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Full text of "State forests & parks in the northeastern Connecticut valley region"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/stateforestsparOOmass 



Guidelines for 

Operations 

And 

Land 

Stewardship 



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1 ! ] 

STATE FORESTS & PARKS IN 

THE NORTHEASTERN 
CONNECTICUT VALLEY REGION 



DRAFT 



DRAFT 




Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management 



December, 1996 



LEGEND 

Picnic Area , Fireplaces & Tables 

Betti House 

Woods Roads 

Gravel Road 

Main Highway 

Forest Boundary 



TO SOUTH ROYALSTON 




STATE FORESTS & PARKS IN 

THE NORTHEASTERN 

CONNECTICUT VALLEY REGION 



Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY iii 

INTRODUCTION 

Mission 1 

Management Planning Objectives 1 

Regional Context 2 

Overview of State Forests & Parks 4 

Recent Acquisition in Warwick 8 

NATURAL RESOURCES 

Forestry & Wildlife Management 11 

Fisheries 14 

Rare Species & Priority Habitat Areas 15 

Land Stewardship Zoning 15 

Zoning Map 21 

Carrying Capacity 24 

Regional Open Space Conservation 2 8 

LAKES & PONDS 

Background 31 

Existing Conditions 31 

Analysis 32 

Lake & Pond Locus Map . 33 

Lake & Pond Descriptions and Recommendations 3 7 

Beaman Pond 3 7 

Lake Dennison 3 9 

Dunn Pond 4 

Laurel Lake 42 

Sheomet Lake 44 

Ruggles Pond 45 

Wickett Pond 46 

Regional Recommendations 47 

Swimming Suitability Assessment 47 

Richards Reservoir & Riceville Pond 48 

RECREATION 

Background 4 9 

Existing Opportunities 50 

GOALS Visitor Surveys 51 

Sandler Associates Survey 52 

Visitor Attendance 53 

Attendance Graphs 54 

SCORP 5 6 

Management Goals & Objectives 56 

Recommendations 5 7 

Maps: Erving Campground & Wendell Cabins 58 



TRAILS 

Background 

Management Goals & Objectives 

Recommendations 

Long-Distance Trail Map 

Bed & Breakfast List 



63 
63 
64 
69 
71 



STAFF ORGANIZATION 

Current (FY 96) Staffing 

Recommended Organization with Current Staffing Level 

Enhanced Staffing Organization 

Park Rangers 

CAPITAL REHABILITATION & IMPROVEMENTS BY PARK 

Vehicles & Equipment 

Otter River 

Lake Dennison 

Birch Hill 

Federated 

Ware River Rail Trail 

Gardner Heritage V.C. 

Dunn Pond 

Erving 

Mt Grace 

Warwick 

Wendell 

M&M Trail 

Potential Long-range Recreation Improvements 
CAPITAL REHAB & IMPROVEMENTS BY TYPE OF PROJECT 



73 
74 
75 
76 



77 
77 
78 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
80 
80 
80 
80 
81 
82 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



87 



REFERENCES & SOURCES FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 



89 



APPENDICES 



A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 
G 
H 
I 



Mass. State Forest Road Classification System 

Fisheries Supplemental Information 

Carrying Capacity 

Gap Analysis Explanation 

Park Visitor Survey Results 

Millers River Recreation 

Massachusetts Heritage Discovery Network 

Greenway & Trails - 1996 DEM Grants Recipients 

Dam Descriptions & Recommendations 



93 
97 
99 
109 
111 
113 
117 
122 
123 



il 



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY - ACTION PLAN 

This GOALS management plan is a first for the Department of 
Environmental Management (DEM) because, rather than covering a 
single facility as they have in the past, this plan examines all 
state forests and parks in eastern Franklin County and 
northwestern Worcester County. The planning area is mainly 
within the Millers River watershed, located in the state's 
central highlands, running northward from the Quabbin Reservoir 
to the New Hampshire border. The many forested hills and small 
mountains, the beautiful lakes and reservoirs, the brooks and 
rivers, and integrated areas of rural settlement, comprise an 
important scenic and recreational resource. 

The state forests & parks in the planning area provide a 
variety of rustic recreation facilities and large areas of scenic 
public conservation land. These are invaluable resources for a 
visitors physical and mental well-being. Several ponds within 
the parks provide excellent opportunities for swimming, fishing 
and boating, for both day users and campers. Extensive trail 
systems within the parks connect to a regional long-distance 
trail, and conditions for winter recreation are exceptional. 
The parks covered in this planning area are relatively unknown 
treasures only an hour to an hour -and- a -half from Boston. 

DEM plays an important role in the maintenance of 
biodiversity in Massachusetts due to the large amount of 
conservation land managed by the agency. There are more 
occurrences of rare species within the state forests and parks 
than are found with any other landowner, and the parks are also a 
stronghold for unfragmented interior forest habitat with viable 
populations of native plants and animals. DEM forests and parks 
are therefore a foundation for ecosystem stewardship in this 
region. The regional planning focus is conducive to assessing 
ecosystem health as it is affected by continuity of habitat . 
Also, the regional focus of this plan supports the Commonwealth's 
Watershed Initiative. Under the guidelines of the Watershed 
Initiative, a river basin or watershed is used as the fundamental 
planning area for integrated natural resource management . 

The regional focus is effective for the assessment of 
various aspects of recreation such as the potential for long- 
distance trail connections, and efficient delivery of visitor 
services and the variety of associated management issues within a 
cluster of forests and parks. The parks within this study area 
are related to each other by proximity and by aspects of their 
natural, cultural and recreational resources. 

Otter River State Forest was the first state forest and 
campground, established by the Department of Conservation in 
1915. The forest offers rustic facilities for family or group 
camping and water-based recreation at Beaman Pond. DEM leases 
the nearby Lake Dennison Recreation Area from the Army Corps of 



l(! 



Engineers, providing opportunities for families or gatherings of 
friends to stay at one of 150 large wooded campsites. The scenic 
lake has good water quality and provides excellent opportunities 
for swimming, fishing and boating. Federated Women's Club State 
Forest abuts the northeastern portion of the Metropolitan 
District Commission's Quabbin Reservation. This forest has 
several primitive camping sites, and is one of the most popular 
areas in the state for deer and turkey hunters . Scenic natural 
areas in this forest include the Fever Brook with surrounding 
wetlands and geologic features, and 14 acres set aside by deed 
restriction as a wildlife sanctuary. 

Gardner Heritage State Park includes a visitor center in the 
center of the city, located in a historic fire station. This is 
one of the state's most popular heritage parks, highlighting the 
history of the furniture and manufacturing industry and the 
city's cultural diversity. Dunn Pond State Park is located only 
a mile to the east, providing day use visitors with opportunities 
for swimming, fishing, boating and ice skating in a scenic 
setting. A major water quality improvement project was recently 
conducted for Dunn Pond by DEM working with the City of Gardner 
and a grant from the federal government . 

Erving State Forest dates back to 1921 and was originally 
used as a nursery. The work of the Civilian Conservation Corps 
from 1933 - 1942 is still apparent in the headquarters area, the 
park roads, and the recreation facilities on Laurel Lake. This 
forest offers a wonderful opportunity for quiet family camping in 
32 wooded sites, and the high quality lake provides the public 
with opportunities for swimming, fishing and boating. Mount 
Grace State Forest in Warwick is important regionally for trail 
use with a trail system connecting to the 117-mile-long Metacomet 
- Monadnock Trail . The picnic area and playing field along Route 
78 is also an important recreation resource for the local 
community. The nearby Sheomet Lake in Warwick State Forest is 
used for fishing and is a scenic area visited mainly by local 
residents. 

Wendell State Forest covers 7500 acres of scenic forested 
land south of the Millers River and includes an extensive trail 
system with connection to the Metacomet - Monadnock Trail. The 
Ruggles Pond swimming and picnic area is low-key, but very 
popular with local families who have become regular visitors. 

The day use visitors come to these parks mostly from local 
communities or from locations along the Route 2 corridor. More 
than one-half of the campers are from the greater Boston area and 
other locations in eastern Massachusetts. They support the local 
economy through their patronage of grocery stores, restaurants 
and retail stores. There is a particularly strong connection 
2between visitation to Gardner Heritage State Park and the 
Gardner area furniture outlets. A recent survey conducted for 
DEM by Richard Sandler Associates indicates that our visitors are 
concerned with cleanliness and safety. They are hoping to find 
rustic yet functional recreation facilities and comfort stations, 
and the most important service that DEM can offer is a friendly 
and knowledgeable staff with ample information about the parks. 



fV 



The GOALS team, working with DEM leadership, hopes that the 
plan will establish a vision for five to ten years in the future 
for this cluster of parks, bringing these facilities into the 
21st Century and into DEM's 2nd century of land stewardship. The 
plan includes recommendations for enhancing the visitor's 
experience and for management of natural and cultural resources . 
In so doing, DEM's stewardship of the forests and parks will 
continue to support the components of the local economy that are 
associated with tourism. 

The management, improvement of facilities and development of 
goals is a dynamic process and several important changes occurred 
while this plan was in progress, including a new day use comfort 
station at Laurel Lake, a new comfort station for Beaman's 
campers, and a new Clivus composting comfort station at Mt . Grace 
State Forest. 

The following recommendations are abstracted from the report 
as a priority action plan. The recommendations are intended to 
enhance recreation services and environmental protection while 
maintaining public safety and health, with a minimum of 
additional staff. 

The parks in the focus area can be given separate regional 
identity by using consistent signage, establishing a unique name 
for the cluster of parks, and producing a brochure to promote the 
cluster. 



STAFF ORGANIZATION 

One of the most important reasons for studying a cluster of 
several parks as a single management unit, is to be able to 
develop strategies for staff coverage and for shared use of 
vehicles and equipment that will promote the most efficient 
delivery of visitor services and management of park resources on 
a regional basis. 

The proposed cluster organization would be more apparent in 
the winter with Otter River as the headquarters for the cluster 
of parks. Erving and Gardner Heritage will be important 
satellites due to the significance of winter recreation and 
programs, with Erving covering the western end of the cluster. 

Crews for specific work projects will be organized out of. 
Otter River during the winter. Work projects will be conducted 
throughout the cluster as needed and will include road grading, 
trail maintenance, boundary work, structural rehab such as roof 
reshingling, snow plowing, picnic table construction, additional 
coverage for special events that generate large visitor 
attendance such as ice skating with bonfires at Dunn Pond, and 
for special needs such as carpool travel assistance when DEM 
vehicles require professional service station maintenance, and 
cleanup of illegal dump sites. 



V 



At the beginning of the winter staffing time period, 
priorities and timetable for work projects will be developed by 
the Regional & Assistant Regional F&P Director in coordination 
with cluster park supervisors. Priorities and work schedule will 
be updated at the monthly F&P Regional staff meeting or as 
needed. 

Addition of 2 Year-round Laborers as floating positions for the 
west end of the cluster (Erving/Wendell/Warwick) , and 
addition of 2 Year-round Laborers as floating positions for the 
east end of the cluster (Otter River & satellites/Gardner 
Heritage) would allow: 

- Increased ability to conduct road and trail maintenance on a 
regular basis. 

- Strengthen productivtiy and increase scheduling flexibilitiy of 
proposed winter period work crews . 

- The staff based at Otter River State Forest constructs picnic 
tables and provides signs for all of Region 4. This work is 
mostly accomplished in the winter. An additional Laborer 
position during the winter would benefit these regional 
projects . 

- Increased provision of recreation services such as preparation 
for earlier opening and later closing for campgrounds, 
reopening the Mt . Grace field as a picnic area or reopening the 
toboggan - sliding hill, improved maintenance and availability 
of camping sites at Federated State Forest . 

Addition of year-round laborer for Dunn Pond SP to cover 
additional maintenance responsibilities associated with the new 
universal access facilities. 

Convert seasonal clerk to year-round position to cover campground 
reservations for Lake Dennison and Otter River, and to assist 
with other work for the cluster. 

Addition of 2 seasonal positions, summer workers or laborers , for 
each park that offers camping services would allow for overnight 
contact station coverage. (2 for Beaman/Dennison, 2 for Erving) 

Addition of laborer for coverage of Mt Grace. Mt Grace is a 
locally important recreation area, which can not be adequately 
covered at the current staffing level. This would allow coverage 
for the picnic area and playing field in the summer and autumn, 
and for ice skating (playing field flooded in winter) . 



Vi 



VEHICLE REPLACEMENT 

West end of cluster (Erving/Warwick/Wendell) : 

- Rack truck with snow plow 

- Large tractor with all attachments 

- Small vehicle (golf cart size) for comfort station maintenance 

East end of cluster (Otter River & satellites/Gardner Heritage) : 

- Light truck with plow for GHSP 

- Large tractor with all attachments 

- Small vehicle (golf cart size) for maintenance of Dunn Pond 
universal access trail 

- New industrial grade planer for sign construction 

CAPITAL REHABILTATION & IMPROVEMENTS 

Facility rehabilitation and improvement is intended enhance 
opportunities for visitors, while improving health and safety 
factors, and maintaining protection of natural and cultural 
resources . 

♦ Grading of park roads on a regular basis to ensure adequate 
access related to public safety and resource management is a 
priority of Forest & Park and Bureau of Forest Development staff. 
Implementation would depend on establishment of dedicated funding 
for road grading materials from local gravel operations. 

♦ Lake Wyola - Acquisition and swimming area development. 

♦ Erving SF - Campground comfort station, power line and removal 
of vault toilet . 

♦ Erving SF - Campground expansion (2 0+ sites) . 

♦ Otter River SF - Replace remaining vault toilet. 

♦ Otter River SF - Rehab bathhouse - install 2 00 amp 
service, ADA upgrades. 

♦ Otter River SF - Beaman Pond water quality improvement study 
& implementation. 

♦ Lake Dennison - Replace beach area bathhouse . 

♦ Lake Dennison - Comfort stations upgrade. 

♦ Wendell SF - Clivus composting toilets to replace 
vault toilets. 

♦ Wendell SF - Cabin/yurt development. 

♦ Wendell SF - Nordic ski center development. 

♦ Wendell SF - Ruggles Pond water quality improvement project. • 



Vll 



RECREATION 

DEM's management objective is to provide visitors with modern yet 
rustic facilities, and to enhance trail and other recreation 
opportunities in a safe, clean environment. 

♦ Determine best alternative for enhancement of water-based 
recreation opportunities. 

♦ Construct cabins/yurts for year-round use at Wendell SF, the 
most popular x- country ski park in this cluster. 

♦ Establish Adopt -a -Trail groups to work with each Forest 
Supervisor to establish more loop trails or improve existing loop 
trails within DEM properties. 

♦ Establish a long distance trail network to connect DEM and 
other conservation properties in this area, utilizing protected 
open space and unimproved town and county roads wherever 
possible. Focus on east-west trail connections. 



REGIONAL OPEN SPACE CONSERVATION 

DEM's objective is to maintain a diversity of habitats within the 
forest & park system, to sustain plant and animal diversity in 
Massachusetts, and to promote stewardship of public, private and 
nonprofit open space in support of this same attribute. 

♦ Determine if there is an interest in combining the efforts of 
EOEA agencies, Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust, Millers River 
Watershed Council, Athol -Orange Greenway Committee, Trustees of 
Reservations, Mass. Audubon, Army Corps of Engineers and the 
Harvard Forest to form a regional Greenway Council. 



ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 

Environmental education is an important aspect of DEM's mission. 
The following text and recommendations is compiled from several 
portions of the plan to highlight the educational and 
interpretive components associated with the management of this 
cluster of parks. 

A summary of the Sandler recreation survey indicates that 
historic appreciation and nature study are very popular 
activities in Massachusetts, having been mentioned by one-quarter 
to one-half of the respondents. 

♦ FY 96 staff included Interpreters assigned during the summer 
months to Dunn Pond State Park, & Lake Dennison Recreation Area. 

- Otter River currently uses the services of the seasonal Park 
Interpreter assigned to Lake Dennison, but level of use 
justifies two separate seasonal Interpreter positions. 

- Seasonal Park Interpreters should also be considered for 
Erving and Wendell in the future if additional positions 
become available. 



VI H 



♦ Interpretive trail (s) through recent timber operation sites can 
demonstrate Best Management Practices (BMPs) used in forest 
management. The harvesting site near the Wendell State Forest 
headquarters is one ideal area to establish this type of trail. 

♦ DEM will coordinate with Northeast Utilities and DFW 
in the development of a forestry and wildlife management 
demonstration area at Northfield Mountain in Erving on 180 
acres of property owned by Northeast Utilities and an abutting 
portion of Erving State Forest. 

Forest management in the demonstration area will be aimed 
at supporting a diversity of native wildlife species. 

Composition goals to support this objective are: 

5-15% seedling forest (trees <1" dbh) , 

30-40% sapling-pole forest (trees 1-8" dbh) , 

40-50% sawtimber forest (trees >9" dbh) , 

5-10% large sawtimber forest (trees >15" dbh) . 

♦ All parks should consider installation of a short, self -guided 
interpretive trail. 

♦ Trail maintenance & volunteer coordination. 

- Plan and implement small volunteer maintenance and 
construction projects to bring together the different user 
groups . 

- Provide guides for trail etiquette on multiple use trails and 
for construction and maintenance that include the needs of 
various trail users to promote cooperation by helping user 
groups learn more about each other. 

- Promote formation of advisory committees / friends groups for 
these forests & parks. 

- Provide support for trail interest groups (see Appendix H) . 

♦ Enforcement of DEM regulations and state laws will be enhanced 
through environmental education: 

- DEM will strive to improve communication and promote 
environmental education for our visitors. 

- As of 1996, thirty five Forest & Park Supervisors were 
authorized to write non-criminal citations. An additional 
group will receive the training in 1997. This authority 
is used in a non-confrontational and educational manner. 
The Park Rangers also provide educational programs and 
visitor services such as first aid and technical user 
information. The primary focus of a Park Ranger, in 
addition to their park supervisory responsibilities, are 
patrols for campgrounds, day use areas and trails, and 
visitor contact for educational purposes. 

♦ Trails and ways may be posted closed to one or more use(s) with 
signs at trailheads, intersections, or prominent locations such 
as the forest headquarters or visitor centers . 



IX 



♦ Develop trailhead signs Indicating the cooperative nature of 
the newly acquired Warwick conservation properties (DEM / Mount 
Grace Land Conservation Trust) . Trailhead signs should include a 
list of invited uses. MGLCT signs will not list hunting as an 
invited use. Signs can be standardized with new carsonite 
markers . 

♦ Place signs at trail intersections with a numbering system. 
Update trail map brochures with trail intersection numbering 
system, and provide brochures for trail users. Orientation 
wayside signs (3' X 5') should be considered for priority 
trailhead locations. 

♦ All parks should consider 3' X 5' "Welcome to..." orientation 
wayside signs for all main buildings. 

♦ Install signs at all DEM-managed boat access sites encouraging 
boaters to remove plant debris before and after boats are 
launched, to reduce the spread of exotic and nuisance plants. 
Signs are available from the Public Access Board. 

♦ Prepare a brochure in cooperation with DFW related to fishing 
opportunities along the Route 2 corridor. See example brochure 
for Myles Standish State Forest (Appendix B) . 

♦ Promote what DEM has to offer with marketing focus on the 
greater Boston area (only one to one -and- a -half hours away) , 
thereby stimulating and strengthening the tourism aspect of the 
local economy. 

- Continue to use interpretive programs as a promotional tool. 

- Communicate with publishers of travel guides (AAA, Mobile, 
etc.) to expand coverage of state park opportunities. 

- Increase availability of brochures and information on special 
events in Chambers of Commerce, Offices of Travel & Tourism, 
and along highway stops in neighboring states . 

- Promote the excellent trail opportunities and scenic / 
interesting stops along trails. 

- Coordinate with the Millers River Watershed Council to 
promote and provide more public access to the river. The 
Route 2 corridor westward from Wendell can be promoted as a 
canoe route with access to the Millers River from Wendell 
State Forest or other points. With a portage at the Turners 
Falls Dam, canoeists can access Connecticut River Greenway 
State Park and canoe path. A list and map of river access 
sites from the 1983 Millers River Management Plan is included 
in Appendix F . 



♦ Historic and cultural sites within the state forests might be 
appropriate for interpretive programs that could be marketed in 
the region or statewide. Potential sites within this cluster of 
parks include : 

- Native American sites such as prehistoric villages, a Colonial 
Period tribal council meeting location, camp locations. 

- Mill, tannery and house sites from the Colonial through 
Industrial Periods (late-1600s thru early-1900s) . 

- Civilian Conservation Corps sites. 

Note: A professional determination of the significance and 
integrity for any historical or cultural site, with development 
of a treatment/protection plan, would be required prior to 
establishing public visitation procedures. 

♦ The Heritage Discovery Network database, developed by DEM' s 
Office of Historic Resources, provides an avenue for DEM to 
increase the public's awareness of natural, scenic, cultural and 
historic attractions of Massachusetts. The Network has a unique 
focus on "second tier" heritage attractions- -those sites which 
are most often missed in conventional tourist 'promotion. The 
database includes detailed information on sites in Franklin 
County along the Mohawk Trail . As additional sites are added to 
the database, and the data availability becomes more tourist -user 
friendly, DEM should take full advantage of this new tool to 
promote recreation opportunities for this cluster of parks . The 
database is accessible at the Great Falls Discovery Center in 
Turners Falls. The sites that are currently covered in the 
database are listed in Appendix G. 




«t 



w&ifr&i 



XI 



INTRODUCTION 

MISSION 

The Department of Environmental Management (DEM) exercises 
care and oversight for the natural and cultural resources of the 
Commonwealth, and provides quality public recreational 
opportunities in the state forests & parks. DEM's GOALS Program 
(Guidelines for Operations And Land Stewardship) provides the 
means for DEM to develop management plans that cover all aspects 
of recreation and resource management for the state's parks. 

The GOALS planning process brings together a primary team of 
individuals made up of the Park Supervisors, Assistant Regional 
and Regional Forest & Park Directors, Management Foresters and 
GOALS Program Planners. A secondary team is often composed of 
individuals from within DEM, and also professionals from other 
state agencies, who contribute their expertise. Public input is 
also a very important component in the GOALS planning process. 
Over the past ten years GOALS management plans have been 
completed for 18 parks across the Commonwealth, covering over 
75,000 acres of public land, addressing parks with a great deal 
of diversity related to size of the facilities, the variety of 
natural and cultural resources, and elements of visitor use. 

This GOALS plan is a first for DEM because, rather than 
covering a single facility as they have in the past, this plan 
examines all state forests and parks in the northern portion of 
DEM's administrative Region 4 (eastern Franklin County and 
northwestern Worcester County) . This cluster of parks is chosen 
because of their potential for enhanced delivery of recreation 
services and resource stewardship, resulting from the cooperative 
use of the management capabilities of several related facilities. 
DEM' s Division of Forests & Parks and the Division of Resource 
Conservation are working together on this pilot regional planning 
initiative covering nine state forests and parks and their 
associated satellite properties; Otter River State Forest, Lake 
Dennison Recreation Area, Federated Women's Club of America State 
Forest, Gardner Heritage State Park, Dunn Pond State Park, Erving 
State Forest, Mount Grace State Forest, Warwick State Forest and 
Wendell State Forest. The GOALS plan describes existing 
conditions for a variety of resources that are associated with 
this cluster of parks. The descriptions include an examination 
of management concerns and opportunities, which helps to clarify 
issues, leading to the development of action recommendations. 

MANAGEMENT PLANNING OBJECTIVES 

The new regional planning orientation is intended to provide 
DEM more effective ways to address the delivery of visitor 
services and a variety of associated management issues within 
several forests and parks. These parks are related to each other 
by proximity, and by aspects of their natural, cultural and 



l 



recreational resources. The regional perspective will also allow 
DEM to work with nonprofits, municipalities, state and federal 
agencies, to enhance the continuity and protection of open space, 
and identify long-distance trail connections. 

Regional planning activities of the Commonwealth are being 
conducted with focus at the watershed or river basin level, under 
the guidelines of the Watershed Initiative. A watershed is a 
geographic area within which surface and ground water flows to a 
common point. By making the watershed the context for decision 
making, regional aspects of natural resource management can be 
considered in environmental assessment and planning, and 
implementation of conservation and restoration strategies. 

The focus region for this plan drains to the Connecticut 
River via three major tributaries, but is mainly within the 
Millers River watershed. The northwestern portion of this region 
is in the Ashuelot River basin, which joins the Connecticut River 
in New Hampshire, and the southwestern portion of the region is 
within the Chicopee River basin. The focus region can be 
described as the state's central highlands, located in an area 
north of the Quabbin Reservoir and south of the New Hampshire 
border. The many forested hills and small mountains, the 
beautiful lakes and reservoirs, the brooks and rivers, and the 
integrated areas of rural settlement, comprise an important 
scenic and recreational resource only an hour to an hour-and-a- 
half from Boston, and one-half to one hour from Springfield. The 
more densely populated communities in this region include Orange, 
Athol and Gardner. 

Although this region was hit quite hard by the recent 
recession, the residents are proud of a hard working, productive 
heritage in a variety of mills, manufacturing, and natural 
resource-related industries. A promising direction for 
sustainable economic growth in the area is in the recreation and 
tourist industry, balanced with the importance of conserving and 
enhancing natural and cultural resources which define the region. 

REGIONAL CONTEXT 

The landscape is characterized by the most rugged terrain of 
the state's central upland. Elevations range from 200 to 1500 
feet above sea level. Residual hills composed of erosion 
resistant rocks, also known as "monadnocks" are an important 
component of the landscape in this region, and northward into the 
southern portion of New Hampshire. 

The bedrock in this region is overlain in most areas by 
shallow to deep glacial deposits, and the soils derived from this 
glacial parent material are generally acidic and range from 
rocky, well -drained sandy, gravelly loams, to poorly drained 
mucks near the water table. The presettlement forest was 
probably composed of a variety of transition hardwoods including 
oak, hickory, chestnut, beech, birch, maple, ash and cherry, with 



white pine and hemlock adding to the variety of cover types. 
Recent research indicates that variation in vegetation cover type 
over large regions is most strongly affected by climate. Effects 
of surficial geology, topography and disturbance history are also 
important factors influencing vegetation diversity. 

Native Americans settled mainly along the water courses 
including the Millers River where salmon and trout were abundant . 
These original settlers also hunted and trapped the variety of 
wildlife that was present in the rich ecosystem, and later 
established an agricultural society utilizing the deep floodplain 
soils near the river. The Nipmuck Tribe was displaced from this 
region by the European settlers. The first permanent white 
settlement was established in 1735 in what is now Athol . 



Much of the forest land was cleared during 
1700s and early-1800s so that the area could be 
and crops. The lumber was used for building mat 
firewood. The river provided power for small mi 
industries that became established during the 18 
residents' livelihoods from agriculture to manuf 
region has gradually reforested since that time, 
soils, topography and historic land use provides 
conditions that is revealed in the current patte 
cover types . 



the mid- to late- 
used for pasture 
erials and 
lis and then for 
00s, shifting the 
acturing. The 
The variety of 
a mosaic of site 
rn of vegetation 




DUNN PARK - This photo taken in 1 91 7 for postcard use depicts Dunn Park as it appeared at that time. 



OVERVIEW OF STATE FORESTS & PARKS 

Otter River State Forest (ORSF) , acquired by the 
Commonwealth in 1915, was the first state forest and the first 
campground established by DEM, at that time known as the 
Department of Conservation. The state forest is located in 
Templeton and Winchendon and covers approximately 1220 acres. 
Recreation facilities include 100 campsites, three group sites, 
two swimming beaches, a pavilion, and a ball field, all located 
next to Beaman Pond. The Otter River headquarters, garage and 
maintenance facilities are located within this state forest just 
off of Route 202, in Baldwinville within the Town of Templeton, 
near the Winchendon town line. DEM's Bureau of Fire Control 
District 8 is partially headquartered in the ORSF management 
unit . 

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE) owns a substantial 
acreage of floodplain and wetlands surrounding Otter River, known 
as the Birch Hill Flood Control Area. The primary purpose of 
Lake Dennison, located just to the north of ORSF in Winchendon, 
is flood control, but DEM has a 50 -year lease (current lease 
expires in 2 026) to use Lake Dennison for recreation and fish & 
wildlife management purposes. DEM leases 4221 acres from ACOE at 
this site, and in turn DEM leases about 4000 acres of that to the 
Massachusetts Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (DFW) for 
purposes of fish and wildlife management. DEM manages the 200+ 
acre Lake Dennison Recreation Area day use and camping areas, 
including 150 campsites, a swimming beach and picnic area. 

The several square miles of open space covered by the state 
forest and. ACOE lands provides the public with wonderful 
opportunities for dispersed recreation. The abundance of 
undeveloped, forested land also provides vital habitat for game 
and nongame wildlife species. Hunting is a popular activity in 
season, and an extensive trail system is used throughout the 
year. The park staff maintains many miles of forest roads for 
dog sledders, nordic skiers and snowmobilers . The trails are 
also maintained for warm weather uses such as hiking, horseback 
riding and mountain biking. Lake Dennison has pH, oxygen and 
temperature conditions that allow for a put -and- take trout 
stocking program administered by Division of Fisheries and 
Wildlife. Fishing is popular throughout the year. Also, the DEM 
staff organizes a smaller scale fishing program for children 
camping at Beaman Pond. 



There are several areas of public open space, either with 
primitive facilities or without any type of developed facilities, 
that are managed by the ORSF staff. 

The 984 acre Federated Women's Club State Forest 
(Federated) , located mostly in Petersham with some acreage in New 
Salem, abuts the northeastern portion of MDC's Quabbin Watershed 
Reservation. A 140-acre block within the forest is set aside by 
deed restriction as a wildlife sanctuary where hunting and 
trapping are prohibited. Federated is an extremely popular site 
for deer and turkey hunters. Throughout the summer and fall, six 
primitive camp sites are available for people who enjoy camping 
in uncrowded natural conditions. Campers are required to check 
in at the Otter River headquarters prior to setting up camp. 

State Forest land totaling approximately 4500 acres, or 
about seven square miles of open space, is located in many 
separate parcels including Winchendon State Forest, Templeton 
State Forest, Petersham State Forest and Riceville Pond, 
Hubbardston State Forest, Royalston State Forest, Athol State 
Forest and Lawton State Forest in Athol. The areas comprise a 
valuable resource for a variety of trail uses, hunting, trapping 
and fishing, and are also important habitat areas for wildlife, 
natural filters that improve the quality of surface and 
groundwater, and sources of forest products. Natural areas such 
as the Fever Brook Gorge in Federated, Riceville Pond in 
Petersham State Forest, and the many streams, wetlands and 
diversity of upland sites dispersed throughout the blocks of 
state forest land are important components of the region's 
outstanding scenic attributes. 

The Ware River Rail Trail is a 15-mile-long corridor, which 
runs north- south along a former railroad ROW through portions of 
Templeton, Phillipston, Hubbardston and Barre . The Rail Trail is 
an undeveloped multi-use trail managed by the ORSF staff. 

Gardner Heritage State Park is made up of two separate 
facility components, along with a variety of educational and 
cultural programs. The Heritage State Park Visitors Center, 
located in the center of the City in an historic fire station, 
highlights the history of the furniture manufacturing industry 
and the city's cultural diversity through exhibits, displays and 
programs. The Heritage State Park has contributed to the area's 
economic stability by providing information and thereby 
increasing interest in local furniture outlets and other 
businesses. The staff has also organized a series of band 
concerts and helps to maintain flower planters located around the 
downtown area . 

Dunn Pond State Park was a city-managed recreation area for 
many decades. In the early- to mid-1980s, DEM with the City of 
Gardner and a grant from the federal government, conducted a 
major rehabilitation project that included lake improvement 
through dredging and filter dam construction, and constructing 
new headquarters / meeting space / comfort station facilities. A 
large parking area has recently been paved to improve access to 
the site. This day use facility has a very popular swimming 
area, large wooded picnic sites, and an exercise trail around the 



perimeter of the pond. The Park is an important recreational 
site year-round because the staff clears snow from a portion of 
the pond for ice skaters and organizes cultural events such as 
Native American programs, and outdoor activities such as bonfire 
skating parties and ice fishing derbies. The Division of 
Fisheries and Wildlife stocks the pond with trout. The deed for 
Dunn Pond has recently been transferred from the city to DEM, and 
DEM is now undertaking a universal access improvement project, 
and organizing for additional site improvements. Funding comes 
in part from the federal Land & Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) 
Program via the Commonwealth's Division of Conservation Services. 

Erving State Forest (ESF) and the contiguous Northfield 
State Forest cover over ten square miles in Erving, Northfield, 
Orange and Warwick. The ESF headquarters and a central office 
for District 9 Fire Control are located just south of Route 2 in 
Erving. Most of the state forest land, including the beautiful 
Laurel Lake camping and day use area, runs northward from Route 2 
nearly to the New Hampshire border. The Laurel Lake recreation 
area within ESF is located in Erving and Warwick and includes a 
32 -site camping area, picnic sites and the most popular public 
swimming beach in the area. Laurel Lake is also popular for 
boating and fishing, enhanced by the DFW trout stocking program. 
The large area of rugged forested land that comprises the 
remainder of these state forests is used for hunting, trapping, 
fishing and a variety of trail activities during all seasons. 

Just to the north of Warwick center along the western side 
of Route 78, the headquarters for Mt. Grace State Forest is 
located next to a picnic area and playing field. A trail system 
originating at the headquarters and field area traverses the 
steep topography of this 1690 -acre state forest, with pathways 
connecting to the Metacomet - Monadnock Trail and leading to the 
top of Mt . Grace - elevation 1625' ASL. 

Several additional parcels of state forest land are located 
within the Town of Warwick. Totaling over 7000 acres, they are 
known collectively as Warwick State Forest. This Forest includes 
Sheomet Lake, a high quality impoundment that is stocked by DFW, 
with potential for recreation area development in the future. 
The Warwick Carpentry Shop is also located within the state 
forest. In recent years, the carpentry shop supplied the Forests 
& Parks in Region 4 with signs, picnic tables and other facility 
needs. A Correctional Camp was formerly associated with DEM's 
carpentry shop, supplying staff for various construction and work 
projects . 

An acquisition was completed in 1995, adding to the 
continuity of conservation lands associated with Warwick State 
Forest. These recently acquired lands are described in detail on 
the last pages of this Introduction section. 

South of the Millers River and the Route 2 corridor, mostly 
within the Town of Wendell, Wendell State Forest covers over 7500 
acres of forested hills, with streams, ponds and wetlands, and 



includes an extensive trail system. The park headquarters is 
located on Montague Road. The park entrance next to the 
headquarters leads the visitor down a short hill to the scenic 
Ruggles Pond day use area. The water is clean, but tea colored 
due to humic acids from the organic sediments and runoff from the 
surrounding forest. The swimming and picnic area is low-key and 
quiet, but very popular with local families who have become 
regular visitors. There is also a ballfield with a pavilion 
located nearby along another portion of the pond's shoreline. 
A boat access for car top boats is located on Wickett Pond, a 
scenic natural pond about a mile east of Ruggles Pond, also 
accessible through state forest roads from Montague Road. 

DEM and Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust have been 
working together to expand Wendell State Forest. In June, 1996 
an acquisition was completed for several parcels totaling 346 
acres. In a separate transaction a 57-acre conservation 
restriction was acquired, linking the newly acquired 346 acres to 
Wendell State Forest. The property includes a large section of 
Bear Mountain with valuable forest land, excellent wildlife 
habitat, and several streams including a brook with a cascading 
waterfall. The entire piece is within the viewshed of the 
Millers River and includes some steep slopes adjacent to the 
river. The area is noted for its interesting geologic features 
such as an impressive 3 0+ foot cave near the highest elevation. 
The many woods roads will add to the state forest trail system. 

The Metacomet - Monadnock Trail is a 117-mile- long hiking 
trail, stretching from Mt . Monadnock in New Hampshire to its 
southern terminus in Connecticut . The trail corridor provides a 
link between several of the state forests covered in this plan. 
Hikers passing through eastern Franklin County traverse portions 
of Wendell, Erving, Northfield, Mt . Grace and Warwick State 
Forests. The significant amount of trail mileage located within 
state forest properties has generated a close working 
relationship between DEM staff and Appalachian Mountain Club 
(AMC) volunteers and other groups who help maintain the trail . 

Similar to the eastern end, the western end of this central 
highland grouping of state parks has several blocks of state 
forest land without any developed facilites. These blocks 
include Orange State Forest (59 acres) , Shutesbury State Forest 
(845 acres) , and additional DEM-managed land in New Salem, 
Leverett and Montague . These areas of open space provide 
continuity of habitat for wildlife, and opportunities for 
dispersed recreation. 



A recent land acquisition effort, conducted by DEM in 
partnership with Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust (MGLCT) , has 
conserved an additional 4 92 acres of open space, linking a large 
tract of Warwick State Forest with MGLCT' s Arthur Iversen 
Conservation Area. Acquisition of the Earle, Maynard and Zellmer 
properties was completed in June 1995. Please refer to Figure 1 
related to the following description. DEM acquired, in fee, the 
southern 108 acres, which is adjacent to a portion of Warwick 
State Forest, and includes Gales Pond. DEM purchased a 
conservation restriction on the remaining 3 84 acres owned by 
MGLCT, and MGLCT granted a conservation restriction to DEM over 
128 acres of the Arthur Iversen Conservation Area. The project 
is part of a larger effort by DEM and MGLCT to link several 
parcels of Warwick State Forest with other protected land in the 
area. 

The newly acquired property is quite diverse with narrow 
valleys, steep slopes, and a variety of water resources including 
the 11-acre Gales Pond, portions of Hodge and Rum Brooks and 
their substantial associated wetland systems, an outstanding 
black spruce bog, several vernal pools, and a seasonal cascade 
known as the Devil's Washbowl. Wildlife and vegetation surveys 
were recently completed by professional natural resources 
consultants . 

The current uses of conservation land in this area include 
trail activities, hunting and forestry. Snowmobiling is the most 
popular trail activity in the DEM properties in Warwick, and the 
state forest land is also used for horseback riding. People 
using the trails on foot are mainly residents of Warwick who live 
near the properties. Trails in the Arthur Iversen Conservation 
Area are used mainly for hiking, and the northwestern portion of 
the new property is less than a mile from the Metacomet-Monadnock 
Trail. The DEM-managed parcels are also used extensively for 
hunting. This use is particularly prevalent in the Allen Road 
area. 

DEM has conducted two recent timber sales, an oak leaf tire 
salvage cut in the Allen Road area, and a shelterwood cut in the 
Beach Hill Area. Land acquired by MGLCT in 1990-93 is available 
for timber harvesting, but there is not much merchantable timber 
on the properties at this time. MGLCT has a cutting plan for 
these areas. MGLCT will restrict timber harvesting on a portion 
of their land, including the Devil's Washbowl area and all 
sensitive areas that are identified in the wildlife inventory 
report . 

Management concerns for both DEM and MGLCT include trash 
dumping and restriction of ORV and 4WD access. DEM will continue 
to work with MGLCT to clarify and address management issues that 
can be addressed cooperatively. Recommendations related to trail 
connections between DEM and MGLCT properties and other trail 
considerations are included in the Trails section of this plan. 



% 



toi- _ FIGURE 1 

It Grace Land Conservation Trust/Dept of Environmental Mgmt 

Public/Private Partnership Project 

Arthur Iversen Conservation Area/Warwick State Forest 

Gale Road, Warwick 

Owned & Managed by MGLCT/Conservation Restriction Held By DEM 
Conservation Restriction Held by MGLCT/Privately Owned 
Department of Environmental Management Warwick State Forest 



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GALE ROAD 
PROJECT A> 

1994 /lj n 
383 ac 





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1995 

511 ac 

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NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 

FORESTRY & WILDLIFE 

DEM's forestry activity within the state forests and parks 
is intended to provide marketable forest products while enhancing 
habitat for the widest possible variety of native wildlife 
species. Spin-off benefits, such as road grading accomplished by 
the loggers, improve access for park management and emergency 
vehicles, and improve opportunities for dispersed recreation 
(Appendix A - forest roads classification) . 

The forest products industry is an important component of 
the economic stability in the north-Quabbin region. In support 
of this industry, DEM Management Foresters market up to 500,000 
board feet of timber per year from the state forests and parks 
covered in this plan. Also, under DEM's Home Fuelwood Program, 
the state forests provide more than 2 00 cords /year used for 
heating local homes. This Program allows people to bid on lots 
for a supply of fuelwood for personal use . 

Wildlife management for multiple species (nongame and game) 
requires consideration of local landscape conditions in 
combination with special features that require specific 
management such as spring seeps, vernal pools and other wetlands, 
den and cavity trees, abandoned orchards, and deer wintering 
areas. The forest cutting plans developed by DEM foresters take 
these factors into account in order to maintain and enhance the 
variety of wildlife habitat. The importance of this land 
stewardship ethic is represented by a recent publication produced 
by the Principal Research Wildlife Biologist from the 
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station located at UMass -Amherst , 
in cooperation with one of DEM's north-Quabbin area Management 
Foresters. The publication, Forest Wildlife of Massachusetts: 
Cover Type, Size Class, and Special Habitat Requirements , by 
Richard M. DeGraaf and David M. Richard, identifies habitats 
utilized by Massachusetts wildlife, and is intended for foresters 
and landowners interested in improving the diversity of wildlife 
through forest management. The publication is available through 
the Cooperative Extension Service at UMass. 

DEM and the Department of Environmental Protection Division 
of Wetlands & Waterways recently cooperated to revise the 
Massachusetts Forest Cutting Practices regulations (Ch. 132) and 
the forestry section of the Wetlands Protection Act regulations 
(Ch. 131) . The revisions are intended to enhance the protection 
of wetlands during timber harvesting operations through the use 
of Best Management Practices. Public interests that are 
positively effected by the revised regulations include 
conservation of water quality and quantity, prevention of floods 
and soil erosion, improving habitat for wildlife and conditions 
for recreation. 



U 



DEM Management Foresters use the Field Manual for 
Silvicultural Prescription , a system derived from A Forest Land 
Classification System for Massachusetts by Mawson, Rivers and 
Fischer, to assemble information about forest characteristics of 
of the DEM forests and parks, in order to prescibe site-specific 
management and silvicultural treatment recommendations. 
Information on stand analyses and silvicultural recommendations 
is available at DEM's Regional Forest & Park headquarters in 
Amherst. DEM Foresters also have a key role in the long-term 
research of the Continuing Forest Inventory (CFI) . As funding 
becomes available, the permanent plots in Massachusetts will be 
resampled and the inventory will be used to set management 
guidelines such as the planning of allowable cut. 

The state forests & parks in the north-Quabbin region are an 
important resource for hunters, trappers, and people interested 
in wildlife viewing. DEM cooperates with the Mass. Division of 
Fisheries & Wildlife (DFW) related to the DFW Licensing and 
Permit Program for hunting and trapping and the DFW stocking 
program for game birds . Hubbardston State Forest was the 
original release site for turkey reintroduction east of the 
Connecticut River. This program has been very successful, with a 
healthy turkey population now established in northern Worcester 
County and statewide. 

Staff from Shade Tree Management & Insect Pest Control 
within the Bureau of Forest Development periodically conduct a 
hazardous tree survey in the parks high use areas, and remove 
branches or trees that present a public safety hazard. The 
regional STM&IPC crew also monitors trends in insect populations 
such as gypsy moth, which can adversely effect the forest in this 
area by defoliating and weakening the trees. 

Recommendations : 

♦ DEM will coordinate with Northeast Utilities and DFW 

in the development of a forestry and wildlife management 

demonstration area at Northfield Mountain in Erving on 18 

acres of property owned by Northeast Utilities and an abutting 

portion of Erving State Forest. 

Forest management in the demonstration area will be aimed 

at supporting a diversity of native wildlife species. 

Composition goals to support this objective are: 

5-15% seedling forest (trees <1" dbh) , 

30-40% sapling-pole forest (trees 1-8" dbh) , 

40-50% sawtimber forest (trees >9" dbh) , 

5-10% large sawtimber forest (trees >15" dbh) . 



Z 



Silvicultural recommendations to increase land area at either 
end of the successional spectrum. 

- Suitable areas for bird and lepidoptera species that require 
open field habitat are in short supply in Massachusetts. 

A variety in the distribution of successional stages across 
the landscape, including a greater acreage in open field and 
early sucessional forest, can be established by rotating 
clearcuts up to 40 acres in size in selected areas of the 
state forests. A few large patches rather than a lot of 
small patches would be more beneficial for these wildlife 
species. Coarse woody debris should be maintained as ground 
cover in the clearcuts to provide wetter, cooler refuge areas 
for amphibians. Patches should be located so that continuity 
of interior forest habitat can also be maintained. Increase 
in cutting would also improve economic opportunities for 
local timber harvesters. 

- A recent study indicates that there is very little old growth 
forest in Massachusetts. Selected late-successional forest 
stands should be allowed to progress toward longer rotations 
to simulate old growth conditions. 

The Federated Women's Club purchased land from the Diamond 
Match Company and donated the nearly 10 00 -acre Federated 
State Forest to the Commonwealth in 1933. A deed restriction 
exists for a 140-acre wildlife sanctuary within Federated, 
which is one of the most popular DEM forests for hunting. 
Coordination with DFW is needed to ensure that hunting and 
trapping at Federated occurs only outside the boundaries of the 
wildlife sanctuary. 

Staff from the Bureau of Forest Development have the expertise 
to oversee research projects conducted within DEM forests & 
parks. Funding is available for small research grants that 
will be directly applicable to DEM management concerns, 
such as impacts to resources from various types of recreation, 
insect/pest management, ecological restoration, etc. Research 
proposals will be reviewed by a DEM research committee, and 
approved researchers must obtain a Special Use Permit prior to 
commencing research activities. 



FISHERIES 

The lakes and ponds within the state forests and parks in 
the north-Quabbin area support natural fish populations with a 
variety of species including largemouth and smallmouth bass, 
chain pickerel, pumpkinseed, bluegill, yellow perch, golden 
shiner, brown bullhead, banded killifish, and American eel. 
These species are important in the stability of the lake 
ecosystems and also help sustain the sport fish that are stocked 
by the Division of Fisheries and Wildlife (DFW) . 

DFW fisheries management focuses on a catchable trout 
stocking program for Dunn Pond, Lake Dennison, Laurel Lake and 
Sheomet Lake. These lakes and ponds along the Route 2 corridor 
make up one of the most important fishing resources in the 
Commonwealth. Boat, shoreline and ice fishing are popular 
activities in these recreation areas. Fishing derbies held at 
Dunn Pond have attracted as many as 1000 visitors. 

Dunn Pond is annually stocked with over 1000 brook trout. 
In addition, about 12 trout averaging six inches in length were 
recently released to relieve overcrowding at the fish hatchery. 
Lake Dennison is stocked with about 12 00 brook, brown and rainbow 
trout in the spring and about 500 rainbows in the fall. Over the 
past ten years, Laurel Lake has been annually stocked with 1500 
to 5000 rainbow, brook and brown trout, although brook trout have 
not been stocked since 1992. Sheomet Lake has also been stocked 
with rainbow, brook and brown trout. 1300 to 2600 fish have been 
annually stocked, but brook trout have not been part of the mix 
since 1990. DFW collects data on pH level and acid neutralizing 
capacity on an annual basis as part of the trout stocking 
program . 

Wickett Pond in Wendell State Forest is not stocked by DFW, 
but it is a popular fishing site, particularly for ice fishing. 
Opportunities to catch bass and perch bring visitors to Wickett. 

Recommendations : 



Continue cooperation with DFW Central and CT Valley District 

stocking programs. Stocking to occur at or near current (1995) 

levels unless water quality or demand changes. 

Continue to survey the fish communities and water quality 

parameters in the lakes and ponds in order to gather 

information needed to guide management decisions. 

Coordinate with DFW and DEP for use of lime to maintain pH at a 

level to sustain healthy populations of trout and other 

fish species. 

Encourage harvest of warmwater species to increase the health 

of stocked fish. 

Prepare a brochure in cooperation with DFW related to fishing 

opportunities along the Route 2 corridor. See example brochure 

for Myles Standish State Forest (Appendix B) . 



IH 



RARE SPECIES & PRIORITY HABITAT AREAS 

Franklin County is ranked second among Massachusetts 
counties related to diversity of rare species. Although most of 
the rare species are clustered around the Connecticut River, 
there are also important rare species habitat areas located 
within the state forests throughout the north-Quabbin region. 
Due to the large amount of conservation land managed by DEM, 
there are more occurrences of rare species within the state 
forests and parks than are found with any other land managing 
agency or landowner. This translates to a very important 
stewardship role for DEM related to protection of the state's 
rare natural resources . 

For DEM forests and parks in the north-Quabbin area, 
detailed information on occurrence of rare species or community 
types, location of habitat, and specific management guidelines 
are kept on hand at the local forest & park headquarters and the 
regional forest & park headquarters in Amherst . 

DEM staff will continue to coordinate with the DFW Natural 
Heritage & Endangered Species Program to protect rare and 
endangered species habitat and unique communities within the 
state forests & parks. Sensitive habitat areas will be managed 
under the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Zone from 
the Land Stewardship Zoning system which is explained in detail 
in the following text . 

LAND STEWARDSHIP ZONING 

A Land Stewardship Zoning system has been developed by all 
the land managing agencies within the Executive Office of 
Environmental Affairs, i.e. the Department of Food & Agriculture; 
the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife; the Metropolitan 
District Commission; and the Department of Environmental 
Management. The system is intended to increase the consistency 
of management across all state-owned conservation land, and to 
improve interagency cooperation, especially in areas where two or 
more state agencies manage closely related properties. 

The zoning classification system guidelines make it possible 
to regulate activities within certain areas so that sensitive and 
significant resources are protected. In addition, it is possible 
to guide future development and improvements to sites that can 
tolerate intensive use. 



(5 



ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ZONE: Highly sensitive areas requiring 
a high degree of protection, such as rare species habitats or 
fragile archeological sites, are within this zone. 

Recreation 

o Only low impact activities permitted in this zone, including 

dispersed and nonmotorized recreation, 
o Intensive, development -dependent recreation not permitted, 
o New trail construction permitted if limited to stable areas and 

located, to avoid adverse impacts to rare species, and known or 

potential archaeological sites. 
Visual Resources 
o Retain area in natural state or preserve and enhance existing 

natural or cultural landscape, 
o Minimal cutting to maintain or enhance vistas permitted. 
Vegetation & Wildlife Habitat 
o Intensive habitat manipulation not permitted except as 

recommended under the following guidelines, 
o Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program recommendations 

used to restore, maintain and enhance habitat of rare and 

endangered species, and rare exemplary communities, 
o Research which causes no adverse impact to sensitive resources 

will be permitted through a formal written proposal process, 

approved in advance by the Director of Forests & Parks or his 

designee . 
o Vegetation management allowed: Under silvicultural plans (see 

below) , and utilizing native species to control erosion, for 

stabilization of dunes, enhancement of ecosystem diversity, and 

achieving other objectives consistent with protection of 

existing resources; or under historic landscape restoration 

plan, 
o Cutting of vegetation allowed for maintenance of trails and 

existing roads. 
Water Resources 
o Sensitive wetland resource areas and associated buffers will be 

managed to protect and enhance habitat and water quality. 
Silviculture 
o Timber harvesting operations allowed under guidelines 

protecting or enhancing rare & endangered species habitat. 
Forest Protection 
o Spread of major forest pathogens will be controlled with 

procedures compatible with existing sensitive resources, 
o Research stations for monitoring forest health may be 

established, 
o Wildfires will be extinguished by Bureau of Fire Control 

personnel and Forest & Park staff, coordinating with municipal 

fire departments, 
o Fire breaks may be maintained in fire prone types of 

vegetation. 



ft 



Transportation 

o No new roads will be constructed. 

o Passage through zone allowed on existing stable roadbeds or 

trails . 
Facilities 
o No new construction except for small scale, low impact 

facilities such as interpretive exhibits, handicapped ramps, 

and boardwalks . 
o No new construction in historic or cultural resource areas 

unless part of a formal protection or restoration plan. 

CONSERVATION ZONE: Areas in this zone are moderately sensitive, 
and may include managed woodlands, water resources, wildlife 
habitats, and agricultural resources. Opportunities for 
dispersed recreation are provided within this zone. 

Recreation 

o Opportunities for appropriate dispersed recreation will be 

provided. 
Visual Resources 
o Vistas will be opened in appropriate locations and open fields 

will be maintained, 
o At least 50% shade will be maintained in a buffer strip along 

public access corridors. 
Vegetation & Wildlife Habitat 

o A high priority will be given to enhancing ecosystem diversity, 
o Wildlife nesting and den habitat areas will be encouraged, 
o Activities adjacent to wetlands will be undertaken with 

adherence to regulations developed under the Wetlands 

Protection Act in order to avoid adverse impacts. 
Water Resources 
o Emphasis will be on maintaining and enhancing surface and 

ground water quality. 
Agriculture 
o Suitable agricultural uses will be encouraged where 

appropriate . 
Silviculture 
o Forest lands are divided into productivity classes (high yield 

and standard) with only high yield sites managed intensively, 
o Management systems will be utilized to secure adequate natural 

regeneration and age class diversity, 
o Timber Stand Improvement operations will be used to improve the 

quality and vigor of stands, 
o Upon completion of operation, skid roads and landings will be 

stabilized. 



|7 



Forest Protection 

o Spread of major forest pathogens will be controlled through 

environmentally sound programs, 
o Research stations for monitoring forest health may be 

established, 
o Wildfires will be extinguished by Bureau of Fire Control 

personnel and Forest & Park staff, coordinating with municipal 

fire departments, 
o Fire breaks will be maintained in fire prone types of 

vegetation, 
o Research plots for prescribed burning and other techniques of 

fuel management may be established in this zone. 
Transportation 

o New road construction permitted in stable areas, 
o Skid roads and truck roads will be carefully laid out by the 

forester considering grades, drainage and stream integrity. 
Facilities 
o Small scale facilities are permitted such as gravel parking 

areas, picnic areas, boardwalks, 2-4 stall comfort stations, 

and viewing platforms, 
o Visitor centers, bathhouses, maintenance facilities, 

playfields, intensive camping areas, and major developments are 

not appropriate in this zone, 
o Utility corridors are permitted, 
o Adaptive reuse of historic structures is permitted in 

conjunction with a historic restoration plan, 
o New construction in a historic or cultural resource area must 

be recommended as part of a formal protection or restoration 

plan, or historic landscape restoration plan. 

INTENSIVE USE ZONE: Areas where resources can accommodate high 
levels of visitor use, and associated structures or maintenance 
facilities . 

Recreation 

o Legitimate recreational activities recognized by DEM, including 

intensive development -dependent recreation, are permitted in 

appropriate locations, 
o Hunting will generally be excluded for safety reasons. MGL 

Ch.90B prohibits the discharge of firearms within 500 feet of 

occupied structures. 
Visual Resources 
o New structures and landscape treatments will be designed to 

blend in with natural or cultural surroundings, including use 

of trees and shrubs to screen utility buildings from view, 
o Existing vistas will be maintained, and additional vistas may 

be cleared. 



IS 



Vegetation & Wildlife Habitat 

o Vegetation in natural resource areas will be managed by- 
clearing out exotic species wherever possible, and maintaining 

trees and shrubs when their presence does not adversely impact 

public safety or access, 
o Emphasis will be on maintaining vegetation with value to 

nongame wildlife species, 
o Small scale wildlife habitat improvements may be conducted, 
o Landscape plantings will consist of native materials in natural 

resource areas and historically compatible species in cultural 

resource areas . 
Water Resources 
o Surface water resources may be used for recreation within 

constraints of maintaining public safety and water quality, 
o Surface water and associated wetland vegetation will be managed 

following guidelines established in the Wetlands Protection 

Act . 
o Ground water resources may be utilized for day use and camping 

facilities . 
Silviculture 
o Acreage in this zone is excluded from allowable harvest 

calculations . 
o Treatments will be conducted to improve public safety related 

to hazard trees and fire suppression, and improve access for 

recreation and education programs. 
Forest Protection 
o Spread of major forest pathogens will be controlled through 

environmentally sound programs, 
o Wildfires will be extinguished by Bureau of Fire Control 

personnel coordinating with municipal fire departments. 
Transportation 
o All main roads and bridges will be constructed or maintained to 

support a 75,000 pound load, 
o Use of roads by logging trucks may be restricted during periods 

of high visitor use. 
Facilities 
o Construction directly related to appropriate forms of 

recreation will be allowed, and will conform to state health, 

building and environmental codes, 
o Administration buildings, maintenance areas, storage 

facilities, parking lots, operational structures, visitors 

centers, bathhouses, playfields, and intensive day use and 

camping areas will be located in this zone, 
o Utility corridors will be permitted, 
o Historic restoration, rehabilitation or reconstruction for 

interpretation or adaptive reuse of historic structures is 

permitted in conjunction with an historic restoration plan. 



\°\ 



In addition to these zones' that are based on the sensitivity of 
the natural and cultural resources, some resources are noted on 
federal, state, regional or local lists and registers, such as 
endangered species lists and historical registers. These 
significant resources are identified under the Land Stewardship 
Zoning systems and will be managed according to guidelines and 
recommendations from the listing agency. 

Zoning for north-Ouabbin area Forests & Parks 

Most of the land within these forests and parks will be managed 
under the guidelines of the Conservation Zone. The Conservation 
Zone is shown in dark green on Figure 2 with no cross-hatching or 
other symbols. 

Due to the scale of the map, the areas and zones outlined on 
Figure 2 represent only the "approximate location of natural and 
cultural resources. 

Priority habitat areas recognized in the Natural Heritage Program 
Atlas in Warwick State Forest, Wendell State Forest, Orange State 
Forest, Templeton State Forest and Petersham State Forest will be 
managed under the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Zone 
with additional guidelines obtained from the Natural Heritage 
staff . 

Historical / cultural sites to be managed under the guidelines of 
the Environmental Protection Zone with additional management 
guidelines established if needed after studies are conducted to 
determine integrity of the site, significance and sensitivity to 
human disturbance. 
DEM's Cultural Resources Inventory lists: 

- Prehistoric village site in Federated State Forest. 

- Native American burial ground in Montague State Forest. 

- Native American camp sites in Northfield and Warwick State 
Forests . 

- Family cemeteries in Northfield & Warwick State Forests. 

Large wetland areas, stream and river buffers will be managed 
under the guidelines of the Conservation Zone, with the 
additional protection afforded by the Wetlands Protection Act, 
Forest Cutting Practices regulations and all additional 
applicable legislation. 



20 



The existing beach, picnic, camping and maintenance/headquarters 
and associated parking areas will be managed under the guidelines 
of the Intensive Use Zone. 



Sites identified for potential expansion or development of 
intensive recreation facilities will be classified under the 
Intensive Use Zone - Reserved, including; 

- area proposed for Erving SF campground expansion 

- area proposed for Lake Dennison upper picnic area expansion 

- area proposed for cabin/yert construction in Wendell SF 

- any potential swimming area upgrade or development 

- new location comfort stations and other structural sites 

A detailed analysis of natural and cultural resources at these 
devlopment sites must be conducted to ensure that sensitive 
resources will not be adversely affected. A methodology for 
determining whether or not a site is suitable for expansion or 
development of intensive recreation facilities is provided in the 
following section. 




Ruggles Pond day use area in Wendell State Forest 



23, 



CARRYING CAPACITY 

Adverse effects on natural and cultural resources caused by- 
recreation activities must be weighed against the many positive 
aspects of recreation. Outdoor activities are a vital part of 
maintaining physical and mental health. In addition, there are 
educational benefits to consider. Public access for recreation 
activities allows people to gain an appreciation of the great 
variety of natural and cultural resources in the Commonwealth, 
particularly when visits are supplemented with informational 
signs or in interpretive programming. The appreciation gained 
will hopefully translate into improved stewardship for resources 
as more people realize the importance of all ecosystem 
components. This and other aspects of the visitor's recreation 
experience, such as the perception of crowding, must be 
considered in the determination of an area's carrying capacity, 
along with management considerations related to the facilities 
and staff capabilities. 

Carrying capacity is the level of activity an area can 
support without causing an unacceptable degradation of resources 
or unacceptable change to the recreation environment. Adverse 
effects to resources can occur in a variety of ways and at a 
variety of different disturbance levels. The type of recreation 
activity and other factors such as the season, short term weather 
conditions, the mix of species present, and physical parameters 
such as soil type and topography are all important aspects of the 
disturbance regime. Hikers, mountain bike riders, horseback 
riders and ATV users can all cause varying amounts of soil 
compaction and erosion. The ecology and water quality of lakes 
and ponds can be altered through boating activities that 
inadvertently introduce pollutants or aggressive, exotic species. 
Rare or endangered plants are sometimes trampled if their habitat 
is located close to intensive recreation areas such as 
pondshores, camping areas, trails and playing fields. These are 
just a few examples of the myriad ways people can effect the 
ecology or recreation environment of an area while intending only 
to enjoy it. 

The complexity of this issue is by no means limited to the 
variety of adverse effects. There are also effects from 
recreation activities that can be viewed as beneficial. In any 
given instance, some organisms will benefit from a recreation- 
caused disturbance, and in some cases the changes will benefit 
"desirable" species. 

An objective analysis of the benefits and adverse effects of 
recreation is critical for an agency that must conserve resources 
while managing for public access. It is important to set 
reasonable threshhold levels. What level of change to the 
resources or recreation environment is acceptable? The end 
result should be an objective determination of how many users 
should be permitted in an area within the constraints of 
conserving sensitive natural and cultural resources. 



24- 



Guidelines for Understanding & Determining Optimum 
Recreation Carrying Capacity. 1977. Prepared by the Urban 
Research Development Corp., Bethlehem, PA for the USDI - Bureau 
of Outdoor Recreation, provides us with a method for quantifying 
carrying capacity for a variety of recreation activities 
(Appendix C) . 

The following determination of carrying capacity, for 
boating on Laurel Lake, is provided as an example of how to use 
the above-referenced methodology. This is an essential analysis 
for Laurel Lake, because expansion of the parking area for the 
boat ramp is being considered as a long-term capital 
recommendation. However, there are concerns about conflicts 
between motor boats and other uses of the lake, and we should 
first determine a reasonable carrying capacity for these uses . 
In a similar way, carrying capacity analyses must be conducted 
prior to implementation of proposed capital improvements such as 
Erving campground expansion, Lake Dennison picnic area expansion, 
or development of new swimming area facilities. 

- Laurel Lake has a surface area of approximately 5 acres. 

- The functional power boating area is less, because a buffer 
area along the margin of the pond and for the swimming area 
must be considered. The buffer area will be estimated as 
10 feet times the perimeter of the lake, which is approx. 
8500 feet. 

- Using these figures, the buffer area is approx. 2 acres, 
leaving 30 acres of the pond available for power boats. 
Approximately 45 acres of the pond is available for 
non-motorized boats when the swimming area and shallow pond 
margins are subtracted from the 50 acre total. 

The information on the following two pages is based on excerpts 
from Guidelines for Understanding & Determining Optimum 
Recreation Carrying Capacity: Additional information from this 
source is provided in Appendix C. 

Optimum carrying capacities vary from place to place because of 
variable physical site conditions and participant situations . 
The carrying capacities presented here are shown as a range of 
possible optimum capacities from which a recreation administrator 
or planner can choose. The suggested range indicates suggested 
low and high optimum capacity limits. A "base" capacity figure 
is also given within the range; this base figure represents an 
optimum capacity level from the results of the State Standards 
Inventory, the Participant Survey, and the Administrator/Planner 
Survey. This base level assumes that the recreation activity is 
being conducted under the most normal and typical site conditions 
and participant situations for that activity. 

The suggested ranges of optimum carrying capacity are based 
largely on the results of the Participant Survey and the Park 
Administrator/Planner Survey. The professional survey team that 



2$ 



conducted the interviews reviewed and evaluated the low, high and 
average optimum capacity responses resulting from the Surveys. 
The Survey Team then reached a consensus concerning an 
appropriate optimum capacity range for each outdoor recreation 
activity. 

Factors that affect carrying capacity for boats: 

1) Location of recreation activity - Visitors in an urban area 
will generally expect, tolerate, and accept more crowded 
conditions than visitors who travel to remote locations. 

2) Quality of site amenities - The number and quality of site 
amenities affects a person's willingness to tolerate and accept 
higher levels of capacity; therefore, recreation sites with 
amenities such as scenic natural features, views or vistas can 
generally be operated at a higher capacity. 

3) Multiple use of the water - The number of boats per acre 
should be lower if other activities such as swimming are also 
occurring. 

4) Shoreline conf icruration - Water areas with very irregular 
shorelines should, on the basis of safety, accommodate fewer 
boats per acre than areas with regular, even shorelines. 

5) Circulation patterns, horse power or speed limits - Water 
bodies with defined ski lanes can safely accommodate more boats 
per acre than unmarked water bodies which allow a random pattern 
of tow paths . 

6) Degree of policing or supervision - Policed or supervised 
areas can support more boats per acre than unsupervised areas. 
Boating regulations can also allow for a greater use level. 

7) Types of aquatic life - Certain types of aquatic and pondshore 
life, under certain circumstances, are sensitive to large volumes 
of boat traffic. 

8) Depth of water - Water areas that are shallow should 
accommodate fewer boats per acre. . 

9) Rate of water turnover - The faster water is circulated 
through the system, the more boats the water area can accommodate 
related to eventual dissipation of oil and gas contamination. 



2£ 



Factors allowing a greater number of boats on Laurel Lake: 

2) Laurel Lake and the surrounding landscape can be considered a 
very scenic area. 

4) The shoreline has a fairly even and regular configuration. 

6) The area is supervised, there are DEM CMRs related to 
speed limit and time of day when water skiing is permitted, 
and there is also a 10 horse power limit on the portion of the 

lake that lies within the Town of Warwick. However, greater 
law enforcment support is needed. 

8) The lake is fairly deep with a maximum depth of approx. 3 ft. 

Factors allowing a lesser number of boats on Laurel Lake: 

1) The lake is located in a rural, fairly remote area. 

3) The lake is used for swimming, fishing, motorized and non- 
motorized boating. 

5) There are no established boating circulation patterns at 
this time. 

9) The Living Lakes report indicates that the hydraulic 
retention time is 1.5 years, a fairly slow turnover. 

Factor that will not be used as a plus or minus: 

7) Rare or endangered species are not a factor, but DFW stocks 
the lake with trout that require clean, cold, well oxygenated 
conditions . 

Positive and negative carrying capacity factors for boating on 
Laurel Lake are fairly even. This would suggest an optimum 
capacity at the base level shown on the following graphs. 

Given the 3 acres available for power boats, and 4 5 acres 
available for non-motorized or electric motor boats, this would 
set a base level of only 2 or 3 water skiers at one time, or 
three power boats without skiers, or about 3 non-motorized or 
low-power electric motor (fishing) boats. On a crowded weekend 
during the summer, the current use of the lake easily exceeds 
this estimated capacity. 

The end result of this paper analysis is a starting point to 
define a safe and enjoyable level for use of boats on Laurel 
Lake. This initial analysis must be improved with refinements 
from the on-site experience of park staff, public input, and 
adjustments after implementation (if we are able to increase 
enforcement capabilities) . 



27 



REGIONAL OPEN SPACE CONSERVATION 

DEM is steward of over one-quarter million acres of 
conservation land in Massachusetts. DEM's objective is to 
maintain a diversity of habitats within the forest & park system, 
including relatively undisturbed inner forest areas, supporting 
an important component of plant and animal diversity in 
Massachusetts. Other public agencies, nonprofits and private 
landowners are also responsible for stewardship of a considerable 
diversity, of habitats across the state. Long-term conservation 
of biodiversity will also rely on management decisions and 
actions of these landowners. 

The north-Quabbin region is unusual relative to most of 
Massachusetts because it still has considerable continuity of 
forested land, notwithstanding the substantial road network and 
patchy residential/commercial/industrial development. 
Maintaining continuity of inner forest habitat is important 
related to overall diversity of plants and animals in an 
ecosystem because habitat fragmentation caused by development 
adversely affects some forest species. The effects include; 

- a reduction in species that thrive in large tracts of 
undisturbed forest, such as the Wood Thrush and other 
songbirds, the River Otter and Fisher. 

- an increase in opportunistic omnivores such as Blue Jays, 
Crows, Raccoons, and Opossums. 

- a reduction in large predators such as owls and hawks, which 
would normally tend to keep the opportunistic omnivores in 
check. 

- disruption of migratory routes that tend to isolate 
populations . 

- an increase in the likelihood of aggressive non-native plant 
species becoming established. 

Due to these factors, the gradual loss of inner forest habitat in 
Massachusetts is adversely affecting biological diversity. 

The natural diversity of an ecosystem provides a region with 
stability to recover from onslaughts of pests, diseases, fires 
and storms. The species of plants and animals in this region 
also have recreational and esthetic value for the many people who 
enjoy bird watching, identifying plants or other aspects of 
nature appreciation. Managing an area to maintain species 
diversity is sensible because many species have potential to 
provide biochemicals for medicine or have other economic values. 

Maintenance of biodiversity at the landscape level requires 
conservation of large areas that include the most diverse 
ecosystems. The provision of greenway corridor connections and 
buffers for these areas allows for species migration and 
protection of inner forest habitat. The pattern of forest 
ownership and use is the key factor in any land protection 
strategy that attempts to maintain continuity and biodiversity at 
the landscape or ecosystem level. In Massachusetts, the 
objectives of private landowners are the most important 



2S 



consideration in developing this type of conservation plan. 
Considering the number and size of privately-owned forest 
parcels, a workable strategy to manage or conserve open space is 
not easy to achieve for a large region or river basin area. 
However, planning can be positively influenced by public 
education and landowner incentives. The Forest Stewardship 
Program, which is administered by DEM, is a good example of an 
incentive program for owners of large forested parcels who are 
interested in practicing long-term guardianship of their 
woodlands. Under the guidelines of this Program, landowners 
develop and implement stewardship plans to improve wildlife 
habitat and forest esthetics, to protect soil and water resources 
and to ensure a renewable supply of high quality wood products. 

A "stewardship neighborhood" has been initiated in North 
Orange. Eight abutting landowners with land holdings totaling 
more than 650 acres, were organized together by a consulting 
forester, and are developing a cooperative approach for 
management of their private forested parcels. The consulting 
forester requested funding from the Forest Stewardship Program to 
review and coordinate the management plans. This is a good 
example of the potential for an ecosystem based approach to 
forest management across private ownerships . The success could 
be publicized and promoted by regional nonprofits such as Mount 
Grace Land Conservation Trust and the Millers River Watershed 
Council . 

Assessment of wildlife habitat requirements, native plant 
and animal population viability, and other aspects of ecosystem 
health is best conducted at the local to landscape scale 
(hundreds to hundreds of thousands of acres) . Gap analysis is 
one method for this type of assessment, using remote sensing 
technology combined with field checks for verification. The 
principle of gap analysis is to identify where there are gaps in 
protection of cover types or ecosystems, and hot spots of species 
diversity. A description of several modified gap analyses 
conducted or ongoing in Massachusetts is provided in Appendix D. 

Using the EOEA' s ARC- INFO Geographic Information System, a 
modified gap analysis was conducted for a small portion of the 
north-Quabbin region. The intention is to highlight important 
ecological areas and inner forest habitat that are unprotected, - 
and also to highlight viable greenway corridors that could 
potentially connect existing open space. The initial results 
indicate that the analysis has good potential as an acquisition 
planning tool for DEM. Also, the perspective obtained from this 
type of analysis could be used by the environmental organizations 
working in this region to prioritize conservation strategies. 
These groups include: the Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust, 
which has protected thousands of acres of land with cooperative 
projects, including several with DEM; the Millers River Watershed 
Council; the Athol -Orange Greenway Committee; Trustees of 
Reservations; Massachusetts Audubon Society; Army Corps of 
Engineers; EOEA agencies; the Harvard Forest; and considering the 



y\ 



importance of the Millers "River basin as a subbasin of the 
Connecticut River, the working groups associated with the Conte 
Refuge and the Connecticut River Valley Open Space Planning. 

Recommendat ions 

♦ Expand coverage of gap analysis and supplement with detailed 
cover type data from the USFWS/UMass analysis, and combine 
with detailed land ownership information where feasible. 
Field checking of areas identified by the analysis is an 
important aspect of this evaluation. 

♦ Determine if there is interest in combining efforts of the 
diversified groups listed above to form a regional Greenway 
Council, in order to facilitate the cooperative identification 
and acquisition of priority inner forest habitat and corridor 
connector sites. 

♦ The analysis also shows important habitat areas that are 
already managed for conservation purposes by public and 
nonprofit agencies. DEM should take maintenance of interior 
forest habitat (or biodiversity) into account in making 
management decisions within the forests & parks of this region. 

♦ Actively participate in the Commonwealth's Watershed 
Initiative, as contributing member of Millers River basin team, 
to promote and implement planning strategies for long-term 
conservation of biodiversity at the landscape/ecosystem/river 
basin level. 




3o 



LAKES & PONDS 



BACKGROUND 

An important component of the natural resources found in the 
landscape north of the Quabbin Reservoir are the lakes and ponds. 
Lakes and ponds have significant values for the people who 
treasure them for their scenic and recreational uses. The open 
bodies of water provide an important role in the habitat for many 
species of plants and animals. 

Seven lakes and ponds located within the state forests and 
parks (Figure 3) are covered in depth in this study. Data 
gathered from previous studies, and samples taken under DEM's 
Lakes & Ponds Program in the late- summer 1994, have been assessed 
to develop recommendations for stewardship of these lakes and 
ponds. The physical features of each lake and pond are described 
below (Table 1) and lake/pond bottom sediment is described on the 
following page (Table 2) . A variety of water quality factors and 
key indicators are reviewed to determine the health of each 
waterbody and its suitability for various uses. 



EXISTING CONDITIONS 



Table 1 . Lake 


Morphometry (approximate values) . 




Lake / Pond 


Drainage 
Area 
(Acres) 


Average 
Depth 
(Feet) 


Maximum 
Depth 
(Feet) 


Lake 

Area 

(Acres) 


Volume 
(Acre-feet) 


Beaman Pond 


475 


4 


10 


2.25 


9 


Lake Dennison 


2061 


8 


15 


85 


680 


Dunn Pond 


550 


11 


24 


20 


220 


Laurel Lake 


486 


10 


30 


51 


510 


Sheomet Lake 


3400 


6 


13 


33 


198 


Ruggles Pond 


787 


3.5 


6 


19 


66 


Wickett Pond 


275 


4 


10 


25 


100 



3i 



Table 2 . Sediment Description 



Lake /Pond 



Beaman Pond 



Lake Dennison 



Dunn Pond 



Laurel Lake 



Sheomet Lake 
Ruggles Pond 



Wickett Pond 



Lake/Pond Bottom Description 

Mineral soil predominates, with a shallow 
layer of algal lake mud in some locations, 
especially near the inlets and towards the 
middle of the pond. 

The shoreline and coves contain sand and gravel 
overlain by up to 5 feet of algal lake mud 
with sand and gravel on the shore . 

Post-glacial mineral deposits were exposed 
by dredging associated with the mid- 1980' s 
restoration project. Mineral bottom is 
gradually being covered by a shallow layer 
of algal lake mud. 

The bottom is mostly gravel, except the shallow 
coves at the western and eastern ends that 
contain as much as 3.5 feet of algal lake 
mud. 

The bottom is characterized by muck and gravel 
with rock outcroppings and several islands. 

There is a uniform layer of mud 3.5 to 4 feet 
deep. The stumps and forest soils were not 
removed prior to impoundment of this man-made 
pond. 

Glacial gravel is overlain by up to 20 feet of 
algal lake mud. 



ANALYSIS 

Water quality is an important factor in the ecology and 
recreational use of a lake or pond. Pollution can have direct 
impacts on water quality and recreation, and it can lead to other 
water quality problems, such as weed infestation that reduce 
recreational values. Leaking septic systems can introduce 
viruses and unhealthful bacteria directly into a water body. 
Runoff may bring excess nutrients to the lake system, causing 
algal blooms, fish kills, unpleasant taste and odor, and reducing 
water clarity. All of these factors can lessen the potential for 
swimming, fishing, and boating. The overall integrity of the 
lake ecosystem relative to types and numbers of aquatic species 
may also be impacted. 



OK 



Several indicators are used to measure the water quality and 
health of a lake or pond. Important water quality measurements 
include : 

- Clarity or transparency, which is affected by suspended solids 
including microorganisms from within the lake ecosystem, and by 
organic acids and other sources of sediment from the watershed, 

- Temperature level throughout the water column, which is 
affected by the depth of the lake, and by factors such as wind 
and spring and fall overturn of the water column, 

- Dissolved oxygen level throughout the water column is strongly 
affected by temperature conditions, 

- Acidity coming into the lake system from a forested watershed 
or from acid precipitation, and the lake's natural buffering 
capacity that might allow for fairly stable pH conditions in 
spite of acidic input, 

- Conductivity measures the abundance of ions such as chloride 
that might come into the lake system after originating with the 
application of salt on nearby roadways, 

- Coliform bacteria levels, used to estimate potential for fecal 
contamination that could be accompanied by other pathogens, 

- Nutrient levels, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, possibly 
originating from land use activities or septic systems, and 
which strongly affect aquatic plant growth. A lake or pond is 
classified as to its trophic status, i.e. oligotrophic, 
mesotrophic, or eutrophic, based on the amount of phytoplankton 
and macrophyte growth, which is highly dependent on 
availability of nutrients, especially phosphorus. An 
oligotrophic lake generally has a low phosphorus level with 
minimal plant growth and very high clarity, usually making it 
an excellent resource for water-based recreation. A eutrophic 
lake is at the other end of the spectrum with high nutrient 
levels, which is usually conducive to an abundance of suspended 
and rooted plants. 

- Aquatic animals and plants - types and abundance (including 
phytoplakton and floating or emergent macrophytes) . 



3? 



Table 3 describes the distribution of aquatic plants found 
in the study area lakes and ponds. The following macrophyte 
species, which may have an adverse affect on recreation 
activities, occur in Massachusetts lakes and ponds: 



Myriophyllum 
Ceratophyllum demersum 
Valisneria americana 
Nymphaea odorata 
Nuphar advena 
Lemna minor 
Utricularia 
Potamogeton 



species of milfoil 
coontail 
water celery 
white water lily 
yellow water lily 
duckweed 
bladderwort 
species of pondweed 



Table 3 



Distribution of Aquatic Vegetation 
Percent Cover for Each Sampling Station 





Sparse Moderate Dense Very Dense 


Total 


Lake /Pond 


0-25% 25-50% 50-75% 75-100% Stations 


Beaman Pond 


6 2 


8 


Sheomet Lake 


12 3 1 1 


17 


Wickett Pond 
Lake Dennis on 


12 1 16 


20 


Description of Aquatic Vegetation 




Moderate problem with shoreline vegetat 


ion, 




but growth was generally sparse 




Ruggles Pond 


Severe problem overall 





u 



LAKE & POND DESCRIPTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

Seaman Pond is located in the Otter River State Forest in 
the Town of Winchendon. It is part of one of the oldest public 
campsites in Massachusetts. The Pond is a popular recreation 
site for swimming by day-users and campers from the adjacent 
campsites . There are two beaches to accommodate both day-users 
and the one hundred campsites at the Pond. There are many picnic 
tables and a pavilion along the shore. 

Beaman has two tributaries, one from Mill Glen Pond, and the 
other from a small pond in a forested upland. A CCC dam, 
constructed in the 1930' s, impounds the Pond. Water flows 
through two dam outlets eventually leading to the Otter River and 
the Millers River. 

The clarity of Beaman Pond is marginal related to 
regulations for public swimming. The transparency of the water, 
measured by the Secchi depth in late-summer 1994 was 1.1 meters 
(less than 4 feet) with a tea color. The color and lack of 
clarity is probably due to the abundant population of 
phytoplankton in the pond ecosystem, and humic acids flowing in 
from wetlands in the watershed. 

There were very few macrophytes when the Pond was sampled by 
DEM staff in late-summer 1994. However, a small amount of the 
exotic nuisance species Elodea was found during the 1994 
sampling. Despite the lack of aquatic plants, the Chlorophyll -a 
level indicates that the pond is borderline between mesotrophic 
and eutrophic. 

A comparison of phosphorus and nitrogen levels at the stream 
inlets versus the dam outflow point highlights a separate origin 
for these two elemental nutrients. The streams seem to be 
bringing in phosphorus from upstream sources in the watershed, 
while there may be a source of nitrogen in the area immediately 
surrounding the pond. 

There is a small decrease in dissolved oxygen with depth, 
but the pond is too shallow to be subject to seasonal 
stratification. The oxygen levels are suitable for the pan fish 
population, that is annually supplemented by a park staff 
stocking program, intended for the benefit of young fishing 
enthusiasts from the campground. The pond was mildly 
acidic measuring in the low 6 range for pH. Measurements at the 
inlets were pH 6.5. Although this level of acidity is very 
reasonable, most of the pond's acid neutralizing capacity has 
been expended. The natural buffering capacity is determined by 
the amount of calcium carbonate and other sources of alkalinity 
present per volume of water. 

A moderately high specific conductance in the pond may have 
come from road salt and/or wastewater in the inlet streams that 
pass under Route 202. 



37 



Recommendations 

♦ The cause (s) of Beaman's marginal water clarity must be 
assessed and remediated so that the pond can be maintained as a 
viable swimming resource. The following two items could be 
related to the pond's water quality. 

♦ Additional study is needed to determine the origin of nitrogen, 
phosphorus, and salts that are reaching the pond. This could 
potentially be accomplished through shoreline surveys organized 
as educational programs by park interpreters. 

♦ Work with MHD District Office to consider reduced road salt 
use . 

♦ The impacts on Beaman Pond from the annual drawdown of Mill 
Glen Lake should also be determined. 

♦ pH and acid neutralizing capacity should be measured annually 
due to the marginal remaining buffering capacity of this pond. 
Remedial treatment should be considered if the pH drops 
below .5 . 

♦ Replace vault toilets with Clivus composters. 

♦ Regular drawdowns of Beaman Pond have been effective for 
control of aquatic vegetation and dam safety inspections and 
should continue pursuant to the Order of Conditions issued by 
the Winchendon Conservation Commission (DEP File # 345-170) . 
DEM must apply for an Order of Conditions extension every three 
years. Contact Winchendon Conservation Comm in late-fall 1997. 

♦ Dam rehabilitation work as prioritized by the Dam Safety 
Program in coordination with Division of Forests & Parks. 




Outflow from the Beaman Pond dam 



33 



Lake Derm is on is located within a flood control facility 
operated by the Army Corp of Engineers (ACOE) . The lake has a 
surface area of 83 acres and a maximum depth of 15 feet . The 
watershed drains over 2,000 acres. 

The primary objective of Lake Dennison is flood control and 
the water level is controlled by the ACOE. DEM manages the lake 
and surrounding recreation area and forested land under a 5 -year 
lease with the ACOE. Recreation is supervised by Otter River 
State Forest. The two agencies therefore provide multiple 
functions with this reservoir, with flood control as the primary 
function. 

The North and East Dennsion Camping Areas provide 150 
campsites at the Lake. In addition, there is a large parking 
area, boat ramp, beach, pavilion, and dam. In addition to summer 
recreation such as swimming and non-motorized boating, there are 
many winter recreational opportunities including snowmobiling and 
x- country skiing. Fishing is a popular activity at Lake Dennison 
year-round. DFW stocks the lake with trout on an annual basis. 

Lake Dennison has a moderate problem with planktonic algae 
and a moderate problem with shoreline weeds and water color. The 
lake did have some shoreline vegetation, including pickerelweed. 
The lake experienced some thermal stratification with markedly 
lower dissolved oxygen at its greatest depth. One of the two 
inlets had a much higher amount of total solids and a much higher 
specific conductance. This northern inlet also had a greater 
amount of chloride, and a relatively lower level of nitrogen. 
Evidence suggested that phosphorus did not come from the 
sediments. The low acid neutralizing capacity of the Lake made 
it susceptible to acidification. Water clarity was marginal but 
acceptable. Phosphorus levels were also acceptable. Total 
coliform was recorded at 100 and 200, within the EPA limit of 
1,000 per 100 ml. There is erosion in isolated locations within 
the campground along the northern and eastern shores . 

Recommendations 

♦ Conduct initial check of septic systems and rehabilitate as 
necessary. Pump annually in Fall after recreation season. 

♦ The level of boating activity warrants special precautions to 
prevent the introduction of exotic macrophytes such as milfoil. 

♦ Erosion control measures should be implemented on steep slopes 
in the campgrounds to prevent excess siltation. 

♦ Shoreline survey of inlets, especially northern inlet, 
including check of highway garage location as possible source 
of excess chloride. 

♦ Coordination with DFW related to annual pH testing associated 
with stocking program, and development of recommendations for 
remedial treatment with DFW if necessary, to maintain the lake 
as a fishing resource. 



3<? 



Dunn Pond is part of 'the Gardner Heritage State Park located 
about a mile from the center of Gardner. This roughly 20 acre 
pond is a glacial kettle hole with a dam increasing the pond' s 
depth. Dunn Pond was subject to a natural succession that was. 
exacerbated by human impacts. Following an extensive cooperative 
effort to restore Dunn Pond, it is once again a high quality 
waterbody and a center of recreation. Visitor usage has 
increased over 200 percent, clearly demonstrating the success of 
these efforts. 

Dunn Pond was severely affected by pollution from its 
watershed, which caused eutrophication. The pond was filling 
with sediment and was characterized by dense growth of aquatic 
vegetations. When the City and DEM cooperated to bring the pond 
under DEM management as part of Gardner Heritage State Park, 
plans were made for the pond's cleanup and revitalization, which 
included complete drawdown and dredging of sediment . The work 
was done as a cooperative restoration effort by local, state, and 
federal agencies . The restoration was guided by the Department 
of Environmental Protection's Division of Water Pollution 
Control. Funding came from the U.S. EPA, the Massachusetts 
Chapter 628 Clean Lakes and Great Ponds Program, and the Chapter 
798 Urban Heritage State Park. Work began in January, 1984, and 
was completed in March, 1985. The project included excavation of 
the adjacent Stump Pond, the construction of a filter dike at 
Stump Pond, and the diversion of stormwater through Stump Pond. 
Stump Pond is now used as a detention basin, greatly reducing the 
amount of sediment, runoff, and road salt that reaches Dunn Pond. 

A 1996 rehabilitation project addressed several ongoing 
maintenance issues that effect water quality in Dunn Pond. The 
work included restructuring, cleaning and replenishing filter 
sand for the Stump Pond filter dike, redressing of the dam 
spillway, and the removal of old blacktop and stabilization of 
eroding banks where the lakeshore closely parallels Pearl Street. 

The expenditures have paid off with the successful 
restoration and protection of Dunn Pond. It has become a much 
cleaner, and popular center for recreation and enjoyment near the 
urban center of Gardner. Rehabilitation and improvements have 
been conducted to allow for maximum accessibility, following ADA 
guidelines. Dunn Pond State Park is considered the model DEM 
property related to accessibility standards. Swimming, non- 
motorized boating, and ice skating are some of the water 
recreation opportunities at Dunn Pond today. The shore has a 
picnic area, a large visitor center, beach, and lights for the 
skating area. The pond is stocked by DFW and is a very popular 
fishing resource. 

Measurements made after Dunn Pond was refilled indicate 
areas of potential concern related to water quality. The 
seasonal temperature stratification causes low oxygen conditions 
in the deeper water during the summer, which could potentially 
have adverse effects on fish populations. The water is also 
quite acidic, although the pH has recovered somewhat from the low 
level measured at the time the pond was refilled. Finally, 
conductivity measurements indicate that road salts and other ions 
are entering the pond in fairly large quantities. The 



HO 



conductivity of Dunn Pond is twice that of Stump Pond's 
tributaries, demonstrating that the source of pollution is 
probably runoff from roads and other watershed sources 
immediately surrounding Dunn Pond. 

Macrophytes are generally no longer a problem at Dunn Pond, 
although aquatic plants do exist in a fairly dense coverage near 
the inflow from Stump Pond, partially along the island, and in a 
cove near the dam. Macrophytes growth also occurs at the end of 
the Pond near the dam, and scattered along the shoreline. 



Recommendations 

♦ Considering the successful cooperative effort and expenditure 
of funds, the water quality of the Dunn and Stump Ponds, and 
the integrity of the filter dike need to be monitored and 
maintained. 

♦ Immediate steps have been taken to reduce the erosion at the 
northeast and northwest corners of Dunn Pond, such as hay 
bales or silt screen barriers. This should be followed by more 
permanent measures . 

♦ DEM will work cooperatively with Gardner for the transfer of 
deed to Stump Pond from the City to the Commonwealth so that 
DEM can actively maintain this key element for the protection 
of Dunn Pond. 

- Catch basins on Pearl Street and Betty Spring Road need to 
be regularly cleaned.' 

- The riser pipe spillway elevation needs to be 
maintained 1106.0 feet, to prevent unfiltered water and 
pollutants from entering Dunn Pond. 

- Accumulated sand and silt should be removed from storm 
drain pipe outlets and surrounding pond bottom. 

- Clogged 3 inch drain pipes should be flushed, especially 
at the southeast corner. 

- In order to limit the amount of solids from accumulating 
in the filter system, assistance might be sought for 
Gardner's limited street sweeping and cleaning catch 
basins . 

- Inspect the filter dike on a regular basis. Title of 
Stump Pond parcel transferred from City to DEM. 

- All brush and trees should be cleared from the earthen dam 
located at the south end of the pond. 

- Erosion control rehab for existing pond trails. 

♦ Coordinate with DFW related to annual pH testing associated 
with stocking program, and development of recommendations for 
remedial treatment with DFW if necessary, to maintain the pond 
as a fishing resource. 

♦ Implement LWCF Universal Access construction phase with Best 
Management Practices to maintain water quality parameters. 

♦ Description of the dam and additional recommendations are in 
Appendix I . 



Laurel Lake straddles the town boundary between Erving and 
Warwick in Erving State Forest. It covers 51 acres, but is 
narrow with a maximum width of approximately 700 feet. It has an 
average depth of 15 feet and a maximum depth of 30 feet. The 
drainage area is 486 acres. There are seasonal cottages on the 
opposite shore from the beach and swimming area. 

The swimming beach includes a new accessibility ramp that 
leads into the water. A parking area and boat ramp provide 
access for motorized and nonmotorized boats. 304 CMR 16.10 
permits water skiing only between noon and 6 p.m., speed is 
limited to 10 m.p.h. during all other times. Other facilities at 
the lake include a concession building, new comfort station, 
campground, and picnic area. Swimming is especially popular. A 
scenic vista can be reached via a short loop trail . DFW stocks 
the lake with trout on an annual basis and fishing is a popular 
activity throughout the year. 

Laurel Lake underwent water quality monitoring by Living 
Lakes, Inc. beginning in 1987. Laurel Lake was found to be 
slightly acidic, with a marginal buffering capacity. Following 
recommendations from the Living Lakes Program the lake was limed 
in October, 1987 and again in May, 1991 because tests conducted 
after the initial treatment showed that the lake was 
reacidifying. Subsequent treatment and monitoring suggested that 
the level of acidity would be sufficient to maintain water 
quality through 1994. Aluminum may become more concentrated in 
acidic lakes and can be toxic to fish populations in low 
concentrations. Although dissolved aluminum concentrations in 
Laurel Lake were found to be above 60 micrograms per liter, the 
fish populations did not appear to be stressed. The lack of 
stress could not be fully explained, but it may be explained by 
the high levels of calcium. 

Other water quality variables monitored by the Living Lakes 
Program included transparency, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. 
The transparency of the lake water was good, ranging from 4 to 
5.5 meters. Laurel Lake became stratified by water temperature 
gradient during the summer and dissolved oxygen below the 
critical level of 3 milligrams per liter for game fish was 
recorded in the bottom layer during the summer. 

Description of the dam and associated recommendations are in 
Appendix I . 



HX 



Recommendations 

♦ Coordinate with DFW related to annual pH testing associated 
with stocking program, and development of recommendations for 
remedial treatment with DFW if necessary, to maintain the lake 
as a fishing resource. This might be the most efficient way to 
follow-up on Living Lakes Program testing and recommendations. 

♦ Determine funding source for future lime treatments that may 

be called for under the Clean Lakes Program recommendations and 
as indicated by ongoing pH testing. 

♦ The narrow configuration of the lake presents a lack of surface 
area to adequately accommodate the full demand for motorized 
and nonmotorized recreation uses. A carrying capacity 
assessment should be conducted, establishing clear 
recommendations for quantity and timing for various uses. 

♦ Assess whether the speed limit CMR is working to reduce 
potential user conflicts. Is there a pattern of accidents? 
Are the park staff receiving complaints? Are boaters complying 
with the CMR? 

♦ Coordinate with residents, Boards of Health and DEP to use the 
new Title V guidelines and funding sources to upgrade failing 
septic systems whenever feasible. 



■IMW^ 



^iiP^ 




, ....-.:■.■: . ■:..■. t , , ■ .: ■ ■ .,:, 




Cottages along the Laurel Lake shoreline. 



HZ 



A dam across Tully Brook in Warwick impounds about 174 acre- 
feet of water that is known as Sheomet Lake in Warwick State 
Forest. The lake has a surface area of 33 acres, with a mean 
depth of 6 feet and a maximum depth of 13 feet. It is also known 
as "Clubhouse Pond" by some residents. Sheomet Lake's shoreline 
is undeveloped, except for a gravel launch for trailer boat 
launching, a parking lot for approximately 20 vehicles, and an 
area at the southern end where initial beach preparation was 
conducted in the 1970s. Recreational use of the lake includes 
fishing, cartop boat access, and unauthorized swimming. The lake 
is dotted with several small islands, and the surrounding 
watershed is mostly forested hills located close to the New 
Hampshire border. Aquatic vegetation is sparse with some dense 
growth occurring near the north end inlets atop shallow deltas. 

In the fall of 1994, Sheomet Lake was characterized by 
eutrophic levels of phytoplankton as measured by an analysis of 
chlorophyll -a. The phytoplankton in combination with humic acids 
from the watershed result in only moderate water clarity. The 
Secchi Disc depth was found to be 1.5 meters with a humic brown 
water color. This level of water clarity is acceptable but not 
ideal for contact recreation standards. The phosphorus level of 
the lake was measured in three locations and ranged from 0.018 to 
0.028, which is also within the eutrophic range. The phosphorus 
and nitrogen levels are conducive to an abundant population of 
phytoplankton growth that decreases water clarity. The 
phosphorus appears to be originating from one of the two 
tributary streams. The level of dissolved oxygen is high 
throughout due to the lack of temperature gradient from the 
surface to bottom waters of this shallow lake. The moderate 
level of acidity allows for a healthy fish population and contact 
recreation, but the buffering capacity is low to moderate. The 
lake had a low to moderate specific conductance indicating that 
ions such as road salt are not a problem. This is probably due 
to protection afforded by the forested watershed with few roads 
near the lake . 

A 1980 sample identified eight fish species in Sheomet Lake 
(listed in order of abundance) : brown bullhead, pumpkinseed, 
white sucker, smallmouth bass, gold shiner, eastern brook trout 
in the deeper waters, killifish, and American eel. The lake 
receives trout annually under DFW's stocking program. 

Recommendations : 

♦ The recommendation under Ruggles Pond for cost / benefit and 
recreation demand analysis should include analysis of Sheomet 
Lake . 

♦ Water quality data should be sampled again and compared with 
1994 values in order to develop specific recommendations for 
improving water clarity and managing aquatic vegetation. 

♦ The source (s) of phosphorus and nitrogen should be identified 
and inputs to the lake should be lessened if feasible. 

♦ Recommendations for Sheomet Lake dam are listed in Appendix I . 



w 



The 19-acre Ruggles Pond has a maximum depth of only 6 feet. 
Ruggles Pond is located in Wendell State Forest. The pond lies 
behind the State Forest Headquarters. There is a picnic area, 
walking trails, cartop boat access, and a swimming beach along 
the lake. The area is heavily used in the winter, with groomed 
snowmobile trails and sledding. Ruggles Pond is used for fishing 
and is especially noted for its beauty. The 787 acre drainage 
area has some roads, homes, and wetlands, but it is mainly state 
forest land. 

Three management problems at Ruggles Pond are geese, 
beavers, and aquatic vegetation. An abundant goose population 
can contribute to bacterial water quality problems. The beavers 
have continued to block the outlet of the dam, despite efforts by 
the staff. Likewise, lily pads have been encroaching on the 
swimming area. In addition, the water clarity is below the 
minimum for swimming due to humic material and algal growth. 
This very shallow pond is an abandoned field that was filled 
behind a CCC dam. Stumps and other organic material were left 
behind, resulting in many of the water quality problems that 
exist today. 

Ruggles Pond has a lack of water clarity and abundant 
aquatic vegetation. The water is acidic, ranging from a pH of 
4.8 to 5.4, and the buffering capacity is low. 

The pond is eutrophic, characterized by abundant 
macrophytes. Swimming quality is lessened by a lack of water 
clarity. The clarity is affected by humic acids from the 
watershed, organic materials from the underlying terrestrial 
habitat soils, and by phytoplankton. Also, aquatic vegetation 
such as fragrant waterlily, bladderwort, watershield, and wild 
celery spread into the swimming area. Leeches also exist in the 
pond. 

Recommendations 

♦ This pond will only be feasible for long-term beach use if a 
permanent solution is implemented for water clarity and aquatic 
weeds. Conduct cost / benefit and recreation demand analysis 
of improving and maintaining this pond versus development of 
new facilities on another DEM-managed lake or pond. 

♦ Long-term management of water clarity and aquatic weeds will 
require drawdown to dredge out the muck and terrestrial soil 
to the point where glacial sediments are exposed. 

♦ If feasible the beach area should be supplied with its own 
water source to maintain adequate circulation. 

♦ Coordinate with DFW related to management of local beaver 
population. 



H5 



Wicket t Pond , located in Wendell State Forest, is 
approximately 30 acres in surface area. Somewhat out of the way, 
the pond can be accessed via an unpaved park road. A beaver dam 
has increased the depth of the pond, partially flooding the boat 
ramp and encroaching on a small parking lot . The watershed 
includes some homes and roads, but is mainly forested upland. It 
includes some vegetated wetland areas . 

Wickett Pond is nearing the end of natural lake succession, 
making it uniquely beautiful and ecologically dynamic. The pond 
does not have an overabundance of nitrogen or phosphorus, but 
aquatic vegetation density varied from sparse to very dense in 
the late-summer 1994. Despite acidic water and dense growth of 
macrophytes, there is unauthorized swimming. Visitors also use 
the access point to put in cartop boats. DFW stocks trout in 
Mormon Hollow Brook, which flows out of the pond to the Millers 
River. 

Wickett Pond was analyzed in late-summer 1994 as a possible 
alternative site for swimming in Wendell State Forest, but was 
found to be unsuitable for intensive water-based recreation. The 
pH of Wickett Pond is very acidic (below 5 in the late- summer 
1994) with an extremely low buffering capacity. The acidity of 
the pond was at a level that made it unsuitable for most fish 
species, and could cause eye discomfort for swimmers. Despite 
some humic acid discoloration, the transparency of the water is 
good, as measured by a Secchi depth of 2 . 5 meters. The nitrogen, 
phosphorus and specific conductance levels in Wickett Pond are 
very low, indicating that very little pollution is reaching the 
pond. Dissolved oxygen levels are high throughout the water 
column due to the lack of temperature gradient from the surface 
to the bottom of the pond. 

Consistent with its successional status, Wickett Pond has 
abundant aquatic vegetation. Some milfoil was found at Wickett 
Pond, but it was a native species rather than an aggressive Asian 
variety. Bladderwort and pond lily are the most abundant plants. 

Wickett Pond has been a part of the landscape since the 
glaciers retreated. It is approaching the final stages of lake 
succession. Over the millenia the basin has gradually filled in 
with many meters of lake mud and it will eventually fill in 
completely unless natural successional trends are actively 
altered. 

Recommendations : 

♦ DEM management for water quality and recreation should allow 
the continuation of the pond's natural succession. 



% 



Regional Recommendations: 

♦ All the lakes and ponds should be regularly monitored. The 
lakes and ponds within this study either are plagued by 
acidification, or are susceptible to acidification. Many of 
the lakes and ponds also have some problem with aquatic 
vegetation. Therefore, annual monitoring is recommended. 
Coordinated monitoring and remediation can save time and money 
Resources can also be shared to increase the efficiency and 
maintain the health of the lakes and ponds in this region. 

♦ Install signs at all DEM-managed boat access sites encouraging 
boaters to remove plant debris before and after boats are 
launched, to reduce the spread of exotic and nuisance plants. 
Signs are available from the Public Access Board. 

SWIMMING SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT 

SCORP identifies a demand for water based recreation, 
particularly swimming, throughout the state. The lake and pond 
analyses described in this section allow for a swimming 
suitability assessment. 



Current 
Status 



Lake / Pond 



Hindrances 



Solutions 



Authorized 
Swimming 



Beaman Pond 



-Water clarity 
-Phytoplankton 



-Drawdown, monitor, 
and supplement 
buffering capacity 



Lake Dennison -Potential 

sanitary 
problem 



-Comfort station 
rehabilitation & 
fall pumping of 
septic tanks 



Dunn Pond 
Laurel Lake 



•Eutrophication 
■Water clarity 

•Motorized 
boat safety 

■Leaking septic 
systems 



•Ongoing mainenance 
of Stump Pond 

Speed limit 
enforcement 
Septic upgrades 



Unauthorized 
Swimming 



Sheomet Lake 



- Phy t op 1 ank t on 
-Chlorophyll 
-No facilities 



Construction of 
swimming and 
recreation area 
if justified by 
supply and demand 



Ruggles Pond 



•Water clarity 
•Aquatic 
vegetation 
•Beavers 



■Draining, dredging 
to glacial soil, 
and finding fresh 
water source for 
swimming area 



No Swimming Wickett Pond 



■Aquatic 
vegetation 
■Very acidic 
-Beavers 



■No swimming area 
development 



- Hi 



In addition to the preceding detailed lake and pond 
analyses, the following descriptive information is provided for 
two important water bodies, which are located within this 
planning region. 

Richards Reservoir is located in Warwick. Approximately 58 
acre -feet of water is impounded by the Richards Reservoir Upper 
Dam, situated on Black Brook in the Warwick State Forest. The 
reservoir is 4,000 feet long and reaches a maximum width of 500 
feet, creating a total surface area of 35 acres. The average 
depth is 1.9 feet, with a maximum depth of less than 10 feet. 
The reservoir's drainage area is .88 square mile. 

The reservoir's primary recreational use is fishing. The 
reservoir is stocked with game fish by the State Department of 
Fisheries and Wildlife. There are no beach areas, picnic 
grounds, campsites, or private homes around the reservoir. 

Riceville Pond is an impoundment created by a dam across 
Nelson Brook within Petersham State Forest. The site is a scenic 
resource enjoyed by occasional hikers. The bulk of the pond lies 
in Petersham, with a small portion extending into Athol that 
includes the dam. The shallow pond has a surface area of 68 
acres and a volume of approximately 187 acre -feet under normal 
conditions. The dam is 15 feet in height, and when it was 
inspected in 1987 was found to be in good condition, and was 
categorized as low hazard. 




% 



RECREATION 

BACKGROUND 

This cluster of parks has substantial opportunities for 
swimming, fishing and boating, including the use of Laurel Lake 
in Erving SF, Dunn Pond, Lake Dennison, Beamon Pond in Otter 
River SF and Ruggles Pond in Wendell SF. Sheomet Lake or 
Clubhouse Pond in Warwick SF also sustains considerable public 
use, but on a more informal basis. The formal water-based 
recreation facilities are all at capacity during the July 4th and 
Labor Day weekends if the weather cooperates. Laurel Lake is the 
closest to capacity on a more regular basis, having to turn away 
visitors on several nice weather weekends each season. In the 
winter season Dunn Pond offers an excellent site for ice skating 
at the eastern end of the cluster. 

The camping areas located in Erving State Forest (32 sites) , 
Otter River State Forest (100 sites and three group sites) and 
Lake Dennison Recreation Area (15 sites) provide large wooded 
campsites in a scenic setting. Families that camp in these areas 
tend to enjoy their visit so much that they return year-after- 
year. The large tracts of conservation land are characterized by 
abundant game and nongame wildlife, and are therefore an 
important resource for hunters and individuals interested in 
photography or quiet nature observation. Due to its location and 
topography, the snow conditions, along with the Berkshires and 
the Mohawk Trail corridor, are the best in Massachusetts. All of 
these important public recreation resources are located only an 
hour to an hour-and-a-half from Boston. The chart on the 
following page highlights the variety of recreation opportunities 
that are available in these parks . 

A substantial percentage of the individuals who attended the 
initial public meeting for this GOALS plan brought ideas and 
suggestions related to trail use. This clearly demonstrated the 
importance of all -season trail opportunities in the north-Quabbin 
region. A working group to address trail issues was formed from 
public meeting attendees and other interested people. Trail 
opportunities and recommendations are covered separately in the 
following chapter of the plan. 



W 



EXISTING OPPORTUNITIES 



Gardner Heritage State Park 



Dunn Pond State Park 



GSBild] 



@BBBHBEUH03E(1EO 



Otter River State Forest 



Lake Dennison Recreation Area 



Federated Women's Club State Forest 



Erving State Forest 



Wendell State Forest 
Mt. Grace State Forest 



Warwick State Forest 



QHBG3BII53Et]QE10 E 



BS0EI3BG3l3EEliBISE*]BQEEI3E3 



EQOHE3EHEE3 



SSBBBlSBB3QBglE3[SSBBBEl 

ibbbbhobSbShe 



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m 



Accessible Resirooms 

Bicycling Paths 

Boating (motorized) 

Hunting (restrictions) 

Interpretive Program 
i (seasonal) 

Leashed Pels Allowed 



Boating (non-motorized) 
Boat Ramp 
|^B Camping 
Picnicking 
Resirooms 
Scenic Viewine Area 



BIS 



Q 



Camping/Wilderness 

Canoeing 

Fishing 

Showers 

Skiing (cross-country) 

Snowmobiling 







Hiking 
Historic Site 
Horseback Riding Trails 
Swimming 
3| Trailer/R.V. Dumping 
Trailcr/RV Hookup 



B 







■ Walking Trails 



50 



GOALS VISITOR SURVEYS 

During the summer of 1994 a visitor survey was distributed 
to campers, and also conducted in interview fashion with day- 
users. The parks covered by the survey are Dunn Pond SP, Lake 
Dennison SP, Otter River SF, Erving SF and Wendell SF. The 
number of surveys returned does not allow for formulation of 
quantitative results from full statistical analysis, but does 
indicate some characteristics of our park visitors that can help 
DEM gain insights to improve our delivery of visitor services. 
Along with the following text description, a table summarizing 
the survey results is provided in Appendix E. 

The return rates for the surveys ranged between ten and 
twenty percent. Most of the visitors had learned of the state 
park opportunities from family or friends. Road signs and maps, 
DEM brochures, tourism brochures and local media were less 
important but consistent sources of information. There was no 
clear distinction between day users and campers or between parks 
related to the number of years that visitors had been returning 
to the DEM facilities. Overall, the visitors were fairly evenly 
distributed between those who were on their first visit, those 
who had been coming to the park for one to five years, and people 
who had been regular visitors for more than five years. 

The day users originated mostly from local communities and 
other locations in central Massachusetts or along the Route 2 
corridor. The campers came to the facilities from greater 
distances. Only one-quarter to one-half of the campers came from 
local communities. Approximately one-half came from the greater 
Boston area or other locations in eastern Massachusetts, and ten 
to fifteen percent came from abutting states. 

The day use visitors came to Dunn Pond, Lake Dennison and 
Ruggles Pond mainly to swim and have a picnic, but taking a walk 
or a hike while they were in the park was an activity enjoyed by 
more than half of the visitors. Fishing and boating are also 
popular activities as indicated by a lesser but consistent 
percentage of the responders. It is interesting to note that ten 
percent of the visitors who were surveyed at Dunn Pond indicated 
they had attended outdoor band concerts in the city. The band 
concerts are organized through the efforts of DEM' s Heritage Park 
staff. Also, more than twenty percent of survey responders 
indicated skating at the pond as one of their recreation 
activities. This is a sizable percentage considering that the 
survey was administered during the summer. 

A survey distributed in the Wendell Post sampled a different 
group of state forest users, people not as likely to be found at 
the Ruggles Pond day use area. The responders to this local 
newspaper survey were most interested in non-motorized trail use 
in DEM forests and parks. Hiking, nordic skiing and bird 
watching were the most popular activities mentioned by two-thirds 
or more, swimming and picnicking were checked by about half the 



Si 



respondents, and a moderate activity level was indicated for 
mountain biking, skating, camping, fishing and boating at Wendell 
State Forest or other DEM parks . 

A total of forty eight campers, staying at campgrounds in 
Erving State Forest, Lake Dennison Recreation Area and Otter 
River State Forest, responded to the survey. Swimming and 
picnicking, along with the opportunity to camp, are the primary 
reasons that people come to these DEM campgrounds. The visitors 
often walk and hike during their stay, and about one -third 
indicated that they take advantage of opportunities for fishing 
and boating. 

The campers survey also questioned the park visitors as to 
what they were doing outside the park, providing a window on 
products and services they might be purchasing in nearby 
communities. This allows us to get a sense of tourism related 
benefits to the local economy, generated as a result of people 
visiting DEM parks. Survey responses indicate that more than 
half of DEM park campers in this region patronize grocery stores, 
restaurants and retail stores. The day use visitors also 
purchase local services, but not as frequently as the campers. 
The staff of Gardner Heritage SP in cooperation with the Greater 
Gardner Area Chamber of Commerce have noticed a particularly 
strong connection between attendance at the Heritage Visitor 
Center and visits to the local furniture outlets. 



SANDLER ASSOCIATES SURVEY 

In 1995 DEM contracted with Richard Sandler & Associates to 
conduct a Recreation Consumer Attitude Survey and a Camping 
Consumer Attitude Survey. Respectively, the purpose of these 
surveys was to learn more about the interests and desires of the 
"outdoor recreation public" in Massachusetts, and to learn more 
about the habits and preferences of people who regularly go 
camping in the northeast. The long range objective is for DEM to 
use the survey results to increase its responsiveness to its 
potential park visitor market. 

A summary of the recreation survey indicates that walking, 
picnicking, swimming and hiking are popular activities with more 
than 50% of the respondents. Historic appreciation, biking, 
nature study, fishing and camping are also very popular, having 
been mentioned by one-quarter to one-half of the respondents, 
perhaps reflecting more specific interest groups. Summer is the 
dominant season for use of the parks, but spring and fall are not 
far behind, and about one-third of the respondents use the parks 
during the winter months. This is particularly significant 
related to this plan that covers an area with winter conditions 
that afford excellent cold weather recreation opportunities. 

The recreation survey and the camping survey both indicate 
that the most important services we can offer to visitors include 
a knowledgeable and friendly staff, and ample information about 
the parks . 



51 



The camping survey determined that preference between public 
and private campgrounds is evenly split, autumn and spring 
camping are surprisingly popular with 4 out of 5 campers likely 
to go camping at that time of year, weekend trips are more 
popular than camping vacations, and tent camping is the most 
popular type of camping. When deciding where to camp, 
cleanliness, safety and an attractive setting are considered to 
be the most important criteria. This speaks well for 
Massachusetts Forests & Parks, because overall Massachusetts 
ranked high in the northeast as a popular camping destination, 
tying with New Hampshire and New York. The following facilities 
are considered important by more than two- thirds of the camping 
public; hot showers, fire places, self -guided nature trails, 
swimming facilities, picnic tables, information/education center, 
park store, water at the site, play fields, and universal access 
enhancements. Finally, the camping survey indicates that cabins 
would be popular if facilities were available. Most campers have 
never camped in a cabin, but more that 4 out of 5 would like to 
try it in the future . 

Marketing recommendations from the Richard Sandler & 
Associates surveys are incorporated with the recommendations at 
the end of this section. 



VISITOR ATTENDANCE 

Using one park (Lake Dennison) from the eastern end of the 
cluster, and one park (Erving) from the western end, data on 
numbers of day users and campers in 1984, 1989 and 1994 is shown 
in the following bar graphs to highlight recent trends in visitor 
attendance. The greater number of visitors at Lake Dennison is 
simply a reflection of the capacity of the facility. In this 
subjective analysis one must also take into account the weather, 
because overall visitor attendance during a cloudy cool summer 
will be less than attendance during a year with many warm and 
sunny weekends . 

There is no outstanding trend in number of campers at either 
of these parks. The graphs reflect camping facilities that 
maintain a fairly steady attendance rate with both parks at or 
near capacity for most of the summer. The decrease in number of 
paid day users in 1994 may reflect the decreased ability to cover 
and charge a fee for day use facilities due to reduced staff 
numbers. Although data on number of nonpaid day users is an 
estimate from park staff, the estimates from both facilities show 
a trend towards a decrease in attendance. This could be a 
reflection of weather factors for the years used in this 
analysis, or it could reflect a trend in public use of these 
facilities and dispersed recreation activities in general. 



53 



LAKE DENNISON STATE PARK 
VISITOR ATTENDANCE 




K§9 ESTIMATED 

DAY USERS (NONPAID) 



DAY USERS (PAID) 



CAMPERS 



1984 



1989 



1994 



Si 



ERVING STATE FOREST 
VISITOR ATTENDANCE 






on 

O 

i^ 

CO 

> 

o 

or 

CD 




55S ESTIMATED 

DAY USERS (NONPAID) 
DAY USERS (PAID) 



CAMPERS 



1984 



1989 



1994 



55 



SCORP 

In order to qualify for Federal Land .& Water Conservation 
Fund allocations, Massachusetts must develop a Statewide 
Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP) . The plan is 
renewed on a five-year basis and includes an analysis of 
recreation supply and demand, with the data separated by regions 
that are mostly defined by county boundaries. The coverage area 
of this GOALS plan is a small subregion within the Central Mass. 
(Worcester County) and Connecticut River Valley (Franklin, 
Hampshire & Hampden Counties) SCORP planning regions. SCORP 
analysis (1988 - 1992) for this coverage area indicates a demand 
for water-based recreation such as swimming, fishing and boating, 
and increasing access to waterways. SCORP also recommends 
expansion of hiking and nordic skiing opportunities, and 
improving the image and public awareness of state-owned and 
operated facilities with particular emphasis on facilities which 
provide picnicking, hiking, fishing and boating. There is also 
an indication of a need to expand opportunities for ice skating 
and field-based activities and to actively promote existing 
opportunities for ice skating. 

Initial analyses from a survey conducted for the 1995 - 2000 
SCORP indicate that, in comparison to other regions in 
Massachusetts, responders from the Connecticut River Valley and 
Central Mass. express a need for facilities offering picnicking, 
camping, swimming, hiking, nordic skiing and mountain biking. 
The results show that responders from all areas in the state most 
often become aware of recreational resources either from family 
and friends, or from newspapers. The recent SCORP survey also 
reveals that, related to state funding initiatives, individuals 
are most supportive of maintenance, rehabilitation and 
improvements for existing facilities. 

MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

DEM will strive to provide visitors with modern yet rustic 
recreation facilities in a safe, clean environment. Visitor 
services will continue to include a great variety of recreation 
activities, outdoor educational experiences, and a chance to just 
find a peaceful place to relax and draw in some fresh air. 

In order to effectively provide these services, and to 
enhance recreation opportunities, DEM will seek advice from 
organized user groups, individual park visitors, neighbors and 
the surrounding communities. 



BC 



RECOMMENDATIONS 

Camping- : The Erving State Forest campground has 32 campsites, 
which do not meet the full demand for camping at this park or on 
a regional basis. 

- Expand campground by 22 sites with corresponding infrastructure 
improvements. Initial plans for expansion are shown in the 
accompanying diagram (Figure 4) . 

- Determine area(s) appropriate for wilderness campsites. 

Cabins : The cabins at Savoy Mountain State Forest and Mohawk 
Trail State Forest are very popular. They are completely booked 
from April through October, and also full during weekend 
throughout the year. The suitable site conditions, accessibility 
from the headquarters area, proximity of Metacomet-Monadnock 
Trail and popularity of nordic skiing are factors that make 
Wendell State Forest ideal for addition of cabins/yurts 
(Figure 5) . 

Nordic Ski Center: Assess potential for public-private part- 
nership using the trail system in Wendell State Forest. 
Initiate with advertisement and request for letters of interest . 

Swimming : Assess options for increasing opportunities for 
swimming. Criteria for assessment includes water quality, 
distance to population centers and regional demand for water 
contact recreation, costs for swimming facility rehab or 
improvements, and water quality enhancement. The following 
alternatives are listed in order of priority. 

- Acquisition and development of Lake Wyola site in Shutesbury 
would distribute availability of water-based recreation towards 
an area where population density is greater and therefore demand 
will also be greater. 

- Rehabilitation of facilities and water quality improvement for 
Ruggles Pond in Wendell State Forest. This site is fairly close 
to population centers and the facilities are already present. 
However, long-term water quality management would require a major 
dredging project to remove the forest soils that were not cleared 
from the site prior to the dam construction that initiated the 
pond. A project of this scope would require a great deal of 
environmental review at the local level and through DEP and the 
MEPA process . 

- Development of facilities at Sheomet Lake/Clubhouse Pond. Even 
though initial beach site preparation was conducted by DEM in the 
1970s, this lake is not very close to population centers and 
would require major capital investment to develop new facilities. 

Skating: Establish a skating area to cover public demand at the 
western end of the cluster. Flooding the Mt . Grace State Forest 
recreation field is one possible option if staffing levels allow 
for increased winter coverage . 



57 



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FIGURE 5 




Wendell State Forest cabin development proposal 



51 



River access: Coordinate with the Millers River Watershed 
Council to promote and provide more public access to the river. 
The Route 2 corridor westward from Wendell can be promoted as a 
canoe route with access to the Millers River from Wendell State 
Forest or other points. With a portage at the Turners Falls Dam, 
canoeists can access Connecticut River Greenway State Park and 
canoe path. A list and map of river access sites from the 1983 
Millers River Management Plan is included in Appendix F. 

Marketing: Promote what DEM has to offer, thereby stimulating 
and strengthening the tourism aspect of the local economy. 

♦ Continue to use interpretive programs as a promotional tool. 

♦ DEM's Internet Home Page is an interesting computer resource 
that is increasing in popularity. Continue to upgrade this 
educational tool for the benefit of Net surfers, providing 
information related to recreation opportunities in Massachusetts 
Forests & Parks. 

♦ Communicate with publishers of travel guides (AAA, Mobile, 
etc.) to expand coverage of state park opportunities. 

♦ Increase availability of brochures and information on special 
events in Chambers of Commerce, Offices of Travel & Tourism, 
along highway stops in neighboring states, and at sporting goods 
stores such as EMS. 

♦ Through the Great Falls Discovery Center at the western end of 
the cluster and Gardner Heritage State Park at the eastern end 
(contingent on increased programming capability with a Visitor 
Services Supervisor in Gardner) develop partnerships for events, 
interpretive programs, and market the events and programs. 

♦ The recent surveys provide some insight on ways that DEM can 
focus marketing efforts to increase visitor attendance. Increase 
in camping would have the most positive effect on the local 
economy, because overnight visitors are most likely to purchase 
local goods and services. 

- The GOALS visitor survey indicates that a significant number 
of campers come to this cluster of parks from the greater 
Boston area and other locations in eastern Massachusetts, 
while most of the day users come from local communities. 
Therefore, marketing in the greater Boston area and eastern 
Mass. might be the most effective way to increase day use 
attendance by providing information about winter and summer 
recreation opportunities "only one hour west of Boston", and 
also increase camper attendance by marketing in a densely 
populated area where we already know there is strong interest 
for camping along the Route 2 corridor. The marketing for 
camping should be focused to increase weekday attendance 
because campgrounds are already mostly full on weekends . 



£o 



- The Sandler Associates recreation survey suggested that there 
are many "light users", i.e. people who visit recreation 
facilities only a few times per year. Visitor attendance could 
be increased significantly if light users would come to the 
parks just a few more times per year. Sandler Associates 
recommended marketing specifically for the light users. It is 
possible that marketing in greater Boston and eastern Mass. 
might be the most effective way to reach this potential market, 
because the densely populated nature of the area indicates that 
there are more people of every variety, including ones who 
could be considered light users of recreation facilities. The 
camping survey found that camping is mainly a young person's 
pursuit. The median age of the camping population is 29. Only 
6% are over the age of 55. This is useful information for any 
outreach effort aimed at DEM's campground visitors. 

♦ The Sandler Associates survey indicates strong public interest 
related to visiting and learning more about historic and cultural 
sites . Sites within the state forests might be appropriate for 
interpretive programs that could be marketed in the region or 
statewide. Potential sites within this cluster of parks include: 

- Native American sites such as prehistoric villages, a Colonial 
Period tribal council meeting location, camp locations. 

- Mill, tannery and house sites from the Colonial through 
Industrial Periods (late-1600s thru early-1900s) . 

- Civilian Conservation Corps sites. 

Note: A professional determination of the significance and 
integrity for any historical or cultural site, with development 
of a treatment/protection plan, would be required prior to 
establishing public visitation procedures. 

♦ The Heritage Discovery Network database, developed by DEM's 
Office of Historic Resources, provides an avenue for DEM to 
increase the public's awareness of natural, scenic, cultural and 
historic attractions of Massachusetts. The Network has a unique 
focus on "second tier" heritage attractions- -those sites which 
are most often missed in conventional tourist promotion. The 
database includes detailed information on sites in Franklin 
County along the Mohawk Trail. As additional sites are added to 
the database, and the data availability becomes more tourist -user 
friendly, DEM should take full advantage of this new tool to 
promote recreation opportunities for this cluster of parks. The- 
database is accessible at the Great Falls Discovery Center in 
Turners Falls. The sites that are currently covered in the 
database are listed in Appendix G. The following is an example 
of Short Site Detail Reports from the Network database, presented 
as a customized visitors guide. 



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TRAILS 

BACKGROUND 

The trail network within the thousands of acres of DEM 
forests and parks in eastern Franklin County and northern 
Worcester County provide people with hundreds of miles of scenic 
paths for a variety of uses in all seasons. There are 
substantial public benefits in terms of physical and mental 
health because the trails are an invaluable resource for 
exercise, solitude, fun with friends and family, and enjoyment of 
the outdoors traversing a beautiful landscape. 



In addition to the extensive trail mileage located within 
the forests and parks, the study area is bounded at the eastern 
and western ends by well-established long-distance trails, and 
also includes a trail corridor in a former railroad ROW that was 
recently acquired by DEM. Specifically, at the eastern end of 
this planning region, the Midstate Trail runs from Mt . Watatic on 
the New Hampshire border all the way through to Douglas State 
Forest near the Massachusetts/Connecticut/Rhode Island boundary. 
The Midstate Trail is maintained by volunteers organized by the 
Midstate Trail Committee in coordination with DEM - Region 3 
Forests & Parks staff. The Ware River Rail Trail is also a 
north- south oriented corridor located near the eastern end of the 
region covered in this plan. It is approximately 15 miles long, 
extending from the Baldwinville community in Templeton, southward 
through portions of Phillipston and Hubbardston, with its 
southern terminus in Barre . The Metacomet-Monadnock Trail 
traverses a north- south corridor from Connecticut to its northern 
terminus on Mt . Monadnock in New Hampshire. The trail passes 
through several of the DEM forests along the western end of this 
planning region. The trail is maintained by Appalachian Mountain 
Club volunteers, with DEM cooperation being especially important 
throughout the extensive state forest sections. 

The many scenic country roads in this area provide 
opportunities for bicycles and horseback riding especially in 
areas where unpaved roads connect with the trail systems in 
public and nonprofit conservation areas. Snowmobilers and nordic 
skiers also benefit from these informal trail connections due to 
the excellent snow conditions in this region. 



MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

DEM' s primary objective is to maintain a trail system within 
the forests and parks that provides for public safety and 
enjoyment without allowing deterioration in conditions of the 
natural and cultural resources that the Department is also 
mandated to conserve for future generations. 



: 



fc>3 



Stepping back and looking at the region as a whole, there 
are opportunities to establish a network of connector trails 
between DEM forests and parks and other conservation areas with a 
focus on east -west oriented corridors. 

DEM will strive to achieve these goals by seeking advice and 
working cooperatively with state park visitors, nonprofits, local 
communities, private landowners and other government agencies. 

RE COMMENDAT I ONS 

♦ The state forests & parks within this cluster were evaluated as 
to suitability for ORV use and, based on the established 
criteria, all were found to be unsuitable for wheeled-motorized 
use. 

♦ All non-motorized trail uses and snowmobiles shall be permitted 
on main trails, trunk trails and connector trails unless posted 
closed with appropriate signage, or prohibited by special 
regulation. (CMR) 

♦ Trails and ways may be posted closed to one or more use(s) with 
signs at trailheads, intersections, or prominent locations such 
as the forest headquarters or visitor centers. With oversight 
from the Regional Forest & Park headquarters, Forest Supervisors 
will have the authority to temporarily close trails during mud 
season or during times of extreme fire danger conditions. (CMR) 

♦ Enforcement of trail regulations will be enhanced in several 
ways : 

- DEM will strive to improve communication and promote 
environmental education for our visitors. 

- DEM will communicate information to DFW Environmental Police 
Officers related to trouble spots and specific incidents. 

- As of 1996, thirty five Forest & Park Supervisors were 
authorized to write non-criminal citations. An additional 
group will receive the training in 1997. This authority 
is used in a non-confrontational and educational manner. 
The Park Rangers also provide educational programs and 
visitor services such as first aid and technical user 
information. The primary focus of a Park Ranger, in 
addition to their park supervisory responsibilities, are 
patrols for campgrounds, day use areas and trails, and 
visitor contact for educational purposes. 

- DEM's Park Ranger Program training brings supervisors to a 
higher level of law enforcement capabilities. 

♦ Forest Supervisor with the assistance of trail volunteers 
should establish more loop trails or improve existing loop trails 
within the DEM properties. Where possible, work with dog 
sledders to establish loops with open gates or without gates. 
Some inner loop trails may be designated for specific uses . 



CH 



♦ All parks should consider installation of a short, self -guided 
interpretive trail . 

♦ Interpretive trail (s) through recent timber operation sites can 
demonstrate Best Management Practices (BMPs) used in forest 
management. The harvesting site near the Wendell State Forest 
headquarters is one ideal area to establish this type of trail. 

♦ Place signs at trail intersections with a numbering system. 
Update trail map brochures with trail intersection numbering 
system, and provide brochures for trail users. Orientation 
wayside signs (3' X 5') should be considered for priority 
trailhead locations. 

♦ The northern portion of region 4 can provide good conditions 
for dog sled training. The regional trails committee suggests 
that dog sledders may use ATVs to train dog teams after obtaining 
a Special Use Permit and provided that the motor will not be used 
for vehicle propulsion. 

♦ Visitor trail use patterns, site location and suitability, 
point to Wendell State Forest as an ideal location to establish a 
nordic ski touring center. The closest opportunity for this type 
of formal nordic skiing is in Northfield, where the popular ski 
touring center associated with the Northfield Mountain Recreation 
Center is often inundated with use. Wendell State Forest would 
be closer to population centers, and due to higher elevation, the 
snow conditions would be slightly better. To support the nordic 
ski use, the flatter area around Ruggles Pond could be reserved 
for skiers, while snowmobilers and skiers would be permitted 
throughout the remaining majority of the trail system. A ski 
touring center could be developed as a public-private 
partnership. There is potential to establish a concession area 
at an off -road parking site along Montague Road. 

♦ Warwick State Forest - Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust 

- Establish trail connections between DEM and MGLCT properties 
where feasible. Prior to establishing additional hiking 
trails, supply and demand for this type of trail mileage 
should be surveyed. 

- Work with the local snowmobile club to extend snowmobile 
trails into the new 108 -acre property that was acquired in • 
fee by DEM. 

- Construct bollards or gates in key locations to restrict ORV 
and 4WD access. 

- Develop trailhead signs indicating the cooperative nature of 
the newly acquired conservation properties. Trailhead signs 
should include a list of invited uses. MGLCT signs will not 
list hunting as an invited use. Trail signs can be 
standardized with new carsonite markers. 



Ls 



♦ Ware River Rail Trail (WRRT) 

- Promote implementation of WRRT improvement project. 

Phase I - Feasibility study, with input from citizen 
advisory committee, to make recommendations 
for trail surface, multi-use orientation, & 
investigate problem areas. 

Recommendations of the north-Quabbin GOALS Trails 

Committee : 

o This rail trail does not connect population centers and 
therefore should not have an alternative transportation 
focus. It is a very important recreation resource for this 
region and should be available for snowmobilers, hikers, 
x- country skiers, horseback riders, mountain bikers. 

o The surface should be a non-paved, porous, compactible 
material such as stone dust . 

o Burnshirt River bridge needs safety improvements, including 
chain link fence along the sides, and measures to prevent 
access by 4-WD vehicles. 

Phase II- Design 

(Including Route 2 double tunnel) . 

Phase III Construction. 

(Phases II & III should also be emphasized in the capital 
recommendations section of the GOALS plan, approximate cost 
of double tunnel is one-half to one million dollars) 
Assess possibilities for acquisition of New England Power / 
B&M railroad ROW extending northward from the end of the 
Ware River Rail Trail. This includes a crossing of the 
Otter River where steel beams and decking would be required. 

♦ Potential long-distance trail network (Figure 4) . 

- Utilize protected open space and unimproved town and county 
roads wherever possible. Focus on establishing east - west 
trail connections. Prioritize possible connections with 
old unimproved roads . Attempt to contact towns related to 
these specific roads, with information on options to 
discontinue, while maintaining public access. 

- Emphasize benefits for municipalities by promoting 
methods for alleviating town maintenance responsibility and 
liability for unimproved roads, while maintaining the roads 
as public rights-of-way. 

- Work with MHD and Town of Northfield related to options 
and possible funding sources for widening a sidewalk / 
shoulder for both warm and cold weather use on the Route 10 
bridge to allow trail connections across the Connecticut 
River. Also, work toward legal access for snowmobiles across 
the French King Bridge . 



Uo 



- Monitor for future initiatives to relocate Route 2 in the 
Erving area. This type of project might be used as an 
opportunity to improve trail connections between Wendell 
and Erving State Forests, and to improve continuity of the 
Metacomet-Monadnock Trail. 

- Contact landowners related to permission to access large 
private ownership parcels in order to establish linkages 
in a potential trail network. 

- Establish spur connections to Mid-State Trail, Metacomet- 
Monadnock Trail, Athol - Orange Greenway, Ware River Rail 
Trail, and town centers wherever possible. 

- Provide advisory support for the North Central Pathway 
project in Gardner & Winchendon. This path will link the 
downtown Heritage State Park visitor center with Dunn Pond, 
and will be compatible with the Universal Access facilities. 
Also, the Winchendon end of the trail will provide the 
potential to link with the Ware River Rail Trail and Otter 
River State Forest . 

- Potential long-distance trail routes must be thoroughly 
field checked related to permission to access private, 
municipal or nonprofit land, and for sensitive resources that 
could make areas unsuitable for trail use. 

- The establishment of long-distance trails that include a 
variety of ownerships will require a lead-off study phase 
to determine suitable routes, and an organizing group to 
direct communications, volunteer efforts, & implementation. 
The Conway School of Design (CSD) has expressed interest in 
undertaking the study phase as one of their school projects. 
DEM should remind CSD and promote this as a viable and 
interesting project. The organizing group might be formed 
from a combination of DEM staff, interested members from the 
GOALS trails committee, and members from the following 
groups : 

Franklin County Commission trails planning project, 
Franklin County Bikeway, Millers River Greenway Committee and 
Watershed Council, North Central Pathway in Gardner and 
Winchendon, MDC-Quabbin Recreation Plan Committee, Statewide 
Greenways & Trails Plan, Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust, 
Army Corps of Engineers, municipalities. 

♦ Enhance trail accessibility contingent on limiting site 
factors, following guidelines of the Americans with 
Disabilities Act. Bring interested individuals into a public 
decision process whenever new trails are being considered. 



47 



♦ Trail maintenance & volunteer coordination. 

- Plan and implement small volunteer maintenance and 
construction projects to bring together the different user 
groups . 

- Provide guides for trail etiquette on multiple use trails and 
for construction and maintenance that include the needs of 
various trail users to promote cooperation by helping user 
groups learn more about each other. 

- Promote formation of advisory committees / friends groups for 
these forests & parks. 

- Provide support for trail interest groups (see Appendix H) . 

♦ Promote the excellent trail opportunities and scenic / 
interesting stops along trails with marketing options listed in 
the recommendations of this plan's Recreation Section. Develop 
links between Bed & Breakfasts and the regional trail system 
(Figure 6) . 







a B M p ^ Jfe%C3^ . flPfllf If 
'*«•«-.« — ... •. ■•■ 



Access to the Metacomet -Monadnock Trail in Wendell State Forest 



Bed & Breakfasts and Country Inns shown on the regional trail map 

Ashburnham : 

♦ John Adams Homestead. 287 Russell Hill Rd. (508) 827-5388. 

Barre : 

♦ The Old Jenkins House. 7 West St. (508) 355-6444. 

♦ Harding Allen Estate. Route 122. (508) 355-4920. 

♦ Hartman's Herb Farm B&B. Old Dana Rd. (508) 355-2015. 

Gardner : 

♦ Hawke B&B. 162 Pearl St. (508) 632-5909. 

♦ Colonial B&B. Betty Spring Rd. (508) 630-2500. 

Greenfield: 

♦ Brandt House. 2 9 Highland Ave. (413) 774-3329. 

Leverett : 

♦ Hannah Dudley House. 114 Dudleyville Rd. (413) 367-2323. 

Northfield: 

♦ Northfield Country House B&B. School St. (413) 498-2692. 

♦ Centennial House B&B. 94 Main St. (413) 498-5921. 

North New Salem: 

♦ Bullard Farm B&B. 89 Elm "St. (508) 544-6959. 

Petersham: 

♦ Winterwood at Petersham. North Main St. (508) 724-8885. 



"71 




Ware River Rail Trail in Barre . 



1*. 



STAFF ORGANIZATION 

One of the most important reasons for studying a cluster of 
several parks as a single management unit, is to be able to 
develop strategies for staff coverage and for shared use of 
equipment and vehicles that will promote the most efficient 
delivery of visitor services and management of park resources on 
a regional basis. 

STAFFING KEY 



Supervisor IV = S4 
Supervisor III = S3 
Supervisor II = S2 
Supervisor I = S 
Rink Supervisor (reassigned 
Visitor Services Supervisor 
Maintenance Supervisor = M 
Laborer II = L2 
Laborer I = L 



from Greenfield Rink) 
= V 



= RS 



[Seasonal Positions] 
Supervisor = [S] 
Laborer = [L] 
Interpreter = [I] 
Lifeguard = [G] 
Summer Worker = [W] 
Clerk = [C] 

CURRENT FY 96 STAFF POSITION ASSIGNMENTS 



Otter River / Lake Denn: 

Year-round - S4 , S2 , L2 , L2 , L , L 

Long-term seasonal 

Otter Riv - 
Lake Denn - 

Short-term seasonal 
Otter Riv - 
Lake Denn - 



[S] ,3[L] 
2 [S] ,7[L] 



[C] 



3 [G] ,2 [W] 

[I] ,4[G] ,6[W] 



Gardner Heritage : 

Year-round - S3,S,V,C, 
Long-term seasonal 

Dunn Pond - [L] 
Center - [L] 
Short-term seasonal 

Dunn Pond - [I] 
Center - [W] 



2(20 hr/wk "Green Thumb" employees) 



4 [G] , [W] 



Erving: 

Year-round - S3,RS,L2,L 
Long-term seasonal - 3 [L] 
Short-term seasonal - 5 [G] , [W] 



Wendell : 

Year-round - S2,L,L 
Short-term seas. - 2 [G] 



73 



RECOMMENDED ORGANIZATION WITH CURRENT STAFFING LEVEL 



Otter River / Lake Denn 
& Federated: 
Gardner Heritage : 
Erving : 
Wendell : 
Mt Grace : 



Summer 

S4,S2,L2,L2,L,L 
S3,S,V,L,C 
S3,RS,L2,L 
S2,L 



Winter (Oct. - April) 

S4 , S2 , S2 , RS , L2 , L2 , L , L 
S3,S,V,L,C 
S3,L2,L,L (includes 
coverage for Wendell 
and Mt . Grace) 



Summer seasonal assignments as indicated above in current FY 96 
organization. 



Long-term seasonal: 




Otter Riv - 


[S] ,3[L] 


(Federated) 




Lake Denn - 


2[S] , 7[L] , [C] 


Dunn Pond - 


[L] 


Gardner Center - 


[L] 


Erving - 


3[L] 


Short-term seasonal: 




Otter Riv - 


3 [G] ,2[W] 


(Federated) 




Lake Denn - 


[I] ,4[G] ,6[W] 


Dunn Pond - 


[I] ,4[G] , [W] 


Gardner Center - 


[W] 


Erving - 


5 [G] , [W] 


Wendell - 


2[G] 



This cluster of parks is being studied as a single management 
unit in order to improve the effectiveness of staff coverage, and 
shared use of vehicles and equipment . The new cluster 
organization will be more apparent in the winter with Otter River 
as the headquarters of the cluster. Erving and Gardner Heritage 
will be important satellites due to the significance of winter 
recreation and programs, with Erving covering the western end of 
the cluster. 

Crews for specific work projects will be organzied out of Otter 
River during the winter. Work projects will be conducted 
throughout the cluster as needed and will include road grading, 
trail grooming/marking/rerouting/closing/new construction, 
boundary work, structural rehab such as roof reshingling, snow 
plowing, picnic table construction, additional coverage for 
special events that generate large visitor attendance such as ice 
skating with bonfires at Dunn Pond and for special needs such as 
carpool travel assistance when DEM vehicles require professional 
service station maintenance, cleanup of illegal dump sites. 

At the beginning of the winter staffing time period, priorities 
and timetable for work projects will be developed by the Regional 
Sc Assistant Regional F&P Director in coordination with cluster 
park supervisors. Priorities and work schedule will be updated 
at the monthly F&P Regional staff meeting or as needed. 



1M 



ENHANCED STAFFING ORGANIZATION 

The following recommendations were developed to improve public 
safety and recreation services, and strengthen DEM's ability to 
protect valuable natural and cultural resources in the most 
effective manner possible, with a minimum of additional staff. 

Addition of 2 Year-round Laborers as floating positions for the 
east end of the cluster (Otter River & satellites/Gardner 
Heritage) , and 

Addition of 2 Year-round Laborers as floating positions for the 
west end of the cluster (Erving/Wendell/Warwick) would allow: 

- Increased ability to grade park roads on a regular basis. 

- Increased ability related to trail grooming and other trail 
maintenance . 

- Strengthen productivtiy and increase scheduling flexibilitiy of 
proposed winter period work crews . 

- The staff in this portion of Region 4 constructs picnic tables 
for DEM forests and parks statewide, and provides signs for all 
of Region 4. This work is mostly accomplished in the winter. 
An additional Laborer position during the winter would benefit 
these regional and statewide projects. 

- Increased provision of recreation services such as preparation 
for earlier opening and later closing for campgrounds, 
reopening the Mt . Grace field as a picnic area or reopening the 
toboggan - sliding hill, improved maintenance and availability 
of camping sites at Federated State Forest. 

Addition of year-round laborer for Dunn Pond SP to cover 
additional maintentance responsibilities associated with the new 
universal access facilities. 

Convert seasonal clerk to year-round position to cover campground 
reservations for Lake Dennison and Otter River, and to assist 
with other work for the cluster. 

Addition of 2 seasonal positions, summer workers or laborers , for 
each park that offers camping services would allow for overnight 
contact station coverage. (2 for Beaman/Dennison, 2 for Erving) 

Otter River currently uses the services of the seasonal Park 
Interpreter assigned to Lake Dennison, but level of use justifies 
two separate seasonal Interpreter positions . 

Seasonal Park Interpreters should also be considered for Erving 
and Wendell if additional positions become available. 

Addition of seasonal laborer for coverage of Mt Grace. Mt Grace 
is a locally important recreation area, which can not be 
adequately covered at the current staffing level. This would be 
an important step towards providing visitor services during the 
summer recreation season. 

Regional funding for priority boundary survey contracts, 
including blazing newly acquired lands. 



"75 



PARK RANGERS 

The Park Ranger Program, which was initiated in 1983, is 
administered within DEM' s Division of Forests & Parks. The 
program has the responsibilities of enforcing DEM rules and 
regulations within the state forests & parks, searching for lost 
or missing persons, and assisting the Bureau of Fire Control when 
needed. In addition, the rangers are responsible for providing 
educational programs and numerous visitor services such as first 
aid and technical user information. 

There are no full time Park Rangers in DEM, but the 
commitment to law enforcement is fulfilled by 35 park supervisors 
who have been trained to be Park Rangers . The training focuses 
on compliance through education as a first step on the 
enforcement ladder, rather than the more traditional enforcement 
measures taught to law enforcement officers. Only after the 
educational process has failed, do park rangers begin to use 
their law enforcement training and invoke the non-criminal 
citation process. The Park Rangers who work out of the forests & 
parks in the Connecticut River Valley and Central Massachusetts, 
will combine their efforts whenever possible to enhance the 
educational and enforcement presence in this region. 

The primary issues that need to be dealt with by DEM's Park 
Rangers are campground and day use patrols, bike trail patrols 
and ORV patrols. In addition, the ever expanding winter usage of 
DEM facilities has created a demand for winter patrols which 
include nordic skiing and snowmobile patrols. Park Rangers also 
provide support and education at Department events and hearings. 

In the parks represented by this GOALS plan there are two 
park rangers authorized to perform these functions . Each 
supervisor enforces rules and regulations at their assigned 
forests & parks as they carry out their regular duties. In 
addition, whenever possible, they patrol other sites to provide 
an enforcement presence in areas with specific problems, 
particularly related to restrictions on the use of ORVs in these 
parks . 

The immediate future of the Park Ranger Program for these 
parks will include the training of additional staff to enforce 
rules and regulations, and the placement of seasonal park rangers 
to support the supervisors efforts . However, the year-round 
activity in this area of the state supports the presence of two 
full time park rangers to provide programming, visitor services 
and enforcement required to protect the resources and the 
visitors . 



-u 



CAPITAL REHABILITATION & IMPROVEMENTS 

CATEGORIZED BY PARK 

The listing of vehicle and equipment, and road grading 
recommendations at the beginning of this section is intended to 
emphasize the importance of these regional priorities. 

VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT 

West end of cluster (Erving/Warwick/Wendell) : 

- Rack truck with snow plow 

- Large tractor with all attachments 

- Small vehicle (golf cart size) for comfort station maintenance 

East end of cluster (Otter River & satellites/Gardner Heritage) : 

- Light truck with plow for GHSP 

- Large tractor with all attachments 

- Small vehicle (golf cart size) for Dunn Pond universal access 
trail maintenance 

- New industrial grade planer for sign construction 

($4.5K estimate) 

To make inter-park shared use of equipment and vehicles more 
effective, a log book with vehicle use and maintenance 
information should be kept with equipment on loan. Also, sublet 
of equipment should be reported to the area supervisor prior to 
use elsewhere in the cluster or region. 

Grading of park roads on a regular basis to ensure adequate 
access related to public safety and resource management is a 
priority of Forest & Park and Bureau of Forest Development staff. 

- Establish dedicated funding for road grading materials from 
local gravel operations. 

The criteria used to establish capital rehabilitation and 
improvement priorities are health and safety of visitors, 
enhancement of visitor services and environmental protection, 
including upgrades to comply with the Americans with Disabilities 
Act and Title V requirements. Cost estimates are provided in the 
second Rehabilitation & Improvement section, which is categorized 
by type of project. 

Priority Level 
OTTER RIVER 

♦ Replace remaining vault toilet . 1 

♦ Filters for Beaman Area comfort stations w/ flush 1 
automatics, also showers and ADA upgrades. 

♦ Rehab bathhouse - install 200 amp service, 1 
ADA upgrades . 

♦ Beaman Pond dam gate valve replacement . 1 

♦ Dam surfacing repair. 2 



77 



Priority Level 

♦ Testing and removal of asbestos and underground 1 
fuel tank. 

♦ Upgrade transite pipes in water system. 1 

♦ Headquarters, main garage & back garage rehab. 2 

♦ Contact station sills, wiring, chimney, roof. 2 

♦ Resurface road from federal gate to end of 1 
pavement (0.5 mile) . 

♦ Resurface headquarters parking area. 2 

♦ Regrade gravel roads . 1 

♦ Install two gates - wood shed area and ball field. 2 

♦ Trails - rebuild foot bridges, Wilder McKensie 2 
Trail maintenance. 

♦ Install permanent site markers in camping area. 2 

♦ Beaman Pond water quality - watershed management 2 
action plan. 

LAKE DENNISON 

♦ Comfort stations upgrade 1 

♦ Replace beach area bathhouse . 1 

♦ Accessibility rehab for one comfort station in 1 
North Area and one comfort station in East Area. 

♦ Replace showers - two buildings in North Area 1 
and one building in East Area. 

♦ Rehab East Area structures - glass to 2 
one-half inch plexiglass. 

♦ Upgrade (slip lining) for transite pipes in 1 
water system. 

♦ Construct two small contact stations for Upper 2 
Picnic Area. 

♦ Resurface entrance road from Rt 2 02 to boat ramp 2 

(1 . 1 miles) . 

♦ Resurface day use parking lot. 2 

♦ Relocate or rehab gravel roads that are flooded 2 
in the spring. 

♦ Rehab North Area roads - root damage, 2 
shoulder repair. 

♦ Install "Caution - Curve" signs at New Boston Rd 2 
intersection . 

♦ Install new fencing at Upper Picnic Area, 2 
Beach Area and North Camping Area. 

♦ Install single strand guardrail from boat ramp 2 
in both directions (2000 to 2500 feet total) . 

♦ Install bike racks in all areas (5 racks total) . 2 

♦ ACOE required lakeshore erosion study / action plan. 2 

Note: ACOE - Real Estate Division should be informed in writing 
of rehab, and improvement projects proposed for Lake Dennison. 
Under the terms of the 50 -year lease, ACOE is entitled to review 
DEM plans. 



■n 



Priority Level 
BIRCH HILL 

♦ Rehab office roof. 2 

FEDERATED 

♦ Reclaim entrance road (3 miles) . 1 

♦ Install gate. 2 

WARE RIVER RAIL TRAIL 

♦ Design contract phase. 1 

♦ Install gates. 2 

♦ Regrade - multi-use surfacing, drainage 2 
improvements . 

♦ Bridge rehab. 2 

♦ Route 2 underpass tunnel . 2 

GARDNER HERITAGE V . C . 



♦ Painting exterior 2 

♦ Acquisition / conversion of abutting structure 2 
for garage & storage. 

DUNN POND 

♦ Universal access project completion. 1 

♦ Remove brush and trees from earthen dam. 1 

♦ Bury existing electrical service from the street 2 
to the pond house . 

♦ Plant young pine trees in pine grove picnic area. 2 

♦ Title of Stump Pond parcel transferred from City 2 
to DEM. 

ERVING 

♦ Leach field for day use comfort station. 1 
Work must be conducted prior to repaving road. 

♦ Resurface Laurel Lake Rd (3 miles) . 1 

♦ Campground comfort station, power line & 1 
removal of vault toilet . 

♦ Headquarters septic & removal of shallow 1 
injection well. 

♦ Landfill capping. 1 

♦ Install iron gates in the following locations: 1 

- entrance to camping area, 110 feet from brook, 

- entrance to beach area to replace wooden gate, 

- entrance to Moss Brook Rd to replace wooden gate, 

- entrance to North Rd to replace wooden gate. 

♦ Install fencing barrier along Laurel Lake Rd 2 
(by fire pond) . 

♦ Laurel Lake dam gate system rehab, (see Appendix I) 2 
for detailed recommendations) 

♦ Install permanent site markers for campground 2 
(new trail marker material) . 

♦ Headquarters structural rehab. 2 

♦ Resurface headquarters parking area. 2 

♦ Laurel Lake pH management - establish dedicated 2 
fund for lime applications. 



-tt 



Priority Level 
MT GRACE 

♦ Headquarters septic. 1 

♦ Parking area and recreational field rehab. 2 

♦ Headquarters rehab - heating system and 2 
security system. 

♦ Gravel road grading and gates . 1 

WARWICK 

♦ Security fencing with gate. 2 

♦ Security system for building. 2 

♦ Resurface parking area. 2 

♦ Gravel road grading and gates. 1 

♦ Sheomet Lake dam rehab, (see Appendix I for 1 
detailed recommendations) 

♦ Richards Reservoir dam rehab. (see Appendix I) 2 

♦ Recreation demand analysis and possible design for 2 
swimming area development at Sheomet Lake . 

WENDELL 

♦ Road rehab. - extensive repairs needed due to 1 
severe 1996 storm damage. 

♦ Clivus composting toilets (2) for Ruggles day 1 
use area. 

♦ Design for dam sluiceway rehab. 2 

♦ Ruggles Pond water quality improvement 2 
action plan. 

♦ Picnic area well rehab - uncap, pump, test, 2 
replace hand pump. 

♦ Headquarters toilet ADA upgrade. 2 

M&M TRAIL 

♦ Trail maintenace (ongoing) and construction of 2 
shelters . 



to 



Potential Long-range Recreation Improvements 

♦ Lake Wyola acquisition and swimming area development. 

♦ Erving campground expansion - 22 family sites, 
and a group site. 

♦ Wendell cabin/yurt development . 

♦ Wendell nordic ski center development . 

♦ Lake Dennison upper picnic area expansion and comfort station 

♦ Ruggles Pond swimming area upgrade . 

♦ Sheomet Lake swimming area development . 

♦ Lake Dennison group camping area and comfort station. 

♦ Erving - expansion of parking area for boat ramp. 

♦ Determine best location at the western end of the cluster for 
playground facilities (eastern end has facilities at Dunn 
Pond) . 



An annual or semi-annual working session with the Regional Forest 
& Park staff, Regional Engineer and Regional Planner should be 
held to develop and update rehab and improvement priorities, with 
the intention of coordinating GOALS plan and 5 -year Capital Plan 
recommendations for improved implementation. 




New comfort station in Erving State Forest 



Si 



CAPITAL REHABILITATION & IMPROVEMENTS 
CATEGORIZED BY TYPE OF PROJECT 

The cost estimates included in this section are for 1996. 
Estimates will appear after specific rehabilitation or improvement 
items in the following format: (18K) = $18,000 

VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT 

West end of cluster (Erving/Warwick/Wendell) : 

- Rack truck with snow plow 

- Large tractor with all attachments 

- Small vehicle (golf cart size) for comfort station maintenance 

East end of cluster (Otter River & satellites/Gardner Heritage) : 

- Light truck with plow for GHSP 

- Large tractor with all attachments 

- Small vehicle (golf cart size) for Dunn Pond universal access 
trail maintenance 

- New industrial grade planer for sign construction 

($4 . 5K estimate) 

To make inter-park shared use of equipment and vehicles more 
effective, a log book with vehicle use and maintenance information 
should be kept with equipment on loan. Also, sublet of equipment 
should be reported to the area supervisor prior to use elsewhere in 
the cluster or region. 

ROADS & PARKING AREAS 

♦ Wendell - Road rehab. - extensive repairs needed due to severe 
1996 storm damage. (452K - cost breakdown is included on the 
following page . ) 

♦ Establish dedicated funding for road grading materials from 
local gravel operations. 

♦ Erving - Resurface Laurel Lake Rd - 3 miles. (150K) 

♦ Lake Dennison - Resurface entrance road from Rt 2 02 
to boat ramp - 1.1 miles. (100K) 

♦ Lake Dennison - Resurface day use parking lot. (75K) 

♦ Otter River - Resurface road from federal gate to end of 
pavement - 0.5 mile. (50K) 

♦ Otter River - Resurface headquarters parking area. (50K) 

♦ Erving - Resurface headquarters parking area. (150K) 

♦ Federated - Reclaim entrance road - 3 miles. (150K) 

♦ Lake Dennison & Birch Hill - Relocate or rehab gravel 
roads that are flooded in the spring. (200K) 

♦ Lake Dennison - Rehab North Area roads - root damage, 
shoulder repair. (150K) 

♦ Otter River - Regrade gravel roads. (100K) 

♦ Mt Grace - Parking area. (25K) 

♦ Mt Grace - Gravel road grading. (2 5K) 

♦ Warwick - Resurface parking area. (40K) 

♦ Warwick - Gravel road grading (3 5K) and gates (15K) . 



%z 



WENDELL STATE FOREST ROAD SURVEY SUMMARY 



Explanation 



Cost 1 



Dozer prep work 



Backboe diU h & drain work 



Gravel (Delivered) 
Gravel (Spreading) 



Culvert materials 



Culvert Installation 



BBD coos traction 



Doxer prep work for 3.06 ML of boar/ gullied roads @ 
1/4 ML per 4 HRS. dour time or 12.24 X 4 HRS. 
Dozer time @ $65 per HR. 
48.96 HRS. X $65 » 

24.42 ML or 128,937.6 FT. of work required. 

@ 800 FT. per 8 HRS- machine lime, 

128,937.6 a / 800 1* per day - 16L17 days 

of backboe work 

8 HRS. machine lima X $45 per HR. « $360 per day. 

Ditch work required estimated by observation during 

road survey 

161.17 days X $360- 

RR/CR 3L633 CU. YDS. X SS-SO per CU. YD. 
PG/SG 12,506 CU. YDS. X $8.00 per CU. YD. 



$3,182 



$58,021 

$175,084 
$100,051 



BR/CR 3L833 CU. YDS. + PG/SG 12^06 CU. YDS. 

» 44339 CU. YDS. divided by 16 CU. YDS. per load 

■ 2,771 leads @ 16 cu. yards per load. 

.25 hr. doser spreading time per load for a total of 692.7 hrs. dozer 

.2S HRS. X 2,771 loads «= 692.7 hrs. machine lima 

629.7 HRS. X $65 per HR. = $45,028 

NEW ADS (LINED) NEEDED 

ADS 15" X 36 PCS. @ $98.00 per culvert - $3yS23 

ADS 18" X 9 PCS. @ $137.80 per culvert = $1,240 

ADS 36*X IPCS. ® $465.40 per culvert- $465 

REPLACEMENT ADS (LINED) CULVERTS NEEDED 

100% railed culverts totaled 70 PIPES, assumption 

ASSUMPTION: 1/2 of 100% failed culverts will need to be 

replace with ADS (lined) 15" culverts 

1/2 number of failed culverts = 35 

ADS 15" X 3S PCS.® $98.00 per culverts $3,430 

PER PIPE 

2.6 HRS. backhoa @ $45 per HR = $117.00 

2 laborers @ $22.50 per man hour HR. 

for 2.6 hours pec pipe to rebuild headers 

@ $117 per pipe installed 

machine time ($117) ■*- labor ($117) = $234 per pipe 

81 culverts X $234 per culvert installation — $18,954 

MACHINETIME 

363 BED'S (Broad base dips) needed 

@ rate of 3 BED'S per HR. 

363 BBD'S devided by 3 per HR. - 121 HRS. 

machine time 

121 HRS. X$6S per HR. = $7,865 

MATERIALS 

PG/SG = 12 CU. YD. per BBD 

12 CU. YD. X 363 BBD's 4^56 CU. YD. 

43S6CUYD. X$S.00CU.YD-» $34348 

TOTAL for 28.67 ML of slate forest roads >>>>>> $451,696 



S3 



SEPTIC SYSTEM UPGRADES 

♦ Lake Dennison - Comfort stations upgrade. (500K) 

♦ Erving - Leach field for day use comfort station. Work must 
be conducted prior to repaving road. (150K) 

♦ Wendell - Replace vault toilets with Clivus composters . (22K) 

♦ Erving - Campground comfort station, power line and removal 
of vault toilet. (175K) 

♦ Erving headquarters septic & removal of shallow 
injection well. (100K) 

♦ Otter River - Replace remaining vault toilet. (100K) 

♦ Otter River - Filters for Beaman Area comfort stations 
w/ flush automatics, also showers and ADA upgrades. (15K) 

♦ Mt . Grace headquarters septic (15K) 

WATER SYSTEM UPGRADES 

♦ Wendell - Picnic area well rehab - uncap, pump, 
test, replace hand pump. (8K) 

♦ Lake Dennison - Upgrade (slip lining) for transite pipes in 
water system. (100K) 

♦ Otter River - Upgrade for transite pipes in water system. (100K) 

STRUCTURAL REHAB 

♦ Lake Dennison - Accessibility rehab for one comfort station 
in North Area and one comfort station in East Area. (20K) 

♦ Otter River - Rehab bathhouse - install 200 amp 
service, ADA upgrades. (10K) 

♦ Wendell - Headquarters toilet ADA upgrade. (10K) 

♦ Gardner Heritage V.C. - Painting exterior. (8K) 

♦ Erving - Headquarters structural rehab. (125K) 

♦ Otter River - Headquarters, main garage & back garage 
structural rehab. (75K) 

♦ Lake Dennison - Rehab East Area structures 
glass to one-half inch plexiglass. (10K) 

♦ Otter River - Contact station sills, wiring, chimney 
and roof. (25K) 

♦ Mt Grace - Headquarters rehab - heating system and 
security system. (IK) 

♦ Warwick - Security system for building. (IK) 

♦ Birch Hill - Rehab office roof. (7K) 

RECREATION FACILITY SUPPORT 

♦ Erving landfill capping. (1,000k +) 

♦ Boundary surveys . 

♦ Otter River - Testing and removal of asbestos and 
underground fuel tank. (Clean Harbors funding) 

♦ Erving - Install fencing barrier along Laurel Lake Rd 

(by fire pond) . (3K) 

♦ Lake Dennison - Install "Caution - Curve" signs at 
New Boston Rd intersection. (OK) 

♦ Lake Dennison - Install new fencing at Upper Picnic 
Area, Beach Area and North Camping Area. (25K) 

♦ Lake Dennison - Install single strand guardrail from boat 
ramp in both directions (2000 to 2500 feet total) . (20K) 



BM 



♦ Lake Dennison - Install bike racks in all areas, 
5 racks total. (7K) 

♦ Erving - Install metal gates in the following locations: 

- entrance to camping area, 110 feet from brook, 

- entrance to beach area to replace wooden gate, 

- entrance to Moss Brook Rd to replace wooden gate, 

- entrance to North Rd to replace wooden gate . 

(5K per gate if fabrication and installation is required.) 

♦ Otter River - Install two gates - wood shed area and 
ball field. 

♦ Wendell - Install gates. 

♦ Federated - Install gate. 

♦ Mt Grace - Install gates. 

♦ Warwick - Security fencing with gate. (7.5K) 

♦ Dunn Pond - Plant young pine trees in picnic area. (OK) 

♦ Erving - Install permanent site markers for campground 

(new trail marker material) . (OK) 

♦ Otter River - Install permanent site markers in 
camping area. (OK) 

♦ Dunn Pond - Completion of universal access improvements. 

♦ Dunn Pond - Bury existing electrical service from 
the street to the pond house. (110K) 

♦ Mt Grace - Recreational field rehab. (OK) 

♦ All parks should consider 3' X 5' "Welcome to..." orientation 
wayside signs for all main buildings. (5K) 

TRAILS 

♦ Otter River - Rebuild foot bridges, Wilder McKensie 
Trail maintenance. (OK) 

♦ Ware River Rail Trail (WRRT) - Design contract phase. (400K) 

♦ WRRT - Install gates. 

♦ WRRT - Regrade - multi-use surfacing, drainage improvements. 

♦ WRRT - Bridge rehab. 

♦ WRRT - Route 2 underpass tunnel . 

♦ Metacomet - Monadnock Trail - Trail maintenace (ongoing) 
and construction of shelters. (OK) 

♦ All parks - installation of short, self -guided interpretive 
trails, and orientation wayside signs for priority trailhead 
locations. (10K) . 

LAKE & POND MANAGEMENT 

♦ Lake Dennison - ACOE required lakeshore erosion study 
and action plan. (OK) 

♦ Dunn Pond - Remove brush and trees from earthen dam. (OK) 

♦ Wendell - Ruggles Pond water quality improvement 
action plan. (400K) 

♦ Erving - Laurel Lake pH management - establish dedicated 
fund for lime applications. 

♦ Otter River - Beaman Pond water quality - watershed 
management action plan. 

♦ Wendell - Design for dam sluiceway rehab. 

♦ Erving - Laurel Lake dam gate system rehab. 

(see Appendix I for detailed recommendations) 

♦ Otter River - Beaman Pond dam gate valve replacement . 



r> 



♦ Otter River - Dam surfacing repair. 

♦ Warwick - Sheomet Lake dam rehab, (see Appendix I for 
detailed recommendations) 

♦ Warwick - Richards Reservoir dam rehab. (see Appendix I) 

♦ Dunn Pond - Title of Stump Pond parcel transferred from City 
to DEM. (OK) 

♦ Erving - Laurel Lake carrying capacity analysis 
for use of boats. (OK) 

♦ Warwick - Recreation demand analysis for swimming area 
development at Sheomet Lake. (OK) 

NEW OR REPLACEMENT STRUCTURES 

♦ Lake Dennison - Replace beach area bathhouse. (14 OK) 

♦ Otter River - Replace remaining vault toilet. (100K) 
This item is also listed under Septic System Upgrades. 

♦ Lake Dennison - Comfort stations upgrade. (500K) 

This item is also listed under Septic System Upgrades. 

♦ Gardner Heritage V.C. - Acquisition / conversion of abutting 
structure for garage & storage . 

♦ Lake Dennison - Construct two small contact stations for 
Upper Picnic Area. (OK) 

♦ All parks with interpretive programs should consider 
interpreter centers/pavilions (2 OK) & amphitheaters (5K) . 



POTENTIAL RECREATION FACILITY EXPANSION 

♦ Lake Wyola acquisition and swimming area development. 

♦ Erving campground expansion - 22 family sites, and a group site 

♦ Wendell cabin/yurt development. 

♦ Wendell nordic ski center development. 

♦ Ruggles Pond swimming area upgrade. 

♦ Lake Dennison upper picnic area expansion and comfort station. 

♦ Sheomet Lake swimming area development . 

♦ Lake Dennison group camping area and comfort station. 

♦ Erving - expansion of parking area for boat ramp. 

♦ Determine best location at the western end of the cluster for 
playground facilities (eastern end has facilities at Dunn 
Pond) . 



%lo 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



This report was prepared as a cooperative effort between the 

Division of Forests & Parks and the Division of Resource 

Conservation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental 
Management . 

Peter C. Webber, Commissioner - Dept . of Environmental Management 

Division of Forests & Parks 

Todd Frederick, Director of Forests & Parks 

Carroll Holmes, Regional Forests & Parks Director 

Division of Resource Conservation 

Peter Smith, Deputy Commissioner 

Rich Thibedeau, Director - Bureau of Resource Protection 

Andrea Lukens, Director - Office of Natural Resources 

Jack Lash, GOALS Program Director 

GOALS Planning Team 

Carroll Holmes, Regional Forests & Parks Director 

Rodney Whipple, Assistant Regional Forests & Parks Director 

Joe Iagallo, Otter River management unit Supervisor & Regional 

Trails Coordinator 
Mike Pelletier, Erving State Forest Supervisor 
Wes Adams, Gardner Heritage State Park Supervisor 
Hal Stowell, Wendell State Forest Supervisor 
Dave Richard, Management Forester 

Scott Nelson, formerly Warwick State Forest Supervisor 
Dorothy Zug, formerly Gardner Heritage State Park Supervisor 
Andy Backman, GOALS Program Planner 

Plan Contributors & Reviewers 

Andrea Lukens, Director - Office of Natural Resources 

Dick Whiting, Otter River State Forest 

Ed Torcoletti, formerly Lake Dennison Recreation Area 

Danny O'Brien, Bikeways & Rail Trails Planner 

Bill Rivers, State Managament Forester 

Chuck Pernaa, Management Forester 

Anne Marie Kittredge, Service Forester 

Joe Smith, Service Forester 

Bob Hartzel, Lakes & Ponds Planner 

Brian Rod, GOALS Program Intern 

Charlie Gibson, Project Manager - Dunn Pond Universal Access 

Peter Brandenburg, DEM Trails Coordinator 

Gary Briere, Chief - Bureau of Recreation 

Karl Honkonen, Chief of Interpretive Services 

Susan Ziegler, GIS Coordinator 

Judy O'Kula, Region 4 Engineer 



11 



Cathy Garnett, GOALS & ACEC Program Planner 

Gail Benedict, GOALS Program Planner 

Chris Greene, Director - Office of Historic Resources 

Nancy Dubosque, Great Falls Discovery Center 

John Scanlon, DFW Wildlife Biologist 

Tom Decker, DFW Wildlife Biologist 

Lee McLaughlin, DFW Aquatic Ecologist 

Dave Basler, DFW Aquatic Ecologist 

Gretchen Eliason, DFW Natural Heritage Program 

David Kittredge, Associate Professor - UMass Dept . of Forestry 

Joseph Faloretti, Army Corps of Engineers 

Leigh Youngblood, Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust 

Cynthia Wood, Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust 

Special thanks to the volunteers who contributed their time and 
ideas on the Trails Advisory Committee. 

Kenneth & Lunette Prue, North Orange 

Robert Phelps, Northfield 

Tom Lively, Heath 

Dean Zuppio, Rutland 

Anne Zak, Wendell 

Pat Gillespie, Bernardston 

Rick Wilkey, Orange 

Mike Magee, Orange 

Barry Lacasse, Hubbardston 

Robert Tucker, Concord 

Bob Hicks, Wenham 

Brian Peters, Warwick 

Pat Fletcher, Westfield 

Donald Flye, Athol 

Peter Taylor, Clinton 

John Keeney, Gardner 

Henry Warchol , Westfield 

David Chirnitch, Acton 



U 



REFERENCES 
Sc SOURCES FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 

Ahern, Jack, Julius Gy Fabos, Niels laCour and F. Shan McAdoo . 
Conservation Networks and Greenways : Essential Components for a 
Sustainable Future. Proceedings of the 11th annual ESRI User 
Conference . 

Banfield, Walter M. , Frank Bequaert, Christopher Ryan. 1991. 
Metacomet-Monadnock Trail Guide. Appalachian Mountain Club - 
Trails Committee of the Berkshire Chapter. 



Brosnan, Deborah, John Elliot, Timothy Grubba, Ingri Quon. 
Guidelines for Monitoring and Detecting Visitor Impacts. 
in Bulletin of the Sustainable Ecosystems Institute. 



1994. 



Chadwick Martin Bailey Inc. 1995. SCORP 1995 - 2000 Demand 
Research: Report of Findings . Compiled for the Executive Office 
of Environmental Affairs. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Environmental 
Management, and University of Massachusetts Department of 
Forestry. 1979. Field Manual for Silvicultural Prescription. 
Joseph Mawson and William Rivers. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Environmental 
Management, Scenic Rivers Program. 1983. Millers River 
Management Plan. J. Geer & R. Helfeld in cooperation with the 
Millers River Advisory Board. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Environmental 
Management. 1983. Cultural Resources Inventory. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Environmental 
Management. 198 8. Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation 
Plan 1988 - 1992. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Environmental 
Management & Office of Travel and Tourism. 1993. Massachusetts 
Heritage Discovery Network - Prototype Database - Final Report . 



of Environmental 

& Rehab Plan: Fiscal 



Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department 
Management . Five Year Capital Facilities 
Years 1992 thru 1996 - Facilities Report. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Environmental 
Management . (Draft) Wendell State Forest GOALS Management Plan. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Environmental 
Protection, Water Pollution Control. 1991. Phase II Restoration 
of Dunn Pond. 



W 



Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Fisheries, Wildlife 
& Environmental Law Enforcement, Division of Fisheries & 
Wildlife. 1992. Forest Management Plan for the Proposed 
Wildlife Management Demonstration Area at Northfield Mountain. - 
John J. Scanlon, Wildlife Biologist. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Fisheries, Wildlife 
& Environmental Law Enforcement, Natural Heritage & Endangered 
Species Program. 1995. Massachusetts Priority Habitat Atlas. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Natural Resources. 
1971. Mt Grace Master Plan: Warwick - Mt Grace - Northfield 
State Forests. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Office of Travel & Tourism. 1995. 
Analysis of Travel Planning Processes & Key Motivators of Getaway 
Destination Selection. Prepared by Houston Effler Herstek Favat . 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Office of Travel & Tourism. 1993. 
Consumer Attitude Research Study. Managed by Houston, Effler & 
Partners. Conducted by Dorr Research Corporation. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts Regulations 304 CMR 7 thru 20. 

Cortell Associates. 1987. Diagnostic Evaluation, Management 
Alternatives & Recommendations - 21 Commonwealth Lakes and Ponds. 

Cortner, Hanna and Margaret Shannon. July, 1993. Embedding 
Public Participation. pp 14-21 in Journal of Forestry. 

DeGraaf, Richard and Deborah Rudis. 1986. New England Wildlife: 
Habitat, Natural History and Distribution. USDA Forest Service, 
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station - General Technical Report 
NE-108. 

DeGraaf, Richard, and David M. Richard. 1995. Forest Wildlife 
of Massachusetts: Cover Type, Size Class & Special Habitat 
Requirements . USDA Forest Service, University of Massachusetts 
and Massachusetts Counties cooperating. 

Environmental Institute, University of Massachusetts. 1990. 
An Atlas of Massachusetts River Systems : Environmental Designs 
for the Future . Published for the Massachusetts Division of 
Fisheries & Wildlife. Edited by Walter E. Bickford and Ute Janik 
Dymon. 

Frost, Karro. 1994. Vegetational Survey of the Zellmer, Maynard 
& Earle Properties. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Grace 
Land Conservation Trust. 

Golodetz, Alisa. 1993. Historical Patterns of Land Protection 
in North Central Massachusetts: The Emergence of a Greenwav. 
Unpublished report prepared for Hampshire College and the Harvard 
Forest . 



Horsley Witten Hegeraann, Inc. 1990. Lake & Pond Management 
Field Manual . prepared for a Department of Environmental 
Management workshop . 

Leahy, Christopher. 1988, revised 1993. Eden's End: The Case 
for Ecological Protection in Massachusetts. Massachusetts 
Audubon Society Report . 

Living Lakes, Inc. 1992. Final Report - Laurel Lake. Living 
Lakes Program Report . 

Mawson, Rivers & Fisher. 1978. A Forest Land Classification 
System for Massachusetts . University of Massachusetts 
Cooperative Extension Service. 

Massachusetts Audubon Society. 1989. Watershed Decisions: The 
Case for Watershed Protection in Massachusetts. Edited by 
Elizabeth A. Colburn and Robie Hubley. 

Midstate Trail Committee. 1989. Midstate Trail Guide: A Hiking 
Map Through Worcester County. printed by Eastern Mountain Sports 
in cooperation with Massachusetts Department of Environmental 
Management . 

Noss, Reed F. and Allen Y. Cooperrider. 1994. Saving Natures 
Legacy. Island Press, Washington, D.C. 416 p. 

Rezendes, Paul. 1994. Wildlife Inventory: The Earle Project - 
Warwick, Mass. Unpublished report prepared for Mount Grace Land 
Conservation Trust. 

Richard Sandler & Associates / CRC Direct Marketing Services. 
1995. Recreation Consumer Attitude Survey. Unpublished report 
prepared for the Department of Environmental Management . 

Rubinstein, Lynn. 1990. Discontinuing Town & County Roads. 
Prepared for the Franklin County Planning Department, with 
funding from Massachusetts Department of Public Works. 

Ryan, Christopher. 1987. Understanding Public Ways. 
Unpublished report prepared for the University of Massachusetts. 

Sample, V. Alaric . July, 1993. A Framework for Public 
Participation in Natural Resource Decision Making. pp 22-2 5 in 
Journal of Forestry. 

Scanlon, John J. 1992. Managing Forests for Wildlife Diversity. 
in Northeast Wildlife, Volume 49. 

Snowmobile Association of Massachusetts. 1991. Massachusetts 
Snowmobile Corridor Trail Map. 

Society of American Foresters. 1991. Task Force Report on 
Biological Diversity in Forest Ecosystems. 



Stolzenburg, William. July/August, 1991. The Fragment 
Connection. pp 19-25 in Nature Conservancy. 

Urban Research Development Corporation - Bethlehem, PA. 1977. 
Guidelines for Understanding and Determining Optimum Recreation 
Carrying Capacity. Prepared for USDI Bureau of Outdoor 
Recreation. 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Massachusetts 
Ecological Regions Project. Prepared by the EPA Environmental 
Research Lab, Corvallis, Oregon, for the Massachusetts Department 
of Environmental Protection. 

USDA Soil Conservation Service. 1967. Soil Survey of Franklin 
County, Mass. 

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Interim Soil Survey 
of Northern Worcester County, Mass. 

Wetzel, R.G. 1975. Limnology. Saunders College Publishing, 
Philidelphia. 743 p. 



<?2 



APPENDIX A 
Massachusetts State Forest Road Classification System 

The Ciassificauon System was put into effect in June of ! 99S on all DEM properties. Its purpose is to 
serve as a means through which the hundreds of miles of roads in the State Forest and Park system can 
he inventoried, evaluated.and comprehensive plans for their maintenance developed. Additionally, it puts 
forth standard des.gn and mamtenance specifications and provides a framework whhin which budgets can 
be developed. 



Road Classes; 

A three character code is used to describe the Road Class for each road in the State Forest system - 
both its present condition and what its future state should be. The code would be expressed as a fraction 
with the numerator representing the proposed class and the denominator its present class 
(proposed/present). The first character would indicate the Type (the specs in the table and drawings) 
from Type I through Type 4. The second character would describe the Maintenance Level and the 
third character, the type of Traffic Management for the road. 

For example: 

3 A B (Future) 

4 DA (Present) 

The foregoing describes a a road that presently has a narrow, natural surface, is not (or is poorly) 
™nca,ned and has no access controls (is open to the public). It is recommended that it be upgraded to a 
type 3 road by the adteon of gravel, graded and that drainage structures be installed as per the 
specifications on the following two pages. Future ar»« ,-«,«...« i. • -u z * j 

r 7 > , * K * ut-ure access controls in the form of year-round gates are also 

Type: 

1 . Paved, asphalt, stone and oil, etc., 2 lane, 40 mph. 

2. Processed gravel or crushed stone surface, 2 lane, 20' wide, 25 mph. 

3. Bank run gravel surface, single lane, 14' wide, 15 mph. 

4. Natural surface, single lane, 10' wide, 10 mph. 

Maintenance Level: 

A. Maintained for low clearance (<6") vehicles (passenger cars). Surface graded (if gravel) 

culverts cleaned and ditches mowed annually. Inspected at least quarterly and after major 
storm events. 

Maintained for high clearance (>6") vehicles (pickups and 4wds.). Inspected at least quarterly 
and after major storm events. Spot maintenance to prevent degradation of the road prism and 
drainage structures. Mowed to retard invasion by woody plants. 

C. Maintained for occasional 4wd administrative use only. Inspected at least quarterly and after 
ma,or storm events. Bridges and culverts removed. Water bars, rolling dips and broad-based 
dips installed. Mowed to retard invasion by woody plants. 

D. Not maintained. Culverts plugged or damaged; bridges unsafe; significant (>4") surface erosion; 
ditches brushed in or non existent. 

Deactivated. Bridges and culverts removed. Deep (2') water bars, rolling dips and broad-based 
dips installed. Sidehill sections outsloped. Allowed to revegetate. 

Traffic Management: 

A. Open to traffic year-round 

B. Gated seasonally 

C. Gated year-round 

D. Fixed barriers (boulders, posts, etc.) 



^3 



Minimum Standards by Road Type 

Please note that these are minimum specs, e.g.: a Type 3 road could be surfaced with crushed stone, a 

Type 4 road could be 1 2' wide. etc. 

Strict interpretation of clearing widths is for new construction - healthy root systems and heavy 

equipment can't coexist. Along existing roads larger, vigorous, "specimen" trees that do not interfere with 

maintenance should be retained. However, smaller trees and shrubs occurring in the clearing limits and 

high risk trees outside the clearing limits that may fall into the roadway or ditch should be removed and 

not be allowed to develop into future problems. This is a judgement call. 

Most specs for Type One roads are case specific and are subject to development by Engineering. For the 

time being, detailed specifications for surfacing material and subgrade on all types of roads will also be 

done on a case by case basis in consultation with Engineering. These specs, will be developed with their 

help as we move along. 





Type 1 


Type 2 


Type 3 


Type 4 


Back slope 




<l:l 


<l:l 


< 1/2:1 


Ditch bottom 




Vto4' 


V 


V 


Side slope 




<3:l 


<l 1/2:1 


1 1/2:1 


Ditch depth 




>r 


>r 


>.5' 


Base type and thickness 




Site specific 


Site specific 


Native 


Surface 


Asphalt 


Proc. gravel/stone 


Bank run gravel 


Native 


Roadway width 




20' 


14' 


10' 


Shoulder width 




none 


none 


none 


Crown slope 




1/8"- 1/4" per ft. 


1/4"- 1/2" per ft. 


optional 


Design speed 




25 mph 


15 mph 


10 mph 


Structure width 
(bridges, gates) 




20' 


14' 


14' 


Sight distance 




200' 


150' 


100* 


Curve radius 




125" 


75' 


SO- 


Turn outs 




Not needed 


4/mile 


Opportunistic 


Max. Grade: Short / Sustained 




10%/ 8% 


1 2% / 1 0% 


14%/ 12% 


Bridge loading 


HS-20 


HS-20 


HS-20 


HS-20 


Design storm (>2' pipe) 


50 yr. 


50 yr. 


25 yr. 


lOyr. 


Total cleared width 




Back slope + 5' 
(38 1 ) 


Back slope + 5' 
(32') 


Back slope + 5' 
(24') 



<H 



Massachusetts State Forest 
Road Classification System 




Type 4 






10' Total Width 



Backs lope 

< 1/2:1 /* 

Depth > 5' 



Sideslope 
< I 1/2: I 



Crown optional 




Ditch to "V" 
-X 4' min. >K- 



14' Total Width 



Type 3 



> 




Ditch depth I ' min. 



Crown 1/4" - 1/2" per foot 




Ditch to "V" 
-X 4' min. Xr 



Sideslope 
<3 : I 



20' Total Width 




Ditch depth I ' min 



Crown 1/8" - 1/4" per foot 



Type 2 



> 4 



45 



46 



APPENDIX B 



Regulations 

1 AS anas wiQ be closed to the public between dusk 
aid dawn. 

1 Fires are permitted in fireplaces only. 

3 Picnicking and other use of food and alcoholic 
beverages are allowed only in designated camping 



4. Linering and waste disposal of any kind are prohib- 
ited on both land and water. 

5. Only banery-operaied power boats are allowed on 
■be ponds. 

6 Motorized off-road vehicles are restricted to desig- 
nated trails. 

7. Camping is allowed only in designated camping 
areas. 

8. All boats must be equipped with one Coast Guard 

approved personal floatation device per person. 

9. Hunting, fishing and trapping are subject to the Divi- 
sion of Fisheries and Wildlife general laws, regula- 
tions and statutes. 

10. Please refer to Fish and Wildlife Laws, Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts. Division of Fisheries and 
Wildlife. 





CURLEW POND A3 acres 

Fishing is fair. Some large bass and pickerel. Shoreline is 
developed and pans are privately owned, limiting access 
for shore fishing. Canoes can be carried in or make use of 
die launch site on the northeast side of the pond. 







NEW LONG POND 23 acres 

Bass fishing. This small pond also has some yellow 
perch. The shoreline is undeveloped and there is easy 
access for shore fishing or small boats. Camping at this 
pond is for non-profit organizations only. 




Brown Bullhrad 



igS&rj, 



Fishing Guide to 

Myles Standish 

State Forest 







EAST HEAD RESERVOIR 86 acres 

The reservoir is the best choice for fishing from a canoe 
or small boat Shore fishing is prohibited. There is some 
excellent bass fishing along the weedy undeveloped 
shoreline. This is the largest body of water within the 
state forest boundaries, but is privately owned. 



This brochure is primed on recycled paper. 




Visitors to Myles Standish State Forest often ask, 
where.is the best fishing?" This guide tries to answer 
that question by highlighting six ponds chosen for their 
reputation as good fishing spots. 

The Kettle Ponds 

Most of the poods at Myles Standish State Forest were 
formed over 10.000 years ago at the end of the last ice- 
age. The retreating glaciers left behind large blocks of 
buried ice which later melted to form depressions in the 
landscape. These kettleholes as they are called filled 
with groundwater to form round shape ponds. 

Today these ponds are inhabited by a wide variety of 
plants and animals including such native fish species as 
yellow perch, eels, chain pickerel, rjurnpkinseed, 
sunfish and hompout. Other introduced species include: 
brown trout, rainbow trout, largemouth bass, small- 
mouth bass, bluegill sunfish and white perch. A few of 
the kettle ponds in the area are borne to the endangered 
xd-beflied turtle, while a number of rare and endan- 
gered plant species are found along the shores of these 
ponds. 

Unfortuanately. most freshwater ponds in this area are 
suffering from the adverse effects of acid precipitation, 
believed to be caused by the burning of fossil fuels. The 
ernmission of sulfur and nitrogen as a byproduct of 
fossil fuel combustion mixes in the atmosphere with 
water vapor which then condenses and falls to the 
ground as acid ram and snow. These ponds do not have 
the ■buffering capacity" or ability to counteract the 
effects of highly acidified waters. As a result, the 
water's add level is increasing, and scientist; fear this 
will be harmful to many fish and other aquatic organ- 
isms. 



Please Protect All Wildlife and 
Prevent Water Pollution 



Key 

D Fisherman's Landing 
.A. Camping Area 
P Parking 

Most access points are not marked. 



Rocky Pond Road 

~T5 




ROCKY POND 20 acres 

Easy access for canoes and small boats. This pond has a 
partially undeveloped shoreline, with good cover for 
bass, pickerel and brown bullhead. Access for fisher- 
men is on the south side of the pond. 




Conservation Guidelines 

o Put litter where it belongs. Use trash receptacles 
or carry out what you carry in. 

□ Do not disturb shoreline vegetation by driving or 
walking along pond edges. The plants here help to 
maintain the ecological balance of the ponds. 

O Do not use soaps or detergents in or near ponds; 
' these substances are harmful to fish and other 
wildlife. 




T) Be careful with fire. 

O Respect all wildlife. 

D Release all unwanted fish carefully. 

n Read and obey all fishing regulations. Abstracts of 
the regulations are available at the contact station. 



A<3 



FEARINGSPOND 24 acres 

This is the only pond in the forest stocked with trout- 
Fishing for brown and rainbow trout is best in the fall 
and spring. There is good fishing for bass and bluegill 
sunfish in the summer. Canoes can be carried in. There 
is a partially developed shoreline. 




Ye How Penh 



CHARGE POND IS acres 

Perch and sunfish are plentiful in Charge Pond. Fishing 
for smallmouth bass is fair. The pond has an undevel - 
oped shoreline with good access for shore fishing. 
Canoes can be carried in. 



%1 



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APPENDIX C 

CARRYING CAPACITY: Factors influencing optimum capacity and 

suggested optimum capacity ranges for 
various recreation activities. 

Primary Factors Influencing the Selection of Optimum Capacity - Factors Common 
to Many Activities 

A list of primary factors which affect the choice of an optimum capacity level is 
provided below each of the suggested optimum capacity ranges. These factors can 
be used by recreation planners and administrators as a basis for listing factors, 
observing conditions and calculating the "net effect" figures indicated in the 
five step process discussed earlier in this Chapter. 

The same factors affect the optimum carrying capacity of many activities. Those 
factors, which are common to many activities, are listed below and are referred 
to when appropriate under the suggested optimum capacity range for a given recrea- 
tion activity. The most common factors influencing optimum carrying capacity 
for many activities are: 

A. Location of the Recreation Activity Area - Recreation participants in an urban 
area will generally expect, tolerate and accept higher use densities than par- 
ticipants who travel to remote locations; for this reason, an activity area 
located within an urban area can generally be used at a higher optimum capacity 
than an area in a remote location. 

B.~ Size of the Recreation Activity Area - The size of a recreation activity area 
affects optimum carrying capacity because of the generally unfavorable cumula- 
tive effect that is perceived when there are many recreation participants 
located over a very large area; therefore, very large activity areas should 
probably be developed and operated at a lower capacity level than smaller areas. 

C. Quality of Site Amenities - The number and quality of site amenities affects a 
person's willingness to tolerate and accept higher levels of capacity; therefore, 
recreation sites with amenities such as scenic natural features, views or "vistas 
can generally be developed and operated at a higher optimum capacity level. 

D. Proximity to Convenience Facilities - Activity areas conveniently located near 
comfort and other support facilities can generally have higher use intensities 
because they are developed and operated at a higher optimum capacity level 
than areas which are inconvenient .to support facilities. 

i 

E. Homogeneous User Groups - Areas used by similar socio-economic, age and interest 
groups can generally be developed and operated at higher optimum capacities than 
areas used by dissimilar groups. 

F- Length of Day - For some activities, night lighting can extend the length of 
the user day, thus increasing the capacity of the activity area. 

G. Duration of Use - The duration of use varies by activity and by participant 
type. It is important to recognize that management policies regarding the 
duration of use have a definite effect on optimum carrying capacity. 

H. Vulnerability of the Site - A site which is environmentally sensitive because 
of vegetation which cannot withstand abuse, soil compaction problems, poor 
drainage and runoff, erosion, climatic condition, and other similar features 
should be developed and operated at a much lower capacity level. Sites with 
these natural features should be considered only for activities which are not, 
by nature, likely to be injurious to the site. 



SWIMMING, BFACH 



Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 



SQUARE FEET OF WATER/ 
SWIMMER 



Low 
200 



BASE 

100 



High 
64 



(10' apart if 'equally spaced) 
(14' apart if equally spaced) 

(8' apart if equally spaced) 



Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 

o Refer to Factors A and E 

o Waders /Swimmers - Waders require less space than swimmers; thus, a beach area 
which has a preponderance of waders could accommodate more people per acre 
of water. 

o Weather, Season, Time of Day - The number of swimmers will vary depending 
upon the weather, season and time of day. 

o Extent of Beach* - Depending upon the depth of the beach area, the beach area 
might be the limiting factor determining optimum capacity. 

(*N0TE: Where the beach area is the limiting factor, the suggested range for 
Sunbathing (page III-3) can be used to determine the appropriate 
capacity) 



SUNBATHING 

Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 

Low 
1600 



SQUARE FEET/ BLANKET 

(40* between blanket 



BASE 

576 



(24* between 
centers) 



High 
324 



J 



blanket centers) 

(18' between blanket centers) 



Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 
o Refer to Factors A, B, C, D, E and H 

o Weather, Season, Time of Day - The number of sunbathers will vary depending 
upon the weather, season and time of day. 



ICC 



CAMPING, PRIMITIVE 



Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 



Low BASE High 

50 23 10 

ACRES/CAMPSITE 



X1476' between sites 



(1000' between sites if equally spaced) 
if equally spaced) 

(660' between sites if equally spaced) 



Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 

o Refer to Factors A, C and H 

o Degree of Privacy Afforded by the Site - The type of vegetation and the topo- 
graphic characteristics of the site affect the perceived closeness of the 
campsites; a 100-acre area that is heavily wooded and moderately sloping can 
accommodate more campsites per acre than a 100-acre open field. 

CAMPING, TENT AND TRAILER 

Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 

Low BASE High 
3 7 19 
CAMPSITES /ACRE | 1 | 



(79' between sites if equally spaced) . 
(120' between sites if equally spaced) 

(48* between sites if equally__spaded) 

Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 

o Refer to Factors A, B, C, D and H 

o Degree of Privacy Afforded by the Site - The type of vegetation, forest and 
field and slope characteristics, affect the perceived closeness of campsites. 
A densely-wooded, moderately-sloping area can accommodate more campsites per 
acre than an open field or lawn. 

o Siting Limitations - The type of vegetation, e.g., field or forest, and slope 
characteristics also affect the ease of locating campsites. For example, a 
lower density may be appropriate if the area has slopes steeper than 10 percent, 

o Proximity to Other Activity Areas - Areas in very close proximity to swimming, 
boating, historical features or other activity areas are generally attractive 
campsites and can accommodate more per acre than an area with no related 
activities nearby. 



/C| 



PICNICKING 

Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 

Low 
4 



BASE 

13 



High 
35 



TABLES /ACRE 



(58' between 



(104* between tables if equally spaced) 



tables if equally spaced) 



(35 ' between tables if equally spaced) 



Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 
o Refer to Factors A, B, C, E, and H 

o Degree of Privacy Afforded by the Site - The type of vegetation, forest and 
field and slope characteristics affects the perceived closeness of picnic 
sites. A densely wooded, moderately sloping area should accommodate more 
tables per acre than an open field or lawn. 

o Siting Limitations - The type of vegetation, e.g., field or forest and slope 
characteristics also affect the ease of locating picnic table sites. For 
example, a lower density may be appropriate if the area has slopes steeper 
than 10 percent. 

o Configuration of Picnic Area - The shape of the picnic area has some bearing 
on picnic table density; lineal-shaped picnic areas can accommodate a higher 
density than square-shaped picnic areas. 



BOATING, NON- POWER FLAT WATER 



Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 



Low 
2.5 



ACRES OF WATER/ BOAT 

t 

(330' between boats 



BASE 

1.3 



(240' between 
if equally spaced) 



boats if equally spaced) 



High 
.5 



*1\ 



(148 ' between boats if equally spaced) 



Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 

o Refer to Factors A, B and C 

o Boat Type - Row boat and canoes require less space than sailboats because they 
are more easily maneuberable; therefore, areas where there are sailboats also 
using the areas should accommodate fewer boats per acre. 



C2. 



SKIING, WATER 

Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 



ACRES OF WATER/BOAT 



Low 


BASE 


20 


12 






I 



High 

J 



j 



(723' between' boats if equally spaced) 

(933* between boatls if equally spaced) 

(552' between boats if equally_ spaced) 



BOATING, UNLIMITED POWER 



Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 



Low 
18 



ACRES OF WATER/ BOAT 



(626' between 
(900* between boats if equally spaced) 



BASE 

9 



High 
3 



boats if equally spaced) 



(361' between boats if equally spaced) 



Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 
o Refer to Factors A, B and C 



o Type of Aquatic Life - Certain types of aquatic life, under certain circum- 
stances, cannot withstand large volumes of boat traffic. 

o Multiple Use of Water Area - The number of boats/acre should be lower if 
other activities, such as swimming, are also allowed in the boating area. 

o Depth of Water - Water areas that are shallow should accommodate fewer boats 
per acre. 

o Rate at Which Water is Circulated Through System - The faster water is circu- 
lated through the system, the more boats the water area can accommodate from 
the standpoint of polluting the water with oil, etc. 

o Shoreline Configuration - Water areas with very irregular shorelines should, 
on the basis of safety, accommodate fewer boats per acre than those with 
regular, even shorelines. 

o Degree of Policing - Water areas that are policed can accommodate more boats 
per acre than those which are not policed. 

o Circulation Patterns - Water bodies with defined ski lanes can safely accom- 
modate more boats per acre than unmarked water bodies which allow a random 
pattern of tow paths. 



IC3 



FISHING, SHORELINE 



Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 



Low 
41 



FISHERMEN/MILE 



BASE 

M7 
I 



High 
528 






(30' between fishermen if equally spaced) 
(129' between fishermen if equally spaced) 

(10* between fishermen if equally 'spaced-)- 



Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 

o Refer to Factors A and B 

o Fish Availability - Generally, fishermen will accept and tolerate more fisher- 
men per mile of shoreline if they are catching fish; therefore, streams and 
rivers that are either well-stocked or naturally abundant with fish can accommo- 
date more fishermen per mile of shoreline. 

o Tolerance of Fish Species to People - Certain types of fish are more tolerant 
to people than other types, streams containing less tolerant species, such as 
the trout, should accommodate less fishermen per mile of shoreline. 

o Type of Fishing - The type of fishing, i.e., fly, bait or spin cast, surf 

fishing, etc., affects the o'ptimum carrying, capacity of the shoreline; certain 
types of fishing, e.g., surf fishing, require greater distances between fisher- 
men. 

o Stability of Shoreline - Certain shorelines physically are more stable than 
others and can accommodate more fishermen per mile without increasing erosion 
and sedimentation. 



HUNTING, WATERFOWL 

Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 

Low 
20 



ACRES /BLIND 



BASE 

13 



High 
6 



(752' between blinds if evenly spaced) 
s if evenly spaced) (511' between blinds if evenly 



(933' between blind 
Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 



spaced) 



o Supply and Availability of Waterfowl - The supply of waterfowl in the area 

being hunted affects a person's willingness to tolerate and accept higher densities, 
i.e., more hunting groups per acre; therefore areas that are abundant with 
waterfowl can accommodate more hunters per acre than in an area where game 
is scarce. 

o Density of Vegetative Cover - The density of the vegetative cover affects the 
perceived closeness of other hunting groups; areas with dense vegetation should 
accommodate more groups per acre. 



HUNTING, BIG GAME 



Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 



Low 
62 



ACRES /HUNTER* 



BASE 

47 
i 



r 



High 
35 



(1430' between hunters if equally spaced) 
(1640' between hunters if equally spaced) 

(1235* between hunters if equally spaced) 
*NOTE: The above range is based solely upon the low, high and average 
SCORP Survey results. 



Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 

o Density of Vegetative Cover - The denser the vegetative cover, the longer it 
takes for a hunter to move through an area; hunting areas which have dense 
vegetation should accommodate fewer hunters per acre per day. 

o Terrain - Areas with very rugges terrains accommodate less hunters per acre 
per day. 

o Amount of Game in the Area - Hunters will move more slowly through an area 
and will be more willing to tolerate other groups of hunters if game is 
readily available. 



HUNTING, SMALL GAME 

Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 

Low 



ACRES /HUNTING GROUP 



50 

L 



BASE 

30 
1 



High 

10 
_J 



(1143' between groups is equally spaced) 
(1476* between groups if equally spaced) 

(361' between groups if equally spaced) 



Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 

o Density of Vegetative Cover - The denser the vegetative cover, the longer it 
takes a hunter to move through an area; hunting areas which have dense vegeta- 
tion should accommodate fewer hunters per acre per day. 

o Terrain - Areas with very rugged terrains accommodate less hunters per acre 
per day. 

° Amount of Game in the Area - Hunters will move more slowly through an area and 
will be more willing to tolerate other groups of hunters if game is readily 
available. 

° Use of Hunting Dog - Hunters using dogs move slower through the hunting area 
than hunters without dogs; areas where hunting dogs are often used should 
accommodate less hunters per acre. 



\0S 



HIKING 

Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 

Low 
3 

GROUPS /MILE* 



BASE 

12 



High 
21 






(1760 ' between groups (440* between groups 
if evenly spaced) if evenly spaced) 



t 



(250* between groups 
if' evenly spaced) 

(*For the purpose of this activity a "group" is defined 
as a related hiking party consisting of one or more 
individuals ) 



Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 

o Refer to Factors A and C 

o Degree of Privacy - The type of vegetation and topographic characteristics 
found along the trail affect the perceived closeness of other hiking groups; 
a trail across densely wooded, rolling topography should accommodate more 
groups per mile of trail than a trail which extends across predominantly 
flat, open land. 

o Stability of Trail Surface - The degree of stability of the trail surface 
affects the optimum carrying capacity of the trail; trail surfaces that are 
very stable, e.g., paved surfaces, can accommodate many hikers per mile of 
trail without damaging the trail surface. 

HORSEBACK RIDING 



Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 



GROUPS /MILE 



Low 
2 

L 



BASE 

5 1/2 



High 
9 

_1 



(960 ' between groups if evenly spaced) 
(2640 T between groups if evenly spaced) 

(593 ' between groups if evenly spaced) 
Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 

o Refer to Factors A and C 



o Degree of Privacy - The type of vegetation and topographic characteristics found 
along the trail affect the perceived closeness of other groups of riders; for 
example, a trail across densely wooded, rolling topography should accommodate 
more groups per mile of trail than a trail which extends across predominantly 
flat, open land. 

o Stability of Trail Surface - The degree of stability of the trail surface affects 
the optimum carrying capacity of the trail; trail surfaces that are stable, e.g., 
those with dry, sandy soils versus those with wet, clay soils, can accommodate 
more riders per mile of trail with less damage to the trail surface. 



I0(, 



SKIING, NORDIC 

Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 



Low BASE High 

2.2 3.5 



GROUPS /MILE 



/S 



. (2400' between groups if evenly spaced) 
(5280' between groups if evenly spaced) 

(1500' between groups if evenly spaced) 



Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 

o Refer to Factors A, C and H 

o Degree of Privacy - The type of vegetation, forest and field and topographic 
characteristics of the ski area affects the perceived closeness of other 
ski groups. Ski areas which are predominantly wooded and moderately sloping 
can therefore support more skiers per mile of trail than a predomonantly 
open ski area. 

o Stability of Snow Cover - The type and depth of snow cover along the trail 
affects carrying capacity; the carrying capacity should be lower on days 
when there is only a minimal amount of snow cover. 

o Slope and Terrain Conditions - A ski trail which crpsses a steep and rugged 
terrain will turnover less skiers per mile than a more gentle trail. 



ICE SKATING 

Suggested Optimum Capacity Range 

Low BASE High 

400 mi] ' 30 

SQUARE FEET OF ICE/PERSON I I ; I 



(20' between skaters 



t 
(12' between skaters if equally spaced) 

if equally spaced) 

(5%' between skaters if equally spaced) 



Primary Factors Influencing Selection of Optimum Capacity Level 

o Refer to Factors A, B and E 

o Type of Skating Experience - Skaters on an ice rink will be willing to toler- 
ate and accept more skaters per acre than skaters on natural ice. 

o Circulation Control - Skating areas where there is controlled circulation of 
skaters can accommodate more skaters per acre of ice than where skater circu- 
lation is uncontrolled. 

in 



\c% 



APPENDIX D 

Gap analyses are being conducted state by state under the general 
coordination of the USDI Fish & Wildlife Service. In 
Massachusetts, the Forestry & Wildlife Department at UMass Amherst 
is conducting the research. The initial detailed cover type 
inventory is nearly complete. LANDSAT imagery is being used in 
combination with aerial video transects taken from a 2000-foot 
elevation. The video transects, and field checking to verify 
specific cover types, will allow definition of 30 to 40 vegetation 
types. The data representing the cover type maps will be on a GIS 
system that can be transferred to EOEA' s ARC- INFO system. The data 
will be available to EOEA via the Internet . 

In the mean time, existing GIS data layers have been used to 
conduct modified gap analyses: 

♦ With the intention of highlighting areas of functional wildlife 
habitat, the Mass. Division of Fisheries & Wildlife used GIS 
coverages showing river and stream corridors, nonforested wetlands, 
and Natural Heritage Program priority and estimated habitat. 

♦ UMass Amherst Assistant Prof. David Kittredge started with a land 
use coverage of residential / commercial / industrial areas, 
representing sites that were "bad" ecologically. He used a 
buffering analysis to extend the influence of the developed areas, 
and then compared remaining areas that approximately represent 
undeveloped inner forest habitat, with an existing protected open 
space coverage. The intention is to highlight inner forest habitat 
that is not currently protected. 

With permission to use Dave Kittredge 's idea on EOEA' s ARC- 
INFO system, additional available coverages and newly digitized 
coverages allow for a slightly more elaborate analysis that was 
conducted for portions of the north-Quabbin region. A roads 
coverage was also buffered in a similar way to the residential / 
commercial / industrial land use areas in order to remove the road 
corridors and associated area of influence from consideration as 
habitat. Also, DFW biologists were consulted relative to 
identifying general areas or landscape swathes that could be 
considered good habitat for inner forest species that are sensitive 
to human development such as the Fisher, Bobcat and River Otter. 
These area were identified on USGS quadrangle maps and digitized 
to enhance the information being considered in this modified gap 
analysis . In order to show how private landowners can add to the 
region's stewardship potential, parcels enrolled in the Forest 
Stewardship Program were also digitized, to be considered along 
with the protected open space. The DFW Hatural Heritage Program's 
data indicating priority habitat areas are also considered in this 
analysis. The intention of the modified gap analysis is to 
highlight important ecological areas and inner forest habitat that 
are unprotected, and also to highlight viable corridors that could 
potentially connect existing protected open space. 



0°, 



UO 



APPENDIX E 



Park Visitor Survey Results - Summer 1994 



Survey Methodology: 

Survey forms were distributed to campers at check- in during July 
1994. Campers responded by selecting from several choices for each 
question. Day use visitors were surveyed by interview during July, 
1994, selecting from several choices for each question. A survey 
distributed as an inclusion in the Wendell Post in June, 1994 
sampled subscribers of that newspaper who live in or near Wendell. 
Return rates for surveys varied from park to park, ranging from 10% 
to 2 0%. The number of returned surveys (4 8 from campers, 64 from 
day users and 3 2 from the Wendell Post survey) do not allow for a 
quantitative statistical analysis. The following summaries show 
approximate totals. 



Visitors came from: 

Lake Dennison (camp) 
Otter River (camp) 
Erving (camp) 
Dunn Pond (day use) 
Lake Dennison (day) 
Wendell (day) 
Wendell Post survey 



local 


regional towns 


greater 






towns 


& 


Rt 


2 


corridor 


Boston 


out- 


-of state 


25% 








25% 


40% 




10% 


25% 










65% 




10% 


50% 








25% 


15% 




10% 


55% 


- 






22% 


15% 




8% 


75% 








25% 








50% 








50% 









100 ; 



How many years the visitors 
have been returning: 



1st visit 1-5 years over 5 yrs 



Lake Dennison (camp) 
Otter River (camp) 
Erving (camp) 
Dunn Pond (day use) 
Lake Dennison (day use) 
Wendell (day use) 



40% 
80% 
30% 
30% 

30% 



40% 
10% 
30% 
55% 
40% 
10% 



20% 
10% 
40% 
15% 
60% 
60% 



They learned of 
the park from: 

Lake Denn . (camp) 
Otter River (campi 
Erving (camp) 
Dunn Pond (day) 
Lake Denn. (day) 
Wendell (day) 



family or 




DEM 


maps & 


road 




friends 


b: 


rochure 


guidebooks 


signs 


media 


95% 








5% 




65% 




10% 


25% 






85% 




10% 


5% 






50% 




15% 






25% 


90% 








10% 




85% 




5% 




5% 


5% 



Pi 



What they do in the 
park - by land: 

Lake Dennison (camp) 
Otter River (camp) 
Erving (camp) 
Dunn Pond (day) 
Lake Dennison (day) 
Wendell (day) 









other 


interp 


nature 


picnic 


hike 


walk 


trail 


proaram 


photos 


35% 


25% 


45% 


15% 


15% 


15% 


18% 


27% 


64% 


25% 


25% 




64% 


50% 


36% 






7% 


50% 


50% 


40% 








100% 












74% 


37% 


47% 


30% 







What they do in the 
park - by water: 

Lake Dennison (camp) 
Otter River (camp) 
Erving (camp) 
Dunn Pond (day) 
Lake Dennison (day) 
Wendell (day) 



swim boat fish skate 



80% 


30% 


48% 


73% 




18% 


93% 


30% 


43% 


65% 


12% 


7% 


100% 




25% 


90% 


26% 


16% 



20% 



The surveys distributed with the Wendell Post sampled local 
residents. Their activities in DEM parks include; 
hiking (97%) , x-country skiing (72%) , swimming (65%) , 
bird watching (65%) , ice skating (50%) , picnicking (47%) , 
camping (41%) , boating (38%) , mountain biking (38%) , 
fishing (31%) , nature educ. programs (22%) , hunting (10%) , 
horseback riding (10%) , nature observation (6%) , running (3%) , 
snowmobile use (3%) , ATV/ORV use (3%) 



What they do 
outside the park: 

Lake Denn. (camp) 
Otter River (camp) 
Erving (camp) 
Dunn Pond (day) 
Lake Denn. (day) 
Wendell (day) 



rocery 


retail 


dine 


cultural 


sight- 


visit 


shop 


shop 


out 


events 


seeincr 


folks 


44% 


9% 


35% 


17% 


26% 




60% 


10% 


30% 




30% 




53% 


20% 


13% 




53% 


7% 


8% 


11% 


8% 
13% 


3% 


11% 
13% 




25% 


5% 


15% 


20% 


5% 


5% 



Hi 



APPENDIX F 



River Oriented Recreation 
Existing Access - (A) 

1 - west of Route 63 Bridge (privately owned) 

2 - on Route 2, east of Erving landfill 

3 - east side of railroad bridge on north side of river (privately owned) 

4 - Hart's landing off East River Street 

5 - Route 202 bridge and Millers River 

6 - Routes 2A and 202 and Millers River - ending point for the annual Millers 

River Rat Race 

7 - confluence of Tully and Millers Rivers 

8 - Athol Conservation Commission land 

9 - AtholRod and Gun Club 

10 - Tully Lake Dam (access for fishing along East Branch Tully River until 

confluence with West Branch Tully Rive^) 

11 - east side of Tully Lake 

12 - downstream from Tarbell Brook 

13 - north shore of Millers River, off Route 12 

14 - north of Sunset Lake, south shore of Bear Meadow Brook 

15 - western shore of Upper Naukeag Lake 

16 - near Hubbardston -Temple ton town line 

Potential Access - (a) 

1 - Farley Flats 

2 - on Route 2 for approximately one mile on the north side of river 

3 - end of Sears Road in Wendell 

4- - mouth of Moss Brook on Route 2A 

5 - east of Holtshire Road Bridge (privately owned) 

6 - near Whitney Pond 

7 - upstream from Whitney Pond 

8 - eastern shore of Millers, downstream from Sunset Lake 

9 - eastern shore of Bear Meadow Brook, upstream of Sunset Lake 



/'3 



JW 



APPENDIX G : Heritage Discovery Network Sites 



jme 

'97 House 

H Forest 

>ercombie Play Area 

nherst College Lot 

nherst Woods and Hop Brook 

chibald Macleish Collection 

tSpace Gallery 

tifacts Loft 

ts Council of Franklin County 

igard House 

ihfield Historical Society 

kins Flats 

kins Reservoir 

igusta Savage Gallery 

ilky Farms 

irton Cove Campground 

iseball Field 

lyberry 

sacon Field 

sar Swamp 

sar Swamp Visitor Center 

sars Den Reserve 

■ment School 

imardston Conservation Land 

imardston Elementary School 

■mardston Fire and Water Supply 

imardston Historical Society 

srnardston Historical Society Museum 

^shelters, Inc. 

sbee Family Maple 

zer Fish Hatch 

je Heron Farm 

ee-Z-Knoll Farm 

ewer Tatro Memorial Woods 

idge of Flowers 

ookledge Sugarhouse 

ickland Recreation 

ickland State Forest 

illard Farm Bed & Breakfast and Conference 

imett's Sugarhouse 

imt Hill Farm 

itterfield Park 

ibot Woods Lot 

imp Avery 

imp Stonehenge 

jmegie Public Library 

rtamont State Forest 

rtamount State Forest 

;metery 

jntennial House 

lapelbrook Reservation 

larity Farm 

lariemont Fairgrounds 

larlemont Historical Society 

der Mill Pond 

jlrain Elementary School 

)lrain Fire District 

>lrain Historical Society 

immunity Recreation Field 

jnway Historical Society, Inc. 

inway State Forest 

inway Swimming Pool 

jnway Town Forest 

jmer Porches Bed & Breakfast 

jvered Bridge 

Dwell Gymnasium 

r aig Mountain Lookout 

ranston's Tree Farm 

LiShman Brook Conservation Area 

jshman Park 



Address 



City 



Village 



Phone 



2 Charlemont Road 

Shutesbury Rd., SCORP SITE # 154006 

Montague City Rd., SCORP SITE ID# 1 1401 

Reservoir Rd., SCORP SITE ID# 289005 

Central Amherst 

One College Drive, Greenfield Comm. Coll. 

7 Franklin Street 

Carnegie Public Library, Avenue A 

, 7 Franklin Street 

550 Station Road 

Main Street 

South Amherst 

January Hills Road, SCORP SITE ID# 272013 

101 Africa House, Central Resi, University of 

15 Main St. 

Rte2 

Little Mohawk, SCORP ID# 268005 

East Amherst 

Beacon Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14025 

Hawley Rd., SCORP SITE ID# 013003 

, New England Power Company 

Neilson Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 204002 

Old Deerfield, SCORP SITE ID # 074005 

Bemardston Road, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14049 

Off of South St., SCORP SITE ID # 029003 

Off Rt 5 & 10, SCORP SITE ID # 029001 

Church Street, Powers Institute 

500 Sunderland Road 

24 Old Chesterfield Rd. 

Montague Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 192001 

Warner Hill Rd. 

160 North County Rd. 

Montague Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 192001 

189 Haydenville Rd. 

Rte 112, SCORP SITE ID # 047012 

Bray Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 04701 1 

89 Elm Street 

Rt. 116, 42 N. Poland Rd. 

East River St., SCORP SITE ID # 223002 

South End, SCORP SITE ID # 192004 

Scout Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 1 14032 

Barton Road, SCORP SITE ID # 114031 

, Avenue A 

Route 112 

Rt 2 and Rt 1 12, SCORP SITE ID # 066003 

Orange Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 312013 

94 Main Street 

Williamsburg Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 013008 

Bald Mountain Road, SCORP SITE ID # 029010 

Rt 8A Heath Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 053007 

, Main Street 

North- East Amherst 

Jacksonville Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 066002 

Off of Rt. 112, SCORP SITE ID # 066006 

, Main Street 

Leverett Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 272006 

, Main Street 

W. Whately Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 068001 

Rte. 1 1 6, SCORP SITE ID # 06801 

Crickett Hill, SCORP SITE ID # 068003 

82 Baptist Corner Road 

RRE 116, SCORP SITE ID # 06801 1 

Maple St., SCORP SITE ID # 268007 



197BellusRd. 
North-west Amherst 
OFF Church Street., 



SCORP SITE ID # 029007 

M7 



Buckland 

Leverett 

Greenfield 

Sunderland 

Amherst 

Greenfield 

Greenfield 

Montague 

Amherst 

Ashfield 

Amherst 

Shutesbury 

Amherst 

Northfield 

Gill 

Shelburne 

Amherst 

Greenfield 

Ashfield 

Florida 

New Salem 

Deerfield 

Greenfield 

Bemardston 

Bemardston 

Bemardston 

Amherst 

Chesterfield 

Montague 

Charlemont 

Leyden 

Montague 

Shelburne Falls 

Whately 

Buckland 

Buckland 

North New 

Conway 

Heath 

Orange 

Montague 

Greenfield 

Greenfield 

Montague 

Colrain 

Colrain 

Warwick 

Northfield 

Ashfield 

Bemardston 

Charlemont 

Amherst 

Colrain 

Colrain 

Colrain 

Shutesbury 

Conway 

Conway 

Conway 

Conway 

Ashfield 

Conway 

Shelburne 

Northfield 

Ashfield 

Amherst 

Bemardston 



Buckland 

Leverett 

Greenfield 

Sunderland 

Amherst 

Greenfield 

Greenfield 

Turners Falls 

Greenfield 

Amherst 

Ashfield 

Amherst 

Shutesbury 

Amherst 

Northfield 

Gill 

Shelburne 

Amherst 

Greenfield 

Ashfield 

Florida 

New Salem 

Deerfield 

Greenfield 

Bemardston 

Bemardston 

Bemardston 

Amherst 

Chesterfield 

Montague 

Charlemont 

Leyden 

Montague 

Shelburne Falls 

Whately 

Buckland 

Buckland 

North New 

Conway 

Heath 

Orange 

Montague 

Greenfield 

Greenfield 

Turners Falls 

Colrain 

Colrain 

Warwick 

Northfield 

Ashfield 

Bemardston 

Charlemont 

Charlemont 

Amherst 

Colrain 

Colrain 

Colrain 

Shutesbury 

Conway 

Coway 

Conway 

Conway 

Ashfield 

Conway 

Shelburne 

Northfield 

Ashfield 

Amherst 

Bemardston 



(413)625-2697 



(413)774-3131 
(413)772-6811 
(413)863-3214 
(413)772-6811 
(413)256-6920 
(413)628-4541 



(413)545-5177 
(413)498-2077 
(413)659-3714 



(413)424-5213 



(413)648-9600 
(413)549-3558 
(413)296-4717 

(413)339-4045 
(413)774-3757 



(413)665-3837 



(508) 544-6959 
(413)369^437 
(413)337-4454 



(413) 863-3214 
(413)339-5504 



(413)498-5921 

(413) 339-4342 

(413)863-8501 
(413)369-4082 

(413)628-4592 



(508) 544-3939 
(413)648-3911 



Name 

D.A.R. State Forest 

D.L Moody Museum 

Davis Street School 

Davis Street Tennis Courts 

Dean's Sugarhouse 

Deerfield Academy 

Deerfield Fire District 

Deerfield Inn 

Deerfield Town Forest 

Deerfield's Yellow Gabled House 

Dexter Park School 

Dry Hill Area 

Dubuque State Forest 

Dwyer Lot 

E & J Scott Orchards 

E. Whately Grammar School 

Eaglebrook School 

Eastman Brook 

Ed's Sugar Shack 

Elementary School 

Elementary School Lot 

Elf Meadow 

Emily's Amherst Bed & Breakfast 

Erving Elementary School 

Erving Historical Engine House 

Erving State Forest 

Ervingside Playground 

Eunice Williams Memorial 

Falls River Inn & Restaurant 

Federal Street Grade School 

Fort Pelham 

Fort Shirley 

Four Corners Elementary School 

French King Bridge 

Frontier Regional School 

G. William Pitt House and Museum 

GTD Conservation Land 

Gale Brooks School 

Gill Boat Ramp 

Graves' Sugarhouse 

Gray's Sugarhouse 

Green Market Farm 

Green River Conservation 

Green River Elementary School 

Green River Park 

Green River/ Riverside 

Greenfield Community College 

Greenfield Department of Recreation 

Greenfield High School 

Greenfield Historical Society 

Greenfield School 

Greenfield Skating Rink 

Greenfield Swimming Area 

Greenfield(Leyden) Covered Bridge 

Greenwood Farm 

Griswold Wildlife Sanctuary 

Gulliver Meadow 

H O Cook State Forest 

H.O. Cook State Forest 

Hail to the Sunrise Statue 

Hamilton Orchards 

Hampden Council Boy Scout Camp 

Hampden Gallery 

Hannah Dudley House 

Harkness Brook 

Harold White, Jr. 

Hart Farm 

Haskins Meadow 

Hawlemont Regional Elementary School 

Hawley Bog 



Address 

Rte112 

, Moody St. & Highland Ave. 

Davis Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14038 

Davis Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14042 

32 Hawk Hill Rd. 

Old Deerfield, SCORP SITE ID # 074006 

THe Bars, SCORP SITE ID # 074009 

81 Old Main Street 

Pine Nook Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 074007 

307 North Main St. 

Dexter St., SCORP SITE ID # 223004 

Dry Hill, SCORP SITE ID # 192016 

Route 8A 

Conway St., SCORP SITE ID # 074016 

RT. 116 

River Road, SCORP SITE ID # 337002 

Pine Nook Rd, SCORP SITE ID # 074008 

North Amherst 

72 S. County Rd. 

West Pelham Road, SCORP SITE ID # 27201 1 

School Street, SCORP SITE ID # 289006 

South-East Amherst 

Route 63, SCORP SITE ID # 091003 

Main Street 

Rte 1 16, SCORP SITE ID # 217015 

Moore St., SCORP SITE ID # 091004 

Eunice Williams Drive, SCORP SITE ID # 

P.O. Box 762- Routes 5& 10 

Federal Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14035 

Pond Road, SCORP SITE ID # 253001 

East Oxbow, SCORP SITE ID # 130001 

Ferrante Ave., SCORP SITE ID # 1 14033 

,Rte2 

North Main Street, SCORP SITE ID # 074003 

, Main Street 

Lampblack RD., SCORP SITE ID # 114015 

North Orange, SCORP SITE ID # 223006 

Rte 2, SCORP SITE ID # 106002 

104 Wilson Graves Rd. 

Barnes Road 

710 Rt.202 

N. of Swimming Area, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14048 

Meridian Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14007 

Off Deerfield, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14018 

Riverside Dr., SCORP SITE ID # 1 14040 

, One College Drive 

Silver Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14052 

Union Streets, Comer of Church and 

Federal Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14051 

Barr Avenue, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14055 

Nashs Mill Rd, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14019 

, Eunice Williams Drive 

265 Millers Falls Rd. 

Lampblack Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 1 14006 

Central Amherst 

Off Rt. 8A, SCORP SITE ID # 066005 

State Farm Road 

, Off Rte. 2 

22 West Salem St. 

Tunnel Road, Scorp Site ID # 253006 

Hampden Student Center, Southw, University of 

114 Dudleyville Road 

East Central Amherst 

10 West Hawley Rd. 

Central Amherst 

North-east Amherst/Shutesbury 

School Street, SCORP SITE ID # 053006 

97 Spring St., SCORP SITE ID # 129006 

It* 



City 



Village 



Phone 



Goshen 


Goshen 


(413)268-7098 


Northfield 


Northfield 


(413)498-3000 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Charlemont 


Charlemont 


(413)625-2681 


Deerfield 


Deerfield 




Deerfield 


Deerfield 




Deerfield 


Deerfield 


(413) 774-5587 


Deerfield 


Deerfield 




Deerfield 


South Deerfield 


(413)665-4922 


Orange 


Orange 




Montague 


Montague 




Hawley 


Hawley 


(413)339-5504 


Deerfield 


Deerfield 




Ashfield 


Ashfield 


(413)628-3327 


Whately 


Whately 




Deerfield 


Deerfield 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Leyden 


Leyden 


(413)773-7619 


Shutesbury 


Shutesbury 




Sunderland 


Sunderland 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Amherst 


Amherst 


(413)549-0733 


Erving 


Erving 




Erving 


Erving 


(508) 544-6339 


Erving 


Erving 


(508) 544-3939 


Erving 


Erving 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Bemardston 


Bemardston 


(413) 648-9904 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Rowe 


Rowe 




Heath 


Heath 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Millers Falls 


Millers Falls 




Deerfield 


Deerfield 




Colrain 


Colrain 


(413)624-3701 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Orange 


Orange 




Gill 


Gill 




Shelburne 


Shelburne 


(413)625-6174 


Ashfield 


Ashfield 


(413)625-6559 


New Salem 


New Salem 


(508)544-7911 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 


(413)774-3131 


Greenfield 




(413)772-1553 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 


(413)863-9245 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Northfield 


Northfield 


(413)498-5995 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Colrain 


Colrain 




Colrain 


Colrain 


(413)339-5504 


Charlemont 


Charlemont 




New Salem 


New Salem 


(508) 544-6867 


Rowe 


Rowe 




Amherst 


Amherst 


(413)545-4197 


Leverett 


Leverett 


(413) 367-2323 


Amherst 


Amherst 




Charlemont 


Charlemont 


(413)339-4426 


Amherst 


Amherst 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Charlemont 


Charlemont 




Hawley 


Hawley 





ame 

awley Swamp (1 .5 acres) 

eath Historical Society 

erter Art Gallery 

ghland Park 

illcrest Elementary School 

Jiside Park 

storic Deerfield 

istorical Hall 

itchcock House 

Dltshire Recreation Area 

Dlyoke Range 

award Trust 

dian Cave 

dustriai Land 

»nt McCarthy Memorial Museum 

ng Philip's Hill 

wanis Park 

ike Mattawa 

ike Wyola 

irch Hill and Larch Hill North 

iwrence Swamp 

slie Farm 

sverett Crafts & Arts 

sverett Historical Society 

sverett Pond 

sverett State Forest 

sverett Sugar Shack 

syden Elementary School 

syden House Bed & Breakfast 

syden State Forest 

syden Town Common 

yden Woods/Green River Conservation Area 

jrary 

icoln Avenue Bed & Breakfast 

on Knoll Camp 

oti's Club 

mgley Swamp 

>rd Jeffery Inn 

wer Fort 

iwer Mill River 

int Field 

M Belding Memorial 

CI Warwick 

ary Arms Property 

ary Lyon Birthplace 

assachusetts Forests and Parks 

aynard Pond 

emorial Hall Museum 

emorial Street Lot 

illers Falls Playground 

ohawk Trail Regional School 

ohawk Trail State Forest 

onroe Elementary School 

onroe State Forest 

onroe Town Forest 1 

onroe Town Forest 2 

ontague Center Playground 

ontague Industrial Park 

ontague State Forest 

ontague, Town of 

oore's Pond 

ount Sugarloaf State Reservation 

ount Toby State Forest 

L Castor Marsh 

t. Grace State Forest 

t Pollux 

unicipal Golf 

uns Ferry Boat Camp 

uzzy Field 

ew England Power Co. 1 



Address 

North-east Amherst 

125A Herter Hall, University of Massachusetts 
Highland Ave., SCORP SITE ID # 1 14003 
Crocker Ave., SCORP SITE ID # 192005 
Off Conway Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14021 

Heath Center, SCORP SITE ID # 130005 

15 Congress Street 

Holtshire Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 223005 

South Amherst 

Fire Lane, SCORP SITE ID # 312016 

Rt. 91, SCORP SITE ID # 114045 

, Zoar Road 

, SCORP SITE ID #217021 

Route 5 and 91 junction, SCORP SITE ID # 

Holtshire Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 223008 

North Shutesbury, SCORP SITE ID # 272010 

525 South Pleasant, West-central Amherst 

South-East Amherst 

South Amherst 

Montague Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 154001 

North Leverett Road, Moores Corner 

Putney Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 154013 

, SCORP SITE ID #154004 

113 Long Plain Rd. 

Brattleboro Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 156001 

200 Brattleboro Road 

Old Country Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 156002 

Town Center, Greenfield Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 

Leyden Woods, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14004 

Hotpl Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 312010 

242 Lincoln Ave. 

Off Oak Hill Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 1 14023 

Montague Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 192025 

South-Central Amherst 

30 Boltwood Avenue 

West-Central Amherst 

North Central Amherst 

Davis Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14022 

Ashfield Lake, SCORP SITE ID # 01301 1 

233 Richmond Rd. RFD 2, SCORP SITE ID # 

Stage Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 074018 

E. Buckland Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 047001 

Connecticut River Valley, Regional Office 

Overland Road, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14020 

Memorial Street 

Memorial Street, SCORP SITE ID # 074004 

Lyman Street, SCORP SITE ID # 192017 

Ashfield St., SCORP SITE ID # 047003 

Route 2 - Mohawk Trail 

River Road, SCORP SITE ID # 190004 

Tilda Hill Road 

Tilda Hill Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 190002 

Tulley Hill Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 190001 

Montague Center, SCORP SITE ID # 192014 

Millers Falls Road, SCORP SITE ID # 192018 

Montague Plains, SCORP SITE ID # 1 192022 

, SCORP SITE ID #312018 

Rte116 

Long Plain Road, SCORP SITE ID # 289009 

East-Central Amherst 

Winchester Rd 

South-central Amherst 

Bears Den Road, SCORP SITE ID # 114045 

Off Rte 1 0, SCORP SITE ID # 21 7008 

Hayen Street, SCORP SITE ID # 223001 

Cross Road, SCORP SITE ID # 253008 

I ft 



City 



Village 



Phone 



Amherst 


Cushman 


(0Z 


Heath 


Heath 


(413)337^980 


Amherst 


Amherst 


(413)545-0976 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Montague 


Montague 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Deerfield 


Deerfield 


(413)774-5581 


Heath 


Heath 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 


(413)774-7452 


Orange 


Orange 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Warwick 


Warwick 




Warwick 


Warwick 


(508) 544-3491 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Rowe 


Rowe 


(413)339-4700 


Northfield 


Northfield 




Bemardston 


Bemardston 




Orange 


Orange 




Shutesbury 


Shutesbury 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Leverett 


Leverett 




Leverett 


Leverett 


(413)367-2800 


Leverett 


Leverett 




Leverett 


Leverett 




Leverett 


Leverett 


(413)548-9486 


Leyden 


Leyden 




Leyden 


Leyden 


(413)772-0858 


Leyden 


Leyden 




Leyden 


Leyden 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Warwick 


Warwick 




Amherst 


Amherst 


(413)549-0517 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Montague 


Montague 




Amherst 


South Amherst 




Amherst 


Amherst 


(413)253-2576 


Amherst 


Amherst 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Ashfield 


Ashfield 




Warwick 


Warwick 




Deerfield 


Deerfield 




Buckland 


Buckland 


(413)545-5993 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Deerfield 


Deerfield 


(413)774-7476 


Deerfield 


Deerfield 




Montague 


Montague 


- 


Buckland 


Buckland 




Charlemont 


Charlemont 


(413)339-5504 


Monroe 


Monroe 




Monroe 


Monroe 


(413)339-5504 


Monroe 


Monroe 




Monroe 


Monroe 




Montague 


Montague 




Montague 


Montague 




Montague 


Montague 




Montague 


Turners Falls 




Warwick 


Warwick 




Deerfield 


South Deerfield 


(413)545-4802 


Sunderland 


Sunderland 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Warwick 


Warwick 


(413)544-6536 


Amherst 


South Amherst 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Northfield 


Northfield 




Orange 


Orange 




Rowe 


Rowe 





Name 



Address 



City 



Village 



Phone 



New England Power Co. 2 

New England Power Co. 3 

New Salem State Forest 

New Salem Town Forest 

Newton Street School Field 

Nipponzan Myohoji 

No. 2 Hydro Station 

No. 3 Hydro Station 

North Greenfield Park 

North Parish School 

Northampton Water Department 

Northampton Water District 

Northeast Utilities 

Northeast Utilities/Western Mass Elec. 

Northfield Boat Ramp 

Northfield Country House 

Northfield History Museum 

Northfield Manor 

Northfield Mountain Recreation & Environmental 

Northfield State Forest 

Oak Courts Playground 

Old Deerfield Grammar School 

Old Town Farm Land 

Orange Historical Society 

Orange Municipal Airport 

Orange State Forest 

Orchard Terrace Bed & Breakfast 

Pauchaug Brook W.M.A. 

Peace Pagoda 

Pelham Lake Park 

Penfrydd Farm Bed & Breakfast 

Peskeumskut Park 

Pine Hill Orchards 

Pioneer Valley Institute 

Pitt House Museum 

Plum Brook North 

Plum Brook South 

Plum Brook West 

Plum Springs 

Podick and Katherine Cole Santuaries 

Poets Seat Tower 

Poland Brook W. M. A. 

Pumping Station & Covered Bridge 

Quabbin Watershed 

Recreation Field 

River Maple Farm 

Rocky Mountain Conservation Land 

Rocky Mountain Park 

Rowe Elementary School 

Rowe Historical Society 

Rowe State Forest 

Ruth Mclntyre Site 

Salem Conservation Area 

Salmon Falls & Glacial Potholes 

Sanderson Academy 

Satan's Kingdom 

Shattuck Park 

Shearer's Sugarhouse 

Shelburne Falls, Town of 

Shelburne Grange Pool 

Shelburne Historical Society 

Shelburne Rd. Conservation Land 

Shelburne State Forest 

Shutesbury Community Center 

Shutesbury State Forest 

Shutesbury Town Forest 

Silver Lake 

Simmons Farm 

Skillings Path 

So. Deerfield Rod & Gun 



Tunnel Road, SCORP SITE ID # 253007 

Steel Brook Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 253004 

Blackington Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 204001 

West Street, SCORP SITE ID # 204007 

Newton Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14024 

, 100 Cave Hill Raod 

Conway Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 047006 

Creamery Ave., SCORP SITE ID # 047007 

Off Severance Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14026 

Place Terrace, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14037 

Haydenville Conway Rds, SCORP SITE ID # 

Whately Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 091006 

Rte. 63, SCORP SITE ID # 0091006 

215 Shelburne Road 

Rte 63 

181 School Street 

Pine Street 

1026 Millers Falls Rd. (Rt. 63 

99 Millers Falls Road 

Northfield Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 217005 

Oak Courts / Elm Street., SCORP SITE ID # 

Memorial Street, SCORP SITE ID # 074017 

Leyden Road, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14041 

, 41 North Main Street 

East River Street, SCORP SITE ID # 223009 

Tully Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 22301 1 

124 N. Main Street 

Rte. 63 North, SCORP SITE ID # 217001 

, 100 Cave Road 

Pond Road, SCORP SITE ID # 253003 

105 Hillman Road 

Avenue A, SCORP SITE ID # 192023 

248 Greenfield Road 

One College Drive, Greenfield Comm. Coll. 

Rt 1 12, SCORP SITE ID # 066008 

South-central Amherst 

South-central Amherst 

West Amherst 

South- East Amherst 

North-west Amherst/North-east 

Off Rtes 2 & 5, Rocky Mt. 

Poland Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 068004 

Off Leyden Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 114028 

Rte 202, SCORP SITE ID # 272007 

RTe 116, SCORP SITE ID # 068006 

250 Brattleboro Rd 

Mountain Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 1 14047 

Off Beacon St., SCORP SITE ID # 1 14027 

Pond Road, SCORP SITE ID # 253012 

Brown Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 253005 
Depot Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 154014 
Central Amherst 

Buckland Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 013010 
Bernardston, SCORP SITE ID # 029018 
Off Federal Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14002 
270 Greenfield Rd. 

Rte 2, SCORP SITE ID # 268014 
Corner of Maple & Church Sts 
Off Shelburne Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 1 14005 
Rte 2, SCORP SITE ID # 268010 
Cooleyville Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 272009 
Cooleyville Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 272008 
Dudleyville Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 272005 
Church Street, SCORP SITE ID # 029016 
South Amherst 
Central Amherst 

Mathews Road, SCORP SITE ID # 07401 1 

I 7-0 



Rowe 


Rowe 


(0Z 


Rowe 


Rowe 




New Salem 


New Salem 




New Salem 


New Salem 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 


- 


Leverett 


Leverett 


(413)367-2202 


Buckland 


Buckland 




Buckland 


Buckland 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Whately 


Whately 




Erving 


Erving 




Erving 


Erving 






Greenfield 


(413)774-2227 


Northfield 


Northfield 


(413)659-3714 


Northfield 


Norhtfield 


(413)498-2692 


Northfield 


Northfiled 


(413)498-2049 


Northfield 


Northfield 


(413)498-2650 


Northfield 


Northfield 


(413)659-3715 


Northfield 


Northfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Deerfield 


Deerfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Orange 


Orange 


(627) 575-0408 


Orange 


Orange 




Orange 


Orange 




So. Deerfield 


So. Deerfield 


(413)665-3829 


Northfield 


Northfield 




Leverett 


Leverett 


(413)367-2202 


Rowe 


Rowe 




Colrain 


Colrain 


(413)624-5516 


Montague 


Montague 




Colrain 


Colrain 


(413)624-3324 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 


(413)774-3131 


Colrain 


Colrain 




Amherst 


South Amherst 




Amherst 


South Amherst 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Greenfield 




(413)772-1553 


Conway 


Conway 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Shutesbury 


Shutesbury 




Conway 


Conway 




Bernardston 


Bernardston 


(413)648-9767 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Rowe 


Rowe 




Rowe 


Rowe 




Leverett 


Leverett 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Shelburne Falls 


Shelburne Falls 




Ashfield 


Ashfield 




Bernardston 


Bernardston 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Colrain 


Colrain 


(413)624-3788 


Shelburne Falls 


Shelburne Falls 




Shelburne 


Shelburne 




Shelburne Falls 


Shelburne Falls 


(413)625-2026 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Shelburne 


Shelburne 




Shutesbury 


Shutesbury 




Shutesbury 


Shutesbury 




Shutesbury 


Shutesbury 




Bernardston 


Bernardston 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Deerfield 


Deerfield 





ame 

>. Deerfield Watershed 

>uth Deerfield Elementary School 

>uth Deerfield Water Supply 

>uth Deerfield Water Works 

>uth Face Farms 

wth River State Forest 

jring Farm 

acy Mountain 

etson-Adams Tract 

ockwell Lot 

udent Union Art Gallery 

inderland Fish Hatchery 

inderland Town Park 

mnyside Farm 

reet Alice Conservation Area 

rift River Pre-School 

awaddle Hill 

mple Woods 

le Allen House 

ie Brandt House 

ie Drop-In Center 

ie Ivy House 

>e Ledges 

lomas Herlihy Park 

iwn Common 

iwn Common, Heath 

wn Forest 

wn Forest, Rowe 

wn Land 

iwn Land, Sunderland 

mm Landfill 

wn Property 

wn Property, Rowe 

wn Recreation Area 

ailrace Area 

irkey Pass 

irners Falls 

liversity Gallery 

>ingil 

>per Fort River 

)per Mill River & Puffer's Pond 

abeek Rock 

arwick Historical Society 

arwick Town Hall 

endell State Forest 

entworth Farm 

est County Winery 

heeler Art Gallery 

ilcox Hollow State Forest 

ildwood Conservation Area 

Hliams Farm Inc. 

5t 



Address 

Rt. 5, south Deerfield, SCORP SITE ID # 074014 

Conway Street, SCORP SITE ID # 074001 

Roaring Brook Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 068007 

Glenn Road, SCORP SITE ID # 337006 

Watson-Spruce Corner Rd. 

Depot Road 

230 Wilson Graves Rd 

Rte. 2 in Gill, SCORP SITE ID # 106007 

Off E. Leverett Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 15401 1 

Heath Center, SCORP SITE ID # 13009 

Student Union Building, University of 

Rte 116, SCORP SITE ID # 289008 

Park Road, SCORP SITE ID # 289004 

21 River Road 

South Amherst 

Wendell Depot Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 319005 

72 Teawaddle Hill Rd. 

Mountain Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 1 14030 

559 Main St. 

29 Highland Ave. 

Washington Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14036 

1 Sunset Court 

Tower Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 268002 

River Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 337005 

Main Street, SCORP SITE ID # 1 14039 

Heath Center, SCORP SITE ID # 130006 

Off Bald Mt. Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 029005 

Zoar Road, SCORP SITE ID # 253009 

Off Boyle Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 106004 

South Main Street, SCORP SITE ID # 289003 

Lee Road, SCORP SITE ID # 074013 

Kings Highway, SCORP SITE ID # 253010 

Davis Mine Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 253013 

Locks Pond Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 029019 

Rt. 63, SCORP SITE ID # 217023 

South-West Amhert 

Fine Arts Center, University of Massachusetts 

Center Rd. 

East-Central Amherst 

North Central Amherst 

south end of Town Common, Behind the fire 

, Warwick Center 

Athol Rd., SCORP SITE ID # 312014 

Montague Road 

East-central Amherst 

248 Greenfield Rd 

Wheeler House, Central Residen, University of 

Central Amherst 
P.O. Box 246, Main St. 
test 



City 



Village 



Phone 



Deerfield 


Deerfield 


(02 


Deerfield 


Deerfield 




Conway 


Conway 




Whately 


Whately 




Ashfield 


Ashfield 


(413)628-3268 


Conway 


Conway 


(413)339-5504 


Colrain 


Colrain 


(413)625-9230 


Gill 


Gill 




Leverett 


Leverett 




Heath 


Heath 




Amherst 


Amherst 


(413)545-0792 


Sunderland 


Sunderland 




Sunderland 


Sunderland 




Whately 


Whately 


(413)665-3113 


Amherst 


Amherst 




Wendell 


Wendell 




Leverett 


Leverett 


(413)548-9526 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Amherst 


Amherst 


(413)253-5000 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 


(413)774-3329 


Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Amherst 


Amherst 


(413)549-7554 


Shelbume 


Shelburne 




Whately 


Whately 




Greenfield 


Greenfield 




Heath 


Heath 




Bernardston 


Bernardston 




Rowe 


Rowe 




Gill 


Gill 




Sunderland 


Sunderland 




Deerfield 


Deerfield 




Rowe 


Rowe 




Rowe 


Rowe 




Bernardston 


Bernardston 




Northfield 


Northfield 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Montague 


Turners Falls 


(413) 863-3221 


Amherst 


Amherst 


(413) 545-3670 


Gill 


Gill 


(413)863-2297 


Amherst 


Amherst 




Amherst 


Amherst 




Warwick 


Warwick 


(518)544-3491 


Warwick 


Warwick 


(508) 544-3461 


Warwick 


Warwick 




Wendell 


Wendell 


(413)659-3797 


Amherst 


Amherst 




Colrain 


Colrain 


(413)624-3481 


Amherst 


Amherst 


(413)545-0680 


Shelburne 


Shelburne 


(413)339-5504 


Amherst 


Amherst 


- 


Deerfield 


Deerfield 


(413)773-5186 


test 


test 


(423) 444-4444 



/2i 



APPENDIX H 

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 
GREENWAYS AND TRAILS DEMONSTRATION GRANTS PROGRAM 

1996 Project Summaries 

AMC/Metacomet & Monadnock Trail Committee $3000 

The Appalachian Mountain Club's Berkshire Chapter maintains the Metacomet & 
Monadnock Trail. The Chapter will be taking a pro-active role in the protection of this 117 
mile trail by compiling information on property owners in Franklin County. This grant will 
fund a graduate student to start this inventory, digitize maps, and set up an ownership 
database. 



Bay State Trail Riders $2513 

The Bay State Trail Riders will coordinate the restoration of the Around-the-Mountain 
loop trail at the Mt. Grace State Forest. Several volunteer groups, from scouts to 
snowmobilers, will be working together to rehabilitate the northern and southern loops 
of the trail to stop erosion, install water bars, brush-back the trail, and clear new paths. 
This grant will fund the initial professional management work necessary before the 
volunteers begin. 

Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust, Inc. ' $2900 

The Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust will complete a feasibility study for 
establishing greenways and trails along the east and west branches of the Tully River. 
Using GIS, Mount Grace will analyze natural resource, land use, and land ownership 
data to determine the best location for potential trails. This information will be used to 
identify and eventually secure gaps in existing trails, creating the potential for continuous 
hiking from downtown Athol to Tully Lake and Tully Mountain. Grant funds will be 
used to hire a GIS expert to generate the digital information needed for the analysis. 



Orange Revitalization Partnership $3000 

The Orange Revitalization Partnership has been working with the Millers River 
Watershed Association and the Town of Athol to build consensus and develop 
conceptual designs for a 7-mile multi-purpose trail linking downtown Orange to 
downtown Athol along the Millers River. Now in the beginning stages of negotiating 
easements, the 40-member community Greenway Committee is seeking professional 
assistance to finalize the proposed route and develop a detailed trail and management 
plan. Grant funds will be applied toward hiring a trail consultant to assist with this work. 

City of Gardner and Town of Winchendon $4,500 

The City of Gardner and the Town of Winchendon are working together to create a 14- 
mile recreation trail linking the two municipalities. Grant funds will be used to complete 
a comprehensive, preliminary master plan and map of the proposed trail. In addition, 
the grant will fund the installation of an information kiosk at the entrance to the first 
mile of the trail currently underway in Gardner. 

11% 



APPENDIX I 

Laurel Lake Dam Description (from 1987 Dam Inspection / 
Evaluation Report - prepared for DEM by GEI Consultants, Inc.) 

The dam is located on Laurel Lake Road in Erving State 
Forest, impounding approximately 510 acre-feet of water. The 
outlet from the dam is an unnamed brook which flows into Moss 
Brook, through Harris Swamp about 0.5 mile downstream of the dam, 
and into the Millers River about two miles downstream of the dam. 
The dam is classified as having a low hazard potential because 
there are no inhabited structures downstream of the dam site 
which could be affected if the dam failed, although the culvert 
under Wendell Road and Wendell Road would be damaged in such an 
event . 

Laurel Lake dam is approximately 12 5 feet long, with a crest 
width varying from 25 to 50 feet. An open-channel spillway, 
which is spanned by a timber bridge, is located about halfway 
between the abutments. There is a concrete stoplog structure at 
the upstream end of the spillway. This is the only control for 
the lake level. 

The dam was originally constructed as an earth embankment 
dam covered by smooth-faced paving stones. The downstream faces 
of the left and right embankments were vertical dry-stone masonry 
walls up to 5 feet high. The right embankment was later widened 
about 10 feet by placing fill on the upstream side (to widen the 
roadway on the dam crest) . Sand and gravel has been placed along 
the downstream side of the right embankment to stabilize the 
partially collapsed dry-stone-masonry wall. 

The depth of the lake just upstream from the stoplog 
structure is about 6 inches underlain by 3 feet of soft sediment. 



2-3 



Laurel Lake Dam Recommendations 

- The trees and brush growing on the upstream face of the right 
and left embankments are being removed. The stumps and roots 
should be excavated and the holes backfilled with compacted 
impervious fill. 

- The stoplog timbers are deteriorating and should be replaced 
with modifications to allow removal during periods of heavy flow, 
or the entire structure modified with a gate that can be drawn up 
from the bottom of the spillway. 

- A dogging device should be installed on the stoplog structure 
to prevent vandals from removing stoplogs from the dam, while 
permitting easy access for operation during an emergency. 

- The 4-inch-thick concrete lining walls poured against the 
spillway masonry training walls have deteriorated and should be 
removed. The stone masonry walls behind the concrete should then 
be inspected and remedial repairs made if required. 

- Brush should be removed from the downstream toe of the left and 
right embankments, and the area inspected for seepage. 

- The top stones of the dry stone masonry wall on the downstream 
face of the left embankment should be realigned. 

- Trees and shrubs should be removed from the dam site and the 
dam inspected on a regular basis. 

- A formal emergency action plan should be developed including 
monitoring the dam during heavy rainfall and spring runoff, and 
procedures for notifying local authorities in the event of an 
emergency . 



m 



Dunn Pond Dam Description (Information from 1995 Dam 
Inspection/ Evaluation Report - prepared for DEM by Root 
Engineering) 

Situated between Pearl Street and Betty Spring Road in 
Gardner, the Dunn Pond Dam normally stores 60 acre-feet of water. 
The dam is an earthfill embankment with a concrete core wall, 
it's crest stretching a length of about 160 feet and a width of 8 
feet. Dunn Pond continues to be used for recreation, as was the 
original intent of the dam's construction in 1934. 

The dam's spillway approach channel is 10.5 feet wide and 4 
feet deep. It is located in the pond area upstream of the right 
dam abutment. The exit channel from the spillway is 32 feet long 
with low concrete training walls. Dunn Pond Dam's gated outlet 
is a 24 inch cast iron low-level conduit that was inserviceable 
at the time of the dam's most recent inspection due to a missing 
shear key for the hand wheel operator. 

Structural deficiencies coupled with the outlet being 
inoperable lead to the conclusion that Dunn Pond Dam is in poor 
condition and in need of repair. The dam is classified as a 
significant hazard because of its potential threat to downstream 
structures in the event of dam failure. Betty Spring Road, a 
secondary road, is located 500 feet downstream of the dam. Also 
in close proximity is a commercial area that lies 1.4 miles 
downstream at the intersection of MA Route 2 and business route 
140. A recent and substantial capital investment to rehabiltate 
the pond for recreation would also be affected by dam failure. 



2.5 



Dunn Pond Dam Recommendations 

- Provide construction procedures for the removal of trees, 
stumps and roots and make recommendations for the proper 
restoration of the soil disturbed by the removal process. 

- Investigate the need for further repair to the outlet gate. 
(It is assumed that DEM, Forest and Parks will install the 

missing shear key.) 

- Investigate the failed concrete in the left spillway tarining 
wall and make recommendations for repair or replacement. 
Investigate the spillway exit channel training walls and make 
recommendations for stream bank protection. 

- Investigate the failed concrete in the gatewell and make 
recommendations for repair or replacement. 

- Cut the brush on the upstream dam embankment. 

- Regrade the dam crest and provide a gravel path for pedestrian 
use. 

- Trees growing on the downstream slope of the embankment should 
be removed, the roots grubbed, the embankment graded, and the 
ground cover established. The area should be cleared to 2 feet 
below the toe of the dam. 

- Repair or replace the left spillway training wall. 

- Place streambank protection along the spillway exit channel. 

- Repair or replace the gatewell foundation. 

- Repair or replace the outlet gate. 

- Remove debris from low level outlet intake structure. Confirm 
the presence of and/or install a trashrack on the inlet. 

- Remove debris from the outlet channel for the low level outlet. 

- Evaluate the outlet channel lining and the seepage through the 
outlet headwall. Repair or replace these structures, as 
necessary. 

- Prepare an operations and maintenance manual for the dam. The 
manual should include provisions for annual technical inspection 
of the dam and for surveillance of the dam during periods of 
heavy precipitation and high water levels. The procedures should 
delineate the routine operations and maintenance work to be done 
to ensure satisfactory performance and upkeep of the facility. 

A Notice of Intent will need to be filed with the Gardner 
Conservation Commission prior to any work being done on the Dunn 
Pond Dam. 



2-6 



6.5 Cost Estimates* 



Remedial Measure 


Total 


1 . Cut and remove upstream brush + 


$400 


2. Grade dam crest & gravel path 


$2,000 


3 . Cut and remove downstream trees 


$15,000 


4. Repair/replace left spillway wall 


$3,000 


5 . Place bank protection along 
spillway exit channel 


$2,000 


6. Repair/replace gatewell 


$8,000 


7. Repair/replace outlet gate 


$7,500 


8. Investigate, clear, and repair 
intake + 


$2,000 


9. Remove debris from low level 
outlet channel + 


$200 


10. Line outlet channel and repair 
outlet headwall 


$4,000 


Subtotal 


$44,000 


20 % Engineering & Contingencies 


$8,800 


Total; 1-10 including Engineering and 
Contingencies 


$53,000 


11. O&MManual 


$3,000 


Total Estimated Project Cost 


$56,000 



' The estimated costs, including labor and materials, are based on limited investigations and is 
provided for general information only. Actual construction costs may vary. 

Work can be undertaken without a Chapter 253 permit or assistance from an engineer. Permits 
other than Chapter 253 may be required. 



/27 



Sheomet Lake Dam Description (from 1987 Dam Inspection / 
Evaluation Report - prepared for DEM by GEI Consultants, Inc.) 

The dam is located on Tully Brook in Warwick State Forest, 
about 500 feet north of Athol Road. When Sheomet Lake is at a 
normal level, the dam impounds about 174 acre-feet of water. The 
dam is classified as having a significant hazard potential due to 
one inhabited structure on Royalston Road, about 4.5 miles 
downstream of the dam site, which could potentially be affected 
by a failure of the dam. Also, two bridges downstream of the dam 
could be damaged in the event of a dam failure. One bridge 
carries the park access road over Tully Brook about 160 feet 
downstream of the dam, and the other bridge carries Athol Road 
over Tully Brook about 750 feet downstream of the dam. 

The main dam consists of a downstream dry stone masonry wall 
with an upstream earthfill embankment. The upstream face of the 
main dam is protected by heavy riprap. The main dam is 
approximately 150 feet long and has a maximum height of 17 feet. 

An earth embankment extends from the right end of the main 
dam to the Park Access Road at the right abutment. The earth 
embankment is 150 feet long and has a maximum height of 5 feet. 

The principal spillway has a crest length of 60 feet and is 
located at the left end of the masonry dam. On the left side of 
the spillway is a bedrock knoll and to the left of the knoll is a 
small dike embankment. The dike embankment is about 65 feet long 
and has a maximum height of about 8 feet. The downstream face of 
the dike embankment is a dry stone masonry wall and the upstream 
face consists of earth fill. The dike embankment spans between 
the bedrock knoll and the beach access road on the left abutment. 
There is a low- level -out let structure located under the masonry 
dam. 



\%% 



Sheomet Lake Dam Recommendations 

- Place compacted sand and gravel on the downstream side of the 
dike embankment sloping up to the dike crest to stabilize the 
embankment. Install a toe drain system downstream of the dike 
embankment to filter and collect seepage water coming through the 
dike. 

- Investigate and repair areas where water flows into the lake 
bottom immediately upstream of the spillway weir. 

- Investigate the areas of seepage found on the downstream side 
of the main dam and earth embankment related to location and 
amount of fine material coming from the embankment. 

- Open low-level outlet pipe once a year to clear out any debris 
which may collect in and around the outlet. 

- Continued removal and control of trees and shrubs on the dike, 
and backfilling with compacted impervious material. 

- A registered civil engineer should conduct a technical 
inspection of the dam once a year. 

- Institute a formal emergency action plan to include monitoring 
the dam during heavy rainfall and spring runoff, and procedures 
for notifying downstream authorities in the event of an 
emergency . 



\Z°, 



Richards Reservoir Upper and Lower Dams Description (from 1987 
Dam Inspection / Evaluation Report - prepared for DEM by GEI 
Consultants, Inc.) 

The dams are located in Warwick State Forest along Black Brook at 
the south end of Richards Reservoir. The lower dam is 
approximately 13 5 feet south of the upper dam. The water that 
was impounded between the two dams was used as a small swimming 
area for Camp Warwick when the MCI facility was in operation. 
The upper dam impounds Richards Reservoir, which has a normal 
storage capacity of 58 acre-feet. Both dams have heights of less 
than 10 feet and are classified as small and low hazard dams. 
There are no inhabited structures within the potential flood zone 
downstream of the dam site. Engineering data is not available 
for these dams. The assessment is based on visual inspection, 
hydraulic computations and DEM reports of past performance. 

Recommendations 

Upper Dam: 

- The downstream masonry wall has partially collapsed and should 
be restored or stabilized with a soil berm. 

- The brush which has grown on the right and left downstream 
embankments should be removed. Growth of shrubs and trees should 
be monitored and controlled on an ongoing basis. 

- The crest of the dam should be leveled adjacent to the concrete 
spillway walls. 

- Concrete walls should be repaired by adding surfacing material 
in worn sections. 

- A technical inspection should be conducted annually, and a 
formal emergency action plan should be established. 

Lower Dam : 

- Hydraulic and hydrologic study indicates the dam will be 
overtopped during the "design flood". The upper two feet of the 
right concrete wall should be removed so that this area will 
operate as an emergency spillway. 

- Concrete walls should be repaired by adding surfacing material 
in worn sections. 

- A technical inspection should be conducted annually. The lower 
dam might be used in the future to impound water for swimming if 
Camp Warwick is reopened. 






/3c 



ACME 

BOOKBINDING CO., !N& 

MAY 1 199? 

100 CAMBRIDGE STREH