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' ■* '■> 

t H E 


\^^;t. AND ^T^OC^ f> 



Defcribed in 


RehderM into PRO S E* 

With Hiibrica], Philofbphical and Explanatoiy 


Fr<Mn the French of the Learned 



By a GENTLEMAN of Oxford. 


t^rinted for T. Osborne, in Grafs-Inn^ and 

J, HiLDYARD, at Tork. 


• • 




• " • • 




J*— *■ 


NO Poem has bad jreater^ tir jujier Praift 
from the moji eminent Judges of Literature^ 
than Paradise Lost^ as well far 
the SubUnnty of the SubjeSl and Sentimentf^ 
as the proUund and extenjive Learning it is 
enricFd with. It comprehends almoft every Thing within 
jbe Extent, of human Knowledge ; but being wrote in the 
bigbeji Stile of heroick Poetry^ and the Thoughts^ mat^ 
cf Stem ixprefs^d by Figures of Grammar and Rhe- 
toric, being full of Digreffions and Sentences txanfpo- 
fcd, as well as difficult Ternjs in the Mathematicks, 
Hiftory, Aftronomy, Aftrology, Geography, Ar- 
chitefture. Navigation, Anatomy, Alchymy, Divj- 
i nity, and all other human Arts and Sciences^ it hath j$ 

^ happened^ that many Readers have been unable to fee the 

Beauties of the Poem^ for Want of being able to come M 
^ y be proper Explication of tbofe T kings y which have beem 
cut of their Reach \ and this muft happen to a gr^cat 
many \ for how few are there who have had Leifure or 
Opportunity to be Majier of all the Sciences ? leftdes 
' © njohicb it is neceffary they Jhould under/land the Hebrew^ 

Chaldee, Arabic, Syriac, Phoenician, and Egyptian^ 
and all the dead Languages^ with the living and mo^ 
dem ones^ in all their different DialeSls : So that it hat 
been a frequent Complaint of the Readers of M i l to k^ 
Sbat he bos not calculated his Poetn for common Eyes^ 
wbo pajpng by the mofl inftruSive Paffagesy or elfe un^ 
certainly gueffo^ at their Meaning and Reading altogether 
dtmbtfuliy^ lofe the Pleafure and Benefit which might a^ 
rife from the thorough Underfianding of the improving 
Leffure^ 0nd the moral and philofophical InJiruSions 



wiisb are to be found in t^is inimitable Book ; of 
which may be affirmed, what cannot be faid of any 
ether Book in the tVorld bejide^ that /V, /'/ never has 
ieen read and rightly underjiood by any^ who have not ' 
given it the higheft Encomiums. Therefore^ that alt 
Englifh Readers may have the like PleafurCy the follow- 
ing fVbrk was taken in Hand\ and to help Foreigners^ 
whofefmall Acquaintance with our Language^ might o-, 
tberwife prevent their Intelligence of the fn^ Poem that 
ever was wrote. It was not thought fufficient to pick out 
Lines here and thercy and explain them onfyy fir it k 
impojjible to know which Part may be difficult^ to each- 
Reader -, for which Reafon^ the whole is rendered into 
plain and intelligible Profe^ the Senfe preferv*dy and no- 
thing omitted that may make it clear to att Readers ; 
Care being taken not to let any Word pafs^ whether prth 
per Names of Men or P laces ^ or technical Words^ witb^ 
out a NotCy to fnake them appear plainy and doing the 
fame by all the Mythology ^r Fables of the Antients. U 
mujl certainly be a great Eafe^ to have Recourfe to fuch 
a ^ranfcript in Profe^ and the Help of fuch Number 
of explicit Notes : For this Work is not done to infinuate^ 
^bat it is fuperior or any Way equal to the Poetry of 
Paradise Lost; but^ on the contrary^ deJigrCi 
only to make it more univerfally intelligible^ being fully 
^Jfuredy that k will then be always held in Admiration \ 
and if through my Means this Jhould happeHy IfbaS 
think I have been of general Service \ which is a Confide- 
ration that would be my Rewardy if no other Jhould arifo 
from ity for then my chief Endyjoould be anjwered. 

T H £ 


F I R S T B O O K 



The Argumemt. 

PROPOSES the wboie Suhje^^ Mates 
Difobediencey and the Lofs tberei^on of Pa- 
radife wherein be ivas phc'd. 7%en touches 
the prime Caufe of his Fali, ' which was 
Satan in the Serpent; who revolting from G o D, and 
drawing to his Side many Legions of ^gels, was 
by the Command of God, driven out oj Heaven 
with ell his Crew into the great Deep, ffhich 
A^ion pafs'd over, the Authw' hajles into the m^ 
of liingSj prefenting Satan with bis Angeis now 
faliai into Hetlj dejcrib'dj not in the Centre (for 
Heaven and Earth may be fuppos'd as nt^ yet 
made, certainly not yet occurs' d) Imt in a 
Place of utter Darknefs^ moft fitly caU'd Chaos : 
Hgre Satan with bis Af^els lying on the burning 
Lah, thimder-firuck am ajionijk'd, after a cer- 
tain S$ace recovers f as from Confufion, calls up 
B bim 

'^ Paradise- LoSt^ Book % 

him who next in Order and Dignity lay hy {nm ; 
tbey confer of their miferable FalL Satan aiwa- 
kem ell bis Legions^ who lay till then confounded \ 
they rifcy theit Numben^ A-ray of Battle^ their 
chief Leaders nam'd, according to the Idols after-' 
wards known in Canaan, and the Countries adjoin- 
ing. Satan though fenjible of the Diminution of 
bis Glory diredis bis Speech to the Fallen jingels^ 
comforts them with Hope yet of regaining Heaven, 
but tells them of a new World, and new Kind of 
Creature to be created ; according to an antient 
Prophecy or Report in Heaven, and threatens the 
Deity, which the rebellious jingels allajfent to. The 
j^aciates of SaMn build Pwc^moifiiun, aad tie 
Jkfimal Peers fit thire in Cmftoil, - 

C H A P. I, 

^e whole SubjeB is proposed, Man's Difobedience, 
and the Lois thereupon of Paradife wherein be 
was plac'd. The prime Caufe of his Fall. Satao. 

- with bis Angels now fallen into Hell defcrib'd^ 
lying on the burning Lake. After a certain 
Space Satan calls to him who next lay by bim^ 
They confer of their miferable Fall. 

JHEAVENLY Spirit of Trutft 
and Harmony aflift me ! to wrice 
of Man's firft Difobcdience, and 
of the Fruit of that fcH-bidden 
Tree » ihc Tafting cf whicK 
brought Death and all our Woe 
into the World, and occ^ion'd 
the Lofs of Paradifc, till Jesus 
Ghrist, a Man far greater than Adam, reftore and 
redeem, and once more regain a Paradifc for us. 

:. thou» 

Chap. I. PAitADisfi Lost. 


Tftou, who from the thick Clouds on the fecrct 
Topoi Mount Oreb, (a) or, perhaps of Sinat (^): 
di<ra infpire Moses when a Shepherd there, who firft 
taught tnd Children of I s r a e l, how HH^aven and 
Earth Were created from the Elements, which were 
till then nothing but a mix'd and confus*d Heap, and 
without Form. Or if thy Prefencc be more revealed 
en Mount Sion, (c) or by the Brook of Siloa; 

B 2 ' (d) whicli 

(4) Onh, Ihrek, or Qfonh^ 
Hehr£w, i. e. Drjnifii f^r it 
was a litSMx\ txt Dry Moantain ia 
Arabia t&e Stoitf, where there 
was little or do Wattr^ Peat. 
yis&. 15. ^Bartb is a Part of 
Mount Sinai on the Weft Side ; 
and Zinai lies on the Eafi Side of 
it. There Hnjki fed the Flock 
(flf Jtthri^ Ibid there God ap* 
pearM to him £rft in a burning 
Btf/h^ Exod. iii..i. 

ifi)' Sinai, Heh. from Seneb^ 
L e. A Buff , or n^m \ becaufe 
diefe Bufies grew thereon in A* 
bnndance. Ic is a very fieep and 
h^ Mountain in Arabia the 
St9nj, about 1 56 Miles from Je» 
mfalem to the South. Thefe 
are not two didind Mountains 
bnt one, which is parted into 
two Tops, like Famajfus, &c. 
of which Sinai is the highefl | 
having a ^r and fpadous Plain 
between them : That Top to- 
wards the Weft is caird Horeb, 
and that to the Baft Sinai, The 
Muuntain is round, takes 7000 
Steps to the Top, has feme Oli'vi 
7rfei, Fig ^rets^ Date 7rees^ &c. 
and feverai Chapels, Monafieries, 
Celh^ and Mo/jues, &c. Jt is 
called file Mwnt ofG^d, becaufe 
it is a great one } or bi^caufc G^J 

appeared * thereon frequently to 
Mofes, and delivered his Lm^ 
there f by the Turbf GibtiAfput*. 
fa, i. e. the Mount of Mo/es i hf 
the Arabians, Tor, i- e. Th^ 
Mountain* Very much Vencra* 
tion is ftiilpsid tatlm Mountain ^ 
on Account oi that antient ana 
extraordinary Holinefs, when the 
Almighty appeared upon it to 

(c\ Sion^ Zi0s,, or Ttaion, Beb^ 
i. e. A Watch , Tower i becaufe 
it is the higheft Hill thereabouti^ 
and from it one might fee the 
Holy Land far and near. A 
Mountain on the North Side, and 
fome Part of it within the Cicv 
of Jerufalem, furrounded witK 
fteep Sides, high Rocks, and 
deep Ditches, except on the 
North Side * therefore it was ve« 
ry ftrone. Some of the Jebufiiee 
(Part ofthe old Canaanites) de- 
fended It againft all the Force o£ 
the Ifraelites, Jojh, xv. 63, 'filt 
the valiant King Da*uid tool( i%y 
from them ; there he fortified th» 
OldCaftUy built the Upper Tqwi^^ 
furrounded it with new Walls^. 
and called it the City of Davids 
there he kept his Court sAd i^e« 
tinue, 2 Sam. c. 6. There.^ere. 
many fair Buildings and Houfes 


Paradise Lost.' Book Ij 

■•» » 

(^ which runs down from thence to the Temple where 
thy 'Oracle is placed, I* intreat the Influence of thy 
Spirit from thence, to aid me in treating of this dif- 
ficult Subjeifb, feeing I muft elevate my Stile, above 
the beft Poets, and difcourfe of fuch hish, and facred 
Things, as have never been attempted before,- either 
in Profe or Rhime. Inftru6fc me for thou knoweft, 
thou, who preferreft an upright and pure Heart be- 
fore all Temples : Thou waft prefent from all Eter- 
nity, and moving on the great Deep didft infufe vital 
Heat, and as the Dove when (he warms Eggs into 
Life make Nature prolific. What is dark m me do 
thou enlighten, and raife, and fupport me, where I 
am too low and weak, that I may aflfert the WiOom 
and Juftice of Eternal Providence, in a Manner wor- 
thv the Subjed I have undertook to write on, and fa 
juKify thy Ways to Men. 


of his Oficirs, erpeciall^ his 
Hoofeof 'Cidar-lVpod^ which he 
calM the Cafih of Sion^ and the 
Stfulcbrt of SLing David^ SpU- 
j^MTy i&c. within a Rock : Some 
of their Rains are to be feen dill. 
It is elegantly defcribed?/i/i» 48. 
hy ypfiffm. Sands, Sec, Sion 
was alto called the Mount of the 
tlMt/f of the SanSnary^ and MA 
IPf i. e. PUnty ; becaufe there 
was Abundance of all good 
Things for David^s Family^ and 
<thofe of his Noblis, Sion was 
life a Type or Figure of the 
Chrth of CMfi, Heb. 12. 22. 
*^* Obs. Monnt Moriab and 
Ami Sion ftood diredly in the 
Center^ and Monnt Cmharf9tit)k' 
oot the North Gate, in the Oid 

^^iru/alem, and at a coniiderable 
iftanee: Bat now Mount Sion 

is without the Walls upon the 
South Side, and Monnt Ctdvary 
almoft in the Middle of it, 

(i) Silot^ Siioah, Siloam, SJ^- 
loacb^ Heb. i. e. Stnt ; for it was 
a Brook or Spring of Water gli- 
ding foftly down Mount Sion^ on 
the Eaft Side of the 7mpU of 
Jtrufalem^ and at the Bottom of 
it made a Fool^ which was Sont 
from God^ at the Prayer of Ifui* 
tf#, a little before his Death, and 
when the City was dofely beiie- 
ged ; as a BleJRng or Gift^ to 
cure many Dileaies among hia 
People. Herein a Blind Mum 
walhed his Eyes at Cbrif% Caak- 
mand, and receiyed his Eye- 
Sight, y^iiw 9. 7. ThereaTfw- 
$r was built over it, by the Fall 
of which 18 Men were killed^ 
Luh 13. 4. 

Chap. I. Paradise Lost. 


Taught by Thee, (for the higheil Heaven nor 
loweft Hell hide nothbg from Thee) let me relate 
what was the Caufe that mov'd our firft Parents, 
when they were plac'd in fo happy an Eftate, and 
favoured fo highly of Heaven, to lofe Obedience to 
their Creator, and tranfgrefs his Command, when he had 
laid on them but one Reftrdnt, and given themPower 
over the whole World befides } and who it was that firft 
ieduc'd them to that foul Rebellion : It was the chief 
of the fallen Angels (e) concealed in the Form of a 
Serpent, whofe Fraud, ftirr'd up with Revenge, and 
Envy, deceived the firift Mother of Mankind : Before 
which his Pride had ^ occafionM him to be caft out 
from Heaven, with all. the reft of the rebellious An^ 
gels, by whofe Afliftance he iifpir'd firft to fet him- 
lelf up in Glory above what he was, and imagin'4 
that he might equal himfelf to the Almighty, iixid 
Moft High God, if he did but ftrive, and oppofe 
him ; and with this ambitious Aim made War in 
Heaven, and fought againft his Government, abfp- 
lute Power and Dominion, with proud Battle, but 
the Attempt was in vain, for the rower of the Al- 
mighty caft him down from the Heavens, with 
moft dreadfiil Ruin, and Burning, down to the bot- 

B 5 tomlefs 

{e) Angilsi All the Modem 
LaMgmages of Emropf borrow this 
Word JMgil from die Gntk^ L e. 
A Meffengiri and the Hibrew 
MalmM figniiies the fame, be- 
caoiie thefe dhfiial Beings are 
Che Meffengers of Ged. it de- 
fKKet their OJice rathfer than 
their Mf/nrr. In other Words 
they are called Sfiritit Miihfiers, 
G§dt, Smu of Qed^ fhronet, &c. 
Jmfeli are pare, Intelledaal^ 
Spiritnal Beings, more noble by 
far than Mam^ the Glory and 
Pofefiion of the Ctm/im ; of all 

Creatures they come neareS to 
the Eternal Father of Spirits^ in 
their Spiritual Nature and vaft 
Perfeffionj; which the Jlmigbty 
makes ufe of as his Servants ^ to 
execute his Orders through the 
whole Creation, altho* he ftands 
ia no Need of their Servicea. 
Jngels of the Prefenee : And fo 
they are called Sbinan^ i. e. So' 
€ond: Becaufe they are Second 
or next to God, ?faL 68. 17. 
Here. Satan who had once been 
an Holy, but is now an Apofiate 
und Rebelliout Angel. 

6 Pa|iadise Lo$T* Book I* 

tomlefs Pit, and evcrlafting DeftrudUon, where he 
was doonx'd to livp, in fuch Pains and Bondage, as 
Are beff exprcfsM by Chains and Fire ; who had the 
Prefomption to defy, and fet himfelf againft the om- 
nipotent Creator of all Things. 

A s long as would feem many Days and Nights 
to mortal Men, he lay with his horrid Companions, 
totally fubdu*d, and reftlefs, as if they had been 
rolling in a fiery Gulph ; for though they were im- 
mortal Spirit^, yet were they confounded : But his 
Doom was to be referv*d to more Wrath, for now 
the Thought of the Happinefs he had loft, and the 
lafting Pain which had feiz'd, tormented him, and 
foeaking after the Manner of Men, he caft his 
forrowful Eyes around, which ftiew'd that he was 
difmay*d, and verv much afflidled ; but not fo, but 
^t he retained rfedfaft Hate, and inflexible Pride, 
At once, as far as it was in the Power of an Angel, 
to difcem, he perceived the difmal Situation, that it 
was wafte, and wild, and his Idea reprelented to him 
a horrible Dungeon, that flam'd round on all Sides, 
like a great Furnace, and yet there feem'd to be no 
Light, but only perceptible Darknefs ; in which ter- 
rible Sights of Woe might be difcover'd ; Regions 
of Sorrow, Shades of Hell, where Peace and Reft 
could never have Habitation, where Hope the only 
Comforter never comes, but endlefs Tortures urge 
continually, and a fiery Deluge, fed with what always 
bums, and never confumes : This Place eternal Ju- 
ftice had prepared for thofe rebellious Angels, and 
here given them their Portion, farther remov'd fron^ 
the Light of Heaven, and from God, than it is 
from Sie Center {f) three times to the fartheft 


(/) Ctnier ; Tr, Ital, Span. Point of a Grcle. Hcrc, the 
£a/. from the Gr. i. e. A Pointy Middle Point of the Earth, i. e« 
An jillfonomicalT. The Middl$ Three Times M far from He»« 

Chap. L Paradise Lost. j 

Pole, ( p) but oh ! how unlike was this Place from 
that he fell from ! There he foon difcem*d the Com- 
panions of his Fall overwhelmed as with Floods and 
Whirlwinds of tempeftous Fire ; and weltering by 
his Side, one diat was next himfelf in Power, and 
next in Wickedncfs, who a great while afterwards 
was worfliipp'd in Pal/estine, {b) and call'd Beel- 
zebub, (i) to whom the Arch-Encmy (who thence- 
forward in Heaven, was called {k) Satan,) break* 

B 4 ing 

▼CO, as the two P^hs are diftant 
Iron the Efuat»^ which is a 
vift Diftaoce indeed. 

(;} F§U\ Fr. Lai. Gr. i. e. 
Trnmimg rmmJ. An Aftrwt, T, 
The two Ends of an imagtnaiy 
GrcU^ on which j^rMMMTi &y 
the World fmms rmmdfiQiak Emjt 
to Wi& daily. The Potts are 
two, the ArtU or North PoU i 
and the Antartic or Sooth Pole. 

{b) PaLtfiimsi Hd. i. e. 
ZfrMlid tmtb Dmjt and Sandi 
becas/e it u a very dry Land. 
A Coontry of Afia upon the Me- 
Mterranean Sea, ItwascallM, 
f. Canaan^ from Canaan the 
Son of Ham i 2, Pbiiifiaa or 
PaUfiine^ from a mighty People 
deicended from Mixraim^ ano- 
ther of his Sons, Gen, 10. 14. 
who inhabited fome Part of it. 
3. TbeLanelcfPrnni/ei becaufe 
God frvmifed to give it to Ahra- 
ham and his Pofterity, for an In- 
heritance. 4. ymdita I from Jn- 
iab^ whofe Offf^ng had it 
looff in Pofleffion. And 5. the 
Hofy Land\ becaufe it was ho- 
noored with God^s extraordinary 
Prefenee^ Worjbip. Merciet, Blef- 
fingi^ Miraeles Bhovt aU Coun- 
tries upon Earth ; and with the 
Natimiy^ Ufe^ Aahns, and 

DeSrine of the Hoij Jefiu and 
bU Afoftleu The Jews expelled 
the PbiliJHnet for their abomina- 
ble Idolatry and other Crimes ; 
the Romans deknoliihM thofe} 
the Saracens and ^nrks have been 
Mailers of it thefe thoufaad 
Years paft. %% Obs. That 
tho* Idolatry was praf^ifedall the 
World over, yet oar Antbor men« 
tions this Nation in particular j 
bfccanfe the Idols hereafter defcri* 
htd, were chiefly woHhipped ia 

(1) Beel-xebnby Baal-xebnb^ or 
Selzebub ; Heb, i. e. The Lord 
of Flies ; either becaufe the Peo« 
pie believed, that he drove away 
and dcftroycd F//V/, which very 
much infefled them ; or becaufe 
Mttltttades of thefe Vermin fwar- 
med about the Blood of the Sa- 
crifices offered to him. He was 
worihipped firft at Babylon^ and 
then every where ; but Chiefly by 
the People of Ekron^ 2 Kings^ 
1 . 2. Here it is the Name of 
one Grand Prince of the Devils^ 
and next to Satan ; our Saviour 
calls him the Prince of tbe De- 
<oils^ Mat. 12. 24. 

(i) Satan ; Heb, i. e. The Ad- 
fverfary. The very Prince of 
all De<vils, As there are difib' 


8 Paradise Lost. ^Book I. 

\fig the horrid Silence with bold Words thus began 

I F thou art he, who in the happy Kingdoms of 
Light, cloath'd with excefllve Brightnefs, didil out- 
jhine Millions of the other Angels, though they were 
bright ! If Mifery hath now join*d with me in the 
fame Ruin, him whofe united Thoughts, and Coun- 
sels, whofe eoual Hope, and Hazard with mutual 
League, join'a with me once in the glorious Enter- 
prize : How art thou fallen and changM ! Thou feeft 
into what Pit, and from what Height we are thrown 
down I fo much ftronger H e proved with his Thun- 
ders, and till then who had ever known the Force of 
thofe fatal Arms ? And yet not on the Account of thofe, 
or what the powerful Conqueror in his greateil Anger 
can inflift elie, do I either change, or repent of that 
fix'd Mind, (tho* my outward Luftrc may feem di- 
minilh'd) nor of that high Difdain which arofe in me 
from a Senfe of injur'd Merit, that rais'd me to 
contend with him who is call'd Mightiest, and 
brought along to the fierce Contention, a number- 
lefs Force or arm'd Spirits, who durft difapprove 
of his Government ; and preferring me, with aaverfc 
Power opposed his utmoft Power, in a doubtful Bat- 
tle fought in Heaven, in fuch a Manner as ihobk his 
Throne. What though we have fuffer'd fome Lofs ? 
We have not loft all, our Will ftili remains uneon- 
quer*d j immortal Hate, and Study of Revenge yet 
rennain, and a couragious Relblution never to yield - 
or iubmit, that Glory his greateft Wrath or Power 
ihall never extort from me, (what other Proof needs 
there, diat we are not overcome ?) To bow and pe- 

rent Ordtrs and Degras of the For as every g—i Angel is not a 

Holy Jhgilt^ fo there are ftill a* Michael or a Gabriel i fo everjr 

mong the wicked ones : Their Devil is not a Satam, a hmfer^ 

Chief Prince is called Satan^ &c. And a Kingdom is afcribcd 

Sel-tuint, the Old Serpent, &c. tohim^ Mat. 12. 26^ Bph. a. %• 

Chap. I. Paradise Lost. 9 

tidon for Grace, and with Supplications and bended 
Knees, acknowledge a Power to be infinite; and di- 
vine, who fo lately had Reafon from the Terror of 
my Power to doubt the Continuance of his Domini- 
on : That would be low indeed, that would be worfe 
Difgrace, worfe Shame and Ignominy than this 
Downfall. Since we have (as well as He) by Fate 
(/) the Strength of Gods, and the Subftance of 
which we are, is immortal and cannot fail j fincc 
by this laft great Event , we have gain'd much Expe- 
rience and Forefight, and for Oppofition ftill are not 
worfe, we may now make a Refolution, (and hope 
well for Succels,) to make cither by Force or Fraud 
eternal and irreconcileable War upon our great Ene- 
my ; who now indeed triumphs in the Excefs of Joy, 
and having no Competitor arbitrarily holds the Ty- 
ranny of Heaven. 


Thus vauntii^ aloud fpoke the apoftate Angel, 
tho* he was in great Pain, and ftung with Tortures 
of the decpeft Defpsur ; and his intrepid Companion 
Beelzebub foon replied* 

Great Prince ! Chief of the many throned Po- 
wers, («w) that lead the Seraphim (») to War in 
Order of Battle under thy Conduft, and fearlefs, 


(1) Fati i Fr. Lot. i. c. fii AIM retained tbat high Order a- 

Sfiich 9r Dtcra of God. A mong themfelves, which chej 

Word moch ufed by the Stoich, had before their Fall. 

and other Heathen Philofopheia (») Strapbim and Strapbi Heh. 

Ibrthe Providence of God} the i. e, Bmming wad Flaming likt 

eternal and nnchangeableCoorfe Firt^ to fliew the vaft Lore and 

of Things, the naaiterable Law Zeal of thofe blefled Spirits to 

of Nature, Deftinj. God. In Saipturc this Word 

im) Pvwm ; Fr. from the Lat. denotes holy Ang^k' of the firft 

Such Angdi aa hare Ability, Au- Order of the Celettial Hierar- 

thority. Might and Force in chy. Here, Satan, who had 

Heaiveo. Here, fuch Princes a* been one of that high and happy 

oong the Fallen Angels, who Order. 

lo Paradise I/OST/ Book L 

brought into Danger the peipetual King of Heaven, 
and put his high Supremaq^ to the Proof; whether 
he be upheld by Strengdi, by Chance, or by Fate, I 
fee too well and am grieved for the forrowful E- 
vent, that with foul Defeat and lad Deftrudtion hath 
loft us Heaven, and with horrible Overthrow, thus 
low, laid all this mighty Hoft, as far as Gods, and 
heavenly Beings can perifti ; for the Mind and Spirit 
remain invincible, and Vigour foon returns ; tho* 
all our Glory is extinft, and our happy Eftate here 
fwailow'd up in endlcfs Mifery. But what if our 
Conqueror (whom I now by Force believe to be al- 
mighty, lince nothing fhort of Omnipotence could 
have overcome fuch Force as ours) hath left us this 
our Spirit, and this our Strength intire, only to enable 
us to endure our Pains ; that fo we may afford Satif- 
faftion to his Wrath, or do him greater Service, as his 
Captives by Right of War ; whatever his Bu^nels 
niay be, eidier to work in Fire, here in the Midft of 
Hell, or do his Errands in the dark and gloomy 
Deep ? Then what can it avail, that we feel no Decay 
of ouF Strength ; or is eternal Being a Good, only to 
undergo eternal Punifliment ? Whereto Satan, 
breaking in upon his Difcourfe, reply'd : 

Fallen Cherub 1 (o) to be weak is to be mifera- 
ble, either afting or funering *, but be certain of this, 
that to do any Thing good will never be our Bufihefs, 
but our only Delight always to do 111, as being direct- 
ly contrary to his high Will, whom we oppofe : So 
that if his Providence feeks out of our Evil to bring 
forth any Good, it muft be our Labour to pervert that 
End, and ftiU to find Means of Evil out of Good i 


{§) CbiruB, in the Singnltr Thty were reprcTented in the 

Nombcr, and Chtrubim in the Tabernade and Temple in ha- 

lioraK HeL i. e. FuUnefs §/ Bian Shape, with two Wings, 

Jfbtvwiidj^e^ AngeUof the I. Or* £xm/« 25. i8. 2, Cbrpn^ 3. VQm 
^er firfi mentioned, Gen, 3. 24* 

Ghap. L Paradise Lo5T>- |i 

which may often iucci^ed, fo as perhaps fhall naolefb 
him, (if I fail not) and hinder his moft fecret Defigns 
and Cbuncils from their intended Aim. But look, 
the angry Conqueror hadi recalled his (p) Minifters of 
Puriuit and Vengeance back to Heaven ; the fiery 
Hail, that was ihot after us in a Storm, is now blown 
over, and hath laid the burning Flood, which from 
the Precipice of Heaven received us as we fell, and 
the Thunder which broke on us, following red Light- 
ning with violent Force, perhaps hath fpent its Shafts; 
for now it ceaies to bellow through the great and 
boundlefs Deep: Then let us not flip the Opportunity, 
whether Scorn or farisfied Fury yield it us from our 
pncmy. Dofl thou fee yonder difmal Plain, wild and 
comfortlefs, a Seat of Defolation and without Lights 
except what the glimmering of thefe livid Flames 
cafts pale and very dreadful ? Thither let us repair 
from o£F the violent and painful Toffing of thefe 
Waves of Fire 5 there let us reft, if any Reft can be 
had there, and ajflfembling our afflifted Powers again, 
conluJt how we may henceforward moft annoy our 
great Foe^ how repair our own Lofs, how overcome 
this dokftil Calamity, what new Strength and Cou- 
rage we may gain from Hope, and if none from thence, 
what Refolution we may gain from Defpair. 

Thus Satan kept talking tp Beelzebub, with 
his Head lifted up above the Waves, and glancing his 
Eyes from Side to Side : As for his other Parts, he 
lay extended in a melancholy Condition, floating in 
Length and Breadth over a vaft Space of the Abyfs i 
as large in Bulk as thofe, whom Fables have nam'd of 
prodigious Size, as Titanian, (j) or Earth-bom, 


(f) Mimjiirs i Fr. Lai. Ser- 
vanes. Here, the Execationen f^) Vitanian^ like to frtam, 
of God*8 Vengeance open thefe Lat. Gr, from the Hib.i. e. 
Rebeb; the Ml/ Angels. See Earth 

Pfmlm 103. 20. 

12 Paradise Lo$t« Book L 

who is faid to have made War on Jovb ; Briareus, 
or TypHON, (r) who was buried in a Cave by antient 
Tarsus J (j) or Leviathan, (/) which God crea- 

Earth or Mud. The Fable is 
thas. Titan was the elder Bro- 
ther of Saturn^ he gave the 
Right of Inheritance to him» uj)- 
on Condition that none of his 
Male Children fhould live s fo 
dw Government fboald return to 
kifli and hk Ifiiie. Bat finding 
that Jufiiir^ KiptOMi^ and Plu* 
f were brought up iecretly, he 
with his Sons made War npon 
SatMmi took him, bin Wife and 
Children Prifonen, until Jafitir 
came to Af^e, who defeat .TV • 
#«« with his Thunder-bolts, and 
punifh'd the Titans in HeH and 
other Places. The Truth of this 
Story is taken from the old Gi« 
ants, the Builders of Baiii, Gin. 
si. 2. The Giants War is de- 
fcribed by the Poets with all 
Aitght, Terror and Greatnefs i 
bat oar Author has beautifully 
improved it here and in his fixth 
Book, in the fuppofed War of 
the Fallen Angels agaiiift God* 

(r) Tyfbtm or Typbtnt ; Heb. 
and Phifnic, i,t. An Inn$idati$n, 
Cr» i. e. An Infiammatiw or 
Sm0aiing ; becanfe be was Thun- 
der-ftrock by Jnfitir, A mon* 
iroos Giant, half Man, half 
Serpent* His Head, th^ £ty, 
reached to Heaven, his Hands 
finom one End of the Earth to 
die other, and he blew Fire out 
of his Mouth. Theie two were 
the chief of the Giants. In the 
War with the Gods'they heaped 
Mountains upon Mountains, and 
battered Heaven with huge Rocks 

and Iflands pluck'd out of the 
Sea: Jufitgr (buck him with 
Thunder-bolts and laid him un- 
der Mount JEtna, By this Fa- 
ble they meant the Winds which 
blow from one End of Heaven 
to the other, and from it to the 
Earth s Jntiter^s conquering him 
fignifies, tnat the Sun moderates 
and tempers the Winds. 

(j) Tarjnsi In a Cave near 
this City Tj^n was buried, ac- 
cording to fome Authors, whom 
our Autnor follows; botothen (ay 
it was under l^fottnt ./£/»«. Stra^ 
^tffays, that Anchialinnd Tar/ns 
were built by Sarianatalns^ the 
lail Emperor of the Aj^an Mp* 
narchy, about A. M. J242, both 
in one Dav: And that Tarfiu 
excelTd Atkins^ AJixandria, and 
Rvmi for polite Literature. 

Tarfiu i Lat. Gr. from tho 
Heb. J. e. Searched or fnmd §Mi. 
The chief City of CiViVi «, in the 
bfer Afia upon the River Qp/> 
sra/, founded by Tarjbifo the ie* 
cond Son of Janan^ Gen, x. 4« 
now called Tirr^and Tarfis^ a* 
bout 304 Miles from Jemfakm 
towards the North . It is fiunous 
for the Flight of J§nas the Pro- 
phet, for being the Birth-PLace of 
St. Ptf«/, and floany other lear« 
ned Men. 

{/) Leviathan ; Lat, Gr, from 
the Heh. i. e. A Heap p/Ser- 
femts ; Itt if many Serpents were 
gathered together into one, to 
make ap that one huge Oeatore : 
feme take it to be the Whale, 


Chap. L Paradise LosT^ 13 

ted the largeft of all the Creatures that fwim in die 
Ocean ; (who ibmedmes fleeping on the German 
Sea, which walhcs Norway, (it) Greenland, and 
Iceland^ the Pilot of fome fmall Skiff, ready to fink 
in the Night, miftakes for fome Ifland, and, as Mari- 
ners relate, fixes Anchor into his Scales, and moors by 
his Side under the Lee, while Night covers the Sea 
yrith Darknefs, and keeps off the defir'd Morning) 
in fuch Manner lay Satan, prodigioufly ftretch'd out 
and huge in Lengdi, chained upon the burning Lake $ 
nor had he ever rifen, or lifted his Head from thence, 
but that the Will and high Permiffion of the all-mling 
Power, left him at large to his own dark Purpofes and 
Defigns ) that with repeated Crimes he might heap* 
i]pon himfelf Damnation, at the fame Time that he 
fought to bring Evil upon others ^ and might be mor* 
dfyd to fee, how all hi^ Malice only fcrv'd to bring 
forth Grace, infinite Goodnefe and Mercy, Ihcwn to 
Man, who (hould be feduc'd by him, but upon him* 
fclf Wrath, Vengeance pour'd out, and threefokl 

Thus permitted, he raifes up his mighty Stature 
!rom off the Pool, and driving the Flames backward 
on each Hand, they roll in pointed Spires, and leave 
in the Middle an horrid Vale: Then with out-ftretch'd 
Wii^ he flies upward, floating along upon the duflcy 
Air, that never before had bom fuch a Weight ; at 
length he alighted upon dry Land, if that may be pro- 


but the Whale hath no Scales i 
ochcR the Crocodile or Alliga* 
tor. It is beaoiifally de(cribed» 
7#*4i. 15. 

(jr) N9rumf ; Sax, L f . The 
N§nS Way, A Country on the 
North of Emr^^ about 1300 
Miles in Length, and 260 in 
Breadth. Here the GtrmanOci' 
am 9 which waflieth Norway^ 

Gmnlani, and lalamd: The 
Whales Uve in thefe cold Nor- 
thern Seas, and alfo in the cold 
Ooaft of Pa$4mma^ near the 
Straits of MagSlan^ m great A- 
bnndances but rarely in the 
warn, becanfeof their exoeflive 
Fatneft ; ibr they woold melt 
and be pariioiled in hot Waters. 

14 pARAfirsB Losr# Book 11 

perly caird fo, that ever bum'd with folid, ^the 
L^e did with liquid Fire ; the Colour of which was 
ts when the Force of pent-up fubterranean Wind, re- 
moves a Hill torn from Pelorus, (jit) or the fhatter'd 
Sides of thundering Mount /Etna ; (y) whofe com- 
buftible and bituminous Entrails from thence catching 
f*ire, working with minaral Force, aiCfts the Windb, 
and leaves a parch'dand fuig'd-up Bottom, mix'd with 
Stench and Smoak. No better Reftii^place than this 
was found by the unblefe'd Feet of Satan, who was 
immediately followed by Beelzebub ; both of them 
glorying to have elcap'd from the burning Lake, 
which mey imputed totneir own natural and recovei^d 
Strength, andiK>t to the Permiilion of Go d« 


ix) Pilmui Lai. Cr. Heb. 
Phan. A Pilot; or Gr. 
from PeUrut an Afritmn Pilot 
f«hom tbcy iky lu^M flew 
and buried, foppofing he had be- 
tra/Mhims bntfin&ghii Mi- 
fbke, he ereOed » Satue/or him 
is a high Place tAai the Sea, 
which he caU'd PiUris, It is 
one of the three Promontories 
of Sicih^ on the North Side, a* 
boat a Mile and a half from ba^ 
Ij, now ctllM Cap9 di Far9, hat. 
i. e. ^bt Capi 9/ tb€ Ligbt-Hwfe. 
But here it is taken for the whole 
Ifland of Sicily^ whxc& it veiy 
fubjeA to Earthqoakes. 

( «} ^tna ; tat. Gr. from the 
Hif. jiftMaa, i. el A Fmmaet, a 
Cbim»e^9 or JEtmna^ i. e. A 
Mift ; becanfe of the perpeCoal 
Smdak aioending fronk the Top 
of it. Pindar^ an antSent Grtik 
Poet, calls it a cdeftial Oolamn, 
from its Heif^t, being the high- 
eft Moantain there ; on the Top 
of it one may fee>all the Uknd, 

and to Africa. A Volcano, or 
bamfnfi; Moantain on the Baff 
Side of Sicifyt abont 60 Miles m 
Compifs, lOQ Fe^ perpendita« 
lar, and a Mile of Afcent | 
which always caftsup Smoak, 
Flames,. Ames, and fometimes 
great Stones, Uqnid Metal and 
Sttlphor, which devourallThings 
before it. This Moantain haa 
bomt above 30ooYears pafi, but 
is not in the leaft confamed ; it 
hath Snow apbn the Top, Vine- 
yards and frnitful Paftpres on the 
Sides, and at the Bottom. It 
hath had nine terrible Eruptions 
that we know of; the moll 
dreadful were in J, D. 1538, 
1669, and 1693. It is now ad- 
led GibeUo by the Arabia i. e. 
^hi Mmatain^ bv Way of Emi- 
nence. Befides tnis there are di- 


vers other Volcanoes in Earofe, 
Afia, Africa f and ^armrtf, which 
are caufed by the Abundance of 
Suphorin their Bowds. 

Clastp.l. Para»ise Lost*; ij 

Is this the Kingdom ? faid the fali'n Arch-angel (zy^ 
Is this the Soil, the Climate ? This the Seat that we 
muft exchange for Hieaven ? This difmal Gloom for 
that heavenly Light ? Then be it fo ; flnce he who 
is now abfolute Sovereign can decree and bid >^hat 
fliall be right; to be fartheft from him is bed, fince 
he whom Reafon makes but equal. Force hath made 
iupreme above his Equals. Ye happy Fields where 
Joy dwells for ever ! Farewell. Hall Horrors ! Hail ' 
this infernal World ! and thou profoundeft Hell, far- 
theft from Heaven, receive me ! I am thy new Pof- 
feflbr, I am one who bring a Mind which is not to' 
be chang'd by Time or Place ; for the Mind is its 
own Place, and can of itfelf make a Heaven of- 
Hell, or a Hell of Heaven. What Matter is it 
Habere I am, if I am ftill the fame, and what I. 
ihould be, only that I am lefs than he, whom 
Thunder has made greater ? At leaft here we fliall* 
be free, the Thundefef hath not built this Place for" 
his Envy, he will not drive us out from hence, we 
may reign fecure here, and if I am to make my 
Choice, I fliould think it worth my Ambition to. 
rdgn, though but in HelU thinking it better to 
reign in Hell, than to ferve in Heaven. But why do 
we let our faithful Friends, the numerefus Compani- 
ons, and Copartners of our Lofs, lie thus aftonifh^d 
on the Gulph of burning Fire, and not call them to 
Aare with us their Part alfo in this unhappy Habi- 
tation, or with reunited Arms to try what may be * 
yet recovered in Heaven, or what more is pouible 
to be loft in Hell. So fpoke Satan, and Besl-* « 
Z£BVB reply 'd : 


(«) JrcB Jngei, Gr. i. c. An Here Batan. And probtbly hcT 

Arcb or Principal Angtl^ who is the only Arcb'-Angthhsx is oat • 

hu Power over others. Su Dm. of HeaYpn. * 

8. i6. Luk. I. 19. Rer. it. 7. 

id Paradise Lost. Book t. 

L E A D E R of thofe bright Armies, which none but 
Ac Omnipotent could ever have overcome ; if they 
but once hear that Voice, their greateft Surety of 
Hope in Fears, and Dangers, which they have fb 
often heard in the word Extreams, and which in the 
hazardous Edge of Battle, and in all Aflaults has 
been their fureft Signal, they will foon recover, take 
new Course, and revive, though they now lie in 
extreme Mifery, and proftrate on yonder Lake of 
Fire, as we not long lince did, aftonifliM and con- 
founded, which is no Wonder, confidering that we 
fell from fuch a dangerous Height. 

He had fcarce done fpeakmg when the luperibr 
Fiend Satan was moving towards the Shore ; his 
heavy Shield of heavenly Workmanftiip, mafly, 
large, and round, was caft behind him ; the broad 
Compafs. of it hung on his Shoulders like the Moon, 
whole Orb the Tuscan (a) Artift (*) views through 


(a) Tu/eam ; one of the Tujci 
or Htirt^d ; the antient People 
of 7ufcM^ in Itafy^ that came 
ftom Pbmuida ; but Jufiin fays 
ftov^LydUf Ia, zo. The Latifu 
had long Wars with them^ and 
at hift conquered them under 
Sirmu Tmllus^ the 6th King of 
JRpmi. It is now a fine Country, 
futjed to the Grand Duke oi^uf^ 
tmtf^ in Extent abont 144 Miles. 
It was catted JJetruria npw ?»/- 
€mt^^ and the People Tujkaut or 


H) Artifii Fr. Lot. One that 
is fldird in lay Art or Science : 
M/tpit means GaliU^ GaiU^, 
an excellent Ailronomer, and 
Native of FJortna, the Capital 
of Ti(/canj, chief Philofopber and 

Mathematician to the Grand 
Duke of Tm/camj^ ; who inrented 
thofe Glafles whereby he difcove- 
red Spots in die Sun, Mountains, 
RiverSy &c. in the Moon 1 the 
Nature of the Milkf-Way ; the 
various Appearances of Saturn $ 
many new Stars about OH§m and 
Canar i and 62,500 Stars, 
whereof 63 only appeared to the 
bare Eye. For thefe ufeftil Dif* 
coveries he was imprifoned five 
Years, by. the Inouifition, con* 
demned by Pope VrbtM 8, forc*d 
to recant at 00, and died at 78 
Years of Age, A. D. 164s. 
But that firft Invention was owing 
to Rogir Bsumf, Fellow of JCir* 
tin-Coiltge of Ot^trd^ long be* 
fore GaiiU$, And others af- 


Chap; L Paradise Lost. 17 

optic Glafles in an Evening, from the Top of Fe- 
soLE, (c) or clfe in Valdarno, (d) to difcovcr 
Mountains, Rivers, or new Lands on her Globe ; the 
talleft Pine hewn on the Mountains of N o r w a y , to 
be a Maft for the Ship of fome great Admiral, were 
but little in Comparifon of his Spear, with which he 
walked to lupport his uneafy Steps over the burning 
Sulphur, (not like his former Steps in Heaven) and 
the Heat of Hell fmote on him fore hefides, for it 
was furrounded and cover'd with Fire -, neverthelefs 
he endured it, 'till he came to the Brink of that infUr 
med Sea, where he Aooa and calFd his Legions, An- 
gclick Forms, who lay intranc'd and confounded with 
their Fall ; as thick as Leaves in Autumn, that fall 
into the Brooks in Valombros A, (e) where the Trees 
.cover over and fhade the Stream ; or like fcatter'd 
Sedge afloat, when Orion, (/) attended with boifte*- 
rous Winds, hath vexed theCoaft of the Red -Sea, (f) 

C whofc 

cribe it lo Mr. Jams Metiut of 
Jmjlfrdmft. Bat Galiia 9 bronght 
it 10 vaft Peifedion. 

(c) FifiUg ; valg. Fieffhie and 
FitKa»U ; caliM Feffaia by Tit. 
LMmu Pii^y. and Siiius ItaU- 
tms, I( was an antient City of 
.Tmfrmm^ near Flvrence^ tbe^efi- 
dcnce of the Tufcan Aagars, 
«k> tanghe the old Romans their 
iaperibtioiM Divinations^ Sacrifi- 
tt», &c. Here the great Gali- 
Xfisjcfided. and made hisAftro- 
Bomkal Obfenrations from the 
T(^ of the Towers thereof. 

{/) FaUartf ; Ual. from the 
Lmi. i. e. 7hi VaUty w the Rsvtr 
Anms. It if a firuitfnl Vale on 
the River Arno^ which nins 
throoffhTir/^M; and by Flortna 
into the fnfcmm Sea. 

(9) rmU$mhrrfa i Ital. laU 

i. e. A fl>aiy Valltyi a fmitfol 
and pleafant Valley in Tu/cany^ 
full of Shades and fruitful Trees. 
(f) Orioni Lat, from the 
Gr» i. e. Urim otTimfeft. An 
Aftron. T. It is a Sontnern Con- 
ftellation of 30 Stars, rifing on 
the Qth of Marcbf and fettini( 
in rfonfemher ; and bringeth 
Storms and Rain with it. See 
y$b 9. 9. Amos ji. 8. Some 
call OrioM the God of the 

J'g) Rid'Sea ; Hih. It is fo 
e^ from E/au or Edom^ fab«L 
caufe of the red-coloured Pot* 
tare which he purchased of Ja* 
€00 1 for his Dominions lay along 
that Sea, and from him the 
Country was called Idumea, i. e« 
Rid: And fo the old EgypHant 



Paradise Lost. Book E 

vfhok Waves overthrew Busiris (b) and his Mem- 
phi a n (i) Horfemen and Chariots^ while with trea- 
cherous Hatred they purfu'd the Israelites, who 
from the fafe Shore beheld their Carcafes floating, and 
their broken Chariot Wheels ; fo thick laythefe, ab*- 
je6t and loft, in a Manner covering the Flood, and in 
the utmoft Conftemation and Amazement at their hi- 
deous and unhappy Change. 

call'd it Rytbra, i. e. Red, which 
Che Gruh toned into Brytbra 
XX BrjArms^ wd die LattMs into 
'Mori Erythramn^ i. e. The Rid 
JSfm. But m the Heinw it h 
•called Sm(h, I e. The S4£ of 
Sedge or Wifds, which grow and 
Hoftt upon it kk Abundance. 
This Sen pots Sgyft finom Arm^ 
Um, and unerefbre it u called al- 
io the Jrabian Gulf. 

(i) Bufiris ; tat. firom the 
^. i. e. A Manager ef Oxen ; 
becauie he batcher^d Men like 
Qm. A crnel Tmnt of Egypt 
In die Time of Mefes, who un- 
der a Pretence of intreadng 
Stranrav, £iycrificed them npon 
bb Altart. He bnih the famons 
City of Zoem or Tanais, and 
made it the Seat of his King- 
dom. This Fable fignifies that 
fharaeh, who put the Ifraelitei 
to a very hard Slavery like Ox- 
en ; for which Hercules^ the tme 
MefeSf deftroy*d him and all his 
Attendants mthe iS/i-^M. Some 
call him Jknaefbis, bnt others 

(i) Men^iam I ^ orhdaikg* 
ing to Memphis i Beh, i. e. A 
f^nUm Cenntry or great Qty. 
In Heh. ifn called Mefb and 
Nefh^ which the Greeh tqnied 
into Memphit. Tim gmt City 
was built, as fome fay, a little 
before the Flood ; and being af- 
terwards n»air*d and enkm^d, 
it became the Royal CiQr of Z- 
gypt, 'till die Time of the P/W^ 
mies, who refided at Alexandria ; 
becanfe it was built by AUxander 
the Great. It was a great City, 
feven Leagaes in Circuit i be- 
canfe in Length of Time four 
Ciues became one ; and flood on 
die Weft Side of die ViU. It 
was defiroy'd by the Arahs^ as 
the Prophets foretold ; uul oat 
of iu Ruins they bnilt another 
on ihe other Side of the River, 
calf d Mcnir^ Heb, i. e. The 
Cityi which the French call 
Grand Cairo, i. e. The Great 
Gty^ Here it is taken for the 
whole People of Egy^, in ihe 
Days of Bnfirie. 

C H A P. 


chap. II» Paradise Losr* 19 


Satui 0W4kens all bis Legions^ wb9 lay *Hll tbm 
cmfmnded ; they rife. Tbar Numb^s^ At^ 
ray of Battle. Tbeir chief Leaders nanCi^ ac^ 
cwriing to the Idols known in Canaan and the 
Countries adjoining. 

AT AN call'd fo loud, that his Voice refouhdeji 
through all the hollow Deep of Hell. 

Princes, {k) Potentates, (/) Warriors, chief Pow* 
lers of Heaven, which once was yburs^ but now is 
loft *, if fuch an Altonilhment as this can feize eternal 
Spirits, or rather have you chofe this Place to repoie 
your wearyM Virtue in, after the Fatigues of the Bat>- 
tle, for the Eafe you find to flumber here, as if b 
i¥ere in the blefled Manfions of Heaven j of have ye 
fworn in this abjeft Manner to worihip the Conqueror^ 
who even this Minute beholds Cherubim and Seraphini 
-rowling in the Flood, with their Banners and Enfigns 
fcatter*d, *till perhaps e*er long, thofe who purfu'au^ 
out of Heaven difcern the Advantage, and defcend* 
ing from above, thus drooping as we are, tre^l us 
down ; or with Thunder-bolts link'd together, transfi}^ 
us to the very Bottom of this Gulph : Therefore a- 
wake, arife now, or elfe be for ever fallen! 

C 2 ThkV 

(k) Princis ; Fr. haL Span, i o« 21. Here, the Chieft a* 

Dm/. LdU. i. e. thofe who take mong the Derils, Dan, io« ig^ 

the firft Place ; Governors « 20. 

Ch2e£i» Ring - leaders, principal (tj Potiutatui Ft. bd. 

or moft excellent Peribns in a hat. L e. Mighty tmt % GovcN 

tjngdoin. Sovereign Angels, nors. Rulers of Nations* H«it» 

who have die Snperimendence forac Granclces among thesit 
over Frincei upon Earth, Dom. 


Paradise Lost* 

Book i^ 

They heard him and were afliam'd, and fprung 
up upon the Wing ; as when Men who , are us'd to 
.watch oh Duty are found fleeping, by thofc of whom 
*thcy (land in Dread» get up in Surprize, and begin to 
^Air about before dxpy are well awal^e. Not that they 
,did not fee the evil Condition which they were in, or 
Teel the fierce Pain, yet they foon obey'd their Gene- 
ral's Voice, and appeared innumerable ; as when the 
potent Rod of Moses, in the evil Day of Egypt, (») 
'Vra^ ftretch'd forth over the Land, and cali'd up a 


• (m) Egypt i Lat, from the 
^Gr. I c. The Lami of the JS- 
gopii, Cophtt^ and Coptic from 
Coptus the Metropolis of TMah, 
a Cny menciooed by Strah9 and 
'Plutarch I or from Cfibtim^ the 
Teople anci firft King that fettled 
in that Country, and of the Po- 
Aerity of Ham ; or from ^gyf- 
tut^ the Brother of Damaus^ and 
aA antient King of it. This 
Monarchy lafted 1300 Yean *tiU 
\AUxandir the Great. In the 
OldTeftameut *tb caliM the Land 
of Ham and Mizrmim, (MisC' 
raim lisnifies AfflidionSy and is 
a Predidion of the Tribulations 
the iVople of God were after* 
wards to iuffer there.) The 
Greeks call it Egyptot^ q. Ge 
Cofteen^ and Chamia or Chemia, 
i: e. the Land of the Ctftiwad 
of Cham ; the Turks and Jrahs 
call it MxTf and Mf/r. to this 
Day. An antient and fertile 
Kingdom of Jfricm % having 
Ethiopia on the Sooth, the Red 
6ea and Uhmas of dut% on the 
Saftf the MeiOerrauean Sea on 

|he Norths and the Deiarcs of 

LyUa on the Weft. It is about 
650 Miles in Length, and 310 
Miles in Breadth. It was peo- 
pled foon after the Deloge, had 
Kings in the Days of jSrmkam^ 
Gen. 12. 10. celebrated for the 
ereat Skill of the People in po^ 
lite Literature. Nehucbaduexxsr 
vanqai(h*d it, Caudyfes brought 
it into the Power of the Pnit-^ 
auSf A. M. 3479. Then it JcU 
into the Hands of the Greeisms 
for 300 Years. The Remans re- 
dttcM it intp a Province, and cal« 
led it Augufia^ who hdd it for 
3 1 3 Years. The Saracems^ then 
the Mamalucs^ and at. laft tht 
Turks became Matters of it. 
There is little Rain, but the O- 
verflowing of the Nile yearly 
renders it very fertile : So that it 
was alwavs a Granary to Cama- 
an, Jraiia^ Greece and Reme^ 
and is CenfiaatiuefU ; 
though fometimes there have 
been Famines there. The Har- 
veil is in our ilf«rri^ and Afril^ 
The evil Day of Egypt was ui- 
der the ten Plagues mentiottcd 
Exod. 7^ 8, 9, io» and ii. 

chap. U. Paradise Lost. 


Mack Qoud of Locuft, (n) brought on by the Eaftem 
Wind, that over the Kingdom of wicked P tt A-. 
R A o H (o) hung like Night, and darkned all the Land* 
ofNiLus; (p) as numberlefs were fcenthofc bad Angels 

C 3 moving^ 

(m) JjKufis ; ItaL Lat. q. Lo- 
tm mfim9S, u e. Smrnimg or laying 
FUcts wmft. The/ are mx{chie- 
V0Q5 Flies, like Grafhoppers, that 
deftroy the Grafs, Corn, and 
Fruits, wherever they go ; vtry 
oommon in Egypt^ Africa^ and 
other hoc Countries ; they live a- 
boat five Months only : But theie 
were extraordinary, both for 
their Number and the End for 
ii^hich they were fent. The 9th 
Plag^ of tgjft (ent by God to 
humble that proud Tyrant. Fli- 
try reckons 30 Sorts of them ; 
fome are three Peet long, which 
the JrwSf Jrahs^ JfrkanSy and 
Jbnericans do eat. See Mat, 3, 
4. Cocihuru*i loomey, p. 58. 
And fays a whole Citv in Africa 
was laid wafte by tnem ; they 
delbroyM Part of Girmany^ A. 
D. ^52. To thofe Milton re- 
iemble< the Fallen Angels for the 
vaft Multitudes of them ; for they 
come in Douds, about 1 8 Miles 
in Length, and iz Miles in 
Sreadth, which edipfe the Sun, 
darken the Air, cover the Earth, 
make a lad Stench when they 
die, and are exaflly defcribed, 
Ex9d. 10. 4, Pr«v. 30. 27,. 
uAJoelz. 2, 12, 

(p) Pharaoh ; Old Egyptian^ 
I, e. A Crocodile I for the Peo- 
ple worihipped that Creature out 
of Fear. Jofefhus tranfl ites it a" 
King. Pharaoh was the com- 
mon Nariie of their Kings from 
the Beg^muDg to the Con^ueft of 

Alexander the Great, for i66<»' 
Years, under 47 Kingsv; as that 
of AhimeiecJ^^ Heh, i.. c. «« Far'.' 
ther the King^ among the rhili* 
fiines ; Augufius and Cajar was 
among the Romans ; yet many of 
them had proper Names, as Se^^^ 
foftris^ So, Neco, Ofhra^.tS^C. 
After Alexander 12 Princes rei^. 
ned, who were called Ptolonyp^ 
Gr. i. e. JVariike^ for -300* 
Years ; and Cleopatra^ Gr. i. e. 
7he Glory of the Country. She. 
was vanquiQi'd by yulius C^ar^ . 
A.M. 3974* And then Egff^ 
fell into the Hands of the A0- 
mans. This King's pioperName. 
was Ramafet ' miamum ; who ' 
came to the Crown $8 Yean af- 
ter the Death oi Jo/efhi aad. 
iujiri$ by the Greeks. 

(p) Nile } O. Egypt, or con- 
traded from Nahal, Heh. i. e. 
7he River } for that Language 
came near to the Heh. and in 
the Old Teft. it is called Nahal 
Mixzam, i. e. 7he River of the ^ 
Egyptians ; becaufe it is the chief 
and only River there % froflt 
which the Greeks and the Tar* 
gum call it Nilos. It is ulual in 
many Countries to call their chief 
River fo. Thus the Ganges \i^ 
India^ thus Mefchacehe (which 
the French call MiJUfippe) from * 
Cibe, i. e. The River ; and ilf//- 
cha^ \. e. The great ; the Great 
River. The Nile is alfo called 
Sehor^ Jojh. 1 3. 3. from thence 
the Ethiopiam named it ^hicri^ 


^^ Parahise Losr; Bode T»* 

moving (kmly on the Wmg, under the Conca^ty or 
IiqIIqw Canopy of Hell, between Fires that were a- 
tjave, below, and on all Sides, 'till the Spear of S a- 
T A K their great Commander was lifted up, as a Sig- 
nal given to direct their Courfe : They alighted down 
in exafi: Order on the firm Brimftone, a Multitude 
g^ter than ever the populous North, Goths, Van- 
HALS, Huns, or other barbarous Nations, pour'd. 
from her frozen Climes of Norway, Sweden, or 


SUM, tnd Siris, *till it pafles 
Into the Confines of ^gypf^ and 
the laft Cataraa; thete Words 
are of the bme Signification in 
the Etbiopic, and fignify BlaeA ; 
becanfe theWaters of it are black 
andttitbid. It is the nobleft Ri- 
ver in all Africa^ rifing in and 
ronmng throneh ithiofia from 
Sooth to North ; it divides E* 
gyfi is the Middle, waters it all 
(fver once a-year, ms. Jumtt Ju- 
A. da^ftt and Part of Siptim- 
hri and difcharges itfelf into 
the Mi£terrauiau Sea^ at feven 
Months formerly. See Ifa, i u 
15. fint only two of them aie 
navigable at this Time, one at 
Damiitta, and another at Rofit- 
ta; the other five being fmall 
ones, fiird ap with Sands or arti- 
fitial Canals ; after a long Courfe 
of 1000 Girman Miles, and 4000 
Englijb. , The Spring of it was 
unknown to the Ancients, even 

to a Proverb. Aiexandir the 

Great confulted the Oracle of 
Juflttr Amnuu to find it ; Ztf^ 
ftris and PioUmf Kings of £- 

$>/, (boeht for it in vam ; and 
uiius Ctfar faid he woald give 
over the Porfuit of the Civil 
Wars, if he was fore to find it. 
Bat now it is known to be in a 

PIdn at the Foot of a Moontaia 
in Ahjffiniat furrounded with 
high Mountains, from two Foun- 
tains about the Widenefs of a 
Cart Wheel, 30 Paces diftant^ 
whofe Bottoms are 1 6 or 17 Foot 
deep. Thefe Sources the Etbit^ 
jdans call Abain and Saccabela^ 
I. e. ^bt Father rf tbi Watirs. 
The old Inhabitants worihipped 
the Kite 9 P bar mob paid his Devo- 
tions to it evenr Morning ; and 
there Mofes addrefs'd him fo fre* 
quently during the ten Plagues s 
theydedicated a magnificentTem* 
pie to it in Mimpbis^ with nuny 
Priefts and Rites^ becaufe they 
thoueht it was the fole Caufe of 
all their Plenty. But Conftam- 
fiine demolilh'd it, and difpers'd 
the Prieils j whereat the poor In- 
fidels made grievous Lamentati- 
ons, faying, the River would de- 
fert them tor ever. It overflows 
fome Parts of Etbicfia, and all 
Egypt every Year, which is cau- 
fed 1^ vaft Snow and Rains fal- 
ling upon thefe Mountains of £- 
tbiopia^ which being melted by 
the Heat of the Sun, render th!e 
adjacent Countries moft fruitful 1 
other Riven do the like* 

Chap. n« Paradise Lost. 


DBHMAB.K, to pafs the Rhine (q) or the Da-* 
N u B £, (r) when her barbarous Sons came Uke a De- 
luge into the South, and Ipread beneath G i b r a i.- 
TAB.) (s) as £u: as the uimoft Limits of Afmck. 

F0B.THVITH the Heads and Leaders from erexy 
Squadron and every Band haft where their great Com-- 
mander ftood, godlike Shapes and Forms, much fur^ 
paffing the B^uty and Perfedions of M a n ; princely 

C 4 Dignities 

(f) Xhem^ Of Rhinti TetU. 
i. e. Pmre^ bccanfe of the Clear- 
Aeft of the Waters 9 or Gr. i. •• 
tke MmiIox Rpv$r ; becsqfe it is 
a yzSl one. A krac River in 
Germany, rifing in tne Jlfs, parts 

Fr0Mc$ andGcTMc^Xf '^^ ^f^^ 
a long Cewfe of 1000 Milc;^» 

cean, in two krg^ Mouths near 
the 3rk/i therefore Firpl calls 
it Bictrmit, u e. Having^ two 
Horns or Pallagas. 

fr} Ommmnft. Danmw^ DtmiAe^ 
aad hf the Nat^, fouaw^ Ttui, 
i. e* ^btmdiri becaafe of the 
thoodering Noife of its rapid 
Ciu p tm and three grand Cata- 
ladi. Or DmMuHus^ Lai. q. Dm- 
SMttKit i. e. $9§vvy, from the A- 
bnndance of Snow that falls up- 
on the adjacent Mountains, and 
fvdfe the River ; or fso» Da^ 
mm, an antient People that are 
fiud to have dwelt thereabouts. 
A grand River in EurHi ; it ri* 
iisth in Smahntf runt tnro* Gwr* 
Mony^ Bammrim^ Aufiria^ Hmngm' 
rj^ Bmigmna^ l^t, into the Enx- 
in9 Sea in 6 Or 7 Months, (but 
only two are navigable) after a 
CooHe of near 2000 Miles» 
wiMrtin it receives 60 other Ri- 
ven» whereof 30 arc navigable. 

It is very broad, and zoo Feet 
deep in divers Placets and a- 
bounds with many large Ulandt 
an^ Villages* At the Confines, 
of Ulynkum it changes hs Name^, 
and for 400 Miles is called th|B 
Igir^ q. Efter^ contraaed from 
EftriBH^ V e. The Wlagi^ or Ri- 
ver,. as I think, lor Icannet find 
the original Denvatioo in. any* 
Author. Dimjfiks calls it the 
Sacred tfhr. The Country 
tiiereabout is ealM* Ifinia:, ana 
the People ^ri. 

(s) Gibraltiri Ara6. Jibil 
Thank, L e. The Mountain of 
Tharek Captain of the Mo9ri, 
A. IX 718. when from Afrkm 
they invaded Sfam, and pitched 
firft upon that Promontory ,wliich 
is upon the Month of the 
Streights between Sfain and A" 
frua. Thefe Streights were for* 
merly called the Streights of 
Htrcules and of Gades. From 
that Time the M—rt pofiefled 
Spmn 760 Years* 'till 900,000 
oiF them were expelled by ftrdi- 
namJand I/mMia^ A. D. 1492. 
But the Mo0rijh is ftiU fpoken in 
feme Parts of it, and many of 
their Cuftoms and favage Difpofi- 
tions continue in the Blood of the 
Spaniards to this Day. 

S4^ Paradise Lost. Book X^^ 

Dignides and Powers, that once in Heaven had iat 
upon Thrones, though now in the Records of Heaven 
there be not the leaft Memorial of their Names, by 
their Rebellion blotted out from the Books of Life : 
Nor had they yet got themfelves new Names among 
Mankind, *till after a Time wandering o'er the Earth, 
through G o d*s high Sufferance, and for the Trial of 
Man, they corrupted the greateft Part of Mankind^ 
to fotfake their G^ d and Creator, and to transform 
the iovifible Glory of him who made them, often- 
times to the Image of a Brute ; which they adom'd 
with ^ay Ceremonies, aod Rites that were foil of 
Pomp, and Gold ; and fometimes worlhipp'd the De- 
vils themfelves for Deities, who were then known to < 
Men by various Names, and figured under various I- ■ 
mages and Idols thro' the Heathen World. 

T H s I R Names then being known, it is not diffi- 
cult to fay who was the firft, who laft, that rouz'd - 
from their Aftonifhment and the Gulph of Hell, at ' 
the Call of their great Emperor \ who next in Worth 
came fingl^ where he ftood, on the Brink of the 
Gulph, while the inferior Multitude of the fallen An- 
gels, promifcuous and aflembled in Diforder, ftand 
far diflant from him. The Chief who approach'd 
near him were thofe, who roaming from the 
Pit of Hell to feek what Prey they could devour 
on Earth, durft (though long after this) fix their 
Seats next the Seat of God, and their Altars by 
his Altar; (/) adored as Gods among the Nations, 


(t) Altar ; 7W. Dut. Fr. imfrtcati ; or of £/, God, and 

tAi. i. e. high \ bectufe it was 7«r, a Place appointed for the 

raifed high above the Ground : WoHhip of God. A Place rai. 

Or to hum\ becaafe Sacrifices fed op with Stones and Earth. 

were offered upon Altan. From whereon Men (acrifioed their Ob- 

the Heh. Jrar, i. e. to ftfij or lations to the true God. Altars 

woe ' 

diap. IL Paradise Lost.^ 35 

and durft abide the L o r b thundeiii^ out of SroN» 
thronM between the Cherubim : Nay, they often pla- 
xed their abominable Shrines (u) within his Sandu- 
ary, (x) and profaned his folemn Feafts and holy Ri^s 
with accurled Things, daring to af&ont his Light with 
their Darknefs. 

First of all Moloch, '(j) that horrid King, wet 
the Blood of human Sacrifices, and with the 



dcd for the Worfliip of God 
by Mam, Noab^ and all the Pa- 
triarchs from the Beginning of 
tibe World, and loi^ bmre 
Temples, Gtu. 4. 4, c» 8, 22, 
x^, 29, 9, 10. Exod. XX. 24. 
Andfion thcnthe Heathenstook 
the Uie of AHan, whereof thef 
had three Sorts. I. Thofetothe 
Cdeftial Godsy which were as 
liigh as a Man of a middle Sis» 
flight vie, and creded npon 
Hius, Groves, the High*ways : 
That of the Ofynfiun Jufit$r 
was 22 Feet high. 2. Thofe to 
the Infernal, which were placed 
apon a little Trench below the 
Groond. And 3. for the Ter-. 
leftrial Deities, which were erec- 
ted upon the Gioond ; but low, 
flaggM with Sod, arid coirered 
with iacred Vervaine. Altars 
woe efteemM moft facred 1 for 
upon them thejr made their moft 
Meam Vows and Oaths, by lay- 
ing their Hands npon them in a 
wrj Ibkon ICanner, as we find 
in the Piraaice of Hannibaly kc. 
See Ctm. Nifu, Garo pro Fhic. 
WU, Liv. &c. They never per* 
nutted Whores and Marderers to 
approach them* 

(u) Sbrina ; Fr. Sax, Lat. ' 
i c. O^Ju^ CabiwitSp or CU/ttj. 

Tht SaxMj mesint xkerehy Qo- 
fets or Temples, like the Lares 
among the old /20i»a«/ 1 wherein 
they kept the Rdiqaes of their 
Saints, and the latter their Gods« • 
In theie they made their Prayer^ 
Shrines were the Altars or Tca^ 
^esof thofe Idok, where thefe. 
Devils were worihipped. Here» 
the Temple of the true God was 
madea.Repofitofy for thofe I- 
dob ; for fo Solomon, Mmnajfn^ 
and other wicked Kings of 7«- 

(x) SanSmmrf ; Fr* from the 
Lat, i. e. A holy and ianAify*d . 
Place. The moll holy Partdf 
the Tabernacle, within the Veil, 
and in the Wei( £nd of SoUmom's 
Temple, adorn *d with two Che- 
rubim, the Ark of the Cove- 
nant, and the extraordinanrPre- 
fence of God. It was nnlawful 
for any Man to enter into it, but 
theHigh-PrieA only, and chat but 
once in the Year, on the great 
Qay of Atonement, which an- 
fwered to the Firft of our Sop^ 
timber. The mod facred Place 
was caird the Holy of Holies, u 
c The moft Holy Place, Lvuit. 
xvi. 23. 

/>) Moloch, Molecb, Milcom^ 
mid Milcm i Uib. i. e. A iW, 

26 Pabadise Lost. Bool: t. 

Tears of Farent)^ tho* for the Noife of loud Drums 
ami Timbrels, the Cries of their Children^ who piis'd 
thro' the Fire to his cruel Idol, are fcarcely heara } the 
Ammonites (z) worfhipp'd him in Rabba^ (a) and 
the watryPlatsis about that City ^ i(i Argob» (i) and iA 



An Idol of the Jmm$mHs ftridly 
forbidden the Jf^U Levit. 1 8. 
21. 20. 2. The Propheu de- 
nouocM and God executed grie- 
vous Jodgments upon all the 
Worfliippen of it i and no Won- 
der, ibr it waa a moft infiuMOos 
Idol, ifty k hit afivming the 
Name of a King^ and rom>ii^ 
God of kUSovereiffocy aad Glo- 
idly, in 4iM InhuAaaity of 
e Woffliip paid hioi. hUkeb 
vm a hoUow Statue of iMii, 
with the Head of an Ox and the 
Hands of a Man, with fevea 
Chapels. It was maife red hot, 
then the Priejfts-threw the Sacri* 
fices into its Arns, ^here they 
were burnt to Death in a dread* 
fhl Manner. The CMrthmgimi- 
gnts oSerM 200 Children of their 
Nobility to it at one Time, and 

foo at another; which made 
>arim fend Ambaffadors to Cat- 
ibagfy with an EdiA to forbid 
them that Inhumanity. See Ju' 
tin. Hift. L. xix. Cap. t . 490 
Tears before Jtfiu Cbrifi. The 
4m§rkam 5 or 6000 Chiklren 
vrtry Year ; and one of their 
Kings facrific'd 64080 Men in 
the Space of four Days, A. D. 
1486. He that offered his Son, 
kifsM the Idol, Hf. ▼. 2. It 
was the Satum of the old R§* 
mans. This dcvilifii Abomina- 
tion was laid afide in Europe by 
the Decree of Comftantim 1. A 
UeiEed Efibaof the ChriftianRe- 

ligion i dierelbre our Auither calls 
it juftly horrid, dreadful King. 
It was the Sun, and the (even 
Chapeb figoify*d the feren Pla- 
nets, whmof he is the chief. 
See Macr§B. i. j^ Gr/. L. iv. 
DUd. Sicmhu, 

(s) Jmrncmitu 1 The PoAerity 
of Sim^Ammi, Htk. l e. The 
Son of my People. The Son of 
£«# by hjs yoottgeft Daqd^ter, 
Gmt. 1^ }8. Aiughcy £4ati- 
on in Jrihim f$Unt beidcsiM; 
opon Geeaee ; bat aMlmUe Jh 
dolalen, andidwaysBMxrtal £ne* 
mies to the Peo^ of God; for 
which Crimes God cut them off 
the Faoe of the Earth. They 
dwelt beyond Moant Gikad a- 
bont 96 Miles from Jermfmkm 
North EaAward, and were iafii- 
moos Woffluppera of this IdoL 
I Miup II. 7. 

(a) RMsotSaUaikiHti. 
i. e. Gnat. The chief C^of 
the JmmmiiNi on the North-Eaft 
Side of Jordan and the Rirer 
Jmon. it was well watered hf 
the Springs of Mount Amm aod 
Mount Gikndi therefore it wu 
caU*d the City ol Waters, 2 Sam. 
12. Dawd took aad plnnder^d 
it, and made all the Inhabitanta 
Slaves. There the brave Uriah 
loft his Life, 2 Sam. 12. 26. 

(h) Arg$bi H$k. i. e. A 
Lump of Earth or Gea^el. A 
l*ig^ Ycty froitfe^ and pqm- 
lous Country, lying oa the EaA; 


Oiap. IL Paradi$e Lost. 37 

B A s A N, (c) as far as the Extent of the River A r^ 
N o N ; (d) md not contented with fo near an Ap^ 
proach, he led by Fraud the Heart of wife S o l o? 
M o N, (e) to build him a Temple ovqr againfl: the 
Temple of God, on a Hill juft without Jerusalem, 
and nlade his Grove m the pleafant Valley of H i n- 
^o^j (f) by that Reafon fomctimes called T o- 


fXJ^r^m amoBg the Mountains, 
sad belonged to Og King of Ba^ 
fn^ near Mount GiUad^ Deuf. 
iii. 13, 14. Afterwards it was 
caU'd Trathonitis, Gr. i. e. Hqc- 
if or St9ny, See Lmh 3. 1 . 

(c) Bufan^ QtB^fil^MM ; Hfi. 
i. e. UK kmy or Tntb^ bccaafc 
it laj betweta two Ranses of 
Momtuas, like the Tooth of an 
Elephant. It wis alio calFd P«- 
r^ca, Gr* i. e, heyani^ becaafe 
it laj beyoiid yird^a, North- 
wnrd horn Jeni/k/m, A fine 
fruitAll Coaniry beyond Jordan^ 
frooa the River >(6im« to Mount 

(4 Jr»&u ; Hti, i. e. AwU 
^fif ; becaafe thefe Trees grew 
opOB the Banks of it ipi Aban- 
dance. It is a finall River of the 
MoabitesQia the Raft Side of J9r^ 
dauf rifittg in Mount Giliad, wa* 
tereth thefe Countries, and runs 
into the DimJ Sea, ao Miles 
haok Jimfdmm Es^ward. It 
iiraa the uttenaoft Boundary be- 
tween the MsabUis and Ammo^ 
»/#/. Mksv. 21. 13. 

(#) Schmtm^ SaUmmf^ ox Schi^ 
Uam9bi Hib. i, e. PieaotPi^ 
€9^lt^ becaufe he was a peacea- 
ble Prince, not like his Father. 
The Son of Ihmi by Bathfi^dta^ 
(Hib. i. e. The Daoghcer of 
the Oath) the third King of If- 

rati, and the wifeft of all Mor- 
tals, fince the Fail of Adam^ 1 
Kings 4. 29. Yet he fell into 
this abominable Idolatry, and 
bnilt a Temple to this Devil^ 
near that which he himfelf had 
ereded to the living and true 
God, to gratify his idoiatroua 
Wives, I Kings lo. 5. Aha%^ 
Manajfits^ and other knpioos Suo* 
ceflbrs foUoVd his ihamefui Ex- 
ample, which Brought divine 
Vengeance upon them. He wan 
born in the Year of the. World 
2971, before ye/us Cbrifi 1025, 
Built, befides other Edifices, a 
fiunous Academy upon Mount 
Sion^ where he taught Philofo-* 
phy, Prov, 9. I. And from him 
Pythagoras^ Socrates^ PlaU^ A^ 
rtftotS^ Trifimgijius, &c. bor- 
rowed their Principles of Philoib- 
phy. He reign'd 40 Years, liv*d 
60, and was the iaddeft Inlbnc» 
of human Frailty extant 2 yet he 
repented, was pardoned, and 

{f) Hinnom ; Heb. i. e. Cra- 
tious. This was the Name of 
the Pofleflbr of the Valley ,whicii 
is caird alfo the VaUey of Ben* 
Hinnom, Hib. i. e. of the Son 
of Hinnom, It lies at the Foot 
of Mount Moriab and Mount 
OJivit, Southward. There 
flood the Grove of Molocb^ 


ill Paradise Los T# Book L 

PH E T, (g) and black Gehenna, (b) and likenM to 
Hell. Next came Chemos, (i) an obfcenc Idol, of 
which the Moabites flood in great Dread, who in- 
habited fi-om Aroar (k) to Nebo, (I) and to the 



w&erein thejr offered Children 
and other Sacrifices to this cruel 
Idol. It was alfo caird the Val- 
ley of Topbetj and otir Saviour 
likened it to Hell. Vhe Valley 
of Jehtfathat runs a-crofs the 
Mouth of it, which is (o call'd, 
becaufe there that pious King 
was buried. 

(^) Tothiti Htb. i. e. A 
J}rum, becaufe Idolaters beat 
Drums, &c. to drown the Cries 
erf miferable Creatures,* which 
were broil'd to Death in that 
Pit of Fire. A Cruelty, which 
Cod never commanded, always 
abhorr*d, ftridly prohibited, and 
lever ely^nniih*d. Jenm, 7. 3 1 . 
19. 5. 

{f}\ Gebema; Gr. from the 
mh. i. e. The Land of Hin- 
mm I for Hinnom was the Lord 
of it ; and 7^bit; becaufe Ido- 
laten beat Drums in the Grove 
nf M^oeb which ftood there. 
But our Saviour and others mean 
the Place of the Damn*d there- 
by. Mat. 18,9. becaufe of the 
dreadful Torments there. 

(/) ChimosOT Kim§i; II. Hib, 
i. e. Swift or /peidjf, from the 
Swiftnefs of the Sun, which this 
Idol reprefented. Others fay 
hid and concealed ; becaufe of 
the fluuneful Proftitntions and 
Rites of diis Idolatry. Some 
take it to be the filthy Friafms of 
the Gretks and Rmant. The I- 
dbl of the Moabites and Mi^M* 
mites. It it frequently mentio- 
ned in holy Writ, and the Wor- 

iMp of it is very ftriaiy f^rbU* 
den, threamed andpaniihM. So^ 
lomon built a Temple or High- 

5 lace for it alfo, 1 Kln^s .11, 7* 
tac pious Jofias dcftroy*d it, 2 ' 
Kinj^s 23. 13. C&/MA/ fliill go 
into Captivity with her Priem 
and Princes ; and Moab flnll be 
alham*d of Cbemojb. Jer. 28. ' 

(/) Arear or Jroer ; Heb, i. c. . 
Heat or deftroyed and rooted 
out ; becaufe Jepthtba won a 
saemorable Battle near it, Jndg^ 
n . A City of the Moabites on 
the Banks of the River Arnon in 
the Land of GiUad^ zx Miles 
from Jeru/aiem Eaftward, Jofi, 
12. 2. It fell to the Tribe oif* 
Gad^ who repaired and fbrttfied 
it and other Cities; but called 
them by other Names, that there 
might be no Remains of Idola- 
try left among them, according 
to the Law, Nmab. 32. 24. 
There was another City of this 
Name near Dama/eus in Syria^ 
If, 7. 

(at) Ifebo t Heb. i. e. A /V»* 
fbecy. A City and Motmtain of 
the Moabites^ near to Mount 
Fifrah, 20 Miles itomjerufalem 
Eaftward, on the Eaft Side of the 
Dead Sea, belonging to ^/Aajr or 
Og. very good for Paftue and 
CStde, being a mountainoot 
Conntrv. Upon this Mountain 
Mofes nad a nir Twet of Cana^ 
mn, diedf and was bury*d, Deat. 
34« I, And there Jeremy hid 


• < 

Chap. II. Paradise Lost. 29 


Southermoft Mountains of A b a r i m, (n) m He s m- 
BON (0) and HoRONAiM, fp) the Kingdom of Se- 
ON, (q) beyond the flowery Valley of SiBM AH, which 
is cover'd with Vines, ana Eleale, (r) as hr as the 
Po<d AsPHALTUs. (s) Another of thcfc fallen An- 


die Tabernacle, Ark, and Altar 
of loccn^?, in a hollow Cave, z 
Miaccmb, 2. 5. XXOi^t, Niho^ 
H^bh9u^ Sihnab^ Eiealeb, &c. 
' were rebuilt bf the Riubenftet^ at 
tbe Pcnnii&OD of M9fis% wbo 
save tbem rxtw Names, 10 de- 
iroy all Relids of Idolatry. See 
2hmi. 22. 37. as they were coBi- 
flttode^ Deui. 12. 2/3. 

(») Abmrim ; Bib, i. e. Brid^ 
ges or fajfagis ; becanfe of di- 
'^€n Fofda over Jordan near to 
tfaefe Moontahis. A Ridge of 
Mountains lyine along the Eaftof 
fbo Dead Sea, belonging to Mo- 
ab^' which part the Kingdoms of 
the Moabitis, Edinkts^ and Am^' 
mnites. Ntbo^ Pijg^b^ and Pt* 
' pr were fereral Moantains in this 
Tra&. Am. 33. 47. Deut, 
30. 49. 

{0) Hifibw for H/>(^^«, Hf^. 
U e. namberimg, tbinking or fji- 
firuBing \ becaaie there was an 
Academy or School. The Roy- 
al City of Sibon or Sibou^ King 
of the jfauritis, therefore Sibon 
m called King of Hejbboa, Deat, 
t. 4* It was 20 Miles from Jor- 
dan on the Baft. He had taken 
it hom the King of Moab^ but 
Mofu fnbdued him, and divided 
all his C6antry to the Tribe of 
Rembem^ This Country was well 
watered and fruitful; for it lay 
bet w ee n the River Jt^noft and 
-yobbeei upon the Borders of the 
Jwan9nttes, Num, 21. 26. 

if) H9r9nam % Heh. i. c. Th^ 
Momitains or Farus ; and in the 
Sjriac, Ubertits. Two Citiet 

' of the McabiteSf One was called 
the Upper, and the other Inlen- 
or or Lower, //! 15. 5. Thens 
Sanbailat^ the bitter Enemy of 
Nfbemiab, was born^ Nibeauai 
t. 10. 

(q) Seon or SiiboH^ Btb. i. o. 
Jl§§Hng up or diftrtying uitirfyi 
becaule he was a cruel Oppre&r 
of his Neighbours. A King of 
the Amorittt^ who rafiis^d the ijC 

. radites a Fsilage thro* hts Doml- 
nibns into Canaan^ which ooca« 
fion'd a bloody War ; but tlknr 
vanquiib*d him* and pofiefs*d aU 
his Country, i^um, 21. 21, 32* 
He had taken Bdronaim from the 

' MoabUis ; therefore Milton judi- 
cioufly calls thefe Cities the 
Realm of Seon, 

(r) Eleale or Elealebi Heh. i. 

.e. The Afcenfion or Bumt-Ofe* 
ring of God. A Town 6 Miles 
from Hefibon^ belonging to Si^ 
bon, beyond Jordan to the Bail, 
and 36 Miles from Jerufalem, k 
fell to the Tribe of Reuben after 
the Conqueft of thefe Countries* 
Hum, 32. 37. It abounded with 
Vines and other good Fruits, and 
was a Urosg City in the Days of 
St. Jerome ; he flourifhM in the 
4th Century, and died 426. 

(j) Afpbaltoi otJjfbalius^ tat' 
from the Gr, i. e. yielding Bitu- 
men otSnlfbur. A Lake of ful* 


30 Paradise Lost* JBook |. 

gels was Baal-Peqe^ (i) an^ abominable Idolf who 
enticM the Children of IsRA£L inSiTTiM^ (u) on their 


.phiireoos> fait and bitter Water 
n Judta^ where ^odom and Go- 
morrab Stood, 3 c Miles from ^#« 
rufaUm to die £aft ; aboat 24 
Iieagvei bag, and fix or ieven% 
broad. On tlie Baft and South 
it is eodos'd with «xcetdiaghkh 
Mountains, via. M£rfm, N^, 
Fijkah, Pi9r% on the Nort^ 
wim the Plains of Jiricb9 % and 
on the Weft with the Land be- 
long^nfi to th4 Tribe of 7n^, 

2ifufaltm, &c; It is called the 
^uii S9a, becanfe no Fiih live 
jn it I or firom the heavy fiagm- 
ted Natve of its Watm : The 
Saii Sta^ becavfe it is of a bi«c- 
kilh Tafte ; the Sea of the Plmm» 
the Eafi Sia, btcattfe it was eafi- 
mAy novEiJtruftLhm. See J^il 
^. 20. And theScMiof^tfiRM. It 
IS a Pool or Lake of fianding 
Waur ; for tho* Jmrian^ Am$nt 
JaUnk^ Diion^ Znid, andQ- 
dron nm into it, yet it hath no 
▼ifible Oifchargr. Iron, Lead, 
or any other weighty Matter 
doth Iwibi upon the Top of it. 
VtJ^fMM threw fome oondemn*d 
Cnminals into the dcepeft Place 
of it, and manacled ; yet they 
rofe up with fuch Violence as if 
a Storm had fent them up. If 
Men or Beafts drink of it mix*d 
with Water, it makes them ex- 
ceeding fick ; and Birds that fly 
over it, fall down dead. Thn 
Pitch refembleth Balls .without 
Heads, and is good for pitching 
Ships, Cables, and Medicines, 
fiefides Mufu, Strab9^ Tacitus 
Pliny, Diedorus Siculus, and o- 
ther ancient Hiilprians have left 

Aceonnts of it^ and mofily from 
him. SeeG/«. 19. 

(/) Pw, Baai-Ptor, zndBa* 
al'Pbiori III. Heb. i. e. Ana^ 
bid God •r-Lvrd, or, he that 
iheweth his Nakednefs pabUckly . 
An Idol of the Moabitis and 
Midiunites, the fiune as Cbmw, 
the beaftly and obfcene Priafas 
of the Grtiks and Romans* An 
abominable Idol, frequentlymen- 
tion*d in holy Writ with the ut- 
moft Abhorrence, m it well de- 
ferv^d. Jtremiab calls it fo by 
WKf of Pifjpce, Ch. xl. 7. 
This Name is nnore ufoal than 
the other Cbems. The Hea- 
thens took this Idolatry from the 
Hiftory of Noab, when he lay 
exposM, Giu. ix. 21. A fad 
Original, but a worfe Copy. A 
Mountain that bears his Name 
belong'd to the MoabiUs on the 
&aft of Jordan ; becauic there 
was Betb Pior, i. e. The Tem- 
ple of Peor upon Mount Poor, 
wherein he was worfliipp'd. The 
Moabitis enticed the tfraolito^ to 
worihip him, which broueht a 
fad Plague upon them; ami^. 
XXV. r. 

(tf) Sittim or Sbitttm ; i. e. 
Scourges ox Tborns. A Hace in 
the Plains of Moab^ iixty Fur- 
longs, or eight Miles from Jor- 
dan, whiereibcJ[fraolitis encam- 
ped laft under the Condu& of 
Mofisi and where thc^ were 
tempted by the wicked Counfel 
of Maalam to commit Fornicati- 
on with the Women of MooA^ 
and to facriiice to this Devil; 
which provoked God to deftroy 


Chatp.U. Paradise Lost; ^x 

Miatrdi finQBi Egvpt^ m do him wanton RitB% which 
€oft them Abundaaoe of Woe ; yet from thence he ex- 
tended his hi&£\A Feftivals^ even t(^ diat fcandaloui 
HBU, whkh was by the Grove of imuderoiis Mq«- 
LOCH; fo fixing Lufthardby Hate, ^tillthegpod 
King JosiAS (x) drove them faioth thence back again 
to HelL Along with thefe came they who w^e 
worfhipped from (he great River Euphrates, (y) to 
the jBtxx>kthat parts j^yft from Svria, and had the 
general Names of Baalim (z) and Ashtaroth^ 

24,000 of tbeiD. Here ff^ 
duit Wood whereof the Ark of 
the Covenant was made, Exod. 
ac. 10. 37. 1. 

(r) j0jUh ; &». L e. Th 
Fire or Zgal §f tin Lent. The 
1 8th King of y»iab, the pious 
Son of a very wicked Father 
ftnd Orand&tner. He was a 
^reat Reionner of Rengion* 
He xieftrojed dl thofe idol« 
Temples and Groves, as it was 
fcrtcold of him hy Name 360 
Yean befbie he was bora, i 
^V 13* >• 2 Kittp 23. ro« 
He began hia Reign when he 
was eight Yean of Age, J. M. 
3363. Before Jefos Chrift 637. 
and leijpied thirty-one Yean; 
beiiig kiilM in a Battle at Me- 
gid£ a^inft Hecho King of S* 
rni, Jirtmy lamented his 
jDNeath in a Divine Poem, 2 
Ckrem. 35. 25. 

(jr) E9fbraitt\ Lat»Gr» from 
4ie iU. fhnttb or Pnrab^ u e. 
frwitfMl I becanfe it renders 
tinnp Omntries very fruitful, 
which it o v eiflowe t h at a cer- 
tain Seafon yearly. The prin- 
cip^ of the four Rivers of Pa- 
nidile, 6ra* 2. 14. It is the 
krgeft in Jfia^ and the aofi 

ftmoos River upon Bardi ; rif 
ftng in the Mountains of Ar- 
0unia, the Tygris and many 
mx>re join it ; it waters Ate/e^ 
fetmmm^ paflbth by and dito* 
Baiylon^ renders many Coun- 
tries very fruitful ; and after a 
Courfe 0/ 2000 Miles difcharg^ 
irfelf into ibtterfian Ocean-. 
In facred Scriptdre it is taNM 
die River, die Great River, bf 
way of Eminenoe. It iHH re^ 
caineth the old Name by a 
Contradlion, Aferat and Frat : 
The Water of it is very fbul ; 
Sf it ftands in aVeiTel bat two 
Hours, the Dirt and Mud wiU 
be two Inches thick on the 
Bottom of it. The Poet calls 
it 0/y, becanfe it is one of the 
firft Rivers mention'd by MofeSf 
thefirft andoldefl Hiftorian in 
the World. So, Old Kijben. 
Jifdgfi $. 21. 

{%) Baalim, and Bvai; IV. 
Hih. i. e. Lords and Lord. This 
was the firft Idol in the World, 
creded at Babylon in Memory 
of Belus or Kimred, whom M- 
MS his Son and Suoceffor dei'^ 
fied after his Death; and was 
worbippM all the World over, 
tho* under difiercnt Names, viz. 


32t Paradise Lost. Book L 

Xa) meaning Male and Female j for Spirits when they 

!>leaie can aflbme either Sex, or both, their pure Et- 
ence is fo foft and uncompounded, not confin'd to 
material Joints and Limbs, nor depending on the 
fiail Strength of Bones, as Flefli is ; but in what 
Shape they choofe, extended or contla£fced, obfcure 
or oright, can perform their fpiritual Furpofes, and 
do Works either of Love or Enmity. For thofe the 
Jews often forfook the living God, and left his rig^^ 
teous Altar unfrequented, bowing down lowly berore 
Idols, even in the Form of Beafts ; for which their 
Heads were bow'd down as low in Battle, anc) they 
fell by the Sjpears of defpicable Enemies. 

I N the fame Troop with thefe came Astoreth, 
whom the Phoenicians (b) call Astarte, (c) the 


Baal'Bmtb, Saai-GaJ, Boat' 
Mi9n^ Maal'Pior^ BaalStmsM, 
fiaai'Kihmi, Baai-xiphm, ^c* 
by the Greeh, Zius i by the 
tt$9umtt Jupiter i by the Gault^ 
be waa ciul*d BiUmu i bv the 
Saxons, Thar: from whence 
comes oar tbarfday. He wat 
the Sum, who is Lord of Hea«> 
veil, and moft defiil to all the 
inferior World, worfhtpp^d with 
magnificent Temples . Altars, 
Invocations, Bowings , ludcs, 
&Krifices, iste, 

{a) Jfiftarnth^ or JJtfntbi 
V. Uii. Pimr. u e. FUcks and 
Hirdti becaafe Sheep» Goats, 
6^r. were offered to her, A 
Goddeis of the JJfynam^ j>. 
rvAJu, Pbamcians^ SidanUms, 
Cartbagtmamt^ Jewi^ Greeh ^ 
KmuBus, (fi, but onder difie- 
lenc Names. The Queen of 
Heaven, Jer,'/. i8. AU meant 
the tt$$M, as the £m was tbo 

Lord of Heaven : Tlieie were 
the firft and principal Deides a* 
mone all Nations. She is Jmm^ 
and Vinus of the Romans^ Ea^ 
fiir of the Smmu^ &f . Becauft 
her grand FeiUval was in JpH^, 
the old Saxons called it Eafitr^ 
Mvmath : from whence we call 
cur's, Eafiir, which happens in 
'March or Aprils as the Jvwip» 
PalTovcr did ; according to the 
Courfe of the Moon. Baal 
prefides over Men and all Male 
Animals, as btins ftronger ; and 
JflttMth over Women and the 
Female Sex, which are more 
weak and feeble. 

(^) PhamciaMSt Hib. f, Bi* 
ni'Auak ; i. e. Tb$ Stm pf A^. 
mak, a gigantic Man, who with 
bis Race inhabited that Qmn« 
try. The People of Phmmcim^ 
Paiifiint, or Caoaaut called the 

{c) Marti, VL Hih. u 6. 


Chap. IL Paradise Lost. ^3 

<>iecn of Heaven, and figure her with a Crefcent, to 
whofc bright Image the Virgins of Si don (d) every 
Night fong by Moon-light, and paid their Vows; 
which alio was often done in Sion, where her Temple 
ftood, on the ofFenfive Mountain of Olives, built oy 
that uxorious King Solomon ; whofc Heart, thougn 
it was large, beguilM by fair Women from among me 
Heathen, fell to foul Idolatry. 

Nbxt came Thammuz, (e) whofe annual Wound 
in Lebanon (f) allured the Damfels of Syria, to 

D lament 

A Fi9cki ham JJbtontb^ ac* 
cofding CO i\kc Phofniciam Dia- 
led I and one of their Goddef- 
fes. Afimrtt ii Sefb^ra^ the 
Wife of Jdtfis^ and the Moon, 
(di SUoMi Hih.'ut. hFifi: 
beamfe of the great Plenty and 
Riches, which the Inhabiuntt 
got by the Trade of Fiih : or 
0/ SU»m the firft Son of Cana* 
mn^ who £rft boilt it. G#«, lo. 
ic. u #. A Htmttr, A Sea Port 
lowDy the Metropolu of P^<r- 
mUU, older than 7jri, Car* 
ibage or other Cities, which the 
old Pbaenicians built upon the 
MtMinramimn Sea. It was ta- 
ken by the King of JfcaUn^ a 
Year before the Defirudion of 
frsy, and 240 Years before the 
BoUduig of SoUmon^i Temple \, 
Chen they that efcapM bailc 
Tyr^y which is 16 Miles from 
it to the South, and 36 Miles 
from Jiru/aUm to the North- 
Weft, ^y their great Trade and 
Wealth, the Sislouians .became 
vtry prottd, sdolatroos and abo- 
minable to God : therefore he 
frequently paniflied them ; now 
it is very mttcb d<cayodi as (he 

Prophets had foretold. SiJon 
was famous for Purple and other 
fine Dyes, as well as 7yre. 

{i) thammuz ; VI. Egypt, 
from the Heb. i. e. Hiddm or 
Diatb; becaafe of the fecret, 
infamous, and obfcene Rites per*- 
form*d to this Idol, which was 
Death to utter. Or from Tba- 
muZt Hib. i. e. June ; becaufe 
thefe Peafis were kept in Junf, 
This Goddefs was Jbammax Zr 
mong the Egyptiams, Cartbagi* 
mans and Jewt^ but Adonis a- 
mong the Roaans, &c. 

{/] Lebanon ; Heb. from £a- 
ban, i. e. wbtu i becaufe the 
Top of it appears white with 
SiSow : Or Franbinan/e ; becaufe 
it abounds upon it. A very long, 
large, and high Mountain in ^* 
ria, about aoo Miles in Length, 
from Dama/cMs to the Mediterra* 
man Sea WeAward, and the 
Boundary of' Canaan to the 
North, about 120 Miles froni 
JiruJaUm, It is famous for Ce- 
dar Trees, which grow only 
there and in fome Woods oiAmt- 
rica^ Some of thefe Trees are 
ao Yards round, s^ry tail and 



Paradise Lost. Book L 

lament his Fate in Love-Songs a whole Summer's 
Day, while the fmoo?h River Adonis (g) ran coloU'» 
red with Purple to the Sea, fuppos*d to be with the 
Blood of Th AM MUZ wounded every Tear 5 the Love- 
Tale corrupted the Daughters of Jerusalem, and 
warm'd them with like Heat ; whofe wanton PafllonK 
EzEKiEL (b) faw in the facred Porch, when being led 
by a Vifion, he faw the dark Idolatries of the aUena- 
ted Children of Judah, 


Ipreading. S^Umon built his 
Temple of them chiefly ; bat 
now they are much decayed. Mr. 
^biVinot reckonM no more than 
23 1 gf^t ^d (inalU and Mr. 
Matmdrel only 7. On the Top 
of it ftood a Temple of F^nuj, 
wherein lewd Men and Women 
debauched and proftitated them- 
felves moftinfamoofly; for which 
CMkftatOine the Great demoli(h*d 
it. There is now Canohint^ a 
Convent of the Maronitis, about 
the fame Spot of Ground. The 
Head of it calls himfeif the Pa- 
triarch of Antiocb, 

{g) Adonis I VII. Hih, i. e. 
Lord, An Affjrian Idol, the 
fame as Tbammux, The Tale is, 
this Adonis was a fine Youth, 
the Son of Cynra King of Cy- 
frus by his Daughter Myrrha^ 
bclov*d of Venus ZSL^L Vroftr^na^ 
killM by a wild Boar upon Mount 
Lthanon while he was hunting, 
and much lamented by thele 
Goddeifes. Thde Women kept 
a folemn FeaH at that Time, 
weeping, lamenting, and beating 
themfeives for his Death 1 after- 
wards they rejoic'd at his Return 
to Life. The FelUval oi Adonia 
was celebrated through Greece, 
in Honour of Fenus and Adonis, 

for two Days. See Potter^s An-? 
tiq. of Greece, Vol. i. P. 328. 
Adonis is the Sun, for 6 Montha 
he is in the lower Hemifphere, aa 
in Hell with Profirpina s and for 
the other 6 Months in the up* 
per ; at which they rejoiced 
mightily, as they were forry for 
his declining from them. Here, 
the Name of a River which mna 
down Mount Lebanon, and at 
chat Time of the Year his War 
ters are red, which the Heathens 
afcrib'd to a myfterious S)m4>a* 
thy in it, for the Death of Ado- 
nisi which is indeed and only 
causM by the Rains, that maice 
it to fwell and run over the 
Banks, and to wa(h away fomc 
red Earth; as Mr. Manndrel 
teftifies ; and gave Occafion to 
this Fable and idolatry. 

(b) EzekieioT Jecbexokel 3 Heb. 
i. e. i:be Strength of God, The 
third of the four greater Pkh 
phets, carried a Captive to Ba^ 
byUn with Jecbonia, when he 
was young : The Son of Bttx, 
« very learned Prieft. Some 
miftake him for Pythagoras, 
the antient Heathen Philofo* 
pher I but he was contempora- 
ry with him, and leam'd moch 
from him a|fo. H9 iaw in a VU 


Chap. H. Paradise Lost; 


Next him came one, who mourned in Earneft, 
when the captive Ark difmember'd his brutal Image 5 
his Head and Hands being lopt off in his own Tem- 
ple, where he fell flat by the Side of the Door, and 
IhamMhis Worlhippers; his Name was Dagon, (i) 
a Sea Monfter, like a Man upward, and downward 
like a Filh ; yet he had his Temple raised high in 
AsHDOD, (k) and was dreaded through the Coaft of 
Palestine, in Gath, (I) and Ascalon^ 

D 2 {m) 

Bon thecorrapted Women of I/- 
ragj worfhipping this Devi), in a 
Porch of the holy Temple of 
God at Jgru/aiim, when he was 
a Captive at Bahylon. A lamen- 
table Sight indeed to him. Ch. 
S. 14. He wrote very myili- 
cally^ that the Heathens might 
not anderlland his Meaning, Bat 
reproving the^/wifo boldly for 
their Idolatry, they pat him to 
amoftcruel Death at Babjhn^ 
about A. M. 3380. 

// ) Dagon. Vlir. Htb. i. c. 
A^i?>. A God of the ^^riV.;./ 
and Fhliifiinej^ who got vaft 
Riches by Fi(h ; which they af- 
crib'd to this Idol. It was half 
a Fiftk and half a Man. It was 
|J»e Nipiume and Saturn of the 
Greeks and Romans^ whom they 
wor&ippM in this Form ; be- 
caufe they got Riches firom both 
Sea and Land. 

(i) jhBfiins or Jfifdod i tiib. u 
e. toying ijMfii ; becaofe it was 
a firong ana vidorioos City i or 
of EJbt HeL i. e. a Fire, and 
D^J, 1. e. Tlfe Fire of Love. A 
Sea-Port Town in Paieftine be- 
tween Joppa and A/ealon^ %z 
Miles from Jerufalem to the 
Weft, and one of the five chief 
Governments of the old fhili- 

Jlines. This City was (0 (Irong^ 
that it held out a Siege againit 
Ffamniticus King of Egypt, in 
the Time of Manajfes, King of 
Judah, for 29 Years ; and To 
did alfo the City of MeJJina in 
Sicily for 30 Years againft the 
Laceelemonians : Thefe are tho 
longeH Sieges mentionM in Hi- 
fioiy. jidas Maccabeus was 
flain upon M. Asootus^ by Bac*. 
chides the General of Demetriusp 
King of Syria, i Mac, 9. 18. 
It was a fair and rich City, but 
is now a poor ruinous Place ; the 
furh call it Jizete, i. e. The 

(/) Gath; Heb. i. e.A ffine 
Prefi; becaufe much Wine was. 
made there, I/. 63. 2. One of 
the chief Cities of the Philifttnes 
upon the Sea, vtry rich and pow- 
erful, diftant from jerufalem a- 
bout 34 Miles to the Weft, and 
famous for the Birth-Place of that 
Giant Goliah, and others of his 
huge, terrible Family, whicb 
were all cut off by the valiant 
King Patvid, 1 Sam. 16. It 
was caird alfo Mttbeg^Ammab, 
i. c. The Bridle 0/ Bondage ; be- 
caufe it kept the adjacent Coun^ 
tr^ in Subjection, zSam. 8. i. 

^36 Paradise Lost. Book L 

(m) and E k r ok, (n) and the Fronticrsand Bounds 
of Gaza. C^) 

RiMMON foUowM him, whole pleafant Scat was 


(«r) Jfcahni Hib. i' e. An 
ignominious Fin ; or from jS/ca* 
Eu a Lydimn^ who b faid to have 
founded it. Another of the 
chief Cities of the Pifo'/r/iW/, on 
die fame Sea, 10 Miles from^^- 
rufdUm to the Weft. It was fa- 
mous for a celebrated Temple of 
the Idol Dagon there. The ^Cf- 
tbiani or ?^r/«r/ in an Bxpedi- 
tion, about 640 Years before the 
Incarnation, demoIi(h*d an anti- 
ent and ftately Temple of Vonus^ 
and fome of them fettled in it ; 
therefore it is call'd ^cythopolis^ 
Gr, i. e. the City of the Scythi* 
am, yiuliib 3. 10. Holoftmet 
laid it in Ruins, and fo did Saim- 
Sm in the Holy War. Bat ^'- 
€bard I. Ring of England re- 
pairM ity and Jofpa^ Cefarea^ 
&c. A. D. 1192. The 7ttrkt 
call it Sealona, by a Corruption 
of the Word. 

(«] Accaton or Ecron \ HeB. 1, 
e. Barrenm/st becaufe it was 
rear'd in an unfruitful Soil. A 
City on the South of Gatb, a- 
bout 36 Miles from JtrufaUm to 
the Weft. It was once a Place 
of great Wealth and Power, fo 
that it held out a long Time a- 
gainft the victorious y#<u;/, Judv. 
I . Bat now it is a poor defpicable 

(0) GoKA nowGaxrai Per/. 
J. e. The Plate of 7reafurei 
becaufe thither Camhyfei of Per- 
Jia fent thofe Treafures, which 
he had prepared lor the Egyptian 
War. But it was call*d (o many 

Ages before. Gen. 10. 10. or 
rather Heb, i. e. AJirong Tow* 
er\ beifig a very ftrong and rich 
Place ; and alfo Conftantia^ be- 
caufe Couftantine the Great gave 
it to his Sifter Conjtantia, It 
ftands about two Miles from the 
Sea on the River Bexor^ near £- 

at ; therefore our Author here 
[s it the Frontier Bounds of 
thofe Countries ; ^o Miles from 
Jemjalem towards the South- 
Weft, and was one of the beft 
Cities' the old Philiftines poffcf- 
fed. Here thev had a verv mag- 
nificent Temple to their God 
'Dftgon^ CdlVd Betb'Dagon, Heb. 
i. e. The Houfe or Temple of 
Dagon, capacious to receive 5000 
People at once, and ftood upon 
two main Columns, fo artfully 
contrived, that Sam/on could 
grafp them in his two Hands, 
and pull the whole Fabrick upon 
them andhimfelf, yudg. 16. 21. 
Betb'Dagon ftood about 2000 
Years, 'till yonatban the Bro- 
ther of Judas Maccabeus fet the 
City on Fire, and burnt that 
Temple, with all thofe his Ene- 
mies, who fled thither for Sanc- 
tuary, I Mac, 10. 34. II. 4. 
And fo long did a patient Deity 
wink at that Wickcnnefs, before 
he puniihM them.' Alexander 
the Great took ihb City in two 
Months, but it coft Alexander 
the third Son of Hyrcaum a 
whole Year, before he became 
Mafterof it, i Maccab. 13. 6i» 

Chap. II. Paradijse Lost* 37 

fair Damascus, (p) on the fruitful Banks of Abba^ 
NA (q) and Pharphar, (r) two Rivers of Damas-* 
cus, whofe Waters are very pure and clear ; he alio 
was very bold againft the Houfe of G o D, once he 
loft a Leper, (s) and once he gain'd a King ; A- 
HAZ, (t) his foolifli Conqueror, whom he drew to dc* 
fpife G o d's Altar, and difplace it, for one made like 
thofe of Syria ; whereon he might burn his abomina* 
ble Offerings, and adore the Gods that he had conquered* 

D 3 Aftbr 

(p) DttwuifcMii Htb. i. e. 
Drimkmg B/tiui^ becaufe there 
CaJm flew his Brother ; or the 
Habitatioii of Ssm, becaoie he 
dwelt thereaboat ; as alfo Adam 
and Etft, when they were expel- 
led Paradife, as it is reported : 
Or from ElitKtr of Damafau^ 
Abrabatitt chief Servaot, Gen, 
1 9. z, whom others take to be 
the Foonder of it. The Metro- 
polis of all Sjria^ i6o Miles 
from JirufaUm to the Norths 
very tteaatifal^ jdeafant, fertile^ 
and well watered by feven Riva- 
ktt. It is the oldeft City upon 
Earth, built (bon after the Flood, 
and was in the early Days of if* 
brabam i bat now it is forely 
decay'dy and caird Dtmuis by 
the Turks^ by a Contradion of 
the old Name. 

(q) Abbana or AbaiUi i Uib* 
i. e. Stetty i becaufe it runs 
down Mount Ubanus among ma- 
ny Rocks and Stones, is very ra- 
pid, broad, and turbid. The 
chief River that tons by the Weft 
and Sooih Sides of i)AM|/hK#and 
thro* it, incoa|reat Lakeiutrd 
by. The FUk m it are imwhde* 
fome. It is mention'd^ 2 Kh^ 
5. 12. and is the Or^Uit in £«- 
t$Mf now Or#««, from the Name 

of him who built the firft Bridge 
Over it. 

(r) Pbarpbar^ or Parpar. 
Heb. i. e. FrmSifying, Ano- 
ther of the Riven ot Dammfcut^ 
or radier one of the three Arms 
of the Jbbama, now xht Far/ar 
and Cbry/orrb^j, Gr. i. e. Run^ 
ning with GeU, becaufe Gold is 
iband in the Sands of that Ri- 
ver. Some fay thcfe are but two 
Branches of the Barradtfy. 

(s) Lipiri Fr. lial. Span, 
Lai. from the Gr, i. e. A Li'^ 
prons Man^ foil of Scabs or 
Scales ; one that is infeded with 
the Lq>rofy, Gr, i. e. A bur- 
ntng or veiy hot Di(eafe. Here^ 
Naaman ihc Syrian. This whole 
Hiftory is recorded z Kings 5. j . 

(t) Jbaxi Hib. i. e. Taking 
p9ffiffion. An idoUtrotts King 
of Jndab^ and the Father 3[ 
good BiKikiab. He was tho 
XIV th Kinff, about A. M. 
320$t 762 Years before Ji/ni 
Cbrifi, and reignM 16 Veirs« 
He cauled Uriah tht chief Prieft 
to iet op an Idolatrous Altv^ 
dak hy the Altar of God, 
whneof he took the PatiM, 
bom that at Danutfcnt^ which 
was ftriaif foebiddcn by the di* 
vine Law. See 2 Xings 16. io« 


Parapise Lost, Book L 

Aftjer rfiefe there appeared a Crew, who under re- 
nowned Names of old, ruchasOsiRis,(tf^Isis, (x) and 
Or ITS, Cy) and their Train; with monftrous Shapes and 
Sorceries, abus'd the fanatick Egyptians and their 
Priefts, inducing them to feek their Gods wandering in 
Dif^ife in the Forms of Brutes, rather than human •, nor 
did the Children of Israel efcape the Infedtion, when 
f^e Gold, that they had borrowed of the Egyptians, 
was made into the Likenefs of a Calf in Ores ; and 
Jtjroboam, that Rebel King, doubled that Sin in 


(u) Ofiris. X. An Egyptian 
Word, i. c. A great Eye ; be- 
cauie. of His vaii Wifdom and 
Knowledge. A Kiag.and Philo^ 
lopbcr of Egypt, about A. M« 
a$oo, who firft .taught the £-» 
gypOans Huibaiidry» TiNage, &c« 
fOf which theyl)uilt him a TeRi<« 
fde at Memphis^ and worihipp'd 
him tioder the Form of an Ox* 
Some think this was Mixratm 
their Father and Founder. He 
b^ th£ fame as Bacchus among 
the Greeks and Remans ; ^nd ji' 
Atvh wrapt ap in a Fable. 

(fc).Ifit, XL Egypt^fromtht 
He6. I. e. TJbe minan. The 
Wi£B. of OJiris^ and Queen of 

Sypt^ which were both deify M 
:er Death. They, confecmted 
Cows, and the Females of all 
Vattk to iier. ^e wi^s the fame 
wxCeresfAvd CyMe,vlz, the Earth 
or. Naiuce idelf, and was wor* 
ihip^M etery where; becaufe 
they thought (be had invented 
the Ufe of Com,' .Wine, &c. 
^omti think theyv were the Son 
abd' the Moon. . $he was full of 
Bog^t * to iignify the Senefits 
that Man. do recdae.Dpom the 
happ«: Influence of t^- Moon» 

From diefe the I/raefiiee made 
their Golden Calf, and Jerob^-^ 
am his two Idols. She was a 
Memorial of £«r. Tiieritu or* 
der'd her Temple at Ragk€ to be 
demoliOi'd, and her Image to be 
caft into the fylfer^ becaufe her 
Prictts were very lewd ; aa. y^ 
phus relates. Her Temple at 
Paris was deflroyM, when Chri* 
fiianity prevailed there ; bat her 
Statoe was prefervM in the Abby 
of St. Germain des Pe», to the 
Year 15 14. 

(y) Orus. XII. Egypi^ from 
the Heh. i. e. Ught. The Son 
of Ifis, another King of Egypt* 
deify*d after his Death. He re- 
preiented the Sun, prefided over 
the Hours, and was the God of 
Time : Therefore in the old E* 
gypiian Language he was call'd 
Hams^ from whence came the 
Word ffrrii, i. e. an Hoar, in 
the Greti^ Latim, and Englijb. 
The Greeks callM him ApJlo, i. 
e. A Deftroyer ; becaofe he de« 
ftroy'd many Things by the ex- 
eefiive Heat of his Raya, ordif* 
perfsM Darkneft and Clouds by 
las Lights 

ft « 

^ . • 


Clia{>. li. Fa i^ A DISS La6T.. 5^ 

DaV (i) and in Bbthsl, (0) likening Jehovah^ (i) 
hisMaker, to an Ox that feeds on Grafs ; Jehovah^ 
who in one Nig^t, when he paiisM from Egypt^ cm 
off* both Men and Beafts (which were the bleating 
Gods that they wotihipp'd) with one Blow. 

Last came B £ l i a L| a more lewd Spirit than 
whom did not fall from Heaven, or one more grefs 
to love Vice mecrly for itfelf ; to him no Temple wa^ 
built, nor did any Altar fmoke ; yet who is oftner 
than he at Temples and Altars? when Priefts turn 
Atheifts, 9& Eli's {c) Sons did^ who fiU'd the Houfe 

D 4 of 

^) Da0i Hih, i. e. AJuig$. 
A City in the North of Canaan^ 
at tlie Foot of Mount UbaHUSt 
an^ 104 Miles torn Jtmfalim. 
It«as£rftcalVd Lijbem or tai$^ 
Hth. i. e. A roaring Lion i be- 
caufe aanjr Lions abounded 
thereabout. When the Danttes 
took and demolifli'd k, they cal- 
led it Dan^ in Memory of their 
Father, Jndg. 18. 29. And the 
Canaanites Li/bem-Dan, This 
idolatrous King plac'd the other 
Calf there, on the other Extre- 
mity of his new Kingdom, to 
keep the People more attached to 

(a) Beth! I Heh. i. t. Tie 
Jfoufi of God. A City in the 
Tribe of Befjamin^ eight Miles 
Nonh from Jerufalem. At firft 
it was call'd Lwe, Heb. i. c. A 
iVtf/ TrUf becaofe many of them 
grew thereabout. . But yacob 
caird it Bitbgi^ in Memory of 
God*s gloHous Appearance to 
himthere. Gen, 28. 19. In re- 
^rd to that religious and antient 
cfleem of the Place, Jeroboam 
creAed oneof hit-Monumenu of 

idolatry there. The- Prophet 
780 Years afterwards ^all'd it hy 
Way of Contempt, Beth-a^H^ 
Heb. i. e. The Houlb of Iniqui. 
ty or Vanity, Hof, 4. 1 5. and^« 
calls it Aven^ i. e. Vanity^ Ch* 
1.5. It was caUM Bethel in the 
Days of Abraham^ Gen.- 12.'^. 
Therewas an Academy of Schod 
of the Prophets, a Kings t. 3. 

lb) Jeho^ab. It denotes the 
Eftence of God, is the peculiar 
and an ineffable and mod myOe- 
rious Name of the Deity, and 
can hardly be tranflatod into anv 
Language . Ten • Names are at 
crib*d to him in the Hebre^w, bat 
this is the chief and moft expref^s 
five of his infinite Nature, if it 
could be exprefs^d. See P/atm 
83, 18. A Name that the Je^t 
nerer pronotincM, (left it fhould 
be pronmM) we tranflate it Lord. 
Wtfocrat. ftiles it Euermoutt, the 
great Mover of all Things. 

(e) Eli, or Uelii Heb.l^t. 
Offering or li/Hng op. A Jnilfe 
and Higb'PrieJi of Ifrael, aboot 
A. M. 1840. He was a good 
Man, but toe indulgent to hit 




Pa K AD IS E LosT« Bodk L 

bf G b D with Luft and Violence ? He reigns alfo in 
Palaces, and Courts, and luxurious Cities ; where the 
Noife of Injury, Outrage, and Riot, afcend above 
their higheft Towers ; and when Night darkens the 
Streets, then the Sons of Belial wander out, fluih'd 
with InColence and Wine ; witnefs the Streets of So- 
boM, (d) and that Night in Gibbon, (c) when a 
Matron was exposed to prevent a more heinous Ini- 

These were the chief in Power, and in Order; it 
would be too tedious to name the reft, though fome 
of them were far renownMj the Gods of Greece, the 
pefccndantsofjAVAN, (/) efteem'd as Gods, the* 
confefs'd to be younger than Heaven and Earth, 
which they boaft to be their Parents. Titan, (g) the 
Firft-born of Heaven, with his Brood of Giants, 


Sons^ H»pbm2iSiA Pinneag^ which 
was their Deftru^on, i Sam. 2. 
22, 23. He jadged I/rail forty 
•Years, and died ioddenly, beiDg 
Ninety-eight Years old, i Sam. 
4. 1$. 18. 

{d) S^dim, or SeJom ; HiB. 1 1. 
A fiasB Field. The Capital of 
ieveral Cities in the Plains of 
Jmrdan^ which God deftroyed by 
Fire and BrimAone from Heaven, 
as a juft Vengeance upon their I- 

idolatry. Luxury, and inch Wick- 

-ednefs as the Laws of God made 

«co be pnniihed with the moil igno- 
minious Death, <?#«. 19. }: Obs. 

•Thal^ Plain was called teniafolis. 
Gr. i. e. five Cities: becaufe there 

.svere fo^many Cities in^it, nfia. 

'SodMif G0m§rrah, ^imaby Zt^ 

^i§m and Zmt. 

: [i) Gihiab^ or' Giiion ; Heff. 

ki. e. A WL A Metropolitan 

,Ci»y of jhe Tribe of Benjamin, 

fituated upon a Mountain fbar 
Miles ftosajeru/alem towards the 
North. The Citizens were Sons 
of Belial, mod abominable and 
wicked Wretches, without the 
lead Fear of God. This was the 
Birth-Place of Saul the firft King 
of 1/rael. 

if) Javan ; Heh, i. e. Making 
/ad. He was the fourth Son of 
Japbetf and the Grandfon of 
Ifoab. He and his Pofterity firft 
peopled that Part of Greece,which 
was called Ionia from him. So 
Alexander the Great is called the 
King of Javan^ Dan. 8.21. See 
Geu, 10. 2. And the Tartars 
call Greece, Javan from hence. 

{g) Titan i XIV. Hei. i. e 
Born of the Earth: Becaufe he 
and ail thefe other Gods were faid 
to be born of Heaven and Earth. 
This Fable fignifies the Sun. 

Chap. n. Par AD lis B L&st. 


whofe Birth-right was faid to be feiz'd by his younger 
Brother Saturn; {b) and he fouiid like Meafure* 
from mightier Jove, who was his Son by his Sifter 
Rhea 5 (x) fo the ufurping Jupiter reig^'d. 

These Idols wer^ firft known in Crete, {k) and 


fJt) Satum ; XV. &*. i. C. 
Eid^ Lat. i. e. J Swar osfull 
•/ remrs^ i. t. Old: ' The moft 
mntieoc of all the Heathen Gods^ 
the yooogeft Son of Heaven and 
Earth, whom the Poets nude the 
Giand-&ther of all the Gods.and 
Ftihtr of Jttfiter, InthtGnei^ 
Xr9M9i, i. e TJbi Qod ofTimt. Ti- 
tmu was his elder Brother ; there- 
fore Whtm here calls him^jwarar;- 
mr Saimru, and in another Pla^, 
OH Saturn^ becaafe he was the 
G^^f^im ; which was the old- 
eft of them all. ^twrn was a 
wife IVincey bat naibrtunate ; for 
his Son Jmpitir expelled him the 
Kingdom of Cntf^ from whence 
he ied into Italy^ and tangbt 
thole People Hufbandnr, Plow- 
ing, Sowing and the nfing of the 
Scythe. ZuHtm is Jdam. who hid 
hamfelf from God, Gtn. 3. 9. 
or Voab^ who was the Father of 
Men, the Inventor of Husbandry, 
Wine, Architedore, Navigation, 

(f) ILhea ; XVI. Or. i. e. F/w- 
img. The Daughter of Heaven 
and Earth, the Wife and Siller 
of Saturn, and Moiher of Jufi- 
ter: She is called alfo, Sylvia 
and Uia. This Fable represents 
Eipe and the Earth, which flow- 
rth with the Abmidance ot all 
good Things, for the Ufe ^d 

Comfort of Mankind. For the 
old Heathens woHhipped and 
feared Things according as they 
were good and ufeful, or terri- 
ble to themfelves, as the Sun, 
Moon, Crocodile i and fome a- 
doredthe Devil, that he might 
not deftrpy them? which thq 
wild Americans do fiill. 

[i) Creti i Hih. u t. A Ar^ 
chir : Becaufe theie People weni 
excellent Archers. At firft it was 
adled Curiiifrcm the Curitis^ 
Gr. i, e. Shern ; becaufe they cue 
off all the Hair of their Heads ; 
they came from Palifiine. Tho 
Grith called it Uikatmfolis, i. e« 
The Ifland with 100 Cities. It 
is one of the laigeft Iflands in tho 
Mediterranean Sea, in the Month 
of the Arcbifelage, between 
Greece and Africa, 240 Milea 
from £a(l to Weft, 80 from South 
to North % about 600 Miles in 
Compafs ; and about 600 Miles 
from Jerufalem to the Weft, 600 
from Confiantinople^ and 300 
Miles from Qtfrus. It is now 
called Candia, i. e. An Intrench^ 
ment, from the chief Town, built 
by the Saracens, A. D* 823. The 
Fenetiam bought it from the 
Marquis of Montferrat, A. D* 
1204. But the Turks took it 
from them. A, D. 1669, There 
Ju^ter is faid to be both born, 


4a. I^ARAfiisfi Lost* Book L 

Ida, (/) and thence upon the Top of Olymi^us, (^) 
coverM with Snow i they rurd the middle Air^ which 
was their higheft Heaven ; or on the Cliff of D b l- 
PHOS^ (n) or in Dqpoka^ (ff) where Oracles were i 


biooghc up, and boried. The 
old &etians were famous for Ly- 
ing, See TitMs i. iz. which Sc« 
Paul quoted from Efimenidis. 

(/) Id* i Lat. from the Gr. 
i. e. A Fr9ff€& : Becaufe upon 
it one had a fair View of the 
whole Ifland of Cntt^ the adja- 
cent Countries and Seas. A fa- 
mous Mountain in that Ifland^ 
where Jufitgr was nurfed in a 
Give. It is now called PJUoriti^ 
Gr. i. c. The LittUHtU: And 
jfrom it Jufitir is called Id^eus by 
die old Poets. 

' {m) Olympus ; Lat. from the Gr. 
i. e. Jii Jbining^ cUar and fi- 
rent* It is the Name of feveral 
Mountains { but here, of that be- 
tween Tbifalj and Maadon : So 
high, that no Clouds or Darknefs 
appeared upon it, and was co- 
vered with Snow ; therefore it is 
called Cold : The Poets ufed it 
for Heaven ; and ftid that Jupi- 
ter reigned there, therefore he is 
called Jupiter Olympius. jina- 
xafforas 'found it but one Mile 
and a Quarter in perpendicular 
Height, as P/utareh relates. It 
extends from Eaft to Weft, and 
the Top of it extended a great 
Length all of a Height; yet 
fome Part of the jf^s is much 
higher. Clouds are feen fome- 
timei upon it, neither is it alwa) s 
covered with Snow, as the An- 
tients reported. 

(n) Delphian, of Deiphi, fpom 
Adtlphoi, Gr. L e. Brothers ; be- 
caufe J^IU and Bacchusg both 

Sons of Jupiter^ were Worfhipped 
there. Or from Delpbos, the 
Founder of it. It was very an^ 
tient, and ilourkhed too Years 
before thefrojan War ; the firf(, 
moil magnificent and richeil of 
all the Grades of Apoih, and of 
all the other Gods. An antienc 
City in Beeotia, at the Foot of 
Pamaffuiy built upon a fleep 
Rock, without any other Walk i 
^ow helph: There was a mag- 
nificent and famous Temple and 
Oracle of Apolh^ whether all 
Nations reforced for Anfwers la 
all dubious Affairs- ; and enrich* 
ed with the mofl valuable Gifb i 
therefore he was called Afelh 
Delpbius. It had its Original from 
a Flock of Goats, that reforted 
there, and from an enthufiaftical 
Girl. In it was kept a perpetual 
Fire ; which Cuftom they bor- 
rowed from Mtfes, 

[o) Dodona i Lat. from theGr. 
1. e. Sounding Day and Nighc : 
Or becaufe it was built by Dodon 
the Son of Jawan, and Grand- 
fon of Japbet, the Captain of a 
Colony, which firft inhabited that 
Part of Epints, Gen. lo. 4. A 
famous and antienc Town in Cha- 
onia, c l the Weft Side ofEfirus j 
famous for the Focal Forefihnd 
Oracle of Jupiter, where the 
Oaks confecrated -to him, gave 
Anfwers; from thence he was 
called Dodonh ^. He^od fays, tt 
was the moft antieat of M the 
Oracles of Greece, 


Chap. III. Paradise Lost. 4^ 

or were difpers'd throi^h Greece^ wkh all thofc 
who with old Saturn fled over the Adriatick, (p) 
Sea into the Weft^ and roam'd over the Kixigdoms 
and Iflands of the Earth. 


£atan, tbougb fenfible of the DimihuHM of Us 
*Gkryy direSs bis Speecb to the Fallen Angehi 
and comforts them njoitb Hope yet of regaining 
Heaven. Tben tells them of a pew fTorldy and a 
new Kind of Creature to be created^ according to 
an ant lent Prophecy^ or Report in IJeaven^ and 
tbreatens tbe Deity : Wbich the rebellious Angeb 



ik L L thde and many more appeared iii MuIq- 
/\ tudes, but with down-caft Eyes, and fuU cf 
XjL. Shame ; yet not fo but that there appear'd 
fuch Looks, wherein fome Glimpfe of Joy faintly was 
feen ; to have found their chief Captain not in De- 
fpair, and to have found themfelves not utterly annir 
mlated ; which was alike evident from hi$ doubtful 
Countenance : But Satan foon recollecting his ufuai 
Pride, with lofty Words, which had a Refemblance 
«f Worth but not the Reality, gently rais'd their 
fainting Courage, and for a little Time put off their 
Fears. Then immediately he commanded, that at 
the warlike Sound of loud Trumpets, and of Clari- 

0) The Adriatic Sea, now, was entertained by Jamu the' 

the Gulf of Venici or IlhrtA ; King of it, and deified after his 

which ieparates Greea ana lily- Death. Thefe Inftitntions made 

Ttaon from Italy. Saturn pafs'd Men fa happy, that the Poets 

over it when he fled into Italy ; called chat Time, the Gulden Agt. 

where he propagated the Fhee* Satum is Adam ; and that Age, 

mcian and Grecian Idolatry, the State of Innocence, before 

Aruand Sciences i for which he his Fall. 

44' PARADisft Lost. Book I. 

ons, his mighty Standard Ihould be fet up : A z a- 
ZEt^ (q) a powerful Cherub, claimed that proud 
Honour as his Right ; who forthwith from the glit- 
tering Staff fpread out the Imperial Enfign 5 which lif- 
ted qp high, flione like a Comet ftreaming to and.frQ 
in the Wind, adorn'd with rich Workmanlhip and 
golden Luftre,. being §eraphic Trophies and Arms ; 
mean Time the warlike Mufick of Satan, was blow- 
ing with fuch Sounds as ftir up to Battle ; at whicQ 
the whole Army fcnt up a Shout that Ihook Hell, and 
pierc'd farther to the great Space. In a Moment Ten 
Thouland Banners were feen to rife thro* the Gloom 
into the Air, waving with Colours fuch as are feen in 
Xhe Sun at his Rifipg ; and with them were lifted up a 
vaft Number of Spears, and Helmets, and Shiekis, 
joined together in Order of Battle, of extream great 
Depth. Soon after they begin to move in exa£i;. Or«^ 
der, not unlike the Greeks to the Sound of Flutes 
and Pipes, fuch as fais'd the Spirits of the Heroes (r) 
of old to nobleft Heights, and breathM deliberate, 
firm, and unmov'd Valour, inflead of Rage, with 
Icfe Dread of Death, than of Flight, or Cowardi<:e : 
Nor did fuch Mufick want Power to mitigate and af- 
iwage, with folemn and grave Sounds, troubled 
Thoughts ; and to drive away Anguifh, Doubts, 
Fears, Pain, or Sorrow, from the Mind of Mortals or 


• (f) Asiascil^ or GtiaseazeJ ; Etb, 
i. e. A Gpat going away f or/ent 
^nMf£^. ThicScafeGoatt which 
bore all the Sins of the People 
into the Wildemcf!:, and died 
therr» Ltvit. 16. 7. A Type 
of Chrift. But others take it for 
a Devil* therefore Mi/ion very 
properly makes hin to be Satan's 
Scandard- Bearer in chief. 

(r) Herois t Lat. Gr. i.e. Great 
and g/Iu/rieus Men, renowned for 
their Valour^ Wifdom or virtu- 
ous Deeds ; for which they were 
deified and highly celebrated af* 
ter Death : As Jafin, JckiUs^ 
Hirculcj, ScQ, 

Chap. IIL Paradise Lost. 45 

Thus they, united with all their Force, and fix'd 
in Thought, march'd on in Silence, to foft Pipes, that 
in fbme Meafure eas*d their painful Steps over the 
burnt Soil : And now they ftand advanced in Sight, a 
toTible Front, dreadful in Length, and in dazzling 
Armour, after the Manner of old Warriors, with 
Spear and Shield, waiting what Commands their 
mighty Chief had to give out ; he cafts his experien- 
ced Eye thro* the armed Files, and crofs the whole 
Battalion, by which Means he oblerved their due Or* 
der, their Countenances, and Statures, Ihewing them 
like Gods ; at laft he numbers them« 

And now his Heart fwells with Pride, and valuing 
himfelf upon his Strength he glories ; for never fince 
did ever any created Man meet fuch Force, not in the 
moft numerous and powerftil Armies, which if nam'd 
with thcTe, could only deferve to be compar'd to a 
fmall Peoplcfin India, known to us by the Name of 
Pigmies ; tho' all the Brood of Giants that are faid to 
have made War againft the Gods, were jom'd with 
the Race of Heroes, who fought at Thebes (p) and 
Troy, (j) with auxiliary Deities mix'd on each Side ; 


(i) TMes , Lat. Gr. from the 
PhoFM. i. e. Dirt or Mu^f ; be- 
caofe it was covered with Wa- 
ter» Snow and Dirt in the Win- 
ter Time. A famous City of Ba^- 
tia in Gntce^ built by CaJmrn^ 
or at leaft the Ciudel of it, 
which was called G^i^Wtf , from 
him. There Cadmiu with hil 
Heroes fought : There alfo E/r 
toclis and Poljnices^ Sons of Oedi' 
fus^ fought one againft another ; 
and there Htrcmlet the Giant was 
bom, who flew the Centamrs^ 
she Utm^an Lion^ the Monilcr 

^irtf, and the wild Boar of J?« 
rymanthus^ neaxThihis^ Sec. 

(/) Tr»y, l/iMm, IlsoM and JlUs f 
Lat, from the Or, from Hut the 
fourth King of Trey^ who en« 
larged it, and gave it that Name.- 
It is called alio 7rcy^ from Irot^ 
the iecond King; founded by 
EtySboniMt, about A. M. 2574. 
The City of TVvjr in Phrygta^ in 
the Liffir Afia^ three Miles from 
the jEgian Sea, upon the River 
Xantbus^ near Mount Ua. What 
Heroes fought there on both 
Sides, while the Greeks beficged 


46 Pa&adise Lost* Book L 

and what makes a great Noife in Fable or Romance, 
of King Arthur (a) attended by British {x) 
Knights, and all thofe who fmce that, .either Chriftian 
or Infidel, have diftinguilh'd themfelvcs at Joufts (y) 
and Tournaments, in Aspramont (2) or Mont- 
^LBANy (;a) Damascus^ (^) or Morocco, (c) or 


it ttn Yeais, and then racM it, 
432 Years before the Building of 
Rome, is well known to all, who 
have read H^mer, Firgil, Ovid 
and other Poets. 

(u) King Jriimr, Britm i. e. 
A ftrMg Ma/tp King Arthur was 
crowned, A. D. C169 and was 
a ^otts Hero in old Britifi Hi- 
ilory. They fay, be foo^ht \z 
Battles with the Saxons ^ Witli vaft 
Valour and Suocefs. He com- 
bated alfo with msoiy foreign 
Knights and Champions, died in 
the 90th Year of has Age, and 
14th Year of his Reign. 

(x) Briti/bp of Britain, Heh. 
imd Pban. i. e. 7be Land of Tin : 
tt Brit, i. e. fainted, becaufe 
the old Pbcemeians dug Tin out 
of Cornwall, Sec. and the old 
Britons painted themfelves with 
fFoad, &c. to make themfelves 
appear more terrible in War, as 
t$e PiSj ini Scotland, and the 
wild Americans do to this Day. 

(y) Jonjls, which was a very 
fuitient Diverfion, when the Com- 
^tants mounted on Horfeback, 
irmed, adorned with Feathers 
and Lances in their Hands, run 
at one another a full Gallop, one 
fm one Side, and the other on 
the other Side of a low Rail. 
This Sort of Exerciie (called 

ioufts and Tournaments in the 
>ld treacb) was fiift introduced 

into Germany, at Magdeimrr, A. 
D. 835, by Henry called the 
Fowler, a Saxon Prince, who waa 
eleded Emperor of Germany, 
fome time after Cbarks the Great, 
by Manuel Comntnus, Emperor 
of Confiantinople, about A. D. 
1 1 1 4. by K. Henry IV. in Smith* 
field, before the Englifi Nobili- 
ty, A. D. 1 409. fittt was nfed 
amonp the old Saxons, as a Trial 
of Manhood and Innocence } 
and called by them Kamf'Fight, 
now by us a Duel and Combat. 
hat. Fr, i. e. A Fight hetnuee/e 

(^) AJpramont} Lat, i.e. A 
tough, rocky Mountain ; a feigned 
Name in old Romances. 

{a) Montalhan ; Lat. i. e. A 
'white Mountain, A Mountain 
diflant 12 Miles from Rotne in 
Italy ; whereon the decifive 
Combat was fouirht between the 
three Horatii on the Side of the 
Romans, and the three Curiatii, 
on that of the Albans, Some take 
it alfo for Montauhain, in France, 
and others, for a feigned Name 
in Romances. 

(b^ Damafcus ; For therein it 
is faid that Cain and Abel the 
Mi Heroes fought for Life and 
Death, Gen, 4. 8. 

(c) Morocco \ Heh, i. e. Wefi^ 
or Arab, i. e. A Government, 
Qr. i. e« Black i becanfe it is 


Chap« III. Paradise Lost* 47 

Tb.£Bisonp; {i) or thofewfao were fent from die Af RICK, {e) when the Powers oi{f) Char- 


Weft fimn Canman^ and the 
People are Black. Tht Ronuint 
called ic Mauritania ^ i. e. The 
Coon try of the Mauri ^ whom 
wecaQ Mootm and ^/«<>i/. Alarge, 
pkaiaiit and fruitful Kinedom 
in Africa^ upon the Auautic 
Ocean. It is 300 Miles long, and 
180 Miles broad ; and is divid- 
ed into feven Provinees. Mir^ccg 
large and was the capital 

City of it i bat now Fex enjoys 
the Honour. This Country con- 
tains many Rgmanj Anticjaities 
fdXL. Here King 7aia a£ted the 
Hero wkk Brnftj^ Curio, Scifio, 
Cdifar, &C« 

(d) "Trthifiui, or Trabi/ottJi 
by tlie Greeh, Trafiza, i. c. a 
four-footid Stool, becaufe it re- 
fembles that. The capi(;al City 
of Cappadocia, and the Seat of a 
^urlafi Governor, near the Eu- 
xiut Sea. Thb Countrv is faid 
to have been the Land of the 
AmaxAns, afterwards the Seat of 
the Parthiau Empire. Alexis 
Comuiuttus founded this Empire, 
when the Turks took ConftantinO" 
plo from him, A. D. 1204. Mu- 
hammed the Great took it from the 
GreeJb, A. D. I4dr, fo it has 
(on tinned in their Pofleffion.^The 
Greeks now call it Romania, 
through a Miftake. 

(ej A/ric, for African, from 
Africa, Arab, i. c. An Ear of 
Com, becau/e it is very frnitful 
in Com in the Valljes ; or from 
Jfrifii or Ifrifiijh, an Arabian 
tnnce. The Tartars and Indi- 
auM call it Magrih and AI-Grib, 
i. e. The fTe/, on Account of 

its Sitiittion in Refped to them. 
Its ancient Names were Olympian 
Oceana, E/chatia, Coryphe, Hef 
peria, ASria, Ortygia, Ammonia^ 
j^thiopia, Ophikfa, Ophenia, 
Cyrenf, lybia. Africa is the 
litfgeft Feninfula in this Part of 
the World, encompaO'd with 
the Sea, except the Ifthmus of 
Snes:, which it %% Leagues «r 
64 Miles k>nB. It is one of the 
four grand Parts of the Barth, 
larger than Europe, much lefs , 
than Afia, extending from N. to 
S. about 4800 Miles, and ftom 
£. to W. 48C0 Mike. It ties a}* 
sioft under the Torrid Zone, is 
exceflively hot, barren andfandy^ 
very imperfefUy known to the 
Antients, who thought it was 
not habitable, and even to 119 
this Day, in the inland Regions. 
It was peopled by the Pofterity 
of Ham, who bear his Curfe to 
this Day, for they have been al- 
ways Slaves to other Nations, 
Gen. 9. 25. Chrillianity flou- 
rifh'd there in the firft Ages, 
TertuUian, St. Auguftin, St. Cy, 
prian. Were glorious Lights 
therein ; but alas ! now they are 
almoft all Heathens and Muhamr 
tnedans, Chriftianity was weak* 
ned by the Invaiion of the O^tht^ 
and Saracens, and laitly of the^ 
Muhammedans, A. D. 722. 

(f) Charlemain ; Fr, \, e„ 
Charles the Great, In the 7>»/. 
and Sax. it {xgvixfics flrong^ fiout, 
'valiant, A mighty Hero, a va- 
liant and pious Prince, bom A. 
D. 742. He was King of 
France^ and n^ade £mperor of 


48 Paradise Lost. Book L 

lEMAiN fell by Font ARABIA, (g) Thus far were 
thefe beyond the Comparifbn of any mortal Valour, yet 
thev obferv*d their dread Commander ; he, in Shape 
ana Gefture proudly eminent, Hood like a Tower ; 
for his Form had not loft all hter firft Brightnefs, nor 
did he appear lefs than an Archangel ruinM, and a 
great Excefs of Glory obfcur'd : As when the Sun 
newly rifen looks thro' the mifty Air, which hinders 
his Beams from piercing through *, or when from be- 
hind the Moon in dim Eclipfe, he fheds a bad Influ- 
ence on half the Nations, and perplexes Monarchs 
with Fear of Change ; fo darkned was tjie Archangel, 
yet he fhone above them all, but deep Scars of Thun- 
der had mark'd his Face, and Care was vifible on his 
faded Cheeks, but under Brows of dauntlefs Courage 
and confiderate Pride, that watch'd for Revenge. 
His Eye was cruel, but caft Signs of Remorfe and 
Compaffion, to behold his Companions, or rather 



Germany, A. D. 8bo. Crowned 
at Rami by Pope £#« III. with 
the Title of Qefiir Juguftms and 
the two-headed Eagle, to make 
the Roman and German Empire, 
which he pofle&M in £reat Part. 
A ri^rious, leanm, liberal, 
aft and pions Prince ; therefore 
as dignifvM with the Title 
of moft Cnrtttian King, which 
the Fnnci Kings have enjoy'd 
cverfince. He dyM peaceably at 
Aix la Cbap/e, Jan. 28, A. D. 
S14, of his Age 72, Reign 4c, 
and was baried there. Fredi* 
rick I. took his Body out of the 
Sepulchre, out of which were ta* 
ken a great Nomber of Reliques 
and Rarities, which he had col- 
lected in his Life-Time; but 
Bot like the Riches found in King 
(g) Fontarabia 1 Sfan, from 

the Ltf/. I. e. h rapid $trimm» 
A very ftrong Port and City oa 
the Frontiers of Spain in Bi/cay^ 
on the Mouth of the River Ri^ 
doffa^ near St. SeBafiian, and 
well fortify 'd on the Borders of 
France, which hath frequently 
befieg*d it, but in vain. ^Obs. 
This Expedition and Fall of 
Charles the Great, with his No- 
bles at Fontarabia, related by 
Mr. John Tnrpin, is jentirely 
falfe and fabulous. But Poets 
do not regard Exa£tneis of Hi- 
ftory^ nor Chronology, provided 
a Fi£lion may help them oat, 
and pleafe their Readers. For 
jEneaj was 300 Years after 
Queen Dido, tho* Firgif makes 
them contemporary, as St. J»t* 
ftin proves in his Book, Of tlw 
City of God, and Cf. Hemins in 
his Area Nose> P. 358. 

chap* ni. Pahadise Lost. 49 

%ofe who had foUowM him in his Crime, (whom he 
had beheld far otherwife once in Blift) condemned now 
to have their Lot in Pain for ever-. Millions of Spirits 
ft>r his Fault depriv'd of Heaven j and for his Apofta- 
cy flung from eternal Splendors ; yet how faithful they 
ftood, tho' their Glory was withered ! As' when Light- 
ning hath fcorch'd the Oaks, though their Tops 
be fing'd and bare, their ftately Trunks (till fiand 
upon the blafted Heath. Satan how prepares to 
fpeaki whereon they bend their doubled Ranks from 
Wing to Wing, and fo half enclofe him about with' 
all his Peers- They all kept mute, tHro* Attention ; 
and thrice he attempted to fpeak, and as many 
TimeSi in Spite of aU his Scorn, Tears, fuch as Ant- 
gels may be faid to weep, burft forth ; but at laft,' 
mixing his Words with a great many Sighs, he 

Numbers of immortal Spirits! Powers, matdh-; 
kls .except widi the Almighty! and cVen that 
Strife was not inglorious, tho' the £vent was fatal, as 
this Place teftifies^ and this fad Change, hateful to ut- 
ter; but what Powei-of Mind, forefecingor fofetelling^ 
from the Depth of paft or prefent Ktiowledge, could* 
have fear*d how fuch united Force of fo many Gods, * 
and iiich as flood Rke thefe, could ever b^ defeated ? 
For who can yet believe, tho* after fome Lofs, that 
all thcie powerful Legions, whofc Expulfion hath al- * 
moft cmpty'd Heaven^ fhall fail to alcend up thkher 
again,, by the Power of their own Strength, and again 
take Pofleflion of their native Seat? Bear wimefs a-* 
^inft me, all the Hofl of Heaven, if diflferent Coun- 
iels, or any Danger fhunn'd by me, have lofl out 
Hopes : But he who reigns now the Monarch in Hea- 
ven, 'till then fat on his Throne, as one fecurc, up-* 
hdd by old Repute, by Cuftom, or Confent^ and hi$ 
Royalty and State put forth at full ; but always con-' 
ceal'd his Strength^ which encourag'4 u$ in our At- 

£ * t&mpty 

50 Par AD IS B Lo.s.t. Book L 

tempt, and occafionM our^ Fall. Henceforward we 
know his Might and our own, fo as neither to pro* 
xokt him to new War, oriwy much to fear war, 
being provok'd* Our better F^ remains, we are. 
ftiU abk by ck^e Defign, by Fnoid, or Guile» to» 
bring to *pa& what we could not effi^ by Force; fo 
chat lie atkngth mxy come to learn firom us^ that bck 
who overcomes by Force, hfo oFeccome. but Half hi» 
Foe» Time may produce iiew Worlds,. <^ wj^ch 
^erewenta common Report in Heaven, that before 
it was lon^ he intended to create one, aod therein fix 
a Generation, whom his choice R^^ard ihould favour, 
equal with the Angels in Heaven: Thither, if it be 
Imt to pry, (hall jperhaps be our firft .Sally ^ thither, or 
dfewhere, for this infernal pit fhall: never hold cdefti* 
al Spirits in Slavery, nor the A^iff^ cover us long uq*. 
der Darknefs : But a full Council, and a good Delibe- 
dtion among us, muft bring theie Thoughts to Per* 
feAion ; Peace is defpair'd of, for who can think:.of 
lubmitting; ? War then, either proclaimed or ddign*d» 
iftuft be refolv'd otu 

Satan fixulh'd his Speech, andin ApprplMttiQii* 
oF his Words were drawn Millions of flaming. 
Swords, from the Thighs of mighty Cherubim. The . 
ftdden Blaze made a Light in Hell : They rag*d hi^ 
lyagainfttKe Highest, and grafping their foundmg 
^elds fiercely in their Arms, beat an Alarm for . 
*War^ hurling them with Defiance towards Heaven* 


^ . 

Chai>. IV. P A« A D I s B L'oi f* 



iciates of Satan iuild Pandasmonkcm, aki 
xferrial Peers Jit there in Council. 

OT far off there was a Mountain, frbni 
whofe Top rolling Smoak aind Fire pro** 
ceeded i the other Parts of it firm and du^ 
Suriice df it (hone with a bright Glofs ; (an ua«' 
dcAibted Sign that in it was contained mineral Ore, ri-^ 
penM by Sulphur) thither, with Speed, repw'd a 
Moltitiide of the Devils ; juft as Bands of Pioneers (Ifi 
march befbrfe a Royal Camp, armM with Spades ana 
Pickaxes, to trench a Field or caft a Rampart. MajA*' 
MON {i\ * led them on; he was the vileft and dakfce^ 
Spirit that fell from Heaven, for even in Heaven his 
Looks and Thoughts were dways indin'd downward* 
adniiring mofe the Riches of Heaven's Pavement, (i / 

£2 which" 

(h) Pi9M$irt or PUmirs ; fr. 
t.Mittt. T. Laboorm going be« 
foie in Anny, to dig up l>cn« 
clws, to lerd Ways, ondermiiie 
Oifflet, &c. 

(i) Mammmi Pbem. Cmr* 
IMjf. from the £ftr^. L« Rsiha. 
Tk Godof Plenty and Wcakk 

lOBCthe PinnkisMi, HMirtmt^ 
ape. The PImH of the Gmh 
and RnmM$. He ii beaatiAlly 
painied here, and hit Nam# 11 
reDeated. to add the ffieaiaf 
Force CO the Senie. 

(i) Pmvuumi % bml. Sf. LtH. 
L e. Bmnm artrml§mi a pared 
Floor^ a Canfewty, a Gtonnd- 
Room in a Hoofe. Here, the 
floor of Heaven, repre&nted 
by St. y^h 10 be ^ved with 
pere Gold, which Mwmmm lik'4 

beff« See iSm/. Aid tbIC 
BoiUinc of the WaH of it wae 
Of Ja$eri and the Cfcy waa 

pore Gold* like onto dear GHaA* 
And the Pooadationiof the wall 
of the City were garoUh*d with 
all Manner of preciom Stooei, 
The £fa Fdundatiott was JaQMr,. 
thefecondaSaphiie, thethMa^ 
Chalcedony, thefeordiiABme% 
xaU. The ^ SaidoiijraL the 
£xth Sardhu, the frvtoth Chry<K 
fidiee^ the ctfhth Beiylt Im 
nirnhn 7<>P>a» t^ t*<^aGhfyhi. 

feprafos, the eleventh a Jnefai^ 
the twclf^ an Amethyt. And 
the twcl^ Gates were iwelvo 
PearU{ every ieveralGate .wan 
of one Ftmli and the Stieet of' 
the City wet p«e <kUf at |l 
were traafparcnt Qlaft. 

tt : P-A|t.ADI.SR LotSTV ' Book L 

which was pure Gold, than any Thing fpiritual, or 
belonging to God, or to be enjoy'd in beatific Vi- 
fion: Firft taugRf by his SuggelHon, Man alfo ex- 
amined, and with wicked Hands rifled the Bowels of 
^)E^anii, to .find out Gold and other Riches, whidt 
had better have lain there ftill. The Crew of Mam- 
mon had foon open'd into the Mountain a large Paf- 
iagq and digged .. out Gold ; (let No-body admisr 
that ]^icbes crew in Hell, fince that Soil mat 
be£b fuit with me Root of all £yil) and here let thole 
who boaft in mortal Things, and talk with Wonder 
%bput. (Babel (/) Babylon, and the Pyramids of 
EoypT, (fi) learn how tlieir greateft Pieces of Archi- 
tetflure, buift for Fame with Strength and Art, are 
caTily outdone by reprobate Spirits ; who can perform 
tn one. Hour, what they in an Age, with continual 
Labour and innumerable Hands, fcarcely caiu 

: A SECOND Multitude, not far oiF on the Plain, in 
Aiany.Pits, that underneath them had Streams of mel- 
xfd Fire iffuing from the Lake, with wonderful Art 
produced the mafly Ore, feperating each Kind, and 
tcumming *.ther I)rofs. A third Party, at the iame 
Tiine, . Form*d vithin the Ground various Moulds, 
and by a ftrange Conveyance from the boiling Pits, 
$Il*d every hollow Place ; as in an Organ (n) from 

, one 

. * 

, {i) Ba^li heb. u t. C$nfif' buinan Art and Power; bat in 

^«r bflcaafe Cod there confbun*' nothing comparable tothofeoF' 

dcd t&e Lafigoage of ^boie iaapi- the Fallen Angelsy as appears 

(att> fiaiUen of that Tower, from their Infernal Hall in Hell. 
Gt^aw V* to. Fpdm thence («) Organ; Imt. from the 

o»mes.;^«^/c^ u e. to (peak Gr. u e. fbi Infinmnt. A 

HxfoSihia^' or - Woida that are Mufic. T. a Mafical Inftrument i • 

npttmdl^rAood by other Men« fo^callM^ becanfe it is efteemM 

i(ai() The Walla ^ BsAykm^ the chiefeft and principal of all 

asd tiMT I^catiids of Bgyft near • Mafical InAroments : In Hih. the 

jlUb«r/^*wh]ch are:two of the Name of it figntfies Lovely and 

f ten:: Wonders, of the .World ;> delightful, it was one of the fir ft 

leiiag vid^ttighty Moaume&ts of in the Worlds invented by Tmkai^ 

V . , - . : G$m. . 

Chap. ni. P A R A D I S fi L O ST. 1J3 

one Blaft of Wind, the Sound-Board breatlies to a. 
great many Rows of Pipes. Preftntly a very large. 
and mighty Building rofe out of the Earth, like an* 
Exhalation, at the Sound of pleafant Symphonies and 
IWeet Voices : It was built like a Temple, where Pi-, 
lafters {o) were fet round, and Doric (p) Pillars o-! 
▼erlaid with golden Architrave: (j) The Roof was" 
fretted (r) Gold, nor was there any Want of Cor- 
nice, (j) or Freeze, (/) .engrav'd with boITy (») Or-, 
naments : Babylon (x) nor Grand Cairo. 

E j^ {y) never 

Gm. 4. 21. and very much us'd 
by the Ancients, Job 21. 12. 
t/alm i£0. 4. 

(0) Pilafiers ; Fr. ItaJ, from 
dieltf/. i. e. little Pillars. A 
T. of Aichit. A Kind of fquare 
fillar made to jat oat of the. 
Wall of any corioos Fabrick« 

(f) Dorse ; Fr. Lat, Gr. 1. c. 
€i or belooging to the Dons, A 
Term of Archit. It is one of 
die Ave Orders of Architedtnre, 
hem Dorut King of the Dorians 
in jfchaia, who boilt a magnifi- 
cent Temple to yuxo at j^rfs, 
was the firft Model of this 


(fj .Jrchitravo ; Fr, Gr, u 
t. The Mo/ Head of a PilUr. 
AT. of Archit. It is a Moul- 
ding next above the Chapiter or 
Head of a Column or Pillar. 

(r) Frittoii Ital, Fr. from 
die Lai. A T. of Archit Air 
Omaiiient of two' Lifts interwo- 
ven and at an equal Diflance, 
with feveral Breaks and Inden- 
tures, i. e. All this Workman- 
flup was of pure folld Gold. 

(i) Ctrssict or Corwfli ; ' Fr, 
Lai. bom the Gr, A Horn. A 
T. of Archit. It is the third or 
hig^ Part of the Freeze^ ex- 

tending out like ah Horn or 
Point in Building. 

(/) Freexi or Friext ; /r. i. c.. 
A Ruff or Fringe. A T. of Ar- * 
diit. It is the round and broad' 
Band of a Pillar^ between the'. 
Architrave and the Cornice. ' ' 

(u) SoJIy ; Fr, belonging to a 
Bofsy i.e. A Knob or Stub /wel- 
ling ou t. Another Term of A r- \ 

{x) Babylon ; Heb. frooi Ba- 
lelg i. e. Confujion, A very no- 
ble and antient Citv in Cbaldea^' 
npon a vaft Plain, ouHt near the. 
Old Tower upon the Euphrates :\ 
It was founded by Nimrodbekre ^ 
the Separation and Confufion of' 
Languages, Gen. 10. 10. there- 
fore that Country 18 called the[ 
Land of Nimrcd,' Micab c. 6.' 
But was augmented, beautified, 
and fortified by Ninus, Semira-' 
mis, Nebucbddnexzar, &c. and 
that^s the Reafon whv t^veral' 
Hiftorians afcribe the Fonndati- * 
on of it to diiFerent Princes. It' 
was the Metropolis of -4^'^/ 
'till ^«/m-/a'eclip8'd th« Glory of 
it, and the firfl Seat of Monar-^ 
chy in the World. The WaHa.' 
of it were 60 llliles in Circuit, 
50 Cubits high, and 87 Foot 


54> Parao^sb Lpsap. ^^09^^* 

^^ • • • " » 


(y) nevtreqiMdl^fi in .all thdr Glory XudiMagnifirmce, 
QO* to enihrine Bblus (z) or Sjer^pis, (ii) which were 
their Gods ; or whether it were Seats for their ICin^ 
%hcn Egypt ftrove with Assyria (b) in WcalA, 
^Vpo'flnity, ^d Luxury. The infernal Palace .which 
the Devils had buiU^ was of a pompous Height, and 
j^rdently the Doors opening their brazen Folds, dif- 


Aids, lb that feveni Ooachet 
fliJglii pad opoa dbem» andcttee* 
mm ooe or tht tenn Wonders 
of tho World. Thuwaitheol- 
dtft, UtgA^ not nagnifiont, 
aJid Sundiii Cittr spoa iMith, 
*till it was ndn'd br Cfnu, DaH- 
utt SiiiucMt^ Or$dts, and Mix* 
dwdir the Great 1 he took it, 
fcuod immeiife Treafures there- 
ia, ftaid a whole Year, and ifi 
thecf. It it abote 40 Miles 
&mdi-BalL from Jbt^iAi/^ which 
is opon the 9ffr£r» and is often 
ouftalten fer the old BkhUm ) 
andaboat68o Miles from Tn^- 
/itm Eaftward. ' ft hath been 
riunoos Reaps^ and J>etts' of 
1^, favage Beaib, Serpents, 
aiid other renomoiu Crei^ture^, 
fi^ many Ages paft, Ib'thatTriL- 
vellers oare not approach it, as 
Jerimiah and Other Propheu 
l^retold ) becaufe of th« Idola* 
tty^ Cmeltv^ Oppreffion, Pride» 
end other neinoas Cruncs of its 

€mtir0 ; Jrat, i. e. vi^maui or 
irmi^hani i becaufe Muatauu 
loonoed it in the Afoendant of 
MUri, who conquers the World. 

gjien from Jf, the, and Kir, 
ty, i. e. The City. by.Way of 
Eminenoe. The Frmt call it 
CrsMd Cair$, i. e. The great Ci- 

ty. It is the chief City of Sifpi' 
now» bnilt but of the Ruins of 
the old MmMs, on the Ball 
Side of the NiU. bat Mmphu 
ftood OBthe Weft Side ^4 aU^ 
tie below it, above the firft Di* 
Tifion of that Rirer. Old Cmif 
was upon the Bank of the lUyer, 
but new Csira is abopt kMpp. 
Milca from it. 

(%} BiUu I Sfi. I e.. tfi^ 
The Son of Nimrod, the' 
King 0/ B^hhwf vd .^ 
Blan Ijhatwas ocify'd aHcr 
He b^gaa to reign ^. M, i.879« 
and died A. M. 1914. 

(m) Sirafit ; tui, I e. A 
frinci or Ox. TJie (ame ai A^ 

fii, in th^ old MzmU% Lao- 
SD«g<» from itf» fir^. i. e. A 
FatBer: For Jofiphid^^ I a«( 
a Father ip ftmr^h, G/n* 4S« 
8. An antient King and God 
of Effpf* thought to be J^/tA 
in Faole ; Ming repraentea 
with the Figure of ao Qx» ^t)k 
the Sun and Moon, apfl a^ a 
Youth with a Vi^fldl and a Citp. 
An this Ap^ctt exa&ly to 'the 
Charader and Stjition of thajt 
worthy I^Terer of their Nati- 
on, and provident Sta^biMi* 
Hir9J$i. Lib. 3. C zi. Ulkdv. 
Sicnl. I. 

from J0ir the Sonof f«i|f Qm. 


Chap« IV. Paradise Lost* 55 

covered widnn many Rows of fhining Lamps and bla^^ 
zing Lights^ fed with Naphtha (c) and Asphal- 
TUS9 (a) which from the arched Roof hung over the 
rmooth Pavement; thej were hung by fubtle Magic^ 
and fent forth a Light as from a Sky. The hafty 
Multitude entered admiring ; ibme prais'd the Work, 
and Ibme the Archited ; his Art was known in Hear 
ven, by many a high Tower, where dignify*d Spirits 
held their Refidence, and fat as Princes ; whom G09 
hsii exalted to fuch Power, and aivcn to rule the 
bright Orders, each in his facred Hierarchy, (e) Nor 
was he without a Name or Adoration in antienst 

£ 4 Grescb, 

le. 1 1, 12. A lar^ and fertile 
ODantrT in A/!^^ joining io ChaU 

wbere the &ft gnind Monarchy 
WIS ftvndcd aboot 1 1 5 Years at* 
ter the Flood» and oontinaM for 
1300 or 1400 Years. Then it 
fell into the Hands of the Batf* 
Ummu^ Ninnuttt, MtNks^ Per^ 
fiuu, Gmki^ RommwSt and now 
of the Tarh incoefiveljr. 

(c) NmfifAm or Nmptia | 
1st. Gr. firom the CbuU. i. f • 
Dr9ffiMt I a Kind of At, chal- 
ky, and bitaminoos Clay, of a 
dark Cohmr» that takes Fire foo- 
ner than Brioiftone ; it will draw 
Fire to it from afar, and is not 
fooB quenched. Pamoas Springs 
of it are at Bmku in Perfia ; they 
life it inflead of Lamp Oil, and 
indieir Fire-works. It yields a 
great Revenae to the Emperor 
of Pirfia. 

(i) AJfhabus I Lat. Gr. I e. 
UntxtingiuPaUe. A Riftd of 
hx baming Qay, like Pitch, 
foand in Pits, and abounding 
near Sodtm and Babjhw. It was 
died inftead of Monar, in boil- 

dins the Tower and Walls of 
SafyUft, Gi9. II. 3. Proai 
thence the Lake of Sodom is cal- 
led JMahitij. 

(ij Hiorarcbfi Fr, LaK 
fiomthe Gr. i. e. hjhctii G#- 
5Efimi4b»f. A Theblog. Teinn. 
Here, the moil|;Ioriotts Goven^ 
ment of the Ho^ Angels hi 
ReafieB. It tOnUs^ a$ fom^ 
fay, of nine Otders, which are 
divided into the hig^eft, middfe, 
and lowed, viz. 1. Seraphiknf» 
Cherubims, and Thrones. 2. 
Dominions, Principalities, and 
Powers. 3. Virtues, Angels» 
and Arch-Angels. The Holy 
Scriptures, efpecially St. Psui^ 
Cehff. I. f 6. mention thofe De- 
grees of holy Angels : But D/>- 
nyfius the Jriopagiu^ and the 
Schoolmen explain and rank 
them as diftiu6Uy as if they had 
been in Heaven and feen them. 
And doobtlefs there is as much 
Variety in the Angels, as there 
is among Men, Animals, Plants, 
and Flowers, whereof there are 
not two of a Kind, in every 
RefpcA alike ; which is a lively 



Paradise Lost. - Book t. 

Greece ; (f) and in Italy Men callM Wm Mulci- 
BER (g) and fcign'd how he fell from Heaven, thrown 
<Jown by angry Jove, quite over the Bounds of Hea- 
ven; that he fell from Morning to Noon, and from 
Noon to Evening, a whole Summer's Day, and as the 
Sun fet dropt direftlv down like a Falling Star (b) up- 
t)n Lemnos. (/) Tnus they erroneoufly relate it, for 
he fell long before with thefe rebellious Angels 5 nor 
^as it of any Advantage to him now, that he had 
built many Towers in Heaven, neither did he cfcapc 
by all his Engines and Contrivances,- but was fent 
headlong, with all his AiTociates, to build in HelL 

Demonftration of the infinite 
Wifdom and Power of the Ma- 

{/) Gmee, Lat, from the 
Gr, from Graeiu, Son of Gf- 
'iropSf who was one of the firft 
Kings of it. An antient and no- 
ble Country in Eurppt, upon the 
Mediterranean and ^gean Seas, 
and highly celebrated in HiAo- 

(^) Mulciheri Lat, j. e. A 
Melxer or Softener of Iron. 
Vulcan^ Jufiterh Son and Foun- 
der, and God of the Smiths. 
VuUan is Tubal-Cain^ Gen. 4. 
22. His falling from Heaven is 
nothing el&9 than the Hiilorv of 
] the Fallen Angels, dreft up in a 
totficil Fable, which they had 
oy long Tradition from Noah^ 
Mo/esp &c. and from thence it 
Tpread over all the World. Ful- 
tan was a famous Mafier Smith 
of Limndi. But here, he is ta- 
ken forfome grand Devil, whom 
Wlfn feigns to be the Archi- 
te6i, or Head- Workman of the 
Infernal Palace. 


(h) FalJing^tari Sax. Gr. 
A Philofoph. T. It is a fiery 
Meteor, gender'd in the Air, 
which appears like a Sky-Roc- 
ket, and flieth about ; but when 
the fttlphureous Spirits of it are 
confumed, it falleth, fiaihing like 
a real Star j therefore the Vul- 
gar fancy it to be one, which li 
really impoflible in Nature. 

(i) Lemnos ; Lai, Qr* i. e. 
Well fx'd and abiding* A large 
Ifland in the Archipelago^ 600 
Miles round, oppofite to Mount 
JthoSf dedicated to Vulcan ; be* 
caufe in his Fall, the Poets fay, 
he pitched there, continued in it, 
wrought at the Trade, and made 
Jnptter*s Darts. Here he had a 
Temple, and was adored as a 
God. The Fire that breaks oat 
of a fcorched Mountain, that 
burns op the Ground, fo that no 
Grafs nor Plant grows np to Per- 
fe£iion, bat withereth, and 
makes a hideous Noife therea- 
bout, gave Birth to this Fable. 
It is now caird SialimiMeoot^ 
ruptty by the Turis^ 

chap. III. Paradise Lost. 57 

I M the' mean Time fome of the fallen Angels, by 
G>minand of Satan, and with the Sound of Trum- 
pets, with majeftic Formality, proclaim throughout 
all the Hoft, a folemn Council to be held at Pak^' 
DAMONiuM, {k) the high Capital of Satan and his 
Peers. Their Summons caird thofe, who either by 
Place or Choice were the woithieft from every Band ; 
they came attended with Hundreds and with Thou- 
fands ; all the Entrances were crowded, the Gates and 
wide Porches, but chiefly the fpacious Hall, (though 
It was for Largenefs like a Field, where Champions 
are accuftom'd to ride in arm*d, and defy their Ene- 
my to pufh with the Lance, or to mortal Combat) for 
the Hall was full, both on the Ground and in the Air,, 
which was crowded with ruftling "Wings: As Bees iri 
the Spring-Timc poiir forth their numerous Young in 
Swarms about the Hive, who fly to and fro amoi^ 
frelh Dews, and among frelh Flowers, by the Sidjss 
of their Hive, which is new rubb*d with Baulm, and 
is as the Suburb of their Straw-built City, where they 
expatiate and confer about their State and Labour : So 
thick thofe miferable Angels crowded about the Pa- 
lace, but were ftreighten'd for Room, 'till the Signal 
was given ^ when there happened* a Miracle; for they 
who but a little while fince feem'd to exceed the big- 
geft of Giants, (I) now throng'd without Number, 


(ij Fan£em$mum ; Milt. 
from tlie Gr. i. e. Ali'Dtviis- 
BalL The Infernal CoUn or 
Palace of all the Daemons or De- 
vils. } Ob s, 3ff7/Mr'8 pregnant 
Imagination, Wit, Elocution^ 
and Learning, in the Compofiti- 
tm and Defcription of this Court, 
liave hi ontdone Ovld't in hit 
Defcription of the Palace of the 
Sun, and of all other antient Po- 

ets ; fo that nothing extant a* 
mon^ them comes op to this. 

(T) Giants I Lat. Or. i. e. 
Eartlhborni becaufe the Poets 
feignM they were the Sons of 
^itan and the Earth, after thtf 
Deloge, who made War with 
the Gods. Men of extraordina- 
ry Stature. That there were 
fuch before the Flood and fince, 
is evident^ from Gim, 6. 4. Nam. 


58 Faaadizs Lost. Book I. 

Ids than the finalleft Dwarfs^ (m) and in venr titde 
Compais I fmall as Pigmies, (n) who liye beyond 
the Mountains of Indj a.| or than Fairy (p) Elves, (p) 
vhofe Midnight Dancings by the Side of a Fountain 
or Foreft, fome belated reafant fees, or at leaft dreams 
(6 ; whilethe Moon jfhming bright, wheels her Courfe 
nearer to the Earth ; they feemin^ to him intent on 
their Mirth and Dancing, charm his Ear with plea* 
(ant Mufick, and his Heart beats at once with Joy and 
with Fear. Thus thefe Spirits being incorporeal, re- 
duced their immenfe Shapes to Forms that were ex- 
ceeding (mallt and were at large, though ftill with- 
out Number, amidft the Hall of that internal G>urt % 
but far within, like themfelves, and in their own pnv 
per Shapes, fat in Privacy and fecret Cbuncil the 
vftiefs of the Seraphim and Cherubim, more than 4 


13. 3|. Dutf. 3* II. from M- 
tient fOftoiy, and from modcra 
Sxperienee I for iMoft kttflc BoMi 
mi Men bare b«en fomd to dt* 
irtri Places. GcHMh wa» fix €«• 
bits and a Span* 1 Sam. 17. 4. 
L r. fomemat above it Feet 
Mngtifi i bcfidei mny otiier la- 

Tuti. !• e« Cnoked, AmrWt 
Perfens of a inoft low Suture, 
little and (mall People. Such ate 
the Lafhmdiri^ and lome Utde 
lien and Women in all Placet. 

(n) PigmUi I Gr. from the 
JM. Gtmd. u e. A GvfcV, or 
Falm of the Handf becaniii 
fitaj did not csoeeed a Cabit or a 
Foot and a half at moft ia 
Height A litde People faid to 
five on the Mottntaina of ludiM or 
JfrUm^ who had Children at 5 
Years of Age» died about eighty 

that hid themfelTes in Ckfesibr 
Fear of the Cianes, which fml- 
low*d them apwliole» aad ha4 
amy Thtic an Pyopoffcieii la 
their Statare and Leagdi of 
Days. Some think they were a 
Sort of Apes or Chimpanzees^ 
aad not homaa Cftatnresi o» 
than £yicy the Fipaiea dwelt ia 
LaplmU^ becanie the LtifUni$r$ 
are all of a low Scatnre : The 
Mm/kau h£mnt do not exceed 
four Feet at moK, and many of 
them are mach Ihorter. See 
GfcUanrVTtfara/fi p, 140. 

(9) Fmirf i Sax. O. S. tram 
i^Gr. Of Fairies or little De- 
rib, which haant the Woods 
like Satyrs t feien*d to go about 
dancing in the Woods, ^JP^t 
Comnanies in the Ni|^t-Tune. 

(fj Eiven from £//, SaM. 
O. £* Uoig^blings^ mifchicroaa 


Chap. IV« Paradise Lost. 59 

Tliou&nd Demi-Gods, ("j) upon Seats of Gold. The 
Council was compleat and full, when after a fliore Si« 
fence, and the Summons being read, the grand Con* 
fokadon began, (r) 

and fanmftical Spiriti, haiutiog 
the Woods and deiblate Places, 
of wlMxm old Women cell ffannge 
ffj Dmm^Gtdti Smx. £«#. 

Half-Men or inlerior Godi tf 
aaoBg the Rmuuu, L e. Half- 
Gods. X Obs. Anoim die 
Heathcaa the Sen was the In* 
peme God, their lirft and chief 
worihip was paid to him and o* 
tlKT hmenljr Oibs, becaofethe/ 
woe to hwdlrial to them. Bat 
tti Men dcgjUKiatedy the3r deifi- 
^A mimA adftffd DwiBonn or their 
jnilgiuiea Kiafi and Hooes after 
Oieath, wifih an tnArior Venera- 
doB, fnch as JMv, UfrtuUs^ 
Smimnf, Ctnf^ Ac Theft thejr 
called Desii-Gods. Here^ the 
Chie6 or CSi^cains aoMMig the 

Fallen An^, met in this infer* 

(r) Tlk Book oooiahs mere 
of the IMfVw, JrMc, Phmwi^ 
eUuiy and other Oriental Lan- 
gnaacs; nwraAntianity, Hifio^ 
rr, DOth divine and munan, Mj* 
ttioiogjr or Fahles of thePoetsi 
mere ancient Geegraph]% &c. 
than any of the following Books s 
Althonch the whole Pbem is iil- 
led wittt more Learning of eve- 
ry Sort, than is contain'd in any 
one Volume extant i in the moA 
fttblime, elegant, wellconneifted 
and fliort Compafi. The Cha« 
raAen and Soeechet of the JDe* 
fib are wonderf ol and afloniifa- 
ing, wfA ftopv and mafleriy. 
Boc his Defierqptkm of the Pto- 
dsemonlnm tranicands all i««i»a« 

Tie Etui of tie First Book. 






The Argument. 

THE Confultation began., Satan debates 
nvbetber mother Battle be to be bazar- 
Jed ^or the Recovery of Heaven : Some 
advifeit^ ^bers MJmaae. AtlnrdPrO" 
fojal is preferrd, mention^ before by Satan, to 
fearcb the Truth of that Prophecy or Traction in 
Heaven, cmceming another World, and another 
Kind of Creature, equal or not much inferior to 
(bemfehes, about this Time to be created^ Their 
Doubt who pall be Cent on this di^uk Search,- 
Satan, their Chief undertakes the Voyage alone; is 
honour'd and applauded. Tie Council thus ended, . 
the refl betake them feveral Ways, and tofiveral 
Employments, as tbetr IncHnattons lead them, to, 
entertain the Time 'till Satan return. He paffes, 
m Ixs Journey to Hell Gates, Jtnds themjhut, and 


PaiiadS(s1' LbsT. Book II. 

^40^ ^mtf^ arid Mxwr to bim the greH 
^fh^nummani mthern With itbai. Diffi^ 
yhtSi^a^rrngby direShdiyCht»,tbepoUi^ 

f ma PIm, t9 tbi SigU ef thh »^ Wbf-lil 


C H A P, I. 

The Cutfttitatim b^tn, Satan dehates concerning 

ofKlber Battle^ in trder to rtctner Hevoen: 

Frc^Jes ttfedftbtbi^rdtbof tba'PfUpbety in 

Seffoen, cmcertdn^, another WbrU and nra 

fCre^itre. Their, Dtptht vibo JkaH he. Jen^jn 

« ibiti^ffidfU,tear.m. , Sdta*jArfr Cbtkf m^ 
takes mme the dt^adt'tajf^ islmwr'd'and 

TAN fat htgK exalted on a Throne 

7 Royal State; which by fix outfhona 

fc Wcaltfc of Oruus, {a) or of Ik- 

M,< {h) or where the famptuous Eaft 

ields to bv Kir^ rich Pearls ai^ 

xJotd: He was -by Merit raJs'd to chat 

badDighHsTl »d fitHn pefi^irthus hi^ lifted op 

beyond Hop^ >^{9ks. higher ft^ll, ambitious to oury 

(«) Ormnk, Orwmx, 6c Btr- but romiE Wood wad Silt, nd 

mkr-i fnm JhiiiMt,'*T«mnt>f ht\i^^m i Drop of freOr Wncr 

GanwnwM-ift' i'/igf* mitt it, in Jt. It was fciaerif m, King- 

Ptrfi \. %. Crdfly.- Itwufirft- dam,- ind hul a laige Tcrritoty 

calrd 0ml tben Gm. A toc-~ in* Kiritiaa. The Ptrtunu/g 

ky Hbai U the Mittth of tlw' took it, J. D. ijoi, built a 

ftrJU* Gnlph, ti Miln fioiii OroDg City uid Oidla asoaitt 

Ike DEmrtft Shore of Pirjlm, r; Then it becaae the Glory of 

Miln rooixl, prodocing naiUng IHinds, and one of tlie ridiet 

OR a vaiti War a^jtmft G D, am) not vet enoiiglv 
tnght by EvMiSt lA this Mwnar egcpra&Vifa»prautt 
Thoiigltts and Xmagimitioiis« 

Yi» Powersi and odier Inhabitaittt 6f Heaum ! for 
£Kh you ftiU by Right are callM, fince no Deep can 
hold irkfain its Gulph kmnortal VijBour, tfao' xt may 
be oppreisM and faUen : Therefore f gbe not Heaven 
for loft I celeftial Virtues riling from thia Defcene^ 
wiU ^pear more glorioos and Mc*e terriUey thait 
from no Fall, and hai^ a Certainty in themfolfet 
10 prevent their foaHt^ any focond^ Hiough^ i»r 

r^i^f &c. But rismm^ dtdr 
ATance unI Pridc^ ihS Mlms^ 
Kiar of T^fia^ i. e. Sing sM 
Aiici^ aMtfd wi* At Xii^^i 
i«QkiCiMilfain« whk dv Uft 
of Itmi liiiUsBft of M»My ami 
toadi Blodd» i^pri/ 2$, ^1. D. 
%ht%.^ Tbey rded It, sud dons- 
fei»'dsll'tlM TVadroThcsG^Mi* 
rai^ani Ibpr Quieiiiwtmi^u^ 
ly'd from thente to IJj^l^i^ 
90W it it a vonr poor Place. 

(i) &i^ I mm the great Ri- 
ver hOah csllM ^/rW by die 
Nacivcsy Tmtmrs^ and othert^ 
wUdi dividei it finom Pcryb on 
tlie Weft ; or from Had^ram the 
5th Sob of J9han, who firft 
peopled it. Gat. 10. 27. There* 

%e in SaiiH«9e it .it oallfd &«' 
A» HmnUb, and Chv, i. a. 
Bbotifiil and worthy of Preife ; 
bectole it is an exceeding fine, 
fidilConnwjr t Br the JhiAf. 
Hfiw^; by the Natives, ftrfimm^ 
&C. Himf^mnt i. e. The Com* 
ay of the Blecks, or Avuthy 
PMple I bn» by us, iheBmptif 

of the Gmf ABm/, and; tt^ 
£if^ iSNfir#« hitAe lnffea(ei^ 
c^ (Mwm) and the rieheft£iii«r 
p^re np9n Earth,' aboat 1680 
Milerin lengdr^-and' r6QO UStdi 
JnilMddU ItrHm:^lnwe 

OriKMmAdEe^ aBdi»^l^eer 

the Weft» and upon the m/fMwi 

Ocean, and con^iint 17 JK^ing* 
dont bendet inttinuenHae HhnKisw 
% Oat;, info WMi elweyteabe*» 
med the richeft Fait of iho» 
World, tn Gold, Silver, Jewdt» 
Spices, Set. uA we have a fig- 
nal Proof of it lately, in thme 

•Mf JDe/r iCae cook fiom the* 
Emperor and others, when ho* 
invaded that Empte, J. />« 
1740. NrnUr Stmi ooileAed w- 
the Vate o£ 89,5001600 /. wldle^ 
he coatb^ itee t He cartiid 
away 2s,ooo,ooo/. . Me took 
from his Officers and Soldiers 
12,500,000/. from the Omraa 

or PriiRSS MS^t^^'* '^^' 
Jeweb were wocth abooc. 
z 9J000 ,ooo/« The Imperial' 
TlDOne iet witkOhmoods, &c« 
s «5o » o oo^oooiL In Oenrrlhnri- 


^4 Paradise Las^^ B6ok H* 

j«ift Right, thfi.foTd Laws Of Htoven,. imd.rtpft yoyr 
£ree Choice did firft create me your Leader, with what- 
ever hath been atchiev'd qf Merit, cither in Coimcil 
or in Battle ; yet this Lofs (fo far at leaft recovered) 
hatii' eftablifliM me tiiu<ih<inore, in a faf<^ and unen* 
ry'd Throne, yielded nie iwith foil Confent. The 
luppier State, which in H^ayen follows Dignity^ 
mignt draw Eovy from thc^b :of . Inferior. Il^^k; biic 
yrho will envy Jkre him, who b^ing in the highcft. 
Plate, is exposed to Hand U)t&BO&. i^ainft the Thun- 
der, of Go Dyianjd fo be tOj:yp>i ^s a Bulwark;^ fian- 
ctemn'd at the fame Time ^ b^^v: t])egreatefl;.3^e of, 
Mifery' without End ? Where then there is no Good, 
to ff rive for, there can no Strife arife from Faftion ; 
fiar none fujftr will ; claim Pr^c^enoe in Hell, nor is 
there any w4iofe Share of prefimt Pain is fo fniail^ that 
he with anribitious Mind Will' 'covet more! "With 
^efe Advaiit^es then, thus; leaguM in firm Faidi 
and Accord,* :m6re than there can ht in Heav^h^ ,we 
now return, to claim our ancient and juft Inheritance i 
being more fure to profper. tiftn Jjaft rrofperity could ' 
have afiinr'd us;, But which may be the beft .Way to 
obtain our End^ whether open War or conceal'dSb^ 
tagemj is the Subjed: of our prefent Debate^ whoe^ 
ver can- advife, let him fpeak. 

' Herb Satan, remained filent ; and next him Mo- 
loch, whoaffum'd a^ Name of iioyalty, flood up $ 
he was the ftrongeft and fierccft Spirit that fought in 
Heaven^ and was. now grown fiercer tliro* Delpair ; 
his Aim was to have been deem'd equal in Strength 
with the AtMfOHTv, and rather than be lefs than 


OBsfrom the Fipple ^5,000^000/. • Jlfirtt/c^ nfotioDed in the pub- 

Befidet vaft Sumt-froni petty lipk Fap<rs» ^tft. %i^ 1740, 

Kings and Cities, with th^ Lives furmouncg all Credibility, ^ajt 

of 200»ooo . Inhahittots. - See . InMm wai lira difoorerd t# the 

Mr. Frafif^% Hificffy of KauH E^rpfeani \>y the FnriugtitKt, 

JUm, who gives a more exadt when Vafquts dt Ganim arrived 

Accoaot of all : But that from at CuiUui, May 4, J, D. 149S. 

chap. I. Paradise :Lost. 65 

that, chofe not to be at all ; but haying loft that Hope 
he loft all Fear : He made no Account of G o d^ or 
Hell, or worie, and fpoke as follows : 

M Y Sentence is altogether for open War ; I boaft 
not of Stratagems, for in them I am not {kUful ) let 
thofe contrive them who have no better Means to 
ule, and when there may be Occafion for them, hot 
now : For while they fit, inventing^ ihall the reft, ib 
many Millions that ftand in Arms and impatiently 
wait the Signal to afcend, fit ling&-ing here ; Hea« 
ven's Fugitives, and accept for tihiar Dwelling-Place 
this dark andfhameful Fit, which is' the Prifon of his 
Tyranny^ who reigns only by our Delay ? No, let us 
chufe rather, arm'd with Fury and Hell Flames,. all 
at once to force refiftlels Way over the high Towers 
of Heaven, turning our Tortures into h<»rrible Arms 
againft him who, tortures us; when he fhall he^, to 
meet the Noife of his almighty. Thunder, infernal 
Thunder, and for Lightning, fee black Fire and Hor- 
ror fhot with as great Rage among His Angels ; and 
fee His Throne iticlf, mix'd with burning Sulphur 
and ftrangeFire, Torments which He himfelTinvented. 

But, perhaps, the Way feems hard and fteep, to 

icale upward upon the Wing, againft a Foe above 

us. If the flecpy Drench of that Lajke docs not 

flill ftupify, let fuch bethink them, that we afcend 
in our proper Motion, up to our native Seats ; Dc* 
fcent and Sinking is contrary to our celeftial Natures. 
Who were there of late, when our fierce Foe purfu'd 
us clofely thro* the Deep, but felt with what Compul- 
fion and Labour we funk thus low ? The Afcent then 
is eafy, but the Event is fcar'd : It is objeftcd, that 
if we Ihould again provoke H i M, who is ftronger 
than us. His Wrath may Bnd fome worfe Way t6 
our Deflxuftion •, as if thofe who are already in Hell 
could fear to be worfe deftroy'd. What can be worfe 

F than 

6& PjvRADisB Lost. Book tr. 

dutti to dwell here, driven out from^ Blifs, and con- 
don)n'd in this abhorred Prifon to utter Woe ; Where 
Pain of unquencheable Fire muft torment u% without 
any Hope of End ? We are the Objefts of His eter- 
iku Wrath) whenever His unniercifitl Scourge and 
the Hour of Torture calls us to Puniihment : If we 
wtce to be more deftroy'd than this, we fliould be 
quite annihilated and etpire. What do we fear then f 
WUit Doubts do we raife, to inflame H i s utmoft 
^Uge ? which rais'd to the Height, will either con* 
fome us quite, and reduce thefe EiTences of ours to 
nothing ; (which is happier far, than to be miferable 
and hare eternal Being) or if our Natures be indeed 
immortal, and we cannot ceaie to be, then, at worft, we 
iare^on this Side nothing; and we feel by Proof, that 
our Power is fuffident to difturbHis Heaven, and 
with continual Affiiults to aliarm His fatal Throne^ 
ekho' it may be inacceflible i which, if it is not Vic^ 
iory, it is neverthelefs Revenge, 

H E concluded frowning, and his Look threatened 
ttefperate Revenge and dangerous Battle, to any who 
.Ivere lefs than Gods. On the other Side Belial rofe 
tq), more graceful and humane in his Carriage ; a fai- 
ttr Perfon did not loiie Heaven ; he feem'd compos'd 
ibr Dignity, and for high Exploits ; but ail was falfe 
knd hollow ; tho' his Tongue was eloquent, and could 
make the worfe Reafon appear the better, to perplex 
and confound the wifeft Councils : For his Thoughts 
-Wcf e low, indufhious to Vice, but timorous and floth- 
Ail to nobler Deeds $ yet he pleas'd the Ear, and with 
tnovilig and perfuafive Oratory began thus : 

. I SHOULD, O Pesers ! be very much for open War, 
(as not the leaft behind in Hate) if what was the main 
JRealbn infifted upon to perlwade me to it, did not 
idifi^de me from it, and feem to caft an ill-boding 
Conjecture upon the Succefs^ of the whole ^ when he, 


Chap. L Paradisb Lost* 67 

who cxcells moft m valiant Deedv iufpicious of the 
Event, builds his Courage upon Defpair, and coqA- 
ders utter Diflblution as the Sa>pe of all his Aim^ af- 
ter feme fatal Revenge. Firil, what Revenge i The 
Towers of Heaven are always filled with armed 
Watch, which takes off the Poffibility of all Accefs : 
Nay, the Legions of the holy Angeb do often en- 
camp upon the bordering Deep, or with darkened 
Wings icout far and wide into the ^legions of Nighty 
and fcom all Surprize. Or could we by Force breaj{: 
(Hir Way, and all Hell fhould rife at our Heels, witl) 
blacked Rebellion, to confound Heavep's pui^ Light) 
ytt our great Enemy would remain unpolluted an4 
locomiptible on his Throne, and the heavenly Sub^ 
fiance not iubjef^ to any Blot or Stain» would foo9 
expel all Mifchief> and vi&orioudy purge off all our 
ineflfe&ual Fires. Thus repuls'd, our final Hope 
would indeed be fiat Defpair ; we Ihould thus exafpe^ 
rate the Almighty Conqueror to fpend all his Rase 
upon us, and that muft end us ; that at laft muft be 

our Cure, to be no more. A fad Cure ! for who^ 

tho' full c£ Pain^ would lofe this wife a^d underftan- 
ding Nature of ours ; thefe Thoughts, that can wan-i 
der thro' Eternity •, and rather chufe to perifh, to b^ 
fwallow'd up, and loft in everlafting Darknefs, with^ 
out Senfe and Motion ? And fuppofine this to be sk 
Good, and to be chofe before our prelent Pain, who 
knows whether our angry Foe can give it, or ever 
will ? How he can is auite doubtful, but that he ne^^ 
ver will is very fure. Will he, who is fo very wife,^ 
at once let loofe his Anger ; belike through Want of 
Power to curb his Paffions, op at unawares, to give 
his Enemies their Wifh, and put an End to them in 
his Anger, whom his Anger faves onlv to puniih for 

ever ? Wherefore then fay they who counfel War, 

why do we ceafe ? We are predeftinated, rcferv*d^ 
and deftin'd to eternal Mifery ; let us do what we 
will, what pui ^ fuf&r more, what can wc fuffer 

F 1 WQiief 


Paradise Lost. Book II. 

worfe ? Is this then worft, thus in Arms, fitting and 
confulting ? What ! when we fled f wiftly, and the af- 
fliding Thunder of Heaven purfu'd and ftruck us> 
and we befought the Deep to (helter us ? This HeD, 
fcorching as it is, then leem'd a Refuge from thofc 
Wounds. Or when we lay chained upon the burning 
Lake ? That furely was worfe. What if the fame 
Breath that kindled thofe Fires, again proyok*d, 
fliould blow them feven Times hotter, and plunge us 
in the Flames j or if from above the God of Venge- 
ance, who has abated for a little Space, Ihould arm 
again his incenfed Right-Hand to plague us ; what if 
all Heaven were open*d, and this Firmament of Hell 
Ihould Ipout out its Catarafts (c) of Fire ? Impending 
Horrors ! threatning hideous Fall upon our Heads : 
While we, perhaps, defigning or confulting glorious 
War, fhall be caught in a fiery Tempeft, and each of 
us be transfixed on (bme Rock, the Sport and Prey 
6f continual and racking Whirlwinds ; to converfe 
there with everlafting Groans, without any Intermit- 
fion, unpitied and unrepriev'd, and this for Ages 
without End ? This would be worfe, therefore I dc- . 
clare agaihft War, either open or concealed : For 
what can Force or Fraud do againft him ? Or who can 
pretend to deceive his Mind, who views all Things at 
one View ? H e from high Heaven fees and derides 


" {c) CataraSs ; ItaL Span. Fr. 
fuit. ftom the Gr. i. e. Fallinc; 
down with Force, ruflung vio- 
lently downwards. Water-Falls 
in Rivers from high Rocks, as 
tlioie of the Danubi and A7/r, 
which makes the Inhabitants 
deiif for three Leagues, through 
the hideous Noife of their Fall, 
lyiapy fuch are in the great Ri- 
ver iomeg. in Lapland^ and in 
moft Rivers that defcend from 
hlgliitkcky Mountains. But thei 

Cataradl of l^igdrta near AVw- 
Tork in North America^ is the 
greateft in the World, being 
heard above thirty Miles off; for 
the. Fall of it is fevetal hundrc4 
Feet deep. Mr. CoMum faw 
one in South Amerna 600 Feet 
high, and heard the Noife of it 
two Days before they came to 
it, Journtjf^ P. 224. Here the 
Sluices of Hell Fire let out upoa 
the Fallen Angels, 

Cliap. I. Paradise Lost. 6^^ 

all thefe our vain Motions : Nor is he mote almighty 
to rcfift us, than he is wife to fruftrate all our Plots 
and Stratagems. But it will be faid, ihall we then 
live here thus vile, who are the Race of Heaven, 
thus trampled on, thus expeird, to fufFer Chains and 
thde Torments ? By my Advice, better thefe than 
vrorfc, fince inevitable Fate fubdues us, and an omni- 
potent Decree ; which is the Will of our Conqiietpr. 
Our Stren^h is equal to fufFer, or to aft, nor is the 
Lpaw unjuft that ordains it fo ; thus, if we were wife, 
we rcfoly'd at firiV, contending againft fo great an E* 
ncmy, and being fo uncertain what might happen. I 
laugh, when thofe who are bold and adventerous at 
the Spear, if that fail them, fhrink,* and are afraid of 
what they knew muft follow ; that is, to undergo Ba- 
nilhment. Ignominy, or Bonds, or Pain ; if the Vic- 
tor pafs fuch Sentence upon them. This is now what 
■we are doom'd to ! which if we can fupport and fuf- 
tain, our ftipreme Foe may in Time abate of his An 
gcr; and perhaps now we are thus far removed, not 
mind us, if we offend no more, but be fatisfy*d with 
what is punifh'd -, and then thefe raging Fires will 
flacken, if his Breath does not blow up their Flames : 
Our pure Eflence will at length overcome their noxi- 
ous Vapour, or elfe being long inur'd to it, at laft we 
Ihall not feel it ; or changed and conformed to the 
Place, in Temper and in Nature, we fhall receive the 
fierce Heat familiar, and without Pain : What feems 
horrid now will grow mild, and this Darknefs grow 
more like Light; befides what Hope the never-ending 
Courfe of future Time may bring, what Chance, 
what Change worth waiting for ; fince our prefent 
LxJt, thinking of Happinefs is but ill, yet though ill, 
not worft of all, except we become our own Enemies, 
and bring more Mifcry upon ourfelves. 

Thus Belial, in Words which appeared to flow 
from Reaibn) counfell'd difhpnourable Eafe and 

F 3 Sloth, 

^O Paradise Lq^t. Bode U. 

Sloth, not true Peace ; and after him thus (poke 


I F War be bell, we war, either to difmthrone the 
King of Heaven, or to recover our own loft Right : 
We may hope to unthrone him, then, when evcr- 
laftingFate mail yield to Chance, and Chaos judge 
the Strife between him and us ; to hope the former is 
vain, and that argues as vain, the latter, for what 
Place can there be for us in Heaven, unlefs we over- 
power him, who is the fupreme Lord there ? Sup- 
S)fe he fhould relent, extend his Mercy, and publifh 
race and Pardon to us all, upon Promife made of 
new Subjeftionj with what Eyes could we ftand 
humble in his Prefence, and receive ftrift and feverc 
Laws imposed, to celebrate his Throne with Hymns, 
and fmg to his Godhead forced Hallelujahs? (d) 
while he our envy'd Sovereign fits lordly, and his Al- 
tar breaths fweet Odours and ambrofial Flowers^ 
which were our fervile Offerings: This muft be our 
Talk in Heaven, nay, this muft be our Delight. 
How wearifome would be an Eternity fo fpent, in 
paying Worlhip to one we hate ! Let us not dien 
purfue that which to do bv Force is impoflible, and 
if by Leave obtained, difpleafing •, for though it were 
in Heaven it would be but a State of fplendid Va0a- 
lage : Let us feek our own Good from ourfelves, and 
live to ourfelves, though it be in this Diftance froni 
Blifs, yet we may be free, and accounuble to none, 
preferring hard Liberty before the eafy Yoke of fer- 

(^ HalMtijahs, from HalUlm- Jiwijb^ Gneian, tod other Li- 

jttb^ Hib, I. e. Prai/g ye the turgies. Ic is the inceflanc Ex* 

L9rd. Songs of Praife to God i eraie of Angeb of die Prefence, 

rather an Invitation to do fo. and will be chat of all the Re- 

This Word is much ufed in the deemed for ever and ever in Hea- 

Ffalmsy and other Books of the ven. See JUv. 19. i. The 

Old and New Teftament^ in the Grab write it JtU^^i. 

diap. h Paradise Losr. fji 

vUc Pomp ; our Greatnefs vill appeai: the moft con- 
foicuous, when we can produce great Things from 
unall, ufeful from hurtful/ and profperous from 
what is adverfc j and in what Race foever we are^ 
thrive under Evil, and out of Pain work Eafe, thro"* 
L.abour and Patience. Do we dread this deep World 
of Darknefs ? How often does God chufe to refid/e 
amongft thick Clouds and Darknefs, (which by no 
Means obfcures his Glory) and with its Maiefty co- 
vers his Throne, from whence loud Thunders pro- 
ceed, ragbo; and roaring fo that Heaven refemoles 
Hell ? As he imitates our Darknefs, cannot we too 
when we pleafe imiute his Light ? This def^ Soil 
is not without hidden Luftre, precious Stones, and 
Gold ; neither do we want Skill from whence to raife 
Magnificence ; and what more is to be feen in Hea- 
ven ? In Length of Time alfo our Torments may be- 
come our Elements, and thefe piercing Fires be as 
foft as they are now fharp and levcre 5 our Temper 
may be changed into their Temper, which muft needs 
remove the Senfibility of Pain. All Things invite 
to peaceable Counfel, and the fettled State of Order, 
how we may beft in Safety compofe our prefent E- 
vils, having Regard to what we are, ana where we 
are, at the fame Time difmilling all Thoughts of 
War. — Which is the Sum of what I have to ad- 

H B had fcarcely ended, when a Murmur fiU'd the 
Aflfembly, fuch as when hollow Rocks enclofe the 
Sound of Winds, which all Night long had blown 
upon the Sea, and now luU'd to fleep feafaring Men, 
mx>ie Bark by Chance anchors in a rocky Bay,- after 
the Tempeft : Such an Applaufe was heard when 
Mammon finilh'd, and his Sentence that advis'd 
Peace pleas'd : For they dreaded fuch another Fight 
worfc than HcUj the Fear of Thunder, and the 
^ F 4 Sword 


pARADisfi Lost. Book IL 

Sword of Michael, (e) had ftill fuch Power over 
them, and they had no lefs Defire to eftablifh the Go- 
vernment of Hell, which might rife by Policy, Pru- 
dence, and a long continued Courfe oF Time, to have 
an Emulation, and be fet in Oppofition to Heaven 5 
which when Beelzebub perceiv d, (than whom none 
fat higher except Satan) he rofe with a composed 
Afpeft, and in his Rifing feem'd a Pillar of State : 
Deliberation was mark*d deep upon his Forehead, 
and Princely Counfcl, and Care for the Publick yet 
Ihone in his Face, (hewing him majeftick, though in 
Ruin; he ftood like Atlas, (f) fit to bear the 
Weight of mightiefl: Monarchies; his Looks drew Au- 
dience and commanded Attention, as ftill as Night, 
or as the Summer's Air at Noon, while he exprefs*d 
himfelf thus: 

• • 

Thrones! (g) Imperial Powers! Ethereal Vir- 
tues! (b) the OfflTpring of Heaven! or muft we re- 

(f) Michael f Lat, Gr, from 
the Heh. ]. e. WJbo is like G^d, 
One of the Arch-Angels fre- 
.quently mentioned in holy Scrip- 
ture, for his good Services to the 
Church ; the Guardian Angel of 
the Jenxjijh^ Dan. io. 13. and 
Chriftian Church, JuJ. 9. Rev. 
12. 7. He is fuppofed hereto 
be chief Captain of the Celeilial 
Army, againft the Fallen An* 
geb. X Obs. The Names of 
the good Angels are derived 
from the Hebrew Names pi 
God ; becaufe they are bis At< 
tendants, they wear his Name 
and Livery, L e. Holinefs. 

(f) Atlas i Lat. Qr, i. e. A 
Supporter, A Mountain of Mau- 
fitauia in Jfriea^ fo high th^t 

the Top of it reached the 
Goads, and the Poets faid, that 
it fupported the Heavens. It 
took the Name from Atlas^ a 
King of that Nation, who waa 
a great Aftronomer, contempo- 
rary with Mo/es, and frequently 
reforted thither to view the Stars. 
This gave Occafion to the Fa* 

{g) Threttes; Fr, ItaU Span. 
Teut, Lat. Gr. i. e. To fi. * 
The third Order of Holy An- 
gels, fuch as have Royal Seats 
and Dignities above others ; they 
are alio called Chief Princes, 
Dan. 10. 13. 

[b) Firtstesi Fr. Lat. The 
feventfa Order of the Holy An- 

Chap. I. Paradise Lost. 73! 

nounce thefe Titles now, and changing our Stile, be 
<raird Princes of Hell ? For fo the popular Voice 
feems to incline -, to continue here, and here to build 
up a growing Empire, about which we only dream, 
not knowing that the King of Heaven hath ordain'd 
this Place to be our Dungeon, and not a fecure Re- 
treat, out of the Reach of his powerful Arm, to live 
exempt from Heaven's high Authority, and make 
new Leagues agdnft his Throne : But here we are to 
remain in ftrideft Bondage, though thus far remov'd' 
from him ; under his invincible Power, referv*d his 
captivated Multitude : For be aflur'd, that he in 
Heighth or Depth will always reign fole King, and 
lofc no Part of nis Kingdom by our Revolt j but ex- 
tend his Empire over Hell, and rule us here with an 
Iron Scepter, as with his Golden one he does thofe in 
Heaven. What do we then . fit here for, projefting 
"War and Peace ? War hath already determined us, 
and we are overcome with irrecoverable Lofs j Peace 
has not been offer'd us, nor have we fought it : For 
what Peace will be given to us, who are already en- 
flav*d ; what but fevere Imprifonment, and Stripes, 
and arbitrary Punifhment inflided on us ? And what 
Peace can we return, but Enmity and Hale to the 
utmoft of our Power, an untam'd Oppofitioh and 
Revenge j ever plotting (though we may move but 
flowly ) how the Conqueror may reap the leal^ Benefit 
of his Conqueft, and leaft rejoice in doing what wc 
moft feel in Suffering •, nor will there want Opportu- 
nities, nor (hall we need with hazardous Attempt to 
invade Heaven, whofe high Walls are out of Danger 
of all Siege, or Aflault, or Ambufcade (/) from Hell: 


eels, fach as have an excellent nong the DeTils, who had thu 
Valour and Might, to execate Royal Dignity conferred npon 
the Decrees and Orders of God them at their Creation, but ioii 
npon Earth; and in the other it by Sin. 
Worlds. Here, fQch Chieft a- i/) JaJm/cudi i fr. lial, $f. 


74 IPakavisz Lost. Book H. 

*What if we ihould find out fome Enterprize that is 
caJier? There is a Place, another Worla, (if ancient 
Prophecy and Report in Heaven be true) die happy 
Habitation of fome new Race, call'd Man; (k) a 
Being much like us, though lefs in Power and Excel- 
lence, to be created about this Time, and to be more 
favoured than the Angels by him who rules above ; fb 
he pronounc*d his Will among the Powers of Hea- 
ven, and confirmed it by an Oath, that fhook its Cir- 
cumference. Let us bend all our Thoughts thither, 
to learn what Creatures inhabit there, of what Make 
and Subftance, what Qualities they are endu'd with, 
what their Power is^ an^ where their Weaknefs ; and 
whether their Ruin may be beft attempted by Force, 
or Subtilty. Though Heaven is fhut, and the great 
Arbitrator of it fits fecure in his own Strength, this 
Place, perhaps, being the utmoft Border of his King- 
dom, ihaylie expos'd, and be left to their Defence who 
bold it : Here, pofllbly, fome advantagious A& may 
be performed, either by fudden Onfet with Hell-Fire 
to wafte his whole Creation ', or elfe pofilefs it all as 


from tke Gr> i. e. Lymg abtmi 
$h Biib w mod. A Military 
Terai. A Body of Men hid in 
a Woody ready to nifh oot upon 
an Enemy onawaiesA This Sera- 
tasem in War was firft dire£Ud 
lor God himfelf. See J^. 8. 

(I) Mani fiut. Dmt. Sax. 
firom MaMg or Manm^f the Son 
^ 7mifi99^ who was the Foan- 
der, antient King, and God of 
the old Girmans and Gauls i the 
lime as Ntab : For they came 
from Gmmt, the eldeil Son of 
Jafhit, Gen. lo. a. Mam dt- 
i^es that Creatore, whi^ in 
^ HiBrrw is ciUed Jdam^ from ' 
^ Powaiioo <Nit of the Earth ; 

in the Grf#i« Jaiirdpos, from his 
ered Countenance : And in the 
Latin, Vir, from his great 
Strength, and other Perfeoions 
of Body and Mind ; being en- 
dued with Underftanding, Will, 
Reafoo, Memory, and other fpi- 
ritual Faculties : The Lord of 
the Creation, the King of Ant- 
mab, and Supreme in the Ani- 
mal World, next in l*erfe£Uoii 
to the Holy Angels, fo ^ as we 
know. Plafp calls Man the Mi- 
racle of Gc< being the raoft 
perfea of the whole inferior 
Creation, an Epitome of the 
World, and the imns of God. 
Gn. I. i6. • 

Clia^ L Paradisb LosTv ^S 

our own> and drive Out the puny (I) Inhabitants, as 
we are driven ; or if not drive them i^ut, lieduce them 
to our Party, that their God may profve their Ene- 
my, and ivith a repenting Hand deftroy his own 
^orks: This would be an Adion fuipafling common 
Revenge, and interrupt the Joy he has in our Conlii- 
(ion, as well as raife up our Joy in his Diftutbance % 
when his Favourite Creatures hurl'd headlong to par« 
cake with us our Danuiation, ihall curfe their frail 0-* 
riginal, and faded BUfs \ faded fo foon. Think wellt 
if this be worth attempting, or whether it be better to 
fit here in Darknels, contriving vain Empires. 

Thus Beelzebub fpoke his deviliih CounieU 
which was firft devis'd, and had been in >Part propo*^ 
fed by Satan ; for from whence, but from the Ai^ 
thor of all Evil, ciwld fpring fo deadly a Malice ; to 
confound the Race of Mankind in the firft Root, and 
mingle and involve Earth with Hell; done all to 
ipite the great Creator? But their Spite ftill fervet 
to advance his Honour and Glory. 

The boldDefign highly pleas'd thofe Infernal 
States, and Joy (hone vifible in all their Eyes : They 
voted with free Aflent to what he had propos'd^ 
whereupon he renewed his Speech, 

Synod of Gods ! well have ye judg'd, and like 
to what ye are have refolv'd great Things, and ended 
long Debate :, This from the loweft Deep (in Spite of 
Fate) will lift us up once more, nearer our antien( 
Seat, perhaps in View of the bright Confines of Hea^ 
ven, from whence by fome advantagious Excurfion 
we may chance to re-enter Heaven ; orelfe in fome 


(/) Puwy I Fr. Lot, u e. tempt and DeriTion . becaah 

Jbnv sftir 9thers ; little, mean. M^n was created afcci- Uie An- 

Infirin^ yocnger. Here Mam b gek. 
fo called by Stilzebub^ in Con- 

76 Paradise Lost« Book IL 

mild Zone, (m) or Place of lefs Torment dwell fe- 
cure, not unvifited by its fair Light, and at the 
brightening Beams of the Eaft purge off this Gloom : 
The foft delightful Air (hall breath Balm, to heal the 

Scorchings of thefe corrofive Fires. But firft let us 

confider whom we fhall fend in Search of this new 
World, whom (hall we find fufficient to attempt, 
with wandermg Feet, the dark, infinite, and bottom- 
lefs Abyfs ? That can find out his uncouth Way, thro* 
grofs and palpable Darknefs, or take his Flight, bom 
upward with indefatigable Wings over the pathlefs 
Space, before he arrives at the happy World where 
Man is placed? What Strength or Art can be e- 
nough, or what Evafion can ever bear him fafe, thro* 
the (fa-ift Centuries and thick Stations of Angels, that 
doubtlefs are watching round it i Here he had Need 
of the greateft CircumfpeAion, and we need no lefs 
now in the Choice of whom we are to fend ; for on 
him our laft Hope and the Weight of all relies. 

Having faid thus, he fat down, and look'd ex- 
pe&ing who would fecond him, or undertake this 
dai^erous Enterprize: But they all fat mute, with 
deep Thoughts confidering the Danger ; and each of 
them, in the Countenance of others, might have feen 
how himfelf looked difmayM j all were a(toni(h*d ; 
none among the choice and chiefeft of thofe Champi- 
ons, who Iiad warr'd in Heaven, could be found fo 
hardy, as to proffer, or confent alone to undertake, the 
dreadful Joiimey ; 'till at laft Satan, whom now 
tranfcendant Glory raised above his Companions, with 
Regal Pride, as confcious of higheft Worth, fpoke 
thus: Oh! 

{m) Zont i Lat, Gr, i. e. A Tropict % two are temperate, be* 

Belt or GirMt : becaufe it girds tween the two Tropics and the 

the World. An Aftronomical Polar Circles ; and two are ex- 

Term. Allronomers divide the treme cold, between the two 

Heavens into five Zones ; one is Polar Circles and the two Pofct« 
•Ktremc hot, between the two 


chap. L Paradise Lost. 77 

- Oh ! Progeny of Heaven ! where perhaps ye ftill have 
Thrones, with Reafbn deep Silence and Demur have 
feiE'd us, tho* we are undifmay^d : The Way that leads 
up to Light, out of Hell, is long and hard ; our Prifon 
is ftrongi this huge Convex of Fire, the immenfe Vault 
of Hell, outrageous to devour, furrounds us on all 
Sides, and Gates of burning Adamant barr'd over us, 
hinder all Paflage out. After thefe are paft, (if that 
be by any one poflible) the void and bottomlefs Depth 
of Hell and Night gaping wide, recdves him next 
who makes the Attempt, and plunged in that abortive 
Gulph, he is threaten*d with utter Lofs of Being. 
If he efcape thence, in whatever World or unknown 
Regjion it may be, what lefs remains for him than un- 
known Dangers, and Perils difficult to go through ? 
But I ifaould . very ill become this Throne, and this 
Imperial Sovereignty, adomM as I am with Splendor 
and arm*d with Power, if any Thing could be propo- 
fed, judgM to be of publick Moment, that in the 
Shape of Difficulty or Danger, I could be deterr'd 
from attempting. Wherefore do I aflume thefe Roy- 
alties ? Why do I not reftife to reign, if I refufe to ac- 
ccpt as great a Share of Hazard as I do of Honour ? 
Since to him who reigns they are alike due, and fo 
much the more of Hazard due to him, as he fits high 
honoured above the reft ? Therefore, ye mighty Pow- 
ers, the Terror of Heaven, (though fallen) go and 
confult at Home, (while here Ihall be our Home) what 
may beft give Eafe to prefent Mifery, and render 
Hell more tolerable j if there be Cure or Charm to 
refpite, deceive, or mitigate the Pain of this ill Man- 
lion. Negleft no Watch againft fo wakeful a Foe, 
while I far off, through all the untrod Paths of dark 
Deftruftion, fcek a Deliverance for us all : None (hall 
partake this Enterprize with me. 

• - Thuj 

78 Paradise Lost* Book 11. 

Thus &jmg, SAtxs arofe, and prudently pre- 
Tented all Reply ; left others among the Chi^ tnetr 
Spirits rats'd nom his Refolution» and certain to be 
rcfus'd» might offer now what they before feared i ami 
So might rauid in Opinion his Rivals, cheaply win* 
ning ue high Reputation, which he .had to acquire 
Aro* extream great Hazard. But they did not drcad^ 
the Adventure more than his forbiddinK Voice ; with 
bim they rofe aU at once, and their Riung was ai the 
Sound of difiant Thunder : They bend towaids him, 
and bow with awfiil Reverence, extolling him aa a 
God^ and equal to the higheft in Heaven : Nor did 
diey fail to ezprels their Praife, that he defpis'd his 
own, for the general Safety : (For neither do the dam* 
ned Spirits lofe all their Virtue*, Ht bad Men &ou]d 
boaft their fpecious Deeds upon Earth, to which thc^ 
we excited only by Glorv, or dofe Ambiddn* vami- 
ihed over with Zeal) Thus they ended their doubtful 
and dark Confultations, greatly rejoicing in their Ge- 
neral, whom they efteem'd matchlefs : As when aft^ 
a Storm, if the Sun extends his warm Beams, the 
Fields revive, the Birds renew their Songs, and the 
Herds bleat, and with their Joy make the Hills and 
the Vallies ring* What Shame to Men ! Devil with 
Devil daom'd holds firm Concord ; of rational Crea- 
tures, Men only difagree ^ though they are under 
Hope of heavenly Grace, and tho' God proclaims 
Peace, yet live in Hatred, Strife, and Envy, among 
themfelves, levying cruel Wars, and wafting the 
Earth, to d^ ftroy each other : As if (which Confide- 
ration itfelf might induce us to Unity) Man had not 
heliifh Foes enough befides, that Day and Ni^t wait 
for his DeftruAioQ. 


Chap. n. pAiiADisB Lo^T* n^ 

CHAP. n. 

^Tbe Cmmciltbus ended ^ thereji bet ah tbemjeyered 
Ways J and to fiwral Employments^ astbeirln^ 
cUnations kad tbem^ ^ till SzUn returns. 

THUS the Infernal Council broke up, and 
the great Peers of it came forth in Order ; in 
the Midft cartie Satan their Sovereign^ and 
feem'd of himfelf alone ftrons enough to be an Op- 
pofition to Heaven ; nothing lefs than H^*s dread 
Emperor, with fupreme Pomp and State, imitating 
God: Around him a Company of fiery Seraphim^ 
who enck>sM him with fhimng and dreadful Hnfigna 
and Arms. Then they order'd the great Refuk of 
their Coundk to be proclaimed with the Sound of 
Trumpets : Four Iwift Cherubim founding towards 
the four Winds, the Meaning of which was explained 
by the Voice of a Herald, which founded far and 
wide, and all the Hoft of Hell fhouted out aloud for 

From thence their Minds grew nx>re at Eafe, and 
being fomewhat encouraged by falfe and ill-grounded 
Hope, the ranged Bands difperfe, and each wanders 
his lereral Wav, as Inclination or fad Choice per^* 
plesedly kads him, where he may likeliefl find iome 
£afe to his refUefs Tlioughts, and pafs the painful 
Hours 'till his great Chief fliould return. 

Part of them on the Plun, Part hovering in 
the Air, others contending in Mk Race, as in the (n) 


(») OfymfiM, of Ofymfifs. ctUtMbtd nor AtCkfOfym* 
The CXhmpic Games of Grmt fim Ib Fihftmnifm. m Honour 
lirerc iofiitiited by HnaJtSj wi of J»fii9r Q/jfmfmU Pathtr» oft 


So Paradise Lost. . Book BL 

Olympian or Pythian (o) Games; others 
curb fiery Steeds, w draw up Chariots and Troops in 
Form of Battle : As when, to give Warning to proud 
Cities, there appears War in the troubled Sky, and. 
Armies rulh to Battle in the Clouds, before the Van 
the airy Knights four on and level their Shears, *till 
thick Legions cloie j and the Firmament fcems to be 
on Fire with warlike Apparitions. 

Others of the Fallen Spirits,* with Rage like 
that of Typhon, and more fierce, tear up the Roeks 
and Hills, and ride the Air in Whirlwinds, fo that 


die fecond Month after the 4th 
Year, ercnr fifth Ycet, or eve- 
ry fiftieth Year monthlx for five 
fiays together ; becauTe the Dae- 
iyli were five Brothers, who fet- 
tled in £///, and inftitated the 
Solemnity* In thefe the valiant 
Youths exercifed themfelves, at 
-Ronning, Whirlbating, Qjioit- 
ingy Jamping, and Wrellliog ; 
for high Rewards : but Women 
were not fttfier*d to be at them. 
They were very famons, and 
more manly (abating the Immo- 
defly of the Players, who were 
all naked) than the crael Diver - 
fions of the Romans^ who pleaf- 
ed themfelves with tearing Men 
and Beafis into Pieces, upon their 
Theatres ; and became their £- 
pocha or Date' of Time. The 
Olympiads were the firft certain 
Periods of Chronology among 
the Grith. The firft Olympiad 
began in the 35th Year of Uk- 
suahf King oi Judab^ on the 
nth of our 7k»f» A. M. 3174 
or 3228. After the Deluge, 
i$i8 Years, 400 after the De- 
AfnAiott of Tr^ ; 30 Years b^ 
fore the Building of R9mi i 730 

before the Incamauon ; and con- 
tinued in Uie to the Reign of 
Conftantine ; foon after th« 
Chriftian i£ra took Place. 

(0) Pjibiau^ o^ Python I Hib. 
PithtHj i. e. kn'J/p or Cocka* 
trife^ Gr. i. e. Ctrrupthn. 
Thefe Games were Inftituced in 
Honour of JfoUo^ who (hot a 
huge Serpent called Pyibon : (O- 
thers fay, it was fome cruel Ty- 
rant whom he flew,) becaufe it 
was generated of the impure 
Mud of the Earth after the i>e« 
luge, by the River Cephi/us^ near 
Parnajfus : therefore he was cal- 
led P^li&/«i, thefe Games Pytbi- 
a, the Cicy of DiiphL (where 
his Oracle was kept) Pytbia i 
the Pricftcfles, Pytbia or Pytbo^ 
nijfa. They were celebrated e- 
very 9th Year at firft, but after- 
ward on every jth Year, accord- 
ing to the Number of the five 
Nymph5y that went to congra- 
tulate JpolU on his Vidory over 
the Python ; and the Conqaerora 
were rewarded with Fmits oon- 
fccrated to him. Apollo is tho 
Sun, who by his fcorching Rays 
deilroyed this dreadful Mwfter« 

Chap. IL Paradise Lost* $.1 

Hell icarce holds the wild Uproar : As when Her* 
cuLES, (p) crown'd with Conqueft from Th£s- 
SALY5 (q) after he had put on the poiibnM Robe, 
through Pain tore up Pines by the Roots, and threw 
LiCHAS (r) from Oeta (s) into the Bkck Sea* 
Others more mild retreated into a filent Valley, and 
fung to Harps in Ai^elical Notes their own heroick 
Deeds and unhappy Fall, by Chance of War, and 
complain that Fate ihould enflave free Virtue : Their 
Song was partial, but the Melody fufpended the Pains 
of Hell, and gave a great Dehght to the thronging 
AudieiM^ ; what lefs could be^ feeing that they were 
immortal ^irits that fung ? 

G U 

(p) Bnculeu the Son of Ju* 
fiUr ^ndJiewunm, and Grand- 
fon of Aicanu. After many 
mighty Deeds, called his twelve 
uooors, he nn mad» by pat- 
ting on a fioiibncd Veft, Gained 
wi& the Blood of Nijiu the 
Ciuiimr, whom he had fcili*d 
with a poilbn*d Arrow^ for a 
foul Affront ofierM to his Wife : 
Nijfut in Revenge peHWaded her 
to pot it upon Hirculiif as an 
Antidote to the Love of other 
Women : When he put it on he 
ran mad, burnt himfelf to Death, 
and was afterwards deified. 

(f) Tbifaiy ; Lat. Gr. i. e. 
SitMoied upon ih§ Sim ; or from 
The^almt, one of the antient 
Kings I auid PiUifpa^ when the 
^//tfj^' fetded there. ACoontty 
oiGruci^ having Achaia on the 
Soath, Efinu on the Weft, and 
a Fart of Maced§ma % vtrv woo- 
dy and frnitfal. The People were 
nven to Horfemanfliip and th)r 
Knowledge of poifonoas Herbs, 
ivhich abounded in it. 

(r) Uchss ; Lai, Gr. i. e. A 
Man of LjMa ; i. e. A £/tf * 
iuri : Becaufe it was the Cbun- 
try of the Giants, Men of ia 
large Stature. He #a5 the Ser- 
vant of HiTcidtSf hf whom D/- 
janiTM fent him that poifon'd 
Garment, which made him io 
outtagiotts, that he threw IfV&rj 
faeadlone into the Sea, whcne 
he periined. 

(j) Oeta : Lai. from the Gn 
i. e. DefruBUn : Prom Oetut^ 
a Giant, who dwelt on it, and 
deftroyed all before him ; a very 
hifth Mountain, dividing Tbi/-^ 
falj from Mactdonia^ whereon 
Hercules burnt himfelf to Death : 
Hence the Poets call him P//^« 
uSf and from which he threw 
Lychas into the Sea, tho' many 
Miles diftant from it j w>viBam» 
nia. Near it are the famous 
Siraits^ caU*d JhermofyU, zf 
Foot broad. 


PA)tAi>isB Lost. Book IL 

Im EHfcourfc ftiH more fweet (for Eloquence 
diarms the Soul, and Song only the Scnfe) others fat 
dpart i-etirM tipon a Hill, in Tlwughts more elevated, 
and they realon'd high of Providence, of Fore- 
knowledge, Will, and Fate; fix'd Fate, Free 
Will, and absolute Fore-knowledge; and itt 
diefe perplexihg Contemplations were loft in wander- 
ing Mazes, and found no End: Then they ai^*d 
tnuch about Good and Evil, bf Happinefs, and of 
ttemal Mifery, of the Pallions, of Apathy, and Glo- 
Jry, and Shame ; all which was vain "Wifdom, and 
falfe Philofophy ; yet with a pleafing Sorcery it could 
charm Pjun and Sorrow of Mind for a Time, and 
raife deceitful Hope, or arm the hardened Heart with 
ftubborn Patience, as it were with Steel. 

Another Part bend their flying March four -Ways 
in Squadrons and great Bands, upon a bold Adven- 
ture, to make frefli Difcovcries in that difmal World, 
if peradventure any Part of it might yield them a 
happier Habitation : Their Way was along the Banki 
of the four Rivers of Hell, that difcharge their 
deadly Streams into the burning Lake; abhorred 
Stvx, (t) the River of Hatred ; fad Acheron ; (u) 
CocYTus, (x) the River of Lamentation; and fierce 


(t) Styx ; I. Lai. Gr. i. c. 
Hatred and Horror. The Poets 
feigned four Rivers in Hell, to 
'W)iom they gave Names from 
fuch horrible poifonous and 
deadly Spritigs as were known 
to them, to (et forth the Dread- 
/ulnefs of future Torments. They 
«^ay, this River ran nine Times 
round Hell. 

(«) jfckirotip or Acbtrus ; IF. 
Lat, Gr. i. e. Sad, /orniv/ul, 
tind C9m/ort/e/s i Hib. u c. Out- 

nidft. A polfonoas Spring in 
Peioponne/us, This Fable im- 
plies Death, the King of Ter- 

(x) Cotytusi III. Lot. Gr. 
i. e. Lamentation^ fFtepinf ; f6r 
it is faid to have fweird with 
the Tears of the Tormented. 
Homer places ic in Qmmiriek 
(which IS Scjtbia, now Tartarj) 
and makes Heli to be there; 
'becaufe of the Blacknefs and 
Darknels of that Country. 

Chapi. II. Pahaoicb LoiT« 


Phlsgston, (y) whofe Wares boS with raging FireA 
Not £ur from thefc runs a flow and filcnt Stream in a 
watry LabTrinth, (2?) cailM JjetUbj {a) the River of 
Oblivion, whereof whoever drinki forgets all his fbr^ 
mer Scate and Beings both Joy and Grief^ Plea&rc 
and Pain. Beyond this Flood lies a frozen Continent, 
dark and wild, beat widi continual Storms of Whirl- 
wind and HaiU which not thawing on, the firm Land, 
gathers to a Heap, and fi^ema like the Ruins of fome 
old Bmtding, all befides being deep Snow and Ice ; a 
Gulph as deep as that SsasoNiAN (i) Bog, betwixt 

G a Damiata 


• £«/. Gr, i. e. Burning % 
for che Waters of It are laid to 
bcil for ever. This is the laft 
Off the Ritm of Hdl, ms the 
Poets reprefented it* 

(jB) Lahp-intbi Tnit. Dut. fr. 
Iat4 ihMB thf$ Gr. u e. Not ha* 
vimg a Dht, rtattnng or de* 
nfomrimg. A Boilding fiill of 
Tomings aod Wmdings, fo that 
it was vety difficolt tor one to 
fet oot of it. A Maze. Piin^ 
reckons foor of them. The 
firft and greateft was built in 
Egfp by Minis, an antient 
Kingy to be a Funeral Monu* 
snent for him&lf, confiftiog of 
iz Pahcesy 1500 Rooms, and 
1 2 Halls. The fecond in CnU, 
made by D^daks, by the Order 
of Min^ff from aModdof that» 
and for the fame End, or rather 
lor a Priibn. The third in Lem- 
nos^ having 1 90 Pillars of Mar- 
ble : It is under the whole Con- 
cavity of Mount Ida, and ftill 
CO be leen. The fourth in Ita- 
ly^ by the Order of Porfennm^ 
£ing of Tu/cany. 

(a) Lttb€ i Lat. Gr. L e. Ar- 

giffnlntfi. A ftifes of Africa^ 
which aft^r a long C0urfe hidef 
itfelf under Ground^ and ap# 
pears again ^ wherefore Antiqui« 
ty feigned that all the Dead 
drank a Draught of its Watera 
before they enter'd Hel], which 
made them forget all their paft 
Sorrows. The Fable is Deaths 
when all the Pleafures and Paina 
are quite forgotten. 

(b) Sfrbonian ; of Serlotf 
or Sirbon : Strabo calls it Strbo^ 
nis f Ptolomj and Pliny, Sirba* 
ni4. Jrab. i. e. Tbetabii tho* 
Strabo ignorantly takes this for 
the Lake of Soaom. A Bog or 
Lake upon the utmoft Borders of 
Pahpini and Egypt, fifty Miles 
from Arabia i now lagos M 
Ttvefi^ by the Italians, Bayrt^ 
na by the Natives, and Bara^ 
tbrum^ by the Latins, i. e. « 
deep Gutph. It was Fifty-two 
Miles in iLength, one Thoofand 
Furlongs in Compafs, narrow 
and rery deep» furrounded with 
Hills, of loofe Sands, which 
thickened and difcoloured the 
Waters y that PaiTcngers did noc 
difceri} them from the dry Sands, 

8^ Paradise Lost. Hook U; 

Damiata (c) and Mount Casius, (i) where whole 
Armies have funk : The parching Air bums in Froft, 
and Cold perfornis the Eflrea of Fire : Thither at cer- 
tain Revolutions all the Damn'd are dragged by their 
Tormentors, and by Turns fed the bitter Change of 
fierce Extreams, whick by Change are made more 
fierce *, their ybft etheriai Warmth forc'd from Beds 
of raging Fire, to ftarve in Ice^ diere to pine im- 
moveable, fix'd in and firozen round for Periods of 
Time, and from thence be hurried back to Fire. 
They pafs over this River Lethe, both to and fro, 
to heighten their Sorrow, and wiih and Itruggle as 
they pafs to reach the much defirM Stream ; with one 
Drop of its Water, to lofe in fweet Forgetfukicfs all 
Sorrow and P4in in one Moment, being fb near the 
Brink : But Fate oppofes, and Spirits of Horror, like 
Medusa, (e) with Gorgonian (f) Terror guard 


and fo were fwallowed op there* 
in and loft. Indeed that large 
Tra£k of Land abounds- with 
Qukkiands, Mountains and 
Heaps of Sands, wherein many 
Travellers have been buried alive, 
as Camiy/is loft 50,000 Men in 
the Sands of Ljiia. This Lake 
has been filled up long ago^ and 
is not to be found now. 

(r) Damiata, or Damhta ; 
Heh, i. e. Dirt or Mud. A 
Town in Eiyft upon the Mouth 
of the Midtterranean Sea, and 
the ffloft Bafterly Bank of the 
JV/7/, near Old Petufium, which 
fignifies alfo Dirt ; becaufe both 
are fituated in a dirty. Clay 
Soil. Thefe Cities were the Key 
and Bulwark of Egypt. Dami- 
ata was founded by Ifis, and 
deftroycd by the Saracens^ in the 
Holy War ; but is now a Place 
of great Trade. 

{d) Cafitti, or CaJ^us ; Sjr. U t. 
A BouMdary ; becaufe it parts E- 
^ft and Falefiint: A fandy 
Mountain on the farther Side of 
TelufiuM^ near the SerBotdan 
Bog, between the RedSeaznd 
the Miditiframan Sea, extend- 
ing Southward to Arabia ?ۥ 
traa : Ac the Foot of it Hood 
once a Town called Cafium, fa- 
mous for the Temple of Jupiter 
Cafius, wherein ftood a Statue 
of him in full Proportion, 
(Iretching out bis Right Hand 
with a Pomegranate, the Em- 
blem of his being the Terminal 
God, defending the Borders of 
that Nation. 

(e) Medufa ; Lat. Gr. i. e. 
Jn imperious ^een, the Daugh- 
ter of Ceto Phoreas, a Ring of 
Cerfica and Sardinia ; very bean- 
tifui, having ^oldem Hairi of 
which (he was ezceedtog proud, 


chap. 11. Paradise Lost. 85 

the Ford, and the Water of itfelf flies from the 
Tafte of all living Creatures, as once it fell from the 
Lip of Tantalus, (gj Thus the Fallen Spirits ro- 
Ting on in confus'd March, forlorn and pale, with Jud- 
dering Horror, and with ghaftly Eyes firft view'd their 
lamentable Lot, and found no Reft : They pafs*d a- 
long through many a dark and dreary Vale, and ma- 
ny a difmalRegion, over many a frozen and many % 
fiery Alp j (b) Rocks, Caves, Lakes, Fenns, Bogs, 
Dens, and Shades of Death ; a Univerfe of Death ! 
which God created Evil by a Curfe ; Good only for 
"Evil, where all Life dies, wnere Death lives,- and Na- 
ture breeds perverfely all monilrous and prodigious 
Things, abominable and beyond all Expreflion •, and 
worfe than ever Fables yet have feign*d, or Fear con- 

G 3 ceiv'd. 

and ^nteqded with l^fttir*va^ 
for which tbeGoddefs tamed it 
into Snakes i whiph were fo ter- 
jrible. that thejr turned all that 
beheld them into Stones. Per- 
fnu cat off her Head^ that it 
might not deftroy the whole 
CoimtiT; aud as he carried it 
thro* Africm^ the Drops of Blood 
became Scipents: Hence they 
fay, it is infefted with fwarms of 
S^pents and other venemous 
Creatures, above other Parts of 
the World. 

(f) Gorgtmian^ of the Gor- 
gm ; Lot, Gr, i. e. Craelty. 
The Ggrgons were fo called irom 
Gtrg^K, a Tcnofflous Bead in J* 
frica\ they were the three 
Daughters of Fbitcus^ viz. Mt- 
dufa^ Stin§t And Euryalt : So 
called from their Savagenefs; 
becauiie they killed at the very 
Sight. . 

(r) Taniaius ; Gr. Lat, i. e. 
mtift miftrahh. The Son of Jn* 
fitir and Fhta. He killed an4 

dre^e^ up his Son Pilops to the 
Gods, at a FeaH: for which 
they condemned him to Hell; 
where he was fet in Water to 
the Chin, with Apples bobbing 
at his Lips; yet could taUe of 
neither. . 

(h) Alp for Alps ; by a Fig, of 
Rbtt. Lai, i. e. 'white -. becaufe 
they are always White with 
Snow, or high ; a long Range of 
lofty and deep Mountains, which 
parts Italy and Germany and 
France: It coft Hannibal the 
Carthaginian General, nine 
Days before he got to the Top 
of them ) and 1 5 in marching 
over them ; wherein he loft vaft 
Numbers both of Men andBeafts, 
tho' he mollified the Rocks with 
Vinegar, and cut them down 
with Iron Tools : But Polybiut 
and Li<vy fay, that the Italians^ 
Gauls^ and others paft and repaft 
them, long before this famous 
Expedition of Hanmial, 


Paradise Lost* Book II. 

ceiv'd, of dire Chimeras, (i) Hydras, (k) and 




€atan pajes m his Jotirney to Hdl Gates j fnds 
tbemjhuf^ and *wbo fat there to guard tbem^ by 
whom at length they are open^dy and difcover to 
him the great Gsilpb between HeU and Hea^ 


IN the mean while Satan^ tHe ^^Ycrfsry of Gq9 
aBd Man, with Thoi^ghts cnflamM with higheft 
Defigns puts on fwift Wings, and takes his foii- 
tary Flight towards the Gates of Hell : Sometimes he 
fcours the Right-Hand Courfe, fbtnetimes the Left ; 
^ow flies over the Deep with ikady Wjngs, then 
foars up, moimting as high as the fkry Concave : As 
when a Fleet difcover'd at Sea, hangs as in the Clouds 
ty Equinoftial (m) Winds, failing dole from («} B e n* 

(t) Chimiras;Lai.Gr. ix.Gdotu 
A Chimera was a fabulous Mon* 
iler, faid tohave had the Head 
of a Lion, the Bellj of a Goat ; 
and the Tail of a Serpent. It 
ffu» only a Mountain of I^cia, 
a Branch of the M. Taunu in J-- 
Jia \ whofe Top did caft out 
Flames, and abounded with Li» 
om, in the Middle there was 
good Failure forG#«//; and at 
the Bottom of it wcfre many Ser- 

{Jt) Hjira$\ Lat. Gr. i.e. 

Watirs* Hydra ts a monftrous 


and exceffive Water Serpent i 
feigned with '50 Heads. Jt is 
faid, that Hercules tamed this 
Monfter in the Lake Lema, be- 
tween Argi and Mjcene, 

(«) JRquiMoSial^ of the JEqui^ 
n9x ; Lai, i. e. Equal Night and 
Days, An Aftron. T. Here, 
the Trade Windl, that blow in 
Siftember and Mmrehi when 
the Days and Ni;g^ts are of e- 
qual Length. * 

(u) Bengal^ Uiian^ The an^ 
tienc Name was Bng^ i.e. Wa- 
tir\ for as the Waten Ofcrfiow 


Chap. III. Paradise Lost. 87 

CAL, or the Iflands of Tern ate, (o) or Tir 
DO R £, (p) from whence Merchants bring their Spi- 
ces, they on the trading Flood ply to the Gape, (^) 
through the Ethiopian (r) Sea; juft fo afar off 

G 4 feem*4 

fome Parts of that Coantry, the 
People made cheir Fields into 
Beds of 1 5 Yards iquare, and 
l|p> Yards hig^s which they 
called Ala ; hence, came Ben- 
gala, i. e. an tmerflsnjo'd Coun^ 
tn^ A large Kingdom in the 
iaft'Im£$t9 bdonging to the 
Grtai M9gd, extending upon 
the Golf of Bingal, alwut 160 
Lesgoes in Length, and more in 
Bieadth. One of the moft fruit- 
fill 9nd plea&uit Countries of the 
World ; for dlSorts of Copmui- 
dities ; therefore it is called the 
Storeboufe of Afia \ well-wa^- 
€d» and abounds in Canals; thro* 
ic the great River Ganges runs, 
and difcharges itfelf into the Saf 
of Bengal. The Rivers abound 
with Cnc9£lej, Sec. the Inlands 
widi Elephants, &c. The Euro- 
f earns have a vaft Trade there. 
This Gulf is 800 Leagues over, 
thro* it the Europeans fail to and 
from India, 

{$) Temate ; Ind. The Chief 
of the five Malacca or Molucca 
Iflands in the Baft Indian Sea, 
hj whkb the Eur&feans fail to 
and from the Eaft Indies, vits. 
Temate, Ttdari, Macbian, Mo* 
ties and Bachian. They lie near 
the Line, and abound with Spi- 
ces. The Arah firft bmn to 
trade there, then the Mwamme^ 
dans I now they belong to the 
Hollanders, fince they expelled 
the Partttgmfe and Sfamards, A. 
D. 1641. The Natives are 
' mottly Heathen Idolaters. 

{p) Tidore, or Tfdor ; hd. Ano- 
ther of the Malacca Iflands, near 
to Temate, feparated only from 
it by a narrow Channel. 

(f ) Cafe i Tr, from the Lat. 
i. e. A Head, a Geogr. T. An 
high Mountain or Head Land 
runniug into the Sea 2 Here the 
Cafe of Good Hope, upon the 
Fomt of Africa to the' South', 
whither the OU Pharnicians an9 
others paft it or no, is nncertaijr; 
but it* was firft dtfcoverM to th^ 
Modems by BartMomew tHas, 
a Portuguefe, A. D. H$\. V,af^, 
de Gama arrived at Caieent, May 
20. A«. D. 1408. it U called 
by them Cah de Bona Speranxa : 
Becaufe they had good Hope of 
a Paflage to the Eaft Indies by 
doubling that Cape, as after- 
wards it did appear. The Dutch 
purchased it of their Kings, 
founded a flrong Fort there, A. 
D. 1651, and held it ever fince. 
Some call it the Cape of Tem- 
pefts; becaufe they are yttxy 
common thereabputs. 

(r) Ethiopian, of Ethiopia, 
tat, Gr, \, e. Burnt in the Face. 
Heb, Chuf, i. e. Black, horn 
Cbtts, the Son of Cham, whofirft 

g copied it. Ethiopia is a large 
ot Kingdom of Africa, in the 
Torrid Zone, therefore the Peo- 
ple are Scm-bumt, tawny and 
black; about 3600 MUes in 
Length, and 2r8o in Breadth. 
It is about one half of all Africa* 
Here, the Southern Octan,vthich. 



Paradise Lost. Book II. 

ieem'd the flying Fiend. At laft the Bounds of I^ell 
appear, reaching high up to the Roof, and the Gates 
were three Times threefold j three Folds were of 
Brais,' three of Iron, and three of Adamantine Rock ; 
impenetrable, furrounded with circling Fire, and yet 
not confumed. 

Before the Gates there fat on each Side a dread* 
fill Shape, one of which feem*d a Woman to the 
Waifl:, and fair, but (he ended in fcaly Folds lil^e a 
Serpent, voluminous and vaft, arm'd with a mortal 
Sting; round about her Middle a Cry of Hell-Hounds 
bark'd without ceafing, and rung a hideous Peal, 
with loud and wide Cerberian (s) Mouths; yet 
when they would, if any Thmg difturb'd their Noife, 
crept into her Womb, and kennell'd there, and when 
not feen, ftili bark'd and howl'd within : Lefs abhor- 
red than thefe were thofe that vexM ScYLLA, (/) ba* 
thing in the Sea thac parts Calabria (u) from Si- 

Wftlhetkity and thro* which the 
Europian Merchants pafs, as 
they go to and come from the 
Eafi'lndies^ China and JapaH^ 

(i) CirberUn ; Belonging to 
Cerberus i Lai, Gr. i. c. jfDf- 
nfourer §f FUjb^ i. c. As wiiic as 
thofe oi Ctrbtrus the Dog, that 
kept the Gates of Hell, who 
had three» fome fay fifty, and 
Horact fays too Heads ; fignify* 
ing his greedy and devouring 
Nature. The Fable reprefents 
Time, which devours allThings; 
the three Heads, Time paft« Pre- 
fent, and to come. 

(t) Scy/Ia i Lai. from the Gr. 
1. e. Fixaiicm and Difturbanee. 
Scylia was a frightful Rock in the 
5^ betweeo lialj and SUUf, fo 

called from Scyllh^ % CaiUeoa 
the lialian Shore, upon which 
the Waves made a Noife, like 
the Barking of Dogs, which ter- 
rify'd Sailors : Or Scylla the 
Daughter of Pb^reus, who was 
poifoned by Greg, and changed 
from the Waift down into ftrange 
and frightful Mo^fterf i where- 
fore ihe threw herfelf into ^ 

(«) Calabria} lai. from the 
Gr. u c. Good u^fruii/uL A 
ytty fine fruitfal Country on the 
outmoft Part of Itafy^ ^cine Si- 
cilj^ aJod divided from it by a 
narrow Strait: It is almpft as I- 
fland, yields Frutc twice in the 
Year, and is about 6o Miles 
wide, called now 7erri di Labiri 
i. e. The Land of Calabria. 

Chap. III. Paradise Lost. 89 

c I L Y, (x) nor do uglier follow theNight-Hag, who, 
when caird in fecret, comes riding through the Air^ 
drawn by the Smell of Infant's Blood, to dance with 
Lapland (y) Witches, while the labouring Moon 
is eclipsed by their Charms. 

The other Shape (if it might be call'd fo, that 
had pone diftinguilhable, in Joint, Lirpb, or Mem- 
ber, or ^^ might be called' Subftance, that feem'd 
Shadow, for each feem'd either) ftood as black as 
Night, as fierce as ten Furies, (z) as terrible as Hell, 
and ihook a dreadful Dart \ what feemM his Head, 
had the Likeneis of a kingly Crown on it. Satan 
was now near at Hand, and the Monfter moving from 
}iis Si^t, canie onward as faft with horrid Strides, fo 
that Hell trembled: Satan undaunted admir'd wh^ 


hy an Abbfcriation of the old 

CxJ Sicily. It was fo called 
-frooi the Sicam 9nd Simli, who 
were the andent Inhabictno, ^<- 
dfy is the Urgeft and nobleft Ifle 
in the Mi^tirramanSn, facing 
liaJf ; and, as 7huy£dts (ays, 
aoFwloAgi from it; therefore 
it has been a Bone of ConceDti- 
on between the Carthaginians^ 
Gritks^ Romans^ and other ad- 
jacent Nations, in all Ages to this 

(j) Lafland ; from the antient 
l^omet, or Lofpii i. e. Silly, 
/otii/h^ and nule. The Natives 
call it Lapmark } •the Germans^ 
Laplandt : the Mufiovites, Lap^ 
fi ; for they are an illiterate 
People, void of all Arts and 
Sciences, gro(ii Heathens. A 
cold Northern Conntry in Eu- 
r9fe, belonging partly to Swe- 
den, partly to Norway, and 
partly to Mn/ct^ ; Very barren 

and barbaroos : For their dread* 
ful Ignorance, SuperfHtton and 
Malice, the People are branded 
with Witchcraft and other Dia«> 
bolical Praftices. 

(e) Furiij i Fr. lial. Sp. tat, 
i. e. Mainefs and "Rage ; or Heh. 
f atari i* e. Revenge, I'he threePo* 
ries of Hell were imagined to be 
the Tormentors of the Damned, 
and painted with Snakes about 
their Headsi with Eyes fparkling 
with Fire, with burning Torches 
in their Hands ; t6rmencing the 
Souls of the Wicked in Hell : 
And their Names impty^d Dread 
and Terror. AleQe ; Gr, i. e. 
Inoeflant, without Reft, never 
ceafing to torment: Megcera, 
Gn f . /.Eh vied. hated: I'ijtphone^ 
Gr. I. e. A R^enger of Mur- 
der and Ebynides ; i. e, Difcord 
and Revenge, 

go Paradise Lost* Book II. 

this might be, but without Fear ; for he neither va- 
lued nor fhunnM any Thing that was created, nor 
fcar*d any Thing, God and his S o n excepted, and 
thus with a difdainful Look begun firft: 

'Thou execrable Shape! whence and what art 
thou ? That dar'ft, though grim and terrible, to ad- 
vance thy mifcreant Form athwart my Way to yonder 
Gates ? Be affur'd that I mean to paw through them, 
without aiking any I^ave of thee : Give Way, or feel 
the EfFedts of thy Folly ; and learn by Proof, Hell- 
born ! not to contend with Spirits of Heaven. 

T o whom full of Wrath, the Phantom reply^dj 
art thou that Traitor Angel ? Art thou he, who firft 
didft brc^ Peace in Heaven, and Faith, which *till 
thie;i had never beer^ broken, and in proud rebellious 
Arms, drew after him a third Part of the Sons of 
Heaven, covenanted againft the Highest ; for whicl^ 
jboth tiiou and they are nere condemn'd, outcaft fipm 
God, to pafs Eternity in Woe and Miiery ? And d,o£t 
thou reckon thyfelf with Spirits of Heaven ? Hdh- 
doomM! doft thou breath Scorn and Defiance here, 
where I reign King i (and more to enrage thee, thy 
King, and Lord) Back, thou Fugitive, to thy Pu« 
nifhment, and add Wings to thy Speed ; left I purfue 
thy lingering Steps with a Whip of Scorpions ; (a) or. 
at one Stroke or this Dart ftrange Horror (hall feizjC- 
thee, and fuch Pang3 as thou haft never felt before. 

Thb hideous Shadow fpoke thus; and fo fpeak* 
ing and threatening, ^rew in Shape ten Times more 
dreadful and deform*dl On the other Side, Sat a^ 
ftood unterrify'd, and incens'd with Rage, and bum'd 


(e) Starpion ; Gr. Lat. i. e. Head like a Craw*fifb, and a 

7 browing out F»i/on. AScorpi- long Tail with fix or feren 

on is a blacky (hort, and very Knots, wherewith it kills Men 

foifonous Serpent, with a fmall and Beab. 

chap. III. PAitfpi8^ ](^0sT; 9JL 

a Comet, that fires the Length of Ophiuc^s (i) 
in the Ab.tic (c) Sky, and from his hprrid Hair i% 
believed to ihake War znd Peftilence. Each at the o- 
diers Head kveU'd his mortal Aim, their fatal Handsi 
intending no iecpnd Stroke; and they caft fach a 
Frown at one another, a3 when two black Clouds full 
of Thunder, come rattling on over the Caspian (J) 
Sea, dien ftand Front to Frcmt, hovering for a Space, 
'till the Winds blow a Signal for them to join their 
dark Encounter in the Midft of the Air •, fo thefe 
mighty Combatants frown'd, infomuch that Hell 
grew darker; fo match'd theyftood: Fornpver but 
once more was either of them ever like to meet ib 
ffm a Foe. And now gre^it Deecjs had been perfor- 
med, of which all Hell would have rui^, had not the 

other Sna^Y F<^°^> ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ H^U Gate, an4 
wbo kept the fatal Key, rifen up, and rufli'd betweeq 
wijii bidepus Outcry. 

Sh^ cry'd. Oh Father! wh^t does thy Hand de- 
fign againft thy onely Son ? Oh Son ! what Fury pof- 


{if) Ofhiucm; Lai. from the 
Gr, i. c. J Serpent'Beanr. An 
Albon. T. A Northern Con- 
Mbdiiii, calWd tlfo the Serpent, 
f^RicDimg » Man holdiog n 
Sorpent in nis. Hand ; and con- 
fiib of 29 Surs^ according to 
Pt9lmy. The Fable is taken 
from Hertalis, who (queeaed 
two Sa:penta .to Deatti in his 

(m) Artie i Lat. Gr, An A' 
fr9n. T. Tht Nortifern Grcle, 
wAat thcve are Mu« Sfarj that 
H> by thisNaiDey nioar the N^fi 
rait i the Gnat Bear and the 
little Bear. The oppofite Pole 
IB called Antartic, or the S^w 

\f) Ca/fiaM ; Seytb. from the 

Ca/pii^ anantient PcopJe, who 
dwelt upon the Sou,th Side of it. 
the Cafpian Sea is not a Sea pro* 
perly fo caUed, nor a Maj oi the 
tiorthem Ocean, as ^e Amtients 
thought ; bat a Lake ; and the 
greateft in the World. It liea 
between Perfia, Tartarj, Gear- 
gia^ and Mufcervy : about 3000 
Miles in Compafsj lor tbo' f^ 
Volga (which alone diicharg^ 
more Water in a Year, than all 
the other Rivers in Eurefe) and 
100 Rivers befides, ran into it^ 
yet it hadi np vifible Optlet* 
Therefore (bme think it rifeth up 
in the Perfian Gulf, after run* 
ning under Ground above 2000 


.92 Paradise Lost. Book II. 

feiTes thee, to bend that mortal Dart againft the Head 
of thv Father? And knoweft for whom too; for him 
who nts above, and only laughs at thee, who art or- 
dain'd his Drudge, to execute • whatever his Wrath 
commands, which he calls Juftice ; his Wrath, which 
ibmetime or other will deftroy ye both. 

Thus Ihc Ipoke, and at her Bidding the helliih 
Phantom forbore, and Satan made Anfwer to her. 

Thy Outcry, and thy Words, which thou haft 
interpos'd, are fo ftrange, that my Hand has been 
jA^evented by them, from letting thee know by Deeds 
what I intend 5 'till I know firft of thee what thou art, 
thus double formed, and why on firft meeting me on 
this infernal Vale thou haft called me Father, and that 
horrid Shape my Son : I know thee riot, nor ever 'till 
now faw a Sight more deteftable than thee and him. 

T o whom the Portrefs of the Gate of Hell made 

Hast thou forgot me then ? And do I feem fo 
very foul in thine Eye now, who was once eftecm'd 
fo fair ijn Heaven, when at the AfTembly, and in Sight 
of all the Seraphxm, who combinM with thee in bold 
Confpiracy againft the great King of Heaven, all on a 
liidden a miferable Pain feiz'd on thee, thy Eyes grew 
dim, and fwam in Darknels, while thy Head threw 
forth Flames thidk and faft, 'till it openM on the Left 
Side } from whence I fprung, a Goddefs arm'd, moft 
like to thyfelf in Shape md Brightnefs of Counte- 
nance^ then fliining heavenly fair : All the Hoft of 
Heaven were feiz*d with Amazement; theyftarted 
back, being at firft afraid, and called me Sin, and 
held me for an unlucky Omen 5 but grown more fa- 
miliar, 1 pleas*d^ and with attra6ling Graces, won 
thofe who before were moft averfe. and thee cUef of 

Chap. IIL PARADisi tfOst. 95 

all, who viewing in me a perfcft Imi^e of thyfetf, 
becameft enamour'd of me, and fuch Joy didft often 
take with me in Secret, that my Womb conceiv'd a 
growing Burthen : Mean while War arofe in Heareny 
and Battles were fought, whereon remained (for what 
clfe could) to our Almighty Foe a compleat Vidlo- 
ry ; to our Part Lofs and Defeat through all Heaven ; 
down they fell^ driven headlong from the Skies, into 
this Deep5 and in the general Fail I fell alfo ; at which 
Time this powerful Key was given Into niy Hstnd, 
with Chaise to keep the Gates (hut for ever, which 
none can pafs without my opening* Here I fat, pen- 
five and alone J but not long, before my Womb, 
made pregnant by thee and now grown exceffivcly, 
felt prodigious Motion, andPains of Child-birth ; at lafl: 
this odious Offlpring, whom thou feeft here, thine 
own Begotten, violently breaking his Way, tore 
through my. Entrails ; fo that diftorted with Fear and 
Pain, my nether Parts grew thus transformed : Buc 
he, my inbred Enemy, i0u'd forth, terribly fhaking 
his fatal Dart made to deftroy : I fled away, and cry'd 
cut. Death! at that hideous Name Hell trembled, 
and figh'd from all her Caves, and refounded back. 
Death! I fled, but he purfu'd, (though more infla- 
med, it feems, with Luft, than with Rage) and be- 
ing far fwifter, overtook me his Mother, quite over- 
come with Fear ; and in forcible Embraces, and foul 
engendering with me in that Rape, begot thefe yel- 
ling Monflei:s, that as thou laweft furround me with 
ceafelefs Cry ; with infinite Sorrow to me hourly con- 
ceived, and hourly born 5 for when they lift they re- 
turn into the Womb that bred them, and howl and 
gnaw all my Bowels for their Food ; then burfiing 
forth, put me to freflx and terrible Pain, fo that I ncit 
ther find Reft or Intermilfipn. Directly oppofite and 
before my Eyes fits grim Death, my Son and Foe, 
who fets them on ; and full ibon would even devour 
me, his Parent, but diat he well knows that his £nd 

94 ParAdisb Lost. Bode IT. 

.1^ involved with mine ^ he knows that I fhouid prove 
a bitter Morfel and his Bane, whenever duit Ihall hap- 
-pen I fo was it pronounc'd by Fate. But I forewarn 
cthee^ my Father ! do thou Ihun his deadly Arrow i 
neidier vainly have Hope to be invulnerable in diofe 
Ixight Arms of thine» tho' they were made m Hea^^ 
ven, for that mortal Stroke there's nOde can relift, ex* 
ceptii^ Hs who reigns above* 

She finifliM here, and the fubtle Fiend foon leam'd 
what was beft for %im to do^ fo that now grown 
mildef , he anfwer'd thus fmootbly : 

Dear Daughter! fince thou daimeft me to be thy 
Fadier, and iheweft me my fair Son here, (the dear 
Pledge of Dalliance which I had with thee in Hea- 
ven, Joys then fweet, now (ad to mention, dux>* the 
fatal Change that has befallen us, quite unthought of 
and unforefeen) I come not here as an Enemy, but to 
fet free from out this difmal and dark Houfe of Pain^ 
both him and thee, and all the Hoft of heavenly Spi- 
rits, that armM in our juft Pretences fell with us firom 
on high ; I now go from them alone, fo has it been 
my Choice, on this uncouth Errand, and expofo my- 
feit, one for all, to tread with lonely Steps the u- 
diomlefs Deep, and thro' Immenfity fearch with wan- 
dering Enquiry a Place, which was foretold Ifaould be 
-created i and if we may judFge by concurring Signs it 
is now created ; a large Globe, a Place of Blifs, on the 
-Borders c^ Heaven, and already therein is placM a 
Race of upftart Creatures, to lupply, it may be, our 
vacant Room, tho' remov'd farther off, left Heaven 
being over-Aock'd with too powerful a Multitude, 
new Broils mi^ht happen : Whether this be, or any 
Thing more lecret now defignM, I am haifening to 
know ; and this once known, I fhall foon return, and 
ccmduft ye to the Place, where thou and Death 
ftaU dwell at £a(e, and filently and unfeen pais to 


chap. IIL Paradise Lost. 99 

and fro; there fhall ft both be fed) and fill'd imhieii^ 
furably, for all Things fhall be your Prey. 

H£ ceas'd here, for they bbth fttfmM highly 
pleas'd^ and Death grinn'd horrible a ghaftly Smile^ 
at hearing that his Hunger ihould be latisfy'd, 'and 
bleft his Maw, that was deftin'd to fo good an Hour ( 
his bad Mother did not rejoice lefs/who dim fpak^ td 
her Father Satan: 

B Y the Command <£ Heaven^s all-powerful Kki^ 
and by due Right, I keep the Key of this infernal 
Pit ; forbidden by him to unlock thefe Adamantine 
GattS) Death ftands ready to interpofe his Dart a- 
gainft all Force, not fearing to be over-matth'd by a- 
ny Thing created : But what do I owe to his Com- 
mands abore, who hates me, and hath thrult m^ 
down hither into tlus Gloom of profound Hell^ to fit 
here employed in du s hatefol Office, once an Inhabit 
tant of Hearen and heavenly-born, yet has doomed 
me to remain here in perpetual Agony and Pain^ en^ 
compafs'd round with the Terrors and ClamoUrs of 
my own Brood, that feed themfelves with my Bow- 
els ? Thou art my Father, my Author, thou gaveft 
me Being ; whom fhouki I obey and follow but thee? 
Thou wilt foon lead me to that new World of Light 
and Happinefs, where among the Gods who live at 
Eafe, I fhall reign voluptuoufly at thy Right-Hand, 
Time without End. 

As Ihefaid this, fhe took from her Side the fatal 
Key, the fad Inflrument of all our Woe, and rolling 
her Ihaky Train towards the Gate, forthwith drew up 
the great Portcullice ; which, excepting herfelf, not 
all the combined Powers of Hell could once have 
movMj then turns the intricate Wards in the Key- 
hole, and with Eafe unfaitens every Boit and Bar, 
tho' of majBTy Iron, or of folid Rock : Upon a fud- 


^6 Paradise LasfV Book 11^. 

den the infernal Doors fly open,- with a moft vio- 
lent Rebound^ and grating Noife of the Hinges, and 
jarring Sound like harfh Thunder, that the loweft 
Bcrctom of Heir& Caverns (hook, 

Th u ^ flie opened the Gates, biit to Ihut them a- 
g^ was beyona her Power ; they ftood fo wide open, 
mat an Army with all its Body and Wmgs extended, 
marching under fpread Enfigns, might pafs through, 
with all their Horfes and Chariots, tho* rank'd but 
in loofe Order : So wide they ftood, and caft forth a 
vaft Smoak and red Flame, like the Mouth of a Fur- 
nace. Before their Eyes there fuddcnly appeared the 
Secrets of the raging Deep ; a dark infinite Ocean, 
without Dimeniion or Bound whatfoever; where 
Length, Breadth, Height, and Time, and Place are 
loft; where ekleft Night and Chaos, the firft An- 
ceftors of Nature, hold continual Anarchy, amonffft 
the Noife of endlefs Strife, and keep their Station by 
Confofion: For Hot, Cold, Moift, and Dry, four 
fierce Champions, ftrive here for Maftery, and bring 
to Battle the imperfe6t Particles of the firft Matter ; 
and they fwarm populous, each by Natute tending to 
their own Fa&ions, in their feveral Clans, whether 
light, heavy, fharp, fmooth, fwift, or flow, being 
numberlefs as the Sands of Barca, (e) or the fcor« 
ched Soil of Cyrene, (f) which is lifted up with 


(r) Sarea ; Cartbag, i. e. A 
Dejart ;'or from AmiUar Barca^ 
the Father of Hatunkal^ who is 
laid to have fbiuided it. A laige. 
Candy, 'barren and diyConniry 
in Africa ; fo called from the 
capital City of it, lying on the 
Weft of Egypt ^ on the Metier- 
rammn Sea, between Egypi and 
Tiri/tf/i, 600 Miles from £aft tp 
Weft, and 120 Miles from Soath 

to North: Others call it the 
Saneff Lybia : The chief City is 
ceo Miles from Altxaniria in 
Egj^. Barca feparates Egypi 
from Cyrent, 

(d) Cyriuii Cartbag, from 
Cyrmo ; i. e. a Fountain^ which 
fr>rings from a Mountain of the 
feme Name there ; a ytry bar- 
ren Tandy Province of Lybia, 
(pward^ the Great Syrtis^ lying 


Chap* IV. Paradise Lo8T« 97 

warring Winds, and driven about the Air. What 
thefe moft adhere to, rules for a Moment; Chaos fits 
Umpire, and by his Decifion embroils the Fray die 
more, by which he reigns ; next him the high Arhi-» 
ter Chance governs all: Such was this wild Abyis, 
the deep Womb of Nature, and not unlikely but it 
iliall be her Grave, made up of neither Sea, nor 
Shore, nor Air, nor Fire, but all thefe mix'd confu- 
fediy in their pregnant Caufes, and which muft for 
ever fi&ht thus, unleis the Almighty Maker ordain 
them, nis dark Materials to create, and form new 


With nvhat Difficulty Sztsm pafes the Gulf b ; du 
re Bed by Chaos, the Power of^ that Places totbe 
Sight of this new World whtcb he fought. 

THE wary Fiend ftood upon the firink of 
Hell, and look'd for a while into this wild 
Abyfs ; for now he had no harrow Sea to 
crois, nor was his Ear lefs deafenM with loud and ru- 
inous Noifes, than (to compare great Things with 
fmall) when Bellona, {e) bent to deftroy fome ca« 

H pital 

upon the Muliterraliean Sea near 
Biypt. C^ifi was built by JSat- 
tus tbe Lacedimtniaft, from 
whom the lohabiunts were call- 
ed Sattidit^ and gave the Name 
to the whole Co uatry . It drove 
once with Carthage for fome Pri- 
irileges. In the moft Southern 
Part of it ftood the famous Tern* 
pie of Jufittr Ammon ; and was 
th< Birch-place of ^im^ir^' who 

carried our Saviour^s Croft to 
Mouht Calvary^ Mat. 27. 12. 
CfriHt was alfo called Pimtafmt i 
Gr. becanfe it contained five fiae 
Cities of old. 

(/) Bei/Ma i Lat. i. e. Tta 
Goddtfs of ffar. A Deity Jk 
mong the old Romans ; the Mo« 
ther. Sifter, and Wife 0/ Mart. 
She had many Temples, Priefts^ 
Sacrifices, Sutues and Honoura 


gB Paradise Lost. - Boo^ IP 

pital City, ftormi it with all her battering Engines 5* 
eras if this Franicof Heaven were falling, and thefe* 
Elements in Uproar^ had torn the ftedfaft Earth fronv 
Ker Axle, (f) ' 

'At laft Satan fpread his wide Wings, like Sails^ 
for FKght, and liFtec) up an the riling Smoak, Ipums 
the Ground ; tjience alcending, rides intrepidly many 
a League, -as it were* in a cloudy Chair; but that Seat 
foon railing, he meets nothing but the vaft empty 
Space:* At unawares, fluttering his uielefs Wings, 
direftly down he drops ten Thoufand Fathom deep, 
and to this Hour he nad been falling, had not the 
ftrong Rebuff of a flying Cloud, kindled with Fire 
and Nitre, hurry'd him. up a% many Miles aloft : 
That. Fury over; fie lights on a fmking Quick-fand, 
and nigh found^r'd, makes hi? Way over what was 
ifeithei^ Sea nor good dry Land, treading the crude 
Subftlnte of the i^byfs half on Foot and half flying, 
that it was requifitefor him now to ufe both Oar and 
§ail: As when a Griflin (g) with winged Courfe, over 
Hill, thro' Wildernefs, or moorifl> Vales, purfues fhi^ 
Arimaspian, (b) who by Stealth had taken from 


paid her ; and was painted with 
a furious Couptenance, holding 
a^T^ompet, a Whip, and fome- 
times a lighted Torch ; to (hew 
the difmal Effefts of Wai;. In 
f irae of Peace, her Temple was 
fhut up. 

(/) Axle ; Sax, hat. Gr, 
i: e. Gaing round; A Gfog, T. 
Ajy jixie'Tree. . Here, an ima- 
ginary Line drawn thro' the 
Center of the Eirth, from the 
North to the South Pole ; upon 
which the Earth is fappofed to 
move, in its Diurnal Motion 
from Eaft to Weft. ' 

(?) Grrfitt or Griffon I Laf. 
Gr. i. c. To gripe faft or. 
fqueexe. A fabulous, terrible 
and rapacious Bird, faid to be 
partly like an Eagle, partly like 
a Lion ; Gu-irdians of hidden 
Gold, and dedicated to Jfo/is, 
the God and Maker of Gold, 
r #. The Sun with the Heat of 
his Rays. 

{B) Arimafpian ; Scyth, ftom 
Ari^ i. e. One and Ma/fos^ L e. 
An Eye^ Om-ey^d; a People of 
Scytbia or Little Tartaty in Eu- 
rope ^ faid to have had on4 Eye, 
The Truth is, they were expert 


Chap. IV. PAR'Atrrst Lost* ' 9^ 

his watchful Cuftody the Gold that he had guarded i 
fo cageriy the Fiend purfues hii Way over Bog or 
fteep Hfill, thro' ftrair, rough, folid Land^ or Wa* 
ter, with Head) Hands, and Wmgs or Feet ; and as 
he cin'bijft', makes his Way -, either fwims^ or finks, 
or wades, or cfecps^ or flies. At length his Ear is 
affaulted with a univerfal Uproar of ftunning Sounds^ 
and Voices all in Confulion, which were born through 
the hollow Darknefs ; undaunted he bends his Way 
thither, to meet there whatever Power, or Spirit cf 
the lowermoft Abyfs might refide there, of whom he 
might enquire, which Way the neareft Coaft of Dark* 
neis lay, that border^ upon Li^ht ; when ftrait, apr 
pears the Throne of Chaos, and his dark Pavillion 
Ipread wide upon the wafteful Decpi enthroned with 
him fat dark and fable-habited Night, the eldeft of 
Things, and Confort of his Reign; and by them 
ftood Orcus, {%) and Hades, (/b) and the dreaded 
Name of Demogorgok : (/) Next Rumour^ and 
CnANCE, and Confusion, and Tumult, and DiSr 
CORD, with a thoufand various Mouths, all thefe iit 
continuaf Mutiny s to whom Satan boldly turnings 
fard thus : 

' Y E Powers, and Spirits of this lo\i^enlioft Abyis, 
CHAOS5 and antient Night ! I come not hither as a 
Spy, with Purpofc to pry into, or difturb the Secrets 

Ha of 

Archefs^ who (but lu Eyi^ that 
they might wich the more Ex- 
A^efs hit the Mark. ^Altxan* 
itr the Great fubdo*d them. 
^ (i) OrtUi ; hat. ftom the Qr, 
1. e. An Oath: becaufe the So- 
pemal Gods made their Oaths 
DfOmriy as well as by ^t)k^ a« 
iKMfacr Name of H^ll. 

[J^ Ha4U$ ; Gn l^t. i. t. A 
dark^ biddin and iwifihli Plait \ 
iame as Orr»/ or HiU \ is 

Holy Writ and facred Adthdrs. 
It is eileeia*d to be the general 
Receptacle of all Soals depart- 
ed this Life^ in a State o'f £x- 
pe^kation^ till the Day of Judg- 

(/) DeMogorgdn i Lai. froot 
the Gr. i. e. Bihelding the Gor^ 
on^ which none could do but 
< » for Qie . tam*d all Thtngi 
that look'd on her into Stones* 


lOO Paradise Lost. Book IL 

of your Kingdom, but wander this darkfome Defart 
by Confbaint, as my Way up to Light lies thro* your 
fpacious Empire ; I leek which is the readied rath 
tnat leads where your dark Bounds join to thole of 
Heaven ; or if the celeftial King pblfefles fome other 
Place lately won from your Dominion, I travel this dan- 
gerous Path to go tliirher ; do ydu direft my Courfe, 
which if you do, it will bring no mean Recompence to 
your Advantage ; if that Region be l«ft, and I can (ex- 
pelling thence all Ufurpation) reduce it to original 
Dafknefs, and your Sway, (which is the Intent of my 
prefent JoUrney) and once more eltablilh there the 
Governrhent of antient Night ; let yours be all the 
Advantage, and only mine the Revenge 1 

Thvs fpoke Satan, and thus old Chaos anlwer^d 
him, with a Vifage uncompos'd, and fautterlng in his 

Stranger, I know thee, who thou art, that migh- 
ty leading Angel, who lately made Oppolitibn againll 
the King of Heaven, though overthrown ; I faw and 
heard ; Tor fuch a numerous Army did not fly in Sir 
Icnce thro* the affrighted Deep, with Ruin upon Ruin, 
and Jlout upon Rout, Confufion worfe confounded *, 
and the Gates of Heaven pour*d her viftorious Bands 
in Purfuit, out by Millions. I upon my Borders here 
keep Refidence, if all I can do will ferve, I ftiall not 
be wanting to ftrive to defend that Little which is yet 
left me, being continually encroached on thro* our in- 
teftine Wars, which weaken the Power of old 
Night: Firft was Hell, your Dungeon, ftretching 
far and wide below ; and now lately Heaven and 
iEarth, another World, hung o'er my Kingdom, 
jink'd in a golden Chain, and is on that Side ot Hea- 
ven from whence your Legions fell : If that be the 
Way you would go, you have not very far : (fo much 
the nearer are you to Danger) Go, and Succefs be 


Chap. IV. Paradise Lost« ibi 

with you, for all Havock^ Spoil, and Ruin are my 

He faidnomore, and Satan did not Hay to 
make him a Reply, but glad that he was like to find 
a Shore to this Sea, witn frelh Chearfulnefs and re- 
newed Force, he fprings upwards like a Pyramid (iw) 
of Fire into the wide Firmament, and forces his Way 
thro' the Shock of Elements, fighting on all Sides 
round him ; in more Danger and harder befet, than 
when the Argo (n) pafs*d thro* the BospHOR us, (o) 

H 3 betwixt 

(at) Pyramid I Gr. i. e. A 
Fin^ aGeoxneirical Term. A 
Pyramid is a Heap of fquare 
Scones, rifing ap like a Flame of 
Fire in four Squares. There 
are aboot 80 Pyramids near 
i^mud C^ir9 » £gffff the 
Wonder of the World to this 
Day, tho* they have llood 4000 
Years, and auiy continue as 
loog again ; three of them are 
voyUrge, befidet nanv fmall 
ones. The Jrah caU them 
Dfibel PhamoM, and thtTtirks 
ptara§n Dtglary^ i. e. Pbara' 
#ys Bills. Mr. idtias (aw abore 
20,000 Pyramids near Gtfyrft^ 
in Leffer Afia, 

(h) Arg9 1 hat, Gf. i. c 
Smft ; becaofe of her fwifc 
failing i being rowed with 50 
Oarr, which was a new Inven- 
tion of Jafom I or from the 
Builder of it ; and Gcero de- 
rives it from the Ar^iva or 
Greiks, who fail'd in it. The 
Ship wherein Ja/in and other 
valunt Gretks made a famous 
Expedition to Colcbot^ now Min* 
grilia^ Georgia and Ueria, upon 
(helV»/»/| to bring from thence 

the golden Fleece into Greece, 
The Expedition of the Argonauts^ • 
celebrated in antient Hiftory, 
was in the Reign of JEgeus^ 
King of Jtbems^ about J. M. 
2714. Before Cbrifi 1284, It 
was no more than a bold and. 
new Voyage to bring home fine 
Wool, the valuable Commodity 
of that Country, as the Britijh 
Wool is now ; or carrying oft 
the Treafure of the king of 
Colchis f which confifted of Gold, 
gathered out of the Riven, by 
Sie Help of a Ram's Fleece 1 be- 
caofe Gafca, fieb, fignifies a 
Treafpre and a Fleece : The two 
Qulls and a Dragon were the two 
Walls round the Caftle, and a 
BrafiiGate. YoxSour^Heb, fig. 
nifies both a Bull and a Gate i 
Brafs and a Dragon. 

(0) Bo/fborus, Bo/porus, or 
Bo/ferusi Lat. from the Gr. 
i. c. Tbe Pajfage of an Ox, as 
we fay Oxford, A PaiTage into 
the Euxine Sea, by Conflattiimo^ 
fle^ thro* which ya/on pafs'd 
with much Difficulty and Dan- 
ger in this Voyage. It is fo 
Ibvit a])d narrotv, that Cattl^ 


let Par ADJsg Lost. . Book II, 

betwixt the crowded Rocks ; or when Ulysses if) 
ihunnM Charybdis (;) on the Larix>ard Side, and 
fteer*d by the Whirpool of Sc yll a : So did Satan 
move on, and pafs with great Difficulty and very hard 
Labour \ but he having once pals'd, loon after when 
Man fell, was a ftrange Alteration ; for Sin and 
Death quickly following his Path, (fuch was the 
Will of Heaven) pav'd after him a very broad and 
beaten Way over the darkGulph, and built thereon 
^ Bridge of wondrous Length, continued from Hell, 
and reaching to the outmoft Orb of this frail World ; 
over which the perverfe and fallen Spirits pafs and re- 
pafs with an eafy Intercourfe, to punifh Mortals, or 
lead them into Temptation, excepting fuch, who by 
more efpecial Grace, are guarded by Goo and good 

But now at laft appears the facred Influence of 
Light, and far into the Bofom of dim Night fhoots 
a Simmering Dawn from the Walls of Heaven ; Na-: 
TURE firft begins here her farthcft Bounds, and Cha- 
o s retires from her outmoft Works like a broken 
Foe, with lefs Tumult and lefs hoftile Noife; fo that 


fwim over it, and they hear the 
Cocks crowing and Dogs bark- 
ing from one Side to another. 
Nomr Stretti di CQn^anUuof>oli, 
liaL i. e. The Straits of Con- 

(P) ^^' ; ^'- ^^' >• e. 
jB) Strength, robuft ; or con- 

traded from his original Name, 
Odufius^ Gr. i. c. Tie fublUk 
Road : becaufe his Mother, o- 
vertaken in a violent Rain, was 
deliver*d of him on the High- 
way. The Son of Laertes^ 
Prince of Ithaca and Du/ichia, 
Iflaods in the jEgean Sea i an 

eloquent, cunning Gretk, cele- 
brated by Horner^ Virgil, Ovtd^ 
&c. After the Siege of frcu 
he is faid to have fuiferM dfi- 
vers Hardfhips for I'en Years 
more in his Return Home« par- 
ticularly palling by Sicily. 

(f) Cbarybditi Hit. i. C. J 
Gidf of Perdition ; Lat, from 
the Gr. i. e. Gaping hskd fucking 
in, A very dangerous Part of 
the Sea of Sicily^ between Mef- 
fina and Italj, where divers 
Ships have been fuck*d in s and 
Ulyfes had iQu<;h a4p (0 efcape 

chap. IV. Paradise Lost. 103 

Satan with little Toil, (and prefently with Eafe) 
pafles on calm Waves, aflifted by fome fmall Degree 
of Light ■, and like a weather-beaten Veflel is glad to 
find Harbour, tho* her Shrouds and Tackling be all 
damag'd and torn; or clfe in the emptier Wafte fome- 
thing refembling the Air, lies on his fpread Wings to 
behold at Lciiure the diftant empyreal Heaven, in 
Circuit extended wide, but its Form and Limits not 
detcrmin'd -, with Towers of precious Stones and Bat- 
tlements of living Saphircs, (r) once the native Seat of 
Satan ; and juft by was this pendent World, hanging 
in a golden Chain, in Bignefs about the Size of one of 
the fmalleft Stars, and clofe by the Moon. Thither 
accurfed, and in an accurfed Hour he haftens, quite 
fiU'd widi Malice and mifchievous Revenge. 

fr ) Sefbir i lai. Gr. from of Gold, aod ihe hardeft next 
' the Hib. i. e. StwAertJi be- to a Diamond : It was put into 
caufe one muA pay down very the Bieafl-plate of (he High- 
dear for it. A reiy clear, hard, ¥tie& ; ExtJ. zi. iS. Rrv. n, 
and precious Stone, of the Co- ig, 
lovr of the Skj, with Sparkles 

7%e End of the Second Book. 


[ 'OS] 




The Argument. 

GO D Jitting on bis Throne feet Satan Jly- 
ing towaras this World, then newly cre- 
ated i Jhews bim to the Son who fat at 
bis Right Hand ; foretells the Succefs of 
Satan in perverting Mankind i clears bis own yu- 
fiice and W^dom from all Imputation having cre- 
ated Man free aim able enough to have with/lood 
bis Tempter ; yet declares bis Purpofe of Grace to- 
wards bim, in regard he fell not of his own Ma- 
licey as Satan dia^ but by him feduc'd. The Son 
of God renders Praifes to bis Father for the Ma- 
nifejation of bis gracious Purpofe towards Man ; 
but God again declares that Grace cannot be ex- 
tended towards MaOi without the SatisfaSlion of 
Divine fufiice^ Man bath offended the Majefiy of 


io6 Paradise. Lost. Book III, 

G OD hy ajpiring to Godhead ; and therefore with 
all bis Progeny devoted to Deatby mufl die^ ufrk/i 
fame one can be found fufficient to ai^wer for bis 
Offence^ and undergo his Punijhment. The Son 
of God Jreely offers bitnfelf a Ranfom for Man: 
The Father accepts bim, ordains bis ^OrnatiOUi 
pronounces bis Exaltation above alJ JsUmes iu 
Heaven and Earth ; commands all the Angels to 
adore him ; they obey and finpng to their Harps 
infuUCboir celebrate /^Father andtbeSon. 
Satsa' lights upon tbe bate Convex of the Jfprld's 
mtermojl Orbj where be firji finds a Place fince 
xaltd tbe Limbo of Vanity j what Perfons and 
Things fy up timber-. Satan somes to tbe Gates if 
Seaveny defirib'J afcenMng by Stairs^ akd~ the 
Waters above the Firmament that fow about it : 
His Pafage thence to tbe Orb of the Sun : He 
finds there Uriel tbe Regent of thai Orb ; but Jirft 
changes himfelf into tbe Shape of a meaner An- 
gel, inquires after the Habitation of Man and is 
direSleJi alights frfi on tbe Mount NiphftJes, 


God fees Satan fying towards this Wbrld^ foretelh 
his Succefs in perverting Mankind -^ and declares 
bis Purpofe of Grace theret^m, 

I AIL holy Light! (who if not from 
Everlafting with the Deity, art the firft 
OffTpring of Heaven), may I exprefs 
thee without Blame ? fincc God nim- 
lelf is Light, and dwelling in Light 
from Eternity has always been un- 
apprpachable, always dwelt in Thee, Thou bright 

Chap. I. ]?AiiADi8t Lost* key 

Effluence of the bright uncreated Being; or /hall I 
rather call Thee a pure heavenly Stream, whofe Foun- 
tain is God. Thou wert before the Sun and the 
Heavens, and at the Voice of G oi> didft adorn the 
rifing World, which before was dark, and but juft ri- 
fen from the Chaos, without Form and infinitely 
void. Now I vifiit Thee again with frefh Courage, 
having long been treating of Darknefs, and Hell, and 
the Shades of Obfcurity ; having been taught by 
the heavenly Spirit to venture down the dark Defcent, 
and to afcend up again to fpeak of Thee. Thee I 
now fafely revifit, and feel thy fovereign quickning 
Lamp; but Thou revifit*ftnot thefe Eyes, that in vain 
rowl to find Thy piercing Ray ; fo thick a Dark- 
nefs and Suffufion hath veiled them and extin- 
guKhM, that they never find a Dawn ! Yet do I not 
for that Reafon ceafe to wander among clear Springs, 
or {hady Groves, or funny Hills, where the Mufes 
haunt ; the Love of facred Song always delighting 
me. But chieflv S i o n. Thee I vifit nightly, and the 
flowry Brooks tnat wafti thy hallowM Foot, flowing 
fweetly ; nor do I forget fometimes thofc other two in- 
fpired Writers, whom Fate made equal with me, and 
to whom I wilh I were equal in Fame, blind Thamy- 
jLis, (a) and blind MiBONiDEs, (l^) and Tire- 


[a) ThanFfris^ Lat, Gr, i. c. 
Wonderful. A Poet of ^hrace^ 
who had the Vanity to contend 
with the Mufes in Singing, 
bat IoH It ; therefore they put 
out his Eyesy and took away 
his Harp. This Fable teaches 
ps the Danger and Vanity of 
mocking GmI, of Self-fufficien* 
cy and Pride. 

(h) Maonidesi Lat, Gr. i. e. 
7be Son of Maon^ for Homer ^ 
pr, i. e. Oae that fhtb not fie: 

becaufe he defpisM the Vanities 
of the World, not that he was 
really depnvM of his Eyefight i 
others fay, that his filindnefs 
came by an Accident. But his 
proper Name was Melifegtna^ 
from the River Meies, where 
he was born. He was fo poor, 
that he begg'd hb Bread ; yec 
when he was dead^ feven Cities 
contended for the Honour of 
his Nativity ; Smyrna^ Rhodes^ 
Colophon^ Sa/amh^ Chios, Ar^ 

io8 Pah AD IS E Lost. Book IIL 

BIAS, (c) andPniNEus, (^ who were Prophets of 
old. Then I feed on Thoughts, that naturally move 
to Harmony ; as the wakeful Nightingale in the dark^ 
and hid in the thickeft Shadc> lings her fweet Song 
by Night. Thus the Seafons return with the Year, 
but neither Day, nor the fweet Approach of Evening 
or Morning, or Sight of Bloflbms in the Spring, or 
Summer's Rofe, or Flocks, or Herds, or Face of 
Man, the Image of his Maker, return to me; but 
inftead of that a Cloud and ever-during Darknels fur* 
rounds me, cutoff from the(:hearRil ways of Men, 
^pd for the Book of fair Knowledge' prefented with 
a univerfal Blot of Nature's Works, which are to mc 
all expunged and ergz'd, and Wifdom at the greac 
Entrance of Sight quite fhut out : So much the rather 


g9s^ Athene, He was bora ac- 
<;ording to the beft Account, 
J.M. 312O9 340 Yean after 
the DeftniAion of Troy^ and 
884 before the Incarnation. 
An antient and moft celebrated 
Pbet a9iong die Greeks, the wit- 
tieft Man that ever Iiy*d, who 
Jud none to inaitate, (except 
Mo/es, from ^om he took his 
beft Thoughts) was never match- 
ed by any that came after him^ 
except now by Milton^ and a 
Pattern to all Poets, Philofo- 
. phers and Hiftorisns to this Dav* 
He wrote the Wars of 7r9y m 
twenty-foar Books, called the 
Iliads, and the dangerous Voy- 
ages of Vljjfes, in the Odjjfes^ 
in as many. The greatcft Ve- 
neration has been paid to his 
'Nan»e in all Ages : And Milton 
modeftly wifhes he might be e- 
quailed to him therein, thpugh 
in many Rcfped^s he hath ex* 
cceded Homer himfelf, and Vir- 
lU alfo in £pic Poem»,bo(h in 

the Grandeur of his Snbjefl, in 
his Learning, CharaQers, and 
every Thine elfe. 

{c) lirefias \ Lot, Gr, i. e. 
ji Star : becaofe he foretold 
fome Things by the Knowledge 
of Aftrology. A blind Poet |md 
Sooth{ayc;r of TMes ; long be- 
fore ifMr#r.- the Son of £vr- 
tnu and CbaricU, He was 
ftrack biind^ther for peeping 
too Cttfiouny upon Minerva in 
the Fountain Hfpecrine ; or for 
dedding the Caufe between ^«- 
piter and Jnno €0 her Difiatif* 
faftion : for which 7«/f '^ g^ve 
h|m the Faculty of Divination 
or Soothfaying. 

(d) Pbineus \ lot, Gr. i. e. 
Shining^ flluflrioms, A King 
and Prophet of Arcadia^ who 
for putting out the Eyes of 
his Children, and for reveal- 
ing the Secrets of the Gods to 
Men, was ^unifhed |^th Blind- 

Chap« L P A R A n I s E L o s t/ 109 

do Thou celeftial Light (hine inward, and enlighten 
my Mind thro' all her Powers ; there plant £yes» 
purge and difperfe all Ignorance from thence, that I 
may fee and tell of Things which to mortal Sight 
are inviiible. 

Now the Almighty Father had bent down his 
Eye from above, from the pure Heaven, where he 
fits high thron*d above all Height, to view at once 
his own Works and their Works ; about him the moft 
pure and holy An^ls of Heaven ftood as thick as 
Stars, and trom his Sight received unfpeakable Hap-- , 

Einefs: On his Right-^Hand fate his only Sok, the 
right Image of his Glory He firft beheld on Earth 
our two firft Parents, Adam and £ve^ as yet the on- 
ly two of Mankind, plac'd in the happy Garden of 
Eden, (^j reaping^ immortal • Fruits of unrivaird 
Lx>ve and uninterrupted Joy in a happy Solitude* 
The eternal Father then law Hell and the Gulph be- 
tween^ and Satan there coafting the Wall of Hea« 
ven, high in the thick Air, and oh this Side of Nioht, 
ready to ftoop with willing Feet and tired Wings upon 
the bare Outfide of this World, that fcem'd like Land 
encompafs'd without Firmament; nor could Satan, at 
that Diftance, tell whether it was furrounded with Air 
or Water. God faw him from his high Profpedt, 


(/) EJiii sXiHehriw Word. 
It iignifiet Pleafare and Delight : 
becauTe it war the moft plea- 
£u»t Place open Earth, and Pa- 
radiiiB was in it. Eden was a 
Country in Cbaldia^ thought by 
fome to be the fame as Mefo- 
f$tama^ near Babjhn^ lying 
between the EuphraUs and the 
^jgrisy well watered with thefe 
and other Rivers, and moft fruit* 
fnl. fiat the learned Huetiuj 
proves, that Bdem lay on the 
South of Bafyiofg, and (he Ter- 

reftrial Paradife on the Caft Side 
of Eden^ between the firft join- 
ing of Che Eupbraea and the 
TjgrU, and there parting again, 
when they make the Pyfon and 
the Giif9Mp which run into the 
Perfian Gulph at difFerent 
Mouths ; as Ms/es has defcri- 
bed thefe four Rivers, Gen, ii. 
8—16. £>/ Situ Parad. T$rr$^ 
firis. For thefe Properties it is 
highly commended in Holy 
Scripture, Gtn. 2. 8. Ifa. |i.3. 
B*ik, 3 1 . 8, 9, is'r. 

tid pAfe-ADisfi Los*. Book IIL 

iKrherein he beholds all paflr, prefent, and AjtiH'e 
ThincS) and forefeeing what was afterwards to be^ 
dius Ipoke to his only Son: 

Only Begotten, doft thou behold whatRag^ 
tranlports our Adverfary, whom no prefcribM Bounds, 
Aor bars of HeD) nor all the Chains heap'd on him 
there, nor yet the vaft Gulph now feparated from the 
new Creation canrhoid? S6 eag^ he feems for defpe-* 
rate Revenge, ' which ihall fall upon his own rebelli^ 
MS Head V now broke loofe from his Confinement, 
he takes his Flight not &r from Heaven, and upon 
the Borders of Light, direftly towards the World 
newly created, and towards Man placed there, with 
Purpofe to try if he can deftroy him by Force, or 
what is worfe, by fome Allurement pervert hifaij 
#hich laft will be' die Cafe ; for Man will give Ear to 
his flattering and: deceitful Lies^ and tranfgrefs the 
only Command whi^h is the Pledge of his Obedi* 
ence ; fo will he fstll, and with him his faithlefs Pnv 
geny. Whofe is the Fault ? Wh'ofe but his own ? 
Ungrateful, difobedient Man! I made. him jufb Md 
right, with Towei* fufiKient to have ftood, yet left 
him free to fkW ; and fo I created all the Powers and 
Spirits of Heaven, both them who ftOod and them 
whofail'd-, freely they ftood who ftood, and they 
n^lho fell had the fame Freedom. Had they not been 
* free, what fincere Proof could they have given of Al- 
legiance, true Loye, or conftant Faith, where no- 
thing would apoear but what they needs muft do, not 
what they would ? What Praife could they receive, or 
what Pleafure I, from fuch an Obedience? When. 
Will and Reafon (for Reafon alfo is Choice) ftripp*d 
of their Freedom, both become ufelefs and vain, and 
would fcrve Neceffity, not me -, they therefore as be- 
long to Right, Were fo created ; nor can they with 
Juftice accule me, their Maker, or their Making, nor 
blanie their Fate, as it Predeftination had over-rul*d 

Cl^p. L Paradise Lost. ift 

their Will, difpos'd by high Fore-knowledge and an' 
abfolute Decree: Their own Revolt they decreed 
thcmfelves, and not I : If I did fore-know, my. Fore* 
knowledge had not the leaft Influence over their Fault, 
which had I not fore-known, had prov'd no lefs cer- 
tain : So without the leaft Enforcement or Imaginati^ 
on of Fate, or any Thing forefeen by me, which may 
hereafter happen, do they oflFend ; Authors to thern^ 
felvcs in every Thing, as well of what they judge, as 
of what they chufe ; for I form'd thfcm free, and Co 
they muft remain 'till they enflave themfelves ; elfe I 
Aiuft change their Nature, and abolifh' the high, un- 
changeable, and eternal Decree, which ordain'd thei* 
Freedom : It was they themfelves ordainM their Fall :. 
The firft Sort fell felf-depraVd, felf^tempted, volun- 
tarily^ and by their own evil Thoughts : M a n falls 
too, but is firft deceived by the other: Therefore 
Man fhall find Grace, but the other none ; fo fhall 
my Glory, both in Juftice and Mercy, Ihine through 
Heaven and Earth ; but that which firft agd laft fhall 
fliine the brighteft, fhall be Mercy. 


5^^ SpN of Goj> on bis Father's declaring that 
Liivine Jujiice muji befatisfied for Man'i Sin^ 
freely offers himfelf a Kanjom for them ; which 
the Father accepts. 

WHILE God fpake, a fweet Fragrance 
fillM all Heaven, and diffiis'd a frefh and 
unipeakable Pleafure m the blefs'd and eledt 
Angels. The Son of God was feen moft glorious 
and beyond Compare ; all his Father fhone in him, ex-^ 
prefs'd fubftantially, and in his Face appeared vifibly 
divine Compaflion, Love without End,, and GracQ 




112 PaHaiJise Lost. Bodk IIL 

-mthout Meafure, which to his Father he dius gave 
Utterance : 

Oh Father! that Word was gracious which cWd 
thy fovereign Sentence, and which promised that 
Man fliould find Grace i for which both Heaven and 
Earth fhall highly extol thy Praifes, with the Soqnd 
of innumerable Hymns and holy Songs, which round 
about thy Throne (ball proclaim Thee ever blcft : For 
fliall Man^ thy Creature late fo belovM, created 
£nce the Angels, be finally loft, and fall circumvcn* 
ted thus by Fraud, tho* join'd with his own Weak- 
nefs ? Far be that from Thee, great Father! who art 
Judge of all created Things, and who alone judgeft 
right. Or ihall the Enemy thus obtain his Ends, and 
fruilrate Thine ? Shall he fulfil his Wickednefs, and 
render thy .Goodnefs ufelefs, or proudly return to 
Hell, (tho* to a heavier Doom, yet with his Revenge 
accompiilh'd) and draw after him the whole Race of 
Mankind corrupted by him? Or wilt Thod thyfelf 
unmake and abolilh for him, what thou haft made 
for a Furpofe of thy own Glory ? So fhould thy 
Goodnefs and thy Greamefs both be caird in Queftion, 
and be blafphem'd without Defence. 

T o whom the great Creator reply'd thus : My Son, 
in whom my Soul hath its chief Delight, Son of my 
Bofom, who art alone my Word, my Wifdom, ana 
my cffedual Power! all the Words that thou haft 
fpokcn are my Thoughts, ajid as my eternal Purpofe 
hath already decreed : M a n fliall not be quite loft, 
but who will fhall be iav*d, yet not wholly of Will 
in him, but Grace in me, freely beftow'd on him 5 I 
Will once more renew his impaired Faculties, though 
forfeited, and dragg'd by Reafon of Sin to foul and 
exorbitant Defires } yet once more upheld by me, he 
/hall ftand on even Ground againft his mortal Foe^ 
upheld by me ; that he may fully know how frail his 


Chap. lf« Parasisb Lo»t. ttj 

fallen Conditidn is, aad to mc, and none but me, owe 
all his Deliverance. Some, out of my peculiar 
Grace, I have eleded and chofen above the reft, fuch 
is mj Will ; the reft fhall hear me call, and have fre- 
quent Warnings to leave their liniul ^tate, and to ap- 
peafe betimes (while Grace is yet offered) an angry 
G o D i for I will fufficiently clear their dark Senlcsy 
and foften their ftony Hearts, 'till they pray and re- 
pent, and bring due Obedience. To Prayer, Repcn; 
tance,^ and due Obedience, mine Ear ihall nOt be flow 
nor mine ]&/es JObut. And I will place within' 
them^ as a Guide> the great Witnefs, Consci- 
ence! whom if they will hear, they fhall at- 
tain Lifl^t after Light, and perfeverihe to the End^ 
|haU atiaft obtain .eternal Happinefs : They who neg^* 
le& and (com the Day of my Grace^ and this my long 
Sufferance, fhall never enter into my Reft, but being 
hard fhall be the more harden'd, and being blind 
{hall bethdmore blinded, thatthey may make the more 
Bsrora^ and their Fall may be the greater ; and none 
but iuch have I excluded mm Mercy. But all is not 
yet done ; M an difloyally difobeying me^ has bxbke 
my Commandment^ and fins againft the high Supre^^* 
macy of Heaven, coveting to be a God^ and lofing 
all ! To attone for his Treafon there is nothing Idt^ 
but he with his whole Pofterity muft die< devoted for 
Deftruftion; he muft certsunly die, or elfe JufBce 
muft ; unlefs fome other^ both able and willing, pay 
for him the com pleat Satisfaction. Speak, Powers of 
Heaven! where ihall we find fuch Love? Which of 
ye will become mortal to redeem Mankind, and be- 
ing juft, be willing to die to fave the Unjuft ? Dwells- 
there in all Heaven fo dear a Charity ? 

Gep aik*d the QuefHon, but the Angek all Were 
mute^ and there was Silence in Heaven; there was* 
none who fb much as appeared on the Behalf of Mak^ 
to defend him or intercede for him« muck lefs 

f 14 .P^I^Artii.siK: Lo^tt BtJbk WX 

tJm dufft: 49SWf: iipte Jvmfelf tbft deadi]|t Beiialtjr^ of 
pay the RonfotD requirM. And nam by the (evere 
$eni;ei^GQ of thcL FatheA, alLMankind mufi: have 
be^n loft, mid ccttukmnM to Deathand Hdll wi^houi 
Redcipption» had not the Sok o£ God^ in whom 

wtij^ the Euincis of divine Love, thus renew'd Ml 

1^ Mediation: 


Father! thy Word k paft, that Man flial| 
^od Grace> and ihall not Grace find out Means^ that 
^fx^Si her ^ay the fpeedieft of all thy Meflfengers) 
T]hat vifits a]i thy Creatures, unfought for, unalk'd 
f(^> ajud u^mierited ?. Happy fbr M a n that U> k 
comes, for he.. once Iqft and^ dead in Sin, caAneY-^ 
ibek: .1^ A^afice, am^rbeing indebted and undone^ 
hath; no: AttonemeQt. or:lt Sacrifice ta bring for him-^ 
lelf, £idK}]id me, thenf I oflper myfelf for him, my- 
liifs for hi3i letall^tiiyAngerfdlupon mt^ accoont 
9e a$ . M A k: For. his S^e I isdlUeave thy Bdiom^r 
4nd fr^f^y put ofi: thii^j Glory, whichl jpbflfete next to 
Ti^^ .4od laftly with Pleafure die> for him: Leii 
PjlAi^H ; epc^utQ all vhi& ^age on me, I fhall not U^ 
kfig under, his gloomy Power: Thou haft given qfio 
to pQifc^ Life ID myfelf for ever, and' by Thee I tivci 
T^.MS^ ^^^ I yieidrup and giv^ to ^ D & a t h^ ali of 
m^ tha( cWrdie;; yet that Debt once paid. Thou \iriio 
not I^^e m^, his Prey, in . the loathlome Grave, noii 
iiig^r my unipotted Soul to dwell with Corruption 
tfeerc for ever ; but I fhall rife vidtorious, and over** 
t^pm^] my Vanquiflicr, and rob him of his Spoils; 
DkaIth. Hiall then receive fais laft Wound, anddifarr 
ined Qi Ms mortal Sting, fhall be deftroy'd;. I {hsdh 
lead Hell captive in Triumph^ fpire of Hell, and 
Ihew all the Powers of Darknefs bound ; Thou at the 
$ght ibalt: loofiLdown pleas'd out of Heaven, while 
Icfupported by Thee ruin all my Foes ^ Death th6 
kft of^, and with his^Carcale fhall glut die Grave ;^ 
t^etilftorJong Abfence ihall returaand enter Heaven, 
•. . * widi 

eMp. If. Fa R A i> I s E Lt]^ rr. < 15 

■#lth the Multhucle of mV ftddeemed, to fee thy. 
Fact, Vflidfeih lio Cloud of Angei* feall rtmab; bdi' 
;(fliir*4 ^^s"^6 arid' RecDhcirertiierit ', thertcrfbrw^rd eft- 
tire Joy fliall be ih thy Prefence, dnd Wrath Ihatl lift' 


'tftit hU Words fended; buihh fhtek A^iJia, 
tho' he was fiknt, ij)ake, ahd bWathM imnlortaf 
L6vt to Mankiftdj aTsdve which ohiy"lhoht fili^bbc- 
didtfcft i he attends the Will of his ^hit FAttifky afi 
i S4i!rifice glad fo be offei'd u^. i^^HeSveri Ifrai 
fefe'H with Admiratioifi, what this might mean," ahd 
Whidi^r ir would tend j but the A t M i d li t Y fo6n re- 

Mv fole Deiiglitl the Only Peaci in'Heatcn tod 
Eartli found oui for Minkina, under Wrath ^ ThcJii 
knoweft ^cll hoW dear all my WoVks are to me, . an4 
it flioWs M X N not the le^ft fo, though the 1^ ^rta- 
ttd- feeihg'that for his Sake 1 fpai^e "The'e^orti: my^' 
BbfOm indRight-Hdnd, to fave (bylofin^ Tliee for 4 
Hme)^ the whole Rade that wis loft: Do Thou, theire- 
fore, join thy Nature alfo to theirs, whom Thou a-; 
lone canft redeem ; and be Thyfelf a M a n upon 
Earth among M e ?^, afid made Flefh, when thd Ful- 
nefs of Time (hall be, of Virgin Seed, by a miraculous 
Birth ; Be Thou in the Room of Adam, (/) th< 
Head of all Mankind, thoUgh one of his Sons 5 as iii 
him all Men perifh, fo as from i fecond Rqo?, Id 
Thee Ihall be reftor'd as many as are rellor'd, and 
without Thee none ; His Crime makes all his Sons 
guilty J thy Merit acfcburitdd for theirs, fluB abfolve 
all thofe who renounce their own lieeds, both righte-; 
ous and uhrighteoias, and live engrafted in Thee, arid 

I 2 receive 

(fj Atbuni Hih. i. €. Rti. Earth, Gen. 2. 7. 5. 2. 'A» 

Titc'Nanieof thefirft Mtn and Homo uk Lat, is from Uarnu^ 

firft Woman : becaufe they were i. e. the Ground : which poincs 

formed of d&ft Red Duft of the at both our Original. aadJEnd. 


SI.6 Paradise Lost* Book III* 

receive new Light from Thee: So (as is moft juft) 
Man (hall iatisfy for M a Nf, be judgM and die^ and 
afterwards rife again, and with him raife his Brethren^ 
ranfom'd with his own dear Life : So hellifh Hate 
Ihall be outdone by heavenly Love, giving itfelf to 
Death, and dying; fo dearly redeem whsA hellifh 
Hate defboy'd fa eafily, and ilill does deftroy ix\ all 
thofe, who when they nuy will not accept of Grace. 
Nor ihalt Thou leffen or debafe thy own Nature^ By 
cohdefcending to aflume that of M a n ; becaule, tho^ 
enthroned inhigheft Blifs, equal to, God, and enjoying 
the fame as the Father, Thou, haft quitted ;ill, to 
fave a whole World from utter Lofs, and haft been 
found the* Son of God, by Merit more than by. 
Birthright ; form'd worthy to be fo, by Reafoii oi 
being good, far more than by being great or hu;h % 
becaufe Love h^th abounded in Thee far beyond Glo- 
ry : Therefore thy Humiliation, fhall with Thee exalt 
thy Manhood alio to this Throne ; here Thou fhalt fit 
incai^te, and reign here^ both God and M a n» 
the Son both of G o d and Man, anointed the uni- 
Vetfal King; all Power I give unto Thee, do Thou 
reign for ever, and aflfume all Adoration as thy Merit ; 
all the Angels of Heaven I put under thy GoVem- 
tnent} to Thee, as the fupreme Head, every Knee 
fhall bow, of Things in Heaven, and Things in 
Earth, and Things under the Earth ; when Thou 
/halt appear in the Sky, attended glorioufly ' from 
Heaven, and fend from Thee 'Arch-Angels, with a 
Summons proclaiming thy dread Tribunal: Forth- 
with from all Comers pf the Earth the Living fhall 
haften to the general Doom, and the cited Dead of all 
Ages 5 (for futh a Peal fhall rou2e them from their 
Sleep) then all thy Saints being afTembled, Thou fhalt 
Judge bad Men and bad Angels, when they come to 
be arr^gn*d, they fliall fink beneath thy Sentence^ and 
Hell (the Number of the Damn'd being fUl'd up) 
ihall be thenceforward Ihut up for ever. Mean while 
' the 

chap. III. Paradise Lost. 117 

the World ftiall burn, and there (hall arife from her 
AJhes a new Heaven and a new Earth, wherein juft 
Men fliall dwell ; and after all their long Perfecuti- 
ons and Sufferings fee happy Days, that (hall bring 
forth nothing but Joy, Love triumphing, and fair 
Truth : After this Thou fhalt lay thy regal Scepter 
by, for there Ihall then be no farther Ufe for it ; but 
God fhall be all in all. All ye Angels of Heaven, 
give' Adoration tp him, who to compafs all this dies ; 
adore him, who is my only Son, and honour him 
even as ye honour me. 

No Iboner had the Almighty pronounc'd this, 
than the Multitude of Angels gave a Shout, uttering 
Joy-, loud as from Numbers which were not to be num- 
bered, and fwect as from bleft Voices v. Heaven rung 
with Jubilee, (g) and loud Hos annas (h) fiU'd theeter-^ 
nal Regions. Toward either Throng they bow lowly,' 
rcvercnr, and caft down to the Ground their Crowns^with 
/blemn Adoration-, Crowns that were adom'd with 
Gold and immortal Amaranth, a Flower which once 
began to blow in Paradise, jiiftby the Tree of Life ; 
but after M a n*s Fall was remov'd to Heaven, where 
it firft grew, now grows, and with its never-fading 

I 3 Bloom 

(g) jMhilii % Lat, Gr.tieb. *' did as Jefas commanded them,, 

L c. A Ram and a Ram*8 Horn : *' and brought the Afs, and the 

bccanfe the Jrws proclaim'd *' Colt, and pnt on them their 

their Feafta with the Sound of " Oolhes^ and they fee him 

Trampets made of Rams Hornff '* thereon.. And a ver^ great 

Liv. 2$. S. The Word came '' Multitude fpread their Gar- 

£rft from Jubml the Son of La- *' menta tn the Way ; others cut 

smnfr, the Inventor of Mofical '* downfiianches fiom theTrees; 

Inftrmnentt, G«r. 4. ai. ** and ftrewed them in the Way. 

{b) BifiLmnmU ; Lat. Gr. Btb. '* And the Multitudes that wen( 

i.^. Sapi wv iefffcb tbu^ or ** before, and that followed, 

G^biifs ibeXtm^. Solemn Re- ** cried, fayin|^, Hofanna to the 

joidnp among UK Jrcv/ 10 'die '' Son of David : blededia ho 

Fe^ of Tabermdea and Om« " that cometh in the Name ol 

gratulations to their Kings.—- ** the Lord, Hofanna ia tha 

V And Che Difdples wou, and '' Higheft. , 

BJoQin Ihadcs t|^ ^pumain of yfe, an4 aU alo 
where the clear River of filifs flpw§ through the Mi( 
of Heaven ^ w'uh thcfe immortal flowers the ^l^& 
Sjpirit? bind tlieii: glorious Locks^ wreath'd in with 
Beams of Light. Now the bright Pavement, that 
fhone like a §a of Jafper, roide Purple with h^^vcn- 
ly Rofes, was covered with the Garlands which ^hcy 
had thrown p^j afterwards taking their Crowns a^a^, 
and their golden Harps that hiing (always tunM) U^p 
Quivers glittering by their Side, with fweet Pri^am- 
Me of charming Symphony, they ulher in their mofl: 
facred Song and exalted Praifes, no Voice being ex- 
empt; for fuch Concord there is in Hcavep, that 
there was no Voice but could well join in fuch melo- 
dious Extafy. 

To Thee, Oh? great God and Father of all!, 
they &ng iirft, almighty, unchangeable, i^^^)ort^». 
ipfeiite and eternal King? the Author pf all Being^. 
2fid the Fountain of Light, Thyfelf being invifiblc, 
a^d not to be ^proach'd amidft the glorioua Bright- 
n^ where T^kju fit'ft enthron'd -, hut then wh^ T^nou 
carts a Shadow over the full Blaz? of thy Beiups^ thy- 
Skirts aj^ear, though drawn round about The?, like. 
^ radiant Shrine ; darkening with exceffive Brighmefs,* 
and dazling Heaven, fo tiiat the brighteft Seraphim 
cannot approach, 'till they have veU'd theic J&y^ s 
with dieir Wings. 

Thee, firft of all Creation, Thee they fung next. 
Begotten Son! Divine Similitude ! in whofe Counte- 
nance, without a Cloud and made vifible ia tl^e Fkfh^ 
^ Almighty Father fkines, whom no^ Creature 
clfe can behold : On Thee imprefs^d abides the Efful- 
gence of his Glory, and On Thee refb hb Spirit, 
pour'd out in Abundance and at full.: B^^ Thee he* 
created the Heaven of Heavens, and all the Pwers 
that are therein ; and by Thct thr^w down fiich of 


CHiap. IL Paradise Los^^ ic^^ 

tfaofe, as through Pride and Ambition became rebelli- 
ous : Then Thou dfdft not Ipare div Fat h e r's dreadful 
Thunder, nor ftop thy ffamiiig Uianot Wheels, that 
ihook the everlaidng Frame of Hef,yen ; T*.hUe Thoft 
^rov*ft over the Neck of the warrine; Angels, routed 
v\d put to FTigTit : Returning \)a(:k from mat ^rfpit, 
tby holy Angels celebrated Thee with loud Shouts, 
calling Thee Son of thy F a t h e r's Might,, to exr 
eciik 'fierce Vengeance oh his Enemies : -Ngt fo^ 'on 
MA-ft ; but hfe thro' tht Malice of Devils fallen, Vkob 
Father of Mercy ahd GVace, didft hot doom liim 
fo ftridly, but much rather incIinM to Pity : No foo- 
iter did thy dear and only Son perceive that Purpofe; 
but he much more intlinM to Pity,* to appeafe thy 
Wrath, artd end the Con teft perceivable irt Thte, be; 
tween thy Jufticc ahd thy Mercy, without feegard td 
t'heThroiw of BUls wherfcon he fat, anci ifcc6nd' ta 
Thce^ dffcr'd hiihfelf to die for Bie OBenoi and Biifi; 
^btdiieilce of Man. Oh Love! withotit Example: 
Love triily divine! Hail tht? ^6n of God; Hail 
^aviodr of M e n ! henceforth ihj Name fhall be the 
|;ftat Subjeft of our Song, nor fliall our Harps ever 
$egle6t thy Praifes, or feparate them from the Praifes 
6f God the eternal Fa the r. 

Thus happily the Angels fjicnt their Time in 
Heaven above the ftarry Sphere, in fmging Hymns of 
feoly Praife and Songs of Joy. 


(ISO Paradise Lo^st. Book Itl, 

• ♦ » 


Satan Uglti upon the bare Ctmvex of the World* s 
outermoft Orby where hefirji finds a Pl^ce fince 
called the Limbo of Vanity, 

MEAN ^hii^ Satan lighted and walk'd 
upon that firm opacous Globe of this round 
World, whofe firft Convex divides th^ infe- 
rior Orbs that are under it, and enclofes them fron> 
Chaos and Night : ^ar off it fee^i'd a Globe, but 
how a boundlefs Oontinient, dark, wade, and wild, 
under the Darknefs of Night, exposed, ftarlcft, with 
Storms of Chaos always bluftering round it, and ai^ 
indement Sl^ ; excepting on that Side^ which» thoi* 
at great Diftance from the Walls of Heaven, gains 
fome imail Refle£tion of glimmering Air, lefs vex'd 
with loud Ten^peft \ here the Fiend walk'd at large; as 
vrhcn i Vulture (i) upon the Mountain Imavs, (k) 
(whofe fhowy Ki^gc bounds in the rpving Inhabitants 
cf Tartar YJ <^l) having left a Country where there 

Moantain ia Afi^t^ a Part of 
Mount Taurus , rifing from i% 
near the Ca/pian Sea ; and ex-! 
tending to tlie ^rtng of.tke 
Gauges. It parts Jmrtary from 
hidia^ dividing it into two Parts» 
/. €. farUfj <w$thiup and Tiar- 
cafy wtkwi the bums. Now 

(I) Tartary % Sjr. i.e. D^rk, 
n Remnant; beeaafe ihev are 
thought to be the Renainaer of 
the Ten Tribes of ^«#/. Tar* 
taty, is a very large Coontrjr 
between Mu/cavy and In4&m^ a* 
bout 3000 Miles in Length, and 
2250 Miles in Breadth 1 the 

{i) Vultura Lau u e. of a 
piercing Jh^tf Sight, A ytry 
voracioas Bird, meger than an 
Eagle, of an exceuent Sagacttv 
of Sight 'and Smelling above all 
other Birds ; fo that it can per- 
ceive the Savour of dead Car- 
cafles fifty Miles off; and appear 
two or three Days before any 
great Slaughter. They feed on- 
Ij upon C^rcaiTes, but prey not 
spon any livine Creatoiies. 

{k) hmam i Lot, Gr. Tat. con- 
traOed from Mas Tag, i. e. The 
MfUMtmim •/ Suew, as the Tar- 
iars caU it ; being always co- 
vered therewith. A vaft high 

C^p. III. Paradise Lost, iti 

vms Scarcity of Prey, with Intent to devour the Flcfh 
of Lambs and young Kids, flics towards the Springs 
of Ganges, (m) or Hydaspes, (n) (which are Ri- 
vers of India) but in his Way lights on the barren 
Plains of Seri CAN A, (^) where the Chinese 

(p) drive 

AkA Fm of Jfia. The Ro' 
^/uins ailed it Styitia, i. e. 
Wxathfal and farioos i or Tmt. 
SMUia, i.e. Si$$tittgi bccaofe 
the Scjthiams were excellent 
Shooxtrs, or Marks-men. The 
Pfrfiams and Chi$iifir ciU it Ta- 
tmpa and fata, i. e. Invaders 
and Robbers, from Tatar^ the 
eldeft Sonof itfini3BatCi&a«» who 
was dieir Foonder. The Tatars 
became better Ipiown in Eurofi 
about J. i>. 1 168» when they 
fbbdned Part of Mofcivy^ and 
became Mailers of China ; tho* 
it is not thoroDghly known to 
this Day.' The Epithet Roving 
is very proper ; beqiafe they 
wander about in Companies, in 
Tenn, feeding their Cattle, with* 
oot any fixed Houfes, or Habi- 
tations. See, the Genealogical 
Hiflory ofthe7«/«fi, tranfuted 
from the 7aiar Mandfcript, A. 
D. 1730. 

(m) Ganges i In J. i e. Tie 
Rmer^ or from a King of that 
Name. A famous River of h' 
£a, larger than any in Europe, 
except tJie Fe/ga and Dannbe^ 
efpecially when it overflows ; bat 
noted ror the Gpodnefs and 
Lightnds of its Water. The 
Indians fay, it iandlifies them 
when they drink or waAi them- 
felvasin it. Four or Five Hun- 
dred Thotofand oi them are feen 
about ]t«' throwing Money into 
ii, fie. which they chink nay 

be ufeful to them when dead. 
The Great Mognl and all others 
drink the Waters of it ; for it if 
carried far and near, and fold a( 
a dear Price, becaufe they fool- 
ishly fimfy that it fprings from 
Paradife. It riles on Mount h 
mans la vis/arf, divides the 
whole Empire mto two Part^ 
after a Coarfe -of 300 German 
Miles, or 1300 Englijh^ di(^ 
charges itfelf into the Bay of 
Bengal in five chief Mouths. In 
fome Places it is five Leagues o- 
ver : There are manv Tarae !• 
flands in it befet with fine IreeSp 
which give a ^elightfol PrQ^Q. 
It overflows at the iifoal Time 
of the Year, as die Mr//, Ni^^ 
Euphrates^ &c. from the fame 
Caofe. Now Ganga, by the 
Inhabitants there. 

(«} Hjdajpesi hi. fitmi « 
King of that Name. Another 
femous Riv^ of InMa^ which 
runs by I^a, Lah»r, and other 
great Cities, into the In^an O- 

(0) Sericana ; Arat, i. e. 9%r 
Country 0/ Seres ; the Pofterity 
of Joktan, who from JrabiM 
Fttlix peopled that Part of /»• 
iia, between Imlus and Hfdajpet^ 
near to CHna, now called Ca^ 
ehay I Tat, i. e. A great Eafiem 
Country, Thoie antient People 
we(e thelnventors and firflWork^ 
ers of Silk, from whence it is 
called Serieum, This and Qnna 


193 Paradise Lost. Book III* 

). drive their light cany Waegons wathWind and Satis ; 
^ J the Piend walkM m smAdowrif alone^ upon thds 
hew Region, bent on iiis Prey ^ alone indeed^ for in 
the Place where He now was, mo other Creature might 
be found, living or. dead ^ none as yet^ l>ut afcerwjutii 
like airy Vapours flew up from the Earth great Store 
of all tranfitory and vain Things, when Sin had fillM 
the Works of M E N with Vanity, and not ondyali 
vain Things, but all who in vain Things buSlt their 
fond Kbypes of Glory, or laftjng Fatnc, or their Hap-r 
pinefe, either in this or ^e other Life ; all vthb hav^ 
their Reward upon Bardie who go about otily feeking 
to ^n the praifit of M ck, the Fruits of painful Su^ 
pcrftition and blind Zeal ; fuch find here a fit Retribu- 
tion, as empty as their own D6eds : A41 the linfinilh'd 


wis called the Silken ICii^oiii ; 
im in one Province of CJ^ina (u 
Li CfMtg (ays) there Teems to h9 
Sflk fttfEcient for all the World. 
See Pag. i^S. f Obs. SilJc 
was known in EMrofir&r^ in yii- 
JUnimfCs Time, about the Mid- 
dle of the 5th Centiuy, by two 
MonkSf who canu^ from li^a, 

(f) Cbmefi ; The People of 
Qffna. The antieUt Htbnwi 
called It ^f « ; the Modems^ Zin i 
the Arabs, E£in ; the Perfians 
:uid Tatars f Ifcbiui and the 
iuropfanSf Sinarum Pigiff, and 
CUmd^ from the Sina, from one 
of its antient Monarchs^ Ci»a or 
Cbinc ; or from Chung i i. •• 
Thg fingdtm of tbi MiJdiiZ 
j^caufe the Chineft think 
It lies in the Middle of tKe 
Earth: Or, an Excellent Coon- 
try: Or, from 5#«r, whofe Po- 
gerity they are« Chints is ^ moft 
antient and large Empire in the 
Bail of Afia : h \vas founded 
^01^ after the Flood, and go- 

verned by its own £inpen>rs a^ 
l^ye 4000 YearS| till UitTaiari 
expeird the lail £mperqr» called 
FaaUts ot Fachir % A. D^ 1278^ 
and was not known to the Enrt^ 
pians till the lath jpentury. Ii 
is about 1380 Miles in Lengthy 
1260 Miles in Breadth, and 
con£fls of 16 Provinces, moft 
of which are as large* as imy 
Kingdom in Eifr§ft. The Peo- 
ple, for their NumberSj LttJti^ 
ing, Laws, Culloms, (sfr. <yf- 
fer from all others, becaufe they 
had no Cbnyeriation with any. 
They are verycunnin^concelted. 
indudrious, almoft 9ilPagam$ uA 
QrankCbiats. The C^i*^/ have 
s^ve 60,000 Letters, yet not 
above 300 Woi^^f aikI write 
from the Top to the Bottoav of 
the Page. Their Country is to, 
plain, that in many Places of it, 
they drive Waggons made of a 
Sort of Ctoe> with Saik in4 

Chap. Ill* Paradise )L.p ST, 123 

Works cS Nalture, all that are abortive, monftrous, 

or not mix'd aqcording to Kind, being diflblv'd upon 

Earth fly hither, and wander vainly her^ •jill final Dif^ 

iphidloft^ not in ^e neiglfbouring Moon* as Ariosto 

qxmSl fome others have d^eam'd, (that bright Planet 

may more likely be ftlppoVd to be inhabited by tran- 

fiated Saints* or Spirits of a middle Nature^ betwixt 

the angelical and human Kind) hither, to this Limbo 

of Vawty, came fierft thofe Gfsnts, who wertJ born 

when the Sons of G o d jpin'^d themfelves ill ifk the 

Daughters of thofe who lyere not of G q i> : The next 

who came were the Bfcii}ders of Babel upon the 

Plain of Shikar, (q) who ftifl had they whercwitfial 

would build new Babels: Others came fingle, Em- 

PEDocLEs, (r) who, that he mtghf: be thought a God» 

foiKily kap*d into die Flames ef the burning Mount 

£tha ) and CLEi>M brotus, (s) who leapM into the' 


{fi Sbixari Beh. i. e. Seat- 
Urhig : Becaafe the People were 
lettered over all xhe ^rth : Or, 
flKldne oat of a Tooth» from 
die &nfi»6oTL of Langaaeesy 
Gin, 10. 10. A Part of Chal- 
dutf where himrod built his 
"^oW. For Countries were caU 
Mfirom the Captains of thofe 
ifiat iSrft (ettled in thc^} : Bat 
this is fo csHedy to keep up the 
Memory of that iad Accident co 
future Ages. 

(r) Empedocksi Znf. from the 
Qr. i. e. ShfhU in Ghry,: A 
vmi-gloriotta Phflofopher, Hi- 
fbiian «hd Poet; and Difbiple 
of Pjihawrasi bom at Jtgi*i' 
gtianm \fiSUily9 the Son of Afr* 
Mr, who onoe refufed a. King- 
dom. He Honriflied in the^4th 
Oipnpiady A. M. 3^58, and 
bdbre Jrfus ChriJI 486. He 

wrote a flook Of 9f attiral Philo- 
fophy in Heroic Verfe, and \% 
fuppofed to be the firH that bad 
any Knowledge of Rhetoric,' 
To be honoured as a God after 
Death, he ftole from his Com* 
pany by Night, and threw him* 
felf into the Mouth of Mount 
JE'tna^ as if he had been tran- 
ihted into Heaven: But tho 
Flames threw up his Brazen San- 
dalSy and foon betray'd his 
Ambltioi^. See Uprat. </# 
Arti P^it, But others iay, that 
he fell into the Sea, aod wa^ 

(i) OiMftrotus ; Lat, Gr, i. e. 
7hi Giory of Mcrtals. A foolifll 
young Greek of Jmiracia, a 
City of Epirus^ who was {o 
m^ch taken with . Plato\ Book 
of the Immortality of the Soul* 
that he leaped headlong ^om a 
^ ^ WaU 

124 P'aradisb Lost. Book III. 

Sea, to enjoy the Elyfium of PtATO ; (l) and rqany 
mpre too tedious to mention; Embrio's, Idiots^ and 
Hermits I («) Fryars, white, bkck, and grey, witl^ 
aji ;heir fooliffi Trumpery : Hither Pilgrims (x) 
roam^ that have wander'd fo far^ tg feek him dead in 


MTall into tht Sea» the. (boner ta 
be a Partaker of the BlKs in Sfy* 
fimn. Gctro, Two of that Name 
were Kings of Sparta, long be- 
fore this Man. 

(1) Plaio ; Lai. from the Gr: 
L e. Broad: fiecauijp he was 
lMmch-Inick*d and broad in his 
j^rehead. His firft Name was 
Jn^9fleh Qr. i.e. TbehftGU- 

21 for the Name of his Grand- 
ther ; bat he retained the lat* 
ter. A famous Philofopher, bora 
at Aibifu in the firft Year of the 
98th Olympiad, A. M. 5^76, 
before Jefiu Chrtft 482, and died 
sa the firft Year of the SSth O- 
fyafiad, before Jifus Cbrift 248, 
Apd Si|^ and upon the fame 
Say he was bom Being an In- 
&nt, and ikeping one Day nn« 
4tt a Myrtle Tree, a Swarm of 
Bees fettled upon his Lips, which 
was taken for an Omen, that he 
ihould be very Eloquent, which 
kappened to be true ; and there- 
lore he was called the Atbeniam 
Bee, lor the Sweetnefs of his 
Style. By his Travels into £• 
gypt, Chaldea, India^ and read- 
ing the Books of Mtfes and the 
Plnopket8,he attained ^reatKnoiif- 
kdge of God, Religion, and 
Nature ; therefore he is called 
the Dhvim Plato » He was Scho- 
lar to Socrates, Euclid, and the 
bell Mafters of the Age. He 
was a notable Rhetorician, Chief 
of the Academics, and produced 

many eminent Scholars: Nay» 
the PrimitiYeGuriflians embra^e^ 
his Syton of philofophy, as 6ur 
nearer to the Holy Scriptures, 
dian that of the Epiaae9am,Stmeit 
and Peripafoftici, He has left 
many Books, which arc written 
in the Forqi of Dialouges, ex- 
cept onlr his Epiftles. ^intiH^ 
an fays,tnat he leema not to fpeak 
the Ilang^ge of Men,, but of tho 

(u) Hirmita ; Gr. i. e. Ihvil' 
lirt in the Wildimifs. At firft. 
Holy M^n for the Sake of Cl^ift 
and their Liyes, in hot Pcr&ca*. 
tions, hid themielves in Defarts^ 
Dens and C|ves \ and gave them- 
ielves wholly to Fatting, Prayer, 
and great /Legerities. Panl the 
Tbiian, abou; J. D. 260, lived 
about 100 Years in a Cave : Jn- 
thonj inftituted the Heremitical 
Life in Egypt, and died A. D. 
36 1 . But the Chvirch of Mmt 
hath made many Innovations 
therein fince. 

M PilzrifW'f fr. from the 
Latn i. e.. Strangirjj Men that 
travelled thro* fiK^JgnCouatcies, 
to pay their Devotions to &ii>ia 
departed. Shrines, ftelicks. 7^ 
Chriftian Pilgrims went to ^n- 
fal^, Romf, St. logo. Sec and 
the Tari^^ to Mecca in Jraifa^ 
every Year in folemn Proc«fli- 
om, tovi&t the Topib of ilAH 

Chap* in* Paradise Lost* 13 e 

G01.GOTHA, (j) who lives in Heaven ; and they, who 
fb be certain of going to PAkADisE, put on the Weeds 
6f Saint Pominic (z) when they are dying, or think 
to flip in, difguis'd , in the Haoit of Saint Frajt- 
c 1 s: {a) They paifs the feven Planets,, (b) and thfe 
fix'd Stars^ and all that is talkM of, of Chriftaline 
Spheres and Primum Mobile: And now Saint Peter. 
»t.the Entrance of Heaven feems to wait for them 
with his Keys, and now they lift their Feet as at the 
Alcent of Heaven, when a violent trofs Wind from 
either Coaft, blows them tranfvcrfe through the path- 
left Air, ten Thoufand Leagues awry : Then Cowles, 
Hoods, and Habits^ with their Wearers, are flutter'd 
into R^s: Then Reliques, (c) Beads, {d) Indtilg^n-- 


(y) G9^tU ; Hik Sjr, x. e. 
A ScuJI: Becaaie of the ScolU 
and other Bones of Criminals 
caKcated thefe. The Place 
where OMfi was crodfyM 6n 
Mount M§Hat, upon the North 
Side of Jirmfalem^ Mai. 27. 
34. It was the fame Spot where- 
on IfoAc was to be offered 2000 
Years before, and was a lively 
Type of this. 

(s) Dmdmei $p. ItaL Fr. 
Lsi. i. e. fhi Urd. Domini^ 
ntr, ft SfaMtmrJ, was the Author 
of that Order» callM Dminican 
Friars, inftitnted J, D, 1205. 
The Inqnifiton are of this Order. 
Some ignorant Creatures put np* 
on dying Perlbns a Prieft's Robe 
of theCe Orders, to carry them 
fiife through Ptorgatory. 
. («) St. Frmmeis was an Italian 
Merchant, firft caird Jobn^ who 
inftitnted the Order of Franci/- 
MS Friars, A, D. 1192. 

H) Pianitti Lai. Gr. i. e. 
Waaderinf Stan \ becanfe of 
Aeir various Motions, ^u A* 

firon. T« Thnr are feven k| 
Number, nnx. Satunt, Jupittr^ 
Mart, Sutr, Fmus, Mirtwyg and 
and the M$9n. 

(c)RiiiaMit, or Ri/icJti^ Fr. 
ItaL ^Sp. Lat, i. e. Remains or 
Fragments of the Bodies and 
Cloths of Saints, preferved by 
Rman Catholicki, with greae 
Veneration, wfu A Finger^ a 
Toe, ft Tooth, a Girdle, &c« 
and ftll worihipped by them. 

{if) Beads i Teut. Sax. Dui. 
L t. Prayers, round Balls made 
6f Amber, Wax, Woods, Glaft, 
Silver, Gold, commonly of i^ 
Tens, igc. whidi the Rmanipt 
count at Prayers, by reckoning 
of which they know how often 
they have r^eated their Pater- 
nejter, dve^mary, Credo^ &c. as 
they areenjoined by their Priefts, 
.even in the Streets and at Work; 
Uke the old Pharifees, Turks^ 
and Hypocrites. The Heathens 
•t Malabar ufe Beads made of 
the Bark of Trees, as powerful 
Antidotes againft Satan, Sin and 




cies, (0 tTifpciff^tidhs, (/;;pafc(6ns. Bulls, f^; arj^ 
all the Sport of rfinM: Ail' ttefe* whirled upwaras, 
Ity over the BackTidc of the Worid into a large andf 
Broad Limbo, (i?) fihcecaird the Pabladisz oV 
FdoLS; which though how unpeopled and itotrcfdy 
in Procefs of Tiific became unknown to few. 

ii^ii di ■■ 


»r> kttt tiirt* * 4> 

€ H A P. IV. 


Sataii TMr^i to^ the Gates of Htawn ; bit Pdf4gt, 
tbence to /beOr^ (f the S(in$ n»btre be fadi 
Uiiel the Regent tberetf^ and^ upon Jnptir^ h 

< direifed to the Habitation of Man^ 

SATAN paf^ on and ^^randef^d ag^iSrt:i«^1riIe< 
'till at4aft a Gleam of Light causM him to di- 
red his Steps towards it; far diftant he difco-% 
vers a hi^ Spufture, afcending by magnfficent De« 


Daiigen, whidi tre prepared bf 
an holf Oritr of Men onlf , olU 
Ifid Antieodi ; and the^urh nfe 
Beads ano to perfime them-. 

(t) Induiginntx Fr. Ital. Spi, 
T»t. Lmi. i. e. Beating or coat* 
ng with one ; Relajoilions oi 
Lmrties, granted by chef Popes, 
to dHjpcnfe with ibne Dntia, or 
xemoriiis the Infiidion of ftmo 
temporal PomAfliiieiit^ da6 ftf 
Sins pa0, or to ooaw. Cardinal 
MiJmf^thi afiimis, tiac Indnf^ 
flences are cmnted for a ^009 
Y^an ; but diey are fold at a 
rcTf high Price. 

(/) Dijkntfa. or DiJ^^Bjk^ 
tUns I Fr. hai. Lat. Sofferings 
or Permiiiottf granted by the 
Pop^, CO do Things contrary to 
the Laws of God or Man, for 

ib mnch Money. 

(gj Bnih I Lai. Gr. 1 1. Cuut^ 
€tU: Becaufe fbrMifrly the)r 
wte grtoted by €Ut OdoreM of 
a Council ctf State 1 or frorii Lmi. 
L e. Omdments, b«iAg«biDnt the 
Necks of Childieoy MceaSeal» 
Briefs, Licaiccs of Fopet, to 
which Leaden or Gdldeo Soak 
were affix'd ; and paffchas*d aiC 
a fet Pfiee from the Bope*s £x« 

{£) Limi$i ItaI:Sp. haf^ Le. 
a# Birdn^ rfa Gmrmint i Volg. 
lamhu Patrum. A Mace hax^ 
ciedbyPapiib, boideriag mioa 
Hell, where they Ay, the Sooh 
of all the Patriardts and other 
jnft Men, fiom the Begiluufl|;^ 
wtreconfin'd, till Chntt at .hia 
Paffion defoended thither, and 
fet them at Liberty. 

Ciup. l9. Para d t^e Lost. t2j 

grccsL up^ to the IW^ of Hcivqi, at the Top of which 
^ut far mojce fpmptuous) appeared wh^t feemM to 
be a Royal Palac^ Gate, wlm a Front ftt off witU 
Gold ^nd Diamonds } the Forfal j^one thick with 
fearlding Jewels, impofllble to b? imitate^ upon 
Earrfi, cidief in Model: or Pifture. The Stairs were 
ftich as thofe were whereon Jacob (i) faw Angcjs 
aibendmg and defcendii^ Bands of bright Guardi- 
ans, when he fled from Esau (k) as far a« PADANf^ 
AkaM) (/) and the Field of hvz^ (m) a^ V^ by 
Night lay dreaming under the open Air, and waking 
from his Sleep cry*d out. This is thb Gate os; 
HtAVEN*. fiaich Stair was myftefloufly meanl^ nor al- 
ways, flood there, but fometimes was drawn up^tQ 
Heaven out of Sight; and underneath chcne; fiow'd a 


iit Hitl } or trippiog up his 
Brother *s Heels; oecaufe he laid 
liQU.of ius SnofthoCs ilcel ii^ ^ 
Birtlx^ as if Jic^iUddepciyic hii|\ 
pf hi> Ituthught ac.firft, Gen^ 
25. f6i..' ASi^^fOant^, or J>e^ 
cciYtr, hec^Jj^Jbe pitwi^tadliisi 
Bxotker ^oi^^^^os^ t^VOf^i^^t 
2j*?/S*.*7f 3$- -Hi/* »2. 2i 
Theiecond Soa^^f Ifiium aad ^#-: 
j«r£«, and Father of the twelve 
Patriarchs, He was. born, abouti 
A.M, 2t^9 and died Ia ^i^//«> 
i47ycars ofA§|,H« was a grand 
Mater of j'^/boaoaBy, Aftrolog)^, 
{2r« an4 al^ a Divine Propbci;* . 
(i) £/^ I . j%»^ L e* fFrngi^. 

nor^ f»mf^^,at hia fiicth thmi 
odmr tChUdKfliK biji|g..€0v«frdi 
all ^jsr v^ih Ufif | a» oi\a<lhat isi 
<dd, a«d.of: a firo9g|BC Coafii(ii». 

I^t^nd the Ty^nV. It is called 

Pddan only, i.' e/ A Pi/r • 
Sometimes, >frtfm, i. e. A River 
of Aramia or ^r/ii, fometimea 
NaJ^ursfh^ i.e. I&mr/; and 
FV«« .^^nlni. By the Gr^iirj 
idifip9inmuy i. «« Ja tho niddta; 
of Rtfars. By. the Arshii Ail 
Omtirmy i. e. . "Lit, Ifia^dc By 
Shei Leai9«» hUvmmm : Bacaafe 
it. lies along the^Baftk* of tibo. 
Rivers: And by the- saodem. a:/- 
nabiAfn* Di^rhec at DhwAMJ^"; 
i e. ^hmrDukt'j daMiry. T^ 
this CottDU^r JdKoi.wu £ett by: 
his Moihaiv tdavoid the Bereogfi 
of hir.BAidMe^. and dwelt 21; 

(n^ LuKji Jitk Ar4it* u e. At 
Ab/ Jr/r^ or .rather the Almvni' 
Trt9: beoaafe'raan^r of thole 
Tsees giflan tiwnaboutv anaaii-^ 
eat .Cit^r in Cdndmnv In Memc^ 
ry of the glorions .Vi£on that 
JacSb had near to it, he called- 
It Btthd, i. c. The tt^/i «/ 
Gs^ which Name it kept bat^ 
many Agee after. 

t^S Paradise Lo^T. Book IE[« 

bright Sea of Jafper, or of liquid Pearly whereon 
whoever came after from the j^arth, arri7*d felling 
'tad wafted over by Angels, or clfe flew over the 
Lake, caught fwiwy away, and drawn in a fiery 
Chariot by fiery Steeds, as Elijah the prophet was. 
At that Time the Stairs were let down, whether it 
were to dare Satan by the Eafinefi of the Afcent^ 
or to make his Exclufion from the dates of JHappi- 
nels'more grievous-, directly againft which fi-om be- 
neath, juA over . the happy Seat of Paradise, there 
ppenM a wide Paflage down to the Earth, (wider by 
far than that of After-times over Mount Si on, or 
than that, though it was large, w'hich wa3 over the 
promised Land fo dear to G o d, by which his Angels 
pals*d frequently to and fro to perfoi'm his greaf dom- 
tnands, t(J theni whom he beneld with a choice Re- 
gard, being thofe who inhabited as far as*from Pan£- 
AS, (») faid to be the Fountain of the River (o) Jor- 

(«) Paniat; Hit. from Pane 
tnd im, i. e. ^e Momb of tbi 
Wmt$ri : becmufe a vaft Flood of 
Waters flow out of it. See G#«. 
32. 30. And theSoiirceof the liiU 
A Foantain in Pahflina^fosBit tlie 
old Town Lais or UJbim. Het. 
i. c. A roaring Lion, and the 
Pamian Cavt i irom which that 
Country was called Paneas, It 
becones a R^pid River, mnning 
diro' a hi Soil. Plitiy and o* 
ther Geographers of old thought 
it was the Source of Jordan^ out 
later Travellers have .difcovered 
die contrary ; for that is in 
Mount LiSanottf four Leagues a- 
bovethis. It is theoutmoftSounds 
of the Promfid Land to the 
Norths as Btirfigba is to the 

{9) Jordan or Jardeni Bib. 
Gonipmcd Qi JorX. t. De* 

fcin£ng or rafiii or ttomjarkd: 
Hib, u e. Hcdifiindidi becaub 
of its rapid Current from the 
Mountains. And />»« : becaofe 
it ran by the old City, Dan^ 
from Dan the Patriacb^ 1. e. 
A Judgi. Thefe twa Fountaitff 
uniting there, make the River 
y^dan^ fo famous for manv 
* Miracles ; as the Tame and Ifii 
of Oufi uniting their Streams, 
a little below uarAefier in Ox- 
ford/bin^ make the River 
^bamis. It is the chief Rivef 
of Canaan^ rifing at the Foot 
of Mount Libanon, runs bv the 
Borders of it on the Baft, wnenco 
to the South in aCburfe of fifty' 
Leagues, 'till itloofeth itiUfm 
the dead Sea. By the Way it 
makes two Lakes, ij?. The Lake 
of ^imicbofi or Mtrom^ 1. e. 
A Harf^ and BitHr i becnrfe 


CStiSLp.tV. PAItADiSE LoSf. 129 

t>AK, quite to Bbersaba,^ (f) where the Holy 
Land borders upon Egypt and the Coaft of A r a- 
k I Ay (q) fo wide fcem^d the Opening where Bounds 
were fct to Darknelsi luch as af e fet to the Waves of 
Che Ocean^ that they cari go nd fatthen 

SaTak nowtipon the lowef Stair, fhat leads up 
by Steps of Gold to the Gates of Heatcn^ looks 
ddwn with Wonder af die flidden View of all this 
World at once ; juft as when a Scout has gone aU 
Night in Danger uirough dark and defart Ways, at 
laft at the Brok of chearRil Day cliintbs up to the 

K top 

that Lak6 ftprtfkntt a Harp, 
and tLe Waters are bictor ; it 
it dry in the SomiDer* y^/S^. it* 
5. tMf, The Lake of Gni^« 
reth, called the Sea of Galiht, 
or the Sea of fiierioj, J9b. 
o* t» Forty-foiir Milet from 7#- 
rufiJim Northward, four Mdet 
broad and twehe Miles long. 
y9rdgm ovttiovn the ^ks in 
March and Jtfrii, from the Snow 
and Rains that fall npon the 
Mooatains^ y^. }. ic^ Now 
it is not above twenty Yards at 
the broadcfft^ and about (Ere6 of 
lour Yards deep, unlefs whenit 
overflows, which Mr. Mauuitet 
cottld no^ obTerve, tho* he was 
there at the proper Time, nnx. 
mlidreh 30. J. D. 1697. which 
tie fttopofes to be either, beeanfe 
its Channel b deeper than it was 
of old I or becanfe the Waters of 
it may be diverted fome other 
Wirtr. It is coirered aH' along 
with Trees, which make a plea- 
lent Siglit, but a dangerous and 
dificttlc coming at it. 

(p) ttirMii. or if&Jhikt i 
Hsk. ut. 7bf WM0fibi^O^b 

BmH ahd MimeUebmzie wd Alli- 
ance upon Oath, G#a. ci. 31. 
A Town fitoated npon the at* 
moft Bounds of the holy Land, 
{ortyMiles from J^rm/a/imSoath" 
ward i and built upon that Ac* 
CQtant It bekmgea to the £^- 
miiit$ then to the SimMia, It. 
was a great Town in the Days of 
St, Jir9m, the Chriitiaos in the 
holy War, fortified it againft thd 
Tuarh and Arahi i fince thatTime 
it bdongeth to the Tm-ks, and isi 
much decayed. It is now called 
Ctaltim or GiBlifii. 

if) ArmBia t MeB. i. t. tlach 
mixid, a R$bbert becaafe the 
Inhabitants pf it a^e fuch : ra* 
ther from Enii Hib, i. e. the 
Wtp : becaufe it lietf oYi the fFt^ 
tSJudgm. A brgeCmitry m 
Afla, between Eppt and JuJea^ 
the RidSia and the Pirfian Gmlf^ 
divided into the Stony, the De- 
Hk, ahd HappyJ h #a9 jgrfl 
peopled by J^bif^ and his tUr- 
teen Sons ; by Ifmoil, Founder 
of the HMjtmriHs or SMtacnit i 
then by E/mM, and from hinf 
tnat twelve grand PrincO^ aa4 
at mifii^ Naueas^ 

130 Paradise LosTt Book I]ii 

vy Top of fome high Hill, which unaw;ire$ difcovers to 
/f his Sight the plealant Profpcd of foxnc fibreign Counr 
' tty he had never fcen before, or forac renownM NJc^ 
tropolis, adom'd with glittering Towers and Spire^ 
which the rifing Sun gilds with his Beams : Sudi 
Wonder feizM me malignant Spirit, though he had 
feen Heaven, but Envy fciz'd him much more at 
Sight of all this World, which he beh^d fo beautifuU 
Round he furveys, (and well he might where he &x>o^ 
fo high above the circling Canopy of the extended 
Shade of N i c h t^ from Eaft to Weft, and thes 
frohi North to Soutn he views in &*e^th; and with* 
out any longer Paute throws hisnfelf downrigHt into 
tbe World's firft Region, and winds this Way and 
that Way through the clear Air, amon^ numMrlef^ 
Stars, that at a Diftance fhone Uke nothing but what 
they appear to us, but nigh Hand they feem^d other 
Worlds, or happy Iflands like thofc Hesperian (r) 
Gardens, fo famous of old,' plentiful Fields, pleafaiMP 
Groves,' and flowery Vales, thrice happy Habitati^ 
ons ; b^t who dwelt happv there^ Satan ftaid not t# 
enquire. Above them all the golden Sun, likeft ia 
Spkndor to Heaven allurM \:}ss Lye % thither he bends 
his Coiirfe through the calm Firmament ; but ^tis hani 
to tell his Courfe thither, whether upwards or down* 
wards, or in a direft Line ; where the great Lumina* 
ry^ among the thick Conftellations, tliat keep duf; 
Diftance from him, difpenfes light &om ^far; They 
as they move turn their fwift and various Motions, 
. which compute Days, Months, and Years, towards 
his all-chearing Lamp % or elfe are tum'd by his at* 


(r) He^Mg ; Ut. Gr. L e. the Grnh nfilmtwcfXL H^ 

Wefitrn. The ^mous Gardens rw and ytfynrtu) wlieftifL UPCCf 

of HiJ^ertu. the Brother of iit^s . GoMea Apfiks* kept bf a walcb* 

(f fid to be in the ^wt/im Iffliuidi ful Dragon, The Fable is takto 

if Cafi Vird or the Canaria^ fiom the. Garden of Sdm, «n4 

which belqng to J/Hm, and lye the glorious fraiu theie* 
iinder the Evcatng Sca^ (nrhich ^ 


ChsLpd iV. I^AkADisfi Lost. 131 

traftire F«wcr that warms theUnivcrfe gently* and 
Srith kind Influence darts invifible Virtue, even to the 
tottom of the Oqean } To marvdioufly was he fat in 
as hn^ht Station : There landed Satan^ a Spot, like 
which perhaps no Aftronomer in theSun*slhining Orb| 
ihou^helpd by pcrfpeftivc Glaffcsi ever faw : He 
found the rlace bright beyond all Expreflion^ compa* 
red widi any Thine oii Earthy either Metal or Stone ( 
not all the F^rts auke^ but all alike enlightened in all 
iParts; as red hot Iron is with Fire ; if Metal^ Fart of 
it leemM Gold^ and P^ clear Silvery if Stone, moft 
Carbupclr, {s) or Chrrfolite, (t) or Ruby, (u) of 
Topazt (x) or the twelve that (hone in the Breaft- 

Ka Flatc 

Sfmm. £^. i «• A lUiU turning 

bling A buroiBg Coil in its Laffere 
or CfJkmr. In Sek. Smrektti, 
L t. JUkkMhf. In Or. Smg^ 
TMidft, 1. e* Iff ^/' It was the 
tiiird of Chefaft Row of precioos 
8toM in Jkr0M*t greaft Fhtc, 
ii^rcQnUiel^tmeof Ltvlwi$ 
engraved) to lliew that Dirmt 
KnoiHetee Ihonkl flrine in the 
Prieft» of the Lord, to iUnmi'* 
nace the Gbttreh* Effkf. aS. tp 
Unt. J. t4« t6. It ii an antieht 
but a vnlgar Brror« to fay^ a 
Ckrbunde g^vos Light in the 

(r) Ctn/tiiii I Lat. Or. I e. 
AGMimSi^Mt becanfe it Ibinet 
like Gokl. It was the flrft of 
the 4tk Row, on whidi 4/^ir 
WiaCttt It isof a Simfretw Go- 
Boor* which (hewed that his Ha* 
bitftCiou fliooU be near she Sea« 
JEffW. aS. 20. y^ft. 19. 24. X<w« 
jt. 20. 

(nfj Jtrnfyf Ui. le. Rid: A 

preclons Stone of t glorious red 
Coloar, as red as Blood. la 
tifb, AcbUma^ fcom which the 
Qruh call ir Aoiethj^ft, i.#. 
Not to inebriate 1 ioit it is re* 

eirtcd to be an Antidote t6 
raokennefs* It is ibond in tho 
BMjI'India^ the Stony Jraka^ 
ArmiWMt tMt^ Cyfrus^ Sec. 
It wai the Id of the 3d Jtow# 
whereon Oad was inicfibed } t<» 
teach him Waichfaineft anl 
Temperance I and was alfo a 
Sign of his Viaories, which 
were prediAed, Gnr. £0. 19. 
E*Mf. 28. 19. and fulnued t 
Chron.t, 18. 19. 

(») Tipan I Hit. from which 
the Griits formed ftpsniMt L 
e. OMin, A Stone of a goMea 
and gf eea Coloor, found In f • 
fbi^a^ Jvb. 29. 19. And ia 
the Ifland ftfndMm. which lies 
in the AraHun Gulph^ It wai 
the ad of the firft Row where- 
on the Name of Shut^ was en* 
graven. Ewd. 28« 17. Jt#w. 

132 P A k A t> I s ft L o s T. Book; III. 

Plate of Aaron, (yj or that, feen rather in Imagi- 
nation thah tllewherc, Alchymifts have lb long beeli 
in vain Starch after, though by their powerful Ai;|t 
they bind Quickfilvcr, and change Matter int6 ^fl 
Manner of Forms : What Wonder then if the Fields 
and Regions here breath forth p6rc Elixir, and Rivers 
run -witii liquid Gold j when with one powerful Touch 
jhe Sun, though fo far remote from lis, and *mix*d 
with earthly Matter, here in the Dark produces fo 
many precious. Things, of Colour fo glorious, and of 
fo rare Effedb ? Here the Devil met new Matter to 
gaze at, nor was he dazled by fo much Light ; his 
Eye commands far and wide^ for here was -no Shade 
or - Obilacle to Sight, for all was Sunfhine ; as at 
Noon J fo now the Sun Beams flioot upward, ftill di- 
red, whence no Way round'cata fall any SliadiM^ from 
dark Bodies, and the Air Iharpen'd the Eyts of Sa- 
tan, to Objects far diftant, whereby he fobfi difco- 
ver'd within Sight a glorious Angel ftajid within, the 
Jame whom St. John (z) faw aUbki the^un; his 

' Back 

% • 

(y) JarpH ; firi. i. e. J 
'fountain. This Name was gl- 
^en him by Infpiration, predid- 
ing his high Advancement aivl 
IDigaity. and bis .Death upon 
ItJounc nor. HeL i.e. A Mot^n* 
saiu. The cidcil' Son of A/nram^ 
older than Mo/e^ by three Years, 
jrec named laibi. born in Egppt^ 
about. J, M. ^60. The hfi\ 
High-Pricft of the Je^jus by di- 
vine Eiedion. He died J. M, 
2583* in the i23d Year of his 
Age, before Jeftu Chrifi 1448^ 
in ,thc Land of Ldom* Jujlim 
thro' a grofs MiAake calls him 
A-^at and.thc Son of M§Jfs. 

(^J 7^^* i ^^' JihociMnani 
1.* c. Xiratioui. A proper Name of 
Mehamong thcyr<u'i,mentionedi 
Chron. 12. 12. Jir, 4U 11. 

Jebn the BafiiBf J^hn the J^ 
ffil^ John Mark^ &c; Here, 
■the ApoiUer and Author of the 
Book of (he Rtu$l^UMs^ who 
iawanAogelintheSun. " And 
I faw fui Anaeldjinding in 
the Sun ; and ne crie4 with 
a loud Voice^ faying to all 
the Fowls that fly in the midt 
of Heaven^, Come, mid ga- 
ther yoi^felves together uoio 
the Supper of the great God. 
That ye may eat the jFlefh of 
Kings, and the Fleih of Cap^ 
tains, and the Flelh of might/ 
*' Men, and the Fleih of Horfes^ 
and of them that fit on themj, 
and the Fie(h ti all Men botfr 
free, and bood> b^ {mall 
and great, * ' 









Cliap/IV, Paradise Lost^ .733 

Back was turn'd, but his Brightncfs was liot hid ; a 
golden Crown of the Beams pf the Sun*s Rays encir- 
cled his Head, nor lefs bright were his Locks that 
hung behind waving on his Shoulders, which were 
covcrM with Wings; he feem'd employed on fome 
great and important Affair, or fix'd in very deep Con- 

The impure Spirit was glad of this, as being now 
in Hope to find one who might dire£b his wandering 
Flight to Para Djs£, the happy Seat of Man, the 
proposed End of his Journey, and the Beginning of 
our Woe: But firft he confidcrs how he might change 
his Shape, which elfe might bring him into Danger, 
or be the Caufe of Delay ; and now he appears like a 
youthful Cherub, not one of the chief, yet fuch as 
Youth fmil'd heavenly in his Face, and to every 
Limb diffus-d fuitable Grace; fo well did he contrive 
to feign : Under a Coronet his flowing Hair play'd 
upon either Cheek in Curls ; he wore Wings of ma- 
ny party-colour' d Feathers fprinkled with Gold ; his 
Habit was girt about him, as fit for Travel, and hi 
held in his Hand, to help his Steps, a filver Wand. 
Satan did not draw nigh without being heard ; the 
bright Angel in the Sun, admonifti'd by his F^r of 
his Approach, turn'd his radiant Vifage, and imme- 
diately was known by him, to be the Arch- An- 
gel Ujiiel, (a) one of the fevtn who ftand in the 
Prcfence of God, neareft to his Throne, ready at 

K 3 Com* 

(^ Uriif; Hek i; cj. ne 

Ligitof God. -Milton^ from the 
Senfc of his Name very proper- 
ly imagines this Angel to be the 
fre^dent of the Son : For the 
Antien^s thoaght that aH the 
Superior Qr()s were governed by 
ibme Divine Intelligence, which 
moved them to worlhip thofe 
()rt^. One of the feyeo Arch* 

Angcb of the Prefence ; which 
feems to be taken from Zeck* 4t 
lo, ^c. not from 7obit 12. ij. 
For that Nambef mentioned 
there is an Apocryphal Story. 
However, this Name is not ifauod 
in Holy Scripture,' bu^ in the A- 
pocrypha, 2 E/dras^ Cfe. 4. i, 

134 Paradiss LiQst* Book Illt 

Command, and are as his Eyes that run through al) 
the Heavens, or bear his fwift Errands down to the 
Earth, over Sea and L,and; tohimJSAXAN apptoa^ 
ches, and thus addrefles himfelf: 

Uriel! for thou art wont to be the firft of thofe 
feven Spirits, that ftand in the Sight of Goo's high 
Throne, gloriouQy bright, to bring his ^eat authen- 
tick Will through the higheft Heaven, and to be the 
Interpreter of it ; where all the oth^r Angels attend to 
hear thy Embafly, and here art likelicft by fupremc 
. Decree to obtam like Honour, and as his Eye give 
frequent Vifitation to this new created World: An un- 
fpeakable Defire to fee and know all thefe his won-^ 
derful Works, but chiefly Man, whom he delights 
in uid favours fo much,, and for whom he hath ordai- 
ned all thefe, hath brought me thus wandering 
alorfe from the Choirs of Cherubim: Tell me,^ 
brighteft Seraph, in which of all thefe fhining 
Orbs hath Man his fix'd Seat? (or has he hia 
Choice, to dwell in which may plcafe him bcft ?) that 
^1 may find him out, gaze on him in fecret, or openly 
admire, that I may behold him on whom the great 
Creator hath beftoVd Worlds, and on whom he hath 
poured all thefe Graces j that in him and all Thuiw 
elfe, as is but meet, we may praife the Universal 
Maker, who juftly hath driven out todecpeft Hell hi« 
rebellious Foes 5 and to repair their Lofs, treated diis 
new happy Race of M e n, to fcrve him better : Wtf- 
dom is in all his Ways ! 

S o fpoke the falfe Deceiver, widiout bexn^ per- 
ceiv'd;, for neither Man nor Angel can dilcover 
Hypoaify^ which is the only Evil tl>at walks invifiblc 
through Heaven and Earth, jexcept to G o d alone, 
left lb by his permiflive Will •, and oftentimes though 
Wifdom keeps awake, Sufpicion fleepSj^ and while 
Goodncfs thinks no HI, where no 111 Icems tp be, to 


Oiap IVt Paradise Lost* 135 

SimpUd^ ^vts up the Charge : So Hypocrify now 
Tor once beguiPd U n i b l^ though he was Regent of 
the Sun^ and efteem'd to be the marpeft fighted Spi- 
rit in ail Heaven } who to the foul and fraudulent Im- 
poftor^ according to the Uprightneis of his own 
Heart, thus retum'd Anfwer : 

F A I Jt Aflgel ! thy Defire, which tends to the 
Knowledge of the Works of God, thereby to ^o* 
rily the great Work-Mafter, does not lead to any Ex- 
cels that deferves Blame, but the more it feems Ex- 
^fi, rather merits Pr^fe, that led thee hither from 
thy heavenly Maa^Cion thus alone, to witnefs with thine 
9wn Eyes, what many perhaps have only heard in 
Heaven, contented with a Report j for full of Won- 
der indeed all his Works are, pleafant to know, and 
always worthieit to be all had in Remembrance with 
iDellght. But what created Mind can comprehend 
their t^)Unber, ot^ the infinite Wifdom that brought 
them forth, but hid their Caufes in a Depth not to be 
fathom'd ? I faw when the formlefs Mais, the mate- 
rial Mold of this World, cam^ to a Heap at his 
Word; Confusion heard his Voice, and wild Up- 
iiOAR ftoodrul'd, and what had been thought vaft inFi- 
toitude became confin'd ; after which at his fecond Bid- 
ding the Darknefs fled. Light Ihone, and Order f^rung 
from Difordcr J the Elements haftcd fwift to their fe- 
veral Quarters ; Fire, Water, Earth, and Air, and 
the pureft -Either flew upward, fpirited with various 
Forms, which in their Motion became orbicular, and 
tum*d to numberlefs Stars, as thou feeft, and how they 
move; each had its Courfe and Place appointed, and 
the reft furround and encompafs this Univerfe. Look 
downward upon that Globe, whofe hither Side fliines 
from hence, though but with rcflefted Light; that 
Place is the Earth, and the Seat of Man; that 
Light is his Day, which were it not for that. Night 
^as flic (iocs the other Hemifpheres) would cover; but 

K 4 there 

136 Paradise Lost. Book IIL 

there the neighbouring Moon (call that oppofite fur 
Star fo) timely interppfea her Aid, her monthly 
Round ftill ending and'ftill renewing, thro- the Midft 
of Heaven ; with borrowed Light mt fills her increa- 
(ing and decreafing Face to enlighten the Earthy and . 
checks the Night in her pale Dominion. That Spot 
to which I point npw is Paradise, the Abode of A- 
DAM; thole lofty Shades are his Bower; the Way 
thither thou canft not mifs, that which requires fne 
lies quite contrary. 

When he had faiddiis, he turh*d \ and Sat ait 
boynng low, (as is ufual to fuperior Spirits in Heaven, 
where none iieglefb due Honour and Reverence) toolc 
Leave, and toward the Coaft of Earth, down from 
^e EcLiPTicK, ik) haften'd with the Hopes <rf Sue- 
cefs, throws himfelf down in fteep Flight, wheeling 
fwiftly through the Air; nor did he make the leaft 
Stop^ 'till he lighted upon the Mountain N i p h a*» 

TES. (f) 

{h) Ecliptie, of EcUpfe ; Lat. 
Qr. A Utfea 9f Light. An 
JfirpH, T. A great wide Circle 
in the Heavens, extending bcr 
tween this two Tropics, croft 
the Equator j wherein the San 
moves thro* the 1 2 Signs of the 
Zodiac in his yearly CouHe ; 
and there the Edipfes do h^P* 

(r) Kifhatis \ Lmt. Gr. L e. 
Snonvji becanfe it it generally 
covered with Snow. It it a ▼«• 

?r high Monntain, part of Moont 
(cann, between Jrmtnia and 
Mi/§fotamia^ not far from P«* 
raiije^ and the Sonroe of Jff> 
fbrafii and Tygri^. 

7%« End of the Third Book- 


[ J37] 



The Argument. 

SATAN, now in Pro^eSf «/'Eden, and 
' nigb the Place be mujl now attempt tbt 
md Enterprize wh'cb be undertook alone 
-^ , againjl God and Man, falls into mmy 
.^'^s with bimfelf^ and many Pajions, Fear, 
^*^> and Dejpair ; btH at length confirm bin^ 
J"J in Evily jeumies m io Paradife, tvbofe Mtf- 
toard ProfpeB and Situation is defcrih'd, Sat» 
iverkaps the Bounds^ fti in tbe Sbepe of a Cortm* 
rant en tbe Tree of Life, as tbe btgpeft in tbe 
Garden^ to look about bim. Tbe Garden dejcrib'di 
Satan's ftji Sight of Adam and Eve ; bis Woadet 
at $beir excellent Form and ba^ StatCy but with 
Refolution to tewk their Fall ; overbears their Dif 
courje ; from thence gathers that tbe Tree of 
Ki^owledKe was forbidden them to eat oft under 
l^piiUtj ^ X^eaib -^ apd therem intends to /mmd 


138 Paradisx Lost. Book IV. 

hh TeH^atim, fy fcdudt^ them to tranfgrefsi 
d/enJeav(stbmJwjonig^tme:eo' knewjurtber of 
ibeiriStafe by fomc other Means. . In the Interim 
Uriel, dejcmding .:on! a Sun-beam uorfff Gabriel> 
{•wbo'i^ in Charge the Gate of Paradifc) that 
fyofevH Sinrit iadefiaped the Beep^ and pafi at 
fiooHby bis Sphere tn the Shape ef' a good Jingel 
down to f^raaife, difiovefd afterwards by his fu- 
rious Geftures in the Mount : Gabriel ^mifes to 
^hd bim iut tye Momir». Night comng m, A~ 
dam and E« d^courje of going to tbeiir Refi : 
Their Bower dejcrib'd i their Evening-worfhip, 
Gabriel drawing forth bis Bands of Night-watch 
tp IpaH/ik Roiind of ptraclii^ appoints two firing 
j^gelsto Adam' J Bower ^ left the evil Spirit J^oum 
be there doing feme Harm to Adam ana Evt^Jleep^ 
ingi there theyfnd him at the Ear of Eve, tempts 
Hf^ berin a Dreamy and bring him, tho' urrwil' 
£^ to Gabriel } ^ whom quifHo^d^ be fiomfuBf 
^t^ers^ prepares Re0an£e^ but hinder'd 6j 4 
^tgH frMt BeaveUf flies out ^ PflradiTe. 

c H A P. r. 

i$atan, in ProBeSi e/'Edcn, falls into marry tit^s 
with bimfefft ygtjoutnies on. to Par^djie, vhicit 
it defcrib'a. 

EVER vas ^^t mt>re Need than m# 
for. That "ffaming Voice, which Saint 
John hear^ trf aloud ]fi Heaven, when 
the DragoDi put a fecond Time to Rout, 
came furiouHy down tQ he reveng'd on 
Men, Woe to the Inhabitants on 
Eakth! diat now while Time was, onr firft Parents 


CHap. L * Farad IS s Lost. 13^ 

had biecn giren Notice of the Coming of their fecrec 
£neihy{ and fb perchance hare efcap'd ids moital 
Snare: For Sat ah nowenflam'd witn Rage came, 
(the Tempter before he was the Accufer dF Mankind) 
to revenge on frail innocent M a n his Lofs of that 
firft Battel, and his Flight to Hell. His Courage now 
beffan a little to fail him, though afar off he was bold 
9na fearlefs ; nor had he Caufe to boafl: the fatal At- 
tempt, the Execution of which bemg near its Birth^ 
raifes dark Thoqehts in him, roWls and bdls in his 
tumultuous Bre^, and like a deriliih Ei^e recoils 
back upon hipifelf : Horror and Doubt diftraft his 
troubled Mind, and from the Bottom ftir the Hell 
within him ; for within him he brings H^Il, and roimd 
about him i nor can fl^ one Step from Hell hy Change 
of Hace, no more than he can fly from himlelf : Now 
Confcience wakes Defpair that flumber'd, wakes the bit* 
terRemembranceof whathewas, Coniiderationof what 
he is, and what muft be, wmfe i for of worfe Deeds 
worfc Sufferiiigs muft be the Confequence* Some- 
times he fixes his griev'd Look towards Eden, which 
tiow lay pleaiknt^ in his View, said fometimea towards 
Heaven and the full blaliiig Siin^ whidi was juft now 
arriv'd to its Meridian Height > then revolving much 
within himfelf, he thiis began fighing : 

Oh Thou! that crownM ^th furpalTing Glory, 
look'ft from thy folc Dominion, like tne God of this 
new World; at the Sight of vfrhom all the Stars hide 
their diminifh'd Heads ; to Thee ! I call, but with no 
friendly Voice, and add thy Name, O Sun ! to tell 
Thee how much I hate thy Beams, that bring to my 
Remembrance from what State I fell : How glorious 
once did I fit, far above thy Sphere! 'till Pndc and 
worfe Ambition was the Caufe of my being thrown 
down, for waging War in Heaven aaaihft its niatch- 
lefs King. Ah wherefore did I fo ! he defcrvM from 
me no luch Return, whom he created what I was in 


»40 PA«Af)isB Lost.! "Book IV* 

that br^ht Emintfncc : He upbriidcd none with the 
good Gifts he gave ; nor was it any Hardfhip to fervc 
him : What could there be lefs than to afford him 
Praife, (which is the eafieft Recompence) and pay 
him Thanks ? How juftly was all this due ! yet all his 
Good provM 111 in me, and work'd nothing but Ma- 
lice : tor being lifted up fo high I difdain'd Subjefti- 
on, and thought that one Step higher would fct me 
highefl of all, and fo in a Moment quit me of the 
immenfe Debt of endlefs Gratitude ; fo burthenfome 
it is always to be paying, and ftill to owe ; fiDrgetful 
that from him I was ilill receiving; and did, not con^ 
fider, that a grateful Mind by acknowledging the Be- 
nefit, owes not, but fo pays» at the fame Time in* 
debtcd and difcharg'd: Where was the Hardfhip 
then i O had his powerful Deftiny ordain'd and made 
me feme inferior Angel ! then I had fVood happy ; no 
unlimited Hope had rais'd Ambition in me ! and yet 
why not ? Some other Power as great as I mi^ht have 
afpir'd> and drawn me, though a Spirit ot meaner 
Rank, to his Party : But other Powers as great did 
not fall> but ftand now unfhaken^ arm'd ^inft aU 
Temptation, either from without or within. Hadft 
Thou the fame free Will and Power to ftand as they i 
Thou hadft ! whom haft Thou then to accufe ? or 
what? but Heaven's free Love equally dealt to all? 
Accurs'd be his Love then I fince oe it Love or Hate, 
It alike deals out to me eternal Mifery : I^ay, let me 
be accurs'd ! fince I chofe freely againfl his Will what 
I now fo juftly repent. Mif^raole Wretch that I am ! 
which Way fhall I fly from infinite Wrath, and from 
infinite Defpair ? Which ever Way I fly is Hell; I my- 
ielf am Hell, and in the loweft Depth ; a lowfx.Deep 
opens wide, always threatning tq deirour tnCy to 
which the prefent Hell I fuffer leems to be a Heaven. 
O then relent at laft! Is (here no Place left for Repen^ 
tance ? Is there none left for Pardon ? No, there 19 
M>ne left^ but by SubmiiCon} and that Pifdain forbidi 


diap, I. iPAHADisE Lost. 141 

TTie^ and the Fear that I have of Shame among the 
Spirits beneath, whom I fcduc'd with fardifiterenC 
Promifes and other Vaunts than Submiifion, boarf- 
ing, that I could overcome the Omnipotent. Ah me! 
little do they know how feverely I fufFer for that vain 
Boaft ; under what Tbrments I groan inwardly, while 
they adore me, high advanced on the Throne of HeO^ 
and diftinguilh'd with Sceptre and Diadem : (a) So 
much the lower ftill I fall, only fupreme in Milcry ; 
fuch Joy does Ambition find ! But lay that I could re- 
pent, and could by an Aft of Grace retain my for* 
mer State; how loon "would Height recall high 
Thoughts? and how foon uniky whatfeign'd Submit 
fion had fworn 1 Eafe Would recant Vows that we;p 
made in Pain, as violent and void ; (for never caa 
there grow a true Reconcilement, where Wounds of 
fo deadly Hate have piercM fo deep) which would 
but lead me on to a worfe Relapfe, and a Fall ftiB 
^heavier ; by which Means I Ihould dearly purchafe a 
jhbrtjntermiflion of my prefent Torments, bought at 
the Price of double Smart. My Punilher knows this, 
and therefore is as far from granting Peace, as I am 
from begging it. All Hope thus excluded; inftead of 
us, now outcaft and exird, behold, his ' new Delight^ 
Mankind created, and this World fo^ him : So fare- 
well Hope ! and with Hope fareweli alfo Fear ! fate- 
well Remorfe ! all Good is loft to me ; Evil be thou 
henceforth my Good ! by thee at leaft I hold a divi- 
ded Empire with the King of Heaven, and by thy 
Means perhaps will reign more than half; as M av^ 
before it is long, and this new World (hall know. 


{a) Diadm% Fr. ttal. Sf, 
Lai, from the Gr. i. e. Bindtmg 
^iHciit. What Ch6 Syrians call 
Mitra, ' the Greeks named Diade- 
ma. and the Latins Vitta, fays 
Scaliger, A white Fillet or 
fiaru Uke Che 7utii/!f TWbant ; 
wHcrcwith the anticat Princes of 

Pirjla^ and the Priefis alfo; tied 
a O-own aboat their Heads : A 
King*s Crown. Alexander tlfe 
Great brought the Ufe of it firft 
into Europe, as yufiin rcporcs, 
CajarKti^ Caligula refuted it; 
bat Aurellan was the ^x^ko)nai 
fimperor that wore a Diadem. 

"Chilis heWfi thu^ fptdkin^ the Paflions th^fi 
tnov^d him dioioiM his Face^ and he changed Coun- 
tenance thrice and grew pale, with Anger^ Envy> an'd 
Defpair^ which altered nis borrowed VifM^e and be- 
trayM him to tie ^Counterfeit, if any &re beheld 
him s '(for heayenly Minds are always clear from.fuch 
Diftempers) whereof he being ioba aware^ with ati 
outward Calm fmooth'd each Perturbation, Contriver 
of Fraud I and was the firft that pradtis'd Falfhood un^ 
der a f^tly Outfide^ to conceal deep Malice with 
Thoudits of deep Revenge : Yet had he not pr^is'd 
enough to di^eive U jel i e l^ whofe Eye purlu'd him 
down the Wav he Wenti and faw hini on the Moun^ 
laki N I p H A T E s, disfigured more than could befall 
Sj>irits of happy Kind : He marjc'ci his fierce Geftures 
ma mad I^meanor, fuppoTing himfelf to be then all 
alone, unobferv'd arid umeen/ So on Satan jpiir- 
ney$, arid conges to the Border of ^en^ where de- 
licious Paradise crownis the champaign Head of ^ 
fteep Wildernefi with her green Inclofure, whic^ 
makes a rural Fence ^ whofe fhrubby Sides overgrown 
with' Thickets^ wild and crptefcjue, deny'd all Man- 
ner of Acceis, and over Head grew ian unfurmouhta* 
ble Height of foftieft Cedars, (i) Pines, Firs, and 
mdc-f^rcadip^ Palm, {c) and as the Ranks afcend 


(i) Cidar | fr tat. from tbe was much in efttfem of OId» tad 
Gr. A rtry Urge, thick; and highly celebrated in Seriptore^ 

l«U TVee, with finsUl and lleoder hue now it ray miidi do- 

Leaivk It isalvaxi fEten, nc- acaTed* 

vcr degQrt, and is deteftaUe to (0 Palm ; fr. Srii. inti. 

Worms } becanfc of its bittet haL Sf, Dnt. iM. from the Gr4 

Saps the Antsous anointed thair u e. .7^ Hmut a^nJidi .be-* 

Books with it'4 to keep them caixfe its Leaves refembles the 

from being Worm-eaten | M/ Palm of a Man's Hand. Tlie 

Lord Bac9m thinks the Wood of Palm or Date Tree* It was uTed 
k lafis 1000 Years femid. It of old as a Sign of Vidlory an4 
mws chidhr on M. UlfOM^ Viaoryttfelf^ Becaufe the mofle 
fxd in the W004S of Jb^U^ it is opprtfled, the wmix rifeth 


Shade 9aafiY§^h»^^t M4lerfi^plea&nt Sylvm 9cei^ f 
woody Thatyc, ft^rfyf^t^e Viewi ^cjt Jugh^ liba« 
tkwir Tx^ tiK gr^n Inclpfmc and 9v^ pfP ar a^ 
^i*» ft»uog^p5WW^h«»pto APaM a^i^cl^ 
oc^ inKQ 1^3 lowv ^pwe, neiohbQ^nffg vquad cbf 
Mourn c^fARARisf : ^4 i^i^^r tlif^ dfaf. Wa^l 
ftppe^d ^ ciiding Rowiqf beauti|@u| Tjp»Hb Iwden ^ 

I'd wi«Kgay cnMieB'd ^^plwnb W wic^ t^? Su§ 

had left the mutjr of ]>ib» Qpaei^9 A<4rc; ilrcffle;^ £9^ 

ncd than he doc;^ pp lafaif ]£vening Qoud, pr <n 4if 

Rainbo^, .irhen Goi^ h^s $:ot J^sin upgn |rht ^^?r|Ii4 

lb lovely did that i«>dfq»|^ fecm: Apd.QQW e^ 

Air ftiU meets S a t a n's Approach, which to tjie 

Heart infpires vernal Delight and Joy, able to chafe 

away all Sadneis^ except Oefjpair : No^^ geode Q^ea 

xiifpenfc natural Perti^mcs, Sweets wJxi(;h they fek 

from Flpwers, and l>etray from whence they t^j^ 

ihem : As when to .thcmtMrh^ iaU beyond tb« C apV Of? 




mi Tpreaiktli. Tke^Falm wu 
«M in the Servioe of OcmI; 
^ And ye flitU take yoaeatke 
^* firft Day tlie Booghsof flOOiU 
lyTreefy Inmckcs of.raini- 
Tieesg and iheBoofhs oJF thick 
Trees, and Willows of the 
■iookt todjre (hall rmyce 
heibre the Loid your God 
*' ieven Days.** And is faid to 
be won) in rarads/i itfelf. Riv, 
7* 9. «' After this I heheld, 
" and lo, a great Multitude, 
** which no ktocoald number, 
*' of all Nations, and Kindicds, 
«« and People, and Tongues, 
^ flood beiore the Throne, and 
" before the Lamb, dothed 
^ mt)i wUt# Rohfi, snd Palms 
^< in Iheir minds,*' It was alfo 
the Sign and Jteward of Vi Ae- 

ry in all the Grtcidu Qiai^ 
The Antitete hoobnnfA \idprl- 
^ua Prtnoes witll ^nM^^g 4f 
i^alms and Ploweii mbtt ineMi 
in sheir Txiumphs* The J^v^ 
xtoetved AkxiAr At i^rtmt^ 
and onr RtdamiTt .tod they of 
Crmttui^ ytttUim^m (Utf^ 

[/) Ifmamiit^ UifUmticM^ 
fihicFrnKk cit icilf«sesi« 
isfu. EtUof. A Kttle Iflanfl 
with a chief City buHt open n 
Rarer of the fame Name, upon 
the Baft Coaft of jffHia, be- 
longing to iangnebar^ 27oMilei 
from Mad0g^jiar to the WeiL 
It is barren and wihralthin}, but 
populous ; becaufe of the great 
Tnuie with the Pirhipn/i^ who 
poflcTs it now. 


14* PAJiADisis Lost. Bdok iVi 

CooD H^rE) and are got paft Mozambic, (d) NcMth 
Eaft Winds blow Sabean (^) Odours off at Sea» froni 
tibe ipicy Shore of Arabia Felix, well pleas'd with 
liicfa Delay they flacken their Courfe, and the Ocean 
feems to (mile^ chear*d with the grateful Smell ; fy 
Satan entertainM tfaefe rich Perftimes^ who came to 
lie tkJr Banci though better pkas'd with them than 
^MODxus (f) was with the Sriioak of the burnt 
Filh, that dfotre hitri (though hi was fa much ena- 
mourM that he defitoy'd feven of her Husbands) 
fitim the Wife of Tobias^ andfenthinv from Me* 
dia (f) into the outmoft Parts of Egypt, where 
the Aii^IRaphael bottnd him h&4 

. f^) &f ilMi of Saia s ' froal 
lUmatSmim, the Son of Omt, 
die 6tk Sob. of Cham, Gen. io« 
y. Smim U the chief City of ^- 
fmUm the Happy, oow ZUii, 
trittre there is a great Store of 
Gamnoii. Caflu» Frankin- 
Myrrh and other fweet 

ff) JJmdmi Bit. i. e. A 
H^f^gfir or Fin. A Prince of 
Dmb amonctbeJ^aMRr/. An 
««a Spirit, wlo i< laid to have 
JlauBtcd the Honfe of Rapul % 
fobein Loveiwidi hk Daughter 
Smrmip aiid«iohavedfftroyedfis 
ven Haflbandi in the firft Night 

6f their Uitmp, Ta. 3. 8. 

(g) Midii ; Hib. bom MmdM 
the Son of Jmfhtt^ Gen. to. 2. 
i. •#• A toiajkn : hccanfe he 
was of a large Statore. A Ui^ 
Cbontry and ahttent Kingdom m 
Afia^ on the North oxPtrRa^ 

pian Sea, hertnt Jtmtma and 
4g^na on the Wttt. Ic was 
ence Miftxefs of the EaAem Mo^ 
■archy of the Mi^ks^ for 317 
Years^ bat foon fiell. into the 
Ptrfiatui then became fulijeA 
to the Turks. Now f irvee er 


ChsLp, II, Paradise Loar. 145 

chap: II. 

Paradiic defcrib^di SdizxCsJirJi Sight of Adam itni 
Eve, at which hi is greatly furpriz*d ; over^ 
hears their Di/cotirfey and from thence meditates 
their Deftruaim. 

NOW Satan had joumied on, penfive and 
flow, to.tfae Afcenc of thatfteep and inaccef- 
fible Hill, but found no funhcr Way \ tiie 
Undergrowth of Shrubs and tangling Bufhes had 
twitted themfelves fo into one Cluftcr, that they dc* 
hy'd a Path to whatever might aflav to pais that 
Way : There was only one Gate, and that look'd 
Eaft on the other Side, which when Satan faw, h<J 
difdain'd to enter properly, and in Contempt at once 
leaped over all Bounds, of HiU or higheft Wall, and 
quite within lights on his Feet: As when a prowling 
Wolf, driven by Hunger to feek new Haunts for his 
Prey, watching where uie Shepherds peri their Flocks 
in the Sheep-Cotes at Evening, leaps over the Fence 
amidft the Field, and gets fecurely and with Eafe into 
the Fold •, or as aThiet with an Intention to rob fome 
rich Merchant (whole fubftantial Doors, crofs-barr'd 
and bolted fatt, cannot be broke open) climbs in ac . 
the Window, or at the Top of the Houfe : So did 
this firft great Thief climb into G o d*s Fold ; (fo do 
fince lewd Hirelings climb into his Church) from 
thence he flew up, and upon the Middle Tree in P A'^ 
RADISH (which was the Tree of Life, and the higheft 
that grew there) fat like a Cormorant -, yet did not 
thereby regain true Life, but inftead of that fat devi- 
ling Death to them who liv*d *, nor did he think of 
the Virtue of that Lifc-giVing Plant, but only us'd to 
take a View of Paradish, what well U6*d had been 
the Pledge of Immortality. (So little dees any but 

L G«9 


t^6 Pa*ai>ise L**tC Bools^lVI^ 

God alone know to fet a right Value on the Thing3 
before him, but, cither ocrvcrts the b^ Things to the 
woHt of Abufes, or elfe to their meaneft Ulc) With 
hew Wonder now he views beneftt^ Mm N^^I AWR^ 
whole Wealth, expo^M in narrdw^JS^Oomv^o ^ (the 
Pf light of human Senfe ^ nay it w^ more ^ it was a 
Heaven on Earth; forthe Garden was. the Jiappyf a- 
RADisE of GoD^ by him planted in the EsJk of 
Ede^ ; Epen was ftretch'd out. from Aur4^ (^ 
£aftward, to the Royal Towers of^eat S^txii- 
c i?A, (i) built by the. if^ings of:GtiiB,zcz i of wheie 
the Sons of Eden dwelt in Tela^sar. (k) Infthi$ 
plealant Soil had Goo ordaia'd hi^f^r more pleafant 
GMden, and to grow out of the fertile Ground -all 
Trees of the nobleftKii^d, whether for Sight, Smell; 
or Tafte •, and exaftly in the Middle ftood the Tree of 
Life iiighly eminent, bearing ambroHal Fruit, .a^d 


(i).Aurmif Haram^ or Char' 
ran ; Htb* L c. IVratb, The 
thief City of Me/opatamia, whi- 
ther. Abraham ilcd from the 
Wrath of God : becaafe of the 
Idolatry of the ChaUeans, and 
alfo dwelt for a Time« Gen. 1 1 . 
jt. Ms J. 4. 5^f»^wcBt to it 
aifterwards for fear of Efau'% 
Wrathy Gen, 29. which givech 
Name to a large Country upon 
the River Tigris. It H cllled 
flAfo Aram and Aramia ; from 
Aram the Son of &»» i. e. 
Migbiy t and is what we caH ^^- 
rja. This City js 440 Miles 
Northward from Jerufihm ; 
dowoilledO^j^ra. ■ li it- eleven 
Day's Journey fso^ . i^intvi i 
oopolous^ an4 hath a good 

"{tySi/iicia; Lat. Gr, i.'e..A- 
Coloring Sight. Another famous 
^ff 's>f Mtfopotamia^ called al- ^ 

fo Calfu in the Land of SbinoJt^ 

Gen. 10. 10. Cocbe, then AleX'- 

andrta ; becavfe it was nbuilt 

by Mexander the Great ; after- 

wards repaired by AntiichusSjnf^ 

of Syria^ who called it StleucU^ 

in Memory of his Father Sehu' 

€ut^ Qr. i. e. Glorious. It it 

forty Miles from Old Balrfhu 

upon. the ConAuence of 'the Em^ 

phratis and ihtTygris ; the7«rii 

poidTefs it now, and call it Bacbda 

or Bagdad. 

(i) Telff^r. and Eliifiw, 
Heb. i. e. A JFort or Jlamfiart of 
the AJJyrian*'. A Country iipon 
the Borders of AJJyria^ wherein 
the EdeniUs-ifrttc garrifoned ta 
%^S9^.- fia^lom^ from the In« 
croachmpnxs of the 4i^'^nsp 
Ifa. 37. 12. Ezek. 27. 23. Be- 
tween -fhefe Places the true Edfi 
^nd^mrddyikwac fitaaddl i^idi 
^Huet. de Situ Paradi/i, 

Chapl III -PAkADisE Lost* 14^ 

Blbfibms of vegetable Gold ; and next to the Tite of 
liife greifr our Death, the Tree of Knowledge; the 
Kn4i^edge df Good, bought too dear Arough tkd 
Knowtedge of HI ! /Through E d i »r Southward there 
Weftt a Itarge Rivt^, liJ^hich never changed its Cburfe^ 
but uhiiemeath tftb <haggy Hill being ihgulph'd 
pjtfs'd tkncnbgh », for <5 o d had thrown that* Mountain 
^ his Gsrden Fefecej higk rais'd ujfcn the raj^id Cur-i 
fctft, i^hfcti throtigh Veins of the porous Earth drawn 
up with a kindly Thirft, rofe a frclb F9uhtaih, and 
Wdtetf <4 ilhfc Galxici* ^rith many a Stream ; thence uni-* 
ted ftll ddWn tfte abfi^'d Shade, irid hiet the lowei^ 
Flood> whic!h noir appears from hii dafkibme Paf- 
fege, atd nbW . being divided into four main Streami 
rUhft dfflF<*tftt Wayi, wandering through many a fe- 
tiMitt' keal'xfa ahdCbuncty, whereof there heeds no Ac-f 
cfttinfch^rt^ but rather to tell how (if Art could tell 
hcyky from that Sagh&re Fountain the .ciirlcd Brooks 
rolling over bright rearl and Sands of Gold, ran Nec^ 
tar with many a winding Courfe under the fpreading 
Shadesi vifiting ^ch Pldnt arid feeding the Flowers of 
ParXdis^j ^hich boXintiful Nature and hot nice Art 
had ppuPd forth profufely, in Beds and curious Knots 
id Hiil^ Dale, and Plain, both where the Morning 
Suh fiift fmote warrhly the open Field, and where the 
iinpierc^d %ade held the Bowers in pleafmg Darknefs^' 
cvcii at Noon. 

Thus this Place was a happy rural Seat, with Va- 
riety of Prolpeft and Groves, fome of whofe ficK 
Trees droppM Balm and fweet Gums ; others, whofo 
Fruit hung deK^tfuUy, ftreak'd as it wer6 with bur- 
mfh'd Gold, and of delicious Tafte; what i^as fabled 
6f the Hesperian Fruirtrue only here: Betwixt 
tbefe Groves were Lawns, or level Downs, among^ 
which were difpers*d Flocks, grazing upon the tender. 
Grafs; or Hills of Palm, or dfe the flowry Edge of 
fome well-water*d Valley fpread its Store i Flowers of 

L 2 ^Y^rf 

148 P A ^ /ri>i 8 B X.,^ s t. Book FVrf 

every Hue, and Rales -without; ThornJ, . .Another 
Side Ihady Grotto%;ajKi Caves ^ of cool Re^efs^^ over 
which the fpreading V4ne laid forth her purple Grapes, 
and gently crept with her increaiing and wanton Branr 
dies; mean while the murmuring Waters fall'dj%)er* 
fed down the flope Hills, or elfe unite their Streams^ 
in a Lake, that as it were holds a Mirr«r to the Bank 
grown over with fweet Myrtle, The Birds apply 
their Choir with vernal Airs, which breathing the 
Smell of the Fields and Groves, make Mufick in the' 
trembling Leaves^ while Nature, attended by the 
Seafons and the Hours, led on a continual Spring : 
Not that fair Field of Enna, (/) where Prossr* 
p I N E («) gathering Flowers was ravifli'd by Pluto< 
which caus'd Ceres all that Pain to feek her through 
the World; nor that fweet Grove of Daphne, by Uk^ 
Kiver Orontes, (») and the infpir'd Spring ojF Cas- 
TALiA {p) might by any Means be compared to ihi4 


(/) Enna^ Cbal. Phmn. i. €. 
A Garden and tmntain. Ennm 
is the fame uEden^ in the Lan*- 
guage of the P^amci4ni\^y(fh\ch 
they borrowed from Mpjes, Gen. 
2. 8. A moft^eafant Field sn 
the Heart of Sici/J, abounding 
with Springs, Frtrits andFbwers. 
There was a City^ a Temple of 
OriSf and a fine Grove : And 
oat of it PIut§ fide and carried 
off troferfim into HeD. 

(nf) Pro/trfinii Lat, I e. 
Ct$ifing 9ui. The Daufihter of 

?'mfUer and Certs, ravilhed by 
lute. Her Mother Ora went 
to I^n to get her releafed ; but 
beeftufe ihe had tailed a Pome* 
gramati in P/k/#*s Orchard^ Ju* 
fitir coM do no more, than 
give her Leave to accompany 
her fix Months above ; and Ph" 

hSx other Momhi below. Of 
the Rape of Pro/irfina, Sec 
PtMdar. Ode I. This Fable 
hath nothing elfe in it,- than that 
the Con, Fruits, isfc. lie fix 
Months, in the Groond^ then 
creep 4ii of it, and flouri(h fix 
Months above it ; and Ceres was 
an Inventrefs or Improvereis of 
Hafbandry, CsTr. The Poet» 
make her the Queen of Hell. 

(») Orontes i Gr, Lat. , i. e, 
Rafid. The largeft River in 
Sjria, fifing on M. Leanest, 
wafiung many Cities in its 
Coorfei it runs bv and thm* 
Assiiecbintq the Mediterranean 

{e) Ca/aiia ; Arab. i. o. A 
tttriing Stream. A fine Sprmg 
at the Root of Pamaffns^ iacred 
to the Mules : Bccauic the plea* 


Qhap. XL Parai>ise Lperr 149 

Paradise of Eden; nor that Ifland of Nysa, (^> 
iurrounded by the River Triton, (q) where 
Cham, (r) the youngeft Son of Noah, (whom the 
Gentiles call Ammon (s) and Lybian Jove) hid 
Amalthea (I) and her youthful Son Bacchus, (u) 
from his Step-mother Rhea; nor could the Moun- 
tain AiiARA \x) be compared to Paradise, where 

L 3 the- 

l|tt Soimd of it gliding down 
thatHfl], elevated the Imagina- 
tion. Here it another of this 
Name by the Grove of Dapbm 
at Jkihcb^ which foretold At* 
driam's Advancement to thip Em- 

' (f)NyfaiHeb. i.e. KBan- 
itir or lU/kge. A City of Jrar 
biM, witma the Ifle of Nj/a^ np- 
ointhe River Tri/99f where ^a^- 
fhtit was nurfed, as they report« 
This Fable took its Orimal from 
that Hiftoiy related in£Miii. 17. 
1$. where M^f boilt an Altar 
to yihtwab N^, fjib. i. e. 7bi 
Lor J is mj Bmnrnr^ upon the Vic- 
tory over AmmM : For BMebm 
II Mtfes among the Heathens. 
Hence Bofebm was called alfo 
Dim&Ut i. e. GodofNjfm^ or 
the ffyfa rf Bmctbtis^ 

(q) TritM J Arab. i. e. A 
Paffure, A River in Africa^ 
which iffiies oat of the Lake ^ri'^ 
Hm into the Midii£fTMiiiMm Sea, 
over-againft the leiler Syrtif^ and 
divides Mia intb two equal 
Parts. Now i^M ^f Gt//. 

(r) Cbam^ ct Ham 1 Hgb. i. e. 
Htat or BUuhu/s ; the 3d and 
youngeft Son of Noab^ Gen, 9. 
24. And y9fiter among the 
Gentiles. In the firft Diviiion 
of the Earth, Syria^ Arabia, 
igyfft and all Afri€akXi tp his 

{s) Ammon^ or Hammon ; Heb. 
1. t. ££r«/. Another Name of 
Cham, whom the Old Egyptians 
and Grecians worfhtpped under 
this Denomination. His Tem- 
ple and famous Oracle flood in 
Cynne. on the Weft Side of £• 
gypt and the Dcfarts of Lybia, 

(t) Amaltbea s Cbald, u e. A 
Ifurfi ; Gr. i. e. v^ ricb oc 
msdtiplyitig: Daughter of iW/- 
/{^/, King of Cr/^#, a Miftrefs 
and Nurie of Japitir, which fed 
him with Goat*s Milk and Ho- 
ney s and Mother o( Bac<hu. 
jipiitr gave her a Horn of 
Plenty, which fupplied ever/ 

(u) Baccbas ; Heb. Barchus^ 
i. e. The Son of Cbus. The 
Natural Son of Jupiter by A* 
maltbea. (others (ay) by Semele^ 
which may be the fame Woman^ 
by a difj^rent Name. He iirft 
planted Vines and made Wine : 
Therefore be was efteemed the 
God of Wine. 

(xj Am^ra, or Ambara, Heb. 
and Ethiofif ; for the latter has 
a near Refemblance to the for- 
mer Language; for Example, 
Abinu in the Uib. » 9ur father ; 
Abana in the Etbiofic is the 
fame ; fo they call their Arch- 
hiihop. Amara is a Province 
under the 6quino€kial, and one 
of the Kingdoms of Ahyjjinia. 

- or 

150 Parabise LbaTr Book.IV,' 

the Kings of Abassinia (y) guard their Children, 
(tho* by Ibme^fuppos'd to be toc very Place) under 
the Equinodial Line, and by the Head of Nr l e, en- 
compals'd with ihinin^ Rocks, a whole Day's Jour- 
ney high i but in Redity far xttMtt from this Assy- 
rian Garden, where SAtaK with6ut any PIcafure 
beheld all Delight, all Kind of living Creatures feangC' 
to him, and quite new to his^ Sight. 

Two of Shape far mpre noble than the reft, up- 
right and tall, eredt like Gods, dpathcd with native 
Honour and in naked Majefty, feem'd Lord^ of all, 
and feem'd worthy to be fo ; for in their divine Looks 
fhonc the Image of their glorious Maker, Truth, 
Wifdom, and Sanftitude, pure and fevere, (feverf, 
but placed in; true filial Freedom) whence cooEjes arue> 
Authority in M b n ; though they did not feem eoual, 
as their Sex was hot alike : He was form*d for Vaiour 
and Contemplation, ftie for Softnefsand fwcpt atlrafit' 
xng Grace ; he only for God, but fhe for G o o and' 
him : His fair large Forehead and elevated Eve de- 
clared abfolute Rule, and his browfi Hair, rouna from 
his parted Forehead hung curling, but not beneath 


or Upper Ethi9put^ almoft in 
the Middle of it, on the South. 
There is a Mountain of the fame 
Name, about 90 M* in Compafs, 
a Day*8 Journey high, and en- 
compafled with Rocks, with on- 
ly one Entrance to it. On the 
Top are many beautiful Palaces, 
wherein the Emperor's Children, 
are educated, a^d the younser 
Sons kept *till they die, that 
they nuy not diilurb the Govern- 

(r) AhaJJ%nia\ fxom Ahajfinii 
Arab, A fcaitend Ptopin an 
antient People of Arabia ^ near 
Siib^a, of the Poiiericy of J^i- 

tan) who fettled afterwtidt m. 
EthiHia Superior 1 and there e- 
reded a raft Empire of 26 or. 
30 diftinfi Kingdoms. The 
PftupMtfs difoovered thb Em* 
pire to the Eur$p€ams, A. D. 
f.500. And the DMtch call it 
the Country of Pnjiir y9bm^ 
from VufhiimJahmnuaUf one of 
the Emperofs of it, about A. 
Z>. 1200. The upper £/i&if^« 
upon the Red Sea and the Perji^ 
an Ocean, on the Eaft Side of 
Africa^ The Inhabitants are all 
blacky and for the moft. Fart 

bb'tooiad Shoulders: She wore' Ker UnadomM fair 
Hair^ loofe as a Vcili^down to her flendcr Watft, but 
Kmv'd in wanton Rlkglees a^ tfie Vine curls its Ten- 
^ils^ which imply^d Sirf>je<5Vion, but requirM with 
g^tde Government, and by him beft receivM when 
yielded^ by her Wid^oj^ Submiffion, a- modeft Pride, 
and a ftreet^ reluAant, yet amorous Delay : Nor 
were thofe myfttriou5i Parts hid which Men now 
conotii^ then was hot guilty and difiioneft Shame of 
Nmire^s Works (the Name of Honour ! but diftionou- 
rable) bred from Sin, how has it troubled all Man- 
kind with mere ^ews of feeming pure, inftead of 
being fo ? and baniih'd from M-a n th^ grcateft Hap- 
pineb of his Life, hid- native Simplieity and fpotleft 
Innocence? So they pafs'd on naWdi nor- ftrove to 
fiiun the Sight of Q od or the Angels, for they 
thought no Evil : Hand in Hand- they pafs'd alongj 
lovelier than any Pair that ever fince me; in the Em- 
braces of Love -, Adam more excellent in Form 
than any of his Sons fince born, and Eve fairer' than 
any of her Daughters. 

Under the Shade of a Bower that ftood on a 
Green, the Trees whilpering foftly, byafrelh Foun- 
tain's Side, they fat them down, and after no more 
Toil of their iweet Gardening Labour, than ferv*d to 
recommend the cool Air and make Eafe more pleafant; 
and wholefome Thirft and Appetite more grateful, 
they began to eat of the Fruits of the Garden for 
Supper, delicious Fijiits, which the loaded Boughs 
yielded them; as they fat leaning along the Side 6f 
the foft downy Bank, fprinkled with Flowers, they 
chew'd the favouryPulp, and then in the Rind, as of- 
ten as they were thirlVy, fcoop'd up the brimming 
Stream; nor was there wanting endearing Smiles, 
gentle Purpofe, nor youthful Dalliance, as befeems'^ 
fair- Couple bound in the happy nuptial League, and 
alpnc as they wtrc. About them alLthe Beafts of the 

' L 4 Earth 


152 Paradise Lost. Book IV. 

Earth jday'd wantonly, (tho' fincc that grown wild) 
Beafts of all Chacc, in Wood or Wildcmcfs, Den or 
Forcft ; the Lion fporting about ramp'd up, and in 
his Paw dandled the Kid; Bears, Tygers, Ounces* 
and Leopards,, play'd before them j the unweildy Er 
lephant us'd all his Mi^t to make them Mirth, and 
twifted about his limber Trunk; the fly, dofe, infi- 
nuating Serpent, twifted his Train in manv a Fold, 
and unobfciv'd g^ve Proof of his fatal Subtilty ; o- 
thers of the Beafts couchM upon the Grafs, and now 
fiird with Pafture, fat gazing or lying down, and 
chewing the Cud ; for the Sun was declined, and hatt- 
ing wimfwift Career to the Ocean Iflands, and on the 
other Sidi of Heaven the Stars that introduced the 
Evening' acole; when Satan, who all this While 
ftood gazing as at firft, at length fcarcely recoNrer'd 
Power of Speech as follows : 

Oh Hell! what do mv Eyes with Sorrow and 
Grief behold! Creatures of another Mold advanc'd 
into our Room of Blifs ; perhaps earth-bom, and not 
Spirits, yet to bright heavenly Spirits little inferior ; 
whom my Thoughts purfue with Wonder, and whom 
I could love, fo lively the divine Refemblance fhines 
in them, and fuch Grace the Hand that made them 
hath bddow'd upon their Form. Ah gentle Pair! 
little do you think how near your Change approaches, 
when all thefe Delights will vaniih, and deliver you 
up to Mifery ; more Mifery by as much a§ now your 
Tafte of Joy is more ; now happv, but that Happi- 
nefs too ill fecur'd to continue long, and this nigh 
Seat, your Heaven, too ill defended, to keep out 
fuch a Foe as is enter'd now ; yet no purposed Foe to 
you, whom I could pityr thus unguarded, though I 
myfelf am unpitied. I leek a League with you and 
mutual Amity, fo clofe and ftrait, that henceforward 
I muft dwell with you, or elfe you with me : Per- 
haps my Dwelling-place may not delight your Senfes 


Qi£lp;lL Paradise; Lqst, 153 

like this fair Paradise, yet fuoh at it is accept it ; 

yoar Maker's Work; H e gave it mcj^ and I as freely it : To entertain you two. Hell fhall unfold her 

Gates the widen,, and fend forth all her Kings : There 

(not like thefe narrow Limits) will be Room to re- 

Qeive your numerous Ofilpring: If it i$ no better 

Place, thank him who puts me unwilling to take this 

Kevenge on you who wrong me not, initead of him 

who wrongs me. And fhould I (as indeed I do) 

melt to Pity at your harmlefs Innocence ; yet publick 

Reaibn, juft Honour, and JRcvcnge, and Empire, by 

conquering this new World, compel me now to do^ 

what elie (notwithftanding I am damn'd) I fhould 


.Thus fpoke the Fiend, and with the Tyra^yt's 
Plea, Neceflity, excus'd 4iis devililh Deeds. Then 
from his lofty Stand upon the Tree of Life, he lights 
down among the ^porting Herd of .thofe four-footed 
Beafts, turning himself into the Form Ibmetimes of 
one and ibm^mes of another, as their Shapes ferv'd 
his End bef^, to view his Prey nearer, and unobferv'd 
to mark what by Wcurds or Adions he might learn 
further of their State : Now he ftalks round about 
them like a Lion^ with a fierce Glare ; then as a Ty- 
ger, who by Chance hath fpy^d two gentle Fawns at 
Play in fome Purlieu, ftrait couches down clofe, then 
fifing, changes his cunning Watch as one who was 
chulu^ his Ground, from whence rufhing out; he 
might fiireft feize them both, grip'd in each Paw ; 
when Adam, the firft of all Men, turnbg himfelf 
to E V E, , the firft of Women, began this moving 
Speech, which turn*d Satan ^ to Attention: 

Sole Partner, and dcareft of all thefe Joys ; dea- 
rer than all ! that Power that made us, and for our 
Ufe and Comfort all this great World, muft needs 
be infinitely good, and of his Good be as liberal and 


154- Paradisb LosTr BookJR^ii 

fice as he is infinite; thtur raised us fit)m the Ditfdr^ 
and then plac'd us here in all this Happineis, who 
have mericed nothing from him, nor are able topper* 
form any Thing of which he hath any Need ; who re* 
cjuires no other Service fit>m us, than to keep this tee 
eafy Charge, that of all the Trees in Fa r a p ( s e, 
which bear luch various and delicious Ffuit, we are 
only forbid to tafte that Tree of Knowledge, which 
is planted by the Tree of Life, fo near is Death pla- 
ced to Life ! whatever Death be y no Doubt fome ve* 
ly dreadful Thing; for thou knoweft well God hath 
pronounc'd it Death to tafte of diat Tree : Among fiv 
many Signs of Power and. Rule he has conferr^d'up* 
en us, and Dommion which he hath given us over alk 
other Creatures that live on Earth, in Sea, or in the 
AiTy this is the only Sign left c^ our Obedittice : 
Then don't let us think one eafy Prohibition hacd^ 
who enjoy fo large and free a Liberty in sil Things^ 
elfe, and have an unlimited Choice of manifold De** 
lights ; but let us praije him for ever, and extol hia< 
Bounty, following our pleafurable Taflc to prune thefe 
growing Plants, and tend upon theie Flowers ; whicli> 
it of itfelf were toilfome, yet with thee wouii fcem' 
fweet and pleafanL 

To whom Eve reply^d dms ; Oh thou! from 
whom and for whom I wasformM, Flefh of my 
Fleih, and without whom hiy Being would be CD na 
Purpofe, my Guide and Head! what thou haft faid 
is juft and right, for we indeed owe all Praifes and: 
daily Thanks to him ; but I chiefly, who enjoy fo 
much the happier Lot by emcying thee, wiio art 
more noble and excellent by k> much Odds ; whiUt 
thou canfl find no where any Thing that is equal to 
thyfelf. I often remember that Day when I firft war 
ked from Sleep, and laid down under a Shade upon 
Flowers, wondering much where I was and what I 
was, from whence, and how I was broug^ thitHer : Not 


a greet Way -from thence a SoihiS of murmurii^ 
'Waters Bdw^d forA from a Gave^ and fprcad into a 
fiqiijd Ekon, which then- flood unmoved and ckar at 
tiie Sl^y ; I went thither with unemerienc*d Thought, 
and kid me down.upOn the green Bank!» to look inta 
the finoodi and pure Lake, that fecmM to me to be 
aiiother Sky : As I bent myfelf down to look, juft op- 
pofite appeared a Shape in the Water, bending to look 
impn me ; I ftarted back, and that ftarted back alio ; but 
I being pleas'dfocHv returned, and that as foon return* d» pleased, with anfwmng Looks of Sympathy aixl 
Lo^e: There 'till now had I fix'd my Eyes, and pin^d 
away with vain Dcfire, had not a Voice thus warned 
mci ** Fair Creature, what thou there feeft is no* 
•^ tMngbut thyfclf, it came with thee, and with thee 
' ^' it' goes away ; but follow me, and I will bring thee 
•< where fomething more than a Shadow waits for thr 
•*^ coming, and for thy foft Embraces ; *tis he whole 
** Ims^ thou art, thou (hall enjoy him infeparably^ 
•* to him Ihalt bear Multitude of Creatures like thy- 
** fclf, and thence (halt be called the Mother of hu^' 
** man Kind.** What could I do elfe but immediate- 
ly fbllow^ being led thus invifibly, *till I fawthe^ 
under a Platan? (z) Fair indeed and tall, and yet 
methoughtlefs fair, lefs winning and fofr, and lefs a« 
miably mild than that other I'mooth watery Image: I 
turn'd^back, thou cryedft aloud, following me, fair 
Eve return ; from whom doft thou fly ? whom thoi} 
jlieft from, of him art thou made, his Flefli and 
Bone ; to give thee thy Being I lent fubitantial Life^ 


{%j^ Platan (in tkelat. Edit. 
flantan^ which is wrong) Gr» 
]. e. Br^ad ; becau(ie theLeave^ 
of it are very broad and fpread- 
sng wide, which ipake acpol, 
reireihxogy and welcome Shade 
in hot Coontries; the Plane- 
Tree. It grows very large and 

well rpread in MacaUnia ; the 
Body of it is a clear green, fmooth 
as Glafs, vtry ftreighc, and a- 
bout 20 Feet highi the Leaves 
are eight or ten Foot long, and 
foar Foot broad ; and the Heart 
of it is a coxnnu)n Food in South 




Becreft my He^ and out of my Side, to have thee 
by my Side i henceforth an individual and dear Com^ 
fort, I feek thee as Part of my Soul, and lav Claim 

to thee who art my other Half! Wi\ix that thy 

gentle H^d took hold of mine 5 I yielded •, and from 
that Time fee how much Beauty is excelj'd by manly 
Grace and Wifdom, befides which nothing is truly 

So (pake our firft and general Mother, and with 
Eyes ofconjugal Attra&ion and meek Surrender, half 
embracing him, lean'd upon Adam ; Half her naked 
fwelling Breaft met his, hid under the flowing Trefles 
of her golden Hair : He, in Delist both of her 
Beauty and herfubmifTive Charms, fmil'd with figperk« 
or Love, as Poets feign Jupiter tofmile on Juno, (a) 
when he nmkes the Cloyds fruitful, that (hed May* 
Flowers j and he prefs'd her Matron Lip with fre- 

oucnt and pure Kiiles : The Devil turned afide for 

Envy i yet with a jealous and malicious Look ey'd 
them, and thus complained to himfelf : 

Hateful and tormenting Sight ! thus thefe two 
in the Paradife of one another*s Arms, (the happicft: 
Eden) fhall enjoy their Fill of Blifs upon Bliis ^ 
while I am thruft to Hell, where there's neither Joy 
nor Love, but what among others is not the leaft of 
our Torments, fierce Defu"e pines with Pain of Long^ 
ing, never latisfy*d nor quench'd. Yet don't let mc 
forget what I have gain*d from their "bwn Mouthsi 
It leems all is not theirs; there ftands one fatal Tree, 
caird the Tree of Knowledge, forbidden them to 
tafte : Knowledge forbidden ? and why ? that's fulbi- 


{a) Juno ; Lat. i. e. Help or By this Fable thty mdltit the 

J^pfianct. An Heaiben God- Air and Earthy which came 

defs, the Sifler and Wife of y«- both .o«t t)f one Wgmb, the 

/f/fr; fhe goes under various Cha^u 
Names among the amieiit Poets. 

Chap. III.' Paradise L.ost. 157 

cious and without Realbn : Why fliould their Lord 
envy them that ? Can it be any Sin to gain Know- 
ledge ? Can that deferve Death ? And do they ftand 
pcrfeft only by their Ignorance ? Is that their happy 
State ? their Faith, and the Proof of their Obedience ? 
What a fair Foundation is here laid, whereon to build 
their Ruin ? For this Caufe I will excite a greater De- 
lire to know, and to rcjeft envious Commands inven- 
ted only with a Defign to keep them low^ whom this 
prohibited Knowledge might ei^alt ahd make equal 
with Gods : Perhaps aQnring to be fuch, they tdbe, 
and die, what can likelier be die Confequence ! But 
firft I muft walk round this Garden with very narrow 
Search, and leave no Place undifcover'd ; a Wonder 
if Chance may not lead me, where I may meet fome 
wandering Spirit of Heaven, redr'd in fome thick 
Shade, or near fome Fountain, from whom I may^ 
Icam what I want farther to know. — Ye happy Pair? 
live while ye may, and 'till I return enjoy fhort Plca- 
fiire^, for the Woes are long which are to fucceed*^ 
Having iaid this, he fcomfuUy tum'd his proud Steps^ 
aiide, and began to make his Search, tho' with Sly- 
nefs and great Circumfpedlion, through Woods and« 
Plains, and over the Hills and Vallies. 


Uriel warm Gabriel, that fome e^il Spirit had 
fafs'd by bis Sphere. l/igbt comes on^ Adam 
and Eve difcourfe going to their Reji: Their 
Bower defcrib'd and Evening Worjhip. '' 

MEAN while the fetting Sun defccndci flow- 
ly, and levcird his Evening Rays' direftly 
againil the Eailern Gate of Paradise: 
It was a Rock of Alabafter, pil*d up almoft as high as 


15S PakaS>isb Lost. Book iVii 

^ Clouds, lb that it might h^ esSily ken ftom far» 
aoceffible frem the Earth only by one Entr^x;^ with 
i wmdin% Afcent^ the reft vras a craggy Cliff impofli* 
bk to climbs that hung over Ml as it rdfe. Betwixt 
theie rocky Pillars fat Gabriel^ (b) the chi^ of the 
Cftlard of Af^els /waiting ibrNignti about him tto 
unarmM Youth of Heaven exeicis'd heroick Gaittes# 
but nigh at Hand hung celeftial Armory, Shields an4 
Helmets^ apd Spears ador^'d with JDiaQionds a!nd 
<^ld« Thither came Unt a l, gliding upion n Sun 
Beain^ fw^ aft a ihooting St^ chat in Autumn falkla 
ibe Night, when fir'd Vapours Imprefs the ^ir, md 
fiiews the Mariner from what P<Hftt of hi) Goi]ipa(^ 
be nuy beware of inqietuous Winds: Uaiii* in 
Hafte thus fpoke to G A B R I BL : 

'GABRii3i4!to th^t it belongs^ and it is thy Qhargfi 
hf Lot^ to ketj^ ftriiSt Watch, that to tfaii ha^/ 
Place no evil Thing may ^proach, much left ej^tt 
in: This Day at high Noon there came to my Sphere 
« Spirit, feemingly zealous to know morit of thi 
Works of the Almigbtv, and chiefly of M a n, thet 
Ipteft Image of Gon ; I direfted him in his Way to 
Paradise, whither he was bent in Halle, and I nlar« 
ked Ris airy Gate : But in the Mount diat lies North 
fiomEoEM^ where iie lighted firft, I fooadircem'd 
by his Looks that he was an Alien from Heaven, and 
darkened with fixd Paflioos : My Eye purfu'd him 
fiirther, but he hid himfelf in Darknefs : I fear that 
one of the banilh'd and outcaft. Angels hath ventured 
from the Deep to caufe new Troubles ; fo that tjiy 
Care muft be to find him oixc 


(6) Gmhieli Bfh. i. e. The TRe KMin account Lim dK 

Sfremgtb or Might cf God, The Miniftcr of God^s Meiciis 1 tnd 

Jh'uhs call*hiin Jibrael, and the Michael, of his Jaftice*: xhttrt- 

Tmiars, Sahriei: thro' Igno- fore they call him WatcrJ asld 

tance of the Original, and Cor- the Latter, Fire. 
lup^ioB of their diScrentTongucK 

Onap. III. PAitADiss 'L<>ST. 15^ 

• . . . 

To vrbom Ae warlike Angc! GA^RtEL gave this 
Airfwcr ; Vn 1 1 l! it is do Wonder if thy perfedb 
Sight fee far and wide,- where thoafitteft amid the 
Sun's bright Circle: None paf$ bv the Watch placed 
at this Gate, but iuch as come well known from Hea- 
ven^ and from thence no Creature has entcr'd fincfe 
Noon J if Spirit of other Sort being fo refelv'd,. ha«lJ 
leap'd over thefe eartWy Bounds on Purpofe, thoH 
knoweft how hard it is to exclude ipiritUdl Subifaincr 
ivith any Bars comjpoundcd butof Matt«-. But if 
within the Qrcuit or diefc Walks, he of whom thou 
fpeakeft ffaouldlurk, lethunbe concealed in what Shape 
loever ; I fliall know before To-monow Mornii^. 

Thus promised Gabribl; and Uriel refarnM 
to his Charge, upon that bright Beam, whofc Point 
"now rais*d bore him Hope do^tuward to the Sun, that 
vas now fallen beneath the Azores ; (c) whither the 
^rime Orb incredibly fwift hadrowlM thither diurnai, 
or this left voluble ^arth, -by a fliortcr Flight to tlic 
Eaft, had left him there, adorning the Clouds that at- 
tended him to the Weft with refledcd Purple and 
Gold. Now came on the ftill Evening, and the gray 
Twilight had began to cover all on Earth with Dark*^ 
nefs J for the Beafts were retir'd to their grafly Beds, 
and the Birds to their Nefts j all but the wakeful 
J^ightingale, (he fung all Night her fweet Love Song: 
Now the Firmament glow'd with Stars, the Evening 
Star that led on the reft fhone brighteft i 'till fuch 


(r) JiUMi I P^rt. SfOM^ I e. agftiifft P$rtU£al : Ther nte cal- 

7ht ljle$ of Haivh : becaufe led alfo the Tgraras, nom 7er^ 

Moltitudes of thofe Birds were ara, i. e* Tbm : becaufe it is 

found thope, when the Partagut/g the Third, which ts foond in 

frft dtfeoi^red them, vf. D, failing from Portugal, and the 

1449. T^M^ lilanda are nine ia chicfcft of them, i. e. The Suj: 

Number, wliich lie in the^/- wasaow fettingmthe VVeit. 
^antic o&Wedeni Ocean, over*. 

i6o 'Paradise Lost. Book I V^ 

Time as the Moon fhone in clouded Mjljefty, and un- 
veiling her peerlefs Light, caft her lilver Rays thro* 
the Night, of which (he had the apjparent Dominion ; 
when A d am t&us addre&'d himfdf to £ v e : 

Fair Confort ! ike Hour of Night and all Things 
now being retired to Red:, teach us to (eek like Re- 
po& ;. fince G o D hatli fet Labour and Reft to Man 
fiiccefliTely^ as Day anfl Night, and the fealbnable 
Dew of Sleep! now falling with its fafi Weight, in* 
clines our Eyes to Slumber. Other Creatures rove 
idle all the Day long unemployed, and therefore need 
lefs Reft s but Man hath his daily. WorH of Body or 
Mind appointed, which declares his Dignity, and that 
the Regard of Heaven is upon all his Ways ; While 
other Animals range and rove at ^UKC, and God 
takes no Account of their l>oings. lo^morrow ber 
fore the Break of Day, or at the firft Approach of 
Light, we muft be up, and at our pleafaht Labour, 
to clear yonder flowry Arbours and green Alleys, 
where we are us'd to walk at Noon, wmch are over- 
grown fo with Branches, that they are almoft too 
much for us, and require more Hands than ours to 
lop thek wanton Growth : Thofe Bloflbms alfo, and 
thofe Gums that are dropt, and lie all ftrown about 
rough and unfightly, muft be ridded away, if we 
thiM: to tread with Eafe ; mean Time Nature re- 
quires, and Night calls us to Reft. 

T o whom Eve, adom*d with perfcfl: Beauty, re- 
ply'd : My Author and Difpofer ! what thou bidft, I 
without Argument obey ; for fb God has ordain'd : 
God is thy Law, but thou art mine; to know no 
more is the happy Knowledge of a Woman and her 
Pratfe : When converfing with thee I forget all Time> 
the Seafons and their Change, for all pleale alike : . The 
Breath of the Morning is fweet, witn the Charm of 
Birds that fing at its earlieft Appearance ^ the Sun is 


CKap. III. PARAdisH Lost. i6z 

pleafant, when firft he fpreads his E^ern Beain^ up^ 

on. this delightful Land, on the Herbs, Trees^ and 

Fruits, and Flowers fhinlng with Dewi the fertile 

&uth becomes fragrant after foft Rains, and the co^ 

ming on of the grateful and mild Evening is fweet ; 

and then the filent Night with her folemn Bird, aiid 

1^ fair MobQ» and tnefe the Gems of Heaven, the 

Scan diat are in her Train ; but heither the Breath of 

the Morning, the i^eafant $un, the fertile Earth, the 

mild Eveiunff, the filent Night, nor Moon, nor Stars, 

are fweet wimout thee. But wherefore do thefe fhine 

all Night long? And for whom is all* this glorious- 

Sight, when Sleep hath fhut up all Eyes ? 

To whom our firft Anceflor replv'd: Accom- 
pUfh'dEve! Dau|^hter of G o d and or Man! thefe 
iiave their Courle to finifh round the Earth by To« 
morrow Evening, and they fet and rife, adminiftring 
prepared Light, in Order from Land to Land, tho' 
to Nations yet unpeopled } left total Darknefs fhould 
regain its old Pofielfion, and extinguifh Life and Na* 
ture in all Thiiwft ; which theie-foft Fires not only en^- 
lighten, but alfo foment and warm, temper and nou« 
rifh, with a kindly Heat of various Influence; or elfe 
in Part &ed down their Virtue upon all Kinds that 
grow upon the Earth, hereby made fitter to receive 
Fofeftion from the Sun's more powerful Ray. Thefe 
then, tho' not feen in the Dead of Nisht, do yet not 
fhine in vain ; nor let us think tha there were no 
Men, that Heaven would want Spedators, or G o d 
want Fraife ; for there are Millions of fpiritu4 Crea^ 
tures, that unfeen wialk the Earth, both when we are 
awake and when we fleejp % all thefe with never-cea« 
fing Praife behold his Works, both Day and Night: 
liow often from d>e fteep HiU that ecchoes, or mm 
tkt Thickets, have we heard heavenly Voices in the 

Middle of the NiKht, Tinging alpne, or anfwering one 
another's Sqng^ unging thar great Creator*, ofc;^ 

M Mve 

luve HW€ heard/fterti .in &ndfc, irhile they kc4j 
]Watch3 or take their nighily Walk ; when with hea^ * 
yenly^ To^ch of Inftruments joined in f«ll Harmony^ 
^'eir Spngs ' have ^ivid^ the Night, and lifted our 
Thoughts up tb HoaYcn. 


*■ ' * . ' * . * 

Talk IN gJh this Manner, and joined Hand in 

Hand, they p^s*d on tpgethcr to tbdr hapjpy Bower : 

It was ;i Place choie^ by God himijblt, when ho 

fram'd all Ttuxigs |o the deligkBdblt][fc.o£ Manx 

Ifhe Roof w^hkk cQ^er'd and (haded with Lauid 

^4. Myrtle, a^i Vh^t ^ew up: higher were Trees^ 

wKofe Leaves wete iJLibftantial ^d.fweetJoidUng; oa 

cither Side grew Acanthus, {d) and buQiy Shrubt , 

fenc-'d tip Sit ' grf en Walli every beatttifw Ffower 

caisM its fuU-blox^n H^d in between. Iris of aJJHues^ 

andHofes, and J^ffainin, looking like Mosaic (^) 

WorHi under E90t Violets, and Crocus, andHya-? 

cinth, richly beautify*d the Ground, and ctolour'd it 

finer than any.Stprie of coftUeft Emblem could do: 

No other Creature durft enter here, neither Beaft^ 

Bird, Infed, or \V^orm^ fuch Awe did they ftand in 

of Man; Pan nor Sylvanvs (f) were never 

feign'd to haveflept, nor Nynrmh nor Faun have 

haunted in a Ihady. Bower more ucred and ncdred: 

Here in ck>fe Recife E y e, after being cfpous'd to A-^ 

p A M^ firft deck'd her nuptial Bed with Fiowers and. 

Garlands, and fwept-fmelling Herbs ; and the heaven-- 

ly Choir lung the M^riage Song, what Day the 


(J) jfcantbuj; Lot. Gr. i. e. of Parts, upon Walla orFloors^ 

A Prickle or Thorn : Bccapfe reprefeotiog Flowers of divers 

many Thorns grow aboat i\, A Sftajpes, Chequer Work. !- 

Tree or a. Shrub ynth a lon^ and ff) Syhuanus ; Lat Gr, I e. 

aja^c; I«.^f turning tp. H^oMfy l A Cod of the Woodi . 

(f) Mojaie ; Fr. ha, Lat. Cr, and Groves aipong the old He%f;j 

A T. ofArchic. AcuriousWork thcns. Pan^Fauaus 2Xi6 Silva* 

<:^'n)ahy little Stones of *difitrent nus are but the iame Deity; 

Coloucsy inlaid '4Mr«*joiiicd |oge« their Feafli fKcre f aHed hmpr* 

t^^ypoa a Sottom of Pldiitc|i« talia. 

Ifl. PaKa!)i&b LosTr i^3f 

friendly Angel brought her to him, adom'd with tm* 
ked Beauty more lovely than what i^ feignM of Pah- 
dor a^ (g) whom the Gods were did to have endowed 
with all their Gifts, (and Oh too like in the fad E- 
▼cnt!) when to the lahwke Son of Japhit, (b) being 
brought by Hermbs, (he enfnar'd Mankind with her* 
fair Looks, to be avenged of him who hakl ftole Fire 
from Heayen to animate a Mak. 

Thu$ being arrivM at their ihady Lodge, both- 
flood, and funi^d^ and under the open Sky ador*d 
that Go 9 chat made the Sky, and Air, and Earth, 
a»d Ho^en^ which they beheld *, the Moon's refplen- 
doit Gfebe, and the Stxffs : Thou alfo, (they faid) Ob 
Omni^Kileiit Mak]^r, madeft the Night and the Day, 
tvydi we employed in our appointed Work have 
fiiiifli'd I in our mutual Help nappy, and happy in 
our fnutui^t Lore^ which is ordain'd by thee to be the 
CioWn of all onr Blifs ; and happy m this delightful 
Place, too large for us, where thy Abundance wants- 
more to^ partake of it, and Plenty falls uncropt to the 
Greuod : Zat Thou bait promised, that from us two 

M 2 ihall 

JM immhr^ I l^t. Gr, i. e* 
mOtfU. Th« Wife of^i- 
mtthmi\ PaUatgkrt her Wif. 
d6ai ; Pgmui^ Beaaty ; Miremry^ 
Btoquenoe; And fb every God 
aad Goddcis gave her (ome Per^ 
fdB&oHL Jupiter fent her to £- 
fmabitu with a Box, which he 
nfldX Qfetntd ; and all Ptfeafes, 
fiirib aad Miferio flew out of it» 
ttd mMati Mankind. She ia. 
4eftribed by fle^^, L. i. 60. 

Sft. Bvi h this Woman, and the 
lall of Mao ia coached onder the 
fllble, which the Ufiatheoi had 
ty a loM Tradition. 

(b) Jafbet i Heb. i. e. Prr- 
fiutdii. The Poets call him 7iv 
/iiM^ and the fiUsTt call JM 

Jmpbis: He is laid to be the SoA . 
of EfmuthiUJf Lmt. Gr. u e, 
Jfter XPf / : Becanfe he rm|rted 
for his Curioiity; in opening the 
Box. The Brother of Pirmaki^ i 
«/, Lat. Gr» i. e. ff^fi hefgr^ 
Hand: Forecaft and Wifdom. 
He was faid to hare put Lile 
and Sottl into a Man, which he 
made of CUy \ to qoicjcen which^ ^ 
he Hole Fire or Sool from Hea* 
Ten. Jupitir^ for his Preiomp- 
tion, fent PanJdra to plagae the 
Earth. Thefe are Memorials of 
the Creation and Fall' of Aittm^ 
from Gtn. 2. 7. and oral Tnd*- 
tion, coach'd ia faUcs* 

164 Parapisb LosTi Book IV. 

fhaU proceed a Race to fill the Earth, who fhaU with 
m ^xtol thy infinite Goodnefs^ both when we wake» 
and when as now we a(k thy good Gift of Sleep. 

This they iaid tinanimouily} and obfemng no 
other Ceremony, but pure Adoration, wMch God 
Ukes beftj they went with joined Hands into the in- 
moft Bower, and not; needing to put off thefe trouble* , 
fome Difguifes which we now wear, they immediately 
lay down Side by Side : Nor do I fuppofe that A^i^M 
tum'd away from his fair Spoule i nor Eve refus'd 
the myfterio^s Rites of. connubial Love^ w^uttever 
fome Hypocrites may talk aufterely of Puri^, .and 
Place, and Innocence, defaming that as ^ jpipure 
'I'hing, which God has declared pure, has com* 
manded to fome, and leaves free to all: Our Maker 
bids us increafe, and who bids us abflain ? Who, but 
our Deflroyer ? The Foe both of G o d and M a n J 
Hail wedded Love ! great Myftery ! true Source of 
human OfiTpring! fole Propriety in Paradise I where 
all Things elfe are common i by thee it was that adul* . 
terous Luft was driven out from M e n to rang; a-, 
inofig the Beails, founded in Reafon, juft, loyal, and 
pure J bv thee firft were known the dear Relations, 
a»id all the Endearments of Father, Brother, aind Sdn^.: 
Far be it from me that I ftiould call thee a Sin, or^ 
blaraeable, or think thee unbefitting the holicft Pla- . 
ces ; thou perpetual Fountain of domeftick Sweets ! . 
whofe Bed is undefird, and pronounced chafte, pre^ 
fent or paft, as being fo to Saints, and Patriarchs : 
Ilere are Love's true Darts felt s here Love's Lamp 
is conftantly lighted -, here Love reigns, plays and r^* 
vels, not in the bought Smiles of Harlots^ without 
Love, without Joy, without Endearment; meerca-\" 
ftial Fruition! not in the Amours of Courts, mix^di 
Dances, or wanton Malqtierades, or midnight Balls,1 
or Serenades, which the Lover fmgs in the cold Night * 
to his proud Miftr<fs, which delcrvea nothing from, 

., . . . her ^ 

diap". IV. Paradise L'oisT. 165 

* - • • 

licr t>ut Difdain. Inftead of fuch Mufick, thcfe two 
were luUM to Sleep by Nightingales, clafp'd in ope 
another's Arms, and the flowry Roof llied Kofes up- 
on dieir naked LimbS) to repair which the Morning 
brought forth more. Bleft Pairl fleep on as yet, hap- 
pieft if ye feek for no happier State, and limit your 
knowledge, fo as to defire to know no more* 


Gabriel appoints two Angels to AdamV Bov;er ;, 
wbofm Satan 17/ the Ear of Eve ; they bring 
bim to Gabriel j SatanV Behaviour thereon^ and 
Flight out of Paradifc. 

DARKNESS and Night was now fpread over 
the Garden of £ d £ n, and the Cherubim if-. 
fui(^ forth at the accuftom'd Hour to their 
Night Watches, flood arm'd in Readinefs for their 
Duty, when Gabriel to the Angel who was next 
him in Power fpoke thus: 

UzziEL, (i) draw Half thefe off, and with 
ftri&elik Watch coaft the South : With thcfe other I 
Ihall wheePthe North : Our Circuit meets full Weft. 
They parted like Flame, Half wheeling to the Right- 
Hand toward the Spear, and Half to the Ltft-Hand 
toward the Shield. From thefe he call'd two fubtle. 
and ftrong Spirits that ftood near him, and gare them 
this Charge : 

Ithuriel, (k) and Zephon, (I) with winged 

M 3 Speed 

(fl Vxadeii He6. i. e. Th Light or Searcher of God. A- 
^engtkaf Ggdi one of the fup- noiher of chofe fappofed Guar* 
^ofed Guardians of Paradife* dtans. 

(i) LhurieJi Hit. a. e. Th {I) ZefUm Hfi. i. e. Vho 


z66 Paradise Lo^t^ Book Wi 

3peed go through diis Garckn^ asd leave no Comer 
ot Paradisi unlearchMj but chiefly where thofe twa 
fair Creatures lodge, now jperhaps laid afleep and ap« 
prehending do Danger. This u^^ctnng is arrivM ati 
Angel frpm tb^ Sun> who tells of fomt infernal Spaiz 
bent towards Eden, (Who could have thought it 
pofllble ?) efcap*d the Bars of Hell, no Doubt come 
upon fomc bad Errand: Wherever ye find iuch, feize 
him faft, and bring hin^ htthen Saying this, he M 
on his radiant Eiks, dazling the Moon, diredtly M 
the Bower in Search after what they fought j there 
they found hin> fitting fquat in the Shape of a» Toad* 
dbfe at the Ear of l£ v e ; trying by his deviUfti Art, 
to reach the Organs of her Fancy, and with thtm 
forge, juft as he pleased, lUufions, Phantafms, and 
Dreams i or if breathing in Venom, he might taint 
the animal Spirits that rife from the pure Blood, like 
gentle Gales from Rivers i and from thence at leaft 
raife diflemper'd and discontented Thoughts^ vain 
Hopes, vain Aims, and inordinate Defires, blown up 
with high Conceits that ingender Pride. As Satan 
fet thus intent, Ithuriex touchM him lightly with 
his Spear; up he ftarts, difcovcr*d and furpriz^dj for 
no Falfliood can endure the Touch of any Thing of 
celeftial Nature, but of Force it returns to its own 
Likenefs: As when a Spark of Fire lights upon a 
Heap of Gunpowder, hid ready to ftore fomc Ma- 
gazine ^ainft an expefted Waf, diffused with ludden 
Ulaze inflames the Air; fo in his own Shape flarted up 
the Fiend. Thofe two fair Angels ftep'd back^ half 
amaz'd fo on a fudden to behold the King of Hell v 
yet unmov'd with Fear foon accofted him : 


Spy or Watch of God. Another oncd, AW. 26. 15. But Itlm- 

oi thofe Guanliant^ to whom riel and Ztpbon arc not Scriptu- 

Gabriel gives thefe Orders. Z^- ral Names of Aogeis, good or 

fhon, the Son of Gad^ and Fa- evil, 
chcr of the Zefbouiios, is meitti- 

Which of thofe Rebel Spirits condemn'd to Hell 
ait thou^' 7lKlt> haft cfcaW tfcy Prlfoni alid why 
didft thou fit here transtorih^^ Jik* an Enemy fh 
wait, and w&tcfaing at the H^d of tbofe here tfial 
deep? :....,/ 

Do N * T yfe tKen know ? anfwferM S a r a mj fiira 
%ith Scorn, the do you not know ? Ye knew mfc 
•hce^ no Con)]^anH)n fyc ydu, fitting there Where you 
durit not appl-Mdh : Not to* know me, proves that 
you yourfelves are itinknown, fon^e of the loweft of 
your Throng % and if you do kftow,- what do you*aflt 
for, and begin your Bufinel's in ^n idle and fuperfiu^ 
Ous Speech, Kkely to ^rid as nfiuch i^ Vain ? 

To whom Zt p H OK made thSs^ Reply, anfwerin* 
Sa>m with Scorn: Think not, rev^Jted Spirit^ that 
thy Brightnefs is n^ diminilh'^^^or to be known bf 
the fame Shape as when thou ftoodft in Heaven, j>ure 
and upright : Nd j that Glory when thou wad ik> lon- 
ger good departed from thee ; and now thoii refeni* 
bleft thy Ski and Pkce of Doom, obfcurQ and foAli 
But come, for be aflurM thou flialt give an Account 
to him who fent us ; whofe Charge isy to keep this 
Place inviolable^} and thefe two from Harm. 

Thus fpoke the Cherub ; and his grave Rebuke, 
feverely fpdke in youthful Beauty, added invincible 
Grace: The Devil ftood abafi\'d, and felt how awtul 
Goodnefe is, and faW Virtue how lovely flic was; he 
. few, and regpctte^ his own Lofs of it, but chiofty to 
find it obferv'd here, that his Luftre was yifibly im- 
pair'd j yet he feem*d undaunted : Said he, if I rnuft 
contend, beft to contend with th^ bieft •, the Selhcler, 
and not the S^nt; c5r all at once; more Glory wHl bUr 
won then, or lefs loft. Thy Fear, faid bold ZepMon, 
will fave us the Trial what the kaft of ut can do*fin-t 
^e againft thee, wkked and thencei weak. I 

M 4 Satam 

t^ pAJtiDiisB L^.st. BooklV^ 

1 < .^ ' 

Satan made no Reply, :hut quite overcome 
with Rage went Ij^iightily pn^ like a proud Steed un* 
^?K ^b$ Rein, champing his Iron Curb ; He held it 
vain to fly, or to refift 5 tor an Awe from abovp had 
quell'd his Heart, elfe he was not difmay'd. Now 
they drew nigh to the Weftciii Point, where. thofc 
half<rounding Guards ;juft met^ and ft^od dofmg in a 
join'd Squadron, waitipg the niext Command; to 
'whom Gabriel their Chief, from the Front odl'd 
loudly : Friends ! I hear the nimble Tread of Feet 
J^aAeniing this Way; and now by Glimpfe through 
tji^ Shade can difcem Ithuribl and Zj^phon, and 
with them there CQtneg a third of regal Port, but of a 
faded Brightnefs, who by his Gate and his fierce De- 
meanour feems to me to be the Prbc^. of Hell ; not 
likely to depart henqe >nthou£ a Conteft: Stand firm^ 
£»r Pcfiance and Op|K)fmon are in .hi$ Looks. 

» • » 

He. fcarcely had ended, when Ithuriel and Ze- 
p H N approach'd, and briefly related whom they 
had brought, .where they had found him, how he was 
bufied„ and what Form and Pofture he was couch*d 
inuto whom, looking. fternly at him, GabrieL' 
fpake : Satas^ why h^ft thou i>roke the Bounds pre- 
Icribed thee and thy Tranfgreffions ? And why haft 
thou difturb'd the Charge of others, who do not ap- 
prove: jto tranfgrefs by thy Example ; but have a Pow^ 
<r and a Right tp queftion, why thou hail boldly tn^ 
ter'd on this Place, employed as it feems to violate 
Skcpj and thofe whofe Dwelling Gop has Settled 
here in Happinefe ? 

To whom Satan, with a contemptuous Look, 

madeAnfwer: Gabriel! in Heaven thou hadft the 

Eftimation of being wife, and fuch indeed I thought 

thee, but thy aflcing this Queftion puts me in Doubt. 

^ Does there live any Body wEo loye^ his Pajnf or who 


Chap. IV« Farauisb Lojst* a6f 

would liot, if he could find a Way^ break loofe from 
Hell, ^ough he was doom'd thither ? Thou thyfetf 
3Krould'ft» I make no Doubt^ and boldly would'il vcn* 
Xavt to whatever Place thqu could'ft, to get fartheft 
from Pain; where thou mishteft hope to change Tor* 
;nent for £afe» and fooneft recompence Sorrow with 
Delight; which is what I fought in this Place: Thu 
to thee is no Reafon, becaufe thou knoweft nothi 
but Good, md haft not try'd Evil. Wilt thou obj 
his Willy who bound us? Let him bar his Iron Gates 
furer, if he intends we ihall ftay in that dark Durance! 
Thus much was aik'd me. The reft is true ; they did 
find me where they (ay, but that implies neither 
Harm npr Violence. 

Thvs hefpokeinScom: The warlike Angel w«s 
mov'd, mi lialf fmiling, thus rejply'd difilainfully: 
WBt^t iJois there is in Heaven lor one ta jxidse of 
Wifijf^mt fmcc Satan fell, whofe FoUy overthrew 
him J and now returns him. efcsm^d from his Prilbn^ 
very gravely in Doubt, whether he fhould hold them 
wile or nc^ who aik what Boldnefs brought him hi* 
ther from his Bounds prelcrib'd in HeU, withoia: 
Leave granted him: However, he judge! it wife to 
fly from Pain, and to efcape his Punimment ; fo judge 
thou ftiU, prefumptQOU$ Rebel, 'till that Wrath; 
which thou incur'ft by flyjng» sieet thy Flight, and 
with fevqnfold Vengeance fcourge that Wifdom back 
to Hell again ; which yet taught theeino better, that 
could not tf^ thee that no Pain can equal infinite 
Anger provok'd. But wherefore art thou alone? 
Wherefore did npt all Hell come with thee, broke 
loofe ? Is P^ tQ them lels Pam, or left to be fled? 
Or art thou Icfs hardy to endure than they ? A coura- 
gious Chief! the very firft in Flight from Pain! Hadft 
5iou alledg'd this Caufe to thy dcfcrted Hoft, furely 
thou hadf( not come away the fole Fugitiye. 

• • '. ■ • 


f70 f Alt adiss Lo£r. .Book IV« 

\ To which, frowning fternly, the Fiend sinfwer'd: 
lofulting Angela not that I can endure lefs, 4>r Ihrink ' 

from Fain; thou knowdt well : I ftood thyfitrceflv 
when the blaiting voUied Thunder made all . Speed in 
the Battle to thy Affiitance, and feoonded thy Spear^ 
which elie was not dreaded y but ftill thy Words, as 
they were before, are at Random, and argue thy 
Want of Experience, as to what behoves a faithim 
Leader, (from hard Trials and ill Succefies paft) not 
to hazard all, through Ways of Danger whicn he had 
never try^d } therefore I alone undertook firft to pais 
over the defolate Abyis, and fpy.out this new created 
World, whereof Fame is not filent in Hetti boj^ng 
to find here a better Abode, and fettk here upon 
Earth, or elie in Ae Air; my aflfifted P)»Weni; mo* 
againll our taking FbiTei&On, we try once more what 
thou and thy gay Legions Can doy whofe ea&r Bufi- 
&efs is, to ferve their Lord with Songs, andpa£tice di- 
ikznt Cringes, not to fight. 

To whom the Warrior Ai^el made fpeedy Reply r 
To £iy, and then immediately to unfay, pretending 
firft lb be wife and to fly Pain, neitt profeffing to be 
a Spy, argues no Leader, but a trac'd Liar, Satak ! 
and could'it thOu add faithful ? Oh Profanation of the 
fecred Name of Faithftilnels! Faithfiil to whom ? Ttf 
ehy rebellious Crew, an Army of Devils ? A fit Body 
to iuch a Head ! Was this your Difcipline, your Faith 
^S^^y 4Mi your military Obedience^ to dififdve 
Allegiance to the acknowledged iupreme Poweif? 
And thou, fly HypO(^te, who now woukl'ft feem 
l^atron of Liberty, who once fawn*d and cring'd 
more than thou, and fervilely ador'd the awful King 
l;>f Heaven ? Wherefore ? but in Hopes to diipoflels 
him, and reigi^ thyfelf ? But mark what I pronounce 
thee now ; Avaunt ! fly back, ^ain fronv whence thoU' 
art fledl for if from this Hour thou dar'ft but to ap- 


chap;. IV. IJah^adisb hosr. 171 

pear wkfain tfaefc iiaUowM liouts, Til drag thee back 
chained to the Ihfemai Pit, and feal thee fo, that thou 
ihalt not hencefordv.icorn the oafy Gates of HcU, at 
barr'd too (lightly^ 

, ; S o he thrcatcnM; but Satan heeded no Threats^, 
but growing ftiU more enrag'd, reply*d : Proud iinu- 
ury Cherub! when I am thy Captive, then begin to 
talk about Chains, but ^ till then expedt to feefa far* 
heaTier Load from my powerful Arm ; though the 
kins of Heaven ri4e upon thy Wings^ and thou with 
thy Fdlow Slaves, usM to the Voice, draweli his tri* 
umphal Car, in Progreis throu^ the iUr-pav'd Rossi 
of Heaven. 

While he fpoke thus, the angelical SquadrpQ 
tum'd fiery red, iharpening their Phalanx into Half 
Moms, and btgza to enclofe him round witib pre* 
iented Spears ^ as thick as Ears of Com, fipe for the 
flarveft brad to the Wind; on the other Side, Satas 
being akrm'd and coUeding all his Might, Ibood fix^ 
ed and enlargM like Mount Tsvsrif, (m) orAr* 
las: His Stature reachM the Sky, and on his Creft 
iat Horror for a Plume; nor did he want ia Ms 
Oraip what feem'4 both Spear and ShklcL Now ve» 

ffm) TtMertffe^ TimriY, or f/- 
tnrife i Par tug, i. c. HoMng np 
en High. It IS the Chief oi the 
Canary Iflands^ which are feven 
in Nttiabcr, in theWefieraO- 
cean» and about thirty Leagaes 
from the CmtimiHt. It is over- 
againft Mor^ua in Africa^ aboat 
4S ^fsm^fi} Leagues round» P/9* 
inn; reckoned the Longitude from 
chen: becaufe the Amients e- 
fteemcd them the remotell Part 
of tHe Ocean ; and fome modem 
Geographers follow him ftiJl. 
ThePike of ^intrlfft is one of ibe 

higbeft Mountains upon 
Gfobe I a Mafs of Rocks iieap«^ 
confiifedl^ together^ like a rougj^ 
Pjramiii computed to^ 
tween three or «t moft four Miiet 
perpendicular above the Seal 
and about fifteen Miies to them 
that afcend it. It may be fee« 
I ZQ EngMjb Miles offit ^^^ ia 
dear Weather. There is a Fnl^ 
tmnp on the Top of it» and it 
is aifo covered with Snow; there* 
fore fome call it yi^faria^ Lat^ 
i. e. A SMonxy RvcJt. 

*. -. 

172 Fahadisb LosT« -Book IV. 

rjr dreadful Deeds might have ehliiM» not only PA* 
&ADXSE , had gone to wreck in tlus Commo- 
lionv but pertiaps theftarry Cope of Heaven, all die 
Elements had been difturoM and torn widi the Via-* 
lence of this great Confli£t, had not G o d to prevent 
foch horrid Fray, hung forth his golden Scdes ia 
Heaven, which arc yet leen between Astrea {o) and 
the Sign Scorpio, (wherein he firft weigh'd alf 
Things created, the pendulous round Eami, and 
counterpoiz'd it with oallanc'd Air, and now weighs 
in them all Events of Battles, and Realms) in thefe 
he p« two Weights, one of them to fliow the Con- 
^ou^ee of. Satan's retreating, and the other of his 
fightmg ; the latter Scale flew up quick and ftruck 
the Beam ; which Gabriel feeing thus.ipoke to the 

»» • • 

^ Satan! I know thy Strength, and thou too,' 
Unoweft mine, neither ot them our 01;^, but both 
given us : What Follv is it for us then to boaft what 
Arms can do, fmce thine can do as much as Heaven 
permits, and mine can do no more, tho' my Strength 
DC doubled now to trample thee : For a rroof look 
up in yonder celeffial Sign where thou art weigh'd, 
and fbewn how light and weak thou art, if thou 
ftouldft refift. — The Fiend lookM up, and faw and 
knew his Scale mounted aloft ; nor did he ftay, but 
fled away murmuring, and with him likewiie fled 
ibe Shade of the Night. 

(fi) Afina ; tat. t. e. A Ztar. of all the Gods \ bectilfe of the 

The Danghter of Jtipitir and WickedneTtofMeSi and flew op 

fhefrnt, and Goddcit of Juftice. to Heaven, where (he became 

In the Golden Age or Sute of the Sign yirg$^ next to Hh-s, K 

lonocsncy (he lived amongMen; e. A Scali. Joftiee*s Ballance, 

bat m the Iron Age, or a&r the nother of the twelve Signs, 
I%\1, fhe^deferted the Earth, iai 

Tte End of the Fifth Book, 

[ '73 3 




The Argument. 

THE Mmtifig ^proacbrng Eve relates, 
to Adam iter troubkfome Dream ; be 
idoes rtfft like it, yet comforts her j tbe^ 
come forth to their Day^Labonr : Tbetr 
Mormng Hymn at the Door of toe Botver. God 
to reiider Man inexcufabUt fends Raphael to ad~ 
monijb kirn of his Obedience, of bis free Efiate^ of 
bis Enemy near at Hand ; •who be is ; and •why his 
Enemfj and wbatever eife may avail Adam to 
huvo. Raphael comes dmm to Paradire ; bis Ap- 
pearance dacrib'd, bis Coming difcem'd by Adam 
^'■" offi J^ting at the Door rf bis Bower; be goes 
out to meet him^ brings him to his Lodge., entertains 
Inm with the choiceji Fruits of Paramfc got toge- 
ther by Eve j their Difcotirfe at Table : Raphael 
performs bit Meffage, and puts Adam in mtrsd of 


174- Paradise Lost. Book V. 

Us Statfy and ef bis 'Enemy. Raphael at the Re* 
^Ji of Adam, relates wbe bis great Enet/^ is, 
aria bow be came to befo, beginning from bisfirfi 
Eevolt in Heaven, and ibe Occafm thereof -, bovf 
be drew bis Legions after bim to the Parts of the 
North, and therein incited tbent to rebel with bim^ 
ferfuading ally but only Abdiel, a Serapb^ who in 
uirgument diffuades and oppofes him, then forfakei 


Eve relates to Adam her Dream ; tbef comefort^ 
■ft their Day-J^bour : ^Hkir Mormng Byrnn, 

IO W die Morning advancing with red 
ScreaHs in the Eafi^ corer'd the Earth 
with ihining Drops of Dew, when A- 
DAU awak*a^ beibg fo accuSom'd', ibf 
his Sleep was Eght, bred fi-om pure Di-' 
geftion and temperate pleafing Fumes, 
which t^e bare Sound of Leaves, and runoing Sgrcaois 
and the fhriU Mbrnjng Song of Birds mi every Bough 
lightly diipers'd : His Wonder was fo much the more 
w find Eve not yet awake •, with her Hair difcom- 
pos'd and her Cheeks glowing, as through unquiet 
Sleep : He on his Side half-rai&'d and leaning, hung 
over her enamour'd with t-ooks of Coidial Love, and 
beheld Beauty, which whether aflecp or awake caft 
forth peculiar Graces : Then with Voice as mild a» 
when the gentleft Winds breath on the Flowers, foft- 
ly touching her Hand* whifper*d thus : Awake, my 
Faireft ! my Spoiife ! my laft found Good ! Heaven's 
laft, beft Gift ! My ever-new Delight ! Awake ! for 
now the Morning Ihines, and the mih_ Field calls for 
usi we loafethcFnmctoqbfervehQw our teoderPlants 


Cliap« L Paradise Lost. 175 

fpringt how the Citron Grove blow^ What the Balm* 
tree and the Mvrrh drop^ how Nature paints her Co- 
kmr, and how the Bee fits upon the Flowers extraft* 
ing Honey. Suck whiipering awak'd her ; but widi 
ftardedEyes, tum'd upon Adamj to whom (em« 
(jracing him) flie fpoke thus : 

O Thou ! in whom alone my Thoughts find any 
Repofe, my Perfeftion and my Glory ! Gladly I fee 
thy Face and the Morning retum'd ; for I this Night 
have dream'd, (if indeed it was a Dream, for fuch a 
Night till this I never pafs'd before) not as I am often 
us'd about thee, the Work of the palsM Day, or that 
next defignM for the Morrow ; but I have dreamed 
of Offence and Trouble, which 'till this irklbme 
Night my Mind never knew. Methought that one 
dofe at my Ear with a gentle Voice called me to 
walk, I thought it was thine: It faid, Eve, why 
6aSt thou deep? Now is the pleafant, cool and filent 
Time, only where Silcnc* yields to the Nightingale, 
that now awake tunes in the fweeteft Notes, his love- 
laboured Song : Now the Full Moon reijens, and with 
a pleafanter Light fets off the Face of Things, but 
all in vam if none regard it : Heaven wdces with all 
kis Eyes, and who is it to behold but thee, who art 
the Defire of Nature ? in whofe Sight all Things have 
Joy, attracted by thy Beauty, ilill to gaze with Ra- 
vifliment. I arofe thinking it to be thv Call, but 
could not find thee, to which End I then diredted my^ 
Walk \ and alone, methought, I pafsM on through 
Ways diat brought me on a fudden to the forbidden 
Tree of Knowledge. It feem*d very fair, much fair- 
er to my Fancy than it did by Day ^ and as I look'd 
on it with Wonder, there ftood by the Side of it, one 
fliap'd and wing'd, like thofe tnat come from Hea- 
ven, which we often fee ; his dewy Locks dropp*d 
Sweetnels ; and he alio gazM on that Tree : And O 
fair Plant, iaid he, overchaig*d with Fruit ! Does no 


176 Paradise Lost. Book V» 

Body vcuchfafc to cafe thy Load, and tafte of Ay 
Sweetacfs? Neither God nor Man? Is Knowledge 
fo much dcfpis*d ? Or is it Envy ? Or what Refenre 
IS it that foroids to taftc of ic i Let who. will forbid 
k, none fh^ loiter withold from me thy c^fer'd 
Good : To what End elfe art thou fet here i Having 
faid this» he made no farther Paufe, but with adven- 
turous Arm he phick'd off the Fruit, and tailed it : 
A damp Horror chili'd me, at fuch bold Words, con^^ 
firmed with fuch a bold Deed. But he oVeiJOT'd, ex-^ 
claim'd thus: Oh divine Fruit! fweet of tliyfetf, but 
thus cr<^*d much more fweet; forbidden here it 
would feem as only fit for Gods, and yet art able to 
make Gods of Men: And why not make Gods of 
Men, fince Good the more it is conmiunicated, grows 
more abundantly i the Author at the lame Time hoc 
impair'd, but the nu>rc honoured i Here thou happy 
Creature! fair angelical Evb! do thou partake alfo f 
for tho' thou art happy, thou mayft ftill be happier, tho* 
thou canft not be worthier: Then tafte this, and hence- 
fc^th be amongft the Gods, thyfelf a Goddeis ^ not CQn« 
finMto the Earth, but as we are, fometimes in the Air, 
fometimes afcend up to Heaven, (which is thine by 
Merit) and fee there what Life the Gods live, and 
fuch a one live thou. Saying this, he drew nigh to 
me, and held even to my very Mouth, Part of that 
fame Fruit which he had gathered : The pleafant fa* 
voury Smell fo quicken'd my Appetite, that, me- 
thought, I could not forbear tailing : Forthwith I flew 
with him up to the Clouds, and beheld the Earth 
ftretch'd put immeafurably a wide and various Pro- 
fped far underneath me : While I was wondering at 
my Flight and my Change to this high Exaltation ; 
on a fudden my Guide was gone, and I, methought, 
funk down, and fell afleep : But oh, how glad I was 
when I wak*d to find this nothing but a Dream ! Thus 
Eve related what had pafs*d in her Sleep in the Night, 
and Adam, with much Sadnefs made this Anfwen 


Chap«X Paradise Los^t. 177 

Thou beft Image of myfelf! and my dearer 
Half! The: Trouble of thy Thoughts this Night in 
Sleep, equally affefts me j nor can I by any Means 
like this ftrange Dream, which I fear to proceed from 
Evil. • Yet whence Evil ? None can harbour in thee, 
for thou wert. created pure. But know, that there arc 
many lefler f'aculties in the Soul, which are fubordi* 
jiate to Reafon : The Chief of thefe is Fancy ; (he 
forms Imaginations, and airy Shapes of all the e'xter- 
nal Things, which the five Senles reprefent^ which 
(Reaibn either joyning or disjovning ) frame all 
what we affirm, or what we deny, and call our 
Knowledge or pinion, and when Nature refts, then 
Beafon retires into her private Cell, and refts alfo. 
Mimic Fancy, in her Abfence often wakes to imi- 
tate her ; but misjoining Shapes generally produced 
'm]d Work and moftly in Dreams ; ill-matching of 
Words and Deeds longfince paft^ or lately done. 
Methinks I find fome fuch Refemblances of our Talk 
laft Evening, in this thy Dream, but with very 
firange Addition : Yet be not fad ; into the Mind of 
either God or Man Evil may come, and go, and 
if unapprov'd of, leave no Spot or Blame behind 
it: Wnich occafions me to hope, that what thou 
didft aUior to do in a Dream afleep, thou never wilt 
confent to do waking. Then don t be difliearten'd, 
nor let there be a Cloud upon that Face, that us'd 
to be more ch^arful and more ferene, than when 
the fair Morning firft opens on the World : And 
let us rife to our frefh Ejnployments among the 
Groves, and among the Fountains and Flowers, that 
now open their choiceft Smells, which have been (hut 
up from the Night, and kept in Store for thee» 

So Adam endeavoured .to chear his fairSpouie, 
and ihe was chear'd ; but filently froBv- citjbier JEryc, 
0ie let fall a gentle Tear, and wip*d them with her 

N Hair: 

178 pA&ADisE Lost. Bcx)k V. 

Hair : Two other precious Tears that ftood ready to 
drop Adam kifs*d away, looking on them as gra- 
cious Signs of fweet Remorle, and a pious Awe that 
was afraid to have offended. 

S o all was cleared, and they haften'd forth to the 
Field : But firft from under the fhady Roof of the 
Arbour, as foon as they were come forth to the open 
Sight of Day and the Sun, (who fcarce rifen and yet 
hovering on the Ocean's Brim, fhot parallel his dewy 
Rays to the Earth, difcovering in a wide Landfcape 
all the Eaft of Paradise, and the happy Plains of . 
Eden) they bow'd lowly in Adoration, and begun 
their Prayers, duely offered every Morning in various 
Stile ; for neither did they want various Stile nor holy 
Rapture, to praife their Maker in proper Strains^ ei- 
ther pronounced or fung unpremeditated ; fuch ready. 
Eloquence flow'd from their Lips, in Profe or har- 
monious Verfe, too tuneable to want either Lute or 
Harp to add more Sweetneis to them •, and they be- 
gan thus : 

A h M I o H T Y ! Parent of Good ! Thefe glorious 
Works are thine, and thine this univerfel Frame, fo 
wondrous beautiful ! How much more wonderful art 
thou ! Unfpeakable ! Who fitteft above the Heavens, 
to us invisible, or feen dimly in thefe thy loweft 
Works : Yet thefe declare thy GoodneJs to be beyond 
Thought, and thy Power to be divine. SpeaK ye 
Sons of Light ! Ye Angels ! How wondrous the Cre- 
ator is, for ye behold him, and with Songs and Sym- 
phonies, Day without Night, fing round about his 
Throne rejoicing in Choir ; this do ye in Heaven ! 
On Earth join all ye Creatures ! To exalt, and praife 
him, firft and laft and for-ever without End ! Thou 
faireft of Stars the laft in the Train of Night ! (if more 
properly thou belong not to theDawn) the fure Pledge 
of Day, tlut bcautiheft the ImiJing Morning with, thy 


Chap. I. Paradise Lost. 179 

bright Circle ! Praife him in thy Sphere, while Day 
arik$ ! Thpu Sun ! Both Soul and Eye of this great 
World, acknowledge him thy greater ; in thy eter- 
nal Courfe found his Praife ! Both when thou climb*ft 
and when thou halt reach'd high Noon, and when 
thou fett*ft. And thou, O Moon ! and ye five other 
wand'ring Fires ! that move in a Manner not to be 
comprehended, yet not without Harmony, refound 
bis Praife who out of Darknefs call'd forth Light. 
Air ! and ye other Elements ! the firft Birth of Na- 
ture, that run a perpetual Circle taking various and 
numberlefs Forms, mixing with and nourifliing all 
Jbings ; let your ceafelels Change ftill vary new 
Praife to our Great Maker ! Ye Mifts and Exhala- 
tions ! that now rife du/ky or ^ey, from the Hills or 
(teaming Lakes, (till fudi Times as the Sun-beams 
punt ye like Gold) rife ye, in Honour to the World's 

treat Author ! whether riling to deck the uncoiour'd 
ky with Clouds, or falling to wet the Earth . with 
Showers of Rain^ ftill advance ye, his Praife! breath 
ibft, or loud his Praife, ye Winds I diat blow from 
four Quarters ! And ye Pine Trees wave your Tops ! 
And everv Plant, in Sign of Worlhip wave \ Yc 
Fountains ! and ye murmuring Streams ! tune his 
Praife. J<Hn Voiced all ye lifing Souls ! ye Birds ! 
that finging afcend up towards Heaven's Gate, upon 
your Wings and in your Notes bear his Praife- Ye 
Fifhes that fwim in the Waters \ and ye Creatures 
that walk the Earth, treading or lowly creeping ? 
Witnels if I ^m filent Morning or Evenmg, to HiU, 
to Valley, to Fountain or frdh Shade made vocal by 
my Song, and taueht his Praife! Hail, univerfal 
Lord! be thou ftm fo bounteous to give us only 
good ; and if the Ni^t hath giatbef'd any Thing of 
Evil, do thou difperk it^ even as the Morning Liglic 
D0^ difpells the Darknefs. 

N a S9 

i8o Paradise Lost. Book V. 

S o they prayM innocently, and to their Thoughts: 
foon recovered firm Peace and ufual Calmncfs ; on 
they hafted to 'their Morning's rural Work, among 
fweet Dews and Flowers, or where any Rows of Fruit 
Trees reach'd too far their overgrown Boughs, and 
wanted Hands to check them from fruitlefs Embraces^ 
or clfe they led the Vine to wed the £lm» who twin- 
ing her marriageable Arms about him brings withf 
her, her Dower, the rich Clutters of Grapes to adom, 
his barren Leaves. 


Raphael tsfent to admonijb Man of his Obedience^ 
comes down to Pargdifc ; bis Appear ance defer i^ 
bed : Adam difcems his Coming ; gtsas to meet 
him^ and brings him to his Bower j where Ra- 
phael performs his Mejfage. 

THE high King of Heaven with Pity beheld 
them thus employed, and called to him R a- 
PHAEL, {a) die fociable Spirit, that eon- 
defcended to travel with Tobias, and afliiled him m 
his Marriage. 

Raphael! faid he, thou heaicft what a Stir 
Satan (efcap'd from Hell to Earth through the darkr 
fomc Gulph) hath raised in Paradise; how thi^ 
Night he hath difturb'd the human Pair, and how he 
defigns in them at once to bring oo^he Ruin of all 
Mankind : Therefore, go, and Half this Day conveife 


* {q) Raphatl ; Heh, i. e. -^be* mentioned in facred Scripture^ 
Remedy or Fhyfickof God. The only in ^oh. Chap. 3. 17. 5, 
Name of an Arch-Angel, not 4. 8. 9. 1. 5. 12. 15, 

Chap. IL Paradise Lost^ i8i 

'with Adam, as one Friend with another, in what 
Bower or Shade thou n^ayft find him, retirM from the 
Heat of the Noon, to give fome Refpite to his Day 
Labour with {l^paft or with Repofe ; and bring on 
fuch Difcourfe as may advifc him of the luppy State 
he is in, Happinefs in his Power, left to his own free 
Will; his Will, though free yet mutable: Thence 
take Occafion to warn him, to beware he fwerve not^ 
byumagining himfelf too fecure: Withal, tell him 
his Danger, and from whom ; what Enemy lately fal- 
len himl'elf from Heaven, is now contriving, the Fall 
of others from a like State of Happinefs : Is this to 
be done by Violence ? No ; for that Ihall be with- 
llood I but by Deceit and Lies : Let him know this, 
left trai^grefling wilfully he IhouU pretend Surprizal,^ 
and that Jie was unadmonifh'd and unforewarnM. 


So ipoke the eternal Father, and fo fulfill'd 
a:ll Juftice: Nor did the Angel make any Delay after 
he had received his Charge •, but from among Thou- 
iands of bright and holy Angels, where he ftood 
veil'd with his beautiful Wings, fpringing up light- 
ly, hi flew through the Midft of Heaven ; the Choirs 
of the Angels parting on each Hand gave Way to his 
^^)eed, 'till he arrivM at the Gate of Heaven, which 
bpen'd of its own Accord, turning on golden Hin- 
es, as God the fovereign Architeft had by divine 

orkmanlhip framM it. From hence no Star or 
Cloud interpofing to obftrudt his Sight, he faw (not 
unlike to the oth^r fhining Globes, though it appeared 
to be very fmall) the Earth, and the Garden of God, 
with Cedars growing in it, above all Hills : As when 
by Night, through a Telcfcope, imagined Lands and 
Regions a;*e obferv'd in the Moon, or a Pilot from 
amidft the CvcLAD^s, (3) fees Dblos (c) or S a- 

; i N 3 MOS 

(h) Cjcladesi Lat. Gr, u e. de, rounc} aboat Dihs^ in the 
Grfks, 53 Iflinds lying ins Cir- Arcbiftlago, 

i82 Paradise Lost. Book 


(d) firft appearing to be only a doudv ^ot. 

He fpeeds down tnit;Jier dire6t in Flight, and Uirough 
the Sky flies between the Stars : Now with fteady 
Wing upon the Polar Winds, (e) then with his 
Wings rans the yielding Air; 'till arriving where 
towVing Eagles could foar as high, to all the Fowls 
he feems a Phoenix, (f) gazM on by all as that Bird, 
when he flies to burn himlelf to Death in the Fire of 


(c) Di/as i Lat. from xhtGr. 
]. e. manifeft or appearing : Be- 
caufe (as thcFable goes) it lay un- 
der Water or floated abont, for a 
long Time, till Kefiune at the 
Command of Jupiter^ fixed it, 
that LaUna might Ke in of Jpcl- 
lo and Diana there. Rather from 
Daal^ Hib. i. e. Fear: Becanfe 
they were worlbipped in this I- 
flandy and fome Kemains of the 
magnificent Temple of Jp9lio, 
as Marble Pillars, are vifible 
there. And for that Reafon it 
was efteemed fo facred, that the 
Inhabitants would not fuflfera 
Dog, or any fickPerfon to live in 
it, or any Dead to be buried 
therein ; whom they fent to a 
neighbouring Iflxtid^c^VtdRbtni. 
But the true Reafon of thisName 
is this, becaufe it appears fooneft 
of any to the Sailors. The com- 
mon Treafures of Greea were 
deported in it, for that Reafon. 
It was firft called Ortjgia^ Gr. 
]. e. A ^uail I becaufe thefe 
Birds abounded in that Ifland. 
The Ifland is fmall, not above 
five or fix Miles in Cbmpafs ; 
twice as long as broad, low, 
rocky, barren, now defolate, 
and called Zdili: And ellcetned 
the firil and chiefof the Cyclases: 

becaufe Apollo and Diana yftxt 
chiefly adored, and had a fimous 
Oracle in it. The Tnrks pofiefii 
it, and the F^iv^Mstf reduced it, 
A. D. 1674. 

{d\ Samos, Lat, Gr. i. e. 
High: Becaufe it is Bpott a high 
and lofty Ground ; Another oT 
thefe Ifles overaeainft Epbejks i 
about 90 Miles £om Jtmfaltm^ 
It IS rendered famous for being 
the Birth-Place of the great Phi- 
lofopher Pftiagoras, aboat A. 
M. 5500. 

M Polar mndi. i. e. The 
Winds that blow from the North 
and Soath Poles. 

(/) Pbctnixi Lat. from the 
G/. i. e. Riit Crim/on folourid. 
A very rare Bird, of a Purple 
Colour, like an Eagle. Tkev 
fay it breeds in Arabia, liveth 
300, others (ay joo, fome 660, 
and others 1469 Vean 1 that it 
burns itfelf to Death in a Neft 
of fweet Spices, about Tbibu in 
Egypt ; out of thefe Aflies ano- 
ther fprin«th. It is an Emblem 
of the Kdurre^on of the Dead i 
and the Fathen urged it for a 
Proof thereof, againft the Hea- 
thens, who believed it real ; biiC 
moft think it is a Fable. 

Chap. II. Paradise Lost. 183 

the Sun, as far as the ^Egyptian Thebes, (g) At 
once he lights upon the Eaftern ClifF of Paradise, 
and reti|rns to the Shape he had, when God gave 
him the Charge, a winged Seraph: He wore fix 
WingS:to ihade his divine Lineaments; the Pair tliat 
clad each broad Shoulder came mantling with regal 
Ornament over his Breaft ; the middle Pair girded his 
Waift like a Girdle of Stars, and cover'd round his 
Loins and Thighs with golden Feathers, and Colours 
that were dippM in Heaven j the third Pair fhadow'd 
his Feet witii Sky-colour'd Feathers, of heavenly 
Beauty : He flood like him the Poets feign to be the 
Son of Mai A, (b) and fhook his Plumes fo that hea- 
venly Fragrance fiU'd the wide Circuit. He was foon 
known to all the Bands of Angels, who were guarding 
under Watch, and they all roie up as he jpaft, in Ho- 
nour to his State and high Meflage y for upon fuch 
they guels'd him to be bound : He went by their glit- 
tering Tents, and now was come into Paradise, 
through Groves of Myrrh, fweet Flowers, Caffia, (/; 
Spikenard, (kj and Balm, a Wildernels of Sweets ; 
for Nature wanton^ here as in her Youth, and play'd 

N 4 Virgin 

ig) fhBej I (everal Cities are 
called lb ; tbis was in Egfptf cal- 
led alfo Hil'tQp9lu^ Gr.i. e. Thi 
City of thi Sun : and the Coun- 
try about ic» TMais, now 

{h) Muia ; Lai Gr. i. e. A 
Nur/t. The Daoghter of -A- 
lasp of whom Jypiter begot M/r- 

(/) CaffiMi Lsif. Gr. Btb. 
Kftfiotb^ i. e. A Scrafing, A 
fweet (meUing Shrub in Arabia^ 
Eg^t &c. for when the Bark of 
it li fcraped, it fends out a moft 
fragrant Smell, like Cinnamon. 
There are nine Species of it. 
About Jhxandria and in the 

Weft-hJiis it grows to be a very 
large Tree. 

(k) Spikinardi Hep. i. e. 
Snveet Ointments i another fweet 
fmelling Shrub, growing in A- 
rabia, Syria^ and India, called 
Nardos by the Greeks^ and Spike- 
nard by up. See Cant, i. 12. 
Mark 14, 3. Job, 12. 3. With 
Oil made of this and other fweet 
fmelling Herbs, the Anticnts a. 
nointed themfelves and their 
Guefts, whilft they fat at Table. 
Pfalm 23. 5. " Thou preparefl 
** a Table before me, in the 
•• Prefencc of mine Enemies : 
" ThouanointeftmyHend wi:h 

©il, my Cup runneth over.*' 


184 Paradise Lost* BookV* 

Virgin Fancies at Pleafurc, pouring forth Sweets in 
great Abundance, wild above Rule and above Art, 
and full of every Thing that could bring Happinefs. 
Adam difcem*d him coming onward through the 
Foreft of Spices, as he fat at the Door of his cool 
Bower; while now the Meridian Sun (hot his hot Rays 
direftly downward, to warm the inmoft Bowels of tne 
Earth, (with more Warmth than was neceflary for 
Man) and Eve within at the accuftom'd Hour pre- 
pared favoury Fruits for Dinner, of Tafte to pleafe a 
true Appetite, and not give a Difrelifli to Draughts 
between, taken from the foft Stream, or prefs'd from 
Berries or Grapes-, to whom Adam calPd thus: 

Eve, haften hither^ and behold what glorious 
Shape worthy thy Sidit comes this Way, moving 
Eaftward among thole Trees, and jfeems another 
Morning rifen at Noon-Day •, perhaps he brings to us 
fome great Meflage from Heaven, and will Tonlay 
vouchfafe to be our Gueft*, but do thou go witn 
Speed, and bring forA what thy Stores contain, and 
•pour forth Abundance, fit to receive and honour our 
heavenly Stranger 5 we may well ^ord our Givers 
their own Gifts, and largely beftow what is largely 
beftow'd on us, where Nature multiplies her plentiful 
Growth, and by difburthening hcrfelf, grows the 
more fruitful, which may feive for InftruSbion to us 
not to Ipare. 

To whom Eve replied; Adam, whom God 
made from the Earth, and breathM Life into! a fmall 
Store will lervc, where Abundance in all Seafons 
hangs ripe for Ul'e on the Stalk, except what by fru- 
gal Keeping gains more Firmnefs and Maturenefs, 
making it more nourifhing and confuming fuperfluous 
Moifhire : But I will haften, and from ev^ Trtc 
and Plant, and- juicieft Ground, will pluck fuch 
choice Ffuit to entertam our Gueft the Angel, as, 


chap. n. • Paradise Lost. 185 


when he beholds, he ihall confefs that God hath dif- 
pens'd his Bounties here on Earth, even as he has in 

Saying this, with bufy Looks and in Hafte Ihc 
turns away, intent upon hofeitable Thoughts, what 
Fruits to chufe that were moft delicate^ and in what 
Order to contrive not to mix Taftes, difagreeable to 
one another, and not elegant ; but bring Taftc after 
Tafte, changing them fo as they may ftill pleafe. She 
itirs about, and gathers from each tender Stalk what- 
ever the fhiitful Earth yields,' either in Eaft or Weft 
India, or the middle Shore in Pontus, (J) or the 
Punic (m) Coaft, or where Alcinous (n) reign'd^ 
a large Tribute of Fruit of all Kinds, in rough Coat, 
fmooth Rind, or bearded Hulk, or Shelly and heaps 
them upon die Board with an unfparing Hand : For 


(fl Pontus \ tat. Gr. i. c. 
n^ Sea. It is called the Ekxine 
Sta, the £laeJt Sea, Mare Mag- 
gwi (by the Italians^ i. c. The 
greater Sea, thro* Ignorance) 
and b/ other Names. Pontus is 
afmad Sea in Lefler Jfia^ upon 
. the North-Eaft Side of CwJIm- 
SinofUf runneth into the White 
Sea, and from thence into the 
Mediterranean Sea. A fineCoun- 
, try about it ^»ifo called Pontus, 
,Jaj 2. 9. 1 Pet. I. I* Thean- 
. titnt Scythians or TVi/ari border- 
ed upon it. Pontus was made a 
' Kingdom by Darhu the Son of 
• HyflafiSf A* M. 3490, in fa« 
. your of ArtahoKus. a Son of one 
. the Lords of Perfim^ who con- 
fptred againil the Magi, who 
had oTurped that Throne. After 
lum, fix of the Name of Mi- 
tbridates, and other Kinftsrcien- 
cd there. Ovid was oaniu'd 
^ f hither by Augufiut i and there 

he died, afrer ten Years Coa« 
finement to a cold Climate ani 
barbarous Inhabitants^ where he 
wrote his ^rifiia, 

(»i) Punic. Phcenician, q. IV- 
nic from the p€eni or Ben$*Anak^ 
Heb. i. e. The Sons of Anak^ 
a famous •Giant : l^umb, 13. 22. 
28. The old Irthabitand of 
Canaan, in the Days of Mofes. 

{n) Aicinous ; Lat, Gr. i. e; 
Magnanimous. AnantientKing 
of lArejra (now Corfu) in the 
Mouth of the Gulf of Venice ; 
who had fair Orchards, it beiag 
an Apple Country. The Poeis« 
in high Como^ndation of them» 
feigned they were Golden Ap- 
ples, which Bomer took from 
the Garden and Apples' of Part« 
dife. The latter Poets had this 
ft-om hiin^ and he from all Anri* 
quicy. He entertained Vhffei^ 
when he was call upon his IfloJid, 

l86 Paradise Lost. Book V; 

prink fhe faueezes Grapes, and many Sorts of Berr 
ries, and maKesnew Wme^ though new, yet not of- 
fenfive : And preifing of fweet Kernels, juxparcs 
Creams of an agreeable Tafte ; nor did fhe want pure 
and fit Vefiels to hold foch Liquors i She then ftrews 
the Ground with Rofirs, and fweet Odours from the 
Slurubs: Mean wlule our firft great Father walks forth 
to meet his Godlike Gueft, accompanied by no other 
Train than his own compleat Perfetcions j all his State 
was in himielf ; much more folemn than the tedious 
Pomp that waits on Princes, when their rich and long 
Retinue of led Horfes, and Grooms whofe Habits 
fliine with Gold, dazles and fets all the Crowd a ga- 
zing. A p A M coming nearer to the Angel, thou^ 
he was not aw'd, yet approaching with Submiflion 
and meek Reverence, and oowing Tow, as to a fupe- 
lior Nature, fpokc thus: 

Native of Heaven, (for no other Place can 
contw) fo glorious a Shape) fince by defcending down 
fix>m the Thrones above, thou liaft been pleas'd to 
kavc thofe Places, and honom: thde with thy Pre- 
ience, vouchfafe to remain a while with us in yonder 
fiiady Bower, as being as yet but two, who by die 
Gift of G o D po0efs this fpacious Ground ^ pleaie 
there to reft and tafte the choiceft Fruit the Garden 
bears> *till this Noon Heat be over, and the Sun in 
his Decline grow more cooh 

To whom the Angel Raphael gave this iniki 
Anfwer: Adam ! therefore I came; nor art thou cre- 
ated fudi, or dwell'ft in fuch ^ Place, as may not of- 
ten invite evfn the Spirits of Heaven to vifit thee : 
Lead on, where thy Bower overihades, for all the 
Hours, till the Evening arife, I have Liberty to ftay 

with thtt. So they came to the fylvan Lodge, that 

looked like the Arbour of Pomona, ornamented with 
Flowers, and ^d with Variety of Fragrance ; but 


chap. n. Paradise Lost. xSj 

E V E^ wkhout Oimmeut, except what was in herfel^ 
ftood to entertain her Gueft from Heaven^ (more 
lovely than any Wood-Nymph, or the faireft of the 
three fe^'d Goddefles, (o) that contended for the 
golden Prize upon Mount Ida) Ihe needed no VeiJ, 
tor ihe was Virtue proof; no impure Thought alter'd 
her Cheek. On wnom the Angel beftow*d the holy 
Salutation, us'd long after to the blefled Vii^ia 
Mary, (o) who was theiecond Eve. ♦* Hail! 
Mother of Mankind ! whofe fruitful Womb ihaU 
hereafter fill the World, more numerous with Sons 
than the Trees of G o d have4fcap*d this Table wkh 
thefc various Fruits.** — Their Table was rais'd with 
Turfs of Grafs, and had round it Seats of Mofs ; and 
on the Top of it, from Side to Side, was pil'd ail 
the Fruits of Autumn, though Spring and Autumn 
were here at the fame Time. They held Difcourfe a 
While before they eat, when thus Ad am began to 

Hsavbklv Stranger! be pleasM to taftethefe 
Bounties, which- he who nourifhes us (and from whom 
all perfeft Good comes without Meafure to us, for 


Pai/aSf and ytnusy who ftrove 
lar the Gqidcn Apple, with this 
iipitPf Lit it hi gi*viii to tbi 
Fairifi. Theychoie Paru for 
their Umpire, and promified him 
great Rewards to bring him over 
to their Inteteft. Vimts promif- 
•d him Helinu the ^reft Wo* 
man in the World, l^c. He, 
gave it and the Preeminence 
of Beauty to her, which was 
the original Caufe of the De- 
ftmdioD of Tr^y himfelf and 
his Family. 

(p) Marty or Mary i Hfb* 
Uirjam^ Let. and Gr. Maria, 

I. e. Bitter, or ytrj fai. Mi* 
riam the Sifter of Mofisy was 
the firR of <that Name ; becauie 
(he was born in the 1 ime of • 
bitter AiHifUon and Slavery In 
Egypt. Sfe Exod. 15. 23. and 
Rutk r. 23. Here, the Bkfled 
Virgin Mufy, the Mother of our 
Lord, whohad^a real Salutation, 
from the Arch- Angel Gabriel. 
4000 Years after this. '< And 
*' the Angel came in unto her, 
'* andfaid. Hail, thou art high* 
'' ly favoared, the Lord is with 
'* thee I Bleifed art thoa among 
«« Women/* 

iS8 Paradise Lost. Book V. 

Delight and Food) hsak <sivis^d the Earth to vield^ 
{)erhaps it may not be proper Food for fpiricual Na- 
tures ; however, this I know, that it is only one cele- 
ftial Father that gives to aU. To whom the Angel 
replied : Thiercfore what he (whdfe Pndfe be for ever 
fung !) gives to M a n in Part fpiritual, may not be 
found diiaereUMe Food for pureft Spirits ; and thefe 
pure intelugential ^ubftances require fome Sort of 
rood, as well as doth' your rational ; and both contain 
within them every lower Faculty of Senfe, by which 
they hear, fee, fmell, touch and tafte ; and cailingy 
conco£l, digeft, akd turn coiporeal to incoiponed: 
For know thou, that whatever was created^ wants to 
be fuitain'd and fed ; of the Elements, the grojQer 
feeds the purer, the Earth feeds the Sea, the Earth 
and ' Sea £sed the Air, >the Air feeds thofe etherial 
Fires, and as lowed, firil.the Moony whence are in her 
round Vifage thofe Spots ; beii?g unpurg'd Vapours^ 
not yet turn'd into her Subftance : Nor is it fo^ that 
the Moon exhales no Nourifhment from her moift 
Continent to higher Orbs. The Sun, that imparts 
Light to all, receives in Recompence his Nouriih- 
ment from^all, in moift Exhalations ; and at Evening 
tlrinks^f the Ocean. Though the Trees of Life in 
Heaven bear ambrolial Fruit, and the Vines yield 
NeAar^ and though we brufli Manna each Morning 
from off the Boughs, and find the Ground coverM 
with fineft Grain ; yet G o d hath varied hi% Bountv 
Tiere with fuch new Delight as may be compared with 
:Heaven, and think not I fhall be backward to tafte^ 
— So down they fat, and be^an to eat ; tlie Angel 
notjeemingly, nor in a Mift, (me common Glofs of 
^heologifts) but with keen Difbatch of real Hunger, 
and concofUng Heat, todigeftFood: Whan redounds 
tranfpires with Eafe through Spirits; nor is it a Won- 
der', if it be true, that by Fire the Alchymift can 
turn, or holds it poffiblfe to turn, the bafeft and drof- 
* fieft of Metals to Gold, perfeft as firom the Mine. 
) Meao 

Ciiap. II. Paradise Lost, tS^ 

Mean while Eve fervM naked at the Tible, and SUM 
their flowing Cups with pleafant Liquors. Oh Inno- 
cence, truly deferving ot Paradise ! then, if ever, 
had the Sons of Goo (q) ahExcufeto have been 
enamour*d at that Sfght ; but in thofe Hearts reign'd. 
pureft and chafteft Love, nor was Jealoufy (the Hell 
of the injiBr'd Lover) underftood. 

• Thus when they had fuffic*d, not burthen'd Na- 
ture, with Meats and Drinks, a fudden Thought a- the Mind of AdAm, not to let the Opportuni-^ 
ty flip given him by this great Conference, to know 
fomcuiing of Things that were above the World he 
was plac'd in, and of their Being who dwell in Hea- 
ven ; whofe Excellence he faw fo far to tranfcend his 
own; the divine Effulgence of whofe radiant Forms^ 
and whofe high Power fe far exceeded human Na- 
ture ; and thus he addrefs'd his wary Speech to the 
Mef&nger from Heaven : 

Inhabitant with God! now I perceive thy 
great Favour, in this Honour. done to Man, uhdef 
whofe lowly Rodf diou haft not difdain'd toenter, nor 
to tafl:e thefe earthly Fruits, which thot^h not. the 
Food of Angels, thou haft accepted in luch a Man- 
ner, as that thou could'ft not feem to have e^t more 
willingly at the Feafts of Heaven;, yet what Compar 
rifon can be made ? 

T o whom the Angel made this Reply : Oh Ad am ! 
there is but one Almighty, from^whom. all Thing* 
proceed, and to whom all Things return, if not de- 

(q) The S$ni$f God I i. e. The ** apd Daughters, were born ua- 

Mj Angels^ whom fome thought *' to them. That the Sons of 

to have Converfatioo with Wo- " God faw the Daughters of 

meoy from a falfe Senfe put up- ** Men, that they were fair i 

^D, Gtn. vi. '< And k came to " and they took them Wives af 

pafs when Men began toMul- *\ all whkh they chofe. 


tiply on the Facf of theEarth, 

t90 Pakadisb LoisT. BookVl 

pravM from good» ^ created iuchto Perfedion, one 
£rft Matter cfoadx'd all with various Forms^ various 
Degrees of Subftance9 and Life in Things that live^ 
but as nearer plac'd to G o d» or nearer tending to 
him, more refin'd, fpirituous> and pure^ each affign'd 
m their feveral adive Spheres *» 'till Body work up to 
Spirit^ in the Bounds proportion'd to each Kind : So 
from the Root the green Stalk fprings lighter^ and 
from thence the Leaves more airy, lafi the br^t and 
fiill-blown Flower breaths fweeteft Perfumes ; Man's 
Kouriihment) Flowers and their Fruity fublim'd by 
Degrees afpire to vital Spirits, and (b to animal and 
intelle£hial ; giving both Life, Senie, Fancy, and 
Underftanding, whence the Soul receives Reafon, and 
Rea£bn difcourfive or intuitive is her Beii^; Dif- 
-courfe is ofteneft yours, and Intuition moftiy ours % 
diflfering but in Degree, and being of the £une Kind» 
Make no Wonder then, that I don't refufe to eat 
what God faw good for you, but convert it as you 
do to proper Subftance. The Time may come, when 
Men may partake with Angels, and find no Incon- 
venience in the Diet, nor the Fare too light ; and 
fixun thefe corporal Nutriments, smprov'd by Length 
ef Time, perhaps your Bodies at laft may turn all ti> 
Spirit, and you may afcend with Wings to Heaven> 
like us, or dweU at your Choice here, or in heavenly 
Faradis£S; if ye be found obedient, and unaltera- 
bly keep his Love firm and intire, wbofe Progeny 
you are. Mean while enjoy your Fill of what Hap- 
pinefs this happy State can afford, and know that you 
are incapable of^ more. 

To whom the F'ather of Mankind made An- 
fwer : Favourable Spirit ! my gentle and kind Guefl t 
thou h^^ft well uught the Way that might direft our 
Knowledge, and let before us the Compafs of the 
whole Creation ; whereby we may, in Contemplation 
of Things created, afcend to G o d» But tell me, I 


CSiap. II« Paradise Lost. 191 

nthee, what was the Meaning of that Caution^ 
'£ Bs FOUND OBEDIENT ? Can wc then ever want 
Obedience to him, or is it poffihle we fhould forfake 
lus LoTe, who formed us out of the Duft, and placed 
us here in the Fuhiefs and uteioft Meafure of Blifs^ 
that can be apprehended or fought after by human 
Defires ? To whom the Angel made Anfwcr : Son of 
Heaven and Earth ! to what I am about to fay give 
great Attention! that thou art happy, owe it to God ; 
that thou continued happy, owe to thyfelf, that is 
owe it to thy Obedience ; thercb ftand firm : This 
was that Caution given thee, therefore be advis'd : 
God made thee perfeA, but not unchangeable, and 
he made thee good ; but he left it in thv own Power 
to perfevere or not ; ordained thy Will free by Na- 
ture, not ovcr-rurd by inevitable Fate, or ftrift Ne- 
ceffity. He requires our voluntary, and not our ne- 
ceffitated Service ; fuch with him finds no Accep- 
tance, nor ever can find ; for bow can Hearts that are 
not free be tried, whether they lerve willingly or no i 
who will do nothine but what they muft bv Deftiny, 
and can chufe no other? I myfelf, and all the Hoft of 
Angels that iland in the Sight of the Throne of God, 
hold our happy State upon the fame Condition as you 
do yours, only wHitE we hold oiiK Obedie'nce, 
and upon no other Surety : We ferve freely^ becaufe 
we love freely ; it being in our Will, either to love 
or not, and in this we either ftand or fall : And fome 
are already fallen, fallen to Difobedience, and from 
Heaven to deepeft Hell : From what high State of 
Bills into what Mifery ! 

To whom, bur great Anceftor replied. Divine 
Inftrudix^r! I have heard thy Words attentively, and 
with an Ear more delighted, than when the Songs of 
Cherubim, fend heavenly Mufick by Night from the 
neighbouring Hills. Nor was I ignorant, that I was. 
both as to Will and Dee:d, created quite fi^e : Yet 
that we never fball forget to love and obey our 


igz Paradise LosTr Book V* 

Maker, who has laid but one Command upon us (o 
mild and fojuft^ my conflant Thoughts always aOur'd 
me and aflure me ftill ; though what thou telleft me^ 
hath pafs'd in Heaven, hath mov*d fome Doubt widi- 
in me, but more hath it mov'd Defire to hear (fo be 
it» thou confent) the Relation at full : Which muft 
needs be. very ilrange and worthy to be heard with ia^ 
cxed Silence : There yet remains great Part of the 
Day to come, for the Sun hath fcarcely finifli'd half 
his Journey, and began his other half in the great 
Zone of Heaven. 




Raphael fells Adam who bis great Enemy is^ tn^ 
jbrms bim of ^tm'sjirji Revolt^ and what ivas 
the Occajion thereof. Abdicl forfakes Satan and 
bis Party. 

HUS Adam made his Requeft ; and Ra« 
p H A B L after a fliort Paule aflenting, begaa 

First of Men! What thou defireft of me, is 
no fmall Matter, for how (hail I explain to human 
Senfe the invifible Exploits of contending Spirits, ot 
how relate without a Renewal of paft Grief, the Ruin 
of fo many, who once while they ftood firm to their 
Obedience were fo glorious and perfedl ? How laflly 
unfold the Secrets ot another World, which perhaps 
may be improper to reveal, yet this is difpens'd with 
for thy Good : And what is out of thy Capacity, I Ihall 
fo delineate by likening fpiritual Things, to Thin^ 
corporal, as beft may make them underltood : Though 
what if Earth be only the Shadow of Heaven \ and £e 


€jhap. Ut. Paradisb Lo$r% 193 

Things that are in thexn^ much like one another more 
than Upon Earth they are imagined to be f 

Th I s World as yet wa? not createdi • and the wild 
Chaos reignM where how theHeavens roll, and where 
the Earth refts pois'd upoA her own Center ;when upon 
a Day, (for Time apoly'd to Motion meafures ail 
Thin^ durable by paft, prefent, and future, thougln 
it be m Eternity) upon fuch a Day, as Heaven's great 
Year brings forth, the heavenly Hoft of Angels, call'd 
by imperial Summons appeared forthwith before thie 
Throne of the Ai.mioht y, from all the Ends of Hea« 
ven, in bright Order under their Hierarchs: Tea 
Thoufand, Tnoufand Eiifigns advanced high, fbeaiQ 
in the Air, Standardly and Banners, betwixt the Vaa 
and the Rear, and ferve for DifUndion of Hierarchies, 
cf Orders and Degrees, or in their glitterixig Tiflbes 
bear exprelsM holy Memorials, Ads of Zeal and 
Love fairly recordcxl. Thus when they flood in Cir* 
cles in Number inexpreffible. Orb within Orb, the in* 
fbite Father, by whom fat the Son, in die Bofom of 
Blifs, amidft them, as from a flaming Mount, whoTe 

Top Brigbtnefs had made invilible, fpake thus : 


All ye Angels f Children of Light I Thrones! 
Dominations! Princedoms 1 Virtues! and Powers f 
. hear this my Decree, which fhall ftand irrevocably. 
This Day, have I begot whom I declare mjr only Son, 
and annointed him upon this holy Hill* he it is whom 
ve now behold at my Right Hand % I appoint 'him to 
be your Head : And I have fwom by myfelf, that e- 
very Knee in Heaven fhall bow to him, and confefs 
him Lord. Under his great Vicegerency do you all 
remain united, as thou^ all were but one individual 
Soul, and be for ever happy : Who difobeys him, 
difobeys me, hrtzks theUnion, and that Day becomes 
cafl out from God, and all Bleilednefs, and falls into 

O uttor 

%^4 IParxdise Lost, Book VI 

Yitter Darkncfs^ deep into the loweft Gulph withoup 
any Redemption, and widiout End. 

* Thus fpOkfc the AlmiChty, and all feettiM \w41 
pleas'd with his Words : SeemM pleased, but all iverc 
not fo in Reality. They fpent that Day like otliet ^o;- 
*lemn Days in myftical Song and Dance abdat, * the fai- 
*cred Hill, (which yonder Ibory Sphere of Planets, 
^^md of fix'd Stars, In all her Wheds refembles neareft^ 
eccentric, intervolv'd, and yet moft regular when 
Jfhey feem moft irregular,) and in dieir Motions di- 
vine JHarmony is cxprefsM To fmoothly in charming 
'Afrs, that God's own Ear liftens delighted. TheE- 
Vening approach*d now (for wfe have aUbo6r Evening 
*iand bur Morning, not for Nccfeffity, but fdr jpleafiiit 
Variety) andTrom the Dance with one Coinfent, they 
'furn'^d themfelves to fweet Repaft, Tables are fet all 
Tn Qrcles, as they ftood, and * all on a fudden were 
j)iled up with the Food of Angels and bright Neftar 
flows in Cups of Pearls and diamonds, and mafiy 
'Gold; therrodtice of delicious Vines that were the 
'Growth of Heaven, 

R E p o 8*d upon Banks of Flowers, and crown'd 
with rich Garlands, they eat, and drink, and in 
fweet Communion quaff Immortality, and Joy, before 
the all- bounteous iCing, who gave ^with a copiouJ 
Hand and rejbyc'd in their Joy. Now when the Night 
cxhaPd with Clouds, from that liigh Mountain of God, 
whence Li^ht and Shade both Ipring, had changed 
the full Bnghtncfs of Heaven to grateful Twilight ; 
(for Night does not come there, in total Dairktiefs) 
and fwect DeWs had dil*pos*d all to Reft, except the 
unfleeping Eye of God ; wide over All the Plain, and 
' far wider than all this globofe Earth, if it Were Ipread 
out in Length (for fuch are the Courts of God) the 
Angels diipers'd in Bands, andFiles^and extended their 


^hap. flL-pAftADisfe Lost. 195 

Camp in numbetlefs Pavilions by Hvinjgp Stream? thi^ 
run among the Trees of Life i and fuddenly raised 
Up celeftial T^emades where they flept, fefrcfh*d 
with the cool WincJ, except thofe^ who m their Turh 
fung meli)dious Hymns allNigbt long before the 
throne of God. But Sat aw (call him fv now for' 
his former Name is no more heard in Heaven^ dM 
not Wake to any fuch Purpofe ^ he, one of the firil if 
hot the very fiitt Arch-Ai^el, very great in Power, 
in Favour^ and Preeminence 5 yet being fill'd with 
Ehyy s^ainft the Son of God^ (who Was tliat'l)ay 
honoured by his great Father^ proclaimed Messiah 
'{r) and anointed Km^) could not bear through Pride 
to fee that Sight, and thought himicif leffen^dand im- 
paired, conceiving thence Difdain and deep Malice, 
ne refolv'd as foon as it was Midnighr, ana all were 
in Sleep, and Silence, to defcit with all his Ilegions, 
and contemptUQufly to leave die fupceme Throne uti- 
wqrfhip'd and UQobey *d, and xo him wHo was next in 
Degree under him, thus Ipoke in fecrct : 

My dear Companion ! doft thou fleep now ? what 
Sleep can clofe thy Eyes, doft thou not remember the 
-Decree of Yefterday, which hath pafs'd , the Lips of 
the Almighty KiKo of Heaven? Thou waftusM to 
impart thyThouehts to tne,I mine to thee,waking wt 
had but one Mind, how then is it, thatthy Sleep makes 
us differ, thou fee'ft there are new Laws impos'd ! 
New Laws made by him who reigns, may raife new 
Minds in us who ferve, and new Couniels to debate 
swhat may hereafter happen : It is not fafe to utcer more 
in dus Place. — ^Do thou aflcmble all thofe Angels of 
whom we lead the Chief .5 tell them .that by Cpm- 
man4 before Morning, 1, and all thofe who are un- 

O 2 der 

(rj MtfisJfi tU, Mfifiaf^ A.M. 4000. 10 the I\pign of 

;ftfid GMJI$s in Gnek^ \. e. The Aptftus^ is the trae MijSu ot 

Am9iuteil. Chrijfians believe that Chrijl^ 
Jtfm bora in Btthhhm. aboac 

t^ Paradise Lost. Book V. 

rder my Command are to haften homeward with ipee* 
dy March, where we poffefs the Quarters otthc 
j^orth 5 there to prepare afit Entertainment to receive 
our King, the great Messiah, and^ his new Com« 
mands, for that he intends very foon to pa& triumr 
phandy through all their Hierarchie^, and give them 

j Thus i^oke the falfe Arch- Angel and into the 

'Breaft of his unwary Aflbciate infps'd bad Sentiments; 
who cill'd together, or feverally one by one, the re- 
gent Powers that govemM under him, and told them 
as he was taught, that it was the Command of God. 

Uow, before the Morning that the great hierarchal 
Standard was to move, tells the fuggefted Caufe!; 

.'throws in ambiguous Words between and JealouTies, 
eidier to found or taint Integrity : But all obeyM the 
ufual Signal and the fuperior Voice of their great Po- 

.tentate : (for high inci<e:ed was his Degree and very 
great his Name in Heaven :} his Countenance that 
was like the Morning Scar, allur'd them, and with 
Lies, he drew after him the third Fart of the Holl: 
of Heaven. 

Mean while the Eye of Gop, (whodifcems the 
moft hidden Thoughts) from forth his holy Mountain, 
and from within the golden Lamps that bum all Night 
before him, faw, (without Help from their Li^t) 
Rebellion rifing, faw in whom, how fpread among the 
Sons of the Morning, and what Multitudes were lea- 
gued to oppofe his high Decree j when to his only 
he faid fmiiing : 

Son, thou in whom I behold my own Glory in fiill 
Splendor, the Heir of all my Power! It nearly con- 
cerns us now to be fure of our Omnipotence ; and 
with i^hat Arms we mean to hold what we have claim'd 
from all Eternity of Godhead, or of Empire: forfuch 

Cliap« III. Paradise Lost; 197: 

a Foe is rifingas intends to ereA his Throne eqxul to ; 
our"^, all through the fpacious North ; and not con- , 
tented with this he has it in his Thoughts to try in 
Battle what our Powery.or our Right is : Let us take 
Counfel, and to this Hazard draw up with Speed all 
the Power that is left us, and employ it in our Defence, 
leaft unawares, we (hould loofe this our high Place, ; 
our Hill, and Sahduary. To whom the Son with a. 
calm and clear Countenance, that fhone with Brightnefs. 
Unipeakable and divine, made Anfwer : 

Almighty Father ! Thou juftly haft thy Foes in . 
Deriiion, and in thy own Power Iccure, laugh'ft at 
their vain Defigns, and vain Tumults: Which to me. 
is the Caufe of Glory, whom their Hate ihows more 
to Advantage, when they (hall fee all Power given 
me to quell their Pride ; and find by the Event whe- 
ther I am able to fubdue thofe^ho rebel againft thee,. 
or be found the weakeft in Heaven. Thus fpoke the 
Son : But Satan with great Speed was far advanc'd 
with his Powers, a Hoftas innumerable as the Stars, of 
Night or Drops of Dew in the Morning. They pafs'd 
many Regions, and mightyRegencies orSeraphim, Po- 
tentates and Thrones, in their feveral Degrees : (Re- 
gions to which, all thy Dominion Adam is no more 
to be comparM, than this Garden is to all the Eartli, 
and all the Sea) which having pafs'd, at length, they 
came into the Limits of the North, and Satan 
to his Royal Seat high upon a Hill like a Mountain up- 
on a Mountain with Pyramids and Towers hewn from 
Quarries of Diamonds and Rocks of Gold, the Palace 
orgreat Lucifer, (s) (fo caird that Strufture inter- 
preted in the Dialed of Men) which he not long after 
(i^'d the Mountain of the Congregation in I- 

O 3 Imitation 

(/) iMci/er ; Fr. Ital. Lat. gel before hii Pall : Becaufc of 
r. e. J Biarer tf Ligb$. The his moft excellent Light ao4 
isA Name of this Ar^-An- Glory* 

198" PAftADUi Lo«T. Book V^ 

Imitation of that Mountain whetticin the Messiah 
v^as dcclar'd the only begotten Son in the Sight of 
Heaven ; fo that he ^eded ail Equality with God: 
And thither aflembled all his Train ; pretending that 
he was connmanded fo to do, to coniult about the 
great Reception of their King M£ssx ah^ wlio was to 
come thither: And with calymnious Art and counter^ 
feited Truth thus addrefsM tiie Angels pnder his Cpm* 
mand : 

Thrones ! ^ Dominations! Princedoms ! Virtues! 
and Powers ! If tWfe high Titles yet remaint or are 
not meerly titular, fince another now has by Decree 
ingrofsM all Power to himfelf, and eclipsed us under 
the Name of the Anointed Kikc 5 for whom wc 
make all this Hade of Midnight Match, and meet 
thus hurrying here, only to conlult how we may bed 
receive him, with what new Honours can be deVis'd, 
he coming to receive from us a Knee-Tribute which 
we never yet paid : A vile Proftration ! Too much to 
Ihow to one, out double, how can it be endured f To 
one firft, and now another, which he proclaims to be 
his Image. But what if betterCounfels might influence 
our Minds, and teach how to caft off this Yoke ? 
Will you fiibmit your Kecks? And do you chufe to 
bend your humble Knee ? You will not, if I know or 
judge right of ye ; or if ye know yourfelves to be what 
ye are 5 the Natives, and Sons ot Heaven j poflcfs*d 
by none before ye ; and if all are not equal yet all 
are free, equally free : For Orders and De^re^s ^ 
not jar but confift well with Liberty. Who can then 
either in Reafon, or Right pretend to affume Monart 
chy over fuch as by Jlight live his Equals, and if 
lefs in Power and Splendor are yet equal in Freedom ? 
Or who can introduce a Law and Decree upon us, who 
being without Law cannot err? much lefs impofe 
this anointed King upon us to be our Lord, and look 
for Adpration, to the Abufe of our imperial Titles, 


CKa^» m« Paradise Lcis.Tt 199 

Mrhkh flat that we wei^i^xlaiood^^ govern, and noli 
to ferve. 

Thus £»* his l)old DlfGoyrfe had Audience vith^ 
out aay Controul, when Abdjel^ (i) one among tbo 
Serapmnij than whom thei^e was non^ obey'd divine 
Coounands morc^ gr adored the Peity with more 
Ardency, flood up» and in a Fhme of Zeal thus fe« 
yerely i^pos'd the Current of his Fury : 

Oh jpnnid, falfe, and blaiphemoiis Ar^mentl 
Wor^ r . whidi no Ear ever expe&ed to hear m Hea<^ 
ven, and kaft of all thou ungrateful Wretch from 
thee, who art thyfelf plac'd fo high above others t 
Canft thou condemn with wicked Reproach the juft 
Decree of G o d, which was prpnounc d and fwom %, 
that to his only Son, by Right honoured with the 
Royal Sceptre^ every Soul in Heaven ' ihali bow the 
Knee, ^ in (hat due Honour confofs bim to be 
rightful King I Thou fay'fl • it is unju^ pofitively 
unjuft, to bind tbofe who are fire widi Laws, and to 
let Equal reign over Equals, and one oVer all, to 
whom none is to fucceed.-^— Shalt thou give Laws to 
God? Shalt thou difpute the Points of Libertv with 
him, who made thee what thou now art, and torm'd 
and circumfcrib'd thQ Being of all the Powers of 
Heaven, juft as he pleas'd ? Yet taught by Experi* 
ence, we know how good he is, and how careful of 
our Good and Dignity y how far from any Thought of 
making .us lels ^ rather bent^ uniting us more near 
himfelt under one Head, to exalt our happy State. 
•►-—But fuppofe I were to grant thee, that it were un- 
juft, that any Equal fliould reign as King over his 
Equals ; thou (though very great and glorious) doft 
(hou reckon thyfelf, or think all the angelical Nature 

-O4 join'd 

(1) Ab£i/^ Ifli. I e. fi^ Semant of God, the laine a$ Obd- 

BOO Paradise Lost. Book V, 

JDin'd in one, equal with lum who is the begotten 
Son? by whom (for he was the Word) the Almigh*' 
ty F A T H £ R made all Things, even thee and dl the 
ether S{>irits of Heaven, who were bv hini created in 
their bright Orders, crown'd with Glory, and g^ven 
glorious Names, Thrones, Dominations, Prince* 
DOMs, Virtues, and Powers, real and effential 
Powers, which are not obfcur'd by his Reign, but 
made more illuftrious ; fince be becoming our Head, 
becomes one of our Number, his Laws become our 
Laws, and all Honour done to him returns back 

again to us. Then ceafe this impious Fury, and 

tempt not thefe Angels to fin; but haften to appeale 
the Wrath of the incensed Father, and die Wrath 
of the incens'd Son, and repent in Time while 
Pardon may be found. 

Thus fpoke Abdiel, the faithful and fervent 
Seraph, but none feconded his Zeal, asjudgMrafli 
and fingufer, and out of Seafon, at which Satan 
rejoiced, and grown more haughty thus reply'd : 

Say*st thou that we were madethenf and the 
Work of fecondary Hands, by a Tafk transferr'd * 
from the Father to the Son? Aftrang^and new 
Point of Do&rine! which we would know whence 
was learn'd : Who is it that faw when this Creation 
was ? Doft thou remember any Thing about thy be* 
ing made, while tht Maker was giving thee Being ? 
We know no Time when we jpvere not, as we a^c 
now ; we know of none before us, but were product 
by a natural Courfe of Things, felf*rais'd by our own 
quickening Power, the ripe Birth of this our native 
Heaven, of which we are the natural Sons : Our 
Power and Strength is our own, which ihall teach us 
Deeds of the higheft Importance, to try by Proof 
who is our Equal : Then tnou fhalt behold, whether 
we intend to addrefs and fyrround tijff Alxpighty 


Chap; in. Paras isB Lost, sot 

Throtle "widi Adoradbh, or Mrith Defiance. Do thou 
go and carry this Report and thefe Tidings to the 
anointed King, arid make Haite before Ibmething; 
worfe intercept thy Flight. 

* Satan Ipoke thus, and a hoarfe Murmur gave 
Applaufe to his Words through the infinite Hoft, like 
the Sound of deep Waters ; neverthelefs the flaming 
and undaunted Seraph Abdiel, thoueh furrounded 
by Foes and alone^ thus anfwered bold^ : 

O H alienated from God, Spirit forfaken of all 
Good, and accursed! I fee that thy Fall is determined, 
and th|:tmbappy FpMpwers invci^d in this perfidious 
Evil ; the Contagion being fpread both of tny Crime 
and Punifhxnent. Be not henceforth any more trou* 
bled, how to ^ rid of the Yoke of God^s Mes^^ 
« I A H } tbofe indulgent Laws will not be now vouch* 
faPd, but other Decrees not to be recall'd are gone 
forth againft thee. That golden Sceptre which thou 
didft refiife to obey, is now chang'd to a Rod of 
Iron, to bruife and break thy Difobedience« Well 
didft thou advife me to fly thefe wicked and devoted 
Tents, yet not for thy Advice or Threats do I do it, 
but left the Wrath that threatens, raging into a fud* 
den Flame, fiiould deftroy all without Diftindion s 
for expe£t foon to feel his Thunder on thy Head, a 
devouring Fire; then mourning, learn to know who 
is thy Creator, and who hath Power to uncreate and 
deftroy thee. • 

The Seraph ABOiEL^fpoUe thus, who was found 
faithful among the Faithlefs, alone found faithful a- 
mong innumerable falfe ones ; he kept his Ijoyaky, 
Love, and Ze^ unmov'di unfhaken, unfeduc'd, and 
Vnterrified:, Though he was fingle, neither their 
Number nor. Example prevailed with him to fwerve 


,202 Pa&adiss Lost. Book V, 

from the Truth, nor aher'd tjbis Oo&ncf of hh 
Mind : He pa&'d forth from anidft thehi, throu^ 
boftile Scorns» which, bdng much fuperior Co, be tm- 
ly fultain'd, jior Hood in Fear of any VioleiKe, but re- 
turning their Scorn back ;^3in upon them, he tum*d 
his Face from tbofe prouiiTQven, doom'd tQ fwUe 

Tii End of th$ Fifth Book, 


C^°3 } 


S 1 X T H B O O K 


The Argdmeht. 

RAPHAEL ctmtinues to relate, bow Mi- 
chael md Gabriel ivent fortbtv Baffle 
againfi Ssxaa and ins A^els\ the firji 
Pight dffcrih'd. Saian and bis Powers 
retire under Night : He calls a Council; invents 
devilijh Engines, which in the fecond Doj/'s Fight 
put Michael and his Angels tofome Diforder, but 
ibey at length pulling up Mountains^ overwhelm^ 
ed Ixab the Force and Machines o/" Satan. The 
TumuU not endings God wr the third Day fends 
ibe Mefliah his Son ; for whom be bad referv'S the 
Glory of that ViBory : He, in the Power of bis 
Father coming to the Place, and caufing all his Le- 
gions tojiand fiill on either Side, wrib his Chariot 


204 Paradise Lost. Book VI. 
end TbunJer, driving into the mdji of bis En<- 
^V/, piir&es tbm, unabU fo rt^, fmards the 
WaU of Heaven j "wbicb opening tbey leap dmcn 
witb Wrror and Cenfufon into the Place af Pu^ 
nijhment prepared for them in the Deep; Mefliah 
returns with Trii^b to bis Father. 


RMhael relates bow Michael and Gabriel <went 
firth to Battle againft Satan ; thefrft Figbt de- 

IBDIEL the drcadlefs Angd, held hi* 
Way all Night unpurfu*d through the 
wide Plains of Heaven j till retumiog 
Morning brought on the Light. There 
is a Cave within the Mountain of God, 
and not far diftant from his Throne, 
where by turns in a continual Round, Lj^t, and 
I5arknefs, lodge and didodge ; which makes through 
Heaven an agreeable Change, like Day and Night : 
Light i0iies forth at one Door, and at the other obcr 
dient Darknefs enters, till the Hour come for her to 
draw a Veil over the Heavens, (tho* what is call'd 
Darknefs there, might feem Twilight here) and now 
went forth the Morning, fuch as it is in the h^heft 
Heavens, array'd in a celeftial and golden Hue, and 
the Night went off when it approach'd fliot througli 
with bright Beams \ when what firft met the Sight of 
Abdul was Chariots and flaroing Arms, ana Bery 
Steeds, and thick bright Squadrons in Battle array 
-chat covered all the Plain, receding Blaze on B^. 
He perceiv'd War in Readincfs, and found that to 
be^ already kiK)wn, which he thought to have report- 

ICSxap. L Paradise Lostf 205 

td for News: He then gladly mix*d hunfelf among 
thofe fiiendly Powers^ who received him with bud 
Acclamations and Joy, that out of Co great a Niun- 
ber fallen^ yet there Should one return not loft. Thev 
led him on» highly applauded to the (acred Hill, ana 
prefented him before the fujpreme Seat, from whence 
a Voice was heard thus mild from tiie midft of a 
golden Cloud : 

Well done, thou faithful Servant of God I Well 
haft: thou fouftht the better Fight ; who jftngle againft 
revolted Mukitudes, Haft maintain'd the Caufe oif 
Truth, mightier in Word than they can be. in Arm% 
/tiid for the Tefiimony of the Truth haft bore a gene* 
ral Reproach, far worfe to bear than Violence ; tor aQ 
thy Care was to ftand approvM, in the Sight of God^ 
thousH the vaft Multitude of the apoftate Angels, 
judg%l thee to be perverfe« J^ eafier Conqueft no\r 
remains for thee, aflifted by this Hoft of Fnends, to 
return back upon thy Foes with greater Glory, than 
thou didfl depart from them with Scorn ; and to 
fubdue them bv Force who refufe ri^t Reaibn fo/r 
their Law^ and Messiah for their Kmg, who reigns, 
by Right of Merit. 

Go Michael! Prince jof the hi^venly Armies ! 
and thou Gabriel! next in military Art and Power, 
go, and lead forth thefe my invincible Sons ; lead 
Iprth my armM Saints by Millions (equal in Number 
to that ungodly rebellious Crew) and range them in 
Order for the Battle, aflault them withow Fear with 
hoflile Arms and with Fire, ^nd purfuing them to 
to the Borders of Heaven, drive them out from God 
and from Blils, into their Place of Punifhment ; the 
Gulph of HeU, which has akeady open'd wide its 
fierv Region of Copfufion to receive them in their 


2o6 ^AHAHtn Lost. Book Vf« 

tnvt fecAe the Vbific pf Go d^ and the Cloud$ 
hmn to darkm all the ^ill, and Smoak be»n to 
jowl in duUyand heavy Hames; i Sign that Wiiath 
dirinc vm ^wak*di nor with Icfs Tenpr began to 
found ftom on hirfi the loiid cthenal Tfutnpet ; ac 
^Mch Cbrnmand tte-tnilitant Pofwcrs, that ftood firm 
for the Caufe of Heaven, (joinM in vaft Bodied of ir^ 
j^fiftablc Union) mpv*d .on their brkhjt Legions in 
Silence, to the Sound pf mufical Injntimcnt^, that 
|)reach'd into them an heroick Ardour to great and ad- 
▼ent'rous Detd^j under their godlike Leaders, in the 
Caufe of die Almiohty and his M»$8i ah : On tjiey 
move, fb firnn, that it was inxpoffible for dieir Ranks. 
to be divided by Hills, Vallies, Woods or Streams, 
fer rficir March was high above the Ground, arti the 
yielding Air bore up their nimble TreaVl ; a$ when c- 
very Species of Birds came fummon'd over E p z w, 
flying in orderly Arnw to receive their Names of 
Thee: So they marchM over many a Tradt and wide 
Province of Heaven, tenfold the Length of this 
earthly Globe. At laft, far in the Honzon of the 
NcTth appeared a fiery Region, that reached the whole 
Length and the utmoft Depth, drawn up in Array of 
Bdtnt ; and on nearer View noi^t be feen the bright 
Tops of innumerable Spears, a Throng of Helmets, 
and Shields with various Ornaments and boafting De- 
vices: Thcfc were the united Powers of Satan, haft- 
ning on with forious Expedition ; for they imagin'd 
that very Day, cidier by Conqueft or by Surprize, to 
win the Mountain of God, and to fet tmonhis 
Throne the^roud Ufiirper and Envier of his Powers 
but their ^ou^ts proved empty and vain in the 
Mid-way : Though at firft it fccm*d very firangc to 
us, that Anjgels fhould make War 2tgainft Aj^IS^ 
and meet in fierce Combat, who were us*d to meet fo 
often unanimous in Feftivals of Love and Joy,' and as 
the Sons of one great Sire, praifuig the eternal F a- 

Chap.T Pahadi^e Lost^ 207 

1* H £ R . But now the Shout b^^ for the Battle, and 
therufhing Sound of the Onfet, ^«%ith]^ut an End t9 
all milder Thoughts. 

Satan fat W^ in the Midft in his Smi-bri^ 
Chariot, exalted like a God, an Idol of divine Majt« 
Hy, enclosM with ilansing Cherubim and with golden 
^dds ; then lighted from his refplendent Thnone^ 
(fer now betwixt the two Armies there was but fmall 
Diftance left, and Front prefented to Front ftood in 
terrible Array, extending to a prodigious Length) and 
before the Ranks of the rebellious Sphdts, j5t whea 
The Armies were about to join, S a^ a n advancing 
with vaft and haughty Strides, came fwelling with 
imaginary Power, and arm*d in Adamant and Gold : 
The Seraph A B D i £*l could not endure that Sigin^ 
where he Rood among'^he Mightieft, bcilt on the Per- 
formance of greateft Aftionsj and ihus he fearchca 
and confiders his own undaunted Heatt: 

X>H Heaven ! that there IhouM yet remain fudi a 
ilefemblance of the Higheft, whwe Fakh and Truth 
remain no loneer : Wherefore fhould not Strength and 
Might fail when deftitute of Virtue, or prove weak- 
eft where it is moft prefumptuous ? Though to Ap- 
pearance he feems unconquerable, I mean (truftmg ia 
the Afliftance of the Almighty) to try his Power 5 
* whofe Reafon I have already try*d, and found to be 
falfe and unfound: Nor is it any Thing but Juft, that 
he who hath got the better in die Ddbate of Truth^ 
ihould do. the lame alfo in Arms, and become a Con- 
queror in both Dilbutes alike •, thou^ when Reafon 
nath to deal with Force, the Conteft is'brutifh and 
foul, yet it is m6ft fit that Reafon fhoiild overcome-. 
Coiifidering thus within himfelf, and ftepping out 
from his armed Companions oppofite to Sat aw, his 
daring Foe, he met him half-way, who was more m- 

ce^is d. 

ao8 Paradise Lost. BookVt 

cens*d> to fee him advance fo boldly: towards him^ 
aod to hear £rom him this Defiance t 

Proud Angel! art thou met? TTiy Hope was to 
. have reach'd the Height of thy Aipiring without Op- 
* pofidon, and to 'have found the Throne of G o t> un- 
guarded» and his Side abandoned, at the Terror of 
thy Power and potent Voice: Thoii Fool! not to con- 
fxQtTy how vun it is to rife up in Arms againft the 
Almighty; who out of the fmalleft Things could 
have rais'd Annies continually without End, to defeat 
thy Folly ; or with his own Hand, which reaches be- 
yond all Limit, without any other Affiftance could 
have finiih'd thee, and whelm*d all thy Legions un* 
der Darknefs : But thou mzfft fee that all are not of 
thy Tram ; there be fome holy Angels befides myfelf, 
who efteem Fidelity and Piety towards G o d, thoudi 
not viCble to thee, when I alone feemM in tti^ Worn 
crroneoufly to diflent from all: Thou feeft my Party, 
and now may*ft learn too late, that when Thoufands 
err, fome few may be in the right. To whom S a- 
T A K, with malicious and fcornful Eyes, gave An* 

In the wi(h'd-for Hour of my Revenge, but ill 
for thee, art thou returned from Flight, whom I have 
been firO: feeking, feditious Angel! now art thou 
come to receive tlut Reward which thou haft merited, 
the firft Tryal of this Right-Hand provok'd ; fincc 
that Tongue infjpirM with ContradiAion, firft dar'd to 
' oppofe a third Part of the Gods, met in Council to 
aBert their Godheads, who while they feel divine Vi- 
goiir within themfelves, neither can or will allow Om- 
nipotence to be the Attribute of any. But well it is 
thou art come before thy Fellows, ambitious to win 
from me fomething to brag of, that thy Succefs may 
be an Erunplc of Deftruaion to the reft; only I have 


t^h^p. 1 pARAbisE Los'i'; itof 

given thee this Paufe between, (left if I had not» 
lou fliould'ft have boafted that I could not anfwer 
thee) to let thee know, that at firft I thought that 
Liberty and Heaven had been the fame Thibg to hea- 
venly Souls ; but . now I perceive that moft are fo 
flothful, that they had rather ferve^ be attending Spi- 
rits, and train'd Up in Feftivals and Songs ^ fuch arc 
thefe thou haft arm'd^ thfe linging Mmftrelfy of Hea- 
ven, Slavery contending againfl Freedbm^ as the 
Comparifon of this Day's Adions fhall prove. 

I'd wkpm in few Words A ^ n i e l reply M ftemly J 
Apoftate Spirit ! thou err'ft ftill, and wilt nnd no End 
M erring, bein^ out of the Path of Truth j unjuflly 
thou brand'ft toe Service that G o d or Nature or* 
dains with the Name of Servitude; God and Na- 
ture command the fame Things^ when he who rules 
is moff worthy and moft excellent above thofe he go« 
yems* It is Servitude to ferve the Unwife^ or who 
hath rebellM againft thofe that are worthier than him- 
fdfj as thy Followers now ferve thee, thou thyfelf not 
being free, but in Slavery even to thyfelf, yet impi* 
pufly dar^ft upbraid our Obedience. Do thou reiga 
in Hell, thy Kingdom, and let me ferve the evcr- 
blefTed G o.d in Heaven, and obey his divine Com* 
mands^ which are worthieft to be obeyed ! yet do not 
tiiou expe^ Realms, but Chains in Hell, and Punifh- 
ment j mean while receive from me (who juft now 
thou iaid'ft was retum'd from Flight) this Greeting 
upon thy wicked Head. Saying this he lifted up his 
Arm to ftrike a Blow, which immediately with great 
Strength and Swiftnefs fell on Satan's proud Creft, 
that no Sight nor Motion of fwift Thought could in-» 
tercept fuch Ruin, much lefs could his Shield : He 
recoird back ten Paces ; the tenth his maffy Spear 
fupported him upon his bended Kneei as if upofi 
Earth fubtcrranean Winds and Waters had forc'a 
their Way, and fiddong had pufh'd a Mountain from 

P kt 

flUxO Par^adise Lost. Bobk VL 

its Seat, half funk with all its Trees. The rebel* 
Kous Angels were feiz'd with Amazement, but more 
with' Rage, to fee their great General thusfoird; 
while our Powers were fiUM whji Joy and Shouts, 
foretelling Viftory and fierce Dcfire\)f Battle ; where- 
at Michael orderM the Arch- Angel Trumpet to be 
founded through all the Heavens, and the faithful 
Armies rung with Hofanna to the Higheft : Nor did 
the advcrfe Legions ftand ftill to gaze, but with 
Sounds as hideous as ours were heavenly, joined the 
horrid. Shock. Now ftorming Fury arofe, and a Cla- 
inour, fuch as 'till now was never heard in Heaven ^ 
Arms clafliing upon Armour, made a.harfh and ter- 
rible Difcord, and the furious Wheels of brazen Cha- 
riots raged : The Noife of the Confiift was dreadful; 
the Hifs of fieiy Darts flew in VoUies over Head, and 
^s they flew covered either Army with Fire, under 
>frhich they both ru(hM to Battle, with ruinous Aflault 
'and Rage not to be extinguifti'd : All Heaven refoun-» 
ded, and ajl Earth had it been then would have been 
Ihaken to its Cenne: What Wonder? when MilKons 
"of encountering fierce Angels fought on each Side, 
the kaft of whom could move thefe Elements, and 
*arm himfelf with all their Force : How much more 
"Power had they, Arqny againft Army, waning with- 
x>vit Number, to raife dreadful Combuftion, and dr- 
fhirb (though they had not Power to deftroy) their 
"native Seat ! had not the Eternal and Almighty King, 
*from the Seat of his Power, over-rulM and iet Limits 
to their Power : Though their Number was fuch, that 
each Legion might be thought a great Army,* in 
•Strength each armed Hand was as that of an entire 
Lv^gion ; they were led in Fight, yet each fingle War- 
*rior feem'd like a Leader, and as in chief ; expert, 
*and knowing when to advance, when to ftand or turn 
*: the Sway ot Battle, when to open, and when to 
•clofcthe Ranks; they had no Thought of Flight or 
; of Retreat, or any unbecoming Adion tliat argued 
* Fear j 


CHap4 t P.A^APisp J/0£l'f. ^%i 

Fe^/i each fely*d upon himfdf, as if only in his Arm 
Jay ^€ B^^nce of the Vidory : Deeds were done of 
ec;^nal Fwi^f for the War wa§ fpread wide and va- 
rioy3 ; ^inetimes a ^apding Fight upon firm Ground^ 
then mounting upon main Wing^ all the Air was trou- 
bled i for all the Air feem*d then to be notliing but 
conten^ng Fire ; the Battle hung a long Time in e- 
yeci Sfc^e^ .'till Satan (who that Day had fliewn pro- 
digious Power) ^d in Attps b^ met no Equal) rany 
ging ohjrough the drc^fvii Attack of 3eraphim, cpn- 
tiifedly £^ting9 at length faw where the Sword of 
Michael fmote and fell'd whole Squadrons at o^ce i 
his 'huge Weapon brandifh'd alpft in both Hands, the 
horrid Edge came down^ wafting far and near. S a^ 
TAN hkftcd to vithftand fuqh DeftruiSlion, and op- 
posed his ample Shield that ij^as of vaft Circumter 
rence, a rocky Orb of tenfold Adamant. Michael^ 
the gre^t Arch« Angel, gave over fighting at his Ap-» 
proaCh» glad as hopii^ here tp end inteftine War ip 
Hwv^e^ byfubduingSATAN, or draggbghim Cap- 
tivi^ jn Chains ; but with a hoftile Frown, and ^ 
Coyiit^enance ^ ii^flaro'd^ firft fpoke tp him : 
Thou Author of Evil! which *till thy Revolt 
:had no Name in Heaven, now as thou feeft thefe Ads 
of hateful Strife are become plentiful ; hateful to all» 
though by juft Meafure heavieft upon thyfelf and all 
thy Adherents : How haft thou difturb'd the blefs'd 
Peace of Heaven, and brought Mifery into Nature, 
which was not created 'till the Time of thy Rebellion ? 
Howiiaft thou inftiird thy Malice into Thoufands, 
who were once upright and faithful, but now are 
provM faUe? But diink not to trouble holy Reft 
here in Heaven ^ Heaven cafts thee out from all her 
Confines ; Heaven, which is the Seat of Blifs, fufFers 
jDot Deeds of Violence and War to be done here; 
.Ueice then! and let Evil, which is thy OfHbring, go 
aloog with thee to Hell, the Place of Evil: Hence 

Pa . thou 

212 Paradise Lost. Book VL 

thou and thy wicked Crew! and there ftir up Broils $ 
before this my avenging Sword begin thy Doom^ or 
fome more ludden Vengeance, wing*d immediately 
from God, hurl thee down headlong with ftill addi-* 
tional Paiil. 

Thus fpake Michael, the Prince of the An- 
gels; to whom the Advcrfary Satan replied: Think 
not with empty and airy Threats to awe thofe, whom 
yet with Deeds thou canft not : Haft thou put the 
leaft of thefe to Flight ? Or made fall^ but that they 
rife s^ain unvanquim'd ? Doft thou think it eafier to 
contend with me, that thou (hould^ft hope, imperious 
Arch- Angel J with Threats to chafe mc hence ? Mi* 
Hake not fo much, as to think that we fhall end fo 
that Strife which thou calleft Evil, but we ftile the 
Strife of Glory ; which we intend to win^ or clfc turn 
this Heaven itfelf into the Hell thou haft been telling 
Fables of; here intending however to dwell free, if not 
to reign : Mean while thy utmoft Force (and call him 
who is nam*d Almighty to thy Aififtance) I have 
not fled from ; but inftead of that, have fought diee 
far and near. 

They ended talking, and both addrefs^d themfelves 
for Fight in a Manner not to be defcrib'd; for who can 
relate, tho* with the Tongue of Angels, or to what 
Things liken it that are feen upon Earth, that mayliftthi^ 
human Imagination to fuch a Height of godlike Power ? 
For they feem'd likeft Gods, whether ttey ftood ftill or 
mov'd; in Arms, in Stature, and Motion, fit* to de- 
cide the great Empire of Heaven: Now their fiery 
Swords wav'd, and made broad Circles in the Air ; 
their Shields, like two broad Suns, blazM oppofite 
each other, while either Side looked on with Expec- 
tation and Horror : The Angelical Bands from each 
Hand where the Fight before was hottcft retir'd with 
Speed, and left large Field fcH* them to combat io ; 


Chap, L Paradise Lost. 2^13^ 

it being unfafc to remain near fuch Commotion : Such 
(to fet ^eat Things forth by fmall) as if the Concord 
of Nature being broke. War was fprung among the 
Cbnftellations, and two Planets ruihing from a malign 
AfpeA of fierce Oppofition, ihould meet in the Mid- 
dle of the Sky, and confound their jarring Spheres. 
Both tc^ether, with an Arm next to Almigjitv, lif- 
ted up imminent, aim*d one Stroke that mignt de- 
termine at once and not need Repetition, nor did 
there appear any Odds in Power, or in Swiftnefs, to 
prevent each other j but the Sword of Michael, 
which he had from the Armoury of G o d, was given 
him temper'd fo, that nothing either keen or folid 
might reuft that Edge^ it met the Sword of Satan, 
descending with great Force to flrike, and cut it 
quite in two, nor ftaid there, but wheeling fwift re- 
vcrs'd, deeply entering, divided all his Right-Side. 
It was then that Satan firft knew Pain, andwrith'd 
himfelf to and fro, rowling about with Anguifii, fo 
ibrely the piercing Sword with feparating Sharpnefs 
pais'd through him ; but the heavenly Subflance foon 
clos'd, whioi could not be long divided, and from . 
the Ga(h flow'd Blood, fuch as celeftial Spirits may '. 
bleed, and ftain'd all his Armour, which before was 
fo bright. Forthwith on every Side many ftrong 
Angels run to his Aid, who interposed in his De- 
fence } while others bore him upon their Shields back 
to his Chariot, where it flood rctir*d fome Diftance 
off the Files of War ; there they laid him, gnafliing 
his Teeth for Anguilh, Shame, and Delpite, to find 
himfelf not matchlefs, and have his Pride humbled 
by fuch a Rebuke, fo far beneath the Confidence he 
had conceived to have equalled G o d in Power : Yet 
he heal'd foon j for Spirits that live throughout their 
whole Beings live wholly in every Part, (not like 
frail Man, whofe Life is in his Entrails, Heart, 
Head, Liver, or Reins) and cannot die but by Anni- 
hilation, nor receive any mortal Wound into their fine 

P 3 and 

2fi4. Paradise Lost. BobkVL 

and fpiritual Compofitions, no rtiofe than thin arid 
fluid Air can : They live as if tfccy were all Hekrt^ 
all Head, all Eye, Ear, Intelledt, and Senfe $ Ahd sA 
they pleafe can form themfclves, and aiTutne what 
Size, Colour, or Shape plfeafes them beft, whether 
it be Icls or more iubftantial. 

Mean while in other Parts wkerls the Powers of 
Gabriel fought, other like Deeds deferv'd to bo 
rfcmember'd; who fiercely jpiercM into the deep Ar- 
ray of the furious King MoLOCHi who defy'd him, 
and threatened to drag him bound at hi^ Chariot 
Wheels, nor firom the Holy-one of Heaven refrain'd 
his blafphemous Tongue ; but foon by the Sword of 
Gabriel being cloven down to the Waift, with fhat-* 
ter'd Arms, and Pain to which he was before a Strte- 
ger, fled bellowing away. On each Wing Uriel 
and Raphael vanquiih'd each his vaunting F6e^ 
Adramelech (a) and Asmodeus, (though power- 
ful and arm'd in a Rock of Diamond) two very great 
Angels, that difdain'd to be lefs than Gods •, but in 
their Flight they leam*d to think a little meaner of. 
themfelves, being mangled with gafhly Wounds, 
through their broad and plated Coats of Mail, r Nor 
did Abpiel fl:and ufimindful to annoy all that was 
polTible the Atheift Crew, but with redoubled Blows 
overthrew Ariel and Arioc, and the Violence of 
the fcorch'd and blafted R a m i £ l, a very haught v . 
and alpiring Angel. 

I MIGHT relate of Thoufands, and make their 
Names immortal here upon Earth •, but thofe ejeft 
Angels fufficiently contented with their Fame in Hea-? 


[a) Adrameheh ; Heh. i. e, f ' tak^ and tbe Siph^r^ies bornt 

JMagmfiatnt King, AGodof ** their Children in fire to A* 

Sephavjaim and AJyrian Coon- ** drameUch^ and AnamtUcb^ 

tries ? Kin^s 17. :;i. '* Andthc "the Gods of Sepbarvaitn, 

A-viiti nude Kil iaz, andTtfr? 

Chap. I. Paradi4.E{ ^o«t; 

ven, do not feek the Praife of M e n -, and the fallen 
Angels, though wondrous in Might and in Afts of 
War, nor lefs eager of Renown, Jet \>y Doom being 
blotted out of the Book of Heaven and all facred 
Remembrance, let them dw^U namclefs in dark Ob-'j 
livion : For Strength divided from Troth and Juftice, 
is fo far from being laudable, that it' merits nothing 
but Difpraife arid Ignominy ; yfet beihg vain-glorious 
afpires to Glory, and feeks Fame through Infaniy : 
Therefore let their Doom be eternal Silence. 

•• • f 

An d now their mightieft Chief being quell^,. thfe 
Bfllttle began to be diforder*d and broken into, witft: 
Rcmt and Confufion-; all the Grdund y^s ftrewM "with 
Ihiver'd Armour, and upon a Heap lay overturi^M^ 
Chariot and Charioteer, and fiery to.aming Steeds: 
Thbfe who ftood gave backi . over-wearied,' and^ 

ever known) 'fled fhamefuUy, brought to foc|i £vif 
hy the Sin of Difobedience ; *till thdt Hour not ha; 
ving been liable to Fear, or Flight, or Pain. JFar c^- 
therwife the holy Saints ((landing firm in the Orders 
they were firft drawn up) advfnc'd intire, invulnera- 
ble, and in Armour that was impenetrable: Such 
high Advantages their Innocence, not to have finnM, 
not to have difobey'd, gave them above their Ene- 
mies ! They ftood unwearied in Fight, not liable to 
receive Pain from any Wound, though they might 
be rcmov'd from their Places by Violence. 



2i6 Parabise Lost. ppo^VI, 


• ^ 4 

Satan and his Ptwers retire under Night ; he puH 
Michael and bis Angels to feme Dtforder in the 
Jecond Dafs Figbt^ out they overwhelm both bis. 
Force and his Engines. 

NOW Night began her Courfe, and bringing; 
on Darknefs over Heaven and Silence, there 
was a Truce made to the hateful Din of 
War, and both the Viftor and the VanquiftiM, as 
fOon as it was Night retir'd. Michael and his An- 
gels, who had the Advantage on their Side, encam- 
ping on the Field where the Battle had been fpught, 
plac'd Cherubic wavbg Fires round their Watches in 
Guard : On the other Part, Satan with his rebelli- 
ous Anffels dilappear'd, and took their Stations faf in 
tHe Park, where finding it impoffible to take zjvf 
Reft, he call'd his Potentates to Council by Night, 
and ftanding up in the Midit of tliem, thus began to 

Dear Companions! now tried in Danger, and in 
Arms found to be invincible, and not worthy of Li- 
berty only, (the Thing we pretended to contend for) 
but of what we more affect. Honour, Empire, Glo- 
ry, and Renown, who have fuflain*d one Day (and 
if one Day, whv not for ever ?) in a doubtful Fight, 
what God witn his greateft Power could fend againfc 
us from about his Throne, and what he thought fuffir 
cient to fubdue us to hxi Will. But it does not prove 
fo. — Then it feems we may make a Judgment, that 
he is fallible as to the Knowledge of future Things^ 
though 'till now he has been thought omnifcient. 
*Tis true, happening to be worfe arm*d, we have fuf- 
tain*d fonic Difadvantage, and experienced what Pain 


Ghap. IL Faradise Lost. 317 

is ; bu( we know withal^ of how little Confequence it 
is and defpiie it, lince we find that we cannot be de* 
ftroy*d, and that our Wounds foon clofc, hcal'd by 
pur native Vigour. Of fo fniaU an Evil let us think 
the Remedy muft be cafy 5 perhaps when we meet 
nestt, better Arms may give us the Advantage, and 
deftroy our Enemies, or at leaft make that equal be- 
tween us, which before made the Odds, where there 
is none in Nature: If by any other hidden Caufe they 
are indeed fuperior, while we can prefervc our Minds 
unhurt, and our Underilanding fbund, we (hall dilco* 
vcr it by Confultation and proper Search. 

H E fat down, and there ftood up in the Aflembly 
NisROC, (b) one of the chief q{ tne Principalities; 
he lookM as one efcap'd from the Slaughter of the 
Battle, &tiguM and wearied out, his Armour Ihat- 
terM and cut to Pieces, and gloomy in his Afpeft i 
lit thus replied: 

Deliverer from new Lords! and Leader to the 
free Enjoyment of our Right, as we are Gods ! yet 
it is hard for Gods, and we find it too much to fight 
in Pain, againft thofe who feel none, and are incapa- 
ble of fuffering ; from which Evil nothing but Ruin 
can cniiie ; for what fignifies Valour or length, if 
accompanied with P3n, which fubdues all Things, 
and makes weak the Hands of the moft powerful ? 
Perhaps we might be willing to be deprived of the 
Scnfe of Pleafure, and Jive without repining in Quiet 
and Content, which is the calmeft Life ; but Pain is 
perfeft Mifcry, a real Evil, and if it be exceffive, 
overturns all Patience. He therefore^ who can invent 


(i*) Ni/roc, Cf Nt/rocif ; Hek ^* •• he was worlhipping in the 

1. e. AjoHMg iagit. A Qod Qf '< Hoafe of Ni/rocb his God, 

ihcJ/J^iaMSt worfluppedat Ni- ** that AiramtUcb znd Share- 

nh/e, by Sinaacbirib^ i Kings " tur his Sons fmotc him with 

'9* 37- !' And it came to pafs, '* the Sword: 

2 1 8 Paradise ho^ Tk Book VI.- 

what we rnay offend mort fcvciblyour yet unwounded' 
Enemies withy or how we fliali ,arin ourlclvcs»with the 
fame Defence they have, in my Opinion deleryps na 
lels, than what we alneady owe for ow Delivetance. 

WHEitETO Satak^ with a coniipasM.Look, re* 
plied : That which thou rightly believeft fo nece^Quy 
to our Succefs» is not now to be invented^ it being al- 
ready in my f ower. Which 13 there of u«> who be- 
holds the .brig^ Suifaqe of this<:eleitial Mold upon 
which w^ftand), this fpacious Continent of Heaven» 
adorn*d with fuch Diverfity of Plants, Fruits, fweet- 
eft Flowers^ Jewels, and Gold; whofe Eye is it that 
funreys thefe' Things fo fuperficially, as not to obferve 
from whence they grow deep under thi^ Ground^ 
made of dark and crude Materials, of fp^Jituous and 
fiery Sulphur, 'till touched with thp Ray of Heaven 
and tempered, they ihoot forth fo beavt^uUy up into 
Light ? Thefe the Deep fliall yield us in their firfl: 
Forms, pregnant with Arrange Fire, which being 
rammM into hollow Engines, long and round, and 
touch'd at the other End with Fire, dilated and put 
into a violent Motion, ftiall, with Noife like Thun- 
der, lend from far fuch Implements of Mifchief a^ 
mong our Foes, as fhall overwhelm and dafti to Pie- 
ces whatever ft^ds againft them ; fo that they fhall 
be afraid that we have difarm*d the Thunderer of his 
only dreaded 1 hunder-bolt : Nor fhall our Labour be 
long, for yet before Break of Day what we wilh fhall 
be efFefted : Mean while chear up, and abandon Fear; 
think nothing hard to Strength joined with good G}un- 
fcl, much lefs to be defpair'd of. 

H E finifh'd his Speech, and his Words gave a Ut- 
tle glimmering of Joy to their dejected Countenances, 
and revived their languifh'd Hope ; all admir'd the 
Invention, and it feem*d fo cafy, once being found, 
(which being unfound moft woiild have thought im- 


Chap* !!• Paaadise Lost, 219 

poffihle) that every one wondered, how he mifs'd to 
be the Inventor of it : Yet poffibly, Adam, fomeof 
thy Race in future Time, (if Malice fhould abound) 
intent on MifcKief, or infpir'd with infernal Machi- 
nation^ may invent fome fuch Inftrument, to plague 
tJie.Son3 or M E N: for Sin •, bent on War and mutual 
Slaughter, Forthwith they rufh'd out from the Coun- 
dl, to undertake this Work ; no one delayed the 
Time in Argument, but innumerable Hands were 
ready ; they tum'd up the celeftial Soil wide in a Mo- 
ment, and faw beneath the Originals of Nature 5 in 
their unripe Conception they found and mingled ful- 
pfaurous and jfiitrouEs Matter, and with fubtle Art ha- 
ving digefted and dry*d it, they reducM it to black* 
Grain, and convey'd it into the Stores, and Part of 
them provide hidden Veins of Mineral and Stone 
digg'd yp, (nor hath this Earth Entrails much unlikej 
whereof to form their Engines, and their Balls that 
being difcharg'd might carry Ruin with them ; Part 

?rovide Reeds, that being lighted, might with a 
ouch give Fire to their Engines. So under the Sha- 
dow of the Night, fccrctly and unelpied they finifh'd 
^11^ and with filent; Circumfpeftion let it in Order. 

Now when the fair and ihining Morning appeared 
in Heaven, the viftorious Angelis rofe up, and the 
Morning Trumpet founded to Arms : They flood 
compfeatly arm*d, in Armour of Gold, a fhining 
Hoft, and were loon drawn up in Bands : Others 
look'd round from the Hills, and light-arm*d Scouts 
icour'd each Quarter, to difcover the diftint Foe, 
where lodged, or whether fled, or if halting, or in 
Motion for the Fight : They foon met him, moving 
near them under fpread Enfigns, in a flow but firm 
Battalion : Z q p b i e l, (r) the fwifteft among the 


to Z^fhitl', mb, i.e. The Sfy or fFafcb of God. 

220 Paradisb Lost* Book VI^ 

Cherubim, with his greateft Speed came flyings and 
tbus injthe Middle of the Air he cry'd out aloud: 

Arm, Warriors, arm for the Fight, the Foe 
whom we thought fled is very near at Hand, and 
To-day will fave us the Trouble of purlliing hdm far \ 
there is no Fear of his Flijght, he comes with fo large 
a Body, and I fee fettled in Ids Face a prefumptuous 
Refolution and Security. Let each gird his Armour 
well, fit well his Helmet^ and hold his Shield with 
all his Stren^, either bom even or high ; for this 
Day, if I conjedture right, will pour down no flight 
Shower of Darts and Arrows, but a rattling Storm 
€f fuch as will be bearded with Fir^t 


Thus he warnM them, who were themfelves 
aware before, and foon they tc>ok the Alarn^, and in* 
ftantly, without any Impediment or Difturbance, 
mov'd onward in Oraer ot Battle ; when behold ! not. 
fer diflant the Foe approaching with heavy Pace, 
training his devilifli Engines in fuch a Manner, that 
they were furrounded on every Side with thick Squa-% 
drons of his Angels, to hide the Fraud. Both Ar- 
mies fl:ood a while at the Interview, but fuddenly 
Satan appeared at the Head of his, and was heard 
thus commanding aloud ; 

Vanou'ard! open your foremoft Ranks to the 
Right and Left, unfold the Front ; that all who hate 
tis may fee how we feek Peace and Quietnefs, and 
ftand ready with open Bread to receive them, if they 
iike our Terms, and turn not their Backs upon us. 
But that 1 doubt of j however, kt Heaven be Wit- 
nefs anon, while we freely difcharge our Part: You, 
who ftand appointed, do a& you have received Or- 
ders, and touch what we propound briefly and loud, 
f^ that there ttizy be Nobody but what may hear. 


Chap* IL Paradise Lasi". 221 

Sb fpeaking^ in a fcofEng Manner^ and with 
Words of a double Meaning ; he had fcarcely ended, 
when the Front divided to die Right and Left, and 
retir'd to either Flank, which difcover'd to our Eyes 
a new and ftrange Sight ; we faw a threefold Row of 
mounted Pillars, which were fix'd upon Wheels ; for 
they feem'd moft like Pillars (or hoUow'd Oak, or 
Fir, with their Branches lopt off) of Brafs, Iron, or 
other Material ; but what convinced us they were not 
Pillars, was that they were hollow, and their Mouths 
with hideous Orifice gap'd wide on us : Behind each 
ilood a Seraph, and in his Hand held a lighted Reed^ 
while we ftood in Sufpence, abftra&ed and withdrawn 
into ourfelves, but not long, for on a fudden they all 
at once put forth their Reeds, and with a nice Touch 
applied them to a narrow Vent; immediately (though 
it was foon darkened with Smoke) all Heaven ap^ 
pear'd in a Flame, which was belch'd from thofe 
deep-throated Engines ; whofe Roar fiU'd with outra- 
gious Noife and tore all the Air, violently difcharg- 
ing their devilifh Burthen, chain'd Thunder-bolts^ 
and a prodigious Number of Balls of Iron, which 
they levelled on the Armies of G o D with fuch impe- 
tuous Fury, that who-foever were Imote by them, 
could not poflibly (land on their Feet, though befor? 
they flood as firm as Rocks, but down they fell by 
Thoufands, and Angel fell upon Arch-angej, the foo- 
ner becaufe of their Armour, (for unarmed as Spirits 
they might eafily have evaded it, either by contrad" 
ing their Subftances or removing) But now follow'4 
the breaking of their Ranks, and a forced Rout; it 
was to no Purpofe to open their Files, that ftood dofe 
and as it were locked together. What could they do. ^ 
1£ they rufliM on, a repeated Repulfe and another in* 
decent Overthrow would render them yet more de- 
lpis'd| and a greater Subject of Lat^hter to their 
Foe$) for another Row of Seraphim ftood r^k'd .in 



3222 Paradise Lost- Book ly^ 

View, in Pofture ready to difcharge their fccond Tire 
of Thunder ; and yet to return back defeated they ab^ 
horrM worfe« Satan beheld thdr Condition^ aiKi 
thus in Derifion call'd out to his Companians : 

Friends! what^s the Matter thefe proud Con- 
querors don't come on ? One while they feemM to he 
coming fiercely, and when we (and what could we do 
more) propounded Terms of Compofidon, and to 
give them fair Entertainment with open Front and 
Breaft, prefently they chang'd their Minds, and fell 
into ftrange Agonies, as if they had a Mind to dance, 
and yet for a Dance they feem'd fomewhat wild and 
extravagant ; perhaps for Joy we oSer'd them Peace: 
But I fuppofe if our Propofais were heard once again, 
we Ihould compel them to a quick Refohition. 

To whom thus in like frolickfome Manner fpoke 
Belial: Leader! the Terms that we lent were 
Terms of very great Weight, the Contents were hard^ 
full of Force, and urgM home, fuch as we might eafi- 
ly perce»re amus'd them all, nay and ftumbled ma- 
ny ; for who receives them right mufl: not be weak, 
but not being underftood, they have this Gift beiide, 
they Ihew us when our Foes are not able ^o walk up- 

« S o they ftood fcoffing in a ludicrous Manner a« 
tncMig themfelves, and elevated in their Thoughts be- 
yond ail Doubt of Viftory ; fo eafily they prcfum*d 
to match the eternal Power of G o d with their Inven- 
tions: They made a Scom of his Thunder, and deri- 
ded all his Hoft, while they for a Time ftood in 
Trouble : But they did not ftand long fo ; at length 
Rage prompted them, and found them Arms, fit to 
make Oppofition againft liich hellifh Mifchief : Forth- 
with (now oblcrve what Excellence and Power God 
hachplacM in his mighty Angels ! they threw awa^ 


C^ap. IL Faradiss Lost. 223 

their Arms and flew to the Hills, (for Earth fo far 
refembles Heaven^ that it hath this plealing Variety 
of Hill and Valley) and running as iwift as Light- 
ningy they tore the fix*d Hills, loofening chem to and 
fro, from their Foundations, with all their Load of 
Rocks, Waters, and Woods, and lifting them up by 
the Tops, bore them in their Hands. Thou may'll 
be afliir'd that Amazement and Terror feizM the Ar- 
mies of S A T A N, when they faw the dreadful Bot- 
toms of Mountains tum'd upwards come tow^jxH 
chem ; and whelm'd over all the triple Row of thole 
curs'd Entities, and that in which they had put M 
their Cony&ience buried deep under the Weight of 
Mountains: They themfelves were next invaded, and 
there came upon their Heads, fiung through the Air^ 
main Promontories, opjpreffing whole Legions : Their 
Armour help'd to do them Mifchief, cruih'd in and 
imiisr'd uitx) their Subftance, w}^ch ocG&iion'd them 
great Pain and many a grievous Groan, ftruggling long 
underneath their Bondage, before they could wind 
themfelves out of fuch a Prifbn, though they were 
Sf^rits of pureft Light, (that is, diey had iaieen once 
the pureft, but now by Reafon of Sia were become 
grofler) The reft of d^ bad Angels which were hot 
qverwhelm'd, imitating the Angels of God, beto6k 
them to the fame Sort of Arms, and tore up the 
^neighbouring Hills; fo that Hills in the Middle of the 
Air encounterM Hills, hurl'd dreadfully to and fro, 
that they fought under Ground in dilmal Darknefs^ 
'horrid Ccxifufion arofe heap'd upon Coafufion ; the 
•Noiie was as it were infenm]> 9nd War to this Uproar 
feem^i but a civil Game^ 


234 ^ARAlSlSE Losf* dook Vii 

• • • 


5^ Tumult not endings God lends tbS MeflkH 
&i iS(?« who alone overcomes bis Enemies-^ drive i 
tbem out of Heaven, and returns mtb Triumph 
to bis Fathen 

NOW ail Heaven liad gone to Wrecks over* 
^read with Ruin^ had not the Almigh^ 
Father in hu moil holy Sanduam 
where he fits and beholds all Things and their Conse- 
quences forefcen this Tumult, and permitted it aU, 
iiot without Del^; that fo he might fulfill his great 
Purpofe to honour his anointed Son, by making him 
aVengM upon his Enemies, and by declaring all Fowl- 
er to be tnmsferr'd to him : Whence to his Son, who 
fat by him upon his Throne, Ke fpake thus: 

Beloved S6n! the Brightnefs of my Glory ! in 
whoTe Face is feen what is otherwife invifible, what I 
am by Deky, and by whofe Hands I do yrhat I decree^ 
who art fecond Omnipotence! there are paft two 
Days (that is two Days as we make Computation ia 
Heaven) fince Michael and liis Powers went forth 
to reiift thofe difobedient Angels; their Fight hath 
been very fore, as it was likely it ihould be, whea 
two fuch Foes meet in Arms : For I left them to 
themfidves, and thou knoweft they were form'd equal 
in their Creation, excepting what Sin hath impaired, 
which as yet hath wrought infenfibly, becaufe I have 
iuipcnded their Condenination for a Time ^ for which 
Reafon they muft fight for ever, and no Determina* 
don be which fhall overcome ^ War hath performed 
what War can do, is wearied out, and hath let loofe 
the Reins to raging Diforder, arm'd with Moun* 
tains as with Weapons, which makes ftrange Work 

Chap. IIL ParadisIl Lost. S2$ 

VI Heaven, and mi^ prove tf daiserofis CooSt^ 
buence. As two Days therefore are paft, the thinl is 
nine; I have ordain'd it for thee, and have foBSar^d 
thus far^ that the Glory may be diine of putting an 
End to this great War, which none but tnyfelf ean. 
Into thee I have transfer'd fuch immenfe Virtue and 
Grace, that in Heaven and Hell all may know thy 
Power to be above Compariibn; and thisperveite 
Commotion thus govem'd, to make maniieft that 
thou art worthieft to be the Heir of all Things, and King by holy Anointment, which is thy deltrv'd 
Right. Go then. Thou mofl: power&l, in die Might 
of thy Father! dcend my Chariot, and guide thofe 
Wheels that fhake the Foundadon of Heaven; bring 
fmh all my Inftruments of War, my Thunder and 
mv Bow ; gird on my alUpowerful Aims, and take to 
Thee my Sword ; j)urfue thefe Sons of Darknefs, and 
drive them out from Heaven into the utter Deep i 
there let them learn at Leifure to defpife Goo, «nd 
his anointed King the Messiah. 

H £ ipoke thus, and Ihone fully with dired Rayc 
upon his Son, who in an unfpeakable Manner re- 
ceived all his Father into his Face, where hit 
Power and Glory was exprefs*d a^ full ^ and dius the 
SoK madeAnfwer: 

Oh Father! Supremdof all heavenly Powers! 
the firft, the higheft, holieft, andbeft! Thou alwaya 
art feeking to glorify thy Son, wd I always, as ia 
moftjuftv to glorify Thee: This I account my Glory, 
my Exaltation, and all my Delight, that Thou wdl 
pleaa'd in me dedarcft thy Will to be fulfill'd, which* 
to fulfill is all mv Happmefs. The Sceptre and PoW'^ 
er which Thou hail given I a0iime, and Ihall mcfro 
gladly refign, when at laft Thou fhalt be all in all^. 
and I in 1 hcc fhal^ be for cyer, and in me all thofe 
whonvThou loveftj but whom Thou hatcfll hate, 

Q^ and 

^26 pAi^AbisB.LGST. BbokVH 

nd as^f j)^' diyiMldnefs trh^ fo I can put on dqf 
T^oi%7 being in ^1 Things thf Image; and bemg 
iihn'd with thy. Mig^t, fhali foon rid Heaven'of dm 
mbdlious $pirit$;^'jUid drive f:hen> down to the ill 
ft^bnflon pfe|yai:^d:. for them, to Chains of Darkndl^ 
ind the Wclrm' that never dies; tdto could; fevoft 
^om 'their jufl::Obedience to Thee, whom to qbeylA 
entire Happbfc&r Then fhall thy Saints, being fet 
Iqnarated from aad^ uimiixM with the Impure, fur^ 
rounding thy 'faoly Mountain, fmg tp Thee (and I 
thft chiet amehff tlvem) unfeignM Hallelujahs, and 
Hymns of the Kigheft Pmife. '. :^ 

• • ••*»,.•. '.' 

: H A V I K G .feid thus, bowing over his Sceptre, fife 
fiQ& &om the RightrHand of God, where heftfi 
Artd the third hoty Morning began to fhinc thfbu^h 
Heaven. - Thib Chariot of Gjod the Father ruflrd 
fc^ with A Sound ISce a Whirlwind, flaihing thick 
S'lames, havings Wheels within Wheels, which neef 
ded not to be drawn^ havine Sn themfelvcs die Power 
of Motion, but yet were led on by four Forms, like 
CheKibiifi, eadi of them having lour wonderitil Fa* 
ces^ * ^d aU ^ir Bodies and their Wings were fet 
iwth Eyes Uke Stars; the Wheels had Eyes of Be-* 
tLih^'(d) and • FireS' went up and down between i 
Over their Heads diere was Chryftal Firmament^ 
where upon a Throne made of Saphire^ (inlaid with 
puii?e Amt>er> and adorn'd with great Variety of Co- 
K>urs) the Mcssiah afcended^ completely arm*d iii 
«* • heavenly 

(4 BiH! ^xBttyh ChaUBurUi 
^rab. Jlbihr s ^hick the Grteh 
^pd Latins tamed. ip to BerylUs, 
fiat ^Exod. 2S. 2d. and Ezek, i. 
iG. to. 9. it 18 ealled TarfNfi ? 
wbich is alfo .the Ntmeiof the 
^^1^' ff- A^* S* becaufe thfi 
Scone is of a Sea C^olour. The 
S^jftuaginl tranflatcS it rO>ry/b' 
Uti;<gr. 1. e« xht goU-iohurid ^ 

Sftne. It is a preddfis Stone df 
a feint green Colonr like tha 
Water ofthe Sea. J/ervmtn* 
mven upon it ; prediding that 
his Hdbicationa would be upon 
the Sea QotUt, as it happened^ 
J^ojb, 19. 29. This Pefcriptioft 
dr the Chariot of the l^eity if 
taken from the Prophet "Ekehgi 
and the RtviUtiw. 

thap. liL iPAkAbisk Lost. 22^^ 

heavehly Armour of radiant Ufc i m (e) being all of 
divine Workmanfliip ; at his Side wais hung his Bovtr 
and Quiver, ftor'd with three-bolted Thunder 5 and 
round abbut him roilM fiercely * Smoke, ^ kindling 
Flamci and flying Sparks of Fire; He canxe on^ 
ward, attended with ten thoufand thoufand Saints j 
ihining at great Diftance^ and tw^nfy thoufand Chai^ 
riots of God (for I heard dieir Number) were feeii 
half on cath Hand. He rdde fublime on the bright 
Sky^ upon the Wings df Cherubtirt, ilpon a Throne 
of Saphire^ confpicuous far and widb : But bdng firit 
feen by his own An^els^ they were furprir'd wim uri* 
cxpe6ted Joy, when they faw the great Enfign of the 
Messiah blaze^ born up aloft by. Angela, which is 
his Sign in Heaven j under whofe Conduft Michael 
fbon reduced his Afmy^ which were Ipread round 
about on either Wing^ and made' them all one Body 
iinder him their HeSl f Power divine prepared thfc 
Wav before hirii, and' the Hills that had oeen tore up 
by tne Roots^ at his Command went back to the Pl^ 
ces from wheftce they 'had been taken^ for they heanj 
his Voice and obey'd it ; the Fate of HeaVeil was re- 
ftpr'd to what it was before, and tivt Hills ahd Tallies 
Were again coverM with frcfli Flo^f ers. 

His unhappy Enemies faw all tKis^ but ftood tib^ 
durate^ and rdlied their Powers to rebellious' Fight; 
Defpdr puihing them forward^ thinking (ihfenfibleas 
they were) that they could not be worfe : Is it poffihle 
fuch Pervcrfenefs could dwell in heavenly Spirits? 
But to convince the Proud j how little Signs or Won- 

0^2 dcrs 

(e) Vrim I Bfh. PImtmI, I e. Capti?lt)ri Emtm t. 63^ Neh. 

lights. Tbit Word with TImmi 6. 6{. And the TirJbatU &i(^ 

muKtt f . e. firfiQioni, was pot in uftco them, tbii they ffloald not 

die Higb-Prielfs Breaft-Plate 2 to eat of the moft holy Thingi, tjlt 

taqatre ^d to receive AuGveirt there ftood ftp a Priefi ^ith Vtm 
frrai God; which continued in * and with Tiv^niNl. 
&at Choreh *tiU (he B^kjUn^k 

228 Paradise Lost. Book VIi 

ders avail to move the ftubborn Heart to Repentance^ 
they became hardened the more, by that which ought 
to have moft reclaimed them ; for grieving to lee his 
.Glory, they were feiz'd with Envy at the Sight, and 
^fpiring to his Height ffcood ready to reingage in 
J5crce Battle, trufting either by Force or Fraud to 
prolper, and to prevail a^nft God and Messiah, 
or elfe at lalt to fall in umverfal Ruin : Ahd now dif- 
daining Flight or Retreat, they drew up to final Battle^ 
when the great Son of Gop to his Army on both 
jSides ipoke thus : 

' Stand ftill in bright Array, ye Saints! and here 
ftand ye arm*d Angels ! reft this Day from Battle ! 
your Warfare hath been faithful, fought without Fear 
in the righteous Caufe of Go d, and is accepted by 
him, as ye have received great Power, fo have ye 
a&ed invincibly : But the Funiihment of this cursM 
Crew belongs to other Hands, for Vengeance is 
G'op*s, or thofc only whom he appoints. Number 
lior Multitude is not ordain'd to do this Day^s Work : 
Stand only fl:ill, and behold the Indignation of G o 0, 
pour'd by me on thefe impious Rebels 1 for it is me 
they have defpis'd, me whom they envied, not you: 
All their Rage is againii: me; becaufe the Father, to 
whom in Heaven appertains the fupream Kii^om, 
Power, and Glory, according to ms Good-wiU hath ' 
honoured me: Therefore he hath afSgn'd to me to 
give them their Doom; that they may have their 
Wifli, to try with me which proves the ftrongeft in 
Battle, they all united, or I alone againft them ; fmce 
they meafure every Thing by Strength, and ftrive not 
after, or care who outgoes them in Goodnefs and other ^ 
divine Perfe&ions. 

Thus fpoketheSoN of God, and chang'd his 
Countenance into Terror, too fevere to be beheld, 
and full of Wrath rufh'd upon his £nemies. At once 


Chap. III. Paradise I^ost. 2S9 

Qie four Cherubim fpread out their Wings^ that were 
full of Eyes, whidi toUdung one another made a 
dreadful Shadow^ and the Wheels of his fierce Cha<* 
riot roll'd, as with the Sound of many Waters, or 
the marching of a numerous Army : He drove dired- 
ly onward upon his impious Foes, as gloomy as 
Night ; the firm Heaven fhook throughout under his 
burning Wheels, all except the Throne of God : He 
ibon arrived among them, holding in his Right-Hand 
ten thoufand Thunders, which he fent before himi 
and fuch they were as in their Souls fix'd many 
Plagues and Torments: They being quite aftoniih'd, 
loft all Power of Refiftance^ and all Courage, and 
dovvn dropt their irielels Weapons : He rode over 
Shields and Hdmets, with the Heads that- wore them, 
of mi^ity Powers and Seraphim now Iving proftrate ; 
who wiih'd die Mountains might be thrown on them 
again, to (belter them firom his Rage. On the other 
Side, his Arrows did not fall leis temprftuous from 
the . four Ser^him, who each had four Faces, thick 
fet with Eyes, and from the living Wheels, which 
alfo were roll of Eyes^; one Spirit rul'd in them all, 
and every Eye blazed lightning, and (hot forth fuch 
hurtful Fire among the accurs'd Spirits, as withered 
all their Strength, and left them fpiridefs, afflicted, 
fallen, and drain'd them of all their ufual Vigour. 
Ifetdid not the Son of God put forth half his 
Strength, but checked his Thunder in the Midft of 
its Flights for he did not mean to deftroy them, 
but only to drive them out of Heaven : Thofe who 
were overthrown he rais*d up, and like a Herd of 
Goats or timorous Sheep that arc flocked together, 
drove them thunder-ftruck before him to the Bounds 
of Heaven, which opening wide roird inward, and 
difcover*d a great Gap into the Deep : At that mon- 
ftrous-Sight jthey were ftruck backward with Horror ; 
but far worfe Horror urg^d them behind, fo that, they 
threw themfelvcs headlong down from the Borders of 

Q^ 3 Heaven, 

9$o Paia©i8e J^o8t. Bpo^ Y|. 

HcaTpD) and eternal Wiath burnt after them to thd 
bottomlefs Pit. Hell heard the intolerable Noife, 
and law Heaven falling in Rym fro<n Heaven, and 
being afiimhted ^o^d have fled^ f but Fate Jiad bound 
her ^00 fa£^ and caft her dark Foundaticxis too deep* 
They were nin^ Days in their Fall, and the confus^ 
mid roaring Chaos was fillM witl^ tenfold Confiifion 
gs they fell, 'till Hell at laft yawning received themi 
all| and closed upo{i them \ a^ B% Habitation for them^ 
(ul) of unquencnable Fire^ the Dwisllmg-Place of 
Pain and Mifery. H^av^ being q^it of me Burtbeq 
rejoic'd,^ and fcpn fhjut up the Breach through which 
the fallen Angels were dnven out. 

The M^ss^ah having alone obtainM the Vidory, 
tumM his triumphal Chairiot from tne Earpyliion of 
his Enemies ; all his Saints fdvanc'd to );neet him 
with great Rejoicing, who had ftood lilent to behoid 
his Almighty Deeds, and as they went fliaded with 
Branches of Palm, each bright Order fling Songs of 
Triumph, eicprefling him to be the viftorious King^ 
the Son, H^eir, and Lord, and the Doniimo];i 
was given to him, who was worthieft to reign* He 
rode, thus celebrated, triumphant throngh me Mid« 
die of Heavra, into the Courts and Temple of his 
mighty Father, who fits on the higheft Throne,^ 
and who received him into Glory, where he now 
dwells at the Right-Hand of G o d. 

Thus, Adam, meafqring as well a$ I could 
Thin^ in Heaven by thole on Eardi, I have at thy 
Requeft (and that thou may^ft take Heed by what i$ 
paft) revealed to thee^ wh^t elie perhs^ps might have 
Deen hid JFrom the Race e^ M a n ^ the Difcord and 
the Y(ar whi^ befell ^ri Heaven among the An^ical 
Powers, and the deep Fall of thofe too high alpiring 
Spirits, who rebelled with 3atan: He who now en-? 
vies thy State, a^d w^o is now contriving how he 


Chap. III. Paradise Lost. 23* 

may feduce thee aUb fi-om thy Obedience, that thou 
bereav'd of Happinefs may'ft partake with him his 
Punifhment^ which is eternal Mifery ; this would be 
his greateft Delight and Revenge, as in Defpite ^gainft 
the mofi: High, once to gain thee to be the Compa- 
nion of his Woe. But do not thou Uftcn to his 
Temptationsj warn Eve, who in the Capacity of 
her Mind is weaker than thee : Let it be of Service 
to thee, to have heard by terrible Example, what the 
Reward of Difobedicnce is ; they might have flood 
firm, and yet they fell: Do thou bear that in Mind, 
and fear to tranfgrefs the Conunand laid upon thee. 

72« End of the Sixth Book. 


[ S33 ] 



O F 


The Argument. 

RAPHAEL, at tbeJUmeJi o^Adam, 
relates bow and wherefore this IVorld 
wasfrft created \ that God after the 
expelling of Satan and bis Angels out of 
Jhaven declared bis PUafure to create anotlxr 
Worlds and otber Creatures to dwell therein. God 
fends bis Son witb Glay end Attendance of Angels 
to perform the Werk of Creatim infix T>ays : Tbe 
Angels celebrate wttb Hymns tbe Performance 
thereof and bis Re^Afcenjien to Heaven. 


^34 Paradise Lost, Book VII, 

C H A P. I. 

lUphael /^/£r A4»in hew and why the H'erld wot 
jirfi created. 

SCEND from Heaven, Thou hol;^ 
ipirit, by fome call'd Urania-I- f.*) 
bllowing whofe divine Voice, I foar 
ibove tte Flights feign'd of P e g a- 
;us, (h) above the Top of Olympus. 
i. cftll Upon the M^ajung^ aqd ,not the 
Name; for Thou art not one o£ the.iune Myfes, hor 
do'ft Thou dwell on Mountains^ but bom in Heaven 
before cither the HiUs appear'd, or Fountains flow'd ; 
Thou didft converfe wim eternal Wifdom thy Sifter, 
and with her didft rejoice in jthePrefepce of tfae Al- 
mighty Father^ who was pJeis'd with thy heavenhf 
Song. LeH up by Thee, 1 have prefum'd to vifit 
the Heaven of Heavens, though but an Earthly 
Gueft, and bre^h'd celeftial Air, temper'd by Thee 
to my Nature: Do Thou, guiding me down with 
like Safety, return me to my natural iElement, left I 
;^, (as once Bellerophon (() lUd) difmowted oil 


{a) Urania % tat. Gr. i. e. cattd to JtfaUi and tlie Mif/kt, 

Btavnlf i oneof che nmcMM/et, (t) Billtrapbrn ; Lat. Gr. i. e. 

ibc Godde& of Afirmomj, and A M^^im «/ BtiUr, hli Bro* 

of all heavanly Thiagt. She i* ti^. ' Btrfius tht Son of (?/«•. 

reprefented crowa'd with Stut, emt £u;g ^ Ctrtnth » (a called, 

and a great Globe is hn Hudt i ' He wu a noble Vonth, and af-. 

to Ihcw, tfaaE flkc tcadei tbe ter nanr Ejtptoib, being dtfirow 

Way to Heaven. of flying ap to Heaven by tha 

[i) P*gafiu, Gr. i. e. j1 ftwr- Help of his Horfe, waacaftdowii 

UtKi th« winged Horfe of the headlong by. ^bt^'/n-i and by ibc 

Poet) : Becaule it ii bid. He Fall he was-wttde blind. Then 

Opened tbe FQODtaiQ, HiMttrtw*, he lived a wandering .Vagabond 

\.t. Tbt Ftntain ef tht Horfi, Life i like another Cain, and 

by a Kicic of hii Heeb, and fiew died with Hunger, about 4. W- 

np to Heaven. Jhi» was a Well 1693. 
•I Btttia, near ^iioit, dtdi^ 

chap, L Paraoisb Lost, 435 

the Aleian (d) Field, there to wander erroneous 
and fbrfaken: There ^let remains Half unfung; but 
|)0W I may fing more faiely of narrower Bounds with- 
in the vifible diurnal Sphere, Handing upon the 
Earth, and npt being caiTied away beyond thi$ 
World •, and though with mortal Vp^cc, yet un-: 
(rhang'd to hoarfe or mute ; though fallen upon evil 
Days and among evil Tonnes, in Darlqnefs, and en<r 
pompafs'd round with Dangers and Solitude, yet am 
I not alonej while Thou vifits my Slumbers nightly, 
pr at earheft Break of Day ^ Do Thou great Spirit 
ftill dkt& and govern my Thoughts and Words, and 
^ough but a few, find for me a fit Audience. But 
drive fiur* off the Revellers of Bacchus, the Race of 
fhat wild Rout,, that tore Orpheus (e) to Pieces, ij^ 
Woods where they and Rocks (it was faid) had Ears, 
^md were charm'd, 'till the favage Clamour drowned 
both Harp and Voice ; nor could his Harmony deftadl. 
him : So fail not Thou who now implores Thee, for 
^haa art heavenly, and his feign'd Mufe only an 
finpty Dream. Teach me to relate what foUow'd^ 
when Raphael, the fociable Arch-Angel, had fore- 
^amM A B A M to beware of Apoftacy, or Falling 
away froni God into Sin, by a lad Example of what 
had befell in Heaven to thofe apoOrate Angels, left 
the like ihould befall in Paradise to him or tQ 
his Race, if they tranfgrefsM and (lighted that only 
Command, which was fo eafily obey'd ; being onl]^ 
charged not to touch the forbidden Tree, amidft the 
Choice of all other Fruits to pleafe their Appetite 
-with all Variety, 


(fy Jfiian, of Jtkia i iat. (i) Orphius^ was torn in Pie^ 

Qr. i. e. tFaniiring. A Fif Id in cei by the Ciconinn or Tbradam 

Qliciift where it is laid, that Women, when they celebrated 

Perfeuj wandored after hit Pall ch^ Feails of Bacchtu. . 

S36 Paradise Lost. Book VII» 

Adam and Eve heard the Story oF Raphael 
with great Attention, and were fill'd with the higheft 
Admiration, to hear of Things fo high and fo ftrange^ 
Things as had never enter'd into their Thought or 
Imagination, that there • ihould be Hate in Heaven, 
and War with fuch Confufion ((> near the Peace of 
G o D in Happinefs ; but the Evil being ^Ibon driven 
back, fell upon thofe from whom it fprung, it being 
impoffible tor it to mix with Bleflednels: So that 
Adam ibon recalled the Doubts th^ rofe ia his 
Heart, and was led On, though without Sin, with a 
Defire to know Things that nearer might concern 
him, how this Workl, Heaven, and the vifible Earth 
hrSt began, when and of what it was created, and for 
what Caufe ; what was done within or without Eden, 
before his Memory, about which he proceeded to alk 
his heavenly Gueft ; 

Great Tliing;s, (aid he to the Angel, and fvH 
of Wonder, far diffierin^ from this World, thou haft 
reveal'd to us, thou divine Interpreter! by Favour 
fent ^wn from Heaven, to forewarn us in Time of 
what, if it had been unknown, might have prov'd our 
Lofs-, it being what human Knowledge could not 
reach ; for which we owe immortal Thanks, to God, 
and receive his admoniihing, widi a folemn Purpde 
CO obicrve his fovereign Will unchangeably, to which 
End it is that we are. But fince thou haft condefcen- 
ded, gently to impart to us the Knowledge of Things 
above earthly Thoughts, which yet were fuch Thii^ 
as leem'd to Goo to concern our knowing, vouchiafe 
now to defcend lower, and relate to us (what perhaps 
may no lefs avail us to know) how this Heaven, which 
we behold fo high diftant, firft began, adom'd with 
innumerable moving Stars and the ambient Air flow- 
ing and floating between all Bodies, yielding to them 
or. filling up all Space, and embracing the Earth 

Chap. i. P^AHADisfi LpsT« 237 

round: What Caufc mov'd the Cuhator, who ex- 
ited in his holy Reft through all £temity, to begin 
fo late to create the World, and yet once begEm^ to 
jinifh it fo ibon ; unfold this to us, if it is not Torbid- 
den thee, which we enquire after, not to pry into the 
Secrets of his eternal Power, but that the more we 
know, the more we may magnify his Works ; and 
the Sun. yet wants a conuderable Time of his Settings 
though he be declininff, and could he hear thy power- 
ful Voice, he would ftand ftill to hear thee tell of his 
Creation, and the riflng Birth of Nature, from Dark- 
nefs and Confufion ; or if the Moon and the Stars rife 
upon thy^Difcourfe, Night will bring Silence, and we 
can gladly keep waking all < the Night *till thy Story 
be fini{h*d, and thou may*ft depart yet beforeMoming« 

Thus Adam requefted his Angelical Gueft, and 
thus mildly the Angel anfwered: This Requeft of 
thine, which thou haft cautioufly afk*d, obtain alfo; 
though what Words or Tongue of Seraph is capable 
of fpeaking, or what Heart of Man or comprehen- 
ding the Works of the Almighty ? Yet what thou 
canft attain to, and which may beft ferve to gbrify 
thy Maker, and make thee happier, (hall not be 
withheld fronothy hearing: Such Commiflion I have 
received from above, to anfwer all thy Delires of 
Knowledge, that are within Bounds ; beyond thofe 
forbear to afk, nor hope that thy Inventions or Con* 
jeftures will diifcovcr Things which are not reveal*d, 
and which God, whp alone knoweth all Things, 
hath hid, fo that they may not be communicated ei- 
ther in Earth or Heaven ; there is enough befides to 
fearcl) after and to leam : But Knowledge is like 
Food, and needs no leis Temperance to govern the 
Appetite, to know in what Mealfure the Mind can 
well contain and digeft, which intemperately taken 
oppreiles with Surfeit; and Wiidom turns Folly, as 
too much Nourifhment turn^ to Wind. 


^3^ ?AitAiJUE tdsf* fiootc Vlt 

Kk6 w then^ that after Lucirsit (call him by thai^ 
Kamci for he was once brighter amidft the Hoft of 
Angels^ thaA that bright Star is among the Stars) fell 
from Heaven >^ith his flamins Legions through the 
Deep, into the Place prepared for him^ and the great 
60s of G o D return d Viftorious with his Sunts/ the 
Almighty and Eternal F a t h b r beheld their Multi* 
tude irom his Throne^ and thus ipake to his S p k. 


At leaft our envious Fbe hath feilM of his Pur- 
|H>lei who thought all rebellious like himfdfj by 
irhofe Aid he trufted to have difpoflefs'd us^ and td 
have feisft*d this inacceffible hi^h Strength) the Seat of 
fupreme Dtitfi and into the iame bad State drew ma- 
ny, who have no more Plac^ in Heaven 5 yet I fee the 
far greater Part have kept their Statioris^ and Heaveii 
yet retains a lufficient Number to poflfefs her Realms^ 
and freouent this high Temple with due Services and 
folemn Rites 3 but left he fhould be lifted up in his 
Heart for the Mifchief he has already done in dif- 
peopling Heaven, (which he vainly imagined a Da-* 
mage done to me) I can repair that, and in a Moment 
will create another World, and out of one M a n an 
innumerable Race of M £ n^ to dwell there and not 
here ; 'till at length rais'd by Degrees of Meritj the/ 
open to themfelves the Way up hither, try^d under 
long Obedience; and Earth -be changed to Heaven^ 
and Heaven to Earth, becoming one Kingdom in Joy 
and Union without End. Mean while ye Powers of 
Heaven ! poflefs the whole^ and Thou my Word and 
my begotten Son! this I perform by Thee ; do Thdu 
ipeak and let it be done. I fend along with Thee my 
overlhadowing Spirit and my Powet ; ride foi^ and 
bid the Deep within its appointed Bounds be Heaven 
and Earth : The Deep be boundiefs^ becmfe I myfelf 
fill Infinity, nor is me Space empty any where > and 
though I cannot be circumicrtb'd^ yet I ean retire^ 


Jjiaj^tLt Para D ISA.« 239 

imd do not put fordi my Goodnefs byConftratnt^ 
inflkich ii free to ad: or not; I am not compeU'd by 
Ntctffity or Chance^ for what I will that is Fate« 

Th u t the AlmIohty fpoke^ and what he faid^ 
his Won], the filiid Godhead^ infiantly jperform'd. 
The Aftions of God are immediate, iwifterthaa 
Time or Motion, but cannot be told to human Ears^ 
fo as earthly Motion may receive any Idea without 
ProcdTs of Speech. When the Almighty Will waa 
heard in fuch a Declaration^ there was great Trium|A 
and Rejoicing in Heaven: They fung Glory to the 
moft High! Good-will to future Mem I and Peace in 
their Dwellings! Glory to him, whofe juft avenging 
Wrath had driven out the Wicked from before his 
Sight, and from the Habitations of the Juft : Glory 
be to him and Praife ! whofe Wifdom had ordain'd to 
.create Good out of Evil; inftead of malignant Spi^ 
ritSy to bring a better Race into their Room* and 
.thence difiufe his Goodnefs to infinite Worlds and in* 
finite Ages« Such Songs as thefe the blefled Ai^geti 
. fung to the Glory of Go d« 



God fends bis Sets toperftnmt the Work of Crea^ 
tion > which the Angels celebrate: Histte^fcen* 
fm into Rtitoen. 

MEAN while Ae Son of God appearM on 
his great Expedition, having Almighty 
Power, and being crown*d with divine Ma^ 
jcfly, Wifdom, and infimte Love, and all his F a- 
THER fhone in htm: About his Chariot there 
thpong'd innumerable Cherubim and Seraphim^ Po- 
tentates, and Thrones, and Virtues *, wingM Spirits^ 


24© Paradise Lost. BookVIL 

and Chariftts from the Annory of God with Wing«t 
where Thoufends ftand lodged between two brazen 
Mountains, heavenly Equipage, and always ready 
hamefs*d againft a fokmn Day, and now came forth 
attendant upon their Lord of their own Accord, 
for Spirit Wd within them ; Heaven open'd her 
cvcrlafting Gates wide, moving upon golden Hinges, 
to let form the King of Glory, in his powerful Word 
and Spirit coming to create new Worlds. They 
ftood upon the Ground of Heaven, and viewed from 
the Shore the vaft and immeafurable Abyfs, which 
was as outragious as a .Sea tum'd up from the Bot- 
tom by furious Winds-, railing up the forging Waves 
like Mountams, which would fcem wildly to aflault 
the Height of Heaven, and mix the Centre with the 

The Word, by whom all Things were made, 
call'd out and faid : Ye troubled Waves befilent, and 
be at Ptace Thou great Deep ! be no longer at Strife. 

Thb faying, he ftaid not, but lifted up upon the 

Wings of Cherubim in the Glory of his F a t h e r, 
' rode far into Chaos, and the unmade World 5 for 
the Chaos had obeyM his Voice. All his Train fol- 
lowed him in bright Proceffion, to behold the Crea- 
tion and the Wonders of his Power. Then ftayM the 
Motion of liis Chariot Wheels, and took the golden 
Compafles into his Hand, which are prepared in the 
€vcrlafting Stores of G o d, to circumlcribe this Uni- 
verfe, and all Things that are created. One Foot of 
the Compafles he fixM in the Centre, and turned the 
other round in the vaft dark Depth, and faid O 
World ! let this be thy juft Circumference, and thus 
f4r extend thy Bounds ! 

Thus God created the Heaven and the Earth, 
and the firft Matter was without Form and void, and 
Darkneis cover' d the Deep j but the Spirit of G o 


chap/ III Paradise Lost. 241 

mov*d upon the Waters, and infiis'd vital Warmth 
artd Virtue through all the fluid Parts, but pure'd 
downward all the black, cold, and grofs Dregs, that 
were Enemies to Life ^ then laid the Foundation of 
all Things, and gathered together like Things to like^ 
fo that the Elements were feparated in their fcveraJ 
Placed, and Earth hung felf-balanc*d upon her own 

God faid let there be Light ! and heavenly Lights 
the firft of Things, pUre Quintcffence, fprung from 
the Deep, ahd began to pafs from her native Eafl: 
through the gloomy Air, and being inclos'd in a 
bright Cloud, dwelt a while in a fhadowy Tabernacle, 
(for as yet the Sun was not) God faw that the 
Light was good, and by the Hemifphere divided the 
Light from the Darknefs ; and God cali'd the Light 
Day, and the Darknefs he calPd Night, and the Eve- 
ning and the Morning were the firft Day : Nor did it 
Eafs lincelebtated or unfung by the Angels, when they 
eheld ihining Light firft exhaling from Darknefs, in 
the • Day that Heaven and Earth were made : They 
fill*d the Univerfe with Shouts of Joy, and play*d 
upon their golden Harps, praifing God and his 
Works with Hymns j they fung his Praife both whea 
the firft Evening was and the firft Morning. 

And God faid, let there be a Firmament in the 
Midft of the Waters, and let it divide the Waters 
from the Waters. And God made the Firmament 
of expanded Air, liquid, pure, tranfparent, and elc* 
mental, diSus'd and extended to the uttermoft Parts 
of this new Creation ; which was a firm and fure Par- 
tition, dividing the Waters underneath from tTiofe a- 
bove : For he built the World like the Earth floating 
in a calm, wide, pure Sky, far removed from the 
Mais of the inixM Elements ; left fierce Extremes 
being too near» inight damage the whole Frame ; and 

R he 

24^ PAiADiSE Lost. BobkVlt 

he Mm* d the Firriiament Heaven: So the Evening 
ind the Morhirig were the feccorid Day. 

T tt 8 Eaf tti was noW fofm'd, but involved as yet 
fn the gfeat Mafs of Water, and not yet thorougnly 
prepaf'd,^ did iiof appear: The main Ocean flowed A 
61fir thi Ea#th, ftot without Virtue, but foftenlng aft 
her Globe with warm prolifick Humour, fermented 
the Earth, now full of kindly Moifture to conceive ; 
whert God fdd, let the Waters be gathered together^ 
^d to ofife flic6y arid let the dry Land appear! im- 
ittfediitely flie great Mountains appeared, riung up a- 
hoVt the Water, arid lifted their Tops mto the Clouds^ 
as high as the Hills rofe, fo low funk down a hollow 
P6Ttofri, bf bacf arid deep, a proper Receptacle for th6 
Wafers y thither they flowed fwihly. Part rifing b a 
Chryftal Wall or direA Ridge for Hafte; fuch Flight 
the great Command had imprefi'd on the Floods : As 
Armies at the $6urid of the Trumpet (which, as thou 
haft heard me (peak of our Armies, thou under- 
ftarid'ft fomething of) make up to their Standard : So 
the Waters Wave after Wave, wherever they found 
Way i if fteep, they flow'd with rapid Torrent ^ if 
through Plains, ebbing fbftly ; nor cotild Rock or 
Hiir withftand them j but they, either under Ground, 
or in wide Circuit winding and wandering, at laft ar- 
rive at the Place defign*d for them^ and wore deep 
Channels upon the waftiy and (limy Ooze j which was 
very ealy Tor them to do, before Cjod had ^id the 
Ground be dry> (except within thofe Banks where the 
Rivers now continualfy flow) And God called the 
dry Land Earth, and the gathering together of the 
Waters called he Seas ; and God faw that it was 
good. And God faidy let the Earth bring forth 
Grafs, and the Herb yielding Seed, and the Fruit- 
Tree yielding Fruit after her ICind, whofe Seed is in 

herlelf upon the Earth f He had fcarcely fpoke^ 

whert the Earth (which *tiH then^ was bare, barren, 


Anfigfitlv, an4 wkl^otat Beauty) browgfif forth tfee tenr 
dd- Grasi, t^hcjife Verdure cpvePd her all over ^hh ^ 
rieafartt Gfecn: TTieii all Sorts of Herb* fmelling 
n^eet, and opening '♦vith Flowers of various Coleurs,- 
ihddenly appeared : And before thefe were weH blown, 
forth flotniih'd the thick dtiftering Vine ; fwth crept 
all Kind* of fmeHiffg Gotfrds, Reeds, Bulhes, and 
humble Shrubs; lafUy arofe the ftateljr Trees, andf 
feread their Btanehes hting witTi Plenty of Fruh, or 
cne gave forth theit bejiutifiil Buds aiKi Blofionwrt 
The Hilk were c^vefd with high Woods, ahd the 
Valfies with green Turf, and each Fountain and Ri- 
ver Side 'vHth Borders of Flowers; that now the 
Earth feerh^d like Heaveh, a Habitation where God* 
might dwelli or love to wilder in with DeK^ht, and 
frequent ftidi facred Shades : Though Got) hadntot 
yet causM h to rain upon the Earth, and MAH , wH 
not as yet to till it, but there went tip « JWtft frtfi 
die Earth, and watered ill the Ground and cac 
Plant of the Field; which God madie before it wai 
in the EartJi, and every Hefb before it ^rcw uport 
the green ^cm ; and Got) faw that it was good: Sof 
the Evening and the Mornif^^erc tfic third Day. 

The AtBiiGHT y fboke again, and fa|d; let riieri 
be Lights high m the Firmament of Heaven, to dt 
vide the Day from the Night ; and let them be for 
Sgns, for Seafon^L and for Days, and for revolving 
Tears ; and let them be for Lights,- as 1. 6rdafc their 
Office in the Firmament,- to give Light upon th6 
Earth; and it wte fo. And God made two great 
Lights ; (if not great with Regard to oth^ Bodtes,' 
yet fo for their Ufe to Man] 3ie greater to rule over 
the Day, and the leffer to rde the Ni^ht, tofcl each 
by Turns divide L%ht from Darkhd&. Goli Over- 
looking his great Work, faw that it was good ; for 
of the cefeftialBodics he firff made the Sun, (a very' 

R 2 great 

344 Paradise Los/f.' ^''^k, ViL 

great Globe) which though of etherial Matter was. 
without any Light : Then made the Moonj another^ 
great Globe, and Stars of every Degree of Magni-. 
tude, with which he fiird the Firmament, ^hick as 
Seeds are fown in the Field. He took the greater 
Part of Light, tranfplanting it from the Cloud, in 
which at its firft Creation it was plac'd, and remov'd 
it into the Sunis Orb, being made porous to receive 
and take it in, and yet firm fo as to retain its eather'd 
Beams, it being now the great Repofitory of Light: 
Hither the Stars repairing, as to a Fountain, draw 
additional Light, and from hence the Morning Star 
gathers more Brightnefs ^ and though feen with great 
Diminution, being fo far remote from human Sig^t, 
they augment their own peculiar' Ligjit, either by 
Tindure or Refledtion, . The glorious Sun was firft 
feen in the Eaft, ruling the Day, and invefted all the 
Horizon round with bright Rays, chearfully feeming 
to run his Courfe through the high Courfe or Heaven; 
the Morning Star and other Conftellations moving 
with him, Ihedding fweet Influence. The Moon was 
fet oppofite in the TevelPd Weft, lefs bright than the 
Sun, as his Mirrour, with full Face, borrowing her 
Light from him -, for in that Afpedt Ihe needed no o- 
ther*, and ftill keeps that Diftance 'till Night; then 
ftie fliines in the Eaft, in her Turn, revolving on 
Heavea's great Axle, and holds her Reign, dividing 
it with Thoufands of lefler Lights, a thoufand Thou- 
fand Stars, that then appeared Ihining . in the Hemif- 
phere, then firft adorn'd with thefe bright Luminaries, . 
that fet and rofe : Aqd the Evening and the Morning 
were the fourth Day, 

And God faid, let the Waters bring forth abun- 
dantly the moving Creature that hath Life, Reptils, 
^ith Spawn abundant, and let the Fowl fly above 
tiic Earth, with Wings in the open Firmament ! And 


chap. II. Paradise Lost. 245 

God created great Whales, (f) and every living Crea- 
ture that moveth, which the Waters brought forth 
abundantly after their Kind, and every wing'd Fowl 
after his Kind : And G o p law that it was good, and 
blefs'd them, faying, be fruitful, multiply, and fill 
die Seas, Lakes, and running Streams! and letisdl* 
Sorts of Fowls of the Air increafe alfo. Forthwith • 
the Seas, the Sounds*, and every Creek and Bay fwarm 
with innumerable Fry, and Shoals of Filh, that with " 
their Fins and fhining Scales fwim under the Waves 
in Multitudes,- large enough to make Banks in the 
Ocean : Part lingle, - or with Mates, graze upon - the 
Sea-weed, their Pafture ; or Importing among Coral 
Ihew their beautiful Scales of various Colours, mix*d 
with Gold, to the Sun;- or elfe lying at Eafe in their 
pearly Shells, attend rhoift Nourifhment j or under 
Rocks, coverM with Shells like Armour, watch for 
their Food ; the Dolphins (g) and Scales play upon the 
calm Seas, while other larger Fifti wallowing unwiel- 
dy, and prodigious in their Motion, make a Tempeft 
as they iwim j there the Leviathan, hugeft or li- 
ving Creatures, fleeps or fwims on the Sea, ftretch'd 

R 3 like. 

(f) Whales \ Sax. O. E, 
The hugeft Creatures in theSea, 
as EUpbants are on the dry Land: 
They are mentioned in particu- 
lar» Gen, i. 21. '' And God 
created great WbaUs^ and e- 
very living Creatore that mo- 
vethy which the Waters 
broaght forth abundantly af- 
ter their Kind/' 
(£i Doiphinsp from Delphi 1 
Lat> from the Gr. becaule the 
People of Delphi firft difcovered 
this F'i(h I or Delphax, Gr, i. e. 
An Hog : Becaule. it refembles 
one in its long Snout, l^atnefs, 
Ribsy Liver and Entrails* It is 
called the Sea-Hog, and the (k- 


cred Fifli ; becaufe it was confe- 
crated to Neptune, A Dolphin is a 
large Fi(h, not unlike a rbrpoife^ 
very ftraight, and the fwifteft of 
all Fifhes or Birds ; as fwift as 
an Arrow ; it will overtake a 
Ship in full Sail before the Wind; 
and continually in Motion. It 
doth live 20 or 30 Years, and 
three or four Days out of Wa- 
ter, as an Eel doth. Dolphins 
are faid to be Lovers of Men, 
It is a certain Sign of a Tem- 
peft, when they fport on the 
Water. Their Flefli was of 
great Requeft among the An* 
tients. They have no Gall. 

04(5 Vh^j^yy^s^ LqsT. £ook VH. 



like a Promontory, a^d feems a moving; L^nd^ drawr 
iog in and ipouting out a Se^ from his Gills. Me^ 
\fAile the warm Caves^ and Fen$, and Shore) hatch 
their Brqod as numerous, from all Kinds of Eggs, 
that buritii^ difclofe their callow Youngs butt- 
ing foon featherM and ^bari^g the lofry Air, rife i(ar 
aJDOve the Ground, making ^ great Noife ifith their 
^ings : f here phe Eagle and the Stork (b) build 
thejr Neflts, on Cliffs and the Tops of Cedars j Paji: 
loofely flyii^> and Part n>ore wiie, led on by pth^srs, 
and r^i^g'd in Order, and knowing the Seafons, fet 
forth in large Flocks high oyer Seas and Lands, 
e^ing one another in their Flight; fo the prudent 
Crane .(i) iieers yearly her Voyage) whilft the Air i$ 
ffMan'd with numberlels Wings. The fmaller Birds, 
flying from Branch to Branch, fung in the Woods 
*tiU Evening ; nor even then did the folemn Nightin-r 
gaJjC fc^a& warbling^ but tun'd her foft Song all the 
Nig^t* Others bath'd their dpway Breafts upon pure 
and clear Lakes and Rivers j the Swan with her ar- 
ched Neck mantling proudly between hef wljite 
Wing^i rowsherfclf along in State, her Feet ferving 
for Pars ; yet they often quit the Water, and rifing 
on the Wing, take their Flight through the Air, 


{b) Shrk ; Sax. Gr. Heb. by the Prophet, fer her obfecir- 

Chahdah^ i. e. Kiudneft or ing tiie iic Time of coining and 

Tfatural Affeffion : Became thut going horn one Country tO ano- 

Bird hath' a great Love to its ther, Jar. 8. 7. '' Yea, the 

Young ;' and thev to the old ** Stork in the Heaven knoweth 

ones. A Fowl bigger than a <* her appointed Times, undthe 

common Herotit with a white ' ** Turtle, and the Crape, and 

Head. Neck, Belly, Tail and <* the Swallow obferve theTime 

fore Fart ; bat black in the M of their coming.*' Jt is a 

Back, with broad Claws, like Bird with a very k>ng Bill, Neck 

the Nails of a Man. and Legs 1 fometimes weighin 

(f) Craw i Sax, O. E. A 10 Pocmds ; and is aWater Fo 

Name formed from its Sound, ieforting in Feni. 
A Bird of PaAge, celebrated 

C3i3p* II> PAl^,Apl?P UoJ^T^ 447 

Others walk'd fiyip yppo ^ Qtoiji^^, fych 4s the 
cricfted Cock, whpfe Throat prQcUwps the Hours pf 
the Night; .and the Pe^cocjc, whofe^^y Tf^in a- 
dorns hjim, ting'd with all dxe Colour? of the Rainr 
bow, and having hi§ Tail filKd wi^h elittefin^ ^ye? 
like Stars. The ' Waters thys rep|tnilh'd with Fifli, 
gnd fhe Air iP^ith Fo^l, the Eyening ^n<i ^e Mor- 
ning y^/ere 0jie ^fth Day* 

Tp E fijcth and laft Day pf the Creation arpfe jvith 
Evening ,^|id Morning Song; when GpD f^id, Ijef 
the E^rth brii>g forth the Uying Cr.e^re after hi§ 
Kind, Cattle, aiid creeping Things, ^cj feaflt^ of 
f he Earth, e^ch in their Xi^d! the Earth pb^ey'd, pq 
ftrait opening her fruitful Womb, .ajt one 3ir<h 
J)rought fofth living Creatures w^thput Nuipber^ 
forms perjfe^Jy lin?b*d and fu)l ^rown 5 put q( th? 
Ground arofe wild Beafts, as from a Den, in Foreft, 
Thicket, or Brake, where they had been us'd to fliel- 
ter ; they rofe in Pairs among the Trees, and the Cat- 
tle ;waUcM ia fifC Fields an^ gR^^n ]VI|£a4pws : The 
wild Be^ few in Number, and folitary ; but the 
ta^ne Q^ttle fpning up at once, pafturing in Flocks 
apd great IJprds.' Th.e gr^y Clods brpught forth, 
%Dii now thA t^woy L^on app^ar'd hatf' through th^ 
Earth, pawing to get his hinder Parts free^ then 
Iprings. Its if brokplpofe from Bonds, and rearing up 
on his hind l^^egs Chajces his flowing Mane : The L^o^ 
parid ^ the Tyger rifing like the Mole, threw the 
crumbled Earth abpvc them like Hillocks : The fwif^; 
Stag bore up his branching Head from ijnder(j!rpund, 
an4 the Bchem^pth, pr Elephant, (tlic greateift Crea- 
ture of the £anth, a/s the Leviathan or Whale is of 
the Sea) with Difficulty heav'd up his vaft Bulk 
from the Mold : The FJocks f ofe bleating, and with 
tbeif Fleecy full grown, and compleat in all their 
Parts, juft like Plao^ : Amphibious Creatures, fuch 

R 4 as 

248 Paradise Lost. BookVIL 

as the Crocodile, (k) and all thofe of whom it is un- 
certain, whether they owe moft of their Original to 
the Sea or Land. At once came forth Infedt and 
Worm, whatever creeps the Ground 5 fome of which 
have Wings, and though their Parts are fo very fmall, 
they are as compleatly form'd and as cxaftly put to- 
gether as thofe of larger Animals, deck'd in their 
Summer's Pride, being fpott^d with Gold, Purple, 
and all Manner of Colours 5 while the Worms drew 
their longDimenfion like a Line, ftreaking the Ground 
as they paft along: Not all little or inconfiderable 
Creatures ; but fome of the Serpent Kind, of won- 
derful Length and Bignefs, that blefides their Power to 
creep and rowl along the Ground, had Wings to fly 
with. Firft crept the induftrious and parfimonious Ant, 
b^ng provident for the future, having a large Heart 
inclosed in fmall Room: Next appeared the Female 


• fJi) Crocidi/i ; Lai, Gr, i. e. 
Yillsnu ; becaufe ic is of a yel- 
low Colour : or becaafe it hateth 
tke Smell and Tafte of SafFroR, 
which is yellow. A hage» vo- 
racious and very ftrong, but ti- 
iRorous Beail, in the.NUe^ Gan^ 

fej, &c. living eqaally upon 
^and and Water ; as ourGeefe, 
Ducks, Otters, (ffc. Jts Jaws 
are wide enough to fwallow a 
Man whole, full of Teeth. It 
is the only Beaft that hath no 
Tongue, fixty Bones or Joints 
in the Back. The upper Skin 
is firm, hard and impenetrable 
with any Dart, Spear or Shot, 
no not with a loaded Cart s and 
therefore Sca/y is a proper Epi- 
tbit ; but it may be wounded in 
the Belly. It fwims with the 
Feet and Fins, which are upon 
the Tail ; bat is very flow in its 
Pace : Becaafe the Feet are flrart. 

The Tail is near as long as the 
whole Body. It lays its Eggs 
in the Sand or Earth, and brinst 
forth its Yoang c^txy Year, its 
Eggs are as big as a Goofe's, 
and it lays one vitry Day for 
fixty Days. It is thought that 
they live 100 Yean, and are 
generally thirty Foot long. In 
Panama fome of them are too 
Foot long. An Alligator, is only 
a young Crocodile, The Old 
Egyptians wor(htpped this Beait, 
out of Fear ; or for the Benefit^ 
which it did to them : For it de- 
fended their Country from the 
Incurfions of the wild Armhs^ 
who durft not pafs the Rti Sem 
for fear of thofe voraciousBeafts. 
They made it alfo a Symbol of 
Impudence in their Biirogljphics^ 
They are fcarce now in the Niie^ 
and the People of Florida have 
continual Wars with them. 

Cha^. 11. Paradise Lost. 249 

Bee fwarmiiig, that feeds the Drone, (/) and builds 
her Cells of Wax ftor^d with Honev. The reft are 
without Number, and thou knoweft their Nature, for 
thou gaveft them Names; which makes it needlefs to 
repeat them to thee. Nor are Serpents (fome of 
which are very large, having bright fhining Eyes and 
terrible Crefts) unknown to thee; being (notwith- 
iftanding their Appearance, and that they are the 
fubtleft Beafts of all the Field) unhurtful, and obedi- 
ent to thy Call. 

Now Heaven ftiin'd in full Glory, and roll'd in 
her Motions, as the firft great Mover's Hands had di- 
rected their Courfe. fiuth in her rich Attire was 
finifti'd, and looked lovely;* the Air was flown by all 
kinds of Fowl ; the Water fwum by all Kinds cf 
Filh ; the Eardi walk'd by all Kinds of Beafts ; and. 
all was full, excepting what remained to be created 
this Day : The Mafter- piece was yet wanting, the ve- 
ry End for which all the reft was done ; a Creature, 
whet was not to look downward to the Earth like the 
other Creatures, but being indu'd with Reafori fhining 
in the human Soul, might know himfelf ; creft his 
Stature, and with a ferene and upright Face govern 
the reft, and thence confcious of his own Dignity ex- 
alt his Mmd, and have his Converfation in Heaven- 
but yet be grateful to acknowledge from whence his 
Good defcends, and thither, with Heart, Voice and 
Eyes, direfted in Devotion, to adore and worfhip the 
fupreme G p d of all, who made him the chief of aH 
}U8 Works : Therefore the Almighty and Eternal F a- 


(I) Drem ; Sax. E. O. A keeps the Eggs warm, while the 

IFa/f or old Mah See, without Female Bees gather the Honey 

a Sling, who propagates the abroad ; and doei not ftir from 

Specif, bac cannot gather Ho- the Brood till they come home 

ney, for Want of it. There- fraughtcd with Honey, and fo 

fore he iu and hatdiei theBrood, difcharge him. 

9$Q P.AJ^Apis9 hgsT. B^^kVlIi 

T H E R (for he w|s ^erc, as bejs jvery wfeerc, prcr 
fent) thus diftii>i9bly j^fc? tp ^ 3 o n : 

Now let us ijigjc.e Mankind, in our gwn Image, 
and after our lyikenejTs 5 aqd let theQi Ijave Dominipn 
9ver the Fi(h pf the Sea, land over the ^owl of tiie 
Air, and over the Cattle, ^d oyer every Be^ft pf 
the Field, ^n4 aJl the E^rth^ and cyery creeping 
Tiling thajt creeps uppn the Earth ! 

Having faid this, Adam, he formM thee, a 
Man, outpftfeeDuft of fheGroupd. and }?reath*d 
into thy Noftrils the Breath pf Life: ffe .credited tjie? 
in his own Image, cxprefllnjg it in thee ^ ajid thp\l 
becameit a living Sou) : ^e created thee Ma^e, .aii4 
thy Confort JEy e Fen>ftlc» that fjqm ypu both mi^ 
proceed the Race of ]VI a N ^ tiien fel?rs'd ypu, a^4 
^id, be fruitful jand ngiultiply, and repleniih t|>e 
Earth, and fujbdue it ; ^^ h^ve Dominion over th^ 
Fifh of the Sea, and over the Fpwl of tjie Air, ?mc} 
Over evjcry Jivinjg Thin^that movcth upon the Earth, 
wherefoeycr created 5 for po Place is yet diftin^ifh'a 
byNaipe. From iheijce, ^ ihoi? already knoweft^ 
, he brought thi^e into tiiis dclicipus and pleafant Qa;:- 
den, where aj-e Trees, delightfijl both Jo behojd an4 
tafte, of his own pbpting, and freely gave thee ^ 
their pleaftpt Fruits for Food ; (for here is a Variety 
without End, all Sorts that the Earth yields) but of 
the Tree, which being tafted gives the Knowledge of 
(jood and J^yil, thpu mgy'ft aot ^t j for in the Day 
t})at thou e^teft, thou dieft ; '^is P £ a t h is die Pu-» 
pifhment decreed : Beware ! and govern thy Appetite 
well, leil Sin, and her fure Attendant Death^ fur- 
prize thee. 

Here God finilh'd Creation, ap4 vi?w*4 ^U t^^f 
he had made, and behold I all W4S enurely go^yi 1 
and the Evening and the jMorning were th€ fecth Day. 

G p ff , t}ie Crcdtpr, d^fiiting &om hi? Work» though 
not we^ficd, r,«mni*d jjp fp his'Wgh Abode the Hea- 
ve^ flf Hei^ven?, ^o b^hpld firam thence this new cre- 
ated World, beiog a new Addition to his Empire, 
how good and how fair it Ihew'd p Prpfpcft from his 
Throhe, anfwering his great Idea; he rode up^ fol- 
low'd with Acclamations, the fymphonious rounds 
of ten thou&nd Harp^^ th^ uuv'd Angelical Ham^o- 
m : (diou flaay'ft remember for thou hei^d'ft) The 
Emh and the Air reiounded» ^d Heayen ^d ^ thP 
Cpnftellations echoed to them j fhp PUneis g? if were 
ftoofd lift'ainff} whil^ God and tl}e Aqgejs ^qended 
with Joy ai)d gre^F Pomp. They fiing alQu4, " Qpen 
•* w eyjer|afting Gates! open yje HeaycBS yojjr liying 
** poors 1 Itt in thc^e^ Cre^or, magninqe^tly re- 
^ tum'd from his Work f>( fix Day;, and that Work 
" i? a World: Open, an4 hengefordx open often 1 for 
** Q o D will y.ovchfafe (being pjeas'd with the Afti-. 
« on$ pf juftlyjEN) often to vifit their DwcUiijes, 
<« ap^ lyitn frequent Intercourre wiU fend thither his 
** Angels, vp^^ Meflages pf Grace/* 

Thus the glorious jP^n^eh f^ng, ^s they afcended 
with the Creator into Heaven: The Son pf Gpo 
led direftly the W^y through Jrfj^vm to the eternal 
IVti^fipn pf iGf €)«. Nqw the fev^nth ^yen^lg arofe 
in ^ p ? N, fqr the Sun was fet, and Twilight forer 
rjunning the Night came on from the Earth ; when he 
arrived at the holy Mount of Heavpn, the Imperial 
Throne of God, whicjj is fix'd firip fpr ever ^ 
fpre, where he l^t hijn down with his meat Father :. 
Fpr he alfo went jnyifi)b|e, though he ftay'd, (fuch 
Privilege hath Qmniprefcnce) for h/e prdain'4 the 
"^oik, ' being the A^thpr a^vj End pf all Things ^ 
and pow refting fronj his Wprk, he hicfsM and hal- 
low'd t)ae fevenin Day : £ut it wgs not Jcept in Si-. 
lencc J the Harp did not reft, the folemn Pipe and 



iw, or vojc^ or iingie pong: vAouds or Incenle, 
fmoaking Cenfcrs of Gold md the Motintain ; and 
the Song which they fufig was of the Creation, the 
^ork of fix Days. 

Great are thy Works!, they cried, O infinite Jeho- 
vah! and very great thy Power ! what Thought can 
comprehend Thee, or what Tongue relate Thee! 
greater now in thy Return, than fi"om the Expulfion 
of the rebelling Angels: That Day thy Thunders 
made Thee great ; but to create is greater than to de- 
ftroy that which is already created. Who can Icflen 
Thee, Thou mighty King! or fet Limits toothy Pow- 
er ? Thou haft eafily repellM the proud Attempt oif 
the Apoftate Spirits ; while they impioufly thought to 
diminifh thy Glory, and draw from Thee the Num- 
ber of thy Worfliippers ! Who endeavours to weaken 
Thee, ferves againft his own Purpofe, the more to 
manifeft thy Might: Thou makeft Ufe of his Evil, 
from whence to create more Good, of which this 
new made World, which is like another Heaven, is 
Proof; not far from the Gates of Heaven, founded 
in the great Space, with numerous Stars, and every 
Star perhaps aeflin'd to be a habitable World 5 but 
Thou knoweft their Seafons : Among thefe Earth cir- 
cumfus'd with the Ocean, the Seat of Men, and 
their pleafant Dwelling-place. Thrice happy M e n» 
and happy the Sons ot Men, whom God hath ad- 
vanced thus ! created in his Image to dwell there, and 
worfliip him, and given him as a Reward to rule o- 
ver his Works on Earth, in Sea, or the Air, and to 
multiply a Race of Worfhippers, that may be holy 
and juft : Thrice happy they, if they will but perfe- 
vere in Uprightnels, and know their own Happi- 
nefs ! 


Chap.II. Paradise Lost. 253 

Thus they fung» and all Heaven was fiill of 
Hallelujahs: Thus was that great Sabbath (m) 
kept. And now I have fiilfill'd thy Rcqueft, that 
aflc'd how this World and the Appearance of Things 
began, and what was done from the Beginning befcH% 
thy Remembrance i that Pofterity being inform*d by 
" thee m^ght alfo know. If thou defirefl: to know any 
Thing raither, furpafling thy prefent Knowledge as a 
Man, fpeak, and if it be permitted I fliallinfoim 

(m) SMath t 8tb. i. e. A instated bj God. 
tiij^, ThiiwuthefiiftSabbuli 

Tie End of the Seventh Book.' 



' S 


t M E 


O F 


The AitQVMtttT, 

ADAM inquirei esteeming celeJiiaJ Mt- ' 
tions J is doubtfully anjwer'dj and ex- 
horted ta jearcb father after Tkings 
more worthy of Knowledge. Adart y*- 
ftnti to the Advice g^ Raphael, and being fiill de- 
firmts to detain him, relates to hi fa lehat he rMiefn- 
her'dfince his own Creation j his being plac'd in 
Pafadife, dhd talking with God concerning Soli- 
iude and ft Society. Adam relates hisfrfi Meet- 
ing and Nuptials -with EVe j his I>ifcourfe with 
the Amel there^mj -wha ajter repested Admeni' 
Htm departs, 


2s6 Paradise Lost. Book VIII» 

:■ C H A P. I. 

Adam inquires concerning Cekjiial Motions i ts 
doubtfully Oliver' d^ ana exhorted to fearcb ra- 
ther after Tiings more worthy ofKnowkdge* 

I HE Angel ended his Difcourfe, and his 
Voice remain'd ftill fo charming in the 
Ear of Adam, .that he for a while 
thought him ItiU fpeaking, and conti- 
nued attentive to hear; then like one 
newly awaken'd from Sleep, made this 
grateful Anfwer : 

D I T I H E Hiftorian ! what Thanks or Recompence 
fufficient, or equal to thy Goodnefs, have I to ren- 
der thee ! who thus largely hath allayM the Thirft I 
had of- Knowledge, and vouchfaf'd in fuch friendly 
Condefcenfion to relate Things, by me elfc unfearch- 
ablc, and now heard with great Wonder, but great 
Delight ; - and (as is due) with Glory attributed to 
the Kgh Creator. Yet I have fome Doubts rc- 
maining, which can alone be clearM up by thee. 

When I behold this feir Frame the World, con- 
fitting of Heaven and Earth, and compute their M^- 
nitude; this Earth being but a Spot, a Grain of 
Sand, an Atoni, compar*d with the Firmament, and 
the prodigious Number of Stars that are therein, that 
feem to rowl incomprehenfiblc Spaces, (as their Di- 
llance argues, and their daily and fwift Return wit- 
nefles) meerly to bring Light round this dark Earth, 
this little Spot, only to bring one Day and one Night 
in all their vaft Survey, and be ufelcfs befidcs : When 
I reafon, I often admire how wife and frugal Nature 
could ad fuch Difproportionsi to create fuperfluoufW 

chap. L Paradise L0ST4 257 

fo many nobler and much greater Bodies, to this one 
Ufe; (for any Thing which appears to the contrary) 
and impofe upon their Orbs fuch reftlefs Revolutions, 
repeated every Day ; while the Earth remaining with- 
out Motion, (that might move better, and in tar lefs 
Compafs) being attended by Bodies more noble than 
herfelf, attains her End, and does not move at all, 
and receives as Tribute her Warmth and Light, 
brought to her from fuch great Diftance, and with 
fuch incredible Swiftnefs, as is not to be defcrib'd. 

Our firft Father fpoke thus, and feem'd by his^ 
Countenance entering into abftrufe and ftudious 
Thoughts; which when Eve perceived, Iherofe from 
her Seat, where flie fat at fome Diftance, though in 
Sight, and (with Lowlinefs ; yet withfuch Dignity 
and Grace, as whoever faw could not but wifh fhe 
would ftay,) went forth among her Fruits and^Flowers 
to fee how they throve ; for they were her Nurfery, 
budding and blooming under her Tendance and 
Care. Yet fhe did not go, as not being delighted 
with fuch Difcourfe, or that her Ear was not capable 
of hearing Arguments upon the higheft Subjefts, but 
ihc referv'd fuch Pleafure when Adam ihould relate 
it to her, when they Ihould be by themfelves ; fhe 
prrferr*d her Hufband to be the • Relater before the 
Angel, and chofe rather <o alk of him ; flie knew he 
would mix his Difcourfe with agreeable Digreffions, 
and folvc high Difpute with conjugal Carefles j for it 
was not Words alone from his Lips that pleas'd her^ 
(When meet now Pairs fo join'd in Love and mutual 
Honour ?) She went forth with a Demeanour like a 
Goddefs, and not unattended, for a Pomp of win- 
. ning Graces waited on her as a Queen, and created 
Defire in all Eyes, to wifh to have her ftill in Sight, 
And Raphael made this benevolent Reply to the 
Doubt proposed by Adam: 


258 Paradise Lost. Book VIIL 

I D o not blame thee for enquiring or fearching, 
for Heaven is as the Book of G o d fet before thee, 
wherein thou may*ft read his wond'rous Works, and 
learn his Seaforts, Hours, Days, Months, or Years. 
To attain this, if thou judge aright, it fignifies no- 
thing to know whether Heaven moves, or the Earth ; 
the reft the great Arcliitedt did wifely to conceal from 
M A N or Angel ; and not divulge his Secrets to be 
canvafs'd by them, who ought only to admire : Or if 
they have a Mind to conjedlure, he hath left his Fa- 
brick of the Heavens to their Difputes, perhaps to 
fee the Weaknefs of their ftrange Opinions hereafter ; 
when they come to model Heaven, and to compute 
the Motions, Diftance, and Situation of the Stars, 
how they will govern the mighty Frame ; how build, 
unbuild, and contrive to fave Appearances; (a) how 
incumber the Sphere with Centric and Excentric, with 
Cycle (i) and Epicycle (c)j Orb (d) within Orb : 
Thus I guels already by thy rcafoning, who art to 
lead thy OffTpring, and fuppofeft, that bright and 
greater Bodies Ihould not ferve the lefler that are not 
bright, nor run fuch Journeys through Heaven, the 


(a) Afptarancis ; Fr. Lat, 
An Aftroiog. T. The Rifings, 
Motions, Plaices and Influences 
of the Planets. Here is a llrong 
and pleafant Confutation of Ju- 
diciary Aftrology, with fomc of 
its abfurd Terms, by way of a 

(b) Cycle I Lat. Gr. i. e, A 
Crc/i. An Allroh T. A con- 
tinual Revolution of Plant ts, 
which goech on from the firll 
Number to the laft without a- 
ny Interruption ; and then re- 
turns to the lait, as the Cjcli of 
the Sun, ^r. 

(f) Epicycle ; Lai. Gr, i. Cs 

A Circle abroi a Grcle, An 
Aftrolog. T. A leffcr Circle, 
whofe Center is in the Circum- 
ference of the greater Circle, i. 
e. one Cycle within another».or 
Orb in Orb^ as Planets, having 
their Center different from the 
Center of the Earth, f^e, 

(d) Orb s Fr, Lat, An Aftron. 
T. An hollow Sphere or Globe, 
nfed by Aftronomers and Aflro- 
logers to demonilrate the Moti- 
ons, and Diflances of Places.Globes 
or Spheres were firft invented by 
Archimedes^ s^n excellent Mathe- 
matician of Sicily^ about A, M^ 

•Chap. II. Paradise Lost. 259 

Earth all the while fitting ftill, and alone receiving 
the Benefit. Firft confider, that Greatnefs or Bright- 
nefs does not imply Excellence: The Earth, though 
not gliftering and being fo finall in Comparifon of 
Heaven, may contain more Plenty of folid Go^d than 
the Sun, that though it ftiines is barren, whofe Virtue 
works no EfFeft upon itfelf, but in the fruitful 
Earth -, there his Beams, (which would be otherwife 
unaftivc) when they are received, firft find their Vi- 
gour, let it is not to the Earth that thofe bright 
Luminaries do their Office, but to thee, the Earth's 
Inhabitant : And for the wide Circuit of Heaven, let 
it fpeak the high Magnificence of the Maker, who 
built fo fpacioufly, and ftretchM out his Line fo far, 
that Man may know he dwells in an Edifice too 
large for him to fill ; that he is lodg'd in a fmall Par- 
tition ; and that the reft is ordain'd to Ufes beft 
known to his Lord. Attribute the Swiftnefy of thofe 
numberlefs Circles to his Omnipotence, that couW 
add to material Subftances Speed almo^l: fpirituah 
Me thou wilt not think flow, who fince:|he Morning 
fct out from Heaven, where G o D refidil?^, and before 
Noon arriv'd in Eden; a Diftance not to be ex- 
prefs'd by any Numbers that have Name ; but this I 
urge, admitting Motion in the Heavens, to Ihow that 
invalid which mov'd thee to doubt it ; not that I af- 
firm it to be fo, though it feems fo to thee, who liaft 
thy Dwelling upon Earth. God being minded to 
remove his Ways from human Senfe, plac'd Heaven 
fo far from Earth, that if earthly Sight ftiould pre- 
fume to pry, it might err in Things that are too high, 
and gain no Advantage. What if the Sun jhould be 
the Centre to the World, and other Stars, incited by 
their own and his attraftive Virtue, move about him 
in various Circles ? In fix of them thou feeft their 
wand'ring Courfe, fometimes high, fometimes low ; 
then hid, then progreffivc ; then going backwards, or 
ftanding ftill ; (that is, in Appearance) and what if 

•S 2 the 

• • - , . .1 

26o Paradise Lost. Book VIII. 

. fcvcnth to thefc, this Planet the Earth (feemingly (b 
ftedfaft) hath three {e) different Motions infenfibly ? 
Which elle thou muft afcribe to feveral Spheres, 
niov'd contrary wife and with indireft Motions j or 
fave the Sun liis Labour, and that fwift daily and 
nightly Revolution fuppos'd invifible about the Stars ; 
which has no Need ot tny Belief, if the Earth moving 
towards the Eaft bring the Day, and her other oppo- 
lite Part turning from the Sun meet Night: What if 
Earth^s Light, fent from the Earth through the wide 
tranfparent Air, be as a Star to the Moon, recipro- 
cally enlightening her by Day, and her Inhabitants, 

. (if Inhabitants are there) as fhe by Night does this 

. Earth ? Thou feeft her Spots like Clouds, and Clouds 
may rain, and Rain may produce Fruits in her fof- 
ten'd Soil, allotted there for fome to eat ; and perhaps 
thou or thy Pofterity may difcover other Suns com- 
municating dazling Lights, and other Moons com- 

. municating weaker Lights, each Orb perhaps fiU'd 
with living Inhabitants: For it remains very open to 
Difpute, that liich a vaft Part of the Univerfe fliould 

, be uninhabited by living Souls, and be defart and dc- 
folate, and ferve only to fhinc -, yet fcarcely to con- 
tribute. each Orb one Glimpfe of Light, when con- 
veyed down fo far as this habitable Earth, which a- 
gain returns Light back to them. But whether thefe 

. Things are thus, or not; whether the Sun, above all, 
rife on the Earth, or Earth rife on the Sun j or whe- 
ther he begin his Road from the Eaft, or fhe advance 
her filent Courfe from the Weft, do not tliou be anxi- 
ous to know Things which are hid from thee ; but 

• leave them to God above, and I'erve and fear Jiim : 
Let him difpofe of other Creatures wherever he has 

ElacM them, as pleafeshim beft; do thou enjoy what 
c hath given to thee, that is this Paradise, and thy 


(f) Thrre, i. f. Thc Diurnal^ the Annual and the Motion on 
hef own /Jxis, 

Chap* II. Paradise Lost. 261 

beautiful Eve: Heaven is too high for thee to know 
what pafles there ; be humbly wife ; think only of 
what concerns thee and thy Being ; don't dream about 
other Worlds, '>vhat Creatures may live there, or if 
living there, what may be their State, Condition, or 
Degree : Reft contented, that thus much hath been 
reveal'd to thee, not only Things belonging to this 
Earth, but many concerning the higheft Heaven. 

C H A P. II. 

Adam affents to the ^dvke of Raph^idy and be^ 
ingjiill defirous to detain him^ relates what he 
remember* d Jince his own Creation. 

Y the Speech of the Angel, Adam being 
cleared of all Doubts, made this Reply : 

Serene Angel! pure Intelligence of Heaven! 
how fully haft thou fatisfied, freed from Intricacies, 
and taught me to live the beft and eafieft Way ! not 
to interrupt the Sweets of Life with perplexing 
Thoughts, which God hath bid to keep far off from 
us, and not moleft us ; unlefs we ourfelves, with wan- 
dering Minds and vain Motions, i'eek them out : But 
the Soul or the Fancy is apt to rove uncheck'd, to 
which there is no Bound ; *till advis'd or tauglit by 
Experience, Ihe learn, that not to know at large of 
obfcure Things, full of Subtilty, and remote from 
Ufe, but to know that which lies before us in daily 
Life, is the firft Wifdom ; what is more is but a Va- 
pour, Emptinefs, or trifling, and renders us unprac* 
tis*d, unprepared, and ftill to feek in Things that 
moft concern us. Therefore let us dcfcend from thefe 
high. Subjeds to thofe of a lower Nature, and I'peak 
of TWiigs which are near to us, and of Ufe -, whence 

S 3 Mcntioir 

262 Paradise Lost. BookVIII. 

Mention may perhaps be made of fomething, which 
by thy Permiffion and wonted Condefccnfion may not 
be unfeafonable to enquire about. 

* I HAVE heard thee relate what was done before 
iny Remembrance : Now hear me relate my Story, 
which perhaps thou haft never yet heard, and the 
Day is not yet fpent ; *till then thou feeft how I con- 
trive to detain thee, inviting thee to give Audience 
while I fpeak ; which I can only excufe by laying, 
that I do it, only hoping to hear thy Reply. For I 
feem in Heaven while I fit with thee, and thy Dif- 
courfe is fweeter to my Ear, than the Fruit of the 
Palm-Tree (at the Hour of fweet Repaft) is to the 
Tafte, though pleafant both to Hunger and Thirft ; 
diat fatiates foon and fills, but thy Words, endu'd 
tdth divine Grace, bring no Surfeit with their Sweet- 
nefs. To whom thus Raphael anfwcr'd, with hea- 
venly Meeknefs: 

Father of Mankind ! think not that thy Lips 
arc incapable of fpeaking Things pleafant to hear, or 
that thy Tongue is without Eloquence ; for God hath 
alio pour'd his Gifts abundantly on thee, and made 
thee both inwardly and outwardly his own fair Image: 
Ail Comlinefs and Grace attend thee, and form each 
Word or Motion •, nor do we in Heaven think lels of 
thee upon Earth, than of our own Fellow-Servant, 
and we gladly enquire into the Ways of G o d with 
Man; for G o d we fee hath honoured thee, and fet 
his Love upon Man equal with the Angels : There- 
fore fpeak on, for on the Day of Man's Creation it 
befell that I was abfent, bound upon an obfcure and 
uncouth Voyage, out upon Excurfion towards the 
Gates of Hell, with many Legions of Angels, (for 
we had fuch a Command) to fee that none iflu'd 
forth from thence, either as an Enemy or a Spy, 
while God was in his gre^t Work ; left he (incensed 


chap. II. Paradise Lost# 263 

if fuch bold Eruption had been made) might have 
mix'd Deftruftion with Creation : Not that they durft 
attempt any fuch Thing, without his Permiflion ; but 
he fends us to execute his high Commands, (as being 
the Sovereign King) to exercife his Power, and inure 
us to ready Obedience: We found the difmal Gates 
faft Ihut, and ftrongly barricaded ■, but long before 
we approach'd them, we heard a Noife far different 
from the Voice of Joy, loud Lamentations and furi- 
ous Rage, the EfFeft of Torment : We returned glad- 
ly up to Heaven before the Evening of the Sabbath, 
for lb we had in Charge to do. But now begin thy 
Relation, for I attend, as much pleas*d with thy 
Words as thou art with mine. 

§ o fpoke the Angel, and thus in Reply Adam: 
It is hard for Man to tell how human Life began ; 
for who knew himfelf Begirning? But Defire ftill to 
convcrfe longer with thee, firft induc'd me to fpeak. 

I found myfelf lying upon the Grafs, as ii new 

wak'd from found Sleep, and in a gentle Sweat, 
which the Sun foon dry*d with, his Beams. Strait I 
turned my wondering Eyes towards Heaven, and ga- 
zed a-while at the fpacious Sky •, *till rais'd by quick 
Motion, I fprung upward, (as naturally defirous, and 
endeavouring to go thither) and flood upright upon 
my Feet : Round about me I faw Hills, Dales, Woods, 
and running Streams, and by thcie, Creatures that 
liv'd and mov'd, and walked or elfe flew; Birds were 
fmging on the Branches, all Things look'd pleafant 
and full of Sweetnefs, and my own Heart overflow'd 
with Joy. Then I confider*d myfelf, and furvey*d 
me. Limb by Limb ; fometimes I walk'd, Ibnic- 
times, as lively Vigour prompted me, I ran ; but I 
knew not who I was, or where, or from what Caiifc : 
I try*d to fpeak, and immediately I fpoke; my 
Tongue could- readily name whatever I faw. Thou 
Sun, laid I, fair Light! and Thou, the enlighten* J 

S 4 Kartli 

264 Paradise Lqst. BookVIIL 

Earth ! fo frefh and fine ! ye Hills, and ValHes ! yc 
Plains, Woods, and Rivers ! and ye that live and 
move, all ye fair Creatures ! tell me (if ye faw^ how 
I came here ? — Not of myfelf. — Then by fome 
great Maker, pre-eminent in Goodnefs^ and in Pow- 
er : Tell me, how I may know him, how adore him, 
from whom I have this Power of Motion and this 
Life, and feel that I am happier than I yet know. 
While I called thus and wander*d, I did not know 
whither, from the Place where I firft drew Breath, 
and firft beheld this happy Light, and none returning 
Anfwer, I fat me down penfive on a green fliady 
Bank, covered with Flowers ; there gentle Sleep firft 
came upon me, and with fofi: Oppreflion feiz*d my 
drowzy , untroubled Senfes, (thougn I then thought I 
was paffing to my former State, that I was going to 
become again infenfible, and forthwith be in a State 
of Diflblution) when fuddenly there appeared to me a 
Dream, which gently mov'd my Fancy to believe, 
that I yet had Being, and liv'd. Methought there 
came one of divine Shape, and faid to me, " Adam! 
*' thy Habitation wants thee-, rife, firft Man, and 
*' ordain'd firft Father of innumerable Me n! I come * 
" (called by thee) to be thy Guide to thy prepared 
*' Seat, which is the Garden of Paradise." Say- 
ing this, he took and rais'd me by the Hand, and 
over Fields and Waters, in the Air, as it were waft- 
ing me along, without flopping, at laft led me up to 
a woody Mountain, upon whofe high Top was a 
Plain ; a wide Circuit inclos'd, planted with all Man- 
ner of goodly Trees, having many Walks and Bow- 
ers, in Comparifon of which what I faw upon Earth 
before fcarcely feem'd pleafant : Every Tree was loa- 
ded with the faireft Fruit, that hung tempting to the 
Eve, and movM in m? a certain Appetite to gather 
or it and eat; whereon I wak'd, ana found all real 
before my Eyes, as the Dream had in a lively Man- 
ner reprelented to me. Here I h^d began to wander 


chap. II. Paradise Lost. 265 

again, had not he, who was my Guide lip hither, ap- ,. 
pear'd from among the Trees ; it was God himfelf. . 
— Rejoicing, but with great Awe and Submiffion, I , 
fell down in Adoration at his Feet: He rais'd me up , 
, gently, and mildly faid •, " Whom thou fought'ft I \ 
** am, the Author of all this thou feeft, above, or ^ 
*' beneath, or round about thee. I give thee this ^ 
*' Paradise, account it thine, to till and keep it, j 
** and cat the Fruits of it with chearful Heart ; eat ' 
** freely of every Tree that grows in the Garden ; , 
** fear no Scarcity here : But of the Tree, whofe O- 
** peration brings the Knowledge of Good and Evil, 
" which 1 have let as the Pledge of thy Faith and O- • 
** bedience in the Middle of the Garden, and clofe by ^ 
*« the Tree of Life, (remember what I warn thee!) (him ^ 
** totafteit, and ftiun the bitter Confequcnce •, for., 
*' know, the Day that thou eateft thereof, tranfgreffing \ 
" my fole Command, thou (halt afluredly die: From ^ 
*' that Day take Mortality ; lofe this happy States 
*' and be expellM from hence into a World of Woe 
*' and Mifery.'* He pronounced the fevere Prohi- 
bition fternly, which yet reibunds dreadfully in mine 
Ear, though it be in mine own Choice, not to incur 
the Penalty of Difobedience : But loon again clearing 
his Afpeft, he thus renew'd his gracious Purpofe, 
and faid ; " Not only this Paradise, but to thee and 
** thy Race I give all the Earth; poflefs it as Lords,, 
*' and alfo all the Things that live therein, or in Sea, 
"" or Air: In Sign of which, behold every Bird and 
** Beaft after their Kinds : I bring them to thee, that 
they may from thee receive their Names, and p^y 
thee Homage with low Subjeftion : Thou may*if 
" underftand the fame of Fifh, that refide in the Wa- 
ters, and are not brought hither, feeing they can- 
riot change their Element, nor live in the thin- 
Air." As he fpake thus, every Bird and Beaft 
came towards me. in Pairs \ the Beafts creeping near 
the Ground and fawning, and the Birds flying low : 




266 Paradise Lost. Book VIII^ 

I nam*d them as they pafs'd, and God endued my 
fudden Apprehenfion with fuch Knowledge, that I 
underftood all their Natures; but in all thefe, me- 
thought, I did not find what I wanted ; and thus I 
prefum'd to Ipeak to the divine Prefence: 

B V what Name, or how may I adore Thee •, for 
Thou being above all thefe, above Mankind, or any 
Thing higher than Mankind, art far above any 
Name that I can give Thee, Great Author of this 
Uftiverfe, and all this Good to Man? For whofe 
well Being fo fully and fo liberally thou haft provided 
all Things. But I fee none who partakes thefe Blef- 
fings with me : What Happinefs is there in Solitude ? 
Or what Enjoyment can there be alone ? Or enjoying 
all Things what Contentment can be found ? 

Thus much I ventured to fay ; and God made 
me this Reply: What is it thou calleft Solitude? Are 
not the Earth and Air full of various living Creatures, 
and all thefe ready at thy Command, to come and 
play before thee ? Doft not thou underfland their Lan- 
guage and their Ways ? For they alio know, and rea- 
fon in a Manner not ;o be contemned. Thy Domi- 
nion is large, do thou be contented to govern, and 
pafs thy Time away with Pleafure among the Crea- 

Thus fpake the univerfal L o r d of all, and fee- 
med in fuch Manner' to give out his Order : When I, 
emploring Leave to fpeak, and humbly begging that 
I might not offend, made this Reply: 

Heavenly Power! let not my Words make 
thee angry, let my Maker be propitious while I 
fpeak ! Haft Thou not created me here, and made 
me thy Subftitute, and fet thefe inferior Creamres 
far beneath me? Wtiat Harmony, what Society, or 


Chap. II. Paradise Lost. 267 

tfuc Delight, can fubfift between Uncquals ? For all " 
Happinels muft be mutual, given and received in due 
Proportion ; but where there is a Difparity, one af- 
feftionate and the other indifferent, the Society agrees 
not well with either, but foon grows tedious to both: 
I fpeak of Fellowfhip fit to partake in all rational De- 
lignts, which is that I feek, in which Brutes cannot 
be conforted with Man; they can rejoice with each^ 
other, the Lion with the Lionefs, as being fitted to 
that End : But it is not fo with Bird and Beaft, nor 
Fifh and Fowl with one another, ,as being of quite 
difierent Species ; neither can the Bull fo well con- 
verfe with the Ape ; (e) much worfe then, and leaft 
of all, can Man converfe with Beaft. 

To which the Almighty, not difpleasM with my 
Words, anfwer'd : A d a m ! I fee thou propofeft to 
thyfelf a nice and refin*d Happinefs, in the Choice of 
thy AfTociates, and though furrounded with Pleafure, 
wilt tafte no Pleafure, as being without Companion* 
What then doft thou think of me, and of this my 
State ? Do I feem to thee fufBciently poffeft of Hap- 
pinefs, or not, who am alone from all Eternity ? For 
I know none, either fecond to me or like me ; much 
lefs equal to me. How then have I any to hold Con* 
verfation with, except with the Creatures which I 
have made, and all thofe are infinite Degrees inferi(Mr 
to me, more than what the loweft of the other Crea- 
tures are to thee ? 


Here he left off fpeaking, and I lowly and fub- 
miflively reply'd : Supreme Lord of all ! human 


(i) Api ; ^ax. A Monkey ; neare ft to the human Species of 

there are feveral Sorts of cbem ; all other AnimaU : Bac the 

Baboons and Monkeys have Tails Chimfanze found laiely in Afri* 

which the ^/ wants. It is the ca, comes nearer by far to the 

Mimic of Mankind ; The An* Refembiancc of Man and Wo- 

tients believed thisCreature came man. 

268 Paradise Lost. BookVIIL^ 

Thoughts fall ftiort to attain the Heighth and Depth . 
of thy eternal Ways : In Thee is found no Deficiency, 
ibr I'hou in thyfdf art perfedt : But M a n is not fo, 
only in Degree -, which is the Caufe that he defires by 
Converfatiort with his Like, to help his Defefts, or 
give Comfort. There is no Need that Thou fhould'ft 
propagate, who art already infinite •, and though but 
ONE, art through all Numbers: But Man is to 
beget Like of his Like, and multiply his Image, 
which requires collateral Love, and ftrifteft Amity* 
Thou although alone, art beft accompanied with Thy- 
felf in thy own Secrecy, and doft not feek focial Com- 
munication, yet at thy own good Pleafure canft high- 
ly dignify thy Creatures, and raife diem up to what 
Degree of Union or Communion Thou wilt. I by 
converfing with the Brutes, cannot elevate their Na- 
tures, nor find any Complacence in dieir Ways. 

Thus I fpoke, being by Permiflion emboldened 
to ufe fuch Freedom, and found Acceptance ; which 
fi-om the gracious divine Voice obtained this Anfwer : 
A p A »l ! thus far I was pleased to try thee, and find 
thee knowing not only ot Beafts, (to which thou haft 
given right Names according to their Natures) but of 
thyfelf ; expreffing well the free Spirit within thee, 
which is my Image, and not imparted to the Brutes ; 
whofe Fellowlhip therefore being improper for thee, 
there was good Reafon that thou Ihould'ft freely dif- 
like it i keep ftill in the fame Mind : I, before thou 
fpakeft, knew well that it was not meet for Man to 
be alone ; and no fuch Company as thou then faweft, 
was intended for thy Converfation, but only brought 
for Trial, to fee how thou could*ft judge of what was 
meet and fit. What I bring thee next be affur'd ftiall 
pleale thee ; for it fhall be thy Likenefs, thy fit Help, 
thy other Self, and exaftly according to the Wifh and 
Defire of thy Heart, 


Chap. in. Paradise Lost. 269 

» • 


Adam relates bi$firji Meeting and Nuptials with 
Eve J his Difcourfe 'With the Angel. 

HE ended here, or elfe I heard him no longer^ 
for now my earthly Being overpowered by his 
heavenly Nature, which it had long ftood 
under, ftrain'd to the Heighth in celeftial and fublirae 
Conference, funk down, as dazled and (pent with aa 
Objeft too bright for human Senfe ; and I fought Re- 
lier from Sleep, which inftantly fell upon me. Tho* 
. my Eyes were clos*d, yet my Fancy kept waking,, 
by which (being abftrafted as in a Trance) methought 
though I was fleeping where I lay, I ftill law the glo- 
rious Shape before whom I ftood when I was awake, 
who ftooping down, opened my Left Side, and took 
out from thence a Rib, warm with cordial Spirits, 
and the Life-Blood frefli ftreaming: The Wound 
though it was wide, he fuddenly fiird up with Flefh 
and heard. He form*d and falhion*d the Rib with 
his Hands, and under his forming Hands there grew 
a Creature like Man, but of different Sex ; fo lovely 
fair, that what feem'd fair in all the World now fee- 
* med mean, or fumm*d up and contained in her and 
; her Looks ; which from that Time infused Sweetnefs 
. into my Heart never felt before, and into all Things 
tnfpir*d the Spirit and Delight of Love. She difap- 
pear'd, and left me! I wak*d to find her, or for ever 
to lament her Lofs, and abjure all other Pleafures: 
^ When out of Hope to fee her more, behold (he ap- 
' pear*d not far oflfl juft fuch as I had feen her in my 
Dream ; adorn*d with every Thing that Heaven or 
Earth could beftow upon her, to make her amiable : 
On (he came, led (though he was not vifible) by her 
heavenly Maker, and guided by his Voice; not un- 
informed of nuptial Sanftity, and the Rites of Mar- 

riage I 



^70 Paradise Lost. JBookVIIL 

riage : Grace was in all her Steps, Beauty like the 
Stars of Heaven in her £yes, and in every Gefture, 
Love and Dignity*. I overjoyed, could not help cry- 
ing out aloud ; " Bounteous and good Creator ! Thou 
haft fulfill* d thy Words ! Thou Giver of all Things 
fair, but this is the faireft of all thy Gifts! nor 
doft Thou envy the Happinefs of thy Creatures. I 
now fee mylelf before me, the Bone of my Bone^ 
*' and the Flelh of my Flefh : Her Name is W o^ 
MAN, (f) extrafted from Man: For this Caufe 
Man fhall leave his Father and Mother, and they 
•* fhall be one Flelh, and one Heart, and one Soul.'* 

She heard me fpeak thus ; and though led on by 
God himfelf, vet her Virtue, Innocence, Virgin- 
Modefty, and the Confcioufnefs of her own Worth, 
(that would be courted, and not be won unfought \ 
not forward, but retiring back the more defirable) w, 
to fay all. Nature herfelf (though (he was quite free 
from Tnought of Sin) wrought in her fo, that feeing 
me fl)e turn'd away: I foUow'd her; fhe knew what 
was Honour, and with yielding Majefty approved the 

Pleading of my Reafon. !• led her blulhing to the 

nuptial Bower: On that Hour all fortunate Stars Ihed 
their kindeft Influence; the very Earth, and every 
Hill gave Signs of Joy ; the Birds, the frefh Gales, 
and the gentle Winds carried it through the Woods, 
and as they flew fcatter'd Odours from aromatic 
Shrubs, 'till the Nightingale begun to fing our Ef- 
poufals, and the Evening Star appeared for the Bri- 
dal Lamp. 

Thus I have told thee all concerning my State, 
and continued my Story to the Sum erf" earthly Hap- 

jfyj Woman ; ^ax, q. ^Tht Mifery (he has brought upoft 
W^mb of Man, or the ffot of Man. 
Mtm \ becaulc <^ the Sin and 

Chap. III. PARADisfi Lost* 271 

pinefs which I enjoy ; and I muft confefs to find in- 
deed in every Thing elfe Delight •, but fuch as, whe- 
ther us*d or not, works no great Change^ nor vehe- 
ment Defire in the Mind •, I mean thefe Delicacies of 
Tafte, Sight, and Smell, fuch as Herbs, Fruits, and 
Flowers, pleafant Walks, and Melody of Birds ; but 
far otherwife in Regard to Eve, on whom I look 
with Tranfport, and whom I with Tranfport touch : 
Here I firft felt Paflion, fuperior to all Enjoyments 
elfe, and am unmov'd, except by this ftrange /Com- 
motion ; finding myfelf only weak here, and unable ta^ 
(land againft the powerful Charm of Beauty. Whe- 
ther Nature failM in making me, and left Ibmc Part 
of me not Proof enough to luftain fuch an Gbjcft; or 
making of her out of my Side, perhaps took more 
than enough, and Part of my Strength from me ; at 
leaft, beftow'd upon her too much Ornament, taking 
great Care to finifh her as to the outward Show, but 
lefs exaft as to her Mind ; for I well underftand in the 
firft Defign of Nature, that in the Abilities and Pow- 
ers of the Mind, which excell all outward Forms, 
fhe is the inferior ; in her outward Form alfo lefs re^ 
fembling his Image who made both, and leis expref- 
fing the Charafter of that Dominion given over other 
Creatures : Yet when I approach her Lovelinefs, llie 
feems fo abfolutely compleat in herfelf, and fo well to 
know her own proper Part, that whatever fhe wills to 
fay or do, feems moft virtuous, moft difcreet, wifeft 
and beft ; all higher Knowledge lofes its Value in her 
Prefence, and Wifdom in Diicourfe with her, ihews 
like Folly : Authority and Reafon wait upon her, as 
one defign*d firft, and not made occafionally after- 
wards: And (tofum up all) Greatnefs of Mind and 
Noblenefs appear lovely in her, and create an Awe a- 
bout her, as if fhe was guarded by Angels. To 
whom the Angel, with a contrafted Brow, made this 
Reply : 



D o not thou prefume to , accufe Nature, fhe hath 
done her Part •, do thou but thine : Be not diffident of 
Wifdom ; Wildom will not defert thee, if thou doft 
not dilmifs her, when thou haft moft Occafion to have 
her near thee j by attributing too much to Things lefs 
excellent. For what is it thou admireftfo? Whatii 
it U> tranfports thee ? An Outfide ? Fair, no Doubt, 
and very well worthy thy cherifhing, honouring, and 
loviog ; but not worthy thy Subje<5bion. Confider her 
with thyfelf, then value both : Oftentimes nothing is 
more profitable than Self-efteem, grounded upon a 
juft and well-manag'd Right : The more of that thou 
leameft to know, the more fhe will acknowledge 
thee to be her Head, and yield all her Appearances of 
"Wifdom to Reality: She was made fo beautiful for 
the. Sake of thy Delight i fo awful, that thou migh- 
teft with Honour love her, who, if thou foregoeft thy 
Wifdom, will fee and perhaps triumph over thy 
Wcaknefs. But if that Senfe of Touch, whereby 
Mankind is propagated, feem to thee fuch a dear 
Delight beyond all other; think that the fame is 
vouchiaf *d to Cattle, and every Beaft -, which would 
not be made common to them, if there were any 
Thing in the Enjoyment of it, to fubdue the Soul of 
a M A N, or move him to Paffion : What thou findeft 
in the Society of E v e above this, that is attraftive, 
human, and rational : Do thou ftill love •, ft)r in lo- 
ving thou doft well, but not in fubjcfting thyfelf to 
Paffioin, wherein true Love does not fubfift. Love 
refines the Thoughts, and enlarges the Heart, hath 
his Seat in Reafon, and afts by Choice : Love is the 
Scale by which thou may*ft afcend to Heaven, but 
not when funk in carnal Pleafure ; for which Reafon 
there was no Companion found thee among the 
Brutes. ^T^ whom Adam, half afham'd, made 
Ani wer : 


Chap. III. Paradise Lost* 273 

Neither her Outfide, which is form'd fo fair, 
nor any Thing in Procreation, which is common to 
all Kinds, (though I think of the Marriage-Bed with 
a higher and more myfterious Reverence) delight me 
fo much as thofe graceful Adtions, thofe many Decen- 
cies, that daily refult from all fhe does and fays ; 
mix'd with Love and fweet Compliance, which de- 
clare an unfeignM Union of Mind, or that there is in 
us both but one Soul ; which Harmony in a wedded 
Pair, is more grateful than Mufick to the Ear. Yet 
thefc fubjeft me not ; I difcover to thee what I feel 
inwardly from thence, but I am not therefore over- 
come : I meet with various Objedts, varioufly repre- 
fcnted through the Senfes to the Mind -, yet ftiU being 
free, I approve the beft, and follow what I approve. 
Thou blameft me not to love, for thou fay *ft that 
Love leads up to Heaven, that it is both the Wav 
and the Guide ; then bear with me, if what I afk is 
lawful : Do not the Spirits of Heaven love ? How do 
they cxprefs it ? Is it only by their Looks ? Or do they 
mix their oure Emanations ? Do they touch by Influ- 
ence, or fenfibly as we do one another ? 

To whom the Angel, with a Smile that glow'd 
rofy upon his Face, (the proper Hue of Love) made 
Anfwer : Let it fuffice thee, that thou knoweft that 
we are happy, and without Love there is no Happi- 
nefs. Whatever thou enjoyefl pure in the Body, (and 
thou wert created pure) we enjoy more eminently ; 
and find no Obftacle, no exclufive Bars of Joint, 
Membrane, or Limb : If Spirits embrace, they mix 
totally; eafier than Air with Air; Union and Com- 
mixture of pure with pure ; alike kindled with De- 
fire ; nor need any of the reflrain'd Conveyances of 
the Senfes or Pafilons, as Flefh does with Flefti, or 
Soul with Soul. But I can now flay no longer ; for 
the Sun is fctting in the WefV, which is my Signal to 

T depart. 

274 Paradise Lost. Book VII£ 

depart. Be ftrong, live happy, and love ! but firft 
of all love him, whom to love rightly is to obey, and 
keep his great Commandment: Take Heed, left 
Paflion fhould fway thy Judgment to do any Thing, 
which ellc Free-will would not admit of. The Hap- 
pinefs or Unhappinefs of thee and all thy Pofterity is 
plac'd in thee : Beware ! I, and all the Bleft above, 
Ihall rejoice to fee thee perfevere in Obedience. Stand 
faft ; it lies free in thy own Eleftion, to ftand or fall : 
Having Power fufficient within, feek no Help elfe- 
where, and repel every Temptation to tranfgrels. 

Saying this, hearofe; and Adam thusfoUow'd 
him with Thanks: Since tlie Time of thy Departure 
is come, go, heavenly Meflenger, and Gueft fent 
from him whofe fovereign Goodnefs I adore! Thy 
Condefcenfion hath been very gentle and affable to 
me, and fliall ever be honoured with grateful Remem- 
brance: Continue fUU to be good and friendly to 
Mankind, and return hither often. 

S o they parted ; the Angel flying up to Heaven, 
and Adam to his Bower, to feek for E v e. 

7^^ End of the Eighth Book. 







The Argdment. 

I AT A N having compafs'd the Earthy loith 

meditated GuiU returnSy as a Mift^ H 

^ ^k Night into Paradife, and enters into 
^•-^ Serpent Jleeping. Adam and Eve in the 
Morning go forth to their Labours^ which Eve 
propofes to divide in federal Places^ each labouring 
apart : Adam conjents net, alledging the Danger^ 
left that Enemy, of whom they are forewarn' d^ 
fhoiild attempt her alone : Eve loath to be thought 
not circumfpeSi or firm enough, urges her going 
apart J the rather defirous to make 7ryal of her 
Strength, and Adam at loft yields. The Serpent 
finds Eve a/one, approaches andfpeaks to her, with 
many Wiles and Arguments ; tnduces her to tafie 
the Tree of Knowledge forbidden : She refches to 
. impart thereof to Adam. Eve brings of the Fruit 
ft Adam; he eats atjo, the EfftBs thereof on them 
ioth, T 2 CHAP. 

276 Paradise Lost. BooklX. 

C H A P. I. 

Satan having compafi'd the Earthy •toitb meditated 
Guile returns by Night into Paiudife, and enters 
into the Serpent JUeping. 

ejj Enccforward I ftiall have no more to re- 

% late of G o D or Angel fitting an in- 

ffl dulgetit and familiar Gueft with Man, 

n as with his Friend, partaking with him 

^ in his Repaft, and permitting him the 

while to difcourfe innocently without 

Blame. Now I muft change to mournful SubjeAs \ 

^foul Diftruft, and difloyal Breach of Duty; Revolt 

and Difobedience on the Part of Man, and on the 

Part of alienated Heaven, Diftance, Dillike, Anger, 

juft Rebuke, and Judgment pronounc'd, chat brought 

into this World all our Woe -, that brought in S i h 

and Death, and all thofe bitter Evils that bring 

Death on. This is a Theme of Sorrow; yet the 

Subject is great, and more heroic than the Anger of 

Achilles, (a) or Rage of Turn us, {b) or that of 

Neptune, \c) or J u n o, which fo long perplex'd 


(« J AchiUit i Lat. Gr. l. c. 
ffiiiiai a Lip i which wat burni, 
when he was an Infant: Or, 
free from Pain : Becaufe he was 
made tDrolaerable. by being dipt 
- all over in ihe R'lvetSiyx, except 
the Heel, by which iui Mother 
held him. The Soa of />//«<», 
King of Ibfjfalj, and Ibt- 
til, Goddefs of the Seaj tfae 
ntoll valiant of all the Gnciait 
Hemes, that went to the Siege 
of Ttaj. After miny heroic 
Aflioixs he was lliin by Parii, 
being (Iioiin theHcd. 

(b) Tarittti t Until. An ao- 
tieut K.iag of the Rutiiiaiu, wbo 
were old Inhabiuntt of ^afy, 
long before the Latim. He was 
a brave Champion ) bat at laft 
engaging with ^mtai, for the 
Sake of Lami*i*, was ilain by 
him in a Duel t as Livj, Flanu, 
Jaftin, and firgil relate, whicb 
many learned Authors have COD' 
fuied iinix. 

[c] Ntptanti tat. Gr, i. 0. 
A Wafiiir ; or from tSiphtim ) 
Hih. ixA Egypt, i. e. Maritime: 


Chap. I. Paradise Lost. 277 

the G R £ E K s and Trojans ; (d) though thefe Ar- 
guments employM the Pens of the two great Poets 
Homer and Virgil: If I might but obtain of Hea- 
ven a Stile, anfWerable to what I have to treat of \ or 
might be vifited by that Spirit,, that often didlates 
when I am flumbering, and inlpires me unpremedita- 
ted on fuch high Matters ; on which I have had long 
Intention to write, beginning late, and being long in 
Choice of a Subjefl: •, not taking Delight in writing of 
Wars, which have hitherto been the only Arguments 
held in Eftimation ; to relate tedious and feign'd Bat- 
tles, fought by feign'd Knights -, (at the fame Time 
leaving unmention*d the better Fortitude of Patience 
and heroic Martyrdom) or to defcribe Races and 
Games, Tilting (e) Furniture, and Tinfel Trappings 
of gorgeous Knights at Jouft and Tournament ; (f) then 
delcribing Feafts, ferv*d up in Voluptuoufiifs and 

T 3 State ; 

Hence Naphtuchm^ a Colony of 
the EgyptUm defcended from 
liiisBratm, who fettled upon the 
Coaib of the Mediterranean Sea, 
Gen. 10. 13. Whence the Gr//ii 
feigned this Fable of Neftnne^ 
the God of the Sea: And under 
this Fable is included Japbet.^t 
cldeft Son of N^ab ; becaufe the 
Iflands and Continent of Europe, 
lying upon the Mediterranean 
Sea, fell to his Share, -^^^^he 
Antients preferved the Memory 
of Japhet, under this and other 

\d) 7roj ; from 7>w, one of 
its Kings, who enlarged it ; an 
anttentCity of Phtygia in -the 
lefler Jfia, 3 Miles from the E- 
gean Sea, on the River XantJ^us, 
near M. Ida, It was founded 
by Dafdanus, A. M. 2^74. 
Troy had only feven Kings, n/iz, 
Tetfcer, Dardanuj, EryiSbonius, 
Tr9t, I/uj, LaoMedon^ and Fria* 

mus, under whom it was burnt ' 
and razed by the Grecians^ after 
a Siege of ten Years ; about A, 
M, 2766, 432 Years before the 
Building of Rome, 3 1 7 Years af- 
ter it's firfl Founding, and 1 1 83 
before Cbriji, There were no 
Monuments of it to be feen in 
Straho*s Time, and he lived in 
the Reign of Tiber ins the Empe- 
ror. The Trojans made divers 
Colonies upon thcMediterranean 

(e) Tilting ; Sax, O. E. The 
Knnning of armed Men on 
Horfeback, one againft another, 
with Spean. A Diverfion much 
prafUfed among the Antients, 
and £rft ufed at the old Nemaan 
Games in Gieece. 

(f) Tournament, Fr.Ital. i. e* 
A Turning Round', a Concourfe. 
A Milit, Diverfion. Turnings 
juflling and fighting on Horfe- 

2,78^ Paradise Lost. Book IX*. 

State ; which are Things too mean to merit the Name 
of heroic. Neither (kiird nor ftudious concerning 
fuch Things, I leave them for thi.s higher Argument, 
which is of itfelf fufficient to lay Claim to that Name ; 
unlefs the World be in its Decay, or Years, or Cold- 
nefs of Climate hinder me from being rais'd high 
enough to treat of it properly ; nor could I attempt it 
without the Afliftance of the divine Spirit. 

I T was now dark Night, when Satan, who but 
lately fled out of I^de*^ before the Threats of the An- 
gel Gabriel, now, having meditated more Fraud 
and Malice, and being bent on the Deftruftion of 
Man, (not regarding what might happen to fall hea- 
vier on himfelt) returned again without Fear about 
Midnight from compafling the Earth •, fearful of being 
difcover*d, if he appeared by Day, ever fmce Uriel 
the Angel who was Regent of the Sun, difcover'd his 
Entrance, and forewarned the Cherubim that kept 
their Watch. When he was driven from thence full 
of Anguifti, he kept in Darknefs the Space of ieven 
fucceflive Nights; three Times he went round the 
Equinoftial Line ; four Times he crofs*d towards the 
Poles obliquely, ftill to avoid the Sun; in which 
Time he had traversed the whole Globe: On the 
eighth Night he returned to Eden, and on the Side, 
where the Entrance feem'd moft: difficult and there- 
fore was left unwatch'd, by Stealth found an unfuf- 
pefted Way. There was a Place, which now is not, 
nor has been fince the Fall of A d a m, where the Ri- 
ver T i c r i s (g) fliot into a Gulph under Ground ta. 


fi) %'•"• A Pirjtan and the Worid ; Per. i. Lime JjS. 

^iedian Word; from rhe Heb. ltn{^i\kmMix\mt JrmratotNi* 

i. e. An Arrow or Dart ; be- phtttts in Armenia^ parts Mefofo- 

cadfe of the Rapidity of its tamia and JJJyria^ runs by Ba- 

Courfe. Therefore Diomftus calk bykny and a little below Bagdad 

it the moH rapid of all Rivers in. j^mos the Eujiratts^ ht Holy 


chap. L Paradise Lgst» 279 

the Foot of Paradise, *till Part of it rofe a Foun- 
tain near the Tree of Life: Satan threw hiinfelf in- 
to the River, and rofe up (involved in a Mi ft) with 
the Fountain into Paradise, then thought where to 
conceal himfelf : He had fearch'd Sea and Land, from 
Eden over to Pontus, and from M^eotis (h) up 
beyond the River O b y, (i) downward as tar as the 
South Pole; and in Length Welt, from Orontes to 
the Ifthmus of Darien, (k) that ftops the South- 
Sea, and joins the North and South America, and 
from thence he had journey 'd as far as India, 
Thus he roamM over all the World, with ftridl 
Search and deep Infpeftion, confidering every Crea- 
ture, which ot them might bed ferve his wily Pur- 

T 4 pofes ; 

Writ it is called HMekel, or 
ChMehi, which comes from 
Qfodda, 1. e. Sbarf^ and Ca/, 
1. e. Swift 9 becauje it flows from 
the high Mountains of Jrmenia; 
Htb, u c. Snuiftnefs^ Gen. f.24. 
7higriat RJver HUdeie/, Dan. 
10. 4* Now Tigiri by the Turij^ 
according to their corrupt Pro- 

[b) M^otis ; Lat. Gr. i. e. The 
Mother or Nurft of the Sea ; bc- 
caufe it is the Source or original 
Spring of the Pontus. It is a 
Lake on the Coaft of Crim-Tar- 
tary, into which the River Ta- 
nais runneth, and parts Europe 
from Afia^ on that Side. In tr e 
deepelt Parts it is not above 1 8 

(t) Oby, by a Fig. of Gram. 
In Lai. Ohha, or Obiuj ; Per/. 
Tatar, Extenfion, Widenef$\ be- 
caufe it is a broad River. A vad 
River, which parts Siberia and 
Tatary from Ruffia, It rifes from 
the Lake Oferoy Telejkoy^ or M- 
tan Nor^ bears at iirit the Name 
of By^ and does not take that of 

Oby^ till after it has received the 
'Waters of the River Chatun, 20 
Leagus from TtlcJkoy\ then it 
runs dire^Wy North j and empties 
itfelf about the 65th Degree of 
North Latit. into the Gubi Taffa 
Koya, from thence into the ley 
Sea in fix Months, ovcr-againft 
Notva Zembia, after a Coiirlc of 
500 German Leagues. The Ru/- 
fiansy (ince they conquered Sibe^ 
ria^ have built about 12 Ane 
Towns or Forts upon it, to over- 
awe the Tatars. About 150 
Leagues from the Source it is 
halt a League bro'd, and con- 
flantly increaies in Depth and 
Breadth, and abounds with Plen- 
ty of all Manner of Fifti. 

(k) Darien ; American, A 
Neck of Land 18 and in fome 
Places no more than 12 Leagues 
over from Eaft to Weft, upon the 
River Darien^ beuveen tht Gulph 
of Mexieo and the South Sea : 
Therefore theSpatiiarefs attempt- 
ed to cut it, but rhey could not 
perfect it. It joir.cth Ns/fb and 
South America. 

28o Paradise Lost. BooklX. 

pofes -, and he found the Serpent to be the fubtleft 
JJeaft of all the Field. After much Irrefolution and 
Confideration, he at laft chofe him ; thinking him a 
fit Inftrument of Fraud, in whom he might enter, 
and hide his dark Defigns from the moft piercing 
Sight : For in the fubtle Serpent, whatever appeared 
might pafs without Remark, and be thought to pro- 
ceed from his natural Wit and Cunning ; which ob- 
fervM in other- Beafts, might raife aSulpicion of di- 
abolical Power, afting within beyond the' Senfe of 
Brutes. Therefore he made this Refolution, but firft 
flung with inward Grief, he burft out into this paflio- 
nate Complaint: 

O Earth, how like art thou to Heaven! if not 
more juftly preferred to it ; a Seat worthier of Gods, 
as being built with fecohd Thoughts, improving up- 
on the old Plan ! for what God would build worfe 
thaii he had done before ? ' *Tis a terreftrial Heaven, 
attended on by other Heavens, that move round it 
and fhine ; yet bear their bright Lights above Lights 
for that alone, as feemmg there to center the Influ- 
ence of all their precious Beams: As God is Centre 
in Heaven, and yet extends to all ; fo that being as in 
the Centre, receives Virtue from all thofe Orbs •, for 
here, and themfelves, appear all their known 
Efficacy, produftive of Herb, Plant, and the nobler 
Birth of Creatures, animated with vegetative, fenfi- 
tive, and rational Life, which all are fummM up and 
meet in Man! With what Delight (if I could have 
Joy in any Thing) could I inhabit here ? Where there 
is a fweet Change of Hill and Valley, Rivers, Woods, 
and Plains, with Land and Sea, and Forefty and 
Rocks, and Caves: But I can find no Place of Eafc 
or Reftige in any of thefe; and the more I fee of 
Pleafures about me, fo much the more Torment I feel 
within me, that by Comparifon makes Hell appear 
more intolerable : All Good to me becomes a Curfe, 


chap. I. Paradise Lost. 281 

and my State would be ftill much worfe, were I ia 
Heaven. But I neither feek to dwell here, nor in 
Heaven, except I could overcome him, who is now 
fupreme there : Nor have I any Hope to make my- 
felf lefs miferable bv what I feek, but only to make 
others as I am, tnough worfe Ihould be multiply'd 
and heap*d upon me : For I find no Eafe to my re- 
lentlcfs Thoughts but in Deftruftion : If I can deftroy * 
him, or win him (for whom all this was made) to do 
what may caufe his own Deftruftion, all this will fol- 
low with him of Courfe, as being link*d to him in 
Joy or Mifery : In Mifery be it then, that Deftruftion 
may fpread over all. Among the Infernal Powers, 
Glory (hall be given to me alone, to have marred 
what he, who is ftil'd Almighty, continued fix 
Days and Nights in making ; and who knows how 
long before he had been contriving it ? Though per- 
haps it has been fince I in one Night, fet almoft half 
the Angels fi-ee from inglorious Servitude, and left 
the Throng of his Worlhippers fomething thinner^ 
He to be avenged, and to repair his Numbers, which 
I had thus leffen'd, determined to advance into our 
Room, a Creature formM of the Earth, and endow 
him (though rais'd from luch a bafe Original) with 
thofe heavenly Perfeftions, which once were ours: 
This he has done, either in greater Spite to us, ad- 
vancing fuch low Creatures to fuch high Dignity; or 
clfe his Power, which he had of old, to create Angels 
is fpent: (if at leaft he ever did create them, which 
who knows ?) What he decreed, that he efFefted •, he 
made Man, and built for him this magnificent 
World, gave him the Earth for his Seat, and pro- 
nounced him Lord j and (Oh ! what an Indignity was 
that!) fubjeftcd Angels to be his Servants, and to 
watch -and tend upon an Earth-born Charge. I dread 
the Vigilance of thofe who keep Guard over them, 
and to avoid it, thus wrapped up in an obfcure Mift of 
Midnight Vapours, I glide and pry in every Bu/h 


zSz Para DISK Lost. Book IX. 

and Bramble, where I may by Chance find the Ser- 
pent afleep y, in whofe Shape I may hide me, and the 
dark Defign I bring with me. Oh foul Downfall in- 
deed ! that I> who. once contended to fit the higheft, 
with Gods, am now forced into a Beaft, and mix*d 
with beftial Slime to become incarnate, and inform 
the Body of a Brute, that before afpir'd to the 
Height of Deity ! But what will not Ambition and 
Revenge defcend to ? They who afpire too high muft 
ftoop as low, and firft or laft lay themfclves liable to 
the bafeft Things. Revenge, though fweet at firft, 
ibon becomes oitter, and recoils b;^ck upon itfelf : 
Let it; I care not, fo it ftrikes him fure, who next to 
the King of Heaven provokes my Eiivy, this new 
Favourite, this Man of Clay, this Son of Defoite, 
whom the more to fpite us, his Maker has rais'd tron\ 
the Duft : Then Spite is beft paid with Spite. 

S o faying, creeping low like a black Mifl: through 
every Thicket, he held on his Midnight Search, where 
hie hop*d fooneft to find the Serpent : He foon difco- 
ver*d him, faft afleep, rowl'd round and round, with 
his Head in the Middle, full of Subtilty ; not yet in 
horrid Shades or a difmal Den, (for there were as yet 
no fuch Things) but he flept upon the Grafs, without 
Fear or without being fear'd, for now no Creature was 
hurtful. The Devil enter'd in at his Mouth, and 
pofleffing his brutal Senfe, foon infpir'd his Under- 
ftanding with his own Spirit ; but not diflurbing his 
Sleep, lay clofe, waiting foe Morning, 


C^p. II- Paradise Lost. 283 

CHAR 11. 

Adam and Eve in the Morning go forth to their 
Labours^ 'whijcb Eve propofes to divide in five^ 
ral Places J each labouring atqrt : Adam endea-* 
vours to dijuade Eve therefrom j hut not pre-^ 
vailiTigy at length confents^ 

NOW when it began to be Morning in Eden, 
and the Flowers openM and breathM their 
Morning Incenfe ; when all Things that the 
Earth produces^ proving the Wifdom of the ^reat' 
Creator, filently praile him; Ad am and Eve 
came forth, andjoinM their vocal Worlhip: That 
dpne, they partake of all the Bleflfings with which they 
were lurrounded, fweeteft Scents, and frelhpft Air^ 
then confult, how they may that Day do all the Work 
in the Garden, there was for them to do ; (for their 
Work much outgrew; the Difpatch of their two La- 
bours) and Eve thus began to fpeak to her Huf- 

A D A M r we may ftill labour on to drefs thispar- 
den, to tepd the Plants, Herbs, and Flowers, which 
is the pleafant Tafk enjoined us, but 'till more Hands 
afGft us, the Work grows under our Hands, and what 
we lop off by Day, as being over-grown, or prune, 
or prop, or bind up, in one Night or two fprings 
forth again, and grows wild- Now therefore give thy 
Advice, or firft near what Thoughts prefent to my 
Mind : Let us divide oqr Labours ; do thou go where 
thy own Choice leads thee, either to wind the Wood- 
bine round about this Arbour, or direft the Ivy where 
it may be propereft for it to climb ; while I among 
yonder Roles, which are intermixed with Myrtle, fee 
what there is to fct right 'till Noon : For while we 


284 Paradise Lost. Book IX. 

chufc our Talk thus, fo near one another all the Day 
long, what Wonder ' is it if Looks and Smiles come 
between, and any new Objeft bring up accidental Dif- 
courfc between us ; which makes our Day*s Work 
(fo intermitted) to be brought to little, though we be- 

fpn early, and Night comes before we are prepared 
or it. 


To whqm Adam retum'd this mild Anfwer: 
Fair Eve, ^y only Partner and Companion ! dear to 
me beyond Comparilbn above all living Creatures ! 
Thou haft employed thy Thoughts well, and haft well 
proposed how we might beft accomplifh the Work, 
aflignM us here by God, nor ftialt thou go unprais'd 
by me for it : (for nothing can be found more lovely 
in a Woman, than to ftudy the Good of her Houfe- 
hold, and to promote gooa Works in her Hulband :) 
Yet our Lord hath not impos'd Labour on us fo ve- 
ry ftriftly, as to debar us from taking (when we need) 
any Refrefhment, whether Food, or Converfation, 
which is as Food to the Mind ; nor does he forbid us' 
this fweet Intercourfe of Looks and Smiles, for Smiles 
flow from Reafon, deny'd to the Brutes, and are the 
Food of Love, and Love is not the loweft End or In- 
tention of human Life; for he did not make us to 
irkfome and tirefome Toil, but to Delight, and to 
that Delight join*d Reafon. Doiibt not, but our joint 
Hands will be able, with Fafe, to keep thefe Paths 
and Bowers from going into Wildemefs, at leaft as 
wide as we need walk, and *till younger Hands, be- 
fore it is long, ftiall aflift us. But if over-much of 
my Converfation perhaps may cloy thee, on that Ac- 
count I could yield to a fhort Abfence : (for fome- 
times Solitude is the beft Society, and a fhort Separa- 
tion caufes Sweetnefs at Return) But another Doubt 
poffeffes me ; left when thou art feparated from me, 
fomething ill Ihould befall thee : Thou knoweft what 
Warning hath been given us, what a malicious Foe, 



Chap. II. Paradise Lost* 285 

defoairing of his own Happinefs and envying ours, 
fecKs by Contrivance to bring us to Shame and Mile- 
ry ; and watches, no Doubt, fomewhere near at Hand, 
with a greedy Hope to find his Wifh, and us afunder, 
when he might take an Advantage ; for he can have 
no Hope to circumvent us thus join*d together, where 
each in a Time of Need, might Ipeedily and eafily 
give Help to the other. Whether his firft Defign te 
to draw us from our Duty to God, or whether he 
would difturb our conjugal Love ; (than is^hich perhaps 
no Happinefs enjoy*d by us more excites his Envy) 
let it oe this or worfe, leave not the fiiithful Side, 
' from whence thou hadft thy , Being, ' and that ftiU 
guards and protefts thee : For where Danger or Dis- 
honour lurks, a Wife is fafeft, and fecmlieft by the 
Side of her Hulband, who defends her, or elfe en- 
dures the ^orft with hen 

To whom Eve, with Virgin Modefly and yet 
majeftick, as one who loves, and from whom he 
loves meets with fome Unkindnefs, fweetly composed, 
and yet not without fome Aufterity, reply'd thus : 

Offspring of Heaven and Earth, and Lord of all the 
Earth ! that we' have fuch an Enemy, who feeks our 
Ruin, I have learnt, both by Information from thee, 
and from what I over-heard from the Ajigtl as he was 
departing, where I flood behind in a fhady Nook, 
being jufl then returned, at the Shutting of the Flow- 
ers in the Evening. But that thou mould'fl doubt 
my Firmnefs to G o d or thee, becaufe we have a Foe 
may happen to tempt it, I muft confefs I did not ex- 

Eeft to hear : Thou art not afraid of his Violence, it 
eing fuch (for he cannot deflroy us, or put us to 
Pain) as we can cither not receive, or elfe refifl and 
repel it : It his Fraud then that thou art afraifl of; 
which plainly infers thy Fear equal, that my firm 
Faith and Love, can be feduc'd or fhakcn by his 

Fraud : 

' - • » - 

*286 Paradise Lott. fiook iX 

Fraud : How could fuch Thought find any Harbour 
inthyBreaft, fuch ungrounded Sufpicion, Adam^ of 
her, that but juft now thou faid'ft was fo dear to 

To whom Adam, with healing Wdrd% made 
AnfWer: Immortal Eve! (form'd by God himfelf 
from Man!) for fuch thou art, while free from Sin 
and Blame ; that I perfuade thee riot to abfent thyfelf 
from my Sight, is not becaufe I am diffident of thee, 
but to avoid the Attempt itfelf, intended by our Ene- 
my : For he who tempts, though it prove in vain, 
however afperfes the Tempted With fome Degree of 
Difhonour; for it fuppofes the Tempted not Proof 
againfl: Temptation, but liable to be corrupted ! Even 
thou thyfelf, were fuch a Wrong offerM thee, would'ft 
refent it with Scorn and Anger, though it proved iri- 
cfFeftual: Then think it not amifs, if I endeavour to 
prevent fuch an AfFrbrit being put upon thee alone, 
which the Enemy, though bold, will hardly dare to 
'offer us both at orice. Nor do thoii think too lightly 
of his Fraud and Malice ; he muft needs be veiy fub- 
tie who could feduce Artels; nor do thou think the . 
Affiftance of another uhneceflary or fuperfluous : I, 
from the Influence of thy Looks receive Incrcafe oi 
every Virtue ; in thy Sight I ani wifer, more watch- 
ful, (if Need were of outward Strength) flrbnger; 
for Shame, to be overcome or over-reich'd while 
thou look'd on, would raife new Vigour in me, and 
make me exert myfelf to the utmoft: Why (houtd'tt 
not thoii, when I am preferit, feel the like Senfe with- 
in thee^ and chufe the Trial along with me, who am 
the belt Witnefs of thy tried Virtue ? 

In this domeftick Manner, and in his matrimonial 
Care and Love, Adam fpoke; but Evje, who 
thought lefs was attributed to her dear Faith than was 
due, with foft Words made Anfwer: 



chap. 11. Paradise Lost* 2tf 

How are we happy, if this is our Condition ? Al- 
ways to be in Fear' of Harm, and always to dwell 
thus in narrow Bounds, ftraiten*d by a fubtle or vio- 
lent Enemy, and we nieeting him fiiigle, not indued 
with Power to defend ourfelves againft hiitt ? Well, 
but Harm thou fay*ft does not come before Sin ; only 
bur Foe if he tempts us, he affronts us with his foul 

Opinion of our Integrity : His foul Opinion fixes 

no Difhonour upon us> but turns fouler \ipon him- 
felf : Then wherefore Ihould he be lliurtnM or fearM 
by us, who rather gain double Honour by the fevent, 
from proving his Surmife falfe, arid are favourM froni 
Heaven with a Wltnefs of Peace within, that our Vir- 
tues have flood the Trial ? And what is Faith, 6t 
Love, or Virtue, that has not been tried in its own 
Strength, and without other Afliftance ? Don't let us 
fufpeft, that our happy State is left lo imperfeft by 
the wife Creator, as not to be fecure as well alone, aS 
when in Compahy together ; for otherwife our Hap- 
pinefs would be but frail, and Eden (to fj^eak tht 
Truth) exposM in this Manner, would be no Para- 
dise at all. To whom Ad a*m with fome Fervency 
replied : 

Oh Woman! all Things are beft", as the Will of 
God has ordainM them : He created nothing ihiper- 
feft, or left any Thing that he had created deficient; 
much lefs Man, or any Thing that might fecure to 
him his happy State. M a n is fafe from outward 
Force, all the Danger lies within himfelf, and that in 
his own Power ; for againft his Will he can never r^ 
ceiveHarm: But God has lefi: the Will fre^- for 
what obeys Reafon that is free, and Reafon God 
made right : But let Reafon beware, and keep ftrift 
Watch, left furpriz'd by fair Appearances of Good, 
fhe diftate falfely, and fo influence the Will to do 
that wliich God hath cxprefly forbid. It is not Mi- 


288 Paradise Lost. Book IX» 

ftruft then, but tender Love» that urges me to mind 
thee often of thy Duty j and do Aou often remind 
jne! We fubfift and remain firm, yet it isjpoffible for 
us to fwerve ; fince our Reafon may meet lome fpeci- 
ous Temptation, made Ufe of by our Adverfary to 
deceive us, and fo not keeping Watch in the ftrifteft 
Manner, as fhe was wam*d to do, Reafon may inad- 
vertently fall into the Deception. Then don't feek 
Temptation, which it were much better to avoid 5 
which will be moft likely, if thou feparate thyfelf 
not from me: Trials in all Likelihood will come 
without feeking. Would'ft thou give Proof of thy 
Conftancy ? Give Proof of thy Obedience : Who can 
be fure of thy Conftancy or atteft it, not feeing thee 
attempted ? But, if thou thinkeft another Time, wheo 
we are not (6 well warn*d, we may be found not fo 
well prepared as thou feemeft to think, thyfelf. — Go ! 
— for if thou ftayeft, not being free, thou art but 
the more abfent : Go! in thy native Innocence! fum- 
mon all thy Virtue to thy Affiftance, and rely upon 
it! for G o D has done his Part towards thee, do thou 
do thine. 

So ipokeour firft Father-, but Eve, fubmiffive 
though ihe perfifted and fpoke laft, replied : Then 
thus forewarned, and with thy Permiffion, mov*d 
chiefly by the rcafoning of thy own laft Words, I go 
the more willingly •, thinking, as thou fay*ft, our Tri- 
al might come, when leaft fought for or expefted by 
us, .and find us both perhaps far lefs prepared: Nor 
do i much expedt that fo proud a Foe will firft feek 
the weakeft ; but Ihould he be* bent fo to do, his Re- 
pulfc Ihould fliame him the more. 

C H A P^ 

Chap. III. Paradise Lost. 289 


^e Ser^nt^nJs Eve alone ; approaches and /peaks 
to befy with many JViles and Arguments induces 
her to tajie the Txtt.oi Knowledge forbidden: 
She refolves to impart thereof to Adam, 

SAYING this. Eve foftly withdrew her Hand 
from her Hufband's, and light, like what is 
feign'd of Wood-Nymphs, or of Diana's (/) 
Train, betook her to the Groves ^ but in her Gait an4 
Goddefs-like Deportment, ihe furpafs'd all that has 
been fabled of Diana's Self; though not arm'd like 
her with Bow and Quiver, but only with fuch gar- 
dening Tools, as Art had rudely form'd without the 
Help of Fire, or the Angels had brought, A Pic- 
ture of Ceres in her Prime, or of Pomona when 
flie fled from Vertumnus, (m) is what ftie feem'4 
likeft, as flie parted from Adam. He, with Eyes 
full of AfFeftion, for a great while look'd after her 
delighted \ but yet he rather wilh'd that fhe had ftda. 
He often repeated his Charge to her to come back 
foon, and fhe as often promis'd him, that fhe would 
be returned to the Bower by Noon, and have every 
Thing in the befl Order, to invite Repaft then, or Re- 
pofe after Noon. Unfortunate Eve! much deceived, 

U much 

- (/) Diana. The Daughter of 
yMfiterwud Latoum, Gdadefs of 
theWoodSy Hnndogaiid Virgi- 
nity. The Nymphs were her 

'(«) Vertumnus } Lat.ut.Th 
thanging Tear. A God among 
the Sj Komans, wha lell in Love 
with Pomona, and to obtain her^ 
he turned ^imfelf into all Formi. 

He was King of Tufcavf^ who 
taught Men the Art of Garden- 
ing ; for which he was deified. 
This Fable fignifies the different 
Seafons of the Year. His Feads 
were celebrated at Rome, in the 
Autumn ; wherein they thanked 
the God for preferving theFruits 
to Matoiity. 

tgo. Par Alois 9 l^os^^ .6<x)kDC 

much failing of thy promisM and prefum'd Return ! 
Fatal Event indeed I Thou from that Hour didft ne- 
ver more find in Paradise either fweet Repaft, or 
found Repofe ! there was what waited, in Amtniih, "ar* 
mong the Shades and fweet Flowers, with confirmed 
and hellifh Rancour, to intercept ;hy Way, or fend 
thee back again diverted of thy Innocence, thy Faith, 

and Blifs!* For now, and ever fince the firft Break 

of Day, Satan (a mere Serpent only in Appearance) 
was come forth, and upon his Search; wtitrt ht 
might likelicft find his purposed Prey, the only two 
pf Mankind living, but in thpm the whole Race in- 
duded. He fought in every Fidi and every Bower, 
where any Grove of Trees, or Piect of Garden-PIot 
lay pleafanter.than the reft, that JdfekM like wh^t wa$ 
tinder daily Tendance, or had betJn planned for Plea- 
ftire by the ftiady 9iBnks of Rivers, ^or the Side of 
Fountains. He fought for them bgth, 'butwifh*d 
that it might be his Lot to find Eve feparate j but 
could not hope to meet with what fo feldom happe-* 
ned; when beyond his Hope, and agreeable to n is 
Wilh, he fpy'd Eye alone ; (he ftood but half dif^ 
covered, hid behind, and bufied with Rofes and othe^ 
Flowers, that grew thick round about : She was half 
ftooping to fupport fuch Flowers, whofe Stalks werfe 
weak and flendcr, whpfe Bloflbms, though gay, pur7 
pie, red, or blue, or fpeckled wirii Gold, being too 
heavy for the Stem, hung drooping down : She ties 
them up gently with Bands of Myrtle ; at the fame 
Time not reflefting, that (he herfelf was unfwftain'd ; 
jb.far from, her beft Pi'op, and the Storm fo nigh. 
Satan (in the Serpent) drew ncarier, and crols^ 
many a Walk under Shade of Cedars, Pines, or Palm 
Trees; then rowling to and fro boldly, fomctimes 
hid, fometime5 fcen, among the Arhogrs, and Flow- 
ers that grew upon the Borders of the Banks, and 
had been planned there by £ v £ ; a more delishtfol 
Spot riian the febulous Gardens of Adonis, or of fa;- 


Cliapt m* Paradise host. i^t 

xjlous Alcinous, (^ who entertained U l y s s e s ; 
or that, which is no Fiftion, made by S o l o m o n^ 
where he held Dalliance with his fair jEgyptian 
Qjiieen, the Da^ughter of Pharaoh. The Plac6 Sa- 
tan admir'd much, but more the Perfon of Eve: 
As one; who has been long pent up in a great and po- 
pulous City, where by Realon erf" the Number of Iiv^ 
habkants, and Want of Room to breath more freely, 
the Air i» become unhealthy, going out on a Sump 
mer'a Morning, to breath among the neighbouring 
pleafant Villages 4nd Farms, takes Delifl^tin every 
Thing .he mieets with, the Smell of the frefli-mow*d 
Grafs, Cattle, or Dairy, and every. Sight and Sound 
Sthftt belongs to a Cpuntry Life ; tnen if by Chance 
fome fair Virgb pais gracefully along* what before 
feeiu'd pl^afing, for h^r Sake now pleaies more, fhe 
moft; and in her Look all Pleafure is fumm'd up t 
Such Pleafure the Serpent took to behold this Bed of 
Rowers, the fweet Retirement of E v b, thus early 
. -andabne. The heavenly Form of £ v e, angelical^ 
.(but only more foft and feminine) her graceful Inno* 
ceoce^ hicr Air in every Gefture or Icaft Action, when 
the Devil law, it overaw'd his Malice, and was fo 
ch^rming/that it bereav'd him of the Fiercenefs and 
Cruelty of his Inteation. That Moment he was ab- 
fent, and abffaradted from his evil Self, and for the 
Time became negatively and fliupidly good ; difar- 
med of his Enmity, Fraud, Hate, Fjivy, and Re-* 
venge. But the hot Hell, that always burns in him> 
(though he fhould be in the Midft of Heaven) fbon 
ended his Pleafure, and tortures him now the more, 
the more that he fees of Pleafure not ordain*d for 
him : Then he foon recolleded himfelf, gathers toge- 
ther all his fierce Envy and Hate, and thus rejoicing 

U 2 in 

{k) Alcinws entertained Utffes in his DiraAeri» ai Bmer it- 

292 Parabise LbSV-c "BocklX^ 

in his Purpofe, excites all his Thoughts of Mif- 

Whither, my Thoughts^ have you led me! how 
fweetly carried me into fuch a Tranfoort, as could 
make me forget what brought me hither! Love 
brought me not, but Hate •, not the Hope to tafte 
Plealure here, and exchange Paradise for Hcll^ 
but to deftroy all Pleafure, excepting that which I 
take in Deftru6tion ; all other Joy is loft to me I then 
don't let me flip the Opportunity which now fo fa- 
vourably offers. Behold the Woman alone, liable to 
all Attempts ! and her Huiband (for I can fee far 
round) not near her; whofe better Underftanding I 
rather fhun^ as well as his Strength, he being of a 
haughty Courage, though made of Earth, yet com- 
pos'd of Limbs heroic and not weak, and as I cannot 
wound him nor touch his Body, no inconliderable 
Foe : It is not fo with me, fo much hath Hell de- 
based, and Pain weakened me to what I was in Hear 
ven, that I am liable to all : She h divinely fair, and 
fit Love for Gods, not terrible ; though Terror be in 
Love and Beauty, unlefs it is approach*d by a Mind 
arm'd with Hate as mine is ; a Hate the ^eater, as 
it is difguis'd under diflembled Love, wnich is the 
Way I propofe to take to bring her Ruin to pafs* 

• Thus fpake the great Enemy of Mankind, 
having poflefs'd the Serpent, and made his Way to- 
wards Eve; hot prone and waving upon tlie Ground, 
as Serpents are now, but rifing from his Tail in Cir- 
cles one above another: He had upon his Head a 
Creft, which he bore aloft, and his Eyes refembled 
Carbuncles ; his Neck a bright Grafs green, finely 
touched up (as Painters exprcls it) with Gold, rifing 
up in circling Spires from his Body, which lay and 
floated about upon the Grafs 5 his Shape was very 


Chap. III. Paradise Lost, 293 

■lovely and plcafing, never fince of Serpent-kind was 
more beautiful ; not thofe that Hermione (o) and 
Cadmus (p) "were feignM to be changed into, in II- 
lYRiA; or the God worlhipp'd in Epidaurus; (q) 
nor thofe to which it was pretended Jupiter Am- 

U 3 MON 

(9) Hirmtone ; Lat» Gr. from 
the Hih. i. e. The Eaft ; from M. 
Hermon in the Eaft of CaMaatt, 
where fhe was born. She was 
the Daughter of Mars and F/- 
MMS, and the Wife of Cadmus, of 
which the Poets made mady Fa« 

(/) Cadmus ; Lat. Gr, Heb. i. 
e. The Eaft : An antient Pha- 
ntcian^ bom at Sidon, (aid to be 
the Son, rather the General^ of 
Agtnor^ King of PhegniciaytLhovLt 
A. M, 2660. But more likely 
he was a Cademite, about M. 
Herwun, ThtCadomifuzremen" 
tioned. Gin, 15. 19. About the 
Tine of Jojbua^ Cadmus fled 
from his vidlorious Arms, came 
into Greici^ fettled a Colony of 
the Old Pbcnsicians there, built 
7Mit in Boitia , taught the 
GreeL the Ufe of Letters^ Steel, 
Copper, Brafs and other Arts; . 
for which he was highly cele- 
brated. He married Hermwi^ 
flew a terrible Serpent that lay 
by the Well Dirce, which de- 
flroyed Man and Bead therea- 
bout, and all his own Men, but 
£ve ; and at lail both his Wife 
and he were changed into Ser- 
pents: Becanf^ {^^ killed one, 
that was facred to Mars, The 
Tnith iSy Cadmus was an Hivitf, 
Heb, i. e. a Serpent, the reflor- 
ing his Men tq Life is, to enlifl 
thetn into his Army ; the Spears 
oif firais were fiaid to be tbel eeth 

of the Serpent, i. Cadmns 
tbi Whi'Mtt the Itnjentor of^ or 
Worker in Brafs \ and the /f#- 
brew Word, which Signifies V. 
iignifies alfo an armed Man. 

(£) Epidaurus^ or Etitaurus\ 
as Euftatius and Stralo call it { 
Lat, from the Gr, i. e. Ufar the 
Bull. An anticn t City of ^grta^ 
a fmall Region of the Peloponne* 
fits or Morea, upon the Egean 
Sea, built by Darius, the Son of 
Hyflajpes^ according to Pliuy, 
Lib. 6. c. 27. But by Titon, 
the Father of Memnon, who 
came to affift at theSiege ofTrof^ 
according to Strabo, about J, M. 
2976. andfo called in Memory 
of Jupiter'^s carrying Europa 
from Pbenice into Greece, and 
landing there, about ^. Af.266o. 
There JEjculapius was born, bu- 
ried and worfhipped ; now called 
Efculapio after him: Thither 
the Sick reforted for Cures. The 
Romans were direded in a raging 
Plague, to fetch him, in the Year 
461 . The Epldaurians were un- 
willing to part with their God, 
in the mean time an huge Ser- 
pent (warn into their Ship, and 
wound itfelf round in the Stern, 
which they took for the God, 
and carried him to Rome, There 
it quitted the Ship, and went 
into a little Jfle in the River 7i- 
her I the PeftilcQce abated ; and 
therefore they cre&ed a Tcrti* 
pie to ,M/culapius without the 

Walls i 

ft94 Paradise Losf. BooklX* 

MON (r) was transform'd, when he begot Alex- 
ander the Great upon Olympi a ; (s) or Jupiter. 
Capitoline, (/) when he aflum*d fucha Shape, to en* 
joy the Mother of Scjpio, (u) the Glory of Rome, (x) 


Walk I and worfliipped him 
under that Form. The Peor 

Ele of this Place are celebrated 
y ^^fgtl ^or their ufeful Art of 
taming Horfes. There is an- 
other City of this Name in DaI- 
matiUf near the Gulph of Vi- 

(r) Jufitir Ammon; Ham, 
the Son otNoak, who had J/H' 
^a for hb Share. In the (andy 
hot Defarts of lyhia, a famous 
Temple and Grade were ereded 
to his Memory, whom the 
Creiks called Jufitif Hammon, 

(/) Capimine ; of the Capi» 
to/i fuii, 1. e. the Head of 79- 
iuf which was found buried 
there, when they d^ for the 
Foundation of it. The Capi- 
tol is the grand Caflle of Roau, 
where yufiter Cafitolinus was 
worfi^pped in a moft (lately and 
rich Temple, who apder the 
Form of another Serpent is faid 
to have converfed with the Mo- 
ther of Sciti9 AfrUanm : This 
Temple was begun by Tarjuin I. 
the fifth Kine of Rmni, A, M. 
3372. upon the Mount I'mrfiius^ 
and finiihed by his Nephew 
farcin tbi Prwd. It was burnt 
under Viiillius^ and rebuilt by 
fgffa&any again under l!ttus^ an4 
rebuilt by Pmitian, w|th great 

(tj Oymfia I Lai. from the 

Qr^ i. Ct Ail Ugb^ I her firft 

Name was Myrtalh ; Lat. . Gr. 
i. e. AMyrtfe-trei. Juftin. Lib.o. 
7. 13. the Wife ofPhinp, King 
of Macedon, and Mother of 
Alexander the Great: She is 
faid to have conceived him, not 
of her own Ha{band, but of an- 
other huge Serpent. Hence, the 
flattering Greeks perfuaded Alex- 
ander, that Jupiter Hammoti, 
in the Form of a Serpent, waa 
his real Father: Therefore he 
marched through th^ vaft De-* 
fart of Ljhia to vifit him, which 
the cunning Prieft confirmed, 
and called him, the Son of Ju- 
piter. This is related by 7«//«, 
^linyt ^^ Curtiue, &c 

(u) Scipio ; Lat, i. e. A Staff. 
This was Pubtius Cornelius Set- 
pio Africanns, who conquered 
Hannibal, razed Cartbagt, ad- 
ded Africa to the Roman Em* 
pire, and advanced it to the 
Height of all its Glory : for 
which the Senate decreed that 
he fhould be lUled , Tbe beji 
Man. But it was reportea, 
that he was the Son of Jupiter 
Cafitolinus, who converfed with 
his Mother in the Form of an- 
other Serpent alfo. Uv. Decad. 3* 

(x) Eme% Heb. i. t. High t 
beug built on (even Hills ; or 
Gr, i. e. Strength and Power; 
The chief Ci^ of Italy upoi^ 
\aiO\k Sides of'^ t)^ '^i^p ten 


Chap. III. Paradise Lost^ 295. 

At lirft like oae wHo. wanted Accefs, and yet was a- 
fraid to interrupt, he work'd his Way fidelong and 
winding about: Juft as when a Ship brpught on by 
fome fldlful Pilot, near to a River's Mouth or Fore- 
land, where the Wind veers often, fhifts Sail accor- 
dingly; fo he varied his Motions, and niade many a 
wanton Curl of his crooked Train in the Sight of 
EvB, ia Hopes to allure her Eye. She being bufy, 
though ihe heard the Sound of Leaves rufling, took 
no Notice, as being us'd .often to have the Beafts fport- 
l^CNTe her. through the Field, they all being obedient 
to her Call« He now grown bolder, though uncall'd, 
ftood before her, but fecm'd only gazing on her ia 
Admiration: He often bow*d his Head, and,hisfleek 
fhining Neck like Enamel; and fawning lick*d the 
Ground Ihe trod upon : At length his gentle dumb 
Expreilion draw'd the Eye of E v b to take Notice of 
h/s Play : He glad that he had gain'd her Attention, 
making the Serpent's Tongue or Impulfe qf vocal 
Air an Inftrument of Speech, thus began his fraudu- 
kst Temptation : 

SoVBREiGN Miftrefs! (who alone art wonderful) 
wonder not, much lefs arm thy mild Looks with Dif-* 
datn, nor be difpleas'd that I approach thee thus, 

U 4 and 

Milea from the Sea, and 840 
Miles from London } tlie Seat of 
the Roman Empire, and for a 
long Time, tKe Miftrefs of the 
World I lurifig had the greateft 
PStf t of Europo, jifea and Africa 
under her. It was b\ilthyRommlus, 
at the End of the thifd Year of 
tfieiixthOi^«^fW, A. M. 3031 ; 
431 after the Defiru£^ion of 
7royi and 753 before the In- 
carnation, according to the moft 
exaft Account. Yet it was taken 
lea Times i ift, by the Gauls i 

2d, by AUrie King of the 
Goths ; 3d, by Gen/eric King 
of Vandals ; 4th, by Totila King 
of the Goths ; 5th, by Odoacer 
King of the Heruli i 6rh, by 
^Theodoricus King of the Goths i 
7th, by Gundebald King of the 
Burgundians ; 8ch, by the 
Moors ; 9th, by Henry IV, 
Emperor of Germany ; lOth, 
by Charles Duke of Bourbom^ 
A. D. 1528. 


290 Paradise Lost. Book IX. 

and gaze on thee continually witibout thinking I can 
ever gaze enough ; nor have I (thus fingly) fear'd thy^ 
awful Brow, much more awful now retired. Faireft 
Refemblance of thy fair Maker ! all Things living 
gaze on thee, being thine by Gift, and adore thy hea* 
venly Beauty, which they behold with Tranfport ! 
beil to be beheld where it might be univerially ad- 
mir'd ; but here among thefe Beafts, in this wild In* 
clofure, (who are but rude Beholders, and incapable 
of difcerning Half what is fair in thee) except one 
Man, who fees thee ? And what is one, for thee, 
who ihould'ft be feen a Goddefs among Gods, and be 
ador'd and ferv'd by numberlefs Angels, and have 
them in thy daily Train. 

S o flatter'd the Tempter, and introduc'd himfelf : 
His Words made fome Imprefiion upon the Heart of 
Eve, though (he marvell'd much at the Voices at 
Length, not without Amazement, (he replied : 

What can be the Meaning of. this? Do I hear 
the Language of Man and human Senfe, expreis'd 
by the Tongue of a Brute? Language, atleaftl 
thought, had been denied to Beafts, whom God, on 
the Day of their Creation, created mute to all articu- 
late Sound : That they may indeed have Underftan^ 
ding I debate within myfelf, for much Reafon often 
appears both in their Looks and Aftions. I knew 
thee to be the fubtlefl Beafl of the Field, but did not 
know that Serpents were endued with human Voice, 
Do this Miracle once more, and fay how thou beca- 
mefl capable of Speech ; and why thou art grown fb 
friendly to me above the reft of the Beafls that arc 
daily in Sight ? This tell me ! for the Relation of fuch 
a Wonder will demand due Attention. 

To whom the deceitful Tempter replied thus: 
Refplendcnt Eve! Empref^ of this fair World ! it is 


Chap« IIL Paradise Lost, ^gy 

calV to me to tell all thou haft commanded me, and 
ricnt it is that thou ihould'ft be obey'd in every 
Thing. At firft I was like the other Beafts that feed 
upon the trodden Grafs ; my Thoughts were abjeft, 
and as low as my Food, nor did I difcern any Thing 
but that, or DiflFerence of Sex, nor had I an Apprc- 
henlion of any Thing great or high : 'Till one Day as 
I was roving in the Field, I chanc'd to behold, at a 

great Diftance, a large Tree full of Fruit, of the 
ireft Colours, ftreak*d with red and Gold: I drew 
nearer to view it, when a favoury Odour was blown 
from the Boughs, grateful to the Appetite, and 
which pleas'd my Senfe more than the Smell of fweet^ 
eft Fennel, or the Teats of a Goat or Ewe, dropping 
with Milk at Evening, and yet unfuck'd by their 
Kids or Lambs : I refolv'd not to defer fatisfying the 
iharp Delire I had of tafting thofe fair Apples ; Hun* 
ger and Thirft (two powerful Perfwaders) quicken'd 
at the Scent of that alluring Fruit, both at once urg*d 
me fo keenlv : I foon wound myfelf about the mofly 
Trunk of the Tree ; (for the Branches are fo high 
from the Ground, that they would require thy utmoft 
Reach, or A d a m*s) about the Tree all other Beafts 
ftood longing and envying with like Defire, but could 
not reach the Fruit. And now being got up into the 
Middle of the Tree, where fuch great Plenty hung 
fo nigh, tempting to gather, and cat my Fill, I did 
not Ipare ; for 1 never 'till that Hour in eating or 
drinkmg had fuch Pleafure. But at Length being fa- 
tisfied, it was not long before I perceived a ftrange 
Alteration in me, and my inward Powers changing to 
a Degree of Reafon -, and though I retained my pre- 
fent Fbrm, yet it was not long before I had the Gift 
of Speech. From thence forward I turn'd my 
Thoughts to high or deep Speculations, and with ca- 
pacious Mind confider'd every Thing vifible in Earth 
or between ; every Thing that was fair and good ; but 
in tfte-Rays of thy heavenly Beauty, and in thy di- 

2^8 Paradise Lost. Book IX. 

iftnc Form, I behold every Thing that is fair and 
good united : There is nothing fair that can be btought 
equal or in Comparifon with thee! which was the 
Caufe that I came, (though too importunate perhaps) 
to gaze, and worfhip thee; 'who art rightly deckr'd 
univerfal Miftrcfs, and Sovereign of all Creatures. 

So talk'd the cunning Serpent; and Eve, more 
amaz'dthan before, replied unwarily: Serpent! thy 
over-praifing me leaves the Virtue of that Fruit in 
Doubt, which thou haft firft tafted. But tell me» 
where does this Tree grow ? And how far is St from, 
hence? For the Trees of God, that grow in. Para- 
dise, are a great many, and vacious of thejto, which 
are yet unknown to us ; and our Choice lies in fuch an^ 
Abundance, that we leave the greatdl Fart of the 
Fruits untouched, and ftill hanging without Decay, 
'till more Men grow up to be provided for» and 
help to confume the Gifts of Nature. 

To whom the wily Serpent chearfuUy anfwer'd : 
Emprefs ! the Way is eafy and not long ; beyond a 
Row of Myrtle-Trees upon a Plain, juft by a Foun* 
tmn, firft paffing one fmali Thicket of flowing Myrrh 
and Rsdm ; if thou pleafeft to accept of aie for a 
Guide, I can foon condudfc thee thither. Lead on 
dien, faid Eve. He going before, rowPd along 
fWiftly, and fnade intricate feem ffa-ait ; being fwift to 
do Milchief : Hope and Joy elevated him, and brlgh* 
ten*d his Creft : As when an Ignus fatuus, (x) (which 
it is faid fome evil Spirit often attends) hovering and 
blazing with a deluding Light, mifleads the Night 
"Wanderer through Mires, or Pools ; fo the Serpent 
glitter'd, and led our credulous Mother £ v b into 

Fraud i 

(j) Ignis Fatuus^ i. e. A filly thofeThings. It is a compoonded 

fire ; and we call Jack in the clofe united Body of oily and 

Lanthorn, and Will with the falpharioas Matter, and fired 

Whifp : Becaufe it refemblei VapoDrs,cxhalcd from theEatrh. 

chap. III. Paiadise Lost. 299 

Fraud 5 to the Tree which was prohibited by Gob, 
and was the Occafion of all our Mifery : Which when 
. jhe faw, ihe fpoke thus to her Guide : 

. S E R p E NT ! we might have fpar'd ourfelves the 
Trouble of coming hither ; this Fruit is not for me, 
though there be luch an Abundance : Let the Credit 
of its Virtue remain . (fill with thee; wonderful in- 
deed, if it be the Caufe of fuch Effects ! but we nei- 
ther may tafte of this Tree, nor touch it : God com- 
manded it fo, and left that Command the only one of 
Obedience : As for^ the reft, we are a Law to our- 
felves ; oar own Reafon is our Law. 

To whom the Tempter artfaUy replied: Indeed! 
hath God declared ye Lords of all Things in Earth 
or Air, and yet (aid, that ye ftiall not eat of the Fruit 
of all the Trees in this Garden? To whom Eve (yet 
without Sin) replied : 

We n>ay cat of the Fruit of every Tree in the 
Garden •, but of this fair Tree in the Midft of it, God 
hath faid, ye fhall not eat thereof, neither fhall ye 
touch it left ye die. She had fcarce faid this, though 
but in few Words, when the Tempter, now grown 
bold, (though with Show of Zeal and . Love to 
M;A N, and Indignation at the Wrong he fuffer'd) be- 
gins to put on a new Part; and fluiluates about di- 
fturb'd, as one mov*d to Paffion; yet with Decency, 
and as about to begin to fpeak of fome great Matter : 
As when of old fome renown*d Orator in Athens, (x) 
pr free Rome, where Eloquence once flourilh*d, 
ftood coUefted in himfelf, and before he fpoke, with 
various Motions and Geftures won upon the Audi- 
ence ; 

(«) Athfnt\ Heh. i e. Wif^ Goddefs oi Wtfiom %x^d Inven- 
^MVy Gr. i. e. Oil ; from Mbtti^ trefs of Oil ; which bellowed her 
another Name of Minfr^, chp I^ame upon ihis Cicy $ or from 


300 Paradise Lost* Book IX. 

ence ; fbmetimes beginning with a high Voice, and 
coming immediately to the Subftance of the Argu- 
ment, as through Zeal too hafly to introduce it gra- 
dually : So the Tempter moving, Handing or rearing 
up, thus paffionately excIaimM : 

O WISE, Wifdom-giving, andfacred Plant, Mo- 
ther of Science ! now I clearly feel thy Power within 
mc; not only to difcem Things in their firft Caufes, 
but to trace the Ways of the higheft Agents, let them 
be thought never lb wife. Queen of this Univerfe ! 
don't bdieve thofe cruel Threats of Death ; ye fhall 
not die : How fhould ye die ? By the Fruit ? TSo ; that 
gives ye Life to Knowledge : Shall ye die by him 
who threatens ? Look on me, me ! who have touch'd 
and tailed it, and not only live, but hj venturing 
higher than my Lot, have attained to a Life and State 
more perfcft than Fate meant me. Shall that be de- 
nied to M A N, which is free to Brutes ? Or will God 
blow up his Anger for fuch a petty Trelpafs, and not 
rather praife your dauntlefs Virtue f Whom the Pain 
of threatened Death (whatever ftrange Thing Death 
may be) did not deter from atchieving what led to 
happier Life, and the Knowledge of Good and Evil ? 
Or Good how iuft is the Knowledge ! and Evil, (if 
dierc be any fuch Thing as real Evil) why fliould not 


Jthis the Danghter of Crmnutt 
thefecondKingof ic, according 
to Juftin, Lih^ 2. 6. Atbeus was 
the famous City and Univerfity 
ciGneee^ on the Coaft of ^z- 
iica^ the River of G^i&i^Qpon 
the Egian Sem^ and oace the 
Univerfal School of Mankind ; 
where Arts and Sciences had 
their firft Advancement among 
tht Greeks^ Jindcr S^crata, FIa" 
t9, and many other learned Ma- 
kers. It was bailt by Cicr§ptf 
the Egyftiau, the firft King of 

it» who lived in the Days of 
Mo/it^ aboat A. M. 2448. Be- 
fore JifuM Chrifi 1556 Years, 
780 before the taVi Olympiad^ 
375 before the Siege of 7r#y .• 
then it was called dcrfim^ Or, 
i. e. The Gtjf of Cecrops : and 
now Setiues and Jtbinm, cor- 
ruptly by the Turb 1 as they do 
alm(^ all antient Names of 
Men, Cities, Countries, &r. 
But now Learning is quite loft 
there. The Vemtiant took it 
from the Jurh, A. D. 1687. 

Chap« III. Paradise Lost* 301 

that be known, fince it might be the eafier fhunn'd ? 
God therefore, if he be juft, cannot hurt you ; if he 
did he would be not juft, not God; not fear'd then» 
nor obeyed ; nor is it Pain that you yourfelves are 
afraid of, but Death. Why then was this forbid ? 
Why, but to keep ye low, in Awe, and Ignorance, 
that fo ye might always worihip him : He knows, 
that in the Day that ye eat of that Fruit, your Eyes 
(that though they feem clear to you, are very dim) 
ihall then be perfeftly open'd and cleared •, and yc 
Ihall be like Gods, knowing both Good and Evil, ia 
the lame Manner as they do : Since I, by eating, am 
internally become rational as a Man ; by like Compa^ 
rifon, ye (hall be as Gods, rifing to Deity from hu- 
man Nature, as I from brutal to it. So it may be ye 
ihall die, that is by putting off human Nature, to be- 
come Gods ; if fo, De^th were to be wifliM for, no 
Matter how threatened, that brings no worfe thaa 
this along with it : And what I pray are Gods, that 
Man may not become, if he was to participate god- 
like Food with them i The Gods, as they happened 
to be firfl*, take that Advantage to impofe upon our 
Belief, that every Thing proceeds from them : Now 
I queftion it; for I fee this. fair Earth, as it is warm'd 
by the Sun, produ<5tive of every Kind ; but I fee 
them produce nothing : If they made all Things, 
who was it that put the Knowledge of Good and Evil 
into this Tree, that who-fo cats of the Fruit, forth- 
with without their Leave, attains Knowledge and 
Wifdom ? And wherein lies the Crime, that M a k 
ihould attain to Knowledge this Way ? What Hurt 
can your Knowledge do him ? Or what can this Tree 
impart againft his Will, if every Thing is his? Or is 
it Envy ? Then I afk again, can Envy dwell among 

Gods ? Thefe, thcfe, and many more Reafons, 

prove the Need you ftand in of this fair Fruit ; then 
human Goddefs! gatlier it, and tafte it freely. 


30J Fa It A D IS B LasT* BoofcDC 

H £ ended ; and his Words, full of Craft and D&- 
ceit> found a too eafy Entrance into her Heart : She 
fix*d her upon the Fruit, and fftood gazing, 
which only to fee was ftrong Temptation j and the 
Sound of his perfiiafive Words yet was in her Ear, 
feeming to her full of Reafon and Truth? Mean 
Time it drew near the Hour of Noon, which excited 
her Appetite, rais'd by the deliejous and favoury 
Smell of that Fruit ; which occafion'd her to Iook 
on it With longing Eyes, and at Length (being 
grown inclinable to touch or tafte) with Defire : Yet 
paufing a While, fhe firft faid mufing to herfelf : 

D o u B T L i s s thy Virtues are great, thou beft of 
Fruits! and worthy to be held ii> Admiration, diough 
denied to Man; whofe Taflse at once gave Elo- 
quence to the Mute, and taught the Tongue that was 
not made for Speech, to (peak thy Praife. He alfo, 
who forbids us thy Ule, does not conceal thy Praile 
from us, naming thee the Tree of Knowledge, both 
of Good and Evil : Then forbids us to talle I but his 
forbidding only commends thee the nK>re, while it 
acknowledges the Good thou would'ft communicate 
to us, and difcovers to us, what we want and are de- 
barred from : For the Good that we do not know, 
furely we have not ; or if we have and don*t know it, 
it is juft the fame Thing, as if we had it not at all. 
In plain Words then, what he forbids us is Know- 
ledge; forbids us that which is good, forbids us to 

be wife ? Such Prohibitions are not binding. But, 

if Death fhould feize and bind us afterwards, 
what Profit (hall we have from our inwa^xi Freedom ? 
In the Day that we eat of this fair Fruit, our Doom 
is. That we shall die. How does the Ser- 
pent die? He has eat of it, and lives, and knows^ 
and fpeaks, and reafons, and difcems; though he was 
irrational *till then- Was Death invented then 


Chap« Ul^ Paaadise Lost* 303; 

only fidf usi Or was this wttUe&val .Food. prohibit 
us» to. hfi fTcferv'd for the Beafts ? Ycs^ for the Beafts. 
it feomsl yet that one BcaSt^ .vfhich has tafted it firft» 
Iw dods pM eavy> Jbtitbrmgs the Goad befallen him^ 
vith Joy. in a fiitndly Manner to Me n^ without any* 
Deceit pr Guile* What ^m I afraid of then? Or ra*^. 
ther, what do I kijow tafcar under fuch Ignorance^* 
of Good and Evil, of God or Death, of Law pr 
Penalty? Here grows the Cure of all, this divine 
Fruit, beautiful to the Eye, inviting to the Taftc, and 
whofe Virtue is, to o^ake thofe who cat it wifet 
What hinders then, but that I gather of it, and a0 
^hce feed both Body and Mind ? 

r ' 

■ • . . . • t 

So faying, in an evil Hour reaching forth her 
Han4 to tke Fruit,4 fl^e pIuckM and ihe eat. Thd 
whole Earth felt the Wound, and Nature fighing 
Enough ail her Woitks, ^ve Signs of Woe that nXL 
was. loiL The guilty Serpent flunk back again to the 
Thicket ; which he ihijdit very eafily do^ without be^ 
ing abfiEayd . by her, lor ihe wholly intent upon her 
Tafte, minded nothing elfe ; it fcem'd to her that fhiB 
had never tailed Fnut with fuch Deiighr 'till thetH 
vhedier it.were troe^ er diat fhe only fancied {o^ 
through her great £^ped:ation of high Knowledge ^ 
fior was Godhead from her Thoughts and Hopesi 
She eat greedily without Reftraint, and did not know 
that fhe was eating Death: At length fatisfied^ 
and her Spiriss lifted up as with Wine, jocund, and 
^, fhe thus pleafmgly began to fay to herfelf : 

• ^ . .. . 

O Sovereign, fiilleft of Virtue, and moft preci- 
ous of all the Trees in Paradise ! bleft in the Power 
to operate Knowledge, 'till now kept in Obfcurity, 
and unknown ; and thy fair Fruit fufferM to hang, as 
created for no Purpofe : But henceforth (not without 
Song and due Praife every Morning) my early Care 
^l^alj/be (o tc^ thee, and eafe the fruitful Burthen of 



304 Paha DisE Lost. Book IX, 

dby full Branches, which ztt freely offered to all ; *till 
by feeding on thee I grow ripe in Knowledge, as the 
Gods who know all Things ; though it appear by 
them, that others envy what they can't give; for if 
the Gift had been theirs, it had never grown here. 
Ejroerience next to Knowledge I owe to thee, thou 
belt Guide ! for not following thee, I had remam'd in 
Ignorance : Thou openeft the Way of Wifdom, and 
giveft Accefs to her, though fhe may retire in fecret: 
Perhaps I am in fecret ; Heaven is a great Way off, 
very high, and *tis remote from thence to fee diftind- 
ly every Thing upon Earth ; and perhaps {omt other 
Care may have diverted our great Forbidder from hia 
continual Watch, fafe with all his Spies about him. 
•; — But in what Manner fhall I appear to Ad am? 
Shall I as yet make my Change known to him, and 
let him partake full Happinefs with me ? Or rather 
not do it, but keep the Odds, of Knowledge in my 
own Power without an equal Partner ? and fo make 
an Addition of what is wanting in the Fenule Sex, to 
draw his Love the more, and render me more his £« 
aual ; and perhaps (which is a Thing very defirable) 
tometimes his Superior; for . being inferior, who is 

free? This may do well. But what if God has 

feen me, and Death fhould follow? Then I fhall be 
00 more ! and Adam will be wedded to another Evb^ 
and live enjoying all Happinefs with her, when I am 
dead: O it is Death to think of tliat! then I am 
confirm'd in my Refbludon, that Adam fliall fhare 
with me m Happinefs or Mifcry : So dearly I love 
him, that I could endure all D £ a t h with him^ nor 
would live any life without him« 



Chap. IV. Paradise Lost* 305 


Eve brings (f the Fruit to Adam, be eats aljb j 
the Bfeffs thereof on tbem both. 

SAYING this. Eve tum'd from the Tree, ha- 
ving firft bow*d low to it, 03 in Reverence to 
the Power that dwelt within ; who had infused 
into the Plant, what could communicate Knowledge, 
and fit to be partook of by Gods. Mean Time 
Adam, waiting for and defiring her Return, had 
wove a Garland of the choiceft Flowers to adorn her 
Hair, and crown her, after her rural Labour, as 
Reapers are accuftom'd to do their Harveft Queen : 
He promis*d great Joy to himfelf, and new Delight 
at her Return, which was fo long delay'd ; yet his 
Heart foreboding fomethmg ill, often mifgave him, 
and he felt it fail him ; fo that he went forth to meet 
her in the Way that ihe took that Morning, when 
they firft parted. He could not pafs any other Way, 
but by the Tree of Knowledge, and there he met her 
juft returning from it ; in her Hand fhe had a Bough 
of faireft Fruit with the Down on it, juft gathe- 
red, of beautiful Appearance and delicious Fragrancy. 
She hafted to him, and in her Face feem*d to carry 
an Excufe, and an Apology for what was done; 
which with pleafins Words, that to her were never 
wanting, Ihe thus addrefs'd to Adam: 

Hast thou not wonder'd at my Stay ? I have 
mifs*d thee, and thought it long, deprived of thy Pre- 
fence ; I have had fuch Anxiety of Mind, fuch Ago^ 
ny of Love, which I never knew *till now, nor ever 
will again ; for I never more intend to try (what I 
now rafhly have) what Pain there is in being abfent 
from thee. But ftrange and wonderful to hear hath 
been the Caufe : This Tree is not, as we have been 

X told 

3o6 Paradise Lost/^ Book IX. 

told, dangerous to tafte of, nor opening the Way to 
any unknown Evil -, but of divine Effect to open their 
Eyes, and make them Gods, who tafte of it, and 
fuch it has been tafted. The wife Serpent, (either 
not forbid like us, or elfe not obeying) he hath eaten 
of the Fruit ; and is not become dcad^ as we were 
threatened -, but inftead of that, indued with human 
Voice and Senfe, reafoning to Admiration ! and with 
fuch Perfwafion hath fo Wrought and prevailed with 
me, that I have tafted too, and have found the EfFefts 
to correlpond too with me •, my Eyes that were before 
dim, grown opener; my Spirits dilated, my Heart 
enlarged, and T growing up to Godhead : Which I 
chiefly fought for tiice,* and can defpife without thee; 
for Happinefs h only fo to mc, while thou haft Part; 
it would foon grow tedious and odious, if thou didft 
not IJiare it with me : Therefore do thou tafte too, 
that the fame Lot may join us, equal Joy, and equal 
Love ; left, if thou tafte not. Difference of Degree 
fhould feparate us, and I too late fhould defire to re- 
nounce Deity for thy Sake, when Fate will not per- 
mit it. 

Thus Eve told her Story with a chearflil Coun^ 
tenance ; but there was fomething like Diffimulation 
and Shame, flufhing on her Cheek. Ad am, on the 
other Side, as ibon as he heard of the fatal Trefpafs 
committed by Eve, ftood aftonifh'd and confoun- 
ded, while a cold Horror ran through all his Veins, 
and relax*d his Joints. The Garland he had wreathed 
for E V E he let fall out of his Hand, and flied all the 
faded Rofcrs ; he remainM fpeechlefs and pale, 'till at 
Length he firft to himfelf broke inward Slcnce : 

O FAi«EST Part of Creation ! the laftandbeft of 
all GoD*s \yprks! aO'eature who excelled whatever 
can be formed either to Sight or Thought, of holy, 
divine, good, amiable, orfwect! how art thou loft, 


chap. TV. I'aradise Lost. 307 

^ » 

how on a fuddcn dcfacM and robb'd of Innocence, 
now devoted to D e a t h ! or rather, how haft thou 

{rielded to tranlgrefs the ftrift Command, and to vio- 
ate the facred forbidden Fruit! Some curs'd Fraud 
yet unknown, of our Enemy hath beguil'd thee, and 
with thee hath ruin'd me : For certain my Refokition 
is to die with thee! P^ow can I live without thee 1 
how can I forego thy Converfation, fweeten'd and en- 
dear'd by Love, to live again forlorn and alone in 
thefe wild Woods I Should God create anotlier Eve, 
and I for that End part with another Rib, yet the 
Lofs of thee would ever remain at my Heart ! No, 
no I I feel the Ties of Nature bind me ; thou art Bouc 
of my Bone, and Flelh of my Flefh, and from thy 
State mine fhall never be parted, be it Happinefs or 
Mifery ! 

Having faid this to himfelf, as one after fome 
fad Difmay a little comforted, and fubmitting, after 
difturb'd Thoughts, to what fcem'd without Reme- 
dy, in a calm, confiderate, and melancholy Manner 
he turn'd himfelf to Eve. 

Adventurous Eve! (faid he) thou haft prcfu- 
med to do a very bold Deed, and provok'd great Pe- 
ril, who haft thus dar*d, had it been only coveting to 
look upon that Fruit, facred to Abftinence ; much 
more to tafte it, or touch it without incurring the Pe- 
nalty of a Curfe. But who can recall what is paft, or 
undo what is done ? Not God Almighty, nor Fate ! 
Yet fo it is, that perhaps thou flialt not die •, for per- 
haps the Faft is not fo heinous now, the Fruit being 
tafted by the Serpent before, by him profan'd, made 
common, and uimallow'd 5 it is not found deadly yet 
on him, he yet lives, and as thou faid'ft has gain'd a 
higlier Degree of Life, to live as M a n ; a ftrong 
Inducement to us, as being likely on our tafting it, to 
find a proportionable EfFed ; which cannot be, except 

X 2 we 

3o8 PARADisfi Lost. Book DC 

wc become Gods, Angels, or Demi-Gods. Nor can 
I think that God^ though he lias threatened it, will in 
Eameft deftroy us in fuch a Manner, who are the 
prime of all his Creatures, dignified fo high, and fet 
over all his Works ; which as they were created for 
us, and made dependant on us, mu(t needs fail in our 
Fall : Sp G o D mail uncreate his Creation, be fruftra- 
ted in his Defign, do and undo, and lofe his Labour, 
which is not well conceived of God ; who (though 
he had Power to make a new Creation) yet he would 
be loth to abolilh us, left the Enemy fhould triumph 
and fay, •« Their State is very fickle that God fa- 
•* vours moft! Who can pleafe him long? Me he ru- 
** in'd firft, now Mankind; whom will he ruin 
•* next." which is a Matter of Scorn not to be givea 
to the Foe. However, I have fix'd my Lot, and rc- 
folve to undergo the fame Fate as thee : If D £ a t h 
Is to be thy Portion, then Death is to me as Life : 
I feel the Bond of Nature within my Heart, fo forci- 
bly draw me to my own Part in thee ; for what thou 
art is mine, our State cannot be divided, we are one, 
one Flefli, and to lofe thee were to lofe myfcif 

Thus fpoke AdaM; and Eve made him this 
Reply : O exceeding great and glorious Tryal of 
Love, high Example and illuftrious Evidence, enga* 
ging me to emulate ! but how Ihall I, Adam, being 
inferior in Nature, attain to thy Perfedtion? From 
whofe dear Side I boaft that I am fprung, and gladly 
hear thee fpeak of our Union, that we both have but 
one Heart and one Soul, of which this Day affords 
good Proof; declaring thee refolv*d, rather than 
Death, or any Thing more dreadful than D e a t h 
ftiall feparate us, (who are linked together in luch 
dear Love) to undergo with me one Guilt and one 
Crime (if it be any Crime) of rafting this fair Fruit> 
whofe Virtue (which at leaft is fome Good) hath pre- 
fented this happy Trial of thy Love ; which clfe had 



chap, IV. Paradise Lost. 309 

never been known fo eminently. If I thought 
Death would be the Confequence of this my At- 
tempt, I would fufFer the word alone, and rather die 
forfaken of thee, than tie thee to me with an Adion, 
(that might afterward give thee Sorrow ; chiefly ha- 
ving fo remarkable and late an Affurance of thy true 
faithful, and unequalled Love. But I feel the Event 
far otherwife; not Death, but additional Life, 
new Hopes, new Joys, and new Knowledge : So di- 
vine a Tafte has touched my Senfc, that every Thing 
that was fweet before, feems flat and harfli to this. 
Tafte freely, Adam, on my Experience, and deliver 
all Fear of D £ a t h to the Winds ! 

S o faying, (he embraced him, and wept tenderly 
for Joy ; much mov*d that he had rais'd his Love to 
fuch a noble Height, as to incur divine Dilpleafure or 
Death for her Sake. In Rccompencc (for fuch a 
bad Compliance as his merited no better) fhe gave 
him with a plentiful Hand, from the Bough of that 
fair enticing Tree : He eat without Scruple againft his 
better Knowledge; not deceived in the Icaft, but 
fondly overcome with Female-Charms and Entice- 
ments. The Earth trembled, as it had done before 
when Eve eat, and Nature gaveafecond Groan; 
the Sky lower'd, it thunder'd, and fome Drops fell 
at the compleating of the mortal original Sin ; (a) 

X 3 while 

(a) Original Siu^ it that 
Guilt which Chriftians fuppofe 
to be deriv'd from Adam and 
Evt to all cheir Pofterity. They 
endeavour to prove it from Job 
14. 4. " Who can bring a 
*« clean Thing oat of an un-r 
" clean ? not one/' PfaL 51,7. 
•* Wherefore as by one Man 
•• Sin-entered into the World, 
*^ and Deatk by Sin i and fo 


Death pafled upon all Men, 
** for that all have finned.'* 
Ephef, 2. 3. *• Among whom 
alfo we had our Converfation 
in times paft, in the Lufts of 
our Flelh, fulfilling the De- 
fires of the Fleih, and of the 
Mind s and were by Nature 
the Children of Wrath, even 
as others." From the De- 
generacy and Corruption of all 







3IO Paradise Lost. BooklX. 

while Adam kept eating his Fill, and took no 
Thought; neither was Eve afraid to commit her for- 
mer Crime again, the more to footh him with her be- 
lov'd Society ; that now both being intoxicated, as it 
were with new Wine, they become quite foil of 
Mirth, and fancy that they feel Divinity within them, 
producing that v/hich would make them fcorn the 
Earth. But that falfe Fruit firft flicw'd a quite dif- 
ferent Operation, enflaming them with carnal Defirc ; 
he began to caft lafcivious Eyes upon Eve, which 
Glances (he as wantonly repaid ; *till they burnt in 
the finful Paflion of Luft^ and Adam thus began to 
cxprefs it to Eve: 

Now Eve, I fee that thou art of an cxaft and 
elegant Tafte, which is no fmall Part of Knowledge ; 
fince we apply and refer all different Savours to the 
Judgment of the Palate, which if nice, we fay is ju- 
dicious; fo well haft thou made Provifion for this 
Day, that I yield the Praife to thee. We have loft a 
great Deal of Pleafure, while we abftain*d from this 
delightful Fruit, nor 'till now have known the true 
Relilh of Tafte : If there be fuch a Pleafure in Things 
forbidden us, it might be wilhM that for this one 
IVee we had been forbidden ten. But come ! now we 
are fo well refrelh'd, let us leek Paftime as cannot but 
be agreeable after fuch delicious Fare -, for never fince 
the Day I faw thee firft, and wedded thee, adorn*d 
with all Perfection, did thy Beauty fo inflame my 
Senfe with Defire to enjoy thee : Thou feemeft fairer 
to me now than ever ; all which is owing to the Vir- 
tue of this Tree, 


Nations ; the natural Pronehefs derly Paffions, Fezr, Guilt, 

of all Men to Vice and Inimo* Shame, Confufion, Mii'ery, Mor- 

xality ; their Averfion to Piety tality, Lofs of God's Favour, 

and Virtue* and the Pcrfedions Expuifion out of FaraJi/i. &c. 

and Happinefs of Jiiam and St. Jufiin firH called it Original 

£ve, before they cominitted Sia^ 
this Sin, conipared with diior- 

Ghap. IV* Paradise Lost. 311 

H E faid thus, and did not forbear Glances or wan- 
ton Motions of amorous Intent ; \^ich were now well 
underftood by Eve, whofe Eye darted the contagi- 
ous Fire of Luft. He feiz'd her Hand, and led her 
(flie beihg forward to go) to a fliady Bank, covered 
thick over-head with thick Branches ; their Bed was 
of various Flowers : There they took their Fill of 
Love and Play, the Seal of their mutual Guilt, and 
the Solace of their Sin -, 'till Sleep opprefs*d them, 
they being wearied with Dalliance and amorous 

As foon as the Force of that fallacious Fruit was 
exhal'd, that with exhilarating Vapour had play*d 
about their Spirits, and led their inmoft Powers into 
Error ; and groffer Sleep, bred of unkindly Fumes, 
and incumber*(5 with confcious Dreams, had now left 
them; they rofe up, not refrefh'd, but weary as if 
they had not flept ; and each viewing the other, foon 
found how their Eyes were opened, and their Minds 
how darkened! Innocence was gone, that like a Veil 
had fhadow'd them from knowing Evil ; juft Confi- 
dence, native Righteoufnefs, and Honour, were gone 
from about them, and they were left naked to guihy 
Shame. Adam cover'd himfelf, but his Covering 
was ftill more Shame: So rofe Samson (b) from 
the Lap of Dalilah, (c) that Harlot he had taken 

X 4 from 

[h) Samfonjbr Zhimfonfieh. i.e. 
Hear the fecond fiWr'becaufe 
the Angel was in treated to 
coiiic to his Parents, a fecond 
Time, to let them henr of his 
Conception, Manner of Life and 
mighty Deeds. He was the 
Twelfth and laft of ihe Jadges 
of I/rael: Succeeded jfbdin^ 
judged that People twenty Years, 
and died A. M. 28B7. before 

Jf/us CJ.^rif!^ ?iboat Eleven hun- 
dred and Jtventeen Years. 

(c) Dalilah i fleh. i. c. J§ 
Conjumer. Jofefous calls her 
Dalale^ and the Greeks Dalida^ 
which do:h not alter the S.'gniii* 
cation of the Word. A Woman- 
that Hvcd in the Valley of^^ 
reck, which lies upon the Banks 
of the Rivf r Soreck^ Heh. \ e. 
A Myrtle Branch: becaufe mt- 


^12 Paradise Lost. Book IX. 

from amoi^the Philistines, and wak*d deprived of 
his Strength ; fo Adam and Eve wak'd, deftiti]l£ aixi 
bare of ^ their Virtue : They fat a long Time with 
their Countenances confused, as though they had been 
ilnick dumb ; 'till A d a m, though no lefs abaih'd 
than Eve, at length forc'd Utterance to thefe 
Words : 

O £ V B t It was in an ill Hour that thou gaveft 
Ear to that falfe Serpent, whoever taught him to 
counterfeit M a n's Voice ; the Truth being that wc 
are fallen, but our promised Riling falfe ; fince we 
find, that indeed our Eyes are opened, and find that 

we know both Good and Evil ! Good loft, and 

Evil got! A very bad Fruit of Knowledge, if this 

be to know ; this, which leaves us thus naked, void 
of Honour, Innocence, Faith, and Purity, our ufual 
Ornaments, now all defird and ftam'd ! and evident 
in our Faces the Signs of foul Concupifcence ; whence 
comes Store of Evil, even Shame, the utmoft Evil ; 

and be affur'd many Icfler will attend. How fhall 

I henceforth behold the Face of G o d, or any of the 
Angels, fo often feen heretofore with Joy and Rap- 
ture ? Thofe heavenly Shapes will now dazle me with 
the Blaze of their Brightnefs, which I am no longer 
able to bear. O! that I might live favage here in So* 
litude, hid in fome thick Shade, not to be penetrated 
by the Light of the Sun or Stars; where higheft 
Trees fpread their broad Shades, and darken the 
Night! Cover me, ye Pines ! Hide me, ye Cedars ! 
widi innumerable Boughs, where I may never fee 

G o D or Angel more ! But now let us, in this bad 

Condition we are in, contrive what may beft ferve for 


ny MjTXltt grew there. This CaJSan, St. EpBrem, Piririus, 

Valley was abmit twelve Miles Sm/fitim, SeverttSt &c. think flie 

from Jtrufaltm^ on the Weft, was his Wile. Bat J^fipbmt, St. 

but beloneed to the Pbiliftina^ Amtroff^ St, j£r§m^ Strrarim, 

Samfpn'% Miflrefs and Betrayer, &c. believe otherways. 
Judg. 1 6, 4. 5. S, Cbryfijiom, 

chap. IV. Paradise Lost. 313 

the prefent, to hide thofe Parts of ours each from the 
other, that are unfeemliefl: and feem mofl obnoxious 
to Shame: Let us find fome Tree, whofe broad 
fmooth Leaves join'd together, and girded upon our 
Loins, may cover all round thofe middle Parts ; that 
this new Comer Shame, may not continually reproach 
us as unclean. 

Adam counfeird thus, and they botli went toge- 
ther into the thickeft Wood ; there they foon chofc 
the Fig-Tree; not that which is efteem'd for its 
Fruit, but fuch as at this Day (known to the I n d i- 
ANS in Malabar, (d) or Dec an, C^^ ) fpreads 
branching fo broad and long, that the bended Twigs 
take Root in the Ground, and grow round about the 
Body of the Tree, from whence they firft (hot forth ; 
which makes a Shade like Rows of Pillars archM 
high over, and having Walks between; there the 
Indian Herdfmeri often ihunning the Heat (bel- 
ter themfelves, and tend their Herds as they feed, 
cutting a Pa^ge through the thick Shade* The 


filj Malabar I Indian. A 
vaft Coantry of India^ lying a- 
long the Weft Coaft of the Pe- 
mnfula firom Cape Cem9riH^ o- 
ver againft the Ifland of Ctylon^ 
to Canara^ on this Side of the 
Qangis ; in Length about 1 80 
Leagues, or 324 Miles ; but no 
where above too in Breadth ; 
and the moft fruitful, temperate 
and populous Region in the 
World. It contained formerly 
fereral Kingdoms, which in the 
Time of Sarma Firiwtai, about 
730 Years ago, were all fubje^l 
to one Sovereign : Heenjbraced 
Muhammedanifm, divioed his 
Hingdom among his ReUtions, 
and went in De^tion to Micca, 
and died there ; but many of 
the People are Pagans ftill, and 
•thers have embraced Chriftia- 

nity of late, by the Miilionariea 
fent thither by the King of 
DiMmark in 1706. 

(f) Decani Ind. i. e. 7be South. 
A Royal City of a Kingdom of 
the fame Name in Mia, be- 
longing to Malabar^ in many 
Jflands, on this Side of the 
Ganges* It has Bengal on the 
Eafi^ the Indian Sea on the 
Wefi ; Bifnogar on the Souih^ 
and the Moguls Country on the 
Norib. There, thefe broad* 
leav'd Fig Trees grow in Abun* 
dance, which Milton hints^at 
here : the Leaves of the Bonona 
Tree in Perm are four or Bve 
Foot long, and about two Foot 
wide. Another grows there, 
which is <ibout twelve Feet long 
and five broad, which the Na- 
tives ufe for a Table Qoth. 

314 Paradise Lost. fiooklX. 

Leaves of thofe Trees they gathered, which were ve- 
ry broad, and with what Skill they had fewM them 
together, to gird their Waifts. Vain Covering, if 
defign'd to hide their Guilt, and the Shame that they 
dreaded! O how unlike to their firft naked Glory! 
Juft fo Columbus (/) found the Americans, (g) 
onlv girt round with Feathers ; who elfe were naked 
and wild among the Trees, on Iflands, or by the Sea 
Shore. Adam and Eve having made thefe A- 
prons, and as they thought in rart covered their 
Shame, were neverthelefs not at Reft or Eafe in their 


(f) Columhus ; Gt, Lat, i. e. 
A Dovi, Chrifiopher Columlui 
or Coion^ born in Qtguna, bat 
others (kj at Neray^ near Gni^ 
in Italy. He from his own 
Knowledge in Geography, and 
from the information of an old 
SsLilorJ/fhonfiu Santrius^ (whom 
he faved in a Shipwreck) difco- 
vered Amtrica, under the Name 
and Aid of Firdinand King of 
Spain t A. D. 1492. Bat it was 
£rft difcovered aboat 300 Years 
before, jf. D, 1170, by Madoc 
avaHaQt Prince andSon oiOwen 
Guinneth King of WaUs ; as is 
related by Lytrwric Ap GraMo^ 
Gafyn OweM, Peter Martyr^ 
Humphpy Lloyd, Damid P^^well^ 
Sir John Price, Richard Hack^ 
luyt. Sir Thomas Herbert , &c. 
which was farther confirmed by 
the Reverend Mr. Morgan 
JoneSf Chaplain of Sonth Car^- 
l:na^ who lived four Months 
with the Doeg Indians^ and 
converfed with them in the Old 
Britifl> Language. LafUy^ that 
Prince Madoc was buried in 
Mexico^ appears by the Epitaph 
on his Monument lately found 
there. Sec the Gloucefter Jour^ 
nal and Daily P0JI, &c. March 

6, 1 740. After all the Service 
done to Spasn^ Columbus was ba* 
ried at Sevil, with Contempt. 

(g) Assmicaw ; the People of 
Americiti fo called from Ame^icus 
Fejpucci or Vefpujius^ a Floren- 
tine, who difcovered this New 
Woria, A, D. '597- and fiv>e 
Years after Co/nmbns, America 
is furrounded with the Ocean on 
all Sides, and is not contiguous 
to Afia I as the Ruffians have 
lately difcovered. It is as large 
as the three known garters oi 
the World ; for Mexico (or 
North America) is reckoned by 
fome to be aboot 23000 Miles, 
and Peru (or South America) 
1 7000 Miles in Compafs : That 
is, if all the Land upon Gulphs, 
Promontories and Jflands were 
duly meafured. It contains 
firom N. to 8. aboat 8220 Miles, 
and from £. to W. 6540 M. 
Piato, Ariftoiie^ Diodorus Sictt* 
lus^ and other Antients gave 
fome dark Hints of America i 
and other Authors affirm that 
the old Carthaginians traded to 
it. But how could that be done 
without the Ufe of the Compais 
and other Helps of Navigation, 
not known to the Antienu ? 

chap. IV* Paradisb Lost^ 315 

Minds, but they fat them down to weep. Not only 
Tears fell from their Eyes, but high Storms began to 
rife within, high Paffions, Anger, Hate, Miftrufl^ 
Sufpicion, and Difcord, which forely fhook the in- 
ward State of their Minds, that once were quite calm 
and full of Peace, now reftlcfs and turbulent ; for the 
Underftanding rul'd no longer, nor did the Will take 
it any longer for a Guide, but was in Subjection now 
to fenfual Appetite, who ufurping, claimM a I'uperior 
Sway over fovereign Reafon. Adam, from a Breaft 
thus diftemper'd, eftrang'd in Look, and in a diffe- 
rent Stile, again renewed his Speech to E v e : 

I w I s H thou hadil hearkcn'd to what I faid, and 
(bid with me as I befought thee, when that ftrange 
Defire of wandering this unhappy Morning, I know 
not whence, poffefs'd thee! wc had then remained 
happy fkill; not as we are now, difpoil'd of all our 
Good, fham'd, naked, and miferable. Hence- 
forth, let none feek necdlefs Caufes to prove the Faith 
they owe; but conclude, when they carneftly feek 
fucn Proof, that then they begin to fail in their Duty. 
To whom Eve, foon mov'd with Adam's laying 
the Blame upon her, thus anfwer*d : 

Adam, what very fevere Words have pafs*d thy 
Lips ? Wilt thou impute that to my Default, or Will 
of wandering, (as thou calleft it) which, who knows, 
4pight have happened as ill if thou had ft been by, or 
perhaps have happened to thee, hadft thou been 
there, or had the Attempt been made here? Thou thy*- 
ielf could*ft not have diicern'd any Fraud in the Ser- 
pent, fpeaking as he fpoke ; there was no Ground oi 
Enmity known between us, why (hould he mean me 
any Dl, or do me any Harm ? What, was I never 
then to have parted from thv Side ? As well I might 
hive grown there ftill one of thy Ribs, and lifelefs! 
B:4ng as lam, and thou the Head, why didft not thou 
abfolutely command me not to go, efpecially going 
into fuch Danger as thou faid'ft ? But thou wert too 


3i6 pARApisv Lost. Book IX. 

eafy then, and didft not much oppofe me ; nay, thou 
didft permit me to go, approve of my goii^, and 
difmil's'd me fairly : Hadft thou been firm and fix'd 
(as thou ought*ft to have been) in with-holding me, 
then had not I tranfgrefs'd, nor thou with me. 

To whom then Ad a m (the firft Time of his be- 
ing angry) reply *d : Is this thy Love, and this the 
Recompence of mine to thee, which I p-ov'd un* 
changeable, ungrateful Eve! when thou wert loft, 
riot I, who might have liv*d and enjoy *d immortal 
Happinefs ; yet willingly rather chofe Death with 
thee : And am I now upbraided, as the Caufe of thv 

TranfgreiTion? 1 was not, it feems, feverc enough 

in my Reftraint! — What could I do more ? I wam'd 
thee, I counfelM and admonifhM thee •, told thee be- 
fore-hand of the Danger, and the lurking Enemy that 
lay in wait: What I had done beyond this had been 
Force, and Force can have no Eflfedt upon Free-will. 
But then Confidence bore thee on ; thou thought'ft 
thyfelf very fecurc, eidier to meet no Danger at all, 
or elfe to find Matter of Glory in the Tryal : And 
perhaps I was alfo in an Error, in admiring too much 
what feem'd in thee to be fo very pcrfe6t, that I 
thought nothing evil durft make an Attempt upon 
thee ; but I rue that Error now, which is become my 

Crime, and thou become my Accufer too! Thus 

fhall it happen to Man, who putting too much Con- 
fidence in the Worth of Woman, lets her Will rule: 
She won't bear to be reftrain'd ; and yet if Ihe is left: 
to herielf, and any Evil cnfue from thence, flie'll firft 

accufe his weak Indulgence of her. Thus they 

fpent the Hours in mutual Accufation of each other ; 
but neither of them would condemn themfelves, and 
there appeared no End to their vain and fruitleis Con- 

"The End of the Ninth BooKi 

[317 ] 


O F 


The Argument. 

MAN'J Tranjgreffim knowrty the guar' 
dian jingels forfake Paradife, and re- 
turning up to Heaven are approved 
of. Go D declar'd that the Entrance 
of Satan couM not be by them prevented. He fends 
bis Son to judge the "Tr^greSors j wAj defcendi^ 
and gives Sentence accordingfy ; in Pity chatbs 
them bothy and re-afcends. Sin and Da^ftting 
till then at the Gates of Heil, by wondrous Sympa- 
tbyy feeling the Succefs of Satan in this new 
World, ana the Sin by Man there committed, re~ 
foh'd to fit no longer in Hell, but to follow Satan 
their Father up to the Place of Man ; To make the 
Way eafyfrom Hell to this World to andfro^ they 


3i8 Paradise Lost. Book X. 

pave a broad Highway or Bridge over Chaos, ac- 
cording to tbe Track that ^tznjirji fnade ; then 
pretaring for Earthy they meet hinty proud of Sue- 
cejs returning to Hell; Their mutual Grdtula- 
tion : Satan arrives at Pandsemonium in fuUAf 
fenAiy relates with boaJHng hisSuccefs againji Msn-, 
ifdlead of Aj^laufe is entertained with a general 
Hifi by all bis Audience ^ tramform'dy with him 
alfiy juddenly into Serpent s^ according to his Doom 
given in Paradife : Then deluded with a Show of 
the Forbidden Tree fpringing up before them^ they 
greedily reaching to tajle of the Fruity chew Dtyi 
and bitter AJhes. The Proceedings of Sin and 
Death; God foretells the final ViSory of his Son 
over them^ and the renewing of all things ; buf^ 
for tbe prefent commands his Angels to makefeve^ 
ral Alterations in the Heavens and Elements. A- 
dam more and more perceiving his fallen Condi- 
tion heavily bewails-, rejeSls the Condolement of 
Eve 5 Jhe perfifis^ and at length appeafes him ; then 
to evade the Curfe likely to fall on their Offfpriflg 
propofes to Adam violent Ways, which he approves 
not*, buty conceiving better Hope, puts her in 
Mind of the late Promife, that her Seed fhould be 
revenged on the Serpent ; and exhorts her with him 
tofeek Peace of the offended Deity y by Repetaance 
and Supplication. 


chap* I. Paradise Lost. 319 


The Guardkn Angels leave Paradife on Man*j 
TranfgreJJim : God thereupon fends bis Son to 
judge the Tranfgreflbrs. 

BAN while the defpiteful and heinous 
Aftion of S A T A N, which he had done 
in Paradise, was known in Heaven> 
and how he having poffcfsM the Str* 
pent had perverted Eve, and fhe her 
Hufband, to tafte of the fatal forbidden 
Fruit: For what can efcape the Eye of God, who 
fees every Thing, or deceive him who knows all 
Things ? Who juft and wife in all his Ways, did not 
hinder Satan from attempting to corrupt the Mind 
of Man, who was arm'd with Free- will and Strength, 
compleatly fufKcient to have difcover'd and repuis'd 
all Stratagems whatever, either of Foe or pretended 
Friend : For ftill they knew, and ought ever to have 
remember'd the high Injundlion, not to tafte of that 
Fruit whoever tempted them ; which thev not obey- 
ing, incurred (and what could they do lels ?) the Pe- 
nalty \ and having in that one Sin committed Rebel- 
lion, Difobedience, Pride, Senfuality, and Ingrati- 
tude, they deferv*d to fall. 

The Angels, whofe Charge it was to guard P a- 
RADiSE, ^cended from thence in Hafte up into 
Heaven, filcnt and forrowful for M a n ^ for by this 
Time they knew his fallen State, much wondering 
how the fubtle Fiend had found Entrance into Para- 
dise unfeen. As foon as the unwelcome News arri- 
ved from Earth to the Gates of Heaven, all were dif- 
pleas'd who heard it: That Time, dim Sadnefs did not 


320 Paradise Lost. I^k X. 

' fpare heavenly Faces 5 yet, as it was mix'd with Pi- 
ty, it did not leflen their Blifs. The Angels crowded 
about thofe who were juft arrived from Earth, to hear 
and know how every Thing befell : They made Hafte 
towards the fupreme Throne, to give the Account, 
and make appear with juft Plea their utmoft Dili- 
gence, which was well approved of; when the moft 
nigh eternal Father utter'd his Voice thus in 
Thunder, from amidft his fecret Cloud. 

Y £ aflembled Angels, and Powers retum'd from 
your unfuccefsful Charge! don't be difmay'd nor 
troubled at thefe bad Tidings from the Earth, which 
could not be prevented by your fincereft Care, you 
being lately foretold what would come to pafs, when 
firft Satan crofs'd the Gulph from Hell. I told 
ye then, that he fhould prevail, and fucceed in his 
bad Purpofe ; that Man Ihould be feduc'd and flat- 
tered out of all, by reafon of his believing Lies a- 
gainft his M A K E R ; no Decree of mine concurring 
to necefTitate his Fall, or in the leaft have any ImpuUe 
upon his Free-will, which was left in even Balance to 
its own Inclination : But he is fallen ; and now what 
remains, but that the mortal Sentence (hould pafs on 

his Tranfgreffion ? Death was threatened to be 

inflifted on him the Day that he tranfgrefs'd, which 
he already prefumes vain and void, beCaufe yet not 
inflidted (as he was afraid) by fome immediate Stroke ; 
but he foon (hall find, before the Day is iinifhM, tliat 
Forbearance is no Acquittance : Juftice Ihall not re- 
turn fcornM, as Bounty has. But whom do I fend 
to judge them? Whom but Thee, my Son and 
Vicegerent ? To Thee I have made over all Judg* 
ment, whether in Heaven, or Earth, or Hell. It 
may eafily be feen, that I intend Mercy to be Compa- 
nion with Juftice, when I fend Thee, the Friend of 


Chap. I. Paradise Lost. 321 

Man, his Mediator, (a) his defign'd and voluntary 
Ranfom and Redeemer, (who is to take upon himfclf 
the Nature of a Man) to judge fallen Man. 

S o fpake the Almighty Father; and unfolding 
his bright Glory toward the Right-Hand, fhone forth 
his whole Deity on his Son; in whom that Glory 
ighich in the Father was invifible, was exprefs and 
manifeft ; and who divinely gave this mild Ajifwer : 

Eternal Father! It is Thou who art to make 
Decrees ; it is my Part, both in Heaven and Earthy 
to obey thy fupreme Willj that Thou in me, thy be- 
loved Son, may*ft always be well pleafed. I go to 
judge thofe, who have tranfgrefs'd thy Law on Earth i 
but Thou knoweft, whoever is judged, the worft 
muft light upon me, in the Fullnefs of Time ; for fo 
I undertook before Thee, and now not repenting, ob^ 
tain this of Right, that I may mitigate their Doom, 
which is to fall on me : Yet I fhall fo temper Juftice 
with Mercy, as may (hew them both to be fully fatif- 
jfied, and appeafe Thee. There will be no Need of 
Attendance or Train, where none ate to behold the 
Judgment, but thofe two who are to be judged: Sa- 
tan convifted by Flight, and Rebel to all Law, is 
beft condemned when abfent ; for Conviftion does not 
belong to the Serpent. 

Thus faying, he rofe from his radiant Seat of 
Glory, high and equal to the Father: Thrones 
and Powers, Princedoms and Dominations mini- 

Y fterins 

(a) Mediator; Fr. liaL Sp. cefs to God| but it made him 

from the Lot, i. e. One that is fo abominable and odious to 

in the middle between two dif- the infinite Hofinefs of the Dei- 

ferent Perfona ; a Manager be- ty, that he could not be accept' 

tween Perfons at Variance ; an able, without an Advocaie and 

laterceflbry a Peace Maker. Interccflbr. 
Before Sin^ Jdam had free Ac- 

322 Paradise Lost. ^ookX. 

ftering to him, accompanied him to the Gate of Hea- 
ven i from whence Eden and all the Coaft lay in 
Profpeft: Strait he defcended down : (the Speed of 
Gods can't be meafur'd by Time, though it may be 
thought to move ever fo fwiftly.) Now the Sun was 
defcending towards the Weft after Noon, and gentle 
Breezes, at their due Hour, rofe to cool and refrefh 
the Earth, and bring on the Evening ; when he, his 
Wrath more affwag'd, came both the mild Judge 
and Interceflbr, to pafs Sentence upon Man. Adam 
arid Eve heard the Voice of the Lord God, walk- 
ing in the Garden in the Cool of the Day, brought to 
their Ears by foft Winds 5 they heard, and hid them- 
felves from his Prefence among the thickeft Trees in 
the Garden, both Man and Wife; 'till Go-d ap- 
proaching, thus called aloud to Adam: 

. Adam! where art thou ? thou wert us'd to meet 
my coming with Joy, and fee me far off; I am not 
pleased that I mifs thee here, and am entertained with 
Solitude, where (as it was obvioufly thy Duty) thou 
us'd to appear before me uncalled for : Or do I come 
Icfa confpicuous ? Or what Change in thee caufcs thy 

Abfence? Or what Chance detains thee? Come 


A T that Call he came forth, and Eve with him, 
more unwilling than he, though flie had been the firft 
to offend ; they were both in a State of Difcompo- 
fure, and out of Countenance : There was no Love 
in their Looks, either to G o d or one another ; but 
apparent Guilt, Shame, Perturbation, Defpair, An- 
ger,^ Obftinacy, Hate, and Guile-, when Adam, af- 
ter tault'ring a great while, thus briefly anfwer'd : 

I heard Thee in the Garden, and I was afraid„ 

becaufe I was naked, and hid myfelf To whom 

the gracious Judge, without Reproach, made An- 

fwer. — 

chap. I. Paradise Lost, 323 

fwer. Thou haft often heard my Voice and haft 

not been afraid, but always rejoic*d ; how is it be- 
come now fo dreadful to thee ? Who hath told thee 
that thou art naked ? Haft thou eaten of the Tree, 
whereof I commanded thee that thou Ihould'ft not 

T o whom Adam, forely befet, replied : O Hea- 
ven! in fad Difficulty I ftand this Day before my 
Judge) either to undergo the total Punilhment of 
the Crime myfelf, or elfe to accufe my other Self, 
ihe who is the Farther of my Life ; whofe Failings, 
while Ihe remains faithful to me, I fhould conceal, 
and not expofe to Blame by my Complaint. But 
ttriGt Neceflity and calamitous Reftraint overcome 
me, left both Sin and Punifliment, however infup- 
portable they may be, fall wholly upon my Head j 
though fhould I be Clent, thou would'ft eafdy diico- 

ver what I concealed. This Woman, whom thou 

madeft to be my Help, and gaveft to me as thy per- 
fe6l Gift, fo good, fo fit, fo acceptable, fo divine, 
that from her Hand I could not expedl any 111 ; and 
what Ihc did, let it in itfelf be what it would, her 
very doing it feem'd to juftifytheDeedj Ihe gave me 
of the Tree, and I did eat ! 

To whom the fovereign Prefence of the Son of 
God made this Reply : Was fhe thy God ? Or was 
Ihc made thy Guide or Superior? Nay, was Ihe 
made equal to thee ? that thou Ihould'ft refign thy 
Manhood to her, and the Place where God had fet 
thee above her, who was made of thee and for thee : 
Thy Perfeftion far excelled her*s in all real Dignity : 
She indeed was adorned with much Beauty, and ami- 
able toattradl thy Love, not thy Subjedlion ; and her 
Gifts were fuch as appeared Well under Government, 
but unfeemly to bear Rule; which was thy Part, 
hadft thou known thyfelf as thou oughteft to have 

Y 2 done. 

324 Paradise Lost. Book X, 

done. Having faid thus^ he fpokc to Eve in few 
Words, Say, Woman, what is this which thou haft 
done? To whom fad Eve, almoft overwhelmed 
with Shame, foon confeffing, yet not bold or talka- 
tive before her Judge, thus replied with downcaft 

Looks: The Serpent beguil'd me, aud I 

did eat ! 

Which when the Lord God he^rd, he proceeded 
without Delay to give Judgment on the accused Ser- 
pent, who 'tor Want of Underftanding and Speech, 
was not able to transfer the Blame from himfelf to 
Satan, who had, made him an Inftrument for Mif- 
chief, and polluted him from the End of his Crea- 
tion ; who was then juftly accurs'd, as being vitiated 
in Nature. To know more did not concern M 4 n, 
nor alter his Offence ; yet G o d at laft applied his 
Doom to Satan, tliough in myfterious Terms as he 
then judg'd beft, and tlius let his Curie fall upon the 
Serpent : 

Because thou haft done this thou art accurs'd 
abov£ all Cattle, and above every Beaft of the Field ; 
upon thy Belly Ihalt thou go, and Duft flialt thou eat 
all the Days of thy Life : I will put Enmity between 
thee and the Woman, and between thy Seed and her 
Seed ; it ftiall bruife thy Head, and thou (halt bruifc 
his Heel. 

S o fpoke this Oracle, (b) which was verified and 

accomplilh*d : 

[h) Oracle \ Fr, ItaL Span, and Thumniim,£^f. which were 

Dut Brit, Lat. i. e. Jn An- imitated in the Anfwersmadein 

fwer from the Mouth i an An- the Oracles of Df/j^i&/, Dodona^ 

fwer or Counfei concerning &c. making the blind Heatbtm 

Things to come, given by God believe that thry were fpoke by 

to his People of old, by Pro- the Mouth of God, 
phets, Infpiration, an audible 
Voice^ Di'camby Vifions, Ur.;iiy 

Chap. I. Paradise Lost. 325 

.accomplifti'd, when Jesus, (c) the Son of Marv, 
(who is the lecond Eve) faw Satan the Prince of 
the Air, fall down from Heaven like Lightning; 
then rifing from his Grave, having fpoil'd Principa- 
lities and Powers, he made a Show of them openly, 
triumphing over them, and with bright Afcenfion led 
Captivity Captive through the Air, the very Realm 
fo long ufurp*d by Satan, whom he fhall tread at 
laft under our Feet ; even he, who at this Time fore- 
told his fatal Bruize ; and to the Woman he gave 
Sentence thus: 

I w I L L greatly multiply thy Sorrow by thy Con- 
ception ; in Sorrow (halt thou bring forth Children ; 
unto thy Hu(band*s Will thine fhall fubmit, for he 
Ihall rule over thee. 

Lastly upon Adam he thus pronounc'd Judg- 
ment : Becaufe thou haft hearken'd to the Voice of 
thy Wife, and haft eaten of the Tree of which I 
commanded thee, faying, thou ftialt not eat of it, 
curft be the Ground for thy Sake ; in Sorrow (halt 
thou eat of it all the Days of thy Life ; Thorns alfo 
and Thirties it (hall bring forth to thee, and thou 
flialt eat of the Herb of the Field. In the Sweat of 
thy Face ftialt thou eat Bread, *till thou return unto ' 
the Ground, for thou waft taken out of the Ground ; 
Duft thou art, and unto Duft thou (halt return again. 

So he judg'd Man, being Pent both Judge and 
Saviour, and put far off the prefent Sentence of 

Y 3 Death, 

[c\ Jefuii Uth 1 c. JSavtour. «« Jr/usmto the PoflVflion of the 

A proper Name amorg'. the *« Genli/es, whom God drave 

ynxiS't the firll was Jo/hua ot *• out before the Face of ouiFa- 

Jefiii the Son of Nun^ the Sue- •• thcrs, unto the Days of Z>«- 

ceifor of Mofes^ ASi 7. 45. •* «i;;V.*' Ard of many others ; 

•* Which alfo our FathcM that but here. Jffvi the Son of the 

*' came after^ brought in with Virgin Mary, 

326 Paradise Lost. BookX. 

D H A T H, which was pronouncM on that Day : Then 
pitying them, to fee how they flood before nim, ex- 
posed to the naked Air ; (that now was likewifc about 
to fuffer Change) he did not difdain, thenceforth, to 
affume the Form of a Servant : As when he wafli'd 
his Servants Feet; fo now, as the Father of his Fa- 
mily, he cover'd their Nakednefs with the Skins of 
Beafts ; which either had flain one another, (as fince 
the Fall they began to do) or elfc were fuch as had 
been Ihed by Snakes, or fuch Creatures as change 
their old Skins for new ones, and did not think much 
to cloath his Enemies 5 nor did he only cloath their 
Nakednefs with the Skins* of Beafts, but arraying 
their inward Nakednefs (which was much more 
Ihameful) with his Robe of Rightcoufnefs, coverM it 
from the Sight of his Father. With fwift Afccnt 
he returned up to him, into his blisful Bofom, fitting 
in Glory as ot old ; and to the omnifcient Father, 
now appeas*d, recounted all that had pafs*d with 
Man, mixing fweet Interceflion. 

CHAP. 11. 

Sin and Death make a Bridge over Chaos, and 
travel from Hell to Earth : Satan arrives at 
Pandjemonium, and in full Affembly relates bis 
Succefs againji Man. 

MEAN while, before Adam and Eve had 
finn'd, and had Sentence pafs'd on them on 
Earth, S i n and Death fat within the 
Gates of Hell on either Side, oppofite to each other ; 
the Gates fince Satan pafs'd through had flood wide 
open, belching outragious Flames into the Chaos, 
Sin having open'd them ; who npw thus began to 
fay to Death: 


chap. 11. Paradise Lost. 327 

O S o N ! why do we fit here idly viewing each 
other, while our great Author Satan thrives in 
other Worlds, and provides a happier Seat for us his 
dear OfFfpring ? It can't be otherwife, than that Suc- 
cefs attends him : Had he met with Misfortune, he 
had returned before this Time, furioufly driven by 
the Miniilers of Vengeance ; fmce no Place can be fo 
fit for his Puniihment or their Revenge, as this is. 
Methinks I feel new Strength rife within me. Wings 
growing, and large Dominion given me beyond this 
deep Hell ; whatever it be that draws me on, or whe- 
ther it be Sympathy, or the Force of fome natural 
Power, to unite Things of like Nature at the greateft 
Diftance, by fecret Attraftion and Conveyance. Thou 
who art my Shadow and infeparable from me, rauft 
go along with me, for there is no Power that can fe- 
parate Death from Sin. But, left pcrclu.nce the 
Difficulty of pailing back, keeps him from returning 
over this Gulph, through which there is no Paflage, 
let us try (a difficult Piece of Work !. yet not impro- 
per for thee and me, nor ill fuited to our Power) to 
make a Path over the Abyfs from Hell to that new 
World, where Satan has now got Footing j a Mo- 
nument of high Merit to all the Infernal Hoft, ma- 
king their Palfage eafy, backward and forward from 
hence, or for them to quit Hell once for all, which 
of thefe fhall happen to be their Lot: Nor can I miis 
the Way, finding mylelf fo ftrongly drawn by In- 
ftindt, and this new felt Attraftion. 

T o whom the meagre Shadow, Death, foon 
gave Anfwer : Go, whither Fate and ftrong Inclina- 
tion lead thee on; I fhall not lag behind, nor mifs 
the Way, thou being my Guide: I draw fuch a Scent 
of Mortality, Prey innumerable! and tafle the Savour 
of Death from all Things that lie there : Nor fhall 
I be wanting to the Work thou art taking in Hand, 

Y ± but 

328 Paradise Lost. Book X. 


but give all the Affiftance that lies in my Power. And 

io laying, he fnufF*d with great Delight the Smell of 

the mortal Change upon Earth : As when a Flock of 

ravenous Birds of Prey come flying, againft the Day 

of Battle, where Armies lie encamped, though from 

the Diftance of many a League, drawn by the Scent 

of living Carcaffes, defign'd for Death the next 

Day in bloody War; fo the grim King of Terrors 

fnuff'd and turned up his Noftrils into the tainted Air, 

fmelling his Prey from afar. Then both he and Sin 

flew different Ways from out the Gates of Hell, into 

the wafte, wiJd, and confused Chaos, damp and 

dark ; and with Power (for their Power was great) 

hovering upon the Waters, drove, crowded together, 

(as if it were 'tofs*d up and down in a raging Sea) all 

that they met with, folid or flimy, driving it in Shoals 

on each Side, towards the Mouth of Hell : As when 

two Polar Winds, blowing adverfe upon the C r o- 

N I A N (i) Sea, drive together Mountains of Ice, 

that fl:op the imagined Way beyond P e t sor a, (k) 

Eaftward to the rich Coaft of Cathay (i). Death 


(f) Crenian, of Cronos or Cro' 
mus ; Lat, Gr. i. e. Timt. A 
Name of Saturn, the God of 
Time and all coldThings. Here, 
the Frozen Nortbern Ocean^ un- 
der the Influence of the Planet 
Saturn ; which is a cold Planet, 
according to the Ailrologers ; 
being far from us. 

(i) Peifira or Petzorka ; 
Ruff. A ProvinDC in the North 
of. Mofcovy^ under the Artie 
Circle upon the ley Sea, on the 
Weft Side of the River Oly ; 
fo called from the Capital City, 
which ftandeth in a Lake of the 
fame Name ; there is a River 
fo called, which falleth into that 
Occaii> at the Mouth of the 

Waygats. It borders upon ^/. 
beria. The RuJJiaus call a vafl 
Range of Mountains near to it 
Ziemno Lipias, i. e. The Beit 
or Girdle of the World, which 
they imagine to be the Ejctremes 
of it. 

(/) Cathay Of Catag. A Pro- 
vice o(Tatary, having theFro- 
s^en Ocean on the North, and 
China on the South. It is cal- 
led Cara Kitaia and Ava, hf 
the Tatars, i. e. Black-China : 
becaufe the Inhabitants were 
Sun -burnt ; whereas thofe of 
China, at leaft in the Northern 
Provinces, arc White. It con- 
iifted of the fix Northern Pro- 
vinces of China, fo called ft'om 


Chap. II. Paradise Lost. 329 

fmotc what they had gathered together with his petri- 
fying Mace, and fix'd it as firm as D £ l o s now is 
fix'd, which was faid once to have floated ; the reft 
the Rigour of his Look bound : They faften*d ail 
with Slime, broad as the Gate, and deep as the Bot- 
tom of Hell, and built an immenfe and high-arch'd 
Pile over the foaming Deep; a Bridge of prodigious 
Length, joining to the Wall of this World, now de- 
fencelefs and forfeited to Death: From hence ma- 
king a broad, eafy, inofFenfive Paflage down to Hell : 
So (if great Things may be compared to fmall) 
Xerxes, (m) to bring under Subjeftion the Liber- 
ty of G r e e c e, came trom the Royal Palace of S u- 
s A (n) to the Sea, and making a Bridge over the 


theantientCift'of Ttf/tfrjf, who 
conquered Ci&ffftf, andeltablifh- 
ed Cathay for the Seat of their 
Empire ; then Pekiu or Camba- 
lu became the Royal City, and 
the whole Empire of China 
went aoder that Denomination 
by the Tatars^ who conquered 
it ; tho* it had been the mofl . 
antient Empire, and lafted the 
longeft of any upon Earth, J, 
2>. 1278. Thefe Places and 
Names were firil made known 
to the Europeans from the Sara- 
tens i who began a long and 
bloody War with the Tatars^ 
A. D. 1 6 1 6. endtd in the Con- 
queft o( China and the Deftruc- 
tion of the Family of the 7a/- 
ming^, A. D. 1644. As Fa- 
ther: Paul of Venice relatet^who 
was in that War. 

(«r) Xerxes ; Per/, i. e. The 
grand Warrior.) The fourth 
King of Perfia and fird of that 
Name. He was fecond Son of 
Darius^ i. e. the A<vcnger ; 
[Acbafuerus is his Scriptural 

Name^ i. e. Om that iefean 
the Schemes of another Man^ 
and Nephew of Cyrus the Great 
(\. e. the Sun,) Xerxes redu- 
ced £^//, and in the fifth Year 
of his Reign, fet out from Suja 
with the moH numerous aad 
formidable Army that ever the 
World faw before or fince, to 
invade Greece: which amounted 
to five Millions of Souls and a« 
bove. Herodot, L. 7. c. 187. 
A, M, 3470. But was (bame*- 
fully defeated, and hardly ef- 
caped with his Life, in a little 
Cock-boat. A jull Chaftife- 
ment for his rhfolence. He it 
called Ahafuerus^ Eft. i . 

(»; Sufa ; Hch, i. e. A liU 
ly : becaufe many Lilliej gro%v 
thereabout. So Jericho is caU 
led the City oi t*alm Trees, 
Deut, 3f. 5. And Florence^ in 
Italy ^ from Abundance of Flow- 
ers there. Ic iscilled Shujhani 
and there Ahafuerus held his 
Court, Efther i. 2. And hence 
the whole Country was C'lied 



Par ad i s e Lost. Book X* 

Hellespont, (o) joined Europe (p) to Asia ; (q) 
of whom it was faid, that he fcourg'd the Waves, 
becaufe they broke down his Bridge. 


Sufiana. The chief City of 
that Province oi Perjia between 
7ygris and Perfia^ and five Days 
Journey from the Euphrates to- 
wards the Frontiers of Cbaldea. 
It was bailt or repaired by Da- 
rius Bffimffis, {be Father of 
Xerxes, as Plin^ reports; but 
Straio afcribes it to Tytbon the 
Father of Memnon^ about A. 
M. 27 $0, therefore, fome call 
it Memnonia. It was the Seat 
of the Perfian Emperors, dur- 
ing the Summer Seafon, for ma- 
ny Ages. There Daniel the 
Prophet v/M buried; and 7^- 
fhus fays that his famous Palace 
there was frefh and beautiful in 
bis Days. Mexander the Great 
took it and found about 7 Mil- 
lions in Gold, and 9,000,000 
Pound Sterling in Silver, beiides 
other immenfe Treafures there. 
Now Soufter, neven9t. There 
Altxandtr the Great married 
Siatyra^ and made a Peah for 
90ooGueil5, and gave to each 
of them a Golden Cup. 

(0) Helle/pont ; Lat, Gr. i. C. 
ne Sea of He/Ie, Daughter of 
JItbamas King of ll?ebes in 
Greece ; which flying with her 
Brother Pbrjrus^ from the In- 
dignation of herMother in Law, 
perifhed there. It is a narrow 
Sea between the Propontis or 
white Sea, and the Head of the 
Archipelago^ not above tenor 
twelve Leagues in Length, at 
the Mouth It is a large League 
and a half broad, and at the 

narroweil about feven Furlongs 
over. It is the Entrance into 
Confiantinople from the Arcbi* 
pelagQ, and divides Europe from 
Jfia. Some call it the Screigbts 
of Gailipoli, from a City of 
that Name upon the Weft Side 
of it ; and by the Jurks, the 
Dardanels^ from Dardane^ an 
antient City near it^ in Jfia 
Minor. It is defended by two 
new Cafiles, which Mahomet 
IV. 1659. and not from the 
old Cafiles of Cejios and Ahjdos^ 
as fome have thought. See 
Mottf. Tournefort. Over this 
Sea Xerxeshid aBridge between 
Ceftos and Ahydos^ by which he 
carried his immenfe Army in 
feven Days and Nights, into Eu» ' 

{p) Europe; Pbaen, 1. e. A 
tvhite Face^ of a fair Counter 
nance: becaufe the People of it 
are whiter and fairer, than thofe 
of AJia and Africa, One of the 
four grand Quarters of the 
World; tho* it be leaftofall, 
yet it is moil confiderable now 
for all Manner of Arts, Sciences, 
Arms, Laws and Learning in 
the World, t^c. It is about 
3300 Miles in Length; and 
2300 in Breadth, otraboxnd 
other Geographers refemble it to 
the Shape of a Dragon ; where- 
of the Head to Spain, the Neck 
to France, the main Body to 
Germany. Europe contains two 
Empires, and about thirty diffe- 
rent Kingdoms. It is parted 


chap; IL Paradise Lost, 331 

Now Death and Sin had brought the Work 
(by wond'rous Art, fuperior to any we know) to the 
Outfide of this round World; it was a Ridge of pen- 
dent Rock, which they had drawn over tlie Chaos, 
following the Track of Satan, to the fclf-fame Place 
where he firft lighted and landed : They made all fafl: 
with Pins and Chains of Adamant ; too fad and too 
durable they made it ! and now in little Space the 
Confines of Heaven and of this World met; and on 
the Left-Hand Hell interpos'd with a long Traft bc^ 
tween ; three feveral Ways in Sight led to thefe three 
Places. And now they had difcover'd the Opening 
that led to the Earth, where Satan had enter'd 5 
and tending firft their Way to Paradise, they be- 
held him in the Likenefs of a bright Angel, between 
the Centaur (r) and the Scorpion, ftecring up- 

from Afrita by the Miditirra^ 
Mean Sea on the South, and 
from JJia by the Arebifelago^ 
HelU/pont^ Profofitis, the Baf' 
pb$rus^ EujeiniSez, the Maotis^ 
mnd the great River Volga on 
the North Eaft. 

(q) Afiai fhan, i. c, ^bi 
Middle: becaufe it (efpecially 
Ltffer Afia) lies in the Middle of 
Europe, AJia, and Africa The 
third Quarter of tlie World, 
larger than the . other two, and 
very famout for being the Origi- 
nal Seat of Man*s Creation, Fall 
and Redemption I for the firft 
andmoft renowned Tranfadlions 
of Mankind, recorded in Sacred 
Writ, and all antient Hiftories. 
It is iurroanded with Sea od the 
' North, Eail and South, and 
parted from Europe^ as is faid a- 
bove, on the Weft. Afia ex- 
tends trom the North to the 

South, about 4400 Miles ; and 
from Eaft to Weft, 7500 Miles. 
Anciently it was divided into the 
Greater and Leifer Afia % after- 
wards into five large Empires, 
mix, I. That of the Czar oi Muf" 
rw^. IL Of the great Cham of 
Tatary, III. Of the Great Af*. 
guL IV. Of the Sophy of Perfia. 
V. Ot the Sultan o\ the Turkt, 
To thofe may be added the Em- 
pire of China, which was not 
known to the Antients ; but aa 
large as any of thofe Empires.' 

(r) Centaur ; Lat, from the 
Gr, I. e. Pricking a Bull. A- 
fabulous Monfler. half Man hiilf 
Horfe. This Fable rofe from a 
People of ^hejfaly^ who firft 
brt>ke Horfes to War, and rid- 
ing upon Horfebacl^', drove their 
Cattle before them. Other Men 
feeing them at a Diitance^ 
thought they were but one Crea« 


332 Paradise Lost. Book X, 

wards among innumerable Conftellations, and the Sun 
rifing in Aries. He came in a Difguife, but S i n 
and Death foon difcern*d their Parent through it. 
He, after he had feduc'd Eve, flunk without being 
taken Notice of into the . neighbouring Wood ; and 
changing his Shape, to obferve the Sequel, faw his 
deceitful Aft feconded by Eve, (though flie knew 
nothing of the Mifchief ihe was about) upon her ' 
Hufband : He faw their Shame, and that they had 
fought vain Coverings to hide it; but when he faw 
the Son of G o d coming from Heaven to judge 
them, terrified at that, he fled ; not hoping by that 
Means to efcape, but only to fliun the prefent Punifli- 
ment; fearing (knowing himfeif to be guilty) what 
GoD*s Wrath might inflift: That paft, he returned 
by Night, and lift*ning, where the unhappy Couple 
fat in their fad Difcourfe and various Complaints 
thence gathered the Knowledge of his own Doom ; 
which underftanding not inftaiitly to be inflifted, 
but in future Time, he now retum'd to Hell full of 
Joy, and fraught with good Tidings ; and at the Brink 
of Chaos, near the Foot of this new wonderful 
Bridge, he met, (not hoping nor expefting) his dear 
OfiTpring, who were come to meet him j there was 
great Joy at their Interview, and it increased at Sight 
of that ftupendous Pafiage, which they had made. 
He ftood long in Admiration, 'till S i n, his fair en- 
clianting Daughter, thus broke the Silence : 

O Father! thefe are thy great Deeds, thefc are 
thy Trophies ! which thou viewed: as if they were not 
thy own ; thou art their Author and firft Architeft ; 


tare: And fo the poor Amiri» called Safrluarius^ Lmt. i. e. 

tans thoaght of the Spaniards^ An Archer or Bowman. It is 

when they firft invaded them up- fo called, becaufe of its vehe- 

on Horfes. Here, an Aftron. ment Cold when the Rays of it 

T. a Soatborn CpnUeilatton, call forth the pieiciog Winds ia 

conililing of 37 Surs^ which is Novemier. 

Chap. II. Paradise Lost. 333 

for I no foOner divin*d in my Heart (which by a fe- 
cret Harmony ftill moves with thine, join'd in a fweet 
Connexion) that thou hadft prolper'd on Earth, 
which thy Looks now alfo bear Witnefs to, but ftrait 
I felt (though the Diftance of Worlds was betwixt us) 
that I muft follow thee, with this thy Son; for Fate, 
and the ncceffary Confequence of Things, will for 
ever unite us three : Hell could no longer hold us, 
nor this obfcure, unpa0able Gulph detain u? from fol- 
lowing thy illuftrious Traft. Thou haft atchiev'd our 
Liberty at laft, though *till now we have been con- 
fined within the Gates of Hell : Thou haft given us 
Power thus far to fortify the dark Abyfs, and to lay 
over it this wond'rous and portentous Bridge. This 
World is now all thine ; thy Virtue has won what thy 
Hands did not make : Thy Wifdom has gained, with 
Odds, what War had loft, and fully aveng'd us for 
the Lofs that we fuftain*d in Heaven : Here thou (halt 
reign Monarch ; there thou did ft not : There let him 
ftill bear Sway, the Conqueror, as Battle hath ad- 
judged him ; retiring from this new World, which is 
now alienated from him by his own Sentence : And 
let him henceforth only divide with thee the Monar- 
chy of all Things, parted by the Bounds of Heaven, 
which is his Dominion, from this orbicular World, 
which is now thine ; or let him try another Battle with 
thee, now grown more dangerous to his Throne. 

To whom the Prince of Darknefs made this glad 
Anfwer : Fair Daughter ! and thou who art at the. 
fame Time my Son and Grandchild ! you have given, 
high Proof that ye are of the Race ot S a t a n, (for 
I glory in the Name, which declares me the Antago- 
nilt of the Almighty King of Heaven) and merit 
great Praife from me, and all the Infernal Empire ; 
that fo near Heaven have, with this glorious Work 
and triumphal Aft, met me come triumphal from my 
glorious Aft, and have made this World and Hell 


334 Paradise Lost, Book X. 

one Realm, (and made it ours) one Conrinent of eafy 
Thoroughfare. Therefore while I with Eafe defcend 
through Darknefs, over the Road which ye have 
made, to my aflbciatc Powers, to acquaint them with 
what hath happened, and to rejoice with riiem •, do 
you two, this Way, among thcfe numerous Orbs, 
(which are all yours) defcend right down to* Para- 
dise: Dwell there, and reign in Happinels, and 
thence cxercife Dominion on the Earth and in the Air, 
but chiefly upon Man, who has been declared Lord 
of all ; make him firft your Slave and Prifoner, and 
kftly kill him. I fend ye my Subftitutes, and create 
ye my Plenipotentiaries on Earth, having matchlefs 
and foil Power ifliiing from me : All my Hold of this 
new Kingdom depends entirely upon your joint 
Strength ; it lying, through my Craft and Manage- 
ment, now exposM to Death through Sin. If 
your united Power does but prevail, the Affairs of 
Hell need Fear no Detriment j therefore go, and be 
itrong in Evil. 

Saying this, he difmifs'd them, and they with 
Speed held their Courfe through the thickeft of the 
Conftellations, every where Ipreading their Bane: 
The blafted Stars look'd pale^ and Planets under evil 
Influence then fuffer'd real Eclipfe. Satan went 
the other Way, down the Cauleway to the Gate of 
Hell; On either Side, Ghaos (over whofe Realm 
S I N and Death had built the Bridge) beat with 
rebounding Sui^e againfl: its Foundation, which it 
could not remove. Satan pafsM through the Gate, 
that was wide open and unguarded, and found the 
Place deferted; for thofewho were appointed and 
us'd to (it there, had (as has been laid) left their 
Charge, and flown to the upper World : The reft 
were all retired farther within, about the Walls of 
Pand^emonium, the City and proud Seat of Lu c i- 
fer: (Satan having been called fo by Allufion, be-. 


Chap. II. Paradise Lost. 335 

ing compar'd to that bright Star) There the Legions 
kept their Watch, while the Chiefs fat in Council, 
foUicitous what Accident might intercept the Return 
of their fent Emperor j for ib when he departed he 
gave Command, and they obferv*d it: As when the 
Tartar retires from his Foe the Russian (s) by 
AsTRACAN, (t) over the fnowy Plains ; or the S o^ 
PHY (u) of Persia, retiring from the Turks, 
leaves all wafte beyond the Realm A l a d u l e (x)^ 


(4) RuJ^an^ ofRujfia; Beh, 
i. e. The Head: Or from Rof- 
fi or Rnffiy which in their 
Tongue fi^ifies a coUe&ed Peo- 
ple» cosfimng of divers NatioAS 
joined together under one Head; 
or from RufSf the Son of Ja- 
fbit^ the reputed Founder of 
that Monarchy. They fettled 
•bout Mount iaurus^ and after- 
wards in the North Parts of AJia 
mad Etiropi; where they ere£^ 
ladifierent Diii/iMi/, which at 
laft fttbmitccd to one Supreme, 
called Tzar, or Gcaar, Sclav, 
i. e. A Prime or Sovereign : 
And Mu/covitetf fince the Tzan 
cftahliihed their Refidence at 
Mefcem), A, 2>. 1300. Muf* 
€9vy is 4 Times as large as all 
Germattf, but not half lo popu- 
lous ; becaufeof the yaft Woods, 
Defar ts and uninhabitable Parts 
of it. 

(t) Aftracan\ Ruf. from the 
Perf, Haifiberk beun, i. e. d 
Pillars I being io fbunded at 
firft. A large and wealthy City 
in one of the Iflands of the Ri- 
l^r Velga, at 1 3 Leagues from 
the Mouth of it. The Ruffians 
call that Ifland Dolgi Oft rof ^ i.e. 
The Leng-ljle: becanfe il is ve- 

ry long. John Bavdlovit%,{Rupf 
from the GV. i. e. The king^ 
and iFits, i. e. lllmfiriouj) took 
it from the Tatars^ A.D. 15^4. 
It^nds on a riiing Ground, 47 
Degrees Northern Latitude^ en- 
compafied with a double Wall, 
is well fortified. It gives Name 
to a large Kingdom of Tatary, 
upon the Cajpian Sea 1 is one of 
the belt Cities belonging to Ruf- 
fia, and grows- more coniidera-* 
ble, by the great Trade with th^ 
Perfians, Tatars, CelUnaks, Geor^ 
gians and Ruffians, 

(ft) Sofbi, or Sophy \ Pery. 
from the Arab. Tepb, i. e. Wool* 
Becanfe a King of Perjia took 
that Name, from a woollea 
Tarlan, orVeftwhiehhe wore. 
Pure and Sincere: Becaufe he 
profeiTed to be of the Race of 
Haly. This is a Title of the 
Emperors of F^r^a from IJbmael 
Sophi the Son of Guine Sophi^ 
Chief the 7th Race of their 
Kings, who frt>m a Shepherd 
(by his Courage and good For-^ 
tune) was raifed co that Throne, 
about A. D. f 370. 

(x) AlaJule: Per/, is the 
frreater AtTnema with a Part of 
Cappaefocia i and is fo called by 

• tht 

336 Paradise Lost* Book }C 

in his Retreat to Tauris^ (y) or C a s b i n : (z) So 
thefe» the Hoft lately banilliM from Heaven, left the 
outermoil Parts of Hell deferted many a dark League, 
being reduced in careful Vi^atch round their Metropo- 
lis, and now in hourly Expe6lation of their great Ad- 
venturer, from the Search of foreign Worlds. He 
pafs'd tlu^ough the Midft of them unmark'd, appear- 
ing only as an inferior Angel of War of the loweft 
Order; and from the Door of the Pand^emonium 
invifibry afcended his high Throne, which was placed 
in Regal Luftre at the upper End, under a Canopy of 
State moft richly woven. He fat down a- while, and 
looked round about him, he himfelf keeping unfeen : 
At tail, as from a Cloud appeared his mining Head 
and Shape, bright like a Star : (or brighter ; being 
clad with that permiflive Glory or falfe Glitter, that 
was left him fince his Fall.) The Throng of Infernal 


the Ttirks, from J/adM/ei, the 
lail King of it, whom Silymus I. 
flew» A.D. 1 516- iind fubje^l- 
cd it to their £mpire ever fince. 
It was called Turcomanut^ m the 
Year 844 . When a great Flood 
of bloody Tartars or Turks paf- 
fed over the Cajfian Mountains 
and fettled there. 

(y) Taurk^ and Tebrts \ Ptrf. 
Some ^all it Etbatana : becaufe 
it was foanded oat of the Ruins 
of that antient City (as old as 
Babylon f and called AUmutba^ 
Efd, 6.2. founded by Arpbaxad^ 
A, Z>. 786) Ttbris belonged to 
the Turks till Zbab Abas King of 
/^/r/£a retook it. A. D. 1603. 
It is one of the richeft Cities of 
Tirfia^ and of the preateiiTrade 
in Afit^' There u>a Medriflba 
or Academy in it ; a vaft Nun - 
her of Armenian Chriftiass, and 
their Patriarcb*^ Seat. 

(3;) Cafiin^ Cafwin^ or Kas^ 
wn : A large and beautiful Cit)r 
of Ferfia, and formerly of Par- 
tbia i ficuate in a delightfai 
Plain, 6 Miles in Circumference; 
in the Province of Ayracb, be- 
tween the Cajpian Sea and Ma-' 
ban. Some take Cajbin for ^au* 
ris the Ecbatana of Msdia, but 
it is 65 German Miles from Tau- 
ris. Here the Perfiau Monarchs 
refided afier (he Lofs of Tauris^ 
till Sbab Abbas removed to I/" 
fahan ; fince then it has declin- 
ed, ^ut there they are all inau- 
gurated ftill. The Inhabitants 
are Mubammedans^ except fome 
Chridians and Ji*wSt that are 
confiderableMei chants. There 
is alfo a Madrrfiba or Academ/ 
for Pirfian Learning. 

chap. ti. PARADisi Loaf; 337 

Spirits, all amaz'd at fuch a fuddcn Blaze^ tum'd 
their Eyes that Way, beholding him they were wifli- 
ing to fee ; and their Acclamations were loud and 
many. The great Peers that were fitting in Council^ 
rulh'd oiit from their dark Divan, (a) and with like 
congratulating Joy approached him ; who, making a 
Motion with his Hand, made Silence, and with thefc 
Words gain*d Attention : 

Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms, Vir- 
tues, and Powers! for fuch I declare ye now and 
call ye, not only in Right, but in aftual Pofleffion ; 
feeing I am retum*d fuccefsful beyond Hope, to lead 
ft Jorth out of this infernal^ abominable Pit^ accurfe'd 
Place, the Houfe of Woe, the Dungeon of our great 
Tyrant ! Now ye (hall poflefs as Lx)rds a Ipacious 
Worlds little inferior to our native Heaven, atchiev'd 
by me with Hardfhip and great Peril. It would be 
long to tell what I nave done ; what I have fufier'd % 
with what Pain I made my Voyage through the waft^ 
unbounded, and deep Abyfs of horrible Confufion; 
over whieh^ now, a broad Way is pav'd by S i n and 
Deaths to facilitate your glorious March: But I la- 
bour*d through my untrodden Path^ plung'd in the 
I Midd of Darknefs ^d wild Chaos, who fiercely 

I oppos'd my ftrangc Journey with clamorous Uproar, 

j declaring that Fate was againft me : Afterwards how 

I found the new created World* which Fame in Hea- 
ven had long foretold j a wonderful Fabrick ! of abfo- 
lute Perfedtion ! and therein found Man, plac'd in a 
Paradise, made happy by our Banilhment. Him I 
have feduc'd by Fraud to difobey his Creator ; and 
(what may increafe your Wonder the more) only with 
[ an Apple. He, at that offended, (*tis a Subjedk well 

worth laughing at) hath given up both his belov*d 
Man, and all his World, a Prey to Sin and 

Z Death, 

{a) Divan / The moft folemn CoudcII amor.j; the Tuih ia cali'd fo^ 

33$ pARADisis LosTr BookX* 

Death, and confequently to usy wkhoot our Ha^ 
zardy Laix>ury or Contention ; to ranse in, and ta 
dwell in^ and to rule over Man, ju^ as be ihould 
have reignM over all other Things, 'Tis true,i he ha» 
judg'd me too, or rather not me^ but the brute Ser- 
pent, in whofe Shape I deceived Man; that Part 
that belongs to me is Enmity, which ha fays he'll 
put between me and Mankind ; I anvto bruife his 
Heel, and his Seed (but he does not fay when) (hall 
bruife my Head. Who would not purchafe a whole 
World with a Bruife or Pain much more grievous f 
And now you have heard the Account of my Perfor- 
mance ; what remains fpeak ye, who are all Gods«^ 
but that we mount up> and inftantly enter into full 
BUfs ? 

Having faid this, he flood a- while,, expefting 
that high Applaufe and an univerfal Shout would fill- 
his Ear; when, on the contrary, he hears on aU Sidcs^ 
from Toi^es without Number, a difmal and uni^ 
verial Hifi, the Sound of publick Contempt ! He 
wonder'd at it, but he had not Leifure to do fb long,, 
now wondering much more at himfelf : He fek his Vi- 
fage drawn fharp; his Arms clung to his Ribs; his 
Legs twining round each other>. 'till no loiter fup- 
ported by them, he fell down with Relufbance, a 
monflrous Serpent prone upon his Belly ; his Reluc- 
tance was vain, for now a greater Power rul'd him,, 
and punifh'd him in the Shape he finned,, according to 
the Sentence that was pafs*d on him. He would have 
fpoke, but inftead of that return'd Hifs for Hifs, 
with forked Tongue to forked Tongue ; for now thcjr 
were all alike transform^ to Serpents, as having been 
all acceffary to the bold Evil which he had commit?- 
ted : The Din of hifTing was very dreadful all through 
the Hail, that was now fwarming thick with compleati 



C3hap. 11. FAkABisfe Lo^ti 33^ 


Monftersy Head and Tail ; Scorpion» and Alp, (b) 
Cerastes (c) the homed Serpent, dumb El- 
lops, (d) and dreadful Dipsas, (e) andallKinds 
of Serpents : Such prodigious Numbers as neVer were 
feen in Ophiusa^ (f) or other Place more infefted 
with them : But ftUl Satan amidft them was the^ 
largeft of all, beln^ now grown a Dragon, larger than 
that the Sun was feign'd to have engender'cT in the 
Pythian Vale on Slime, and was call'd huge Py- 
T H o N } and he feem'd ftill to retain his Power above 
the reft. They all foflow'd him rufliing forth to the 
open Field, where the reft of that revolted* Rout that 
were fallen from Heaven ftood in their Station^ drawn 
top in Array^ exalted in their Expectation^ when they 

Z 2 ihoula 

Pouon s or not extending ; be# 
taufe they lay round commonly. 
A very venomous Serpent, whofe 
Poifon kills fpeedily. It is fmall 
like a Land-Snake^ but of a 
l>roader Back, hatine red and 
inflamed Eyes, hatd and dry 
Scales. Some are above a Foot 
and half long ; others three, four 
and fix Foot. The fliorteft kill 
iboneft. They abound in A/ri- 
M, kill inftantly and without a- 
ny Remedy. See ABs 28. 6. 
And even in Britain their Bite 
is mortal, but not fo fpeedy; 
but in Egypt they are tame and 
abide in the Honles. 

(c) Ctrafiti ; Gr. i. e. Horn* 
$L q. The horned Serpent : For 
k hath four Pair of Horns, o- 
tkers fay only two. 

{d) Ellofsi Gn i. e. fTith- 
§at a Foice, A dumb and fiient 
Serpents that gives no Notice of 
his Approach, as others do by 
Hiffing, Rattles, bfc So na 
Creatttrt can avoid it. 

{i) Diffmsi tat. Or. L e« 
'Tbirft. And alio Qm/am i Or. 
i. e. Burning. A Seipent with 
a great Neck and black Back^ 
leu than a Viper, but more ve- 
nomous and quicker in killings 
It is in bfbia^ Syria, and othef 
hot Regions. The Poifon of it 
is VaiUv hot, dries up the Bloody 
and inftdb every Creature which 
it dings, with a moft vehement 
Heat and Thirft, unquenchable 
and incurablCf whereof they 
die quickly. 

(/) Opbiu/a ; Or. and Coin* 
braria^ Lat, i. e. The Serpen^ 
tine liland ; becaufe it is much 
infefied with Serpents, of which 
there are three mod remarkable, 
viz. Two in the Miditerrantan 
Sea, and one in the Propontis^ 
ne^r Conftantin^pit^ which thq 
Inhabitants quitted for Fear of 
thefe Vermin. Some fay Qr- 
pru$ was one of the two. 

34^ PAiAiiiSE Lost. Book }^# 

fhould fee their glorious Chief come forth in Tri- 
umph. They faw (but *twas a Sight quite different) 
a Crowd of ugly Serpents : Horror at once fell on 
them, and horrid Sympathy ; fof what thev faw they 
felt themfelves now changh% ; dbwn- fell tneir Arms, 
Spear and Shield, and they as fkft ; and renew'd the 
dire Hifs, and catch*d the dire Form by Cont^ion ; 
alike in Punifhment, as m their Crime. Thus the 
Applaufe they meant was tum'd to an exploding Hifs, 
and their defign'd Triumph to Shame, caft upon 
themfelves from their own Mouths. 


H A R D by there ftood a Grove, which fprUng ujt 
at the Time of their Transformation, (fuch was the 
Will of him who reigns in Heaven!) to aggravate 
their Patience, which was laden with Fruit like that 
which grew in Paradise, and was the Bait the 
Tempter had us*d to catch E v e : On that ftrange 
Profpeft they eameftly fix'd their Eyes, imagining^ 
that for one forbidden Tree there was now rifen a 
Multitude, to work them further Mifery or Shame : 
Yet, parched with burning Thirft and fierce Hung^, 
could not abftain, though they were fent only to de- 
lude them ; but on they rowl'd in Heaps, and climb- 
ing up the Trees, fat thicker than thole, which arc 
feign*d to drefs the Heads of the Furies : They gree- 
dily pluck*d the Fruit, fair to the Sighr, like that which 
grew near the Sea of S o d o m j (g) though this more 
delufive, did not deceive the Touch but the Tafte : 
They fondly thinking to allay their Appetite with a 
good Guft, inftead of Fruit chew*d only bitter Alhes, 
which the offended Tafle rejedked with Diflike -, often 
they tried, Hunger and Thirft conftraining them» 
and were as often tormented with the hateful Difre- 
lifh, writhing dieir Jaws about that were fill'd with 


ii) The Sea of Sodom, Jo* to the Sight ; bat when touch'd 
feplmt faysy the Apples of ^0- they Hew into Smoak a&d Aihe^ 
dom were rerjr fair and plea lane 

chap. II. Paradise Lost. 341 

Soot and Cinders. Thus they often fell into the fame 
Illufion ; not as M A N, whom they triumphed Over, 
who fell but once ; thus were they plaguM and worn 
with Famine, and with long and continual Hiifing,. 
*tUl by Permiffion they refumM their loft Shape : Yet 
fome fay, that every Year for a certain Number of 
Days, they are enjoined to undergo this Humbling, 
to dafli their Pride and Joy for feducing Man. 
However, they difpers*d fome Tradition among the 
Heathen, ot the Purchafe they had got ; and fable4 
how the Serpent, whom they callM O p h i o n, (b) 
with EuRVNOME, (i) (who encroached on her Huf- 
band, and ruinM his Pofterity) had firft the Rule of 
high OLYKfpus ; that they were driven thence by Sa- 
turn and Ops, (k) before the Pi ctj an (I) Jov£ 
was yet born. 

1 CHAP. 

(h) OfktMi Lat. from the 
Qr, u e. J S^rffMt, One of 
the Companions oi Cadmus^ 
who fprangOQt of the Teeth of 
that Setpenty which Cadmus 
ULtw* Others make him to have 
been one of the Titrnmis^ the 
Uufband of Etuymomff poflefsM 
of the Government of all 
Things ; the antientefl of all the 
Gods, who reignM on Oljmfiu^ 
long before Smtum and Jupiier 
dethroned him and his Wife. 

(/) Eurynome ; Lat, from the 
Gr, i.e. Rulittg nvidi, eaeroacb- 
ing. The Daughter of Ottanus^ 
ttkd Wife of Opnon^ which en- 
croach*d on herHa(bind,and ru- 
in 'd herPofterity. Under this Fa* 
ble the Heathens couch'd Adam 
and E'oi, and their Expdfion out 
of Paradife. 

{k) Ops I IfLf. from the Cr. 
i. e. Kichu. The Dau^rhterof 

Heaven and Earth, the Sifter 
and Wife of Saturn. The 
Gr/?i/caird her alfo PJna, i. e. 
Flowing with Wealth. Ops is 
the Earth, oat of which all 
Riches are produced. Or Enn^ 
the Sifter and Wife of Adam^ 
the Saturu of the Heathens; 
for (he came out of the fame 
Womb, i. e. the Earth, and 
was expeird faradifi, 

(/) DiSean, oiDiBea^ Lat. 
Gr. i e. A P/acg 0/ Kttsand 
Fijbtrmen, A City and Moun- 
tain in Crete, between Gwjfus 
and Samoif, now called CaJ^ti 1 
where Jupittr was narfcd. Ic 
was fo called from DiSymua, 
one of Diana's Companions in 
hunting, which firft found out 
Fifbing Net/, and wa worOiip* 
ped there ; and from the Fiflter 
men wnu lived there. 

34? JParadisp Lost^ Book X« 


^e Proceedings of Sin and Death j God foreUilf 
the final Victory over theniy and the renewing of 
att Things ; but for the prefent commands Jeve-r 
ral Alterations to be made in the Elements. 

MEAN whUc the hellifh OffTpring of Sataij 
arrivM top foon in Paradise ; Sin, whq 
was there potentially before the Fall, (there 
being a Pqffibility of it, and a6tually wh?n the Tranf- 
greffion was) but now appears in Perfon to dwell and 
take Poffeflion : Behind her came Death, (m) fol- 
lowing clpfe, Step for Step, not yet mounted on hi$ 
pale Horfe : To whom S i n began to fpeak thus ; 

All -CONQUERING DeathI and the fecond that 
Iprung from Satan! what doft thou now think of 
our Empire i Thou|p;h obtain^ with Difficulty, is not 
it &T better than ftiU to haye fat watching at Hell's 
dark Threfhold ? To be neither namM nor fear'd^ 
and thou tp remain ha|f-ftarv'd i 

To whom die Monfter, that Sin brought into the 
World, foon anfwer'd : Alike to me, who pine with 
eternal Hunger, is Hell, or Paradise, or Heaven j 
that Place is beft for me, where I may meet with moft 
Prey; which here, though plentiuil, feems all too 
Jittlc to ftufF this Maw, this vaft Corps, which ha| 
pe^n & long kept hungry, a^id has Room for all. 


{m) Diati^ is hMctibedRi^. *f given anto them^ over the 

6. 8. ** And 1 looked, and !* fourth Part of the Earthy 

** behold a pale Horfe ; and his M to kill with Sword, and with 

*' Name that fat on him was ** Hanger, and with Death, 

•* Diatb I and Hill follow^ ** and with the Beafts of the 

•« with him : And Power ^as ?* Earth/;* 

Chap« III. Paradise Lost. 343 

To whom Sin, his inccftuous Mother, thus re* 
ply*d : Do thou therefore feed firft upon thefe Herbs, 
and Fruits, and Flowers ; next upon every BeaCt, and 
Fifli, and Fowl ; (and fure thele are no coarfe Mor- 
fels!) and then devour unfpar*d whatever the Scythe 
of Time mows down ; 'till I, refiding in M a n, quite 
through the Race, infefib all his Thoughts, Looks, 
Words, and Adtions, and feafon him for thy laft and 
fweetcft Prey. 

Having faid this, they each betook them their fe- 
veral Way, both bei>t to deftroy, or render Things 
of ail Kinds perifhable or liable to Mortality ; and 
fooner or later ripen them for Deftruftion : Which the 
Almighty feeing from his bright Throne among 
the Saints, thus to thofe bright Orders utter'd his 
Voice : 

S E E I with what Fury thefe Dogs of Hell advance, 
to deftroy and ruin yonder World ; which I created 
ib fair and good, and had ftill kept in that State, had 
not M A n's Folly let in thefe wafteful Furies, who 
impute Folly to me : So does Satan, the Prince^of 
Hell, and his Adherents, that I fufFer them to enter 
with fo much Eafe, and poffefs fo heavenly a Place ; 
and conniving, feem to gratify my fcornfiil Enemies, 
that laugh as if I (tranfported with fome Fit of Paf- 
fion) had quitted at Random, and yielded up all to 
their Mifmanagement } and don't know that I call'd 
and drew them thither, onlv as my Hell-Hounds, to 
lick up the Dregs and Filth, which the Pollution of 
M A n's Sin had fhed with a Taint upon what was 
pure i 'till cramm'd and gorg*d, and ready to burft, 
at one Stroke of thy vi6borious Arm, O my Son, in 
whom I am well pleasM ! S i n and Death at laft 
Joeing flung to the Mouth of Hell, Ihall ftop its 
Mouth for ever and ever^ and feal up its ravenous 

Z 4 Jaws. 


Paradise Lost* Book X* 

Jaws. Then Heaven and Earth being renew'd, fliall 
be purify'd to fiich a Degree of San&ity, as fhall be 
incapable of Impurity ; 'till then the Curfe pronoun- 
ced on Sin and Death fhall lead them on. 

H £ ended, and the heavenly Audience fung aloud 
Hallelujah, loud as the Sound of Seas, by Reafoa 
of the Multitude that fung. " Juft are thy Ways, 
** and thy Decrees are righteous on all thy Works j 
*' who can diminifli thee ? Neict to the Son, the de- 
" ftin'd Reftorer of Mankind, be Glory; by whom 
** the new Heaven and Earth Ihall be renewed out of 
•' the old, or clfe defcend down from Heaven,'* 
Such Y^as their Song, while He, the great Creator, 
calling forth his mighty Angels by Name, gave them 
their feveral Charges, as fiiited beil with the prefent 
State of Things. The Sun had firft his Command to 
move fo, and fo to fhine, as might affe£t the Earth 
with Heat and Cold fcarcely tolerable, to call decri- 

Sit Winter from the North, and from the South to 
ring Solftitial (n) Summer's Heat. To the pale 
Moon they prefcrib'd her Office : To the other five 
Planets (tf), their Motions in their feveral Orbs and 
Afpefts, in Sextile, (p.) Square, (q) and Trine, (r) 


(«) Sel/littal, of the Solftice ; 
Lat, i. c. The Standing tf thi 
Sun, An Aftron. Term. The 
Summer Solftice falls on the 
J I th of June^ and the Winter 
Solib'ce on the 1 1 th of Dtiem' 
iir; to which two Points of the 
Tropicks when the Sun comes, 
there is no fenfible Increafe or 
Decreafe of the Day and Night 
for a little Time ; it feems to be 
at a Stand. Here the firft is 

{o) Planets; Gr, i. e. Wan» 
Jtring, Here » moving in 
their feveral Orbs. Here fc« 

veral Terms of Ailrology and 
Aflronomy occur, in a oonti- 
naed Digraffion ; according to 
Aftrologers, the Planets make 
feveral Angles or Afpeds, ia 
their Motions throogh the \z 
Signs; the ^ief are. C^njjMC^ 
thn, markM i ; SextiU, a|c i 
^airati^ U \ Trine, A ; Of' 
fofite, 8- 

(f), Sextile i Lat, An AftroQ. 
T. i. c. Of the Sixth. An Af- 
pedy when two Planets are di- 
llant 60 Degrees, or one fixtk 
Part of the ZeJiae^ 

Chap. III. Paradise Lost. 345 

and OppoHte, {s) of hurtful and unbenign Influence s 
and the Angels like wife by God's Command, taught 
the fix*d Stars when to fhowcr their Malignancy; 
which of them falling or rifing with the Sun fhould 
prove tempeftuous. They fet the Comers to the 
Winds, and taught them when with Bluftering to 
confound the Sea, Land, and Air ; and the Thunder 
where to rowl with Terror through the dark Clouds. 
Some fay, G oo bid his Angels turn the Poles of the 
Earth more than twenty Degrees from the Sun's 
Road ; and that they with Labour pulh'd the Earth, 
iBx'd on hpr Center, out of her firft Place. Some 
fay, the Sun was bid to turn from the Equinoftial 
R<»d, a like diftant Breadth to Taurus, with the 
feven Stars that are call'd Sifters, (which are the 
Pleiades) and Gemini, (/) up to the Tropick of 


(^] Squan ; Lat, An Aftrol. 
T. i. e. Fpur'€9rnir*d. An 
Arpe£l between two Planets^ 
which are diftant 90 Degrees 
from one another, i. e. one 
fourth Part of the Zodiac. It 
is cocn(ed an unfortunate Con- 
jundion by the Aftrologers. 

( r ) Yrime ; Lai. An Aftrol. 
T. i. e. A Third. An Afpeft, 
when two Planets are diftant 
from one another 1 20 Degrees, 
which is'a (hird fart pf the Z0- 

( ' ) Offofiti \ tat. An Afiro- 
log. Term. i. e. Ovtr^againfi ; 
facing. An Afpefl, when two 
Planeu are diftant 1 80 Degrees, 
diametrically oppofite, or di- 
reflly facing one another, which 
is one half Part of the Zodiac, 
This Aftrologers call a l»d' Af- 
pedt ; which forebodes Evil to 
thofe that are born under it. 
Two heavenly Bodies are faid to 
be in Conjandion with one ano» 
ther, when they are in the fame 

Semi-Circle of Latitude, and to 
be in Oppo^tion, as they are in 
oppofite Semi -Circles of Lati- 
tude ; the Circles beine divided 
into Semi-Circles qf Latitude, 
by the Axb of the great Ec/if- 

( / ) Gemini j^ Twins ; Sax^ 
Two Children born at one 
Birth. I]ere, Ca^or Sind Pol- 
lux, Sons of Tindaurus and £r- 
da^ King of Sparta i bom 
there, and at the fame Time. 
Cafior and PoUmx, i. e. Ador* 
ntd osA (hining, were the nth 
King of it after their Father, 
and reigned cotemporary. They 
are feign*d to be the Sign Gcmi' 
»|, by fabuloos Antiquity, and 
were much in Veneration among 
the heathens. See Ms 28. 1 1 .- 
They are Stars of the fecond 
Magnitude, which form the two 
Heads of Gemini, the third of 
the twelve Signs of the Z«- 

34^ Paradise Lost* BookX. 

Cancer; («) thence down amain by Leo, (xy 
V1RGO9 (y) and Libra, (z) as low as Capri« 
c o R N, (a) to bring in Change of Seafons to each 
Climate; elfe the Spring had fmil'd perpetually upon 
tiie Earth, with continual blooming Flowers, equal in 
Days and Nights, except to thoie beyond the Polar 
Circles ; to them Day had fhone without Night, while 
the low Sun, to make Amends fortius being at fo 
great a Diftance, had always gone round the Horizon 
in their Sight, and not known Eaft or Weft ; which 
had forbid the Snow from cold Estotiland, (i) 
and South as far beneadi Magellan (c). 


far) Camciri beauife the San 
^ooves back the lame Way as 
the Crab doth; or becaofe it 
confifis of nine Stars ia the 
Shape of a Crab ; the fourth of 
the twelve Signs i the Son enters 
into this Sign- on the loth of 
yuMi, Here, the Tropic of 
QuKir, or the Northern Tro- 

(je) Lis i-Zat. from the Gr« 
Itbi LiM. Here, An Aftron. 
T. The 5th of the 12 Signs, 
into which the Son enters in the 
yoth of yul;. This ConilcIIa^ 
tion hath 27 Stars about it. 

(j) yirg9, Firgini Lat. u 
p. Sirstfgi a chaHe Maid, a 
Maiden in her Bloom and 
Strength. Here an Aiiron. T. 
The 6th of the 1 2 Signs. It 
confifts of 26 Stars s Uie Sun 
enters into it in the 1 2th of Jm- 
gujf yearly. This is Afiraa the 
Goddefs of Juflice, who left the 
Earth becaofe of the Wicked- 
aefs of Men after the Fall, and 
flew up to Hcayen ; where ibc 

weighs, coofiders, and ocaminfii 
all Adions of Men and Things, 
as the Poets feign*d. 

(%) Uhra ; i. e. ^ Balance^ 
or ftdr of Scala. Here an 
Aftron. T. The 7th of the 12 
Signs, into which the Sun en* 
ters in the 13 th of Septembtr* 
It is the firA of the fix Sottthcra 
Signs of the Zodiac, 

(a) Capricorn i Lat. i. e. 
An bomod Goat ; becanfe then 
the Sun at this Point climbs op* 
ward again in its annual Courie^ 
like that climbing Creature the 
Goat. An Mxon. T. The 
loth of the 12 Signs. It con- 
Ms of 21 Surs ; the Sonjenters 
into it in the nth of Dectmbir^ 
and makes the Winter Solftice. 
It is the Southern Tropic. 

(b) EftotiUni ; Snved. i. e, 
Jnoibtr Land, It was called 
fo by fome FUhermen of Friexif 
Uma^ who firft difcover^d it, 
long before Columbus, It was 
afterwards difcovered by Nicbo-^ 
fat and Andrtw Zfni, Fntoft* 

Chap. III. Paradise Lost. 347 

A T the Tafte of the forbidden Fruit, (as it is faid 
he did from the bloody Banquet of Thyestes {d) ) 
the Sun changed his firil Courfe; elfe how had die 
World, that would have been inhabited all over as 
well as Eden, (though they had been without Sin) 
have more than now avoided pinching Cold and fcor- 
ching Heat? Thcfe Changes in Heaven prodiic*dj> 
(though (lowly) like Change upon Sea and Land, 
Star-blaft, Vapour, Mift, and hot corrupt and pefti- 
lent Exhalation ! Now die Winds from the North, 


««ii ^ the Vortwgurfi^ and 
called Tirradi Labrador^ i. c 
The Land of the Labourer s be- 
caufc it reqaired much Pains to 
cnltivate it ; by the Spantaris^ 
Tirra de Cortfreai; becanie 
Ci^/^r CortiTial difcovered it 1 
and now Airw Briiaiu by th« 
French and Briiaini, This is 
the moft Northern Country of 
jMiriea^ extending towards the 
Eaft and Hrndfon's Bay; ex- 
tremely coldy monntainousy o- 
ver-run with Forcfls and wild 
Beads. The Inhabitants go na- 
ked, notwithllanding the ex- 
treme Cold, and are Idola- 
ten for the moil Part. Seba* 
Jtian Cabot ^ a Vemeiian, A. D. 
1497, bv Commilfion from Bin. 
VII. ot England^ furniih*d two 
Ships with 300 Men in Eug- 
landf at his own Expence 1 and 
difcovered all the North Coaft, 
ffom 28 to 56 Degrees of Nor- 
thern Latitude, 20 Years before 
any other Eurofeans. 

(e) Magitlan ; fortug, A 
^aft y ountry in $9Uib Amirka^ 

extending towards the South 
Polcy not yet well discovered 
nor inhabited by the Europeans. 
This, with the Streights, which 
part it from the Continent of 
South America^ took their Namea 
from Ferdinand Magdlam or 
Maglianes^ a Portm^uefi^ who 
difcovered them A. D. 15 19 and 
1520, by the Order and Affiil- 
ance of the Emperor CW/r# 
V. But he was poifoncd in the. 
Ifland di los Ladrones^ i. e. Thi 
IJle of Robbers ; or died in the 
liland of Maran^ A. Dw 1520. 

(d) Tbje/es; Gr. i. c. 4 
Murderer. The Son of Pe/ops^ 
and Brother of Atreus. ^hytfiet 
committed Adultery with hii 
Brother*s Wife ; to revenge i^ 
AtretLt flew the Son that was 
born of her, and ferv*d him up 
to his own Brother at a Peaft. 
At this horrid Wickednefs, it it 
faid, the Sun turn'd back hit 
Courfe for a Time, left he 
ihould be polluted. Such ai| 
Abhorrence the blind Heathens 
had of thofe heiiioos Cf jmes. 

34^ Pakadisb Lost* Book X. 

Boreas, {c) CiEciAS, (f) Arc est es, (^) and 
Thrascias, (b) burfting their brazen Dungeon from 
NoRUMBEQUE, (/) and the Shore of Samoed, (k) 
arm'd with Ice, Snow, Hail, and Storms, rend up 
the Woods, and turn up the Seas: Not us, (I) and 
A F E R, (m) black with Thunder-Clouds from S e r- 
raliona, (n) turn them up with adverfe Blafl: 
from the South : Acrofs thefe forth ru(h with equal 
Fiercenefs, the Levant {o) and Ponent (p) Winds, 


{i) B9reas\ Lat. from the 
Gr. i. c, A roaring nfiolnU 
S9UHd. The North Wind fo 
called from the Soand and Force 
of it. 

(f) CaeUi I Lat, Gr. from 
Caycus^ i. e. Drawing Evil. It 
is a River of Myfia in Leffer 
Jfia near the Hitle/h^nt, from 
whieh this Wind blows upon 
Gmcg I and gather? Clouds to- 
gether by a firong attra^live 
fower. The North - Weft 

( g ) Argtfits ; Lat, Gr. i. e. 
Wbit9 as Sihiri becaufe it 
clears the Sky, making it dear 
as Silver. The North - Eaft 

(b) Tbr^fciasi Lat. Gr. i. 
e. filowing from Thrace, now 
Rvmama in Europg, upon Greiee, 
from the North. The North 

(/) Nommheque ; from the 
Frencbf Jmiric. A large Coun- 
try of Nartb Amirica, having 
Ifova Scotia on the South- W^C 
hrw'-Engiand on the North- 
Weft, and the Ocean on the 
South; from the Capital City 
of the fame Name. 

( i ) Samotdf or Samoieda ; 
Ruf. i. €. Cannikah or Utn* 

EatirS' A Province in the 
North Eaft of Mofcovy^ npon 
the Icj Sia, on both Sides of 
the River Obi and joining to 
Siberia. The People are Ytrj 
rude and favage. Idolaters to 
this Day. Stefben Bttrramghs^ 
an Englifitman^ firfl difcovered 
this Country, A. D. 1556. 

(/) Notusi Lat. Uom the 
Gr. i. e. moift and ivet. Henc^ 
Ovid calls it watery. The 
South Wind. 

( m ) Aftr I Gr. i. e. Blowing 
from Africa. The South- Weft 
Windy which lies South front 

(n) Serraliona, in the late 
Edit. Sierra Liona, Span, u e. 
Tbe Lion Mountains; vulgo 
Cap* di Sierra Liona ; fo called 
from a Chain of Mountains, 
that reach to the Atlantic Oce- 
an, which beats upon thefe 
Rocks, and makes a Noife like 
the Roaring of a Lion. Anci- 
ently Tbeooa Ocbema^ Gr. L e« 
Tbe Cbariot of tbe Gods. It It 
the moft Wcftem Point of Afri- 
€a» on the Frontiers of 'Nigrir 
tia and Guinea^ and withm ^ 
few Leagues of Cape Verd. 

(0) Levant; Fr. from die 
Ufat. U e. RiJSng, The £ail/or 


chap. iV, Pahadise Ldir. 349 

EuRus, (q) and Zephyr; with their Side- 
winds Sirocco, (s) and Libecchio. (/) Thus 
Outrage began from Things without life : But Dis- 
cord (the Daughter of S I n) firft introduced Death 
among the irrational Creatures, through fierce Anti- 
pathy : Beaft now began to fight with Beafl, Fowl 
with Fowl, and Fifli with Fifh, all leaving to graze 
upon the Grafs devoured one another; nor did they 
ftand much in Awe of Man, but fled from him, or 
pafling by him, glar'd on him with a grim Counte- 


Adam bewails bis fallen Condition ; Eve endea-- 
vours to appeafe bim^ but does not Jucceed. He 
exborts ber tofeek Peace by Repentance. 

THESE were the growing Miferies from 
without, which A d a m in Part already faw, 
though hid in the globmieft Shade, and 
abandoned to Sorrow: But within himfelf he felt 
worfe Mifery, and his Mind was tols*d and thrown up 
and down in a troubled Sea of diforder'd Palfions ^ 


Eafiem Coon tries » efpeclaUy 
thofe on the Mediterranean Sea^ 
where the Sun rifeth. The Eaft 

(f) Ponent j Lat, Fr, Mib, 
f. e. Laying down i becaufe 
there the Sun fets down to oar 
Appearance. Fr, Fent du Po- 
nani, i. c. The Well Wind, i, e. 
The Wind« fifing nnd fetting ; 
theEaftand Weft Winds. 

(f) Euros $ Lat. Gr. i. e. 

BiUufing n thi EaJI. Th# 
Eaft Wind 

( r ) Sirocco ; ItaL Span, Lat. 
JafyXf i. e. Blowing from Sy- 
ria, The Souih-Eaft Wind; 
becaafe Syria lies South-Eaft 
from Ifn/y and Spain. 

(f) Libecchio i Span. ItaL i. 
e. B/onving from Lybia, The 
South- Welt Wind ; becaufe Ly- 
bia lies South-Well from hat} 
and Spain, 

350 pAkADjsfe LosT*4 Book 1^ 

which he endeavour'd thus to diiburthen with ikd 
Complaint : 

How miferable am I become, who Was once fo 
happy ! Is this the End of this hew glorious World^ 
and of me, fo lately the Glory of that Glory, who 
from being blefs^d am now become accurs'd ? Hid6 
me from me Face of G o o, whom to behold was once 

the Height of my Happinefs ! Yet if the Mifery 

would end here, . it were well ; I defenr'd it, and 
would bear my own Defervings : But this will not 
fcrve ! all that I eat or drink, or Ihall beget, is pro-^ 
pagating and prolonging the Curfe. O Voice heard 
once with fo much Delight, Increase and multi- 
ply ; now it is D s A T H to hear it! for what can I 
xncreafe and multiply, except it be Curfes on my own 
Head ? Who will there be of all fucceeding Age% 
but, feeling the Evil brought upon him by me, will 
cuffe my Head ? He will cry, may our impure Ance- 
ftor fare ill! for this we may diank Adam! but 
thefe his Thanks fhall be the Ejcecration ! So, befides 
my own Curfe that abides upon me, all from me fhall 
rebound fiercely back on me, and tend to me as their 
natural Center ; there being light, as having reached 
that Center, and loft their Gravity, which in other 
Places tliey had ! O fleeting Joys of Paradise, 
dearly bought with lafting Mifery! Did I requeft 
Thee, O Thou who mad'ft me, to make me a Man^ 
when I was nothing but Clay ? Did I follicit Thee to 
take me forth out of Darknefs ? Or to place me here 
in this delicious Garden ? As my Will did not concur 
to my Being, it were but right and juft to reduce me 
to what I was before, that is to Duft ; being defirous 
to refign, and give back again all I have received 5 
feeing I have been unable to perform thy too hard 
Terms, by which I was to hold the Good that I had 
not fought. To the Lofs of that Good, (which is 
fiifficient Penalty !) why haft thou added the Senle of 


Chap. IV. Paradise Lost. 351 

cndldsWoes? Inthis^ thy Juftice does notfeem to 

appear, Yet, to fay the Truth, I conteft thus 

when it is too late ; thefe Terms, whatever they mighc 
be, Ihould then hare been refus'd, when they were 
proposM. I may be anfwer'd thus ^ thou didit accept 
them, wilt thou enjoy the Good, and then cavil at 
the Conditions ? And, thoi^h God did make thee 
without thy Leave, what U thy Son prove difbbedi- 
ent, and being reproved, (hould anfwer and obje& to 
thee, wherefore didft thou beget me T I fought it not, 
nor defir'd it of thee ! wouTd'ft thou admit of that 
proud Excufe of his Contempt of thee ? And yet it 
was not thy ElefHon, but natural NeceflTity that begpf 
him. God made thee of Choice, his own, and of 
his own to ferve him ; thy Reward was of his Gracei 
then thy Punifhment, for certain, is juftly at his 
Will. Then be it fo! fori fubmit; his Doom is 
righteous, that I am Dull and to Duft I ihall return 
again. O welcome Hour, come whenever it will! 
why does his Hand delay to execute, what his Decree 
fix*d upon this Day ? Why do I live over it ? Wh/ 
am I mock'd with Death, and yet preferv'd and 
prolonged to deathleis Pain? How gladly would I 
meet the Mortality diat I was fentenc*d to, and be* 
come infenfible Earth ! How gladly would I lay me 
down, as in my Mother's Lap ! There I ihould reft^ 
there I ihould deep fecurely: His dreadful Voice 
would no more thunder in my Ears : I ihould not be 
tormented with Fears of worfe to me and my Off- 
fpring, which now torment me with cruel Expedlati- 

on! Yet there is one Doubt purfues me ihll, leit 

I cannot wholly die •, leit that pure Breath of Life, the 
Spirit of Man, which God breath'd into him, can- 
not perifh together with thb corporal Clay : Then 
who Knows but b the Grave, or fome other difmai 
Place, I iball die a living Death ? O horrid Thought; 
if it be true! Yet why ihould it be fo? It was buc 
Breach of Life that finn'd ; and what dies but whas 


352 Paradise Lost. JSobk ^« 

had Life and Sin ? The Body, properly fpeaking;; 
hath neither. Then all of me fliall die : Let thi^ qui-» 
et the Doubt, fince human Underftanding knows nd 
further. For though the Lord of all be indeed in- 
finite, is his Wrath fo to ? Suppofe it ! Man is not 
fo, but declared and doom'd mortal. Then how can 
he exercife Wrath without End upon Man, whom 
Death muftend? Can he make deathlefs Death? 
That were to make a ftxange Contradidlion, which is 
held impoffible to G o d himfelf -, as it would be an 
Argument of Weaknefs, not of Power. Will he^ 
for Anger's Sake, draw out finite to infinite in pu- 
nilh'd Man, to fatisfy his Anger, which never will 
be fatisfy'd ? That were to extend his Sentence be- 
yond Duft, and the Law of Nature ; by which all 
Caules elfe aft, according to the Matter they have to 
work upon, and not to the Extent of their own 
Power. But fay that Death be not, as I fupposM, one 
Stroke, bereaving the Senfes, but endlefs Mifery from 
this Day forward ; which I feci begun both within 
me and without me^ and fo it is to laft perpetually. 
— — Ah me! that Fear comes thunderbg back dread- 
fully on my defencelefs Head: Death, As well as I, 
is found eternal, and both incorporated. Nor I fingle 
on my Part ; in me all Poftcrity ftands curs'd ! Ah 
my Sions ! this is a fair Patrimony that I muft leave 
you ! O ! that I were able to wafte it all myfelf, and 
leave you none ! Being fo difinhcrited, how would 
you then blefs me, who am now your Curfe ! Ah! 
why Ihould all Mankind be thus without Guilt, 
condemned for one MAN*sFault? Mankind! and 
guiltlefs, can that be ? For what can proceed from me 
but what is all corrupt, deprav'd both Mind and 
Will ; not to do only, but to will the fame as me ? 
How then can they (land acquitted in the Sight of 
God? After all Difputes, I am forced to abfolve him : 
All my vain Reafonings and Evafions, tho* through 
many Mazes, lead ftill but to my own Convift'.on : 


Cliap.JV. pAkADisE Lost* 353 

tirft and laft all the Blame- juftly lights on me,* and 
me only, as the Source and Spring of all Corruption : 
All the Blame! fo might the Wrath fall on me! Fond 
Wifli ! Could*ft thou lupport that Burthen, heavier to 
bear than the Earth; much heavier than all the 
World, though divided with that bad Woman? 
Thus what thou defireft and what thou fearefl:,- equal- 
ly deftroys all Hope of Refuge, and conclude3 thee 
miferable, beyond all paft and future Example ; and 
like to nothing but Satan, both in Crime and 
Doom. O CoNsci e nce ! into whaf an Abyls of Fears 
and Horrors haft thou driven me ? Out of which 
I can find no Way, but go plunging deeper and 
deeper ! 

Thus Adam made loud Lamentation in the 
Stillnefs of the Night; which was not wholefome, 
cool, and mild^ as it was before Man felU but ac- 
companied with black Air, with dreadful Gloom and 
Dampnefs j which rfprefented every Thing to his evil 
Confcience with double Terror. He lay out-ftretch*d 
upon the cold Ground! and often curs*d his Creation: 
Death he accused as often, tardy of Execution^ 
fince it was threatened to be on the Day that he offen- 
ded; Why (faid he) does not Death come, with 
one thrice-welcomed Stroke to end me ? Shall Truth 
fail to keep her Word? Why does not divine Juftice 
haften to be juft i But Death does not come at all, 
divine Juftice not the quicker for Prayers or Cries ! 
O Woods! O Fountains, Hills, Valleys^ and Bow- 
ers ! lately I taught your Shades to anfwer with Ec- 
choes not like thefe, and to refound a Song far diffe- 
rent! When fad Eve^ defolate where ihc fat, 

beheld Adam thus af&idted ; approaching near, Ihe 
tried with foft Words to allay the Fiercenefs of his 
Paffion: But Adam, with an angry Look, thus 
checked and repcU'd her : 

^ a GzT 


35+ Paradise Lost. BookX. 

Get out of my Sight, thou Serpent! — —That 
Name is fitteft for thee, who art leaguM with him ; 
thyieif as falfe as he, and as hateful ! there's nothing 
wanting, but that thy Shape and ferpentine Colour, 
like his may (how thy inward Fraud ; to warn afl 
Creatures henceforth- to avoid thee, left that too hea- 
venly Form, held to SSght to hide hellifli Falihood^ 
enfnare them ! — Had it not been for thee, I had per- 
fifted happy j had not th v Pride and wand*ring Vani- 
ty, when it was Icaft fafe, reje6ted my Forewarning, 
and difdain'd to be thought not fit to be trufted alone; 
longing to be feen, though it were by the Devil him- 
felf -, vainly thinking to over-reach him : But meeting 
with the Serpent, art fooPd and beguilM ; thou by 
him, and I' by thee, to truft thee from my Side; ima- 
gining thee to be wife, conftant, confiderate, and 
Proof againft all Aflaults ; and did not underftand 
that all was but a Show, rather than folid Virtue ; all 
nothing but a Rib, crooked by Nature, beft thrown 
out, as found fupemumerary to my juft Number ? 
- — O why did God, the wife Creator! thatpeo- 

{)led the higheft Heaven with mafculine Spirits, at 
aft create this Novelty upon Earth, this fair Defeft 
of Nature ? And not fill the World at once with 
M E N, as Heaven with Angels, without any Female ? 
Or find out fome other Way to generate Mankind ? 
Then this Milchief had not liappenVI, and more that 
■fhall happen -, numberlefs Difturbances upon Farth, 
through the Snares of Women, and a ftrait Conjunc- 
tion with this Sex ! for either a M a n (hall never find 
out a fit Mate, but fuch as fome Miftake or Misfor- 
tune brings him ; or her, he wiflies for moft, and loves 
beft, through her Pcrverfenefs ftiall fcldom gain, but 
■fhall fee her gained by a far worfe than himlelf; or if 
fhe love him, with-held by Parents ; or fhall meet 
her, who would be his happieft Choice, already 
bound in Wedlock to another^ perhaps his Enemy, 


chap. IV. Paradise Lost. 355 

one that is his Hate or Shame ; vhich fliall caufe infi* 
nite Calamities to human Life, and confound dome* 
ftick Pfcace ! 

H E faid no more, and turned from her. But 

Eve, notrepuls'd lb, with Tears that flowed conti- 
nually, and difhcveird Hair, fell humbly at his Feet j 
and embracing them, entreated, him to be at Peace, 
and proceeded thus in her Complaint : 

Adam! do not abandon me thus ; witnefs Hea* 
ven, what fincere Love and Reverence in my Heart I 
bear thee, and have offended not knowingly 5 but be- 
ing unhappily deceived ! with humbleft Supplication 

I beg to be forgiven, and claf^ thy Knees. Do 

not bereave me of that, on which I live, thy gentle 
Looks, thy kind Affiftance and Counfel in this utter- 
moftDiftrefs, my only Strength and Support! Forfa* 

ken of thee, whither ftiall I bet:ike me ? Where 

Ihall I fubfift ? While we yet Bve (which perhaps 
may be fcarce one Ihort Hour) let there be Peace be- 
tween us two ! both joining in one Enmity (as jbin*d 
in Injuries) againft a Foe, exprefly affign*d us by 

Fate, that cruel Serpent ! Do not exercife thy 

Hatred on me for this Mifery which is befallen us j 
upon me, who am already loft ! me, more miferable 
than thyfelf ! We both have finn'd! but thou only 
againft G o D ; J, both againft God and thee ; and 
will return to the Place of Judgment, there to im- 
portune Heaven with my Cries, that all the Sentence 
removed from thy Head may light upon me, who ajn 
the fole Caufe of all this Woe to thee : Yes ! it is I 
alone, that am the juft Objedt of his Wrath ! 

S H £ ended weeping, and kept immoveable in her 
humble Pofturej 'till having obtained Peace from her 
Fault acknowledged, and repented, ftie wrought Com- 
miferation in Adam: His Heart foon relented to^ 

Aa 2 ward* 

356 Paradise Lost* Book X# 

wards her, to fee her, who fo lately was his only De- 
light^ and dear to him as Life» now in fuch Difire^, 
fubmiffive at his Feet! to fee fo fair a Creature fee- 
king his Reconcilement whom (he had difpleas'd, and 
fuing for his Counfel and Afliftance! Difarm'dat 
once, he loll all his Anger, and thus with peaceful 
Words he foon raised her up from the Ground : 

Unwary Eve! and too defurous (now as thou 
wert before) of what thou knowcft not, who defireff, 
that the Punifhment of both our Crimes may all light 
upon thyfelf! Alas! bear thy own Part firft; thou art 
ill able to fuflain his full Wrath, of which as yet thou 
feeril but the leaft Part, and fecft how ill thou can'ft 
bear even my Difpleafure, If Prayers could alter the 
Decrees of Heaven, I would Ibeed to the Place of 
Judgment before thee ; aod be neard louder requeft- 
ing that upon my Head all might be vifited, and thy 
Frailty and infirmer Sex be forgiven; which was Com- 
.mitted to my Care, and through my Permiflion ex- 
posed to Hazard. But rife! Let us contend no 

more, nor blame each other ; we are blam'd enough 
elfewhere ! but let us ftrive in Offices of Love^ how 
we may make each others Burthen lighter in our 
Share of Milbry ; fince Death threaten'd us this 
Pay, (if I judge right) will prove a flow-pacM and 
not a fudden Evil •, a long Day's dying, in Augmen- 
tation of our Pain ; and be entail'd (Oh Mifery to 
think on!) upon our Pofterity. 

To whom Eve, taking frefli Courage, replied 
thus; Adam! I know by fad Experiment, how little 
Weight my Words ought to have with thee, having 
been found fo erroneous ; thence (as is the juft Event 
of Error) found lb unfortunate : Neverthelefs, being 
rflftor'd by thee to a Place of new Acceptance, (vile 
as I am!) I am hopeful yet to regain thy Love, which 
is the only Contentment of my Heart, either living 


chap. rV. Paradise Lost. 357 


or dying; fo that I will not hide from thee what 
Thoughts are rifen in my unquiet Breaift-, tending ei- • 
thcr to end our extreme Sorrow, or give fome Relief 
to it ; which Means, though fharp and lad, yet are 
better to be chofe, and more tolerable than our prefcnt ' 
Evils. If the Care of thofe who are to defcend from 
us, be what perplexes us moft, as they muft be bom 
to certain Mifeiy, and be at laft devoured by Death. 
(and it is a milerable Thing, to be the Caufe of Mi- 
fery to others, and thofe our own Begotten ; out of 
ojur own Loins, to bring into this curs'd World a mi- 
fcrable Race, that, after bearing wretched Life, muft ' 
he at laft Food for fo foul a Monfter!) It lies yet in 
thy Power, before Conception, to prevent the unbleft 
R^ce, to prevent being what is yet unbegot. Thou 
ait yet childlefs, childlefs remain ftill : So D e a t h 
fliall be deceived of his Glut, and be forc'd to fatisfy 
his ravenous Maw with us two only. But if thou 
judge it difficult and too hard, converfing together, 
looking upon and loving one another, to abftain from 
fweet nuptial Embraces, the Rites due to Love ; and 
without Hope to languilh with Defire, before the Ob- 
jeft that languifhes with like Defire ; (which would be 
a Mifery and Torment as great as any that we dread) 
then, to free both ourfelves and Seed at once from 

what we fear for both, let us make (hort Work, 

let us feck Death; or if he is not to be found, 

let us ourfelves with our own Hands fupply his Office. 
Why do we ftand any longer Ihivering under Fears, 
that fhow no End but Death; and yet have the 
Power of many Ways to die ? Why not chufing the 
/horteft prevent the Deftruftion of our Pofterity, by 
deftroying ourfelves ? 

She ended here ; or elfe vehement Defpair broke 
off the red fhe had to fay : Her Thoughts had enter- 
tained lb much of D e A T H, as made her Cheek quite 
pale: But Adam, nothing fwayM by fuch Counfel, 
, A a 3 had 

358 PA»At)isE. Lost. BookX. 

hed raised his labouring and more attentive Mind to 
better Hopes j and thus he reply'd to E v e : 

Eve! thy Contempt of Life and !PIeafurc, feems 
to argue fomething in thee more fublime and excel- 
lent, than that which thy Mind contemns. But, 
therefore leeking Self-Deftruftion refutes that Excel- 
lence, thought to be in thee ; and implies not thy 
Contempt of Life, but Anguifh and Regret for the 
Lofs of it, and Pleafurc over-lqv'd. Or if thou co- 
Yet*ft Death, as^ the utmoft End ©f all Mifery, fo 
thinking to evade the Penalty pronounc'd 5 doubt not 
but God hath more wifely arm'd his angry Venge- 
ance, than to be fore-ftall'd and difappointed fo : I 
am much more afraid, left Death, if we (hould 
fo fnatch it, will not exempt us from the Pain, which 
we are by Doom to pay. Rather fuch Afts of Con- 
tumacy will provoke God to make Death live in 
us ! Then let us feek fome fafer Refolution, which me- 
thinks I have in my View ; with Heed calling to Mind 
that Part of our Sentence, that Thy Seed shall 
BRUISE THE Serpent*s Head; a poor Amends! un- 
Icfs (which as I conjefture) our great Enemy S a- 
T A N be meant ; who, in the Serpent, hath contrived 
this Deceit againft us. To crulh his Head would be 
Revenge indeed ! , which will be loft, if we were to 
bring Death upon ourfelves ; or refolve, as thou 
haft proposed, to live childlefs: So our Foe ftiall cf- 
cape the Punifliment ordainM him, and we, inftead of 
that, (hall double ours upon our own Heads. Then 
don't let any more be mentioned of Violence upon 
ourfelves, or willful Barrennefs, that cuts us off from 
Hope, and only favours of Rancour, Pride, Impati- 
ence, and Delpight, and Reluftance againft God, 
and his juft Yoke laid upon our Necks. Let ustc- 
member, with what mild and gracious Temper he 
both heard and judged us ; without Anger, and with- 
out Reproaches. We expeftcd immediate Diffolyti- 


Chap. IV. Paradise Lost. 359 

on, which we imagined was meant by Death that 
Day: When, Lo! to thee were only foretold Pains 
in bearing' and bripging forth Children 5 which will be' 
loon recompenc'd with Joy, the Fruit of thy Womb. 
The Curie not fo direAly pronounc'd on me, glanc'd 
on the Ground ; I muft earn my Bread with Labour : 
What Harm is that ? Idlenefs had been worfe ; my 
Labour will fuftain me: And left Cold or Heat Ihoyld 
do us Injury, he has, without being fought to, with 
timely Care provided us Cloaths, (unworthy as we 
are) with his own Hands ; pitying, even while he 
judg'd us. Hpw much more then, if we pray tp 
him, will his £^r be open, and his Heart inclined to 
pity us i And teach us further, how to fl:un the Incle- 
mency of the Seasons, Rain, Ice, Hail, and Snow j 
which now the Sky begins to fhow us in this Moun- 
tain •, while the Winds blow moift and keen ; fliatte- 
ring the Leaves of thefe fair fpreading Trees : Which 
bids us feek fome better Covering, to cherifh our 
numb'd Limbs j before the Sun leave the Night cold, 
how we may foment his Beams, gathered together by 
fome warm or combuftible Matter j or by ftriking 
two hard Bodies together, move the heated Air into 
Fire, as lately the Clouds, juftling or forced witli 
Winds, in their rude Shock fla(h*d the flant Light- 
ning, the Flame of which driven down, kindles the 
gummy Part of Fir or Pine, and fends out from a 
Diftance a comfortable Heat, which might fupply the 
Want of that of the Sun. He will inftruft us, if we 
pray to him,- and befeech Grace of Iiim, to ufc fuch 
Fire, and what elfe may be a Cure to thefe Evils, 
which our own Mifd^eds have brought on us: So as 
we need not fear to pals this Life commodioudy, fuf- 
tain'd by him with many Comforts-, 'till fuch Time 
as we end in Duft, our final Reft and native Home ! 
What can we do better, than repair to the Place 
where he judged us? Fall reverently proftrate before 
him, and there humbly confefs our Faults, and beg 

A a 4 Pardon j 

360 Paradise Lost. Book X, 

Pardon ; watering the Ground with our Tears, and 
filling the Air with our Sighs, fent from contrite 
Heaits, in Sign of unfeign'd Sorrow and meek Hu- 
miliation ? He will undoubtedly relent, and turn away 
from his EHfpleafure ; in whofe ferene Look, when he 
feem'd moft angry and moft fevere, what elfe flione 
but Favour, Grace, and Mercy? 

S o fpoke our firft Father, in true Penitence : nor 
did Eve feel Icfs Remorfe: They forthwith repair'd 
to the Place where God judg'd them, fell reverently 
proftrate before him ; and there humbly confefs'd their 
Faults, and b^g'd Pardon j ^ratering the Ground 
with their Tears, and filling the Air with their Sighs, 
fent from contrite Hearts, in Sign of unfeign'd Sor- 
row and meek Humiliation. 

Tjbe End of the Tenth Boot^ 





O F 


The Argument. 

THE Son e/Goo prefents to bis Fa- 
ther the Prayers of our firfi Parents, 
now repentingy and interceeds for them : 
iGop accepts tbemy but declares that 
they mufi no longer akde in Paradife: Sends Mi- 
chael, with a Band of Cherubim^ to difpojfefs 
tbem J butfrfi to reveal to P^^^a fnture Things : 
Michael'i coming down. 


362 Paradise Lost. BookXI. 


Tfe Son of God frefenes to bis Father the Pray- 
ers of Adam at7/i Eve. Michael is fent to fut 
them out of ParadiTc, and reveal f mure Things 
to Adam. 

IHUS proftratc in the loweft State ofHu- 
mility, theyTemain'd penitent and pray- 
ing J for, even before that, Grace defcen- 
ding from the Mercy-Scat {a) above* 
had foften'd the Stonynefs of their 
Hearts, and in the Room made new 
Flefii to grow ; fo that they breath'd unutterable Sighs 
and Groans j which were infpir'd with the Spirit of 
Prayer, and could fooner find the Way to Heaven 
than the loudeft Oratory : Yet were they not meaa 
Supplicants, nor did their Petition feem Icfs impor- 
tant, than when the antient Pair, according to the Fa- 
bles of old, Deucalion (h) and chafte Pyr- 


(4) MtrtjSeat. It WM 1 
Covering of pore folid Gold, 
vade exaftly to fit the Dudcd- 
fioiu of the Ark, to which the 
two Cherubims of Gold alfo 
were iued , and fprcad their 
Wings over it j placed in the 
Tibeniaclc and ia S^Umtn't 
Temple under the two Cheni- 
kim. It was two Cubits and an 
hair in Length, and a Cabit and 
an half in Breadth, £;r«/ 1 j. 1 7. 
18.11. " And thou Ibalc make 
" a Mtrcy-ftBt of pnre Gold ; 
" Two Cubiti and a half Ihall 
" be the Length thereof, and a 
" Cubit and a half the Breadth 
" thereof. And thou (halt make 
" two Chcij^ira of Gold -. Of 

" beaten Work ftuh then mfce 
" thrm in the two Ends of tb« 
" Mtrtj-fiat. And tboo ftalt 
" pnt the Mirtj-ftet abo*c np- 
" on the Ark, and in the Ark 
" thou {halt put the Tcdimoiijr 
" that I (hall give thee." It 
wa* called Prapitialt^ or C#> 
vtrit^ Mtrey-fiet- Therefore 
God IS faid to fit between the 
Cberabtoi. Tbithei the pioBi 
Jtwi did alwa)') turn their Fa- 
ce), in wh:ti Part of the World 
they were, when the/ prayed, 
I King, 8. 48. P/ 99- I . Dam. 
6. yon. 2. ^.Hrb.^. 16. 

(b) DtataBtn 1 Ut. Gr. j. 
e. Calling Mfan G*d. An anti- 
ent King of Tbt£aly the Son of 

chap. I. Paradise Lost. 363 

R H A> (c) ftood before the Shrine of T h e m i s, (d) 
to reftore the Race of Mankind, deftroy'd by the 
Deluge. Their Prayers afcended up to Heaven with- 
out Obftruftion, and there found eafy Entrance ; then 
clad with Incenle, came in Sight before the Father's 
Throne, where the golden Altar fmoak*d, clofeby 
their great Interccflbr ; and the Son gladly prefent- 
ing them, thus began to intercede : 

Behold, O Father! what afe the 6rft Fruits^ 
which on Earth are fprung up in M a n, from thy 
Grace implanted in hiip ! they arc thefe Sighs and 
Prayers, whidi I thy Prieft bring before thee, mix'd 
with Inccnfe in this golden Cenfor : Thefe are Fruits 
of more pleafing Savour, produced from thy Seed, 
fown with Contrition in his Heart, than thofe which 
all the Trees in Paradise could have produced, ma- 
nur'd by his Hand before he was fallen from Inno- 
cence, Now, therefore, incHne thine Ear to his Sup- 
plication; hear his Sighs, though his Tongue be 
mute! He knows not with what Words to pray, let 
me interpret for him, who am his Advocate and Pro- 
pitiation ; impute all his Deeds good or evil to me ; 
my Merit fhall make the good perfeft, and for the 


PromithnUf coteinporary with 
Ceaofs King of Jibens^ abouc 
J. Jlf. 2437. in whofc Reign a 
great Inundation happened in 
Gntci . He with his Wife on- 
ly were fared in a little Boat up- 
on Mount Pamajfus, till the 
Waters abated. 

(c) Pyrrha | Lat. Gr. i. c. 
Firt: Becaaic of her lingular 
Piety, Zeal for the Gods, and 
Chaflity. She was the Wife of 
DiucalioM. Thefe Names were 
very I'uitable to the Charader 
given to Koah and his Wife.— 
Deucalion^ the/ iay, was the 
firii that ercdled a Temple to 

the Worfhip of the Gods ; fo 
Noab built the firll Altar, we 
read of in the World, Gen. 8. 
20. 2 r .—And Berofus c«ll5 Pyr^ 
rba 7item and yefta. Heb. i. e. 

{d) Tbemisi Lat, Gr, i, c. 
Jufior Right: Becaufe (he taught 
Men 16 petition the Gods tor 
thofe Things that were right 
and fit ; or Heb. from Jbam or 
Tbummim, i, e. Perfea^ upright. 
A Goddefs, that had an Oracle 
upon Mount Pamajfus ; ihichcr 
thofe t«vo addrcilcd chemlelves 
for Counfel, how the loil Race 
of Mankmd might be reiiored. 

364 Paradise Lost. Book XI* 

evil my Death (hall pay. Accept of me •, and in me^ 
from thcfe Prayers and Sighs, receive Motive to grant 
Peace to Mankind: Let him live reconciled before 
thee, though he live in Sorrow, (at leaft the Number 
of his Days) 'till Death (which being his Doom I 
plead not to revcrfe, but to mitigate) fliall yield him 
to a better Life -, where all my Redeemed may dwell 
with me in Blifs and Joy ; and as I am one with thee, 
fo they may be made one with me. 

T o whom the Father gracioufly replied : M7 
accepted Sqn I all that Thou haft requefted for Man» 
obuin^ for all thy Requeft was my Decree. But the 
Law which I gave to Nature, forbids him to dwell 
any longer in that Paradise: Thofe pure and im* 
mortal Elements, that know no grofs nor foul difcor- 
dant Mixture, ejed him, as he is now tainted ; and 
purge him off, as a grofs Diftemper, to fouler Air 
and mortal Food, fuch as may beft fit him for the 
Diffolution wrought by Sin, that firft diftempef 'd 
and corrupted all Things. I, when I firfl: created 
Ijim, endowM him with twp fair Gifts, Happinefs 
and Immortality; Happinefs once loft. Immortality 
ferv*d only to make Milery eternal, *till fuch Time as 
I provided Death ; fo Death becomes his final Re- 
medy, tnd refigns him up to a fccond Life, when 
Heaven and Earth fhall be renewed, after a Life try'd 
in Iharp Tribulation, and refin'd by Faith and faithful 
Works; when he fhall be wak'd in the Renovation of 
the Juft. But let us call together all the Bleft through 
the wide Bounds of Heaven: I will not hide my 
Judgments from them, and how I. proceed with 
Mankind, as they law lately how I did with the of- 
fending Angels ; and though they ftood firm in their 
State before, yet afterwards they were ftiU more con- 

The Father concluded thus ; and the Son gave 
high Signal to tlie bright Minifter that kept Watch: 


Chapw I. Paradise Lost. 365 

He blew his Tnampet, that which was fince heard in 
Or E B, (e) when God defcended, and perhaps the 
fame that will found at the Day of Judgment. Th« 
Sound of the Trumpet, which the Angel founded^ 
was heard through all Heaven : The Angelical Sons of 
Light, hafted from their blifsful Bowers of fhady 
Amaranths, or from Fountains or Springs by the Wa- 
ters of Life, wherever they fat in Fellowfhip of Joy^ 
refortifig, according as their high Summons caU'd 
them ; where they took their Seats ; 'till the Almigh- 
ty from his fupreme Throne, thus prono»nc*d his fo- 
vereign Will: 

O Sons of Heaten ! M a n is become like unto one 
of us to know both Good and Evil^ fince he has tafted 
of the forbidden Fruit : But let him boaft his Know- 
led ge, which is of Good loft and Evil got-, happier- 
had it been for hihi, had he thought it fwiBcient to 
have known Good by itfelf, and not haVe known Evil 
at all. Now he repents, is forrowful, aud prays with 
a contrite Heart ; all thefe are my Motions in him ; 
and longer than they move, fuppofing him left to 
himfelf, I know his Heart how variable and vain it is. 
Therefore, left now his bolder Hand reach alfo of the 
Tree of Life, and eat of that, and fo live for ever, 
(at leaft dream to live for ever) I decree to remove 
him, and fend him out of the Garden to till the 
Ground, whence he was taken; which is a Soil ipuch 
fitter for him. 

Michael! do thou take this Command of mine 
in Charge : Take to thee from among the Cherubim 


{t) Onb ; i. e. When God '' Lightnings » and a thick 

delcende4 with the Sound of a *' Cloud upon the Mount, and 

Trumpet, Exod. 19.6- "And ** the Voice of the Trumpet 

it came to pafs on the third " exceeding loud ; To that a^ 

Day in the Morning, that *' the Pespie this we.e in the 

there wera Thunders and ** Ciimp iremblcd.** 


366 Paradise Lost. Book XZp 

thy Choice of flaming Warriors ; left the Fiend 
fome new Trouble, either m the Behalf of M a n, or 
clfe to invade vacant Pofleifion. Make Hafte, and 
without Remorfe drive out the finful Pair from the 
Paradise of God ; drive out the Unholy from that 
holy Ground, and denounce to them and their Pofteri- 
ty perpetual Banilhment from thence. Yet, left they 
faint at the fad Sentence, urg'd too rigoroufly, hide all 
Terror ; for I behold them foften*d, and bewailing 
their Tranfgreffion with Tears. If they patiently fub- 
mit and obey with Refignation, do not di&iifs them 
difconfolate v but mix with my Commands Speech of 
my Covenant renew'd in the Seed of the Woman: 
So fend them forth, though in Sorrow, yet in Peace. 
And on the Eaft Side of the Garden place a Watch of 
Cherubim, and the wide waving Flame of a Sword ; 
(where the Entrance up from £ p s n is the eafieft to 
Paradise) to deter all Approach; and guard all Pai^ 
fage to the Tree of Life ; left Paradise prove a Re- 
ceptacle for foul Spirits, and all my Trees (hould be- 
come their Prey ; with whofe ftolen Fruit they might 
once more endeavour to delude Man. 

He ceas'd here, and the Arch- Angel prepared for 
iwifr Defcent, with him the bright Company of 
watchful Cherubim : Each of them had four Faces, 
like a double Janus j (J) their Bodies were all over 


Tke iirft King of Italy ^ who firft 
^tfSti^ the Vine and drank 
Wine : Therefore his Poftericy 
were called Oenotriip Gr, i. e. 
WimeBibkers. He was there- 
tore deified and honoured with 
a t'anipus Temple at Rome^ pic- 
tured with two Faces ; in Me- 
ijnory of him Money was coined 
with a Janut on one Side, and 
a Ship on the Reverfe ; and the 
Month of January was dedi- 
cated to him. This Defcriptioi^ 

of Angels is taken from Ezriiel 
10. 12. 14. " And c heir whole 
** Body, and their Backs, and 
'* their Handstand their Wings, 
** and the Wheek were fall of 

Eyes round aboot^ even the 

Wheels that they fbor had. 

And every one had fbor Pa* 
** ces : The firft Face was the 
" Face of a Ghcrtib, and the 
<* fecond Face was the Face of 
*' a MaUt and the third the 
'* Face of a Lion, and the 

fourth the Face of an Eagle/* 




** * 

chap. 1. Paradise Lost. 367 

ipangled with Eyes, more in Number than thole 
feign'd of A R o u s, (g) and mcM-c wakeful than to 
fleep, charm'd with the Arcadian (h) Pipe of 
MERcvRy» or to be lull'd with the Touch of his flee- 
py Rod* Mean while the Day broke, and frcfli Dew 
fell upon the Earth, , when Adam and our firft Mo- 
ther Eye had now ended their Prayers, and found 
new Strength added from above ; new Hope to fpring 
cut of Defpair, and Joy that was yet mix*d witS 
Fear; fo that he renewed his Speech to Eve in thcfe 
welcome Words: 

Eve! Faith may eafily admits that all the Good 
which we enjoy defcends from Heaven ; but that any 
Thing from us fhould afcend up there, fo prevalent as 
to concern the Mind of the high bleft God, or to in- 
cline his Will, may fcem hard to believe ; yet Prayer will 
do this, nay one (hort Sigh of human JBreath, born up 
even to the very Seat of G o d. For, fmce I fought 
to appeafe the offended Deity by Prayer 1 fince I 
kneeFd^ and humbled all my Heart before him, me- 
thought; I faw him placable, and mildly bending his 


{g) Jrpui Lmt, Gr^ i. e. 

A&ivi and NimbU, A Shcp- 
herd» faid to have had loo 
Eye«. Jmno retained him in her 
Service^ to watch and relate 
the Pranks of Jupiitr. Jmpi- 
ter was diijpleas*d with fuch a 
Sp7, and (et Mercury to work. 
He» with his Pipc» lulled him 
fall afleep, and cue off his 
Head ; which Jm9^ in Re- 
ward of his faithful Service, 
tum'd into a (lately Peacock, 
whofe Tail is adom'd with ma* 
ny golden Circles ; therefore 
this Bird was dedicated ta her. 

{ b ) Arcadian ; Behnging to 
Arcadia ; from Arca$^ Gr. i. e. 
d Bisr. The Son of J^upi/er 

and Ca/ifip, ( whom Jupiter 
tam*d into a Bear) Father oT 
the Arcadians^ and King of 
Arcadia, The Arcadians^ ig- 
norant of their tnie Original, 
boafted that they were before 
the Moon. It was called ajfa 
Pelajgia and Tbe^aly, and the 
People Peia/zi ; who came one 
of Afia^ fettled in Greece, and 
ixed in lia/y^ after the Oeit§' 
trians. It is a Country in the 
Middle of Peioponefiu^ aboun- 
ding with good Pafiure, Flocks, 
and Shepherds, who made 
Pipes of the Reeds and Stalks 
of Corn. The People wor(hip* 
pcd Pan^ as their tutelar God. 

368 Paradise Lost. £ook Xf • 

Ear : Perfwafion grew in me, that I was heard with 
Favour ; Peace retum'd home again to my Breaft^ 
and that Promife came to my Memory, That our 
Seed should bhuise our Foe ; which not minded^ 
as then I was in great Difmay, yet now it affiires me 
that the Bitternels of D £ a t h is pail,' and we Ihall 
live. Whence I am bold to fay^ hail to thee! Eve, 
rightly fo callM, the Mother of all Mankind, the 
Mother of all Things living; fince by thee Man is 
to live, and all Things live for him ! 

T o whom Eve, with an humble and fofrowfifl 
Countenance, made Anfwer: I am not worthy that 
fuch a Title fhould belong to me, who am a Tranf- 
greflfor! who being ordain'd for a Help, became k 
Snare to thee : To me rather belongs Reproach, Sus- 
picion, and all Difpraife ! but my Judge was infinite 
m his Mercy, th'at I, who firft brought Death upon 
all, have the Grace conferred on me to be the S<Hu-ce 
of Life : Next thou art greatly favourable to me, 
. who haft vouchfaf 'd to give me this high Title ; I de- 
ferve a far other Name ! But the Field calls us to La- 
bour now ; Labour, which is impos'd on us with 
Sweat of our Brow ; though we have not flept all 
Night: For fee the Morning, taking no Notice of our 
Want of Reftj begins her ufual Progrefs: Let us go 
forth ; I never henceforward offering to ftray frofti 
thee, wherever our Day's Work may lie ; though 
now enjoin'd us, that we labour 'till the Day decline: 
What can be very toilfome in thel'e pleafant Walki, 
while we dwell here ? Let us live here contented j 
though we arc in a fallen State! 

S o E V B fpoke, and fo wiftiM with great Humili- 
ty ; but Fate did not confent : Firft of all Nature gave 
Signs, mark*d on Birds, Beafts, and the Elements ; 
Light eclips'd fuddenly, after a fliort Appearance of 
the Moaning; the Eagle flying from on high, drove 


I Chap* IL Paradise Lost. 369 

e two of the fined Birds before him ; the Lyon, then, 

1 the firft Hunter that ever was, purfued a Hart and 

t a Hind, the goodlieft of all the Foreft, down from a 

5 HHl ; and their Flight was bent direftly to the Eaftern 

I Gate of Paradise. Ad am obferv^d it, and fixing 

I hts Eyes upon the Chace, with fome Emotion Ipokc 
thus to Eve: 

! * 


OEve! fome further Change for us is near at 
Hand, which Heaven fliows by thefe mute Signs in 
Nature ; the Fore-runners of his Purpofe, eitlier to 
warn us, who may be too prefuming and too fecure of 
our Difcharge from Penalty, becaufe we have been 

. jreieas'd fome Days from Death: How long and 
what our Life will be 'till then, who knows? Or is it 
ciore than this, perhaps tp warn us that we are Duft, 
and that we muft return thither , and be no more ? 
Why elfe this double Objeft in our Sight, of Flight 
and Purfuit in the Air and over the Ground, oi^e Way 
if\ the felf-fame Hour? Why k Darknefs in the Ealt 
before Noon ? And why is the Morning Light bright 
ter in yon Wcftern Cloud, that draws a fhi- 
riing Whitenefs along before the Sky, dcfconding 

' flowly, and bearing in it fame of the Blcft froxin 

chap. II. 

Michael denounces their Departure ; EveV La^ 
mentation. PiiAsxa pleads^ butfubmits. 

il D A M did not miftake in his Conjefture \ for 

/\ by this Time the heavenly Bands of i^ngels 

JL .V. were lighted down in Paradise from the fe- 

rene Sky, and took their Stand upon a Hill : A glori* 

ous Appearance ! had not Doubts and carnal Ftar that 

B b Day 


37P Paradise Lost. BookXI^ 

Day made the Eyes of Adam dim: That was not 
more glorious, when the Angels met Jacob in Ma- 
nan aim, (i) where he law the Field cover'd witK 
bright Angels : Nor was that more glorious, which 
appeared on the flaming Mountain Dot ha n, (k) 
covered with Chariots and Horfes of Fire, againft 
Benhad AD, the King of Sy r i a ; who, to furprize 
the Prophet Elisha, (I) like an Aflaflin had le- 
vied War unproclaim'd. Michael, the princely 


(ij Mahanaim; Hih. i. e. 
Viuo Hofts or Camps. So yac§h 
called the Place, where he faw 
Annies of Holy Angels proted- 
ing him from the Fear of E/au, 
Gin. 32. I. 2. A City was 
built there in Memory of this 
glorious Vifion, in the Tribe of 
Gad in the Land of Giltad be- 
yond Jordan for the Priefts, near 
Ramatb^ Jojb. 21. 3^. It is |i 
Mfles from Jirufalem to the 
Baft. Dan}id Hed to it. as & fa- 
cred Place of Refuge, in his Ex- 
ile under Abfalom'% tlfurpation. 
jibinidab a Priefl was the Cover- 
cor of ity under King Sohmon ; 
and fo it was always efleemed a 
facred Place from that Occafion. 

(k) Dotban ; Hib. i. e. Cm». 
mandmint, A City about two 
Miles from Sicbem^ fix from TV- 
biriasp twelve to the North of 
Samaria^ forty-four Miles from 
ygmfalem towards the North. 
A Place of good Pafture; for 
there Jofipb found his Brethren 
with their Flocks, and was caft 
into a Pit, Gen. 37. 17* There 
Elijba the Prophet liv'd, and 
fbuck the Syrian Army with 
Blindnefs; having a dorious 
Guard of Angeb, with Chariots 
and flaming Fire about him, z 
Xings, 6. 13, 14, 15, 16, tj. 


And he faid. Go, and fpjr 
where he is, that I may fend 
and fetch him; and it was 
told him, faying. Behold he 
is in Dotban* Therefore fent 
he thither Horfes and Chari- 
ots, and a great Hofl ; and 
they came oy Night, and 
compaflied the Ci^ about* 
And when the Servant of the 
Man of God was rifen early' 
and gone forth, behold, an 
Hoft compafled the City« 
both with Horfes and Chari* 
ots ; and his Servant faid un- 
to him, alas, my Mader^ how' 
fhall we do ? And he anfwe- 
red, fear not ; for they that 
be with us, are more than 
they that be with them. And 
Eiififa pray'd, and faid. Lord, 
I pray thee open his £yes» 
that he may fee. And the 
Lord opened the Eyes of the 
young Man, and he faw ; and. 
behoM the Mountain was full 
of Horfes, and Chariots of 
Fire round about Elifl^a^ 

And there Hohftrms was ilain 

by Juditb. 
(I ) Elijba the Prophet, who 

difcover*d the private Councils of- 

the King of Syria to thcEtog of. 
















Chap. II. PARADISE ^-OST.' 271 


Arch-Angel, left his Powers there in their bright 
Stand, to take Poffeffion of the Garden; and he alone, 
took his Way, to find where Adam had fhelter'd 
himfelf ; who perceiving him at a Diftance, as he 
made his Approach towards him, Ipoke to E v e in 
this Manner: 

Eve! Now is the Time to expeft to know fome 
great Matter, which perhaps will very foon deter- 
mine what relates to us ; or, perhaps, for us to re- 
ceive new Laws to obferve : For I difcover, from 
yonder blazing Cloud that covers the Top of the 
Hill, one of the Hoft of Heaven ; and, by his Port, 
none of the meaneft ; fome great Potentate, one of 
thofe who fit upon Thrones above, fuch Majefty ap- 
pears about him as he comes along! yet not terrible, 
that I fhould fear him ; nor fociably mild as R a-« 
p H A fi L was, that I fhould venture to ufe much Free- 
dom with him ; but he feems folemn and fublime ; 
whom not to offend I muft meet with Reverence, and 
do thou retire. 

He faid thus; and the Arch- Angel foon drew. 
near; not in his heavenly Shape, but clad like a 
M A N to meet with Man: He wore a military Vcft 
of Purple, (m) of a brighter Colour and richer 
Dye, than ever was known in M £ i< 1 b i^ a, (n) or 

B b a Tyre, 

(m) FurpU I Sax, Fr. lial. 
Sfan, Lat. from the Gr. A 
Colour between Rtd and Violet, 
taken from a Sea-Fi(h, which is 
call'd Purpura^ i. e. ihi Colour 
of Fin. The Purfle Colour 
was firft foond oat at i'jrit by an 
Accident; for aa hungry Dog 
broke one of thofe Shells upon 
the Sea-Side, and eat the Filh« 
which colottrM his Mouth and 
Chapi, to the Admiration of all 

Beholden. Hence the Tyriant 
became the moii famoas Mailers 
of that Art, in all Antiquity. 
Purple became as valuable as 
Gold, and was the diilinguiihing 
Mark of £mperors , Kings , 
Confuls, Senators p Dilators, 
and Triamphers; fo that a 
Pound of it was fold at Romt 
for 1000 Denarii, i. e. about 
41/. 13/. \d, En^lljb Money. 
(n) Mthh^ai Za/. from the 


372 Paradise Lost. Book XL 

Tyre, (o) though that was worn by Kings and He- 
roes of old, in Time of Truce; the Rainbow (p) had 
given its Colours before it was wove: His Helmet, 
that was unbuckled and fhone like a Star, IhewM him 
jufl: at that Degree of Manhood, where Youth ended : 
His Sword, thC Dread of Satan, hung by his 
Side, faften'd to a (hining Belt; and in his Hand he 
bore a Spear. Adam bow*d down low: Michael, 
who was to keep up his Royalty and State, did not 
bow in Return, but thus declar'd the Reafon of his 
coming : 


Qr, 1. e. Honing ihi Care tf 
Oxen. A City ot Theja/j upon 
the Sea Shore, famoos of old 
for the Art of dying the nobleft 
Parple, by the Help of a Shells 
Filh called Purfnra and OJirnm, 
which they caught in the Sea 

(oj Tyrf^ now $enr, was a 
very antient and rich Sea-I|ort» 
and Capital Cicy of Fbcrnicia^ 
built by Agenor the Father of 
Cadmuiy I/a, 23, 12. about A. 
M. 2499. or about the Time of 
GUeon, a Judge of Ifraei^ fixty- 
five Years before the Deltrudlion 
of Troy, and 240 before the 
Building of Solomon'^ Temple. 
It was a fortified City in the 
Days of Jojhua^ e, 19. 29. 
When SidoH was taken by the 
Philijiines of Ajcalon^ many of 
the Citizens efciped in Ships^ 
and founded ^yre upon a Rock 
lit an Ifland, half a Mile from 
the Land. But Jofephus fays la- 
ter, in 2733. A flourifhing Ci- 
ty in the Days of King Da'vU 
artd Solomon ; famous ot old for 
the vaft Trade, Ezek. 26. 27. 
which made her fo proud and 

wicked, that the divine Judg- 
ments were denounced againfi, 
and executed upon her, Ej^ek, 
28. and for the fyriam Purple, 
made from the Blood of a Fifii 
caueht in that Sea- This City 
refified Nehuchadnexxar thirteen 
Years ; but Alexander the Great 
took it in feven Months, with 
incredible Paios and Lofs of 
Men; and Antigentu after a 
Siege of fifteen Months, A. M. 
369 1 . before ChriJI^ 313. Now 
it is a miferable Place, inliabited 
with a few poor Fiibermen with* 
out any Houfes. 

(p) The Rainbovj, It is a 
natural Meteor in the Clouds, 
caufed by the Reflexion of the 
Rays of the Sun upon them; 
therefore it appears only in rainy 
Weather. if there was any 
Rain before the Deluge, there 
muft have been a ftainbow : But 
af^er that, God made it a Sign of 
his Covenant with Uoab^ that 
the Earth ihould never be drow- 
ned again, Gen, o, 12, 13, EecL 
43. II, 12. The Purple, Blue, 
and Saffron Coloun appear i^oft 
lively in it. 

chap. II. Paradise Lost. 373 

Adam! there is np Need to make any Preamble 
to the Command of Heaven, let it be fufficient that 
thy Prayers are heard, and Death (which was due 
by Sentence, at the Time of thy Tranfgreffion) - not 
permitted to make the Seizure for yet many Diys ; 
which are given thee through Grace, wherein thou 
may'ft repent, and with many Deeds well done, co* 
ver and blot out one bad Aft: It is polfible God, up^ 
on thy Repentance, (being appeased) may not only 
defer but quite remit the mortal Sentence, and redeem 
thee from the rapacious Claim of D e a t h. But he 
does not permit thee to dwell longer in this Para- 
dise: I am come to remove thee« and fend thee out 
of the Garden to till the Ground, whence thou waft 
taken, which is a Soil much fitter for thee. 

The Arch- Angel faid no more ; for Adam wa^ 
ftruck to the very Heart with fuch Sorrow, as fufpen- 
ded all his Senfes; and Eve, who though unleen, 
had overheard all, with loud Lamentation loon difco- 
vcr'd the Place where flie had concealed herfelf : 

O unexpected Stroke, much worfe than Death I 
Paradise! muft I leave thee thus ? Thus leave 
thee, dear native Soil! thefe plcalant Shades and hap- 
py Walks, worthy to be vifited by Gods ? Where I 
nad Hope to fpcnd quiet, though fad, the Time that 
Heaven had granted us, 'till the Day come that muft 
be mortal to us both ! O Flowers 1 that never will 
grow in any other Climate; that were my early Vifi- 
tation in the Morning, and my laft in the Evening; 
which I bred up with tender Hand, from the very 
firft opening Bud, and gave ye all Names! Who now 
(hall raife ye up to the Sun, or range in your feveral 
Clafles, and water ye from the living Springs ? And 
laftly, O nuptial Bower ! adorned by me with every ' 
Xhin^ that was fwcet, eithct to the Smell or Sight ! . 

B b 3 How 


^74. Paradise Lost* Boc^ XL 

How ftiall I part with thee, and whither wander down 
into a lower World •, wild, darkfome, and defolatc, 
in Comparifon of this ? How fliall we breath in other 
Air lefs pure than this, or feed on groffer Food, be- 
ing accuftom'd to immortal Fruits ? 

Whom the Angel thus mildly interrupted : E v e ! 
don't lament, but refign tvith ratiencc that, whidi 
v^ith the greateft Jufticc is taken from thee \ Not thus 
over-fend ly fet thy Heart upon that, which is not 
thine. Thou doft not leave Paradise alone ; thy 
Hufband goes along with thee, and thou art bound 
to follow him : Wherever he abides, do thou look the 
fame upon that Place, as if it were thy native Soil. ' 

A D A M, -by this Time recovering from the fijdden 
cold Damp which had feiz'd him, and his fcatter'd 
Spirits being returiiM ; thus, with great "Humility, 
addrefs'd himfelf to Michael: 

Celestial Being! whether among the Thrones 
of Heaven, or perhaps of them one of the higheft 
J^ames ; for a Prince of Princes may have fuch an 
Appearance! thou haft gently delivered thy Meflage, 
which might elfe, in telling, have wounded us, and 
in performing have ended us : But, bating the Mild- 
nels with which thou haft tempered tfcem, thy Ti- 
dings bring as much of Sorrow, Dejeftion, and 
iDelpair, as the Frailty of our Nature can fuftain: 
We muft depart from this happy Place, our fwect 
Recefs, and the only Confolation left us ; which is fa- 
miliar to our Eyes! and all other Places appear inhof- 
citable and deJblate -, not knowing us, nor being 
known to us: And if byinceffant Prayer I could hope 
to alter the Will of him who can do all Things, I 
would not ceafe to weary him with my continual Cries : 
But, Prayers avail no more againft his abfolute De- 
cree, than Breath docs againft the Wind j blowii fti- 
"^ ' * fling 


Chap. II. Paradise Lost. 375 

flin^ back upon him that breaths it forth : Therefore 
I iubmit myfelf entirely to his great Command f 
What moft afflifts me is, that when I depart from 
hence I (hall be, as it were, hid from his Face, depri- 
ved of the blefs*d Light of his Countenance ! Here I 
could frequent, with Worfliip and Adoration, every 
Place, where he had vouchfaf *d to appear to me in his 
divine Prefence ; and could relate to my Sons, " Up- 
*' on tliis Mountain he appeared to me; under this 
** Tree, he flood vifible ; among thefe Pines I heard 
•* his Voice ; here at this Fountain did I talk with 
•* him.'* So many grateful Altars I would raife up 
of grafly Turf, and pile up every bright Stone from 
the Brook, in Remenibrance, or to be a Monument 
to future Generations : And upon thefe Altars would 
I oflfer fweet-fmelling Gums, and Fruits, and Flow- 
ers. In yonder lower World where fliall I feek his 
bright Appearances, or trace his Footfteps? For 
though I fled from him, when he was angry ; yet be- 
ing recallM to prolonged Life, and promised Off- 
ipring, I now gladly behold though but the utmofk 
Skirts of Glory, and afar off adore his Steps. 

To whom Michael, with great Benignity, 
thus anfwered : Adam! thou knowefl, that Heaven 
and all the Earth are his ; not only this Rock, but his 
Omniprefence fills Land, Sea, and Air, and every 
Kind that lives, warm*d and cherifli'd by his quick- 
ning and fuflaining Power. He gave thee the whole 
Earth topoffefs, and rule*, nor was it adefpicable Gift I 
do not furmife then, or think that his Prefence is con- 
fined to thefe narrow Bounds of P a r ad i s e, or to 
Eden: This, perhaps, had been thy capital Seat, 
from whence all Generations might have fpread ; and 
hither might have come from all the Ends of the 
Earth, to celebrate and reverence thee, their great 
Progenitor. But thou hafl lofl this Pre-eminence; 
being now brought down to dwell upon lower Ground, 
^ ' B b 4 . an4 

376 Paradise Lost* Book XI^ 

and even with thy Sons. Yet don't doubt,^ but in the 
Valley and in the Plain, God is, even as he is here j 
and will be found alike prefent ; ftill following thee 
with many a Sign of his Prefence, ftill compaffing 
thee round with Goodnefs and paternal Love^ he will 
not hide his Face from thee, and thou fhalt fee the 
Tradt of his divine Steps. Which that thou may*ft 
believe, and be fully confirmed in before thou depart: 
from hence ; know, that I am fent to. fhcw thee what 
fhall come to pals hereafter, to thee and to thy Pofte* 
rity: Expeft to hear bad mix'd with good, Grace 
from above contending witli the Sinfulnel's of M e n j 
and thereby endeavour to learn true Patience, and to 
tcnlper thy greatcft Joy with Fear and holy Sorrow 5 
to be equally inurM by Moderation, to bear either the 
profperous or adverle State : So (halt thou lead thy 
Life in greater Safety, and be beft prepared to endure 

thy mortal Paffage when it comes. Afcend this 

Hill ; let Eve (for I have closed her Eyes) fleep here 
below ; whilft thou awakeft to Forefight, as oace 
thou flept'ft while Ihc was formed to Life : 

T o whom Adam replied In this grateful Man- 
ner: Afcend, fafe Guide! I follow ttee,. the Path 
thou lead eft me; and entirely fubmit to the Hand ofc 
Heaven, however it may chaften me ! willingly offe- 
ring myfelf to bear the Evil ; arming myfelf to over* 
come by Suffering, and to obtain Reft through La-^ 
bpur ; if it may be permitted fo to be. 


Chap. IJI. Paradise Lost* 377 


The Angel fets before Adam in a Vifimy what 

Jball happen, 'till the Flood. 

SO, both the Arch^ Angel Michael and Ad a ^f 
afcended in the Vifions of God. It was tlic 
high^ft Hill of Paradise, which they went 
up \ from whofe Tap the Hemifphcre of the Earth, 
on the cleareft View, lay ftretch*d out to the largeft 
Profpeft of A D a m's Reach. Nor was that Hill 
higher nor wider looking round, whereon (for a dif- 
ferent Caufe) the Devil let our fecond Adam, Christ 
Jesus, in the Wiiderncfs; to fliowhim all the King- 
doms of the Earth, and the Glory of them. The 
Eye of Adam might there command, wherever 
flood City of antient or modem Fame ; the Seats of 
the mightieft Empires : From what was to be ir^ fu- 
ture, the Walls of Ca^4B a lu, (q) the Seat of 
Cathian Cham; (r) and Sam arc and, (s) by* 


(^) Cambaluy CamphMJa^ or 
Cambmla, Tai, i. c. TJbg Cty of 
tbi Gnat Lord. A vad City in 
the North of Tatary^ the Capi* 
tal of Catbai or Cbiua^ aad the 
£!iine as Ptkin ; the Refidence of 
the Emperors of ChUaf fince 
A» D, 1404* ^( is about 25 or 
28 Miles mCompafs, vtry popti^ 
lottS» contaiiiiDg (as they report) 
CyOOOyOoo Soals» rich and *of a 
vail Trade; fo that 1000 Wag- 
gons, loaded with Silk only, are 
UVported every Day. It hath 
12 Gates, divers Royal Palaces 
and ftately Temples. Geogra- 
phers turn their Face to the 
I^orth, to find the Elevation of 
the Pole I and begin at che Ngr- 

thern Countries; when they de» 
(cribe the Earth: Therefore 
TUilioH turns to the Norths 
and begins with China on the 
Right-Hand ; fo cosies to the 
"Wefi, and ends in Europe^ 
in this Survey of our Hemi* 

(r) Chamt or Cb^n , Tat. L 
e. The Great Lord or Emftror^ 
It is an antient Tixle of Honour 
given to the Emperor of Tatary 
and China. 

(/.) Samarcandt Mamarcand, 
or Samarcant ; Tatar, antiently 
Sha/narcand, Per/, i. t. Razed 
or demolijbed by Skamare ; ha- 
ving been once dellroyed by one 
of that Name, io his Expeditl- 

378 Paradise Lost. Book XI* 

Oxus, (t) Temir^s (u) Kingdom; to Pekin, C^} 
the Seat of the Emperor of China ; and thence to 

cm to G^Ha ; oihtn ^ootfy^ be* 
ing feaced in a Wood. It is the 
Capital of Za^atky or S9g/hina, 
a Southern Province of Tatary^ 
and the Metrop6l]s of all Taiary 
fer many Ages. Btjfms^ Gene- 
lal of the BttSriuni^ who mur- 
derM Bariui^ was feizM there, 
and delivered to Alexander the 
Great, who pat him to Death 
OB the fame Spot of Ground^ 
where he committed the Pa^ 
Jt was the chief Seat and Sepul- 
chre of the great T amir lain ^ 
who made it a magiiificent and 
^trealthy City ; btfides the vaft 
Biches from other Nations, he 
fent 8000 Camels laden with the 
^poib of Damafcus atone Time 
^to It. A large and pbpulous 
City ; fon^ Hoofts are Iraiit of 
$tone iQ a moft pleafant Valley, 
with an Academy for Muhammt' 
dan . Learning. Here the beft 
£!k and Paper in all Afia are 
made : The Chan'i Caftle is bailt 
of Marble, bat now it is in De« 

(/) Oxuti Lat. Gr. i. e. 
Swi//, like the 7ygrh, becaufe 
it falls from rety high Moun- 
tains, and has a rapid Stream. 
^ great Kiver of Tataty^ riiing 
in Moant Taurus i it parts Sog- 
diana and Margiana^ and rans 
Into the Cajpian Sta on the Eaft 
Side, The Tatars call it Jmu^ 
which iigniiies the fame; and 
the Arabians call it Gib9n^ i. e. 
Forci ; becaufe the Source of it 
burfteth out of the Earth with 
Taft Violence. There Cyrus 
was defeated by Tomjris Qaeea 

of the Stytbiant or Tatmrs, about 
A, M. 3420. and Sahacbam of 
Zagatbian Tatary^ by Ifismti 
Sophy of Perfia, A. D. I5i4, 

( u ) Temir, or Timnr-Lenr, hj 
the y^rabaianst and Ttmir^Cs^ 
tbi by the TaUirs ; f «/ar. i. e. 
Haffy 9r fortanttU Ir^n ; be- 
cauie of his vidoriotu Sword i 
and Tanurlam by us. A moft 
vi6torious Prince of the PoieriCf 
ef ZsngU Cban^ bom jfyri/ 6^ 
J.D. 1 556. in the City of Kesjb ' 
or Siebr/bbz, i. e. Tbg gretn G- 
ty ; about thirty Miles from Sm- 
mareund. He began to reiga 
A, D. 1370; and, like^&»t«* 
dir the Great, an 35 Years fob* 
doed more Kingdoms, thao the 
old Romans did in 9oo Yean, 
via. Babylon^ Mtfpp^iama^ Sy^ 
ria^ Perjia, Partbim^ ^gTt^9 
India^ Cbina ; and boafted that 
he had three Parts of the World 
iinder hb Power. He defeated 
the proud Bafazef^ { Tnrb, i. ^ 
Ligbtningi f6x the Expedittott 
of hfe Conquefb ) and all the 
Turkijb Army, in that great ftit* 
tie near Mount Sttlla in the 
Plains of Angaria in Galatia^ 
ytily z%f A,l), 1402. He was 
cruel, but a vaft Enooarager of 
the Cbriflians, though a Mn^ 
bammedan by ProfeiEon ; and di* 
ed three Years after that grand 
Victory, feb, 8, 1405. at a 
Village called Atrar and Otrar^ 
diftant from Samarcand about 
304 Miles ; lived 70 Years, 1 1 
Months, and 22 Days ; and wu 
burled ih a magnificent Tomb 
creded by himfclf for that For- 


Chap. in. Paradise Lo8t, ^jg 

Agra, (y) and Lahor, (z) Imperial Cities of the 

Grs at 

pofe at Samarcmnd : Bat his Sons 
loft all his Conqaefts i of him 
die prefmt Moguls are defcen- 
ded. Heznd2gefi/aus^ the 6th 
Kin^ of Sfarta, were both lame 
of one. Foot, yet very valiant 
and foccefsfal Generals. He 
was calPd the Wrath of God, 
and the Deftroyer of the Earthy 
and J/eric the King of the 
GdiBs, who planderM Rome, A. 
P. 410, and conquered die Ro^ 
man Empire, the Scourge of 
God ; for their Craelty. 

( jp ) Pafuin^ Peiin, or Pechi^ 
hi Chine/i, i. e. Tbi Northern 
Court I becaafe it is the North 
of China^ as Naniin, u e. ^ht 
Southern Court, for the fame 
Reafon. The Capital Gty of 
the Province of Pekin^ and the 
Metropolis of that vaft Emptte^ 
£hoe theVears 1404, 30 Leagues 
from the famous Wail, (which is 
1200 Mites long, 6 Fathom 
high, built in 27 Years by 
^0,050,000 Men, to keep out 
the Tartars^ about J, M, 3728, 
and ?oo before Je/us C39rifi) in 
a fertile Plain, in the Form of a 
vaft Square ; each Side being 1 2 
Chinefe Lys or Furlongs in 
Length, i. e. 3600 Paces, with 
12 Gates, ftately Palaces and 
Temples, wherein are Idols of 
maify Gold, as big as the Life, 
The Streets are very ftrait, and 
at the longeft 1 20 Feet, but ve- 
ry ^\x\y. It is the largeft and 
rooft beautiful City on the Face 
of the Earth. There is a moft 
prodigious Bell , weighing 
1 20,000 Pounds ; it is 1 1 Foot 
Diameter, 12 Foot high. * 

(j) Agra\ UiitM. . The 
Capital City of the Province of 
Agra, larger than Dehli, \^og. 
i.e. Avail Extent) and a great 
City in In^u ; being 9 Miles, itt 
the Form of an Hdf Moon» 
with a mighty and admirable 
Caftie. It lands upon the River 
Gemn or Gemini^ on this Side 
the Ganges^ and is the Metropo« 
lis of the MoghoPs Empire ; but 
the Hoafes are low, mean, and 
made up of Straw, at a good 
Diftance and encompafsM with 
high Walls, that their Women 
may not be feen. It lies in 2 s 
Degrees and an half Northern 
Latitude, 210 Leagues frdm^»-^ 
rat, IJ0 from Labor, and 3$ 
from Deh/i, Some reckon 25000 
Chriftian Families there, befide* 
Heathens; bat the Mubarnmi- 
dans are moft in Number. Agra 
was made the Imperial City by^ 
Mogbol Akhar, A, D. 1 566, who 
called it AJdfarahed, i. e. The 
Habitation of Aibar, Shab Je-^ 
bah ( Perf, i. e. King John) re- 
moved from Agra to Debit ^ 
March 29, A, D. 1647, and 
called it Shah Jebanabed, i. e. 
The Habitation of King John. 
Debit "pzys 3,125,000/. of year- 
ly Revenues to the Emperor. 

(»J Lahor, or Lbor ; Perf. 
from the Heb, i. e. Light. The 
Captul City of the Kingdom Or 
Province of Labor^ which con« 
tains feveral Kingdoms, It is 
three Leagues in Length, yields 
37 Millions /rr Ann, to the Mo* 
gbui, atid there the Emperors 
kept their Court, from A, D, 
1155, *tx]l tbey removed CO jf- 


j8o Paradise Lost. Book XI. 

Great Mogul; (a) down to the Golden Cher- 
sonese: (b) Or where the Emperor of Persia fr> 


gr4i ; fince it is rery much di- 
minifhM. There is a noble 
Walk of tali Trees on both Sides 
of the Road from it to ^gra, 
which is 150 Miles di/tant. The 
Province of Lal^r is called alfo 
Ftngah^ Ftrf. i. e. The City of 
five Waters; becaafe it is wa- 
tered by ^'^% Rivers, viz. Baivy^ 
Bibai. Obcham, IFibi, and Sin- 
i«T. Many will have this Coun- 
try to be the Kingdom of ELiiig 
p0r»/» who fo valiantly opposM 
MexmmUr the Great ; and La^ 
tar to be the Bucifbalia^ which 
he founded in the Memory of his 
famous charging Horfe* called 
Buctfbalus, Gr. u e. Tii Ox* 
Heaa, who died there not of his 
Wounds^ but of old Age : Fot 
he was the next Conqueror after 
Bacchus, who opened a Com- 
snunicatioD to the ItuHis^ as far 
ms Cbiua^ 330 Years before the 
Incarnation , which facilitated 
the Propagation of the Goipel 
to St. f Somas f Bartholomenv, 
P ant anus f and other Kealous 
Preachers ; and Tamerlane was 
the next. Labor is 360 Miles 
from ^gra to the Souths and 
180 Miles Eaft of Mu/tan. 

(a J Mogbul, or Mogbol\Tar 
tar. i. e. nbite ; becaufe they 
defcended from the Mogbci Ta* 
tars, or fome white Men, who 
invaded InMa under a Captain 
or King calFd Mogor or Mozol 1 
and ereded a Kin^om in mu 
gal, to. about A. D, 1 187. .In 
the Tatarian Mung Lang iigni- 
fies Melancholy \ becauie Mogul 
•r Mungal the Son of JlansM 

Chan, the firll Monardi, was a 
Man of a melancholy Difpoiici- 
on: Their Country, which lies 
in Turcifian Tatary, is called 
ilill Mogholfian. The preienC 
Moguls are the Race of the la- 
mo us Tanurlano, who oooqaered 
In^a, Al D. 1400, Now the 
Moguls are Emperors of all Im- 
sUa, extending from ftrfia oa 
the Weft, Tatary on the North. 
China on the £aft, and the Z»- 
dian Ocean on the South i they 
are the richefl Monarchs npoii 
Earth, and their Dominions are 
of the vaileft Extent, being di* 
vided into 35 different King^ 
doms. He and fome of his Sub- 
je6is are Mubammoiaui \ the reft 
are Idolaters, except kasJt Euro^ 
ptaus^ who trade there. 

(b) Cberfonefe^ Lot, Gr, i» 
e. A Peninfiila, A Geographical 
Term; becaufe it is a Piece of 
Land furrounded with Sea, bat 
at one Place, which unites it to 
the Continent or Main Laodi 
an 1 fl hmus. Many Places are fo 
called, but this is a vaft Tra^ 
of Land, comprehending the 
large Peninfula of Ganges, the 
moil Southern Part of the Eaft 
Indies, between Sumatra and 
Borneo, call'd by the Ancieots 
the Golden Cherfonefei becaafe 
it abounded with Gold : Now 
the Promontory of Malaca, 
from Malaca the chief City of 

( c) Emperor ofPerfla, who'c 
Royal Seat was Ecbatan. Per* 

fia in facred Scripture is caird 
Cutb^ Hob. i. c. Lurking or hU* 


Chap. IL Paradise Lo«t. 381 

fetin EcBATAN, (d) orfince in Ispahan: (e) 


Jtn ; alfo Elam^ and the People 
Eiamita i from Elam the Son 
of Sem, who firft fettled there 
with his Pofterity. In the 
Reign of Cyrms^ about A. M. 
5419, before CBrifi^^i^ it be- 
gan firft CO be cali'd Per/ia, Hit. 
i: e. Horfemen or Troopers; 
becanfe he tawght thofe People 
the Ufe of War and Horfes. 
The Perjiani and Tatars call it 
Jris or frafit from Irigi, eldeft 
Son of Fray Jan t 7 th Ring of 
the firft Race of their Monarchs. 
It is the moft antient and renow- 
ned Empire in both divine and 
baman Hiftory. It is about 
1440 Miles in Length, and 1 260 
In Breadth, in the Middle of 
J[fia} haying Taiaiy and the 
Cafpian Sea on the North, the 
River Indus on the Eaftp the /v- 
San Ocean on the South ; Eu- 
fbratiSf Tygris, and the Fsrfian 
Gulph on the Weft ; and con- 
fifts of eleven vaft Provinces, be- 
fides other Acquifitions. Now 
the Inhabitants call it Farfitan^ 
and the Empire of the Sophy, 

(d) Ecbatan^ or Ecbatanai 
Arab i. e. Of iintirs Colours i 
becaufe the Walls' and Towers 
were buih of feven difterent co« 
loorM Stones, which did caft a 
glorious Splendor. It is called 
jfcbemitba^ Efir. 6. 2. and by 
the Inhabitants Ttbris^ Cajbin, 
now 7auris. It was built by Se* 
Incus, according to P/iuy ; re- 
paired and enlarged by Jrphax- 
ai^ whom fome call Dejoces, 
See Judith 1.1,2, 3, 4^ about 
A* M* 3400, according to H/ro- 
^$Hu. It WM the firft Capital of 

Media f then of Perfia i was the 
richeft City in the World, and 
confifted of many ftately Palaces, 
Courts, Sepulchres of their Em- 
perors, and of their whole Trea- 
furcs. There Daniel the Pro- 
phet erected an admirable Pa- 
lace. The Emperors of Perfia 
had four noble Palaces ; they re- 
fided at Ecbatana in the Win- 
ter, at Sufa in the Sununer, at 
Perfepolis in the Autumn, and 
Babylon in the reft of the Year« 
The Turks facked it often, but 
the Perfians have kept Pofleffioa 
of itfince A.D. 1603. 

(#) Ifpahan^ by fome Hagi* 
fiaUf by the Armenians Spuhun^ 
and now Iffahan^ Per/, i. e. 
The haffy dty^ or The Gtf of 
the iVUtes. '\ he Me tropoUs of 
all Perfia^ in the Province of h 
raea or Erach, the antient P«r- 
thia i it is 70 Miles South from 
Co/bin, 80 North from Ormns. 
Scach Abbas the Emperor of Per- 
fia, fixed his Royal Seat there, 
beautified, enlarged, and enri- 
ched it i and there his Succeftbrs 
have kept their Courts thefe 200 
Years paft. It is thought to be 
the antient A/fadama or.Spada, 
and was called HecatompoUs^ Gr. 
i. e. Having 100 Gates, but now 
7. It is one of the greaieft Ci- 
ties upon- Earth, walled round 
with Earthen Walls, which is a 
fingular Thing in Perfia^ about 
30 Miles round, in a yttry fruit- 
ful Plain, and waflied by tne Ri- 
ver Zenderu, which is as broad 
and deep as the River Thames is 
at London I very rich, of a vaft 
Trade from all Places, and po- 
pulous I 

jSa* Paradise Lost, Book X£d 

Or where the Czar (f) of Russia fat inMos- 
eaw; Cjf^ or the Turkish Sultak (b)in Bv- 


poTooss they reckon a Mtllioo 
of Souls in it; having 162 
Mofques, 48 Colleges » 1802 
Inns, 273 Baths, iz Targe Boxy* 
ing Places^ which arc without 
the City, as thev are ovpr all 
Firfiai and fo tney were over 
all the Earth, *till about 1000 
Years ago ; but fome Houies 
take up 20 Acres of Ground. 
The Armenians liavc an Archbi- 
ihop and 20 Churches in it. It 
3s about 2000 Miles from Cm- 
fiautiHofh to theSouth-£all, and 
2600 from London. There is al- 
io the firfi Madrefha or Academy 
of all the nine chat are in Por- 

(f) Qear ; or Tzar, 1. e. 
King ; or ScIa*von. Thi Emperor^ 
A Title of the Emperors of 
Mnfiow or £mj!a. it was firft 
a£bmea by Iwam WafitUwts^ 
when he conquered the City of 
Cm/can, and was crowned there, 
A. D« 19^2. 

{g ) MofnWf or Mosiowai 
Wo^, from the Mo/chi or Mo/d, 
an antient People, whodefcen- 
ded from Mi/icb, the Son of 
Jafhtt^ Gen. 10. 2. Exej. 27. 

'3* 3^« 3' ^^ ^^^ inhabited 
the Country of Celchu. It is 
the chief City of Mnfeovy^ up- 
on the Banks of the River Mof* 
€Cft», and gives the Name to 
that vafi Empire in the North of 
Emropf, This City is old, large, 
populous, and rich; built of 
Wood, ill contrived, not paved, 
and was founded A. D. 1334. 
The chief Church called Jeru- 
toJom^ was founded by Joim 

B^filiiii I. Bet he pat osC 
the Eyes of the Architef^, 
that he might never contrive 
nor build (uch another. Xho 
Tatars burnt 80,000 Hoa- 
fes of it, A. D. 1571. The 
Poles 41,000; and defboyed a- 
bout 200,000 Souls, A.D. i6r !• 
It was again laid in Afties, A. 
D. 1699, 1701. It is about 16 
Miles in Compafs, and contains 
about 700,000 Inhabitants. It. 
abounds with Merchants oat of 
all Nations, and was made the 
Royal Seat of the Empire by 
^oin Duke of Ru^ about 300 
Years ago. It ibnds in the Mid* 
die of ue Country, fencM with 
Lakes and three ftrong Walk. 
It is about 790 Miles from Sioci^ 
boim to the Eaft, 750 iirom ^ar- 
favo to the North, 1000 Miles 
ftomConfianfinople to the North* 
Eaft, and 1500 Miles diibnc 
from Paris and London. The 
Empire is vaft and large, in 
Length about 1699, and about 
1 100 Miles in Breadth. See B. 
X. N. ^31. The Mo/covites 
were rude and barbarous Heath* 
ens, *tiU they embraced Chrifti- 
anity from the Grecians^ A. O* 
986, Printing, A. D. 1 560 2 
and now they are trained up in 
all polite Literature, Arts and 
Sciences by Peter the Great: 
Their Alphabet confiils of 4a 
Leuers, which very much re- 
femble the Greek ones. The. 
Hidory of the Mo/eovites 
doth not rife above 200 Years 

( h ) Turkijb Sultan ; becanfe 


Chap. IIL Paradise Lost* 383 

ZANTiuM (i)j Eye could alfo difcover the Empire 
of N E G u s, (k) to its utmoft Port E r o c o ; (I) 


the Turis fettled there firft, and 
afterwards broke through the 
Ca/pian Stnigbts^ and fettled in 
j^rmtnia^ about A D. 844. At 
that Time the Cafpian Sea was 
froze over 13 Foot deep, and 
Men walked 100 Miles on the 
Ice of ir. A Kingdom or Pro- 
vince of Zagaihaian Tatary^ ly- 
ing between Great tatary and 
the Empire of the Great Moguls 
on the Eaft of Cathay or Catba^ 
having Tataria Propria on the 
North; and Iniofian on the 
South, and on the Eaft Side of 
the Cajpian Sea^ Some take it 
to be the Kingdom of TMet, 
in the faid Tatary. Here, the 
Emperors of the furh, who are 
defcended from the antient TurJb 
of Tatary. 

( 1) Bixantium ; from Bixas^ 
the Capuin of the Migartan 
Fleet, the firft Founder of it : 
It was firft called Lygut, from its 
Founder; afterwards repaired 
by Paufanias King of Sparta^ 
about A. M. 3307. And anti- 
ent City of nrace, and the laft 
in Europe on the Bo/pborus Tbra- 
titu (Set B. II 1C18.) It was 
deftroyed by Sept, Sevenu, after 
a Siege of three Years, and tur- 
ned into a Village, about A. D. 
196, to punifh the Citizens for 
sevolting ; but rebuilt, enlar- 
ged and beautified by Coafiau^ 
tine the Great, who made 11 the 
Royal Seat of the Rowmn Em- 
pire, which proved the Ruin of 
it, and commanded it to be cal- 
led New Rome, A. D. 300. But 
it is commonly called after him 
OfrJiantiMop/e, i. e. The City of 

Onftantitie. It was alfo called 
Partbenopolit^ -Gr, i. e. The 
City of the Virgin ; becaufe it 
was dedicated to the Virgia 
Mary. The 1'urh call it Stam^ 
Sou/; which tbey fay fignifieth 
Fair, Peace, and Plenty. It 
anfwers to thefe Properties in- 
deed ; but StambouJ or Iftambot 
is corrupted for Eijien poiin, Gr^ 
i. e. Into tbe City, and common- 
ly the Port ; becaufe it is tbe 
greateft and fineft Port they 
have, or perhaps is ia the 
World ; being frequented by 
Merchants from all Parts of £«- 
rofe, jf/ia, and Jifri<a continu- 
ally. Muhammed II. took it 
from the Greeks A. D. 14^39 
and fince it has been the grand 
Seat of the Turkifi Empire : k 
yields the faireft Profpedl with^ 
out of any City, but the mean- 
eft within : It is 900 Miles from 
Rome^ 1460 off Paris, '$70 
from Loudon, 1850 from 
Madrid, and tocx) from Af!^^ 

(k) Kejns^ or Neguz ; Etbi' 
ep. i.e. Emperor. The Empe- 
ror of AbiJJinia in Upper Etbi^ 
opia ; a Title which the Abijfinu 
beftow upon their Prince. 

(I) trroco, Erquico, jir^vi- 
en, and by others Erroco ; Etbi- 
9p. It is a Sea-port Town of 
Ethiopia on the Red Sea, near 
the Perfian Ocean, with a fine 
Harbour and a very good Trade, 
and was the outmoft Boundary 
of the vaft AbyJJinian Empire^ 
to the North Xait oi Africa. 

584 Para DISK Lost, /Book XI. 

and the Icfs maritime Kingdoms of Mombaza^ fm) 
and QuaOA, (n) and Melind, {0) and Sofala, CJK} 


( m ) Mffmiazat M^nBaza, or 
Mombazsca ; Arab. For this, 
and Teveral Cities on that Coaft, 
were built by a Colony of tlie 
jfrahs, who aboat A. D. 930, 
fettled a Trade there. A very 
large and wealthy City, liaving 
a good Trade, and is the Capi- 
tal of a fmall Kingdom of the 
fame Name, in a little Iflmd, 
J 2 Miles in Compafs ; 70 Miles 
from Melind, i;o Leagues from 
^iioa, near the Line, in the 
Eaftern Ocean ; fubjeft to the 
Emperor of Ethiofia in Zan* 
£Uihar, bat very fruitful and po- 
pulous : It was once poflefs'd by 
the P^rtttguife^ but now fubje^ 
10 l^e Kins of MonJfofa, who 
calls himfelf Emperor of the 
World. ZangueBar and Zingt' 
iar, Ini, comes from Bar s i. e. 
The Coaft of the Zingts or M'- 
p'Oi, who fird traded there with 
che Arahs^ about A. D. 930. 

(ir) SiuiUa^ or Kiha ; EthU 
ifick. A capital, rich, and 
plealant City, upon a River^ and 
. in an Ifland of the fame Name, 
between lUofamBique und Melind^ 
on the £alt Shore of Africa, 
:bear ZanqueBar, in Ethiopia /«- 
f error. This Kingdom extended 
250 Leagues along the Coa0« 
*till Francis ie Almeyia burnt 
the City, and made the King- 
dom tributary to Portugal, A. 
D. 1505, But "the Natives re- 
built it, and pay a yearly Tri- 
bute to the King of Portu^ 
gai. They fpeak the Arabic, 
and are Muhatumeiane* The 
Kings of ^iola Sitxt Ma(< 

ten of Momiaza, Melinia^ and 
other Ifiands thereabout. The 
Arabs traded firil there, then 
the Mubammeians, and at \e£i 
the Portuguefe. 

to) MehnJ, or Meliseda i 
Ethiop. The Capital of a fmall 
Kingdom on the Coaft. of Xan- 
guebar, between MomBas^a and 
Pata^ belonging to Ethiopia Sm- 
per: or, near the Lake Ca/ice. 
The Town is near the Sea, witj^. 
a convenient Port ; The King 
of it made a League with Enoa- 
nuel King of Portugal^ A. Z>. 
1500. 1 he City is very rich, 
and abounds with great Plenty ; 
their Sheep are fo fat, that the 
Tail of them of them often 
Weighs 30 pounds, and fonoe 
more. The King of Melinda is 
fervM in great State ane Splen- 
dor, is a Mubammedan, as are 
moft of his Subjeds i the reft are 

.(/) SofaU, SopMa, or Z#- 
fba/a i Ethiop, A ^CVj King* 
dom in Ix>wer Ethiopia, be- 
tween the River Magnice on the 
South, and the River Caanui to 
the North ; {q called from Sofa- 
la, the Capital of r^ which is 
fitoated in a little Ifland upon 
the Ethiopick Ocean. It is fup- 
pofed by tome to be the (Mir ; 
{Heb, Rich I becaufe it aboun- 
ded with Gold, Pearls, Ivory, 
Peacocks, &c. See 2 Cbron. 8. 
1 8 ) te which King Solomon fent 
his Fleet s from tlie Abundance 
of Gold, and other rich Com- 
modities of it. There the Mer- 
chants of Arabia Felix, after- 

Gfaap. IIL Paradise Lost. 385 

(which is thought to be Op H i R» (q)) to the Realm 
of Congo, (r) and Akgola, (/) fartheft South : 

Cc Or 

wards the MMbafmmiamt. efta- 
bli(h*d didr Religion, and fet« 
tied a ^reat Trade there ; and 
theAr/sjfM^fiiice. MibwM^ 
lows this Opiht^B here. All 
this vaft Traa on the Sea*Coaft 
is adled Cafaria, and the Peo- 
ple Cmffifrt, i. e. IM/Udi, wlu> 
Jiave no Religion. Theicbeinga 
difirent Pcbple within lo or la 
Miles bf oneanother, they have 
contTniiat Wars among them* 

(f ) O^iri Hih. AriA. I. e. 
AbmmMng th Richest beins a 
Place where the pnreft Gold a- 
bonnded ; about which there are 
Biany Conjedures among the 
Learned: Or from ufhir, the 
Son ofjeham. the Son of tm, 
who firti fettled there. There is 
one of that Name in Arabia^ 
whence King Da'tni brought 
mnch Gold ; another in the £a(t 
ImSis^ from which King $«/#- 
m9n and Hiram King of Ttri 
fetchM Gold and many other 
ValaaUe Commodities s which 
fome now uke to be the Ifland 
of Ceil^Mf where there is an Ha- 
iren called Hstf»r, and the Phot- 
nidanu Of Bin others, Pigv; 
Yome Skmatrd^ 7^^> Tafrodm" 
ua^ So/aia^ Sec 

Jrj Ctmg9 ; EMep. It is a 
COantry, called by fome 
£«qvfr Gmnem, which has Part 
of Negr'$Umton the North, £- 
tki§pU dn the Baft, Cmfftariaoa 
the Sottthy the Ocean and GU* 
md on the Weft, and lies on the 
Weftem Shore of Jfrnt in the 

Lower Ethiopia i to called from 
the capital City. Others call it 
Manic§Mg$, i. e. The Province 
of .Cmff. It is verv fruitful^ 
well waterM, aboands withal! 
Sbrt^of Very good FroitSi Plants, 
Herbs, Beafts, Crocodiles, and 
Serpenb i fome of theie Ser- 
pents aire to large, that they de« 
Toura wholeSugatonce. C»er 
g$ is divided into 6^ Provinces^ 
wk. Brnmhag $#«f«, SunJa, Pan* 
w$, Patim and fimha. The In* 
habitants were converted to the 
Chriiimn Faith by the Portu^ 
guifif A. D. 1490 ; bat forfook 
It , becanfe the Plnrality of 
Wives was denied them, u Sir 
Waltir Raligh lky%. 

(/) Angela I EtUop. The 
ancient and true Name of it waa 
JmhwJUf and the People wcfe 
oiled AmbwiiJi 'till one of 
their Princes, called Mmni'^An^ 
gola^ i. e. The Governor of ife* 
g9la^ about 360 Years ago, with 
the Affiftance of the Portugutftp 
fnbdoed many petty neiehbour« 
ihg Kings, aim made himfelf fofai 
Monarch bf them. He, for hb 
mighty Ate, was called in theit 
Language /ii#9#t \,t, fhg Greats 
and from his Name thu Kintdom 
was called JhgoU. This King- 
dom is fituateid between Maim* 
man on the South, Malmha oa 
the Eaft, and Proper Congo ea 
the Wdly near the Line i is well 
waterM, very ftoitfuli and po* 
pulonsi ib that the King can 
raife an Army of 1 00,000 Men« 
The People on the Sea-Coaft ai^ 


386 Paradise Lo«t. Book XL 

Or thence, from the Flood of Niger, (/) to MoiinC 
Atlas, the Kingdoms of Almanzor 5 («) Fez, (x) 


GfrfJIians, but thofe in the in- 
land Regions are Heathens. 

( t ) Nxgir, or Nifir ; Lat, i. 
e. Blaci i becaufe ic runs thro* 
a Soil all covered over with 
Duft, that is. black and fcorched 
with the Sun. It is the greateH 
River on that Side of Africa^ ri- 
fing oat of a Lake of the fame 
Name in the Country of Medra^ 
of Ufper Ethiopia^ divides M*- 
gritia {Lai. i. e. The Land of 
the Blacks) into two Parts, Ball 
and Weft, makes a Lake called 
Borno^ paiTes bv Congo^ there it 
makes another Lake caU*d Guar* 
da ; and after a Courfe of 750 
Girman Miles Weftward, falls 
Into the Atlantic Ocean by fix 

freat Streams, near Cape Verd, 
t overflows its Banks, as the 
NiU and many other Rivers do, 
for eight Days in the Month of 
June^ and from the fame natural 
Caufe. The People of Nigritia 
are all Pagans. 

fu) AlmanfoTf rather At^ 
man/or ; Arab, i. e. The ViQar ; 
as Seletuus King of Syria was 
ftiled Nicator, Gr, i. e. AVic^ 
tor. Jofeph Almanmr I. was 
King of Morocco^ who invaded 
Spain with 60,000 Horfe, and 
100,000 Foot, A. D. 1 158. 
He ufurped the Territories of 
the Spanifi Moors^ who invited 
him over, was beaten by the 
Chriliiant^ and flain with an 
Arrow at the Siege of Santaren 
in Portugal. 

( * \ ?>«. rather Fefs and FeJ- 
fa ; Arab. i. e. Sprinkled ^th 

Duft: fpread oat orlarg^: Or 
from Phaz or P««, Htb, i. e. 
Pint Gold ; becaufe Gold aboun- 
ded thereabout. A large wide 
Kingdom on the Weft of Bmr'- 
bary^ having the Mtditirranemm 
Sea on the North, the Atlantic 
Ocean on the Weft, the River 
Mulvia on the Eaft, Mount iHr- 
ias and the River Ommirati on 
the South, which part it front 
Morocco. The Country is 
mountainous and defaft i bat in 
fome Places it produces all Man- 
ner of Grain, Almonds, Figs^ 
ytry large Grapes, Cattle, Leo- 
pards, the beft Horfes in all 
Barbary^ and the fierceft Lions 
in 2\\ ^Africa, It belongs to the 
Emperor of Morocco^ is divided 
into feven Provinces, and is fo 
called ifrom Fix the capital City, 
which was fo called from Pbutt 
or Pbnt^ the Son of Ham : For 
there is the River Pbtbntb near 
a River of the fame Name, and 
another called Sebon. It is a* 
bout 1 2 Miles round, and con- 
tains many Gardens, Palaces, 
Mofques, and about 300,000 
People i of whom there are a- 
bouc ccoo Jews, and many rich 
Merchants. The chief Moique 
In Fez is a Mile an4 an half in 
Compafs , the Roof is 1^0 
Yards long and 80 broad; it 
hath 30 large Gates, and above 
300 Cifterns to walh in. By o- 
ther Writers this Country is cal- 
led Lybia. 

Ohap. III. pARADtsft Lost* 38^ 

andSvSA, (y) Morocco and Algiers, {z) 
and TreMisen: {a) From thence he faw Eu- 
rope, and where Rome was to bear Dominion 
over the reft of the World. Perhaps he alfo faW 
in the Spirit, rich Mexico, (^) the Seat of M o n- 


O) St/a I from Sus, the prin- 
cipal Cityi ^d a River of the 
fame Name a yfra^. u e. J LiU^ 
fy. Another Kingdom of Mo^ 
reccoi containing kven Provin* 
ces, not well known as yet. It 
hath Morocco on the North, the 
Kingdom of Tafilet on the £a((^ 
the Atlantic Ocean on the Weft, 
and is not far from Mount ^/* 

(z) Algursi AraL i. e. Tli 
Mand I on account of a fmall 
Ifland oppofite to the Mole. 
The largeft. Kingdom in Barba- 
fy, aboat 6000 Miles from Eaft 
%o Weft, and 2$ o from North to 
South, upon the Meiittrtanean 
Sea, over-a^ainft Minorca, and 
100 Miles from Sa/Ite, It was 
the Capital of Mauri t mi ia^ in 
the Days of King juta, and 
has been fubje^k to the Romans, 
Goths, Arabians, &c. The pre- 
fent Inhabitants are Moors, who 
fettled there after their Expulfion 
out of Spain, A. D. 1492. It is 
flow very rich, and the moft noted 
Pirates in Africa abound there. 
The Englifl? burnt their Ships in 
1 65 $ and 1 670. The French bom-> 
barded their City in 1688. The 
City is one of the fineft, largeft, 
foongeft, richeft, and moft po- 
pulous in all Africa : The City 
is a League about. The Afri' 
tans call it Mussgunna, from the 
Bens Muxgunna, i. e. The Sons 
(rf* Mstzgustna, who firft founded 

it, long before the Romans: Th« 
jfrabs call it Aljezeirati the 
Moors, lzeir\ the Turks, Jt-^ 
zair ; and the Europoans, Alger^ 
Algiers, Algier, Sec. It lies in 
a fpacious Bay dofe by the Sea, 
at the Bottom of a fteep HilL 
The Mole was begun by Heyra- 
dirt Barbaroffa, i. e. Red-Beard, 
aPyrate, A. D. icji. 

( a ) Tremifen^ Tremizen, Tre^ 
intjjfen, properly Flemivun ; Arab* 
The Arabs call it Marfa, i. e. 
A fort I and At-kibir, i. e. Jhg 
Great ; being the Portus magiiut 
of the Ancients ; the fineft, fap« 
feft, and largeft Harbotir in all 
Africa ; but now it is a poor 
Remnant of a vaft Kingdom. A 
Kingdom of Barbary, Weft of 
Algiers, about 300 Miles from 
Itremiffa , the capital City , 
which is very large, populous, 
and noble. It hath fex on the 
Weft. Tunis on the Eaft, and the 
Mediterranean Sea on the North. 
The Romans called it Cafarea 
Mauritania, Some fay this Ci^* 
ty was the Royal Seat of King 

2^ha, and called Julia, This 
ingdom is about 380 Miles 
long, but not above 25 Milea 

ib ) Mexico ; American , i, e. 
A of ring or Fountain^ which ri. 
fes out of a little Hill, called 
Chafultefes, three Miles from 
the City, but conveyed in two 
Pipes upon Arches of Stone and 

JBrick ; 

<288 Paradisb Lost« Book XI. 

TEZUME; {c) and Cusco, (d) m PiRv^ (e) the 


Brick; Or from Mtxiti, the 
£rft Fottii4er of ic ander Mexi 
their Captain^ about A. D« 
720: Or from Mixitiii, their 
^rand Idol. The firft Name of 
St was Temubitamt i. e. A Fm/ 
§ut of a Stoni ; becaufe ic was 
£rft founded near a great Stone, 
and Tree bearing fwe'et Fruit, 
called Nuehtli ; and by the Spa* 
mardSf Tunas ; wherefore MiJif" 
ico beareth for its Arms, a Tree 
fpringing out of a Stone. It llan- 
oeth in the Middle of two Lakes, 
like Vinicg in the AdriatUk Sea, 
and Mantua a fine City of ttalj^ 
in a Lake $ Miles long ) one is 
freih, ftanding Water, and full 
ofFi(hi the other is faltiih, bit- 
ter, ebbeth and floweth, but 
hath no Kind of Fifli : One of 
them b 1 $ Miles long, and at 
much broad s the other is 4; 
Miles in Circuit : It was taken, 
plunderM and burnt by the crud 
Himan<k CortiZ, Aug. 13. A.D. 
I $21, in the i40Ch Year from 
the Foundation of the Royal 
Seat there; who murdered above 
1,000,000 of miferable Souls. 
God puniih^d them by this cruel 
Scourge, fbr their abominable 
Idolatry : For they had 2000 
Gods, to whom they offerM hu- 
man Sacrifices ; one Time 5000 ; 
They facrificM ao,ooo Men a« 
year ; io that in the great Tem- 
ple, human Blood aa(hM upon 
the Walls lay congeal'd above a 
Foot thick. This City giveth 
Name to the vaft Kingdom of 
Mtxic^ in North America^ and 
to the whole Northern Conti- 
nent of it, which is about 23,000 

MSes round. It 
bv an tnnndation of the Lake, 
A* D. 1629, whereby 40,000 
People periihM, and by another 
in 1634. But now it is the ri> 
chrft, nobleft, and moft p^pn* 
lous City in all North Awuriut^ 
coniiAing of 70,000 Hoofes^ be* 
fides flately Churches, Courts of 
Judicature, Colleges, Palaces, 
A&c. The People are of the 
Communion of the Church of 
lUmi^ the reft Pagans. 

( r ) MontiXHmi^ Uotmumt^ 
Moliie^bna, or Molineama 1 Amt^ 
rkan^ i.e. h/krfyPriuci% the 
2d of that Name, and 9th King 
of Mtxi€o i one of the mightielib 
Emperors upon Earth ; he ha^ 
2000 tributary Kings » hit To^ 
pac, 2. e. Palace, was moft mu- 
nificent and immenfely rieh, his 
Attendjuice and Grandeur incre- 
dibly noble { *tiU Ftr^tamtC^ 
ttK with 0000 Sfmmardt^ affiited 
with the People of Thafiala, {A- 
mer. i. e. A Land of Bnad^ or 
A Ladf of Broad, from fecai^ 
i. e. a LaA, and Tofial^ r. e, m 
Cake or Broad) vanqirifh'd ^ 
Army, coafifting ot 3^0,000 
Men, from A. D. 1518101521, 
and have pofieis'd Mexico ever 

{d) Cs/Vs, or CuKtOi Amer. 
A vaft Country of South Ameri^ 
ia^ from the capital and Royal 
Citv of their hm or Tueeu^ i. 
e. Kings. The City ftands in n 
Plain among Hills, in a fine Air^ 
a pleafant and fruitful Land, and 
is as beautifal as any City in Eu- 
r^ : The Walls were built of 
four-fquare Stone with wonder- 


Chap. III. Par A DUE Lost. 389 

richer Scatof Atabalipaj (/) and Guiana, (g) 

Cc 3 not 

§vi Art tnd Labour i tho* thor 
had not an IronTool, but grind- 
ed them Qpoo others, aiidco- 
vered them with PUtes ol feUd 
Gold mod Silver. It wai diW- 
ded into Hanan Qf/ttt i. e. the 
BigtirQtfioi tnd Hanm CV^f, 
i. e. the L^wer Ck/co } and (6 
vaftly rich| that Frauds PiaiarT 
4bu^ who fackM it, got foch in* 
credible TreaTinci, that the ^tk 
Part, which fell tm the Kinf of 
Spmin. came to aoo,ooo Florins i 
lor all the Gold and Silver of 
fjm was canied thither ; bat 
iinoe then it is very much im* 
psired in every Refped. It was 
mined by an Earthquake, A. D. 

1 6 JO. 

{i) Firm or Ptrwi Amtr. i. 
e. a Fijbtrmmn or Siommmi be- 
caafe the Spaniards aikxd one of 
the Natives the Name of the 
CflNwtry, who anfwered PerQu^ 
which figniiies (b much in their 
Lang^ge. All the South of 
dmirUa^ from the Streights of 
Magi/tarn to the Ifthmos of Z>tf • 
rum or Panama, about 4000 
Miles in Length, and 1 7,000 in 
Compafs, tt called Psm ; which 
is a large Peninfula, like jifrica. 
Here, a particular Kingdom of 
It, the bcft of them all, and 
vaftly rich in Gold, Silver, and 
Diamonds. Thb is bounded on 
the North with Ttrra Firma, on 
the Eaft with the Country of the 
AmaPSMs, and Rio is la Plata \ 
on the South with Onli^ and on 
the Weft with the South Ssa } 
1400 Miles in Length, and a- 

bout 400 in Breadth. It Uttn 
dtleovered by O/mafo/, A. D. 
1496. Uy dlam/a, by Fsffnci- 
Ml and conquered by Francis 
Pixarro, A. D. 1515. But 
fiqce tluit Time it is yery much 
de^y*d^d ruinous. 

(/) Jbabalifa^ or Jiabaliba 1 
Jiatr. The laft and one of the 
moft magnificent and peaceable* 
Emperors of Perm, f rands Pi* 
farms, with 1 50 Foot and a few 
Hoife, conquered him with 
2 (,000 Men, and many Milli- 
ons of milerable People ; but af- 
ter Che Prince had eiven him n 
Honfe full of refined Gold and 
Silver, vahied at 15 Millions, 
to bve his Life, the cruel Vil- 
lain ftrangled him, contrary to 
his Faith and Promife, A. D. 
1533. The Seat of the P#- 
rwuiam Emperors had been at 
Cmlco for ^00 Years s therefore 
all thefe immenfe R,iches were 
amiifled therein s fo that the 
Royal Palace, the Temple of 
the Sun, the Walls and Houfes 
were, covered with Gold and 
Silver ; their Pocs and other U^ 
teofils were of the fame Metal ; 
which Miliom ukes Notice of 

{g) Gmsma, Gufsma, or 
Gmaiama ; jhmer. A large Coun- 
try of Somth jhsiriia, under the 
Line, well watered, and the 
moft fruitful and beautiful Place 
in the World ; they have an e* 
verlafting Spring i and count a 
Man dies young, if he does not 
' Uve 


Paradise Lost, Book XI< 

not yet plundered and cnflav'd •, whofe great City the 
Sons of Geryon {bj call El Dorado (/). But 


live above lOO Yt^%. It is 
called To from che River Wla or 
Wiana ; and by our Sailors the 
V$rtb Capg i becaufe it is the 
nod remarkable Land on the 
North Coaft of P^m. ' It is 
bounded on the North and Eaft 
with the Jtlantic Ocean, on the 
South with the River of the 4- 
maxanSf and oa the Weft widi 
the River Or§ou§h : It is about 
400 Miles in Length, and 150 
in Breadth. The Inhabitana 
are ftill OmniMs^ luu. i. e. 
M0H'Eatirs^ like Dogs, and ve- 
ry ravage Pagans. It was difco- 
vered A. D. 1541, by the Spa^ 
piartls. When MUton wrote 
tbisy the Country had not been 
robbed and enflaved by theniy 
as others of Mexico and Peru 
had been ; but now it is inhabt* 
ted by the Engltfi^ Pr$Mcb^ 
Jfuicb^ and other Emrofean^. 
The River Amasesni is certainly 
the greateft, richeft^ and moft 
fertile River upon the Face of 
che Earth ; (if we may except 
Rio de la Plata^ which is navi* 

fable for the greateft Ships, a« 
ove 200 Leagues and fixty 
Leagues wide at ihe Mouth.) 
It is about 1276, fomeiay 1800 
Spanijh Leagues, i. e. about 
C408 Englijh Miles in Length. 
It runs from the Weft of Peru^ 
to thcEajiern Ocean, S4 Leagues 
broad at the Mouth, and is re- 
p!eni(h*d with 1000 other Rivers 
thro' its Courfe, wafliinfi; many 
rich Countries. The old Name 
of it was Pajan qulris, i. e. The 
frf^ Rivtr^ and Hghh^ if ^. 

The fair River : But the £«r*- 
feani called it and the Country 
fo, at their firft difcovering of 
it ; becaufe they law many war* 
like Women upon the Banks of 
it, oppofing their Landing and 
0>nquefi, refcmbling the antient 
Amazons. B. IX. N. 1 1 ic, Ste 
a Survey of it, performed at the 
Order of the King of Spain^ by 
M. Cbrifi^ i'Acugntt^ tranilatcd 
into Englifi^ 1699. 

( h ) Geryon 1 Gr, i. e. a Br^nifh 
/rr. A King of Catalonia in 
Sfain^ who founded Granada^ 
a City of Catalonia, and called 
it by bis own Name. The P0« 
ets fay he had three Bodies, i. e* 
he was a gigantick Tyrant, and 
Kine of three Kingdoms, twas. 
Majorca, Minorea, and Ebujai 
though he was rather a Kinz of 
Epirus, as the learned Bocpart 
proves; but Hercvlu Aew him 
for his Cruelty. By G$tjon^% 
Sons Milton means the Epani^ 

(1) El Dorado, or Elderaio^ 
The golden City ; from Eldora^- 
dor, I. t. a Gilder ; Sp, froni 
the Lat. Aurum, Gold , as Babj" 
Ion is called the Golden Qty, be- 
caufe of the vaft Tjeafare there? 
in, Ifa, 14. 4. Manoa or 
Manboa, the capital and Royal 
City of Guiana : The greaceft 
of South America, and pexliaps 
on Earth ; for Diego Ordas, one 
of Cortesc^i Companions, enterM 
it at Noon and travelPd 'till 
Night, before he came to the 
King's Palace ; and there he faw 
iq muchGol^ in Cojn, Pfatte, 

Chap. 111. Paradise Lost. 391 

Michael for nobler Sights removed the Film from 
the Eyes of Adam, which that falfe Fruit had occa- 
lion*d, that had promised to give th^m clearer Sight;* 
then the Angel purged the vifual Nerve with Eye- 
bright and Rue, (for he had much to fee) and dropt 
three Drops of Water into his Eyes from the Well of 
Life. So great Power thefe Ingredients had over 
Adam, that they pierc'd even to the utmoft Seat of 
his Mind ; and he, not being longer able to refrain 
firom clofing his Eyes, funk down, and all his Spirits 
became entranced ; but the Angel foon rais*d him up 
gently by the Hand, and thus recalled his Attention : 

Adam! now open thy Eyes ; and firft behold the 
Effefts, which thy Original Sin hath wrought on fome, 
who are to fpring from thee ; who never touched the 
forbidden Fruit, nor confpir*d with the Serpent; nor 
committed Sin ; yet from that Crime of thine deriv'd 
Corruption, to bring forth more violent Deeds. 

Adam open'd his Eyes, and beheld a Field, Part 
arable, and that had been tilPd, whereon there lay 
Sheaves of Corn newly reap'd ; the other Part of the 
Field was Sheep- Walks and Sheep-Folds, and in the 
Midft there ftood a plain Akar ^ green Turf, which 
'Was as a Land-mark between : Thither, after a while, 
a fweaty Reaper brought from his Tillage firft Fruits ;' 
the green Ear, and the yellow Sheaf, uncholen, as 
they came to Hand : Next came a Shepherd, with 
meeker Looks, bringing the Firftlings (k) of his 

C c 4 Flock, 

Armour y and other Utenfils, 
that the Staniardt called it by 
this new Name : It (lands dpon 
the Weft Shore of the great 
Lake of Parima, The Spani- 
ards fay, the Penrvians built it, 
when the)> fled from their Cruel- 
ly mi Tyr^ny, Others, it is 

a Chimera, and the Philofophcr's 
Stone of the Spaniards ; for ma- 
ny have attempted to find ic^ 
but in vain. 

(kj rirftiingti Sax. O. E. 
from fir^ :• The Young of Cat- 
tie, which were firft brought 
forth, (iere the firft Fruits of 


39^ PA4i»i^Dis.« Lost. Book XI. 


Flock, the eboiceft and the beft i then facrifiqne, 
laid the Entrails aAd thf Fat of the Lambs, ftrewM 
with rncenfe, upon Wood that he had hewn, and per* 
forni*d all due Rites : His Oflfering was foon confu- 
med "by Fire from Heaven % but the Offering of the 
former not," for his was not fmcere : Whereat he in- 
wardly raged, arid as they talked, he rofe up ^ainft 
him and (lew him'; (hiking him into the Midriffwith 
a Stone: He fell down, and growing deadly pale, he 
groanM out his Soul with an Efmiion of gu(hing 
Blood. Adam,, much difmay'd in his Heart at the 
Sight, in Hafte cryM out to the Angel: 

OTeacher! ^mesreat Mifchief hath happened 
to ^at meek Man, who had faqific'd with a pure 
Heart: Is Piety and true Devotion rewarded aftq* this 


To whom Mi OH AS L anfwer'd thus: (he being 
himfclf alfo moy'dj Thefe, Adam, are two Bre* 
thren, and are to defcend immediately from thee : 
The unjuft hath for Envy (lain the juft, beqiufe his 
Brother's Offering found Acceptance from Ilearen^ 
and his not; but the blqody Deed will be avcng*d, 
though here thou haft feen hinj die, rowling in Duft 
and Blood, 

To which our firfl: Father made Anfwer : Alas! 
both for the Deed, and that which is the Caufe of it! 
But, is this that I have how feen De a t h ? Is this 
the Way that I muft return again to my native Duft? 


every Thing iht Earth aad the' eat young Lanbs, Qom, Brtkl^ 

Flocks yieldcdr^ich were ofe- oi^ any Frv^ts^ HiU they ^n^dbghc 

red to God, at a Sacrifice of an Olbringto QoiErlt, Jfsvit, 

ThiLokfolneCi. Thi» Qa^Stom 23. 1^. And (ach Laws wero 

was handed down among all made ions after that» amone thtl 

Nations by Tra4ic><%n* ft !^M Om^, (^i9^» 9xid other ^a* 
made a Law in J/rail^ ' 2000 tions. 
Years aftep tbisi that none might 

Ghap. Hir Pa r a ix i sb I; <m^* '- 393 

O Sight of Terror? fijul andudybnly to lce,1iorridta 
think of; then alas, how horrible itiuft it be td fed f 

To whom M I c H A K L rcply*d : Thou haft focn 
D B A T H in his firft Shape, exerting his Fowcr over 
Man: But there are many Ways of Dying, and en^ 
tring into that dark State : All of them are very dif* 
mal ; and yet to the Senfes are more terrible at the 
Entrance, than they are within. Some (as thou haft 
juft now feen) ihall die by the Stndce of Violence^ 
and fome by Fire, Flood, or Famine ; but more by 
Intemperance in Meats and Drinks, which fhail bring 
dire Difeafes upon the Earth : Of which there Ihall 
appear a monftrous Crew before thee; that thou 
may'ft know what Mifery the Eating of the forbidden 
Fruit (hall bring on Men. 

Immediately there appeared a Place before his 
£yes« fad. noifome, and dark ; it feem'd a Lazar- 
nouie, wherein were laid Numbers of People, lick 
of all Manner of Difeafes ; All Maladies ot ghaftly 
Cramps and Distortions, Faint Sickness, Ago- 
ny at Heart; all Kinds of Fevers, Convulsi- 
ons, Falling-Sickness, Catarrhs, The Stone, 
Ulcers, Cholic-Pangs , Raving-Madness , 
Moapinc-Melancholy, Lunacy, Finings-Con- 
sumption, Hecticks, Pestilence, Dropsie% 
and Asthmas, and Rheumatisms. It was very 
<}readful, to fee the Sick toSm^ and throwing them- 
felyes about ! and to hear their deep Groans ! every 
Bed or Couch havins one on it, delpuring of Life ; 
and Death feem'dtobe ready at Hand to tri- 
umph oyer them ^ but yet delay'd his Stroke, thoi^ 
ib pflen calPd upon as their cniefeft Good, andwft 
and ofilt Hope. Who, unlefs his Heart were as 
hard as Stone,* could behold with dry Eyes a Sight fo 
fuii oJT Sorrow and Deformity? Adam was not able, 
but wep^ though he was not born of Woman: C6m- 


394* Paradise Lo5 Tt Book XL 

paflion overcame all the Strength of his Nature as a 
M A N, and he wept a confiderable Space of Time ; 
*till Confideratlon and firmer Thought put a Rellraint 
upon the Excels of his Tears, and fcarcely able to 
utter his Words for Sorrow, he renew'd his Com- 

O MISERABLE Mankind! to what a Fall degra- 
ded! and to what a wretched State refcrv'd! it were 
better to end here, and never be born ! Why is Life 
given, to be fnatch'd in this Manner from us ? Ra- 
ther, why is it forc'd thus upon us ? Who, if we 
knew what we were to receive, would either not ac- 
cept Life when offer'd us ; ©r having once accepted of 
it, beg to lay it down, and be glad to be fo difmifs*d 
in Peace? Can the Image of God in Ma n (created 
once fo goodly and fo ereft, though fince fallen into 
Guilt) thus be debased to fuch unfightly Sufferings, 
under .fuch inhuman Pains ? Whylhouldnot Man, 
who ftill in Part retains the Likenefs and Image of 
r. ", be free and exempt from fuch Deformities, in 
c: .jiJcration that his Maker's Image is ftamp'd 
upon him ? . 

Their Maker's Image forfook them, anfwe- 
red the Arch-An§el, then, when they funk, and lef- 
fen'd themfelves lo, that they broke his Command to 
fcrve ungovem'd Appetite, and took upon them his 
Image, whom they then ferv'd ; following the Vice of 
a Brute, in eating the Fruit of the forbidden Tree j 
for by the Serpent's eating^ Evjb was induced. to fiiv 

themfelves, while they pervert the pure healthful 
Rules of Nature toJoathfome Sicknefs; and it is 
juft it ihoyld have this Effeft, fince they did not re- 
verence the Image of G o d in themfelves. ^ 

I grant/ 

Chap. IIL Paradise Lost. 395 

I GRANT, faid Adam, that all this is juH*, and 
I fubmit : But is there not yet another Way, befides. 
thefe painful Paflfages, how we may fuflPer Death, 
and mix with the Earth out of which we were 

There is, reply'd Michael, another Way not 
painful, if thou obferve the Rule well, of taking no- 
thing to Exccft ; but be careful to obferve Tempe- 
rance in eating and drinking ; feeking from thence, 
not to fatisfy a gluttonous Defire, but only due Nou- 
rilhment : So may'ft thou live, 'till many Years pals , 
over thy Head ; 'till thou drop like ripe Fruit, down 
to thy Mother Earth-, or being quite ripened for' 
Death, be gathered with Eafc, and not pluck*d 
harlhly. This is old Age j but then thou muft out- 
live thy Youth, and all thy Strength and Beauty ; all 
which will change, and thou be withered, weak, and 
grey-hair*d : Thy Senfes then will become unacSlive, 
nor have any Relifh of Pleafure, like what thou haft 
now 5 and, for the Air of Youth, (chearful and full 
of Hope and Joy) a melancholy Damp of Coldnefs 
will reign in thy Blood, opprefs and weigh down thy 
Spirits ; and laftly, coniume the Balm, and cxtin- 
guilh the Lamp of Life. 

To whom our firft Anceftor replied: Hencefor- 
ward, I will not fly from Death, nor would I 
much prolong Life ; but rather be glad to know, how 
I might beft and eafiefk get rid of this Load which I 
muft keep, 'till the Day ^pointed for me to render' 
it up, and attend with Patience the Timc^ of my Dif- 
fblution ! 

To this Michael replied: Neither love nor 
hate Life ; but all the Time thou livefl-, live well ; 
whether for few or mapy Days, leave that to the Will 


396 Paradise Lost. Book XI» 

of God; and now prepare thyfelf to fee aaotikcr 


Adam look'd, and faw a fpatious Pldn, upon 
wTdch there were Tents (I) of different Size and Co- 
lours : By; fome there were Cattle grazing ; froixi o- 
thers might be heard the melodious Sound of Inflro- 
ments; the Harp, and Organ; and he was feen, inrho 
mov'd' their Stops and Chords, his ^imble Fingers 
going through all Proportions, low and hi^ forref- 
ponded' in all the Parts. In another Part ftood 
One, (m) labouring at a Forge, who had melted two 
mafTy Pieces of Iron and Brais, (whether found where 
accidental Fire had deftroy'd the Woods, upon fbme 
Wbuntain or Valley, dowfi tQ the Veins of die Earth 5 
thence flowing hot to fpme Cavers Mopth: Or whe- 
ther wafh'd by Streams from under Ground) he drai-r 
ncd the liquid Ore into Molds fitly prepared 5 from 
which he firft form'd the Tools he was to work with 5 
and then what elfe might be wrought or caft in Me- 
tal. After thefe, on the hither Side of the Plain, a 
different Sort of People defcended from the high 
neighbouring Hills, which was their Habita(;of) : By 
their Appearance they feem'd jufl Men, and ;hc 
whole Purpofe of their Study to worfbip God right- 
ly, and to know his Works, which are not hidckn ; 
nor to know thofe Things laft, which might preferve 


(l) Tints I Fr, from the 
£«/• i. e. Holding or e^taainimg ; 
becaufe therein Men and their 
Hoalhold-Scuff were contained : 
Or firom Aa/a, Hib. i. e. Stnt^ 
ihid 9ta s becaafe they were 
moveable HabitatsoDs. extended 
upon the Ground. A military 
Term* Tabernacles, Booths, 
or Payilions. with Coverings 
made of Canvas, to (belter Men 
from the Injuries of the Air s 

for Soldtert, when they are in 
the Field ; then four or ife of 
them lie in one Teat, (2fr. Li 
the iirft Ages of the World Men 
liv*d in Tents only 1 and fo they 
do to this Day ia many Parts of 
Jfit^ and jf/ricm } but through 
Eur$fi they are only ded for 

(m) Onti i. 't. 7tAml'CtMt^ 
the firft Mafler of Smiths, Gn. 
4. az. 

chap. IIL Paradise Lost. 397 

Freedom and Peace to Men: They had not walk'd 
long ttpoh the Plain, when behold a Company of fair 
Woitien ifiued forth from the Tents, wantonly and 
gayly drefs'd, and adom'd with Jewels ; they fung 
loit amorous Songs to Inftruments of Mufick, and 
came on, dancing: The Men, though they were 
grave, ey'd them as they pafs'd, and let their Eyes 
rove without Reftraint ; 'till drawn by ftrong Paffion 
and Inclination, they began to like them, and each 
chofe her he likM : And now they be^ to talk of 
Love, and let the Day pafs on in nothing elfe ; theo 
grown warm, they light the nuptial Torch, and in- 
voke Hymen, then firft invoked, to give a Sanati- 
on to Marriage Rites : All the Tents refound with Fe- 
Aivzl and Mufick. Such happy Interview and Inter- 
courfe, the fair Confequence of Love and Youth not 
loft. Songs, Garlands, Flowers, and charmme Sym- 
phonies touched the Heart of A d a m with PleafiirCt 
who was foon inclined to admit of Delight; (which is 
indeed too much the Bent of Nature!) and he thus ex- 
prefs'd it: 

Blest Angel! and one of the chief of Heaven I 
true Opener of my Eyes ! this Vifion feems much 
better than thofe two pafs*d, and foretells more Hope 
of peaceful Days: Thofe were full of Hate and 
Death, or Pains and Difeafes much wotfe; here 
N A T u R E feems to have all her Ends anfwer*d: 

To whom Micha£l fpoke in this Manner: Ne- 
ver judge of what is beft by Pleafure, though it may 
feem conformable to N at u r e ; feeing thou art cre- 
ated to a nobler End, hoiv and pure, and in Confor- 
mity with God! Thofe Tents thou faweft, which ap- 
peared fo ]plea{ant» they were the Tents of Wicked- 
nefs ; in which his Race ihall dwell, who flew his Bro- 
ther ; they appear ftudious of Arts, that poliih and 
adorn life i and are Inventors of rare and curious 

Things I 

398 Pahadise Lost* Book XL 

Things ; unmindful of their Makers though his 
Spirit taught them, but they acknowledge none of 
his Gifts : Yet they ftiall beget a beauteous Offlpring j 
for that fair female Troop thou faweft there, they 
tliat fcem*d like Goddeffes, fo blyth, fo fmooth, and 
gay J are yet deftitute of all Good, wherein confifts 
the domcftick Honour and chief Praife of a Waman ; 
but thefc are Ix'ed up only and accomplilh*d to the 
Tafte of fmful Defire, and jeam to dance, and drefs, 
and lift), and glance with their Eyes. That (bbcr 
Race ot Men (whofe religious Lives make them be 
caird the Sons of God) fhall ignobly yield up all 
their Virtue, and all their Fame, to the Arts and 
Smiles of thefe fair Atlieifts ; and now fwim in Joy 
and laugh, though Judgment is near at Hand, and all 
their Laughing to be tum*d into Tears! 

' To whom Adam made Anfwer^ convinc'd of 
tfie Falfenefs of his Joy on the Sight of Pleafure : O 
what a Pity and Shame ! that they who live good 
Lives, and begin fo well, (hould turn afide to tread 
indiredt Paths, or faint by the Way I But ftill I fee 
the Tenor of M a n*s Mifery holds on the fame, and 
is to begin from Wo m ak^ 

It begins, fald the Angel, from the efFeminate 
Slacknefs of Man, who by Wifdom, and the fupc- 
rior Gifts he hath received, (hould hold his- Place bet-* 
ter : But now prepare thylelf for another Sight. 

Adam look'd, and faw a wide Territory fpread 
before himj Towns, and large Countries between 
them ; Cities with lofty Gates and Towers, full of In-« 
habitants arm*d and gathered together, with fierce 
Faces threatening War : They were gf eat Giants, and 
fit for bold Enterprizes ; Part wielded their Arms, 
and Part curb*d the War-horfes; for there was both 
Horfe and Foot, in a good Rank and Order of Bat- 

chap. IIL Paradise Lost. 399 

tie : One Way a feleft Band drove a Herd of fair 
Cattle from foraging in a fat Meadow Ground, or elfe 
a Flock of Sheep and Lambs over the Plain, which 
they had taken as their Booty: The Shepherds fcarce- 
ly can efcape with their Lives ; but when fled they 
call Afliftance, which makes a bloody Fray. The 
Squadrons join in Battle •, and now where the Cattle 
lately graz'd^ the bloody and defertcd Field lies fcat- 
ter'd with Carcaffes and Arms. Others cncamp'd lay 
Siege to a ftrong City, aflaulting it by Battery, Sca- 
ling, and Mining : Others defend it from the Walls 
with Darts, Javelins, Stones, and fulphurous Fire^ 
Slau^ter and War raging on every Side. In the o- 
jher Part, the Heralds call to Council at the Gates of 
the City; and prefendy aflemble grey-headed and 
grave Men mix'd with Warriors ; and they make Ha« 
rangues: But FaAion fo<Hi makes Oppofition; 'till 
at iaft one E n ac h (n) rifing up, of middle Age» 
diftinguiih'd from the reft by his wife Deportment, 
fpoke much of Right and Wrong, of Juftice, Reli«* 
gion. Truth, Peace, and Judgment from above; 
both young and old ej^loded him, and had laid vio- 
lent Hands upon him, had not a Cloud defcended, 
andamidfl the Throng ihatch'd him thence unfeen : 
So Violence and Oppreffion, and Sword-law procee- 
ded throu^ all the Plain, and there was no Refuge to 
be found. Adam was all in Tears to fee it, and full 
of fad Lamentation faid thus to his Guide : 

O! WHAT are thefe ? Thefe arc De a th*s Mini- 
fiers, notMBNl who thus inhumanly deal Death 
to Men, and ten-thoufand«fold multiply the Sin 6£ 


(h) Em9ch, or Hanocb ; Hit. the Creation to tkc Flood ; and 

i. e. DtMcatid, The Son of the middle Age of Men in thofe 

Jandp and the feventb Patriarch Days ; and waa tranflatcd into 

from Adam^ bom A. M. 62 a. ParMdifi » without taftiog of 

He livM 365 Years in the mid- Death and Mortality. 
die Age of the World, between 

403 Para DISS Lost. Book XL 

him who flew his Brother ^ for of whom do they 
make fuch general Slaughter, but of their Brethren ; 
Men of Men? Biit who was that juft Man, 
Whom, had not Heaven refciied him, had been loft in 
and for his Righteoufnels ? 

To whom Michael rep^Ked thus: Thefe are 
the Frodud of thofe ill-mated Marriages ^hich thou 
&weft$ where the Good are matched with the Bad ; 
who of themielves abhor to join ; and being impru- 
dently mix'd, produce prodieiOus Births of Body or 
Mind* Such thefe Giants fmUl be ; Men of excee-^ 
dins h^ RenoMm i for in thofe Days, P6wer only 
ihall be admired, and caird Valour and herotek Vir- 
tue: It Audi be held the higheft Ktch of human Glo- 
ry to overcome in Battle^ and iubdue Nations, and 
bring home Spoik widi infinite Manflaughter ; and 
this done only lor the Glory of Triumph, to be ftil'd 
great Conquerors and Patrons of Mankind, and be 
called Gods and Sons of Gods; when they much 
more properly might be caUed Deftroycrs and the 
Plagues of Ms N. Thus Fame and Renown Ihall be 
atchiev'd upon Earth; and that which moft deferteS 
Fame, fhall be hid in Silence. But he, the feventh 
from thee, whom thou beheld*ft the only righteous 
one in a perverfe World % and therefore hated ^ there- 
fore fo furrounded with Foes, for daring fingly to be 
juft, and utter difagreeable TrOth, «^ That God 
*^ would come to judge them with his Saints/' Him, 
the moft High did, as thou laweft, take up to Hea- 
Ten ; for he was carried fuddenly away, to walk with 
God, high in Salvation and the Regions of BUG, be-^ 
}ng exempted from Death; to ftiew thee what Re^ 
ward attends the Good, and to the Evil what Punifh- 
ment ; which now caft thy Eyes forward, and thou 
flialt foon fee: 

Adam look'd, and he faw the Appearance of 
Things quite changed : The Trumpets^ that founded 


Cliap. III. Paradise Lo8T« 401 

fo loud in the Bftttle» ceas'd i all was now tQm*d to 
Game and Jollity, to Luxury^^^Riot, Feaft, and 
Dance^ marrying or proftituting, juft as it happened i 
committing Adultery, orevenRapes, where any De-* 

Sree of Beauty allur'd them : To thefe Vices they ad- 
ed Drunkennefs, and contentious Broils. At length 
there came a reverend Sire among them, and declared 
great Diflike of their wicked Actions, teftifying a* 
gainft their Ways ; he often frequented their Aflem* 
blies, goii^ wherelbever they met, whether at Tri- 
umphs or reftivals; and preachM to them Converfion 
and Repentance, as to Souls that were in Bondage to 
Sin, ana under imminent Judgment; but it was all in 
vain : Which when he faw, he left off contending, 
and removed his Tents far off from theirs : Then hew- 
ing tall Trees on the Mountains, he began to build 4 
Veflfel of large Bulk, meafur'd by Cubits, Length, 
Breadth, and Height} fmear'd round with Pitch 1 
and in the Side he contiiVd a Door, and lud in a 
large Store "oPProvilion, both for Man and Beaft: 
When behold a *ftran^e Wonder! there came every ^ 
Beaft:, and Bird^ imd 'little Infedt, by Sevens and 
Pairs, and enteM in,* as taught their Order 5 laft the 
reverend Sire and his Wife, and his three Sons with, 
their Wives enter'd iii alfo; and G on ^Ihut themin* 
Mean while the ' South-Wlni 'arofe, *and blowing 
fiercely, drove tbgether all the' Clouds from under 
Heaven; theHiUsfent up to fill them Vapours and 
moift Exhalations: And now die thickenM Sky was 
all overcaft ; the impetuous Rain rufh'd down, and it 
continued raining 'till the Earth was fcen no more : 
The floating Ark (0) fwan\ upon the Water, and fe-* 

D d curely 

($) The Ark of N^ai. It took the Hwt of NaTigteimL 

WM the fiift Ship in the World { It wat made of Cedar or Cy- 

God gave the Form and Men- pros, which hath a bitter Sap in 

fnret, and N$ah was the Matter- ic» therefore no Worms touch it» 

of it I and firom it Men and it doth aot roti for thii ve- 

1(|.02 PARADiiE Lost* fiook Xt. 

cutely floated over the Waves : AH other Dwellings 
the Flood overwhdmM, and with them rowPd all 
their Pomp deep under the Water, one Wave follow- 
ing upon another : The Sea was without Shore, and 
the Palaces, where Luxury reign'd lately, became the 
Habitation of Sea-Monfters; all that was left of 
Mankind, lately fo numerous, embarked in one fmall 
Bottom. How then, Adam, didft thou grieve, to 
behold the End of all thy OffTpring, and fo lad an u- 
niverfal Difpeopling of the World ! another Flood of 
Tears and Sorrow drown*d thee alfo, and funk thee 
like thy Sons ; *till gently rais*d up by the Angel, 
thou at laft ftood*ft upon thy Feet^ though comfort- 
Icfs -, as when a Father mourns for his Children, which 
are deftroy'd all at once in his Sight. He had fcarcc 
Power to utter to the Angel this Complaint; 


ry Endy that it might be a lafl- 
ing Mooaraent to future Oene- 
rationSy both of their Sin^ Pa- 
ni/hmeo^ and miraculoas £>eli'> 
yer4n€e. Jofepbui and Efifba' 
nim affirm, that the RemaiDs of 
it were to be feen in their Time9» 
and that waa about 3000 Yeara 
after the Buildiog pf it. In it 
V9ah continued a whole Year 
and 1 1 Days. ** In the ^'x, 
•* hundredth Year of Noab'*% 
** Life, in the fecond Month, 
«* the feyenteenth D^y of the 
^ Month, the fame Day were 
** all the Fountains of the great 
** Deep broken up, and the 
-* Windows of Heaven were o- 
** pened. And the Rain was 
** opon the £arth forty D^ys 
*' and forty Nights.' And in 
*< the fecond Month, on the 
" fevcn and twentieth Day of 
•* the Month, was the Earth 
«< dried.** The clean Befits, Of 
thofe that were appointed for Sa«. 

criikes, went into the Ark by 
Sevens ; that Noah might have 
wherewith to atone the Deity for 
his miracalQtts Ddlveraoce , 
which he did, Ggm.Z 20. *' And 
** li^ah builded an Altar anto 
^ the Lord, and took of every 
** ctean Beaft « and of every 
*< dean Fowl , and offered 
** Barnt-oHerings on the Altar.'* 
Of the unclean Sort there wera 
only two, the Male and the Pc- 
male, to preferveaild propagate 
every Species afterwards : For 
he made no Ufe of the Fkfli of 
any of thefe; that was not 
granted ^till the Flood was over. 
Gin, 9. 3, 4. ** Every moving 
'* Thing that liveth ihall be 
'' Meat for yon i even as the 
** green Herb have I given you 
" all Things : But Flefli with 
** the Life tnereof, which is the 
*« Blood thereof^ (hall yoa not 



'Cliap. III. PARAi>tsft Lost, 463 

What Vifions of 111 do I forcfee ! How much, 
better had it been for me, to have liv'd ignorant of 
* what was to happen hereafter ! So I had bom only my 
own Part of Evil^ that of each Day bein^ fufEcient 
for the Day i now all thofe that were diftributed and 
divided, to be the fiurthen of many Ages, by my 
Forc-knowledge light at once upon me j gaining an 
untimely Birth to torment me, before their Being, 
with the Thoughts that they muft be. Hencefor- 
ward, let no M A N deflre to be foretold what fhall 
befall him or his Children ; for he mav be afiur'd be- 
fore-hand, that it will be Evil ; which his Fore-know- 
ing can in no wife prevent 5 and as for the future Evil^ 
he (hall feel it, not only aftually, but full as much in 
Apprehenfion J how grievous is that to bear! But that 
Care is paft now, there are no M e n to give Warn* 
ing to 5 thofe few who have efcap*d Famine and An-< 
guifh, will at laft be loft^, wandering upon the barren 
Waters. I had conceivM Hope^ that when Violence 
ind War would have ceas'd upon Earth, that then all 
would bare gone well ; that Peace would have crow* 
ned the Race of M A n with Length of happy Days t 
But I find, that I was greatly deceived ! for, now I 

GTceive that Peace corrupts as much as War wailes* 
nfold to mCi thou who art a Guide from Heaven I 
how comes it, that thefe Things are fo ? And tell me» 
whether the Race of Mankind will end here? 

To Whom M I c H A I L made Anfwer thus : Thofe, 
whom thou faweft laft in Triumph and luxurious 
Wealth, are they who will firft be feen in A6ts of 
eminent Valour and great Exploits, but will be defti- 
tute of true Virtue } who having fpilt much Blood, 
and made a greaft Dcvailation in iubduing Nations, 
^nd having thereby obtained in the World Fame, 
high Titles, and rich Prey j (hall change the Courfc 
of their Lives to Pleafure, Eafe, Surfeit, and Luft -, 

D d 2 ■ 'tUl 

4&4 FiMCADisE Losf« B6ok Xh 

•till Wantonncfs and Pride, even in Time of Peace, 
and amons Friends, fhall caufe Strife, and hoftile 
Deeds. Tnofe alfo, who are conquered, and enflav*d 
by War, fhdl with their Freedom lofe all their Vir- 
tue, and all Fear of G o d ; from whom (as they had 
but a pretended Piety) they found no Affiftance in the 
Iharp Conteft of Battle againft Invaders; therefore 
grown cool in their Zeal, they (hall thenceforward 
praftice how to live fecure, either in a worldly or dif- 
Iblute Manner, upon what their Lords and Conoue^ 
rors fhalL leave them to enjoy : (for the Earth fliall 
bear much more than enough, for the Trial of Tem- 
perance) So, all ihall turn degenerate, all Ihall be de- 
x)rav'd, and Juftice^ Temperance, Truth, and Faith 
be forgot ; excepting Noah, (p) who fhall be the 
only Son of Light in that dark Age ; he will be good 
againft all bad Example, againft all Allurements, Cuf- 
tomsy and an ofFended World: Not ftanding in Fear 
of Reproach, Scorn, or Violence, he fhall admonifh 
them of their Ways,^ and fet before them the Paths 
of Righteoufnefs, fhewing how much more fafe diey 
are, and full of Peace -, tnreatening Wrath to come,. 
if they fhould remain impenitent ; and for this teach^ 
Ing he fhall be derided by them. But the only jufl: 
Man alive, being obfeiVd by God, fhall by his 
Command build a wondrous Ark, (as thou haft be- 
held) to fave himfelf and his Ho«ifehold„ from a 
World devoted to univerfal Kvul No fooner fhall 
he, with thofe of Mankind, Und all living Creatures 
felefted to preferve the Kind, be lodg'd in the Ark, 
and fhut in faft*, but all the Catarafb of Heaven ihaU 


(p) Nntit 9t WmcEi mi. concih God to Man. i%r 

\,t.A Rifi, Navjes were given (whom tbc TrnHn- call Nm ) was 

Men in chore Daya^ by divine born A« M. 10569. and lived 

Infpiraiion : Hta Name was a 950 Yean. NtJk is the Ogy 

Proohecy of LamchU, that that git, DiucMlimtf and Ssimrm of 

Child (hould give Reft and Com- the Heathens^ 
fort to the new World, and 9- 


chap. IIL Para DISK Lost, 405: 

be fet open, and pour Rain Day and Night upon the 
Earth \ til the Fountains of the Deep mall be broke 
up, and heave the Ocean beyond all its former 
Bounds ; 'till an Inundation rile above the higheft 
Hills. Then this Mount of Paradise, by the Pow- 
er of the Waves fhall be mov*d out of its Place, by 
the Violence of the raging Flood, with all its Ver- » 
dures fpoilM, and all its Trees adrift down the great 
River to the main Ocean ; and there take Root, and 
be a bare and fait Ifland, be the Haunt of Fiih, 
aud be fill'd with the Noife of Water-Fowls -, to teach 
thee, that God attributes no Holinefs to Place, if 
none be brought thither by M b n, who frequent or 
dwell in It. Apd now behold what there is further to 
come to pafs^ 

Ad ah lookM and faw the Ark floadn^ to and 
ftoiiDon the Flood, which was now abated i fpr the 
Clouds were fled away, driven by a keen North*. 
Wind, that blowing hard and dry^ began to lelTen 
the Bulk of the Waters, and the clear Sun fhone hoc 
upon the wide watery Deluge, (q) and drew up con- 
fiderably from the Waves •, which made their Flowing 
(hrink, and they ebb'd foftly towards the Deep;, 
whofe Sluices were now ftoppM, and the Windows of 
Heaven fliut alfo. The Ark now floats no longer, 
but feems on Ground, fix*d faft on tl>c Top of fome 
high ^f ountain : (r j Now the Tops of th^ Hills began 
^ D d 3 to 

laid all jpti^m under Water, A^ 
Nf. ti8c» Qr 2208, I020 Years 
before the (irfl Olympiad, and 
in the Days of JacoB. The 3d ' 
was that of l>tucali9nt aboat 1 % 
Years before the Children of If- 
rmfi departed out of E^Pt. 
There was a ytolcnt one at r#- 
Im, A. D. i698. 

(r) MfUMtain. Thisiicaird 
Armrmt in Jrmm§^ Qin. 8. 4. 


fq) Dekgi \ Lu. I. e. ITiiA- 
it(g ^r/ujiifsug awMj i ai( Xnan- 
dation or Ofierflowing of thp 
Earth with Water. There have 
been feyeral DelogQs in di^erent 
Countries : This was the firft, an 
ifniverlid one, ai^d thf moll &-. 
moua in HiHory : It waa in the 
if^ih Year of iyWiA. A. If, 
1656. The fecond wai that of 
Ozj^a King of fAffc/^ wbick 

4o6 PailAdisb Lost. Book XL 

to appear, like Rocks -, from whence the rapid Currenu 
drove their furious Tide, wfth great Noife and Vio- 
Jencc, toy^a.r4s the rep-eating Sea. forthwith a Ra- 
vpn fs) flies out of the Ark, and after him (what 
prov*d a furer Meffenger) a Dove, fent forth twice, 
tq fee if ihe coujd find green Tree or Ground, whcfc- 
Dn tq fet her Foot j returning the fecond TJme, flic 
brings an Olive-leaf pluck'd off }n her Mouth, -^hich 
was a Sign of Peace oetween God an^ N a a ?^• Af- 
ter a while tjie dry Gfound appears, and the antient 
juft Man defcends from his Ark with all his Train: 
Thep, with H[aqds lifted up, and wi|h devout Eyes 
grateful tq Heaven, behold over his Head a dewjr 
Cloud, and in the Cloud the diftinft Appearance of a 
Bow, of three Colours varioufly intermix'd, betoken-: 
ing Peace with God, and a new Covenant made with 
Man; whereat the Heart of Adam, which before 
had. beeii fo fad, rejoi(:'d greatly, and thus he joyful? 
ly cried out : 

Heavenly Ipftmdqr! who canft reprefcnt future 
Things, as clear as if tliey were prefent; this laft 
Sight revives me, feeing that it aflures me, that Mah 
3%yith all the Creatures fliftU live, and prcfervc their 
Seed. I don't lament now for one whole World of 
wicked Sons being deftroy'd, fo much as I rejoice to 
fee one Man fo perfe(5l and fo juft, that God vouchr 
fiifcs from him to raife another \Yorld, and to forget 


Some call it Lubar, others Ba* 
fis ; fome the Cardj^an^ Gtr- 
4fyaart^ GodochiaMf and others 
the Carduchian Mo);n tains. 

ii } Ra'vtn. A rapacious 
unclean Bird, JD^^f. 14. 14. 
She was fent out firn on the 1 7th 
t)ay of Augufi^ and op the fird 
Day of the Week, and forty* 
pays after the Tops of th<? 
Mfjuatains appeared , but ^^ 

not return \ becaafe (he is a re- 
venoas Creature, and fettles up- 
on Carcailes , or any dirty 
Grounds, which the Dove doth 
not ; and therefore (he went a- 
way upon Prey, but this retur- 
ned to the Ark: She was fent 
out of the Ark on the 24th of 

'Z^fi^ ^n^ ^e fir£ Dsiy of the 


I Chap. IIL Paradise Lost. 407 

all his Anser. But tell me, what mean thofe colourM 
Streaks, that are ftretch'd out in Heaven, and look 
like the Brow of G o d appeas'd ? Or, do they fcrvc 
as a flowery Edge, to bind the fluid Skirts of that 
fame watery Cloud, left it fhould diflblve and fhower 
down upon the Earth ? 

T o whom the Arch- Angel made Anfwer : What 
thou haft guefs'd, is very near to the Purpofe-, fo 
willingly doth God remit his Anger, though fo late- 
ly he repented that he had made Man, feeing he was 
become fo much deprav'd; being griev'd at his 
Heart, when looking down he faw the whole Earth 
fiird with Violence, and all Flefh corrupt in the Ima- 
gination of their Thoughts : Yet thofe once removed, 
onejuft Man fhall find fuch Grace in his Sight, 
that he relents, and determines not to blot out Man- 
kind, and makes a Covenant, that the Waters fhall 
never become a Flood, to deftroy the Earth again, 
nor ever to let the Sea furpafs its Bounds, nor Rain to 
fall fo as to drown the World, with M a n or Beaft 
therein : But, when he brings a Cloud over the Earth, 
he will fet his Bow in the Clouds, and it fhall be for a 
Token of a Covenant between God and the Earth ; 
Dav and Night, Heat and Cold, Seed-time and Har- 
veit, fhall hold their Courfe, and not ceafe ; 'till the 
general Conflagration purge and purify both Heaven 
and Earth, wherein thenceforward the Juft fhall dwell 
for ever. 

The End of the Eleventh Book* 

Dd 4 THE 

t +°9 i 




The Argument. 

THE Angel Michael continues from the 
Flood to relate what /hall fucceed ^ then, 
in the Mentim of Abraham, comes hj 
Degrees to explain^ who that Seed of 
the Wmanjball ie, vbich vaas promts' d Adam and 
Eve in the Full: ISs Jncamatton^ Deaths Refur- 
reSionj and Afctnfion : The State of the Church 
'till his Jicmd dimng. Adam, greatly Jiatisfed 
and recomforted by tbofe Reltrtions anaPromifes, 
dtfcends toe Hill with Michael ; nakens Eve, vfho 
at this ij^le had Jlept^ but with gentk Dreamt 
twipos'd to Sijfietne/M of Mind and SiAmiJ^. Mt- 
duel in either Jfynd leads them out of Paradiic, 
the fiery Sword waving behind tbem^ md the Che^ 
rubim taking their Stations to guard the Place, 


410 Paradise Lost. Book. XII. 


3lte Angei relae$ "what Jhall ha^en after the 
Fkoiy and foretells the Coming of Chrift. 

is a Traveller upon a Journey takes fome 
Reft at Noon* though he. be intent on 
£xpeditioo> fo here the Arch- Angel 
Michael made a Paufe,' betwixt the 
World dfftroyM and the Wwld rcfto- 
red, to fee whether or no Adam 
might no( hare iotnt Q^eftions to iiuprpoft; dien 
going forward in his Narration, he b^ah £^ih n> 

.Thus, Aba1*> thquhaft fvn.thtfV^ginunganii' 
End of one World, and Man proceeding as from a' 
fecond Stock : There yet remains a gre^t deal more 
for thee to fee ; but 1 perceive that thy mortal Sight 
begins to fail thee^ nor can it-be othermfe* fot divine 
Objeds owft needi impair and weary the tuman Sen- ■ 
fcs : So that what is to come henceforward,. I Iha!!^' on- 
ly relate to thee ; do thou therefore be attentive, and 
give proper Audience to what I (hal! fiy h 

This new Race c^ M b k,. befiirr tfaey acrire to. 
large Numbers, and while thr Dfoad^pf paft Judg- 
ment rematns frelh in tlieir Minds* . fhaU lead thelii 
Lives io the Fear trf G o p, with fwiie Regaid tQ Juf-. 
tice and wiiat is ri^ht } and they Ihall mijluply apaee^^' 
manunfig and fowtog the Earth, and reaping pTentifuT 
Crops of Com, Wine, and Oil-, and otten from the ' 
Herds tit. Flocks making Sacrifices of Bullixis, 
Lambs, or Kids, withlargeOfftringsof Wins-pour'd'- 
out, (hall fpend their Days in Jioy and fiwrBd Frfiival, . 
unblam'd; and dweltibr aloi^ Ticof .in Ettific^ 1^ 
Tamilies and Tribes, under paternal Rule j 'till one 
■ ' caU'd 

I chap. I* Paradise Lost. 411:, 

c^rd N I M R o D (a) Ihall arifc» of proud and am- ^ 
f bitious l^eart; whpy not content with a fair and equal 

SharCi will aflume an undcferv'd Dominion over the 
reft of his Brethren, and quite difpoflfefs Concord and 
the Law of Nature from the Earth ; hunting wild 
B^afls, and not pply Qe^fts, but Men alfo. ; lubdu- 
ine with War, and laying hoftile Snares for fuch as re- 
fuTe Suhjeftipn to his tyrannical Ufurpation : For that 
Reafon he (hall be called ^ mighty Hunter before the 
L o a D *» meanipg either in delpitc of Heaven, or elfe 
claiming from Heaven the feccmd Sovereignty ; and 
thpugh he ffaall accufe others of Rebellion, yet from 
I^cbeUiop he fhall derive his Name, for fuch is the 
Meaning of the Word Ni m R o d. He, with a 
Crew^ join'd to him • by like Ambition, or Defign of 
tyrannizing under him, marching from Eden to- 
wards the Vfc&i ilull find the Plaip^ in which a black 
bituminous Sl^ne boils out from under the Groiind, 
^ it were t^^^ Mouth oi Hell. Of that Stuff, and 
Bricks, they contrive to build a City, and a Tower 
whofe Top may re^ch to Heaven ; thinking thereby to 
get themlelves a Name ; left, being difpers'd far a- 
lyay in fore^n Lands, the Meinory of them fhould 
be lofl; not regarding, whether the Fame they accjui- 
red was good or evd. But G o d^ who oftentime* 
defcends unfeen to vifit Men, and pafTcs among their 
^^bitations to take Notice of their Adions, fooo 


Gceat-QrandCoiii, the Fathec of 
fls9iu, whofirft ufarpM over the 
F^triarcks , and firft took up 
Arms againft t)»e wild Beafls, 
which, were then very nqmeroos,^ 
powerful, and mifchievous ; then 
he made himfelf t|ie Head of 
his Companions ; then the King 
over all the reft, about A. M. 
1720. Nimrti^i, Hih. L e. A 
J^ebil : For he V^b^H^d again^ 

God, in building the Tower of 
BAheli and tgainftMen. 19 u« 
furping Monarchical Govern* 
ment, and overturning the Patri* 
archai* He is Beius amone the 
Heathens, the Foundec of the 
JJfyrlan Monarchy, the firft In-, 
ftaoce of Idolatry ; and was the 
Bil or Baal \Heh, i. e. lord) of 
the Jffjrians^ Babjimans, and 
ajl the World. 

41$ Paradise Lost. Book XII. 

beholding them, comes down to fee their Gty^ long 
before the Tower reach'd up to Heaven; and, in De- 
rifion, confounded their native Language, the H e- 
BREW, (b) and inftead thereof, gave them only Pow- 
er to make a jangling Noife of Words, not under- 
ftood by one another. Forthwith a loud and conAisM 
Taltj^ing rifes among the Builders, each calls to the o- 
ther, and no Body uhderftands ; ^till hoarfe and all in 
a Rage, they ftorm, thinking themfelves mocked by 
tech other : The Angels in Heaven looking down, held 
them vX great Derifion, to fee the ftrange Hubbub, 
and be^ (he Din. Thus this ridiculous Building, 
which^.they foolifhly thou^t misht poflibly reach 
HeavenL was left ; . and the Work c^l'd B a b e l ^ 
which beipg interpreted fignifies Confulion. 

Whereto Adam, difpleas^d atwhat he faw his 
OfHpring do, exclaimed thus : O execrable Son ! to 
afpire fo above his Brethren ; ailuming to himfelf a 
ufurp'd Authority, not given him from God: He 
only gave us an abfolute Dominion over Beaft, Fifh, 
and Fowl ; that Right we hold by his Donation : But 
he never made Man Lord over Men; that Title he 
hath referv'd to himfelf only j for God left human 
Race free from human Dommion. But, this Tyrant 
and Ufurper ftops not his ambitious Ufurpation upon 
Man only ; he alfo intended his new Tower, to be a 
Siege againft the God of Heaven, Wretched and 
miftaken Man! What Food will he convey up thi- 
ther, to fuftain himfelf and his nifh ArzQy ? Where the 
thin Air above the Clouds will confume his grofs En- 
trails & 

[h) Hibrew ^ th« nitaral 
Speech of Mankind, from the 
Creation for 1757 Yeant fee- 
ing all Languages derive many 
words from that, but it from 
none of them ; the Names of 
Men and Things plainly confirm 

it, and the Learned ame in it. 
After the Confufion of Tongoet 
it remainM in Htiir^s PamOy, 
and fo defcended to the J^w^ 
among whom it oontinoeapiiro 
to the BubylMi/h Captirity i lA 
an about 3400 Yean. 

chap. I. Paradjse Lo&t. 41^ 

trails ; and if he were provided with Bread, he muft 
die, it being too fine for him to breath in ? 

To whom Michael reply M thus: Thou haft 
a juft Abhorrence of that Son^ who brought fuch 
great Trouble upon the quiet State of Man, afTed* 
ing to fubdue reaf«nable Liberty; yet learn at the 
fame Time, that fince true Liberty is lofl, by reafbn 
of original Sin, (and Liberty always is pair'd with 
right Reafon, and divided from it can have no Being) 
Reafonin Man being obfcur'd, ornotobey'd, im^ 
mediately inordinate Defires and fudden Paflions catch 
the Government from it, and reduce the whole M a h 
to Servitude, who 'till then was free. Therefore^ 
fince he permits unworthy Powers to reign over Free- 
realbn within himfelf; God, in juft Judgment, fub- 
jeAs it from without to violent iJords, who oftentimes 
as undefervedly enthrall his outward Freedom. So 
that there muft be fuch a Thin^ as Tyranny ; though 
that cannot ferve for any Excule to him who is a Ty- 
rant: Yet, fometimes Nations will decline fo low from 
Virtue, (which too is Reafon) that no Wrongs, buf 
Juftice and Ibme fatal Curfe, deprives them of their 
outward Liberty, their inward being loft by them- 
fclves; witnefs Ham, (c) the irreverent Son of 
Noah, who built the Ark; who, for the Shame 
done to his Father, had this heavy Curfe pronounc'd 
on him and his vicious Race; ^ A Servant of 
^' Servants shall hb be unt^ his Brethrbn.** 
Thus will this latter World, as die former did, go on 
from bad to worfe ; *till at kft Go d, wearied with 
their Iniquities, will draw his Prefence fix)m among 
them, and turn his Holinefs away from them ; from 
thenceforth reiblv'd, to kave them to their own poUu* 


(f) Ham^ the jromigeft Son oM Car^pniamt^ Gnaanf^ 

#f ]if9ai, wiio wascttrM for hi$ wadRmmmj, and all the Natioiu 

DUrefpc^ and Conto&pt of Us of Eurvpi^ madt Slaves of t(it 

father, Gtm. 9. 24, 25. The JfrUmui. 



ted Ways^ and to felefl: one peculiar Nation from all 
the reft to be adored by ; a Nation to fpring frorti 
one faithful Man; that is to fay, from Abra- 
ham, (d) yet refiding on this Side the River Eu- 
phrates, and bred up to worfhip Idbk. — — Canft 
thou believe it poffible? O that Me^^ fhould be 
crown fo ftupid and fcnfelefs, while yet the Patriarch 
Noah liv'd, who efcap'd the Flooa^ as to forfake 
the living God, and fall down to worfliip their owh 
Works in Wood and Stone, and call them Gods ! Vet 
the moft high God vouchfafes to call him by Vifion 
from his Father's Houfe, and froni his Kindred and 
falfe Gods, into a Land which he will Ihew him ; and 
from him will raife a mighty Nation, and upon hhn 
Ihower his Bencdiftion fo, that in his Seed all Nati- 
ons fhall be blefsM : He ftrait obey^s G o d*s Call and 
Promifes ; firmly believing in them, though he did 
not know to what Land he was to go. f fee him< 
(but I know thou canft not) with what Faith he leaves 
his Gods, all his Friends, and native Country, which 
is Ur (e) of CHALDitA; (f) now paffing the 


(/) Abraham. God cill^ 
Jhdi from smopg the idolatroos 
CbaUitanf, about the Year of 
the World 2083. 

fij Un Heb. i. e. Ligbti 
bcoittle the ChaUdtaat wor&ip- 
ped the Sun or Fire. A City of 
XiaU^ta^ where Abraham was 
born, about 624 Miles from Je- 
rufalem Baftward \ now Orchte 
and Horna, This was the firft 
Sort of Idolatry^ called Bebai/m^ 
Gr. from the Heb. i. e. Worpif- 
fing tbt Hofts 0/ Heaven ; for 
B^tmanolatriaf Gr. i. e. fFor^ 
f^^ing Damons^ HeroiSy Beafis^ 
Aaagit* ^c. came in long after- 

(/) CbaUeta i Gr. from tU 

Htb. u e. tiki D^MMUy />#. 
ftrojirSf Robert: In Scripture 
it is called Chafed^ and the PeO' 
pie Ch&fiin^ from Ktfed^ the 
Son of f^ahr^ which the Gruh 
txkmtdLxmQ Ghald^a. AKoShi* 
nar^ Heb. i« e. ScMttndi be« 
cai>:e the Builders of that Tower 
were fc^ttered over the whole 
EartR, Gin. la. 10. 11. 28« 
and now CbaUar and Cttrdiftan. 
ChaU^ea is a large Country of 
Afia^ bordering upon AJfjriag 
mefopotamia between the Em-' 
pbrates and ^igrif^ whereof Ba* 
byisn was the Metropolis for na- . 
ny Ages % therefore that Cotm* 
try was calttd 8ab;^nim^ 

•Chap.1. Paradise Lost. 415 

River Euphrate* to Haram; (g) and after him 
a numerous Train of Herds and Flocks, and Abun- 
dance of Servants ; not wandering poorly without his 
Subftance, but trufting all his Wealth with G o d» 
who callM him to an unknown Land. Now he comes 
to C A K A A N ; (b) I fee his Tents pitched all about 
SicHEM, (i) and the neighbouring Plain Mo- 
re H (kj. There he receives a Promife, that all that 


{g ] Haraa, or Churran ; Heh. 
i.e. JiMger or Wrath ; from Ha- 
tan, the Father of Lot, It is a 
Country and chief City of Me- 
/•potamia^ opon a River of the 
fame Name, and not far from 
l/«, 440 Mites from Jerufaltm 
North-£ailward. There AbrM- 
bam Hv'd fome Years ) the Turks 
pay a gfcat Veneration to it on 
that Account, and now call it 
Htnn or Cbarron, AQs 7. 4. 
There the great Crajfut^ the R9* 
man General and Conful, with 
his Army of 3000 Men, was 
overthrown by the Partbiaust 
who took It: Afterwards the 
Ptrfiam ook it, Aow the Turks 
poflefil it. It is eleven Day*s 
Joarney, or 232 Miles Well- 
ward from NiHtvsb, noW well 
inhabited, has a good Trade, 
and IS alfo called Of bra. There 
is a Well of very clear Water, 
at which Rebecca gave Drink to 
Eleazar^ jibrabam*9 Servant , 
Gen. 24. 10. They call it ^ifr«- 
bam^t Well. But Mefefotamia 
is now render^ very deUrt and 
ruinous by the Turb, 

(b) Canaan ; Heb, i. e. A 
Merchant^ from Cane^n the Soa 
of Ham, by whom it was firft 

ropled, Gen, 11. 18. becaofe 
lies along the Mediterranean 
Sea, and gave the Inhabitants an 
Opportanity of Trade, Mtr- 

chandife, and Navigation, over 
the whole Earth. Such were 
the old Phoenicians, Tyrians, Si" 
denians, Carthaginians, &c. 

( / ) Sicbem ; Heb. i. e. A 
SbouUer ox Back ; becaufe it 
ftandeth out like one ; or from 
Sicbem, the Father of Hamor or 
Emmer, Gen. 34. 2. Ads 7. »6. 
Alfo Sjcbar ; Heb. i. e. Hired or 
W^^h J^hn 4. 5. and after* 
wards Scytbtpo/is ; See yuditb 3. 
14. Gr. i. e. The City of the 
Scythians or Tat art \ becaab 
fome of them fettled there. Aa 
antient City of Samaria in /Vt- 
lefiine^ between Mount Garixim 
and Mount Ehai, belonging to 
Samaria, 36 Miles from yeru" 
falem Northward. There Je- 
fefb was buried, Jofiua 24. 32. 
Abimelecb razed it. Judges 9* 
49. But Jeroboam rebuilt it, t 
Kinffs 1 2. Now it is called JSTa- 

{/yS, Gr. i. e. The nenv Town ; 
lut it is in a very low Conditioi| 
at this Time. 

(kj Morebi Heb. i. e. Tit 
Lordft>if of the Lord: Qx from 
Moreb, one of the old Amorites, 
whd poffefs'd it. Gem. 13. i8« 
i4« 13. A Piece of Ground near 
Sicbem, where Abraham firft fet* 
tied in Canaan, which Jacob 
bought of Hamor lor 100 Pieces 
of Money, and gave to Jo/efl, 
Gen. 33. 19. 48.22, John 4. 5. 

4i6 Paradise Lost. Book Xli 

Land fhould be given to his Pofterity, Northwaid 
from H A M A T H, (I) to the Defart South of Ara- 
bia; (I call Things by their Names, though as yet 
chey are not namM) and Eaft from H £ r m o n (m) 
to the Mediterranean Sea; Mount Hermon that 
lies there! and yonder Sea! (look at each Place io 
Profpeft, as I point to them) Upon the Shore there is 
Mount C A R M £ L ; (n) here the Rirer J o r d ah, 
fpringing from two Fountains, is the Boundary of 


{!) HamatB^ Hm^itB, or O^a- 
math ; Heb, i. c. Hiat or Jm- 

fir I from Hamatb the Son of 
jtnatm^ who boilt it. A City 
in the North of Canaan belong- 
bkgxo Syria f between two HilS, 
ntMX the River Ormitgi, at the 
Foot of Anti'Lihantu 9 280 
Miles from Jirufalem % the ut- 
moft Boands of the Holy Land 
on the Norths and one of the 
mnd Pafles of it, called alfo 
Z/iff, Namheri 34. 8. J^hna 13. 
5. Now the ^urh call it Hnw. 
There is a great Hanuui and a 
little Hamatb^ Amos 6. 2. Some 
take it to be the aotient Jfya- 
wuta I others on better Grounds^ 
for Efipbania or Antiecbia, In 
the ^Targnrn it is called Anti§ebia, 
from Antiocbtts King of Sfria. 
^oi was King of it in the Reigki 
of King Davutf 2 Sam. 8. 9. 
In the 13th Centnry it had 
Princes of its own, which were 
of the Race of jfymb or Job, 
from whom defcended Sauutim, 
a Saltan of the Turh, whocon- 
qtiered Paieftim, ^SJP^f Syria, 
Ac. A. D. II 80. SUmatb was 
a City of great Trade, but is 
Skow very much decayed. 

( ff ) Herman^ or Cbfrm$n i 
Bib, i. e. Sh0w, An high and 

fertile Mountain in the North of 
Canaan, near Mount Lebamam^ 
beyond Jordan to the North- 
Baft, 122 Miles from JtrmfiH 
/r«r, and frequently oover*d witk 
Snow, becaufe it is very h%h. 
It is called Sbiry9n by the Sidm^ 
ans, P/alm 29. 6. Sbenix, bv 
the AmoritiSf Vntt. 3. 9. Aw 
Siin (not 7zion at Jtrufakm) 
DnU. 4. 48. and alfo Baai-H*r* 
Mf«, HA. IX. Himun tbe Gnat f 
to 4iftingai(h it from a leffia- of 
that Name, near Mount Gilbut 
and Mount 74i«r, in the Tribe 
of Manaffit, 44 Miles from Jt^ 
rnfalem tows^s the North. At 
the Foot of it ftood the Citf 
Nain, Bib. i. e. fUa/ani ; be- 
caufe it ftood moft pleafimdy on 
the Banks of the River Cbifin. 
Upon this Mountain grew many 
goodly Trees ; wild fiealb alio 
abounded upon it, E$uk. 27. 5. 

^n) Carmeli Bib, i. e. A 
Vineyard ; becaufe there are ma* 
ny Vineyards upon it. Another 
very high Moantain in the Bdy 
Land, upon the Midiitrraniam 
Sea, to the South of Ftotenuui, 
30 Miles North-Weft from Ji- 
rnfalim^ in the Tribe of yfa- 
char. Here the Prophet El^ak 
began his Reformation of Reli- 

chap. !• Paradise Lost. 417 

Canaan on the Eaft Side ; but Abraham's Sons 
Ihall dwell as far as S e i r, (o) which is all that long 
Ridge of Hills ! Now confider this well, that all the 
Nations of the Earth fhall be blefsM in his Seed : By 
that Seed, thy Great Deliverer is meant, who 
Ihall bruife the Head of the Serpent ; about which, 
before I depart, I fhall reveal more to thee. This 
bleft Patriarch (who, by Reafon of his Obedience, 
Ihall be call'd faithful Abraham (p)) leaves a Son, 

E c call'd 

gioDf in the Days of Abah^ a 
very idolatroas and impious King 
of Ifrael, I Kinrs i8. Here 
Samuely Eiifab, Eiijba^ and o- 
ther Prophets^ and alfo Pytbag^- 
raSf the Heathen Philofopher, 
long afterwards reported ; for the 
Sake of Devotion, Concempla- 
tion, and Retirement. The an- 
tient River Kjfon cuts its Way 
dofe by the Weft Side of it, 
through the Plains of E/draiUm 
into the Sea at a Place called 
Caffba. Upon this Mountain is 
a donvent of bare-footed Friars, 
caird OtnueiUesp a litde Mofque, 
with ieveral Gardens and Vine- 

(0) Seir, Senir^ or Saner; 
Hib, i. e. Rougb. Aiongand 
large Ridge of Mountains with 
many Tra£b of fertile Lands,' 
which made the Kingdom of the 
Eikmitij, on the South Side •f 
the Dead Sea and Camaun^ about 
46 Miles from Jtrufidem, It is 
a rocky Country ; therefore it is 
called TracboMiUs, Syr. CbaU. 
i. e. Rocfy, rcugb ; limrga, Hib, 
i. «. M»mMt4iSM§iu^ from Jtimr^ 
a Son of Ifmail ; Peir^m^ Syr" 
i. e. Ruby ; and Idtmta^ Heb. 
i. €. Rid^ hoa^ Ejau or Edam ; 
bccade heaadiiii Soot did iettk 

in it: But it was called Siir 
long before that. 

(f) Abrabami his firft Name 
was Abram, Heb. i. e. jin excel" 
lent or migbty Fatber s but when ' 
God renewed his Covenant, he 
chang*d that into Jbrabam^ i. e* 
An excellent or miehty Father 
of many People. MrabamvfZM 
the Founder'of the Jewifo Na« 
tion and Church, elleemed a 
mighty Prince among the Cana* 
cnites^ a great Prophet at Pba-^ 
racb** Court. The Kings of 
Egyftf Pa/ejfine, &c. courted 
his Friendfhip, made Leagues 
with him, and paid him Ho- 
mage. Nicol, Dama/ceMMf, Jm^ 
fiin^ Sec. fay, that he was King 
6f DamM/cus; his Name was 
had in Veneration among both 
JevfSf GentUts^ Mmbammedatu^ 
and Cbriftiams^ in all Ages: 
They made religious Pilgrima- 
ges to his Oak at Mmmre^ *ti11 
CeMfiamtitte the Great ordered ic 
to be deltroyM ; and which it 
more, he was calPd the Father 
of the Paithfbl, and the Friend 
of God; a Title of Honour ne- 
ver beflowM on aay Man be- 
fore. He carried the Knowledge 
of Aftronomy, Arithmetick, and 
other Sciences* Ikoni CbeUd^M 

4i8 Paradise Lost. Book XII. 

caird Isaac; and of him a Grandchild, called J a-'- 
COB, (q) very much like him in Faith, Wifdom, 
and Renown. The Grandchild, having twelve Sons, 
departs from Canaan to a Land, which will after- 
wards be caird Egypt, divided by the River Ni t e : 
See there where it flows, difgorging itfelf at fcven 
Mouths into the Sea! He comes to live in that Land^ 
being thither invited by a younger Son in a Time of 
Famine -, (call him Joseph) a Son, whofe worthy 
Deeds raife him to be the next in Dignity to Ph a* 
R A o H in that Kingdom : There he dies, and leaves 
his Race growing into a Nation ; and being thought 
too powerful, by another King who fucceeded to the 
Throne of that Kingdom, fome Years after the Death 
of Joseph, he fought to flop the Growth of their 
Numbers, looking upon them as too numerous a Peo- 
ple to fliare the Land with them : Whence he, inhof- 
pitably, ofGuefts made them Slaves ; and ordered 
the Midwives of Egypt, to kill all the Hebrew 
male Infants ; 'till by two Brethren, (call thofe two 
Brethren Moses (r) and Aaron) who fhall be 


ioto Egypt ^ as Jo/ephus relates : 
Buc Geometry was firH found out 
10 Egypt, from the Overflowing 
of the Nile, He was born A. 
M. 1948, and liv'd 17^ Years. 

fq) Jacoh increafed wonder- 
fully ; for of 70 SooJs which 
went with him into Egypt^ in 
the Space of 2 1 5 Years they in- 
crea/ed to 6oo»oco armed Men, 
beiides Women, Children^ and 
oki Men unfit for War. At the 
iirft numbering of them, in the 
£r(l Year after they went out of 
Egypt f they were 603,550, Ex- 
•diis 30. II, 12. 58.25, 26. 
la the fecond Year their Num- 
ber was the fame, although the 
Tribe of Ltm was not included^ 

AW^. r. u^6y 47. In DtwtJTt 
Time J^ah muflerM a thoafand 
thoufand, and a hundred tbou- 
fand Men of l(rael \ and four 
hundred thoufand threefcore and 
ten thoufand Men of Judab ^ 
that were Soldiers, 1 Chron, 21. 
5. And Jo/ephus reckons three 
Millions of Men at Jerufalem^ 
aiTembled at the PafTover. 

( r ) Mofes^ Mojhehy and A/try* 
fet^ Heb. i.e. Dra^n 9ut of the 
IVater : See Ejcod, 2. 10. yp- 
Jephus makes it an Egyptian 
Word from Moy^ i. e. ^be Wa- 
ter: But we know not what 
Name his Parents gave him at 
his Circumcifion, unlefs we give 
kuo the "Si^ei of the Jt'ws, 


Chap. L ipAkADisk Lost. 411^ 

fent from God; to demand his People to be. delivered 
from Bondage : They return back again to their pro- 
mised Land; with Glory and Spoils. But firft the 
iawlefs Tyrant (who denies to know any Thing of 
their God; or give any Regard to theii* Meflage) 
muft be compeird to let them go, by Signs and great 
Plagues : The River?, and Ponds, and Pools of Wa- 
ter, muft ail be turn'd to Blood ; his Palace muft be 
fiird at different Times with Frogs^ and Lice; and 
Flies, which will be loathfomely fcatterM all over the 
Land : There muft be a grievous Murrain ; his Cat- 
tle muft die of the Rot^ and Blotches and Blains muft 
disfigure all his Flefli, and the Flefh of all his People : 
Then Thunder; and Hail; and Fire, running along 
tipon the Ground very grievous, fuch as there was 
none like it in Egypt fince it became a Nation; and 
itfmoteboth Man and Beaft; and every Herb of 
the Field, and broke every Tree. What that does 
not devour, either Herbi or Fruity Or Grain; a dark- 
ibme Cloud of Locufts (fuch as had never been be- 
fore^ nor ilevet will be ^gain^ muft eat; and leave no- 
thing green upon the Ground : A thick Darknefs muft 
bvetlhadow dl his Kingdom ; fuch Darknefs as may 
be felt, and fendiire for three Days ; fo that they 
neither faw one-another, nor any rofe from their 
Place: And laftly; with one. Stroke at Midnight, all 
the Firfl-botn of Egypt; fftfm the iGng to thef 

£62 ineaneft 

who fay it was jpaeUm, jetbo- 
tUl, Cbaiar, &c. Vide Huet. 
Dim, Evang, p. no, Mo/tt 
y99s t^€ youngeft Son of. Amram 
iind J9ckehed, of the Tribe of 
Ltvi, born in Egy^f A. M. 
2373. The; grand Prophet and 
Law-giver of thcynwi, and ce- 
lebrated by ihe wifeft and beftof 
the antient Heathens, as being 
^he firft andgreateft Philofopher^ 
^ti and Lawgiver ia thi 

'^orU i for be Wat coo Yeari 
l^fore Hniur, 800 before TJ^^ 
igSf 900 before Pythagoras^ 1 100 
before Socrates, Plato^ and jfrA 
ftoth i and from him they extract 
ted all the belt Parts of their 
Philpfophy^ Policy, Hiftory, Re^ 
ligion, and Laws. He died . oa 
Mount Ntho in the Land of Ms^ 
ah, at 120 Years of Age, upott 
the 7th Day of the Month, ott 
wiiieh lie was bocii^ A. M. 2493. 

4!5.o Paradise Lost. Book XI1« 

meaneft Servant, muft be laid dead ; and even the 
Firft-born of Beafts. I'hus Pharaoh, the King of 
Egypt, at length tamed with thefe ten Plagues, fub- 
mits to let the Children of Israel depart; and often 
humbles his ftubborn Heart ; but ftill it was like Ice^ 
that will freeze the harder after it has been thaw'd : 
'Till purfuing in his Rage thofe he had fo lately dif- 
mifs'd, the Sea fwallows him up, with all his Army ; 
but lets the Children of Israel pafs as upon dry 
Land ; and the Waters were a Wall unto them, on 
their Right-Hand and on dieir Left, which ftood fo 
divided on M o s e s's ftretching his Rod over the Sea; 
'till fuch Time as thofe he had to refcue were got on 
Shore, (s ) through the Red Sea. Such won- 
drous Power God will lend to holy Moses, though 
his Angel will be there in Prefence -, who Ihall go be- 
fore the Camp of Israel, in a Cloud and a Pillar 
of Fire ; .and remove and go behind them, by Day a 
Cloud, and by Night a Pillar of Fire, to guide them 
in their Journey, while Pharaoh purfues them. He 
will purfue them all Night, but God will interpofe 
Darknefs between him and them *till Morning ; then 
looking through the fierjr Pillar and the Cloud, G o p 
will trouble the Army of the Egyptians, and render 
all their Chariots unfit for Ufe: When Moses, by 
Command, extends his powerful Rod once more over 


( s) Short ; Sax, Dut, A Ge- 
ographical Term. This Shore 
was oa the Egyptian Groand, 
The People did not go direftly 
crofs the Red Sea from Shore to 
Shore, according to the valgar 
Opinion ; but took a circular 
Compafs in that Sea« and came 
out on the fame Side : The Sea 
there is about feven Leagues o- 
vcr. The Ifratlitei went out of 
the Wildern«rs of Etham in E- 
gypt. and caipe out of it upon 

the very fame Side ; they travel- 
led three Days in the fame Wil* 
dcrnefs : Then they march'd 
Northward to the lilhmus of 
Sues^ a Tra^l of dry Land be- 
tween the Red ^di and the Medi", 
ttrrantan Sea, which is eighteen 
Leagues broad ; and there they 
tra veiled out of Egypt ^ as others 
do, into the Wildernefs ol Ara- 
bia ; where they abode forty 

Chap. I. Paradise Lost. 421 

the Sea ; the Sea obeys his Rod, the Waves return to 
their Place that ftood divided, and over- whelmed all 
the Hoft of Pharaoh : The chofen People of God- 
advance on, through the wild Defert, towards Ca- 
naan; not the neareft Way, left entering on the 
Country of the Canaanites, it might alarm them, 
and they be oblig'd to enter into War, being quite 
undifciplin'd, and Fear might make them return back 
to E G Y p T, chufing inglorious Life with Slavery, ra- 
ther than Death; (for Life is more fweet to the no- 
blcft Minds, fpcnt in Pcac.*, than in War ; except, 
where RaflmeJs puflies forwards.) This alfo they 
fhall g:iin by their Stay in the Wildernefs-, that there 
they (hall lay the Foundations of their Government, 
and chule their great Senate, (t) through the twelve 
Tribes, to rule according to the Laws which God 
ordained. God, defcending from the Mountain of 
Sinai, (which fhall tremble at his Prefence^ will 
himfelf ordain them Laws, with Thunder, Light- 
ning, and the loud Sound of a Trumpet: Part, fuch. 
as appertain to civil Juftice ; Part, religious Rites of 
Sacrifice; teaching them, by Types and Shadows of 
that Seed which was decreed to bruize the Serpent, 
by what Means he Ihall bring the Deliverance of 
Mankind to pafs. But the Voice of God is dread- 
ful to the Ears of Men-, they befeech, that Moses 

Ee 3 


{t) Senate; Fr. Ital Span, 
Lat. A Council of old Men. 
The LaceJcmoKtan* cillcd them 
Gerontes, Gr. i. c. 0/</ Men or 
Senators; they were always cho- 
(en for this Office^ becaufe of 
their greater Experience and 
Prudence. We find them men- 
tioned in the early Days oi Job, 
Such only were eledled in the A- 
reopagus or grand Council of A- ' 
tbens^ Sparta, Rome, and all o- 
rher polite Nations. The yew' 
yh Council was firil infticuted b/ 

the Advice of Jethro^ Mofts^% 
Father-in-luw, Exodus i8. 25, 
26 ; and afterwards ere6^ed intQ 
the Number of 72 Elders, i c. 
6 Men out of every Tribe, by 
divine lolliiution ; and Mojes 
was the Prince or Head of them, 
I^umb. 11.16. It was called 
Beth dan, i c. 7he Houfe of 
Judgment , and Sanbedrim or 
Sanhedrin, contrafled from the 
Greek ^ynedrion^ i. C. A Synod 
or Afiembly. 

4-22 Parapise Lost. Bpok XIL 

inight report his Will to them, and that Terror mtghc 
ceafc : He grants them their Defire -, they being in- 
ftrufted, that there is no Accefs to G o d without a 
Mediator, whofe high Office now Moses bears in a 
figurative Senfe, to introduce one greater, of whofc 
pay he fhall foretell, and all the Prophets in their 
Age Ihall prophecy of the Times of the great Mes- 
siah, Thus Laws and Rights being eftablifti'd, 
God takes fuch Delight in Men, obedient to hii 
Will, that he vouchfafes to fet up* his Tabernacle a- 
mong thorn, and (though the holy and evcrlafting 
God) to dwell with mortal Men. By his Ordi- 
pance is built a Sanftuary of Cedar, overlaid with 
Gold; and in that an Ark, or little Cheft; and in 
that his Teftimony, the Records of his Covenant with 
his People: Over thefe a Mercy-Seat of Gold, be- 
tween the Wings of two bright Cherubim : Before 
him burn feven Lamps, as in a Zodiack, whofe Num- 
ber is to reprefent the leven Planets : Oyer the Tent a 
Cloud Ihall reft by Day, and a Gleam of Fire by 
Night, except when they travel ; for then die Cloud 
fliall be taken up from over the Tabernacle ; 'till at 
length they come, conduded by the Angel of G o d, 
to the Land promised to Abraham and his Seed. 

The reft were long to tell, how many Battles 

fought, how many Kings deftroy'd and how many 
Kingdoms won ; or how the Sun (hall ftand ftill in the 
Midft of Heaven a whole Day, and put oft the due 
Courfe of the Night, at the Command and Voice of 
a Man; " Sun! ftand thou ftill upon Gib eon, (u) 
** and thou Moon ! in the Valley of A j a l o n, (x) 

'* 'till 

(m) GihioH I HeB. i. e. A^ Strength ; becaufe It was « 

Hilli beckufe it flood on an £- ftrong City. It belongM to the 

liiinence. The chief City of tlic Pbil^ines^ in the Tribe of Da»'^ 

Cibionitis^ two Leagues North- four Miles from JerufaUm to the 

Wed Uom^eru/alem^ Jofiua lo. South- £ail :, Near it this Mira- 

3. After ri>e Conquelt, it was cle was wrought by Jofijua. It 

given to the Priefts. was given to the litvites, Sii 

(^) Jjalon^ or He a an I Htb, Jo(hua lO* iz« 
i. e.' An Oak, an Hind, «r ... - . • 

V If 


Chap.L Paradise Lost. 423 

." 'till Israel overcome:" So call Isaac's (y) Son, 
the third from Abraham 5 and from him his whole 
Delccnt, who thus (hall win Canaan, fliall be cal- 
led Israel, or Israelites, 

Here Adam interposM, and faid to the Arch- 
Angcl: Gracious Things thou haft reveal'd to me, 
thou Enlightencr of my Darknefs, who art fcnt from 
Heaven! and chiefly haft informed me of thofe, 
which concern juft Abraham and his Seed : Now I 
firft find my Eyes truly opening, and my Heart a 
great deal eas'd, which was once much perplex'dwith 
Thoughts of what would become ot me and all 
Mankind : But now I fee his Day, in whom all the 
Nations of the Earth fhall be blefs'd ; a Favour unme- 
rited by me, who, by forbidden Mean?, Ibuglit after 
forbidden ICnowlcdge : Yet this I cannot comprehend, 
why to thofe, among whom God will deign to dwell 
here upon Earth, are given fo many and varipus Laws ; 
for fo many Laws argue, that there are fo many Sins 
^mong them ; Hqw can G q d refide with fuch ? 

To whom Michael made this Reply: Doubt 
not, but that Sin will find Place among them, as be- 
ing begotten of thee ; and therefore was Law given 
them, to make their natural Depravity appear, by 
ftirring up Sin to fight againft Law ; that wiien they 

E e .^ fee 

(jp) Ifaac; Hth. i. e. Laugh* 
ter ; becaufe his Father and Mo- 
ther laoghM ac the Scrangenefs 
of the Promife of a Son, when 
his Father was icx>, and ftiewas 
90 Years of Age, Gm. 18. 12, 
K. He was the only Son of 
jfbraham by Sarah, and Heir of 
the divine Promife. God com- 
manded him to offer him in a 
Bumt-OfFering , but an Angel 
fefcued him, and he offered a 

Ram in his Stead, &c. I/aae 
was born A. M. 2048, died A. 
M. 2228, being 180 Years old. 
Seven Men were predicted and 
Cilled by their Names, before 
they were bom, viz. J/bmae/, 
Jfaac^ Samp fen, Jofiah, Cyrus ^ 
Jdhn the Baptift , and Ji/us 
Chrifi, To ibcic St. Jerom adds 
Soiomon , from 1 C&ron, 22» 
8, 9. 

424. Paradise Lost. Book XII. 

fee that Law can difcover Sin, but not remove it, (ex- 
cept by thofe ftiadowy and weak Expiations, the 
Blood of Bulls and Goats) they may conclude, that 
fome Blood more precious mull be paid for Man; 
the Juft for the Unjufl: : That in fuch Righteoufnefs, 
imputed to them by Faith, they may find Juftificati- 
on towards God, and Peace of Confcience; which 
the Law by Ceremonies cannot appeafe, nor Man 
perform the moral Part ; and not performing it, can- 
not live : So that Law appears imperfeft, and is only 
given, with a Purpofe to refign them, in the Fullnels 
of Time, up to a better Covenant; being led fix>m 
the Shadow of Types to Truth: from Flefh to Spi- 
rit ; from the Impofition of ftrift Laws, to free Ac- 
ceptance of large Grace ; from fervile Fear, to filial 
Fear ; from Works of Law, to Works of Faith. 
And therefore Moses, though highly belovM of 
God, fhall not (being but the Minifter of Law) 
lead his People into the Land of C a n a a n ; but 
Joshua, (z) whom the Gentiles call Jesus, bear- 
ing his Name and Office ; who fliall quell the Adver- 
fary Serpent, and bring back Man through the 


(«) Jojhua^ or JihoJhua\ 
Hth, i. e. A Saviour of tbi 
Lord. He was firfl called Hojhea 
and Jefus^ but all from the fame 
Hehrenju Root. The Son of Hun^ 
and SucceiTor of Mofes^ and 
grand General of l/radi He 
vanquifbed the Canaanitet^ and 
difiributed their Land among the 
* twelve Tribes. He was born in 
JBIp'//, A. M. ^404, 92 Years 
after the Death of Jofepb ; was 
their General aboat 18 Years^ 
conquered 31 Kings, put the 
Ifraelitet in peaceable PoiTeffion, 
it) fix Years Tii^e, and died aged 
no Years. The Fbceniciam 
called him llercuUs^ i. e. The 
Glor/ of Heroes; becaafe of 

his many wonderful Vi^toriet o- 
ver them. The ^rw/, from the 
iirft Entrance into Canaan under 
Jojhua to the Babyhnifir Capti- 
vity, liv'd in Canaan about 85^ 
Years. After the Reftoration^ 
to the Deflru^on of then* Tem- 
ple, City, and Nation by the 
Romans^ in the 2d Year of Fsf^ 
pafian^ and 73d of Jefu$ drifi^ 
about 639 Years more ; in all 
1 494 Years, fiut their total and 
final Expuliion out of that Land 
was not 'till 60 Years after that, 
fiut the Kingdom of i^W, itom 
its Separation from Juiab to the 
End of it by Sa/m«»^tr, UAcd 
but 250 Years, 

Chap. I. Paradise Lost. 425 

World*s Wildernefs, who had wander'd long there, 
fafe to an eternal Paradile of Reft. Mean while, 
they, placM in their earthly Canaan, Ihall dwell a 
long Time, and profper j but when national Sins in- 
terrupt their publick Peace, provoking G o d to raifc 
them up Enemies, from whom, upon their being pe- 
nitent, he as often faves them ; firft by Judges, (a) 
then under Kings ; of whom the fecond (rcnown'd 
both for Piety and warlike Deeds) Ihall receive an ir- 
revocable Promife, that his regal Throne fball endure 
forever: All the Prophets fhall prophecy the like; 
that of the Royal Stock of D a v i d (/») (for fo I name 
this King) Ihall rife a Son, which is the Seed of the 
Woman, which has been foretold to tliee ; and which, 
as I have already informed thee, fhall be foretold to 
Abraham, as one in whom all Nations (hall put 
their Truft ; he fhall be foretold to Kings, and him- 
felf fhall be the laft of Kings ; for of his Reign there 
Ihall be no End. But, firft there muft enfue a long 


( « ) 7w^« ; ^^- The Hi" 

triwj call them Sopbihim ; from 
whence the Carthaginians^ Atht^ 
niant^ and others, called their 
civil Magifirates Suffetes, Thofe 
Judges were Men of extraordi- 
nary Piecy^ Virtue, and Valour, 
raifed np upon extraordinary 
Occaiions, for the Deliverance 
and Deftence of the People. 
They were 22 in Number, (but 
others reckon only 12, begin- 
ning with Otbniel^ J^^S^ 3- 9-) 
and continued, from iio/es to 
Saui^ their £rft King, about the 
Space of 426 Years. After 
them there were 22 K<ngs of Ju- 
dab^ in the Space of 500 Yt<trs, 
to the Bahytonijb C^iptivity. 

(h) Da<vid\ HeL i. e. Beh- 
nfiii becaufe he was pious, up- 
right, and beloved of God. He 

was the Son of Jfffe of Bethle^ 
hem^ a Shepherd ; the 2d King 
of Ifrael^ anointed King about 
i^ Years of Age, A. M. 2S81. 
and after many Troubles came 
to the Throne, being 30 Years 
old ; he reigned 40. Years and 
6 Months. He died in the7otli 
Year of his Age ; and was bu- 
ried moil magnificently by King 
Soi9men* Hircanus, the Higli 
Prieft, found 3000 Talenci in hi» 
Sepulchre, 300 Years afterwards, 
and Herod found a raft Treafare 
in it« many Age& after that. 
Three thoufand Talents wei« 
worth 5073/. 15/. yd. Bat 
his vafl Treasure amounted to 
547,5CX3,coo/. Sterling; and io 
Silver to above 342,000,000/. 
See I Cbron, zz, 14. 

42^ Paradise Lost. Book XII» 

Succefllon^ and his next Son, famM for Wealth and 
Wifdom, fhall enfhrine the Ark of G o d in a glori- 
ous Temple j 'till l;hen refting under the Cloudy or 
wandering in Tents. Such Kings follow hin^ as Part 
fhall be chronicled bad. Part good i but mofUy bad » 
whofe foul Idolatricsjj and other Faults added to the 
Sins of the People, will fo incenfe God, that he 
will leave them, and expofe their Land, their City, 
his Temple, and his holy Ark, with all his facred 
Things, a Prey and a Scorn to that proud City, 
whofe high Walls thou faweft Iqft in ConfuConi 
thence called Babylon. There he lets them live in 
Captivity the Space of feventy Years j then brings 
them back again •, remembring Mercy, and his Co- 
venant fworn to David. Being returned from B a* 
BVLON, by the Leave of Kings who were their 
Lords, whofe Hearts God difpos*d, they firft re-. 
build the Houfe of God, and live for a while mode- 
rate, in mean Eftate 5 *till grown rich and populous^^ 
they grow faftious. But the DifTention firft fprings 
among the Prifefts 5 M e n who attend upon the Altar,^ 
and who moftly fhould endeavour to keep Peace: 
Their Strife brings Pollution upon the Temple itfelf ^ 
at laft they feize upon the Scepter, and pay no Re- 
gard to the Houfe of David:' Then they lofc it to a 
Stranger, to Hero d^ (c) that the true anointed 
King,' the Messiah, might be born, debarred of 
his Right: Yet a Star appearing at his Birth, which 
Jiad never before been feen in Heaven, proclaims him 
come ; and guides the wife M £ n ot the Eaft to him,^ 
who enquire the Place where he was, to offer Incenfej. 
Myrrh, and Gold : A folemn Angel tells the Place or 
his Birth to the fimple Shepherds, as they kept watch 
by Night J they gladly hafte tliither, and there was a 

• ' ' " Multi- 

(r ) Here Herod the Great, an in by the Romans, who had Tub-, 

AfcaloniU or Idumcean, He wt% dued the Je^ws ; for then the 

the firrt foreign Prince that ever Scepter actually departed from 

reign'd in Judaa^ deputed there- the Houfe of King Oa'uifC 

phap. L Paradisr Lost. 427 

Multitude of the Hoft of Heaven, praifing G o d,. 
and finging Songs of Joy. A Virgin Ihall be his Mo-' 
therj but he fhall be begot by the Power of the most 
High! He (hall afcend his hereditary Throne, and 
the Bounds of his Kingdom (hall be that of the whole 
Harth; but his Glory (ball extend to die utaK>ft 

Michael left fpeaking ; perceiving A d a m fi> 
full of Joy, that if he had not vented it with Words, 
it would, like Grief, have occalion'd him to burft 
but into Tears ; fo he addrefs'd thefe to the Angel : 

O Prophet! foretelling Gladnefs and fiiture 
Good, to the utmoft that can be defir'd or hop*d for; 
now I underftand clearly, what with all the Power of 
my Thoughts I have often fearch*d in vain ; why the 
great Redeemer that we exped:, (hould be call'd 
the Seed of W o m a n : Hail Virgin Mother, high in 
the Lpve of Heaven ! yet thou fh^lt proceed from my 
Loins, and from thy Womb (hall, proceed the Son 
of the mbft high God; fo God unites with M ak^ 
Now is the Time for the Serpent to expefi: his final 
pefeat, widi mortal and cverlafting Pain. When, 
and where, will their Fight be ? And tell me, I pray 
thee, what Stroke (hall bruife the Heel of the Coyn- 

To whom Michael made this Anfwer: Do 
not imagine, that they are to fight as it were in a Du- 
el, or that there will be real Wounds given or re- 
ceived, in fuch Places as the Head or Heel : The 
Son of God does not join Manhood to the God* 
head, that fo he may overthrow thy Enemy with 
more Strength : Nor is S a t a n fo to be overcome, 
whole Fall from Heaven (which was a deadlier Bruife) 
did not difable him from giving thee thy Death's 
Wound; which he, who comes to be thy Saviour, 


42$ Paradise Lost. Book XIL 

(hall cure again ; not by deftroying Satan, but by 
deftroying his Works in thee, and in thy Seed, Nor 
can this be, but by fulfilling that (which in thee was 
wanting) Obedience to the Law of G o d, imposed on 
Penalty of Death; and by fufFering Death, 
which is the Penalty due to thy TranfgrefEon, and 
due to all them that fhall proceed from thee : It is by 
this only, that high Juftice can be fiilly fatisfied. He 
Ihall exactly fulfill the Law of Go d, both by Obedi- 
ence and by Love; though Love alone is the fulfilling 
of the Law : He fhall undergo thy Punifhment, by 
coming in the Flefh to a reproachftil Life, and to a 
curled Death; proclaiming Life to all thofe, who 
(hall believe in nis Redemption ; and that his Obedi- 
ence is imputed to them, becoming theirs by Faith, 
that they arc fav*d by his Merits, and not their own 
Works, though they may keep the moral Law. For 
this he Ihall live hated, be blafphem*d, feiz'd on by 
Force, have Judgment pafs*d on him, and be con- 
demned to a fhameful and ignominious Death; be 
naird to a Crofs by his own Nation, and flain for ha- 
ving been fo gracious as to bring Life : But with him 
are crucified thy Enemies, that is, the Law that is a- 
gainft thee, and the Sins of all Mankind; which 
never more fhall do them Hurt, who righteoufly put 
their Truft in this his Satisfaftion. So he dies, but 
foon rifes again from the Dead : He fhall not remain 
long under the Power of D e a t h ; before the Morn- 
ing of the third Day, he fhall be feen to rife out of 
his Grave, bright as the Light of Day ; having paid 
the Ranfom which redeems Mankind from Death ; 
his Death for Man, to as many as don't negleft the 
Offer of Life, and will embrace the Benefit of Faith 
accompanied by Works. This godHke Aft repeals 
thy Doom, the Death thou fhould'fl have died ; ha- 
ving through Sin, loft and forfeited Life for ever: 
This Aft fhall bruife the Head of Satan, crufh his 
Strength, by defeating Sin and Death, the two 


chap. I. Paradise Lost. 429 

main Inftruments of his Power ; and fix their Stings 
far deeper into his Head, than temporal Death Ihall 
bruife the Conqueror's Heel, or theirs whom he re- 
deems : How little will that be to fufFer ? A Death 
like Sleep ! a gentle and fafe PaiTage to a glorious and 
immortal Life ! Nor will the Redeemer after his 
Refurreftion ftay longer upon Earth, than to appeac 
certain Times to his Dilciples ; Men, who in his 
Life-time continued to follow him : To them he ihall 
leave in charge, to teach all Nations what they had 
learnt of him and his Salvation ; baptizing all them 
who (hall believe, with Water, to be as a Sign of walh- 
ing them from the Guilt of Sin to pure Life, and 
prepare their Minds for Death ; even fuch Death (if 
It fhould fo happen) as the Redeemer himfelf had 
died. They ihall teach all Nations; for, from that 
Day forward. Salvation ihall not be preached only to 
the Sons of Abraham, but to the Sons of Abra- 
ham's Faith, wherever they may be difpers*d through* 
cut the whole World ; fo, in his Seed ihall all Nati- 
ons be bleiTed : Then he ihall afcend with Vidtory up 
to the Heaven of Heavens, triumphing through the 
Air over his Foes and thine : There he ihall iurprizc 
the Serpent, the Prince of the Power of the Air; 
drag him in Chains through all his Region, and leave 
him there confounded : Then enter into Glory, and 
uke his Seat again at the Right-hand of G o d, ho* 
nour'd and exalted above all Names in Heaven ; and 
thence, when the Time ihall be for the Diilblution of 
the World, he ihall come with Glory and Power to 
judge both the Quick and the Dead ; to condemn the 
Unfaithful, but to reward the Faithful, and receive 
them into Blifs, whether in Heaven or Earth 5 for. 
then the Earth ihall be all a Paradise, a far happier 
Place than this of E d E n, and where there ihall be 
far happier Days. 


43^ pARADisi LbsT. Book 


Adam recimforted^ deft ends th HiH lehb 1V& 

' ,' * • 

THUS f|5oke the Arch- Angel Mii^RAEL} 
then paus'd^ as at the great PericJd of tfc 
World \ and our firft Father Adam; quitt 
iull of Joy and Wonder^ reply'd thus i 

O tNFiNitE; knd imtnenle Goodnfefs ! that fliall 
produce all this Good out of Evil, arid turn Evil to 
Good ! more wonderful than that Power; which bf 
Creation firft brought Light out of Darknefs ! I ftand 
liill of Doubt; whether I fhould now f epent of the 
Sin done and occafion'd by me j or much rather; if I 
ihould not rejoice^ that thereof fliall fpring much 
more Good ; more Glory to G o d^ more Good-will 
io'MEN from God^ and Grace fhall aboiind and o^ 
vcrcomc Wrath; But tell mej if our Rbdeembr 
aicends again up into Heaven^ what will betome of 
his few faithful ones, left among the unfaithful Crowds 
who are the Enemies of Truth ? Who fliall then guide 
his People ? Who fliall defend them ? Will they not 
deal worfe with his Followers^ than they did with 

Th a t (faid the Angel) they will certainly doj 
hut he will fend from Heaven, to thofe who are hisj 
Mother Comforter, as was promised by the Father ; 
iirho fliall dwell in Spirit within them, and write up- 
on their Hearts' the Laws of Fsuth working through 
Love, to guide them in all Truth ; and alfo arm 
Aem with I'piritual Armour, able to rcfift the Aflaults 
of S A T A N, and to quench his fiery Darts ; making 
them not afraid of what Man can do againft then), 
though it fliould be Perfecution to Death ; being re- 


Cliap. II. ParAdisU Lostt 43! 

compcns'd for fuffering luch Cruelties, with inward 
Conlblation, and oftentimes fhall be fupported fo, as 
will amaze their proudeft Pcrfecutors ; for the S p i* 
R I T, which firft he will pour forth upon his Apoftles^ 
(whom he fends with the glad Tidings of the Gofpel 
to all Nations, and then upon all thofe who are bap- 
tized) fhall endue them with wondrous Gifts; to fpeak 
all Tongues, and do Miracles, as their Lord had 
done before them. Thus they gain over great Num- 
bers of each Nation, joyfully to receive the News of 
Salvation brought from Heaven : At length, they ha- 
ving performed thbir Miniftry well, and run well the 
Race that was fet before them, writing their Doc* 
trines and the A6tions that they did, to ferve for Edi^ 
fication^ they fhall in Time die : But in their Room^ 
as they themfelves forewarn, grievous Wolves (d) 
fliall fuccecd for Teachers, who fhall turn all the fa- 
cred Myfteries of Heaven to their own vile Advan-^ 
tages of Lucre and Ambition , and taint the 
Truth (which, though left pure in thofe written Re- 
cords, is not to be underftood but by the Spirit) 
with Superflition and Traditions. Then they fhall 
feek to aggrandize themfelves with Names, Places^ 
and Titles ; and with thefe to join fecular Power^ 
though flill feigning to adt by fpiritual j afTuming ta 
themfelves only the Spirit of God, which is promi- 
fed and given alike to all Believers: And, from that 
Pretence, fhall force upon every Confcience fpiritual 
Laws, by carnal Power; Laws! which none fhall 
find in the written Law of God, nor engraved by his 
Spirit within upon the Heart. What will they do, 


(^) Wohis ; Sax. Dut, Jeut. 
Gr. 1. e. Pernicious^ lying M, 
or white ; becaufe Wolves are 
iierce, ravenous Bealls of Prey, 
that foon grow white ; from the 
HeS, Lakacbf i. e. To ravifh, or 
fnatch away violently. Here, 
6Ife Chrias^ falfo Apoftle^^ 

which foon appeared, even in th« 
Days of the Apoftles ; did theo> 
andfaave done much Mifchief fioce 
to the Church in all Ages i by 
devouring the Souls, Bodies, and 
Sabdance of Men, hy their perr 
nicious Cruelties ^ ^ Wolves de« 
Saoy their Prey. 

43? Paradise Lost. Book XIL 

then, but force the Spirit of Grace itfelf^ and bind 
up Liberty^ which is inseparable from it ? What, bur 
deftroy God's living Temples by Martyrdom, buik 
to ftand by Faith ; that is, by their own Faith, and 
not another's ? (for who can we admit to be infallible 
upor^ Earth, againft our own Faith and Conicience ?) 
Yet many will take upon them, and prefume to give 
Law to others Faith ; whence heavy Perfecutions (i) 
Ihall arife upon all, who perlcvere in the Worihip cf 
G o D in Spirit and in Truth : The reft, which -will be 
fer the greater Part, will think Religion fadsfied, in 
the Performance of outward Ceremonies and ipecious 
Forms : Truth fhall retire, ftruck with Reproach 'and 
many Slanders, and Works of Faith be very fcJdom 
found among Men. So fhall the World go on, 
groaning under its Burthen, and good Men fhall be 
opprefs'd and perfecuted, while bad Men flourifh ; 
*till the Day come, when juft Men fliall reft from 
their Labours and. Sufferings, and the Wicked fhall 
be awak'd to Vengeance ; at the Return of Him, 
who is to be the Seed of the Woman, fo latel7 P"^ 
mis'd to be given to thy Affiftance ; then foretold ob- 
Icurely, but now more fully known to be thy S a v i- 
ou n and thy Lord ; who at laft fhall come down 
from Heaven, in the Glory of the Father, to dif- 
folve the perverted World, • and totally to fubdue the 
Devil: Then, after the Conflagration, the whole 


fg) Perfecutions iue.jf Pur^ 
fidti AfflidioQ, an unjail and 
cruel Oppreilion of Men to 
I>eath. There have been ten 
Perfecutions for the Caufe of 
Chripanitj: Ner$ began the 
firfty A^ D. 67; Dgmitiau the 
iecond. A, Z>. 92 ; Trajan con- 
tin oed the third, A, D, 99 ; Ha^ 
driam continued the fourth, A D, 
124; Antonine began the iifch^ 
A,D. 178; S^aterui the fuih. 

A. D, 203 ; MajrimiMMt the (e- 
venth, A. D. 226 ; Decims die 
eighth, A. D. 249; Vaitrims the 
ninch, A. D, 297; and /)iVZr- 
^mn the tenth, A. D. 303. This 
held ten Years» and alter hit 
Death it was continued by his 
Sttcceflbr, 'till Comfiamtittt^ the 
fird CbriJHan Emperor, efta- 
bliihed i\kt Cbriftium Faith over 
the y^QT\d. 

Chap. II. l^ARADisE Losf.' 433 

Mafs being purg'd and refin'd, he (hall raife a new 
Heaven and a new Eardi, founded in Righteoufhefs^* 
Peace, and Love; which will bring forth Fruits of 
eternal Joy and Happincfs. 

Here Michael made a Paufe, and Adam ri» 
plied : Bleft Angel ! in what fhort Compafs haft thou 

fiven me a fatisfadory View of all Things, from the 
eginning of Time, 'till it Ihall finifli its Courfe ? 
Beyond which is the great Length of Eternity, whofc 
End no Eye can reach! I fliall leave Paradise, great- 
ly inftrufted, in great Quietnefs of Mind, and have 
as much Knowledge as my Nature is capable of re- 
ceiving ; beyond which I was fo foolifti as to afpire ! 
Henceforward, I learn, that it is beft to obey and 
love the only God, with Fear; to walk, as knowing 
I am always in his Prefence, always to obferve his 
Providence, and have my whole wDependance upon 
him ; who is merciful over all his Works, ftill over- 
coming Evil with Good, accomplilhing great Things 
by fmall, fubverting Things or a wordly Nature by 
Things deem'd weak, and wordly Wifdom by Sim- 
plicity and Mecknefs; that fufFering for Truth*s Sake 
is Fortitude, the highcft Viftory ; and to the Faith- 
ful, Death fo fuftcr*d is the Gate of Life: This I 
am taught by his Example, whom I now acknow^* 
ledge my ever bleft Redeemer ! 

To whom the Arch-angel, for the laft Time, madtf 
anfwer: Having leam'd thus much, thou haft attained 
the Sum of Wifdom; hope for nothing higher: 
Though thou kneweft all the Stars by their Names, 
and all the Powers of HeaVen ; all Secrets of the 
Deep; all the Works of Nature, or of God, in 
Earth, Water, Air, or Fife ; or though thou en joy- 
cdft all the Riches of this World, and rul'd over it as 
One Empire, only add Deeds anfwerable to tKy 
Knowledge; add Integrity, add Virtue, Patienc^, 

Ft TcB>pe. 

434 Paradise Lqst. Book Xlt 

Temperance, and Love, hereafter to be callM Cha- 
rity, which is the Soul of all the reft ; then thou wit 
not be loth to leave this Paradise, but (halt p>ofle& 
within thyfclf a Paradise far happier! There- 
fore now let us defcend from this Hill, from whence 
I have been fhewingthce and foretelling future Tilings ; 
for this is exaftly the Time that we muft depart from 
hence : And fee ! the Guards, which I have encamp*d 
upon yonder Hill, expect Orders for moving 5 before 
whom a flaming Sword waves fiercely round in Sig- 
nal, that it is Time for me to go. We may ftay no 
longer here j do diou go and wake Eve-, I have 
calm*d her Spirit with gentle Dreams, foreboding 
Good, and have composM all her Spirits to meek Sub- 
mifTion. At a fit Seafon, do thou inform her of what 
thou haft heard, chiefly what may concern her Faidi 
to know ; make her lenfible of the great Deliverance 
which is to come, by her Seed, on all Mankind i 
(for fo God pronounced it, the Seed of the Wo- 
man) that fo ye may live all your Days (which will 
be many) both unanimous in one Faith, though, with 
Reafon, forrowful for paft Evils j yet much more joy- 
fill in Meditation on the happy End. 

C B A P. m^ 

Michael leads Adam and Eve out of Paradilb $ tbe 
fiery Sword waving behind tbeniy, andtbeCberu^ 
bim taking their Station to guard the Place 

MICHAEL, after this,, fpoke no more to 
A D A M> but they both defcended the Hill 5 
Adam ran before the Angel to the Bower 
where they had left E v £ (leeping,. intending to wake 
her> as the Angiel had bid him^ out he found her at^ 


Chap« IIL Paradise Lost. 435 

ready rifen from Sleep, and with chcarful Words flic 
fhus received him : 

I KNOW whither thou went*ft with the Angela 
and from whence thou art retum'd ; for God is alio 
with us whilft wc flecp, and can communicate Know- 
ledge in Dreams, which he hath to me, propitioufly 
prefaging fbme great Good, fince I tell afleep, weanT- 
cd with Sorrow and Diflrefs of Heart ^ but now I am 
chear'd i lead oo ! I fliall not deflre to make any De- 
lay } to go with thee, makes it as happy as to ftay 
here ; to day here without thee, as unhappy as to go 
hence unwillingly: Thou an all Things under Heaven 
to me, and canft make all Places alike to me ; who 
art baniih'd hence^ on account of my wilful Tranl^ 
greffion. Yet this farther Confolation I carry with 
me, that though all is loft by me, fuch Favour is 
vouchfaf 'd me, unworthy as I am ! that by me the 
promis'd Seed &aU reftore all. 

So fpoke our firft Mother Eye, and Adam heard 
her, well pleas'd^ but made no Anfwer ; for now the 
Angel was come up to him, and ftood too near ; and 
from the other Hill the Cherubim all dcfcended in 
bright Array, to take their fixM Station, gliding as an 
Evening Mift does over marfliy Ground. Hiffh ad- 
vanced in the Front, blazM before them the naming 
Sword of G o r, as fierce as a Comet •, which with 
lultry Heat and Vapours began to parch that tempe- 
rate Climate: At whi^h the Angel, in either Hand, 
took our lingering Parents, and led them diredlly to 
the Eaftem Gate ; and then, as faft down the Cliff, to 
the Plain beneath ; after which he immediately dilap- 
pear'd from them. They, looking back, beheld ail 
the Eaftem Side of Paradise, which had Seen their 
happy Seat fo lately, and faw the flaming Sword wa« 
vlng over it-, the Gate croudcd with Angels dread- 

F f 2 fuUy 

436 Pahadise Lost. Book XII. 

fully arm*d with Fire, and forbidding Entrance. 
They ihed fome natural Tears, but foon wip'd them 
away: The whole World was before them, where ca 
chufe the Place of their Refidence, Provid ence 
was their Guide ; And they. Hand in Hand, with 
flow and wandering Steps, took their folitaiy Way 
(Iirough £d£n. 

The end. 



^-■P— *i*^"^**^F" 


AJRONmd Mo/es, their 
Miffion to Egyff 418 
Ahifiel (a Seraph) oppo- 
ses Satan promoting the An- 
fels Revolt, kc. 199 

Leply to his Anfwer 201 
Hii Fidelity, &c. celebrated 

Retreat from $atatt*s Party 

Soliloquy on view of him at 
their Head 207 

Speech to him thereon 208 
Reply to his Aofwer 209 

Encounters him in the Battle 


Vanqoilhes Ariel, j^ioc, and 

i^iNrrV/ (fallen Angels) 214 

^ii/ and Caia, their Scory lela- 

ted 391 

Jhaham*$ and the Patriarchs 

All Nations hit Sons by Faith 

Achir9n, a River of Hell 82 

Adam and Eve defcrib*d gene* 

rally 1 50 

DefcribM particularly 151 

Their State of Innocence 151, 

156, 164, i8o» 184, 270 

Vide Iwciuiin 

Night Oraifon 192 

Mornings Oraifon 178 

Preparations to entertain the 
Angel Raphael 1 84 

The Table and £nteruinmen( 
defcrib'd 187 

Their nuptial Bed \t% 

Nuptials celebrated 270 

Parting preceding the Temp* 
tatioQ 289 

Behaviour after their Fall 319 
Find themfelves naked j 1 r 
Make themfelves Coverings of 
Fig-leaves 3 1 j 

Recriminate on, and reproach 
each other 216 

Hide themfelves from God 
(the Son) - 322 

Appearance before him 32$ 
Repentance 360 

Expulfion from Paradife 435 
Vide Similes 
Adam, bis Difcourfe with Ev$ 
on the Prohibition of the Tree 
of Knowledge 15 J 

To her at Night 160 

Anfwer to her Queflion about 
the nightly Luminaries i6| 
Viewing her (leeping 174 
Anfwer to her relating her 
Dream (the Subjea of Sa^ 
taa*9 firft illufive Tempta- 
tion) 177 
To her weeping 1 yj 
Invites the Angel Raphael (O 
bis Bower, £c 18$ 
' Oifcourfc with hin| 1 89 

. Adaiaft 


^^ ^^^ P»ge 

mtguft Difisottrfe contnroed on 

Tarkms Subjedb 274 

YiA% Rafbaei. 
His Creadon ju)d Dominion, 
itt* over tbt Crefttnresy 

PMhibited the Tree of l^now- 
ledgt 265 

Account of himfelfv and the 
Ohjef^s about him> &c, on 
his Creation 263 

Cf his firft View of the Di- 
vine Prefeoce in Station in 
Paradife, Itc. 26c 

Speech^ to God thereon, and 
on his Solitude there 266 
Reply to God's Anfwer 266 
Sleep on the Formatioii of £«r 
defcrib^d 267 

f)is Mt View of her 269 
Paffionforher 271 

Valedidion to Rafbuil 274 
Diicourfe with Evi preceding 
the Temptation, on Satan*u 
Subtilty and the Meaas to 
itfift it, &c. 285, 288 
Care and Fears for her in her 
Abfeace ^05 

Meets her retnrning with the 
forbidden Fniit 30; 

8olilo<jav , lamenting her 
Tranigrei&on 306 

"^Refolvcs to die with her 307 
Speech to her thereon ^ 30/ 
Eats the forbidden Fruic 309 
Incites hec to carnal Fruition 
(thefirilEfeasof it) 310 
The Place, &c. defcribed 3 1 1 
Aiter-fpeech to her on their 
Fail and Nakednefs 3 1 2 
Another^ ehaxging her as the 
/^ggreilbr 31^ 

Reply to her Anfwer, recri- 
minates her affe^ed Self- 
fuficten^, ^c. 316 

Answer to Uod (the Son) cal- 
ling hjxA (Q Judgment 322 

Reply to hin, nccufes f <« 323 
The Sentence prononncd on 
him 329 

Soliloquy thereon 350 

eoatinaed ^53 

Wiihci for his Difiblatioo 

Kjflled^ionon the InunoruJuf 
of theSonl, &c. 351 

Repnlfory Speech to J?«# at* 
tempting to confolace him 


Relents towards her 359 

Reply to her, accufing haidf 

Anfwer, to her Repty adTing 
to die by their own HaiMis;^ 

Re(blv:es the contrary. Sub- 
mtffion to God's Will and 
Repentance 559 

Speech to Ev*^ on tlic EAn- 
cy of Prayer, &c. 367 

Hails her the Mother of Man* 
kind 368 

Speech to her on the Onens 
preceeding their £xpaifioa 
from Paradiie 369 

On the View of Micbaei ap- 
proaching 37t 

Behaviour on receiving the 
MeiZage 373 

Speech to Micbmgl thereon 


Refignation 376 

Difcoarfe to Mkhuil^ diico- 
vering to him in Vifioa 
what ihould happen in the 
World *till the Flood 

from 392 i9 406 
DifcQnife with him, relating 
what fiiould happen to the 
general Refurre&ion 

from 410 t9 429 

General Reply to him, Rcfo* 

Itttions 9f future Obedience, 

Depea* . 



DqpendaDce on God^s Pro- 

yidence. Sec, a%o 

Vide Ew, Vide MicUii, Vi- 

de Rafha^i, Vide Simila. 

jSdonitf or TtammMX, a fallen 

Angel 33 

jUramtiic and Afwuiial^ fallen 

Angeby wounded and put to 

Flight 214 

Air firft clouded on Adamh Fall 

Allufiona, Vide SMia. 
jtmmranth^ a Flower tranfplant- 
ed from Paradife to Heaven 

Ambition cenfared < 78 

A Caufe of Satmn'i Pall 141 
^«#r/i; cceleftialy obey God of 
Choice, not Neceffity 191 
ImbattelM againft SiUamwoA 
the fallen Angels 204 

Their Sigqal and March 206 
Signal toengagCp and Engage- 
ment 210 
Prevail 214 
Difpofition to r€-engage 2 19 
Retreat 121 
Rally again and renew the 
Fight 222 
Their Song on the Creation 

23^. 241, 251, 252 
On its Dittolntion and Reno- 
ration 344 
Guardians of Paradife, thetr 
Parade, Watches, &c. 
• 165, 168, 171, 1S3 
Re-afceot to Heaven on A^ 
dmm*t Fall 319 
Appointed to expel Admm^ &c, 
from Paradife 36^ 
March poficfling it, and expel* 
ling htm» &c. 43$ 
Vide God the F^ber and Sw^ 

Vide Simihs, 
Gntrdiaos of Mankind 281 
4ngib^ fallen^ their After-lbte 

6^ 21 

Nnmbera t\g igf 

Names tf 

Various Porfuits, &c. 79 

liOfs fnpply'd by Man*s Crea- 
tion 1 34 
ImbattelM againft the Angela 
oceheftsal tdd 
Engagement 2 to 
DeSsat 21; 
Difpofition to re-inpge 2 19 
Their Arulkry^ CaanoOy Stc» 

Prevail ibid« 

£ntire Defeatt and ExpoIfidH 
from Heaven 

/rpm 228 ip 230 

Transformed to Serpents 33ft 

Farther puniflied with an 111^ 

fioa of the forbiddA Fratt 

Both anniully cotitSnaed 341 
Vide^ir/iiif. WdcSimileu 
Apc/ilif, their MiiQon, Zcc^ 420 
Gift of the Holy Ghoft^ 431 
SucctlTors, Wolves, falfe Tea- 
chers, Sic. defcri^ 4)1 
Argument of the Poetn 1, 276 
JtrUi, Arioc, and Rantdit, hUtm 
Angels, vanqniihed 214 

Afk, iu Building by fhiA'^ 
fccibed 40a 

Vide Noah. 
Ark of tfat Coveoiiftt defaibed 

42a . 
4fiifUroth and BduJim, fatlen 
Angels 31 

Afiwitb Y>r J^arie^ a f illen An- 
gel 3a 
Att'chor^s Hjrmn on coi^ngal 
Love 164 
To Light to6 
Jnvociirions 2, lot, f}4, 362 
Refleasun, in Profpeft of ^ 
dam^^^ &c. Fall 7j 
On ^atan^i preiiiediiated 
Attempt 139 




Atidior*! RcflcAioA on Ew's 

pardng with jUam preceding 

it 2QO 

On tkeir Nakcdnefs after the 

Fall 3 1 3 

On hit own Blindnefs, Sec. 107 

Anaitii, a fallen Angel, Satam^s 

Siandard-bearer. 44- 


Ty Aatlm and AJhtaroth^ fallen 
1j Angels 31 

Mabdt the Ci^ and Tower built 

by NimroJ, &C. 411 

The Confuiion of Languages 

there dercrib*d 4 1 1 

Baptifm, what the Sign of 429 
Bapciz'd, the Holv Ghoft gtven 

primitively to all fach 43 1 
Battle, &c. between the coeleftial 
' and fallen Angels, God the 

Son concluding it, dcfcribed 

Vide Angel cahfiUl and/i///». 
Beafts, Part of the fixth Day's 

Creation, defcribed 247 

SeiiuMf a fallen Angel, 7 

Defcribed 72 

His Anfwer to Satan^i firft 
Speech after their Fall 9 

Tohbfecond 16 

Speech in Council, called by 
Satan thereon 72 

Promotes an Attempt on the 

World 74 

ielial, a fallen Angel, 39 

Dcfcrib'd 66 

His Speech in Council ibid. 

To Satan, on their Advan- 
tage gainM in the Re-en- 
gagement with the coeleftial 
Angels 222 

Birds, Part of the fifth Day's 

Creaiion, defcribed 24A 

Bafts, an Effcd of Adam'9 Fall 

Bridge from Hell-gates to cne 
World over G&o^/, the Work. 
&c. defcribed 328 

CAINtLd Ahel, their Stor^ 
related 391 

Champa Story 149 

Chance^ the commoii Nation of 
It exploded 97 

Cfra^j defcribed 96, 240 

Its Court 99 

Anfwer to Satam^s Speech 
there 100 

Bounds fince the Angels Fall, 
the Creation, &c, ibid. 

State before it 193 

A Bridge made over it Iroiili 
Hell.gates to the World at 
Adam's Pall 328 

Vide Simi/gj. 
Cfjantj, itsPraifes, &c. 434 
Chemos, or P/#r, a fallen Angel 


Cberuhim Vide Angilt cceUJtiml^ 

&c. Vide Similit 
Church, Hirelings in it, conpa* 
red to the Devil in Paradile 

Cocytus, a River of Hell ga 
Companfons Vide Simla 
Conju^ Love, the Praifes, &c. 
o* It 164 

DiftinguifliM from an Amonr 

Confifts in Reafon, not P^oi^ 

Defined ibid. 

Ezpreft, on the Woman's Fart, 
• in Pradice * 273 

In Words 43| 

A reciprocal Duty of it 280 

Conjugal Obedience, Woman's 
Happinefs, &c. 160 

Conjugal Union, the Reafoni 
and Obligations of it 270, 368 


1 N D E )C. 


ONifcience, God^s Umpire in 
Man 113 

Tfce l>Rton of it 139,353 
Laws to force It cenfured 432 
No Infollibllitj againft it ibid. 

CoAftellationSy tbeir Appearan- 
c^y Motion, &c. 1 30 

Creation, the niiivtrfal, defcri^ 
bed 135, 240 

Creatares animal in Paraaifc de- 
fcribed 15a 

Haye Degites of Knowledge 
and Reafbn a66 

Tbeir Difcord, an EfFed of 
Mam's Fall 349 

Btttrj (xf lhah!*i Ark 401 

DAGOlf, a fktleh Angbl, 3; 
DkmnM, thcVidfficudcof 
their Torments defcrib*d 84 
Dawd, his Throne why eternal 

Da^ and Night in Heaven, de*- 

icribed 204 

Diaib and Sift, their Statioh at 

HelL-gatcs before Mam's Fall 


Their Union 327 

Maice a Bridge fVont thence o* 
ver Chaos to the M^orld af- 
ter it 328 

Meet Satan in his Return to 
Hell from thence 331 

Their Journey thither, and 
Influences defcribed 334 

Arrival at Paradife 342 

Afcer-condn6t in the World 

Vide Similes. 

Death defcribed 89 

Anfwer to Satan at Hell gates 


The Son of Satan and Sin 

Its Birth 93 

Abfwei' to Sin on Adam's Fall 

To Sin*s Speech in Paradife 

Vide Stmila, 
Diatb^ natural, the Caufes and 
Variety of it defcribed 

from 393 to 394 

More terrible in .View than 

Reality 393 

Of the Faithful, a Sleep to 

Immortality 428 

• The Gate of Life 433 

Death, eternal, confidered 3^1 

Deluge univerfal ' Vide Noah. 

Defpair, the Degrees and Co* 

lours of it 141 

Devils, why eternally excluded 

from Grace 1 1 1 

Difcdrd cenfured 78 

Dominion, abfolute in Man, o« 

ver Men, an Ufurpation 4 1 2 

Dreams iilufive, &c. their Source 

Natural 177 

Divine 43; 

EAGLE, a Bird of Prey, 
an Eifed of Jdam'i Fall 

Earth and Heaven 

Vide Hea<ven and Earth, 
Earth, its general Creation de* 
fcribed 13^, 240 

The Shadow of Heaven 1 92 
Separated from the Waters, 
Part of the third Day*a 
Creation, defcribed 242 
The Fruits of it, &c. 243 
Its Motion, or of the Heav- 
ens, Speculations thereon 
cenfured 259 

Its Praifes 280 

The Centre of the Creation 

G 2 Earth 


Eai'th DeftraCtioB of, by K§ab't 
Flood, defcribed 401 

ReftitudoD after it 406 

Ao univerfal Paradxfe, at the 
M$ffiab^$ coming to Jodg- 
ment 429 

Vide World. 
Edin^ the Country boanded 146 
Edin^ the Garden of it 

Vide ParoMfi. 
Bzyt^t the Plagues of it defcrib- 
ed 419 
£le6lion aflerted 1 1 3 
Enochs his Stofy and Tranflttion 

399. 400 
£v# and Adam Vide Adam and 
Emi^ Vide Inmoitnct^ Vide 
E*vt particularly defcrib'd, cha- 
ra6teriz*d, &c. 162, 186, 269, 
270, 271, 273» ^89, 290, 
^92, 295 f 2989 306 
Anfwcr to AdanCfk Difcoarfe 
on the Prohibition of the 
Tree of Knowledge i C4 
Recounts her firft View of the 
Creation, Admm^ &c. 155 
Anfwer to him at Night 1 60 
To him waking her, relates 
her Dream, the Subjea of 
tatan^ firft illufive Temp- 
tation 175 
Weeping defcrib'd 177 
Attending the Entertainment 
of Raphael 1 87 
Her Formation from Adam 

fieha^ioor on View of him, 
&c. 270 

Difconrfe with him preceding 
the Temptation, (he pre- 
vailing, on her own Suffici- 
ency, and his Fondnefs 

from 283 to 288 
Anfwer to &atan^ in the Ser- 
pent 296 
The Difooorfe, iatan tempt- 


ing her to eftC the ibrfaidaap 
Fruit, continued 302 

Soliloquy befiuc her eating it 

Plucks and eats 303 

Soliloquy after it iSaL 

Refolution to temptjfi^Sm 304 
Speech to him thereon 50$ 
Reply to his Anfwer, reiolviBg 
to die with her 308 

Behaviour thereon 309 

Gives him the Fruit imL 

Repeats the Tranfgrcffion widi 
him 3te 

Is incited by him to carnal 
Fruition, the firft Etfed of 
it 310. 31 1 

The Place, &c. defcribed 311 
Anfwer to him, accofing her 
as the Aggreflbr, impoces 
It to his I^ilgence 3 1 c 
Anfwer to God, the Sob, cad- 
line her to Judgment, nc* 
' cules the Serpent 324 

The Sentence pronounced 09 
her 32? 

Behaviour and Speech to A- 
dam I Repnlfe of her, wdA, 
her Offers of Coniblation, 
accufes herfelf 35^ 

After-behaviour thereon ibid* 
Reply to his Anfwer, advilce 
, to die by their own Handa 

To him hailing her the Mo- 
ther of Mankind 26S 

Soliloquy, lamenting the 
threatned Expulfion fipom 
Paradife 273 

Speech to him on quitting it, 
Afieftion, conjugal Reioltt* 
tions, and Confolation an 
the Promife of the MtJ/iah 

Vide^/M. VidefiW/^.^ 

Evening dcichbed 



Evil — b Thoaght unapproved 

— blamelefs 177 

BxperiencCf a Guide to Wifdom 


FAITH, onneceffaiy Siidea- 
vonrs to approve it lurpici- 
ous 315 

Faith in CbHJI, with Works, 
eternal Life 419 

Laws to force it cenfurM 43 1 
No Infallibity agaioft it 432 

Fancy^ a Faculty of the Soul, 
its Office 177 

The Eye of the Soul 269 

Fame, or Glory» the common 
Nodon of it cenfur'd 400 

Fate, the Will of God 239 

Fig-tree, of which Adam^ E've, 
&c. made Aprons, defaibed 


Firmament, the fecond Day'*s 
Creation, defaibed 241 

Fiih, hirt of the fifth Day*s Cre- 
adon, defcribed 24; 

Flaming-Sword in Paradife on 
Adam\ &c. Expulfion thence 
defcribol 435 

Vide Similes. 

Flooduniverla], Vide Neah. 

Freedom widi the Lofs of it. 
Virtue, tec. degenerates 404 

Free-grace aiTerted 1 1 2 

Denned 1 14 

Free-will aiTerted no, 181, 

191, 274, 287, 319 

Reafon the fame no, 287 

The Image of God 268 

Fruition, carnal, the Paffion of 
it cenfured 272 


Ahriilt the Arch'Angel, 
chief of the guardian An- 


geU of Paradife, his Station, 

&c. defcribed 158 

Informed by Uriel of Satan'B 

Defoent there ibid. 

Underukes to deted him 159 

His Charge to Uzxie/^ Jtburi' 

//, and ZfA^M, three other 

of the Guardian Angels 

thereon i6e 

Speech to them, &c. on theur 

taking, and return with him 

To Saiatt thereon ibid. 

Reply to his Anfwer 169 
To another 170 

To another 172 

Appointed one of the Chiefs 
of the c^leftialArmy ag^nft 
the revolted Angels 20; 
His Proweft, &c. in the Batde 

Glory, or Fame, the common 
Notion of it cenfured 400 
GOD the Father contempla- 
ting his Works, &c. 109 
Speech to God the Son, on 
Satan** Deiign on the Cre- 
atbn, Man, Uc no 

Reply to his Anfwer 1 12 
Propofas the Manner, &c. of 
fallen Man*s Redempdon 


Anfwer to the Son undertaking 

it 115 

Decrees his bodily Refurrec- 

tion, as God and Man 1 16 
Hi9, the Father *s Attributes, 

&c. nS 

Vifibly feen in the Son 

n8, 224 
Charge to Raphael to warn 

jf&m againft his Fall 1 80 
Speech to the whole cceleftial 

Hierarchy, convened at the 

Inauguration of God the 

Son 193 



I N I> E X, 

God tbe FMhe/6 Spfiecb to t^e 
Son, on Satan\ kc. Revolt 
tb^ceoii 196 

Army agaioft ^e Revplters 
(j^foribcd 204 

Sfe^cb to ^bdiel on hl^ quit- 
ting thjeir ^s^ty 26$ 
Apppint^ Michael 4^4 Gtf- 
^r/WXhiefs of t^ ccd^ftial 

Aripy. iWd- 

Rattle, ^c. l^ptween them and 

the Revoltcrs delcribed 

frAm no to 2%i 
i^point^ Giod the Spn to end 

it 224 

Chariot, theFatb<;c\ defcri« 

b^. 226 

Sp^ec^ tQ ^P SoDt rerolyin 

the Creation of the Worl 

Commits the Work to him 


IIis» tbe Father's^ Omnipre* 

fence 238, 251 

Qoodnefs,, free 239 

^ViU, Paw ibid. 

Ififticationof theSabbathy by 

God the Father and Son^ 

the fe.venth after the iix 

Day s.qf the Creation 251 

l]he Spiemnity of it defcribeU 


Speech, the Father's, on the 
Guardian Angels Re.turn 
from Paradif^ ^fQuMam^t 
&c. Fall 320 

Appoints the Son Judge of it 


Spbech to the Coelt^ftials on 
Sin and Death^s Entrance 
into the World, thg'cby 34a 

l^romiie of their Difiblution, 

, and Renovation of Heaven 
and Earth 344 

Charge to the Angels touch- 
ing the Changes in the Cre- 
ation on the fall ibid. 

Anfvc^ t9 the SoB'a 

fion on Jdatfi's Repouanoe 


Speech to the Cceleftials, con* 
vened at his decreeinflr liis 
Expuliion fipm Paxadile 

G.ODff the Son at the Rigto 

' Hand of the Father 109 

His».th^ Fathec's fifeqiie, Sfc 


His.Word« {ic. iiz, 238 

Anf^yer tp htm. o& S^imm^s 

Defign on the Creatkm. 

Man, &c^ 112 

On his propofing^the Manaor^ 

Sec. of Man's Jlredeo^ptiaa 

Undertakes it IbuL 

Lqve to MaA« aisd filial Gise- 

dience 1 1 c 

The fecond Adam ihiai 

His Nkric^ algnc iiiipafisiti«» 

to Man 116* 4:19 

His ReforreQipn. 4^ God aBd^ 

Man decreed 1 1 6 

Equal to the Father ibid« 
His, theSon*5« Attrjbotcs 118 
Anfwer to the Father on ^4- 

tan\ Sip. R^oit 22; 

The Image of the Fi^ther 

i.i9i 2^4, 226a 
TheMei&ah» 226, 230 

Anfwer to the Father, appoint* 

jng him to end the Battle 

between the coeleftial and 

revolted Angels 225 

Undertakes it 22^ 

His Armour, EqaipagjQ,. &a 

described 227 

Speech to the cceleljUa} Army 

Solely attacks thf Revolten 


Inuiely defeats them 


1^ N D E X, 

Th^ Afiiom a«d DeCcat de« 
fcribed /tmi 222 #9 230 
Returos io Triaoil^h 2301 

His P^rfooy Eqaipsqge, &c/ 
in, the Work of the Crea- 
tion defcribcd Z39f 
Re-afcent to Heaven after it 


InfiituQon of the Sabbath (by 
Ood the Fathe^ and Soi^" 
th« fctventh after the fw 
Days Creadon ibid. 

The Solemnity of it deCcdU'd 


Anfwer (the Son's) to Aiam^ 
on his Solitude in Paradiie 

To his Reply 267 

To another, pronuies; Urn a 

Con(brl 7^% 

Appointed bythe Father Judge 

of AimmH Tranlgreflion » 

FalJ, ' 3ao 

All Judgineit committed to 

him ibid. 

The Mercy pf it ibidi 

Anfwen to the Fadiec thereon 

DefQent to-Editt ^zz 

Call to AiUm there ibid. 
Reply to his Anfwer, accnfing 
E*vt 323 

To his Reply ibid. 

To Evi (aocufing the-Scrpemh 

Sentence pronounced by him 

on the Serpent 5 24 

Explained 325 

On £v# ibid. 

On Adam ibid. 

Clothts them with Skins, Sec 

Re-afcent to the Father, and 

InterceflSon for them ibi^. 
The Jttfiice of iiis Sentesce 

His laterceflioa on their Re- 

pentuice 3pt 

Vide Mejfuib. 
GOD, Purity of Adaption 
more acceptable to him tiaft 
ritual i6x 

AE Good piocoeda bom ana 

rcittcnatohim 1S9 

To <be coAtemplatel in the 

Works of the CrtatioA 19a 
A6» immediate 239 

The Centre of Heaven: ato 
His abfolucie Decrees 374 
Omnif lefence , Gqodaefc , 

&c. 376 

The Fear af him, &c. with 

JU>£i of Fteedoniy. dcgiBttew 

rates ^^, 

Particular Prefeace 41 1 

To obej, lovo, dcpoad on hi*r 

Providence, &c the Sum o£ 

EAOwlfidg|» 43J. 

And Wiidom 434 

Gofjjel how to be underfiood 

Grace of God, Man it»Objed» 
and. Devils- eternally a«liided . 
from it, why 11 1 

Man's long Refiflnnce of it»- 
loneexdufiy* 113 

Repentance a Fruit of it 363 
The Spirits, of ir, and: Liberty, 
conlorts 434 

Gratitude exerted, a Difcharge 
of its Debt 140 

Gunpowder, Guns, &c. the o- 
riginal Inwentiov aicdbod to 
the Devil 21S 

JOifcharge dcfcribed ^2t 


TTE'AVEK aid Earth;, 

JT J. their fihal R'anoratton byr 

'«« 407* 48B 

After-happinefs therein 429 

Heaven^ the joySrOf it|, Ac. de* 

icribcd 117 



Hetyeii^ its Gate 127, 181 
Pafiage from thence co the 
World 128 

Vifible, the Study of it how 
neceflkcy 258 

Speculations of its Motions, 
or the£arth*s,cenrur*d ibid. 
How iltuatedy refpe6ting the 
World, and Hell 331 

Hen defcribed 6, 14, 83, 85 
, Its Gates 88 

Firft opened by Sin 9^ 

• How ntoatedyrefpefting Hea- 
ven and the World 33 1 
Vide Similes 
Hierarchies of Heaven before 
the Revolt of the fallen An- 
gels defcribed 193 
Biftfrwm^ the Valley of, whence 
called 7iB;^i^/and Gehenna 27 
Holy Ghoft, its Defcent, &c. on 
the Apoftles, and on all bap- 
tized 431 
Promifed and given alike to 
all Believers ibid. 
Ho^ttafity, an Incitation to it 

Hynrn to Light ro6 

To God the Father and Son 

On conjugal Love 164 

On the Creation 239, 24 1» 

Hypocrify vifible 

251, 252 
to God all 


H^rpocritesy 5)a/tf9thefirft 142 

Pretenders to fupernatural Pu- 

iity« te. 164 

IDolatry, the original Rife of 
of it afl}gn*d 24 

Of the poftrdiluvian World 

Jcaloufy > the Lover*s Hdl 1 89 

Immortality of the Soul dif* 

cnfs'd 391 

Innocence, the State of it de- 

faibed 151, 156, 164, i9o, 

184, 189, 257, 270 

Intelleaual Beings, a Faculty of 

them 67 

Invocations^ the Author's 2, 

109, 234 
Jo^e^ a fiillen Angel 41 

J/raelites^ the Scory of their 
BondauK , and Deliveranoe 
from Sgypt related 418 

Of the Settlement of their d* 
vil and facred Oeconomj in 
the Wildemefs 422 

Eftablifhment in Canaum ibid. 
Reafon, Ufe, &c. of their ri- 
tual Laws 424 
Government by Judges and 
Kinp 425 
Captivity in BafyUm 426 
Return from thence, after Dif- 
fentions, &c. to the Birth 
of the Meffiab^ &c. 426 
IJis^ a fallen Angel 38 
Itburiel, a Guudian Angel of 
Paradife 165 
Dece^ Satan's firft Attempt 
on £w there 106 


KNowledge of Good and E- 
vil, the Tree of it, how 
fituated 147, 298 

Defcribed 297 

Forbidden to Mam 290, 265 
Satan's Encomium of it 300 
Eve^s 303, 306 

Knowled^, or Opinion, the Re- 
falt of Reafon and Fancy 177 
Without Reftraint, Folly 237, 

261, 43J 

Of Things neceffary, Wif. 

dom 261 



Knowledge •f future Events, 
eke Draie of it reprehended 

Its Som, the Love, Fear, &c. 
of God 4^3 

In aninal Cretturei iffcrted 


LETHE, u River of Hell 
defcribed 83 

Miikfii the Gaard of it 84 
2>vfW<6«* defcribed 12 

Liberty, with the Lofs of it» 
Virtne, &C. degenerates 404 
Mam'^ Fall the fird Okuk of 

it 4«$ 

Liberty, the fame with Reafon 

Life, the Tree of it defcribed 

Where fittiated 278 

Life, long by Tempetinoe 39; 
The great Rule of it refped- 
ingitfelf ibid. 

Light, Hymn to it 106 

The firft Day's Creation, de- 
fcribed 241 
Lightning, bow produced 359 
LimiQ, or Fool's Paradife, where 


Lion a Bead of Prey, an McGt 

of Jdam^t Fall 369 

Love, coDjogal, its Praife 1^4 

JDihingni(h*d from that of an 

Amour ibid. 

Love confiAs in Reafon, not Paf- 

fion 272 

Defined ibid. 

In Spirits corleflial, the £x- 

prcffion of it, what and how 


Smiles, the Food of Love 284 

Founded in Reafon, one End 

of human Life ibid. 

Lmtifir, Saimit why fo called 3 34 

Vide Saiaa. 
Luft carnal, the firft Efied Of 
^i(/4m\ &ci Fall 310 

The Solace of it 311 

MAMMON, a fallen An- 
gel $1 
His Speech in the Council caU 
kd by Stuan after their 
Fall 70 
Man fallen the Objed of Grace, 
why 1 1 1 
His long Refiftance of it alono 
exdufive 113 
Redemption propofed by God 
the Father ibid^ 
Undertaken by God the Son 

The Son^s Merits alone impn- 

utive to him, towards it» 

how 116 

Man created to repair the Lofs 

of the fallen Angels 134, 281 

His Creation (Part of the fixth 
Day^) defcribed 2co 

Dominion over the reft ibid. 

Love to Woman, how confi- 
Ikent with his Saperiorit^ 


The whole Oeation in little 


Angels his Guardians 28 1 

His Superiority over the Wo- 
man given him by God 

Purfuing his Appetites, disn« 
gores not God's Image^ 
but his own 39A 

Conformity to the divine Will, 
the true End of his Crea- 
tion ^ 397 

Abfolnte Dominion over lAn 
firechren, Men, an Ufurpa* 
tioa 44 2 


Given him by Gocl oidy over 
tlicCmtures 412 

llitdici ooDjagM* the modem 
cenfored 257 

RefpeAing die Woman parti- 
cularly 354 
Uedi^a^ the Goard of Lithe 84 
Merqr, God's firft and laft Attri- 
bate ft I 
Utijpah promifed 324 
The Promiie explained 

3*4» 4.27 
[11 Birth, &e. and Kingdom 

deferibed 426 

VHiy called the Seed of the 

Woaaan 427 

Life and Paifion 42S 

Rcfarredioa and Mifion of 

the Apoftlei 429 

Afeeniioni &c. tbid. 

Coming to Judgment, &c. 

Mklmiif the Afch-Angel, ap- 
pointed one of the Chiefs of 
the ceeleftial Army againft the 
reTOlted AngeU 20^ 

Hit Proweis, &c. in the Battle 

Speech to SaiMn encountering 
him ibid. 

The Combtt deferibed 2 1 2 
Wounds 5«/4i« 213 

The Revoltert defeated, en- 
camps on the Field of fiat- 
tie 216 
Preparet to expet JtUtm^ &c 
mm Puadife 366 
' Hit Appearance, &c. there de* 
ichbed 371 
Speech 10 AJam thereon %7^ 
Reply to £<£w, lamenting the 
chreatned Expulfion 374 
To Adam on the fiune Subjeft 

Difcovers to him, in vifion, 

what (hoold htppen to the 

w Time of the Flood 

Jrem 391 /t 406 

The Slory of Ct Ar tmd 

Death with its CaMfes and 
riety 395 

The State of the snd-tUlaiiaB 
Worlds ittconuwMa 396 

The State of it, civil or in 
Propriety 39S 

The Story of Ennch 399 

Of Am^ 401 

The Flood 402 

God*t Coyenant to d^^ 
the World aontore hj Wa- 
fer 407 

Difcovers to him» t^threif, 
what ihottld happen from 
the Flood to thegeaetil Re- 
furredion firim 410 #» 43} 

The Patriarchal Goverftmenc 


Nsmred^sTyTBnny 411 

The Botkihig and Confbfion 
tlBahel 412 

The Story of Cbmm 413 

Of Mrabtm VoA the Fatri^ 
archs 414 

Of the Ifrtulitis Bondage in 
Egypt f and Delirerance 
thence 419 

Of the Settlement of their 
civil and (acred Oeconomy 
in the Wildemeft, and E- 
ftabliflunent in Oataan 423 

Of their various ritaal Laws, 
their Reafon, Uie, &c. 423 

Of their Government by Jud- 
ges and Kings 425 

Of their Captivi^ in Smfy/§m 


Of their Return from thence. 
after Difientiont, the Birch 
and Kingdom ef the Mt/i 
Jiab frem 426 1$ 427 

Of his Life, Paffion, Refiir- 
redion, Miflion of the A- 
pofUes, &c. 

/r§m 427 19 429 



Of the Mii&oii of the HoTy 
Ghoft, Gift of Tooguet, 
and Miracles, Sec. 

/TMi 430/^431 

Of the Apoftlei Succeflbn* 

(falfe Teachers, &c.) their 

Ambition, lanovations, &c. 

the Eflfe& of them, and 

the Miffiat't coining to 

Judgment /rtm 431 t§ 432 

fHis Anfiver to Jdam^s Refo- 

JatioD of future Obedience, 

&c. commends , advifes 

him, and warns him to qoit 

Paradife 433 

Leads him and £v# out 43e 

Vide Simtii. 

Mind, the Force of it 15 

Difcourfe, its Food 284 

M$Ucb^ a ftilen An 


His Speech in the Conndl 
led by S^am after their 
Fall .' 6; 

Defies G^Ariil in the Battk 
between the ooeleftial and 
revolted Aiigrb - •14 

Is wonnded by him and fliee 

Moon, fnppofed inhabited by 

tradlated Saints and middte 

SpiriU I2t 

Itt Office 1 


The Spou in it. Vapours not 
yet coniblidated with its 
Bodj 188 

Part of the fourth Day*t Cre« 
ation 244 

Receives its Light from the 
Sun ilrid. 

Motion, Afpefis ibid. 

Moon and Stan, their Courfes, 

Influences, &c. 161 

Moon and Planets, their noxious 

Motion, A(peds» &c. an 

Efiea of wf^M*s Fall 346 

Morning in Heaven dcfcrib*dzo4 


Morning, natural, defertbed 

.* . . . '74. 367* 368 
M$/$s and ifofM, their Miffioo* 
taEppi 418 

Uuldbtr^ a fiiUen Angel 56 


I^TIGHT in Heaven de- 
X^ fcribed 104 

Night and Jhy in Heaven de* 
icribed 204 

Night, natural, defertbed 

i6o, 165, 175, 278 

At MmH Fan 355 

lUmfi, the firft Monarch, his 

Tyranny defcribed, and cen- 

fured 411 

Nifr$c, a fallen Angd aiy 

His Aahnrt»Ssia9 in Coon* 

ca, after their Defeat bjr 

the cosldlial Amb ibid. 

JVSmA, his RepveheaioQ of tho 

anti-diluran Woiid 401, 404 

Building the Ark, te. . ^oi 

Entering it, with his Famfly. 

the Creatures, Jbe. ibid. 

The Flood dricribed 401, 402 

Its Abatement, the Ark*s left- 

ing, &c. jo{ 

His Defeent fiom it, the Ap* 

peanmce of the Itainbow, 

te* 407 

Noondefcribed . 184 

OBedience, conjugal, W«» 
man's Happinefs, &c. 160 
Of Will, notNeceffty, only 
acceptable to God 191 
Old Age defcribed 39^ 

Omens of Jdam"$ ExpuUionfiom 
Paradiie ^L 

Opinion, or Knowledge 

Vide KnowMge or Ofini^n. 
Orbs cotlcftial and terreariti, 
H h Noci* 




Notions about their Motions, 
Appearance , Sec. doabtful , 
and not neceilary to the Im- 
provement of Happinefs, &c. 
from 258 i9 261 
*Orus, a fallen Angel 58 

Ofiris, another ibid. . 

PAniamontum^ the Coart of 
Hell, defcribed 53 

Vide Similes. 
Faradife, or the Garden of E- 
dtn^ defcribed 145, 146, 

183, 250, 264, 290 
The Eaftcrn Gate of it i ;8 
Gaardcd by Gabriel ibid. 
The Bower of Adam and Ente 
there 162 

The Parade, Watches, &c. of 
the Guardian Angels in Pa- 
radife 165, 168, 171 

The Hill there, from whence 
Michael difcovers to Adam^ 
in Viiion, what Ihould hap- 
pen to the Time of the 
Flood 377 

Adam and E'oe*% Expulfion 
from Paradife defcribed 435 
The flaming Sword, &c. guar- 
ding the £aA Gate of \i 

The Seat of it deftroyM by 
Noab'i Flood 405 

Vide Similes. 
Pafiions inordinate, an BJScSt of 
Jtdam\?d\\ 315 

Patriarchal Government, from 
the Flood to Nimrod*z Ty- 
ranny 410 

Patriarchs, Ahraham*s^ Set. their 
Story related 4 1 4 

Peace, the Corruptions of it c- 
V qual to the Waftes of War 403 
Peor, or Cbemot, a fallen Angel 


PerTecution in Marten fpiruoaJ, 

the Rife of h/rosm 43 1 /#'4J2 
Its Efieas 432 

Phlegetgn, a River of HcH 85 
Plagues of £^r defcribed 418 
Planets and Moon, their noxSoos 
Motion, Afpeds, &c. an £f- 
fed of Adam's Fall 346 

Plea{txre fenfaal, cenliired 319 
Poles, North and Sooth, perpe- 
tual Day ander both, bot lor 
Adam's FiLil 345, J46 

Prayer, the Efficacy of its Spi- 
rit 362-, 367 
Unavailable againft God's ab- 
folute Decrees 374 
Prtdeltination defined i ro 
Priefts occafion the firft Difleno- 
on in the Je^Mt/b Chorcb and 
State 426 
Profofopetia^ on E<oe^9 eating the 
forbniden Fruit 303 
On Adam*% 309 

RAINBOW, itsfirilAp. 
pearance after Nmh't 
b lood 407 

Sign of God^s Covenant a> 
dellroy the World no more 
by Water ibid, 

Ramiel, Ariel^ and Ari^cb^ fal- 
len Angels, vanquiihed 214 
Raphael^ the Angel, his De^ 
icent to Paradife, to warn A- 
dam againil his Fall 1 8 1 

His Perfon defcribed 1 83 
Anfwer to Adam's Invitation 
to his Bower, and Enter- 
tainment there 186, 188 
Salutation of Eve 187 

Difcourfe with Adam on vars 
ous Subje61s/r«mi 89 1$ 274 
On the PerfeAion, Varierf, 
and gradual Oeconomy of 
the Creation 189, 100 



On Obedience, at a Duty of 
Choice, iiotNeceffity 191 

On the Revolt and Defeat of 
the fallen Angels 

from 193 /9 230 

Thence warns him againft ^«- 
/««*s Temptations 230 

Vanqniihes Afmodiut ^ and 
pats him to Flight 237 

On the Creation, &e. 

from 237 /• 253 

On the Motion, Appearances, 
and Influences of the coele- 
Uial and terreftrial Bodict 
from 256 to 261 

Reply to AdawC\ Account of 
himfelf on his Creation, &c. 


Reply to his Queilion concern- 
ing Love, and the Expref- 
fion of it in Spirits ccole- 
fUal 273 

Advice to Aiam at parting, 
and Re-afcent to Heaven 

Vide Similts, 
Reafon and Free-wUl, the (ame 

140, 287 

The chief Faculty of the 

Soul 177 

The Being of the Soul, dif- 

curfive oT Men, intuitive 

of Angels 190 

In animal Creatures a66 

The Law of Nature 299 

Correlative with Liberty 413 

with Virtue ibid. 

Redemption of Man propofcd 

by God the Father 1 1 3 

Undertaken by God the Son 

Repentance, the Grace of God 


Sincere Endeavours towards 

it, accejptable 113 

An A^ of it 359 

Its Efficacy 363 

Reprobation, the Statft of it 11 3' 
Reptiles, Part of the fixth Day*s 
Creation* defcnbed 248 
Revolt and Defeat of the fallen 
Angels from 193 to 230 

Ri'mmoft, a fallen Angel 36 

SABBATH, its Inflitution, 
the feventh after the fix 
Days Creation 253 

7'he Solemnity of it defcribed 

Solvation, not only to the Sons 
of Jbrabam'i Loins, but his 
Faith 429 

Satan, the Prince of the fallen 
Angels, his Fall from Hea- 
ven 7 
Why fo called 7, 19^ 
Speech to Btliuhuh , after 
their Fall ' 7 
Reply to Belfcitub'$ Anfwer 

Afcent from Hell 1 1 

His Stature, Looks, Sec. de- 
fcribed II, 171, 196 
Speech to Belzebuh theceon 1 ^ 
His Shield defcribed 1 6 
His Spear 1 7 
Speech to the other fallen 
Angels 1 9 
His Standard defcribed 44 
Speech to the fallen Angels re- 
imbatterd 49 
Calls a Council 57 
Speech to them in Council 63 
Undertakes an Attempt on the 
World 77 
The Refult of it 78 
Afcent to the Gates of Hell 

Speech to Death there 90 
The Father of Sin and Diatb 

Anfwer to Sin\ Speech 92 
H h 2 Satan^ 


8siM, hit Aiifwcr to SiVi Re- 

^y 9+ 

Flight mto Chmtt 97 

Aniral at the Court of ChiM 

Speech there ibi<L 

Brought Sim end Diotb firft in- 
to the World loi 

Afcent to Light, &c. 103 

Alights on t£ Convex of ths 
Worid*soatermoft Orb tto 

View of the World, from thd 
firft Step to Heaven*s Gate 


Defcent to it defcribed 1 50 

Stops at the Sun 13 1 

Diicovers Uriel, the Angel of 
it, there 133 

Transforms himfelf to a Che- 
rub ibid. 

Speech to Urigt 1 34 

Deceives him ibid. 

Is direded bv him to the 
World 13c 

And Paradife 136 

Alights on Mount KiphMtn 


Soliloquy, contemplating the 
Son 139 

The firft Hypocrite 14a 

Arrives at Paradife ibid. 

iSits on the Tree of Life 1 4$ 

Soliloquy on View of JUUtm 
and £«v in Paradife 152 

Defcends from the Tree of 
Life, and aflames frveral 
animal Shapes 153 

Liftens to MmtCt Difeonrre 
with Zvi^ on God's Prohi- 
bition of the Treeof Enow- 
ledge ibid. 

Soliloquy on die Snljea of it 


Relblvei Aencato iMpi than 
to Diftibcdienct 157 

Firft AtteuM in ibe affoaed 
Shape or a Toad, on Evg 

afleep b66 

Anfwcr to bhari$l auad .2^ 
fhen , reprehending bina 
thereon T67 

Reply to their Anfwcr ibid. 
Antwer to Gakriel 1 68 

Reply to his Anfwer 1 70 

To another 171 

Thelnangoratipoor God due 
Son, the Occafioa of hia 
Revolt 19^ 

Speech to the nextinbordiiiaie 
Angel of his Party chereoa 

The Seat of his Hierarchy ke- 

fore the Fall, ddcrtbed 197 
Speech to the Angela of & 

Hierarchy thereon 19! 

Reply to MUtti Aniwar, ob 

his Speech to the Hieiarchs 

of his Parnr aoo 

Hb Army described 206 

His Port, and Poft there aoy 
Anfwer to JUUti Replir ao8 
Battle between his an«l the 

coeleftial Army, dedcribed 

/r$mziot9 215 

His Proweb in the Batde air 

Enconnten Michail ibid. 

Anfwer to MichMitt Speech 

thereon aia 

The Combat dfferibed HL 
Wounded by him 2 1 3 

Carried off ibid. 

His Army defieated ai; 

Retreats, and calls a CoaQcil 

a 16 
Speech in Coandl ibid. 

Reply to Nifr$e there aiS 
Gives the word ibr reneartng 

the Battle 220 

Renewed by his Army, and 

the fecottd Battle ddbihed 


Speech on the ccdeSial Ar» 
my^s Retreat m 

Army's entire IMcat lad 




fcmed fhm iigta txo 
JletttQit from compaftiMr m^ 
Eartb to Pteadife by JNight 
in a Miftt in order lo* nif 
TcmMdon S7S 

Hit Cifcait. &c. ddoibcd 

Soliloquy tbcreon 2S0 

Enters tbe Serpent 281 

View» in tliat Shape, of Evi 

SoUlo^ny thereon 2gt 

Behayioi^ to her toe 

Speech to her 9nai 

Reply to her Aofwer 298 
The Difoourfe, his Tempu- 
cion of Evi to eat the for- 
bidden Fmit continued 

JLeavct be^ after eattnj^ it 

ISf Sentence thereon, virta- 

ally pronounced by God 

the Son ^24 

Returns to Hell, to tvpid his 

P^ence in Paradife 332 
Meets Sim and Death upon 

their jouiney to the World. 

on AdMm\ k^. Pall ibid. 
Attfwer to Sm*t Speech 333 
Parts with them 334 

Aftcnds hi& Throne at PmuU- 

m$niMm 337 

Speech to the £d!en Angels 

aflembled there ibid. 

Applauded with an Hift 318 
He and they translbnncd to 

ScrpcQts 319 

ffMierMrfBi*d widi an lifii* 

imof the forbidden Fruit 

BotkaMmallycentinaed 341 

HmUr^ the Smpeac, dia«*d 

ni ObaiHs at theAfeeBflon 

of tbt hUfimh 429 

JDjAIucioii, «ritb tho World, 

at his coming to Judgment 


Vide SMlu. 

SstMrit, a fall^ Angel 41 

Scripures, how to be under- 

flood 431 

Seafons. their Changes, re- 

Q)e&ing each dime, anE&d 

of^/tfSi'sFall 344 

Serpent, defcribed 282 

' After enter*d by Satan 292 

His Sentence, formally, pro- 

nouncM by God the Son. 

as the affum'd Tempter of 

Entf 324 

Vide Simi/ts. 

Sidcral Blafts, kc. an Effeft of 

Mam'i PaU 348 

Sim and Death 

Vide Death and Sim. 
Sim defcribed 88 

Her Speech to Satam and 
Deaths at Hell-gates 91 
' Reply to Satam' 92 

Her Birth ibid. 

Reply to his AnAver 9; 

Opens Heil*gates to him 96 
Speech to Death on Adam^t 
Pall 327 

To Satan^ meeting him re- 
turning CO Hell, on her and 
Deaths Journey to the 
World after it 332 

To Death, on their Arrival af 
Paradiie 34a 

Reply to Death's Anfwer 343 
Vide Similes, 
Siaorigtaal, Ifuftcaroal, the firft 
Efivflofit 310 

Its Solace 311 

Slavery^ Original of it the loor- 
dinanor of tbe Paflioos 413 
The JaKce of it as confe- 
quential 00 deviating from 
Virtue^ Ac ibid, 

loot, its Faculties 177 

Its Immortality diicuis^d 3^2 


I N D E X. 

Soirits their Eflence and Power 

32. 58 
Their invUible Exifteoce oa 
Earth 161 

The Elca, their Hymn to God 
the Father and Son ii^ 
Material, &e. Faculties in Spi- 
rits 188 
Vital, animal, and intelle^tn- 
al Spirits pro^reffive from 
material Nutrition 190 ' 
Their Exiftence in Life, lii- 
telkd. Shape, A(C. defined 

Spring perpetual within the Tro- 
pics, but for Jdam*sFsM 346 
St»v» their Places, Appearances, 
&c.' 1 30 

Fed t^ the Air 188 

Part of the fourth Day's Cre* 
ation 244 

Receive their Light from the 
Sun ibid. 

Vide Sirnks, 
Stars, and Moon, their Courfes, 
Influences, &c. 161 

Storms, &c. an Effe£i ol AdawC^ 
Fall 348 

5/y;r, a RiVCr of Hell 82 

Sun, its Appearance, Place and 
Power 1 30 

Brightnefs defcribed 1 3 1 

Orb fed by Exhalations iiwm 
thegrofier 188 

Part of the fourth P^y's Cfc- 
ation 243 

The Fountain of Light 244- 
Setting defcribed 1^2, 1^7 

I59» *73. 322 
Its anna^ Coorle, producfog 

intenfe Heat and Cold, an 

Effea of Aiam\ Fall ^; 

Its oblique Motion from the 

Equinodial from the fame 

■Caufe * ibidi 

Vide Simlla. 

TEachen, falfe, of the Cbri- 
fiian Religion defcribed 

Temperance^ the ESFcQt of it 

long Life 395 

Tbaamatz or jLbnh^ a fallen As- 

%^ 34 

Thnnder, an Effed of Jdamr% 

Fall 34^ 

Time, refpeQingEteniity, cicii- 
ned 193 

T/Voir, a &llen Angel 40 

Tradition cenfored 431 

Tree of Life Vide Lift. 
Of Knowledge 

Vide KjuwUdg€m 

Truth, fufieringforit Fordcode, 

&c. 432 

Tyranny, Nimr^i^ dcfcrib*d 

and cenfur'd 41 1 

Origin of it, the Inordinancy 

of the Faffions 413 

No ExcoTe of the Tyraat, 

though juft in Confeqaence 

on the Subjedt ibid. 

Tyrants, their Plea for Con* 

queft, ^c. GOmpar*d with Su^ 

tau^i firft Attempt on Man 


Tvrili^t defcribed 439 

V Acuity, God^s Omnipre- 
fence an Argument againft 
it 238 

Valour, or heroic Virtue^ ^le 
common Notion of it oenla- 
red 400 

Virtue, &c. with Lola o£ Faee- 
dom degenerates 404 

Reafon, and Virtoc^ the lame 

Union conjugal. 

Vide Conju^alVnUm. 



Vriel^ the Angel of the Sun 132 
His Anfwer to Satan 135 
Direds him to the World 1 36 
And Paxaditr ibid. 

.Defcends thither himfelfy and 
infoript Gabriii .of Satan's 
Pre-defcent 158 

VLfiWonttti Mramelic^ a fal- 
len Angel, wounds and puts 
him to Flight 214 

Vide Simiiis. 
Vzziil, a Guardian Angel of 
Paradife 165 

W . 

WAR, Property the Ori- 
ginal of it 398 

1 he Corruptions of Peace e- 
qual to its Waftes 403 

Waters feparated from the Eat th. 
Pare of the third Day*8 Crea- 
tion 242 
Vide Smiles, 
Wife, her Duty in Danger, Di- 
ftre6, &c. 285,^374 
Wind, the tempelluous Power of 
it, an E&€t of JJam'% Fall 

345» 348 
Wifdom, the Sam of it, the 

Love, &c, of God 433 

Wolves, or falfe Teachers, the 

Apoftles Succeflbrs, defcribed 

43 « 
Woman, conjugal Obedience her 

Happinefs, kc 160 

Man*s Love towards her, how 
confident with his Superio- 
rity 272 

Two of her lovelieft Qualitici 

The Effed of leaving her to 

her own Will 316 

His Saperioricy over her gji- 

ven him by God 323, 325 
A Novelty, DeftA of.Nar 

ture, &c. farcaftically 354 


The Advantage of her focii 

over her artificial Accom- 

plifhments 398 

Every Way the Caufe of 

Man*s Mifery, iarcafUcally 


Works, with Faich in Chrift, e* 

ternal Life 42^ 

World, the Convex of its oater- 

moft Orb defcribed i to 

By whom pofieft, farcaflically 

122, 123 
The Creation of the World, 
committed by God the Fa- 
ther to God the Son 238 
Defcribed 240 

Situation of it, leijpedUng 
Heaven and Hell 331 

Vide Marti. 

ZEPHON, a Guardian 
Angel of Paradife x6^ 
Keprehcnds Satan^s firft At- 
tempt on Eve there 1 67 
Reply to his Anfwer ibid. 
Zophiei, a Cherub 219 

Alarms the ccslefiial Army, oa 
the Approach of Satan's^ 
to renew the Battle 220 




A DAM and Ew^ after their 

X\, FaU» compared to the 

ZuricaMs, ai m feen bjr C#* 

Auik^tti 314 

Their Repentance, to Dniat* 

Ii§H and PjrrWn Addrefs 

to reftore hiunatt Race after 

their Flood 36a 

Jdam caring S^fi, to Jufiiir 

with^#, JUjr^lhowert 156 

Bower, to P$m9iM^% Arboor 


Jdam awak*d after carnal Froi* 

tion» the firft ESed of his 

Fall, compared to Zmnffon 

ibors by Dalilah 3 1 1 

Sorrow on the Vlfiuin of i^#- 

M't Flood, 10 a Pacher*t 

aioQminf hit Children all 

deftroy'd In hta View at 

once 402 

Aneeh corleftal, the Spean of 

the Ooardians of Pkradife^ to 

Ears of Com ripe for reaping 


Their March againft ^atAn\ 

Army, to chat of the Bhtb 

in Paradife to receive their 

Names from JUdm 206 

Their Hallelujahs, to the 

Sound of Seas 344 

Appointed to expel Aiam^ tic, 

from Paradife, their Faces 

to a doable JaMus, four 


Their Eyes, to thole of Jr* 

,gus ibid. 

Thieir Appearance there, to 

after a 


the Angels appearing to 

J^ac§i in Mrnkmrnmim jffo 

To thofe in D^ibmm WfpaA 

the King of ^t!^'^ 370 

Their hlotaoai to asi Etcang 

iliil 435 

^Uigeb fidlcfi, or wlktwaB^- id 

aatomnal Leaves 

To floating 

Roafingat SMaift Coomum^ 
to GentineU waking fion 
Sleq^ on Daty 20 

Inbatteliai to the Efffiimm 

Pbgoe ot Locnlb ai 

To the Iftuptioaa of the 

Norihem BtfbaciaBa aa 

Their Difpofition to csyige, 
to that of die Hccoes of 
Antiqatty 44 

With them, the ptabA Ar- 
mies in alt Agfcs fioce the 
Creation, Kgauea 45 

Themfelves, to Oaks or Fines 
trfafted 49 

Their Searching, &c. lor the 
Materiab' of rand^ratemr, 
to Pioneers intrenching, te. 

Their Manner of raifing it^ 
to the Wind of an Oigaa 

Aflemblbg thereat, to Bees 

To Pigmies eg 

To Fairies ibid. 

Their Applaufe of Mesmsa's 

Speech in Council, to tlie 



ItoUow Wind if ter a Storm 

The{r Rifing from Cooncll, to 
ThuDder a&r off 78 

Their Pleafure on the Refult, 
to t)ie Eveniag Sun after a 

. fbtdOay ibid. 

Their after various ParfoitB, 
Paffions, &c. to the Oiym- 
pic or Pytbiau Games 79 
To the Phenomena of Ar« 
. mies ID the Clouds 80 
To Hir€ulis on Oita tl 

Their (f omben compofiag 
Saiam^t Army, againft tho 
cceleilia], to the Stan 1^7 
To the Dew-drops ibid. 

Their Applaafe of S^an^% 
Reply to Abdtil^ to the 
Sound of deep Waters 201 

Throng'd together, after their 
ifitiie Defeat by God the 
Son, to a Herd of Goats 

Their Retreat to Pand^mwi- 
mm from the Frontiers of 
HcU during Sstam's Expe- 
dition to the World, to the 
7artar\ Flight before the 
jR^fi^ and the Pirfiam from 
the tmrk^ wailing the inter- 
mediate Country 3^5 
hchr Appearance on the 
Ti:^ illttfive of the- forbid- 
den Fruit, to the Furies 


The Fruit to the Apples of 

S9dfm ibid. 

Cfrotf/, Atoms^ their Motion, t6 

the if A|MMi Qtticldanjds 96 

Confii&n there, to ibrming 

aT<>wn 97 

To Heaven, and Earth, fup- 

. pos*d falling, &c. 98 

t>ia}b and Sin. their maS^irg^ir 

Bridee o?er Cha99 to the 

W«r1d^ to polar Winds, drt- 

ving the Ice together, in- the 
(fuppos'd) North-Eaft Pailage 


The Work, to the Ifle of 

Diht 329 

To Xir:fit making a 6ridge 

over the Htllej^t ibid. 

Diatb'% Infiii^dt of Adam^^ Fall^ 

to the Flight of Birds of Prey 

to a FieU of Battle 328 

His and Satam*t Frowns ou 

each other, to two Thun- 

^ der-clonds meeting 91 

£«#, her Hair, to the Vine's 

Tendrils 151 

Her Looks, to the firft Blufli 

of Morning 177 

Herfelf, to Pandora 163 

To a Wood-Nymph 1 87 

To Diama aSg 

To Pmim« ibid. 

To dns ibid. 

tier Temptation by Satam, aU 

luded to by the Story of O- 

phi9m wodSuryMmi 34c 

Flaming Sw6rd in Paradife on 

Adam and £v#*s Ezpulfioa 

thence, to a Comet 43c 

HeUi to Mount AEiMn in SiciJ^ 

To the Bog or Lake Sirbomis^ 

in PaJs^im 83 

MscboiJ, his Combat with Sa- 

UiM^ to two PUnets (the Frame 

of .Nature fuppos'd diffolv'd) 

rufliing in Oppoiirion to each 

other 213 

Appearance to eznel jUtm , 

&)9. from Paradife, to a 

Man in a military Veil, &c. 

P4Mdam»niumt or the Court of 

Hell, its fudden Rife, to an 

. Exhalation 53 

- har^difi^ the Air of it, to the 

Effluvia from Arabia Falix, 

at Sea 144 

I i Itfcli 



IcfeU; to the Field of Emma 

IB Sicify 148 

To the Grove of Dafhtu^ 

&c. in TbifiiN ibid. 

To the life of Njfa^ where 

Macehtu was broQght up 

To Moant Ammrm^ ift #- 

fbkpia ibid. 

To the Gardens of 



Of Aldnot 201 

Of ^#ANRn» ibid. 

Itafhaef, his View of the Worid 

in hii Defcent from Heaven> 

to Paradife, to that of the 

MooQ through an optic Glafa 

Of DAsxit8am§rftom the 

Cychidesli^ 182 

Himfelfy to a Phoenix ibid. 

To Mercury 183. 

9atmr, to BriaresiT, Tffbon^ and 

the Leviathan 1^2 

To the Sim rifing in a Mill 48 

In Bdipfe ibiA 

To the longpft Train of a Co * 

net 91 

TaMoont Tewtrif or Atht 

9ufmw, hiaShidd compared ta 

the Moon s6 

Hia Spear» to a Maft 17 

HJB Standard^ to a Meteor 4^ 

The Phasnomenon of hit Au 

cent to Hell-mes, to* a 

Fleet in the Offin 86 

His and Death*9 Frewnt- on 

each other, to two Than-' 

der-douds meeting 91 

Plight to the Court of Ckaop,. 

to a Gryphon's in the WiU 

' dernefs 98 

Towards Heaven, to the 

Ship Argo through the 

nracian Brffhorus I o i 

To Uix[fes\ Voyage be- 

tween StfSm aad 

dis I ox 

Arrival at Ljgbt^ Ac. id m 
weathrr-hteatett Veflel to- 
wards Pbft !•). 

Ob the GoBvex^ the WorU't 
ontennoft Oib» to a Vi^ 
ture feektaghia Prey -12a 

Pirft Tiew of the WoHd, 10 
a SGOot*a cafnal Pk^po6^ 
alter a d atgere w s Jeoniey, 
of a new Coootiyor Ciqr 

Of the Scan Orbs, to- the 
Befiirkm Gaitkna, &c 


Appearance In the Soii*s Oih^ 

to a Spot in it dMGeiiiig 

from' all afifononical Ob- 

ierrationa 131 

Meditation an his intended 

Attempt en the woild^ 10 

cGnniteooilioi^ ij9 

In Paradifey CO n \7olf prey. 

ing on a Pofti 14^ 

To a Thief breakiaf in at 

the Honfti'top, $k. ibid. 

To a Tyger in View of » 

Bmce of Pawns 153 

Oetcaedr hf Mkmitl theiey 

to Gonpowder mfcing Fire 


Reprehended by jRipB^Wg -toa 

Steed reinMy in a Fiet 168^ 

His Armjr affiuttft the cctlefli- 

als in Nnmoer, to the Stars 

To- the Dew^^rcM Ibid. 

Their Applaofe of his Repty 
to JMhi, to tlie Sonnd of 
deep Waten 90t 

Himfelf recoiling on a Bow 
received fromiikkml, to a 
Monntain finking by an 
Earthquake 210 

His Combat with JllftrA«r/» to 
two Plantti (the PraaM of 




Nitore fuppoi'd diffaly'd) 
■vfbing in Oppofition to 
nek othct 2 1 z 

View, ia the Serpmt, of Pa- 
ndife and Evt there, to i 
CidMn'* taking the Air in 
the CouDtry from hit home 
Confinement 29 1 

S)iape, tnngfonn'd to a Set- 
pent, on hit B^eturn to Hell 
ffter the Temptation, to 
the SerpcDt Pjiltt 139 

Hit tempting Evt, alfodea to 

bf the SUM7 of <^i» and 

Emjwtmf 341 

(erpent, that eolcr'd br Satan, 

to tho(e Htrmnt and Oubmut 
were transfonn'd to 203 

To that affuned by JEfiuti^ 
fiui ibid. 

To Ibofe t^ J^ttr Jmm»M, 

and Ca^miMiu 394 

. ^b MoEion. Wreathing), Sec. 

to the Working of a Ship 

iiifliif[ingWiiiai,&c. 295 

Hi) Crefl, preceding Evt to 
the forbidden Tree, to an 
Exhalation flaming aoS 
Hi* Addrefi inCrodudog the 
Temptation, to that of an 
Orator of the JiteHian or 
RtmaM Common-wcalchi 

Sim, her middle Partt, to ue 
fuppoi'dDogaof ^nZ/tf 8t 
Of the Night-hig >9 

Spean, to Ean of Com ripe Sot 
reaping 171 

Stan, their Orbs, to the lU/f*- 
riaw Garden!, Sec 130 

Snn, his Coarfe tnm'd at jt' 
Jam't, lec. eating the forbid- 
den Fruit, u at the Banqnet 
of <Iiytfi,i 347 

XJriil, bit Defcent from the Son 
on Paradife, to a flwottng Star 

Waien, to Armiei Ibnning 
themfeiro on Sound of Tram> 



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