----■. — - -■- '■'''--- 
itj to enforce their rec: . .'ic 

had littie knowledge of tiieir. :ing m: ame 

of bank failures, when they ca^-- ... f-jc very foil 
ami oftentimes unwarranted criticism, Th^ were 
paid directly by the banks they examined tra.til 1883, 

and tiieir -— were frequently but for a siogle 

term. It -r of rears after the savings banks 

had become important factors in the business world be- 
f'"'- '' ': --'■■--: - - — - - - =:rvision was appreciated by the 
pr , ; r representatives in the legisla- 

ture. The tank commission dates back to 1837, although 

its ex.! --''.ns of savings ba-'" -' -; — '--r- -;-_tiI ten 

years : it was fifty yez: - is rec- 

ognized as worthy of ptiblic support, in 1888 the reports 

t^, _ ; ::- 

side, and m 1889 through the ettorts of tr. ^ - — 



ers a continuing- commission was created by the legisla* 
ture with a board of three commissioners, whose terms 
were three years, the nrst appointments being made so 
that the term of only one commissioner would expire in 
any given year. 

From this time dates the effective work of the com- 
mission. It soon acquired the confidence of savings bank 
officers, who cheerfully co-operated with the commis- 
sioners in their examinations and welcomed their sug- 
gestions. Together they wrought great improvements 
in the management of these institutions, especially of the 
smaller savings banks. In 1895 the election of the chair- 
man of the board to the legislature resulted in legislation 
for the relief of the banks from burdensome taxation and 
the passage of laws for the government of these institu- 
tions and regulating their investments. With some mod- 
ifications these statutes remained the basis of the present 
work of the commission in their supervision of the banks. 

Although the law prescribing the investments of sav- 
mgs banks dates only from 1895, not a few attempts 
were made earlier to have the legislature act upon this 
subject. In 1869, when the deposits had reached sixteen 
million dollars and the number of banks thirty-eight, the 
legislature passed a law requiring one-half the deposits of 
each savings bank to be invested within the state. This 
statute gave no end of trouble to both banks and the 
commissioners. It was burdensome for the large banks 
to comply with its provisions and the commissioners hes- 
itated to apply to the courts to enforce it against insti- 
tutions whose soundness was unquestioned. The banks 
most frequently violating the law were the most pros- 
perous of the state. Finally by tacit agreement both 
banks and commissioners ignored the statute. 

In 1874 a law was passed forbidding savings banks to 
invest any part of their deposits in the stock of any rail- 
road or manufacturing corporation. 



in 1 88 1 both these acts were repealed and a law was 
passed prohibiting any savings bank from loaning" to any 
person or corporation, firm and its individual members, 
an amount in excess of ten per cent of its deposits and 
accumulations, or to purchase or hold by way of invest- 
ment or as security for loans the stocks and bonds of any 
corporation in excess of such ten per cent. For the next 
decade this was the only restriction as to the character 
of savings bank investments. 

Before the repeal of the statute requiring one-half of 
the investments of savings banks to be made within the 
state some of the savings banks had invested largely in 
the growing West. Farm loans were then an attractive 
investment, promptly paying large rates of interest and 
generally reduced or paid at maturity. The prosperity 
of those banks which had taken large amounts of these 
loans, shown in increased dividends and increased de- 
posits, induced others to invest in that field. The dis- 
crimination in selecting loans by those first taking this 
class of investments was not followed by others who later 
invested in the West. So successful had been both banks 
and individuals in their early Western investments that 
almost any Western enterprise could be floated in the 
East late in the eighties. The investments extended from 
farm loans in well established sections in the \\^est to all 
sections and to all kinds of enterprises. \Mth the repeal 
in 1881 of the statute confining one-half the investments 
of savings banks to New Hampshire, the trustees 
promptly enlarged their investments in the West, until, in 
1890, with few exceptions, the banks had the greater 
part of their deposits invested in the West. Without 
avail the commissioners called attention to the danger of 
such indiscriminate investment. Deposits were rapidly 
increasing. The banks were paying larger dividends than 
those of neighboring states, and a tax rate in excess of 
that of any New England state was easily met. In 1893 



the volume of deposits aggregated nearly seventy-five 
million dollars, ranking New Hampshire as the fifth state 
in the Union in the amount of her deposits. These ae- 
posits came in part from other states, attracted by the ' 
rate of dividends paid by the New Hampshire banks, as 
was subsequently shown when conservatism influenced 
trustees to reduce the dividend rate and these deposits 
were the first withdrawn. 

Considerable defaults in payments of interest and prin- 
cipal of Western mvestments began as early as 1888, in- 
dicative of wliat miglit be expected, but it was not until 
1 89 1 that the legislatiu^e could be induced to act, and then 
only through a commission authorized to revise the stat- 
utes of the state. A tentative measure to limit invest- 
ments introduced in the legislature early in the session 
was indefinitely postponed by the house on the report of 
the bank committee made up largely of banking men. 
Later the commission to revise the statutes was induced 
by the bank commissioners to incorporate with their 
amendments of the statutes one prohibiting certain in- 
vestments of savings banks and limiting others. This 
measure, although far from being what the times de- 
manded, was vigorously opposed by bank men and would 
have been defeated had it been separated from other 
aniendments to the public statutes which the legislature 
finally adopted as an entirety. 

For four years more no attempt at legislation affecting 
savings bank investments was made. In the mean time 
the panic of 1893 had occurred, and with it came the sus- 
pension of a considerable number of savings institutions. 
When, therefore, measures were presented to the legisla- 
ture of 1895 to safeguard the interests of savings deposit- 
ors, they were passed as presented with little material 
amendment. The wisdom of the legislation of 1895 has 
never been questioned. The statute then enacted to regu- 
late the management of savings banks has not been 



changed, and the statute relating to the investments of 
savings banks has been amended only to meet the change 
of character of such investments. The principle that the 
legislature should prescribe the investments of savings 
banks is now fully recognized, although it took nearly 
three-quarters of a centurj- to convince the public of its 

Applications for charters of savings banks have not 
al\\-ays been granted. At times the legislature has been 
char}- in incorporating these institutions, and in 1854 it 
authorized the union of two existing savings banks, be- 
ing of opinion that public interests would be served by 
such consolidation. Xothing came of this act, as the 
trustees of the two institutions could not agree upon the 
terms of imion. Later when the fever of Western invest- 
ments was at its height, the legislature gave an affirmative 
reply to almost every application for a charter carrying 
with it savings bank privileges. Some of these charters 
were never used, while others brought only financial loss 
to those interested. Since 1895 no trust company char- 
ters with savings bank privileges have been granted, and 
savings bank charters proper have been of the mutual 

The losses to savings banks on account of \\'estem 
investments were considerable, and the most critical pe- 
riod in tlie histor}- of Xew Hampshire savings banks was 
on the twelve months beginning June, 1893. A number 
of banking institutions were put in the hands of receiv- 
ers, while nearly a.11 the sa\"ings banks in the state took 
advantage of their by-laws requiring notice of the with- 
drawal of deposits. Other suspensions of banks followed 
in 1895 ^^d 1896, but confidence had been partially re- 
stored, and later failures occasioned no alarm among de- 
positors. The passing of the panic of 1893 so success- 
fully by the Xew Hampshire savings banks, intensified as 
it was by their large V*'estem interests, is still a marvel as 



we look back upon this crisis, and it is a tribute to the 
confidence inspired by those bank officials whose institu- 
tions rode out the storm. The large loss of deposits 
occasioned thereby has been in part made up, and the in- 
crease in deposits thepast three years has been normal and 
healthy. Too. many savings banks existed a decade ago. 
If there had been no panic, the tendency of the times 
would have materially reduced the number, giving to the 
public fewer yet larger institutions and therefore better 
managed. Improved facilities for travel and mail have 
obviated the necessity which once existed for savings 
banks in small communities, and experience has shown 
that the successful management of these institutions must 
be in the hands of men in daily contact with the business 
world. The future of the New Hampshire savings banks 
is bright with promise. Depositors are satisfied with 
conservative dividends. Investments are more carefully 
made. Rivalry of these institutions in seeking deposits 
has ceased and the lessons of the past few years are likely 
to be of lastinsf benefit. 

By G. a. Cheney 

"Necessity is the mother of invention," says the old 
adage, but the histon- of mankind down through the 
ages does not warrant the conclusion nor justify its ac- 
ceptance. True it is that the march of civilization, since 
the days when Moses led the children of Israel out of 
the land of Eg}'pt and bondage, has been the march of 
invention, but anterior to this truth and proceeding from 
it is the still greater one that the Genius of In- 
vention is co-existent with an intelligent under- 
standing of human life and an adherence to the 
laws governing it. During their sojourn of fort\^ 
years in the \\'ildemess the children of Israel by their 
method of living came to possess not only healthy bodies, 
but sound intellects, because of their compliance with 
physiological law. They triumphed in all the fields of 
human effort, as brilliantly in the arts and sciences as 
upon the field of battle. The}- were the chosen of God by 
divine decree, but through the ageno.- of a right interpre- 
tation of those laws that govern the building of the human 
body and the development of the intellect. As the de- 
scendants of the Israelites the Rabbinic races adhering to 
Levitical law have ever continued a might}- factor in the 
progress of human life. Even,- individual of both sexes, 
regardless of social condition or determined aim in life, 
was taught to work with head and hand. Leaving the 
Rabbinic races for a people of the Christian era it is to 



be observed that the Dutch, as the inhabitants of the 
Netherlands are cahed, have won the grandest of successes 
in all things that are essential to human progress. The 
very land that is their home was won from the sea, 
lagoon, and lake, by labor that continued for centuries. 
Though their country was small in area and themselves 
comparatively few in numbers, they were yet a mighty 
nation, rich in agencies and means for the betterment of 
mankind that they by skill and research had either in- 
vented or discovered. In the earlier centuries men from 
Holland went to England and introduced various of the 
arts and sciences and stamped their individuality upon the 
national character and life. 

Other nations of Europe, past and present, were in 
need of the agencies of progress, enlightenment and 
strength, as well as the Dutch, but they were wanting in 
that deep religious spirit that dominated and permeated 
Dutch life. They recognized the Divine law that by 
work alone can a nation succeed and become strong and 
enduring. In brief, the greatness of the Dutch character 
and its long continued strength has for its explanation 
the fact that they utilized the faculties of head and hand. 
They toiled and thereby gained physical strength, and, as 
a result of bodily vigor they had sound minds, and these 
they strengthened and developed by the utilization of the 
mental faculties. 

Not only did Dutch life have its influence upon the 
English national character, but the first settlers of New 
England came to these shores by the way of Holland, 
and the stop-over in the land of the Dutch was of eleven 
years' duration, in which time the vitalizing life and ways 
of the industrious self-reliant Netherlanders stamped its 
lasting impress upon the receptive Pilgrims, who, like 
their hospitable hosts, knew and accepted that Divine 
law that inculcated the employment of all physical and 
mental faculties. 



When once their footing had been made secure upon 
the shores of Plymouth bay the Pilgrims, without delay, 
set about the building of a nation. The mechanical agen- 
cies with which they might clear the forests, build homes 
and shop and factory were of the scantiest nature and 
often times wholly lacking, but History nowhere records 
that there were idle hands or heads among the Pilgrims. 
Then the Puritans came in 1630, and Massachusetts had 
two colonies instead of one, but the people of both, liter- 
ally to a man, held that it was a part of their religion to 
keep employed head, hand and heart. The people of these 
colonies as their numbers increased pushed out into the 
interior of New England. They settled Connecticut and 
Rhode Island, for Roger Williams and his followers were 
of the same spirit as the Puritans if differing on points 
of church polity; and into New Hampshire went the 
purest and best type of the Puritan man and woman, 
and a century later came that strong and virile contingent 
known in history as the Scotch-Irish, and quickly there- 
after New Hampshire became one of the strongest of the 
American colonies. 

New England throughout its entire Colonial period 
and for quite fifty years following the Revolution, 
was essentially an agricultural community, but every 
farmstead represented almost every factor incident 
to the material life of the times. Beneath each roof 
tree was the diversified industr}' of the town of to-day. 
Each farm grew the flax and produced the wool for the 
household's supply of linen, yarn and cloth. The carding, 
spinning and weaving were portions of the domestic life 
of the individual home, and the furniture, farm imple- 
ments and kitchen utensils were for the most part home 
made. The axe, adze, shave, and above all the jackknife, 
were almost the only tools with which these things were 
wrought, but the skill of their production remains to this 
day an object of admiration. 



While it is true that the necessities of Colonial New 
England were great and of direst stress, still it is true 
in greater measure that they regarded it a religious duty 
to labor the livelong day with head and hand. The neces- 
sities of other peoples have been as great, yet they have 
ceased to exist or at least degenerated because they did 
not toil and spin. It was the utilization of their physical 
and mental faculties that won for the people of Colonial 
New England their success and that made Puritan New 
England the Genesis of American invention. 

It was the continued use of the jackknife that cul- 
minated in the production of that multitude of articles 
that the whole world long since designated as "Yankee 
notions," and New Hampshire, primarily Puritan but 
enriched, strengthened and vitalized by that generous m- 
fusion of Scotch-Irish blood, has from first to last played 
a mighty part in the story of the development of indus- 
trial America, the greatness of which growth is the mar- 
vel of the world. 

New Hampshire's early settlers souglit, as did those of 
other New England provinces and colonies, for deposits 
of iron and other of the baser metals. John Winthrop, Jr., 
who came to Massachusetts Bay with the then large sum 
of one thousand pounds sterling or five thousand dol- 
lars as it would be termed to-day, was the industrial king 
of his day. The Great and General Court of Massachu- 
setts Bay granted him enormous subsidies in the form of 
land grants if he would but find his iron and erect fur- 
naces. He explored every known section of the then 
New England, but the only furnace of any particular 
account and permanency was one he erected in one of the 
towns near Boston. An attempt was also made to erect 
salt works at Portsmouth, but the clearing of the forests 
and the manufactures of the individual households com- 
prehended the principal efforts along this line for not a 
few decades succeeding- the settlement of the province. 



The erection of saw mills and grist n^ills were of tirst 
and vital concern to the settlers, the first to furnish ma- 
terial for farm buildings and the second for the grind- 
ing of com, r}-e,, and oats. It was not until nearly a cen- 
tur\- had passed that wheat culture succeeded either in 
^Massachusetts or New Hampshire. Indian com was the 
great food dependence, and the remoter settlements in the 
province depended upon the home grinding of this for a 
supply. Sometimes a stone mortar was the means for its 
grinding or rather its pounding into meal, but the more 
frequent means was the hollowing out of a stump of a 
tree cut at the required height, while the pounding was 
done by the pulling down of a strong young sapling to 
which a weight was attached. The natural rebound of the 
tree aided in the work of grinding. The rye and Indian 
com of the forefathers were foods natural and complete 
in their organizations, and so built the bodies of the grow- 
ing generation. Their teeth remained with them to old 
age and the grave, and they never became prematurely 
aged as is the case with the American people of to-day. 

Fortimately for the earlier settlers, the province 
abounded with water power. Streams of var>-ing size 
were ever}-where available for the erection of saw mills 
and grist mills to which were added later mills for the 
fulling and dressing of cloth, and tanneries. The tanner\-, 
which once came to be a part of almost ever}- considerable 
community, is seen to-day only here and there, and that as 
a large establishment, representing the present day idea of 
centralization of capital and labor. But the saw mill 
still remains, and its nimibers increase with each genera- 
tion, and its capacit\- is as a hundred fold. The possible 
production of the old-time up and down saw in the mills 
of the fathers was two thousand feet a day of the old- 
time Puritan length of fourteen hours. The resawing 
band saw of to-day has a capacit%- of one himdred thou- 
sand feet, and the portable steam circular saw mill that 



is planted everywhere about the state, anywhere from ten 
thousand to twenty thousand feet. 

From first to the present every farmstead is to some 
extent a lumber manufactory as well as representative of 
various other products. The boy who was born on a New- 
Hampshire farm learned the use of the tools of the 
carpenter, the stone mason, the painter and the leather 
worker, and their use developed the inventive faculties. 
He gained proficiency, and proficiency is progress, and 
progress is the result of the utilization of the head and 
hand. The old up and down saw gave w^ay to, the circu- 
lar saw, hand planing to machine planing, and likewise 
everv process of handling and fashioning lumber from 
hand work to that by machiner}-, and in these wonderful 
and astonishmg strides in lumber manufacturing New 
Hampshire has been to the fore. Her great areas of for- 
ests and her abounding water power were gifts of nature, 
and her sons saw their opportunity and trained mind and 
muscle that they might the better accept that opportunity. 

During the decade which ended in 1890 the value of 
the manufactured lumber products according to the 
United States census was $5,641,445, and the feeling 
prevailed that New Hampshire's forest resources w^ere 
nearing exhaustion, for the above values only represented 
the merchandise lumber of regular establishments. But 
in the decade ended in iqoo the value of the state's manu- 
factured lumber products was $9,218,310, an increase 
over that of the preceding ten years of almost double — 
or, to be exact — ninety-five and three-tenths per cent. 
The capital invested in lumber manufacturing plants in 
1900 was $11,382,114, and there were five hundred and 
fifty-three of these plants. 

In the same class with lumber manufacturing interests 
is that of wood pulp and paper. In 1890 the value of 
pulp and paper made in this little state alone was $1,282,- 
022, but in 1900 the value had increased to $7,244,733, an 



increase of nearly three hundred per cent, and the indiis- 
tr}- ranks fifth in the state. It is a manufacturing inter- 
est that in the past three years has progressed at tremen- 
dous strides and includes all phases of the pulp industry, 
A surprising revelation of the last national census was 
that the boot and shoe manufacturing industr}* of the 
state had passed the cotton manufacturing interests and 
assumed first rank. For decades preceding first position 
had been held by the cotton manufacturing industry and 
without apparent danger of any rival. The census reports 
of 1890 give the total value of the factory made boots and 
shoes as $11,986,003. In the succeeding ten years the 
value of the product reached the magnificent total of 
$23,405,558. This is an increase of practically one hun- 
dred per cent in a brief ten years, and is a growth rarely 
equalled in the histor}- of the industrial development of 
the country. Xor does the census of 1900 tell the story 
to date, for that states the facts only up to 1899 
as the census year ends with the "9'' and not with the 
cipher. Thus to illustrate: The census of 1900 was for 
the ten years which ended December 31, 1899, and not 
on December 31, 1900. Therefore three full years and 
more have come and gone since the last census, and in 
those years the shoe manufacturing industr}- in Xew 
Hampshire has grown as never before. Xew factories 
have been built and old ones enlarged and re-equipped 
with more effective machinery and to-day Xew Hamp- 
shire ranks third among the states of the Union in the 
money value of her factory made boots and shoes. In 
the decade ended December 31, 1899. the value of the 
boot and shoe product in Massachusetts showed an in- 
crease of less than one million dollars over that of the 
census of 1889 as compared to the more than eleven 
millions increase in X'^ew Hampshire. The city of ^lan- 
chester, for so long famed as a great cjtton manufactur- 
ing centre, is to-day the sixth city in the- United States as 



a shoe manufacturing community. The growth of the 
industry in the state has added very materially to its 
population, its general prosperity, and material well being. 
Everything indicates that it is now securely anchored in 
the community and that it will continue to increase. 

Diversity of industry is the sheet anchor of a state as 
well as a town, the safeguard, assurance and stability of 
its material welfare, and in this respect New Hampshire 
is indeed most fortunate, for within her borders are 
ninety-five distinct and classified industrial interests. The 
total number of her industrial establishments or plants is 
four thousand six hundred and seventy-one, having a 
total capitalization of $100,929,661. They give employ- 
ment to seventy-three thousand people who receive in 
wages $30,000,000 annually. The total value of the 
products of these manufacturing plants is $118,709,308, 
which means a per capita rate of two hundred and eighty- 
eight dollars to every man, woman and child in the state. 

Cotton manufacturing, so long the first industry in the 
state, is now, as said, the second, and adding the value 
of wood pulp products to those of lumber, it would come 
dangerously near being third. New Hampshire is the 
sixth state in the Union in the value of her cotton man- 
ufactures, which were in 1899 valued at $22,998,249, and 
of this sum Manchester contributed $1 1,723,508, or about 
one-half. Manchester itself ranks as the fifth city in the 
country in the value of its cotton manufactures. The 
total number of spindles in the state is 1,249,875, an in- 
crease of about fifty-two^ thousand in the ten years. 

But the people of New Hampshire irrespective of call- 
ing are under eternal obligation to its cotton manufactur- 
ing interests. It has been the strong foundation upon 
which the greater part of its material interests have been 
reared. Every avenue of its life has been quickened 
thereby. It has retained in the state thousands of its 
native born and brought still other thousands within its 


borders. It has added value to everv farm by creating a 
market for its products and the commercial aitairs of the 
state have found it in past and present their securest de- 

The conon manufacturing industn.- of the state had 
its begifming as early as 1803, when spinning Jennys 
were set in operation in the town of Xew Ipswich. The 
spun }-am was carried out to neighborhood families and 
by them woven into cloth. After a few years a spinning 
mill was erected at the falls of Amoskeag, Manchester, 
and in 1819 was introduced the power loom, and this 
led directly if not immediately to the utilization of the 
power of the falls and the building up of Manchester. 

As reference has been made to Amoskeag falls tribute 
should be paid, and that too without measure, to the 
skill, courage and discernment of that grand pioneer of 
2\ew Hampshire's industrial interests, Samuel Blodgett, 
who before the close of the eighteenth centur}-, began 
the building of a canal aroimd Amoskeag falls. He 
was sevenr\- years old when he began this then Hercu- 
lean undertaking, a fact that should ser\-e as a lesson 
that a man is never too old to enter upon a task for the 
betterment of mankind. For near a decade did this brave 
and enterprising man labor to complete his project, and 
succeeded before death claimed him. 

There are in Xew Hampshire forty-five plants for the 
manufacture of woollen goods, of one description or an- 
other. The capitalization of these is about Si 1,000,000, 
and wool manuf acnu-es rank as the thii d largest industr}- 
in the state. These woollen mills are scattered over the 
state and are not localized as are the cotton mills. Natur- 
ally the woollen mill is the modem envelopment of the 
hand card, the spinning wheel, and the hand loom of the 
older homestead. 

The popular name given to Xew Hampshire as the 
"Granite State" doubtless had its origin in the fact that 



so large an .area of her hills and fields consists of rocks 
and ledges, but these are not necessarily granite in 
the sense of building material. Strictly speaking, New 
Hampshire is less a "Granite State" than Maine, and 
probably Vermont. C'oncord is the greatest centre of the 
business, but Troy, Fitzwilliam and Marlborough in 
Cheshire county are all of great importance as re- 
spects this industry. The labor employed is for the most 
part skilled, and well paid, and the industry as a whole 
adds much to tlie general wealth and prosperity of the 

An industry that has been of long continued benefit 
to the state, for reason of division of labor in particular, 
is that of carriage and coach building. Although confined 
mostly to the city of Concord, it has been a veritable 
trades school, and men trained therein have gone into 
other parts of the state, and as skilled journeymen and 
manufacturers have spread the benefits of the enterprise. 
The Concord coach carried the name and fame of the 
city and state around the world. In its construction were 
employed the most skilful of wood workers, painters 
and decorators, upholsterers and harness makers. The 
ability of these men is of world-wide knowledge, and in 
one generation or another they have been a source of 
great and staying good to the community. 

It is this diversity of industry that has been, and is, the 
strength of industrial New Hampshire, and this diversity 
is really the result of the versatility of its men and women. 
The utilization of the faculties of head and hand began 
in the days of the Puritans and Scotch-Irish, and con- 
tinued through generations and gathering to itself 
strength as it passed from parent to child, has culminated 
in generations of men and women, native to the state, that 
have not only builded a rich, prosperous and strong com- 
monwealth at home, but have gone forth and aided m 
the upbuilding of other states and the nation. This drain 



from the state of her yoimg men and women has been 
oftentimes at the expense of home interests, but there 
IS reason to believe that this drain from the state of her 
very life blood has not only reached its height, but is re- 
maining on its native heath. The revelation of the last 
census that the value of the products of its manufactur- 
ing interests, annually, were in round nimibers thirty- 
three millions greater than in the preceding decade has a 
mighty significance, and the best of all its meanings is 
that Xew Hampshire's s<^ns and daughters recognize that 
she offers as great and varied opportunities for success 
risrht here at home as does anv other state in the Union. 



Bv G. A. Cheney 

Looking back to those years wf-ien New Hampshire 
was the new-found home of a scattered number of pioneer 
settlers, each with his own allotment of land, there was 
neither commerce nor manufactures. Each individual 
farm and home furnished food and raiment alike, and 
beneath each roof tree were fashioned the utensils and 
furnishings of the primitive home. 

But as the settlers increased in numbers and there was 
a smoothing out of the roughness and primitiveness of 
their original natural surroundings, there came about a 
practice of interchange of commodities between imme- 
diate neighbors, and this was commerce in its crudest 
form, but nevertheless the genesis of trade. 

The most potent fact, the great fundamental element 
in each and every original New England settlement, was 
the single, all-comprehending purpose of the settler to 
found for himself and children a home. The Spaniard's 
great purpose in the New World was the quest of silver 
and gold, and retrogression is the record of his life to 
this day. 

Home, that is the family, is the unit of civilized human 
life, and all that it comprehends is summed up in the 
one word progression. 

The pioneer settlers of New Hampshire, like their fel- 
lows in every other portion of New England, showed a 
resolute face to every danger, endured every hardship and 



performed every dun^ to me one end of securing homes 
that should be their own to the centre of the earth, and to 
the sky above. 

At first the exchange of commodities was limited in 
every respect, yet there was a steady, gradual and fixed 
growth, until a systen called trade and barter was de- 
vdc^)ed. This system pervaded every nook and comer 
of Xew England- Its very nature prompted individual 
e5ort. Hard cash, or its equivalent in paper, was not an 
object oi daily observance to alL Indian com was for 
long a legal tender, as were otfier farm products. The 
system of trade and barter made every man a trader as 
well as a farmer and manufacturer, and as he was all 
three in one, his every faculty was stimulated and de- 
veloped by utilizatioa. The system continued for gen- 
eraticais, and it was the Golden Era of American indirid- 
ual manhood, the kind of manhood that pushed further 
and further westward the bounds of the American re- 
puUic, that built new states and carried Xew England 
connnerce across the seas. 

■ In the growth of the state tie day came when there 
was a surplus of products from farm and household, and 
the finding of an outlet for that surplus was a problem 
up for solution. Such a condition had wisely been an- 
ticipated in the construction of those highways called 
turnpikes by private capital and enterprise. These turn- 
pikes were the forenmners of the railroads. Travellers 
upon them paid for the privilege just as the passenger of 
to-day does few travelling in a railway car. ^^'hile the 
toll pa^ving turnpike has long since ceased as a feature in 
the material Life of the state, the toll bridge is still a fact 
at least in two or three instances. 

Xamrally these tmnpikes lead the way to the pjrts 
on the Xew England coast, and those seaports from Port- 
land to Boston were the like natural outlets for Xew 
Hampshire's surplus products. Hither the farmers went 



with their loads of cheese, pork, beef, poultry and other 
products and exchanged them for dried codfish, salted 
mackerel, loaf sugar, molasses, rum and spices. The 
farmer was accustomed to make at least one trip a year 
to "market," but often twice, in the early spring and late 
fall. These joumeyings of the farmers gave opportunity 
for that ever-to-be-remembered feature of Colonial life, 
the wayside inn or tavern, that only disappeared with the 
coming of the iron horse and iron road. In these wayside 
inns the sturdy, self-reliant American yeomanry of the 
nation's formative generations exchanged the news of 
their respective localities and made known to each other 
the opportunities and possibilities of the ever broadening 
land. It was a great school for the development of the 
individual character. 

As the years were numbered off and the province and 
in turn the state grew in wealth and population the stage 
coach came thicker and faster over the pike, building up 
and developing in its later years a class of men destined 
to be the forerunner of that great community of to-day, — 
the railroad men. With the increase of population came 
the village with its varying phases of life and conspicuous 
among these was the village merchant with his store 
stocked with merchandise that included everything from 
a shoe peg to a goose yoke, from whale oil to the finest 
old Medford, from the tiny pin to the heaviest crowbar. 
To the country store the ingenious boy brought those 
articles he had so dexterously wrought with his jackknife, 
which articles he exchanged for a slate upon which to 
cipher, or perhaps some future preacher took this way of 
becoming the owner of a copy of Jonathan Edwards' 
latest sermons, or some future lawyer a copy of Black- 
stone's commentaries. Hither the little girl brought her 
sampler, her older sister some skilfully wrought em- 
broidery and the aged madame a bed quilt of blue and 
white, samples of which are still to be seen to this day. 



Ever}' one toiled, tor it was a constantly taught lesson 
that the idle moment was a sinful moment and that the 
road to "forehandedness" was alone through industry 
and incessant toil. 

The accumulation at the village store of the surplus 
products of the region required more frequent trips to 
the seacoast markets and by the close of the eighteenth 
century tlie amount of traffic over the turnpikes was 
simply prodigious. In the historical novel "Soltaire" 
which is descriptive of life in the White Mountain region 
the author draws a vivid word picture of that tiunpike 
travel as it was in the very tirst years of the nineteenth 
century. He recites the testimony of men who not in- 
frequently saw a string of teams that would cover a mile 
of the road at a time all bound for the Portland market, 
and this, be it remembered, over that "pike" that wended 
its way through the Crawford Xotch. 

By that skilful use of mechanical tools the Xew Hamp- 
shire man of those earlier times became no less famous 
than his ^Massachusetts and Connecticut brother in the 
prc-duction of those articles that went by the name of 
Yankee notions and he became no less shrewd as a trader 
than skilful as a manufacturer. He became versatile and 
it was this versatility of talent on the part of the descen- 
dants of the Puritans that has proved the sheet anchor 
of the nation and the source of its power as a great 
commercial nation. Progression was the law of his be- 
ing. \\Tien the limits of his own state became too 
narrow for his operation he went forth into other states 
and became a mighty power in the winning of the West 
and the Xorth-\\'est. He founded mighty marts of trade 
in Boston, Xew York. Philadelphia. Chicago and San 
Francisco. The Xew Hampshire man left his seat on the 
stage coach to become tlie builder of a railroad or to found 
transportation companies. The keeper of the old way- 
side inn moved on to the centres of traffic and population 



and there built the mammoth hotel, the wonder oi the 
world in its comprehension of comfort and elegance. 
Hotel management is essentially a commercial line and 
in this New Hampshire men, the descendants of the 
keeper of the old time tavern, are prominent the country 
over. In the summer they are in the White Mountams, 
investments of millions of dollars in their charge, and in 
the winter they are in Florida or Southern California 
directing like great properties. In New York, Boston 
and elsewhere they have proved themselves the best of 
hotel managers. 

These opening- years of the twentieth century present 
the commercial life of the state in phases radically differ- 
ent than those of a half or even a quarter century ago. 
For generations its retail merchants had relied upon Bos- 
ton for supplies, and whereas a generation agO' Manches- 
ter had scarcely a wholesale store it has in this year of 
1903 one entire section given up to the wholesale trade. 
Manchester, so long famed as a manufacturing city, has 
become an important commercial metropolis, the chief in 
this respect of all Northern New England. New lines of 
trade and commerce are in process of development 
throughout the state and former ones are gaining annu- 
ally. All of the state's leading industries are expanding 
and this means an expanding commerce, for in a certain 
sense trade is but the handmaid of industry. 



Governor of New Hampshire, igoj-igo^ 


Nahum J. Bachelder, governor of New Hampshire, is 
a descendant in the eighth generation of the Rev. Stq)hen 
Bachiler, who settled at Hampton in 1632. He was born 
in Andover, September 3, 1 854, upon the farm where he 
now Hves and which was cleared by his great-grand- 
father in 1782. He is the oldest child of William A. 
and Adeline (Shaw) Bachelder. His boyhood was 
passed upon the farm and his early education was gained 
in the district schools with a few terms at Franklin acad- 
emy and the New Hampton institute. 

After a brief experience in teaching Mr. Bachelder 
devoted himself to practical agriculture, gaining much 
success as a market gardener and dairyman. In 1877 
he joined Highland grange at East Andover and 
later became its master. In 1883 he was chosen secre- 
tar\^ of the state grange and filled that position with 
great credit for eight years, being then promoted to the 
office, which he has since held, of master. Under his 
administration the order of Patrons of Husbandry has 
made wonderful progress in New Hampshire and has 
greatly benefited the Granite state in general and its agri- 
cultural interests in particular. 

In the councils of the National grange ,also. Governor 
Bachelder has wisely exercised a great influence. He 
served for two terms as a member of the executive com- 
mittee and is now upon liis second term as national lec- 
turer. He has also been of eminent service to his order 


and to the people through his membership on the legis- 
lative committee. 

In 1887 !Mr. Bachdder was elected as successor to the 
late James O. Adams as secretar\- of the state board of 
agriculture and for fifteen years has so conducted the 
affairs of that office as to vrin the admiration of all who 
have become acquainted with its work. Since the estab- 
hshment of the office of commissioner of immigration 
in 1889, now merged in the office of secretar}- of the state 
board of agriculture, Mr. Bachelder has discharged its 
duties, with a broad grasp of present conditions and 
future possibilities which has attracted the attention of 
the entire coimtr}-. He has been, tc-o, an active, \-igilant 
and efficient official of the state cattle commission since 
its organization and has done great work in keeping the 
live stock of the state free from contagious diseases. An- 
other position which he has held to the great advantage 
of the agriculture of the state has been that of secretary 
of the Grange State Fair at Tilton and. more recently, of 
the state fair at Concord. 

In the establishment of Old Home Wedc Governor 
Rollins found in Mr. Bachelder an invaluable assistant, 
and it is to the heart\- co-operation of these gentlemen 
that the movement owes its unqualified and far-reaching 

Mr. Bachelder received the honoran.- degree of master 
of arts from Dartmouth college in 1891. He is a member 
of the Universit}' and Wonolancet clubs of Concord, 
Derr\-field club of Manchester and of Kearsarge lodge, 
A. F. and A. M. He attends the Congregational church. 

June 30, 1887, he was imited in marriage with Mary 
A. Putney of Dimbarton, and they have two children, 
Ruth, bom May 22, 1891. and Henr>-, bom ^farch 17, 
1895. In addition to their splendid farm estate at An- 
dover thev have a winter home in the dtv of Concord. 


Secretary of State, igoj 


EdAvard Nathan Pearson, secretary of state, and one 
of the most popular young men in New Hampshire, was 
bom in Webster, N. H., September 7, 1859, the son of 
John C. and Lizzie S. (Colby) Pearson. He prepared 
for college in the High school at Warner and the acad- 
emy at Penacook and graduated from Dartmouth college 
in the class of 1881, ranking with the very first in schol- 
arship. Immediately upon graduation he entered the 
employ of the Republican Press Association at Concord, 
N. H., as city editor of the Concord Evening Monitor. 
With the exception of one year spent in Washington, 
D. C, as teacher in a public school, Mr. Pearson con- 
tinued his connection with the Republican Press Associa- 
tion and its papers, the Evening Monitor and Inde- 
pendent Statesman, for almost twenty years, acting 
during nearly half that time as managing editor of the 
papers and business manager of the entire plant. In 
this period of his life he established a reputation which 
he has since maintained and increased of uniting in him- 
self grace and style, originality of thought and thorough 
culture as a writer with tried and true ability, industry 
and integrity as a business man. 

By inheritance, training, judgment and choice Mr. 
Pearson is a steadfast Republican. During his connec- 
tion with the Republican Press Association he was elected 
public printer; and in 1899 he was chosen secretary of 
state, a position which he has since filled with the greatest 



credit to himself and satisfaction to the pubHc. The char- 
acteristic of ]\Ir. Pearson's hfe has always been his desire 
to help, by word or deed or both, every one with whom 
he came in contact. In his official position he finds many 
opportunities for the gratification of this desire, which, 
added to his executive and administrative ability, his 
wide knowledge of men and affairs, his natural gift cf 
oratory and his aptitude in the management of public 
functions, make him the ideal of an officer and servant 
of the commonwealth. 

Mr. Pearson was for several years a member of the 
board of health of Concord and an officer of the associa- 
tion of boards of health of the state. These positions he 
resigned upon his election to the board of education of 
Union school district in Concord. He is a vice-president 
of the general alumni association of Dartmouth college 
and has served on the committee for the nomination of 
candidates for alumni trustee. He is, also, an officer of 
the Xev,- Hampshire Press Association and of other or- 
ganizations. He is a member of the Patrons of Hus- 
bandry^ and other fraternal orders and is a constant at- 
tendant upon the services of the South Congregational 
church. December 8, 1882, he was united in marriage 
with Miss Addie M. Sargent of Lebanon, and they have 
four children. 

Just entering the prime of life, with opportunities for 
wide usefulness all about him, and with a large and ever 
increasing circle of warm and devoted personal friends, 
Secretary of wState Pearson has done and will do much 
for his citv, his state and his fellow men. 



United States Senator frovi New Hampshire, igoj 


United States Senator Jacob H. Gallinger has been for 
more than thirty years a conspicuous figure in the pubHc 
Hfe of his state. He was born March 28, 1837, at Corn- 
wall, Ontario, descended on the paternal side from Dutch 
ancestry, and his mother being of American stock. At 
an early age with only the limited advantages of school- 
ing possible to be had at his home, he was thrown upon 
his own resources and early displayed that unflagging 
industry which has been the chief instrviment of his rise 
to favor in professional and public life. 

As a youth he learned the printing trade and for a 
time published a newspaper. The printing-office was to 
him at once a source of livelihood and a school, and there 
he laid the foundations for that wide knowledge of men 
and affairs which has since been so marvellously extended 
in the course of his remarkable career as a public man. 

While still at work at the case he began the study of 
medicine, and in 1855 he entered a medical school at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, whence he was graduated at the head of 
his class in 1858. Feeling, however, that he was not yet 
qualified for the active work of his profession, he devoted 
himself for the next three years to study and travel, 
finding means to defray his expenses by literary work and 
incidentally working at the printer's trade, and in 1861 
he entered upon practice in the city of Keene, where he 
remained only a few months, removing to Concord in 
April, 1862, where for twenty-three years he was actively 



engaged in the practice of medicine and established a 
large and especially remunerative business. 

His aptitude for public aitairs became early apparent, 
and in 1S72 he held his first public office as member of 
the New Hampshire legislature. He was re-elected in 
1S73. and in 1S76 was chosen a member of the consti- 
tutional convention. In 187S he was elected a member 
of the state senate and was chosen for a second term, 
serving in 1879 ^-S president of that b<xly. During the 
administration of Governor Xatt Head he served upon 
the chief magistrate's staff as surgeon-general. In 18S2 
he was chosen chairman of the Republican State Com- 
mittee and sened in that capacity until 1890, when he 

In 18S4 he was elected to the Forty-ninth Congress, 
was re-elected in 1886 by an enlarged majority, and 
declined a third nomination in 1888. In 1888 he 
was chairman of the Xew Hampshire delegation to the 
Republican National Convention at Chicago, where his 
political sagacity was well illustrated by the fact that 
he was one of the seconders of the nomination of the 
successful candidate, Gen. Benjamin Harrison of In- 
diana. In 1890 he was again elected to the legislature, 
and during that session of the General Court was chosen 
United States senator, entering upon his duties March 
4, 1 89 1. He was re-elected after an unanimous nomi- 
nation in the Republican caucus in 1897, and in 1903 he 
received the unprecedented honor of a ihird consecutive 
election for a full term, receiving every vote that was cast 
in the caucus. 

In the senate he ranks ^\'ith the leaders of his part}'. 
He is at the head of large and important committees, and 
is an indefatigable worker in legislative lines. A master 
of parliamentary law he is frequently called upon to 
preside, and his voice is potent, botli in speech upon the 
floor of the Senate and in private conference in the shap- 
ing of the great policies of his part}- and the nation. 



Senator Gallinger is a public speaker of wide repute 
and his services are in constant demand in many states 
in every campaign. The larger portion of his political 
activity in this line, however, he devotes to his own state, 
where no advocate of party policies is more eagerly heard 
or more enthusiastically welcomed. In 1898 Senator 
Gallinger was again called to the chairmanship of the 
Republican state committee, and was re-elected to that 
position in 1900 and in 1902. In 1900 he again headed 
his state's delegation at the • Republican National Con- 
vention, and in 1901 he was made the New Hampshire 
member of the Republican National Committee. 



Henry E. Bunihani. l'iiitev.1 States senator from Xev/ 
Hampshire, was born in Dunbarton Xov. iS. 1844. 
in the eighth generation from John Bnnihani, an emi- 
graiit from X'onvich. England, in 1635. His early life 
was passed upon his father's farm, and he prepared for 
college at Kimball Union academy. Meriden, entering 
Danmouth in 1S61, at the age of seventeen. He was 
gradnatevl with honors in the class of 1S65, having al- 
ready through the attainments of his college course given 
promise of the brilliant professional and public career 
which he has since pursued. 

He entered upon tlie study of law with Minot & ^lug- 
ridge at Concord, and concluded his studies under the 
direction of E. S. Cutter, at Xashua. and the late Judge 
Le\\-is \\'. Clark at Manchester. In April. 1868. he was 
admitted to tlie bar, and at once opened an office in Man- 
cliester where his unt^agging industry and his marked 
ability soon won for him an enviable reputation as a 
successful practitioner. His clientage increased yearly, 
requiring the admission of partners to the business, until 
tlie firm of Burnham, Brown & Warren, of whicli he 
was the active head, ranked with the leaders at the bar 
in all the courts of Xew England jurisdiction. 

From 1876 to 1879 he acceptably filled the office of 
judge of probate for Hillsborough county, but the temp- 
tations of lucrative private practice caused his resigna- 
tion from the bench. In 1873 and 1874 he was a mem- 



United States Senator from N'ew HainpsJiire^ 1903 


ber of the New Hampshire legislature, and in 1889 he 
sat in the convention called for the revision of the state 
constitution. In 1900 he was again elected tO' the legis- 
lature, and in that same year became a candidate for 
United States senator. Alter a long and taxing canvass 
his candidacy was crowned with success and he took his 
seat in the United States Senate on the 4th of March, 
1 90 1, where, although a new member, he has already 
shown marked qualifications as a safe and reliable and 
industrious legislator. 

Judge Burnham is a member of the IVFasonic order and 
has taken a deep interest in the affairs of the fraternity, 
having filled all the offices. In Washington lodge at 
Manchester he became an officer of the Grand Lodge 
of the state in 1885, and was elected Grand Master of 
that body. He is also a prominent member of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows. 

In 1874 he married Miss Elizabeth H. Patterson of 
Manchester, and they have three daughters. 

Senator Burnham's gifts of oratory are widely recog- 
nized. A clear, logical, eloquent, convincing speaker, 
possessed of fine presence and rich voice, choice diction 
and an effective manner, he won his widest fame in his 
profession as an advocate, swaying juries almost invari- 
ably at his will. In public life this ability has served 
him in good stead, and both on the stump and in the 
forum of state and national legislative action he has be- 
come a commanding figure. 



A recent addition to the ranks of New Hampshire 
citizenship, attracted hither by the unrivalled beauties 
of our scenery, is Winston Churchill, the distinguished 
novelist, who was born in St. Louis, Mo., November 
TO, 1 8/ 1. Receiving his preliminary education in the 
Smith Academy in his native state, he was appointed 
a cadet at the United States Naval Academy at Anna- 
ix)lis, Md., whence he was graduated in 1894. The lit- 
erary bent, however, Avas too strong -upon him to per- 
mit a divided duty, and resigning from the navy, Mr. 
Churchill entered upon a writer's career and attached 
himself to the editorial staff of a well-known periodical. 
His first published novel, "The Celebrity," met with no 
inconsiderable success, and bore the signs of that prom- 
ise which his later work has so well fulfilled, and the 
first permanent result of his emancipation from the edi- 
torial desk was that stirring novel of A.merican patriot- 
ism, "Richard Carvel," the first of a trilogy upon Ameri- 
can historical subjects, the second of which, "The 
Crisis," dealing with the Civil War in the same bril- 
liant spirit in which its forerunner had treated the Revo- 
lution, engenders the hope that the completing novel of 
the series will still further advance the fame of its author. 

Taking up his residence in the beautiful town of Cor- 
nish, in the midst of that distinguished colony of writ- 
ers, painters, sculptors and professional workers who 
have made their summer homes there, Mr, Churchill's 



Z * - rr"-^' " '■ in Xew Hampshire has pos- 

ses^r love and admiration of his 

: :izcns lo s.^ , :e?ter B. Jordan, 

i- .: -I of t'^ - -t : c-i.i 190:?. 

He was b r 15. 1S30 and there 

passed his K'vl: fi inces- 

-- '"- - - ■"- : .. :_: -: his 

„ . - ■ rsire TO ^ - . i. his 

V* ay inrcmg^n v. l. nion 

s.c2iemv at Mer. _ , . ^ ^ :.... .._ ._.:_- insiitu- 

-:r- in 1866, 

He '^ . "inee of the 

tC'Tmof ^ . . -5 " j_^ ^~ r. - :^ - In 

iS'SShevra; -i C-Crk of the c "'.tv. 

-i ver}" sat2siacL«;»niy. v f 

?■ ' ^ - - . ' : T vras 

- :--ed 

anc "V vear- - r-f Orc^". : 

Ej::kie\' ha- . r 

rssiv. . y yearf 



Gover)ior of Neiv HauipsJiire^ igoi-igo2 


for historical societies, and for the Bar Association, In 
1880 he was elected to the state legislature and in 1881 
was its speaker, presiding with impartiality, dignity and 
honor. In 1896 he repeated this success as president of 
the state senate; and in 1900 his election to the chief mag- 
istracy of the state followed as a natural sequence to his 
splendid showing in the other offices filled by him. His 
administration as governor will live in the records of the 
state as a period of happiness and prosperity in a well- 
governed commonwealth. 

Meanwhile he had served upon the staff of Governor 
Straw in 1872; had received the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts from Dartmouth college in 1881; that of B. S. from 
N. H. college of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts in 1901, 
and the same year LL.D. from Dartmouth college. He 
presided over the Republican state convention in 1882. 

Governor Jordan is prominent in ^Masonry and is a 
member of many historical and other societies, bar asso- 
ciations, etc. He loves almost equally his librar}' and his 
camp in the woods and courts those hours golden spent in 
either. He is in the directorship of two banks in his 
home town. 

Strong in body and mind, loving and well-beloved, 
Chester B. Jordan represents the best type of the citizen- 
ship of the state whose destinies he so ably guided as gov- 



Frank West Rollins, forty-fifth governor of New 
Hampshire and father of Old Home Week, was bom in 
Concord, Feb. 24, i860, the son of Senator Edward 
H. and Ellen (West) Rollins. He was prepared for col- 
lege in the public schools of the city, supplemented by 
private tutoring with Prof. Moses \\^ooison, and entered 
the class of 1881 at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology^, Boston. Later he studied at the Harvard Law 
school and in the law office of Hon. John Y. Mugridge, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1882. 

He practised his profession but a short time, however, 
finding his life work in the business of banking. He 
entered the firm of E. H. Rollins & Sons, becoming the 
manager of its Boston branch, and to it he has given the 
best fruits of his ability, sagacity, experience and enter- 
prise. It has steadily grown in importance and success 
until to-day it ranks with the best known and most firmly 
established institutions of the kind in New England. 

Into that portion of his time not taken up by business 
demands and responsibilities Mr. Rollins has crowded a 
variety of accomplishments and achievements almost in- 
credible in number and extent. 

Always devoted to literature he has made for himself 
a reputation as a translator from the French; as a novel- 
ist; as an orator of occasion; and as the author of a guide 
book to New Hampshire which has been characterized 
as more nearly approaching the completeness and reli- 



Governor of New HaiiipsJiire. iSgg-igoo 


ability of a Baedeker than any other similar publication 
in this country. 

In the New Hampshire National Guard he has served 
in all grades from private in the ranks through line and 
staff to commander in chief. 

The success of former Governor Rollins is as remark- 
able in politics as in other branches of his life interest. 
The first office for which he was a candidate was state 
senator, and he was elected from the Concord district in 
November, 1894. Upon the assembling of the legislature 
he was chosen president of the upper branch. In Novem- 
ber, 1898, he was triumphantly elected governor of the 
state and as such chief executive his fame spread from 
ocean to ocean and even beyond the seas. 

His greatest achievement, perhaps, was the institution 
of Old Home Week, now a fixture on the calendar of 
the state, and a festival whose significance and success 
will go on increasing as the years roll b}'. 

Retirement from the position of chief executive has 
apparently made Mr. Rollins only the more active in his 
endeavors for the welfare of his state. For good roads 
and for forest preservation he is working with able ardor, 
and already great results are in prospect. 

It is not too much to say that Governor Rollins, still 
a young man, is to-day the best-known citizen of New 
Hampshire; and that he deserves to be. 



George A, Ramsdell, g-overnor of New Hampshire in 
1897 and 1898, was born in Milford, March 11, 1834, 
and died in Nashua, November 16, 1900. 

His earhest ancestors in America on both sides were 
EngHsh emigrants and among the first settlers of Massa- 
chusetts. In 181 5 his grandfather, Captain WilHam 
Ramsdell, purchased the farm in Milford which was the 
home of the family for more than seventy-five years. 
His mother was the eldest daughter of Rev. Humphrey 
Moore, D. D., pastor of the Congregational church in 
Milford for a third of a century. 

After a course at Appleton academy, now McCollom 
institute, Mont Vernon, Mr. Ramsdell completed a year at 
Amherst college, but was unable by reason of ill health 
to finish the course. He continued his studies inde- 
pendently, however, and in 1857 ^^^ "^vas admitted to the 
Hillsborough count}'- bar. 

Soon after he located at Peterborough where he prac- 
tised for six years until, in 1864, he was appointed 
clerk of the supreme court for Hillsborough county 
and removed to Amherst. In 1866 he went with the 
court records to Nashua and there resided the remainder 
of his life. In 1S87 he resigned the office he had filled 
so long and faithfully and resumed the practice of his 

His honorable record was recognized by Governor 
John B. Smith, who, on the death of Judge Allen in 1893, 



Governor of Nezi) HantpsJiirc. iSgy-iSgS 


tendered Mr. Ramsdell a seat on the supreme bench; 
and by Dartmouth college, which conferred on him the 
honorary degree of Master oif Arts. 

Mr. Ramsdell's pubhc career inchtded ten years' 
service on the board of education, twenty years as trustee 
of the pubHc Hbrary and many other places of trust and 
responsibility in Nashua. In 1870-1-2 he was a member 
of the legislature, where he won an enviable reputation 
as a debater. He was a working member of the constitu- 
tional convention of 1876 and represented the third dis- 
trict in the governor's council in 189 1-2. In the Repub- 
lican gubernatorial convention of 1894 he received a 
flattering vote, and in 1896 the distinguished honor was 
bestowed upon him of a nomination by acclamation. In 
the election that followed he received the largest plurality 
of any candidate for governor in the history of the state; 
and by his administration proved that this trust of his 
fellow citizens was well founded. 

Governor Ramsdell was prominent in the business af- 
fairs of Nashua as a banker and as a director in railroad 
and manufacturing companies. He was one of the leaders 
of the laymen in the Congregational denomination in 
New Hampshire and was a 32nd degree Mason. A thor- 
ough student and facile writer, his history oi Milford, the 
last important work of his life, is a valuable contribution 
to the annals of the state. 

He married, November 29, i860, Eliza D. Wilson of 
Deering, and to them three sons and a daughter were 
given; Harry W., born February i, 1862; Arthur D., 
born August 2, 1863; Charles T., born July 7, 1865; and 
Annie M., born December 8, 1873. 



Rt. Rev. Denis M. Bradley, first Catiiolic bishop of 
Manchester, was born in Ireland, Fehniary 25, 1846. 
When he was eight years of age his mother came to 
y\merica with her five children and settled in Manches- 
ter. There the future bishop attended the Catholic 
schools of the city and later was sent to the College of 
the Holy Cross, Worcester, Mass., from which he gradu- 
ated. He then entered upon the study of theology in the 
St. Joseph's Provincial seminary at Troy, N. Y., and 
was there ordained to the priesthood June 3, 1871, by Rt. 
Rev. Bishop McQuaid of Rochester. 

Manchester at that time belonged to the diocese of 
Portland, and Bishop Bacon appointed the young priest 
to the cathedral in the latter city, where he remained 
during the lifetime of that prelate, serving during the 
last two years as rector of the cathedral and chancellor 
of the diocese. He continued to discharge the same 
duties under Bishop Healey until June 16, 1880, when 
he was appointed pastor of St. Joseph's Church, Man- 

Upon the erection of the state of New Hampshire into 
a separate diocese in 1884 Father Bradley was recom- 
mended for the new see by the bishops of New England 
on account of his zeal and services in parochial duties 
and his experience in diocesan affairs, gained at Port- 
land. He was accordingly apointed by Pope Leo XIII 
and consecrated June 11, 1884. 



Roman Catliolic Bis hop of JVew Hampshire 


Under his wise administration the cause of Catholicity 
has prospered wonderfully in New Ilampshire. He 
combines the rare qualities of leadership with great ex- 
ecutive ability and personal traits that have endeared 
him to hosts of non-Catholics, thus enabling him to do 
much towards allaying prejudice against his church. 

The first Catholic church in New Hampshire was built 
in 1823 by Rev. Virgil H. Barber, a convert. Ten years 
later another church was erected at Dover, and for 
twenty years these were the only Catholic churches in 
the state. In 1847 Rev. John B. Daley, a Franciscan 
father, began a church in Manchester, the Rev. William 
McDonald coming one year later, as the first pastor, 
completed the first Catholic church built in Manchester. 
The Sisters of Mercy, the first religious community es- 
tablished in New Hampshire, came to Manchester under 
Mother Francis Warde, at the request of Rev. William 
McDonald, in i860. At the time of Bishop Bradley's 
consecration in St. Joseph's church, which is now his 
cathedral, there were thirty-seven churches and chapels 
in the state and thirty-eight priests. The Catholic popu- 
lation of New Hampshire was about 50,000 and there 
were 3,500 pupils in the Catholic schools. 

These figures have now been doubled and in some cases 
trebled; in fact it is doubtful if any other denomination 
can point to such a record of rapid growth and progress 
in so short a time. To the parochial schools for boys and 
girls there have been added high schools for boys, acade- 
mies for girls and one college. Orphan asylums, infant 
asylums, hospitals, homes for aged women and homes for 
working girls are maintained. There are several con- 
vents of brothers and a score of convents of sisters. 

And to Bishop Bradley a great share oi the credit for 
this swift but solid growth and prosperity is due and is 
freelv accorded. 



John Butler Smith, former governor of New Hamp- 
shire, was born in Saxton's River village, Vermont, April 
12, 1838. His parents moved to Hillsborough, N. H., 
in 1847, where as lx)y and man he has since chiefly lived. 
Educated in the public schools of Hillsborough, and at 
Francestown academ}-. Has followed the business of 
woollen manufacturing, which was his father's occupa- 
tion. Is now president and chief owner of the Contoo- 
cook ]\Iills company, manufacturing knit goods, employ- 
ing two hundred and fifty hands, having stores in Boston 
and New York for the sale of its products, which have 
attained an enviable reputation. Such establishments as 
this in the hands of such men, of whom ]\Ir. Smith may 
be said to be a type, have done much to build up our state, 
and to offset the shrinkage in population and values in the 
farming districts, by the growth of the factory villages. 
Mr. Smith is president of the Hillsborough guaranty sav- 
ings bank. 

In religion he is a Congregationalist, of w^hich church 
he is a devout member. He married Emma Lavender 
of Boston, Mass., an accomplished Christian lady, with 
agreeable and winning manners, whose affability and 
womanly tact have been eminently useful to her husband 
in all the course of his business and -official life. Of 
three children born to them, Butler Lavender, the first- 
bom, died at the age of two years. Archibald Lavender 
and Norman are still living. 

Besides his manufacturing and mercantile interests 


Governor of New HaiiipsJiire, iSgj-iSg^ 


Mr. Smith is a considerable owner of real estate in Bos- 
ton and in various cities and towns of New Hampshire. 
He has, however, attained his prominence chiefly in po- 
litical and official life. In 1884 was alternate tO' the Chi- 
cago national Republican convention. Same year an 
elector on the Republican ticket. In 1887-9 member of 
the Governor's council. In 1890 chairman of state central 
committee. In 1888 Mr. Smith was prominent in the 
republican state convention for nomination to the 
governorship, but was defeated, Hon. D. H. Goodell, of 
Antrim, being the successful contestant. Urged to enter 
the lists again in 1890 he declined in favor of his warm 
friend and the more "logical candidate" Hon. Hiram 
A. Tuttle. In 1892, however, the "logic of politics" 
pointed very strongly to Mr. Smith as the coming 
man; indeed in the months immediately preceding the 
convention hardly any other name was mentioned in con- 
nection with the nomination to the governorship on the 
part oi the republicans. And so it happened in the state 
convention of the party in September, Mr. Smith was 
greatly honored by a unanimous nomination by acclama- 
tion. The campaign which fohowed was a very warm 
and spirited one: almost we might say the last oi its 
kind in this state, a kind which began with "Tippecanoe 
and Tyler too'," and continued through such campaigns 
as Fremont's, Grant's and the last Harrison's. Although 
the campaign of '92 had plenty of accessories of the 
torch-light and the drum, it was pre-enrlnently a speech- 
making canvass. Large and enthusiastic meetings were 
held in all the considerable towns of the state, and in all 
the cities, — and to such good purpose that although in 
many states where the republicans had been uniformly 
victorious they suffered miserable defeat, and in the 
nation the loss of the presidency and congress in both 
branches, yet New Hampshire made substantial gains for 
the Republicans. Mr. Smith was elected by the vote of 


the people at the polls, and the state legislature was re- 
publican, in both houses by an overwhelming majority. 

Governor Smith served in this high office the cus- 
tomary two years, '93-'95, with credit and distinction. 
Since that time he has held no public office, although 
several times named in connection with high and honor- 
able places. 

The real builders of our good state are men like the 
subject of this brief sketch, who have risen by sheer force 
of genius and character, from humble yet honorable con- 
ditions to prominence and influence in the community. 

^'4Wi 1^ 


Governor of A^ew Hai>ips]iii\\ iSgi-rSgs 


Hiram A, Tuttle, former governor of the state of 
New Hampshire and one of her most successful and sub- 
stantial business men, was born in the town of Barn- 
stead in 1837. From boyhood he earned his own living 
and made his own way in the world, beginning as a 
farmer and shoemaker. At the age of 17 he entered 
the employ of a clothing house, soon became the 
manager of its branch establishment in Pittsfield and not 
long afterwards the proprietor. For two score years 
and more he has continued this business, constantly in- 
creasing its vohmie and scope and earning far and wide 
the reputation of being as honest as he is affable, as 
enterprising as he is sagacious. Mr. Tuttle has also 
engaged very successfully in other lines of business, bank- 
ing, lumbering, etc. His wealth, his influence and his 
business ability and experience are always ready tO' serve 
the development 01 new industries, the increase of the 
material resources of his town, county and state. In 
Pittsfield he is a trustee of the savings i>ank, a director 
in the National bank and a trustee of the academy. The 
great success of a recent Old Home Day celebration in 
the town was largely due tO' his efforts and backing. 

In 1873 and 1874 Mr. Tuttle was elected a member of 
the legislature from the town of Pittsfield; in 1876 he 
served on the staff of Governor Person C. Cheney, with 
the rank of colonel; in 1878 he was a member of the 
governor's council,' and a year later was re-elected under 



the new constitution for a term of two years. Proving 
himself in all these capacities a valuable public serv-ant, 
his name was presented to the state convention of the 
Republican party in 1888 as a candidate for the guber- 
natorial nomination. This he did not receive at the hands 
of that convention, but in 1890 the honor was given him 
almost unanimously, followed by a spirited and successful 
campaign at the polls. 

Taking his seat in January, 1891, as governor of the 
commonwealth of Xew Hampshire Mr. Tuttle discharged 
the important duties of that position so faithfully and 
well that his administration will always be of good 
repute in the history of the state. Since its close he has 
devoted himself just as sincerely as a private citizen as 
when the chief executive to the best interests of New 
Hampshire. !Many positions demanding fidelity and 
ability of the highest order he has filled and is still filling 
in both public and private life. 

In ver}' truth one of the bulwarks of the community 
is Hiram A. Tuttle of Pittsfield, type of the best as kind 
friend, good citizen, public-spirited and successful man of 





There are in every community men who never pose in 
the pubhc eye; who attend steadfastly and successfully 
to their own affairs and expect others to do likewise; 
but who in any public need or emergency, on the occa- 
sion of any unusual demand for individual or civic 
action, can be counted upon as in the forefront of those 
willing- to do their part and to do it well. Such men as 
these command the heartiest respect and admiration of 
their fellow citizens. They are the bulwarks of munici- 
pal, state and national prosperity; the great leavening 
force that makes the heterogeneous units of our United 
States into the world's greatest power for good. 

The city of Manchester, the metropolis of New Hamp- 
shire, has fully her share of such men; and one of them 
whose name will spring at once to the ]ips of those ac- 
quainted w4th her municipal life is that of Frank P. 
Carpenter, successful manufacturer, public-spirited citi- 
zen, faithful occupant of positions oi responsibility and 

Mr. Carpenter was born October 28, 1845, ^^^ is 
therefore to-day in the ver}'- prime of life. He was edu- 
cated in the schools of the city of Concord, and to the 
foundation of learning there gained he has added those 
fruits of culture which can come only from wide travel, 
cultured intercourse and personal investigation. 

In 1872 Mr. Carpenter married Eienora Blood, 
daughter of the late Aretas Blood, whose name stands 



among the highest for honor and usefulness in the annals 
of the city of Manchester. To Mr. and Mrs. Carpenter 
two children have been born, Aretas B. and ^Mary E. 

For more than a quarter of a century-, or since 1876, 
Mr. Carpenter has been adding substantially to the ma- 
terial wealth and magnificent sum total of products of the 
city of Mancliester, as a paper manufacturer. 

In politics he is a Democrat of that school which 
stands for the old traditions and policies of the party, 
and does not follow tlie vain imaginings of some recent 
leaders. An example of Jkir. Carpenter s devotion to the 
best interests of his cit}- is his service in the difficult and 
responsible position of police commissioner. 

Mr. Carpenter attends the Franklin street Congrega- 
tional church. He is not a member of secret societies. 





The advent in earthly history of a strong and vigorous 
personaHty marks an era in human affairs, especially 
when the individual has a distinct capacity for leadership, 
and touches the life of the people upon a plane of vital 
issues. The rare quality of Mazzini's nature and mental 
equipment would have made him a conspicuous figure 
among his contemporaries, in any event, but for one of 
his endowment and ideals to become the inspired and 
inspiring leader of a great religious and democratic idea, 
was to date an epoch in the chronicles of his time. 

The nineteenth century has given to America a galaxy 
of rare and gifted women who have achieved distinction 
in the fields of art, education, literature and philanthropy, 
and won deserved recognition as the benefactors of man- 
kind, and to this number New Hampshire has contributed 
one, who in the uniqueness of her personality, the 
strength and nobility of her character, the keenness and 
penetration of her spiritual perception, and the patient 
continuance of her well doing, would have acquired an 
easy pre-eminence; but it is when she is considered with 
respect to the exalted nature of her message, — its signifi- 
cance to the solution of the world's profoundest, most 
pressing problems, — and the growth and influence of 
the movement she has inaugurated and of which she is 
the recognized leader, that Mary Baker Eddy is seen to 
stand quite alone. 



Her ancestors in one line were Scotch Covenanters, 
whose historic devotion to faith and fatherland was 
honored and preserved by their sturdy representatives 
who lived among- the beautiful and inspiring- hills of the 
Granite State. Capt. Joseph Baker, Mrs. Eddy's great- 
grandfather, was a prominent citizen and a member of 
the Provincial Congress, from which he held a commis- 
sion. He married Hannah, the daughter of John Love- 
v^ell, who made himself famous in the Indian wars as 
the ]\Iiles Standish of the North Colonies, and Mrs. 
Baker inherited a share of the ample acres which were 
bestowed upon her father by the New Hampshire Colony 
in recognition of the distingiiished services he had ren- 
dered. Their son, Joseph Baker, 2nd, Mrs. Eddy's 
grandfather, married Marian Moore, and a part of their 
"old homestead" which lay in the adjoining towns of 
Concord and Bow is still in the possession of one of their 

Hid away from the world's intrusion, these early 
settlers spent their cpiiet and thoughtful years in close 
touch with nature, "companioning with the sky." They 
knew far less of the world's fitful philosophies than of 
the Ten Commandments and the Golden Rule. Their 
habits were simple, wholesome, Christian, and their 
ideals, their impulses, and their integrities constituted 
the greater patrimony of their children, who were all 
made rich thereby. 

Joseph and Marian Baker had thirteen children, and 
Mark, the youngest, married Abigail Ambrose, the 
daughter of Deacon Nathaniel Ambrose, a prominent 
citizen and religious leader of Pembroke. They made 
their home in Bow, and here Mary, the youngest of 
their six children, was born. 

Mrs. Eddy's father was a man of the serious, asser- 
tive, intellectual type of his ancestors. Her mother was 



a woman of unusual winsomeness, of deeply thoughtful 
habit and gentle strength. In Mrs. Eddy's childhood the 
family moved to the village of Tilton, and here they were 
known intimately to one who has said of her mother 
that her presence was like the gentle dew, her character 
distinguished for its excellences, her thought the com- 
panion of great themes, and her life a daily illustration 
of Christian faith. 

The Baker home was a generous and hospitable one, 
a haven of rest for ministers, and as a result in part of 
its earnest religious atmosphere, Mary was led to think 
of the deeper things of life even at a very early age. 
The severe and sombre aspects of the Calvinistic 
theology familiarly discussed in her presence, her 
mother's earnest piety, and the habit of logical inquiry 
with which she naturally approached every subject, — 
these inevitably precipitated in the alert mind of this 
meditative girl a struggle between the creedal dogma- 
tism of her parents and some of her religious teachers, 
and the spiritual protest and assertive freedom of her 
own intuitive thought; and this struggle, both in its 
nature and its outcome, gave intimation of the signifi- 
cant part she was to assume in the cause of religious 

From early childhood she was impelled by a longing 
for truth, an instinctive adherence to all that is good and 
beautiful, "a desire," as she has said, ''for something 
higher and better than matter, and apart from it," and 
her mother's appreciative and considerate attitude 
toward her during her early experiences of the move- 
ment and impulse of the spirit within, encouraged her 
recognition of the value and authority of her own spon- 
taneous convictions, and of the importance of loyalty 
to them. 

• The son of Rev. Enoch Corser, A. M., who knew Mary 



Baker as a neighbor girl, has written of her at this 
time: — "My father, Mrs. Eddy's pastor, and for a time 
teacher, — held her in the highest esteem; in fact, he 
considered her, even at an early age, superior both 
intellectually and spiritually, . . . and greatly enjoyed 
talking with her. . . . She was about fifteen when I 
first knew her, and I well remember her gift of expres- 
sion, which was very marked. She and my father used 
to converse on deep subjects frequently, — too deep for 
me. She was always pure and good, and she stands 
out in my mind as his (father's) brightest pupil. I also 
remember her great admiration for him." 

In speaking of this period of her life Mrs. Eddy has 
referred in the most affectionate terms to the joy and 
inspiration of her associations with her brother Albert, 
who, though he passed away when but relatively young, 
had attained to eminence in his profession, the law, and 
been tendered high political preferment at the hands of 
his fellow citizens. He possessed rare intellectual gifts 
and a most lovable nature. He was greatly interested in 
metaphysics, and found an apt and absorbing listener in 
his sister, over whom he exerted a stimulating and help- 
ful influence. By him she was introduced to the classic 
languages, and quickened in that love of good literature, 
and those habits of close application, analysis, and dis- 
crimination which gave zest to her studies and easy mas- 
tery of her academic course, and which were destined to 
render such service in the advancement of her life work. 

To one of her sensitive, poetic mind, such a loving af- 
filiation and friendship could but be most nourishing and 
eventful. Intelligent sympathy is the sunshine in which 
refined impulses and capacities come to their fullest blos- 
soming, and in this respect the appreciative affection of 
her mother and brother supplemented the appeal of the 
gentle and picturesque aspects of that beautiful world. 



which compassed her youthful vision. Many verses 
written at this time express in fragrant fancy and spiritu- 
ally suggestive figure the delicacy of her interpretation of 
nature and of life. 

Mrs. Eddy's history as a non-conformist and champion 
of religious freedom was entered upon at the age of 
fourteen, when she was examined, in solemn conclave, 
for admission to the Congregational church, of which 
her parents had been active members for many years. 
In one of the autobiographical reminiscences contained 
in her little lx)ok called "Retrospection and Introspec- 
tion," she has graphically outlined the surroundings and 
circumstances under which a modest but daring girl stood 
by her sense of truth against the rigid theology which 
lier father maintained with unyielding insistence. The 
scene becomes well nigh dramatic as we see this gentle, 
retiring child brought before her sedate but startled 
questioners, and hear her declare in the fervor of a feel- 
ing so intense as to produce an alarming illness, that she 
is ready' to take her chances with "unbelievers" and 
hazard the dreadful judgments resting upon them, rather 
than subscribe to the doctrine of predestination against 
which her deepest spiritual convictions were in pro- 
nounced revolt. 

In the midst of her trial and her tears, Love's ministry 
was expressed in her mother's words of assuring con- 
fidence and tender sympathy, and there was brought to 
her "the comforts of God." The sustaining power of 
the divine presence was so realized that her perturbation 
and consequent illness were laid aside as a garment, and 
she felt strengthened and refreshed in the conscious- 
ness of her faithfulness to the voice within. Despite 
her unusual attitude and astonishing independence of 
thought, she was admitted to the church and received 
her pastor's blessing. 



We have but to enlarge the setting of this scene, and 
give increase of years and experience, of trials and tri- 
umphs, to embrace the stor}- of her after life's heroic 
stand for a present and demonstrable apprehension of 
Truth, as opposed to traditional and inetlicient beliefs, 
for the spiritual and saving sense of the Word, as op- 
posed to the conventionally accepted interpretations of 
ecclesiastical authority, for intellectual and religious 
freedom as opposed to contented conformit}-, and for the 
spiritual and divine as opposed to the material and 

Remembering her responsiveness to spiritual appeal, 
one can but think with what gladness she would have 
welcomed, and witli what avidity she would have appro- 
priated, at this time, that illumination of the Word of 
God, and of the duty and privilege of life, which, 
through her patient truth-seeking in the lonely problem- 
solving years, has now become the inheritance of the 
children of men. Her way of escape from the confusions 
of dogma, and the tragedies of human experience, lay 
through that region of awakening convictions which is 
beset by contlicting doubts within and denials without. 
Alone, with no one to imder stand, no one to guide or 
support in the hour of darkness, temptation and grief, 
save infinite Love, she pressed on through faith in Him, 
to find after many years a satisfying portion for herself, 
and to demonstrate for her brother man the possible 
fulfillment of a new and larger hope. 

In 1843 she married Col. George \\'ashington Glover, 
a prominent and esteemed citizen of Charleston, S. C, 
where she went to foimd a home; but her wedded joy 
was of brief duration. In less than a year death severed 
the happy union and she returned to her father's house, 
where, four months later, her only child was bom. The 
loss of her husband's property brought a burdensome 


sense of dependence, while the death of her mother 
brought increase of lonehness and grief, but the cHmax 
of her suffering was not reached until she was compelled, 
through consideration for trying 'family circumstances, 
to part with her little boy, who was placed in charge of 
a lady in a distant part of the State. 

Crushed but yet hopeful, and impelled by the longing 
of her mother-heart for sympathy and a home for her- 
self and boy, she consented to a second marriage, with 
Daniel Patterson, D. D. S., which proved most unfortu- 
nate and unhappy. After its consummation her husband 
denied her the anticipated joy of having her son with 
them, and made necessary the removal of the latter to a 
distant state. They were thus wholly separated, and by 
means of a false report, and a letter confirming it, she 
was led to mourn her little one as dead. Ultimately she 
was compelled to ask for a legal separation 'from Dr. 
Patterson, which was granted in Salem, Mass., while he 
was in Littleton, N. H., and on the ground of his adul- 
tery. This closed the saddest chapter that can possibly 
enter into a pure woman's life, and over which she can 
but cast the mantle of silence. In the furnace o^ bitter 
experience earth's proffered and alluring joys had 
shrunken to their native nothingness, nevertheless, in her 
fiery trial she clung steadfastly to her childhood's faith 
in God, and thus in the end the gold came forth more 

Loyalty to her own high ideals, regardless of the 
thought and conduct of others, was the Aegis of her 
safety. She longed ever for the knowledge of God, and 
conformity to His will, and she proved in her own dark 
days that "Truth and Love come . . . nearer us in the 
hour of woe, when strong faith wrestles and prevails 
through the understanding of God."* Li the loom of 
a common life, she was weaving a web "whose texture 

* Science and Health, p. 567. 



on the other side was more divinely fair"' tlian that which 
she saw ofttimes through tears. 

In all these years she was alive to every progressive 
idea, and was seeking for truth in many lines of investi- 
gation. The world's faiths and theories were looked 
into, their cup of promise tasted, and then removed for- 
ever from her lips. Allopathy and homeopathy were 
studied to thereby improve her health. General litera- 
ture and theolog\^ received much attention, and her pen 
was busied during many years in supplying the demand 
upon it for newspaper and magazine articles. More 
than all other books, however, she honored the Bible, 
which became her constant and quickening companion. 
To the faithful study of its teachings and meditation 
thereon, she traces her every spiritual gain. It alone 
pointed out and illumined her ascending path to the 
towering heights of Christian Science. 

The progressive steps toward a higher apprehension 
of Truth were taken tentatively as she found her footing 
in the relative obscurity- of prevailing belief and material 
experiment. Faith was feeling its way to understand- 
ing, and the physical basis of therapeutics was being 
replaced by an ever-strengthening conviction that the 
explanation of all phenomena was to be found in the 
mental realm. Medical experience and obser\-ation had 
proved convincingly that the drug factor could be elimi- 
nated from the healing equation without sensibly impair- 
ing its effectiveness, and the accumulation of confirming 
sense evidence kept pace with the growing realization of 
the naturalness and superiority of the spiritual healings 
of Jesus. In speaking of these first glimpses of the dawn- 
ing day she has said, "When the door opened, I was 
waiting and watching. 'Sly heart knew its Redeemer. 
Soulless famine had fled. Being was beautiful, its sub- 
stance, cause and currents were God and His idea." 



The climax of many years of prayerful seeking if 
haply she might find God, was reached in 1866, when, 
through a travail of suffering and of faith, she arrived 
at a scientific certainty that "all causation is Mind," and 
that this apprehension is practically available in the heal- 
ing of disease. Having experienced a serious accident, 
which left her in a painful and alarming physical condi- 
tion that neither medicine nor surgery could remove, 
in despair of all human aid, she turned with a sense of 
supreme need and childlike faith to her heavenly Father, 
and was immediately healed of her infirmity and arose 
well and rejoicing, to the astonishment of her physician 
and friends. The satisfying demonstration and con- 
sciousness of the divine presence were hers. "The Great 
Discovery" had been made, though as yet she could not 
explain the rule and order of Truth's appearing. "I had 
learned," she says, "that Mind reconstructed the body, 
and that nothing else could. How it was done the 
spiritual Science of Mind must reveal. It was a mystery 
to me then, but I have since understood it."* 

To the solution of this problem she now consecrated 
her life. Alone with God, in persistent and prayerful 
study of the Bible, she essayed to find for her fellowmen 
that expression of the order of Truth's unfoldment which 
brings it into saving relationship with the human con- 
sciousness, man's sense of limitation and of need. With 
ever-increasing clearness she recognized that Jesus must 
have been both "a natural and divine scientist, "f and 
that he acted in conformity with a divine law which must 
be continuously operative and correspondingly available 
to all those who through spiritual apprehension and 
obedience of heart become responsive to its demands. 
Jesus' assurance, "Lo, I am with you alway, even unto 
the end of the world," must mean that the manifestations 

* Retrospection and Introspection, pp. 26 and 34. 
•f Retrospection and Introspection, p. 31. 


of spiritual supremacy incident to the Christ Hie in him 
were to attend the Christ hfe in all who received him. 
for "to them gave he power to become the Sons of God, 
even to them that believe on his name.'' "The divine 
hand." she writes, "led me into a new world of light 
and life. ... I had learned that thought must be spirit- 
ualized, in order to apprehend Spirit. It must become 
honest, unselfish and pure, in order to have the least 
understanding of God in Divine Science. "Our reliance 
upon material thing-s must be transferred to a perception 
of and dependence on spiritual things. For Spirit to 
be supreme in demonstration it must be supreme in our 
affections. . . . The first spontaneous motion of Tnith 
and Love, acting through Christian Science on my 
roused consciousness, banished at once and forever the 
fundamental error of faith in things material. . . . Into 
mortal mind's material obliquity I g-azed. and stood 
abashed. . . . Frozen fountains were imsealed. Erudite 
systems of philosophy and religion melted, for Love 
unveiled tlie healing promise and potency of a present 
spiritual afflatus. It ^^as the Gospel of healing, on its 
divinely appointed human mission, bearing on its white 
wing-s, to my apprehension, 'the beauty of holiness,' 
even the possibilities of spiritual insight, knowledge 
and being."* 

Three years were spent in retirement from the world, 
before she began to conmiunicate her thought to others, 
and ventured to undenake the fulfillment of the Lord's 
command to preach the g\">spel and heal the sick. 

As early as 1862 she began to make notes of her 
meditations, and especially on the spiritual meaning of 
the scriptures, and the practical relation of holiness to 
health, but of these eariy endeavors to express tlie truths 
of Christian Science she has ^^TitteIl. they were "feeble 
attempts to state the Principle and practice of Christian 

* Xffrcs^c/iifH jhJ iHfrcKfJvcttam, pp. 35-3S. 



healing-, and are not complete or satisfactory expositions 
of truth. To-day, though rejoicing in some progress, she 
(the author) finds herself a willing disciple at the 
heavenly gate, waiting for the mind of Christ.* 

The first statement of her new apprehensions to appear 
in print, was a pamphlet entitled "The Science of Man," 
published in 1870. Later on its substance was embodied 
in the chapter headed "Recapitulation" in her monu- 
mental work, "Science and Health with Key to the 
Scriptures." the text-book of Christian Science, which 
was published in 1875. 

While the physical healing attracted the more immedi- 
ate attention, bringing as it did a satisfying assurance of 
the truth of her teaching to unnumbered beneficiaries, 
spiritual healing, the acquirement of the Mind that was 
in Christ Jesus, was ever emphasized as essential to 
immunity from disease, since health is but the manifesta- 
tion of right consciousness. Teaching therefore was 
regarded of fundamental importance, and that which has 
developed into a broad and inclusive system of instruc- 
tion was begun in 1867 with a single pupil. The number 
of students from all parts of America and from Europe 
had so increased that in 1881 the Massachusetts Meta- 
physical College was organized, and privileged by a 
charter from the state to give instruction in Christian 
Science Mind Healing. 

Of this College Mrs. Eddy became the President and 
chief instructor, and during the first eight years of its 
history about four thousand students were admitted to 
her primary or normal classes. In 1889, while at the 
height of its prosperity, this work was laid aside and the 
college temporarily closed that she might find undis- 
turbed opportunity for the revision of "Science and 
Health." Later, the College was reopened, and is now 
an important adjunct of the Christian Science move- 

* Science and Health, Pref. p. ix. 



ment. Its annual session is open to a selected number of 
students who have completed a primary course under 
authorized instructors, and who are recommended by 
their intelligence and their works to become teachers 
of Christian Science. 

Her marriage with Dr. Asa G. Eddy, a man of the 
noblest type, occurred in 1877. Their union was spiritual 
and blessed, and he was her devoted and effective 
co-laborer, both in healing and teaching, up to the time 
when he passed away, in 1882. 

Multiplied and ever-expanding events crowded upon 
each other in these early years of the history of the 
Christian Science movement. 

The first official organ, the Christian Science Journal, 
a monthly periodical, was founded April, 1883, of which 
Mrs. Eddy became the editor, pubHsher and chief 
contributor. To this has since been added the Christian 
Science Sentinel, a weekly, and Der Christian Science 
Herold, a monthly issued in the German language. 

The first Christian Science association was organized 
in Boston in 1876, and its growth and duplication 
resulted in a national federation of state associations, 
which was convened in Xew York in 1886. 

The first Christian Science Church, now known as 
"The IMother Church," was chartered in June, 1879, and 
;Mrs. Eddy was immediately called to its pastorate. The 
erection of The Mother Church edifice. Boston, ]Mass., 
was begun in 1893, and the building was dedicated free 
from debt, as is the custom in all Christian Science 
churches, in January, 1895. In 1903 Mrs. Eddy's 
church, The First Church of Christ Scientist, in Boston, 
Mass., numbers 27.796 communicants, and more than 
760 organized churches and societies, very many of 
them occupying splendid church buildings, witness to the 
presence and healing f)ower of Christian Science in 
unnumbered hearts and in many lands. 



In the midst of these many exacting activities, in all 
of which she was much of the time blazing her way 
through unexplored territory, and meeting with problems 
every day to the solution of which she had no guide 
save the illumined words and works of Jesus, Mrs. 
Eddy's writings are characteristic and original.' She 
has found time to make large contributions to the litera- 
ture of Christian Science, and has published numerous 
books and pamphlets, among which are The Unity of 
Good, Pulpit and Press, Retrospection and Introspection, 
Rudimental Divine Science, No and Yes, Christian 
Healing, Christian Science vs. Pantheism, People's 
Idea of God, Miscellaneous Writings, etc. Mean- 
while her fertile pen has supplied the ceaseless demand 
for association adresses, messages, contributions to 
the Christian Science periodicals, newspaper articles, 
etc., and has conducted a vast advisory and super- 
visory correspondence. There came a time, however, 
when the larger interests of the movement impera- 
tively demanded her freedom from the less important 
expenditures of time and attention, and this was found 
in the retirement of her simple country home at 
Pleasant View, Concord, New Hainpshire. Here she 
now watches with patient and loving oversight, and 
guides with wise and determinative counsels,' that 
advancing spiritual impulse whose waves are beating 
upon the shores of every sea. 

The unity and homogeneity of the Cause has been 
secured in the use of a uniform Bible Lesson study which 
is prepared by her provision and issued quarterly. The 
reading of this lesson from Scripture and the Christian 
Science text-book takes the place of the sermon and is 
the distinctive feature of the Sabbath service. The 
saving truth of the Word, as spiritually understood in 
Christian Science, is thus given opportunity to dominate 



the hearer's thought, while the personal and oratorical 
distractions of the pulpit are entirely eliminated. 

Unit}- has been further sectu-ed by organized uniform- 
ity of instruction, and by the appointment of a Board of 
Lectureship, the members of which are authorized 
expositors of the teachings of Qiristian Science, and 
have opportimit}- to recognize and answer in a digni- 
fied way the inquiries and criticisms of the public 

The distinctive and fimdamental teaching of Christian 
Science is embodied in the "Scientific Statement of 
Being," which is as follows : 

"There is no life, truth, intelligence, or substance in 
matter. All is infinite yiind and its infinite manifesta- 
tion, for God is All in all. Spirit is immortal Truth; 
matter is mortal error. Spirit is the real and eternal; 
matter is the unreal and temporal. Spirit is God, and 
man is His image and likeness: hence man is spiritual 
and not material."* 

Denying the legitimacy and power of those himian 
conditions and so-called material laws which would rob 
man of his birthright as the child of God and subject 
him to all the tortures and degradations of sin and suffer- 
ing. Christian Science smites his shackles of error with 
the sword of Truth, and bids him rise to the privilege 
and enjo\Tnent of the fulness of that inheritance and 
sovereignt}- which is vouchsafed him in Jesus Christ. 

While accepting the orthodox postulates of the divine 
nature, and the fundamental doctrines of catholic Chris- 
tianity. Christian Science presents its great contrast in 
its consistent, persistent, and philosophic maintenance of 
these postulates; its increased emphasis of the spiritual 
signification of scriptural statements: its constant direc- 
tion and uplift of thought from himian personality.- to 
di\'ine Principle, and its declaration and demonstration of 
the present possibility- of healing through the apprehen- 

* Science and Health, p. 468. 



sion of Truth as taught and demonstrated by the Naza- 
rene. It avers that rehgious truth is one with all truth, 
and is scientific; that the laws of God are always opera- 
tive, and that the one and only adequate attestation of 
truth is demonstration. It asserts that the universe is the 
constant going forth of the wisdom and power of 
infinite Love, and that it is therefore spiritual and 
harmonious; that evil — all error and disharmony — 
springs from that false sense and interpretation of the 
universe surnamed matter, and pertains wholly to it, 
and that it is unreal because it does not and cannot 
manifest the life and law of God; that immortal man is 
IW'holly spiritual, a ray of light which ever images and 
reflects the divine nature, and which is the consciousness 
of good alone; that the material sense of life is not 
man. but a false consciousness, which passes with the 
awakening to spiritual reality, the assertion of the true 
self. It declares that the knowledge of God, Truth, 
is as efificient now as ever to defeat and destroy error 
and give that triumph over sin, sickness, and death 
which attended the ministry of Jesus and his disciples; 
that divine Love, not fear, governs all in the universe 
of jMind, and that its dominion in us will break all our 
fetters, heal all our diseases, and give us that victory 
and peace which alone can satisfy man's immortal 
instincts and craving. It bids man know that his bonds 
are but the straw of human belief; that all that is real is 
good, and that to know God nozu means health, freedom 
from sin, ever-increasing sovereignty over human limita- 
tions, and eternal life. Submitting to the requirements of 
the scientific method, it proceeds to prove the truth of its 
teaching, as did our Lord, by the healing of sickness 
and sin; and with love for all and malice toward none 
it addresses its constant endeavor to the realization of 
an unselfish end, the salvation of humanity from the 
sin and sorrow which mark its bondage to material 



sense. "As the ages advance in spirituality, Christian 
Science will be seen to depart from the trend of other 
Christian denominations in no wise except by increase 
of spirituality."* 

To those who were bound by the relentless fetters 
of a materialistic philosophy, and burdened with the 
physical woes of a time-honored material sense. Christian 
Science has come to bring release from bondage, surcease 
of pain and the glad hope and inspiration of a lofty 
idealism. Thousands and tens of thousands of those 
who were once discouraged and bed-ridden sufferers, 
or who were the hopeless victims of drink and the baser 
habits of sin, are to-day free and well through its 
ministry, and with grateful hearts they remember her 
who, through the long years, in patient, self-forgetful 
devotion has battled for humanity and has won. They 
thank God for the dawn of a happier, better day, and 
they honor the hand that has led them out of darkness 
into light. Their affection for Mrs. Eddy is the natural 
and spontaneous expression of their sense of indebted- 
ness, and they know full well that they will give it 
that expression which will most please her as with 
earnest faithfulness they honor the pledge which all 
true Christian Scientists are daily seeking to fulfil : 
"We solemnly promise to strive, watch, and pray for 
that Mind to be in us which was also in Christ Jesus; 
to love one another; and to be meek, merciful, just, 
and pure."f 

John Buckley Willis. 

* Miscellaneous Writings, by Mrs. Eddy, p. 21. 
t Science and Health, p. 497. 



was admitted to the practice of law in the state and 
United States courts. His career as a lawyer was a bril- 
liant and distinguished one. 

During its progress he naturally became identified with 
the organization and management of the more important 
among the financial and industrial institutions of the 
rapidly growing city. Thus wealth came to him which 
he rightly enjoyed and conscientiously employed. 

Political honors came as a matter of course to the 
popular and prosperous attorney and man of affairs and 
a long series of public offices, filled with tlie greatest 
ability and integrity, culminated in his election tO' the 
governorship and his administration of the affairs of the 
state with the greatest success in the years 1885 and 1886. 

During the remainder of his life he principally devoted 
himself to literature which has always been his chief 
solace and recreation. The possessor oi a splendid li- 
brary, chosen with a care which showed the real culture 
of the owner, Mr. Currier himself produced many works 
that secured wide praise from critics. His poems, in par- 
ticular, were of great literary and intellectual merit. 






Mrs. Moody Currier was the youngest daughter of 
Enoch Slade, Esq., a distinguished citizen of Thetford, 
Vermont, and sister of Gen. Samuel W. Slade, an emi- 
nent lawyer oi St. Johnsbury, in the same state. She 
received her early education in Thetford academy, at 
that time one of the most famous institutions in New 
England. Here many of the sons and daughters of 
New Hampshire and Vermont resorted to prepare for 
college, or to obtain a higher education than could be 
obtained elsewhere. In this celebrated school Miss Slade 
early found herself ranking among- the foremost, not 
only in the ordinary studies, but also in the higher 
branches of Greek, Latin and mathematics, which she 
pursued far into the college course. After leaving the 
Academy with the highest reputation for scholarship, 
Miss Slade went to Boston, where under distinguished 
teachers she continued her studies in music, French and 
other branches of polite literature, thus adding a metro- 
politan finish not easily acquired in rural institutions. 

Miss Slade married Hon. Moody Currier, the distin- 
guished banker in Manchester, N. H., who was in 1885 
and 1886 governor of the state. The accomplishments 
of Mrs. Currier added greatly to the dignity and popu- 
larity of his administration. 

After her marriage, in connection with her husband 
she continued her literary and scientific pursuits, keeping 
up with the progress of the age, adopting in their broad- 



est and most liberal sense the best thoughts of modern 
research. Although she has never given to the public 
any of her literary productions, her education and criti- 
cal tastes would warrant success in such an undertaking. 
She does not seek distinction by a display to the world 
of her charities and benefactions, which are many, and 
known only to those who receive them. She believes 
that the proper sphere of woman, is her home, which she 
renders happy and adorns by devoting to it the best 
energies of her life. 

By her care and watchfulness she threw around 
her husband's declining years a mantle of joy and glad- 



Adjutant-General of A'ew Hainpsliire since iSjg 


Augustus Davis Ayling received his commission from 
Governor Head, July 15, 1879, as adjutant general of 
New Hampshire, and has held this position ever since. 
He was born in Boston in 1840; was educated at Law- 
rence academy, Groton, and in the public schools of 
Lowell. When through school he entered the employ 
of J. C. Ayer & Co. of Lowell, Mass. Here he remained 
until t86i, when he enlisted in the Richardson Light 
infantry, an unattached company named in honor of 
Hon. George F. Richardson of Lowell, which became 
the Seventh Massachusetts Light Battery. He was ap- 
pointed second lieutenant in the Twenty-ninth volun- 
teers in January, 1862, and later in the year was pro- 
moted to the first lieutenancy. In the spring of 1864 he 
Avas mustered out. About a year later he became a 
first lieutenant of the Twenty-fourth Massachusetts regi- 
ment, and was made adjutant of the regiment. He was 
also aide-de-camp and judge advocate on the stafl:' of 
]\Iajor General R. S. Foster, who commanded the first 
dis'ision, twenty-fourth corps. He was mustered out of 
the service in 1866. 

Later in the year he removed to Nashua, where he 
lived until appointed to his present position. During his 
residence in Nashua he served as inspector of checklists, 
assessor and assistant city marshal. Married Elizabeth 
F. Cornish at Centreville, Cape Cod, Mass., December 
22, J869. Two children, Edith C, born March 28, 
1871; Charles L., born January 22, 1875. 

General Ayling is a Mason, a Knights Templar, a 
member of the G. A. R., of the Loyal Legion, and of 
several military-social organizations. 



The growth and development of Manchester, New 
Hampshire's centre of population, commerce, manufact- 
uring and enterprise, is due not more to the extensive 
natural advantages which the city enjoys by reason of its 
magnificent water-power, than to the persistent industry 
and sagacity of her citizens. A large contributor to the 
upbuilding of the city of Manchester was Gen. Charles 
Williams, who was bom in Oxford, England, November 
2d, 1836, the son of a coal dealer who emigrated to 
America in 1846. Charles Williams enjoyed only lim- 
ited educational advantages, but his inheritance of sturdy 
common sense largely atoned for any deficiencies in his 
training, and he was enabled throughout the whole of a 
long and successful career in both business and private 
life to meet men of all classes upon terms of equality and 
to make for himself a secure place in the history of the 
community where he had his home. He began his busi- 
ness career as a merchant, but buying and selling afforded 
too limited a field for the exercise of his abilities, and he 
entered into manufacturing, becoming the owner of large 
and valuable quarries of soap stone in the town of 
Francestown. These quarries he developed thoroughly 
and established a large manufacturing industry in the 
city of Nashua, where the rough stone he quarried was 
utilized in the manufacture of stoves, tables, wash tubs, 
trays and other articles of extensive use. The transpor- 
tation facilities within the city of Manchester, consisting 


» ■■■1^ 



of a short and slenderly equipped horse railroad, attracted 
his attention, and he purchased the plant, extended it, 
and finally equipped it with the best of electrical appa- 
ratus, and at last sold it to its present owners in a condi- 
tion of equipment, earning capacity and potential devel- 
opment second to that of no other street railroad in New 
England. General Williams was a Republican and 
served in many official capacities as the successful candi- 
date of that party. At one time he was a member of the 
Governor's Council of New Hampshire, and had held 
many public positions of lesser rank. He married Oc- 
tober 4th, 1856, Miss Ann Augusta Jackson, of Manches- 
ter, and had three children. His home was one of the 
most attractive in the city of Manchester and in it he was 
an ideal husband and father. He was a constant attend- 
ant and liberal supporter of the Methodist Church, and 
gave generously to religious and charitable institutions 
all over the state. He died November 6th, 1899, be- 
queathing to his heirs not only a substantial portion of the 
world's goods, but that good name which is better than 



Henry M. Baker ^vas born in Bow, New Hampshire, 
January ii, 1841. His parents were Aaron Whitte- 
more and Nancy Dustin Baker. His great-great grand- 
mother was Hannah, only daughter of Cspt. John Love- 
well, the famous Indian fighter, who was killed in the 
battle of Pigwacket. May 8, 1725. She married Capt. 
Joseph Baker May 31, 1739, and they resided in Pem- 
broke on lands which had been granted to the survivors 
and heirs of those killed in that battle. Captain Baker 
was commissioned captain "of the fooi company in the 
place commonly called and known by the name of Sun- 
cook" by Governor Benning Wentwortb. May 30, 1758, 
and served as private in several military expeditions in 
the French and Indian wars. He was a member of the 
Third Provincial congress of New Hampshire, and held 
other positions of honor and responsibility. 

Capt. Baker's son Joseph was one of the first settlers 
of Bow, where he held various town offices. He mar- 
ried !Marion Moore, a descendant of the Scotch cove- 
nanters. He was a soldier in the Revolution. 

On the maternal side Air. Baker is a descendant of 
the colonial heroine, Hannah Dustin. 

His father, Aaron W. Baker, held several local offices, 
though, being an Abolitionist, he was in the political 
minority until late in life. Air. Baker was fortunate in 
having a father who was earnest and enthusiastic and 
had the courage of his convictions, and a mother of high 




character, sweet disposition and great talent. He was 
the youngest of their four sons. They gave him a good 
education. He attended the academies in Pembroke, 
Hopkinton and Tilton, and graduated at Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1863. Three years later he received the degree 
of Master of Arts. He studied law aiul graduated from 
the Law department of Columbian University. He is 
a member of the bar of the Supreme Court of the United 
States. In 1886-87 he was judge advocate general of 
the New Hampshire national guard with the rank of 
brigadier general. 

In 1890 he was elected to the state senate, where he 
was chairman of the judiciary committee. In 1892 he 
was elected to congress and re-elected two years later. 
He was not a candidate for re-election. In congress he 
was a member of the judiciary and other important com- 
mictees and frequently participated in the general discus- 
sions of the House. Several of his speeches were printed 
and extensively circulated. 

He was a member of the Constitutional convention of 
1902. For several years he was president of the Alumni 
of Dartmouth College. He is a Knights Templar, a Re- 
publican in politics, and in religion a Unitarian. He is 
a m.ember of the New Hampshire club, the New Hamp- 
shire Historical society and president of the New Hamp- 
shire society of the .Sons of the x\merican Revolution. 



Charles Eastman Staniels, a prominent life insurance 
agent of Concord, N. H., was born in Lowell, Mass., 
December 27th, 1844, son of Edward L. and Ruth Brad- 
ley (Eastman) Staniels. The father, born in Chichester, 
N. H., for many years was interested in the drug business, 
successively in Lowell and Boston, Mass. Toward the 
latter part of his life he removed to Roxbury, then a 
suburb of Boston, and died there at the age of sixty-five 
years. He was twice married. By his first wife there 
were three children, all of whom are now dead. His sec- 
ond marriage was made with Ruth Bradley Eastman, now 
over ninety-one years old, whose only child is the subject 
of this sketch. A daughter of General Isaac Eastman, 
of Concord, N. H., she is a direct descendant, in the fifth 
generation, of Captain Ebenezer Eastman, the first settler 
of Concord, and of Captain Edward Johnson, the histor- 
ian of Woburn, Mass., one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed by the general court of Massachusetts Bay colony 
to fix the northern iDoundary of that colony in 1652. In 
1833 a large boulder was discovered at the entrance of 
Lake Winnepesaukee at Weirs, N. H., bearing the initials 
of Governor John Endicott, with those of the commis- 
sioners. Captain Edward Johnson and Captain Symon 
Willard, which had remained unnoticed and subject to 
elemental actions for one hundred and eighty-one years. 
The State of New Hampshire has erected a substantial 
stone canopy upon this historic "Endicott Rock," thereby 


'■ J*'*"^ "'^z 



protecting the ancient inscriptions for all time. John 
Staniels the grandfather of Charles Eastman, was a na- 
tive of Chichester, and followed the occupations of farmer 
and budder. He lived to a very advanced age, andkf 
a family oi twelve children. Judge William M. Chase of 
Concord, is one of his descendants. The original surname 
of thi. family was Stanyan, and its annals are interwoven 
with those o.f Rockingham county. 

Charles Eastman Staniels was educated in the Boston 
grammar schools and in the Roxbury Latin school. In the 

h^l TZT 'r ^^"lP^"^P^^^d '^'^ ^-llege, bnt tl^ out- 
break of the Civil war diverted him from the purpose of 
pursuing a collegiate course. He had enlisted in the Fifty- 
sixth Massachusetts regiment of volunteers when his par- 
ents had him discharged on account of his extreme youth 
He then went to work in a wholesale furnishing house in 
the city of Boston. Subsequently, m 1865, he became a 
commercial traveller for the same house, and has been 
more or less on the road ever since. In those mid-cen- 
tury days. Western travel was an entirely different affair 
from the convenience and even luxury that attend it to- 
fmL , "^convenience, hardship, and even suffering 
can h'T, .r K "^ '''"'''''' "^'^^^"^^^^ ^'"^P i" those days 
called, and steamboatmg on Western rivers were then 
common actors in a travelling man's experience. Before 
the completion of the Union Pacific Railroad and the 

centreTTr! ""'''''^''''^l ^"^ ^^--th of large business 
centres the commercial traveller in the extreme West 
was subject to diversions not known to the present gen- 
eration of mercantile agents. A buffalo hunt, an Indian 
scrimmage on the frontier, or a few nights in a snow 
blockade in the Rockies were not considered unusual or 
especially unmixed blessings. 

In 1869 Mr. Staniels assumed the charge of a manii- 
factunng estabHshment in Boston, and thereafter managed 


its affairs in the South and \\'est for a number of years. 
At length his health becoming somewhat undermined by 
his devotion to business matters, he removed to New 
Hampshire and took two years of complete rest. Then he 
engaged in the fire insurance business in Concord. To this 
he has since added life insurance, and has now been en- 
gaged in both ver}' successfully for the past 17 years, 
highly esteemed by his business associates. He has been 
a member of the executive committee of the national life 
underwriters' association of the United States since its 
organization, and has also served as President of the 
New Hampshire life underwriters' association. He mar- 
ried Eva F. Tuttle of Boston, Mass., whose parents were 
natives of New Hampshire, and they have a family of 
three children; namely, Charles T., IMabel R. (and Ros- 
coe E., deceased). 

A deservedly popular man in his community, ]Mr. Stan- 
iels has been elected to membership in numerous associa- 
tions. He was chosen twice to fill the presidential chair 
of the New Hampshire Society of the Sons of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, and left that organization in fine condi- 
tion when he retired from the ofiice. He has also been 
President of the Wliite ^Mountain Travellers' association. 
During its continuance he was the secretary of the Chau- 
tauqua assembly of New Hampshire, and also served the 
Eastman Family association in a similar capacity. Wher- 
ever he has made his home, he has taken a keen interest in 
the local military matters. ^Vhile living in Boston, he 
was a commissioned ofticer of the Boston Tigers. On one 
occasion, at the time of the "'draft riots" in that city, he 
was in command of a detachment of that organization, 
guarding the arms and ammunition of the state stored 
in old Eoylston hall. Since coming to New Hampshire, 
he has served as a commissioned officer in the old Amos- 
keag Veterans, and in 1903 he was chosen major com- 
manding. In politics ]Mr. Staniels is a Republican, and 



he cast his initial ballot for Abraham Lincoln in 1864. 
He is Secretary and Treasurer of the Republican city 
committee, trustee of the public library and was for sev- 
eral years a member of the district school committee of 
Concord. He is a member of the East Concord Congre- 
gational Church. 

= 55 


The late Frederick D. Tappan, president of the Galla- 
tin National Bank oi New York City and for many years 
president of the New York Clearing House Association, 
in drawing his will instructed his executors and trustees 
to invest only in such securities as they may find included 
in the list of investments made by the Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Company of New York. Thus did a great banker 
voluntarily pay high tribute to a life insurance company 
which is confessedly the largest bank of the world. 

The value and wisdom of and the benefits to be derived 
from life insurance have been proved over and over 
again, hence it is not surprising that all the shrewdest 
and richest merchants, manufacturers, and professional 
men all over this broad land of ours carry life insurance, 
and very often to a large amount. And these men — some 
of them carrying million-dollar policies — like the Mutual 
Life Insurance Company of New York. A corporation, 
like an individual, has a character of its own, and by it 
is known. Away back in the days of our grandfathers 
the Mutual Life was founded by sterling, old-school New 
York business men. It started right, stayed right, and is 
right. There have been nO' strayings. no cross-purposes, 
no small aims, no melodramatic screamings. Adhering 
always tO' highest standards, never seeking to win fortune 
or public favor on any less terms, it has steadfastly pur- 
sued its ideals, meting and measuring with unerring jus- 
tice, and writing in golden lines the most precious and 
stainless business history to which America can point and 
Avherein there lurks no flaw. 

Prior to January first 1903 the interests of the Mutual 




Life Insurance company of New York in New Hamp- 
shire and Vermont were under the direction of Reuben 
H. and Fred M. Cheney under the firm name of Cheney 
& Cheney. For fifteen years the brothers continued in 
business together, the final dissolution of the firm resulting 
from the new system of their company which went into 
effect January first, T903. The adoption of "this system 
sent Fred M. to Buft"alo, New York, while Reuben 
Howard, the senior partner, remains in Manchester and 
in full charge of the company's field work in New Hamp- 
shire and Vermont. 

In the spring of 1903 Mr. Cheney, for his company 
took possession of what are, without question the largest, 
best equipped and most complete offices in New England, 
outside of Boston, devoted to. the life insurance business. 
These offices are on the ground floor, and have the dis- 
tinction of being the only ground floor offices possessed 
by any single insurance company in Manchester, even if 
not in any other larger New England city. Thia fact of 
its ground floor offices is significant and full of meaning. 
Mr. Cheney is, first of all, recognized by the Mutual Life 
as capable of justifying such large expenditure as it 
necessarily involves, and that the company's business in 
New Hampshire and Vennont comprised in his territory, 
will continue to grow in the future as in the past. It like- 
wise is a practical demonstration of the strength and re- 
source of the Mutual Life Company. 

Mr. Cheney was born in Areola, Minn., February 14, 
1856, the son of PVederick Porter and Louise B. (Hill) 
Cheney. Both parents were born and reared in Glover, 
Vt.,and in that town they were married, migrating at once 
to Minnesota. Happening to -return tq Vermont on a 
visit in the early sixties to see the invalid father of the 
senior Mr. Cheney, the intended visit lengthened into his 
decision to remain permanently. He was drafted into the 
army, w-ent to the county seat, and paid his $300 com- 



mutation money, and returned home and enlisted of his 
own accord. It would, indeed, be interesting to know if 
there was such another instance of devotion to principle 
as this. Certain it is that there were not many. 

Reuben Howard was, therefore, brought up in Ver- 
mont. He attended the schools of Glover and Barton, 
working on farms during vacations. After leaving school 
he was a clerk in a country store for two years. Later he 
became a clerk in the office' of the division superintendent 
of freight at White River Junction, Vt., and finally he 
himself became superintendent and lived at White River 
Junction for twelve years. He was offered and accepted 
a special agency of the Mutual I>ife Insurance Company 
in Manchester. Instant and signal success followed this 
venture, and he was shortly after joined by his brother, 
Fred N. The first year they doubled the amount of in- 
surance ever written l>y the company in the same length 
of time. The New Hampshire state agency was next 
given them, and still later Vermont was added to their 
territory. In the fifteen years of the continuance of the 
firm O'f Cheney & Cheney it wrote $25,000,000 worth of 
insurance for the Mutual Life. 

Mr. Cheney is a thirty-second degree Mason, and be- 
longs to the Derryfield and Calumet clubs in Manchester, 
the New Hampshire club of Boston, and the Amoskeag 

In 1876 he married Miss Nellie A. Burroughs of Glov- 
er, Vt. They have a most interesting family of six child- 
ren, four sons and two daughters. The eldest son, Roy- 
don W.. graduated at Harvard in 1901, and is now in the 
office with his father. The second souy Clinton Howard, 
is his father's private secretaiy. He is developing fine ar- 
tistic tastes, and his work with pen and brush is most ex- 
cellent. A third son, Frederick W., is also' in the office, 
while the fourth is a student. The daughters are. respec- 
tively. May Louise and Ruby Lucille. 



Governor of A'ezij Haiiipsliire^ iSyS-iSjg 


A noteworthy figure in the hne of eminent chief magis- 
trates who have adorned the governorship of New Hamp- 
shire IS Benjamin Frankhn Prescott, who was born in 
Eppmg Feb. 26, 1833, and who died in that town 
Feb 21, 1895. He fitted for college at the Phillips- 
Exeter academy and was graduated from Dartmouth in 
i«.iO. His next few years were occupied with teaching 
and the study of law, and in i860 he was admitted to 
the bar. For one year he practised his profession, and 
then bemg drawn into journalism through a recognition 
of his literary gifts he was for five years a member of 
the staff of the New Hampshire Statesman. Gov Pres- 
cott s journalistic career covered the exciting period of 
the Civil \\ ar, and his contributions to the columns of his 
newspaper during tho.e years were recognized as no 
slight factor m maintaining the consistent patriotism of 
New Hampshire. In 1865 he was appointed a special 
agei.t of the U. S. Treasury Departmei.t and remained 
m that service tor four years. Gov. Prescott was one 
of the founders of the Republican party and was advanced 
o positions of trust in the party management. In 18=50 
]ie was elected Secretary of the Republican State Com- 
mittee and served in that capacity for fifteen years. In 
1872 he was honored with the election of Secretary of 
State and was three times re-elected. In 1877 by a pro^ 
cess of natural selection he was elevated to the governor- 
ship and was re-elected in 1878. In 1880 he was chair- 



man of the New Hampshire delegates to the Republican 
National Convention at Chicago. In 1887 he was ap- 
pointed a member of the State Board of Railroad Com- 
missioners and was reappointed in 1890, retiring in 1893. 
Governor Prescott was a man of marked literary, histor- 
ical and oratorical gifts, a wide and discriminating mind 
and possessed of sound learning, to which he added 
keen judgment, unfailing discernment and an almost 
unlimited capacity for hard work. Through sheer force 
of intellect, supplemented with indomitable perseverance 
he rose to high positions and was warmly welcomed in 
the society of statesmen and scholars. He was a fellow 
of the Royal Historical Society of Great Britain, and 
during his term as Governor was the guest at Montreal 
of the then Governor General of Canada, the Marquis 
of Lome and his Marchioness, the Princess Louise, 
and in the presence of royalty New Hampshire's chief 
magistrate was by no means ill at ease. He w'as for 
many years Vice-President of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society and was President of the Bennington 
Battle Field Monument Association during all the years 
of its effort to erect the magnificent memorial now stand- 
ing on the field of that famous conflict. He was deeply 
interested in the educational institutions of the state, 
was for many years Trustee of the state College, and 
was one of the first Alumni of Dartmouth to be honored 
by his fellows with an election to^ the board of trustees 
of that Listitution. This honor came to^ Governor Pres- 
cott in 1878, and he held it until his death. 


Protestant Episcopal Bishop of New HainpsJiire 


Rt. Rev. William Woodruff Niles, Bishop of New 
Hampshire, was born in Hatley, Quebec, May 24, 1832. 
His preliminary education was received at the Charles- 
ton Academy in his native village, at Derby, Vermont; 
and in 1857, he was graduated from Trinity College, 
Hartford, Conn. He studied theology at the Berkeley 
Divinity School, where he was graduated in 1861, and 
in that year he was ordained deacon by the bishop of Con- 
necticut. His first charge was as rector of St. Philip's 
Church at Wiscasset, Me., where he remained for three 
years, and where in May, 1862, he was elevated to the 
priesthood. For six years he was professor of Latin in 
Trinity College, and during three years of this time 
served as rector of St. John's Church at Warehouse 
Point, Conn. 

Being elected to the bishopric of New Hampshire, he 
was consecrated in St. Paul's Church, Concord, on St. 
Matthew's Day, 1870. In that same year he received the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity from Trinity. College, a like 
honor coming to him from Dartmouth College in 1875. 
In 1896, he was made Doctor of Laws by his Alma 
Mater, and about this time Doctor of Civil Law by 
Bishop's College in Quebec. 

The work of this energetic churchman can hardly be 
summarized within the brief limits of this sketch. Under 
his direction all the interests of the diocese have flour- 
ished wonderfully. Deeply interested in advancing the 



educational facilities of the state he has been instrumental 
not only in promoting the welfare of St. Paul's School, 
a noted institution for boys which he found already well 
established in his diocese upon his coming here, but he 
has also- brought into being the well-endowed and thor- 
oughly equipped Holderness School for boys, and the 
successful St. Mary's School for Girls at Concord. The 
number of parishes in the diocese has been largely in- 
creased under his stimulating and aggressive leadership, 
the value of church property has been many times multi- 
plied, and the activity of the diocese in all lines has been 
materially advanced. 

In the House of Bishops of the American Church, he 
now being one of the senior members. Bishop Niles is a 
tower of strength, serving as an active member of many 
of the most important boards for the promotion of church 

Bishop Niles is a scholar of brilliant attainment and 
has performed great labors, being a member of the com- 
mittee of the General Convention for the revision of the 
list of chapters of Scripture to be read in church; of the 
committee of revision of the Prayer Book; and of that for 
the revision of marginal readings in the Bible. 

Bisho]:) Xiles was married June 5. 1862, to Bertha 
Olmsted, a descendant from one of the settlers of Hart- 
ford, and he has four living children. His home estab- 
lished in Concord at the episcopal residence erected for 
him by the diocese is a centre of much culture and hospi- 
tality, and he moves among the people of the state be- 
loved and venerated, a faithful shepherd of his flock, a 
good citizen and a sterling friend to humanity. 




John M. Hunt was born at Dracut, Mass., March 31st, 
1797; died at Nashua, Oct. 30th, 1885. He was a son of 
Israel Hunt, born Aug. 27th, 1758, died March 2nd, 
1850, and Catherine (Noweh) Hunt, born June 15th, 
1765, died ]\[ay 15th, 1850. Their ancestors came from 
England in the seventeenth' century and were among the 
early settlers in Massachusetts Bay colony. Their de- 
scendants have been among the pioneers in near and re- 
mote sections of this continent and many of them have 
distinguished themselves in the service of their country, 
in the professions and employments that developed that 
civilization which was the crowning glory of the nine- 
teenth century. 

Mr. Hunt obtained a common school education, and 
beyond that, for he was a well informed man on topics of 
general interest, was self taught. From 1803 until his 
death in 1885 he was one of the best known residents of 
Nashua. In the beginning of his honorable career he was 
in trade at the "Harbor" in a store that stood in the south 
triangie where the Lowell and Dunstable roads form a 
junction. He was also interested in a linen manufactur- 
ing enterprise, the mill of which was located on the site 
of the present Vale mill. The business was not success- 
ful. In 1820 he w^as appointed postmaster of Nashua, 
which office he held until July 1841. During all these 
years, and in fact all during his active career, he took part 
in town affairs and performed the duties of citizenship 



with fidelity to every trust, being town clerk and chairman 
of the board of selectmen in 1830, 1833, 1834, 1835 and 
1836, and instrumental in causing the first town report 
to be issued to the taxpayers in printed form. When the 
Nashua State bank, chartered at the June session of the 
legislature in 1835, was organized in 1836, he was ap- 
pointed cashier, which position of trust he held until the 
bank closed its business in October, 1866. Hon. Isaac 
Spalding was president of the bank during its entire life, 
and it was a matter of pride with him and Mr. Hunt that 
the institution never lost a dollar by a bad investment, 
and that when its affairs were liquidated it paid its stock- 
holders their principal and a handsome dividend in addi- 
tion to the dividends paid yearly when it did business. 

As a citizen, neighbor and friend, no man of his genera- 
tion stood higher in the regard of the community. He 
was democratic in all his ways and dealings; a man whose 
influence in the community was always on the side of 
justice, morality and religion. Mr. Hunt was a regular 
attendant at the Unitarian church and a member of Ris- 
ing Sun lodge, A. F. and A. M., of which he was senior 
warden in 1826 and worshipful master in 1827. January 
28th, 1833, Mr. Hunt was united in marriage with Mary 
Ann Munroe, who was born in Lexington. Mass., Oct. 
31st, 181 2; died at Nashua Dec. i. 1894. She was a 
daughter of Thomas Munroe, born March 30th, 1785, 
died July 8th, 1854, and Elizabeth (Jewett) Munroe, 
born Sept. 8th, 1785, died Nov. 23rd. 1848. Mrs. Hunt's 
ancestors were among the first English settlers in Massa- 
chusetts, and a great number of their decendants have 
made their mark in the world and have served, and are 
still serving in honorable professions and callings. Mrs. 
Hunt came to Nashua with her parents when she was a 
child and her'home was here until her death. She was a 
constant attendant at the Unitarian church and very much 
interested in its work. In fact, she left a bequest to the 



society. Also a bequest to establish tlie John M. Hunt 
Home for aged couples and aged men, and a sufficient 
sum to build and maintain the Home, in memory of her 
husband. Two children were born to Mr. and Mrs Hunt • 
the first born April 8th, 1839, died in infancy; second' 
Mary E. born April loth, 1842, unmarried. Mrs. Hunt 
was a woman of retiring disposition, of modest deport- 
ment and domestic tastes, devoted to her family. 



Frank S. Streeter, president of the Xew Hampshire 
state constitutional convention of 1902, and a recognized 
leader at the bar of Northern New England, was born in 
Charleston, Vermont, August 5, 1853, and completed his 
preparatory course for college at St. Johnsbury academy 
in that state. Entering Dartmouth he graduated in 1874, 
having among- his classmates Frank N. Parsons, who be- 
came Chief Justice of the New Hampshire supreme court; 
Edwin G. Eastman, who became Attorney General of 
the state in 1902; Samuel W. McCall and Samuel J. 
Powers, both congressmen from Massachusetts. 

Immediately following his graduation from Dart- 
mouth Air. Streeter served for a while as principal of the 
high school in Ottumwa. Iowa, but soon relinquished 
teaching" to enter upon the study of law, the practice of 
which he designed as his life work and for which profes- 
sion he was eminently equipped by nature and inclination. 
He became a student at law in the town of Bath and in 
the office of the late Chief Justice Alonzo P. Carpenter, 
who is remembered by his associates and contemporaries 
at the Bar as having possessed one of the best trained 
judicial minds that ever added lustre and renown to the 
New Hampshire bench. 

Admitted to the bar in 1877 he opened an office in the 
town of Orford but maintained it for only a few months, 
leaving Orford for that wider field, the city of Concord, 
to enter which he was urged by those who had thus early 
recognized his ability and promise as a lawyer. It was 
in the autumn of 1877 that he arrived in Concord and 




entered upon that professional career which was des- 
tined to be of so great credit to himself and the bar ouL 
state. the greater part of his first two yea s in 
Concord he had as a partner in practice Gen. John H 
Albm. Later the firm of Chase & Streeter was formed 
and contmued for more than twelve years, whenTt wa 
succeeded by that of Streeter & Mollis 

car^eTM^ s/T/'",'"^""""^ °^ '''' professional 
career Mi. Streeter has been identified with that line of 
practice having to do with corporation law, a line that 

slweTor'^n '" fi"-^^.-^-^' tact and acumen it is po - 
sible foi the lawyer to display, as it is likewise the most 
mvitmg field for the practitioner of to-dav. For a num- 
ber of years he has most acceptabl)^ servecl in the position 
of general counsel, such vast commercial interests as the 
Bostoi. and Mame railroad, the New England Telephone 
and lelegraph company, and the Western Union Tele- 
grai^h company. His realm of a more private practice is 
iaige, exclusive, and of a most varied nature 

th.t at'- Z''''\''^T '' ' "''"'^"^ °^ ^^'^ ^^^^1 profession 
that All. Streeter has gained prominence and the sincere 
approbation of the people. He has recognized and met 
the obligations ot good citizenship, and that in a wholly 
chsinterested manner. He is first of all true to what he 
mves his ellow man and state as a member of societv 
He IS, and naturally so, a leader of the Republican forces 
n New Hampshire, and if the list of his political offices 
is a short one it is because he has asked his political asso- 
ciates to bestow their favors upon others rather than 
upon himself. He yielded to the wishes of his party 
friends to become a member of the state legislature in 
icS8^, and m 1902 by the vote of all parties he became a 
member ot the constitutional convention. By an ex- 
tremely flattering vote he was chosen president of the 
convention, and that by a body of men among whom 
were the intellectual leaders of the state. At the time 
of his election he had not completed the fiftieth vear of 
his age, and thus his election to the high office at such 



an age emphasized all the more the estimate placed upon 
him by his convention associates. 

In 1892 he presided over the Republican state conven- 
tion, which nominated Gov. John B. Smith, and in 1896 
he was sent as delegate-at-large to the National conven- 
tion at St. Louis, where he served on the committee on 
resolutions, and was powerfully instrumental in securmg 
the platform declaration in favor of the gold standard. 
In 1900 he declined a proffered election to represent New 
Hampshire on the Republican National committee. For 
many years he has been a member of the Republican 
State committee, and since 1896 he has represented Mer- 
rimack county on the executive committee of that body. 

From the day of his graduation from Dartmouth col- 
lege Mr. Streeter has been among the most active and 
influential of its alumni. He is a life member of his alma 
mater's board of trustees as such representing the alumni. 




In the industrial development of Derry, its towns- 
people are agreed that the chief meed of praise should be 
accorded Col. William Staughton Pillsbury, who was 
practically the founder and the real builder of the town's 
present great shoe-manufacturing industry. He has been 
mstant, in season and out of season, in fostering and 
furthering along all commercial and industrial enter- 
prises. Born in the town of Londonderry, he represents 
a family famous in the annals of state and nation, and 
especially for what they accomplished in American in- 
dustrial life._ The Pillsburys of flour fame were his 
kinsmen, while his own immediate family was conspicu- 
ous likewise in the ecclesiastical, political, and educa- 
tional life of New Hampshire. His father was the Rev. 
Stephen Pillsbury, a clerg^mian of the Baptist denomina- 
tion, whose pastorates in Sutton, Dunbarton, and Lon- 
donderry covered a period of thirty-five years. Colonel- 
Pillsbury's mother was born Lavinia' Hobart, and 
throughout her life of seventy-six years was esteemed for 
the nobility of her character, as an exemplar of the Chris- 
tian life, and for her intellectual accomplishments. 
Colonel Pillsbury was born in Londonderry, and this is 
his present place of residence. The family'homestead is 
a short two miles from his office and factories in Derry. 

Colonel Pillsbury has a most honorable war record, 
which began with service as first lieutenant in the Fourth 
New Hampshire regiment. Later he was commissioned 
first lieutenant in the Ninth New Hampshire, serving in 
the same company of which his brother, Leonard Hobart, 



was the captain, a circumstance which indicates with 
what esteem the then boys were held in the communitv 
and state. With his company he participated in the 
battle of South Mountain, and in this he distinguished 
himself by the discovery of a movement by the Confed- 
erates in time to save his company from a probable ter- 
rible loss. Just as Lieutenant Pillsbury had safely led 
his command from the ambush in which it had nearly 
fallen, Major-General Jesse Reno, commander of the 
Union forces, rode along the line and in the direction of 
the Confederate position in which they were supported 
by a battery. Lieutenant Pillsbury pointing out the loca- 
tion of the enemy warned Reno of his danger, but the 
warning was unheeded, and scarcely three minutes later 
General Reno was killed, and in his death the Union 
cause lost one of its ablest commanders. 

Another incident in the army career of Colonel Pills- 
bury has a distinct and highly important bearing on the 
much discussed question whether Barbara Frietchie, the 
heroine of \Miittier's poem, was a real or fictitious per- 
sonage. Colonel Pillsbury is emphatic in asserting that 
she was not a creation of the gifted poet's imagination, 
and his testimony as to the genuineness of her existence, 
and that she did wave the Stars and Stripes as Stonewall 
Jackson and his army marched "all day long through 
Frederick town," is to the point and convincing. Colonel 
Pillsbury says that as his regiment, as part of the Union 
army, followed Jackson and the Confederates through 
Frederick, a resident of the town pointed out to him a 
house with the remark that only the day before an aged 
Unionist woman had waved from its window the Stars 
and Stripes as the Confederates marched on. Whittier 
had not then, in all probability, heard of the incident, 
much less penned the words that thrilled the whole North 
with patriotism, and renewed its faith in the cause of the 
perpetuitv of the L^nion. The resident of Frederick spoke 
to Lieutenant Pillsbury, as his company made a tempo- 
rary halt, and there is not the slightest ground for pre- 
suming that Barbara Frietchie and her flag were a mental 



creation of this citizen of Frederick. These incidents 
of the warning- to General Reno and of the genuineness 
of the personahty of Barbara Frietchie are pubhshed now 
for the first time in a personal narrative of Colonel 

At the conclusion of the war between the states, Lieu- 
tenant Pillsbury returned home and at once re-engaged 
in shoe manufacturing, a business he had learned in all 
its many details prior to his service in the army. He at 
first engag'ed in the making of shoes in his native Lon- 
donderry, but ere long began manufacturing in Derry, 
w^here his business life has since been passed. 

At the time of his going to Derry to engage in busi- 
ness, the West or Depot village, as it was then called, 
was a mere hamlet of a few scattered houses, and the 
building that served the utmost purpose of his factory 
was no larger than an ordinary dwelling. Step by step 
the little plant has grown until to-day it has a capacity 
that gives employment to some six hundred employees, 
and is equipped throughout with the latest devised ma- 
chinery. Li course of time he admitted into partnership, 
in his shoe manufacturing enterprise, a son, Rosecrans 
W., under the firm name of W. S. & R. W. Pillsbur}^ 
This house ranks with the most progressive and pros- 
perous business interests in the state. Continuous growth 
has been the law of the ])lant, and this expansion from 
the little beginning is significantly portrayed in the en- 
graved letter head of the firm. In the illustration is the 
original factory and near to it the present great plant, 
the whole silently yet most effectively setting forth the 
history of the grand success of the enterprise. 

Colonel Pillsbury is a man not only of great courage 
and energy, but one who knows the value of method and 
system. He possesses to a marked degree that faculty 
known as the initiative and the skill, the persistency, and 
insistency to carry out that which he originates. He 
likes business for its own sake and is ever ready to do 
that which will add to the advantage of Derry and his 
own home town, Londonderry. He has been much in 



political life. Away back in 1868 he was a commissioner 
for Rockingham county. As a county commissioner he 
proved a most efficient official. In 1877 1^^ '^vas an aide 
on the staff of Governor Prescott and from that date has 
borne the title of "colonel." As a "good citizen" he has 
actively participated in Londonderry's town affairs. For 
near a generation he served as moderator, as trustee of 
the public library, and on committees almost without end. 
He served a term as a member of the legislature many 
years ago. and was a member of the senate, his term ex- 
piring with the year 1902. His church home is the 
Congregational. He is a Mason, and member of various 
business and social organizations. He has always been 
a liberal contributor in both Londonderry and Derry. 
He is democratic, whole-souled, and sympathetic, and his 
going and coming among the people of Derry has ever 
been an inspiration to the people but never more so than 
to-day. His home is a beautiful one, solid and substan- 
tial, warm and cheery like its owner. Quite recently 
Colonel Pillsbury has given a valuable piece of land as 
the site for a new proposed municipal building in Derry. 
For thirty years it has been his w^ont to visit his Boston 
office four or five times a week, and he has long possessed 
a wide acquaintance among the shoe trade from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific. 




Colonel Francis W. Parker, world famed educator, was 
born in that part of the town of Bedford now included in 
the city of Manchester, October 9, 1837, and died at Pass 
Christian, Missouri, March 2, 1902. 

In his youth he worked on a farm and pursued steadily 
the idea of gaining an education. First he attended the 
district school at Piscataquog and later, in succession, the 
academies in Bedford, Mont Vernon and Hopkinton. 

When he was 17 years of age he began to^ teach school, 
first at Boscawen and then at Auburn and at Piscataquog, 
having been principal of the grammar school in the latter 
place. In 1858 he went to Carrol ton, Illinois, where he 
remained as principal of a grammar school until the Civil 
War broke out. 

When this call of duty sounded he promptly returned 
to New Hampshire and entered the Fourth N. H. Volun- 
teers as a lieutenant, enlisting at Manchester. His war 
record was a brilliant one, his regiment seeing some very 
hard fighting and his part in it being of the foremost and 
best. He was wounded and once taken prisoner and when 
the war ended he had fought his way to the brevet rank 
of colonel, bestowed upon him for conspicuous bravery. 

At the close of the war Colonel Parker engaged in 
educational work once more, at first in Dayton, Ohio, 
where he was appointed the principal of the first normal 
school in that city. After taking a trip abroad, he was 
elected superintendent of schools in Quincy, Mass., and 



there first began to attract the attention of the entire edu- 
cational world by his original work. 

In 1880 he became one of the supervisors of Boston 
schools and soon afterwards was chosen principal of the 
Cook county normal school in Chicago. Later he joined 
the staff of Chicago University where his merits as an 
authority upon, and investigator of educational methods 
was fully appreciated. 

To' speak fittingly of Colonel Parker's life work would 
require the full knowledge and trained pen of a fellow 
expert along those lines. But even the layman in such 
matters knows that tO' this brave and honored son of New 
Hampshire is due great credit for the vast strides in ad- 
vance which the cause of education has made in the last 
two score years. As a soldier he did more than his 
share to save his country; and then he devoted himself 
with the talents God had given him to the proper train- 
ing and culture of the youth of the new nation that was 
rising into glorious power. 




vSince 1899 the judge of probate for Merrimack county 
has been Charles Robert Corning, who was born in the 
city of Concord on the twentieth of December, 1855. He 
was educated in the city schools, later continuing his 
studies at Phillips (Andover) academy, and under a 
private tutor. Selecting the legal profession as a life 
calling he was in 1883 admitted to the bar and began 
active practice. He at once demonstrated that he pos- 
sessed the judicial temperament to a fine degree, and that 
his natural and acquired attainments fitted him for suc- 
cess and leadership and especially as a counsellor. This 
early recognition of the qualities within the man on the 
part of his fellow-citizens and neighbors prompted them 
to send him to the popular branch of the state legislature 
m 1878 when he was only twenty-three, having been one 
of the youngest men ever chosen tO' a like position in any 
state of the Union. In 1883, the year of his admission 
to the bar, he was again returned to the legislature, a fact 
that shows the manner in which he fulfilled the duties 
imposed upon him in the first session was eminently sat- 
isfactory to his constituents. At the Commencement 
Exercises in 1887, Dartmouth College conferred the de- 
gree of A. M. on Mr. Corning. In 1889 he was sent 
to the state senate and served upon its more important 
committees. In 1891 he received from President Harri- 
son the appointment of assistant attorney in the United 
States department of justice and held this position 



until 1894. His appointment to the probate judgeship 
of Merrimack county gave widespread satisfaction, 
for all knew that in Judge Corning were those quali- 
ties of heart and mind that make the ideal judge of 
such a court. In this current year of 1902 Judge Corn- 
ing was elected Mayor of his native city for a term of 
two years. Under his administration Avill be built the 
new city hall. His fellow-citizens believe that they have 
in him a chief executive eminently fitted to discharge 
every duty of tlie important office. Judge Corning is a 
member of Blazing Star lodge, F. & A. M., Concord. 




Among the New Hampshire men whose business sa- 
'gacity and enterprise and rugged honesty of character 
entitles them to be classed among the builders of the state, 
was the late Horace P. Watts of Manchester. Born in 
the suburb of Goff's Falls, in 1819, the son of Daniel and 
Polly (Darrah) Watts, he lived nearly his whole life as a 
citizen of Manchester, and when he passed to his reward 
the morning of August 14, 1890, he was sincerely 
mourned by a wide circle of friends and associates, whose 
love and respect he had gained by his admirable traits of 
character and his walk and conversation for many years. 
Mr. Watts gained his early education in those nurseries 
of sturdy character and independence, the public schools 
of his vicinity, and continued it at Pinkerton academy in 
Derry, then, as now, distinguished for the thoroughness 
of its instruction and the character of its graduates. He 
early entered upon a business career and by his shrewd- 
ness and energy established a successful business. After 
a time he became a member oi the milling firm of Hall, 
Watts & Co., which for a long time conducted the exten- 
sive flour and milling business on the Piscataquog river, 
on the site now occupied by the American Shuttle com- 
pany's mill, previously operated by J. Baldwin & Son. 
This business was one of the most extensive of its kind in 
the State, and at the time of its destruction by fire in 
1875, it was grinding about seventy-five thousand bushels 
of wheat and the same amount of corn per annum. From 



this time on, j\Ir. Watts engaged himself entirely in bank- 
ing and financial matters and in the charitable and church 
work in which he had always been largely interested. ]\lr. 
Watts was one of the directors of the jManchester Na- 
tional bank, and for a time a director of the old Nashua 
& Lowell railroad, now absorbed in the Boston & Maine 
system. He was also a director of the First National 
bank of Castleton, Dakota, and president of the Security 
Loan & Trust company of the same place. In various 
capacities he was interested in other leading financial in- 
stitutions. No local enterprise of a public nature failed 
to receive his support. He was an active member of the 
Manchester Board of Trade. Wlien it became neces- 
sary to build the First Congregational church, he was 
largely instrumental in causing its removal to the fine 
location at the corner of Hanover and Union streets and 
contributed $5000 to the erection of the new edifice, and 
he was for ten years president of the society of the 

In the charitable work of Manchester, as has been said, 
Mr. Watts was much interested. The Elliot hospital, the 
Children's home, the City mission and the Woman's Aid 
home were objects of his solicitude and liberal contribu- 

He was firm, yet kind; generous, yet just; calm, deliber- 
ate, and thoughtful, weighing his every act in the scales 
of right. 

His lofty symmetrical character, his life of imselfish 
purity and benevolence, won for him the confidence, re- 
spect, and esteem of all whose life he entered. Few men 
merited a more prominent position in the aft'airs of the 
city in which he lived than did he. Yet his retiring, mod- 
est disposition caused him to refuse many honors which 
his fellow citizens would have gladly bestowed upon him. 

Politically, Mr. Watts was a Republican, but never an 
active aspirant for political honors. He represented Lon- 



donderry in the legislature in 1865 and served for a time 
as commissioner for Rockingham county, and served on 
the board of assessors in Manchester one year. Mr. 
Watts married in 1842, Maria Boyd, who survived him 
five years, her death occurring March 28, 1895. Of this 
union there were born four children; one, a boy, passed 
away in infancy. His oldest daughter, now deceased, 
Martha B., married W. F. Holmes; his second daughter, 
Annie E., is the wife of Rosecrans W. Pillsbury of Lon- 
donderry, and Mary Alice was his third daughter. 

To his home life Mr. Watts was especially devoted. 
The attractions of politics had few charms for him, and 
he never allowed the cares of business tO' deprive him of 
the pleasures of his own family. 



The American woman is undoubtedly the highest type 
of her sex. Her supremacy is as inexphcable to the for- 
eigner as it is everywhere acknowledged. In what it 
consists authorities disagree. Whether it be in her easy 
adaptation to all circumstances and conditions; in that 
comprehensive education which she receives, beginning 
in public schools and completed in academy, seminary or 
college; in that native alertness, intelligence and tact 
which are hers universally, the American woman has 
secured her fame and reputation in the world. 

Miss Mary Alice Watts of Manchester is a beautiful 
example of this American type. Born as she was in the 
most populous and enterprising city of New Hampshire, 
she received her early education in the public schools of 
her native place. No institution in this country has so 
justified its existence as the public school. It teaches 
those who pass through it to appreciate men and women 
at their true value, and as a foundation for higher culture 
has no real competitor. Supplementing this with a 
course at the celebrated Ablx)tt academy, of Andover, 
Mass., and a year spent in travel across the Atlantic, 
Miss Watts had exceptional opportunities for observa- 
tion and self-culture. These she thoroughly improved 
and as a result she is one of the most pleasing and enter- 
taining of conversa'tionalists. Her beautiful home on 
Beech street, the family residence, contains many 
souvenirs of her extensive travel, and her library is filled 



with the best works of leading- writers in poetr)^, histor}% 
fiction and all the departments of literature. Her home 
displays all the e^■idences of refined and cultured tastes, 
and is the centre of a delightful yet unobtrusive hospi- 
talit}-. Naturally Miss A\'atts is a social favorite, her 
graces of mind and manner attracting- many friends and 
retaining them. Like the t^-pical American woman that 
she is, Miss Watts is largely interested in the philan- 
thropic institutions of the cit}-, and her life is filled with 
numberless acts of kindness. The \\'oman'3 Aid home 
and the Elliot hospital, of which she is a trustee, are con- 
spicuously objects of her solicitude, and the City Mis- 
sion and Children's home are not strangers to her bount}'. 
Trained and experienced in business matters as she is, 
possessed of executive abilit}- and administering her 
affairs with wisdom and skill, she has lost thereby none 
of the graces of womanhood, and in that sense also is 
typical of the cultured American lady — always approach- 
able, amiable and kind, able to do, but graceful in the 
doing. Her home life is simple and peculiarly attractive, 
and the sweetness and nobilit}- of her character are recog- 
nized by all who come within the circle of her influence. 
She is a member of the First Congregational church, and 
a valued helper in the varied work of the societ}-. whose 
\oity ideals, attractive personalit}- and charming man- 
ners are a pcwer for good in the community'. 



Henry French HoUis, of Concord, the most widely- 
known man of his age in New Hampshire, was born in 
West Concord, August 30, 1869, the son of Major Abijah 
and Harriette V. JM. (French) HolHs. He traces his 
ancestry on both sides to leaders in the colonial and early 
national history of onr country. His father is a veteran of 
the Civil war and a prominent business man of Concord 
for half a century. One maternal great-grandfather was 
William M. Richardson of Chester, who was Chief Jus- 
tice of the N. H. Supreme Court from 1816 to 1838, 
while the other maternal great-grandfather was Daniel 
French, Attorney-General of the state. His maternal 
grandfather was Hon. Henry F. French, Judge of the 
N. H. Court of Common Pleas, and Assistant Secretary 
of the United States Treasury from Grant to Cleveland. 
An uncle is Daniel C. French, the sculptor. 

Henry F. Hollis was graduated from the Concord High 
school in 1886 and for the ensuing year was engaged in 
railroad engineering between Denver and San Francisco 
and in a survey of the intervening mountain passes. Re- 
turning East he prepared at Concord, Mass., to enter 
Harvard college, graduating in the class of 1892. He at- 
tended the Harvard Law School and also studied law 
with the late Judge William L. Foster of Concord. 

In 1893 he was admitted to the bar and since that time 
has practised his profession with notable success in New 
Hampshire and other courts. Since 1899 he has been a 





partner of Attorney General Edwin G. Eastman under 
the firm name of Eastman & Hollis, and the important 
cases which they have handled are too numerous to men- 

Mr. Hollis served one term on the board of education 
in Concord, declining- a re-election ; and has been a trustee 
of the New Hampshire Savings bank since 1895. He is 
a member of many clubs and societies, and is as popular 
socially as would be expected of a gentleman possessing 
as much affability, culture and savoir faire. 

In 1900 Mr. Hollis sprang full-armed into the arena 
of politics and in the few years that have since elapsed he 
has made himself a national figure and has achieved a 
reputation that for so young a man, in the ranks of a 
minority party, is little short of marvellous. 

in 1900 he was the candidate of the New Hampshire 
Democracy for congress in the second district and made 
a vigorous and brilliant campaign, speaking extensively 
and gaining wide credit for both eloquence and good 
sense. In the summer of 1902 he was one of the prime 
mov s in the formation of the New England Democratic 
.^cv^ue, serving as its secretary and treasurer. He is, 
also, the New Hampshir.'e member of the national Demo- 
cratic congressional committee. 

In the summer of 1902 he was unanimously called to 
the chairmanship of the New Hampshire Democratic 
committee and this position he filled most ably for several 
months until another imperative call came from his party 
that he should be its standard bearer in the gubernatorial 
campaign. This duty he took up and discharged, as he 
does all that comes to him in the varied walks of life, with 
energy, enthusiasm, good judgment and sincere purpose. 
It is believed that no candidate for governor in New 
Hampshire ever ran so far ahead of his ticket as did Mr. 
Hollis, w^-'o was defeated by only 8,000 votes, the regular 
Republic. 1 majority being 15,000. 



John Henn- Albin of Concord., successful lawyer, rail- 
road president and man of affairs, was bom in Randolph, 
Vt., October 17, 1843, the son of Tobji and Emily 
(V.'hite) Albin, his ancestors on both sides coming from 
England to America during the Colonial period. 

His parents moving to Concord in his youth, he pre- 
pared in the public and High schools of that city for 
DartTJiouth college, from which he graduated in the class 
of 1864. He then studied law in the office of Hon. Ira 
A. Eastman of Concord and was admitted to the bar in 
1868. From that date he has been continuously engaged 
in the practice of his profession in Concord, and has 
attained high rank in all its branches, but especially in 
the department of corporate law. 

Always a stalwart Republican, Mr. .Vlbin has sen-ed 
two terms in the legislature, where he did valuable ser\-ice 
and was an acknowledged leader of his party. 

Mr. Albin has been largely engaged in the develop- 
ment and management of steam and electric railroad 
properties in Xew England, showing in this capacity re- 
markable executive ability. He is president and a di- 
rector of the Sullivan County railroad of Xew Hamp- 
shire; director of the Connecticut River railroad of Mas- 
sachusetts; and director of the A'ermont \'alle}- railroad 
of Vermont. Until its recent sale to a s}-ndicate he was 
the president and principal owner of the Concord street 
railway, a propert}" which was greatly enlarged and im- 
proved under his control. 




The I. O. O. F. of the state and nation owe much to 
General Albin's long and influential connection with the 
order. He was Grand Master of the grand lodge of 
New Hampshire in 1879, ^^^ ^'^^ several sessions repre- 
sented the grand lodge of the state in the Sovereign 
grand lodge, of which body he afterwards served as 
grand marshal for several sessions. While an officer of 
the sovereign grand lodge he prepared the ritual and was 
largely the author of the legislation which established 
the Patriarch Militant rank of the order. He was one 
of the founders of the Odd Fellows home of New Hamp- 
shire and has served as one of its trustees since its organ- 

Mr. Albin was married on September 5, 1872, to Miss 
Georgia A. Mordica, who passed away during the pres- 
ent year (1902) after a beautiful and useful life in her 
home, in her church and in society. To them two chil- 
dren were born : Henry A. Albin, superintendent of the 
Concord & Manchester Street railway, and Miss Edith 
G. Albin. 

General Albin's career has been a singularly successful 
one, and it is still at its flood tide. His thorough and 
accurate knowledge of the law and his power as an advo- 
cate have placed him at the head of his profession; his 
sagacity and enterprise have won him an assured posi- 
tion in business circles; and his genial and magnetic 
personality, coupled with his distinguished abilities, have 
made him an honored and esteemed member of the so- 
cial and public life of the community. 



John Hosley was born in Hancock ^May 12, 1826, and 
died in Manchester March 24, 1890. 

He was one of nine children of Saniuel and Sophia 
(Wilson) Hosley and was of English ancestry on both 
sides. His mother's lineage traced back to 1640 when 
Rev. John Wilson settled at the head of Wilson's Lane in 
Boston. Mr. Hosley was also a lineal descendant of Gov- 
ernor John Wlnthrop. His great-grandfather, James 
Hosley, was a prominent official of the town of Town- 
send, jVlass., and in 1775 was captain of the ''alarm list" 
that marched to the defence of Cambridge. Later he was 
captain of a company which marched to the assistance of 
General Gates at Saratoga. After the Revolution this 
James Hosley moved to Hancock, and the same farm he 
then occupied was handed down to his descendants. 

John Hosley worked on a farm in youth and made the 
most of what schooling he could get. W^hen he was twen- 
ty years of age he went to Manchester and went to work 
as a shoe cutter for jMoses Fellows, the fourth mayor of 
the city. In 1849 ]Mr. Hosley began work as a weaver in 
the Amoskeag Mills, but the gold excitement then preva- 
lent caught him in its rush and carried him in 1851 to 
California where he remained two years. Returning to 
Manchester he was for a time in the grocery business, 
then became an overseer in the Amoskeag ]Mills and re- 
mained in that position until 1865. 

Mr. Hosley was a member of the common council in 




1856-57; member of the school board in 1861-62; and 
alderman in 1863, '64, "71, '81 and '82. Upon the death 
of Mayor Daniels in 1865 Alderman Hosley was chosen 
to fill the vacancy and the next year he was elected mayor 
as a citizens' candidate. In 1886 he was again chosen 
mayor. He was city tax collector in 1875-76. In 1865 
he was a delegate to the national union convention in 

Mr. Hosley was a gentleman of the old school, a true 
descendant of a race of hardy pioneers, inheriting the cool 
judgment and great ability of his ancestors. He was 
strictly honest and conscientious in all his public and 
private dealings, and the fact that he was so often called 
to fill important public offices emphasizes the apprecia- 
tion and admiration with which he was regarded by his 

He stepped from the ranks of the workers to the helm 
of affairs at the instance of those who knew his worth, 
and filled each position to^ the city's honor and his own. 
It was men like John Hosley who made Manchester the 
city she is and to them she owes a heavy debt. 

Mr. Hosley married in 1854 Dorothea H., daughter oi 
Samuel and Cornelia Jones of Weare. They had one 
daughter, Marian J., wife of Dr. William M. Parsons of 
Manchester. Mr. Hosley was a Unitarian in religious 
belief, a member of Hillsboroiigh lodge, I. O. O. F., of 
Lafayette lodge, A. F. and A. M., and of the Knights 



Alice AL 'M. Chesley, 'M. D., of Exeter, one of the 
most widely known and highly successful of the women 
physicians of New Hampshire, was born in Nottingham, 
that state, October 14, 1861, the daughter of Dr. Lafay- 
ette and Mrs, Hannah D, (Jones) Chesley. Her father 
was a practising physician in Exeter so that her predilec- 
tion for her chosen profession was inherited as well as 
acquired. As a young girl Miss Chesley was eager to 
gain a broad and thorough culture. She graduated at 
the High school in Cliarlestown, ]\Iass., at Chester 
academy, and at the Maine State normal school. She 
studied two years at Ann Arbor, Mich., but was called 
home by the death of her father and sister. Her med- 
ical education was then completed at Tufts college, 
Boston. Mass. 

Large hospital experience at Detroit, New York and 
Boston has supplemented her professional studies and 
has given her skill of such degree as to secure for her 
a large practice in Exeter. She is a member of the New 
Hampshire ^Medical society, admission to which is a 
recognition of ethical and practical devotion to the sci- 
ence of medicine. 

Dr. Chesley's ability and faithfulness have been recog- 
nized outside the beaten paths of her profession, for her 
services were sought and secured by the county of Rock- 
ingham for the important and laborious task of revising 
and indexing the records book, dating back to 1622. 





This work was done so carefully and well as to gain 
general praise. 

Dr. Chesley's career is an excellent illustration of 
what the young womanhood of New England can ac- 
complish when its ability and application are commen- 
surate with its ambition. Every woman physician who 
unites in herself, as Miss Chesley does, industry, intel- 
ligence, skill, training and a sincere desire to serve, fills 
a want, great and long recognized. 



Cliaiicey Adams. A. ]\I.. M. D.. a successful medical 
practitioner of Concord, was bom in Xonh Xew Port- 
land, Me., Marcii 15. 1S61, son of Benjamin and Eliza 
Briton (^Sawyer) Adams. He belong^s to a branch of 
the famous old Massachusetts family of the same name. 
Henr}- Adams, the founder of the Massadiusetts family, 
was an English emigrant, who came over to this countr)* 
in the year 1630, \\-ith his eight sons and settled in 
Braintree, in the Colony of Massachiisetts. Of tliese 
eight sons, one subsequently returned tc England. The 
names of the otliers according to the records of Massa- 
chusetts, were: Peter, Henry, Thomas, Edward. Jona- 
than. Samuel and Joseph. Samuel ^^as the father of 
two sons, one of whom was Joseph Adams, who lived 
in Xorth Chelmsford, Mass. Joseph was the father of 
Benjamin Adams, who was tlie father of W'illiam 
Adams, who was the father of Solomon Adams, who 
was th.e great-grandfather of Dr. Adams. Solomon 
Adams migrated from Xorth Chelmsford, Mass., his 
native town, to Farmington, Me., at the dose of the 
Revolutionar>- \\'ar. The record shows that he served 
his countT}- during that war from May 15, 1777, to May 
15. 17S0. in Captain James ^'amllm's company, of 
Colonel Michad Jackson's r^ment; but his active mili- 
tary- ser^4ce actually extended beyond these dates. A\'il- 
liam Adams, son oi Solomon and grandfather of Dr. 
Adams, was a native of Famiington. Me, He passed 




his entire life in that town, engaged in farming, and 
died June 12, 1862, at the age of seventy-three years. 
He married Nancy Hiscock, and had a numerous family 
of children, of whom three died in infancy. The others 
were born as follows: Thomas H., March 14, 1813; 
Hannah B., October 19, 181 5; William, Jr., August 21, 
1817; Nancy K., August 4, 1819; John R., August 17, 
1821; Benjamin, April 7, 1823; Samuel, April 11, 1825; 
Lucy J., October 6, 1829; and Dolly, September 3, 1835. 
Of these Benjamin, the father of Dr. Adams, was the 
last survivor. He was a native of Farmington, Me. In 
early manhood he studied law while teaching school, 
and was subsequently admitted to the Franklin County 
bar. He then took up his residence in North New Port- 
land, INIe., where he was engaged in the practice of his 
profession from 1847 to 1870, when he moved to North 
Anson, Me. From 1849 to 1854 he was Postmaster at 
North New Portland. He was Register of Probate from 
1854 to 1855. In 1873 1^^ "^^'^s a member of the House 
of Representatives of the ]\Iaine legislature. He was a 
Congregationalist in religious belief. In 1849 he mar- 
ried Eliza Briton SaAvyer, daughter of Ephraim and 
Elizabeth (Williams) Sawyer. During the last nine 
years of his life he made his home with his son, Dr. 
Adams, at Concord, N. PI. He died at the Margaret 
Pillsbury General Hospital at Concord, N. H., of apo- 
plexy, on July 17, 1902, after a short illness of five days, 
at the ad\-anced age of seAent}--nine years, three months 
and ten days. 

Eliza B. Adams, born in New Portland, Maine, was 
one of twelve children, of whom five died before reach- 
ing the age of ten years. The others were born as fol- 
lows: William, September 3, 1803; Sophronia, January 
I, 1807: Emeline, January 23, 1810; Ann, October 
9, 1812; Albina, February 15, 1815: \'iola F., April 5, 
1818; and Eliza B ,, January 29, 1824. 



Mrs. Adams died at North New Portland, Me., of 
pneumonia, April 20, 1893, after a short illness of three 
days. She was a Universalist in religions belief, 

Lemuel Williams, the grandfather of Mrs. Adams, 
was a native of Woolwich, Mass., now in Maine. Hav- 
ing enlisted in Colonel Nixon's regiment, he served 
during a part of the Revolutionary War. The children 
of Benjamin Adams were Sarah Frances, Ellen Maria, 
and Chancey. Sarah Frances, who married John P, 
Clark, a lumberman of Skowhegan, Me., has had six chil- 
dren, of whom five are living. Ellen jNIaria died at the 
age of two and one-half years. 

Chancey Adams was educated in the district schools 
of North Anson, Me., and at Anson Academy, graduat- 
ing from the latter institution in the class of 1880. For 
six months after his graduation he was employed in the 
drug store at North Anson. Then, feeling the need of 
additional education, he entered Waterville Classical In- 
stitute (now Coburn Classical Institute, Waterville, 
Me.), and graduated from the same in 1881. In the 
autumn he became a student of Colby University (now 
Colby College) in Waterville, and, after completing the 
course, graduated in 1885. After this he taught for 
several terms in the district schools of Waldoboro and 
Embden and in the Phillips High School. Having de- 
cided to enter the medical profession, he attended the 
Portland Medical School and the Maine Medical School 
in Brimswick during the years 1888, 1890, and 1891, 
graduating (from the latter institution) in June of the 
last named year. From 1886 to 1891 he employed all 
his spare time in a drug store in the interests of his in- 
tended profession. After graduating from the Maine 
Medical School, he entered the United States Marine 
Hospital at Staten Island. Thence he went to Taunton, 
Mass., as assistant physician in the insane asylum of that 
city, where he remained until January i, 1893. Desiring 



to qualify himself still further for the medical profession, 
he then went to New York City, and took a three 
months' course in the Post-Graduate Medical School and 
Hospital, After this, on September 26, 1893, he opened 
an office in Concord, where he has since been in active 
practice. Dr. Adams already occupies a front place in 
his chosen calling, and his ability and skill are acknowl- 
edged by his medical associates. He has been elected 
a member of the North Bristol (Mass.) Medical Society, 
which made him a member of the Massachusetts State 
Medical Society. He also belongs to the Centre District 
Medical Society of New Hampshire and the New Hamp- 
shire State Medical Society. On January 25, 1897, he 
was elected City Physician of Concord for two years. 
On March 9, 1903, he was elected to the Board of Health 
of Concord for three years. 

On January 9, 1893, Dr. Adams married Laurinda 
Clara Coombs of Gloucester, Mass. They have had 
three children; Benjamin W., who died in infancy; Ed- 
mund Chancey and Elizabeth Beimer. In politics the 
Doctor is a Democrat, and he cast his first Presidential 
vote for Grover Cleveland in 1884. In 1887 he was 
made a Mason in Northern Star Lodge, No. 28, A. F. & 
A. M., North Anson, Me., but is now a member of Blaz- 
ing Star Lodge, No. 11, A. F. & A. M. of Concord; and 
of Concord Lodge, No. 8, K. of P., of Concord. Amply 
qualified by the services rendered to their country by his 
ancestry on both sides, Dr. Adams is also a member of the 
Sons of the American Revolution of Concord. 



Charles llctiry Sawyer, governor of Xew llampsliire 
from 1887 to 1889. was 1xm-ii at W'atertvAvn. New N'ork. 
IMarch 30. 1840. the eldest son of Jona'nan and Martha 
(Perkins) Sawyer. W'hen he was ten years of age. his 
father removed to Dover. Xew Hampshire, where the 
son after spending six years in the public schools of that 
city, was entered as an apprentice in the Sawyer mills, 
established by his father, where he thoroughly acquainted 
himself by actual laix^r with every branch of the business, 
and at the age of twenty-six was made superimendent of 
the plant. In 1873. the company being incorporated, he 
became one of the ow ners and advanced successixely to 
the posts of general director and president. During his 
administration of this invlustrx- it rose to a promment 
position among the largest and strongest woollen maim- 
facturing corporations in the country, a result due in no 
small measure to the capacity and ability of the president 
of the company. 

His marked adaptability to posts of executive manag-e- 
ment centre<^^l u\)on him the attention of his fellow-citizens, 
and while still a young man he served m Ix^th branches 
of the city government of Dover and for four terms was 
sent to represent that community in the state legislature, 
serving- during the sessions of 1869 and 1870, 1876. and 
1877. and tilling important positions upon the largest 
committees of the house. In 1881. he was apix>inted aide- 
de-camp upon the staff of Gov. Charles H. Bell with the 


(■ii.\i<i,i:s II. swwi'.k, 


rank of colonel. In 1884, he was one of New Hamp- 
shire's clelegates-at-large to the Repnblicin national con- 
vention in Chicago, and in 1886, he was elected governor 
of the state. His term as chief magistrate covered a 
period of great activity in legislative lines, and Governor 
Sawyer's conduct of his great office was marked by con- 
spicuous adherence to his conscientious scruples and with 
high regard for the best interests of the commonwealth 
whose destinies so- largely rested in his hands. He filled 
the office so as to win a noble reputation for diligence, 
honor and prudence. 

In addition to the extensive interests represented in his 
private business. Governor Sawyer devoted himself 
actively to many other industrial and fiduciary interests 
in the city of Dover, and has served as a director in the 
Strafford National bank, a trustee o^f the Strafford Sav- 
ings bank, a director in the Somers worth Machine com- 
pany and the Dover Gaslight company, as president of 
the Eliot Bridge company, and as a director in the Ports- 
mouth & Dover railroad. , 

Governor Sawyer, now retired from active business 
life, still maintains his residence in Dover, and though 
rarely taking public part in matters which engross general 
attention, he still retains a deep interest in all that per- 
tains to New Hampshire's welfare and keeps in close 
touch with the movements of public thought in commer- 
cial and legislative circles. Surrounded by the evidences 
of his active career he leads a life of dignified leisure, 
sweetened by the respect and affection of that large body 
of his fellow-citizens, among whom he has spent so many 
years of beneficent activity. 



The daughter of Sewel Hoyt, native of Concord 
(Sug^r Hill, near Hopkinton), and Hannah Elizabeth 
Nichols, of Boston, Alass. 

Dr. Hoyt was bom in Concord, Sept. 23rd, i860. 
Educated in the public schools of the city from 1866 to 
1 8/S. At ^^'ellesley College from 1 879- 1 883. Began her 
medical course in the Autumn of 1886, at "The \\'oman's 
medical college of the New York Infirmary" (the Black- 
well college) in New York city. She was graduated after 
a four years course at the same institution, jMay 28th, 
1890. She held the position as second assistant in the 
New York infant asylum, 61 st Street and loth Avenue, 
New York city, during her senior year in college, from 
May i889-]May 1890. This position was obtained through 
test examinations made under Profs. Garrigues, Chapin 
and A\'endt, of New York City. (The position has only 
twice been given to an under graduate. ) 

After passing the summer of 1890 in England and 
Scotland she returned to xA.merica that autumn to serv^e as 
"resident physician" at Lasell seminary, Aubumdale, 
Mass., while awaiting an appointment for service in the 
New England hospital. While at Lasell seminary. Sept, 
1 890 June 1 89 1, nine months of daily morning service 
was given in the surgical room at "The Boston dispen- 
sary'," Bennet street, under Harvard clinicians, Drs. E. 
O. Otis, J. Foster Bush and Briggs of Boston. Served as 
intern in the New England hospital, Boston, Mass. from 
June 1 89 1 -June 1892. 




June, 1892 she sailed again for Europe to do special 
work at Vienna, Austria, and tO' visit the hospitals of 
Europe. The summer months were spent at Heidelberg 
in the study oi the German language. She began work 
in the autumn at the university in Vienna under Pro- 
fessors Schauter, Herzfeld, Kaposy and Lukasieweiz and 
thus continued until January, 1893. Six months of gen- 
eral visiting of hospitals was given to the different cities 
of Germany and Italy, and to- the cities of Zurich, Paris, 
London and Glasgow. 

Returning to America Dr. Hoyt began the practice of 
medicine in Concord, N. H., June 1893. She continued 
here in practice until after the death of her mother, when 
it seemed best to go abroad for the third time. Leaving 
Concord January 1899, she remained in foreign countries 
nearly three years. One and a half years were given to 
lectures in the Leipzig university, Germany, under Pro^ 
fessors Chun (zoology), Wundt (psychology and history 
of philosophy), Schmarsow (history of art). 

Sept. 23rd, 1900 (her 40tli birthday) was spent seeing 
the Oberammergau passion play. Nine months were spent 
in Italy as a pastime in the study of the old masters in art. 
Three months were given to travel in North Africa, visit- 
ing Tunis, Algiers, the desert of Sahara, together with the 
intervening countries, which proved most instructive and 
broadening in its influence. Dr. Hoyt is now engaged, as 
occasion permits, in preparing for publication a volume 
containing the story of these travels, and also a series of 
articles upon the same topics. Those who have had the 
pleasure of reading the published letters written by Dr. 
Hoyt during her earlier foreign tours, will appreciate how 
much of pleasure this announcement contains for those 
who admire a free and graphic narrative style, coupled 
with habits of close observation. 

In January, 1902. Dr. Hoyt again began the practice 
of her profession in Concord and in connection with office 



work has established a chnic at the north end of the city 
for the benetit of those who need medical assistance and 
are too poor to go to a physician's office. 

Dr. Hoyt's father, born in 1807. was one of Concord's 
earliest architects and builders. Several of the houses 
planned and builded b\- him are standing in tlie city to- 
day. The old homestead, the present home and office of 
Dr. Hoyt, at Xo. 85 North State street, is one of them, 
and it is her purpose to leave this building to the city of 
Concord as a memorial to her father's name and work- 
manship, and as a home for working girls, to be known as 
''The Sewel Hoyt Memorial Home for Young \\'omen." 

Dr. Hoyt's father and mother were both descendants of 
fiorhters in the war of the American Revolution. 




Charles Tracy Means was born in ]Manchest€r Jan. 20, 
1855, the son of Wilham Gordon Means and Martha 
Allen, and died January 25, 1902. 

He was educated in the common schools at Andover, 
Mass., where he had resided as a youth, and at the 
Worcester ]Military Academy. He began his active 
career as a business man in Manchester with the Man- 
chester Locomotive Works, in which his father was pos- 
sessed of a large interest and in which the younger man 
mastered every detail of the business, finally rising to the 
management of the entire concern during the period of its 
greatest prosperity. 

I\Ir. Means was naturally bom into public life, and in 
1883, was elected to represent his ward in the state legis- 
lature. Six years later he was chosen a member of the 
state senate, and his services in both branches of the Gen- 
eral Court were marked by intelligent appreciation of the 
public needs and by a conscientious endeavor to discharge 
his duties to his constituents. 

In 1892, Mr. jNleans was selected as a delegate-at-large 
to the national Republican convention at Minneapolis, 
and four years later he received the almost unprecedented 
honor of being again cliosen to head the delegation-at- 
large to the national convention at St. Louis. In both 
of these bodies Mr. Means voted for Thomas B. Reed 
for the presidency, his relations with the ^Maine states- 
man having been close and intimate for many years. 



In 1900, at the Republican National Convention in 
Philadelphia, Mr. Means was elected to represent New 
Hampshire upon the Republican National Committee, a 
position which his broad views of public questions, his 
wide relations with men of affairs and substance, his 
ardent political temperament, fitted him especially to 

His death at the untimely age of forty-seven years re- 
moved one of New Hampshire's best-loved sons. Mr. 
Means was a man who attracted wide friendships, bind- 
ing his associates to him with the enduring bonds of firm 
affection. His domestic life was especially happy and 
beautiful. Marr}ang Oct. 18, 1883, Miss Elizabeth A. 
French, of Manchester, his home environment was both 
winning and affectionate. His natural thoughtfulness, 
courtesy and devotion to the interests of others found full 
fruition at home where in addition to those amenities of 
daily life in the bosom of his family he entertained with 
charming and liberal hospitality. These same character- 
istics, though naturally less fully expressed, marked Mr. 
Means's intercourse with all the world. Rising by his 
own efforts to eminence of position and fortune, he ever 
held in mind the humblest of his employees, and few men 
have ever conducted business on so large a scale as he and 
so endeared themselves to their subordinates. His death 
deprived the city of Manchester of a devoted son and a 
patriotic citizen, his party of a generous and enthusiastic 
supporter, and his own family of a large-hearted, tender 
and loving husband and father. 




Harry Gene Sargent was born in Pittsfield Sept. 30, 
1859, but when a boy moved with his parents to Hook- 
sett and a little later to Concord, where he received his 
public school education, graduating from the Concord 
High school in 1878. He registered as a student of law 
in the office of W. T. and H. F. Norris, and later attended 
the sessions of the Boston University law school. He 
completed his legal education under the direction of the 
late Hon. John Y. Mugridge, and was admitted to the bar 
in Aug. 1 88 1, at once entering upon the practice of his 
profession in Concord, where he has since been actively 
and successfully engaged. For twelve years he practised 
alone and laid the foundation for those professional suc- 
cesses which have since attended him and the firms with 
which he has been identified. In 1893, he formed a part- 
nership with Henry F. Hollis, and three years later Ed- 
ward C. Niles became a member of the firm. In 1898, 
Mr. Hollis withdrew, and in 1900, Arthur P. Morrill, 
Esq., was admitted, and the firm name now stands Sar- 
gent,' Niles & Morrill, the firm enjoying one of the largest 
and most varied practices in New Hampshire. 

Mr. Sargent's professional career has been marked by 
steady advance and by no little brilliancy as an advocate, 
while as a counsellor he is most reliable. From 1885 to 
1887, he was solicitor of Merrimack county, and from 
1887 to 1 90 1, was solicitor for the city of Concord, in 
each of these positions discharging his duties to the en- 



tire satisfaction, of his constituents and winning for him- 
self a fine reputation for professional ability and skill. His 
practice is by no means confined to the courts of the state, 
where he ranks among the ablest attorneys, but extends 
to the courts of other states and the Federal courts of all 
classes of jurisdiction and to practice before legislative 
committees and other tribunals. In 1891, he was asso- 
ciated with Wayne McVeigh, late attorney-general of the 
United States, as counsel for Austin Corbin in an im- 
portant railroad controversy before the legislature of New 
Hampshire, and his arguments both before committees 
of the legislature and later before the full bench of the 
supreme court, to whom the legislature had referred the 
matter, were powerful. Mr. Sargent was also counsel 
for Coe and Pingree in the important litigation involving 
the title to the summit of Mount Washington, appearing 
both before the legislature and before the state and United 
States courts in this matter, and winning a most remark- 
able success. 

In the fall of 1900, Mr. Sargent much against his de- 
sire, accepted his party's nomination for mayor of Con- 
cord. The city then being in the hands of his political 
opponents the campaign was an arduous and spirited one 
and the odds against him were tremendous, but at the 
head of a successful poll Mr. Sargent emerged triumphant 
from the contest and assumed the duties of his office in 
January, 1901. As chief magistrate of his city he has 
been exceptionally powerful and progressive. Under his 
vigorous guidance the city has undertaken its greatest 
public work since the date of the municipal water-works, 
in the erection of a new city hall. This enterprise al- 
though meeting a want long felt and widely recognized, 
was vigorously opposed by many of the most substantial 
and influential men of the city, and had a weaker hand 
than Mr. Sargent's been guiding the project it probably 
would have failed. But with quiet persistence he met the 



arguments of the opponents of the improvement, both 
before the city government and before the courts where 
the question was carried upon legal grounds, and won 
substantial recognition of the justice and legality of his 

Outside his profession and his official circles, Mr. Sar- 
gent has been an active, energetic, public-spirited citizen. 
He is a trustee of the Margaret Pillsbury general hospi- 
tal, formerly president of the Snowshoe club, president 
of the Wonolancet club, a trustee of the Protestant Epis- 
copal church of New Hampshire, and a member of the 
leading social organizations of the city. 

In 1 90 1, upon the occasion of the Webster Centennial, 
Dartmouth college properly recognized Mr. Sargent's 
worth and ability by conferring upon him the degree oi 
Master of Arts. 

In January, 1903, Mr. Sargent was appointed by the 
Governor to the position of judge-advocate-general upon 
his staf¥, with the rank of brigadier-general. 



Eugene F. McOuesten, ^I. D. of Xashua, is a native 
of Litchfield, where he was born Oct. nth, 1843, a de- 
scendant of a sturdy pioneer who emigrated from the 
north of Ireland, and settled in that town in 1775. Dr. 
McOuesten attended school in Litchfield and in. the city 
of Nashua, and for three years was a student in the 
Academy at Pembroke. In 1863 he entered the sopho- 
more class at Dartmouth College, but did not graduate 
there, for in the following year he began the study of medi- 
cine at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, where 
in two years he accomplished the course prescribed for 
three years of study, and received his degree in 1866. 
For one year he practised in Lynn, Mass. and then came 
to Nashua where he became associated with Dr. Josiah 
G. Graves. In 1869 he entered into practice for himself 
and has drawn around him an increasingly numerous cir- 
cle of patients. i\lways alert to the latest developments 
of his profession Dr. McOuesten has taken several post 
graduate courses of study and is recognized as a special- 
ist in surgical practice. He is an active member of the 
New Hampshire ^Medical society and has been its presi- 
dent; is a member of the American Association of rail- 
way surgeons, and of the Nashua ^Medical society. Of 
this last named organization he was president for two 
years. He was one of the founders of the emergency 
hospital in Nashua, and to his lively interest in the insti- 
tution no little of its success is due. Dr. ]^IcQuesten is 





also widely interested in the business interests of his 
home city, and is a director in the Indian Head National 
bank, and in the Nashua Trust Co. He is a member of 
the Unitarian church, a ]\lason and Knights Templar. 
Dr. ]\IcQuesten enjoys the confidence of the public to a 
most remarkable degree, having fairly won it by con- 
stant, faithful attention to his professional labors, and 
he is recognized by his brethren in medicine as a physi- 
cian and surgeon of no mean skill and learning. Though 
not a politician he has been a candidate for his party for 
mayor, and as a citizen of Nashua he has always lent his 
influence to the advancement of the interests and pros- 
I)erity of the community. 



Principal James E. Klock of the New Hampshire State 
Normal school at Plymouth was born in Java, N. Y., 
March 27, 1855. He graduated at the State Normal 
School of Kansas with the class of 1875 and taught for 
four years in Lyon county, that state. In 1880 he was 
elected principal of the High school at Emporia and two 
years later was made superintendent of public instruction 
for Lyon county. In 1884, at the earnest request of the 
board of education, he returned to^ Emporia as superin- 
tendent of schools, a position which he held for six years. 
For a similar length of time he was at the head of the 
schools of Leavenworth, Kansas, resigning this superin- 
tendency for one at Helena, Montana. From Helena he 
came in 1900 to New Hampshire where he is doing a 
grand work and one fully equal to the high expectations 
raised by the reports of his success in the West. 

Writing at the time of Mr. Klock's election, 
A. E. Winship, Ph. D., editor of the Journal of 
Education, Boston, said: "The New Hampshire Nor- 
mal school trustees have made a remarkably wise choice 
of principal. J. E. Klock of Helena is admirably qualified 
for the place; indeed, it would not be easy to find any one 
better qualified. I prophesy that he will make the Ply- 
mouth school as strong scholastically and pro'fessionally 
as any normal school in America; that New Hampshire 
will rally around him with enthusiasm; and that his grad- 
uates will be in demand far and near. Mr. Klock made 




the schools of Emporia and Leavenworth, Kansas, equal 
to any in the country, and he has done the same for those 
of Helena. If he accomplishes as much for New Hamp- 
shire, and he should do- more, he will take front rank 
among New England educational leaders," 

As bearing upon the fulfilment of this prophecy the 
report of the trustees of the Normal School for 1902 may 
be quoted. They say : "It is a matter of sincere congrat- 
ulation that New Hampshire's one Normal school is led 
by a man of rare excellence as an instructor, administrator 
and organizer. Mr. Klock's native gifts, a kindliness of 
heart, a graciousness of speech and manner, an ability to 
read human nature and tO' rightly interpret human mo- 
tives, combined with the power of a cultured mind and 
long experience as an instructor and superintendent, make 
him a strong man in his profession and a very serviceable 
man for- the state. 

"During the two years that j\Ir. Klock has been at the 
head of our school his administration has been a most 
pronounced success, and it is conceded by all who have 
taken the pains to inform themselves, that the school is 
on a better footing, and promises better for the future, 
than at any time since its organization." 



A newcomer in Ne^Y Hampshire^ but one who by 
his pubhc spirit and eagerness to enter into all that 
contributes to the good of the community is fairly 
entitled to a place in any compilation of its best-known 
men, is Orlando Benajah Douglas, M. D., who was born 
in Cornwall, Vt., Sept. 12, 1836, of good Scotch stock, 
and the eighth generation born in New England. A 
country boy, he received the sturdy training given to 
farmers' sons, his early educational advantages being 
confined to those offered by the district school and 
by the seminary at Brandon, Vt. Upon these founda- 
tions, by diligent study and constant reading, he has 
built the superstructure of a fine mental training. At 
the age of 18, he began to teach school, but at his 
mother's desire, and in pursuance of his own ambition, 
at the age of 22, he took up the study of medicine, 
going to Brunswick, Mo., where he studied for two years 
and worked in an uncle's drug store. Soon the Civil War 
came on, and Dr. Douglas at great personal sacrifice, 
and living as he did in the midst of a community 
of strong Confederate sympathies, went to the nearest 
Union rendezvous with a half a dozen others of similar 
patriotic tendencies and enlisted in the i8th Missouri 
Volunteers which was organized by the order of Gen. 
Fremont. He served in that state for six months, and 
was later sent South to join the army of the Tennessee, 
participating in the great campaigns of that army and 
marching with Sherman to the sea. 




Young Douglas refused an appointment as captain, 
but accepted a lieutenant's commission and was pro- 
moted to be adjutant of his regiment. Later, by order 
of General Grant, he was commissioned acting assistant 
adjutant general on the brigade staff. He was twice 
\\ounded, in 1861 early in the war while scouting in 
Missouri, and a year later at Shiloh, where he was 
seriously wounded in the hip. He was on duty at 
Cincinnati, at Corinth, Mississippi, and in the provost 
marshal's corps at Concord, Mass., and was mustered 
out near the close of the war. For some years thereafter 
he was engaged in business, and later entered the 
medical department of the University of Vermont, 
although he receiA'ed his diploma from the University 
Medical College of New York in 1877. Entering upon 
the practice of his profession in New York City, he soon 
attained an excellent degree of success and reputation 
and held many positions of importance and responsi- 
bility in his profession. 

Turning his attention to the special subject of the 
ear, nose and throat, Dr. Douglas became an authority in 
the pathology and treatment of those organs and served 
upon the surgical staff of the Manhattan Eye and Ear 
Hospital for twenty-five years, conducting the throat 
clinics and being visited by more than two hundred thou- 
sand patients. In 1888, he was elected professor of dis- 
eases of the nose and throat in the New York Post-Grad- 
uate Medical School and Hospital. He was prominent in 
many of the medical associations, president of the Medical 
Society of New York city, treasurer of the New York 
Academy of Medicine for nine years, and has written 
widely upon the special subjects in which he is an au- 

For ten years he had a summer residence in Suncook, 
but in September, 1901, he purchased a residence and es- 



tablished an office permanently in Concord. Having thus 
enrolled himself as a resident of the Granite State Dr. 
Douglas is sure to perform to the full his part as a good 




For nearly fifty years a resident of New Hampshire 
and for more than half that time at the head of a pros- 
perous manufacturing establishment in Milford, John 
McLane has long held a deserved position among the 
foremost men of the state. He was born in Lennoxtown, 
Scotland, Feb. 27th, 1852, the son of Alexander and Mary 
(Hay) McLane. His parents emigrated to America in 
1854 and settled in Manchester, where John McLane re- 
ceived his education in the public schools. Fitted with a 
special aptitude for mechanical pursuits he becameaskilled 
wood w"orker and for many years was employed as a 
journeyman in the furniture trade. But his was not the 
stuff to remain in a subordinate position, and in 1876 he 
established a business for himself for the manufacture of 
postoffice equipments, and under his guidance the concern 
has grown to immense proportions, with customers all 
over the country. In Milford he has taken a lively in- 
terest in the development of the town, aside from the en- 
terprise conducted in his own name, and he has con- 
tributed liberally of time, talent and money to advance 
the community's welfare. He is president of the Souhe- 
gan National Bank, and a director in the local 
Building and Loan association. In 1885 he 
was sent to represent his town in the legis- 
lature, and although a new member, and not a 
lawyer, he was placed upon that most important legal 
committee, the judiciary, and was also a member of 



the committee on towns. In 1887 Mr. McLane again rep- 
resented Milford and was appointed chairman of the 
committee on insurance, and a member of tlie committee 
on the revision of the statutes. In 1891 he entered the 
state senate and was chosen president of that body, serv- 
ing with rare and successful tact. In 1893 he was again 
a member of the senate and was again chosen to the presi- 
dency, an honor which came to him by unanimous vote 
of his party associates, and over riding the one-term prece- 
dent which had been estabhshed for upwards of half a 
century. Mr. McLane married Mar. loth, 1880 Ellen L. 
Tuck, daughter of Eben Tuck of Milford, and they have 
four children, three sons and a daughter. Mr. McLane 
attends the Congregational church, is a Mason and 
an Odd Fellow. His Masonic career has been re- 
markably brilliant, having served in all the positions in 
the fraternity, including that of Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge of the state. Mr. McLane, although deep- 
ly engrossed in the work entailed by the management of 
an extensive business, has nevertheless found time for 
much reading and for a close and accurate study of public 
affairs. He is an ardent Republican and for many years 
has been a member of the state committee of his party, 
and the representative of his county (Hillsborough) in 
the executive committee of that body. Mr. McLane is 
a public speaker of more than ordinary power, endowed 
with excq>tional qualities of judgment and with that sa- 
gacity which is the birthright oi his race, supplementing 
the faithful results of public school study with wide read- 
ing and careful thought, and possessing a cordial manner 
and a dignified presence, he has appeared frequently on 
public occasions with marked success. Mr. McLane is a 
man of sterling integrity, both of mind and action. 




Channing Folsom, state superintendent of public in- 
struction, was born at Newmarket, June i, 1848. His 
father, a country doctor, well realizing the benefits of a 
liberal education, supplemented the training afforded in 
the town schools by a course at Phillips- Exeter Academy, 
and the young man entered Dartmouth College in the 
class of 1870. Weak eyes and insufficient financial re- 
sources compelled his withdrawal from college at the end 
of two years, although his Alma Mater in 1885, conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of A. M. and in 1902 the 
degree of A, B. in course. 

While in college Mr. Folsom, following the custom of 
so many Dartmouth students, taught school during the 
vacation, and after leaving college he entered upon teach- 
ing as his life work, beginning at Sandwich, Mass. 
From there he went to Amesbury, Mass., where he spent 
two years, and later had four years' experience in Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire. In 1874, he went to Dover as 
principal of the Belknap grammar school, where he re- 
mained three years, when he M^as elected a master in the 
Eliot School, Boston, serving until April, 1882. In that 
month he was chosen superintendent of schools at Dover, 
and returned to New Hampshire, where he has since 
lived. For sixteen years he was superintendent of schools 
at Dover, and in 1898, upon the resignation of Fred Cow- 
ing, he was appointed state superintendent of public 
instruction, receiving successive reappointments as his 
terms of office have expired. 



Mr, Folsom married Nov. 12, 1870, Ruth F. Savage, 
of Newmarket, and has five children. 

Mr. Folsom is a positive educator, both as a teacher in 
the schools and as a state superintendent he has shown 
himself a friend of true educational progress and the foe 
of all the non-essential and cumbersome methods which 
have rendered so many school programs inefficient. 
Coming to his present position at a time when the old 
methods of instruction had not yet been fully displaced 
by the new and when many of the new ideas had yet to 
prove their usefulness through practical experience, Mr. 
Folsoin has wisely and discriminatingly forwarded the 
educational interests of the state. During his term of 
office he has seen the entire policy of the state change so 
far as it has related to the state's responsibility for ad- 
vanced education, and the so-called "Grange" school law, 
by means of which twenty-five thousand dollars is annu- 
ally distributed to the schools of the state, was drafted by 
him and carried through the legislature largely through 
his efforts. His administration of the trust imposed upon 
him in the distribution of this fund has been eminently 
conservative and successful, and he has had the privilege 
of seeing his ideas stamped each year with a deeper seal 
of public approval. He has also stimulated many a com- 
munity to a pride and deeper interest in the local schools, 
and by causing to be enacted the law providing for a 
group system of school superintendents he has seen many 
of the existing schools brought to a still higher state of 

Fhrough his long residence in the state and his intimate 
acquaintance with New Hampshire temperaments and 
traditions, Mr. Folsom has been enabled to advance the 
cause of education by wise methods, and his assured 
continuance in his present post of usefulness is the 
guarantee that the immediate future of New Hampshire 
schools is bright witli promise. 


*9f flBli 



A keen and deservedly successful business man is Roger 
G. Sullivan, of Manchester, who was born in 1854 in 
Bradford, but the greater part of whose life has been 
spent in the city where he now lives. His educational 
advantages were limited and were confined tO' the com- 
mon schools of Manchester, as at the age of fourteen he 
began earning his own living and was at that time inden- 
tured to learn the carriage-painting business. At the 
age of nineteen, however, he embarked in business for 
himself as a cigar manufacturer, at first employing only 
two men. In 1883 he began the manufacture of what is 
now probably the best-known cigar in northern New 
England, Seven-twenty-four, and his business has grown 
since then by leaps and bounds, until now he employs 
two hundred hands and his factories have a capacity of 
nearly seven million cigars a year. The magnitude of 
his business may be judged somewhat from the fact that 
Mr. Sullivan's import duty payments and internal reve- 
nue stamp purchases amount to about $90,000 a year. 
His goods are sold throughout the country, and five trav- 
elling men are constantly employed distributing the prod- 
ucts of his factories. The pay-roll of his establishment 
is about $125,000 a year. 

In addition, Mr. Sullivan is largely engaged in other 
lines O'f business in the city of Manchester and elsewhere. 
He is a director of the Amoskeag National bank, a direc- 
tor in the Manchester Traction Company, the New Hamp- 



shire Fire Insurance Company and the Ujiion PubHshing- 
company. At York Beach, where Mr. SulHvan has 
erected a beautiful summer home, he is a large owner of 
real estate, and many of the improvements recently made 
at that well-known summer resort own their inception to 
My. Sullivan's enterprise and sagacity. 

His home on W'alnut street is one of the most at- 
tractive in Manchester. He married Susan C. Femald, 
of ]\Ianchester, and has three children. ]Minna E., Susan 
A. and Frances E. The eldest daughter was educated at 
Montreal and at Northampton, ]\Iass., and the others 
obtained their education at the Visitation Convent, 
Georgetown. District of Columbia, the eldest daughter 
travelling extensively in Europe after completing the 
course in the American schools. 

Mr. Sullivan in politics is a Democrat, and is promi- 
nent in the Knishts of Columbus. 




One of the best known osteopathic physicians in New 
Hampshire is Hermon K. Sherburne of Littleton. But 
aside from his professional attainment he is thoroughly 
representative of the best citizenship in his town and 
state. He was born in Wilmington, Vermont, July 12, 
1S55. He was educated in the schools of his native town 
and at Montpelier (Vt.) seminary. In 1883 he married 
Miss Ada L. Boyce, and one child, Theodore Vail Sher- 
burne, was born to them. He died at the age of five years 
and two months. She died, April 27, 1899 having been 
instantly killed in a cyclone that passed over the city of 
Kirksviile^ Missouri. 

The science of osteopathy early attracted the attention 
of Mr. Sherburne and when once he had decided to en- 
gage in its practice he went to Kirksville, Missouri, that 
he might learn the theory and practice of the science at 
the fountain head for it was there that the school was 
founded by Andrew Taylor Still. From this school he 
graduated in 1899 and in the same year he began active 

October first, 1901, Mr. Sherburne married for his 
second wife. Miss Mary A. Burb)aiik, who like himself is 
a diplomat in osteopathy. Mr. Sherburne is a member of 
the American Osteopathic Association and president of 
the New Hampshire Osteopathic Association. In poli- 
tics he is a Republican while his membership in fraternal 



orders is limited to Odd Fellowship. The church home 
of the family is the Methodist Episcopal. 

The article on Osteoi>athy following this sketch was 
written by Mr. Sherburne expressly for State Builders. 

By Hermon K. Sherburne. 

With the remarkable developments that have been 
made along all lines of scientific research in the closing 
years of the last century, perhaps there is none more im- 
portant, or which will fall with a greater blessing on the 
human race than the development and promulgation of 
that department of the science of medicine known as 

Osteopathy is a complete science of healing diseased 
conditions of the body without drugs and without the 
knife. It originated about 1874 in the brain of Dr. An- 
drew T. Still of Baldwin, Kansas, a regular practising 
ph}sician and army surgeon. 

Every invention is the result of a genius seeking to 
improve on old methods, so with Dr. Still convinced of 
the inefficacy of drug treating in acute and its absolute 
uselessness in chronic diseases he set about exploring for 
himself the unknown. Anatomy and Physiology seem to 
have been his favorite subjects and as has been said oi 
him with "Indian cadavers for subjects and the broad 
prairies for a workshop he constantly studied Nature's se^ 
crets in her greatest creation." 

His idea as expressed in his autobiography was that 
God would not give ns these bodies subject to attacks of 
disease from outside without putting into the bodies 
themselves the means and forces to resist the attacks. 



After nearly twenty years of untiring energy and cease- 
less toil, in 1892 feeling he had perfected his system suffi- 
ciently to give it to the world a charter was obtained 
from the state of Missouri to teach this new discovery 
and the first school was opened in Kirksville that state 
with an attendance of seven students. 

The system, soon became known and people who' were 
sick and ^vho had grown weary of taking medicme came 
to Kirksville to try the new science of healing without 
drugs. The}' were healed and returned home and their 
friends and neighbors came. 

The news spread rapidly, not by advertising, but, by 
cures made, and soon there were students and patients 
from all over the land going to Kirksville seeking to be 
cured or tO' learn the new science. The school continued 
to grow until today it has between six and seven hundred 
students. Other schools were organized so that there are 
now fourteen Osteopathic colleges with seventeen hun- 
dred students and about twenty-five hundred Osteopathic 
physicians practising. 

Recognition by special enactment of legislatures is a 
compliment never before paid to- a new scientific discov- 
ery, since 1896 Osteopathy has received this high compli- 
ment from nineteen states. 

Osteopathy bases its claims to rank as a science oi heal- 
ing upon the fact that there exists a definite and fixed re- 
lation between an organ and the central nervous system. 
It may be said to be the science of treating disease through 
a technical manipulation by which the practitioner intelli- 
gently directs the inherent recuperative resources of the 
body to the restoration of health. It rests upon the the- 
or}^ that every diseased condition not due to a specific 
poison is traceable to some mechanical disorder, which, if 
corrected, will allow Nature to resume perfect work. 

By the term mechanical obstruction is meant any direct 
interference to the nutritive or functional fluids or forces 



of the organ, as pressure upon a \essel or nerve by an 
abnormal condition of some denser tissue of the body. 
This will cut off the nerve force and affect the bloo'd 
supply. Either of these may result in producing an 
abnormal function of some organ or organs and thus lead 
to a diseased condition. 

The osteopath looks upon the body as a machine and 
himself as a trained human machinist adjusting it to its 
natural condition that it may be properly driven from 
the central nervous system. His work is principally done 
along the spinal column, from which the nerves emanate, 
going from there to all the dift'erent parts of the body. 

Osteopathy makes no demands on the vitality of the 
patient but rather increases it at every treatment. 

The claims of modesty are never lost sight of. The 
most delicate person can undergo this treatment without 
the least fear of any unpleasant experience. They are al- 
ways adapted to the condition of the patient, never severe, 
and absolutely in no case hannful if given bv a competent 

The application of the treatment is ver}' general, it 
having reached almost every knovm form of disease. Its 
success as a curative agent is remarkably gratifying, 
es|>ecially when we remember its triumphs have been made 
out of the failures of other systems. It ranks among its 
patrons some of the most noted and intellectual people 
of our lime, as well as those in the more modest walks 
of life but all alike testifying to the great blessing it has 
been to themselves or family in restoring them to health 
after all other medical skill had failed. No one today 
should consider their case incurable until they have con- 
sulted an Osteopath and teen properlv treated by him, 
when it is safe to say they will malve another of that now 
vast number who will rise up and call the name of Dr. A. 
T. Still, the founder of this great science, blessed. 




Alonzo Elliott, an enterprising banker, broker and busi- 
ness man of Manchester, was born in Augusta, Maine, 
July 25, 1849, and when a lad came to Tilton, N. H., 
with his parents. Acquiring his education in the public 
schools and in Tilton seminary, young Elliott began 
life as clerk in a store, but later, having obtained a 
knowledge of telegraphy, he entered the railroad service 
as operator at Tilton, and remained in railroad life until 
1893, with a brief interval, when he was employed in 
commercial pursuits in the North country. From 1869 
to 1893 he was employed at the Manchester station of 
the Concord and the Manchester & Lawrence railroads, 
where he earned the reputation of being the most 
expert ticket seller and one of the finest telegraph op- 
erators on the line. Retiring from railroading in 1893 
he engaged in banking and insurance, in the latter capac- 
ity representing some twenty-five leading companies. At 
the time of his retirement from that branch of business 
in 1896 Mr. Elliott was the organizer of the Granite State 
Trust CO., later known as the Bank of New England, of 
which he was treasurer until 1896. ■ He was 
Secretary of the Citizens building and loan asso- 
ciation, vice-president, director and clerk of the Peoples 
Gas Light co., and director in the Garvin's Falls elec- 
tric power CO. He was President of the Manchester Elec- 
tric light CO., and raised the money to build the first elec- 
tric light plant in Manchester. He has also been actively 



identified with the development of many of Manchester's 
diversified industries, chief among them being the El- 
hott Manufacturing co., producers of knit goods, employ- 
ing two hundred hands. This company was estabhshed 
through Mr. Elhott's efforts and he was its first treasurer. 
Prominent among other industrial enterprises in Manches- 
ter with which Mr. Elliott has been closely identified are 
the F. M. Hoyt, and the Eureka Shoe companies, the Kim- 
ball carriage co., the East Side shoe company and the 
West Side shoe company. Mr. Elliott is also interested 
in many real estate ventures in the Queen City and with 
the late Governor James A. Weston and late John B. Var- 
ick owned the New Manchester house, a finely equipped 
and valuable piece of hotel property. His home, Brook- 
hurst, is one of the most attractive in that city, and his 
family comprises a wife, the daughter of George W. and 
Sarah (Mead) Weeks, whose father was for many years 
prominently identified with the shoe trade in Manchester, 
and four children. Mr. Elliott is a Mason and a Knights 
Templar, and a charter member of the Derryfield club. 
In religion he is a Unitarian, and in politics an Independ- 
ent. In 1902 he made an independent canvass for gov- 




The New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the 
Mechanic Arts was incorporated by an act of the legis- 
lature passed in 1866. Section 2 of this act reads as 
follows : "The leading object of the College is, without 
excluding other scientific and classical studies, and 
including military tactics, to teach such branches of 
learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, in order to promote the liberal and practical edu- 
cation of the industrial classes in the several pursuits 
and professions of life." As a consequence of this act 
the college was established in Hanover under the admin- 
istration and in connection with Dartmouth college. It 
was organized under a board of trustees appointed 
partly by the governor and partly by the Corporation of 
Dartmouth college. 

The act of Congress referred to in this section is the 
act donating certain parcels of public land to the several 
states and territories for the purpose of establishing col- 
leges in these states. By that act a quantity of land equal 
to thirty thousand acres for each senator and representa- 
tive in Congress, was donated to each state. 

Section 4 of this act of congress, approved July 2, 
1862, contains the following statement of the purpose 
and character of the colleges to be established : The in- 
terest of the money derived from the sale of these do- 
nated lands was to be applied, "to the endowment, sup- 
port, and maintenance, of at least one college, where the 



leading- object shall be, without excluding- other scien- 
tific and classical studies, and including- military tactics, 
to teach such branches of learning as are related to ag- 
riculture and the mechanic arts, in such a manner as the 
legislature of the states shall respectively prescribe, in 
order to promote the liberal and practical education of 
the industrial classes in the several pursuits and profes- 
sions of life." 

As indicated above. Section 2 of the act of the Xew 
Hampshire Legislature in 1866 is a literal quotation 
from this Section 4 of the act of Congress of 1S62. 

The land donated to the state was sold, and the money 
received for the same, eighty thousand dollars, is now held 
by the treasurer of the state in the form of state 
K")nds, and the income, four thousand eight hundred dol- 
lars, is annually paid over to the treasurer of the college. 

In 1S90 congress provided an additional appropria- 
tion, which for the current year amounts to twenty-live 
thousand dollars. This money is to be applied "to the 
instruction in agriculture, the mechanic arts, the Eng- 
lish language, and the various branches of mathematical, 
physical, natural and economic science, with special 
reference to their application in the industries of life, 
and to the facilities for such instruction." No part of 
this appropriation can be used for any other purpose, it 
must all be expended for teaching and for facilities for 
such instniction, such as Kx>ks, instruments and labora- 
tory' requirements. Everything connected with the erec- 
tion and repair of the buildings and the maintenance of 
the same must be provided for from other funds. 

In 1S90 the death of Benjamin Thompson of Durham 
brought before the state the opportunity to accept the 
bequest in his will. His estate, amounting thereto ap- 
proximately four hundred thousand dollars, was be- 
queathed to the state of Xew Hampshire, in trust sub- 
ject to certain conditions indicated in his \N"ill. These 



conditions may be summarized as follows : ( i ) The 
property to be held by the state of New Hampshire for- 
ever, in trust, for the benefit of the New Hampshire 
Colleg-e of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. 
(2) The amount to be increased by a net annual com- 
poimd interest of four per cent for twenty years, the 
income of the property during that time to be available 
for such increase, and not to be available for the use of 
the college. (3) The state to guarantee an appropria- 
tion of three thousand dollars annually to be set aside 
and to l>e increased by a net annual compound interest 
of four per cent for twenty years, "to constitute a fund 
to erect buildings and furnish the same, stock the farm, 
procure apparatus, and commence a library." (4) The 
college to be established in the town of Durham, and on 
the "Warner Farm," the property of Benjamin Thomp- 
son at his death. In consequence of this will the legis- 
lature voted to accept the provisions of the will, by an 
act approved March 5, 1891. 

Almost immediately after, by an act approved April 
10, 1 89 1, the legislature ordered the removal of the 
New Hampshire College of Agriculture and the Me- 
chanic Arts from Hanover to Durham, and provided for 
the independent government of the college by a board 
of trustees appointed by the governor with the consent 
of the council; and the sum of one hundred thousand 
dollars was appropriated for this purpose. 

One other item of importance is the establishment of 
an experiment station, in accordance with the act of con- 
gress approved March 2, 1887. The preamble of this 
act reads as follows : "That in order to aid in diffusing 
among the people of the United States useful and prac- 
tical information on subjects connected with agriculture, 
and to promote scientific investigation and experiment 
respecting the principles and applications of agricultural 
science, there shall be established, under the direction of 



the college or colleges, or agricultural department of the 
colleges, in each state or territory, established or which 
may be established in accordance with an act approved 
July 2, 1882, entitled 'An act donating public lands to the 
several states and territories, which may provide col- 
leges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic 
arts,' or any supplement to said act, a department to be 
known and designated as 'Agricultural experiment sta- 
tion.' " For the maintenance of this experiment station 
the sum of fifteen thousand dollars annually was appro- 
priated, for the benefit of each state. In accordance with 
this act an experiment station was established in con- 
nection with this institution, and is at present so main- 

From the first it was evident that the design of the 
several acts of congress and of the legislature was to 
establish an institution of a technical character. The 
rapid development of manufacturing industries of all 
kinds, and the progressive application of scientific prin- 
ciples to practical affairs of life had already given an 
ijnmense impulse to technical education. Recognizing 
the obligation imposed by the several congressional and 
legislative enactments, the trustees of this college con- 
formed, not only to the letter, but to the spirit of their 
instructions. Provision was made for full collegiate 
courses in agriculture, in mechanical engineering, in elec- 
trical engineering, and in technical chemistry. It was 
not deemed expedient to establish a department of civil 
'engineering, in as much as there was a school of civil 
engineering already existing in the state. 

In accordance with more recent legislative provisions 
some shorter courses in agriculture have been added. 
These are more immediately practical and are less ex- 
acting in their preliminary requirements than are the 
four-year courses. 

The most recent catalogue of the college gives a list 



of eighteen members of the faculty, and during the cur- 
rent year it is probable that this number will be increased 
to twenty. The catalogue, which may be had upon ap- 
plication to the college, also contains a condensed de- 
scription of the plant at large. This consists of the main 
building (Thompson hall); the science building (Conant 
hall); the shop building, engine and boiler room; the 
agricultural experiment station (Nesmith hall); the 
dairy building; a farm of three hundred and forty-two 
acres; three barns and twO' greenhouses. The shop 
building is well equipped with the requisites for instruc- 
tion in iron working and wood working, and with vari- 
ous pieces of scientific apparatus for the investigation of 
mechanical problems and for scientific research. The 
forge shop, which has recently been added, is fully 
equipped with down-draft forges, with anvils, and the 
necessary tools. 

The lower floor of the science building is devoted to 
physics and electrical engineering. The upper floor is 
divided into chemical laboratories. 

There is in process of construction a brick building 
for the use of the departments of agriculture and horti- 
culture. When this building is finished and fully 
equipped with the recfuired apparatus, it will afford a 
place for the departments indicated, and will thus greatly 
relieve the pressure upon the other departments. 

The college has grown constantly since its removal to 
Durham, the enrolment each year showing a marked 
increase over preceding years, although there has been 
from year to year a very decided advance in the stand- 
ard of the required scholarship. The entrance require- 
ments for the four-year course at present are equivalent 
to a full high school course. Entrance requirements for 
the two-year course are less exacting and may be met 
by a student who has had an ordinary common school 



One marked feature of the life of the college is its sim- 
plicity and economy. The average total outlay of the stu- 
dent is hardly in excess of two hundred and fifty dollars 
for the year. Many of the students earn enough to help 
them appreciably in meeting necessary expenses. In some 
cases students who have been well prepared and have had 
a fair amount of time at their disposal have been able to 
pay practically all their expenses at Durham. But these 
are exceptional cases. 

The outlook for the college is exceedingly bright. 
With an increasing constituency, both of students and 
of those who are interested in the educational interests 
of the state of New Hampshire, and with its undeviating 
purpose to advance the cause of technical education in 
the state, the college has gained a firm standing in the 
public confidence and esteem, finding a constant demand 
for its graduates in the abundant opportunities of indus- 
trial life. 






Charles Francis Piper was bom May 22d, 1849, 
at Lee, but has spent nearly all of his active life in Wolfe- 
borough, where he is now easily in the first rank of active 
and influential citizens. Lie first came to Wolfeborough 
as a student at the old Academy, and at the conclusion of 
his studies he went to^ Boston and entered the employ of 
a wholesale dry goods house. The great Boston fire of 
1872 put an end to this and he then entered the railway 
mail service for a run between Boston and Bangor. He 
continued in this employment until 1876, although in the 
meantime he had purchased a clothing business in Wolfe- 
borough, to which upon his retirement from the mail 
service he devoted his entire attention, and with which he 
was identified until recently. Mr. Piper's identifi.- 
cation with the life of Wolfeborough is very com- 
plete. During the administrations of Hayes, Garfield and 
Arthur, he was postmaster of the town, having previous- 
ly served as town clerk. He has been town treasurer for 
seventeen years, has represented the town on the 
Republican State Committee for twenty-four years, and 
is now county member of the executive committee 
of that body. He has been a delegate from Wolfeborough 
to every state convention of his party since 1880. In 1887 
he represented Wolfeborough in the legislature. In 1896 
he was nominated for member of the Governor's council 
and was elected in a nominally Democratic district by a 
phenomenal majority. In 1890 he was elected the first 



cashier of the AVolfeborough Loan & Banking co. and 
still holds that position. Mr. Piper has beai instrumen- 
tal in the development of many enterprises in his town 
and its vicinity, and has operated extensively in lumber 
and real estate. He is a member of the firm of S. W. 
Clow & Co., and in association with other gentlemen con- 
trols a long line of water front on the shores of Lake 
Winnipesaukee and Lake Wentworth. which is rapidly 
being developed for summer resort purposes. Mr. Piper 
is a trustee of the Brewster free academy, a munificently 
endowed secondary school at \\'olfeborough, and is in 
every way in touch with all that goes to advance the in- 
terests of the community in which he lives. He was prac- 
tically instrumental in formulating the progressive and 
liberal policy with which the summer resort industry has 
been developed in \Volfeborough and vicinitv, and the 
great volume of business of this sort which centres there 
may be fairly said to l3e largely due to his wise and pru- 
dent, yet generous and hospitable methods in inviting 
both the transient and the permanent summer guests. Mr. 
Piper is a member of Morning Star lodge, Carroll chap- 
ter. Orphan council, and St. Paul's commandery in the 
Masonic orders; of the Red Men; of the Patrons of 
Husbandry. He married, Dec. loth, 1874, Ida E. Dur- 
gin, a member of a thoroughly representative Wolfe- 
borough family, and they have one child, a son, Carroll 
D., born May 19, 1880, who was graduated from Har- 
vard with the class of 1902. Mr. Piper's home is a 
beautiful estate on the shore of Lake Winnipesaukee, 
where he delights to dispense that genial hospitality 
which is so characteristic of the man. 




At Jefferson, March 30. 1849, was born Ferdinand 
Anson Stillings, the son of Anson StilHngs and Phoebe De 
Forest Keniston. He ^\as educated in the schools of Jef- 
ferson and at Lancaster Academy, and choosing medicine 
for his profession, attended lectures at Dartmouth Medi- 
cal school, where he received his degre in 1870. In that 
year he was appointed assistant physician at the McLean 
Asylum in Somerville, Mass., where he remained for 
three years, after which he pursued his studies in the hos- 
pitals of London, Paris and Dublin. Returning to 
America in 1874, he settled in Concord, where he soon 
built up a practice which is now recognized as one of the 
largest in the state and from which he is frequently called 
to other points as a surgeon and consultant. 

In the field of surgery, Dr. Stillings has been especial- 
ly conspicuous and successful, and he is at the head of 
the surgical staff of the Margaret Pillsbury general hos- 
pital in Concord, and of the Memorial Hospital for 
women in the same city. 

Dr. Stillings is also the chief surgeon for the south- 
ern division of the Boston & Maine railroad, and he has 
served as surgeon-general upon the staff of Gov. Hiram 
A. Tuttle and of Gov. Frank W. Rollins. While in this 
capacity he greatly raised the standing of the medical 
department of the National guard by reorganizing the 
hospital corps and by establishing drills for its members 
with a view to enhancing their efficiency in time of need. 



As a result of these efforts during the Spanish war the 
first New Hampshire regiment went into the field with 
a hospital corps competent to care for its sick and injured. 

In 1899, Dr. Stillings was chosen to represent Ward 
five, Concord, in the legislature, and served as chairman 
of the committee on banks. He was re-elected to the 
legislature in 190 1, and served as head of the committee 
on insane asylum, in which capacity he was successful 
in securing an appropriation for much-needed repairs and 
additions to the state hospital. During this session also 
Dr. Stillings made a profound study of tuberculosis, and 
realizing the great danger to the public health from the 
effects of this disease and knowing, too, the ameliorative 
and remedial agencies which had been successfully em- 
ployed in other states to curtail the disastrous results of 
this dread malady, introduced and caused to be passed a 
joint resolution creating a commission to investigate as 
to the advisability of establishing a state sanatorium for 
consumptives. This commission has prepared and pre- 
sented to the legislature of the current year a report 
heartily advocating the establishment of such a sanatori- 
um, and Dr. Stillings, who in the meantime has been 
chosen a member of the state senate from the loth Dis- 
trict, is one of its strongest advocates in the legislature. 

Dr. Stillings's professional affiliations are numerous 
and important. He is an active and prominent member 
of the New Hampshire Medical society, the New Hamp- 
shire Surgical club, of the Center District Medi- 
cal society, of the International Association 
of railway surgeons, and of the surgical section of 
the New York Medico^Legal association. He is an hon- 
orary member of the New York Association of railway 
surgeons and of numerous other professional bodies. He 
has also wide business connections, being a director in the 
Mechanics' National Bank, and a member of the govern- 
ing board of numerous other financial and business 



bodies. He is a member of the Wonolancet club and 
served several terms as president of the Passaconaway 
outing club. 

In 1878 Dr. Stillings married Grace M. Minot, second 
daughter of the late Josiah Minot, and has two daugh- 
ters. Their home on Pleasant street, shaded by the ven- 
erable and graceful Lafayette elm, is one of the most 
charmingly hospitable in Concord. 



Daniel Clark Babcock was born in Blandford, Mass., 
May 31, 1835, the second of four sons of Russell and 
Susan A. (Clark) Babcock, of whom he alone is the sur- 
vivor. He received his early education in the public 
schools of Blandford. 

Pie was converted in Milford, Mass., in March, 1852, 
and joined the M. E. church in that place. In 1854 he 
transferred his membership to Sutton, Mass., and in the 
spring: following was given an Exhorter's License, after 
v.-hich he conducted Sunday services most of the time. 

The first of January, 1857, he moved to Oakdale, 
i\'lass., where he was given a Local Preacher's License, 
and upon invitation filled a vacancy as preacher at Sud- 
bury till the foUovv'ing session of the Conference. 

After the Conference at Lowell, in April, 1857, he was 
placed in charge of a Mission in Somerville, Mass. 

In April of the following year ( 1858) he went to school 
at the East Greenwich, R. I. Academy, and supplied a 
pulpit at Wickford, R. I., to meet school expenses. 

In February, 1859, he accepted a call to take the place 
of Rev. E. W. Parker, at Lunenburg, Vt., he, having 
been appointed a missionary to India. Late in April of 
the same year he was given a Charge at Mclndoes Falls, 
Vt., that he might attend the school at Newbury. There 
he remained two years. 

In April, 1861, he joined the New Hampshire Con- 
ference, at Concord, and held the following appoint- 




ments: — Bow, i86i; Fisherville (Penacook), 1862; 
Pleasant Street, Salem, 1863-4; Great Falls, High 
Street, 1865-6; Claremont, ^ 1867; Manchester, St. 
Paul's, 1868-9; Nashua, Chestnut Street, 1870. 

While stationed at Bow he entered the Theological 
Seminary at Concord, from which he graduated in June, 

In 1 87 1 he received the appointment as Corresponding 
Secretary of the N. H. Temperance Alliance. From 
1872 to 1887 he was Corresponding Secretary of the 
State Temperance Union of Pennsylvania. From 1880 
to 1 888 he was also one of the secretaries oi the National 
Temperance Society. For two years he was at the head 
of the Grand Lodge, I. O. G. T., of Pennsylvania, and 
editor of the "Lodge Visitor"; and for several years 
published the "Pennsylvania Temperance Union,'' both 
of which were monthly journals. 

During the sixteen years devoted to this special work, 
he averaged eighteen sermons and addresss a month, 
and fifteen thousand miles of travel a year. He also 
conducted about forty Temperance Camp Meetings at 
\arious summer resorts. 

Returning to the regular pastorate in New Hampshire, 
in 1888, he was appointed to the following Charges: — 
Claremont, 1888-9; Lancaster, 1890-2; Wliitefield, 


In 1896 he was appointed to the special work as Sec- 
retary oi the N. H. Law and Order League, with head- 
quarters at Concord. 

The following year he returned to the pastorate, and 
has held the following Charges: Dover, 1897-9; Derry, 
St. Luke's, 1900-03. 

In April, i860, he was united in marriage to Miss 
Clara Albee of Sutton, ]\Iass. Two daughters 
came to cheer and bless their home life: Susie P., who 
lives at home, and ^Mary A., who, in 1894, was married 



to J. Roy Dinsmore, a member of the Xew Hampshire 

In 1896, the American Temperance University of 
Harriman, Tenn., conferred the honorary title, D. D,, 
upon him in grateful acknowledgment of his effective 
and wide spread work in the temperance cause. 

Mr. Babcock is well and favorably laicwn throughout 
the state as a strong Gospel Preacher, and a fearless and 
ardent supporter of the temperance cause. His long 
experience upon the public platform throughout the 
country has well fitted him as a leadei in this special 
branch of reform. 



A young physician, well schooled, and already firmly 
established in the practice of his profession, is Dr. Will- 
iam Henry Weed Hinds of Milford, who was born in that 
town July 22nd, 1867. He bears his father's name and 
follows his father's profession. The elder Hinds was a 
graduate of Harvard and a veteran of the Civil war. His 
son was educated in the public schools of his native town, 
graduating at the High school, with a special course at 
Gushing academy, Ashburnham, Mass. He studied his 
profession at the Boston University School of Medicine, 
and received his degree in 1895. He entered upon prac- 
tice at Milford, occupying the oftice in which his father 
practised for so many years, and has from the outset en- 
joyed a practice lucrative and full of promise. For five 
years he has been secretary of the Milford board of health, 
and is medical examiner for several of the leading life 
insurance companies. He married Miss K. Maude Ken- 
ney, of Milford, and they have one son, who' bears in the 
third generation the name of his father and grandfather. 
Dr. Hinds is a member of the New Hampshire Homeo- 
pathic Medical society, and of the American Institute of 
Homeopathy. In politics he is a Republican and in re- 
ligion a Unitarian. He is a Mason, and a Past Master of 
Benevolent lodge No. 7 of Milford. 



Charles Rumford W^alker, M. D., descendant in the 
fourth generation from the Rev. Timothy Walker, the 
first minister of Concord, was bom in that city February 
13, 1852, and was fitted for college at the Phillips-Exeter 
Academy, where he graduated in 1 870. Four years later 
he received his degree from Yale college, and immediately 
entered upon the study of medicine at the Har\^ard Medi- 
cal school, being graduated from that institution in 1878. 
Soon after he was appointed member of the house staff 
at the Boston city hospital, where he sened as surgical 
intern until January, 1879. In February of the same 
year he went abroad in the further pursuit of his profes- 
sional studies, and was matriculated in the foremost insti- 
tutions of Dublin, London, Vienna and Strasburg, his 
European studies occupying more than two years. In 
March, 1881, he returned to Concord and established 
himself in a practice which has now grown to be one of 
the largest in the city. 

In addition to his general practice. Dr. Walker is a 
member of the staff of the Margaret Pillsbury general 
hospital, where he has sensed since the institution was es- 
tablished, and is also the physician of St. Paul's school. 
He also served a term as surgeon in the National guard. 

In 1899, Dr. \\'alker was elected president of the New 
Hampshire Medical society, and held that position during 
the constitutional term. He is a member of the Ameri- 
can medical association and of the national board of 




Dr. Walker is a trustee of the New Hampshire savings 
bank, and is a trustee and treasurer of the Rolfe and 
Rumford Asyhun, a Concord institution endowed by the 
will of the late Countess Rumford and supporting or- 
phaned female children. He is also one of the trustees 
and treasurer of the Timothy and Abigail B. Walker free 
lecture fund, an endowment of thirty thousand dollars 
bequeathed in trust for the benefit of the people of Con- 
cord, and principally administered by Dr. Walker. 

Dr. Walker's interest in public affairs has brought him 
into official positions in the city and state governments, 
and in 1892 he was elected member of the board of alder- 
men of Concord from Ward 5. In 1894 he was chosen 
to represent his ward in the legislature, where he served 
as a member of the committees on public health and on 
the state library, of the latter committee being chairman. 

Dr. Walker was married January 18, 1888, to Miss 
Frances Sheafe of Boston, and has two children, Sheafe 
Walker and Charles R. Walker, Jr. 



Joseph Edouard Adolphe Lanoiiette is a distinguished 
appearing medical practitioner of over a score of years' 
standing in Manchester, having come to the city Jan. 31, 
1 88 1. He is in the prime of hfe, being 53 years of age, 
having been born Jan. 7, 1850, at Champlain, Que., a 
place named after the founder of the capital of lower 

He is the son of Capt. Edouard Adolphe and Leocadie 
(Hamel) Lanouette, grandson of Col. Joseph Edouard 
Lanouette. He was educated in the common schools of 
his native town until 10 years of age; then attended St. 
Joseph's college, Three Rivers, P. O. ; commenced the 
study of medicine in 1868, under Drs. C. E. Lemieux, 
S. Larue, Quebec, and A. H. David, Montreal, Canada; 
attended three courses of lectures at Laval university, 
medical dq>artment, Quebec, and one course at the Uni- 
versity of Bishop's Medical college, faculty of medicine, 
Montreal, P. Q., receiving his degree from the latter 
April 10, 1872. 

Dr. Lanouette practised medicine at Gentilly, Canada, 
from May, 1872, to January, 1881; and was a surgeon 
in the Ninety-second battalion of the Canadian militia 
from i873-'9i; and since the latter year has been a resi- 
dent of and practitioner in ATanchester. He is a member 
of the New Hampshire Medical society; of the Ameri- 
can Public Health association; of the College of Physi- 
cians and Suigeons of the Province of Quebec; of the 




Medical Graduates' society of the University of Bishop's 
college; vice-president, i872-'73, of the alumni of 
Bishop's university; of the American Medical associa- 
tion; of the Manchester Medical, association; of the New 
Hampshire French Medical society; has been consulting 
surgeon to the hospital of the Sacred Heart, Manchester, 
since 1892; public vaccinator for the city of Manchester, 
1885-94; was in charge of the smallpox hospital, Man- 
chester, during the Montreal epideniic of smallpox, 1885; 
and is medical examiner for several of the old-time insu- 
rance companies. 

On January 30, 1903, he was appointed by Mayor 
Eugene E. Reed a member of the Manchester Board of 

Dr. Lanouette was married November 25, 1872, to 
Camilla, daughter of B. Maurault, N. P., of Gentilly, 
P. O. Their children are: Eva, Adolphe, Gaston and 
Alice Lanouette. He was married again in 1898 to Pa- 
mela Maurault, and they have one child, Joseph Edward. 
The familv residence is No. 224 Laurel street. ^ 



The late John C. French of Manchester, who for 
thirty years was recognized as the leading member of the 
ftre msurance business in New Hampshire, was born at 
Pittsfield March ist, 1832, the son of Enoch and Eliza 
(Late) French. His early advantages were scanty, but 
by diligent use of the town schools he soon fitted himself 
to teach in the district school, and with the money thus 
earned, together with that received for labor on the farm 
m summer time, he was enabled to pursue his studies at 
the academies in Pittsfield, Gilmanton and Pembroke At 
twenty-one he was engaged by J. C. Colton & co. as an 
agent and his success was so marked that he was given 
charge of the Boston agency of the house. In 1855 he 
was appointed New England agent for the sale of Col- 
ton's text books and for the next eleven years was en- 
gaged in this business with them, and with Brown, Tag- 
erart & Chase, and Charles Scribner & co. In 1866 Mr 
French established himself in Manchester as state agent 
for the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance company 
Three years later, having in the meantime assiduously 
studied the insurance business in all its bearings Mr 
French organized the New Hampshire Fire Insurance 
company, which proved to be his life work. He was 
appointed general agent of the companv and during the 
thirty years that he was connected with it in all capaci- 
ties, from that of agent to that of president, he had the 
satisfaction of seeing its business mount from almost 




nothing to assets of more tlmn three niilHon dollars, and 
to the ownership of a net surplus amounting to one-third 
of that sum. From a modest office with one clerk he 
saw its business extend from his native state to nearly 
every state in the union, employing experienced help in 
all sections of the country, and writing more than a 
million and a half of business yearly. In 1895 Mr. 
French was elected president of the company and held 
that office until the time of his death, Jan. 8, 1900, which 
w^as hastened by a deplorable carriage accident some eight 
months previously. In addition to his business sagacity 
he had a marked taste and capacity for matters of his- 
tory, genealogy and general literature. He was a mem- 
ber of the New Hampshire Historical society, one of the 
founders and president of the Manchester Historical as- 
sociation, a trustee of the Manchester public library and 
of the N. H. insane asylum. He was an authority on 
matters of early New Hampshire history and his knowl- 
edge of bibliography, especially in its historical and gene- 
alogical branches was wide and accurate. Matters per- 
taining to the public good always commanded his atten- 

He established the Siincook Valley Times, a weekly 
newspaper, to the columns of which he contributed topics 
of history and biography, and through this medium ren- 
dered no small assistance in securing the construction of 
the Suncook Valley Railroad, which proved of so much 
value to Pittsfield and neighboring towns. 

Mr. French was a constant attendant and liberal sup- 
porter of the Franklin Street Congregational Church, 
was a. thirty-second degree Mason and a Knight Tem- 
plar, and was Director in the Merchants' National bank. 
He married, in 1858, Annie M. Philbrick of Deerfield, 
who, with two daughters and one son, survive him. 



One of the most progressive of New Hampshire edu- 
cators is the Rev. Lorin Webster, rector of Holderness 
School, Plymouth. Mr. Webster was born in Clare- 
mont, July 29, 1857, and was fitted for college at St. 
Paul's School, Concord. He matriculated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Hartford, and was graduated in 1880 with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts, three years later receiving 
his Master's degree from the same institution. Deter- 
mining to enter the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, he studied theology at the Berkeley Divinity 
School, INIiddletown, Conn., and was graduated with the 
degree of Bachelor of Divinity in 1883. He imme- 
diately entered the faculty of Holderness School as a 
master, he remained for one year, resigning 
to assume the rectorship of the Episcopal Church at Ash- 
land. From this position he was recalled to Holderness 
to assume the rectorship of the school in 1892, and under 
his direction the institution has made great advance, both 
in equipment, endowment and numbers. The training at 
Holderness School is thorough and scholarly. Located 
upon the homestead of Chief Justice Samuel Livermore, 
one of that sturdy group who gave New Hampshire as 
an infant state its proud standing in the young republic, 
the school is adequately housed in substantial buildings, 
affording healthful and homelike accommodations for all 
the boys enrolled. The atmosphere of the school is that 
of the home, although discipline and study are by no 




means lacking. The honor rolls of representative Ameri- 
can colleges testify to the good work done at Holderness 

Under Mr. Webster the school has made its greatest 
strides. Possessing that ardent temperament which ap- 
peals irresistibly to- the mind of youth, the rector has 
been enabled tO' impress his personality largely upon the 
masters and pupils of the school. Himself a scholar of 
no mean repute, endowed with many graces of character 
and person, and entering ^^■ith zeal into all that affects 
the interests of those committed to his care, the rector of 
Holderness School occupies an unique position at the 
head of his large family of pupils, standing, it may be 
said without exaggeration, in loco parentis to the boys 
who come under his guardianship. Sound morals, sound 
bodies, sound scholarship, these are the cardinal princi- 
ples of the work done at Holderness School. 

These are also the principles which will be inculcated 
at Camp \\'achusett, a summer camp for boys, which Mr. 
Webster opened in 1903 on the shore of 'Squam Lake, 
justly famed for its picturesque beauty. The camp 
property contains about eight acres, and has a frontage 
on the shore of more than nine hundred feet. 

Mr, Webster is a musician of note, and manv of his 
compositions have enjoyed wide popularity. From 1898 
to 1901, he was president of the New Hampshire Music 
Teachers' Association, and did much to place that organ- 
ization upon the sound footing which it now enjoys. 

Mr. Webster was married in 1884, to Miss Jennie J. 
Adams, and has three children. Harold A., Bertha L., 
and Jerome P. In college Mr. Webster was a member 
of the Psi Upsilon fraternity, and he is a Mason. 



One of the men who helped make Manchester what 
she is, the Queen City of the Merrimack valley, was the 
late Allen N. Clapp, merchant, public official and man 
of affairs. He was a native of Marlix)rough, New 
Hampshire, having- been born in that town on January 
2. 1837. He received his early education in the schools 
of Nashua and at McGaw institute, Reed's ferry, one of 
the best of the old time academies. 

At the age of eighteen years he went to Nashua and 
entered upon a business career distinguished for its up- 
rightness, enterprise and success. For many years he 
was one of the principal Avholesale grocers in his section, 
and for a considerable period he represented the Standard 
Oil company in Manchester. Business men of his stamp 
add to the moral as well as the material wealth of a com- 
munity and deserve the honor which Mr. Clapp, cer- 
tainly, received. 

In 1861-1S62 he was elected by his fellow citizens to 
the board of aldermen; in 1874- 1875 to the New Hamp- 
shire house of representatives, and in 1897- 1899 to the up- 
per branch of the legislature, the New Hampshire state 
senate. Toi the discharge of these various public duties Mr, 
Clapp brought the same intelligence, industry and applica- 
tion which marked his private business life; and on every 
question that came before him for decision and action 
he played the part of a conscientious administrator and 




Passing away when but little beyond the prime of a 
happy and highly useful life, Mr. Gapo did not allow 
the memory of his good deeds to cease with his demise, 
but in his will generously remembered Elliott Hospital, 
the First Congregational church of Manchester, the 
Manchester Y. M. C. A. and other worthy institutions. 

Mr. Clapp married, May 25, 1863, Josephine M. 
Mason of Keene, New Hampshire. Their one child is 
Mrs. Annie Mason Sheldon. 



Charles Elliott Tilton, son of Samuel Tilton, was born 
in that part of the town of SanlDornton subsequently set 
off and incorporated as the town of Tilton, September 
14, 1827, and died there on September 28, 1901. At the 
time of his death he was one of New Hampshire's best 
known and most public spirited citizens. 

He was educated under the instruction of the late Prof. 
Dyer H. Sanborn and at Norwich university, passing 
three years at the latter institution, then located at Nor- 
wich, Vt. 

Starting out, while a young man, to seek his fortune, 
he first sailed to South America. Hearing of the gold 
discoveries in California, he became one of the world 
famous '49ers. Soon concluding that for him trade 
would be more profitable than gold digging, he went to 
Oregon in 1850 and formed a partnership with W. S. 
Ladd for general mercantile pursuits. This continued 
until 1859, when the banking house of Ladd & Tilton 
was established at Portland, Oregon, becoming an impor- 
tant factor in the financial life of the coast and so^ con- 
tinuing until 1880, when Mr. Tilton retired. 

Meanwhile he had been engaged in various important 
business enterprises in all the states and territories of the 
Pacific Northwest. One of the most widely known was 
the Oregon Railway & Navigation company. 

Mr. Tilton resided during the summer time 
in the town which bore his name and which he benefited 




in almost countless ways. A fine farm there he gave to 
the state of New Hampshire as the site for its Soldiers' 
Home. The Memorial Arch, which every traveller 
through the town sees and admires; the Town Hall; the 
fair grounds; and many other adornments Oif the town 
were due tO' his generosity. There, too, he invested large 
sums of money in real estate and business enterprises. 
He was a director of the Concord & Montreal railroad 
and was actively instrumental in the construction of the 
Franklin and Tilton and Tilton and Belmont railroads. 

Mr. Tilton was a Democrat in politics, but never would 
accept political preferment. 

A widow, Genevieve E. Tilton, two sons, Alfred E. and 
Charles E., Jr., all of whom reside in Tilton, and Myra 
Ames Frost, a daughter, a resident of Fitchburg, Mass., 
survive Mr. Tilton. 



Dartmouth College, founded in 1769 by Eleazer 
Wheelock, primarily as a training school for Indian use, 
has long since outgrown the intention of its founder, and 
though still proud to think of itself in the words of its 
greatest son as "a. small college," it nevertheless now ranks 
in number of students and excellence of equipment with 
the largest institutions of learning in the country. Hav- 
ing passed the period of establishment and entered upon a 
definite policy of expansion, both in the external and in- 
ternal affairs of the college, Dartmouth in the past ten 
years has taken immense strides toward educational per- 
fection. This period marks the administration of Wil- 
liam Jewett Tucker, who was inducted into office in June, 
1893. President Tucker is a native of Griswold, Con- 
necticut, where he was born July 13, 1839. His early 
education was obtained at the Academy in Plymouth, 
N. H., and Kimball Union Academy, Meriden. He 
graduated from Dartmouth with high rank in the class of 
1 86 1, and for two years thereafter was engaged in teach- 
ing at Columbus, Ohio. He then entered upon the study 
of theolog}" at Andover Seminary and was graduated in 
1866. He began his ministry in the city of Manchester, 
where he was ordained and installed pastor of the Frank- 
lin Street Congregational Church in 1867. Remaining 
there until 1875. he was called to the Madison Square 
Presbyterian church of New York, where he continued 
until 1880, when he was chosen to the chair of homiletics 



in Andover Theological seminary. From this post he 
was called to the presidency of Dartmouth. During the 
years of his professorship at Dartmouth, Dr. Tucker be- 
came deeply interested in practical sociological work and 
founded the Andover House and social settlement in Bos- 
ton, now known as the South End house. He was one 
of the founders and editor of the Andover Review. In 
1893, Dr. Tucker delivered the annual Phi Beta Kappa 
oration at Harvard University, and in 1894 was a lecturer 
in the Lowell Institute in Boston, delivering there a most 
remarkable series of addresses bearing upon modern re- 
ligious problems. In 1897 he delivered the Winkley lec- 
tures at Andover seminary, and in 1898 was the lecturer 
on the Lyman Beecher foundation at Yale Theological 
school. These lectures, subsequently published under the 
title, "The Making and Unmaking of a Preacher," rank 
high in suggestiveness and value. 



One of the younger members of tlie medical fraternity 
in New Hampshire, but yet by promise and performance 
entitled to hig^h rank among his professional brethren, is 
Dr. Frank \\'. Grafton, of Concord, who was born in Gil- 
ford, in 1869. and was educated at Gilmanton academy, 
and in the schools of the city of Concord. His medical 
studies were pursued at Dartmouth ]\Iedical school, 
wiiere he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 
1895. and after a year's service in the hospitals, 
entered upon active practice at Concord. His 
success was immediate and his practice has in- 
creased yearly until it is now one of the most extensive 
and lucrative enjoyed by any physician in the city. Dr. 
Grafton in addition to the demands of his many patients 
is a member of the staff of the ]\Iargaret Pillsbury general 
hospital, giving no little time to the duties of that posi- 
tion. He maintains close touch with the progress of his 
profession through active membership with the New 
Hampshire Medical association, the Center District Medi- 
cal society and the .American INIedical association. His 
contributions to the programs of some of these organiza- 
tions bear evidence of sound medical learning, surgical 
skill and rare good judgment. He married in Dec. 1896 
Miss Edith INIcDowell, and their home on State street m 
the centre of the most desirable residential section of Con- 
cord is the abode of culture and refinement, and the scene 
of much charming hospitality. Dr. Grafton is a member 
of the Wonolancet club, a Mason and Knights Templar, 
and a member of the Odd Fellows. He attends the Epis- 
copal church. 









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George Hamilton Perkins, United States Navy, 
was born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, October 
20, 1835, and died at his residence, 23 CommonweaUh 
avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, on October 28, 1899. 

He was a son of the late Judge Hamilton E. Perkins 
of the Merrimack County probate court and was reared 
and received his early education in the capital city, Con- 

Appointed to the Naval Academy at Annapolis, he be- 
came acting midshipman in 1851; lieutenant, February 
2, 1861; lieutenant commander December 13, 1862; 
commander, January 19, 1871; captain March 10, 1882; 
and commodore in 1896 by special act of Congress, five 
years after his retirement as captain. 

Commodore Perkins left a wife, who was a daugh- 
ter of the millionaire merchant of Boston, the late Will- 
iam F. Weld, and a daughter, Isabel, the wife of Lars 
Anderson. By them a splendid monument to his memory 
was erected in the Statehouse enclosure at Concord and 
presented to the state with appropriate exercises in 1902. 
Daniel C. French was the sculptor and President Tucker 
of Dartmouth was the orator of the occasion. 

Commodore Perkins owned an extensive summer es- 
tablishment in the town of Webster where he spent much 
money for various improvements and where he enjoyed 
long and frequent visits. His attachment to his native 
State remained strong during life. 



Coiiuitodoie United States A^avy 


His service in the Navy during the War of the Rebel- 
lion was distinguished for bravery, brilliance and her- 
oism. He was executive officer of the "Cayuga" at the 
passage of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and the capture 
of New Orleans by Farragut in 1862, accompanying 
Capt:ain Bailey when the latter was sent ashore to receive 
the surrender of the city amid the curses and threats of 
a fiendish mob. 

He commanded the ironclad, "Chickasaw," in the bat- 
tle of Mobile Bay; was mainly instrumental in the capture 
of the big rebel ram, "Tennessee"; subsequently bom- 
barded Fort Powell, which was evacuated and blown up, 
and later shelled Fort Gaines, compelling its surrender 
with the entire garrison. For his conspicuous gallantry 
here he was specially commended by Admiral Farragut, 
who said of him "No braver man ever trod the deck of a 

By this battle imperishable fame came to the subject of 
this sketch at the early age of 28 years; and the remain- 
der of his career measured up to the standard of his early 



New Hampshire genius and enterprise are well rep- 
resented by William Rockwell Clough of Alton, who 
was born in that town November 8, 1844. His father 
was a well-established business man in the city of Man- 
chester who later purchased a farm in his native town 
of Alton, where his two sons were born, both of whom 
still live upon the paternal acres. 

Rockwell, the subject of this sketch, attended the pub- 
lic schools of his native town, supplemeiiting the advan- 
tages there enjoyed by courses at the Gilmanton schools 
and at Franklin Academy, Dover. Leaving the farm 
at the age of 17, he went to Massachusetts, where, 
in 1862, he enlisted in the 50th regiment of Massachu- 
setts volunteers and followed the flag faithfully until the 
return of the regiment. He participated in the siege and 
assault at Port Hudson, and has the distinction of having 
been under fire continuously for six weeks. After being 
mustered out he found employment as a book-keeper at 
Cambridgqx)rt, having previously taken a course in com- 
mercial training at the Eastman College, Poughkeepsie, 
New York, and from there entered tlie employ of the 
United States Government as an exper: accountant in the 
department of internal revenue at Boston. Here he re- 
mained for two years. Being of a mechanical turn of 
mind he became accidentally attracted io the methods in 
vogue for making corkscrews and other wire 
goods, and soon hit upon a device which 




materially improved all existing machinery for 
that purpose. In all he has taken out some thirty 
patents. He was not able at once to develop his inven- 
tion but the merit of his device made its way, though 
slowly at first, until now he has established in his native 
town one of the largest concerns of the kind in the 
world, thoroughly equipped with machniery of his own 
invention and of a nature so productive that one machine 
will do the work of twenty men. His machines have 
been widely introduced both in France and England, 
and he has travelled extensively in the old country in 
the interests of his patents. As an exhibitor at the 
various industrial expositions held both here and in the 
old world, he has been uniformly successful. At the 
Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia he received two 
premiums. He was also a prize winner at the Paris 
Expositions of 1878, 1889 and 1900, and he has awards 
from the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 
1893, and from the Cotton States Exposition at Atlanta 
in 1895. At the Atlanta Exposition he was chosen 
president of the Exhibitors' association. 

Mr. Clough has retained the sole ownership 
of his business, and its development and prosperity are 
due to him as well as its inception in the patenting of 
its fundamental device, being materially assisted by his 
employees, also Alton men. 

Mr. Clough was a member of the New Hampshire 
legislature in 1897 and 1899, where he served as chair- 
man of the committee on national affairs for both terms, 
and where as a forceful and earnest speaker he made his 
mark as a member of influence and integrity. 



Edward Hamlin Clough was born in ]\Ieredith, May 
2, i860, the son of John K. and Ellen Libbey Clough. 
He is a descendant on the paternal side of Oliver Clough, 
a Scotchman and a soldier in the Revolutionary war 
in Col, Alexander Scammell's 3d New Hampshire regi- 
inent, and on the maternal side of John Libbey, an Eng- 
lishman who settled at what is known as Portland, 
Maine, in 1630. 

Pie was educated in the schools of his native town and 
remained at home until August, 1880, when he went to 
T\Ianchester and entered the employ of Clough & Towle, 
wholesale provision dealers, as book-keeper. Four years 
later he was admitted to partnership with George S. 
Clough, and the business was conducted under the firm 
nam.e of Clough & company. In eight years the firm 
built up an extensive business, reaching all important 
points in northern New Hampshire. The firm was con- 
tinued until 1 89 1, when Clough & company disposed of 
their business to Swift Sz company. I\Ir. Clough ac- 
cepted a position with Swift & company as salesman and 
continued with the corporation up to the time of his 
assuming the duties of postmaster. 

Mr. Clough is the youngest of a family of seven boys, 
and the patriotism of the family was shown at the out- 
break of the Civil war, when three of his brothers vol- 
unteered and saw arduous and gallant service : Wil- 
liam O. Clough, Nashua, Editor of the Nashua Daily 



Postmaster, Manchester, igoj 


Press; John F. Cloiigh, Manchester, Hillsboro County 
Commissioner; Henry B. Clough, Manchester; George 
S. and Charles B. Clongh, soldiers in the 12th New 
Hampshire Regiment, with John F., deceased, and 
Frank E. Clongh of Meredith. 

In fraternal circles he is well and favorably known, 
being a member of the Lafayette lodge of A. F. and 
A. M.; Passaconaway Tribe of Red Men, and Queen 
City lodge, K. of P. He is also a member of the Amos- 
keag Veterans. 

Postmaster Clough, who was recommended by the 
Hon. Flenry E. Burnham, U. S. Senator, June 3, 1902, 
for postmaster of Manchester, was promptly named by 
President Roosevelt and confirmed by the Senate. He 
•as-sumed the duties and position July i, 1902, of the 
largest postoffice of the state, also four stations con- 
nected with this office, and has the direction of a force 
consisting of nineteen clerks (the assistant postmaster 
rating in the department as one), one substitute clerk, 
thirty-two carriers and ten substitute carriers, seven 
rural carriers and seven substitute rural carriers and the 
janitor force of three. 

Mr. Clough married Miss Etta P. Prouty of Spencer, 
Mass., June 14, 1884, and the fruit cf their union has 
been four children, two boys and two girls : — Frank E., 
Elsie M., William O. and Julia Marion Clough. 



All New Hampshire, and especially the city of Man- 
chester, honors and holds in perpetual remembrance the 
name of Gen. John Stark, the hero of Bunker Hill and 
the conqueror at Bennington, where by a consummate 
generalship he put to flight the royal forces under Baum 
and so crippled the main advance of Burgoyne's army 
as to seal the fate of the entire command then and there. 
The outcome of the conflicts on September 19, and Oc- 
tober 7, 1777, was made certain by the blow struck by 
Stark at Bennington and the grandest result of all was 
the practical assurance from that glorious day of the 
ultimate triumph of the cause of the colonies. 

General Stark left a family representative of his day 
and times, and like the provident parent he was, gave each 
of his children a start in life by bequeathing to each a 
generous slice of the realty that he had accumulated in his 
active and well spent life of ninety-four years. From 
the day that General vStark made what is now Manchester 
his home that community has never been without its 
families of Starks, and throughout the generations thev 
have been closely and most honorably associated with 
its growth and upbuilding. 

In the fourth generation from General Stark was Au- 
gustus H. Stark, in whose personality there survived 
many characteristics of the General, and particularly so in 
his versatility and love of nature and those influences of 
the home. 




The father of Augustus H. was John, grandson of 
the General and third to bear the name. He married 
Sarah Fletcher Pollard. 

Augustus H. Stark was born in Manchester, Novem- 
ber 6, 1834, and died in his native city August 8, 1902. 
After completing' the several grades of the common 
schools he entered upon an apprenticeship to the carriage 
painter's trade, and at this and as a dealer in carriages he 
continued until 1882, when he returned to his native city 
from Boston, which city and its adjacent communities 
had been his home for some years preceding. 

His father having died he inherited a large tract of 
land originally owned and tilled by General Stark and lo- 
cated in what is the beautiful North End of Manchester, 
the finest residential portion of the city. To the care 
and improvement of this realty he devoted most of his 
time after his return to the city. Upon a site overlook- 
ing the immediate valley of the Merrimac River and 
commanding a view of incomparable loveliness, he built 
one of the most beautiful residences in Manchester. On 
the opposite side of the highway from the front of the 
residence was the land now included in Stark Park. 
Later he and a sister gave a portion of this tract to the 
city of Manchester, while another section was bought 
by the city and the whole set aside for a public ground. 
Within this enclosure was the Stark family burial 
ground, first set apart for that purpose by General Stark 
and where he was finally buried. To the beautifying of 
this cemetery Mr. Stark gave liberally of his means and 
time, and upon his own death it became the place of his 

Mr. Stark was twice married. His first wife was 
Isabelle Buck of Randolph, Mass. His second wife was 
Edith Frances Furbish, daughter of Henry D. and Sarah 
P. (Littlefield) Furbish of Skowhegan, Maine, whom he 



married December 17, 1881. Mrs. Stark yet lives in 
the family homestead which she maintains in most ex- 
cellent and pleasing taste. Upon its walls are hung 
various oil paintings, the creations of her husband, who 
displayed a tact and ability with the brush that were 
more than ordinary in their scope. Mrs. Stark is also 
the fortunate possessor of many household articles that 
were once owned by General Stark. 




Frederick W. Doring, principal of the Concord high 
school, is a native of Perry, Me. He fitted for college 
at the Boynton high school, Eastport, Me., where he was 
graduated with valedictory honors in ihe class of 1879. 
A four years' course at Dartmouth college immediately 
followed, and in 1883 Mr. Doring received his diploma 
and degree from that splendid New Hampshire institu- 
tion. At Hanover he ranked as one of the best scholars 
in his class, being a member of Phi Beta Kappa and 
receiving the honor of an English oration in the com- 
mencement exercises. 

During the year following his graduation Mr. Doring 
was principal of the Brooks school at Eastport, Me. 
From there he went to Newmarket, N. H., where he 
labored successfully for four years as principal of the 
high school. Farmington, N. H., next called him to 
its high school, and there he remained five years. In 
1893 he went to Woonsocket, R. I., as principal of 
the city high school, one of the largest public schools 
in the state and one which, under his direction, advanced 
to the very front rank in New England educational 

Coincident with this steady rise to the top of the 
ladder in his profession, and doubtless a partial explana- 
tion oi his success, Mr. Doring has done an unusually 
large amount of graduate work; studying chemistry at 
Dartmouth, psychology and pedagogy at Clark Univer- 



sity, chemistry, physics and history at Harvard, and 
history at Brown University. 

Both in New Hampshire and in Rhode Island 
Mr. Doring has been a leader among his associates 
in educational work and has been much in demand as 
a speaker at teachers' institutes. He served in 1899 
as president of the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction 
and as president of the Woonsocket teachers' associa- 
tion. Since his return to New Hampshire he has been 
prominent in the State teachers' association and has 
been instrumental in the organization of an association 
of high school principals, of which he has been elected 

He is also a member of the Barnard club (the school- 
masters' club of Rhode Island), the Massachusetts high 
school masters' club, the New England history teachers' 
association, and the Harvard teachers' association. 

Mr. Doring is married and has one child, a daughter. 
He is a Mason and a Knight Templar, and attends the 
Universalist church. 

He always allies himself actively with the best 
interests of the community in which he resides and as a 
citizen as well as an educator counts materially on 
the right side in whatever affects the municipal life. 




One of the most venerable and highly esteemed citi- 
zens of Portsmouth, and of New Hampshire for that 
matter, is William H. Rollins, who in this year of 1903 
is an octogenarian, but as well preserved a man, in as good 
health, as buoyant in spirit, and with as clear an intellect 
as most men a decade or more his junior in years. 

He was born in Portsmouth September 7, 1822. His 
father belonged to that ancestral family from which the 
town of Rollinsford took its name, and was born there 
in 1790. In 18 1 3 the senior Mr. Rollins removed to 
Portsmouth and made it his home ever after, as his son, 
William H., has all of his, having lived since nine years 
of age in his present residence. 

His father was a prosperous merchant and closely 
identified with the progress of Portsmouth for many 
yeai^s. As was natural, the son^ has maintained his 
father's interest in the city and has been favored by it 
with many offices of trust and responsibility. His moth- 
er was Mary A. Hooker, and to his parents were born 
two other sons and two daughters, both of the latter 
dying within five years of birth. 

Early deciding upon a professional career, the son, 
William H., after a most thorough preparatory course, 
entered Harvard University and completed the pre- 
scribed course and upon graduation he at once entered 
upon the study of law. Obtaining admission to the bar of 
New Hampshire he began practice in his native city in 



1844. Active, energetic, courageous, and public spirited 
the young practitioner soon attained to positions of honor 
and responsibility. He became the president of the 
Portsmouth savings bank and retained the position until 
his resignation in 1894. For full thirty years he was a 
director of the National Merchants and Traders bank of 

From 1850 to 1869 he held the dual offices of secretary 
and treasurer of the Portsmouth Atheneum, and again 
from 1894 to 1903 he held the same positions. He was 
also, in the '70s, president of the same corporation for 
some four or five years. For nine years he was a mem- 
ber of the school committee in his home city, and has 
likewise served as a member of the state legislature 

He was married in Portsmouth, January 2, 1879, to 
Miss Elizabeth Ball. That there may yet be in store for 
him many happy and useful years is the wish of all in hi,? 
native Portsmouth. 


M. E. KEAN, M.D. 

M. E. KEAN, M. D. 

In the personality and characteristics of M. E. Kean, 
M. D., the student of human nature finds a delightful 
study which deepens in interest and pleasure the longer 
it is followed and considered. His is a genial and sunny 
disposition and an unvarying nature as to natural moods. 
At the same time he never borders upon the frivolous, 
but is, on the contrary, the soul of sincerity and reality. 
It is his rare good fortune to adapt himself to the ever- 
changing conditions and circumstances of life, and in the 
possession of this happy faculty is doubtless due, in large 
measure, his brilliant professional and general success 
in life. 

The parents of Dr. Kean were Michael and Mary 
(Nicholson) Kean. Both were natives of Ireland, but 
both emigrated to America in their childhood years and 
settled in Manchester, which city has remained to the 
present (1903) their home. The senior Kean became an 
esteemed citizen of his adopted city, and in his younger 
days was extensively engaged in the team work con- 
nected with the construction of various among the 
mills of Manchester. It was while he had a temporary 
residence in Bedford, across the river from Manchester, 
that his son, the subject of this sketch, was born, on 
June 28, 1863. The school life of the son was passed 
in the Park Street school, Thomas Corcoran, principal, 
and was supplemented by a course in the commercial 
school of William H. Heron. Leaving school he next 



entered upon an apprenticeship to the machinist's trade, 
and ere long he was combining with this studies in me- 
chanical engineering-, for his whole manifest predilection 
was to mechanics, and if it be true, as is often asserted, 
that to be a good physician or surgeon one must have a 
native bent for mechanics, it was but natural that young 
Kean should drift into the study of physics and surgery, 
and this he did. 

At first his professional studies were under the 
private tutorage of the late George C. Hoitt, M. D., of 
Manchester. From his private studies he entered the 
medical school of Dartmouth College, where his scholar- 
ship and innate aptitude soon placed him at the head of 
his class, a position he maintained to the end, for he 
was valedictorian of his class upon graduation in 
November, 1888. 

Since obtaining his diploma he has served as house 
surgeon of the famed Carney Hospital in Boston, Mass., 
and is an ex-president of the alumni association of that 

Locating in Manchester he has from the beginning 
achieved a most flattering success, and is not only 
esteemed for his ability as a physician and surgeon, but 
for those c[ualities that go to make the genuine man. 

He is a member of the Massachusetts state medical 
society, the New Hampshire state medical society, and 
of the Manchester medical society, of which last he is a 
former president. Since the institution of the Sacred 
Heart Hospital, Manchester, which was in 1893, Dr. 
Kean has served as a member of the staff of surgeons, 
has officiated as secretary of the staff, and at present is 
the senior surgeon of the hospital. In 1891 he married 
Miss Elizabeth E. Ward of West Lebanon, and they have 
one child, Ruth Elizabeth Arnoldine. 




Ira Joslin Prouty, M. D., Keene, N. H. Son of Dr. 
Ira French and Elsie Joslin Prouty, was born August 15, 
1857, at Ogdensburgh, N. Y. Received his education in 
the public schools of Keene, graduating from the high 
school in 1875. Following this he took a special course at 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; entered upon 
the study of medicine, graduating from the Medical De- 
partment of the University of New York in 1882. 

He began at once the practice of his profession in 
Keene. Since his graduation he has done postgraduate 
work at Johns Hopkins hospital at Baltimore and in the 
hospitals of Boston and New York. He spent the years 
1893-4 with some of the leading surgeons and at the 
surgical" centres of Great Britain and on the continent. 

He is a member of the American medical association, 
being a member of the House of Delegates 1902- 1903. 
Member of the New Hampshire medical society; Ex- 
President of the New Hampshire surgical society; Ex- 
President of the Connecticut valley medical association 
and the Cheshire county medical society and also' Keene 
natural history society. Was a member of the Board of 
education 1883- 1889; city physician 1884- 1886; board of 
health 1884-1885, a member of the original staff of the 
Elliott city hospital, 1892, and of the first board of 

Has contributed to medical journals and presented a 
number of papers before the various medical societies, 
mostly upon surgical topics. 

In 1882 he married Marietta, eldest daughter of John 
Humphrey of Keene, who died in 1894 leaving one son, 
Ira Humphrey Prouty. 



William H. Nute, M. D., of Exeter, was born in Farm- 
ington May 8, 1858, the son of Charles W. and Mary L. 
(Richardson) Nute. He was graduated from the high 
school of his native town and pursued his studies at the 
New Hampton institution, going for his professional 
training to Bellevue, New York city, and the Bow- 
doin Medical school, Brunswick, Me., where he 
received the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1881, 
He immediately entered upon the practice of his 
profession in his native town, and remained there until 
1 89 1, when despite the marked success which had fol- 
lowed him in Farmington he determined to make the 
hazard of new fortunes and removed to Exeter. In his 
new location Dr. Nute was equally prosperous and suc- 
cessful, and he almost immediately entered upon a prac- 
tice which has now grown to be one of the largest in 
central Rockingham county. 

Dr. Nute was one of the first to recognize Exeter's 
need O'f hospital accommodations, and largely through 
his efforts the Exeter cottage hospital was established to 
which he gives a large measure of his time. 

Dr. Nute keeps thoroughly abreast with all the prog- 
ress of his profession, and annually spends a large amount 
of time in the hospitals of Boston perfecting himself in all 
the latest discoveries of modern medical science. In addi- 
tion to the exacting cares of a large general practice, 
Dr. Nute is a medical examiner for the Ancient Order of 




United Workmen, as well as for all the leading insurance 
companies which do business in his section. He is presi- 
dent of the Strafford district medical society, Fellow of 
the American Medical association, member of the New 
Hampshire Surgical club, and of the New Hampshire 
Medical society. He has been prominent also in various 
secret fraternities and is a 33d degree Mason, having 
served as master of his lodge and past district deputy 
grand master. He has also passed the chairs in the Odd- 
Fellows and is a member of the Knights of Pythias. He 
is Past Sachem of the Improved Order of Red Men, this 
being the highest office in the gift of the order in the 
state. He is also a member of the Foresters of America. 
Dr. Nute married Miss Lucy Read, a daughter of one 
of the oldest and best known families in Exeter, and has 
one son, Norwood Read. He is a Republican in poli- 
tics, a member of the Board of Health of Exeter, and 
attends the Unitarian church. 


F. S. TOWLE, M. D. 

In the very front rank of the young medical men of the 
state is F. S. Towle, M. D., of Portsmouth, who was 
born in the city of Boston, December 28, 1863, but who 
is rightfully considered as belonging to New Hampshire, 
because he has given her nearly a decade out of the best 
part of his life. He was educated in the schools of his 
native city, but was not satisfied with this equipment for 
life and determined tO' become a professional man. At 
the Columbia Medical college he worked his way through, 
graduating with credit and receiving the degree of Doctor 
of Medicine. Later he took a post-graduate course, 
thereby perfecting and extending his knowledge along 
certain important lines. 

His first location for the practice of his profession was 
in Boston, but in 1894 he removed to Portsmouth, where 
he has since been located, having established a large prac- 
tice and a splendid reputation for knowledge, skill and 
competence. One evidence of this is the frequency with 
which he is called into consultation by his fellow physi- 
cians in cases of unusual gravity and difficulty. 

Doctor Towle is a member of the American medical 
association; of the New Hampshire state medical society; 
of the Strafford medical association; of the Rockingham 
county association; of the Portsmouth medical associa- 
tion; and is a fellow of the American electro-therapeutics. 

Of a social disposition and deservedly popular and 
prominent in fraternal circles, Dr. Towle is a member of 


F. S. TOWLE, M.D. 


the Knights Templar, of the I. O. O. F., of the Knights 
of Pythias, and other organizations. He is a RepubHcan 
in poHtics and has served his city efficiently as chairman 
of the board of health and as member of the school board. 
He has also been honored by appointment as surgeon- 
general on the staff of the governor of the state. 

He married Miss Martha H. Perry of Boston, Mass., 
and they have one son, a student in the Portsmouth Pligh 



E. L. Click, proprietor and principal of the National 
School of Business, Concord, New Hampshire, is a native 
of Michigan, and was born in 1867. At the completion 
of his school days he became a teacher in his native state, 
holding- positions in the cities of Crand Rapids and De- 
troit. Being attracted to the study of stenography Mr. 
Click perfected himself in this branch and became a court 
reporter, discharging his duties with signal ability in the 
two cities named above until his removal after several 
years to Cleveland, Ohio, where he became a teacher in 
a large business college. From Cleveland Mr. Click made 
his way east and settled in Lowell, where he was engaged 
in teaching commercial science for several years. In 
1898, he came to Concord, where he purchased and con- 
solidated two small struggling business colleges then ex- 
isting in the city, and upon this basis has built up in the 
National School of Business one of the largest and most 
successful of commercial colleges in the East. Mr. Click's 
students come from nearly all of the Eastern states and 
his roll of pupils now numbers more than one hundred. 
The school is finely located in one of the principal busi- 
ness blocks in Concord, occupying an entire floor, which 
is specially equipped with apparatus designed to give an 
insight into all branches of commercial knowledge. Ac- 
tual business from the start is the watchword of Mr. 
Click's school, and his pupils are favored from the begin- 
ning of their studies Avith an opportunity to learn by 




practice the actual procedure of modern commercial life. 
In addition to the training of clerks, accountants and 
stenographers common to most commercial colleges, the 
National School of Business is especially equipped for the 
training of teachers for business colleges, and in this line 
its success has been very marked. Many of Mr. Click's 
pupils have gone from his school to lucrative positions in 
other business colleges where by the introduction of the 
methods which have made the National School of Busi- 
ness so successful they have carried on the good work in 
sending out thoroughly trained and practised students for 
the manifold duties growing out of the varying and ex- 
acting commercial life of to-day. 

Mr. Click in addition to being thoroughly familiar with 
all the branches forming the curriculum of the school and 
thus being enabled to have a close and practical oversight 
of all the work done in the school, is a penman of re- 
markable versatility and skill. The pages of the National 
Penman, the recognized organ of penmanship in America, 
have been adorned in successive numbers for many years 
with reproductions of Mr. Click's work, both in handwrit- 
ing and the more ornate branches of penmanship, and 
many of the prizes ofifered by that journal for the finest 
work in penmanship have fallen into Mr. Click's hands as 
a result of the competitions thus set on foot. 



Henry DeWolfe Carvelle, M. D., was born in Rich- 
mond, N. B., May 26, 1852, the son of James Sherard 
and Elizabeth (Porter) Carvelle. His mother was of 
Scotch birth, her ancestors being neighbors of the im- 
mortal Bobbie Burns, and his father was of English 
descent, tracing his ancestry to the time of William the 
Conqueror. His great-grandfather fought in the War of 
the Revolution on the British side. 

After attending the schools of his native town 
Dr. Carvelle entered, in 1873, the Boston Eye and 
Ear infirmary as a medical attendant. There he 
remained two years and during the second year pur- 
sued studies under the guidance of Dr. Albert N. 
Blodgett, superintendent of the institution. In 1875 he 
entered the Harvard Medical school, graduating in 1878. 
During his last year there he assisted for a month 
in the practice of Dr. Edward Waldo Ernerson, residing 
at the house of Dr. Emerson's father, tJje distinguished 
Ralph Waldo Emerson, where his associations were ex- 
ceedingly delightful. 

After graduation from college Dr. Carvelle resided in 
Boston for a short time and then removed to Manches- 
ter. There he continued in general practice until 1884, 
since which date he has devoted himself to the treatment 
of the eye and ear. As a specialist in diseases of these 
organs he ranks high, being the first ophthalmic and aural 
surgeon in New Hampshire and frequently called to all 
parts of the state on difficult cases. 




He has taken various special courses in the line of his 
special work in New York and in 1887 he went abroad 
for further study, spending several months in the Royal 
London Ophthalmic hospital and in the eye and ear 
clinics of Paris. He is a member of the New Hamp- 
shire Medical society, the Manchester Medical association, 
censor of the Medico-Chirurgical college of Phila- 
delphia, honorary member of the I. Webster Fox 
Ophthalmological society of Philadelphia, of the ophthal- 
mological section of the American Medical association 
and of the Pan-American Medical congress at Havana, 
Cuba, Feb. 190 1. He is ophthalmic and aural surgeon of 
the Elliot hospital. 

Dr. Carvelle is an Episcopalian, but attends the Frank- 
lin Street Congregational church. On May 5, 
1893, he married Anna Brewster Sullivan, daughter of 
John and Arinna (Whittemore) Sullivan of Suncook, a 
grand-daughter of the late Hon. Aaron Whittemore of 
Pembroke. They have one daughter, Euphrosyne 
Parepa, born May 15, 1894. 



Dr. Custer practised medicine for nearly half a 
century in Manchester, N. H., and died the oldest practi- 
tioner in the city. He was born in Frankfurt a-m 
(am Main), Germany, June 12, 1820. His father was 
a native of Switzerland, his mother of Germany, 

His parents removed to Altstatten, canton St. Gallen, 
Switzerland, when he was four years of age. There he 
received his primary education; he attended the Latin 
School and Gymnasium of Aarau and St. Gallen, and 
spent seven years at the Universities of Zurich, Freiburg-, 
Wurzburg and Munich. After completing his studies, 
he married Mrs. Nannette Tollmann-Spann, a lady of 
fine presence and amiable disposition, an accomplished 
pianist, descended from a family oi rank and importance 
in Swiss history. In the fall of 1846 Dr. Custer with 
his family came to America and after a short stay in 
Syracuse, N. Y., settled in Manchester, N. H., in 1847, 
when the city was in its infancy. 

Dr. Custer possessed a fine classical education and 
high literary attainments with a refined poetic mind. He 
gradually built up an extensive practice in the city and 
surrounding country. He was most popular, a man of 
strictest integrity, full of conscientious endeavor for his 
fellowmen; beloved and respected by all who knew him. 
He combined the skill with which he ministered to the 
sick and afflicted, with a cheerfulness which brought sun- 
shine to many a discouraged soul, and delighted heavy 
hearts by his unlimited fund of wit and humor. 




He was a large hearted genial man, whose word was 
as good as his bond, and in his professional attendance 
he made no difference between rich or poor. He was 
progressive in his ideas. Although a thoroughly educated 
allopathic physician he investigated the system of home- 
opathy, and finding it superior tO' the old school, he 
became a firm believer and practiced it to the end of his 
life. He said jokingly, that his conscience would not 
allow him toi practise allopathy, after he knew there was 
a better way of treatment. In this he achieved success 
and his advice and skill were sought by many in the city 
and surrounding country. He was systematic in all his 
work, neglecting nothing, and although he had a very 
large practise, he found time for sociability, and was a 
welcome guest wherever he went. 

Dr. Custer was a most modest and unassuming man, 
and only his most intimate friends had an insight to 
his rich and fertile mind. To all others he was the able 
and genial physician. He was fond of children. His 
own two having died in infancy, he adopted his wife's 
children and was a most indulgent parent to them. 

His wife's death occurred seven years before his own 
demise, which ended a most useful life. May i8th, 1896. 
He kept his bright, cheery disposition through a long 
and trying illness, till he succumbed to the inevitable. 



Edward L. Custer was born in Basel, Switzerland, 
January 24, 1837, oldest son of Henry M. and Nannette 
Tollman-Spann. After his father's death, his mother 
married Dr. Emil Custer, a man who, with his love for 
children, cared for them as if his own. He received his 
primary education in Switzerland and America, but his 
art education in Germany. He was nine years old when 
his parents came to America; overcoming many difficul- 
ties in their struggle to gain a foothold. He attended 
the schools of Manchester, New Hampshire, and soon 
helped to support himself by his palette and brush. His 
talent was early apparent. Some of his pictures, painted 
while an untaught boy of fourteen years, are still pre- 
served by the family, and though crude are strikingly 
natural in tone and action. He also did a great deal of 
decorative work, and also taught drawing and painting. 
In i860 he sailed for Europe, and studied in the art 
school of Dusseldorf, Germany, and after that became a 
pupil at the Royal Academy in Munich, Bavaria, where 
he studied under Steffan, and Schiess, both original and 
powerful painters of landscapes. He spent his summers 
in Switzerland, with his teachers, sketching from 
Nature, and after two years he returned, and exhibited 
a number of his paintings in New York City, where 
they found ready purchasers. In the summer his favor- 
ite haunts were northern New Hampshire and Vermont, 
upon the Connecticut and its tributaries. His realistic 




studies of these localities, afterwards wrought into more 
artistic form, were widely known and admired. In 1864 
he settled in Boston, Mass., and in the same year he 
married Miss Ruth A. Porter of Manchester, N. H., a 
young lady of culture^ and a successful teacher in the 
Public Schools of that city. In Boston, his talent was 
recognized at once, and he was successful from the 
beginning. He painted landscapes and portraits both, 
was especially delighted in portraying of children. His 
portraits were uniformly good likenesses, for no man 
was more accurate in the observation of traits or 
more faithful in their rep|roduction. His landscapes 
and animal pictures were also the result of patient and 
loving study, and so were always characteristic in 
detail, as well as in general effect, and show his ability 
was not confined to one branch of art alone. In 1870 
he went abroad again with his wife and spent another 
year in devoted study, and visited the art galleries of 
Italy, Holland, and Germany. On his return to America 
his work began to exhibit a style and vigor beyond the 
expectations of his warmest friends. 

His portraits of men of eminence and character were 
greatly admired, among which may be mentioned those 
of Judge Allen, Judge Thomas of Boston, Mass., Judge 
Hoar, Judge Bacon, Mr. Haven, the eminent anti- 
quarian, and Stephen Salisbury of Worcester, Mass. 

In February, 1878, he met with a great loss, the death 
of his beloved wife. The following summer he spent in 
European travel. In May, 1880, he married again. His 
death occurred soon after in the prime of life, January 
9th, 1 88 1. He left no issue by either marriage. To his 
friends he was more than the popular and successful 
painter; he was a man to be esteemed, .a friend to be 



County Solicitor, member of the General court, State 
senator, U. S. District attorney and member of Congress, 
this was the distinguished official record of the late Hon. 
Joshua Oilman Hall, of Dover, who was born in Wake- 
field, Nov. 5th, 1828, and died Oct. 31st, 1898. Mr. Hall 
was a lineal descendant from John Hall, the first deacon 
in the first church at Dover, founded in 1638. He pre^ 
pared for college at Oilmanton academy, and was grad- 
uated from Dartmouth in the class of 1851, studied law 
with the late Daniel M. Christie, of Dover, the precepvor 
of so many brilliant members of the New Hampshire bar, 
and was admitted to practice in 1855. He began his pro- 
fessional activity first in his native village, but later re- 
moved to Dover, where he spent the balance of his life. 
Mr. Hall was not long in making his way to the front 
rank of his profession and at the time of his death had 
been for many years numbered with the leading members 
of the bar in the state. In 1862 he was first chosen to 
public office as solicitor of Strafford county, which posi- 
tion he held until 1874. In that year he was elected to 
represent his ward in the Oeneral court and was one of 
the most influential members of that body in the practical 
shaping of legislation. In 1871 and 1872 he sat in the 
State senate and from 1874 to 1879 he was U. S. attorney 
for the district of New Hampshire. In 1880 he was elect- 
ed to represent his district in congress and served two 
terms with distinction for himself and satisfaction to his 




constituents. Mr. Hall was mayor of Dover in 1866 and 
1867. In every position in public life and in all his 
private relations Mr. Hall was actuated by high ideals of 
honor and integrity. He was a most industrious man and 
despite all pressing duties of public office he never neglect- 
ed the needs of the clients who had intrusted their matters 
to his charge, but, doing double duty, discharged to the 
full his obligations to the public service and to his private 
undertakings. Nov. 16, 1861 he married Miss S. Lizzie 
Bigelow of Boston, and became the father of three chil- 
dren, two daughters, one the wife of F. D. Cook of 
Nashua, now living in Florida, and the other, wife of 
Gen. William D. Sawyer of New York City. His only 
son, Dwight Hall, graduated from Dartmouth in 1894, 
from the Boston University Law School in 1897, and was 
admitted to the bar in that year, practising at first as his 
father's partner, and now by himself. In 1898 Mr. Hall 
was appointed referee in bankruptcy for the Third dis- 
trict of New Hampshire and bids fair to add new laurels 
to the name made illustrious by his father. 



One of the ablest and most learned of the justices who 
have adorned the New Hampshire Supreme bench was 
William Lawrence Foster, who was born of Revolution- 
ary stock at Westminster, Vermont, June ist, 1823. His 
great grandfather was a soldier of the Revolution and 
fought at the battle of Bunker Hill. His grandfather, 
while a freshman at Yale, joined the minute men of Read- 
ing, Mass., and participated in the battle of Lexington. 
His father removed from Vermont to Fitzwilliam, and 
then to Keene, where he died in 1854, and where; his son 
was educated in the common schools. At the age of 
seventeen he began the study of law in the office of Levi 
Chamberlain, and in 18^4 and 1845 received instructions 
at the Harvard Law school. He was admitted to the bar 
of Cheshire county in 1845 ^"<^^ practised in Keene in 
partnership with John J. Baxter, and later with his pre- 
ceptor. He was early marked for political advancement 
and from 1845 tO' 1849 he served as postmaster at Keene. 
From 1849 to 1853 he was clerk of the New Hampshire 
senate, and during the administration of Governor Dins- 
more was a member of his staff. By that executive also 
he was, in 1850, appointed state law reporter, which posi- 
tion he held until 1856, and published fifteen volumes of 
the New Hampshire reports. In 1853 he removed to 
Concord and formed a partnership in the law with the late 
Col. John H. George. The late Hon. Charles P. Sanborn 
was subsequently a member of the firm, and Col. George 





retiring in 1857 the partnership of Foster & Sanborn con- 
tinued until 1869, when the senior partner was first ap- 
pointed toi the bench. In 1854 he was appointed commis- 
sioner of the Circuit court of the United States and held 
that position until 1862 when he was elected a member 
of the House of Rqiresentatives and was re-elected in 
1863. Oct. I St, 1869 he took his seat upon the bench of 
the Supreme court, where he remained until 1874, when 
upon the reorganization of the judicial system he was 
made Chief Justice of the Circuit court. Two years later 
upon a restoration of the former judicial system he was 
again appointed judge of the Supreme court, and held the 
office until July ist, 1881, when he resigned to resume 
the practice of law. In 1884 he was appointed a United 
States commissioner, and held the position until his 
death. Judge Foster was a man of superb legal attain- 
ments, possessing a fine mind, keen perception and gra- 
cious personality, and an impressive manner as an advo- 
cate. Both on the bench and at the bar he attained a 
signal measure of success, his practice being at the time of 
his death a choice and lucrative one. Judge Foster was 
married Jan. 13, 1853 ^o Harriet M. Perkins of Hopkin- 
ton, who with four children survive him. At the time of 
his death Judge Foster had been for many years a mem- 
ber of the standing committee of the Protestant Episcopal 
diocese of New Hampshire. 



The great bulwark of American national life, the 
sheet anchor of the country's strength and progress 
throughout the nineteenth century, was that splendid 
manhood and individual character, the glory of the New 
England country town, that took up the work laid down 
by the fathers and carried it forward until they, in turn, 
finished their triumphant careers and passed on. 

The ideas, opinions, and purposes of the original New 
England life prevailed and dominated in individual and 
state action until the closing decades of the century just 
closed. Their soundness and wisdom were made mani- 
fest by the magnificence of the results that proceeded from 
an adherence thereto by the typical New England man 
of that period. 

The men of the type mentioned won success for them- 
selves and prosperity for their country because of their 
fidelity to the duty of each successive hour. In every 
village and town throughout New Hampshire were men 
of this class who, by precept and example, enabled a 
great multitude of men and women to become a power 
in the work of developing the country. 

Thoroughly typical of that company of men who de- 
veloped New Hampshire's interests in the nineteenth 
century was William True Cass, who was born in 
Andover, February 7, 1826, and died in the town of 
Tilton, May 26, 1901. His was a career of usefulness 
from first to last, and the community and state were 
better for his having lived. 





The parents of the subject of this sketch were Benja- 
min and Sarah (True) Cass, who hved first in Andover 
and later in Plymouth. Their son, William T., as a boy 
worked on the parental farm, growing to manhood in 
this occupation and in attending the town's schools and 
the Holmes academy in Plymouth. In 1853 the family 
moved to a farm in Sanborton Bridge, since called 
Tilton. Farming and work in one of the village fac- 
tories were followed by the son for some three years, 
when in January 1856 he was chosen cashier of the Citi- 
zens' Bank, a calling he was destined to follow the rest of 
his long, useful, and industrious life. 

It is of interest to note that during the forenoon of 
the day he was elected cashier of the bank, he worked at 
his regular occupation, in the village woolen mill, and m 
the afternoon assumed the duties of cashier. This inci- 
dent illustrates the versatility of the man, and further 
is an evidence of indomitable energy and activity. ^ 

Although without previous experience in banking at 
the time of his selection as cashier, he threw his whole 
soul into his new calling and ere long he mastered its 
details. As the years came and went the institution pros- 
pered, its capital stock was increased and in 1865 it was 
made a national bank. Mr. Cass continued as its cash- 
ier until 1889, a total of thirty-three years, when an elec- 
tion to the presidency of the bank caused his resignation 
as cashier. As president of the bank he continued to the 
hour of his death. 

It was essentially through the efforts of Mr. Cass 
that a savings bank in Tilton was chartered m 1870, 
and upon its organization he was chosen its treasurer, 
a position he held until his decease. He was a trustee 
of the savings institution and the only original member of 
the board at the time of his death. From a new venture 



Mr. Cass saw the savingfs bank's deposits increase to 
nearly a half million of dollars. 

He had passed a total of nearly forty-five years as 
a bank official, a length of service rarely attained in any 
community. His long experience and proven ability in 
the field of finance and monetary affairs caused his coun- 
sel to be sought by varied business interests throughout 
his section of the state. 

But it was not wholly as a business man that Mr. 
Cass was conspicuous. He recognized his duty in every 
phase of life and served his fellow men faithfully in the 
religious, educational and social life of his adopted town. 

In boyhood he joined the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and throughout all his after years was actively identified 
with that denomination; giving liberally of his means 
to aid in sustaining the work of his own church, and 
serving as class leader for the most honorable term of 
forty years; president of the board of trustees for several 
years, as well as a teacher and superintendent of the 
Sunday School. For eighteen years he was treasurer of 
the New Hampshire Conference Seminary at Tilton. 

Politically Mr. Cass had been a Republican from the 
inception of the Civil War, but political preferment was 
never to his taste or inclination. He preferred the in- 
dependence of his sterling manhood to the care of political 
honor or power. 

He, however, served as town treasurer, as a member 
of the Park Cemetery trustees and as moderator at town 

On September i8, 185 1, Mr. Cass married Man,' 
Emery Locke of Concord. Four children were born to 
them, two of whom survived their father: a daughter, 
the wife of Abel Wesley Reynolds of West Somerville, 
Mass., and a son, Arthur True Cass, who succeeded his 
father as cashier of the National Bank. 




The hope of the present and the promise of the future 
are in the young men of a community. Instinctively their 
fellow men note their capabilities, their dispositions, and 
all their characteristics. According as are these do they 
beget confidence or distrust, and fortunate is the young 
man who early learns that the good opinion of his fellow 
beings is essential to his permanent success, prosperity 
and standing in the community. 

It is from such as these that are selected the men de- 
signed for leaders and to fill positions of trust in all 
phases of a material life. 

Splendidly representative of this class is Elmer D. 
Goodwin of Manchester, who is not only a successful 
business man but as a member of society is esteemed and 
trusted for those traits of character that denote the man. 
By integrity, industry, and sincerity of purpose he has 
won his way to enviable positions of honor at the hands 
of his fellow associates. 

Mr. Goodwin was born in Charlestown, Mass., October 
12, 1866, the son of John and Caroline W. (Bolles) 
Goodwin, both of whom were natives of Londonderry. 
When only eight months old his mother died and he was 
sent to live with his maternal grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. 
Lewis Bolles in Londonderr>\ With them he remained 
for five years when he was taken to his father's home in 
Lynn, Mass., and there he lived until he was eleven years 
old, at which age he returned to Londonderry. He at- 
tended the schools of Lynn and Londonderry, supple- 
menting these with courses at Pinkerton academy, Derry, 
and the New Hampshire Conference seminary, Tilton. 



The terms at these two well known academies closed 
his student life, for he at once entered upon a mercantile 
career that has continued to the date of this writing. 

Becoming a clerk in the grocery store of George S. 
Rollins in Derry, he continued as such until he accepted 
a position in the Derry railroad station then under the 
charge of James Priest. His next move was as a partner 
with George F. Priest in the coal and ice business in 
Derry. This partnership was continued for four years, 
when Mr. Goodwin accepted the position of manager of 
the Derry branch of the furniture house of W. P. B. 
Brooks & Company of Boston, retaining the same for 
some two years. 

In 1 89 1 he went to Manchester to become the book- 
keeper in the wholesale tin and kitchen-ware house of 
the late Clark M. Bailey, and remained as such for eight 
years, purchasing in 1899 the undertaking business of 
Alfred E. Morse. 

In this undertaking Mr. Goodwin has been singularly 
successful, for he has all those attributes so desirable in 
a mortician, attributes that are natural in him and not 
affected. The business he has developed is one of the 
largest of its kind in northern New England, and in the 
business community he is held in marked esteem. 

Early in life Mr. Goodwin manifested a decided in- 
terest in fraternal organizations and especially is this true 
as respects the Masonic order. In 1892 he joined St. 
Mark's lodge in Derry, and from that year on his has 
been a most enviable career as a Mason, having reached 
in less than ten years to the high position of Eminent 
Commander of Trinity Commandery, Knights Templar, 
in the city of Manchester. He is a past high priest of 
Mount Horeb Royal Arch chapter, present (1903) thrice 
illustrious master of Adoniram council, R. and S. M., and 
patron in the order of the Eastern Star. Aside from his 
Masonic affiliations he is a past chancellor commander of 
Rockingham lodge, Derry, Knights of Pythias; a member 
of Gen. Stark grange, Patrons of Husbandry; a mem- 
ber of the Improved Order of Red Men; a member of 



the O. U. A. M. ; a member of the Derryiield club, Man- 
chester; of the local board of trade, and treasurer of the 
Undertakers and Licensed Embalmers' Association of 
New Hampshire. 

He married, in 1886, Miss Ella L. Sargent of Sears- 
port, Maine. One child, a son, Lewis Byron, has, been 
born to them. The church home of the family is the 
Franklin Street Congregational. 



Probably no man has been more prominently and ac- 
tively identified with the manufacturing, business, finan- 
cial, and social life of Laconia, during the past thirty 
years^, than ex-Governor Charles A, Busiel. In the 
construction of the Lake Shore railroad, the erection 
of the new passenger station, the establishment of a city 
hospital, the inauguration of the city government, and in 
a thousand and one other enterprises, all in the direction 
of progress and advancement, Mr. Busiel made his mark 
and built for himself a monument as a public-spirited, 
broad-minded, progressive Laconian, which will do 
honor to him for centuries to come. 

Charles Albert Busiel was born in Meredith, N. H., 
November 24, 1842. He was the eldest son of the late 
John W. and Julia (Tilton) Busiel. He received his 
education in the public schools of Laconia and at old Gil- 
ford academy, and after graduating he entered his 
father's hosiery mill and acquired a practical knowledge 
of the entire business by actual labor in each department. 
In 1863 he engaged in business on his own account, but 
within a few years sold his interest in the establishment 
which he had put in operation, and with a brother, in 
1869. he entered into partnership and engaged in the 
manufacture of hosiery. Another brother joined the 
firm in 1872, and the name became J. W. Busiel & Co. 
This business is still continued and ranks as one of the 
most important industries in Laconia. 



Governor of Xcw Ham psiiijc, rSgj-iSg6 '> 


Ex-Governor Busiel was president of the Laconia 
National bank and also president of the City Savings 
bank. He attained much prominence in railroad circles 
by his investments in this kind of property, by his success 
in organizing and constructing the Lake Shore railroad, 
and as one of the managmg directors of the old Concord 
& Montreal railroad. 

Credit for the substantial and beautiful Laconia depot 
largely belongs to Hon. Charles A. Busiel, who was at 
that time one of the managing directors of the Concord 
railroad, and it was through his efforts and local pride 
that Laconia was granted such an expensive and mag- 
nificent passenger station. History will accord to Hon. 
C. A. Busiel the honor of constructing the Lake Shore 
railroad and the erection of the Laconia passenger sta- 
tion, and these two things will stand as monuments to 
the man for years to come. 

In politics ex-Governor Busiel always supported the 
party which he believed represented the best interests of 
the people upon local, state, and national issues. He 
represented Laconia in the Legislatures of 1878 and 1879; 
he was a delegate to the Democratic national convention 
in Cincinnati in 1880; as a Republican candidate he be- 
came the first mayor of the new city of Laconia, although 
at that time the city was strongly Democratic. He was 
re-elected mayor for a second term by a largely increased 
majority. In 1895 he was the Republican candidate for 
governor of New Hampshire, and was elected by one of 
the largest majorities ever received by any candidate in 
this state — about 10,000 majority and 13,000 plurality. 
For the first time in history, every county in New Hamp- 
shire returned a Republican majority at this election. As 
governor of the state he advocated and even compelled 
retrenchments and reforms, which saved the treasury 
hundreds of thousands of dollars, and it was universally 



admitted by opponents as well as friends, that Governor 
Biisiel was one of the best governors who ever held the 
position of chief executive in this state. He was prom- 
inent as a candidate for United States senator in 1896, 
and was undoubtedly the choice of his state for a secre- 
tary's portfolio in President McKinley's cabinet. 

Ex-Governor Busiel attended the Congregational 
church. He was very prominent in Masonic circles, as 
well as in the Knights of Pythias and other beneficial, 
social and charitable organizations. 

During his administration as governor he paid $200,- 
000 of the state debt, and $75,000 to defray expenses left 
due by previous administrations. By his vetoes of the 
unnecessary measures passed by the Legislature, Gov- 
ernor Busiel practically saved the state a million dollars, 
and when he retired from office he left in the state treas- 
ury $590,706.07 according to the report of the state 
auditing committee. 

January, 1897, Governor Busiel purchased a con- 
trolling interest in the Laconia Democrat, and organized 
the Laconia Press Association. From that time up to the 
date of his death he devoted a portion of his time every 
week to editorial work upon the paper. He took great 
pleasure in this work and was a vigorous and aggressive 
writer with broad and progressive ideas. 

Li 1864 he married Eunice Elizabeth Preston, daugh- 
ter of Worcester Preston. They have one daughter, 
Frances E. Busiel, who is the wife of Wilson Long- 
streth Smith of Germantown, Pa. They had one son, 
Charles Albert Busiel Smith, l)orn March i, 1895, died 
August 6, 1 90 1. 




Cyrus A. Sulloway of Manchester has just been elected 
from the first New Hampshire district for a fifth term 
of two' years in the national house of representatives in 
Washington, establishing a record without precedent in 
the political history of the state for service as a congress- 
man. The man who possesses to such an extent the con- 
fidence and respect of his fellow citizens must be consid- 
ered as peculiarly honored, particularly when it is con- 
sidered that his success has been well earned and every 
whit deserved. 

Mr. Sulloway was born in Grafton, New Hampshire. 
June 8, 1839, and spent his boyhood upon his father's 
farm. His early opportunities for education were thus 
restricted to the public schools of his town, supplemented, 
through his own enterprise and eagerness for knowledge, 
with a course at Colby academy, New London. 

His inclinations led him to choose the profession of 
law for his life work and in 1861 he entered the office 
of Pike & Barnard at Franklin to begin his studies. Two 
years later, in 1863, he was admitted tO' the bar and im- 
mediately went to the city of Manchester, of which 
municipality he has ever since been a resident. 

He entered into partnership for the practice of his pro- 
fession with Samuel D. Lord, a prosperous connection, 
which continued for ten years. Upon its dissolution Mr. 
Sulloway associated himself with E. M. Topliff, and the 
practice of the firm thus formed has been one of the 
largest in the state. 



From the first moment of his entrance into pohtics 
Congressman Sulloway's personaHty has been as pictur- 
esque and potent as it had previously been at the bar. 
From 1873 to 1878 he served as deputy collector of in- 
ternal revenue. Five times he was a member of the state 
house of representatives, once serving as chairman of the 
committee on elections and twice as chairman of the com- 
mittee on the judiciary. 

It was in the fall of 1894 that Mr. Sulloway made his 
debut in national politics, receiving the unanimous Re- 
publican nomination for congress in the first district and 
being elected, after a characteristic campaign of vigor 
and enthusiasm, by a plurality of more than 6,000. In 
1898 he was re-elected by a plurality of more than 
11,000. In 1900 he won his third victory in this arena, 
defeating Edward J. Knovvlton after one of the hardest 
fought campaigns in the history of the state. In 1900 
he announced that he was not a candidate for another 
term, but his party almost forced the nomination upon 
him and he was again successful. The story of his fifth 
election is still fresh in mind. 

Mr. Sulloway is one of the best known men in con- 
gress, not merely for the virility of his eloquence and his 
appearance, but for the solid worth of his work in very 
important places. As chairman of the committee on in- 
valid pensions his industry, intelligence and integrity 
have been recognized and praised throughout the country. 




New Hampshire is justly proud of the number of her 
young- men who are daily demonstrating their ability 
to accept the responsibilities and demands of life in all 
its varied phases, and particularly those which pertain to 
public affairs. The presence of this class of young men 
is one that no genuine lover of this land and its institu- 
tions can fail to admire, for it gives promise of the 
stability of the future, and is an ever-present inspiration 
to them who would safe-guard the integrity of the 
country's life. 

Conspicuous among the younger men in the public life 
of the state in the opening years of the twentieth century 
is L. Ashton Thorp, a member of the Manchester Bar 
and associate clerk of the state senate during the session 
of 1903. 

Mr. Thorp was born in the city of Manchester on 
December 7, 1876, the centennial year of the nation's 
birth. His education was obtained in the Manchester 
public schools. He early displayed a predilection for the 
law, and following this bent he was soon after his 
graduation from the recitation room enrolled as a 
student at law in the office of Burnham, Brown & 
Warren, in Manchester. He was subsequently entered 
as a student in Boston University law school, from 
which he graduated in 1902. His admission to the bar 
of New Hampshire and his opening of an office in his 
native city were events that immediately followed his 
graduation from the law school, 



Possessing natural aptitude for the grasping of the 
labyrinthine detail of legislative work, his fitness for 
positions in state legislative bodies was early recognized. 
In 1 90 1 he was chosen to the important ofiice of assistant 
clerk of the New Hampshire senate and in the constitu- 
tional convention of 1902 he was made its assistant 
secretary. The duty of keq^ing the journal of the 
convention devolved upon Mr. Thorp, and the manner in 
which he performed the work met with the approval of 
the entire body. 

Mr. Thorp's initial service in public life was as a 
messenger in the state senate. As a member of the 
Republican party he has oftentimes appeared upon the 
stump in various campaigns to the acceptance of the 
party and the general public, irrespective of political 

Mr. Thorp is a talented orator, and thus early in life 
has won an enviable reputation as lecturer upon themes 
of general public interest, one of his strongest being a 
lecture on "The Mission of the Twentieth Century.' 
He has lectured in many parts of New England and has 
met with universal success. 

In fraternal organizations Mr. Thorp has membership 
in the Odd Fellows and Patrons of Husbandry. 




Eli Edwin Gr,a\'es, a descendant from the pioneer fami- 
lies of Deerfield, Greenfield and Hadley, Mass., was born 
Sept. 9th, 1847 at Jerichoi Center, Vermont. He was 
educated at the Essex classical institute, and then follow- 
ing the marked tendency in his family, which has given 
many names to the roll of the medical profession, he en- 
tered the office of F. F. Ho\^ey, M. D., at Jericho, where 
for two years he pursued his studies. The following two 
years was passed at Burlington, Vermont with profes- 
sors Thayer and Carpenter, and in June, 1868 Dr. Graves 
received his degree from the University of Vermont. 
Practising for a month in the office of Dr. Walter Car- 
penter in Burlington he removed in September of the 
same year to Boscawen, where he succeeded to the prac- 
tice of Dr. E. K. Webster, and became the occupant of the 
Dr. Webster homestead in that village. In 1872, 
urged by the growing demands of his practice, he estab- 
lished an office in Penacook. In 1876 he took a special 
course in surgery at the Harvard Medical school, and has 
since devoted himself chiefly to that branch of the pro^ 
fession. Dr. Graves maintained his residence at Bos- 
cawen until 1897, taking great pride in improving and 
beautifying the fine old estate upon which it was his good 
fortune to live, but the increasing demand for his presence 
at Penacook led him in that year to remove thither, where 
he established his home at the Amsden homestead, which 
he purchased. This residence, one of the finest in the 



community, recei\es much attention from its owner, and 
both within and without is a most attractive example of 
the typical New England home of refinement and re- 
source. Dr. Graves is the owner of an extensive library 
of general literature as well as of publications relating to 
his profession. He is also an antiquarian of no little re- 
pute, being the possessor of many fine examples of old 
time furniture, one of them being the high posted desk 
used by Daniel Webster in his first law office. Dr. Graves' 
mineralogical cabinet and his collection of Indian relics 
are also extensive and valuable. Dr. Graves was one of 
the first meml^ers of the lx)ard of health in Boscawen, and 
for some years was superintendent of schools in that 
town. In 1889 he was its representative in the legisla- 
ture. For 17 years he was the physician attendant at the 
Merrimack county alms house and is now a member oi 
the consulting staff of the Margaret Pillsbury general 
hospital at Concord. He is a member of the New Hamp- 
shire Medical society, ex-president of the Center District 
Medical society, member of the American Medical asso- 
ciation, the American Public Health association, and of 
the New Hampshire Historical society. Dr. Graves is a 
Mason, an Odd Fellow, a member of the Knights of 
Honor and other fraternal organizations. He was one 
of the promoters of the enterprise to^ secure an adequate 
water supply for the community in which he lives and is 
now chairman of the water board for the Penacook and 
Boscawen water precinct. 

In 1872, he married Miss Martha A. Williams of 
Essex, Vermont. She died January 29, 1903, leaving 
besides her husband, a son who is a graduate from Har- 
vard University and Harvard Medical School and is now 
connected with the medical staff of the Massachusetts 
General Hospital; and a daughter, a graduate of Dean 
Academy, Franklin, Mass.. class of 1901. 




Of sturdy Scotch-Irish ancestry, Nathaniel Everett 
Martin was born in Loudon Aug. 9, 1855, the son of 
Theophilus B. and Sarah L. (Rowell) Martin. Mr. Mar- 
tin" s first ancestor in this country was Wilham Martin 
who landed in Boston in 1732, and made his way thence 
to Londonderry in this state, where was settled that ro^ 
bust colony of Scotch-Irish emigrants from whom have 
sprung so many strong and vigorous sons. His great- 
grandfather, James Martin, was one of the first of that 
eager band who enlisted in the Revolutionary ranks at the 
outbreak of the w^ar for independence, and though he 
died l>efore the new reyniblic had established its cause by 
arms, he left to his descendants a vigorous Americanism 
which persisted in none of the race more strongly than in 
the subject of this sketch. 

Mr. Martin received his primary education in the 
schools of his native town and later took a course in the 
Concord High school, where his studious habits gave him 
high standing. He entered upon the study of the law 
with Sargent and Chase, each of whom it may be re- 
marked later served with distinction upon the supreme 
bench of the state, and on Aug. 14, 1879, the young at- 
torney was admitted to the bar. His practice from the 
first was lucrative and extensive, and for many years 
the partnership which he sustained with John H. Albin, 
ranked as one of the busiest law firms in New Hampshire. 
In 1899 this relationship was dissolved and a new part- 



nership formed with DeWitt C. Howe, which still exists 
with a large and remunerative clientage. 

In addition to his increasing labors in his profession, 
Mr. IViartin has successfully engaged in many business 
ventures and has taken an active part in thei development 
of Concord's enteq:)rise and prosperity by opening up 
large tracts of houselots and by engaging in manu- 
facturing enterprises. For a time, too, he was a 
director and the treasurer of the Sullivan County rail- 
road. As a skilled legal adviser Mr. Martin has frequent- 
ly been called upon to act as counsel for a large number 
of towns, and in many important instances of litigation 
he has served as special counsel for the city of Concord. 
From 1887 tO' 1889, he was solicitor of Merrimack Coun- 
ty, and by his stern and rigorous policy of law enforce- 
ment he won a reputation for sterling honesty which at- 
tracted wide support to him and which in following years 
was of great value in the field of politics. 

In 1898, he was nominated by the Democratic party 
for mayor of Concord, and after a most spirited cam- 
paign in which Mr. Martin's record as a friend of law 
and order was brought forward as the main issue by his 
supporters, he was elected by a liberal margin. His ad- 
ministration of city affairs was characterized by the same 
manly qualities which had marked his course as a prose- 
cuting attorney, and he was frequently considered by his 
party as a possible candidate for governor. 

As a lawyer Mr. Martin's special forte is that of an 
advocate, and the dockets of Merrimack County bristle 
with jury cases in which he makes the argument. Mar- 
shalling his facts with care and presenting them with con- 
summate skill, he stands in the very front rank of New 
Hampshire jury lawyers. 

Mr. Martin was married March 27, 1902. to Jennie 
P. Lawrence. 




Henry Robinson, postmaster at Concord, New Hamp- 
shire, is a versatile, enterprising and popnlar official. 

He was born at Concord; has been repeatedly elected 
to the local legislatnre, including a term in the state sen- 
ate; has been president of the Commercial club; was 
formerly postmaster for four years, and mayor for two, 
and is thoroughly identified with the history and develop- 
ment of the community. 

His father, the late Nahum Robinson, was warden of 
the state-prison, first construction-agent of the post-office 
building at Concord, and an extensive contractor and 
builder, having connection with the erection of the 
greater number of the prominent buildings and business 
blocks of the city. His only son, Henry Robinson, mar- 
ried the only daughter of the late resident United States 
senator Edward H. Rollins. 

With the exception of five years, when Mr. Robinson 
was pursuing his studies elsewhere under private tutors 
and at law school, he has continued his residence in Con- 
cord. He read law in the office of the late Judge Josiah 
Minot, Attorney-General Mason \Y. Tappan, and Hon. 
John Y. Mugridge. He was associated in the successful 
practice of his profession with Col. Frank H. Pierce, 
nephew of President Pierce, and afterward with the late 
Mayor Edgar H. ^^'oodman. 

He early developed a taste for politics. In 1879, 
although one of the youngest members of the state legis- 



lature, he won a reputation which made him a prominent 
candidate for the speakership at the next session, but 
preferred an active part on the floor, and his services as 
secretary of the judiciary committee and as chairman of 
the railroad committee of the house, during a memorable 
session, and subsequently as chairman of the judiciary 
committee of the senate, and as a member of the finance 
committee of that body, gave him a wide celebrity as a 
legislative leader and forceful and eloquent debater. 

Mr. Robinson, in 1890, was appointed postmaster at 
Concord, by President Harrison, upon the petition of 
nearly all the business-houses and the people of the city. 
The superior postal service which he gave to the Capital 
city found not only a full appreciation at home, but won 
for him a commendable reputation elsewhere. The at- 
tention of the devotees generally of the mail service was 
attracted to him by his contributions to metropolitan 
journals and postal publications, and his painstaking dil- 
igence in the post-office and knowledge of postal affairs 
were recognized, not only by New Hampshire people, but 
by the postmaster-general and others in authority at 
Washington, so much so that at the opening of the Mc- 
Kinley administration Mr. Robinson was given a high 
recommendation and a very considerable support for a 
position as an assistant postmaster-general of the United 

His first term as postmaster extended under President 
Cleveland's administration until June 16, 1894, and im- 
mediately after his retirement he was enthusiastically 
nominated and elected mayor of Concord, a position which 
he occupied with great ability and success for two years. 
During his administration as chief executive of the city, 
decided changes were made in the interests of business 
management and municipal betterment. Various abuses 
were unearthed, and a system of accounting of lasting 
value inaugurated. The city debt was reduced, wrong- 



doing punished, and safe-guards erected, and his admin- 
istration is pronounced by citizens, irrespective of party 
Hnes, to have been especially commendable. 

Although the law has been Mr. Robinson's profession, 
he has nevertheless devoted himself much to journalism 
and literary work. During political campaigns he has 
been a v,oluminous contributor to the newspaper press 
and has been a valued correspondent of the New York 
Tribune, Boston Globe, Springfield Republican, and other 
leading journals, also contributing to the local press of 
the state a vast deal of readable matter of a biographical 
and miscellaneous character, which has given him high 
standing as a New Hampshire newspaper man. His nom 
de plume of " Jean Paul " is known throughout New 
England, and elsewhere, as that of a vigorous, fearless, 
original thinker and writer, not only in politics, but in 
the general field of literature, for which he has a marked 
taste and adaptation. He has had to do, in a managerial 
way, with many exciting political campaigns, and he in- 
variably brings to his endeavors the generous enthusiasm 
that has characterized his whole life. He is a wide 
reader, with classic and refined tastes, and an accom- 
plished critic. 

As a personal and political achievement, his candidacy 
for reappointment to the postmastership, in 1898, was one 
of the most noted in the history of our local politics, for 
in the pre-arranged allotment of state patronage he was 
not included by the powers then dominant in New Hamp- 
shire. He is one of the pioneers in the establishment of 
rural free-delivery, his office, inclusive of stations, having 
at present the largest free-delivery — city and rural — 
plant in the United States. He is the president of the 
New England Postmasters' association, a member of the 
Wonolancet club of Concord, of the Odd Fellows fra- 
ternity, and various other organizations. 

Mr. Robinson is a highly gifted man, turning his 



endeavors easily into various channels with uniform suc- 
cess. Suave, graceful and eloquent, he has frequently 
been heard from the platform as a lecturer and political 
orator, always acquitting himself with credit. A polished 
man of the world, a skilful raconteur, he is one of the 
most companionable of friends. 




A splendid example of that type of men who in the 
past and the present have carried forward the work of 
derveloping and maintaining the affairs and purposes of 
New Hampshire's material life, and thereby made the 
state the grand commonwealth she has become, is 
Horatio K. Libbey. In him is seen, in highest per- 
fection, that trait so characteristic of the generations of 
New Hampshire men which enables one to devise, to 
execute and to administer. 

His is a genuine New Hampshire ancestry and birth, 
for he descended from that John Libbey who settled in 
Portsmouth early in its history. His father, Ezra Bart- 
lett Libbey, settled in Warren in the White Mountain 
region, and there the son, Horatio K., was born on Oc- 
tober 24. 1 85 1. His mother, Eva Kilburn (Sinclair), 
was a native of Chester, Vermont. It was as a widow 
that she married Ezra Bartlett Libbey, her first husband 
having been Calvin W. Cummings. She is yet (1903) 
living with her son, Calvin W. Cummings, in Plymouth 
at the \'enerable age of ninety-two and is remarkably 
well preserved and active. 

In his boyhood life the subject of this sketch went to 
Manchester, in which city he attended the public schools, 
and from the first was an apt pupil and early displayed 
an ability and courage to accept responsibility. In his 
earlier manhood years he was employed upon the mag- 
nificent estate in Hartford, Connecticut, of Samuel Colt, 



the inventor of the revolver bearing- his name. Event- 
ually leaving Hartford he was for a time the manager 
of an estate in Orford. His success in these respective 
positions was so' marked as to attract the attention of 
others, and in 1891 he was offered the superintendency 
of the Hillsborough County Almshouse and farm located 
at Grasmere in Goffstown. This position he accepted 
on April ist of that year and still retains the same. He 
is in addition the master of the Hillsborough County 
House of Correction, which is managed in conjunction 
with the county home and farm for the dependent poor. 

These institutions considered singly or in combination 
are an extreme credit to the county and state, and their 
management reflects the utmost credit upon the admin- 
istrative abilities of Mr. Libbey. They are the largest 
of their kind in the state, and their arrangement and 
equipment are exceptionally efficient. 

Mr. Libbey in 1873 married Miss Rebecca J. Huckins, 
daughter of the late Thomas P. Huckins of Warren. 
She died May 27, 1903, leaving, beside her husband, two 
daughters, Bessie A., the wife of William W. Porritt 
of Goffstown, and Menta B. Mrs. Libbey was one who 
had greatly endeared herself to all whose privilege it was 
to make her acquaintance. She had those qualities of 
heart and mind that won the respect, love and confidence 
of all. whatever their station in life. The high order of 
the management at Grasmere, which has been the ad- 
miration of all since the administration of Mr. and Mrs. 
Libbey began, bespeak her faithful help to her husband 
in his exacting position. 

In fraternal organizations Mr. Libbey is a member of 
Bible lodge, F. and A. M., Goffstown, and of Martha 
Washington chapter, order of the Eastern Star. He is 
also a member of junior Grange, Patrons of Husbandry, 
Grasmere. In political life he is a Republican, and in his 
religious preference a Congregationalist. 




Prominent among the pioneers in the work of organ- 
izing women's ckibs in New Hampshire, and markedly 
successful in every aspect of that effort, has been Mrs. 
Lydia x\bigail Scott, who since 1872 has been a resident 
of the city of Manchester and a valued member of its 
social, intellectual, and religious circles. First of all she 
has been a worker, grandly exemplifying- in that respect 
the traditions of her New England birth and character. 
Her work has been of a nature that has advanced the 
welfare of others, and made stronger, better and happier 
the community in Avhich she has moved. Though her 
special lines of w^ork have been of a public, or at least 
of a semi-public nature, it is a duty, and her right to 
have said of her, that in all this time she never neglected 
or made secondary the interests and demands of her home 
nor the obligations of an ideal womanhood and mother- 
hood. Indeed, the ends and purposes of her work were 
all calculated to elevate and make sweeter and dearer 
every home influence and action. 

Mrs. Scott's birthplace was in China, Maine, where 
she was born, February 4, 1841. Her parents were 
John L. and Lydia (Carlton) Gray. On the parternal 
side she is of a sturdy Scotch-Irish descent, a stock 
known the world oxev for integrity of purpose, inde- 
pendence of thought and acuteness of intellent. On the 
maternal side she descended from a fine old English 
line noted for its many distinguished members. The 



parents of Mrs. Scott, and their children, constituted a 
family that played an essential part in the general affairs 
of their home town. It was an interesting and old-time 
family of five daughters and two sons. One of the 
latter, John Carlton Gray, became a noted lawyer in 
California and for a long time was a justice of the supe- 
rior court of that state. The other son, Capt. Lemuel 
Carlton Gray, died in 1880. 

In her girlhood years it became the custom of Mrs. 
Scott to read aloud to her parents from the Augusta Age 
and other papers of those years, and doubtless this prac- 
tice quickened her thought, suggested ideas, and devel- 
oped her mentality, for where can be found a greater 
educational help for the young than the reading aloud 
from some sound and stable newspaper or like publica- 
tions. So apt was Mrs. Scott as a school girl, and so 
thoroughly practical were her educational acquisitions 
that at the early age of fifteen years she was given a 
teacher's certificate, which bit of writing she still retains 
as a most precious belonging. Those years in which she 
passed from girlhood into her young womanhood were 
years also in which the public mind was actively engaged 
in the study of many a momentous question and the 
medium of this study was the newspaper. With one 
whose mental life was so alert, active and inquiring as 
that of Mrs. Scott, it was but natural that she should be 
keenly interested in everything that pertained to news- 
paper life and creation. It was just as natural that she 
should drift into newspaper work, and this she did, be- 
ginning a career that was long continued, able and fruitful 
of results for the good of the great community that she 
reached. Her first published writings appeared in the 
Kennebunk Journal, then under the management of 
James G. Blaine. As a newspaper worker she wrote for 
various publications and upon a variety of topics, but 



mainly upon those designed for the furtherance of home 
and household matters, to character building, and social 
and intellectual advancement. 

In Augusta, Maine, on October 24, 1859, she united in 
marriage with Albert M. Scott, and lived in Maine's 
capital city, where her husband was an overseer in a 
cotton mill, until the close of the war between the states. 
It was in Augusta that their only child, Hattie Isabelle, 
was born in 1862. In 1863 Mr. Scott enlisted in the 
Second Maine Regiment of cavalry. While he was fight- 
ing' at the front, ]Mrs. Scott, with her true womanlv cour- 
age, faced those dreary days of loneliness with a daring 
and hope that safely carried her to the day of the glad 
homecoming of her husband. During the years of her 
husband's enlistment she resumed school teaching, an ex- 
perience that tended all the more to develop her innate 
characteristics of self reliance, fertility of resource and 
persistency of purpose. 

Upon Mr. Scott's return from the war the family re- 
moved to \Miitinsville, Massachusetts. In 1872 a re- 
moval was made to Manchester, the city that has since 
been their home. 

Not long after her settlement in Manchester she be- 
came identified wih the local Shakespeare club, an 
organization destined to attain a truly national fame, and 
the president of which she was destined to be for many 
years. It was in ^Manchester that she early found a fine 
opportunity to continue her literary work, which she did 
in a manner that won for her the unhesitating acceptance 
of her employers and the flattering approval of the read- 
ing- world. In 1880 she became the editor of the fireside 
department of the Alanchester Union and continued as 
such for five years, in which time she became extensively 
known throughout the state. At the outset of the organ- 
ization of the Women's Relief Corps she became an active 



participant in its affairs and destinies. She was a 
charter member of Louis Bell corps of Manchester. For 
two years she was a member of the council, department 
of New Hampshire, and twice was delegate at large to 
the National convention of the order. In 1885 she was 
appointed by the national president, Mrs. Sarah E. Ful- 
ler, chief of staff and as such was the first woman to 
hold that office. 

Continuing her interest in Manchester women's clubs 
it was Mrs. Scott who projected the federation of the 
local organizations and the suggestion l)ecame a vital 
and vitalizing fact. 

In 1882 her only daughter united in marriage with 
Edward Lyon Swazey, a successful ranchman and cattle 
dealer in Wyoming and later a resident of Kansas City. 
Mrs. Scott has travelled extensively throughout the 
length and breadth of the country, becoming thereby 
acquainted with the varying conditions of the different 
sections of the national domain. In these maturer years 
of her life she continues to be the same useful and helpful 
member of society as ever, and her interest in general 
affairs is as keen as in her girlhood years. 




One of the younger and most successful of New 
Hampshire's many physicians is John H. Neal, M. D., 
of Rochester, the son of John and Sarali J. (Lord) 
Neal, who- was lx)rn jNIarch 20, 1862, in Parsonsfield, Me. 
Dr. Neal received his education in the public schools of 
his native town and at the academy at North Parsons- 
field. Following his graduation from that institution he 
was for five years a teacher in the public schools of Maine 
and New Hampshire, at the same time being entered as a 
medical student in the office of J. jM. Leavitt, M. D., of 
Effingham. He began his professional school work at 
the Bowdoin Medical school, Brunswick, Me., where he 
took one course of lectures and received his degree in 
June, 1886, at the Long Island Cottage hospital, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Dr. Neal immediately entered upon the practice of his 
profession in Sanford, Me., where he remained for nine 
years, at the end of which time he removed to Rochester, 
New Hampshire, where he has established himself in a 
lucrative and extensive practice. During his residence in 
Sanford, Dr. Neal took an active interest in public affairs, 
and for five years was president of the Sanford board of 
health. He was the first president of the Sanford build- 
ing and loan association, which was chartered in 1890, 
holding that office until his removal from the town and 

In Rochester, Dr. Neal has been equally interested in 



affairs pertaining to the public good, and is at the present 
time a director of the Rochester board of trade. 

In poHtics Dr. Neal has also been active, and in Nov- 
ember, 1902, he was elected by the Republicans of his 
district toi re])resent them in the state senate of 1903. In 
1897, he was appointed a member of the United States 
board of pension examining surgeons, which position he 
still holds. He is a memlier of the American Medical 
society, of the medical associations of Maine and New 
Hampshire, of the Maine academy of medicine and 
science, oi the Strafiford county medical society. Of the 
latter organization Dr. Neal is now president. 

He is Medical Referee for Strafiford county, being the 
first appointed in the county as a result of the law of 
1903 abolishing the office of Coroner and establishing 
that of Medical Referee instead. 

For seven years he was secretary of the Rochester 
board of health and overseer of poor for seven years, 
from which position he resigned in July, 1903. 

Dr. Neal is a member of Preble lodge of Masons in 
Sanford, and is charter member of White Rose chapter, 
Royal Arch Masons in Sanford, and a charter member of 
Palestine commandery. Knights Templar. Rochester. Of 
this commandery Dr. Neal was the first secretary. 

He married Nov. 28, 1888, Miss Lulu Edna Clark, 
daughter of Daniel G. and Frances J. (Chase) Clark, of 
Sanford. and has one child, a son, Cecil M. Neal, born 
Oct. 25, 1890. 




Captain David Wadsworth of Manchester was born in 
Worcester, Mass., February 4, 1838, the son of David and 
Caroline E. (Metcalf) Wadsworth. He was educated 
at Cambridgeboro and Richford, Vt., and Nashua. On 
the breaking- out of the Civil War he enlisted with the 
Third New Hampshire volunteers from Nashua, entering 
the service as a private and being promoted to sergeant, 
second lieutenant, first lieutenant and captain. He served 
in Sherman's expedition through the South and in the 
Army of the James, taking part in fifteen battles. He 
was wounded at Drury's Bluff and received an honorable 
discharge September 28, 1864. 

The captain's wonderful memory vividly recalls the 
important events of the war and this is augmented by a 
concise record book of his company, kept by its clerk, and 
now held by the captain. He has assisted many a worthy 
comrade to identify himself with the service and obtain 
justice by this same record. One of Captain Wads- 
worth's favorite anecdotes of the war is as follows : 

At Morris Island, after we had laid siege to Fort Wag- 
ner for three weeks, we twice advanced on the enemy and 
were repulsed. One night Captain Randlett, now of the 
regular army, aroused the Third New Hampshire from 
their slumbers and informed them of the important part 
they were to play in the destruction of the fort. They 
were to lay in the trenches all night and in the morning, 
when the signal was given, they were to leap over their 



works and spike the guns on Fort Wagner while the rest 
O'f the troops came forward to take the fort. This Httle 
regiment of less than lOO men was thus truly a forlorn 

In the morning it was discovered that the enemy had 
deserted the fort. Before leaving they had set fire to the 
fuse of the magazine, but the prompt action of the New 
Hampshire men frustrated the plot. They got there just 
in time to cut the fuse and thus effect the capture of the 
fort without loss of life. 

Captain Wadsworth is a locksmith by trade, and pre- 
vious tO' 1877 was employed by the Nashua Lock Com- 
pany. In that year he was appointed jailer for Hillsbor- 
ough county and took charge of the new jail built by the 
county at Manchester. There he has ever since remained, 
conducting a model penal institution, a credit tO' the coun- 
ty and to himself 

A Republican in politics, Capt. Wadsworth was a 
member of the state legislature from Nashua during the 
sessions of 1875-76, and was chairman of the Committee 
on Military Accounts, Representative from ward 6, ]\Ian- 
chester. state legislature, sessions of 1893-94, being 
chairman of the Committee on County Affairs. He 
attends the Baptist church and is a member of John G. 
Foster post, G. A. R. 

January 5, i860, he married Sarah A., daughter of 
Laban Moore of Nashua. She died June 10, 1866. 
January 18, 1873, he married Mrs. Mary E. Buel, daugh- 
ter of Benjamin Lund of Milford. They have one daugh- 
ter, who is Mrs. Carl Anderson of Manchester. Captain 
Wadsworth is a man of wide acquaintance and great 
popularity, secured and held by his genial disposition and 
strict integrity. 





A career that is replete with vakied lessons to the 
young, with interest to the general reader, and one the 
story of which adds an honored page to the history of 
New Hampshire, is that of Edson Hill, whose busy and 
eventful life came to a close in 1888. 

Mr. Hill was born in the town of Northwood, Sep- 
tember 13, 1807, being the eighth child of Samuel and 
Judith Hill. They were of the staunch old New England 
stock who believed in right and fought for it, and who 
imbued their descendants with the force of character that 
made them leaders in enterprises which command the 
attention of men. The grandfather of Edson Hill was 
a soldier of the American Revolution. At the beginning 
of that conflict for the independence of the American 
colonies he repaired to Fort Constitution at Portsmouth, 
with musket in hand in defence of home, state and coun- 

Young Hill received the advantages of a common 
school educatioji and then went to live with Judge Har- 
vey, who had conceived a great liking for the young 
man, and who was willing to give him the benefit of his 
powerful influence. Judge Harvey was one of the 
prominent men, not only of his own community, but 
of the state. The prestige of such a man went far 
towards establishing the young man's position in life, 
and hence it is not strange to find him elevated as soon as 
he reached his majority to positions of influence and 



responsibility in his native town. During his residence 
in Northwood he was elected town clerk, moderator, and 
town agent. In 1836 and 1837 he served as selectman, 
and in 1839 and 1840 represented the town in the Legis- 
lature. In addition to holding these positions of trust 
and importance he was nominated and confirmed as post- 
master, filling the office very satisfactorily during a term 
of years. In 1840 Mr. Hill removed to Newmarket, and 
was soon after elected treasurer of Rockingham County, 
holding the office for two years, 1841 and 1842. In 
1843 1^^ went to Manchester and at once engaged in the 
grocery business with J. Monroe Berry, their store 
having been located in the Tewksbury Block, the upper 
stories of which were then occupied by St. Paul's Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church. Under the firm name of Hill 
& Berry this business continued until 1850, when Mr. 
Hill removed to Concord and the firm was dissolved. 
During this time his fellow citizens had taken the occa- 
sion to honor him with an election to the state Legislat- 
ure, serving during the sessions of 1849 ^.nd 1850. 
Previously to this in 1847 he had acted as engrossing 
clerk of that body. 

The Amoskeag bank w^as incorporated by the state 
June 24, 1848, and began business in October with a 
capitalization of $100,000. At the first meeting, Octo- 
ber 2, Mr. Hill was elected one of the directors, his 
associates being Richard H. Ayer, Samuel D. Berry, 
Mace Moulton, Stephen B. Green, John S. Kidder and 
Stephen Tvlanahan. When this bank was merged into 
the Amoskeag National Bank, 1864, he was elected 
director in the new institution, a position he held to the 
day of his death. This fact is an excellent criterion of 
the financial standing and integrity of Mr. Hill. 

After Mr. Hill's removal to Concord he was chosen 
state treasurer, an office he held during the years 1850, 



185 1 and 1852. In 1853 the State Capital bank was 
organized and Mr. Hill was selected as its first cashier, 
a position he filled with eminent satisfaction to 
the officials for many years following. During his resi- 
dence at Concord he served in the board of aldermen 
and as a councillor, but his connection with the bank pre- 
cluded the active connection with political life which 
he had previously maintained. 

In 1867 he returned to Manchester and bought the 
house on the corner of Walnut and Concord streets, in 
which he ever after lived and where he died. Here 
he passed his declining years in the enjoyment of a mu- 
nificence that careful business management, shrewd finan- 
cial foresight and years of industry and strictest integrity 
had enabled him to accumulate. Three years after the 
removal to Manchester he was returned to the State 
Legislature from his ward, and in 1876 he was one of 
the electors on Tilden and Hendricks' ticket from the 
state. This was the last political position of prominence 
for which Mr. Hill was nominated. His business inter- 
ests monopolized his attention from this time on. 
Among other positions of trust which he held during his 
second residence in the city of Manchester may be named 
that of director in the Concord railroad, director in the 
Amoskeag bank, trustee in the Amoskeag and People's 
Savings banks. During his lifetime he was associated 
with the late Austin Corbin, the eminent banker and 
prominent also in his day as president of the great Read- 
ing railroad system. Another well-known public man 
with whom he maintained a lifelong acquaintance and 
intimacy was the late General Benjamin F. Butler, who 
was a native of Deerfield. During those years when Mr. 
Hill held the office of town agent in Northwood, Gen- 
eral Butler filled the same position in his native town, 
and in a controversy which arose over the disposition of 



certain dependent poor in which both towns were inter- 
ested, Mr. Hill came off victorious. General Butler 
always remembered the incident and frequently alluded 
to it. 

For many years Mr. Hill was a member of the First 
Baptist church of Manchester and for some time was 
president of the society. In 1832 he married Olive Jane, 
daughter of Nathaniel Durgin of Northwood. She sur- 
vived him but a few months, dying in 1888, leaving two 
children, the late Charles H. Hill and Mrs. Flora Hill 
Barton of this city, who at this writing (1903) is the 
sole survivor of the family. After the close of the na- 
tional political campaign of 1876, Mr. Hill gradually 
withdrew from his old political scenes and associations, 
in which he for so many years had held an honored and 
prominent place. During the later years of life it was 
his custom to pass his winters in the South, living during 
the summers at some of the numerous Northern seaside 
resorts. He met his end calmly and peacefully, as was 
to have been expected of such a mind. Throughout his 
manhood life, Mr. Hill was a strong, influential and sturdy 
adherent of the Democratic party and those principles 
which were so grandly typified in the life and character 
of Andrew Jackson. His long, busy and useful life will 
be a treasured memory of those whose good fortune it 
was to be included among his acquaintances. 




Nathaniel White, the subject of this sketch, typified in 
his long, useful and sincere life that manhood character 
that was the chiefest glory of New England throughout 
the nineteenth century. Born in the town of Lancaster 
on February 7, 181 1, he was the eldest son of Samuel 
and Sarah (Freeman) White. His childhood was 
passed under a mother's tender care, and to her strict 
religious training was he primarily indebted for that 
nobility of character wjliich the temptations of youth 
and young manhood could not taint nor lure away. His 
school-day life was passed in the gleaning of such knowl- 
edge as the schools of his native town afforded, in those 
earlier years of the nineteenth century. At the age of 
fourteen years he left his native Lancaster to enter the 
employ of a merchant in Lunenburg, Vermont, with 
whom he remained about one year, when he accepted an 
offer to enter the employ of General John Wilson of 
Lancaster, at that time just entered upon his career as 
landlord of the Columbian Hotel of Concord. In the 
employ of Mr. Wilson he began his Concord life at the 
first rung of the ladder, as it were, for he arrived in the 
capital city August 25, 1826, with but a single shilling 
in his pocket. For five years he continued at the Colonial 
Hotel, and in these remaining five years of his teens it 
was his custom to render a strict account of his wages 
to his parents, but the dimes and quarters given to him 
as favors by the hotel guests he saved as his own, and 



these savings had amounted to $250 upon the day of 
his majority. The young man exempHfied those virtues 
of prudence, economy and temperance, and he entered 
manhood well equipped for that career in which he so 
distinguished himself. He never used intoxicating 
drinks as a beverage, nor tobacco in any form, nor did he 
gamble in any of the ways prevalent at the time. Busi- 
ness was his pleasure, and to his business he carried en- 
terprise, energy and determination. In 1832 he made 
his first business venture by purchasing a part interest in 
the stage route between Concord and Hanover, and dur- 
ing a part of this business venture he drove his own 
coach. This first business venture was a significant suc- 
cess, and soon after he bought an interest in the stage 
route between Concord and Lowell. In 1838 he joined 
with Captain William Walker and together they began the 
express business now grown to such large proportions in 
New England. At the beginning of this enterprise it 
was his custom to make three trips weekly to Boston, 
where he personally attended to the delivery of packages 
of goods and money or the transacting of other business 
intrusted to him. In 1842, the year of the opening of 
the Concord railroad, he became one of the original or- 
ganizers of the express company which was then estab- 
lished to deliver goods throughout New Hampshire and 
Canada. That company under various names has con- 
tinued in successful operation to the present day, and to 
Nathaniel White's business capacity has it been greatly 
indebted for its remarkable success. In 1846 Mr. White 
purchased a farm in the southwestern portion of the city 
of Concord and distance some two miles from the State 
House. All told, this farm included something like 400 
acres of land. 

For Concord he ever had a strong attachment. To 
his energy, skill and business discernment does the city 



owe much of her material prosperity and corporate de- 
velopment. In 1852, he took his first step in practical 
political life by accepting a nomination of the Whig and 
Free Soilers to represent his adopted city in the state 
Legislature. From the start he was an abolitionist and 
a member of the Anti-Slavery society from its inception. 
His home became the refuge of many an escaping slave, 
where welcome care, food and money were freely be- 
stowed and the refugees helped along on another stage 
of their journey to the land of freedom. In all works of 
charity and philanthropy, Mr. White was foremost and 
earnest. He was deeply interested and prominently 
identified with the New Hampshire Asylum for the In- 
sane and State Reform School; in the Orphans' Home 
in Franklin, which he liberally endowed, and the Home 
for the Aged at Concord was his special care. Besides 
his extensive interest in the express company, his farm, 
which had become one of the most highly cultivated in 
the state, his charming summer home on the borders of 
Lake Sunapee, and his real estate in Concord, he became 
extensively interested in Chicago realty; in hotel prop- 
erty in the mountain district; in banks, manufacturing 
and in shipping. He was director in the Manchester 
and Lawrence, Franconia and Profile House, and the 
Mt. Washington railways, and in the National State Cap- 
ital bank; a trustee of the Loan and Trust Savings bank, 
also of the Reform School, Home for the Aged and other 
private and public trusts. In 1875 he was the candidate 
for Governor of New Hampshire of the Prohibition 
party. In 1876 he was a delegate of the Cincin- 
nati convention which nominated Hayes for President 
and cast every ballot for the man of his choice. In the 
Garfield and Arthur campaign in 1880 his name was 
placed at the head of the list of the New Hampshire 
presidential electors. 



November i, 1836, Mr. White married Armenia S., 
daughter of John Aldrich of Boscawen. This marriage 
proved most happy. Of Mr. White it has been said: 
"His history is not complete without a narration of the 
perfect union, complete confidence and mutual trust and 
assistance between he and his wife during a married life 
of nearly half a century." Mrs. White in this year of 
1903 is still living, the subject of love and veneration by 
a wide circle of acquaintances and by the entire popula- 
tion of the city of Concord. Mr. White died October 2, 
1880, having practically completed the Psalmist's al- 
lotted span of life. The Concord Daily Monitor under 
date of October 2, 1880, in commenting upon the death of 
Mr. White, said : "In the death of Nathaniel White this 
community sustains an irreparable loss. Large hearted, 
humane, liberal and progressive, he gave to every good 
work, local and state, iiis assistance and unstinted sup- 
port. Devoted to the welfare of Concord he employed 
his wealth for the enhancement of its prosperity. His 
public spirit extended throughout the state and the de- 
velopment of its resources. A good man has gone to 
his reward and it can be truly said that the world is 
better for the part he bore in it." 




Conspicuous among the residents of New Hampshire 
who are of French-Canadian birth or descent is Joseph 
P. Chatel of Manchester, He was born in the town of 
Stuckley, Province of Quebec, January 14, 1854, the son 
of Prosper and Leibaire Chatel. When the son was 
eight years old the family removed to Biddeford, Maine. 
In 1868 the son went, alone of the family, to Manchester 
and obtained employment in the Manchester mills, and 
remained at this work for six months, subsequently 
returning to Biddeford, and living there until 1870. His 
father having died in the meantime the family decided 
to locate permanently in Manchester, which city since 
that year, 1870, has been its home. 

Young Chatel upon his second arrival in Manchester 
re-entered one of the city's mills, remaining therein for 
some two years. Alert to the opportunities of life in 
Manchester and ambitious tO' better his circumstances, he 
left the factory and served an apprenticeship to the 
barber's trade, and shortly after its close established a 
business of his own and conducted the same for some 
eighteen years with a never varying success. 

Having accumulated a handsome property Mr. Chatel 
gave up his original business and uniting with a friend 
embarked in the grocery business, also in Manchester. 
After a while financial disaster overtook this venture, 
ending in its complete windup. On his retirement from 
the grocery business he found himself encumbered with 



an^mdebtedness, which with its interest accumulation 
eventually amounted to some $3,400. He went to work 
as a travelling salesman for a Boston house and con- 
tinued as such for twoi years. Not the least discouraged 
by his ill-fated venture in the grocery trade, he lost no 
opportunity to enlarge his business acquaintanceship and 
to gain friends. At the close of his twO' years as a 
salesman he again started in business for himself, open- 
ing a wine store on Manchester street in 1894. This 
business has proved from its inception a decided success. 
In the years since its inception Mr. Chatel has paid 
every dollar with interest simple and compound, incurred 
while operating his grocery store. His trade relations 
reach into all parts of New Hampshire and each year 
has brought an increased list of patrons. Possessing 
to a marked degree business qualifications that keep him 
abreast of the times he is found aiding at all times 
enterprises designed tO' augment the business and mate- 
rial well-being of the city, and for these and other good 
qualities he is esteemed by all. 

In 1898 Mr. Chatel was put forward as the Demo- 
cratic candidate for senator in the Eighteenth District, 
was elected by a majority of 344 over a strong opposi- 
tion candidate, and in January, 1899, took his seat in the 
Senate Chamber at Concord, being the first citizen of 
French Canadian birth tO' hold the position of senator in 
New Hampshire, and, it is believed, in the United States. 
While Mr. Chatel has always taken a deep interest in 
the welfare of the great body of his countrymen, who, 
like himself, have become American citizens, he has, 
in the larger and broader view, been actively interested 
in all that concerned the progress and prosperity of his 
city and state. In all his private and social relations, 
he is genial, generous and a firm friend. Business 
success has in no way changed him in his attitude toward 



others, and in return he enjoys a well-earned popularity 
such as is rarely attained in any condition in life. 

Mr. Chatel is a member of the Foresters and at this 
present writing (1903) is the president of the St. John 
Baptist society of Manchester. 

He was married in 1873 to Miss Hedwige Brien oi; 
Manchester. They have four living children, two sons 
and two daughters. The eldest son, Alfred V., is a 
graduate of a Montreal commercial college, wiiile the 
second son, Louis A., is a Junior in St. Anselm college, 
Manchester. The elder daughter, Edwige, is a graduate 
of Jesus and Mary convent, Manchester, while the 
second daughter, Anna Josephine, is a pupil in Notre 
Dame academy. 



Georg-e M. Clough was born in Warner, N. H., 
May 28, 1863. His parents were Julia A. (Edmunds) 
and Joseph A. Clough. One of his ancestors on the 
paternal side served in the Revolutionary war and 
another in the War of 181-2. 

Having been born on a farm and his father devoting 
much time to carpentry, gave to the young man many 
advantages not afforded in the busy city life. He early 
became acquainted with the art of training steers, caring 
for sheep, holding the plow and mowing, as well as 
making friends with the circular saw and turning lathe. 
He attended the "district school" in his locality, when in 
session, and the "village school" in winter. Soon after 
entering the Simonds Free High school he became inter- 
ested in land surveying and pursued the study and prac- 
tised some years. His high school training was supple- 
mented by private instruction. 

When eighteen years old he began teaching school in 
his native town, continuing for two years. Webster 
next secured him for a term, and then he went to 
Canterbury, remaining two years. At this time he was 
offered several positions but selected the principalship 
of the Ujnion school in Tilton, N. H., where he remained 
for two years. 

Mr. Clough has always been interested in schools and 
is now president of the Simonds Free High School 
Association (incorporated), of Warner, N. H., the 




objects of which are to broaden the school's influence 
and aid in its development. He is president of the 
Somerville Sons & Daughters of New Hampshire, 
which has a large membership and is doing much to turn 
the attention of her native sons and daughters back to 
their early homes. He is a charter member of the New 
Hampshire Exchange Club, recently organized in 
Boston, Mass. 

In 1888 Mr. Clough decided to discontinue teaching 
and enter the field of life insurance. After months of 
careful study he became connected with the Boston office 
of The Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company, of 
Philadelphia, with which company he still remains. 

He married Anna G. Gale, of Canterbury, N. H., 
who passed away in February, 1903, being survived by 
three children, Gertrude G., Portia E. and Maurice. 



The pages of New Hampshire history contain nothing 
of deeper interest, neither records more brilHantly il- 
lumined than those which narrate the part which the 
women have taken in the upbuilding of the state, from 
the first to the present year of its political existence. To 
make society and the state stronger and more progressive 
by means of a more highly developed humanity has ever 
been the especial field of effort in which these women, the 
devoted, loyal. God-fearing ''Ruths" of New Hampshire, 
have gleaned and toiled for the common store. 

Intellectual power and attainment, with religion as its 
basis and source of supply, has been the self-chosen goal 
for which the women of the state in all the generations 
have striven. There is no form or phase of intellectual 
activity in which they have not engaged, and that with 
signal success. 

In Mary F. Berry is found a genuinely representative 
type of the New Hampshire woman, legion in number, 
who has made herself a power in formulating and ad- 
vancing the thought and progress of the community 
during the past twenty-five years. She has been a woman 
with a vocation and an avocation, and throughout has 
shown that she possessed a versatility of talent that en- 
abled her to win success in any undertaking she essayed. 
She has that individuality, originality, and personality 
that leads her to be herself and not the reflection of an- 
other or others. Her singleness of purpose has made 
her a woman of convictions and never has she failed to 
have the courage of those convictions. 

Mrs. Berry was born Mary F. Mitchell and her birth- 
place was Hooksett. Her parents were John H. and Mary 
G. (Jones) Mitchell. Her school-day life was passed in 




the common schools of her town and at Pembroke acad- 
emy. From her native Hooksett she went to Massa- 
chusetts, setthng finally in Stoneham. A chief event in 
her life while there was the entering upon a mercantile 
career in association with a woman friend. The two 
associates embarked in their enterprise without capital 
but with a credit of three thousand dollars with the firm's 
word alone as security. The enterprise prospered and it 
^vas not long ere all financial obligations were liqui- 

It was while engaged in operating her store that Mrs. 
Berry first heard that the attention of the world was 
called to a new interpretation of the Bible, and that the 
promulgation of this new idea, destined to speedily be- 
come a tremendous power, was by a woman, and she also 
a daughter of the Granite State. Her naturally inquiring 
and searching mentality and her innate power to grasp 
and fathom ideas led her to take into consideration the 
declarations and conclusions of the new teacher, the dis- 
coverer of the fact that "all causation is mind"; the 
founder of the church, Mrs. Mary Baker G. Eddy, holding 
this tenet as a great fundamental. There was that in 
the new interpretation and reading of the Scriptures that 
appealed to the heart and mind of Mrs. Berry, but she 
did not accept and espouse the teaching of Mrs. Eddy 
without most careful and conclusive investigation and 

Having become a believer in Christian Science mind- 
healing as formulated by Mrs. Eddy, she entered upon 
the work with all that zeal, love of purpose, and 
enthusiasm that have ever been characteristic of her. She 
became a pupil of Mrs. Eddy as early as 1882 and at the 
conclusion of the prescribed course of study she returned 
to her native New Hampshire with the determined pur- 
pose, and as the first pioneer, of planting the new religion 
in the land of her fathers. She settled in Manchester, and 
bravely, yet in a womanly manner, raised the banner of 



her faith and spiritual principles. This was in the fall 
of 1882, and from that year to the present her heart has 
never failed her nor her faith laxed an iota in its zeal 
and devotion. The religion she taught was one that in- 
cluded the healing of physical illness as well as the lifting 
up of the spiritual being. Success is the record of Mrs. 
Berry's twenty years' work in Manchester. The sole 
pioneer in the state at first, she soon gathered about her 
men and women of Manchester who accepted the new 
way of serving their Maker and mankind. Soon a read- 
ing-room was engaged only to be given up for a still 
larger one. Outside lecturers and teachers came at vary- 
ing periods to help the Manchester members and eventu- 
ally the decision to build a church was reached. In 1898, 
a lot for the proposed new church was bought for forty- 
five hundred dollars. In 1900 plans for the construction 
of the church edifice began to be considered, but it was 
not until 1901 that the actual work of construction be- 
gan. A charter for the first "Church of Christ, Sci- 
entist," in Nezif Hampshire, had been obtained in 1894 
with twenty-three charter members. The handsome edi- 
fice begun in 1901 was dedicated with appropriate ser- 
vices on Sunday, January 11, 1903. The dedication 
was made possible from the fact that the cost of 
building had been met to the uttermost cent. This re- 
markable result was greatly aided by a generous bequest 
from a departed sister. The total expense was about 
fourteen thousand dollars. The edifice is so built as to 
make an enlargement easily practicable to a seating 
capacity of eight hundred. 

At the dedicatory services Mrs. Berry read an inter- 
esting history of the work in Manchester, and she was 
likewise one of the board of trustees that supervised the 
erection of the church. 

Aside from her church affiliations Mrs. Berry is active 
and prominent in all that has to do with the advancement 
of the material interests of her home city. 




The history of New Hampshire in all its extended and 
varied range presents no single aspect that exceeds in 
general interest, that more entertainingly and forcibly 
illustrates the enduring influence of a strong and well 
mannered human life, or that presents in a clearer man- 
ner the grandeur of an idea having for its sole foundation 
the uplifting of the individual man, than does that page 
which tells of the coming in the eighteenth century, for 
the purpose of permanent abode, of the Scotch and the 
Scotch-Irish. The very nature of their spiritual homage 
made them patriots and ardent advocates of constitu- 
tional liberty. The conditions prevailing in the growth 
of a natural physical being and the wisdom of their view 
of what made the whole duty of life begat in them an 
intellectual being that was at once their glory and power. 
No community in all New England, however small or 
remote, but what felt the influence for good that was ever 
spreading out from this people. They were a race of 
teachers in all that concerned the domestic, intellectual, 
and spiritual progress of all the colonies. They were a 
race of housekeepers and home builders, t\vo essentials of 
infinitely vaster importance in the building of a nation 
than are all the forces of statecraft, finance, and politics. 

New Hampshire is fortunate tliis day in that she still 
retains a strong and ever vitalizing infusion of this old- 
time Scotch blood that has come down through the gen- 



erations to make stronger and better the material life of 
the state. The old family names are of still frequent 
occurrence and borne by men and women who splendidly 
maintain the ancient traditions as a precious heritage and 
hallowed trust. 

Conspicuous among these family names of early Scotch 
settlers in New Hampshire is that of Gault, the first of 
whom was Samuel, a native of Ayrshire, Scotland, the 
birthplace of Robert Bums and a host of others who 
gained honor and fame for work performed in life's 
varied fields of effort. 

It was near what is to-day the centre of the town of 
Hooksett that Samuel Gault built his home and began 
the work of winning a farm from the primeval forest. 
The wife of Samuel Gault was Elsie Carleton, a Welsh 
woman, and the passing of time has shown that this 
union of Scotch and Welsh blood was a strong and virile 
combination. After their marriage they journeyed to 
Londonderry, in Ireland, where were so many of their 
faith and blood. Early in their married life the couple 
resolved to seek their home in America, and the frontier 
settlement, now Hooksett, was selected as the place of 
habitation. A son of the couple, born in their new home, 
was named Matthew, and when he had grown to man- 
hood he joined the forces that successfully contended for 
the independence of the colonies. He was one of Stark's 
men at Bennington, was with Washington at Morris- 
town, and later did garrison duty at West Point on the 

This soldier of the American Revolution, Matthew 
Gault, married a daughter of Captain Andrew Bunton 
of Chester, and they also had a son whom they named 
Matthew. This second Matthew Gault, growing to man- 
hood, identified himself with the material interests of 
Hooksett, and, maintaining the spirit and tradition of 



his ancestry, he kept all that came under his sway in a 
state of advancement and progress. He was a pioneer 
in brick manufacturing, so long since a leading industry 
in Hooksett, and participated in the affairs of his town, 
county and state. 

A son of the second Matthew was named Norris C, 
who continued the brick-manufacturing interests so suc- 
cessfully established by his father. Norris C. Gault served 
his native Hooksett in the popular branch of the State 
Legislature as far back as 1867, and for a number of 
years was selectman of the town. He married Annie 
Mitchell, and a son born to them is the subject of this 
sketch, John Gault. He is the fifth of that line in 
America begun by Samuel Gault and his wife, Elsie 
Carleton, and, though still in his early manhood, he has 
proven that there is no deterioration of the original stock. 
The material life and interests of New Hampshire have 
been fostered and advanced by each successive generation 
of the family. Each generation has recognized that it 
had a work to do and it has displayed the ability to do 
it and do it well. Family ability and character rarely if 
ever degenerate under an acceptance of such conditions. 

Thus far (1903) the chosen life work of John Gault 
has been teaching. His first situation in this profession 
was in the Haven school of Portsmouth, where he re- 
mained from September, 1895, until December, 1896, 
when he accepted the principalship of the Webster-street - 
school in the city of Manchester, and in this position he 
is still serving. 

The science of pedagogy is so comprehensive in its 
scope that one sees differing and varied definitions of its 
meaning. At its best it means that faculty which one 
may possess of imparting knowledge to others. A per- 
son may be ever so erudite, yet, lacking in this faculty, he 
or she will fail utterly to make the ideal instructor. Mr. 



Gault happily possesses this faculty of imparting knowl- 
edge to others to a marked degree, and to its possession 
is due much of his distinct success and popularity as a 

He perceives the characteristics of each individual pupil 
and acts in the premises as suggested by this insight into 

Mr. Gault's natal day was February 28, 1872, and he 
was of the fourth generation of the family to have been 
born in Hooksett. His preparatory education was in 
Pembroke academy, graduating therefrom in 1890. He 
entered Dartmouth College with the class of '95 and im- 
mediately upon graduation began teaching. 

On August 27th, 1902, he married Sallie, daughter of 
William F. and Mary H. (Sargeant) Head of Hooksett. 
Mr. Gault is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and in fraternal organization has membership in 
the Knights of Pythias and the Masons. 




From the very beginning of its history as a distinct 
pohtical division of what is now the United States, 
New Hampshire has been singularly peculiar in the 
number of her sons who have chosen the law as a life 
calling, and this tendency to the legal profession is as 
pronounced to-day as ever, and there is no question but 
what the standard of ability and erudition is as high 
as ever. 

Included among the younger members of the New 
Hampshire bar is Daniel J. Daley of Manchester, who 
was admitted to practice in 1899. He was born in the 
town of Londonderry, August i, 1873, the son of 
John and Julia Daley, who were residents of London- 
derry for upwards of forty years, owning and tilling 
one of the best farms in the town. 

The boyhood life of young Daley was passed upon 
the parental farm and at the common schools of the 
town. At the age of sixteen he entered Pinkerton 
Academy, and the pecuniary means required for this 
course of study he earned by working at logging, 
chopping and general work upon the farm. While still 
in his teens and before the year of his majority gave 
him the right to vote, he participated in the political 
affairs of his town and neighborhood. At twenty-one 
his fellow townsmen conferred upon him the rare honor, 
for one of his age, of an election to the Londonderry 
Board of Selectmen, and this wholly without any self- 
seeking of the office. 



His first preparatory step for the bar was a course of 
study in the Nashua office of Charles J. Hamblett, United 
States District Attorney under Presidents McKinley 
and Roosevelt. He subsequently entered the Boston 
University Law School, but did not complete its full 
course of study. 

Returning to New Hampshire he eventually resumed 
his law studies in the office of James P. Tuttle of 
Manchester, former solicitor of Hillsborough County. 
It was early in 1899 that he passed his examinations 
for admission to the bar, and he at once located in 
Manchester, in which city he has since lived and 

His success as a lawyer was instant and marked. 
From the first he has been a general practitioner, and 
in each department of legal practice he has given evidence 
that he is well grounded in general law. 

He is thus early in his career retained by the Boston 
and Maine Railroad Corporation; the American Cotton 
Yarn Trust; the Manchester Traction, Light and. Power 
Company; the Kimball Carriage Company, and Cavan- 
augh Brothers, all clients that any lawyer of even long 
experience might feel well proud of possessing. 

Early in 1903 Mr. Daley became professionally asso- 
ciated with a case in criminal procedure, interest in which 
extended throughout New England. This was the case 
of Charles W. Sell, charged with assault with intent 
to kill. Sell shot and seriously wounded his former 
sweetheart, Miss Mabel French, and after firing two 
shots at her, both of which took effect, he next fired at 
her two companions, Clinton Bunker and Joseph Clough, 
slightly wounding both. The grand jury found two 
indictments against Sell, and conviction under these two 
indictments called for a maximum sentence of forty 



The finding of the indictments and the approaching 
trial awakened in the pubHc an intense interest, which 
deepened and spread as the day of the trial approached. 
People indulged in all manner of speculation as to the 
probable outcome of the trial. Practically all Agreed 
that there was no possible chance for Sell to escape from 
a sentence much short of ten years, and all anticipated 
a long-drawn-out contest, as it was given out that the 
prisoner's plea would be one of self defence. On the 
morning of the day set for the trial Mr. Daley conferred 
with Mr. Wason, who as the solicitor of Hillsborough 
County appeared for the state, with the result that it was 
agreed that Sell should plead nolo contendere, which 
agreement the Court accepted and Sell escaped with an 
indeterminate sentence of not less than three nor more 
than five years. 

Mr. Daley is popular and respected wherever known, 
for he has those qualities of heart and mind that people 
like to come into contact with. In fraternal organizations 
he is a member and past-master of Gen. Stark Grange 
Patrons of Husbandry, of Manchester Council Knights 
of Columbus and the New Hampshire Catholic Club, 

He married, in 1903, Miss Josephine C. Burke of 
Manchester, a graduate of Mt. St. Mary's Academy and 
widely known in Manchester's social and educational 



Though of neither New Hampshire birth nor New 
Hampshire residence, Wallace D. Lovell is well entitled 
to rank with the state builders of this commonwealth by 
reason of the strenuous eliect which he is putting forth 
to develop the wealth and resources of the community. 
Born at Weymouth, Mass., Feb. 3, 1854, and thoroughly 
trained as a business man in that state, Mr. Lovell clearly 
foresaw many years agO' the great future of New Hamp- 
shire as a summer resort when once its latent energies 
were fully developed and exploited. Accordingly, in the 
fall of 1897, he began the work of building street rail- 
ways in southern New Hampshire, extending them across 
the state line into northern Massachusetts. His first ven- 
tures in New Hampshire were in the southeastern portion 
oi the state, where he built and developed the Exeter 
street railway, the Portsmouth and Exeter street railway, 
the Exeter and Newmarket street railway, the Hampton 
and Amesbury street railway, the Seabrook and Hampton 
Beach street railway, the y\mesbury and Hampton street 
railway, the Haverhill, Plaistow and Newton street rail- 
way, the Haverhill and Plaistow street railway, the 
Haverhill and Southern New Hampshire street railway. 
These various railroads, now united into a single com- 
prehensive system, thoroughly gridiron the southeastern 
tier of towns" in Rockingham county, and afford easy and 
rapid intercommunication between the beautiful towns of 
that section and the entrancing line of seacoast which 
New Hampshire possesses. 




In connection with these enterprises Mr, LoveU has 
recently buih and opened with due ceremony a bridge 
over Hampton River more than a mile in length, which 
practically connects New Hampshire and Massachusetts 
on the shore line and a\ hich by opening up a large feed- 
ing territory for his railroads in Massachusetts has added 
materially to the prosperity of eastern Rockingham coun- 

Turning his attention from this field where he has been 
so successful, Mr. Lovell has also constructed and put 
into operation the Hudson, Pelham and Salem street rail- 
way, the Lawrence and Methuen street railway, the 
Lowell and Pelham street railway, and the Derry and 
Pelham street railway, giving communication between 
the flourishing cities in the Merrimack valley in this state 
and in Massachusetts. 

He has also built and now operates the Dover, Somers- 
worth and Rochester street railway, bringing those three 
active and hustling communities into close touch with 
each other, and he now has under contract the Concord, 
Dover and Rochester street railway which will be built 
during the coming season, and which will open up a sec- 
tion of territory in New Hampshire which is now abso- 
lutely without means of communication other than that 
afforded by the highways, but which in material pros- 
perity is amply able to support such a line as is contem- 

In connection with his railway enterprises in south- 
eastern New Hampshire Mr. Lovell has constructed at 
Portsmouth a magnificent electrical plant known as the 
Rockingham County light and power company. This 
plant supplies the electrical energy for the various lines 
of railway operated by Mr. Lovell and in addition is pre- 
pared to furnish light and power to cities or individuals, 
it being Mr. Lovell's firm belief that through the wide 
distribution of electrical power in small manufacturing 



establishments great prosperity to a community must 
necessarily ensue. 

Mr. Lovell is not content with the great work he has 
already done but contemplates even larger and more ex- 
tended enterprises in the same line, so thoroughly is he 
imbued with the belief that the extension and develop- 
ment of trolley lines will be of inestimable benefit to the 
state of New Hampshire by attracting and distributing 
over new sections of country thousands of summer visi- 
tors who do not now come here. 




It was but the following out of a well-sustained pre- 
dilection that Sherman E. Burroughs sought and entered 
the legal profession as the chosen field of his life work. 
To use an old-time, yet expressive phrase, he was a 
natural born lawyer; he loved the profession not for 
what he might wring from it, but rather for what it was 
and all that it represented. Through good judgment 
and wise decision he came to the bar well grounded in 
the law, not leaving, as is so frequently the case, a great 
mass of matter to be studied and learned after entering 
upon practice. His general education was likewise 
thorough and comprehensive, wholly free from that 
superficiality so regretfully common in the whole list 
of the trades and professions in present day American 
life. All this made the more effective his equipment for 
the bar and the general affairs of life, and that immedi- 
ate success which has been his in early manhood years 
was as but a natural result of a thorough preliminary 

Mr. Burroughs is a thorough-going son of New 
Hampshire, for not only was he born in the state but 
his ancestry on both sides for several generations had 
their birth and rearing within the state. The little town 
of Dunbarton, that has for so many years been famed 
for its generous contributions of conspicuous men and 
women to the every field of state and national life, was 
his birthplace, with 1870 as his natal year. 



His parents were John H. and Helen M. (Baker) 
Burroughs, and when the son was fourteen years of age 
the family removed to the town of Bow, in which place 
the parents live to this year (1903), The educational 
life of young Burroughs began in the common schools 
of Dunbarton, was continued in those of Bow and the 
High school in the city of Concord, graduating from the 
latter in 1890, in which year he entered the freshman 
class of Dartmouth college and completing the college 
course graduated in 1894. 

Immediately following the graduation he went to 
Washington to become private secretary to his kinsman, 
Henry M. Baker, then a congressman from New Hamp- 
shire. His work at the national capital served him, in 
effect, as it has many another young man destined for 
the bar and other professional fields, as a valued post 
graduate course. It was while in Washington also that 
he entered upon his legal studies as a student in Colum- 
bian University law school, from which he graduated in 
1897, but his admission to the bar of the District of 
Columbia was in 1896 and prior to his graduation from 
the law school. 

In the fall of 1897 he returned to New Hampshire, 
was admitted to the bar of the state, and at once opened 
a law office in the city of ]\Ianchester. From 1897 to 
1901 he continued practice alone, but in July of the latter 
year he became one of the firm of Taggart. Tuttle and 
Burroughs, a firm that has attained an extensive practice 
in corporation procedure as well as general practice. 

Until 1903 Mr. Burroughs retained his legal residence 
in the town of Bow, when he changed it to Manchester. 
In 1 90 1 he was sent by his fellow townsmen in Bow to 
represent them in the popular branch of the state legis- 
lature, in which body he served on the judiciary and 
rules committee. 



In 1898 Mr. Burroughs married Helen S. Phillips, a 
member of a former New York state family. Three 
sons, Robert Phillips, John Hamilton, and Sherman 
Edward, Jr., are a thrice blessed result of the union. 

In fraternal organizations Mr. Burroughs is a Mason, 
and in church affiliation he is an Episcopalian. 



Among the many New Hampshire boys in their teens 
who ralHed to the defence of the flag and country in the 
war from '6i to '65 was J. Homer Edgerley, and that his 
youth did not preclude him from a full realization of the 
magnitude and seriousness of that portentous conflict, is 
evidenced by the fact that he remained with his command 
till its final muster out at the close of the war. 

Nor is this all; this youth, as he was at the time of his 
enlistment, performed the duties of the private in the 
ranks with such measure of valor and efficiency that he 
won promotion, first as first sergeant of his company, next 
as second lieutenant, then to a captaincy, and upon his 
muster out it was as brevet-major. This last promotion 
was from a recommendation in a general order of the 
commanding general, prompted by a personal act of 
splendid heroism. 

After the war, Major Edgerley, accepting the example 
of many another New Hampshire man, went to Massa- 
chusetts, and from that time has made his home in Boston 
or its vicinity. During much of the time of his residence 
in Massachusetts, he has been in the civil service of the 
United States Government, and, in addition, has served 
his adopted state as a member of its legislature during the 
session of 1900. As a resident of the city of Charlestown 
prior to its annexation to Boston, he was a member of its 
common council. For several years he was master painter 




at the Charlestown Navy Yard. He is at present deputy 
serveyor of customs, port of Boston. 

Major Edgerley is a native of Dover. His father was 
Calvin O. Edgerley, a long time resident and respected 
citizen of that city. He enlisted at Dover under Ira A. 
Moody, and this squad eventually became Company K, 
Third New Hampshire. Early in 1862 he was made 
orderly sergeant (from private), and satisfactorily filled 
the position till June, 1863, when he was commissioned 
a second lieutenant. He was at Pocotaligo, South Caro- 
lina, October 22, 1862, and with his regiment at the 
taking of Morris Island, July 10, 1863, in the attack of 
the following morning, and in the siege work of those 
weary months, during which it seemed to each man that 
it was surely his turn next to be either killed or wounded. 
During a portion of this time, Lieutenant Edgerley 
served with the Boat Infantry Picket, an extremely haz- 
ardous duty, wholly by night, and as important as it was 
dangerous. Lieutenant Edgerley took active part in all 
the actions of the regiment, Drury's Bluff, May 13-16, 
1864; in the noted sortie of June 2, 1864; the recapture 
of the rifle-pits in front of the Bermuda Hundred lines; 
and in the Petersburg reconnoissance of June 9, 1864. 
June 16, 1864, when the enemy had vacated Butler's 
front, he was with the skirmishers, feeling the new ad- 
vance of the enemy, and behaved very gallantly. On the 
1 6th of August, 1864, the 7th of October, 1864, and the 
various actions of those autumn months, Lieutenant 
Edgerley was a participant. In December, 1864, he had 
a leave of absence and he was about that time promoted 
to captain. In January, 1865, he was one of the six 
ofiicers with the regiment in the successful assault of 
Fort Fisher, and with a mere handful of volunteer fol- 
lowers he ran to Mound Battery and hauled down and se- 
cured the flag, giving it to General Terry. 



He was sent to Point Lookout, Maryland, in charge 
of a steamer-load of the captured prisoners. In the ad- 
vance on Wilmington he again displayed great courage. 
On the nth of February, when he was in charge of the 
line (left wing), he captured a greater number of pris- 
oners than his own force. At Wilmington, after its cap- 
ture, he was assistant provost-marshal, the duties of 
which office required great skill, sagacity, and diplomacy. 
He was in charge of the flag of truce which arranged for 
the wholesale exchange of prisoners at North East Ferry. 
He returned home with the regiment at its final muster 
out in July, 1865. 




Of that great army of men of New Hampshire birth 
who have chosen the State of Massachusetts for their 
adoption and the field of Hfe's efforts and activity, few 
have gained greater distinction or more widespread pop'- 
ularity than George A. Marden, who in April, 1899, was 
appointed by President McKinley the assistant treasurer 
of the United States, at Boston, and reappointed for the 
second term by President Roosevelt. Since 1867 Mr. 
Marden has been a legal resident of Lowell, in which 
place he has been prominently identified with the news- 
paper press of Massachusetts, and it is in the news- 
paper field as well as in the realm of politics that he has 
become so prominently known throughout New England 
and, indeed, the entire country. 

Mr. Marden was born in the town of Mont Vernon, 
August 9, 1839, the son of Benjamin Franklin and 
Betsey (Buss) Marden. On the paternal side he is de- 
scended from Richard Marden who took the oath of 
fidelity in New Haven, 1646, and both lines of ancestry 
are prominently identified with the settlement and devel- 
opment of the colony and state of New Hampshire. 

Mr. Marden' s preparatory education was obtained at 
Appleton academy in Mont Vernon, now the McCollom 
institute, of whose trustees he is president. In this period 
he was also taught the shoemaker's trade by his father, 
who was both a tanner and a shoemaker, and he worked 
thereat after attaining the age of twelve, in intervals oc- 



curring- while he was fitting for cohege and subsequently 
during- college vacations. Having entered Dartmouth 
college in the fall of 1857, he graduated in July, 1861, 
being the eleventh member in rank in a class of fifty- 
eight members. In 1875 he was the commencement poet 
of the Phi Beta Kappa society, and in 1877 he delivered 
the commencement poem before the Dartmouth Associ- 
ated Alumni. Of each of these two societies he was the 
president for two years. Among his classmates in college 
was the Rev. William Jewett Tucker, now the president 
of the college. 

With his patriotism deeply stirred by the outbreak of 
the Rebellion, Mr. Marden enlisted as a private in Com- 
pany G, Second Regiment of Berdan's United States 
sharpshooters. In November, 1861, he was mustered into 
the United States serA-ice, receiving- a warrant as second 
sergeant. Transferred to the first regiment of sharp- 
shooters in 1862, he was, during the Peninsular cam- 
paign, under McClehan from Yorktown to Harrison's 
Landing. On July 10 of the same year he was made first 
lieutenant and regimental quartermaster, and subse- 
quently served in that capacity until January, 1863, when 
he was ordered on staff duty as acting assistant adjutant- 
general of the Third Brigade, Third Division, Third 
Corps. After serving in this position until the fall of 
1863, having been in the battles of Chancellorsville, Get- 
tysburg and Wapping Heights, he was ordered to Riker's 
Island, N. Y., on detached service. Soon after, at his 
own request, he was sent back to his regiment, with which 
he remained until it was mustered out in September, 1864. 

Having returned to New Hampshire, Mr. Marden en- 
tered the law office of Minot and Mugridge at Concord, 
N. H., where he engaged in the study of law and also 
wrote for the Concord Daily Monitor. In November, 
1865, he removed to Charleston, Kanawha County, 



West Virginia, and purchased a weekly paper, the Kana- 
wha Republican. This he edited until April, 1866, when 
he disposed of it and returned to New Hampshire. Then 
he worked for Adjutant-General Nat Head of New 
Hampshire, compiling and editing a history of each of 
the state's military organizations during the civil war. In 
the meantime, still pursuing journalism, he wrote for the 
Concord Monitor and was the Concord correspondent of 
the Boston Advertiser, having obtained this post in July, 
1866. He accepted, January, 1867, the position of as- 
sistant editor of the Boston Advertiser and discharged its 
duties until Sq^tember following. Then, conjointly with 
his classmate, Major E. T. Rowell, he purchased the 
Loivell Daily Courier and the Loiuell Weekly Journal, 
both of which he has since conducted. On September i, 
1892, the partnership of Messrs. Marden and Rowell, 
which lasted just twenty-five years, was suspended by a 
stock corporation styled the Lowell Courier Publishing 
Company, the two proprietors retaining their respective 
interests in the enterprise. Since January i, 1895, the 
Courier company has been united with the Citizen com- 
pany, under the name of the Courier-Citizen company, 
the Citizen having been made a one-cent morning paper, 
and Mr. Marden remaining in editorial charge of both 

Mr. Marden's first vote in a Presidential election was 
cast for Abraham Lincoln. Since 1867 there has been 
no election, state or national, when he did not serve his 
party on the stump. The most notable of these was the 
presidential campaign of 1896, when, in company with 
Major General O. O. Howard, Majcrr General Daniel E. 
Sickles, Gen. Russell A. Alger, Gen. Thos. J. Stewart, 
Corp. James Tanner, Major J. W. Burst, and Col. 
George H. Hopkins, he stumped the middle west on a 
platform car, travelling over 8,000 miles in fifteen states, 



addressing more than a million people. As a speaker 
he has also been in much request for Memorial Day and 
for jubilee anniversaries generally. In April, 1893, he 
delivered a memorable address at the reunion of the "Old 
Guard," held in New York on Forefathers' Day of 1889 
and 1892, the invitations to which he regards as the 
greatest honor of his life. July 4, 1891, he read the 
poem at the annual encampment of the Society of the 
Army of the Potomac at Buffalo. 

It was as a member of the state legislature that Mr. 
Marden first entered political life in Massachusetts, hav- 
ing secured election in 1873. He was first chosen clerk 
of the House in 1874, an event chiefly due to the friend- 
liness with which he had inspired his fellow members of 
the preceding year. He was regularly elected to that office 
afterward to 1883. Then he decided to seek election to 
the house again, with the purpose of becoming a candi- 
date for the speakership. Having obtained both desires, 
he was first elected speaker for 1883. He was again 
elected representative and the speaker for 1884. Al- 
though new to the gavel in 1883, when the session was 
the longest held before or since then, mainly owing to 
Governor Butler's frequent intervention in legislative 
affairs, he made an exceptionally creditable record in the 
chair. In 1885 he was a member of the state senate. 
After being defeated in his candidacy for the senate of 
the following year, he was appointed by Grovernor Ames 
a trustee of the agricultural college at Amherst. Begin- 
ning in 1888 he was annually elected Treasurer and Re- 
ceiver-General of the Commonwealth for five consecutive 
years, thereby exhausting the period for which the office 
can be constitutionally held by the same individual unin- 
terruptedly, and winning general commendation by his 
administration of the state's finances. In company with 
Hon. George S. Boutwell, ex-Secretary of the United 



States Treasury, he represented the Seventh Congres- 
sional district in the National Republican convention of 
1880, held in Chicago, where both ardently supported the 
nomination of General Grant, thereby earning their right 
to membership in the "Old Guard," and to their "306 
medals," which they have treasured to this day. 

Mr. Harden married^ December 10, 1867, Mary Por- 
ter Fiske, daughter of Deacon David Fiske of Nashua. 
They have two sons, Philip Sanford, born Jan, 12, 1874, 
graduated from Dartmouth, 1894, and Harvard Law 
School in 1898; and Robert Fiske, born June 14, 1876, 
graduated from Dartmouth, 1898. 



A strong and influential personality as respects char- 
acter and type of manhood in that contingent of New 
Hampshire men in Massachusetts, is Daniel Walton 
Gould, for many years a resident of the city of Chelsea 
in that state. But his influence as a citizen and active 
participant in general affairs is not confined to his home 
city but extends throughout the state. He is rich in the 
possession of a good name and the respect and affection 
of thousands of Bay State citizens who have come to 
know him in tlie passing years of a well-directed life. 

He belongs to that body in American citizenship who 
when boys, or in the first years of an ardent young man- 
hood, rallied to the defence of their country's flag and 
for which they sought no other reward than the con- 
sciousness of a duty well performed. The echo of the 
guns that were turned upon Fort Sumter -on that event- 
ful April day had scarcely died away before Daniel W. 
Gould was numbered among those who had volunteered 
in defence of the Union. In less than three months after 
leaving his peaceful abode in the shelter of the hills of his 
native New Hampshire he received his first baptism of 
shot and shell on that fatal field of the first Bull Run 
clash of arms. He went with McClellan to the Penin- 
sula, where in one of the first battles of that campaign, 
so disastrous to the LTnion arms, he received a wound 
that caused the amputation of his left arm. 

Returning to his home in New Hampshire he entered 
heartily into every duty of the true citizen. 




The story of Mr. Gould's life to these first years of the 
twentieth century told in brief is that he was born in the 
town of Peterborough, August lo, 1838, son of Gilman 
and Mersylvia Walton Gould. He is a descendant of 
Zacheus Gould who is supposed to have come to this 
country from England in 1638 and settled in Topsfield, 
Mass., in 1643. He was educated in the public schools 
of Peterborough and passed three years in the law office 
of R. B. Hatch. When the civil war broke out he enlisted 
under the call of President Lincoln for 75,000 men, on 
April 26, 1 86 1, at Peterborough, as a private, and on the 
fifth of June following he was mustered into the United 
States service at Portsmouth, N. H., for three years and 
assigned to company G, second Regiment, New Hamp- 
shire Volunteers. He served with his regiment in the 
first battle of Bull Run and the siege of Yorktown. In 
the battle of Williamsburg, Va., May, 1862, he was 
wounded in the leg in the morning but continued to 
fight in his company until late in the afternoon, when 
he was wounded in the left arm. The bullet still remains 
in the leg; the arm was amputated above the elbow. 
While his regiment was engaged and under a hot fire, 
Mr. Gould's rifle becoming deranged, he sat down and 
unscrewed the cap nipple, cleaned and replaced it and 
continued his fire upon the enemy. Upon his discharge 
from the service he returned to New Hampshire, where 
he remained until his appointment to a clerkship in the 
Treasury Department at Washington in 1874. From 
1868 to 1874 he was paymaster and clerk for the Union 
Manufacturing Company of Peterborough, N. H. In 
1868 he was also clerk of the town of Peterborough; 
and in 1872 and 1873 he represented his town in the 
New Hampshire legislature. He remained in Wash- 
ington about a year, and in 1876 was appointed inspector 
of the Boston Custom House. For some time after the 
war he continued his interests in military affairs, serving 



as lieutenant and subsequently captain of Company B, 
Second Regiment, New Hampshire National Guard. 
He is a charter member of Aaron F. Stevens Post, No. 
6, Grand Army of the Republic, has held most of its 
offices, and been a continuous member of the W. S. 
Hancock Command, Union Veterans Union, of Chelsea, 
was elected department commander of the department 
of Massachusetts for 1887- 1888, was judge advocate 
general of the National Command in 1889, and quar- 
termaster general in the Massachusetts Department. 
He is prominent also in the Masonic and Odd Fellows 
orders. He is a member of Altemont Lodge of Free 
Masons, member of the Peterborough Royal Arch Chap- 
ter, the Hugh de Payens commandery, Keene, N. H., 
and the Naphtali Council, Chelsea; and is a member 
and past noble grand of Peterborough Lodge, Odd 
Fellows, and past high priest of Union Encampment 
No. 6. In politics he is a Republican. He has resided 
in Chelsea since May, 1874. He is much interested in 
the Unitarian Society of Chelsea and is chairman of the 
standing committee of this society. 

In 1895 he was nominated by the Chelsea Republicans 
for alderman-at-large and received the popular vote of 
the city, he getting 2514 votes, or 124 more than any 
other successful candidate for alderman and 16 more 
than the candidate for mavor. 


^?^ ^ 



Charles E. Sleeper, the subject of this sketch, was born 
at Fremont, N. H., July 13th, 1852, being of the fifth 
generation to be bom on the same homestead. 

The ancestor of these successive proprietors came from 
England and settled upon the estate sometime in the 17th 
century, having a grant of three hundred and sixty acres 
from the King of England. 

After graduating from the Kingston academy v^ith 
high honors Mr. Sleeper followed mercantile life for sev- 
eral years, awaiting patiently the opening of the door to 
his great ambition, that of a hotel proprietor. 

The opportunity which paved the way to his chosen 
vocation came with an offer of a position at the Rocking- 
ham, Portsmouth, where he not only had a valuable 
experience, but proved to his employers as well as to 
himself that he had made no mistake in the choice of a 

After some years of progressive effort Mr. Sleeper 
took the management of Hotel Weirs, Weirs, and for 
five seasons made this well-known hostelry a favorite 
resort, with a constantly widening patronage. 

His next move was the purchase of the Kingswood Inn 
and the New Wolfboro, two of the finest hotels in the 
lake region, at Wolfboro. 

While these various relations were productive and 
educational, the intermittent character of the summer 
hotel business left something to be desired. The rush of 
four or five months in the season is succeeded by an 



uneventful period, representing an extreme, which to one 
fitted for active Hfe is not congeniaL 

As a natural consequence Mr. Sleeper, in due time, 
disposing of his Wolfboro property, was prepared to 
accept the management of the Plaza, upon Columbus 
Ave., Boston, INIass., which soon showed a marked im- 
provement under his administration, ranking among the 
best of the hotels in that city. 

His success in the management of a metropolitan hotel 
brought him to the favorable notice of the Leicester 
Hotel Co., of Leicester, Mass., which was in search of 
a capable and reliable manager. For two years Mr. 
Sleeper acted in this capacity, with results which war- 
ranted his acquiring the property by purchase. 

The sequel proved the wisdom of this action, and Hotel 
Leicester became a social centre for the territory for 
miles around, under the tactful methods of the landlord 
and his able wife. 

Still growing in public favor and possessing to an 
unusual degree qualities which are considered by the 
craft as absolutely essential to the proper conduct of a 
modern hotel, a community of itself in its multiplicity of 
interests and administration, Mr. Sleeper received in 
1901, an offer of the management of the Castle Square 
Hotel of Boston, Mass. This offer he finally accepteil 
and later disposed of his Leicester property, in order that 
he might give the last enterprise his undivided attention. 

Mr. Sleeper's popularity is evidenced by an increase of 
business which at times taxes the resources of this largest 
hotel in the city to its utmost, and the register shows 
patrons from all over New England, including many 
prominent New Hampshire names. 

Mr. Sleeper's personality is largely responsible for his 
enviable position in the hotel world. 

Combined with a masterful knowledge of detail is a 
wide acquaintance and the requisite poise which enable 
him to maintain an equitable balance between the ex- 



tremes, the guest and the employee, with the desire to do 
justice to each. 

This faculty not only makes friends but retains them, 
and Mr. Sleeper's staunchest friends are those who in the 
past have been dependent upon these essentials, far more 
than they realized. 

This biography would be incomplete, indeed, without 
the deserving mention of the woman who has been a will- 
ing helper and capable adviser throughout Mr. Sleeper's 
business career. 

Mrs. Sleeper, nee Emma Robinson, is New Hampshire 
bom — a native of Epping and a woman of energy and 
executive ability. 

She is fully capable of managing a hotel in all its 
departments and has frequently shown her qualifications 
in a business and social way, ably supporting her husband 
in his rising progress. 

In 1894 Mr. Sleeper was elected to the General Court 
as representative from the city of Laconia, N. H., as a 
Democrat from a Republican ward, which in New Hamp- 
shire politics is an unusual combination. 

As a Knights Templar, Odd Fellow and a member of 
the H. M. M. B. A., he is well known and highly es- 

Naturally modest and retiring, Mr. Sleeper is an ex- 
ample of one whose reward comes to him in recognition 
of sterling worth, strict integrity and a high standard of 
excellence which impress themselves to a marked degree 
upon all with whom he comes in contact. 



Whatever may be said to the contrary, it is neverthe- 
less true that the great himian family delights in recog- 
nizing merit and in rewarding it by the bestowal of its 
favors, when once it is satisfied that the recipient is 
worthy its confidence. No man, and especially no young 
man, is secure in his relationship to society and the gen- 
eral public unless he has proven himself deserving of the 
approval of this same general public no matter how 
strong his family and individual powers may be. 

A strong personality of the type in question is Thomas 
Fellows Clifford, who, already at the very beginning of 
an extremely promising career, has been the recipient of 
important trusts and favors from a public that thoroughly 
believes in him, and that undoubtedly has a long list of 
other favors in store for liim. 

Born at Davis Homestead, Wentworth, December i, 
1 87 1, it was his great good fortune to come from an 
honored ancestry, and one that none will deny him the 
right to regard with justifiable pride. 

Of this ancestry one was Increase Sumner, a governor 
of Massachusetts, and an able leader of his times. On 
the paternal side he has relationship with Nathan Clif- 
ford, long a lawyer of national repute, and for years an 
associate justice of the supreme court of the United 
States. A great grandfather of the subject of this sketch 
was Rev. Increase Sumner Davis, the first pastor of the 





Congregational church in Wentworth. The parents of 
Mr. Clifford were Thomas Jefferson and Sara (Fellows) 
Clifford. Their son was educated in the public schools 
of Concord, and, selecting the legal profession as his life 
work, he entered the Boston University law school and 
completed the prescribed course. Upon his admission to 
the New Hampshire bar he located in Franklin and at 
once entered upon a career that has thus far been ex- 
tremely creditable to him. 

His popularity in Franklin and the esteem in which he 
is held by his fellow citizens were shown when upon the 
declaration of war against Spain he enlisted in Company 
E, First New Hampshire volunteers, and was commis- 
sioned first lieutenant. He served in the war on the 
staff of Gen. John W. Andrews, who commanded the 
third brigade, third division, first army corps. At the 
close of the war Lieutenant Clifford was mustered out as 
captain of Company E. 

In the state legislatures of 1897 and 1899 he served as 
assistant clerk of the senate, and in the legislatures of 
1 90 1 and 1903 he filled the important office of clerk of 
the upper branch. He is the justice of the Franklin 
police court, and since 1900 has been secretary of the 
Republican state committee. Mr. Clifford has member- 
ship in the Sons of the American Revolution; in Blazing 
Star Lodge A. F. and A. M., Concord; in St. Omer 
chapter, R. and A. M., Franklin; in the Wonolancet Club, 
Concord; and the Red Star Club, Franklin. 



Edward Giles Leach was born in Meredith, New 
Hampshire, January 28, 1849, son of Levi and Susan 
Catherine (Sanborn) Leach. He attended the common 
schools of Meredith and spent one term at the New 
Hampshire Conference Seminary at Tilton, and for two 
years studied at Kimball Union Academy, being gradu- 
ated in 1867. He was graduated from Dartmouth in 
the class of 1871. Mr. Leach paid his own way through 
college, teaching in winter and acting as clerk in the 
Crawford House and Memphremagog House at New- 
port, Vermont, in summer. After his graduation he 
studied law and was admitted to the bar in September, 
1874, since which time he has been in practice in Frank- 
lin and Concord. He was in partnership with the Hon. 
Daniel Barnard at Franklin until 1879. Since then his 
office has been in Concord, where he has been a member 
of the firm of Leach & Stevens, his partner being Henry 
W. Stevens. He was solicitor of Merrimack County 
from 1880 to 1884, and has been city solicitor of Frank- 
lin since its organization as a city. He served in the 
Legislature at the sessions of 1893 and 1895, being chair- 
man of the House Judiciary Committee in the latter 
years. In 1900 he was elected to the State Senate for 
the session of 1901 and served as chairman of the Ju- 
diciary Committee. Mr. Leach has been president of 
the Franklin Board of Trade; of the Franklin Building 
and Loan Association; of the Franklin Park Association; 




of the Manufacturers' and Merchants' Mutual Life In- 
surance Company, since the org-anization of each. He 
has been trustee and clerk of the Unitarian Church since 
1880. He is a director in the Light and Power Com- 
pany; of the Franklin Falls Company, and of the Frank- 
lin Electric Road. He drafted in the charter of the city 
of Franklin and was active in securing its passage by the 
Legislature and its adoption by the vote of the city. He 
was a leading advocate of the city, owning its water- 
works, and of the system of control by a non-partisan 
Board without pay, and has been one of the Park Com- 
missioners since the Board was established. In politics 
Mr. Leach is a Republican and has been a member of 
the Republican State Committee since 1878. He was 
one of the leaders in the movement which changed the 
political control of the town in 1893. He had been fre- 
quently nominated for office before that year, but had 
been unable to overcome the Democratic majority. Mr. 
Leach married, December 24, 1874, Agnes A. Robinson. 
He has two sons, Eugene W. and Robert M. Leach, of 
the Dartmouth classes of 1901 and 1902 respectively. 



Born in Rumney, July 3, 1839, Frederick Eugene 
Potter had but just entered his manliood years when, on 
that ever memorable April day of 1861, the flag on Fort 
Sumter received the shot that precipitated the conflict 
between the states. 

He was one of that class of young men to whom the 
loyal people of the North looked with peculiar emphasis 
to save the Union from its threatened disruption, and 
promptly did he respond to the call of that fateful hour. 
Selecting the navy as his preferred arm of the service, 
he was on board the Monticello at the attack upon and 
capture of Forts Flatteras and Clark, that event, early 
in 1862, that so cheered the heart and raised the hopes 
of the oft-defeated North. Transferred from the North 
Carolina coast to the naval forces operating on the Miss- 
issippi river, he participated in the thrilling, arduous and 
decisive campaign ag-ainst Vicksburg and its tributary 
country, and also saw exciting sers-ice on the Cumberland 
and Tennessee rivers, returning from which he became 
attached to the ill-fated Red river expedition. His ser- 
vice in the navy throughout had been as a member of the 
medical corps, for the opening of the war had found him 
a practising physician, young as he was in years. Long 
continued campaigning, hardship and exposure resulted 
in impaired health, and for this reason it was sought to 
ameliorate his condition by an appointment as president 
of the board of examiners for admission to the naval 




medical corps, at the time stationed at Cincinnati, Ohio. 
But this change of scene and duty failed to compass a 
restoration to health, and he was given a year's leave of 
absence, and this year he passed in his native New Hamp- 
shire. A regained health and strength found him again 
in active service, which sent him into Mexican waters at 
the time France was engaged in the attempt to place the 
ill-starred Maximilian on a throne in Mexico. For 
seven years Dr. Potter served with naval squadrons 
sailing from Mexico to distant South American ports. 
Finally he applied for an assignment nearer home, and 
he was ordered to the Portsmouth navy yard. At this 
post he served for four years, when, in 1876, he resigned 
his commission and began private practice of his profes- 

Dr. Potter was a son of Frederick F. Potter, M. D., 
of Conway, who was a descendant of that Major General 
Frye of Fryeburg, Maine, an ensign at the capture of 
Louisburg and later a distinguished officer in the Ameri- 
can Revolution and a close personal friend of Washing- 
ton. On his mother's side the younger Dr. Potter was 
descended from that gallant Sergeant Beverly who 
fought at Bunker Hill, and who later further distin- 
guished himself by swimming the St. Lawrence river in 
midwinter as the bearer of dispatches from Major Gen- 
eral Richard Montgomery, a duty he performed with 
signal success. 

As a child of three years the future Dr. Potter removed 
with his family from Rumney to Suncook, in which 
town he lived until the age of eighteen, when he entered 
the medical school of the University of Vermont, gradu- 
ating in 1859. Going to New York city immediately 
after receiving his diploma he was appointed resident 
interne at the King's county hospital, where he was at 
the beginning of the war between the states. 

Dr. Potter continued in active practice in Portsmouth 



for more than twenty-five years and always with marked 
success. As a man and citizen he won the highest re- 
gard of all who came to know him, for he was a man 
who lived in a way tO' merit trust and confidence. His 
was a commanding presence and winning personality. 
He was loyal to the duty of the hour and he possessed the 
ability to accept responsibility. 

j\ Democrat in his political affiliations he received from 
his party in 1900 its nomination for governor, the honor 
coming to him wholly without personal solicitation or 

In fraternal organizations he was a Mason and mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts commandery, Loyal Legion. 
He attended the Unitarian church. 

On October 2d, 1873, he married Harriett, daughter 
of Jeremiah H. and Mary (Thompson) Wilkins of Pem- 

Dr. Potter died in November, 1902. 




Anson Colby Alexander, a descendant from two 
branches of Revolutionary stock, was born in Littleton, 
October lo, 1855, and in that place acquired his early 
education. He later studied at the academies at New 
Elampton and New London, and began his professional 
studies under the instruction of Dr. Daniel Lee Jones 
and Dr. Charles W. Rowell, both of Lancaster. In 1879 
he graduated from the Philadelphia school of anatomy 
and surgery, and in the following year from the Hahne- 
mann medical college in Philadelphia. He also gradu- 
ated from the Pennsylvania hospital. While at the 
Hahnemann college Dr. Alexander won a gold medal 
for superior scholarship in every department. In the 
spring of 1881 Dr. Alexander came to Penacook and 
established himself in a practice which soon covered not 
only that village, but much of the surrounding territory. 
In addition to faithful attention to the needs of his wide 
circle of patients Dr. Alexander has devoted himself to 
a stud}'' of medical specialties, and among the specifics 
which he has given to the world is one of proven value 
as an exhalant for catarrhal troubles, which is now 
marketed in large quantities by a corporation which is 
specially organized for that purpose. He gave close 
study to that dread disease, cancer, and attained wide 
professional fame by his discovery of a new treatment 
for that malady. In applying this treatment so many 
patients were brought to him from far and near that a 




Anson Colby Alexander, a descendant from two 
branches of Revolutionary stock, was born in Littleton, 
October lo, 1855, and in that place acquired his early 
education. He later studied at the academies at New 
Hampton and New London, and began his professional 
studies under the instruction of Dr. Daniel Lee Jones 
and Dr. Charles W. Rowell, both of Lancaster. In 1879 
he graduated from the Philadelphia school of anatomy 
and surgery, and in the following year from the Hahne- 
mann medical college in Philadelphia. He also- gradu- 
ated from the Pennsylvania hospital. While at the 
Hahnemann college Dr. Alexander won a gold medal 
for superior scholarship in every department. In the 
spring of 1881 Dr. Alexander came to Penacook and 
established himself in a practice which soon covered not 
only that village, but much of the surrounding territory. 
In addition to faithful attention to the needs of his wide 
circle of patients Dr. Alexander has devoted himself to 
a study of medical specialties, and among the specifics 
which he has given to the world is one of proven value 
as an exhalant for catarrhal troubles, which is now 
marketed in large quantities by a corporation which is 
specially organized for that purpose. He gave close 
study to that dread disease, cancer, and attained wide 
professional fame by his discovery of a new treatment 
for that malady. In applying this treatment so many 
patients were brought to him from far and near that a 



permanent hospital was established in 1898 at Penacook, 
under the name of the Alexander Sanitarium, having 
accommodations for thirty-five patients. This proving 
inadequate for the suitable treatment of all the appli- 
cants, ohices were established in Boston by the Alexan- 
der Corporation, which aftorded means for caring for a 
large number of the afflicted. In addition, the remedy 
has been given to the medical profession at large and 
physicians in all quarters of the globe are now success- 
fully using it to cope with the dread aftliction. June 22, 
1882, Dr. Alexander married Miss Fannie Goodwin, a 
native of North Attleboro, Mass., and they have two 
children, the older of whom, a daughter, is developing 
unusual talent as a performer on the violin, in this re- 
spect strongly resembling her father, who is an excellent 
musician in many lines. Dr. Alexander is a Mason and 
Knights Templar. He is also' a member of the Odd Fel- 
lows and the Knights of Pythias, and in all these fra- 
ternities has held high offices. 

He is alsO' a member of the Gynecological and Surgi- 
cal society of Boston. He is a Trustee of the New Hamp- 
shire Savings Bank, and has served his town as a member 
of the legislature. For several terms he was an active 
member of the local school board, and is a tower of 
strength to the church of his faith, the First Baptist of 




In these first years of the twentieth century New 
Hampshire finds herself strong in the possession of a 
class of young and middle-aged men that can, without 
the slightest misgiving, be relied upon to safeguard her 
every interest and to keep her in the front rank of Amer- 
ican commonwealths, that position she has ever held with 
so much credit and renown. 

Splendidly representative of this class and most credi- 
tably conspicuous for abilities displayed and sustained 
under varied and complex conditions is Charles S. Collins 
of Nashua, who by birth and every inherent trait of char- 
acter and predilection is a product of the state. He is, 
moreover, a man of to-day rather than of yesterday, in 
that his is a fine and comprehensive grasp of forces as 
they exist in the present hour, and in his discernment and 
acceptance of methods and plans for the utilization of 
these forces, that they may result in the greatest good to 
the economic life of the state. No man is playing a 
more important part in the commercial, industrial and 
economic initiative of the state to-day than he, and in 
this work self-interest is so utterly subservient as to 
absolutely preclude the possibility of adverse criticism if 
such under any condition could be prompted. 

He is withal a man of versatile talent and makeup. 
Specialization and contraction of energy have no place 
in his nature, but as a free lance, as it were, he responds 
to the call for a helper in various and widely divergent 



fields of human effort, that he may with his inborn en- 
thusiasm push further along the material interests of the 

Naturally a life directed along such lines inspires confi- 
dence, quickens all life with which it comes in contact, dis- 
pels pessimism and enthrones optimism. His mission has 
for its purpose the advancement of all the interests of all 
New Hamphire, and his selection to fill the office of 
president of the New Hampshire state board of trade was 
a most judicious and appropiate one, for the primary 
business of that organization is to make New Hampshire 
a better place than ever in which to live either perman- 
ently or temporarily. To this end, Mr. Collins would 
have good roads just as quickly as they could be paid for 
without onerously increasing the rate of taxation, for a 
good road, he has urged again and again, has never yet 
failed to be its own justification even when looked upon 
in no other light than as a financial investment. 

As president of the state board of trade he is ever alert 
to bring new industries into New Hampshire, and labors 
just as zealously for the interests of Coos as for Hills- 
borough County. His mental status, as a glance at his 
portrait shows, has exceptional calculative force, and de- 
cision of character and will power are indicated in his eye. 

Educated for the medical profession, which he followed 
for some fifteen years with entire success, its pursuit 
was calculated to develop and strengthen all those in- 
tellectual tendencies which to-day constitute so much of 
the man. His predetermined identification with so many 
different interests was, in a way at least, characteristic of 
the medical profession, the members of which in all ages 
and climes have been known because of a tendency or in- 
clination to have an avocation as well as a vocation. To 
members of the medical profession is humanity indebted 
for so many of its triumphs in the fields of mechanical 
invention, in discovery among the sciences, but more 



particularly perhaps for all that they have wrought as 
amateur farmers, horticulturists and florists. Take from 
the list of popular American fruits of all species tnose 
that owe their origin and introduction to members of the 
medical profession in days of amateur pomology, and it 
would be sadly contracted. To a single physician 
who lived until recent years, does Northern New Eng- 
land owe millions of its wealth to his skill and labor in 
this line. The same is true in floriculture and, indeed, in 
all departments of America's rural economy. In short, 
they have done more than any other single class of men 
along these lines. 

Dr. Collins belongs to this class of men having both a 
vocation and an avocation, or rather avocations, and so 
great are the requirements of the second named that he 
has relinquished the first. Rather, is he now "Farmer" 
Collins, instead of ''Doctor" Collins, for he is the owner 
of an extensive farm located some four miles from Nashua 
city hall, upon which he lives the entire year, and the 
management of which he takes upon himself. As a 
practical farmer he is a success, as the possibilities of 
farming and its opportunities for the display of versatile 
action are fully comprehended by him. Public life as it 
presents itself in its truest aspects has always had a charm 
for Dr. Collins, as it should to every public spirited 
citizen. At the state election of 1888 he was elected as 
a member of the popular branch of the state legislature, 
serving in the session of 18S9. At the succeeding state 
election he was chosen a member of the state senate, and 
his entire legislative career was simply a traditional 
success. In the state election of 1902 he was the candi- 
date for the Republican party again for membership in. 
the lower branch of the state legislature, and his own 
party nomination received the endorsement of the Demo- 
cratic party, a compliment that must have been exceed- 
ingly gratifying to him. His sound judgment and 



beneficent spirit have ever prompted him to take the 
keenest interest in the pubHc schools, and he has honor- 
able service as a member of the Nashua School Board. 
He is a member of the Nashua board of trade, and is 
ever ready to lend a hand for the advancement of every 
interest calculated for the good of the community. 

In Januai-y, 1903, Dr. Collins became a member of 
Gov. Bachelder's military family, occupying the position 
of commissary-general. 

Grafton, in Grafton County, was the birthplace of 
Gen. Collins, and he was born some fifty years ago, so 
that he is in the very prime of a vigorous manhood and 
ready for the hardest kind of work, if work is ever hard 
to such a nature and temperament as his. His parents 
were William and Harriet (Colby) Collins. The senior 
Collins was a physician of a long continued practice in 
central New Hampshire. Gen. Collins is a descendant 
of the Collins family of Quakers who long lived in 
Amesbury, Mass., and they who know him well need 
not be told that he typifies in his strong and aggressive 
personality those sterling Quaker virtues of ceaseless 
industry, tenacity of purpose, devotion to duty, and all 
around integrity and manhood sympathy. 

In these mid-summer days of 1903 Gen. Collins, yield- 
ing to the entreaties of friends throughout the length and 
breadth of New Ham]:)shire, has consented to permit the 
use of his name in the Republican state convention of 
1904 for the gubernatorial nomination. Should they 
be successful in securing his nomination and election, 
it is the practically universal opinion that, in Gen. 
Collins, New Hampshire would have a governor that 
would reflect the utmost credit upon the sound judgment 
of her people. 





When in 1871 John N. McClintock married Miss 
Josephine Tihon of Concord and settled in that city, he 
was an official of high rank in the United States Coast 
Survey service, his name appearing on charts of the coast 
from Texas to Maine as the maker. He had graduated 
from Bowdoin college in the class of '67, had chosen as 
a profession that of civil engineering, later acting as an 
instructor at his alma mater. 

In 1875 he resigned from the government service and 
at once became identified with important and extensive 
engineering projects in New Hampshire and throughout 
New England. As a citizen of the state he entered 
heartily into all that was designed for its social, educa- 
tional, and material well being and advancement, for his 
was a well-defined individuality and originality, and 
breadth of view in all matters that concerned New Hamp- 
shire as a distinct community was characteristic of the 
man. It was, therefore, as a natural result that he soon 
became a leading citizen of the state. 

In 1879, in association, with Henry H. Metcalf, he 
published the Granite Monthly, later assuming entire 
control. For twelve years he conducted the magazine, 
and in that time he brought together in its pages an in- 
valuable mine of historical, biographical and general mat- 
ter that constitutes one of the finest contributions to state 
history extant, and for which work Mr. McClintock is de- 
serving of the unstinted ai^preciation of New Hampshire 



In 1890 Mr. McQintock brought out his history of 
New Hampshire, the pre|>aration of which received his 
utmost attention, and it remains to-day a most interesting 
narrative and valued authority. 

In all these years that he w^as publisher and editor he 
never wholly relinquished the practice of his profession, 
but at last in 1891 the demands of his professional work 
attained proportions that led him to lay aside the pen and 
devote his undivided attention to engineering. The pub- 
lication of the Granite Monthly was given over to his 
early partner, Mr. Metcalf, and shortly after this Mr. 
AlcClintock opened an office in Boston. His practice fre- 
quently calls him to New Hampshire, and he sustains a 
deep interest in all that relates to the state. 

Mr. McClintock is a member of the Maine and New 
Hampshire Historical Societies, of several Boston clubs,, 
including the New Hampshire, and is still in active prac- 
tice, his work gradually drifting into that of a consulting 

Mr. McClintock is the president and general manager 
of the American Sewage Disposal Company of Boston 
and also of the American Water Purification Company, 
to which corporations belong the basic patents covering 
the biological systems of water purification. For the past 
eight years he has made a specialty of these lines, and 
his reputation and practice now reaches throughout the 
United States and into many foreign countries as the 
representative of his companies. 

As his name indicates he is of Scotch-Irish ancestry, 
his pioneer ancestor being William McClintock, who as a 
boy migrated from Scotland to Londonderry, Ireland, in 
season to take part in the memorable defense of that city 
in 1689. In 1730, at the age of sixty, he came with his 
family to New England. One of his sons, the Rev. Dr. 
Samuel McClintock, for many years pastor of the church 
at Greenland, is well known in New Hampshire history 



3s chaplain of Gen. John Stark's regiment at Bunker Hill, 
as the minister who preached the first election sermon, 
and as having given four sons in the Revolution to the 
cause of liberty. 

William McClintock, an older brother, settled near the 
ancient New England metropolis of Pemaquid; his son, 
William McClintock, the grandfather of John N. McClin- 
tock, was a ship-master, a trial justice, a farmer, a land 
surveyor, a member of the Massachusetts legislature, a 
member of the first Maine Constitutional Convention and 
a member of the Maine legislature; his son, John McClin- 
tock, the father of John N. McQintock, was a ship- 
master for about fifty years, a skilful navigator who took 
his ship into every ocean and almost every port. One 
of his feats was to cross the Pacific Ocean with a watch 
for a chronometer and an atlas as his only chart, sailing 
from Japan soon after Commodore Perry opened up the 
ports of that country to American commerce. 

On his mother's side John N. McClintock descends 
from the Shaw family of Hampton, he thinks, and from 
the Reverend Baileys who are buried in the Granary 
Cemetery in Boston. His grandfather, William Stacy 
Shaw, was a ship-master and a ship-builder, 

Mr. McQintock is specially interested in all that per- 
tains to early New England history and in the genealogy 
of New England families. His active practice forbids 
his devoting much time to these subjects now, but he 
anticipates much work in those lines in the future. 



Not only do the people of the North Country find in 
Alfred R. Evans a man and citizen in whom they can 
place implicit confidence to successfully and creditably 
represent them in public and official position, but the 
people of all New Hampshire recognize that in him they 
have one who would do honor to the state in whatever 
duty he might be called upon tO' accept and perform. 

Although much in public life, Mr. Evans has come to 
his various offices not through self-seeking but in response 
to the sincere and earnest requests of his fellow citizens, 
confident as they were that with him in this or that office 
it would not be belittled nor that he would ever be guilty 
of subserviency of manhod principle at the dictation of 
political expediency. 

Mr. Evans's most recent elective political office was as 
a member of the New Hampshire state constitutional 
convention of 1902, from his home town of Gorham, and 
in that body of thoroughly representative men he played 
his part in a manner that still further established his 
reputation as a safe man to have in a legislative bod}'; 
a good man to send on a political mission. 

Mr. Evans is 01 the best, truest, and oldest New Eng- 
land and New Hampsliire stock, and in his own person- 
ality he exemplifies the teachings, the purposes and results 
of that life, as the citizens of Gorham and Coos County, 
who have known him all his life, will bear willing testi- 




He is a native of Shelbnrne in Coos County, and was 
born March 21, 1849. His parents were Otis and Martha 
D. (Pinkham) Evans, sturd}^ respected and self-reliant 
residents of the White Mountain reg-ion. The great- 
grandfather of the subject of this sketch served in the war 
of the American Revolution, and his maternal grand- 
father was that Captain Daniel Pinkham who built the 
Pinkham Notch road in the White Mountains, an under- 
taking at the time of no ordinary magnitude. 

The schoolboy life of young Evans was passed in the 
common schools of his native town, at Lancaster acad- 
emy, the Nichols Latin school connected with Bates col- 
lege, Lewiston, Maine; concluding his preparatory studies 
he entered Dartmouth college in his twentieth year and 
graduated with the class of 1872. Selecting the legal 
profession as his special field of effort he studied law, 
and on April i, 1875, was admitted to the New Hamp- 
shire bar, and immediately began practice in the town of 
Gorham. In 1874, when only twenty-five, he was elected 
to the legislature from his native Shelburne and returned 
to the same in 1875 and yet again in 1878. His election 
to the legislature for three different terms at so early an 
age significantly showed the estimate placed upon him at 
the time by his lifelong neiglibors and townsmen. 

Fertility of resource and talent were ever manifest in 
the man's makeup, and one of the forms of their display 
has been in the realm of banking and finance. On Feb- 
ruary 18, 1 89 1, there was organized and set in operation 
in what is now the city of Berlin a, national bank, and as 
such it was the first institution of its class in that part of 
New Hampshire through which flows the Androscoggin 
river, and of this bank Mr. Evans became its first presi- 
dent, an office he held for ten consecutive years. In addi- 
tion to his service as president of the Berlin National 
bank he now holds a like position in the Gorham Five 
Cents Savings bank. 




Mr. Evans since 1895 has been the judge of probate for 
Coos County, the dignity and honor of which position 
bespeak for him the pecuHar regard in which he is held 
by the bar and public of his home and county. 

His political alfiliations are with the Republican party. 
He is a Mason of the thirty-second degree; and an hono- 
rary member of the New Hampshire Veterans associa- 
tion; and a member of the New Hampshire club, Boston. 
June I, 1880, he married Dora J. Briggs. The church 
home of the family is the Congregational. 




John J. Donahue, insurance, Manchester, was born in 
Keene, New Hampshire, August 7, 1859, and made that 
city his home until he became a resident of Manchester. 
His career as a business man has been one of unvarying- 
success. Having received his education in the pubhc 
schools of Keene, he began as a retail grocer in that place, 
after which he conducted a successful general store in 
Peterboro. In 1890 he retired from mercantile business 
and became associated with Cheney & Cheney of Man- 
chester as a representative of the Mutual Life Insurance 
Company of New York, with an office at Keene. He 
soon established a very successful business and became 
known as one of the leading life insurance men in the 
state. His success led naturally to his appointment by 
Cheney & Cheney as superintendent of agencies for the 
Mutual Life in New Hampshire, and the consequent es- 
tablishment of his home in Manchester. Mr. Donahue 
remained with Cheney & Cheney as superintendent of 
agencies until he tendered his resignation in order to 
assume the duties of General Agent for New Hampshire 
of the New England Mutual Life Insurance Company of 
Boston, in January, 1903. 

Mr. Donahue is a member of the Improved Order of 
Red Men and of the Degree of Pocahontas. In 1902, he 
was elevated to the stump of Great Sachem of the I. O. 
R. M., having been advanced through the various sta- 
tions to the highest office of the order in the state. He 
was one of the incorporators of the Great Council of New 
Hampshire, I. O. R. M., and was one of the special com- 
mittee which secured its charter. 



The Improved Order of Red Men occupies a promi- 
nent position among the fraternal societies of the 
United States and boasts a history long and honor- 
able. While the order has been known by its present 
name only since 1834, indisputable facts link it as a 
society to organizations which had their origin as early 
as 1765, the period when rebellious feelings against 
the oppression of England were taking the form of 
open hostility among the colonists. Secret consulta- 
tions among neighbors gradually became organized 
meetings, and these in turn resolved themselves into a 
secret society with purposes purely patriotic, under the 
name of the "Sons of Liberty," which existed at first 
among the northern and middle colonies. This society 
took a leading part in all patriotic movements from 1765 
to the Declaration of Independence, its members being 
the heroes of the famous Boston Tea Party. 

In the year 1771 the Sons of Liberty became the "Sons 
of St. Tamina," or the "St. Tamina Society," adopting 
as their patron saint an old Indian chief or king, named 
Tamina. The connecting link between these early patri- 
otic societies and the Improved Order of Red Men of the 
present day was the "Society of Red Men," organized in 
18 1 6. In 1834 the order as it exists to-day came into 
being in Baltimore, adding to the patriotic and social 
objects of the past, the fraternal spirit which now charac- 
terizes it. The growth of Redmanship has been rapid. 
From a membership of ten thousand in 1861, it has in- 
creased to over 300,000. 

The I. O. R. M. was introduced into New Hampshire 
in 1875, when Paugus Tribe, No. i, was instituted at 
Salmon Falls. The Great Council of New Hampshire 
was formed in 1881 and was incorporated in 1899. The 
record for the past of this, the oldest order in the country 
which is of truly American origin, is satisfactory and its 
outlook for the future most promising. 

Mr. Donahue is also a member of the Knights of 
Pythias, Patrons of Husbandry and the Foresters of 
America, in which for four years he ser^^ed as Grand 



Secretary for New Hampshire and later as Grand Trus- 
tee. Among the social organizations of which Mr. Dona- 
hue is a member are the White Mountain Commercial 
Travelers, Amoskeag Veterans and the Monadnock 
Cycle Club of Keene, a business men's club of that city 
of which he is an ex-president and honorary member. 
He is one of the incorporators of the Elliot City Hos- 
pital of Keene and of the Cheshire County Savings Bank. 
Mr. Donahue has been active in politics also, having 
taken part in every campaign since attaining his majority. 
He is recognized as a brilliant public speaker and has 
addressed audiences in many of the cities and towns of 
the state. He has the distinction of having delivered the 
address at the first Peace Jubilee held in New Hampshire 
on the return of the soldiers from the Spanish War. In 
the New Hampshire Legislature of 1903 Mr. Donahue 
represented ward two of Manchester and was chairman 
of the important committee on insurance, which was one 
of the busiest committees of the session. Both in the 
committee room and on the floor of the House, Mr. 
Donahue earned the reputation of being an able legislator, 
being quick, eloquent and powerful in debate, so that he 
will be remembered as one of the most potent factors in 
the Legislature of 1903. 



Massachusetts is not alone in her appreciation of that 
sterhng manhood that has come to her from the rugged 
hillsides of the Granite State, for New Hampshire ever 
maintains the keenest possible interest in those absent 
sons and daughters who have gone beyond her borders 
to participate in the afifairs of other states. 

Among the multitude of men of New Hampshire birth 
who have made their mark amid the busy and varied 
scenes of the old Bay State is Major John H. Roberts 
of Maiden, in that state. 

Major Roberts was born in Ossipee, the shire town of 
Carroll County, in 1839, ^-"'i h^ was educated in the com- 
mon schools of the city of Dover. 

In early manhood he drifted to Massachusetts and 
became a ship fitter. His ability and proficiency in this 
calling secured recognition from those in authority, and 
he finally Ijecame master ship fitter at the Charlestown 
Navy Yard and foreman for twenty years. 

Major Roberts has been twice married. In 1870 he 
married Miss Marestea Corey. Three daughters, Rosa- 
mond E., Etta May and Maud, were born of this mar- 
riage. In 1897 he married Emily A. Gallup. In frater- 
nal organization he is a member of Joseph Webb Lodge, 
F, and A. M., and of Hancock Commandery, Knights 
Templar. In church affiliations he is a Unitarian. The 
nature of his position in the service of the United States 
Government has precluded him from holding political 



'E:-' »» 





Attorney-General Edwin G. Eastman, of Exeter, is a 
type of the earnest, clearheaded and sound-hearted 
New Hampshire lawyer. He was born in the town of 
Grantham, Nov. 22nd, 1847, ^^^ received his education 
in the common schools of the town, supplemented with a 
course at Kimball Union academy, at Meriden, and 
Dartmouth college, from which latter institution he grad- 
uated in the class of 1874. Adopting the law as his 
profession he studied with A. P. Carpenter of Bath, and 
in 1876 he was admitted to the bar. In September of 
that year he began the practice of his profession in 
Exeter and was for a time a partner of the late Gen. 
Gilman Marston. In 1876 Mr. Eastman was elected a 
representative from Grantham, and he was a member of 
the state senate in 1889. He served as solicitor for 
Rockingham county from 1883 to 1887, and in 1891 was 
appointed attorney-general of the state, upon the death 
of the late Daniel Barnard of Franklin, and still holds 
(1903) that responsible office. Of Mr. Eastman it may 
be said that the position he holds at the bar he has 
merited by character, industry and ability. Nothing 
has come to him without effort, but much study and 
patient effort has brought to him merited reward. As 
solicitor of the county of Rockingham and as attorney- 
general of the state he has had to do with many im- 
portant civil and criminal cases. Toi their consideration 
he has brought a great habit of industry and a sincere 
devotion to his duties to the public. In the prepara- 
tion of his cases he has left nothing undone that would 
secure the ends of justice. As an advocate before a jury 


Attorney-General Eastman is very effective. His con- 
vincing method of summing up the evidence and his 
evident sincerity and directness of purpose predisposing 
the jurymen to a favorable consideration of his views. 
Mr, Eastman is a man quick and almost impulsive in 
forming conclusions, but with a judgment so trained and 
experienced that it seldom goes astray, and his advice 
is valued as that of a thoroughly conscientious, sagacious 
and well-informed man. His political career was credit- 
able and he is often mentioned as qualified for service 
in the national legislature. 

Mr. Eastman is greatly interested in the business 
affairs and prosperity of the community of which he is 
a part. He is one of the directors of the Exeter 
Manufacturing co., Vice-president and director of the 
Exeter Banking co., and Vice-president and trustee of 
the Union Five Cent savings bank of Exeter, besides 
being interested in other enterprises. 

He lives in a handsome and comfortable home in 
Exeter, and with characteristic love for his native town 
spends his summers at Grantham. In his legal practice 
he finds it necessary to keep offices in Concord as well as 
Exeter. In fine, Attorney-General Eastman is a worthy 
successor to the long line of distinguished lawyers who 
have filled the office of attorney-general. 


'^(^ ty^-e-^t-t/ o^e^3^^:t e^ 


A physician of the old school closely identified with the 
life of central New Hampsliire in the earliest decades of 
the nineteenth century, was Ebenezer Learned, M. D., a 
descendant oi a fine old New England family, and born in 
Medford, Mass., Oct. 13, 1762. Displaying an early fond- 
ness for natural science and analytic research, he was 
given a liberal education and graduated from Harvard 
college with honors in 1787, being a classmate of Presi- 
dent John Ouincy Adams and others afterward noted in 
the history of the country, with whom throughout his life 
he maintained an active correspondence. 

Upon graduation he taught for several years in the 
academy at Leominster, Mass., and then studied medicine 
with Dr. Edward A. Holyoke at Salem, Mass., one of the 
most remarkable members of the profession then living. 
In 1795, he established himself in practice at Hopkinton 
in this state, then an important centre, being the shire 
town of Merrimack county, the seat of the state govern- 
ment and the home of much cultured society. 

Of striking personal appearance and possessing re- 
markable professional attainments, Dr. Leamed's success 
was instantaneous. His expectations were more than real- 
ized, and for nearly forty years he was the leading figure 
in his profession throughout a large section of country. 
He ever availed himself of all the advantages afforded for 
study and research, and his professional library was large 
and valuable. He made regular and extended visits to 
Boston where he kept in touch with the scientific progress 
of the day, and he was recognized in his profession as a 
man of scholarship and professional skill. In 1820, he re- 
ceived the honorary degree of Doctor of Medicine from 



Dartmouth college, and was the first delegate sent from 
the New Hampshire Medical society tO' that institution. 
In this society he was active and prominent, and held all 
of its offices excepting the presidency, to which he was 
to have been elected under precedent in the year of his 

As a citizen, Dr. Learned was a promoter of all good 
objects and was a leader in all efforts for the diffusion of 
knowledge or the advancement of science, giving liberal- 
ly of his means and time for the success of such move- 
ments. He organized several literary and benevolent 
societies and was the founder of Hopkinton Academy, be- 
ing its president and generous patron during his entire 
life. Under his administration of its affairs the academy 
prospered greatly, the teachers whom he selected were 
masters in the art of instruction, and the pupils for several 
years numbered two hundred. He was one of the pro- 
moters of the Merrimack county agricultural society and 
its first president, and he frequently lectured on agricul- 
ture, botany and allied topics, many of his suggestions 
and conclusions being far in advance of his time, as for 
example, he was the first in his section to- make use of dry 
air for the preservation of fruits and vegetables. 

In pohtics Dr. Learned was affiliated with the liberals 
and Whig parties, and in 1812, he was local president of 
a widely organized political society called the "Washing- 
ton Benevolent Society." In that year he delivered the 
annual address before its state convention. 

He was reared in the Unitarian faith and adhered to 
this creed through his life, although he gave equally to 
all the churches in the town, and in his will remembered 
the pastors of each of them. Among other bequests was 
one for the foundation of the juvenile library in West 
Cambridge, now Arlington, Mass., which was probably 
the first public library in that state. He was twice mar- 
ried. He died October 6, 1831, leaving a wife and 
eight children, 




Among the widely known and sincerely respected resi- 
dents of the town of Jackson, throughout the last sixty 
odd years of the nineteenth century was John Willey, 
farmer, man of affairs and local preacher in the churqh 
of his chosen faith. He was a native and life-long resi- 
dent of the state and one more typical of the old-time life 
of state and community it would be difficult to find. 

Born in Barnstead, December 20, 1827, he went as a 
young man to Jackson and immediately identified him- 
self with the progress and affairs of the town which its 
founders had placed amid the foothills of the White 
Mountains. As a boy he had displayed a decided apti- 
tude for knowledge, and gained marked proficiency as a 
pupil in the schools of Barnstead, and later, when en- 
rolled as a student in the old-time and famed Gilmanton 
academy. Upon the completion of his course at the 
academy he taught school, and also gave instruction in 
penmanship, an art in which he early became an adept and 
known in all the region about Jackson. 

Not only was he known as boy and man for intellec- 
tual attainment, but for his skill and strength as an ath- 
lete and ability in the general list of field sports. A man 
of many gifts, he successfully essayed public speaking, 
and proved himself versatile in writing upon various 
subjects and topics of the times. His natural and ac- 
quired abilities in all-round scholarship led to his taking 
an active and prominent part in the political affairs of his 
times, and likewise led to his acquiring a deal of legal 
knowledge, which caused him to become a trusted ad- 
viser and counsellor. He was known for his strong 



and sturdy common sense and sound judgment in all 
matters that arose in the community. From his indus- 
trious boyhood days to the closing hours of an honored 
old age, he was a close and ardent student of the Bible, 
and his store of biblical lore was hardly surpassed by 
any of his contemporaries anywhere in New Hampshire. 
He not only read his Bible in the spirit of the faithful 
disciple he was, but as an intelligent expounder of its 
teachings and doctrines. He traveled in the Way him- 
self and influenced and exhorted others to do likewise. 
In religion he was an Adventist, and it was in this de- 
nominational belief that he became a local preacher, and 
many was the occasion that he filled the pulpit of the vil- 
lage church. For more than a score of years he served 
as the superintendent of the Sunday school in his church, 
and in all the ecclesiastical life of his town he was a vital 
and vitalizing factor. His life throughout was an em- 
bodiment of that sterling manhood and yeomanry that 
made possible the splendid humanity of the state. 

At the age of twenty-four he married Miss Eliza J. 
Dearborn of Jackson and eleven children came to bless 
this union, eight sons and three daughters. Mrs. Willey 
and five of the sons are living. Of the sons. Charles F. 
is a hotel keeper in Lexington, Mass.; Alvin S. is a resi- 
dent of Manchester; Nelson S. is the landlord of the 
Squamscott House, Exeter; while George Franklyn is 
the well-known newspaper and book publisher and author 
of Manchester. The youngest living son is Clarence 
K. of Merrimack, and proprietor of the Monomack House 
in that town. 




It was given to Ira H. Adams tO' live but a brief fifty- 
one years, yet so diligently did he improve his allotted 
moments upon earth that he accomplished as great a 
measure of work as do^ most men who live the; Psalmist's 
span of days and years. Choosing the medical profes- 
sion as a life calling, he zealously engaged in all its ex- 
actions and responsibilities with the single aim in view of 
doing good and ameliorating the condition of his fellow- 
men. His was a generous heart, a sympathetic mind, 
and abounding spirit of love toward the sick and the 
afflicted. It was- said of him: "He was a man of large 
heart of love. A man who was a true friend." 

He was born in the town of Pomfret, Vermont, Au- 
gust lo, 1846, the son of James and Eunice (Mitchell) 
Adams. He attended the public schools of his native 
town and a preparatory school in Meriden. In the fur- 
therance of his purpose to become a physician he entered 
the medical departijient of Bowdoin College, Brunswick, 
Maine, and later became a student in the medical school 
of Dartmouth College, from which he graduated. In 
1874, at the age of twenty-eight, he began the practice 
of medicine in Hooksett, but after a short while removed 
to the town of Derry, which was ever after his home. 

Upon taking up his residence in Derry he identified 
himself, and actively so, with all that was designed for the 
good of the town. He quickly gained a reputation for 
his learning and skill as a physician. His rugged hon- 
esty, his sterling manhood and all around ability won 
for him the utmost respect and ardent admiration of his 
fellow townsmen. Again it was said of him : "As you 



came to know him you felt that he was no common man. 
He was wise, learned and sympathetic. His hand and 
heart were always open to do good." 

As a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows Dr. Adams attained to high rank in that organiza- 
tion and extended his circle of acquaintances throughout 
and beyond the State. He passed through all the chairs 
to that of grand patriarch and grand representative to the 
sovereign grand lodge. Odd Fellows everywhere had 
come to recognize him as one of their foremost members. 

His church affiliation was as a member of St. Luke's 
Methodist Episcopal Church of Derry, and as one of this 
flock he was active, zealous and devout. He was a co- 
worker with the pastors of the churches, striving ever to 
give spiritual as well as bodily comfort and cheer. Whole 
souled, cheerful, sincere and ever striving to do good to 
his fellow mortal, it was but natural that upon his death 
the whole town should mourn him as its own dead. He 
passed away on September 15, 1897, at the age of fifty- 
one. The entire town, as it were, attended the funeral 
of their beloved friend and physician. No other citizen 
of Derry, at his death, was ever the object of such general 
sorrow. People of all denominations, nationalities and 
worldly conditions followed him to the grave. His sepul- 
chre was a mound of flowers, expressions of the loving 
regard of friends. 

August 31, 1875, Dr. Adams married Miss Louise S. 
Perley of Lempster, who with two children survive him. 
A son., Richard Herbert, is an esteemed citizen of Derry, 
while the daughter, Jennie Louise, is the wife of George 
Franklyn Willey, the author-publisher of Manchester. 




In this year of 1903 it is but thirty-three years since 
Samuel B. Tarrante was born in that city of England 
called Chester, the founding of which was practically 
coeval |with the beginning of the Christian era and 
where successively dwelt the Romans, Britons, Saxons, 
and Danes. In all the near two thousand years of its 
corporate existence ancient Chester has been renowned 
for its architecture, its ecclesiastical life, its wall that 
girdles the city and still as perfect and entire as in the 
days of the Roman and the Briton; yet above all is it re- 
nowned for its generations of great and learned and suc- 
cessful men and women. 

Young Tarrante was but three years old when he 
passed, with his parents, Samuel and Eliza (Burwell) 
Tarrante, through the gates of his native Chester and 
sailed away for America with Montreal as the objective 
point. The childhood years of the boy were passed in 
the Canadian city, attending the city schools until into his 
teens, when he became a clerk in a store. While yet a 
boy he drifted to Holyoke, Mass., and there continued his 
calling as a clerk. Returning to Montreal he engaged 
with his father to learn the hair goods business in all its 
phases and ramifications. It was the ancestral calling of 
the family, as it had been continued for five generations 
after the custom which has for so long obtained in Eng- 

After the completion of his apprenticeship and at the 
close of a service as a journeyman in Montreal, he ac- 
cepted an offered position in a Lawrence (Mass.) hair 



goods store. Beginning in a subordinate position, he 
displayed such a degree of efficiency, tact and business 
abiUty that he was advanced through grade after grade 
until he became manager of the store, with his duties and 
responsibilities equal to all they would have been had he 
been proprietor of the store. It was an excellent school 
for the young man, then just in his early twenties. His 
industry was of the incessant type, well regulated and 
directed with a splendid method. He made it a rule to 
save a stated portion of his salary and religiously adhered 
to this rule. Adept as he was classed in his chosen call- 
ing, he was ever a student in his business and ever alert 
to learn more of its features and details. The lapse of a 
few years found him possessed of a snug little sum of 
money, and impelled onward, not only by an ambition 
but a determination to be further along in the highway 
of commercial success than he was yesterday, he came by 
this same force within him to engage in business on his 
own account in the city of Manchester. 

It was in 1898 that he opened a store in Manchester 
and founded a business that has been so wisely managed 
as to become in the short space of five years the largest of 
its kind in all New England and that has placed him 
among the foremost merchants in all New Hampshire. 
Indeed, facts as they are fully warrant and permit the 
assertion that he is one of the most conspicuously success- 
ful men of affairs that his home city of Manchester, with 
all its great commercial and industrial interests, has 
known in the present generation. 

The true explanation of Mr. Tarrante's success is not 
to be found in any "run of luck," nor by the aid of influ- 
ential friends, but is wholly owing to his proficiency in 
knowing all that pertained to his business, and in its skil- 
ful, wise and persistent application to the work in hand. 
In addition to his Manchester store he owns and oper- 
ates stores in Lawrence and New Bedford, Mass. Pos- 



sessing brilliant executive talents and fine powers of com- 
prehension, he keeps the details of all his stores in con- 
stant sight of his business eye, thus having entire famil- 
iarity with every transaction. A natural bom merchant 
and business man, even the management of his several 
stores does not engross his whole attention, but he finds 
time to enter extensively into other enterprises. He has 
large realty holdings in the city of Manchester and town 
of Derr}% and besides identification with real estate, he 
has to do with the financing of a wide range of undertak- 
ings. Uniformly prosperous in his many interests, it is 
because he engages in them only after he has eliminated 
all haphazard and chance features. 

In September, 1898, ]\Ir. Tarrante married Miss ]\Iin- 
nie Elizabeth Herzog of Lawrence, Mass. One son, 
Samuel C, has been born of this union. Mr, Tarrante 
in fraternal organizations is an Odd Fellow, a Patriarch 
Militant and a member of the Patrons of Husbandry, and 
the Franklin Street Congregational is the cliurch home of 
the family. 



Nestling among the foothills of the White MoLintains 
in the state of New Hampshire is the little town of 
Jackson, a gem of human life in a setting of awe-inspir- 
ing grandeur and magnificence. To its immediate north 
and north-west, Black Mountain lifts its mighty propor- 
tions, a curtain as it were that tempers the bleak and 
pitiless North winds of winter and serves as a soul inspir- 
ing prelude to the still grander drama that Nature unfolds 
behind this curtain. 

Hither to this region came the rugged, honest and 
fearless pioneer ere the closing decades of the eighteenth 
century and here he fixed his habitation and abiding place 
upon earth. He was in the depths of a primeval forest, 
but his right arm was strong, his mind clear and his 
purpose distinct. But above all the factors in the daily 
life and action of this son of the Puritans was his abiding, 
unhesitating faith that the One who made the great 
White Hills would bless the means he was employing to 
make for himself and his a home at their feet. It was 
not the custom of the Puritan nor of his descendants to 
pray the God of nature for a blessing through super- 
natural channels, but always to bless the means and the 
agencies he himself would employ for its accomplishment. 

The pioneer in the White Mountain territory delved 
from the rising to the setting of the sun and in this work 
of home building he developed his physical and mental 
beings along lines that were in sweetest consonance with 
physiological law. There was but one sequel to this daily 
routine; a sequel as inevitable as divine truth itself, and 
that is progress; and progress is accomplishment: accom- 




plishment — success. The success that the pioneer won 
in the fastnesses and at the gateways of the White Moun- 
tains was, in its highest and best type, in the form of a 
manhood capable of standing in the most exalted places 


known in human life. It was a manhood that has kept 
American human life ever progressive and never retro- 
gressive. A manhood that springs from a recognition 
and appreciation of the fact that life is a duty, not a 
dream nor "a pastime. The dutiful and devoted Ruth 
forsook the ease of her own home and followed the 



fortunes of Naomi, regardless of the frowning prospect 
She accepted and took up with a cheerful heart the first 
labor that presented itself in the land of her mother-in- 
law,— the gleaning of the fallen straws after the reapers. 
The fidelity to a trust, the recognition of duty, brought 
to her and her line an undreamed of reward. Ere four 
generations had passed, her descendants were upon the 
throne of David and a line of mighty kings succeeded, 
culmmating with the coming of the Messiah. 

The keynote of the old regime in New England was 
the cheerful acceptance of duty and the performance of 
work and from this have proceeded that strength and 
power which have builded a mighty empire. That ster- 
Img and resourceful manhood and womanhood that had 
Its birth amid the hills of New Hampshire has been a 
potent and incalculable factor in the development of 
the nation's rich and innumerable resources, as it has 
for generations gone forth from its native hearths out 
into new fields and new states. This force that has made 
itselt telt from the Atlantic to the Pacific, had its incep- 
tion in the Puritan ideas, that life was a duty and in labor 
alone is accomplishment and progress. It was this identi- 
cal idea that controlled and actuated the daily life of 

Of this latest generation that has come down out of the 
mountain region into the plains below, is George 
weary one not sustained by that abounding faith that 
characterized the daily life of the early settlers. Unlike 
the great multitude, however, Mr. Willey has remained 
Franklyn Willey, whose, forbears were among those who 
directed labor obstacles that A^^ould have made faint and 
cleared the primeval forest and built up the town of 
Jackson, braving every danger and overcoming by well 
within the limits of his native New Hampshire, instead 
of seeking a field of action beyond its borders. In the 
kaleidoscopic changes of the country's material life, he 
believed he saw within the realms of his own state, as 


siATi: iiriLDj:K> 

man}" aiiil n- wide upjn inuiiitic< ftu" tlic cli>i)lay of his 
innate al)iliiie< a? were afl'f.irdcd else\\here. 'J'his decisicTt 
en lii- iiart i> significant and ])i"egnant w'nh meaning', in 
^■ie^\• <'t tbe -eqnel that has c<>me so early in his career, 
fijr he is in tliis year of 1903. hut thirt}"-three and, there- 
fore, as the }ears ui man are counted, l)Ut upon the 
tlu-e-h' 'Id (if middle life. 

• A.. 

.' y 




^: ;. ^. xr- _^ 

_ J 


The rewards that come t'l dui}- jjcrformed and laws 
fulhlled in physiological life are cumulati\-e. They do not 
cease Avith a single generati^'U unles- ruthlessly and 
criminally disregarded, 'i'lie generatinns ui the Pilgrims 
and Puritans down to A\ithin lift}" }"ears were distip- 
guished for an undeviating adherence to the moral 
and ecclesiastical vie\\s and i)rinci])les of the forefathers. 



These views, principles and practices were fixed charac- 
teristics of Xew Eng-land life and were the basis of 
American national dexelopment. They were the funda- 
mentals of that life. 

Reared among the mountains, inured tO' hard work 
from childho<^d and breathing an atmosphere calculated 
to kindle and foster every ennobling trait in human life, 
it is but natural that Mr. W'illey should be possessed of 
a wonderful capacity for work; that his intellectual dis- 
cernment should be capable of a quick comprehensive and 
like decision in the multifarious affairs that come to 
him daily. 

The boyhood and early manhood years of Mr. Willey 
were passed on the ancestral farm and in attending 
school, but in this instance it should be understood that 
what is meant by his early manhood years are those 
comprised within his teens, for by the time he had reached 
his majority he had taken up what has since proved to 
be his life work. 

A student of human nature quickly notes in Mr. W'illey 
a strong indi\'iduality. He is a man of decidedly pro- 
nounced characteristics and these are so many that one 
sees at a glance that he possesses versa4;ility of talent to 
a marked degree. Of course, he could not have all these 
traits and be without that one characteristic, the posses- 
sion of which has been the grandest power oi the Xew 
Englander past and present and known as the initiative. 
It is the initiative in the most perfect form that makes the 
most successful general, the successful merchant, the like 
successful financier and the leader among men. It was 
the possession of the initiative by the men and women 
of Xew England that led them to seek the winning of the 
\\>st and among the people of this section none have 
displayed this talent to a more marked degree than those 
of Xew Hampshire. 

It was the initiative that led Mr. W'illey, when a student 
at I'inkerton Academy, Dcrry. to establish a school paper 



and to become its business manager, and as long as he 
remained in its management it was a financial and literary- 
success. Again, it was the initiative that led him to turn 





to account his ability in spare time to accept the position 
as a reporter for a Derry weekly paper, an arrange- 
ment that ended in his becoming the owner of the paper, 
which he conducted so successfully that after an owner- 



ship of some eighteen months he sold it at what was to 
him at the time a great sum. Here as a young man just 
entering upon his majority and but recently come from 
his mountain home, absolutely without money and with- 
out friends except as he gained them in the daily exten- 
sion of his acquaintanceship. Yet he saw his oppor- 
tunity, or rather let it be said, as it is the greater truth, 
he made for himself the opportunity to jump as it were 
into the possession of a sum that made the world look 
larger to him than ever before and enabled him to take 
a place in the ranks of the business men of his community. 
It was the fulfilment of that law that labor and labor alone 
develops a man's powers; and thus early in his life was 
there an exemplification of the fact that his labor was 
well mannered and well managed. 

With the sale of his paper, Mr. Willey found himself 
free for another venture in the field of business and enter- 
prise. At this point it should be said that up to this time 
he had not the remotest thought of following journalism 
as a life work. Indeed, he now was and had been for a 
comparatively long while a student in medicine and ere 
he relinquished his studies had passed an examination, 
for admission to the Dartmouth Medical School. His 
versatility, however, prompted him to- undertake the 
preparation of wdiat was at first planned as a pocket 
souvenir of the town of Derry, The work grew far 
beyond its original scope and its full fruition was in the 
form of a magnificent volume comprehending an ex- 
haustive history of all that part of New Hampshire in 
the long ago known as Nutfield and first peopled by that 
grand company of men and women called Scotch-Irish. 
From a literary stand-point the book was a success and 
the measure of this success is becoming more marked 
with the passing of time. As a financial venture its 
success was something phenomenal considering that 
Mr. Willey was at the time of its publication only 
twenty-five. It put him in possession of ten thousand 



dollars all his own and all gained by his daring industry 
and initiative. He dared to act where others hesitated 
and simply talked. 

It was no run of good luck that transformed Mr. 
Willey from the poor 1>oy of twenty into the compar- 
atively rich man of twenty-five. It was pure business 
acumen and perception and the carrying out of these 
qualities by industrious application. 

But the initiative is at times a quality that brings 
disaster as well as success and Mr. Willey has in the 
story of his short yet eventful life, one experience of this 
nature, an experience that in a few brief months swept 
away all his previous earnings and other thousands that 
were either not his or that he had not earned. In 1896, 
the year of a presidential campaign, he entered the field 
of daily journalism. His political views were those born 
of principle and predilection. He was sincere in their 
holding and the wisdom of these political beliefs has 
nothing to do with the creation of this study of his 
career. One circumstance and another led to the com- 
plete collapse of this enterprise of the daily paper and 
finally to Mr. Willey's liquidation in bankruptcy. He 
was at the time twenty-eight years old. In eight years 
he had started in life and by his own unaided self had 
won a fortune and lost it. But, Mr. Willey in the routine 
of the daily paper did not lose a solitary one of these 
sterling characteristics that made up his rugged man- 
hood. He did not lose any time in repining. Hope 
sustained by a resolute will, a sound body and clean mind 
constituted his new and only stock in trade in a new- 
venture he had determined upon. Faith in tlie promise 
that honest, well directed labor should not go unre- 
warded, sustained him in his new struggle. The cold, 
unsympathetic world looked at him and said that no 
man with such a handicap could succeed. He became the 
owner of five \veekly papers which he had bought at a 
bankrupt sale, with the city of Manchester as the place 



of their publication. Hope, determination, courage, 
were needed qualities with him in those days. Step by 
step his path became brighter and smoother as the 
barriers were turned away. Again did money come tO' his 
command and as it did so, again did he exemplify the 
stuff of which he is made. In the short time of some- 
thing less than three years, he paid to his creditors some 
eighteen thousand dollars, not one cent of which was he 
under legal obligation to pay. Such an instance of moral 
probity and commercial integrity is deserving of the 
widest publicity and commendation for it, for it strength- 
ens one's belief that sincerity is not yet a wholly departed 
trait of American manhood. 

But it is not alone this practical demonstration of 
fidelity to moral obligation that has caused Mr. Willey 
to be much in the "public eye" of late. In recent months 
he has become the active head of a corporation publishing 
forty-one weekly newspapers and having a paid-in capi- 
talization of one hundred thousand dollars. Within the 
current year he has made his debut as an author and 
this debut is rich in a promise of future triumphs along 
their line. 

As the author of " Soltaire," a story of the White 
Mountains, Mr, Willey has gained much immediate 
fame and his fellow townsmen are earnest in their hope 
that his present auspicious advent into the field of litera- 
ture will not be allowed tO' lapse on account of business 
exactions, but be followed up by new creations of his 
brain and pen. 

"Soltaire" has met with a most flattering success and few 
indeed are the papers throughout the country that have 
not reviewed it in cxtenso. 

As a business man and financier, Mr. Willey has 
gained a prominence that is simply astonishing, consider- 
ing his age, his opportunities and the obstacles that he 
has had to overcome 

Surveying his past and discerning his present, one is 



led to wonder what the future has in store for him. 
The past warrants the behef that he is but on the thresh- 
old of a magnilicent career. 

Mr. Willey has vast financial interests in Nome, 
Alaska, and is a large holder of real estate in his home 
city of Manchester. 

He was married in December, 1901, to Miss Jennie 
Louise, daughter of the late Ira H. Adams, M. D., 
of Derry. 


Price, $10 New Edition 


Book of Nutfield 

A History of That Part of New Hamp- 
shire Comprised Within the Limits 
of the Old Township of 

From its Settlement in ijig to the Present Time 

Compiled from Original Sources and Edited by 


Biographical, Genealogical, Political, Anecdotal 

Illustrated with Half-tone 
AND Steel Engravings 

New Hampshire Publishing Corporation 

Manchester, N. H. Boston, Mass. 




" Soltaire," by George Franklyn Willey, fully justifies its 
title, for it is a literary gem, a dramatic work, as fascinating as 
Washington Irving's legends of the Catskill Mountains. 


Among the wealth of recent fiction, one book stands out 
prominently as a work of true merit and sublime fascination. 
This book is a little romance of the White Mountains, entitled 
"Soltaire." There are not many pages, — one wishes there 
w^ere many more, — and yet the reader lays the book aside with 
a distinct sigh of regret, in a genuine glow^ of happiness, and 
with a warm feeling of sincere appreciation to the author, 
George f>anklyn Willey, for a couple of hours of pure, un- 
alloyed enjoyment. 


" Soltaire " is a strong, fresh romance of the White Moun- 
tain region. Mr. Willey 's story is direct, simple, and com- 
pletely interesting. 

This is the first time an author has paid any special atten- 
tion to the White Mountains — that region so full of romance 
and picturesqueness. Mr. Willey has not only based his story 
both on White Mountain legendary lore and history, but makes 
every page of his book breathe the invigorating and inspiring 
atmosphere of those grand hills, which are aptly called the 
" Switzerland of America." 

Q/^T T* A T IP ■p* A Romance of the Willey Slide in the White Mountains 
^\yi-^ 1 .rt.lI\.IZ/ By George Franklyn Willey 


New Hampshire Publishing Corporation 


Price, $10 New Edition 


Semi-Centennial Book 
of Manchester 


And Manchester Edition of the Book of Nutfield 

Historic Sketches of that part of New 
Hampshire comprised within the Hmits 
of the Old Tyng Township, Nutfield, 
Harrytown, Derryfield, and Manchester, 
from the earliest settlements to the 
present time. 



Biographical^ Genealogical^ Political^ Anecdotal 
Illustrated with 500 Engravings 

New Hampshire Publishing Corporation 

Manchester, N. H. Boston, Mass. 

HJNX 1904 


C 235 89 '< 




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