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Full text of "State policy in Irish education, A.D. 1536 to 1816, exemplified in documents collected for lectures to postgraduate classes;"

GIFT OF 
MICHAEL REESE 




STATE POLICY 

IN IRISH EDUCATION 

A.D. 1536 TO 1816 



EXEMPLIFIED IN DOCUMENTS COLLECTED 

FOR LECTURES TO POSTGRADUATE CLASSES 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION 



BY 

THE REV. T. CORCORAN, D.LITT., 

PROFESSOR OF EDUCATION IN THE 
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND 
(UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN) 

Author of " Studies in the History of Classical Education, 
Irish and Continental " 



DUBLIN I 

FALLON BROTHERS, LTD., DAME COURT 

AND 

LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO. 
39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 

FOURTH AVENUE & SOTH STREET, NEW YORK 
BOMBAY, CALCUTTA, AND MADRAS 



DOLLARD, PRINTINGHOUSE, DUBLIN, LIMITED. 



Preface. 



THE texts in this volume have been collected for class -work with 
Advanced Students in the Department of Education, at University 
College, Dublin. 

A Postgraduate Training Course in the Theory and Practice 
of Education must necessarily afford but a limited place to the 
study of the History of Education. But with such students and 
in such a Course it is desirable that some important historical issue 
in Education be worked at in its documentary sources ; and such 
an issue may best be sought in the History of Educational Practice 
within their own country. The subject here dealt with has these 
qualifications, and has the further advantage that it affords an 
exceptionally apposite introduction to, and basis of comparison 
with, the special subject treated in a further Course for the Degree 
of M.A. in Educational Science, on the Development (since the 
French Revolution) of State Control of Education in France, 
Germany, and Great Britain. 

The due limits of the present subject precluded any treatment 
of other Irish branches of the History of Education within the 
period. Such are (i) the Irish Colleges on the Continent, A.D. 
1590-1789, and (2) the Schools of Irish law, history, and poetry, 
conducted by many scholar -families, lingering on in one or two 
cases till 1750. Such families were the O'Clerys in Tyrconnell, 
the O'Davorens of Cahermacnaughten and Noughaval in Clare 
(1350-1600), and the MacEgans (see Documents, Part I. No. 34), 
who for fifteen generations maintained higher studies in Irish at 
Duniry, Park, and Tullach-na-Daly in Galway, Ballymacegan 
(Redwood) in Lower Ormond, and Annaghmeadle and Castletown 
in Ely O'Carroll. This work depended on their possession of the 
lands assigned them for such service by the great septs, Celtic or 
Norman, educated by them ' in poetry and well-proven law ' ; and 
so they were sore stricken by the vast confiscations of the I7th 
century. 

These subjects, and also the history of Irish learning and scholar- 
ship at home and in Europe, A.D. 800-1300, with the History of 

3 

A* 



PREFACE. 

Education in Ireland since 1816, will, it is hoped, be dealt with in 
further volumes for which considerable materials are now collected. 

The present work is primarily intended for use with students : 
but it may perhaps prove of some help to other readers. The purpose 
of the Introduction is to suggest the examination of certain issues 
in the History of Education, in Ireland and in other countries. By 
express design, therefore, the Documents are not therein dealt with 
exhaustively. The Indexes, too, are planned so as to aid in the use 
of the Documents, but not to permit students to dispense them- 
selves from personal work on the texts. 

The references provided throughout will be easily understood. 
The Calendars of State Papers (S.P.), materials in the Public Record 
Office, Ireland (P.R.O.), and the publications of the Historical 
Manuscripts Commission (Hist. MSS. Comm.) are often cited. The 
' Hogan Transcripts ' are a large collection of copies of letters and 
other papers, made at Rome, Brussels, and elsewhere, from 1864 
to 1900, by the Rev. Edmund Hogan, S.J., D.Litt. To him, as 
well as to Stanislaus Murphy, Esqr., Secretary, Commissioners of 
Education ; to my colleagues, Professors Mary T. Hayden, M.A., and 
George Sigerson, M.D. ; and to the Library staffs of The Royal 
Irish Academy, the King's Inns, the National Library of Ireland, 
and the University Library, Cambridge, my sincere thanks are due 
for assistance given me. 

T. C. 

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN, 
1916. 



Contents. 



PAGE 

PREFACE ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

INTRODUCTION 

Statecraft, old and new, in relation to Education ... ... g 

Unification through Education, applied in Ireland ... ... 10 

Value of the Report of 1791 (Documents, II. B.) ... ... 12 

Financial Provision for Education by the State in Ireland ... 13 

The Language Question and Government Policy ... ... 15 

Universities, Inns of Court, and the Court of Wards ... ... 17 

Lawyers and Burghers seek Educational Freedom ... ... 19 

The Political Fortunes of Kilkenny School ... ... ... 20 

The Commonwealth Policy for Education in Ireland ... ... 22 

Educators among Jesuits, Franciscans, Secular Clergy, and laymen 23 

The Educational Endowments by Erasmus Smith, 1657-1894 ... 26 

The Penal Code, and its purpose through Education ... ... 27 

Tendencies in Education among Catholics, 1686-1816 ... ... 29 

Educational Freedom of Nonconformists in Ireland ... ... 31 

Aspects of Teaching Method and School Organisation ... ... 33 

Gradual Relaxation of the Penal Laws against Education ... 34 

Primary Schools, Cork and Dublin. Lancaster ; Betagh ; John England 36 

The eagerness of the People of Ireland for Education ... ... 38 

Statistical Note : Population and Property, 1 64 1-1812 ... ... 39 



Documents, Part I. 

1. Galway Citizens and the Irish Language (1536) ... ... ... 41 

2. Disuse of English Education in Ireland (1537) ... ... ... 41 

3. English Parochial Schools for Ireland (1537) ... ... ... 42 

4. Anglo-Norman Monasteries and Education (1539) ... ... ... 43 

5. A flexible Abbot-Schoolmaster (1539) ... ... ... ... 44 

6. The 'happy Schoolmaster of Munster ' (1565) ... ... ... 45 

7. A School for ' dewtifull and reformed subjectes ' at Galway (1569) ... 46 

8. Act for Diocesan Grammar Schools (1570) ... ... ... 47 

9. Irish Scholars resort to Continental Universities (1577) ... ... 48 

10. A Midland University projected for Irish 'Runagates' (1579) ... 49 

n. The State Church and State School in Limerick (1583) ... ... 50 

12. Educational action after the Desmond Rebellion (1583) ... ... 50 

13. Experiences of an English Grammar-Master at Waterford (1585) ... 51 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

14. Three learners of Grammar in Mayo executed as hostages (1586) ... 52 

15. Schoolmasters under the Dublin Corporation, in the reign of Elizabeth 

(1586-1601) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 53 

1 6. First steps of a Grammar-Master towards the Peerage (1588)... ... 54 

17. Grammar Teaching at Limerick (1590) ... ... ... ... 55 

18. Foundation and Purpose of Trinity College, Dublin (1592) ... 56 

19. The 'English College near Dublin' defines its own aim (1593) ... 57 

20. An Elizabethan Bishop fined in Castle Chamber (1594) ... ... 57 

21. Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, demands Educational Liberty for Ireland 

(1599-1600) ... ... ... ... ... ... 58 

22. Schoolmasters under the Dublin Corporation, in the Seventeenth Century 

(1605-1687) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 59 

23. The Estate of a Royal School 'swallowed up' (1608-24) ... ... 61 

24. Catholic view of the purpose of Trinity College (1611-20) ... ... 62 

25. The Education of Wards under James I. (1611-23) ... ... 62 

26. Endowment of the Royal Schools in Ulster (1612) ... ... 63 

27. ' Godlie and gratious purpose ' of King James I. (1612) ... ... 64 

28. Suppression of a highly-efficient Galway School (1615) ... ... 65 

29. Trinity College warned as to its main purpose (1620) ... ... 65 

30. Trinity College declared exclusively Protestant (1628-29) ... ... 66 

31. A Jesuit College suppressed in Dublin (1630) ... ... ... 67 

32. Catholic Remonstrance to King Charles I. (1641) ... ... ... 68 

33. Educational Grievances of Ulster Puritans (1641) ... ... ... 69 

34. The Franciscans in Irish Education. (Rome, Lou vain, Quin Abbey) 

(1641-48) ... ... ... 70 

35. Dublin Castle and Catholic Claims in Education (1644) ... ... 71 

36. Education in the negotiations for Peace between Charles I. and the 

Confederate Catholics (1644-46) ... ... ... ... 72 

37. The Commonwealth and Religion in Trinity College (1651-56) ... 75 

38. School in an Irish bog district, under Cromwell (1652-56) ... ... 75 

39. Popish Schoolmasters detected in Meath and Louth (1655)... ... 76 

40. A Board to control Protestant Grammar Schools in Ireland (1656) ... 76 

41. Regulation of Endowments for Grammar Schools (1657) ... ... 77 

42. Puritan plans for the children of the poorer Irish (1657) ... ... 78 

43. Town property in Ireland assigned to an English Academy (1657) ... 79 

44. Erasmus Smith provides for the education of the children of his tenants 

(1657-1712) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 79 

45. The State Church and the Jesuit School at New Ross (1657-70) ... 82 

46. Schoolmasters dealt with by the Act of Uniformity (1665) ... 84 

47. Protestant schoolmasters and Jesuit Schools at Dublin and at Cashel 

(1669-75) 85 

48. The Government, Archbishop Oliver Plunket, and the Jesuit School at 

Drogheda (1670-73) ... ... ... ... ... ... 85 

49. 'Plain and Downright Counsel' to Trinity College (1670) ... ... 88 

50. Perils of a Popish Schoolmaster at Ennis (1680-81) ... ... 88 

51. Rival Schools in Kilkenny (1686) ... ... ... ... 89 

52. Jesuit Schools during the elaboration of the Penal Laws (1694-1717) 90 

53. Education abroad prohibited (1695) ... ... ... ... 91 

54. The Children of Solicitors and Justices of the Peace (1698-1733) ... 93 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

55. Additional penal laws as to education abroad, and education of minors 

(1703) ... ... ... 94 

56. Dublin Corporation and a Popish Schoolmaster (1705) ... ... 95 

57. Catholic teachers prohibited, even in private houses (1709) ... 95 

58. Conflicting Views as to the Irish Language in Education (1712-16) ... 96 

59. University and Charity-School Teachers 'Disaffected' (1717-19) ... 98 

60. ' Resident Protestant Schoolmasters to teach the English Tongue ' (1721) 98 

61. Two Charity-Schools in Irish Cities (1721) ... ... ... 99 

62. Aims and Organisation of Charity-Schools in Ireland (1721) ... 100 

63. Primate Boulter on his own 'Charter Schools' (1730-36) ... ... 102 

64. Inquiry into Illegal Popish Schools by House of Lords. Diocesan, 

Urban, Parochial Returns and Comments (1731) ... ... 103 

65. Penal Investigations as to Galway teachers (1731) ... ... 107 

66. Charter for English Protestant Schools in Ireland (1733) ... ... 108 

67. A Sermon on the Education of ' the poorer sort of Irish' (1733) ... 109 

68. Two Charter-Schools, Waterford and Down (1744)... ... ... m 

69. Education of Children affects an Election to Parliament (1761) ... 113 

70. Agricultural Education (1765) ... ... ... ... ... 114 

71. The History of Bishop Pococke's Weaving School (1765-1808) ... 115 

72. Conditions under which ' Persons professing the Popish Religion ' may be 

permitted to teach (1782) ... ... ... ... ... 117 

73. John Howard on the Charter Schools (1782-88) ... ... ... 117 

74. Schools for Drawing, and 'other useful Sciences' (1785) ... ... 119 

75. John Wesley visits the Charter School at Ballinrobe (1785) ... 119 

76. Educational Purpose of the ' New Geneva ' Plantation near Waterford 

(1783-88) ... 120 

77. Government Proposals for Education (1787) ... ... ... 121 

78. Religion of Scholars of Trinity College, at a Parliamentary Election (1791) 122 

79. Education Clauses in the Relief Act of 1792 ... ... ... 124 

80. Education Clauses in the Relief Act of 1793 ... ... ... 125 

81. Act to establish and endow Maynooth College (1795) ... ... 126 

82. Catholic Poor Schools of Cork : Organisation, and transition to ' Mr. 

Lancaster's Plan' (1796-1815) ... ... ... ... ... 126 

83. Views of the Irish House of Commons on ' the Education of the Lower 

Orders' (1799) ... ... ... ... 131 

84. License to a Papist Schoolmistress at Thurles, Co. Tipperary (1799) ... 132 

85. Imperial Grants for Education in Ireland (1806-10) ... ... 133 

86. Views of a Vice-regal Commission on the Education of the Irish People 

(1808-12) 134 

87. Educational Tendencies, Primary and Secondary (1809) ... ... 136 

88. Views of Henry Grattan on Religion and Language in Irish Primary 

Schools (1811) ... ... ... ... ... ... 138 

89. Opinion of Counsel as to restrictions on Catholic Education in Ireland 

(1813) 139 

90. Refusal of License to give Education at Clongowes Wood (1814) ... 141 

91. State Aid for the ' Kildare Place Society' (1816) ... ... ... 141 

92. Mr. Robert Peel, Chief Secretary for Ireland, on the eagerness of the Irish 

people for Education (1816) ... ... ... ... ... 142 



CONTENTS. 



Documents, Part II. 

PAGE 

A. A Brief Review of the Rise and Progress of the Incorporated Society in 
Dublin, for promoting English Protestant Schools in Ireland. From 
the opening of His Majesty's Royal Charter, February 6th, 1733, to 
November 6th, 1743. (Dublin, 1744) ... ... ... ... 143 

B. Report of Commissioners of Irish Education Inquiry, 1791. (Hely 
Hutchinson ; Denis Daly ; Isaac Corry ; John Forbes ; Thomas 
Burgh; Edward Cooke ; Robert Hobart) ... ... ... 149 

English Parish Schools Diocesan Free Schools Plan for a ' Great 
School' Schools of Erasmus Smith Plan for a ' Professional Academy* 
Hibernian School for Soldiers' Children Hibernian Marine School 
Protestant Charter Schools Proposed ' Board of Control ' Recapitu- 
lation. 

Appendix : The State of the English Parish Schools. The Diocesan 
Schools State of the Royal Free Schools, 1788 The Protestant 
Charter Schools, 29th September, 1790. 

C. A Letter to John Foster, Esq., Chancellor of the Exchequer for Ireland, 
on the best means of Educating and Employing the Poor, in that 
Country. By Joseph Lancaster. (1805) ... ... ... 192 

D. First Report of the Society for promoting the Education of the Poor of 

Ireland. (The ' Kildare Place Society ') (1813) ... ... ... 203 

E. A School Drama at Kilkenny (1644) ... ... ... ... 208 

F. A School Primer of Irish History (1815). Attributed, in the House of Lords, 

to Dr. John England, Bishop of Charleston, U.S.A. ... ... 212 

G. The Erasmus Smith Endowment Judicially Reviewed (1894). Judgment 
of Lord Justice Fitzgibbon Judgment of Mr. Justice O'Brien : Four 
Courts, Dublin ... ... ... ... ... ... 222 



INDEX OF TOPICS ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 229 

INDEX OF PERSONAL NAMES... ... ... ... ... ... 231 

INDEX OF PLACE NAMES ... ... ... ... ... ... 233 



Introduction. 



Statecraft, old and new, 
in relation to Education. 

Direct provision for Education, and comprehensive control 
of its aims and processes, became a well-defined branch of State 
policy in Continental Europe between 1770 and 1800. In many of 
the countries concerned, this function was brought into prominence 
by the consequences of the suppression of the Jesuit Order, gradually 
achieved between 1759 and 1773. The Prussian Royal Decrees of 
1788 and 1794, and the various legislative acts in France from 1791 
to 1798, marked the assumption of comprehensive control. In these 
decisions there was implicit the duty of making adequate financial 
provision for all grades of Education. The duty was fulfilled be- 
times as regards University and General Secondary Education, and 
(in many Continental States) in certain branches of Industrial and 
Technical Training. But it was not till 1870 that the greater 
Powers could be said to have provided even substantial help, in 
money, for primary education a partial, not a complete provision. 
They were far more ready to promote or repress policies in Education, 
than to face the financial burden of the task they claimed as their 
own. 

Indeed it may be said that the use of Education as an instru- 
mentum regni can be traced in the expressed views of statesmen 
in various countries long before 1770, though it was seldom reduced 
to act. M. Hanotaux has pointed out that it is found in more than 
one passage of the " political testament " of Richelieu ; and 
Richelieu, Bacon, and Bismarck were at one in recognising the 
danger to the State from what the last-named called the 
Abiturienten-proletariat, the over-production of an educated class 
for which appropriate employment is not provided within a State. 
The claims which are latent in such observations were stated in a 
masterful and drastic way by Plato, who represents the Visitor to 
Athens, in the Statesman (308 ff.), as maintaining that " Statecraft, 
in its natural and genuine form, will first examine the characters of 
children in play, and then hand them over to those who can educate 

9 



INTRODUCTION. 

them, and who are Servitors of the State in achieving her aims ; 
the State herself will give directions, and supervise their execution. 
Statecraft is supreme over all lawful educators and tutors. Having 
this royal authority, she will not permit them to give such training 
as will yield characters unfitted to the political model she desires 
to produce, but will urge them to mould only such as will suit it.... 
Those who are perverse in nature, she will get rid of by death, exile, 
and utter degradation ; those who are ignorant and base she will 
reduce to slavery ; those out of whom (if they are educated) some- 
thing of distinction can be made, this royal art moulds and fashions. 
...This we hold to be the finished state of the web of political 
activity." 

Unification through Education, 
applied in Ireland. 

The policy here outlined by Plato, and summarised later on by 
Aristotle in the distinction drawn between politics as a ' master- 
craft,' and economics with education as ' subordinate arts/ has 
been fully exemplified in the history of Education in Ireland down 
to the present day. To no small extent, however, this policy has 
resulted in the conferring of educational means for one end, and 
their use, by those who received them, for other ends ; even though 
a philosopher may hold that ' a given constitution demands an 
education in conformity with it.' Where and when this was the 
case, the State came to recognise that its coercive policy in education 
had proved on the whole a failure, a conviction that can be read in 
parts of the Report of 1791, more explicitly in the proceedings of 
1808-12, and almost fully in the programme laid down for itself by 
the ' Kildare Place Society,' which, founded in 1811-13, began to 
receive State Grants, on its own terms, in 1816. 

Numberless expressions of that governmental purpose might be 
cited from incidental phrases used by leading persons engaged in 
the management of Ireland ; it received full and final form in the 
Review of the first ten years of the Working of the Charter Schools, 
1744 (Documents II. A). It was nowhere more neatly formulated 
than in the " Book set down by the Archbishop of Cashel (Miler 
McGrath) by her Majesty's express command, declaring the state 
of Ireland " (May 30, 1592). That crafty personage, who knew 
well what Queen Elizabeth desired, proposed " to inquire of all 

10 



INTRODUCTION. 

schoplmasters and public teachers, and their manner of teaching 
and religion, and to place and displace them for the good of the present 
State " : even Plato's Visitor to Athens could not have devised 
apter words. More than a century later, a Parliamentary letter 
from Dublin to Sir John Percival, M.P., later first Earl of Egmont, 
expresses the same design (October 16, 1703) : " The statutes of 
28 Henry VIII. and in Queen Elizabeth's reign are enacted to be 
put in execution... By this means it was hoped that Popish 
children might, by resorting to English schools and learning the 
English tongue, be brought to see the errors and blindness of their 
predecessors. From my observation I can say that many dioceses 
in Ireland have not the schools intended by the Acts ; that Popish 
schoolmasters have been suppressed, and none to instruct the youth 
in their room.../ should humbly hope that the Irish youth may soon 
have English habit, and in one or two generations be true sticklers for 
the Protestant Church and Interest " (Egmont MSS., Hist. MSS. 
Comm. II. 213-14). The writer, it may be noted, unites in his 
expression of hope the phraseology of Tudor legislation and the 
party cry of the English Colony in Ireland in the eighteenth century. 
Even at the close of the whole period, the language of commenda- 
tion of the State policy is still clear and emphatic. To Mr. Secretary 
Orde, addressing the Colonial House of Commons (1787), "there 
was something of policy as well as of charity in the institution of 
parish schools ; a policy, however, of most excellent tendency, and 
worthy of being perpetuated " ; and again, " the great schools in 
England, and her universities, will, I trust, still be frequented by 
very many of the first families of this kingdom... thereby to draw 
the two countries still closer... in assimilating their manners and 
habits," while " every endeavour should be used to bring instructors 
from some of the great schools in England." To the Commissioners 
of 1788-91, The Protestant Charter Schools were a " public institu- 
tion,... long and justly the favourite of the public, and the object of 
great national encouragement." The Commission which dealt with 
Schools in the years 1808-12 declared it " of essential importance " 
to exclude, in any " new Establishments for the education of the 
lower classes in Ireland," the fundamental principle on which the 
Charter Schools were based : but yet " warmly and sincerely " 
applauded " the pious and patriotic efforts " of those who established 
them, and could not " but recommend the Institution as deserving 
the continuance of that Legislative patronage and support which 

TT 



INTRODUCTION. 

it has so long enjoyed." And one of its members, Richard Lovell 
Edge worth, added a special expression of his opinion " that the 
education of children in these schools is efficacious, practical, free 
from bigotry, and in every respect such as to put it beyond the 
reach of private defamation and public censure." Even to Grattan 
(1811) " schools which teach the English language, should not 
attempt to teach the English religion, because the Catholics who 
would resort to our schools to learn the one, will keep aloof if we 
attempt to make them proselytes to the other ; and we should, by 
that attempt, lose one great means of uniting our people." 

These quotations will be sufficient to show that in the closing 
years of the Colonial Parliament in Dublin, and in the early years 
of the Union Parliament, leading administrators summed up and 
defined the whole policy of the State in the past, gave it a final and 
decisive approval, and regretfully put it aside. The documents in 
which these judgments find expression are deserving of thorough 
examination, as is also the extent, unparalleled at the time in Europe 
or America, to which the Governors of Ireland gave monetary 
support to that policy. 

Value of the Report of 1791. 
Documents, II. B). 

The Commission of Inquiry which worked from 1788 to 1791, 
resulted in no definite educational enactment : indeed its only out- 
come seems to have been the resolutions of good intention which 
passed the Colonial House of Commons in 1799. But the Report 
drawn up by John Hely Hutchinson, who was at once Chief Secretary 
of State, and Provost of Trinity College, gives with its Appendices 
a valuable summary and criticism of the whole policy of the State 
in Education since 1536. It has therefore been reprinted almost 
in full, with the projected new types of schools, sketched on lines 
much the same as those urged by Thomas Orde in 1787, and then 
voted unanimously, save for one dissentient on the proposed second 
University in Ireland. The use made by the Commission of John 
Howard's investigations, and their severe comments on the Diocesan 
and Royal Schools as well as on the Charter Schools, make this 
lengthy document a record of exceptional importance. No such 
complete survey of an educational system, at the date of the report, 
can be pointed to either in English-speaking countries or even on the 

12 



INTRODUCTION. 

Continent. It has never appeared in print, except in the documents 
appended to the evidence taken by the Commission of 1856-1858 : 
the volume which contains it is, of course, out of the reach of even 
special students of the History of Education. 

The financial sections of the Report are exceptionally useful 
and thorough : but they are chiefly confined to a statement of the 
revenues of the various types of schools at the time when Provost 
Hely Hutchinson made out the Report. They can be supplemented 
by the official record of Imperial expenditure on Education in 
Ireland (1806-10). But it will also be advisable to attempt to state, 
in a summary way, the relation of the State to the financial side of 
Education, since the initiating Acts of 1536 and 1570 : the issues 
so raised throw valuable light on the history of educational finance 
in Europe, and on the general history of Ireland. 

Financial provision for Education, 
by the State in Ireland. 

The stages of organisation, which the educational policy of the 
State in Ireland exhibits, are in the main as follows : (i) English parish 
schools, 1537 ; (2) Diocesan Grammar Free Schools, 1570, with the 
Royal Free Schools, 1608-1629, and urban Grammar Schools ; 

(3) The 'English College near Dublin' (Trinity College), 1592; 

(4) 'The English Protestant Schools' (Charter Schools), beginning 
as a non -official system, but promoted by official personages, then 
chartered by the Crown, and financed from the revenues of the State 
(1733-1744) ; (5) the expansion of State aid to educational organisa- 
tions (1791-1816). 

The provision for the support of these various types of schools, 
and for the University near Dublin, was very varied, (i) The earliest 
English Parish Schools were provided for by a special tax on beneficed 
clergy of the Established Church, and by a school-fee system which 
the text of the Act of 1537 shows to have been already in existence. 
(2) The Diocesan Grammar Schools were similarly maintained, under 
the Act of 1570, by a levy on the higher and inferior clergy of each 
diocese in the State Church : and it is significant that the first 
' Schools Bill ' was rejected, under Poyning's Act, by the English 
Privy Council, on March 18, 1569, apparently because the proposed 
source of financial support was by it to be ' the whole shire,' and 
not the Church revenues. It is obvious that Queen Elizabeth, being 

13 



INTRODUCTION. 

of a decidedly frugal mind, was determined not to let the revenues 
of the State bear the cost of the educational policies which she and 
the Council desired to promote. Hence in the recommendation from 
Ireland (1569) concerning the new free school in Galway, it is stated, 
not without some apprehension of royal displeasure, that the suit 
of the would-be founder ' stretcheth thus farre that it might please 
the queenes most excellent majestic to endow the schole for ever 
with... her part of the parsonage of Galway ' : and great inducements 
are held out ' to be a sufficient pourchase to her highnes to alienate 
from herself e so small a revenew.' 

The endowment of Urban free Schools of Grammar came in 
different ways. The Corporation of Drogheda, for instance, made 
suit on November 28, 1567, for three lots of monastic property for 
this purpose ; while in the capital itself the Municipality could draw 
only on the general municipal fund. In 1591 this was so low that his 
salary could not be paid to James (afterwards Sir James) Fullerton, 
master of their school in Great Ship Street : and his usher, James 
Hamilton (afterwards Viscount Claneboye) must have been in 
similar straits, despite the provision made for them, as his secret 
agents, by James VI. of Scotland. The Royal Free Schools in Ulster 
received large grants of land under James I. and Charles I. : but 
the London Companies that obtained the escheated lands of Derry 
were very niggardly in their aid to the grammar schools grudgingly 
provided for in Derry City and in Coleraine. The Bishop of Derry 
complains, about 1622, that ' the lands intended for the Schooles of 
Derry are swallowed up/ and hints that Sir William Parsons, the 
Surveyor General, is ' the likeliest to know what is become of them.' 
But the proceedings (1608-1624) in this connection would rather 
indicate that the Companies themselves had ' suppressed ' the 
King's Grant of the * fair proportion ' of lands. 

(3) Trinity College was provided for in confiscated abbey lands 
near Dublin, and "by a long succession of grants from confiscated 
estates in the period 1590-1660 : its property list is almost a synopsis 
of the dispossession of the Irish and Old English proprietors. Even 
Cromwell, who took steps for the betterment of religious exercises 
in the College, added to the estate roll. In the i8th Century a 
considerable part of the rental of the Erasmus Smith Estates was 
diverted to the University from its original purpose, the education 
of the children of his tenants and labourers : and the College received 
also considerable building grants from the estate. 

14 



INTRODUCTION. 

(4) Direct annual votes of money from State revenue were 
aimed at and obtained in the period 1733-1744, by the ' Incorporated 
Society for Promoting English Protestant Schools in Ireland/ and 
took at first the form of ear -marking for this purpose the taxes on 
hawkers and pedlars' licenses, largely added to later on. By 1816 
the grant for this purpose alone was 40,000 a year, and the total 
voted up to 1823 was 1,027,000. The last vote was 5,750 in 1832, 
when the Society was left in full possession of all its accumulated 
property in houses, and land : the lands were then over 17,000 acres 
in extent. 

(5) Other societies were also subsidised, as the Association 
for discountenancing Vice (see 1806-10), whose primary Schools 
were curiously aided by the fines 'from Unlicensed stills in Dublin.' 
And the ' Kildare Place Society/ finding that private subscriptions 
did not come, that absentee landlords were obdurate to the calls of 
education, and that the London Companies in the North were little 
if anything better, turned to the State, and had its request for money 
granted at once in 1816. 

These various organisations aimed at giving education in and 
through the English language. But in the period 1770-1830, a large 
body of English opinion, in Ireland and in Great Britain, favoured 
the development of a State policy of using the Irish language as a 
stepping-stone to unification through English. ' There is no way," 
says the preface (dated 1825) f one f the schoolbooks issued by 
the Hibernian Society, " in which we can acquire a language that we 
do not know, but through the medium of one we do know... From 
not making use of this only method, do so many of our countrymen 
remain ignorant of English, although their interests, their pride 
and their wishes would lead them to know it." 

The Language Question and 
Government Policy. 

The documents which fall within the years 1536-1539 show 
that the great change in Irish policy, devised and executed by 
Henry VIII. in the six years previous to 1542, specifically 
included the use of education in the English tongue as an instru- 
mentum regni. The nature of the change is fully expressed in 
Richard Cowley's memorandum of 1541 (State Papers, Brewer, III. 
Hi. 347-8), " For the Reformation of Ireland : How the land might 

15 



INTRODUCTION. 

be entirely brought to the King's obeyance without great cost." 
It urges that 

" Sume wold think it better the land shuld remayn stil in 
separacion and contencion, whereby they shal have no mynde ne 
power to confeder with any alyen ralm to the noysance of England. 
....Irishmen wol never bee conquered by rigorous warre....The Irish- 
men have pregnant subtil witis, eloquent, and marvelous natural... 
They must bee instructid, that the King entendith not to exile, 
banyshe, or distrue theym, but wold be content that every of theym 
shuld enjoy his possessions, taking the same of the King, as ODownyl 
hath doon, and ONele is crying to doo, and to become his true 
subgietes, obedient to his lawes, forsaking their Irish lawes, habittes, 
and custumes, setting their children to lerne English." 

So, too, the Act of 1537 seeks to remove that " diversitie which 
is betwixt " the King's subjects in Ireland " in tongue, language, 
order, and habite, which by the eye deceiveth the multitude, and 
persuadeth unto them, that they should be as it were of sundry 
sortes." And more significant still is the petition of 1539 for the 
preservation of six religious houses, because in them " yonge men 
and childer, bothe gentilmen childer and other, both of man kynd 
and women kynd, be broght up in vertue, lerning, and in the English 
tongue and behavor." The petition was unsuccessful ; but the 
deputy and council may be assumed to have known (see 1537, 
Document 2) what educational argument would appeal to the King. 
The sharp tone taken towards the citizens of Gal way in 1537, and 
the evidence afforded under the dates 1569, 1583, 1611-20, are 
expression of the view that these English cities in Ireland had failed 
in a primary national duty ; a fact made clear even in Dublin under 
the Commonwealth (1605-1687, b). 

There was, however, a certain vacillation in state policy regarding 
language. James I. expressed (1620) his displeasure at the way in 
which Trinity College failed to provide ministers of the gospel, able 
to preach and teach in Irish " the simple natives of that our kingdome, 
whoe by experience wee heare are found to bee farr more tractable 
amongst the rude Irish than amongst the unconformable English " ; 
and he directed ' that choice be made of some competent number 
of towardlie young men alreadie fitted the knowledge of the Irish 
tongue,' for that purpose. The policy here marked out, one of 
those " politic shifts, and amiable persuasions " which Henry VIII. 
preferred, was worked for in Trinity College by Bedell, Narcissus 

16 



INTRODUCTION. 

Marsh, and Archbishop King of Dublin, till the latter felt he had 
failed (1712-16). It was revived on the primary side in the earlier 
years of the nineteenth century, and contributed not a little to the 
disuse of Irish as an educational instrument. For, though most 
of the Bishops of the Establishment thought that Archbishop King's 
Irish language policy was " the least of all useful and convenient, 
besides that it was against the intention of the law of 28th H. 8th, 
which was to promote the English language and habit " (1712), 
there was felt by the mass of the people to be present under the 
appearance of the Irish language the purpose expressed a few years 
later by the same dignitary (1716) : " If the Bishops of Ireland had 
heartily come into this work, and the government had given it counten- 
ance, certain methods might in my opinion have been taken that 
would have had great effect towards the conversion of the natives, 
and making them good Protestants, and sincere in the English 
Interest" 



Universities, Inns of Court, 
and the Court of Wards. 

The interlinking of language and religion in a State policy of 
Education in Ireland is also shown in the special measures taken by 
Government to draw the Irish and Anglo -Irish nobility closer to the 
Crown by Education in England. Two entries in 1589 are typical 
instances of many scattered through the State Papers : 

(1) Brian MacGeoghegan petitions the Queen on December 4, 

showing that " he has been compelled, through want of 
exhibition or means, to draw home two children he had 
brought up here in England, in good civility and literature " ; 

(2) Sir Richard Bingham writes to Walshingham, July 21, that 

" the bearer, Wm. O'Kelly, has been civilly brought up, and 
desires, after spending some time at Oxford, to enter the 
service of some nobleman about Court. His father is one of 
the best of the O'Kellies." 

Among families of Norman descent, this practice is far more 
common. Lord Barry's son is brought across the Irish sea for 
Education in June, 1566 : he was preceded by Butlers, Fitzgeralds, 
and many others. Especially was this the case in education for the 
law. There were many students at the various Inns of Court in 

17 

B 



INTRODUCTION. 

London, who bore names like that of Florence MacCarthy : we are 
told, for instance, as to Sir Phelim O'Neill, that " his education for a 
great part of his youth was in England. He was admitted a student 
of Lincolne's Inn, and there trained up in the Protestant religion, 
which he changed soon after." 

The Court of Wards, instituted in 1617, became a powerful 
instrument in the hands of the State officials, in both an economic 
and a religious sense. The " Articles and Instructions to be observed 
by Our Commissioners for our Wards within our Realme of Ireland " 
(Liber Munerum, iv. 123) direct " that the wards which are fit to be 
brought up in learninge, be bred and educated in the colledge near 
Dublin " ; for on its establishment in 1592, Trinity College re- 
placed to some extent the English Universities as an instrument of 
policy. Several passages in the Documents (1570 to 1646) afford 
examples of the unrelenting and sadly effective consequences of the 
working of both the Court of Wards and the State Universities. 
Sir William Parsons was master of the Court of Wards, and with 
his colleagues in the Irish Government, Percival for instance, was 
indefatigable in the requirement of Protestant education for minors, 
of marriage with a Protestant (usually an imposed marriage with 
the daughter of some land -hunting official), and of the oaths 
of abjuration and supremacy as conditions precedent to their 
admission into the enjoyment of their own property. The 
most effective result of this policy was achieved only by an 
" artifice " on which Sir William Parsons loudly congratulated 
himself in later years. The grandson of Walter, Earl of Ormonde 
(" Walter of the Beads and Rosary," the Irish called him), though 
not a ward of the Crown at all, was taken, at ten years of age, in 
1620, from the care of his Catholic mother and grandfather, who 
had placed him at an English Catholic School at Finchley, and 
committed to the charge of Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury. The 
Archbishop shamefully neglected his duty to educate, but firmly 
withstood all the efforts of the Earl to influence or to regain his 
grandson ; and that boy grew up to be James, first Duke of Ormonde. 
Repeated instances, too, occur in the documents, of the policy 
advocated in 1620 by the Earl of Thomond, then Lord President 
of Munster, " that order be made for recalling the children of the 
lords and merchants and gentry from foreign schools and universities, 
where they are instructed in the Romish religion, and for sen ding 
those that are at home to their own universities " meaning thereby 

18 



INTRODUCTION. 

Dublin, Oxford, and Cambridge. The volume of intercourse 
between Ireland and the Continental ports was so great that this 
restriction could never be brought into full effect. Yet it finds 
its most drastic expression in the final form of the Penal Code, 
a century after it was formulated by the Earl of Thomond. 

Lawyers and Burghers 
seek Educational Freedom. 

The main strength of Anglo -Irish Catholics, in their resistance 
to the educational measures of the Government, lay in the merchant 
classes in the cities, and in the lawyers. In 1590 Richard Whyte 
urges on Lord Burghley that " The sting of rebellion, which in times 
past remained among the Irishry, is transferred and removed into 
the hearts of the civill gentlemen, aldermen, and burgesses, and 
rich merchants of Ireland, papistry being the original cause and 
ground thereof." 

There are many parallels in the documents relative to Galway, 
Kilkenny, Clonmel, Limerick, Drogheda, New Ross, Cashel, and 
other Norman walled towns and cities, for the attitude so touchingly 
complained of by John Shearman, English schoolmaster at Water- 
ford, in 1585. That the Corporate officials and the lawyers on the 
Catholic side might be fittingly dealt with, was a special petition 
in the Propositions made to Charles I, in April, 1644, by the 
" Agents of the Protestants in Ireland." These propositions went 
far beyond the plans of the State Officials in the same year, which 
are set down in the Documents ; they afford an accurate forecast 
of the penal legislation against Catholic education, 1695 to to 1733. 
Among other demands of a sweeping character, they require 

" That no man may take upon him, or execute, the office of 
Mayor, or Magistrate in any Corporation, or the office of a 
Sheriffe, or Justice of Peace, in any city or county,... until he 
hath first taken the oathes of supremacie and allegiance. 

" That all Popish lawyers who refuse to take the oathes of 
supremacie and allegiance, may be suppressed and restrained 
from practice.... it hath been found by wo full experience, 
that the advice of the Popish Lawyers to the people of 
Ireland hath been a great cause of their continued dis- 
obedience. 

" That some fit course may be considered of to prevent the 

19 



INTRODUCTION. 

filling and overlaying of the Commons House of Parliament 
in Ireland, with Popish Recusants being ill affected members, 
and that provision may be duly made that none may sit or 
vote therein but such as shall first take the oathes of allegiance 
and supremacie." 

No apter commentary than the petitions to the King of the 
Ulster Puritans in 1641, and of the two Protestant parties of 1644, 
can be given to explain the negotiations between Ormonde and the 
Confederate Catholics, 1644-46. The concluding of peace of 1646 
was in many respects unsatisfactory, but the concessions made 
reluctantly by the King and the Lord Lieutenant, would have been 
of distinct value in the domain of education. 

The Political Fortunes of 
Kilkenny School. 

The vicissitudes of urban grammar-schools in Ireland may be 
illustrated from the history of the Kilkenny School, touched on 
under the dates 1565 and 1686 (Documents, I. 6, 51). The first 
foundation was made early in the i6th century by Piers Butler, 
Earl of Ormonde and Ossory. Richard Stanihurst tells us that it 
was in this school, still Catholic in management after the period 
1553-58, that Peter White taught. " Out of which schoole have 
sprouted such proper impes, through the painful diligence and 
laboursome Industrie of that famous lettered man, Mr. Peter White, 
sometime fellow of Oriel College in Oxford, and schoolemaster in 
Kilkennie, as generally the whole weale publicke of Ireland, and 
especiallie the southern parts of that island, are greatly thereby 
furthered. This gentleman's method of training up youth was 
rare and singular, framing the education according to the scholar's 
veine....he had so good successe in schooling his pupils, as in good 
sooth I may boldlie bide by it that in the realme of Ireland there 
was no grammar school so good ; in England, I am assured, none 
better. And because it was my happie hap (God and my parents 
be thanked) to have been one of his crue,...I will acknowledge myself 
so much bound and beholden to him and his, as for his sake I 
reverence the meanest stone cemented in the walls of that famous 
schoole." 

The school cannot have been a long (if indeed it were any) time 
under Protestant administration when the choice of Kilkenny as 

20 



INTRODUCTION. 

the capital of the Confederation, 1642, established the Jesuits as 
teachers of grammar there. In 1644 they produced the school play 
elsewhere discussed ; in 1649 the teaching staff consisted of William 
Sallinger (aet. 50), Prefect of Studies, John Egan (aet. 55), Professor 
of Physics ; John Usher (aet. 35), taught Rhetoric, Stephen Gellous 
(aet. 32), Poetry, and Patrick Lea (aet. 30), Grammar. 

Long before 1670, the Duke of Ormonde was again in full control : 
Dr. Edward Jones was then master, and Dr. Henry Ryder in 1680. 
On Dr. Ryder becoming Bishop of Killaloe, in the State Establish- 
ment, the Duke brought over as master Edward Hinton, D.D., 
" a learned and conscientious Englishman," as Harris styles him ; 
and in March, 1684, he re-founded the school, provided statutes, 
and considerably added to the existing revenues. The salary of 
the master was fixed at 140 a year " of good and lawful money 
of and in England " ; he was required to be " loyal and orthodox," 
and therefore he was to " take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, 
and conform to the... church of Ireland, as it is by law now estab- 
lished." Further, it was lawful for him " to demand and receive 
...the rates and usages of the most remarkable schools in Dublin, 
for boarding and schooling," except that " Ormond scholars " were 
to be taught free, and that children of citizens " shall pay but half 
price." 

The document of 1686 shows the growth of a rival establishment : 
and with the rapid progress of political events, 1686-91, came a 
succession of changes. Dr. Hinton fled to England ; the Lord 
Lieutenant Tyrconnell closed the school, and made it a hospital. 
King James II., by charter dated 21 February, 1689, transformed 
it into the " Royal College of St. Canice, Kilkenny," with a rector, 
eight professors, and two scholars, " in the name of more." The 
staff was drawn from the rival institution of 1686, and included 
William Daton, D.D., Rector ; Edward Tonnery, Professor of 
Philosophy ; James Cleary, of Rhetoric ; William Felan, of 
Humanities ; Francis Barn wall, and John Meagher, of the Grammar 
classes. The Catholic Bishop of the day prescribed rules for the 
College ; they are given in full by Ledwich (Antiquities of Ireland, 
1803, pp. 430-32). 

After 1691, the Duke of Ormonde's School was re-established, 
and after the events of 1715, the founder's rights were transferred 
to Trinity College. Its situation at the opening of the nineteenth 
century is described in the documents at that period. 

21 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Commonwealth Policy 
for Education in Ireland. 

These fair promises, in the treaties of 1646 and 1648, disappeared 
utterly with the triumph of the Commonwealth in 1651. The series 
of documents, 1651-1657, relative to the projects of educational 
organisation by the Puritan rulers of Ireland, will repay careful 
examination. It will be seen that they define a comprehensive 
policy, embracing University, grammar schools, and industrial 
exploitation through apprenticeship ; that here again, as under 
Elizabeth and the Stuarts, education is to be a means towards the 
assimilation of the Irish. Unlike the earlier plans, it includes, in the 
remarkable document of 1657, issued under the Protector's own 
name, the wholesale conversion, through industrial apprenticeship, 
of the ' children of the poorer sorte of Irish.' With the document 
dated 1655, this decree affords incidentally clear proof that the 
orders for transplantation into Connaught, 1653-1656, affected only 
owners of land, with their retainers. The bulk of the ' poorer 
sorte ' remained east of the Shannon, as a serf population tilling 
the soil for the new owners, both the soldiers and adventurers. 
They were, of course, utterly at the mercy of these Puritan landlords 
and burghers. It is often overlooked that the confiscation of Irish 
land, under Cromwell, included also in full measure the confiscation 
of all town property, and its transfer by the Commonwealth to new 
householders and new uses. Among these new uses was the project, 
under date of 1657, for granting 2,000 a year, in Irish town property, 
to maintain a " forraigne Correspondency with Learned men, for 
the supplying and assisting also such at home and abroad whose 
Learning, Parts, Studies, and abilities have made them capable of 
being in some way or other Extraordinary Usefull to the Publique, 
and...conduceing to the Advancement in Generall of Learning." 
This brings us, beyond doubt, into contact with an unobserved 
device of Doctor William Petty and Master Samuel Hartlib to 
establish that " Office of Publick Addresses " which they advocated, 
with Milton, Hall, Snell, Webster, Woodward, and others of the 
" Baconian group," ever since 1647. Doctor William Petty was in 
Ireland at the time, as Physician -General, Survey or -General, and 
Commissioner (1656) for reorganising Grammar Schools on lines 
" agreeable to the Rules and Discipline used in the ffree-schooles of 
Literature in England or Holland." It is noteworthy that in the 

22 



INTRODUCTION. 

wording of the plan for the new Academy, the Protector reserved 
for himself the ultimate control of all appointments to it ; and that 
the wording is wide enough to include measures of aid for the 
illimitable educational projects of Comenius, the central figure of 
the whole group. 

The Grammar -School endowments in Ireland are also dealt with 
under the Commonwealth (1657) ; there were appointments, not only 
of " Ministers of the Word," but also of Schoolmasters at lesser 
salaries than the 100 a year mentioned, as for instance at Waterford 
(Smith's Waterford, 2nd edit., 1774, p. 150). Probably at no period 
was the suppression of Catholic Schools in Ireland so complete as 
under Cromwell : but even his vigilance and that of his military 
government was evaded by James Forde, S.J. (1652-56), and by 
others also. 



Educators among Jesuits, Franciscans, 
Secular Clergy, and laymen. 

The Puritan period of rigour was in contrast with the 
intermittent suppressions, connivances, and tolerations as regards 
schools outside the state system, which marked the reigns of James 
I, Charles I. (see 1630) and Charles II. The activity of the Jesuit 
secondary teachers in the towns and cities was very considerable 
between 1627 and 1689, but extended as far back as 1575 at Youghal, 
and in Dublin was maintained down to the close of the eighteenth 
century. Few European Schools of the seventeenth century could 
boast of possessing a teacher so learned as Stephen White of Clonmel, 
for long years a University Professor in Austrian lands, and described 
by Ussher as the most learned man of the time, in the antiquities 
not only of Ireland, but of other countries. The Jesuit scholar 
and the semi-Puritan Archbishop were indeed on friendly terms ; 
the Archbishop, wrote White to a friend on the Continent, " received 
me in his private library with the greatest affability, and treated 
me with candour and unaffectedness." It seems likely that White 
was on the staff of the inchoate University worked in Dublin by the 
Jesuits from 1627, " to confront his Majesty's Colledge there," as 
Edmund Borlase indignantly wrote ; he was possibly one of the 
three original scholars named in the Charter of Trinity College, 
a charter that carefully avoided all mention of the religious purpose 
of that institution. In 1645 he was Superior of the flourishing 

23 



INTRODUCTION. 

College in Galway, which had, like the Jesuit College at Kilkenny, 
five teachers, a very large number in those days. In the Limerick 
and Waterford Colleges of the Order there were three teachers 
each in 1649 : and there were lesser schools in Wexford, Clonmel, and 
New Ross. 

After the death of Oliver Cromwell, New Ross with Drogheda, 
Cashel, and Dublin, were the chief centres of their educational work. 
Reference to the documents for the period 1657-1673 will show 
the special relations in which these schools stood to the State, 
the State Church, the urban officials, and will illustrate in particular 
the use of School Drama in Ireland. Part II. of the Documents 
contains, from an unique copy in the Bradshaw Collection at 
Cambridge, the outline of a school drama performed under the 
Confederation, in its capital city of Kilkenny, by the scholars of 
the Jesuit College there, in 1644. Contrary to the then customary 
practice, the play seems to have been performed not in Latin, but 
in English ; though possibly the summary of the Acts and Scenes was 
intended chiefly to bring home to every spectator the appositeness 
of the subject, drawn from Solier's History of the Christian Church 
in Japan, written in 1620. The actual composition of the play 
would be the work of the master of the class of Rhetoric or of 
Humanity. The development on a large scale, at New Ross, of 
school plays in public, 1657-1670, was due to Stephen Gelosse, SJ. 
(the name is also written Gellous, and was pronounced " Jealous "). 
He was on the staff of the Kilkenny College in the Confederation 
period, but not till 1647, three years after one of his colleagues 
wrote the text and summary of Titus. Born in Dublin, 1614, of 
mixed Norman and Irish descent, Stephen Gelosse worked as a 
missionary at New Ross from 1650 to 1657, wne n he again could 
venture into what Peter White, or his eulogist Antony & Wood, 
called ' his beloved faculty of Pedagogy.' The seven years of con- 
cealed activity under Puritan rule are a marvellous record of disguise, 
captures, escapes, and varied adventure : the full contemporary 
record of them is as yet unpublished. The Documents of 1694-1717 
continue the story in a few incisive words : school -work in Dublin 
seems to have been maintained uninterruptedly. In 1750, John 
Austin, S.J., opened in Saul's Court, off Fishamble Street, the 
classical school which had added to it by 1770 a boarding house 
(where the yearly pension was 20 guineas) conducted by his colleague, 
Thomas Betagh. At that famous school were educated such church - 

24 



INTRODUCTION. 

men as Archbishop Murray and Bishop Blake of Dromore, whose 
efforts in 1808-1815 defeated the "' Veto " proposals : and laymen 
such as John O'Keeffe, the dramatist. In comparison with these 
incessant efforts, made under the whole repressive vigour of the 
Penal Laws, there is credit, but no very special merit, in opening 
schools when the partial relaxation of the Penal Code relative to 
education was conceded in 1781-2. 

The Jesuit connections were mainly with the Pale, the walled 
cities of the Anglo-Norman burghers, and the " Old English " 
generally, though they numbered, in men like James Archer, persons 
of great influence among the Irish, and never lacked able preachers 
in that language. More closely associated with the traditional 
forms of Celtic Education were the Franciscans. Had the * Irish 
School ' projected in 1642 been erected, and had the O'Clerys, Hugh 
Ward, and John Colgan been brought over for that purpose, as Rory 
O'More urged, a new lease of life would have been given to the 
combination of Irish and Latin as vehicular languages for secondary 
and for University education. The schools of the MacEgans, 
O'Davorens, and other hereditary scholar -families might then 
have perpetuated that unique instance in the Europe of the Middle 
Ages and Renaissance, in which a vernacular was made the in- 
strument of advanced learning. These hopes vanished in the 
calamities of 1649-51. It is noticeable that the attempt made by 
Eugene O'Cahan to found such a school (1644-48) was in the still 
Irish county of Clare, at the old Franciscan Abbey of Quin. 

The secular clergy and lay Catholics contributed largely to the 
development of Schools in Ireland, in the casual intervals of 
repressive legislation and administrative coercion. Thus Peter 
White under Elizabeth (1565 sq.) conducted with great success his 
school at Kilkenny, and possibly also at Clonmel and at Water ford ; 
Richard Creagh taught in Limerick before he became Primate ; 
Alexander Lynch's efficiency and firmness of character is established 
by the Galway document (1615) from the Commission of Inquiry 
which included James Ussher among its members ; and the venture 
of 1686, of Irish students from the University of Paris, shows a 
readiness to profit by the brief interval of freedom. Under the 
Penal Code, Dr. Nary provided the oldest portion of Dublin with 
a large number of schools : and it was in that region of the city that 
Austin, Betagh, Mulcaile and Fullam worked at the close of the 
eighteenth century. 

25 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Educational Endowments 
by Erasmus Smith, 1657-1894. 

Documents under the dates 1657-1712 set out the chief original 
records concerning the educational purposes of Alderman Erasmus 
Smith of London. The best commentary on them will be found in 
the judgments of Lord Justice Fitzgibbon and Mr. Justice O'Brien 
(Documents, II. G), delivered in 1894, after nine years of effort to 
find an agreed policy. They serve to show that problems created 
under the Commonwealth persist to-day in Irish Education. Mr. 
Justice O'Brien referred, in a striking passage, to the conviction 
forced on Erasmus Smith that his hopes of education as an assimilative 
force had been fruitless : it found expression in his letters of June 6, 
1682, from London, to the Governors of his Schools : 

" I give you my humble thanks for your careful inspection of 
the schools... It is the command of his Majesty to catechize the 
children out of Primate Usher's,.... My Lords, I designe not to reflect 
upon any, only I give my judgment why these schooles are so 
consumptive, which was, and is, and will be (if not prevented) the 
many popish schooles, their neighbours, which as succers doo starve 
the tree." 

Students of the original documents and of the judgments 
of 1894 will be able to extract from them the various solutions 
proposed by those who appeared before the Commission on 
Educational Endowments. The tenants on the Estates of Erasmus 
Smith in Tipperary and Limerick petitioned that there should be 
given " to our children, from the Erasmus Smith Endowments, 
free Intermediate and University Education, in a form in which 
they may conscientiously accept it " ; and the Draft Scheme of the 
Commission was based on the principle of " absolute religious 
neutrality." It failed because of the failure of the Judicial Com- 
missioners to agree on it. The other proposals made were : (i) the 
claim of the Governors (then and now in possession) that the 
endowment belongs solely to the Protestant Episcopal Church ; 
(2) the claim that the whole endowment is Protestant in character, 
but should be governed by and shared among all Protestant de- 
nominations ; (3) the view of Lord Justice Fitzgibbon, that though 
the endowment is " vitally, essentially, Protestant," a large part of 
the funds could be detached for a form of technical education, which 

26 



INTRODUCTION. 

in the religious sense would be neutral in character. No more striking 
and historic instance could be cited to show that questions of 
education in Ireland often have their roots in the past history of 
the land and its people, and in many cases can be solved only by 
plans that involve acts of moral judgment on the men who made 
that history. 

The Penal Code, and its 
purpose through Education. 

The penal code on Education (1695-1733) summarises and 
enforces various forms of State Policy which found partial realisation 
from Elizabeth to Charles II. Its closest antecedents are to be seen 
in the Puritan petitions and plans, from 1641 to 1657 : for it was 
this party that really prevailed at the Revolution. It is advisable 
here to describe the policy and position of these men, in words 
derived from unexceptionable witnesses, who knew their temper 
well. Two such witnesses are 

A. John Fitzgibbon, Earl of Clare, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, 
in his speech in the House of Lords, Dublin, on the Second 
Reading of the Act of Union, 1800 : 

(1) " The situation of the Irish nation at the Revolution 

stands unparalleled in the history of the inhabited world... 
The whole power and property of the country has been 
conferred by successive monarchs of England upon an 
English Colony, composed of three sets of adventurers 
who poured into this country at the termination of the 
successive rebellions. Confiscation is their common 
title." 

(2) "A new colony of new settlers, composed of all the various 

sects which then infested England... poured into Ireland, 
and were put into possession of the antient inheritance of 
its inhabit ants... a very considerable portion of the opulence 
and power of the Kingdom of Ireland centres at this day in 
the descendants of this motley collection of English 
adventurers." 

B. Sir George Macartney, of Lissanure, Co. Antrim (afterwards 
Earl Macartney), Chief Secretary in the Government of 

27 



INTRODUCTION. 

Ireland, 1769-1772, in his ' Political Account of Ireland/ 
written in 1773 : 

(1) " From these adventurers are descended some of the 

principal persons of the kingdom in opulence and power, 
men of an untoward republican spirit, and of the sourest 
leaven, who eagerly adopted the most harsh and oppressive 
measures against those upon whose ruin they rose. The 
Restoration had secured them their property, and .the 
Revolution armed them with power/' 

(2) " For this purpose they passed those acts which have now 

for these seventy years been the law of the land, and which 
form the most complete code of persecution which ingenious 
bigotry ever compiled... By the laws against Popery, the 
bonds of society, the ties of nature, and all the charities 
of kindred and friendship are torn in pieces, those are 
allured who could not be compelled." 

In the light of these utterances of responsible ministers of State 
in Ireland, charged with the maintenance and execution of the policy 
devised by the men they thus describe, and not by the irresponsible 
rhetoric of Burke or of Grattan, the Penal Laws against Education 
should be read and judged. Their constructive side, in the plans 
for Charity Schools (1721), Charter Schools (1730-33, and in 
numerous subsequent records, including especially Documents, II. 
A), Agricultural Education (1765), and even Orde's proposals (1787), 
is designed to enforce the various educational policies of the 
' English Colony/ to use Lord Clare's phrase, enacted in what he 
more than once, in that masterful speech of 1800, called ' the 
Colonial Parliament/ That purpose was formulated by even the 
earlier of what Lord Clare described as " the three sets of 
adventurers." It is complained of in the Remonstrance of 1641, by 
" The Northern Catholicks of Ireland, now in arms," to their " most 
gracious and dread Sovereign," King Charles I. " The youth of this 
kingdom, especially of us Catholicks, is debarred from education 
and learning, in that no schoolmaster of our religion is admitted 
to teach, nor any admitted to be bred beyond the seas... thereby 
to make us utterly ignorant of literature and civil breeding, which 
always followeth learning and the arts ; insomuch that we may 
boldly affirm that we are the most miserable and most unhappy 
nation in the world." 

28 



INTRODUCTION. 

The spirit in which these laws, whether prohibitive or constructive, 
were administered by the " English Colony," is abundantly evident 
under their own hands, in the comprehensive citations dated 1731. 
The spirit of their policy of industrial education, in particular, 
can be clearly seen in the ordinance of the Protector Cromwell, in 
1657, concerning the children of ' the poorer sorte of Irish.' And 
the consequences of that special policy of industrial education, 
initiated as shown in the documents of 1721-44, may be read in the 
impartial testimony of John Howard and of John Wesley, 1782-1788. 
To these references may be added one hitherto unpublished, showing 
the use made of the penal laws against education, in the general 
election of 1761, the first that was held after the Penal Code had 
been elaborated so as to be substantially complete. But there are 
two aspects of this repressive legislation which call for separate 
treatment. 

Tendencies in Education 
among Catholics, 1686-1816. 

In education and in their economic position the Catholics of 
Ireland, in the years 1700 to 1782, had to adapt themselves to the 
laws which, it was judicially decided, " did not presume them to 
exist in the country, except for the purposes of punishment." They 
were effectively excluded from the professions, from all service in 
civic duties (save coroners' juries), from all organised trade guilds, 
from all exercise of the franchise. They could not lease a farm, nor 
hold land save by descent, and then the inheritance was gavelled. 
The law which made an heir who was a minor, the ward of the 
Court of Chancery, was executed with rigorous precision. As a 
result, the Penal code was undoubtedly successful in crushing the 
landed interest among the Catholics. They still owned about one- 
sixth of the soil, after 1691 ; in 1795 it was declared in the debates 
of the Commons at Dublin, that they held less than one -fiftieth. 
They did, however, find an outlet for their activities, and Arch- 
bishop King observes with some concern, in a letter to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (Wake), June 2, 1719 : "By the act... that 
hinders Papists to purchase lands, they have turned themselves 
entirely to trade ; and most of the trade of the kingdom is engrossed 
by them." Later on (April 27, 1728) he returns to this point : 
" They have proposed to themselves, as I understand, two maxims, 
the first is to underlive the Protestants, as to expenses ; and the 

29 



INTRODUCTION. 

second is to outbid them for all farms that are to be new set.... As 
to the trade of the kingdom, they have it in their hands." 

The trade in question was the export and import trade, especially 
in provisions and raw materials ; the renting of farms (as tenants - 
at -will) gave them an interest in grazing ; they could have no 
incentive to till the soil, as they could not lease an acre of it. The 
Commonwealth edict was wiser in its time, for it declared (June 
21, 1654) that " no Irish Papist shall be permitted to trade as a 
merchant to and from parts beyond the seas." Such trade, because 
not organised into a mystery or guild in any city in Ireland, escaped 
the restrictions of the Penal Code. It was the one outlet available 
as an industry ; and a large number of Irish Catholic families that 
acquired estates in the nineteenth century, did so with the profits 
of their trading in the century before. This led to a strong demand 
for instruction in mercantile arithmetic, in book-keeping, and in 
French ; the need of it is evidenced in the Kilkenny announcement 
of 1686, and in the Proposals of Patrick Bourke to the Dublin 
Corporation in 1687, when in that remodelled body he could expect 
to have his petition heard (Documents I., 1605-1687, section d). 
I have had the opportunity of examining an elaborate mercantile 
arithmetic, in the original MS., compiled for the use of the clerks 
in one Dublin firm, about 1765-1770 ; the treatment of foreign 
exchanges is most exhaustive and methodical. Further evidence 
is afforded in the large number of complete treatises on Arithmetic, 
issued in Dublin, Limerick, Waterford, Cork, and other cities, 
between 1770 and 1820 : they have in many cases prefixed lists 
of local teachers who were subscribers to these works, and in these 
lists there is always an accurate distinction drawn between the 
' Philomath ' and the ' Mathematician.' 

These lists also contain a surprising number of subscribers, 
entitled Surveyors. This demand for measurers of land arose from 
the absence of any reliable survey available in detail : even Sir Wm. 
Petty's survey under Cromwell was not available, for most of the 
sheets were captured at sea in the war of the Spanish Succession, 
and are still at the National Library at Paris. The constant lettings 
of land to Catholic graziers or cottiers, tenants -at -will, gave occasion 
for the services of Catholics as surveyors ; it was not yet a recognised 
profession, and so they could practise this branch of practical 
mathematics without danger. 

It need hardly be said that the efforts towards agricultural and 

30 



INTRODUCTION. 

industrial education, to be observed in the documents from 1721 
to 1765, had little interest for Catholics. They had no durable hold 
on the land ; the scholars produced by such schools as those of 
Wynn Baker and Bishop Pococke (1765), or by the agricultural 
schools such as that of George Vaughan at Tubbrit in Fermanagh 
(founded 1787), were intended for service as foremen or stewards 
on the estates of the ruling caste. It is among these proprietors 
that Arthur Young, in his Tour in Ireland, noted efforts to improve 
the soil, to plant trees, and to design landscape effects ; nor does 
he fail to notice that the Penal Code was a severer curb on the 
industrial activity of Ireland, than all the laws in restraint of trade 
that came from the English Legislature. 

The popular demand for the ' practical ' subjects of education 
continued in increased volume after the first relaxation of the Penal 
Code. It is to be observed in the proposals of Orde (1787, clause 4) ; 
in the ' professional academies ' devised by Provost Hely Hutchinson, 
in 1791 ; in the Report of 1809 (see especially Clonmel, section d ; 
Navan, section /) ; and a striking instance of it is found in the Dublin 
section of the Reports to the House of Lords, 1731. 

The Report of 1809 shows that in the twenty years preceding 
that date there was much activity in the provision of new classical 
schools under Catholic teachers, in various country towns. The 
system of organised central colleges, each with a large staff, was 
not generally developed till about 1840-50. But even the private - 
venture schools were by 1808 making their influence felt, and it 
was felt most of all in the type of Grammar School, whether of State 
or of private foundation, that had been conducted in accordance 
with the ideas of the State. 

Educational Freedom of 
Nonconformists in Ireland. 

The educational grievances of the Protestants of Ulster, formu- 
lated against the Bishops, found expression in a petition presented 
by them in 1641. The complaint, as regards themselves, is that 
obstacles were placed in the way of their teachers, who had to obtain 
the episcopal license in order to act within the law. Louder expres- 
sion is given to their distress at the fact that the Catholics were 
permitted to develop a system of advanced schools, under the 
connivance of the bishops of the Establishment : but it was almost 



INTRODUCTION. 

' common form/ in the now well -denned Protestant groups, to attack 
each other on the ground of connivance at Popery. Under the 
Commonwealth ministers and schoolmasters of the Northern 
Presbyterians, and those furnished by what Lord Clare called " the 
various sects which then infested England," were the officials of 
the Puritan State. Thus at Waterford and Passage there were two 
ministers with salaries of 200 and 100, and two schoolmasters 
John Brookes at 50, and William Feith " for teaching children to 
read and write," at 15. This arrangement of 1656, it is claimed 
by Dr. W. Campbell (Vindication of Presbyterian Principles, 1787), 
did not interferere with the spiritual independence which they 
maintained even against Henry Cromwell : and apparently large 
numbers of Puritan Gospel Ministers in Ireland, like Henry Jones, 
found it possible to accept the restrictions of the Act of Uniformity, 
1665. Archbishop Boulter admits, on March 13, 1728, that the 
Dissenting Ministers have complained of "the trouble that has been 
given them about.. .their schoolmasters," but he writes to the Bishop 
of London : "I was sure they had met with very little trouble on that 
head, since I had never heard any such grievance so much as 
mentioned till I saw it in their memorial." Their schools and those 
of the Society of Friends were able to develop peacefully, and were 
not affected by any of the Penal Laws : the English Act of 12 Anne, 
chapter 7, though extended by a special clause to Ireland, was 
practically a dead letter. At Ballitore in Kildare, the famous school 
at which Edmund Burke was educated flourished under three 
generations of the Shackleton family ; one of the gifted daughters 
of the house, Mary Leadbeater, mentions that Joseph Lancaster 
visited it on his Irish tour, and found much to commend. At Mount - 
mellick, the Friends had from 1786 a " Leinster Provincial School," 
described (Haliday Coll., R.I.A., Vol. 1092) as " for the children 
of Friends in poor circumstances," as " the importance of such a 
guarded education " in " the principles of Truth as professed by 
the Society of Friends " had become " more and more valuable 
in their view." John Gough, the writer of the notable Arithmetic, 
was Headmaster (1774-91) of a similar school at Lisburn. 

The documents relating to the " New Geneva " projects of 1783, 
taken in connection with Mr. Orde's proposals of 1787, show that 
the Government desired a new type of Presbyterianism in Ireland, 
with a centre of educational activity on the estuary of the Suir. 
The Presbyterian leader in the North, William Campbell, D.D., 

32 



INTRODUCTION. 

writes of their claims to the Earl of Charlemont, in terms far more 
meek than those which he used a few months earlier in his reply 
to the Anglican Bishop of Cloyne ; and Mr. Orde was evidently 
not in favour in the North, owing to the decisive way he had met, 
in his speech of 1787, the request of the " General Synod of the 
Presbyterian Church," for State financial aid towards an " academy 
...designed for the distinct education of their youth, under teachers 
of their own persuasion." 

From 1785 onwards there was considerable development of 
" the Presbyterian mode of education " in North -East Ulster, 
without State Aid of a direct kind. Little could be done in Derry 
or Coleraine, where the schools, primary and secondary alike, 
received small encouragement in the eighteenth century from " the 
Honourable the Irish Society," and fared even worse in the early 
years of the nineteenth. 



Aspects of Teaching Method 
and School Organisation. 

In several of the documents bearing on State Policy in Education, 
there are illuminating references to the questions of method and 
organisation. Only a few can be selected for indication here : the 
index on topics, and the citations themselves, will repay close study 
of this branch of the history of education in Ireland. The following 
are significant aspects of secondary, industrial, and primary 
Educational methods. 

(i) The description by Robert Payne, in 1590, of the Grammar 
School which he inspected at Limerick, states that he saw there 
" one hundred and thre score schollers, most of them speaking 
good and perfit English, for that they have used to conster the 
Latin into English." This is an early proof of the method taken 
with Irish-speaking scholars, down to the time of the poet -school- 
masters of Munster, ending about 1820. Both English and Latin 
were acquired in the school, and the chief method of learning to 
speak English was to construe the Latin authors into it. The two 
languages were thus learned not separately, but conjointly, and in 
relation to each other. This affords a simple explanation of how 
the older usage of spoken English, especially in Munster, was formal, 
bookish, and Latinised in vocabulary and idiom. 

33 
c 



INTRODUCTION. 

(2) Wynn Baker's scheme for the Agricultural Education of 
Boys, 1765, shows in a most remarkable way the ' modern ' ideas 
of (a) properly educating in general subjects before any practical 
work is attempted ; (b) the combination of practical work with 
' continuation ' schoolwork ; (c) combination of the study of theory 
and practice in a technical subject ; (d) the demonstration lesson 
out-of-doors. 

(3) The citations on the Cork poor schools, 1796-1815, afford 
excellent illustrations of the system of classification of scholars in 
primary schools at the time, each class being entirely concerned 
with one subject or one division of a subject. Writing came long 
after Reading had been entered on ; and Arithmetic came later 
still, being reached only by the persevering few. This plan of 
successive teaching of subjects, as opposed to concurrent teaching, 
lasted in all countries well into the nineteenth century, both in 
Europe and in the United States, 



Gradual Relaxation of the 
Penal Laws against Education. 

It will be observed in the Documents on this subject, 1782 to 
1816, that the process of emancipation was not precipitate. Most 
of the ' Irish Patriots ' were, indeed, alarmed at the pace set. Lord 
Charlemont wrote in 1783, of the first meagre concessions of 1782, 
that the end " might have been gained by concessions less extensive. 
...Our liberality, in the paroxysms of its fever, was madly profuse. 
We gave too much at a time." Grattan had to say to the Commons, 
in 1792, that (to cite his exact words) " I love the Roman Catholic, 
I am a friend of his liberty, but it is only in as much as his liberty is 
entirely consistent with your ascendancy, and an addition to the 
strength and freedom of the Protestant Community." The great 
measure of educational freedom in 1793 was forced through the 
Parliament in Dublin by the strong hand of Pitt, when the same 
members had by a majority of almost ten to one rejected with 
contumely the petition in this sense of the Irish Catholics, made 
but the year before. The interesting record as to Trinity College, 
under the date 1791, shows the spirit that prevailed there, when 
Catholics were "allured, who could not be compelled." Only a 
small minority of the Fellows supported the Act of 1793 ; and Lord 

34 



INTRODUCTION. 

Clare, who with John Foster was coerced by Pitt into sullen 
acquiescence in that measure, did his best to thwart its working in 
the College. The process of " turning for scholarship," amply 
evident in the election proceedings of 1791, continued its shameful 
and degrading course through the records of Trinity College far into 
the nineteenth century. Men still living remember the types 
known as " Quinquennials " and " Septennials." 

The humiliating procedure necessary to secure the legal right 
to keep schools, in the case of Catholic teachers, is shown by the 
license under the year 1799, issued to an Ursuline nun in Thurles ; 
and by the letters relative to Clongowes Wood College in 1814. 
The legal opinion given under the date 1813, shows the difficulty of 
making adequate provision for the foundation and endowment of 
Catholic Schools ; it explains well the bitter jeer on this issue, in 
the Document presented at Oxford, 1644, to King Charles I., by his 
officers of State from Dublin. But a sterner spirit could on occasion 
display itself. In March, 1814, Mr. Robert Peel, then Chief Secretary 
for Ireland, summoned Rev. Peter Kenny from Clongowes Wood 
to Dublin Castle, to answer illegal questions concerning his educa- 
tional undertakings. The recorded dialogue is as follows : 

" I understand you have money in the funds," said Mr. Peel. 

Father Kenny : " Such is the case, sir." 

Mr. Peel : " Are you not aware that we can confiscate that 
property ? " 

Father Kenny : " To a mercantile nation like England, a character 
for honesty and good faith are quite as necessary as to an individual 
trader. Money confided to the keeping of the English Government 
must be safe from confiscation... .On that point I have no appre- 
hension. Nevertheless, your government may attempt, and they 
certainly have the power to effect such a violation of the rights of 
property ; but in doing so they will violate the maxim of Lord 
Chatham, whose statesmanship you profess to hold in veneration. 
As you may not recollect the circumstances at this moment, suffer 
me to recall it to you. It having been suggested to him to lay hold 
of the monies lying in the English funds in the names of the natives 
of France, with which country war was raging, ' No, no/ said he, 
' if the devil had money in the English funds, it should be held safe 
for him/ " 

The Chief Secretary did not further interfere. 

35 



INTRODUCTION. 

Primary Schools, Cork and Dublin. 
Lancaster ; Betagh ; John England. 

The gradual change in State Policy as to primary education 
for Irish Catholics may be traced in the proposals contained in the 
Report of 1791, and in the Reports of the Commissioners of Educa- 
tion, 1808-12. The State Church was indeed determined to claim, 
for many a year after 1816, the exclusive right to supervise all the 
Education given in Primary Schools in Ireland. But in practice 
it was impossible to give this claim effect, even in the attenuated 
form of the ' Kildare Place System ' (outlined in its essential issues 
under the date 1816 in Documents, Part I., and in the text of its 
First Report, 1813, in Part II.) But the enterprise of the Bishop 
and Catholic merchants of Cork, 1796 to 1815, given in detail from 
the Minute Book of their Poor Schools Committee, shows what 
was otherwise on foot. They had put the essential points of Joseph 
Lancaster's plan of Education into execution several years before 
the ' Kildare Place Society ' built up a claim to be pioneers in the 
organisation of elementary education, a claim that reference to 
their First Report disproves, for it shows that they borrowed the 
whole plan and materials of Lancaster, and adapted them to their 
own policy. Both in Cork, Limerick, and other Irish cities, on the 
one hand, and in rural districts connected with Kildare Place, as 
well as in the earlier policy of the " National Board of Education " 
(1831 to about 1872), the principles and methods of Lancaster had 
immense influence on the whole development of Irish Education. 
Too often the writers of the History of Education have dwelt on 
his splendid work of material organisation, and have ignored the 
spirit and moral purpose that prompted and animated all his detailed 
plans. The combination of moral purpose and practical skill, even 
though the scope of his educative work was somewhat limited, is 
nowhere in his writings more clearly seen than in his Letter to John 
Foster (1805) on the Education of the Irish Poor. It is due to his 
services in Ireland to reprint this admirable summary of his plan 
of education. (See Documents, Part II.) 

The enterprise of the Merchants of Cork was but a later example 
of that activity in the education of the poor, which shocked the 
House of Lords in 1731, and was exhibited in a most notable way 
by that devoted educator, Thomas Betagh (Vicar -General of Dublin, 
1799-1810), from 1770 to the close of his life. Dr. Betagh died in 
1811 ; he was the last survivor of the Irish Jesuits of the ' Old 

36 



INTRODUCTION. 

Society.' In day, evening, and Sunday Schools, held in School- 
house Lane, in Skinners' Row, in Hoey's Court, and in Smock Alley, 
he directed the training of over 3,000 Catholic boys, and even at 
the age of 73 was every night present in the basement schoolrooms 
to hear their lessons. 

The document showing the organisation of the Catholic poor 
schools in Cork contains for 1815 a retrospect on educational 
opportunities by the Rev. John England, who was Superintendent 
of these schools, 1807 to 1815, and became Bishop of Charleston, 
in the United States, in 1820. This most able organiser and writer 
took a leading part, with Archbishop Murray and Drs. Blake and 
Betagh, in directing public opinion on the issue of Government 
influence in the administration of the Catholic Church in Ireland : 
they were powerfully helped by the already dominant personality 
of O'Connell. Dr. England was not content with the organisation 
and management of the Cork schools. He sought to mould ideas 
through the school subjects, and with this purpose produced the 
remarkable Sketch of Irish History for Schools, which is in its most 
important section reproduced from (Documents II.) a rare copy in 
the Royal Irish Academy. An examination of its text will show 
that it was quite apart from the ordinary colourless Historical 
Primer which will be found in use even now. Throughout the text 
the attention of teacher and scholar is focussed on ideas and policies : 
it is political in every phrase, and it devotes most of its space to 
the forty years of contemporary history which preceded its issue 
in 1815. Both the writer, and his archiepiscopal critic in the House 
of Lords ten years later, looked on the subject-matter and its method 
of presentation, as fitted for the use of scholars of primary age. 
The modern custom of extending far into the years of adolescence 
the use of texts and methods which are almost infantile in their 
appeal, differs from the healthy practice of a hundred years ago : 
witness the scope of this vigorous piece of work by one who knew 
the poor well, and had tested in the Cork schools the capacity of 
Irish lads and girls. Perhaps no such writer of English, firm in 
texture and direct in expression, ever composed a primer of history 
for poor schools, before or since 1815. A few months after his little 
book was reviewed with alarm by the House of Lords and by 
a Royal Commission, the author, who had then been but five years 
in the United States as a Catholic Bishop of a small and remote 
diocese, and who was himself so poor that he often walked in the 

37 



INTRODUCTION. 

streets of Charleston without soles to his boots, preached by invita- 
tion, before the President of the United States and both Houses of 
Congress, the commemoration sermon on the Jubilee of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. The qualities of thought that brought him 
such an opportunity in 1826 were clearly shown in the Primer of 
Irish History published in 1815. 

The eagerness of the People 
of Ireland for Education. 

These introductory aids to the study of the documents which 
follow, cannot better conclude than by directing attention to the 
cumulative testimony they afford of the eagerness of the whole of 
the Irish people for the education of their children. John Howard 
was struck by this in 1788 ; he records that " At the cabins on the 
roadside I saw several schools in which, for the payment of 33. 3d. 
per quarter, children were instructed in reading, writing, and accounts. 
Some of these I examined as to their proficiency, and found them 
much forwarder than those of the same age in the charter schools." 
These ' cabin schools ' were unquestionably the ' hedge-schools ' 
also. Gerald Fitzgibbon (Ireland in 1868, p. 74), who knew them 
well, says that they " were called hedge -schools, from a common 
custom of adjourning from the poor cabin of the master, when a 
fine day invited, to the shade of a neighbouring hedge, where the 
poor children had the double advantage of inhaling fresh air, and 
learning their task. They were pay schools, to which children 
resorted... who in winter could also daily bring one or two sods of 
turf, to keep up a fire in the school." Master Fitzgibbon also rightly 
pointed out (Ibid. pp. 72-5) that the calculations of the Commissioners 
in 1812, giving a total of 4,600 schools, with an attendance of " more 
than 200,000," were manifestly too low. The Commission of 1824-6 
made an exhaustive enumeration, on an average of three months 
in the Autumn of 1824 an unfavourable period, it may be added. 
The number of schools was then 11,823 \ tne number of scholars 
560,549. The schools which required payment of fees the lowest 
' hedge-school ' fee was then two pence a week numbered 9,352 ; 
the number of scholars in these ' pay schools ' was 394,732, according 
to the Protestant clergy, and 403,774, " according to the returns 
of the Roman Catholic clergy." As the estimated population of 
Ireland in June, 1824, was 7,078,140 (based on the census of 1821 

38 



INTRODUCTION. 

and of 1831), the school attendance was 8 per cent, of the total 
population a figure far more creditable than that of any leading 
European country. 

It was therefore to be expected that the Commission in 1812 
should declare that " the lower class of the people of Ireland are 
extremely anxious to obtain Instruction for their children, even at 
an expense which though small, very many of them can ill afford ; 
and there is a circumstance... that puts this desire in a yet stronger 
point of view we mean the existence of Evening Schools (and in one 
parish there are eleven of them) for the Instruction of those children 
whose service during the day their parents could not afford to lose." 
The last citation (in Part I. of the Documents) under the date 
1816, affords even more emphatic proof. Mr. Secretary Peel told 
the House of Commons, in his speech of 27 February in that year, 
his own experience in Ireland. " I can state," he said, " as a fact 
within my own knowledge, that the greatest eagerness and desire 
prevails among the lower orders of Ireland for the benefits of 
Instruction : and I regard it as the imperious duty of everyone, 
even in those times of economy, not to obstruct the progress or the 
limits of Education." 



STATISTICAL NOTE. 
Religion, Population, and Property in Ireland, A.D. 1641 to 1812. 

A. ESTIMATED DIVISION OF PROPERTY IN LAND. 

(a) In 1641 : Catholics, 70 per cent. 

" Protestants planted by Queen Elizabeth and King 
James," 30 per cent. 

(b) In 1672 : Catholics, 31 per cent. 

" English and Protestants and Church " : 

(1) New, 32 per cent. 

(2) Older, 37 per cent. 

(c) In 1700 : Catholics, about 15 per cent. 

All others, about 85 per cent. 

39 



INTRODUCTION. 

(d) In 1795 : Catholics, about 2 per cent. 

All others, about 98 per cent. 

[(a) and (b) from Sir W. Petty 's estimates, 1672 ; (c) by Earl 
of Clare's figures, 1800 ; (d) estimate of Rt. Hon. Denis Browne 
(Debates of 1795, in the Commons.)] 

B. ESTIMATED DIVISION OF PROPERTY IN HOUSES : 

(a) In 1672 : " Not above one-eighth part of the value of all (those) 

houses do belong to other than English 
Protestants." (Sir W. Petty). 

(b) In 1672 : " The British Protestants have... five-sixths of all the 

housing, nine-tenths of all the housing in 
walled towns and places of strength, two- 
thirds of the foreign trade." (Sir W. Petty). 

C. ESTIMATED POPULATION AND ITS DIVISIONS : 

(#) In 1641 : Total, according to Petty's conjecture, 1,466,000. 

(b) In 1652 : Total, according to Petty's estimate, 850,000 [of whom 

160,000 non-Catholics (S. R. Gardiner.)] 

(c) In 1672 : Total, according to Sir W. Petty, 1,100,000, viz. : 

" Papists," 800,000. 
" Scots Presbyterians," 100,000. 
English " legal Protestants or Conformists," 100,000. 
" Presbyterians, Independents, Anabaptists, and 
Quakers," 100,000. 

(d) In 1695 : Total, 1,034,100 (Mr. South). 

(e) In 1731 : Total, 2,010,000 (Poll tax return : doubtful). 

[Families in : Protestants. Catholics. 

Ulster 62,620 38,459 

Leinster 25,238 92,424 

Munster 13, 337 106,407 

Connaught 4,299 44> I 33] 

(/) In 1791 : Total 4,206,612 (Hearth Money Collectors). 

(g) In 1812 : Total 5,937,856 (Under Act of that year). 

[Estimate of religious classification of the people 
in 1787, by the Anglican Bishop of Cloyne : 
Catholics, three-fourths ; State Church Protestants, 
one-eighth ; all others, one-eighth.] 
40 



Documents Part I. 

A.D. 1536. 
1. Galway Citizens and the Irish Language. 

[State Papers, Henry VIII. Ed. Brewer. Vol. n. Part in., pp. 309-10.] 

[King Henry VIII. to the Town of Galway] 
Henry R. By the King 

Welbelovid, We grete you well. Signifying unto you that we, willing 
of our tendre and zele we bere unto you, to the furthering of your weale, 
proffit, and commodyte, and the exturpacion of all abusions hitherto usid 
or accostomyd amongist you, that ye fermely and unfaynydly observe 
the devyses and articles ensuing, perpetually.... 

Item, that every inhabitaunt within the saide towne indevor theym 
selfe to speke Englyshe, and to use theym selffe after the Englyshe 
facion ; and specyally that you, and every of you, do put forth your 
childe to scole, to lerne to speke Englyshe, and that you fay 11 nott to 
fulfill theys cure commaundementys, as you tendre oure favor, and 
woll avoyde our indygnacion and highe dyspleasure.... 

See that We here no further complaynte...upon you, as you intend 
our favors, and avoydying of the contrary. 

Gyvyn at our Manor of Grenewyche, the 28ti day of Apryll, in the 
28ti yere of our Reign. 

A.D. 1537. 
2. Disuse of English Education in Ireland. 

[State Papers, Henry vm. Ed. Brewer. Vol. n. Pt. in., pp. 477-8, 508. From 
reports of Officers of State in Ireland (Gray, Luttrell) to the King's Commissioners 
(Sentleger, Poulet, Moyle, Berners)]. 

(a) [The Lorde Deputes Boke]. 

....Item, ther is noo lorde nor gentyllman, in effect, upon the marche 
in any quarter, that bringeth up ther children after any goode fashion. 

Item, all the Englyshe marche borderers, aslong they byde upon the 
borders, use Iryshe apparell, and the Iryshe tounge, and all ther servauntes 
in lykewyse, aswell in warre as in peace, and for the moste parte use lyke, 
being oute of the marche in thEnglyshe pale, oneles they come to 
Parlyament or Counsayll. 



A.D. 1537- 

Item, the said Englyshe captaynes, being marche borderers, put ther 

chyldren to foster to Iryshe men, and syenges for them 

(b) [The Justice Luttrells Booke]. 

....And to thentent to have the chyldren to lerne Englyshe, thoughe 
the fader cann none, it were necessarye to have a curat, that can speke 
Englyshe, in every parishe, wher ther is no person bounde to resydence, 
or the parson, or the vycar, wher ther is any, to lerne dayly the said 
chyldren Englyshe, and ther Beleve ; takeing for ther labors of the 
faders. And also to have serten bowyers and fletchers sende hyther, 
to make childrens bowes and shaftes, and the chyldren, after scole, to 
use shoteing one ower or two every daye.... 

Item, for that Iryshe beggers, rymors, bordes,...and suche lyke...that 
it be orderid that none shalbe sufferid to come emongest thEnglyshe 
men, for by ther Iryshe guyftes and minstraunlcye they provokeith the 
peoplle to an Iryshe order 

A.D. 1537. 
3. English Parochial Schools for Ireland. 

[Irish Statutes, 28 Hen. vm. c. 15.] 

An Act for the English order habite and language. 

i. The Kings majestic, our most gracious and most redoubted 
soveraign lord, perpending and waying by his great wisdom, learning, 
and experience, how much it doth more conferre to the induction of rude 
and ignorant people to... the good and vertuous obedience which... they 
owe to their princes and superiours, than a good instruction in his most 
blessed laws, with a conformity, concordance and familiarity in language, 
tongue, in maners, order, and apparel, with them that be civill people, 
and doe profess and knowledge Christs religion, and civill and politique 
orders, lawes, and directions, as his Graces subjects of this his land of 
Ireland, that is called the English pale, doth ;....that there is againe 
nothing which doth more conteyne and keep many of his subjects of 
this his said land, in a certaine savage and wilde kind and maner of living, 
than the diversitie which is betwixt them in tongue, language, order, and 
habite, which by the eye deceiveth the multitude, and persuadeth unto 
them, that they should be as it were of sundry sortes, or rather of sundry 
countries, where they indeed be wholly together one bodie, whereof his 
Highnesse is the only head under God... his Majestic doth hereby intimate 
unto all his said subjects of this land, that whosoever shall... decline from... 

42 



A.D. 1537- 

this law touching the increase of the English tongue, habite, and order. . . 
his Majestic will repute them in his most noble heart as persons... of 
another sort and inclination than becometh the true and faithfull subjects. 

3. And be it enacted... That every person or persons, the Kings true 
subjects, inhabiting this land of Ireland... shall use and speake commonly 
the English tongue and language, and that everysuch person... having 
childe or children, shall endeavour themselves to cause and procure his 
said childe and children to use and speake the English tongue and 
language, and... shall bring up and keep his said childe and children in 
such places, where they shall or may have occasion to learn the English 
tongue, language, order, and condition. 

9. And further be it enacted, that every archbishop, bishop, suffragan, 
and every other having authority to give order of priesthood, deacon, 
and subdeacon, shall at such time as they... do give... any of the said 
orders... give unto every person taking any of the said orders... a corporal 
oath that he or they.. shall to the uttermost of his power, wit, and cunning, 
endeavour himself e to learn the English tongue and language, and.... shall 
to his wit and cunning endevour himselfe to learne instruct and teach the 
Englishe tongue, to all and everie being under his rule, cure, order, 
or governance, and in likewise shall bid the beades in the English tongue, 
and preach the word of God in English, if he can preach,... and provoke as 
many as he may to the same, and also shall keepe, or cause to be kept, 
within the place, territory, or paroch, where he shall have... benefice or 
promotion, a schole for to learne English, if any children of his paroch 
come to him to learne the same, taking for the keeping of the same schole, 
such convenient stipend or salarie, as in the said land is accustomably 
used to be taken. 

A.D. 1539. 
4. Anglo-Norman Monasteries and Education. 

[State Papers, Henry vm. Ed. Brewer. Vol. in. Part in., pp. 130-1.] 

[The Lord Deputy and Council of Ireland to Crumwell.] 

To the Right Honourable and our 
especiall good Lorde, my Lorde 
Crumwell, Lorde Privie Seale. 

May it please Your honourable Lordship to be advertised,... it 
hath bene openlie bruted the Kinges Graces pleasure to be, that all the 

43 



A.D. 1539. 

monasteries within this land shuld be suppressed, none to stand. 
Emongist which, for the comen wele of this said land, if it moughte 
stande with the Kinges most gracious pleasure, by your good Lordships 
advertisment, in our oppynions it were right expedient, that six houses 
shuld stand and contynue, changing ther clothing and rule into suche 
sorte and ordre, as the Kinges Grace shall will them : which are named 
Saint Marie Abbay adjoynyng to Dublin, a house of White Monkes : 
Christes Churche, a house of Chanons, situate in the middis of the citie 
of Dublin ; the Nunrie of Grace-Dewe in the countie of Dublin ; Connall 
in the counte of Kildare ; Kenlys and Gerepont, in the countie of 
Kilkenny... in them yonge men and childer, bothe gentilmen 
childer and other, bothe of man kynd and women kynd, be broght up 
in vertue, lernyng, and in the English tonge and behavior, to the grete 
charges of the said houses ; that is to say, the women kynd of the hole 
Englishrie of this land, for the more part, in the said Nunrrie, and the 
man kynd in the other said houses. ...It was thought... more for 
the comen wele of this land, and the Kinges honor and profite, that 
the said six houses... shuld stand, then the profit that shuld to the 
Kinges Grace growe by their suppression.... And thus the Trinitie have 
your honorable Lordship in His most tendre tuicion. 

Writtin at Dublin, the 21 day of May [1539]. 
Your Lordships most bounden. 

Leonard Gray. James Butler. 

Gerald Aylmer, Justice. 
Thomas Lutrell, Justice. 
Thomas Houth, Justice. 



A.D. 1539. 
5. A flexible Abbot-Schoolmaster. 

State Papers, Henry vm. Ed. Brewer. Vol. HI. Pt. in., pp. 142-3]. 

[The Abbot and Convent of S. Mary Abbey to Crumwell. 

To the Moost Honorable and our 

verie good Lord, the Lord Privie Scale. 

Our moste humble dutie premised to Your honourable Lordship. 
Pleas it the same to be advertised, that we your Lordships pore orators, 

44 



A.D. 1539. 

being flexible to the King our Soverain Lordes pleasure in all thinges 
moost humbly beseche your good Lordship to be so good lord unto us, as to 
be mean unto the Kinges Highnes to vouchesauf, that this pore House 
might remayn without dissolving, changing our habite and rules, as it 
shall pleas the Kinges Highnes to devise and command, whereunto we 
shalbe obedient in all thinges. Verelie we be but stywardes and pur- 
veyours to other mens uses, for the Kinges honour ; keping hospitalitie, 
and many pore men, scolers, and orphans, sending men to serve the 
Kinges Highnes... against the enymyes and rebelles.... 
Written the last day of Julie [1539]. 

Your humble oratours, the Abbot and Convent of Our Ladie 
House nighe Dublin. 



A.D. 1565. 
6. The 'happy Schoolmaster of Munster.' 

[(a) Ricardi Stanihursti Dublinensis : De Rebus in Hibernia Gestis libri quattuor 
. . . Antverpiae apud Christophorum Plantinum, 1584, p. 25. 

(6) Antony a Wood : Athenae Oxonienses, 2nd Ed., 1721 : vol. i,, col. 249., 

no. 283.] 

(a) Petri Whiti formatoris inventutis laus. 

Hie (Kilkeniae) ludum aperuit nostra aetate Petrus Whitus, cuius in 
totam Rempublicam summa constant merita. Ex illius enim schola, 
tanquam ex equo Troico, homines literatissimi in reipublicae lucem 
prodierunt. Quos ego hie Whiteos, quos Quemerfordos, quos Walsheos, 
quos Wadingos, quos Dormeros, quos Shethos, quos Garueos, quos 
Butleros, quos Archeros, quos Strongos, quos Lumbardos, excellentes 
ingenio et doctrina viros, commemorare potuissem, qui primis tem- 
poribus aetatis in eius disciplinam se tradiderunt. Huic ego doctor! 
operam in eadem schola puerulus dedi. Cui quidem homini tanto officio ac 
potius pietate sum devinctus, ut haud sciam, qui remunerando esse 
possim, cum infinita eius in me merita ne numerando quidem percensere 
valeam. 

(b) Peter White, noted for his excellency in humane learning while 
he continued in the University, was born in the Diocese of Waterford in 
Ireland, elected Fellow of Oriel Col. An. 1551, and in the year 1555 was 
admitted Master of Arts. About the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's 
reign he returned to his native Country, and became the happy School- 
master of Munster, and Dean of Waterford for a time. From which last 

45 



A.D. 1565. 

place being ejected for his Religion, about 1565, he continued notwith- 
standing in his beloved Faculty of Pedagogy, which was then accounted 
a most excellent Employment in Ireland, by the Catholics ; especially 
for this Reason, that the Sons of Noblemen and Gentlemen might be 
trained up in their Religion, and so keep out Protestancy. His school 
was, in his time, in a flourishing condition, and by his care and industry 
many learned persons issued thence. Among such (not that I shall 
mention Rich. Stanyhurst, of whom I shall speak hereafter) was one 
Peter Lombard, born in Waterford, who afterwards studied at Louvain 
in Brabant ; where, after he had spent two years and a half in Philosophy, 
he was chosen, when he proceeded Master of Arts, Primus Universitatis, 
by the uniform consent of the Four Principals ; which preferment did 
not happen in such sort for many Years before. About that time the 
said Lombard wrote Carmen Heroicum in Doctoratum Nicholai Quemer- 
fordi, with other things afterwards ; but such I have not yet seen... As for 
P. White, he hath written 

Epitome Copiae Erasmi, lib I. 

Epit. figurarum Rhetoricarum, lib i. 

Annotationes in Orat. pro Archia poeta. 

Annot. in Orat. pro T. A. Milone. 

Epigrammata di versa, lib I. 

He lived, as I guess, to the latter end of Q. Elizabeth ) but the 
particular time when he died I find not. 



A.D. 1569. 
7. A School for ' dewtif ull and reformed subjectes ' at Galway. 



[Hist. MSS. Comm. isth Report, Part iii. 1897. Haliday MS. Acts of Privy 
Council in Ireland, 1556-1571, pp. 227-8, 271.] 

The copie of a lettere sent to the lordes of her majesties most honorable 
counsell for the erection of a scole at Galway : 

It may please your lordeshippes : I have of late received a petition 
from the whole inhabitantes of Galway, and chiefly in the name of one 
Dominick Linche, a principall marchant of that towne, declaring an 
ernest desire in them for fondation of a free scole there.... his sute 
stretchethe thus farre that it might please the queenes most excellent 
majestic to endow the schole for ever with.... her part of the parsonage 
of Galway, being surveihed at viii 1. xiii s. and viii d. per annum, and with 



A.D. 1569. 

the scite of a ruined house called Erlestone So considering that he and 

the inhabitants are contented that the schole shall take erection from 
her majestic, and her highnes and her successors to have the nominacion 
of the scholemaster, the honor of the godly foundacion, especially in this 
rude and barberowse countrie, maybe a sufficient pourchase to her 
highnes to alienate from her selfe so small a revenew likely to conferre 
unto her hereafter an infinite nomber of lerned honest and dewtifull 
subjectes of all sort es.... whereby also religion shuld be greatly advanced, 
for by lacke thereof I see the discommoditie growinge by the careles 
education of the nobilitie and gentilmen of those partes, where even thei 
of the best howses, the brothers of the erle of Clanricarde, yea, and one 
of his uncles and he a bysshop [Roland de Burgh, Bishop of Clonfert] 
can neither speake nor understande in maner any thinge of ther princes 
language, which language by the old statutes of Galway everie man ought 
to lerne and must speke before he can be admitted to any office within 
ther corporation. What marvell is it then that where there is nether 
religion, lerninge, understandinge, nor civilitie, ther want also dew 
obedience and conformitie to the lawes. All which by this meanes shall 
take encrease...and the commoditie greate to her people but most to her 
excellencie that of barberous uncivill and undewtifull men shall reigne 
over a nomber of lerned dewtifull and reformed subjectes hereafter.... 
And so I humble take my leave, At Dublin, the xxth of May, 1569. 
[Sir William Ussher's Table to the Council Book adds] 
Observe the whole letter well written in a good cause : Note one 
of the lawes of Galway that none shall beare any office ther before he 
speak English. 



A.D. 1570. 
8. Act for Diocesan Grammar Schools. 

[Irish Statutes, 12 Elizabeth, c. i.] 
An Act for the erection of free Schools. 

Forasmuch as the greatest number of the people of this Your 
Majesties realm, hath of long time lived in rude and barbarous states, 
not understanding that Almightie God hath by his divine laws forbidden 
the manifold and haynous offences, which they spare not daily and 

47 



A.D. 1570. 

hourely to commit and perpetrate, nor that hee hath by his holy Scriptures 
commanded a due and humble obedience from the people to their princes 
and rulers, whose ignorance in these so high pointes touching their 
damnation proceedeth only of lack of good bringing up of youth of this 
realm, either in publique or private schooles, where through good dis- 
cipline they might be taught to avoid these and other lothsome and 
horrible errours. It may therefore please your excellent Majestic, that 
it be enacted... That there shall be from henceforth a free schoole within 
every diocesse of this realm of Ireland, and that the schoolemaster shall 
be an Englishman, or of the English birth of this realm, and that the 
lord archbishop of Armaghcanen, the lord archbishop of Dublin, the lord 
bishop of Meath, and the lord bishop of Kildare, and their severall 
successours for ever, shall have the nomination institution and appoint- 
ment of the schoolemasters within their severall diocesses from time to 
time for ever, that is to say, every one of them in his owne diocesse. And 
that the lord deputie.... shall have the... appointment of all and singular 
the schoolemasters, in and for all and singular the other diocesses of this 
realm.... The schoolehouse for every diocesse to be builded and erected in 
the principall shire towne of the diocesse, where schoolehouses be not 
already builded, at the costes and charges of the whole diocesse, by the 
devise and oversight of the ordinaries of the diocesse... and the Shiriffe 

of the shire. And that the said lord deputie shall according to the 

qualitie and quantities of every diocesse appoint to and for every schoole- 
master such yearly pencion, stipend, or salarie, where none is already 
appointed as he... shall think convenient, whereof the ordinaries of every 
diocesse shall bear yearly for ever the third part, and the parsons, vicars, 
prebendaries, and other ecclesiastical persons shall pay yearly for ever 
the other two parts by an equall contribution.... 

A.D. 1577. 
9. Irish scholars resort to Continental Universities. 

[Carew Papers, Vol. n., p. 480.] 
[Sir Henry Sidney, Lord Deputy, to the Queen.] 

[As to her Majesty's subjects] the number is trebled of their sons, 
kinsfolk, and friends now by them kept in the Universities, and at the 
study of the law of the realm, to that which their elders kept : and each 
one standeth them in treble the charge that one stood the others in before. 



A.D. 1577- 

And there be some principal gentlemen that have their sons in Lovain, 
Doole, Rome, and other places where your Majesty is rather hated than 
honoured in 

I have great cause to mistrust the fidelity of the greatest number of 
the people of this country birth of all degrees : they be Papists. 

From the Queen's House at Kilmainham, 20 May, 1579 [should be 
1577]. 

A.D. 1579. 
10. A Midland University projected for Irish * Runagates.' 

[Walshingham's original draft (not enrolled). B.M. Cotton. Lib. Titus B. 12. 
No. 53 ; and Calendar, Patent and Close Rolls, Ireland, Vol. n., p. 226.] 

Elizabeth R. 

Orders to be observed by Sir Nicholas Maltby for the better govern- 
ment of the province of Connaught. 

8. Also where (as) We are desirous that a college should be erected 
in the nature of a University, in some convenient place in Ireland, for 
instructing and education of youth in lerninge. And We conceive the 
town of Clonfert, within the province of Connaught, to be aptlie seated 
both for helth and comodity of the ryver of Shenen running by it, and 
because it is also neere to the midle of the realm, whereby all men may 
with small travel send their children thither, We have thought good that 
you view the place, and consider with what charge the same may be 
circuited with a wall, and what buildings be there already, and what 
necessary to be added, and what maintenance the bishopricks of Clonfert 
and Elfine (if they were united to that college) might give towards the 
exhibition of learned men there... all of which We will that you advertise 
your opinion to Us : to the end that We may hereafter give further order 
to our Justice to assemble the bishops of the hole realme for a contribution 
to be yielded for the maintenance of learned men in that or some other 
convenient place in Ireland ; for We find that the Runagates of that 
nation, which under pretence of study in the Universities beyond the 
seas, do retorne freight with superstition and treason, are the very in- 
struments to stir up our subjects to undutifulness and rebellion, for whom 
We mean shortly to provide by parlement, and in the mean season will 
you to apprehend all such as you shall learn to remain within your rule 
that be so evil affected. 

From Westminster, last of March, 1579. 

49 

D 



A.D. 1583. 
11. The State Church and State School in Limerick. 

[Calendar, Patent and Close Rolls, Ireland ; Vol. n., p. 42.] 

[Queen Elizabeth to the Archbishop (Adam Loftus) and to Sir Henry 
Wallopp.] 

Whereas in our parliament holden in Ireland the 6th of May, in the 
twenty-second year of our reign, there was passed an act for the erection 
of free schools in that our realm... Forasmuch as we are credibly informed 
that in the diocese of Limerick this statute is so slenderly, or rather nothing 
at all executed, that there is neither schoolhouse nor schoolmaster, or 
other person able to teach, by reason that the ordinary and others of the 
clergy in the same diocese do refuse to allow or pay such portion as by the 
statute they should do : for redress whereof we have thought meet, and by 
these our letters we will and authorise you to give authority to the Mayor 
of Limerick... to sequester... so much of the living, tithes, and other 
commodities as belong to the Bishop of Limerick and other ecclesiastical 
persons in that diocese respectively, according to the rate, into the hands 
of some indifferent and godly persons ; as shall amount to that yearly 
portion whereunto the bishop and clergy are by statute chargeable : the 
same to be bestowed by the mayor and parsons, who shall have the 
sequestration committed unto them, upon some meet schoolmaster to 
teach and bring up the youth in godly and civil doctrine. And this 
manner of sequestration to be continued until the bishop and clergy shall 
of themselves perform the said statute as much as concerns them, or shall 
at least enter into bonds to the mayor for the time being to perform the 
same..., 



A.D. 1583. 
12. Educational action after the Desmond Rebellion. 

[Carew Papers, Vol. n. ( pp. 367-9 : a document probably drawn up by Sir Henry 
Sidney.] 

A Discourse for the Reformation of Ireland. 

The Charge your Majesty committed unto me for the setting down 
of my opinion how your realm of Ireland might with the least charge be 
reclaimed from barbarism to a godly government is somewhat difficult.... 

50 



A.D. 1583. 

God's will and word must first be duly planted, and idolatry extirped.... 
The rebellion being suppressed, it will be necessary to call a parliament 
to enact new statutes for establishing the articles ensuing : 

(i) Two universities to be established at Limerick and Armagh 

(7) All brehons, carraghes, bards, rhymers, friars, monks, Jesuits, 
pardoners, nuns, and such like, to be executed by martial law 

(12) Honest and skilful men to be taken out of every Court of record 

here, and established there. 

(13) Irish habits for men and women to be abolished, and the English 

tongue to be extended.... 



A.D. 1585. 
13. Experiences of an English Grammar-Master In Waterford. 

[Briefly calendared in C.S.P., 1574-85, p. 573 : a letter from John Shearman, 
M.A., to the Primate of Armagh (John Long), under date July 16, 1585.] 

When I came, I had 30 scholars, but these were sent merely for fear ; 
within a month they took their children away, and sent them to a Papist 
teacher in the town. They said the children were not taught well : 
the true reason was I made them come to church. Not a boy could 
read a fable ; they grumbled because I could not do wonders. They 
have made a Papist, who was once a servant, schoolmaster. Your 
honour persuaded me that I should find them such loving and 
courteous people : I have found them clean contrary. Even the Mayor 
himself, of whom you made so great account, has dealt but strangely 
with me. I never ate nor drank in his house but once, and that not at 
his bidding. As for the sheriffs, they were the greatest enemies I had, 
and went about to disgrace me ; they denied me part of my wages, because 
midsummer quarter is shorter than the rest ; they would have paid me 

by the week, not by the quarter they procure their children that were 

my scholars to revile me, as they have done most devilishly in repeating 
that I went and hanged myself, and called me rogue, rascal, villain, and 
such like speeches, which never proceeded from them, but from their 
parents... They called a son of Peter Strange's where I lie, turncoat, 
traitor, and Protestant, because he useth go to the English service. If 
yr. Honour did but dwell amongst their parents, to see their villainy in 
Massing at home and murmuring at God's word in the church, I know 
ye could not abide it. They that took their children from me and let 



A.D. 1585. 

them all this time go loiter up and down the streets have now sent them 
to this fellow again. For these aforesaid causes I think good to give 
over the place and betake me to my own country, where I hope to live 
with a quiet conscience : for here I can have no comfort, because there is 
not one professor of the gospel to be found amongst them : no, not one. 



A.D. 1586. 
14. Three learners of Grammar in Mayo executed as hostages. 

[Calendar S.P., 1588-92, pp. 263-64.]. 

[The Burkes' Book of Complaints against Sir Richard Bingham, 
Her Majesty's Chief Commissioner for Connaught and Thomond. 
Exhibited June 12, 1589 ; Read at the Council Chamber, Dublin, 
November 8, 1589.] 

About three years past, certain of the Burkes being upon their guard 
against John Browne, Sir Richard [Bingham], being at Ballinrobe, sent 
for Ulick Burke, son of the Blind Abbot, Richard Burke, son to Shane 
MacMoyler Burke, and for William Burke, son to Moyler Oge Burke, then 
infants ; the eldest of them being but of the age of 14 years or thereabouts, 
having learned the English tongue, and somewhat could write and read ; 
and the other two, the one of them being of the age of nine years, and 
the other of seven years or thereabouts ; all of them scholars, and 
brought up according to their years in good manners and learning. And 
being come to the camp from the jail of the Neale, where they continued 
pledges for their fathers' good demeanours, some of them that were 
present having moved the Chief Commissioner whether they ought to be 
executed without further consideration or trial, they being such young 
children ; the Justice of the Province, being then present, told Sir 
Richard plainly that they ought not to be executed for the offence of 
their parents, for they were innocent, and also for that they were not 
of sufficient years to consent to pawn their lives for the good demeanour 
of their parents. Notwithstanding this advice given by the Chief Justice 
of the Province, and other motion made to the like effect by divers of the 
company, the said three children, while Sir Richard, the said Justice, 
the Bishop of Kilmore, and the Earl of Clanrickard, were at supper, 

52 



A.D. 1586. 

most devilishly and Turkishly were executed. One of them at his going 
to the place of execution giving out these speeches, saying ' I have heard 
that scholars, and such men as could read, ought to have the benefit of 
their clergy/ and saying ' I can read, why doth not Sir Richard permit 
me to have the benefit thereof.' Another of them wept, and the third 
asked him that wept what was the cause why he did weep ; ' Because,' 
sayeth he, ' I perceive that my death is at hand.' ' Never care for that,' 
said the little one, ' for we shall shortly be in a better place than to be 
here, because we die guiltless of the offences.' And so these little ones 
were bereaved of their lives. 

A.D. 1586-1601. 

15. Schoolmasters under the Dublin Corporation, in the reign of 

Elizabeth. 

[Gilbert : Calendar of Ancient Records of the Corporation of Dublin ; Vol. n. f 
pp. 201, 245, 372.] 

(a) 1586. Fourth Friday after Easter. 

[3]. That forasmuch as Nicholas Stafford, scolmaster, is thought to 
be carefull in his chardge, and useth dyllygence in bringing upp 
of youth : it is agreed that, notwithstanding a former layeinge 
downe by assembly, the said Nicholas shall have (for causes us 
moving) of every cittezens childe with hym [at] scole ii s. Irishe, 
for every quarter, for himselfe and the ussher : and it is also 
agreed that the master of the worckes shall make upp a particion 
or spece, in the upper roulme of the scole howse, for a chamber, 
uppon the cittie chardges ; and also that the former graunt of 
x. li., Irishe, as a yearly fee formerly graunted to him, shalbe 
made sterling, to begyn from the said graunt formerly made, as 
aforesaid ; and that the said Nicholas shall see the glas 
wyndowes alwayes during his tyme. 

(6) 1591. Fourth Friday after Easter. 

[8.] Where [as] James Fullerton, skolemaster, compleyneth that 
xxvi. ft... is resting dewe unto hym, as well for stipent of his 
office as for his dyet, and that withall he requireth the said his 
dyet might be contynued to him during the tyme of his con- 
tynuance here : whereof consideracion being had in this assembly, 
and the great want the cittie hath to use mony being remembered, 
it is ordered and agreed that the said James shalbe payed so 

53 



A.D. 1586-1601. 

moch as is dewe unto hym at this tyme ; and as for a farther 
contynuance of the fee he nowe hath and his dyet chardges, it is 
thought the cittie can hardly spare the same, and from hence- 
forth is not to be payed unto hym. Nevertheless it is agreed 
that he shall have thuse of the howse, as nowe he hath, for a 
skole, and that he maye take what he shall thynck convenient 
for eche skollers teaching by the quarter ; and withall he shall 
have, over and besydes, of the benevolence of this cittie, x. /*. 
sterling, yearly, for his better mayntenaunce. It is ment, that 
his former alowance shall contynue as it was untill thende of 
this Easter quarter. 

(c) 1591. Fourth Friday after 29 September. 

It is agreed... that James Fullerton, scholemaster, shall have his 
former fee contynued and payed unto hym as formerly he had, 
untill the next assembly, and in the meane time we will consider 
of our abyllytie whether we maybe able to contynue a longer 
chardge, and by then the said James shall receive a farther 
resolucion. , 

1592. Second Friday after 29 September. 

It is agreed upon causes seeming good... that James Fullerton... 
shall have for his better mayntenaunce twentie pounds, sterling, 
yearly, to be payed upon the cittie revenues. 

(d) 1601. Fourth Friday after Saint John. 

[6]. Wherfas] John Talbote, gentleman, having made humble peticion 
to this assemblie to have the use of the schoole housse for 
traineing upp of children with good educacion : it is agreed... 
that he shall have the same during the pleasure of Maior, 
Sherriffes, commons, and cittizens, so as he teach nothinge that 
shalbe contrarie to her maiesties lawes. 



A.D. 1588. 
16. First steps of a Grammar-Master towards the Peerage. 

[MS. record by Sir James Hamilton, Knt., afterwards created Viscount 
Claneboye. Ed. Lowry, Belfast, 1867 : pp. 4-5.] 

James [Hamilton] gave very early indications of his great aptitude 
for, and disposition after, learning, and so passed his time in schools until 

54 



A.D. 1588. 

he had received all the usual parts of learning taught in that kingdom 
[Scotland], in so much that he was noticed by King James and his grave 
Council as one fit to negotiate among the Gentry and Nobility of Ireland 
for promoting the knowledge and right of King James's interest and title 
to the Crown of England, after Queen Elizabeth's death ;... Therefore 
he was called to keep a public Latin School at Dublin, being instructed 
in the meanwhile and creditably supplied for conversing with the Nobility 
and Gentry of Ireland for the King's service above mentioned, and he 
was very serviceable and acceptable therein.... James Usher... entered 
with him the first scholar, and both continued that station 'till the said 
James Usher finished his course, and passed all the degrees usual in 
that or any other college, with great approbation of both masters and 
scholars, which the said James (afterwards Lord Primate of Ireland) 
acknowledged with all gratitude 



A.D. 1590. 



17. Grammar Teaching at Limerick. 



[(a) A Briefe description of Ireland Made in this yeare 1589. By Robert Payne, 
unto xxv. of his partners who are undertakers there. Truely published verbatim.... 
at London, 1590. (Reprint of Second Edition, in Irish Archaeol. Soc., vol. for 1841 ; 
p. 3 of Tract .)j 

(b) Calendar S.P., 1588-92, p. 340]. 

(a) The people are of three sortes, the better sorte are very civill and 
honestly given : the most of them greatly inclined to husbandrie, although 
as yet unskilful ; notwithstanding through their great travell many of 
them are rich in cattel....they will make you the best cheare their country 
yieldeth for two or three days, and take not anything therefore. Most 
of them speak good English and bring up their children to learning. I 
saw in a Grammar schoole in Limbrick one hundred & thre score schollers, 
most of them speaking good and perfit English, for that they have used 
to conster the Latin into English. They keepe their promise faithfully, 
and are more desirous of peace than our English men.... 

From my house at Poynes end, this xxv. of June, 1590. Your llouing 
freind Robert Paine. 

(b) [Richard Whyte to Lord Burghley.] 

Many Irish gentlemen have withdrawn their sons from school in 

55 



A.D. 1590. 

Limerick, so that they might not be detained as pledges for their fathers 
upon the landing of the foreign power. These four are the chief of them : 

1. Brian Duff O'Brien, chieftain of Pobblebrien, who hath a very 
strong fort and castle, called Carrickogonel, a most dangerous 
place if the enemy were seized thereof. 

2. Conoghour O'Mulrian, chieftain of Owney O'Mulrian, about five 
miles from Limerick. 

3. Shane O'Mulrian, brother of the said Conoghour. 

4. Richard Burke, of Carikonlis, Esquire, J.P., who pretends title 
to the lordship of Clanwilliam. 

....The sting of rebellion which in times past remained among the 
Irishry is transferred and removed into the hearts of the civil gentlemen, 
aldermen and burgesses, and rich merchants of Ireland, papistry being 
the original cause and ground thereof. [May 8, 1590]. 



A.D. 1592. 
18. -Foundation and Purpose of Trinity College, Dublin. 

[Patent Roll, 34 Elizabeth : P. R. O., Ireland.] 

Trustie and right welbelovid We greet you well. Whereas by your 
letters and the rest of our counsell joyned with you dyrected to our 
counsell here, we perceive that the maior and the cittizens of Dublin 
are very well disposed to graunt the scite of thabbey of All Hallowes, 
belonging to the said cittie, to the yerely value of xx li. to serve for a 
Colledge for lernynge whereby knowledge and civilitie might be increased 
by thinstruction of our people there, whereof many have usually hereto- 
fore used to travaille into ffraunce, Italy and Spaine to gett lernynge in 
such fforraine unyversities where they may have been infected with poperie 
and other ill qualities, and so become evill subietts....We require you to 
give knowledge to the said maior and cittizens that we do very graciously 
accept of these their offers and motions, ...and aucthorise you our Deputie 
and our Chauncellor of that our realme in our name to erecte...a Colledge 
for lerninge in the said place... in such maner and with such good orders 
and statutes as som other of our Colledges here in England in our 
Universities are. 

To Sir Willm Fitzwilliam Knight our deputie of our realme of 

Irland, and to our Chauncellor of our said realme... 

56 



A.D. 1593. 
19. The 'English College near Dublin' defines its own aim. 

[Summary of letter from the College, as calendared in Hatfield MSS., Pt. 'xiii. 
. P- 30 



[The English College, lately founded in Dublin, to Sir Robert Cecil. 
They are suitors to have the parsonage of Donboyn passed to them 
in fee farm. By reason of the troubles in Ireland, the College is in extreme 
want, and ready to dissolve. The grant will enable them to keep three 
preaching ministers for the education of youth in it ; and, after a twelve- 
month, to send out yearly a competent number of scholars well fitted 
for the ministry, a matter of great consequence, and the only means to 
draw them in time to a more loyal and civil temper of subjection.... It 
will avoid the slanderous imputations and advantages that the adversary 
will take if in these times the College, being the first and only College in 
that land, should dissolve : wherein they are so busy to pretend the setting 
up of their supposed Catholic religion. Her Majesty, by Cecil's means, 
conceived well of their suit, and Sir Anthony St. Leger and Mr. Wilbraham 
her Majesty's Solicitor in Ireland, drew the letter to be signed : but 
they cannot hope to effect it without Cecil's furtherance.] 



A.D. 1594. 
20. An Elizabethan Bishop fined in Castle Chamber. 

[Entry Book of Decrees of the Court of Castle Chamber, Dublin, January 30, 1593-4. 
Egmont MSS., Hist. MSS. Comm., Vol. i. (1905), pp. 25-6.] 

Upon information that Richard, Lord Bishop of Leighline, had 
demurred to one Brocke, a schoolmaster at Maribroghe, having the 20 
stipend out of the diocese of Leighline, erected by the Lord Deputy and 
Council by authority of the late statutes, unless he would keep school 
at Catherloughe or Old Leighline, and had said 

My Lord Deputy shall have no more to do in my diocese than I will 
have to do with his sword, and I will command him and his sword ; 

And upon hearing of the Lord Bishop, who utterly denied speaking 
any such undutiful speeches, protesting his loyalty and saying that 

Admitting them spoken, yet they were not meant of the sword of 
estate, and might in some sense be spoken without offence, in respect 
of his spiritual jurisdiction : 

57 



A.D. 1594- 

Decree : 

Forasmuch as the Court is persuaded that some unadvised and undutif ul 
speeches were used by the said Lord Bishop, although without intent 
of disloyalty, he is condemned to pay a fine of 20, and to be imprisoned 
for eight days. 



A.D. 1599-1600. 

21. Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, demands Educational Liberty for 

Ireland. 

[Calendar, S.P., 1599-1600, p. 279.] 

(r.) Articles intended to be stood upon by Tyrone. [Sir Robert Cecil 
has endorsed these with the word Ewtopia]. 

6. That no Englishman may be a churchman in Ireland. 

7. That there be erected a University upon the Crown rents of Ireland, 

wherein all sciences shall be taught according to the manner 
of the Catholic Church.... 

13. That no Irishman's heir under age shall fall in the Queen's or her 

successors' hands, as a ward... 

14. That no children nor any other friends be taken as pledges for the 

good abearing of their parents... 

15. That all statutes made against the preferment of Irishmen, as well 

in their own country as abroad, be presently recalled. 

16. That the Queen nor her successors may in no sort press an Irishman 

to serve them against his will. 

1 8. That Irishmen, of what quality they be, may freely travel in other 
countries for their better experience, without making any of the 
Queen's officers acquainted withal.... 
21. That all Irishmen that will may learn, and use all occupations 

and arts whatsoever. 
(2) Articles set out by Tyrone for demand of peace, or else not. 

6. Also, that her Majesty may, upon her own charges, erect or build 

a College for the Catholics to teach their art in. 

12. Item, that if any man in England or Ireland be minded to go over- 
sea for learning, he shall be suffered to pass without any let or 
stay. 

58 



A.D. 1605-1687. 

22. Schoolmasters under the Dublin Corporation, in the Seventeenth 

Century. 

[Gilbert : Calendar of Ancient Records of the Corporation of Dublin, Vol. n., pp. 
438-9 ; Vol. iv., pp. 118-9, 547-8 ; Vol. v., pp. 461-2.] 

(a) 1605. Second Frydaye next after the feast dale of Easter. 

[4.] Wher[asJ John Talbote, gentleman, made humble suyte in this 
assembly to have the use of the schoole housse in this citty 
for trayning uppe of youth in learning, and forasmuche as the 
childrin, natyves of this citty, are at this present in great want 
of a good schoolemaster : it is therefore agreed and establyshed, 
...that the said John Talbote shall have the same schoolhousse, 
with a yearly pencion of twenty markes, sterlinge, of the silver 
standarte now here current, per annum, during our pleasures, 
for teaching and instructing the childrin of the free cittizens 
in humanytie, and other the lyberall sciences and facultyes, as 
farr forthe as his knowledge doe extend. Pro vi did that he shall 
not teach or instruct them, or eny others that shalbe sent to 
be instructed by him, in any matters that shalbe contrarye to 
the kinges....or establyshment touching matters of religion 
or such lyke. Wee refer him farther to the curtesies of the 
parentes of the said childrin, being free cittizens, to have 
consideracion of his paynes in their owne curtesies besydes 
his pencion according their owne pleasures and disposycions. 
Butt, for those that are not free, they are to compound with 
him in a reasonable sorte as he can agree. 

(b\ 1657. Fourth Friday after 24 June. 

Whereas certaine of the commons preferred peticion unto this 
assemblie, sheweinge that whereas by the lawes all persons of 
this land ought to speake and use the English tongue and habitt : 
contrarie whereunto, and in open contempte whereof, there is 
Irish commonlie and usuallie spoken, and the Irish habitt worne 
not onelie in the streetes, and by such as live in the countrie 
and come into this cittie on market daies, but alsoe by and in 
severall families in this cittie, to the great discontentment of the 
right honorable his highness council for the affaires of Ireland, 
the scandalizinge of the inhabitants and magistratts of the 
cittie... it is therefore ordered and agreed uppon...to put the same 
and other lawes... into effectual! execucion. 

(c) 1671. October 30. 

Whereas certain of the commons petitioned unto the said assembly, 

59 



A.D. 1605-1687. 

shewing that whereas Mathew Spring, master of Arts, had been 
formerly admitted schoolmaster of the Free Schoole in this 
citty... during the pleasure of the citty ; but forasmuch as his 
sacred majesty had been pleased to send his letters to the lord 
lieutenant of this kingdome, for passing of letters patents for 
a new Free Schoole, and maintenance of an able schoolemaster 
for the same ; and for that doctor John Parry, deane of Christ 
Church, by authority given him, by act of assembly and under 
the scale of office of Mayoralty, had contracted with a school- 
master in England, who is expected here very suddenly, they 
therefore humbly prayed that the citties pleasure might be 
declared by act of this assembly for the discontinuance of the 
said Mr. Spring, and that such course might be taken for the 
accomodateing the said new schoolmaster suitable to the honour 
of the cittie and his encouragement : it is therefore ordered and 
agreed upon, by the authority of the said assembly, that the 
said Mr. Spring be from henceforth discharged from the place 
and employment of master of the Free Schoolle of this citty, and 
that such provision be made for the accomodation of the new 
schoolmaster, now comeing out of England, as the committee 
appointed for the said affaire.. shall think fitt. 
(d) 1687. Fourth Friday after 25 December, 1687. 

[66]. Whereas Patrick Bourke, teacher of the mathematics, preferred 
his humble petition to the said assembly, shewing that there 
being no free schoole kept in this cittie for teaching poor youth 
the mathematicall sciences, as there is in most other countries, 
the erecting of which would be a great benefitt to seamen, 
surveyors, and others ; and the petitioner, having had the 
experience and practice of the most useful branches of the 
mathematicks, humbly offered his service to this honourable 
cittie, praying this assembly to appoint him a lodging in the 
Hospitall or other convenient place belonging to the cittie, where 
he might teach all such as the cittie might recommend, and that 
the cittie would alsoe allow him some reasonable subsistence 
untill they should see convenient to settle a sufficient salary upon 
him : it is therefore ordered and agreed upon that the petitioner 
be allowed the summe of twentie pounds, sterling, per annum, 
to be paid... quarterly, dureing the pleasure of the cittie, and 
that he petition the governors of the Hospitall for a convenient 
roome there. 

60 



A.D. 1608-24. 



23. The Estate of a Royal School < swallowed up.' 



[Concise View of the Irish Society... Compiled principally from their own records. 
Ed. 1832. (a) p. 3 ; Ed. 1822, (b) p. 14. Appendix to Irish Society's case in the 
House of Lords, (c) p. 77 ; (d) p. 78. Evidence of W. Haslett, Esq., before Endowed 
Schools (Irel.) Commission, Vol i. of Evidence, 1857 ; (e) and (/) pp. 579-580 ; (g) 
Visitation book, cited in Education in Ireland, Pt. i. Dublin, 1872, p. 87.] 



(a) [Privy Council Order, 1608 : Conditions to be observed on the 

plantation of Ulster]. There shall be one free school, at least, 
appointed in every county, for the education of youth in learning 
and religion. 

(b) [Royal commission to Sir A. Chichester, Deputy of Ireland, 21 July, 

1609], The parcels of land which should be allotted to the College 
in Dublin, and to the free schools in the several counties, are to 
be set out and distinguished by mears and bounds. 

(c) [Privy Council Order, to Corporation of London, June, 1624]. 

And that 700 acres, intended by his Majestic for the maintenance 
of a school within that city (Deny), if it be possible, may be 
found out, and employed to the use it was first allotted for. 

(d) [Answer of the Corporation of London]. For 700 acres of land 

intended for the free school, they know not in whose possession 
the same is, but desire it may be examined and found out.... 

(e) [Privy Council Order to Corporation of London, May, 1625]. 

That the surveyor of Ireland be written to, concerning the 700 
acres allotted for the free school... 

(/) [Answer of the Corporation of London]. They humbly pray that 
the Surveyor of Ireland be writt unto for the finding out of the 
700 acres of land allotted unto the free school... 

(g) [Downham, Bishop of Deny, circa 1622 (Visitation Book)]. As 
touching schools, it is well known that his Majesty intended a 
convenient proportion of lands, as well for Londondeny as for 
Dungannon or Donegal ; yet both these have fair proportions 
allotted to them for the maintenance of schooles : but the lands 
intended for the Schooles of Derry have been swallowed up, 
I know not by whom ; but the general surveyor is the likeliest to 
know what is become of them.... Our gracious King's grant is 
suppressed. 

61 



A.D. 1611-20. 
24. Catholic view of the purpose of Trinity College. 

[MSS. Irish College, Salamanca, 1611-1620. Spanish Text, entitled ' An Account 
of the Decrees and Acts. ..in the year 1611, in Dublin,.... remitted to the Superiors 
of Irish Colleges in Spain.' Original in handwriting of Richard Conway, S.J., of 
New Ross (born 1572), Rector of Irish College, Salamanca, 1608-13. Translation 
by Dr. William M'Donald, published in Irish Ecclesiastical Record, February, 1874, 
pp. 203-207.] 

The greatest injury they have done, and one of most serious 
consequences, was the prohibition of all Catholic schools in our nation 
(naturally so inclined to learning) except an odd infant school in the 
principal cities and towns, where only reading, writing, and a little 
grammar are taught ; with the object of sinking our people to degradation, 
or filling the Universities of England with the children of those who had 
any means to educate them, where they might become more dependent 
on heretics, and contaminated with their errors. They have also taken 
singular care that all children be taught English, and they chastise them 
if they hear them speak their own native tongue. But as these.... efforts 
did not produce the desired effect, and that the natives did not only not 
go to England, but rather preferred to remain in ignorance, than run the 
risk of their faith and religion by doing so, or went secretly and quietly 
to many foreign parts, but particularly to Spain, where his Catholic 
Majesty assisted them, and gave them some Colleges,.... they determined, 
in order to stop the ravages these Colleges were committing... to found a 
University in the capital of the kingdom, in which they put heretical 
masters to teach... and uproot the desire of Catholics to cross the sea. 
But the active diligence of our evangelical labourers frustrated their 
intent, and induced many more to come to Spain than formerly, so that 
the heretics were left without more hearers than their own children 
and relatives. Convinced in the end that none of their plans produced 
the desired effect, they commenced to publish the fierce edicts issued 
against the Catholics, in which... it is commanded that no one send his 
son to these colleges, under pain of incurring the serious indignation of 
the king, confiscation of property, and imprisonment 

A.D. 1611-23. 
25. The Education of Wards under James I. 

[(a) Calendar S.P., 1611-14, p. 373 ; (b) Jesuit MSS., Ireland (printed by Gilbert, 
Hist. MSS. Comm., loth Report, App. v., pp. 348-50).] 

(a) [Lord Chichester's Answers to the Recusants' Complaints.] 
Opposites unto the articles preferred by the recusants of Ireland 

62 



A.D. 1611-23. 

to the King, touching the disorders and abuses pretended to be in the 
civil government.... 

Disorder 9. Wardships are commonly granted to mean men and 
mere strangers to the heirs that are in the King's ward, whereby the wards 
are not well nurtured or well bred, and their kindred secluded from 
any disposition of them. 

Answer 9. The King's wards are granted to such persons as the Deputy 
thinks fit, who often are the friends of wards or else persons of good 
quality : and in every grant there is a clause that the ward shall be brought 
up at the college near Dublin, in English habit and religion, which is 
the ill nurture the petitioners complain of. 

(b) [Letter on the State of Ireland, 1623.] 

Cognate : Scripsi ad te circa festum S. Michaelis de statu patriae 
nostrae admodum afHictae et oppressae....Revera omnibus pupillis qui in 
Regis manu sunt, minae intendantur de suscipiendo primatus regii 
juramento, quando libertatem a Rege postulant. Et quidem multi juvenes 
heredes omnino contra conscientiam jurarunt, alioqui content! esse 
debebunt carere fructu et possessione haereditatis ac terrarum suarum 

quousque jurent Postremo, nemini licet homini dicto aperire scholam 

publicam, nee ulli nobili permittitur liberos suos aut fratres in trans- 
marinas regiones mittere ut artem aliquam, scientiam, aut facultatem 
addiscant. Unde fiet ut cum tempore nostrates necessario Protestantes 
efficiantur...Dublinio, 8 die Martii 1623. 



A.D. 1612. 
26. Endowment of the Royal Schools in Ulster. 

[Extract from Patent Roll, Chancery, Ireland : cited in full, Endowed Schools, 
Ireland, Commission 1857-8, Vol. 22, pt. 3, p. 337.] 

James Rex. By the Kinge. 

Right trustie and well beloved We greet you well, As upon the division 
of our late escheated lands in Ulster, We did, out of our princely care 
and gracious inclination, assign certain portions of these our lands within 
several counties for the endowment of several free schools and main- 
tenance of schoolmasters, for the encrease of learning and good manners 

in these pts., where the same are so much wanting To that end, we have 

made choice of our archbishops and bishops within whose several dioces. 
those lands are allotted, to be entrusted specially in that affair, as men 

63 



A.D. 1612. 

to whose function and quality it is most proper to be careful, and always 

assistant to the furtherance and improvement of such good works 

Then these are therefore to authorise... you... to cause our effectual grants 
to be made.... inserting also in the said grant licence and liberty to the 
several bishops... to nominate some fit persons for... schoolmasters from 
time to time... and because... as yet there are no fitting schoolhouses.... 
we hereby require and authorise you... to take order that the rents of the 
said lands may be collected... and that the same may be carefully and 
providently employed in the building of several fitting schoolhouses of 
our foundation... and after the said schoolhouses shall be finished, then, 
and not before,... the rents and profits of the said lands shall be bestowed 
upon the schoolmasters.... 

Given under Signet at our Manor of Theobalds [30 January 1612]. 

To.... the Lord Chichester, our Deputy of our Realme of Ireland, 
and to our Chancellor there now being 

A.D. 1612. 
27. ' Godlie and gratious purpose ' of King James I. 

[Patent Rolls, Chancery, Ireland, 30 May, 1614.] 

James, by the grace of God King of England Scotland France and 

Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Know yee that we for the great care 

we have of our subjects of this realme of Ireland, and for the true 
education of the youth thereof in literature and knowledge of true religion, 
to the end that they may learn their duty towards God, and true obedience 
towards us, have.... resolved to... make one perpetual free school for the 
county of Tyrone, to be held at Dungannon in the said county of Tyrone, 
fored. ; and that there shall be a schoolmaster there, at the nomination 
of the Right Reverend Father in God the Lord Archbishop of Armagh 
for the time being, and appointed and placed by us, our heirs, and 
successors. And we do further ordeine...that the schoolmaster of the 
said school for the time being for ever shall for his better means and 
livelihood have hold and enjoy all and singular the towns villages or 
hamlets of Macherclawchilly, Aghmoylan, Derrilaghan, Derritrashe, 
Landromangh, Coally, Toucher als Kemehor, Mullane, Loghoge, Mollin, 
als Mulline et Treane, containing by estimation 700 acres, be it more 

or lesse, And in full accomplishment of our Godlie and gratious purpose 

above expressed, and for the good opinion we conceive of our welbeloved 



A.D. 1612. 

subject John Bullingbrooke, in teaching and instructing the youth of 
the said county of Tyrone, in our said realme of Ireland, we do...appointe 
the said John Bullingbrooke to be schoolmaster there... during his com- 
orancy there, and so long as he shall well behave himself e.... In witness 
whereof we have caused these our letters to be made patents Witness 
our... Deputy General of our said Realme of Ireland, the thirteenth day 
of May, in the thirteenth year of our reigne of England France and Ireland, 
and of Scotland the eight and fortieth. 
Per breve de private sigillo. 

A.D. 1615. 
28. Suppression of a highly-efficient Galway School. 

[Text as quoted by Hardiman, in O'Flaherty's Chorographical Description of lar 
Connaught, Edition of 1846, p. 215 : from MS. Regal Visitation Book of 1615, then 
preserved in the Court of Exchequer : not now traceable in the P.R.O., Dublin. 
The cited texts in Hardiman are clearly quite other than the Visitation Record 
there preserved : they seem to be from a personal record kept by the Chancellor.] 

Wee found in Galway a publique schoolesmaster named Lynch, placed 
there by the Cittizens, who had great number of schollers, not only out 
of that Province but also out of the Pale, and other partes, resorting to 
him. Wee had daily proofe, during our continuance in that citty, how well 
his schollers profited under him, by verses and orations which they 
presented us. Wee sent for that schoolemaster before us, and seriously 
advised him to conforme to the Religion established ; and not prevailing 
with our advices, we enjoyned him to forbear teaching : and I the 
chancellour did take a recognizance of him and some others of his kinsmen 
in that citty, in the some of 400 li. sterl. , to his Matie. use, that from thence- 
forth he should forbeare to teach any more without the special license of 
the Lo. Deputy. And in regard Galway is a farr more publique and 
convenient place for the keeping of a schoole then Tuam is, Wee have 
ordered that Mr. Lally shall, at Michaelmas next, begin to teach publiquely 
there. 

A.D. 1620. 
29. Trinity College warned as to its main purpose. 

[Patent Roll, James I. ; P.R.O., Ireland. Enrolled May, 1620.] 

James Rex. 

Right trustie and welbeloved We greete you well.... And because Wee 

65 

E 



A.D. 1620. 

understand that the simple natives of that our kingdome, whoe by 
experience wee heare are found to bee farr more tractable amongest the 
rude Irish than amongest the unconformable english, are still kept in 
darknes and apt and ready thereby to be led into error superstition and 
disobedience by the popish priests whoe abuse their simplicitie and 
ignorance, which precedeth through want of ministers whoe could speake 
there owne language, whome they may understand : Because our 
colledge of Dublin was first founded by our late sister of happie memorie 
Queene Elizabeth, and hath beene since plentifully endowed by us, 
principallie for breeding up the natives of that kingdome in civilitie 
learning and religion : Wee have reason to expect that, in all this long 
tyme of our peaceable goverment, some good numbers of the natives 
should have been trained up in that colledge, and might have bene 
imployed in teaching and reducing those which are ignorant among that 
people : And to think that the governors of that house have not per- 
formed the trust reposed in them, if the revenues thereof have been 
otherwise imploied ; And therefore We doe require that henceforth 
speciall care be had, and that the visitors of that Universitie be required 
particularlie to looke into and take care of this point ; And for the 
supplying of the present want, that choice be made of some competent 
number of towardlie young men alreadie fitted with the knowledge of the 
Irish tongue, and be placed in the universitie, and maintained there for 
two or three years, till they have learned the grounds of religion, and be 
able to catechise the simple natives, and deliver unto them soe much as 
themselves have learned, and when any livings that are not of any great 
value fall void among the meere Irish, these men be thought uppon before 
others, to be placed with other able ministers that possesse livings amongest 
the meere Irish (where for defect of the language they are able to doe 
little good), to be interpreters unto them ;... which We think will be a 
principall meanes to reclaime the poor ignorant people. 

To.... Sir Oliver St. John, Knight, our deputie of our Realme of 
Ireland. 

A.D. 1628-29. 
30. Trinity College declared exclusively Protestant. 

[Statutes of T.C.D., prepared and published by William Bedell, Provost, 1628-29-] 

(a) Praefatio. 

....Et factum est singulari praepotentis Dei Providentia et misericordia 

66 



A.D. 1628-29. 

erga Gentem Hibernicam, Antichristianae Religionis Tyrannide oppressam, 
ut Serenissima Princeps Elisabetha Collegium Sanctae Trinitatis juxta 
Urbem Dublinensem extruendum curarit. 

(b) Cap. I. De Cultu Divino. 

..Pieces Deo publice in Sacello offerantur mane et vesperi Formula 

sit ea quae in publica Ecclesiae Hibernicae Liturgia praescribitur....Si 
quis studentium, qui non sit in illustriori aliqua facultate Baccalaureus, 
a precibus abfuerit, puniatur. 

(c) Cap. 7. Juramentum electi Socii vel Discipuli. 

Ego A. B. electus in numerum Sociorum (Discipulorum) hujus Collegii, 
sancte coram Deo profiteor, me Sacrae Scripturae authoritatem in 
Religione summam,....et pro facultate mea omnibus opinionibus, quas vel 
pontificii vel alii contra sacrae Scripturae veritatem tuentur, constanter 
repugnaturum. 

A.D. 1630. 
31. A Jesuit College suppressed in Dublin. 

[C. S. P., Ireland, 1625-32 : (a) p. 471 ; (b) p. 528 ; (c) p. 509-10 ; (d) Travels of Sir 
William Brereton in Ireland: July n, 1631 ; (e) Lismore Papers (Richard Boyle, 
Earl of Cork ) : Ed. Grosart, 1886 : Series I. Vol. in., p. 82.] 

(a) [Draft of Instructions to Adam Viscount Loftus of Ely, and 
Richard Earl of Cork, the King's Lords Justices for Ireland.] 

You are to take over the sword, which is the emblem of supreme 
power, from the Deputy. You are then to suppress all Popish 
colleges.... and shall cause people to send their children to endowed 
schools and to Trinity College, Dublin, which was erected for their 
benefit. 

(b) [Sir Thomas Dutton to the King ; from Dublin.] 

Unless the Papists and seminary schools are rooted out and 
destroyed, it will be impossible to plant the Gospel here. 

(c) [Earl of Cork to Lord Dorchester.] 

The Jesuits' house owned and claimed by the Dowager Countess 
of Kildare (being one of the ten seized into his Majesty's Hands) 
is a new-erected and goodly fabric : the chapel whereof, (which 
her ladyship calls her hall though neither chimney, table, nor 
window that any may look out of) is 75 feet long and 27 broad.... 
a compass roof, a cloister above with many other chambers, all 
things most fair and gracefull, like the banquetting house at 
'Whitehall.... 

67 



A.D. 1630. 

(d) I saw also the church, which was erected by the Jesuits, and 
made use by them two years. There was a college also belonging 

to them, both these erected in the Back Lane Whereof they 

were disinvested when my Lord Chancellor and my Lord of Cork 
executed by commission the Deputy's place. This college is 
now joined and annexed to the College of Dublin... and in this 
church there is a lecture every Tuesday. 

We saw also St. Stephen's Hall, wherein are disposed about 
eighteen scholars, who are also members of the college whereunto 
this hall is annexed. This sometimes was a cloister for the 
Capuchins.... 

(e) [Diary of Richard Boyle, First Earl of Cork.] 

I paid.... five pounds ster : for one halfe yeares lecture at 
Kildare Hall in dublin, which will be ended the xvijth of this 
moneth : thearle of Kildare having promised 20 li a year, & myself 
x li ster : a year for upholding a Tuesdaie lecture there every week, 
& this v li is for my first half yeares payment ending as before... 



A.D. 1641. 
32. Catholic Remonstrance to King Charles I. 

{Remonstrance ; text in Gilbert: Affairs in Ireland, 1641 -52.* Vol. i., Part n., 
pp.45i sq.]. 

To the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

The humble Remonstrance of the Northern Catholicks of Ireland, now 

in arms. 
Most gracious and dread Sovereign 

We your most humble and faithful subjects, the Catholicks of this 
your kingdom of Ireland, do, in all humbleness, represent unto your Most 
Sacred Majesty, by this our humble remonstrance, our heavy pressures 
and just grievances, which have enforced us to take up arms for our 
relief and defence, having tried all other means for the redress of our many 

sufferings, hi a civil way, by the ordinary course of justice 

16. The youth of this kingdom, especially of us Catholicks, is debarred 
from education and learning, in that no schoolmaster of our religion is 
admitted to teach, nor any admitted to be bred beyond the seas ; and the 
one only University of Ireland doth exclude all Catholicks, thereby to 
make us utterly ignorant of literature and civil breeding, which always 

68 



A.D. 1641. 

followeth learning and arts, insomuch that we may boldly affirm that we 
are the most miserable and most unhappy nation in the world. 

17. We hold ourselves likewise most unfortunate, in that we are not 
admitted to any office, or place of honour, advancement, or profit, either 
military or civil, within this isle, we being as capable and fit for the same 
as any other nation 

Now forasmuch as we the Catholicks of this your realme of Ireland 
are for rank, quality, estate, fortunes, and number, by far the most 
considerable part of the land, and cannot with safety lay down our arms 
before we receive an assurance of redress... we are humble suitors unto your 
most pious and clement Majesty, that you will vouchsafe to apply a 
sovereign cure... to these our violent maladies.... 

And our further request is, that for our more satisfaction, your High- 
ness will be pleased to deign your particular answer in writing to every 
peculiar head and article of this our Remonstrance, and therein give that 
clear testimony to all the world of your sense of these our pressures and 
afflictions... that future ages for the same may reverence and celebrate 
your memory.... 

A.D. 1641. 
33. Educational Grievances of Ulster Puritans. 

[Remonstrance ; text in Gilbert, Affairs in Ireland, 1641-52, Vol. i. Parti. Dublin, 
1879 : pp. 374 sq]. 

The humble petition of the Protestant inhabitants of the counties 
of Antrim, Downe, Tyrone, etc., part of the province of Vlster in the 
Kingdom of Ireland, concerning Bishops.... by reason of their over- 
ruling lordly power, as it was presented to the Right Honourable.... House 
of Commons in this present Parliament, and accepted of that Honourable 
House. London, printed 1641 

A particular of manifold evils and heavy pressures caused... by the 
Prelacie.... 

9. Lest those who could not be admitted into the ministery, under- 
taking to teach schoole, should there lay impressions of piety and good 
learning, they urge upon the very schoolmasters a subscription beyond 
what is enjoyned by their own canon, and punish... the refusers thereof : 
So as the schooles formerly much frequented, are now utterly desolate, to 
the spoyle of youth.... 

10. Thus while they proceed so severely and unjustly in punishing 



A.D. 1641. 

the refusers to their unlawfull commands, though never so honest and 
able men, they favour Popery to the continuance and great increase 
thereof ; Hence 

11. Masses publikely celebrated... to the great grief of God's people.... 

12. They permit frieries and nunneries to bee within their diocesses... 
yea.... in the very places where some of the bishops have their speciall 
residence. 

13. In many places of the land where Protestants are forbidden 
and restrained, Papists are permitted to keep schooles ; unto some 
whereof such multitudes of children and young men doe resort, that they 
may be esteemed rather Universities, teaching therein not only the 
tongues, but likewise the liberall arts and sciences. 



A.D. 1641-48. 
34. The Franciscans in Irish Education. (Rome, Lou vain, Quin Abbey). 

[(a) Hist. MSS. Commission : Franciscan MSS. 1906, p. 194. Rury O'More, 
Wexford, to Hugh Bourke, O.F.M., Belgium, 20 Sept., 1642. 

(b) F. Antonii Bruodini, O.F.M. Propugnaculum Catholicae Veritatis. Pragae, 
Anno 1669. Bk. iv., c. xv., pp. 711-12.] 

(a) If we may afore Flan Mac Egan dies, we will see an Irish school 
oppened, and therefore could wish heartily that those learned and 
religious fathers in Lovayne did come over in hast with their monuments 
and with an Irish and Latin print. 

(b) Pater Eugenius O'Cahane nobilibus in Tuomonia natus parentibus, 
Ordinem S. FranciscL.decimo sexto aetatis suae anno ingressus.... circa 
annum i628....Romam petiit, ibique in nominatissimo S. Isidori Patrum 
Hibernorum Collegio, sub moderamine illius tune Collegii virorum et 
Patrum, Lucae nimirum Waddingi, Antonii Hiquaei, loannis Pontii et 
Thaddaei Dalaei (quorum memoria in benedictione est) talem fecit in 
spiritu et litera profectum qualem de ingenioso iuvene...prudens sperare 
possit. Absolutis studiis...Neapolim se contulit, ubi non sine magno 
studiosorum profectu...Philosophiam docuit. Demum Patriae suae 
prodesse volens...in Hiberniam anno 1641 navigavit...Catholicis iam 
Anno Domini 1643 praevalentibus contra haereticos, Eugenius noster... 
publicas aperuit in Conventu Oppidi de Quenhi in Tuomonia, Scholas.... 
Confluit ex variis Hiberniae Provinciis ad dictas scholas tanta luvenum 
multitudo, quod Anno Domini 1644 ultra 800 numeraverint studiosos, 
inter quos ego ipse cum aliis octodecim Bruodinis fui.... 

70 



A.D. 1644. 

t 

35. Dublin Castle and Catholic Claims in Education. 

[Hist. MSS. Commission : Egmont (i.e., Percival) MSS., Vol. i., pp. 223-4 ( I 95) > 
written at Oxford, April or May, 1644, and presented to the King.] 

" The answer of the Protestant delegates from the Council of Ireland 
(Sir W. Stewart ; Sir. G. Lowther ; Sir Philip Percivall ; Justice Donelan) 
to the propositions of the agents of the Confederate Catholics of Ireland.".... 

7. " This proposition touching the incapacity... of building of schools 
for the education of their youth... doth obliquely cast some aspersions of 
tyranny on the state, as though the natives had not power to have 
civill education in their own country.... Whereas in truth it is far other- 
wise. . . . 

" Touching the education of youth, ample provision is already made 
in the Kingdom of Ireland. 

" By the Statute 28 Henry VIII. c. 15 the minister and incumbent 
in every parish shall keep a free school in the parish, by himself or deputy, 
for the teaching of children the English tongue. 

" By the Statute 12 Elizabeth, c. i, there is a free school in every 
diocese for the Latin and Greek tongues and other grammar learning at 
the charge of the clergy and impropriators of the diocese. 

" In all plantations made by the King and his royal father, there be 
free schools erected richly endowed with lands and revenues worth one 
two or three hundred pounds per annum. 

" There is a free school kept by the Court of Wards for the education 
of his Majesty's wards. 

" There be free schools in divers corporations founded by protestants, 
none that ever we know founded by papists. 

" There is a college and university founded and endowed by Queen 
Elizabeth, augmented by King James ; the revenues of it were worth about 
I5oo/ per annum, till they were destroyed by the rebellion. 

" Yet we humbly conceive that it is very fit, if so it may stand with 
his Majesty's good pleasure, that they be allowed to build as many free 
schools and Universities as they please, so that they be ordered and 
governed by protestant schoolmasters, ushers, teachers, and governors, 
and by such laws and statutes as are agreeable to the laws of the land." 

9. " Touching the Court of Wards... great care is taken in bringing up 
the heirs of the nobility and gentry, his Majesty's wards, in religion 
learning and virtue ; a school, schoolmaster, usher, and all other necessary 
attendance, is kept for them, which hath gained many good protestants ; 



A.D. 1644. 

and truly this is the greatest tyranny and insupportable oppression that 
makes the Court and officers of the Wards be clamoured against, because 
that so great care is taken for bringing up the youth his Majesty's wards 
in true religion." 



A.D. 1644-46. 

36. Education in the negotiations for Peace between Charles I. and 
the Confederate Catholics. 

[Carte Papers : (a) x. 46 ; (b) xn. 150 sq. ; (c) xn. 140 ; (d) xv. 102 ; (e) xv. 126-7 J 
(/) xv. 180-1. 

Gilbert : History of the Confederation and War in Ireland, Vol. v. : (g) 37-8 ; 
(h) 96 ; () 144-5 ; (/) 192 ; (k) 286 sq.] 

(a) March 28, 1644. 

The demands of the Roman Catholicks of Ireland, humbly presented 
to his Sacred Majestic.- : 

7.... and that for the education of youth, An Act be passed in the next 
Parliament for the erecting of one or more Innes of Court, Universities, 
free and common schooles. 

(b) The Answeare of James, Marquess of Ormonde, His Majestie's 
Commissioner for the Treaty... of a Peace.... 

To the 7th : His Majestic... will willingly consent to the erecting of an 
Inns of Court, Universitye, or Free Schooles ; Provided that they be 
governed by such statutes, rules, and orders, as his Majestic shall approve 
of, and be agreeable to the customes of England. 

(c) Reasons why the Roman Catholick subjects are not satisfied 

with the Lord Lieutenant's Answer.... 

Reasons against part of the 7th Answer : The clause in the said answer 
concerning Inns of Court, and Free Schooles, as it is expressed in the 
answer, will debarre Roman Catholicks, so long as they are of that 
Religion, from attaining to the knowledge of the lawes of the land, or any 
other learning within this kingdom. 

(d) The Answer of James, Marquess of Ormonde... to the requests... 
upon the further explanation and inlargement of his answers.... 

7 : Touching your desire that the explanacion upon the answer to the 
seventh be inlarged as to Universityes, and to Free and Common Schooles, 
you may rest satisfyed with his Majestie's former answers.... 

72 



A.D. 1644-46. 

(e) Further requests upon his Excellency... his Majestie's Commissioner 
...upon his Lordship's late answers.... 

7. We conceive it a very hard condicion, that a Christian nation 
should not be admitted the meanes for their education and breeding, and 
therefore do desire your Excellency to take this proposition for the 
Universities, Free and Common Schooles, into further consideracion, and 
to give a more satisfactory answer thereon. 

(/) [Endorsed] To the Lord Viscount Muskry. 

To the 7th His Majestic doth admitt that it were a very hard condition 
that a Christian nacion should not be admitted the meanes for theire 
educacion and breeding. Butt he conceiveth that the proposers can by 
noe meanes affirm that their nacion is in that condicion, for they doe 
well know, first [28 Hen. VIII. cited], secondly [12 Elizabeth cited], 
thirdly, that his Majestie and his royal father, King James, did erect 
severall Free Schooles in this kingdome...and liberally endowed the same ; 
fourthly, that there are Free Schooles erected in severall Corporations in 
this Kingdom, and some by particular persons, in all which schooles the 
proposers well know that the youth were and are taught without any 
difference made in respect of religion, and that there is noe law inhibiting 
the teaching of any youth of what religion soever in any of these schooles ; 
and lastly, there is a Universitie erected in this kingdom, founded by the 
late Queen Elizabeth, and since further largely endowed by his Majestie's 
Royall father, where by the foundacion the natives are to be preferred 
before others... and many of them deservedly advanced to eminent 
dignities and promocions in this Church and commonwealth ; and his 
Majestie is further graciously pleased to give way to the erecting of 
Universities provided that they be governed by such rules and orders 
as his Majestie shall appoint. 

(g) [Endorsed] Given by Mr. Dermot O'Brien. 

In the 7th Proposition... wee find by your Excellency's answer... two 
statutes urged to satisfy us.... By which lawes the marks of incapacity... 
are inforced upon the natives, than give the free liberty of subjects, as is 
desired ; and although there be no law inhibiting the teaching of any 
youth of what religion soever, yet it is manifest that some who were 
Roman Catholickes, and were learned schoolmasters, have without other 
exception than that of their religion, been forbidden to keep publique 
schools, in so much that they were driven to give pencions to Protestants 
to assume the name of teaching, though they took not the pains. And 
therefore it is humbly desired that your Excellency... take... the said 7th 

73 



A.D. 1644-46. 

proposicion to further consideration ; and to ascertaine what rules and 
orders you expect the Universities agreed to be erected, should be governed 
by, to the end we may understand how far the same shall tend to the 
accomplishing of our request in that proposicion. 

(h) [Endorsed] A paper relating to the Treaty of Peace. 

By his Majestie's answer to the 7th Proposition, his Majestic, as a mark 
of favor and honor to the nation, is gratiously pleased that one or more 
Inn or Innes of Court be erected, which.... is in the former answer denyed 
in that latitude that it is now granted. 

(") [Ormonde's Memoranda.] 

7. Universities, as is already assented, shall be agreed to. ... Free Schooles 
I shall endeavour to gain the Councel to consent to ; but, if they do not, 
I undertake his Majestic shall command it to be allowed. 

(j) [Demands and Answers] 

To the 7th Proposition : His Majestie is pleased to allow of Free 
Schooles and Universities ;....and will in due time set down such orders 
as shall be fit and convenient for the regulating of them. 

(k) Articles of Peace made... between his Excellencie James Lord 
Marques of Ormonde... by vertue of his Majestie's Commission under 
the Great Seale of England... of the one party ; and Richard Lord Viscount 
Mountgarrett, Donogh Lord Viscount Muskery, Sir Robert Talbot, Dermot 
O'Bryen, Patrick Darcy, Gefferey Browne, and John Dillon, Esquires, 
appointed and authorised by his Majestie's said Roman Catholique 
subjects... on the other party.... 

7. Item : It is further concluded... and his Majestie is further graciously 
pleased, that... the natives of this kingdom... may be enabled to erect one 
or more Inns of Court, in or neer the city of Dublin, and that.... such 
students, natives of this kingdom, as shall be therein, may take and 
receive the usual degrees... they taking the ensuing oath [an oath of strictly 
civil allegiance ' upon the true faith of a Christian ' ]. And that they 
may erect one or more Universities, to be governed by such rules and 
directions as his Majestie shall appoint : And it is further concluded... 
and his Majestie is graciously pleased, that the said Roman Catholique 
subjects may erect and keep free schooles for education of youth in this 
kingdom, any law or statute to the contrary notwithstanding ; all the 
matters of this article to be passed as acts of Parliament in the said next 
Parliament. 

28 March, 1646. 

74 



A.D. 1651-56. 
37. The Commonwealth and Religion in Trinity College. 

[P.R.O., Ireland ; Commonwealth Records : (a) A. 89, folio 10 ; (&) A. 5, folio 

105.] 

(a) [The Commissioners of the Parliament of the Commonwealth 
of England for the ordering and settling of the Affairs of Ireland : 
To Mr. Owen, Minister (Chaplain to Cromwell in Ireland.)] 

The Parliament, being desirous to advance Religion and Learning in 
Ireland, have Commanded our endeavours to improve their interrest for 
the promoting of that worke....Wee have inquired into the present State 
and Condicion of the Colledge of Dublin, and doo find the said Colledge 
furnished with very few officers or other members fit to bee continued 
there... Wee desire that you... will seriously consider what Lawes, Rules, 
Orders, and Constitucions are fitt to be established in the said Colledge. 
Wherein we desire that the educatinge of youth in the knowledge of God 

and the principles of piety may bee in the first place promoted What 

God shall direct you in this Matter wee desire you to Communicate to us 
with all convenient expedicion, and likewise what qualificacions are 
requisite in the admission of persons according to the course now used 
in the University. 

2 July, 1651. 

(b). The Lord Deputy and Councel being desirous to give all due 
incouragement for the Advancement of Learning and to promote Godli- 
ness ; and, on the contrary, to discountenance Vice and what hath a 
tendency to looseness, and prophaneness ; It is therefore thought fitt 
and Ordered, that Dr. Wynter, Master of Trinity College, Dublin, doo 
call the respective Fellowes, Students, and other members of the Colledge 
together, exhort them to a Carefull walking, becoming the Gospell, and 
to build up one another in the knowledge and feare of the Lord, dilligently 
to attend publique prayer... and also by encouraging private Christian 
meetings together in the Colledge or elsewhere... that they may increase 
in the saving knowledge of Christ.... 

23 March, 1655. [1656.] 

A.D. 1652-56. 
38. School in an Irish bog district, under Cromwell. 

[Hogan Transcripts, folios 656-7, ' Status ac Conditio Hiberniae, 1652-6,' a 
P. Quyn, Superior Miss. S.J., text in Arundel Library, Stonyhurst.] 

P. Jacobus Fordus,....in medio vastissimi paludis, ubi terra nonnihil 

75 



A.D. 1652-56. 

firmior erat, aediculam construxit, ad quam vicinorum adolescentes et 
parvuli convenerant, et modo conveniunt, ut literis imbuantur, et fidei 
ac virtutum rudimentis exerceantur,.... parvuli isti, exemplo magistri, 
continuis vacant mortificationibus et jejuniis.... 



A.D. 1655. 
39. Popish Schoolmasters detected in Meath and Louth. 

[P.R.O., Ireland ; Commonwealth Records, A. 5, folio 99.] 

Popish Schoole Masrs to be supprest. 
Lord Deputy and Councei of Ireland. 

Whereas it is informed that severall Popish schoolemasters doe reside 
in severall parts of the Counties of Meath and Lowth, and teach the 
Irish youth, trayning them up in Supersticion, Idolatry, and the evill 
Customs of this Nacion, these are to require the Commander-in-Chief of 
those Counties, and all Officers of the Army and Justices of the Peace, 
and every of them, uppon complaint thereof made, to take order for the 
speedy suppression of such Schoolemasters, and thereof to make return 
to this Board in case of Obstruccion, that further Order may be given 
for their due punishment as shall be thought fitt. 

Dublin, 19 March, 1654. 



A.D 1656. 
40. A Board to control Protestant Grammar Schools in Ireland. 

[P.R.O., Ireland ; Commonwealth Records, A. 5, folios 109-10.] 

Committee appointed for regulacion of Schooles in Dublin, &c. 

Upon consideracion had of how greate consequence it is thatt all 
Schooles appointed for trayning Up the youth of this Nacion in Learning 
should also bee the Nurseries of piety and good manners, especially in 
this Cittie of Dublin where there is a great number of Orphants and other 
the Children of Protestant parents ; ffor the better regulating and manage- 
ment of the free-schoole there, and other Schooles within this Nacion, 
It is thought fitt, and Ordered that Coll : John Hewson, Governor of 



A.D. 1656. 

Dublin, Thomas Hooke Esquire Mayor of Dublin, Coll : Hierom Sankey, 
Coll : Richard Lawrence, Doctor Samuel Winter, Doctor Henry Jones, 
William Basil Esquire, Major Anthony Morgan, Doctor John Harding, 
Doctor Wm. Petty, Benjamin Woolsey Esquire, Mr. Wotton, and Mr. 
Claudius Gilbert... bee... hereby appointed a Committee to superintend 
and from time to time (as there may be occasion) to visit the said free- 
schoole and other Grammar-Schooles in Dublin or else where, and soe 
to inform themselves (by the best wayes and meanes they can) concerning 
the abilities, piety, and good conversacion of the Respective Masters and 
Ushers of those Schooles ; where they have been taught, and by what 
Authority Establisht ; and also to consider of the Government exercised 
in those Schooles, Whether the Method and Order therein used for the 
Advancement of Learning bee agreeable to the Rules and Discipline 
used in the ffree-schooles of Literature in England or Holland, known to 
any of the said Committee ; who are also to Enquire whether the said 
Schoolemasters and Ushers doe make it their Study and Care to promote 
Godlines... among their... Schollers... by praying among them, Instructing 
and Catechizing them.... and from time to time requiring an Accompt... 
of what they have heard Preacht...And return an Accompt in writing 
unto this Board... for the future better disciplinating and Well ordering 
of the same. 

Dated at Dublin the 3oth of March, 1655. [1656], 



A.D. 1657. 
41. Regulation of Endowments for Grammar Schools. 

[P. E.G., Ireland ; Commonwealth Records, A. 27, folio 53.] 

That by Commission under the Create Seale of Ireland, directed unto 
such persons within every county there, as the Lord Deputy and Councel 
shall make choice of, It be carefully inquired into, what ffree-schoole 
or schooles were formerly erected in each citty, town-corporate, and 
county within Ireland ; what yearely maintenance was formerly belonging 
unto the said ffree-schoole or schooles within each county.... as alsoe what 
it will now fall short of 100 per annum in each County ; And that upon 
return thereof there bee allowed and paid yearely out of Rents formerly 
belonging to Bishopps Deanes and Chapters within each respective 
County in Ireland, soe much as will make up the said present Revenue.... 
100 yearely ; and where noe such meanes was formerly allowed, that in 

77 



A.D. 1657. 

such County there bee allowed.. .for.. .such ffree-Schoole as shall be found 
fitting to be ordered there,... soe much yearely maintenance as the said 
Lord Deputy and Councel shall conceive meete, Provided they exceed 
not the allowance of 100 yearely.... in each of the Countys. 
27 March, 1656. [1657.] 



A.D. 1657. 
42. Puritan plans for the children of the poorer Irish. 

[P.R.O., Ireland ; Commonwealth Records, A. 27, folios 53-4.] 

Oliver P. 

Whereas the poorer sorte of Irish in Ireland doe, as well as the rich, 
abound in children, and have for the most part noe other meanes to 
support them and their said children, but either by begging or stealeing 
or both, by which meanes they not onely prove very burthensome but 
alsoo unnecessary members of the Comonwealth ; and whereas the said 
children would (noe doubt) in time prove of excellent use, if there were 
some course layd downe whereby they might att the age of tenn yeares 
and upwards bee taken from their Parents and bound Apprentices to 
religious and honest people in England or Ireland, that would not onely 
make it their business to breede them as well principally in the fear of 
God, as in such honest callings whereby they might bee enabled, when 
they come out of their apprenticeships, to gett their liveings by their 
owne Industry ; And whereas it is likewise found by dailey experience 
that there is a greate want in England of labourers and servants of all 
sorts, occasioned partly by the late warr and partly by carrying of both 
men and women to forraigne Plantacions ; as also for that (noe doubt) 
it would be a worke most acceptable to the Lord to have the said children 
bred and brought up as aforesaid ; That for the effecting and carrying 
on of a work of soe greate piety a publique Collecion be appointed to 
be made upon a certaine day, once every yeare, in all the respective 
Parishes within Ireland... in such manner as you shall thinke meete: that 
the Collecions soe made be committed to such handes and putt into such 
a way of distribucion in Ireland as shall be found most conduceing to 
effect and bring to passe soe pius, charitable, and advantagious a worke 
as the educateing of the said poore Irish children may hereafter proove 
to the Comonwealth. 

27 March, 1656. [1657.] 



A.D. 1657. 
43. Town property in Ireland assigned to an English Academy. 

[P.R.O., Ireland ; Commonwealth Records, A. 28, folio 156.] 

Oliver P. 
To our right trusty and well beloved Our Deputy and Councel of Ireland. 

A peticion and proposall by some well-minded persons, lately pre- 
sented to us, for the purchasing, with such Debentures or other publique 
faith debts as were properly satisfiable and Chargeable upon Ireland, a 
certain number of howses to the value of aboute 2,000 a yeare in such 
townes as are yett undisposed of in Ireland... forth with to assigne and 
sett over to persons (to bee approved of by our Self) in trust for the 
carrying on a forraigne Correspondency with Learned men, for the 
supplying and assisting also such at home and abroad whose Learning, 
Parts, Studies, and abilities have made them capable of being in some 
way or other Extraordinary Usefull to the Publique, and....conduceing 
to the Advancement in Generall of Learning.... [We do] judge it worthy 
of all Encouragement e, desiring that the same may likewise receive 
all due assistance... from your Lordships... And that therefore soe many 
howses, not exceeding in the whole the said two thousand pounds a yeare, 
as shall at six yeares purchase... amount unto the Debentures and 
Certificates delivered in by the said Petitioners or their Agents.... in such 
Townes... as is more particularly prescribed.... in the Order of Us and our 
Council... Your speedy despatch therein may give a considerable ad- 
vantage to this work.... 

Whitehall, 30 December, 1657. 



A.D. 1657-1712. 

44. Erasmus Smith provides for the education of the children of his 

tenants. 

[Endowed Schools (Ireland) Commission, 1857, Vol. n. p. 391 ; Educational 
Endowments (Ireland) Commission, Report, 1885-6 (Cd 4903), p. 298 ; and Report, 
1891-2 (Cd 6783), p. 191 sq.]. 

(a) [Originating Indenture, December I, 1657.] 

This indenture made the ist day of December in the year of Our 
Lord God 1657 between Erasmus Smith of London Esqr. of the one part 
and Henry Jones Doctor in Divinity.... John Byss Esqr. Recorder of the 

79 



A.D. 1657-1712. 

City of Dublin... Colonel Jerome Sanckey.... Edward Roberts Esqr. Auditor- 
General of Ireland, James Standish Esqr. Receiver- General of Ireland... 
of the other part. Whereas most of the sins which in former times have 
reigned in this Nation have proceeded chiefly of lack of the bringing up 
of the youth of this Realm either in public or private Schools.... in Litera- 
ture and good manners.... Now this Indenture Witnesseth that the said 
Erasmus Smith... for the great and ardent desire which he hath that the 
poor children inhabiting upon any part of his lands in Ireland should 
be brought up in the fear of God and good literature and to speak the 
English tongue... for the sum of 55. sterling... doth bargain and sell unto 
the said [persons, lands in Roscommon, Galway, etc.]... to the intent 
that... the said Trustees... shall cause five schoolhouses for the teaching 
of grammar and the original tongue and to write read and cast accounts 
to be built hi [Sligo, Galway, Tipperary, Antrim and a place to be fixed]... 
and shall pay... the sum of 40 sterling, and not under,.... to every one 
of the said Schoolmasters for teaching the poor inhabiting on the premises. 
...And the intention of all parties to these presents is that the children 
of the poor tenants inhabiting on the lands aforesaid and the children 
of such as are poor or lived by their labour are to be taught at the said 
schools free... Provided that in the first place the children of the tenants 
and inhabitants of the said land and other the lands of the said Erasmus 
Smith... be first provided for, and after them such as shall be educated 
in the said schools being poor, and for want of such for the relief of such 
other poor scholars as in the judgment of the said Trustees... shall be held 
fit to receive the same ....It is further by these presents declared to be 
the intention of all parties thereunto that the said Schoolmasters... be 
obliged twice every day to pray with such scholars as he or they shall 
respectively teach.... And that the said Schoolmasters... shall likewise 
catechise his or their said scholars once every week of some weekday in 
the catechism published... by the Assembly of Divines.... 

Enrolled in the Office of the Rolls of His Highness Court of Chancery 
in Ireland the i6th day of March 1657, and examined by me B. A. Wallis, 
Clerk of the Rolls. 

(b) [Charter of King Charles II, 26 March, 1669.] 

Charles the Second... to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting : 

Whereas Erasmus Smith Esquire, did heretofore intend to Erect five 
Grammar Schools... upon due consideration being had of the necessity 
of settling a more liberal maintenance upon the several schoolmasters,... 
by making some provision also for clothing poor children, and binding 
them out apprentices,... it hath been thought fit by the said Erasmus 

80 



A.D. 1657-1712. 

Smith, to reduce the said five Grammar schools unto three.... And the Right 
Reverend Father in God, Henry Jones, Lord Bishop of Meath, John 
Bysse, our Chief Baron,... and Hierome Sankey and Edward Roberts, 
Esquires... as Trustees for the said Erasmus Smith, did... exhibit their 
petition. . . . 

We, graciously affecting so good and charitable a work... do give, 
grant and confirm,... unto the said Erasmus Smith... and assigns, full 
power... to found and establish three Grammar Schools.... 

And likewise there shall be... schoolmasters... and ushers... which... 
shall instruct all such children in the respective schools to write and 
cast accounts, and as far as the children are capable, shall teach and 
instruct them in the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew Tongues, and fit them 
for the University, if the same be desired.... 

To the end the good and pious intentions of the founder may in all 
things be preserved as much as is possible. We have also thought fit, at 
the humble petition of Erasmus Smith, to... declare further that we do 
well approve of these rules... following, viz. : 

Also the said Masters shall duly, once every week, on each Lord's 
Day, catechise their scholars, and for that purpose shall make use of the 
catechism set out by the late Most Reverend Father in God, James Usher, 
Lord Archbishop of Armagh 

And moreover it shall be lawful for each Master to receive of every 
Scholar, at his entrance,... Two Shillings, except the twenty poor Scholars.... 
and except the children of tenants to and inhabitants upon the lands... 
belonging to Erasmus Smith... who are all to be freely admitted.... 

(c). [Minute- Book Entry, Governors of Schools of Erasmus Smith, 
1680.] 

We have also inquired into the state and condition of the schools 
at Drogheda and at Galway : we find that notwithstanding there are 
schools settled, yet there are*fbut very few whose children are taught 
there, by reason that other schools are permitted in those places, and 
that those who are of the Popish religion will not suffer their children 
to be educated in those schools nor by the schoolmasters ; which seems 
a discouragement to them, and will in a great measure render as well 
the charity of the donor, as the cost in setting and maintaining schools 
ineffectual, if it be not soon prevented. We therefore humbly propose 
that some effectual way be taken to the end that none may be permitted 
to teach grammar in or near the towns of Drogheda or Galway, but 
what is taught in your schools, without which the object of your schools 
will be frustrated. 

81 



A.D. 1657-1712. 

(d). [Order of the Governors of the Schools Founded by Erasmus 
Smith Esquire, I2th July, 1712.] 

Ordered, That the following Rules, to prevent youths educated in 
the Free Schools founded by Erasmus Smith from turning Papists, be 
duly observed in each of the said schools : 

i st. That prayer be said morning and evening in each of the said 
schools, by the master or usher, out of the liturgy by law established, at 
which every youth shall be obliged duly to attend. 

2nd. That every youth educated in the said schools shall be instructed 
by the master or usher in Doctor Mann's catechism, and upon Sundays be 
publickly examined in the same in church. 

3rd. That every person educated in the said schools shall duly attend 
the publick service in the parish church where each school is situated, 
every Lord's Day... and upon neglect thereof... to be expelled the said 
schools. 

4th. That every person educated in the said schools, when he is 
sufficiently instructed in the aforesaid catechism, shall be brought by the 
master or usher to the bishop to be confirmed. 



A.D. 1657-70. 
45. The State Church and the Jesuit School at New Ross. 

[" Hogan Transcripts, folios 757, 779-781, 783, 787. Letters from Ireland to Rome, 1670]. 

Stephen Gelosse, S.J. has been working in and near New Ross this 
year 1669, and ever since 1650.... When the plague and Cromwell's tyranny 
ceased, Father Gelosse... taught a small school... in a wretched hovel 
beside a deep ditch, and there educated a few children furtively. When 
the king was restored, his companion thought they might make a venture : 
the hut was levelled, and a large house built, where they opened a school. 
This school became famous, and drew scholars from various parts of 
Ireland... There were 120 boys, of whom 35 (18 Catholics and 17 Protestants) 
were boarders : the Jesuits were obliged to take the Protestant scholars 
by their parents. This school flourished for six years, encouraged both 
openly and privately by Protestants. We had all the usual exercises 
of piety and learning, and we amused and instructed the people by plays. 
Some Puritans became angry at this, and cited Fr. Gelosse's companion 
before the pseudo-episcopal court, accusing him of contravening the 

82 



A.D. 1657-70. 

statute of Elizabeth, which forbade papist schoolmasters to teach. The 
accused said that these laws referred to teaching for money. The judge 
said that no one taught for nothing. The accused offered to give securities 
to the court that he would pay a hundred pounds, if ever, as far as depended 
on him, he took a pension from scholars. The judge ordered him to teach 
no more. He was obeyed for three days : and then, relying on the support 
of influential Protestants, they resumed teaching. Fr. Gelosse took 

charge of the three lowest classes ; the other had the two higher schools 

The pseudo-bishop's Vicar was indignant at this. Contrary to the usual 
practice, he held a Court of triennial visitation, and citing the Jesuits 
before him, rebuked them for teaching in defiance of laws enacted by 
many kings and parliaments. One of them quickly replied that he would 
obey, " provided that you order us positively to desist from teaching." 
He was afraid to give this order, as it would annoy many protestants who 
wanted to secure education for their children 

In the month of April 1668 they entered the town itself to hold school, 
but they felt that it would soon be closed. After about three months 
both Jesuits were summoned to appear in the pseudo-Archbishop's 
court in Dublin. Fr. Gelosse went, was forbidden to teach, and did not 
teach for two months. His companion refused to go, on the ground that 
he was out on bail, and was bound under a heavy penalty to present 
himself in court at New Ross when called on. He taught the boys himself 
for a while, and then assuming the function of head master invited Fr. 
Gelosse to come back as his assistant. Soon afterwards he had a tragedy 
acted in the chief square of New Ross, after the manner in use in our 
Belgian schools. This was done with the unanimous consent of the 
Protestant officials of the town. The play lasted three hours, and was 
witnessed by a very large throng of Protestants and Catholics, many of 
whom came from distant towns to witness the novel spectacle. The 
acting and scenery were all that could be desired, and drew much applause 
from the spectators.... At the end of the play there was a distribution 
of prizes. In the year 1669 the New Ross College surpassed all the schools 
of the Kingdom, in the number, quality, and progress of its pupils, in their 
readiness in speaking Latin, and in discipline, piety, and morality. The 
number of day scholars and of boarders increased very much... it was 
necessary to send another Jesuit to help 

The year 1670 was fatal to the College of New Ross. A parson who 
had in vain attacked it for two years previously, this year openly directed 
against it the efforts of a common school master and of some of the towns- 
men. They made such complaints against the College in the pseudo- 

83 

F* 



A.D. 1657-70. 

bishop's Court, that it was decided to be better to leave the town. During 
the month preceding the departure from New Ross, four dramatic pieces 
were presented publicly ; and at the last of these the townsfolk and the 
scholars, even the Protestants, expressed their regret in the sincerest 
way. Most of the towns in the Kingdom deplored the closing of the 
school, which deprived their children of the opportunity of a good 
education. 

At the breaking-up of the College at New Ross, the third member 
of the staff went to Waterford. Father Gelosse started a school near 
Dublin, with forty pupils... The Primate of Armagh asked for the aid of 
Father Gelosse's assistant at New Ross [Stephen Rice, the writer of this 
account]. His Grace, who had recently returned from Rome, was most 
desirous by the good education of youth to keep Ulster, now confided to 
him, in the service of God and of the King... He at once got a house built 
as a school and as a residence for three Jesuit teachers. 



A.D. 1665. 
46. Schoolmasters dealt with by the Act of Uniformity. 

[Irish Statutes, 17 and 18 Car. II. c. 6.]. 

Act of Uniformity. 

5. Be it further enacted... that all... tutors of or in any colledge, hall, 
house of learning, or hospital... and every schoolmaster keeping any 
publique or private school, and every person instructing or teaching 
youth in any house or private family as a tutor or schoolmaster... shall 
subscribe the declaration... following, scilicet 

I, A. B. do declare, That it is not lawful upon any pretence 
whatever to take arms against the King... and that I will conform 
to the liturgie of the Church of Ireland as it is now by law 
established ; and I do declare that I hold that there lies no 
obligation upon me, or upon any other person, from the oath 
commonly called The Solemn League and Covenant... and that 
the same was in itself an unlawful oath. 

upon pain that all... failing in or refusing such subscriptions, shall lose 
and forfeit... his school, and shall be utterly disabled and ipso facto 
deprived of the same. 

6. And be it further enacted... That every schoolmaster, or other 
person instructing or teaching youth in any private house or familie 

84 



A.D. 1665. 

as a tutor or schoolmaster, be required to take the oath of allegiance 
and supremacie, which oath is to be administered by the ordinarie ; and 
if any schoolmaster or other person... shall instruct or teach any youth 
as a tutor or schoolmaster, before license obtained from his... ordinarie 
of the diocess, according to the laws and statutes of this kingdom (for 
which he shall pay twelve pence onely) then every such schoolmaster 
and other... as aforesaid, shall... for the first offence, suffer three months 
imprisonment, and also forfeit... five pounds. 

A.D. 1669-75. 

47. Protestant schoolmasters and Jesuit Schools at Dublin and at 

Cashel. 

[Hogan Transcripts, folio 751. Letter of Stephen Rice, S.J., to Rome, written 
15 July, 1677.] 

(a) Two Jesuits educated about 30 boys in Dublin. They were obliged 
to teach in one small room, partly through fear, and partly through 
poverty. When the school grew in numbers and reputation, the protestant 
schoolmasters grew jealous ; and by their threats and complaints caused 
the school to be closed for a whole year. 

(b) The school at Cashel was more successful and permanent. Its 
reputation spread through Tipperary and its neighbourhood. Several 
scholars came from a distance to it, and were allowed to do so by the 
heretic schoolmaster, on condition that none but Catholics should frequent 
the Jesuit school, and that they should pay the pension to him. Here 
a roomy house was built for schoolrooms and for boarders. The first 
public result of the school was a notable drama, acted for the Archbishop, 
Dr. William Burgat, who had just come from Rome to the see of Cashel. 
It was witnessed with great favour by all, even by non- Catholics. 

A.D. 1670-73. 

48. The Government, Archbishop Oliver Plunket, and the Jesuit School 

at Drogheda. 

[Hogan Transcripts, folios (a) 365, (b) 372-3, (c) 377-9, (d) 373, (e) 390-1, (/) 391. 
The Archbishop's letters, in Italian, are signed ' Oliviero Armacano ']. 

(a) [To the Secretary of Propaganda, Rome, 26 April, 1671.] 
The nobility and gentry of the whole province of Ulster, excepting 
three, are deprived of their lands, and from being proprietors have become 

85 



A.D. 1670-73. 

tenants; they have now no means to educate their children... Catholic 
teachers were not at all tolerated...! invited the Jesuits into my diocese.... 
I built for them two schools, where about 150 boys are educated, and 
25 ecclesiastics... One of the fathers instructs... the ecclesiastics... the same 
father teaches the rhetoricians for two hours in the morning, and two 
hours in the afternoon... The other Jesuit is occupied in teaching syntax 
and grammar... Let us aid the poor children, many of whom have been 
perverted by going to Protestant schools. 

(b) To the Internuncio at Brussels, 22 September, 1672.] 

The whole kingdom is indebted to you for the stipend procured for 
the Jesuits... What efforts I had to make, to sustain them ! How many 
memorials were forwarded to the Viceroy and the Privy Council against 
me and against them ! They cause the more annoyance to our opponents 
because they are at Drogheda, only four hours' journey from Dublin, 
where no Catholic school is allowed.... But now even our opponents 
approach me and them, in order to have permission for their children 
to come to them. And indeed many Protestant boys come to them, 
belonging to the principal families, who afterwards assist us in defending 
them.... The Viceroy gave me half a promise that he would not disturb 
them ; but as the money promised by the King was not given, I found 
myself in difficulties... The Catholic gentry lost their possessions and 
estates... it is impossible for them to send their children to the Catholic 
kingdoms. Hence it is a great relief to them to have Catholic masters 
here. Before my arrival they were obliged to send their children to 
Protestant teachers .... 

(c) [To John Paul Oliva, General of the Society of Jesus ; from Dublin, 
22 November, 1672.] 

I have three fathers in the diocese of Armagh, who by their virtue, 
learning, and labours, would suffice to enrich a kingdom. [Stephen Rice 
' never weary of teaching ' ; Ignatius Browne, ' a notable preacher in the 
English Language ' ; and Father Murphy ' who preaches well in Irish ']... 
In the schools there are 150 boys ; they are, for the greater part, children 
of the Catholic knights and gentlemen ; and there are also about 40 children 
of the Protestant knights and gentry. You may imagine what envy it 
excites in the Protestant schoolmasters and ministers to see the Protestant 
children coming to the classes of the Society... The city of my diocese, 
where their residence is... is called Drogheda... The country around is for 
the most part inhabited by orthodox knights and gentlemen ; and in the 
city there are rich merchants and artisans of good standing.... 

86 



A.D. 1670-73. 

The Viceroy, my Lord Berkeley, was most friendly to me, and 
esteemed me much more than I deserved et in verbo ipsius laxavi rete ... 
and the present Viceroy, the Earl of Essex, a wise, prudent, and moderate 
man, is nowise inferior to his predecessor in his kindness towards me, 
as also to the schools. As they have lasted these two years and four 
months, so we may hope that God, through the intercession of St. Ignatius, 
will grant them a long life.... 

(d) [To the Internuncio at Brussels, 8 October, 1673.] 

God alone knows all that I have expended, in frequent journeys to 
Dublin, to reply to the memorials which Protestant ministers and teachers 
presented to the Viceroy against the Jesuit schools... The whole kingdom, 
as far as regards ecclesiastical matters, enjoys at present the greatest peace. 
God grant that the next Parliament may give us no annoyance.... 

(e) [To the Internuncio at Brussels, 12 November, 1673.] 

The state of Catholic affairs in this Kingdom... is far worse now than 
heretofore... It is now expected that no Catholic will be allowed to live 
in cities... The Government here dare not moderate in any way our sentence 
of banishment, or give us a longer respite than the ist of December, 
through dread of Parliament, which is so severe against Catholics...! 
shall retire to some little hut in the woods or mountains of my diocese, 
with a supply of candles and books... The Viceroy is very friendly towards 
me, as are all the Councillors of State ;...the schools which I erected gave 
them some annoyance, but I satisfied the more moderate amongst 
them by explaining that they were erected for no other purpose than 
to instruct the youth in the Christian doctrine and in letters, that thus 
they might be useful for the State, and for the service of the King ; and 
that otherwise they would become vagrants, rogues, and highway robbers, 
and disturbers of the peace and social order. 

(/) [To the Secretary, Propaganda, Rome, 15 December, 1673.] 

Matters here have been very severe, the more so as the meeting of 
Parliament is at hand on the 7th of January next, so that I am in con- 
cealment...! sometimes find it difficult to get even oaten bread, and 
the house where I and Dr. Brennan are is of straw, and thatched in such 
a manner that from our beds we can see the stars.... but we are resolved 
rather to die from hunger and cold than to abandon our flocks... 

There is nothing which occasions me more grief than to see the schools 
which were instituted by me, now destroyed after so much toil. What 
will Catholic lads do, who are both numerous and full of talent ? The 
schools continued till the close of November last ; they commenced at the 



A.D. 1670-73. 

beginning of July 1670, so that they lasted three years and five months. 
The Fathers of the Society indeed behaved well, and toiled exceedingly 
in them : they generally had about 150 boys.... 



A.D. 1670. 
49.' Plain and Downright Counsel ' to Trinity College. 

[Calendar S.P., Ireland, 1669-70, p. 115, 26 April, 1670. ' Diurnil of the Lord 
Lieutenant's (John, Lord Berkeley of Stratton) doings in Dublin.'] j 

[Tuesday the 26th [April] the University of Dublin, being introduced 
by the Lord Primate, came to do their duty to his Excellency. Dr. Ward 
made ' a most eloquent oration in Latin, to which his Excellency returned 
a short answer in English.'] 

That he did not pretend to be much a scholar, and yet he would not 
willingly want the little learning he had. 

That the pleasure he took in it made him a friend to all professors 
of learning. 

That, by praising him, he had shewed him what he ought to be, and 
that he would endeavour to make them true prophets. 

That the exhortation they had cunningly and desirously insinuated 
under the disguise of commendations, he would requite with this plain 
and downright counsel that they would bend their minds and studies 
to the most useful parts of learning that did most redound to the benefit 
of mankind ; and that as they had concluded with a prayer so did he with 
a promise to give them all due encouragement. 



A.D. 1680-81. 
50. Perils of a Popish Schoolmaster at Ennis. 

[Hist. MSS. Comm. Ormonde MSS. (1911), April 23, 1681.] 

[John Roane, Bishop of Killaloe, to the Duke of Ormonde.] 

As to the first particular concerning the Popish schoolmaster at Inish 
[Ennis], Doctor Cargill by name, the Lord Clare spoke to me in August 
last that I should give way for Cargill to keep school at Inish till May 
next, and then he wd. be gone for France. I replied that if his Lordship 

88 



A.D. 1680-81. 

meant to license him, I should never do that for him, nor any other 
papist : he then desired my connivance, etc. Capt. Purdon told me within 
these four days.... that he had committed two Popish schoolmasters and 
the Lord Clare had released and dismissed them... 



A.D. 1686. 
51. Rival Schools in Kilkenny. 

[Hist. MSS. Comm. Ormonde MSS., Vol. 7, pp. 444, 445, 448.] 

(a) [Thomas Otway, Bishop of Ossory, to James Clarke.] 

1686. August 1 8, Kilkenny. 

...On the last Thursday in July, the visitors were at his Grace's School, 
where they found all things well, considering the great discouragement 
all things are under here, in which the very schoolboys have their share, 
who would be more humorous if the times were more serene. The master 
is certainly a very industrious man. There are in the school fifty-one. 
We are to have a University here, six of the natives who have studied 
at Paris intend to teach the arts and languages, and have hired a house 
for this purpose. They show no authority as yet for it. I send you one 
of the papers which they dispersed on Monday last, by which you will 
see their design. I desire you would, with my humblest duty, present it 
to his Grace... 

[Enclosure.] 

Deo Optimo Maximo. 

Impiger hue propera : piger hinc procul esto profane ! 
A good method of teaching Humanity, Greek, French, Philosophy, 
etc., being much wanted in Ireland, some well-wishers of the nation 
thought fit to choose out of the Irish students at Paris six to teach the 
several classes methodically. Kilkenny is chosen by the approbation 
of all, as the fittest place for such a design. The teachers being desirous 
that nothing should hinder the progress of their discipline, engage them- 
selves to furnish their boarders the books that shall be necessary parents 
having very often been found negligent in that point. Their pension 
will be 10 sterling per annum, for which they will allow lodging, diet, 
schooling, books, and washing. Each boarder is to bring his bed, napkins, 
knife, spoon, fork, and the first quarter's pension. Those that come 



A.D. i686. 

from far will find little college-beds at a cheap rate by the teachers' means, 
who will have a particular care of such. As for those that diet abroad, 
they will give what reasonable gratuity their parents shall think fit 
according to their means. The poorer sort shall be taught gratis, provided 
they have their diet and lodging fixed. The school will be opened on 
ist September 1686. Those that intend to come in the beginning, or 
soon after, are desired to give notice thereof to Mr. Edmond Galvan, or 
Mr. Francis Barnewell, at Mr. Nicholas Lee's, merchant, in High Street, 
in Kilkenny. 

Gentlemen desirous of learning Hebrew, writing, etc., shall find the 
conveniency. 

Nee praemia, nee exercitationis publicae, tragodiaeve, aut ejusmodi 
quicquam deerit, quo torpentes discipulorum animi ad summum litter- 
arum amorem excitentur, accendanturque. Habebitur in Aula majori 
oratiuncula in laudem litterarum Humaniorum a F. B. Humanitatis 
Professore die Septembris 8a ; altera vero in ignorantiam ab E. G. 
praefecto studiorum 2ma Octob. 

(b) [Francis Marsh, Archbishop of Dublin, to the Duke of Ormonde.] 

1686. August 23, Dublin. 

Postscript. Just now I delivered to my Lord Lieutenant a printed 
paper published and dispersed at Kilkenny by six natives of this country, 
who have studied at Paris, and have chosen your town to set up an 
academy in, and, as I hear, have from a certain abbot in France the 
allowance of 400!. per annum. 



A.D. 1694-1717. 
52. Jesuit Schools during the elaboration of the Penal Laws. 

[Hogan Transcripts, folios 843, 847, 881-4.] 

(a) [Nov. 25, 1694 : Antony Knowles, Superior, S.J., to Rome.] 
Nimia diligentia adversariorum, et nunc maxima, ne Nostri puerorum 

educationi dent operam....Sed pro zelo laborem et periculum audacter 
subeunt in latibulis. 

(b) [Feb. 17, 1695 : Antony Knowles, to Rome.] 

(Kilkeniae) quos habui socios,...magistratus mitti in carcerem jussit, 
quia paucos docebant. 

90 



A.D. 1694-1717. 

(c) [Feb. 12, 1717 : Information forwarded to Rome.] 

P. Michael Murphy mine in capitali regionis urbe periculis se pro 

juventutis instructione exponit....Docuit graecam et latinam linguas 

per quinque annos, et nunc docet. 



A.D. 1695. 



53. Education abroad prohibited. 

[Irish Statutes, 7 William in., c. 4.] 



An act to restrain foreign education. 

Whereas many of the subjects of this kingdom have accustomed 
themselves to send their children.. into France Spain, and other foreign 
parts... to be educated, instructed, and brought up ; by means and occasion 
whereof the said children have... been prevailed upon to forget... the 
affection which they owe to the established religion and laws of this 
their native country... for remedy thereof be it therefore enacted... that 
in case any of His Majesty's subjects of this realm of Ireland at any time... 
shall pass, or go, or shall convey or send or cause to be conveyed or sent 
any child.. into any parts beyond the seas... to the intent or purpose to... 
be resident in or trained up in any priory, abby, nunnery, popish university 
college or school, or house of Jesuits or priests... or in case any of his 
Majesty's subjects shall... pass or go, or be conveyed or sent out of this 
kingdom... to be resident or trained up in any private popish family, 
and shall be in such parts beyond the seas by any... popish person instructed 
persuaded or strengthened in the popish religion, in any sort to profess 
the same, or shall convey or send... any sums of money or other thing 
for or towards the maintenance or support of any child already gone 
or sent, or that shall hereafter go or be sent, and be trained and instructed 
as aforesaid, every person so going sending.. or conveyed or sent, and 
every person passing or being sent across the seas,... being lawfully con- 
victed in the form and manner hereafter mentioned.. shall be for ever 
disabled.... to prosecute any action.. or suit, or be capable of any legacy, 
or deed of gift, or to bear any office.. and shall lose and forfeit all his her 
and their goods and chatties.. 

2. If any information be given to any justice of the peace, that any 
such child.. sum of money, or other thing, is or are gone, contrary to the 
tenor of this act, then every such justice of the peace is.. authorised and 
required forthwith to cause to be brought before him all such persons 

9 1 



A.D. 1695. 

suspected or charged to have offended therein, and shall examine the 
person or persons so suspected or accused... and if... it shall appear probable 
that such child... sum of money, or other thing is or are gone, or sent 
away, then the said justice of the peace shall bind the said suspected 
person or persons... to give evidence... in the sum of two hundred pounds, 
or... greater sum... to appear at the next quarter sessions.... The clerk of 
the peace... shall cause an information to be framed against such.. suspected 
person or persons, who shall instantly answer thereto,... and in case... 
it shall appear probable to the said court that such sending or conveying 
was contrary to the true intent and meaning of this act, then he she or 
they shall take upon... themselves the proof where such child... so by them 
sent, then is, and also to what intent and purpose such sums of money 
or other thing, was or were sent by him or them beyond the seas ;... 
such going or sending shall be adjudged... contrary to this act, unless 
the party or parties denying the same, shall prove the contrary... or if 
by failure of such proof.. it shall appear to the said court of quarter sessions 
of the peace, that such offence or offences hath or have been committed 
contrary to this act, the same... shall be a conviction, as well of the person 
...sent as of the parties so sending ; and they and every of them 
shall forfeit and incur all the pains and penalties and disabilities before 
recited... and the one moiety of all such forfeitures to be... to him or them 
that shall sue for the same... by any.. information. 

10. And to the intent that no pretence may be made or used, that 
there are not sufficient numbers of schools in this realm to instruct the 
youth thereof in the English language, and other literature, be it further 
enacted.. that one Act of Parliament, made in the 28th year of the late 
King Henry the eighth, called An Act for the English order, habite and 
language.... and also one other act made in the I2th year of the reign 
of the late Queen Elizabeth, intituled An Act for the erection of free 
schools... which have generally been maintained and kept, but have not 
had the desired effect, by reason of such Irish popish schools being too 
much connived at, and all other acts and statutes now in force in this 
realm concerning schools, shall from henceforth be strictly... put in 
execution, according to the good intent and design of the same ; and... 
the judges of assize... are required... to be very circumspect in seeing the 
same put in due execution. 



92 



A,D. 1698-1733. 

54. The Children of Solicitors and Justices of the Peace. 

[Irish Statutes, (a) 10 William in., c. 13 ; (b) 7 George n., c. 5 ; (c) 7 George n., c. 6.] 

(a) An Act to prevent Papists being solicitors. 

Whereas.... by experience in this kingdom it hath been always found 
that papists solicitors have been and still are the common disturbers 
of the peace... and whereas at this time there are great number of papist 
solicitors and agents practising within the several courts of law and 
equity in this kingdom, by whose numbers and the daily increase of them, 
great mischiefs and inconveniences are likely to ensue, [none shall act 
as solicitors without first taking the oaths of allegiance and abjuration, 
and the declaration against transubstantiation, invocation of the saints, 
the mass]. 

And be it further enacted... That no person shall.. act as solicitor... 
in any... courts and offices in this kingdom, but such.. persons only who 
shall first take the said oaths, and subscribe the said declaration, and 
shall also educate all his children in the protestant religion. 

(b) An Act for the amendment of the law in relation to popish solicitors, 
and for remedying other mischiefs. 

I. Whereas the laws now in force against popish solicitors have been 
found ineffectual by reason of the difficulty of convicting such solicitors, 
and the mischiefs thereby intended to be remedied still remain, to the 
great prejudice of the protestant interest of this kingdom.... 

12. ...If any person or persons, now or hereafter to be admitted a 
barrister.. or solicitor (such solicitors as were comprehended within the 
articles of Limerick excepted)....do or shall educate, or permit to be 
educated, any of his children who are now under the age of fourteen 
years, or shall hereafter be born, in the popish religion, such person shall 
hencforth be deemed a papist and disabled from being a barrister... or 
solicitor. 

(c) An Act to prevent persons converted from the popish religion... 
educating their children in the popish religion, from acting as justices 
of the peace. 

Whereas it is necessary for the preservation of the protestant interest, 
and of the peace of this kingdom, that no persons whatever should be 
justices of the peace in any part thereof, but such only as are of known 
affection to the protestant interest, and our present happy establishment ; 
be it therefore enacted... that no person who is or shall be converted from 
the popish to the protestant religion, shall be capable of being or acting 

93 



A.D. 1698-1733. 

as a justice of the peace... who doth educate or cause to be educated in 
the popish religion all or any of his children who shall be under the age 
of sixteen years, and... such person so acting contrary to the true intent 
and meaning of this act, shall upon legal conviction thereof suffer one 
year's imprisonment.. and forfeit the sum of one hundred pounds. 



A.D. 1703. 

55. Additional penal laws as to education abroad, and education of 

minors. 

[Irish Statutes, 2 Anne, c. 6.] 

2. And forasmuch as by the said act to restrain foreign education, 
justices of the peace are required, upon oath to them made of the with- 
drawing of any child beyond the seas, to proceed further, as by the said 
act they are directed ; which oath it is not probable can be made by any 
protestant or protestants, who are strangers to such private transactions 
in popish families, when yet by the absence of such child there may be 
reasonable ground of suspicion of his or her having been sent away into 
parts beyond the seas, where... any two justices of the peace... shall have 
reasonable cause to suspect that any such child.... has been sent abroad 
into foreign parts... they are hereby required and directed to convene 
the father or mother.. or other relation., as had the care of such child,... to 
produce or bring before... them the said child within two months ;... 
and if such person., shall not produce.. such child within the said time... 
or shall not give good proof that the said child is resident... not in parts 
beyond the seas... then such child shall be deemed and taken to be then 
educated in foreign parts.. and shall incur all the penalties in and by the 
said act mentioned and prescribed. 

4. And that care maybe taken for the education of children in the 
communion of the church of Ireland as by law established, be it enacted... 
that no person of the popish religion shall or maybe guardian to, or have 
the custody of , any orphan.. under the age of 21 years ; but that the same... 
shall be disposed of by the High Court of Chancery to some near relation,... 
being a protestant, and conforming himself,... otherwise to some other 
protestant conforming himself, who is hereby required to use his utmost 
care to educate and bring up such child or minor in the protestant 
religion ;...and if any person... being a papist., shall take.. .the guardianship 

94 



A.D. 1703. 

or tuition of any orphan,... he.. shall forfeit the sum of five hundred 
pounds... the whole benefit of the said forfeitures to be, and is hereby, 
given to the Blue-coat hospital in the city of Dublin. 



A.D. 1705. 
56. Dublin Corporation and a Popish Schoolmaster. 

[Dublin Corporation Assembly Roll, 1705 : Third Friday after September 29. 
Gilbert, Municipal Records, vi. 342.] 

[n.] Upon the petition of Charles Grey, Popish schoolmaster, setting 
forth that in January Sessions last he was convicted for keeping a Popish 
schoole, contrary to the act of Parliament in that case made ; that your 
petitioner was for the said offence fined twenty pounds, and three months 
imprisonment : that your petitioner continued the said three months 
confined, but, not being able to pay the said fine of twenty pounds, 
petitioned this honourable assembly in Michaelmas last to have the same 
reduced : it is therefore ordered... that the said fine of twenty pounds be 
reduced to sixpence by reason of his great poverty, and giveing security 
of the good behaviour not to be guilty of the like offence for the future. 



A.D. 1709. 
57. Catholic teachers prohibited, even in private houses. 

[Irish Statutes, 8 Anne, c. 3, sect. 16.] 

1 6. ..Whereas by an act made in the seventh year of King William 
the third of glorious memory, it is enacted " That no person whatever of 
the popish religion shall publickly or in private houses teach school, or 
instruct youth in learning within this realm, upon the pain of 20, and 
also of being committed to prison.. for the space of three months for every 
such offence," which law hath proved ineffectual ; and that.. many persons 
of the popish religion do continue to keep publick schools... and, when 
prosecuted... do abscond or repair into other counties to keep publick 
schools, and thereby evade and escape the pains and punishments imposed 
by the said act ; and 

95 



A.D. 1709. 

Whereas several protestant schoolmasters, to encrease the number 
of their scholars, do chuse to combine with such papists... and to elude 
the said act do entertain such persons professing the popish religion to 
be ushers, undermasters, and assist ants., under such protestant school- 
masters, who frequently leave the instruction of the youth... to... such 
popish under school- master... whereby popery doth continue to grow and 
is propagated in this kingdom ; for remedy thereof be it enacted... That 
whatsoever person of the popish religion shall publickly teach school, or 
shall instruct youth in learning in any private house within this realm, or 
shall be entertained to instruct youth in learning... by any protestant 
schoolmaster, he shall be.. taken to be a popish regular clergyman, and 
to be prosecuted as such and incur such pains, penalties, and forfeitures 
as any popish regular convict is liable unto by the laws and statutes of 
this realm... 



A.D. 1712-16. 
58. Conflicting Views as to the Irish Language in Education. 

[Archbishop King's Autobiography... and... Correspondence, by Sir C. S. King, 
1906. (a) Memorial!, pp. 296-8; (b\ ibid. pp. 290-1, from Notes and Queries 4th 
S.I. 310-11; (c) ibid. p. 295: (d) ibid. pp. 293-4.] 

(a) To his grace James Duke of Ormond, Lord Lieutenant.... The 
humble Memoriall of several of the Nobility of Ireland, of the Ld. Bishop 
of Kilmore, and of several of the Gentlemen and Clergymen of that 
kingdom Whereas nothing tends more effectually to promote the 
common wellfare of Ireland then the conversion of the Popish natives 
to the Protestant Religion, whereby the English interest would be the 
better secured.... And whereas in order to obtain those happy ends, several 
laws have been made lately in Ireland to discourage and weaken Popery.... 
and one statute particularly... to prevent the succession of Popish clergy.... 
and it is probable that in some counties the succession maybe extinct 
in some few years.... That so many souls may not be abandoned to utter 
ignorance, infidelity, and barbarity on the one side, or be left a prey to 
schismaticks or Dissenters on the other, it is humbly proposed as 
followeth : 

i. That some numbers of New Testaments and Common Prayer 
Books... and select sermons.... be translated and printed in the 

96 



A.D. 1712-16. 

Irish character and tongue.... and that these books be distributed 
in any Irish family that can read 

2. That the whole nation may in time be made both Protestant and 

English : that Charity schools be erected in every parish in Ireland 
for the instruction of the Irish children gratis in the English Tongue, 
and the Catechism and Religion of the Church of Ireland. 

3. That in order to the carrying on the foregoing designs in the pre- 

ceding or any other methods... a Charter be sent out from Her 
Majesty.... 

4. That such of the Lords Archbishops and Bishops of Ireland as your 

Grace thinks fit be consulted about this Proposall....that with 
their concurrence a petition be presented to her Majesty con- 
stituting such an Incorporated Society for converting the Irish 
Papists. [March, 1712.] 

(b) [Thomas Lindsay, Bishop of Killaloe, to Thomas Smyth, Bishop 
of Limerick.] 

I wrote to his Grace... to think well of the matter, for that the 
Memoriall contained things of the last consequence to the Church... The 
Archbishop of Dublin... seemed to have principally at his heart the 
printing... in Irish, which part the rest of the Bishops present thought 
the least of all usefull or convenient, besides that it was against the 
intention of the Law of the 28th H. 8th, which was to promote the English 
language and habit. [March, 1712.] 

(c) [Archbishop William King, Dublin, to Rt. Hon. Wm. Connolly.] 

I send you enclosed a list of scholars taught to read Irish by Mr. 
Linegar in the College. All these are designed for the clergy, being in 
number forty-five. It is not intended that they should have any salary... 
but when they come to be settled in cures, they are enabled by this to 
discourse to all the parishoners...in a language that they understand.... 
[Feb., 1715-] 

(d) [Archbishop King to Francis Annesley.] 

If the Bishops of Ireland had heartily come into this work, and the 
government had given it countenance, certain methods might in my 
opinion have been taken, that... would have had great effect towards the 
conversion of the natives, and making them good Protestants, and 
sincere in the English Interest. 



97 



A.D. 1717-19. 
59. University and Charity-School Teachers Disaffected.' 

[From letters of Archbishop King, printed in ' His Autobiography,... and a selection 
from his Correspondence,' by Sir C. S. King, 1906. (a) pp. 204-5, from Add. MSS. 
6117, B.M. ; (b) pp. 214-15, from T.C.D. Transcribed King Correspondence.] 

(a) [Archbishop King to the Archbishop of Canterbury, from Bath, 
June 26, 1717.] 

I hope by the methods taken with the College of Dublin that Society 
is entirely gained to his Majesty. I wish to God that we could say ye same 
for the Universities here.... It ought further to be remembered that in the 
Beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign the Universities were much more 
disaffected than they are supposed to be now, and yet we see how soon 
they were gained. If we would consider and apply ye methods then 
us'd to bring them into good temper, the same causes will have the same 
effects.... 

(b) [Archbishop King to John Spranger, March 18, 1719.] 

As to charity schools, I have perhaps more in this city than in most 
of the kingdom besides....! observed with great grief that the management 
of many of these schools was got into the hands of persons disaffected 
to the Revolution and Government....! have good hope of these schools 
whilst under a strict eye and in well affected hands, and whilst they 
depend on the yearly contributions of well-disposed Christians. 



A.D. 1721. 
60.' Resident Protestant Schoolmasters to teach the English Tongue.' 

[Irish Statutes, 8 Geo. I. c. 12.] 

An act for the... encouragement of protestant schools within this 
kingdom of Ireland. 

9. And for the better encouragement of English protestant schools, 
which are much wanting in this kingdom, be it enacted... that it shall be 
lawful for.... every ecclesiastical person ; with the consent of his... bishop 
....to make an absolute grant unto the churchwarden of each parish... 
of any quantity of land to any of them respectively belonging as glebe 
or otherwise, not exceeding two acres for an archbishop or bishop, and 
one acre for any other person.... for the use of a resident protestant school- 
master to teach the English tongue.... 



A.D. 1721. 
6l._ Two Charity-Schools in Irish Cities. 

[Pamphlet in King's Inns Library, Dublin. " Methods of Erecting.... Charity 
Schools, with an account of the Charity-Schools in Ireland." Third Edition : 
Dublin, 1721.] 

(a) Cork. Parish of St. Mary Shandon, North Liberties. Two Charity- 
Schools Erected here in 1716, one of 50 Boys, and another of 50 Girls ; 
half the number of each Clothed, and 30 of them the Children of Soldiers 
who died in the Service. They all go to School in a large and commodious 
House, built for that purpose, on a piece of ground belonging to the 
Incumbent, and joining to the Church- Yard ; which (besides the Schools) 
contains Lodging for 18 poor decayed House- Keepers, Appartments for 
the School-Master, and Mistress, Rooms for Spinning, Weaving, &c, and 
a spacious Chamber for a Parochial Library ; to which, upon its first 
opening, were given several useful Books, and many more since, by the 
further Bounty of other generous persons. The Boys are taught to Read, 
Write, and Cast Accompts ; the Girls to Read, Sew, Knit, Mark, &c. 
and both are carefully instructed in the Protestant Religion as by Law 
Established ; (several of them being Children of Papists) repairing daily 
to Divine- Service in Church ; where they are examined in the Catechism, 
which they repeat with great exactness ;.... 

Nor has their progress in Industry come short of that in Learning. 
For by the Encouragement of the Honourable Trustees for the Linnen 
Manufacture, most of the Girls are employed in Spinning Flax and Hemp, 
afterwards wrought into Cloth in Looms set up in the House, attended 
by a Master- Weaver, and several of the Boys, who thereby grow versed 
in that Art.... But several of them are to be otherwise disposed of 
as their Genius leads them, either to the Sea-Faring Way, Husbandry, 
Trades and Services 

(b) Dublin. St. Patrick's Liberties. A Charity- School was set up 
in the Cathedral Liberties in 1704, consisting of 40 or 50 boys, mostly 
of Popish Parents, partly clothed, but thoroughly instructed in Reading, 
Writing, Arithmetick, and Religion. These were supported for several 
years by the private Contributions of a few charitable persons, till some 
of them removing from the neighbourhood, the Subscriptions sunk, and 
the School dwindled. From hence took their rise 

A Charity- School of Boys, belonging to the Cathedral, hitherto clothed 
out of a Collection at a Charity- Sermon, preached in 1716, by the Dean 
of St. Patrick's. The Master is allowed 12 pounds 10 shillings per annum, 
of which 10 pounds are given him by the Dean and Chapter out of the 

99 



A.D. 1721. 

(Economy-money, and the ordinary Collections in the Church... There 
are but 12 Boys in this school at present, but 'tis hoped it will soon be 
further encreased, by means of Subscriptions from several worthy Persons 
in the Liberties. 

Two other Charity- Schools, one of 20 Boys, the other of 10 Girls, all 
the Children of Papists. They were both Erected in 1712, and since 
Maintained by a private Charity, under the conduct of Aid. Matthew 
Pearson, and Mr. Knight. By whom the Children are furnished with 
Cloths, Books, and Schooling, and, when qualified, put out to Protestant 
Masters and Mistresses, with an allowance of 3 pounds 5 shillings each 
in Money ; besides a new suit of Clothes, a Bible, Common-Prayer-Book, 
and Whole Duty of Man. 20 so put out from the beginning. 

The Children of these and the preceding School constantly attend 
the daily Service in the Cathedral, and are carefully instructed in the 
Church Catechism, &c. 



A.D. 1721. 
62. Aims and Organisation of Charity-Schools in Ireland. 

[Pamphlet in King's Inns Library, Dublin. " Methods of Erecting, Supporting, 
and Governing Charity-Schools, with an account of the Charity- Schools in Ireland, 
and some Observations thereon." Third Edition: Dublin, 1721.] 

....It hath been judged of the greatest consequence, by Persons 
eminent for their learning and piety, that Charity-Schools should be 
erected in these Kingdoms ; whereby the Children of the Poor might 
be decently Clothed and usefully Educated, being taught to Read, Write, 
and Cast-Accompts, and instructed in the Knowledge and Practice of the 
Christian Religion, as professed and taught by the Established Church, 
and from whence they might be Apprenticed to useful Trades and Callings. 

Considering also, that, by the Laws of this Realm, no Papist can 
teach School, and a succession of the Romish-Clergy is likewise Prohibited, 
....it has been judged a farther reason for Erecting Charity Schools in 
this kingdom, wherein the Children of the Popish Natives.... may be so 
won by our affectionate endeavours, that the whole Nation may become 
Protestant and English, and all such Rebellions as have heretofore arisen 
from the Difference between Us, in Religion, Language, and Interest, 
for the future be prevented.... 

100 



A.D. 1721. 

In 1719, the [number of schools] was computed at one hundred and 
thirty, and the [number of children] reckoned to be near three Thousand ; 
and by the information since received, there is an addition of about 
Thirty new Schools actually opened.... In (other places) several of the 
Wealthier sort pay more than ordinary for Schooling their own Children ; 
that the Masters or Mistresses may teach the Children of the Poor Gratis, 
or at a less expence....In some small Villages, where there has not been 
a sufficient number of children to make a school, or where they could not 
be conveniently spared in school-hours, especially in harvest time, 
Agreements have been made with proper persons, to teach the Poor 
Children to Read, Write, and Cast-Accompts, by the Great ; that is, to 
give a Master or Mistress two Shillings and Sixpence for each Child, when 
he can name and distinguish readily all the Letters in the Alphabet, 
and the like sum when he can Spell ; and Five Shillings when he can 
Read well and Distinctly and say the Church Catechism by Heart ; and 
Fifteen Shillings more, when he can Write, and Cast-Accompts. 

Rules to be observed by persons concerned in Charity- Schools : 

II. That the Subscribers by a majority elect a Master for the School, 
with the following Qualifications, Viz : 

That he be a member of the Established Church of Ireland ; Under- 
stand the Grounds and Principles of the Christian Religion ; and frequent 
the Holy Communion. 

That he be of known Affection to his Majesty King George, and to 
the Protestant Succession as by Law established. 

That he be a Person of Sobriety, Meekness, and Humility, having 
his Passions in Subjection, and keeping good Orders in his Family. 

That he have a good method of Teaching, Write a fair Hand, and 
Understand Arithmetick. 

That he be approved by the Minister, and Licensed by the Ordinary. 

III. That where the subscribers appoint Mistresses for the Schools, 
they choose such as can Teach the Girls to Knit, Sew, Spin, etc, and have 
as many of the foregoing qualifications, required of Masters, as are proper 
for them. 

IX. That when any of the Children are put out, the Treasurer shall 
bind them Apprentices.... taking care in the Indenture of Apprenticeship, 
to oblige the Masters of such Apprentices to cause them to frequent the 
Service of the Established Church of Ireland, on all Sundays, at the least, 
and not to repair to any other Place of Publick Worship whatever. 

101 



A.D. 1721. 

Orders to be observed by Masters and Mistresses of Charity Schools. 

1. That they constantly attend the Schools, from the Hours of Seven 
to Eleven in the Morning, and from One to Five in the Evening, from 
Lady Day to Michaelmas ; And from Eight to Eleven, and One to Four, 
the rest of the Year. 

2. That upon their first coming to School every Morning and Afternoon, 
they call over the Children's names, and mark such as are absent or tardy 
without good cause, in order for Correction. 

3. That they teach the Children the true Spelling of Words, make them 
mind their stops ; and bring them to read slowly and distinctly. 

4. That afterwards they teach the Children to Write a fair Legible 
Hand, with the Grounds of Arithmetick, and employ them Alternately 
in such work as the Trustees shall severally appoint them, such as 
Spinning, Knitting, Sewing, Marking, for the Girls especially. 

A.D. 1730-36. 
63. Primate Boulter on his own * Charter Schools.' 

[Letters written by his Excellency, Hugh Boulter, D.D., Lord Primate of Ireland, 
to several Ministers of State in England, and some others. Dublin, 1770. Vol. n., 
pp. (a) 8 (b) 157-8.] 

(a). May 5, 1730. 

To the Archbishop of Canterbury and to the Bishop of London. 

The great number of papists in this kingdom, and the obstinacy with 
which they adhere to their own religion, occasions our trying what may 
be done with their children to bring them over to our church : and the 
good success the corporation established in Scotland for the instruction 
of the ignorant and barbarous part of that nation has met with, 
encouraged us to hope... that we likewise might have some success in our 
attempts to teach the children of the papists the English tongue, and the 
principles of the Christian religion.... 

(b). February 19, 1736. 

To Sir William Chapman. 

I am sure that what our charter society are labouring after, is the 
most rational push that has been made for establishing the protestant 
religion more universally in this kingdom... If we are once able to set 
on foot about 20 working schools, in the several distant parts of the 
kingdom, and put them into a right method, we shall meet with support 
and encouragement here from the legislature. 

102 



A.D. 1731. 

64. Inquiry into Illegal Popish Schools by House of Lords. Diocesan, 
Urban, Parochial Returns and Comments. 

[Reports, P.R.O., Ireland, (i) Printed. Lot 50 ; No. 5 : (2) MS. Lot 72 ; Nos. 90, 
91, 100, 105, 113, 131, 132, 133, 136, 160, 161, 162, 163, 170, 171, 181, 209, 211, 
212, 226.] 

Report made by His Grace the Lord Primate [Hugh Boulter, Abp. of 
Armagh] from the Lords' Committee appointed to Enquire into the 
Present state of Popery in this KINGDOM, and to prepare such Heads of 
Bills as they shall think proper for Explaining and Amending the Acts 
to prevent the growth of Popery, and to secure this Kingdom from any 
dangers from the great Number of Papists in this Nation 

The Lords Committees are humbly of opinion that the Disproportion 
between.... Popish and Protestant Schools is so great as to give your Lord- 
ships just and reasonable Apprehensions of the Continuance and Increase 
of the Popish Interest in Ireland.... 

ABSTRACT OF DIOCESAN RETURNS : POPISH SCHOOLS. 

Ardmagh ... ... 40 Cashell ... ... 28 

Meath ... ... 41 Corke and Ross ... ... 48 

Clogher ... ... 13 Waterford and Lismore ... 13 

Raphoe ... ... 4 Killalow ... ... 20 

Derry ... ... o Limerick ... ... 9 

Dromore ... ... 6 Cloyne ... ... 17 

Down ... ... 4 Fenabor, alias Kilfenora ... 10 

Kilmore and Ardagh ... 49 Tuam ... ... 32 

Dublin outside the city ... 29 Elphin ... ... 19 

City of Dublin ... ... 45 Killala ... many 

Ferns ... ... 14 Achonree ... ... 7 

Leighlin ... ... 24 Clonfert ... ... 7 

Ossory ... ... 34 Kilmaduagh ... ... 15 

Kildare ... ... 24 

549 

[Extracts from the detailed returns diocesan, urban, parochial to the Lords 
Committee, in execution of Order dated November 6, 1731.] 

I. PROVINCE OF ARMAGH. 

(a) Bishop of Derry. There are not any Popish Schools : Sometimes 
a straggling Schoolemaster sets up in some of ye mountainous 

103 



A.D.-I73 1 - 

parts of some Parishes, but upon being threatened, as they con- 
stantly are, with a Warrant, or a presentment by ye Church- 
wardens, they generally think proper to withdraw Hen. Derry. 

(b) Clogher diocese Innismacsaint parish. Owen Gallagher, an old 

Fryer, instructs a great many -Popish students. 

(c) Clogher diocese Derry brusk and Derry vollen parishes. No popish 

schools, but where protestant children are taught to read together 
with ye natives. 

(d) Armagh diocese Loghgilly parish. There are... but two popish 

schools, where children are only taught to read. 

II. PROVINCE OF DUBLIN. 

(a) Dublin City St. Michael's Parish. We know of no... Popish Schools 

but three, Two of which (as wee are informed and believe) Teach 
Bookkeeping and Mathematicks onely, and the one other writeing 
and Arithmatick onely. 

(b) Dublin City St. Michan's Parish. As for Schools, we have en- 

deavour'd to get a knowledge of them, and are informed that 

there are the following Schools : 

A Lattin School kept by Phil Reilly on ye Inns. 

Do. by Murphy in Bow Lane. 

An English School by M'Guire in Church Street. 

Do. by Lyons in Do. 

Do. by Kearnon in Do. 

Do. by Cullin in PiU Lane. 

Do. by Neal in Hamon Lane. 

Do. by M'Glaughlin in Do. 

Do. by Carty in Phrapper Lane. 

Do. by Ward in Mary's Lane. 

Do. by Burke in Do. 

Do. by Gorman in Bow Lane. 

(c) Dublin City Parish of St. Catherine. Popish Schools : in Earl 

Street, kept by Thaddeus Norton ; in Pimlicoe, kept by Egan 
Smith ; in Pool Street, kept by Charles Condron ; in Braithwaite 
Street, kept by Mary Cawlan. 

(d) Dublin City Parish of S. Luke's in Donore. Popish Schools : in 

Mill Street, kept by Catherine Anderson ; in New Row on ye 
Poddle, kept by Catherine Hanley ; in the Coombe, kept by Mary 
Murphy ; in Fordom's Alley, kept by Terence O'Brien and Mary 

104 



A.D. 

O'Brien ; in Truck Street, kept by Margaret Feelan ; in New Row 
on ye Poddle, kept by Cornelius Hanley. 

(e) Dublin City The return of ye Seneschall of the Libty of St. 
Sepulchers. Reputed Popish Schoolmasters in sd Libty : Andrew 
Cruce ffras ffiney Wm. Magrath. School-master in Patrick's 
Close: Wm. Hoy. 

(Signed) Boleyn Whitney. 

(/) Kilkenny City :, (i) Return of Thomas Butler, Deputy Mayor : Seven 
reputed Popish Spelling, Writing, and Reading Schools in the sd 
City and County thereof. (2) Return of Henry Brennan, Portreeve 
of Irishtown near Kilkenny : Four Popish Spelling, Reading, and 
Writing Schools. 

(g) Kildare Diocese : Carbury Parish : There are five Popish Schools, 
wherein the children of Popish parents are carefully educated. 

(h) Kildare Diocese : Rosenallis Parish : There are little Irish school- 
masters in many places ; who they are I have not heard. 

(i) Kildare Diocese : Naas Parish : As it was doubtless the intention 
of ye Lords to have their order thoroughly answerd, I could not 
till this week give ye return desired, having been in search of a 
Popish schoolmaster whose name I was but yesterday informed of 
John Spring, Rector, Deer ye gth, 1731. 

(j) Wexford City : Mayor's Return : There are not any Popish school- 
masters in or near the said town of Wexford. 

III. PROVINCE OF CASHEL. 

(a) Clonmel City : Mayor's Return : There is but one Private Popish 

Schoolmaster as I can finde in the said Town, whose name is 
Cornelius Lynchy, and goes from house to house to instruct 
Popish Children. 

(b) Cork City : Mayor's Return : There are several Popish School 

Masters in the City and Suburbs, but can't find out the number 
of them... really it is with the utmost concerne we observe the 
great growth of Popery amongst us. Novr. 12, 1731. 

(c) Diocese of Ross : Tullagh and Creagh Parishes. I know of no 

Popish Schools in these parishes, but there are some petty schools 
where some pretended converts teach such Children as come to 

them they only fit... great numbers of Irish boys to be Mass- 

Preists, who... return home with the greater Prejudice to the 

105 



A.D. 1731. 

Protestant Interest, and become more busy Pragmaticall Biggots 
than the old Romish Preists ever were. William Robinson, Rector : 
Scibereen, November 2jth, 1731. 

(d) Diocese of Killaloe : Nenagh Parish. Several itinerant School- 

masters, but none have settled. 

(e) Diocese of Killaloe : Union of Kilmore. In Kilmore, one popish 

philosophy master ; one Latin and English Master. In Killanafe, 
one schoolmaster. In Templederry, one Latin and English master. 

(/) Diocese of Killaloe : Parish of Finoh. Three popish schoolmasters, 
whereof two are in private protestant houses. 

(g) Diocese of Cashel : parish of Religmurry : ('very near Athassel'). 
Nor can I hear of any Popish Schoolmaster but one.... I shall use 
all means to expell him thence. Charles Isaack, Rector, to the 
Archbishop of Cashell, Novr. 24, 1731. 



IV. PROVINCE OF TUAM. 

(a) Diocese of Tuam : The Sheriff of Galway to the Archbishop. The 

enclosed pacquet and a couple of guns I found in the house of 
Father Thady Glin, Preist of ye Parish of Dunmore, who teaches 
Philosophy and Humanity in his Mass House, and boards some 
Gentlemen's children who are under his care. Stratford Eyre, 
Garbally, December ye ijth, 1731. 

(b) Diocese of Tuam. Archbishop's Report : In the town of Gallway 

there are three Nunnerys, which the Papists commonly call 
Boarding Schools....! have an account of 32 schools taught by 
Papists... diverse of them teach Latin and Philosophy.... And 
many Papists keep Tutors in their houses, who privately teach 
not only the youth of the family, but others of the neighbourhood 
who resort to them. There being scarce a Papist who will send 
his child to a Protestant School even to learn the Grammar, or so 
much as to read. Edw. Tuam, Novr. 25, 1731. 

(c) Diocese of Fenabor, Kilfenora. There are ten popish schools. I have 

yet no information that Latin is taught in any of them. Altho 
I take it to be very probable that some of them teach Grammar. 
Edw. Tuam. 

(d) Dioceses of Killala and Achonree : Bishop's Report. In Achonree, a 

school for philosophy, kept by Thady O'Hara...In Erris, many 
popish schools : a school in almost every two or three villages, 

106 



A.D. 1731. 

and insomuch that a Protestant Schoolmaster, where to be had, 
can scarcely get bread... In Aderguile, Kilfian, and Moygaunagh, 
several poor English schools, teach children from 7 to n....In 
Kilmoremoy and Ardagh, none : but many private familys keep a 
Tutor for their children by way of servant. 

(e) Dioceses of Clonfert and Kilmacduagh : Bishop's Returns. (i) 
Clonfert : Popish Schools, 15. N.B. By a return made to me at my 
last visitation, there appear'd to be a much greater number of 
Popish Schools than are here return 'd. But one of them being 
taken and convicted, the rest disappear'd. Many of them have 
not yet ventur'd to return : And of those who did, some have 
again absconded upon the first notice of the Order of the Lords 
Committees. There is commonly a popish school in every 
parish. Edw. Clonfert. Novr. 23, 1731. 

(2) Kilmacduagh. Popish Schools : 4. N.B. The reason why 
so few schools appear is : the same as in the Dioces of Clonfert. 
Nov. 23, 1731. 

A.D. 1731. 
65. Penal Investigations as to Galway teachers. 

[MS. Reports ; P.R.O., Ireland, Lot 72, Nos. 179, 183.] 

Walter Taylor, Mayor of Galway, to the Lords Committees. 

In obedience to your Lordships order [I with the Recorder and two 
other magistrates] issued warrants for summoning several of the principall 
and most knowing popish inhabitants of the Town... Liberties and 
Suburbs... to appear before us pursuant to the Statute of the 8th of Queen 
Ann, Cap. 3 : many of them absconded and kept out of the way, and 
such of them as... appeared (tho' very fully and strictly examined upon 
Oath several days...) we could... get from them no further or other 
Informations than what is... hereunto annexed.... 

[Previous deposition of the Mayor avers] if warrants were directed 
to the parents of the children... taught, to appear and give testimony on 
oath,... it wou'd be the... surest way of proving the fact].... 

5th Deponent, Edward Pern... Clothier... Deposeth and says that he 
knows one Addams, William Keasberry and George Foster are Popish 
Schoolmasters, and teach English, and the Deponent's son being about 
six years old is instructed by the said Foster, and he pays him for the 
same.... 

107 



A.D. 1731. 

7th Deponent, George Browne... Distiller, Deposeth, and says he knows 
Lally Bermingham, Thomas Addams, Nicholas Cox, William Keasberry, 
Thomas Burke, and George Foster... reputed popish schoolmasters, and 
teach nothing but English, Writeing, and Ciphering.... 

8th Deponent, Thomas MacNamara,... Shopkeeper.... does not mention 
....any popish schoolmaster except one Denis Creaghan, who lives in the 
West, and teaches only English.... 

9th Deponent, Anthony Bodkin, Senr.... Merchant.... Deposeth.... as 
to the number of Nunnery s.... he calls them Boarding Schools.... says he 
does not know when the Augustinian Boarding School became such, 
but that he thinks it was within these twenty years ;.... knows no popish 
Schoolmasters.... except one Keasberry a lame man, who he hears keeps 
an English School, and one Bryan Hynes who setts coppys and teaches 
to write in private Houses.... 

10 th Deponent, Richard Addams... Shopkeeper... says He hears 
[Bermingham, Addams, Keasberry, Foster, Creaghane, Hynes] are 
Popish Teachers, and that Lally Bermingham pretends to teach Lattin, 
but the rest only English, Writeing, and Cyphering.... 

nth Deponent, Dominick Bodkin... Merchant... says he hears there 
is one William Keasberry a Cripple teaches Children to read... that 
Nicholas Cox teaches young men to Write and Cypher, and that Thomas 
Addams teaches Children to read, and that Bryan Hynes keeps no School 
but go's from Shop to Shop to teach the young Apprentices to Write 
and Cypher.... 



A.D. 1733. 
66. Charter for English Protestant Schools in Ireland. 

[Printed Dublin, 1733.] 

His Majesty's Royal Charter for Erecting English Protestant Schools 
in the Kingdom of Ireland. 

George the Second by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France, 
and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. To all persons to whom 
these Presents shall come. Forasmuch as we have received information 
by the Petition of the Lord Primate, Lord Chancellor, Archbishops, Noble- 
men, Bishops, Judges, Gentry, and Clergy of our Kingdom of Ireland, 

108 



A.D. 1733. 

That in many Parts of our said Kingdom there are great Tracts of 
Mountainy and Coarse Land, of Ten, Twenty, and Thirty Miles in 
Length, and of considerable Breadth, almost intirely inhabited by Papists, 
and that in most Parts of the same, and more especially in the Provinces 
of Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, the Papists far do exceed the 
Protestants of all Denominations in Number. That the Generality of the 
Popish Natives appear to have very little sense or knowledge of Religion, 
but what they implicitly take from their clergy, to whose Guidance in 
such matters they seem wholly to give themselves up.... So that if some 
Effectual Method be not made use of to instruct these great Numbers 
of People in the Principles of true Religion and Loyalty, there is little 
prospect but that Superstition and Idolatry.... will from generation to 
generation be propagated among them. That among the Ways proper 
to be taken for converting and civilising of the said deluded Persons,.... 
one of the most necessary, and without which, all others are likely to prove 
ineffectual, has always been thought to be the Erecting and Establishing 
of a sufficient Number of English Protestant Schools, wherein the 
Children of the Irish Natives may be instructed in the English Tongue, 

and the Fundamental Principles of True Religion 

We do hereby give to the said Society full Power and Authority to 
nominate and appoint fit and able persons to be approved and Licensed 
by the Archbishops and Bishops of this Kingdom, in their respective 
Diocesses, to be the Schoolmasters and Schoolmistresses therein... to teach 
the Children of the Popish and other poor Natives of our said Kingdom, 
the English Tongue, and to teach them to read, especially the Holy 
Scriptures, and other good and pious Books, and to instruct them in the 
Principles of the Protestant Religion,... and to teach them to Write, and to 
instruct them in Arithmetick, and such other parts of Learning, as to 
the said Society shall seem meet, and to bring them up in Virtue and 
Industry ; and to cause them to be instructed in Husbandry and House- 
wifry, or in Trades or Manufactures, or in suchlike manual Occupations, 
as the said Society shall think proper 

A.D. 1733. 
67. A Sermon on the Education of < the poorer sort ol Irish.' 

[Pamphlet in King's Inns Library, Dublin; pp. i, 16-18, 26-9.] 

A Sermon preached in Christ- Church, Dublin, before His Grace 
Lionel, Duke of Dorset, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and the Lords 

109 



A.D. 1733- 

Spiritual and Temporal, in Parliament assembled, On Tuesday, the 
23rd day of October, 1733, being the anniversary of the Irish Rebellion. 
By Henry [Maule] Lord Bishop of Dromore. Published by Command 
of His Grace the Lord Lieutenant, and by Order of the House of Lords. 

Ps. 124. v. 5. Praised be the Lord, who hath not given us over for 
a Prey to their teeth. 

Now to bring these things nearer home to ourselves : Does it not 
well become us, the Protestant people of this Land, a little to reflect on 
our present situation, with respect to the great number of Papists in this 
Kingdom, who have more than once brought us to the brink of 
destruction ?.... 

To lessen these dangers, and to prevent many future Mischiefs which 
may arise from this quarter, two ways yet seem to be left, and humanly 
speaking, these two in the course of a few years, would, under God, be 
attended with great success, and they are these : 

First, a wise and prudent Execution of the Laws against Popery. 

Secondly, effectual and Christian Methods for the general Instruction 
of the Irish Natives, in the principles of True Religion, and the 

English Tongue And in this all Order and Degrees of men among 

us should be engaged ; the Nobility, the Magistrates, the Clergy, and 
the People, ought cheerfully to concur in this Great and Glorious design.... 
it is found by experience, that all other Methods to prevent the further 
growth of Popery, have not proved effectual : nor has the Nation, in more 

than a century and a half, yet become Protestant ; all the penal and 

other wholesome laws,.. wisely enacted to secure us from the numerous 
body of Papists... have not had their desired effect... great numbers of 
that dangerous persuasion do still remain among us, unreformed, un- 
reclaimed.... 

The Irish, who formerly had an unsettled and roving way of life, 
in the woods and bogs and mountains... have now, for many years past, 
become quiet and civilised : they taste the Sweets of English Society, and 
the Advantages of Civil Government.... The poorer Sort of Irish most 
chearfully send their children to the English Protestant Schools, provided 
they are taught Gratis : the Irish Language, as to the reading of it, is now 
in a manner become a dead Letter to the Natives, and the Characters of it 
as little understood, as the Danish or Runick. It is not now read, or made 
use of by the Irish themselves, who are all desirous to read, write, and to 
speak, the English Tongue, the happy consequence of planting, already, 

so many English Schools in this Kingdom 

no 



A.D. 1733. 

An Appendix. 

Among the many advantages which this Nation may receive, by a proper 
number of English Protestant Schools being raised,.... it will not be found 
of the least service, that in the course of a few years, these little Nurseries 
of Religion may very likely become useful Seminaries of Labour and 
Industry.... And to this end it will be proper, that together with the Holy 
Scriptures, the Church Catechism, and the Book of Common Prayer (in 
which they must be first and always carefully instructed) they may 
likewise have some useful little Tracts, (or Extracts out of Approved Books) 
of Husbandry, put into their hands, which may give their minds an early 
turn to Country- Affairs.... And this may be usefully carried on either 
in Farms and Country- Settlements, where the spirit of Planting and other 
useful improvements have prevailed, or in Working- Colonies in a body 
of Youth together, under the Care of proper Directors... And if at the 
same time we can render our honest views in this respect, subservient to 
the Ends and Service of the Protestant Religion, as no doubt we may, 
we cannot fail of the chearful Concurrence of all who wish well to the 

Protestant Interest of this Nation Spinning Schools, as they have been 

formerly supported by the Care of the Board of Linnen Manufacture, so it 
is not unlikely but that they may be still farther encouraged by the same 
Honourable and Useful Board... Work and Labour are always consistent 
with Christian Education... A glorious and a most joyful Prospect ! More 
especially pleasing and seasonable at this time, when we are happily 
favoured with Royal Countenance and Authority. 



A.D. 1744. 
68. Two Charter-Schools, Waterford and Down. 

[(a) Smith: History of Waterford, 1744-5, pp. 78-80; (b) Harris: The County 
of Down, 1744, p. 79.] 

(a) [Killoteran Parish, co. Waterford.] 

This Charter school consists of 30 children, and is endowed by the 
Corporation of Waterford with 26 acres of land for 999 years, which at 
the opening of the School in 1744 were worth 20 per annum, but by the 
labour and improvement of the boys are now valued at 24 per annum. 
Henry Mason, Esqr. fed the children at his own expense since the school 
was established, having promised the Society to do so for the first three 

in 



A.D. 1744. 

years, and it was by the care and application of that gentleman that the 
sum of 248 was collected from the gentlemen of the county which was 
expended upon the building.... Last season the boys cleared two acres 
of land of stones... Besides ditching and preparing the land for oats flax 
and potatoes, on wet days they were employed in dressing flax, etc.... 
22 children can now say their Catechism perfectly well, though some of 
them, when they came to the school, could not speak English... Next to 
the rescuing the souls of such numbers of poor children from popery, 
and their bodies from idleness and misery, it was certainly a great and wise 
design in the institution of these schools to have the boys bred up in those 
labours which at present seem to be the greatest benefit to this kingdom, 
in not only the linen manufacture but likewise the knowledge of agriculture. 
Most other trades are overstocked... want of employment presses hard on 
the new-made journeyman, and he is forced to some common labour. 
On the contrary, by breeding boys up to husbandry, which can never be 
overstocked, true agriculture would soon flourish, our waste and 
uncultivated lands would be peopled, and the protestant interest greatly 
strengthened. 

I shall by leave add one hint towards this end, which I hope the Gentle- 
men of the Incorporated Society will excuse. If beside the daily labour of 
the boys, they were given some instruction in husbandry, with the reasons 

which might easily be collected from Bradley, Mortimer, etc., and put 

in a short method for their reading at school, or for the furnishing useful 
hints for their master to instruct them by. These methods would make 
them fitter servants in a country life.... 

And what may we not expect from such a happy institution, since 
it is not only supported by his Majesty's royal bounty, but also assisted 
by the legislature, who by a late statute have given their sanction to the 
charter scheme, by granting a duty on hawkers and pedlars, in aid of 
the society ; and at the same time have enabled all persons whatsoever 
to give two acres of land for the use of an English protestant school ? 
Nor is it to be forgot that his Excellency the Earl of Chesterfield, Lord 
Lieutenant of this Kingdom, hath also in a particular manner patronised 
the society by a paragraph in his speech to both Houses of Parliament. 

(b) [Ballinahinch Parish, Barony of Kinelearty, Co. Down.] 

The Papists are numerous in this Parish, being reckoned at least a 
thousand souls ; which induced the Charter Society for promoting 
Protestant Schools to settle a Working School here on part of the Estate 
of Sir John Rawdon. Twenty Popish Children of both sexes are on the 
Foundation ; some of whom having been transplanted from Schools in 

112 



A.D. 1744. 

Munster hither by application of their Parents, are constantly employed 
in useful Labour, particularly in Gardening and Planting of Trees, to 
encourage which at this place, some publick spirited Gentleman has 
lately given Ten Guineas. Many Children have already gone out of this 
School into the Families of Protestant Farmers and Linen Weavers. 

A.D. 1761. 
69. Education of Children affects an Election to Parliament. 

[MS. in possession of Thomas Woods, Esqr., pp. 44 folio, 2 pp. missing. Remainder 
contains ' a True Coppy of the Down admeasurement of...Westmeath,' made 20 
October, 1657 ; and a list of ' conceal'd and Protestant Lands ' in Westmeath, made 
a few years later.] 

A List of the Poll taken upon an Election of Representatives for to 
serve in Parlt. for the Co. of Westmeath before Thos. Adderley Esqr. 
High Sheriff of the County Monday the nth day of May 1761 at Mullingar. 

Court opened at three quarters of an Hour after eleven o'clock in the 
forenoon. 

The Rt. Honle. Lord Belfield; The Honle. Richd. 



Rochfort, Esqr. 



Candidates. 



Gustavus Lambert Esqr., George Rochfort Esqr. 
[Electoral Roll : 606 Freeholders.] 

No. 172 : Objected to by Mr. George Rochfort for being a Papist, and 
for educating his children under the age of 14 years. 

No. 204 : Mr. Williams objects for his having a Popish Wife ; Second 
Objection taken by Mr. Grueber for his educating his children 
in the Popish Religion under the age of 14 years. 
No. 475 : The voter... says he intends to educate his children in the 
Protestant Religion ; that he educated his son by a former 
wife, in that Religion ; that his children by his present wife 
are so young that they do not go to any place of worship. 
[Objection] wav'd by Mr. George Rochfort. 

[Note. 16 voters were objected to ' for being married to a Papist wife, 

who never regularly conformed.' One pleaded that ' she 

read her recantation before he married her ' ; another, that 

' he is not married a year yet. ' 

i voter was objected to ' for being a Papist, or a Conformist 

relapsed into Popery ' ; 
3 for ' being Papists/ or ' being a Papist as the law now stands.'] 



A.D. 1765. 
70. Agricultural Education. 

[A Plan for Instructing Youths in the knowledge of Husbandry, Published at 
the request of the Right Honourable and Honourable Dublin Society. By Mr. John 
Wynn Baker, Dublin, 1765. (Haliday Pamphlets, R.I. A., Vol. 325, pp. 16)]. 

At a meeting of the Dublin Society, May 30, 1765, The Rt. Hon. 
The Earl of Arran informed the Society, That the Committee... (on) 
Mr. Baker's scheme for educating boys in the knowledge of Agriculture, 
had.... Resolved.... 

2. That Mr. Baker be requested by the Society, to take upon him 

the Instruction of the first Apprentices, and that five be the number 
to make the Experiment upon. 

3. That a yearly Sum, and not an Apprentice fee, be given to Mr. 

Baker with the said Boys. 

4. That the Sum of Twelve Pounds per Annum maybe a reasonable 
allowance for the Feeding and Cloathing each of the said Boys. 

5. That Two of the said five Boys be instructed in Making the 

Instruments for Agriculture and Tillage. 

Ordered, that Mr. Baker be requested to cause 1500 copies of his 
said Scheme, to be printed for the use of the Society. 

[Extracts from The Plan.] 

It will be almost impossible to instruct such persons as have already 
been bred to Husbandry... 

From whatever Seminary Boys shall be selected... they should be 
taught to Read and Write extremely well, and must be Masters of Accounts, 
as far at least as the Rule of Three.... 

A small kind of Barrack should be erected, consisting of a large kitchen, 
a small room for the Matron, a large Hall for the Boys to eat in, and 
another over it for them to sleep in, another small one by Way of 
Infirmary, and another room for the Clerk or Bailiff.... This Barrack must 

be situated immediately under the Eye of the Master The Boys 

should all be dressed in one decent plain Uniform, consisting of at least 
three shirts, a Flannel or Frize Waistcoat to work in, and a Waggoner's 
Shirt in the English Manner, a Suit of Frize Cloaths for Sundays, an 
every Day and Sundays Hat, three pair of Stockings, and two Pair of 
Shoes. And once a Year every Boy should be new Cloathed. 

They should all be Protestants, and regularly every Sunday, or other 
Great Days, go to Church... Here the Use of the Schoolmaster is again 

114 



A.D. 1765. 

of Importance In Order to preserve the Learning which they come 

to me with, I should oblige them to write and cast Account three times 
a Week. 

I should have a sufficient Number of... the best Books in Husbandry, 
which I should oblige them to read every Evening ; and at proper Periods, 
I should myself examine them... and inculcate the Sense of the Author... 
I would draw up a kind of System, by Way of Question and Answer, by 
which.. .they would be instructed with more Expedition.... particularly 
when in Aid of such Instructions, they will every Day be concerned in 
the Operative Part. I should at proper Seasons walk with them to view 

my different Experiments and endeavour to make them perfect 

Masters of the Operative Part, by their Practice of it. 

Before they should be out of their Time, I should take Care to instruct 
them in my system of Book-keeping, which would render them Servants 

of inestimable Value But this depends on their being properly 

Educated before they are bound Apprentices. As soon as I should discover 
the Genius of a Boy ripening, I should endeavour to invite him to the 
making Notes and Observations of his own, and now and then call for 
them for my perusal 



A.D. 1765-1808. 
71. The History of Bishop Pococke's Weaving School. 

[(a) Reports by Commissioners, Board of Education ; Reprint of 1813, p. 30 ; 
(b) Appendix to Third Report of the Board, 1809, pp. 84-5 ; (c) Endowed Schools 
Commission (Ireland) Report, Vol. II., p. 235.] 

(a) [Bishop Pococke's Will, 24 March, 1765.] 

I, Doctor Richard Pococke, Bishop of Ossory, being in pretty good 
health... but sensible of the uncertainty of human life do make this my 

last Will and Testament I do leave all the rest of my estate real and 

personal to the Incorporated Society in Dublin for promoting English 
Protestant Schools in Ireland... for founding a School for Papists Boys 
from twelve to sixteen years old, who shall become Protestants, and to be 
bred to linen weaving, and instructed in the principles of the Protestant 
Religion... to be apprenticed to the Society, after they are fourteen years 
old, for seven years : desiring that my manufactory house at Lintown, 

Kilkenny be applied for that use. [Annual Rental and Interest, 

1808 : 964.] 



A.D. 1765-1808. 

(6) [Lin town Factory School. Visited by J. Corneille, Esqr. : 
19 August, 1808.] 

Of the 73 children in this school, there are 3 Orphans ; 15 of Protestant 
Parents ; 4, the religion of whose parents was not known ; 51 of Roman 
Catholic Parents. Most of the children are from Dublin and Monastereven 
Nurseries.... 

There are two working-rooms, placed one within the other, the length 

of both nearly 50 yards The boys are all apprenticed to the Master 

for seven years, and are taught by him to manufacture corduroys and 
pillow fustians ; the Master furnishes the raw materials, and sells the 
goods... for his own profit ; and informed me he had a great sale for the 
goods in the town. Some of the boys seemed to be very dexterous work- 
men. There were 28 lads in the factory when I was there ; three had 
eloped the week before ; I never saw more robust lads... they were all 
working without their shoes and stockings, which the Master said they 
always threw off when at work ; the size and strength of their limbs 
surprised me. 

The Catechist... informed me that... the lads who were of Roman 
Catholic parents on both sides, when they had served their apprenticeship 
at the factory, relapsed to the Romish persuasion, which he attributed 
to the circumstances of their not being admitted until the advanced ages 
of 12 and 16 years, a time of life when their early religious impressions 
were too firmly rooted ever to be so far eradicated as to enable them to 
withstand the strong solicitations of their parents and friends to return 
to their first profession of faith ; but that he had been informed by many, 
and had observed himself, that where the mother was a Protestant (the 
Society or Local Committee having so far relaxed from the strict letter of 
Bishop Pococke's Will, as to admit lads of this description) that in that 
case, when the apprentice had served his time, and was turned out in the 
world, he did not relapse 

(c) [Evidence of Rev. Richard Ardill, Secretary, Incorporated Society 
for English Protestant Schools in Ireland : 31 May, 1856.] 

Q 2 3> 2 53- On looking at the will of Dr. Pococke, the Commissioners 

see that his estate is bequeathed for the founding of a weaving school... 

for Papist boys only, to be educated in the Protestant religion. Are the 
trusts of that will carried out ? As regards the Roman Catholics, it is not, 
because they could not be obtained.... 

Q 23,254. Then, in point of fact, in the Pococke Institution there is 
not a single Roman Catholic foundation boy ? I am under that impression. 

116 



A.D. 1782, 

72. Conditions under which < Persons professing the Popish Religion ' 
may be permitted to teach. 

[Irish Statutes, 21 and 22 Geo. III. c. 62.] 

An Act to allow Persons professing the Popish Religion to teach School 
in this Kingdom, and for regulating the Education of Papists... 

Whereas several of the laws made in this kingdom relative to the 
education of papists, or persons professing the popish religion, are 
considered too severe, and have not answered the desired effect : be it 
enacted that so much [of the acts 7 Wm. III. c. 4 ; 8 Anne, c. 3] as subjects 
persons of the popish religion, who shall publickly teach school, or who 
shall instruct youth in learning in any private popish house within this 
realm, to the like... penalties and forfeitures as any popish regular convict, 
shall be... repealed. 

2. Provided always, that nothing in this act... shall extend... to any 
popish schoolmaster who shall not have taken the oath of allegiance 
[13, 14 Geo. III.] in some of his Majesty's four courts in Dublin, or at 
quarter session,. ..or before any of the going judges of assize.... 

3. Provided also, that nothing in this act shall extend.. .to any 

popish schoolmaster who shall receive into his school any person of the 
protestant religion ; or to any person of the popish religion who shall be 
entertained to instruct youth in learning, as usher, under master, or 
assistant, by any protestant schoolmaster within this realm.... 

4. Provided also, That nothing herein contained shall be construed 
to allow the erection or endowment of any popish university or college 
or endowed school in this realm, or to authorise any papist... to teach 
or keep school, who shall not have first obtained the license of the ordinary 
of the diocese for that purpose, which license the ordinary is hereby 
empowered to grant and recall from time to time as he shall think 
proper.... 

A.D. 1782-88. 
73. John Howard on the Charter Schools. 

[Works of John Howard, F.R.S., 2 Vols. 4th Edn. London, 1792. (a). Vol. I., 
p. 208 (First Visit, 1782-4) ; (b) Vol. n., pp. 101, 119 (Visit of 1787-8).] 

(a) Having taken notice of several of the orphan schools abroad, I 
cannot help adding an account of some particulars relating to the 
Protestant Charter-Schools. Their number is 41, besides four nurseries 

117 



A.D. 1782-88. 

to supply them with children. In visiting them I carried with me a 
sermon preached before the incorporated society, (to which is added an 
account of the several schools) published in 1781, at the request of the 
Society. In two schools near Dublin...! was greatly surprised to find 
but forty-six [in the one] and thirty-four [in the other], though the 
numbers given in the published account were a hundred boys and forty 
girls.... These schools are managed by a committee of fifteen, who meet 
every week in Dublin. This committee has lately discovered a con- 
sciousness of their error in publishing such false accounts, and suffering 
them to be delivered from the pulpit : for in the last ephemeris the 
true numbers seem to be given ; and they amount to seven hundred (or 
near a third) less than the numbers which had been before stated.... 

Each master is allowed a salary of 12 Irish ; and contracts for the 
clothing, diet, and work of the children. These contracts are so low 
(viz., annual clothing 150 Irish ; diet 3 2 6) that the state of 
most of the schools which I visited is so deplorable, as to disgrace 
protestantism and encourage popery in Ireland, rather than the contrary. 
....In short, these schools demand a thorough parliamentary inquiry. 

(b) In two journeys into Ireland, some years since, I looked into 
several of these schools, carrying with me the account of them published 
at the end of the last sermon that had then been preached to the society. 
I afterwards waited on the committee of fifteen in Dublin, and having 
reported various apparent abuses, some alterations were made. But I am 
fully persuaded that this noble charity still greatly wants a reformation, 
and a parliamentary inquiry for that purpose. 

Some general observations on these schools were given in my publication 
in 1784 : but having visited many of them in 1787, and made a report to 
the committee of the House of Commons in 1788 ; and afterwards, in an 
extensive tour, visited several more of these schools, I shall now give a 
particular account of them. 

[Account of visits to 40 schools, 1787-8, pp. 101-118]. 

I cannot forbear here expressing a wish that the benefits of education 
were more generally extended over Ireland, than they are by these schools. 
If free-schools were instituted in every parish for instruction in the lower 
parts of learning, and the principles of morality, children of each sex, 
and of all persuasions ; it would perhaps more than anything tend to soften 
the manners of the Irish poor, and enable their youth to resist the various 
temptations to vice, to which they are inevitably exposed in their crowded 
huts and cabins. 

118 



A.D. 1782-88. 

The lower class of people in Ireland are by no means averse to the 
improvement of their children. At the cabins on the roadside I saw 
several schools, in which, for the payment of 35. 3d. Irish per quarter, 
children were instructed in reading, writing, and accounts. Some of these 
I examined as to their proficiency, and found them much forwarder 
than those of the same age in the charter schools. They were clean and 
wholesome, and consisted of children of both protestant and catholic 
parents. I hope I shall not be thought, as a protestant dissenter, indifferent 
to the protestant cause, when I express my wish, that these distinctions 
were less regarded in bestowing the advantages of education, and that 
the increase of protestantism were chiefly trusted to the dissemination of 
knowledge and sound morals. 

A.D. 1785. 
74. Schools for Drawing, and * other useful Sciences.' 

[Irish Statutes, 25 Geo. III. c. 61.] 

Whereas by an act passed this session the sum of 5000 be given 

to the Dublin Society,... one half the said sum at the least to be applied 
to the encouragement of agriculture and planting, and the other half to 
be applied for the encouragement of manufactures, arts, and sciences, 

be it enacted that the said sum of 2500, ...for the encouragement of 

manufactures, arts, and sciences, shall be applied... in encouraging the 
silk and woollen manufactures, in encreasing the leather trade... in 
encouraging the dyeing business, and in supporting schools for drawing, 

and other useful sciences by such ways and methods as the said 

society shall think proper 

A.D. 1785. 
75. John Wesley visits the Charter School at Ballinrobe. 

[Works of Rev. John Wesley, A.M., London, 1872. Vol. iv. (Journal), pp. 

307-8-] 

Wednesday, 18 May, 1785 : at Ballinrobe. 

Having heard a remarkable account of the Charter- School here, I 
resolved to see it with my own eyes. I went thither about five in the 
afternoon, but found no master or mistress. Seven or eight boys, and 
nine or ten girls (the rest being rambling abroad) dirty and ragged enough, 
were left to the care of a girl half the head taller than the rest. She led 

119 



A.D. 1785. 

us through the house. I observed first the school-room, not much bigger 
than a small closet. Twenty children could not be taught there at once, 
with any convenience. When we came into the bed-chamber, I inquired 
' How many children now lodge in the house ? ' and was told ' Fourteen 
or fifteen boys, and nineteen girls/ For these boys, there were three beds, 
and five for the nineteen girls. For food I was informed the master was 
allowed a penny-farthing a day for each ! Thus they are clothed, lodged, 
and fed. But what are they taught ? As far as I could learn, just nothing ! 
Of these things I informed the Commissioners for these schools in Dublin. 
But I do not hear of any alteration. If this be a sample of the Irish 
Charter- Schools, what good can we expect from them ? 

A.D. 1783-88. 

76. Educational Purpose of the * New Geneva ' Plantation near 

Waterford. 

[Hist. MSS. Commission : (a) Vol. 19, p. 191 ; (b) i^th Report, Appendix viii., 
pp. 68-70.] 

(a) [Earl Temple, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, to Mr. Secretary 
Grenville ; from Dublin Castle, 9 February 1783.] 

Tell Lord Shelburne that I am full of the idea (which he must keep 
secret because of our University) of founding a Genevois College for 
education, in pursuance of the idea which we discussed together. Many 
circumstances decide me to wish to place them in the South ; and I think 
we have nearly fixed our spot (near Waterford). I wish to remove them 
from the Northern republicans, and to place them where they might 
make an essential reform in the religion, industry, and manners of the 
South, who want it more. 

(b) [William Campbell, D.D., to Earl of Charlemont : from Armagh, 
9 February, 1788.] 

...It is said that the government intends to bring forward some plan 
of education. I hope it will not be Mr. Orde's. But is there any reason 
to hope that Presbyterians will be considered in it ? Or are we to remain 
neglected ? When Earl Temple was Lord Lieutenant, he thought highly 
of the Presbyterian mode of education, and recommended to commissioners 
for establishing ' Les Genevois,' that they would also establish a college 
under their care, and after the model of Geneva. Might not we, whose 
fathers were long fixed in this kingdom, have some claim to the like 
privilege ?.... 

1 20 



A.D. 1787. 
77. Government Proposals for Education. 

[' Mr. Orde's Plan of an Improved System of Education in Ireland, submitted 
to the House of Commons, April 12. 1787 ; with the debate which arose thereon ; 
Reported by John Giffard, Esqr.' (Haliday Pamphlets, R.I. A., Vol. 508. Speech 
of Mr. Orde, pp. 1-124 5 Resolutions, pp. 124-128 ; Debates, pp. 129-150.] 

[Resolutions (passed unanimously, save as noted below) : with quotations 
from Mr. Orde's speech appended.] 

i, 2. ...It is expedient to revise the Act 28 Henry VIII. c. 15., ...to 
establish... an annual fund... for the purpose of... providing proper school- 
houses. ..in every parish... within this kingdom for the residence of 

a schoolmaster, and the free instruction of the poor. 

(Speech, pp. 30-31. If we look back.. .to the history of the times, 
in which the act alluded to was made, we shall find that there was some- 
thing of policy as well as of charity in the institution of parish schools ; 
a policy, however, of most excellent tendency, and worthy of being 
perpetuated. The more general knowledge and use of the English 
language were. ..the principal objects...'). 

4. ...It is proper and expedient to institute... at public expense, one 
provincial school or hospital, in each province within this kingdom, 
for the gratuitous maintenance and education of children in the established 
religion, and in such branches of learning and science as may tend to 
qualify them for... occupations in husbandry, manufacture, trade, 
commerce, and arts. 

(Speech, p. 47, 57-8. ' These academies are designed to form... 
Mariners, Merchants, Manufacturers, Artificers, Farmers, Surveyors, 
Architects ; and therefore Navigation, Mercantile Knowledge, Modern 
Languages in most use,... Drawing, Husbandry, and Agriculture in all their 
branches, must here be the objects of instruction.... The children should 
be indispensably brought up in the established religion.... Perhaps... the 
number of these schools would not require to be... beyond two. New 
Geneva is so situated on the confines of two provinces.. as to answer both... 
The other sex also.., might be brought up... in the exercise of those 
occupations which women are competent and well suited to ; reading, 
writing, grammar, arithmetic, spinning, knitting, needlework, embroidery 
...housekeeping, drawing, etc., etc. ...It is.. .perhaps most adviseable to 
provide separate establishments for the females.') 

9. ...It is proper and expedient... to establish one or more great school 

or schools for the future pursuit of learned professions, and for the 

honourable discharge of the highest duties of the community. 

121 



A.D. 1787. 

(Speech, pp. 83, 84. ' The mode of internal discipline in the College 
of Westminster is... well calculated for successful imitation in the plan 
which maybe adopted here.... every endeavour should be used to bring 
instructors from some of the great schools in England....') 

[Mr. Orde on Presbyterian Claims in Education.] 

(Speech, pp. 120-1. ' The General Synod of the Presbyterian Church... 
request the aid of Parliament for the support of an academy, which is 
designed for the distinct education of their youth, under teachers of their 
own persuasion... We have no reasonable discretion or means for the 
creation of such institutions, or... for a claim of present support from the 
public purse, than upon that of the religion of the state. The respectability 
or loyalty of his Majesty's Presbyterian subjects... are not called in 
question ;.... they will readily perceive... the evident propriety of forming 
these public establishments, thus made in general open to all disciples 
of all religions, upon the single basis of the established church.') 

ii. ...The foundation and gradual endowment of a second University 
within this kingdom.... in addition to the present excellent establishment 
of Trinity College, might conduce... to the wider diffusion of learning 
and science throughout the nation. [Passed with one dissentient Mr. 
A. Browne, M.P. for Trinity College.] 

(Speech, p. 100. ' Perhaps the school of Armagh should be the 
immediate nursery of succession... The great schools in England, and her 
universities, will, I trust, still be frequented by very many of... the first 
families of this kingdom... thereby to draw the two countries still closer... 
in assimilating their manners and their habits.') 



A.D. 1791. 
78. Religion of Scholars of Trinity College, at a Parliamentary Election. 

[Haliday Pamphlets, R.I. A., 605 (i). Report of the Proceedings in the Case 
of the Borough of Trinity College, Dublin, As heard before a Select Committee of the 
House of Commons, A.D. 1791. Published from notes taken on the spot. Dublin, 
1791. (a) pp. 1-3 ; (b) pp. 82-3 ; (c) pp. 186-7 ; (d) pp. 270-72.] 

(a) The Committee for trying this cause was chosen on Monday the 
I4th day of February, 1791, and consisted of [fifteen members, including 
' Hon. Arthur Wesley ' (subsequently Duke of Wellington) and the 
' Right Honourable Lord Edward Fitzgerald.'] 

122 



A.D. 1791. 

Petitioner, Laurence Parsons, Esqr 

Sitting Member, Hon. Francis Hely Hutchinson.... 

The Humble Petition of Laurence Parsons, Esqr., 

Sheweth 

That the Fellows and Scholars of the said College, who are not 
incapacitated by the general law from voting for Representatives in 
Parliament, have alone a right to vote on such Election.... 

That no person is eligible to the office of Fellow or Scholar of the said 
College, who is not at the time of the Election a legal Protestant 

That the Right Hon. John Hely Hutchinson, the Provost of said 
College, who presided at said Election as the returning officer, and who 
is father of the said Hon. Francis Hely Hutchinson... received for the 
said Hon. Francis Hely Hutchinson the votes of several persons who had 
no right to vote.... 

(b) Mr. Martin Toomy, examined by Mr. Plunket. 

Is a Scholar of the House was so previous to the last election ... 
Witness had exerted himself at first in support of the sitting member 
did not vote at the election, because his vote would be of no use, as he 
was a Roman Catholic ....the first time he had informed the sitting 
member of his being a Roman Catholic was in Cork, a good time before 
the election, when the sitting member enquired of him whether he knew 
any Scholars who were Roman Catholics the sitting member then 
pressed him to conform ...Lord Donoughmore pressed him very much 
to conform Lord Donoughmore told him that his own ancestors had 
been Roman Catholics, and yet that he was a Protestant and that were 
he in a Roman Catholic country, he would be a Roman Catholic.... 

Mr. Martin Toomy, cross-examined by Mr. Chamberlayne. 

Witness promised his vote to the sitting member more than a year 
before the election did not then inform him that he was a Roman 
Catholic ...Witness had heard, and knew, that Popery was a disqualifica- 
tion before he promised the sitting member did not tell the sitting 
member in Cork whether he would conform or not his sole reason for 
not voting for the sitting member was his objection to conforming and 
could he have prevailed on himself to conform he certainly would have 
voted for the sitting member.... 

(c) Robert Day, Esqr., examined by the Recorder. 

Witness received a letter from Lord Donoughmore, stating that 
Toomy was skulking... Witness went with Dean Bond to Toomy 's 
chambers... Toomy assigned as his reason for not voting, that he had 

123 



A.D. 1791. 

not conformed Witness replied that he was as good a Protestant now 
as when he promised his vote, and that he had got to all intents and 
purposes a Protestant education, but that by all means it was necessary 
that he should perform his promise 

(d) The petitioner next proceeded to disqualify No. 80, Hely, for 
popery. 

John Magrath, examined by Mr. Burrowes. 

Has known Hely about thirteen years ...Witness is a Roman Catholic, 
and was repeatedly at Mass with Hely and his parents Witness knew 
Hely since he came to College ...Hely's family and himself were always 
reputed Roman Catholics, but witness supposes that Hely read his 
recantation when he came to College. 

Counsel for the sitting member here offered to the Committee a copy 
of a certificate of conformity of Hely... 

Counsel for the petitioner offered Laurence Cronin, who was present 
at the alleged conformity of Hely, to prove that he had obtained the 
certificate without having taken the oaths of supremacy, allegiance, 
and abjuration, as required by the act of Parliament. 

Counsel for the sitting member... contended that the certificate was 
conclusive evidence of conformity 

It was contended for on part of the petitioner that.... this doctrine 
would confer the advantage of conformity on every Papist in Ireland... 

The Committee resolved That Hely, No. 80 on the poll book, had a 
right to vote at last election for the representative in Parliament for the 
University. 



A.D. 1792. 
79. Education Clauses in the Relief Act of 1792. 

[Irish Statutes, 32 Geo. III. c. 21.] 

An Act to remove certain Restraints and Disabilities therein mentioned, 
to which His Majesty's Subjects professing the Popish Religion are now 
subject. 

4. And be it further enacted, that so much of an act passed in the 
tenth year of the reign of King William the third, entitled, An act to 
prevent papists being solicitors, as enacts that no person shall act as 
solicitor, agent, or manager of any suit, who shall not educate his children 

124 



A.D. 1792. 

in the protestant religion, shall not extend to such persons professing 
the popish religion who shall be admitted to act as solicitor agent or 
notary, under this act. 

15. And whereas by an act passed in the twenty-first and twenty- 
second years of his present Majesty's reign, entitled, An Act to allow 
persons professing the popish religion to teach school in this kingdom, 
and for regulating the education of papists ;....it is required, that any 
person of the popish religion who shall teach or keep school, shall first 
obtain the license of the ordinary of the diocese, and it is not expedient 
any longer to make such license necessary ; be it enacted, that... it shall 
not... be necessary that the license of the ordinary be obtained, in order 
to authorise any person of the Roman Catholic religion to keep or teach 
school, provided always, that such person shall in all other respects... 
conform himself to the said act. 



A.D. 1793. 
80. Education Clauses in the Relief Act of 1793. 

{[Irish Statutes. 33 Geo. III. c. 21.] 

An Act for the Relief of His Majesty's Popish or Roman Catholic 
Subjects of Ireland. 

i. ..Be it enacted... that His Majesty's subjects, being papists, or persons 
professing the popish or Roman Catholick religion,... or educating any of 
their children in that religion... shall not be liable to any penalties.... save 
such as.. subjects of the protestant religion are liable to.... and that such 
parts of all oaths as are required to be taken... to qualify for voting at 
elections of members to serve in parliament, as import to deny that the 
person taking the same... educates his children in the popish religion, 
shall not hereafter be required to be taken 

7. It shall be lawful for papists.... to hold or take degrees, or any 
professorship in, or be masters or fellows of any college to be hereafter 
founded in this kingdom, provided that such college shall be a member 
of the university of Dublin, and shall not be founded exclusively for the 
education of papists,.... and to be a member of any lay-body corporate, 
except the college of the holy and undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth, 
near Dublin, without taking... the oaths of allegiance, supremacy, and 
abjuration.... 

125 



A.D. 1795. 
81. Act to establish and endow Maynooth College. 

[Irish Statutes, 35 Geo. III. c. 21.] 

An Act for the better education of Persons professing the Popish or 
Roman Catholic k Religion. 

Whereas by the laws now in force in this kingdom, it is not lawful 
to endow any college or seminary for the education exclusively of persons 
professing the Roman Catholic religion, and it is now become expedient 
that a seminary should be established for that purpose.... [names and 
empowers trustees] for the purpose of establishing endowing and main- 
taining one academy, for the education only of persons professing the 
Roman Catholic religion.... 

9. Provided always that it shall not be lawful to receive into, or 
educate or instruct in the said academy, any person professing the 
protestant religion, or whose father professed the protestant religion.... 

10. Be it enacted that any sum. . .not exceeding eight thousand pounds. . . 
may be issued and paid by ....his Majesty's Treasury.... towards establishing 
the said academy. 

A.D. 1796-1815. 

82. Catholic Poor Schools of Cork : Organisation, and transition to 
'Mr. Lancaster's plan.' 

[" Charitable Society Committee Book, 1793 : " being Minutes and Documents 
relative to the Catholic Poor Schools of Cork City, 1793-1851. 127 pp. folio. Now 
preserved at Greenmount, Cork.] 

(a) THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE SCHOOLS. 

Copy of a letter forwarded to Denis Nagle, Esqr., at Bath, from Cork, 
15 March 1799. 

...' These schools, which are nine in number, were originally established 
by Miss Nanno Nagle (whose blessed memory will be held in everlasting 
remembrance in this City) and the means of supporting them were an 
annual subscription which she solicited from the principal R. Catholics 
of this City...' 

(b) INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS. 

22nd May 1796. Agreed on by the Committee : that the Secretary 
and Inspectorship shall be blended in one, and to be directed by the 
Committee and the Bishop. 

Resolved, the same day, that any schoolmaster not complying with 

126 



A.D. 1796-1815. 

Mr. Kenna's commands in regard to the Schools ; if any of them should 
neglect, he or they shall be fined five shillings for ye first offence, at least. 

(c) CLASSIFICATION BY SUBJECTS ; AND ORGANISATION. 

At a general meeting of the Committee of the Charitable Society for 
the R. C. Poor Schools, held at Carey's Lane, Nov. 13, 1805, the Rt. Rev. 
Dr. Moylan in the Chair. 

Resolved that the Schools be divided into three Classes ; the First for 
Spelling and Reading, the Second for Writing and Arithmetic, the Third 
for Book-keeping and Navigation. 

Resolved that the State of the Schools be annually drawn up on the 
25th of March, and a Copy of the same be generally circulated through 
the City, to prepare the public for the Collection that is to follow. 

Resolved that the Inspector be not a member of the Committee. 

Nov. 18. 1805. Resolved that the Subcommittee observe that Mr. 
Connell, one of the Masters, has not sent in his Book of Remarks, and that 
the Secretary be directed to give him notice to account for his neglect 
in this respect. 

20 Jan. 1806. Resolved that Mr. Charles Field be appointed to the 
Vacancy in the Sunday Schools. 

5 Sept. 1806. Resolved that One Hundred Pounds be given out of 
the funds of this institution to the Presentation Convent, towards the 
Building and Fitting up of a Schoolhouse for the poor Female Children 
that are there Educated and Instructed. 

(d) TEACHING STAFF ; NEW CLASSIFICATION. 

At a meeting of the General Committee of the Poor Schools, held at 
Carey's Lane, Friday Evening January 10, 1806, the following report 
was submitted to their consideration and unanimously adopted : 

REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE. 

In the first place, we have made minute enquiry into the Character 
and Ability of Mr. Patrick Barrett, who has proposed himself for the New 
School ; and the result of that Enquiry being highly favourable to that 
Teacher, we are of opinion that he ought to be appointed to the New 
School, with a Salary of Forty Pounds per annum, and a Gratuity at the 
end of the year, should his conduct meet the approbation of the 
Committee. 

Secondly, we thought it advisable to examine the present Teachers ; 
and having done so, are sorry to Remark that the deficiency of some of 
them is shamefully great. However, as we cannot expect Perfection 

127 



A.D. 1796-1815. 

when the annual Salary cannot be said to be more than a Pittance, which 
no man of liberal Education would accept of, We do not think any of them 
should be removed for the present, except James Murphy and David 
Condon, whom we think totally unfit for any situation in the Schools. 
The Modest and respectfull Manners of John Connell seem to claim the 
favourable attention of the Committee, while we are decidedly of the 
opinion that the self-sufficiency and assuming conduct of Denis Callaghan 
should receive a severe Reprimand.... 

Fourthly, that the Teachers be ordered to class their respective Schools 
in the following order, vizt : 

1 Class Boys only learning their letters. 

2 Class Boys of Ab Eb, etc. 

3 Class Boys Spelling words of one Syllable. 

4 Class Boys do. do. of two do. 

5 Class Boys do. do. of three and four Syllables. 

6 Class Boys do. do. of five and six do. 

7 Class Young Readers. 

8 Class Advanced Readers. 

9 Class Young Writers. 

10 Class Advanced Writers ; etc. 

And that the Teachers do give in such lists, within a fortnight after 
the opening of the Schools ; and that the Boys be placed in the Schools 
and made to sit together in their respective Classes, that the Visitors may 
see at one view the situation of the Schools, and the improvement of the 
Scholars. 

(e) LANCASTER'S MODE OF EDUCATION. 

At a General Meeting of the Superintending Committee held at 
Carey's Lane, i6th January, 1806, Rt. Revd. Dr. Moylan in the Chair ; 

Resolved that the following Gentlemen be appointed a Sub- Committee 
to consider of Mr. Lancaster's mode of Education, and to report thereon 
on Thursday next at half-past Two O'Clock, vizt : 

James Roche Esqr. ; Robt. Burke Esqr. ; Gerald Callaghan Esqr. ; 
M. J. Farrel Esqr. ; Revd. M. T. Collins. 

(/) ADOPTION OF LANCASTER'S PLAN. 

At the meetings of the Sub- commit tee appointed by the Super- 
intending Committee of the Poor Schools of this City, for reporting on 
what steps may appear to them best calculated to carry into effect Joseph 
Lancaster's Improved Plan of Education upon the Principle of Oeconomy, 
held on the i8th and 2ist of January 1806, James Roche Esqr. in the 

128 



A.D. 1796-1815. 

Chair ; the following report was agreed on to be submitted to the Super- 
intending Committee at their next meeting for their Adoption and 
Improvement. 

That the first step necessary to be taken, be to provide a Master 
in all respects qualified to preside over one of the Schools, and to 
teach after the manner of Joseph Lancaster's plan. 

That on account of the mode of Instruction being novel and 
mechanical, a person educated at Mr. Lancaster's school would be 
the fittest person for that purpose ; and the Committee presume 
that such a person may be obtained at a moderate salary... for a 
term of i, or 2, or 3 years.... 

That next, a sufficient number of Cards, Books, etc. should be 
provided, as will serve for the Education of 1,000 boys ; as also a 
small number of medals and premiums of cheap cost, to distribute 
among such boys as may appear deserving of them, after the manner 
of Joseph Lancaster's school. 

That the Committee write to Joseph Lancaster requesting his 
benevolent assistance.... 

That an Abridgement of Joseph Lancaster's plan, as made out 
by Mr. Farrell, and submitted herewith, appears to us to contain the 
essence of the plan.... 

That, for the present purposes, manuscript copies of the same 

should be given to the several masters of the schools, to regulate 

them in adopting Joseph Lancaster's mode of Instructing the Boys.... 

At a General Meeting of the Superintending Committee of the Poor 

Schools, held at Carey's Lane on 2nd May, 1806, Rt. Revd. Dr. Moylan 

in the Chair. 

Resolved : That... an advertisment ought to be published in one or two 
of the Cork News Papers for a fit and proper Head Master to be sent to 
England 

(g) ADVERTISMENT FOR A TEACHER. 

Wanted by the Committee for Superintending the Poor Schools of 
this City, a young man of good education and sound morals, capable of 
conducting and supervising a School for the Education of One Thousand 
poor Children, which the Committee have determined to establish on Mr. 
Lancaster's plan. As the importance of this situation is obvious, none need 
offer themselves but such as can adduce the best testimonials of their 
Characters and Abilities. A liberal salary will be given, and adequate 
security required. 

129 



A.D. 1796-1815. 

N.B. The Person approved of is to be sent to England to obtain a 
practical knowledge of the plan of Education. 

At a General Meeting.... on the iyth January, 1807... Resolved That 
the School be opened on Monday next by Mr. Shea, on the plan of 
Mr. Lancaster. 

(h) RETROSPECT AND PROGRESS. 

At a General Meeting held in the Lancastrian School House, 

July 1 8, 1815, Rt. Revd. Dr. Murphy in the Chair, the following report 
was read by the Revd. John England : 

The Committee of the Roman Catholic Poor Schools of the City of 
Cork... think it their duty... to lay before this meeting the good effects 

which have been produced It is within the recollection of many of this 

Committee that under the restraints upon Roman Catholics it was 

utterly impossible to give the Poor Children of their Communion the 
benefit of Education, because the Professor of that Faith was prevented 
by the Statute Law from being even an Assistant Teacher in the very 

meanest School in the Country This Committee feels gratification 

in being able to inform its supporters that... the improvements... made 
in Education by any persons in any place, have been seriously considered, 
and adopted either in part or entirely. The first efforts of the Committee 
were necessarily... imperfect... from the nature of the system of instruction 
then prevalent, and from the description of teachers they were obliged 
to employ :...yet great numbers were taught to read, to write, and to 
cast accompts ; very many were clothed, and some were apprenticed 

out to trades The Gentlemen of the Monastery, admitted into that 

Institute solely from their capability and zeal, have even improved upon 
the plan of Mr. Lancaster ; and the vast progress made by the children 
since these Gentlemen have taken charge of the Schools, is the best 
evidence of the benefits which have arisen from this change. Another 
great advantage which has been lately obtained is the establishment of 
the Lancastrian School by this Committee 

The following is the Statement of the Number of Boys in the School : 

NORTH SCHOOL : MARDYKE SCHOOL : 

Arithmetic ... ... 200 Arithmetic ... ... 230 

Spelling, Reading, etc. ... 210 Writing ... ... 152 

Geometry and Mensuration ... 20 Reading ... ... no 

Book-keeping, etc. ... 20 Spelling ... ... 298 



Total .~ 450 Total ... 79 

Apprenticed ... ... 67 Grand Total ... ... 1,240 

130 



A.D. 1796-1815. 

(i) WAR BONUS TO TEACHERS. 

At a General Meeting of the Committee of the Poor Schools held at 
Carey's Lane on Monday the 3ist of August, 1812. 

Resolved that having considered the Salary of the Teachers to be too 
low in consequence of the increasing price of Provisions, each Teacher 
be in future paid at the rate of Thirty Guineas a Year. 

(/) EVENING SCHOOLS ; PUNISHMENT LIMITED. 

At a General Meeting... on March 6, 1807.... 

Resolved that the report of the Sub-Committee on the subject of 
Evening Schools is hereby approved of, and is to be immediately 
adopted. That the following Masters be appointed to Superintend them 
at a salary of 14 guineas per year for each Master : 

Mr. Connell for the Female School at Carey's Lane. 

Mr. Callaghan for the Boys' School, ditto. 

Mr. Murphy for the Female School in the North Parish. 

Mr. Curtin for the Boys' School do. do. 

That no punishment be inflicted by Mr. Shea on any boy under his 
care but such as is pointed out by Mr. Lancaster's plan. 



A.D. 1799. 

83. Views of the Irish House of Commons on the Education of the 

Lower Orders.' 

[P.R.O., Ireland, Parliamentary Papers, Lot 50, Paper 16.] 

[House of Commons, Ireland. Report of Committee on the State 
of Education, made 22 February 1799.] 

The Committee appointed to enquire into the State of Education 
of the lower Orders of the People, and the means of improving the same, 
having met according to Order, came to the following Resolutions : 

Resolved.... Thai the present State of the Education of the lower 
Order of the People in this Kingdom is highly defective, and requires 
the interposition of the Legislature. 

...That the Establishing of one or more Schools in every Parish or 
Union of Parishes in this Kingdom would be useful to the Publick. 



A.D. 1799. 

...That the Masters for these Schools should undergo Examination, 
receive Certificates of their Morals and Ability, and be licensed Annually. 

...That the Payment of such Masters should consist partly of a fixed 
salary, and partly of rewards proportioned to their Exertions and Success. 

...That the Books permitted to be used in these Schools should be 
chosen by persons appointed for that purpose. 

...That one or more Visitors should be empowered to inspect these 
and all other Parish Schools once in Every Year. 

(b) Report from Committee of the Whole House on the Report of 
the State of Education of the lower Orders of the People. Reported 
February 26. 1799. 

Resolved... that the House should be moved for Leave to bring in a 
Bill pursuant to the said Report. 



A.D. 1799. 
84. License to a Papist Schoolmistress at Thurles, Co. Tipperary. 

[Original (parchment) at Ursuline Convent, Thurles : founded by Anastatia 
Tobin, 1787.] 

Patrick Hare, Clerk, Master of Arts, Vicar-General of the Most 
Reverend Father in God, Charles, by Divine Providence Archbishop 
of Cashel, Primate and Metropolitan of the whole Province of Munster, 
to our beloved in Christ, Anastatia Tobin, greeting. Whereas by an Act 
of Parliament made in this kingdom in the twenty-first and twenty- 
second year of his present Majesty's reign, a power is given to US to grant 
license to Papists, or persons professing the Popish religion, to authorise 
them to teach school, and to recall the same, WE do, therefore, hereby 
grant to you, the said Anastatia Tobin, whose probity of life is sufficiently 
certified to us, our license and authority to teach school in the parish of 
Thurles, in our Diocese of Cashel, pursuant to the tenor of the said Act, 
during our pleasure only and not otherwise. In testimony whereof we 
have caused the seal of our Consistorial and Metropolitical court of Cashel 
to be hereunto affixed. Dated this third day of June, One Thousand 
Seven Hundred and Ninety Nine. 

Pat. Hare, V.G. 

132 



A.D. 1806-10. 

85. Imperial Grants for Education in Ireland. 

K,I) Aiuiu.ii Account to the House of Commons, printed 6 March, 1807 ; (/>) and 

(c) Report oJ Commissioners ot Accounts in he-kind, 1812, pp. 59-63.] 

s. d. 

(a) F'or defraying the Charge of the Incorporated 
Society in Dublin, for promoting English 
1'iotestant Schools in Ireland ... ... 22,621 6 I 

For defraying the Expense of the Foundling 

Hospital in Dublin ... ... 22,500 o o 

For defraying the Expense of the Hibernian 

School for Soldiers' Children ... ... 8,210 10 10 

For defraying the Charge of the Female Orphan 

House near Dublin ... ... ... 1,081 2 2 

For defraying the Expenses which may be incurred 
by the Association for Discountenancing Vice, 
and promoting the knowledge and practice of 
the Christian Religion ... ... ... 1,391 2 6 

For defraying the Charge of the Roman Catholic 

Seminary ... ... ... ... 8,000 o o 

(b) The Account of the Receipts and Expenditure of the 
Association incorporated for Discountenancing Vice, and Promoting 
the Knowledge and Practice of the Christian Religion, 1807-11. 

(i) Receipts: 

Parliamentary Grant 1807 ... ... 1,224 2 9i 

1808 ... ... 1,926 o o 

1809 ... ... 1,940 o o 

1810 ... ... 1,918 o o 

Subscriptions and Donations : 1807 ... 379 5 ij 

1808 ... 407 8 4i 

1809 353 I0 

1810 255 7 4 J 
Received Fines for Unlicensed Stills in 

Dublin 1807 25 o o 

1810 362 o 2 
133 



A.D. i8o6-io. 

(2) Discharge : 

Building Schoolhouses 1807 ... ... 200 o o 

1808 ... ... in i 6 

1809 ... 38 4 94 

1810 ... 35 o o 
Salaries to Schoolmasters 1807 ... ... 324 3 4 

1808 589 3 4 

1809 ... 361 5 o 

1810 ... ... 508 15 o 

Books and Stationery 1807 ... ... 1,261 15 loj 

1808 ... ... 1,481 18 9 

1809 ... ... 1,733 4 o 

1810 ... ... 1,061 7 9J 

(3) Paid Rev. Samuel Jones, in aid of supporting 

a Seminary for Parish Clerks and School- 
masters at Kildemo, Limerick, for 1808 ... 37 10 o 

1809 ... 50 o o 

1810 ... 50 o o 

(c) The Account of the Trustees of the Linen and Hempen 
Manufactures of Ireland, 1809. 

[Grant from Public Funds for the year, 22,805.] 
The Discharge: Grants: 

Paid for 'instructing Female Weavers ... ... 20 o o 

Paid for Wheels to public Schools ... ... 87 17 6 



A.D. 1808-12. 

86. Views of a Vice-regal Commission on the Education of the Irish 

People. 

[Reports of the Commissioners of the Board of Education (Wm. Armagh, Chas. 
Dublin, Jas. Killala, Isaac Corry, T. Elrington, G. Hall, Jas. Whitelaw, Richard 
Lovell Edge-worth, James Leslie Foster, James Verschoyle, William Disney) : (a) i4th 
Report, 1812, p. 328 ; (b) ibid., pp. 330-1 ; (c) 3rd Report, 1808, p. 24 ; (d) 3rd Report, 
Appendix 10, p. 108.] 

(a) [Change of State Policy advocated.] 

We conceive it to be of essential importance in any new Establishments 
for the Education of the lower classes in Ireland, and we venture to 

134 



A.D. 1808-12. 

express our unanimous opinion, that no Plan, however wisely and un- 
exceptionably contrived in other respects, can be carried into effectual 
execution in this Country, unless it be explicitly avowed, and clearly 
understood, as its leading principle, that no attempt shall be made to 
influence or disturb the peculiar religious tenets of any Sect or description 
of Christians. 

(b) [Popular demand for Education.] 

We collect... that the whole number of schools (including the Parochial 
Schools) amounts to 4,600, and the Scholars taught in them to 200,000 ;.... 
and as [the] Returns were made generally in the Winter, when many 
children are unable to attend, and as itinerant Schoolmasters (whose 
number is very considerable) are frequently not included in them, we are 
confident that more than 200,000 Children of the poorer classes receive 
annually such sort of Instruction as those Schools afford. 

That Instruction, except in a very few instances, extends no farther 
than Reading, Writing, and the common Rules of Arithmetic ; and the 
prices paid are on an average Ten Shillings per annum for Reading, 
Seventeen Shillings and Four- Pence ; where Writing, and One Pound 
Six Shillings where Arithmetic is added 

The poverty of the lower classes of the people, which limits the 
recompense of the Masters to the low rates above mentioned, and thus 
holds out no temptation to a better class to undertake the office of 
Instructors, produces effects if possible still worse, by incapacitating them 
from purchasing such books as are fit for children to read 

From the facts here stated, we conceive it clearly to appear, that the 
lower class of the people of Ireland are extremely anxious to obtain In- 
struction for their children, even at an expense, which though small, very 
many of them can ill afford ; and there is a circumstance... that puts this 
desire in a yet stronger point of view we mean the existence of Evening 
Schools, established (and in one parish there are Eleven of them) for 
the Instruction of those children whose service during the day their 
parents could not afford to lose.... 

(c) [The Protestant Charter Schools.] 

While we warmly and sincerely applaud the pious and patriotic efforts 
of those who contributed to the establishment, and laboured for the 
success of this Institution, we feel ourselves bound to state, that during 
a very considerable period of its existence, it appears... to have failed of one 
great object, that was intended and expected from it the conversion 
of the lower order of the Inhabitants of Ireland from the errors of Popery... 
Though it is impossible to ascertain the numbers of those who have 

135 



A.D. i8o8-i2. 

returned to the Popish persuasion, there is reason to believe that it is not 
inconsiderable.... We cannot but recommend the Institution as deserving 
the continuance of that Legislative patronage and support which it has so 
long enjoyed.... 

(d) [Eulogy of the Charter Schools, by R. L. Edgeworth.j 
I congratulate the Board upon the flourishing state of the Charter 
Schools of Ireland... we must be gratified by having it in our power to 
evince to the Government of the United Kingdom, that the education of 
children in these Schools is efficacious, practical, free from bigotry, and 
in every respect such as to put it beyond the reach of private defamation 
and public censure.... (Signed) Richard Lovell Edgeworth, November 8th, 
1808. 



A.D. 1809. 
87. Educational Tendencies, Secondary and Primary. 

[2nd, 1 2th, and i3th Reports, Commissioners of Board of Education, Ireland 
1809-12) ; reprinted 1813.] 

(a) Midleton College, Co. Cork. 

This school has greatly declined in point of numbers;... the present 
headmaster... attributes this decline to what he calls the fluctuation 
of schools, and to the bad state of the schoolhouse. Other causes 
may have contributed. There are several large classical schools 
kept by private individuals in the neighbourhood, one very consider- 
able one at Fermoy...two at Youghal...one also six miles from 
Midleton, and another within five miles of it, kept by a Roman 
Catholic Clergyman. 

(b) Kilkenny College. 

The master... stated upon his examination before us on the nth 
of May 1809... that he kept two classical assistants at a salary of 
50 each per annum, with board and lodging.... That previous to the 
year of the rebellion in 1798 his school had been more numerous, 
having had at that period forty-three Boarders, ten of whom were 
of the Roman Catholic religion; but that since that period he had 
never had but one of that persuasion. There is at present a 
Classical Academy kept by a Roman Catholic clergyman in the 
town of Kilkenny. 

136 



A.D. 1809. 

(c) Lifford School. 

Mr. McCrea...a Land Surveyor, receives the Usher's salary 
of 20 per annum, and... employs an English Master, at a salary of 
six pounds per annum and the profits of the scholars, to teach 
writing and arithmetic to about thirty of the children of the town. 
The present Master has stated to us, that he has made efforts to 
obtain students, but without success, there being several Classical 
Schools of good reputation near the town and the neighbourhood. 

(d) Clonmel School. 

The course of education is confined to the classics. No 
assistants are kept by Mr. Carey [Master], nor is there any provision 
for Instruction in Writing and Arithmetic, etc., in this Establish- 
ment; for it appears that there is an English and Writing School 
in the Town of Clonmel, to which Mr. Carey's Scholars resort; and 
he has further stated to us, that there is not much demand for 
Classical Instruction in Clonmel, although the Town is rich and 
populous, most of the inhabitants preferring to educate their Children 
for Trade and Business. 

(e) [Gilson Foundation, Oldcastle, Co. Meath. By his will, 1809, 
Laurence Gilson, of Marylebone, Middlesex, left a large sum to 
found a school on the green of Oldcastle, his native place. 
Protestants and Catholics were to have equally the income, control, 
staff, and scholars. His books were to be the nucleus of a school 
library.] 

I think one Schoolmaster, upon Mr. Lancaster's plan of 
Education, will be fully adequate to the teaching all the Boys of the 
said parish, it being my wish and will that the said Lancaster's plan 
of education be adopted. 

(/) Navan School. 

The Rev. Francis D. Hamilton was appointed Master by Lord 
Tara, on the 3Oth June 1807. It does not appear to us, that he 
either intends to discharge the duty of the School in person, or 
has ever been engaged in such a duty; nor indeed in its present 
state is there any employment for him.... We are of opinion, not- 
withstanding, that an effective Classical School might be established 
at Navan.... A respectable English School should be immediately 
established, under a Master with a liberal Salary, who should be 
capable of Teaching Mercantile Arithmetic, Geography, and other 

m 137 



A.D. 1809. 

useful branches of Education for the Middling Classes; and should 
be obliged to teach the poorer children at very low prices, as the 
reason stated for there being at present no Writing Scholars in 
this School was, that they could be taught for less elsewhere, viz., 
in a Roman Catholic Seminary. 

A.D. 1811. 

88. Views of Henry G rattan on Religion and Language in Irish 

Primary Schools. 

[i4th Report, Comm. of Board of Education, Ireland (October 1812), Appendix 
3. P- 336.] 

Rt. Hon. Henry Grattan, to the Secretary of the Board of Education. 

Welbeck Street, March 25, 1811. 

In obedience to the wishes of the Board I venture to submit, 
what I do not presume to call a plan, but instead of one, a few 
ideas....! would pursue the suggestion of the Act that established 
Parish Schools, with such alterations as must arise from the change 
of time, circumstances, and condition.... 

And I would submit, as a proper subject matter of education 
in those schools, not only the study of the English tongue, 
reading, writing, and arithmetic; but also the study of certain books 
of horticulture and agriculture, together with treatises on the care 
and knowledge of trees. 

I should recommend that in those Parish Schools the Christian 
religion be taught; but that no particular description of it should 
form a part of their education in the place thereof, it might 
perhaps not be improper to devise some general instruction 
regarding the four great duties of man duty to God, duty to one 
another, duty to the country, and duty to the government. 

I beg to add, that one great object of national education should 
be to unite the inhabitants of the island, and that such an event 
cannot be well accomplished, except they are taught to speak one 
common language; I think the diversity of language, and not the 
diversity of religion, constitutes a diversity of people. I should be 
very sorry that the Irish language should be forgotten; but glad 

138 



A.D. 1811. 

that the English language should be generally understood; to obtain 
that end in Ireland, it is necessary that the schools formed on a 
plan of national education, which teach the English language, 
should not attempt to teach the English religion, because the 
Catholics who would resort to our schools to learn the one, will 
keep aloof if we attempt to make them proselytes to the other; and 
we should by that attempt, reject one great means of uniting our 
people; and we should continue to add to the imaginary political 
division, supposed to exist in a difference of religion, a real political 
division formed on the diversity of language. 

I have the honour to be, 

Your most faithful servant, 

Henry Grattan. 



A.D. 1813. 

89. Opinion of Counsel as to restrictions on Catholic Education in 

Ireland. 

[MSS. original documents, Clongo\ves Wood College.] 

(a) Case for the opinion and advice of Thomas Lefroy, Esquire, 
[subsequently Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench in Ireland] 
December 18, 1813. 

Counsel will please.... to consider and advise : ....Secondly, Does 
the said Peter Kenny, or do the Gentlemen who have associated 
with him, Roman Catholic Clergymen, whether they be considered 
Priests, Friars, Jesuits, or otherwise, lye under any legal disabilities 
so as to Prevent them Purchasing said House and Demesne of 

Castle Browne? Is there any law now Existing to prevent their 

setting up a School. ...for the Education of young Gentlemen? 
Supposing the money to be applied towards the payment of Such 
Purchase had been collected and given to said Peter Kenny for 
the sole purpose of purchasing said House and Demesne, to erect 
such a Roman Catholic School, would any and what Legal 
Consequence follow therefrom? If said House and Demesne shall 

139 



A.D. 1813. 

be purchased, such a School... Established there, ought Protestant 
Scholars be admitted, or refused admission ? Would it be considered 
in point of Law an Endowed Establishment, altho supported by 
Pensions to be paid for the Maintenance and Education of the 
Scholars ? And may the said Peter Kenny and the said other 
Gentlemen with safety Compleat the sd Purchase? 

(b) [Mr. Lefroy's Opinion.] 

2d. Qu. If Mr. Kenny and the gentlemen associated with him 
are merely a number of Individuals who have joined for the purpose 
of conducting an Establishment for Education, they are under no 

disability as Individuals to purchase Lands I am of opinion that 

the Law allows them, as Individuals, to set up a School... for the 
Education of persons professing the Roman Catholic Religion, and 

that they may purchase a House and Lands with the intention of 

keeping such School, and.... may lawfully use.... their Lands and 
Houses for such purpose so long as such property continues to be 
the property of individuals, and that those individuals have the 
right to discontinue the School.... 

But since the case of the Atty.-Genl. against Power, it must be 
considered as at least doubtful whether it be not illegal to endow 
a School.... for the exclusive purpose of educating Roman Catholics. 
I confess until that case drew my attention to the Recital in the 
act for the Establishment of Maynooth College, and the savings 
in one or two other acts, which shew the opinion of the Legislature 
on the subject, I was of opinion that it was legal to endow a School 
for the Exclusive Education of Roman Catholics. For, having 
been made lawful to keep such Schools, I could not see any reason 
to make the Endowment of them illegal, more than the Endowment 
of any other School which the Law allows. However, the 
Legislature and the Courts do seem to have entertained a different 
opinion.... My opinion therefore is, that the only way in which the 
object... can be safely accomplished is by not appropriating in any 
manner the property... to the Intended School.... Doing so they 
may... employ it for the purpose of Educating Persons in the Roman 
Catholic Religion. 

But it must be confined to such, as the Law does not allow the 
Education of Protestants at Schools or Seminaries kept by Persons 
professing the Roman Catholic Religion 

140 



A.D. 1814. 
90. Refusal of License to give Education at Clongowes Wood. 

[MSS. original letters, Clongowes Wood College.] 

(a) [The Bishop of Kildare, to Denis Scully, Merrion Square, 
13 May, 1814.] 

Your letter was left by the Revd. Mr. Kenny....! do not know 

exactly how the Law stands concerning Licenses It is the province 

of the Consistorial Court to grant such Licenses, and I should 
suppose it to be quite a matter of course... for Mr. Kenny to apply 
to and receive from Dr. Mitford, through the medium of the Revd. 
Rawdon Greene, Registrar of the Diocese of Kildare, such a 
paper Charles Kildare. 

(b) [Rev. Rawdon Greene to Rev. Mr. Kenny, May 22, 1814.] 
Before the License can be sealed, it will be necessary for 

Mr. Kenny to procure a Certificate signed by the Minister and 
Church Wardens of the Parish of Clane, setting forth that they 
believe Mr. Kenny to be duly qualified to "keep a School within 
the said Parish for the Education and Instruction of the Children 
of persons professing the Roman Catholic Religion." Upon this 
certificate being transmitted... Mr. G. will without delay forward the 
License. 

(c) [Mr. Greene to Mr, Kenny, June 6, 1814.] 

Mr. Greene presents his Compliments to Mr. Kenny, and begs 
leave to acknowledge the Receipt of his letter stating that the Parish 
Minister of Clane had refused to give the Recommendation upon 
which Mr. Kenny's license was to be granted. 

Mr. Greene is concerned that he is obliged to inform Mr. Kenny 
that the License cannot possibly be granted without such Certificate. 

A.D. 1816. 
91. State Aid for the Kildare Place ' Society. 

[Fourth Report of the Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor of 
Ireland: Dublin, 1816 ; pp. 18-20, 23-26.] 

The subscriptions for the year amounted to the sum of 133 33. 6d., 

and the Donations to the sum of 303 175. 6d In the last Report of 

the Society, the then Committee stated " that having in a great measure 
failed of procuring through individual bounty sufficient funds, and not 

141 



A.D. 1816. 

having any prospect of being more successful within any reasonable time, 
they had determined to apply for Parliamentary Aid, in order to procure 
a fund for the erecting of a suitable building for a Model School, and a 
Seminary for the Instruction of Masters, and had framed a Petition to 
the House of Commons for that purpose." 

Pursuant to which determination, your Committee have now to 
inform the Society, that a Petition was accordingly presented... stating 
the absolute necessity which occasioned the application ; and Parliament 
has been pleased to grant the sum of 6,980 for the above-mentioned 
objects ; in consequence of which your Committee have been busily 
employed... The Committee for the ensuing year may at once commence 
proceedings for erecting the necessary buildings.... Your Committee have 
also to state, that the money granted by Parliament has not in the mean- 
time been unproductive, for having memorialed the Lords of the Treasury, 
they obtained it, for the purpose of making it fructify, until it should be 
required by the Society, and did accordingly, in November last, lend out 
5,000 of it on Government Security, at 6 per cent, interest 

Your Committee... addressed memorials to the several London 
Companies possessing estates in the North of Ireland, and although they 
have not received answers... they yet entertain most sanguine hopes of... 
assistance... They have also made direct application to several of the 
absentee proprietors of estates... in many instances... they have not been 
favoured with answers.... 

The lower orders seek education with avidity to the middling and 
upper orders, it is every day appearing of increased importance 



A.D. 1816. 

92. Mr. Robert Peel, Chief Secretary for Ireland, on the eagerness of 
the Irish people for Education. 

[Speech in House of Commons, 27 February, 1816.] 

I can state, as a fact within my own knowledge, that the greatest 
eagerness and desire prevails among the lower orders of Ireland for the 
benefits of instruction ; and I regard it as the imperious duty of everyone, 
even in those times of economy, not to obstruct the progress or the limits 
of Education, which ought to be as generally and as widely diffused as 
possible. 

142 



Documents Part II. 



A. A.D. i733- I 743- 

A Brief Review of the Rise and Progress of the Incorporated Society in 
Dublin, for promoting English Protestant Schools in Ireland. From 
the opening of His Majesty's Royal Charter, February 6th. 1733, to 
November 6th. 1743. 

[Dublin. 1744. 16 pp.]. 

The slow Advances which the Protestant Religion, and a Spirit of 
Industry had made among the common people of Ireland, for above 
an Age past, being observed by some worthy Persons of this Kingdom, 
they formed themselves into a voluntary Society for setting up Parochial 
Schools, as the best Remedy they could provide in that Case. 

Hereupon many such Schools were set up in Dublin and some other 
Chief Cities and Towns, under the Encouragement and Direction of 
several of the Bishops, Nobility, Gentry and Clergy ; as a Means to forward 
the good Work, but after the Experience of many Years, they perceived 
that the Success did not answer their Expectation ; for the Children being 
taught as Day-Scholars only, and afterwards put out Apprentices and 
Servants, nor far enough from their own homes, their Popish Parents 
and their Priests, had too frequent Access to them, and often found Means 
to draw them back to Popery just at that Point of Life, when Children 
begin to be susceptible of Religious Impressions. 

But this Scheme, even tho' it had not failed in any Part, was very 
insufficient to answer the End of a general Reformation ; for as the major 
Part of those Scholars were the Children of Protestants, the Number of 
young Converts made in those Schools were very small, and could not 
have turned the Balance against Popery in the Space of some Centuries. 

It was therefore judged necessary to find out some other Expedient, 
that might operate more extensively and effectually, to the general 
Conversion and Reformation of the poor Natives. And the Expedient 
at last happily chosen, was to apply to His Majesty by Petition, that He 
would by His Charter, Incorporate a Society with Powers for Erecting 

143 



A - D - 1733-1743- 

Schools in several Parts of the Kingdom wherein the Children of poor 
Papists, and other poor Natives, should be instructed in the English 
Tongue (which many of them cannot speak) and in the Principles of true 
Religion and Loyalty. 

An humble Petition was accordingly presented to His Majesty, dated 
the I7th. Day of April, 1730, being signed by their Excellencies the then 
Lords Justices, and a great Number of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, 
of the Commons, the Clergy, and other principal Gentlemen of the King- 
dom ; whereupon his Majesty, through the favourable Interposition of 
his Grace the Duke of Dorset then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was 
graciously pleased to Grant his Royal Charter for the Purposes before 
mentioned, bearing Date the 24th. Day of October, 1733. 

On the 6th. Day of February following, the said Charter was solemnly 
opened and read in the Council Chamber in Dublin, in Presence of his 
Grace the Lord Lieutenant, and many of the Nobility and Gentry. The 
Officers directed by the Charter were immediately chosen, and a Sub- 
scription-book opened for carrying on the good Work. 

Many Persons of Rank and Distinction subscribed largely, among 
whom the Earl of Kildare deserves to be mentioned with great Honour 
and Gratitude, for his Bounty of Five hundred Pounds, which has been 
followed by another Benefaction from the same Hand, for encouraging 
the School at Castledermot. 

But as the Effects of this Charter could not be obtained in their full 
Latitude, without keeping the Children apart from their Parents, and 
maintaining them in Meat, Drink and Cloathing, and Erecting Houses 
for their Accommodation, and furnishing the same, and paying Salaries 
to School- Masters, and providing Tools and Utensils for their Country 
Labours, it was soon evident, that the necessary Expence of a few Schools 
would require a greater Fund than this poor Country could supply. 

The Society therefore found themselves under a Necessity of having 
Recourse to the Charity and Piety of England (which has been ever 
distinguished for Acts of Munificence ;) and herein their Hopes have not 
been disappointed, as will appear from the List of English Benefactors 
which has been yearly published, and will continue so to be. 

In Pursuance of this View, the Society sent over their Secretary, 
John Hansard, Esq., furnished with proper Credentials for solliciting 
and receiving Benefactions, in which he proved very successful. 

It was likewise thought adviseable to set on Foot a Corresponding 
Society in London, who residing in that Metropolis, might be Instrumental 
in procuring and remitting Subscriptions and Donations, and keeping 

144 



A.D. 1733-1743. 

up a regular Correspondence with the Incorporated Society in Dublin, in 
order to inform them of all Occurrences, and to communicate their 
Sentiments and Advice, as Occasion should require. 

This proved a very easy Work ; for several worthy Persons, of which 
Number were most of the Bishops, animated with a Zeal for the Honour 
of God, and a Spirit of Charity towards the Poor deluded Natives of 
Ireland, presently offered their Assistance, and having first contributed 
their own Benefactions, formed themselves into a Society for that End, 
and have brought in a plentiful Harvest of Benefactions to recruit the 
Fund, for which the Society do hereby publickly return Thanks to them, 
and to the pious and generous Benefactors whom God hath raised up by 
their Means ; some of those we are bound in a special Manner to mention, 
and acknowledge in this Place. These are One thousand Pounds, being His 
Majesty's Donation, besides His Royal Grant of a thousand Pounds per 
Annum ; Mr. Whitchcot, fifteen hundred Pounds ; Mrs. Holden, two 
thousand Pounds ; His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, three hundred 
seventy six Pounds and upwards ; Mrs. Dionyfia Long, fifty Pounds 
a Year for eight Years past ; and we must not omit to mention with 
Thanks, the Generosity of the three Cities of Dublin, Waterford and 
Kilkenny, for encouraging three Schools in or near them, which will be 
more particularly set forth in the next yearly Abstract. 

By these seasonable Aids, the Society have been enabled to extend 
their Schools into several Parts of the Kingdom, through the Encourage- 
ment of divers Gentlemen, who have given in Perpetuity one Acre of 
Land, and some of them a greater Quantity, for the Site of a School 
on their Estates, besides Beneficial Leases of small Farms contiguous 
to every School, to be cultivated and improved by the Labour of the 
Boys ; so that the Society have at present under their Care and Direction 
Nineteen Schools, all built and supported out of their slender Fund. 
The Society call it slender, because it is comparatively so, regard being 
had to the innumerable Multitude of poor Popish Children who would 
fill ten times that Number of Schools, for a Succession of many Years, 
if Means could be found to maintain them. 

But as the Divine Providence hath raised up many Benefactors for 
carrying on this good Work thus far, the Society would hope that it will 
not rest here, but that God will put it into the Hearts of many other 
Charitable Persons, to Encourage these Schools, since they can no where 
find fitter Objects. For Charity can never be carryed higher than to 
rescue the Souls of thousands of poor Children from the Dangers of 
Popish Superstition and Idolatry, and their Bodies from the Miseries 

145 

K 



A.D. 1733-1743- 

of Idleness and Beggary. This is not retailing Charity to Particulars, but 
diffusing it over a whole Nation ; it is a Charity that will make those who 
are at present a Nusance and a Burthen to their Country, to become a 
Treasure and a Blessing to it ; that will make honest and industrious 
Men of those who would have been bred up in Thievery and Rags ; it is a 
Charity that will multiply obedient and peaceable Subjects to the King, 
and render the Protestants of Ireland safe in their Lives and Possessions. 
And it will for ever take away the chief Cause of those Disquietudes and 
Apprehensions, which, upon several Conjunctures, have alarmed the 
Government and People of England, by reason of the near Neighbourhood 
of a formidable Body of Papists, devoted to the See of Rome, and ready 
to rebel at the Instigation either of their Priests, or of a Foreign Enemy. 
These will be some of the happy Effects of the Charter- Schools, if they 
can be sufficiently multiplied and extended. And yet they will be 
produced by Means that cannot be objected to ; not by Force or Terror, 
not by Penal Laws and Prosecutions, which can only make Hypocrites ; 
but by the innocent and gentle Means of enlightning and instructing the 
ignorant Minds of Children in the pure Truths of the Gospel, and leading 
them early to that Fountain-head, which the Church of Rome has cruelly 
sealed up. These are the only Methods practised by the Society, as being 
agreeable to the Nature of Man, and to the Genius of the Christian 
Religion. 

And for obviating the great Danger of the Childrens relapsing, the 
Society are very careful to transplant them to Schools remote from their 
Popish Parents and Relations, who would be apt to pervert them. This 
Expedient, so essential to the obtaining the Ends of the Charter, tho' it 
may have escaped Publick Cognizance, has proved an Article of no small 
Expence to the Society, and will continue so to be. 

If after all, any man should really doubt whether this Scheme for 
converting the poor Natives of Ireland, be well calculated for that Purpose, 
he may be easily satisfied from the Alarm it has given to the Popish 
Priests, who have lately denyed the Communion, and refused Absolution 
to those Parents who have suffered their Children to be received into the 
Charter- Schools, tho' it be to save them from perishing with Hunger and 
Nakedness. This is a plain Confession of their inward Fears and Appre- 
hensions, that the Charter is laying the Ax to the Root of Popery, and 
will in its Progress accomplish that Work by sweet and insensible Means, 
which has been too hard for Coercive and Penal Laws, in a Course of fifty 
Years. 

The Society cannot part with this Subject without offering one Hint 

146 



A.D. I733-I743- 

to the Gentlemen of this Kingdom, which they do with the greatest 
Deference and Tenderness. 

It is evident, that the greatest Part of the Contributions to this good 
Work, come from England, and are given by Persons, many of whom 
have no Interests in Ireland, nor Relation to it, but send over their Bounty 
upon the pure Principle of Charity, for which they can hope for no Reward 
but in the World to come ; but the Case is very different with regard to 
the Gentlemen of Ireland ; for as their Benefactions will be laid out in 
their own Country, and frequently upon their own Estates ; the Money 
will circulate among their own Tenants : Every Popish Child turned out 
a Protestant from these Schools, will bring an Accession of Strength to the 
Protestant Interest, and of Wealth to the Kingdom, by the Labour of his 
Hands. So that if the Charter- Schools could be sufficiently extended 
and diffused, they would be the Means of increasing Industry and Trade, 
and useful Manufactures, which must of course improve every Gentleman's 
Estate. 

The Society will conclude with this one Observation which they 
apprehend to be of considerable Importance, tho' little attended to, 
namely, that the Progress of these Schools, must in its natural Course, 
gradually abolish the great Number of Popish Holidays, by Means of 
which, some hundred thousands of working Hands are kept idle, and the 
Labour and Profit of them lost to the Publick- Stock for a considerable 
Part of the Year, the very Harvest not excepted. 

This Damage, as little as it is observed, yet upon a fair Calculation, 
will appear to be an astonishing Draw-back from the Wealth and Strength 
of the Nation ; but it eats like a Worm unseen at the Root of our Prosperity, 
which grows chiefly from Labour, and must languish with the Decrease 
of it. 

The Increase therefore of Protestant Hands, in Consequence of these 
Schools, will remove this great Evil, which, humanly speaking, can be 
done by no other Means ; and the Society look upon this Position as 
undeniable. 



147 [Table. 



A.D. i733~ I 743- 
A LIST OF THE CHARTER WORKING-SCHOOLS IN IRELAND. 



Date 
of 
open- 
ing. 


Places Names. 


Counties. 


Numb, 
of Chil- 
dren in 
each. 




1734 


Castledermot 


Kildare 


20 




1735 


Ballynahinch 


Down 


20 






Minola 


Mayo 


24 






Shannon Grove 


Limerick 


40 




1736 


Castle Caulfield 


Tyrone 


20 




1737 


Cregane 


Armagh 


20 






Ballycastle 


Antrim 


25 






Templestown 


Wicklow 


20 




1738 


Killogh 


Down 


20 






Kilmallock 


Limerick 


20 










( 


All Girls, brought up 


1739 


Dundalk 


Louth 


20 -S 


in the Cambrick 








( 


Manufacture. 




Stradbally 


Queens 


40 






Kilfmane 


Limerick 


2O 






Ballinrobe 


Mayo 


20 






Newtown Eyre 


Galway 


20 










f 


All Boys, brought up 


1740 


Newtown Corry 


Monaghan 


20 i 


to the Linen- 








I 


Weaving. 




Ray 


Donegal 


24 




1741 


New Ross 


Wexford 


30 




1743 


Ballykett 


Clare 


2O 




Total 443 



Apprenticed out of the above Schools, 210, of which Number, many 
to the Linen Manufacture, Husbandry, Gardening and to be servants 
in reputable Families. 

The Society have actually ordered two more Schools to be Erected, 
one at Waterford, and the other at Kilkenny, which will be fit for opening 
some time in the next Summer. And as they have accepted of the generous 
Proposals of the Fishmongers Company in London, for Erecting a third 
School at Colerain, upon Ground given by William Richardson, Esq., they 
hope to lay the Foundation next Summer. 

Several r other advantageous Proposals for new Schools, have been made 

148 



A.D. 1733-1743. 

to the Society, and particularly, by the Right Honourable the Earls of 
Orrery and Clanrickard, the Honourable Hays St. Leger, Esq., and James 
Daly, Esq., which the Society have under their Deliberation, and are 
zealous to carry into Execution, as soon as their Fund shall enable them, 
which they hope will be very soon through the Favour of Divine Providence 
and the Aids of Charitable Persons. 

A.D. 1791. , 
B. 

Report of Commissioners of Irish Education Inquiry, 1791. 

[First printed in the proceedings of the Endowed Schools (Ireland) Commission, 
18*6-8, Evidence, and Documents, Vol. n., p. 34 1 S <1- From a c Py entltled Draft 
Plan of Education, by the Rt. Hon. the Secretary of State " (John Hely Hutchinson 
Provost, T.C.D.) ; and endorsed : " This Copy belongs to Isaac Corry, Esq. ]. 

COPY OF REPORT of Commissioners appointed by his Excellency the 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, in 1788, under the provisions of an 
Act, 28 Geo. III., c. 15 (Irish), entitled an "Act to enable the 
Lord Lieutenant or other Chief Governor or Governors of 
this kingdom to appoint Commissioners for inquiring into the 
several funds and revenues granted by publick or private 
donations for the purpose of education in this kingdom, and 
into the state and condition of all schools in this kingdom on 
public or charitable foundations, and of the funds appropriated 
for the maintenance and support thereof, and for the other 
purposes herein mentioned." 

To His Excellency JOHN FANE, EARL OF WESTMORELAND, Lord 
Lieutenant General and General Governor of Ireland. 

We, the Commissioners, &c., having reported to your Excellency 
the several matters appearing to us upon the Examinations and 
Inquiries made by us pursuant to the said Act of Parliament; and 
having reported to your Excellency, under the hands of the respective 
witnesses, who have delivered the said Examinations upon oath, the 
evidence given by them in their own words ; by which Examinations 
all abuses that have appeared to us to have taken place concerning 
any of the said schools, or the conduct or management thereof, 
or of the lands, tenements, hereditaments or other funds granted or 

149 



A.D. 1791. 

devised for the maintenance or support thereof, have been laid 
before your Excellency. 

We now proceed to perform, in the best manner we are able, 
the only remaining duties vested in us by the said Act of Parliament, 
namely, to report such remedies as shall appear to us, or any three 
of us, to be proper or necessary for the reformation of such abuses 
as appear to us to exist, and to prevent the continuance and repetition 
of the same; and also to report and suggest to your Excellency 
such plans for the improvement of the education of the youth of 
this kingdom in public schools, and for the better regulating, 
managing, and governing the same, as shall appear to us, or any 
three of us, to be expedient and practicable. 

We have undertaken a very laborious and a very invidious task; 
but we act upon oath, and it is our duty to lay before your Excellency 
such facts as have been proved before us, and such practicable 
remedies as have occurred to us, for the many abuses which we 
have discovered. 

To lay our thoughts clearly before your Excellency on a subject 
of such extent and complication, we beg leave to take a general view 
of the school education of this country, as founded on public 
institution or private donation. 

ENGLISH PARISH SCHOOLS. 

In this view the first object that presents itself is the institution 
of English schools, founded on the Act of the 28th Henry VIII., 
chap. 15, which directs every archbishop, bishop, &c., ''to give a 
"corporal oath to every person on his admission to any dignity, 
" benefice, office, or promotion, spiritual, that he shall, to his wit 
" and cunning, endeavour himself to learn, instruct, and teach the 
"English tongue to all and every being under his rule, care, 
" order, or governance, and shall bid the beads, and preach in 
"English, and use and exercise the English order and habit, and 
" provoke as many as he can to the same, and keep or cause to 
" be kept within the place, territory, or parish where he shall have 
''pre-eminence, rule, benefice, or promotion, a school to learn 
"English, if any children of his parish come to him to learn the 
^same, taking for the keeping of the said school such convenient 
| stipend or salary as in the said land is accustomably used to be 
"taken. Archbishops, bishops, &c., omitting to give the said oath, 

150 



A.D. 1791. 

" to forfeit 3 6s. 8d. ; and beneficed clergymen not observing it to 
" forfeit 6s. 8d. for the first offence, 205. for the second, and benefice 
"for the third. This Act not to extend to beneficed persons, 
" bound to keep residence in any metropolitan cathedral or collegiate 
" church, or at study at any university, or in the King's service; 
" but the parish priest who, in their absence, shall serve under them, 
" shall teach the English tongue, or keep a school according to this 
" Act, upon forfeiture of 205. for every year he shall omit the same." 

The said Act, by another Act of the seventh year of King 
William III., is directed to be observed and put into execution. 

We beg leave to observe, that by the said Act of Henry VIII., 
every incumbent within this kingdom is bound to keep, or cause to 
be kept in his parish, a school to " learn " English, and that no 
mention has been made of the salary or stipend to be paid by such 
incumbent to the person who shall keep such school; but we find 
that in nearly one-half of the united benefices, and single benefices 
not united in this kingdom, a general usage has prevailed by which 
the said stipend has been limited, some very few instances excepted, 
to 405. yearly for the united benefice, or single benefice not united; 
and that by the great number of unions which have taken place 
since the making of those Acts, the increased price of the necessaries 
of life, and the great fall in the value of money, the allowance of 
405. yearly is a recompense totally inadequate for the performance 
of that duty to which the incumbent was bound by that Act; and 
yet this small allowance is not paid by one-half of the united 
benefices, and single benefices not united, in this kingdom. 

The objects in this Act of 28 Henry VIII. are too limited, as 
the master is not required to instruct children in writing, arithmetic, 
or the principles of the Christian religion. But, as the English 
language could not have been properly taught without instructing 
the scholars in reading and writing it, we find that these have been 
constantly made, as far back as we have been able to trace, the 
objects of instruction in parish schools. 

The Act is also defective in making no provision for the education 
of the children of the poor. 

The duty imposed upon the clergyman of keeping a school 

himself, if he does not provide a master, is degrading to his order, 

and should be no longer continued; and one of the modes of 

compelling the performance of this duty, namely, by deprivation of 

ice, is so severe, that few persons will resort to this remedy. 



A.D. 1791. 

For the purpose of carrying into execution the intentions of those 
Acts, to improve the system of education provided by them for 
the lower orders of the people, and to give that system a more 
beneficent and extensive effect, we humbly propose, that in every 
united benefice, and in every single benefice not united, the 
incumbent should pay 405. yearly, being the estimate which, in a 
great number of the parishes of this kingdom, the clergy have made 
for themselves; which, supposing the number of the said benefices 
to be 1,100, according to the evidence laid before us, would amount 
to the yearly sum of 2,200; of which the clergy would have no 
cause to complain, that being the rate usually paid for a great length 
of time where any thing has been actually paid. And, as a further 
relief to the clergy, we are of opinion that the burthen should not 
be thrown solely upon them, as those laws intended, but that the 
parishioners should equally contribute, and should raise in vestry 
the sum of 403. yearly. 

It is proposed, also, that the parish clerk should be the school- 
master; and that each united benefice, and single benefice not united, 
should be bound to present, the full sum of 20 yearly for every 
parish clerk, being the highest sum which they may now present 
by the laws in force in this kingdom, which, for 1,100 benefices, 
would amount to the sum of 22,000. 

And it is also recommended that the parish clerk should be 
bound to keep a school on every Sunday, in the afternoon. 

Many of the present clerks may possibly be not altogether fit 
for schoolmasters; but temporary inconveniences ought not to be 
attended to in schemes proposed for the benefit of posterity, and a 
probable consequence of this scheme would be, that hereafter the 
clerk, as well as the schoolmaster, would be improved by the 
proposed regulation. Nor is this regulation without precedent, 
having been, as the Commissioners are informed, long practised in 
Scotland, which country has received great benefit from this 
institution. 

We think it reasonable that impropriators should also contribute, 
which we conceive might produce an annual addition of 1,000. 

By the improvements which will be hereafter suggested to be 
made to the Charter School system of education, it is apprehended 
that the four Charter School nurseries might be suppressed as 
useless; and it is our opinion, that the sums annually voted for that 

152 



A.D. 1791. 

purpose should be applied towards the support of parish schools, 
which would amount to 1,900 yearly. 

These several articles would amount in the whole to 29,300 
yearly. 

The number of schools, if equal to the number of united benefices 
and benefices not united, would be 1,100, the annual expense of 
which would be, according to the estimate in the Appendix, 23,525, 
which includes the expense of gratuitous scholars, and of copy 
books, pens, and paper, for their use; and of those gratuitous 
scholars the number in the whole kingdom would be 25,250. The 
surplus remaining would be an annual sum of 5,775, which would 
be a fund abundantly sufficient for hiring schoolhouses, or for raising 
a sum for building schoolhouses, if that mode should be preferred; 
and also for furnishing such books as may be thought necessary 
for the use of the Sunday schools. 

This surplus would be considerably increased if, according to a 
generally received opinion, 900 parish schools would be sufficient for 
the whole kingdom; and the charge of schoolhouses or buildings 
would be diminished from a fact which has appeared before us, 
namely, that the number of parish schoolhouses already provided 
amounts to 200 and upwards. It is apprehended that the visitors 
or governors of these schools should be, the incumbent, church- 
wardens, and four parishioners, two Protestants and two Roman 
Catholics, to be named by vestry. That the incumbent, instead of 
the duty prescribed by the existing laws, should be bound only to 
inspect and visit the schools, to examine the children as to their 
progress in the prescribed course of education, and to instruct such 
as are Protestants in the principles of the Established religion; and 
that an oath should be taken before some neighbouring magistrate 
to that effect by every incumbent, or by the curate in cases where the 
parochial duties shall be performed by the curate only; and the 
incumbent to be obliged to make yearly reports of the state of the 
said school in his parish to the Board of Control hereinafter recom- 
mended to be appointed for those and other purposes ; and the said 
governors to make rules and regulations for the conduct of every 
such school. 

It is our opinion that the children of Roman Catholics and 
Protestants should be admitted indiscriminately into the schools, 
and that the clergy of each persuasion should attend for the purpose 
of instructing the children belonging to their respective communions 

153 



A.D. 1791. 

in the principles of religion; a mode practised, we are informed, 
with great success in the school of St. Andrew's, Dublin, and of 
Saint Peter's, Drogheda. 

To induce persons to send their children to the parish schools, 
we recommend that no person should be entitled to any exemption 
from the hearth-money tax, or to partake of the charitable 
contributions of the parish, unless they send their children, if they 
have any, to the parish school; or unless, by their distance or other 
circumstances, to be approved of by the Governors, they show 
reasonable cause for not doing so. 

In these schools reading, writing, and the first five rules of 
arithmetic, should be taught; and as an encouragement to parents 
to send their children to these schools, such scholars as shall be 
certified by the parson or his curate, with the parishioners assembled 
in vestry, to have made a considerable proficiency there, to be 
drafted off, not exceeding a certain number annually, to the diocesan 
school hereinafter mentioned of the diocese in which such parish is 
situated; and that such of them as fall within the rules laid down 
for the government of the charter schools, should be also sent 
there. 

The election of the master to be by the clergymen and the 
parishioners in vestry assembled. 

The master to enjoy his office during good behaviour, and to 
take an oath before some magistrate of the county, that he will 
faithfully and diligently perform his duty as master of the said 
school. 

By the plan proposed for the improvement of that part of the 
system of national education which relates to English parochial 
schools, we beg leave to observe that the clergy would be relieved 
from the pressure of a very severe Act of Parliament, a better mode 
of education would be provided for the lower orders of the people, 
and such of them as were unable to pay would be gratuitously 
instructed; and for the attainment of those great national objects, 
which we consider as the most important respecting education, an 
adequate fund has been proposed without the necessity of resorting 
to the legislature for imposing new burthens, and without calling 
for any local contributions but such as can be easily borne, and from 
which benefits, far exceeding the amount of the expense, will be 
conferred on the contributors. 

The plan proposed would oblige the clerk to constant residence 

154 



A.D. 1791. 

in the parish. If the sum of 5,000, which the Board of First Fruits 
is, by an Act of the last Session, allowed to apply partly towards 
the building of glebe-houses, was to be applied annually to that 
purpose, it would, it is hoped, in time contribute greatly to the 
residence of the parish clergymen, which would have a powerful 
effect in promoting the success of those parish schools, and other 
purposes of good education. 

DIOCESAN FREE SCHOOLS. 

The next public institution for the education of youth in this 
kingdom was in the twelfth year of Queen Elizabeth's reign, when 
an Act passed for the erection of a free school within every diocese 
of this realm, the schoolhouse for every diocese to be erected in 
the principal shire towns of the diocese where schoolhouses were 
not already built, at the cost and charges of the whole diocese, 
without respect of freedoms, by the oversight of the ordinaries of 
the diocese, or of the vicars-general, sede vacante, and the sheriff of 
the shire. The Lord Deputy, or other governor or governors of 
this realm for the time being, with the advice of the Council, are, 
according to the quality and quantity of every diocese, to appoint 
for every schoolmaster such yearly salary, where none is already 
appointed, as he with and by their advice shall think expedient, 
whereof the ordinaries shall bear for ever the third part, and the 
parsons, and other ecclesiastical persons of the same diocese, the 
other two parts, by an equal contribution to be made by the 
ordinaries; and all the churches, parsonages, vicarages, and other 
ecclesiastical livings, that have come by any title to the Queen or 
any of her progenitors, shall be charged with this payment and 
contribution, in whatever hands the same are or shall come. (See 
I2th Elizabeth, ch. I.) 

That this institution was considered of great national importance 
appears from the sentiments of Sir John Davis, one of the principal 
instruments employed by Government, in the ensuing reign, in 
promoting good order and civilization in this kingdom. He 
expresses his sentiments on this subject in the following words: 
" Moreover, to give a civil education to the youth of this land in 
" the time to come, provision was made by another law (meaning 
" this Act of Elizabeth,) that there should be one free school at 
"least erected in every diocese of this kingdom/* 

155 



A.D. 1791. 

Other Acts were made promoting this institution : by the I2th 
Geo. II., ch. 9, power is given to every archbishop, bishop, dean, 
dean and chapter, dignitary or prebendary of a cathedral church, 
out of any land to any of them belonging, to set apart any piece 
of ground not exceeding one plantation acre, in some convenient 
part of the diocese, to be approved of by the chief governor or 
governors, of this kingdom for the time being, and that such piece 
of ground shall for ever be deemed and reputed to be the place 
for the free school of the said diocese; and that until such piece 
of ground shall be set out, the free school shall be kept in such 
convenient place within the said diocese as the archbishops or 
bishops of the same can procure for a yearly rent or otherwise, 
provided that when in any diocese there already is a piece of ground 
legally appropriated to the use of a diocese school, such piece of 
ground shall for ever remain the place for the diocesan school of 
the said diocese; and after the appointment of a place for a free 
school, the Grand Jury of each county are empowered, from time 
to time, to present such sums as they shall find reasonable for their 
respective proportion towards building or repairing such diocese 
school, to be levied upon the whole or such part of the said county 
as shall be situated in each respective diocese. 

And by the said Act, the archbishop, bishop, vicar-general and 
chancellor of the diocese, are empowered to sequester the profits 
of the benefice of any beneficed clergyman who shall not pay his 
proportion to the schoolmaster at the visitation, or within three 
calendar months after. 

Proportionable presentments having been found impracticable, 
the Grand Jury of each county wherein a diocese school is situated 
are empowered, by the 29th Geo. II., ch. 7, to present for the 
repairing of such school. 

After the most diligent inquiry we have not been able to find 
any appointment made by the Chief Governor and Privy Council 
pursuant to the Act of the I2th Elizabeth, or whether any such 
appointment has been at any time made, except only that in an 
original applotment for the diocese of Connor, an appointment for 
that diocese by the Lord Lieutenant and Council is recited. It is 
probable, from the name of the bishop, that this appointment was 
made some time after the year 1673, in which year the bishop therein 
mentioned was appointed, but the date of the appointment is not 
legible. 

156 



A.D. 1791. 

Not having been able to obtain any information from the 
proceedings of the Privy Council, the books of which were consumed 
by fire in the year 1711, nor from the Rolls' or Auditor-General's 
offices, we resorted to the registers of the several dioceses of this 
kingdom, who have reported to us that they have no trace of any 
such appointment in any of their offices. We find by the evidence 
of several diocesan schoolmasters examined before us, that annual 
salaries of different amounts, from 20 125. 4d. yearly at the lowest, 
to 40 yearly at the highest, are payable to the diocesan school- 
masters, and that one-third of this sum is paid by the respective 
ordinaries; but by what authority such salaries have been paid, or 
from what period they have been first paid, or whether any salary 
had been appointed previous to the passing of the said Act, we have 
not been able to discover. 

From this institution the public receives very inadequate benefit; 
in many dioceses there are neither diocesan schools nor school- 
houses; in many the houses are ruinous, and the mastership of the 
scholars mere sinecures. 

In the thirty-four dioceses we find only twenty diocesan school- 
masters, though the Act of Elizabeth directs that there shall be a 
free school in every diocese. Of this number six received their 
salaries, but did not act; in one instance the actual usher of another 
school had been appointed diocesan schoolmaster, and received the 
salary, but kept no school ; and of the remainder, very few kept such 
schools as in any respect answered the end of the institution; and 
to the 1 2th Geo. I. it had turned to little account, as appears by an 
Act of Parliament passed in that year (see 12 Geo. I., ch. 9). 

To render diocesan schools more useful we beg leave to suggest 
the following regulations: That the Lord Lieutenant and Council 
should now make an appointment for each diocese in the kingdom, 
pursuant to the said Act of the I2th Elizabeth; and that applotments 
should be made in pursuance of the said appointment, and agreeably 
to the directions of the said Act of Parliament; and that the 
impropriators should contribute equally to the clergy. 

If the power has not been already executed, it still remains in the 
Lord Lieutenant and Privy Council, but this should be regulated by 
a new act. 

By the Act of i2th Elizabeth, the whole expense is imposed upon 
the clergy; that of repairing was 1 afterwards partly imposed upon the 
county. We beg leave to recommend that the whole expense of 

157 



A.D. 1791. 

building, as well as repairing, and that half of the annual expense 
of the schoolmasters, should be borne by the county; but we humbly 
submit it to your Excellency, as our opinion, that this institution 
should be rendered more useful by the introduction of a second 
master, for the purpose of instructing in mathematical learning; and 
by the reception of a certain number of gratuitous scholars, not 
exceeding twenty, into each of those schools. 

The sums now payable by the clergy throughout the kingdom, 
for the support of these schools, amount to 616 55. 7d., yearly; 
but the whole of this is not paid; fourteen of the dioceses do not at 
all contribute, and such as do contribute, which are twenty in 
number, pay at an average of 30 i6s. 3d. yearly. 

It is hoped that it would not be thought too heavy a charge, if 
each diocese should, on a reappointment under the said Act of 
Elizabeth, contribute such an annual sum as would, upon an average, 
produce 50 yearly from each diocese; the total produce of this 
charge would amount to 1,700 yearly. The rateage of 30 i6s. 3d. 
yearly, being the average sum now payable by each of the several 
dioceses, would, if each diocese were charged, and all are equally 
-liable to the act, amount to the yearly sum of 1,047 I2S - 6d. This 
small increase of 652 73. 6d. yearly, divided among thirty-four 
dioceses, would not, it is hoped, be found burthensome, when the 
respective counties are recommended to contribute a yearly sum of 
the same amount, and when the object to be attained is of such 
general and great utility. 

In addition to this fund, it is supposed that 1,924 might be gained 
out of the sum yearly granted by Parliament to Charter Schools, 
some of which being of little public utility, on account of the 
difficulty of superintending them, of finding necessaries for the boys, 
and masters to take them as apprentices, might be suppressed. 

These several sums would amount to 5,324 yearly; and would 
leave an overplus, after the payment of the masters, of 3,564 
yearly, which would defray the expenses of 396 exhibitions, for the 
support of gratuitous scholars at the diocesan schools, at 9 yearly 
each, which would be at the rate of eighteen boys for each of the 
twenty-two bishopricks; and it is recommended that the said boys 
should be appointed by the bishop and his clergy assembled in 
visitation. 

It is with extreme reluctance that we propose the smallest 
addition to the burthens of the clergy; but we are obliged to take 

158 



A.D. 1791. 

the laws as we find them, and to follow the principles of those laws 
as far as they fairly lead to a general system of education useful to 
this country. 

ROYAL FREE SCHOOLS. 

The next class to be considered is that of Grammar Schools by 
royal foundation. 

Large tracts of land lying in the counties of Armagh, Tyrone, 
Donegal, Fermanagh, and Cavan, which produce at present 
3>695 173. 3|d. yearly, were granted by King Charles I., in the 
second year of his reign, to the Archbishop of Armagh and his 
successors for ever, to the sole and proper behoof and use of the 
respective masters of five free schools, in the several counties and 
places in the grant mentioned 

COLLEGIATE SCHOOL OUTLINES OF A PLAN FOR A GREAT SCHOOL 
CONNECTED WITH THE UNIVERSITY. 

The want of good schools in this kingdom has been long the 
subject of general complaint. There never was greater cause for it 
than at present : the learned languages are ill taught, and young 
men are not trained to composition in any language. The defects 
in school education essentially affects the knowledge, tastei, and 
manners of the people. Great pains have been taken, for some years 
past, by the Provost and Senior Fellows to encourage composition. 
They have repeatedly proposed to the different classes of students 
a variety of subjects in Latin and English poetry and prose, and 
have offered considerable premiums; but, in general, with little 
effect, from the defective education at school, where grammar and 
quantity are not sufficiently attended to. Composition is generally 
neglected, and a sufficient time is not allowed for acquiring a 
competent knowledge of the learned languages. 

To remedy those defects, we humbly propose to your Excellency 
that a great school should be established in this kingdom, to consist, 
for the present, of one master, and three assistants. When the 
numbers should require it, a second master to be appointed, and 
the assistants to be increased to a number not exceeding six in the 
whole. 

Thirty-two boys to be on the foundation, to be called King's 

159 



A.D. 1791. 

scholars. The King's scholars to have their education, dinner, 
supper, and dormitory, without any expense. 

And we beg leave to recommend that the master and assistants 
who shall be first appointed, should be brought either from Eton, 
Westminster, Winchester, or Harrow. Their courses are all good, 
and agree in the principal object, by making composition the means 
and the test of acquiring the knowledge of languages. It is 
proposed to adopt the course of that school from which the greater 
number of the teachers shall come; but we hope that the time may 
be a little shortened, and that seven, or at most eight, years, may 
be sufficient for going through this school. 

The head master to have a salary of 100 yearly; the under 
masters, 80; each of the assistants, 40. The annual amount of 
the thirty-two King's scholars, estimated at 20 each, would amount 
to 640. 

The salaries of the head masters and three assistants, 
would make the total annual expense at the opening 
of the school, and as soon as the number of King's 
scholars should be complete, amount to ... ... 860 

The appointment of a second master at a salary of 
80, and of three additional assistants at 40 
yearly each, would increase the annual expense in 
a sum of ... ... ... ... ... 200 

Total, ... ... 1,060 

The King's scholars to be admitted after a public examination, 
and at a stated time of the year the master or masters, when a second 
shall be appointed to be the examiners and electors. The candidates 
to lay before them compositions in Latin verse and prose, and also 
to write such compositions, in the presence of the examiners, on 
subjects to be given by them. The examiners to take an oath, to 
be administered by the head master, to elect the persons who shall 
appear to them to be best qualified. 

Eight to be admitted every year, during the first four years, till 
the number of thirty-two shall be complete, and this number to be 
for ever continued, by successive elections in the manner herein- 
after mentioned; but the electors not to be bound to admit any 
candidate who shall not appear to them to be properly qualified, 

160 



A.D. 1791. 

and no candidate to be admitted of a more advanced age than fifteen 
years. 

From the encouragement proposed to be given to the King's 
scholars, it is probable that the best scholars from the different 
schools of this kingdom will obtain admission as King's scholars 
at the first election, and that, therefore, at the end of the first four 
years the University part of the scheme may probably commence. 

It is therefore proposed that at the end of the first four years 
from the time of the election of the first set of King's scholars, a 
public examination should be had of the King's scholars of the upper 
form by the examiners before mentioned, and also by two Fellows 
of the University of Dublin, to be appointed by the Provost, or, in 
his absence, the Vice-Provost and Senior Fellows, being sworn as 
aforesaid. The expense of the said Fellows to be defrayed out of 
the Funds of the University. 

That such examination shall be had in Greek and Latin, and 
that compositions in prose and verse in those languages shall be 
delivered in by each of the candidates on subjects to be proposed by 
the examiners. 

That four of the persons best qualified shall be elected by the 
said examiners, or by a majority of them, the head master to have 
the casting voice in case of an equality of votes, and shall be called 
King's students, and shall be admitted as such into the University 
of Dublin on producing the certificate of their election, signed by 
three of the electors. In like manner four to be examined and 
elected annually. The electors not to be bound to choose any 
candidate who shall not appear to them to be well qualified. 

As the King's students may be presumed to come to the 
University much better prepared than those who come from other 
schools, it is proposed that they should enter late in the class which 
ends in July, and be of a year's standing shortly after their entrance; 
and that they should not lose a class by not answering an examination 
in the first year, but that they may have it in their power to answer 
an examination in that year if they shall choose to do so. The 
election of King's students should be early in the month of May. 

The unsuccessful candidates no longer to remain King's scholars. 
That the succession of King's scholars should not be interrupted; 
and in the places of them, and of the four successful candidates, 
eight new King's scholars to be elected at the time of the year 
appointed for that purpose. 

161 

L 



A.D. 1791. 

The successful candidate, or King's student, to receive 30 yearly 
for seven years from the time of his election, if he shall so long 
continue a member of the University, unless he shall obtain a 
Fellowship, on which event his studentship is to be vacated. 

The King's students should be at liberty to go in for scholarships 
on the foundation of the University, and to enjoy them, and every 
other College emolument, together with their 30 yearly; and they, as 
well as the select hereinafter mentioned, may be candidates for the 
Fellowships of the University, but on their success should relinquish 
their places of King's students, or select King's students. 

The proposed scheme may be better understood by stating to your 
Excellency the detail of the manner of carrying it into execution, 
and the particulars of the expense. 

At the end of four years from the time of opening the school, 
four King's students to be admitted into the University, at 30 
yearly each. 

First year's expense for 4 King's students, ... 120 

Second year's ,, 8 ,, ... 240 

Third year's 12 ,, ... 360 

Fourth year's ,, 16 ,, ... 480 

Fifth year's ,, 20 ,, ... 600 

Sixth year's ,, 24 ... 720 

Seventh year's ,, 28 ,, ... 840 

The sum of 840 is the highest annual amount of the expense 
of King's students in the University, which cannot amount to that 
sum till after the expiration of eleven years from the time of opening 
the school. 

After the King's students shall have taken their degrees of 
Bachelor of Arts, we beg leave to propose to your Excellency that 
a new subject of encouragement and emulation should be opened to 
them, allowing them a sufficient interval for preparation. They may 
take their degrees in three years and one month after their becoming 
members of the University, supposing this to have happened before the 
close of the class in the month of July, and if so, they may commence 
Bachelor of Arts at the summer commencements in July. The 
examination and election of select students is proposed to be in the 
month of May following, according to the following plan : 

162 



A.D. 1791. 

On the first Monday in the said month of May a public examina- 
tion to be had in the College Hall, by the Provost and Senior Fellows, 
of such of the King's students as shall have taken Bachelor's degrees, 
and as shall offer themselves as candidates, which shall continue 
for four days, from eight to ten in the morning, and from two to 
four in the afternoon of each of those days. The examination on 
the first day, in the morning, to be in Greek and Latin Epic poetry; 
in the afternoon, in the Greek and Roman orators. On the second 
day, in the morning, in the Greek Drama and Roman satirists; in 
the afternoon, in the Greek and Roman historians. On the third 
day, in the morning, in English prose; in the afternoon, in English 
poetry. The examination to be critical, with a particular attention 
to the style and distinguished excellencies of the several authors 
which shall be the subject of examination, and to comprehend an 
investigation into the nature and history of each language, its 
peculiar excellencies and defects, and its gradations in improvement 
or decline. And that the characters of the examiners, as well as 
the candidates, should be more at stake,, it is recommended that the 
whole of the examination should be in English. On the fourth day, 
in the morning, the candidates to write compositions in Greek and 
Latin poetry and prose, on subjects to be given by the examiners, 
and in their presence only; and in the evening, in like manner, in 
English poetry and prose. On the Monday following the examiners 
to assemble in the Hall of the University, and there publicly each 
of them to swear, that he will elect into the place or places of select 
King's student or students, without favour or prejudice, such of 
the candidates as shall appear to him to be the best qualified, 
according to the best of his judgment. The examiners shall then 
proceed to elect two, or (if there shall be more vacancies than two) 
more persons out of the said candidates, to be select King's 
students, according to the majority of votes : and in case of an 
equality of votes, the Provost, or in his absence, the Vice-Provost, 
to have the casting voice. The electors not to be bound to elect 
if none of the candidates shall appear to them to be properly 
qualified. 

At the same time, in every succeeding year, the like examination 
and election to be had, and two or more King's students, if more 
than two shall, at the time of such examination, happen to be vacant, 
to be elected. If this part of the scheme should be approved of by 
your Excellency, we humbly recommend to your Excellency that his 



A.D. 1791. 

Majesty may be moved to make a new statute, directing that such 
examination and election should be annually had. 

Each of the select King's students to have a salary of 50 yearly; 
but as long as his King's studentship shall continue, the salary of 
that to be continued as part of his 50 yearly, and to continue to 
hold his office for the term of seven years from the time of his 
election into the place of one of the select, and no longer. At the 
end of the seventh year he is to go out, and one of the King's 
students to be elected in the manner hereinbefore mentioned to supply 
his place. 

The select King's students to be examiners at quarterly examina- 
tions; and previous to their admission, to be sworn by the Provost 
faithfully to execute such academic duties as shall be committed to 
their care. 

The annual expense of select King's students will be as follows : 

The first year of their election is supposed to take place at the 
conclusion of the fourth year after the candidates had obtained 
King's studentships. 

The salaries of two select King's students would be 100 yearly, 
but their salaries as students are to be deducted for the first three 
years after their election into the places of select King's students, 
and the same deduction for the same time is to be made from all 
the succeeding select King's students. 

For the first year, two select at 20 each, ... 40 o o 
,, second year, four ,, ... 80 o o 

,, third year, six ,, ... 120 o o 

,, fourth year, full salary of two at 50 and 

six at 20, ... ... ... 220 o o 

,, fifth year, full salary of four at 50 and 

six at 20, ... ... ... 320 o o 

,, sixth year, full salary of six at 50 and 

six at 20, ... ... ... 420 o o 

,, seventh year, full salary of eight at 50 

and six at 20, ... ... ... 520 o o 

At the end of this year the two select go out. The sum of 520 
would be the highest annual expense of select King's students, and 
would not take place till the expiration of fifteen years from the 
time of electing the first King's scholars, and at that period the 

164 



A.D. 1791. 

whole annual expense which the collegiate school would incur would 
be as follows : 

In the school Head master's salary, ... 100 
Under master, ... ... 80 

Six assistants at 40 each, 240 

-420 

Thirty-two King's scholars 
at 20 each, ... ... 640 

1,060 

In the college Twenty-eight King's students 

at 30 each ... ... 840 

Fourteen select King's students, 
eight at 50 each, and six at 
20 each, ... ... 520 

1,360 



2,420 

The whole annual expense is 2,420, which sum, we apprehend, 
may be taken after the respective deaths or vacancies of the offices 
of the present possessors, from the incomes of the schools of royal 
foundation, that a competent sum would remain for those establish- 
ments, and that they would receive no injury, but great improvement, 
from such defalcation. It is probable that before this plan could be 
carried into execution sufficient sums might arise by the vacancies of 
some of those schools to answer the expenses of this establishment; 
if not, the deficiency, if supplied by his Majesty's letter and provided 
for by the House of Commons, would, it is apprehended, be gratefully 
paid by the public. 

As to the site of the school, we think that it should not be nearer 
to Dublin than about thirty or forty miles, and not at a much greater 
distance; that it should be on the banks of a large river; that it should 
not be in, but should be within about a quarter of an English mile 
from some neat, well-regulated town, where there may be proper 
accommodations for the present for masters, assistants, and dames' 
houses, and for French, fencing, and dancing masters, and where a 
temporary schoolhouse may be taken and the business of the school 
carried on while the new seminary shall be preparing. 

For this purpose about fifty Irish acres should be purchased, 
situate as before mentioned. Here the schools, and the assistants' 

165 



A.D. 1791. 

and dames' houses should be erected; for the latter rent should be 
paid. The masters to have a jurisdiction within this district as to 
all matters relating to their scholars or schools, with a power of 
administering oaths in all such cases; and the magistrates of the 
neighbouring towns to be enjoined by a law, to be made for that 
purpose, to enforce the requisitions of the masters, or of either of 
them, in every thing that shall not relate to the discipline of the said 
school and the government of the scholars. 

The Board of Control to superintend the government of the said 
school, and finally to settle all disputes and differences that may arise 
therein. 

The following advantages are expected from the scheme 
proposed : 

In the new school the learned languages would be well taught; 
young men would acquire the habit of composing with ease and 
elegance; the habit of composition would make them read the 
principal authors with greater skill, ease, and attention ; and reading 
in that manner would improve their composition, and both together 
would establish an accurate critical classical taste in this great school. 
This school would become the model of the other schools in this 
kingdom, and it will be in the power of the Board of Control to 
promote this propensity by directing that the course of education 
adopted in this school should be exactly followed in the several 
schools under their management. The Governors of Smith's Schools 
should also direct the masters of their grammar schools to follow 
the same method, particularly in the great school of Drogheda. 

On the death of the late master it would have been highly useful 
if a successor and assistant to him had been appointed, who had been 
educated in one of the great English schools, and had acted as 
master or assistant there. The governors have been at great 
expense in salaries to masters and ushers, and in purchasing a large 
house and play-field. The school would have been well worthy of 
the acceptance of such person as we have described, and might have 
been one of the most eligible situations for the site of a collegiate 
school, if a new establishment for that purpose should not be 
preferred. 

The University should also endeavour to have the same course 
followed in the great school of Kilkenny, which is in their gift. 

It is not doubted that the Primate would direct the same regula- 
tions to be observed in the great school of Armagh, and it might 

166 



A.D. 1791. 

hereafter be found not to be difficult to provide the means of 
connecting some of those schools with the University, in a manner 
similar to that recommended as to the new school, which would 
increase the number of King's scholars, King's students, and select 
students, and extend the benefits of the scheme. Among the 
advantages which our University will derive from it, the increase of 
the number of examiners at quarterly examinations ought to be 
mentioned, who are now so inadequate to the number of those 
examined, which has been, in one instance, between five and six 
hundred, as to have much lessened the advantage of that excellent 
institution; but the greatest advantage which will attend a scheme of 
this nature remains to be mentioned it will raise the spirits and 
invigorate the exertions of the rising generation to see that education 
is become an object of public attention and solicitude in Ireland; and 
that by the cheering countenance of royal favour and protection it is 
to receive legislative encouragement and support. 

SCHOOLS OF ERASMUS SMITH. 

The schools of Erasmus Smith though originating in the 
intentions of a private individual, yet, from the repeated interpositions 
of the Legislature and of the Crown, may be now considered as 
public institutions. 

The establishment was first made by a charter of King Charles II., 
in the twenty-first year of his reign. The objects were afterwards 
enlarged by an Act of Parliament passed in the year 1724. 

The funds for the support of those schools are from the rents of 
lands, which, on the 1st May, 1789, were let for 3,471 95. 8d. yearly; 
which sum, by an increase in the rents, is now raised to 4,249 45. lod. 
yearly; and at the determination of a lease which will expire on the 
ist of May, 1798, there will be an annual increase of 500 or 600 
more. 

The annual disbursements are at present 2,818 i8s. The 
surplus, therefore, is 1,430 6s. lod. yearly. 

On this establishment there are four grammar schools, namely, 
at Drogheda, Tipperary, Galway, and Ennis. 

i . To the grammar school at Drogheda the Governors have been 
very liberal, and the success had in a great measure rewarded their 
endeavours, the school having been, for many years past, of consider- 
able celebrity, with one radical defect, common to most of the 
schools in this kingdom a total neglect of composition. The 

167 



A.D. 1791. 

number of boys was 123; seventy-two of them were boarders, and 
fifty-one day scholars. Of the latter, between twenty and thirty were 
free scholars. 

The Governors have been very liberal to this school in granting 
a salary of 250 to the master, though the charter limits the salary 
to be granted to every schoolmaster to 100 marks yearly. A second 
house and play-field has been purchased for the master, in the year 
1780, for 1,170, and the sum of 200 was also allowed towards 
putting the said house in repair, and afterwards a further sum of 
270 for new roofing the master, Dr. Norris, having alleged that 
the sum allowed for repairs was not sufficient for that purpose. 
Without meaning to condemn that gentleman, we think it our duty 
to observe the expediency of subjecting the masters to dilapidations, 
if the schoolhouses should, by any voluntary neglect of theirs, fall 
into decay. The house of the head usher had also been enlarged, at 
an expense of 300, and will now receive fifty boarders. 

From the large sums already expended on this establishment, the 
great accommodations provided for the master, the high character of 
the school, the salubrity of this situation, and its convenient distance 
from the metropolis, we apprehend that a master trained in the habits 
of composition, and following the Eton or Westminster course, 
might soon be able to make this a great classical school. 

The annual expense of this school, besides the amount of different 
grants made by the Governors, which, in the last ten years, have 
amounted to the sum of 1,940. 

2. The school in the town of Tipperary is accommodated with an 
excellent house for the schoolmaster, sufficient to contain eighty 
boarders, with nearly five acres of very valuable ground; also with 
ten acres of ground and a good house for the usher, sufficient to 
contain forty boarders; and though placed in a very convenient 
situation, and in a healthy and plentiful country, and though the 
master and usher are acknowledged to be men of abilities and good 
character, we are sorry to be obliged to observe, from the very small 
number of scholars (only five boarders and thirteen day scholars, of 
whom eleven are free scholars), that the school has fallen in its 
character, and does not answer the expectations that may be justly 
formed from the advantages before stated, and from the endeavours 
of the governors to make it a great school; and we think it our duty 
to animadvert strongly on the conduct of the master, who had, in 
one instance, counteracted those endeavours, by stipulating with his 

168 



A.D. 1791. 

usher not to take any boarders without his consent, which stipulation 
we conceive to be inconsistent with the duty of both. 

The obvious design of the Governors, in giving the master a 
house capable of containing eighty boarders, was holding out the 
greatest prospects of profit and advantage to the exertions of the 
schoolmaster; while the obvious tendency of the master's conduct 
was to decrease the school, by declaring a dislike to scholars. This 
case shows the necessity of regular visitors; for it cannot be supposed 
that, if this school had been regularly examined by persons properly 
qualified and empowered, that such a contract could ever have been 
entered into, or at least have been so long continued. 

The expense of this school is 120 yearly. 

3. Under the present circumstances of the school at Galway, it 
differs materially from the other schools on this establishment, 
inasmuch as the scholars' are all day scholars, and all receive a 
gratuitous education: the master, the Rev. D. Y. Campbell, having, 
for these twenty years past, voluntarily relinquished all idea of 
advantage from his scholars, for the purpose, as he stated to us, of 
extinguishing jealousies which sometimes took place between the 
scholars for whose education he was paid and the free scholars. 

The yearly expense of the school, exclusive of the money 
expended on the buildings, appeared to be 198 45., so that the 
education of each boy in this grammar school did not amount to 
3 155. per annum. If, therefore, the duty of instruction is, as has 
been represented to us, properly performed by the present master, 
and the children properly taught, the expense was certainly well 
disposed, and the establishment of much use to the town of Galway. 
The schoolhouse being badly situated, and in other respects 
inconvenient, the Governors have resolved to build a new schoolhouse 
near the town, on a better site. 

4. The school at Ennis is a late establishment, is in high 
reputation, and very carefully attended to. The buildings were 
erected in the year 1773, at an expense to the Governors of 1,500. 
The Rev. Michael Fitzgerald, the present master, had fifty-six 
boarders and twenty-four day scholars; of the latter, twelve were 
free scholars. We observe in all the grammar schools on this 
establishment the Governors have granted salaries to the school- 
masters exceeding the sixty marks allowed by the charter the 
salaries granted to each schoolmaster of these schools, Drogheda 
excepted, being 100 yearly. 

169 



A.D. 1791. 

By the charter the Governors pay yearly to Trinity College 30 
for a Hebrew lecturer; by the Act of Parliament which passed in 
the year 1724, and which disposes of the surplus, the Governors pay 
yearly to the said college, for twenty exhibitions at 8 each; fifteen 
exhibitions at 6 each, and for three new fellowships, created by the 
said Act, at 33 6s. Sd. each; and for two professorships at 35 each, 
one for oratory and history, the other for natural and experimental 
philosophy, at which lectures the pensioners and exhibitioners of 
Erasmus Smith are to be taught gratis. 

Thus the annual grant to the college was raised to 450. In 
the year 1762, as appears by the registry book of the board, upon a 
memorial of the Provost and Senior Fellows of Trinity College being 
read, a further annual sum of 425 was ordered to be paid to the 
Bursar of the said College for professors in the mathematics, 
oriental tongues, oratory, and history, with their respective 
assistants, agreeable to the said memorial, subject to such regulations 
or alterations as the Provost and Senior Fellows shall from time to 
time think proper to make, with the consent and approbation of that 
board. Afterwards, in February, 1763, a further order was made by 
the said Governors for allowing an additional sum of 65 yearly 
to a professor of philosophy. The allowance to Trinity College was 
thus gradually augmented to 940, which sum is distributed in the 
following manner: 

To three fellows, at 33 6s. 8d., ... ... 100 o o 

To twenty exhibitions for poor scholars at 8, 160 o o 
To fifteen do. do. at 6, 90 o o 

Professor of mathematics and two assistants, no o o 
Professor of oriental tongues, in which is 
included 30 formerly appointed for a 
Hebrew lecturer, and two assistants, ... 140 o o 
Professor of oratory, in which is included 35 
formerly appointed for a lecturer in history, 
oratory, and one assistant, ... ... 120 o o 

Professor of history and one assistant, ... 120 o o 
Professor of natural and experimental 
philosophy, in which is included 35 
formerly appointed for the lecturer, ... 100 o o 

940 o o 
170 



A.D. 1791. 

In the above statement, as extracted from the said registry book, 
a reference is made to a memorial of the Provost and Senior Fellows 
of Trinity College, of which memorial no trace whatever appears, 
either among the papers of the board or in the records of Trinity 
College; and Mr. Cooper, then and now register of the said board, 
stated to us, upon his examination, that he did not remember to 
have seen such a memorial. 

It appeared to us, from the examination of Dr. Murray, the Vice- 
Provost of the said College, that the said exhibitions are regularly 
filled up as vacancies happen, and that a due preference is given to 
the scholars that have been educated on the foundation of Erasmus 
Smith, and that they are allowed chambers in the college according 
to the directions of the act above mentioned. The fellowships have 
been created and continued as the said act directs. 

The professors, with their assistants, act conformably to the 
regulations laid down for their conduct by the provost and senior 
fellows. But we beg leave to observe that whatever regulations they 
may be subject to by the rules of the college, as to the manner, the 
times of their holding lectures, or the particular objects and tendency 
of their respective courses of instruction, no such regulations have 
been communicated to the Governors, although their compliance in 
this form is part of the compact made by the college, the Governors 
having at least reserved to themselves the power of consent and 
approbation in these instances; and we also take notice that by the 
act which founded the lecturer of oratory and history, and the lecturer 
of natural and experimental philosophy, it is directed that each 
lecturer shall publicly read in every year four lectures, and lay two 
of them before the Governors, to be printed and published at the 
discretion of the board; which direction, though complied with 
formerly, has of late years been neglected, except that two 
prelections from Dr. Kearney, the lecturer of oratory and history, 
were exhibited to the board on the i8th February, 1790. The present 
professors in those branches, being men of learning and distinguished 
talents, the publication of their lectures would be useful; and we 
beg leave to recommend that the Governors should call upon those 
gentlemen for two lectures in each of those branches yearly, and 
cause them to be printed and published. We also think that the 
business of teaching and instructing in those branches is the duty of 
the professor as well as of his assistants, and we recommend that 
regulations for conducting the said several professorships, 

171 



A.D. 1791. 

comprehended within the order of the ist November, 1762, should 
be settled by the said Governors with the provost and senior fellows ; 
and we are of opinion that the provost and senior fellows should 
give every assistance in their power to promote the success of the 
said lectures by having a lending library for the use of such students 
as attend those professorships, and by encouraging their proficiency 
by granting medals and rewards to the most deserving. 

Among the institutions of this corporation one charter school has 
been established, which is situated contiguous to the town of Sligo, 
where a large house has been erected for that purpose, and fifteen 
acres of land provided for the use of a school, and 250 yearly 
granted for its support. This charter school is in very great 
disrepute, not having been well taken care of, and having produced 
no public advantage. 

The said Governors have also founded English schools at the 
following places, namely, at Xelva, in the island of Valencia, 
Nenagh, Templederry, and Tarbert. There is no schoolhouse at 
Templederry, but a school has been built lately at Tarbert, for which 
there will be a demand of 300 and upwards. 

The masters at each of these schools have a salary of 20 yearly; 
one of them, namely, the school at Nenagh is, we are informed, used 
for the purpose of a grammar school; and we think it our duty to 
observe, that the two institutions of grammar and English schools 
ought to be kept distinct. 

The three schools of Drogheda, Tipperary, and Galway, which 
were established by the charter, are by the said charter constituted 
free schools, for the teaching and instructing twenty such poor 
children who shall dwell within two English miles of the said 
respective schools 1 , and all the children of the tenants of the said 
Erasmus Smith, at what distance soever. But we do not find any 
regulations for the admission of gratuitous scholars into the schools 
upon this foundation, which were afterwards established. 

The Governors do not appear to us to have incurred any 
unnecessary expense; and upon the whole, we are of opinion that 
this trust has been executed with fidelity to the designs of the 
founder, and that great care has been taken in managing the funds 
and estates of the charity. 



172 



A.D. 1791. 



PROFESSIONAL ACADEMY. 



We beg leave to submit to your Excellency our ideas on the 
establishment of a professional academy, or academies, for the 
following purposes : to instruct young persons in mathematical 
learning, and the several branches of science immediately connected 
with it; to initiate them in the principles of chemical knowledge, 
with its application to arts and manufactures ; to direct their inquiries 
into natural history; to prepare soldiers, seamen, and merchants, in 
the business of their respective departments; to give a general 
account of the manners, customs, and governments of different 
nations, with a short abstract of their history; and to teach some of 
the modern languages, particularly French, Italian, and German. 

Of the utility of such a school we entertain the highest expecta- 
tion, from the success of the Dundee Academy founded on similar 
principles. 

The different branches of education which we recommend to be 
taught in those schools are as follow : 

1. Arithmetic in all its branches, and book-keeping. 

2. First class of mathematics, comprehending the elements of 
Euclid, plane trigonometry, and practical geometry, including 
mensuration, surveying, and gauging. 

3. Second class of mathematics, comprehending the elements of 
spherics, spherical trigonometry, algebra, conic sections, and 
fluxions. 

4. Geography and navigation. 

5. Drawing, perspective, fortification and architecture. 

6. Chemistry and natural philosophy. 

7. Natural philosophy, containing the elements of mechanics, 
hydrostatics, pneumatics, hydraulics, optics, magnetism, electricity, 
and astronomy. 

8. French, Italian and German. 

9. A general account of the progress of navigation and commerce, 
and of the manners, customs, and governments of different nations, 
with a short abstract of their history. 

Instruments should be provided for explaining the practical parts 
of geometry, geography, and navigation, with an apparatus for 
illustrating the principles of chemistry and natural philosophy. 

173 



A.D. 1791. 

From the experience of the Dundee Academy, three years have 
been found necessary for passing through the above-mentioned 
classes in the following order: The first, for attending French, 
arithmetic, book-keeping, and the first class of the mathematics; 
the second year, drawing, perspective, geography, navigation, and 
the second class of the mathematics; and the third year for 
architecture, fortification, chemistry, natural history, and natural 
philosophy; and an account of progress of navigation and commerce, 
and of the manners, customs, and governments of different nations, 
with a short abstract of their history. 

To those who have passed through other schools where some of 
the above-mentioned branches are taught, it is apprehended that one 
of the said years may be saved; and it is recommended that liberty 
should be given to attend any of the courses independent of the rest. 

To this professional academy it is proposed that 100 eleemosynary 
scholars should be admitted. 

The whole yearly expense of this establishment we estimated at 
2,100. 

If the Governors of Erasmus Smith's schools should think proper 
to appropriate the surplus of their funds to the support of this 
academy, we think it just that the entire government of the same, 
and also the patronage, namely, the appointment of the masters, 
ushers, and gratuitous scholars, should belong solely to the 
said Governors. 

One establishment of this nature will, at first, be sufficient; and 
if the experiment succeeds, one more may be founded, the success 
of the first should give encouragement to found another similar 
establishment, and if this should not be rendered unnecessary by 
private undertakings on the same model, which we think highly 
probable, and the masters of all the academies in the kingdom who 
profess to qualify boys for the military, naval, and commercial lines, 
would adopt the method practised in the professional academy. 

Two public institutions have been already founded connected with 
the army and navy, they are as follow : 

THE HIBERNIAN SCHOOL FOR SOLDIERS' CHILDREN. 

The Hibernian Society, in Dublin, for maintaining, educating, 
and apprenticing the orphans and children of non-commissioned 
officers or soldiers in Ireland, was incorporated by charter in the 



A.D. 1791. 

ninth year of the reign of his present majesty. A house and chapel 
have been built by Parliamentary grant. 

The children are admitted from seven to twelve years of age. 
The boys are maintained, and taught the principles of the Protestant 
religion, to read, write, cypher, and to work in the garden. They 
are apprenticed, with fees of 5 each. The girls read, write, cypher, 
knit, &c., and are apprenticed with fees of 3 los. each. 

HIBERNIAN MARINE SCHOOL. 

The Hibernian Marine Society was incorporated by charter in 
the fifteenth year of the reign of his present Majesty, for maintaining, 
educating, and apprenticing the orphans and children of decayed 
seamen in the navy and merchant service. The society, as the 
charter recites, were enabled, with the bounty of Parliament, to 
build a house in the city of Dublin, near the sea, capable of receiving 
200 children. The number of boys annually maintained in this 
school, upon an average of four years, to the year 1788, was about 
150. The annual expenditure of the society, upon a like average, 
was 1,729 75. 3d. The expense of each boy, therefore, for that 
period, was i i 95. 6f d. yearly. This charity is supported by an annual 
Parliamentary grant of 1,000, by the interest of 4,000, bank stock, 
bought with their savings; and by legacies, subscriptions, and other 
casual donations. The boys are not usually admitted till nine years 
of age. They are maintained and instructed in the principles of the 
Protestant religion, reading, writing, accounts, and navigation. 
When they are well versed in the theory of navigation, they are 
apprenticed to seafaring men, and have each 3 worth of necessaries 
provided for them. 

We think this charity, which is managed with due economy, 
highly useful to the public, and that the funds ought to be increased, 
so far, at least, as to enable the governors to maintain as many 
children as the building will accommodate, which is fifty more than 
the number at present in the school. 

HOSPITAL OF KING CHARLES II., IN DUBLIN. 

This hospital, commonly called the Blue Coat Hospital, was 
established by charter of King Charles II., in the twenty-third 
year of his reign. 

In this hospital 120 boys are maintained and instructed in the 

175 



A.D. 1791. 

principles of the Protestant religion, reading, writing, and arithmetic, 
and some of them are taught mathematics and drawing. They are 
admitted at eight or nine years of age, and are put out at the age of 
fourteen, with apprentice fees to Protestant tradesmen. The annual 
income, upon an average of the last three years, was 1,827 8s. 6d. 
The annual expenditure, upon a like average, was 1,899 os - iod., 
which is at the rate of 15 i6s. 6d. for each boy. A new hospital, 
chapel, and schoolhouse was erected by the governors of this charity 
a few years since, at an expense of 21,294, which has involved 
them in debts to the amount of 4,000 and upwards. If a wing, 
which is still wanting to the building, should be erected, there would 
be accommodation in this hospital, which is a place of excellent 
instruction, for 300 boys. 

PROTESTANT CHARTER SCHOOLS. 

One public institution more remaining to be mentioned, long and 
justly the favourite of the public, and the object of great national 
encouragement, we mean the Protestant Charter Schools. 

They were instituted by a grant or charter of the late King, 
bearing date the 24th October, 1733, which charter, after reciting 
a petition of the Lord Chancellor, Primate, Judges, &c., setting 
forth, "That in many parts of this kingdom there were great tracts 
" of land almost entirely inhabited by Papists; that the generality of 
" the Popish natives were kept by their clergy in gross ignorance, 
"and bred up in great disaffection to the Government; that the 
" erecting Protestant Charter Schools in those places would be 
"absolutely necessary for their conversion and civilization; that the 
" English parish schools were not sufficient for that purpose, and 
" that the residence only of the parochial clergy could not fully 
"answer the end"; and reciting further, "That to the intent, 
" therefore, that the children of the Popish and other poor natives 
" of Ireland, might be instructed in the English tongue, and the 
" principles of true religion and loyalty/' appoints the Lord 
Lieutenant and some of the chief nobility, gentry, and clergy of 
the said kingdom, Commissioners, with power to elect others in the 
room of their deceased members; constitutes them a corporation or 
body politic, by the name of the Incorporated Society in Dublin for 
promoting English Protestant Schools in Ireland: makes the said 
society capable to receive and enjoy in perpetuity, lands, &c., to the 

176 



A.D. 1791. 

value of 2,000 per annum, and empowers the said society to appoint, 
during their pleasure, schoolmasters and schoolmistresses (to be 
approved and licensed by the archbishops and bishops respectively), 
to teach the children of the Popish and other poor natives, the English 
tongue, reading, the principles of the Protestant religion, writing, 
arithmetic, and other parts of learning, to bring them up in virtue 
and industry, and to cause them to be instructed in husbandry and 
housewifery, trades, manufactures, or in such like manual 
occupations; the said society providing for the poor children, or for 
such of them as the said society shall think proper, all necessary 
materials, utensil, desks, diet, clothes, and lodging, until the children 
are fit to be put out to trades, services, or other employments; and 
to allow the said masters and mistresses yearly salaries, together 
with the benefit of houses, gardens, fields, and other fitting accom- 
modations; the said society, by the name aforesaid, to sue and be 
sued, and to Have a common seal; to have a general meeting 
quarterly, or oftener, and any seven to be a quorum; to elect upon 
the first Wednesday in November, in every year, a president, vice- 
president, treasurer, secretary, register, clerk, and such other officers 
and servants as they shall find needful, who are all to be sworn; to 
nominate fifteen of their own number to be a committee to meet in 
Dublin, the first Monday in every month, or oftener, for carrying 
into execution the rules, orders, and directions of the said society; 
the treasurer to lay before the society, the first Wednesday in 
November, yearly, an account of receipts and disbursements; the 
said society, at their quarterly meetings, to make rules, &c., to be 
approved by the primate, one of the said archbishops, or one of the 
chief judges; leases to be made only at the said quarterly meetings, 
no lease to exceed three lives or thirty-one years in possession, and 
without fine; subscribers, being Protestants, to be admitted into the 
society with a proviso that the society shall not diminish their capital 
stock, but that they confine their expenses yearly to such annual 
income, and to such money, goods, &c., as shall from year to year 
be given to them, or the interests or profits thereof. 

Though we have thought it our duty to mention the recitals of 
this charter, we also think it incumbent upon us to declare our opinion 
that no such disaffection, as is supposed to have existed in the year 
T 733, des at present exist in any description of his Majesty's subjects 
in this kingdom. 

The funds for the support of this institution amount to 

177 
M 



A.D. 1791. 

20,105 175. 9jd. yearly, and arise from his Majesty's bounty, from 
a large Parliamentary grant, and from the donations of private 
benefactors. 

Each child in the charter schools and nurseries cost the society, 
upon an average of the whole expenditure for two years, to the 29th 
September, 1790, the sum of 8 175. 9jd. yearly. 

The number of charter schools now subsisting which the society 
have established in different parts of this kingdom is thirty-eight ; as 
also four nurseries, three of which are used for the reception of 
such children as are too young to be admitted into the charter schools 
to which they are transplanted at a proper age; and to the fourth, 
which is at Milltown, near Dublin, children are sent up from the 
charter schools who cannot get masters, and remain there till masters 
can be procured for them. 

To these establishments are to be added two schools upon the 
Ranelagh foundation. 

The number of children in the thirty-eight charter schools on the 
29th September, 1790, was 1,455; of which number 918 were boys, 
and 538 were girls who, by a late regulation, are to be kept in 
separate schools. The number of children in the four provincial 
nurseries at the same period was 263. We are also to add eighty 
children more usually kept in the two schools on the Ranelagh 
foundation, namely forty boys in the school at Athlone, and forty 
boys in the school at Roscommon, making in the whole 1,798 children 
under the society's care. 

We thought it our duty to lay before your Excellency a copy of 
the Report of a Committee of the House of Commons, appointed in 
the Session of 1788, to inquire into the state of the Protestant charter 
schools of this kingdom, which report contained (among other 
evidence) the testimony of the late Mr. Howard relative to the state 
of the several charter schools which he had then visited ; and we beg 
leave to observe, notwithstanding the miserable state of a great 
majority of the said schools, according to the said Mr. Howard's 
testimony, yet if appears, from the said reports of the local 
committees from forty of the said schools, that there are but three 
unfavourable, two of which are only so in respect to the clothing of 
the children; and that of the reports made from thirty-five of the 
said schools, by the catechist visitors, there is but one unfavourable 
and one but partly favourable, six of which last-mentioned reports 
are in the year 1787, and the remaining twenty-nine in the year 1788. 

178 



A.D. 1791. 

We also laid before your Excellency a copy of a report which we 
received from the said Mr. Howard of the state of such of the said 
schools as he had since visited, together with the observations and 
objections made, and the remedies proposed by that most worthy 
man, to whose solicitude for this great national charity this kingdom 
is so highly indebted. 

And we are concerned to take notice that it appears, from the 
said testimony and report of this gentleman, who had visited the 
four nurseries and all the charter schools (two only excepted), that 
in most of the said establishments the instruction, cleanliness, and 
health of the children had been most grossly neglected; that they 
had not been allowed sufficient food, clothing, or other necessaries ; 
that in many of these schools they are half starved, half naked, and 
covered with cutaneous disorders, the effects of filth and negligence, 
while in some of those the children of the masters and mistresses 
appear fresh, clean, and in good health. 

This account of the wretched condition of these schools and 
nurseries is confirmed by further evidence which we have taken upon 
oath, and also by the reports of some of us who have visited several 
of the said schools and nurseries; and, upon the whole, it appeared 
that of all those establishments, being forty-four in number, not more 
than five or six were properly taken care of. Under these circum- 
stances, it may well be imagined that the admission of children into 
the charter schools cannot be an object of solicitation to their parents 
or friends, or that respectable persons shoul'd be induced to resort 
to these schools for servants or apprentices. 

Those great evils appear to us to have arisen 

1. From the allowance of about 2d. per day only for the main- 
tenance of each child, which was not sufficient for its support. 

2. From a scheme, which has been found not to succeed, of 
having the clothes for the children made in, and provided by contract, 
in Dublin. 

3. From charges made upon the masters for the labour of the 
children, by which means the masters were induced to devote too 
much of the children's time to labour, and to pay little attention to 
their instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, and the principles 
of the Christian religion. 

4. From the ignorance, gross neglect, and frauds of the masters 
and mistresses. 

5. From the inattention and neglect of many of the local 

179 

M* 



A.D. 1791. 

committees, and from their unsatisfactory, inaccurate, and false 
reports, and from the want of visitors, or a sufficient control and 
inspection. 

6. From the want of infirmaries, and due attention to the 
construction of the buildings to the preservation of the health of the 
children. 

7. From the number of the charter schools being greater than the 
funds were sufficient to support. 

For the first, the committee of fifteen who transact the business 
of the corporation applied as a remedy, pending the inquiry before 
the Committee of the House of Commons, the raising of the 
allowance for the food of each child to 2jd., and afterwards to 3d., 
for each day, to which remedy we beg leave to recommend the 
enforcing a strict observance of a dietary, and of rules to be 
established for the better preservation of the health of the children. 

And the second we are informed that they have endeavoured to 
remove by rescinding that contract, and supplying the children with 
proper clothing, made in the neighbourhood of the schools. We 
think, however, that a system of regulations should be adopted as to 
the clothing and cleanliness of the children. 

As a remedy for the third, we beg leave to recommend to the 
consideration of the Incorporated Society that the charge for the 
labour of the children should be no longer made, and that each school 
should be formed for a particular branch of industry one for the 
purpose of husbandry, another for that of gardening, and another for 
a particular manufacture, and the like. 

If each school be adapted to one particular object in preference 
to various objects, greater perfection in the particular branch may be 
expected.* 

As a prevention of the fourth, we recommend that the greatest 
attention should be had in the choice of masters and mistresses, 
that therefore persons of qualifications superior to those of the 
persons employed at present should be appointed; that the master 
should be qualified to teach the different branches of the mathematics 

* In many of the schools the boys are principally employed in weaving, spinning, 
&c. ; and if engaged in any work out of doors, they are employed as menial servants, 
and not in husbandry, which latter mode of employment we conceive far preferable, 
as occupations at their tender age should be preferred which tend to form and 
strengthen their constitutions, such as Mr. Howard recommends in his report 
namely, agriculture when the situation affords an opportunity, or planting and 
gardening, by establishing nurseries, on the plan of that of the Hibernian School, 
near Dublin, which may answer the double purpose of profit and employment.' 

180 



A.D. 1791. 

applicable to the trades and occupations for which the boys are 
destined; that their salaries should be increased; that, previous to 
their appointment, they should obtain a certificate of their qualifica- 
tions from some one of the inspectors to be appointed in the mode 
hereafter proposed; that they shall enter into a bond (of ), 

with two sureties (in each), for their good behaviour and 

compliance with all the directions of the superintending powers ; that 
they should act as secretaries and accountants to the local committees, 
and be allowed an assistant in schools where the number of children 
exceeds fifty; that they (the masters) should take an oath to act 
faithfully as secretaries and accountants to the local committees, and 
to make true returns to the board. 

And, as a remedy for the sixth, we are of opinion that infirmaries 
should be built adjoining to all the charter schools, and that a system 
of regulations should be adopted with regard to the extension and 
improvement of schoolhouses, and also with respect to repairs : first, 
as to temporary repairs; secondly, as to permanent repairs. 

And with regard to the last evil, we beg leave to observe, that 
the society appear to have bestowed more attention to the increase 
of the number of children maintained in the charter schools, than 
to the manner in which those children were maintained and educated. 
They should have pursued a system directly the reverse, as it must 
prove much more beneficial to society that a smaller number cf 
children should be properly instructed and clothed, lodged, and fed, 
in such a manner as must insure to them healthy and robust 
constitutions, than that a greater number should be sent into the 
community labouring under the disadvantages of a defective 
education and weak constitution. It is our opinion, therefore, in 
which we are supported by the high authority of the late Mr. Howard, 
that these establishments should be considerably reduced in number, 
and particularly that such charter schools should be suppressed where 
there are difficulties of superintending them, of finding necessaries 
for the boys, and masters to take them apprentices. We beg leave 
further to observe, that so many charter schools as exist at present 
will not be necessary if parish schools are established on the proposed 
plan; and we feel the less reluctance in proposing a reduction in 
the number of charter schools, when we consider, that these having 
been erected to supply the deficiency, or in aid of parish schools, 
need not be so numerous if the parish schools be made efficient. 

We are of opinion that no children should be admitted into the 

181 



A.D. 1791- 

charter schools under the age ol seven years, and that consequently 
the four provincial nurseries should be abolished. We find our 
sentiments as to the suppression of these also confirmed by the late 
Mr. Howard. The nurseries are intended to supply the charter 
schools with children. When these are well fed, taught, and clothed, 
and appear to the public eye healthy and clean, in good apparel, and 
in high spirits, as the children of the State ought to appear, there 
seems to be little doubt that there would be an abundant supply of 
children without the assistance of these seminaries of infants, as 
poor persons of all descriptions will be happy to send their children 
to places where their children are well clothed and fed, and properly 
instructed. 

The parents of all the children in those schools should have free 
access to them on proper occasions, that they may be witnesses of 
their good treatment, and become attached to an institution which 
at present many of the lower orders are taught to hold in abhorrence. 

As these schools will, on the plan now proposed, become of a 
much superior nature to parish schools, it would be a great 
encouragement to these, if a certain number of such of the most 
promising boys from thence as might be received, consistent with 
the rules of the charter school education, were to be recommended 
to the committee of fifteen, to be placed on that foundation. 

OBSERVATIONS UPON THE FOREGOING SCHOOLS. 

We now beg leave to trouble your Excellency with some observa- 
tions on the foregoing schools, and with some further remedies for 
the reformation and future prevention of the abuses therein. 

On the subject of charter schools and three other public 
institutions, namely, parish, Royal, and diocesan schools, it is our 
indispensable duty to declare that they have not answered the 
intentions of the founders; that parish and diocesan schools, with 
very few exceptions, have been of little use to the public; and that the 
benefits derived from schools on Royal foundations have been totally 
inadequate to the expectations that might have been justly formed 
from their large endowments ; those schools being free schools, and 
the number of scholars only thirty-eight, each boy (and they are only 
day scholars) costs the public annually above 100. And in respect 
to the charter schools, we are obliged to declare, that in many of 
them the clothing, cleanliness, food, health, and education of the 

182 



A.D. 1791. 

children have been shamefully neglected; and that this great national 
charity has not yet produced those salutary effects which the public 
expected from the institution; and that from those four different 
classes of schools, if properly conducted, the most extensive national 
benefits will be derived. 

We beg leave to recommend that proceedings should be had for 
vacating the offices of such schoolmasters as had deserted or grossly 
neglected their duty, in such manner as shall be recommended by 
His Majesty's Attorney-General. And we think it our duty, with 
whatever reluctance, to mention to your Excellency Mr. Hood, the 
master of the school at Ballyroan, the Rev. Edward Baily, master 
of the school at Carysfort, the Rev. Dr. Cottingham, master of the 
school at Cavan, and Dr. Lamy, master of the school at Raphoe, as 
proper objects for such a proceeding, unless your Excellency should 
think proper to remove the two latter, their tenure being during the 
pleasure of the Crown. 

We beg leave to submit to your Excellency as our decided opinion, 
that there should be no distinction made in any of the schools between 
scholars of different religious persuasions, without meaning, how- 
ever, to interfere with the peculiar constitution of the charter schools, 
or with the intentions of the founders of any other schools, expressed 
by their wills or other instruments directing such foundations. 

THE BOARD OF CONTROL. 

As we find that many of the existing abuses in schools on public 
and private foundations and the misapplication of their funds, have 
proceeded from the delays, difficulties, and expenses attending the 
usual way of proceeding in such cases, by information in the Courts 
of Equity, and as we find large sums of money, part of the said funds 
have been employed in such proceedings, we beg leave, for the 
purpose of reforming the present existing abuses, and preventing 
the like for the future, and the waste of those funds in tedious 
litigations, to recommend that a summary jurisdiction should be 
created under the authority of an Act of Parliament, to receive and 
redress all complaints made of the conduct of masters and ushers 
of schools on public and private foundations, or of the misapplication 
or abuse of the funds belonging to the same, with an appeal from 
their sentence to the Court of Chancery, provided always that in 
all cases where there are governors, trustees, or visitors of the said 

183 



A.D. 1791. 

charitable foundations, that complaints shall be first made to the 
said governors, trustees, or visitors, and that such complaint 
remains unredressed for the space of three months after it has been 
made. 

We are of opinion that the summary jurisdiction should be vested 
in certain Commissioners, to be appointed for that purpose, and to 
be called the Board of Control; and that the said Commissioners 
should act without fee or reward. 

And we think it would be useful if the said Board had the power 
of directing, from time to time, the plans of education to be pursued 
in schools on public and private foundations, in all cases where there 
are no visitors, or where the founder himself has given no directions 
on that subject. And if they were authorized to require from time 
to time an account from the said several schoolmasters, of the state 
of their schools, of the mode of education pursued therein, and of 
such further circumstances as the said Board shall judge necessary 
for the acquiring a competent knowledge of the state and circum- 
stances of such school, such information to be verified by affidavits 
to be made by such schoolmasters or ushers before one of His 
Majesty's Judges, or a Magistrate of the county or city where such 
school is situated, or one of the Commissioners of the said Board; 
and that it should be also lawful for any one of the said Commis- 
sioners to visit any of the said schools where no visitors have been 
appointed, to examine the masters and ushers, upon oath, touching 
the matters aforesaid, and to report their evidence to the Board. 

We have now performed, to the best of our judgment and 
abilities, the arduous duty which we have undertaken, and have laid 
before your Excellency an account of the funds appropriated to the 
purposes of school education in this kingdom, amounting to the sum 
of 45,796 i8s. ijd. yearly. It appears to us that this great annual 
sum, if properly applied, would be sufficient to answer the useful 
purposes for which those funds were intended; but it has been 
proved to us upon oath, that a large proportion of those funds has 
been grossly misapplied, and that great frauds and abuses have been 
committed in respect to those charitable donations. 

The remedies which we have submitted to your Excellency for 
the reformation of those evils we have mentioned with great 
diffidence; but if those remedies should be thought not to have been 
sufficiently considered, we beg leave to observe that the justice and 
credit of the nation are at stake, that some effectual remedies should 

184 



A.D. 1791. 

be applied to such enormous abuses, and that means should be taken 
for their prevention in future, for which purpose we have taken the 
liberty of laying before your Excellency our recommendation for 
the establishment of a summary jurisdiction, which we consider as a 
measure highly necessary and useful, from the want of which, we 
apprehend, the various abuses in schools on private as well as public 
foundations have arisen. 



RECAPITULATION OF THE ADVANTAGES OF THE PROPOSED PLAN OF 

EDUCATION. 

We beg leave shortly to recapitulate the several advantages which 
will be derived to this kingdom from the plan of education which 
we now humbly lay before your Excellency. 

In the parish schools, in which there is at present no provision 
for the education of the children of the poor, 25,250 poor children 
will be instructed gratuitously in reading, writing, arithmetic, and 
the principles of religion; upwards of 700 new parish schools will 
be established, and between 800 and 900 schoolhouses provided for 
the residence of the masters, and the instruction of the scholars, 
the remaining number of the schools having already houses provided 
for those purposes. The parish schools at present existing will be 
rendered more efficient and useful, and the education in the 1,100 
parish schools will receive great encouragement by the drafting off 
such of the scholars as are most meritorious to other schools for 
the purpose of perfecting their education; and the regulations 
proposed as to those schools will tend to promote the laudable 
institution of Sunday schools. 

The charter schools will, we flatter ourselves, receive great 
improvements, if the alterations which we have taken the liberty to 
recommend shall be adopted. The institution itself, and its greatly 
increased funds, render that establishment an object of the greatest 
national importance. 

The diocesan schools will be rendered much more useful by the 
establishment of an additional master. Eight will be added to the 
number of those schools, and the rest rendered more efficient and 
useful; 440 boys will receive a classical education, and be instructed 
in the mathematics; and provision is also proposed to be made for 

185 



A.D. 1791. 

the education in like manner, and also for the clothing and main- 
taining 396 poor scholars, to be elected and sent thither from the 
parish and other schools. 

The seven Royal schools will be all rendered efficient; one of 
them only, namely, Armagh, can be called so at present. By the 
proposed plan, 140 gratuitous scholars will be instructed in those 
schools, and the redundancy of the revenues, which has proved 
highly pernicious to those establishments, will, by its useful applica- 
tion, be the means of their reformation, and will promote the ends 
of education by being properly applied to a great institution, the 
want of which has been long complained of in this country, and has 
been the cause of educating out of it many of the children of the 
principal nobility and gentry, and of drawing large sums of money 
annually out of this kingdom. We mean 

A Collegiate School, or school connected with the University, 
upon the plan of the great collegiate schools which, by long 
experience, have been found so highly useful in England. We have 
provided, in this part of the plan, for the maintenance of thirty-two 
King's scholars in the school, and for forty-two students in the 
University. 

The other new institution proposed, called the Professional 
Academy, will train up useful members for the army, navy, and 
commerce; will be a great national institution; and will at the same 
time, be a useful model for private seminaries of a similar nature, 
which will probably be established by private undertaking in several 
of the principal towns of this kingdom. This will be also a great 
public charity, by which 100 boys will be instructed and maintained 
gratuitously. It will also give new vigour to the schools of 
Erasmus Smith if the boys should be elected from thence, and will 
unite and be a beautiful finishing to this part of the system of 
education in this country. The expense of such an institution is 
trifling, indeed, compared with the great national advantages likely 
to result from it, and would not exceed, according to our calculation, 
the annual sum of 2,100, for which it is apprehended the legislature 
would cheerfully provide if it was found necessary to resort to them 
for that purpose. But we apprehend that this necessity may be 
prevented, and adequate resources obtained for the support of this 
institution out of the surplus of Erasmus Smith's estates, if the 
Governors should think proper to appropriate them to that purpose. 
Those estates are for the most part appropriated to the purposes 

186 



A.D. 1791. 

of promoting the education of this kingdom, and, we apprehend, 
could not be more properly employed than in supporting such an 
institution. 

Those plans for the education of His Majesty's subjects in this 
kingdom of all ages, conditions, and descriptions, may be supported 
by the faithful application of the existing funds to the purposes 
intended by the founders, without violating the will or intentions 
of any one of them. 

We have now submitted to your Excellency such a plan of 
education as we have been able to digest from the information that 
has been laid before us, from which we are able to decide with 
perfect certainty that a plan of National Education is not, as has 
been supposed by many, impracticable in this kingdom. Further 
investigation will give additional light; and a gradual execution of 
whatever system of education shall be adopted will be a surer guide 
than any scheme that can be recommended from mere speculation. 

We have the honour to be. &c.,* 

J. H. H. (L.S.) T. B. (L.S.) 
D. D. (L.S.) E. C. (L.S.) 
I. C. (L.S.) R. H. (L.S.) 
J. F. (L.S.) 

* The names are Right Hon. John Hely Hutchinson (then Secretary of State), 
Right Hon. Denis Daly, Right Hon. Isaac Cony, John Forbes, Esq., Thomas Burgh, 
Esq., Edward Cooke, Esq., (afterwards Under Secretary), and Right Hon. Robert 
Hobart, afterwards Earl of Buckinghamshire. Mr. Hobart was added to the 
Commission in 1 789, when appointed Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant in the 
place of the Right Hon. Alleyne Fitzherbert, afterwards Lord St. Helens, who was 
named in the original Commission issued loth May, 1788. 



A.D. 1791. 



APPENDIX. 



THE STATE OF THE EXISTING SCHOOLS IN THIS KINGDOM ON PUBLIC 
AND PRIVATE FOUNDATIONS. 

The STATE of the ENGLISH PARISH SCHOOLS, instituted by the Act 
of the 29th Henry VIII. , cap. 15. 

Much of our information, relative to the English parish schools, 
is collected from the returns made by the Registers of twenty-nine 
of the dioceses, respectively, to the Lord Lieutenant, in pursuance 
of an order from his Excellency for that purpose, which returns 
were sent to us by the Marquess of Buckingham, to whom we 
applied for the returns of the remaining dioceses in this kingdom, 
which are five in number, namely : Armagh, Meath, Elphin, 
Kilmore, and Cashel; but returns from the said five dioceses have 
not hitherto been transmitted to us. 

According to the best information we have been able to collect, 
there are in this kingdom thirty-four dioceses. These are divided into 
2,292 parishes, composing 1,100 benefices. 

In the twenty-nine dioceses, from which the said returns have 
been made, the number of parishes is 1,669, composing 838 benefices. 

It appears that 352 only of the said 838 benefices have parish 
schools, which are kept in no instance by the incumbents or their 
curates, but by deputies or persons paid for that purpose, whose 
stipend does not exceed, some very few instances excepted, forty 
shillings yearly. 

In seventy-four of the said 838 benefices the clergymen pay forty 
shillings yearly as an allowance for a schoolmaster, without causing 
any school to be kept in their benefices; and in the remainder of 
the said 838 benefices, being 412 in number, we cannot discover by 
the said returns that the clergymen keep any schools, or that they 
pay any salaries to others for keeping them. 

This fact, it is humbly submitted, is much to be lamented, since 
we find that above 11,000 children receive instruction in reading, 

188 



A.D. 

and for the most part also in writing and arithmetic, in the schools 
of this class; though, as we apprehend, they are not kept in very 
considerably more than half the benefices of this kingdom. 

It appears by the said returns of the twenty-nine dioceses that 
there are 201 schoolhouses in which the said schools are kept, and 
about forty-four acres of ground, chiefly in small parcels, belonging 
to some of the said schoolhouses. 

The prices paid for instructing the children are generally from 
one to three shillings per quarter. 

The diocesan schools are all grammar schools. The average 
price for boarders is four guineas entrance and twenty-four guineas 
per annum, and for day scholars one guinea entrance and four 
guineas per annum, and there are generally separate charges for 
writing, arithmetic, the mathematics, French, &c. The salary of 
the schoolmaster of Dublin is paid by the Dean and Chapter, and not 
by the bishop and clergy at large. 

The names of such dioceses as contribute to the payment of 
salaries of diocesan schoolmasters, respectively, the said dioceses 
being twenty in number. 



i, Cashel. 


6. Derry. 


11. Elphin. 


16. Limerick. 


2. Clogher. 


7. Dromore. 


12. Kildare. 


17. Meath. 


3. Cork. 


8. Dublin. 


13. Killaloe. 


18. Ossory. 


4. Ross. 


9. Down. 


14. Leighlin. 


19. Tuam. 


5. Cloyne. 


10. Connor. 


15. Ferns. 


20. Ardagh. 



The names of persons who receive salaries as masters of diocesan 
free schools, but who did not act, being six in number. 

Rev. J. Caveney, Master of the Free School of the Diocese of Ross. 
Rev. Matthew Slator, do., do., Cloyne. 

Rev. W. D. Kenny, do., do., Elphin. 

Rev. James Slater, do., do., Kildare. 

Rev. Mark Mainwright, do., do., Meath. 

Rev. Anthony Pack, do., do., Ossory. 



A.D. 1791. 



STATE of the ROYAL FREE SCHOOLS in the year 1788. 



Site 


Foundation 


Endowment 


Scho- 
lars 






s- d. 




Armagh 


By Charter, dated 


1,499 acres of profit- 






15 Dec., 2 Chas. 


able ground, worth, 






I. 


per annum 662 o 7 


66 


Dungannon 


Ditto. 


1,654 acres of profit- 








able ground, and 








about 1,000 acres of 








bog, worth, per 








annum 975 18 jl 


15 


Raphoe 


Ditto. 


1,070 acres of profit- 








able ground, and a 








bare mountain, 








worth 335 14 5 


20 


Enniskillen 


Ditto. 


2,537 acres of profit- 








able ground, and 80 1 








acres of bog, worth, 








per annum 1,271 7 10 


24 


Cavan 


Ditto. 


556 acres of profitable 








ground, and 21 acres 








under water, worth, 








per annum 450 15 10 


4 6 


Banagher 


By Charter, dated 


204 acres of profitable 






16 Sept., 4 Chas. 


land, worth, per 






I. 


annum 163 o o 





Carysfort 


By Charter, dated 


300 (about) acres, 






21 Aug., 4 Chas. 


mostly mountain, 






I. 


worth, per annum 60 o o 


40 






Total 3,918 17 3j 


211 



190 



A.D. 1791. 
THE PROTESTANT CHARTER SCHOOLS. 2Qth September, 1790. 



Site 


County 


No. of 
Children 
in each 
School 


Establish- 
ment 


Children 
Appren- 
ticed 


Marriage 
portions 
paid 


Ardbraccen, 


Meath,- 


38 


50 


241 


15 


Arklow, 


\Vicklow, 


4 1 


40 


151 


13 


Ballikelly, 
Ballinrobe, 


Londonderry, 
Mayo, 


45 
30 


50 
4 


125 

101 


28 
13 


Ballycastle, 


Antrim, 


34 


4 


144 


22 


Castlebar, 


Mayo, 


43 


50 


46 





Castlecarberry, 


Kildare, 


46 


50 


M3 


16 


Castledermott, 


Kildare, 


38 


4 


J 43 


9 


Castleisland, 


Kerry, 


22 


45 


72 


8 


Castlemartyr, 


Cork, 


33 


40 


136 


12 


Cashel, ' 


Tipperary, 


30 


4 


103 


13 


Charleville, 


Cork, 


39 


3 


134 


8 


Clonmel, 


Tipperary, 


39 


4 


J 43 


J 4 


Clontarf Strand, 


Dublin, 


63 


IOO 


212 


37 


Creggane, 


Armagh, 


40 


40 


197 


17 


Dundalk, 


Louth, 


36 


4 


140 


19 


Dunmanway, 


Cork, 


40 


40 


127 


30 


Farra, 


Westmeath, 


3 1 


4 


151 


9 


Frankfort, 


King's County, 


33 


40 


158 


10 


Galway, 


Galway, 


23 


40 


158 


ii 


Inniscarra, 


Cork, - 


44 


50 


108 


10 


Innishannon, 


Cork, 


47 


50 


1 68 


30 


Kilkenny, 


Kilkenny, 


34 


60 


145 


6 


Kilfinane, 


Limerick, 


M 


20 


149 


6 


Longford, 


Longford, 


43 


60 


119 


20 


Loughrea, 


Galway, 


39 


50 


3ii 


13 


Maynooth, 


Kildare, 


34 


40 


140 


3 


Newmarket, 


Clare, 


37 


4 


106 




Newport, 


Tipperary, 


40 


40 


118 





New Ross, 


Wexford, 


39 


40 


157 


14 


Ray, 


Donegal, 


32 


30 


118 


M 


Santry, 


Dublin, 


36 


40 


191 


17 


Shannon Grove, 


Limerick, 


63 


IOO 


444 


64 


Sligo, 


Sligo, 


52 


80 


132 


20 


Stradbally, 


Queen's County, 


39 


50 


105 


II 


Strangford, 


Down, 


39 


50 


95 


15 


Trim, 


Meath, 


38 


4 


133 


5 


Waterford 


Waterford, 


4i 


40 


209 


16 






M55 


L775 








Nurseries Monivae, Co, Galway ; Shan- 










non Grove, Co. Limerick ; Monaster- 










evan, Co. Kildare ; Miltown, near 










Dublin, Co. Dublin, 


263 








Schools on the Ranelagh Foundation 










Athlone, Roscommon, 


80 








Total, 


1,798 









191 



c. 

A.D. 1805. 

A Letter to John Foster, Esq. Chancellor of the Exchequer for Ireland, 
on the best means of Educating and Employing the Poor, in that 
Country. By Joseph Lancaster. 

[London, 1805 : pp. 40.] 

ESTEEMED FRIEND, 

On a subject of the first importance, not only to Ireland, but to Great 
Britain, and to every nation on the face of the earth, I am now addressing 
thee. Considering education in a general and extensive point of view, 
and not merely comprising the simple rudiments of knowledge, attained 
by the poor man's son at a common day school ; but as embracing every 
passion, habit, circumstance, or connection in early life, likely to tincture 
the youthful mind with a bias to virtue or vice. 

The instruction received at school, in reading, writing, and arithmetic, 
certainly opens the gates of knowledge to the rising youth : but it is not 
attainments acquired there, that alone contribute to form the future 
man ; for there is in all communities, whether nations, cities, universities, 
or small schools, a kind of public spirit and public opinion. If this be 
in favour of religion and virtue, the morals of society are improved by it. 
It shelters, it guards the rising virtue of youth, from the dangers to which 
infancy render it especially liable. 

Public spirit, well directed, is the foster-mother of religion, virtue, 
and usefulness ; and, in proportion as it is ill directed, its effects on 
public morals are pernicious, melancholy and distressing. Public spirit 
exists in all societies, small or great. The principle is always the same, 
the only variety is in its direction, and the scale of action. 

For a nation to be virtuous, the public spirit must be engaged in the 
cause of virtue, in every rank and class oj men, and above all among the 
rising generation. In the education of youth, it is the mind which is the 
proper object of action : by forming that to virtue and usefulness, the 
true end is obtained. Education, as a science, must therefore consist 
in knowing how and when to make right impressions on the mind ; 
for this there are many opportunities which not only occur in the course 
of things, but may often be created for the purpose. The art of doing 
this in modern times, has never yet been reduced to a system, which 
may be applied to village children and schools. It is surprising, that 
among the great number of volumes written on education, not one should 
be found that will lay down a general plan, founded on experiment, 
which may tend to make youth more useful and more intelligent, without 

IQ2 



A.D. 1805. 

elevating them above the situations in life for which they may be designed. 
It is more surprising still, that nothing should have been written on a 
method of training young men as good school-masters ; that in a nation, 
civilized and enlightened like this, the friends of the rising generation 
should have overlooked this important preparation for the extension of 
its benefits, and without which such extension is to little purpose. 

I am certain that the intelligent and liberal minded part of the Irish 
nation are of one opinion, with thyself, on the subject of education ; 
and look to its effects on the present young generation, for securing 
internal tranquillity, industry, and happiness. I am happy to find so 
many of the Irish nobility and gentry engaged in promoting education ; 
and, from the best of motives, endeavouring to better the condition of 
their poor tenants and neighbours. It does honour to their hearts and 
understandings. If they persevere in the noble cause in which they have 
engaged, it is yet possible that Ireland may become, what Scotland now 
is ; and they enjoy the reward of being, under Divine Providence, the 
saviours of their country. I respectfully recommend to thy benevolent 
attention, and to that of the Irish nobility and gentry, and in particular 
to those concerned in legislation, to consider the ease, the practicability, 
and the good effects likely to result from the introduction of a general 
plan of education for the poor in that country, given on the broad basis 
of Christianity ; which teaches us to consider all men as brethren, and 
which unites instead of placing mankind at a distance from each other, 
Nothing makes a man so soon forgive and forget real, or imaginary 
injuries as a free and liberal communication of favours and benefits, 
unconditionally bestowed, but the supreme pleasure of promoting his 
happiness and perhaps his eternal well-being. 

The first object then, is training up good teachers, on whose integrity 
and peaceful disposition dependence may be placed : and in a country 
where such numbers of young men desirous of knowledge are to be met 
with, it is possible, with the low price of labour, to train and employ them 
at a moderate expence. Many school-masters in London do not receive 
more than 60 or 70 pounds per annum ; and in some parts of Ireland, 
it might be done for much less, in proportion to the different price of 
provisions, &c. but they should be treated with liberality. Whatever 
schools were established should be under regular, systematic inspection ; 
not only by visitors, but by a person or persons who should go a circuit 
on purpose. It would be well in every county to have a quarterly 
committee, who should receive reports from inspectors as to all the schools 
in that county, which in turn should be submitted to a general meeting 

193 

N 



A.D. 1805. 

in Dublin, that should take cognizance of the reports from every county 
committee, and report to the nation at large. Local concerns may change, 
a school may exist in a place this year, that, from some afflictive 
dispensation, may be dropped the next. But the principles of education 
are the same and in theory and practice they are recommended as objects 
of enquiry and inspection. It is possible for a committee to have as 
accurate an account of the internal state of a school, which is situated 
one or two hundred miles off, as the master has, who is daily in it. It is 
only for a certain routine of enquiries to be pointed out, in reporting to 
which the master will express in writing his personal knowledge, which 
he has, as to the state of the school, progress of the boys, religious 
instruction, &c. This, joined with the actual inspection and reports of 
visitors, would enable a central, or county committee, to regulate the 
concerns of every school in each district ; and the national committee 
to regulate those of the whole nation, by correspondence with the county 
committee, at stated periods. 

The advantages of such an institution would be peculiar ; they could 
provide many things wanted in schools, for use or encouragement, at a 
cheap rate, compared with what could be done by individuals, whose 
wants would be limited in proportion to the scale of their undertakings. 
Every intelligent person in the nation would find his attention engaged 
by the proceedings of a national institution of this complexion : it would 
prove to the nation, by the equal manner in which the legislature, and 
the institution under its patronage, dispensed its benefits alike to 
Protestants and Catholics, that their welfare was its object ; that they 
were treated as children by an indulgent parent, who loves and promotes 
the best interests of all alike. 

The feelings of the Irish nation are strong, and their passions, when 
indulged, are certainly of an impetuous nature, sometimes dangerous 
in the extreme. But I believe the same disposition, rightly directed, can 
be made as subservient to the cause of virtue, as it has often been to that 
of vice. It is righteousness that exalteth a nation, and it is by informing 
the minds and reforming the morals of the people, that Ireland will attain 
its proper dignity among virtuous nations. Of this, education, under 
the Divine blessing, is a medium, promising much success. I believe 
it is possible for Ireland, by its reformation, to prove to Europe and to 
the world at large, the benefits that are to be derived from education. 
It is reserved for thyself, and the band of patriots whose greatest 
happiness it is to assist in the great design, to confer this priviledge on 
your country ; and thus to perform an act of benevolence, that will 

194 



A.D. 1805. 

endear your names to the latest posterity. I respectfully request now 
to give some few hints, on the formation of an institution for training 
youth as school- masters for the poor ; believing that there is no such 
establishment, among all our existing institutions, though a matter of such 
importance, and so essentially connected with education. 

NO one designed for this office, should undertake the charge without 
a proper qualification ; an office on which the national morals and the 
fate of empires often depend. Proper teachers cannot be expected to 
spring up like mushroons, completely formed in a night, and well qualified 
for this most arduous undertaking ; while every mechanic is required 
to serve an apprenticeship, and undergo much training, before he is 
intrusted with tools of any value : I therefore presume, that the propriety 
of forming an institution of this kind will appear obvious to the friends 
of education in Ireland, on a slight view of the subject ; not doubting 
but that the good effects of their example and precepts would afford a 
striking evidence in favour of its utility. In forming such an institution, 
it will be proper to consider what class of persons are most suitable for 
such a seminary ? who most calculated to promote its benevolent objects ? 

It is a well known fact, that there is far more trouble in rooting out 
bad habits, than in forming good ones ; and therefore, persons whose 
habits are not fixed will be the most likely to suit for the purpose now 
under consideration ; of course, they should be young men, from 16 to 
20 years of age, who might, after about twelve month's practice, be 
qualified to take upon them the sole charge of schools, containing from 
fifty, to two or three hundred children. It would also be desirable to 
train a number of lads as teachers, on the principle, that the earlier they 
are taken, the less chance there will be of their having contracted habits 
prejudicial to the design in which they are to be engaged ; but in the present 
crisis there is no time to lose, for the sooner the remedy is applied the 
sooner the evil is likely to be diminished : and as a considerable time 
must elapse before many lads can be found, who could readily be qualified 
to take the responsibility of a school upon themselves, it would be well 
to consider them at first, as only in the character of auxiliaries, whose 
present services might be of great use ; and who, as they advanced to 
manhood, might afford the public the happy prospect of a succession 
of useful and experienced teachers. 

That the powers of lads are very great, and may be brought into 
action to good purpose, has, with me, been long established as a fact, 
from the evidence of experience ; having at this time one boy, not 15 
years old, that commands and superintends one hundred and twenty 

195 

N* 



A"D. 1805. 

others, who, from the force of habit only, obey his orders as if by 
instinct ; nor would so much as think, of acting contrary to, or without 
his command. 

I have also a similar instance of another lad, one year younger, who 
takes the occasional command of two divisions of a class, (one division 
of which is his own,) amounting to above one hundred boys, with the like 
good effect. I believe it possible that the powers of such lads may be 
equal to much greater exertions than I have mentioned or proved : but 
it becomes me to confine myself within the bounds that my experience 
warrants, and on that ground, I know, their services, well directed, are 
in many respects equal to those of some men. 

In this proposed seminary for teachers, the students should be trained 
in the practice of developing the latent principles, or passions, that 
actuate the juvenile mind, and in stimulating them to usefulness. Our 
heavenly religion does not require the annihilation or depression of these 
passions, which the Great Author of our being no doubt formed us with, 
for the best and wisest of purposes ; but that they should be auxiliaries, 
to assist us in great and beneficent designs, and not to be depraved or 
devoted to the attainment of selfish gratification or sordid gain. This 
practice should not only be general, but definite and particular ; that 
the art of conveying instruction, remedying bad habits, and creating 
good ones, might be rendered simple and definite too. The force of habit 
is often more powerful than that of principle, because we contract habits 
almost before the dawn of reason ; and when they have gained strength 
by adventitious circumstances, they are proverbially said to be second 
nature. The misfortune is, they have been disregarded and neglected 
in education ; in consequence of which, instead of aiding the propagation 
of good principles and good precepts, they have proved inimical to any 
such thing. The manner and the tendency of their operations should 
be clearly defined, and become an object of study. 

The spirit of emulation should not be overlooked, or forgotten ; for 
when properly excited, it is a most efficacious principle in education ; 
the love of distinction, of command, and of communication, should all 
be kept within their proper places ; for when thoroughly investigated, and 
taught, and applied to practice, the application will save the school- 
master much perplexity, and may be rendered subservient to his com- 
mendable purposes, The best information of the various modes of tuition, 
practised in the lower, or superior seminaries, as they relate to the simple 
objects of the proposed institution, should be gleaned from every field. 
The best authors should be daily read, and remarks made by the 



A.D. 1805. 

instructor and students ; lectures should be frequently read on education, 
or subjects intimately connected with it ; the students required to answer 
questions, unprepared and viva voce ; the simple answers to which should 
naturally be the echo of the lecture : by this means accustoming the youth 
to exercise their attention on the subject before them. 

It is but proper, that where young men are in training for this important 
employment, they should have an ample knowledge of its theory, and 
at all events be taught actually to reduce that theory to practice ; to 
understand the reason of every operation, and have its nature explained 
while practising it. If a difference occurs between any branch of practice 
and the common routine used in similar cases, the cause should be fully 
explained ; and, at the same time, the advantage and difference clearly 
pointed out. 

On the subject of religion, all controverted points should be kept in 
the background, far out of sight. A disposition to make proselytes 
should not be to swell the numbers professing this creed, or the other ; 
but to convert the wicked from the errors of his way. 

Sons of dissenters and churchmen may be indiscriminately mixed, and 
after leaving it have to take charge of a mixed multitude, of various and 
opposite opinions, which whom they are to steer clear of all controversy, 
in order to pursue one simple, general object. 

This practice will surely be sufficient, to satisfy the friends of education, 
that it is conducive to the propagation of vital Christianity. The know- 
ledge of every mode of conveying religious instruction, practised in this 
and other countries, should be illustrated on general principles ; and 
endeavours used to lay such a foundation, that, when those youths, at a 
future time, should engage in the religious instruction of children, neither 
they nor their scholars should ever take the sacred name of God, or of our 
Blessed Redeemer, or the declarations of his will, as contained in the 
Holy Scriptures, into their mouths, with that too common lightness, 
which borders upon irreverence and infidelity. 

Having considered the nature of the design, let us now contemplate 
the scene of it, which should properly be an extensive one. A central 
school, of large magnitude, ought to be the residence of the person to 
whose charge the training these youths, as teachers, should be committed ; 
smaller schools, containing scholars whose numbers should gradually 
rise from thirty to three hundred, should be established at short distances. 
When the students had gone through their probationary exercises, under 
the eye of the principal, and diligently discharged the trust committed 
to their care in the central institution, they should be detached, to take 

197 



A.D. 1805. 

the care of the other schools ; which should all be on the same plan as the 
central one. There, instead of being under-graduates, they would be 
Master of Arts, and take a considerable responsibility upon themselves. 
These schools should all be under the inspection and visitation of their 
principal. They should journalize every transaction, in an explicit and 
definite way ; which journal should be arranged agreeably to a form 
drawn up, and a definition of duties appointed them. 

As they would all be single young men, a particular eye should be had 
on their conduct and morals ; they should live in, and of course return 
at night to, the central house ; there these journals should be produced, 
advice asked, and mutual observations made ; by which they would 
gain the habit of reconsidering the actions of the day, and be prepared 
to meet similar occurrences in future. They should occasionally be 
removed from one school to another ; and by this change, the variation in 
their journals, and mode of conduct in the same cases, would not only be 
observed, but operate as a check upon each other; they not being 
apprised of the contents of the different journals, till inspected in the 
evening. Some inconvenience might be expected to arise from this 
succession of teachers, by means of which the teachers and scholars would 
be continually, or at least frequently, new to each other; but that 
difficulty could be easily obviated. Men cannot be placed in any school, 
or even in a small family, without making their own observations on 
the conduct, tempers, and attainments of those around them ; these 
observations are confined to their own breasts, and form a standard by 
which they regulate their conduct and esteem to their associates. But 
it requires reducing to a system, as in the usual way it is left vague, 
uncertain, and dependent on the goodness or deficiency of the memory. 
Such important observations should not be left to occasion or incident, 
but be the effect of daily attention, as a duty. Each master should keep 
a register of the tempers and conduct of the children under his care, and 
then his successor would be able at once to possess himself of the personal 
knowledge and experience of his predecessor, relative to his pupils. He 
would, by this means, know how to act, by referring to the register, which, 
however, should not prevent his treading in the same steps, by making 
one of his own. I might enlarge on this subject, but doubt not this outline 
will suffice, without going more into details. 

As to the expence, that of outfit would be the chief ; as in a number 
of schools where the children's parents paid a small sum for their instruc- 
tion, or the opulent persons of the district subscribed to their funds, 
the aggregate income would be considerable. The board, clothing, rewards. 



A.D. 1805. 

and expences, of the young men, being regulated by strict economy, the 
income of the seminary would leave a surplus above its expenditure 
after the first expences were defrayed. 

There is little doubt, but the pay of the children, at fourpence or 
sixpence per week, would nearly do that alone ; the chief thing wanting 
is a capital, to go to market with to the best advantage ; to erect 
the needful sleeping rooms for a number of teachers and instructors ; 
to hire or build school rooms, in the different districts ; which would 
be but a small expence, and yet afford the means of training a sufficient 
number of teachers in a short time. 

The young men selected for this purpose should be of poor circum- 
stances, and of expectations entirely dependent on their own industry ; 
this would make them content with homely and economical fare, and 
with smaller salaries when they went to keep schools themselves, than 
would be expected by those in more easy circumstances. 

One object, essential to the extensive spread of education, adequate 
to the evil it is proposed to remedy, is the greater or less degree of 
economy, with which it can be conducted ; and this is a most important 
feature in the plan under consideration. When these young men had 
satisfactorily discharged their duties, and become well qualified to act 
as teachers, they might be recommended to the care of such schools in 
England, or Ireland, as stood in need of their services. 

It is a desirable thing, that all the knowledge females acquire should 
be by the medium of teachers of their own sex. Female education is of 
particular moment ; as the first years of every generation are in their 
hands, and they have a double influence on husbands and children, 
combined with a natural love of peace and domestic comfort. 

It is probable some immediate information respecting school rooms 
may be acceptable, as there are so many, either erecting or about to be 
erected, in Ireland. They need not be highly-finished buildings, not 
being wanted for show, but use ; one for two hundred boys should at least 
be thirty-five feet square. Simple brick or other walls, lime-whited. A 
shed roof, without a ceiling (which would only operate as a sounding board), 
made proof against wind or rain, will be as adequate to the purpose as a 
more substantial building ; the flooring may be paved with brick, stone, or 
made of composition. It is not unusual, in some parts of England, to make 
the floors of lime- core moistened with water and rammed down hard ; 
and I am informed they answer the purpose very well. Floors made of 
clay or loam blended well together with lime and coal ashes, tempered at 
intervals, for some days before it is made use of, is said to make good 

199 



A.D. 1805. 

flooring at a small expense. When the form of a school- room is oblong, 
instead of an exact square, and the master's desk placed at one end, he 
will have a full front view of his scholars, without being under the necessity 
of taking a side view. The master's desk should be elevated. The chimney 
should be without- side the line of the school walls, so as to leave clear 
room for a passage round the school two and a half feet in width ; another 
passage should be left, three feet wide, down the centre of the school, the 
spaces between the passages to be filled with desks. These passages 
greatly facilitate the movements of the various classes. A desk, form, 
and room for boys to pass behind it, should occupy the space of two and 
a half or three feet : the first distance will do, but the last is better. 
Every boy should sit at a desk, and none on forms only, as is usual in 
some schools. If the desks are fixed in the ground, they will be less liable 
to be shaken, and be stronger for wear ; they should all be single desks, 
and be placed so that the boys may all sit to face the master, who by this 
means will have a full view of every boy in the school. Sky-lights well 
secured from the admission of wet, are the best lights ; they should be 
placed on the right hand of the boys, as they sit facing the master ; some 
windows on the sides would be favourable to ventilation. The doors 
should not open within-side, as being occasionally productive of accidents 
when the boys are going along the passages. It is desirable that the 
school-room should be on the ground-floor, and stand detached from 
other buildings. A good open space, for some distance round it, will be 
very favourable to ventilation. 

I have said the more on this subject, knowing, from experience, that 
a good school-room, good accommodations and arrangements for the 
children, are of the utmost consequence to their order and improvement 
which are frequently much impeded for the want of them. 

Rewards, for the encouragement of children, greatly facilitate their 
proficiency in any thing to which their attention is turned. These 
rewards should be of various kinds. Children estimate things according 
to the pleasure they receive from their possession ; they know no other 
standard of fixing their relative value. The operations of their intellects 
and their powers of discrimination, are limited, according to the degree 
of maturity to which they have attained. Those who are infants in mind, 
as well as in person, are amused with trifles ; and if those trifles, intro- 
duced into schools as rewards for merit, stimulate those to exertion who 
are incapable of being actuated by any other motive, they certainly 
answer a valuable and commendable purpose. 

From trifles I now go to treat of more weighty concerns, the training 

200 



A.D. 1805. 

young people to employment, and to habits of industry. In England 
girls are employed, at some schools of industry, in making shirts, jackets, 
and other articles of dress for seamen ; they receive only five pence each, 
for making them, finding their own needles and thread. They are em- 
ployed by proprietors of warehouses, who contract to supply government. 
It may be well for those in power to consider, how far the poor of Ireland 
might be employed in making shirts, or jackets, &c. This is a branch of 
employment already existing, and if government employed some good 
agents, or contractors, on condition they should employ the poor of that 
country in the manufacture, it might afford employment for some 
thousands of children. 

Permit me now to introduce to thy notice, the following particulars and 
estimates, which are outlines of improvements relative to education, 
resulting from experiments made, in the institution in the Borough 
Road, Southwark. 

Outlines of Improvements relative to Education, arising from the establish- 
ment of JOSEPH LANCASTER'S Free School, for the Education 
of One Thousand Poor Children, in the Borough Road, Southwark. 

1. In the infancy of this institution, it was thought economical if 
youth could be educated at the rate of one guinea per annum each ; 
but it has been proved, that three can be educated for less than that sum. 

2. At first, it was apprehended that the education of two hundred 
children, under one master, would be an undertaking of too much 
magnitude : it has been proved, that one thousand can be managed 
with as much ease as fifty used to be, and that, without any assistant 
adult teachers. 

3. A new mode of teaching to spell has been invented, by which 
scholars repeat, or spell sixty words daily, in addition to their usual 
lessons in reading, writing, and arithmetic : by this method they read, 
write, spell, or cypher, at the same time ; and the aggregate benefit is 
proportionate. 

4. A new method of teaching arithmetic, whereby those who know 
but little of the principles, may teach it with the certainty of a mathe- 
matician. The pupils usually perform eight sums by this method, instead 
of one or two. 

5. The whole arrangements, and mode of school-keeping, has been 
effectually reduced to a system ; by which the principal teacher has at 
once a clear view of the school, of every class, and of the duties performed 

201 



A.D. 1805. 

by the respective monitors, in the same manner as a merchant inspects, 
and has an accurate view of his accounts, by his day-book, journal, or 
ledger. 

Before I conclude, I may add a wish, that if government (as I would 
hope from their benevolence) have it in serious contemplation further 
to encourage education in Ireland, they will consider the propriety of 
trying the experiment in some one district, by providing education for 
all the children in it, who are objects of public care. In this experiment, 
school-houses, income, and attendant expences should be included. 
Such a district need not be a large one, nor the expenses great. In 
proportion as the population of a district is thick, as in towns ; or thin 
and scattered, as in country parishes ; school houses and school-masters 
are wanted in more or less numbers. It is for this reason there should 
be a mixture of towns, villages, and parishes, in a district selected for this 
purpose. Three or four thousand children would be a sufficient number 
to make the experiment with. 

I have no doubt there might be education, school-rooms, and school- 
masters provided, at a small comparative expence ; perhaps two thousand 
pounds capital, and six hundred pounds per annum income, would be 
sufficient. 

Thou art fully sensible how much better it is, to move in such weighty 
concerns, not on speculation or theory, however plausible, but on the 
basis of actual practice and incontrovertible experiment. By the 
execution of this plan, on a small scale, it would be easily seen, what 
proportionate expence would be incurred by a general and national 
system of education ; which would at once secure the allegiance of the 
rising generation, and improve the national morals. 

I have named the before-mentioned sum, believing that education 
might be conducted in those parts of Ireland, which are not manufactur- 
ing districts, at a much smaller expence than in England or Scotland, 
and with more effect. 

I leave to the good sense of the public to judge, how far my wholesale 
plans of education are worthy their notice, or how far they are adapted 
to the end proposed. 

Having thus far attempted to perform a duty, nearly connected with 
the happiness of the rising generation, I have only to regret my incapacity 
to effect it, in a manner more adapted to the end in view, and more worthy 
the distinguished character I have the honour to address. May the 
sincerity of my intention, and the benevolence of my views, be a sufficient 
excuse, for the defects of my performance, whatever they may be. I am 

202 



A.D. 1805. 

happy in addressing a person, so well disposed to pay attention to any 
subject connected with the welfare and happiness of his country. With 
gratitude, respect, and esteem, I subscribe myself, 

Thy obliged friend, 

Free School, Borough Road, JOSEPH LANCASTER. 

i4th of ist Month, 1805. 



D. 

A.D. 1813. 

First Report of the Society for promoting the Education of the Poor of 
Ireland. (The * Kildare Place Society '). 

[Dublin, 1813 : II pp.]. 

Ax a General Meeting of the Society for promoting the Education 
of the POOR OF IRELAND, held at School-street, on Monday, loth 
of May, 1813, 

WILLIAM L. GUINNESS, Esq. in the Chair. 

A Report from the Committee having been presented and read, it 
was received and approved of, and is as follows, viz. 

THE Society for promoting the Education of the Poor of Ireland, was 
formed on the 2d of December 1811, when it was determined that its 
affairs should be confided to a Committee of twenty-one Members, who 
should report to a General Meeting of the Subscribers, to be held on the 
second Monday in May in each year. 

In conformity with this determination, your Committee now proceed 
to make the Second Report of the transactions of the Society, (which 
however may be considered the First Annual Report ; the former having 
been made a few months only after its formation,) and in doing so they 
think it right briefly to notice the object for which this Society was 
formed, and the principle on which it has been judged expedient to act. 

The object is single, but extensive : the Education of the Poor of 
Ireland, which the first fundamental resolution of the Society has well 
declared, every Irishman anxious for the welfare and happiness of his 
country ought to have in view, as the basis on which (under the divine 
blessing) its morals and true happiness can be best secured. 

The leading principle on which it has been judged expedient to act, 

203 



A.D. 1813. 

is to afford the same advantages for Education to all classes of professing 
Christians, without interfering with the peculiar religious opinions of any. 

Guided by this principle, the Society conceived, that the most efficient 
means for attaining their object, would be to promote the establishment 
of Schools, wherein the Poor might be instructed in reading, writing and 
arithmetic, upon a cheap and expeditious plan ; where the appointment 
of governors, teachers and scholars should be uninfluenced by sectarian 
distinctions ; and in which the Scriptures without note or comment, 
should be used, to the exclusion of all catechisms and books of religious 
controversy. As all denominations of Christians profess that the sacred 
Scriptures are the criterion by which they desire to have their peculiar 
tenets examined, the Society determined rigidly to adhere to this part 
of their plan, looking forward to it with confidence, as affording the only 
true and solid foundation which can be laid for the moral and religious 
education of the great body of the people of Ireland. 

As tending to promote the establishment, and facilitate the con- 
ducting of Schools, the Society declared their intention to receive 
communications, and maintain correspondence upon all subjects connected 
therewith ; to give information upon the subject of erecting and fitting 
up School-rooms upon the most suitable plan, and (so far as their funds 
should permit) to contribute in aid of such establishments ; to assist in 
providing properly qualified School-masters ; and to furnish stationary, 
books, slates, and other articles necessary for Schools at low prices. 

Having thus briefly sketched the outline of the plan which the Society 
had in view on its formation, your Committee now proceed to state what 
has been done towards carrying the plan into execution. 

Shortly after the formation of the Society, your Committee published 
a Prospectus, and had it extensively circulated by various ways, both 
in this country and in England. They imagined that to give publicity 
to the noble object for which the Society was formed, and the conciliating 
principle on which it was determined to act, would have been sufficient 
to secure the warm and active support of all that was great and good in 
the community, Here, however, they are constrained to state that they 
have been disappointed ; for, though with feelings of great satisfaction 
they can announce that considerable interest has been excited, and many 
Schools established in the country, yet pecuniary aid adequate to the 
object in view has not been afforded, nor has the zeal for its completion, 
(except in a very limited sphere) been as active or efficient as the cause, 
in their apprehension was entitled to. They were not however discouraged, 
but looking forward with anxious hope to better days, they determined 

204 



A.D. 1813. 

to continue their exertions to add to the funds of the Society, and proceed 
on the plan proposed, so far as the means placed within their power would 
enable them to do. 

Very early in the past year, a Sub-committee was appointed for 
the purpose of considering and bringing forward plans for the building 
of School-houses ; suggesting the most eligible mode of procuring properly 
qualified School-masters ; and defining the best method of conducting 
the interior arrangement of Schools. This Sub-committee, after that 
consideration, which the importance of the subject required, made their 
Report ; and in it they stated, that having found the publications of 
Joseph Lancaster materially connected with the subjects referred to them, 
and containing matter in a great degree prepared agreeably to the views 
of the Society ; they were therefore led to recommend, that a proposal 
should be made to him for the purchase of the right of using and publishing 
the whole, or such parts of his works on the subject of Education as the 
Society should judge expedient : the Sub-committee considering that it 
would be ineligible to import those publications, and use them in their 
present form, and improper to reprint the whole or any extracts from 
them without his knowledge and consent. They also suggested the 
advantage that would probably arise from having a School in this city 
to which the Society might point as a model for the mode of instruction 
recommended by them, and where lads might be trained to act as School- 
masters, to be sent from thence to superintend Schools in different parts 
of Ireland as occasion might require ; and they recommended that the 
committee of the School, in School-street, should be solicited to assist 
in carrying their plan into execution. 

Your Committee having approved of this Report, shortly afterwards 
purchased from Joseph Lancaster the right to print and publish the whole 
or any part of his works on the subject of Education, with the exception 
of one volume which they were informed did not contain any practical 
observations not comprised in his other publications.. From these 
materials " Hints and Directions for building, fitting up, and arranging 
School- rooms " have been prepared for publication ; and this little tract, 
together with a spelling-book, which has been compiled on the improved 
plan of making one book answer for an entire School, is now in the press. 
It is intended also to publish other books of instruction on a similar plan. 

In consequence of the recommendation contained in the latter part 
of the Report of the Sub- committee, an application was made to the 
Committee conducting the School in School-street, who immediately 
expressed their desire to co-operate with the Society, so far as consistent 

205 



A.D. 1813. 

with the interests of the School under their care. They have accordingly 
consented to arrangements which will greatly facilitate the establishment 
of such a School as recommended by the Sub- committee. The liberality 
of the persons conducting the School-street School having enabled your 
Committee to make some progress in this most important part of their 
plan, they looked anxiously around in order to procure a person properly 
qualified to be placed at the head of this School, and they have the satis- 
faction of stating that they have engaged a young man to come over from 
England, who is expected here in a few days, and who (from the repre- 
sentations made to them), they have reason to expect will prove fully 
competent to the task of training School-masters, and conducting the 
School to be placed under his care, in such a manner, that the Society may 
confidently refer to it as a model for imitation throughout the country. 

In the establishment of this School, it is intended to follow in a very 
great degree the system which has been progressively improving for some 
years past, and is now acted on with such success at the School in School- 
street. Your Committee give a preference to this system, because it 
provides for the reading of the Bible without note or comment ; because 
the mechanical part of it trains youth in habits of diligence, order and 
obedience ; amuses the young mind by keeping it constantly employed, 
and thereby prevents listlessness and sloth ; because from experience 
it appears that children improve thereby in reading, writing, and arith- 
metic more expeditiously than by the common method, and at a much 
smaller expense for books, paper, and other articles commonly used in 
Schools ; and generally, because from this happy combination it seems 
peculiarly well calculated to meet the circumstances of the Poor of Ireland. 

Your Committee have also to state, that they have procured a supply 
of slates and slate pencils, which are to be disposed of at low prices. 

Your Committee having thus detailed the proceedings of the Society 
since its formation, cannot conclude without again expressing their regret, 
that the pecuniary aid afforded them has been so very inadequate to the 
attainment of their object ; and they would anxiously call on the wealthy 
inhabitants of the country, to contribute, by every means in their power, 
to the support of this Institution. But whilst they would do so, they 
would forbear to trespass on their time, by enlarging on the advantages 
of education. Those advantages have of late been so frequently pressed 
upon the attention of the public, that they must be familiar to the mind 
of every thinking man ; and surely no person who bestows a moment's 
thought upon the subject, can doubt that the most beneficial consequences 
must result from rescuing the peasantry of this country from the ignorance 

206 



A.D. 1813. 

in which they are at present too generally involved. Your Committee 
would therefore make their appeal to the public, by simply stating, 
that the object of the Society continues the same that it was at its 
formation the Education of the Poor of Ireland : that the means by 
which they propose to attain their object, is to promote the establishment 
of Schools throughout the country, conducted on such a system of economy, 
and containing such facilities for learning, that ignorance shall no longer 
be the necessary companion to poverty ; but that every individual in the 
community, however poor, might be enabled to obtain instruction in 
reading, writing, and arithmetic, if willing to devote a small portion of 
his time and attention for that purpose : and lastly, that the leading 
principle which guides them in all their movements, is an anxious desire 
to diffuse the blessings of Education throughout the country, without 
suffering its progress to be impeded by those sectarian distinctions which 
have so frequently opposed an insurmountable barrier to the amelioration 
of the peasantry of Ireland. 

COMMITTEE. 

EDWARD ALLEN, Upper Bridge-street. 
SAMUEL BEWLEY, Suffolk-street. 
WILLIAM DISNEY, ' Somerset, Black Rock. 
WILLIAM ENGLISH, Meath-street. 
ARTHUR GUINNESS, James's-Gate. 
WILLIAM LUNELL GUINNESS, James's-Gate. 
WILLIAM HARDING, Lower Mount-street. 
JOSEPH D. JACKSON, Leeson-street. 
JOHN DAVID LA TOUCHE, Lower Mount-street. 
PETER DIGGES LA TOUCHE, Leeson-street. 
PETER LA TOUCHE, Jun., Fitzwilliam-Square. 
ALEXANDER MAGUIRE, North King-street. 
RANDAL M'DONNELL, Allen's-Court. 
LUKE MAGRATH, Grenville-street. 
JOHN LELAND MAQUAY. 
RICHARD ORPEN, Frederick-street, South. 
JOHN SCHOALES, Leeson-street. 
WILLIAM TODHUNTER, Holies-street. 
WILLIAM THORPE, Middle Gardiner-street. 
ISAAC WELD, Jun., Camden-street. 
RICHARD B. WARREN, Lower Mount-street. 

Treasurers, Right Hon. DAVID LA TOUCHE & Co., Castle-street: 
Secretary, JOSEPH D. JACKSON, 22, Leeson-street. 

207 



E. 

A.D. 1644. 
A School Drama at Kilkenny, 1644. 

[Cambridge University Library : Bradshaw Collection, 07-1176. 4to. 4 pp 
Unique Copy) .] 



T I T V S; 

OR THE PALME 
OF 

CHRISTIAN 

CO VRAGE: 

To be exhibited by the Schollars of the 
Society of I E S V S, at Kilken- 
ny, Anno Domini 1644. 

THE ARGVMENT. 

a noble Gentleman more illuftrious for his Chriftian 
courage, then parentage : was follicited by the King of 
Bungo, to defert his Religion by feverall, moft artificious in- 
fernall plots, all which he fleighted and darned with his invin- 
cible courage, and generous Chriftian refolution, whereat the 
King amazed, reftored him to his liberty, wife and children, 
and granted him the freedome of his Religion, with all his 
lands and poffeffions of which before he was bereaved as trai- 
tor to the Crowne. 

This history is compendioufly fet downe by Father Francis Solier, of 
the Society oflESVS in the 18. booke of his Ecclefasticall hiftorie 
of laponia, and yeare of our Lord, 1620. 



Printed at Waterford by Thomas Bourke, M. DC. XLIV. 

208 



A.D. 1644. 
THE PROLOGUE. 

Divine love extolleth the laponian's courage. 

ACT i. 

Scene i. 

Idolatrie stormes at her expulsion out of laponia, and exciteth hell 
to revenge. 

Scene 2. 

The Emperor of laponia declareth his affection towards the Idolls, and 
to this end commandeth a solemne sacrifice. 

Scene 3. 

The Bongo's receive no answer from their gods as they were wont, hence 
they rage against the Christians. 

Scene 4. 
Faith and Fortitude, implore aide of the triumphant Church. 

THE INTERLUDE. 

A Countrey Clowne hearing that a proclamation was to issue against 
the Christians, is mighty merry, and attempts to rob a passenger. 

ACT 2. 

Scene i. 
The Emperor commands the edict against Christians to be proclaimed. 

Scene 2. 
The edict is promulged. 

Scene 3. 

Titus perusing the edict, deliberates, with death, judgment, hell, heaven, 
and eternitie. 

Scene 4. 

The King of Bungo inquireth narrowly after the Christians. 

209 



A.D. 1644. 
Scene 5. 

Titus is summoned, and biddeth adieu to wife and children. 

Scene 6. 
Idolatrie triumphes before time, and is by faith oppressed. 

THE INTERLUDE. 

A Souldier fainedly sicke, calleth for the Doctor, whose purse artificiously 
he conveyeth out of his pocket, and hopes by a lad dreaming to get 
another. 

ACT 3. 

Scene I. 

The King of Bungo endevors first by threats, then by faire promises 
to pervert Titus. 

Scene 2. 
Titus his wife and familie voweth loyaltie to God before the Crucifix. 

Scene 3. 
The militant Church doth comfort them. 

Scene 4. 
S. Francis Xaverius appeares and encourageth them. 

ACT 4. 

Scene i. 

The King of Bungo menaceth death to Titus his youngest sonne, if the 
father abjure not his faith. 

Scene 2. 

Foure young men in vain seeke to pervert the lad with the pleasures 
of the world. 

Scene 3. 

Martina the daughter, biddeth adieu, with mother and brother, assuring 
them of her constancy. 

210 



A.D. 1644. 
Scene 4. 
Simon the eldest sonne bewaileth for that he is left behind. 

Scene 5. 

Tidings are brought to Titus of his daughter's execution, Martina the 
mother of Simon is summoned. 

Scene 6. 
By the King both are sollicited to desert their faith, Simon scourged. 

THE INTERLUDE. 

Two souldiers force a lad to discover where the mothers purse lay hidden 
by whom they are deceived. 

ACT 5. 

Scene I. 

Titus is sent for by the King, in whose view supposed heads of wife and 
children are produced. 

Scene 2. 

They are lead from prison before him, and a superficiall command given 
to kill them in his presence, if he persists in his constant resolution. 

Scene 3. 

Divine providence declareth God's care of his elect, and foretelleth 
Titus his triumph. 

Scene 4. 

The King amazed at this constancie dismisseth them, freedome of 
Religion granted, with their lives and estates. 

Epilogue. 
Exorteth to imitate their couragious Christian resolution. 



FINIS. 



211 



A.D. 1815. 
F. 

A School Primer of Irish History. 

[Issued at Cork, 1815 ; attributed to Rev. John England, then Superintendent of the 
Catholic Poor Schools, Cork ; subsequently Bishop of Charleston, U.S.A.]. 

(a) [Evidence of Archbishop William Magee, D.D., of Dublin, before 
a Committee of the House of Lords, May 13, 1825. (Report, p. 788).] 

With respect to schools for the education of the Roman Catholic 
laity, is your Grace acquainted with the course of instruction, or any 
of the books used in those schools ? 

There have been some books used in those schools, or at least under- 
stood to be used in them, and which were printed expressly for the use of 
schools, and so entitled, that were exceedingly injurious. 

Of what date ? 

When I was in the city of Cork (where I was dean from the year 1813 
to the year 1819) there appeared, I think in the year 1815, one book 
especially printed in Cork for the use of schools.... It was entitled " A 
Sketch of Irish History, compiled by way of Question and Answer, for 
the use of Schools." That appeared to me to be so monstrous a book 
that I sent a copy of it to one of His Majesty's Ministers... The language 
of this, if it was circulated amongst schools, which it was generally under- 
stood to be, must have been the most injurious to the young mind.... 
and in a way accessible to the meanest capacity. 

Is there any name attached to that ? 

No, there is no name attached to it, but the name given to it in Cork 
was that of Dr. England, who, I believe, was afterwards made a Roman 
Catholic bishop in America. 

(b) [First Report, Commissioners of Irish Education Inquiry, 1825, 
p. 86.] 

This book... appears to be a work of the most objectionable nature.... 

(c) A SKETCH OF IRISH HISTORY, COMPILED BY WAY OF QUESTION 
AND ANSWER, FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS. PRICE 6Jo. PRINTED 

IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD, 1815. 

[Another Edition has title page altered to read : Cork, Printed by 
J. Geary, at the Stanhope- Press Printing Office, King's- Arms, 
Exchange, 1815.] 

PREFACE. 

The complete neglect of giving Children any information on the 
subject of the History of Ireland, in most instances : and the 
general misrepresentation in those cases where it has been 
touched upon, gave rise to the following Sketch. 

212 



A.D. 1815. 

The expression of truth in its most concise terms, and in language 
suited to the capacity of those for whom the work is designed, 
was the only object kept in view. How far this has been attained, 
must be decided by the judgment of the PUBLIC. 

[Text of Primer, pp. 40-55 (end), for period 1783-1810]. 

After the attainment of independence did not the Volunteers endeavour 
to bring about a reform in parliament ? 

Yes ; but their efforts received a fatal blow from the disunion which 
broke out among them on the subject of admitting the Roman Catholics 
to the rights of election. The link of unanimity being severed, the fall 
of these armed associates into difference and contention was rapid. 

Was the disunion encouraged by government ? 

It was ; Government seemed to dread lest union among Irishmen 
should extinguish the old means of creating dissensions. 

Did not Mr. Pitt labour by his insidious commercial proposals of 
1785 to regain the legislative supremacy so lately wrested from England ? 

Yes ; and from the moment that this favourite plan was thwarted, he 
uniformly aimed at the downfall of Ireland by a legislative union. 

Did not a coincidence of views and disposition to keep up a political 
ascendancy in the country strictly unite the then Attorney General, 
Mr. Fitzgibbon (afterwards Lord Chancellor and Earl of Clare), Mr. Foster, 
the Speaker, and Mr. Beresford to devote themselves to Mr. Pitt, under 
pledges to carry through all his business, provided the internal management 
and patronage of the country was left to their direction ? 

Yes ; but the haughty mind of this minister seldom permitted him to 
communicate fully his plans to others, these political contractors became 
the unconscious engines of a deep design against which they would 
undoubtedly have revolted, as defeating the objects of their lucrative 
and ambitious speculations. 

Did Mr. Pitt lend the arm of the executive to all the purposes oj 
intolerance, to which his Irish undertakers thought fit to apply it ? 

He did most largely. The weakening of Ireland by internal dissentions 
was the private order given to the chief agents, while the public instructions 
to the ostensible and responsible Ministers of the crown, concealed the 
destructive principle in the background. 

What part of Ireland was selected by the managers of the ascendancy 
as the theatre for the exhibition of their power ? 

Armagh, the most protestant county in Ireland. The ancient village 

213 



A.D. 1815. 

feuds and dissentions of the Peep oj day boys and Defenders were renewed 
under the acrimonious distinction of Protestants and Catholics for the 
purpose of creating more lasting division. 

Was not government more alarmed in 1791, at the sympathies of the 
Presbyterians in the north with the French revolutionists than at the 
prospect of Catholic emancipation ? 

Yes ; although the Presbyterians came cordially forward as the staunch 
advocates and supporters of the Catholics and the boldest assertors of 
their rights. 

Was not the Catholic Petition rejected by the House of Commons 
in 1792 ? 

It was ; and not a member stood forward to oppose its rejection ; 
even Mr. O'Hara who presented it desired not to be considered as its 
patron. This insulting outrage exasperated the Catholics, and filled 
their enemies with proportionate confidence. 

Was the triumph of the Protestant ascendancy on this occasion of long 
duration ? 

No ; for in the next cession, that very parliament was directed by Mr. 
Pitt to grant almost the whole substance of the petition which but a few 
months before, they had been ordered to reject with contumely. The 
weakness of the ascendancy was thus exposed by, convincing the nation 
that they moved not by their own will or energy, but in servile obedience 
to foreign authority. 

What do you mean by the Protestant ascendancy ? 

An oligarchy who claimed exclusive possession of loyalty, and who 
for the purpose of securing to themselves the places which they held and 
the patronage which they enjoyed, continually charged with disaffection 
to the government all persons who were desirous of conciliating the 
people by extending to Ireland that portion of civil and religious liberty 
which is the best gift of the British constitution. 

Did not the Irish Catholic Body send delegates to London in January 
1793, to present their petition to the King ? 

Yes ; and his majesty was most graciously pleased to accept it, 
notwithstanding the bigotry of their own countrymen ; and by extending 
to the petitioners the royal patronage, insured their relief. 

Were the Catholics fully emancipated at this period ? 

No ; they were only partially restored to some of their civil rights, 
by the concession of the elective franchise, the admission to the profession 
of the law, the removal of obstructions to their trade and manufactures, 
&c., &c 

214 



A.D. 1815. 

Did the nation continue to manifest any disposition towards 
parliamentary reform at this period ? 

It did, and a meeting of delegates from the various counties was to 
have been held for that purpose at Athlone, but they were prevented 
by the enactment of a law called the Convention Act. 

Did the prevention of the meeting put a stop to the exertions of the 
people in favour of reform ? 

No ; different meetings for that purpose were held by a society of 
persons called United Irishmen, which society was formed first in Belfast, 
and then in Dublin, by Theobald Wolfe Tone, in the year 1791. 

Was not this society composed principally of Roman Catholics ? 

No ; their partial emancipation in 1793 caused them to be generally 
satisfied for some time, and but few of them joined the association until 
some years after. 

Were not the ministry and the ascendancy equally alarmed at the 
rising disposition of the people to enter into this national union without 
regard to religious distinction ? 

They were ; Mr. Pitt availed himself of the critical moment and from 
that time forward never ceased to press upon his creatures the option of 
external union with England or internal union of the nation among them- 
selves. In the latter the whole ascendancy would be lost ; by the former, 
its consequences and profits would be at least partially preserved. 

Was not a plot deeply laid in 1794, under great political influence 
to stigmatize the body of Catholics through the crimination of Mr. Fay 
and other respectable gentlemen of his persuasion, for the murder of 
Mr. Butler, and the general system of Defenderism which had then settled 
in a continuation of lawless robbery ? 

Yes ; but just providence defeated it by exposing to view the base 
machinations and perjuries of the informer Lynch, and other such 
miscreants raked out of the neighbouring gaols, who had been hired 
and suborned to swear away the lives of the victims pointed out. 

Did not the turbulent state of the country oblige Mr. Pitt to abandon 
the system of coercion, and confide the reins of government to a person 
possessing other qualities than those of mere subserviency ? 

Yes ; having by a master-piece of policy divided the Whig party in 
England, he apparently left the entire reform of Ireland to them. Messrs. 
Grattan and Ponsonby were sent for to form the new administration, and 
the virtuous Earl Fitz- William was selected to meet the eager expectations 
of the nation. 

215 



A.D. 1815. 

But did not Mr. Beresford go over to England on a counter project ? 

He did ; and by secret negotiations successfully laid the train by 
which Lord Fit z William's instructions to give the Catholic Question a 
handsome support on behalf of government were to be counteracted, 
and the Protestant ascendancy was finally to triumph over National 
Union, Parliamentary Reform, and Catholic Emancipation. 

Did not this perfidious manoeuvre afford Mr. Pitt a triple triumph ? 

Yes ; for it exposed the impotency of his Whig proselytes it dis- 
played the extent of his personal authority and it widened the breach 
between the Catholics and Protestant ascendancy. Lord FitzWilliam 
was recalled in March 1795, after an administration of three months ; 
his grace was succeeded by Lord Camden, and from this period the reign 
of terror commenced. 

Did not the animosity of the opposite parties in the neighbourhood 
of Portadown take so decided a turn, that the Defenders challenged 
their opponents to fight it out fairly in the field rather than harass 
them with murderous nocturnal visits ? 

They did ; and on the 2ist of September 1795, the Defenders were 
defeated at the village of the Diamond, by a less numerous, though 
better organized party of their opponents. On that day the Peep of day 
boys dropped that appellation, and assumed the denomination of 
Orangemen, and then was their first lodge formed. 

What were the principles of the Orangemen ? 

They affected to unite in support of the constitution as established 
by King William at the revolution of 1688, and their original object 
and obligation are stated to have been the extermination of the Catholics 
of Ireland, as far as in them lay. This oath of extermination they after- 
wards changed into that of supporting the King, as long as he should 
support the Protestant ascendancy. 

Did the Society of United Irishmen still exist ? 

Yes ; and their designs became now at least suspicious, for they changed 
the expression of their oath ; instead of professing to seek a full represen- 
tation of the people in Parliament they now professed to seek only a 
representation of the people generally, omitting the words in Parliament 
altogether. 

Why were they not suppressed at this period ? 

Mr. Pitt's policy was to permit Ireland to be harassed by intestine 
division, and by driving the nation to extremities, to worry it into the 
measure of a legislative Union/he therefore fomented divisions for the 
purpose of destroying Irish independence and nothing was better calculated 

216 



A.D. 1815. 

for this purpose than to urge on the infatuated dupes who formed this 
association. 

What did Mr. Grattan say of the Orange Institution in the 
parliamentary debates of 1796 ? 

" Those insurgents," said he, " call themselves Orangemen or 
" Protestant boys ; that is, a band of murderers, committing massacre 
" in the name of God and exercising despotic power in the name of liberty." 
Seven thousand individuals were exterminated by these wretches in the 
county of Armagh alone, whose only crime as Lord Gosford asserted, 
"was the simple profession of the Roman Catholic faith, or an intimate 
connection with any person professing that faith." 

How did the Government act on this occasion ? 

It protected the associated perpetrators of these horrors, anxiously 
propagated their principles throughout the realm, and promoted the 
formation of new lodges for the express purpose of keeping up distinctions 
in the people, inflaming religious discord, and turning the public mind 
from the pursuit of constitutional objects. 

Did the French invade Ireland in 1796 ? 

Yes ; they sent a large fleet with troops on board, which anchored 
in Bantry Bay on Christmas eve, but were driven off by a violent storm ; 
the few men who had been landed, having been made prisoners by the 
peasantry. 

Did the United Irishmen take any improper steps in 1797 ? 

Yes ; they renewed their league with the French Directory, and laid 
plans for the rebellion of 1798. 

Did any occurrences tend to goad them on to this treasonable act ? 

Yes ; the violent and unconstitutional outrages of the Orangemen, 
the unwarrantable and illegal excesses of a portion of the magistracy, 
and the half-hanging, tortures, floggings and burnings which under the 
pretext of excessive loyalty, were permitted by the minister, and inflicted 
by his sycophants. 

What parts of Ireland were chiefly disgraced by those mutual 
atrocities ? 

Leinster principally particularly the County of Wexford ; a small 
portion of Munster ; and Down and Antrim in the North. 

Did the Rebels receive any assistance from the French ? 

A very small number of their troops landed in Killala and having 
advanced to Ballinamuck were obliged to surrender to some of the Irish 
Militia who stood opposed to them. 

What was the result of this rebellion ? 

217 



A.D. 1815. 

It deprived his Majesty of 70,000 most useful subjects, whom wiser 
councils would have preserved to fight the battles of the British empire 
against its most potent enemy, and it laid the foundation for the legislative 
union. 

Was this a Popish rebellion ? 

The original founders, the chief promoters, and conductors of the 
rebellious union were all Protestants (except Esmond, M'Nevin and some 
few others), but the great mass of the unfortunate and wretched peasants, 
who had been seduced or goaded into insurgency, were undoubtedly 
mostly Roman Catholics. 

When Mr. Pitt came to look closely down the precipice to the verge 
of which he had forced this unfortunate Island did he not recoil with horror 
at his own temerity ? 

He did, and in his haste sent over Lord Cornwallis to entice her there- 
from, and to endeavour to tranquillize the minds of the inhabitants. 

Were the powers of this Governor enlarged to any extent ? 

They were bounded only by his own discretion, for the purpose of 
impressing the people with a conviction that a permanent inversion of 
the oppressive system which produced such fatal effects was sincerely 
meant ; but really that he may ensnare the nation into the desire of an 
incorporate union with England. 

What were the means resorted to for the purpose of effecting this 
measure ? 

All classes of people were deceived. To the Catholics emancipation 
was held out as the sure boon for their support ; to the Orangemen 
amnesty and favour were pledged. Many new titles were promised, 
new places were created, and pensions granted to the supporters of the 
measure, and some few commercial advantages appeared to be established. 

Was any particular class of the Catholics specially deceived by the 
ministry on this occasion ? 

Yes ; the Ecclesiastical Trustees of Maynooth College ; ten unsus- 
pecting prelates were cajoled by the ministry, particularly by Lord 
Castlereagh, with the expectation that emancipation would be granted 
and their religion protected. 

Did not these prelates consent to have the power of a Veto upon the 
appointment of bishops, vested in the crown ? 

No ; they indeed resolved that some degree of interference on the 
part of his majesty may be allowed, for the purpose of assuring him of 
the loyalty of the persons nominated to the vacant sees ; but they did so 
without reflection, or authority, and under the most deceitful circumstances 

218 



A.D. 1815. 

which rendered the resolution less censurable than it would otherwise 
have been ; but even their fellow prelates were ignorant of this fact for 
nearly nine years after. 

How was the question of Union received in the Irish Parliament ? 

It was carried by a managed majority of fifty-eight, and solemnly 
proclaimed to the nation, on the first of January, 1801. 

Was not this event dignified by an extraordinary promotion in the 
army and a numerous creation of peers in consequence of the former 
promises ? 

Yes ; individual engagements were generally observed to that effect 
with fidelity by the British Minister ; national pledges were only dis- 
regarded. 

Did Mr. Pitt or his colleagues ever bring forward the Catholic claims ? 

Shortly after the union they snaked out of office under pretence of 
inability to forward those claims, leaving a written pledge to this illustrious 
body, that many characters of eminence (including of course their own,) 
were pledged not to embark in the service of government, except on the terms 
oj the Catholic privileges being attained. 

Were Mr. Pitt and his colleagues sincere in their conduct ? 

No ; for ere long he returned to office, under a counter pledge of never 
bringing forward, or supporting the Catholic claims ; Lord Cornwallis 
accepted of the government of India, but never stood up in Parliament 
to enforce their claims, and all their friends seemed to forget their promises. 

What became of the Earl of Clare, who had borne the principal share 
under Mr. Pitt, of goading, terrifying, dividing, and degrading his 
country ? 

After the first session of the Imperial Parliament, he was so little 
satisfied with the success of his own efforts, to infuse into the British 
public, a horror of his countrymen, that he quitted England in disgust, 
deprecating the Union which had deprived him of his dictorical and 
political influence. The disappointment of an ambitious and rancorous 
mind, contributed not a little, to his dissolution which took place in 
January, 1802. 

What was the grand active principle upon which Lord Hardwicke 
accepted the government of Ireland in 1802. 

A principle he dared not openly avow, viz. to resist her emancipation, 
and to perpetuate the old systern of division and exclusion, under the 
delusive semblance of a new system of conciliation and mildness. 

Was there not another rebellion in the year 1803 ? 

There was a mad attempt of a disorderly mob, which lasted about 

219 



A.D. 1815. 

an hour on the night of the 23rd of July in Thomas-street, Dublin. They 
were led on by a young man, Robert Emmett, who appeared to have 
nothing organized. 

Was there not another attempt made in the north ? 

Yes, under Thomas Russell, who led on about fourteen persons, some 
of whom were mad, others idiots, and the rest abandoned drunkards. 

What was the consequence of these attempts to the country ? 

The gaols were filled with numbers of persons on suspicion, they 
were mostly however, persons who had resisted temptation, and preserved 
their loyalty. 

Did the Catholics receive any concessions from government, during 
the administration of Mr. Addington now Lord Sidmouth ? 

No ; this Minister pledged himself to march in the steps of his pre- 
decessor, consequently, he deprecated the very thought of Catholic 
emancipation. 

What was the situation of Ireland, when Mr. Pitt returned to office 
in 1804 ? 

It experienced all the baneful effects of UNION ; an enormous and 
growing increase of debt, a rapid falling off of revenue, and a decay of 
commerce and manufacture. 

Were not the threats of a French invasion industriously kept afloat 
at this period, in order to decry the loyalty of the Irish ? 

Yes ; and Ministry thus justified the expence of their public measures 
of defence, and affected to sanction the necessity of internal coercion. 
Many persons were taken into custody under the suspension of the Habeas 
Corpus Act, and the rigorous treatment of state prisoners, who had been 
for several months in confinement, was sharpened without any visible 
or known cause. 

Did Mr. Pitt retain all of his former sway in the Cabinet ? 

No ; several of his partizans seceded ; even his old trusty tool in the 
coercion and monopoly of Ireland. Mr. Foster rose up against him, Lord 
Hardwicke too, found his mandates to the Irish government so 
unwarrantable and overbearing, that he resolved to tender his resignation. 
But before he quitted Ireland in 1806, Mr. Pitt was launched into eternity. 

What happened upon the death of Mr. Pitt ? 

A new Ministry was framed at the head of which was Lord Grenville. 
Mi. Fox* accepted the office of Secretary for foreign affairs, but the 

* This excellent Statesman and uncorrupted patriot, died the following September. 
He invariably deprecated the mischievous system upon which the Irish Government 
seemed to act. 

220 



A.D. 1815. 

only act of government in Ireland, that was traceable to his personal 
influence, was the instant removal of Lord Redesdale from the Chancery 
Bench " an incohate act of justice," says Mr. Plowden, " to the great 
body of the Irish population, to put an early and unequivocal mark of 
reprobation on the man, who had calumniated and insulted them, with 
an ignorant and malignant bigotry, which has not been exhibited on any 
European theatre for centuries." 

Who was appointed to the government of Ireland ? 

The Duke of Bedford, who accepted the situation at the earnest 
solicitations of Mr. Fox. During his short administration, his grace was 
mild and benevolent to all. Cordially anxious for the welfare and happiness 
of the people, he lamented that the progress towards their attainment, 
had not kept pace with his sympathies or expectations. 

Had not a change of ministry taken place the preceding month ? 

Yes ; a party at the head of which, was the Duke of Portland, Mr. 
Perceval and Lord Hawkesbury, worked itself into power by pledging 
themselves to be adverse to Catholic concession. 

Did not the resolutions of several country-meetings of Catholics 
with reference to their total emancipation, hold a language of confidence 
and assurance which was as new as it was offensive to the Castle ? 

Yes ; but nothing so alarmed government as the rising harmony and 
concert of the Protestants with their Catholic countrymen. 

Was not the Catholic petition presented in due form to the Imperial 
parliament in 1808 ? 

It was ; and at that time was brought about the discussion of the 
Veto, which threw the public mind into universal agitation. 

Did not this attempt to intermeddle with a national religion, preserved 
with a virtuous Hierarchy without any civil establishment or state inter- 
ference, through centuries of oppression and persecution produce alarm 
in every reflecting mind ? 

Yes ; the laity abhorred the idea of ministers of their religion becoming 
open to court influence and intrigue, and shuddered at the prospect of 
prostituting the sacred function of the Apostolic Mission and jurisdiction, 
to which they had hitherto submitted as of divine institution, to its 
revilers, persecutors and sworn enemies. 

How did the Catholic prelates act on this occasion ? 

They met in regular national synod on the I4th and I5th of September 
1808, in Dublin, and came to the following resolutions. " It is the decided 
" opinion of the Roman Catholic Prelates of Ireland, that it is inexpedient 
" to introduce any alteration in the canonical mode hitherto observed 

221 



A.D. 1815. 

" in the nomination of the Irish Roman Catholic Bishops, which mode 
" long experience has proved to be unexceptionable, wise, and salutary. 

" That the Roman Catholic Prelates pledge themselves to adhere 
" to the rules, by which they have been hitherto uniformally guided ; 
" namely, to recommend to his Holiness, only such persons as are of 
" unimpeachable loyalty, and peaceable conduct." 

These synodical resolutions against the Veto, were signed by twenty- 
three Prelates. 

Did not many and unequivocal proofs bespeak the determination 
of the Richmond administration to rivet Catholic Ireland in degradation 
and despondency ? 

Yes ; a fostering countenance was particularly given to the Orangemen, 
that tended rather to foment and discourage, than to put down or punish 
their atrocities. 

Did not Orange ferocity sensibly increase in the year 1809 ? 

It did. The native leaders of the Orange societies rendered their 
system at that period so additionally ferocious, that some of the less 
blood-thirsty withdrew their names, who nevertheless adhered to the 
general principles of their institution : that is, to a prescriptive and 
implacable hatred to Catholicity. 

Was not the King incapacitated from attending to business, towards 
the close of the year 1810 ? 

Yes; it pleased the Almighty to revisit his Majesty with a return of 
that illness which has suspended his exercise of the executive authority 
since that period. 

G. A.D. 1894 

The Erasmus Smith Endowments, Judicially Reviewed. 

Passages from the Judgments of the Judicial Commissioners (Rt. Hon. 
Gerald Fitzgibbon, P.C., Lord Justice of Appeal in Ireland ; Rt. Hon. 
William O'Brien, P.C., Justice of the Queen's Bench in Ireland), on the 
Draft Scheme of the Educational Endowments (Ireland) Commission ; 
Monday, October 22, 1894, at the Four Courts, Dublin. 

[Final Report, Educational Endowments (Ireland) Commission, 48 and 49 Viet. 
c. 78 (C. 7517). Dublin, 1894. Appendix, pp. 235-254.] 

FITZGIBBON, L. J. 

The history of this Endowment covers 250 years. Since the original 
deed of foundation, it has been the subject of three Royal Charters, of 

222 



A.D. 1894. 

several Acts of Parliament, and of Inquiries and Reports of numerous 
Commissions... The property consists entirely of land, or of money re- 
presenting land, granted to Erasmus Smith as an " Adventurer," in the 
Settlement which followed the troubles of 1641. He was born in 1610, 
and his first adventure in Irish land was in 1642. From that time until 
his death, he was actively engaged in Irish affairs. He took the side 
of the Parliament in the Civil War, and he received large grants of land 
in different parts of Ireland, of which the School Endowment is only a 
portion. The estates of which the tenants and inhabitants were entitled 
to special advantages under his Foundation, are to be found in nine 
counties Tipperary and Limerick, in Munster ; Meath, Westmeath, 
Kildare, King's County, and Louth, including Drogheda, in Leinster ; 
and Galway and Sligo, in Connaught 

In my judgment, the first and paramount intention of Erasmus 
Smith was to establish a fixed number of Grammar Schools, in localities 
appointed by himself, and to give combined religious and secular education 
to all who were willing to receive it those pupils of the school who were 
poor, children of his tenants, or inhabiting any of his lands in the nine 
counties I have mentioned, being entitled to special privileges, and to 
preference in free schooling, clothing, advancement to the University, 
and other advantages. But it was a vital, essential, integral part of the 
education offered, that it should include Protestant teaching.... 

The Endowment has increased in value beyond the needs of the 

Grammar Schools I should have been prepared, even at some risk of 

inconsistency, to have applied the surplus funds to technical and agri- 
cultural education, from which the tenants and inhabitants of the estates 
might have reaped substantial benefits, without raising any religious 
difficulty 

I am not prepared to adopt the view... that the Governing Body should 
be exclusively confined to members of the Church of Ireland, and that 
the Masters of the Schools should all be of the same denomination. I am 
impressed by the omission, throughout the whole of Erasmus Smith's 
documents, of any reference to attendance upon Divine Worship, or to 
the use of the Liturgy, or to the adoption of the Catechism, of the 
Established Church. I am impressed also by his adoption, not only of the 
Catechism of the Assembly of Divines, but of the Catechism of Archbishop 
Ussher,... whose Catechism differs from the Church Catechism, in a manner 
indicating a desire to make it acceptable to those who are not members 
of the Established Episcopal Church 

I maintain that these schools must remain under Protestant masters, 

223 



A.D. 1894. 

and must continue to provide combined religious and secular instruction 
for Protestant pupils.... In dealing with the surplus funds, I should have 
been glad to extend its benefits to the children of his tenants, without 
religious distinction....! know that I am exposing myself in some degree 
to [the] argumentum ad hominem. Dr. Wilson's memorandum objects 
altogether to the application of any part of the Endowment to any form 
of education disassociated from Protestant teaching. But I should 
willingly incur these risks to secure the consideration of this case by the 
Privy Council, and by Parliament, believing that it can be done without 
any extreme violence to the testator's intentions....! desired to treat a 
portion of the surplus as an unappointed fund, and to frame a scheme 
which would devote a large part of that surplus to agricultural and 
technical teaching, to be given upon the estates of Erasmus Smith, and 
to be brought within the reach of the children of the tenants and inhabi- 
tants thereof.... the amount to be so applied should have been fixed, and 
I was willing to fix it at one- third of the net income of the endowment 
up to 2,000 a year... the religious intention of the founder should have 
been respected, to the extent of prohibiting the use of any part of his 
money for the purposes of any education which involved religious 
teaching inconsistent with his creed. But 2,000 a year would have 
remained to be applied for the benefit of the tenants and inhabitants of 
his estate, in a manner which I venture to believe more suited to their 
position and their needs, and more valuable to them in every way, than 
their admission to a system of Intermediate and University Education... 
offered by the Draft Scheme which I have declined to sign. 

O'BRIEN, J. 

An estate which at present yields 6,700 a year, and which had at one 
time grown to a rental of 10,000 a year, and which, having regard to the 
time of its origin and increase, must have produced, during a period of 
nearly two centuries and a half, more than a million sterling, was given 
by Erasmus Smith, mainly for the education of the tenants on his estates ; 
and that vast fund.... has been cast into a gulf from which no proportional 
return has come lavished, wasted, cut up, and carved, upon mistaken 
projects, or upon the incessant craving of personal interests, given away 
to one institution or another, without, or in abuse, or in excess of legal 
authority, and a prodigious amount of it sunk in a vain and idle war 
against progress, in maintaining the rivalry of the so-called English 
Schools with the National System, which, it is now admitted, must be 

224 



A.D. 1894. 

abandoned, with all the oceans of money spent upon them ; while if 
anyone were asked what part of this immense sportula found its way 
to the tenants of Erasmus Smith, whether one of the tenants was ever 
educated out of it, whether a single ray of light ever reached the class 
for whom such a munificent provision was made to dispel the darkness of 
ignorance, the question would be considered simply as one of irony. 
The lands are there, the tenants are there, the education is wanted, but the 
money is carried away, as it were, into exile, with the consequences, and 
hardly less than the bitterness, of conquest.... 

The State has assumed the right to deal with this Endowment. That 
is conceded. At first it was contended that it was within the exception by 
which endowments under the exclusive management and for the exclusive 
benefit of a particular denomination, are excluded from the power of the 
Commission. That claim, however, was afterwards openly abandoned. 
And of necessity, for there was no express restriction as to the religion 
of the Governors, though they were, no doubt, Protestant at the time. 
And it is manifest that Catholics were intended to be educated, as 
proselytism by means of the education was directly contemplated.... 

Let us come to close quarters upon this matter. Erasmus Smith 
was a Protestant, and he wanted to make Protestants. He had two 
intentions. He wished to educate his tenants, and to convert them 
to mix the oil and water together. The two things are impossible.... He was 
a person that in the novitas regni in the possession, but recent, of the 
spoils of conquest, was desirous to stand well with all persons in power, 
and spread his sails to catch the varying breeze from all quarters. The 
argument before us that he chose the Westminster Catechism and his 
first governors to please Cromwell, and that he took Ussher's Catechism 
and his second list of governors to please the king, and that in neither 
was he a free agent, is extremely likely to be well founded....! would say 
the true motive of his conduct of his charity and his charters alike, 
was to secure and consolidate his title to his land in Ireland, then in 
jeopardy, as appears in the Act of Parliament, the Act of Settlement, 
referred to in the Charter itself ; and in the situation in which he stood, 
it was of great importance to him to draw the bonds more closely between 
himself and his tenants ; and that fact is not without great influence upon 
the argument in their favour. 

Some observation has been made by my colleague upon what was his 
expressed intention, and the Lord Justice is far too sagacious not to see 
the great weight that lies upon that question. He has made a statement 
that the object of Erasmus Smith was to propagate the Protestant faith... 

225 
p 



A.D. 1894. 

I deny that statement altogether The original evidence of his 

intention is found in the deed of 1657, a deed so important that a great 
effort was made, in the argument on behalf of Dublin University presented 
to us by Mr. Carson, to get rid of it and throw it overboard altogether. 
And in the beginning of that deed, in the part that determines what 
was his real motive and object, he introduces the statement of his intention 
by these words : 

" And the intention of all parties to these presents is, that the 
children of poor tenants inhabiting on the lands aforesaid, and the 
children of such as are poor or live by their labour, are to be taught 
at the said schools free, and without paying anything for their 
teaching to the said masters." 

And then he goes on to provide for the further intention that these 
same tenants, educated in these schools, are to be prepared for admission 
to Dublin University. That is the authentic and absolute declaration 
by himself, at the first moment and when founding this Endowment, 
of what his real intention was. 

Now, in the multitude of conflicting arguments upon this question, 
one point stands out conspicuously clear, and is removed from all doubt 
or ambiguity. Erasmus Smith did not intend to exclude Catholics, but 
to proselytise them by means of Education. The indenture of 1657, 
the Charter of 1669, the Letter of 1682, and the " Lawes " that he made, 
are absolutely inconsistent with any other idea. That therefore is the 
object which the opponents of the Scheme must avow they are bound 
to carry out... they must govern and manage the schools so as to change 
the religion of the pupils. That means open war upon Catholics.... The 
Charter is no less explicit and positive as to the object. For it declares 
that the said free schools shall henceforth be... employed and used, for the 
teaching and instruction of twenty such poor children or scholars, who 
shall dwell or inhabit within two English miles of the said respective 
Schools, and also for the teaching and instructing of all and every of the 
children of the tenants of the said Erasmus Smith.... By what power 
can that right be abrogated ? That could not be done by the letter 
of June 6th, 1682, even if it professed to have such an effect. That letter, 
in which he gave his judgment why the schools were so " consumptive " 
" because the suckers starved the tree " because the rivalry of the 
Popish schools was killing the miserable things founded on restraint 
and hypocrisy... invoking the tyranny of power, and suggesting that the 
Catholic schools should be suppressed by open force all this betrayed 

226 



A.D. 1894. 

his vexation, and consciousness that even then his scheme of proselytism 

had entirely failed I suppose the theory must be maintained, however 

ridiculous in fact, that the schools are still open to receive the sons of 
Catholic farmers in the South, who are willing to accept Protestant 
instruction. But they wait, and must wait, dum defluat amnis. The 
Catholic Esau has never yet come. This is the point where my learned 
colleague and I part company. He overlooks time. He stands upon the 
banks of the Boyne, I stand in the iQth century which has witnessed... 
all those affluents of legislation that have gone to swell the mighty tide, 
still without slack or ebb, advancing in the direction of religious freedom. 

The two things, therefore, which Erasmus Smith had in his mind 
to educate his tenants and to make them Protestants are impossible 
together... What is the result according to the ordinary principles of law ? 
If a gift be made to a man upon the condition of certain qualifications 
which are impossible, he takes it discharged of the qualifications, or it 
reverts to the donor. The law thinks of the principal object, and not 
the accessory. It prefers the living man to the vesture. But can anyone 
else seize it ? Smith did not give his property to educate Protestants. 
He gave it to educate his tenants... Protestants do not become tenants, 
because tenants do not become Protestants.... 

And the heirs are in crowds ready to enter. For by the calculations 
which were laid before the public meeting of the Commissioners by the 
Rev. Mr. Humphreys of whom I must say in justice that he has exhibited 
a zeal and ability upon this question that far surpasses anything, in my 
experience, shown by anybody upon any public question in late years... 
there were 242 Catholic tenants on the estate of Erasmus Smith in the 
Tipperary Union, and but 16 Protestant tenants, several of the latter 
persons holding official positions, or Protestant Clergymen ;...and in 
one district of Tipperary, comprising a radius of six miles, there were 
I 57 boys receiving Intermediate Education in Catholic Schools, and in a 
Catholic Intermediate School at Bruff, where the estates also were, there 
are 58 boys. And it was also stated, as a proof of the extent to which 
higher education was required, there were in 1887 250 professional men 
who had come from the district, and in two parishes alone where the 
estates lay, there were 50 professional men, and 21 students in colleges 
all which numbers alike, there can be no doubt, have greatly increased 
since 1887.... These are the persons for whom Erasmus Smith intended 
to provide, and who behold themselves, in the interests of such a minority, 
deprived of their birthright....! have not failed to notice, in unexpected 
quarters, indications of a grave sense of responsibility, an honourable 

227 



INDEX OF TOPICS. 



Monastic Schools, 43, 44. 
Moral Education, 192, 196, 198. 

NAVIGATION, 127, 173, 175. 

PARISH SCHOOLS, 41, 121, 150-55, 182, 

185, 186. 

Penal Laws, Relaxation of, 34. 
Poyning's Act, 13. 
Premiums, 129, 200. 
Presbyterians, 120, 122. 
Professional Education, 121, 137, 138, 

173, 174, 186. 
Punishment, 131. 
Puritans, 20, 22, 31, 69. 

READING, 34. 

Recusants, 20. 

Remonstrance, 68, 69, 71. 

Republicans, Northerns, 120. 

Right of Entry, 154. 

Royal Schools, 12, 63, 159, 182, 185, 190. 

SALARIES, 23, 32, 53, 54, 59, 165, 168, 

169, 193. 

School buildings, rules for, 199 sq. 
School fees, 53, 54, 59, 101, 135, 189. 
Sciences, Experimental, 118, 127, 131, 

137, 173. 
Seamen, 61. 
Sequestration of Lands, 50. 



Separation from Parents, 144, 146. 
Sheriff, Educational duty of, 49. 
Solicitors, Children of, 93. 
Spelling, 101, 201. 
Spinning, 99, 111, 134. 
State Policy, 9, 10, 11. 
Statistics, 38, 39, 40. 
Stills, Unlicensed, Fines for, 133. 
Succession of Subjects, 34, 127, 128. 
Supremacy, Oath of, 19, 63, 85. 
Surveying, 30, 61, 121, 173. 

TRAINING OF TEACHERS, 192, 193, 194 

UNIFORMITY, ACT OF, 84. 

University, Proposals for a, 12, 49, 51, 

122. 
University near Dublin See Trinity 

College. 

Unlicensed Stills, Fines for, 15. 
Useful Parts of Learning, 88. 

VETO PROPOSALS, 25. 

Vice, Association for Discountenancing, 

15, 133. 
Visitation of Schools, 25, 65. 

WAR BONUS TO TEACHERS, 131. 
Wards, Education of, 18, 62, 63, 71, 72, 

94. 
Weaving, 99, 115, 148. 



230 



Index of Personal Names. 



ARCHER, JAMES, 25. 
Austin, John, 24, 25. 



BACON, FRANCIS, 9 

Baker, John Wynn, 31, 33, 114, 115. 

Barnewall, Francis, 21, 90. 

Barry, Lord, 17. 

Bedell, Bishop William, 16, 60. 

Berkeley, Lord, 86, 88. 

Betagh, Thomas, 24, 25, 36, 37. 

Bingham, Sir Richard, 17, 52. 

Bismarck, Prince, 9. 

Blake, Bishop Michael, 25. 

Boulter, Primate Hugh, 32, 102, 103, 

Bourke, Patrick, 30, 61. 

Brereton, Sir William, 67, 68. 

Brookes, John, 32. 

Browne, Ignatius, 86. 

Bruodin, Antony, 70. 

Bullingbrooke, John, 64, 65. 

Burgat, Archbishop William, 85. 

Burgh, Bishop Roland, 47. 

Burghley, Lord, 55. 

Burke, Edmund, 27, 32. 

Burkes, The, 52. 

Byss, John, 79, 81. 



CAMPBELL, DR. WILLIAM, 32, 120. 

Cargill, Dr., 88. 

Cecil Sir Robert, 57, 58. 

Charlemont, Earl of, 33, 120. 

Chesterfield, Earl of, 112. 

Clanrickard, Earl of, 47. 

Clare, Earl of, 27, 28. 

Clare, Viscount, 89. 

Colgan, John, 25. 

Comerford, Dr. Nicholas, 46, 

Conway, Richard, 62. 

Cork, Earl of, 67, 68. 

Corry, Isaac, 149. 

Cowley, Richard, 16. 

Creagh, Richard, 25. 

Cromwell, Henry, 32. 

Cromwell, Oliver, 14, 78, 79. 

Cromwell, Thomas, 43, 44. 



DATON, DR. WILLIAM, 21. 
Davies, Sir John, 155. 
Donoughmore, Lord, 123. 
Dorset, Duke of, 109, 144. 
Downham, Bishop, 61. 



EDGEWORTH, RICHARD LOVELL, 12, 130. 
Egan, John, 21. 

England, Bishop John, 37, 212 sq. 
Essex, Earl of, 86. 

FEITH, WILLIAM, 32. 
Felan, William, 21. 
Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 122. 
Fitzgibbon, Lord Justice Gerald, 26, 

pOO en 

Fitzgibbon, Master Gerald, 38. 

Fitzgibbon, John See Clare, Earl O A 

Forde, James, 23, 75, 76. 

Foster, John, 35. j 

Fullam, John, 25. 

Fullerton, James, 14, 53, 54. 

GELLOUS (GELOSSE), STEPHEN, 21, 24, 

86 sq. 

Gilson, Laurence, 137. 
Gough, John, 32. 
Grattan, Henry, 12, 27, 34, 138. 
Gray, Leonard, 41, 44. 
Grenville, Mr. Secretary, 120. 
Grey, Charles, 96. 

HAMILTON, JAMES, 14, 54. 

Hanotaux, Gabriel, 9. 

Hartlib, Samuel, 22. 

Hinton, Dr. Edward, 21. 

Howard, John, 12, 29, 38, 117, 118, 

178, 179. 

Hutchinson, Hon. Francis, 123. 
Hutchinson, John Hely, 12, 123, 149. 

JONES, DR. EDWARD, 21. 
Jones, Dr. Henry, 32, 80, 81, 

KENNY, PETER, 35, 139, 140. 

Kildare, Countess of, 67. 

Kildare, Earl of, 144. 

King, Archbishop William, 17, 29, 97, 98. 

LANCASTER, JOSEPH, 32, 36, 192 sq., 

205 sq. 

Lea, Patrick, 21. 
Leadbeater, Mary, 32. 
Ledwich, Edward, 21. 
Lefroy, Thomas, 139 sq. 
Loftus, Archbishop Adam, 50. 
Lombard, Primate Peter, 46. 
Luttrell, Justice, 41, 44. 
Lynch, Alexander, 25, 65. 
Lynch, Dominick, 46. 



231 



INDEX OF PERSONAL NAMES. 



MACARTNEY, SIR GEORGE (EARL), 27. 

MacCarthy, Florence, 18. 

MacEgan, Flan, 70. 

MacEgans, The, 1, 25. 

MacGeoghan, Brian, 17. 

M'Grath, Miler, 10. 

Magee, Archbishop William, 212. 

MARSH, ARCHBISHOP FRANCIS, 90. 
Marsh, Archbishop Narcissus, 16. 
Maule, Bishop Henry, 110. 
Meagher, James, 21. 
Mountgarrett, Viscount, 74. 
Mulcaile, James, 25. 
Murphy, Fr., 86. 
Murphy, Michael, 91. 
Murray, Archbishop Daniel, 25. 
Muskerry, Viscount, 73. 

NAGLE, NANO, 126. 
Nary, Dr. Cornelius, 25. 



O'BRIEN, MR. JUSTICE WM., 26, 224 sq. 

O'Brien, Dermot, 73. 

O'Cahan, Eugene, 25, 70. 

O'Clery, Michael, 25. 

O'Davorens, The, 1, 25. 

O'Donnell, 16. 

O'Keerle, John, 25. 

O' Kelly, William, 17. 

O'More, Rory, 25, 70. 

O'Neill, 16. 

O'Neill, Hugh, Earl of Tyrone, 58. 

O'Neill, Sir Phelim, 18. 

Orde, Thomas, 11, 27, 31, 32, 33, 120. 

Ormonde, James Duke of, 18, 72-4, 96. 

Ormonde, Piers Earl of, 20. 

Ormonde, Walter Earl of, 18. 

Owen, Mr., 75. 

PARSONS, LAWRENCE, 122. 

Parsons, Sir William, 14, 18, 61. 

Payne, Robert, 33, 55. 

Peel, Sir Robert, 35, 39, 142. 

Percival, Sir John, 11. 

Petty, Sir William, 22, 30, 39, 40, 77. 

Plato, 9. 



Plunket, Primate Oliver, 84, 85, 86. 
Plunket, William C., 123. 
Pococke, Bishop Richard, 31, 115. 

RICE, STEPHEN, 82, 85, 86. 

Richelieu, 9. 

Ryder, Dr. Henry, 21. 

SALLINGER, WILLIAM, 21. 

Sanckey, Hierome, 77, 80, 81. 

Scully, "Denis, 141. 

Shackle tons, The, 32. 

Shearman, John, 51. 

Shelburne, Earl of, 120. 

Sidney, Sir Henry, 49. 

Smith, Erasmus, 14, 22, 26, 79 sq. 

222 sq. 

Solier, Francis, 24. 
Stafford, Nicholas, 53. 
Stanihurst, Richard, 20, 44-6. 

TALBOT, JOHN, 54, 59. 
Taylor, Walter, 107. 
Temple, Earl, 120. 
Tobin, Anastatia, 132. 
Tonnery, Edward, 21. 
Toomy, Martin, 123. 
Tyrconnell, Earl of, 21. 

VAUGHAN, GEORGE, 31. 

USHER, JOHN, 21. 

Ussher, Primate James, 21, 55. 

Ussher, Sir William, 47. 

WALLOPP, SIR HENRY, 50. 

Walshingham, 17. 

Ward, Hugh, 25. 

Wesley, Hon. Arthur, 122. 

Wesley, John, 29. 

White, Peter, 20, 24, 25, 45, 46. 

White, Stephen, 23. 

White, Richard, 55. 

Winter, Dr. Samuel, 75, 77. 

Wood, Antony a, 24, 26. 

YOUNG, ARTHUR, 31. 



232 



Index of Place Names. 



ACHONRY, 103, 106. 
Annaghmeadle, 3. 
Antrim, 80. 
Ardagh, 103. 
Armagh, 51, 16& 122. 

BALLINAHINCH, 112. 
Ballinrobe, 52, 119, 120. 
Ballitore, 31. 
Ballymacegan, 3. 
Ballyroan, 183. 

CAHERCONLISH, 56. 

Cahermacnaughten, 3. 5 

Carbury, 105. 

Carlow, 57. 

Carysfort, 183. 

Carrickogunnel, 56. 

Cashel, 19, 24, 85, 103, 105. 

Castletown in Ely, 3. 

Cavan, 183. 

Clogher, 103, 104. 

Clonfert, 49, 103, 107. 

Clongowes, 35, 139, 140, 141/1 

Clonmel, 19, 31, 105, 137. 

Cloyne, 103. 

Coleraine, 14. 

Cork, 30, 33, 36, 37, 99, 103, 105, 126- 

131, 212. 
Creagh, 105. 

DERRY, 14, 61, 103, 104. 

Derrybrusk, 104. 

Donegal, 61. 

Down, 103. 

Drogheda, 14, 19, 81, 85, 86, 154, 166, 
169, 172. 

Dromore, 103. 

Dublin, 30, 36, 37, 44, 53, 64, 59, 60, 67, 
68, 83, 85, 91, 95, 99, 100, 103, 104, 
105, 144, 154. See Trinity College. 

Dunboyne, 57. 

Dundee, 173. 

Dungannon, 61, 64. 

Duniry, 3. 

Dunmore, 106. 

ELPHIN, 49, 103. 
Ennis, 88, 167, 169. 
Ems, 106. 

FERMOY, 136. 
Ferns, 103. 
Finchley, 18. 



Finnoe, 106. 
France, 9. 

GALWAY, 14, 16, 19, 24, 41, 46, 65, 80 

81, 106, 107, 108, 167, 169, 172. 
Geneva, 120. See New Geneva. 
Grace Dieu, 44. 

HOLLAND, 22, 77. 
INISMACSAINT, 104, 
JERPOINT, 44. 

KELLS (KILKENNY), 44. 

Kildare, 103. 

Kildimo, 134. 

Kilfenora, 103, 106. 

Killala, 103. 

Killaloe, 103, 106. 

Killoteran, 112. 

Kilmacduagh, 103, 107. 

Kilkenny, 19, 20, 21, 45, 89, 90, 105, 

115, 136, 144, 166, 208. 
Kilmore, 103, 106. 
Killeneave, 106. 

LEIGHLIN, 103. 

Leighlin (Old), 57. 

Lifford, 137. 

Limerick, 30, 33, 36, 50/51, 55, 93, 103. 

Lisburn, 32. 

Lismore, 103. 

Loghgilly, 104. 

Louth, 76. 

Louvain, 46, 49, 70. 

MARCHES (THE), 41. 
Maryborough, 57. 
Maynooth, 126, 133. 
Meath, 76, 103. 
Midleton, 136. 
Mountmellick, 32. 
Mullingar, 113. 

NAAS, 105. 

Naples, 70. 

Navan, 31, 137. 

Neale (The), 52. 

Nenagh, 106, 172. 

New Geneva, 32, 120, 121. 

New Ross, 19, 24, 82, 83. 



233 



INDEX OF PLACE NAMES. 



OLD CASTLE, 137. 
Ossory, 103. 
Owney, 56. 
Oxford, 17, 20, 35, 45. 

PALE (THE), 41, 42. 
Paris, 25, 30, 89, 90. 
Park, 3. 

Pubblebrien, 56. 
Prussia, 9. 

QUIN, 25, 70. 

RELIGMURRY, 106. 
Rome, 49, 70. 
Rosenallis, 105. 
Ross (Diocese), 103, 105. 

SKIBBEREEN, 106. 
Sligo, 80, 172. 



TARBERT, 172. 

Templederry, 106, 172. 

Tipperary, 80, 167-8, 172. 

Trinity College, Dublin, 16, 18, 21, 34, 

56, 66, 71, 73, 75, 88, 120, 122 sq., 

159, 161 sq., 170, 171. 
Tuam, 65, 103, 106. 
Tullach na Daly, 3. 
Tubbrit, 31. 
Tullagh, 105. 
Tyrone, 64. 

VALENTIA, 172. 

WATERFORD, 19, 30, 51, 103, 144. 
Westmeath, 113. 
Westminster, 122. 
Wexford, 105. 

XELVA, 172. 
YOUGHAL, 136. 



By the Same Author. 

STUDIES 

IN THE 

History of Classical Teaching 

IRISH AND CONTINENTAL 
15001700. 



CRITICAL NOTICES : 

THE CLASSICAL REVIEW, London. 

" This most interesting work ... of special interest at the 
present time." (August, 1912 : signed E. V. ARNOLD). 

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" We hope sincerely that this book may help in a reform that 
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attention of all teachers." (Sept., 1912). 

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